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Full text of "A critical and exegetical commentary on the book of Psalms"

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LIBRARY 



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Inttrnatbnal Crttual Commtntarg 



UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF 

The Rev. SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER, D.D., D.LiTT., 

Regius Professor qf Hebrew, Oxford; 

The Rev. ALFRED PLUMMER, M.A., D.D., 

Master of University College, Durham; 



The Rev. CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D., D.LliT., 

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics^ 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 



The International Critical Commentary 



CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 



ON 



THE BOOK OF PSALMS 



BY 
CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D, D.Litt. 

GRADUATE PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA AND 
SYMBOLICS, UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK 

AND 

EMILIE GRACE BRIGGS, B.D. 



(In Two Volumes) 
Vol. II 



EDINBURGH 
T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
MORRISON AND GIBB LIMITED 

FOR 

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH 

nw YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONt 



MAY 16 1964 

First Printed 1907 

Latest Reprint 1960 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

COMMENTARY. Pss. LI-CL 1-545 

INDEX OF HEBREW WORDS 549 

INDEX OF PROPER NAMES < . 561 

INDEX OF SUBJECTS . . c * 566 



ERRORS AND ADDITIONS, VOL. 1. 



PAGE 



xxxi, 1. 19. Protestantische for Protestanische. 

xli, 1. 30. Sidney for Sydney. 

cv, 1. I. Del. Asterius (f 410) already given ciii, 1. 36. 

cv, 1. 12. Rhabanus for Rhabamus. 

cviii, 1. 31. Add after 1889^ Minocchi 1905. 

cix, 1. I. Davison for Davidson. 

cix, 1. 2. Add after 1904 Davies 1906. 

27, I. 10. 12^ for 1 81 

34, 1. 1 2 sq. a /8 y 8 e for « ^ <: ^/ ^. 

41, 1. 26. Hithp. for Hiph. 

45, 1. 22. 18^^ for i^. 

49, 1. 26. 90^^ for 90^ 

50, 1. 26. § 35 for § 39. 
1. 39. trnu for ^ny. 

58, 1. 21. Before 8 insert — n^lit] Pi. pf. rel. clause V+ [•"'^^]» ^ot 
used in Qal, but Pi. : (i) give charge to, c. b pers. 105^ Ex. 
i^^ (E) Is. 13^; c. ace. pers. h concerning whom, Ps. 91^^ Nu. 
32^^ (P) ; (2) charge, command, c. ace. pers. et ret, Pss. 78^ 
jj^4.i38 ^,-,2 iii^- (3) commission, c. ace. "iDPi 42^ nD"i!a 133^; 
(4) appoint, ordain, in creation 33^ 148^ Is. 45^^, providence 
Ps. 78^3 Am. 6" 9^ redemption Pss. 7^ 44^ d^"^ 'ji\ 

60,1.34. Tpii^ for Tpif5. 

82, 1. 25. After 6 insert — nnr:] Qal pf. 2 sg. t ^V^ vb. Qal rel^uke 
ini/ralw. of God : 9^ 68^1' 106^ 1192^ Is. 17^^ 54^ Na. i^ Zc. s^-^ 
Mai. 2^ 3I1, of man Gn. 37^° (E) Ru. 2^' Je. 29^7. 

85,1.17. Before 20 insert — 19. | nipn n.f. (i) hope 62^; 
(2) ground of hope 71^ Jb. 4^; (3) things hoped /or, here 
as Ez. 19^ 37" and WL. 

104, 1. 8. Maskihm for Maskelim. 

122, 1. 26. qametz for quametz. 



VUl 



ERRORS AND ADDITIONS, VOL. I. 



134, 1. 26. id^ for 70^. 

151, 1. 6. 2 fori. 

152, 1. 5. § I for § 35. 

173, 1. 18. Add cf. 2510 78^ 93« 99^ 132^2^ These with pi. forms 
in 119 usually derived from [nny] ; but Mas. pointing is 
artificial ; v. BDB. 

174, 1. 16. Before 11 insert : Elsw. if; [pTJi] Qal be justified \iy ac- 
quittal 1432 Is. 4326; be just, of God 5i«, Hiph., do justice Z2\ 

228, 1. 37. ™s forms. 

276, 1. 23. Maskilim for Maskelira. 

ZZZ, 1. 38. nil: for nniD. 

373; 1- 5- '^nu? for T\T\t, 



A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF 
PSALMS. 



A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF 
PSALMS. 



PSALM LL, 4 STR. lo^ 

Ps. 51 is a penitential prayer of the congregation in the time 
of Nehemiah: (i) Petition that Yahweh in His kindness will 
cleanse His people from sin (v.^), who confess it in vindication 
of His just judgment (v.^). (2) The sin goes back to the origin 
of the nation, in antithesis with the faithfulness in which Yahweh 
delights (v/"^) ; cleansing alone will give joy (v.^") . (3) Petition 
for renewal of heart, the continued presence of the Holy Spirit, 
and the joy of salvation (v.^"^^) ; with a vow to teach the divine 
ways and praise His righteousness (v.^^^^). (4) The sacrifices of 
Yahweh are the praises of a contrite spirit (v.^^"^^). The final 
petition is that He will rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and accept 
the sacrifices there (v.^^^) . 

gE gracious to me (Yahweh), according to Thy kindness ; 

According to Thy compassion blot out my transgressions. 

Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, 

And purify me from my sin. 

For my transgressions I am knowing, 

And my sin is before me continually. 

Against Thee, Thee only, have I sinned. 

And the evil in Thine eyes have I done ; 

That Thou mightest be just in Thy (words), 

(That) Thou mightest be clear when Thou judgest 
gEHOLD in iniquity I was brought forth, 

And in sin did my mother conceive me. 

Behold in faithfulness Thou dost delight ; 

The confidence of wisdom Thou makest me know. 

Cleanse me from sin with hyssop, and I shall be pure; 

Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. 

Let me hear joy and gladness. 

The bones which Thou hast crushed will exult. 

Hide Thy face from my sins. 

And all mine iniquities blot out. 
3 



4 PSALMS 

'PHE heart into a pure one transform for me, 

The spirit into a steadfast one renew. 

Cast me not away from Thy presence, 

And Thy holy Spirit take not away. 

Restore the joy of Thy salvation, 

And with the princely Spirit uphold me. 

I will teach transgressors Thy ways, 

And sinners unto Thee will return. 

Deliver me from bloodshed (Yahweh). 

My tongue will ring out Thy righteousness. 
r\ LORD, my lips mayest Thou open ; 

And my mouth will declare Thy praise ; 

For Thou delightest not in peace-offering, 

In whole burnt-offering Thou takest no pleasure: 

Sacrifices of a broken spirit, 

A heart crushed, Thou wilt not despise. 

O do good in Thy good pleasure unto Zion ; 

Mayest Thou rebuild the walls of Jerusalem : 

Then wilt Thou delight in peace-offering and whole burnt-offering ; 

Then will they offer bullocks on Thine altar. 

Ps. 51 was in 19 and fH, then in E and IBlfil {-v. Intr. §§ 27, 32, 33). The 
historical allusion was already attached to the Ps. in B as a conjectural illus- 
trative situation, but without historical value. It is impossible to adjust the 
Ps. to the situation. The language is related chiefly to Literature of the 
Exile or early Restoration, (i) Is.i-^ seem to have been chiefly in mind: 
(a) in the conception of the purification of the nation's sins v.'^-*-^; of. Is.i^^, 
the use of nm2 Is. 43^5 4422^ d33 for the person Je. 2'^^ 4^*, nna Je. 33^ Ez. ^6^ 
37^3 Mai. 38. The vb. Nan for purification from sin is elsw. only in P when 
applied to the person, but is in Ez. when applied to the altar. It does not 
therefore necessarily imply P. 3"iiN is used in J as well as P, and was doubt- 
less ancient. (3) For the personal experience of v.^, cf. Is. 59I-. (c) nnstt'l ptr^' 
v.io, cf. Is. 22i» 3510 518. 11. (d) tt'ip nn v. 18, elsw. only Is. 6310- n. (e) For 
the bruised spirit v.i^ cf. Is. 66^. (/) For the son of the mother v.'^, cf. the 
sin of the first father Is. 43^^ and of Zion the mother 54^"^. (2) Other linguis- 
tic traces are: S>Sd v.21, an early syn. of r\'?y;, cf. Dt. 33!*^ i S. 7^; Dn> v."^, for 
conception, cf. Gn. 30" 31IO (E). (3) Evidences of later date are: nanj nn 
v.i*, cf. Ex. 355-22 (p). but see Ps. iio^, also ]):>: nn v.^ 578-8 io82; v.e is 
prob. earlier than 19IO, which agrees with it in use of Qal of |-nx. (4) The 
only substantial evidences of very late date are : nintOD v.8, cf. Jb. 38*^, but 
prob. txt. err., explained by ono, prob. gl. The Ps. in its theology depends 
on the postexilic sections of Is.2, and in its deep penitence represents the 
spirit of the people of the Restoration in the time of Nehemiah. The prayer 
for rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem was probably real and not ideal, and 
indicates that the author was one of the companions of Nehemiah in the great 
effort to give the city walls. 



PSALM LI. 5 

Str. I. has a syn. tetrastich and a hexastich composed of three 
syn. couplets. — 3-4. Be gracious to me\ show favour, usually in 
the bestowal of redemption from enemies, evils, and sins, a char- 
acteristic term of © ; with the two syn. nouns : kindness^ the 
loving disposition to do acts of kindness (^^), and compassion 
(2j^), the affectionate sympathy, especially of parent to a child, 
of. 103^. — Vakwek'], here and throughout the group, Ps. 51-72, 
for which 15 substituted Elohim. — My transgressions^ sins, con- 
ceived as rebellion, transgression of the Law, or will of God, with 
the two chief syns., iniquity^ sin as a distortion or perversion of 
right, and sin as a failure from the norm or aim of life. These 
three terms for sin are antithetical to the three terms for the 
divine kindness, and have three mediating terms for its exercise 
in cleansing the nation. The transgressions stain the people, 
blackening their reputation and character, therefore blot out, wipe 
out, obHterate them, so that they no longer can be seen, cf. 109". 
The iniquity soils them as a filthy garment, therefore wash me, 
cleanse all this filth away, so that I may be clean ; do it so thor- 
oughly that not the least trace may remain, cf. v.^. The sins pro- 
duce religious pollution, unfitting for the worship of God ; therefore 
purify me, apply the appointed means of purification, that I may 
enjoy communion again, cf. v.^ The poet doubtless had in mind Is. 
i^^^^, thinking of sin in its subjective efi"ects on the person, rather 
than of its objective effects upon the places of divine presence. It 
is therefore the ritual of purification that he has in mind, rather than 
the ritual of sacrifice. He feels that the nation needs something 
more than the ritual ; they need the personal favour of Yahweh 
Himself; His interposition as the administrator of this national 
cleansing, — 5. / am knowing^, present, active, personal, experi- 
mental knowledge of sin, as thus staining, soiling, polluting, the 
nation. — before 7ne continually']. I cannot escape from seeing it 
and contemplating it in all its odiousness, cf. Is. 59^1 — 6. Against 
Thee'], emphatic in position, to indicate that the sin was especially 
against Yahweh, intensified by. Thee only]. The national sin was 
against their God, " not against the Babylonians," as Theodore of 
Mopsuestia, Theodoret, cited by Ba. with approval; or indeed 
against the Persians, or the minor nations who so cruelly used 
them, opposing every effort of Israel to reestablish himself in Jem- 



6 PSALMS 

salem. — in Thine eyes\ before the face of God, in His very pres- 
ence ; and so high-handed, without excuse, which exposed to just 
retribution, relief from which could come only from His kindness. 

— That Thou mightest be just || be clear\ final clauses, not de- 
pendent on the act of sin as if the commission of sin was in order 
to justify God in deaHng with it; but on the confession of sin 
against God only. This public confession made it evident that 
God's deahngs with His people during their long exile and in the 
long-continued afflictions of the people, in their efforts to restore 
the national Hfe and worship in Jerusalem, were in accordance 
with His law, and so just. — Thy words\ referring to the Ten 
Words of the primitive Law by which the nation is judged here, 
as in 50^^"^, so (§, U, 3, Rom. 3^, and not " when Thou speakest," 
J^, EV'., which gives a form a.A., assimilated by copyist's error to 

— when Thou judgest~\ that is, according to these Words ; as J^, 3f, 
AV., RV., 50*, which is to be preferred to (g, U, Rom. 3*, PBV., 
" when Thou art judged," as if the poet thought of a higher judg- 
ment seat before which God Himself could be tried, a conceit 
which, however suited to Greek and modern ideas, was not suited 
to the religion of the Old Testament. 

Str. II. is an antistr., beginning with confession in a tetrastich 
of two syn. couplets, and concluding with a hexastich of petition of 
three syn. couplets. — 7. Behold\ calling emphatic attention to 
the antithesis between Yahweh's requirements and the actual his- 
toric condition of His people, the latter coming first. — / was 
brought forth^ not referring to the iniquity of the parent, or to an 
iniquitous condition of the infant when brought forth ; implying 
the doctrine of original sin, transmitted from Adam and Eve in 
accordance with Traducianism, or imputed to the child as created 
as part of a sinful race, according to Creationism. I myself hold 
to the speculative dogma of Traducianism ; but I must say that 
neither of these doctrines has any support whatever in the OT. 
The poet here alludes to the historic origin of the nation in their 
patriarchal ancestors, as in Is. 43^. Their first father committed 
sin, and all his posterity since his day have followed him in trans- 
gression. — did my mother conceive me']. This is certainly not the 
mother of David, as if she were especially a sinner at the time of 
her conception, or as if sin were attached to the unborn foetus 



PSALM LI. 7 

which she conceived ; but the mother here is Mother Israel, in 
accordance with the conception of Is.^ especially Is. 54H — 
8. in faithfulness^ fidelity to Yahweh and His words || the con- 
fidence of wisdom, the confidence in Yahweh which true wisdom 
imparts. This, by the misunderstanding of an early copyist, has 
been interpreted as a word, elsewhere only Jb. 38^, and variously 
explained by J^ and Vrss. as referring to the reins or inward parts 
of the man. It was defined by the addition of a late Hebrew 
word meaning " closed," or secret place of the breast, making the 
line too long, and compelling an explanation of the line, as re- 
ferring to the future and so as out of parallelism with its mate in 
the couplet. In fact, both Hnes set forth the divine requirements, 
over against the sin of the past history of the nation in the father 
Jacob and the mother Zion ; and so the verbs are presents. — Thou 
dost delight'], that is, the confidence is acceptable as satisfying the 
divine requirements, giving gratification and delight to Yahweh. — 
Thou makest me know], by the teaching of the Words of the Law, 
carrying on the idea of v.^. These words impart true wisdom, 
and so confidence in Yahweh the great Teacher. — 9. Cleanse me 
from sin\ a term of the ritual Ez. P. — with hyssop], a. bunch of 
small branches of the caper plant, used in the ritual, to gather up 
the water or blood, and scatter it upon the person or thing to be 
cleansed. This is a renewal and intensification of v.'* — and I 
shall be pure], in the religious sense, as thus cleansed in accordance 
with the ritual ; which is intensified in / shall be whiter than snow. 
The poet is evidently, in the use of the terms of Is. i^^, thinking 
of the sins of the nation as scarlet and crimson in their colour, of 
bloodguiltiness ; for they had committed a high-handed, death- 
deserving sin, cf. v.^^ — 10. joy and gladness], i^hr. of Is. 22^^ 35^° 
5 1^ ", which they at the same time hear and also utter. Even the 
bones exult in sympathy with the exhilaration of the soul. This 
was expressed by voice, and probably also by dancing, though the 
bones had been crushed by Yahweh Himself in the afilictions He 
brought upon the nation. The bones are personified as those of 
an individual, severally sufi"ering. The bones ache with the anxiety 
of the soul, cf. 22^^ 32^. — 11. Hide Thy face from my sins], do 
not look upon them, overlook them (10^^), take no account of 
them, cf. 32^; another conception of Yahweh's gracious attitude 



8 PSALMS 

toward sin. This is in some respects the reverse of the concep- 
tion of the syn. Hne, which is a simple renewal of v.3*, although 
the word for sin varies. 

Str. III. has a hexastich of three syn. couplets of petition, fol- 
lowed by two syn. couplets, the latter the climax of the Str. — 
12. Transform || renew\ These verbs do not imply creation out 
of nothing, which indeed the Hebrew >^^D never means {v. BD^.) ; 
or creation of a new heart out of other material in place of the 
old heart, views which depend on a misunderstanding of the terms 
in Vrss. ; but the transformation of the former heart, or mind, of 
the nation into a heart of an entirely different character, the mak- 
ing of the spirit, or disposition of the nation, over new into an 
entirely different spirit. According to the previous context they 
had been stained, soiled, and polluted ; they were to be made pure 
and steadfast, the former in accord with v.^, the latter in accord 
with the faithfulness and confidence of v.^ — for me^, as J, 
not " in me," of (©, F, and most Vrss., which is an inexactness 
of translation, not implying a different text. — 13. Cast me not 
away from Thy presence'^, banish from the sacred places of 
worship in Jerusalem, cf. 42^. — Thy holy Spirit take not away"]. 
The divine Spirit was holy, as it was the presence of the holy 
God, requiring His people to be holy, not in the sense of ethical 
perfection, but in the sense of consecration, a keeping apart from 
all that was impure or defiling, in accordance with the conception 
of hoHness in H and Ez. The phr. is used elsewhere only Is. 6^^^- ", 
where the divine Spirit is identified with the theophanic angel of 
the Presence who led Israel up out of Egypt into the Holy Land. 
The people had then grieved Him. The poet conceives that the 
same Holy Spirit now dwells in Israel of the Restoration, just as 
Hg. 2^ Zc. 4^ conceives of the divine Spirit as standing in their 
midst and about to fulfil all divine promises. The poet fears lest 
owing to the guilt of the people the Holy Spirit may depart from 
their midst, leaving them desolate — 14. Restore the joy of Thy 
salvation'], the joy that salvation will produce, cf. v.^^. — And with 
the princely Spirit uphold me], so (3, U, 3, in accord with previous 
verse, thinking of the divine Spirit, with the attribute noble, princely, 
on account of its being the leader and guide of the nation, the 
princely representative of the King Yahweh Himself; cf. PBV., 



PSALM LI. 9 

AV., "Thy free Spirit." This best suits the verb, always used of 
God's sustaining His people (j^), RV. and most moderns think 
of the spirit of man or the nation, the steadfast spirit of v.^- becom- 
ing the free, voluntary spirit, or disposition to serve God, especially 
in songs of praise. — 15. / will teach transgressors Thy ways~\' 
This line doubtless refers to the transgressors in Israel, who might 
still remain after the nation itself had been purified as a whole. 
The nation, cordially accepting the divine words and ways, will be- 
come a great teaching body. This is in the spirit of the times of 
Nehemiah, cf. 32^. — And sinnei-s will return'], in repentance from 
sin, unto their God Yahweh, cf. Is. 42-^ — 16. Deliver me from 
bloodshed], in accordance with usage (cf. 16'*), the shedding of 
blood in death, the affliction of the nation by banishment from 
Yahweh and withdrawal of the Holy Spirit, reaching its climax in 
death, so 01s., Hi., Ba. ; but EV*. and most moderns think of 
" bloodguiltiness " in accord with v.^, a meaning possible to the 
Hebrew word, but not sustained by usage. — Yahweh], the original 
divine name for " Elohim," which was intensified by an ancient 
glossator by adding " God of my salvation," making the hne just 
these two words too long. 

Str. IV. has a hexastich of three syn. couplets and a tetrastich 
of two syn. couplets. — 17. My lips || my mouth], the organs of 
speech, thus far used in confession of sin and humble pleading for 
purification, anxious now to declare the praise in public worship 
of Yahweh, if only He will enable them so to do by granting their 
prayers, cf. v.^*'-^*-^^, and thus open their lips to this glad service. 
— 18. For Thou delightest not || takes t no pleasure], syn. terms 
for acceptance of the ritual worship as expressed in the peace-offer- 
ing, characteristic of festivals, and whole burnt-offering, charac- 
teristic of the ordered worship at all sacred times. Such sacrifices 
were easily made, and habitually offered, even while the nation 
was most stained with sin, cf. Is. i^-"^ Ps. 50''"^^. — 19-21. The 
sacrifices that really were acceptable to Yahweh and which He 
did not despise, as He did the merely external sacrifices, were 
" sacrifices of God " = " sacrifices of righteousness," v.^\ These 
qualifications of the sacrifices were both explanatory glosses, in 
accordance with Dt. 33^^ Ps. 4^. They are not to be regarded as 
in antithesis to the ritual sacrifices, as if the sacrifices of God, 



10 PSALMS 

those which He required, were altogether internal states of soul, 
without external expression in ritual. Those sacrifices were also 
peace-offerings and whole burnt-offerings, consisting especially of 
the most costly animals, bullocks^ offered on the divine altar in 
Jerusalem; only the external sacrifices were to be offered by a 
nation purified from sin, and living righteously in accordance with 
the words and ways of Yahweh ; and indeed by a nation truly 
penitent for all past and present sins and transgressions. They 
are sacrifices of a broken spirit^ made by a broken spirit ; a heart 
crushed^ by divine discipline, v.^^, cf. Is. 57^^ 66- Pss. 34^^ 147^ — 
O do good unto Zion\ bestow good things upon her, treat her well. 
This is especially defined as rebuild the ivalls of Jerusalem ^ which 
the people needed for safety from their enemies, and for the 
honour of Yahweh Himself in His royal city. — in Thy good 
pleasure"], a.ccept\ng her repentance and purifying her; taking de- 
light in her sacrifice, offered now with a contrite, pure, righteous, 
steadfast disposition. He might justly deal kindly with her. This 
verse is not a late addition to the Ps., as many have thought, 
because of a mistaken reference of it to the experience of David, 
or to a misinterpretation of the previous context, as if there were 
an unreconcilable antithesis between the Ps. and this conclusion ; 
rather it is essential to the completeness of the Str., and expresses 
the historical situation of the poet. 

3^. ••Jin] Qal imv. pn (/), characteristic of B, but not of It or % \\ npn 
kindness {4'*) and D-'cnn pi. abstr. compassion (^5^). — O'ln'^N] for an original 
mn% as throughout B, used by IE. — :i^-^ though in @, 3, is intensification, 
making 1. too long. 6>, 3, also intensify in previous 1., (S Kara rb fi^ya eXe6s 
0-ov, 3 secundum magnam misericordiam tuam. — nnp] Qal imv. (9^) blot out, 
as v.ii; with sins elsw. in Qal Is. 432^ 44^2, Niph. Ps. 109I* Ne. 3^'^, syn. ''JD33 
Pi. imv. J D33 vb. Pi. wash, person elsw. only v.^ Je. 2"^'^ 4^*; |1 '•Ji.^'^ vb. Pi. 
imv. X nnc), a technical term for ceremonial purification, so v.^ (Qal) by the 
use of hyssop; common in P, but also Je. 33^ Ez. 36*^ 372^ Mai. 3' -f . — 
r\-:i'\r\'] Kt. r\'i-\7\ Hiph. inf. abs. nni as adv. 130^, so ® iirl irXeiov, 3 multum, 
Ges.'^^ff- to be preferred to Qr. 37.n abr. Hiph. imv,, Ges.'^gK-. — ^';'N•;^^c"l] has 
two tones. — 5. ^jn] makes 1. too long, unnecessary gl. — y^s] Qal impf. i.p. 
present experience, || -crn >'\\), cf. /6* Is. 59I2. — 6. qt5'7 ri'^] emphatic J i3 
n.m. separation ; with ';', in a state of separation, alone, by oneself ; always 
of God in 1//, elsw. 71I8 72I8 83!^ 861° 136* 148I8. — >r^rr r^^rn n.^i] adj. y> 
with article, emphatic ; phr. of ©, Dt. 4^6 9I8 172 ^129 _j- 57 t.' — |ic^] conj. 
final clause with impf. as 9!^ 3013 48I*. — pixn] Qal impf. 2 m. be just, as 



PSALM LI. II 

1^0^ — T?.3n3] form a.X. Qal inf. cstr. attracted to form of iKDDtt'3 ; but ®, 5, 
Rom. 3* pi. T'"?3t, referring to words of Law, then resembling still more Ps. 19. 
— njjrn] Qal impf. f [n^r] vb. Qal (i) <^^ clean, pure, of man in the sight of 
God Jb. 15I* 25^; (2) be clear, in justice, of God Ps. j/^ Mi. 6II. Pi. viake 
or /5^^/ pure, the (:i):3'7 Ps. 73^^ Pr. 20^, nix Ps. 119^. Hithp. make oneself 
clean Is. I^^ ® vcK-^a-ris, cf. Rom. 3'*; so S, G, !F, 3, after Aram, usage. 
® also prefixes Kal, which may be for an original o needed for measure, 
omitted in |§ because of previous :i_. (3 Rom. 3*, U, PBV., also interpret 
']t2D^2 as passive, which is improbable. — 7. J ^n] interj. lo / behold! used in 
early prose but chiefly in poetry, so v.^ 68^^ 78^0 139*, for the more frequent 
r\v\. — jN^on] n.m. (i) sin \M\%. 31"^ Ho. 12^ Dt. 191^; {2) guilt of sin v.'^ 
103IO Is. 1I8 Dt. 159 2i22 2322.23 2415. — ^jncnj Pi. pf. f [cn^] Pi. elsw. only 
of conception of cattle Gn. 3o4i-^i 31I'' (E). This form is for the normal 
^jnpn>, cf. Ju. 528 Ges.64 1^. — 8. t r^'^nto] n.fpl. in Jb. 38'^^ ace. to ^ and Rabb. 
reins, but impossible there, as refer, is to dark cloud layers ; inward parts, 
j5DB., as covered over, concealed, (5 ra AdrjXa, TrJ incerta, JJ absconditum ; 
(&, U, 3, all attaching to next 1. — onD^i] is doubtless a gl. explanatory of 
mn'i03 Qal ptc. pass. % ano stop up, in Qal and Pi. of stopping wells ; in a higher 
sense Dn. 826 \2^-^ (Qal) of shutting up prophetic words, here of the closed 
chamber of the breast, therefore late. All this is improbable ; it gives no 
suitable parall. Rd. with Hi. mn'i33 abstract pi. nnt03 confidence, security, cf. 
Is. 30I5 Jb. 12^; cstr. before r\-oyr\ (S7^^)t the confidence or security that Wis- 
dom affords. — 9. "'JN'pn.'^] Pi. juss. purify from sin; elsw. in this sense, of 
person, only P; Nu. 191^ (Pi.) Nu. 821 + 7 t. (Hithp.); of place (altar, house) 
Ez. 4320 + 4 t. Ez. Lv. 8I& + 2 t., all P (Pi.). — t ^^f^f] "-m. the hyssop, prob. 
caper, described by Tristram. " The stem has short, recurved spines below 
the junction of each leaf. The leaves are oval, of a glossy green, and in 
warmer situations evergreen." The plant is mentioned i K. 5!^; elsw. in 
ritual use for sprinkling blood at Passover Ex. 1222 (J), for cleansing of leper 
Lv, 144- 6. 49. 61. 52 (p-)^ for cleansing from contact with the dead Nu. 196- ^^ (P), 
of cleansing from sin here only. — i^^?*^.] 1 subord., the final n omitted in late 
style ; so also with ps'^N Hiph. impf. t p*? vb. denom. Hiph. (i) make white 
= purify (ethical) Dn. 11^^; (2) shew whiteness, become white, of tree Jo. l"^, 
of moral purity cf. jS*^ Is. I^^ and here; Hithp. be purified Dn. 12^''. — 
10. nnipt'i f^t'r] phr. Is. 22^3 351*^ 51^" •^^. — i^'rl] ^^' P^- ''^^- clause; cf. v.^^ 
10^0. — 12. Nnn] Qal imv. ni:3 create in the sense of transform, as Is. 4120 
5^17. i8_ — d-'hSn] is gl. making 1. too long. — f^Dj nn] poj Niph. ptc. p^, 
firmly established in the religious and moral sense, cf. 3'? |133 57^*^ 1082, also 
78^' 112'^. — ir'in] Pi. imv. f r^n Pi. (i) rene^v, only here in religious sense, 
of face of ground 104*", kingdom i S. ii^*, years La. 521, witnesses Jb. lo^'^; 
(2) repair, cities Is. 61*, temple 2 Ch. 24*- ^2^ altar 2 Ch. 15^. Hithp. renew, 
youth Ps. 103^ — ''3'}i?3] is a gl., making 1. too long. — 13. ''J^'^'f'-'"^^] is 
neg. juss. Hiph. with two accents. — ''^D?] expl. gl. — 14. na^'^'n] Hiph. imv. 
cohort. •'S is expl. gl. — 'n'.;p_ pt't'] phr. a.X. v. i^. — n^^ij nn] phr. a.X., 
but ^nn n3-ij Ex. 3521 (P), cf. aS 2nj Ex. 355-22 (P) 2 Ch. 29^1, willing, freely 



12 PSALMS 

offering oneself; (S ■r]y€fxoviK(^, TS principali, Jf potenti in the other mng. 
noble, princely^ so Street. — 15. h-jdSn] Pi. cohort. — 16. D'pi] abst. pi. 
bloodshed, 01s., Hi., Ba.; most think of blood-guiltiness. — ••nyitrn \-i^n D\nSN] 
amplification, only one name needed for measure ; rd. nin% for which q^hSn 
was substituted by 15. — p.in] Pi. juss., apod, of imv. (j^^). — 18. sS] neg., 
so 3, but ® n'7 conditional particle due to njnsi Qal cohort. ;nj, apod., which 
certainly implies a previous conditional clause. But this vb. makes 1. too long 
and is doubtless an expl. gl. — 19. d^h^n] is gl. in both 11.; it puts God in 
2d and 3d pers. in same v. "in^r is then cstr. before nn. It is prob. that n^'rj 
after ^S is an expl. gl. inserted before the unusual n?-ij. — 20. n^-'^p^n] Iliph. 
imv. cohort. j:d"i (jj^). (S, J, insert ""Jin, but at expense of measure. — 
21. n'^iy] is expl. gl. for the unusual % S"'';'ri n.m. whole, entire offering, as 
Dt. if-^ I S. 7^; for other mng. v. jo^. 

PSALM LIL, 2 STR. 6^ 

Ps. 52 is a didactic poem of the time of Jeremiah : (i) denounc- 
ing a crafty noble who worked mischief with his lying tongue 
(v.3-«) ; predicting his speedy downfall (v.') ; (2) triumphing in 
the antithesis between the noble's vain trust in his wealth, and 
the sure trust of the righteous in Yahweh (v.^^^"). The Ps. con- 
cludes with a liturgical gloss (v."*). 

"^HY boastest thou of evil, thou mighty man, all day long ? 

Engulfing ruin thou devisest, thy tongue is as a whetted razor ; 

Thou dost love evil rather than good, lying rather than right; 

Thou dost love all devouring words, the deceitful tongue. 

'El also will pull thee down, forever He will snatch thee away; 

He will pluck thee up out of thy tent, and so root thee out of the land of the 
living. 
'pHEN the righteous will see and revere, and will laugh at him : 

"Behold (the mighty man) that used not to make (Yahweh) his refuge, 

But used to trust in the abundance of his riches, used to be strong in his 
(wealth). 

As for me, I am in the house of (Yahweh) as a luxuriant olive tree; 

I trust in the kindness of (Yahweh) forever and ever. 

I will laud Thee that Thou hast done it, and I will wait on Thy name." 

Ps. 52 was a S>i)r^ at first in Q, and subsequently in 15 and W^ {v. 
Intr. §§ 26, 27, 32, 2,3)' In Q it had the following historical reference: 
'tl'^.V^, ^^'T''^ •^^;"N3 ^"^ 1CNM SiNC'^ 1J11 >c-ixn jNn N^^'a = " When Doeg 
the Edomite came and told Saul,' and said^ unto him, David is come 
to the house of Abimelech." This is based on i S. 229-io, but makes 
a clumsy use of the narrative. This reference was made not with the 
view that the Ps. was actually composed at that time; but that it might 



PSALM LII. 13 

be conceived as expressing the emotions of David under those circumstances. 
In fact the Ps. in some respects would suit the situation ; but in others not. 
Both the internal and the external evidence make such a time of composition 
impossible. The "ii:3J v.^- ^ refers to a warrior, and evidently, in the context, 
to a false and wicked one such as Doeg certainly was. But it is easy to think 
also of Shebna (Is. 22^^^^-), Pashhur (Je. 2oi'q), Hananiah (Je. 28i'»5), or 
Sanballat (Ne. 6). But these were doubtless only representatives of a class 
constantly appearing in Jewish history and denounced by the prophets. The 
PJ71 nn v.i^ = Je. ii^^ does not involve dependence on Je., for the simile is 
an easy one and the use of it is not the same. The reference to the house of 
Yahweh, however, implies either preexilic or postexilic times, when the temple 
was the established place of worship. The crafty and lying use of the tongue 
denounced in the Ps. is especially prominent in the denunciations of the pre- 
exilic prophets, cf. Je. 9^ *i- Mi. 6^^. The same is true of the early Restora- 
tion. But subsequently falsehood, under Persian influence, assumes a more 
ethical character, and is denounced not only for its injurious effects, but for 
its own immoral nature. The language and style favour a preexilic date. The 
Ps. is best explained from the time of Jeremiah. 

Str. I. has a tetrastich of three syn. lines explaining the first, 
and an antith. syn. couplet. — 3. W/iy boastest thou^ . . . thou 
mighty man /] Some noble, a rich and powerful warrior, is 
referred to, such as Shebna (Is. 22^^^*^-), Pashhur (Je. 20^"^), 
Hananiah (Je. 28^ *'^), or Sanballat (Ne. 6), who was indulging in 
self-confident boasting of his success and impunity in evil. This 
was all the more irritating that it was continuous, all day long. An 
ancient glossator impatient for the antithesis v.^^, attached to the 
margin the "kindness," making that "all day long." This sub- 
sequently came into the text at the expense of the measure, and 
the simplicity of the movement of thought in its parallelism. The 
Vrss. greatly differ here. — 4. Engulfing ruin']. The evil is 
explained as a ruin in which one falls and is engulfed or swallowed 
up, a term of ©, 5^" 38^^ 55^^ 57^. Such overwhelming ruin he 
deviseth against the righteous. He has a definite plan and pur- 
pose to ruin them, and it is expressed in crafty words of false wit- 
ness. — thy tongue is as a ivhetted razor], phr. a.A., cf. Ps. 7^^ 
Je. 36^. The tongue has a deadly purpose, and so it is compared 
to a razor which has been whetted in order to make it as sharp 
as possible. The glossator added " working deception," as loi^, 
making the line too long whether referring to the tongue or the 
man, whether in apposition or vocative. The Vrss. differ. — 



14 PSALMS 

5-6. Thou dost love\ emphatic present, repeated in syn. line for 
greater emphasis. The evil tongue represents an evil nature, 
whose affection is set on evil rather than goody defined more pre- 
cisely as the evil of lying rather than the good of speaking that 
which is just and right. The climax is reached in all-devouring 
words y whose purpose is to swallow up and devour, cf. v."*, — the 
deceitful tongue\ as 120^^ in apposition @, S, J, to be preferred 
to the vocative : " O thou deceitful tongue " of EV. and most 
moderns. — 7. *El also"] on His part, as an additional actor, 
appears unexpectedly to the wicked noble. This divine name 
was left in the Ps. by 15. Vbs. are heaped up, two in each line, 
to indicate the great variety of motions by which God overthrows 
this vainglorious noble. — will pull thee down'] from a firm posi- 
tion; — sftatch thee away] elsewhere of snatching up coals from a 
hearth with tongs or shovel ; — pluck thee up out of thy tent], out 
of and away from the inmost dwelling, the very home ; — and so 
root thee out of the land of the living]. It is extermination, leaving 
neither root nor branch behind in the land where only the living 
dwell, V. 2"/^^. 

Str. II. has a line introducing the words of the triumphant 
righteous which declare in an antith. couplet the trust of the 
wicked noble, and, in a syn. triplet, the trust of the righteous. — 
8. See and revere], see the fall of the wicked noble, and revere, in 
reverential fear of Yahweh who overthrew him, cf 40^ — and will 
laugh at him], the triumphant laugh of scorn and derision. This 
is just as appropriate for the people of Yahweh when Yahweh tri- 
umphs over His enemies and theirs, as it is for Yahweh Himself, 
Ps. 2*. — 9. Behold the mighty man], the same person as in v.'; 
but J^ and Vrss. by a different pointing of the same consonant 
letters, interpret the term as the more general and comprehensive 
** man." — used not to make Yahweh his refuge], frequentative, of 
habitual action ; so probably the following vbs. also. EV'., after 
J, render "strength " or "stronghold," but improperly, v. 2f. — 
in the abundance of his riches]. This noble had great riches as 
well as great power, and in these he used to trust, instead of in his 
God, as every true Jew should have done. — used to be strong in 
his {wealth)] so %, E, and most moderns, as best suited to con- 
text. J^ gives the same form as v.*, which is variously explained 



PSALM LII. 15 

by Vrss. and interpreters. But, if correct, it must be interpreted 
as their " engulfing ruin," and we must think of his strengthening 
himself in the ruin he has brought on others, building himself up 
on their ruins. — 10. As for me\ emphatic antithesis. — as a 
luxuriant olive tree\ fresh, green, fat, and flourishing in the rich- 
est soil ; not that the olive tree was in the house of Yahweh and 
therefore especially luxuriant, but that the righteous man was a 
guest there and on that account was to be compared to such a 
tree. His trust was in the kindness of Yahweh, in antithesis with 
the trust of the wicked noble in his riches ; and therefore he would 
continue to flourish after the wicked noble had been overthrown 
with his wealth. — 11. / will laud Thee'], the vow of public wor- 
ship in the temple in thanksgiving, as usual at the conclusion of 
Pss. — that Thou hast done it\ The special theme of the praise 
was that which Yahweh had done to the proud oppressor of the 
righteous. — and I will wait on Thy name] . Although this phr. 
is a.X., yet the name of Yahweh frequently takes the place of 
Yahweh Himself in other phrases, and there is no good reason why 
it should not do so here. The remainder of the v. is too much 
for the measure and Str. — for it is good in the sight of Thy pious 
ones]. This is doubtless a gloss. The name is good, benign. The 
pious so regard it as they contemplate it. The name of Yahweh 
in late usage is for Yahweh Himself. 

3. SVnnn] Hithp. impf. make one's boast, as 49'^. — i'i3^n] vocative, as usual 
with article. — Sn npn] is a gl., originally in margin simply as iDn, from v.^®^ 
referring to the kindness of Yahweh, antith. to the wickedness of this boaster. 
But @ dvofxiav, Aq., Quinta, 6vei.5os = non as Aram, shame, reproach, elsw. 
Pr. 1434 Lv. 2oi'^. Vx was a later insertion in f^, %, to define ion as God's. 
But it is interpr. by Sb, Houb., Oort, We., Du., as inexactness for T»Dn Sp. 
Hi., Dy., rd. Sy "ion adv. inf. But all are improbable and unsatisfactory. The 
two words in fact destroy the measure. — 4. nViri] emph. engulfing ruin, 
V. s^^. — trtaSn "^yns] phr. a.X. | nyn n.m., razor ^ as Is. 720 Ez. 5I. v^h, v. y^^, 
of sword. — n-iDi na'y] is explan. gl. — 5. pnx "^ain] phr. elsw. Ps. 58^. pnx 
of Tightness of speech, elsw. Pr. S^ i2i7 16I8, cf. r\p-\s Is. 45^3481 63I Je. 42 
Zc. 8^ The vb. is a gl. making the 1. too long, so Ba. — 6. j:^3-n3-|] phr. 
a.X. fyh^ n.[m.] devouring, elsw. Je. 51**, v. Ps. 55^'', also vb. 21^^. It is 
tempting with Be., Che., to rd. ':'J7*'?2. — nonp I'lC'S] phr. a.X. in apposition, not 
vocative; usual phr. -ipty 'S 1092 Pr. 6" 121^ 2 1« 26^8, n^nn 'S Ps. i2o2-« 
Mi. 612. — 7^ SN-Dii]. Two tones are needed. Therefore rd. Vx OJi as usual 
in such cases. — rixn^] Qal future |vnj vb. Qal (i) pull down, a structure 



1 6 PSALMS 

Ex. 34I3 (J) Dt. f +; (2) a nation Je. i^'^ i8^ an individual Jb. 19I0, so 
here; the jaw teeth of lions Ps. 58^. — ^nn:] Qal impf. f 'irin vb. snaU^ u/>, 
coals from hearth Is. 30^*, cf. Pr. 6'^"^ 25^2; here fig. involved. — n^DM] i coord. 
Qal impf. f nDj vb. Qal ^ear away, as Pr. 22- 1525; Niph. Dt. 28^^. — nK':^t?*i] 
1 consec. after the impf. expressing result ; f tnv vb. demon. Pi. roo^ out, 
elsvv. Jb. 31^2; Pu. Jb. 31^; Poel Is. 402*; Poal Je. 122; Hiph. also strike 
root Ps. Soi*^ Is. 27^ Jb. 5^. — 8. @ attaches koX ipovaiv, which is implied 
indeed, but not usually expressed in poetry. — 9. "i^jn] so |^ and all Vrss.; 
but certainly a mispointing for n^33, v.^. — □"•ir^-sS] neg. rel. clause, vb. fre- 
quent. — d^hSn] for original nin> as throughout IE. — n*J3^}] 1 consec. after 
impf., emph. change of tense ; improb. It should be 1 coord, and vb. fre- 
quent. — nrr i-13] original of 4g^. — r'r] Qal freq. de strong; 920. — \n1r13] as 
v.*, but dub. rd. with &, Z, Lag., Gr., Bi., Ba., Oort, Du., Dr., ^DB,, ^^n^ in 
his 2vealth, v. 44^^. — 11. c^;:^;'';'] is gl., making 1. too long. — qpu' r^^p)^] phr. 
a.X., but nip with ace. '> frequent. The substitution of name for Yahweh is 
common with other vbs., why not with this? It is however not suited to 
^^TPil M^ 3'ia""'?, and therefore Dy., Hi., Gr., ^DB., rd. nins, Hu., Oort, NnpN. 
But in fact this last heterogeneous clause makes an additional 1. to the Str. 
however we may divide the 11. It is indeed a double gl. : 310 o {v. ^j"*) ; 
in'on ijj still later, cf. 792 892^ 132^ (= 2 Ch. 6") 145 10. 



PSALM LIII. 

Ps. 53 is an Elohistic edition of Ps. 14, with variations of text 
and editorial changes, all of which are discussed under Ps. 14. 



PSALM LIV., 2 STR. e. 

Ps. 54 is a prayer for national victory in the early days of 
Josiah. (i) Petition to Yahweh to save the nation from its terri- 
ble foreign foes (v.^^*), (2) that the enemy may be exterminated, 
and the people gaze in triumph upon them (v.^""- ^) . Glosses assert 
that the enemy ignores God (v.^') , and vow praise and sacrifice 
in the temple (v.^) . 

YAHWEH, by Thy name save me, 

And by Thy might execute judgment for me. 

Yahweh, hear my prayer; 

Give ear to the words of my mouth : 

For (proud ones) have risen up against me. 

And terrible ones have sought my life. 



PSALM LIV. 17 

T O, Yahweh, Helper to w^/ 
Yahweh, Upholder of my life ! 
Let evil return to my watchful foe ; 
In Thy faithfulness exterminate {inine enemy) ; 
From all trouble deliver me, 
And on mine enemy let mine eye look. 

Ps. 54 was a Maskil'm B. It was then taken up into ©3^, and received the 
assignment nJ''JJ?. It was also taken up into IE. The historical reference 
ijd;; nnnOD in N^n hsiivh n:2X"ii Qicnn nu3, refers to the incident mentioned 
I S. 231981-, cf. 26i"i- (v. Intr. §§ 26, 27, 32, 33, 34). This Ps. could not have 
been composed by David at this time, but the circumstances there referred to 
might illustrate some of the features of the Ps. It is a prayer for national 
deliverance in peril from enemies; and indeed cxny, powerful, cruel, and 
terrible ones, v.*, such as the Babylonians, cf. 37^^ 86^* Is. 13I1 29^. The 
language and style are of the earlier Pss. of ©. The reference to temple 
worship and sacrifice, v.^, is a gloss. The prayer that they might look in 
triumph on their enemies, v.^, implies a preex. situation, in which the armies 
of Judah were still in the field and might hope to overcome their enemies in 
battle. The early years of Josiah best suit this situation. 

Str. I. has three syn. couplets, the last giving the reason of the 
prayer. — 3. By Thy name']. The name of Yahweh, as known to 
His people and made known to their enemies, is a saving name, 
giving confidence to His people, and invoking fear in their ene- 
mies, owing to the renown of His previous historical achievements, 
V, 20^8 3321 446 8913- ^^-^ 1053 ^^^io.n.12 ^2^\—Thy might], as 
exhibited in the putting forth of warlike power, v. 20^ 21^* 80^ 
89". — save me], as the context shows, by deliverance from ene- 
mies in war, implying victory over them || execute judgment for me], 
vindicate my cause in battle, v. \\d\ — 4. The petition of the 
previous couplet is indeed prayer, as expressed in words of my 
mouth, oral prayer, which Yahweh is urged to hear || give ear to, 
usual terms in such circumstances, v. 4'^ 5I — 5. The reason for 
this petition is given in this couplet, proud ones], the probable 
original, as ^T and many codd. 5^, rather than " foreigners," 
foreign enemies, of most codd. J^ and other Vrss. These are 
defined as terrible ones, such as the Assyrians, Is. 29^, and Babylo- 
nians, Is. 13" Ez. 28''. — have risen tip against me], in war 1| have 
sought my life], to destroy the nation so that it could no longer 
have national independence or existence. A glossator, without 
regard to the structure of the Ps. as composed of couplets, added 



1 8 PSALMS 

a line to give another characteristic of these enemies, " they do 
not set God before their eyes," cf. lo* 14^ = 53^, probably influenced 
by the latter passage. 

Str. II. has also three syn. couplets. — 6. Lo"], calling emphatic 
attention to the wish expressed in v.^, introduced by the vocatives 
in v.^. — Helper to me'], not predicate of VaAwe/i, as Vrss. ; but in 
apposition to Yahweh, as His characteristic. — Upholder of my life'] 
the One who had been throughout history the sustainer of His 
people, maintaining their national existence in every peril and 
against all enemies. — 7. Let evil return], so Kt., in requital, cf. 
7^^ 94^^, to be preferred to Qr., (©, J, " He will return," " requite," 
as 1 8^^-^ 28^ 79^^, which requires the interpretation of Yahweh as 
subj. in the 3d pers. against the uniform usage of this Ps., which 
is a prayer to Him, in the 2d pers. Such an interpretation is 
indeed forbidden by the syn. imv. exterminate^ otherwise the 
transition from the one person to the other in a syn. couplet 
would be exceedingly abrupt and uncalled for. — In Thy faithful- 
ness]. The usual meaning of the Hebrew word is alone appro- 
priate here ; namely, the faithfulness of Yahweh to His people, as 
helper and sustainer. The EV\ give the unusual meaning " truth," 
which has no propriety in this context. These enemies of v.^ are 
here described as my watchful foes], who lie in wait, a term of ©, 
V. s^ ; also in general as inine enemy, an insertion which the uniform 
assonance of this Ps. in { requires, as well as the measure, in place 
of the suffix "them," of 5^, Vrss. — 8. This vow disturbs the 
order of the prayer and the structure of the Str. ; but was needed 
to make the Ps. appropriate for public worship in later times. — 
In voluntariness will I sacrifice to Thee], so Vrss., AV., cf. PBV., 
expressing the glad, voluntary participation in public sacrifice, cf. 
51^*. RV. " freewill offering," while a possible rendering of the 
Hebrew word, is a specific kind of sacrifice which was only appro- 
priate on special occasions, and not at all characteristic of public 
sacrifice in the temple, or indeed appropriate to it. — / will laud 
Thy name, Yahweh, {saying) for He is good], the oral choral 
praise, with the Rf. of the Hallels, v. 135^ and Intr. § 35. — 
9. From all trouble deliver me], continuation of the prayer, the 
verb being interpreted as imv. MT., 3, 3E, pf. 3 sg., (^, ^, pf. 2 sg., 
are due to the insertion of the gloss v.®, separating v.^ from its 



PSALM LV. 19 

connection with the imv. v J^ — Let mine eye look'] . The context 
of the original Ps. requires the jussive here, as against pf. of ^ 
and Vrss., due to the gloss. The eye of Israel hopes to gaze in 
triumph upon the enemy, defeated and exterminated, cf. 112^ 

3. D^nVs] for an original nin>; also v.'*- ^. — :inni3J3i] has two tones, as usual 
in long words, with 1 conj. — ^jr^] Qal juss. after imv. (75). — 4. ^o'^-^dnS] 
two tones, the first thrown back from ultima to penult of ncN as usual; v. 2^2, 
phr. Pss, 191^ 78^ 138* Dt. 32I +. — 5. onr] marked as dub. by Paseq, was 
prob. originally nnr, as ^ and many codd. MT.; so Oort, Gr., Ba., Du. — 
tSj?] the usual prep, with Dip, but the pi. sf. impairs the assonance in "•_. 
Rd. therefore o as 2712. _ o^xny] pi. adj., as 373^ 861*, both S; cf. Is. 13I1 
295, — Dijj^ d-ihSn intt' N*?] is an extra 1. to the Str., lacks the characteristic 
rhyme, and is doubtless a gl. — 6. '•S nTy] phr. 30^1 (©). — ^m] prob. for 
original nin\ — \???D3] (3 dvrtXi^/xirTup, 3 sustentans, imply sg. without 3; the 
latter is due to the interpretation of form as pi., and is prob. not original, 
v.3^. — 7. 31**:'^] Kt.; 3^^^ Qr., so (g, 3; the former is more suited to the 
context if 'r\v\^ is vocative in foregoing, the latter if it is subject of clauses ; 
the former more probable, only it should be juss. — \1T^'] P^- is against 
assonance ; rd. sg. v. j^. — on-'r^fn]. The suffix is contrary to the assonance 
in V characteristic of Ps. A word is also missing for the measure : rd. i^^s. — 
8. 1^3-1^] n.f. (i) voluntariness of love Ho. 14^ of volunteering for mili- 
tary service Ps. iio^, of copious rain 68^°, of voluntary offering of sacrifice 
j-^, adv. ace. Dt. 23^*; elsw. d\wd>.ys freeivill offering, in \{/ only 119IO8 unless 
this mng. be found here also. — nnsm] Qal cohort, isg. expressing resolution; 
the accent is retracted before "^^^ whether Makkeph is used or not ; cf. v.*. — 
Tipc^ nniN] Hiph. impf. cohort, m^, v. Intr. § 35, cf. 44^, 99^, 138^ 142^. — 
nin'»] suspicious in 35. The rhyme does not appear in this v. It is a gl. 
— 3^c:"''3] V. 52^1. — 9. >? is a gl. of interp. — \3';"?\^] Hiph. pf. 3 sg. changes 
from 2d to 3d pers. without sufficient reason : (5, %, 2d pers., so Horsley, Gr., 
Che.; rd. imv. \j^"'^ri as Street. — ^vb'"^] Qal pf. 3 f. is not suited to context, 
even if explained as future pf. or pf. of sure future. The original Ps. required, 
as Street, nNnn juss. The text has been changed from imv. and juss. because 
of intervening g^. — •'3;n] should be sg. sf. as above. 



PSALM LV. 

Ps. 55 is composite. (A) A prayer for deliverance, with the 
longing to flee away from the terrible anxiety to a sure refuge 
^^2-3.5-9a^ (S) Imprecations upon treacherous foes within the 
holy city (v.^^^^^^, and upon a treacherous friend (v.i^-isa 21-22. 24a6)^ 



20 PSALMS 

Glosses express confidence in Yahweh (v.^^^^*), make vows of pub- 
lic prayer (v.^'-^*^) and urgent petition (v.-^''), refer to deliverances 
from battle (v.^^), and enlarge upon various features of the original 

/„ 4. 1G6. S»6\ 

A. V.2-3.^9a^ 3 STR. 4^. 

r\ GIVE ear, (Yahweh) , to my prayer ; 

And hide not Thyself from f//y supplication. 

attend to me, and answer fne. 

1 am depressed, and I moan in my complaint. 
lyrY heart writhes within me, 

And terrors have fallen upon me. 
Fear comes upon me, 
And trembling and shuddering cover me. 
pINIONS O that /had! 

As a dove / would fly away and settle down, 

So I would make afar off my flight. 

I would haste away to my place of escape. 

B. v.^*-^'-'^-"•-'•'*^ 3 STR. 5^ 

"^TITH a tempestuous wind, O Lord, divide their tongues. 

For I see violence and strife in the city; 

Day and night they go round about upon the walls thereof. 

Trouble and mischief are in the midst of it, engulfing ruin in its (square) ; 

And oppression and deceit depart not from its square. 
JTOR it is not an enemy who reproaches me, I could get away (from him). 

It is not he that hateth me that magnifieth himself against me, I could have 
hidaen from him. 

But thou, a man mine equal, mine associate and my familiar acquaintance! 

Together we used to hold sweet counsel, we used to walk in concord. 

Let death come treacherously upon them, let them descend alive to Sheol. 
J-JE put forth his hands against his confederate : he profaned his covenant; 

His face was smoother than curds ; but war was in his mind. 

His words were softer than oil, but they were drawn swords. 

But, O Thou, (Yahweh), bring them down to the Pit of Sheol. 

Let not men of blood and deceit live out half their days. 

Ps. 55 was in IB, of the class h>y:^T2, which is justified by the original Ps>^ 
not by the present Ps. It was taken up into 5E, when the divine name was 
changed as elsw. It was also in IB2^, where it was assigned nrjjj (v. Intr. 
§§ 26, 27, 32, 33, 34). The Ps. has an unusual number of glosses, (i) V.i^ 
has nin\ This could not have been in % or in Qi£i, which follows its sources 
in its use of divine names. The three hours of prayer, v.^^, appear elsw. 
Dn. 6" as a late usage. V.^^ belongs with v.i^. It implies deliverance from 
a recent battle. These verses all come from a Maccabean editor adapting 
the Ps. to the circumstances of his times. V.'^'^* belongs also to the same hand, 



PSALM LV. 31 

and it is probable that he changed v.-°«, which was an earlier marginal gl. 
with nrj in the sense of answer, to nj;; in the sense of humiliation of the 
enemies. V.^ is a couplet of similar tone, and probably came from him also. 
(2) V.23 has nin> also, and must have been a gl. later than IBi^. It expresses, 
however, a calm confidence in Yahweh which was more characteristic of the 
Greek period before the Maccabean trials. V.23 is based on 22^ 66^. The 
Aramaic 3n> is also an evidence of late date. V.^^c is also a trimeter gl., con- 
cluding the Ps. with an expression of trust in Yahweh. After the glosses 
have been removed, the Ps. is composite of an early Maskil, v.^-^- ^9<» and 
a later imprecatory Ps., v.^^-i^a- 21-22. 24a6^ Xhe former was a little prayer, 
which originally was apart by itself, resembling Ps. 54. It was doubtless in 
!E, because the original mn*" has been changed to D^n^N. The combination 
with the prayer may have been made by 15. The imprecatory Ps. is based in 
v.i°* upon the story of the dispersion from Babel Gn. ii^-^ (J) ; in v.^*' on the 
story of Korah and his company Nu. 16^3 (P). The traditional ascription 
of the Ps. to David in the time of the treachery of Ahithophel, 2 S. 15, has no 
other propriety than that Ahithophel was just such a person as is described 
in V. 13-15- 21-22. ]3^t• he could hardly have been regarded as the equal of the 
king. The reference to Pashhur, Jer. 20, would be more probable, if we could 
suppose that the Ps. was composed by Jeremiah ; but this is improbable, and 
there is no evidence that Pashhur was such an intimate friend as is here 
described. The reference to the walls of the city and its public squares, 
v.ii"i2^ prevents us from thinking of the times of the restoration previous to 
Nehemiah. It is therefore probably a Ps. of the time of Nehemiah, when 
there was no special peril from foreign enemies, but great corruption, violence, 
and strife in the city itself. 

PSALM LV. A. 

Str. I. 2-3 is a prayer in a syn. tristich with a synth. line giving 
reason. — 2-3. O give ear j| O attend to me, and the climax, an- 
swer me, are usual terms of petition. — and hide not Thyself ~\^ 
Yahweh seems to hide His face from His people if He gives no 
response to their prayers when they are in trouble; cf. 10^. — 
I am depressed\ lit. brought down in humiliation, as J, favoured 
also by paraphrase of (^, PBV., AV., to be preferred to J^, RV., 
and most moderns, from a different Hebrew stem, " I am restless." 
— I moan'], as v.^**, #, J, RV., to be preferred to f^, "am dis- 
tracted." — in my complaint], plaintive expostulation with Yah- 
weh for leaving him in this condition. 

Str. II. is a syn. tetrastich, continuing the description of suffer- 
ing. — 5. My heart writhes'], in the pain and anguish of the situa- 
tion. — And terrors] of the consequences which will result if 



22 PSALMS 

Yahweh does not save him. The specification ''of death "was 
due to dittography, and was not original, as indeed it makes the 
line too long for the measure. — 4 is a pentameter gloss, assigning 
a reason for the anxiety. The ejte7ny and wicked are a plurality 
of foreign enemies, as v.^^"^^ These dislodge trouble'], a metaphor 
of rolling stones down from heights upon enemies in the valley 
beneath, or in a siege from walls upon those assailing them. — 
cherish a7iimosity\. They habitually and with set purpose, due 
to anger, take every opportunity of hostile action. — 6. shudder- 
ing] is an intensification of fear and trembling. These have not 
only come upon him, as a dark and gloomy cloud, but cover over, 
enveloping and shutting him in from any relief except from his God. 
Str. III. is a tetrastich of stairlike advance. — 7-9 a. O that 
I had], the usual formula of the wish. — pifiio?ts]. He is unable 
to escape in any other way than by the wings of a bird. — As a 
dove]. This belongs to the second line. The poet is thinking 
not simply of flying, but that he himself is like a dove, too weak 
to resist the enemy, whose only hope is in flight. — I would fly 
away], seeking refuge in clefts of the rocks, Ct. 3^*. — and settle 
down], in safety. — afar off], away from the danger of the city. — 
I would lodge iti the wilderness], abandoning the metaphor of the 
bird for that of the traveller, as Je. 9^ This is not suited to the 
context, it destroys the measure of the line, and is doubtless a gloss 
from Je. — hasten], syn. with previous lines and so intransitive. 

PSALM LV. B. 

Str. I. is a pentastich, giving an introductory line of impreca- 
tion and the reason for it in a syn. tetrastich. — 9 Z). with a tem- 
pestuous 7vind], There is here a conflation, due to textual error, 
of " stormy wind " and " devouring tempest." All of these words 
except "devouring" are attached to previous lines by % and 
Vrss. at the expense of measures and right connection of the two 
Pss. As so connected it represents a wayfarer flying for refuge 
from an impending storm, but really it belongs with the next v. 
as the instrument used by Yahweh for the purpose of division. — 
10-12. O Lord, divide their tongues], imprecation upon persons 
not mentioned as yet, a divine visitation such as that upon the 
builders of Babel, Gn. ii^"^, and indeed in the same way by a 



PSALM LV. 23 

theophanic storm. — For I see']. The reason for the previous 
wish is now given, and the peril is explained as something that 
was distinctly seen. The places are in the city'], Jerusalem ; upon 
the walls thereof], the place of watchful defence ; in the midst of 
it], in its public square, a place of public concourse. This is as 
much as to say, in its enclosing walls and in its pubhc places, 
within the city in its entirety. — violcjice afid strife], these as 
personified are guilty of preying on the city instead of defending 
it, II trouble and mischief, efigul/i?ig ruin, oppression and deceit], 
heaping up epithets, to describe the utter corruption that pre- 
vailed in the city, especially among its rulers and soldiers, who 
ought rather to have defended the city from all such things. 

Str. II. is a pentastich, with four Hues syn. and the fifth synth. 
thereto as an imprecation, thus in the reverse order of Str. I. 
on the principle of inclusion. — 13-15. For it is not an enemy], 
neither foreign, as v."*^^-^^, nor even domestic, he that hateth 
me], a personal enemy ; but the very reverse, — Thou, a man 
mine equal], of Hke estimation, of the same rank and public 
esteem as himself — mi?ie associate], in close social relations. — 
my familiar acquaintance], well known by friendly personal inter- 
course. — Together used to hold sweet counsel], accustomed to 
meet together in the intimacy of a confidential circle and take 
counsel together, and this was made sweet by mutual words and 
acts of friendliness. — we used to walk in concord], (^, U, "as 
friends " PBV., which is greatly to be preferred to RV. " with the 
throng," thinking of the procession in the temple as 42^, which 
latter meaning has no appropriateness if " the house of God " is 
regarded as a gloss, making, as it does, the line too long. In- 
deed, there is no good reason for Hmiting the walking in concord 
to the walk in temple processions, which would not be suggested 
by anything else in this Ps. Such was the man who was at the 
bottom of all this trouble, and such were the circumstances under 
which he had acted. — who reproaches me]. The man who was 
not an enemy acts as an enemy, and makes false representations 
and bitter taunts. He who did not hate now acts as if he hated, 
by making unworthy comparisons with his equal, by magnifying 
himself in hostility to his friend. This inconsistency between their 
present and former relations made it extremely difficult to act 



24 PSALMS 

wisely. — He could get away from an open enemy ; he could have 
hidden from a man that was pronounced in his hatred ; but what 
could he do in this strange situation in which his best friend had 
become his worst enemy? — 16. Let death come treacherously upon 
them\ These are the enemies led by the treacherous friend ; cf. 
the personified attributes of wickedness v.^^^'^l This is an impre- 
cation upon them. The wish is that death may beguile them, 
coming upon them when they least expect it, taking them unpre- 
pared. — Let them descend alive to Sheol~\. The author is thinking 
of Korah and his company, Nu. i6*^ (P), who by divine visitation 
were swallowed up by an earthquake, and, without the experience 
of death, descended living into the gulf and went down to the 
cavern of Sheol. A glossator thought it needful to append a 
reason for the imprecation : — for evils are in their dwellings\ the 
place where the enemies dwell, their houses, the enemies being 
resident in the same city as the author. 

Str. III. is a further description of the false friend. The pen- 
tastich has an introductory line and two syn. couplets. — 21- 
22. He put forth his ha7ids']. His reproaches had advanced to 
personal violence, cf. v.^°, and that against his confederate, the one 
who was in a covenant of peace and friendship with him, sealed 
as it was in the times of the Psalmist by the communion meal and 
the joint application of the blood of the victim ; and so he pro- 
faned his covenant\ defiled it, as a sacred thing in which God, 
by the sacrifice, was also involved, and so was guilty of impiety 
toward the God of the covenant. The false friend is now de- 
scribed in the inconsistency between his words and deeds, his 
profession and practice. — His face\ so @, required by pi. vb. ; 
better than " his mouth," p|, which has been assimilated to his 
words. The antith. between face and mind is more natural. The 
face was smoother than curds']. With a round, smiling, beaming 
face, he addressed his friend ; but in his mind, hidden away in 
secret, was war^ which he was only waiting for a convenient 
opportunity to wage. — softer than oil], were his words; they 
were smooth, oily, flattering in appearance, but in reality they 
were drawn swords, sharp, taunting, piercing reproaches. This 
Str. is interrupted by a gloss which inserts a comforting exhorta- 
tion to the afflicted before the imprecation : 



PSALM LV. 25 

Cast upon Yahweh thy lot and He will sustain thee, 
He will not forever suffer the righteous to be moved. 

23. Cast upon Yahweh thy lot\ cf. 22^ 37^; an exhortation to 
take up the burden of trouble and cast it upon Yahweh, that He 
might bear it for them. This is the lot, portion, or way, assigned 
one in this life, however difficult it may be. — He will sustain 
thee'], give personal support in the trouble, enabHng to endure it. 
This is enforced by an antithetical couplet, gnomic in charac- 
ter : He will not suffer the righteous to be moved~\. They will be 
enabled to bear their burdens, endure the lot given them to 
endure, and will stand firm under it, not tottering from their 
position. — forever']. The sustaining will go on and the restraint 
from trouble without ceasing. 

24. But, O Thou, Yahweh], strong antith. — bring them down 
to the Fit of Sheol]. The final imprecation wishes them to 
descend by a violent deed of God into the Pit, the place of pun- 
ishment in Sheol. — Men of blood and deceit], such as the false 
friend described above and the treacherous enemies in the city. 
— Let them not live out half their days]. This in the original was 
doubdess jussive as the context requires, and not indicative, " will 
not live," as |^, Vrss., because of the gl. — 24 c. But as for me, 
I trust in Thee], certainly a more appropriate conclusion for a 
Ps. used in public worship. 

A series of glosses was inserted v.^^"^ : 

But as for me, imto God will I call, and Yahweh will save me. 
Evening and morning and at noon I will make complaint and moan; 
And He heard my voice. He ransomed me in peace, 
From the battle that I had : for with many were they against me. 
May 'El hear and answer them, even He that is enthroned of old! 
There are no changes for them that fear not God. 

17-18. But as for me]. The Jewish nation speaks here a vow 
of worship. — unto God will I call], in supplicatory prayer, and 
this in the syn. line at the three hours of daily prayer of later 
Judaism, evening and mornifig and at noon. — / will make com- 
plaint and moan]. The prayer is a complaint for the evils expe- 
rienced from enemies, and moaning in the pain involved in them. 
The prayer is not dou])tful of its result, — Yahweh will save me], 
that is, by giving victory over these enemies. — And he heard my 



26 PSALMS 

voice]. This begins a new line, and should not be attached to 
previous line, as a consequence of its petition, against the meas- 
ure. It refers to a deliverance already experienced as a basis for 
a plea for another act of deliverance. — 19. ransomed me m peace]. 
The peace is peace from war, the ransom is from enemies ; and 
so it is defined, /r^w the battle that I had\ doubtless in the Mac- 
cabean wars in which the Jews had won the victory, and that 
notwithstanding the fact that : with many were they agaifist me]. 
Their enemies had been very numerous. This is therefore a later 
gl., with no original connection with its context. — 20. ^El\ the 
ancient divine name, || He that is etithro?ied of old], the King of 
Israel, enthroned on His heavenly throne, reigning as their king 
from the most ancient times. These are poetic expressions which 
do not suit the method of the Maccabean editor. They, with the 
imvs. hear || answer, were probably a gloss, which the Maccabean 
editor found and adapted to his purpose by interpreting the latter 
vb. as from another stem meaning "humble," or "afflict," think- 
ing of the enemy thus as humbled by defeat and slaughter. The 
Vrss. and interpreters find great difficulty with this v. — There are 
no changes for them]. The enemies have no changes of fortune 
to expect ; they will meet the same defeat in the future as in the 
past, because they fear not God], Only the God-fearing people 
may expect salvation and victory. 

LV. A. 

2. njnNn] Hiph. imv. cohort., v. j^. — d^hSn] for original mn% as usual 
in IE. — D|?5?nri] Hithp. juss. oS;; Ges.^^-^'')^ — ^n:nn] v.d^o ngno^^s. nns] 
Hiph. impf. fnn vb., cf. Arab, stem, ^i? /o and fro ; Qal Ho. 12^ (® other- 
wise) Je. 231 (txt. err., prob. -\n^); Hiph. Gn. 2']^ show restlessness (dub. 
^DB.). There is no certain use of the form in Heb. Here @ has iXvir-^drj^t 
V contristaius sum, and 3 humiliatus sum, which favour an original ins, as 
Is. 158. — ^n>t'] I sg. sf. Jn^ir n.m. (i) plaint, complaint, so 64^ 102I 142^ 
elsw. Pr. 2329 Jb. (5 t.) ; other mngs. dub. in ^ only, (2) muse 1043*, as 
I K. 1 82"^ (E). The word should be at the end of 1. for rhyme in "•_• — 
HD^ns] dub. ^DB., as most, Hiph. cohort, f [21^ or D>n] show disquietude, 
elsw. Mi. 212 (of fold and pasture) ; but Hi., De., Now., Qal be driven about, 
distracted; elsw. Dt. 7^3 discomfit by defeat; Lag., Gr., Bu., nrnx, as v.^^; 
Du. Niph. nc^HN, as i S. 4^ Ru. i^^ i K. i^^ be in a stir. In all these cases 
the form is cohort, and must be given a modal force not easy in the context. 
01s., Che., Ba., rd. r\>;z-:i^^, as 77S V'"'cn; Lag., Gr., Bu., Dr., ncns y/7\^r\^ 



PSALM LV. 27 

which is favoured by & irapdxdv^t ^ conturbatus^ v.^^ and Ps. 39''. |^ makes 
the sentence close here, but @, Jf, make the subsequent context depend on 
this vb. — 4. np;?] cstr. Hi^j; n.f. a.X. pressure^ VPV Aram, press a.X. Am. 2^* 
(txt. err. for pifl). The only other form from this stem in Heb. ryp^^^-c n.f. a.X. 
Aramaism Ps. 66^1, ® ^X^^et5, U tribulationes. Here @ dXlxpeus, 'S perse- 
quentis, interpret npy as np;;iD, and that is best suited to context. np;;x, sug- 
gested by 01., Dy., Now., is syn. with '^ip; but the sense cry of distress suits 
not the wicked adversary, but rather the singer of the Ps. It is easier to think 
of a defectively written np^ cstr. \r\p\i n.f. distress Is. 8^^ 30^ Pr. i^?; the 
substitution of Aram, for Heb. form easy for a later scribe. — >jiDt3r^] Qal 
impf. t [°?f ] vb. Qal cherish animosity against, c. ace. pers., as Gn. 27*1 (J) 
4923 (Poem) 50I5 (E) Jb. 16^ 3021. This v. is of different measure from its 
context and is an explanatory gl. — 5. ""aS] emph. in position. — S-nj] Qal 
impf. descriptive, wr////^ in pain, \Ain, as 77^^97*. — i^'^D^^] pi- | hd^n n.f. 
terror, poetic word, elsw. </', 88^6; cf. Ex. 15!^ Dt. 3225. — niD] dittog. of 
previous word, as Che. — 6. Not in (g^. t "'J'.'^ n«ni- elsw. Ex. 15^^ It be- 
longs in the next 1. for measure. — "'JDDni] 1 consec. impf. after impf., improb. 
here ; rd. i coord. It was interp. as result of previous movement. — f n-ixVs] 
n.f. shuddering, as Is. 21* Ez. 7I8 Jb. 21^; but ^N-RT.a o-Kiros, nioSx, so 3f 
caligo, V tenebrae, so S», Gr., Che., but S (ppUt). — 7. "»pi<i] prosaic gl., as 
often; not usual in poetry. — '''?"?fjr"''?] ivish, as 14'^ = 53'^, should close the 
1. for rhyme. — t"^?**] n.m. pinions of dove, elsw. eagle Is. 40^1 Ez. 17^. — 
$ nji-is] n.f. dove, elsw. 56I 681^. A new 1., as Che., and not as MT. at close 
of 1. — njbij'xi] ■) coord. Qal cohort. \yD for an original Turz'i, required for 
rhjrme. — 8. P''n-jN] Hiph. impf. pnn (22^^), although not cohort, in form 
must, between cohortatives of v.'^- ^, be cohort, in mng. Prob. the cohort, 
ending has been omitted by an early copyist. — mj] Qal inf. cstr. obj. pre- 
vious vb., which has force of auxiliary or adverb. It should have sf. for 
rhyme in ••_. — 9. nc'^ns] Hiph. cohort, trin (22^) hasten; so Aq., 9, S, 3, 
but ® Tpoaedex^M^f H expectabam = nS^nN Hiph. Ss\^ (S^^^)> so S. — toSop] 
a.X. n.m. ace. obj. escape, Hu., Ba., or ace. direction, taking previous vb. as 
intrans. haste; place of escape. We., Du.; but @ rhv (Xib^ovrd /jlc, so 5, F, 
imply >S toSoD Pi. ptc. (17^^), cf. 144^. ^ is most prob. 



LV. B. 

nyb] a.X. ptc. n;'D rushing, as in cognate Syr. and Arab, stems, ^DB., but 
dub.; (3 6\iyo\f/vxicLs, U pusillanimitate spiritus = n^x, as Is. 51^*, but this 
is improb.; 3 spiritu tempestatis ; Aq., 6, \aL\a'7rii}5ovs. Gr., Hu., Dy., rd. 
JnaiD n.f. storm wind S^^^ Am. i^* Na. i^. It is prob. txt. err., variation of 
fnyo n.m. tempest, elsw. 83I6 Am. ii* Jon. i*- 12 Je. 2319 25^2 3023. — 10. yVa] 
Pi. imv. (2/10^ attached to this 1. as ho {48^^), although pointing of latter 
attracted to former, Ges.52(2)n. b^^j- y.^^ prob. ySa, as 52^, because it is depend- 
ent on n:pD. It is prob. that we have conflation here. j?Va '\yo is expl. of 
n;;D nn. The original was -i;;d ni"\D. The }d is then instrumental, qualifying 



28 PSALMS 

the following vb. — Div^fh jSd >jin] refer to Gn. lo^^. — 11. Snp ps] phr., 
cf. pxi ^70;; lo'^ 90^"^. — 12. D^'\r\'] v. 5^^, rightly attached to previous 1. by @ ; 
necessary to complete its measure. — ^?")i"?3] improb. repetition, not in @. 
A word is, however, needed for measure. It was prob. n^hns. The copyist 
was confused between the two words, and attaching one to this 1. he naturally 
used '^':r\\>\ whereas if one were attached to the previous 1. he would have 
used njnn. — C'"'i?j] Hiph. impf. freq. % C'id Qal depart, not in ^. Hiph. trans. 
removey not in ^ \ but intrans. here, as Ex. 132-^ 33II Na. 3I +. — nr:-\ri ^ir] 
zi. id^. — 13. i.i'iN'N^] emph. in position. (S takes it as N'7 conditional; but 
context favours |^, 3. — ''J5';>n^] Pi. impf. freq., prob. relative clause. — 8<'f?<l] 
the apod, as ®, only of an implicit, not explicit, prot. as Dr., and not 1 subord. 
as 3 ut sustineam, so Bii. The 1. is defective, needing i:p:: as truly as syn. 1. 
^vi here in the sense of lift up the foot in going away, betake oneself away^ 
get away, so 139^ as Gn. 29^; not bear, endure, which is against the syn. vb. 
— Snjn •>Sr] as 35^6 381^. S adds i^iy^ as 411*^, but it makes 1. too long and 
indeed is out of place there. — 14. nnNi] emph. antith. — J -^nu] n.m. (i) or- 
der, row, not in 1/', but (2) estimate, valuation, of like estimation with myself, 
only here. — tl^^^] adj. (i) tayne, of animals; docile, of lamb Je. ii^^, of 
cows Ps. 144^* (usually as p|^?< thousand') ; (2) of friends, intimates, here as 
Mi. 7^ Je. 3* 13-I Pr. tS^ \&^ 17^, but © riyefxdjv /xov, V dux meus = ''D'iSn, as 
Ex. 15I*. — 77:-] as 3112 88^-19.-15. -ik'n] is prosaic gl. — p^nnj] Hiph. 
impf. I pi. freq. f [p'^'^~\ denom. be or become suieet ; Qal Ex. \^ Pr. 9^^ 
Jb. 2i33, suck Jb. 2420 (?); Hiph. Jb. 20^2, with mD only here. © mfffmra. 
= either n^x or n>D n. a.X. from n>*D vb. as 5. — d^hSn noa] is a gl. of defini- 
tion. — ^*?'i\ <*.^' company, covipanionship, or concord, (5 ^v ofiovoiq., v. nrn 
64', WJ-^ .2^. — 16. nicr^] Kt. a.X. pi. [n?p"'r'] n.f. desolation y/2Z'^ improb., 
Qr. niD ''^i, as @, U, 3 ; ""p*^ Hiph. impf. defective for h^Z'I y/f HV3 beguile, 
Ges.'^*(3)k. Niph. be beguiled Is. 191^; Hiph. beguile, c. ace. pers. Gn. 3^^ (J) 
Je. 379 49I6 Ob.3- 7 2 K. 191^ = Is. 3710 2 Ch. 321^; sq. S 2 K. i829 = Is. 36" 
Je. i^^ 29^; c. S;r only here, pregnant, implying descent, Ges.^^^^*^. ©, IB, 3, 
give the vb. the mng. come upon, which is prob. paraphrase. — "'O"'^;'] archaic 
poetic sf. There is a reference to Nu. 16^^. It is possible therefore that with 
Briill we should rd. "iny'?a\ — D";-!!*;] n. sf. 3 pi. t C"'"'^'^] n.[m.] sojourning 
place, elsw. pi. Jb. iS^^, 'd }n«< Gn. 178 28* 36^ 37^ Ex. 6* (P) Ez. 20^^^, 'd >w 
Gn. 47^ 's ''p> Gn. 47^, 'd n^3 Ps. 119^*. But @, ^, have pi., and it seems 
prob. that the form has been attracted to C3i|">3. There are in this v. three 
trimeters, and the clause with >:; is doubtless a gl. — 17. The use of nin^ in 3E 
is improb. It is in ®, 3, and is doubtless original, though ^ has dtiSn only. 
It indicates that the entire v. is a gl. — 18. nn^rs] Qal cohort. T\^v (6^). — 
J^hD^l] "< coord. Qal impf. also cohort, nrn i^sg^), v. v.^. — ycE'n] 1 consec. 
result of prayer ; goes with mo of next v. ® makes both impfs. and inter- 
prets 1 as conjunctive ; so Gr., Du., We. These vbs. are usually regarded as 
pfs. of certainty. — 19. 2-jp] n.m. battle, -war, as v.22 6831 78^ 144I Zc. 148 
Jb. 3823 Ec. 9I8, so Ra., Ki!, EV«., Now., Du.; but Vrss. Qal inf. cstr. aip draw 
nigh. Hi., De., Ba. But the former is favoured, if the 1. begins here. — D"'3']3] 



PSALM LVI. 29 

The 3 is taken as 2 essentiae by Ba., Dr., after S, % ; but & iv iroWoh, so 
Du., Now. — "'■33^^] against me, as S Trpos i/x^, 3 adversum me, cf. D>; 94I6. — 

20. DJri] "I conj. Qal impf. sf. 3 pi. njy answer, as usual after ;?DU'. But ® 
/cai Tair€ivd}(T€i aiirois, 3 humiliabit eos, so ^. ^nr;"" Pi. nj;\ The sf. is often 
an interp. and is prob. incorrect. It really refers to the psalmist. The orig- 
inal was without sf. — maiSn] pi. % [no'''7n] n.f. change (i) of garment Gn. 
4522.22 ju^ 14I9. (^2) relays i K. 528 Jb. iqI", or relief from service Jb. 14I*. 
We may think of changes of character here in accord with (i) Now., or 
of changes of fortune, vicissitudes, in accord with (2) Calv., Dr., Kirk., al. — 

21. VD>c*] for i^DiSty ^'''N 41^*^, cf. ^xhxi^ 7^, possibly here ■^cSr; ® kv r^J dTro- 
didSvai, U in retribuendo, interp. as Pi. inf. cstr. d'?'*:' recompense {22^^), but 
3 pacifica jm^. — "inna S^nJ as 89^^ Mai. 210. — 22. ^^^^(l Qal be smooth, aX. 
(Ho. lo2 from other stem, so © here); Hiph. v. 5^^. — -5<rnr;] a.X. pi. cstr. 
butter-words for usual nsipn n.f. curd, curdled milk, not in ^ ; but dub., as 
Vrss. take D as prep. |1 \r;^_-o, which is most prob.; point therefore nsDnr. 
@ aizh dpyrjs tov irpoaibirov avTov rd. ViQ nrnn from nrn n.f. burning anger, 
so ,%, U, but other Vrss. as f^; VJ3 is prob. correct, as vb. is pi. — is-;] Qal pf. 
3 pi. t [p-^] vb. <5(? tender, soft: (i) of heart, fearful Is. y-* Je. Si**^ j)t. 20^; 
softened, penitent, 2 K. 221^ = 2 Ch. 342^; (2) of treacherous words, only 
here. Pu. be softened Wiih. oil Is. i^; Hiph. caus. of Qal (i), Jb. 23^^ — 
n^nnss] a.X.; pi. [nnne] n.[f.] drawn sword; why not Qal ptc. pi. n'lnnss, as 
Qal for drawing swords 37I*. — 23. '^iZ'^'^.'] Hiph. imv. -\^t, cf. 22^ 37^, all 
mni Sy. mni in 15 evidence that not only this word, but entire v. is a gl. — 
Tl^n^] a.X. n.m. sf. 2 m. lot, Aramaism, ^^DB.; (B t7]v ixipijxvdv <tov, dub.; 
qani Qal impf. 33n, as Aq., S, Quinta, Sexta, d-yair-qaeL <re, 3 caritatem iuam. 
But this vb. also Aramaism ; in OT. only Dt. t^-^. In any case the word is 
late and another evidence of glossator. — Nin] emph. demonst. — 'h'^^'??^] Pi^P- 
impf. fut. J Si3 vb. Pilp. sustain, support; elsw. ace. pers. Gn. 45^1 5021(E) 
Zc. il^^ +, ace. rei Ps. II2^ — X'&ri\ n.m. shaking, obj. \t^i, as 66^, cf. 121^; 
cf. vb. (/o*^). — 24. nnNi] emphatic change of pers. — % "ixd] n.f. pit, specif, 
here and 69!^, the Pit of Sheol = -\i3 (7^^), which Ba., Du., rd. — rnc'] v. 7^^. 
— a^m la^jN] = 26^ 59^ 139^^ Pr. 29!^ — ixn-] Qal impf. | rvin vb. denom. "'xn 
^<2^ so halve, divide in half; cf. Is. 3028. — -y^ n'.33X ""JNi] @ had nin'» also, 
but improb. in 35, and even then 1. is too short. Du. adds also inSx, necessary 
if 1. be original ; but it is doubtless a gl. 



PSALM LVI., 4 STR. 6^ RF. 3^ 

Ps. 56 is a national prayer for deliverance from enemies : 
(i) petition that Yahweh will be gracious because of the enemy 
who is fighting them and treading them down (v^"*) ; (2) that He 
will weigh out retribution to them for their crafty lying in wait 
for Israel's life (v.^^) ; (3) assurance that the enemy will be defeated 



30 PSALMS 

because of Yahweh's attention to His people's troubles (v.^"**) ; 
(4) promise of votive and thank-offerings for the accomplished 
deliverance (v.'^""). Rf. is a resolution of boastful song of praise 
and fearless trust in Yahweh (v.^-^^^-^-). 

"DE gracious unto me, for man doth tread me down ; 
All day long the fighter presseth me ; 
All day long my watchful foes do tread me down ; 
For many are fighting against me. 

Most High, in the day I fear, 
Unto Thee I trust. 

Of Yahweh I boast with a word of song. 

In Yahweh do I put my trust without fear. 

What can flesh do unto mef 
A LL day long with words they vex me. 
Against me are all their plans. 

For evil they gather themselves together ; they lurk ; 
They watch my footprints, 
Even as they wait for my life. 
Because of trouble, weigh out to them. 

Of Yahweh I boast with a word of song. 

In Yahweh do I put my trust without fear. 

What can flesh do unto me ? 
/J MAKE known, I recount them, Yahweh;) 
My tears are put (before Thee). 
Mine enemies will turn backward. 
In the day I call, I know it. 
For Yahweh is for me, 
Of Yahweh I boast with a word of song. 

Of Yahweh I boast with a word of song. 

In Yahweh do I put my trust without fear. 

What can flesh do unto me ? 
^ PON me is (the obligation of) Thy votive offerings, 

1 will pay Thee thank-offerings ; 

For Thou hast delivered my life from death, 
And my feet from being pushed down. 
That I may walk before Yahweh 
In the light (of the land) of the living. 

Of Yahweh I boast with a word of song. 

In Yahweh do I put my trust without fear. 

What can flesh do unto me f 

Ps. 56 was in the earlier collection of D^cnsc, then taken up into S and IE 
{y, Intr. §§ 25, 27, 32). The reference nj3 dts'Sd ini« trn^, cf. i S. 27, was 
in ©. Like all such historical references, it was not designed to indicate the 
circumstances of composition, but circumstances illustrating certain features of 
the Ps. In IBH it received the assignment D-'pm dSn nir-S;? {y. Intr. §§ 33, 
34). The Ps. is ornate, having 4 Str. 6^ with Rf. 3^, which is retained after 



PSALM LVI. 31 

Strs. I and 3, but omitted after Strs. 2 and 4, The Ps. is a national prayer for 
deliverance from numerous and powerful enemies. The language and style 
are ancient. Words are often repeated: 'ixa' y.^'^, onS v.^-^, ovn So v.^-^**, 
N-»iN V.4- ^- 12, n-Jj v.'^- s- 12, There are rare words : onS v.2- 3, elsw. 351- 1; «inb' 
V.2- 8, as 57* Am. 8* Ez. 36^; nu^ v.'^ as 59* 1408 Is. 54!^; nj v.* a.X. dub., prob. 
txt. err.; nncp v.^ a.X. also prob. txt. err.; ""m v.i* = ii6*. There are also 
rare uses of words: ono v.^, as 92^; nna*^ op>, phr. a.X. v.'^; coSs v.^; as 32'^, 
but more prob. dSd, as 58^; Diinn -iin v.^S phr. elsw. Jb. 33^0, V.^^ is cited 
116^-^, and is therefore much earlier. The temple worship is in existence, 
with words of song, votive offerings, and thank-offerings, v.^^- 1^. The people 
have been delivered from their enemies, though they are still in peril. The Ps. 
dates therefore from the Babylonian period before the exile. 

Str. I. has a syn. tetrastich and an antith. couplet. — 2-3. Be 
gracious unto me\ usual petition in peril, v. 4^. — for man'], col- 
lective for the enemy of the nation, 9^^^ 10^^ 66^^, — fig^^^^\ ^^- 
gaged m fighting, v.^ || watchful foes, v,^. — doth tread me down], 
repeated in v.^; of the trampling under foot by the victorious 
enemy, so %, 3, and other Vrss., as 5 7^, greatly to be preferred to 
" swallow me up," EV'., which is based on a Hebrew word of 
similar form. — presseth me], the pressure of conflict on the battle- 
field ; for the context shows that the fighting was still in progress. 
The enemy is powerful and numerous, and the danger is great. — 
O Most High], as J, PBV., AV., is better suited to the context than 
adv. " proudly," RV., which, though favoured by many moderns, 
is not so well sustained by Hebrew usage, and is not in accord 
with the position of the word, which the measure requires should 
be in 1. 5 and not in 1. 4. — 4. in the day I fear], the time of 
extreme peril in battle, when there was every reason to fear, I yet 
will trust in Yahweh. This leads to the Rf., which is a syn. couplet 
with a synth. line of challenge. — 5. Of Yahweh I boast with a 
word of song]. Usage requires that we should render "boast," 
and not " praise," as (g, %, EV^, due to interpreting " word " as 
word of promise. While this is possible, it is not suggested by 
the context. " His word " of J^ is not sustained by " my words " 
of (^ ; but the simple " word " of J is sustained by v.", J^, 
Vrss. This is most naturally explained as the word of song, as 
Dt. 32^^ Pss. 181 452 1373, cf. Ju. 5^2 Jos. io^2_ The people boast 
in song of the victory they are assured that Yahweh will eventually 
give them. — trust without fear]. The trust in divine help is so 



32 PSALMS 

firm and sure that the fear natural under the circumstances passed 
away and no longer existed. — What can flesh do unto ?ne ?'] Sure 
of speedy victory over foes, the poet challenges their power to do 
any permanent or real harm. They are but flesh, and therefore 
impotent to resist God. In v.^^ "flesh" is changed to "man." 
This may have been an intentional variation of Rf., but in view 
of the author's style of frequent repetition, it is more probable 
that the variation is due to the taste of an editor. 

Str. II. has a syn. pentastich and a synth. Une of imprecation. 
— 6-7. with words they vex nie"], as 3. The words are those of 
the enemy, as the plans are their plans. " My words " of |i|, (@, 
EV'., interpret the words as those of the author, which might suit 
a reference of the Ps. to an individual, or a group of individuals ; 
but hardly to the nation. The words are threatening words, 
which pass over into plans and finally into deeds of violence. — 
For evil\ The measure requires that this should go with 1. 3 
and be connected with : they gather themselves together, as the 
purpose of the gathering. Their activity in carrying out their evil 
purpose is graphically described. They lurk, hiding in ambush 
to spy upon the people and take them unawares ; they watch my 
footprints, every movement that is made, following at my heels 
and tracing out my path. — wait for my life'], in the climax. 
Their hope is, that they may take the life of the people of God, 
destroy the nation altogether. Therefore the final petition. — 
8. Because of trouble weigh out to them]. The enemies have 
made great trouble for the people of God. As deliverance had 
been implored in the previous Str., so here retribution upon the 
enemies. It is hoped that this may be weighed out in the exact- 
ness of justice. The Vrss. differ from J^ in this line, and it is 
difficult to explain any of them. The difficulty originated from 
a copyist's mistake of a single letter, by which he gave a word 
meaning "escape," instead of the word meaning "weigh out." 
The only way to explain J^ is as interrogatory, " shall they 
escape?" EV'., which probably occasioned the insertion of an 
additional line, making the Str. too long : " In anger cast down 
the peoples." 

Str. III. has a tristich composed of syn. couplet, a synth. line, 
and a synth. tristich. — 9. / make known]. This emendation 



PSALM LVI. 33 

seems to explain, in a measure at least, the many different terms 
of J^ and Vrss. This is emphasized by the cognate verb, / recount 
them\ namely, the tears of the next line. The i sg. of (^, ^, 
is to be preferred to 2 sg. of J^, " Thou tellest," EV'., " hast 
counted," Dr., Kirk. — My tears are put before Thee']. So @, 
which is to be preferred to J^, *'in Thy flask," as better suited to 
the context and simpler. J^ gives a figure of speech, which is 
indeed striking and touching, especially if in parall. with the next 
clause of J^, " are they not in Thy book." This is as much as to 
say that Yahweh not only records in His book of record the 
suiferings of His people ; but every tear that these sufferings 
produce is treasured up in the flask, rather the skin bottle of 
the Orient, which He uses for the purpose. But this last 
clause is an explanatory gloss, destroying the measure, and the 
reference to flask, standing alone, is less probable. — 10. Mine 
enemies will turn backward]. The attention of Yahweh to the 
sufferings of His people makes it certain that their enemies will be 
overcome, and that they will be compelled to a disastrous retreat, 
cf. p^ 44". — In the day I call^ I know it]. As in v.*, the time of 
extreme peril, the time of fear, was also the time of trust, so here 
the time when they call upon Yahweh for help is the very time in 
which they know that Yahweh is able to give them the deliverance 
they implore. This is emphasized in J^ by the insertion of " lo," 
both unnecessary and at the expense of the measure. — For Yah- 
weh is for me], as PBV., AV., is to be preferred to RV., " that 
Yahweh is for me," connecting it with " know " in the same hne 
as its obj., which is against the measure. 

Str. IV. has two syn. couplets and a synth. couplet. — 13. Ujbon 
me], incumbent as a duty, or an assumed obhgation, because of 
the deliverance granted. — Thy votive offerings], sacrifices vowed 
and offered up in accordance with such vows, cf. 22^ || thank- 
offerings, sacrifices expressing gratitude for blessings received, cf 
^q14.23^ first distinguished in code of D. — 14. And my feet from 
being pushed down]. The phr. cited 116^ is dub. But the use 
of the verb makes it evident that the peril was from thrusts or 
pushes of the enemy, which would result in his stumbHng and fall- 
ing prostrate in death, unless delivered. — that I may walk before 
Yahweh], in the presence of Yahweh, resident in His temple in 

D 



34 PSALMS 

Jerusalem ; the city of Jerusalem being conceived as the royal 
city, and the land as His land. — in the light of the land of the 
living]. The Holy Land is a land rejoicing in the light shining 
forth from Yahweh's presence in the temple, and so it is the land 
of the living, in which those living by the favour of Yahweh truly 
live. An ancient copyist reduced the line to " light of the living," 
a phr. elsw. Jb. 33^, but it was cited before that mistake was made 
in 116^ as "lands of the living," cf. 27^^ 52^ 142®. The measure 
requires both words. 

2. cnSx] (5 KipLc. The divine name is a gl., making 1. too long. — >^'] gl. 
of interpretation. — \J£i«i^'] Qal pf. f\i<v pant after, as 1 191^1 Je. 2^* 146,50 
Du.,Dr.; hwKS KaTeTrdrriaiv n€y3 conculcavit 7fu ^f\n\:^\l.\.^ e^'j^ Am. 2' (?) 8* 
Ez. 368, so Ba. — c'^js] coll. antith. God 8^ 920-21, cf. '\t'2 v.^ din v.12._ 
□rn ^2] thrice repeated, v.^- 8- 6. It should begin the 1. v.* as in other cases. 

— V^'?'?'] Q^^ i"^pf X Vn*? vb. Qal squeeze, oppress, as 106*2 Ex. 2220 23^ (E) 
Ju. 2^8 Am. 6^*. — 3. D^"^p] (S^ inserts Dv ona before DO"i "»:), so Aug., 
Cassiodorus, by txt. err., rendering dirb v\}/ov% i]fj.ipa% = DncD or Dine, which 
meaning is unknown to Ileb. usage. (S^- *• <=• T- A attach it as ^. (Q^, Eusebius 
rd. Cin^Dip, but divide as ^i^, so Houb. en;;, should, however, go with di> as 
the measure requires, ona usually is the height of heaven, 7* lo^ 18^'^, but 
92^ Afost High, @ ui/'taros, so here 3 altissime, Aq., %,, Quinta, Ki., Calv., AV. 
It is also used of heavenly beings Is. 24*. Bu. gives it adverbial force, with 
pride, proudly, as 2, Luther, Geier, Moll., RV., Now., Kirk., with high looks. 
Dr., but this is the only example proposed and is dub. The measure requires 
Dna in v.*, and Most High gives best sense and is better sustained. — 4. Dv] 
with impf. as v.i", cf. with inf. 201"^, time when, graphically conceived as a day. 

— ni-'n] Qal impf. of state; but ® (^o^y\Q-{]<jovra.i makes it prob. that we should 
rd. inf. n-\% capable of both interpretations. — ''Jn] emph. — 5. = v.^^*- ^2, 
a Rf. to be inserted also after v.^" 1*. — V^^n] Pi. impf. v. ^\ c. 3, as in 44^, 
boast of; c. ace. laud, praise. inserts orn ^2 from 44^ and interprets vb. as 
iiraiv^cru}, so 3 laudavi. — nui] @ •'->_2"', both interp. of n^"', 3 as v.^^; 2d ace. 
after ^^n with a word, cf. Vip 3^, etc. — niro] fesh, v. 16^; for man antith. 
God, cf. 7839 Gn. 6=^ (J) Je. i f and the phr. ni:'3 ^o Pss. 652 14521 1| d^n v.12, which 
latter is prob. editorial substitution. — 1';'] should precede i^'3 for better meas- 
ure. — 6. 1^31] if obj. must be taken in the sense of affairs, Ba., Du.; but 3 
has serntonibus nnn-', which is most prob. — i^r^] Pi. impf. 3 pi, i.p. X [^xy] 
vb. hurt, pain, grieve ; Pi. vex, as Is. 63IO; Hiph. idem Ps. 78*0. has 
i^deX^o-crovTo which translates )2';b'< j7 106*0 107I8 119163^ but improb. — ^Sy] 
emph. — D.-i:3::'nc-'?3] has two beats js^^ J^- 6^^ ^^^^ 29^1+. — ynS] makes 
1. too long; should go with next in emph. position, which indeed needs it. — 
7. inir] Qal impf. 11 j © irapoiK-fja-ovatv, usual mng. sojourn, v. j^; but 3 
congregabuntur, so S, E, EV^., from another stem f "^i^ mng. gather together ^ 



PSALM LVI. 35 

as Ki., Ges., De., Now., elsw. 59'^ 140^ Is. 54^^ But BBB. after Hi., Ew., 
Di., Ba., makes stem = mj with mng. s^ir up strife, quarrel, in all these pas- 
sages. Gr., Du., after AE rd. here and in 59* mj'' Qal impf. niJ troop together, 
as 94^1, where, however, 01s. rds. mp. — iJiiJX''] Kt. Hiph. impf. 3 pi., so 
Jb. 14^ Ex. 2^, but Qr. Qal ; in either case hide, lurk, spy, as Ps. 10^. — nnn] 
emph. referring to same persons. MT. attached to previous vb., but @ more 
properly to following in accord with measure. — nbiJ'^ "'^il'i'] P^^'^- °-^- but 
idea 89^^. — "!!?•><?] according as. La., Bi., rd. nND as a lion, but nN not in 
1/' (22^^ txt. err.), and the change unnecessary and improb. — 8. icS'toVs ?in"S^] 
is difficult in this context. Most who retain the text interpret as a question ; 
but it is certainly abrupt and improb. % has quia millus est salvus in eis = 
"idS coSd |'«n h';, taking hy = -la^x h-;, cf. 1 19^36^ and ps negative; but this does not 
suit the context. ® has vir^p rod /x-qdevdi cdjacis auroiJs, taking i^x as noun, 
nothing and vb. as imv. || Tiin. This gives good parall., but a lame idea. 
The text is certainly corrupt. Bach., Ba., propose ^^n px, |^, Aq., S, C 
retaining one, @, '5, Quinta, 5, IB, the other. This would be easier were 
it not for the subsequent 1. with its imv. But that is an interp. gl. making the 
Str. too long. Ew., 01s., Hu., Dy., Now., Du,, change oSd to f d^d vb. denom. 
Pi. (i) weigh out, as 58'^ ; (2) level, a path, 78^0, as Pr. 426 56- 21 ig. 26^. The 
Rf. which should follow favours imv., and d'?d gives a most suitable sense. 
— 9. nj] a.X. Tj n. [m.] sf i %g. wandering BT>B., or possibly agitation, ^tu 
vb. move to and fro, v. 11^. But @ ti[\v ^ut^v /xov, U vitam meant, 3 secretiora 
mea, % my confession, S ra ivhov /xov, are difficult to explain on the basis of 
1^. Some simple word with sf. i pi. or coll. sg. is needed 1| tj;:^! having a 
mng. suited to the vb. "\dD. Ba., Ecker, think that there is word-play with 
l-iNj, and that |^ is thereby verified ; but this is dub. Che. suggests ^phjn, 
which is certainly an appropriate word, but the derivation of all the texts and 
translations therefrom is difficult. It is easier to start from &. This might be 
vnnn, Hiph. inf. cstr. m"-, cf. njn, the same from njj. If we suppose that nj 
and nnncD have been transposed, the final n of the vb. which is unknown to 
(3, &, would belong to the noun. This would give us njn, an easy error for 
njn. In this case the fwiji' of ® and secretiora of 3 are what is made known ; 
and S interprets it of confession. This would give us a still better word-play, 
especially if with (&, 3, S, we read qijj for "i^nj. — '"'H'^j??] Qal pf 2 m. fully 
written, but ®, 5», V7i"^2D makes it evident that nns was not in original text. It 
is dittog. The 1. as in @ has a^n'^x at the beginning, making measure com- 
plete. — 'ly'v'] MT"' Q^l i^V' cohort, improb., nnir ptc. pass, f is to be pre- 
ferred, cf. edov, (3, &, so Ew., Hu., Bo., Hi., De. — TI.n:] thy skin bottle, cf. 
337 1 1983. but 0^ ^^ ^^ ^^jj^ j^s Street most prob. — i:?";oD3 x'?n] is tauto- 
logical, a defective 1., making the Str. just this 1. too long. It is doubtless a 
gl. or txt. err. by dittog. of nnisD above, or conflation, as Street. xSn is not in 
@, which has ws koX, or in 3, which has sed non, all interpretative, f [n"iBp] 
n.f. a.X. possibly book; but ® kv rri ^irayyeKlq. aov, 3 in narratione tua. — 
10. rx] 1^, 3, but not in ® ; a gl. making 1. too long. — nr] |^, 3, emph., point- 
ing to the following ; but O t'Soi) ; both interpretative gl. — h D-in^N >d] @ Srt 



36 PSALMS 

deSs fJLov eT atj, so 3 quia deus mens es. This is correct if cn^N be original ; but 
if d^hSn stands for original nin>, "h is for me, on my side, espousing ?ny cause, 
which is better suited to context. — 11. n:n SShn dn-iVnij] bis in |^, ®, J, all 
Vrss. It is tempting to think of dittog., as the only difference is that in v.^i*. 
5§ has nirT» ; but @, 3, have dihSn in both lines, so that the variation is dub. 
The first clause is needed to complete the Str., the second is the first 1. of Rf. — 
13. ^Vy] emph., incumbent on me as an obligation, as 7II lo^'* 16^ 22^1 37^ 40^ 
5523 62^ 71^. — 14. This V, is also in 116^^, derived from this Ps. The varia- 
tions are: (i) nx'7nii68forn'7xn56"; (2) the insertion in ii68ofn;;DT p ^y^ rx, 
which is a gl. even there, and is not in 56I*; (3) tSjn~nN 1168 is doubtless 
original for 'hx'y vhr\ of 56^*. nSh is interpretative gl. and abrupt, only 1 of @ 
should be prefixed, f ['''?"'] n.[m.] stumbling, a.X. these two passages. (4) iShpn 
116® for inf. iSnnnS 56^* is an intentional variation. (5) mn> >jdS 116^ = 
D"'n'?N ijdS 56^*; mni is certainly original. Ps. 116 was composed before 56 
went into E. (6) D-i^nn nix-^N 116^, cf. Di>nn -iin 56^*. The original was "iin 
D^tnn ^"iN, as measure requires. 



PSALM LVII. 

Ps. 57 is composite : (A) a prayer of the community of the Res- 
toration for deliverance from enemies : (i) seeking refuge in Yahweh 
(v.^) ; (2) crying for interposition from heaven (v.^) ; (3) describing 
the serious situation (v.^). {B) a national hymn in a later peace- 
ful time : (i) praising Yahweh in the morning in the temple with 
mind and music (v.^^) ; (2) exalting Him to all peoples because of 
the manifestations of His kindness and faithfulness (v.'^^^) . The 
Rf. exalts Him above heaven and earth (v.^ ^-). A gloss represents 
the enemies as fallen into their own pit (v.^). 



A. V.^, 3 STR. 4'. 

gE gracious to me, Yahweh, be gracious : 

For in Thee I take refuge ; 

Yea, in the shadow of Thy wings I seek refuge, 

Till the engulfing ruin be overpast. 
J CRY to 'El, "Elyon, 

To 'El who dealeth bountifully with me. 

May He send from heaven to save me, 

May He send His kindness and His faithfulness. 
T AM in the midst of lions; 

I must lie down among those who consume the sons of mankind, 

Whose teeth are spears and arrows, 

Whose tongue is a sharp sword. 



PSALM LVII. 37 

B, v.^-^^^, 2 STR. 4^ RF. 2^ = PS. Io8^"^. 

O be exalted above the heavens, Yahweh; 
And above all the earth be Thy glory. 
TV/TY mind is fixed, Yahweh ; 

With my mind let me sing and let me make melody. 
My glory, O wake with the harp. 
With the lyre let me waken the dawn. 
T ET me praise Thee among the peoples, Adonay, 
Let me make melody to Thee among the nations; 
For above the heavens is Thy kindness, 
And unto the skies Thy faithfulness. 

O be exalted above the heavens, Yahweh ; 
And above all the earth be Thy glory. 

Ps. 57 was in IB from the collection of D"'!Dn:3C. It was taken up into ^. 
The reference m)7D:i SiNtr'-'jfjD in-i33 vi^as in 13 (v. Intr. §§ 25, 27, 32). As in 
similar cases, it did not imply that such was the circumstance of its origin ; 
but that some features of the Ps. might be illustrated. It is doubtful which 
cave is referred to, whether Adullam i S. 22, or that in the wilderness of 
Engedi i S. 24. The Ps. was also taken up into 132^, when it received the 
musical assignment nn'^rn'^N {v. Intr. §§ 2Z, 34)- The Ps. is really composite : 
A = v.2~^ a prayer for deliverance, 3 Str. 4^, which alone was in IB with the 
title an^n; B = v.^- '^~^^, 2 Str. 4^ with an introductory and concluding Rf. 2*. 
V.'^, a pentameter couplet, is a late gl. The second Ps. except v.^ is also con- 
tained in the composite Ps. 108'"^. The use of □"'nSs in v.'- ®- ^^ makes it 
probable that this Ps. was also in 3£, and that the combination of the two Pss. 
was made in IE, or they may have been separate and adjoining Pss. in IE. 
Ps. 108 however uses nin> v.* for ijix 5710, but u>r\hi< v. 2- «. Inasmuch as it 
uses dihSn in its second part, also a Ps. of B, ''J^N was prob. original and nirr 
due to a late copyist. In Ps. 57 the language is that of Q. The unusual 
forms are glosses or errors of copyists. V.^ icj for Sdj ®, v.* ^i^n gloss, v.^ 
DN^S mispointing for □"'No'?, D^:pnS mispointing for c^n^o:); mn as Is. 49^ 
Ez. 5I. The situation seems to be the perilous one of the feeble community 
of the Restoration before Nehemiah. The enemies are the lesser nations who 
took advantage of the unwalled city to keep the people in constant peril and 
alarm. Ps. 57^5 is a morning hymn to be sung, nnr, in the temple with the 
use of Sij and 11J3 v.^. The poet has a wide outlook over all nations and all 
the earth. This Ps. cannot be earher than the Persian period subsequent 
to Nehemiah, when the people were in a peaceful and happy condition. 
The structure of the Ps. with opening and closing Rf., as well as its tone, 
resembles Ps. 8. 

PSALM LVII. A. 

Str. I. has a syn. and a synth. couplet. — 2. B<r gracious] repeated 
for emphasis, cf. 56^ — I ^akc refuge\ a usual term of © ; first in 



38 PSALMS 

pf. emphatic present, laying stress upon the act as a fact, then in 
impf. representing the action as a continuous activity in the pres- 
ent. ''ti?£3 is, as usual in Hebrew poetry, for the personal pro- 
noun " I," and should not be translated, " my soul," EV'., as if 
there were any stress upon the activity of the soul as distinguished 
from the body. — In the shadow of Thy wings'], a graphic meta- 
phor for m Thee, of syn. Hne, as if 36^ 63^, referring to the 
cherubic wings guarding the divine presence. — //// the engulfing 
ruin be overpast]. The people were in great danger of being 
engulfed by the peril in which they were situated ; but they were 
assured it could be only temporary; it would eventually pass over. 
In the meanwhile they need relief, which can only come from 
Yahweh. In His presence they are in a place of refuge and 
safety, while their enemies rage in vain. 

Str. II. has a synth. and a syn. couplet. — 3. *El, *Efyon'], the 
" most High," and the primitive ^Ei; divine names are heaped up 
as usual in urgent pleading. — who dealeth bountifully with me]. 
That is the characteristic of*'*El," as expressed by the Hebrew 
ptc. ; so (3, U, cf. 13^ 116' 119^^ greatly to be preferred to J^, 
Aq., and most, which render a slightly varying verb in an Aramaic 
sense possible elsewhere only 138® "completeth for me," inex- 
actly given in EV. " performeth for me " ; only to be explained 
by the insertion of " all things," and then not at all easy to under- 
stand, especially in this context. — 4. May He send from heaven]. 
The people invoke divine interposition, and that from heaven 
itself; not here as often theophanic in character, but as defined 
in syn. line, by sending His kindness and His faithfulness]. These 
are personified and conceived as angelic messengers coming forth 
from Yahweh in heaven, as 43'^ 85^^"^*, to save His people. This 
strophe does not state the peril or the enemies. An ancient scribe 
inserted, probably in the margin, a reference to them : " Those 
that trample upon me taunt." This subsequently crept into the 
text at the expense of the measure, making the construction of v.* 
difficult. These two words and their combination are variously 
explained by Vrss. and commentators, but with no satisfactory 
result in this context. This scribe was thinking of such taunts as 
42^, which the enemies were constantly making because of the 
apparent failure of prayers for divine interposition. The enemies 
are described by the term used in the previous Ps. 56^ ^. 



PSALM LVII. 39 

Str. III. has two syn. couplets. — 5. / am in the midst of || / 
must lie down wit/i']. The people are surrounded by enemies. 
They are not besieged by a powerful enemy, but rather the city is 
beset by treacherous foes who keep the people in constant peril. 
This was just the situation of the people of unwalled Jerusalem 
prior to Nehemiah. These enemies are described as /ions, because 
of their strength and ferocity. The figure is then left for the war- 
riors themselves : their teetk are spears and arrows and their 
tongue is a sharp sword, in syn. couplet. It is most natural there- 
fore in the previous difficult hne to think of their breath as com- 
pared with flames that consume the sons of mankind. The Vrss. 
ancient and modern differ greatly in their interpretation of this 
line. EV^ following J^ make the ptc. Qal " that are set on fire," 
and then take the " children of men " as in apposition with it, 
making an awkward construction difficult to explain. Moreover, 
the term " sons of mankind " is commonly employed in Hebrew 
for those who are afflicted and not for warlike enemies. 

PSALM LVIL B. 

Rf. 6 = 12, a syn. couplet at the beginning and close of the 
hymn, as Ps. 8. — O de exalted, Yahweh~\, as the subsequent con- 
text indicates as an object of praise and adoration, as 113*. If it 
were connected with the previous context it would be in victory 
over enemies, as iS'*^ 21^'* 46" 138^ 

7 is a syn. pent, couplet, representing the enemies as hunters, 
cf. 7^^ 9^^^^-. It is a gloss, due to a misinterpretation of the pre- 
vious couplet of Rf. 

Snares they prepared for my steps that I might bow down ; 
They dug before me a pit, they fell into its midst. 

— Snares they prepared \ They dug a pit']. The first Hne states 
their purpose : that I anight bow down. The Heb. ""ti^SD is for 
the personal pronoun as usual, and it is the person who bows down 
with his feet caught in the snares. Various other explanations 
are given, the usual one, " ray soul is bowed down," AV., RV., 
refers it to internal humiliation, which is unsuited to the context. 
The second Hne states the antith. result : they fell into its midst]. 
The enemies had dug the pit for the people of Yahweh, but into it 
they plunged themselves. 



40 



PSALMS 



Str. I. is a syn. tetrastich. 8. My mind is fixed\ repeated in 
57 but not in io8 J^. It is amplification at the cost of the meas- 
ure. The mind is firmly set and resolved to public praise. — With 
my mind~\ belongs to the second Hne and not to the previous one. 
— let me sing and lei me 7nake 7nelody~\ with vocal and instrumental 
music in the temple ; the mind expresses its religious emotion in 
worship. — 9. My glory'], poetic for the soul, the seat of honour 
in man, his noblest part, as 7^ 16® 30^^ 108I — O wake with the 
harp], rouse thyself to the service of public praise || With the lyre 
let me waken the dawn]. The dawning sun preceded by the 
music of temple praise, is said to be aroused by that music. When 
the sun appears, it seems as if it had been summoned by the 
morning worship. 

Str. II. has two syn. couplets. 10. Let me praise Thee among 
the peoples]. The public praise is to be not only in temple wor- 
ship, but world-wide, wherever the people of Yahweh are assem- 
bled in their synagogues throughout the Dispersion. — 11. For 
above the heavens is Thy kindness]. Above the heavens is the 
seat of Yahweh's throne ; there is the source of His kindness, 
cf. 36^ It comes from thence to mankind, and therefore extends 
over all beneath the heavens. This corresponds with the world- 
wide praise, as giving the reason for it. — And unto the skies Thy 
faithfulness], as 36^. This divine attribute extends in its vastness 
of reach up into the heights of the skies, cf. also 85""". 

LVII. A. 

*• '^'fy?^ Qal Pf 3 f- ^'^^ ^- ^^^ for ni^DH Ges.'s. u K6.i-^7, jhe original 
radical is preserved in the form in order to retract accent to antepenult. — 
n'l-in n:ir ty] neglect of agreement, sg. vb. with abstr. pi. Ges. 1*6(7); but Bi., 
Du., rd. n]->byn; change unnecessary, nvin in ^ only pi., v. j^^; Du. com- 
pares Is. 262*^ a>'T niyt -\'; for the original idea. It is a similar thought, but 
in different relations, and there is no sufficient reason for dependence. — 
3. |rS>' D^nSx] originally ]vh'; hi<. — -^p'j] Qal ptc; so |§, Aq.; but (5 rbv 
evepyeTTfiaavrd fie, Street, Luzzato, Or., Bi., Che., Du., '^CJ deal bountifully 
with, is best suited to context and date of Ps. 3 ultorem is from same stem 
in bad sense. S ^Trtri/iiJo-ai'Ta = np. — 4. "•JP"^'""''!] Hiph. impf. jja'", v. _f, 
with 1 subordinate expressing purpose, and not with 1 coord. — ''ONt^ p|nn] is 
dub. and difficult. 1?D Pi. pf. always man subj. ^dx'iT is variously explained 
here as 562- 3. If subj., the clause must be rel. and most likely of time when, 
as Ba., Dr.; but 1. is incomplete and awkward, especially as closing 1. of Str- 



(UBBAJjyj 



PSALM LVII. 41 

® edoKev els 6v€iSos, so essentially U, 3, S, ^, give a mng. to f]'\n appropriate 
enough in itself, but without usage to justify it. In that case it is better to 
rd. ^-yn^ the initial "> having fallen out by haplog. But still the 1. is defective. 
It is best to regard it as a gl. influenced by 562- 3. — 5. dn^';^] mispointing 
for D-'Xo'? pi. xoj;^ lion Gn. 49^ Dt. 3320 Ho. 13^+. & Kai ipOaaro ttjv 
^vxvf P-ov iK fxiaov (XKijfjLvuv ; so essentially 5, supply vb. from previous v. — 
Di^nS] ptc. pi. y/ X tonS f Qal d/aze up, Jlame, t\s>-^. tonS t^N flaniing fire 104*, 
both dub. prob. Pi. burn, burn up, Dt. 32^2 Pss. 83!^ 97^ io6i^ ; so prob. here, 
Pi. ptc. with DIN ''JJ as obj., all the more that ms ij3 is used of the humble and 
rather cin ""Ji of strong enemies. J( makes the ptc. adj. of lions, leonu?n fero- 
cientium, but against mng.; @ Terapa-yfiivos, U conturbatus, ptc. as sg. quali- 
fying vb., usual rendering for Sr\i or \r\. — t '"^"'D] ^^j- sharp, only f. sg.; 
elsw. Is. 492 Pr. 5* Ez. 5I. 

LVII. B. - 1082-6. 

6 = v.^2 Rf. at beginning and end, but it goes with v.^-12, not with v.2-5. 
7. "irpn ^'V'\\ phr. a.X. less graphic and later than the usual nB'-\ pco 9^6 ^jS 
35^- 8, cf. 1406. — ^DVp';'] as 58II 74^ 140^, for idea, cf. Je. 1822. — t^pr] Qal pf. 
t fiD3 vb. Qal bend low down, inf. Is. 58^ of head. Ptc. pass. D"'C1DD those 
bowed down in distress Pss. 145 1* 146^, Niph. bow oneself Mi. 6^. The pf. 
3 ms. here difficult, for C'DJ is f. and the enemies pi. and the Qal is elsw. 
intrans. @ KariKafi^pav t7]v ^vx'^v jxov makes it trans, and pi., which may 
however be interpretation and not imply a different text. Jf ad incurvandam 
implies inf. as Is. 58^ and that would explain @ also ; so Street. — r\rv^ ri;] 
phr. elsw. 119^^ Je. 1822 (Kt.); n-\3 c. nmtr Je. i8'^o, c. nn Ps. f^. The v. is 
a pentameter couplet based on Je. i82'^" 22^ and is a gl. — 8. ^ih |id]] bis. 
io82. 1^ omits second \>'2l, but it is given in @. It is doubtless amplification. 
It impairs measure, as Street, Che. For phr. cf, 51^2 78^7 w^i, — 'T)"'?'^] Qal 
impf. cohort. H niDTN. MT. closes v, here, but 1082 with m^D f|X, omitting first 
nniy of 57^. In 1082 (^ has kv rrj 56^rj fxov, 3 sed et gloria mea. f|N and first 
miy are both gls. of amplification. — 9. nniy] Qal imv. cohort, "w; v. 7*^, 
invocation to iios for va:, as 16^ 301^ 1082, — | -\n-^*] i.p. the dawn, elsw. 22^ 
108' 139^; here personified as Ra., Ew., 01s., Hu., Ba, Dr., Du., not ace. of 
time at dawn. — 10. ^"Tin] Hiph. cohort., the sf. prevents the cohort, form 
from appearing, but context requires it. — "»J7n] = nin^ 108*. "'jnx is more 
likely to be original. — 'n"^5J??] with sf. 30!^ 138I, all |I tiin, cf. 47'^; usually 
with ';', doubtless here "i^ nnriN as measure requires, cf. loji 1052. — 11 is 
essentially the same as 36^. 108^ has dt'^ '?>'D for '»» '^'; of 57II; in other 
respects it is the same. But 36^ has D"'::r3, and "injiDN for ipdx, this latter 
a variation in form from same stem, and it omits Su which is certainly a 
gl., making 1. too long and interpretative. '?yD is doubtless original, n;? is 
assimilation to 1. 2. 



42 PSALMS 



PSALM LVIIL, 2 STR. 8^ rf. 2*. 

Ps. 58 was written in the early Hebrew monarchy: (i) com- 
plaining of unjust rulers for their violence, venomous lying, and 
deafness to the pleas of the people (v.^-^) ; (2) describing the 
punitive judgment of Yahweh upon them in several similes, con- 
cluding with a firm confidence in Yahweh as judge (v/"^° ^^) . A 
gloss expresses the joy of a Maccabean editor in bloody vengeance 
(v."). 

Buf do ye indeed speak justice ? 

In equity judge the sons of mankind? 
MAY, in the mind ye do iniquity ; 

In the land ye weigh violence with your hands. 
The wicked become estranged from the womb, 
Those who speak lies go estray from the belly. 
They have poison like a serpent, 
They are like a cobra, deaf and stopping his ear, 
Which hearkeneth not to the voice of the charmers, 
The binder of spells, the exceedingly skilful. 
Y-AHWEH doth break down their teeth in their mouth, 
Yahweh doth tear down the jaw-teeth of the young lions. 
They melt away as water, they flow of themselves. 
Are they luxuriant as green grass, so they wither away. 
As a snail, that melts away, they go. 
Hath fire fallen, they do not behold the sun ; 
Before they perceive it, they become like brambles; 
As still living, in hot anger. He sweeps them away in a storm. 

Ye sons of mankind, surely there is fruit for the righteous; 

Surely Yahweh is judging in the land. 

Ps. 58 was originally in the group of o^rrDr, then in B, subsequently in E 
and also in DE, where it received the musical direction rr\V'r\ ^n {y. Intr. 
§§ 25, 27, 32, i^h^ 34). It has 2 Str. of 8 tetrameters each, with introductory 
and concluding couplets, which, while varying in detail, are yet of the nature 
of Rfs., cf. Pss. 8, 57. The language and style are primitive and difficult. It 
is rich in antique similes and expressions. The Ps. complains of unjust rulers 
in the style of the preexilic prophets, and expresses confidence in the 
retributive judgment of Yahweh. The Ps. is doubtless one of the oldest in 
the Psalter. 

Str. I. has an introductory syn. couplet in form of a question, 
which receives a negative answer in four syn. couplets. This is of 
the nature of a Rf., beginning the Ps. as a corresponding Rf. 



PSALM LVIII. 43 

closes it. — 2. Do ye indeed speak justice 7^ The question is 
addressed, as the context shows, to the rulers of the people, || in 
equity judge ? The couplet is not easy to render. Text and Vrss. 
differ. In the first Une the same Hebrew consonants with varying 
vowels give four different interpretations. That which is here 
preferred is the interpretation of (^, J, taking the word D7i^ as 
adv. emphasizing more strongly the initial " indeed " ; so JPSV, 
"Do ye in very deed." But J^, followed by most moderns, 
interprets the form as an unusual word, " in silence," RV., in 
accordance with the thought of v.^ Ki. interprets as Aram, word 
" band," so Calv., PBV., AV., " congregation." Many moderns 
interpret as still another word, "gods," for rulers, as 82^-^. — sons 
of mankind']. Those judged, as most moderns, referring, accord- 
ing to usage of the term, to the common people. But (©, J, EV'., 
interpret as the rulers, as if it were the antithetical term, " sons of 
men." — 3. Nay], A strong asseveration in negative reply to 
the question. These rulers were the very reverse of what they 
ought to be. — in the mind~\, mentally, their secret resolution in 
antith. to the execution of their purpose. — in the land, and also 
with your ha7ids'\. The hands are graphically conceived as using 
scales and balances, and thus as weighing out what they are to 
deliver to others. This should have been in accordance with the 
conception of justice : just, equal, right measure, which could not 
be questioned. In fact, it was the reverse : weigh violence. — 
4. Becofne estranged || go estray], that is, from the principles of 
justice, the practice of equity. — from the womb || from the belly\ 
so soon as they are born, they at once begin to stray from right to 
wrong. This does not refer, as older interpreters thought, to the 
impulses of original sin or innate depravity ; but specifically to the 
wicked in antith. to the " righteous," v.-^^. They begin the practice 
of their wickedness in their earliest youth. The wicked are here 
especially judges : Those who speak lies'] ; not lies in general, in 
the later and higher ethical sense that the lie as such is wicked ; 
but in the early sense, lies as injurious, such as accompany acts of 
violence, false witness before the judges, or false and lying decisions 
by the judges themselves against the common people, and in favour 
of the oppressors. — 5-6. They have poison]. They are venom- 
ous in their violence and lies, and so they are iike a serpent || a 



44 PSALMS 

cobra], an especially venomous kind of serpent, which adds to its 
venom another dangerous characteristic, that it cannot be charmed 
by the charfners. The binder of spells, accustomed to charm all 
other serpents, can do nothing with this one. Though exceedingly 
skilful, expert in all the arts of the charmer, he utterly fails. This 
cobra is deaf, stopping his ear. So these wicked judges are so 
intent upon violence to the people and injurious lies, that no 
pleading, no arguments, however just and right, no influence 
whatever, can prevent them from executing their wicked will. 

Str. II. is an antistr., having a syn. couplet, then six syn. simi- 
les describing the divine judgment coming upon the wicked 
judges. — 7. Yahweh doth break down their teeth || tear down the 
Jaw teeth'], so (@ interpreting the vbs. as pfs., and the subsequent 
vbs. as impfs., describing the judgment itself; which is to be pre- 
ferred to taking the vbs. as imvs., and the subsequent vbs. as jus- 
sives, imprecating the divine judgment, as MT. and most Vrss. 
and interpreters. — The wicked rulers are first compared io young 
lions. Their teeth are all broken down to make them harmless. 
— 8. They melt away as water]. Water is a frequent simile of 
instability and weakness. So here the first simile compares the 
judges to water melting away. So weak are they and unstable 
that they need no one to make them unstable ; they floiv of them- 
selves, of their own inherent weakness and instability. — Are they 
luxuriant as green grass]. The second simile compares them to 
green grass, which is the common symbol of rapid growth and 
speedy withering away, cf. 37- 90^ But J^, by the wrong attach- 
ment of a single letter to the previous instead of the following 
word, changed the former to the vb. " tread," and the latter to the 
word " his arrow," and so got a phrase for the usual " tread the 
bow," which cannot be explained satisfactorily in this context. 
An archer, aiming his arrows, even if their points are broken, is 
not a good simile of weakness from the point of view of the con- 
text. The grass is luxuriant enough in its growth, but it has a 
short duration ; so these judges wither away. The rendering 
"cut off" is a possible translation of a Hebrew word cognate to 
that rendered above in the usual meaning " wither " ; but no other 
example of such a meaning can be found. Some refer the cutting 
off to the arrows, as AV., RV., others to the wicked judges, as 



PSALM LVIII. 45 

PBV. — 9. As a snail\ so most moderns after ^T; but ^, S, U, 
Arab, "wax," and other Vrss. various other renderings, making 
the meaning exceedingly dubious. But whatever the thing may 
be, as it melts away, so the wicked rulers go. If it be the snail, 
the reference is to the slimy track it leaves behind it as it moves 
along. — Hath fire fallen^ they do not behold the sun\ so (^, ^, F, 
the fire of the divine anger ; the lightning suddenly descends 
from heaven upon these wicked judges, they are instantaneously 
consumed, never more will they see the sunlight. This is in 
accord with the subsequent context, and the common reference to 
such visitations in the OT. and the Koran. But MT., J, influ- 
enced probably by Jb. 3^^ Ec. 6^, by different vowel points with 
the same Hebrew text, get " an untimely birth of a woman " ; but 
find difficulty in the tense and number of the vb., as is evident 
from the various renderings of Vrss. and commentators. The 
propriety of comparing such strong vigorous enemies with a pre- 
mature birth of a child already dead, and never really ahve, may be 
questioned. — 10. Before they perceive it, they become like thorns']. 
This continues the thought of the suddenness of the divine visita- 
tion. The wicked are taken unawares ; before they perceive it, 
the fire comes upon them, and they are consumed by it like dry 
thorns. The text has been made difficult by an early copyist, 
before (^, making a misconnection of two letters, attaching them 
to the previous word as the suffix " your," when they belong to the 
following word as prep, "like." A variant gloss to thorns also 
made it possible to think of a kindred word "pots," and so the 
interpretation arose — " before your pots perceived the thorns," 
which conceives of pots containing flesh placed above thorns 
kindled to make a fire with which to cook a meal. Before these 
pots are at all heated, the judgment comes upon them. With this 
interpretation the subsequent line, which contains the principal 
clause, must be made to correspond, and here still greater diffi- 
culty arises. Several words must be given meanings, possible in 
themselves, but not justified by Hebrew usage. The simple mean- 
ing, giving every word its well-attested usage, is in accord with 
the previous context ; as still living, while in the full vigour of 
life, so (§, %, 2, as Nu. 16^; in hot anger, the heat of the divine 
anger, syn. with the " fire " above ; He sweeps them away in a 



46 PSALMS 

s/orm'], the storm of wind and rain or hail accompanying the fire 
of lightning, as usual in such divine visitations. — 11. TAe righteous 
will be glad when he beholdeih vengeance']. This gratification of 
the righteous in looking upon their enemies suffering under divine 
vengeance, is especially characteristic of the Maccabean age, when 
this V. was inserted as a gloss. It makes the Str. just these lines 
too long. — His feel he will wash in the blood of the wicked] is an 
expression of vengeful feehngs against foreign enemies in war, and 
so contrary to the theme of the Ps., which has to do with wicked 
rulers in Israel. The attitude of mind is distinctly Maccabean. — 
12. This is the closing Rf. Ye sons of mankind]^ vocative, as 
in accordance with v.^. It has been misinterpreted in J^ and 
Vrss. as subj. of the verb " shall say," at first understood as usual 
in poetry, afterwards introduced into the text, and so destroying 
the similarity of the two Rfs. — surely\ emphatic expression of 
assurance and certainty of the divine interposition in behalf of the 
righteous^ the people. — They have fruit ; that is their righteous- 
ness will not in the end be unprofitable, but successful. — Yahweh 
is judging the land]. Though the wicked rulers do not judge in 
equity, but oppress the people of the land, Yahweh Himself inter- 
poses, and undertakes Himself their vindication and the punish- 
ment of their enemies. 

2. DJDNn] interrog. n with t °J'?'< adv. (Vl^^) always interrog. verily, 
truly, indeed, so Nu. 22^"^ (E) i K. S^^ = 2 Ch. 6i8; without n Gn. i8i3 (J). 
— fo^^] n.[m.] silence 56^ (title) and here. Dr. "in dumbness," after Aq., 
Ges.; but (5 &pa, as v.^^j ]^, jj, u/i^ue = d^h = n^Mt = l>ul, indeed, strong 
adv., not elsw. ;/', but Gn. 28^^ 48^^ Ex. 9!^ -f . This gives good sense. cnVw 
Houb. ; dSx Lowth., Dathe, Street, 01., De., Ew., Dy., Gr., Ba., i5DB., as 82!- «, is 
not suited to the context. oSn = band ; Ki., Calv., Ains., Ham., AV., PBV., 
congregation -^/oSn bind, not elsw. Bibl. Heb. — Ii"^51P] Pi- impf. 3 pi. archaic 
ending ; so we should have i-itflDcn in assonance at close of 1., as jiS>'£5n, iidSdp, 
v.*. — DIN \33] V. 8^, sons of mankind, the judges over against God, so ®, 3, 
Luther, PBV.; but ^, Pe., Ba., Dr., Du., most moderns, mankind as obj. 
of vb. If judges were referred to, ^^n ''J3 would be more suitable. — 3. p|k] 
emph. answer to question, cf. 44^°. — 3';'3] in mind, in themselves, to them- 
selves, their secret resolution and purpose, antith. to v\Na in the land. & takes 
both rhyy and Dcn as ace. after vb., so Dr., Ba., Du. Many think 3S3 not 
appropriate to context. The use of 3S3 by itself in this sense is not usual, 
but 3^3 noN is common. Ba. suggests ddSd all of you, after Sb. Du. tjVs in 
secret is better antith. to v-\N3. But ?^, (5, 3, ^, all have same text. — 



PSALM LVIII. 47 

D3n> DJjn] violence of your hands, so Aq., S, S. But (5, 5, 9, Quinta, tS), all 
make ddh abs. It is not necessary, however, to suppose with Ba. that they 
took DDn^ as subj. of vb. and that they rd. TlDSon, for they would render 
poScn Dcn in the same way if they regarded DDn> as 2d subj., as Sip 3^; cf. 
131 56^ with your hands. This is the best interp. — Kinj] emph. in position, 
in the land, in their administration of justice ; not on the earth or on earth. 
It is attached to the first 1. in %, (S, to second in %. — tiD^on] Pi. impf. 3 m. 
archaic ending, v. 56^. — 4. nt] only here for nr Qal pf. 3 m. mi, as ins 
Je. 27I8 for "IN3, Ko.^-"^, become estranged. Cf. on? d^J3 Ho. 5^ || ipn, both 
aorists. — nrnn] i.p. with prep. p. Another beat is needed, rd. >3p. — 
3r3 n2i] subj. of vb., and not qualifying it. @, however, rd. pf. ^XdX»;<rav, 
but % loqtientes. — 5. "iDS-nnn] heat of poison, as Dt. 322*- ^, cf. Ps. 140* 
Jb. 6*. ''dS archaic sf. with ? of possession, ncn before irnj is gl. ; not in (5. 

— J niDi] n.f. likeness, similitude, used here adverbially, as Is. 13^ Ez. 23^^. 

— Id?] archaic stronger form of prep, r, so v.^-^-i^. — ttv?] "^^^omous ser- 
pent, perhaps ^o^^ra, ^DB., TristramNH. 271 f. ; glsw. pi^a Dt. 3288 Is. ii^ Jb. 
2oi*-i6. — ^r-^n] adj. fli?a/ a.X. in connection with serpent; form elsw. 38^*. 
Cf. vb. vsn 28^. — aK)N>] a.X. Hiph. juss., cf. Dr.^''^- obs.^ the j^ss^ force being 
lost ; rel. clause Dr. " that stoppeth his ear." @ has koL ^vo^ia-rjs rh cSra 
airrrji = nasi. This is more natural, esp. as t Diox vb. elsw. always ptc. Qal 
either active Is. 33^^ Pr. 172s 2ii3, or pass. Ez. 40I6 41I6.26 i k. 6*. — 6. "UTn] 
rel. referring to the ]r\B and explaining Dv3ni cin. — Dirri';^D] Pi. ptc. pi. a.X. 
whisperers, charmers, ^rh, v. 41^', cf. rnS serpent charming Is. 3^ Ec. lO^^. — 
Dnan "^5"^] tie magic knots (v. RS.J^h. xiv. 1885. p.i23)^ vb. only used with cog- 
nate ace. Dt. 18^1 in this sense. % "^^^ vb. elsw. Pu. de allied Ps. 94^^, joined 
together 122^. t "'^D n.[m.] (i) company, association. Ho. 6^ Pr. 21^ 25^; 
(2) spell, elsw. Dt. iS^^ cf. Is. 479-12 of Babylonian magic. — D^nc] Pu. ptc. 
only here and Pr. 30^* learned, skilled {v. /p*). The 1. is defective. We 
may add the kindred | 33n adj. skilful man, one of the class of magicians 
On. 418 (E) Ex. 7II (P) 1^4425 Je. 50^5 5167; elsw. in y\f wise (ethical and 
religious sense) 49^1 107*^. — 7. □"'hSn] for original rx\7\>, as usual in IE. — 
"onn] Qal imv. Din vb. {y. 11^). — v"nj.] C^^. 5^0 break down, here only of 
teeth. (Q gives both vbs. as Pfs. and this is better suited to v.^^. — 'id"'] archaic 
poetic sf. for rhythm, in both nouns for usual D_. Characteristic of the Ps. 
is the use of "^d. — n'^^nSc] a.X. for n^ySpp Jo. i^ Pr. 30^* Jb. 291^. — nin'>] is 
suspicious in !5, though in (S. A divine name is needed for measure. Doubt- 
less it was originally nn-', changed to Din^x in 35, and then subsequently back 
to nin\ — 8. 1DNQ>] Niph. impf. either juss. or indicative t [dn^] vb. Niph. 
flow, run, elsw. Jb. 7^ regarded as variation of DDa vb. melt, dissolve {22^^), 
probably both fully written forms from noa melt (6^). — i^^nri:] in apposition 
with previous vb. and not rel. clause. — idS] ethical dative with vb. of motion 
Ges.ii^- ■ of themselves. — ixn "nii:] phr. elsw. only 64*. ixn Kt., vxn Qr. 
arrows for rb^ov (3, arcum 3, na'p Tn 71^ ii2 27!*; an abrupt transition, not 
suited to context. Rd. with Bi., Che., We., "y^^sn, which is favoured by vb. 
'h^tn^, cf. iSd>. n^xn^ 372, also go^. The d of tn^ prob. goes with n^xn and we 



48 PSALMS 

should rd. m> Qal impf. n-}'\^ vb. a.\. Heb.; but the same stem in Ar. is used 
of herbage, de abundant, luxuriant ; then ICD = so, and iSSbn> is Hithp. of 
VVo vb. wither, fade, as 37-, favoured by ® a.aQev'f\(Tov<nv ; and not of 
t \^^-'^'\ vb. Qal circumcise Jos. 5^ Niph. Gn. 17^^ and Hithp. only here cut 
off. (3 ^ws ov, 3 donee, interpret the vb. as final clause, disregarding iro. 
— 9. 'ri^^r] a.X. traditional rendering snail as ST ; but @ /cT7p6s, %, 5J, Arab. 
beeswax, Aq. 7'7S evrepov earthxvorm, 3 vermis, S x'^P'O''* AE. ryf^t; ffood. — 
Dpn] a.X. n. ( ^ DDc) melting away, dub. ; 39^2 ^g have the form C73 Dpnj 
Hiph. impf. 2 m. nD:o f««j<f to flow, dissolve. — i*?!?.!] Qal impf. fuller form for 
usual t::.., as 91^ Je.'g^^ Jb. 1420 16^ 2o26 (6 t. in all), cf. iSnn Ps. 73^ Ex. 928, 
iSnx Jb. i622 238. "iVn^ here as iSnn^ v.8. © and 3 take it as pi. — ^^^ ''?•■?] 
so 3 ^w<7Ji abortivum mulieris and Aq., 2, 0, ^. f ^P.). n.m. untimely birth, as 
Jb. 3I*' Eg. 6^, but dub. on ace. of late date of these two uses. @ has iir^Treae 
TTvp = trs '?Dij so SS, U. rrs is usually taken as variant form of r\^H as 
Dt. 21^1 I S. 28"^. — ''fn"'^^] Qal pi. 3 m., most naturally as in other vbs. refers 
to the wicked ; so (5, S, V, Aq., S, PBV., the pf. for the impf. But 3, RV., 
and prob. MT. interpret it as rel. clause with the previous ho: coll., influenced 
prob. by Jb. 3^^ Ec. 6^. The context on the whole favours ©. — 10. D3''nn"'D] 
is difficult, both in the form itself and in the sf. 2 pi. It is against the con- 
text which gives always 3 pers. However the sf. 2 pi. is in &, 3 ; and ® 
even makes sf. with vb. "m>2'* 2 pi. against ^ and other Vrss. Most moderns 
think of X n-p I. n.m. pot, (i) used for boiling, Ex. i63 (P) Je. i^^ Ez. ii^ + ; 
(2) for washing, Ps. 60^0 = loS^o ; (3) in sanctuary Je. $2^^ Zc. 1420 + . But 
e, F, 3, E, 2, all follow f»^P II., (i) ^orn, pi. d>i^d. Is. 34I8 Ho. 2^ 
Ec. 7« Na. I io(?); (2) Aooi, pi. nn>D, Am. 42. The objection that thorn elsw. 
has pi. an^D is not valid ; for there is no sound reason why it should not also 
have pi. f. in (i) as well as in (2), or indeed "i-'D sg. in the one word as well 
as in the other. We should prob. rd. 123 m-'D, and prob. nn^D was originally 
only a marginal variation of fc^ n.m. bramble, buckthorn, as Gn. 501*^-11 
Ju. 91*- 15- 1^. The vb. ij>3^ is never used for perception through touching 
inanimate things, and this weighs strongly against the usual modern interp., 
" before your pots can feel the thorns,'' AV., RV. 3 crescant, 2 av^yiBQiaiv, 
so 5r rd. pD\ — "n •'Cf ]. ""n is taken by those who think of the pot hanging over 
burning brambles, as living, fresh brambles, so Ges., Ew., Hu., 01., Pe.; but 
there is no other example of such a use. So pin is taken in antith. for burn- 
ing brambles, but this has no justification in usage. Others, De., Ri., Che., Ba., 
Now., refer >n to the raw flesh in the pot, as i S. 2^^ Lv. 1310- 1*. 16. I8 (P). 
But it is most natural to interpret "-n idd as living, so ®, U, 3, in ^Gurra 2, 
cf. Nu. i680, where the rebellious go down alive into the pit of Sheol. — 
|nn"iDD] ® has dxrei ^i; 6/37^, 3 quasi in ira. Both had i::d, but interpreted 
|nn as instrumental ace. This suggests however, as Ba., that original reading 
may have been iD3. — 1^7;^;] Qal. impf. strong sf. ijrtr Q^aX, storm away, only 
here in ^, but Niph. v. jc^. — 11. % D|1j] a.X. 1/', but Ez. 24^+; the vengeance 
taken by Yahweh upon His wicked enemies. (S adds dae^Qv which is inter- 
pretative, not in 3. — vnpo] his feet or footsteps, so 2, 3, Z, cf. 57^. ® has 



PSALM LIX. 49 

XeTpas, so U, 5. — 12. D'^vS npsM] i coord. Qal impf., cf. Dix >J3 v.^, which we 
would expect here. i&, 3, had mx mankind in general. But iDNii is prosaic 
and suspicious; we would expect vocative as v.^. It is prob. gl. and Dis "•ja 
the original. — ^^■^'^N] 6 Qeh<i, % Deus ; if so, not predicate, but for an 
original nin\ Ba. interprets as pi. gods. If DiSn is to be read in v.^, it would 
be probable here. It is indeed favoured by D^tOD'i', although d\-iVn in B of 
Hex. is sometimes used with pi., cf. 2 S. *f-^. But (^ Kpivuv avroiis = DiDOiff^ 
The sf. may be interpretative as often, and misunderstood in MT. 



PSALM LIX., 2 STR. 12^ RF. 4^ 

Ps. 59 was a national prayer in the early Restoration : (i) for 
deliverance from bloodthirsty enemies, who without justification 
have broken their treaties and are prepared to attack Israel, conclud- 
ing with an invocation to Yahweh to awake and visit them (v.^"^). 
(2) Petition for kindness to the people and the unpitying defeat 
and destruction of their enemies, because of their cursing, false- 
hood, and pride ; concluding with the wish for the extension of 
Yahweh's rule to the ends of the earth (v.""). Rf. describes the 
enemies as greedy dogs, running about the environs of the city in 
snarling packs (v.^^^), concluding with a vow of public praise of 
Yahweh, the High Tower (v.^^ ^^) . Glosses emphasize the falseness 
of the enemy (v.^), their greed (v.^^), Yahweh's derision of them 
(v.^), and the thanksgiving of the people (v.^^). 

pROM mine enemies, O my God, deliver me ; 

From them that rise up against me, set me on high ; ^ 

From the workers of trouble, deliver me ; 

And from men of blood, save tne. 

For lo, they lurk for my life ; 

Strong ones gather together, without transgression oimine; 

They run up, without sin of mine ; 

They station themselves, without iniquity of mine. 

O awake to meet me and see, 

Thou, Yahweh, Sabaoth ! 

O arise to visit the nations ; 

Be not gracious to all the treacherous troublers. 

They snarl again and again like a dog. 

They go round about the city in the evening. 

My Strength, unto Thee I will make melody ; 

For Thou, Yahweh, art my High Tower. 
jyjAY my God come to meet me with His kindness! 
May Yahweh let me look upon my watchful foes! 



50 PSALMS 

Do not (have compassion), lest they forget. 

Make them wander up and down by Thine army, my sovereign Lord, 

Bring them down, O my shield ! 

Bring them to punishment for the sin of their mouth, 

The iniquity of the word of their lips. 

And let them be taken in their pride. 

Because of the cursing, and because of the lying which they speak, 

Consume (in Thy wrath) that they be no more. 

And it shall be known that it is the God of Jacob, 

Ruler to the ends of the earth. 

They snarl again and again like a dog. 

They go round about the city in the evening. 

My Strength, unto Thee I will make melody ; 

For Thou, Yahweh, art my High Tower. 

Ps. 59 was one of the D^Dnac, then in S, afterward in !5. The reference 
to the situation in the life of David, ir.iDnS nonTN nncn hvAV nVc'j, was in 
IB. When it was taken up into Qi^ it was assigned for rendering nntrn'SN, as 
57» 58 {tJ- Intr. §§ 25, 27, 32, 33, 34). The reference to the story of David's 
escape by night from the messengers of Saul, i S. 19^ «<i-, only illustrates in small 
part the situation in the Ps. The editor had no thought of assigning its com- 
position to the time of David. In fact, the Ps. does not reflect any situation 
in the life of David. It is a national Ps. of a much later date. The Ps., like 
all the cddd::, is ornate in style, having 2 Str. 12^, with Rf. 4^. It is also 
antique in language and style, and exceedingly difficult. Glosses v.^- »• i^. 17 
adapt it for later liturgical use. V.^ •'DDipnD as \f\ v.* niJ> as 56'^; ov;?, cf. 
1 818; V.5 ijj^3> as Nu. 2i27 is, ^^u. y 6 ^y^y^ nin> as 24I0, cf. %o^- 20 84^; \\\^ >nj3 
phr. a.X., but separate words ancient, implying violation of covenant relations ; 
v.12 in);>j,-i, cf. Nu. 32^3 (j) 2 S. 152^; God as shield, as 3* 7" + ; v.i3 rnsj in 
sense of pride, as Is. 16^ Je. 48-^ Zp. 2^°+ ; nSs as lo'^; v.i* app '•hSn as 20-. 
The language throughout is early. So also the frequent use of archaic sf. 
)D-. In the glosses v.^ Sxnc'^ \nVN phr. of E of Hex., cf. 69"; s? as a citation 
from 2"* gives evidence of date of gloss, but not of original Ps. It is possible 
that v.12 contains a reference to the story of Cain in Gn. 4^2 (j)^ ^ut it is by no 
means certain. The Ps. is evidently a national one. The enemies are not 
wicked individuals ; but nations, who have treacherously violated treaties, v.^ 
therefore not the great world powers, but the neighbouring nations, kindred 
with Israel. They are described in Rf. as cruel, greedy dogs, who wander 
about, not in the city but outside the city, round about it, making it perilous 
to go forth, v.^- 15. They are not besieging it with armies, but besetting it with 
marauding bands, who lurk with bloodthirsty intent, \.^. The situation is 
indeed similar to that of Ps. 9-10, the situation of the inhabitants of Jerusalem 
beset by unfriendly neighbours just before Nehemiah. 

Str. I. has three tetrastichs, the first syn. ; the second of two 
syn. couplets, the second synth. to the first ; the third in which 



PSALM LIX. 51 

lines I, 3, 4, are syn., but 2 synth. to i. — 2-3. Deliver me\ 
repeated for emphasis in v.^ ; syn. with set me on htgJi], Hterally in 
an inaccessible place, but probably without that specific meaning 
here ; and save me'], the more general and comprehensive term. 
The peril is from enemies, which are described as them that rise 
up against me], in war, as if ; workers of trouble], the mischiefs 
and sorrows of petty warfare (cf. 5^ 6^ 14''+) ; c^^d men of blood], 
bloodthirsty men, bent on bloodshed, cf. 26^ 55^'* + - They are 
still further described v."* as strong ones], cf. 18^^, too strong for 
the people to resist successfully without divine help ; and finally, 
v.^: treacherous troublers], those who in their working of trouble 
have treacherously violated their covenant, or treaty with the 
people ; their natural neighbours and allies ; and yet like the old 
Moabites and Ammonites, really their worst foes. They are 
indeed nations, not the great nations, the world powers, Assyria, 
Babylonia, or Egypt, who could not be thus described ; but the 
lesser nations, the treacherous neighbours of Israel, in the early 
Restoration, when the feeble community of Jerusalem had to get 
on as best they could in an unwalled and unprotected city. — 
4-5. The activity of the enemies is vividly described : they lurk 
for fny life], as wild beasts, hiding in ambush, waiting for an 
opportunity to strike a deadly blow, cf. lo^ — gather together], 
assemble in bands for a predatory excursion, cf. 56^ — They run 
up], for an attack, as 18^. — They station themselves] take a 
stand and prepare for the final assault, cf. 3''. — without trans- 
gression of mine]. The enemies had no just cause for their 
hostihty. This is emphasized by the use of three terms for sin : 
transgression, sin, and iniquity, in order to make the affirmation 
of innocence as comprehensive and strong as possible. The 
people had in fact been faithful to all their covenant relations 
with their neighbours. These neighbours had the sole guilt in 
the matter. — 6. O awake], earnest plea for divine interposition, 
cf. f. — O arise], from apparent sleep or indifference, 35^^ 44^^ 
The need for help is imperative. The purpose is : to meet me], for 
help, as 25^^, — and see], the serious situation; to visit, with pun- 
ishment, as 89^; with the cHmax : be not gracious], implying the 
reverse. The divine name is appropriate in this appeal for war- 
like interference : Yahweh Sabaoth, the title of Yahweh as the 



52 PSALMS 

God of the battle array of Israel, the God of the Davidic 
dynasty, cf. 24^^. A later editor has intensified it at the ex- 
pense of the measure by adding " God of Israel," cf. 41" 68^ 69^ 
72i« io6^«. 

Rfr. The first couplet is synth. — 7 = 15. They snarl again and 
again like a dog]. The enemies are compared to the half wild 
dogs of the Orient, which are the scavengers of the cities of the 
East, prowling about the environs by day and in the streets by 
night, and which do not hesitate to prey upon the feeble and 
helpless, cf. 22^^ i K. 14" 2 K. 9^. They snarl because they are 
angry and ready to snap at their prey. They do it again and 
again, as they go round about the city], the environs of the city; 
not in the streets of the city, as some render, thinking of evil-doers 
in the city itself in hostility to the righteous, which is against the 
context and entire conception of the Ps. — In the eve7iing\ that 
is, every evening. As the shades of night begin to fall, these dogs 
appear with the shadows and begin their prowling expeditions. 
The word properly belongs with the second line, as the measure 
and parall. require. A prosaic editor made the couplet into a 
prose sentence and put the words in the order of prose, as not 
infrequently elsewhere in the Psalter. 

8. The two couplets of the Rf. are interrupted by glosses en- 
larging on the situation. — Lo, they pour forth with their mouth]. 
The simile of the dog is abandoned, and the enemies are described 
as to their wicked speech. — swords are in their lips]. The words 
which are on their lips are compared to swords which cut and 
pierce, cf. 57^ These are enemies of another kind than those of 
the original Ps. — For who is hearitig?]. They think that they 
can so speak with impunity, for they conceive that the God of 
Israel is not hearing or caring. It is only another form of the 
scornful challenge of lo^"^- 42^ It is usual to prefix the word 
" say." This or some syn. word must be understood, but here, as 
often in poetry, it is not expressed. — 9. Verily Thou, Yahweh, 
laughest at them]. The scorn of the people of Yahweh by their 
enemies has as its antith. Yahweh's scorn of them. This, indeed, 
as well as the subsequent line, is a citation from 2*, except that 
mockest at all the nations is an adaption to this Ps. to correspond 
with vA 



PSALM LIX. 53 

10 = 18 is the second couplet of Rf., separated from the first 
couplet by the glosses. — My Strength^ Yahweh is the strength 
of His people for defence against their enemies, and so virtually a 
stronghold, cf. 28^ 46^ 84*^ 118" 140^ — my High Tower], the 
place whither Yahweh Hfts His people up on high, as v.^, cf 9^° 18^ 
46^-^^ 48^* 62^-^ 94-^ 144^. In this last clause Yahweh is not subj. 
of copula, 3d. pers., as EV. ; but as J here and (§ v.^^, syn. with 
second pers., as the previous syn. line requires. — / will make 
melody]. The usual vow of public worship, as 9^^ 27^ 30^ 47^ 
66*+. So v.^^ and ^ here also. 5^, (f^, 3, give here the variant, 
" unto thee will I watch," or " keep guard." But the variation is 
due to a copyist's mistake of a single letter similar in sound, and 
this one mistake caused all the variations and difficulties in J^ 
and Vrss. 

Str. II. has three synth. tetrastichs. — 11. May 7?iy God come 
to meet me with His kindness]. ^ and Vrss. greatly differ as 
between " God " and " my God," and " God of my kindness " 
and "of His kindness," but the translation given above is best 
sustained. RV., as usual, adheres too slavishly to 5^. The invo- 
cation resumes that which closed the previous Str. v.^ — Let me 
look upon], in triumph, seeing them prostrate in defeat and over- 
throw, cf. 54^ 112^ 118'. — 12. Do not have compassion on them]. 
This emendation, proposed by G. Baur and adopted by several 
scholars, is in accord with v.® and most suitable to the context. 
An ancient copyist, by misreading T\ for 2, gave the antithetical 
meaning, " slay them not." This is contrary to the subsequent 
context and has occasioned endless difficulties, which J^ and Vrss. 
sought to remove by various insertions and explanations, none of 
which yield good sense. — lest they forget], most naturally refers 
to these nations, which, if Yahweh spared them in compassion, 
would speedily forget it and renew their depredations. But owing 
to the mistake above referred to, it became necessary to think of 
" my people " as the subj. of " forget," and this was indeed inserted 
in 5^ ; whereas (^, answering the question as to what they were in 
danger of forgetting, inserted " Thy law." The line is complete 
without either of them. — Make them wander up and down], in 
confusion after defeat, and possibly with the sense of staggering 
from severe blows. — by thine army]. Most think of an army of 



54 PSALMS 

angels, cf. 35* •^ but it is quite possible to think of the army of 
Israel as the army of Yahweh, as i lo'^, cf. Jo. 2^, in accordance with 
the original meaning of Sabaoth, i S. 17^^ Ps. 24^^ — Bring them 
down^ by a humiliating overthrow, a defeat that will prostrate 
them. — 7ny Shield\ so (!5, in accordance with context and usage 
of Ps. ; changed by inexactness into "our shield," in ?^, J, cf. 
3^ 18^ 28'+. — my sovereign Lord\ The term here retains its 
original meaning, and really belongs to previous line to complete 
its measure. — 13. for the sin of their mouth || The iniquity of the 
word of their lips~\. Sin has as its usual parallel iniquity, the omis- 
sion of which, by an early copyist, has made difficulty to Vrss. and 
interpreters, who differ greatly in their translations. The sin of 
the mouth is that which the mouth commits in speech. The 
iniquity of the word is the iniquity which the word of false witness 
conveys when it issues from the Ups. This is defined as cursing, 
and lying which they speak, and as connected vi\\h pride or haughti- 
ness. A verb is missing in the first line, which was probably the 
verb cognate to the noun " sin," so similar in form that the copyist 
inadvertently omitted it, namely : bring them to punish7nent~\. This 
then has its counterpart in the closing line : let them be taken\ 
probably in the sense of entrapped in the snare of their own words, 
cf. 9^^ ; rather than taken captive in war, a usage common in other 
Heb. Lit., but not found in y\i. — 14. Consu?ne'], repeated for 
emphasis by glossator, making line too long — /// Thy wrath'], the 
heat of the divine anger excited against them because of their evil 
conduct above described. — that they be no more\ cease to exist, 
utterly perish, as a result of this divine interposition. — A7id it 
shall be known], indef. subj. rendered best in English by passive; 
in accordance with the extent of this knowledge, to : the ends of 
the earth. That which is thus made known is, in accordance with 
the order of (§, which is doubtless more original than the prosaic 
order of J^ : that it is the God of Jacob, cf. 20- 46^ ^- ; who has 
wrought this judgment. — Ruler]. As sovereign lord of Jacob 
He also has universal rule, cf. 22^ 66"^ 89^° 103^^ 

Glosses again interpose between the couplets of the Rf. — 
16. They wander up and do7vn to devour]. This is an enlarge- 
ment of the simile of the dogs, giving the purpose of their prowl- 
ing. — If they are not satisfied], a condition involving a negative 



PSALM LIX. 55 

answer. — they growl'], so (3, U, 3, Aq., cf. "grudge," PBV., AV., 
in accordance with context and the nature of the dogs. MT., fol- 
lowed slavishly by RV., " tarry all night," from a similar Hebrew 
word, differing only in vowel points, is unsuited to context. The 
usual justification of the latter from the antithesis with *' morning " 
of v.^'' is shattered on the fact that both are glosses from different 
hands. — 17. This verse is an amplification of v.^^, a tetrastich of 
two syn. couplets : I will si?ig || I will ring out], in public worship 
in the morning, the time of morning worship in the temple ; not 
in antithesis with a night of peril, as many. Yahweh is a High 
Tower, as v.^^, and place of refuge to which one flees, as 142^, — 
in the day I have trouble], as 102^. The situation of this glossator 
is more general and less perilous than that of the author of 
the Ps. 

2-3. ''J^''?'!'] Hiph. imv. Sxj (7^), also v.^ ®, Jf, have different words: 
\? i^eXov, erue ; v.^ pvcrai, libera. Phis favours a copyist's assimilation. But 
® renders the same Heb. words elsw. by both Greek words, and the variation 
may therefore be simply for better style. — "'0^?:?] sf. i sg. i.p., so 3 ; but ® 
6 Ge6s, which may stand for an original nin^. — ''?5N"''7Pp] Hithp. ptc. pi. sf. 
I sg. D1|~>, so 17", those rising up against me. ®, J, insert conj.; prob. interp. 
and not original. The word has two beats for measure. The four verbs v.2-8 
are in assonance in ""J- and it is prob. that originally they were all at end of 1. 
— 4. nir] V.36' ; AE, Dr., Kau., rd. n^j; attack -nj), (5 iiridevro, but 3, E, Ges., 
De., JPSV., congregantur, best suited to context. "Attack " is too strong for 
the subsequent vbs. >'?J7 is gl. of interp. — D^^y] pi. z.^\. Mighty ones, as iS^^ 
ti? o-'N, so @ Kparaiol, % fortissimi. Dr., Ba., others, dm*; with strength, cf. v.^^ 
Mr. — "i^Jire'sS] shortened for t^d nSj. This belongs in previous 1. for syn. 
parall. A copyist reduced the two lines to prose. — rwr\<\ is suspicious, as in all 
Pss. of IE; doubtless gl., as Ba. It makes 1. too long. — 5. |'i>?"''^3] ^S^ varia- 
tion of vh\ thus three great terms for sin are used. Rd. prob. ijiy, the ^ absorbed 
in '' of next word. It goes to end of 1. for rhyme, with two tones. — 11x7;] Qal 
impf. 3 pi. archaic ending, rtm of armed men 18^ ; followed by 1 coord, with 
•i/i^s: for upn:, cf. Pr. 24^ Hithp. VP^ (7^''). cf. i.v^n Nu. 2i27, ^jjisn 
Is. 54!^. Kare^dvpa (a err. for av), station oneself, take a stand, 3 prae- 
parantur. The first of these vbs. belongs in previous 1. for parall. and 
assonance. — ^"^^Ip':] inf. cstr. sip v. 2^^^. — 6. niN3X a^nSs nin>] an impos- 
sible combination, mni is doubtless a gl. of variation of reading, and ^■^rh^ 
stands for an original nin>; so that the text once stood ms^s nin>, as Kirk. — 
'^5<Tf: ^&>f^ phr. of IS, elsw. in ^p 68^ 69^ doxologies 411* 72I8 106*8; is here 
a gl. of intensification. The original 1. was niNOX nini nnx. — d-iuh-Sd] so 0, 
3, is striking here ; prob. Sd was introduced from later point of view as suited 
to next 1. — r^N ^"!p-S^] phr. a.X., 0, i, ps >S>'i3 as v.^. |§ can only be under- 



$6 PSALMS 

stood as pregnant for px •'S>'d nja '73, cf. 25^. It implies treachery in cove- 
nants. 1^ as the more difficult is to be preferred. — 7 = 15 Rf. oic'"'] Qal 
impf. 3 pi. /Aey return if we give this vb. its normal force, implying that they 
have been there before. But there is nothing of this in context, and it does 
not suit the idea of the Rf. The vb. has auxiliary force, again, and, as impf. 
freq., again and again. — -icn-;] Qal. impf. after nvj'\ The conj. of 0, J[, 
misses the construction, as do, after them, most moderns, nm vb., v. ^gT ; 
growl 79DB., snarl Dr., cf. Is. 59^1 of bears, Ez. yi*' of doves. — 2^25] goes with 
the previous vb., therefore 1 before i^^iDi is incorrect interpretation, although 
in (5, 3. The first 1. is too long and the second too short, ^y^ has been 
removed by prosaic copyist from the second 1. to the first. It separates the 
principal vb. from its auxiliary. — 8. pr?'] Hiph. impf. 3 pi. archaic form ;72J 
(79^) pour forth. This vb. is not suited to the previous context. It describes 
another kind of enemy and is a gl. It has nothing to correspond with it in 
the second Rf. — D"i\";;\^Dt:':3] has two poetic accents. — 9. Gl. from 2*. — 
nnNi] was taken from v.*. — nm*'] not suited to 15. — icS'pnt'n] as (10V) pnz'^ 
2*. — J>'Sri] as j;'S> 2*, but for \d^ of 2* d^j'^d*? is given as an interp. of it. — 
10 = 18 Rf. nj:] has no good sense. Rd. with (5, 3, ^, Dr., Kirk., and some 
codd. MT. Mjp iny strength {8^) || >3_Jt:'!? (9^^') so Rf. v.^8. _ n-;crN] Qal impf. 
cohort, i.p. = n-^^pjK v.i^; though (5, jl, have the same text here as ?^, yet 5 has 
the same vb. in both passages, so Houb., Kenn., Street, 01s., Bi., Gr., Ba., Dr. 
It is improbable that the Rf. would differ. Furthermore, ^n is not suited to 
noK' (/.?*), and although Sn is with -\;:t (7-'*) elsvv. only v.^^, it is just as suit- 
able here as there, and is a frequent variant with *? after other vbs. — D'^hSn] 
for original rnn\ ® agrees with |^ here, but not in v.^^, where it has 6 9c6s 
iuov, 3 has tu deus here, but 3d pers. v.^^. The context demands 2d pers. — 
11. "npn ^n'^s] Kt. non ""hSn Qr., 0, 6 0e6s fxav rd fXeos ayrou, but v.^^ 6 GcAs 
/iou t6 eXc6s iiov ; 3 v.^^ dei mei misericordia, v.^^ dfus misericordia mea. 
These do not sustain >rh\< as cstr., which gives a phr. a.X. improb. in itself. 
>iDn is sustained by v.^^ (MT., ©, 3), and is indeed required by the context. 
But v.ii is entirely different ; a subj. is needed for >jm|">\ In v.^^ the phr. is 
at the close of Ps. after Rf. ; in \P- it begins the second part of the Ps. The 
Rf. is sufficiently long without it. It is therefore a txt. err. in v.^^ from v. 11. 
If so, the copyist found non \nVN, unless we may suppose that ^■'Dn is a later 
change to assimilate the word to its context. On the whole (S is the best 
guide, and we should rd. ■^iDn ""nSN, as Dr. — 12. D„i'^Lin"SN] Qal juss. with sf. 
3 pi. is inconsistent with v.^*. Gr. would change this latter. No satisfac- 
tory explanation has been given of the text, though it is sustained by Vrss. 
G. Baur., Now., propose ocnnn, which is in accord with ?nn-Sx v.^, and most 
satisfactory except that sf. is unnecessary. — ''d;? in3tt'''"jD] 3 ne forte obliviscan- 
tur populi mei, @ /iij iron iiriXddwvrai rod vbfwv <rov, Jerome Epist. 33 " In 
Graeco scriptum est : legis tuae ; sed in LXX. et in Hebraeo non habet populi 
tui std. populi vieiy It is probable that >::y of |^, 3, and i.Tiin of 6 are both 
interpretations of the vb. without subj. and obj. The subj. of ^T\yv^ is the 
enemies as 9^8, and the whole is a single 1., r\yv> |d Jinn-Sx. — ^Dj?>jn] Hiph. 



PSALM LX. 57 

imv. j?ij (22^) with archaic sf., enemies ; cause to stagger, or wander, cf. Nu. 
32I3 Q) 2 S. 1520. — ^r!nn;ni] Hiph. imv. with i coord., sf. 3 pi. archaic, with 
two accents. Lag. '^'O'):}'^^ after S> ; so Du. with reference to Gn. 4I2, nji ;?:, 
tempting but not probable. The longer word is needed for measure, and '•j-iN 
goes with preceding 1., which needs it for completeness. Moreover, this 1. 
begins a new tetrastich, and is not strictly parall. with previous 1. — UJJD] (j^). 
But I pi. is against usage of Ps. ; therefore >jjd as @ 6 vTrepaairKyT-^s fiov. — 
13. "'D''? nx^n] as antith. v.*. afiapriav crTdfiaTos aiirCov, 3 in peccato oris 
sui. — "iD>nDiJ'"n37] in apposition with previous clause, as ^, @, ace. and not 
predicate as many moderns. Two lines are needed for measure. They have been 
compressed into one by ancient copyist. In the second \X} || nxion is needed ; 
in the first a vb. Ntonn bring into ptmishment, as Is. 2(f^ Dt. 24*. — i"'?,'?"'.^] "• 
seems to imply something to which it is in coordination ; prob. the vb. sug- 
gested. Niph. be caught, so 9^6, as in snare or trap. — n/^xJ?] XV^\ elsw. ^ 
47^; here in bad sewse pride, as Is. 16^ Je. 4829 Zp. 2^^ Ez. 720 16*9. A word 
is missing. 3 has not conj. with nSx;:, therefore nSxD ic" is doubtless correct 
for 'Di D" in accord with usage of Ps. So we should have the fully written "iDa 
and read the line idjinj id3 n:)S">\ — nSsc] prep. |d because of and % nSx n.f. 
cursing, cf. id^. This begins new quartette. — t ^D?] n.m. (i) lying, as Ho. 
78 ioi3 12I Na. 3I; (2) leanness Ps. 1092* (?) Jb. 168. — 14. nS?] Piel. imv. 
(/5^*) bis ; only one is needed for measure, the other is a gl. of intensifica- 
tion. — ncn^] is attached to the previous nSo by 3, to following by ®. — 
3pyo Wd D^-iSx] ® had ^a'D 2p'p ihSn, Jf rds. ^^«5 dominatur Jacob. 3 before 
D'pr is doubtless explanatory gl. © is most likely correct. It gives the only 
good measure. — 16. This v. is a gl., breaking between couplets of Rf. — 
jiyij^] Kt. Qal impf. 3 pi. archaic, ]i3;''j'« Qr. Hiph. impf., cf. v.i2; @ dLa<rKop- 
Ti.ad'fjffovTai, 3 vagabuntur. — nS'Dx] but @ ka.v 5^, making negative dub. -— 
ij-iSm] 1 consec. after impf., aorist of result, which is not suited to the idea of 
lodging all night. S, E, %, have same vb. as f§, but i coord. 6>, Aq., 7o77i/o-ou- 
(yiv\ 3 tnurmurabunt ; PBV. irS^i Hiph., or iji'?^ Niph.; so Du., Ba., Bu., 
^DB. X\b vb. Niph. murmur, cf.' Ex. 1524 (JE) Nu. 142 16" 176 (P) +, 
Hiph. same, Ex. 178 (E) 168 (P) +. — 17 is also a gl, ampHfication of Rf. v?». 
— \jxi] emph. antith. to enemies. — rivj -\ib?n] = hidtk ""J^ v.^^. — "h :3JtJ'D] 
= i^J^D V.I8. — t D^jc] n.m. (i) a place of flight, of escape, elsw. 142^ Am. 2^* 
Je. 2535 Jb. ii2o 2 S. 223 (?) Je. 1 619 (?) . ^2) flight]^. 46^. — Vnx D10] so 

I023 (t/. /). 

PSALM LX. 

Ps. 60 is composite. (A) A Ps. of the time of David, citing an 
ancient oracle, giving Israel possession of the land and supremacy 
over his neighbours (v.^^-«). {B) A prayer for deliverance in time 
of defeat and great humiliation, probably of the reign of Jehoiachin 

/-y^S-T. 125-14\ ^ 



58 PSALMS 



A. V.®"^^", 4 STR. 3'. 

Y^HWEH spake in His sanctuary : 

" I will exult, I will divide Shechem; 

" And the Valley of Succoth will I mete out. 
u r^ILEAD is Mine, and Mine is Manasseh ; 

" Ephraim also is the defence of My head ; 

" Judah is My commander's staft 
a TyrOAB is My washpot; 

" Unto Edom will I cast My sandal ; 

" Over Philistia will I shout in victory." 
^ THAT one would conduct me to the entrenched city? 

O that one would lead me unto Edom? 

Wilt not Thou (Yahweh) ? 

B. V.^^- 126-14^ 4 STR. 4^ 

YAHWEH, Thou hast rejected us, hast broken us down; 

Thou wast angry and didst turn us backward ; 

Thou didst shake the land, didst cleave it : 

Its breach doth sink down, it doth totter. 
TTHOU hast let Thy people see hard things : 

Thou hast made us drink wine of staggering. 

A sign to them that fear Thee Thou hast given, 

That they might betake themselves to flight (because of (Thy) faithfulness). 
'FHAT Thy beloved people may be delivered, 

O give victory with Thy right hand and answer us; 

Thou Yahweh, who didst reject us (and put us to shame), 

And wentest not forth with our hosts. 
r\ GIVE us help because of straits, 

For vain is the victory of man. 

Through Yahweh let us do valiantly. 

And He will tread down our adversaries. 

Ps. 60 is composite. (B) v.*-^, 2 Str. 4^, continued in v.'^- 12&-14^ 2 Str. 4'. 
This has taken up into its midst an older Ps. (A), v.^-^^a, 4 Str. 3'. V.'-^* 
is also contained in the composite Ps. 108, which begins with 57^^^. As 108 
uses the composite Ps. 60, it was composed subsequent to that composition. 
Ps. 108 cited 57, 60, from IS, and not from the original group of D-'Dn^j:, for 
the divine name is a^nSs throughout. It is therefore unlikely that 108 was in 
IB. The inS of the title is due to the recognition of the fact that the two 
original Pss. out of which it was constructed were in B. Ps. 108 was not in 
©iSl, but 60 was, and probably already as composite when it received the 
musical assignment nn^ ]^)t^-hy (v. Intr. §§ 27, 32, 33, 34). The original 
DPDD (v. Intr. § 25) was only (A), which is antique in its language and style. 
The term no';;'? is prob. original. It reminds one of the dirge 2 S. i^"^ '^- and 
possibly was also in the Book of Yashar. To it alone the historical reference 
can apply: nVo'K^ja DnN"n« ^M 3nv acM naix anx-nNi onnj qih dk )n«n3 



PSALM LX. 59 

'\hn nt!';; o^jts*: When he strove with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zoba, 
when Joab returned and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand. 
Cf. 2 S. 813 sq. ioi6«q. i c. iS^^ ^1' 196 sq.. The variation in number is prob. 
due to a corruption of text. But while this Ps. is undoubtedly ancient and 
might go back to the time of David, yet it is too general to refer to this 
defeat of Edom (or rather D-iN as 2 S. lo), and is an oracle as to the triumph 
over the lesser neighbours, Aram not being mentioned. (B) was a Ps. of 
different structure and date. It was a petition for divine interposition after 
humiliating defeat of the armies of Israel. V.^ resembles Je. 4^, v.^ Is. 511^- 22. 
It probably refers to the defeat of the armies of Judah by the Babylonians, 
reducing them to a desperate situation. It reminds us of parts of Pss. 44 and 
89, and may express the feelings of the companions of Jehoiachin. 

PSALM LX. A. 

Str. I. a tristich having a syn. couplet synth. to the first Hne. — 
8. Yahweh spake in His sanctuary\ so (§, J, referring to the 
sacred place of the divine presence, where the oracle of Yahweh 
was given ; and not, " in " or " by His holiness," of EV. suggest- 
ing a divine oath, as Am. 4^ Ps. 89^. This oracle goes back to 
the original conquest of the land. — I will exult], in triumph over 
the inhabitants of the land. Yahweh speaks as the supreme com- 
mander of His people, cf. Ps. 24^"^*^ Is. 63^"^. — / will divide\ the 
conquered land among the tribes, || will I mete out, the measure- 
ment in connection with the division. — Shechem, at the foot of 
Mt. Gerizim, the chief gathering place in the time of Joshua, 
stands for the country west of the Jordan, cf. Josh. 24^. The 
Valley of Succoth], in the valley of the Jordan on the eastern 
side, near the Jabbok (S. Merrill, East of Jordan, 385 sq.), stands 
for the country east of the Jordan ; possibly with a reminiscence 
of the two chief places mentioned in the story of the return of 
Jacob from Haran to Canaan, Gen. 33^^"^^. 

Str. II. is a syn. tristich. — 9. Gilead, as distinguished from 
Manasseh, must indicate with it the two chief divisions east of the 
Jordan, as Ephraini znd Judah, the two chief divisions on the west. 
Accordingly Gilead, here, is for the southern portion assigned to 
Reuben and Gad, Nu. 32^"^, and Manasseh, the northern portion, 
or the land of Bashan. These, says Yahweh, are Mine], that is, 
my possession, my land. Ephraim is the defence of My head], the 
helmet defending the head from the blows of an enemy, in per- 



60 PSALMS 

sonal combat in battle. Judah is My cofntnander' s staff\ as 
Gn. 49^'' ; not the " sceptre," RV., which implies royalty, nor the 
" lawgiver," PBV., AV., which implies government ; but the baton, 
the symbol of military authority, with which the commander directs 
the movements of his army and points them to victory. 

Str. III. is also a syn. tristich, referring to the three hostile 
neighbours who are conceived as subjugated. — 10. Moab is My 
washpoi~\. Moab was the troublesome neighbor of Israel, occu- 
pying the region east of the Dead Sea. He is to be so reduced 
that he becomes the wash basin which is carried by a slave to pour 
water over his master's hands or feet. — Unto Edom will I cast 
My sandal\ Edom, the troublesome neighbour of Judah, on the 
southeast, was also so reduced as to become another slave to 
whom the master kicks off the sandals when he would have them 
removed to wash his feet. This is better than EV". " over " or 
"upon Edom," as though it were a symbol of the taking pos- 
session of the land by conquest. — Over Philistia will I shout in 
victory'^. The relations between the Philistines and Israel were 
those of mutually respecting warlike neighbours. There is noth- 
ing ignominious therefore in the reference to them. They are 
defeated, and there is rejoicing in the victory. MT. and Vrss., by 
a mistake of a vowel point here, but not in io8^®, compel various 
other renderings, none of which suit the context or give a satis- 
factory meaning. 

Str. IV. has a syn. couplet with a synth. line in climax. — 
11. O that one would~\, expression of a wish to enjoy the triumph 
promised in the oracle cited above, and not a simple question, 
" who will " of EV. — conduct me \ lead me'] , that is, in victo- 
rious entry into the entrenched city^ the chief fortification and 
defence, which being captured, Edom itself would come into pos- 
session of the conquerors. — 12a. Wilt not Thou Yahweh ? This 
question implies an affirmative answer in accordance with the 
promise of the oracle, and therefore an appropriate climax and 
conclusion of this ancient Ps. 

PSALM LX. B. 

Str. I. has a syn. tetrastich. — 3. Thou hast rejected us\ cf. 
43^ 44^* ; refused to go with us, or be with us, or help us in war. 



PSALM LX. 6l 

II Thou wast angry\ the reason of the rejection. As a result of 
this : Thou hast broken us down]. The army, which should have 
stood like a wall in defence of the nation, has been broken down, 
so that it can no longer resist the onset of the enemy. — didst turn 
us backward] in defeat, compelling a disastrous retreat. This 
meaning is most suited to the context, cf. 44". The Hebrew text 
is capable of various other renderings which are followed in Vrss. 
and interpreters, the most probable of which is, " O restore us 
again." Such a petition, however, comes in too abruptly into the 
text, and does not suit the context, which continues the descrip- 
tion of the divine discipline of the people. It is quite possible, 
however, that this meaning was designed by the final editor of y^ 
for Hturgical reasons. — 4. Thou didst shake the land]. The 
national disaster is compared to an earthquake, cf. 46^-^ Is. 24^^"*-. 
— Thou didst cleave it]. The metaphor is continued. As the 
earthquake cleaves the land by making rents and cracks in the 
solid ground, so the nation is all broken up in disorder and con- 
fusion. — Its breach doth sink down]. The walls of defence have 
been breached, and the breach sinks down, — // doth totter], and 
is about to fall down in a mass of ruins. The poet is here describ- 
ing a great national disaster within his own experience. 

Str. II. has a syn. couplet and a synth. couplet. — 5. The hard 
things], the people of Yahweh are seeing are the sad experiences 
of defeat, disaster, death in battle, captivity, humiliation, and 
shame. — wine of staggering]. They are so overwhelmed with 
dismay and panic by this unexpected situation that they are dazed, 
they stagger as if intoxicated, cf. Is. 51^^-^^. At the same time 
they know that Yahweh has made them see these things, and He 
has given them this cup to drink, cf. 80I — Q. A sign to them that 
fear Thee Thou hast given]. Yahweh distinguishes the God-fear- 
ing in the midst of this disaster, and gives them a sign or signal, 
which enables them to escape in time. — that they might betake 
themselves to flight]. This rendering, sustained by (^, 3, is suited 
to the context and greatly to be preferred to that of AV., RV., 
based on Aq., E : " that it (the banner) may be displayed," which 
gives a victory to the God-fearing that does not at all suit the con- 
text. It is quite possible, however, that for liturgical reasons the 
clause was given this turn in the traditions of synagogue use. — 



62 PSALMS 

Because of Thy faithfulness^. This is a conjectural emendation 
of the text, in accordance with the context. It is at the basis of 
the rendering of Aq., ^E, EV'., " because of the truth." But (^, 3, 
U, RV.*", " before the bow " is preferred by most. 

Sir. III. v.^- ^-* has a synth. and a syn. couplet separated by the 
insertion of v.^^". — 7. That Thy beloved people may be delivered\ 
The purpose is placed before the imv. for emphasis. The people 
of Yahweh are named beloved, because they are the special 
objects of His love, notwithstanding the disasters He has brought 
upon them. His people cannot think that these can be more than 
temporary and disciplinary, and that in the end they will be 
delivered. — O give victory with Thy right hand~\. The right 
hand of Yahweh stretched out in behalf of His people is the great 
instrument of deliverance and victory, cf. 20^ 21^ 44^ 48"+ Ex. 15^. 
The Hebrew word, which means sometimes " give victory," some- 
times " save," should not be generalised here. — 126. Thou Yah- 
weh, who didst reject us\ resuming the thought of v.^ ; the very 
One who rejected His people, is the only One who can give them 
the victory. When the two Pss. were pieced together, this line 
had to be adapted to its context, and was condensed with v.^^" so 
as to give " hast Thou not rejected us." For the same reason the 
closing vb., and put us to shame, was omitted. It is given, how- 
ever, in the citation Ps. 44^*^, and should be restored in Ps. 60 for 
the sake of the measure and strophical organisation. — And went- 
est not forth with our hosts'^. A continuation of the statement of 
the previous line and explanatory of it. Yahweh was not with the 
armies of His people; they went into battle without Him. His 
right hand was not stretched out on their behalf. He was indeed 
angry with them. That was the reason for their defeat. The 
prayer for victory implies that Yahweh might go forth with the 
armies of His people and as their chieftain again stretch forth 
His hand against their enemies. 

Str. IV. has two syn. couplets. — 13. O give us help'], a renewal 
of the prayer for victory of the previous Str. — because of straits']. 
This interpretation of (§, J, PBV., AV., is most probable, as it 
corresponds with the thought of the previous Str. ; although the 
rendering of RV. *' against the adversary," favoured by many 
moderns, is possible. — For vain is the victory of man]. Victory 



PSALM LX. 6J 

to be won by man in war against the enemy amounts to nothing ; 
it is a vain hope. Victory cannot be brought about by man, 
but by Yahvveh only. — 14. Thi'ough Yahweh'] . His right hand 
stretched out in battle. — /<?/ us do valiantly'] . Assured of divine 
help, the people resolve on their part to fight with all their might. 

— and He will tread down our adversaries]. Yahweh will trample 
them under foot in His victorious advance. 

LX. B. 

3. □'•nSx] for original nin>, so v.^- 1^- 1*. — umnp] Qal pf, 2 m., sf. i pi. 
% ynij Qal (i) break down a wall, So^^ 89*1 Is. 5^ Ec. 10^, here of nation, cf. 
v.* (2) break in Ps. io629. — 35>c^n] Polel impf. ir::, restore, as 23^ Is. 5812 
ace. to Bu., Dr., Du., then juss. restore us; VL return to us as petition. 
@, U, Aq., 2, Quinta, take it as pf. koX (^KTeiprjaas ^yuas. This mng. does 
not suit context. Ba. rds. aavi'ni, i consec. impf., as Je. 50^, cf. Ps. 44^^ 
■^x ija mnN ijD">tyn. The difficulty then is with S. This is prob. not original 
but interpretation. The initial n is dittog. for an original n. Rd. un^a'n 
with two tones, turn back in retreat, which alone suits the context and rhyme. 

— 4. nnK'y-in] Hiph. pf. 2 m. fully written, »»;;-», v. 18^. But it is prob. that 
final n belongs to y-)^. — nn?p^9] a.X. Qal pf. 2 m., sf. 3 f. prob. split open, dub.; 
® Kol avverdpa^as avri^v, 3 et disrupisti earn. — npn] Qal imv. hdi = Nfii 
heal, V. 6^, so (5 tacrai., 3 sana ; but no-j Qal pf. cf. s'f, sink, relax, is more 
suited to context, with i^n^L^ as subj. The phr. a.X. % •\2^ n.m. breach in a 
wall Is. 3oi3- 14, ruin of state La. 2I1 3*7 Am. 6^ Na. 3^^ The Soj y^Q Is. 30^3 
breach ready to fall is similar idea, and possibly in mind of poet. — nwD-"?] 
Qal 3 f. sg. :oiD (/o'^). ID is prob. interpretative gl. because of interp. of net 
as imv. — 5. J •ir,'^] adj. f. .1^,^ what is hard (to bear), in war as 2 S. 2I'; 
a.X. ^, common in Lit. — f n'?nri] n.f. reeling, staggering, elsw. Is. 51 "-22. — 
6. nn:^^] Qal pf. 2 m. fully written, |nj. — % d;] n.m. standard, as Is. 62^0^ so 
Dr. ^DB., or signal, as Je. 46 (to direct refugees to Zion), so here to direct 
flight from enemy, (5 arjixelbiaiv, 3 signum. — Dp^'jnriS] Hithpolel inf. % du Qal. 
Jlee, of armies 682, of gg^ j j^s. 5^ ^f. 104^; Hithp. take flight, so ©, U, J, 2, 
Dr., Du., Ba., Hu., Now., Che., RV.™. But De. after Aq., %, Luther, AV., 
RV., takes it as denom. of Dj, that it may be displayed. The former alone 
suits the context. — toc'p \]9d] 6 dri Trpoadirov rb^ov, 3 a facie arcus. wrp 
is bow in Aram, but not in Heb., which has rr,->. ati^p is truth, Pr. 22^1 (but 
Aram. gl. ace. to Toy) ; so here ace. to those who take vb. as denom. of D\ The 
Aram, word has been substituted for Heb. word n|i!:N, which accords with 
rhyme, by a late copyist. — 7 = loS^. psSn> \'^rh\ irh'iiox: ncx jyoS) emph. 
at beginning of sentence, elsw. ^ 1228-9. ps^m Niph. impf. 3 pi. archaic 
form Niph. elsw. 108^ Pr. ii^-S; but Piel, z;. 6^. — r^nn^] pi. sf. 2 m. f nnj 
adj. beloved, elsw. 108^ 842 1272, cf. 45I; also Dt. 3312 is. 5I. 1 Je. 11I6. ~ 
"1^]] Kt. answer us, connects with previous context; >jr;i Qr. <S, 3, connects 



64 PSALMS 

with following context. The reading ^j io8^ is because of its previous con- 
text, which requires ist pers. Du. rightly connects with previous part of Ps. 
and adds v.i26-i4. 

LX. A. 

8. V8-I2a = 1088-14. The only variations are : v.^ 'd >"? 108, for 'd >'?ihere, 
the latter more correct ; v.^"^ ^Sj; for "•V;*, the former doubtless correct ; 
p;;nnN for >;7;;nnn, the former better ; v.^i nx2D for niXD, the former correct ; 
V.12 D^nSs nSh for d\iVn nnN N^n, the latter correct. — '^^'^i'^^], cf. ^, ® ^v r^J 
ayl(^ avTov, 3 in sanctuario suo ; so Ew., Du., Ba., in his holy place. But 
Now., Dr., Kirk., in or by his holiness, EV'., his majestic sacredness, cf. 89^ 
Am. 42 c. ';2Vi. — nr'?;'N] impf. cohort, v. 28^^ so np^nN ; so prob. in ancient 
text nicx was cohort, also ; Piel J mo vb. Qal measure, t Pi. measure off, 
elsw. 1088 2 S. 82-2. _n^^D] on East Jordan, for Eastern Palestine. Cf. 
Gn. 33^"- 18, where same places are mentioned. ® has tG)v (tktjvQv. — 9. ^S] 
should be connected with n>'Sj by makkeph, but "h} is separate word. The 
omission of 1 in 108^ impairs the euphony of 1. — f'^>'i^] place of refuge, v. 2y^, 
but here prob. in the sense oi protection, RV. defence ; i.e. helmet, Ba. thinks 
of horns. © KparaiwaLS, 3 fortitudo, PBV., AV., strength = v;. — "'ilpnr] Po. 
ptc. X [ppn] vb., measure requires "'V ppnc, cf. Gn. 49!'^ Nu. 21 1^. @ /Sao-iXeiJs 
fjLov, U rex meus, improb. — 10. >%rr\ n^p] phr. a.X. t-d (v. j8^^), f {'Dl n.m. 
washing a.\. Why not inf. cstr. }*nn ? (26^). — ^rj'inpn nrSs ""Sy] ® ^/ioi dXX6- 
0vXot virerd-yTjaav, so in 108 ; 3 mihi Palaestina foederata est, but in 108 cum^ 
Philisthim foederabor. 3 takes vb. as Ilithp. r\^-\\\., as Pr. 222*, © as Ilithp., 
p;;-in., as Is. 241^ Pr. 182*, Ps. 108 has better yynrs 'd iSy. Most moderns, 
Du., Ba., Bu., ^DB., make vb. Hithp. >'n, v. 41^^, shout in triumph over. — 
11. '»d] is not simply interrog. as EV., but expresses a wish, as DeW., 01s. — 
-i>xn] intrenched {2& 3122) = 108II. % ">??? »•"!. elsw. 89*1 Nu. 321'- ^ Jos. io20 
iq29. 36 je^ 46 ^17 8i4_|_ fortified place, stronghold. 3 and O are the same in 
both passages. It is prob. that 108II is correct. niXD has been written by 
copyist under influence of 3122. — -.jn) ir] Qal pf. sf. I sg. r\T\i, v. 5^. (5, 3, 
have impf., which is doubtless correct, the initial -^ having been omitted by 
error after > of ""D. — 12. nnx nSh] 108 omits dpn, but it is needed for 
measure. 

LX. B. {continued). 
I2M4 belongs with v.^-?, and not with v.8-i2a. V.126. c is cited 44I0, where 
we are to seek the original of the first 1., which is here condensed, u.nnjT 
remaining for "ijDtSDm nmr f\^. The f|N was needed for Ps. 44!'^, but was not 
original. The original contained r\\r\'^ for which B dtiSn. — 13. u'^'i^n] 
cohort, imv. 2n"», v. 2g^, poetic Aram. vb. — •^■^t"] Ges.§*>g for nnrr, v. 22^y 
cf. npnry 638, help, succour. — ixr:] @ ^k dXixpetos, 3 in tribulatione, v. 4^. 
But Dr., Ba., Du., against the adversary, v. j- || i]nx v.i*. — D'^'N nj?irn] phr. 
a.X. but cf. 146^, V. 33^~', victory from man, gained by man. — 14. S^n'ntrvj] 
do valiantly, f phr. 118^^- ^^ Nu. 24I8 (JE.) i S. 14*^ prob. cohort, of resolu- 
tion. — Nim] referring to God, antith. to we. — Di3*] Qal impf. trample under 
feet, as -//. 



PSALM LXI. 65 



PSALM LXI., 3 STR. 4*. 

Ps. 61 is a national prayer of the early monarchy: (i) for 
deliverance in time of war (v.^^^^) ; (2) with the assurance that 
the vows for the king have been answered (v.^') ; and (3) that 
he will reign forever, protected by the kindness and faithfulness 
of Yahweh ; for which public praise will be given (v.^^) . Glosses 
give the urgent prayer of an exile (v.^"), and the comfortable assur- 
ance of the guests of Yahweh in His temple (v.^) . 

r\ HEAR my yell ! O hearken to my prayer ! 

In that my heart fainteth, on the rock mayest Thou lift me up. 

Mayest Thou lead me, for Thou art a refuge for me, 

A tower of strength from before mine enemy. 
nPHOU, Yahweh, hast heard my vows. 

Thou hast granted the request of them that fear Thy name. 

Days unto the days of the king Thou wilt add. 

His years, as his days, shall be for generation after generation. 
IJE will sit enthroned before Yahweh forever. 

Kindness and faithfulness (on the right hand) will preserve him. 

So will I make melody to Thy name forever ; 

While I pay my vows day by day. 

Ps. 61 was originally in B, then taken up into IE and IB3^, in the latter 
receiving the musical assignment nj>Jj hy (v. Intr. §§ 27, 32, 2h 34)- It is 
composed of three tetrameter tetrastichs, the first an urgent petition, the last 
two expressing assurance that the prayer has been answered, reminding of 
Pss. 20, 21. It is a royal Ps. of the time of the Heb. monarchy; a time 
of peril, it is true, and yet a time of victory, when the future seemed serene 
and the perpetuity of the monarchy certain. V.^*, cf. 21^; v.'^, cf. 21^; v.^ 
cf. 21^- ^ The Ps. is cited v.^^ in Pr. 20^8. Glosses indicate a later time: 
V.' y'MKT^ nxpD implies an exilic glossator; v.^ implies a postexilic glossator 
of the Greek period. 

Str. I. has a synth. and a syn. couplet. — 2. O hear 7ny yell || 

hearken to my prayer\ urgent entreaty that Yahweh will attend 
to His people in their straits. An exilic glossator adds : from the 
bounds of the earth'], far distant from the Holy land. — unto Thee 

1 call], making the prayer suited to the exilic situation, or that 
of the Diaspora. — 3. In that my heart fainteth]. A causal clause, 
giving the reason for the urgency of prayer. The situation is 
so serious that the heart loses its courage, and is in dismay and 

F 



66 PSALMS 

despair. — on the rock 7nayest Thou lift me up\ so (S, F, ,S ; the 
rock fastness is the usual refuge in early Pss., unto which one is 
Hfted up to safety ; cf. 27* 3 1^ 62I ?^, % J, dE, EV\, by a differ- 
ent connection of Hebrew letters give " on the rock that is higher 
than I," too high for me to climb myself, which, however pleas- 
ing a conception, in form makes the line too long, and in meaning 
is not so easy and natural, and is without analogy. — 4. For Thou 
art a refuge for me'], a place or a person affording refuge, |1 a tower 
of strength], a tower so strong that it cannot be captured by the 
enemy, cf. 18^^ 48^^ — 5. A glossator, of the Greek period, en- 
larges upon this idea, only he turns from the rock refuge to the 
temple : / will be a guest in Thy tent], have the privilege of a 
guest, a familiar visitor to the sacred tent, cf. 5'' 15^ Is. 33". — for 
ages], a late conception of time conceived as a number of ages, 
these extended into indefinite periods of time or aeons. — under 
the cover of Thy zvings]. The cherubic wings, guarding the Holy 
of Holies of the divine presence, made all the precincts of the 
temple a place of refuge, v. if 31^ 36® 57'^. 

Str. II. has two syn. couplets. — 6. Hast heard 7ny vows]. The 
prayers, referred to in Str. L, had accompanied votive offerings. 
These had been accepted by Yahweh, and the accompanying 
petitions heard. Accordingly the syn. : Thou hast granted the 
request], so most recent scholars, in place of J^ and Vrss. "the 
heritage," which is due to the mistake of a single letter of 
the word by an early copyist, giving a meaning not in accordance 
with the context and difficult to explain. The various efforts that 
have been made to solve the problem require still more serious 
modification of the text than that proposed, whether by the addi- 
tion of sfs., by ungrammatical explanations, or by insertions in 
thought. There could be no question, in the situation of this 
Psalmist, of the people having their inheritance given them, or 
taking that of the enemy. Moreover, the situation is so like that 
of Ps. 21 that we should expect the use of the same words. — 
7. The days of the king], the days of his lifetime, the king being 
conceived as representing his dynasty. That Yahweh will add 
days implies a long continuance of his reign. This is intensified 
in J^ ; His years, as his days, shall be for generation after genera- 
tion], J^ and Vrss. differ here, (§ giving " days," where %, J, 



PSALM LXI. 6y 

give only the prep., differently interpreted however. The varia- 
tions do not effect the general sense that the dynasty of the king 
is to be perpetual, cf. 2i^ This doubtless gained a Messianic 
significance in later times. 

Str. III. has a synth. and a syn. couplet. — 8. Hg will sit 
enthroned before Yahiveh forever'], cf. Ps. 2^; as the anointed 
of Yahweh, installed by Him on his throne. His reign will be 
perpetual, cf. 89^*^^. — Kindness and faithfulness will preserve 
hint]. These divine attributes here, as 85", cf. 43^, are personi- 
fied and given charge over the king to keep him in safety. J^ and 
Vrss. differ greatly as to one word of this line, which is needed 
for the measure. J^, followed by AV., RV., and most moderns, 
rd. imv. " O appoint," namely these attributes of God ; but this is 
not favoured by other Vrss. The analogy of Pss.45^*^ 109^^ iio^-^+ 
suggests on the right hand, a word so near the Hebrew word that 
the mistake could easily have been made. This gives the place 
where these guardian angels stand to protect the dynasty. — 9. So 
will I make melody'], in pubHc worship in the temple, 1| pay my 
vows, make frequent votive offerings at the times of daily sacrifice. 

2. dtiSn] not in 0; gl. — 3. v?.^i7 ^^^PP]' This and two words that fol- 
low, a gl. to adapt Ps. to later situation of the Diaspora. — r^b^^n] Qal inf. cstr. 
with D of reason % itay vb. Qal be faint, feeble, 102I (title); nn Is. 57^^, as aS 
here, t Hithp.ya^w/ away La. 2^^, nn Pss. 77* 142* 143*, cdj 107^ Jon. 2^. — 
>jpp Dn>-n"iX3] so S, jj, ^ ; but (g, S), U, N'?P'i"ifi is better suited to context 
and measure, so Street. — 5. f °"''?'?'^i'] pl- ^^"^V always late, so 77^- ^ 145 ^^ 
I K. 813 = 2 Ch. 62 Is. 26* 4517- n 5 ,9 Dn. 92* Ec. i^o. — ^^0J^ inp? npnN] 
phr. a.X., but (5 has aK^irri as I^djd Sxa 17^ 36^ 572 63^, cf. 91* Ru. 2^2, also 
Pss. 2f 3121 9ii._6. n-jj] i.p., but 0, 15, 3, ^rhan as v.2; not so prob.— 
nB*n>] cstr. sg. t ^f'W n.i. possession, inheritance, Dt. ^- ^- ^- 12. 19- 19 320 jos. jis 
126- 7 Ju. 21" Je. 328 2 Ch. 20II of holy land; not elsw. in yp. It does not suit 
context. Hu., Kroch., Bi., Du., rd. nE'-iN as 21^, which is to be preferred. — 
7. I'D"*^ °"''2'] phr. a.X., but cf. d^d> ^nNn Jos. 24^1 (D), d^d^ "^ns Pr. 32- le. — 
"ids] prep., 3 donee, @ ^ws Tj/x^pas. The measure favours vt2>d. — 8. |d] Pi. 
imv. for n:;:, :|: njo Qal eoimt, number, 90^2 147*, f Pi. appoint, ordain, elsw. 
Jon. 2I 46- 7- 8 Dn. i^-io-ii Jb. 7^; but ® r/s, Aram, p, or Heb. ""D; omitted 
Aq., S, 3, and in citation Pr. 2o28 -[Sd nx^ pdni non. Houb., Lowth., suggest 
(nin)">D, but improb. Rd. iiD"- on the right hand for protection, cf. 45^° 109^1 
lloi-6. — innxr] Qal impf. sf. 3 m. for inn^>, j is retained of original stronger 
form for euphony. The clause is final if p is imv., but otherwise and most 
prob. Ij 3U\-. 



68 PSALMS 



PSALM LXIL, 2 ^R. 2«., RF. 2«. 

Ps. 62 is an expression of confidence in Yahweh only, by a man 
of position, in the time of Jeremiah (v.^"^- ^^) . His false foes are 
only a wall about to fall ; they are only taking counsel against 
him (v."*^**) ; they are only breath without real weight (v.^°). 
Gnomic glosses exhort not to have confidence in extortion and 
wealth (v."), and remind that strength and kindness belong to 
God (v.^^'^^). Other glosses emphasize the several conceptions 
of the Ps. and adapt them to later circumstances (v.'*'*- ^*- ^^- ^^) . 

Only to {yahweh) be still, my soul/ from Him is my hope. 

Only He is my rock and my salvation, my high tower ; I shall not be moved. 
(Only) a leaning wall, a bulging fence are all of (them). 

Only consult do they to thrust (me) out from (my) dignity : they take pleasure in 
falsehood. 

Only to ( Yahweh) be still, my soul! from Him is my hope. 

Only He is my rock and my salvation, my high tower ; I shall not be moved. 
Only a breath are the sons of mankind, a falsehood the sons of men. 
(Only) to go up in the balances are they, made of breath altogether. 

Ps. 62 was originally in B, then in fH and IE, and subsequently in W^, 
where it received the assignment iinn^"*?;? {y. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 32, t,t,, 34). 
The original Ps. was composed of two hexameter couplets, v.'*^'-^- ^'^, with 
Rf. v.2-3-^^. These use terms of IB and give evidence of a preexilic date, 
being characterised by calm confidence in Yahweh. The Ps, was originally 
personal, and the author's perils were from crafty personal foes, who strove 
to thrust him out of a position of dignity. There are two glosses from differ- 
ent hands, of the type of WL., both trimeter tetrastichs, v."- 12-I3a^ Other 
glosses are: a remonstrance addressed to enemies in 2d pi., v.^<»; a descrip- 
tion of the enemies as false friends, v.^*; a reiteration of the thought of refuge 
in God, v. 8; an exhortation to the whole congregation to trust in Him, a trim- 
eter tristich not earlier than the Greek period, v.^; and a final statement 
of God's equitable requital of men, v.i^. These glosses were added from time 
to time, in the various editings of the Ps. 

The original Ps. was composed of two Strs., each of two coup- 
lets ; the first couplet in both Strs. is an identical synth. Rf. of 
confidence in Yahweh, and the final couplets are syn. with each 
other but synth. in themselves, expressing contempt of the feeble, 
false foes. 

Str. I. 2. Only\ characteristic of the Ps. at the beginning of 
each of its lines ; cf. Ps. 39 ; an emphatic restriction of the con- 



PSALM LXII. 69 

fidence to Yahweh alone, and antith. to the ability of his enemies 
to do him harm. The EV^ as well as the ancient Vrss. differ 
greatly in rendering this particle in the several Hnes, sometimes 
using the asseverative " surely " ; but a uniform rendering alone 
brings out the real power of the Ps. — be still~\. The text of J^ 
has the noun "silence," "resignation," here, and the imv. vb. 
vA Such a variation in Rf. is improbable. The imv. is better 
sustained. The soul in calm expectation waits for the divine 
interposition, ci.jf. — fro7n Him is my hope'], so v.*'; but here 
"salvation" in texts, assimilated to v.^ The use of "hope" in 
the original is more probable: "hope" for its object, the thing 
hoped for, deliverance from enemies. — 3. He is my rock and my 
salvation; my high tower], terms famiHar in \p, cf. 18^, all empha- 
sizing Yahweh as a refuge. — I shall not be moved], also a familiar 
phr. for the firm, stable position of the one relying upon God, 
cf. 10^ 15^ 16^ 21^ 30^ -f. A later editor inserted an enigmatical 
word, whether as a later form of the adv. greatly, to limit the 
statement, or as a liturgical exclamation, JPSV. — 4. How long 
will you threaten a man ?]. Remonstrance with enemies, address 
in 2 pi. inconsistent with objective 3 pi. of original Ps. ; a late 
gloss. The vb. is a.X. and dubious, and is variously rendered in 
Vrss. — to commit murder], so Ben Naphtali, (§, J, RV., which 
is to be preferred to "ye shall be slain," MT., AV., PBV., which 
depends upon close connection with the subsequent context. — 
all of them], the enemies of v.'^ ; changed into " all of you " in 
J^ by assimilation to previous context. Only has fallen out by 
mistake. — a leaning wall, a bulging fence]. The enemies are 
compared to a wall that leans over from its upright position, and 
therefore is in peril of falling down ; and to a fence which has 
been pushed in, and so bulges and is unsafe. They are only such 
an unstable wall in antithesis to the psalmist's stability in confi- 
dence in his God. — 5. From ??iy dignity], so (3, which is to be 
preferred to 3 sg. of MT. ; both doubtless interpretations of a 
noun without sf. — Only consult do they]. Their enmity amounts 
to nothing more than consulting together, making plans to thrust 
me out. It does not become effective in action, and therefore is 
not really disturbing. — they take pleasure in falsehood]. They 
delight in craft ; they would be false to the psalmist, but really 



70 PSALMS 

they deceive themselves. A glossator explains this by inserting 
with their mouth they bless y but ifiwardly they curse. 

Str. II. 6-7. The same Rf. as v.^-^. — 8. A gl. explaining 
further the Rf. — Upon God depends my salvation and my glory']. 
The glory of the psalmist is the honour and dignity of his posi- 
tion, cf. v.^ — the rock of my strength], from which strength comes 
to help. — my refuge is in God], or as Hi., De., Kirk., interpret 
as D essentiae, ** is God." — 9 is also a gloss of exhortation to the 
late Jewish congregation, a trimeter tristich. — Trust in Him, O 
whole congregation of the people], so (^, which is more probable 
than J^, " at every time, ye people." — pour out before Him your 
heart] in public worship, cf. 42* 102^ 142^. — 10. Only a breath], 
nothing more substantial, are the sons of mankind, the common 
people of the enemies, as distinguished from the sons of vieny 
their leaders, cf. 49^, which latter are a falsehood to their fol- 
lowers, deceiving them and misleading them to no purpose. So 
unsubstantial are they that when weighed in the balances they are 
without weight and have only to go up in the weightless scale. 
— 7nade of breath altogether], the emphatic conclusion. They 
amount in the aggregate to nothing more than this. Thus the 
original Ps. reached its striking end. But later editors wished to 
give it another conclusion, and so in the times of Hebrew Wisdom 
they added two gnomes. — 11. A trimeter tetrastich, Trust not 
in oppression], antith. the exhortation to trust in God, cf. v.^ — 
and of robbery be not vain], become filled with unsubstantial, 
delusive hopes, be possessed of unsubstantial self-confidence, cf. 
Je. 23^^. — Wealth, when it beareth fruit], in ill-gotten gains, — 
do not set the mi?id on it], as if it were of great value and to be 
depended upon for salvation. — 12-13 a. Another trimeter tetra- 
stich. — One thing God spake]. These gnomes were regarded as 
divine in their origin, just as prophetic words and priestly laws. — 
Two things are there which I have heard], implying that God 
had indeed spoken the two things that follow. This method of 
numerical intensification is familiar in WL., v. Pr. 6^^^''- 30^^"'-. — 
that strength belongeth unto God], that is the first thing, and — 
that to Adonay belongeth kindness], that is the second thing. It 
is improbable that in the original there was a change of subject 
to the 2d pers. The change was due probably to assimilation to 



PSALM LXII. 71 

next clause, 13 ft, which is a still later addition to the Ps. from 
the point of view of the Levitical Law (v. Rom. 2^^'*). 

2. !)n] cf. v.^- ^- ^- '^- i'^; asseverative, surely, De W., Hu., Ba, ; always 
same, prob. only, Ki., Che., Dr., Kirk., Ges., Ew., Hi. The Vrss. vary in 
verses. — d-'hSn '7nJ = D^n^N*? v.^; latter required by measure in both. d^iSn 
for original nin\ — njcn] n.f. silence, resignation, dub. v. 22^, \'di v.^, so here 
Bi., Gr., Che., Du., We., BDB. ; ••Di Qal imv. 2 f. am, v. 4^. The variation 
is prob. due to an original }:^Si^r\ idi, the sf. afterward taking place of article. 

— o v.^, lacking here, is prob. gl. — "'r^Jiii'"'] = "rnpn v.^, prob. originally the 
same, the former an assimilation to v.^. — 3. nan] used as adv. for na-^ 
65I0 (?) 120^^ 123^ 1291-2; not in v.", dub. and late usage not suited to early 
Ps.; prob. gl. Phr. so common without it (^v. 10^) that change improb. — 
4. •inn'inri] Polel impf. 2 pi. nin s/ioul at, threaten, j5DB. si vera, so De., Du., 
Ba. Wetzstein, cf. Damascene Arab, mn riish upon one with cries and raised 
fist, so MV. SS.; Ges. nnn attack. Form is unknown elsw. Hu. iSSinn be 
frantic against, cf. 102^; but @ kiriTiQeade, Aq. iTri^ovXe^ere, 3 insidiamini, 
S fiaraLOTrovqaeTe. — inxnn] Pu. impf. 2 pi. HXn murder, Ben Napht. mxnn Pi., 
so ®, ^, Street, De., Ba., al. The absence of obj. is to be noticed. This 
whole clause is a gl.; change of subj. to 2d pers. from 3d pers. of Ps. — DpSo] 
Sd with sf. 2 m. pi., ® irdvT€s, but prob. dSd in original. This begins third 1. 
of Str. and should have "ix, which has fallen out by haplog. — f^'P."] n.m. 
wall, as Nu. 22-5 q) ^5^ (P) +. — t "il^] n.m. wall, fence, as So^^. but more 
prob. X nnnii n.f., as 89^1. — nvinin] ptc. pass. f. nm, pushed in. The arti- 
cle improb. after articleless n. The n goes with previous word, as 01s., De., 
^DB. — 5. iriyii'p] emph. in position, J nxt' n.f. exaltation, dignity, elsw. 
On. 49^ (poem) Hb. i"; other mngs. not in ^. @ has Ty]v Tiixijv fiov, which 
is doubtless correct, the original here as elsw. being without sf. — nnnS] Hiph. 
inf. cstr. mj thrust out, cf. 5-^' and nm v.*. — -isn";] Qal impf. nxn, v. 40^^, so 3. 
But @ iSpaixov ip bi^ei, ixn>, so S>. — vd2] with pi. vb., err. for iD^fi as @, Sh, ^. 

— 8. 7C'"«] V. 12^ for inyv^i of original Ps. — My— 11s] phr. a.X., cf ?;; '•Dnn 71^, 
t;? Vijd 61*. This v. is mere repetition of v.'^ by another hand : a tetrameter 
couplet. — 9. C"7 njr S?;:] so 3 ; but © ny nn;? So is more prob., as Ba. nn;;?, v. 
/5. — DsapS -IDDU'] cf similar phr. 42^ 102^ 142^. This v. is an exhortation in 
2 pi. in a trimeter tristich ; another late hand. — 10. J D>jtnd] n.[m.] only 
dual, scales, balances. Is. 4012 Jb. 316 Ez. 451*^ +. This n. emph. It was 
originally preceded by ^n, as other 11. The measure requires this. — '^^nn] 
® ^K ixaTaidTrjTos ; 'D of what they are composed. — 11. i^anjn] Qal impf. 
2 pi. t ['^^•"'] vb. denom. Van v.^"^. Qal become vain, possessed of worthless 
self-confidence, cf. Jb. 27I2 Je. 2^ = 2 K. lyi^; Hiph. Je. 23I6. — air] Qal 
impf .fau bear fruit, fig., so of tree 92!^, fig. Pr. lo-^^; Po. make flourish 
Zc. 9". — This V. is a trimeter tetrastich, a S:;'0 of type of WL. — 12-13a. An- 
other trimeter tetrastich, a StrD. — it] relative, as 9^^. :iSi is improb. The 
original was doubtless ■'jnxS 01. The change was due either to assimilation 
to next clause, or to transposition of a and S by error. 



72 PSALMS 



PSALM LXIIL, 3 str. 4^ 

Ps. 63 is the longing of an exile for Yahweh (v.^), remembering 
the glory of God in temple worship (v."^), and meditating upon Him 
in the night (v."), with vows of perpetual worship (v.^), and ad- 
herence to His support (v.^). To this was appended a fragment of 
a royal Ps., expressing confidence in the overthrow of the enemies 
(v.^°"^^), and the rejoicing of king and people (v.^^'*-^). Several 
glosses emphasize various parts of the original (v.*-^-**^^''). 

/yAHWEH), my God, earnestly I seek Thee. 

My soul doth thirst for Thee. 

My flesh doth long for Thee ; 

As a dry land it faints for Thee. 
AS in the sanctuary I beheld Thee, 

Seeing Thy strength and Thy glory, 

So in my life will I bless Thee ; 

I will lift up my palms in Thy name. 
■\X7HEN on my couch I remembered Thee, 

In the night watches was musing on Thee, 

My soul did cleave after Thee ; 

On me did take hold Thy right hand. 

Ps. 63 was in Q, then in fH and 15. It had the reference to David's life 
min> 131D3 invn:3 in Q. It was not in Si^ {v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 32). The 
original was composed of three trimeter tetrastichs, v.'^ v.^- ^ v.'^-^, all in 
assonance, in :]_. The author seems to be in exile, away from the sanctuary, 
where he used to behold the glory of Yahweh. Now he can only remember 
his former privileges and persist in prayer and longing for a return. The 
situation is similar to that of Ps. 42-43. The Ps. probably comes from the 
early exile. The statement in the title is probably due to the use of .■)••>{ ysH^ 
by txt. err. for n^x r"*'^-. a simile, and not indicating the locality of the author. 
To this Ps. was attached in IE a fragment of a royal Ps. v.i'^-^-*, a trimeter hexa- 
stich which, on account of "iS?:n, was preexilic, and, on account of y\nr\ nvnnn, 
was not earlier than the reign of Josiah. Possibly both Pss. were from a 
common author, a companion of Jehoiachin. To these Pss. several glosses 
were added : v.*- ^- 8, all later than 1£ and all emphasizing temple worship, and 
therefore making the Ps. more suitable to public use. V.^^c is a vindictive 
conclusion suited to the Maccabean period. 

Str. I. A syn. tetrastich. — 2. Yahweh, my God'], emphasizing 
the personal relation to Yahweh as his own God. The archaic *El 
is for the ^Elohim usual in such combinations. It is improbable, 



PSALM LXIII. 73 

however, that it was to emphasize the original meaning, " strong 
one," as J, or that it was predicate as EY". after J^, 3 ; for the 
personal pronoun " Thou " was an interpretative insertion, making 
the Hne too long. — earnestly I seek thee'], as one rising with the 
dawn, cf. Ps. 78^* ; || thirst for Thee], cf. 42^ || long for Thee || faints 
for Thee ; with the simile of a dry land], greatly in need of rain, 
cf. Je. 4^^ Ps. 143^. This is explained by a gloss, "where no 
water is," interpreting the previous adj. as an additional attribute 
of land, so Vrss., " dry and weary land without water." — my soul 
. . . my flesh], the whole man. 

Str. II. Two antith. syn. couplets. — 3, 5. As in the sanctuary], 
in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem in my past experience. 
— so in my life], in my future experience. — / beheld Thee], ex- 
plained as seeing Thy strength and Thy glory], in the contempla- 
tion of public worship, cf. 29^ 59^^ 68^ 96^ In the future life will 
I bless Thee], in perpetual worship : || I will lift up my palms in 
Thy name], a gesture especially of invocatory prayer, cf. 28^ 141^ 
This Str. has been enlarged by two glosses. — 4. For better than 
life is Thy kindness]. Not only did they behold the strength and 
glory of Yahweh in public worship, but also His kindness ; and it 
was not only earnestly sought and thirsted after, it was better than 
life itself. This beholding of Yahweh in His temple was in oral 
worship : my lips laud Thee. As the former public worship was 
thus emphasized, so the future worship. — 6. As with marrow 
and fatness my soul will be satisfied]. Doubtless the poet is 
thinking of the sacrificial feasts which characterised seasons of 
rejoicing before God in the worship of the temple, cf. 22^ 23* 36^ 
It is true that the fat pieces of animals always went to the altar. 
The poet is not thinking of them, but of the flesh of the fat young 
animals which alone were suitable for sacrifice, where the fat meat 
was eaten by the offerers and their friends, together with bread 
and wine. But these provisions for the flesh had as their accom- 
paniment provisions for the soul also ; so that soul and flesh were 
alike and together satisfied. The glossator is evidently think- 
ing more of the satisfaction of soul, for he adds : and with lips 
of jubilation will my mouth praise]. This tautology of J^ is 
dubious, especially as it is not in (g, which omits " my mouth," 
and adds to the verb "Thy name." It is probable that both 



74 



PSALMS 



are explanatory additions, and that the original was, *' and my 
lips will praise with jubilation." 

Str. III. Two synth. syn. couplets. — When on my couch \ in 
the night watches']. Awake during the night in the excitement due 
to the thirst of soul and flesh, he counted the three watches as they 
passed, cf. La. 2^^. — / re7nembered Thee || was musing on Thee'], 
recalHng the joyous experiences of public worship in the temple 
described in the previous Str., and doubtless also the experiences 
of the strength and glory of God in private and public Hfe. — 
8. A glossator inserts a syn. couplet. For Thou art a help to me ; 
I rejoice in the shadow of Thy wings\ a statement only suitable 
to one enjoying the privilege of worship in the temple, cf. 17^ 36^ 
57^. — 9. My soul did cleave after Thee], in close adherence, not 
willing to be apart from God ; a phr. usual in connection with fol- 
lowing the divine word or commands, cf. Dt. 10^, also Ho. 6'; 
but here in the more personal relation, seeking comfort and 
strength. Yahweh also adheres closely to His servant. — on me 
did take hold Thy right hand]. The right hand of God is usually 
stretched forth with power against enemies, here with tenderness 
to sustain His servant, cf. 3^. 

The editor of IE added a fragment of a royal Psalm. 

As for them that seek (his) life, 

They shall go down into the nether parts of the earth ; 

They shall be delivered over unto the power of the sword ; 

A portion for jackals shall they become ; 

But the king will rejoice in God; 

Every one that sweareth by Him will glory. 

This little piece has a syn. tetrastich and an antith. syn. couplet. 
— 10. As for them that seek his life], to take the life of the king. 
The attachment of this part of the royal Ps. to the Ps. of personal 
experience led to the variation ** my soul," as referring to the poet. 
This line is intensified by a gloss : that he may go down into 
Sheol, the place of desolation, || nether parts of the earth, a phr. 
used in Ez. 26^ 32^^ -^ and subsequently Is. 44^ Ps. 139'^ for the 
deeper regions of Sheol. The enemies sought to send the king of 
Israel thither, but they shall go down thither themselves. Their 
descent, however, will not be that of ordinary death. They will 
be slain in battle. — 11. They shall be delivered over unto the 



PSALM LXIII. 75 

power of the sword\ It will be not in victory, but in defeat; 
for their bodies will be abandoned on the battle-field, a portion 
for jackals, which will devour them. EV'., " foxes," is erroneous. 
" It is the jackal rather than the fox which preys on dead bodies, 
and which assembles in troops on battle-fields to feed on the 
slain" (Tristram, Nat. Hist. Bible, p. no). — 12. On the other 
hand, the victorious king will rejoice in God, who gave him the 
victory ; and the people, every one that sweareth by Him, loyal 
servants, united in the oath of the covenant to God, will glory. 
A Maccabean editor appends to the Ps. a thought appropriate to 
the affliction of his time : The mouth of them that speak lies shall 
be stopped. 

2. ""Sn] divine name as ©, and not fortitudo mea of %. — nnx] ][^, J, not 
in ®, is a gl., making 1. too long. — T).nrN] Pi. impf. i sg., strong sf. zm.X {y\v) 
vb. denom. "inii' dawn (j7^), Pi. io seek with the dawn, early, earnestly 78'^* 
Ho. 5^^ Is. 26^ Pr. 8^'^. — np::] vb. a.\., cf. Ar. stem, be pale efface, weak-eyed, 
be blind, so ^DB. faint, S l/xeipeTaL aov, 3 desideravit, so S, ^. Ki. com- 
pares 3xn, Ra. niN. @ TrocraTrXtDs aoi, IS quam i7iultipliciter, 9 Troaaxws = 
nor, hoiv often, how long, not suited to context and improbable. — n^x'ynjs] 
phr. 1073s Ho. 2^ Je. 2^ 5012 5143 jg. 41I8 532 Ez. 1913 Jb. 2^0; f n;x n.f. with 
the same mng. desert land Is. 35I Zp. qP- Jb. 30^ Ps. 78^^ 105*1 (as only pi. 
dub.) ; drotight Jb. 24^^ — ^^'^■•'Sa f\>p'] phr. dub., makes 1. too long, and 
assonance in ■:\ missing. a^D'"»'7:j is expl. gl., so Ba. X^yy zd]. faint, zveary, 
as 143^, nD>57 rsj Je. 31^5 Pr. 25^^, so prob. Je. 4^1 (for nsiy). The simile 
no^i? pND 1438 dependent on n^yi n>-i y-ixa, therefore rd. here nD^>'i n>x pxj. 
Neglect of agreement of l.^V with its noun v-x, though justified by some, cf. 
K6.'^y"-§ 334 f., is improbable. The original of all is doubtless Je. 4^1 c. S. Ps. 
143^ has 'i' also, and r^ is demanded here for assonance. The i is an error of 
interpretation. The adj. agrees with iiio, and is therefore masc. So r^ in two 
previous lines should be at the end of 1. — 3. |~] has as its complement \-d v.^. 
These two couplets belong together in the tetrastich ; and v.* is a gl. — 
4. :iMn3p'^] Pi. impf. full form with sf. 2 sg. f [na'^y] vb. Aramaism, Pi. 
(i) laud, praise, elsw. 117^ 145* 147^2. ("2) congratulate Ec. 4^ 8^^^ Plithp. 
boast o/Ps. 106*'^ = I Ch. i635. — 5. isi^x] Pi. impf. i sg., sf. 2 sg., should be 
at the close of the 1. for assonance ; so r;DC3. The copyists did not regard the 
original order. — 6. nijn] pi. \^ip_ n.f. jubilation, elsw. loo^ Jb. 3'^ 20^, late 
form for nn (v. 77-^). — "'3"'?^n''] so 3, but @ aipiaet rb dvofid crov. It is prob. 
that •'D is late gl. of f^ to give vb. subj., and that t6 6vofid aov is gl. of (S to 
give vb. obj.; neither original. But the vb. 3 sg. is difficult in context of fem. 
nouns. The phr. nijj-i '•ncc' is a.X., and the syntax is difficult. We should 
prob. rd. '•PBti' as v.*. wd} is explan. gl. But even as emended this v. is a 
gl. to the original. — 7. Ti^nnDi'Dx]. This is prosaic order, and assonance 



76 PSALMS 

requires r\ at end of 1. Better euphony is also given by "^V'O^. dn when, as 78**. 

— •';?ix> sf. I sg. i.p. t [Vi^f;] n.[m.] spread, couch, as 132-^ Gn. 49^ (J) i Ch. 5I 
jb. 1713^ — nnDK'N] pi. t !T^ict*N n.f. a watch of night, elsw. 90* 1191^8 l^. 2^^. 

— njjriN] impf. frequentative. — 8. nnnu;] archaic f. form ; for better euphony 
with >% of. 3^ 6oi3. — 10. npni] emph. antith. — '^^''t^'?] is dub. nw^r n.f. 
desolation, V. 3^ || with fiNn nvnnna. | '•nnn adj. lower; f. n-rinn with pK 
Ez. 3 1 14- 16. 18, SiNC' Dt. 3222; n>nnn with S^\w Ps. 86i3; pi. m>nnn with nn 88^ 
= La. 3^ ; with ^-s^ elsw. Ps. 1391^ Is. 4423 Ez. 2620 yi^'^- 24, all referring to the 
deeper, gloomier regions of Sheol. So % Nnnnp*?. For nNia'% 3 interficere. 
® e/j fidrrju, V in vantirn, nvj'S (/^) is improbable. The form is, as Ba., 
an expl. gl. It makes 1. too long. "•Cfij is error of interp. for tt'Djn referring 
to the king v.^^. — 11. inn-'j:] Hiph. impf. 3 pi., sf. 3 sg. f ["^JJ] vb. Ara- 
maism. Niph. (i) be poured, spilt, as water 2 S. 14^*, of the eye with tears 
La. 3^^ fig. vanish Jb. 20-8; (2) be extended, of the hand Ps. 77^. Hiph. 
(i) throw down stones Mi. i^, (2) extend the wine cup to one Ps. 75^; phr. 
ain n> S;? elsw. Je. 1821 Ez. 35^; (S irapabodricovTaL els x"pas l>o/x(f)alas, BDB 
deliver over to. Hoph. ptc. Mi. i* of mts. melting in theophany. The vb. is 
pi. of indef. subj. The sf. vi, sg. for pi., is of dub. originality. It was not 
needed and was not in @. — D^Vrr] pi. fSyir. n.m.yV3:<r-^dr/elsw. Ne. 3^ Ju. 15* 
La. 5I8 Ez. 13* Ct. 2i^-i^ — 12. -)5d:] Niph. impf. f [">3D] vb. Aramaism for 
">JD Niph., be stopped, here of mouth, Gn. 82 (P) of springs. Pi. shut up, 
deliver up into the hands of, Is. 19*. The last half of v. is a pentameter 1. if 
not prose, and is a gl. 



PSALM LXIV., 3 OTi. 5^ 

Ps. 64 is a plaintive cry of Israel to Yahweh for preservation 
from enemies who slander and plot against him (v.^*"^'*), with the 
assurance that the plot will fail, because Yahweh will overcome 
them by their own tongues and make them a lesson to all men 
(v.'*'^*^). Glosses pray for hiding from evil companionship (v.*^), 
and express the assurance of the eventual joy and glory of the 
righteous (v."). 

J-^EAR, Yahweh, my voice in my plaint; 

From dread of the enemy mayest Thou preserve my life, 

Who do whet as a sword their tongue, 

Do aim their arrow, a bitter speech, 

To shoot in secret places at the perfect. 
gUDDENLY they shoot at him without fear; 

They strengthen for themselves an evil speech ; 

They talk to themselves of hiding snares ; 

They say to themselves : Who can see ? 

They search out injustice ; they have hidden a plot 



PSALM LXIV. fj 

TT is plotted, and each one draws nigh with a deep mind. 

Then Yahweh doth shoot at them : sudden is their wound; 
And He causeth them to stumble by their own tongue; 
And all that look on them wag the head, 
And declare His doing and His work consider. 

Ps. 64 was in ©, then in fH, !E, and ©E {v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 32, 33). The 
Ps. has three tetrameter pentastichs. It is a complaint of the community of 
the early Restoration, encompassed by petty enemies who slander them at the 
court of Persia. It has two glosses: (i) V.^, which is not in ^^^ and was 
probably inserted subsequent to the text on which @ was based ; (2) V.^^ 
uses m.-i", and was therefore subsequent to BE and probably also IBi^. 

Str. I. A synth. couplet and a triplet of two syn. lines and a 
third synth. thereto. — 2. in my plaint~\. Yahweh is called upon 
in prayer to hear the voice of His people in their perils, going up 
to Him in plaintive cry. — may est Thou preserve my life']. The 
life of the nation is in peril from enemies, who make themselves 
to be dreaded because of their craft and cruelty. — 3. A glossator 
enlarges upon these enemies as a council of evil doers] gathered in 
secret to plot their evil scheme ; || companionship of workers of 
trouble] \ cf. 2^ 55^^, which is to be preferred to the " insurrection " 
of PBV., AV., or the "tumult" of RV., JPSV., neither of which 
mngs. can be established, or suits the context. From these the 
Psalmist prays to be hidden. — 4. Who do whet as a sword their 
tongue y II Do aim their arrow]. Speech of a hostile character is 
compared to weapons of war, the sword and the arrow; so 55^ 
57^^59^- — ^ bitter speech], that which they make in slanderous 
hostility at the court of Persia against the feeble community of the 
Restoration, cf. v.^ — in secret places]. They are like enemies 
shooting from ambush, cf. 10^ 17^^ — at the perfect]. Israel as a 
people, in the unity of his organisation, is a man of integrity. 
His conduct has been unexceptionable towards the government of 
Persia and also towards these crafty foes. 

Str. II is stairlike in its advance, the first line resuming the 
thought of the last line of previous Str. and then explaining it in 
syn. parallelism. — 5. Suddenly they shoot at him], taking him by 
surprise from ambush, and accordingly without fear], because 
they have taken him altogether unprepared and unable to defend 
himself. This shooting is now explained as — 6. an evil speech] 



78 PSALMS 

resuming the " bitter speech " of v.*, which they strengthen for 
themselves'], giving one another mutual support, and fortifying their 
word by the number of false witnesses. — They talk to themselves || 
say to the7?iselves\ in their consultation, — of hidhig snares] that 
is, from the context, ensnaring words, of treacherous character. — 
Who can see ?] They persuade themselves that even the God of 
Israel will not see, cf. lo^^^^^. — 7a. They search out injustice\ 
diligently seek for something that they may wrest to their evil 
purpose, however unjust that would be. — They have hidden a 
plot]. This is the most probable rendering, and gives an appro- 
priate climax, though sustained by but few Hebrew codd. The 
ordinary reading is a difficult one, which may be explained either 
as "accomplished" AV., RV., or as "we are innocent" JPSV. ; 
but neither of these translations suits the context. 

Str. III. is also stairlike to Str. II. It is composed of an intro- 
ductory line, resuming the last line of v.^'*, and then of the anti- 
thetical couplet of divine retribution and a closing couplet showing 
its effect upon all observers. — 7i&. Each one draws nigh with a 
deep mind], so (^, U, taking the Hebrew form as vb. MT., fol- 
lowed by modern Vrss., takes it as noun : " inward thought of 
every one " || " mind," of which " deep " is the common predicate. 
But the connection is difficult, and the thought abrupt. The 
Psalmist now would say that the enemies have undertaken to carry 
out their treacherous plans. They draw nigh the Persian court, 
each and all of them, with their plan deep in their mind. But 
though it was hidden from Israel, it was not hidden from Yahweh, 
and He visits them with swift and just retribution before their 
plans become effective, cf. Is. 29". — 8. Then Yahweh doth shoot 
at them], in antithesis with the shooting of the enemy at Israel ; 
and this shooting is not only sudden as theirs, but it is effective, 
because it accomplishes their wound. "With an arrow" is an 
unnecessary explanatory addition at the expense of the measure. 
— 9. The divine shooting was also in the use of words. — He 
cause th them to stumble by their own tongue']. Their own words 
are turned against them to their own hurt : so I venture to amend 
the text. The text of J^ and the ancient Vrss. is corrupt and 
dubious as is generally agreed. All efforts to make good sense 
out of the text have failed. The humiliation is indeed in public 



PSALM LXIV. 79 

in antithesis with the deeply hidden craft. — All that look on them 
wag the head\ in scorn and derision, as RV., cf. 22® Je. 48^, 
which is to be preferred to another reading : " flee away " in 
horror, of AV., although modern scholars are very much divided 
in their preferences between the two. — 10. A glossator explains 
by the insertion of " and all men shall fear," at the expense of the 
measure. — And declare His doiftg], that is, Yahweh's, recognising 
the retribution as His. This is made more definite in the text by 
the insertion of the divine name for the suffix, making the line 
just this word too long. — His work consider'], observe, contem- 
plate, ponder it, reflect upon it and the lesson it conveys of warn- 
ing and rebuke, cf. Dt. 32^ Ps. io6^ — 11. This Ps. ends like the 
previous one, with a similar Maccabean gloss, expressing the con- 
fidence that the righteous || all the upright of mind, who seek refuge 
in Yahweh in their distress, will ultimately rejoice and glory^ cf. 

34' 63''- 

2. y^n] but ^roj more prob. The former unconscious substitution by a 
late copyist, owing to his interpretation of t'iJj as life. — 3. This v. is not in 
(@i^; it is of different measure from Ps. and is doubtless a late gl. — nc'jn] 
cstr. r\^r\_ n.f. a.\. ©"^^t ^t^^ irX-qOovs, U a multitudine, 3 a tumultu; but 
ace. to context, || 11D prob. companionship. Cf. 2^. — 4. nn ■\3n] phr. a.X.; 
should have retracted accent with i3"i for euphony ; so v.^". J np adj. bitter^ 
harsh, severe. Cf. Ju. i8"^^ Hb. i^. — 5. nn"''?] Qal inf. cstr. m^ (-^/^) with V 
purpose ; but Hiph. impf. with sf. 3 m. ini> v.^^, and D-};i Hiph. impf. sf. 3 pi. 
with 1 consec. v.^". The use of Qal in same Ps. as two Hiphs. with same mng. 
improb.; rd. rinhS. — J aN.72] as v.^ Disnc adv. suddenly. Cf. Is. 47II 48* 
Je. 4^0 626 + . — ix'T'^ nSi] Qal impf i.p. nt> with neg. having force oi without, 
in a circumstantial clause, Ges.^^^- ^^. S, Lowth., Street, Gr., iNni Niph. impf. 
nsi gives certainly a better parallelism, and is favoured by v.^^ — 6. "idS] 
archaic sf. with '^j reflexive. It is also required for measure and good sense 
after ncD", used in the weakened sense of speak, as 59^2 73^^. But "idS as obj. 
of nN-\^ is unexampled and improb. It should go with nrx. It has been mis- 
placed. — 7. irsn;:] Qal impf. 3 pi. X [c'on] vb. f Qal search out, think out, 
elsw. search for Pr. 2*, search, test La. 3*0 Pr. 2Qp. Pi. search, Ps. 77''. f Pu. 
be searched, v.''* as Pr. 28^2^ f ron n. [m.] a.X. device, plot ^DB. @ in second 
clause ^^epauvcDires i^epavv-^a-ei. = t'sn □'•t'dn, U, 3, scrutantes scrutinio rd. 
con O'lB'fjn, as Gr. But the 1. is too long. The former goes with previous 1. 
to complete it ; the latter as Qal pf. with subsequent 1. — ijon] is taken by 
Ba., Dr., al. as Qal pf, i pi. of onn for iron. But the sudden change of pers. 
is improb. De., Now., after (5, V, 3, 5*, take it as 3 pi. udp for icn Ges. ^o- 0. 
Du. follows several codd. Kenn., De Rossi, and rds. ijd£3, which is favoured 



80 PSALMS 

by v.®. — anpi] as 5^^ imuard part of man, 3 cogitationibus. But ® irpotrt- 
XeiJo-erat, U accedet = ^n,-! ^/ratt; «<far, as 27^. — 3S1] 1 of accompaniment. — 
JpDj;] adj. ^<r^/, inscrutable, cf. Jb. 12^2 Ec. 72-*. — 8. D>}] 1 consec. depen- 
dent on previous pfs. and thus sustaining them, unless we suppose a new 
clause begins here with different tense. @ koX uxJ/uOT^a-erai = cn^ is improb- 
able. — Dixno] ^ as v.^^ so 3 ; but @ vtjtIcjp = wht^si (79*) tAe simple, so U 
parvulorum. It is however improbable. — orsp] pi. c. sf. 3 pi. J nrn n.f. 
wound, blow I K. 22^ Ze. 136 Is. i^ Je. ioi»+. The v. is too long for one 1., 
two short for two. yn is unnecessary gl. ; not with vb. v^; so also i>n. — 
9. 'I!^'?''r3'j] Hiph. impf. 3 pi. 1 consec. It is improb. that 3 sg. and 3 pi. in 
same v. should refer to enemies. 3 et corruent in semetipsos Unguis suis, U 
et infirmatae sunt contra eos linguae eoncm, seem to have had no sf. but in>S>\ 
& Kol i^ovdivrjffav avrbv al yXCoaaai avrCou had the sf., but not lD"'Sj;; prob. 
1^ is conflation of the two. "iDiS;? Dy., Hi., Now., as 90^ is improb. The 
prop, reading is with Marti, Du., DJic^ "•Si? idS''C3»i. — n^^jn^] Hithp. impf. 
3 pi. dub. 3 fugient, Ges., Ew., Hi., ^DB, mj ^ee away in horror, Ba., Now., 
Du., Dr., Kirk., lu wag the head, cf. Je. 482'. 1 consec. should be prefixed 
as in previous and subsequent vbs. — 10. ^"^^'^"^ '^^y^i] is a gl., making the 
specific reference of v.^ too universal. — D'^hSn S^'ij] for an original 'iS>'c : divine 
name makes 1. too long. — 11. nin-'] evidence of gl. of 1., certainly not in £ 



PSALM LXV., 2 STR. 4^ 

Ps. 65 is an ancient song of praise in the temple at the time of 
votive offering (v.- ^), rejoicing in the privilege of worship there 
(v.'*), and admiring the wonders of Yahweh in nature (v.^ '^^^). 
A gloss makes this worship a universal privilege (v.^*) and these 
wonders a ground of universal confidence (v.*^). Another makes 
them an object of fear (v.^"). Another thinks of the covering over 
of transgression (v.**). Later editors add fragments of two harvest 
songs in different measures : the former (v.^^^^) with reference to 
the grain harvest, the latter (v.^^^) with reference to the richness 
of flocks. 

nrO Thee a song of praise is recited, Yahweh, in Zion ; 

And to Thee a votive offering is being paid, O Hearer of prayer, in Jerusalem. 

Happy the one whom Thou choosest and bringest near to dwell in Thy courts ! 

We shall be satisfied with the goodness of Thy house, the holy place of Thy 
temple. 
"l^ITH awful things in righteousness Thou answerest us, O God of our salvation, 

Who establishest the mountains by power, being girded with might; 

Who stillest the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves ; 

With Thy wonders the outgoings of the morning and evening Thou makest to 
jubilate. 



PSALM LXV. 8 1 

Ps. 65 was in IB and then in JH. But previously it was a I'-tt', cf. nSnn v.^. 
It was then in E and ©2^ (z^. Intr. §§ 24, 27, 31, 32, 33). The original Ps. 
was v.2-3«- 5. 6a. 7. 80. 96^ two pentameter tetrastichs, a hymn of praise to Yahweh 
in Zion, in peaceful times of the Restoration. Many codd. @ (HP), Comp., 
Aid., have cpdi] 'lepe/xiov Kal 'lefextT^X Kal rod \aov rijs irapoiKla^ 6t€ e/ieWov 
iKirope^ecrdat ; so 3L, U. But this is an impossible assignment. It was writ- 
ten for use in public worship in Palestine. The universalism of v.^*-^. 66. 86-9a 
is due to a later editor. Two fragments of harvest songs were added, possibly 
in 3E. The first, of five tetrameter lines, w.^^-^'^; the second, of seven trimeter 
lines, v.12-14. 

Str. I. has a syn. and a synth. couplet. — 2. To Thee\ em- 
phatic in position and repeated at the beginning of the next line. 
— a song of praise'], a hymn, as @, U, accompanying a votive 
offering, both specific and not general, " praise " and " vow," as 
EV^ — is recited], the most probable reading || is being paid, to 
be preferred to " silence," " resignation," J^, J, %, or " is becom- 
ing," "beseemeth," (^, S, F, which seems to be inappropriate 
paraphrase. The paraphrase of AV., RV., " waiteth," is still less 
justifiable. — 3. A later glossator, influenced by Is. 56^ 66^, gives 
this worship a universal reference by insertion of : unto Thee all 
flesh come, — 4. A still later glossator makes the Ps. more suit- 
able to ordinary worship by inserting a reference to the covering 
over of sins. — ^natters of iniquities], interpreted in the || as our 
transgressions. — have {they) prevailed over {its')], so @; been 
too strong for us and so overcome us, involving us in transgres- 
sion. 5^, J, have " over me," changing the person to pi in the 
second clause. If the original was singular, it is still the congre- 
gation that is speaking. But the plural is more suitable to the 
later period of the glossator. This clause is the protasis of the 
apodosis : Thou coverest them over]. This was in the later ritual 
accomplished by the sin offering ; but more frequently in \\i by 
the sovereign grace of God without sacrifice, cf. 32^ 78^ 79^ — 
5. Happy the one] ; cf. i^. — whom Thou choosest and bringest 
near to dwell in Thy courts], not referring especially to the Leviti- 
cal privileges in the temple, but more generally to all worshippers 
who have this right of daily worship as members of the sacred 
community, cf. 15^ 23^ 24^ 27'' 84^ — We shall be satisfied with 
the goodness of Thy house], the bountiful provisions made there 
for the body and soul of the worshipper, cf. 36^ 63^. — the holy 



82 PSALMS 

place of Thy te7nple\ not technically, the holy place as distin- 
guished from the most holy, the palatial reception room, to which 
only priests were admitted ; but, as usual in i/^, the holy place as 
identical with the temple in its more general sense as embracing 
the entire sacred enclosure, cf. 48^*^ 79^ 138I 

Str. II. A tetrastich of introverted parallelism. — 6-9. With 
awful things\ things or deeds of Yahweh inspiring awe, and so 
II with Thy wonders^y v.^; not miracles in the technical sense, 
although this word is often used for them ; but, as the context 
shows, the tokens or signs of the divine power in the control 
of the great forces of nature. — in righteousness\ not judicial, 
forensic, or legal; but, as usual in j/a, vindicatory and saving, 
and accordingly emphasized in O God of our salvation. — Thou 
answerest us\ responding to the prayers and worship of His 
people. — the outgoings of the morning and evening Thou makest 
to jubilate^ It is probable that this does not refer to sunrise and 
sunset, the East and West as the extreme limits of the earth, with 
universal significance; but rather to sunrise and sunset as the 
limits of the day, and so the goings out of morning and evening 
worship in the temple. These jubilate in the assurance that 
Yahweh has answered the prayers of His people with salvation. 
It is evident, however, that a later editor gave the former inter- 
pretation, for he inserts in v.^ the cofifidence of the extremities of 
the earthy and supplements by the isles afar off^ which by copyist's 
error appears in the text as " the sea of them that are afar off," 
certainly an awkward expression. — Who establishest the moun- 
tains by power']. The mountains are conceived in xj; as the strong, 
stable, and permanent parts of the earth, the most appropriate 
representatives of divine power, cf. 36'' 90^ Pr. 8^. — being girded 
with mighty passive or possibly reflexive, " girding Thyself with 
might," cf. 93^; that is, for so great a task. — Who stillest the 
roaring of the seas'], the other great representatives of power in 
nature, cf. 36^ 89^*^ 93^; defined more closely as the roaring 
of their waves. There should be little doubt that the origi- 
nal Ps. referred to the real seas || with the real mountains. But 
a later editor, wishing to give it figurative sense, interprets it 
as the tumult of the peoples, cf. 46', but at the expense of 
the measure. — Another glossator adds, and so the dwellers 



PSALM LXV. 83 

in the extremities (of the earth) fear. The power of God as 
put forth upon the sea causes universal fear. But this con- 
ception is not homogeneous to its context, or to the thought 
of the Ps. 

A fragment of a hymn for the grain harvest is now appended 
consisting of five tetrameters. 

Thou dost visit the earth, and water it, to enrich it. 

The brook of God is full of water. 

Thou preparest their grain, yea, thus Thou prepares! it, 

Its furrows saturating, settling its ridges ; 

Thou meltest it with showers, its growth blessest. 

— 10. Thou dost visit the earth"]. The poet conceives of God 
as coming Himself in the storm, and as really present and sending 
rain upon the earth, cf. Ps. 29 Jb. 38^^. — and water it], the 
most probable reading. By dittography of a single letter the text 
gives " makest it overflow," thinking of a drenching, flooding rain. 
— to enrich //]. The impf. subj. expressing purpose. This has 
been intensified by a later scribe, at the expense of the measure, 
by the insertion of the adv. "greatly." — The brook of God is 
full of water]. The sources of rain are here conceived in a 
superterrestrial brook or river, cf. Gn. i^ Jb. 38^, and being 
entirely at the disposal of God, it is especially His river; and 
as the source of all rain it is always full and never becomes dry. — 
Thou preparest their grain]. The grain harvest is prepared by 
God Himself; the sending of the rain upon the land is one of the 
most important parts of that preparation. — yea, thus Thou pre- 
parest it]. The particle has the intensive rather than the causal 
meaning. — 11. Its furrows saturating^ settling its ridges], that is, 
the ploughed field after planting. — Thou meltest it 7vith showers]. 
The land, which otherwise would become hardened and com- 
pacted by the baking heat of the sun, is kept in a soft condition 
by a succession of showers during the season of the early germina- 
tion of the grain. — its growth blessest]. This is the result of the 
whole process. The grain is blessed in its growth, and eventually 
comes to maturity in the harvest. 

The harvest song of the flocks is now appended in a trimeter 
heptastich. 



84 PSALMS 

Thou dost crown the year of Thy goodness ; 

And Thy tracks drip with fatness, 

The pastures of the wilderness drip; 

And the hills gird themselves with rejoicing; 

The (mountains) clothe themselves with flocks; 

And the valleys cover themselves with lambs; 

They shout for joy ; yea, they sing. 

— 12. Thoti dost crown the year of Thy goodness']. The year is 
a year characterised by the goodness, the beneficent care of God 
over the flocks of His people. Goodness is not that with which 
the year is crowned, or brought to its conclusion, as EV^ ; but 
the entire year has been a good year, and it is crowned by the 
rich and abundant flocks of the subsequent context. — And Thy 
tracks drip with fatness]. The tracks or footsteps of God, as He 
visits the land to bless it, drip with fatness, or rather with those 
refreshing, invigorating, and enriching showers which produce fat 
pastures and fat flocks. — 13. The pastures of the wilderness drip] . 
The wilderness in Palestine is the ordinary place for the pasturing 
of flocks. These are so rich that they themselves drip with fat- 
ness. — And the hills gi?'d themselves with rejoicing]. The hills 
of the wilderness are so rich in pasture that they rejoice in their 
richness, cf. 96'^"^-. — 14. The mountains]. This is the most 
probable reading, to be preferred to "pastures," J^, AV., RV., 
which is an awkward repetition, or "lambs," ancient Vrss., which 
gives a dubious sense. — clothe themselves with flocks]. Personi- 
fied, they put on as clothing flocks of sheep and goats so numer- 
ous as to cover them from top to bottom. — And the valleys 
cover themselves over with lambs]. The || suggests this rendering, 
although J^ and Vrss. all give "grain." — They shout for joy], 
resuming 1. 4, and in climax — yea, they sing. 

2. n*pt] n.f. silence, resignation (22^). But Vrss. except HL either ptc. as 
Aq. aicoirQa-a, 3 si/ens, or pf. (3 irp^irei = niNj ^, V, as 147', which latter is 
prob. paraphrase, although regarded as the meaning of Qal ptc. n»pT y/nD'\ 
{17^) by Ew., Bii., Du. This mng. has not, however, been sustained, although 
the syn. nir has it in late Heb. It is better in this early Ps. to cf. Ho. 12II 
HD"! recite a poem, and point here n^i Pu. 3 m. 113 codd. HP, @^- ^•'T, Compl., 
Aid., F, add D^tt'no; so Hare, Che.', PBV., justified by parall. — 3. r^if] Qal 
ptc. II Dv-iSs, for original ryyT)"^. (5, 'S, 3, imv., not so prob. It is the neces- 
sary complement of the previous 1. and does not go with the following clause, 



PSALM LXV. 85 

as f^, Vrss. This clause, a trimeter, is a gl. with a later universalistic refer- 
ence. — 4. nry nni] phr. a.X. matters or affairs of iniquities, (3 X6701 avbfjuav, 
3 verba iniquitatu77i. — ••^p] so Jf, sf. i sg. not suited to context. @ has 
^/(xas, UDC, so Gr., Du. But the whole v. is a gl., and it may be that the two 
parts of it had a different origin. The conception of forgiveness of sins was 
suitable for liturgical use of Ps. but is not in accord with the context of this 
hymn of praise. — 5. "'I'^n] pi, cstr. before relative clause, Ges.^^^-^ {y. /^). 

— ptt*:] Qal impf. final clause, Ges.i^)- ib. 2, — ^^l^fn] pi. sf. 2 m. J nxn n.m. 
enclosure, court, i// always of temple ; elsw. 843- ^ 92I* 96^ icx)* Ii6i9 135"^.— 
:)SD^■^ trip] phr. a.X. irni'^ >^(?/j///^(r<? of the temple, cf. qtS'ii'' '^'^''''^J* +• While 
a transposition is possible, cf. Aq. vaov 0,7101/ crou, yet most Vrss. have the 
order of |^, as @ 617105 6 >'a6s troy. But 3 sanctificatione tetnpli tui, as if 
rip. This is to be preferred with Ba., as best suited to previous clause and 
the vb. — 6. iwn] Qal impf. 2 m., present, not juss. as (S, 3, or future EV". 

— nN"\i>p] phr. elsw. 48^1 Is. 26^^. — ^■^prr\ dm] isnotin®^, but in @^- <=-a. r.t^ 
Jf maris longinqui. □■• is suspicious with following pi. Accordingly Gr., We., 
Du., rd. D-iiN, as Is. 66^^. If the 1. were original, the second half would be 
needed for measure. The omission of the second half in ©^ makes it suspi- 
cious. This opinion is fortified by its universalism, which is in accord with 
v.*^ but not with this temple Ps. as a whole. — 7. ^nbs] but ©, 3, ^hd, both 
sfs. interpretations, rd. n.^ || .■nuj. It is tempting to rd. with Gr. n33 nnxj, as 
Ex. 15^. — 8. t^cni] is attached by |^, 3, to previous clause as noun {37^^); 
by ® to subsequent clause, taking it as vb. rapaxdificovTai, U turbabunter = 
jian Qal pf. ry-:::.-^, (jg^). If original, the latter is to be preferred, as it makes 
a complete and harmonious 1. ; but it looks like an explanatory gl. — 9. -iNyn] 
"I consec. is not suited to context, unless with Dr. it is interpreted as result, 
Gegiii. 3b — T\\-ip_'] a.X. 1/', pi. r<-ip_ improb., esp. in view of v.^; prob. rT^Xi"?, cf. 
19'^. But it is strange that we have not yix tixp, as v.^. The whole of this 
clause is prob. gl. by same hand as v.^^, v.^. — rr'nn'iNr:]. p gives the ground 
and reason, not of the fear, but of the rejoicing. It goes with the subsequent 
context to complete the measure and is |1 niNiij, which begins the Str. % ^^** 
n.m. (l) sign, token, 86^'^; (2) sign, wondrous deed, miracle, 74^ 78*^ 105^7 
1359, so here; (3) standard 74*-*. Other mngs. not in •^. — "'N^f'iD] as 19"^, 
cf. 75'^; refers to the dawning sun, but cannot refer to the evening, which is 
a place of entrance, not of outgoing. — 10. npnirni] i consec. Po. impf. \pw 
Hiph. overrun, overstream, Jo. 2^* 4I3, Polel causative, cause to overflow, a.X. 
here ; but Vrss. all take it as if npE'ni, and prob. this is the correct reading, 
the double p being dittog. It is possible, however, that they interpreted ppy) 

— rspMi^ V. j6^. — n3"^] adv. as 120^ 123^ 1291-2, but (5 i-rrX^dwas n^a-i fol- 
lowed by impf. of purpose. This certainly best explains the impf., nj-^is'^'n 
Hiph. of '^V'; (cf. 49^"^) with strong sf. 3 f. The 1. is, however, pentameter, 
like the previous context, when it really goes with the subsequent context, 
which is tetrameter. n2"i is therefore to be regarded as a gl. of adverbial 
intensification. The assonance in n_ begins with this 1. and continues through 
v.ii. — DJJi] sf. interp., not in S ; so Lowth., Street. — 11. ninSn] pf. sf. 3 sg. 



86 PSALMS 

foSn n.m. furrow^ elsw. Jb. 31^8 3910 Ho. 10* 1212. — nn] Pi. inf. abs. yjryyy 
(j6^), so nm y'nm (/<J^). — 7'^i''J] defectively written pi., sf. 3 f. fnj fur- 
roWf ridge, cutting, elsw. Je. 48^^ cuttings upon hands. — f O^'P"!] def. written 
pi., copious showers, elsw. 72^ Dt. 32^ Mi. 5^ Je. 3^ 1422. — n^jjbn] Po. inipf. 
2 m., strong sf. 3 f. jid. — nnp>*] sf. 3 f . t n?:^ n.m. sproutins^, growth, as Je. 23* 
= T^-^^ Zc. 3^ 6^2, It should close the 1. for assonance. ¥.1*^11 give five tetrame- 
ters, a fragment of another Ps. added to the previous one. — 12. njK*] cstr. 
sg. njr, so @ ; but 3 and EV«. take it as abs., which is inadmissible. — I'^DiP"*''] 
full form 3 pi. Qal impf , v. v.^^. f [l^"^] vb. trickle, elsw. d^r^/, of clouds 
Jb. 352?, dew Pr. 320. Hiph. trickle Is. 458. — 14. D>nr] pi. n3 n.m. dub., of. 
3720 ; usually pastures, but 3 a^wzj g^eges, @ 0! icpioi twv wpo^dTuv. But 
context suggests Dnn, as Hare, Street, Iloub. — loa;*'] Aramaism f 1^i*» elsw. 
']'^ put on, cover oneself with, || ca':'; (S 'K'\i]Qvvov<nv, U abundabunt, 3 plenae 
erunt. — f-^:ij n.m. grain, as 72I6 Am. 5" S^-s Gn. 4186.49 428-25 ^^aa (£) 
Je. 2328 Ju. 224 pr^ 1 126^ But although sustained by ancient Vrss., it is difficult 
to see a sufficient reason for passing over from flocks to grain. The most 
natural word in |1 is ona lambs, which by copyist's error went into previous 
1., so making a double difficulty. — i;;;?^-(n^] Hithp. impf. 3 pi. pn, v. 41^^, 



PSALM LXVI. 

Ps. 66 is composite : (A) A song of praise to Yahweh (v.^~^-^ 
for His ancient deliverance of Israel at the Red Sea (v.^), His 
watch over the nations (v.^" ^), and His present protection of His 
people (v.^) ; with glosses emphasizing this praise (v.*), represent- 
ing how awe-inspiring His deeds are to enemies in particular (v.^) 
and to mankind in general (v.^) : and warning the refractory (v/''). 
The editor of IE adds a reflection upon severe trials through which 
the nation has passed before Yahweh brought them forth into 
safety (v.^^^^). (B) A prayer connected with rich and abundant 
sacrifices in the temple in fulfilment of vows made in time of dis- 
tress (v.^'^^^), a grateful public acknowledgment of the deliverance 
God had wrought in answer to prayer (v.^^^^^^^o'^^ ^ftiih a gloss 
intimating that the Lord would not have heard, if the people had 
contemplated wickedness (v.^^). 

A. v.^^2. 6-76. 8-9^ 2 STR. 2\ RF. 2». 

^HO UTto ( Yahweh) all the earth ; 

Make melody unto His name in a song of praise to Him, 
Who turned the sea into dry land, 
That they might pass through the flood on foot. 



PSALM LXVI. 87 

ITETallthe earth worship Yahweh.) 

^ Let us rejoice {in His name with a song of praise to Him), 
Who ruleth by His might forever : 
His eyes over the nations keep watch. 
nLESS ( Yahweh) , ye peoples ; 

And let your voice be heard in a song of praise to Him, 
Who setteth us in Hfe, 
And doth not suffer our foot to be moved. 



B. V/"^ , 2 STR. f. 

T WILL come into Thy house with whole burnt offering: 

I will pay my votive offerings to Thee, 

Wherewith my lips opened, 

And which my mouth spake, when I was in distress. 

Fat ones will I cause to ascend to Thee, 

Together with the incense of rams. 

Bullocks together with he-goats. 
pOME, hearken ; and I will tell 

What He hath done for me. 

Unto Him did I call with my mouth, 

And high praise was under my tongue. 

Verily (Yahweh) heard; 

He attended to the voice of my prayer. 

He did not turn away His kindness from me, 

Ps. 66 is a Ps. of f^, % and 133^ (v. Intr. §§31, 32, 33). It was originally 
a n^tt*, and also a nSnn v.2- 8^ a n^on v.^^- 20 (^p, §§ i, 24). In ® dmo-Tcio-ews, so 
U, because of liturgical use as a Ps. of the Resurrection ; certainly not 
original. It is one of the two Pss. of 132^, 66-67, which were not in ©, M, ^. 
It is indeed a composite Ps., /i v.^-^, B v.^^-^o^ with many glosses. The original 
n^B*, nSnri, was probably only A, and was composed of three trimeter tetra- 
stichs. It resembles the royal group 96-100 in tone and style, though simpler 
and earlier. It is doubtless postexilic, and belongs to peaceable times because 
of its optimistic universalism. Y.'^^~^^ is a beautiful trimeter heptastich, seem- 
ing to be a complete strophe of a longer Ps. describing severe national afflic- 
tions and deliverance from them. It is in the style of Is. 2 and was earlier 
than v.2-9. It was probably added to the previous Ps. in fH. V.^^-^o is a 
temple Ps. of two trimeter heptastichs, certainly composed in Palestine in con- 
nection with sacrificial worship. It was doubtless later than the other two 
pieces, and may have been added to them by SK. The glosses are of vari- 
ous kinds. V.^ is a pentameter couplet, implying a divine judgment upon 
enemies; of uncertain date, but cf. 81^^ for similar use of vb. B'HD. V.* is a 
confused line, modified to suit its present context ; but originally the intro- 
ductory couplet of the 2d Str. of the Ps. V.^ is a tetrameter couplet, the first 
line of which was taken from 46^. It was certainly inserted subsequent to v.*, 
separating it from its original connection with \.K VJ<= has a word used 



88 PSALMS 

elsw., Ps. 68''- 1^ cf. 78^, and probably was inserted under its influence. V.^^ is 
a late qualifying insertion, expressing a legal attitude. V.200 is a liturgical 
ejaculation, adapted to its context. Probably none of these glosses were 
in 35 or IBIfit. 

PSALM LXVI. A. 

The three Strs. have each a syn. couplet of the nature of a Rf., 
a summons to praise ; and a synth. couplet giving the reason. 
1-2. Shout to Yahweh \ make melody unto His name"] evidently 
from the context in public worship in the temple. The call 
appears as a couplet at the beginning of each strophe in variant 
terms. Bless Yahweh || let your voice be heard v.^ The sec- 
ond Str. has lost its introductory couplet through the insertion of 
the glosses v.*^; but probably it was transposed and transformed, 
and should be worship Yahweh v."** || let us rejoice in His name 
v.^. This call is emphasized by a glossator in v.^ by attaching (in 
J^, not in (^) glory to " His name," and by inserting (in both f^ 
and (§) make glorious \ both at the expense of the measure. 
Moreover, the transposition of the Rf. of Str. IL into connection 
with v.^ made it necessary to change the 3d pers. into the 2d pers. 
— in a so7ig of praise to Zi'/';;/], a temple hymn; repeated in v.* 
and probably also in the missing Rf. — all the earth\ v."**, prob- 
ably in missing Rf. || peoples, v\ The author conceives of Yahweh 
as the God of the whole world and of all peoples ; and of the 
religion of Israel as a universal religion in which all men share. 
The reason for this universal praise is given in the second couplet 
of the Strophes. — 6. Who turned the sea into dry land'], referring 
to the passage of the Red Sea by Israel when he went up out of 
Egypt, cf. 74^3 78^^ based on the narrative Ex. i^"^^"^- is^\—That 
they might pass through the flood on foot\ probably referring to 
the same event, because of the subord. impf., and not to the sub- 
sequent passage of the river Jordan. The attachment of v.^ to 
the foregoing, occasioned the textual error which compels the ren- 
dering There let us rejoice in Him]. This is usually explained 
out of the consciousness of the unbroken continuity of national 
life. But throughout this Ps. the author is addressing the nations, 
and not the Israehtes either of the present or of the past, or in the 
unity of their national hfe. — 7. Who 7-uleth by His might for- 
ever], the universal Ruler whose dominion extends also through 



PSALM LXVI. 89 

all time. It is tempting to think with J, 2E, Calv., Hi., of D71^ 
in the sense of " age of the world," but this meaning is much later 
than this Ps. and the vb. requires the prep, and not the ace. — 
His eyes over the nations keep watch]. As Kirk., " He is the 
world's watchman, sleeplessly on the watch lest any foe should 
injure Israel ; " but also, as the context implies, in watchful care 
of the nations themselves, who are summoned to praise on that 
account. — 9. IVho setteth us in life'], not referring to the birth 
of the nation or the individual ; but to the preservation of the life 
of the nation and deliverance out of peril to Hfe. — And doth not 
suffer our foot to be moved], of the firm establishment of the 
nation, cf. 55^. A later editor, in an entirely different spirit from 
that of the author of the original Ps., who evidently lived in peace- 
ful times of friendUness to the nations, expresses his own unfriend- 
liness to them by inserting a warning at the close of v/ — as for 
the refractory], cf. d^'-^'^, also 78^; those obstinately resisting the 
divine rule and refusing to take part in the worship of the uni- 
versal ruler. — let them not exalt themselves], " their head " or 
" their horn," cf. 3'' 75^. — Probably the same hand inserted 
3. Say to God: How awe-inspiring are Thy works f] cf. 64^^ — 
Because of the greatness of Thy strength Thine enemies come cring- 
ing unto Thee], cf. 18*^ 8i^^ — Another and a later hand inserted 
5 a similar thought from 46^", Come afid see the deeds of God ; 
and a variation of 46^^, Awe-inspirifig in doing unto the children 
of mankind. 

V.^^^^ is probably a Str. taken from a larger Ps. and added by 
the editor of 15. 

Though Thou hast tried us (Yahweh), 

Refined us as silver is refined ; 

Didst bring us into a net, 

Didst lay constraint on our loins ; 

Didst let men ride over our head ; 

We went through fire and water : 

Thou didst yet bring us out into a spacious place. 

This heptastich has six syn. lines in protasis, preparatory to a 
single line in apodosis. — 10. Thou hast tried us], explained in || 
as silver is refined. This simile of the testing of affliction is 
common in OT., cf. Is. i^^ 48^^ Je. 9^ Ze. 13^ Mai. 32- 3. — 11. bring 
us into a net] Jb. 19*^, cf. Ez. 12^^ 17^, favours the more general 



90 PSALMS 

reference rather than the specific reference to a net spread by 
enemies, Ps. 9^^. — Didst lay constraint on our loins'] . The loins 
are the seat of pain, Is. 21^ Na. 2^*^, and weakness, Ps. 6(f^. — 
12. Didst let men ride over our head]. They were thrown down 
in the highway, so that chariots were driven over them, cf. Is. 51^. 
We went through fire and water] as the climax, summary state- 
ment of trial, cf. Is. 43-. — Thou didst yet bring us out] from all 
these afflictions, into a spacious place], as ancient Vrss. ; a place 
where, free from all restraint, they had breathing space, ample 
room, and liberty of movement, cf. Ps. 18^. EV. ''wealthy 
place," based upon text of J^, is not so well suited to context, and 
improbable. 

PSALM LXVI. B, 

Str. I. Five syn. lines enclosing, after the first two, a synth. 
couplet. — 13-16. I will come into Thy house\ for pubhc worship 
in the temple. The nation is speaking in its unity, and not a 
priest or king as an individual. — with whole burnt offering], the 
usual sacrifice to express public worship. The whole burnt offer- 
ing consisted of votive offerings. This is more suited to || than 
" vows " of EV" ; for the entire Str. has to do with whole burnt 
offerings, which are then described as/<^// oues, the choicest, fattest 
animals, rams, bullocks, he-goats, representing the best of the 
herds and the flocks, in great numbers such as were appropriate 
only for a national sacrifice. These the nation says / will pay], 
that which was vowed. — Wherewith ?ny lips opened |1 which my 
mouth spake, when I was in distress] in a time of national trial 
from which they had just been delivered. — will I cause to ascend 
to Thee] in the flames of the altar ; as is evident a whole burnt 
offering, but a glossator inserts this at the expense of the measure ; 
so also in the next line / will offer, which was sufficiently evident 
from the incense of rams], the sweet odour of the burning flesh, as 
I S. 2^ Ps. 141^ Is. i^^, and not the incense of fine spices burnt at 
the altar of incense. 

Str. II. is composed of a synth. couplet, a syn. couplet, and a 
syn. triplet. — 16. Come, hearken; and I will tell]. The usual 
vow to tell of the divine deliverance, publish it, make it known to 
the public, to all the world, cf 22=^ ^-^^ ^^s ^qIoh^ ^ 1^^^,. gi^g. 



PSALM LXVI. 91 

sator limits the general reference to a particular class : all ye that 
fear God; but the measure does not allow it. — What He hath 
done for me] in delivering me out of the distress of v.^^ The 
^trSi is as usual a poetic expression for the person, and does not 
refer to the soul as distinguished from the body. — 17. Unto Him 
did I call with my mouth'] in time of distress ; not merely a plain- 
tive prayer for help, but with an assurance of speedy deliverance. 
— high p7'aise\ expressed in a hymn of praise, anticipating the de- 
liverance. — was under my tongue], ready to burst forth in speech. 
— 19-20. Verily Yahweh heard] ^ emphasizing the fact which is 
expressed in syn. clauses as He attended to the voice of my prayer, 
and He did not turn away His kindness from me]. The latter is 
explained by a glossator by the unnecessary insertion of prayer, 
and the former is emphasized by the exclamation Blessed be God! 
The Vrss. render the adverb, " but " instead of " verily " ; because 
of the insertion by a glossator of the qualification : 18. If I con- 
templated wickedness in my mind, the Lord luould not hear]. This 
is from a more legal point of view than that of the author of 
the Ps. 

LXVI. A. 

2. "'DC' iijd], © has only iDtt'. The phr. is suspicious. It looks like a varia- 
tion of "I13D iD^c which in archaic Heb. would differ only in order of words. 
The text is a conflation of two variants. The original was in'rnn iDtr net. 
So V.8 has two 11., not three. — 3 has two pentameters and 2d sg., and is 
therefore a gl. — 4. "^S nspi] is a duplicate of ^Dtt' ncr\ There is no good 
measure or propriety in this duplication. The latter prob. goes with v.K — 

6. cn^N ni'7;?DD IN-11 idS] This 1. is tetrameter, a citation from 46^'* except 
iNit for irn and o^nSs for rnn>. The second 1. is also tetrameter, and a varia- 
tion of 46^^. This V. is a late gl. — 6 returns to 3d pers. and continues v.2 
giving the theme of the hymn of praise. — "^on] But (3, B, ptc. as v.'''- ^ more 
correct. — n^r] Q^^- impf. is subjunctive after ion, expressing purpose. — 
"13 nnnrj uv] is an abrupt change in tone improb. in the original between 
y,6a. h and v.'^. As the previous and subsequent Strs. begin with a couplet of 
universal praise, we would expect one here. It is prob. that this couplet is 
only obscured in v.* and v.^*, verses which originally were together before the 
insertion of v.^. The couplet was prob. therefore 

nnctfj is cohort, i pi., and can hardly be used with reference to the past. — 

7. D^')D,''D['] Qal ptc. pi. X inD vb. de studdorn, rebellious, elsw. pi. 68^- ^^ sg. 



92 PSALMS 

788. — 'id'? 'id">i>-'?n] Kt. Hiph. juss. with B'Nn or j'yp to be supplied in thought, 
and 10*? dativus commodi ; Qr. Qal ian\ — 8. "U'^nSN] for D''n~?N original 7\yr\> as 
v.i. — 9. Uw'Dj] so 3, but @, U, ■'iT'DJ; the same difference in 1:*?^"*, ^>r\', both 
variations of interpretation of an original cd:, Sj-i. — 10. The 2d pers. begins 
here and continues through v.^- in trimeter 11. It is a fragment of an inde- 
pendent Ps. — 11. t ^'^"'^p] n«f- «^/ spread by hunter as Ez. 12^^ ly-^, so here 
6, 5, ^, U; fig. /r^y Ez. 1321. Aq. 2, ST, Quinta, /r/.y<?«, cf. Ez. 19^ so 
Luther, Ba.; but this latter in yp always of God as refuge, v. 18^. npvic] n.f. 
a.X. compression^ distress, i9DB., (S dXlypeis, V tribulationes, % siridorem, S 
kijkXuo-lv. The form is prob. error for r\p^MiT2 25!'^. — J Q^jPr] n.m. dual /oins 
as seat of strength and weakness, as 69-*. — 12. !^')1^] to satiety, as 23^; but 
rd. prob. •"'njl'^ as ® els ava\pvx'nv, IS, 3 refrigeriu7n, also % ^"^T^^.y <S irnn 
S e^/)uxw/)fai', Gr., Houb., Horsley, Ba., Che., al. 

LXVI. 5. 

13. A change to ist pers. introduces still another Ps. which continues to 
v.*^. — 16. □"H"'?] fully written for □"'n? as Is. S^"^ fat ones. ni^;j is prob. a gl. 
of explan. making 1. too long. — % •''!?^r] "-f- usually incense ; but here, as in 
Is. i^*^ I S. 2'^, the earlier mng. of odour of sacrifice, cf. Ps. 1412. d^'^'n] pi. 
J^N n.m. ram, the animal as skipping, 114*- 6; as a victim offered in sacri- 
fice here as commonly in OT. — J "\|"J3] n.m. usually generic cattle, here as 
often specific oxen, sg. coll. — 16. "i>rc' id"^] two Qal imvs. without conj., 
emph., with apod. ^'^}^'^> Pi. cohort, i p. — d-'hSn] But ® /ciJptos implies >jnK, 
as v.^^, is most prob. original, and favours the opinion that both clauses are 
glosses. — 17. "•?] second subj., cf. 3^ — Dp''"<] Polal on he was extolled. But 
Ges., Hu., Now., Che., Ba., Bu., BDi9., 1 27p"i-i n.[m.] extolling, high praise, song 
of praise, as pi. ^x PT^n 149^. Gr. rds. here '^ncD)n, the final n having been 
omitted by txt. err. because of initial n of next word. This is most prob., 
only rd. nirr:n, the sf. being unnecessary. — 18. ps] emph. in position ; but 
whole V. a qualifying gl. as ""Jin makes most prob. — 20. ns'N d\"iSn "ina] is 
doubtless a liturgical gl. It destroys the measure. ''rSon is also a gl. 

PSALM LXVIL, 3 STR. 53. 

Ps. 67 is a summons to all nations to give thanks to Yahweh 
(v.*^"^) and do reverence (v.^), because His salvation is made 
known to all through the divine benediction of Israel (v.^~^) ; He 
governs all nations in equity (v.^*-*), and He blesseth Israel with 
a fertile land (v.^). 

YAHWEH, be gracious to us, and bless us, 
Make His face shine toward us, 
(And give peace to us) ; 
That Thy way may be known in the earth. 
Thy salvation among all nations. 



PSALM LXVII. 93 

T ET the peoples give Thee thanks, Yahweh ! 

Let the peoples, all of them, give Thee thanks 1 

Let the nations be glad, let them jubilate ; 

For Thou governest the peoples with equity, 

And leadest the nations in the earth. 
T ET the peoples give Thee thanks, Yahweh ! 

Let the peoples, all of them, give Thee thanks ! 

The earth hath yielded her increase. 

Yahweh our God blesseth us ; 

Therefore let all the ends of the earth do reverence. 

Ps. 67 was first in fH, then taken up into 35 and ©2^ ; but it was com- 
posed at an earlier date as a T'::', which expresses its character (z^. Intr. §§ 24, 
31, 32, 23)' In 193^ it was assigned to be sung D:^n2 (v. Intr. § 34). It 
presupposes the blessing of the high priest, Nu. 6^"^^, which it paraphrases in 
V.2; but not necessarily the document P in which that is contained, for the 
priest's blessing is much more ancient than P, and was one actually used by 
priests before the Exile. O has t^j Aaveid after "iidtc, omitting i"-'^', but that 
is improbable. nrjij3 is also incorrectly rendered iv vfivois in ©. The uni- 
versalism of the Ps. resembles that of 66^"^, and presupposes Is."'^ and a time 
of peace and friendliness with the nations subsequent to Nehemiah. 

Str. I. A synth. triplet and a syn. couplet. — 2. The priestly bene- 
diction Nu. 6^'^-'^ is turned into a petition of the nation for itself, 
and therefore in varied terms, cf. 4^ 29'^ 31^^ 8o*-^-^, It is there- 
fore improbable that the third clause was omitted in the original ; 
all the more that it is needed to complete the Str. We must add 
the line omitted, probably for abbreviation in writing, An^ give 
peace to us. — 3. That Thy way'], defined as Thy salvation, in the 
more general sense of blessing as in previous and subsequent con- 
text, and not in the more specific sense of salvation from evils. 
— may be known], that is, mediately, through the blessing of 
Israel. — in the earth || among all nations. 

Str. II. A syn. triplet and a syn. couplet. Str. III. A syn. 
triplet enclosing a syn. couplet. — 4. Let the peoples give Thee 
thanks], repeated for greater emphasis; so also at the beginning 
of the next Str., v.^, the first line giving the person to be thanked, 
Yahweh, the second emphasizing the peoples by all of them. 
This thanksgiving is still further emphasized in Str. II., v.^, by 
let the nations be glad and let them jubilate], and in the last Str., at 
the close of the Ps., v.^*, by Therefore let all the ends of the earth 
do reverence~\. — The reason for this thanksgiving in Str. II. is 



94 PSALMS 

V.**- '^•y Thou governest the peoples with equity || leadest the nations 
in the earthy in providential government of the world. The rea- 
son in Str. III., v/, is as in Str. I., v.^, the divine blessing of 
Israel, especially in a fruitful harvest : The earth hath yielded her 
increase, 

4. ^"f^''] bis, also v.^ bis. Hiph. impf. 3 pi. n-it (y. Intr. § 39) with sf. 2 m. 
in f^, iJ, but ® has sfs. only v.^, and not v.* It is prob. that they were not in the 
original, but are in all cases interpretative. — 6. onjn] Hiph. impf. 2 m. sf. 
3 pi. nnj (5^). — 7. nSo^] sf. f. \ So> n.m. produce of" soil, as 78*^ 851^ Dt. 32^2 
Ju. 6* Hg. i^^. — irn^N cn^N]. The original was certainly ij\nSN mn\ This 
makes it evident that the Ps. was older than 15. — 8. dviSn "UDri^'l is dittog., 
later than !5. — ^r^N] makes the 1. too long ; is interpretation of a late scribe 
at the expense of the measure. 



PSALM LXVIII., 8 STR. 6^ 

Ps. 68 is an ode, not based upon any particular historical vic- 
tory, but upon the victories of Yahweh in the long history of 
Israel. (i) A reference to Yahweh's rising up in theophany, 
causing His enemies to perish, to the great joy of the righteous 
(v.'^^). (2 ) A summons to praise Him who interposes in the- 
ophany on behalf of orphans, widows, and prisoners (v.^*'). (3) A 
reference to the theophanic march through the wilderness, with the 
divine provision for His afflicted people (v.*""). (4) A reference 
to the theophanic interposition at the Kishon, with the great 
slaughter of the enemies and the rich booty for His people (v.^^^). 
(5) The selection of Zion for the divine abode, and the theophanic 
entrance into the sanctuary (v.^^^^). (6) The crushing of the 
enemies in the subsequent wars, probably of the reign of David 
^y 22-24 j^ (7) The triumphal processions into the sanctuary 
^^25-26.28^^ (8) Final petition for deliverance from the world 
powers and their dependent peoples (v.-''"^ ^^). Many minor glosses 
emphasize various features of the ode, insert ascriptions of blessed- 
ness to Yahweh (v.^-^ ^ ^ ) , and predictions of the homage of kings 
to Yahweh in Jerusalem (v.'°). A late editor adapts the Ps. to 
liturgical use by adding Messianic prediction (v.^), invocation 
to public praise (v.^^^''), and finally adoration of the God of Israel 
in His sanctuary (v.^ '') . 



PSALM LXVIII. 95 

Ty HEN Yahweh arises, His enemies are scattered ; 

And them that hate (Yahweh) flee from His presence. 

As smoke is driven away when (the wind) driveth, 

As wax is melted from the presence of fire, 

The wicked perish from the presence of Yahweh ; 

But the righteous are glad, exult with gladness. 
CING to Yahweh, make melody to His name. 

Lift up (a song) to the One riding on the clouds of His heaven. 

Exult before Him, the Father of orphans. 

And Judge of widows in His holy habitation, 

Yahweh, who bringeth home the soUtary ones, 

Who bringeth forth prisoners into prosperity. 
YAHWEH, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people, 

When Thou didst march in the desert, the earth trembled. 

Yea, the heavens dripped at the presence of Yahweh 

A copious rain upon Thine inheritance. 

If it were weary, Thou didst establish it, Yahweh. 

For Thy living creatures Thou providest, for the afflicted, Yahweh. 
■^XrORD is given ; the women are heralding war. 

The king doth strive ; armies flee ; 

And the beauty at home divideth the spoil. 

The dove on the wing is covered with silver, 

And her pinions flash with yellow gold. 

But (when the vulture spreadeth her wings), it is like snow on Zalmon. 
Q MOUNT of Yahweh, fertile mountain ! 

Mount of summits, fertile mountain! 
Mount Yahweh desired for His throne ! 

Yahweh, Thou didst ride in Thy chariot from Sinai into the sanctuary. 
Thou didst ascend up on high. Thou didst lead captives captive. 
Thou didst accept gifts, to dwell among mankind. 
YAHWEH will crush the head of His enemies. 
The hairy scalp of the one going on in his faults. 
Yahweh said : " I will recompense them in Bashan. 

1 will recompense them in the gulf of the sea, even I ; 
That the foot may be bathed in blood ; 

And the tongue of dogs may have its portion of the same." 
'T'HEY see Thy processions, Yahweh, into the sanctuary. 

The singers go before; behind the musicians; 

In the midst damsels playing on timbrels. 

There is little Benjamin, the conqueror; 

(There) princes of Judah, a heap of them; 

Princes of Zebulon, princes of Naphtali. 
YAHWEH, command Thy strength for us, 

Strengthen what Thou hast done for us. 

Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds, Yahweh ; 

The assembly of bulls with the calves of peoples; 

Trampling in the mire the favoured ones, refined as silyer. 

Disperse the people that delight in war. 



96 PSALMS 

Ps. 68 was originally a n^r, an ode, when it was taken up into 19. It was 
then in {M, and subsequently was used in E and IBM (v. Intr. §§ 24, 27, 31, 
32, 33). It has many glosses from different editors. It is based on several 
older poems, (i) Ju. 5, the song of Deborah : v.^®, the theophanic march 

JU. 5*-5; V.13, cf. Ju. 530 ; V.l*, Cf. Ju. 5 16; y.^^, cf. Ju. S^^i V.22, cf. Ju. 526; v.28, 

cf. Ju. 5I8. (2) Dt. 3^, the Blessing of Moses : v.^*- ^, cf. Dt. 3326- 28, also Ps. 
18"; V.18, cf. Dt. 332. (3) Nu. 10=55, the Song of the Ark, cf. v.2. (4) The 
Ao/y habitation of v.^ depends on Dt. 261^ Je. 25^^. (5) The representation 
that Yahweh is the Father of orphans and Judge of widows is Deuteronomic. 
(6) The triumphal procession into Zion is a later development of Ps. 24. The 
reference to prisoners and solitary ones v."- ^^ implies the prison of exile. 
The wild beast of the reeds Egypt v.^i, assembly of bulls used of Assyria and 
Edom, probably refer to the Eastern world powers. The calves of peoples 
probably refer to the lesser nations cooperating with them. All this implies 
a peril of the Jews between the East and the West, which was no less than 
their being trampled in the mire. Egypt, however, seems to be the chief 
enemy, as in Ps. 80. The peril was not from minor nations alone, as in the 
early Restoration, but from great ones as well. The reference to the Sanctuary 
V.18- 25, and the mountain of the throne of Yahweh v.^", as well as to the temple 
procession with songs and stringed instruments, implies thoroughly organised 
temple worship, and therefore a date later than the erection of the second 
temple. The combination of these situations favours the late Persian period, 
when Persia and Egypt were at war, about 360-350 B.C. 

The tributary gifts of kings v.^, and the restoration to Yahweh of Egypt 
and Cush v.^-, are glosses of a prophetic character based on Is. 18" 19I6-25 23I8 
446 60, 662^- 21. All the uses of n^ v.^- 19 and >jnN v. 12- is. 20. 21. 23. 27. 33 are redac- 
tional ; also the call '\y\i v.20- 27. 86, and many Aramaisms and late uses : nnniD 
v.'^- -^^j nx"\ vPy cjjaj v.i'^, x^iv "^ijSn v.^^, pi>'in;D v.21, nisxin v.21, ni^n|iD v.2^. 
The following a.X. and strange forms are all errors of copyists: v.'^ nncia a.X. 
for nnciD ; v.^* D\nDC a.X. for DTOtt'C ; v.^^ nc cne a.X. for nti trie ; v.^^ 
\vi nn for '\V'\ nn ® ; v.^i nra for nio ; vP" D^jctt'n a.X. for '•jd Dcn. Apart 
from these glosses and errors there is no reason for dating the Ps. later than 
the closing years of the Persian domination. 

Str. I. Two syn. and an antith. couplet. — 2. When Yahweh 
arises\ a use of the marching song of the ark Nu. 10^; and so 
the ode begins with the march from Horeb. Yahweh was con- 
ceived as present in theophany with the sacred Ark. He arose in 
the pillar of cloud as a signal for the march ; and when enemies 
obstructed the way, they were overcome by His divine presence. 
EV. follow MT in the translation " let arise," as if the verbs were 
jussive, making the Ps. begin with a prayer, when really it is in the 
form of an ode, and the impfs. are graphic description of the 



PSALM LXVIII. 97 

march from Horeb. — His enemies || them that hate Yahweh \ the 
wicked, v.^], usual terms to indicate those who were both the ene- 
mies of His people and the enemies of their God. — are scattered || 
flee from His presence || perish from the presence of Yahweh, v.^], 
in disastrous, overwhelming defeat and slaughter. This is illus- 
trated by two intervening similes. — 3. As smoke is driven away], 
of. 37^ Ho. 13^, but especially Ps. i'*, which suggests the original 
reading, — when the wind driveth~\. By the omission of the noun 
by an early copyist at the expense of the measure, an anomalous 
Hebrew form has come into the text, which probably rests upon 
ancient variations of reading, one of which is followed by EV. in 
the imv. "drive them away," making a premature departure from 
the simile. — As wax is melted from the presence of fire], cf. 97* 
Mi. i^ These similes suggest that the theophanic presence of 
God is that of a thunder storm with a strong blast of wind and the 
fire of lightnings, cf. Ps. i8^"^^ — 4. But the righteous], the people 
of Yahweh in antith. with their wicked enemies, — are glad || exult 
with gladness] , in the victories of Yahweh. A glossator emphasizes 
this at the expense of the measure by inserting : exult before God. 
Str. II. Three syn. couplets. — 5. Sing to Yahweh, make mel- 
ody to His name], a summons to public praise || lift up a song to 
Him, so S, ^T; PBV. "magnify" ; AV., JPSV. "extol," which the 
parallelism demands, though it is a rare poetic meaning of the 
verb. The more usual meaning is given by (^, J, RV., " cast up a 
highway," which does not suit the context. — The One riding on 
the clouds of His heavens], the most probable original of a difficult 
verse in accordance with the conception of the theophanic 
chariot 18" Dt. 33^^. An early copyist mistook the Hebrew word 
"clouds" for another meaning " steppe, deserts," which nowhere 
else is used with the theophanic chariot ; and that made it neces- 
sary to interpret the word rendered " His heavens " as if it were 
the same as the word at the close of the previous line, "His 
name," and this occasioned the insertion of the divine name 
" Yah." —6. The Father of orphans]. Yahweh is the father of 
the fatherless || and fudge of widows], their vindicator against 
injustice; both Deuteronomic conceptions, cf. lo^"* 146^ Jb. 31^^18 
(z;.Br.^-^-^-'«5).— /« jji^ holy habitation], the heavenly temple, 
as Dt. 26^^ Je. 25^. — 7. Who bringeth home || who bringeth forth]. 



98 PSALMS 

These are different phases of the same action ; for the solitary 
ones are those shut up alone in prison || prisoners^ and they are 
brought out of prison to their home, their own houses || into pros- 
perity^^ the reenjoyment of the privileges of home in their native 
land. It is quite possible that the poet is thinking of the deliver- 
ance from Egyptian bondage ; but he uses terms which are more 
suitable to the time of the captivity in Babylon. It is probable 
that the two historic events were mingled in his mind. A glossator 
added the line : Verily the stubborn abide\ remain, abandoned by 
God, who had released the faithful prisoners, either in a parched 
landy as EV^ and most interpreters, referring then to the wilder- 
ness of the wanderings ; or possibly, by another explanation " in a 
dungeon," referring to the prisons of the Exile or of Maccabean 
times. 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 8. When Thou wentest forth before 
Thy people || didst march\ the theophanic march of Ju. 5*^. — in 
the desert'], from Sinai to Palestine. — 9. the earth trembled], in 
earthquake, as usual in theophanies Ex. i()^^^ Ps. i8^'*^- Hb. 3^*^. 
— Yea, the heavens dripped], in the theophanic storm, — at the 
presence of Yahiveh], His theophanic presence in the storm 
clouds. A glossator inserts from Ju. 5* : Yon Sinai at the presence 
of God, the God of Israel. But this gloss separates the verb of the 
previous line from its object in this Hne, and so makes the con- 
nection of thought obscure. — 10. A copious rain upon Thine in- 
heritance], a theophanic storm with thunder and lightning and 
heavy rain, usually mingled with hail, cf. i8^'^^. A glossator, 
misunderstanding the line as an independent sentence, and taking 
the preposition for a divine name, inserted a verb at the expense 
of the measure, which is rendered in EV. " send," without suffi- 
cient justification. JPSV. "pour down," -5DB. "shed abroad," 
are better suited to the context, but are speculative meanings, 
without authority in usage. — If it were weary], emphatic in 
position, referring to the inheritance. — Thou didst establish it], 
strengthen it ; remove its weariness and make it vigorous. — 11. For 
Thy living creatures], as Vrss., including man and animals of the 
inheritance, connected with the verb. Thou providest, and || for 
the afflicted], these living creatures when afflicted with need. But 
the insertion, at the expense of the measure, of the gloss, probably 



PSALM LXVIII. 99 

a relative clause, " that dwell in it," has been the occasion of 
another interpretation in modern times, taking the initial noun in 
an ancient meaning, "community," sustained only by a single 
passage, and the inserted clause as a principal clause, and so 
getting the rendering, "Thy community dwelt therein." This is 
certainly a very weak outcome of a passage of a Ps. which else- 
where is strong and vigorous. The glossator also inserted " in Thy 
goodness," certainly an unnecessary explanation. 

Str. IV. A synth. triplet, and one composed of a syn. couplet 
with an antithetical line. — 12. Word is given'], indef subj. equiva- 
lent to the English passive; but a glossator prefixed Adonay ; as 
if God were the subject and He gave the message or command, 
which does not at all suit the context. — the wofnen are heralding 
war]. Women fleeing before the advancing armies herald their 
approach for battle. A misunderstanding of the proper place of 
division of the lines put the measures in confusion, and occasioned 
the rendering "great host," as if there were an army of women 
with these tidings, which is unexampled in usage and impossible 
in reality. — 13. The king doth strive]. The reference is certainly 
based on Ju. 5 and the battle of the Kishon. The king is doubt- 
less the king of Canaan. He is graphically described as striving 
in battle with Israel. By mistaking the verb for an adjective and 
attaching it to the previous hne the noun was left without a verb 
and it was necessary to attach it to the following noun, which then, 
as the two are followed by a plural verb, had to be given as a 
plural ; and so J^ gives us, " kings of armies flee." But in fact, as 
the subsequent context shows, it is the armies which flee. The 
repetition of the verb in emphasis is against the measure and im- 
probable. — And the beauty at home divideth the spoil]. So (^, 
U, J. This is evidently based on Ju. 5^, where the reference is to 
the mother of Sisera, here to the fair wives and daughters of the 
victors of Israel. It is a mistaken interpretation of the initial word 
to render it, as EV'., "she that tarrieth at home." — 14. A glos- 
sator inserts, probably at first on the margin, from Ju. 5^^ the reproof 
of the Reubenites for their neglect to take part in the holy war : 
"Will ye lie down among the sheepfolds?" This has made the 
passage difficult, and indeed a crux of interpretation ; and there 
is no agreement among commentators. De. thinks of Israel as 



100 PSALMS 

God's turtle dove basking in the sunlight of prosperity ; but this 
is certainly against the context. It would be more suited to the 
citation from Ju. 5^® to think of a reproof of those Israelites who 
preferred to live the peaceful life of the dove in her cotes to the 
perils of war; but why then the emphasis upon silver and gold? 
Before I saw that v."" was a gloss, it seemed best, Br.^^^*^, to 
think of these words as carrying on the words of the messengers 
summoning the people to arms : ** the winged dove is covered 
with silver " ; that is, if you would share in the spoil, you must not 
remain in the dovecotes, but take flight to the battle-field. But 
the removal of the gloss removes the difficulty of interpretation, 
and makes evident the reference to the fleeing enemy. — The dove 
on the wifig~\. The fleeing armies are compared to a dove fleeing 
from its enemies — is covered with silver || her pinio7is flash with 
yellow gold\ the brilliant colours of the dove in the sunlight as 
she wings her flight from her enemies, a metaphor of the spoil of 
gold and silver abandoned by the fleeing armies in their tracks. — 
15. But when the vulture spreadeth her wings']. The victorious 
Israelites, pursuing the defeated and helpless fugitives, are com- 
pared to a vulture flying after a dove. An early copyist, by 
dittography of tT, substituted for the Hebrew word " vulture " the 
divine name "Almighty," which made it necessary to give the 
verb the meaning " scatter " without justification in usage, and to 
supply the object " kings," and the place " in it " all at the ex- 
pense of the measure and to the confusion of the sense. — // is 
like snow on Zalmon\ The silver and gold colours of the dove 
in flight have as their antithesis the snow-white colour of the bones 
of the slaughtered army, as they have been picked clean by the 
vultures. Zalmon is the still unidentified place where the bones 
of those slain in battle were so thickly spread that they seemed 
like snow covering the ground. Those who retain the present 
text think, some of a theophanic snow storm, others of a com- 
parison with snow of glistening armour dropped in flight (cf. Horn. 
//. XIX. 357-361), or of bleached bones on the battle-field (cf. 
Vir. Aen. V. 865, XII. 36), and still others of "snow-flakes swept 
along by a hurricane," Kirk. 

Str. V. A tristich of two syn. and one synth. line, and a tristich 
with a single line whose first part has its syn. in the second line. 



PSALM LXVIII. 10 1 

its second in the third line. — 16-17. Mount of Yahweh\ de- 
scribed as fertile mountain and as Mount of summits, of many 
rounded peaks, and still further as Mount Yahweh desired for His 
throne, can be no other than Mount Zion. But the change in 15 
of " Yahweh " to '' Elohim " made it possible to think of " moun- 
tain of God " as a gigantic mountain, cf. 36'', and then more 
naturally of the giant peaks of Palestine ; and so by an easy 
copyist's mistake in late texts of J^ " Mount Bashan " takes the 
place of " fertile mountain " of the ancient Vrss. The many peaks 
were then conceived to be those of Bashan instead of the several 
hills of Jerusalem ; and it became necessary to explain the antith. 
between the gigantic Bashan and the mount of the divine resi- 
dence by the gloss : *' Why hop ye " PBV., " leap ye " AV., better 
"look askance," RV., JPSV., "ye mountain of summits?" A 
glossator also emphasized the perpetuity of the divine residence 
by inserting the clause : " Yea, Yahweh dwelleth for ever." — 
18. Yahweh, Thou didst ride in Thy chariot from Sinai into the 
sanctuary']. This seems to be the original of a line which has 
been so expanded by glosses that there are no measures left and 
the meaning is most difficult. This Str. represents that Yahweh 
took possession of His permanent residence in the sanctuary of 
Zion by a theophanic ride from His earlier residence in Sinai. 
The errors and insertions of copyists made the present text, the 
best translation of which is that of Dr. : " The chariots of God are 
twenty thousand, even thousands redoubled ; the Lord is come 
from Sinai into the sanctuary." This lays the stress upon the 
angelic army of God. But a more strict adherence to MT. gives 
in the last clause, " Sinai in sanctity " ; that is, making the new 
residence in Zion as sacred as ancient Sinai. — 19. Thou didst 
ascend up on high ; Thou didst lead captives captive], based on 
Ju. 5^^. This is the victorious ride of Yahweh on the heights of 
battle-fields, rescuing captive Israelites from their enemies and 
leading them in triumphal procession to the sanctuary. It is a 
general reference to all the triumphs of Yahweh from Sinai until 
the erection of the temple by Solomon and the taking up the 
divine residence there after its consecration. — Thou didst accept 
gifts], gifts of tribute from enemies, especially of offerings from 
His people made at the sacred place. — to dwell among mankind], 



102 PSALMS 

in order to dwell in His temple among mankind, in antith. with 
His heavenly abode. A glossator inserted " even the stubborn " 
to emphasize the fact that the divine residence in Israel was not- 
withstanding the stubbornness of the people in their historic rela- 
tion to Him ; and this made it necessary to insert the divine name 
" Yah " and its Qr. " 'Elohim." An editor, thinking of a liturgical 
use of the Ps., inserted at this point an ascription of blessedness 
to Yahweh : 20-21. Blessed be Adonay day by day, who beareth 
burdens for us, the God of our salvation. God is unto us a God 
to save. To Yahweh Adonay belong escapes from deatli]. The 
reasons for the praise of God here given are general, and not in 
accord with the context of this warlike Ps. They are : (i) that 
Yahweh bears the burdens, cares, anxieties of His people ; (2) gives 
them salvation from enemies and troubles; (3) is their hope for 
escape from death. 

Str. VI. has three syn. couplets. — 22. Yahweh will crush the 
head || the haity scalp'], cf. Ju. 5^ Hb. 3^^ Yahweh will trample 
under foot and stamp upon the heads of the prostrate foes, putting 
them to the most extreme humiliation. — His enemies || the one going 
on in his faults], persisting in offences against Him and His peo- 
ple, until they have heaped up a vast store for retribution. — 
23. Yahweh said:], in resolute determination, — I will recom- 
pense], repeated for emphasis. This meaning is required by 
previous and subsequent context ; although it is possible to render 
with PBV., AV., after ^T, *' I will bring again (my people)," or 
with RV., JPSV., leave the object indefinite and think with many 
moderns of a pursuit of the enemy in order to bring them back to 
the sacred place for punishment. But the thought of the restora- 
tion of Israel here, though favoured by the preposition " from," is 
an intrusion, however suitable it might have been for public wor- 
ship ; and the preposition was doubtless an error of interpretation. 
The thought of bringing the enemies back from their places of ref- 
uge to a place of judgment in Jerusalem is not sustained by Am. 
9^, which is a pursuit in order to slay them wherever found. — 
Bashan || gulf of the sea] are accusatives of place, and, as suggested 
by Am. 9-"^, indicate in antith. the lofty peaks of the mountains 
and the depths of the sea as places where the enemies have fled for 
refuge ; but in vain, for the divine retribution overtakes them even 



PSALM LXVIII. 103 

there. — 24. That the foot may be bathed in blood\ the blood of 
the slain enemies flowing like a stream. — and the tongue of dogs 
may have its portion of the same'], lapping up the blood as predatory 
dogs do in Palestine. The explanatory gloss " of enemies " impairs 
the simplicity of the thought as well as the measure. 

Str. VII. Synth, hexastich. — 25. They see], people generally; 
indef. subj. equal to passive "are seen." — Thy processions, Yah- 
weh], the triumphal processions of the victorious Yahweh. — unto 
the sanctuary], entering the holy city, ascending the holy hill, and 
entering into the courts of the temple. This has been intensified 
by a glossator at the expense of the measure by the repetition : 
processions of my God, my King. — 26. The singe is go before, 
behind the musicians, in the midst damsels playing on timbrels]. 
The procession is preceded by the temple choirs, the singers and 
the players on stringed instruments being separated by the damsels 
playing on the timbrels. These latter from the earliest times took 
part in triumphal processions, Ex. 15^. This was not strictly a 
temple service. MT. should be rendered " in the midst of the dam- 
sels," as RV., the damsels marching on both sides of the singers 
and musicians, so Kirk., but we cannot rely on the pointing of MT., 
and such an order of procession is improbable. The editor here 
introduces another ascription to God. — 27. In assemblies], pos- 
sibly choirs, 26^^. — bless ye Yahweh Adonay, the fountain of 
Israel], cf. Je. 2^^ 17^^ Ps. 36^^ By dittography of an ancient 
scribe the text arose, " from the fountain of Israel," which must 
then be interpreted as RV. : " ye that are of the fountain of Israel," 
genuine sons of Jacob, cf. Is. 48^ 51^-^ Dt. 33^ — 28. There], 
graphic, an onlooker pointing to the place, — is little Benjamin, 
the conqueror], doubtless referring to Saul of Benjamin, the first 
king of Israel, — princes of Judah, a heap of them], the numerous 
princes of the line of David, — princes of Zebulon, princes of 
Naphtalf], representative of the northern tribes. The omission of 
Ephraim and the trans-Jordanic tribes is a sufficient evidence that 
the onlooker is only mentioning a few of the tribes, and that he 
does not attempt to describe the entire procession. 

Str. VIII. A syn. couplet and a syn. tetrastich. — 29. Yahweh, 
command Thy strength || O strengthen]. Imperatives, as (^, S, 
F, 2, ST, J, and not pf., as J^, followed by EV^, "hath com- 



104 PSALMS 

manded," which is inharmonious with the imperative that follows. 
The final Str. is a suppUcation, based on the ode, for divine vic- 
tories in the time of the Psalmist also. ^ interprets incorrectly 
by adding the sf. " Thy " to " God," and compels the interpretation 
of ** Thy strength," as referring to the strength of Israel, which is 
contrary to the parallelism. — w/ia^ Thou hast done for us\ in the 
history of Israel as set forth in the previous context of the ode. 
An editor introduces here a prediction with Messianic significance : 

30. Because of Thy temple at Jerusalem to Thee kings will bring 
prese?its\ based on Is. 60" ^i- 66-^ cf. Hg. 2^ Zc. 2"'"i- 6^^ S^i^J-.— 

31. Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds~\, the hippopotamus, Egypt ; 
cf. Ps. 80^* Jb. 40-^ ; " company of spearmen," PBV., AV., has no 
justification whatever. — the assembly of bulls'], the eastern nations 
under the dominion of Persia, — with the calves of peoples']^ the 
lesser tributary nations, cf. Je. 46^- ^^ — Trampling in the mire], 
under foot in arrogant, overwhelming force. Israel was ruthlessly 
trampled under foot in the mire by these nations traversing her 
territory to war upon one another. — the favoured one s\ the people 
having the divine favour, though they are refined as silver, cast as 
it were into the furnace of affliction, to come out as pure silver 
with all the dross removed. This indicates very severe affliction 
of Israel by Egypt and her allies. Glossators, misunderstanding 
this difficult clause, after the omission of an important word, left 
it in such a state that it has always been a crux of interpreters 
and Versions. PBV., " so that they humbly bring pieces of 
silver," AV., " (till every one) submit himself with pieces of 
silver," RV., "trampling under foot the pieces of silver," JPSV., 
" him that submitteth himself offering bars of silver," are only 
specimens of well-nigh universal disagreement, making it evident 
that the fault is with the text. — Disperse the peoples that delight 
in war], all these warlike nations, Egypt, Persia, and the nations 
under her dominion. The imperative of (^, S, F, J, followed by 
AV., is demanded by the context rather than the pf. of MT., fol- 
lowed by PBV., RV., JPSV., whether interpreted as referring to 
the past or as a prophetic perfect. These Vrss. are all the more 
to be followed if the Ps. originally ended here. 

A later editor made the Ps., as he thought, more appropriate 
for common use by adding v.^^^^. These verses have varied con- 



PSALM LXVIII. 105 

tents. — 32. Swift messengers will come out of Egypt\ the most 
probable rendering of a difficult passage after ancient Vrss. 
" Princes " of EV^ cannot be sustained even by the erroneous 
form of 5^ due to dittography. JPSV., " Hashmanim " leaves 
the word untranslated and without meaning. — As for Cush~\, 
Biblical name of Ethiopia, — his hands will run out to God, in the 
gesture of supplication. This is a prediction of the conversion of 
Egypt and Ethiopia in accordance with Is. ig'^^^'^- 43^ 45^^^ Ga'^'^- Zp. 
3^^. — 33-36. A universal summons to praise. — 33. Ye kingdoms 
of earth~\, all of them, — sing to God~\, take part in the public wor- 
ship in the temple in Jerusalem, cf. 96^^- 97^ 98^ 99^ ^"i-. — 34. Lift 
up to Him that rideth upon the ancient heavens'], based on v.^ and 
Dt. 33^^. A later glossator prefixes as an interpretation : make 
melody to Adonay ; and still later the original verb is interpreted 
as Selah. A glossator emphasizes the theophanic ride of Yahweh 
in the heavens by the usual reference to the thunder storm : Lo ! 
He uttereth with His voice']. — 35. The summons to praise con- 
tinues : with a strong voice ascribe strength to God], with loud 
praise of vocal and instrumental music ; and probably also thinking 
of the blowing of horns, with blasts of the sacred trumpets — 
Whose majesty is over Israel, and whose strength is in the skies]. 
God in His theophanic ride is conceived as majestic and strong in 
the skies ; but as Dt. 33^*^ it is all for Israel, in Israel's behalf, that 
the theophanic ride has been made. — 36. Awe-inspiring in His 
sanctuary'], as ancient Vrss. The change to the second person 
in J^, followed by EV^, is improbable. The earthly sanctuary is 
here in antith. with the heavenly. — the God of Israel], emphasis 
upon the peculiar relation between God and His people, — Giver 
of strength and great might to the people]. The strength that He 
exhibits in His theophanic ride in the heaven is bestowed upon 
His people on earth. The Ps. concludes in its present form with 
the liturgical phrase : Blessed be God, cf. v.^- ^. 

2. Dip>] Qal impf. indicative, not juss. D|"» of Vrss.; so isid^ (-^S^^), idiJJ 
(60^), not future, but temporal clause and apod, without conj., as frequent 
in poetry. The v. is adapted from Nu. 10^^, the marching song of the ark, 
where nrip Qal imv. cohort, is used with 2 pers. sfs. and 1 with the shortened 
forms 1X£3"', ■"iDj'>; and n)r\\ which here, as throughout this Ps., was the original 
of d^hSn of IE. In other respects the sentence is the same. The measure 



I06 PSALMS 

requires nin> >jdd for vjdd, as v.^*^. — 3. 1'^?'??] MT. is an anomalous form, 
prob. an ancient variation of reading between injn and *li:n, the latter 
favoured by || D.?np (22^^) and the masc. ]V';_^. r]-\ir) cannot, from context, be 
2 m., but 3 f., implying n)^, Bo. as 7-4, which indeed is required for measure. 
The clause is then a temporal clause. — 4. D"'nVs >jdS •ix'^y^] makes difficult 
measure. It is essentially the same as vjdS vSyi v.^, except that yh-; for tS;? 
is an improbable variation in the same Ps. Besides, cn^N ■•jdS is tautological 
immediately after 0\-i'7N ""Jij^. It is therefore prob. txt. err. or gl. of amplifi- 
cation. — 5. i^d] Qal imv. J ['^Vd] vb. Qal cas^ up a highway Je. 18^^ Is. 57I* 
62^", so (5, iJ, and most here ; but \ justifies lift up (a song), so &, ^, Street, 
Gr., cf. Pilp. exalt Pr. 48 and Hithp. exalt oneself Ex. 9I' (J) BS. 392* 4028; 
cf. also n^D {v. Intr. § 41). — 3?"^] Qal ptc. 3r^ as i8^i, cf. v. 84, all theo- 
phanic. — no;^;;] so ®, 3, pi. J n^-^y n.f. steppe, not elsw. i/', but Je. 2^ 17^ 50^2 
Is. 33^ + ; not suited to theophanic chariot ride, therefore with Gr. rd. no;j, 
as Is. 19I Ps. 1048; cf. V.8* 18^'^ Dt. 33"^. — ^DU' no] is dub.; usually ex- 
plained as 3 essentiae^ Ges.^^*- ^, with pj abbreviated ni,T», cf. n^ v.i^ (z/. Intr. 
§ 32). Hare, Dy., Oort, Du., rd. in::'.:', which is better suited to context; 
Gr. xav wia is improb., the vb. does not in any way correspond with letters 
of text, which is sustained by all Vrss. These words, according to the meas- 
ure, go with the previous 1., which needs another word. V.^ suggests VDC, 
as Dt. 332*, which interpreted as ir^* would lead to the insertion of n"<3. — 
VJdS vS;*] so 3', but @ has d7aXXia(r^e ivibinov avTOx) - rapaxOT^o'oirrat dir6 
xpoffdiTox) ainovy which is evidently a conflation of xhy and lun. But the 
latter is an error not suited to the context. — 6. t ?'^l] Ti.va. Judge, as i S. 24^^ 
— ;D>n^N] makes this 1. too long. It has come up from v."**, where it is needed. 

— ir-j,-^ I7c] as Dt. 26^^ Je. 25^^ Zc. 2^7 2 Ch. 30^7, cf. .?6«. — 7. 3>c^M:] Hiph. 
ptc. TVy so ©, 3. But Lag., Ba., Du., ^"'S'd Hiph. ptc. nw \\ n^xid is more 
probable. Then □n'-n'' {22^^) are solitary ones \\ D>n''D»s pi. f "i'P«< n.m. pris- 
oner, elsw. 69=^ 79II 10221 ,0710 Gn. 392^- 22 (Qr. J) Is. 1417 Zc. 911- 12 La. 38^ 
Jb. 3I8, cf. Ju. 1621-25 (Kt.). — nnc^^r] a.X. pi. [n-jc^^r] n.f. prosperity, ^DB. 
But -y/irD Aram, and the form improb. ^v ivdpelqi, U 3, m fortitudine, 
S e/s d7r6Xi;(rt»', e/s eiduTrfffiv, all lead to an original n"lntt'^D pi. abstr. of 
nc''0 =r n^r-'p 26^2^ level place, condition of prosperity, as 26^2^ rj. also 1C3. 

— 3^'^^''D~"^n] Qal ptc. pi. as v.^^ 66"^. But @ 6/xoius tovs vapairiKpaivovTas, 
V similiter eos qui exasperant — Dn-\::, cf. Ex. i^*; v. y?^, where the phr. is 
in @ Kol 7A/) a.ir^iBovvri%. 3 has increduli autem y?, insuper et non cre- 
dentes v.^^. — '^i^"'?^] a.X. BD^. n.f. parched land, (5 ^v rd0ois, U z« sepulcris, 
prob. tn"*"!^ n.[m.] underground chamber Ju. 9*6.49.49 j g. 136; or possibly 
t ""Of piU as La. 420 Ps. 1072^ = nnr, 3 m siccitatibus, cf. n^it ^ ns 632, — 
This 1. is prob. a late gl., qualifying the previous context. — 8-9 is a conden- 
sation of Ju. 5*-^. — riOv' '•JdV] takes the place of -\^r"i^, generalising the first 1. 

— qivxn] Qal inf. sf. 2 m. with 2 temporal, of the march of Yahweh, as Ju. 5*; 
cf. Hb. 312. — p::^ro] takes the place of ons niB'D. J TD-'C'^ n.m. wastes 
wilderness, as Dt. 32!*^ Pss. 78*"^ 106^* 107* Is. 43^^:20. — »!«] in place of dj 
of original. The subsequent lines were condensed by the omission of 



PSALM LXVIII. 107 

iStj ann o^a leaj o^t; dj between ictoj o-'Otr and nin> ""jij?:, which were re- 
tained, only nin^ was subsequently changed in IE to d^hSn as elsw. f H^^J ^'b. 
Qal o'rc*/, drip, here as Ju. 5* Jo. 4I8 Ct. 4" 56- 13 Pr. 58, intrans. Jb. 292^. 
Hiph. idem Am. 913, of speech c. i'; Am. f^, ^n Ez. 2i2- 7, s Mi. 26- n.— 
^rp nr] introduces a 1. too long for the measure, making the Str. too long. 
It is a gl. from Ju. 5^ The lines of Ju. are thus reduced to three in Ps. — 
10. X ar.:)] n.m. rain, shotuer, lof-^ Gn. 7I2 8^ (J) +. — 00-^:] v. 5/, @ Uoi- 
o-(oi/. — fi>j;n] Hiph. impf. 2 m. J i^J t Qal besprinkle Pr. 7!^ (couch with myrrh), 
Hiph. swing to and fro, wave, in the ritual for the presentation of the priest's 
share to God, often in P. @ dcpopieh, Aq., O ; 3 elevasti for the syn. ::i-''\r^, so 
^ ncnN. But i>DB. gives with hesitation a mng. corresponding with Qal, 
shed abroad, here only. Lag., Gr., Now., Du., rd. ^iHori Hiph. ^6i drip. The 
vb., however, requires '^x or *?;? for the second obj., and if this is supplied it 
makes the 1. too long ; for ^nSm belongs with this 1. as (S, and the 1 with hnSj 
in 1^, (5 (not 3), attaches it most naturally to the next 1. The divine name 
D"'n'?N makes the first 1. too long, and is needed in the second. A copyist 
probably mistook Sn for Vn and wrote it D-ihSn, and then omitted the D'tiSn 
of the second 1. The force of the vb. iDt3J was then carried over from the 
l)revious 1. to this. — '^^^}\\ Niph. pf. 3 f. sg. % hnS Qal, Niph. prot. of temporal 
clause, be iveary Is. i^* Je. 9* 20^ -f-, (S koX -fjad^v-qaev. 3 interprets as ptc. 
laborantem, which would strictly require article. Ols., Now,, would prefix it. 
— 11. n7*^n] dub., @ TO fwi <jov, so ^, U, 3, atiimaiia tua, cf. v.^^; so Hu., 
De., Pe., with various explanations. But most moderns think of f ^''Jl n.f. 
community, as 2 S. 23^^; so essentially Ges., EV^, Hi., Ri., Ols., Du., Ba., 
Dr., Kirk., Now., but not sufficiently sustained by a single passage. — n3"i2kr^] 
seems to be an expl. gl., m. pi. vb. when subj. is f. sg. ^r-^vja is also a gl. of 
amplification. With these removed, the difficulty of explaining rir^n in its 
ordinary sense disappears. It is the ace. of vb. ^on with ^ pers. •'jy'? || nxVj, 
and then refers to the animals, not with Hu. the quails as complementary 
to the manna of previous clause ; but as the rain suggests grain, so the liv- 
ing creatures, cattle large and small, are provided for. — 12. ••jin] is dub., 
makes 1. too long ; prob. gl. of interp., cf. v.^^- 20. 21. 23. 27. 83^ — "^pN-in>] v. ^^ ; 
without ""JIN indef. subj., as Hb. 3^ the thunder of a theophany ace. Now., who 
cf. Sip pj Ps. 1 81* Am. i2 Jo. 2" 4^6. But such usage unexampled. n;:s is 
somewhat different from Sip. — n'int'3?:n] Pi. ptc. pi. f. women heralding glad 
tidings {40^^), elsw. ^ and Is. 4o9-^4i27 52"^- '^ of victory and salvation; so 
most here. But it may also mean simply bringing tidings, as I S. ^"^ 
2 S. i8i9-20. 26 I K, i42. ti^at depends upon our interp. of the context. (5, 3, 
U, all make this ptc. second ace. to ]r\\ It is prob. that n does not belong 
to the ptc. making it a relative clause, but with the previous noun, which 
should be read n-inx {12^). Then the ptc. is in an independent verbal clause. 
— 3n N3x] in (Q dwdfiei TroWrj, U virtute multa, 3 fortitudinis plurimae. 
This is more prob. than EV*. great company or host, which is unexampled in 
such a fig. sense, of women or messengers. It must mean either a real army 
or war. If 3-1 belongs to it, it is great army as obj. of ptc. If, as is prob., 



I08 PSALMS 

3-> belongs to subsequent 1., it is war that is heralded. 3"j is then Qal pf. 3n 
strive in battle {v. jj^) with TjSp sg. as in (3 and as subj.. — niK3X oVc] phr. 
a.X. and improb. ms^x is subj. of next vb. — 13. jm^] twice Qal impf. mj 
most prob.; but 3 foederabuntur yf-yv vb. not used in Heb, ® roxi dyairi]- 
ToO = nn> adj. (6o^). The repetition is, however, prob. a gl. of intensifica- 
tion, certainly not in original if 3-1 belongs to this 1. — n^3"nij] phr. a.X. ske 
that is abiding at home, BDB. [p}}] adj. f., cf. [ni:] pasture, meadow, 2^^. 
But ® upaidTrjTt, "^ pulchritude ^ n>) = nis3, as Je. 6'^, the comely, beautiful one, 
V. 3S^' — '','??' \hjy^'\ Pi« impf. 3 f., phr. dependent on Ju. ^^. — 14. p^oari'DN 
o^ncB^ pa] is derived from Ju. 5^^ DTiflC'Dn pj r\yv^ t\-&^, cf. Gn. 49I* pa ^3-1 
0>nBB'Dn. D"»nD'br o.X. prob. error for f D^nsrc. Cf. other passages : Gn. 49I* 
stalls, Ju. 5I® sheep/olds, here from context dovecotes. The clause is prob. a 
gl., not suited to context and misleading for subsequent lines ; so We., Du. 

— •^J"^"' ■'P^r ] with n£jnj Niph. pt. f. sg. Ges.^^- ^, agreeing with principal noun 
rather than construct, as if " winged dove." f [p'^^~\ vb. Qal, cover ^ as 
2 s. 1 530. 80 Je. 148.4 Est, 612 yS^ Niph. be covered, here only. Pi. overlay 

2 Ch. 35.5.7.8.9 _n>n^n3N] pi. f. sf. 3 f. \^y^^^ n.f. pinion, elsw. Dt. 32^1 
Ps. 91* of eagle, Jb. 39!^ ostrich; cf. las 55' of dove. — p">r'T?] "• with a, 
tP'^rjl' adj. (i) pale green of plague spots Lv. 13*^ 143'; (2) i9DB. xi. green- 
shimmering only here. This improb. Another word is needed for measure ; 
rd. pio npia. p-\3 \h. Jlash of lightning 18^^; cf. n. used also of arrow 
Jb. 2o25, sword Dt. 32*1, spear Na. 3^ Hb. 3", cL glitter of weapon Ez. 21^5. 20. 33. 
so here of the golden coloured pinions in the sunlight, p-^^ (j7^) greenness 
of grass, cf. As. arku, yellow. Sab. pni gold, so Eth. f rnn n.m. gold, as Pr. 3'* 
gio. 19 16I6, — 15. B-noa] Pi. inf. cstr. t'->D spread out, always in Pi. unless here 
and Zc. 2^^ where some render scatter ; but in both cases without sufficient 
reason. © kv ry diaa-r^Wtiv, 3 cum divideret = D'\d break in two, divide, 
used in Qal of breaking up bones in kettle Mi. 3^; so possibly interp. of J^ 
here. Indeed, D'-oSd and nn demand some such sense. But 1. is just these 
words too long, and they are prob. interp. glosses. If so, we may inter- 
pret C1D of the spreading of wings of a bird, with wings omitted as i Ch. 
28^^. — t """T^] pointed as divine name, MT. as 91^, so Nu. 24*- 1* (Poems 
Balaam) Ru. i^o-si is. 136; Gn. 49-^ Jo. iis Ez. i^* dub.; but Jb. 31 times. 
nc Sx characteristic of P as speculative conception of God of patriarchs; 
Ez. lo^ dub. The use of '•ic' dub. here. It has given the chief difficulty in 
dealing with previous vb. Du. suggests '""'ir field, of battle-field, as local ace. 
But it is more prob. that c is dittog. and that we should rd. f !^*"! n.f. bird of 
prey Is. 34!^ Dt. \^^ = hnt Lv. ii^S cf. hnt vb. fiy swiftly of eagle Je. 48**^ 
49^2, in both cases || VDJ3 c->d, v. 18^^. This gives us the bird of prey pur- 
suing the dove of the previous context, which is indeed implied in the pre- 
vious metaphor as most agree. — j|?\^'»ii] Hiph. juss., vb. a.X., juss. sense 
improb. in context. The vb. itself is suspicious ; rd. prob. :hv n. as 51^ with 

3 as Bi., Du., cf. Jb. (f^. Lag. jSc'n nna for j^cp na does not give good sense. 

— t T'^dVx] n. pr. loci, Ju. 9^^ wooded mountain near Shechem, not yet iden- 
tified ; prob. here the same, as Ba., Du. If the reference is to the battle of 



PSALM LXVIII. 109 

the Kishon, Ju. 5, we must think of some ridge of or near Carmel, famed for 
its forests. Rob. BR.^- ^^^ ^i- mentions El Mutesellim, of which he says : 
" As we stood upon the noble Tell with the wide plain and Taanach there 
before us, we could not but feel that here had been the scene of the great 
battle of Deborah and Barak." This tell would satisfy all the conditions 
of both passages. If the snow is a simile of bones which have been 
stripped by birds of prey, there is no need of thinking of a snow mountain. 
— 16. D-inSN—in] either as Sn nin 36"^, cf. 80^ if referring to gigantic moun- 
tains, as Bashan or Hermon ; or for an original nin"» nn, if referring to Zion. 
— jtrn'in] |^, Mt. E. Jordan and Gennesaret from the Jabbok to Syrian 
Hauran, Wetstein, Golan, Now., Bu., Hermon Ba. But @ irlov, 3 pinguisy 
so S, U, %, all favour |iri, as 36^ no yv^ the fat things, rich blessings of the 
temple on Zion, cf. Is. 5^. This is most prob. — D-'^JDJ'nn] t C?"^?^] n.[m.] 
peak or rounded siimmit ; many peaked as adj., or in apposition peaks, the 
latter favoured by □>JJ3J onn v.^"^. © rervpuixha, U coagulatos, as nr^J milk^ 
curds, Jb. iqI"^. 3 excehus excelsi, as if D>naj. — 17. inijnn] Pi. impf. archaic 
3 pi. "ixn a.X. 1^ look askance, @ vTroXafi^dvere, 3 contenditis, Aq. ipl^ere 
dub. The 1. is a late gl. — '^ri^v*':'] Qal inf. cstr. sf. preg. sense, for His sitting 
enthroned. — nirT«-r|s] improb. in |£ ; the whole 1. doubtless a gl. — 18. 3D"i] 
coll. of heavenly army, cf. 2 K. 2^1 6^'^. — o^nb">] a.X. dual "13-;, Aramaism, 
myriad duh., whether two myriads or myriadfold, v. Ges.^'^-\ ® /xvpioTrXd- 
(Tiov, 3 innumerabiles. — tNjr] a.X. repetition, ^DB., "in a multiplicative 
sense," Ges.^'^- ^, for X)V^ Y^Qi\.\.^.h ^nr>r, Aram. Njn repeat, so 3 millia 
abundantium, Aq., S, Ba,, pNtr, cf. Je. 48*^, but not suited to the context. 
Lag., Bi., al., Sn-ic"* favoured by Nu. lo^^ h^'sv^ ""dSn nn^n, but it is difficult 
to explain how the easy reading could give place to so difficult a one, espe- 
cially as Sniii'"' and jsr^' are not easy to interchange. f§, 3, most prob,, but 
evidently a late phr. and a prosaic gl., doublet of DTiji, so Kau, — ""rp 03] 
though sustained by @ kv avrois ev ^iva, 3 in eis, in Sina, is difficult. Koster, 
01s., Now., Dr., Kau, rd. tdd N3 as Dt. 33^. — ^ip'f\ either the holy place 
of Zion as the goal of the march, as Now., Dr., or in majestic holiness, as 
Ex. 1 5^1 Ps. 77I*, Ew., Ba. The 1. is dub. and prosaic. The 3d pers. with 
ijns is improb. for the 2d pers. characteristic of Ps. A single 1. of four words 
underlies this conglomerate. We first throw out |Nj!r ••dSn as doublet and gl, 
"ij-iN is also improb., if there was originally only one 1. D2 is also explanatory 
of the clause v\p2 -"rD. That leaves cipj iro D">n3"i mni 33-1. ij-'D dtiji is 
txt, err. for an original tdd n^Di. ^d'i was prefixed to explain DT^n. The 
original was therefore the theophanic ride of Yahweh from Sinai to the sanc- 
tuary in Zion tt'ipj ij^dd n^Di nin\ — 19. ob^ pi^B'] Qal pf. 3 m. X ^^f vb. 
lead captives 106^ 137^ with ">2iy n.m. collective captives, captivity, elsw. 
Dt. 2110 Ju. 5I2 2 Ch. 2817; with p Nu. 21I, cf. 2 Ch. 285- ". % ^2f elsw. ^ 
alone 78^1. — nunp] pi. % njpip n.f. gift, esp. of offerings. — o-jn3 does not 
qualify the previous word, but ptt^S. It is defined by onniD f]H\ See v.''^. 
This phr. is prob. a gl., as it makes 1. too long. — pi:''?] Qal inf. cstr. as mat:''? 
V.17. — n;] V. v.fi, is gl. — The various expl. of this difficult 1. are due to a 



no PSALMS 

failure to recognise the proper measures and the glosses, and therefore need 
not detain us. — 20. ijS Dcr] Qal juss. X °^> vb. Qal /oad upon Gn. 44I3 (E) 
Ne. 13^^ carry as a /oad here, as Zc. 12^ Is. 46^- ^; @ Karevodua-ei paraphrase. 
3 portabit, as Aq., S ^aarda-ei. — unvvti'"'^ ^^'^j- The article improb. Sn has 
been assimilated to Snh v.^i. It is doubtless cstr. as ®, 3. — 21. rn;'i:-ir] a.X.; 
prob. Aram. inf. ';z'', @ tov (rco^eiv, 3 deus salutis, as above. — nvT''?] in E, 
also evidence of gl. — nis^n] pi. % [p^f^^ ^'f- only pi., (i) outgoings, extremi- 
ties of territory, J, E, P^ outskirts of city, Ez. 48*0 i Ch. 5I6; (2) o>^n 'n 
Pr. 423 (?) as NXio (3); (3) escapes, BDB., here only; cf. N>xin (2) v.'^. — 
22. Vi^^^ VD-'] ^^ lio^ Hb. 3^2, cf. Ju. 526. — nj;ir ^pnp] hairy scalp, phr. a.X.; 
for use of ipT, cf. y^*^. — v^u'n?] \ crs n.m. offence, fault {v. j^^), @ TrXrjfi- 
fieXiais, 3 deliciis. — 23. •'pK "its] introduces an oracle. — 3'v'?] bis, Hiph. 
impf. I sg. in the sense of bring back, either the enemies in defeat, (5, 5^, or 
dispersed Israel in restoration, 3, VL, the former an incongruous idea, the 
latter not suited to the context. It is better to interp. vb. as requite, recom- 
pense {18^^) the enemy, which admirably suits the context. ;p with ]\:?2 and 
mVxs is improb., due to misinterp. It is really in both cases sf. with vb. _23"»tt'N. 
® indeed has iv ^vdoh though iK paahv. A word is missing from second 1., 
prob. '•:s. — 24. jV^*^] final clause with v^pi? Qal impf. assimilated to v.'-^, un- 
suited to context. Rd. with @, S, ^T, rn"*r, so Hare, Kenn., Bo., 01s., We., 
al. — "^P^ with sf. 2 sg., so ^\3|^3 is against the usage of Ps. It is due to 
the oracle which is cited here as in v.^s, referring to Israel. — ^^}jf\ so @ Trap' 
ai/Tou, U ab ipso, 3 a temetipso, S i-irh ^Kda-rov. A vb. or noun is miss- 
ing which is needed to give sense. It is not necessary with 01s., Dy., 
Hu., Bi., Dr., We., Du., Kirk., to read ^njo (//^) for injr. It is better to 
regard both as original, the former omitted by txt. err.; then do-'IND is an 
interpretative gl. — 25. in^] Qal pf. 3 pi. indef. subj. to be rendered by 
passive. — IT'^:)'''?!^] pi- t^5'^!l n.f. {i) travelling company, caravan, ]h. 6^^; 
(2) going, Na. 2* Pr. 31^^ (Qr-)j procession, here bis of God; so Hb. 3®. — 
^^Sp ""Sn n"»3'»'7n] a gl. of amplification, improb. here in original. — ^Z??! i^^o 
the sanctuary. Street, Horsley, Dr., Hu., Pe., Ba., Du.; itt holiness, Ew., Hi., De. 
But ® TOV /SatriX^ws tov iv ry ayl(i} ; Ols., Gr., suggest r^P, Kadesh, — 26. nriN] 
prep, after, but ® ^x^/^*'o*> cf. 45^^ 49^* 94^^; prob. paraphrase Hu.,Novv., adv. 

— 0''">'^*] Qal ptc. n-'C' as 87'^, so 2, 3, C ; Apxo»'Tes, H prificipes, so 
% ; cnr not so well suited to context. — a-'jjj] Qal ptc. pi. pj {y. Intr, § 34) 
improb. ; rd. Pi. ptc. □"'JJJD as elsw. — "l'^-'^^] as prep, in the midst of, so Vrss. 
It is possible that ^in should be rd. — pir^'^j?] pi. ncSy n.f. young woman {v. 
Intr. § 34). — n^Djj'in] a.X. Qal ptc. pi. f. f\Qr\ denom. in n.m. timbrel Ex. 1520 
Je. 31* +, usually played by dancing women in the Orient, cf. Na. 2^. Polel 
ptc. ni£3cnD (dub. ^ mcxoxc). Prob. the word has two tones, and we should 
rd. Pi. ptc. — 27. niSnpr] assembly, choir, zs 26^^. — "^N'^c?] if correct, rel. 
clause ; but phr. a.X. and improb. Elsw. \j/ -^ipn (j6^^), the source of life in 
Yahweh, as Je. 21^1 7 i^, so prob. here, 'c prep, is dittog. The whole verse is a gl. 

— 28. X -i\yx] adj. little, with the idea of insignificance, as 1 191^1 Mi. 5I Je. 49*^ 
50*^ Is. 6o2^, mng. young not in ^. — Q'n] Qal ptc. mi (^4g^^) with sf. 3 pi, 



PSALM LXVIII. Ill 

for wr^ or onnn, as ^ refer, to Saul, 3 continens eos, Aq. iTrcKparQp a^uv, 8 
TTttiSevT^s aiiTuv. But (S veibrepos iv iKo-Taa-et interprets Wp as ptc. f [0"T»] 
vb. <5<f m ecstasy^ cf. 76'^. Both the vb. and noun are used not for ecstatic song 
and dancing, but only for deep and profound sleep, cf. nDnnr) n.f. deep, ecstatic 
sleep, Gn. 2^1; similarly %, V. Grill, Now., Du., would rd. Dip as above, v.^s. 
But the easiest explanation lies in antith. of the insignificant number of rulers 
of Benjamin with the heap of princes of Judah. — Qip?-)"}] c^* C'^^J"^] ii-f- ^^^J* 
of stones, and so of people, Now. The phr. Aeap of people, common in South of 
the United States and suitable in antith. with the few princes of Benjamin. 
Hu., Ba., Pe., Bi., Dr., i5DB., ar'^M") as 64^, cf. 55^^ But the mng. given by 
them to ^Ji is improb. {y. ^-'), and therefore it gives no help here. ® ijyefxdves 
avTwv, so 5 ; 3 in purpura sua, ppN n.(m.) purple garments, as Nu. 4^^ Ju. 
8^^ Je. lo^. Dc> is needed to complete the measure of 1. — 29. n^x] Pi. pf. 
with ti-ihSn as subj. is not suited to context. (S evreiXai debs implies D"'n'?N mx, 
so Si, V, 2, 3, K, Ew., Hu., Pe., Ba., Du. The sf. of |§ is interpretation. — 
nnv] Qal imv. cohort, n", de strong, prevail, given by ©, 3, as transitive, but 
against usage. — ir] relative (9^'^) — ij'? is needed for measure at close of jfirst 
1., and D'^hSn is not needed in the second. — 30. ^^3"'nn is dub. (5*), @ dTrd ro^ 
vaov <rov, 3 de templo tuo, so Du. ; but S 5td rhv va.bv, so Ew., Ba., Dr., most 
prob. — ^v i'?^?-'''] Hiph. impf. Sd"' phr. 76^2 Is. 18'^. f^' n.m. ^y?, only in 
this phr. The v. is prosaic, not suited to context ; goes with v.^^ rather, and 
is a gl. — 31. nji^ n*n] phr. a.X. wild beast of reeds. % njp n.m. reed, the 
water reeds of the Nile, cf. i K. 141^ Is. 19^ 35'*'. The hippopotamus, symbol 
of Egypt, cf. Ps. 80I*. The 1. prob. closes here, and the divine name is needed 
for measure. — on''3N nny]. For mj? v. i^, cf. espec. d-'DnS m;; 7^, D^xnv ';; 
86^*. Dn/3vy of strong enemies 22^^, king of Assyria Is. lo^', Edomites Is. 34'^, 
here confederate princes. — D'^dj; ''\^f\' These are not the people as calves 
following the bulls as their chiefs, but the subject peoples, the lesser nations. 
— Dsnnc] Hithp. ptc. t DC"i, variation of ^tr\ vb. stamp, tread; Qal c. ace. 
water Ez. 32^ 34I8. Niph. a fountain befouled Pr. 25^6. Hithp. humble one- 
self Pr. 6^ (RV.™ Toy bestir oneself) ptc. only here stamping, trampling ( ?) 
i?DB. ; cf. t[!i'?"]p] (water) befouled {hy \.\i^ feet) Ez. 34I9; f ^^s*?. n.[m.] 
mire Is. ^'f'^. ®^ rov /xr} dxoKXeicrdijvai Toi>s beboKifxafffxivovs tQ dpyvpiifj makes 
p of neg. consequence as 39^ 69^* 102^ io6-3, v. BDB. n must then be err. 
for n of Niph. inf. Ba. suggests "i^cn. But O uses diroKXelo for iJD. ® ^- <=• »• ^- % 
omit fjLT), so U ut excludant eos qui probati sunt argento, Hilary, Cassiod., 
ut non excludantur, Aug. Psalter Rom. ut excludantur. The negative here 
seems to reverse the idea which the context demands. Ptc. is sustained by 
other Vrss. The vb. best suits the hippopotamus, with the meaning trampling 
in the mire. Then those trampled must be Israel. — ''P,?] ®, S, give no 
evidence of 3, which is prob. interp. For "ixi, ® •'D-)X Qal ptc. pi. cstr. fjix 
refine {12^), which is well suited to ipD; representing therefore Israel as refined 
as silver and yet trodden in the mire by the hippopotamus Egypt. S toj>s 
cuSoKT^Touj ws 5oKipLj)v dpyvplov rd. 1D3 f]'\^ '»1X"I. >ixn ptc. pass, rvi-^ favoured 
one i^o^^), and also nix refined, ws is prob. explanatory. This gives the best 



112 PSALMS 

explanation, and indeed the missing word of the line. (8 took one of the two 
similar words, ^, Aq., 3, the other. Aq., 3, interpret "'X-i as noun, pi. runners, 
wheels^ from ^ii vb. run, thinking of silver wheels ; but such a noun, though 
possible, is not known in Heb. Lit. — in] Pi. pf. error for imv. ip as context 
demands ; so ®, 3. t ">f^ vb. scatter^ Qal Dn. 1 1-*, Pi. only here. Prob. this 
is late copyist's error for nrc. — n^3-^p] pi. anp battle, war (55^^) rel. clause. 
— 32. vrN;] Qal impf. 3 pi. J npN come Dt. 332- 21 Is. 4126 5612; here the form 
is Aramaism, Ges.''^- -A-Ji™. 4. — D^jprn] a.X. dub. ; <5, .S, U, Trp^a/Sets, legati, 
ambassadors, nobleSy'L ^Ktpavivres, Aq. iaTr€V(Tixivws,3 velociter,%o Hilg., Pont., 
Che., o-i'n ptc. pass. cm. Then d^j would be dittog. from >vc, archaic strong 
form of xz for tone measure. It is possible that (S also had □'^•r, thinking of 
swift messengers. — t D:nxr>] n. pr. Egypt, elsw. yg^^- ^s. 5i go^ 8i«- ^i \o^^'^-^ 
Io6"'2i 114I 1358-9 1361^.— Ju'iD n. pr. Ethiopia, eXsvf. 7^87*. — i'^; V^">»7] 
phr. a.X. Hiph. 3 f. yn with subj. land sg. f. Ges. ^ '^^ ^, but 3 pi. m. sf. with 
i> makes it improb. It is better to regard vi'' as the subj. with Bo., 01s., 
Grill., Hu., Now., Ges.i*^- ^ This couplet is a gl. based on Is. 45I*. — 
83. \JiK n^]]. The vb. is repeated in (S with ^i-h v.^, cf. v.^ ^yh iVd. >nN 
is, as usual in this Ps., a gl. A vb. is needed with inn'^. It is not certain 
whether it was ncr as ©, or 1*^0 as v.^, for which nSo, a misinterp. ; prob. the 
latter. — 34. "'nr] has been repeated by dittog. D7n ••nr, cf. ^2, — "iS^ia ]t\) ^n] 
cf. 18^* 46^; the thunder accompanying the theophany. Here it is a gl., 
separating the clauses that belong together. — y^'^^P prob. goes with next 
clause to make a complete tetrameter. — 35. D'»pn2'3 wyy iniNj] is derived from 
Dt. 3326. — 36. Nn-'j] Niph. ptc. Nn\ — D"'n'^N] is gl. making 1. too long. — 
:i^K'"i|"]iDr]. But (5 V2'ipD2 iv To?s baloi^ avrov, H in Sanctis suis, 3 in sanctuario 
suo ; so 2, S, %, and 24 codd. Kenn., 30 De Rossi, have sg. Sf. in all cases and 
pi. are interpretations of an original iripc, which is best interpreted as sg. 
referring to the sanctuary, as 74' 78^^ 96*^, cf. 73!^. — ^\^'W> Vn] cf. 3py> Sn 
146^ — Nin] is gl. of interp., though in (5. — J n'lcifpn] o.X. pi. n.f. mighty 
■v/Dx;; be mighty 38"^ — d^dSn r^na] liturg. addition as v.^^. 



PSALM LXIX. 

Ps. 69 is composite : (A) a prayer (i) petition for salvation from 
deadly peril, represented under the figure of drowning in the rapids 
of a stream with miry bottom (v.-"^) ; explained as deadly enemies, 
numerous and false, who require retribution for offences wrongly 
charged (v.^) ; (2) a plea for the faithful, that they be not put to 
shame through the sufferer (v.'^), and that in kindness and faith- 
fulness he may be delivered from the overwhelming flood and the 
covered Pit (v."*"^^) ; (3) renewed plea for an answer in haste 
(v.^~-^*), for ransom from enemies (v.^^), and exaltation from afflic- 



PSALM LXIX. 113 

tion (v.^) ; with the concluding vow of public praise, which the 
author conceived to be more acceptable to God than sacrifices of 
animals (v.^^"^^). Glosses intensify the suffering (v.*), represent it 
as due to the folly and fault of the people (v.^), and that the prayer 
is offered in a time of acceptance (v.""). (B) The lamentation 
of a sufferer who has been persecuted for his fidelity to God and 
zeal for the temple (v.^^*') . His fasting made him the derision of 
the idle and the drunkards (v.""^^) . His heart was broken because 
of the pitiless conduct of his adversaries, who gave him gall and 
vinegar instead of food and drink (v.^°'"^^). He imprecates that 
their table may become a snare, their eyes and loins enfeebled, and 
that they may be overtaken by the divine anger (v.-^^) ; that their 
dwellings may be without inhabitants, their guilt so great that 
they may have no salvation, and that their names may not be 
recorded with the righteous in the book of life (v.-*' ^^). This 
sufferer is doubtless the ideal community of Ps. 22, Is. 53. 
Glosses attribute the suffering to the divine visitation (v.^) ; repre- 
sent that God knows the reproach borne (v.^") ; that his salvation 
will give joy to all the afflicted (v.^^), and honour Yahweh as the 
deliverer of poor prisoners (v.^*). All nature is summoned to praise 
the Saviour of Zion and rebuilder of the cities of Judah for the 
abode of His servants and their seed (v.^^^^^). 

CAVE me, Yahweh ; for waters are come unto my life. 

I am plunged into the mire of the abyss, where there is no standing. 

I am come into depths of water, and a flood doth overwhelm me. 

Those hating me without cause are more than the hairs of my head. 

My false enemies are stronger in number (than my bones) . 

What I have not spoiled, that I must repay. 
J^ET not those that wait on Thee be ashamed through me, Yahweh Sabaoth. 

Let not those that seek Thee be upbraided through me, God of Israel. 

In the abundance of Thy kindness answer me, in the faithfulness of Thy 
salvation. 

Deliver me, and let me not be overwhelmed in the depths of water. 

Let not the flood overwhelm me, and let me not be swallowed up ; 

And let not the Pit keep guard over me with its mouth. 
^NSWER me according to the goodness of Thy kindness, according to the 
abundance of Thy compassion. 

And hide not Thy face ; in my straits O make haste ! 

Draw near unto me ; O ransom, on account of mine enemies. 



1 14 PSALMS 

Afflicted and sorrowful, let Thy salvation, Yahweh, lift me on high. 

I will praise Thy name with a song, and I will magnify it with thanksgiving: 

And it will please better than an ox, a bullock horned and hoofed. 

Q^ y^8-13. 20ft-26. 28-29 - g^j^^ ^3 

prOR Thy sake I have borne reproach; 

Upbraiding hath covered my face. 

I am become a stranger to my brethren, 

A foreigner to the sons of my mother. 

Zeal for Thine house consumed me; 

And Thy reproaches have fallen on me. 
■^THEN I afflicted my soul with fasting, 

It became a reproach unto me. 

When I made my garments sackcloth, 

I became a taunt song to them. 

Those sitting in the gate composed (a song) against me. 

Winebibbers made me a theme for their lyres. 
gEFORE Thee are all mine adversaries. 

Reproach hath broken my heart. 

When I hoped for some one to pity, there was none; 

For some to have compassion : I found them not. 

And they gave me gall in my eating. 

And in my thirst vinegar they gave me to drink. 
T ET their table become a snare, 

Their peace-offerings before them a trap. 

Let their eyes be darkened that they cannot see. 

And their loins be continually tottering. 

Pour upon them Thine indignation, 

And let the heat of Thine anger overtake them. 
T ET their habitation become desolate. 

And in their tents let there be no inhabitant. 

Add iniquity to their iniquity. 

And let them not come into Thy righteousness. 

Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, 

And with the righteous let them not be inscribed. 

Ps. 69 was originally in 13 {v. Intr. § 27); that is, its earliest part 
which we shall designate as A. This Ps. had three pentameter hexastichs, 
v.2-3. 5. 7. i&-». 30-32. It resembles other Pss. of © : Dxy v.^, as 3820 406- 13; 
ojn >Njr, '\pv o>N v.s = 35^9; nx^ v.i^ for Pit of Sheol, as 552*; >S nx v.^^ as 
18^, cf. 661* . ^3,j^ |«^s V.19, cf. 5^ 27II. The conception of inward worship as 
more acceptable to Yahweh than animal sacrifices v.^^ jg as Pss. 40, 51 ; the 
figurative representation of trouble as peril of drowning, is as Ps. 18^''', cf. 42^. 
Several other words and phrases are to be noted : niNa>{ mn> v.*^, Ssna^ vnVx v."^, 
nSac V.3- 16, as Ju. 12^ Is. 27I- ; -id;?d a.X. v.^ and 3N131 ^j;? o.X. v."". The peril 
is the overwhelming trouble of the Exile, and the situation is that of Pss. 40, 
51. This Ps. was taken up into E, and then subsequently into S3£l, where it 
received the direction a^jir'ic Sn {v. Intr. §§ 32, 33, 34). It is however quite 



PSALM LXIX. 115 

possible that ©2^ had not A, but only B ; and that the combination of A and 
B came later ; for the DiJtt'W Ps. 80 is a trimeter. ^ is a trimeter poem of 
five hexastichs: v.^-i^- 206-26. 28-29, This Ps. has its special features: v.^, cf. 
Ps. 4416-23 je. 1515 Zp. 3I8. V.9, cf. Jb. 1915; v.io zeal for the temple, cf. 
Nu. 25 11 (P) for God ; v. 11 mxj as Ps. 351^; v. 12 pa' ^m^h as 3518; Va'D as 
44I5. y,i3 -,j.^ ,pv^ a.\.; V.21 m^::' as 34!^ 511^, ntruNi as Je. 15I8 Mi. i^; v.22 
>nna a.X., but cf. nn^ La. 4IO; v.23 cpia cf. Ps. iS^ 64^; nc 91^ 1419; mSa' 
as Mi. 73 Ho. 9'^ Is. 34^; v.^* -i;;Dn as Ez. 29'^; v.25 t^x ]nn phr. of J, cf. 
Ps. 78*9 85^; V.26 m>D as Gn. 25I6 (P) Nu. 3110 (P) Ez. 25*; v.29D>^n isD, a.X. 
cf. Ex. 3232-33 ("E), ai^n(n) v^n Pss. 271^ 52'^ 142^. The terms are not later 
than Nehemiah. The imprecations imply a severe strain from unscrupulous 
foes of the time when Nehemiah began his reforms. The zeal for the temple 
is characteristic of the same situation. C. There are several glosses to this 
Ps. : (i) \M°' pxT n;? = Is. 49^, cf. also Is. 58^ 6i2. This 1. is a seam uniting 
A and B. It seems to have an original r\^r^> and is therefore later than IE. 
If IBi^ combined the two, it was composed by him; if later, whoever com- 
bined them is responsible for it. (2) V.* '^ry ^'^D as La. 2^1 4^'^, yj> as Ps. 6^. 
This tetrameter couplet is not late in style, but it introduces a different 
conception of suffering in the midst of a simile. It was prob. originally a 
marginal note which subsequently crept into the text. (3) V.27 r]>hhn as 
Je. 51^2 La. 2^2 Ez. 261^ 302*. This v. is not late in style ; but it breaks up a 
str. of the trimeter poem, which ©3^ would not do. It must be later than 
IB2£t. (4) V.6 nSiN as 38*5, elsw. Pr. 23 t. nrti'N usage of P, Chr. h ace. late 
Aramaism. This v. disturbs the pentameter poem, c^n':'^ is prob. original. 
This gl. belongs to the Greek period. (5) V.20a the use of jj-i", as in v.^ indi- 
cates prob. the same hand. (6) V.^"^- ^-^'^ are based on Ps. 222^- 2&- 27 ^ gl. 
from the Maccabean period. (7) V.^ is a later insertion in the above gl. 

PSALM LXIX. A. 

Str. I. has a syn. tristich, a syn. couplet, and a concluding line. 
2. Save me, Yahwehl, as the context indicates from deadly peril ; 
an individual servant of Yahweh, a prophet like Jeremiah. — for 
waters are come unto my life']. He is drowning in waters which 
have so risen up about him, that he is in peril of death. — 3. / am 
come into depths of water']. He is beyond his depth in the stream. 
— and a flood doth overwhelm me]. He is in the rapids of the 
Jordan ; and the waters, swiftly descending, come upon him like a 
flood. This is doubtless figurative, as 18^'' 42^, and not real. — 
A glossator inserts another description of the sufferings : 4. I am 
weary with my calling : my throat is hot : Mine eyes do fail in 
waiting for my God]. He has so Jong called for divine help that 
his throat has become heated and feverish. His eyes fail because 



Il6 PSALMS 

of weeping hot tears. This is not altogether suited to the con- 
text, and it makes the Str. too long even if the measure of this v. 
were the same as that of this Ps. — 5. Those hating me without 
cause II my false enemies'] . The figure of drowning in the rapids 
of a river passes over into its explanation as perils from enemies. 
— Their causeless hatred is explained in the last clause: what 

I have not spoiled]. He is falsely accused of having taken spoil 
from his enemies or their friends by violence or injustice, and this 
they insist upon. — / must repay] make retribution for it ; not 
simply make restoration, for their purpose is a deadly one : they 
would destroy 7ny life]. These enemies are not only false, without 
justification and deadly ; but they are very numerous : — more 
than the hairs of my head \ strong in number]. — A glossator 
explains the suffering as due to the folly and fault of the sufferer, 
in a line of different measure from the context : 6. Thou knowest 

II frotn Thee are not hid] positively and negatively : all is known 
to God. — my folly || my faults\ both terms of late usage in the 
time when the legal type of righteousness was mingled with the 
more ethical type of Hebrew Wisdom. 

Str. II. has a syn. couplet, and a tetrastich whose second and 
third lines are syn., the first and fourth introductory and conclud- 
ing. — 7. Let not those that wait on Thee || that seek Thee], the 
real worshippers. — Yahweh Sabaoth || God of Israel], divine 
names which in themselves are pleas for help in the mouth of 
an Israehte. — be ashamed || be upbraided], suffer disgrace and 
humiliation. — through me], as an example of a worshipper of 
Yahweh deUvered over into the hands of enemies. — A later editor 
now inserts a portion of another Ps., v.^^^, which in trimeter meas- 
ure describes the sufferings of a persecuted prophet. Then 14 a 
was inserted as a seam. — But as for me], antith. enemies. — 
my prayer is to Thee, Yahweh, at the time of acceptance, O God]. 
This expresses an assurance and certainty of redemption, which is 
not in harmony with the context. **The time of acceptance," 
phr. elsw. Is. 49^, is the time when the prayer will be favoured by 
God with an answer of salvation. 14 Z?-16. In the abundance of 
Thy kindness, intensified by in the faitJjfulness of Thy salvation]. 
The attributes of kindness and faithfulness are those upon which 
salvation is usually based. When these are intensified by abun- 



PSALM LXIX. 117 

dance, superabounding every need, they constitute an invincible 
plea. On them are heaped up a number of verbal pleas, at first 
more general : answer 7ne || deliver me, then more specifically, 
referring to the figure of v.^ : Let ?ne not be overwhelmed in the 
depths of water || Let not the flood overwhelm f?ie, and let me not be 
swallowed up\ concluding with deliverance from the Pit of Sheol : 
Let not the Pit keep guard over me with its mouth\ Let me not 
go down into the Pit of Sheol, and be shut up there, kept in ward 
by a safely fastened door at its mouth. Those who think of the 
dungeon in which Jeremiah was confined, Je. 38^, fail to see the 
incongruity between the figure of the rapids of a river and that 
of a damp, miry dungeon. 

Str. III. has two synth. tristichs. — 17. Answer me'], a renewal 
of the petition, v.^'**, with slightly varying terms : according to 
the goodness of Thy kindness, according to the abutidance of Thy 
compassion]. This was enlarged by an ancient copyist, making 
the V. into two tetrameters : " answer me, Yahweh ; for Thy kind- 
ness is good ; according to the abundance of Thy compassion 
turn unto me." This reading, although sustained by (© and other 
Vrss. and followed by EV^, cannot be justified save at the expense 
of the measure and strophical organisation of the Ps. and at the 
cost of the correspondence of the v. with v."^. — 18. And hide 
not Thy face], so as not to see, cf. io\ A glossator adds from 
Thy servant — in my straits], as elsw. j but a glossator enlarges it 
with " for I am in straits." — O make haste]. The need is impera- 
tive, and unless speedy help is given it will be too late. This also 
was enlarged by a glossator's appending " answer me." All these 
additions were probably made to assimilate these pentameter lines 
to the trimeters of the poem, whose second part begins, v.^*, and 
continues through v.^. — 19. Draw near unto me, O ransom, on 
account of mine enemies], referring back to v.^ The glossator 
appends " redeem me " to make this line also into two trimeters, 
as v.^^. — 30. Afflicted and sorrowful], emphatic description of 
the condition of the pleading sufferer. — let Thy salvation\ cf. 
v."^. — lift me on high] in safety from the enemies, where they 
cannot reach me. — 31. I will praise Thy name || magnify it], 
a vow of public praise in the temple. — with a song || thanksgiv- 
i^S\ ^ song of thanksgiving with vocal music. — 32. And it will 



Il8 PSALMS 

please\ give gratification to God and find acceptance with Him. — 
better than an ox, a bullock horned and hoofed']^ the choicest 
animal slaughtered in the thank-offering. 

PSALM LXIX. B. 

Str. I. has three syn. couplets. — 8. For Thy sake"], emph. in 
position to show that the servant of Yahweh suffered for the cause 
of Yahweh, and for that cause alone, cf. Je. 15^^ Ps. 44^. — 
J have borne reproach || upbraiding hath covered my face\ cf. 44^^ 
Reproaches are heaped upon the servant for his fidehty to Yahweh, 
in such quantity and intensity that they are hard to bear, and his 
face is covered over with the shame of them. — 9. / am become 
a stranger \ a foreigner^ instead of an acquaintance and native 
born. — even to my brethren^ the sons of the same father || the 
sons of my mother'], in a polygamous state of society nearer still 
than sons of a common father. — 10. Zeal for Thine house]. This 
can hardly be for the erection of the temple in the time of Zerub- 
babel, or for the purification of the temple in the time of the 
Maccabees ; but rather for the honour of the temple and the wor- 
ship of God therein, as in the time of Nehemiah, against those 
unfaithful Jews who were treacherous to their own people and 
syncretistic in their tendencies. The servant, consufned by this 
zeal as by a fire in his bones, became offensive to those who were 
annoyed by it. — And Thy reproaches'], reproaches against God, 
resuming the thought of v.^ — have fallen on me], as espousing 
the cause of God and interposing on His behalf. 

Str. II. has two synth. and a syn. couplet. — 11-12. IVhen 
I afflicted my soul with fasti?ig], in humiliation and penitence for 
the neglect of the religion of Yahweh and the dishonour done to 
their God by compatriots. — IVheji I made my garments sack- 
cloth], put on the outward badge of sorrow and fasting, cf. Ne. 9^"^. 
— // becarne a reproach unto me], the impenitent and ungodly 
reproached him for it || I became a taunt song to them], cf. 44^^ — 
They composed {a song) against me], they taunted him in a song, 
which they composed to hold him up to ridicule and scorn || 
13. made me a theme for their lyres]. The taunt song was 
accompanied with the music of the common sort of stringed 
instruments used by such people in such places. — Those sitting 



PSALM LXIX. 119 

in the gate\ the public place inside the gate where idlers gathered 
for gossip, and partisans gathered together in groups || witiebib- 
bers'], as usual in such cases indulging freely in wine, which made 
them hilarious and abusive of their opponents. Doubtless the 
poet is contrasting in his mind the worship of God with song and 
music in the temple with this abuse of song and music by the 
ungodly in the public squares. 

Str. III. has a synth. and two syn. couplets. — 20 b. Before Thee\ 
emphatic in position; in Thy presence, in Thy sight. — are all 
mine adversaries]. They have done nothing; they cannot do 
anything without the divine knowledge. — 21. Reproach'], resum- 
ing the term of v.^--^°"^\ — hath broken my heart'], cf. Je. 23^ 
Ps. 22^^. He is heartbroken with sorrow, and the sense of injus- 
tice and wrong. — When I hoped for some one to pity || some to 
have compassion]. In his heartbroken condition he looked about 
for sympathy and pity for his sufferings. — there was none || 
I found them not]. He was left alone in his agony like the suf- 
ferer of 2 2^"^ — 22. And they gave me gall instead of bread, in 
my eating || vinegar instead of wine, gave me to drink, in my thirst'], 
to aggravate his hunger and thirst instead of satisfying them ; to 
mock him in his misery. 

Str. IV. is an imprecation in three syn. couplets. — 23. Let their 
table], upon which their food and drink are spread, antith. wP, and 
therefore || their peace-offerings], the flesh of the festal offerings 
on the table ; which is certainly to be preferred to AV. " that 
which should have been for their welfare," which is without justi- 
fication ; or RV. " when they are in peace," JPSV. " unto their 
friends," which are not well sustained ; or (^, F, 3, Aq., Rom. 11^, 
" for retribution," which is sustained by good usage, but does not 
suit the context. — become a snare || before them a trap]. The 
context does not indicate in what sense this is meant; whether 
the rich food was to be poisoned by treacherous enemies, or 
whether they would be surprised by enemies while indulging at 
the table. The author leaves it indefinite purposely, with sugges- 
tion of many possible explanations. — 24. Let their eyes be dark- 
ened that they cannot see]. Let them be blinded by some sudden 
calamity. — And let their loins be contiiiually tottering], from some 
sudden shock, filling them with terror and despair. — 25. Four 



1 20 PSALMS 

Upon them || let overtake them\ as a downfall of rain, a deluge, a 
storm. — Thine indignation || the heat of Thine anger], 

Str. V. has three syn. couplets. — 26. Let their habitation || in 
their tents'], the dwellings of the families of these enemies of 
Yahweh and His servant. — become desolate || let there be no in- 
habitant]. Let their wives and children, and all their adherents 
and posterity perish. — A glossator inserts a reason : 27. For whom 
Thou hast smitten they do pursue, and of the pain of those whom 
Thou hast pierced they tell]. This glossator states that the suffer- 
ings of the servant of Yahweh are due to the divine visitation, which 
is contrary to the entire tone of the Ps. : but he thinks at the same 
time that this aggravates the guilt of the persecutors. — 28. Add 
iniquity to their iniquity]. Increase this guilt, make them more and 
more guilty. — Let them not come into Thy righteousness], share in 
the saving righteousness bestowed by God on His faithful servants. 

— 29. Let them be blotted out || let them not be inscribed], reg- 
istered, with the righteous], their names among them, cf. Je. 22** Ez. 
13^ Ps. 87^ — the book of the living], the book recording the names 
of those who share in everlasting life, cf. Ex. 32^^-^ Dn. 12^ also 
Hb. 2*. This brings this simple and impressive Ps. to a conclusion. 

A late editor of the Maccabean period, thinking to give the 
composite Ps. a more appropriate conclusion, added v.^^^- ^^ after 
the analogy of 22^*- ^- -'''. 33. Have the afflicted seen, they will be 
glad]. When the delivered praise God in the temple, they will be 
seen by others, afflicted as they have been, who will be glad with 
them. — Those seeking God], His worshippers — will say: Let 
your heart live], as 22^. — 34. For Yahweh heareth the poor, and 
His prisoners He doth not despise], as 22^. The poor and the 
prisoners are doubtless those of the Maccabean afflictions. A still 
later editor inserts here an invocation to universal praise : 35. Let 
heaven and earth praise Him, the seas a?id all that glideth therein. 

— 36. For God will save Zion, and rebuild the cities of fudah], 
Zion was still in danger, and the cities of Judah were in ruins 
owing to the Syrian wars. — and they will dwell therein, and have 
it in possession || 37. The seed also of His servants will inherit it, 
and they that love His name will dwell in it]. The author looks 
forward to a long and peaceful residence of the faithful under the 
protection of God in Zion and in the rebuilt cities of Judah. 



PSALM LXIX. 121 



LXIX. A (fl). 

2. dtiSn] for mni of 10 : wherever nini appears in present Ps. of 3E it is 
either verbal gl. or part of a longer gl. or txt. err., as v.^. — VQ^'^V on] phr. 
cited Jon. 2^. — 3. ]V2'] elsw. ^o^ i}"'"!? t3>£3D, cf. Je. 38^ (t3^?3). — f^l!?] n.(in.) 
a.X. standing ground, foothold. — u^Vi-^^J^'JJ^'] = v.i^ t O'l??:^,? n.m. pi. (VP^;?) 
130I, D"" >pDj;D Is. 51I0, so here ©; d^d 'D elsw. Ez. 27^4. — J nS*3K^] n.f. 
t (i) stream, flood, elsw. v.^^ Ju. 12^ (the Jordan), Is. 2712 (^the Euphrates). 
(2) ears of grain Gn. 41^27 Ru, 22 Is. 17^ — ^Jnc'^if] Qal pf. 3 fs.,sf. i sg. 
J f\m vb. overflow, wash away, v.i^, cf. Is. 8^ 28^ 3028" 432 66I2 Je. 472 Pss. 7820 
124* : for the idea in different terminology, cf. i8^ 42^. — 4. iNnpa Tip^], cf. 
67 "innjN3 •'n;;j}\ @ Kpd^cav, 3 damans without sf. which is a gl. in |^. — im] 
Niph. pf. t "^"^n vb. Qal <5<f hot, Ez. 24^1, <5?^rw Is. 24^, of bones in fever Jb. 30^, 
Niph. (i) l>e scorched ]e. 629 £2. 15^'^ 241"^; (2) durn, of bones in fever 
Ps. 102* ; de parched, of throat here only. Pilp. kindle (strife) Pr. 2621. — 
^r^ iSs] fail, exhausted by weeping, phr. La. 2II, cf. 4^^ Ps. 11982.123. 
for vb. cf. 18^^ 71^ 7326 843 1198I 1437. — W] Pi. ptc. Vm j/25, so 3, @ o.Tch 
rod iyyl^eLv iirl rbv dedv fwv, Vn^p prep, and inf., so Du.; most prob., easiest 
syntax. — This v. has two tetrameters; is gl. — 5. i]^ii-\ n'n^fe'c], phr. elsw. 
40^^ — D3n iNpt'] phr. elsw. jj^^ = Djn ''a''N La. 3^2. || -jp^ ,3,5^ _ ^yg^ ^f^ 
-\p!y '•HW 38^. — 1DX>'] be vast, numerous || 131; 38'^ 406- 1^ 139I7 Is. 31I Je. 56 
3oi4- 15^ — ""ri^pxp] Hiph. ptc. sf. I sg. y'^'^cx (^18^) my exterminators, but 
improb. The parall. suggests a comparison. Hare, Lowth., Street, Ew., Gr., 
•"nDxp than my locks, but this mng. dub.; ^ "'n"^OXj?p than my bones, so 01s., 
Hu., Dy., Kau., Ba., cf. Jb. 4^*, is to be preferred, and this gives us two beats 
for the measure. A word is missing with reading of |^. It is favoured also 
by the word play of vb. and noun. — rs] ® and % is difficult unless la's be 
regarded as relative of time. If not, we must interpret of logical sequence, as 
408 1196-92^ But we would expect rather a demonstrative n; or nxT. tn is 
regarded as a corruption of ijn by Lag., Du.; but unnecessary, — 6. ^n'?iN'?] 
S of ace. of late style, @ tt]v dcppoaivijv fiov, 3 stultitiam meam, nViN n.f. 38^ 
and here, elsw. Pr. 23 t. || ip'idc'n: pi. J npE'N n.f. wrong doing, guiltiness, tres- 
pass a.\. in \p, but Lv. 526 and Chr. 10 t. (action) ; Lv. 4^ Am. S^\?) Chr. 3 t. 
(guilt) ; Lv. 524 22^^ of bringing trespass offering ; implies late date subse- 
quent to P. — This v. is doubtless a late gl. — 7. mN33f n)n> ^jin] @ has only 
KiJpic Twj' dvvdfxeuv, but 3 domine deus exercituum : nin> in IE cannot be 
original. 3 is doubtless correct as a conflation of ijnx (for nin>) and dtiSn of 35. 

LXIX. B {a). 
Another Ps. begins here with trimeter measure. — 8. ^''f?P"''3] cf. 4423. — 
nsnin ^riNC':] phr. elsw. Je. 151^ Zp. 3I8 nsnn (/j^). — ••jd hdSd nnps], cf. 441^ 
-ijnos '•JJD n2>3. The order here is suspicious. It was at an earlier stage 
••JD nnSs ■•jnDD. For npSi) v. 4^. — 9. nnn] Hoph. ptc. -\it estranged a.\.', 
Niph. same sense Is. i* Ez. 14^ — nsj] adj. foreign, alien, cf. Jb. igi^ 
Dn>j>y3 inoj. — 10. rin^3 nxjp] phr. a.X. zeal for thy house. % nNj,-i n.f. ardour 



122 PSALMS 

(i) of jealousy not in ^; (2) of zeal for God 2 K. ioi« Nu. 25II (P), so here ; 
(3) of anger Ps. 119^39 j^. ^2 (men); ^ nt<:p ij'n Ps. 79^ Is. 26^1 Ez. 36* 
Zp. I^^ 38. — n"'?")'^n H'^Dnn] prob. dittog., makes too long a 1. The original 
was prob. ^>mD1^ reproaches against Thee. It is possible that ■?\ti-\T\ came in 
by error from next v., and that made it necessary to interpret the other form 
as ptc. — 11. ■"'???<,i] "I consec. prot. temporal clause with Qal impf. i sg. 
J n^j vb. weep elsw. in ^ 78*^ 126^ 137^ This form is dub. with 'rp: a^s^ 
with fastings as 3^^^. MT. seems to make ""C'DJ a second subj. of vb, so Ew., 
Hi., De., Ba., Ges."*(<). 3 makes it ace. after vb., so Aq., S, interp. Pi., as 
Ez. 8^*, properly bewailing oneself ^ for oneself cf. Je. 31^^. This is most prob. 
with text, as it is suited to the context. But (S^ avv^KaiJ.\pa, so &. r33C sug- 
gests either as Houb., Lowth., Lag., Now., nrrs; Aramaism, cf. Ps. io6*\ of 
8S^^ Jb. 242* Ec. 10^^, or n:?N assimilated to 35^^, where alone the same phr. is 
found with this vb., so Dy.,' 01s., Hu., Or., Du. B^ «• • «• avvcKdXvxpa, U 
operui would represent an original nrDN^i which is improbable. — 12. nins^] 1 
consec. prot. temporal clause, Qal impf. cohort, i sg. — pc* ^rii*^] z'.jj^^. — 'Hni] 
1 consec. apod., Qal impf. 3 sg. juss. n\-i. But rhyme requires that it should 
be at close of 1. — *^^^'^] for a by-word ox taunt song, as 44^^ — 13. in'-r^] 
Qal impf. n>2', not (l) complain, as 55^^, nor (2) muse, so Dr., as 77'^- 1^ ; but 
compose (a song), as 105^ Ju. 5^*^. — '•2] makes 1. too long unless attached by 
Makkeph to vb. It should also come at close of 1. with retracted accent, 
^a-in^ir;. — "^'i^ "'^C'^] sit in the gate, as Dr., not dwell in gate, cf. Gn. 19I c. a, 
those who sit in judgment there, rulers, but here, idlers. — n^jMj] of stringed 
instruments (see Intr. § 34), cf. 77"(?) Jb. 30^ La. 3^* ; ® koL th ifi^ €\pa\- 
\oVf U in me psallebant, and 3 et cantabant, rd. vb. and sf. Rd. >3ij3 3 Houb., 
and put at end of 1. — '\yq ^r'^r] drinkers of strong drink, Qal. ptc. fully writ- 
ten, pi. cstr. t-\3C' n. a.X. in ^. Cf. Is. 5^1- 22 Mi. 2^1 +. — 14. '»JNi] emph. 
antith. to mocking enemies ; not original ; this v. is a gl., measure is com- 
plete without it. — 'H^""''?!???] so c. S 42^ cf. 351^ (aicn >p>n V;:). — mn^] mark 
of gl. as in v.'. — r^"i"n>;] phr. elsw. Is. 49", cf. "\ av Is. 58^ "\ nj«> Is. 61'*. — 
cn^.s] as in goes with first part of v. for an original n"in\ 

LXIX. A (i). 

The pentameter poem is resumed here with v.^**. — 15. t3>t?p] gl. {i8i^. — 

'^?30X"Sni] Qal cohort, with 1 coord. See v.*. ® tva fxrj, so 3 requires nSi ; 
possibly assimilated to other 11., which have 'rs, possibly phr. is gl. after v. 3*. 
— ^^2f3Ni] Niph. cohort. Sxj (7^) .- doublet of ^j^''xn, improb. The 1. is too 
long. "»xj2»a must go out as gl., so Ba., or the following words as repetition 
from v.*. But other terms are repeated from v.' We would expect this phr. 
also, whereas '•Njrn is explanatory of trouble and disturbs the metaphor. Rd. 
3 for D before "'pep::. — 16. ''JD:2'^'n-SN] Qal juss., cf. v.^ attached to same noun, 
only here o-'D rhiv for r>3"^ there ; prob. a**:: a later addition, as unnecessary; 
makes 1. too long. — ^^1^? unnecessary, gl. to give second vb. a subj. — 
iBNn] vb. a.X. ® has o-vpo-x^tu} usually for nx^*, 3 coronet = ~»aj,'- Gr. sug- 
gests DOK which is not so easy. Better n^cn as Is. 5" of Sheol, cf. Jb. 16^*^. -^ 



PSALM LXIX. 123 

1K3] pit of Sheol here as 3*5^^. — 17. mn-'] gl. as v.i*. — 3it3 ^d] although sus- 
tained by Vrss. is not according to || :3"ij, therefore rd. avjD with Street, Gr., 
We., Che., Ba., Du. It has been assimilated to 63^ 10921. — iSn njo] does not 
belong to the 1. ; it is prob. gl. — 18. n^^V?] (cf. jcp') prob. gl. as Du. — 
>S-nx-'3] as zi^^ elsw. always with 2; S'nx^ 18^ 66I* 106** 1076.13.19.28; 
cf. h "IX Drj 59!'^ 102^ ; so prob. here also. — "ijiir "inc] two imvs., the first 
auxiliary, same phr., 102^ 143"^, cf. 79^ (v. 16^'). But '•Jjy is here prob. gl., 



dittog. of beginning of previous v. — 19. ^^aJ'Sn] unto myself^ cf. v 
i3>^ ^yp'?] cf. onmB' Xixh 5^ 27II, onmx x^rh 8^ in all these cases concluding 
a clause ; therefore prob. ^jifl a gl. || hSnj. There has been an effort to 
change these pentameters into trimeters because of subsequent trimeters. — 
20. nns] emph., but without apparent reason. L. a gl. — inra] (jj^) 11 
^nob/cf. V.8 ; >ni3nn, cf. v.^- lo- n. 21. 

LXIX. 5 (3). 

The trimeter Ps. is here resumed with 20^ — riijj] emph. — 21. ^aS ^1^^'\ 
V. 34!^ 51^^ 147^; 3 contritum. ® has irpoa-eSdKTjffev with 17 i/'i'X'»J Awu = >irDJ as 
subj. = ni3t:* Pi. /io/>g, v. lo^^ 1191^^ I45^^ in accord with subsequent context. 
oS of f^ and 1CDJ of © both interp. glosses. — npjNi] 1 consec. with Qal cohort. 
c'u vb. a.X. <^<? sick, improb. ; is attached to previous context by MT. and Vrss. 
® TOKaiTTwpiav f. ptc. Qal i^'jN to be weak, sick, as Je. 15I8 Mi. i^, S disperatus 
sum, so ^, Bi., Che. Unpointed |^ would yield ptc. also. — nii-iNi] 1 consec. 
Pi. impf. I sg. (^2^^) ; prob. this 1 consec. reacted upon previous 1. — "iijS] 
inf. c. nu {11^) ; so Jb. 2I1 H iDnjS; cf. Jb. 42" ■nj>i y mn.jM, condole withy 
shew sympathy, only in these passages in this sense. But (5 (rvWvirotjfxevov = 
ptc. nj required also by |1 D^DnjD Pi. ptc. pi. (2ji), so Ba., Du. 3 renders both 
by rel. clause, and prob. rd. ptc. also. — 22. ""nn^a] as my food,T\y^i a X. 
(•y^nna eat^. ® e/s rh ^pC}ixd fwv, 3 in esca mea ; cf. inf. Pi. nn^S La. 4IO; 
prob. inf. here with :j of time V7i'i"i33 when I ate. — f "^^"^ n.m. (i) poisonous 
herb, elsw. La. 3^. 19 Dt. 29!^ 32^2 Am. 612 Ho. lo* Je. gi* 9!* 2318; (2) venom 
Dt. 32^3 Jb. 20I6. — 23. D>p'iW'7}] MT. pi. of m'^r, as Ra., those in security, 
careless, cf. 4^ Z'f^'y t)ut pi. of diVj' always txt. err. (v. BDi5.). ^ rd. □i^'^'^i* 
their peace-offering, S prep, being assimilation in connection with misinter- 
pretation of text, so Houb., Gr., Du. But all other Vrss. are different. ® has 
KoX els &vTair65o(xiv Kal, U, 5, et in retributiones ad, Aq. e/s d7ro56(r€ts, S e/s 
TLixi/jplav, 6 e/s di'Ta7ro56(rets, rd. D^ciW pi. f ciVrn.m. recompense, retribution, 
elsw. Mi. 7^ Ho. 9"^ Is. 34^, so Street. The three nouns with S prob. parallel, 
and the measure so requires. If the present order of |§ be correct, we must 
interpret the word after ® ; but the v. seems to have lost its parall. If d."t«jdV 
is transposed to the second 1. and r\th to the first, then we get better || by 
thinking of D'-aStt' as the festal meal. — 24. njpE=nn] Qal impf. 2 pi. f. J yon 
vb. QlzXgrow dim, fig. as La. 5!"^ Ec. I2^ Hiph. cause darkness Ps. 10528, sq. 
JD 139I2. — njypn] for njJDn Hiph. imv., so ©, 3, 'r^'o (^18^^, cause to totter, cf. 
Ez. 29'^, where rd. mpan with D^jnn Vd after Sm., Co., Da., Berth, (instead of 
MT. mD;;n). Gr. suggests nycn niyo here, but the change is unnecessary 



124 PSALMS 

25. riBN jNnn] so yS*^ 85*, early usage J, not E, D^, H, P. — 26. onn^to] pi. 
sf. t C'"'"'"'^] i^'f- (i) encampment; so here || Dn>SnN, cf. Gn. 25!^ (P) Nu. 31^'^ 
(P) Ez.^254 I Ch. 6«»; (2) battlement, Ct. 8^; (3) r^«> of stones Ez. 46^3 (p), 
— 27. nns -"r] emph., as vP. But it is singular before i^'n; Perles, Du., Che., 
therefore rd. irN-pN. It is a misplaced gl. — ^^^^n] pi. sf. 2 m. J '^^n n.m. 
(l) pierced, fatally wounded, here, as Je. 51^^ La. 2^2 Ez. 261^ 302-*; (2) slain 
Ps. 88^ 89II Nu. 19^^ +. — n.sD>] Pi. impf. 3 pi. -idd /^//^/ so 3, but it does 
not suit the context. (5 has Trpoa^drjKav, V addiderunt, & idDin, so Hare, Houb., 
Lowth., Street; Ew., 01., Gr., Bi., Che., Ba., Du., Dr., ^Dp-^ Hiph. e]D\ add. 
This V. disturbs the imprecation, and is a late gl. — 29. inn^] Niph. juss. 3 pi. 
nno (g^). — 0""n -^od] phr. a.\. doo^ of the living, cf. Ex. 32^2.33 (^^ j^jj^ j2i^ 
cf. 'nn nis Ps. 56^^ '^^ nix-\N ii6^ D-i^mn) y-\N 27^^ 52^ 142^ 

LXIX. yi {c). 

The pentameter is here resumed. — 30. ^jni] emph. as above v.^*, but owing 
to gl. and not original. — aN^'Di ^jj?] phr. a.X. J dno Qal ptc. be sorrowful, cf. 
aiN30 v.^^^. — 32. nin>S] is gl. as in E always. — IIPp] Hiph. ptc. f pp denom. 
Pi*l» having horns, horned, putting forth horns, elsw. only Qal, of rays Ex. 
^^29.80.86 (^p), — Dpp::] Hiph. J d-id denom. no-^s n.f. hoof^nA^o hoofed; 
only here ^, but Hiph. elsw., dividing the hoof Dt. 14^-^ Lv. ii^"- '^. — 
33. iNn] Qal pf. ; Du. makes it imv. — dd^^S ■«n''T d^hSn '•rni], @ has for 
this KoX ^<re<T6€y which paraphrases it, cf. 22^, which is the original passage. 
ovhSn is gl, 1 of ^n") goes with ptc, rd. ddddV ^n^ vc-^i. — 34. mn>] is gl. — 
nra nS], cf. the original 222s. — 35. rc'i] Qal ptc. X irnn vb. Qal (i) creep of 
reptiles Lv. 20^^ (H) Gn. 9^ (P) ; (2) glide about of water animals, here as Lv. 
II*« (H), Gn. i2i (P); (3) move about oi wild beasts Ps. 104-0 Gn. i^ (P). 



PSALM LXX., 2 STR. 4^ 
Ps. 70 is a prayer used Ps. 40^*"^^, where it has been considered. 

PSALM LXXL, 4 STR. f. 

Pa. 71 is a prayer of the congregation to Yahweh for deliverance 
from enemies. He has been the hope of the nation from its infancy, 
indeed from birth; and has continually been praised (v.'^). His 
people have become a portent to the nations on that account, and 
the praise of Yahweh has ever sounded forth in His temple ; there- 
fore the plea not to cast them off when old and feeble (v.''"^). They 
continue their hope and their praise of His righteous might and 
salvation (v.^*"^"). He has taught them from earliest youth; 
therefore the renewed plea not to forsake them in old age, but to 



PSALM LXXI. 125 

let them continue to praise His wondrous deeds to succeeding gen- 
erations ; concluding with the exclamation that their God is in- 
comparable in His great deeds of salvation (v.^''"^^). There are 
numerous glosses of enlargement and emphasis (y.^"^^^^^-^'^^). 

lyr Y God, deliver me from the hand of the wicked, 

From the palm of the wrong doer and the violent: 

For Thou art my hope, Adonay, 

My trust from my youth, Yahweh. 

Upon Thee have I stayed myself from the womb ; 

From the bowels of my mother Thou drewest me forth. 

Of Thee is my praise continually. 
A S a wonder I am become to many, 

Since Thou art my refuge (and) my strength. 

My mouth is full of Thy praise, 

[That I may sing of Thy glory]. 

All the day of Thy beauty. 

Cast me not away in the time of old age: 

When my power faileth forsake me not. 
T ON my part continually hope, 

And add unto all Thy praise. 

My mouth tells of Thy righteousness, 

All the day of Thy salvation; 

Though I know not how to tell it. 

I will bring Thy might, Adonay. 

I will make mention of Thy righteousness, Yahweh. 
'T'HOU hast taught me from youth even until now, 

Even to old age and hoar hairs do not forsake me; 

Until I declare Thy wondrous deeds to a seed, 

To a generation to come Thy might. 

And Thy righteousness, O God (extendeth) to the height, 

The great deeds that Thou hast done. 

O God, who is Hke Thee ! 

Ps. 71 is without title in |§. The title of (3, ry Aaveld, vlCop 'Iwj/aSd/S koI 
Twv TpQiTcov aixi^a-^i^Tia-d^vTcov, is a late conjecture, due probably to the fact 
that the Rechabites of Je. 35 were faithful to their father's commands, just as 
this poet claims Israel to be to those of Yahweh his God. The Ps. was origi- 
nally composed of four trimeter heptastichs, v.*-^-^*-^^; but glosses of differ- 
ent measure appear in v.^^"^^- 20-24^ ^nd an introductory trimeter gloss from 
312-4. The original Ps. has reminiscences of: 22I0-11 in v.^-*, 22^1-32 j^ y^is^ 
366 in V.19, Is. 63I* in v.^, Is. 46^ in v.^- ^», Dt. 28^ in yJ. It is evident that 
the author must have composed it some time after these writings, and there- 
fore not earlier than the Greek period, and probably late in that period, too 
late for his Ps. to have been taken up into any of the minor Psalters. The 
glosses are still more dependent on other Literature: v.i", cf. 56'^; v.i2«, cf. 

22l2a = 3^226 _ 33226; y,l2b^ cf. 40^*^ = "JO^^ = 3823«; v.l3, cf. 35*' 26 = 40^^ = 



126 PSALMS 

708; itair,cf. 382I; na>',cf. 10919-29; v.20, cf. 6310 Is. 4423, also Ez. 2620 32I8.24. 
v.24<», cf. 3528; V.2**, cf. 35*- 26 708 40!^ These glosses doubtless come from 
the Maccabean period. It is probable that the gloss v.^-^ was prefixed before 
these, as it has been assimilated to the structure of the Strs. of the original. 

This Ps. is introduced by an editor with a Str. taken with 
slight variations from 31^^: — 

In Thee, Yahweh, have I taken refuge. 

Let me not be shamed forever. 

In Thy righteousness rescue me, and deliver me. 

Incline unto me Thine ear. 

Become to me the rock of my stronghold, 

The house of my fortress to save me ; 

For Thou art my crag and my fortress. 

The variations from the original are discussed in the critical notes 
3i^-\ The editor adapted it to the strophical organisation of 
this Ps. 

Str. I. Three syn. couplets and a synth. line. — 4. My God~\ 
emphatic in position because of the urgent plea : deliver me — 
from the hand of the wicked || the palm of the wrong doer and the 
violent^ These are national enemies, and not personal ones. — 
5-6. For Thou art my hope || my trust'], upon whom the people 
have been relying, — from my youth] that of the nation; the time 
of the Exodus, cf. Ho. 11. — Adonay || Yahweh^^ the two divine 
names in syn. lines ; so v.^*'. V.^ ' is a citation from 22"; there 
used of the ideal sufferer, here of the nation. — Of Thee], emphatic 
in position, — is my praise], ha.sed on the hope and trust, — con- 
tinually]y from the youth of the nation until the present, and ever 
will be in the worship of the temple. 

Str. II. A synth. couplet, a syn. triplet, and a syn. couplet. — 
7. As a wonder\ emphatic in position ; not on account of the 
unexampled sufferings, due to abandonment of their God, which, 
though sustained by Dt. 28^, does not suit the context, but rather 
on account of the wondrous deliverances which they had experi- 
enced in their history. — I am become to many], the many nations 
with which they were brought in contact from the Exodus onward. 
— since Thou art my refuge\ a circumstantial clause. — and my 
strength], as 46^ 62^; reduced by copyist's error against the meas- 
ure to the phrase, a.\. and ungrammatical : " my refuge of strength." 



PSALM LXXI. 127 

— S. My mouth is full of Thy praise\ resuming v.^ || that I may 
sing of Thy glory'], a line preserved by (3, V, and PBV., and neces- 
sary to the completeness of the Str., though omitted by copyist's 
mistake in % followed by AV., RV. || all the day of Thy beauty\ 
the manifestation of the divine glory in the beautiful ornaments 
of the temple worship. — 9. Cast 7ne not away || forsake 7ne not\ 
based on v.^"-^, — in the time of old age \ when my power faileth'], 
in the decline of the nation in power due to its age, over against 
the support given from youth of v.^ 

A late editor inserted several Hnes v.^°"^^, enlarging upon the 
peril and making the petition for deliverance more urgent. — 
10. For mine enemies \ they that watch for my life\ deadly ene- 
mies, — say of me || consult together saying]. They express their 
deadly hatred in talk, consulting together to accomplish their 
wicked desires. — 11. God hath forsaken him : pursue and seize 
him J for there is none to deliver]. They presume that what the 
people pray may not take place, has already taken place ; and 
that their God has already abandoned them as a helpless prey. — 
12. O God, be not far from me], urgent entreaty, based on 22^^ 
SS^, — my God, O haste to my help], based on 38^*. — 13. Let 
them be ashamed and confounded together that are the adversaries 
of my life \ Let them put on 7'eproach and confusion that seek 7ny 
hurt], pentameter couplet of imprecation based on 70^, cf. 35*"^ 

Str. III. A synth. couplet, a syn. triplet, and a syn. couplet. 
— 14. / on my part], emph. in position, cf. v.^"'^*. — continually 
hope], as v.^ — and add unto all Thy praise], continually praise 
God, as v.^-^; and so constantly add to His praise, increasing its 
amount and volume. — 15. My tnouth], as v.% — all the day], as 
V.*, — tells of Thy righteousness], vindicatory righteousness, which 
delivers His people from their enemies, and so 1| of Thy salvation. 

— Though / know not how to tell it], so great is it, so vastly ex- 
ceeding understanding and narration. — 16. / will bring], the 
story of the salvation and the praise || / will make mention of] — 
Thy might], as chief Vrss. ; to be preferred to " mighty acts " of 
1^, followed by EV^, because of v.^^ and the || Thy righteousness. 

Str. IV. A synth. couplet, two. syn. couplets, and a concluding 
line. — 17. Thou hast taught me from youth even until now]. 



128 PSALMS 

resuming v.*, only changing the relation of trust into one of instruc- 
tion and guidance. — 18. Even to old age and hoar hairs do not 
forsake me\ resuming v.^ with slight variation. — Until I declare 
Thy wondrous deeds to a seed'], the most probable original of a 
difficult passage, due in part to the mistake of transposing a clause, 
and in part to the mispointing a word. The line is based on 22^^ ; 
II To a generation to coine\ as 22"^-. — Thy might'], as v.^^. — 19. And 
Thy righteousness, O God], resuming v.^^-^^, — extendeth to the 
height], the height of heaven in its reach, cf. 36^ 57^^; and so 
beyond the reach of praise however great, cf. v.^^. — The great 
deeds that Thou hast done], in the historic deUverance of Israel. 

— O God, who is like Thee!], concluding with the praise of their 
God as the incomparable one, in accordance with the ancient 
song of praise Ex. 15^ cf. Pss. 35^^ 86^89'^ Mi. f^. 

A later editor, probably the same who inserted v.^'^^^, appends 
^20-24^ — 20. Who hast caused me to see mafiy troubles and straits] . 
This editor lived in more troublous times than the author of the 
Ps., and not only looks back upon many past troubles in the his- 
tory of the nation, but seems to speak from his own experience. 

— Quicken me again, and from the lowest parts of the earth bring 
me up again]. The nation has fallen so low that it has, as it were, 
died and gone down into the depths of Sheol; and the restora- 
tion of the nation is the bringing of the dead to hfe, cf. Ho. 6^"^ 
Ez. 37^*^". — 21. Mayes t Thou multiply greatness], doubtless the 
greatness of God, as (!^, IT; "my greatness" of J^, followed by 
EV*., is a misinterpretation of the original. — and again comfort 
me], so most Vrss. By error of a single letter J^, followed by 
EV'., uses a cognate vb. "mayest Thou encompass me," which 
in PBV. and AV. is rendered "on every side." — 22. even me], 
needed to complete the previous line v.^. It makes the next line 
too long, and would unduly emphasize the subject of the vb. — 
/ will give thanks to Thee || make melody to Thee], in public wor- 
ship, — with the harp || with the lyre], instrumental music. — Thy 
faithfulness, my 6^^^], second object of vb. || Holy One of Israel], 
divine name of Is.^ ^ as Pss. 78^^ 89^^ — 23-24. My lips will jubi- 
late II 7?iy tongue will muse], oral, vocal celebration. A copyist's 
mistake inserted against the measure, " Yea, I will make melody," 
probably dittog. of v.'^*. The first line has as its complement. 



PSALM LXXI. 129 

even the person Thou hast ransomed~\. The second line gives 
the theme, — Thy righteousness^ 2i?> manifested in the ransom, — 
also the vow of its long-continued celebration, — all the day']. It 
is based on 35^^. — For they are shamed; for they are abashed 
that seek my hurt\ an expression of certitude of the retribution 
upon the enemies, substituted for the imprecation of 35^^ 

1-3 = 3i2-4o ^ith slight variations. — 4. '?;V;c] Pi. ptc. o.X. f [Si;*] denom. 
Si];, act wrongfully, elsw. Pi. impf. Is. 261*^; a late word. @ has Trapavo/j-ovv- 
Tos, 3 iniqui. — I'pin] Qal ptc. t [f ^^n] vb. a.X. ® ahiKovvTo^, J nocentis 
^DB. ruthless, dub. Cf. ri2n n.[m.] a.X. Is. i^^ also dub. E f|iDn. Cf. Dc'in 
for which it may be txt. err., as Che. — 5-6 cited from 2210-^^. — 5. nin"i ij-\n] 
so 3 ; ® divides them properly between two lines, so Ba. — ''ri^T^p:] Niph. pf. 
I m. "|CD (j*^), support oneself, as Ju. 16"^ Is. 36^. This softens the original 
Ti^Wn. — "p;)] Qal ptc. \ r\u vb. a.X. ^DB. cut off, sez>er. (& (TKeiraaTris for 
iKatrda-as 221*^ prob. originally as De iK<nra<XT'/is, (3 having same form in both 
passages; U, 3, protector; Ges., Ew., Hu., Pe., benefactor; cf. Talm. Nn^ 
but dub.: prob. err. for ^m. — 6. '•i?';?'?.';] ® vfjLvrjais, 3 laus, cf 22*; but 
S ""nSn'r] as 39^, so We., Du., which better suits context. In this case ifhnn 
has arisen from assimilation to v.^. — 7. J rifl^D] n.m. wonder, of divine power, 
as 78'^3 1055.27 1259, based on Dt. 28*6^ — TV^Dnr] phr. a.X., both words com- 
mon apart: v;^ nona 46^, ^pnp mj; 62^, so prob. here as measure requires. — 
8. ® inserts after inSnn, Sttws v/jlv^o-o) tt]v bb^av aov, so U ; but it is not in 
&, 3, VL. It is, however, doubtless original, as the measure requires it ; so 
Du. — ■innNi3n] sf. 2 m. J ^1^9k} ^-f- beauty, glory of Yahweh, as 78^^ 89^^ 96^ 
Is. 6o'^- 19 6312- 14. 15 64IO. — 9. njpT nj?^] for idea Is. 46* as applied to Israel. 
fnji^T n.f. old age, cf v.iS; elswVGn."2436 (J) i K. 11* 1523. _,nb n^Sr] Qal 
inf cstr. hSd (^18^^') finished, spent, exhausted, cf 31I1 69* 73^6 102* 143'^. — 
.10. i'7] of me, not to me. — "•'^SJ '''^Dt*] usually in good sense, but here in bad 
sense, watch for my life, cf 56^. — nni] (^^) though in ^ is prob. gl., as Ba., 
Du. ; in this phr. elsw. Ne. 6^ Is. 45^1, cf Ps. 83^. — 11. inxS] is prosaic gl, 
as Ba. — imrsn] Qal imv. 3 pi. sf 3 m. rijn grasp, seize, take prisoner, only 
here in 1/' in Qal, but Niph. lo^; common elsw., as Je. 34^ Ez. 1213+. — 
Svsp rN->2] as f 5022. — 12. >J5?? pnnn-Ss] = 22i2« = 35226 = 38226, the lat- 
ter only with ^hSn. — r\mT\ ••nnT^S] = 401*^ = 702^ = 3823*, the latter with >y\\i~, 
the two former with mn>. na'in Kt. is evidently txt. err. The second of these 
clauses is not in @s, but is in ®^- ^. The two, however, belong together. 
— 13. \7in •'i:?3D hdS^i nsnn -lajj^ '^^^i \Jtot' hy^_ i^'??.]- We should insert it,^ 
here as in 35* 70^ in accord, with 352^ 401^, and then we would have two pen- 
tameters. These four passages vary in terms slightly, but they all go back to 
the same original. — iSp^] Qal impf 3 pi. nSo is error for ^xh^\ 35'* 40^5; so 
S, Hare, Lowth., 01s,, Dy., Hu., Oort, Che. — i^'pj \jt:ii'] is a variation of 
'•tt'DJ v^p^o 35* 40IS 7o3; ^rtpir Qal ptc. pi. cstr. pty as 3821. — ^ny^->^ '\r'i7?c] is 
a variation of >ny-i >:3B'n 35*, '1 '•nnt' 352^, '-» ixdh 40!^ 70^. — -ito^j is a poetic 
K 



1 30 PSALMS 

variation of vioS^ 3526. J n-^-; vb. Qal 7vra/> oneself, enwrap : of God with 
■^iN as a garment 104^; of men -"j^j 1091^, with shame 1092^, reproach, so 
here. Hiph. enwrap, ace. shame, c. V>' 89'*^, subj. n-nn and ace. blessings 84'. 
This V. depends on Pss. 35, 38 jointly. — 14. ••jni] emph. antith. — ^l^^in] so 
6; but Aq., 2, 3, .S, pi. rir^^^nri. — 15. nnbp] MT. pi. nV-D n.f. a.\/, BDB. 
numbers; T tmj^j-, so Houb.; Onb. a.b ypan/jLarias, S srncD, 3 literaturas, 
mr)p pi. n-i«;p writings, scriptures ; so Street, Du. ; O Trpayfiarias prob. txt. 
err. S i^apid/xijaai vb. inf. n.btp is favoured by analogy of 40^ 139I7. I8 
nsDD i!:x;', o^sps, so Ba. '^•;o^. We might read n-jsD and take ^3 as conces- 
sive, as Gr. suggests. — 16. a sos] Qal impf., no with 2 come with, bring, 
as 408 6613. — nn3j] ^\^ q{ mighty deeds of Yahweh ; but 6, &, 3, 2, ^, rd. 
sg. ni33 might zs v.is, so Ba. — nin^ >j-in] so 3; but ® correctly divides be- 
tween the two lines. — 17. '■'^^^""'r] anc^ until noxv, phr. of tim^ as i Ch. 9^8 
12^. It goes most naturally with previous context, and then d^hSn is gl. — 
1\-iinSdj n^js] Hiph. impf. ijj is unsuited to njn-i;'. It has come up by 
txt. err. from v.^^. It disturbs the couplet made by the previous and follow- 
ing 11. — 18. njpr-i^ D.n] cf. v.*. cji is gl. of intensification, and a\nSN makes 
1. overfull. — t na^u-] n.m. old age; elsw. in ^, 92I5, but cf. Is. 46*, on which 
V. is based, also Ho. 7^ Dt. 32"^ -f. — qy^nr n\JN-n;;] ^>-ir of arm of Yahweh, 
symbol of strength and salvation, as Is. 33^ 40^'' 51^+, but nowhere else for 
that which it accomplishes and improb. here. Rd. jr-^r as in 22^1 upon which 
this v. depends. The sf. is interpretation. The obj. of vb. is then q^msScJ, 
which has gone up with T'JN into previous v. — '^^'^ nn"^] @ Trdo-T; r^ ^tvtq.. 
The S3 is prob. gl. of intensification, and -in'? is followed by NU" in rel. clause 
as in 223-. ^ omits So, so Oort, Ba., Beer, al. ; but other Vrss. give it. — 
19. Dn?:"-ty] as the extent of the declaration of divine righteousness ; not 
of the righteousness itself, as Ba., who cfs. 36® 57II 108^ where, however, 
faithfulness is used. — -;^t7 nrs] rel. of obj. as nr>' "d 22^2^ defined by p^Sn. 

— 20. urvs-^-;^] Kt., Aq., >/_ Qr., ©, 2, 9, 3, 5, %. The same difference 
in ir.:nn. The first pers. sg. is best suited to the context, but both are inter- 
pretations. — avj'ri] Qal impf. 2 m. bis followed by impfs. is auxil. again; 
should be juss. arn. — f-\Nn ncinr] elsw. always of depths of sea; so 01s., 
We., Du. Rd. r->Nn nvrnn 63^^ Is. 4428; so nvnnn pN Ez. 262'^ 3218- 24_ ^ 
i.^v(T<T(j)v T^5 7^9, repeated (S, in v.21 at close. The peril js of death for the 
nation, as in other passages. — 21. a->-] Hiph. juss. 2 m. nan multiply — 
® TrXeoj/dtras. — ''''?'^7-?] ® h\.Kaioa<)vi]v gov. 3 follows MT. A great number 
of codd. H and P ry]v /jLeyaXioa-vinjv <tov. Both sfs. interpretations. — ^^r}"^^ 
Qal impf. 2 m. 33D (77^-') for which (5,3, &, 2:rr, which is favoured by || V.20; 
so Houb., Lowth., Horsley, Oort, Ba. The 1. lacks a word. Gr. attaches 
^js DJ. — 22. tti^n] Hiph. impf. i sg., sf. 2 m., but better parall. with ':]^ as 
usual. — S^r^':'^?] cf. D^Saj ^^aa i Ch. i6^ (S^ 103 codd. HP, Compl., Aid., 
E, after riniN rd. iv Xaot? Kvpie, n^n^ o^ua, as 18^"^. So Oort, Ba., Beer, Che., 
We., but without sufficient reason. — Ssir'' U'n|-i] as yS^^ 89^^, characteristic 
of Is.i (II t.) Is.2 (i3t.). — 23. nin.n] so BD., Ginsberg, al. ; v. Ges.«- ». 

— i^ ^1^1^, '2] temporal clause, but difficult with cohort. Pi. Prob. txt. err. 



PSALM LXXII. 131 

from previous 1. — 24. inpnx njnn arn-^D "•jic'S-dj = 3528 -jp-fx njnn '•j^trSi 
"inVnn Drn-':'^ : the only variations dj for 1, r^p-^it for p-^-i, and the omission of 
"inSnn. — ti;;-! icpan nan'o la^i'^j] is also variation of 35^6 ^•^n> non*'! ib'J* 
■»nv"\ '•nc'^'. The only differences are in tense of vb., repetition of id for 1, 
substitution of '•a'pjD as v.i^ for "inDC, and omission of nn\ 



PSALM LXXIL, 2 STR. 7^ 

Ps. 72 was originally a petition for a king on his ascending the 
throne : (i) that Yahweh would endow him with justice, that he 
might rule righteously, and especially save the afllicted from the 
injustice suffered during the previous reign (v.^~') ; (2) that the 
king might have pity on the poor and so enjoy their prayers and 
blessings, that abundance of grain and cattle might be in the land, 
and that he might live and be honoured forever (v.^^^'") . An editor 
adapted the Ps. for congregational use by giving it Messianic sig- 
nificance, applying to the king from other scriptures the world- 
wide reign (v.^), the subjugation of enemies (v.^^^), the deliverance 
of the afflicted (v.^^), and the blessing of the seed of Abraham 
(v»). 

VAHWEH, T\\y justice give to a king, and Thy righteousness to a king's son ; 
May he rule Thy people in righteousness, and Thine afflicted ones viWh Justice 

{govern) ; 
May mountains bear peace to (Thy) people, and hills righteousness ; 
May he govern the afflicted of ( Thy) people, save the sons of the poor. 
May he (prolong days) with the sun, and before the moon for generations of 

generations ; 
May he descend as rain upon the mowing grass, as showers (besprinkling) 

the earth ; 
May righteousness flourish in his days, ^xidi peace till there be no moon. 
TyrAY he have pity on the weak and poor, and \\\q persons of the poor save; 

From injury may he redeem their person, and precious may their blood be in 

his eyes ; 
May (the king) Hve, and may there be given to him of the gold of Sheba ; 
And may prayer be made for him continually, all day long may blessing be 

invoked on him ; 
May there be (an aftergrowth) in the land ; on the top of the mountains (sheep) , 
(Kine) on Lebanon ; and may flowers blossom (out of the forests) as herbs 

of the field; 
May his name be forever, and before the sun may he be established. 

Ps. 72 has in the title nnW?, which is neither an ascription of authorship, 
nor a reference to the theme of the Ps., but a pseudonym (v. Intr., § 30). 



132 PSALMS 

After the Benediction, v.^^^®, we have the subscription ••c^-p nn niScn y^D. 
The prayers (the written prayers) of David the son of Jesse (those contained 
in the prayer-book of David) are completed : this is the last of those prayers 
{v. Intr., §§ I, 27). This implies that this petition for a king was the last 
prayer of this ancient prayer-book. This statement is impossible for the Ps. 
in its present form, unless 13 be very late ; for: (i) we have a citation from 
Zee. 9^^, giving the king a world-wide dominion v.^, which could not be 
earlier than the Assyrian rule (z/. Ps. 2). (2) V.^" uses Is. 43, 49, 60, where 
the nations pay tribute to Zion and do homage to her, and adapts the lan- 
guage and conceptions to the Messianic King. (3) V.^"* cites from the 
blessing of Abraham Gn. 12^ iS^^ 22^^ especially, in its latest redactional 
form, terms which originally applied to the seed of Abraham, and adapts it to 
the king. These adaptions could hardly have been made until late in the 
Persian period. (4) V.^^ jg a citation from Jb. 29^2, which could hardly have 
been made prior to the Greek period. Furthermore, these adaptations imply 
a time when a Messianic king again absorbed in himself the redemptive ideals 
of the nation, a time illustrated also by the additions to Ps. 89. There is such 
a contrast between the use of other writings in these lines, v.^-^^- 1"&, and the 
remaining lines of the Ps. that we are justified in regarding the former 
verses as glosses of the Greek or Maccabean times, and in finding an origi- 
nal Ps. in v.i-'^' 18-17«, and also in thinking that only this original Ps. was 
in B. This is fortified by the fact that these verses, separated by the glosses, 
constitute in themselves two complete Strs. of seven hexameter lines each, 
and that they are harmonious throughout. The Ps., in this original form, was, 
throughout, a prayer for a king on his accession, and therefore most appro- 
priate as the closing prayer of Q. A hint as to the time of composition is 
given in the petition that the king may be endowed with justice : there were 
poor, weak, and afflicted ones who had suffered from injustice in the previous 
reign. The prophets rebuke just such injustice of kings and princes both in 
Israel and Judah before the exile. Je. 22^^^^ uses similar terms for the reign 
of Jehoiachim the son of Josiah. But there was no period when there was 
so much of it as the reigns of Manasseh and Amon 2 K. 21, and the accession 
of Josiah to the throne might or would have encouraged just the petitions 
used in this Ps. It is probable, therefore, that this prayer was composed for 
that occasion. This Ps. was not in TB^ ; but it was in E, for the original 
mn> was changed to dviSn in v.^ (v. Intr., § 32). The Ps. is assigned in the 
Roman use for Epiphany, in the Sarum and Roman use for Trinity Sunday, 
and in the Gregorian use for the Nativity of Christ. 

Str. I. has seven hexameters, a stair-like tetrastich, and an em- 
blematic tristich, all petitions of the people to Yahweh for their new 
king. — 1. Yahweh, give Thy jus tic e'\, so (^ and J, in accordance 
with II Thy righteousness, cf. v? \ interpreted as pi. "judgments," 
acts of judgment" in H. — to a king || to a king's son']. This 



rSALM LXXII. 133 

monarch is king by inheritance, and not by appointment or usurpa- 
tion. Justice and righteousness are conceived as the essential en- 
dowments of a king, just as they are the foundation of Yahweh's 
throne, 89^^ They are gifts of Yahweh to the king. — 2. May he 
rule Thy people in righteousness^ syn. with second half of previous 
line. Only the king is now subject instead of Yahweh, and con- 
tinues so to be throughout the Str. Those whom he rules are the 
people of Yahweh. — a7id Thine afflicted ones with Jus tice~\. This 
is syn. with first half of previous line. The traditional text has 
omitted the vb. which the measure requires. It was probably ^^z'- 
ern, as v.'*". The people have been afflicted, as the petition sug- 
gests, by a previous king whose rule was in the reverse of justice 
and righteousness ; by such a king as Manasseh and his son Anion 
2 K. 21, so that Josiah would suit well the king prayed for at the 
installation. — 3. A metaphor appears in the third syn. line. — 
mountains and hills'], instead of the king, — may they dear peace 
to Thy people], peace taking the place of justice || righteousness. 
This is not the bearing them, producing them as fruit, cf. Jb. 40^° 
Ez. 17^ 36^, but the bearing, carrying, bringing as a blessing, cf. 
Ps. 24^. The mountains are personified for the messengers who 
come over them, proclaiming from all parts the prevalence of peace 
and righteousness. Cf. the messengers of peace on the mountains 
Is. 52''. The peace here, as substitute for justice and || righteous- 
ness, is not peace from war, for no hostile nations are in the mind 
of the poet, but internal peace as established by the administra- 
tion of justice ; so that the afflicted ones are no more afflicted, v.^- ■*, 
and the poor v.* ^^" no more suff"er poverty, cf. v.'^. — 4. May he 
govern the afflicted of Thy people, save the sons of the poor] || v.^; 
do them justice against those that afflict them. The afflicted are 
also poor ; they are sons of the poor, not as children of poor men, 
but as afflicted with poverty, belonging to the class of the poor ; 
and, as the context suggests, those reduced to poverty by injustice 
and unrighteousness. Cf. Je. 22^^^'' for an identical situation in 
the reign of Jehoiachim, Josiah's son, described in terms similar 
to those of our Ps. — 5. May he prolong days], have a long reign, 
so (3, U, cf. Is. 53^^ Ec. f^; which is suited to the 1| for genera- 
tions of generations, and the petition v.^^; but J^ and other Vrss. 
read : " May they fear thee," which changes subj. of vb. to the 



134 PSALMS 

people contrary to the usage of the Str. — With the sun'], com- 
panion in duration with the sun, — before the itioon\ in the pres- 
ence of the moon, in duration, cf. 89^"^. — 6. May he descend 
as rain\ simile of refreshment, cf. Dt. 32^^ Jb. 29^ 2 S. 23* : may 
his justice descend, in his administration of it, — as showers'], cf. 
Ps. 65^^ Mi. 5^ — besprinkling], interp. as participle, by an easy 
change of a corrupt text, instead of as noun *' dripping," — upon 
the mowifig grass], the grass ready for mowing || the earth. As 
rain and especially showers descend upon the grass ready for mow- 
ing and refresh it, and make the earth fertile ; so the administra- 
tion of justice by the king refreshes, strengthens, and enriches his 
people. — 7. The climax sums up in terms from v.^-^-^ the entire 
preceding context, changing the subject to the attributes which 
rule the Str. — May righteousness flourish], as (^, J, Si, IJ, cf. 
v.^-^-^, and not " the righteous," as H, Aq., 2, 3E, which introduces 
a term foreign to the entire Ps. — and peace], internal peace, as 
vA "Abundance of" is probably a gloss. It suggests pros- 
perity, which may have been in the mind of the glossator. — in 
his days], syn. //// there be no moon, cf. v.*. The psalmist is 
thinking not only of the king just beginning his reign, but merges 
him in a dynasty which he prays may administer justice per- 
petually. 

8-12. An editor inserted a series of glosses, to give the Ps. a 
Messianic meaning and so adapt it for public worship. These 
glosses are citations or adaptations from several earlier writings. — 
8 is cited from Zee. 9^^ — And may he rule], in accordance with 
the previous context, or "and he will rule," cf. iio'^ 144^, in 
accordance with " his rule shall be " of Zc. 9^^ ; — from sea to sea], 
from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, and from the river 
unto the extremities of earth], from the Euphrates unto the ex- 
treme west coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Cf. Ps. 2^, where the 
extremities of the earth are the inheritance of the Messiah. There 
can be no doubt that this verse sets forth a universal reign of the 
Messianic king. — 9. Before him let adversaries bow], down to 
the ground in defeat because overthrown, cf. 18*^; so by an easy 
change of text to suit context for " desert dwellers," J^, a term 
used elsewhere of animals but nowhere else of men. — his enemies 
lick the dust], in the humiliation of defeat, prostrated on the 



PSALM LXXII. 135 

ground, cf. Mi. f^ Is. 49^^ — 10. Let kings of Tarshish and the 
coasts^ Tarshish is the Phoenician colony of Tartessus, Spain, 
cf. Ps. 48^ Is. 60^ 66^^ The coasts, including islands, is a favourite 
term of Is.^ (12 t.). — return presents'], cf 2 K. 17^, or tribute, cf. 
Is. 60^ Ps. 45^\ — Let kings of Sheba and Seba]. Sheba is 
Arabia Fehx, the Sabian empire, cf. Is. 60*^ Je. 6^" Ez. 27-^ 38^^ 
Seba has not been identified, but was most probably on the west 
coast of the Red Sea, in the Adulic Gulf (j5DB.), or the region 
about Massowah in Abyssinia (Dr.), cf. Is. 43^. — bring gifts'], cf. 
Ez. 27^^ In these two syn. lines, which are pentameters, the 
kings in the extreme West are contrasted with those in the extreme 
Southeast. — 11. And let all kings do homage to him], cf. i K. i^^ 
Ps. 45^^ Is. 49'^ ; universal homage of kings between the extremities 
of the earth, of v}^. — all fiations seme him]. He is to have a 
world-wide empire over all nations, cf. Ps. 2^^". These verses 
(v.^^^) are dependent in phrase and conception on the later 
Is.^-^, especially chapters 43, 49, 60, 66. But the homage there 
is to Zion, the restored and glorified nation, here to the Messianic 
king. The glossator adapts the language and conception of these 
passages to the king. — 12 is a citation from Jb. 29^^, with slight 
changes. — For he will redeem the poor^ when he crieth for help, 
and the afflicted and him that hath no helper]. This is only a 
variation of v.* 

This entire section, v.^^^, is thus a series of glosses, especially 
citations of a Messianic character, which the editor does not 
trouble to adapt to the measures of the Ps. 

Str. II. is also composed of seven hexameters : three distichs 
and a line of climax. It continues the petition for the new king 
of the first Str. without regard to the intervening glosses. — 
13. May he have pity on the weak and poor], may his justice 
take the form of pity. The "weak" are added to the "poor," 
and take the place of the "afilicted," v.^-*. — and the persons of 
the poor save], cf. v.^*. — 14. From injury may he redeem their 
person]. The injustice had been so great that their life was still 
in danger. The Hebrew word for " injury " was a rare one, and 
so a glossator adds in explanation a common one, " and violence," 
which makes a conflate text and impairs the measure. — and 
precious may their blood be in his eyes]. The shedding of the 



136 PSALMS 

blood of the poor was characteristic of the unjust princes and 
kings of the preexiHc times in Israel and Judah. — 15. A couplet 
now implores long Hfe and blessing for the king himself, renewing 
v.*. — May the king live']. The word " king " of the usual formula, 
wishing long hfe to the king (i S. 10'^ 2 S. 16^^ i K. i^^, cf. Ps. 
22'"^ 69^) was omitted by scribal contraction, but the omission 
spoils the measure and the meaning. — afid may there be given to 
him of the go hi of Sheba\ not tributary gold from Sheba, as the 
gloss v.^^ ; but gold from Sheba given him by his own grateful 
subjects as in the syn. line. — And may prayer be made for him 
continually'], to Yahweh on his behalf, in accordance with this 
entire Ps., which is such a prayer. — All day long may blessing be 
invoked on him\ syn. with the giving him of gold, as the prayer 
for him is syn. with the wishing him long life. A couplet, pe- 
titioning for prosperity in vegetation and cattle under his reign, 
now follows, but the text of J^ is obscure and the Vrss. dubious. It 
is necessary to make conjectural restorations. — 16. May there be 
an aftergrowth in the land~\, that is, after the crops have been 
gathered in, may there be a second growth, which the land 
will produce of itself, and which will be exceedingly great. J^ 
gives a phr. found only here, and which can only be explained 
by conjectures, none of which explain the Vrss. — on the top of 
the mountaiyis sheep] ; so by an easy change of text. We would 
expect cattle to be associated with vegetation in the prosperity 
of the land. — JCine on Lebanon] || sheep on the mountain tops. 
J^, " May the fruit thereof shake like Lebanon," gives no good 
sense. The fruit of corn is in the ear : the standing corn may 
move to and fro, rustle in the wind, but if the fruit is ripe and 
shaken, it is beaten to the ground and destroyed. The vb. ren- 
dered " shake " elsewhere is always used of earthquake ; but an 
earthquake shaking the corn is hardly conceivable with the thought 
of fertility and a rich harvest. (S, 3, imply a different text from 
J^. — And 7nay flowers blossom out of the forests as herbs of the 
field] II aftergrowth in the land. The forest land is naturally 
associated with Lebanon. Flowers are associated with forest 
land, especially with Carmel and Lebanon Is. 35H J^, *' out of 
the city," implies the subj. " men," which is altogether incongruous 
with the context. — 17a. The Str., in conclusion, petitions long 



PSALM LXXII. 137 

life and honour to the king, a most appropriate climax. — May his 
name be forever^ and before the sun may he be established^ cf. v.^' ^^ 
The vb. " estabhshed " is favoured by (§, J. J^ is uncertain. The 
vb. may mean " have issue," RV."", so Aq., 3, " sprout forth." 
Yinnon is a name of the Messiah in Talm. Synh. 98* based on this 
passage. — His name'\ is repeated in a second clause by copyist's 
error. 

Ylh. And all the clans of the earth will bless themselves in hitn, 
all nations will pronounce him happy']. This is also a gloss based 
on Gn. 12^ 18^^ 22^^, the Abrahamic covenant, representing the 
seed of Abraham as the medium of blessing to all nations. J^ 
omits by copyist's error, all the clans of the earth, which is, how- 
ever, sustained by (^, and required by first vb. as subject, and also 
by the measure. The Psalmist here applies to the Messianic 
king that which, in the covenant of Abraham, was ascribed to the 
seed of Abraham ; just as above v.^^^ he apphed to the king that 
which Is.^ ascribed to the people of Zion. 

1. d^hSn] by S for an original m-i> of 13. — ri^EJsrp] pi., tODtfD (/^), acts 
or deeds of judgment. This is a misinterpretation of later times. @ rh 
Kpifxa aov and 3 iudicium tuum, sg. "['JisttT, which is required by || ^inpix; cf. 
t23'>yn3 V.2. — 2. p-;^] Qal impf. jn (7^). ® has KplpcLv, either reading piS or 
more prob. interpreting as subjunctive. — PI?;?] between rfp'i^i v.^ and v.^ is 
improb. ; rd. np-is. It is prob. that vb. tSfliri has fallen off by haplog. after 
DS'J'a:]. It is used v.'*. Then the 1. would be divided in middle by caesura, 
as most frequently in hexameters. — 3. QiSw' Dnn ixi:'"'] phr. a.X., usually 
explained after Jb. 4020 iV inC"> Dnn S13, and so of tree bearing fruit Hg. 2^^ 
Jo. 2^2, fig. Ez. 1723 368; but mountains and hills bearing as their produce 
peace and righteousness is hardly the idea of the poet. Better explain the 
vb. as dear, carry, so a blessing from Yahweh 24^, provision from one person 
to another. The mountains and hills are personified for the messengers com- 
ing over them, and they bear to the people messages of peace and salvation ; 
cf. Is. 52^. — n^/3J] in xj/ always pi. | nv2i n.f. Ait/, elsw. 65!^ 1144-6 148^; cf. 
Dt. 33^^. — o>S] (3 Tip \a(p (Tov ; sf. is interpretation. — npn:^^] as instru- 
ment by which the mountains and hills produce peace. But this is later 
interp. © attaches this word to next v. because of the 2, and so destroys the 
measure of both lines; 2 is an interpretative gl. — 4. p'':3N iJiS] phr. a.X,, 
S ace. Aramaism, prob. not original. p''3N (9^^) coll. v.^'^' ^^, O^JION mtrsj v.^^. 
'X >:2 used for measure, just as d;; i">jv for D'»"«jj,'. — pf^y X3-ni] t conj. Pi. impf. 
I NOT vb. Qal crush; elsw. ^, 89^1 94^ 143^. p"^^^ Qal ptc. XpV'i vb. Qal 
(i) oppress, wrong by extortion, elsw. 1036 146'^ Je. 21^2 g^. 4^ + ; (2) oppress 
a nation Pss. 105 1* (= i Ch. 1621) 119I21. 122 _^. xhis clause is a gl., as Ba., 



138 PSALMS 

appropriate in thought but not suited to context, which does not depart from 
relation of the king to the poor and alllicted people, and it makes 1. just these 
words too long. Here the context favours individuals, but the glossator prob- 
ably thought of the nation. — 5. niNn>;] Qal impf. 3 pi. n-\'' with sf. 2 sg. ; 
but @ (xv/nrapafX€V€i = y'>i<:\ cf. Is. 53^0, CD^ ^nN^ Ec. y^^ which is more in 
accord, with onn -in, so Houb., Lag., Now., Oort, Ba. Change of subj. is 
striking. In previous and subsequent context the king is subj. of vbs. and 
also in v.^^. The context favours inN"*, but 2, &, 3, C agree with ^. — 
6. in] n.[m.] (i) shearing, for wool shorn Dt. 18* Jb. -^^x-^ fleece, so here 
(5, 2, 5", 3, Houb. ; (2) mowing Am. 7"^, and here most prob. latid to be viown 
Street, ^DB. — pj'!")!] a-^- n.[m.] dripping, dub. ; cf. I'J.";! flow together, NH. 
N^DT ^c\r";T drops of water ; Hu., Bi., j5DB., impf. Hiph. finr cause to drip, 
irrigate. Krochmal and Gr. rd. ii3''>n>. But the Vrss. presuppose a ptc. pi., 
® <iT6.^Qv<jai — drops dropping upon^ J[ inroranteSy bedewing. Rd. ptc. pi., 
"'DT"^? ; the "» in ivnr has been transposed. — 7. nno^J Qal impf. % nnc \h. flour- 
ish. Sprout, bloom of plant or tree, in \}/ only fig. of flourishing condition of a 
man or people, elsw. 92^- 1*', as Is. 27^ 35^ 66I* Ho. 146-8 Pr. ii^S; so in Hiph. 
Ps. 92^* Jb. 14^ Pr. 14"; suited to the simile of the king as rain. — i"'"'"J>'] so Aq., 
2, IE ; but 0, F, Sb, iJ, p??. or n,->-;x, so Hare, Street, Lag., Oort. DiVr in 
parall. suggests npix as above. — 3"^] before ut?z> is prob. gl., implying inter- 
pret, prosperity, but npiif and v.* suggest peace. — Thus far we have had seven 
hexameter 11., and a complete Str. is before us. V.^ begins a change in the 
thought and construction. — 8. vin-^ddn""!;? nnjm D>*n;; CD ■rn'i] cf. Zc. 9^° 
\-\H 'DON i>' '\ryl'z^ c n;; D"»d '^'^uti; the only difference is the sulDstitution of 
■jnM for '^^t'^\ in order to adapt the v. to the context of the Ps. It is evident 
that the Ps. quotes from the prophet. Tj*i, 1 conj. Qal impf. r\'\-^ vb. (^9^^) ; 
the juss. form here is late style. — 9. D",^] pi. t ['>J nm. an animal of the 
dry desert, 74^* Is. 13^^ 23^* 34!* Je. 50^*. This sense is inappropriate here, 
and so the ""X is thought to be an inhabitant of the thirsty lands ; but there 
is no authority for this. @, Aq., 2, Aldloires, "B, 3, Aeihiopes — rir, % n>d-idn, 
prob. an interpretation due to Is. 43^. ^ rds. D"'"'N, which is assimilation to 
v.^*^; 01s., Dy., Oort, Gr., SS., Bu., Du., rd. cnx 1| C'3'N, which is appropriate 
to ;n:;. — on'7'' •^ni*] lick the dust in humiliation of defeat, phr. elsw. Mi. 7^'^ 
Is. 49^8. This last passage is so similar that probably it was in the mind of 
the writer of this 1. Vb. Pi. impf. f ly)^'] elsw. Qal Nu. 22* of ox. Pi. Nu. 
22* (E) I K. i828. — 10. X '^''?'"!0] Tarshish, the Phoenician colony in Tar- 
tessus, Spain ; elsw. ^ only 48^ 'n nvjN ships of Tarshish, cf. Is. 60^ 661^. — 
0'!^] pl- X^^ n.m. coast land, including islands, fuller form Dvn >'>N Is. ii^i 
24I5 Est. iqI ; abr. c^'S Is. 411-^ 42*- 10 Ps. 97I Dn. ii^^ so here; cn'^C'M n 
Is. 42^249! 5i5 59^8 6o9 661^ islands Is. 40!^ |1 T^^-\ry: Is. 42^5. — n^r; nnjr] 
phr. elsw. 2 K. 17^; nn:-: as tribute Ju. 3!^ 2 S. 8^ i K. 5I Ho. io« -f. For 
the idea in another form cf. Is. 60^ Ps. 45^^ — X ^'?V'] ^' P'^- ""• Arabia Felix, 
Sabian empire. Is. 6o« Je. 62*^ Ez. 27^2 3813, only here and v.i^ ^. — fs^D] 
n. pr. m. name of first son of Gush Gn. 10^ (P) = i Ch. i^, of nation or 
territory here as Is. 43'; not identified, most prob. on west coast of Red 



PSALM LXXII. 139 

Sea in Adulic gulf (^DB.). — f i^c'n] n.m. elsw. Ez. 2 f-^ gift, tribute. — 
12. 1^ "it;* i'^ni >j;i i'v>:'D i'ion '^vs^^ ■'d] = Jb. 2912 iV n?;? sSi o'lr^i ^^va >J>' is^dn ■»d; 
the only differences are (i) change to 3d pers. as above, v.^, in citation from 
Zc. ; (2) Din"! orphan^ appropriate to Jb. but not to Ps., and so poN is taken 
as a syn. of iJ>'; (3) pNi is smoother style than ^W, (4) the more common 
vb. ?xj for syn. to'rc. — 13. Dn;] Qal juss. Join Qal/z/y, spare ; Din^ Je. 21''; 
cf. D^nn Dt. 7I6 + 9 t, but Dnn Gn. 45'^o Ez. 9^, {a) of God c. Vj; Je. 13I* Ez. 
24I4 -f , (^) of man c. *?;; Je, 21" Jon. ^^ and here. — 14. Dcn^i] is a familiar 
word, inserted as gl. explanatory of less familiar "i^i violence. The 1. is just 
this word too long. — cci ni'^-'i'.i] Qal juss., i coord, V"''"''' be precious ; (g, G, 
t6 dJw/xa ayrwj/ DDt^, so U, as I S. iS'^*^, but Aq., S, .S, %, J, as |^. — 16. ^n'-i 
Nr^ ^njn ^S'ln:!]. This is a defective line. The first vb. stands alone with- 
out subj. 1 coord. Qal juss, n^n live. This suggests same subj. as \t\\, which 
is impossible. The missing word is doubtless 'p'orx with ^"^x^h. It is prob. 
that an ancient copyist used ""nil for the longer formula, and that a later scribe 
misunderstood his abbreviation. -qSon in"- i S. lo^* 2 S. iG^^- 16 i K. i^S- 31.34, 39 

2 K. ii^^ 2 Ch, 23II; cf. n>n'» dSi^jS ^Sdh Ne. 2^, — nijc' anr::] phr. a.X. ; cf. 
v.i*^. This may have suggested the interpolation of v.^-^i. Gold is usually 
associated with Ophir i K. 928 iqH 22*9 i Ch. 29* 2 Ch, S^^ Qio. — mjp-ia^] Pi. 
juss, T^3 (jr-^^) with strong sf. ")nj_ for vi-, continues indef. subj., to be ren- 
dered by passive. — 16. pdd] a.X. NH. npo = extremity of the hand or foot. 
DD piece, DDD thresh grain, Aram, piece of bread =. Hebr. nc. ® <TTrjpi.yp.a, 
'S firmafnentJim, foundation, support, did not read "\:3, which must therefore 
be either a gl. of explanation or part of another word. It is prob. the former, 
for @ renders nsnpn i S. 26^^ ^aTr^plaOai, so prob. here o-T-qpLy/xa for HDD. 
But t rfDp n.[m.] aftergrotath of vegetation, that which grows of itself, 
Lv. 25^- li Is. 37^0 = 2 K. 1929, would admirably suit the context, to which 
"ID might be a more exact definition, 3 memorabile triticum is based on 
-\3n nsi;;, which is an easy error for n:3 nnor: one plotving the field, cf. Is. 28^^. 
TDD and r^Tf^^ are easy mistakes for an original n^cD. v;iiV Jb. 22^1 overflow, 
abundance, suggested by Lag., Gr., We., SS., gives good sense, but cannot 
explain the Vrss. except S> nnjid. — onn ti'sn::] closes the 1. according to 
MT., but that makes five words for this 1. and seven for the next, which is 
impossible. — '^"y_']\'] Qal impf. cjrn {18^) ; elsw. always of earthquake. It is 
usually interpreted here of the rustling of the standing grain. But the shak- 
ing caused by earthquake and the movement of grain caused by wind are 
difficult to reconcile, ® inrepapd-qaerai virkp rbv M^avov 6 Kapirbs avrov, 

3 elevabitur sicut Libani frtictus eius, imply another word. Ew. suggests 
denom. tyN-\ come to a head, attaint the stnnmit ; but no such usage is known 
and, if possible, it would not give a poetic conception. Evidently these Vrss. 
had not tt'-y'T' in their text. It prob. represents nt'-;'n;i may sheep pasture. 
jn; would then be a gl. to explain an original nr. This would explain ® and 
3, which rd. rst;-. — pJ^Vr] so 3. But @ vir^p = 2, which is more prob., 
unless both prep, interpretative. — in^] ins n.m. with sf, 3 sg., referred by 
De. to -13, by Hi. to ]nN, by Ri. to C'Ni; all aUke improb. Ba. would rd. 



140 PSALMS 

•nc vb. Qal impf. nne and connect it closely with following. He suggests it 
might be a gl. for i^cx-, for it is tautological. If n;:* was original in previous 
1. we would expect an*: here, pi, is n.m. buU, i often error for c. — tx-'Vi] 
"I coord. Qal juss. 3 pi. J j'lx vb. bloom, of grass or flowers 90*^ 103^^, so prob. 
here; fig. of wicked 92^, Israel Is. 27^; shincy gleam, of royal ornament 132^^. 
— ■»'>;"] prep, with -)■'>;; but this, though sustained by Vrss., gives no good 
sense; rd. '\y_\-q from the forest (^9^) || pj^S. — 17. d''i>'? '^-cv vn^] so 3 ; but 
6 has iarw rh 6vofia airrov evXoyrjfi^vov els Toi>s alupas ; eiXoyrj/j^vop is an 
interpretative gl. The second i::c' is prob. a gl. — pr] Kt. Hiph. impf. ; fu^ 
Qr. Niph. impf., in either case a.X. ; @ Sta/iei/e?, 3 perseverabit, ^T r^'r, favour 
p3^ Niph. po be established ; Ba., SS., i5DB., Aq., 2, yevprid-^acTai, favour pj 
vb. denom. |'j n.[m.] offspring, posterity. — vnnrN"' d'-u'S^ ta lanar^]. This 
is based on Gn. 12' (J) nD-iNn rnoiTD So ^a i3-^2j\ Gn. 18^^ r->Nn >>)j 73 o io->3r, 
Gn. 22^* y-^NH >>ij So ipnra i3-\3rn). It is a paraphrase based on the redac- 
tional passage. That which referred to the seed of Abraham is here applied 
to the dynasty of David. (5 inserts after ""O lonor^i Trao-ai aX <pv\al rijt yijs 
from Gn. 12''. — 18-19 = doxology of the second book of ^. (S omits ch^n 
after nin\ It is conflation of Elohistic and Yahwistic editors. (S adds after 
C>v;^ Kal els rbv alQva rod alCJvos, a fuller doxology {v. Intr. § 40). — 20 = 
editorial statement to the effect that this Ps. closed the Prayer-book of David 
iv. Intr. § i). 



PSALM IJCXIIL, 2 PTS., 5 STR. 4^ 

Ps. 73 has two Parts. The first states how near apostasy the 
psalmist had been because of the prosperity of the wicked (v.-"^), 
who are described as without trouble as other men (v.*^) , proud 
and violent in their iniquity (v.^'), mocking and blaspheming 
(v.^^) , and, while increasing their wealth, denying God's practical 
knowledge of their doings (v.""^-). In the Second Part he laments 
that all his efforts for purity have only resulted in suffering (v.^^^^), 
then remonstrates with himself for such a thought as treacherous 
to God, when the suffering should urge rather to know better 
^^15-16^^ and as having a mind embittered and being a stupid 
beast (v.^^""), when really God had kept firm hold of him and 
guided him in this life, and would eventually take him to glory 
^^23-24^ In this consolation he exclaims that God is his only 
delight in heaven and on earth, for whom he pines body and soul 
(v.^-^) . Besides minor glosses (v.^ ^") there are two larger ones : 
(i) giving a solution of the problem of the Ps. by reflection in the 
temple upon the calamitous latter end of the prosperous wicked 



PSALM LXXIII. 141 

^^17-20) . (2) contrasting the ultimate ruin of apostates with the 
goodness of God to those drawing nigh to Him (v.^^"^) . 

I. 

■jyr Y feet were almost gone ; 

My steps had well nigh slipped ; 

For I was envious of the boasters, 

While the prosperity of the wicked I was seeing. 
■pOR they have no (decisions) ; 

Sound and fat is their (strength) , 

In the trouble of (ordinary) men they have no portion, 

Together with (other) men they are not accustomed to be stricken^ 
'T'HEREFORE pride serves them as their necklace. 

They clothe themselves with violence. 

Their (iniquity) doth come forth from fatness. 

Conceits of the mind overflow. 
'pHEY scoff and speak of evil, 

Of oppression loftily they speak. 

They have set against the heavens their mouth, 

While their tongue goes about in the earth. 
AND they do say : " How doth "El know ? 

And is there knowledge with "Elyon ? " 

Behold, such as these are the wicked : 

And, being always at ease, they do increase riches. 

II. 
CURELY in vain have I cleansed my mind, 

And washed in innocency my palms, 

And become one smitten all day long. 

And had chastening every morning. 
p^ AD I said : " I will tell it thus " ; 

I would have been treacherous to the generation of Thy sons. 

And so I thought how I might know this. 

A trouble was it in mine eyes. 
"pOR my mind was embittered. 

And in my reins was I pricked. 

I was brutish, without knowledge; 

A stupid beast was I with Thee. 
YET am I continually with Thee, 

Thou dost hold me by my right hand. 

(Now) with Thy counsel Thou guidest me, 

And afterwards unto glory (Thou) wilt take me. 
Vy HOM have I in heaven? 

And having Thee on earth I delight in nought else. 

My flesh doth pine and my soul. 

My Rock and my Portion forever. 

Ps. 73 was originally in ^ as 50; 74-83. It was then in ilH. It was 
subsequently taken up into 3E {v. Intr. §§ 29, 31, 32). The Ps. has two 



142 PSALMS 

parts, each of five trimeter tetrastichs: (i) v.2-9- 11-12, (2) v.i8-i8- 21-28. The 
other verses are glosses, v.i- 1*^- i'-2J- 27-28^ 'p^e original Ps. resembles others 
of ^ : ( I) in the use of Vn v.h as 50I 748 7710- !*• 16 787- 8. is. 19. 34. 86. 4i SqU 82I 
832 (gl.v.17); (2) of p>^y v.iias 50I* 77" yS^^^^^ 56 82^ 8318; (3) of 33^ v."^- 1« 
(gl. v.i-21-26)^ as in 77^ 7818-72 (gl.), characteristic of time of Chronicler. 
The Ps. has good syntax (i) cohortative v.i^- is ^gi^ v.i"), (2) 1 consec. impf. 
V.13. 14^ There are several interesting words : v.* maxnn, elsw. Is. 58*, prob. 
txt. err. for mx-(n ; d^m< a.X. Sin, txt. err. for uh^n; v.^ "iDPpjj; elsw. Dt. 15I*; 
r\iDp Aramaism, elsw. Ps. 65^* ; n^O' as Pr. 7^*^, interp. gl.; v.'^ nvDti'D Aramaism ; 
V.8 VD", Aramaism, a.X. ; v.® "^'^nn strong form ; v.12 urn Aramaism Ps. 92I' 
Jb. 8''^. Phrases to be considered are: v.^ cijn Vc>' a.X., but both words apart 
common; v.® V"i^*2 l'^^^ cjv^'Si an^o d'':;c»3 ini;'; v.^2 2i;,^M,is.j. ^^x., cf. Je. 493I; 
v.i^ T'ja nn a.X., but words apart common; v.22 -^•;2 as 49II 92'^. V.^'^* is a 
citation from 26^. V.24 implies the story of Enoch in its phrasing, and so the 
use of Gn. 52*. V.28 in its use of hSd resembles Jb. 19'^'^. The Ps. gives the 
experience of an individual who contrasts his own experience of sorrow and 
trouble with the prosperity of the boastful wicked. He finds his consolation 
in the divine guidance in life and a hope of glory after death, indicating a 
highly developed eschatology. The wicked are boasters, v.^, and scornful. 
The Ps. came from a commercial period, the beginning of the Greek period. 
V.i is an introductory liturgical gl., which generalises the Ps. and makes it 
applicable to Israel as a people. V.i° is a gloss, looking to the restoration 
of God's people to their own land and a long life for them therein, probably 
from Maccabean times. V.17-20 is a reflection upon the final doom of the 
wicked, made in the sanctuary. V.i^ nmSj, cf. Jb. iSH +. V.I8 niNvrc prob. 
Aramaism, inf. cstr. sr:, cf. Ps. 74^ v.^'^ ••jnN. V.27-29 gives an antithesis between 
the final ruin of apostates and the benefits of those who draw near to God in 
worship. Both of these glosses are Maccabean. (S adds a gl. v.^^^, " in the 
gates of the daughter of Zion," to accord with v.i"«. V.28 nanp elsw. Is. 58^ 
probably inf. cstr. 2ip. 

Pt. I. Str. I. has two syn. couplets. A later glossator prefixes a 
hexameter which is a sort of summary of the conclusion of the Ps. 
— 1. Surefyl^, notwithstanding all appearances and everything that 
might be said to the contrary, — God is good to Israel\ not simply 
as a nation, but distributively, distinguishing between the righteous 
and the wicked, and so only to the pure-7ninded. — 2. My feet \ my 
steps'], as often for the course of life, emphasized by a glossator 
by the prefixing of As for 7ne, — 2uere almost gone || had well nigh 
slipped^ in the peril of falling away from God in apostasy. The 
reason for this is given in general, — 3. For I was envious of the 
boasters'], those who were boasting of their success and prosperity, 
and so were arrogant toward those less successful than themselves. 



PSALM LXXIII. 143 

— WTiile the prosperity of the wicked I was seeing], a circumstantial 
clause implying an habitual observation of this strange circum- 
stance, so contrary to Deuteronomic principles, which promised 
prosperity to the righteous and threatened adversity to the vi^icked. 
This inconsistency is what troubles this poet, as it did the authors 
of Pss. 37 (©) and 49 (It), and more especially those of the 
book of Job. The remainder of Pt. I. is an enlargement upon 
this couplet. 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets. — 4. For they have no decisions']. 
This is the most probable explanation of a difficult text, where 
5^, Vrss., and commentators greatly differ. The word rendered 
"bands," AV., RV., is used elsewhere only Is. 58^ in the sense 
of " bonds." This gives a good sense here only by the paraphrase 
" restraints," JPSV., which, however, is not justified by other usage. 
The paraphrase " peril," PBV., " torments," Hu., Dr., Ki., has still 
less justification. Most ancient Vrss. had another reading, which 
may be conjectured and given as above. The text " in their death," 
though given by J^ and Vrss., is abandoned by JPSV. and most 
moderns, for it is against the measure and the context, which is very 
far from suggesting their death. — Sound and fat is their strength], 
the most probable rendering of a difficult clause, adding to the 
freedom of the mind from anxiety the full strength of the body. 

— 5. In the trouble of ordinary men], that which men ordinarily 
experience, — they have no portion], they alone are exempt from 
trouble, || together with, in common with other men they are not 
accustomed to be stricken]. The blows of affliction never strike 
them as they do repeatedly all others. 

Str. III. Two synth. couplets. — 6. Therefore pride], appro- 
priate to the boasters of v.^, — selves them as their necklace], an 
ornament worn about the neck of men as well as women in those 
times, cf. Gn. 41'*^ Dn. 5^, and conspicuous as an evidence of wealth 
and power. — They clothe themselves with violence]. Their pride 
of wealth and power naturally and inevitably leads to violence 
toward others, and such conduct becomes habitual, a characteristic 
which they present to others as the dress by which they are recog- 
nised. A glossator makes this more definite by inserting the word 
"clothing." — 7. Their iniquity], so (^, Ss, U, and many mod- 
erns ; more appropriate to the context than " their eyes " of J^, 3, 



144 PSALMS 

followed by EV^ — doth come forth from fatness\ their fat, gross 
mind and body breed iniquity, cf. Dt. 32^^ Ps. 17^^ — Conceits of 
the mind overflow'], their minds are full to overflowing with evil 
imaginations and conceits, which flow forth in word and deed, 
cf. Hb. I ". The rendering of AV., RV., " they have more than 
heart could wish," is a paraphrase which cannot be justified. 

Str. IV. A syn. couplet and an antith. couplet. — 8. They 
scoff], so J, RV., JPSV., and most moderns ; the rendering " they 
corrupt other " of PBV., " they are corrupt " of AV., cannot be 
sustained. — and speak of evi/], talk with one another about doing 
evil, as a suitable and habitual theme || of oppression they speak], 
cf. v.^ ; they propose to oppress the weak. — loftily], as if from 
on high, far above others in the exaltation of pride and arrogance. 

— 9. They have set against the heavens their mouth], as AV. ; 
blaspheming against God and divine things in accordance with 
v.^ ", which is to be preferred to "in the heavens," of RV. ; 
explained by Kirk, in accordance with v.^* : " they make an 
impious claim of divine authority, and dictate to men as though 
the earth belonged to them." — 10. This verse is difficult. Kt. 
can only be explained as a divine promise to afflicted Israel to 
restore them to their land and give them abundant prosperity. 
This was probably originally a marginal note of consolation, which 
subsequently crept into the text. — Therefore will lie bring back 
the people thither, and waters of fultiess will be drained out to 
them]. The Qr. and ancient Vrss. probably had essentially the 
same meaning : " His people will return." This is so against the 
context that various explanations have been sought. JPSV. makes 
these the words of the prosperous. " Well, then, let His people 
turn hither, and water shall be found for them in abundance." 

— A promise of prosperity to all people who will come to the 
prosperous for prosperity. 

Str. V. syn. and synth. couplets. — 11. And they do say : ^^ How 
doth ^El know? || And is there knowledge with 'Elyon?''], not 
denying the omniscience of God, but the divine practical knowledge 
or interest in human affairs, cf. lo^"-^^, and therefore the impunity 
of their evil conduct. — 12. Behold such as these are the wicked]. 
The description of them has now reached its end. It is all summed 
up in the final statement : and being always at ease] ; having ever 



PSALM LXXIII. 145 

an easy and prosperous life, without fear of God and without 
anxiety because of men, in the full enjoyment of health of body and 
content of mind. — they do increase riches\ become ever richer 
and richer ; since they are unscrupulous as to means, shrink not 
from evil deeds, and indulge in violence and oppression. 

Pt. II. Str. I. has two syn. couplets. — 13. Surely in vain']. 
It is certain that it has been to no purpose, has not been success- 
ful ; emphatic in position. — have I cleansed my mind], made and 
kept it clean from sin ; completed by keeping also the body clean, 
— and washed in imiocency my palms], cf. 26^; the conception 
based on Levitical purifications for public worship ; but here evi- 
dently referring to the keeping the palms clean from bribery, rob- 
bery, and just those forms of violence (v.^*) and oppression (v.*^*) 
by which the wicked had to a great extent gained their wealth and 
prosperity. — 14. And become one smitten all day long || and had 
chastening every morning], in antithesis with the wicked, who had 
been ever exempt from such blows, v.^. This serious inconsistency 
with the promises and threatenings of the Deuteronomic Law 
tempted him here to the assertion of the failure of innocence 
and virtue, as in the previous part to apostasy, v.^. 

Str. II. The statement of the previous Str. was only made to be 
renounced in two synth. couplets. — 15. Had I said: I will tell it 
thus]. He had not said it ; but only entertained in his mind the 
thought of saying it. — / would have been treacherous to the gen- 
eration of Thy sons]. Israel in his national unity is in a relation 
of sonship to God, Ex. 4^ Dt. 14^ in which all the faithful share. 
Unfaithfulness to this relation of sonship, as well as to the similar 
relation of marriage, is regarded as treachery, cf. Pss. 25^ 59^ Je. 3^^. 
Nothing could be more treacherous to the family of God than 
to assert that His service in innocence and purity of hfe was all in 
vain and of no use. — 16. And so I thought], as a result of this 
experience, — how I might know this], gain a practical knowledge 
and understanding of this difficult problem, this inconsistency 
between theory and fact. — A trouble was it in mine eyes]. It 
involved toil in anxiety and perplexity of mind, and sorrow in the 
distressing experiences involved in such a struggle to resist tempta- 
tion and gain the true solution of the problem. A later editor, 
not altogether content with the solution given below, v.^^-^^ here 



146 PSALMS 

inserts another one, v.^^'^. — 17. Until I entered into the great 
sanctuary of *El\ the temple at Jerusalem, named the great 
sanctuary by the use of the Heb. pi. of intensity. There, in the 
place of public worship, where God was accustomed to manifest 
Himself, the perplexed might look for a solution. — considered 
their latter end'], not merely their past and present prosperity, but 
what the ultimate result, the final end of it all would be. This 
editor finds the solution of the problem in the final punishment 
of the wicked, which would be in dreadful antithesis with their 
long-continued prosperity, cf. 37^**^- Ec. 8^^"^^. The description 
of this punishment now follows. — 18. Surely in slippery places 
Thou settest them\ cf. 35^ Je. 23^^. — Thou causest them to fall into 
utter ruin\ ere long they slip and fall, and from the fall they rise 
no more ; they remain like a fallen wall in utter ruin, cf. 74^. — 
19. How have they become a desolation in a moinent !\ when the 
time of their ruin is come, it is sudden, unexpected, and all ac- 
complished in a moment. — They have come to an end, intensified 
by they are finished], the two vbs. more emphatic than the ren- 
dering of AV., RV., "utterly consumed " — by terrors], a term of 
Job, 18^' -f. — 20. as a dream after awakening], unsubstantial, 
in recollection only as a mere phantasm, an image of the imagina- 
tion II phantofn. — Adonay], divine name of the time of the glos- 
sator, — zvhen Thou rousest Thyself], in active intervention, in 
judicial activity, cf. f 35^. — Thou despisest], so trivial, unsub- 
stantial, despicable, the life of these rich, prosperous boasters has 
really been in the sight of God. 

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. — 21. For my mind was em- 
bittered], or soured by the inconsistency of innocence and afflic- 
tion, cf. v.^^ This verse is altogether unconscious of v.^"''"^, and 
depends at once upon v.^^"^^ — And in my reins was I pricked]. 
The reins, the seat of the feelings, were pained as if pricked by a 
sword or lance. — 22. / 7aas brutish], cf. 49^^ 92' 94^, — without 
knowledge], not able to know what it all meant, cf. v.^^, — a stupid 
beast], the intensive pi.; "a mere beast," Kirk., *' a very beast," 
Dr., — was I with Thee], in relation to, and in association and 
communion with God. 

Str. IV. Syn. and synth. couplets. — 23. Yet am I continually 
with Thee], though in knowledi^c niul action stupid as a beast, yet 



PSALM LXXIII. 147 

he knew that he was in communion with God. — Thou dost hold 
me by my right hand\ to give support, help, and consolation in 
time of perplexity and peril, cf. 63^ — 24. Now\ probably to be 
inserted to complete the line in antithesis with, and afterwards — 
with Thy counsel Thou guides t me'], habitual action, giving constant 
advice and counsel, as well as support and help. — Unto glory Thou 
wilt take me], in the future, interpreted by some as the latter end 
of the life of the righteous ; by others, AV., RV., JPSV., Pe., De., 
Ba., more properly as in the hfe after death, especially as the 
story of the translation of Enoch, Gn. 5^'', cf Ps. 49^^, seems 
to be implied in the terms that are used. With the former 
interpretation Dr., Kirk., after (g, U, J, PBV., prefer to interpret 
TQ2 as adv. ace, " with glory " or " honour." The psalmist 
finds the solution of the inconsistencies of this life in the final 
reward to the righteous after death, cf. Jb. 19^^^', also Ps. 16". 

Str. V. Synth, couplets. — 25. Whom have I in Heaven ?\ im- 
plying the answer that he has no one but God. — And having Thee], 
as v.^ — on earth I delight in nought else]. God is the one only 
and exclusive object of his dehght, his only good, cf. i6l — 26. My 
flesh doth pine], for the realisation of this joyous anticipation, cf. 
Jb. 19^ Ps. 84^ — my Rock], 18^, to which a glossator added the in- 
terpretation of my soul. — and my Portion forever], cf. i6^ To this 
the glossator adds the interpreting "God," which is sufficiently evi- 
dent from the context. Both of these glosses impair the measure. 

The Ps. has now reached the grandest climax ; but a later 
editor added an emphatic antithesis between the fortunes of the 
righteous and the wicked. — 27. For behold those departing from 
Thee], those who had acted as this psalmist had been sorely 
tempted to act, \?, — will go to ruin], cf. i^. — Thou dost ex- 
terminate every one that goes whoring fro7n Thee]. Yahweh was 
the husband of His people, Ho. 2^ Is. 54^" ^-f ; apostasy from Him 
was a rupture of the marriage relation, and so spiritual whoredom. 
— 28. As for me], in antithesis with such, — drawing nigh to 
God is good for me \ my making Yahweh my refuge]. The same 
glossator as that of v.^ inserts " in Adonay." — telling of all Thy 
occupations], in general care over the righteous; cf. Gn. 2^-^ (P), 
for creative, Je. 50^ for judicial works of God, where alone else- 
where this word is used of divine work. 



148 PSALMS 

1. "in] particle of asseveration, as 23^; (5 ws, 3 attamen. — 33S ^-na] cf. 
33S -\2 24*; :33^ characteristic of this Ts., vj- 13. 21. 2s. g^ ^yv^ — 2. •'jsi] makes 
1. too long ; is explan. gl. — >\>2\\ Kt. Qal ptc. pass., subj. the man himself, 
explained by ""JN, to which ■''rj-i n.f. is secondary subj.; but Qr. v^3 Qal pf. 3 pi. 
"»'?j-i subj. — !^?9'^'] Kt. Pu. pf. 3 f. sg. neglect of agreement ; but Qr. i09*»r 3 pi,, 
subj. ''■jv"!* C-/^)- It is most prob. that MT. has interp. the sg. "''7 J-}, ••"^C'N as 
pi. Kt. would then in both cases be correct and the agreement complete. i@, 3, 
agree with Qr. — 3. 2^^"?^] Qal ptc. boaster Sj as j^ 75^, not di'6/iots @, iniquos 3. 

— 4. n^3xnn] pi. f ['"i^x^n] n.[f.], elsw. Is. 58*^ bonds ; (5 dvdi'ei'o-ts, U respec- 
tuSy 3 recogitaverinty Aq. 5i;(77rd^eiat, 2 ivedv^vm-o, & H2D, ^ T'?)-!^' These 
all may be explained as different interpretations of nixin, properly decisions. 

— 37'?:'^] ^ prep., r"»r n.m. dea//i {6fi) sf. 3 pi. m.; so Vrss.; but most moderns 
after Moerlius (scholia 1737), Ew., Hi., Bo., Ols., Oort, '^r'^, prep. ^7 of pos- 
session with sf. 3 pi., on adj. sound, wholesome (J7^'"). The measure also re- 
quires the two words. — f n>-«.?] adj. of cattle, /<?/■, Gn. 412- *• 5. "• is. 20 ^g^ j j^^ 
53 Ez. 34'^-2) Ze. 11I6; of food, Hb. i^^; of man, Ju. 3^^ Dn. i^^; here only of 
*MN. — -/In] dub.; i^DB. ["^in] n.[m.] a.X. body, belly (in contempt); so, with 
hesitation, Ba., but improb. (S ^v r^ /xda-Tcyt ai^Twc, U in plaga — a^^n, S 
irpdirvXa, 3 veslibula = 2^^-)H (-';"iN n.m. porch). Rd. c'^^n their strength. — 
6. ^o\rs*] fully written for "'crN'] ?'« with sf. 3 pi. (j^). — 6. icr»|';'r:] Qal pf, 
3 f. sg., archaic sf. 3 pi. t [i"'JV] vb. denom. serve as a necklace, elsw. Hiph. 
Dt. 15^*-^*. — T'^r.] Q*^ impf. Aramaism, elsw. b^^'*. ®, 3, 3 pi., prob. cor- 
rect. — t '"•■*?'] n«[m.] clothing ; but (5 ahiKlav koX dcr^/3etav is prob. interp. gl. 

— 7. ^-J'"] archaic sf. with \y\ so 3 ; but (S y) ddiKia avriov, so 5, U, Street, 
Hi., Ew., Ols., De., Oort, Ba., BDB., >-]-•. — P^^rJ'p] pi. f r^'?'^*? n.f. (i) show- 
piece, ^gure, Nu. 33^- Lv. 26^ (P) Ez. S^'^ (?) Pr. 25II; (2) imagination, con- 
ceit, Aramaism Pr. 18^^ and here; so 3 cogitationes ; but @ ct'j Sid^co-ii', U m 
affectum. — 8. ^^^"^'^ vb. Qal or Hiph. pi2 or p-'D a.X. ;«(7ry^, ^^rr/d'*?, Aramaism, 
@ di€voi^dri<Tav, 3 inriserunt. — C'"<9~] so 3 ; but (S ets t6 u^oj, prob. both 
prep, interp. glosses ; subsequent context favours ^. — 9. I'Til*?] Q.^ impf. 
strong form, Ew.S ^^- ^ Ges.<^- " K6.» '♦i^ for usual 'i':^:'. But Lag., Now., Du., 
n^nn-. — 10. 3^r;] Kt. Hiph. impf. 211:*; Qr. 3^r; Qal impf.; so (5, 3. — 
JiSn] adv. hither. — ^cv] so 3; but @, 5, ••::;•; both sfs. interpretative. 
Houb., Lag., Oort, Now., .5DB., rd. en*? i::;*3i'"' satisfy them with bread. But 
the V. is prob. gl., and the Hiph. of Kt. should be followed, which gives us the 
restoration of God's people from exile. — ix;;*^ n";^;^ ^-^j"] vb. Niph. impf. 3 pi. 
nn;^ @, V, %, 3, 2, cf. \~v^ Nu. 1 1^^; 3 quisplenus invenietur in eis, x*;;^ ^r ; ®, 
U, >r\ S htbax^h Is interp. of ^. ip leads most moderns to think of nv-, ?/. 
75®/ but improb. — 11. t<^«<] i coord, connecting with v,^, possibly gl. — 
^v] divine name, frequent in '% v.i^ 50^ 748 7710- W- 15 ygv. 8. is. 19. 34. 36. 41 ^ . _ 
t n::-i] n.f. knowledge, elsw. I S. 2^ Is. ii^ 28^ Je. 3^^ Jb. 36*, poetic for usual 
^"?. (^9^)- — r\':^ divine name, common in ^, 50" 77" 7817- 85. 5« 826 83I9, 
seldom early yp, v. Intr. § 32. — 12. t '^^'i "h"'] P^r. a,X., f ^br ^^J- ^^ '^^^'^» 
quiet, Zc. 7^ I Ch. 4*^'; of quiet, easy life Je. 4981 Jb. 16^2 2128. abst. Jb. 2020 
Ez. 23*2, both txt. err. — iJt'^'J Hiph. pf. f [ijtr] vb. Aram., Qal grow great. 



PSALM LXXIII. 149 

as cedar 92^^, cf. Jb. 8'^- ^^, Hiph. increase riches, a.X. here. — 13. tin] as v.^. 
® prefixes Kal elira as v.^^, but this evidently a gl. — 'i^niN>] 1 consec. impf. 
unusual in late Pss. The phr. apart from i consec. is cited from Ps. 26^. — 
14. D''"!'"^3^] as 1018; without '-, cf. 5* 551^. — 15. ■'OI^N'sf*] conditional 
clause with pf. "'iTl^a (^5^) in apod. — 'TJrP>!] Pi* cohort, expressing reso- 
lution, cf. 2^. 3 attaches the condition to msD-v. It is possible that dx is 
interp. gl. as Ba. — iDr] adv. so. @ ovtws, 3 sic. Ew., Dr., add n:n. Bo., Gr., 
rd. anico, Ba. ^''C~, which is more prob. because of following n. The adv. 
alone is unexampled. — 16. n\i] Kt. agrees with nxT. xin Qr. without dis- 
crimination, as usual in OT. — 18. niNVkj'p ari'^;?n] f ,-iNv^r n.f. place of deception, 
elsw. 74^; V*"^'F^ beguile (jS^^) > but improb. 2 els d(pavt(rij,0ijs,3 adinlerilum = 
n^Nirn pi. nx^crp ysic* ruift, as Zp. i^^ Jb. 30^, so Klos., Now., Ba,, ^DB. 
®^ has not this clause, but ^x-RT Kari^aXes avroi/s iv ry iirapdrjvai, '!E dum 
allevarentur, Aug. dum extollerentur, so Horsley, " in their elevation," Aram. 
inf.cstr. mN-.ToS as Ez. 17^ V^'^j lift up, — 19. -icd] Qal pf. 3 m. pi. f [^iD] vb. 
Qal come to an end, elsw. Am. 3^^ Is. 661'^ Est. 92^. Hiph. make an end of 
Zp. i2-3. 3 je_ gis (^all dub.). — id^] Qal pf. 3 m. pi. a:2ri emph. coordination. 

— P''n';3] pi. t ^7^7? n.f. (i) terrors (only pi.) Jb. iS^^ 27^0 301^, spec, of death 
Jb. 1 814 24I"; (V) calamity sg. Is. 171^, elsw. pi. Ez. 2621 2786 28^^. ^DB. 
classes our Ps. with (2), Dr. with (i); more prob. esp. if it be a late gl. @ 
hib. TT]p dvofiiav and U is interpretative ; so also 3 quasi non sint. This v. is 
a tetrameter gl. — 20. % D^Sn] n.m. dream, only here ^, but frequent in early 
Lit., cf. vb. 126I. — VP.^^~\ Hiph. inf. 7^-> {^) with p temporal, after, Ges.i64-g. 
@ i^eyeipo/x^pov VH!?? = Vi??* so S, 3, &, U. — '•Jix] as ®, S, MT., belongs 
with second clause, making v. hexameter with caesura after the second beat. 

— -i-'ys] contr. -i-'vn^ Hiph. inf. -^r; (f) with 2 temporal as W, Ges.^i; so 
Oort, Ba., al., and most moderns. © iv ry 7r6Xet aov, sustained by U, 3, S, is 
an erroneous interpretation, which does not suit the context. — 21. Tsnn^] 
Hithp. impf. 3 sg. f T^r] vb. Qal be soured, leavened, Ex. I2^- ^9 (E), cf. Ho. 7*. 
Hithp. be soured, embittered, a.X. \\ iVnirx Hithp. impf. I sg. pr. — 22. y-M* xSi] 
circumstantial, w/V/z<?«/ /^«^7^^z«^ .• cf. 14* unintelligent. — n'^iDns] pi. nnna (5^), 
pi. not of number but of intensity ; stupid or great beast, " a very beast," Dr.; 
not the hippopotamus, as De., Hi., Now. — 24. 1133 "inxt] adv. term with conj. 
and afterwards, as 3, S, so most moderns. ^era 56^?7S, U <rM/?2 gloria, take 
it as prep. But ins as prep, nowhere has this sense. The vb. npS does not 
admit of the use of "ins in the sense of following after, though Ew., Hi., sug- 
gest it as the goal of the taking. The mng. is evident enough, and is open to 
no other objection than dogmatic presupposition. The text is only made more 
difficult by the emendation of Gr., "^^p ri"'";]ns"', though adopted by We., Now. 
1133 is ace. of direction, the place of honour, in the immediate presence of 
God, as 16II; cf. 112^ — 26. ^-;x-f'] sf. i sg. % nxc' x^.xtv. flesh, elsw. 7820- 27 Mi. 
32- 3 Je. 51^5 + . — •'3-i'^ -nx] phr. a.X. improb. oaS is dittog. D'hSx is also gl., 
though both in (g. The 1. is complete without either. We should rd. ni]f (^<5'^) 
as ^7'^n (765). — 27. n^?.n-;] sf. 2 sg. with pi. adj. ^yr^-^ a.X. departing, BDB. 
& ol fiaKpiJvovTes iavro^s dirb aov, 3 qui elongant se a te. It is more prob. 



1 50 PSALMS 

ptc. II nj^r. Rd. therefore ^\':in-)C with Gr. — ^n^^f?] Hiph. pf. 2 m., fully 
written HDX {18^). — nri] Qal ptc. J njt vb. commit forttication, u%\xdA\y m 
physical sense ; but in religious sense, by forsaking Yahweh for another God, 
only here c. p alone, elsw, c. '•-ins, usually Ex. 34!°- ^^ +, ^;;d Ho. 9I, nnnn 
Ho. 4I-, abs. Ho. 2^ 415 Is. 578 Ps. io639. — 28. r^^?'] cstr. t [i^y] i5DB. 
approach^ elsw. Is. 58- in same phr. ; but @, 3, interp. as vb. inf., which is more 
prob., rd. cn'^N Sn nan,"^. — >nr] Qal inf. cstr. with sf. i sg. nntr, cf. 49!^, but 
ni|r V.18 makes it improb. that we should have nn::* here. There is prob. error 
of pointing in MT. — r\^7^'> ••anN] is conflation. (5 Kuptos for ""Jin. nin> in fS 
either gl. or evidence that context also is gl. — n^"*''->!^r] sf. 2 m. pi. J nss'^a n.f. 
work^ t of God, elsw. creation Gn. 22- 2- 3 ^p)^ judgment Je. 50^5; of men, 
10723. 

PSALM LXXIV., 3 PTS. OF 3 str. 3*. 

Ps. 74 is a prayer of the exilic community : I. An expostulation 
with God for continuous anger against His ancient people and Zion 
(v.^ -'^). The enemies have destroyed the temple (v.^"**^) ; they 
planned the exile of the people and the destruction of their reli- 
gion (v.^^). II. The enemies reproach God and He still withholds 
His hand from them (v.^*^'^') ; and yet He has wrought wonders in 
the past (v.^^^^) and He is sovereign of nature (v.^^^^). III. A plea 
to remember the reproaches of the enemy, and not abandon His 
people to them (v.^*^^^), to look upon the violence and not let the 
afflicted be confounded (v.^^), to rise up for His own cause 
against His adversaries (v.^^). Glosses of various kinds were 
inserted (v.^*-^--^^^^"). 

I. 

"^HY, O God, dost Thou cast us off forever; 

Smokes Thine anger against the flock of Thy pasture ? 

Remember Thy congregation, which Thou didst get of old; 

Mount Zion, wherein Thou hast dwelt. 
A LL hath the enemy marred in the sanctuary. 

Thine adversaries roared in the midst of Thy meeting place. 

They set on fire Thy sanctuary, (O God). 

To the ground they profaned the dwelling place of Thy name. 
'T'HEY said in their mind : " Let their offspring become solitary." 

They made the festivals of God in the land to cease. 

Our signs we do not see : 

And there is not with us one who knows. 



I-JOW long, O God, shall the adversary reproach; 
The enemy ever contemn Thy name ? 



PSALM LXXIV. I$I 

Why drawest Thou back Thy hand, (O God) ; 

And Thy right hand in the midst of Thy bosom (retainest) ? 
HTHOU didst divide by Thy strength the sea. 

Thou didst break the heads of the dragon by the waters. 

Thou didst cleave out springs and brooks. 

Thou didst dry up everfiowing rivers. 
'pHINE is the day: Thine also the night. 

Thou didst prepare luminary and sun. 

Thou didst fix all the boundaries of earth. 

Summer and harvest Thou didst form. 

III. 

■D EMEMBER this: the enemy doth reproach ; 

An impudent people do contemn Thy name. 

Give not to wild beasts (the person that praiseth Thee). 

The life of Thine afflicted forget not forever. 
T OOK to (the fat ones) ; for they are full. 

The dark places of the earth are dwellings of violence. 

Let not the crushed turn away confounded. 

Let the afflicted and poor praise Thy name. 
Q ARISE, O God ! O plead Thine own cause. 

Remember the reproach of Thee by the impudent. 

Forget not the voice of Thine adversaries, 

The roar of those who rise up against Thee, going up continually. 

Ps. 74 was in "E, of the class h'^yy:: as 78, and subsequently in IE ; v. Intr. 
§§ 29, 32. It has three parts : (i) v.i- 2«c. 36. 4a. 7-9, (2) v.io-n- 13. 16-17, (3) v.i8-23. 
Each part has three tetrameter tetrastichs. The glosses are all added to (i) 
and (2), not to (3). These are: (i) v.^^^, from Je. lo^^; (2) v.3«, a petition 
in time of depression ; (3) v.4*-6, a Maccabean gl. ; (4) v.^^, a general refer- 
ence to God as king ; (5) v.^*, a haggadistic gl., the first 1. of which is absent 
from ©. Apart from glosses the Ps. shows no evidence of very late date. 
The reference to the capture of the temple, the setting it on fire and profan- 
ing it to the ground, v.^- '^, best suits the destruction of the temple by the 
Babylonians. The reference to the mind of the enemy to make the posterity 
of Israel solitary and to cause the festivals to cease from the land, v.^, suits 
best the Exile. The expostulation which is the ground tone of the Ps. looks 
back upon these things as so long past that the people of God are justified 
in remonstrating with Yahweh for their continuance. The reference to the 
absence of miracle and prophecy, v.^, usually regarded as evidence of Mac- 
cabean times, is a gl. The linguistic and stylistic resemblances are the fol- 
lowing: v.i 1DN y^^p phr. elsw. Dt. 29!^, cf. Ps. 80^ ("E) ; rm^^nD |xx phr. 
elsw. Pss. 79I3 (^^) loo? Je. 23I Ez. 3421 ; v_2 ,-,jp of getting of Israel by 
redemption Ps. 78^^ (<!) Ex. 15I6 Is. iiH; v.^ '?'7n yyn^ phr. of 8940, cf. La. 22; 
v.8 Dr: prob. pj, elsw. Gn. 2i23 Is. 1422 Jb, 18^^; '?n ^^-j;?: phr. a.X., but Dnyia 
common in the sense of feasts ; so here as @. The reference to synagogues 
has no justification in Hebr. language, and therefore cannot give evidence 



152 PSALMS 

of a date of composition after synagogues were established in the land. V.^* 
yp2 as Ps. 781=^- ^^ Ca), ir^N nnnj phr. a.X., cf. 'n Vnj Dt. 21* Am. 52*; yU.in 
h2: as 14I Dt. 32-1, referring to national enemy ; v.^^ yi'n^ as Is. 29^^. There 
are several passages which remind of Ps. 9-10 : \.^^, cf. lo'^- ^^j yi9^ ^f^ gi3. 
V.20, cf. 10"; v.'-i, as g^'^ 10I8. The c^j^jn v.^^ refers prob. to Egypt of the 
Exodus, cf. Ez. 293 322. V.15 refers to the crossing of the Jordan. On the 
whole, the Ps. may be best explained as written with reference to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, and to the Exile, by a poet subsequent 
to Ez. and prior to Is.-. The glosses are partly from the editor of E, chiefly 
from a Maccabean editor who wishes to refer to the desecration of the temple 
in the time of Antiochus. To this event the erection of the signs therein and 
the ruthless destruction of the ornaments of the temple naturally refer. Such 
desecration is not altogether homogeneous with the destruction of the temple 
as described in the original Ps. The glosses have also evidence of late style : 
V.8 mNCO o;*D onn a.X. ; v.^ *?"£•:), nifiS''r; \M in^S and d^-'xS d>'S. 

Pt. I., Str. I. Two syn. couplets. — 1. IV/iy, O God, dost Thou 
cast us off forever ?\ expostulation with God for the long-con- 
tinued abandonment of His people during their exile from their 
native land. It seems as if it were to last forever, cf. 44^^* 77® 79* 
La. 3^. — Smokes Thine a;ij^er'], cf. iS'' 8o\ — against the fl^ock of 
Thy pasture'], phr. elsw. Pss. 79^^ 100^ Je. 23^ Ez. 34*^^ Israel is 
conceived as the flock of God, their Shepherd, who leads them to 
pasture; cf. Pss. 23I-2 7721 78" Sol — 2. Re??iembe?''],?,oy}^-^. Re- 
call to mind the facts of the past; two are mentioned: (a) Thy 
congregation which Thou didst get of o/d], referring to the Exodus 
from Egypt and entrance into the Holy Land, cf Ex. 15^^ Dt. 3 2^1 
A glossator emphasizes this by inserting from Je. lo^'^, Thou didst 
redeem the tribe of Thine inheritance. — (6) Mount Zion, wherein 
Thou hast dwelt], referring to the selection of Mount Zion as 
the permanent place of the divine temple 2 S. 7^-"^"^ i K. 6""^^ 
Ps. 132^^", in which the God of Israel had resided from the time 
of Solomon until the Exile. — 3 a. A glossator adds for emphatic 
enlargement, which Thy footsteps exalted to everlasting dignity]. 
The usual explanation is '' continual desolations," such as have so 
long continued that they seem to be forever, and so God is urged 
to interpose by stepping up to them and inspecting them Himself. 
But this is abrupt and awkward in the context, and is not sustained 
by ancient Vrss. The translation given above requires no change 
in the unpointed text. 



PSALM LXXIV. 153 

Str. II. Synth, tetrastich. — 3b. A//] or "everything," em- 
phatic in position — haf/i the enemy marred in the sanctuary'] ; 
they have left nothing intact: everything has been destroyed. — 
4 a. Roared\ the uproar of a crowd of adversaries, who have 
captured the temple after a prolonged conflict, and make its 
ancient walls ring with their shouts of triumph. They have pene- 
trated even into the midst of Thy meeting place], the transfer to 
the temple of the idea of the ancient tent of meeting, where Yah- 
weh met His people. There is no justification for the rendering 
" Thy congregation " of AV. — 7. They set on fire Thy sanctuary]. 
After rioting in it, spoiling it of its treasures, and destroying every- 
thing that they could not take away with them, they finally set the 
temple on fire. This probably refers to the destruction of the 
temple by the army of Nebuchadnezzar 2 K. 25^^^ — They pro- 
faned the dwelling place of Thy name]. The sacred places were 
reserved for Israelites, who must be consecrated in order to have 
access to them. These had been profaned by the presence of the 
heathen soldiery, unconsecrated and defiled with blood. — to the 
ground], utterly, cf. Ps. 89^*^. — A Maccabean editor enlarges upon 
this description of the destruction of the temple to make it more 
appropriate to the desecration by Antiochus. — 4Z). They have 
set up their own signs as signs], probably referring not to the 
standards of the army in token of victory, but to the religious 
symbols of the Greeks as a supplanting of the Jewish religion. — 

5. // was perceived], lit. "made known" or "became known," 
namely, that which was done by the enemies in the temple ; so 
this difficult form should most probably be rendered. Vrss. and 
interpreters differ greatly in their views of this passage. — as one 
who wieldeth upwards axes in a thicket of ti'ees], simile of a wood- 
man hfting up his ax in a forest to cut down trees, cf. Je. 46^- ^. 

6. So now its doors together with hatchets and axes they strike 
down], breaking open all the doors of the temple, a graphic 
description of the desecration of the temple by Antiochus; cf. 
I Mace. I. The reference to " doors " of (^, F, is more probable 
than that to " carved work " of %, 3, and modern Vrss. 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 8. They said in their mind], to them- 
selves, their plan and purpose. — Let their offspring become soli- 
tary] ; the words of the Babylonian enemy, determining upon 



1 54 psalms 

the transportation of the people into exile, so that their offspring 
might be brought up apart from their native land, apart by them- 
selves in a foreign land. The word " offspring " of (§, 3, is better 
sustained than the vb. of MT. followed by PBV., RV. " let us 
make havock of them altogether," or "let us destroy them," AV., 
JPSV. — T/iey made to cease\ (§ ; to be preferred to " burnt up " 
of 5^, though sustained by most Vrss., because of the tautology 
with v/". — the festivals of ^El\ so (§, intensified by the later 
insertion of " all " : the abolition of all the sacred feasts prescribed 
in the laws of Israel from the most ancient times. There is no 
authority in ancient usage for thinking of the synagogues of Mac- 
cabean times, although this is adopted by EV^ and most moderns. 
— 9. Our signs we do not see\ the symbols of the religion of 
Yahweh, such as the Sabbath Ez. 20^*-^ Ex. 31^^-^^ in appropriate 
parall. with festivals of previous line, and therefore more probable 
than "miracles" or "ensigns." It is, however, possible that the 
glossator who inserted " there is no more a prophet," interpreted 
them as miracles, thinking of his own time as characterised by the 
absence alike of miracle and prophecy, cf. i Mace. 4^*^ 9^ 14*^ — 
And there is not with us one who knows\ No one understands 
what it all means. It is not probable that the author was thinking 
of a prophet, or that he was thinking of the length of time the 
exile would last, as the erroneous dittog. of " how long " requires ; 
he was rather thinking that the whole situation was unintelligible, 
inexplicable, in view of the relation of Israel to God. 

Pt. II., Str. I. Syn. couplets. — 10. How long], expostulation 
as to the length of time, cf. 79* 89^^, || roer. — shall the adversary 
reproach \ contetnn Thy name], by their maltreatment of the 
temple which bears the divine name, and in which God dwelt 
and the people worshipped who were called by His name, cf. v.^^ 
jq3.i3 ^^12 _ii^ lyjiy ^rawest Thou back Thy hand?], to which, 
for the sake of the measure, O God should be added, which has 
fallen out by mistake. One would expect the very reverse, that 
God would draw it forth to vindicate Himself. — And Thy right 
hand in II, in connection with in the midst of Thy bosom, suggests 
the vb. retainest, which was probably in the original Ps., but which 
was changed by the Maccabean editor to a similar vb. imv. " con- 
sume them," implying a vb. " take it forth," or " pluck it forth,'* 



PSALM LXXIV. 155 

RV. The hand of God, and especially His right hand, is that 
which He lifts up (10^^), or stretches out (Ex. 15^^), in vindicating 
Himself and His people against their enemies, cf. 44* 89^^ Israel 
cannot understand why he does not do this now ; why He stands 
aside, as it were, with His right hand in the bosom of His gar- 
ment. — 12. A glossator inserts, as an additional reason for the 
expostulation, the couplet : And God is my khig of old']. From 
the most ancient times He has been king of Israel, cf. 9^ 10^^ 44*. 
— Worker of victories'\, T^tc. expressing the characteristic action 
of the king, who as commander of armies gives victory to His 
people, cf. I S. 14^' Is. 26^^ Pss. 20^ 2i2-^ 44' 68^0 + ; not to be 
generalised into " salvation " of EV^ — in the midst of the earth~\. 
His victories were not confined to the Holy Land, but were 
wrought in other parts of the earth ; interpreting the subsequent 
context. 

Str. II. Synth, couplets. — 13. Thou didst divide by Thy strength 
the sea], referring to the crossing of the Red Sea by Israel at the 
Exodus, Ex. 14^^ "1-. — Thou didst break the heads of the dragon 
by the waters'], the military chiefs of Egypt compared to a dragon. 
Is. 27^ 51^ Ez. 29^ 32^. — 14. A doublet of the previous v. — Thou 
didst crush the heads of Leviathan], probably here the crocodile, 
another term for Egypt, cf. Is. 27^ — that Thou mightest give them 
for food to the folk of jackals]. Their dead bodies cast up upon 
the shore became the prey of the jackals, cf. 63". The reference 
of (§, 3, F, to the Ethiopians has no historical or linguistic pro- 
priety. The reference of EV^ " to the people inhabiting the 
wilderness," while possible, has no historical support and is 
improbable. Aq., ©, ^T, Quinta, give it a mythological reference 
to the flesh of Leviathan (cf. Jb. 3^), which it was supposed would 
be given as a festal meal to Israel in the latter days. This is more 
probable in so late a gloss. — 15. Thou didst cleave out springs 
and brooks], cf. 78^^ los"*^ Is. 48"^ referring to the miracle of 
bringing water from the rocks Ex. 17^ Nu. 20^ — Thou didst dry 
up everflowing rivers], referring to the crossing of the Jordan 
Jos. 3. 

Str. III. Synth, couplets, passing from the divine power in 
history to the divine power over nature, both in creation and 
providence. — 16. Thiite is the day] ; it belongs to Thee as its 



156 PSALMS 

owner. — Thine also the night\ therefore both day and night, 
comprehending all time. The reason for this ownership is Thou 
didst prepare, create, iut?iinary, that is, the moon, as (g, giving 
light by night, and sun, giving light by day; cf. Gn. i^*"^'"^ Ps. 
104^^23^ — 17. Thou didst fix all the boundaries of earth'], which 
might be interpreted in general of the separation of land and sea 
Gn. i^ Jb. 38^'*i- Pr. 8^, or of the boundaries of the nations Dt. 32^ ; 
but more probably, owing to the qualifying line, refers to the 
divisions of the seasons Gn. i^'^ ; for the reason is given : Summer 
and harvest Thou didst form] at the creation, making this the 
chief boundary in the year. 

Pt. III., Str. I. Syn. couplets. — 18. Re7nember this], renew- 
ing the plea of v.^, only calling attention now to the enemy instead 
of to the people of God. The demonstrative, thrown before for 
emphasis, is defined in the subsequent clauses. — *'The enemy" 
of v.^ is resumed and described as an itnpudefit people], so wP iV. 
— doth reproach || contemn Thy name], resuming v.^^ — 19. Give 
not to wild beasts], or "wild beast," as RV. after (g, 3, OT, 
much more probable than " unto the multitude," that is, of the 
enemies or wicked, of PBV., AV., which depends upon another 
interpretation of the Hebr. word. — the person that praiseth Thee], 
so (&, U, favoured by interpretations of other ancient Vrss. ; to 
be preferred to % followed by EV^, " Thy turtle dove," a pet 
name for Israel which has no other Biblical authority, and is else- 
where only an image of timidity. — The life of Thifie afflicted]. 
The people suffering affliction from their enemies were in mortal 
peril. — forget not forever], cf. 10^^"^ 13^^. God's withholding in- 
terposition so long {y}^) seems like forgetfulness ; the reverse of 
the plea to remember. 

Str. II. Synth, couplets. — 20. Look to the fat ones], the sleek 
enemies made fat by victory and booty, cf. 73*, as suggested by 
Du. ; to be preferred to J^, " Look to the covenant," though sus- 
tained by ancient and modern Vrss. and most interpreters ; because 
it interrupts the thought by the suggestion of God's neglect of 
the ancient covenant with Israel, Ex. 24^, when the whole context 
is a plea to consider the attitude of the enemy. The variation in 
the text as between the two readings is only one of pointing. — 
for they are full], that is, with the booty, which makes them fat. 



PSALM LXXIV. 157 

The measure requires that this vb. should go with the previous 
clause and not with the following, as EV^ — The dark places of 
the earthy referring not to the hiding-places of the persecuted 
of the Maccabean period i Mace, i^^ 2^^'^-^ to which they were 
pursued by their enemies and cruelly cut down, and thus justify- 
ing the supplementary statement dwellings of violence, but to the 
lands of exile where Israel was, as it were, in the Sheol of national 
death, away from the light of the divine countenance, and exposed 
in their weakness to the cruelty of their enemies. — 21. Let not 
the crushed || afflicted and poor^ The nation had been crushed 
by the destruction of Jerusalem and the misery of the Exile. In 
their affliction and poverty they resort to their God for deliver- 
ance ; they plead that they may not turn away confounded'], as 
if unrecognised, unanswered, or refused. On the contrary, let 
them praise Thy name], in antithesis with the enemies who con- 
temn it v.^^ 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 22-23. O arise, O God/], a still 
more importunate plea for immediate interposition, cf. 9^ lo^l — 
O plead Thine own cause], the cause of His people was identical 
with His own, cf. 43^ — Remember (cf. v.^^) and its antithesis 
forget not (v.^^) are resumed in the climax. — the reproach of 
Thee], cf. v.^^, as expressed in the voice, aloud in boldness and 
defiance, and indeed as the roar, going up continually], of a 
tumultuous assembly of angry and vindictive as well as iinpudent 
ones II Thine adversaries || those who rise up against Thee. The 
psalmist, in his emphatic assertion that they were God's enemies, 
has lost sight for the moment that they were also enemies of the 
people of God. 

1. nrj^;'] expostulation (^^). — a-inSN] so v.^'^- 1^- 22^ prob. original. — 
a risx t^r] phr. elsw. Dt. 291^. f ?^^ vb. denom. Qal smoke, elsw. of moun- 
tain Ex. 19I8 Pss. 104^2 1446; cf. Ps. 80^ (without fjN). — ^n'*;'"''? yi^^'f^ fiock 
of Thy shepherding ; phr, elsw. Pss. 791^ loo^ Je. 23I Ez. 34^1, of. Ps. 95"^. 
t [•"i"';;"^^] "-f* elsw. pasturage Ho. 13^ Is. 249^ Je. 25^6; by meton. y?<?<r/& 
Je. io2i. — 2. nDT] Qal imv. 2 m. {8^), so v.i8-22^ characteristic of Ps. — 
r;''jp] Qal pf. 2 m. % ^^^ vb. get, acquire, of God (all poetic), (i) by creation 
or origination 139I3 Gn. 14I9.22 Dt. 32^ Pr. 8^2; (2) by redemption, here, 
as Ps. 78^* Ex. 15I6 Is. nil. other mngs. not in i/'. — q-'^ni \^y<^ ^^^\\ gl. 
from Je. 10I6 - 51I9, cf. Is. 63". — nr] relative, as 78^* \o\^'^^. — i. ^r^yy^'\-p^ 
n^DVD] phr. a.X., but cf. vb. with n^ Ex. 17II (E) Nu. 20" (P) i K. Ii26.27^^ 



158 PSALMS 

with Sjn Gn. 41** (E) ; vb. is Hiph. imv. cohort, on. ® has rds x"Ms ^ow 
here, so U ; 5 qo;% 3 sublimitas — ^T^J^y all glosses interp. of the obj. of 
vb. unexpressed. — n^Niyc^] "i prep., pi. [nNrc], elsw. tj'^'S dub. © has k-nX 
Tb.% VTrepr)(()avias airwv = U in stiperbias eorum, as v.'-^ (for ^nu) both from 
Nirj (i), cf. Jb. 13II 20^ 3i23; 2 ■f)(t>avlad-q interprets from srj as Niph. So 
Sb D^Vpn;:':: ; cf. Is. 331*^ Ps. 94^. 3 dissipata est interprets from Nir'j beguile^ 
deceive {S5^^) ; cf. Jb. 322-. The 1. is a late gl. Ehr. proposes to take T\r::^'\-:y 
as Hiph. pf. 3 f. in rel. clause with y2^;\i as subj. ; and so we might render : 
" which Thy footsteps exalted." This makes better parall. with previous 11. 
Then it is better to go farther than Ehr. and follow (5 in the interp. of riNtt»D^, 
only giving it a good sense as rsr:: = pn*^ elevation^ dignity, and so render 
the whole as : which Thy footsteps exalted to everlasting dignity. The 
glossator thus adds to each tetrameter a syn. trimeter in rel. clause. — y"!^"*^"] 
'73 is used absolutely, as 8" 145^^, and eniph. with vb. in rel. clause, rel. omitted, 
which then connects it closely with previous 1. ; but as that is improb. the vb. 
is rather in a principal clause giving statement of fact. — 4. ^I^V"^-] sf. 2 m. 
Jtra n.m. (i) appointed time 75^ 102^* 104^^ so ® here t^s ^opr^s aov \ 
t (2) appointed place of assembly Zp. 3I8 La. 2*. Many codd. MT., so ^T, Ki., 
rd. pi. here as v.^ Sn ^-i^v^rs Sr; 3 omnes solemnitates dei ; (S ras iopras Kvplov 
without ^:!. There is no sufficient reason to think of synagogues in v.^. — 
rirs Dr'p^N -1::^]. This is not in 6", but in (gs. ab. mg. inf. n. r. t ^ffcvro to. 
arjueia avrdv arjfxela kuI ovk eyvwcrav. ns (6j^). The mng. standards elsw. 
only Nu. 2^ (P) ; though after 3, Calv., PBV., JPSV., and many adopt this 
mng. Most think of religious symbols. This best explains the repetition of 
the word. But in that case this 1. is not suited to the context. — 6. >":v] 
Niph. impf. >n>; 3 sg. for 3 pi. is noteworthy. It can hardly refer to the 
enemies of the previous context. This also is not in (3^. @s.R. T+ r^. 
v;"]^ nS. 3 manifesta prob. gives the true mng. It is needed for measure. — 
NOicr] prep. :? with Hiph. ptc. N12. © has ws here as in next clause, but 
interp. before c/j rT]v etaoSov ; 3 in introitu ; these rd. no::. But @N'c.a.R.a.T 
?^o5ov ; so U sicut in exitu. — % ^t^*t?] ^^^' ^'P- ^P'^'cird a.\. ^, but common 
elsw. OT. ; cf. S^c. — T13D3] prep. 3 with t [l^p] n.[m.] thicket, elsw. Je. 4^; 
cf. r\yQ n.[m.] idem Gn. 22^^, pi. Is. 9^^ lo^i. — niDT^n] pi. t [^TjrJ n.[m.] 
axe, elsw. Ju. 9*8 i S. 1320.21 jg. ^e^s. — 6. n;:i] Kt. ; Qr. T\r\i\ temporal 
sequence, so now. ® i^iKo\//av = i>*"ij, so &, V. Ba. rds. P';ji Pu., as Is. 9®. 
But 2 vvv 5^, 3 et nunc. — n^nine] pi. sf. 3 f. f'!'''''^? n.m. engraving oxx metal 
or stone i K. 629 Xc. f Ex. 2811- 21- so 396. 14. so 2 Ch. 2^- 13; so here, as 3. 
But (5 rds Bvpa.<i oiJt^s = n^n^c, so U. — ^^'4l\ o.X., Aramaic loan word, ^DB. 
axe. — r^^s'rv:.] a.\. n.[f.] axe, Assyrian kalappatu, ^DB. — I^^'^!!:] Qal impf. 
3 pi. fuller form | [3^'^] vb. smite with hammer Ju. 520 ; fig. Ps. 141^; so here 
with axe. — V.^-^ give two hexameters, a gl. to the tetrameter poem. — 7. in'^f'] 
Pi. pf. 3 pi. c. 3 instrument and ace. of obj. against which ; cf. Ju. i^ 20^^ 
2 K. 8^2^ A word seems to be missing. — "':'';7-] 3 sanctiiarium tuum, 
® rb ayiaari^pLdv cov. — •I'^'Sn }'■>>{';•] phr. 89*'^ cf. La. 22. — 8. crj] dub. 
Qal impf. i pi. with sf. 3 pi. nr oppress 17^^ 123*, so Sb i3ij Ki., AE., Hu.^, 



PSALM LXXIV. 159 

De., Bi.; but ® ij a-vyyevla avrCov, 3 posteri eorum, % on>j3. f IN ^•'^• 
offspring, as Gn. 2i23 Jb. i8i9 Is. 1422; so Hi., Ba.— ^n;] i.p. (^2); but rd. 
T^n; solitary, alone (in exile) as 251^ 68'^ 141!'^ (@). — Sn n3;iD] ®2 Kup^ov, 
but @>5-R-T 7-0O d^ov more correct; z^. v.*. — isy^'] Qal pf. 3 m., so 3, 2, 0, 
Quinta, ^ ; but ® Zevre /cat Kar air a^ixx 00 fiev, which Jerome supposed to be err. 
for KaTaKavcrwjjLev (ep. 106 ad Sun. et Fret. c. 46), so Sexta. But 5 "i:3ij. It 
is improbable that burning, which has been mentioned v.'^, would reappear in 
v.^. The text of @, S', was not the same as that of f^ and other Vrss. The 
use of 2d pers, for God in the Ps. favours @ that *?« should be in words of 
enemy. Ehrt, Moll, suggest \r\y:f err. for >nyiD ^731 ns'^. But \r\iv^ is itself 
more prob., cf. La. 5^^ Is. 24^ — 9. iJnN] prep, ns with sf. i pi., so 3; 
•^/"Ss, U <f^ «fJ, riN def. ace. with sf. But the latter is against the use of 
2 pers. for God in the Ps. — N03] u.m. prophet, elsw. \p only 512 (title) 105^^; 
gl., so also no~n;; dittog. — 10. "'r'^~"^v] until when, hotv long, v.^; c. impf. 
elsw. 822 943, pf. 80^. This expostulation begins Part II. — 11. q;.''D'>l :ti;] 
the second noun an intensification of the first, so 3 ; but @ attaches rirrs^ to 
next 1., which gives better parall. The first 1. lacks a word, prob. the divine 
name. Then "]j''?2"' is ace. instrument with ns^ Pi. imv. nSj {18^^), cf. 59^*. 
This was prob. changed by Maccabean editor from an original nSop, which 
gives better parall. — :ii";ln] Kt., err. for rip;n Qr. (jj-'^). — 12. The change 
to 3 pers. between 11. of 2 pers. indicates a gl. — r\'^y'Y^'> hys'] phr. a.X. worker 
of victories for usual 'i'"' r)\i>-j i S. 14*^ Is. 26^^. — 13. nin^s] Poel pf. 2 m. 
t[-Ti3] BDB. (SS. niD); Qal and Hithp. Is. 241^; Poel only here, split, 
divide. — 3irjn •'^'n'^] J r^n n.m. (i) serpent, 91^3 dj-^ '^2^^; (2) crocodile or 
dragon, as fig. of Egypt, so here as Is. 27^ 51^, cf. Ez. 29^ 32^; of Babylon 
Je. 5 1 3*; (3) sea monster, as whale Gn. i^i Jb. 7^2 Ps. 148". The reference 
here is to Egypt, and the heads of the monster are the chiefs who were over- 
whelmed in the Red Sea. — 14. tyi'i-\\ Pi. pf. 2 m. J [rxi] vb. a.X. ^ crtcsh 
in pieces. — t I^^l'?] n.m. (i) river monster, crocodile, Jb. 40^^, prob. here fig. 
of Egypt, cf. Is. 271-1; (2) sea monster, whale, Ps. 10426; (3) mythological 
dragon Jb. 3^. — This v. is a doublet of previous 1. and is doubtless a gl. — 
"i:3nn] Qal impf. 2 m. pj with sf. 3 m. sg The impf. in the midst of pfs. 
prob. expresses purpose. — C"'^i-^] ';' prep, of late style for genitive, and QV? 
yelpers, jackals, cf. y2^. But (g XaoFs roTs kWio-^iv, 3 poptilo Aethioptim. 
Aq., Quinta, %, refer oy to the Jews in accordance with the legend of Baba 
bathra 7*, that the pious in the future age would receive the flesh of Levia- 
than as a festal meal ; so 9 Xa(^ t(? k<jx°-'^^' This 1. is also a late gl. — 
16. ovn^] Qal pf. 2 m. I rn^ vb. Qal cleave, break open, lis Is. 4821, the sea Ex. 
1416 (P) Ps. 7813, so here j^r, the earth 141'. Pi. cleave rock Ps. 7%^^. — % r^yo] 
n.m. spring, source, elsw. 1/', 104IO 1148, but 84^ 87^^ (dub.). — Vm] i.p. 
torrent, brook (18^). — p>N n^^il'] phr. a.X., cf. 'vS Sn] Am. 52* Dt. 21*. J in^K 
adj. elsw. as ever flowing Ex. 142^ (J) i K. 82; other sen?.Q permanent, endur^ 
ing, not in \p. — 16. J "i^xij] n.m. lu?ninary, usually of both sun and moon, 
here followed by tt'Ctt'. It seems necessary to think of the moon, as ®, 
although Now. thinks it collective for moon and stars ; cf. 90^ of God's face 



l6o PSALMS 

as a luminary. — 17. l-'.ni y;,-;] phr. elsw, Gn. 8^2 (J) Zc. 14*. — f T^.n] n.m. 
harvest timcy elsw. Am. 3^*^ Je. 362^^ Pr. 20* Jb, 29^ — 18. rsi] so 3 ; ^^ has 
T^s KTlaeibs <Tov, but not ^^•'^. — nin'«] though sustained by @, 3, must be a 
gl. in E. Moreover, it makes 1. too long. — S^rar] phr. elsw. Dt. 32* of 
Israel ; but '':>2} v.22 14I = 532 Dt. 32^1 ('j ^u) all refer to the heathen as 
impttdenty shameless. — 19. r_'n'|'] S prep, with r^n repeated in next 1. It is 
impossible to give these words the same mng. in both cases, for Ihierleitt, 
De., though tempting, has no support in usage. Seventeen codd. de Rossi 
have r-'v!^, making it stronger form for 7\>t^. It is prob. that it was so under- 
stood by MT., for ^ as well as (5, 3, translate by wild beast. But it is easier 
to point n'^^n. The other n»n is cstr. n^n in the sense of life, as 78^'^ 143^. — 
:in;n] |^, thy dove, endearing name for Israel, but there is no Biblical authority 
for it. It is elsw. only for image of timidity. @ i^ofwXoyovfx^vTjv aoi, U con- 
Jitentes tibi, so ,S, ^T'"i Hiph. impf. 2 m. m> {v. Intr. § 39) with sf. 2 m. 
This seems most prob. 3 eruditam lege tiia ; 2, C, ^^n Hiph. impf. 2 m. n-\> 
(//2) teach the law. — 20. n''-!^':'] {y. 2j^0) (3 has sf. aov, but it is doubtless 
interp. This gives no good sense in the context, and to connect it with is'^d 
and so get good measure is difficult. Rd. with Du. r'^na for ^^<''■^.^ /at persons, 
cf. 73*. — iNSn'ti] agrees with rv-\2; cf. lo"^. — v:?'np] pi. cstr. fHt'O? n-m. 

(1) darh, secret place, where the wicked hide and work Is. 29^^; so here; 

(2) dark region, where one loses the way Is. 42^*; (3) Sheol Pss. 88'^- ^^ 143* 
La. 3*. — 22. DV.T':':)] is prob. gl., as it makes 1. too long with "-jr, which can 
only be explained as designed for an additional tone before Sa:. — 23. nVy] 
Qal ptc. n*?;', relative clause without the usual article agreeing with \\\w. 



PSALM LXXV., 6 m?. 3^ 

Ps. 75 is a song of thanksgiving to God for all His wondrous 
deeds (v.-), citing an oracle in which God Himself tells of an ap- 
pointed time of judgment (v.'^), warns the boasting wicked (v.^') 
that help cannot come from any quarter (v.^"^), that they must 
drain to the dregs the cup of judgment (v^) ; and declares once for 
all that the wicked will eventually be hewn off, but the righteous 
lifted up (v.^^"). 

■^E give thanks to Thee, O God, 

We give thanks and call on Thy name, 

Tell of (all) Thy wondrous deeds. 
»4 VVHEN I take an appointed time, 

I in equity judge: 

The earth and its inhabitants melt away. 
« J SAY to the boasters : 'Boast not ' ; 

And to the wicked : ' Lift not up the horn. 

Do not speak arrogantly against the Rock.' 



PSALM LXXV. l6l 

a pOR not from the East or from the West, 

And not from the wilderness or from the mountains. 

Verily, God is about to judge, 
it pOR a cup with red wine — 

It is full of mixed wine, and He extends it : 

Yea, its dregs they will drain out. 
<c "yERILY I declare forever. 

That the horns of the wicked I will hew off ; 

But the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up." 

Ps. 75 was originally a "it, as indeed is evident from v.^ It was taken up 
into % then into fH, 15, and ©3^, in which latter it was assigned rn'^n *?« 
(z/. Intr. §§ 24, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34). The Ps., apart from the first Str., is an 
oracle of God, in five trimeter tristichs. The author was evidently familiar 
with the song of Hannah i S. 2 (?'. v.^-^). The use of the cup of the wine 
of God's wrath to be drained by His enemies v.^ is as Je, 25^^ 49I2 La. 4^'^ Is. 
51^^ Ez. 23^^^^ Hb. 2^6. The phrs. worthy of note are : v.^, lyi^n npN a.X., cf. 
102I*; v.ii D-'jip jnj phr. a.X., but cf. Is. 45^ Ps. 107I6. V.^ ->3m i consec. impf. 
is good old syntax. There are several glosses, chiefly of intensification : v.*^, 
>Dii< for '•in v.^*i°; '<r:DB late usage of the vb; v.^", doublet of v.^*; v.^^, en- 
larged from I S. 2"^; v.^'^, amplification; v.^*^^, praise in i sg. for i pi. of Ps,, 
and interrupting the divine words. The Ps. is ancient, and, apart from the 
use of d^hSn, might be preexilic. It is written in a calm tone of confidence in 
God and praise to Him for Plis wonders. It implies a peaceful condition of 
the community, probably in Babylonia prior to Nehemiah. 

Str. I. Syn. triplet. — 2. JVe give thanks\ repeated for empha- 
sis II call on Thy name'], so (!l, U, <S, Dr., Kirk., al., well suited 
to the context. " Thy name is near," of J^, 3, rests upon dis- 
placement of a single letter, and is an anomalous phr. difificult to 
explain, especially in this context, whether we think of " name " 
as for help or for presence. In the climax, — Tell of all Thy 
wondrous deeds'], celebrate them in a song. These are, as the 
oracle indicates, deeds of impending judgment. 

Str. II. Synth triplet. — 3. Wheii J lake an appointed time]. 
God Himself speaks the oracle which takes up the remainder of 
the Ps. The " appointed time " is the time of judgment, cf. Hb. 
2^; so RV., JPSV., and most moderns. PBV., AV., "when I 
receive the congregation," though a possible rendering, is not 
suited to the context. — I in equity Judge], as the context indi- 
cates, in distributive justice, giving equitable punishment to the 
wicked and vindication to the righteous, cf. 9^ 58^ 98^. — 4. 7'he 
earth and its inhabitants melt away], panic-stricken, in terror, 



1 62 PSALMS 

cf. Ex. 15" Pss. 46^ 107^. The reference is evidently to them as 
wicked, cf. v", in antithesis with the righteous people of God. 
A glossator adds : // is I that have adjusted its pillars'], cf. 24^ Jb. 
38* ^'^- I S. 2^ It therefore depends entirely upon God whether 
the earth shall remain stable and unshaken, or not. 

Str. III. is a syn. triplet. — 5. / say to the boasters || the 
wicked], a warning to the enemies of His people, — Boast not], 
as expressed by the external gesture, — lift not up the horn], in 
self-conscious dignity and supremacy; cf. i S. 2^-^° Pss. 89^^^ 92" 
112^ — 6. This is interpreted by a glossator in dittog. by enlarg- 
ing "horn" to "your horn," and "hft up" to "on high." The 
Str. is complete without it. The chmax of this boasting and 
self- exaltation appears in the warning : Do ?iot speak arrogantly]. 
This, ace. to J^, J, EV'., is expressed by the "neck"; but the 
rendering, against the Rock], suggested by (©, is followed by most 
moderns and is doubtless correct, especially because of the relation 
of this Ps. to the Song of Hannah i S. 2^-^, cf. Dt. 32^-37 Hb. i". 

Str. IV. is a synth. triplet. — 7. For notfro7n the East or from 
the West], the two antithetical quarters, complemented by noi 
from the wilderfiess, the southern quarter, or from the mountains, 
the northern quarter, thus embracing the four quarters to exclude 
them all. The interpretation of AV., RV., JPSV., with many 
ancients and moderns, finding in the form the predicate " lifting 
up," is improbable ; as is also that of @, J, U, and most moderns, 
" mountainous wilderness." Both of these leave the northern 
quarter unmentioned. The statement of Kirk., that it is because 
of the Assyrian approach from that quarter, is involved in a 
mistaken view of the date of the Ps., and is unsatisfactory in any 
case. It is usually supposed that these are the words of the 
psalmist, excluding help for Israel from every quarter but God. 
But this Str. intervening between III. and V. really is in close con- 
nection with both, and continues the warning of God to the wicked 
enemies that no help can come to them from any quarter : their 
judgment is about to begin. — 8. Verily God is about to judge], 
A glossator inserts from i S. 2^" a statement of distributive judg- 
ment : the one He putteth down, the other He lifteth up, a line 
making the Str. overfull, and really interrupting the close con- 
nection of the previous clause with the following Str. 



PSALM LXXV. 163 

Str. V. is a stairlike triplet. — 9. For a cup with red wine], 
the most probable reading, instead of " that foameth," of MT., a 
term used only here of wine and dubious in itself. It was in the 
hand of Yahweh, without doubt, as is evident from the context; 
but it was not necessary to say this. The divine name is not the 
one used in this Ps., and the insertion impairs the measure. — // 
is full of mixed wine], cf. Is. 5^^ Pr. 9^-^ Ps. 102^*^. Herbs and 
spices of various kinds were used to make it more stimulating and 
intoxicating. — and He extends it]. God hands it out to the 
wicked to drink. This is the most probable explanation of an 
Aramaism which is rendered in EV'., '' He poureth out." " Of it " 
is an explanatory addition of a glossator at the expense of the 
measure ; enlarged in (^, S, iJ, into " of this ... of that," thinking 
of two different cups. — Yea, its dregs they will drain out], inter- 
preted by the gloss, " will drink," and whose subject is also given 
without need : " all the wicked of the earth," both at the expense of 
the measure. The cup of the wrath of God given to the wicked to 
drink is common in OT., cf. 11^ 60^ Je. 25^^"^ 49^2 Bq. ^ ^7 jg ^ jireq.^ 

Str. VI. A single line followed by an antith. couplet. — 
10. Verily I declare fo?'ever], the words of God continued and 
brought to their climax in the first person as Str. II., III. The 
declaration is an everlasting decree, an unchangeable purpose. 
It was, however, interpreted by a glossator as the words of Israel 
in public worship, and accordingly a || was inserted : / will make 
melody to the God of Jacob, cf. 81 2, which then occasioned in (© 
the change of the first vb. into "I will rejoice." — 11. That 
which God declares as His eternal purpose is : That the horns of 
the wicked I will hew off], by a sudden and violent blow against 
them, when hfted up by the wicked themselves, v.^ ; and, in 
antithesis : But the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up], as is 
suggested, by God Himself. 

2. ijn"in] Hiph. pf. i pi. bis; when sq. V only of ritual worship {v. Intr. 
§ 39)» cf. 79^^. — qr::^ ^''"'I'Zl] so 3; but phr. a.X. dub.; @ ^iriKaXeabfxeea rb 
6voiJ.d (Tou = i::c'3 y-\\) inf. abs. Nip with 2 prep, interp. as i pi. pf. — nsp] Pi. 
pf. 3 m.; so 3 ; but (S has dirjyifiaoiJLai, U narrabimus, also interp. inf. abs. 
■^I^D. 5> has I pi. in both cases. Street, Du., would rd. i pi. Dy., Gr., Oort, 
Ba., Kau., We., ptc. ^N-;p. — ti^p^xS.^)] {(f). (S, Sb, add Sd, which gives better 
measure, so Che. — 3. '^^■o n;?s""-] phr. a.X.; o temporal as @, 3 ; cf. 102^* 



1 64 PSALMS 

'D H2. — tasrs on'iTin] as 58^, cf. 98^ c. 2, in uprightness, equity, v. 9^. — 
4. CJ^CJ] Niph. ptc. pi. a.\. J1D = W(f// away, fig. of if^xvox, panic-siricken, cf. 
Ex. 151^; in Qal 46', Hithp. 10726. — ^pjx] full form instead of ^jn v.^-iO; 
prob. betrays another hand. — "•n.Jsn] Pi. pf. f P'"^ Qal weigh, prove, Pr. 16^ 
2i2 24I2. Niph. (i) be weighed I S. 2^; (2) <^^ r/]^/// of conduct Ez. iS^^-^* 
33I7.20. Pi. (j) yjgjg/i jb. 2825; (2) measure Is. 40I'-'; (3) prob. late, set 
right, adjust. Is. 40^^ (?),so here. Pu. be weighed, 2 K. 1212. — n>-i.iD>] pi. sf. 
3 f. its pillars, % ti::>' n.m. here of earth, so Jb. 9*^, of heaven Jb. 26", of Wis- 
dom's house Pr. 9I, column of smoke Ps. 99'^, as Ex. i3-i- 2-2 Q) j^ j usually of 
pillars supporting house, or of column or pillar standing apart. — 5. \-\p ic">->r] 
so V.6; 11, cf. 18^ 8918- 25 92II 112^. The repetition in next 1. is doublet and gl. — 
6. •"»"^319] without neg. interp. as subordinate if the second innr be original, 
otherwise Sn was originally with the vb. — ■^><J'«?] so %,%; but ®, '^, Karh 
Tov 6€ov = mxj, so Cap., Oort, Ba., Hu.^, Kau., Du., Dr., BDB. — prv] /reward, 
arrogant ; elsw. i S. 2^ Pss. j/^ 94^; nowhere else connected with the neck, 
and improb.; whereas mx is used in i S. 22-3, which was in the mind of this 
poet. — 7. t ^7""] 11. [m.] West Pss. 103^2 107^ Is. 43^ 456 5919 _|-. — -lair:] so 
Baer ; but @^-RTj U, 3, Ginsburg, and most moderns, n^-jr; cstr. with onn 
mountainous 7vilderness of the South, but ©^ omits znn. It is best, after Ew., 
with We., Du., to rd. either onm or D''->'ir\ If author in middle Palestine or 
Galilee, " the mountains " would be the North ; so also if in Babylonia. The 
predicate is found by Ki., Hu., Dy., al., in ann, Hiph. inf. en lift up, so AV. . 
RV., JPSV.; but this is improb. The sentence is aposiopese, and we have to 
supply in thought ijiTjr n:3% cf. i2ii-2. — 8. <"ir"i;.] the one . . . the other. This 
1. is based on i S. 2'^ and is a gl. — 9. nin> n"'^] though in @, 5F, must be gl. 
in IE. Dn was followed by i of accompaniment |"i. — "^in] Qal, rel. clause 
usually, as ^DB. = which foams, only here of wine and dub., of waters 46*; 
prob. ">::n to be rd. t '^;;n n.m. wine or red wine Dt. 32^*. ® has here otvov iKpd- 
Tov, U vini meri, Aq. ava-TTjpov, 3 vino vieraco. — v^^yf\ Qal pf. 3 m. ; but Di3 f. 
Rd. Pi. pf s'7? God subj. — "ip?:] n. mixture a.X.; but vb. t IDo mix of wine 
I02i'^ls. 522 1914 Pr^ ^2. 5^so prob. here. — -iv]] Hiph. impf. t ["^^J] vb. Ara- 
maism, v. dj^^. — nip] so 3, referring to the wine ; but (S ^k roirov els tovto ; 
so &, U, thinking of two different cups. It is in all cases an interp. gl. — 
nn'^r] pi, sf. 3 f , referring to the cup. f ["*!??'] n.m. dregs of wine, lees, as 
Je. 48^1 Zp. 1^2 Is. 256- 6. — ixr;] Qal impf. 3 m. modal force, f ^?? vb. Qal 
drain out dregs, elsw. Ju. 638 Ez. 23^* Is. 51I'. Niph. Lv. i^^ 58 Ps. 73I0 (?); 
(5 here isp^ n^, as 73'"*. — ins "'>a'n"S3] phr. elsw, loi^ 11911^, prob. also 
Ez. 7*1; but here a gl. with the vb. irT^'\ — 10. -i"'jx] Hiph, impf. ij:, so 3 ; 
but © (n)'^"'jN is well suited to I| n-\r:TS, though not used elsw. in % ; Hare, 
Houb., Lowth., Street, Oort, Ehr., al. The i sg. here instead of i pi, of v,2 
is striking, but the latter half of v. is not suited to context and is gl. ; in 
original Ps. God speaks as v.s. — 3pr ^nSs] {20"^) 468- 12 (It) 76? 8i2-6 (t^). 
— 11, \pi2"':'3"i]. The S^i is gl., making 1. too long. — pp J?7.-'?] vb. Pi. impf. 
f. X v"*^. phr- °-^\ ^ut hew off bars of iron Is. 452, cf. Ps. 107^^ This can 
only have God as subj. 



PSALM LXXVI. 165 



PSALM LXXVI., 3 STR. 6\ 

Ps. 76 was a song, celebrating an ancient victory of Yahweh 
over enemies in Jerusalem itself, where He made His greatness 
known in the destruction of the instruments of war (v.^"^) , became 
glorious in making the enemies sleep their last sleep (v.^'^), awe- 
inspiring in judgment upon enemies and in salvation of His people 
(v.*"^*^). A gloss calls upon all to praise Him in festival even in 
their wrath, and to bring Him presents (v.^^"^^) . 



Q.OD made Himself known in Judah; 

In Israel His name became great: 

And His covert was in Salem, 

And His lair was (put) in Zion. 

He brake tlie flashings of the bow, 

Shield and sword and battle. 
JLLUSTRIOUS art Thou, (O God), 

Glorious from the (everlasting) mountains. 

The stout-hearted slept their (last) sleep, 

And the men of war did not find (spoil). 

At Thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, 

Chariot and horse fell into a deep sleep. 
^WE^INSPIRING art Thou, (O God) ; 

And who can stand before Thine anger ? 

From heaven Thou didst let Thy sentence be heard. 

The land feared, and it was quiet, 

When God arose to judgment. 

To save all the afflicted of the land. 



Ps. 76 was originally a i"*^. It was taken up into '^ and fH, then into 
IE and MlSi, in which latter it was given the musical direction r^rn2 {v. Intr. 
§§ 24, 29, 31, 32, 23f 34)- It is composed of three trimeter hexastichs and a 
gloss of much later date, v.^^-^^^ ^ resembles Pss. 46, 48, of H; in commemo- 
rating a signal victory of Yahweh over the enemies of His people, probably 
over Sennacherib. It was probably written in Babylonia in the time of the 
early Restoration, for the encouragement of the people by reference to their 
ancient history, a^r v.^ as name of Jerusalem, elsw. Gn. 141**, does not imply 
dependence, but probably a common traditional explanation of the last part 
of the compound tz^Z''\-\\ In the original Ps. the terms are those of early 
poetry: n;? >-i-in v.^ - Hb. 36; 3S n>3N v.s, as Is. 46^2. ^p^., ,,^l,j< ^1^ ^s 75IO 
8i2. 5. y^^ ,,jy L,3 v_M as Zp. 2^. The glosses contain evidence of later date : 
iS'^mtt'N v.6, Aramaism for i'7'7in!rn; ?xg v.^, as Ru. 2'^, explan. gl.; >a' i^ia-" v.i^, 
as 6880 Is. 1 87. 



1 66 PSALMS 

Str. I. Three syn. couplets. — 2-3. God ?riade Hi?nself known\ 
reflexive, as JPSV. ; on a historic occasion, probably the defeat 
of the army of Sennacherib, cf. 48^, || His name became great\ 
celebrated, made famous by victory, cf, 48- yy^**. — in Judah || in 
Israel\ still more closely defined by Saiefn, poetic term for Jeru- 
salem, cf. Gen. 14^®, II Zion. — These were His covert~\ \ His lair; 
probably in the literal sense, conceiving of God as the lion of 
Judah, cf. Is. 31^, although this word is used in Ps. 2 7* for the 
temple as a refuge and shelter. — 4. was put'], so most probably, 
as measure requires, attaching the form to the previous context, 
and not " there," as adv. emphatic of MT. and Vrss., making this 
line too long. The difference in Hebr. is only one of interpreta- 
tion of the original unpointed text. — He brake], as one overcom- 
ing an enemy, taking from him his weapons and breaking them 
in pieces, cf. 46^® Ho. 2^. — the flaslmigs of the bow], the arrows 
in their flight compared with lightning flashes, elsewhere conceived 
as the arrows of God, Ps. i8^^ — To these are added shield and 
swordf and, in a summary statement, battle, by meton. for the 
weapons of war used in battle. 

Str. II. Syn., antith., and synth. couplets. — 5. Illustrious art 
Thou], lighted up, enveloped with glorious light || glorious syn. 
with v.^. — frojn the everlasting mountains], so (!^, U ; syn. Zion 
v.^, cf. Dt. 33^^ Hb. 3^ Pss. 87^ iio'^; misinterpreted by J^ and 
other Vrss. as " mountains of prey," which then is variously ex- 
plained as " more than the mountains of prey," AV. ; " than the 
hills of the robbers," PBV. ; or, more properly, "coming down 
from mountains of prey," RV., JPSV., as the seat of victory or 
booty. This interpretation occasioned the gloss, " are spoiled," 
at the beginning of the next v., which makes the line too long 
and is in itself an Aramaism of later use than the date of the Ps. 
— 6-7. The stout-hearted], the brave warriors, || mefi of war, 
the veterans trained for war, || chariot and horse, personified for 
the most effective division of an ancient army, in which the great- 
est warriors always rode. God vanquished and slew them on the 
field of battle, and so they slept their last sleep || fell into a deep 
sleep], that of death as distinguished from natural sleep. — The 
death of the warriors has as its antithesis they did not find], that 
is, spoil, as Ju. 5^. This is all that the measure allows; but a 



PSALM I.XXVI. 167 

glossator has otherwise explained it by inserting " all " to empha- 
size the warriors, and "their hands" either as the obj. of the vb. 
to emphasize the paralysis of their strength, AV., RV., or as a 
secondary subj. of the vb., " with their hands," cf. PBV. — at Thy 
rebuke\ as expressed not merely in words, but in deeds of divine 
judgment, — O God of Jacob\ the endearing name of God as 
the God of the father of the nation, cf. 81^ ^ 

Str. III. Three synth. couplets. — 8. Awe-inspirhig art Thoti], 
inspiring awe, fear, and even terror in the enemies He has con- 
quered, syn. v.^ ^ — Who can stand before Thine anger?'], imply- 
ing a negative answer : none. This has been enlarged by a 
glossator in J^, followed by EV^, by the insertion of a temporal 
particle " when once," which involved the separation of the prep, 
from its noun and forced the translation " before Thee when once 
Thou art angry?" all of which is at the expense of the measure 
and lacks the simplicity and force of the original. — 9-10. From 
heaven], emphatic in position. Though Jerusalem, the capital city, 
is the place where God manifests His glory, yet His throne is in 
heaven, and from thence He terrifies His adversaries when He 
appears in judgment. — Thou didst let Thy sentence be heard], of 
condemnation, as manifested in the sound of thunder, terrifying 
the enemy and overcoming them : || When God arose to judg- 
ment] to decide between His people and their enemies, to con- 
demn and visit the enemy with the death penalty, and To save all 
the afflicted of the land], the people of God who had been afflicted 
by the enemy. — The land feared], that is, Judah and Jerusalem ; 
the fear of awe before their God. — afid it was quiet] had peace 
from the disturbances of war after the destruction of the enemy. 

The Ps. reached its appropriate conclusion here ; but a later 
editor, wishing to give it a more general and practical conclusion, 
added v.""^'\ — 11. Let wrath against men || remainder of wrath], 
that still remaining against the enemies after the greater part of it 
had been expended in gratification at their destruction. In this 
state of mind let \hem praise Thee || keep festival], in the celebra- 
tion of victory. This is the most natural interpretation of a diffi- 
cult passage, in which 5^ and Vrss. greatly differ. EV. follow J^, 
which here is not so well grounded as (!5. In the first clause they 
all agree essentially in the rendering : " Surely the wrath of man 



1 68 PSALMS 

shall praise Thee," that is, the wrath of the enemies will by their 
overthrow be turned into praise of God through His glory in vic- 
tory. The last clause is more difficult, and is variously rendered 
and explained. PBV. and AV. may be dismissed as unjustified 
translations of J^ and as altogether mistaken even as paraphrase. 
RV. " the residue of wrath shalt Thou gird upon Thee," is cor- 
rect in form, and is followed by Dr., Kirk., al. ; but it is difficult 
to explain. Is it God's wrath with which He girds Himself in His 
judgment of enemies? as JPSV. "when Thou girdest a remnant 
with wrath"? Then "wrath" is used in two different senses in 
parall., which is improbable. Is it the wrath of the enemies, as in 
the parall.? Then it is an awkward and unexampled conception, 
that God should gird Himself with that. Kirk, does not satisfy 
with his explanation : " God girds on Himself as an ornament the 
last futile efforts of human wrath, turning them to His own honour ; 
or girds them on as a sword, making the wrath of His enemies to 
minister to their final discomfiture." — 12. Vow and pay 1| bring 
presents']^ the former, Israel, to Yahweh your God, a term for God 
characteristic of D^ but heterogeneous to this Ps. and to all of 
^ ; the latter all thai are round about Hi?n^ the neighbouring 
nations : and therefore to the Terrible One'], the one who, by His 
vindication of His people, fills them with fear and terror, as more 
fully explained in 13. — IVho taketh away\ so (S, F, 3, which is 
more suited to the spirit, courage, of princes than the stronger 
word of JIf, "cutteth off," or "loppeth short," which is used 
nowhere else with " spirit," and seems inappropriate to this word. 

— is a7ve-inspiring\, awe, fear, takes the place of courage, — to 
the kings of the earth\ the monarchs of all the nations round about 
Israel. 

^3. "H^i] "I consec. impf. implies previous pf. Therefore ';^>'i Niph. ptc. 
>n"» should be pf. >"!'': reflexive, as 48*, aorist referring to a particular event ; 
so ^, Gr., Che. It has been generalised in |Q and Vrss. — f 3^V'] "• P"^* l'^^-' 
elsw. Gn. 14^^; archaic name for jvx in parall. here ; abbrev. from D*?tt'n', the 
last half of the compound noun being interpreted in this way. It is by no 
means certain, however, that the Ps. depends on Gn. 14^^. It is quite possible 
that the reverse is the case. (5 ^v elpifivr] ■= i'"'"'} improb. — "^s^d] fully vi-ritten 
"Tp sf. 3 sg. [■'b] n.[m.] thicket, covert, lair, as icP, implying simile of lion. 

— •<pV%*r:j sf. 3 sg. X ->'"";? n.f. elsw. 1^, 104-^ of lair of wild beasts. — 4. '^^"■] so 
1^ and Vrss., adv. zt with n„ local, as 122^; but it makes 1. too long, and a 



PSALM LXXVI. 169 

word is needed for measure in previous 1. Rd. therefore nrt' Qal ptc. pass. 
f. D^B' and attach to previous v. — nu'l^ 'oun] phr. a.X. t^'f?. ri.m. Jiame of 
fire Ct. 8^ Jb. 5'^, fiery bolts of Yahweh bringing pestilence and death Dt. 32^* 
Hb. 3^ Ps. 78*^; here of the piercing shafts of arrows. — !^^n^?] summary 
statement in climax for nrnSo "''72"'7j; (S^ adds ^/ce? avvKKdaei ra K^para, but 
it is not in (gB. ab. n. R. T^ and is doubtless a late gl. It makes the Str. too 
long. — 6. "I'^Nj] Niph. a.X. ptc. prob. should be pf. "11N = decome lighted up, 
enveloped with glorious lights S iiricpavTis, ^ n'^nj. Aq. 0wTi(r/i6s, 3 lumen, rd. 
niNO; @ 0wT/^eis, U illu??iinans = "\ixd |1 ■>>"tn majestic (8^) as 93*. There is 
no sufficient reason to rd. with Oort, Ba., Dr., Che., Ehr., n-\ij as v.^ after 6 
(po^epds. D^nSx is required for measure, and "ins begins the second line of 
the couplet. — 1">.tD ■*7.'?7^] phr. a.X.; prep. p,long form of nn (^6) for euphony, 
cf. 50^*^ 87I iio^ f]-}^ i.p. X ']'}'9. n. (i) prey 104^1 124^; (2) fig. food provided 
by God 1 11^. has here aloiviojv = ly {(f) as Hb. 3^, so Oort, Hi., Ba,, 
Ecker. It seems prob. that a copyist substituted p|TJ for an original n>' which 
he interpreted in the sense oi prey, as Gn. 49^^ Zp. 3^ Is. 33'^^. — 6. This 
interpretation occasioned the insertion of the vb. 'i'7!l';np'N] Hithpolel pf., Ara- 
maic form ~!:'N for "C'n Heb. Ges.^* J SS^ vb. Qal spoil Hb. 2^ Is. lo^ Je. 
50^*^ + . Hithp. elsw. Is. 59^^. This Aramaic form is good evidence that the 
vb. is a late gl. This is confirmed by O, which inserts a different vb., ^ra- 
p(£x^7?a-oj', another interp. gl. These vbs. destroy the measure. — 2S ''">;3n] 
phr. elsw. Is. 46^2^ stotit, valiant mind (22^^), (3 ol davperoi = ''y;ji. — ico] 
Qal pf. 3 pi. J --I J vb. Qal only, ^e drozusy Is. 52^ 56^'^ Ps. I2i3-'* Na. 3!^; of 
sleep of death only here. — 07^^'] P^* sf. X ^V^ ^•^' ^^^'P (0 ^^ sleep at night 
Pr. 6* Ec. 8^^+; (2) of sleep of death, here as Ps. 90^ Je. 51^^ — iNxr~xVi] 
This 1. is too long. The Sd with S;n i^ps is gl. of amplification, but this phr. 
is certainly original. It is a.X. ^, but Ju. 3^^ 20**- ^^ Je. 48^^ + for warriors. 
This must be taken as subj. of vb. on*'"?.'; is then the second subj., defining 
the action more closely. Then the vb. is as Ps. 21^, of the hand finding ouv, 
reaching the enemy, ann*' is prob. an interp. gl. — 7. '^?"'-\ ''^}'^^;] as 75!'^ 
8i2. 5_ — Di-ij] Niph. pf. 3 sg. t [s"'"'] only Niph.y^z// i^ito a heavy sleep Ju. /^^^ 
Jon. I^-^ Pr. 10^, stunned by dread Dn. 8^^ 10^; of death only here. — 
D1D1 3p"("i]. The double 1 = both . . . and ; but the sg. vb. is then improb., 
and we should rather rd. 'Di "\ iDTi:, ol iTrL^e^rjKdrei roiis tirirovs rd. 
DID >3pn -iDn";:, which is in itself more prob., cf. 'i^p'i} DiD Ex. 15I, Dicn 3;?^ 
Am. 2I5. — 8. nns n-i^j] o^nSx must be added for measure as in v.^ — 

T - T J 

qsx Txa ri-'jtpS]. This phr. with the vb. makes 1. too long. 0^ j^as dvTL- 
(TT-qa-eTal aoL dirb t-^s 6p7^s (Tov, but (S^- *^- ^' '^ have rbre also after dirb. Txp 
may be gl. interpreting Ti.sxr? as with p temporal, as 732'>. The sf. with 
•»jd'? is also interp. — 9. n;o^ri] Qal pf. 3 f. i.p. with i coordinate. J -^\i'^ vb. 
Qal (i) be qtiiet, still, with none to disturb Ju. 3^1 5^1 Is. 14'^ Je. 30^° + , so 
prob. here ; the }nN, as in v.^^^, referring to the holy land itself, as enjoying 
quiet and peace after the divine judgment upon enemies. The usual interp. 
as stillness of the enemy from fear is not justified by usage ; (2) rest, from 
service Is. 62^ Je. 47^, so of God as not helping Ps. %^. Hiph. give rest from 



I/O PSALMS 

evil 94I3. — 10. r7«"'?.Jr'^^] phr. Zp. 2^ without '?d Is. ii* Am. 8'^ Jb. 24* 
(v. g^^). — 11. D^x rprij is difficult, zin evidently refers to the enemies of 
God and His people. Is it the wrath of these enemies, which against their 
will is turned into praise ? So most. But it is better to take it as cstr. of 
obj. rage against man. Is it then the rage of God in judgment ? How can 
God's rage praise God ? It is more prcjb. the rage of the people of God 
against their enemies, that of the meek of the land of the previous 1. Raging 
against their enemies, they praise God who destroys them. Then rbn pi. MT. 
most naturally refers to wrathful deeds of God in accordance with the vb., 
"\jnn of 1^. But ®, 3, take it more prop, as sg. t^'^p^. The final n is then 
dittog. of n of vb. nan in both cases will have the same mug. Then ioprda-ei 
(Toi of ® is most prob. r^ann, as Bo., Ew.; ^s jnn, Oort, Du., We. (^^). 
God's people celebrate the victory by a festival when the residue of their 
rage still remains. — t ''T'-^su'] n. (i) remnant of a people Je. 31'' Ez. 9^ + , 
(2) posterity 2 S. 14" Je. ii^'^ (3) remainder of a thing Je. 6^ 39"^; so here, 
what remains of the rage after its first outburst. The vbs. are juss. in ac- 
cordance with the imvs. of v.^^, — 12. ddvi^n nin-] sustained by ©, J[, is 
impossible in IE. Either nin-' is a gl. or the 1.; and if the 1., the entire final 
Str. v.ii-13. — 'B' "t'?0'] phr. elsw. 68^^ Is. 18".— n-j>::] of God as object of 
reverence, as Is. 8^^. is^ ^f^ Ps. ^2I. ^ interprets same as snij v.^'^, and it was 
possibly the same word in original text. This 1. is tetrameter as it stands. @ 
attaches last word to next 1. — 13. "^i'?;] Qal impf. of general truth, \ ["^vn] 
vb. Qal cut off, of grapes Lv. 25^ + , of fortified places frequent, but not >^ ; 
here only in sense of take away, but (S koX icpaLpovfx^vif}, so 3 au/erenti, 
prob. rd. n^i;'. This is the better reading, nn then has the mng. of courage^ 
cf. 77*. — 0''^/J:] pi. t ■'V^' n.m. prince, not elsw. \^, but Pr. 28^^ Jb. 29I0 3i37-f . 

PSALM LXXVII. 

Ps. 77 is composite : (A) a resolution of importunate prayer in 
distress by one remembering and musing upon God (v.^"^), all 
night long musing on divine help in former ages (v.^"), expostulat- 
ing with God for ceasing to be favourable and casting off His 
people (v.**"^*'), taking encouragement from the wondrous deeds of 
the past (v.^^"^^), and in the greatness of God especially as shown 
in the redemption of His people (v.^^^^) ; (B) a description of a 
theophany in a storm (v.^'-^) ; and a gloss referring to the historic 
leading of Israel by Moses and Aaron (v.-^). 

A. V.-"^^, 5 STR. 6^ 

'^l/'ITH my voice unto 'El I will cry, 

In the day of mv distress I do seek (Him), 
My hand is extended without growing numb ; 



PSALM LXXVII. 171 

My soul doth refuse to be comforted, 

I will remember God and I will moan, 

I will muse and my spirit will faint. 
T DO lay hold of the night watches with mine eyes, 

I am disturbed, and I cannot speak, 

I do consider the days of old, 

The years of former ages will I remember; 

My soliloquising in the night is with my mind, 

I will muse, and with my spirit make diligent search. 
u "pOR ages will He reject, 

And no more again be favourable ? 

Is there a cessation of His kindness forever. 

Has His (faithfulness) come to an end for all generations? 

Has 'El forgotten to be gracious, 

Or shut up in anger His compassion ? " 
HTHEN I said : " I have begun with this, 

The years of the right hand of 'Elyon. 

I will commemorate the deeds of Yah, 

Yea, I will remember Thy wonders of old: 

And I will meditate on all Thy work; 

And on Thy doings muse." 
r\ GOD, in sanctity is Thy way. 

Who is a great 'El like Yahweh ? 

The 'El who doeth wonders. 

Who made known among the peoples Thy strength ? 

Thou didst redeem with Thine arm Thy people, 

The sons of Jacob and Joseph. 

B. V.""^, 4 STR. 3^. 

'pHE waters saw Thee, O God. 

The waters saw Thee ; they were in pangs : 

Yea, the depths trembled. 
T^HE clouds poured forth water. 

The skies gave their voice ; 

Yea, Thine arrows went abroad. 
'FHE sound of Thy thunder was in the whirlwind, 

The lightnings illumined the world, 

The earth trembled and shook. 
TN the sea Thou didst tread with Thy horses, 

And Thy paths in the great waters ; 

And Thy footprints were not known. 

Ps. 77 was a Ps. of ^, taken up into fH and !E, where r^^n^ was changed to 
D'^nSx v.i*, and then into Si^, when it received the musical direction pnni ^>' 
(z/. Intr. §§ 29, 31, 32, 33, 34). It was composed of five trimeter hexastichs, 
v.i-16^ To this Ps. was added at a later date a little poem of four trimeter 
tristichs, based on Hb. 3, and also citing (v.^^) from Ps. 97*. This must have 
been later than IB2£l, because ©3^ contained Hb. 3, and it is improbable that 



1 72 PSALMS 

a little Ps. based upon that ode or prayer was in the same Psalter. The original 
Ps. used the divine names: Sn v.^- 10. 14. 15^ p,i,y y 11. ^nd probably n" v.^^, nin> 
v.i*. ""JIN v.3-8 are glosses. It resembles other Pss. of ^: mjj v.'^, cf. 75*; 
njsD v.», cf. 78IO; □^s^;.^ v.i"^, cf. 78^; nVd V.1-- 15, as 7812; mS^Vy v.i3 as 78". 
This resemblance to Ps. 78, which is confirmed by its attitude toward ancient 
history, suggests the same author. Its style is classic : cohortatives v.'-^- *• "• 12. i3^ 
^ consec. v.^^, prob. v.^K The use of 22"? v." suggests Deuteronomic influence. 
fjDvi 2i^p •'J3 v.i"^ suggests the usage of other Pss. of ^ and the time of Ob.i^, 
when Jacob stood for Judah and Joseph for Ephraim. The situation suggests 
the period of the Exile, when the people were still in great distress, and com- 
fort was sought as in Is.* from the ancient history of the nation. The little 
Ps., v.i'^-20, as based on Hb. 3 and Ps. 97, must have been very late, not earlier 
than the late Greek period. V.21 is a couplet in the style of % a liturgical 
addition, cf. 78^2 80^. 

PSALM LXXVII. A. 

Str. I. Two syn. triplets. — 2. IV/f/i my voice ttnto *El\ emph. 
in position ; aloud in prayer; repeated in the next line either by 
dittog. or by an editor to get the antithesis between / will cry and 
" He will give ear unto me " ; but the latter is premature and 
against the context, and the line makes the Str. just this much too 
long. — 3. In the day of my distress\ not of an individual but of 
the nation, as usual in the i/^, the nation speaking in its unity as an 
individual, — I do seek Hifn'], that is, God ; to find Him and get 
a response to prayer. — My ha fid ~\, emphatic in position, is ex- 
tended ']y the gesture of invocation and importunity; the most 
probable meaning of an unusual word, as 3, RV. The rendering 
of PBV., AV., " my sore ran," is based upon the usage of " hand " 
for " stroke " in Jb. 23^, which, however, is quite different from 
this passage ; and upon the interpretation of the vb. as meaning 
" flow." Many moderns, as Dr., on the basis of La. 3^^, think that 
the original was probably " mine eye poured down " ; but these 
interpretations are not so simple or natural. " In the night " is 
a gloss in antithesis with " the day," making the line too long. — 
without growing mi7nb\ as the hand would naturally do from long- 
continued reaching out after the desired object. — My soul doth 
refuse to be comforted'], by giving up the petition as useless, and 
seeking comfort in other ways ; but persists in the prayer, seeking 
comfort only in God. — 4. I will re?neml?er God], a resolution 
expressed by the cohortative form, repeated, as characteristic of 



PSALM LXXVII. 173 

the Ps., in v.^-^^ || I will muse\ that is, upon God ; also charac- 
teristic of the Ps. v.'^*-^^'*. — and I will moan\ cf. 55^^ in the 
anguish of the distress and wrestling with God fcr help. || my 
spirit will faint\ , exhausted from the long-continued pleading, cf. 
142^ 143"* La. 2^1 

Str. II. Three syn. couplets. — 5. / do lay hold of the night 
watches with jnine eyes'], so U and probably (§ ; also Aq., ©, inter- 
pret this vb. as in subsequent lines as i sg. But MT., ^T, and most 
moderns interpret the vb. as 2 pers. with God as subj., " boldest 
eyehds." "Thou heldest (open) the guards of mine eyes; " Dr., 
thinking of eyelids kept open so that there was no sleep from 
anxiety. So JPSV., Kirk., paraphrased by EV. — / am dis- 
turbed], by long-continued wakefulness and anxiety, and indeed 
to such an extent that — I caniiot speak], either having nothing to 
say in explanation of this situation, or speechless in inability to speak 
through amazement at the long-continued withholding of help. — 
6-7. / do consider], emphatic present, in pondering, reflecting, 
and so || / will 7'ememl?er || / will muse, also || My soliloquising in 
the night (is) with my mind], as (^, F, cf. d-^ 143^ ; kept within the 
mind and unexpressed, || and with my spirit make diligent search]^ 
so essentially % ©, %, J, F, and probably (§ ; searching out the 
whole with the utmost attention and thorough investigation. The 
object of it all is the days of old || years of former ages], during 
which God had dealt far otherwise with His people than at pres- 
ent. MT., however, in v.^" has another reading : " my song " (to 
the accompaniment of stringed instruments) ; so 3, EV'., JPSV., 
which is only possible by attaching the word to the vb. "will 
remember." But this destroys the measure of the previous and 
subsequent lines, and gives former night-songs as object of remem- 
brance in place of the night of speechless, wakeful anxiety, rather 
than the much more sublime " years of former ages." MT. also 
by its 3 pers. with 1 consec. makes the action of the vb. a result, 
and the "spirit" the subject; and so whether with AV., RV., we 
render, "And my spirit made diligent search," or with JPSV., 
"Then my spirit fainteth," it becomes necessary to connect with 
the subsequent context. But this makes the previous Str. just 
one line too short and the next Str. just so much too long ; 
moreover it disturbs the exquisite harmony of the lines and unity 
of the Str. 



174 PSALMS 

Str. III. Three syn. couplets. — 8-9. For ages'], present and 
future, in antithesis with " former ages," v.^, |1 again], in antithesis 
with " days of old " v.^ || forever ? || for all generations ? — Will 
He reject?], cf. 43^ 44^^* 60^ 74^ ^'S'^ || 710 more be favourable], cf. 
44* 85^ 106^* II cessation of His kindness], cf. 42^ 44'^ 85®" j] His 
faithfulness'], as usual || with "kindness"; suggested by Nestle, 
and certainly more appropriate than " His word " of promise, 
though sustained by J^ and all Vrss., — come to an end] cf. 7^^. — 
10. Has 'El forgotten to be gracious ?], cf. Ex. 34*'"'i- Ps. 9^2.16 
10^- 74^^'^, — or shut up His co7npassion ?], not permitting it to 
go forth from hand, cf. Dt. 15^; or mouth, cf. Is. 52^^ Ps. 107''-. — 
in anger], cf. Hb. 3^. Anger against His people was the real 
reason of all this long-continued neglect of them. 

Str. IV. One synth. and two syn. couplets. — 11. Then I said], 
after the complaint of present distress over against past favours. — 
/ have begtm] , that is, to speak ; so (3, U, which best suits the con- 
text. But J^, 2, 0, &, 5r, and most, " my piercing wound," prob- 
ably then best explained as " my suffering and I must bear it," 
Kirk., cf. Je. lo^^ Aq., 3, have still another reading, "my weak- 
ness," followed by EV'., "my infirmity," referring back to the 
previous complaint as not really justified and only uttered because 
of his weakness, cf. 73^^*^-. But at the beginning of a new Str. 
these explanations are not so natural as the reading of (3, H. — 
With this], the object of the vb., belonging to the first line 
as the measure requires, and not to the second, as (3, U. It 
is then defined in the second line as : The years of the right hand 
of*Elyon], when He stretched forth His right hand in the deliv- 
erance of His people, resuming the thought of v.^ This is the 
interpretation of EVV, as in v.^ ; but all ancient Vrss. read instead of 
"years," inf. abs. of a vb. meaning "change," interpreting in 
various ways : *' that the right Hand of the Most High has 
changed," or " doth change," or " hath suffered change," or, as 
in (g, F, " this is the change of the right hand of the Most High." 
But such a change is enigmatical here. It is improbable that the 
poet would have spoken of a change without giving some intima- 
tion of what he meant by it. The poet really resumes the thought 
of v.* in order to enlarge upon it. — 12-13. I will commemorate], 
as Kt., (g, %, 3, &, E, F, RV., cf. 71^^ Is. 63' ; not only muse upon 



PSALM LXXVII. 175 

it in recollection, but make mention of, celebrate. The Qri, fol- 
lowed by PBV., A v., JPSV, " remember " is tautological and im- 
probable, because the || is just this, I will remember || meditate on 
II fnuse on, cf. v."* ^ The object here is not God Himself as v.*, 
nor the former ages as v.^j but what God in these former ages 
had done for His people : the deeds of Yah || Thy wonders of old || 
all Thy work || Thy doings'], in the salvation of Israel and in the 
judgment upon their enemies, as usual in the use of these terms, 
and as indeed the context demands. 

Str. V. Three synth. couplets. — 14. In sanctity is Thy way], 
in majestic exaltation, in sacred apartness, so PBV., JPSV., and 
most moderns, after 5, S, (I ; to be preferred to " in the sanctu- 
ary," AV., RV., though sustained by (©, H, J, and early Jewish 
authorities. This would be appropriate to the thought of many 
other Pss., but is not appropriate to the context, which speaks of 
God's working apart from the temple. || Who is a great 'El?], 
cf. Ex. 15", which seems to have been in the mind of the poet. 
— 15. The ^El who doeth wonde?'s], resuming v.^^. — made known 
Thy strength], in the doing of these wondrous deeds of judgment 
and salvation, — among the peoples']. God's fame went forth 
among all the surrounding nations, because of the deliverance He 
had wrought for His people, cf. Ex. 15^''^'^. — 16. Thou didst 
redeem with Thine arm], the outstretched arm of the narrative of 
the Exodus, cf. v."^ Ex. 6^ Ps. it^^^K— Thy people \\ The sons 
of Jacob and Joseph], probably using the name "Jacob" for the 
sons of Israel in general, and the particular name "Joseph" spe- 
cifically for the Northern kingdom, in accordance with a charac- 
teristic preference of ^, cf. 78*"'^ 80^ 8i« Ob.^^ 

PSALM LXXVIL B. 

This Ps. describes the advent of Yahweh in a storm, cf. Pss. 18, 
29, 114, Hb. 3. Str. I. is a stairlike triplet. — 17. The waters 
saw Thee || Yea, the depths], doubtless referring to the "sea" || 
"great waters" v.^, but not specifically to the Red Sea at the 
time of crossing, as is usually supposed, on the basis of a connec- 
tion between this Ps. and the references to the song Ex. 15 in 
v."'% which is opposed by the independence of the Ps. of its 
present context and its entire dependence on Hb. 3. — they were 



176 PSALMS 

in pangs || ireinbled\ in fear and terror, as elsewhere mountains 
and earth at the advent of God Hb. 3^° Pss. 97* 114* ^ 

Str. II. is also a stairUke triplet. — 18. The clouds || skies . . . 
poured forth water'], in dovvnpouring rain. The advent was in a 
storm, as Ps. 18. — gave their voice]. This was a thunder storm 
with lightning, which is, as usual, conceived as the arrows of God. 
The lightning flashes in their rapidity of movement went abroad 
like arrows, flew hither and hither. 

Str. III. A synth. triplet. — 19. The sound of Thy thunder], 
resuming v.^*, — 7vas in the whirhuind]. The storm was accom- 
panied by a strong wind. — The lightnings illumined the world], 
cf. 97^ ; resuming v.^^ in order to the result. — The earth trembled 
and shook], which is a variation of v.^*^". 

Str. IV. has stairlike parall. — 20. In the sea Thou didst tread 
with Thy horses], so most probably, in accordance with Hb. 3^^; 
the conception being that God in His cherubic chariot rode in 
the storm upon the sea. A later glossator, to avoid this ap- 
parently mythological conception, reduced it to " Thy way is in 
the sea " || Thy paths || Thy footprints . . . were not known], 
could not be traced after the storm had subsided. 

A later editor added 21, probably to give the previous Ps. a 
reference to the crossing of the Red Sea by interpreting it as fol- 
lowed by the leading of the people on to the Holy Land. — Thou 
didst lead as a flock], God being the Shepherd of His people, cf. 
Ex. 15'^ Pss. 78" 80^, — by the hand of Moses and Aaron], the 
leaders of the people at the Exodus, cf. Is. 63""^ Mi. 6*. 

LXXVII. A. 

2. •<S>|-»] 2d subj. vb., cf. j^; emph. in position. — nprxNi] 1 with Qal cohort, 
not capable of good explanation. 1 not in @, 3, is doubtless txt. err. Vb. 
as v.* implies ttidn and expresses resolution. — "''^n r'sni] Hiph. pf. |tn, with 
Sn pers. elsw. only Is. 5 1"* Dt. i^^ ; \n\p usually c. ace. s^. This statement of fact 
is premature. The whole 1. with the repeated 'n Sx ■'Sip is a gl., making the 
Str. too long. — 3. \n-\x av3] as 50!^ (^). — ^hn] (5 rhv debv more prob., but 
both glosses. — n'^^';-] is a gl. in antith. with ov, making 1. too long. — nnji] 
Niph. pf. 3 f. "Ml (6j^^), be extended, as 3. & ivavrlov avrov = nij; is not so 
prob. There is no need to change the text because of a supposed dependence 
on La. 3*^ on the basis of a supposed mng-^^otv. — iJ^:?] Pi. pf. 3 f • t [??<?] 
vb. Pi. re/use, elsw. \{/ only 78^^ but Gn. 373* (J) Ex. '22I6 (E) Dt. 25^.— 
4. "nn 1'^"~7i] phr. 142* 143*, cf. La. 2^2. yb. c. cdj Ps. 107^ Jon. 2^ v. 



PSALM LXXVII. 177 

Ps. 61^. — 5. irp nnrB' ornx] plir. a.X. eyelids, so ^ and most moderns; @ 
irpoKareXd^ovTO (pvXaKas oi ix&pol- fJ'Ov; @^- ^ 6(p6a\ixoL for ix^po^> as "F a«/z- 
cipaverunt vigilias oculi met, with text nnDCX tthn, regarding '^rv as second 
subj., and therefore in translating making it the real subj. of the vb. This is 
most prob. So Aq., 0, think of the watches of the night. 3 prohibebam 
suspedum oculorum meorum. 2, 5», had other texts, which are difficult to 
determine. — ■'ri?>?p] Niph. pf. i sg. f l^V^'] vb. Qal thrust, impel, Ju. 1322. 
Niph. be disturbed here, as Gn. 41^ Dn. 2^. Hithp. Dn. 2^. — 7. nnrm], cf. 
V.*; goes with previous 1. to complete it, as ^, ^, S, U, Hare, Lowth., Street, 
and not with the following, as |^, J. — "''7^\'p] sf. i sg. with nrjj {v. Intr. § 34) 
music of stringed instruments, or theme for it. 3 psalmorufn meorum V7J"'JJ, but 
improb. in this context. © koX ifieX^rrjaa, 'B meditatus sum = V'?''^^ as v.^^, 
Qal pf. I sg. T\yr^ (/2) as 63'^ 143^ soliloquise, so Lowth., Street, Ehr., or more 
prob. inf. cstr. sf. v^^j;^. — '??!^] full form seems to be original, for there is no 
apparent reason for it rather than '^__. — ""nn t'sn^] phr. a.X.; vb. Pi. impf. 1 
consec, so Aq., but improb. after previous impf. S, 0, S», 3, U, all rd. I sg. 
rsHNi. ®^ has 3 sg., but @Ba. n.*. Ra I sg Prob. i sg. was original. 
— 8. DinSiyVn] has two beats, '•jin] is a gl. — 9. "^rs icj] phr. a.X., not in 
®, but omission txt. err., because it is needed for measure and is in all other 
Vrss. So ®^- *=• *. nr:s only here in this sense, but not improb. Nestle ( Theol. 
Stud, aus Wtirtemberg 1882 S. 242) suggests nnx, which is probable because 
of its constant \ -iDn, as Che., Ehr. — 10. r'^ir<\ Qal inf. cstr. pn (^2^, common 
in IBjbut not elsw. in %. — f F?^] vb. Qal shut up, hand Dt. 15", mouth Is. 52^^ 
Jb. 5I6 Ps. 107*2; here fig. Niph. Jb. 24^1, Pi. Ct. 2^. — 11. \-ii^n] Pi. inf. cstr. 
sf. I sg. '?'?n = my piercing wound,, so 2, 0, Quinta, 5, ^, Ew., Hi., De., Ba., 
SS., Dr., Ko.l-3<i; but Aq., 3, imbecillitas mea >rnSn Qal inf. cstr. rhn be sick, 
cf. 3^^^, so Hu., Pe., Bi., but all improb. @ Tjp^dfjLriv, U coepi = ■•n"'^nn. Hiph. 
pf. I sg. 'rSn is most prob. — n^jc'] (3 v dWoiua-is, 3 commutatio, and all 
ancient Vrss. interpret as Qal inf. cstr. nj'i* change, cf. 34I 89^^. It is more 
prob. that it is the same as nir^ v.^. — T''^!] divine name {y. Intr. § 32) as 
50^* 73I1 >^%\i 83I9; characteristic of <E. — 12. n^rrs] Kt. Hiph. impf. i sg., as 
@, S, 3, S>, %, should prob. be cohort. ny^TN commemorate. — n^ \V'73;r J elsw. 
^N! ''!?'?yP 7^^ cf. 28^ for SS^T of wanton deeds of men. — l^^js] v. v.^^ (f-, sf. 
2 m., now begins rather abruptly, and continues throughout the Ps. — 
13. T'!?'''?'''?"^"'] has two tones; n'?^'7v; also 78^^ — 14. a''n'?N3 Si"i3 Sn >rf\. (S 
has 6 6eh% ijfiQv ; D^■^':'N as distinguished from Vx must be used as a proper 
name, prob. as Ba. for an original mn\ Vnj *?« phr. Dt. 7^1 lo^'^ Je. 32^8 Ps. 
95^+. — 15. Vvvn], The article to distinguish the God of Israel from the 
nwre general use of Sn in previous v., cf. i8^i- ^^- *^ 6820- 21. — ig. p-\n'\ with- 
out sf. is striking, so 3 ; but (3 appends it, prob. interpretative. The article 
must either be written or understood, and as such really stands for the pos- 
sessive. — no'i'-'i 2'pv\ -"p], cf. Ob.i8, where ^p'P n"'2 stands for the people of 
Judah and i]Dv r\'>2 for Ephraim; cf. Am. 5^ and Ze. lo^, where tior r"»3 || 
mini no; cf. also Ps. 78^^ 8o2 Si^. 



178 PSALMS 



LXXVII. B. 

17. :iiN^] bis, Qal pf. sf. 2 sg. nxi based on Hb. 3I0. — c^p] also bis instead 
of D''"5n of the original. — I'^'n^] as in the original. Qal impf. 3 pi. '?in (^9*) 
more suited to 3''"^"i than dv;, but no sufficient reason for substitution, as Gr. 
c>:: is sustained by n^cnn (jj")* The third 1. is not in Hb. 3!*^. — 18. ii:-^;] Po. 
pf. 3 pi. snr t [2"^t] vb. denom. c";>r Qal Ps. go^ Jlood away (?), Po. only here, 
pour forthy ^DB. The original had 15V c:: 37;. no" r/^«^/ masses as /i'-'^ 
might be error for -\3>' vb. |^ is sustained by Aq., S, 3, ^T ; (S> ttX^^os ^x^^^ 
uSaros, (g>'-ca. R ifScirwv. lil rniUtitudo sonitus aquarum = 31 D":: prn is so 
different that it implies a variation of text too great to be explained as txt. 
err. — m^') '?'p] as in Hb. 3I'', only pi. with D'-pnii' for sg. with snr. The phr. 
is equivalent to thunder iS^* 2^^^-. — i:;';"'?: ^'^f'f"] for original "i:;J7'n'' q^xn Hb. 
3*^ ; t i'^";' "-ni. arrow a.X. fuller form for V^ ; elsw. vvn \%g}-avel stone Pr. 20^^ 
La. 3^'5. The vb. Hithp. for Pi. — 19. :ipp_ S^p] phr. 104^ f =>'"^ n.[m.] thunder, 
elsw. Si'^ Is. 296 Jb. 26'* 39^^. — X Sj'^j] n.m. whirlwind here ; but 83I* Is. 17^^ 
Wii//-/ of dust or chaff. — Snn D'i7">^ t^'N."] =97*. — 20. :i.pi do] lacks a word 
to complete measure. The original Hb. 3^5 has ri'piD D"? npnn. The Vrss. all 
agree with ^. A word must be supplied ; rd. as Hb. 3^^ — q^'^ou'] Kt. pi. 
sf. 2 m. t ["^'Py'] n.[m.] only pi. path, as Je. 18^^ (Qr-)* ^'^- ^s sustained by 
®, Si, 3. The sg. qSoE^ Qr. is sustained only by %, and was an assimilation 
to qini. — 21. iss:]"as 78^- So- (31). 



PSALM LXXVIIL, 4 pts. of 5 str. 4^ 

Ps. 78 is a didactic Psalm, using the ancient history of Israel, 
from the crossing of the Red Sea to the erection of the temple, as a 
lesson to the people. I. proposes to give in the form of a poetic 
enigma (v.^"-) the history which has been transmitted from the 
fathers, and which is to be handed down to the children (v.^ '^•"'), 
that they may not be, as their fathers, rebellious and unreliable 
(v.*^^). The crossing of the sea is mentioned (v.^'"^"'), the theophanic 
pillar (v."), and the water from the rock (v.^°). II. The people 
rebelled and tempted their God in asking food (v.^""-'^), which was 
given them (^v.^-*- ^-'), but accompanied by an outbreak of the 
divine anger (v.''^'^^^). III. The wasting away of the people led 
them to remember their God (v.^- "■"), who was compassionate and 
forgiving (v.^^). He considered the weakness of their human 
nature (v.*^), and led them as a flock in the wilderness (v.''-). He 
brought them to the holy land and gave it to them as an in- 
heritance (v.^*^). IV. Yet they rebelled against God and tempted 



PSALM LXXVIII. 179 

Him with their infidelity (v.^^'^). In anger fle rejected Shilo 
(v.^*^), gave up His ark and His people into captivity (v.^^) ; all 
classes of the people were slain (v.'^*^) . He then selected Judah 
and Mount Zion (v.^'^"^^) , and David as the shepherd of His people 
^^ 7o-7ia. h^ ^ ^jj editor inserted an extract from an ancient poem de- 
scribing the plagues of Egypt (v.''^^- ^^- ^^) . Legalistic ( v.'**"^''- 1^"- ^) 
and expansive glosses (v.^^- 21-22. 25. 2^a. 36-37. 49-50. 5^-59. 62. es^. 69. 710-72^^ ^gj.e 

also added. 

I. 

Q\ GIVE ear, my people, to my teaching. 

Incline your ears to the words of my mouth. 

I will open my mouth in a poem. 

I will pour forth of ancient times in my enigma, 
"XXTHAT we have heard and know, 

What our fathers have told to us, 

We will not hide from their children ; 

That they may not forget the works of God. 
T^HAT they may not be as their fathers, 

A stubborn and rebellious generation. 

Armed with a deceitful bow, 

They turned back in the day of battle. 
JN sight of their fathers He did wonders, 

In the land of Egypt, the country of Zoan. 

He clave the sea and made them pass through; 

And He made the waters stand up as a heap. 
A ND He led them in the cloud by day. 

And all night long with the light of fire : 

And brought forth streams out of the crag, 

And let waters run down like rivers. 

II. 

'THEN they sinned against Him, 

Rebelled against 'Elyon in the thirsty land; 

And tempted God in their minds 

By asking food according to their appetite, 
'pHEYsaid: "Is God able 

To prepare a table in the wilderness:' 

Is He also able to give bread. 

Or provide flesh for His people ? " 
'pHEN He commanded the skies above, 

And opened the doors of heaven ; 

And rained down manna upon them. 

And grain of heaven for them. 
'pHEN He led on the east wind. 

And guided by His strength the south wind; 

And rained down fiesh as dust. 

And fowl as the sand of the sea. 



l8o PSALMS 

"y HEIR food was yet in their mouths. 
And the anger of God went up ; 
And He slew the fattest of them, 
And bowed down the choicest of Israel. 



III. 

T70R all this they sinned again, 

And believed not in His wonders; 

And He consumed their days as a breath, 

And their years He made to haste away in suddenness. 
TF He slew them, they sought Him, 

And again diligently sought 'El ; 

And remembered God their Rock, 

And 'El 'Elyon their Redeemer. 
gUT He is compassionate (and gracious). 

He covers over and destroys not, 

And many times turns away His anger, 

And stirs not up any of His wrath. 
'THEN He remembered that they were flesh, 

A breath passing away not to return. 

And He led on His ])eople like sheep. 

And guided them like a flock in the wilderness. 
AND He brought them to His sacred border, 

The mountain that His right hand had gotten; 

And drave out nations before them, 

And allotted them the inheritance by measure. 



IV. 

•yHEN (again) they tempted God. 

(Again and again) rebelled against 'Elyon; 

And drew back, and dealt treacherously like their fathers, 

And turned aside like a deceitful bow. 
'THEN He rejected the tabernacle of Shilo, 

The tent He made to dwell among mankind ; 

And delivered up His strength to captivity, 

And His ornament into the hand of the adversary. 
TTIRE devoured their young men, 

And their maidens were not praised in marriage song. 

Their priests fell by the sword. 

And their widows did not sing dirges. 
A ND He refused the tent of Joseph, 

And chose not the tribe of Ephraim ; 

But chose the tribe of Judah, 

Mount Zion which He doth love. 
AND He chose David His servant, 

And took him from the sheepfolds ; 

From following the ewes that give suck He brought him, 

To be shepherd over Jacob His people. 



PSALM LXXVIII. l8l 

Ps. 78 was a Ps. of ^ of the class b^D^r:. From 11 it was taken up into IE 
(v. Intr. §§ 26, 29, 32). It has many glosses. The original Ps. was composed 
of four parts, each with five trimeter tetrastichs. I. v.1-2, v.^- 4«- ^^, v.8«^- ^''c, 

y 12-13 V.14. 16 . II. ylT. 18 ^mc. 20cd v.23-24 y;26-27 y.306-31 . m. y.32-38^ y.84-86 
y^38 y^89. 52 y54. 55a5. IV. y.56a. 57^ V.S-'-^l, v.'^^-^^, V.^^' ^8, v.™* '^^^ This Ps. is 

a Sa'D and nn"'n v.^, based on the history of God's dealings with Israel from 
the Exodus to the estabhshment of the Davidic dynasty. The poem was 
written under the influence of J, E, D, but not of P, and therefore in the 
early Persian period. It encloses part of a still older pentameter poem, 
y 40-48. 51. 63^ giving an account of the plagues of Egypt and the crossing of 
the Red Sea. This fragment depends on the story of J. E, and knows noth- 
ing of any other document of the Hex. It seems therefore to be preexilic 
and to precede the reign of Josiah. The glosses are later than E, and come 
from the Greek or Maccabean period. The language of the original Ps. 
shows many features of Pss. of '^, as well as dependence upon other Lit. : 
Ss >bh';T2 \J = 7712; n^Di -i^iD nn v.s, cf. Dt. 21I8. 20 jg. 323. sk v.^- is. i9. 34. 85 
(also in gl. v.^- ^i) ; nc'p '>Dn v.^ = Je. 4^^ (rd. prob. rr-rji nrp, as v.^^ Ho. 
7i«); 2ip DV3 V.9 = Zc. 148; nVd nir; v.12 = 7715 88"; ]V^ mc' v.12 = v.43 (gl.) j 
D> yp3 V.I8, cf. Ex. 14I6.21 (E); nj icd dx^ v.13 - Ex. 158; ry-^r^n v.i7. 40 (gi.) 56^ 
as D, Is. 38 Ez. 56; p>Sy v.i'-35.56^ frequent in %; Sn hdj v. is- 41. 56^ as Ex. 
172-7 Nu. 1422 (J); 33S V.I8, characteristic of 'E ; -iN'-y \P-'^\ as Ex. 2110; 
2 nSj7 ^N V.31, so V.21 (gl.), cf. 2 S. 11-'^; D^cs:' >rh^ \Py cf. Gn. 7" (J); 
D-iDC pT V.2* a.X. ; :3Vw:''> n^i iSin nn v.^^ a.X. ; trnp Snj v.^* a.X. ; pn*' njp 
V.64, cf. 742 Ex. 15I6 Is. I ill J iSa, y.60^ cf. Je. 714 269 416. ^j; for ark v.«i, cf. 
132^; mxsn for ark v.^i as for temple 96^ Is. 60^ 63^'^ 64IO; i'?Sin for bridal 
song v.^3, cf. Ez. 2617. The older pentameter poem has the following: "jon 
D-iS V.**, cf. Ex. 717.20J o,-^{<, y.44^ as Ex. 7i'-20; 3^; v.*5, as Ex. 8"; p-nfix 
v.*^ as Ex.82; -i^;r3 v.*^, as Ex. 22* Nu. 20*- s- H; d>jin n>CNi v.^i, as Gn. 49* 
Dt. 21" Ps. 10586; □>n HDD v.s^ as Ex. 15I0 Jos. 24^. The glosses in some 
instances have much later language : nn^ D^pn v.^, phr. of P ; nn;; v.^, term 
of P; Sd^ v. 7, 4914 elsw. WL. ; ijS ]>2r) v.8, id^"' Jb. iji^ 2 Ch. 12*; :h tioj 
V.37, as 578-8 II27. nn njcxj v.8, cf. Ne. 98 Pr. iii^; nna n;:t:' v.i'', i K. iiH 
Ne. 16 932 + ; o^D 131T>1 v.20, based on Is. 482I; -i3>'nn v.2i-69.62^ glsw. 8988 
Dt. 326 Pr. (3 t.) ; (a^nSN)3 I^dnd v.22, cf. v.^^, Gn. 156 (E) Ex. 148I Nu. 14II (J) ; 
aniDX DnS v.25, phr. a.X. angels^ food, late idea ; Sntj^'* u-np v.^i, as Is.i- 2; 
nnn v.^i, Aramaism a.X. ; D^yi i^nSd v.*^ a.X. evil angels, a late idea ; iniD>p% 
)mN>jp> v.^8^ as Dt. 32I6; p-'D pnna v.^^ a.X. 

Pt. I., Str. I. Two syn. couplets. — 1-2. O give ear || incline 
your ears'], attentively in order to hear — my teaching \ words 
of my mouth], instruction to be given by the psalmist, as RV.™, 
JPSV., and not " my Law," EV^, as if there were a reference to 
the divine Law. 1 his instruction is to be given in the balanced 
measure oisipoem in the emblematic style || ^w/'g^wd;], setting forth 



1 82 PSALMS 

problems and mysteries difficult to solve and understand, cf. 49^ 

— I will ope7i my mouth || I will pour for t}i\, in the melodies of 
sacred song. 

Str. II. Two synth. couplets. — 3. What we have heard and 
know II iVhat our fathers have told us~\. The story has come 
down by oral tradition from father to son through many genera- 
tions. This impHes not that there was no written narrative, for 
the author gives ample evidence of dependence upon the earlier 
prophetic narratives, but that he recognised that the story, though 
recorded, was essentially tradition, and not based on original 
records. — 4 a. We will not hide from their children^ We will 
transmit it in our turn to our successors. — 7i&. That they may 
not forget the works of God\ that the story of the divine works 
of redemption and judgment may never be forgotten. A glos- 
sator, wishing to emphasize the importance of this oral instruc- 
tion, added the clause from a legal point of view : His commands 
might keep ; but also inserted a long expansive gloss : ^b~7a, tell- 
ing to a comifig generation the praises of Yahweh and His might 
and the wondrous deeds that He did'\. This is an expansion of 
" the works of God," explaining them as wonders and worthy of 
songs of praise. The remainder of the gloss is legalistic : And He 
established a testi?nony in Jacob ; a Law He appoi^ited in Israel\ 
doubtless referring to the legislation of the Pentateuch, using a 
term characteristic of P. — which He co?nmanded our fathers to 
fnake known to their sons ; in order that a cofning generation might 
know, sons to be born ; that they anight rise up and tell them to their 
sons']. A long prosaic sentence enlarging upon the commands, cf. 
Ex. io2 12^^ if^^ Dt. 4^ 6'^'^. — that they might put in God their 
hope], a very late phr. of WL., cf. Ps. 49^'* Pr. 3-^; an expansive 
gloss to v.''*. 

Str. III. Two synth. couplets. — 8. That they may not be as 
their fathers']. The instruction here takes the form of warning. 

— A stubborn and rebellious generation], based on Dt. 21^^-^. A 
glossator enlarged by adding : a generatiofi that did not fix its 
mind, whose spirit was not faithful with ^El. — 9. Armed with a 
deceitful bow], the most probable original of a difficult passage, cf. 
v.*^ : a bow which in time of use would not bend properly, and so 
proved unreliable ; while the bowman, being practically weapon- 



PSALM LXXVIII. 183 

less, turned back in the day of hattle~\. A copyist, by error of trans- 
position, gave the tautological " armed, shooting with the bow " ; 
and then, as the point of the comparison was lost, the conjecture 
arose that there must be a reference to some event in which there 
had been rebellion against God in a cowardly retreat from battle. 
A glossator could not think this of Israel as a whole ; and so he 
conjectures that Ephraim was at fault, and makes this insertion in 
the text. The whole context shows that Israel as a whole is in the 
mind of the poet, and that a specific reference to Ephraim was out 
of place in the original. A glossator enlarges upon the original : 
10. They kept not || refused to walk in ; the covena^it of God || 
His Law']. Their offence from a legalistic point of view was 
especially violation of Law. — 11. Andforgat the doings of God ; 
the wondrous deeds, of judgment and salvation, that He shewed 
them ; as described in the next Str. 

Str. IV. A synth. and a syn. couplet. — 12. In sight of their 
fathers], so that they saw distinctly with their own eyes, — He did 
wonders], the miracles of the plagues, which, however, are not 
mentioned here in detail ; but cf. v.'^^^ — In the land of Egypty 
especially in the cou?itry of Zoan] the district of which Zoan, 
ancient name for Tanis, was the capital, situated on the east bank 
of the Tanitic arm of the Nile. — 13. He clave the sea], phr. of 
Ex. 14^^ II made the waters stand up as a heap], as Ex. 15® (song), 
fig. of the waters on either side of the shallow bottom which formed 
the pathway through the sea, — arid made them pass through], 
gave them a safe transit through the sea to the other side. 

Str. V. Syn. couplets. — 14. And led them], personal leader- 
ship, in accordance with the ancient narratives, by the theophanic 
angel, — in the cloud by day || all night long with the light of fire], 
as Ex. 1321-22 QY) : the theophanic pillar, changing its appearance 
as needed for manifestation. — 16. A7id brought forth || let run 
down ; streams out of the crag || waters like rivers], a poetic con- 
ception of the miracle Ex. i f~\ — A glossator prefixed a doublet 
in a more prosaic general statement : 15. And He clave rocks in 
the wilderness, and gave them depths to drink of in abundance, 

Pt. II., Str. I. Syn. and synth. couplets. — 17. Then they 
sinned || rebelled]. The instruction was to be for the sake of 
warning, v.^* ; therefore we are not surprised that the second Pt. 



1 84 PSALMS 

begins with a Str. setting forth the sins of the fathers, — against 
Him II against ^Elyon\ the ancient poetic name of God, — again\ 
in addition to the earher sin v.^ — in the thirsty land\ the wilder- 
ness of the wanderings. This sin is more specifically defined 18 
as tempted God in their minds'], put Him to a test, which impHed 
lack of confidence and fidehty ; and still more specifically, — by 
asking food according to their appetite], discontented with what 
God had given them. A glossator emphasizes the offence at the 
expense of the measure by adding : 19 a. and spake against God. 
All this is in accordance with the narrative of JE. in Ex. i6. 

Str. II. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 19-&-20. They said: Is 
God able ? repeated for emphasis, — Is He also able ?], questioning 
the power of their God to supply their needs. — in the wilderness], 
the most unHkely place, — to prepare a table], laid and furnished 
for His servants, || to give bread || provide flesh for His people], 
bread and flesh, the ordinary and the festal provision of food. A 
glossator emphasizes this sin by repeating the story of the supply 
of water to quench their thirst, as making their doubt still more 
unjustifiable ; but at the expense of the simplicity and harmony of 
the Str. — Lo, He smote the rock^ and waters gushed out and streafns 
overflowed], ci. 105^^ Is. 48-^ Before describing the miracle itself, 
the glossator asserts with emphasis the anger of God against their 
unbelief. — 21. Therefore Yahweh heard and was wroth ; and fire 
was kindled against facob^ and also anger went up against Israel], 
cf. Nu. 11^"^. The reason is reasserted 22. For they did not 
believe in God, and did not trust in His salvation]. They had no 
confidence in the fulfilment of the divine promises made to them, 
and they had lost their trust in His willingness and ability to save 
them from peril of starvation in the wilderness. 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 23. Then He commanded the skies 
above], His authoritative command to them as His servants. — 
And opened the doors of Heaven]. Heaven is here conceived as 
a granary in which is stored up abundance of grain. The divine 
proprietor opens the doors in order to distribute the grain. — 
24. And rained dowfi ?nanna upon them, and grain of heaven for 
them]. The manna was conceived as heavenly grain descending 
from heaven like rain or hail, cf. Ex. 16, Nu. 11^^ Dt. 8"^-^^. A 
glossator enlarges upon this also. — 25. Bread of the mighty], cf. 



PSALM LXXVIII. 185 

103^; probably of the angels, conceived as having their food in 
this divine ambrosia. — man did eat], admitted to the table of an- 
gels. — provision He sent them to satiety^], more than they needed, 
more than they could eat ; which they ate till they were overfull 
and unable to eat any more, and indeed with a distaste for it. 

Str. IV. Syn. couplets. — 26. Then He led on || guided by His 
strength], the former as dealing with willing servants, the latter as 
compelling reluctant ones, — the east wind || the south wind] . The 
poet conceives that the two winds cooperated, thinking, doubtless, 
of a southeast wind. — 27. And rained down flesh \fowl], the 
quails of Ex. 16, Nu. 11, in such great quantities that they are 
compared with dust || the sand of the sea]. According to Tristram : 
" The period when they were brought to the camp of Israel was in 
the spring, when on their northward migration from Africa. Ac- 
cording to their well-known instinct, they would follow up the 
coast of the Red Sea until they came to its bifurcation at the 
Sinaitic Peninsula, and then would cross at the narrow part " 
(^Nat. Hist. Bible, p. 231). A glossator enlarges upon the narra- 
tive by 28-30 a. And let it fall in the midst of the camp, round 
about their dwellings], cf. Ex. 16^^ Nu. n^^, — and they ate and 
were satisfied, and their desire He brought them], God gave them 
their desire to the full. — and their desire became loathing]. They 
ate so much of the flesh and became so satiated with it, that they 
could not eat any more ; they loathed the sight of it. This is the 
most probable explanation of a difficult line, which is rendered in 
EV^ after J^, " they were not estranged from their lust," as if || 
with the line which begins the next Str. ; that is, before they had 
been surfeited, which is altogether improbable. 

Str. V. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 30 ft. Their food was yet in 
their mouths], even while they were still eating. — 31. A?id the 
anger of God went up], ascended as smoke from the nostrils. — 
And He slew || bowed down in death, the fattest of them || the 
choicest of Israel], cf. Nu. 11^. The entire Pt. is given to this 
rebellion, the two miracles, and the consequences, showing the 
purpose of the author in warning the men of his generation lest 
they should repeat the offence. 

Pt. III., Str. I. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 32. For all this], 
notwithstanding the previous historic experience, — they sinned 



1 86 PSALMS 

again], this Pt. beginning as the previous one v}\ — And believed 
not in His wonders'], in His power and abihty to do wonders, cf. 
^19.20^ — 33. And He consumed their days], used up, exhausted 
the days of their hfe, — as a breath], as if they were a mere breath, 
breathed out and gone forever. — || And their years, of life, He 
made to haste away in suddenness], the most probable interpreta- 
tion of a difficult text, correctly given by JPSV. This meaning 
is alone suited to the context. "In trouble" of PBV., AV., is 
without justification. The meaning: "in terror," RV.; "sudden 
terror," Kirk. ; " dismay," Dr., is sustained by Lv. 26^^ Is. 65^^, 
but is not suited to the context. 

Str. II. Syn. couplets. — 34. Jf He slew them], in punishment 
for their sin, — they sought Him || again diligently sought 'El], in 
petition for deliverance. — 35. And remembered God their Rock 
II *El 'Ely on their Redeemer]. It is altogether probable that God 
was the original object of the remembrance, and that His titles, 
"their Rock," cf. Dt. 32* Ps. i8^ and "their Redeemer," as well 
as "'Elyon," are in apposition with " God " || " 'El." It is then a 
mistake to suppose that they are predicates, or that 'El 'Elyon is 
the compound divine name peculiar to Gn. 14. The insertion of 
the particle ^D in the text was also a mistaken supposition that the 
clause is an objective one. A glossator now enlarges upon the in- 
fidelity of the people : 36-37. And they beguiled Him with their 
mouth, and with their tongue lied to Hi^n], false professions of 
fidelity and obedience, — and their mind was not steadfast with 
Him], cf. 57^ — and they were not faithful in His covenant], 
cf. v.«. 

Str. III. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 38. But He is compas- 
sionate], citation of Ex. 34^ (J), cf. Ps. 86^^ 103^; add therefore 
to complete the line : and gracious. This is a general statement 
as to the character of God, in the form of the present, and not of 
the habitual past. — He covers over], as 65* 79^: the later con- 
ception of cancelling, obHteration of sin, for the earlier one of for- 
giveness of Ex. 34^ A glossator adds the object iniquity, which 
was no more needed than the object of the verb and destroys not, 
and so impairs the measure. — And many times turns away His 
anger], so that it will not strike the people, cf. 85^ 106^ jj and 
stirs not up any of His wrath], maintains a calm, serene attitude, 



PSALM LXXVIII. 187 

and does not permit any stimulation or excitement of His wrath. 
These two phrases set forth two sides of the divine self-restraint 
in His attitude toward His sinning people. 

Str. III. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 39. Then He 7'emembered 
that they were flesh'], a return to the historical narration. God 
remembers on His part, as His people on their part. They 
recognise Him as their Rock and their Redeemer, He recognises 
them in antithesis as flesh, frail and perishable; and as a mere 
breath passing away not to return]. Their breath, passing out of 
the flesh in death, returns no more to the flesh with its impulse 
of life. The counterpart of v.^ is 52, though separated by a long 
insertion. Inasmuch as God remembered that His people were 
flesh, to pass away in death. He treated them as such, and became 
to them as the shepherd of a feeble, helpless flock. — He led on 
His people || and guided them ; like sheep \ like a fiocky in their 
journeys in the wilderness. 

A late editor, for a reason difficult to determine, inserted 
between v.^^ and v.^^ a pentameter extract from an older poem, 
describing the plagues of Egypt in accordance with the narrative 
of J, which alone this author seems to have known. 

How often they rebelled against Him in the wilderness, grieved Him in the desert ! 

Again and again they tempted 'El, the Holy One of Israel. 

They did not remember His hand, the day He redeemed them from the adversary; 

When He put His miracles in Egypt, His marvels in the country of Zoan. 

When He turned their canals into blood, that they could not drink of their streams ; 

And sent forth swarms of flies and devoured them ; and frogs and destroyed them ; 

And gave their increase to the caterpillar, and their labour to the locust; 

And slew their vines with hail, and their sycamores with frost; 

And gave over to the pestilence their cattle, and their herds to the flame of fever; 

And He smote all their first-born, the first of their strength. 

And He led them in confidence, but their enemies the sea covered. 

40-43. Syn. and Synth, couplets. — 40-41. //"^ze/^//^;^], exclama- 
tion of wonder ; in the || positive statement : again and again] , 
as JPSV. ; a verb with auxiliary force, incorrectly rendered in EV*. 
as " they turned again," away from God. — they rebelled \ grieved], 
cf. Is. 631° II tempted], as v.^^-^^ 95^ 106^^ Ex. if-' Nu. 14^2 (J) 
Dt. 6^^, to which a glossator adds in ^, followed by EV^, " pro- 
voked," in (3, V, " spurned." — in the wilderness || in the desert], 
the region of the wanderings of Israel, as v.^^ ^l — the Holy One 



1 88 PSALMS 

of Israel'], divine name of Is.^ -, cf. 71" 89^^ — 42. T/iey did not 
remember], cf. v.^, — His hand], the lifting it for their redemp- 
tion, cf Ex. 3^, — the day He redeemed them from the adversary], 
probably the day of the crossing of the sea. — 43. When He put 
His miracles || His fnarvels], those enumerated in the subsequent 
context, — in Egypt || in the country of Zoan], cf. v.^^. 

44-48. A series of six plagues, those of J. — 44. When He 
turned their canals into blood, that they could not drink of their 
sireafns], as Ex. 7^^-^. — 45. And sent forth swarms of flies and 
devoured them], as Ex. 8^^'*^ ; combined in the same line with: 
and frogs and destroyed them], as Ex. "j^'"^ 8^"^ — 46. And gave 
their increase to the caterpillar, and their labour to the locust], 
plague of Ex. 10^ '*J-. — 47. And slew their vines ivith hail and 
their sycamores with frost], plague of Ex. q^^*"*-. — 48. And gave 
over to pestilence their cattle, and their herds to the flame of fever], 
the cattle plague of Ex. 9^'"i . J^, sustained by most Vrss., there- 
fore by early txt. err. of a single letter, makes this line to continue 
the plague of v.**^ in the use of "hail" for "pestilence," and so 
interprets the following noun as " hot thunderbolts," instead of 
" the flame of fever " ; and omits the cattle plague ; all of which 
is improbable. A late glossator generalises in 49-50. He sends 
forth], graphic imperfect of the past, || levels a path for], to give 
it direct and swift course, — the heat of His anger || His anger]. 
This is intensified by the heaping up of other terms : overflowing 
wrath, and indignation and distress. The divine anger as directed 
against the enemies of His people is in striking antithesis to the 
restraint of His anger toward His people, though by a different 
author, v.^. — a mission of angels of evils], not evil angels in the 
ethical sense, as distinguished from good; but in the physical 
sense, as executing or bringing evil upon men, angels of punish- 
ment. — and did not spare their life from death, with the antithe- 
sis : but their life gave over to the pestilence]. This glossator is 
thinking of the pestilence of P, which is more extended than the 
cattle plague of J. — 51. a?id smote], continuation of the aorists 
of v.""^, — all of their first-born, the first of their strength], the 
final plague of Ex. 11*^'', cf. Ps. 105^. To this a glossator adds, 
at the expense of the measure : in the tents of Ham], a phrase a.\. 
and late; cf., however, 105^-^ 106"^ for "land of Ham." This 



fSALM LXXVIII. 189 

extract concludes with 53, And led them in confidence^ to which 
a glossator adds, without dread. In antith. with which, — their 
enemies the sea covered. 

Str. IV. continues v.^^-^^ in synth. couplets. — 54. And He 
brought them to His sacred border'], the border or boundary of 
the holy land ; not " the border of His sanctuary " of EV% as if it 
referred to the temple ; so also mountain does not refer to Mount 
Zion, but to the mountainous land, which is characteristic of Pales- 
tine, Nu. 131"-^ Dt. i\ Jos. 11^ — that His right hand had gotten^, 
by conquest from its original inhabitants through the stretching 
forth of His right hand as the valiant champion and war-god 
of His people. — 55. And drave out nations before them\ dis- 
possessed them and expelled them from the land to give place to 
His people, — and allotted them], in accordance with the narrative 
Jos. 23*, cf. Ps. 105", — the inheritance by measure], each portion 
of the people having measured out to them a part of the common 
inheritance. A glossator adds : and made the tribes of Israel 
dwell in their tents. 

Pt. IV., Str. I. Syn. couplets. —56. Then they tempted \ re- 
belled against], as v.^''"^^- ■^^^ ; but there in two syn. lines, here com- 
pressed by a prosaic scribe into a prose sentence, which may be 
restored to its original form as a couplet by inserting again in the 
first line, and again and again in the second Hne. A glossator adds 
the legalistic phrase : and they did not keep His testimoTiies], using 
the legal term of P. — 57. Aiid drew back || turned aside], the 
former explained ethically as dealt treacherously like their fathers, 
cf. 44^^; the latter by the simile, — like a deceitful bow], which 
springs the wrong way in time of need ; phrase used elsw. Ho. 7^^, 
probably also with corrected text v.^. To this a glossator adds : 
58. A7id provoked Him to aftger with their high places, and moved 
Him to jealousy ivith their graven images], the constant Deutero- 
nomic charge against Israel in the redaction of the ancient histories, 
that they were unfaithful to Yahweh in worship at the ancient high 
places instead of at the central altar at Jerusalem, and in their 
use of images in His worship. 59 is also a gloss in the same tone. 
— God heard, and was faious ; and refused Israel altogether]. 
This last is not harmonious with the subsequent couplet ; and so 
some have thought that the original was Ephraim instead of Israel. 



I90 PSALMS 

Str. II. Synth and syn. couplets. — 60. Then He rejected the 
tabernacle of Shilo\ the sacred tabernacle set up at Shilo, north 
of Bethel, in Ephraim, after the conquest; the chief religious 
centre of the time of the Judges Jos. i8^^° 21- i S. 1-4, Je. 7^^ — 
The tent that He made to dwell among ma7ikind\ the sacred tent 
in which God was supposed to dwell, and whose locality He Him- 
self selected, cf. Jos. 2 2^^ — 61. Atid delivered up His strength || 
His ornament\ terms descriptive of the sacred ark, cf. i S. 4^^'^- 
Ps. 132^ — to captivity || into the hand of the adversary^ the 
Phihstines, in accordance with the narrative i S. 4. To this a 
glossator added : 62. And gave up His people to the sword\ dupH- 
cation of v.^*, — and became furious against His inheritance^ 
as v.*^ 

Str. III. Synth, couplets. — 63. Fire devoured their young 
men'], the fire of war ; war being conceived as a devouring flame 
in accordance with the subsequent context. It is improbable 
that the reference is to the fire of the divine anger. — And their 
maidens were not praised in marriage song\. They must remain 
unmarried, because of the slaughter of the young men, who might 
have married them. — 64. Their priests fell by the sword], doubt- 
less referring to the historic event of the slaughter of Hophni and 
Phinehas, the attendants upon the ark, i S. 4"-^^ — And their 
widows did not sing dirges'], the customary funeral solemnities 
could not be observed on account of the invasion of the land by 
the enemy and the universal disorder occasioned thereby. A 
glossator interrupts the narrative by a passionate outburst in 
accordance with the previous glosses v.*^-^-: 65. Then Adonay 
awaked]. He had left His people so long subject to their ene- 
mies, that He had seemed as one asleep, cf. f 10^ || like a hero 
overcome with wine], as (^, %, JPSV. : in a heavy, drunken 
sleep ; better sustained by || and usage than EV"., " that shouteth 
by reason of wine," as if, awakening from sleep. He fell upon His 
enemies with the passionate excitement of one stimulated to 
frenzy by too much wine. — 66. A7id smote His adversaries 
backward], made them retreat in disaster, — to an everlasting 
reproach He put them], phr. of Ez. 22* Jo. 2^^ 

Str. IV. Syn. and synth. couplets, antith. to each other. — 
67. And He refused || chose not], positive and negative sides of 



PSALM LXXVIII. 191 

the same idea. — the tent of Joseph || the tribe of Ephraim]. The 
rejection of Shilo carried with it the rejection of the tribe of 
Ephraim, in which it was situated, and the children of Joseph, of 
whom Ephraim was the leading tribe. — 68. But chose'], in place 
of the rejected : the tribe of Judah\ and in that tribe, in place of 
Shilo : Mount Zion which He doth love], cf. 47* 87^ The love of 
God for Zion is here stated as a present and abiding fact, and not as 
the basis of the choice in the past, " He loved," as EV. A glossa- 
tor interrupts the course of thought by inserting a statement as 
to the erection of the temple. — 69. And built like the heights His 
sanctuary], the sanctuary in Jerusalem being modelled after the 
heavenly abode of God, — as the earth which He founded for- 
ever], the temple was as firmly founded and as immutable as the 
earth itself. It is difficult to understand how a late glossator could 
speak so extravagantly of a temple which had been ruined more 
than once, and at least once had been destroyed by fire and lev- 
elled to the ground ; but doubtless he thought that the founda- 
tions were eternal, and that though it were destroyed, it would be 
rebuilt again in the same place and so abide through all vicissitudes. 
Str. V. Syn. couplets. — 70. And He chose David His servant], 
a usual term for prophets and special ministers of God. David 
bears this title elsw. 18^ 36^ 89^-^^ 132^° 144^°+ 28 t. — And took 
him from the sheepfolds]. David's early life was that of a shep- 
herd I S. 16^^ J y 15. 34-37. 40^ — 172. Fro?n following the ewes that give 
suck He brought him]. The shepherd leads his flock in Palestine ; 
but the ewes that suckle their young need his special attention, 
and those he follows with his eye and if needful with his steps, to 
watch over them and protect them from harm, cf. Is. 40^^ — To be 
shepherd over Jacob His people]. Israel as the flock of God had 
the Davidic dynasty as their shepherd, appointed by God as His 
son and representative in government, cf. Ez. 34-^ The Ps. here 
reaches its proper conclusion ; but a glossator thought it better to 
emphasize the last clause by the addition of the || Israel His in- 
heritance, and to conclude with a laudation of David's reign : 
72. And he shepherded the7n || used to lead them], as shepherd 
king, — according to the integrity of his mind]. His rule was one 
of integrity of purpose. — and with deeds of understanding of his 
hands]. The royal acts of David as wrought with his hands were 



192 PSALMS 

with intelligence, discernment, and skill. This is an idealisation 
of the reign of David in the style of the Chronicler and later 
writings, overlooking and ignoring the blots upon his reign, as 
recorded in the primitive prophetic histories. 

1- '0 ''}.r^'] phr- 19^^ 54* 138* Dt. 32^ -f . — 2. n'n^n] pi. nyn, as 4g^. — 
>jc] archaic form prep. ]C for euphony. — 3. -ijS nsp irP'':3Ni] phr. = 44^. — 
4. jnnN n>i] phr. elsw. v.^ 48^^ 1021^ Dt. 2921. — DnsD?:] Pi. ptc. pi. is diffi- 
cult. We would expect "ispj. But ®, 3, attach the ptc. to subsequent words, 
which certainly makes better grammar. This ptc. introduces a long prosaic 
gl. nin^ is used, which was impossible in E. — t "f>] n-[m.] strength^ elsw. 
145® Is. 42^6 of fierceness of battle. — nry -(C'n vpn'?dj] = 105^ — 6. D|"»»i] 
1 consec. Hiph. impf. cip, in the sense of appoint, here only -^ ; cf. nna 0"'pn 
phr. of P Gn. 6^^ + ; ^ consec. carries on the previous pf. and then continues 
gl. Otherwise it is aorist, based on an ideal past, — •'"•i''>] i^ 8i® 119^^ 122"*; 
also term of P, || n-\ir. — 6 is prosaic and certainly a gl. — 7. '^p-] confidenccy 
as 49I* Pr. 3^ Jb. 8^* 312*; a late word. — inr^'- n'^i] introduces the fourth 
I. of Str. II. after v.K — '^n ^^'I'-r;] cf. yyia. — n'ifJi vpxci] cf. Dt. 33^ Pss. 
105*^ 1192 4-; as a dimeter is gl. — 8. n-ibrnn^D -i"n] phr. a.X., but cf. 
Dt. 2118-20 nn^g., -,-^^D |-3 from which it is certainly derived, also Je. 52^ 
'Di D 3S. — ^aS p^n] phr. elsw. 10" Jb. ii^^ 2 Ch. 12I*, cf. 3V |idj v.^^ 57s- » 
(= io82) 112"'. — njcNj] Niph, pf. 3 f. with rn-«, cf. v.^^ 89^ loi^. — ^n] as 
y_7. 18. 19. 34. 36. 41. characteristic of "Si, though this part of v. is a gl. — 

9. nr^ "'p>-^ 'i7C^J] phr. dub. and difficult, ntfp "'pB'j i Ch. 12"^ 2 Ch. 17^' 
equipped with the bow, rirp ""cn Je. 42^, t ncn vb. raj/ elsw., d»3 Ex. 1$^-^^. 
One of these vbs. might be an interp. gl. Hu., Hi., Kau., think of "•p'^n as gl., 
but '•p'^J is the later phr. and therefore most prob. the gl., if there be one. 
It is difficult to see the connection of this v. with context, if D"'"^dx "ija is orig- 
inal. It indicates a hostile disposition towards the people of the North, not 
in accordance with "E elsw. and for which no historic situation can be assigned. 
The difficulty would be removed, if we could rd. n^cn nrp ""pbrj and suppose 
that n-'m had been transposed by txt. err., and that ancN •»ja had been inserted 
by late glossator. We would then have the same idea as v.^^, and this coup- 
let would conclude Str. III. — 2'^? D^"'] phr. elsw. Zc. 14^, but v. Ps. 55^^. — 

10. nn3 npu'] phr. elsw. 103^^ 132^2 j k^ ijii jsje. i^ 98- Dn. 9*; cf. v^"^. 
— 11. vr'^S"'Sy] as 77^^ This v. is a pentameter gl. — 12. ?>i;"'"'7> ] phr. as 
v.*3. Jn-^c' n.m. (i)yf^/^ with flowers 103^^ sown 107'"; (2) country 132^, 
so here and v.*^, f y;y n. pr. loc. Zanis, town built seven years after Hebron 
ace. Nu. 1322, elsw. Is. 1911-18 ^o* Ez. 30I*, modern Sdn, in N.W. Delta of 
Egypt. — 13. c; j,'i":3] as Ex. 14!^ Ne. 9", v. 74^^; cf. onx j:;52^ v.i^.— 
■«rir3 o;::] cf. c'-'rj -m irs Ex. 158. — 14. ]y'i] J |r; n.m. (i) cloud mass 972; 
(2) of the historic, theophanic cloud of the Exodus, here, as 105^^ Ex. 34''; 
p? -ii::j? Ps. 99"^, as Ex. if^'^ + 6 t. (JE) Ne. 912- 1^ — rs ^^n] phr. a.X. for 
r^(n) -(I!:-: Ex. 1321-22 1^24 QE) +. — 16. y;^r] Pi. impf. for Qal v." suspi- 



PSALM LXXVIII. 193 

cious, also absence of i consec, which appears again \^pi\ 15, 3, render it as 
V.18 pf. ; prob. the original text was ';pn Qal pf. They both rd. "nx sg. for 
onx, which is also more prob. @, 3, take n^-y as adj. agreeing with mcnn. 
— 16. D'^rnj] ptc. X [->!:] Jiow, of water 147^^ ptc. strea?ns, floods, Ex. 158, 
so here and v.'*^. — V.^^ and v.^'' are doublets ; the latter is more poetic and 
more likely original. — 17. nnr;':] for m:pri^, Hiph. inf. cstr. n-i?:; cf. v.*o- ^. 
— r"»*7y.] characteristic of ^, as v.35. 56 zp^^ 73II 77II §2^ 8319. — n^:{3] for 
n-'X T'nN 63^. — 18. icri] 1 consec. Pi. impf., cf. v.*^- ^, as Ex. I'f-'^ Nu. 
14^^ (J)- — 3??':'] full^"^ ioxm, as 73I. v. 13. 21. 26 ^^7^ i^s y.^ is in gl., so 3^*? 
yp, — DirojS] according to their appetite, as 17^ 63^ loS^^ 1075- ^- 1^. — 
19. dn-iSn^ n^T]] is doubtless a gl., explan. of ncN. — 20. D^n -iniTM mx nan] 
cf. 105*1 D;'r2 01P1 m:^ np?, and Is. 48-1 c^d otm mx >'i"22»>. The earliest of 
these is doubtless the last. t\27\ is used by reference to Ex. 17^ (E) or 
Nu. 20I1 (P). [31t] a.X. ^. — -lobr:] Qal impf. 3 pi. (69^). This whole 
1. is a triplet with v.^*- ^^ and is a gl. based on Is. 48^1. — nvNiu*] as v.^^, 
V. 73^. — 21. i3v-7>i HIT' yce' la'^]. This is prose style. m,T> impossible in 
E. ■^35Jn»i, 1 consec. Hithp. impf. f "^^y denom. n-i3^\ Hithp. (i) be furious^ 
so v.59-6iJ 8939, cf. Dt. 326 Pr. 2617; (2) be arrogant Pr. 14I6; (3) m^V^ /t; 
fury Pr. 202 (?). — n|-;b«j] Niph. pf. 3 f. f ?^'^ ^DB. (cf. p^D). Hiph. /&ma7if, 
5^/ onflre, Is. 441^ Ezl 39^ BS. 4321. Niph. a.X. be kindled.— 2Z. >nSi] pi. 
cstr. X ^^.1. ii'f' (ioor, common in OT., but in ^ only here and 1071^, unless '71 
141^ is error for ,-'?"', which is prob. For the idea cf. D"'?:trn n3-;N Gn. 7II. — 
24. "it?!9li] cf. V.2', based on Ex. 16* (J). — f Iv] n.m. manna, the divine 
provision of bread for Israel in the wilderness Ex. i6^^- ^^- ^^- ^- ^ Nu. 1 1^- '^' * 
Dt. 83- 16 Jos. 512. 12 Ne. 92^ — 7bN^] Qal inf. cstr. with ^ is a gl, making 
1. too long and altogether unnecessary. — 2^cr |n] phr. a.X. ; ® dproj/ ovpa- 
vov does not imply different text, but is paraphrase; cf. CDtt' cnH 105'**^. — 
|.ij] expansive gl. This v. has been assimilated to v.25 in measure and so 
made tetrameter. — 25. anisv cn^] phr. a.X., prob. referring to angels as 
10320, so ® dyyiXcjv ; a late conception, like the Greek ambrosia, the food 
of the gods. — t n^V.] n.f. provision Gn. 422^ 4521 Ex. 12^9 (E) Jos. i" (D) 
9^^ (JE) Ju. 7^ (?) 20IO I S. 22IO and here. — This v. is a tetrameter couplet 
and a late gl. — 26. >t:^] Hiph. impf. yDJ, ® has koX iTrijpev. Indeed 1 con- 
sec. is necessary to the sense and has been omitted in f^ by err. X yo: vb. 
Qal pu/t up (tent) pegs and set out on a journey, common in OT., but not 
in 1/'. Hiph. \ cause to set out, lead out, Ex. 1522 c. ace. pers., Ps. 78^2 people 
as flock, 80^ fig. of vine ; here of wind. — D^'^p] East wind, as Gn. 416- 23 (y?) 
Ho. 122 13I6, elsw. yp with nn 488. -^ J ?io^p] n.f. (i) the South Jos. 15I 
Is. 436 +; t (2) poet. South -wind, here as Ct. 4!^. The use of the wind is 
according to Nu. ir'^i. — 27. Dn-'{;'v] makes 1. too long and is gl. — nsr] as 
v.20._3>pi S^n] phr. Je. 158 Jb. 6^, 3;n 'n Gn. 32I3 (E) 4i49 Is. 1022 Ho. 2I 
Je. 3322, cf. Gn. 2217 (J). X "''^ n.xa.sand, elsw. ^ 139I8. — 28. vp'rc^::]. The 
3 sg. here and in v^.^n": between 3 pi. referring to Israel is strikins;. © has 
pi., but 3 agrees with f§. The original Ex. 161^ Nu. ii^i njn?: has no sf. at 
all, and there is no reference to nuD^rc. The sfs. are differences of interp. 
o 



194 PSALMS 

as usual, and the two nouns are syn. There is no justification for referring 
riJ3i'0 to the iabernacU, which is always I^si'?. These are the tabernacles 
of Israel, as 87^ Nu. 24^. But in fact this v. is an expansive gl. — 29. onj^n] 
emph. in position ; sf. 3 pi. riNn n.f. (/o'O based on Nu. 1 1*- **, of. Ps. 
106" "1. — NJ;] Hiph. impf. 3 m. is out of harmony with context. It cannot 
be pf. as ®. It does not follow the action of previous vbs. ; cf. v.-^ which 
is also a gl. — 30. nr] Qal pf. 3 m. -in be a stranger to, but i<TTepifjdiij<raw 
elsw. for ;':r, must be interpretation, so U fraudati, 3 indiguertint. There 
is an evident reference to n"it n.(f.) loathsome things cf. Nu. il^o (JE), prob. 
err. for n-\r (Sam.) j5DB. We should prob. rd. oniNn nnT"? their lust became 
loathing. This accords exactly with the narrative. The usual interp. reverses 
the narrative and makes the visitation of wrath precede the loathing. — 
DT'pi d'^;n -'';•] is a variation of 3^'rj' ^o m^^'} "''^"^^ Nu. 11^. This 1. intro- 
duces the next Str. — 31. C^n'^s ns] emph. in position. — cri^j is gl., making 
1. too long. — 2n''j«:rc3] has two beats, a prep, among. X f?:rp n.m. of men 
faty lusty'y of warriors here, as Is. lo^^; so prob. Dn. ii^*, as Bevan. — "'I'^n?] 
pi. cstr. X "^ina] n.m. young man, as v.^^ 148^^^ But @ iK\4KTovi, U electoSy 
as >7'n3, is better suited to parall. — 32. n»rS;3] phr. Is. 5^5 911.16.20^. 
— 33. f^^^ri] n.f. dismay, terror, elsw. Lv. 26^6 Je. 158 Is. 6523. Q renders 
this word yj^rh. (Tirovdiji, 3 velociter. A vb. is needed in last 1., prob, Sna 
made to haste away, in haste, best suited to San. — 34. c '"^^-zn] temporal 
force of DN with pf. in both prot. and apod. The Waws are all coordinate 
of late style for 1 consec. impf., the style of this poem in the original parts. — 
36. nsTM] resumes the style of the original. -"O before D^nVs, though in ®, 3, 
is prob. a gl. to emphasize the fact. — nix] for God, as 18^. — i^'-Sj? Sn] as 
87^(?), cf. jvS^ a>n^s v.5<5(?) r^'f (J). This gives two names of God, and 
not, as Gn. 141^- '^'*- ^' 22, a simple compound name. — 36. ininp"'i] 1 consec. 
Pi. impf. X n.-'D vb. denom. he simple, in ^ only here deceive, as 2 S. 3^^ 
Pr. 2428 Je. 20' Ez. 14^ +. ® has i)'i6.Tft]<ja.v, U dilexerunt. — on^] Pi. impf. 
X 2Tr, denom. 3r^ tell a lie, as 89^, elsw. ^ f Qal to be a liar 116^^. — This v. 
is tetrameter ; it can hardly be original, and is really a later theological 
interp. of the conduct of the people. It is possible that there was no vb. 
with an'«D3 in the original, and that both ini-'c and i]j^i.Tr-r]<Ta.v are interpreta- 
tive, the one for syn. parall., the other for antith. parall. — 37, though in the 
same measure as Ps., is yet another dogmatic gl. — 2S ^d:] cf. v.*, |13J nn 
51^2^ — "'J?^'.*] as v.®. — 38. t 2'"T!] adj. compassionate ; Dt. 4'^ elsw. with 
p:n following Pss. 86^^ 103^, as Ex. 34^ (J), earlier order ; preceding Pss. ill* 
112'' 1458 2 Ch. 30^ Ne. 91"- 31 Jo. 2^3 Jon. 4^ later order; more likely the 
former here. The Pasiq prob. indicates this omission. — ;"'>• no:)'] cf. 65* 79*, 
used for Nr j of Ex. 34® *^-. This and the following impf express the present 
and constant state of character of God. r>? is gl., making 1. too long. — 
nnnni] i consec. pf carrying on habitual action. It has auxil. force with inf., 
as Is. 55' Ex. 36^ — "«3N a-'T"'.] cf. vb. with rnrs io623, p|x |nn 85*. The 
space in ]^ before v. 38, according to Kiddiishin^^'^, indicates the middle of 
the 5896 (XTixof. of ^. Maccoth^^ states that this v. and Dt. 28^8- ^^ 298 were 



PSALM LXXVIII. 195 

recited when forty stripes save one were inflicted {v. De. Com. Ps.). — 
39. "i'-P_^] 1 consec. carrying on the thought of v.^, God's remembrance in 
antithesis with Israel's remembrance. — 40. rD>t^>3] elsw. 68^ 106I* 107* 
Dt. 32^'^. The vbs. in this v. are so out of harmony with the context that they 
must be a reflective gl. Vs.**'"*^ are a pentameter extract from an older poem. 

— 41. o-ir*]] 1 consec. impf. 3itt' with auxil. force followed by "^ consec. impf. 

— Snt^'i tt'np] divine name of Is. 6^; elsw. in \f/, 71^2 89^^. — iirn] Hiph. 
pf. 3 pi. nin a.X. Aramaism. @ wapuj^vvav, 3 concitaverunt. ® translates 
Is. 52* 1XNJ Ssnc' cnp in the same way, so also i'nj in Ps. lo^- ^^ *j^^- ^^ 107^1. 
It is possible therefore that ixxj was in ®, and that a later copyist substituted 
the Aramaic vb. for it. Part of the 1. is original ; the vb. makes the 1. too 
long and must be a later insertion. — 42. is'-'jr] the longer form of prep, 
for euphony, nx n.m. coll. j^. — 43. o^nciDi mnx o^t'] phr. elsw. Je. 3220, 
cf. Ps. 10527; niN as miracle elsw. ^ 65^ 74^ 1| D^neia {y. 7/^) 135^; c. D^if 
elsw. Ex. io2 (J) Is. 6619. — 44. -^bn^i] 1 consec. (jo^^)^ cf. Niph. Ex. 7"- 20. 

— onns^] sf 3 pi. refers to Egyptians of v.*^. X "iS"" n.m. stream of the Nile 
(an Egyptian loan word), derived from Ex. 'j^'-'^'^ ■\. (J). — jvnr^'Sa] Qal 
impf. 3 pi. fuller form with archaic neg. in final clause. — 45. nSc''] Pi. impf. 
without 1 consec. is err., for the context demands \ unless we rd. pf. — cna] 
is prosaic. It makes 1. too long. — f 3n>^] n.m. insect swarm, as Ex. 8^" + ^ * (J) 
Ps. 1058I. — t ,v:n,-)x] n.f. sg. coll., as Ex.'s^ (J) ; pi. Ex. 727. 28. 29 gi- 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9(j) 
Ps. los'o. —46. ' t S^pn] n.m. kind of locust, elsw. i K. 8" = 2 Ch. 628 Jq. i* 
226 Is_ 23*. — \ yij>] n.m. (i) toil, not in 1/' ; (2) result of toil, produce ; elsw. 
109II 1282 Ho. 12^ Dt. 2833. _ X nnnx] n.m. a kind of locust, as Ex. lo* + 6 t. 
(J) Pss. 105^ 10923. — 47. j-^q^] Qal impf. without i consec. is improb. in 
this context. — t"''^?] n-"^- hail, plague v.*^ Ex. 9^8 + 17 t. (JE) Ps. 105^2. 
elsw. ^ of storm i8i3-i* 148^. — X\P.i\ ^•^' vine, as 105^3. \^ simile of wife 
1288; allegory of Israel 8o9- 16 Ez. 176.7.8 Ho. iqI. — a;^C|7ii'] pi. f., sf. 3 pi. 
t [aptt'] sycamore tree, elsw. D^Dpc* I K. io27 i Ch. 27^8 2 Ch. i^^ 927 Is. 9« 
Am. 7I*. — ^?Jn] n.[m.] a.X. prob. frost, as ® kv rrj Trdx^r}, 3 frigore. — 
48. T^^l:] so 0, 3f, but improb. It has been assimilated to v.*7. j-d. as Ew., 
Dy., Gr., Du., Valeton, after 2 codd., X ">?.?. n-™. (i) pestilence Ex. 5^ 9I5 Nu. 
14I2 (J) Ps. 9i3- 6 J (2) cattle plague, murrain, Ex. 9^ (J), as here ; cf. v.^. 

— t \y^yS\ '^•"i* beast, as Gn. 45I7 Ex. 22* Nu. 20*- 8- n (E). — t njpr] n.m. 
cattle, as Ex. 9^ + (J). — □''^U'-;] pi. ']')^'-). fiery shafts of Yahweh, sending dis- 
ease and death, as Dt. 322* Hb. 36; cf. Ps. 764.-49. D^-nS-^'^] cf. v.^^a 
ona. — lisN i^nn] phr. of J, as 6920 85*. — n-iifi oyri n'^3>'] a heaping up of syn. 
terms. — t'^D^'^?] J^-f- sending, mission, elsw. Ec. 8^ dismission; cf. ij^tt'a 
mission Est. 919-22^ — q,jj.^^ ,^^.l,^-j ^ dyy^Xcvv TrovrjpQv, 3 angelorum malo- 
rum, prob. correct. — The v. is a late gl. — 50. 3^73 D^d^] phr. a.X. ; dSa vb. 
levels path, elsw. Pr. 425 58.21 is. 267. — f 2>-:3] n.m. path 11985 Jb. 1810 287 
412* Pr. 1228, late word; cf. r\y'r) n.f. earlier form 142*. — n7;n] syn. with 
DC'pi, has the uncommon mng. their life, as 74!^ 143^. Possibly MT. so 
pointed, supposing that it referred to animals ; as ® tA KT-fjVTj airuv, 
V jumenta, of the more extensive form of the pestilence according to P. — 



196 PSALMS 

V.*9. 60 are full of late terms and conceptions, and are doubtless glosses. — 
51. ']ii\ Hiph. impf. i consec. n^^, carries on v.*^ from which it has been 
separated by gl. — 2^rN n'''fN7] phr. elsw. 105^ ovh ^j"? r-'a'Ni, Gn. 49* 
yyti r>rN-i, Dt. 21^'^ ^js n^;j'sn. These all suggest rather cyx here, as (S. 
J r.^P'Nn n.f. beginning, elsw. ^, 11 1^*^ of wisdom. t?^«< n.m. elsw. strength 
Jb. 187-12 40I6 Ho. 12* Is. 4026-29 Yx. 11^; wealth Jb. 20^ Ho. I2^ prob. also 
Ps. 49^ — 3n-'';^nNj] phr. a.X., not in Ps. 10586; as it makes the 1. longer 
than the other 11. of the plagues, it is prob. gl. But en ^ns 10523- '^"^ 10622. 
For similar uses of '^ns v. 83" 120^ Hb. 3". Only in these late Pss. is this 
usage of X :n found ; elsw. Ham is the name of the son of Noah Gn. 5^2 _|_^ 

— 62. X ">7V] Xi.xti. flock, herd, only here ^, but common in OT. ; elsw. in simile 
Mi. 2^2 je^ ^jio^ This V. carries on the thought of v.^^. The intervening 
material is a long pentameter gl. — 53. i-'nn n'^i] as 3 absque timore, has 
really two tones and is a gl. — 3>n nor] cf. io6ii Ex. 156- 1>> (song) 1428 (P) 
jos. 24^ (E). This V. concludes the pentameter poem. — 54. cno^]] 1 consec. 
Hiph. NO resumes the poem, and should follow v. ''2. — >cn,n Soj] phr. a.X. 
|*?i3) n.m. (i) border, boundary, of limit of waters of great deep 104^; 
(2) territory \o^^-^^ 147^^ and here; cf. J n'^oji n.f. 7^^^. — nr] prob. rela- 
tive, as 742 1048- 28^ but (S, ,S, 2r, 3, regard it as demonstrative ; if so it must 
have the strong force of "yonder," as it is without the article. — 65. I^rii] 
Hiph. impf. 1 consec. This third 1. is a gl. — SN-^r"- "O^ir] u^c for tribe in 
^ elsw. only v.". «8 742 10537 122*-*. —56. npM icV:] cf. v.i"-i8-40-4i. These 
two vbs. seem to be a compression of two 11. — z'n^N-rs] before |'^'''^> makes 
one 1. too long. If we attach c^n^'N rs to the first vId. and insert niy we have 
the first 1. The second also requires an additional word, prob. lair^ of v.*i. 

— t'^"'"'?] term of P, c. "iDS' also 99^ n^ne. i67. prob. a gl. — 57. ub*]] 1 con- 
sec. Niph. impf. 3 pi. turn oneself back, prove faithless, v, i^ ; elsw. with 
-nnN 44^9. — n'^r-> rrp] v. y?-, phr. elsw. Ho. 7^^. — 58. imD'p^i] ^ consec. 
Hiph. d;?, as io629; phr. of D, Je. — imN^;i7:] Hiph. impf. Njp, as Dt. 32i«-2i. 
The force of 1 consec. is required, whether we suppose that there has been 
a transposition or that the force of the 1 with the noun is consec. — -''^3] for 
high places of worship, only here ^, but common in D, H, and Chr. — 
X [-^ p5] n.m. only pi. idols, as Ho. 1 12 Is. iqIo ai^ 3022 £)t. 76.26 ^^^ _j.. This 
v. is a tetrameter gl. It could not be the reason for the rejection of Shilo 
in so early a writing ; cf. Dt. 32I*. — 59. ':'Nyj'^] here is striking, for the sub- 
sequent context suggests Ephraim. But the v. is a late gl. — 60. ^"^r] n. pr. 
loc, as Ju. 21^3 I S. i2* 321 Je. 7I* 4-, usually n"<r Shiloh, a place in Ephraim, 
north of Bethel; Seilun, Rob. Pal}^-^^^ —^\. My] is used here, as context 
indicates, for t; p-iN 132''; |1 v-i-jvon (7/*), attributed to the ark as to the 
temple 96''' Is. 60' 63^^ 641^ — 62. ■^v:.':'^] is repetition of v.^^ — 63. i^Sin] 
Pu. Pf. '?~'n, V. Intr. § 35, be praised in marriage songs ; so Aq. i/xvi^drt- 
aav. 6 iirivd-qaav, U non sunt lamentatae, so & ""^"^'^ V^'^t iniprobable. — 
64. ""rr^.n] Qal impf. pi. 3 f. n^^ (6g^^), as 2, ^, must have the specific 
sense of weeping or singing dirges. <3, 3, S, interp. as Niph. passive "irD^n. 

— 65. Yp_'}] Qal impf. i consec. f [KP.;] vb. awake, as Gn. ^\^- '^- 21 (E) 9^* 



PSALM LXXIX. 197 

2816(J) ju. i6i*-20 I K. 31^ i82^ Hb. 2^\ earlier word than rip- — T^':] adj. 
sleeping, of. vb. j*^; also i K. iS^^ of Baal. — "'jivv] in this Ps. suspicious. — 
Ijnn?:] o.\. Hithp. ptc. f Cr"'"'] ^^ overcome with wine ; KeKpaLTraXTjKobs i^ 
oivov (B, crapulatus U, post crapulam vini 3 ; AE., Aug., Ges., De W., Hi., 
Ba., Du., Kau., Bu., Ehr., most prob. ; but AV., RV., De., ^DB., after 2, 
Ki., Flaminius, Hithp. pn shout. — 66. \~i (3"?i>') ns-jn] phr. as Ez. 22* 
Jo. 2^^. — 69. D''cyc2] archaic form prep, with a"'cn Qal ptc. pi. an; ® ws 
fjiovoKepivTwv, 3 monoceroton chn-i, so ^ i^^r'"!! '^^IP 1"'D« It is better to rd. 
D^pnp3 with Hi. ; cf. Ps. 1481. This v. is a gl. — 71. n^^;;] Qal ptc. f. pi. 
t [':"i>'] y\y. gi've suck, elsw. Is. 40II i S. 6'^-i^ Gn. 331^ (J). — '^Nit-oi] with 
subsequent word is a gl. of intensification ; so also v.'^^^ — 72. 03V on] phr. 
elsw. ioi2 Gn. 20^- ^ (E) i K. 9*. — vs3 n^jnn] phr. a.X., v. 40^; pi. deeas or 
acts of understanding. — "^^X^, Hiph. impf. nnj with sf. 3 pi. must have sense 
of pf. and previous 1 with noun have force of 1 consec, or else it must be in 
circumstantial clause. 

PSALM LXXIX., 2 STR. 6^ 

Ps. 79 originally was a lament over the destruction of Jerusa- 
lem by Nebuchadnezzar, the defiling of the temple and slaughter 
of the people (v.^"-),with a petition not to remember the iniquities 
of their ancestors, but speedily to have compassion and save them 
^^ 8a5. 9a?.^ ^ concludlug wlth a vow of perpetual thanksgiving (v.^^"*) . 
But many glosses were added by Maccabean editors, making the 
Ps. appropriate to the desecration of the temple and the cruelty of 
Antiochus (v.^ 9='' i"*'^ 12^. Many citations from other scriptures 
were inserted (v.*"'^-^°* "•^^"^), making it more appropriate for 
religious use ; although from a literary point of view it is now 
a mosaic. 

HTHE nations are come into Thine inheritance. 

They have defiled Thy holy temple. 

They have laid Jerusalem in ruins. 

They have given the dead bodies of Thy servants 

As food to the birds of heaven, 

Thy pious ones to the wild beasts of the earth. 
"D EMEMBER not the iniquities of our forefathers. 

Quickly let Thine acts of compassion come to meet us. 

Help us, O God of our salvation, 

For the sake of the glory of Thy name. 

We will give thanks unto Thee forever; 

To all generations tell Thy praise. 

Ps. 79 was a Ps. of ^, then taken up into fH and S, but not into W^ 
(v. Intr. §§ 29, 31, 32). That appUes only to the original Ps. Indeed^ the 



198 PSALMS 

Ps. in its present form is a mosaic of citations from many different writings. 
The original Ps. had only two trimeter hexastichs, v.^-'^ and v.^"*- ®**- 1^**. These 
Strs. indicate a date soon after the destruction of the temple by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, to which v.^-2 clearly refers. The use of NDta v.^ is that of D, H, P, 
Ez., cf. Je. 7^"^ Ez. 9'. D^>;"? c^ v.^ is dependent on Mi. i^ ; n'?2: v,^ is in its 
earlier use for corpse, not the later for carcass of animals. d^jc'N"\ v.^ as Dt. 
19I* Lv. 26*5 (H). n::,-'j v.^'^ as Je. 50^8 5111, yhg glosses are: (a) v.^ is not 
a citation; but is either hexameter or prose. It probably refers to Maccabean 
bloodshed ; (d) v.* is derived from Ps. 44", (c) v.^ from Ps. 89*^ (d) v.6-7 
from Je. lo'^, (e) v.^" from Ps. 142''; (/) v.*«<* is composed of a prosaic gloss 
which attributes the suffering to sins; (g) \^^^ is derived from Ps. 115-; 
(A) v.ii"'^ is based on 1022I; (i) vM^ is a citation from Ex. 15^*5; (y) yV>hc. 12 
are characteristically Maccabean, cf. 89^^- ^2. (^^) yUab jg a citation from Ps. 
100*. These additions to the Ps. were not made in "SI, as is evident from the 
use of r^^r\> v.^ and •>J"'N v.^^^ Q32^ did not use it, and therefore that editor 
could not have made the addition. The glosses doubtless all came from the 
Maccabean editor, adapting the Ps. to his own times. The Ps. is prescribed 
in Rabbinical use for the day commemorating the destruction of the temple 
(^Sopherim iS^). 

Str. I. A synth. tetrastich, concluding with a syn. couplet. — 
1. The nations are come into Thine inheritance^ have invaded 
the Holy Land, which God had taken as His own special land 
and given as an inheritance to His people, cf. Ex. 15" Pss. 74^ 
^g62. 71^ — They have defiled Thy holy temple^. Even the entrance 
of the uncircumcised and unconsecrated nations into the temple 
would have defiled it La. i^'' Jo. 4" Na. 2^ Is. 35* 52^, and have 
made it ceremonially unclean ; but it is altogether probable that a 
more positive desecration is referred to, such as the desecration 
of the sacred vessels and furniture of the sacred places, partly by 
putting them to profane use, partly by breaking them up as spoil, 
and partly by removing them from the sacred places into distant 
lands ; all of which was done by the Babylonians 2 K. 25^^^^ La. 
2'. — They have laid Jerusalem in ruins'], phr. of Mi. i'', cf. Je. 26^^ 
also 2 K. 25^^^ — 2. They have given the dead bodies of Thy 
servants || Thy pious 07ies\ slain in battle about the walls or in 
the streets of the captured city, cf. La. 4^^^* — as food^.Xkxt bodies 
left unburied became prey to the birds of heaven'], the vultures, 
and to the wild beasts of the earth], especially jackals, cf. 74^* Je. 
34^. This simple but graphic description of the niin wrought by 
the Babylonians was enlarged and adapted to later times by later 



PSALM LXXIX. 199 

editors, especially Maccabean. — 3. They have poured out their 
blood like water round about Jerusalem, a7id there was no?ie to 
bury them]. This might be regarded as an enlargement of the 
previous context, but is more suited to the excessive cruelty of 
the Maccabean times, cf. i Mac. i^^ y^''. — 4. We are become a 
reproach to our neighbours, a scorn and derision to them that are 
round about us\ This is a citation from 44^'*. — 5. How long, 
Yahweh ? wilt Thou be ang7y forever ? Will Thy jealousy burn 
like fire ?] This is a citation with slight variation from Sq''^ — 
6-7. Pour out Thy wrath upon the nations that know Thee not, 
and upon the kingdoms that do not call on Thy tiame ; for they 
have devoured Jacob, and his habitation laid waste]. This is a 
citation, with few and unimportant changes, from Je. lo^^ 

Str. II. One antith., one synth., and one syn. couplet. — 8. Re- 
member not the i7iiquities of our forefathers], according to law 
Ex. 20^, threatening Lv. 26^^'"i- Dt. 28^^'^-, prophecy Je. nio«<i-, 
and experience La. 5^ 2 K. 23^^ "^- 24H The posterity in their 
solidarity of inheritance, both of favour and guilt, must suffer the 
penalty of their fathers' misdeeds as well as inherit the blessings 
of their covenant. — Quickly], in haste ; the need is pressing, — let 
Thine acts of compassion], so most probably, in accordance with 
usage, as the pi. vb. is used, and not abstr. "compassion " or pi. 
"compassions," "tender mercies," AV., RV. — come to meet us]j 
personified as messengers of God, cf. 21"* 43^ 85"'^^ A glossator 
appends as reason a citation from 142'' : for we are brought very 
low. — 9. Help us, O God of our salvation], carrying on the 
petition, basing it upon the well-known character of God, cf. 18^^ 
24^ 25^ 2f 65^ 85^ Mi. f Hb. 3^« Is. 17^° I Ch. Y(,^. — For the 
sake of the glory of Thy name], phr. 29^ 66^ 96^, in its conception 
common and ancient. Such glory was due to His name, and 
could be given by His people only and not by others, and in the 
land of the living, not of the dead. The honour of God was in- 
volved in the salvation of His people. Several insertions were 
made here by later editors, — and deliver us], specifying the help, 
— and cover over our sins for Thy fia?ne's sake]. The editor 
makes the Ps. more appropriate for use in the synagogue by 
inserting this petition for the covering over of the sins of the 
people themselves, as a check upon their inclination, apparently 



200 PSALMS 

justified by v.**, to attribute all their afflictions to the sins of their 
ancestors, cf. Ez. 1 8^^ '^•. The covering over of sins here is evidently 
conceived as by the grace of God apart from sacrifices, cf. 65^ — 
10. Wherefore should the nations say: ^' Where is their God?''~\ 
This is a citation from 11 5-, cf. 42*". — Let it be made known 
among the nations before our eyes, the vengeance for the blood of 
Thy servants that was poured out]. This resumes the thought of 
v.^ with the Maccabean vindictiveness and cry for vengeance ; 
only the wish is that it may not be deferred, but may be taken 
in their days and before their very eyes, so that they may have 
the joy of it ; and also that it may be before all nations, as a 
public vengeance. — 11. Let the groaning of the pHsoner come 
before Thee\ a citation from 102^, as also the || cause to remain 
alive those condemned to death], captives in war who yet had in- 
curred the death penalty by violation of some regulation of their 
conquerors ; especially appropriate to the early Maccabean times, 
when religious and political rebellion was mingled with acts of un- 
natural cruelty and barbarism on the part of the Jews, in violation 
of the rights of war and justly incurring death after capture. The 
additional clause giving basis for the plea : according to the greatness 
of Thine arm], is a citation from Ex. 15'^ — 12. And return to 
our neighbours sevenfold], another exhibition of the Maccabean 
vindictiveness to the neighbouring nations, cf. w}^ : a demand for 
vengeance of the most thoroughgoing kind, sevenfold, in the spirit 
of the ancient Lamech, cf. Gn. 4^^ -\ rather than of the prophets, 
and indeed into their bosom], well-directed, so that it strikes to 
the very centre, to their very heart. — the reproach wherewith they 
reproached Thee, Adonay]. This is a citation from Ps. 89^^". — 
13. So we. Thy people, and the flock of Thy pasture]. This is a 
citation from 100^, to get the antithesis to the evil neighbours, in 
order to gain a proper subject for the final couplet of the original 
Ps. — Will give thafiks unto Thee \ tell Thy praise], the usual vow 
for benefits received, — forever || to all generations], doubtless in 
public song in the temple. 

1. d-'h'i'n] is a gl. not required for sense or measure. — "'><?p] Pi. pf. X «ct3 
vb. Qal become unclean, by sacrificing children 1068*. Pi. defile, religiously 
in D, H, P, Je., Ez., as here. — D^»y'? icr] phr. as Mi. i* ^fi ctr. f '? n.[m.] 
ruin, heap of ruins, elsw. n>nn d^>3? Mi. 3^2 _ jg^ 261^. — 2. J ^'^?J] n.f. 



PSALM LXXX. 201 

(i) corpse, as Je. f^ + 6 t. Je., Jos. 8^9 (JE) i K. 1322 + 10 t. K, Dt. 2i28 
282s Is. 525 2619 ; (2) carcass of animals in Ez., H, P, Dt. 1421. — nra] makes 

I. too long. It is a gl. — r7f<"^'"i:o] phr. Gn. i24 (P), cf. nr in^n Ps. 104^1, 
-\'P •sr^^'^y ip^^ 10420. — 3. A series of glosses begins here, chiefly extracts from 
older writings. — so*; -iDp;^*] phr. v.i^ 106^. — r.^oD] pi. f. aoD, either prep, 
as 18^2 276 89^ or parts round about, suburbs, as v.*. — 4 = 44^^, only vari- 
ation ir-in for uo^u'P ; evidently gl. — 5 = 89'^^; variations: f\V)<r\ for n-DP,and 
inS<Pi? {p9^^^ for ^T^^D- ^^'"'■' ^^'^s impossible in I5; evidently gl. — 6-7 = Je. 
io26; variations: ''N of late style for "?;; ma*?!:!:, with wider outlook, for 
mnosJ'D ; and omission of i^Sri ih^dn^- — ""J*^] ?^ is evidently err. for pi. of ®, 
'^, ^, E, and Je. iQp-^. — 8. ij'; is prosaic ; makes 1. too long. — a-'JU'N-^] pi. 
\ j^C'N-i adj. elsw. \/^ Sg^-* as adj. with ditdh ; here dub., eitlier adj. with nji;; as 
.5DB., PBV., AV., (g, 3 ; or as subst. ancestors, as Dt. 19I1 Lv. 26-^5 (H), F, 
RV.,Dr.,Ba,Now.,Kiik., Ehr. — nnj]adv. as69i8 io23i437._-^Np ir^i v:] = 
142^ only I pi. vb. for i sg.; a gl. — 9. ry^^-] ^n-'s] v. \2^. — "i^V?]? as Ps 45^ 
Gn.2oii (E)Ex. 82(J). — •nric 1123] phr.,t/. 292. — "ir"^:i^] Hiph. imv. ':']£: with 
1 separating it from previous context in MT. 3 attaches it to subsequent 
clause. @ has /ciypie pvcrai ijfias, making it independent of both clauses. — 
"^y 193] as Je. i828, c. ace. Pss. 65* yS^^. — -]:2Z' yjr,^] as 23^ 25II 31*; here 
gl. — 10. dh^hSn . . . na*^] = 1152; only variation is omission of particle Ki. — 
D-7_ rpi")]] cstr. obj. vengeance for, phr. a.X., but cf. "tjm 'J Je. 5028 51II. — 

II. Based on Ps. 10221 in the phrs. n^ps rpjN and n^-irrn "jd; phrs. and 
t nriinn n.f. not used elsw. The vbs. are different from those of 10221 . ^-i-,,-, 
Hiph. imv. % [">'3';] vb. remain over ; elsw. ■^ Niph. be left over 106II. — 
ri'rir Si5r] = Ex. 151^, only d for 3 and '^ii for ^m, a variation not owing to 
an original difference of text. This v. is therefore a mosaic gl., and is without 
regard to measure. — 12. □■'JD^'] of reproachful neighbouring nations, elsw. y\/, 
v.* gl. = 44I*, cf. 3112 go? 8^42^ — D;pr3r] sevenfold, as 12^ ; used for vengeance 
Gn. 415- 24, which were prob. in the mind of the writer. — C|"j-'n-?N] of requital, 
cf. Is. 656-'^ Je. 32^8. — Tii3"!n irx cr5-(n] is a condensation of 89^1-^2. and 
••JIN also was derived from that passage. — 13 a = loo^'', except 2 sg. sf. for 
3 sg. with both nouns. — -^ ni;^] Hiph. impf. i pi. nn^ ; phr. 6^ 75^ +• — 
nnSnn ncDj] phr. 91^ 78* Is 4321 cf. Ps. 10222. 



PSALM LXXX., 5 STR. 6», rf. 2^. 

Ps. 80 is a prayer of Israel for a divine advent for salvation, 
especially in the Rf . (v."* ^ ^^^ ^o) ; that the Shepherd of Israel would 
shine forth before Northern Israel (v.^"^) ; remonstrance against 
long-continued anger, while the people in tears were praying and 
their neighbours were mocking (v.*"') ; recalling the earlier, more 
prosperous history in the allegory of the vine (v.*""), and then the 
subsequent oppression by Egypt and the other world powers (v.^^'^*), 



202 PSALMS 

with a final petition that Yahweh would visit and save this vine, 
concluding with a vow of worship (v.^^*- ^^ ^^). A Maccabean editor 
appends an imprecation on the enemies (v.^'), and a Messianic 
petition (v.^®). 

gHEPHERD of Israel, O give ear. 
Leader of Joseph as a flock, 
Throned upon the Cherubim, O shine forth. 
Before Ephraim and Manasseh, 
O stir up Thy might, 
And O come for salvation to us. 

Yahweh {Sabaoth) restore us, 

And cause Thy face to shine that we may be saved. 
YAHWEH Sabaoth, how long 

Dost Thou smoke during the prayer of Thy people ; 
Dost Thou feed them with the bread of tears ; 
And give them to drink (a measure of wormwood) ; 
Make us a strife to our neighbours, 
That our enemies should mock at us? 

Yahweh Sabaoth restore us. 

And cause Thy face to shine that we may be saved. 
A VINE out of Egypt thou removest ; 

Thou dravest out the nations, and didst plant her; 
Thou didst clear (the way) before her, 
So that she took root and filled the land. 
The mountains were covered with her shadow, 
And with her boughs the cedars of God. 

( Yahweh Sabaoth restore us. 

And cause Thy face to shine that tve may be saved.) 
CHE sends forth her branches unto the Sea, 
And unto the River her shoots. 
Why then hast Thou broken down her walls, 
So that all the passers-by may trample her? 
The boar of (the Nile) tears her down; 
And the beasts of the field graze upon her. 

Yahweh Sabaoth restore us, 

{And cause Thy face to shine that we may be saved.) 
T OOK down from heaven, and see. 
And visit the vine (Thou didst get), 
The one Thy right hand did plant. 
The son Thou didst make strong for Thyself. 
And we will not draw back from Thee. 
Quicken us, and on Thy name will we call. 

Yahtveh Sabaoth restore us. 

And cause Thy face to shine that we may be saved. 

Ps. 80 was in ^, then in fH, subsequently in 15 and in QISl, in which latter 
it received the direction nn;; d^jb^'^-Sn (y. Intr. §§ 29.81.32.33.34^. jhe Ps. 



PSALM LXXX. 203 

is composed of five trimeter hexastichs, to which is added identical Rfs. This 
Rf. is absent in part at close of Str. 4 and altogether at close of Str. 3, owing 
to copyist's abbreviations. There is but one gloss, v.^'^-^**, from the Maccabean 
times. There are many features of ^ : Yahweh the Shepherd, Israel the flock 
v2, as 74I 78^2, cf. 7913 _ 100^. the use of Joseph for North Israel v. 2, as 771*5 
78^7 81^; the use of >*>Din of theophany v.^, as 50^; of J'^r;' for anger v.^ as 74I; 
of ;dj v.^ as 78^2. of d^jj -jnjn v.^, as 78^^; of in>d -inn v." referring to Egypt, 
as 78**; of ^iti' VI v.i*, as 50^1. There are several special features, as: a'"'^^' 
v.^ as Is. 4oi2; p-,Q v.'^, as Je. 1$^^; Sx irns \M a.X., cf. hn '''y\n 36'^; njc v.^'^, as 
Is. 40^ 57I* 62^'' Mai. 3I. The allegory of the Vine v.^ 'i- is based on Gn. 49^2, 
especially the use of p in v.i^. The divine name mN3X mn^ was prob. due to 
the warlike character of the Ps. There are three difficult phrases, which 
would imply a late date if f^ were correct ; but all these are errors : (a) r^)'^*< 
V.13, as Ct. 5I, both passages incorrect. Rd. here nn;\ (d) njcDiD"' v.i*« a.X., 
error for njD"in>. (^) nn v.^^, marked by enlarged D as dubious ; rd. 7"^:^, a vb. 
characteristic of '31. The style of the Ps. is classic in syntax and elegant. The 
Ps. refers to the ruin wrought by the destruction of Jerusalem. It was written 
in Babylonia under the influence of D and Is. 2. The gloss, y.^'-^^, contains a 
Maccabean imprecation, the Aramaism nniDr, also a Messianic interp. of tt'-'X as 
■jj-'D'' tr>K, cf. Ps. iiqI, and of p as ons p, cf. 8^. 

Str. I. A hexastich, of which l.i-^.s.e ^j.g gyjj^ j2 emphatically 
qualifies the subj., I.'* the obj. of the other lines. — 2-3. Shepherd 
of Israel'\j endearing epithet of Yahweh from patriarchal times, 
cf. Gn. 48^^, a favourite term of ^ 74^ 78^^ || Leader of Joseph as 
a flock']. North Israel seems to be prominent in the mind of the 
poet, as often in ^ 77^^ 78^^ 81^; emphasized in before Ephraim 
and Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph, and standing for the chief 
tribes of the North. To this a glossator has added Benjamin at 
the expense of the measure, without propriety, because this tribe 
belonged with the South; possibly because it was on the north 
between Judah and Ephraim, and the glossator thought of help 
for Judah as coming from the North. — Enthroned upon the 
Cherubim'], another ancient epithet of Yahweh i S. 4^ 2 S. 6-; 
originally referring to the divine presence on the cherubic slab 
above the ark, then in the throne room of the temple, and subse- 
quently to the cherubic chariot in theophany Ez. i* "i-, so doubtless 
here. The vbs. are all syn. : O give ear to the petition || shine 
forth in the brilliant light of theophanic presence, cf. 50^ 94^ 
II Stir up Thy might\ rouse to activity the might of the divine arm 
in interposition, to strike down the enemies and vindicate the 



204 PSALMS 

people, II O come for salvation for us, the people being in need 
of it. 

Rf. 4. Yahweh Sabaoth restore us, and cause Thy face to 
shine that zue may be saved\ The Rf. was originally identical at 
the close of each of the five Strs. But copyists omitted it after 
Str. III., left off the second line after Str. IV., and thereby oc- 
casioned a copyist's error in the last word of the first line ; omitted 
Sabaoth in the first Rf., and by conflation inserted Yahweh in the 
last Rf. Doubdess in all cases E changed an original " Yahweh " 
as usual into "'Elohim." The petition in all these cases is that 
Yahweh Sabaoth, the warlike God of the David ic dynasty, may 
interpose in war against the enemies of His people ; let His face 
shine with the light of favour toward them, cf. Nu. 6^ Pss. 4^ 31^' 
df 119^^ ; that they may be saved from their enemies and restored 
to their former prosperity. 

Str. II. 5-7. How long?\ belongs to the first line as an 
emphatic question of remonstrance, enlarged upon in the five 
specifications that follow, cf. 6^ 90^^ A late copyist by conflation 
of Elohitn and Yahweh has induced Vrss. and interpreters to 
attach it to the second line, thereby seeming to limit the question 
to that line and making the subsequent sentences statements of 
fact. But the style of the Ps. makes it evident that the question 
extends over the entire ^Kx.—-Dost Thou smoke'], in anger; the 
hard breathing of passion resembling smoke going forth from the 
nostrils, cf. 74^ Dt. 2c,'^\ — during the prayer of Thy people], while 
the people persist in prayer for deliverance. This seems preferable 
to AV., RV., "against the prayers," or JPSV., "notwithstanding 
the prayers," although any of these may be justified by the usage 
of the Heb. prep. — Z>^j/ Thou feed them \\ give them to drink], 
food and drink making up together the daily nourishment of man ; 
but instead of the proper nourishment their God gives them the 
bread of tears, cf. 42^ || a measure of wormwood]. This latter is 
a conjectural reading after Je. 8^^ 9^* 23"'' for the text of % which, 
though sustained by Vrss., does not give a good sense ; whether we 
render "out of tears," conceived as a cup and defined as a tierce 
in measure, as is most in accordance with Heb. grammar; or 
" with tears tierce-wise," the tierce being a very large measure for 
a drinking vessel. But the conception and construction are alike 



PSALM LXXX. 205 

awkward, and give nothing more than a tautology, strange for a 
poet whose style is in other respects so ornate. EV. paraphrase 
and obscure the meaning of the original. According to the view 
suggested above the " tierce " is an explanatory gloss defining the 
" measure " of the original. — Make us a strife to our neighbours^ 
an object of contention, as Je. 15^^ ; the lesser neighbouring nations 
disputing among themselves for the possession of the spoils taken 
from Israel, whether in land or goods. — That our enemies should 
mock at US'], at the weakness of Israel in her inability to protect 
herself from their incursions. 

Str. III. Two synth. couplets and a syn. couplet. — 9-11. A 
vine], emphatic in position ; an allegory of Israel based on Gn. 49^^, 
cf. Ho. ro^ Is. 5^-^ 2f-^ Je. 2^1 iz^^'"^-— Out 0/ £gypt Thou remov- 
est], graphic impf., referring to the Exodus from Egypt, cf. Ex. 15^^. 
— Thou d7-avest out the nations'], cf. 78^, at the conquest of the 
Holy Land under Caleb and Joshua, and subsequently; cf. Ex. 
J ^13-17 pg^ ^^3 — and didst plant her], the final result of the pre- 
vious divine activities. This vb. is constantly used of the estab- 
lishment of Israel in the Holy Land, even where the image of a 
tree or vine is not thought of. — Thou didst clear the way before 
her], resuming the first part of v.^^, and explaining the driving out 
of the nations in accordance with the allegory as the clearing of 
the ground of all other plants, the removal of stones and all such 
other things in the soil as the vine-dresser would remove in mak- 
ing a vineyard. — So that she took root], resuming the second part 
of v.^'', continuing the allegory : the vine striking her roots deep 
in the fertile soil which had been carefully prepared for her. — 
and filled the land], an advance in the thought; so greatly did 
the vine flourish that it filled with its growth the entire vineyard, 
the entire land of Palestine. — The mountains were covered with 
her shadow], a most stupendous growth, an exaggeration of the 
allegory, not uncommon in Hebrew poetry. The vine has grown 
so greatly that it has climbed and covered the mountains, and still 
more the cedars of God]. The gigantic cedars of Lebanon, the 
loftiest of all trees, were covered with her boughs]. The branches 
of the vine climbed these gigantic trees to the very top and cov- 
ered their great hmbs. Thus had Yahweh prospered Israel in 
ancient times. 



206 PSALMS 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets and an intervening synth. couplet. 
— 12-14. She sends forth her branches unto the Sea\. The 
Mediterranean Sea on the west is the limit of the extent of Israel, 
and so of the branches of the vine that represent her. — And unto 
the River her shoots\ the river Euphrates, the extreme limit of 
Israel on the east according to the tradition of the conquests of 
David 2 S. 8^ I K. 4-\ These extreme limits of conquest bring 
Israel into conflict with the great nations. On this account this 
couplet begins the Str. to prepare the way for the subsequent 
disasters. — Why then hast Thou broken down her walls ?\ re- 
suming the remonstrance of Str. II. in connection with the alle- 
gory. The walls probably refer to the limits of the land guarded 
by the armies of Israel. They had been defeated on the frontiers 
and driven back, and the land was invaded by the enemy. — So 
that all the passers-by may trample her']. These are doubtless 
the neighbouring nations, who usually took advantage of the inva- 
sions of Israel by the world powers to get spoil for themselves by 
inroads upon the imperilled borders. They trample the vine of 
Israel under foot like wild beasts with no thought of the damage 
they are doing. — The boar of the Nile\ the most probable read- 
ing, referring then to Egypt, which by incursion so often laid 
waste the land ; but the usual reading, " of the wood," the forest, 
gives it a more general reference, possibly to the Syrian neigh- 
bours. — the beasts of the field\ possibly the Philistine neighbours. 
— tears her doivn\ destroys the branches. — graze upon her\ 
using the vineyard as their pasture, and the tender branches of 
the vine with its foliage as their food. 

Str. V. A single line advances by stairlike parallelism to the 
second line, which begins a syn. triplet, the whole concluding with 
a syn. couplet. — 15 i&-16. Look down from heaven and see || and 
visit'], resuming the plea for a divine advent of Str. I. — the vine 
II the one \\ the son], that is, of the vine, as Gn. 49^-. — Thou didst 
get], take to Thyself as Thine own. This is the most probable 
reading ; || T7iy right hand did plant jj Thou didst make strong for 
Thyself all resuming the thought of Str. III. But J^ is doubtful, 
and Vrss. disagree whether the form H^D is noun or vb., and none 
yield a meaning appropriate to the context, or a text of good 
measures ; whether with PBV. we paraphrase by " place of the 



PSALM LXXX. 207 

vineyard," or with AV. think of " the vineyard " itself, or with 
RV. "the stock," JPSV. "the stem," all taking it as noun, or 
with (3, U, we regard it as vb. in the sense of "prepare." — 
17. A later editor inserts a couplet, reasserting the damage 
wrought by the enemies in another form : Sk^ is burned with fire ; 
she is cut off~\ ; in order to an imprecation : At the rebuke of 
Thy countenance let them perish. — 18. The same, or possibly 
another editor, thinking to give the Ps. a Messianic significance, 
repeats v.-^^ in a form which makes it applicable to his purpose : 
Let Thy hand be upon the man of Thy right hand\ either think- 
ing of Israel as placed at the right hand of God, or more proba- 
bly of the Messianic king of iio\ — So in the parall. upon the 
Son of Man Thou didst 7nake strong for Thy self \ This probably 
refers to the Son of man of 8^ — 19. The original Ps. is here 
resumed, the first line depending on v.^^*"^®. — And we will not 
draw back from Thee\ a vow of fidelity, — and a renewed plea: 
Quicken us, and on Thy name will we call, 

2. 7N5f3 jnj] Qal ptc, nominal force, as n;n, 3;r\ The conception of God 
as shepherd and of Israel as flock is characteristic of % 74I 78^^, cf. also 79^* 
= icx)^. — rlD^"'] stands for North Israel, as 77^*' 78^^ 8i^ — D^ansn ^k'"'] as 
99I Is. 37^^ I S. 4* 2 S. 62+ ; originally the cherubim of the ark, later of the 
innermost room of the temple, still later of the cherubic theophanic throne, so 
probably here, as in Ez. i*»<i-, cf. Rev. ^'^•, — n^>D^n] Hiph. imv. cohort. ;?i3>, 
theophanic shining forth, as 50^ 94I. — 3. TP^pi] makes 1. too long, and is in 
itself improb., though in all Vrss.; for why should Benjamin be associated 
with North Israel, Manasseh, and Ephraim ? Possibly it was inserted because 
of an association of r\y~> tr-'N of v.i^ with Benjamin. — n-ini;] Polel imv. cohort. 
a.X. ■^, rouse, incite to activity ; but Qal 7^ Hiph. 352*. — nnj:;r>')'] poetic 
lengthened form for euphony, in order to prevent two accents in immediate 
sequence; for n>'v.:*> {j^) cf. Ges.^o. ac^ — 4^ o^hSn] requires n'iN3;( as its com- 
plement for measure, as in other Rfs. v.^- 1^- 20. In v.^^, as v.^ it is then pre- 
ceded by nin% which, as in 59^ 84^ must be regarded as conflation ; for in all 
these cases the measure is impaired, and one of the divine names must be 
regarded as a gloss. D^nVs in all such cases stands for an original r^^r\\ other- 
wise it would be niK3X niSn. — inhi] 1 coord. Hiph. imv. niN, of divine face, 
theophany, 4' 311^ 67^ 119!'^^; cf. Nu. 6^^. — nv^iJi] 1 subord. purpose, Niph. 
impf. cohort. — 5. ^rD'ij:] belongs with previous context, as the measure 
requires after that mn-" is thrown out. — n^^y] Qal pf. y&; denom. ]-\i;v smoke ; 
subj. f)N 74I Dt. 29!^; here God Himself. The pf. does not state a fact, but 
is dependent on tid "i>', as pfs. in all subsequent 11. of Str. — -?n- 7]. The 
prep. 2 is not 3 of hostility, as Gr., Ba., Dr., Che., Kirk., AV., RV. ; or in spite 



208 PSALMS 

ofy Hu., Du., so JPSV. notwithstanding, cf. 78^2. v,u|- {^^ during, as De W., 
Ew., Hi., De., Pe., cf. PBV., "with thy people that prayeth"; @, 2, have ^iri, 
U super y 3 ady but their interp. improb. — 6. nycT en;;'] phr. a.X., but cf. 
42*. — '^CQrn)] 1 consec. Hiph. impf. with archaic sf. 3 pi., c. 3 as usual with 
vbs. of drinking. — i^"^;*!;")] ph is dub., especially after n;'ci coll. in previous 1. 
We should prob. rd. : njy'? mD3, of a measure of wormwood, cf. Je. 8^^ 9^* 
23^^ the measure being defined by a glossator as ^^hz", a third measure, a 
tierce ; cf. Jb. 28-^ for such a use of nnc for liquids, f 5^"*^-' elsw. Is. 40^2. 
@ ^1* /Lt^rpy, 3 tripliciter. — 7. up^rn] impf. ; change of tense to express the 
habitual condition of the people. — + 1"'''^ n. (i) strife, contention, lib. i'^, 
elsw. Pr. 15 t. ; (2) object of contention, here as Je. \^^. — '>c^] ethical 
dative, according to their desire ; but (S, 3, iJ*^ is more prob. — 9. |pj] emph. 
in position as theme of the allegory, which is based on Gn. 4922. — T'or\'] Hiph. 
impf. 2 sg. ;'Dj; elsw. V', 78^-^ also of removal of Israel from Egypt (cf. Ex. 1522) 
and 7<S'-^ of God's leading out the wind. — cyj '"^'^.f?] elsw. ^, 78^^ — nvjni] 
1 consec. after impf., emph. change of tense into aorist. — 10. r"':s] Pi. pf 
turn away, clear away ; in this sense usually with "T^t Is. 40^ 57I* 62^'' Mai. 
3I, so prob. here. The omission of 171 txt. err. — ^'cn*^ c'";;B'ri_i] ) consec. 
Hiph. cnc (5-?^) ; as Is. 27^ Jb. 5^ but these without the cognate ace, which 
is indeed prob. a gl. to get a subj. for s^^^n other than God, the subj. of all 
previous vbs. But the subj. is really jrij. This gives us better measure. ^ 
gives the v. as three dimeters. — 11. ir?-] Pu. pf. for usual icr, no:) (j-?^). — 
rHi\ (17^) ace. remote obj. Ges.2^3{5), — s^ ,pxj gigantic cedars of Lebanon, 
cf. ^^K nnn 36'. The Rf. should come in here. It has been omitted in 
writing as elsw. (v. Intr. § 12.) — 12. t"<7i7] n.m. coll. boughs, elsw. Jb. 14® 
jgi6 2910 Is. 27"; late word, || t [''17.?"] n-f- shoot, elsw. Ho. 14^ Ez. 1722 Jb. 
8^ 147 1580. — 13. nnsM] 1 consec. pf., change of tense to get frequentative, 
t nnN vb. elsw. Ct. 5^ pluck, gather, ^DB ; but as Gr., one does not pluck 
myrrh, but smell it, and he regards Ct. 5^ txt. err. for \-n"in ^rws s?nell. Gr. 
suggests Tw^-; after &, trample her. Che. ni-i;, lay her bare, is not so good. 
— 14. ^^2;:p-;r] Pi. impf. t [^P"??] a-^- tear off, i^DB., as NH. It is txt. err. 
for ^30")^; tear down; so in Niph. of walls of vineyard Pr. 24*1. — t "'"Jr)] n«in. 
swine, boar, elsw. Dt. 14^ = Lv. ii"^ Is. 65* 66^- ^^ Pr. 1122. — i;'^] Qr. forest 
{2(f) ; suspended y indicates a change of the original text, prob. to get a 
reference to Rome. The original was doubtless ">n% referring to Egypt as the 
river swine, cf. yS^. — >"^tr r-r] as 50'^ C3l)» referring to other nations. — 

15. The first 1. is a relict of the Rf. which belongs here. @ had in-'U-n here 
also, for which 1^ ni 3ic' is copyist's error. The second 1. has been left out. — 
O'CB'D 03n] Hiph. imv. 03j; phr, elsw. 33^* Is. 63^^ La. i^i- 12 2-0 5I. — 

16. !^^33i]. The enlarged n indicates here a doubtful reading. ® Kal Kardp- 
Ticrai air-^v = Qal imv. sf. np from ]}d ace. Ri., De., but this is improb. ; 
rd. rather Polel njr. But 3 radicem, so S, ^T, take it as noun. ^DB. njr n.f. 
a.X. root, stock ; but this again is improb. Gr., Che., Ehr., would rd. r\\\ n.f. 
enclosure, garden. As Du. says, .•"s? i^j is improb. in previous line. It is bad 
measure and bad syntax. It is prob. err. He suggests "jn'^'v. It is easier. 



PSALM LXXXI. 209 

however, to read njnn in accordance with the preference of "31 for njp. Then 
it is improb. that the next 1. began with ns'N. It should be c^n, as in v.^*"; 
tt'-'N being used as Gn. 15IO; syn. with 73, of the vine, Gn. 49^2. — I3"^v] has 
been assimilated to v.^^^; in (S din has also been added. The hj! is correct 
after r\-^i •^nn v.^^'', but not before p there any more than before -wh. This 
insertion made the difficulty with the previous word, urging its interpretation 
as vb. sq. hy. — ^pf?><] Pi- pf-, fully written 2 m. >*r!N, cf. 89-2 Is. 44I*. — 
17. !^07v'] Qal ptc, cf. 46^^, interrupts the thought, is a Maccabean gloss. — 
nmD3] Qal ptc. f. f [i^DD] vb. Aramaism cut off, or away ; elsw. Is. 33I2 of 
thorns. — "njaN^] Qal juss.; imprecation upon the enemies. — 18. doublet of 
v.i^, interpreting it in the Messianic sense as referring to the royal Messiah ; 
based on 8^ 1 10^. — 19. j d^j nVi] should be two beats, without Makkeph. 
Vb. is Qal impf. J"»d H Nipj; cf. 53* Zp. i^. 

PSALM LXXXI. 

Ps. 81 is composite : (A) a call to the celebration of the Pass- 
over, based on its divine institution at the Exodus (v.^^) ; 
(B) a paraphrase of the divine words to Israel at the Exodus, as 
to deliverance from Egypt (v.^'"*"), the fundamental word as to the 
exclusive worship of Yahweh (v.**-^"^^), rebuke for disobedience 
^^12-13^^ and exhortation to obedience with promise of victory over 
enemies (v.^*"^^). Glosses add varied material (v.^-9^ii«' i^-i^). 

A. V.^"^*, 2 STR. 5^. 

J^ING out your joy unto God our strength : 

Shout to the God of Jacob. 

Lift up a melody; sound the timbrel, 

The pleasant lyre with the harp, 

Blow the horn on the new moon. 
(~\N the full moon, (is) our feast day: 

For it is a statute to Israel, 

A judgment of the God of Jacob, 

A (festival) that He made in Joseph, 

When he went forth from the land of Egypt. 

B. v.«^- »«•!"• 12-15^ 4 STR. 4^. 

A LIP unknown was heard (saying) : 

" I have removed from the burden his shoulder; 
His palms from the basket shall go free. 
In distress thou didst call, and I delivered thee, 
u J RESPOND to thee in the secret place of thunder: 
' Hear, my people Israel! 
There shall not be with thee a strange god ; 
And thou shalt not worship a foreign god,' 
P 



210 PSALMS 

a "RUT my people did not hearken to my voice; 

And Israel would none of me. 

And so I let them go in the stubbornness of their mind: 

And they went on in their own counsels, 
li r^ THAT my people had hearkened unto me ! 

That Israel would walk in my ways! 

In a little while their enemies I would subdue, 

And against their adversaries I would turn my hand." 

Ps. 8i was in <3[, then in E and in 132^, in which last it received the direc- 
tion n'njn '■'■; {v. Intr. §§ 29, 32, ;^2f 34)- ^^ is a composite Ps. ; v.'-^* has 
two trimeter pentastichs, and is a call to the celebration of the feast of Pass- 
over, composed not earlier than the late Persian or early Greek period. It 
was in E as is shown by divine names, but probably not in <3l. This Ps. was 
prefixed in E to an older Ps. of "31, which in its original form had four trimeter 
tetrastichs, all the words of God to Israel. It seems incomplete at the begin- 
ning. The introductory Str. was probably omitted when v.-'"'^'' were prefixed. 
This Ps. shows dependence on D and Je., and therefore cannot be earlier than 
the late exile. It is a remonstrance with Israel for not hearkening to the 
divine words in the matter of the exclusive worship of their God. The 
command v.^*^" is a pn of the type of D, v.^^* a nai of the earlier type (v. 
l3r.Hcx.243 250) . -^j L,^ y.lO _ ^'21. ^,j K^ v.io = Dt. $2^'^ Mai. 2^1; ^S .-13N h"? 
\.^'^f cf. Is. 1^^ Dt. 13®; v.^^ is dependent on Je. 7^*. There are several glosses: 
(l) v.^*", a reference to the testing of God at the waters of Meril)ah, cf. Dt. 
338; (2) v.i^», a reference to the preface of the Ten Words, cf. Dt. 5" 20^; 
(3) v.i'\ based on v.i^ from Dt. 3218- ^*; (4) v.is, based on Ps. 18^*, cf. 668; 
on", as 31^''. The Ps. in its present form was assigned to the Feast of Taber- 
nacles, because of the reference in its second part to the giving of the Law. 

PSALM LXXXI. A. 

Str. I. is a syn. pentastich. — 2-4 a. /^ing out your joy || shout\ 
loud, tumultuous expression of joy, as usual at the pilgrim feasts, 
cf. 47^ 66^ This was accompanied by the melody of song and 
music of instruments : timbrel . . . lyre . . . /iar/> and hor/iy cf. 
98*^. — unto God our strength^ cf. Ex. 15^ = Is. 12^ = Ps. 118^* 
Mi. 5^ Is. 49*. — the God of Jacob'], also v.^ as 75^° 76^ 84^ — on 
the new moon]. Each new moon was celebrated as a minor feast 
from very early times, and in later times the ritual prescribed sac- 
rifices appropriate to the occasion Nu. 28"""; the new moons of 
the months of Passover and Tabernacles were especially sacred. 

Str. II. has introverted parall. : the first and fourth are syn. 
lines enclosing the syn. second and third, while the fifth line is 



PSALM LXXXI. 211 

synth. to the fourth. — 4i&. On the full moon]. This might be 
either Passover or Tabernacles. The Jewish tradition is strongly 
in favour of the latter, and if the Ps. is taken as a whole in its 
composite form the stress on the giving of the Law in v.^" cer- 
tainly favours that opinion and justifies the use of the Ps. on that 
occasion. But if v.^~^ was originally a separate Ps., it seems more 
appropriate to the Passover. — is our feast day], specifically, as 
one of the three great pilgrim feasts. — 5-6 b. For it is a statute] ^ 
an earlier form of the || judgment; both in their original usage, 
referring to laws given by courts of law, but here in a later and 
more general sense for religious laws given by God Himself. — 
A festival], so probably in the original, resuming in the climax 
the feast day rather than " testimony " of MT. which introduces 
a late term for Law with two earlier ones, and gives a legal climax 
instead of the more natural festal climax. — to Israel || in Joseph]^ 
as usual in ^, v. 80^. — When he went forth from the land of 
Egypt], at the Exodus of Israel, designating the time of the insti- 
tution of the Passover Ex. 12^"' -\'^^. This is according to the 
text of (§, Y), J, followed by PBV., and is much more natural than 
J^, which refers to God as subject, whether we think of His going 
out against the land, with JPSV., Dr., Kirk., and most moderns, 
or ''through the land," AV., or ''over the land," RV. The text 
of 5^ was doubtless due to the interpretation of this line in accord- 
ance with the subsequent context, whereas (©, F, J more prop- 
erly connect it with the previous context. 

PSALM LXXXI. B. 

Str. I has a syn. couplet enclosed in lines introductory thereto. 
— 6 c. A lip unknown was heard]. This is the most natural 
interpretation of this difficult passage. Taking the vbs. as ptcs. 
best explains the interpretation of (^, F, 3, PBV., as 3d pers., 
and of 5^ followed by AV., RV., as ist pers., "where I heard 
a language that I knew not," or "understood not," made more 
specific in its reference to Israel by JPSV., "then I heard the 
speech of Him that I had not known." But the use of the ist 
pers. sg. for Israel here immediately before its use for God is 
improbable. It was the lip of their God speaking that Israel 
heard. Though He had been the God of their fathers. He had 



2 1 2 PSALMS 

not spoken to Israel in Egypt, and was to them a God of whom 
they had no practical knowledge. They had been accustomed to 
the speech of the taskmasters ; now they hear the word of a 
redeemer. — This is, then, introductory to the words of God 
which follow: 7. / have removed from the burden his shoulder 
II His pa/ms from the basket shall go free"]. Israel in Egypt was in 
bondage under hard taskmasters, requiring them especially to make 
bricks and carry them in baskets on their shoulders to the great 
buildings that were in process of erection; cf. Ex. i^^*^* 3^'^ 5*"^'-* 
6^^^ — 8 a. In distress thou didst call\ referring to the bitter cries 
of Israel for help, finally answered by God in the words given above, 
which may all be summed up in the sentence : I delivered thee']. 

Str. II. Synth, and syn. couplets. — 8 Z). / respond to thee in 
the secret place of thunder], that is, in the theophany at Mount 
Horeb, when the Ten Words were spoken aloud in connection 
with a storm of thunder and lightning, cf. Ex. 19-20 Dt. 5. — The 
remaining lines of the Str. give this response of Yahweh to the 
call of the people. A glossator adds another response of Yahweh : 
/ tried thee at the waters of Meribah (cf. Nu. 20^^ (P) Dt. 33^ 
Ps. 106^), which has no manner of propriety in this context, and, 
as usual in such cases, impairs the measure. — 9. Hear, my people 
Israel], words of essential importance to this Ps., as is evident 
from their repetition in negative form in v.^ and as a wish in v.^*. 
A glossator enlarges them by an addition from Ps. 50^, and I will 
testify against thee, and a conditional clause. If thou wilt hearken 
unto mCy neither of which is suited to the context and both of 
which are against the measure. — 10. There shall not be with thee 
a strange god || And thou shall not worship a foreign god]. These 
are the first and second of the Ten Words, or the two parts of the 
First Word, as they are differently counted, cf. Ex. 20^ Dt. 5""^^ 
without the reasons or specifications, and in the use of the terms 
of Dt. 32^2, cf. Ps. 44-^ Mai. 2", limiting Israel to the worship of 
their own national God to the exclusion of all foreign deities. 
This was the fundamental religious law. — 11. A glossator adds 
the preface of the Ten Words : / am Yahweh, thy God, who 
brought thee up out of the land of Egypt; and also a conditional 
promise : Open 7vide thv ?nouth and I will fill it ; their God will 
give to the full extent of the asking. 



PSALM LXXXI. 213 

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. — 12. But my people did not hearken 
to my voice || Israel ivould none of me'], referring to the historic 
disobedience of Israel to the divine Law, and their frequent lapses 
into idolatry prior to the Exile, cf. Is. i^ — 13. And so I let them 
go II and they went], in their course of life, their conduct. — in 
the stubbornness of their mind\ a phrase elsewhere peculiar to 
Je. 3^^ f" 9^^ ii« 13''^ 1612 18^2 23I7, or derived from Je. in Dt. 29'^ 
II in their own counsels], cf. Je. 7-^ 24^ jgf^ entirely to themselves, 
without the guidance of the divine Law or the divine help, to plan 
out their own Hfe and live in accordance with their own desires. 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 14. O that my people had heark- 
ened unto me I], probably referring to the past; || That Israel 
would walk in my ways], referring to the present. If this divine 
wish had been fulfilled by His people, then He on His part, in the 
apodosis, would have continued to deliver them from all enemies 
and distresses, as He had delivered them from the Egyptians. — 
15. In a little while their enemies I would subdue || and against 
their adversaries I would turn my hand], the hand of God, as 
often, being lifted up to smite the enemies of His people; cf. 
Am. i« Is. i^^. 

A later editor, not content with this simple and strong conclu- 
sion of the Ps., makes several additions : 16. May the haters of 
Yahweh come cringing unto Him], as 66^ 2 S. 22^ (= Ps. 18**). 
This is probably to be interpreted as a wish of the congregation, 
and not as a prediction, or as the continuation of the divine word. 
— But let their fortune be forever], that is, the good time of 
Israel, as 31^^, antith. with the previous line. The form of the 
vb. is jussive, and it most probably has full jussive force, and is 
not to be rendered as simple future or to be given the force of 
"should" of EV^ — 17 is a free citation from Dt. 32^^-14 ^^^ 
probably in the historical form with historical reference : And He 
gave them to eat of the fatness of wheat, atid from the rock He 
satisfied them with honey]. (3, %, S) give 3d pers. in both clauses. 
J^, followed by EV'., uses 3d pers. in the first clause and ist pers. 
in the second, which is so incongruous that many moderns change 
the text of the first clause to the ist pers. in order to make the 
entire couplet a continuation of the words of God, and accord- 
ingly a promise to Israel. 



214 PSALMS 



LXXXI. A. 

2. ijTiy] for wv; cf. Ex. 152 = Is. 122 = Ps. iigi*, Mi. 58 Is. 49^; 6 ry 
Po7]d<^ ijfxQv. — 3. '"!■;-!] melody of Psalm, @ ypaXfidv, v. Intr. § i. — Jin] 
p.m. timbrel, as Ex. 152*^ Pss. 149^ 150*. — d^^j •T'^r] sweetly sounding lyre, 
& \pa\T'iflpiov Tepirvbv; cf. 2 S. 23^ (Dr. in I.e.). — 4. B'7.n2] in the new 
moon; not elsw. t/', but Am. 8* Is. i^^ Ho. 2^* +• — t "ipO A^^ /w<7<7«/ clsw. 
Pr. f^ NDDH DV. — "ij3n D^^*?] *:> is interp.; phr. not in (S, U, which interpret 
it as in apposition with nou; it is really predicate, beginning a new Str. — 
6. >nSNS] "^ of author, as 3, not r^J Qi(f 0.-6 ab. nn> ] term of P for Law 
i(f 78^ 119^*+ 122*; improb. here; rd., as climax demands, -i>nc. — »lP''-"i^] 
enlarged form of qor Ges.^^. q, _ ^J^ V'"N;f3] so Aq., S ; but 6 ^k, 31 i/^f ; the 
original prob. without prep., which in both cases is interpretation. 

LXXXI. B. 

C c. rocN \-i;?i^] but 6, U, 3, 5, 3d pers. in both vbs. ; prob. all interp. 
original ptcs. y:Dir >n\ — 7. v?^-»'t?n] so 5 ; but ®, 3, have 3d pers. here also, 
prob. both interps. of an original n-'Dt. — "icr^' ^3C":] phr. a.X., f "^^P n.[m.] 
/<7a^, burden, elsw. i K. ii'^ Ne. 4", usually t ["'^'^D] n.f. Ex. i^i $*• ^ (J) 
2I1 (E) 66-" (P) ; cf. t [^;3D] Is. g'^ io27 1426. — J niV] n.m. <Jaj/J^/ Je. 242-2 
2 K. lo"'; elsw./o/, >^^///^, i S. 2" 2 Ch. 35I8 Jb.4112, the former alone appro- 
priate here. — 8. ^^.^'inj] 1 consec. impf. with strong sf. apodosis (65). — 
^^>!^] change to graphic historical impf. — o?-» nnoj] cf. 18^2^ — t-i^ns >d] 
as Dt. 338 Nu. 2oi8- 2* (P) Ps. 1 06^2 ; but c-i|-i n3n:2 ^c Nu. 27I* Dt. 32^1 (P) 
Ez. 4828; cf. Dt. 332 Ez. 4719, also Ex. 17^ (J) Ps. 95^ — 9. >Dy ycr] (5 adds 
KoX XaXiJcrw o-ot, and thus makes the v. as far as 12 identical with Ps. 50^. It 
is doubtless a gl. —11. i^d 3n->.-i] phr. elsw. Is. 57* Ps. 3521, but in different 
sense. — 18. faaS nnnc»:3] phr. elsw. Je. 3^^ 72* 918 nS 1310 i6ia 181223" 
Dt. 29I8. _Qn\nixj;ic2] two accents, as 5"; cf. Je. 72*. — 16. ci';:r] quickly, 
as 2^2; cf. 732. — y>jDN] Hiph. J>'J3 Niph. be humbled 106". Hiph. humble, 
10712 Is. 256 Jb. 40I2 2 Ch. 2819; here subdue, as 2 S. 8^ +. — 16. nin>] in a 
Ps. of <3l is a sure indication of a gl. — iS i^hd^] phr. 66^ cf. 2 S. 22*^ (= prob. 
Ps. i8*S). — ^n^i] juss. ; not final clause, or result, but expression of wish. — 
ony] as 3ii« their fortune. — 17. v-i^^dnm] so ®, 3, and other Vrss. ; but 
II i;:ott'N % leads many, as Houb., Kau., Ba., to rd. "ih^^^vn^, 1 coord, with 
1st pers. But 0, F, 3, rd. 3d pers. also in;'>aa'n, which is most prob. Both 
go back upon an inf. abs. poo'n without sf. or indication of pers. 



PSALM LXXXII., 3 STR. 4». 

Ps. 82 is didactic and dramatic, representing God Himself in an 
assembly of rulers, calling the wicked ones to account for their 
partiality (v.^"^), commanding them to do justice to the poor and 



PSALM LXXXII. 215 

weak (v.^), and warning them that, although their position is 
divine, they are but men (v.^'). A gloss enlarges upon the evil 
results of their injustice (v.^) ; another makes an urgent appeal to 
God to rise up to judgment (v.^). 

QOD doth stand in the assembly of God : 

In the midst of gods He judgeth : 

" How long will ye judge iniquitously, 

And the persons of the wicked respect? 
« JUDGE the feeble and orphan. 

To the afflicted and destitute do justice. 

Deliver the feeble and poor ; 

From the hand of the wicked rescue them, 
tt T SAY : ' Though ye are gods, 

And sons of 'Elyon, all of you; 

(Ye) as mankind shall die, 

And as one of the princes fall.' " 

Ps. 82 was in % and then taken up into fSl and !E (v. Intr. §§ 29, 31, 32). 
It is similar to Ps. 58. The rulers of the nations, among whom Israel was 
scattered as a poor, weak, and afflicted people, are gods and sons of the Most 
High in their capacity as governors. They are rebuked by God for their 
injustice, and threatened with overthrow. The Ps. is probably exilic. It had 
three trimeter tetrastichs. V.^ is a gloss of further explanation of the serious 
condition of God's people. V.^ is an urgent plea for divine interposition. The 
Ps. is assigned to the third day of the week in ancient Jewish liturgy. 

Str. I. Two syn. couplets. — 1. God doth stand || He judgeth^. 
He hath taken His stand and is in the act of giving sentence. — 
in the assembly of God^, summoned by God Himself for a judicial 
session. — In the midst 0/ gods'], the session is composed of gods || 
sons o/'£/yon, all of you v^ ; they have been acting as judges, and 
some of them at least have been guilty of gross injustice. These 
judges are not evil angels, who in later Judaism were regarded as 
guardians of nations and responsible to God for the misdeeds of 
the rulers, so &, cf. Is. 24-^'-^ They are not wicked rulers in 
Israel, C, cf. Ex. 21^ 22^ ^•^^. But they are the wicked governors 
of the nations holding Israel in subjection, cf. Ez. 28^^"^^. All of 
these are called gods, because as rulers and judges they reflect 
the divine majesty of Law and order in government. — 2. How 
long will ye judge iniquitously /] These judges had for a long 
time carried on their injustice in the government of the people 



2l6 PSALMS 

of God. God calls them to account with a question which im- 
plies a negative answer, that it cannot go on any longer. This 
iniquity was especially manifest by their showing respect to the 
persons of the wicked\ an injustice expressly forbidden in the 
Law and the Prophets Ex. 23^ «<^ Lv. 19^^ ^5 j)^. i^^ 16^^^^ Mai. 2^ 

Str. II. Syn. tetrastich. — 3-4. A command in four imvs. : to 
judge II do justice in favour of the feeblcy orphaji, afflicted, desti- 
tutCf poor ; probably not individuals so much as the people of 
Israel, helpless in the hands of their foreign governors, and ac- 
cordingly to deliver || rescue them from the hand of the wicked^ 
who were taking advantage of their weakness and inability to 
defend themselves. — 5. A glossator states in strong language the 
serious results of this injustice: They do not know; they under- 
stand not^f syn. statements to emphasize the ignorance and blind- 
ness of the judges, according to the usual interpretation. But the 
injustice of these judges was not the result of ignorance : they 
thoroughly understood what they were doing. That interpretation 
is due to the failure to discern that this v. is a gloss. It really sets 
forth throughout the serious consequences of the injustice to those 
who were oppressed. They could not understand it ; they walk 
about in darkness\ not moral, of ignorance ; but of misfortune, as 
Is. 8"^ 50^° Pr. 2^^ — All the foundations of the earth are shaken"]. 
The whole civil order was disturbed, public confidence destroyed, 
and all social and commercial relations were unsettled by the 
injustice of these governors, cf. 11^ 75\ 

Str. III. Antith. couplets. — 6-7. Ye as mankind shall die^^ 
not as it were sharing the common lot of mankind in eventual 
death ; but as || as one of the princes fall, by being cast down, 
slain by an adversary ; for the death here is evidently a penalty 
impending upon these unjust judges from God Himself. This 
penalty they could not escape, though exalted in their position as 
gods and sons of 'Elyon. They were not really divine, but human. 
They were not exalted to be among the immortals. They were 
still mortals, subject to the death penalty. — 8. A later editor, 
wishing to make the Ps. suitable for public worship, adds the 
petition appropriate at all times : O arise, O God ! O judge the 
earth'], a plea that God would do just what He has been repre- 
sented as doing in the Ps. ; but probably also in the more compre- 



PSALM LXXXin. 217 

hensive sense of a final advent, as in 94^ "J- g6^^'^- 98^ — Since 
Thou wilt take possession of all nations as an inheritance'^. Israel 
was the special inheritance of God from the most ancient times. 
But in the universalism of later times, all nations were conceived 
as under the divine government, subject to His judgment, and 
having a share also in redemption, cf. Ps. 87 Is. 19. 

1. Sx] so J, favoured by measure, which requires one accent for '^N'n'^g; 
but ® d'^n, Gewj' is favoured by 1| D>nSx and by tvSy "'J3 v.^ so Aq. la-xvpCjVf 
& angels. — 3. Din"'i Si]. © transposes nouns. — 5. An expansive gl. — 
6. ^mDN ""JNJ pronoun emph.; but unnecessary, makes 1. too long. — ^rSy' ••j^] 
phr. a.X. for rulers ; but no sound reason against it, that would not equally 
apply to Sn ij:3 or to D>n'?N ^j3. — 7. 15N] adv. asseveration, cf. j/^ 66^^; so 
3 ; but ® onN more probable. — 8. A gl. of petition. 

PSALM LXXXIII., 4 STR. 8^ 

Ps. 83 is an urgent invocation of God in the time of Nehemiah, 
for deliverance from the conspiracy made against Israel by the 
neighbouring nations with the purpose of exterminating him (v.^), 
enumerating them to show the extremity of the peril (v.^^), then 
imprecating upon them the destruction that God had sent upon the 
ancient enemies of His people (v.^^^^), and that which is wrought 
by the great forces of nature (v.^'^^''' ^^). Glosses make the Ps. 
more appropriate for public worship by softening the imprecation, 
making its final purpose the conversion of the nations and the 
recognition of the God of Israel as the God of all the earth (v.^''*- ^^). 

Q GOD, let there be no quiet to Thee ; 

And be not still, *E1 : 

For lo ! Thine enemies are in uproar. 

And those that hate Thee do lift up the head : 

Against Thy people they take crafty counsel. 

And they conspire together against Thy treasured ones : 

" Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation, 

That Israel may be remembered no more." 
pOR they have consulted with one mind ; 

Against Thee they make an alliance : 

The tents of Edom, and the Ishmaelites, 

The (land) of Moab, and the Hagrites, 

(The lords of) Ammon, and Amalek, 

The Philistines with the dwellers in Tyre; 

(Samaria) also is joined with them, 

They have become an arm to the sons of Lot. 



2l8 PSALMS 

pO to them as to Sisera, 

As to Jabin at the brook Kishon. 

Let them be destroyed (as Midian) at En (Harod). 

Let them become dung for the ground, 

May their nobles become as Oreb and Zeeb, 

As Zebah and Zalmunna their princes. 

They said : " Let us take it to ourselves for a possession. 

Let us enjoy the dwelling-places of God." 
^ MY God, make them like whirling dust, 

As stubble before the wind. 

As fire that burneth up the forest, 

As flame that setteth ablaze the mountains; 

So mayest Thou pursue them with Thy whirlwind, 

And with Thy tempest terrify them. 

Fill their faces with ignominy, 

And let them be confounded forever, and let them perish. 

Ps. 83 was one of the Pss. of ^. It was called a -\>r, for what reason it is 
difficult to determine. The term was possibly attached to the Ps. before it 
was taken up into ^. The Ps. was subsequently in fH and % but not in 
©3^ (v. Intr. §§ 24, 29, 31, 32). It is composed of four trimeter octa- 
stichs, the first pair in antithesis with the last. The only glosses are at the 
close of the Ps., v.^'*- 1*, in which the divine name mn> is prominent. In 
the original Ps. the following words and phrases are noteworthy : ^S >dt Sn 
v,2, of. Is. 625- '^; ivcn> y.\ as Ps. 46"; nn:j r^n^ v.«, phr. J, E, D, Is. 618 + ; 
onK >'?nN v.', cf. Hb. 3^ op niSj v.» a.X., elsw. c. *?« Gn. 29'^ (J) +; c. S3; 
Nu. i82-*+; ii^T v.ii, elsw. Je. 4 t. 2 K. 98^; n^^nj v.12, as Pss. 4710 107*0 
1138-8 iiS' 1468; D^D'Dj V.12, as Jos. 1321 Mi. 5* Ez. 328O; niNj v.i3, as La. 2^ 
Je. 258^; SjSj v.", as Is. if^, cf. Ps. 771®; nnn onSn v.i^, as Dt. 32^2. The 
language and phrases are those of the late exile and early Restoration. 
There are many a.X. : niD ^^>-^p v.*, T'Jidx v.*, "^nN 3S ix;?ij v.', a"'jD nSd v.", 
all graphic and original, without use of late words. The nations mentioned 
v.'-^ are chiefly the neighbours. The most prominent are the sons of Lot, 
Ammon and Moab. To these were joined Edom, Philistia, and various Ara- 
bian peoples. The Arabian peoples are joined, Ishmael to Edom, Hagrites 
to Moab, Amalekites to Ammon. The names are old ones and general 
in character. They do not indicate any specific tribe. This is all the more 
significant that the Midianites are so prominent in the later imprecations. 
Attached to the Philistines are inhabitants of Tyre. These are also undoubt- 
edly subordinate. A similar reference to the Tyrians as slave-dealers is in 
Jo. 4*-*. There is no need to think of them in any other relation. The diffi- 
culty with the passage is that Asshur is called the arm of the sons of Lot. 
This was in itself impossible at any period of history. The Assyrian army 
was never at the disposal of the allies as a weapon against Judah. " Asshur " 
must be an error. While it is possible to suppose that Asshur might stand 
as the symbol of a great world power or supreme enemy at any later period. 



PSALM LXXXIII. 219 

whether we think of Persia, Babylonia, or the Greek Syria, yet none of these 
could ever have been the arm of the sons of Lot. Geshur, suggested by Gr., 
was never of sufficient importance to be such an arm. Asshur must therefore 
be a mistake for some other power of intermediate importance. Leaving this 
for the moment, three chief theories have been proposed to account for the 
situation: (i) the earlier view is that of the confederation against Jehosha- 
phat 2 Ch. 20 ; so De. But while the Moabites and Ammonites seem to have 
been at the head of this league v.^, and Edom seems to have belonged to 
it v.^^' 22, and it is probable that they were accompanied by Arabian alHes, 
yet the Philistines and especially the Tyrians are not mentioned, and there 
is nothing to correspond with the difficult yet important Asshur. Moreover, 
it is impossible, for other reasons, that the Ps. could be so early. (2) The 
most common modern view, going back on Theodore of Mopsuestia, Diodo- 
rus. Van Til and Bengel, Hi., 01s., Gr., Ba., assigns the Ps. to the time of 
I Mac. 5. While the neighbouring nations were then hostile, yet there was 
no actual league, and Edom, not the sons of Lot, was the principal. It is 
true Tyre and Philistia appear, but Asshur finds no suitable explanation ; and 
in other respects the Ps. betrays no evidence of so late a date. (3) The view 
of Ew., Di., that it belongs to the time of Nehemiah, is best sustained ; for 
Sanballat, a Horonite of Moab, and Tobiah, the Ammonite, are the two chief 
conspirators. To these were joined Geshem, the Arabian, and A.shdodites 
(Philistines) Ne. 2^^ 4^ 6^-^. The Edomites and Tyrians, it is true, are not 
mentioned; but it is evident from Ob. that they were most hostile at this 
time, and from Jo. 4.*^ that the Tyrians were slave-dealers, hostile to Judah 
and greedy to seize them as slaves. The difficult Asshur may best be ex- 
plained after the ancient Theodoret as referring to the Samaritans. It was 
indeed upon the army of Samaria that Sanballat chiefly relied as his arm 
against the Jews Ne. 4^. The whole situation suits the time of Nehemiah, 
when he was building up the wall of Jerusalem. The reference to the stories 
of Ju. 4-5, 7-8, implies a knowledge of the book in essentially its present 
form, combining J, E, D ; and all this favours the same period. At the same 
time, the historical sense of the author is the same as that which appears in 
% generally, as intermediate between D and P. 

Str. I. A syn. couplet, followed by three syn. couplets in stair- 
like advance. — 1. O God, let the7'e be no quiet to Thee || be not 
still~\, emphasized by a gloss, against the measure, keep not 
silence; an importunate plea that God would no longer refrain 
from interposition on behalf of His people, but immediately act, 
without a moment's rest, in their behalf, cf. Is. 62^- ^-^ — 2. For 
loy Thine enemies || those that hate Thee\ They are the enemies 
of God Himself as well as of His people ; they hate Him as bit- 
terly as they hate Israel. — are in uproar']. They are gathered 



220 PSALMS 

in a tumultuous, noisy assembly, giving vent to their anger in loud 
cries. — do lift up the head\ in arrogant hostility and readiness 
for aggressive action. — 4. They take crafty counsel \ they conspire 
together^. Their gathering is in secret, and they conspire not for 
open, honourable warfare, but for crafty, treacherous movements, 
doubtless referring to their intrigues at the court of Persia as well 
as with disaffected members of the Jewish community. — against 
Thy treasured ones\ a phr. a.\. || Thy people^ indicating that God 
watched over them and guarded them as His treasure, cf. 1 7^, and 
in time of trouble kept them safe from their enemies 27^ 31*^ — 

5. Come and let us cut them off from being a nation'^. The ene- 
mies propose nothing less than the extermination of Israel as a 
nation, an extermination so complete that Israel may be remem- 
bered no more']. They desire that the history of God's people 
may pass into everlasting oblivion, cf. 9^^. 

Str. II. A syn. couplet, a syn. tetrastich, and a syn. couplet. — 

6. For they have consulted with one mind\ the most probable 
reading, enlarged by conflation of two readings in J^, literally 
" together with one mind," paraphrased by EV*. as " together 
with one consent." — they make an alliance\ a treaty of confed- 
eracy in war, cf. Ez. 16^^ 30^ Ho. 12^ Ob.^; to be preferred to 
" covenant " of RV., which does not in ordinary usage convey the 
correct meaning. The nations that took part in this alliance are 
enumerated in the remaining lines of the Str. — 7. The tents of 
Edom\ poetic phrase for the nation (cf. 78" 120^), which was so 
hostile to Judah in its decline and in the entire period of the 
Restoration, cf. 137^ Associated with Edom closely were the 
Ishmaelites, a general term for the Bedouin tribes which harassed 
Judah from the south. It should be remembered that the mur- 
derer of Gedaliah Je. 40^ '^- was an Ishmaelite. — The land of 
Moab~\. An early copyist omitted " land," or some other such 
word, at the cost of the measure. Moab was also intensely hostile 
to Judah. Sanballat, one of the chief enemies of Nehemiah, was 
probably a Moabite. Associated with Moab were the Hagrites^ 
another general name for Arabian tribes, probably conceived as 
attacking Israel from the region of the lower Jordan. — 8. The 
lords of Ammo7i\y the most probable original, for which, by copy- 
ist's mistake, an enigmatical " Gebal " appears in J^, with a vari- 



PSALM LXXXIII. 221 

ant '* Naibal " in (3, which is not only difficult to explain, but is a 
departure from the usage in this passage of giving a principal and 
a subordinate enemy in each line. Tobiah the Ammonite was 
one of the chief enemies of Nehemiah. — Amakk\ the ancient 
enemy of Israel, is attached to Ammon as helping him. It is 
probably used as another general term for Bedouin tribes; for 
ancient Amalek was in the South country, and had long ago been 
"practically exterminated. — The Philistines'], the ancient enemies 
on the coast of the Mediterranean. The Phihstine Ashdod is 
mentioned as one of the enemies in the time of Nehemiah Ne. 4^ 
With them are associated the dwellers in Tyre~\, probably as slave- 
dealers, camp followers, cf. Jo. 4*^. — 9. Samaria]. This seems 
to have been the original reading here ; for it best explains the 
situation, and is in accord with the history of the times of Nehe- 
miah. The reading "Assyria" of J^ cannot be explained in this 
context, especially in such a subordinate position as is involved in 
the phrase : an arm to the sons of Lot], Sanballat and Tobiah. 
The army of Samaria was just that upon which these conspirators 
relied for an attack upon Jerusalem, Ne. 4^ 

Str. III. A syn. hexastich and a syn. distich. — 10-12. Do to 
them], imprecation upon the enemies of divine action intensified 
in : Let them be destroyed; let them become dung for the ground], 
their dead bodies rotting upon the ground and becoming fertilizers 
of the soil, cf. 2 K. 9^^ Je. 8^. The author imprecates the same 
destruction as that which had come on the ancient enemies of his 
people. — as to Sisera], the commander of the army oi Jabin, 
king of Hazor, defeated by divine interposition at the brook Kishon 
in the plain of Esdraelon near Megiddo, Ju. 4-5, i S. 12^. — As 
Midian at En Harod]. Thus the text should be reconstructed 
in accordance with Ju. 7. A late copyist by error transposed 
Midian to the first Hne in v.^, in the couplet with Sisera and Jabin, 
and changed En Harod into the more familiar En-dor, with the 
result that the destruction of the Midianites is separated from that 
of the princes of Midian v.^^. It also destroys the measure of two 
lines, and the parallelism. Moreover, the assigning of two places 
to the defeat of Sisera and Jabin is altogether improbable, and the 
mention of En-dor has no historical or geographical propriety. 
— as Oreb and Zeeb], princes of Midian Ju. 7^ Is. 10^. — As 



222 PSALMS 

Zebah and Zalmunna\ kings of Midian Ju. 8*"^'. — 13. They 
said :\ interpreted as relative clause by ancient copyist, and 
so the relative was inserted against the measure. It may be 
interpreted as relative clause without the relative, which is 
commonly omitted in poetry; but it is more emphatic as an 
independent sentence. — Let us take it to ourselves for a pos- 
session II Let us enjoy\. So probably the prosaic sentence of the 
text should be reconstructed, with the rare vb. " enjoy " instead 
of the sign of the def. ace. — the pastures of God], the entire 
land being conceived as the pastures of God, where as a shep- 
herd He pastures His people. The reference here is to the 
confederates of the previous Str. upon whom the imprecation is 
made in this Str. 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets, enclosing an emblematic tetrastich, 
all of imprecation. — 14. Afy God] emphasizing by sf. the per- 
sonal relation. — Afake them like whirling dust || as stubble before 
the wind], cf. Ps. i* 68^ Is. 17^^ Je. \i^\ The " wheel " of PBV., 
AV., though a possible translation, cannot be justified in this con- 
text. — 15. As fire || as flame], in syn. parallelism with wind as 
a destructive agent, — burneth up the forest || setteth ablaze the 
mountains], the forest-clad mountains. — 16. So mayest Thou 
pursue them || terrify them]. The point of comparison is not the 
fire and the burning, but the rapidity of the destruction wrought 
by a forest fire, and so very properly compared with that wrought 
by whirlwind || tempest. — 17-18. The similes are now explained 
in the climax : Fill their faces with ignominy || And let them be 
confounded forever, and let them perish], with the shame of 
defeat, the flight of a panic-stricken army, and the abandon- 
ment of their dead upon the battle-field to vultures and jackals. 
A glossator enlarges this imprecation v.^" by the insertion of 
two vbs. frequently used in such connections, cf. 35^ 40^* 70^ 
71^^, let them be ashamed and let them be abashed. A later 
editor gives another turn to the thought, to make the Ps. 
more appropriate for public worship, and with a universalistic 
spirit v.^^*, — that they may seek Thy name, Yahweh || 19. that 
they may know that it is Thy name alone, Yahweh, enlarged in 
J^ by the marginal doublet. Thou — 'Elyon above all the earth, 
cf. 97». 



PSALM LXXXIII. 223 

2. 'nJ'""'P^"'??f] ^!?;t n.[m.] quiet, z.'i Is.' 62^-''; but ® tU Ifioiud-^fferal aot, 
V guts similis erit tibi, n:^^^ id as 89'^, so ^. @ must have read ""D D^^S^<. 
The second c dittog. of first, or else original and omitted by haplog. The v, 
is too long for trimeter measure. v-\r\r\ "tn is prob. interp. gl. — *?«] as often 
in %. — 3. jvcn;] poetic fuller form; cf. 46^. — 4. td lonr] phr. a.X., cf. 
55I6 j [3-,»] vb."^^ shre7vd, crafty: Qal i S. 2322, Hiph. elsw. i S. 2322 Pr. 156 
1926 (all Qal ace. Ges.S^^.n.^ Bu.). — i^j^'^'^'"'] i coord. Hithp. conspire against; 
a-.X. in this form, but for other forms v. 16''. — 'n\iiDx] Qal ptc. pass, px ; usu- 
ally treasured ones. @ T'i5'"'P, so 3J, interpretation ; but Aq., 2, sg. ; 3f ar^a- 
num tuum, vefeniug to temple. — 5. i"i?pf<] gl., making 1. too long; usually 
omitted in poetry. — L:7;nD_Ji] i coord, cohort, nnj (40^^), as Ex. 232^ (E) 
I K. 13^ Zc. 11^. — »J7?] pregnant, "•■'ii ni^np, S (jltj 3>(tiv edvos, cf. Je. 48^ 
Is. 78 17I; z'. Ges. iii9-8-d. 1, — Ss-^t'i'-Dr] d^ is gl. of amplification, makes 
1. too long, ni;; also is intensification of glossator. — 6. nm aS ix;^;:] phr. 
a.X., but without 2^^ 71^0 jg^ 4^21 ]\fe^ 57^ There seems to be a conflation of 
two readings : the one the usual one, the other with ins 2^, which is approved 
by most moderns, 01s., Dy., Bi., Ba., Now., Du.; the latter, as the unusual 
phr., is to be preferred to nn-" aS, which is not euphonic. — nn:) nna] phr. 
of J, E, D, Pss. 50^ 89* Je. iii^ +. — 7. d^is ^'^hn] poet. phr. for the nation, 
cf. 78^^ I20^ — J D-'SNyrc';], the IsAmae/ites, a general name for Arabian 
tribes, cf. Gn. 372^ Ju. S^^. — 3x"'c] as 60!^; needs a complementary word for 
measure, either >Snx as previous 1., or no^y Dt. 34^-^ Jos. 13^2^^ or pN 
Dt. i^ Ju. ni5 Je. 4824 +.—t c^-??:] pi. n. pr. gent., elsw. i Ch. 510- i»-2o, a 
general name for Arabian tribes, from Hagar, mother of Ishmael. — 8. hzi'] 
usually n. pr., a.X. Gebal, Gebalene mountainous region south of Dead Sea. 
But this is improb. with Ainmon. Three names improb. in 1. syn. with 11. 
where two are used. One name in each of the other 11. is preceded by a 
noun in cstr. We might rd. here "''::"ia.5; or after @ NatjSdX = S3 ija or Syj >J3, 
a conflation of ^12 and ■'S>*3, the latter prob. correct. — % p\'^v'\ n. pr. m. Ama- 
lek, ancient enemies of Israel, usually in the Negeb Ex. 17^ Ju. 3^^ i S. 14*^ 
30I8 ; used here as a general name for Arabian invaders. — t ^ll^'^^] n. pr. 
terr. Philistia, elsw, 1/', 60IO = loSi'' 87*. — TX ^3*f ■>] prob. restricts i^x to some 
of its inhabitants, the slave-dealers ; cf. Jo. 4^-6. % '^''^ usually n'i* n. pr. loc. 
Tyre, as 45^^ 87*. — 9. J "iVw n] n. pr. terr. Assyria; not elsw. xp, improb. 
here. ^ paraphrases by Sennacherib, king of Asshur. At no period of his- 
tory could Assyria have been regarded as so dependent upon the Ammonites 
and Moabites. Lag., Gr., rd. "iVwb, as 2 S. 2^ (em. txt.), a small territory on 
Hermon ; but this was too insignificant a place to be regarded as the arm 
of the children of Lot. Ew. thinks of Persia, and Hi., 01s., Du., think of 
Syria, as nearest Assyria in later times ; but neither Persia nor Syria could 
ever have been so dependent on Moab and Ammon. Theodoret suggested 
Samaria. This is most probable, especially if the Ps. belongs to the time 
of Nehemiah, for it was just the Samaritan army under Sanballat, Ne. 4I «^-, 
which could with propriety be called " the arm of the children of Lot." — 
pi^i] Niph. pf. J mS vb. be Joined, Qal only Ec. 8^^. Niph. either reflexive 



224 PSALMS 

or passive : c. a>' only here ; elsw. c. Sn Gn. 2g^ (J) Is. 56' Je. 50^ Zc. 2^; 
c. V>- Nu. i82-* Is. 14I+. — ;2^^-\jp] phr. elsw. Dt. 29-i». — 10. J i;!?] n. pr. 
m. the tribe, as Is. 9^ Ju. 6-8. — X «<'JP"'i?] the commander of the army of 
Jabin, Ju. 4-5, i S. 12*. This is here a doublet of J jo^, the Canaanitish king 
of Hazor, Ju. 4. These three names in close proximity make a prose sentence. 
One of them belongs with v.^i*. It is probable that Midian has been brought 
forward. — tr^'^H] always 'p Snj Ju. 4''- 1« 521-21 i K. 18*0, river of plain of 
'EsdxztXoxij modtxn Nahr- el- Alukatta. — 11. t "'f^TPV] n. pr. loc, elsw. Jos. 
17II I S. 28^ a village on the north side of little Hermon. Gr. would change 
to inn pj', the place of Midian's defeat. It does not altogether suit the place 
of the defeat of Sisera. If we attach Midian to this clause, and think of 
nnn p/ as the place of defeat, the whole becomes clear. We would expect 
Midian's defeat to precede v.12, and not to be separated from it by a refer- 
ence to the defeat of Sisera, which occurred at quite another time. — f IP'^] 
n.m. dung, always of corpses lying on the ground as offal 2 K. 9'^ Je. 8^ 9^1 
16* 253^^. — 12. '^:2P''r] imv. poet, sf., obj. defined by 'i::?''"?;; but it makes 
1. too long. Either noun or vb. must be gl. ; prob. the latter from v.i*. — 
2y, 3sr, n^T, yj^';'?] all n. pr. m., princes of Midian, cf. Ju. 7-8. — ^nrDj] 
V. 2^. — Sd] gl. of intensification. — 13. nrs "ic/n] makes a prose sentence. 
ntJ'N gl. This V. in antith. with v.^ — n'>K3 pn] is prosaic and improb. ; can- 
not have two tones. ® 6v<riaa-T-^piov is interp., does not imply a different 
text. The error is ancient. Rd. r>H3 tnj; tn; Niph. i pi. f niN vb. only 
Niph. consent, agree, Gn. 34I6.22. 23 2 K. 12®; here as NH. enjoy, p^nj pi. 
cstr. [113] V. 2j^. — 14. '^'^n] takes the place of c-n'?x, doubtless original. — 
Sj'^j] v. yy'^. — t '"^'C] "•"^- stubble, as driven by wind ; elsw. Is. 40'^* 41^ Je. 
132*. — "ij?3n] relative clause. Qal only here trans, c. ace: rd. Pi. ^DB. — 
16. q7;'^D;i] has two beats; cf. 55*. — 17. o^i\3d k^::] phr. a.X., but cf. 
'D nD3 44I* 69*. — I'^Si"^] V. j8^. — nin-] is evidence of gl. for the sentence with 
which it is connected. — ^cc lU'pa^] phr. a.X. for "•jd '2. — 18. iS"i3^i] i coord. 
Niph., as 6^- *• 11 30^ 48®; for Pi. v.i* 2^. This vb. unusual in imprecations, 
and prob. original ; so also n^x^i. — -i? "^v] as 92^ 13212- 1*. — ira^ and non^i] 
glosses, making the v. pentameter. These are usual vbs. of imprecation, cf. 
35'-^6 40!^ 70' 7124. — 19. ^1;'"!^] final clause, usually sq. t, as 4* 20'' 4112 ^511 
561*^ 59I* -f . — noNi] was not in ®. It is prob. a variation of qcc. — nin"»] is 
additional evidence of gL — riN'i"'?^ hy p^^;] phr. from 97^ where n)7V> nnK >3 
appears also. 



PSALM LXXXIV., 3 STR. 6^ rf. i^ 

Ps. 84 is a pilgrim song, composed just before the Exile: 
(i) longing for the sacred places where Yahweh's praise is 
continuous (v.'-"^) ; (2) though the pilgrim band passes through 
a vale of weeping, it is transformed into blessings as they advance 



PSALM LXXXIV. 225 

with prayer to the presence of Yahweh (v.*"^^) ; (3) one day of 
prostration at the sacred threshold, in love to Yahweh, the Sun 
and Shield, is to be preferred to an age in the tents of the wicked 

T-JOW beloved are Thy tabernacles, Yahweh Sabaoth ! 

My soul doth long, yea, doth pine for the courts of Yahweh ; 
Where my mind and my flesh jubilate 'El, the God of my life. 
Yea, the bird doth find a home for herself. 

And the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young. 
At Thy altars, they praise Thee ever, my King and my God. 

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that dwell in Thy house / 
HTHE highways are in the minds of those who pass on in the vale of weeping. 
He maketh it a place of springs; yea, the early rain clotheth it with blessings. 
They go on from battlement to battlement in order to appear before God, 
Yahweh in Zion, Yahweh the God of Hosts; 
(Saying) " O hear my prayer ; O give ear, God of Jacob ! 
See our shield, and look on the face of Thine anointed." 

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they whose stronghold is in Thee. 
VEA, one day in Thy courts is better than a thousand. 

I choose to be prostrated at the threshold of the house of my God. 

Better than an age in the tents of the wicked is to love Yahweh ; 

For a Sun and Shield is Yahweh my God ; 

Kindness and faithfulness, grace and glory. He giveth. 

Yahweh withholdeth not any good thing from them that walk in integrity. 

Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that trust in Thee. 

Ps. 84 was a pilgrim song, resembling the group of T\'h^'CiT\ '\>v Ps. 120-134 ; 
of. m^DD ® dva^dcrets v.^. It was first in ISt, then taken up into JH and ©i^, 
when it received the direction nipjn h-; {v. Intr. §§ 28, 31, 33, 34). It was 
not in E, the selection from which closes with Ps. 83, although w^rhn is used 
V.8 for ni,-T« by attraction to previous Sn v.* by error for '•rhu @ ; and v.^*' as 
late gloss, for the line is just this word too long ; so also v.12 dvi^n is prob. for 
mSn, which is characteristic of this Ps., cf. v.*- n, Ps. 84 resembles 42-43, and 
prob. had the same author The same devotion to worship in the sacred places 
is manifest, though the latter Ps. was the lament of an exile, the former the 
song of one who shared in the pilgrim procession v.^, cf. 42^, and therefore 
composed before the destruction of the temple. q-'mjDtrc v.2 = 433, cf. 46^; 
('i)na?D v.* =43*; {'yr\ Sn v.3 = 423- 9, cf. 4210 432- 3; Sx nxn> v.s = 42^; v-^^ 
V.12, cf. niN 43^ 44*. Moreover, these Pss. have the same pentameter measure 
and the same organisation, in three Strs. with Rfs., although the number of 
lines is not the same. There are also resemblances with other Pss. of 3£t : 
3pr ^nSNv.» = 468-i2; niN2x(^nSN)nin>v.2-4.6.9. 13 ^468. 12489; -|';:p of Yahweh 
v.* = 445 478- 7. 8. 9 483. pn prob. of the king v. 10 || rin^a'D reminds of 8919-21. 
The psalmist's prayer for his king as the anointed of Yahweh and shield of the 
nation implies the monarchy as still in existence ; and the temple worship, to 

Q 



226 PSALMS 

which pilgrim bands ascend, implies either the first or the second temple. The 
two together imply the first temple. There is no sufficient reason to doubt 
that the Ps. comes from the time of trouble and anxiety (v.' ) just before the 
Exile. 

Str. I. has two syn. couplets, enclosed by two syn. lines, fol- 
lowed by Rf. — 2. How beloved'^, the object of strong affectionate 
love, lovable, " lovely," RV.'". The ancient meaning of " amiable " 
EV". is now practically obsolete. This is as much as to say that 
the tabernacles^ the sacred precincts of the temple of Yahweh 
Sabaothy the God of the battle array of Israel, the God of the 
covenant and of the dynasty of David (cf. 24^°) were beloved with 
a love that was too great for expression. — 3. Absence from the 
sacred precincts was intolerable. — My soul doth iong], emphatic 
present, with intense desire, so intense that it doth pine and wastes 
away, is consumed, becomes faint and sick in anxious desire,/^/* 
the courts of Yahweh^ to which the festal processions were made. 
— Where my heart and my flesh'], emphatic in position, the inner 
and the outer man, cf. i6^ the body sympathizing with the soul 
in this worship. Because of the change of tense from pf. to impf. 
and the attitude of longing of previous lines, it is necessary to 
interpret this line as a relative clause with a frequentative verb, — 
jubilate\ accustomed to take part in the sacred shouting, the 
roar of the pilgrim bands, cf. 42^ — *El, the God of my life\ as 
42'^; misread by MT. and Vrss. as "unto the living God," which 
makes unexampled syntax, and a sentence difficult to explain in 
accordance with the usage of the verb. — 4-6 a. Yea, the bird~\, 
a general term, cf. 8^, which cannot be rightly rendered by *' spar- 
row," EV*. ; the specific term is the swallow — doth find a home 
II nest], both followed by for herself as the measure requires. 
The little birds have the free and habitual access to the sacred 
precincts that the singer so greatly desires. He envies their privi- 
lege, and could almost wish he were a bird. As Tristram says : 
" Still the swallow seeks the temple enclosure at Jenisalem, and 
the mosque of Omar, as a secure and safe resting-place " {A^at. 
Hist. Bible, p. 206) . — At Thy altars they praise Thee ever]. The 
altars are not to be attached to the previous clause, as EV^, with the 
view that the birds had their nests even there, for altars were places 
for sacrifices made by fire, and not places to which birds would 



PSALM LXXXIV. 227 

resort. The meaning is hardly to be weakened into " its neigh- 
bourhood," Kirk. It begins a new line, as the measure requires. 
Confusion has been made by an ancient copyist, whose eye has 
transposed to the next line the two words which originally followed 
here. This gives a proper parallelism. As the birds are ever in 
the sacred precincts, the singers who sing in the temple Hallels 
ar6 ever there in continual service. (3, V, PBV., rightly interpret 
this phrase; but Jif, 3, by mispointing read "still," which is diffi- 
cult to understand in this context. — My King and my God\ The 
personal relation is emphasized by the sf. The God of Israel is 
his king, as usual in 1^ ; the temple is His palace. The Rf., as 
reconstructed, is thus : Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they that dwell 
in Thy house'], those like the birds having constant access there, 
and like the birds also singing constantly in the sacred Hallels. 

Str. II. has one antith. and two synth. couplets. — 6&-7. An 
early scribe removed the Rf. of this Str. from its close v.^*^* to the 
beginning. The Str. should begin with : The highways are in the 
minds of those]. These are the highways leading up to Jerusalem, 
on which the pilgrim bands go up to the three great pilgrim feasts, 
Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. These are in the minds of 
such pilgrims, in accordance with the longing for the divine Pres- 
ence in Jerusalem of the previous Str. — who pass on in the vale 
of weeping]. On their way to Jerusalem the pilgrim bands pass 
through a valley. This is interpreted by many as the vale of Baca, 
unknown, it is true, and yet one so called from the balsam trees 
which characterised it : *' Some dry, cheerless valley," Dr. But 
all Vrss. interpret the unusual form as equivalent to a similar word 
meaning "weeping"; reflecting the experience of sorrow in which 
the pilgrims approach the sacred places, due probably to the perils 
which threatened them shortly before the Exile. This tempers the 
joyous prospect and their intense longing. Cf. the vale of Achor 
Ho. 2^*, and the valley of dense darkness Ps. 23^ — He maketh it^, 
so (^, with God as subj., which is best suited to context. MT., J, 
EV\, give the 3d pi., making the pilgrims the subj. — a place of 
springs], carrying on the figure, the refreshing springwater, for the 
divine presence and favour, satisfying the thirst after God, as 42^"^. 
— the early rain], which in the autumn, in Palestine, refreshes the 
soil, and thus fitly represents the divine favour descending from 



228 PSALMS 

heaven, cf. Dt. 32^ 2 S. 23* Ho. 10^-. — dotheih it with blessings'], 
so (^, 2r, RV., as a final interpretation of the figure, antith. to 
" weeping " ; to be preferred to " pools," PBV., AV. — 8-9. They 
go on from battlemetit to battlement], as R. Jehuda, AE., Horsley ; 
from one walled town to another, on account of the peril of the 
journey, or, coming to the gates of Jerusalem, they pass from one 
battlement to another, cf. 48^^, on their way to the temple, — in 
order to appear before God\ cf. 42^. This is to be preferred to 
" from strength to strength," EV*. after ancient Vrss., becoming 
more and more invigorated as they approached Zion. The measure 
requires that the line should close here, the next emphasizing the 
goal of the journey, the divine Presence, by heaping up terms : 
Yahweh in Zion, Yahweh the God of Hosts, — O hear my prayer], 
cohort, imv., urgent petition in the prayer, which now begins || O 
give ear, terms constantly used in public worship, cf. 4^ 5^^. — God 
of Jacob], phrase of endearment 20^ 46^^^ 75^*^ 76^ Si^'^ 94^ Is. 2^ 
= Mi. 4^ — 10. See || look on], pregn. with consideration and 
favour. — our shield], the king, as 89^^, cf. 47^^ || Thine anointed, 
cf. 2^ 18^^ 89'«-^ 132^ the king of the Davidic dynasty. " Shield " 
is not to be referred here to God, as EV. after @, J, %, Aq., % 
because of v.^^, against the parall. The Rf. v.^ should follow, 
wrongly removed by ancient copyist to the beginning of Str. : 
Yahweh Sabaoth, happy are they whose stronghold is in Thee], cf. 
8' 46^ The abstr. " strength " of EV. is not so suited to the 
context. 

Str. III. has three syn. couplets. — 11. Yea], intensive, as 
beginning Str., is better than causal " for," EV\ — one day], so 
(^, %, PBV. ; " one " is needed for measure and antith. with 
thousand, though omitted by J^, AV., RV. — / choose], pf. 
emphatic present, deliberate choice, — to be prostrated at the 
threshold], ace. to (S, of the humblest position; more suited to 
the context than the paraphrase of this unexampled and difficult 
form, "doorkeeper," EV. — Better than an age], interpreting J^ 
as a usual form, best suited to the context. — in the tents of the 
wicked], as (g, to be preferred to the abstr. "wickedness" of 
MT., J, EV. The line is defective. We must supply as subj. 
of sentence, to love Yahweh, which, while given in (©, is wrongly 
attached and explained. Thus we get a beautiful syn. parall. with 



PSALM LXXXIV. 229 

the prostration at the threshold, and an idea harmonious with v.^ 
— 12. For a Siin\ only here of God ; but cf. " light," as used of 
God's face, especially in theophanic or gracious manifestations in 
the temple to worshippers 4^ 27^ 36^° 43^ 44'' 89^'^. — and Shield 
is Yahweh my God\ as the God of Hosts, the warhke God, who 
defends His people from their enemies, cf. 3^* 7^^ jgs.si.se ^<^ ^^20 
59^^ -|-. — Kindness and faiihfulness\\x\ (S, although misplaced; 
not in J^, J, but needed for measure || grace and glory, all objects 
of the divine benefaction. — He giveth || withholdeth not], these 
favours. — the}n that walk in integrity^, cf. 15^, those in complete 
accord with Yahweh in their course of conduct. — 13. This third 
Rf. emphasizes their trust in Yahweh, as the second that Yahweh 
was their stronghold, and the first their dwelUng in the temple 
precincts. 

2. n"!"!''"';.] adj. pi. beloved, elsw. of persons Dt. 33I2 Is. 51- 1 Je. ii^^ Pss. 60'^ 
= 108'^ 1272 and fiVT' -s^t' epithalamium, cf. 45I {v. Iiitr. § 24). — 3. DJi] 
makes 1. too long. ©, 3, 1 only. — '"'7'?'] Q^^ P^- 3 ^- '"''^^ ^^ spenf, in the 
sense of pine, also 69* 1 19^1- ^2. 123^ pfg. for emphatic present. — Sx "UJ"!;] phr. 
«.X. c. ace. theme 511^ 59^'' 145^; c. 3 20^ t,'^'^ 63^ 89^^ 92^; c. S 95I. ^x, (5 
^7ri ; but prob. dittog. 3 laudabunt deum. The impf. is frequentative, im- 
plying relative clause. — ^"l ^x] rd. "^n Sx as 42'^-^, and then measure is com- 
plete without Sx. — 4. r;'3] in (S, followed by p'^, better parall. nS ^i^, and 
gives better measure. — •nv^in^rrpTx]. In any case the two tones make 1. too 
long, nx is an interpretative gl. This word begins a new line. By txt. err. 
there has been a transp. of mX3X nin> with t^i^^St* m;-, destroying Rf. — 
5. T>'] so 3 adhuc ; but © "i> d% roiis alQivas tCjv aiibvcjv, which better suits 
context, especially if transposed to previous 1. as the measure and the Rf. 
require. — 6. ''"^w's] cf. i^. dtx here and v.^'^ prob. gl. of interp.; not needed 
and injuring measure. It is the Rf. of Str. II. at the beginning instead of at 
the end by copyist's misjudgment. — ^S] defines rel., which was omitted as 
usual in poetry. — ."1V7D"] a.X. xp, but common in OT. (3 dra/Sacrets, U ascensi- 
c«<?.y — mS^T, Oort, Ba., Du., is tempting, but (^ may paraphrase. — '2?^'!'?] 
full form; cf. ^3*7 v.^; has no sufficient reason and is improb. The double 3 is 
dittog. as 28^. ® iv TTj KapSiq. aiiTov, U in corde suo, suggests that both sfs. 
are interp. and not original ; rd. 3S3. — 7. "''^?>] Qal ptc. as 3, but @ Si^^ero, 
though in Pss. elsw. for niD, may here possibly represent an original "i3>' — 
'^"^^i? P*?;*]' ^ ^v TV Koi\a8i rod KXavd/JLiovos, (S"^'- <>• *• '^- '^ ets ttjv KoiXada, 'S in 
valle lacrymarum, 3 in valle JleHis, so essentially all Vrss. and Mas. = •'D3 
weeping. j5DB. thinks of xd3, balsam, cf. a-ixj^ 2 S. 5'^'*, and so desert land. 
— r"^] 3 fontem, so Aq., S, %, as 74^^ Si'' 1041'^; but @ tSttov; so U. ^ 
]iy'0 dwelling place, so Hu., Ba., We., here and 87'^. — 117'^*:] 3 pU so 5f ; but 
® sg. 6i> ideTo, IB qtcem posuit more prob. — nn;n] early rain, as Aq.j but ® 



230 PSALMS 

6 vo/jLodcTufv, 3 doctor, are sustained by S, 2, JT, U, Quinta, Sexta. — ncoy] 
Hiph. impf. v. 71^^. Swaet prob. paraphrase. — 8. ':':n?] so @ U Suvd/icws, 
3 de fortitiidiney ^DB., Du., Dr.; but R. Jehuda in AE., Horsley, Ba., Snp 
from wall or rampart^ cf. 48^*. — ^^y^ "v. 42'. — cnSs ^n] so S, 3 ; but 
6 ^edj Twv QtCiv = D-inSN 'tn, so &, U, Aq., fcrxi^p^s ^c6s. Oort, Ba., Du., rd. 
hit. This is best sustained. Then 1. should close with Sn, and dv"i^n for an 
original nvi"' should begin the next 1. — 9. niN3X d-'hSn nin"] is improb. (5 
niNUX \"iSn is most prob. The measure requires the three forms, and they 
with tvxa ny-i"" constitute a 1. — 11. n^^j'!?] should precede inxna for better 
rhythm. The present order of |^ is prosaic. (Q fxLa, so S>, rd. nnN after Dv, 
which is indeed needed for measure. — n!?'''"'97] a.X., Hithp. »icD denom. f|D 
stand at threshold as guard, or /« service ; (S Trapaptirreiadai, "B, 3, abjectus, 
seem to imply norDi, Hithp. nsD = ino prostrate, Niph. Je. 46^*. Another 
word is needed for measure. The original was prob. f,D inron, compressed 
into iDiron. — ■^117] o..\. Qal inf. t "'I"' dwell, as Aram., cf. Gen. 6'^ where some 
rd. n^n"* for pn% but both Aramaisms and dub., though sustained here by 
oIk^Iv, 3 habitare, i9DB., Du., Ba., al. It is better to rd. nn generation, age. 
— JT?.] so 3, more prob. concrete vun with @. — 12. cnSw nvT> pni triyi ^i\ 
so 3, 2, Aq., but not @, which had instead 3rt eXeoi/ koX dX-fidnav dyarrq, 
K^pios, 6 dibs, so = ncNT iDn qviSk mn> ant* ^3. The 11. are defective in 
measure in either case. Both texts are needed. The omission of the 1. of |§ 
by @ brought ncNi ion immediately after r\yr\> anx, which latter is really 
needed to complete v.^^« and give suitable parallelism. Rd. therefore: — 
nin> 3nN ;:c"i >VnN3 nnn 
^hSn nin> pni b'db' ^3 
jn^ ni3r) \n pdn) ion 

PSALM LXXXV., 4 STR. 6\ rf. 2'. 

Ps. 85 is a prayer of the congregation of the Restoration : 
(i) rehearsing the favour experienced in the past (v.^"*) ; (2) peti- 
tion for salvation from present troubles (v.^^) ; (3) confidence that 
salvation is near (v.^^®) ; (4) the divine attributes bring salvation 
and peace (v.""^^^*). The Rf. is an earnest petition that God will 
turn from His vexation and save them (v.^). V.^^ is an expansive 
gloss. 

'J'HOU didst favour Thy land. Yahweh; 

Thou didst restore the prosperity of Jacob; 
Thou didst forgive the iniquity of Thy people; 
Thou didst cover all their sins; 
Thou didst gather away all Thy rage ; 
Thou didst turn away the heat of Thine anger. 
Turn to us, God of our salvation, 
And remove Thy vexation towards us. 



PSALM LXXXV. 231 

■^ILT Thou forever be angry against us, 
Draw out Thine anger to all generations ? 
Wilt Thou not again quicken us ? 
And shall not Thy people be glad in Thee ? 
Shew us, Yahweh, Thy kindness; 
And Thy salvation give to us. 

Turn to us, God of our salvation. 

And remove Thy vexation towards us. 
■^HAT will God speak ? 

Verily He will speak peace, 
Unto His people and unto His favoured ones, 
And unto those that turn their heart to Him. 
Surely His salvation is near to them that fear Him, 
That glory may dwell in our land. 

Turn to us, God of our salvation, 

And remove Thy vexation towards us. 
T^INDNESS and faithfulness are met together, 
Righteousness and peace kiss each other ; 
Faithfulness sprouteth forth from the earth, 
And kindness doth look down from heaven ; 
Righteousness goeth before Him, 
And peace doth march in His footsteps. 

Turn to us, God of our salvation. 

And remove Thy vexation towards us. 

Ps. 85 was in 3£t, then in fH, and subsequently in 131^ {v. Intr. §§ 28, 31, 
33). It looks back upon the restoration from exile as long past, v.2-*; it 
prays for deliverance from trouble, probably that of the late Persian period, 
subsequent to Nehemiah. Ps. 85 resembles 44, but the trouble was not so 
critical. The personification of divine attributes resembles 43', only the situ- 
ation is later and better. The language and style are simple and classic: 
v.^ apy"* r\\yy = Ez. 39^^^; v.^ ns-jn no::, cf. Ps. 32^; v.^ d>'d of Yahweh, as 
Dt. 32i'- 27; v.ii v^j£!j, as Pr. 22^ 2913. The Rf. v.^ has been omitted, as often 
in Pss., from all Strs. but one. 

Str. I. has three syn. couplets. — 2. Thou didst favour Thy 
land\ bestow favour upon it, the land for the people. — Jacob\ 
the term of endearment for the chosen people of Yahweh. The 
vb. is an aorist and refers to a definite event in the past, probably 
the rebuilding of Jerusalem by the returned exiles, and those of 
the survivors in the land, who united with them. The syn. is : 
Thou didst restore the prosperity'], cf. 14^, and not the specific 
" turned the captivity," restored from exile, although sustained 
by (3, J, and other Vrss. — 3. Thou didst forgive], by taking up 
the iniquity of the people as a burden, and putting it far away 
from them and from Himself — cover], in the ritual by the 



232 PSALMS 

cleansing blood of the sin-offering, applied to the divine altars to 
obliterate the stain of guilt adhering to them. But here, as 32^, 
entirely apart from the ritual, the sins are cancelled by the favour 
of Yahweh. — 4. Thou didst gather away'], taking the anger up 
as something objective to Himself, withdrawing it from the sinful 
but penitent people, and removing it with the sins. — turn away 
the heat of Thine anger], give it another direction, so that instead 
of spending it upon His people it will have an opposite purpose. 
— 5. The Rf., omitted by later scribes from other Strs. — Turn 
to us]^ that is, the divine face in favour, as v.-**. — refnove Thy 
vexation], so (S, for J^ "break off," which originated here, as 
89'**, by mistake of a letter ; paraphrased by EV^ Vexation with 
the people carries on the idea of the previous rage and heat of 
anger in a milder form, as applied to the present situation, which 
the poet conceives as less guilty than that for which the nation 
had been visited in the great Exile. — God of our salvation"], the 
God who had so often saved His people that He could be regarded 
as having salvation as His characteristic, cf. 18^^ 24' 25' if 65^ 

79'- 
Str. II. has two syn. couplets, enclosing a synth. couplet. — 

6. Draw out Thine anger], prolong it so that it will extend to 
all generations, and so intensify the continuance of the anger for- 
ever by His own deliberate purpose and sustained effort. The 
question implies a negative answer, for such a thing was incredi- 
ble to the people of Yahweh, in view of the past experience of the 
nation. — 7-8. Wilt Thou not again quicken us ?], the question 
implying a positive answer ; for the " again " is based on previous 
experience of quickening, that is, the revival of the nation by the 
impartation of new life and vigour to them. Such a quickening 
will make His people ^/<j^/ it will be a letting them see His kind- 
ness and bestowing upon them salvation. 

Str. III. has three syn. couplets. — 9. Let me hear], cohort, 
impf., is the gloss of an impassioned reader, which has crept into 
the text and brought with it great difficulty of interpretation. It 
is improb. that i sg. would only here take the place of i pi. — 
What will God speak ?]. The question is put in order to the 
emphatic response, Verily He will speak peace], not peaceably, in 
antithesis with vexation and anger, but peace from trouble, in 



PSALM LXXXV. 233 

accordance with the previous prayer and the subsequent confi- 
dence, v.". Those to whom He speaks so favourably are empha- 
sized in three descriptive phrases : unto His people^ His favoured 
ones, and especially those that turn their heart to Him, so properly 
O, F ; but J^ by error of transcription so rearranges the letters 
as to make an entirely different sentence, which is not only diffi- 
cult Hebrew syntax, but also interrupts the easy flow of thought 
characteristic of this Ps. It is then variously rendered, either 
"let them not turn again to folly," AV., RV., or "unto self-confi- 
dence," Dr., Kirk. — 10. That glory may dwell in our land~\, 
that the glory of the divine theophanic presence may again come 
to the land, as in ancient times, and dwell as the Shekinah in the 
Holy of Holies of the temple, the palace of the king Yahweh. 

Str. IV. has three syn. couplets. — 11-12, 14. The divine attri- 
butes kindness and faithfulness are constantly associated, 25^° 
^q1i.i2 ^^4 ^j8 jj^i 1^8^; righteousness and peace, only associated 
here, because of the emphasis upon "peace," v.^, which takes the 
place of the term "justice," usually coupled with "righteousness." 
These four attributes are personified as angel messengers of Yah- 
weh, cf. 43^ 89^^ They have been on separate missions in differ- 
ent directions. Returning from these missions they all meet in 
the Holy Land ; the first pair are met together. — Kindness, which 
by a copyist's mistake, at an early date, has been replaced by 
" righteousness," destroying the parallel, doth look down from 
heaven, cf. 36^, expecting and waiting to meet faithfulness, which 
sprouteth forth fro?n the earth, rising toward heaven to meet her 
sister, the messenger from heaven and the messenger returning 
from earth coming together as it were midway above the land. 
The second pair kiss each other in affectionate embrace, when 
they meet ; the one, righteousness, goeth before Him, in His advent 
to His land and people ; the other, peace, doth march in His 
footsteps, in accordance with the parallel. But an early copyist, 
by attaching 7 to the following instead of to the previous word, 
made an error, followed by all Vrss., which is variously rendered 
and explained : PBV, " direct his going in the way," AV. " set us 
in the way of his steps," RV. "make his footsteps a way to walk 
in," and the like ; no one of which gives an appropriate meaning, 
or a suitable close to this beautiful and artistic Ps. 



234 PSALMS 

13 is a gloss, interrupting the thought and making the Str. so 
much too long. 

Yea, Yahweh will give prosperity, 
And our land will yield her increase. 

The divine attributes will also bring a blessing to the soil of the 
land. — Prosperity || increase^ The landy fertilized by the divine 
presence, will yield to its owners. 

2. r^"^] pf. aorist ; not emphatic present PBV., proper pf. AV,, RV., or 
pluperf. Ba., Dr.; c. ace, as 44* 147^^ — nu*^ n;-.:*] Kt., noc Qr., v. 14^. 

— 4. IDN inn] phr. of J (Ex. 32^2 Nu. 25* +) Pss. 692^ 78*^ also preexilic 
prophets, esp. Je. ; uncommon in late writers. — 'D ri''3"'rn] s.v. preg., sup- 
plying Thyself, as Dr. ; □"'Jo Du., but improb. The usual construction is with 
ace, n** yS^*** also n:;n 106-', p pers. 'D prob. represents an original 2nr, but 
that makes the 1. too long. It was prob. an interpretative gl. ®, 3, take 
vb. as Qal. It is difficult to explain Hiph. of f^. — 5. -\cn] Hiph. imv. ["nc] 
break, violate, not suited to the context. (S dTr6a-T€\l/ov, so V, suggest non, 
which was doubtless original here and 89^^; so Bi., Du. — D;r] vexation, of 
Yahweh ; not elsw. i/^ in this sense, but Dt. 3219- 27 j k. 1530 2122 2 K. 2326. 

— 7. '"ins nSh] so 3, 5r ; but @ h^n Sk^, so U, assimilation to v.*. nns is 
a gl., making 1. too long. — airn] has auxil. force followed by subord. impf. 

— 9. n;crN] cohort, impf. i sg., only example in the midst of i pis., is im- 
prob. It is not needed for measure and is a gl. of an impassioned, impatient 
copyist. — nin^ '^?*7J' © inserts iv ifxol, U in me, an interp. gl. followed by 
PBV., possibly influenced by Hb. 2^. nin"> is a gl., as it makes 1. too long. 
The less common ^.sn is more prob,, especially in IS. — z^'-'Z' "^5"!;] phr. a.X. 
of peace with God ; but cf. 28^ 3520 Je. g' Est. 10^, not the same as Di^c^ 
Gn. 37* (J). — otr^ ^vi]. This negative requires juss. form ; but it is inappro- 
priate to the context. Aq., 2, &, 3, all make it final clause n'?i. — t ^"^D^S] 
n.f. self-confidence, elsw. Jb. 4^; as "^D^ 49^*, and not folly, stultitiam 3, Aq., 
2, omitted by S. <S fai toi)j iTri<TTp^(poi>Ta$ irpbi avrbv KapSiav, U et in eos 
qui conrertiintur ad cor — n^ o^*;' ^-iz' •'';'«', so Street, Ba., Now., Du., is 
doubtless correct. |^ has in time of Egyptian Aramaic script mistaken D3 
for D3 and wrongly arranged the letters of the sentence. — 11. J irjc:] Niph. 
pf., elsw. Pr. 222 29^3. Qal encounter, not in ^. — 13. Tpi>. r\\r\> oj]. 6 koX 
7Ap, 3 sed et. This additional ideal interrupts the personification of v.^^-^^- ". 
The V. is doubtless a gl., as it makes the Str. just these two 11. too long. — 
14. T|">"7.'7 or^ij is improb., as it gives no proper parall. Rd. with Dy., We., 
Du., T^T c^r. 1^ transposes S by txt. err. 



PSALM LXXXVI. 235 



PSALM LXXXVI., 5 STR. 4^ 

Ps. 86 is a prayer composed for public worship in the syna- 
gogue, entreating Yahweh to answer His afflicted servant (v.^"^), 
whose prayer continues all day long (v.^^), pleading His goodness 
in forgiveness and His incomparable works of deliverance (v.^ ^- ^°"), 
asking for instruction (v.^^"^^), and concluding with thanksgiving 
for deliverance from Sheol and abundant kindness and faithfulness 
^^13.15-j^ Glosses were added of entreaty for an answer (v.^-^), 
expressing the assurance that all nations would eventually worship 
Him (v.^) , stating the peril from terrible enemies (v.") , and final 
importunate pleading (v.^^^^) . 

INCLINE Thine ear (unto me), Yahweh, 
Answer me; for afiflicted and poor am L 

keep my life ; for pious am I. 

Save Thy servant, who trusteth in Thee. 
/r\ THOU my God) ! be gracious to me, O Lord: 
^ For unto Thee I call all the day. 

Make glad the soul of Thy servant, O Lord : 

For unto Thee I lift up my soul. 
YEA, Thou, O Lord, art good and ready to pardon, 

And abundant in kindness to all that call upon Thee. 

There is none like Thee, and there are none like Thy doings; 

For Thou art great and a doer of wonders. 
'pEACH me Thy way : I will walk in Thy faithfulness. 

Let my heart rejoice in fearing Thy name. 

1 will thank Thee, O Lord, with all my heart ; 
And I will glorify Thy name (my God), forever. 

T70R Thy kindness is great upon me, 

And Thou hast delivered me from the nether Sheol ; 

For Thou, O Lord, art a God compassionate and gracious, 

Slow to anger, and abundant in kindness and faithfulness. 

Ps. 86 was a nScr. It was not in !5 or 133^. It is composed of five 
tetrameter tetrastichs, and is light and graceful in movement. Its phrases are 
chiefly those of ©, due probably to familiarity with the Davidic Pss. It im- 
plies Ex. 15II in v.^, Dt. 32^2 in v.i^^, Ex. 34^ in v.^^. It shows dependence on 
Is.2 in its use of ^2'; for Israel v.^- *; and on D in its use of 22^ \M- ^^, and of 
D'^ riN-c v.ii. The author was, however, original, and uses several phrases 
o.X. : V.2 >iH -i^Dn ^d; v.^ rho) 2y^; v.^ y^y'OD ps; v.s- 12 q^ ^3^. y.is hy Snj *iDn. 
It was composed for public worship in the synagogue, probably after IB had 
been edited. It is probable, therefore, that the Ps. was not in B, but that 
TnS in the title, as in Ps. 108, was due to the resemblance of this Ps. to Pss. 



236 PSALMS 

of Q. There are several glosses : v.^, an intense petition in usual terms ; 
V.'', a statement of habit of prayer and answer ; v.^, an assurance of the ulti- 
mate worship of all nations ; v.^*, from 54^ ; v.^^'-i^, a petition based on 116I*. 

Str. I. Syn. couplets. — 1-2. Incline Thine ear unto me\ as 
31* 71^ 102^ II answer me'\ as usual in prayers; explained by O 
keep my life'], as 25^ from the peril of death, cf. w}^. \\ save']. Here 
as usual the people pray in the ist pers. sg. in the consciousness 
of their unity before God. Israel conceives himself to be the 
servant of Yahvveh, as in the exilic Isaiah. As such he is pious 
(v. 4^), and trusteth in Yahweh, cf. 4^ 31^; though afflicted and 
poor, cf. 35^« 37" 40^«. 

Str. II. Synth, couplets. — 3-4. O TJiou my God], displaced 
in original text and put into previous Str. It emphasizes the per- 
sonal relation to God by the sf. ; intensified by O Lord\ a char- 
acteristic divine name of this Ps., used also v.*-*-^^-^' besides the 
glosses v.®^. — be gracious to me\ a familiar expression, cf. 4^; 
more specifically, — Make glad the soul of Thy servant']^ give the 
joy of salvation. The people are now engaged in prayer : For 
unto Thee J call || lift up my soul], the soul ascending to God in 
prayer with the uplifted hands, cf. 25^ and indeed all the day, 
long, continuous pleading. 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 5. Vea], emphatic assertion of the 
fact, to be preferred with JPSV. to " for " of EV"., giving an 
additional reason for the pleading. — Thou art good and ready to 
pardon], phr. a.X. ; "good" in the sense of "being good to" 
His people, and so || abundant in kindness, ready to pardon the 
sins of the people, cf. v.^^ Ex. 34^ Ps. 103^ — 8. There is none 
like Thee], comparable with Thee, cf. Ex. 15". There can be no 
other thought than " among the gods" of other nations ; but it 
was not necessary to express this, and the glossator who added 
it thereby injured the measure. The second half of the tetrastich 
defines the first half more closely by there are none like Thy 
doings], a phr. original and peculiar to this Ps., but very proper 
as an introduction to 10 a. For Thou art great and a doer of 
wonders], cf. Ex. 15". The Ps. asserts at once the kindness of 
God in the pardon of sin and His greatness in wonders of deliv- 
erance of His people in the past. All this belongs together and 
is strong in its simpKcity and historic reference. 



PSALM LXXXVI. 237 

Glossators greatly enlarged this Str., breaking into its several 
lines and interrupting them. — 6. is a plea for a hearing, in the 
usual style : O give ear^ Yahweh, unto my prayer ; and O hearken 
unto the voice of my supplications, cf. 28^ 130^. — 7 is an assertion 
of general experience : In the day of my trouble I call on Thee^ 
for Thou answerest me"], cf. if 77^ — 9 is a universalistic refer- 
ence to the eventual conversion of the nations : All nations whom 
Thou hast made will come and worship before Thee, O Lord, and 
glorify Thy name'], cf. 22^^ — 10 ft. emphatic repetition of v.^*^ 
as in (^, Thou, God, alone art great, or an assertion of the unity 
of God as % " Thou art God alone," so EV. 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 11-12. Teach me Thy way], cf. 
27"; petition for divine instruction and guidance in the Law, 
conceived as a way or course of life. Then the apodosis of imv. : 
/ will walk in Thy faithfulness], cf. 26^ i| Let my heart rejoice], 
so (g, B, F, cf. v." ; to be preferred to % J, Aq., % E, followed 
by EV. : " unite my heart," a phr. a.\. and difficult to explain in 
this context, — in fearing Thy name], the reverential fear of wor- 
ship, which is associated with songs of praise and rejoicing ; phr. 
Dt. 28^ Ps. 61^ \02^^^. — So I will thank Thee || I will glorify 
Thy name], doubtless in public worship in the temple. 

Str. V. Synth, couplets. — 13. For Thy kindness is great upon 
me], phr. a.A., but cf. 103^^. It is conceived not only as great in 
intensity, 145* Nu. 14^^; and in extent, even to heaven, Ps. 57^- 
loS'' ; but here as extending to nether Sheol, cf. Dt. 32^, the world 
below, the abode of the dead, whither Israel as a nation had gone 
when exiled from the Holy Land. Divine kindness descended 
upon him there in order to bring him up thence, so that he may 
now say : Thou hast delivered me from it. The original Ps. con- 
cluded with 15, an emphatic assertion of the kindness and faith- 
fulness of God in the citation of the classic passage Ex. 34^. 

A glossator inserts 14 from Ps. 54^^, in order to show that Israel 
had been in mortal peril from terrible foes : O God, the proud 
rose up against me, and the congregation of the terrible sought my 
life ; and they did not set Thee before them. A later editor for 
liturgical reasons added 16-17 in different measures : Turn unto 
me, cf. 25^^, and be gracious to me, resuming v."^, — O give Thy 
strength || O give sanation, resuming v.^, to Thy sen^ant || to the 



238 PSALMS 

son of Thine handmaid^ cf. 116^*. — Make with me a sign for 
good\ give some assurance that He was good to His people. It 
is not necessary to think of a miracle or a theophany, which could 
hardly have been in the mind of the editor of this late passage ; 
but of some practical exhibition of favour in real life, cf. Ezr. 8° 
Ne. 5^^ 13^^ — that they that hate me may see with shame"], cf. 6" 
35^ — that], the fact seen, and not " because " of EV'., — Thou, 
Yahwehy hast helped me and hast comforted me] , cf. Is. 49* ". 

!• n^J^ ^^^'] elsw. of God, abs. 2 K. 19^® = Is. 37^'^ Dn. g^^; in \}/ either 
sq. S 17® 88' ii62, or Vn 318 712 io23; so here, needed for measure, as Du. — 
^]^n>'\ is doubtless original. — jvdni ■•:? "»o] phr. 109--^; without o 35^'' 37!* 
4oi» (= 706) 109!^ all B, and 74^1. — 2. \-iSn nns] makes 1. too long; is 
needed to complete first 1. of v.''. — 3. "'p^'\ characteristic of this Ps., also in 
y 4. 6. (8). (9). 12. 16 . possibly in original mng. m}^ Lord || my God. — 4. "i^Sn 
NtTN "•iTflj] phr. elsw. 2^^ 143^, both D, and Dt. 24^^ +. — ""Jin] belongs to 
first 1. to complete the measure. — 6. n^Di 2''"j] phr. a.X. f n'^'D a.X. adj. ready 
to pardon; rd. rather ptc. n';:b, as 103'. — iDn 2"}] phr. Nu. 14^8 q) ^^ 
9" (Qr-) Jo- 2^* Jon. 42 Ps. 1038, contr. ncNi non 3-^ v." Ex. 346 (J, E).— 
6. \'^^Jijnn] a.X. for 'Jijnn 28"^ +. This v. is a trimeter couplet and a gl. — 
7 is a gl. of five words, prosaic in form ; cf. 17^ 77^. — 8. ^J^s d-'hSn^J makes 
1. too long and is a gl., interp. what is plain enough already. — ri'rvrs j'n] 
phr. a.X. intensification of "ii::d y^, cf. Ex. 15"; ryz'^;-:^ for deeds of Yahweh 
in deliverance and judgment, cf. t^t,^ +. — 9. ■iin.'^C'M]. The 1 is either coord, 
or introduces a final clause. — ^"^^i''? "'■'?3'] cf. v.^^ without S; elsw. God Him- 
self 22-* 50^^- 23. This whole v. is a universalistic gl., not suited to the origi- 
nal prayer. — 10. The last 1. in "^ is defective. supplies Sn;, but 1. is prob. 
gl. — 11. mn'>] makes 1. too long and is an insertion from 27^^, where same 
phr. is used. — "bl^"^^ apod, of imv. c. rrN2, phr. 26' i K. 2* 3® 2 K. 20^ Is. 38^. 
— nn;:] Pi. impf. X in"' unitey as Aq., S, ^, 3, Ba., Du. ; but ® evcppavd-qru — 
-in^ Qal impf. ; so S, U, Gr., Bi., mn rejoice, as Ex. i8» Jb. f. Pi. Ps. 2i^ — 
>39*7] full form as v.^2 . both doubtless original, as in Pss. 15, 20, 24, 25, loi, 
139 (©). — ISC' '^^'^:^'\ Qal inf. with S as Dt. 4^°; phr. Pss. 6i« io2i« Dt. 
28^8 Is. 59^® Mai. 32*5 Ne. i^^. — 12. "^nSN ■•jin] a prosaic copyist has com- 
bined these divine names, but one is needed for each 1. — 13. nonn S'nc'] 
= Dt. 3222; cf. -n ^N Ez. 3ii*- 16. 18 4.^ |.-ix(n) rv.-^n.n Pss. 63^^ 1391^ — 14 is a 
gl. from 54^ The only differences are : on? for cnr, an error ; the insertion 
of mp ; sf. for d^hSn. — 15. ji:m cim *?«] phr., as Ex. 34^ (J) Ps. 103^, earlier 
order; the later Dinm pjn iii* 112* 145^ 2 Ch. 30® +. — 16 has three trime- 
ters, and is doubtless a gl. — ^"^t' ??] phr. elsw. \\Q^. — 17. na'^toS n"'N] phr. 
a.X., cf. Gen. 4^^ Jos. 2^2 (J) Jb. ii'^. — "inI'.!] apod., or final clause, or juss., 
as it is variously explained. — Vk:b;'>] is subordinate to the previous vb., and 
qualifies it with adverbial force, so that it does not disturb the force of ""D, 
which is the objective that^ and not the causal for. 



PSALM LXXXVII. 239 



PSALM LXXXVII., 3 STR. 3^ 

Ps. 87 is a hymn in praise of Zion. (i) Zion is beloved of 
Yahweh and glorious (v.^"^) ; (2) the greater and minor nations 
alike become her citizens, she their mother (v.^") ; (3) Yahweh 
establisheth her, and all her inhabitants keep festival (v.^*"^). 

T-JIS foundations on the sacred mountains Yahweh loveth ; 

The gates of Zion more than all the tabernacles of Jacob. 

Glorious things He is speaking of thee, O city of God. 
T MAKE mention of Rahab and Babel : This one belongs to them that know me ; 

Lo, of Philistia and Tyre : This one was born there ; 

And Zion I will name : Mother. Every one was born in her. 
A ND He establisheth her, 'El, "Elyon, Yahweh; 

He counteth in the register of peoples : This one was born there. 

They sing as well as dance, all whose dwelling is in Thee. 

Ps. 87 was originally a T'r, then in 3S; and fH {v. Intr. §§ 24, 28, 31). It 
is a song of praise of Zion. The love of Yahweh to Zion v.i shows dependence 
on Je., Zph. The use of :3n-\ for Egypt v.* is as Is. 30^. The mention of 
Babylon v.* implies the Babylonian period; of Philistia and Tyre v.* implies 
these as the most prominent neighbours. The city is a glorious place, the 
resort of Egyptians and Babylonians alike, and of Tyrians and Philistines. 
This implies a peaceful time, such as the early reign of Josiah. The friendli- 
ness to the nations resembles Is. 19. There is no internal evidence of late 
date. 

Str. I. is a synth. triplet. — 1. Bis foundations'], the sacred 
city of Yahweh v.^, founded by Him as His dwelling place and 
capitol. — on the sacred 7nountains\ probably referring to the 
several hills on which Jerusalem, like Rome, Constantinople, and 
other great cities, was situated ; especially in view of the great 
increase of citizens impHed in the subsequent context. These 
hills are all regarded as sacred because they are parts of the city 
made sacred by the divine residence in the temple on one of them, 
cf. Je. 3^^i8 31^^ Zph. 3^-20 (Br.MP-225.q.242 8q.255.q.) _2. YaMvek 
loveth], the complement of the previous trimeter, making the 
pentameter complete, having its direct object in the previous con- 
text, as RV.™, and not in the following, although the latter is sus- 
tained by 5^ and Vrss. ancient and modern. — The gates of Zion], 
as the public places of concourse, for the city itself; and so parall. 
" foundations " above, and the second complementary object of 



240 PSALMS 

the verb "love." These are compared, as the object of the 
divine Love, with all the taberimcles of Jacob\ cf. 78-'^; a poetic 
term for the other cities of the Holy Land, which were indeed 
loved by Yahweh, but not so much as His royal seat Zion. — 
3. Glorious things\ emphatic in position, the obj., not the subj., 
of vb. ; referring to the predictions of the prophets, especially 
Je., Zp., Is.^ upon which the poet depends, summed up by him- 
self v.*"^. — He is speaking], the passive with indefinite subj., here, 
as often in Heb., to be rendered by active in English, referring to 
divine words, as in subsequent context, and not to words of men, 
repeating to themselves and others these promises. 

Str. II. is a syn. triplet. — 4-5 a. I make mention of\ Yahweh 
Himself speaks, calling the roll of those He has enrolled as citizens 
of Zion. These are : (iz) them that know me\ in the religious 
sense of practical acquaintance in worship, and obedience to the 
divine Law, cf. 9^^ 36" 79^ 91"; {b) those born in her\ not in the 
sense of physical descent, but of moral and religious adoption by 
Yahweh, so that they are as truly regarded as citizens as those who 
were actually born of citizens. This latter phr. is twice repeated 
for emphasis in v.^ and again in v.^ Other nations are here en- 
rolled with Israel as the people of Yahweh, cf. Is. 19^®-^. These 
are Rahab, an emblematic name of Egypt, as Is. 30', conceived as 
a monster on account of her oft-repeated devouring of Israel ; and 
Babel, the ancient capital of Babylonia on the Euphrates Ps, 137^ ^ 
Israel, in the time of Josiah, was indeed a little state, separating 
these two great warlike powers, both represented by parties in 
Jerusalem, struggling for the mastery. — Lo, of Philistia and Tyre\ 
the chief of the minor nations, on the sea-coast of the Mediter- 
ranean, the nearest nations to Israel, and in a like situation with 
her in relation to the two great world powers. A glossator inserted, 
at the expense of the measure, a reference to Cush, a country south 
of Egypt. He was probably influenced by Zp. 3^°, whether he 
meant to say, " with Cush," |^, 3, or, "people of Cush," (^. But 
this nation would go rather with Egypt than with Philistia and 
Tyre, and in any case its introduction here destroys the symmetry 
of the pairs of nations. — And Zion I will name : Mother], so (§, 
giving an appropriate climax to the Str., representing Zion as the 
mother of these nations, which are born in her as her children ; 



PSALM LXXXVII. 241 

carrying on the idea of Je., Zp., Is.^ that Zion is the wife of Yahweh 
and mother of all her pious inhabitants. J^, followed by other 
Vrss. : " Of Zion it shall be said," is rather tame, especially for a 
climax. 

Str. III. is a synth. triplet. — 5 b. And He'], emphatic demon- 
strative, referring to Yahweh, defined by a heaping up of divine 
names for emphasis in the complement of the line : *El, ^Elyon, 
Yahweh ; the force of which is lost in J^ and Vrss. by attaching 
Yahweh to the next line at the expense of the measure of both 
lines, and by the omission of 'El. — establisheth her], the strength- 
ening and enlarging of the city, as 48^, in accordance with its im- 
portance as the mother of the nations. — 6. He coufiteth in the 
register of peoples]^ resuming the thought of v.'*^*. The love 
of Yahweh for His city is so great that He takes a particular 
interest in each one of its inhabitants, going over each name 
enrolled in her register and counting it, making, as it were, a 
census. — 7. They sing as well as dance], Aq., J, RV. ; keeping 
festival in sacred dances and processions, cf. 30^^ 149^ 150*. This 
is greatly to be preferred to " trumpeters," PBV., or " players on 
instruments," AV., explaining Heb. vb. as from a different stem, 
meaning, "playing on the pipe," or less specifically, "making 
merry," as (^, F. — all whose dwelling is in Thee], after (§, H, in 
accordance with the conception of the new birth, enrolment, and 
citizenship of the previous context. EV'., thinking of another 
Heb. word, render "all my fountains are in Thee," which then 
must be regarded as the words of the merry-makers, and inter- 
preted as referring to the fountains of salvation, cf Is. 1 2^ Ps. 36^ 

1. in^iD^] a.X. for usual mD^ Mi. i^ Ps. 137'; sg., so 3, but ® pi. OefxiXLoi 
a^ToO. — 3. "ii^c] Pu. ptc. with indef. subj,, for active; @ iXaXrjdT], 3 dicta 
sunt ; so @ irepl aov, 3 in te ; prob. "13 was originally at the end of 1., as v."^. 
— 4. n^-TN] Hiph., so 3 ; but (S irTX Qal. — f nn"^] n.m., mythical sea mon- 
ster 89II Is. 51^ Jb. 9I3 2612, but emblem Egypt Is. 30^; so here. — ^^-i/S] S 
as belonging to the class of, with Qal ptc. pi. sf. i sg. i.p. A word is miss- 
ing from measure; prefix nr, as v.^^-^. — ri3"D>;] so 3, Aq., S, but © cr. 
The phr. in either case is prob. gl. from Zp. 3I'', as it makes 1. too long and 
destroys the symmetry of the two pairs of nations, major and minor, — 5. ^rx*?!] 
so 3, Aq., S, if II v'l'S '^ belonging to ; but this not suited to vb. ® /at^ttjp 
Set(i>', so 31, Aug., Cassiod. = DN \Vi without '^, is more prob. as suitable 
climax. The original was ids dn ^vx, cn being omitted in |^ by haplog., the 



242 



PSALMS 



prep, and impf. vb. being interpretative. Point nrs with the mng. name, as 
Gn. 22'^-* (E). nv-i"> is then subj. with Du., as usual in \p. Ba., Ecker, after 
Field, Hexapla, think /x^ttj/) Sctiii/ txt. err. for /it; t^ Seiw;', U num quid^ 
but this is improb. (S attaches first it'^n to previous vb., the second to the 
following. This is due to 1 between them. If cs is original, •i'-'si cannot be. 
Rd. •i'-N";:'^N. — 6. 2^133] Qal inf. cstr. with 3, so Aq., %\ but ® iv ypa(pi, 
so 9, Quinta, & ; 3 scribens, so S. — nbo;] Qal, so 5, 3 ; but @ 8n)yi^(r€Tai, 
Aq., Pi. — 7. 3'>">u'i] ptc. pi. Qal y/s^'C' sing; but ® XaQp kuI ipx^yruv ro6- 
Twv tQ}v yeyevrju^wuv iv aur^ = '13 'h^'d rw □>-«::'i cnv takes nr as pL, as it does 
in v.**, and ptc. for pf. ; ri3 is assimilation to v.^; onf princes, rulers. But 
this does not suit the context, and destroys the measure of the entire Str. — 
D^'^'^'b] @ eixppaipofi^vuv, 'H laetantitim, ptc. pi. y/^'^rx denom. play the pipe. 
But Aq., 3, in choris ptc. Polel, yj "^in whirl in the dance Ju. 21"^^-, so Pe., De., 
Ba., Dr., Du. — -ri;-:] my springs, words of singers, Aq., S, 3, Dr., Du. ; but 
6 KaroiKia, V habitatio — rv*^ dwelling, without sf., sf. of |^ being, as often, 
interpretative ; 5 \r.": humbled, cf. Is. 53*, improb. = Pu. ptc. nj;. Hu. ^Y'p, 
Bo. \r^-^ Hiph. ptc. are not justified by usage. S3 is before a relative clause, 
the copula and relative being emitted. 

PSALM LXXXVIIL, 3 str. 12^ 

Ps. 88 is a national lamentation : (i) crying for help from the 
Sheol into which the nation has been brought by defeat and cap- 
tivity (v.^) ; (2) expostulation for leaving them in this state 
of gloom and misery, where they cannot even laud their God 
^^ lok-u. 7-ioa^ . ^^^ ^.jy ^jjjj expostulation, intensified in the ex- 
treme peril into which Yahweh's rejection and wrath have brought 
them (v.^*-^^). Glosses were added (v.^^"^^). 

1LTY God (I cry for help) by day; 

I cry in the night in Tliy sight: 

Let my prayer come before Thee, 

Incline Thine ear unto my yell. 

My soul is sated with evils, 

And at Sheol my life has arrived; 

I am counted with them that go down to the Pit; 

I am become a man without (God). 

Among the dead am I as the slain, 

(Who are cast forth) to lie down in the Grave; 

Whom Thou rememberest no more. 

Seeing that from Thy hand they are cut off. 
T CALL upon Thee, Yahweh, every day ; 

I spread forth my palms unto Thee. 

To the dead wilt Thou do wonders ? 

Will the shades rise up to laud Thee ? 



PSALM LXXXVIII. 243 

Thou hast put me in the Pit below, 
In the dark places, in dense darkness. 
Upon me Thy wrath hath laid its hand, 
And all Thy breakers Thou hast brought upon me. 
Thou hast removed mine acquaintances from me; 
Thou hast made me an abomination to them. 
I am shut up that I cannot come forth ; 
Mine eye wasteth away by reason of afifiiction. 
UNTO Thee, Yahweh, I cry for help; 

And in the morning my prayer goes to meet Thee, 

Why, Yahweh, rejectest Thou me ? 

Hidest Thy face from me ? 

Afflicted and ready to expire from my youth, 

I endure, I am brought low, I am turned backward; 

The outbursts of Thy wrath have gone over me, 

Thy terrors exterminate me ; 

They have encompassed me as it were with waters all day long; 

They enclosed me about altogether. 

Thou hast removed from me mine acquaintances, 

Even lover and friend, in the Place of Darkness. 

Ps. 88 has a double title : (i) n-i|i tjnS -nr:ra n"'*^ is prefixed to m:T2h against 
the usage elsewhere. This is an evidence that the Ps. was not derived from 
It by ©E, but that this title was prefixed to ©2^. S3^ did not derive the 
Ps. from It, and therefore it was not in It as that editor knew it. The state- 
ment was prefixed by a later editor after Si^, and therefore it must have 
come into 3^ after ©2^ used it, or else be a conjectural mistake (v. Intr. 
§§ 28, 33). The Ps. differs from the style of |^ so much that internal evi- 
dence favours the opinion that the statement is incorrect. The original title 
ascribes the Ps. to Heman, the Ezrahite, ^nnrsn p^n*^, with which we may 
compare >n"irNn in-'NS Ps. 89. Both are d^S-'D'J'C. Ps, 88 was taken up into 
©3^, and the musical direction given nijj;S nSnn S;? {v. Intr. §§ 26, 30, 34). 
Heman is mentioned among the cr^Dn of Solomon i K. 5^1 (4^^)> but he is 
there classed with Calcol and Darda as Sine ''J^, Ethan alone being ""nirxn. 
I Ch. 2*^, however, gives Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Darda as five 
nil ^11 of the tribe of Judah. But in i Ch. 6I8 sq. (33 .q.) j^n. 19 Heman, of the 
family of Kohath, Asaph, of the family of Gershom, Ethan, of the family of 
Merari, were all Korahites of the tribe of Levi. According to i Ch. 25^ 
Heman was the king's seer. It is evident that the title of this Ps. is inde- 
pendent of the statement of i K. 5^1, and is in accord with the later Chr. 
The Ps. could not have been written either by the sage or the singer. The 
author probably used the name of the ancient worthy as a pseudonym, just as 
Ethan is used in 89 and Moses in 90. There are so many resemblances with 
Jb. that De. thought of a common author. But these are more numerous 
than striking, and due largely to a common theme. V.^ "'y'pn, cf. Jb. 3^^, but 
dubious in Ps. and prob. error for >'ki'DJ ; \P :3Nt vb., cf. n^sn n. Jb. 41^* a.\., 
but vb. Je. 31I2.26. v.ii D^ND^, Jb. 26^ but also Is. 14^ Pr. 2^8 +; v.12 jn^N, 



244 PSALMS 

Jb. 268 2S22 3112^ elsw. Pr., but this v. is a gloss ; v.i^ n-;V, cf. Jb. 3326 36I*, 
elsw. Pr. 2<j^^, not necessarily original in Jb., an easy substitute for Dn;;j ; 
v.^^ 1'^^» cf. Jb. 2Cr'^, but & i^N more probable ; v.^' ry^, cf. Jb. 6* 7I*, but 
also Ps. 18°. The evidence for common author or dependence is insufficient. 
On the other hand, v.^ -iu t»v is phr. of Ez.; v.^ cf. Is. 141^; nuj, cf. Is. 53^; 
v.'^ nvrnn no = La. 3^; v.'- 1^ (D^)3rnc, cf. La. f; v.^^ ;ni j.-in = Ps. 3812. 
The resemblance is chiefly with exilic Lit. The Ps. is best explained as a 
national lament during the extreme distress of the Exile, and it resembles 22, 
69, of B in situation. This is the view of 5, ^, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Ra., 
Ki., De W., Ba. 

Str. I. has three tetrastichs, the first syn., the second intro- 
verted, the third syn. pairs. — 2-3. My God~\, the personal rela- 
tion to God is the strongest plea, intensified by the gloss " Yahweh," 
the name of the national God, making the the line too long, — / 
cry for help\ so by emendation of a phr. a.X. in accord with v.", 
and II I cry, defined by my prayer and intensified in ?ny yell, the 
shrill, piercing cry expressive of intense anxiety and pain, cf. 17^ 
This continues by day and in the night], all the time, continually, 
without ceasing, cf. 2 2^ The prayer is made in the sight of 
Yahweh so far as the people in their exile can come in front 
of His heavenly throne, seeking by every means to attract His 
attention ; while they feel that something obstructs the way of 
their prayer in its ascent before God. This they would have 
removed, so that He will look upon their evil situation, and incline 
the ear to hear them, cf. 17^. — 4-5. Sated with evils']. Mis- 
fortunes, calamities, have come upon them in such numbers, and 
to so great an extent, that they have had more than enough, 
more than they are able to endure. — / am become a man with- 
out God], in a helpless condition, with no God to help. — At 
Sheol], emphatic in position, the abode of the dead, even of 
nations, cf. 9^**, — fny life has arrived], having made the journey 
toward it and actually arrived there. — thefn that go down to the 
Pit], descending in death to the abode of the dead, and going 
still further down into the Pit, in Sheol, the abode of the wretched 
dead, cf. 28^ 30* 143^ They were already counted, or enumer- 
ated, among such, as if they were among the dead. — 6. /], " my 
soul," so Du., Dr., as v.**. % though sustained by (5, 3, " Free 
among the dead," PBV., AV., does not suit the context ; and the 
phr., " cast off among the dead," RV., cannot be sustained by the 



PSALM LXXXVIII. 245 

etym. or usage of the Heb. word. The exiles in the Sheol of 
captivity and national death were in a condition the reverse 
of free. — as the s/ain'], connected with the previous context as 
the measure requires, and not with the subsequent, as EV^ The 
slain are those slain in the warfare that resulted in the capture of 
Jerusalem and the slaughter or captivity of its inhabitants. Cf. 
Ez. 37 for the working out of this symbolism. — Who are cast 
forth\ so (^ ; unfortunately omitted in J^, but needed for the 
measure: cf. Is. 14^^ Je. 14^^. — lie down in the grave~\, as the 
climax of the description, cf. Ez. 32^^"^. In this condition of 
national death and burial, the most heartrending reflection is : 
absence from their God. On the one side it seems as if He 
remembereth no more, has utterly forgotten them, cf. v.^^ ; and on 
the other that His people are cut off from Him, so that they can 
no longer reach Him ; and especially from His hand, the putting 
forth of which has so often given the nation victory and salvation 
in the past. 

Str. II. has also three tetrastichs, the first of which, v.^°*"", has 
been transposed after the second and third, v."'^*^*, all having two 
syn. couplets. — 10 fi. / call upon Thee, Yahweh, every day~\, 
renewing the plea of v.^. || I spread forth my palms'], extend the 
open hand upward in order to receive, a gesture of prayer espe- 
cially in the form of invocation, petition, or intercession, cf. La. 
3*^ Pss. 44^^ 63' 119^ 141^. — 11. To the dead], emphatic in 
position, II the shades, the ghosts of the dead, having a weak 
existence, a shadowy reflection of their former life, cf. Is. 14^ 
2514.19^ — Wilt Thou do wonders'], not resurrection, as most in- 
terpreters, but divine acts of judgment upon enemies and redemp- 
tion of His people. Such marvels had been wrought often enough 
in the history of Israel, cf. Ex. 15^^ Is. 25^ Pss. 77^^ 78^^; but to a 
nation having national existence in their own land. But how can 
such wonders be wrought for a nation already dead and buried ? 
This is what presses upon the poet's mind. He apparently knows 
not, or has forgotten, Ez. 37, and certainly has never heard of 
Is. 26^^. On the other hand the disembodied shades cannot rise 
up to laud Yahweh. The conception here is the same as Is. 38^^ 
Ps. 6^, that in Sheol the worship of Yahweh ceases, and so also in 
the Sheol of national exile. This does not mean that prayer and 



246 PSALMS 

praise of a personal kind are impossible ; the Ps. itself is a prayer ; 
but that national worship in the ritual of the temple can no longer 
be carried on. The dead could not render that worship in Sheol. 
How can they rise up in resurrection so that they may do it? 
This poet longs for a speedy restoration, because he seems to 
imply a negative answer to his question, and to suggest that if the 
nation really dies, a national resurrection is not to be thought of. 
And yet this was exactly what later poets learned to be the pur- 
pose of their God. — 7. Thou hast put me\. Although the calam- 
ity had come upon the nation through their enemies, the proud 
and all-powerful Babylonians, yet these were but the instruments 
for executing the divine Will. — in the Pit deloiv'], in the extreme 
depths of the cavernous underworld, the Pit in Sheol emphasized 
as La. 3" Ez. 26-"^ 31^* 32^^, doubtless at the basis of the bottomless 
Pit of Rev. 9^ 11^ 17® 2o\ — in dense darkfiess']. The original 
meaning of a Heb. word, rendered here by (©, ,S, U, " shadow of 
death," owing to a misinterpretation of the form {v. 23''). J^, Jl, 
EV'., " in the deeps," is based upon another Heb. word, due to a 
copyist's transposition of letters, which can only be understood of 
subterranean waters ; possibly due to an assimilation to v.^. — 
8. Upon me Thy wrath hath laid its hand\ Wrath is personified 
here, as the divine attributes elsewhere, cf. 85""^^ and as such lays 
its hand upon the nation. The usual interpretation of the vb. as 
intransitive " lieth hard upon," EV'., is not justified by usage. — 
And all Thy breakers^ fig. of troubles, cf. 42®. Yahweh's because 
these troubles came from Him. — Thou hast brought\2&&y^y 
U. J^, 3, Aq., 2, follow another Heb. word, which is difficult to 
explain in the context, AV., RV., "afflicted me with all Thy 
waves." — 9. Thou hast refnoved mine acquaintances from me"]. 
These were the friendly nations, as 31 'I The phr. does not im- 
ply personal relations between individuals. In exile, Israel was 
widely separated from his friendly neighbours as well as from the hos- 
tile ones. — an abomination to the?fi~\. This does not imply, either 
in figure or reality, a loathsome disease ; but national calamities 
so great that even the friendly nations could only look upon Israel 
with abhorrence, dreading and fearing a share in his misfortunes, 
cf. 31^^. — / am shut up\ in the dungeon of captivity, as (IT, cf. 
Je. 32^'^, involving also the figure of Sheol, from which it was im- 



PSALM LXXXVIII. 247 

possible to come forih^ to escape, cf. La. 3^. — 10 a. Because of 
this terrible situation AIi7ie eye wasteth away by reason of afflic- 
tion\ that is, by continual weeping, cf. 6^ 

A later editor inserted a pentameter and two trimeters to 
amplify this idea, v.^^~^^. 

Shall Thy kindness be recounted in the Giave, Thy faithfulness in Abaddon ? 
Shall Thy wonders be known in the Dark Place; 
Or Thy righteous acts in the Land of Forgetfulness ? 

The realm of the dead is described in four syn. terms : 
(i) Grave ^ as the place of entombment; (2) Abaddon^ a term 
elsewhere WL. as a syn. of " Pit," usually incorrectly rendered in 
EV. as abstract, " destruction " ; it refers to that part of Sheol 
in which the wicked go to utter ruin \ (3) the Dark Place, as v.'. 
La. 3^, referring to the darkness and gloom which characterise 
this subterranean, cavernous region ; (4) Land of Forgetfulness, 
a poetic term unknown elsewhere, suggesting probably that the 
dead were forgotten by the dwellers upon earth and also by God, 
as v.^ rather than that they are forgetful of their Hfe in this world, 
Jb. 14^^. This editor questions whether the divine attributes kind- 
ness and faithfulness, as expressed in wonders and righteous acts, 
shall be made known in this realm of the dead, implying a nega- 
tive answer. 

Str. III. has three tetrastichs, each of two syn. couplets. — 
14. Unto Thee, Yahweh'], repeating essentially v.^. The editor 
inserted " as for me," making the line too long ; not suitable to 
the context after v.^, but made necessary by its present position 
after v.-^^. — my prayer goes to meet Thee'] , a stronger and richer 
expression than v.^, with personification of the prayer, which is 
represented as going forth on a journey to meet Yahweh, who is 
conceived as on His way. This is followed by strong expostula- 
tion : 15. Why rejectest Thou 7ne ?\ cf. 43^ 44^^ 89^^. The nation 
cannot understand the reason for this continuation of rejection. 
— Hidest Thy face], as 13^ 22^ 27^ 69^^ so as not to see. — 
16. Afflicted and ready to expire]. So severe was the affliction 
that the nation had been for a long time on the brink of death, 
and was now virtually already dead, as in the previous context. 
Only the poet conceives this situation as having a long history 



248 PSALMS 

back of it. It extended even to the early history of the nation, 
from its youth. The author probably had in mind Dt. 26^ In 
fact, Israel always had been a small and weak nation, in constant 
peril from the great world powers. But by the wondrous deliver- 
ances wrought by Yahweh, it had escaped utter ruin again and 
again. The climax had now been reached in the Exile. This 
cannot be explained to suit a reference of the Ps. to an individual 
sufferer, and so many unsuccessful emendations have been sug- 
gested, without help from ancient Vrss. — I endure y I am brought 
loWy I am turned backward'] ; three vbs. in accordance with 
(^, F, <S, although they interpret the first as in antithesis with the 
other two, and translate it *' exalted." J^, followed by EV'., in- 
terprets the second word as a noun, the object of the first vb., 
" terrors," and the third word as another vb., a.X., which is ren- 
dered "distracted," AV., RV., "benumbed," ^DB., but without 
sufficient evidence. — 17. The outbursts of Thy wrath\ phr. a.X., 
but which in accordance with usage of pi. must mean wrath in 
action in several manifestations or acts, probably renewing the 
figure of the breakers, v.® ; cf. v.^^ — Thy terrors exterminate me\ 
a phr. a-X. ; but both words, though unusual, sufficiently evident 
in meaning. The nation is indeed in terror, and on the brink 
of extermination. — 18. They have encompassed || enclosed me\ 
These outbursts of wrath are like waters || terrors ; in time, all 
day long, and in place, altogether; so that from every point of 
view the situation is extremely critical. — 19. The first line is 
identical with v.** in the corrected text. J^ has, by error of 
transposition, separated lover from frietid, the two belonging to- 
gether, as 38^^, and emphasizing acquaintances. These are all, as 
V.**, friendly nations. — In the Place of darkness], a local accusa- 
tive indicating the place of the nation, in exile as v.^, and not 
of the other nations, as AV. Ancient Vrss. give various other 
explanations, which are, however, unsatisfactory. 

2. nin"] is gl., as (5 v.^. It makes 1. too long. — >r\y\v> ^hSk] pi. a.X. 
Rd. "•nyir, as v.i*<». The initial ^ is dittog. ; so Hare, Kenn., Gr., Bi., Che., 
Ba., Elir. — 0^^] txt. err. for 3::v, 0, Gr., Bi., Che., Ba., Du. ; cf. 228 42^ 91* 
121*, all il nS^*^. — 6. \'K r^] °-^' t "^'f* n.m. help, BDJ^. after Lag., loan word 
Aram. ® d^oi^driTos, but 3 invalidus, without strength. Ehr. rds. ''s, which 
is prob. — "^pp]. The 3 prob. gl. ; makes it a simile and weakens the thought. 



PSALM LXXXVIII. 249 

— 6. t''^'^'?] adj.yr^fif, as slave from master Ex. 2i2-6 (E) Jb. 3^^, from cap- 
tivity Is. 58^; so <&, 3, but against context. Rd. >-f 33, as Dy., Dr. — whhn idd] 
are needed for measure of previous 1. ; but then rd. D"''?'?nD, the poetic form 
of prep, in any case impairs the measure. (5^ ippLfxjii^voi, omitted ^x.c. a. a. t^ 
implies w^p^pr? Je. 14^^, which, though not in |§, is needed for measure, and 
enables us to arrange 11. in better parall. — nrjj] Niph. pf. J i:j. Qal divide^ 
cut in two, 13613. Niph. be cut off from, here as Is. 53^. — 7. ni-Tinn 11:3] phr. 
= La. 355, cf. Pss. 63!'^ 8613 Ez. 2620 31I4. I6.18 32I8.24 ig. 4423. _ □,3.^no] cf. 
La. 3** Ps. 143^; so prob. v.i^ for yi'nri, and v.^^ for "itJ'n^, v. 74^. — niSxD] 
cf. 693. 16 gulf, of deep hole H Pit. But (S, F, S>, Houb., Kenn., Che., Ehr., 
mnSx more prob. — 8, r"':;-] Pi. pf. r^y; afflict, cf. 901^. Aq., S, 3, add sf., 
but this is prob. interp. This vb. is not suited to "in:3^'i:. @ ^tt* ipi^ ^ir'fiya- 
yes, followed by &, Y, is better. Gr., Ba., Du., rd. n^iN, as Ex. 2ii3 pg. 91IO. 
It is easier to rd. r-ini. — 9. roirin] pi. seems unnecessary. (5, 3, rd. sg. 
The term is used in legal sense in D, Ez., and is ethical in Pr. and subse- 
quently. The conception of Israel as slain suggests the abomination of the 
dead body. — '>::';'] poetic sf. for euphony. — 10. n^x-j] pf. Qal 3 f. ; vb. f 3NT 
elsw. Je. 3 1 12- 25 Income weary, languish ; f h^nt n. Jb. 41I*. ®, U, TjadhtjaaVf 
3 infirmatus. But S, C ^, as Aram. 2^ Jlow. — ijp] archaic prep, for eu- 
phony. — ">:;•] i.p. ''J", V. g^^. — ""D "'i^iPt^] V^^- °"^' t^^'^'- Vb. Qal spread 
out, in sense of sc'atter, disperse, Je." s'^ Jb. I223 Nu. ii32-32 q) 2 S. 171% 
here only Pi. of the palms; cf. ^i^ K'-io Ps. 44^1, fp Ntt'j 63^ iip^s 1412^ — 
11. t°"'':'$"!] ii-i^« P^' shades, the weak ghosts of the dead in Sheol Is. 14^ 
2614. 19 Yx. 2^3 9I8 2 1 16 Jb. 26^. Original mng. dub.; @ larpoi = D"'N3"\ improb. 
— 12. Pentameter gl. We might supply hhr\ and make it a trimeter couplet. 
But this and v.i3 seem rather amplifying glosses, destroying the symmetry of the 
Str. — tr"^??<] ii-f-> the place of ruin in Sheol H nn and never abstr. Jb. 26^ 
2822 3ii2 Pr/ 1^11 2720 (Qr.). — 13. f ^;'f ^ Yl.^.] P^r- a.\. — U. >Jn:] a gl., 
making 1. too long. — 16. f "^VJ] n.m. abstr. youth Pr. 29^1 Jb. 33^5 361*, for 
the usual onyj. — ^^cx] cf. Ps. 55^; but (3, &, V, "n?!^ Niph. fl^n vb. Qal 
be low, humiliated, of perverse Israel io6*3; Niph. sink in decay, of timbers 
of house Ec. ioi3; Hoph. be brought low Jb. 24^4. — hjidn] a.X. ^DB., Qal 
impf. cohort, ps = J1Q as 38^ so 01s., Hu., Dy., Gr., We., Du. ; cf. 778. But 
®, 5, "F, 3, njDN, Hoph. impf. i sg. -^njo, be turned back in confusion, cf. 
Je. 493. — 17. :i"'.r"'>'?] pl- sf. t ['^'''"'ly^] n- pl- terrors Jb. 6* •v/'"^>3 vb. over- 
whelm Ps. l8^ terrify y^. 7I*. — ""Jinrp-i] a.X. impossible form. Hi., Ba. rd. 
■•jnnpx as 119139; but prob. as Ges.§^^-2, Pi. 3 pl. sf. ^nnx (/<?4^) exterminate. 
A word is missing; rd. \-ix. |^ is conflation of ^j and "'nx. — 19. 3?-n 3nx] — 
3812. @B omits yn, but it is needed for measure, and is given by (g^- •=• *• ^- ^ '^. 
J^ transposes ■'jJi^r. — Ti'^'n;^] prob. the dark place, as v."^, but © d7r6 raXaiTrw- 
pfaj, U a miseria; so Luther interprets c as prep. i3 «(?/c?.y meos abstulisti^ 
translates "iB^n D"';;t'D, vb. "riK^n restrain, as 191*; so Ba. 



250 PSALMS 



PSALM LXXXIX. 

Ps. 89 is composite. (A) A Ps. of praise sets forth the faith- 
fulness of Yahweh and His deeds of kindness, especially in the 
creation and government of the world, as the theme of praise for 
the people, the holy angels, and the great objects of nature (v.^^- ^"), 
with a liturgical tetrameter tristich attached (v.^^^'). (JB) A lam- 
entation in four parts gives a paraphrase of the Davidic cove- 
nant, (a) in its institution (v.^^^ ^), (b) in its promises (v.^^^), 
(c) in the conditions attached and the consequences of their 
violation (v.^^~^), and then describes the penalties endured in 
the humiliation of a king, probably Jehoiachin (v.^^^^). (C) An 
editor, in troublous times, combined the Pss., and appended an 
impatient longing for the interposition of Yahweh in behalf of 
His humiliated people, and for the restoration of the monarchy 

A. v.i««-15^ 6 STR. 4^ 

r\F kindness, Yahweh, will I sing forever. 

To all generations will I make known Thy faithfulness; 

By command kindness is built up forever, 

In the heavens where Thou establishest Thy faithfulness. 
AND the heavens celebrate Thy wonderfulness, Yahweh, 

Yea, Thy faithfulness in the assembly of holy angels. 

For who in the sky can be compared to Yahweh ? 

Be like to Yahweh among the sons of gods ? 
•"PL, awe-inspiring in the circle of holy angels, 

And greatly to be revered above all round about! 

Yahweh, God of Hosts, who is like Thee ? 

Thy kindness. Yah, and Thy faithfulness are round about Thee. 
'T'HOU art ruler over the swelling of the sea ; 

When its waves heave Thou stillest them. 

Thou didst crush Rahab as one deadly wounded ; 

With Thy strong arm Thou didst scatter Thine enemies. 
'T'HINE are the heavens, yea, Thine is the earth. 

The world in its fulness. Thou didst found them. 

North and South, Thou didst create them. 

Tabor and Hermon in Thy name ring out joy. 
'T'HINE is an arm (that is endued) with might. 

Thou strengthenest Thy hand, exaltest Thy right hand. 

Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Thy throne; 

Kindness and faithfuhiess come to meet Thy face. 



PSALM LXXXIX. 251 



B, v.^»-^*-*-2»^^ 4 FTS., 4 STR. 4». 



'FHOU art the glory of our strength, 

And by Thy favour Thou exaltest our horn. 

For Yahweh's is our shield, 

And to the Holy One of Israel belongs our king. 
'T'HEN Thou didst speak in a vision; 

To Thy son Thou gavest a word, 

(Saying) : I have laid help on a hero ; 

I have exalted one chosen from the people. 
J FOUND David My servant, 

With My holy oil I anointed him. 

My hand is established with him ; 

Yea, Mine arm doth strengthen him. 
T MADE a covenant with My chosen, 

I sware to David My servant : 

Forever will I establish thy seed. 

And build thy throne for all generations. 

II. 

'THE enemy shall not come treacherously upon him, 

And the son of wrong shall not any more afflict him. 

But I will beat his adversaries to pieces before him, 

And them that hate him will I smite before him. 
■pUT My faithfulness and My kindness shall be with him, 

And through My name shall his horn be exalted. 

I will set his hand also on the sea. 

And his right hand (will I put) on the river. 
TJE will call Me : My Father, 

My God, and the Rock of my salvation. 

Yea, I will make him My first-born. 

Most high above the kings of earth. 
pOREVER will I keep My kindness for him, 

And My covenant shall be firm for him ; 

And I will set his seed forever. 

And his throne as the days of heaven. 

III. 

TF his sons forsake My Law, 

And walk not in My judgments ; 

If they profane My statutes, 

And keep not My commands; 
'THEN will I visit their transgressions with a rod, 

And (chastise) their iniquity with stripes : 

But My kindness I will not (remove) from him. 

And I will not belie My faithfulness. 



252 PSALMS 

J WILL not profane My covenant, 

And that which has issued from My hps I will not change. 

Once have I sworn by My holiness ; 

I will not lie unto David. 
I^IS seed shall be forever, 

And his throne as the sun before Me. 

As the moon shall it be established forever, 

And (forever as) the sky be firm. 

IV. 
gUT Thou hast cast off and rejected : 

Thou art become enraged with Thine anointed. 

Thou hast spurned the covenant of Thy servant; 

Thou hast profaned to the ground his crown. 
'pHOU hast broken down all his fences ; 

Thou hast made his fortresses a ruin. 

All the passers-by spoil him : 

He is become a reproach to his neighbours. 
fHOU hast exalted the right hand of his adversaries; 

Thou hast gladdened all his enemies. 

Yea, Thou tumest back his sword. 

And hast not made him stand in the battle. 
'pHOU hast taken away the sceptre of majesty. 

And his throne flung down to the ground. 

Thou hast shortened the days of his youth ; 

Thou hast wrapped him up in shame. 

C. V.<^-*2, 2 STR. 6*. 

pjOW long, Yahweh ? wilt Thou hide Thyself forever ? 

Shall Thy hot wrath burn like fire ? 

Remember, Adonay, what duration is. 

For what nothingness Thou hast created all the sons of men. 

What is man that he should live and not see death ? 

Can he deliver his life from the hand of Sheol ? 
"^HERE are Thy former deeds of kindness, Adonay ? 

Which Thou didst swear to David in Thy faithfulness ? 

Remember, Adonay, the reproach of Thy servants. 

My bearing in my bosom the shame of the peoples, 

With which Thine enemies reproached, Yahweh, 

With which they reproached the footsteps of Thine anointed. 

This Ps. is the closing Ps. of the third book of the Psalter, which with the 
second book embraces <a, It, and E, and with the first book the majority of 
the Pss. of M, BK. It was not in any of these, and was probably given its 
present position by the final editor. It bears in the title ^nnrnn jh^nS S'zjZ'D. 
It belongs to the a^s^jc^r, and the S is probably *? auctoris. The only rn^N 
\T>?Nn known is the sage of the court of Solomon i K. 5^1 (4"); but it is 
impossible to regard him as the author, and there is no reason why tradiiiun 



PSALM LXXXIX. 253 

should assign this Ps. to him. It is probable, therefore, that the author 
selected this ancient worthy as his pseudonym, and there was possibly in his 
mind a play upon the word mrx, which means native Israelite Lv. 23^2(H) 
Nu. 15I' (P) +> \T\''^ perennial, permanent, imperishable, cf. Nu. 24^1 Je. 49^*, 
and would hint at the perpetuity of the native kingdom or people of Israel. 
Such a pseudonym would be most suitable if, as we shall show, the author 
was one of the captives who accompanied King Jehoiachin in his exile. This 
title was not attached to the Ps. when finally edited in its present form, but 
belonged to the original trimeter poem, v.1^-22. 4-5. 23-46^ f hjg poem, in four 
parts of four tetrastichs in each part, gives a paraphrase of the covenant of 
David, citing v.*^* ^^-38 from the version in 2 S. 7. It uses the divine name 
Vnic-' vr\p y?^, characteristic of the two Isaiahs. It uses terms for legal 
obedience v.^^- ^^ which betray the influence of the code of J^, and suggest 
a companion of the prophet Ez. It uses other terms characteristic of these 
writers, so SSn v.^^. so. 40^ \x. limits the extension of the Davidic monarchy to 
the region extending from the sea to the river, v.^^, and knows nothing of a 
world monarchy such as we see in 72^ = Zc. 9^''. This primitive conception 
is not consistent with a late date. It applies niD3 of Ex. 422-23 q^ and \\h^ 
of Dt. 26^^ 28^, both originally used of Israel, to the king v.28. This does not 
imply a date much later than D. The fourth part describes the humiliation 
of the king in such a realistic and graphic way that it may most naturally be 
referred to a real historical experience, such as that of Jehoiachin 2 K. 24^''~i*; 
and it makes no reference to the calamities attached to the destruction of 
Jerusalem. All favour the opinion that the Ps. was written by one of the 
exiles who accompanied Jehoiachin in his captivity, prior to the final invasion 
of Palestine and the destruction of the Holy City. A later editor attached 
this Ps., setting forth the faithfulness and kindness of Yahweh to the Davidic 
monarchy, to another much later Ps. praising the faithfulness and deeds of 
kindness of Yahweh in general terms in connection with the creation and 
government of the world. This poem, without a title, is complete in itself, 
composed of six tetrameter tetrastichs v.2-3- 6-i6^ vvjth a liturgical addition 
Y 16-17^ This Ps. throughout indicates composition for public worship. The 
assembly or council of holy angels v.^- ^, in antithesis to an assembly of pious 
Israelites ; the use of the term ^>v^p for angels v.^- ^ elsw. Zc. 14^ Jb. 5^ 15^^ 
Dn. 813- 13; a>SN ^J3 v.^ only here and 29I, but cf. Jb. i^ 2I 38^ Gn. 62- * (J), 
imply a period of fully developed angelology, not earlier than the late Persian 
period. The reference to the mythical sea monster Rahab v.^^, elsw. Jb. 9I* 
2612, probably Is. 51^, used as emblematic name of Egypt Ps. 87* Is. 30^ 
implies influence of Babylonian mythology. The Ps. indicates a period of 
peace and quietness in which the public worship of Yahweh in the temple 
was enjoyed by Israel, and this not until the troubled times of the Restoration 
were over, some time subsequent to Nehemiah, when peace and prosperity 
were enjoyed under the Persian rule of Artaxerxes II. (458-404 B.C.). The 
later Ps. was prefixed to the earlier one, and that it might not be mere patch- 
work v.*-5, the Rf. of the first part of the trimeter poem, which sums up so 



254 PSALMS 

well its characteristic features, was removed so as to come immediately after 
the tetrastich giving the theme of the tetrameter poem. This editor was 
adapting these Pss. for use in public worship in his own day. It is probably 
he who added the two concluding tetrameter hexastichs. These reflect times 
of trouble, a long hiding of Yahweh's presence until His people were in 
despair and impatiently pled for interposition. He thinks of the reproach 
of the people more than of the shame of the monarchy, and is overwhelmed 
with the experience of the vanity of life and the peril of death. He probably 
wrote at the close of the Greek period, during the troubles brought upon the 
nation by Antiochus before the heroic outbreak of the Maccabean wars. 

PSALM LXXXIX. A. 

Str. I. The Ps. begins with a syn. tetrastich in praise of the 
kindness and faithfulness of Yahweh. — 2-3. Of kindness\ This 
and other like terms for the divine attributes in the singular are 
abstr., "kindness" v.^ 1| faithfulness v?^^ \ but in the plural 
" deeds of kindness," " acts of faithfulness." The pi. of the 
former is improb. only here in Ps. ; besides, it compels the 
transl. "of Yahweh's deeds of kindness," whereas Yahweh is 
more prob. vocative 2d pers., as in syn. 1. — will I sing forever\ 
in public worship, || To all generations will I make knoivn\ to 
the congregation of worshippers rather than to the great world. — 
By command^ attaching word to the third line and removing the 
suffix. 5^ " with my mouth " makes the second line too long, 
and is tautological and unpoetical. pf begins the third line with 
" for I have said," but (© and J " thou hast said." This was a 
prosaic addition, based on the interpretation that the words of 
Yahweh begin here rather than in v."*. — kindness is built up for- 
ever II Thou establishes t Thy faithfulness'], not a promise for the 
future, but an existing and long-established experience. — In the 
heavens'], the seat and centre of the divine kindness and faithful- 
ness, cf. Pss. 36^ 57". 

4-5. This trimeter tetrastich, separating tetrameter tetrastichs 
and interrupting the current of their poetic utterance, was placed 
here by an editor who pieced together an original trimeter poem 
with this later tetrameter poem. It was necessary to remove this 
piece containing the theme of the trimeter poem to this place, 
immediately after the statement of the theme of the tetrameter 
poem, in order to make the combination effectual. The justifi- 



PSALM LXXXIX. 255 

cation was in the fact that the kindness and the faithfulness of 
Yahweh were especially exhibited in the covenant with David. 
The passage may be more appropriately interpreted in its original 
place after y.^. 

Str. II. has two syn. couplets, the second synth. to the first. 
This Str. sets forth the praise of Yahweh by angels, as the former 
by men. — 6. The heavens'], taking up the thought of v.^*, in 
which the kindness and faithfulness were built up and established. 

— celebrate], sing and make known. — Thy wonderfulness], cf. 
88^^; as an attribute of Yahweh taking the place of kindness, 
cf. "shew extraordinary kindness" 4* 17^ 31^^ This usage and 
the context indicate that it is the wonderfulness of kindness that 
the poet has in mind. — in the assembly of holy angels]. The 
angels are regarded as gathered together in an assembly for the 
worship of Yahweh, cf. v.^, just as the pious on earth, cf. 22^-^ 
35^^ 40^^^^ 107^^ 149^ — 7. For who in the sky], what holy or 
divine being in the heavens, can be compared to Yahweh, \ be like 
to Yahweh], implying a negative answer. He is incomparably 
above all other beings, cf. Ex. 15^^ — among the sons of gods], 
not sons of gods in the sense of polytheism, but in the sense that 
angels are of the class of divine beings, cf. 8^ 29^ ; usually, how- 
ever, sons of God Gn. e^"* Jb. i^ 2" 38^. 

Str. III. is syn. with the previous praise of Yahweh in the 
heavens. It has two couplets, the first syn., the second synth. 

— 8. '-£■/], taking up the divine name of the previous line; voca- 
tive, and so awe-inspiring] is in apposition and not predicate, 
cf. 10^^ II to be revered. — in the circle of holy angels], the intimate 
fellowship of the innermost circle, || " assembly of holy angels " 
V.6*. — Greatly] is attached by MT. to first 1., but it makes 1. too 
long and is needed to complete the measure of second 1. — above 
all round about] ; the sf. of ?^, Vrss., is interp. but improb., as 
it destroys the force of the vocative in heaping up divine names. 

— 9. Yahweh, God of Hosts]. The ancient warlike God is now 
conceived as God of a host of angels. — who is like Thee], renew- 
ing v.^ — The closing line specifies the challenge by recurring to 
the terms which constitute the main theme of the poem : Thy 
kindness and Thy faithfulness. ^ is sustained by (3 and 3, EV'., 
in the use of a word found only here in Heb., "strong," " mighty," 



256 PSALMS 

or " potent " ; but this is improbable in itself, and the change of 
a single letter gives us the keyword of the poem, " kindness," 
which is II with ** faithfulness " v.^"^. — Va^^, an abbreviation of 
Yahweh not uncommon in late Pss. — are round about Thee]. 
The divine attributes are here personified, as often, and are 
regarded as constantly in His company, attending upon Him 
and ready to execute His pleasure, cf. 85""". 

Str. IV. has two syn. couplets. It begins a series describing 
the power of Yahweh in the creation and government of the 
world, which were regarded by the poet as expressing His kind- 
ness v.^; for His power was always beneficent, and destructive 
only of the powers of evil. The first couplet asserts his beneficial 
government of the sea. — 10. Thou art ruler oiier the swelling of 
the sea\ the Hfting up of the sea in its pride and power, — When 
its waves heave Thou stillest them\ as an act of kindness putting 
forth power to stay them and cause them to cease from doing 
harm. — 11. Thou didst crush Rahab\ The reference to the 
sea in the previous couplet favours the opinion that Rahab has 
its usual meaning, the mythical sea monster of Semitic mythology, 
the *' Tiamat " of the Assyrians and Babylonians ; so Jb. 9" 26^^ 
probably Is. 5I^ It is an emblematic name for Egypt Ps. 87* 
Is. 30^, and accordingly Bii., Dr., al., think of Egypt here ; but 
there is no reference to nations in the context. The enemies 
should be referred to other destructive sea monsters, and not to 
men. — as one deadly wounded\ pierced through by sword, arrow, 
or spear, and so wounded unto death; cf. 69^ Je. 51^^ Ez. 26" 
30^* La. 2^\ and so slain Ps. 88^ Nu. y^)"-^ 31^ ^^ (P) etc. ; cf. God's 
destruction of Leviathan -i/s^"^^^ in similar terms. — With Thy 
strong arm Thou didst scatter\ drive away, disperse all enemies 
in the sea ; cf. Is. 51^ 62^ 

Str. V. sets forth the beneficent power of Yahweh in creation, 
in two couplets, the first synth., the second syn. — 12. Thine are 
the heavens]. They belong to Thee as their owner ; Thou hast 
them in Thy possession and under Thy government. The heavens 
are chiefly thought of here as in v.^ ^^ — The Ps. for complete- 
ness of ownership adds, yea^ Thine is the earth], cf. 74^^ both 
summed up in The world in its fulness, cf. 50^^, that which fills 
it full, all its contents. — The reason for ownership is. Thou didst 



PSALM LXXXIX. 257 

found them\ in the sense of creation, cf. 24^ 78^^ 102^® 104^, in- 
volving the image of the founding of a building. — 13. North and 
South'], for the northern and southern sections of the world. — 
Thou didst create them~\, cf. v.*^ for creation of mankind, 104^^ of 
creatures, 148^ of heavens, Gn. i^ of heavens and earth. — Tabor 
and Uermon'], the chief mountain peaks of the Holy Land, Tabor, 
commanding the great plain of Esdraelon, and Hermon, the giant 
of Lebanon, commanding the greater part of the entire land, rep- 
resentatives therefore of the mountains. — In Thy name ring out 
joy'], returning to the conception of Str. L where the psalmist 
sings at the head of the people. In Str. II. the heavens celebrate, 
in Str. III. the angels revere, so now the mountains join the choir ; 
cf. Ps. 29^ 65^^ 96^^"^^ 98''^ Jb. 38'' for similar jubilations of nature. 

Str. VI. has two syn. couplets, returning from the deeds of 
power and kindness to the attributes themselves. — 14. Thine is 
an arm], followed by relative clause, with relative omitted as 
usual, the vb. to be supplied, that is endued with might || Thou 
strengthenest Thy hand || exaltest Thy right hand, cf. v.^^*, thus 
emphasizing the exceeding great strength and might of God. 
But this might is always in the interest of justice and kindness. 
He is King of angels, of the world and mankind, and He rules 
from a divine throne. — 15. Righteousness and justice are the 
foundation of Thy throne]. On these two syn. attributes as on 
a base or platform the throne of Yahweh is built. This is cited 
in Ps. 97^ — Kindness and faithfulness come to meet Thy face]. 
They are personified, cf. v.^, there as attendant upon Him, here 
as messengers coming to meet Him, having done His bidding, or 
coming to receive His commission to do it ; cf. 85"'^*. 

16-17. A late editor inserts a liturgical conclusion to the Ps. 
It did not belong to the original Ps., for there is no reference in 
it to the theme of the Ps., "kindness" and "faithfulness," but 
the more general terms, "name" and "righteousness" take their 
place. It is a syn. triplet. — 

Happy the people knowers of the sacred shout ! 

Yahweh, in the light of Thy face they walk, 

In Thy name they exult, all day long in Thy righteousness. 

Happy the people], exclamation, pi. abst. emphatic, cf. i^. — 
knowers of the sacred shout], accustomed to the sacred service 



258 PSALMS 

of the temple and especially to the Teruah, the sacred shout 
which accompanies the musical service at the sacrifices in the 
temple, cf. 33=^ ^f'' 66^ 81^ 95I-2 98^ « ioo\ — /« th^ light of Thy 
face']. The face of Yahweh, looking forth from the throne room 
of the temple, is illuminating; cf. 4^ 44*. — they walk'], in sacred 
procession, cf. 42^ — /;/ Thy name they exult], so 9^* 13® 21^ in 
Thy salvation, 35^ in Yahweh, — in Thy righteousness]. MT. 
attaches all day long to the first part of the verse, and adds the 
vb. *' are exalted," but this makes a pentameter and the vb. 
"exalt" is not suited to the previous context. It probably came 
in from the line below. 

PSALM LXXXIX. B. 

Part I. has three advancing trimeter tetrastichs, and a tetra- 
stich Rf. — 18-19. This tetrastich is syn. throughout, and with 
assonance : our strength, our horn, our shield, our king, all refer- 
ring to the Davidic dynasty. — Thou art the glory of our strength], 
Yahweh is the One in whom the king, the strength, the strong 
hero of his people, glories, or the One who makes the strength 
of Israel beautiful and glorious. — By Thy favour Thou exaltest 
our horn], the horn of the nation, its honour and dignity, in their 
king. The exaltation of his horn is the exaltation of their horn, 
cf. v.^ 112® 148^* and similar phr. I32^^ — For Yahweh' s is our 
shield], to Yahweh he belongs, according to the covenant to be 
mentioned below. The king is the shield of his people as their 
heroic chieftain and defender, just as Yahweh is their shield and 
his shield Pss. 3* 7^^ i83-^i-^. — M^ Holy One of Israel], the 
divine name based on the Trisagion Is. 6^. — 20. This tetrastich 
has two couplets, the second synth. to the first. — Then Thou 
didst speak], referring to the time of the giving of the covenant 
to David through the prophet Nathan 2 S. 7 = i Ch. 17, — in a 
vision], so 2 S. 7^'= i Ch. 17^^, to the prophet, when in the 
ecstatic state. — To Thy son], Codd. of J^ differ; the most 
authoritative have pi., " to Thy pious ones," referring to Nathan 
the prophet, Samuel, the book in which it is recorded, and the 
prophets depending on them ; cf. Acts 3^^ But many codd. and 
editions have sg., " Thy pious one," referring to Nathan. (5 "Thy 
sons" suggests the true reading, which is "Thy son," the title 



PSALM LXXXIX. 259 

given to the Davidic dynasty in the covenant, cf. v.^. — TTiou 
gavest a word\ so by an easy change of text, cf. 68^ 77^ || speak 
in vision, instead of the prosaic and incomplete line of J^, " and 
saidst," which requires that all up to thi* point be taken as one 
clause, and so as a pentameter, destroying the measure of the 
poem and losing a line from the Str. — I have laid help on a hero], 
made the hero a bearer of help for the people. — / have exalted 
one chosen from the people], cf. v.* 2 S. 7^, where David was taken 
by Yahweh from a shepherd's life to be leader of His people. — 
21-22 has two couplets, the first synth., the second syn. — I found 
David My servant], (cf. 18^) referring to the finding of David by 
Samuel. — With My holy oil I anointed him], his anointing at 
Bethlehem i S. i6^"^^ — My hand is established with him]. Yah- 
weh's hand was continually with David to sustain him in his ardu- 
ous career, cf. Ps. 18^^. — Yea, Mine arm doth strengthen him]. 
The tetrastich v."^ comes in appropriately here, as indicated by 
the syn. tetrastichs at the close of Pt. II. v.^^ and Pt. III. v.^"^. 
It is composed of two syn. couplets. — 4. I made a covenant with 
My chosen] , cf. v.^- ^- ^. The covenant with David is also men- 
tioned 132^^ Je. 33^^ — I sware to David My servant]. The oath 
is not mentioned in 2 S. 7 any more than the " covenant." Both 
are interpretations by later writers of the divine promise. It 
is interpreted as oath also v.^-^ no* 132". — 5. Forever will I 
establish thy seed || And build thy throne for all generations], para- 
phrase of 2 S. 7^^^* = I Ch. 17^1-", where "seed" and "throne" 
are in syn. parall. as here. 

Part II. has three advancing tetrastichs with a concluding Rf. 
going back upon the terms of the original covenant. — 23-24. Two 
syn. couplets. — The enemy shall not come treacherously upon him], 
so 3, 2, cf 55^^; but @ "make exactions of." Usage is insuf- 
ficient to determine with certainty. — And the son of wrong] . 
Hebraism for wrong-doers, persons who belong to the class or 
condition of men characterised by wrong. — Shall not any more 
afflict him], so (^ and also the original passage from which it is 
cited 2 S. 7^° (cf. I Ch. 17^). J^ omits the aux. vb. and impairs 
the measure. — But I will beat his adversaries to pieces before 
him], cf. Nu. 14^ (J, E) Dt. i^, illustrated by other terms Ps. 18*^. 
— And them that hate him will I smite], so J^, but the line is too 



26o PSALMS 

short ; add therefore before him, as usual with this vb, Ju. 20* 
I S. 4^ 2 Ch. 13*^ 14^^ It seems tautological in English, but not 
to a Hebrew poet, who delights in assonance and the same or 
similar endings to lines. — 25-26. The first couplet is synth., the 
second syn. — But My faithfulness and My kindness shall be 
with him\ in accordance with the promise 2 S. 7" ; cf. also v.^. 
" Faithfulness " is added because of the line 2 S. 7^^ " thy house 
and thy kingdom shall be made sure forever," " faithfulness " be- 
ing from the same stem in Heb. as the vb. "made sure." — And 
through My name shall his horn be exalted\ cf. \}^^. — Afid I 
will set his hand also on the sea\ the Mediterranean Sea, the 
limit of the Davidic monarchy, the West according to the primi- 
tive idea. The " setting of the hand on " is the taking possession 
of, cf. Is. 11". — And his right hand will I put on the river\ that 
is, the Euphrates, the eastern limit of the Davidic monarchy. 
J^ omits vb., leaving the line too short, and reads " rivers." This 
might be interpreted of streams, canals, or channels of the 
Euphrates, cf. 137^; but elsewhere in the limits of the Davidic 
dominion it is always sg., cf. 72® 80^-, and probably it was so here. 
The pi. ending is the mistake of a copyist for the original vb. The 
actual limits of the Davidic monarchy were the sea and the river 
in the time of David and of Jeroboam II. ; but late poets gave 
a world-wide dominion to the Davidic monarchy, such as that 
of the great world powers; cf. Ps. 72^ after Zee. 9^^. — 27- 
28. A syn. tetrastich. — He will call Me : My Father'], to which 
J^ adds "art Thou," making the line one word too long. It is 
doubtless a prosaic enlargement of the original ; cf. 2 S. 7^* = 
I Ch. 17^*, "I will become a father to him, and he shall become 
a son to me." " Son " is here used, not in the natural sense, but 
of official adoption, as a king reigning in the place of God over 
His kingdom of Israel, cf. Ps. 2^ He calls God " Father " and 
also My God and the Rock of fny salvation'], cf. 1 8^. The exact phr. 
"Rock of my salvation " is elsw. only Dt. 32", cf Ps. 95^ — Yea, 
J will fnake him My first-born]. The term is not used in the 
Davidic covenant, though implicitly involved, if other kings are 
also to be considered sons of God ; but it was used in the more 
fundamental covenant with Israel, " Israel is my son, my first- 
born " Ex. 4" (J), cf. the paraphrase Dt. 32^ ''^•. — Most high above 



PSALM LXXXIX. 261 

the kings of earth'], so adapted from the promise to Israel Dt. 26^* 
28^ — 29-30 returns as Rf. to the exact terms of the covenant: 
a tetrastich of two syn. couplets. — Forever will I keep My kind- 
ness for him'], 2 S. 7^^ cf. v.^. — And My covenant shall be firm 
for him], cf. 2 S. 7^, where his house is made firm or sure. — 
And I will set his seed \ his throne], v.^ cf. 2 S. 7^^"^^. — forever 
H the days of heaven], cf. " as the sun " v.^^, " moon " v.^, " with 
the sun and before the moon" Ps. 72^ 

Part III. has the same structure as the other parts. — 31-32 is 
a syn. tetrastich, a paraphrase of 2 S. 7^^* '^ when he commits in- 
iquity " or "acts perversely," omitted i Ch. 17. — If his sons 
forsake My Law] . The original was general and indefinite, and 
entirely apart from any conception of a code of Law ; but this 
paraphrase interprets the perverse action as a violation of the 
code of Law. There are four syn. terms : (i) forsake My Law], 
cf. Je. 9^^ Dt. 29-* Je. 22^; (2) walk not in My judgmefits], cf. 
Ez. 2>f^', (3) profane My statutes], aX., but cf. v.^, profane the 
covenant Mai. 2^^ Ps. 55^^ and profaning sacred places and things 
characteristic of H and Ez. ; (4) keep not My commands], a phr. 
of Dt. 4^ 5^^ f + Lv. 2 2^^ 26^ (H) and Ex. 20^ = Dt. 5^^ These 
phrases shew the influence not only of D, but also of H, and 
imply a contemporary of Ez. and one nearer to him than to Je. 
— 33-34. This tetrastich has two syn. couplets in antith., the 
second to the first. — The7i will I visit their transgressions with 
a rod II And their iniquity with stripes], a paraphrase of 2 S. 7^^, 
" I will chastise him with a rod of men and with the stripes of the 
children of men," which is probably an expansion of an original 
" I will chastise him with stripes of the children of men." We 
should probably supply the vb. chastise to make a complete line, 
cf. 2 S. 7". It has been omitted by txt. err. — But My kindness 
I will not remove from him\ cf. 2 S. 7^^, which has the Qal, where 
the later i Ch. 17^^ has the Hiph. as here. Doubtless Hiph. was 
original even in 2 S., as (^, the pointing of |^ being an error. It 
is improbable that the psalmist would change the easy technical 
word " remove " of the original for the new vb. of J^ " break off," 
and use it in a sense which cannot be sustained elsewhere. — And 
I will not belie My faithfulness], cf. Ps. 44^^ with covenant, Lv. 
19^^ with a person. — 35-36. This tetrastich is syn. throughout. 



262 PSALMS 

— / will not profane My covenant\ antith. to v.''-, profaning the 
divine statutes, — And that which has issued from My lips'], cf. 
Je. 17^*^ Dt. 23^^ Nu. 30^^ (P) ; syn. "covenant," its verbal con- 
tents. — / will fiot change], cf. 34^ — Once], for all, @, 3; cf. 
Heb. 7^. — have J sworn], cf. v.*. — by My holiness], cf. Am. 4^, 
by the majestic separateness, aloofness, of Yahweh above all crea- 
tures. — / will not lie unto David. — Rf. is a tetrastich, syn. 
throughout and syn. v.'"-^'*'. — His seed shall be forever], cf. 
y_5a.30a_ — ^^^ ^/j (hrone as the sun before Me], cf. v.^^ built for 
all generations; v.^ "as the days of heaven." — As the moon 
shall it be established forever, cf. 72*, And forever as the sky be 
firm], by easy change of pointing " forever" for "witness," and 
of preposition " as " for " in the sky," which introduces a new 
conception in the climax not easy to explain. Some think of the 
moon as a witness in the sky, others of God Himself as in Jb. i6^^ 
But the term " firm," " sure," in the original 2 S. 7^*^ is attached 
to the " house " or dynasty, and in v.^ to the covenant, and it 
seems best to attach it to the throne here, to make the " sky " 
II " moon," and to find a syn. word for " forever." 

Part IV. laments that God has acted contrary to His covenant, 
in His present dealings with the king. It has the same structure 
as the previous parts, four tetrastichs, the last a sort of Rf. — 
39-40 is a syn. tetrastich. — But Thou hast cast off and rejected] 
David and his present representative on the throne. — Thou art 
become enraged with Thine anointed], cf. 78^^-^^^ Dt. 3^^. These 
three terms are strong expressions to indicate Yahweh's attitude 
towards the present king. They imply, in accordance with v.^^"*^, 
that this king had forsaken the Law, and consequently was under- 
going the chastisement predicted v.^. — Thou hast spumed the 
covenant of Thy servant]. This seems inconsistent with the per- 
petuity of the covenant v.*^, its firmness v.'^, and the promise that 
Yahweh would not profane it v.^. But the Ps. certainly had in 
mind that the chastisement would be temporary, and that the 
covenant kindness and faithfulness would not be removed v.^. 
That has been so strongly expressed in the previous context that 
it is implied here. — Thou hast profaned to the ground his crown]. 
The crown, in the term used here, implies consecration to the 
royal office, or anointing, cf. 132^^ The profanation of the crown 



PSALM LXXXIX. 263 

of the present king is because of his profanation of Yahweh's 
statutes v.^^'*. — 41-42 has two syn. couplets, setting forth the 
devastation of the land of the king. — Thou hast broken down all 
his fe7ices\, cf. Ps. 80^^. The boundaries of the land no longer 
keep out the enemies, it is all open to them. — Thou hast made 
his fortresses a ruin\ The strongholds constructed for the de- 
fence of the land had been captured by enemies, and have been 
reduced to a mass of ruins. — All the passers-by spoil him'], cf. 
Ps. 80^^ La. 1^ 2^^ The land is open and defenceless to all the 
neighbours who would despoil it. Just such a spoiling by neigh- 
bours is related 2 K. 24^. — He is become a reproach to his neigh- 
bours'], defenceless, plundered by all who take advantage of his 
misfortunes. The land is become the reproach and contempt of 
all the nations round about. The phr. is used also 44^* 79^*, cf. 
80'' all Pss. dependent on this one. — 43-44 is a syn. tetrastich 
describing the defeat of the king in battle. — Thou hast exalted 
the right hand of his adversaries], in battle, giving them the vic- 
tory over the king of Israel, cf. v.^°. — Thou hast gladdened all his 
enemies], cf 30^, giving them the joy and gladness of triumph 
and its spoils. — Yea, Thou turnest back his sword], so that it 
is ineffective, does not pierce or cut down the enemies. — And 
hast not made him stand in the battle], that is, he has not stood 
firm, he has fallen back, retired, fled before his enemies. — 45- 
46 has a syn. couplet and a synth. one. — Thou hast taken away 
the sceptre of his majesty], so by an easy change of text, which 
gives a good meaning, syn. with following Hue. — A7id his throne 
flung down to the ground], cf. Ez. 21^^ for other use of vb. The 
humiliation to the ground of the throne here is parall. with that 
of the crown v.^. Such an overthrow of the throne is in strong 
antithesis to the building of the throne " to all generations " of 
V.*, " as the days of heaven " v.^", " as the sun before me " v.^^, and 
implies that this overthrow is a temporary one. — Thou hast short- 
ened the days of his youth]. This seems to imply that the king 
who suffered this humiliation was a young man. We might think 
of the shortening of his youth by death, were it not for the follow- 
ing Hne, which implies that he continued to live in shame. — 
Thou hast wrapped him up in shame]. It is evident, therefore, 
that the joyous days of his youth have given place to an experience 



264 PSALMS 

of the greatest shame and humiliation. These envelop him and 
wrap him up as in a robe. The descriptions of this part of 
the Ps. are so graphic and realistic that they may most naturally 
be referred to a real historic experience ; and if so, the only one 
who exactly fits the description is Jehoiachin, who began to reign 
at eighteen, but reigned only three months before he was taken 
captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar 2 K. 24^'^ The Ps. closes 
here, and it was probably written by one of the exiles with Jehoia- 
chin before the more terrible calamities which fell upon the nation 
in the reign of Zedekiah, his successor. 

PSALM LXXXIX. C. 

This Ps. returns to the tetrameter movement, but the Strs. are 
not tetrastichs, but hexastichs. It presupposes both of the pre- 
vious Pss., and is not of the style of either of them. It is an 
addition, reflecting a much later and more impatient attitude. — 
47-49. This hexastich has a syn. couplet and a syn. tetrastich. 
— How lo7igy Yahweh\ cf. 4^ 79"^, will this sad state of things 
continue? the humiliation of the Davidic monarchy, the postpone- 
ment of the covenant? — Wilt Thou Jiide Thyself forever ?\ im- 
plying a long-continued hiding from the people, and justifying the 
expostulation lest it should endure forever. — Shall Thy hot wrath 
burn like fire ?\ cf. 79* for similar phr. and the same situation. — 
Remember, Adofiay~\, so by the insertion of a single letter to cor- 
respond with v.'^^", omitted by copyist's mistake, so that Ji| has 
"Remember I," or "as for me." — what duration is'], duration 
of life, what it is : how short and worthless it is, as explained 
in the next line. — For what nothifigness'], empty, vain, worthless 
thing, of no value or importance. — Thou hast created all the sons 
of men]. The author is here thinking of mankind in general, 
and not of the fortunes of the king or the nation. He is moralis- 
ing over the frailty of human life, as the author of the book of 
Job. He conceives of it in a pessimistic spirit, as even in the pur- 
pose of God in the creation of man. The same term for creation 
is used in v.^^ This is more fully explained in v."*^. — What is 
man, that he should live and not see death], a.\. phr., death, the 
inevitable destroyer of mankind. — Can he deliver his life], com- 
mon phr. I S. 19" 2 S. i(f Je. 48^ Ez. 2>z' Am. 2" Ps. 116^ +.— 



PSALM LXXXIX. 265 

from the hand of Sheol~\. Sheol is syn. of Death, and both are 
conceived as having power over the hfe of men ; cf. 49^^^ for the 
dominion of Sheol, 30* 86^^ for deHverance from it. Thus the 
shortness of time and the nearness of death are the basis for 
the plea that Yahweh would restrain His wrath and grant His 
presence and favour. — 50-52 is a hexastich having a synth. 
couplet and a syn. tetrastich. — Whei-e are Thy former deeds of 
kindness, Adonay ?\ cf. v.^, but in an entirely different spirit. 
There, the poet resolves to sing of them forever ; here, he com- 
plains bitterly of their absence and refers to them as ancient. — 
Which Thou didst swear to David i7i Thy faithfulness^ This 
is more specific, for the special kindness in the covenant of 
David, v."* -^•^''. The combination of the general " deeds of kind- 
ness " and the specific kindness to David here resembles the edi- 
torial combination of v.^^ with v.^"^. The editor who made the 
combination may be the author of these words. — Re7?ie7nber, 
Adonay, the reproach of Thy servants\ cf. v.'*' ; but that was the 
reproach of the king, this is more general, one of the nation of 
Israel, implying a later point of view. — My bearifig in my bosom 
the shame of the peoples\ by an easy emendation of the text 
suggested by Ba., because '^ gives an ungrammatical construction 
which is only paraphrased in " the whole of many peoples," and 
@ and J had a different text, or conjectured ways out of the 
difficulty. — With which Thine enemies reproached, YahweK\. The 
line pauses, not giving the object, in order that by stairlike parall. 
the next line may begin with a part of the previous line and give 
its conclusion, with emphasis. — With which they reproached the 
footsteps of Thine anointed~\, the humiliation of the Davidic mon- 
archy, as in the closing part of the trimeter poem. 

LXXXIX. A. 

2. ''7pn] "pX. deeds of kindness \.^^ ^4 if 25^ 1074315.63'^. — r'^"'><] should 
be cohortative, as nn^r^}, n_ has fallen out before x. — 3. •'ri^ps] but 0, 
&f 3, ^']^^- The author cites words of God and not his own words. But 
mDN suits better v.* than v.^; so Bi., Du. It is therefore prob. a later inser- 
tion to distinguish words quoted. ^D3 then belongs with 1.^ and should be 
VD2 By His (God's) command ; cf. use of '•0 for command Dt. i^^ i S. 12I* 
I K. 132^+- — n^DC'] emph. in position, followed by rel. clause defined by 
on3. — These four 11. are tetrameters. 4-5 are a trimeter insertion, belonging 



266 PSALMS 

originally with trimeter poem v.^^^q. go Horsley would put them between 
v.*6 and V.87. — 4. nn3 \n-iD]. This cites the Davidic covenant 2 S. 7 = i Ch. 
17; cf. v.2«»fi-*o 13212. nna nno is phr. of J, E, D, c. S Ex. 2382 3412.15 
Jos. 9«-7. 11- 15. 16 2425 (J, E) Dt. 72 Je. 32*^; P uses r^>-y2 D^•1^. — ^vns] so &, 
but 0, U, pi. t ">"'r'2 n. chosen, elect, always of Yahweh, refer, to Saul 2 S. 2i^ 
Moses Ps. io623, Servant of Yahweh Is. 42I, children of Jacob i Ch. 16I8 = 
Ps. I05«, Israel Is. 45'^; so His people Ps. 105*3 106^ Is. 43'° 659- i^.a^. David 
only here, but vb. is used for David i S. 10'-* iC^- »• 10 2 S. 621 i K. 8^6 ( = 2 Ch. 
66) I Ch. 28*- 5 29I 2 Ch. 65 Ps. 78"^ — \-;2^'j] the oath to David is not men- 
tioned in 2 S. 7, but the covenant is interpreted as an oath Ps. no* also. 
— na;; in] David as the servant of Yahweh elsw. v.21 78'*^ 13210 144I''; elsw. 
titles 181 36I, David's seed v.*o, so in 2 S. 3I8 76-8.26^ altogether 31 t.in OT.— 
n? Y^^'] II NDD \n^j3. Cf. phrs. 2 S. 712-15 — j ch^ lyii-i* : y-,r n^n, n^'^ro r^""* 
dSi;? "ip ND3 »rjjr, dSi;; n;? poj n>n> nd:. The couplet is therefore a paraphras- 
tic summary of the promise. — 6. n'l"'^] 1 does not connect as conj. with the 
previous tetrastich of covenant. It connects with the first tetrastich v.2-8 and 
the impfs. nj3^ and pn. It is 1 coord, of late style. 65 interprets as future. 
It is, as in v.^, present. — 1^,'^?] as 77^ 88^^ — a-'tt'np Vnp] phr. a.\. congre- 
gation of angels, cf. D"'r-ip iiD v.8, Vnp {22^^) ^ D^cnp (/6*) for angels elsw. 
Jb. 5I 151^ Dn. 813-18 Zc. 145, late usage. — 7. V -^^T ^c] cf. 406. — n;:-^>] de- 
pendent on ""n also (/y^). — c'^n ''_Jp] angels, as 29^ = D>nSN(n) >j3 jb. i^ 2^ 
38' Gn. 62-* (J). — 8. r";>V. H'] phr. a.X. (/oiS). — n2<] is attached by MT. 
to first 1., but that makes it too long and second 1. too short. (S attaches 
it rightly to the second ; rd. fj.^yas, 3-j; therefore the fern, form is interpreta- 
tive. — 9. niN3X >nSN r^^7\^^ (.?^^^). — t=?''^] takes place of 3 pers. v."^ and 
goes back on 2 pers. v.^. — n; rPn] attached to first part of v. by MT. ; but 
that makes first 1. too long and second too short. (3 rightly attaches it to 
second part : dvparbs el Kvpie, Kal rj dXiJ^etd cov ; so 3 forlissime domine. 
I^Dn a.X. adj. strong, mighty, an Aramaism ; but f ;"Dn adj. strong Am. 2® 
Is. 18I; txt. err. for rr^Dn, which is theme of Ps., and || T"ji::{< v.2- 8, — 
10. v*^) N"j'3] inf. cstr. niu* for Nvj*^ Je. lo^ Nt'j Is. ii* Jb. 20*; "perhaps 
only a scribal error," Ges."®- ^. ® aaXov, 3 elationes. — 11. tn;-)] (7.?-^) vowel 
of nS (Ges.'^^-oo). — ann^] is the mythical sea monster "Tiamat " of Ass.-Bab. 
mythology Jb. 9^' 26^2. emblematic name for Egypt Ps. 87* Is. 30"^, so here 
Ba. It is II }"»JP and prob. refers to the sea monster in Is. 51^, so here ; and 
the stilling of the sea has nothing to do with the Exodus, but is parall. with 
the reference to other great objects in nature in context. — q^v >^"<o] phr. 
Is. 62^ cf. Is. 51^. — H")!?] V. 5j^. — 12. HN*?!:! Sjp] phr. elsw. 50^-, with 
pN 24^ O"- 96II 98", cf. 74I6. — 13. rr;i j^d^] phr. a.X. north and south, for 
the countries in these regions; cf. 741^. — ]iDnm liar] the two great moun- 
tains of Palestine : f "^''^n commanding the plain of Esdraelon, elsw. Jos. 
,922. 84 ju. 46. 12. 14 Je. 46I8 Ho. 5I, and Ticnn North Galilee and Syria. — 
16. :iND3 I'^DD w^u^pi p-^x] = 972. It is doubtless original here, for it has the 
parallel r\>)p iDip^ "^^^X Ipn, the four attributes grouped as elsw. in pairs. In 
972 it is not necessary to context and might be removed without being missed; 



PSALM LXXXIX. 267 

cf. 85^1-1* for grouping of attributes personified in a similar way. — f T^d] n.m. 
y/\'\2, fixed, established place, (i) usually of God's abode on earth Ex. 15^7 
I K. 813 = 2 Ch. 62, of temple Ezr. 26s Is. 4^ Dn. 8", elsw. heaven i K. S^^- «. 49 
= 2 Ch. 63^- 33- 39 ps. 3314 Is. i84; {2) foundation Pss. 972 104^ so here.— 

16. n;?nn ^yn^J those experienced in and accustomed to the musical service 
at the sacrifice in the temple ; cf. 'n ^n;}r ^7^, 'n ''^;p'i 150^ and more generally 
of the shouting at musical service 33^ 476; also vb. 47^ 66I 8i'2 95^*^ 98*- ^ 
l<X)i. — q"'JD""iiN:3] phr. elsw. ^ 44*, always of the illuminating face of Yah- 
weh as looking forth from the most holy place of the temple. — Ii^^'^^] fuller 
form impf. Pi. iSn, frequentative; Pi. intensive chiefly poetic and late, 
of frequenting the temple || familiarity with the sacred shout ; cf. 55^^ 
walking with the throng in procession to the house of God, also 42^. — 

17. •iDii"' ^pp-ix2i Dvn So pSiji -i;:tto]. This is too long for one 1., and for 
two makes two trimeters. We might reduce it to a tetrameter by throwing 
out either the last word as assimilation to v.^^, or orn Sd as an insertion. Gr. 
suggested the reading ijn\ If we read ijin^ with Ba., we shall have to com- 
plete 1. by adding nin^ to make a tetrameter. This is possible. V.^^^'^ are 
liturgical in character It seems better to regard them as a seam. 

LXXXIX. B. 

18. This V. changes to trimeter which then continues till v.*^. — y^\f\ c. 
archaic sf. for cr; referring to previous context. But ,S, so Gr., rd. ijij; || iJ^J'ip, 
IJJJC, ijdSd. This is more prob. We then have assonance in these four words, 
all referring to the Davidic king, and we should rd. ijnp after © rd Kkpo.% rifjLWP, 
3 cornu nostrum, so ^, K, many codd., and not MT. u-ijip, which is difficult 
to understand. This gives us a quartette of trimeters referring to the king, to 
be compared with the quartette v.*"^. Transpose r\rn with ijtv rriNDr. The 
'<:i is prob. a seam to connect this tetrastich with the previous context. It was 
not in the original trimeter poem, which begins here. — Dn.n] of Kt. is more 
prob. than ann of Qr. — 19. Snt^''' tt^np] divine name of the trisagion Is. 6^ 
(v. 71^2 78*1). These four 11., referring to king under the syn. terms ij', ]'\pf 
pD, "iSr, constitute the first tetrastich of the poem. — 20. pinp n"\3T tn]. The 
TN refers to the time of the covenant 2 S. 7 = i Ch. 17. The pin vision is 
that of Nathan 2 S. 71"^ nrn prnn Sdd = i Ch. 17!^ — qn^onSj pi. text of Baer 
and Ginsb. refers not only to Nathan but to Samuel also, and possibly to a 
number of prophets. But many codd. and texts give sg. T^T'Dn, which then 
must refer to Nathan. The conception of the prophet as a n''Dn is very late. 
The text is dub., for ® rots vloTs aov, r\^:2. This is also a late conception; 
but if pointed in sg. thy son, it is in accord with the conception of the proph- 
ecy that the king was son of God. — "iDsm] added, is unpoetical, cf. v.^; 
the first half of v. as it stands is pentameter. To make two trimeters another 
word must be conjectured. We may find it in idn |nn, as 68^2 -^dn ^n-" "«jnN 
and 77^ nnx i::j, and so rd. n?2X |nn :iJ3'^. A copyist gives prosaic •^dndi for 
■»DN pn. The v. then is the second tetrastich of the original trimeter poem. 



268 PSALMS 

— '•n^ic'] pf., as v.* ^r\^_; itP 21^. —21-22. rnnc'ip] historical reference to the 
anointing of David by Samuel i S. i6^- 1-. — ntt'N] prosaic insertion. This is 
a third tetrastich. Here is the proper place to bring in the tetrastich v.*-*, 
as a sort of refrain to the three previous tetrastichs, making a group of four. 
The ground for this is the fact that v.*-^ are parall. with v.^"-^^, closing a 
group of four tetrastichs and also with v."^^-^, closing another group. — 

23. N^^'^-s*?]. @ w(pe\ri<Tei, U proficiei, so 5*, but 2 i^awaTrjaei, 3 decipiet. 
i9DB. follows (S, act the creditor against, viake exactions of; but Ba., Du., Jl, 
2, so ^^^, come deceitfully upon; the latter more prob. — Myi_> vh nSiy j^i] is 
cited from 2 S. 7^'^ ^n>:>2'? n*?ij; ^j3 id'D^'nSi; cf. i Ch. 17^ r\^\} ^p io^dv nVi 
>nV3S, referring to the people; here applied to the monarch. @ of Ps. has 
KoX vlo% dvofxlas ov irpoadi^a-ei tov Ka/ctD<rat avrdv ; but 3 is same as ]i^. (Q of 
2 S. 7^*^ has trpoad-qcei, tov TaweivQffai. It is evident that (5 of Ps. did not 
quote from ® of 2 S. or i Ch. It must have found ']^D'< n"? in its text, and 
indeed \'~uyS 'tD"'~nS nS"i>'~pi. This makes better measure and gives asso- 
nance with '>D, and is prob. original. It is then more decidedly still a citation 
from Heb. text of S., and not from text of Ch, This v. interrupts i pers. of 
divine action by a distich making enemies the subj. It is not closely con- 
nected with previous context. It begins the second part of the poem. — 

24. ^n'lnDi] is pointed as 1 consec. ; if so, it must depend on impfs. of v.22. 
Qal X nn3 beat or crush fine, of potter's vessel Is. 30^*, golden calf Dt. 9^1, 
sacrificial victim Lv. 22^* (P) ; only here of enemies. Hiph. beat in pieces, 
an enemy Dt. i** Nu. 14'**' (J, E). It is an early word therefore, but not elsw. 
in ^ ; cf. l8*^ — 26. n''">^^] streams for n.ij river Euphrates of other passages 
72^ 80^2, where limits of Davidic kingdom are given. We might think of the 
canals of Euphrates as S33 TT\rM 137^ — 27. nriN '•aN ^jN-^p> Nin]. The 1. is 
one word too long ; either Nin or nrs should be elided. Neither is necessary 
to the sense ; both are emph. nrs is the least likely. Cf. 2 S. 7^* = i Ch. 17I* 
a^S iS"n\iK •'js. — »rrvj'> -,1x1 ^^s] cf. iS^ -"-^ix ^Sn, ^r;* y\^. The exact phrase 
r\^-w> mx elsw. Dt. 321^, but r-^'^ "^^^ Ps. 95^. — 28. i^jnNi m:!3 •'jN-r]x]. In 
Ex. 422 Israel as son is compared with other nations as "noi; so Dt. 26^^ 28^: 

cun S-a hy ]vhp :\7^rh 26^* 
fnxn ■<^ij S3 hy ]vhy r\:r: 28^; 

here, as in Ps. 72, passages originally referring to Israel are applied to the 

king. — 29. "'-'Dn iS—iidcn cSij?S] cf. 28. 7^^ -ucD -iid^'nS non. — >S nprNj '•rn^i] 
cf. 2 S. 7^^ r\>}D^ Q^^y '^y ^.-^dScdi ^r.''a jdnj. — 30. i>*nr nyS \nDi:'i] cf! 2 S. 7^2 
Tins q;'-\r"nN ^nD^■'^. — c^cc* ""D^d ind:!i] cf. 2 S. 7^^; cf. i Ch. 1712 ^pjja 
nhv; iy inD3"pn. The phr. a^rc "-t:^ is a.X., but cf. rcr^ v.37, n-^^p v.^?, and 
rcc ay, n'y >jdS 72^ This completes the second part of poem. — 31- 
82. ^rmni vn ^^fy'r^**]* This tetrastich is paraphrase of 2 S. 7^* "in^'ia ncN, 
which clause is not in i Ch. 17. There are four syn. clauses here: n-»in 3T>, 
D^t3Ctt'D3 iSn K^, mpn SVn, niXD ncj' nS; cf. the gl. Ps. i82"'2-23 d^^-^t .^cc', 
^njjS ctscw'c, nipno n-'Dn. Here niin and nixa are added. These phrs. are 
used frequently elsw.: (i) n-iin 2iy 119^=^ Je. 912 Pr. 28* (of law of father 



PSALM LXXXIX. 269 

Pr.4*); cf. nn2 2v; Dt. 29^* Je. 22^ Dn. ii^'^, a-'-tpfl Ps. 11987. (2) D-iBstyDa ^Sn 
Ez. 3724, elsw. vb. c. nxDn 2 Ch. 17*, a^■7^3 Ez. 1112 362? i K. S'^\ nipna Lv. 
263 (H) I K. 612 Ez. 56.7 ii20 189.17 2oi3- 16. 19. 21 33X5^ cf. Lv. 18*, n■^^D2 Ex. 
16* (J?) 2 K. io3i 2 Ch. 616 Ne. lo^o Je. 26* Pss. 7810 119I, nnin^ Dn. 910, 
Tipnjai "Ti-nn;: Je. 4410, rnn;jai vrpnai ^nin:: Je. 442^. (3) nipn S'jn phr. a.X., 
but nn3 S'^n Mai. 210 v.^s, cf. Ps. 5521, The defiling of sacred places and 
things is especially characteristic of H and Ez., cf. Ps. 747 ri::;j' pc'::: ^^n. 
hin is also used in v.**^ of violating the honour of the Davidic kingdom. 
(4) niX3 i:3B' Ex. 20^ = Dt. 510 Lv. 22^1 26^ (H) Dt. 42 523 79 82-6 135.9 26I8 
289 I K. 861 96 148 2 K. 1719 186 Ne. i^-^ Dn. 9* Ps. 11960 Ec. 1213.— 
33. Div; D-'i'jjJi 03;tt'f3 d^!:'^ impci]. This v., as it stands, is pentameter para- 
phrase of 2 S. 7I*, not in || i Ch. 17 ; anN ^:2 •';;jjai aitrjs '^2^2 rrnomi 2 S. 7I* 
has been expanded from an original din "»J3 ''';n2 Tinym. A vb. is missing 
in Ps. We cannot do better than supply the original \"pn!)'in. — 34. noni 
■^Dvp "T'i3N-x'?] cf. 2 S. 71^ •"ij;:o -\'iD''"nS i-iDni, i Ch. 171^ i^yn -\'DN"nS ■«nDn"i. 
The text of Chr. is more correct. (3 of S. has Hiph. The vb. n-'ijx is prob. 
txt. err. for n-'DN, 01s., Gr., Bi., Ba., Che. There was no reason to change this 
technical word, and Tios for "^jn y'nno is not congruous with the noun. — 
v^jr;.sj i->;r_s N*?] cf. 44I8 (r]'^'\22), with 3 pers. Lv. 19II. — 35. v:5r-N|i!:] 
elsw. Je. 1716 Dt. 232* Nu. 3012 (P); ^q nxid Dt. 8^. — nr^'x] cf. v.4«- 296,' pj. 
impf. nr^ change, elsw. in ^ only 34^ (title). — 36. rnx] once for all, Ba., 
Kau., cf. Heb. 727; Du. one thing, or once, one time, @ ix-Ko.^, 3 semel. — 
■'C'-'";'':] in my apartness, sacredness, with >'3a'j elsw. Am. 42; cf. for the 
oath v.46 nnS ''n;;^:^:. — ex] after oath strong negation, so 95II 1323- 2- ^ — 
_ 3,^ n>n> dVi>'S i>nT-| _ ^ 30 V<^ ^"h ^'^'^ly _ ^ 5 r\^}-\\ r^i* , aSiy-i;; 

Thusv.37-38 II v.*-6 || v.29-8o._38. pxj pHt^^ tjp | dSi;? ^3^ H-^;?] cf. v.3. The first 
1. refers to throne or seed, as v.^ and 2 S. 7I6 nSiy "t;? ?12J n^n^ ^nd:?. Then 
we would expect the |I dSi;? i;? :;n>3 pxj, and this would be the most appro- 
priate climax for the paraphrase v.^^. The vb. is the same. The subj. may be 
understood as in previous 1. n>i may be for "Vy^^, the ^ having been omitted 
by copyist, who interpreted it as the familiar phrase "i>'i aSi", not observing 
the measure ; later, when parall. was observed, it was pointed as "'^. Du. 
reads 'n m;:), but this is not so easy. 3 before pn*.:' should be r, as in |1 n-CD. 
If we regard "v^ as correct, it is better to think of the moon as witness to the 
oath during its perpetual existence. But many think of God, as in Jb. i6i^. 

— 39. nnr] pf. hist.; people 432 60^ 778 88i^ king only here. — ^'^r-P'?] pf- 
Hithp. denom. nn^v, v. 78^^. — 40. nrr^xp] fuller form Pi. pf. 2 m. t ["'n:] 
abhor, spurn, elsw. La. 27 : dub., Hu. T^xj, Du. nyj shake off, © Kariarpexf/as, 
S ets Karapav eScjKas, 3 attenuasti, VL xn'^y^x, S ri'^Sox. — t TJ] ^•^' crown 
(sign of consecration) of king, as 132I8 2 S. ii'' 2 K. iii2 = 2 Ch. 23^1. — 
41. ~ixnr] fortification, fortress ; v. 60^^. — J nnnr:] rtiin of fortress, only here 
in this sense ; but ruin of a prince without people Pr. 1428, ruin of the poor 
in their poverty Pr. iqI^. — 42. "n"?."; ''1?>"^3 ino^'J cf. x^■^ n^;'"'?^ ;^ns'^ 8oi^. 

— 1 1^°- J Qal plunder, only here y^/, elsw. I S. 17^^ Ju. 2^* Je. 30!*^; iSTiph. 



270 PSALMS 

Is. I3^« Zc. 14^; cognate c. noc^, c. S Ps. 44". — -j-n nap] fphr. elsw. So" 
La. 1^2 2I5 J in all cases of those who gloat over misfortune of Jerusalem or 
Israel, or the king; and in Jb. 21^^ of travellers, in Pr. 9^^ of those who go 
straight on their way. — vj2-^*7 nein n>,-i] cf. 441-* 79* 8o\ all related Pss. 
and all prob. dependent upon our Ps. This completes two quartettes. — 
43. pc^ J;^"'D'''^n] Hiph. pf. an; elsw. v.20, of the ninj; of pp 75^ 148^*, in 
victory 75*^, cni 3* iio^ cnnV 75*. — ra^w'?^ nn^i:^] Hiph. pf. n::f rejoice, 
Hiph. a.X. It is a scribal assimilation to PiDnn; originally Pi. gladden ene- 
mies, as 30^. — 44. n-in mx i^vr\ iin] mx is difficult ; for stone knife Jos. 5^ 
does not justify the mng. edge or knife here. @ tt]v (SoTfjdeiav, 3 rodur, show 
their perplexity. 01s. thinks it vocative of God. Du. would rd. -\sp after 
44", Gr. ntnN after ST. ">ix is really not needed for measure. We might take 
it as nx adversary of v.*', and transpose to mx ann, or regard it as a gl. defin- 
ing 3in. — 45. inn'^D nnrn] is a defective 1. ® /car^Xuaas dTrd Kadapia/xov 
ainbv, 3 quiescere fecisti munditiam eius. Aq., 2, S, AE., Ki., take in:2c as 
noun. The separable preposition is necessary for measure unless we supply 
a word. But then there is no other example of such a noun as "in-p Ges.^- ^°- ^- *, 
or ™ 01s.§ i"«b B6.886, or ^n-j<: Ges.L- 20. 2. (2)b^ y^ y^qU.i.z^]' Ba. suggests 
>i»c noD sceptre from his hand, which is good parall. But still better mn nsD 
sceptre of his majesty, v. 8^ 21®; cf. ':\\y ntap iio^. n"'32'n cause to cease from, do 
away with, c. p Ex. 12^* Lv. 26® Ez. 2327. « ^qI^ 342^ Is. 30II Je. 7^, c. ace. 
Pss. 8' 119^1^ 46^'^ (wars). — '"i'7">,i?] fully written Pi. 2 m. t "^JD throw, toss, 
elsw. only Qal Ez. 2 1 1^. — 46. t v?:")^ y] his youth, only found with sf. ; elsw. Jb. 
20^1 (Kt.) 33^^ Is. 54*. — n-'pvn] Hiph. n-^; wrap, envelop oneself (7/^^). — 
t nro] n.f. shame, elsw. only Mi. 71*' Ob.!*^ Ez. 7^^; usually nc'3 Pss. 40^6 69^0 
70*, '3 coV 3526 132^8^ .J n-j>' 109-9 ; cf. 44i«. V.^^-^^ constitute four tetrastichs 
of expostulation, the fourth part of the trimeter Ps. which concludes here. 

LXXXIX. C. 

47. nxiS "^ron r^^r^> nn-^j'] here begin tetrameters which continue to the 
end of Ps. — nn— iv] ^^oiv long? cf. 4* 79^ — 48. nSn hd ^jn ->dt]. The 1. is 
difficult and too short. "•:« error for ^jin, Houb. ^jin "\3T as v.®i, so Ew., Hi., 
Ols., Ba., Ehr. — i^n] duration, of life 39^ Jb. ii^^, so here ; of world Pss. 
17^* 492. — NV^* no V>'] for what worthlessness, worthless thing (merely to die) 
{v. 12^). — 49. niD HN-n^] phr. a.X. — 50. 'nr^^-!::?!.] has two accents, cf. v.*. 

— 51. D^a'^'Sr] defective text ; 3 quia portavi in sinu meo omnes iniquitates 
populorum, (S oO vw^crxov iv ry /c6X7r(^ /jlov ttoWwp idvQv ; the rel. refers to 
rD'\n, 3 conjectures iniquitates ; Du. suggests JDn So. Ba. np'?^ is probable. 

— 52. 'D nup;;] footprints of Messiah, cf. 56' 7720, 



PSALM XC. 271 

PSALM XC, 6 STR. s\ 

Ps. 90 is a prayer of IsraeL It bases itself on the fact that 
the everlasting God has been the habitation of Israel in all genera- 
tions (v.^*^), prays that the nation may not incur the primitive 
sentence for sin from Him with whom a thousand years are of so 
short duration (v.^). Israel's iniquities from his youth are in 
the sunshine of God's face, and he is consumed by the divine anger 
as the grass by the sun (v.^ ^^) . His days rapidly decline, are 
but a sigh, and are about to fly swiftly away (v.^^'^*"'*) ; therefore 
he prays for instruction as to the meaning of the divine anger and 
for true wisdom, and importunately complains of delay (v.""^^*). 
The Ps. concludes with a petition for divine kindness, and gladness 
in proportion to the years of affliction (v.^^^^^). There are several 
glosses of interpretation (v.^**^^'"^), and of intensification (v.^^^^). 

/ YAHWEH), Thou art our dwelling place: 

Thou art ours in all generations. 

Before the mountains were born, 

And the earth and the world were brought forth, 

From everlasting to everlasting art Thou. 
(T^O not) turn man back to dust; 
^ And say : " Return, ye sons of mankind." 

For a thousand years in Thine eyes 

Are as a day, yesterday when it passe Ih away. 

As a watch in the night Thou dost flood them away. 
AS in the morning grass shooteth up, 

In the evening is mown down and withereth ; 

So we are consumed in Thine anger. 

Thou hast set our iniquities before Thee, 

Our youth in the sunlight of Thy face. 
pOR all our days do decline ; 

In Thy wrath we bring our years to an end. 

As a sigh are the days of our years. 

And their breadth is travail and trouble : 

For it is quickly gone, and we fly away. 
^XTHO knoweth the strength of Thine anger, 

Or can number (the awful deeds) of Thy wrath? 

Thine hand so make us to know. 

That we may get a mind of wisdom. 

O return, Yahweh ! How long? 
gE sorry for Thy servants. 

Satisfy us in the morning with Thy kindness, 

That we may jubilate and be glad in our days. 

Make us glad according to the days Thou hast afflicted us. 

The years when we saw adversity. 



272 PSALMS 

Ps. 90 is properly designated in the title as a nSor, and is ascribed to 
" Moses the man of God," cf. Dt. 33I, not with the meaning that it was com- 
posed by him, as was usually supposed in former times, but that it was put in 
his mouth as a pseudograph, just as its neighbours, 88 (ascribed to Heman), 
and 89 (to Ethan) {v. Intr. i, 30). The Ps. resembles in many respects Dt. 
32 ; cf. v.i^ with Dt. 32^ v.^"^ mr^ and v.^^ p^^, ^ith Dt. 32^; v.i3 with Dt. 3286. 
Its use of p?D v.^ depends upon Dt. 33^'^. Moreover the Ps, shows familiarity, 
V.8 with Gn. 3^9 (J), v.^ with Gn. 2* (P). The neglect of other Lit. and this 
dependence on the historic songs of the Pentateuch were doubtless intentional 
to make the language appropriate to the pseudograph. The measure and 
rhythm are also those of these older poems. The Ps. looks back to the 
youth of the nation through a long history. It expresses an experience of 
affliction due to the anger of God with the nation for its sins, which has long 
continued. The prayer is for a restoration of divine favour. The use of aaS 
V.12 is in accordance with the usage of the Exile and early Restoration, and 
the use of r\-22n is the earlier one of Je., before the development of WL. The 
thought of God as the dwelling place of His people resembles Ez. ii^^^o^ 
where He is their sanctuary during the Exile. The estimate of proportion 
between the affliction and the gladness is in accordance with Is. 40-. The 
late Exile is the most probable period of composition. 

Str. I. Two syn. couplets and a synth. line. — 1. Yahweh'\ 
was doubtless the divine name of the original, subsequently dis- 
placed by^Adonay" to correspond with the gloss v.^^ — Thou 
art our dwelling place\ based on Dt. 33^, cf. Ps. 91^, a richer 
expression than "refuge" of (S ; for it adds to this more fre- 
quent conception (cf. 27^ 31* 37'*^ 52^) the comforting thought 
that God was the everlasting home of His people. This is an 
unfolding of the idea of the temple as not only the dwelling place 
of God, but the place whither His people resort as guests, cf. Ps. 
j^isq. 3^2-5^ During the Exile, when they could not resort to the 
temple, God Himself became their living temple, cf. Ez. n^^^o ^^^ 
gj.MP.268^^ — j'jiQH dff (,nys {fi all generations'], our own God, be- 
longing to Israel in all the generations of the past. By attaching 
this to the previous sentence, J^, followed by EV'., destroys the 
measure and the parallelism, and fails to get the additional thought. 
— 2. Before the mountains were born || And the earth and the 
world were brought forth\ both passive, as (^, Aq., 2, ^E, U, fol- 
lowed by PBV., which suits the parallelism better than with J^, J, 
AV., RV., JPSV., to interpret the second vb. as active. The con- 
ception is practically the same : that God was not only the Father 



PSALM XC. 273 

of Israel as Dt. 32^, but also of the physical universe, the author 
probably giving that interpretation to Gn. 2*. — From everlasting 
to everlasting art Thou'], asserting the divine existence and activity 
during all this interval, from an everlasting time prior to the crea- 
tion of the world on until an everlasting time in antithesis thereto. 
J^, followed by EV'., attaches the divine name to this sentence ; 
but @, F, are more correct in interpreting the form as a negative 
belonging to the next sentence. 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets enclosing a line mediating between 
the two. — 3. Do not turn man back to dust], as (^ ; a petition 
that the sentence pronounced upon the first parents for their sin 
Gn. 3^^ may not be carried out in the case of Israel || And say], 
in covc\u\2iiid, Return, ye sons of mankind], X.o the dust from which 
ye were made. This is the most natural interp., cf. 146*, taking 
"man" in its usual collective sense H with "sons of mankind," 
and considering both as emphasizing the humanity of Israel, not- 
withstanding their privilege of having their home in God. The 
usual interpretation, as given in EV^, that the couplet states God's 
usual dealings with mankind, has grammatical difficulties in the 
way, and is hard to reconcile with the course of thought of the Ps. 
The PBV. " come again, ye children of men " makes the two hnes 
antithetical, the turning to death of one generation, the coming 
up out of the dust of another generation in constant succession. 
This, though favoured by Luther and attractive as a conception, is 
not suited to the context. — 4. For a thousand years in Thine 
eyes], as compared with the divine existence from everlasting to 
everlasting. A thousand years of existence of Israel as a nation 
in the eyes of man is a long time from generation to generation ; 
but in the eyes of God it amounts to very little. This is urged as 
a reason why Israel should not be condemned to death. — Are as 
a day], a single day, cited 2 Pet. 3^ to warn Christians against 
thinking God slack concerning His promises. — Yesterday when it 
passe th away]. The day whose hours are counted as they pass is 
not so short to man's mind as yesterday as one sees it passing 
away forever. — As a watch in the night], one of the three 
divisions of the ancient Hebrew night, cf. La. 2^^ Ju. 7^^ i S. 11". 
This is not a complement of the previous yesterday, which would 
be against the measure. It begins a syn. line whose vb. is : 

T 



274 PSALMS 

5 a. Thou dost flood them away']. Thus we get a fine parallelism 
between the passing away of the thousand years, as if they were 
yesterday, and their being swept away in a flood of rain as if they 
were no more than a watch in the night. The usual interpretation, 
that it is man who is swept away in the flood, is favoured by the 
attachment of this word to the next line against the measure, and 
also because of the gloss which in J^ is : they becotne sleep\ they 
pass over into the sleep of death. 

Str. III. has two syn. couplets with an intermediate line. — 
5 6-6. As in the morning \ in the evening], the beginning and 
end of the day ; used in the more general figurative sense of the 
beginning and end of a time, here of the duration of grass, cf. 30^ 
46* Jb. 11^^ of the duration of trouble, and Gn. i^ 8i3_j_ q^ ^j^g 
beginning and end of a divine day's work. — grass shooteth up — 
is fnown doivn and withereth], a figure of frailty and transitoriness, 
cf. Is. 40'''^ Ps. 103^^^^ A glossator inserts an explanatory doublet 
to the first clause : ifi the morning it blossometh and shooteth upy 
probably in order to avoid the interpretation of the previous vb. 
in the sense of " pass away," " fade away " ; but it has not in fact 
prevented that interpretation by (S, F, PBV. — 7. So we are con- 
sumed in Thine anger]. By ancient copyist's mistake a particle 
usually rendered " for " took the place of " so " ; but it is difficult 
to find a reason in this clause. A glossator intensifies this by the 
II and in Thy heat are we disfnayed, which cannot be brought into 
the measures of the Str. The point of the comparison is not 
stated in this line, but suggested. That which so speedily con- 
sumes the grass is the heat of the sun. That which is implicit 
here is explicit in the next couplet. — 8. Thou hast set our 
iniquities before Thee \ Our youth in the sunlight of Thy face]. 
The face of God is compared to the sun, which consumes the 
nation because of the iniquities Israel has committed from his 
youth, just as the sun consumes the grass of the field. The face 
of God is elsewhere compared to the sun in its enlightening 
power, cf. 2f 84^^ Is. 6o^^-^. The word translated above "our 
youth," in accordance with good usage, after ST, Quinta, is given 
by (5, U, as " our age," and by J^, followed by EV'., as " our 
secret sins," all interpretations of the same Heb. consonants in the 
unpointed text. 



PSALM XC. 275 

Str. IV. A syn. tristich with a syn. couplet between its second 
and third Hne. — 9-10. For all our days || our years, summed up 
in days of our years |( iheir breadth']. The days of the years of 
Israel's life are conceived as extending in breadth over a wide space 
of time. This, the most natural interpretation, is that of (^, U, J. 
J^, followed by EV'., gives a slightly different form supposed to 
mean " pride " ; but this is a.\. and not so well suited to the con- 
text, for the vbs. all imply extent, measurement. — decli?ie~\, of the 
swiftly falling day || bring to an e?id || quickly gone, and in the climax 
fly away], in the swiftest movement, as time flies, cf. Jb. 2ol The 
whole duration of the nation's Hfe is compared to a sigh || travail 
and trouble], cf. Gn. 47^^. All this is because of the divine 
wrath, as v.^ A glossator inserted a prosaic statement as to the 
usual duration of human life : In them are seventy years, or if, by 
reason of extraordinary might, eighty years. But it interrupts the 
thought and destroys the measure of the original. 

Str. V. Syn. couplet, synth. couplet, and a Hne synth. thereto. 
— 11. Who knoweth? \ can number?], implying the negative 
answer : no one, — the strength of Thine anger || the awful deeds 
of Thy wrath]. As the previous context shows, Israel did know 
by generations of experience somewhat of the strength of the 
divine anger against himself as well as other nations, and he could 
enumerate many awful deeds of wrath in the past history. But 
he is yet conscious that the divine wrath is much stronger than he 
has experienced it, and that the full number of awful deeds that 
God might do has not yet been estimated. He dreads the full 
measure of the divine wrath, which he knows has been held back. 
The simple and powerful parallels of this couplet and its measures, 
essentially preserved by (§, F, have been destroyed by 5^, J, fol- 
lowed by EV'., both by misreading the noun so as to compel the 
translation : " and according to the fear that is due unto Thee," 
and by attaching the vb. " number " to the next line. — 12. Thine 
hand so make us to know], so @, F ; the hand as stretched out in 
anger and in doing awful deeds. The petition of Israel is that he 
may so know the divine hand in discipline that he may get a mind 
of wisdom], and so in the future be able to think and act wisely 
in accordance with the divine will and guidance. J^, J, followed 
by EV'., read : " to number our days so make us know," implying 



276 PSALMS 

that the lesson is to be learned from the brevity and affliction 
of life. — 13. O return, Yahweh\ the importunate petition for 
restoration of favour, cf. Dt. 32'^ Ps. 6^; with the complaint: 
How long?\ cf. 74^" 80^ 82^ 943. 

Str. VI. A synth. triplet and a syn. couplet. — 13 6. Be sorry 
for Thy servants'], as Dt. 32^ Ps. 135^^ — 14. Satisfy us in the 
morning with Thy kindness^ after the long night of affliction, cf. 
v.*^, — that we may Jubilate and be glad ifi our days], rejoice in 
the renewed favour of their God in their resort to Him as their 
everlasting home. A glossator intensifies by inserting "all" before 
" days," without need and against the measure — 15. Make us 
glad according to the days || the years], those mentioned in the 
previous Strophes. — Thou hast afflicted us || we saw adversity]. 
Israel desires that his joy in salvation may at least be equal in 
extent of duration, and probably also in intensity, with the afflictions 
he has so long experienced, cf. Is. 40I 

The Ps. has reached a most appropriate conclusion ; but a later 
editor, doubtless for liturgical reasons, wished to emphasize the 
situation, and so he added v.^*^^^ — 16. Let Thy work appear unto 
Thy servants], that is, work of salvation, cf. Dt. 32* Ps. 92*. — 
and Thy tnajesty upon their children], so J^, but (3 ,V, " lead 
their children," by a different pointing of the same Hebrew con- 
sonants, making it more in accord with v.^^. — 17. And let the 
siveetness of Adonay our God be upofi us] , cf. 2 7^ ; the gracious- 
ness, kindliness of God ; syn. with " kindness," v."", rather than 
with majesty. — the work of our hands O establish upon us], give 
us success and prosperity in our labours. This is repeated, in 
part, for emphasis : and the work of our hands establish it. 

1. ^J"in] dub. rd. nin> as v.^^ — fr] v. 26^ dwelling, as 91^ cf. 71', nj^jjD 
Dt. 3327 Ps. 76'^; so 3, Dr., Kirk., i9DB.; but (S Karacpvyi) n;T, so Street, 01s., 
Gr. — 2. 07^3] usually sq. impf.; but older usage abandoned here, Dr.^" i^". 

— '^^"'^•"'^] ^ consec. impf. Polel "^in (^^), so 3, Ba., as Dt. 32^^; but ®, Aq., 
S, Z, V, PBV., Polal, as Pr. 8-4-23 Ps. 5^; so Street, Bo., Hi., Moll., Hu.8. 

— 3. ^s] divine name, so &, 3, and most ; but & neg. "?« attached to the 
juss. 2vr\, which indeed is difficult to explain otherwise, so Gr., Bruston. V 
has both '^n and ^n by dittog. 3c'n is explained by some as equivalent to 1 
consec. impf. with 1 omitted, Dr.®* ^. It might be explained as prot. of con- 
ditional clause with ncsni in apod.; but neither of these is suited to the con- 
text. — t^;"!] n.in. a.X.; but adj. Ps. J4^^ Is. 57^^; (S TaireLvuaiy, V in 



PSALM XC. 277 

humilitatem improb. It is doubtless a variation of Gn. 3^^ -io>\ — "^p^ni] 1 
consec. impf. emph. present : but Aq., 3, Gr. 1 conj., which is to be preferred. — 
4. t '^■''2'?'!?] ^^"f- yesterday, i S. 4" lo^^ 1421 19^ 2 S. 5'-^, cf. Is. Tp^^-, prob. 
apposition with or. — "ibv ■•r] impf. of graphic description of the movement 
in process. — 5. onr^nr] pf. onr vb. denom. zr}}, flood away, Qal a.X., but Pol. 
yy'^^, (3 rcL i^ovdevLOfxaTa ai)rw»', !F quae pro nihilo habentur eorum ; S 
orVlt ^^ieir seed, cf. Ez. 23^0 hdit m«<f, so Ehr. — vn; n^Jtf'] so 3F, 2 ; but @ 
er?;, U a««? u^l^ more prob. In any case it is explan. gl., against the 
measure. — n"'Gl] QA iinpf- X^"^^ as v.® 102'^"', 0, U, /«jj away, so Ew.; but 
<r£>w^ ^/z^7e^, sprout again, De., Hi., Ba., /?DB. Hiph. change garments 102^7 
Gn. 352 (E). — 6. ^n^ '^^•i'^ "ip:32] is explan. doublet and a gl. — 7. "irSD ""s] 
though sustained by Vrss. is improb. as causal clause ; rd. 15 as Street. — 
"ijSn:!: iricnni] is gl. of intensification, against the measure. — 8. i°ic'] Kt., 
defectively written r\T\^ as Qr. — "iJ^'^v] defectively written pi. pass. ptc. dS;?, 
our secrets ; so %, S, cf. r\xh'!r\ Ps. 44^2 Jb. 28^^; but Qal of vb. a.X. and 
improb. ® 6 aXijiv T]ix.Civ, Tv saecu/um nostrum ur'?'';' ; but this late usage of 
d'71>\ C Quinta, ij-'Ci'?;? our youth, cf. 89*^ Is. 54* Jb. 2&^ 332^ most prob. — 
:^\J9 n>Np] phr. a.X. in this sense, but cf. Pr. 15'''; well suited to context in 
the sense of luminary, the face of God being cf. to the sun with its scorching 
heat ; cf. Ps. 74^^. — 9. njn "i^p] should go to next 1. for good measure. 
f njn n.m. (i) sound of God's voice, thunder Jb. 372; (2) here sigh, BDB^ 
murmur. Dr., cf. Ez. 2}-^, dpdxvrjv ifieX^TOjv, (gs. c a. A. R. T^ dpdxvrj. — 
10. •U'-n'Tf "•?>] phr. cf. Gn. 25"^ 478-9 (P) 2 S. 19^^ Ec. 6^; pi. f. mjc> elsw. 
v.i^Dt. 32'^ + 18 1. — ana] emph. in position, introducing gl. extending through 
njtt' D'^JiD'^'. — nnoj] if correctly pointed, abstr. intensive pi. great might or 
extraordinary might {20^). — °$'7";] 3 pl- sf. with f ^^i a.\. pride; but 0, U, 
3, D^m /,^«> breadth most prob. — I"ini Sry] phr. elsw. 10^ Jb. 48 5^ Is. iqI. — 
n] Qal pf. t J1J Qal /^jj aw^^, elsw. Nu. ii^^ of quails. — ;r"'n] adv. a.X. 
quickly, cf. C'ln vb. -?.2^/ but ® iirijXdev irpai^TTjj ^0' ^yuas, U supervenit 
mansuetudo, cf. nc'n .25^, also Is. 57I1 65^. — 11. ^n^f^^^i] so Jf, with obj. sf. 
according to the fear that is due Thee. But ® d-wh rov (f)6^ov tov dv/mov <rov 
has no sf. nor prep, d; both are prob. interp., as indeed the dirb of (3, leaving 
riNn"" as the common original, which was then prob. pi. referring to the awful 
deeds; and nsiu as usual. — 12. r/iJ?';'] as in ® belongs with previous 1. to 
complete its measure. — ir^^] so 3 ; but (3 tt]v de^tdv crov, V dexteram tuam, 
is more prob., yx:^, the sf. in both cases, being interp. — ynm jj] so 3, 
^s.c. a.A. R.T^but (5^- »< omits 7?, needed for measure. — X3ji] i subord. Hiph. 
impf. I pi., cf. La. 5^. — riDDn :32S] phr. a.X., but cf. ^iV ddh Jb. 9*, odh aS 
I K. 312 Pr. i623 Ec. 86, d^ddh^ij'? Ec. 7* io2. — 13. omn] Niph. imv. am c. 
V)?; with Sx Ju. 21^; prob. originally Dnjnn, which is used in the same phr. 
Ps. 135^*, both based on Dt. 32^^. — 14. iJiDi"'?^^] so ©; but Sd is unnecessary 
and makes 1. too long. — 15. nic"i] pi. f. elsw. Dt. 32^. — 16. nN-j"-] Niph. 
juss.; so all Vrss., but ® koX tde, U respice nsni Qal imv. — ^'?.^s] as 442 Jj^^; 
all Vrss. except 3 have pi. ; |^ codd. differ : 65 Kenn., 117 De R., sg.; v. Baer. 
— ^^,"^] (<^)j but ® dd-fjyriaov "innn Hiph. imv. im lead 2,% 25^ 107'^ 119^, 



2/8 PSALMS 

V dirige filios eorum ; S;? of ^ interp. — 17. '•n">i] i conj. juss. — D;;j] v. 
^7^. — irnSs '•jin] cf, Dn. 9^- 1^ late phr. — njrs .ijn> hb^d] repeated for 
emphasis with the variation of sf. in_ to vb. The repetition is not in G^, but 
in &^' ^- K "^ without sf., which is prob. interp. in |1^. 

PSALM XCI., 4 STR. 73. 

Ps. 91 is didactic in character : (i) assures Israel of the safety 
from peril of those who make the temple of God their habitual 
resort (v,^"^-"*^) ; (2) then, in a direct address, exhorts not to fear 
the pestilence which is destroying multitudes on every side (v.*"^) ; 
asserts that God will keep them safely in the hands of guardian 
angels (v.^"'^^) ; and finally (3) speaks in the name of God, 
assuring those who know and love God that He will deliver them 
from all trouble and honour them in a long life (v.^*"^^) . Glosses 
emphasize the promise (v.''''* ^^), and assert that they will see the 
recompense of the wicked (v.^) . 

AS for him who dwells in the secret place of 'Elyon, 

In the shadow of Shadday abides, 

Saith of Yahweh : " My refuge ! 

My fortress ! my God in whom I trust ! " 

Surely He will deliver from the snare, 

The one ensnared from the engulfing pestilence ; 

With a shield His faithfulness will surround him. 
'T'HOU shalt not be afraid of the terror by night, 

Of the arrow that flieth by day, 

Of the pestilence that goeth in darkness. 

Of the destruction that wasteth at noonday. 

Though a thousand fall at thy side, 

And a myriad at thy right hand, 

Unto thee it will not come nigh. 
CINCE 'Elyon thou hast made thy dwelling. 

He will give His angels charge over thee 

To keep thee in all thy ways. 

Upon their palms they will bear thee up, 

Lest thou dash thy foot against a stone. 

Upon reptile and cobra thou wilt tread ; 

Thou wilt trample the young lion and dragon. 
tt CINCE he hath set his love on Me, I will deliver him. 

I will set him on high, because he doth know My name. 

He will call upon Me, and I will answer him. 

With him I will be in trouble. 

I will deliver him, and I will honour him. 

With length of days will I satisfy him. 

And make him gaze on my salvation." 



PSALM XCI. 279 

Ps. 91 in 1^, 3, is without title. But (& has ahoi (^Srjs ry AavelS. This 
was the conjecture of a late editor, due to the large number of terms in this 
Ps. familiar in JB : nnD and Sx v.^ for the refuge in the temple, as 17^ 27^ 31^1 
368 61^ + ; niiXD V.2, of. 18^31*; njx v.*, cf. 5^^; the guardian angel v.^^, cf. 
34® 356.6, The author also used "»3JN v.i^ and prn v.^*, both characteristic of 
D, and was especially familiar with Dt. 32, using the terms vn, atop, v.^- ^, cf. 
Dt. 3223.24. r^L,x, n^an, V.7, cf. Dt. 3230; Snr, jnc, and r^jn, v.is, cf. Dt. 322*- 83. 
V.^" is similar to Dt. 32^1, and v.*^ uses the familiar image of Pss. 17^ 36^ 572 
616 6^8 (^all IB), though in a form found eisw. only Ru. 2^-; but both phrs. 
are gl. The characteristic divine names are: ]vh'; v.^* ^, cf. Dt. 32^ Ps. 18^*; 
nty v.i, cf. Gn. 492^ Nu. 24*- 1^ a poetic rather than an early usage. The use 
of ppD v.^ is similar to that of 90^, only here it is of the temple, there of God 
Himself. The phr. d^ y^'> v.^* is elsw. 9^1 Is. 52^ Je. 48!'^. The Ps. was evi- 
dently written in peaceful times, when there was constant access to the temple, 
and when the chief evils to be feared were pestilence and such like. The 
Ps. belongs to the late Persian or more probably to the early Greek period. 
It is dramatic in character. The change of persons does not imply responsive 
voices ; but the poet now speaks for himself of the general principles of the 
divine government, then addresses the people with personal application of 
these principles, and finally utters the words of God Himself. The use of 
V n-12 vvith reference to Jesus Mt. 4^ = Lk. 4^'^-^'^, and the dominion over the 
lion and the serpent v.^^, similar in some respects to Is. 1 1^-^, give the Ps. 
a Messianic character. 

Str. I. a syn. tetrastich and a syn. tristich. — 1. As for him 
who dwells^, emphatic in position, introducing the protasis whose 
apodosis begins in v.^ — abides^ The ptc. expresses the con- 
tinual dwelling, the impf. the habitual resort. The place was the 
temple, — the secret place of ^ Ely on || the shadow of Shadday\ as 
178 2f 31^^ 32^ 36^ 57^ 61^ 63^ (all ©). The divine names are 
the poetic ones based on Gn. 49^ Dt. 32^ Ps. 18^*. — 2. Saith'], 
taking the form as ptc. after (3, U, <S, syn. with previous ptc. 
J^, 3, followed by EV'., interpret the form as i sg., " I will say," 
which makes an abrupt change, introducing another voice. — of 
Yahweh\ of AV., RV., JPSV., seems better than " unto Yahweh " 
of PBV., although either is a proper translation. — My refuge\ cf. 
v.» 14^ 46^ 61* 62«-9 4- II 7nyfortress\ cf. 18^ 31^ 71^ + || my God 
in whom I trust~\ : all this emphasizing the general principle that 
Yahweh in His temple was the habitual resort and refuge of His 
people. — 3. Surely~\, introducing the apodosis with an assevera- 
tion, as AV., and not with the causal particle "for," as PBV., RV. 
— He will deliver']^ namely, the one indicated in the protasis; 



280 PSALMS 

but J^, 3, followed by EV'., interpret obj. as sf. 2 pers. "thee," 
another abrupt change of person, due doubtless to assimilation to 
the gloss v.''''^ — from the S7iare\ defined in the || as engulfing 
pestilence^ ensnaring multitudes in engulfing ruin, cf. v.^^. Israel 
is in great peril from this pestilence. He is one ensnared in it 
already, and therefore needs deliverance : for so we should trans- 
late this first word of the line, and not make it dependent upon 
the previous word, as EV*., and translate " of the fowler," which 
destroys the measure. — 4. With a shield His faithfulness will 
surround him'], so ^^, U, S, which is better suited to the parall. 
than J^, followed by EV^, interpreting the Heb. word as a noun 
a.A. " buckler " || shield. On the one side God will deliver His 
faithful people from the pestilence in which they are already 
ensnared, and on the other side will shield them from it in the 
future. — A glossator makes a personal application of this prema- 
turely in v.'*"'', using the terms of earlier Pss. of O 17^ 36® 57^ 61* 
63^ cf. Dt. 32^^ : With His pinion He will cover thee, and under 
His wings thou wilt take refuge. 

Str. II. A syn. tetrastich, a syn. distich, and an emphatic con- 
clusion. — 5-6. Thou shall not be afraid~\, a direct address based 
on the doctrine of the previous Str. The pestilence is now de- 
scribed in several terms : the terror by night || the arrow that 
flieth by day || the destruction that wasteth at noonday]. At all 
hours of day and night the pestilence is at work, causing terror in 
the darkness of the night, swift and sudden as an arrow in its 
flight, piercing the very soul in the daylight, and making havoc 
and devastation at noon. (§ thinks of the pestilence as a demon, 
and it is possible that ^ had the same idea. Both vary on this 
account from the vb. that was probably original to the text. 
So terrible was the pestilence that it is stated as a possibility : 
7. Though a thousand fall at thy side || And a myriad at thy 
right hand], and so the people of God were exposed to the 
utmost possible degree, — yet Unto thee it will not come nigh], 
resuming v.^ "^^^ safe in the protection of their God, the plague 
cannot approach them. — A glossator appends 8, probably in 
order to show that God distinguishes between the righteous and 
the wicked ; and that while He delivers those who have made 
Him their refuge, He does not spare the wicked. The pestilence 



PSALM XCI. 281 

will spend itself on them, and the righteous will see them suffer 
the recompense of their wickedness. — Only with thine eyes wilt 
thou behold and see the recompense of the wicked'] . This glossator 
seems to have held the older opinion, contested in the book of 
Job, that the wicked and the righteous are carefully discriminated 
in plagues and other evils. 

Str. III. An introductory line, a synth. tetrastich, and a syn. 
couplet. — 9. Since 'Ely on thou hast made thy dwelling\ resum- 
ing the thought of v.^"^ : hast made the presence of God in the 
temple, the place of habitual resort, a real home. — A marginal 
gloss claims that this very thing has been done : For Thou, Yah- 
weh, art my refuge~\. This subsequently crept into the text prior 
to the first line of this Str., making another of those abrupt transi- 
tions characteristic of the present text of the Ps. — A glossator 
before the specific promises of v.""^^ introduces a general one : 
10. Evil will not befall thee, nor plague approach thy tent]. This 
breaks the force of the antithesis with the previous Str. — 11. He 
will give His angels charge over thee]. The guardian angels, cf. 
34^ 35^'^ Gn. 2^, now take the place of the shield of v.** as more 
active agents of the divine protection. — To keep thee in all thy 
ways]. Wherever the pious went, they would be kept in safety 
by their guardians. — 12. Upon their palms they will bear thee 
up], when there was any danger of falling, — and that with so 
much attention to detail. Lest thou dash thy foot against a stone]. 
This passage was used by Satan in the temptation of Jesus, Mt. 4^ 
= Lk. 4^*^^^ with a logical interpretation to a situation not con- 
templated in the Ps. The Ps. has in view a real peril, which 
meets the pious in his normal course of hfe. Satan applies the 
promise to a peril into which he urges Jesus to cast himself 
This interpretation of the promise is rejected by Jesus as tempt- 
ing God. — 13. Upon reptile and cobra thou wilt tread], so (^, 
as Dt. 32^"*; but J^, by copyist's error of a single letter, intro- 
duces prematurely the lion. The context suggests that this 
treading on venomous snakes, which might in an ordinary case 
be deadly, in the case of the pious would be harmless. — Thou 
wilt trample the young lion and dragofi] . The pious would have 
dominion over them. This gives the promise a Messianic signifi- 
cance, cf. Is. 1 1^^ 



282 PSALMS 

Str. rV". Two syn. couplets and a syn. tristich. — 14-16. Since 
he hath set his love on Me\ a Deuteronomic expression, love to 
God being really implied in the dwelling in the temple v.^-^: || he 
doth know My name']^ personal acquaintance with the name of 
God as manifested in the sanctuary, cf. 9^^ Is. 52^ Je. 48^^ — I will 
deliver him |1 I will set him on high\ resumed in v.^*, — / will 
deliver him and I will honour him'], and in the climax w}^, — And 
make him gaze on my salvation], cf. 50^. The deliverance is to 
be not a simple one, but an exalted, a glorious one, which he will 
be permitted not only to experience but to contemplate with joy. 
It will indeed be in answer to prayer : He will call upon me and 
I will answer hirn], and connected with the constant presence of 
God with the one who constantly resorts to Him : With him I 
will be in trouble], cf. 23^ 46®- -^-j and as the final result, instead 
of his days being cut short by the pestilence, as was the case 
with multitudes of others, With length of days, a long life, will I 
satisfy him, 

!• I'^^'i'7. T?] ph'^« °-^' cf- "I'^^N 'D 27^ yit> 'D 3121, T»DJ3 'D 6i^ — nu^] © 
rov GeoO rov ovpavoO, 3 domini. — I^'^'^ri^] Hithp. vh, elsw. Jb. 39^^^; but Qal Ps. 
2S^^ +. — 2. n^N] Qal impf. i sg., so 3 ; but © kpti^ so U, %y either new ptc. 
or -iDN^ 3 sg., so Hu., Pe., Gr., Du., al. — mn^] ©B. n t.(^ Bey, but (S^. a. b. k. c. a. a. t. 
Kup/y, 3 domino. — 3. q*"'?:] so 3,©^'- ^.R-T ^. but ©^ s^x' sf. interp. — t ^'P"] 
usually n.{jn..'] fowler t as Ho. 9^; but H requires independent word, prob. ptc. 
pass. vb. rp^ one snared. — n;i] pestilence, as Ex. 5^ 9!^ Nu. 14^2 (J) Dt. 
28^^; but & X670U = -^ai. — 4. "^nnaK] sf. n-r^i< pinion, as Dt. 32!^. — "^p;] 
impf. 1DD (j^^), not juss. but late, when distinction had disappeared. — Jr^nb] 
n.f. buckler, a.X., as Aq., 2, ^; but (5 acuxXuxtci, so U, S>, nnno ptc. vb. "^no go 
round about. — 5. f|ij;^] rel. clause ; of arrow only here, v. j8^^. — 6. iSn^] 
for usual 'r\^\ — t ^Wi^] n.m. destriution, as Dt. 32-* of Sheol, Ho. 13^* Is. 28^. 
— niK^j] denom. ik', originally lord^ subsequently demon, god, Dt. 32^^ Ps. 
106^"^ (®) ; ® dai/xovlov, U daemonio, nr here ; but more prob. impf. "nir lay 
waste. — 8. EJon n^J^a] phr. a.X., the line a gl. — HNnn DT^n n?:^^] gl. from 
73'. — 9. "'DHD mn> nnx '^2] gl. originally marginal note, referring to v.'*. — 
q.3"ij;p] as 90^, but & here as there Karatpvy^v aov, invc. — 10. njNn] Pu. 
impf. \ryi\< vb. not used in Qal. Pi. cause to meet Ex. 21^^ (E). Pu. be 
allowed to meet, eXs'ff. Pr. 1221. Hithp. 2 K. 5"^. — 13. t^"^] n«ni. poetic, 
lion as Ho. 5I* 13^ Jb. 4I0 iqI^ 288 Pr. 26i3; but 6 dL<nrL5a = Snr, so §s, 3, as 
Dt. 32^ Mi. 7^', more prob, with jro venomous serpent, prob. cobra Ps. 5^^ 
Dt. 32^*. — 14. X prn] vb. Qal be attached in love, c .3 Dt. 7" iqI^ 21II +.— 
'•DC' y-i"] phr. elsw. Ps. 9^1 Is. 52^ Je. 48^''. — 15. "'JJn] long form as in D. 
It is also needed for measure. 



PSALM XCII. 283 

PSALM XCIL, 4 STR. 6\ 

Ps. 92 is a song in praise of Yahweh : (i) rejoicing in the act 
of praising day and night with instrumental music (v.^) ; 
(2) wondering at the greatness of the divine works and thoughts, 
especially in permitting the wicked to flourish only to their 
eventual destruction (v.^-^^) ; (3) the wicked will surely perish 
in full view of the righteous, who will be exalted in their stead 
^y 10-12-^ . ^^^ ^jjg righteous will flourish in the temple, as the 
palm and cedar, even to old age (v.^^^^) . Glosses emphasize the 
gladness (v.^), the ignorance of man (v/), and the uprightness of 
God {v}'). 

TT is good to give thanks to Yahweh, 

To make melody to Thy name, "Elyon ; 

To declare Thy kindness in the morning, 

And Thy faithfulness in the dark night, 

With a ten-stringed harp, 

With melody on the lyre. 
Q HOW great are Thy works ! 

How very deep Thy thoughts ! 

When the wicked sprout forth as herbage, 

And all the workers of iniquity blossom, 

It is in order that they may be destroyed forever. 

Since Thou art on high everlastingly. 
JTOR lo ! Thine enemies shall perish ; 

All the workers of iniquity shall be scattered. 

But Thou wilt exalt my horn as a yore ox ; 

(Thou hast enriched me) with fresh oil ; 

And mine eye shall look on my lurking foes ; 

Evil doers mine ears shall hear. 
'THE righteous will sprout forth as the palm tree. 

Wax tall as the cedar in Lebanon. 

Transplanted into the house of Yahweh, 

They will sprout forth in the courts of our God. 

Still in old age they will bear fruit : 

They will be full of sap and freshly green. 

Ps. 92 was originally a n-'C', a term appropriate to its contents. mmD was 
added at a later date. It was eventually assigned for use in the liturgy: 
nam avh {v. Intr. §§ 24, 31, 39). It is a Ps. eminently suited for worship, 
whether in the temple or the synagogue. It was composed in the time when 
Israel was exposed to peril from enemies, and when the musical service of the 
temple was in full operation; therefore probably in the late Greek period. 
The language is not late: ]v:>n v.* as g^"^; v.^ depends possibly on Is. 55^-^; 
v."^ is related to 49^1 73^2, but is a gl. 



284 PSALMS 

Str. I. A syn. tetrastich and a syn. couplet. — 2-4. It is good^ 
pleasant, delightful, — to give thanks || to make melody'], terms 
usual in public worship in the temple, cf. 33^ 105^"^ 106^ jQyi.8.i5.2i.3i 
1 1 8^-^ 136^ The theme is Yahweh \ Thy name Elyon\ cf 18^ 
135^ ; Thy kindness || Thy faithfulness], the pair of divine attributes 
usually associated in such songs, — in the morning || in the dark 
night] implying public worship in the temple at night, cf. 134^, as 
well as in the morning, and indeed not only with vocal music, but 
with instruments as well, — with a ten-stringed harp], as (§, cf. 
33^ 144^ and with melody on the lyre, cf. 8i^ J^, followed by 
EV'., interprets the word meaning *' ten-stringed " as another 
instrument than the harp. 3 also interprets " melody " as song 
accompanying the lyre, and so PBV. as a separate '' loud instru- 
ment," but all this is improbable. — 5. A glossator inserts a reason 
here, which the original reserves for the subsequent Strs., — For 
Thou hast made me glad \ I shall ri?ig out praise] , the theme of 
which was some deliverance just wrought, probably in the Mac- 
cabean times. — Thy deed || the works of Thy hands], cf. 28^ 77^^ 
90^6. 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets and a synth. one. — 6. How great], 
exclamation of wonder and praise || How very deep], for the ex- 
clamation is continued in the syn. line, which is not a mere state- 
ment of fact, as EV^ The works of Yahweh are wonderfully 
great, in intensity rather than in number, as implied in the syn. 
" deep," which is appropriate to the divine thoughts as unsearch- 
able and profound, cf. 40^, but especially Is. 55^'^. These divine 
works and thoughts are with reference to the wicked, in the 
antithesis between their prosperity and their ultimate destruction 
v.^^ But a glossator interposed a couplet emphasizing the pro- 
fundity of the divine thoughts. — 1. A brutish man || a dullard], 
cf. 49^^ as distinguished from a wise and understanding man, 
living in the fear of God ; characteristic of WL. — knoweth not || 
understandeth this not], that which the psalmist knows in his ex- 
perience and what the people understand in the use of the song 
of praise. — 8. When the wicked \ all the workers of iniquity] ^ 
doubtless the same as those of v.^° ^-, and therefore not wicked 
men in Israel, but foreign enemies and treacherous foes. — sprout 
forth as herbage \\ blossom], in sudden luxuriant success and 



PSALM XCII. 285 

prosperity. The simile implies also frailty and transitoriness, cf. 
90^^, which is then expressed in the apodosis in the strongest 
terms. — // is in order that they may be destroyed forever'], and the 
reason for it is — 9. Since Thou art on high everlastingly]. Yah- 
weh reigns in the height of heaven, everlastingly His dominion con- 
tinueSo This makes it certain that the prosperity of the wicked 
will only be temporary, and their doom sudden and irrevocable. 
The antithesis between the everlasting reign of God and the ever- 
lasting destruction of the wicked brings the Str. to its climax. 

Str. III. Three syn. couplets. — 10. For lo ! Thine enemies], 
repeated for emphasis with the divine name in J^, J, EV^, but 
not in the original. The wicked are the divine enemies, as usual 
in the >^. — shall perish || shall be scattered], in defeat on the 
battle-field and in the panic of a disastrous rout. — 11. But Thou 
wilt exalt my horn], in victory, cf. 75^'^ 89^^ 148^* : as a yore ox], 
the gigantic wild bull of the ancients, cf. Nu. 23^^ Dt. 33^'' Ps. 22^ 
Jb. 39^"^", whose furious onset was greatly to be feared by the 
hunter. — Thou dost enrich me with fresh oil], that is, at the fes- 
tival celebrating the victory he is anointed so richly with oil by 
Yahweh that he will be saturated with it as are cakes when pre- 
pared for the sacrifice. This is a parallel simile. As Horsley, " a 
penetration of the whole substance of the man's person by the 
oil," cf. 23^ — 12. Mine eye shall look on], with the gaze of the 
victor, seeing his enemies slain on the battle-field and rushing 
panic-stricken away from his pursuit |j Mine ears shall hear], 
doubtless the outcries of terror and anguish of the vanquished. 

Str. IV. Three syn. couplets. — 13. The righteous], Israel, and 
not the righteous in Israel, — will sprout forth as the palm tree], 
an appropriate simile of rapid, vigorous growth and luxuriance of 
life, — wax tall as the cedar of Lebanon], a simile of strength and 
durability, cf. Ho. 14^'^; both in antithesis with the luxuriant but 
perishable herbage to which the wicked had been compared v.^. 
— 14. transplanted into the house of Yahweh || courts of our 
God]. The temple in its larger sense, as explained by courts, is 
conceived as exceedingly fertile soil. The trees that are removed 
from other places and planted there will have a luxuriant growth, 
cf. i^ 84^ — They will sprout forth, as young plants, and, — 15. still 
in old age they will bear fruit], doubtless combining in the figure 



286 PSALMS 

the fruitfulness of the palm and the longevity of the cedar. — They 
will be full of sap and freshly green], everlastingly animate with 
the fulness of life and ever green with the richest of foliage. 

The Ps. comes to its most appropriate end here ; but a glos- 
sator, wishing to give it a dogmatic ending, adds : 16. That they 
may declare that Yahweh is upright, my Rock in whom is no 
iniquity\ This seems to be based on Dt. 32*, where the upright- 
ness of God was properly emphasized ; but here it is inappropriate, 
for the Ps. praises rather the divine kindness and faithfulness. 

8. n^fCK"!] has two tones. — n'l'?^^] abstr. intensive pi. dark night, as 134^ 
Ct. 3!- K —4. Spj >Sj?.l "^vi'^ y^;^'\ ^, J. >^y archaic for *?>?. The repetition 
makes 1. tetrameter and interp. "wv^ as a different instrument from S^j. But 
® had only Saj nitry or nicy ^11 as 33''^ 144^ a ten-stringed harp. — p^jn] as 
9^'^, melody, resounding music, (S y-er (^Srjs, S fxeXodias. 3 cantico et inter- 
prets it as apart from ■T«:p3 just as in previous line. — 5. nin>, though in Vrss., 
makes the 1. tetrameter. The v. is doubtless a gl., giving a premature reason. 
— 7. i;75 C'-'n] cf. n>'3 'JN 73^2 with the same vb. ^"'Dd implies WL. and indi- 
cates a gl. — 8. D'^CB'nS] Niph. inf. c. sf., ^N'\\h S. This is prob. for an earlier 
IjjdS needed for the measure. — 9. nri"'] is gl.; unnecessary and makes 1. too 
long. — 10. mm "i^i-'N r^l■r\ ^r] ^, 3, is not in 6^, but in @^-RT and is 
dittog. or emph. repetition ; in either case a gl. — tt^.^J?'] Hithp. impf. in the 
sense of dispersed, as Jb. 4II; separated, Ps. 22^^. — 11. Ci^n)] 1 consec. of |^ 
is wrong interp. @, 3, V, all have simple 1 and make the vb. future as the 
context demands. — ''''?'7?] Qal pf. i sg. SSi usually after Ki. intrans. 
anointed, but without justification in usage. 5, C 01s., Du., "'jn'75 most prob. 
® rb yijpds fxov, "B senectus mea, 3 senecta mea, S t] iraXaiuxrLs fiov. Hu., Ba., 
"•n'<'?3 inf. cstr. sf. i sg. n^3 my wasting in old age, cf. ^^ 49^^ The man by 
the anointing of his head with oil is enriched as the cakes of the nnjr;. — 
12. t33ni] 1 consec. is interp.; the context demands simple 1. — "^y^'^l error 
for nnc*, v. j^, @ iv To7i ix^po^^ P-o^- — ^'^V C'?!^?] makes 1. too long, destroys 
the simplicity of the parall., and is gl. — 13. njr^J Qal. impf., v. yj^^. — 
14. cSmB'] Q3.\ptc.,cf. 1^, transplanted, not p/anted. — ij>nSx nnxn] phr. a.X., 
but mn> 'n 84^, i>isn 65^ 84^1, vnnxn 96^ loo*, no 'n 116I® 1352, all referring 
to second temple. — 16. ^ou^] full form Qal impf. 21J (62^^) bear fruit. — 
16 depends on Dt. 32*; introduces a legalistic conclusion, and is a gl. — nnS;?] 
Kt. defective for nn'^ig Qr., fuller fem. form because of following monosyl. ""S, 
rel. clause. 



PSALM XCIV. 287 



PSALM XCIV., 6 STR. 43. 

Ps. 94 is an importunate prayer of Israel for a theophany of 
the God of dire vengeance (v.^"^) , expostulating at the long impunity 
of the wicked (v.*^) , meekly congratulating himself upon divine 
discipline and instruction out of the Law, while awaiting the doom 
of the wicked (v.^^^^) , assured that Yahweh will not abandon His 
people and that righteousness will ere long return (v.^^^^) . The 
question whether the throne of the oppressor can be allied to Yah- 
weh is raised (v.^-^), only to be denied by the assertion that God 
is the refuge of His people, and that He will surely exterminate 
their enemies (v.^^"^) . Glosses emphasize the wickedness of the 
enemies, and their ignoring of divine interposition (v.^^), rebuke 
the dullards for not understanding (v.^), assert that God is the 
creator and teacher of the nations (v.^^°), though man's thoughts 
are but breath (v.^^), resume the plea for interposition, lest the 
people go down to Sheol (v.^*^^^) , and affirm the sustaining kind- 
ness and delightful comfort that Yahweh bestows (v.^^^^) . 

r\ GOD of dire vengeance, Yahweh ! 

O God of dire vengeance, shine forth ! 

Lift up Thyself, O Judge of the earth ; 

Render the proud a recompense. 
J-IOW long shall the wicked, Yahweh, 

How long shall the wicked exult ? 

Pour forth, speak arrogantly. 

Speak boastfully, all the workers of trouble? 
J-JAPPY is he whom Thou disciplinest. Yah! 

And whom Thou teachest out of Thy Law, 

To give him rest from days of evil, 

Until a pit be dug for the wicked. 
YAHWEH abandons not His people. 

And forsakes not His inheritance, 

Until righteousness return to judgment, 

And following after it all the upright of mind. 
r^AN the throne of engulfing ruin be allied to Thee, 

Which frameth trouble by statute ; 

Those who make attacks upon the life of the righteous, 

And innocent blood condemn? 
^ AY 1 Yahweh is become to me a high tower, 

And my God, my rock, my refuge. 

And He hath recompensed their troubling upon them, 

And in their own evil Yahweh will exterminate them. 



288 PSALMS 

Ps. 94 has no title in f^, but in ® yJ/aXfibs rep AaveiS rerpdSL aa^pdrov. It 
was assigned to the fourth day of the week in the Alexandrian liturgy. The 
same assignment is known in K (v. Intr. § 39). The Ps. was supposed to be 
Davidic because of resemblances to JB, especially in v.2^-23. The original Ps. 
had six trimeter tetrastichs, v.^-^- 12-15. 20-28. ti^e intervening vss. are gls. of 
various dates. The original Ps. in v.^ implores a theophany in the style of 50^ 
Dt. 33^. Its conception of God as judge v.^ is that of 50^ 75^, pn;? i2n v.*, cf. 
75', all 31 ; yi '»D'» v.i* elsw. 49', personification of pnx v.^^ as 8511-12.14^ ugg 
of inns v.^s as 451^, all 3£t. The use of d^sj v.^ is as 140^; "inan^ vP, cf. 122*. 
There are besides a.X. nicpj Sn v.i, nnn udd v.^'^, Scy -ix"- v. 20. The use of 
nmp V.12 implies a legal attitude of mind. Israel is in grave peril from foreign 
enemies. It was probably the peril of the late Greek period, mm ndd well 
expresses the situation of the hostile monarchs. The glosses show evidence 
of later date : v.^' has been influenced by lo*- 1*^!^- 1^; v.^ is based on 49", cf. 
92"^, and implies WL.; v.^n is universalistic in its conception of the divine in- 
struction of the nations, and implies a time of peace and hopefulness ; \^^-^^ 
implies extreme peril, probably Maccabean, to which the use of r\^2^^^ v.i'^ 
points, elsw. 1151^ as a syn. of Sheol ; v.i^-i^ abounds in rare words of Aramaic 
type, ^Dy-ir, "i^cinjn, i;'S';'c\ 

Str. I. Two syn. couplets. — 1. O God of dire vengeance\ 
repeated for emphasis, the first line having the divine name Yah- 
wehf the second the verb shine forth. The divine name 'El is 
used with various predicates on account of its brevity. The plural 
is an abstract plural of intensity, which should not be ignored, as 
in EV'., by the use of the sg. " to whom vengeance belongeth" ; 
but might possibly refer, as such pis. often do, to acts of vengeance. 
Yahweh is importunately called upon to shine forth in theophany 
as 50- Dt. 33-. — 2. Lift up Thyself \ rise from a recumbent 
posture in order to interpose, cf. Is. 33^^ Ps. 9^. — O Judge of the 
earthy Yahweh was the governor and judge of all the earth as 
well as of Israel, and it was His prerogative to enter into judg- 
ment and right all wrongs, cf. Gn. 18^ Pss. 50^ 75^ — render a 
recompense^ retributive justice, cf. 28^ Is. 35^ — the proud\ cf. 
123* 140^ the first of a number of terms to characterise the ene- 
mies of Israel, more completely described in the subsequent Strs. 

Str. II. Two syn couplets. — 3. How long shall the wicked\ 
repeated for emphasis, as v.^ with Yahweh in the first line and 
the verb exult in the second, in fine antithesis therefore with v}. 
The wicked are conceived as exulting in the gratification of their 
wicked desires, while Yahweh remains passive. This exultation 



PSALM XCIV. 289 

is then described as chiefly in speech : 4. Pour forth], that is, 
words as a torrrent, cf. 19^ 59^ 78^ — speak arrogantly'] , cf. 31^^ 
75^ I S. 2^. — speak boastfully], the most probable meaning of a 
form a.A. ; all enlarging upon " the proud " of w?, who are now in 
the chmax described as workers of trouble. — Several glosses were 
inserted between this Str. and the next v.^^ : 5. Thy people, Yah- 
weh, they crush, and Thine inheritance afflict], a pentameter Hne, 
cf. lo^*' 28^ 143^' — 6. The widow and sojourner they slay and 
orphans murder], another pentameter Hne to indicate the heinous 
nature of their crimes in murdering the helpless, those under the 
especial protection of Yahweh according to the Law, Dt. 10^^ 14^ 
1 6^1- 1^ 24!^- 19- 20. 21 2 719^ cf. pss. I oi4- 18 6S6^ _ 7_ ^^^ ^^gy ^^y , u Yah 

seeth not'^ || " and the God of Jacob perceiveth not^^], cf. lo^-^^ 14^ 
This is not the denial of the ability of God to see and to interpose, 
but the assertion of His indifference to the oppression of His 
people. — 8. Consider, ye brutish among the people, the exhorta- 
tion in the imv. and the || rebuke in the form of a question : Ye 
dumb, how long ere ye will understand?], a syn. trimeter couplet. 
The brutish and the dullards here as in 49^^ 92^ were those among 
the Jewish people who were insensible to the principles of Hebrew 
Wisdom, and took no part in the teachings of the wise. — 9. He 
that planted the ear || or He that formed the eye], fig. terms for 
creating, used only here of ear and eye, cf. Ex. 4^^ Ps. 33^^ 74^^ 95^ 
104^®, — shall He 710 1 hear ? || shall He not see ?]. The question 
can have but one answer ; that He sees the affliction of His people 
by their enemies, and hears their cries and their prayers. This 
and the following couplet are tetrameters. — 10. He that disci- 
pline th the nations || He that teacheth mankind]. Both clauses 
indicate that Yahweh carries on a discipline of instruction with 
other nations as well as with Israel, cf. v.^l — Shall He not cor- 
rect? This requires in || Shall He not make them know?], cf. 
Jos. 4^ Is. 40^^ ; that is, give the nations a knowledge of His will 
and ways, as He has given it to Israel. But the latter clause has 
been by error reduced to a single word, "knowledge," as if it 
belonged to the protasis and there were no apodosis. — 11. Yah- 
weh knoweth the thoughts of mankind that they are breath]. This 
is still later, and indeed a prose sentence, asserting on the one 
hand, over against v.^, that God not only knows the deeds of 



290 PSALMS 

mankind but also their inward thoughts, and on the other hand 
that He knows how unsubstantial they are. 

Str. III. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 12. Happy'], exclama- 
tion of congratulation as i^ A glossator inserted the man who, 
as 34^ 40^ 127^^, but here at the expense of the measure. The 
reference is not to the individual man ; but, as the context shows, 
to Israel, — IV/iom Thou disciplinest, Yah || And whom Thou 
teaches t out of Thy Law]. Israel congratulates himself that he 
has the special privilege of the Law of God for his teaching and 
divine discipline. — 13. To give htm rest from days of evil]. The 
days of evil are days of discipline. When they have accomplished 
their purpose they will pass away, and Israel will be given rest and 
quietness. — Until a pit be dug for the wicked]. While God is 
engaged in the discipline of His people, He is also engaged in 
preparing a just retribution for their enemies. He is, as it were, 
digging the pit into which they will eventually fall ; although else- 
where the wicked are conceived as digging the pit themselves 

7" 35' 57'. 

Str. IV. Syn. and synth. couplets. — 14. Yahweh abandons not 
His people || And forsakes not His inheritance]. His people are 
His inheritance, and as belonging to Him He will not relinquish 
them to others, or permit them to be seriously injured, cf. Ex. 19*. 
He may do it for a time Je. 12^, but not permanently. — 15. Until 
righteousness return to judgment]. Righteousness is personified 
here, as in 85""^*. It is conceived as having departed from the 
place of judgment. There is a limit to its absence. It will 
eventually return, when God shines forth in theophany v.^ ; and 
justice will be done in vindicating the people of God and bestow- 
ing upon the enemies just retribution. — And following after it], 
that is, in its train, cf. 45^^ Seeing justice again about to ascend 
on the throne, all the upright of mind follow in the procession to 
the throne. Glossators make additions here also; and first an 
importunate appeal to God, a tetrameter tetrastich : 16. O that 
one would rise up for ffie / || O that one would stand up for me /], 
expressing a wish, more probable in this context than the inter- 
rogative clause of EV. It is a plea for divine interposition, as 
v.^"^ — against evil doers || against workers of trouble], the same 
as those of previous Strs. — 17. If it had not been that Yahweh 



PSALM XCIV. 291 

had been a help to me"], that is, in the past history of the nation, — 

I had almost dwelt in the land of silence\ cf. 115^". The nation 
had ceased to exist and had passed with the dead into Sheol, the 
abode of dead nations as well as individuals, cf. 9^^ Is. 14^ ''^•. — 
18. When I said : My foot doth slip']. When hard pressed by the 
enemies and deliverance seemed improbable ; when he felt his 
foot slipping, and that he was about to fall. Then, when he could 
not sustain himself, God's kindness held him up], cf. 3^ 18^^ 38^'^. 
— 19. When my anxious thoughts were multiplied within me]. In 
his intense anxiety thoughts alternately of hope and despair rushed 
through his mind in multitudes. — Thy comforts were delighting my 
soul]. God gave him oft-repeated comfort and dehght in the 
midst of his trials. 

Str. V. A Synth, and a syn. couplet. — 20. Can the throne of 
engulfing ruin], a government whose administration was hke a 
yawning gulf, swallowing up its subjects in irretrievable ruin. — 

II Which fra7neth trouble by statute ?], whose very laws are iniqui- 
tous and ruinous. Can such a government be allied to Thee?], 
have the divine sanction and support. — 21. The wicked admin- 
istration is further described as Those who tnake attacks upon the 
life of the righteous || And innocent blood condemn ?]. Govern- 
ment and law should protect the righteous and justify the inno- 
cent. This government had become so corrupt that it did the 
very reverse of what it ought to have done. The question is 
raised only to give an emphatic negation. 

Str. VI. Syn. couplets. — 22. Nay ! Yahweh is become to me], 
the answer to the question with an emphatic change of tense to 
emphasize the fact as an estabHshed experience. The EV. " but " 
fails to express the emphasis of the original. — a high tower], as 
frequently in 29 p^^-^^ 18^ ^ci^o.ir.is ^^z.i ^^^2. ^jgo ^^ ^ 46«-i2 ^§4^ 
II my God, my rock, my refuge], terms heaped up as in 18"''; the 
original "rock of my refuge " is a.\. and prob. error. — 23. And 
He hath recompensed their troubling upon them], resuming v.^'^. — 
And in their own evil], that described v.^^\ — will exterminate 
them], cf. 18^1 54" 69^ 

1. '^^'^Tiy Sn] bis a.X., pi. abstr. intensive, or possibly acts of vengeance. — 
j;>p^i] Hiph. imv. prob. in original r^-^^-^^yn as So^; final n overlooked before 
n of Ntt'jn as Hu.^, Ehr. But @ has pf., as Dt. if Ps. 502. — 2. d^nj] % nsj 



292 PSALMS 

adj. pi. elsw. 123* (J), proud, 1406 Pr. 1525 i6i9+. — 4. npKn>] Hithp. aX 
act proudly, BDB., cf. n,p\nn Is. 61^; context requires boast, speak proudly, 
@ XaX^crouo-tf, U loquentur —rs'Q^'^. — 5. A pentameter gl. — 6. iji njc'?N]. 
(5 xvpo-v Kal 6p<pavbv . . . koI irpocifKvTov, so 0, more natural order ; a pen- 
tameter gl. — 7. ncs']] 1 consec. result: a trimeter gl. — 8. A trimeter gl. 
based on 49^1. — 9-10. A tetrameter gl. — r.;n] improb.; the measure requires 
j,ni> nSh or yy nSh. — 11. A prose sentence, late gl. — 12. ">U'n n^jn >nrN] 
makes too long a 1. — ni's is prosaic and improb. njjn has been inserted 
from 34^ 40^. u^D^n "»nrN was doubtless original ; the exclamation of happi- 
ness before a relative clause, v. /-'. — 13. r\-\p^ Niph. a.X., but Qal 7^**+. — 
14. t"6i'] Qal impf. u*cj vb. leave, let alone, cf. ^7^. — o is interp. gl., makes 1. 
too long. — 15. ^r] is interp. gl., and indeed erroneous; it is not in @. — 
p^V.] personified, so ©, 3, ^, but S, 2, p^nx improb. — i'"^nN^] following after 
it, as 4515 6820. — 16-17. A tetrameter gl. — >S n-^r:j] fuller form of fem. with 
retracted accent because of monosyllable that follows, cf. 63^. — t J^^"'"'] n.f. 
stillness, for Sheol as 115^'^. — 18. "•n">rN cn] prot. temp, clause with impf. of 
habitual action, \nvD% in apod. — 19. a^i!)] inf. cstr. with 3 temp. prot. with 
riv^'V^ apod.; but ® Kara rh tc\t)Bo%. — "'2p;^'] pi. sf. f [ipi?*] only pi. n.[m.] 
disquieting thoughts, t\%^. 13923, cf. D^syt' Jb. 4^^ 2o2. — r^Tinjn] f [oinjn] only 
pi. consolations, elsw. Is. 661^ Je. 16' Jb. 15I1 212. — lyrrr^] Pilp. impf. t>7*^ 
Pilp. delight in, elsw. Is. ii^ Ps. iiq'O, Palp. Is. 6612, Hithp. Ps. 119^6-47. 
This accumulation of late words indicates a gl. — 20. ^"l^n-'n] dub. form, 
Ges.^"^', and especially Ko.i-257. 8^ pu^ impf. nan be allied with, v. ^8^ ; intro- 
ducing an interrog. clause whose apod, is v.22. — riv^n spr] phr. a.X., but nnn 
term of Q j^^ + . — pn-'(;";] more euphonic than pn-S>*. — 21. nu'] Kt. Qal 
impf. iu; but Qr. from nij, cf. 56'''. — 22. in^i] i consec. of apod, to emphasize 
the established fact. — ♦on?: nii'] phr. a.X.; improb.; rd. iDnr; ^~^yi, cf. 18^. — 
23. 3r»j] 1 consec. carries on apod. — oniipr] bis, but @ only once, as 
measure requires. — "iJ>nSN] is gl. of intensification ; against measure. 



PSALM XCV. 

Ps. 95 is composite : (A) A summons to worship Yahweh, the 
king above all gods, in the temple, with psalms (v.^"'^). He is to 
be worshipped as the creator and owner of all nature (v."*^). 
(B) A warning to Israel not to harden their hearts against Yah- 
weh, as their fathers did in the wilderness, when they sorely- 
tempted Yahweh (v.^*""^), and He loathed them and in His anger 
excluded a whole generation from the Holy Land (v.^°""). A seam 
connects the two, asserting that Yahweh was yet the God and 
Shepherd of His people (v.^""*). 



PSALM XCV. 293 



A. V. , 2 STR. b^' 

r) COME ! let us ring out to Yahweh : 

O let us shout to the Rock of our salvation ; 

O let us come to meet His face with thanksgiving; 

With psalms let us shout to Him. 

For Yahweh is a great God, 

And a king above all gods, 
TN His hand are the recesses of the earth, 

And the eminences of the mountains belong to Him. 

The sea belongs to Him, since He made it; 

And the dry land His hands formed. 

O come ! O let us worship and bow down. 

O let us kneel before Yahweh. 



B. V/''"", 2 STR. 5^. 

nrO-DAY, if ye will hearken to (My) voice, 

Harden not your heart as at Meribah, 

As in the day of Massah in the wilderness, 

When your fathers tempted Me ; 

Tried Me ; yea, saw My work. 
J WAS loathing a generation, and so said: 

" A people erring in heart are they, 

And they do not know My ways." 

So I swear in Mine anger : 

"They shall not enter into My Resting place." 

Ps. 95 has no title in |^ ; but in ^ alvos <^Srjs ry Aaveid, which is evidently 
a late editor's opinion. This Ps. has several terms of temple worship at 
religious festivals, v.i-'^ and nn?;? v.^, implying the use of psalmody (see Intr. 
§1). It could not have been composed before there was a regularly organised 
temple choir and a collection of Pss. for their use ; not earlier than the late 
Persian period, and probably early in the Greek period. The original Ps. had 
only two hexastichs y.^-^. To it was added by a seam v.'' from loo-^, another 
originally independent Ps., probably a fragment of a historical Ps., giving a 
warning based on the experience of Israel in the vi^ilderness, especially at 
Meribah \.'^<=-^\ The phr. 2h nirpn v.8 is that of P, Ex. f Pr. 281* ; but the 
use of :3:3s instead of d'? of P implies a subsequent usage of the time of Chr. 
HDO (2v) v.8 as Ex. 177 (JE) Dt. 6^6 922^ of. 338, n2>-):2D v.s elsw. '12 >c Dt. 338 
Nu. 2oi3 (P) Pss. 818 I0632+; ^jiDj v.^ as Ps. 7818. 41. 5G io6i4 after Ex. 172-- 
Nu. 1422 (J) Dt. 616. Phr. 33S >;;n v.i'' a.X., but of. nn >';d Is. 292*. o^o^n yv 
v.i<^ is a Deuteronomic term, of. Ps. i8'-2 2S,^-^ 6y^ + . inrnja v. 11, cf. 1328- 1* 
Is. 661, based on Nu. lo^^. This little Ps. seems to depend on a completed 
Hexateuch, and to be of the time of the Chronicler. 



294 PSALMS 



PSALM XCV. A. 



Str. I. A syn. tetrastich and a syn distich. — 1-3. O come'], 
exhortation to worship. — /<?/ us ring out || let us shout || let us 
come to meet with thanksgiving || with psalms let us shout], all 
expressions for pubHc worship, especially at festivals in the temple. 
The use of Pss. implies a fully developed service, with temple 
choirs and collections of Pss. The object of this worship is Yah- 
wehy meeting Him, their faces to His face, in the place where He 
let the light of His face shine upon His people. — the Rock of our 
salvation], the favourite term for God in His relation to His own 
people from ancient times Dt. 32^^ Ps. 62^-^ 89^. But the chief 
reason for worship on this occasion is given in the causal clause, 
— For Yahweh is a great God], an expression of Dt. 7-^ 10" Je. 
32^®, cf. Ps. 77^^ as the context suggests, in His dominion, explained 
in the || And a King above all gods], cf. 47^ The nations all had 
their own gods ; but the God of Israel was king over them all. 

Str. II. Three syn. couplets. — 4-5. In His hand \ belong to 
Him], bis. They are entirely at His disposal, and the reason is 
given in the circumstantial clause, — since He made it \\ His hands 
formed]. His ownership is based on creation. The various great 
objects of nature are mentioned, — the recesses of the earth], phr. 
a.X. for the secret depths of the earth which cannot be searched 
by man, cf. Jb. 38^*^ Je. 31'^'^; in antithesis with the eminences of 
the mountains], the highest peaks. Thus from the depths to the 
heights the earth all belongs to Yahweh as owner. — The sea and 
the dry land are also put in antithesis for the same reason. — 
6. The sovereignty of Yahweh over nature is another phase of His 
reign, which gives the reason for the final couplet of praise, ex- 
pressed by humble prostration in the service of the temple, cf. 
22^ 72^ 2 Ch. 7^ 29^. A glossator adds to the divine name, which 
alone was original, at the expense of the measure, *' our Maker " ; 
in order that the creative activity of God may include His wor- 
shippers as well as inanimate nature. 

A later editor connects this Ps. with another by a seam taken 
from 100^ and enlarged : 7 ab. For He is our God, and we are 
the people of His pasture and the sheep of His hand], implying the 
strong personal attachment of Yahweh to His people especially 



PSALM XCV. 295 

needed in view of the sovereignty over the gods and nature of the 
previous Ps. and the solemn warning of the next Ps. 

PSALM XCV. B. 

Str. I. An introductory Hne, followed by a syn. and a stairlike 
couplet. — 7 c-9. To-day\ emphatic, referring to some particular 
time of solemn warning, which we know not how to determine. — 
if ye will hearken to My voice'], most prob. in the independent Ps., 
which throughout is in the personal address. But f^, followed by 
EV*., has " his voice," which was originally a scribe's assimilation 
to the previous seam. The voice of God is His voice of com- 
mand, especially as embodied in the Law, requiring hearing in the 
pregnant sense of obedience — Harden not your heart], the apodo- 
sis : phrase of Ex. 7^ (P) for stubborn inattention or refusal of 
obedience. Specimens of such stubbornness are now given. — as 
at Meribah] Nu. 20^3 (P) Dt. 33^ Ez. 47^^ Ps. 8i» 106^^ when 
the offence of Israel was intensified, because it was shared in a 
measure by their leaders, Moses and Aaron. || As in the day of 
Massah], cf Ex. 17'' (JE) Dt. 6^^ 9^^, when Israel murmured for 
lack of water. These are given in the narrative of the Hexateuch 
as two different places and two different events ; but they were 
doubtless only variant traditions of the same event {v. Br."''^-^^). 
The two are closely connected here ; and it is not clear whether 
they are in syn. parallelism, as different terms for the same event, 
or as two events. — When your fathers tempted Me || tried Me], 
by their murmuring unbelief and unreasonable demands. — Yea, 
saw My work], probably the work of giving the water from the 
rock notwithstanding their lack of confidence. This is better than 
to refer it to past acts of deliverance, or to the work of judgment 
upon them. 

Str. II. A tetrastich of introverted parallelism and a synthetic 
line. — 10-11. I was loathifig a generation], an entire generation, 
made more definite in (g, J, by prefixing a demonstrative "that" ; 
but it then is really not so forcible as the original. The impf. 
expresses action which was habitual for a long time. A glossator 
gives that time from the ancient narrative of the Hexateuch, Nu. 
14^^^, as forty years — and so said], as the definite result of the 
long-continued and oft-repeated loathing. — So I swear in Mine 



296 PSALMS 

anggr]. What was said was the couplet describing the character 
of that generation : A people erring in heart are they || And they 
do not know My ways']. Their heart was disposed to wander from 
the divine ways, cf. Is. 29-* ; and they had no practical, experimental 
knowledge of them, cf. Pss. 25*^ 27'^ 3?" +• What was silently 
sworn was a just retribution : They shall tiot enter into My Resting 
place\ the Holy Land as the place of the resting of Yahweh as 
well as of His people after their long wandering in the wilderness, 
cf. Nu. 10^ Dt. i2« Ps. i32« ^* Is. 66^ 

XCV. A. 
1-2. njinj] cohort, impf. pn || n^'^nj urgent exhortation II nD-ipp] used of 
meeting in worship elsw. 88^* 891^. The second ynj should be cohort, also. 
— n^ncT] pi. n-^>r:T psalm, as 119" 2 S. 23I Is. 24I® Jb. 35I0 {y. Intr. § i). — 
S>"(J "^.^^ assimilated to 47^. "^nj makes 1. too long and is gl. — 4. no nrN], 
The rel. makes the 1. too long and is prosaic gl. — ''?.^^';] a>^- range, ^DB.; 
but more prob. recesses, depths (cf. ni^n Jb. 38'^). ® has Tr^para = ■'pnic as 
Is. 8^ but antith. favours ^. — ann nioyin] phr. a.X. f ["iDyir] n.f. eminence, 
of horns Nu. 23^2 24*, of silver Jb. 22^5 (?); here horns of mountains. ® 
rh. mj/r]. — 5. i'?"n'j'N] rel., prosaic gl.; connect D>n"iS, with one accent. — 
■inc'y Nini] circumstantial clause. — f i"]?'?''] n.f. elsw. Ex. 4* (J); for usual 
nc'a^ Ps. 66^ Is. 44^ + . — 6. nin?rj] cohort, again as v.MI n>n3j II ,-13-^33 
(j^^) the latter of kneeling in worship only here. © has KXa^/aroj/iev, V 
p/oremus= ri^i: txt. err. — 7 ab. ^r^';'\:2 c;'] phr. a.X.; so ni |nx, amplification 
of 100^ with no measure. This is a seam, connecting two independent Pss. 

XCV. B. 
7 c. )hp^ on] conditional clause with obj. emph : prot. impf., and apod, 
juss. — 8. DD33S vj'p.n 'tn] phr. i*? irpn Ex. f (P) Pr. 281*; the fuller form aaS 
possibly due to heavy sf. or to later usage of Chr. — 9. ''^vs] prob,; but @ pi. 
Tcb ^pya fxov. — 10. riyy oiy^is] gl. of historic expl., against measure. — lOipx] 
Qal impf. J -Jip a.X. feet a loathing, habitual action, but Niph. Ez. 6^ 20*^ 3631. 
Hithp. Pss. 119^^8 13921. — -,^3] (S r^ yeveq. ^/ce^v77, so Du., Kirk., Ba., but 
against the measure. — "^5^^] "» consec, emph. change of tense to indicate the 
final result of long-continued loathing. — 33^ '•yr] phr. a.X., but cf. nn '•i'n Is. 
292*, cf. 58*. — 11. -iu\s] particle of result, so Gn. 13^^ — pN3> dn] formula 
of oath, as 89^ 1328- 8- *; Ges.i*^ with full form of 3 pi. impf. 

PSALMS XCIIL, XCVI.-C, 3 pts., 5 str. 61 

Pss. 93, 96-100 were originally a song of praise, celebrating 
the advent of Yahweh, the universal King, for judgment. It had 
three parts, each of two sections, the first describing the advent, 



PSALMS XCIIL, XCVI.-C. 297 

the second a universal summons to celebrate it. I. (A) Yahweh 
has put on His royal robes, is seated on His everlasting throne, 
more magnificent than the stormy sea (93^^) ; (B) He is come in 
theophany, all nature is in commotion, heaven and earth see and 
declare His glory (^g>j'^-^<^-^^ • (c) He is greatly exalted, awful in 
holiness ; He loveth justice and hath established righteousness 
in Jacob (99^'^). II. (A) All nations are summoned to sing a 
new song in praise of His wondrous deeds of victory (96^-^ = 
98^"^) ; to revere Him above all gods, and join in the sacred dance 
in which all nature participates (96^^^^"'' ""^^^ ; (B) to take 
part in a musical festival in the temple, in which all nature 
shares (98*"^*) ; (C) to worship their Creator and Shepherd with 
thank offerings, songs, and music in the temple courts (100). 
The breaking up of the Ps. into six little Pss. for liturgical 
purposes, involved the addition of many glosses of various kinds 
(93^ ge^-^"'^^^'-^^ 9726.7-12 ^33.9cd ^^^9y 

I. 

YAHWEH do/k reign in majesty, 

(Yahweh) hath put on His apparel, 

Yahweh hath girded Himself with strength, 

He hath adjusted the world that it cannot be moved. 

Thy throne is established from of old, 

From everlasting art Thou (Yahweh). 
'THE streams have lifted up, Yahweh, 

The streams have lifted up their voice. 

The streams lift up their (commemoration), 

More than the voices of many waters. 

Magnificent more than the breakers of the sea, 

Magnificent on high, Yahweh. 
O SING to Yahweh a new song : 

Sing to Yahweh all the earth ; 

Sing (to Him), bless His name: 

Proclaim the glad tidings of His victory from day to day : 

Tell among the nations His glory. 

Among all peoples, His wondrous deeds, 
T70R great is Yahweh ; 

He is to be revered above all gods. 

The gods of the peoples are nothings : 

But Yahweh made the heavens ; 

Majesty and glory are in His presence. 

Strength and beauty are in His sanctuary. 
/\^HIRL) before Him all the earth; 

Say among the nations, " He doth reign." 



298 PSALMS 

Let the heavens and the earth be glad, 
Let the sea thunder and the fulness thereof. 
Let the field exult and all that therein is, 
Let all the trees of the forest jubilate. 

IL 

J-JE doth reign : let the earth rejoice. 
Let the many coasts be glad. 
Clouds and darkness are round about Him, 
A fire goeth before Him, 

And setteth ablaze His adversaries round about. 
His lightnings illumine the world. 

'pHE earth doth see and writhe. 
The mountains melt like wax, 
At the presence of Yahweh (the King), 
At the presence of the Lord of all the earth ; 
The heavens declare His righteousness. 
And all the peoples see His glory. 

/^ SING to Yahweh a new song, 
{Sing to Yahweh all the earth), 
For wondrous deeds He hath done. 
His right hand hath gotten Him the victory; 
Yahweh hath made known His victory. 
In the eyes of the nations His righteousness. 

gHOUT to Yahweh all the earth, 

Break forth and jubilate and make melody; 
Make melody to Yahweh with the lyre. 
With the lyre, with the sound of psalmody, 
With trumpets and the sound of the horn, 
Shout before the King. 

T ET the sea roar and the fulness thereof. 
The world and what dwells therein ; 
Let the rivers clap their hands, 
Together let the mountains jubilate, 
Before Yahweh, for He is come. 
(He is come) to judge the earth. 

HL 
TJE doth reign : the peoples tremble ; 

He is seated on His throne, the earth quakes 

Yahweh is great in Zion, 

And high above all the peoples : 

Let them praise the great and awful name; 

Holy is He and strong, 
J-fE doth reign. He doth love justice, 

(He hath) established justice in equity, 

And righteousness in Jacob hath wrought 

Exalt ye Yahweh, our God, 

And worship at His footstool. 

Holy is He (and strong). 



PSALMS XCIII., XCVI.-C. 299 

SING to Yahweh a new song, 
{^Sing to Yahweh all the earth). 



gHOUT to Yahweh all the earth; 

Serve Yahweh with gladness ; 

Come before Him with jubilation ; 

Know that He is God ; 

He made us and we are His, 

His people and the sheep of His pasture. 
r^OME to His gates with a thank ofifering; 

(Come) to His courts with a song of praise; 

Give thanks to Him ; bless His name ; 

(Give thanks), for Yahweh is good. 

For His kindness endureth forever, 

And unto all generations His faithfulness. 

Ps. 93 is one of the group of royal Pss., 96-100, separated from them for 
liturgical reasons. In J^ it has no title ; but in @ eh t7]p riixipav toO irpoaa^- 
pdrov, Sre KarcpKia-TaL i] yij ahos (fdijs t<^ Aaveid. It was in Alexandrian 
usage assigned to the sixth day of the week, and thus was placed between 92, 
for the seventh, and 94, for the fourth day. The Talmud (A^osck. has Shana 
31") shows that the Palestinian usage was the same, even if it found no 
expression in the text of |§ {v. Intr. § 39). The second clause of @ may be 
interpreted with reference to the peopling of the earth on the fifth day of the 
creation, as the Talmud, or of the peopling of the Holy Land at the Restora- 
tion. The assignment of the Ps. to David as "T'tt' "iidt?: was doubtless because 
of resemblances to Pss. of IB- It cannot be recognized as valid. The Ps., 
as indeed the entire group, was a '\''Z\ The iiciD is, as in all such cases, a 
later attachment. This Ps., as others of the group, depends on Is.^, and is in 
especial accord with the little songs which close the earlier section of trime- 
ters whose theme is the deliverance of the Servant of Yahweh {y. Br.^^- 449 8q.)_ 
In this Ps.,cf. v.i with Is. 512 52^, and the use of rs'D v? with Is. 448 4521 488- 5-7. 8^ 
The Ps. has two trimeter hexastichs, arranged as strophe and antistrophe, 
with a liturgical addition v.^. 

Ps. 96 has no title in f§, but in © Sre 6 oFkos olKodoineiTai fJLerh t^v alx/J-a- 
\w(Tiav, (^87} TV Aavdeid. The union of these two statements shows that the 
editor did not think of Davidic authorship, but thought of the Ps. rather as 
belonging to the Davidic type of Pss. The historical reference to the erec- 
tion of the second temple probably came from a later hand than the reference 
to David. It is bracketed in the Psalterium Gallicanum, and the order of the 
statements varies ; @^'- -*• reverse the order of (3^. The Ps. is used in i Ch. 
1523-33 jn connection with the removal of the ark by David to Zion, as sung 
by the temple choirs. It might therefore have been somewhat older than 
Chr., and have been used for a considerable time in the temple liturgy as 



300 PSALMS 

Davidic, and indeed in its present form, apart from variations due chiefly to 
scribal mistakes. Attention is called to these in the notes. It is, however, 
probable that this Ps. with the others cited were later insertions in the text 
of Chr. The Ps. was originally a section of the great royal Ps. This section 
had three hexastichs y,^-^-^i-^Oa. 11-12^ jhg other verses are glosses from vari- 
ous sources and by more than one hand : v.""^" especially is an adaptation of 
2gi-2. yWb is from 93^*^; v.i°<^ is from 9*^, and was inserted later than the 
text used by Chr. ; v.^^ was from 98®. The terms of the ritual service in the 
temple are used v.^*^; cnn "\^c v.^ = 98^ is based on the usage of Is. 42^^*, 
cf. Pss. 33^^ 40* 144^ 149^, and implies a song sung to commemorate a great 
event which has just transpired. ir>ntt'"' -\C'3 v.^ is also after Is. 40® 412'^ 52'', 
cf. Ps. 40!"^; v.-** is based on 482^; v."** on 47^; v.^ seems to imply that the 
temple not only was in existence, but that it had not been recently erected, 
as the title of (3 implies ; v.^^-^^^ the participation of nature in the joy of the 
people, is in accordance with Is.^ and also with other sections of the original 
Ps., cf. 93^^ 98'-^. This Ps. lends its internal evidence to the time of the 
overthrow of Persia, rather than Babylon. 

Ps. 97 has no title in |Q, but in (3 ry AavelS 6t€ tj yrj avrov Kadla-raraif 
IF quando terra ejus restituta est, which doubtless refers to the restoration of 
the land by the returned exiles from Babylon. This shows the same inconsis- 
tency with the first clause, in referring to David, that appears in the pre- 
vious Ps.; unless we suppose that by "David" the editor meant no more 
than the Davidic type of Pss. The greater part of the present Ps. is a mosaic 
made up of extracts by glossators from other Pss. The only part that is origi- 
nal is two hexastichs y}-^* 8-6. The Ps. has the same reference to the royal 
advent of Yahweh v.^, and the universal call to worship v.^*** ^^ and the same 
participation of nature v.4^>-6«, as the other Pss. of the group. The original 
Ps. uses freely older writings : v.i^ Ez. 27'- 1^, v.2« Dt. 4^^ 5^^ v.'« Ps. 50*, 
v.*° 771^, V.8 506, and v.^^ Is. 66I8. w. The glosses are : v.2* from 2>g^^, \? 
from 48^2^ v.^ from 47'- ^^^ 95^, v.12 from 32^1 and 30^, v.' a prosaic gloss against 
idolaters, v.i"^!! a fragment of another Ps. which is not without literary merit. 

Ps. 98 in 1^ has ni::?::. It is difficult to see why it should be prefixed 
to this Ps. rather than to others of the group, all of which have the same 
character. has ypaXfxhs ry Aaue/5. The ascription to David means no 
more than in the case of the other Pss. of the group. The Ps. also depends 
on Is. 2 in the original v.^"- *^' ^°, and still more in the glosses v.i'^- ^. It is yet 
original in the phrases v.2- 6a. It is identified with other Pss. of the group : 
v.i" with 96^ V.7" with 96^^*; v.^"* is original, v.^'^ is a gl. in 96^^ as we 
have seen. The Ps. has thus the same characteristics as others of the group, 
and was part of the same original. 

Ps. 99 has no title in |^, but in ® xpaXfibs t(? Aaveld, which has the same 
significance as in other Pss. of this group. The Ps. differs from the others 
in that it emphasizes the historical relation of Yahweh to Israel, and is uni- 
versalistic only in the exaltation of Yahweh over the nations. The participa- 
tion of nature in the worship is also absent. Therefore the Ps. is not so 



PSALMS XCIII., XCVI.-C. 3OI 

clearly a part of the same original hymn as the others that precede It or as 
Ps. 100, which follows. This reference to Israel's peculiar claim on Yahweh, 
with the related material v.^^, is, however, a later particularistic addition; 
when this is removed this Ps. is evidently the first section of the third part 
of the original. It agrees with the others, in emphasizing the advent of 
Yahweh as king v.^, in the justice of His administration v.*, and in the 
summons to worship v.^- ^. 

Ps. 100 has in f^ the title minS "\ii:t?:, probably a psalm to accompany the 
thank offering ; Aq. ei's evxapta-Tiav, K xnmn ]2'^p S>' iinn'y, @ t/'aX/A^s ets i^o- 
ixokby-qcnv {v. Intr. § 39). This was, however, a later liturgical assignment, 
for the Ps. is part of the previous group and with them originally constituted 
a single Ps. The Ps. remains in its original condition as two of the Strs. of 
the larger Ps. 

A review of these six little Pss. shows that they constituted one original 
advent hymn of three parts, each of two sections. In the first sections the 
advent of the King to judgment and the effective administration of the justice 
of His reign is vividly described in two trimeter hexastichs. In the second 
sections all peoples and all nature are summoned to a festival in the temple 
courts in celebration of the advent, in three trimeter hexastichs. As thus 
reconstructed the original is an advent hymn of wonderful grandeur. 

PSALM XCIII. 

Pt. I., Str. I. Two syn. tristichs. — 1. Yahweh doth retgn"], as 
96^^ 97^ 99^ Is. 52^, cf. Ps. 4f 146^°; not the assertion of His 
everlasting royal prerogative, but the joyous celebration of the 
fact that He has now shown Himself to be king by a royal advent, 
taking His place on His throne to govern the world Himself, and 
no longer through inefficient or wicked servants. — tn majesty]. 
This qualifies the coming to reign as king, and so best prepares 
for the antithesis of the second Str. If the Ps. is a trimeter, it 
must be so attached. J^, Vrss., all ignore the measure and attach 
it to the following verb "put on," which they regard as repeated 
without an object. This has been occasioned by the mistaken 
omission of the divine name in the second line of the tristich. 
The lines are real trimeters, " Yahweh " being repeated in each 
line, and each vb. having its object. — hath put on His apparel 
II hath girded Himself with strength\ the apparel suited to His 
royal state, the strength needed to execute His sovereign will. — 
2. He hath adjusted the world], so (§, U, PBV., better suited to 
the context than the passive of 5^, AV., RV., especially as the 
context favours a pf. rather than an impf. — that it cannot be 



302 PSALMS 

moved\ cf. lo^ 104*. This refers, not to the moral order of the 
world, but to the whole order of the habitable world, in which 
inanimate as well as animate nature shares, according to the 
conceptions characteristic of this Ps. Only thus do we get a 
proper preparation for the parall. : Thy throne is established^ the 
habitable world over which He reigns and the throne from which 
He reigns alike have been so firmly established that they cannot 
be unsettled. — from of old\ a characteristic phrase of Is. 44^ 
4521 483.6.7.8 II Prom everlasting art Thou, Yahweh\ the same 
assertion of the everlasting divine activity as in 90-. 

Str. II. is an antistrophe, two tristichs with stairlike parallelism. 
— 3-4. The streams'], thrice repeated : not rivers or brooks, but, 
as the context shows, the streams of the Mediterranean, || " many 
waters" || "breakers of the sea." — have lifted up], bis, once 
without obj.; then with the obj. their voice, the sound of the 
rushing and dashing waters in a storm, H " voices of many waters," 
the roaring of the breakers as they throw themselves upon the 
shore. The third line changes the tense to the impf., lift up, to 
emphasize the action, not as completed, but in movement, and 
gives the vb. an obj. which in J^ is a.A.., translated conjecturally 
in YN\ '' their waves," RV.™ " their roaring," Dr., Kirk., " their 
din," BDB. " their crashing." The most probable reading, as 
suggested by Sb, ^T, is commemoration, their voices commemorating 
the wonders of Yahweh. This is a graphic description of the 
majesty of the sea in a great storm. It is to be interpreted as 
real and not as symbolical of armies of mighty foes, although this 
symbol is appropriate and used elsewhere, cf. Is. 1 7^^^^ Pss. 46* 
89^^. — More than]. The comparison is repeated, the first time 
with the object with which the comparison is made, the voices of 
fnany waters, the second time with the predicate, the breakers 
of the sea. — magnificent], in order to the climax, where the sub- 
ject is expressed with the predicate and an additional antithetical 
statement : magnificent on high Yahweh]. The force of this stair- 
like parallelism is lost by J^ and Vrss., which, by wrong attachment 
of a letter, change into the pi. form and compel the reading 
"majestic breakers," making difficult syntax. The poet's con- 
ception is, that however magnificent the sea may be in a storm, 
Yahweh is much more magnificent as He reigns on high, above 



PSALMS XCIIL, XCVI.-C. 303 

its tumult and raging, with the implication that He will eventually 
still it and reduce it to order. 

A later editor appended 5, in order to introduce corresponding 
thoughts of the Law and the temple. — Thy testimonies are ex- 
ceedingly steadfast^ The Law, conceived from the priestly point 
of view, as composed of testimonies, is steadfast, like the throne 
of Yahweh and the habitable world. — To Thy house sanctity is 
becomings Yahweh, for length of days^. The temple as the house 
of Yahweh, the place of His presence and of His throne, shares 
in His majesty; only that majesty partakes of the character of a 
majestic sanctity, separate and apart from all that is unconsecrated 
and profane. 

PSALM XCVI. 

Str. III. is a stairlike hexastich. — 1-3. Sing'], thrice repeated, 
twice with to Yahweh'] ; but the third time in an assimilation 
of to Him] against the measure. In the first hue the obj. is given, 

— a new so7ig\ based on Is. 42^° ; not in the sense of a new com- 
position, but of a new outburst of song because of a new event 
that invokes it; cf. jj^. — The second line gives the subject: all 
the earth]. The summons to sing is universal ; the event to be 
celebrated had universal significance. The third line defines the 
song: bless His name], cf. 100*, || Proclaim the glad tidings], cf. 
Is. 40^, II tell] ; and indeed not to Israel alone, but among the 
nations || among all peoples], a story of world-wide significance. 

— His glory || His wondrous deeds]. This can only be explained 
of some great event, some world-wide transformation, some change 
that gave joy to the world, which was so extraordinary that it could 
only be ascribed to the divine intervention. It was probably the 
overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander the Great. 

Str. IV. Synth., antith., and syn. couplets. — 4. For great is 
Yahweh], in the great deeds He had done, and in the great glory 
He had won ; and therefore — He is to be revered above all gods], 
who have signally failed the nations that worshipped them, cf. 95^ 
A glossator assimilated v.^"* to 48^"* by adding " and highly to be 
praised," which suits the previous context rather than its parallels 
in this Str. — 5. The gods of the peoples are nothings], cf. Lv. 19* 
26^ Ps. 97^ Is. 2^-^^-^ io^% they have done nothing for the people 



304 PSALMS 

that worship them, they can do nothing, they are in reaHty noth- 
ings, they have no real existence and are not gods at all, cf. Is. 
40^8 sq. 4^9 Bq. pg^ 115^. — In contrast with them Yahweh made the 
heavens'], created the very place in which these gods were sup- 
posed to reside, and which therefore belonged to Him and to 
Him alone, cf. 95*^. — 6. Majesty and glory \\ Strength andbeauty\ 
a heaping up of terms to set forth the admirable attributes of Yah- 
weh ; the former of Him as king 21^ and creator 104^ the latter 
in their antithesis possibly suggested by the ancient pillars, Jachin 
and Boaz in the porch of the temple i K. f^'^ ; especially appro- 
priate to the ^XMi'ixt presence in His sanctuary^ cf. Is. 60' 64^°. 

7-9 a. A later editor inserts here another universal summons 
to praise, based on 29^"^, in a tetrameter pentastich. 

Ascribe to Yahweh, ye families of the peoples, 
Ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength ; 
Ascribe to Yahweh the glory of His name. 
Bring a minchah and come to His courts. 
Worship Yahweh in holy ornaments. 

The only variations are the substitution of families of the peoples 
for " sons of gods," angels, of the original ; and the insertion of the 
line exhorting to bring a grain offering (cf. 20"*) to the courts of 
the temple (cf. 65^ 84" 92" 100^) ; both of which changes made 
it more suited to its context. 

Str. V. A synth. couplet and a syn. tetrastich. — 9 6. Whirl 
before Him all the earth] a universal summons to take part in the 
sacred pilgrim dance in the temple, cf. 87^ Ju. 21^^"^ i S. i8^ 
The translations, "stand in awe of Him," PBV., "fear before 
Him," AV., " tremble before Him," RV., JPSV., although based 
on ancient Vrss., are not suited to the context, which implies 
worship, while the Heb. word never expresses fear and trembhng 
in connection with worship. — 10. Say among the nations], re- 
sumption of the proclamation of v.^-^. — He doth reign], the theme 
of the entire group of Pss., cf. 93^ 97^ 99^ A glossator added 
here from 93^*^ : Yea, the world He established that it cannot be 
moved, A later glossator subsequent to the text of (S added from 
9^*: He will judge the peoples with equity. A still later glossator 
added to the ancient Greek and Latin Versions : " the Lord hath 
I'eigned from the tree," which is cited in many Latin fathers as a 



PSALMS XCIII., XCVI.-C. 305 

prophecy of Christ, and which Justin Martyr {Apol, I. 41) charges 
the Jews with erasing from their text. There is no evidence from 
Mss. that it was ever in an ancient Hebrew text. This false read- 
ing also gained currency among Christians through its use in the 
hymn of Fortunatus (t 609) Vexilla regis prodeunt, used in the 
Latin church and translated by Neale for Enghsh use. — 11-12. The 
Ps. now calls upon universal nature to share in the joyous worship, 
as usual in this group of Pss. and the exilic Isaiah. — The heavens 
and the earth || the sea and the fubiess thereof \ all its animal life, 
II the field and all that therein is\ all its animal and vegetable 
life, II all the trees of the fores t~\. These are all personified and 
express their joyous worship. — be glad'], to which J^ and Vrss. 
add another vb., " rejoice," against the || which gives only one 
vb. to a line, and at the cost of good measure. The more 
general vb. has in || the more specific thunder, the voice of the 
sea, II exult || jubilate. The Ps. thus comes to an appropriate 
conclusion. But a glossator appends from 98^, — before Yahweh ; 
for He Cometh, for He cometh to judge the earth. He will judge 
the world in righteousness and the peoples in faithfulness. 

PSALM XCVII. 

Pt. II., Str. I. A syn couplet and a synth. tetrastich. — 1. He 
doth reign], as 93^ 96^*^ 99^ — let the earth rejoice], as Is. 49^^ || Let 
the many coasts be glad], the coast lands of the Mediterranean 
Sea, the limits of the west to the Hebrews, cf. Is. 41^-* 42'*-^^ Je. 
31^*^ Ez. 27^-^^ Zp. 2^^ Ps. 72^°. — 2-4 a. Clouds and darkness are 
round about Him], cited from Dt. 4^^ 5^^ to represent that the 
advent of the King was in a heavy storm with dark clouds, cf. Ps. 
jgio-i2_ — ji^.g gogfji lefore Him], cited from 50^ to indicate that 
the darkness sent forth the fire of Hghtning, so also i8^-^^-^^ — 
And setteth ablaze His adversaries round about]. His thunder- 
bolts strike His enemies dead, cf 18^^ 77^^, where they are com- 
pared to arrows piercing His enemies, and 106^^, where they 
simply set them on fire and consume them. — His lightnings 
illumine the world], cf. 77^^^ A glossator wishes to alleviate this 
awful picture, and so he inserts from 89^° : righteousness and justice 
are the basis of His throne. 



306 PSALMS 

Str. II. Three syn. couplets. — 4 Z). The earth doth see and 
writhe^, cf. 77^^ Hb. 3^^ The earth is here personified, as usual, 
and is terrified by the terrible storm, and writhes in the pangs of 
an earthquake. — The mountains melt like wax'], cf. Mi. i* Is. 34^ 
probably conceived as volcanoes pouring forth molten fiery lava. 
Thus the earth testifies to the divine presence and participates in 
its terrors. — At the presence of Yahweh\ repeated with the predi- 
cate. — the Lord of all the earth\ as its sovereign owner. This 
suggests that in the previous Hne the syn. word king, characteristic 
of this group of Pss., has been omitted, the line being just one 
word too short. — The heavens declare His righteousness], not- 
withstanding the theophanic storm. The object of the theophany 
is to make known the righteous judgment of Yahweh, — and there- 
fore all the peoples see His glory. 

Many glosses now appear. — 7 a. Sha?ned be all they that serve 
graven images, boast themselves of nothings], a Maccabean impre- 
cation upon idolaters, whose gods are mere images graven by man, 
cf. 115^, and mere nothings, cf. 96^ — 7 Z>. Worship Hi7n, all ye 
gods], probably not from the same glossator ; for he would not in 
one breath call them " nothings," and in the next call upon them 
as exalted persons to worship the supreme God. This latter 
is in accord with 95^ 96*, and from an earlier editor than the 
previous line, and is, indeed, of a different measure. — 8 is a gloss 
from 48^^ : Zion heard and was glad, and the daughters of Judah 
rejoiced, because of Thy judgments, Yahweh. — 9 is a combination 
and condensation of 47^- ^^ adapted to the thought of 95^: For 
Thou, Yahweh *Elyon, art above all the earth. Thou art exalted 
exceedingly above all gods. — 10 a is a gloss of exhortation to the 
pious in Israel by the same hand as the gloss of v.^^ : Ye that love 
Yahweh], in accordance with the Deuteronomic law, as distin- 
guished from those in Israel who do not, — hate evil]. This 
seems to be a general exhortation, not referring to the evil 
wrought by the wicked nations, but to evil as in violation of the 
divine Law. This line was probably an introduction to, and a 
seam of union for, the little fragment 10 Z?-ll. 

Preserver of the lives of His pious, 

From the hand of the wicked He delivereth them. 

Light (shineth) forth for the righteous, 

And gladness for the upright-minded. 



PSALMS XCIIL, XCVI.-C. 307 

This fragment was probably from the Maccabean period. — His 
pious II the righteous || the upright-minded^^, are like those that 
love Yahweh, the faithful adherents to the divine Law. Yahweh 
is the preserver of their lives || from the hands of the wicked He 
delivereth them']. This is on the negative side. On the positive 
side they enjoy the light of prosperity || gladness. It shineth forth] 
for them; as (^, J, ^, C, F, which is more probable than "is 
sown" of J^, followed by EV.^, which introduces a figure difficult 
to understand in this connection. — 12. A gloss from 30^ com- 
bined with 32" : Be glad, ye righteous ^ in Yahweh, and give thanks 
in commemoration of His holiness. 

PSALM XCVIII. 

Pt. II., Str. III. Three syn. couplets ; the first a repetition of 
96^, the second line of which has been omitted by a copyist. — 
1. For wondrous deeds He hath done || His right hand hath gotten 
Him the victory]. Yahweh has interposed against the oppressor 
of the nations, and in a marvellous way has won the victory over 
him, probably the Persian empire through Alexander the Great. 
A glossator adds from Is. 52^^ the syn. term: His sacred arm ; 
but it destroys the measure. — 2. Hath made known], to which 
a glossator adds in the || hath declared, against the measure, — 
His victory || His righteousness], the vindicatory, practical exhibition 
of His righteousness on behalf of the oppressed, as usual in Hebrew 
literature, in the eyes of the nations]. All the world has beheld 
these wonderful deeds, and shares in the deliverance from the 
great oppressor. — 3. A glossator adds a pentameter line, which 
in ®, however, appears as a trimeter couplet, representing that 
Israel is the chief beneficiary of this salvation, in accordance with 
the ancient covenant. — He hath remembered His kindness {to 
Jacob), and His faithfulness to the house of Israel], cf 89^*"^ 92^ 
— The same glossator also adds from Is. 5 2^^ : all the ends of the 
earth have seen the salvation of our God], which emphasizes the 
statement of the previous verse. 

Str. IV. A syn. hexastich. — 4-6. Shout to Yahweh all the 
earth], the universal call is renewed || shout before the King v.*. 
These lines enclose first a series of verbs enlarging upon this sacred 
shout : Break forth || jubilate || make melody ; and then enumerates 



308 PSALMS 

the several musical instruments used in the festivals of the temple, 
the lyre, with the sound of psalmody ^ the trumpets, with the sound 
of the horUf cf. 47^. 

Str. V. A syn. tetrastich and a stairlike couplet. — 7. Let the 
sea roar and the fulness thereof^ as in ()0^^. || The world and 
what dwells therein'], probably the animal and vegetable world, 
and not mankind, cf. 24^*, 96^". — 8. Let the rivers clap their 
hands']. They are personified, and thus express their joy, and 
accompany the music and shouting with measured strokes, cf. Is. 
55^. — Together let the mountains jubilate]. This participation 
of nature in the rejoicing is characteristic of this group of Pss. and 
of the exilic Isaiah. — 9. Before Yahweh], as v.^ : for Lie is 
come]. The context requires the pf., referring to the advent cele- 
brated, and not the ptc, referring to an impending advent, as 
EV^ The verb was repeated in the original, as attested by 
ancient Vrss. ; though omitted by J^ and EV*., in order to state 
the purpose, — to Judge the earth], which sums up in a general 
term the theme of praise of the first Str. — A glossator adds a 
pentameter Hne to emphasize the character of this judgment, and 
doubtless thought of a future advent : Lie will judge the world in 
righteousness and the peoples in equity. 

PSALM XCIX. 

Pt. III., Str. I. Syn. couplet and syn. tetrastich. — 1-3. LLe 
doth reign], as 93^ 96^*^ 97^; || is seated on LLis throfie]. But a 
glossator gave it a more specific reference to Jerusalem by adding 
"on the cherubim," cf. 80-", in the throne room of the temple, — 
great in Zion] ; and yet high above all the peoples. Before this 
great and victorious king and God the peoples || the earth — tremble 
II quakes], and yet not in the fear, terror, and anguish that ac- 
company their destruction, but in awe at His august presence, and 
therefore harmonious with and resulting in : — Let them praise the 
great a?td awful name]. |^, Vrss., followed by EV'., append the 
sf. Thy to " name," but it spoils the measure and is against the 
context, which speaks of Yahweh always in the third person. - — 
Holy is He], that is, majestically holy ; invoking the hallowing of 
His name, as usual in the OT. and even in the NT. — and strong] 
v.^. This clause belongs with the previous line to complete its 



PSALMS XCIIL, XCVI.-C. 309 

measure. It only makes difficulty in v/, when it has been trans- 
posed by txt. err. 

Str. II. A syn. triplet, a syn. couplet, and a concluding synth. 
line. — 4. He doth reign]. The most probable rendering in ac- 
cordance with the context and usage of the Ps., justified by the 
unpointed text, although |^, J, (3, and other Vrss., followed by 
EV^, render by a different pointing, making this an attribute and 
the subj. of the verb, and giving conceptions which are difficult to 
understand and which have no analogy in usage. — Ife doth love 
justice'], cf. 11'' T,T,^ 37^, — He hath established justice in equity II 
righteousness hath wrought. It is especially in Jacob in connection 
with Zion v.^"^. — 5. Exalt ye Yahweh, our God II worship at His 
footstool], cf. 1 10^ 132^^ Is. 66^. All nations are summoned to 
Zion, the capital city of the King Yahweh, where He is to be 
worshipped by all. 

6-9. A later editor adds material of a more particularistic 
character. 

Moses and Aaron among His priests, 

And Samuel among them that call on His name, 

They called unto Yahweh and He answered them ; 

In the pillar of cloud He used to speak unto them ; 

They kept His testimonies and the ordinance He gave them. 

Yahweh, our God, Thou didst answer them ; 

A forgiving God wert Thou to them, 

And a taker of vengeance on evil deeds. 

Exalt ye Yahweh, our God, 

And worship at His holy mountain ; 

For holy is Yahweh our God. 

6. Moses and Aaron among His priests]. The editor now 
looks back to the ancient history for illustration of the divine 
government ; and first he thinks of Moses and Aaron, whom he 
regards as priests, in accordance with the conception of his own 
time, rather than as prophets or rulers, as in the earlier concep- 
tions. With true historic instinct he next mentions, — Samuel 
among them that call on His name], because of this characteristic 
of Samuel, making him the father of all such, cf. i S. 7^ ^ ^2^^^"^- BS. 
46^^ It is evident, however, that this calling on the name of 
Yahweh is conceived as that of priestly mediation, for the terms 
are in syn. lines, and the three heroes are all combined in the 
clause : They called unto Yahweh, and He answered them]. The 



310 PSALMS 

author, however, thinks not merely of the ordinary invocation of 
God in temple worship, or of priestly intercession, with answers in 
accordance with ordinary providential working. He is thinking 
of extraordinary answers, which alone he can bring into compari- 
son with the wonderful advent. He is summoning all mankind to 
celebrate ; and so naturally he thinks of the most characteristic 
theophany of the period of the Exodus. — 7. In the pillar of cloud 
He used to speak unto them'], cf. Ex. 1321-22 (J) Ne. (f'^K—They 
kept His testimonies and the ordifiance He gave them] , the ancient 
poetic term for the Law, " ordinance " (cf. 94^^), is combined with 
the priesdy term, *' testimonies." — 8-9. Yahweh, our God, Thou 
didst a?iswer them]. This doubtless refers to the intercession of 
Moses, Aaron, and Samuel in behalf of the people of Israel in 
times of sin and divine punishment. — A forgiving God wast Thou 
to them], and on the other side, a taker of vengeance on evil deeds]. 
This doubtless refers to the discriminating justice of the divine 
judgments in the early history of Israel, when the ringleaders were 
punished for their evil deeds, but Israel as a whole was forgiven 
because of the intercession of these heroes of faith and their 
priestly mediation. — For holy is Yahweh our God\ the hoHness 
of august sanctity, as in Ez., H. 

PSALM C. 

Str. IV. A syn. tristich and a stairlike tristich. — 1. Shout to 
Yahweh, all the earth, as 98*, || 2. Serve Yahweh with gladness], 
the glad services of worship with song and music, and not the 
service of obedience ; and accordingly, — Come before Him], into 
His presence in the temple, — with a jubilation], 63^, cf. 17^ — 
3. K7ioiv], not in the sense of coming to a knowledge of the fact ; 
but know by practical, experimental knowledge, in the recognition 
of worship, — that He is God], the true, the only God, and your 
own God ; advanced to, — He made us], we are His own creatures, 
— and we are His], belong to Him as His rightful creation. This 
reading of the Qr., J, 2E, and Aq., RV., is to be preferred to the 
Kt., (^, ,%, 2, followed by AV., " and not we ourselves " ; espe- 
cially as in the stairlike advance it is still further defined as : His 
people and the sheep of His pasture]. The conception of Yahweh 
as shepherd of Israel is common enough; cf, 23, ^6\ and in this 



PSALMS XCIII., XCVI.-C. 3II 

special phrase also Ez. 34^^ Pss. 74^ 79^^. But here He seems to 
be the shepherd of all the earth, in accord with the universalism 
of this entire group of Pss. 

Str. II. Two syn. tristichs. — 4-5. Come to His gates\xt.sMV£it^ 
the call of v.^'', and has as its |1 Come to His courts ; for the measure 
requires the repetition of the verb, which has been omitted by an 
early copyist. — with a thatik offering'], the most probable meaning 
II a song of praise, accompanying it ; more probable than the more 
general " thanksgiving " of EV^ — Give thanks to Him, bless His 
name], cf. 96^ 145^- ^. The first verb is repeated, with the reason, 
Yahweh is good], that is, to His people and flock || His kindness 
II His faithfulness, which endureth forever || unto all generations]. 
The liturgical formula i Ch. 16^ 2 Ch. 5^^ f Ezr. 3^^ Pss. 106^ 107^ 
jjgi.29 1^6^+ is used with an additional line, containing the 
attribute of faithfulness, which is usually associated with the 
divine kindness. 

XCIII. 

1. riSn] Qal pf. % vb. denom. '^'^d, so 9610 97I 99I, cf. 47® 146I0 Ex. 15I8 
Is. 2423 52^; cf. 'n^r;(n) Pss. 98^ 99*. — niNj] ly'^^, qualifies ^Sa and is not obj. 
of iTiV. — irnS] bis. Qal pf., cf. Is. 51^ 59^'^ Ps. 104I; the second, however, 
should be irn^ cog. ace. to vb. ti'iaV requires nini for subj. in || v/ith previous 
and following vbs. for good measure. — I''-^"'!^]' The fjx is prob. a gl. of 
intensification, although used in the duplicate citation 9610. @ and all ancient 
Vrss. have \iT\, as 75*, which is better suited to context. — 2. tnd] as Is. 448 
4521 48^- ^•'^•^ — nnx d'?i>'d] is dimeter, requires mni for good measure, — 

3. Don] dub. pi. sf. [ipn] a.X., i5DB. crashing, dashing; Dr., Kirk., din. 
The 1. not in @b. n . but in (S^- «• »• ^, Aq., iiTLTplxpeis, V fluctus, and needed 
for completion of Str. 3 gurgites, Syr. Hex. Nnp;:!]; =: ^^pri';, % xnion^ in 
purity from XDi = n^r. The context demands, as %, in the climax : the praise 
of Yahweh that the voice utters. Rd. nn^r their commemoration, as 97I2. — 

4. nn-ns] |^, Vrss,, cf. Ex. 1510 of waters, which has prob. occasioned the 
change from an original 'D nnx, which is better suited to the context, as Dy., 
Hu.3, al. — 5. ri^my] legal term of P, cf. 25I0 78^6 997 1 192. 22+. -phis v. is 
a prosaic gl. — nixj] Pil. fnxj as Is. 52"^ Ct. i^", but adj. niNj more freq. 
Pss. 33I 147I +, and so possibly here. 

XCVI. 

1-2. n-'B'] tris, abbreviated in i Ch. iS^^ by omission of v.i'^- ^a. — mn"-] 
tris also in |^, Vrss., but in \?-^ against the measure. Rd. '1'?, as icx)*. — 
D'liS D^ip] Chr. dv'Vn; both enlargements against measure of an original 
DV 0)>, which has the same mng.— 4. nsn "-^^^^^ added from 482 against the 



312 PSALMS 

measure. — Nin n'^^'^j]. The sin is gl. of intensification, makes 1. too long, — 
6. ^^] dittog. ; makes 1. too long. — J D''^'''?^] pi. idols as worthless things, 
nothings, so 97^ Lv. 19* 26^ (H) Is. 2^- 18.20 jqIo _|_^ @ daifxdvia, V daemonia, 

— 6. t;'] ® arma(x{)vt]. i Ch. 16-'^ has nnn for nisor, and icpc for li^'ipc, the 
former prob. an intentional adaptation, the latter an unconscious error. — 
7-9 a. Gl. from 29^-2^ except □■•cy nnocD for d^'?n "-jj and insertion of v.^^, 
both changes made in the interests of worship in the temple, i Ch. iS^^ has 
vjdS for iTinxn*?, which is an unintentional error. — 9 ft. i^in] although ren- 
dered by Vrss. be in pain or anguish of fear or trembling, cf. 55^ Dt. 2^^ Je. 522 
Ez. 30^®, yet never has this mng. in connection with worship ; but rather 
dance the sacred dance, as Ps. 87^ Ju. 2121-23 i s. iS^. — vjd!:] i Ch. i630 
vjdSc, stylistic change. — 10 a in Chr. is transferred to a place after v.^^". — 
10 2) is a gl. from 93H — 10 c is a gl. from 9^^ not in Chr. — 11 a. V'?.^7 '^rl'?"'] 
assimilated to 97I Is. 49^'^ ; but the vb. makes 1. too long and the other 11. 
all have but one vb. for a principal and a subord. subj. — 11 2) = 98'^". — 
12. '•liJ'] in I Ch. 16^2 r\yVy variation of writing same word ; also in Chr. for 
iVy the variant fS;*. — i3"nc'N"VDi] prosaic for an original 13~S31. — tn] as 2^, 
emphasizes a special feature of the description, BZ)B. But the text is dub. The 
measure is better without it. — 13 is a gl. from 98^ although N3 o is here given 
twice, and ^njicx^ for Dn'^'>;23. Chr. has only }nNn-nN taifitt''? Na o nin^ >jfiSc, 
probably representing an earUer couplet : 

yiNH ODCS N3~>3, 

which is all that the measure allows in 98^. 

XCVII. 
26. Gl.'= 89^50. — 5, nin> ""jcSd] needs a word to complete the 1., prob. 
iVon II pnN. — 7 a. Pentameter 1.; whole v. a gl. — Sdd na;;] cf. 2 K. 17*1 
2 Ch. 3322. jSd.9 n.m., as Ex. 20* Is. 42^'^ -f . — "i cSSnnr] as 52^, usually, 
however, in good sense 34^ 63^2^^ — g^ q\ fro^ ^gi2^ Variations: n;7Di:' 
jvx nnzTii for p^x nn ncc" ; and mn> added, mm-' mja a.X. ^. — 9 a. Gl. 
from 47* by condensation, fnsn Sd S;; Snj iSd n-\ij }vS;7 nin> --d. — 9 6. From 
^yiod nVyj 1ND, combined with 95^ a\-iSN Sd •?>•. — 11. j;-»t] a.X. in this form. 
©, 3, S, ^, F, n-^T, so Hu., Ba., ^DB., cf. 10422 Dt. 332 Is. 6o2 +. — 12. Gl. 
from 32I1 D-'p^ix iS>Ji nino incB' and 30^ itt'ii") idi*? mm. 

XCVIII. 
1 = 96I; only the first 1. is given in |§ and Vrss., but the other 1. of the 
couplet is needed and should be inserted. It was omitted by ancient copyist. 

— "'^IC ?"'''["'] makes the 1. a pentameter. It was added from Is. 521°^*. — 
2. n'^j] makes 1. too long and is a gl. — 3. The first 1. is a pentameter in |^, 
but (S, by giving 1\'T'^ after "iiDn, makes it a trimeter couplet. The second 
half of V. was added from Is. 52^'^^ — 4. in^fs] imv. f n:fo vb. break for thy 
burst forth with joy, elsw. Is. 14'^ 4428 49I3 52^ 54I 55^2. Pi. ^r^a/^ ?« pieces 
Mi. 3^ — 5. nnn? 'y^pi] phr. a.X. but noun, melody of psalm, as 8i^ — 6. n'lnxxn] 



PSALM CI. 313 

the straight metal trumpets ; in rehgious use elsw. only P, Chr. (v. Intr. § 34). 
— mn-i] makes 1. too long, and is a later insertion. — 7. The first 1. = 96^^'', 
the second 24^^. — 8. iNnc>] juss. f ><nD vb. c/ap hands, elsw. with pj3 Is. 5512 
of trees ; cf. n^ ^^^'^ 2 K. ii^^^, r^^ jjpn Ps. 472. Pi. with i^ Ez. 25^ — 9. n3 v] 
pf. and not ptc. as EV»., influenced by impf. CDDiJ'^ ; for the Ps. is in praise 
of an advent that has taken place already. It is repeated in Syr.-Hex. @-^ as 
in 96^3, but not in f^, iF, or @^. The measure requires it. — The last clause 
with tO£3i:>'' = 9613 is a pent, gl., thinking of a future advent, ont'-'ca for 

XCIX. 

1. toijn] a.X., (5 (ToKevdTjTO}, as 93^ tainn ; but this would then be in direct 
contradiction with that passage and inconsistent with the context. 01s., We., 
^DB., Jicr, Gr. vur. — conr] makes 1. too long and is a gl., particularistic 
in character as v.^^<J- — 3. ripu' •'n'l]. The sf. is improb. ; without it we might 
retain all the words and have a trimeter 1.; with it the 1. is tetrameter. Rd. 
Dtt'~nv. — 4. i-;^] although sustained by Vrss. is improb. ; awkward and diffi- 
cult. Rd. Tj?i adj. as predicate and attach to previous 1. to complete the meas- 
ure ; so Street, Houb., Horsley. — nnx] bis, make 11. too long and are gls. 
The change to 2d pers. is also improb. ; rd. pi3 and n^'j'. — 5. Rin trnp]. A 
word is needed for measure, prob. i>:"i, as v.^^ — 6. This v. begins a particular- 
istic gl. which continues to the end of the Ps. — 8. Dn"'J^]. The sf. here might 
be referred to the heroes of previous Str. and possibly Dn*^, but not the sf. in 
DniS"'S;'. Doubtless they all were meant to have a general reference. But 
the sfs. are prob. in all these cases prosaic interpretations. 



1 = 98*. — 2. njjna] lengthened form for measure, as 63*, for usual nn. — 
3. niH""] makes the 1. too long and is an unnecessary gl. — u'J'y Nin]. The 
Nin, emphasizing the subj., is without sufficient reason and makes 1. too long. 
It prob. was inserted in antithesis to ijnjN nS Kt., @, 5*, 2, which is erro- 
neous. The 'h of Qr., 3, ^, is to be preferred, and makes the Nin surprising. 

— in'';?-\D ]Nx] as Ez. 34^1 Pss. 74I 79^^. The enlargement of 95'^ is the work 
of a glossator. — 4-5. 1x3] should be repeated for measure in the second 1. 

— n^n] of v.^*^ should be repeated v.^" before :3^iO id for measure, and ••d is 
needed before dSij;S in accordance with the usual phr. i Ch. 16^ 2 Ch. 51^ 7* 
Ezr. 3II Pss. 106I 107I -f . 



PSALM CI., 2 STR. 4^ 

Psalm loi is a profession of integrity in personal character and 
conduct (v.^''^), and in companionship (v.*'"^). To this was added a 
gloss of worship and prayer for the divine presence (v.^"^'), and 
vows to exterminate the wicked (v.^- ®). 



314 PSALMS 

T WALK in integrity of mind in the midst of my house. 

I set not any base thing before mine eye. 

The making of apostasy I hate. It cleaves not unto me. 

Evil I know not : crookedness departs from me. 
TyriNE eye is upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me. 

The one walking in the way of integrity ministers to me. 

The worker of deception dwells not in my house. 

The speaker of lies is not established before mine eye. 

Ps. loi in J^ has the title -\i::td nnS; so also in (5. This was probably 
original, and the Ps. belonged to Q and fH {v. Intr. §§ 27, 31). It had two 
pentameter tetrastichs, v.2<^-6"^, each line ending in >_; to which several 
glosses have been added, v.^-^*- 5. 8^ without the ending. The original was a 
profession of integrity, suited to the congregation of Israel before the legal 
attitude of mind had become established. The language is early: 33*? on v.^c 
= Gn. 2o6-6 (E) I K. 9* Ps. 78^2; V^Sa nan v.8« = Ps. 41^; d>::d v.8 a.\. for 
o^tac, cf. 40^ Ho. 5^; B'pp aaS v.* a.X. error for vp'i as Ps. iS^^; }^-\n >jdnj v.^ 
a.X.,but cf. Is. i2i; n>Dn ns^j; v.' as 52*, cf. 32^; onptt' nai v."^, cf. 6312. The Ps. 
was probably composed for the community of the Restoration before Nehe- 
miah. The glosses are of a different character and later. V.^- ^ express the 
determination to exterminate the wicked from the land, and give the only 
reason for thinking of the author as a ruler. They are Maccabean in tone, 
and the language is late. V.^-^* is a trimeter tetrastich of introduction : a vow 
to Yahweh of worship and a petition for the divine presence. It was designed 
to make the Ps. more appropriate for public worship. 

The Ps. begins with a trimeter tetrastich, making it more ap- 
propriate for public worship than the original could have been. — 
1-2 i&. (9/"^/«^«^i"j"d!«^y//j-/rV^], cf. Je. 9^, divine attributes; espe- 
cially characteristic of God's administration of government, and of 
His requirements of mankind, cf. Ho. 12^ — I will sing || / will 
make melody io Thee^ Yahweh'], usual phrases of public worship in 
the temple. — In a way of integrity'], ci. v.®* ; a course of life which 
is in complete and entire accord with the divine will. — I will behave 
myself wisely], cohortative form expressing a vow of such conduct. 
It is possible, with JPSV. and Kirk., to render "consider," "give 
heed unto " ; but this is not so probable. — When wilt Thou come 
unto me], a petition for the divine presence as prepared for by 
entire conformity to His will. 

Str. I. A syn. tetrastich. — 2c. I walk]. This and the follow- 
ing vbs. are not in the cohort, form as the previous vb. Therefore 
they do not express a vow ; but state what is the habitual conduct 
of the righteous. — in integrity of mind]. The internal mental 



PSALM CI. 315 

State is in entire accord with God, and therefore the walk is such, 
in a way of integrity v.^, cf. v.^*. — In the midst of my house\ in 
the Hfe of the family and of society. — 3. / set not before mine eye'], 
to consider as a possibility for action, or as something to be de- 
sired. — any base thing], cf. 41^, such as base men, sons of Behal, 
do, cf. Dt. 15^ — The making of apostasy J hate], the swerving or 
falling away from Yahweh into such evil conduct. — // cleaves not 
unto me], as a power of temptation, or something desirable and 
attractive. — 4. Evil I know not], by experimental knowledge, 
resulting from its commission. — crookedness], as 18^, quahfied by 
a glossator, against the measure, as *' of the mind," against the 
context, which regards it no longer as internal, but as external; 
and which departs from me], as an unwelcome guest, or banished 
from the presence as an enemy. A glossator now inserts a 
pentameter couplet of a different character. — 5. The slanderer 
in secret of his neighbour], cf. Pr. 30^°, still further described as 
one lofty of eyes], cf. Ps. 18^^, and proud of mind, cf. Pr. 21*. 
These terms do not refer to ordinary men of this class ; but to 
men of position and power who had become oppressors of the 
people, for otherwise they could hardly be dealt with so severely 
and summarily. — will I exterminate || I will not suffer]. 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets. — 6-7. Mine eye is upon], consider- 
ing, contemplating with recognition and acceptance, in antith. to 
v.^ and also to v.^'', — The faithful of the land], those faithful to 
Yahweh, in antith. to the apostasy of v.^\ || The one walking in the 
way of integrity], cf. v.^"*'', and in antith. with the worker of decep- 
tion II speaker of lies. The former dwell with me || minister to 
me], as household servants ; the latter dwells not in my house || is 
not established], or settled, as one of my household. The glos- 
sator of v.^ also appends v.^ — Morning by morning], one after the 
other, searching for them. — will I exterminate], as v.^" || cut off 
from the city of Yahweh], cf. 12^ 34^^ 109^^-^*, where God does this 
cutting off. — all the wicked of the land || all the workers of trouble. 

1-2. nnv^N II nn^TN || n^arx] cohort, impfs. expressing a vow. — nin> qS] 
is attached by MT. to hidtn, by @ to nn-'trN ; the latter favours a pentameter, 
the former two trimeters. But the remaining 1. is a hexameter or two 
trimeters. These constitute a trimeter tetrastich, a gl. — l'?.^.'?^'] Hithp. impf. 
indie. The change from cohort, is significant. It states a fact instead of a 



3l6 PSALMS 

vow. — 3. hph^ nan] = 41^; transpose to beginning of 1, for assonance in 
^j/jr, which should be read here and vj^ for assonance instead of the usual pi., 
and so also prob. v.^* at the beginning of v. — 2"Jd] a.X. for d^'&z' f :ov^ vb. 
swerve, fall awayy 40^ f 2'iOi' n.[m]. swerver, Ho. s"-^; here prob. abstr. pi., 
as Ba., Hu.^, apostasy. — 4. li'Pi? 32^] phr. o.X. The 1. has one word too 
many; prob. 33"^, which does not indeed suit the context. — ;;nN kS •$-<] should 
go to the beginning of the line in order to assonance in "•jpc. — 6. ■•ju'iSd] Peel 
ptc. of t \^^ denom. vb. elsw. Hiph. Pr. 30^'^, both in bad sense, use the 
tongue for slander, Ges.^- >", Qr. "'Jl^•^p. We should rd. Hiph. ptc. ""rrSc with 
Che. — u>yy n^jj phr. a.X. % ^"^^ high of mountain 104I8, lofty oi a*? Pr. 16^, of 
nn Ec. 7^, alone Ps. 138^ Is. ^^ 10^ i S. 2^. — 22*? 2n-i] phr. elsw. Is. 6o^ cf. 
2S 2nn Pr. 21* cdj 'n 28^^, f ^l^"^ adj. elsw. Ps. 10425 broad of sea, 119^ of 
divine command, 119*^ of divine way. These two pent, without assonance 
and in a more vindictive tone are a Maccabean gl. — 6. V").!:<~\J?n;J phr. a.X., 
but cf. Is. 82 Pr. 25I3. — "'^D!'.V*-] ^^' i™pf- X ^'^'^ vb. of ministerial service ; 
here of men, but 10321 104* of angels. — 7. n»pn nr;*] = 52^; transpose to the 
beginning of the 1. for assonance in "•n-'a. — 8. Two pent. II. without assonance 
and in the tone of v.^; a gloss. 



PSALM CII. 

Ps. 102 is composite : (A) A prayer of afflicted Israel, beseech- 
ing Yahweh to answer in a day of distress (v.^) ; the peril is so 
great that he is about to perish (v.*^) ; he is desolate and reproached 
by enemies (v.^"^). It is his greatest grief that he has been cast 
off by his God (v.^^^). (B) expresses confidence that the time has 
come when the everlasting King will have compassion on Zion and 
build her up from her ruins, and that all nations will see His glory 
and revere Him (v.^^^^). The story will be told to all generations 
of His interposition for the salvation of His people, that His praise 
may be forever celebrated in Jerusalem, where all nations will 
eventually gather to serve Him (v.^^^-^. Glosses reassert the 
seriousness of the situation (v.^*"^*), and contrast the everlasting 
creator with the perishable creature i^"^. 

A, V.^", 4 STR. 6^ 

YAHWEH, O hear my prayer ; 

And let for help come unto Thee my cry. 

Hide not Thy face from me. 

In the day when I have distress, answer me. 

Incline Thine ear unto me ; 

In the day when I call, O make haste (to me) . 



PSALM CII. 317 

pOR vanish away like smoke my days ; 

And burned like fuel are my bones. 

Smitten like herbage is my heart. 

Yea, I forget to eat my bread. 

Because of the sound of my groaning 

My bone doth cleave to my flesh. 
T AM like a pelican of the wilderness ; 

I am become as an owl of the wastes; 

I watch and am become (a falcon), 

A bird solitary upon a house-top. 

All the day mine enemies reproach me ; 

They that (wound) me, do curse by me. 
YEA, ashes do I eat as bread. 

And I mix my drink with weeping, 

Because of Thine indignation and Thy wrath ; 

For Thou hast taken me up, and thrown me away. 

My days are like a shadow stretched out, 

And I like the herbage wither. 

B. v.^^23.29^ 2 STR. 6^ 

'THOU, Yahweh, sittest enthroned forever; and Thy commemoration is in all 

generations. 
Thou wilt arise. Thou wilt have compassion on Zion ; for it is time to be 

gracious to her. 
For Thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and are looking graciously upon 

her dust. 
And the nations will revere Thy name, and kings of earth Thy glory, 
When Yahweh hath built up Zion, hath appeared in His glory (in her midst) ; 
Hath turned unto the destitute and hath not despised their prayer. 
'THIS will be written for a generation to come, and a people to be created ; 

When Yahweh hath looked forth from His holy height, unto the earth hath 

looked, 
To hear the groaning of the prisoner, to loose those condemned to die ; 
That they may tell the name of Yahweh in Zion and His praise in Jerusalem. 
When the peoples are gathered together and the kingdoms to serve Yahweh, 
The children of Thy servants will abide, and their seed will be established 

before Thee. 

Ps. 102 has in the title of |^, ^, "'JvS rhz>r, a prayer of the afflicted; and to 
this was added, whether at the same time or later we cannot say, " when he 
was fainting," cf. 61^, " and before Yahweh pouring out his complaint," of. 142^ 
Jb. 713. In other words, the Ps. expressed humiliation for national disaster 
and prayer for deliverance. "»:>* is a pseudonym. The author wrote in the 
person of afflicted Israel, v, Intr. § 30. But this title applies only to v.2-12, 
composed of four trimeter hexastichs. The remainder of the Ps. is of an 
entirely different character, and of a much later date. The original Ps. uses 
many familiar terms of IB. The author must have been familiar with many of 
its Pss., if not with the collection as a whole; cf. v.^* with 39^^, v.^^ with 18'^, 



3l8 PSALMS 

\.^ with 27®, v.^ with 59^^ v.'* with 318 69I8, also 56^", v.< with 31I1 3^20^ y9 
with 55^3. But the Ps. is not a mere mosaic. In the remaining Strs. there 
is great originality, and several simple but beautiful similes v.*- ^- '^- 8- 10. 12^ 
The Ps. can hardly be earlier than the closing days of the Persian period. 
Later, doubtless in the early Maccabean period, another original Ps. was 
appended, v.^^^s. 29^ of two hexameter hexastichs. Zion is here in ruins v.^^, 
and her people are prisoners and many of them condemned to death v.^i; and 
yet the psalmist bases his confidence in the divine advent for their redemption 
upon the eternal reign of God. Two glosses were inserted: the one based on 
Is. 38^° v.2*-26«; the other, v.256-28^ with real poetic power, was probably a 
section of a longer poem which has been lost. 

PSALM CII. A. 

Str. I. A syn. and two synth. couplets ; a mosaic of terms of 
supplication from 39^^ 18^ 27^ 59^^ 31^ 69^® 56^*^; riot because of a 
lack of originality in the poet, but because he desired to use the 
familiar terms of the Davidic prayer book for this day of humilia- 
tion and prayer for national deliverance. 

Str. II. A syn. tetrastich, enclosing before its last line an embl. 
couplet. — 4. J^or vanish away like smoke my days\ a common 
simile of transitoriness, cf. 37^ 68^ Is. 51^ Ho. 13^ Ja. 4". — And 
bur7ied like fuel are my bones\ In feverish anxiety his bones 
seem to be on fire, cf. 22^* 31^^ La. i^^ Jb. 30^^-^. The unusual 
Heb. word is rendered by PBV., RV., " firebrand," so Kirk. ; by 
AV. "hearth," so Dr., "fireplace," JPSV. It is most probably, as 
^DB., a burning mass, which may be sufficiently expressed by 
"fuel" for the fire. — 5. Smitten like herbage is my hear t\ As 
the green herbage is smitten by the heat of the sun and withers 
away ; so the heart, as the seat of mental and moral states, has 
been so smitten that it has no more freshness and vigour. The 
withering is sufficiently suggested by the simile, and the line is 
complete in its measure without " and withered," which has been 
added by a glossator. — Yea, I forget to eat my bread\ appetite 
has departed ; he can think of nothing else but his trouble, and 
has no other desire than relief from that. — 6. Because of the 
sound of my groaning']. This is usually attached to the next line, 
but it really belongs to the previous one ; for it gives a good 
reason for the absence of appetite ; the mouth is engaged in the 
constant utterance of groans. — My bone doth cleave to my flesh]. 



PSALM CII. 319 

As above the bones were burning with fever, so here from the lack 
of moisture the bone cleaves fast to the flesh, cf. Jb. 19^ Ps. 32*. 
Str. III. A syn. tetrastich and a syn, couplet. — 7-8. I am like 
a pelican of the wilderness || an owl of the wastes || a bird solitary 
upon a house-top^ These various birds in their solitariness are 
similes of his desolate condition in the midst of enemies and 
rejected by his God. The line before the last is difficult, because 
it is defective, due probably to the omission of a word. It prob- 
ably should be, — / watch and am become a falcon'] . The falcon 
is famed for its keen vision, and so is appropriate to the verb. 
He is watching keenly for the help he is imploring from God. — 
9. All the day mine enemies reproach me\ cf. 55^^, also 42^^ 44^' 
^^10.18 ^^12 3^52.52 11 ^j^gy ^^^^ wound me], more probable than 

those "mad against me," of EV. — do curse by me], use the 
name of Israel in imprecations and oaths, cf. 132^ Is. 65^^ Je. 29^. 
Str. IV. A syn. and two synth. couplets. — 10. Yea], intensive 
assertion ; the usual *' For " is improbable. It is difficult to find 
a reason in this Str. for the statements of the previous Str. — 
ashes do J eat as bread], ashes are the symbol of mourning, and 
appear in Is. 61^ as a turban, and in La. 3^® as clothing, cf. Ez. 
27^; but only here as bread. || And I mix my drink with weep- 
ing], phr. a.X., but the idea is expressed in other phrases Pss. 42^ 
8o^ — 11. Because of Thine indignation and Thy wrath]. Thus 
far the lamentation has been because of the distress and the re- 
proaches of enemies ; now it is all carried back to the original 
cause, the wrath of their God. — For Thou hast taken me up and 
thrown me away], deliberate and violent rejection, cf. Je. 7^^ — 
12. My days are like a shadow stretched out], resuming the 
thought of v."^. The prolongation of the shadow is an evidence 
of the approach of sunset, an appropriate simile of the close of life, 
cf. Je. 6* Ps. 144! — And I like the herbage wither], a resumption 
of v.^", cf. Is. 40^ Ps. 90^ Ja. i^^ ; the morning of life, when the herb- 
age sprang up and bloomed, and the noontide, when it was smitten 
by the sun, have passed ; the evening has come, when it withereth. 

PSALM CII. B. 

Str. I. Synth, hexastich. — 13. Thou, Yahweh, sittest enthroned 
forever], as everlasting king; phr, of La. 5^^, cf. Pss. 2^ 9^ 93^ 99^ 



320 PSALMS 

— and Thy commemoration^ the celebration of the name, cf. 6* 
30* 97^^ III*. The fact that Yahweh reigns forever, and is to be 
commemorated forever, is the basis of the confidence in the 
restoration of Zion expressed in the Ps. — 14. Thou wilt arise\ 
the usual term for divine interposition, cf. 9^ 10^. — Thou wilt 
have compassion on Zion\ emphatic coordination without con- 
junction. Zion, the holy city, was in great need of divine help, 
and had been for a long time in this sad condition ; therefore it is 
added, — for it is ti?ne to be gracious to her'], it is high time : the 
distress is so great, it is now or never with her. A glossator 
repeats at the expense of the measure : /or the appointed time is 
come~\, the time appointed for the fulfilment of the divine prom- 
ises of her restoration. This is not the restoration from the Exile, 
cf. Je. 29^° Is. 40^ Hb. 2^ ; but from the devastations of Antiochus 
before the Maccabean victories. — 15. For Thy servants'], the 
faithful people of God who serve Him in spite of persecutions, — 
take pleasure in || are looking graciously upon], expressing their 
interest in, love for, and attachment to her, — stones || dust]. 
Zion has been destroyed by the enemy ; her buildings are in ruins, 
mere stones and dust ; and yet these are precious to the servants 
of Yahweh, because they are the remains of the holy city of the 
divine presence and worship. — 16. the nations \\ the kings 0/ earth]. 
The restoration of Zion will have universal significance to the 
nations and especially to their kings ; and the result of it will be 
that they will revere Thy name || Thy glory], take part in the 
worship of the God of Israel. — 17. When Yahweh hath built up 
Zion], rebuilt the ruined city, cf. 5 1^. — hath appeared in His 
glory], manifested it in His advent to interpose for her deliverance. 
The line is defective, and therefore we must supply either in her 
midst, or " in Jerusalem," as v.^^. — 18. Hath turned unto the desti- 
tute]. The city has been stripped and left destitute in her ruin. 
A glossator inserted from i K. 8^ " prayer " after the preposition 
and before the noun, thereby making an improbable tautology with 
the complementary part of the line, — and hath not despised their 
prayer], cf. 22^ 51^^ 69^. 

Str. II. Synth, hexastich. — 19. This will be written], recorded 
for a memorial and especially for commemoration, cf. v^, — for 
a generation to cotne || a people to be created], the succeeding 



PSALM CII. 321 

generations of redeemed Zion, cf. 22^^ 48" 78*-^. The purpose is 
given after a temporal clause in v."^, that they may tell the na7ne 
of Yahweh in Zion and His praise in Jerusalem], cf. 9^^ 96^. But 
a glossator could not wait for this, and so he appended to v.^^ at 
the cost of the measure, "shall praise Yah." — 20. Whe7t], as in 
v.^''-^^, and not causal " for," as EV^ — Yahweh hath looked forth 
fro7n His holy height], explained by the glossator as " from 
heaven," without need and against the measure. This v. resumes 
the thought of the divine advent of v.^^-^'', especially in the form 
of divine inspection or investigation of what transpires on earth, — 
unto the earth hath looked], cf 14^ 33^^ Dt. 26^^ — 21. To hear the 
groa7iing of the prisoner], the Israelites taken captive by the enemy 
and imprisoned. — to loose those conde77inedto die]. Some of the cap- 
tives had been condemned to death, probably because of supposed 
treason against the dominant power of Syria. The compassion upon 
destitute Zion of the previous Str. has as its parallel, compassion on 
her captives in this Str. — 23. When the peoples are gathered to- 
gether and the nations to serve Yahweh]. A resumption of the 
universalism of v.^*'. The apodosis of this temporal clause is in 
29 : The children of Thy servants will abide, and their seed will 
be established befo7'e Thee]. This resumes the thought of v.^^, and 
with it encloses the other lines of the Str. in an organic whole. 

Two different glossators made insertions ; the former v.^^^" from 
Is. 38^°, the so-called song of Hezekiah : He hath brought down 
my strength in the way ; He hath shortened 7ny days. I say : O my 
God, take 77ie not away in the midst of 77iy days]. These two 
pentameter lines are more in accord with the plaintive tone of the 
original Ps. than with the calm assurance of the later Maccabean 
Ps. in which it inserted. It was probably designed to assimilate 
them. The later glossator inserted the octastich v.^"^^, doubtless 
a fragment of a choice Ps. which has been lost. 

J N generation of generations are Thy years. 

Of old Thou didst lay the foundation of the earth ; 
And the heavens are the work of Thy hands. 
They will perish, but Thou wilt endure ; 
Yea, all of them will wear out as a garment, 
As a vesture wilt Thou change them, and they will be changed. 
But Thou (Yahweh) art the same; 
And Thy years have no end. 
Y 



322 PSALMS 

The first and last lines of this octastich are syn. and enclose the 
other six ; the first two of which are syn. The antithesis which 
appears within the fourth line is enlarged upon in the triplet that 
follows, whose last line is antithetical to the two syn. lines which 
precede it. — 25 b. In generation of generatio?is are Thy years], 
extending in one generation after another are the years of the life 
of God, and not limited to a single generation, as are the years of 
men. || 28 b. Thy years have no e?id\ They come to no com- 
pletion, as do the years of man. — 26. Of oId~\, cf. Dt. 2^"^^ for 
the term ; in remote antiquity ; cf. Ps. 90^ for the idea. — Thou 
didst lay the foundation of the earth'], the conception of creation 
as an erecting or building, cf. 24- 89^^ 104^ Jb. 38*, and especially 
Is. 48^^ — The heavens are the work of Thy hands]. The same 
conception being continued ; the heavens being considered as the 
roof or dome of the earth, cf. Pss. ^^ 19^ Am. 9^ — 27. They 
will perish]. Even the heavens and the earth, the most stable of 
all created things, upon whose stability all they contain of life and 
existence depends, however long their duration, will eventually 
perish. || Ail of them will wear out like a gannent], based on Is. 
51®. They have a temporary use as clothing; when they have 
been worn out another garment will take their place. || As a 
vesture wilt Thou change them and they will be changed], new 
heavens and a new earth will take their place, according to Is. 
65^^ 66^. In antithesis with creations Thou wilt endure], continue 
to stand firm after these creations perish. || 28 a. Thou, Yah- 
weh, art the same]. The divine name has been omitted in the 
transmitted text, but is necessary to the measure. As in Is. 48^^^, 
Yahweh is the same identical, unchangeable, ever-enduring being 
from first to last, so here He is the same during all the transitions 
from the creation of the heavens and the earth, while He is 
transforming them into a new heaven and a new earth, and so on 
forever. 

CII. A. 

3. •'jpp nnp] assimilated to 69^^ 143' ; but the two words make 1. too long ; 
transfer >jj>; to 1.- for measure. — 4. t "'P'"^] ci.X., ^DB. burning mass, as 
Is. 33^*; but SS., T>x.,hearih, as ^"JP^:^ Lv. 6-. © (pp<>yiov,3 frixa. — 6. T\-^r\'] 
Hoph. pf r\2l, cf Ho. 9^^. @ iirXi^yr]v, 3 percussutn est, prob. both interp. 
infin. abs. — co»i] makes 1. too long; gl. from Ho. 9^^ — 6. tnnjN Sip] phr. 



PSALM cm. 323 

O.X., but nmx 6^ +. — ntJ'i'? "inx;; npan] phr. a.X., but cf. Jb. 1920 La. 4^ — 
7. X T'i^p\ n.f. pelican, elsw. Is. 54II Zp. 2I*; so (S, J. ^ has \<\^\', Bar Heb. 
Dupip, cygnus. Ba. objects that the pelican is a water bird, and not a bird 
of the wilderness. — t C"'-] n.m , elsw. Lv. ii^'^ = Dt. 14^^ an unclean bird, 
a species of owl. — 8. n;inNi] Qal impf. r\>r\ with 1 consec, instead of jussive 
r")N\ The text gives no predicate. Ols., Gr., Ba., Du., Kirk., Ehr., rd. n^Tpnxi 
as 77*, but moaning leads away from the real point of comparison, solitariness. 
A word has been omitted by error, for the measure is defective ; rd. n>^y fal- 
con, a bird especially appropriate to the vb. — | Ji] n.m. roof oi house, as 
129^. — 9. '^^■'np] Poal ptc, elsw. Ec. 2^, of madness of folly; not suitable 
here. ® ot kiraivovvrh fie, U gui laudabant me, % = "'SSn?* so Ehr. ; but this 
does not suit the context. 3 exultantes neglects the sf., which may be interp. 
It is better to read "^S^nn = those wounding me. — lyiJtrj o] = swear by, in 
imprecation, cf. 132^. — 10. ■'p*^] a.X. my drink, for vb. rMpv (j6^). 

CII. B. 

14. Dnnn nipri] impfs. future, emph. coordination, most prob,, although 
the second vb. might be subordinate. — •^^^^0'?] Q^^ ^^^'f unusual form, 
Ges67. cc. cf. D3L:n Is. 30^^^ r.^:n Ps. jy^^. For pn v. 4^. — -iy;D N3 "-s] dupli- 
cate of previous clause ; the two make 1. too long. This, although phr, a.X., 
is prob. the gl. rather than the other, as it emphasizes a promise ; cf. 75^. — 
15. •"iJ.yn''] Poel, elsw. Pr. 1421 direct favour to. — 16. nini dc] so Jf, but 
® nini ir;^'. The divine name makes 1. too long; rd. "ycv \ innD. — 
n^!7 '•i?'??"'^?^]- ®^ has only d^d'^d Sdi, but (gf<-A. r. t agree with |^, %. 
f^ is assimilated to Is. 59^^. The clause is too long for measure. Sd is the 
most prob. gl. — 17. ni3D3 nsnj] is defective. We should supply prob. 
•]Din3 with Du. — 18. nSpn] is improb. with ^"^^^V} in the same 1. It is a gl.; 
rd. •iy"^3;n Sn. — t"^""'v] adj. stripped, destitute; ct "!;;;■>>• Je. 17^. Aq., 2, 3, 
vacui. Ba. thinks' of n;ni; adj. as Gn. 152 (JE) Je. 2280 Lv. 2o20-2i (H).— 
19. n;"S^n^] gl. anticipating v.22, phr. a.X., but cf. n*" SSnn 150^, n** iSSn^ 
115", elsw. always ni i^'?n. — 20. u''r;tr::] expl. gl. to cnr;?:, making 1. too 
long. — 21. nri;:ri \n] phr. elsw. 79II. — 24. Derived from Is. 3810. — \T\:i\ 
Kt., sustained by ®, U ; Qr. ^rp, by S, S, 3, %, and most critics ; both sfs. 
explanatory. — 26. J d^jcS] adv. /c?rw^r/)/ Dt. 2I2.20 Jqs. nio _|_. — 27. rs'Q-^^^ 
gl. ; makes 1. too long. — 28. Nin n.-iNi] is defective; add mn\ Nin emph. 
denom. the same, based on Is. 48^2^ — 29. '^^}.^'\ but @ ets rhv aluva = DiJcS, 
as V.26, cf. 3 ante faciem eorum. 



PSALM cm., 7 SIR. 43. 

Ps. 103 is a summons to Israel to bless Yahweh for all that He 
had done for them (v.^"^), His pardon and redemption (v.^**-^), 
His deeds of righteousness and justice (v.^^), His long suffering 



324 PSALMS 

(v.^^°), His kindness in removing sin (v."-^^^, His fatherly com- 
passion (v.^^"), His everlasting kindness and righteousness to frail 
man (v.^^ ^') . Glosses emphasize these several things (v/* ^* *• ^^ ^^). 
A liturgical gloss summons the angels and all creatures to unite in 
blessing Yahweh, the universal king (v.^^^. 

gLESS Yahweh, O my soul ! 

And all that is within me, His holy name. 

Bless Yahweh, O my soul ! 

And forget not His benefits. 
■^HO pardoneth all thine iniquity; 

Who healeth all thy diseases ; 

Who redeemeth from the Pit thy life; 

Who satisfieth (thee) with good things (so long as thou livest), 
A DOER of acts of righteousness is Yahweh, 

And of acts of judgment for all the oppressed. 

He used to make known His ways to Moses, 

To the sons of Israel His deeds. 
"VyHILE He strives not alway. 

And restrains not His anger forever; 

Not according to our sins doth He do to us. 

Not according to our iniquities doth He deal to us. 
AS high as heaven is above the earth. 

His kindness is mighty upon (us). 

As far as the East is removed from the West, 

He doth remove our transgressions from us. 
AS a father hath compassion upon sons, 

Yahweh hath compassion upon (us) ; 

For He knoweth our frame ; 

Remembereth that we are dust. 
TITAN, as grass are his days ; 

As a blossom of the field, so he blossometh ; 

But the kindness of Yahweh is from everlasting, 

And unto everlasting is His righteousness. 

Ps. 103 has in the title in'^, so ® ; but probably because of resemblance to 
Pss. of IB. It is impossible that it could ever have been in TB ; for it cannot be 
earlier than the late Greek period. It uses familiarly earlier literature : v.^** 
Is. 57I6, y9b je. 312^ yiia Is, 5^9^ v,i46 Qn. 3^^ (J), v.i^ Is. 406 Ps. 90&-6. It uses 
the Aramaic sf. o"-- v.^-^; and several words in late meanings : Sidj v. 2, D'^NiSnn 
V.8. It is composed of seven trimeter tetrastichs: y.'i-*a-Sa.^7-9-is.i7^ jt has 
a late liturgical addition of two trimeter tetrastichs v.^^-^^. There are also 
several glosses : v.^'' based on Is. 40^1, v.^ on Ex. 34^, v.^^ on Is. 40' Jb. j^'^y v.^^ 
on Ex. 20^. 

Str. I. Three syn. lines with a synth. conclusion. — 1-2. B/trss 
Yahwehj O my soul\ also v.^^; adore in gratitude and praise. 



PSALM cm. 325 

The soul stands for the entire personality, I| all that is within me\ 
the entire being, " with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy might," Dt. 6^. The object of blessing is Yahweh 
Himself, especially as manifested in His holy name'], majestically 
sacred and so to be hallowed, cf 33^^ 105^ 106*^ i45^^. — forget 
not] a Deuteronomic warning, Dt. 6^- 8^^, taken by Israel to him- 
self, lest he should neglect grateful recognition of His benefits], 
literally dealings, which in their enumeration as the theme of the 
Ps. are all benefits. 

Str. II. Synth, tetrastich. — 3-5. The ptcs. express the con- 
tinuous characteristic activities of Yahweh in deahng with His 
people. All through their past history He has been pardoning 
all their iniquity, cf. Ex. 34^, healing all their diseases, cf. Ex. 15^^, 
redeeming the life of the nation from the Pit of Sheol into which 
they had gone, in exile, and to which they had been so often ex- 
posed through their cruel and all-powerful enemies, cf. Ho. 13" 
Ps. 9". The whole is summed up in : Who satisfieth thee with good 
things so long as thou livest], for thus this difficult sentence may 
be translated. Yahweh had not only preserved His people aHve, 
but had bestowed upon them good things continuously during the 
entire Hfe of the nation. The translation of EV'., "who satisfieth 
thy mouth with good things," is based on the interpretation of some 
ancient Jewish scholars ; and, though followed by many, is now 
generally abandoned. " Thy desire " of (^, F, whether based on 
a different Heb. word or a different interpretation of the same 
word, has its advocates. 2E, " days of thine old age," followed by 
JPSV., is nearer to the true interpretation. The previous line, 
who crowneth thee with kindness and compassion] is a gloss of 
interpretation, cf 8^, for the figure of speech. Kindness and 
compassion are the characteristic attributes of the Ps. An ad- 
ditional gloss is taken from Is. 40^^ : so that thy youth refieweth 
itself like an eagle]. It is doubtful whether there is an allusion to 
the fable of the eagle's renewing its youth in old age ; but at all 
events it is the fulness of life and vigour of the eagle that is 
thought of. 

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. — 6-7. A doer of acts of righteous- 
ness II acts of Judgment for all the oppressed]. These were His 
ways II His deedsy which He used to make known to Moses || to the 



326 PSALMS 

sons of Israel^ when He delivered His oppressed people from 
Egypt, and subsequently from all their enemies. 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 8-9. He strives not alway || He 
maintains not forever\ not always expressing His anger, as Is. 5 7^^ ; 
not forever maintaining it, as Je. 3^-. This double statement of the 
divine long-suffering suggests the fundamental revelation of it to 
Moses Ex. 34^, which was then prefixed by a glossator : compassion- 
ate and gracious is YahwehjSlow to anger and abundant in mercy. 
— 10. Not according to our sins || our iniquities^ those of the 
nation in its history, past as well as present, — doth He do to us || 
deal to us']y taking up the theme stated in v.^, the divine dealings 
or benefits. He doth not give us our deserts, in letting loose His 
anger against us for sins. 

Str. V. Two similes. — 11. As high as heaven is above the 
earth'], cf. Is. 55^^, the greatest height conceivable. — flighty'], in 
reach from the height of heaven, is His kindness\ in the pardon 
of sin, upon us\ descending and resting upon us. A glossator, 
thinking that the statement was too sweeping, substitutes for "upon 
us " of the original, the more limited statement, " upon those that 
fear Him " ; so also in v.^^- ^'*, against the measure. — 12. As 
far as the East is removed from the West], the utmost conceiv- 
able distance in breadth, — He doth remove our transgressions from 
us~\. The removal of sin to the utmost possible distance away from 
the sinner and away from the divine presence is a syn. idea to 
pardon and forgiveness, which in Hebrew is properly the taking it 
up and bearing it away as a burden from the sacred places where 
God and His people meet in communion, cf. Is. 38^^ Mi. 7^^ 

Str. VI. A couplet of simile, and a syn. couplet, giving its rea- 
son. — 13. As a father hath compassion upon sotis\ Compassion 
is the paternal form of mercy, implying a sympathetic fellow feel- 
ing with the sufferer. Yahweh is here compared to a father in 
His attitude toward Israel, cf. Ex. 4^-^ Ho. i iH — 14. For He 
knoweth our frame\ He knoweth it because He framed it, re- 
ferring to Gn. 2^, the forming of the frame of Adam out of the 
dust of the ground, as is evident from the 1| Re77ie7?ibereth that we 
are dust, made of dust and doomed to return to dust, Gn. 3^^. 

Str. VII. A syn. couplet of simile, with an antithetical syn. 
couplet. — 15. Man], emphatic in position, because a charac- 



PSALM cm. 327 

teristic of humanity is to be mentioned, — as grass are his days'], 
so brief, so transient, cf. 90^^ || as a blossom of the field, so he blos- 
someth\ cf. Jb. 14^. This statement is enlarged upon by a glossa- 
tor, who introduces from Is. 40^-^: — 16. Whe?i the wind passeth 
over it, then it is no more], the scorching, withering south wind j 
and from Jb. 7^*^ : and the place thereof knoweth it no more. — 
17. In antithesis, fro7n everlastiftg and u7tto everlasting, and so 
through the entire interval are existing and acting the kindness of 
Yahweh || His righteousness, wliich latter, here, as usual, must be 
His vindicatory, redemptive righteousness. The glossator who 
limited v."^"^^ by adding, " them that fear Him," did the same 
here ; and to this a still further limitation in a legalistic direction 
based on Ex. 20^, and using the late legal term of Pss. 19^ in' 
jj^4 + 2it. . 13^ y^ them that keep His coveftant, and to them that 
remember His precepts to do them]. The Maccabean editor made 
the following addition to the Ps. to make it more suitable for 
public worship : 

TN heaven He hath established His throne; 

And His kingdom ruleth over all. 

Bless ye Yahweh, His angels, 

His mighty ones that do His word. 
gLESS Yahweh, all ye His host, 

His ministers that do His pleasure. 

Bless Yahweh, all ye His works, 

In all places of His dominion. 

This liturgical addition has two Strs. of the same measure and 
formation as the Ps. itself, all synth. couplets, but the last three 
syn. with each other. — 19-22. I71 heaven], emphatic in position, 
— He hath established His throfie], set it up, and made it firm and 
permanent, and therefore, — His kingdojn ruleth over all], beneath 
the heavens and within the heavens. Accordingly the summons 
goes forth to all to unite in adoration, — His angels || His mighty 
ones that do His word], enlarged by a glossator who inserted, 
" in power," and by an additional hne, " hearkening to the voice 
of His word," the one at the expense of the measure, the other a 
duplicate making the Str. too long, — 1| His host], the angels, con- 
ceived as an organised army, cf. 148^ Is. 24^^ — li His ministers 
that do His pleasure], the angels, conceived as faithful ministerial 
servants, prompt to do the sovereign will. To these are added : 



328 PSALMS 

Aii His works'], the entire creation here personified, 1| in all places 
of His doviinioti\ throughout the entire heavens and earth, every- 
where. The whole Ps. concludes with a liturgical addition most 
suitable for pubHc worship, however much it disturbs the poetical 
construction : Bless Yahweh, O my soul. 

1. ryyr^> Pn] pn prosaic addition ; so \}^- 2« 126^ — 2. r^rj-^r] (S -rrdaas 
tAs alvi<Teis ai/rov interp. as praise rendered to God ; as benefits, the usual 
translation, is an interp. of what God renders to His creatures. The more 
general mng. is dealings {28^). ^2 is an intensive gl. — 3. ^:;(0] Aramaic sf. 
in assonance at the close of each 1. of Str. , also with vbs. — f a^NiSnn] diseases, 
elsw. Dt. 2921 2 Ch. 2ii9 Je. i^is i64_ Aramaism for >^n. — 4 Z> without the 
assonance is a gl., interpreting 5 a. — 5. ':\\-^;i i^m'] is dub. ® tt]v iirtdvixlav 
aov, F desiderium tniim = "'Drix, ^ "'D\pi3D ""Dr days of thine old age, so JPSV. 
31 bonis orfiatnentiim tiium, S ""liStt'iJ. It is usual to interpret "'-i; ornament 
as syn. nn^ and referring to the cs:; but as there is no other such usage, it is 
improbable. The parall. suggests 07;;' so long as thou livest, as 10483 1462. 
The 3 of these passages may have been omitted by haplog. — t^'in^^i?] Hithp. 
a.X. (5 avaKat.vL<Tdr)<T€TaL ; the change of form from ptc. indicates that the 1. is 
gl. from Is. 40^1. — t "^'f;] n.m. eagle ox griffon, vulture, as Dt. 32II + . — 
7. IvniS-iSp] cf. 9^2^ ^ ^^ OeX-^fxara avrov prob. paraphrase, — 8 is gl. from Ex. 
34'. — 9. nits:] Qal impf. f [t^j] vb. (i) maintain anger, Lv. 19^8 -^^^ ^2 Am. i^i 
Je. 36-12; (2) hee/> safely, vineyard Ct. i^-e S"- 12. _ iq. r^^.^y S::j] makes 
1. too long; late style for sf. 1:*?::^, cf. 7^ 1821, which latter was doubtless 
original. — 11. v] is dittog of 3 prep. The 1. is better in all respects without 
it, as v.i2<». — -\33] so (5 and all Vrss. It is tempting to substitute naj with 
Hu., Or., Du., Che., al. ; but improb. as unnecessary. — "I''N"};"'?>] is a gl. of 
limitation; so v.^^ii^ft. here and v.^^ for "irS;*. — 14. "inx:] J -ix; n.m. thought, 
purpose framed in mind, Gn, 6^ {])tfoyni of image made by potter Hb. 2^^, 
cf. Is. 29!^; only here of the form of man, based on the use of ix^ Gn. 2}-'^, as 
suggested also by the noy of Gn. 31^. — mr] ptc. pass. % recordatus est. @ 
/ivT^tr^T/Ti = nor; prob. is reminded; but the |1 suggests pf., which is more 
prob. — 16 is gl. from Is. 40^ and Jb. 7^^ — i^T-!] Hiph. impf. with strong sf. 
J nDJ vb. in ^ only Hiph. (i) recognise 142^, as Dt. 21^'^ 33^ Is. 63^^, cf. 61^; 
(2) be acquainted with, \i^xQ^'s>]\i.'f^'^ 2.^'. — 17. '»''XT''^>'] is gl. as above, and 
also 1 before ^-^pny, which is |1 ^Dn and belongs to ^y^ npi. — D'-j^ "J^S] gl. 
from Ex. 34'^. — 18 is a gl. of limitation from a legalistic point of view. — 
mpc] elsw. icp iii"^ 1 19* + 19 1-. — 19. nin>] is gl, making 1. too long. — 
20. nb ^73J] phr. a.X. has two beats and makes the 1. too long, n^ is a gl. 
of intensification; rd. mij. — n3"\ Sip:3 ;7;2*>:'^] is a doublet; makes the Str. 
too long. — 22 6. J '^Stj'sc] n.f. dominion, elsw. of God 1142 145 1', of lumi- 
naries 1368- ^ as Gn. i^^. — 22 c is doubtless a final liturgical gl. 



PSALM CIV. 329 



PSALM CIV., 7 STR. S\ 

Ps. 104 is a praise of Yahweh, who created the light by wrap- 
ping Himself in it (v.^^"^) ; who built up stories in the upper 
waters, making the clouds His chariot, and His angels into winds 
and lightnings (v.^'*^- "*) ; who set the earth on immutable founda- 
tions, and with His thunder frightened the sea to the boundaries 
He had assigned it (v.^'^ ^) ; who made streams to flow to give 
water to animals, birds, and the vegetation of earth (v.^^^^) ; who 
made the vegetation to give food to man and beast (v.^*"^^*), the 
trees for the birds (v.^^'^-^''''), and mountains and crags for animals 
(v.^^) ; who made sun and moon to mark the seasons (v.^^) ; and 
especially to distinguish night from day, the night for the wild ani- 
mals seeking their prey, the day for man's labour (v.^^"^) ; who 
made the water animals in all their variety (v.-^^^), and the land 
animals, all dependent upon His bounty (v.-^'^ '^'*- ^^). Upon the pres- 
ence of His Spirit and favour depend the life and death of the crea- 
tures (v.29«*-'^°). His glory endures forever, and He rejoices in His 
works (v.^^). His people also praise Him with song and music 
perpetually (v.^'*). Numerous glosses emphasize various features 
of the Ps. (v.^- ^ ^^'''- ^^^- ^^"- ^- -^- ^^- ^'- ^^- ^). Moreover v.^^^'' is an ex- 
clamation of wonder at the number of the works of Yahweh. 
y 3oa6 jg g^^ imprecatiOH in the Maccabean tone, v.^**-^" are litur- 
gical glosses. 

IVI Y God, Thou art very great ; 

With majesty and splendor Thou art clothed ! 

Who put on light as a garment ; 

Who stretched out the heavens as a tent curtain; 

Who laid in the waters the beams of His upper chambers; 

Who made the clouds His chariot; 

Who made His angels winds, 

His ministers fire and flame. 
"1X7" HO founded the earth upon its bases, 

That it should not be moved forever and ever. 

The deep like a garment was (its covering). 

Above the mountains the waters stood. 

At Thy rebuke they flee : 

At the sound of Thy thunder they haste away ; 

That they may not pass the boundary Thou didst set 

May not return to cover the earth. 



330 



PSALMS 

■\A/'HO sent forih springs into the valleys, 

That they might flow between the mountains, 

That they might give drink to all the wild animals of the field, 

That the onagers might break their thirst, 

That the birds of heaven might settle down, 

From among the branches give forth song ; 

Who watered the mountains from His upper chambers. 

That by His outbursts of water the earth might be satisfied. 
"IXTHO caused grass to spring up for cattle. 

And herbage to the labour of mankind, 

In order that they might bring forth bread from the earth, 

In order that they might make their face to shine with oil. 

The trees of Shadday have their fill. 

The stork has her home in the cypresses. 

The high mountains are for the wild goats. 

The crags are a refuge for marmots. 
■\A7HO made the moon for seasons. 

The sun to know his time of going down. 

The young lions roar for prey. 

And to seek their food from 'El. 

When the sun rises, they gather themselves in, 

And in their dens they lie down. 

Man goeth forth to his work, 

And to his labour until evening. 
YO^'DER sea great and broad — 

There are gliding things innumerable; 

Living things, small together with great; 

Leviathan which Thou didst form to play with. 

The earth is full of Thy creatures. 

All of them on Thee wait. 

Thou givest to them : they gather it. 

Thou openest Thy hand : they are satisfied. 
'FHOU hidest Thy face : they are troubled. 

Thou withdrawest their spirit : they expire. 

Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit : they are created; 

And Thou renewest the face of the ground. 

The glory of Yahweh endureth forever. 

Yahweh is glad in His works. 

My musing is sweet unto Him : 

I am glad in Yahweh. 

Ps. 104 has no title in |!?, but in (S ru) Aavel5 as 103, which is improbable. 
It is first of the group of Hallels 104-107. It is a Ps. in praise of Yahweh as 
creator. The order of creation is the same as Gn. 1-2^, on which the Ps. is 
based. And yet it knows of the activity of the divine Spirit in creation of 
animals, and of death as due to the withdrawal of the Spirit, as Gn. 2*-3. 
The author was thus familiar with both stories of the creation and probably 
in their combination in the Pentateuch in its present form. The author also 
knew of various other conceptions of the creation, as Am. 9^ v.^; Is. 40'-^ v.^*; 



PSALM CIV. 331 

Jb. 386-11, cf. Pr. 829, v.5-9, which he interweaves with that of Gn. i. The Ps. 
therefore could not have been composed earlier than the Greek period. 

Str. I. Two tetrastichs, both beginning with a single Hne fol- 
lowed by a syn. tristich synthetic thereto. — 1-2. The Ps. begins 
and concludes (v.^), as several of the Hallels, with the liturgical 
phrase: Bless Yahweh, O my sotd~\, cf. 103^-^-. — My God'\j 
emphatic in position : personal address, intensified in |^ by pre- 
fixing "Yahweh," still more in (^ by using it twice ; but the meas- 
ure allows neither. — Thou art very great'], pf. of state; as the 
context indicates, in power and glory. — With 7najesty and splen- 
dour Thou art clothed]. Royal attributes are here as elsewhere 
conceived as royal apparel, cf. 93^ 96^ — Who put on]. The ptcs. 
characteristic of the Ps. must be given a uniform and harmonious 
explanation throughout. They might in some cases be explained 
as in present time ; the creative and providential divine activities 
minghng in the mind of the poet, so that what God once did at 
the creation, He continues to do throughout all time. But many 
of the ptcs. cannot be thus explained, even with the exceptions 
made by MT. of changing original ptcs. into pfs. The Ps. is 
throughout a poetic description of the creation of the world, based 
on Gn. I, and retaining its order of six days* work with a sup- 
plementary seventh of rejoicing in a finished creation. We are 
compelled therefore to translate the ptcs. as referring to the past 
of the original creation. They serve to emphasize the divine 
activity in creation, rather than the result. We see it graphically 
in the process of creation, and not as in Gn. i in the result as an 
obedient servant of the divine command. — light as a garment]. 
Light, the first of the divine creations, appears as the garment 
which the Creator puts on, or wraps about Him, the expression 
of His attributes of majesty and glory. How different from Gn. i^ : 
" God said, ' Let light be ! ' and light was." — Who stretched out 
the heavens as a tent- curtain]. This is supplementary to the 
creation of light. As hght is the divine garment, heaven is the 
tent which God stretches out as His dwelling-place, cf. Is. 40^^ 
Ps. 19^ — 3. Who laid in the waters the beams of His upper 
chambers]. This, as the subsequent v., evidendy refers to the 
second day's work of creation. The waters originally covered the 



332 PSALMS 

earth when " God said, ' Let there be an expanse in the midst 
of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.' . . . 
And God called the expanse. Heaven " Gn. i*^. The metaphor 
of a building is used in the Ps. as in Am. 9*^. A series of stories 
are built up in the waters, the beams of one being laid upon the 
beams of the other in an ascending series ; and so the upper 
waters were divided from the lower waters. — IV/io made the 
clouds His chariot\ The clouds, so characteristic of the heavens 
and bearing in them the heavenly waters, constituted the divine 
chariot in which He moved about swiftly from place to place. — 
This reminds a glossator of the cherubic chariot of Ps. 18", and 
so he adds : Who goeth about on the wings of the wind. — 4. Who 
made His angels winds, His ministers fire and fiame']. An ancient 
copyist, by omitting the conjunction, made grave difficulties of 
grammar. This rendering is essentially that of (^, F, Heb. i^ 
PBV., AV., and is most natural in itself. It is also in accord with 
the poet's previous thought. As God Himself is conceived as 
really present in nature, wrapping Himself in light, setting up 
His tent in the heavens, using the clouds as His chariot ; so His 
angels, the ministrant spirits about Him, are made to assume the 
form of winds and lightnings. Doubtless the author had in mind 
a conception similar to that of the cherubic chariot of Ez. i. But 
RV., JPSV., follow most moderns in their rendering : " Who 
maketh winds His messengers, His ministers a flaming fire " ; 
thinking that the winds and the lightnings were constituted the 
ministering servants of Yahweh. 

Str. II. A synth. and three syn. couplets. — 5. Who founded 
the earth upon its bases']. This Str. begins the story of the third 
day's work of creation Gn. i^^^. The poet turns from the upper 
stories of the building to the foundations. The earth is conceived 
as created by building upon well-settled foundations, as in Jb. 38*^ 
Pr. 8^- ^. — That it should not be moved forever and ever]. The 
earth was firmly established once for all, to be immutable forever. 
— 6. The deep like a garment was its covering], so (^, which is 
more probable than the vb. of |i|, followed by EV'., " Thou cov- 
eredst it," which involves an awkward change of construction. 
The primitive Tehojn, ''Deep," Gn. i^, covered the earth, which 
was buried in its depths even after the separation of the upper 



PSALM CIV. 333 

waters from the lower by the expanse of heaven. — Above the 
mountains the waters stood~\ ; even the highest mountain peaks 
were beneath the surface of these primeval waters. — 7. At Thy 
rebuke || At the sound of Thy thunder^ The voice of God speak- 
ing in the thunder of the storm, as He rides in His chariot with 
His angelic winds and Hghtnings, frightens the Deep and fills it with 
terror — and the waters flee || haste away\ This graphic poetic 
description takes the place of the calm command, Gn. i^ : " God 
said, * Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto 
one place, and let the dry land appear'; and it was so." — A 
glossator inserts a tetrameter couplet to intensify the description, 
thinking of the agitation of the sea in a storm : 8. They went up 
the mountains ; they went doivn the valleys, Unto the place that 
Thou didst found for them'], cf, 107^^-*'. — 9. That they might not 
pass the boundary Thou didst set~\. This v. is directly dependent 
as a final clause on v.^. The waters fled hastily in terror to the 
boundary fixed for them by Yahweh, beyond which thereafter they 
dared not pass. The poet evidently had in mind Jb. 38^" Pr. 8^^ 
— Might not return to cover the earth]. The separation of earth 
and sea was to be perpetual. 

Str. III. Four synth. couplets. — 10. Who sent forth springs into 
the valleys, That they might flow between the mountains]. The 
third day's work of Gn. i is really a double work : first, the sepa- 
ration of land and sea v.^^*^ ; second, the creation of vegetation 
y 11-12^ The latter is the theme of this and the subsequent Str. 
The author of Gn. i does not think of the streams, so essential to 
vegetable life. The poet supplies that defect, and emphasizes the 
refreshing streams. — 11. That they might give drink to all the 
wild animals of the field]. The animals come in here prior to 
their creation, in order to emphasize the importance of these 
streams, which the poet conceives as belonging to this order 
of creation. — That the onagers might break their thirst]. The 
specification of the beautiful wild ass may have been influenced 
by Jb. 39^"^. — 12. That the birds of heaven might settle down], 
also final clause, dependent on v.^*^, to introduce the birds as de- 
pendent on water, as in the previous couplet the animals. The 
birds settle down, cf. 55^, after their flight, on the banks of these 
streams. The introduction of " by them " by a glossator was 



334 PSALMS 

unnecessary, and it impairs the measure. — From among the 
branches give forth sojig'\ ; having settled down in the branches 
of the trees by the streams, they utter their satisfaction in notes 
of song. — 13. Who watered the mountains from His upper cham- 
bers']. The upper chambers are those framed in the upper waters 
v.^, where are the storm clouds and the lightnings. This must 
refer therefore to the rains descending upon the mountains. — 
That by His outbursts of water the earth might be satisfied']. This 
is the most probable original in accordance with the context. 
The earth is satisfied with the rains, as the mountains are watered 
by them. The waters come from the upper chambers and from 
outbursts of these waters in storms. An ancient copyist mistook 
the form for " fruit," and then was obliged to explain it by the 
addition of " Thy works " ; but it is difficult to see how these 
words can refer to the rain. 

Str. IV. Four syn. couplets. — 14-15. Who caused grass to spring 
up for cattle]. The poet, after giving the previous Str. to the 
fructifying streams, now takes up the vegetation of the third day's 
work ; and first of all the grass for the cattle, then — herbage to the 
labour of mankind]. The poet here combines with the narrative 
of the creation, Gn. i""^-, the thought of Gn. 3^''"^'^, the necessity 
of human labour in the ground, in order to win the products 
necessary for subsistence. — In order that they might bring forth 
bread from the earth]^ dependent upon the previous clause, and 
defining the herbage as the grain out of which bread is made. — 
To this is added the cultivation of the olive tree for its precious 
oil : In order that they anight make their faces to shine with oil]. 
While the oil is used for anointing the head, especially at feasts 
23^^, it is also used to soften and smooth the skin of other parts 
of the body as well as the face. The oil is mentioned probably 
because it is the product of a tree that needs cultivation. — The 
original limited itself to these ; but a glossator thought that wine 
could not be omitted, and so he inserted : and wine that glad- 
deneth the heart of man^ of. Ec. 10^^. — It is difficult to see why 
any one should have added the variant of v.^^% and bread which 
strengtheneth man's hearty which is evidently from the same hand 
as v.^^. — 16. The trees of Shadday], gigantic trees, cf. 36^ This 
reading alone explains the variation of (3 "trees of the field," 



PSALM CIV. 335 

and ^ "trees of Yahweh," followed by EV^ — A glossator ex- 
plains them very properly as cedars of Lebanon that He planted. 
— These trees have their fill'] of the nourishing rain, as in the 
previous Str. the animals, mountains, and the earth. AV. " full 
of sap " has nothing to justify it. — 17. Where the birds build their 
nests']. This is a glossator's general statement, introductory to 
the specific statement, which only was original : The stork has her 
home in the cypresses]. Tristram says that where the stork has 
neither houses nor ruins for its nest, " it selects any tree tall and 
strong enough to provide a platform for its huge nest, and for this 
purpose none are more convenient than the fir tree " {Nat. Hist. 
Bible, p. 248). — 18. The high mountains are for the wild goats]. 
The poet, as the context indicates, is thinking of these lofty moun- 
tains as having been well watered, cf. v.-^^, and so providing vege- 
tation for these wild goats in regions where no other animals can 
go. Associated with them in these lofty inaccessible regions are 
the Syrian marmots. — The crags are a refuge for marmots]. This 
animal " lives in holes in the rocks, where it makes its nest and 
conceals its young, and to which it retires at the least alarm" 
(Tristram, Nat. Hist Bible, p. 75). 

Str. V. Four syn. couplets. — 19. Who made the moon || The 
sun], the fourth day's work of Gn. i^^^^ The stars are omitted 
by our poet. — for seasons], to distinguish the seasons of the 
month and the year, as Gn. i^*. Both authors doubtless had in 
view the new moons and other religious feasts which are deter- 
mined by the moons. — to know his time of going down], to dis- 
tinguish between day and night by sunset. — A glossator adds to 
this simple statement : 20. If Thou makest darkness, then it is 
night, wherein all the wild beasts of the forest creep forth]. The 
former is a prosaic repetition of v.^^^, the latter a general introduc- 
tion to vP-. — 21. The young lions roar for prey]. After sunset 
the young Hons first become active. The night is their time to 
satisfy their hunger. — And to seek their food from 'El], cf. Jb. 
38^^; while eagerly seeking prey, they really depend upon God 
for it. — 22. When the sun rises, they gather themselves in, And 
in their dens lie down], for repose after the hunt of the night. 
As the night is the lion's time for labour, the day is his time for 
repose. The reverse is true of man. — 23. Man goeth forth to 



336 PSALMS 

his workj And to his labour until evening], Man toils during the 
day, and reposes at night. The sun gives the signal for lion and 
for man ahke. 

Str. VI. A synth. tetrastich, and synth. and syn. couplets. — 
A glossator inserts before the creation of the animals an exclama- 
tion of wonder : 24. O how manifold are Thy works, Yahweh /]. 
To this he adds, from the conception of WL. : in wisdom hast 
Thou made them all], cf. Pr. 3^^ 8^'^'. He then, to make the 
exclamation apply to all the animals, transposes v.-^ from its 
original place at the beginning of the description of the creation 
of the land animals. — 25. Yonder sea great and broad]. The 
fifth day's work of creation, Gn. i^'^, now begins. — There are 
gliding things innumerable ; Living things, small together with 
great], the innumerable and various-sized creatures that swarm 
in the sea. — 26. Leviathan which Thou didst form to play with]. 
Leviathan is the great sea monster Gn. i^, probably the whale. 
This monster, too huge for man, is to God a dear little animal to 
sport with. — A late glossator, moved by what influence it is diffi- 
cult to determine, thought the reference to the sea would be 
defective without ships, and so he inserted : there ships sail, — 
27. The introductory line, referring to the creation of the land 
animals, was removed to v.^^. It evidently belongs here : The 
earth is full of Thy creatures], so JPSV., RV.™ after (g, which 
alone suits the context. *'Thy riches," EV*., or "possessions," 
after Aq., 2, 0, 3, while a proper meaning of the Heb. word, is 
not appropriate here. — All of them on Thee wait], looking to 
God for their sustenance. A glossator adds the purpose : That 
Thou mayest give their food in its season. — But this is more 
appropriately stated in the following couplet : 28. Thou givesi to 
them : || Thou openest Thy hand — they gather it 1| they are satis- 
fied. — A glossator adds, without need and against the measure, 
the object : with good. 

Str. VII. Four syn. couplets. — 29. Thou hidest Thy face] in 
displeasure, || withdrawest their spirit]. The spirit of life of man 
and animals was imparted by the divine inbreathing Gn. 2^; when 
that spirit was withdrawn, man and animals expired Gn. 6^ — 
To this was appended by a glossator a corresponding word, the 
primitive curse Gn. 3^^ : and unto dust they return. — 30. Thou 



PSALM CIV. 337 

sendest forth Thy Spirit'], the divine Spirit which invokes in the 
creature the spirit of life. — they are created\ creatures Hve again 
II and Thou renew est the face of the groiind\ with new Hving 
creatures in place of the old that have expired. The poet evi- 
dently appends to the six days' work what he conceives as hap- 
pening on a seventh day; probably thinking of these days as 
extended periods of time. — 31. The glory of Yahweh endureth 
forever]. This in the original must have been a statement of 
fact II Yahweh is glad iti His works'], which is the poet's mode 
of stating the thought of Gn. i^^-2^, that everything God had 
made was very excellent, and that after the completion of the 
works He rested from them. But a later editor, losing sight of 
this connection, inserted a jussive substantive vb., making the 
line too long and putting the entire couplet in the form of a wish. 
This mistake is perpetuated in RV. — The same glossator, wishing 
to enhance the glory of Yahweh in this connection, brings in the 
theophanic manifestation : 32. He who looked on the earth and it 
trembled \ He toucheth the moufitai?is, and they smoke], cf. Am. 9^ 
Ps. 144^. — 33-34. The congregation unite in the gladness of Yah- 
weh over His completed work : My musing], contemplation of and 
meditation upon the works of creation above described. — is sweet 
unto Him] is agreeable and acceptable unto Yahweh 1| / am glad 
in Yahweh, — A glossator emphasized this couplet by prefixing 
another from 146^: / will sing to Yahweh while I live ; I will 
make melody to 7ny God while I have my being. — The Ps. has 
reached its appropriate end ; but a Maccabean editor is not 
satisfied until he can add an imprecation : 35. Let sinners be 
exterminated from the earth, and let the wicked not be any more, 

1. mni"nx ^tJ'OJ ""^i^] is a liturgical addition. — mrr'] in \? has arisen from 
dittog. @ has it a second time. — 2. nsjj?] (ji^^') ptc. here and throughout 
the Ps. as characteristic. — '^^St'] err. for nSpir n.f. mantle Ex. 22^-26 (E). 
— t'"'fT] ri.L curtain Je. 42'>'io20 4929 Hb. 3^ Is. 542.-8. r\-^p_pT^] article 
with demon, force ; dub. Why here and not v.2 ? Pi. ptc. f '"'"^i"' denom. 
n-^\") n.f. beam, and so frame, lay beams, elsw. Ne. 2^ 38-6 2 Ch. 34^1 ; figure 
of building, as in Am. 9^. — nr*?;;] pi. J n^'^jj n.f. upper chamber in roof 
Ju. 323. 24. 25 _^ . pi^ upper stories, so v.^^ Je. 22i3- 1*, the successive heights or 
layers of heaven, here on the upper waters, as in Am. 9^. Amos uses mSj7D. 
Hence || noy dense clouds. — 3ioi] chariot; some think of the 3n3 of iS^^ 
especially on account of the nn ""djo S;; which appears in the parall. 1. in 
z 



338 PSALMS 

both passages, and also on account of the reference to casSa in v.*; but 
v.^" is a gl. Irum i8'i, and without it 2^2'^ is better. — 4. ninn i>dn7D ntrp] is 
capable of three explanations (Dr.i^^Obi.) . (,) that of 6, V, Heb. i^ regard- 
ing lON^o as primary obj. and r)m-\ as secondary ; (2) regarding ^^n^•^ as 
ace. of material, " out of winds," Dr., De. ; (3) regarding r'm)-\ as primary 
obj. and lox^o as secondary, AE,, Ki., Ew., Hi., Hu., Now., Pe., Ba. — 
ton> u's v.'Ti-'::] must be interp. || with previous 1. The neglect of agreement 
is striking. © has irup cpXiyov. Rd. with 01s., Bi., Du., Che., ^^^\ — 5. --p;] 
pf. 3 m., but this is interp. ; change from ptc. improb. — •J"'3.n"*?3] final clause. 
— 6. ^n'»Dr] Pi. 2 m. with sf. 3 sg. & rb irepi^bXaiov avrov, \-Dr; so Aq., 6, 
TS, Street, Ba. The sf. refers to cin-, not to ysH', cf. Jb. 38^ It is prob. 
interp. — 7. I^Dir] fuller form impf. 3 pi., usual in this Ps. — 8. This 1. is 
parenthetical according to most interpreters. The change of form of pi. from 
]^ to 1 is noteworthy. It is a tetrameter gl., as Bii. — 9. re-.:' ':'"i35] not emph. 
in position, but ace. of place after vbs. of v." ; cf. Jb. 38*^-^1 Pr. S'-'^. — ina;'> "7:3] 
final clause. — 10. nSu-n;,i] article with ptc. improb. in original, cf. v.^. — 
11. D^rv::] ^\.]y:ri spring {74^^). — ^3^:^;] final clause ; so ipr^ Hiph. impf. 
v.ii. — ir"'n] as in On. i-*. — t n?.p] n.m. wild ass, as Gn. 16^'^ (J) Ho. 8^ 

Je. 14^ H 12. 2[^\*;'>] makes 1. too long; is interp. gl. — t ^'^^i*] Kt. a.X., 

D^Ov Qr. pi. foliage i>DB., © rOiv ireTpCop; so V, &, Nnvj", prob. Aram. D^Ncr. 
— 13. n|ir::] Hiph. ptc. resuming the principal clause. — l'^""*? ''"^:-^] makes 
1. too long. TZ'-;:2 is an explan. addition to ncc, but that has no mng. here. 
Rd. C'X->D outbreak of waters, as 2 S. 5^'^. — 14. n^psr] cf. N'xr-i, N^^nn of 
Gn. i"-^2._ J n-o;] n.f. labour of work v.23, as Ex. i^* +. Other kinds of 
labour not in ^. — N-'Xin'^] takes the place of final clauses of previous 
Strs. for variation of style. — 15. cun 33*^ ncc> ^m] is a gl. of different con- 
struction from context, by a scribe who thought that so important a product 
as wine should not be omitted. — '?\-ixn^] || N-'Sin'?. t C"'''^^] ^^- °-^- Hiph. 
make shining, NH. ; cf. nnx. — tj'D"' tt'UvV 33S cn'ri] is a repetitious gl. — 
16. i;*3-"] final clause, as impfs. above. — nin> ^x;*] so S, ^, but (§ rov ire- 
5Lov. The original was doubtless ^tj', which might be either ^I'lT or ^it-. — 
;;aj t^'n pn^ "•fs] explan. gl. — 17. n"^'"">r.'>^] improb.; the whole 1. is a 
gl. — iJ2[!^] Pi. impf. Jpp denom. |P nesl {84^). — t ^T?!?] n.f. stork, as 
Lv. iii» bt. 14I8 Je. 8^ Zc. 59, cf. Jb. 39^^. — J '^'nj] n.m. cypress ox fir, as 
Is. 148 37-* Ez. 318 +; acc. of place. ® ^7etTai a^wv = C"^n-\3 improb. — 
18. f^V'] n.[m.] luild mountain goat, as i S. 24^ Jb. 39^. — f c^jf^u*] small 
animals resembling marmots, Pr. -yfi^- '^ Lv. 11^ = Dt. 14'^. ® x^'POTPi^^^'O'S* 
(gv. c. a. A. T Xa7u;6is. — 19. nr-;] pf. of vb. as in Str. II. -ip;, but MT. pointing 
is interp.; ptc. is more prob. — D'^v'^'d] sacred seasons, as Gn. i^* (P) ; not 
merely time, as Pss. 75^ 102^*. — y^^] pf. Qal seems out of place; rd. inf. — 

20. T'C-f^ juss., followed by 'n>i, simple 1 and juss. ; prot. and apod, condi- 
tional clause. But 1. is tetrameter and is a gl. ; so also is the next 1. — 

21. '^"];t]\ inf. carries on the previous ptc, cf. Dr.206. — 22. n-'*;'] juss., 
temporal or conditional clause as v.^'^, with pcD.v in apod. — 23. '."•'/2?~' ] has 
two accents. — 24. uynr:] exclamation of wonder, interjected gl. ; so also 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 339 

T)I^y2^y r\'o::)n2 dV?, which is premature before the cnrnpletiDn of creation. — 
t|^j|7] n.m., a late word from njp =ge^, beget : " creatures ' RV.'", alone suited 
to the context as to the usage of vb. ; but noun not elsw. in this sense, but 
of thing acquired by purchase 10521, as Gn. 31I8 342^ 366 Lv. 22I1 Jos. 14^ 
(all P) Ez. 38i'^- 13 Pr. 4^. The creatures of earth are out of place here. They 
belong after the water animals in v.^'^. The editor who inserted previous 
clause transposed the line here as most suitable to this exclamation. — 
25. D^n .1;] yonder sea, cf. TD n? Ju. 5^, as Che., Ew., De. ; not "yonder is 
the sea," of Pe., Hu. — d:-^^ ^DT] makes 1. too long ; last word needless, gl. — 
% i:'p">] n.m. coll. for the "p-' of Gn. i^i ; only here of water animals, usually 
as 148!'^ creeping things of land, but Gn. 9^ (P) all moving things. — 26. nrjs] 
ships, improb. in original ; the 1. is a late gl. — |-~''''i'^] cf. Jb. 4025-41^*, whale. 

— n:] for relative. — 1:) pn^'S]. The sf. does not refer to the sea ; but, as Ew., 
Che., to Leviathan. The vb. takes :: idiomatically in this sense, as in 
Jb. 40-^. — 27. D^r] ill the context refers to previous water animals of fifth 
day of creation ; but the subsequent context requires land animals of sixth 
day. V.25C belongs at the beginning of this Str. — ?n2t:'^] Pi. impf., Arama- 
ism, as 119I66 145I5 Is. 38I8 Est. 9I; v. Ps. 6921. — in>;3 a^DS nr';'] a general 
statement, variant of v.-'^« and a gl. — 28. \t\7\'\ prot. oif temp, clause. — 
\\'6^h^;\ apod. jDpV vb. Qal gather Gn. 31^6 Ex. i6't-5-26 (j) +._29. ^^^\ 
Hiph. impf. ^Ds for f;psn. — |orc'^ oncy Vni] is agl. from Gn. 3!^. — 31. nUD •'n-] 
^ni juss. is improb. ; it is an interp. gl., making 1. too long. — 32. JO'^san] ptc. 
rel. clause. — "'J'I'li]] i consec. result. This v. seems out of harmony with Ps. 
and is a gl. — yr] prot. of temp, clause with irk!';;"'! in apod., as v.^*^-^''. — 
33. ^-^«•li•N] cohort, impf. |I mcTN. — ^"'ns] during my life, cf. 63^. — "'")''> 3] 
implies t'\ — This v. is a gl., amplification of v.^. — 35. iDri^] impf. acr, cf. 
Nu. 14^^. The imprecation of this v. is a late gl., altogether unsuited to Ps. 

— mniTN itt'flj '•312] is a liturgical gl., as at beginning. 



PSALMS CV.-CVL, 24 str. 4I 

Ps. 105 reminds the seed of Abraham and Jacob that Yahweh 
their God remembers forever His covenant with the fathers (v.^^°). 
The story of the patriarchs is then told till the descent into Egypt 
(^^12.14.16-21 23-23^) /pj^g Sending of Moses and the plagues of Egypt 
are then described, closing with the leading forth of the people 
^y 26-27 29-37^ ^^ Introductory gloss makes the Ps. into a Hallel by 
its emphasis upon public worship in its varied phases (v.^"^). A 
concluding gloss carries on the history in outline until the entrance 
into Palestine (v.^^^). Sundry glosses illustrate and expand the 
history (v."- 1^- is. 22n^^ ^j^^ ^^ times introduce new elements (v.^^). 
Ps. 106 begins with the history of Israel where Ps. 105 ends, 



340 PSALMS 

at the crossing of the Red Sea (v.^ ") ; and carries it on through the 
wilderness (v.^^ ^'- ^'•^- ^^ ^-*^- ^'^-'^^) ; then briefly sums up the story of 
the miseries of the time of the judges (y.^^ "^^-s-. 4(mi. 44-45^ ^ j^ ^^g 
made into a Hallel by an introductory gloss (v.^"^), and an insertion 
(v.^-), to which a penitential character is given by (v.^*^ ^^). Expan- 
sive glosses were also inserted (v.^^- ^^ ^- ^-- ^- ^). The Ps. was given 
greater completeness by glosses referring to the later history of 
the nation, even till subsequent to the Exile (y.^^-sa 42-43. 46-47^^ 



CV. 

VE seed of Abraham His servant, 

Sons of Jacob (His) chosen, 

He, Yahweh, is our God : 

In all the earth are His deeds of judgment. 
T-IE doth remember iorever His covenant. 

The word He commanded to a thousand generations; 

Which He made with Abraham, 

And appointed to Jacob as a statute. 
■XXTHEN they were men that could be numbered, 

As it were few and sojourners in (the land), 

He suffered no one to oppress them. 

And reproved kings for their sake. 
A ND He called a famine on the land: 

The whole staff of bread He brake 

He sent before them a man ; 

For a slave Joseph was sold. 
•THEY afflicted his feet with fetters: 

Into irons he entered, 

Until the time His word came to pass. 

The saying of Yahweh that tested him. 
T-JE sent a king and released him, 

A ruler of peoples and set him free. 

He made him lord of his household. 

And ruler over all his possessions. 
'PHEX Israel came to Egypt, 

And Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham. 

When He made His people very fruitful, 

Their heart turned to hatred. 
IJE sent Moses His servant, 

Aaron whom He had chosen. 

He put miraculous deeds. 

And wonders in the land of Ham, 
T-JE changed their waters into blood. 

Their land swarmed with frogs. 

He commanded and the swarm came, 

Gnats in all their borders. 



PSALMS CV.-CVI. 341 

TJE gave them hail for rain, 

Flaming fire in their land; 

And smote their vines and fig trees, 

And brake in pieces the trees of their border. 
TJE commanded and the locusts came, 

And the young locusts without number; 

And ate all the herbage in their land, 

And ate all the fruit of their ground. 
A ND He smote all the first born in their land, 

The first fruits of all their strength ; 

And led forth (His people) with silver and gold; 

And there was none that stumbled among His tribes. 

CVI. 
A ND He rebuked the Sea of Reeds, and it dried up; 

And He led them in the depths as in a wilderness : 

And the waters covered over their adversaries. 

Not one of them was left over, 
'THEN they desired a desire in the wilderness, 

And tested 'El in the desert. 

And He gave to them their request, 

And sent food according to their desire. 
'THEN they were jealous of Moses in the camp, 

And of Aaron, the consecrated to Yahweh; 

The earth opened and swallowed up Dathan, 

And covered over the company of Abiram, 
Z'pHEN) they made a calf in Horeb, 
^ And worshipped a molten image; 

They forgat 'El their Saviour, 

Who did great deeds in Egypt. 
'THEN (Yahweh) had commanded to destroy them. 

Were it not that Moses, His chosen, 

Stood in the breach before Him, 

To turn away His wrath from destroying. 
"THEN they refused the desirable land. 

And did not hearken to the voice of Yahweh. 

And He lifted up His hand to them. 

To make them fall in the wilderness. 
'THEN they joined themselves to Baal Peer, 

And ate the sacrificial meals of the dead; 

And provoked (Yahweh) by their doings : 

And a plague broke out against them. 
'THEN Phinehas stood up and interposed. 

And the plague was stayed (from them) ; 

And it was counted to him for righteousness 

To generation after generation forever. 
"THEN they enraged Him at the waters of Meribah, 

And it went ill with Moses for their sake; 

For they rebelled against His Spirit, 

And he spake rashly with his lips. 



342 PSALMS 

'PHEY did not destroy the peoples; 

And served their idols, 

And these became a snare to them, 

And they sacrificed their sons to Shedim. 
'T'HEN the anger of Yahweh was kindled against His people. 

And He abhorred His inheritance. 

And gave them into the hand of the nations ; 

And they that hated them ruled over them. 
HTHEN He looked upon their distress, 

When He heard their yell; 

And remembered His covenant with them. 

And was sorry according to the abundance of His kindness. 

Pss. 105-106 were originally one Ps. The former carries on the history 
of Israel to the going forth from Egypt. The latter begins with the crossing 
of the Red Sea, and carries the history through the period of the Q^tOQC It is 
altogether improbable that a poet would close his poem with the former, or 
begin his poem with the latter event. The Ps. was divided into two for 
liturgical reasons; and the first part was put in the form of a Hallel by a long 
introduction v^"^; the latter was given a penitential character by an introduc- 
tion v.^-^ and by various glosses. After the separation an editor, seeing the 
inappropriateness of letting a Ps. conclude with the going forth from Egypt, 
adds v.88^* to carry on the history until the entrance into Palestine. Similar 
reasons led the editor to append to the second part io6*6-*7, and to insert 
y^86. 88. 39. 42. 43^ jjj order to mingle with the afflictions and deliverances of 
the time of the " Shophets " reference to the afflictions and deliverances 
of the later history even to post-exilic times. Under these circumstances 
we would expect many interpretative, expansive, and liturgical glosses, 

IOC«>. 106. 11. 13. 15. 22. 24!). 25b. 28. 2». 306 io6^0. 12. 13. 18. 20. 22. 246. 25a. 27. 346^ Throwing 

off these glosses, the original Ps. had twenty-four trimeter tetrastichs, half of 
which are now in each of the Pss. into which the original was divided. The 
original Ps. is based on 78 of ^. The ancient history has been derived from 
the Hexateuch and Judges in their present form ; so that the Ps. cannot be 
earlier than the latter part of the Persian period. Its dependence on ^ 
brings it down into the Greek period. The poem also used Is. 63^' in 106^^ 
and Is. 63!'^ in 106^^0^ There is a reference in 106^'^ to Dt. 321"^, in io626 to Ez. 
2o23, in io623 to Ez. 22*^, and in 1062* to Je. 31^ or Zc. 7I*. The Pss. indi- 
cate a varied use of earlier Lit. : 105I, of. Is. 12*; 10536, cf. 78"; 105^ cf. Ps. 
119I8; 1053-^ cf. Is. 527; 105*0- ",cf Ps. 7820-24. io6^ cf. I K. 8*7; io69«, cf. 
Na. I*; io62o«, cf. Je. 2"; io627, cf. Ez. 2o23; 1066, cf Ezr. 92; 106*8, cf i K. 
8^. The Chronicler (i Ch. 16) combines 105I-15 96, io6i- *7 jn a Hallel, 
which is given as a specimen of Davidic Psalmody. There can be no doubt 
that the Ps. is older than its use in Chr. But the use that is made of it im- 
plies that the Ps. was much older. Besides, it is used in its present form with 
all the glosses. These could not have originated prior to the Chronicler, 
There can be little doubt, therefore, that these specimens were later additions 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 343 

to the Chronicles, and not used by the Chronicler himself. Ps. 105 has no title, 
but nM'?"?n is given at the end, as also at the end of 104. (3 has aWrjXovLd at 
the beginning of 105 and 106, and not at the end of 104 or 105 ; and this is 
doubtless correct. These Pss. are evidently Hallels, and so indicated by n^V'rn 
(v. Intr. § 35). For the Doxology 106*8, r^^ i^tr. § 40. 

PSALM CV. 

The Ps. has an introductory gloss, making it into a Hallel. 
1. A tetrameter couplet from Is. 12'^: Give thanks to Yahweh'], 
so 106^ 107^ 118^ 136^ in the special form of the Hodu (v. Intr. 
§ 35). — proclaim His name^, as Ex. 33^^ 34^' ^ This meaning 
alone suited to context. " Call upon His name " of EV'., though 
a possible meaning of the phr., is not appropriate here. — make 
known among the peoples His doings'], cf. 9^^. Israel celebrates 
the wondrous deeds of deliverance and judgment wrought by 
Yahweh by publishing them to the world. — 2. Sing to Him II 
make melody to Him], with vocal and instrumental music. — hum 
of all His wondrous deeds'], the indistinct humming sound of one 
who makes music for himself alone, cf. Ju. 5^^- ". — 3. Glory in His 
holy name], make boast of the majestic sacredness of the renown 
won by Yahweh, cf. 34^ Is. 41^^ — Let the heart be glad]. Such 
praise gives joy to the heart, — of them that seek Him] ; so 
assonance requires ; but a glossator enlarged the line by substi- 
tuting for the sf. the divine name "Yahweh." — 4. Seek after 
Yahweh || seek continually], two syn. words used of resorting to 
the temple, the place of His abode, — and His strength], inter- 
mediate between Yahweh and || His face, can only refer to the 
strength of His hfted hands and outstretched arms. — 5. Com- 
memorate], celebrate by bringing to mind ; and not "remember" 
of EV ., — the wonders of His doing], cf. v^ ; enlarged by glossator 
into : "His wondrous deeds that He hath done," — His marvels]^ 
used especially of the miracles of the Exodus, cf. v.^^ — the acts 
of judgment of His presence]. A copyist, by the omission of a 
single letter, has destroyed the assonance and compelled the ren- 
dering "judgments of His mouth." But the context requires 
deeds of judgment and not proclamations. Thus far the intro- 
ductory Hallel ; the original Ps. begins with v.^ 

Str. I. Syn. and synth. couplets. — 6. Ye seed of Abraham || 
Sons of facob]. The people are summoned in the name of their 



344 PSALMS 

original ancestors. — His sefvant\ doubtless conceiving Abraham 
as a prophetic servant, Gn. 15. — || His chosen\ doubtless in the 
original referring to Jacob as chosen rather than Esau ; but a 
copyist's error or misinterpretation made it pi. " His chosen 
ones," referring to all the sons. — 7. He, Yahweh, is our God'l. 
Yahweh is in a special sense the God of all the descendants of 
Abraham and Jacob, their national God. — In all the earth are 
His deeds of judgment\ Yahweh does not limit His wondrous 
deeds to the land of Israel, but in all the earth they have been 
wrought. 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets. — 8. He doth retnember His cove- 
nant II The word He C07n7nanded\ Yahweh was in covenant 
relations with Israel from the time of their forefathers, and that 
covenant was essentially a word of promise. This Yahweh re- 
members and never forgets. He is faithful to it, — for ever || to 
a thousand generations'], as Ex. 20^. — 9-10. Which He made with 
Abraham], as Gn. 15, i 7 ; || A7id appointed to Jacob as a statute], 
Gn. 28, 35. The covenant was not only promise, but a law. A 
glossator enlarges by inserting a reference to Isaac : and His oath 
unto Isaac, and adds the more general statement : to Israel an 
everlasting covenant ; and also the essential promise of that cove- 
nant : 11. Saying: To thee will I give the land of Canaan, the lot 
of your inheritance], cf. 78^. 

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. — 12. When they were men that 
could be numbered || As it were few], in antithesis with the promise 
that their seed would be innumerable, and also with the reality in 
the history of the nation reviewed by the psalmist in his own mind, 
— and sojourners in the land]. The land of Canaan was not yet 
theirs. It was still in the possession of the Canaanites, and they 
were sojourners in it, going about from place to place as nomads. 
A glossator enlarged upon this in 13. And went about from 
nation to nation, from people wetit to people]. The last clause was 
changed by error to *' from a kingdom to another people." In 
any case the gloss indicates a conception of the patriarchal history 
in terms of the later history of the Exile. — 14. He suffered no one 
to oppr-ess them], thinking of the relation of Abraham to the 
Canaanites and of Jacob to Laban, — And reproved kings for their 
sake], Pharaoh Gn. 12^^'^-, and Abimelech Gn. 20, 26. To this 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 345 

also the glossator adds words of Yahweh : 15. Saying, Touch not 
Mine anointed'\, conceiving of the patriarchs as anointed kings, 
of. Gn. 14, — and fo My prophets do no harm\ conceiving of the 
patriarchs as prophets, cf. Gn. 20^ Both of these conceptions of 
the patriarchs were late ones. 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 16. And He called a famine on 
the land~\, Gn. 41^^'' 42. — The whole staff of bread He brake\ 
bread as the staff of Hfe, cf. Lv. 26-^ Ps. 104^^ — 17. He sent 
before them a man'], a single man to be the means of saving his 
brethren, Gn. 45^-^ 50^. — J^or a slave Joseph was sold], Gn. 37. 
All these events were connected in the purpose of God for the 
fulfilment of His covenant with the fathers. 

Str. V. Two syn. couplets. — 18. They afflicted his feet with 
fetters, Into irons he entered], so essentially RV., JPSV. He 
was thrown into a dungeon and put in irons Gn. 39*. The ren- 
dering of PBV., " the iron entered into his soul," is sentimental, 
against the ||, and altogether improbable. — 19. Until the time His 
word came to pass], the word of divine promise was fulfilled ; || The 
saying of Yahweh that tested him]. This doubtless refers to the 
prediction contained in the dreams Gn. 37^^". 

Str. VI. Two syn. couplets. — 20. He sent a king || A ruler of 
peoples], Pharaoh, king of Egypt, Gn. 41, — and released him || 
set him free], from prison. — 21. He made him lord of his house- 
hold II ruler over all his possessions] . Pharaoh exalted him to the 
highest dignity in reward for his right interpretation of dreams 
and his wise counsel Gn. 4i^^'i-. A glossator added : 22. to bind 
his princes at his will, and that he might teach his elders wisdom], 
arbitrary power and wisdom beyond that of the Egyptian wise 
men; an exaggeration of Gn. 41*^"^^ in the Maccabean temper. 

Str. VII. Syn. and synth. couplets. — 23. Then Israel \ Jacob], 
doubtless here referring to the journey of the patriarch himself Gn. 
46-47, — came to Egypt || sojourned in the land of Ham], cf. v.^^ 
78^^ — 24. When He made His people very fruitful], as Ex. i^ 
This is enlarged by a glossator on the basis of Ex. i® into, — and 
made them stronger than their adversaries], certainly an inappro- 
priate exaggeration, which if true made the divine interposition 
unnecessary. — 25. Their heart turned to haired], so JPSV., 
which is more probable than EV'., " He turned their heart." A 



346 PSALMS 

glossator strengthened, as he thought, the statement by adding : 
to deal craftily with His servants ^ referring to the afflictions of 
Ex. i^^; which required him to change the noun " hatred" into 
an inf. "to hate," and then give the vb. its object, " His people," 
all at the expense of the measure. 

Str. VIII. Two syn. couplets. — 26. He sent Moses || Aaron\ 
cf. Ex. 3-4, — His servant || whotn He had chosen^ Moses and 
Aaron now take the same relative positions, as prophet and chosen 
of Yahweh, as Abraham and Jacob v.^ — 27. He put miraculous 
deeds \ And wonders in the land of Ham']. The ancient Vrss. are 
doubtless correct in making God the subject of the vb., and J^, 
followed by EV'., is in error in making Moses and Aaron the sub- 
ject. The miracles are the plagues of Egypt, the most of which 
are now mentioned, based on the narratives of Exodus in their 
present form. A glossator inserts one which had been omitted in 
the original, here at the beginning, out of its proper order in the 
narrative. — 28. He sent darkness and it became darl:]. This is 
a plague peculiar to E, Ex. lo^^*^- The following line is altogether 
inappropriate in the context. It cannot be other than a marginal 
gloss : And they rebelled not against His word~\. This can hardly 
refer to the Egyptians, who in no sense could be regarded as in 
rebellion against Yahweh. It is elsw. used only of the people of 
God. It was probably a glossator's assertion that at this period, 
in distinction from that covered by 106, the people did not rebel 
against Yahweh, but were faithful to Him. 

Str. IX. Synth, tetrastich, heaping up four plagues. — 29. He 
changed their waters into blood~\, the first plague, Ex. y^'^'i-. A 
glossator adds : and slew their fish, making the line into a pentam- 
eter. — 30. Their land swarmed with frogs'] . This is the second 
plague of Ex. 8^^-. A glossator makes the line into a pentameter 
by adding : in the chambers of their king. — 31. He com??iandedy 
and the swarm came], the plague of Ex. S^^'^- Ps. 78'^ ; a variation 
of which by another narrator Ex. 8^^ ""^ : Gnats in all their borders. 
These four plagues were all connected with the fouling of the Nile 
in the several narratives of Exodus. It is appropriate that they 
should be combined together. 

Str. X. Two syn. couplets, enlarging upon the plague of Ex. 
^13 sq. ps^ 78^^-^.-32. He gave them hail \\ Flaming fire], a storm 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 347 

of thunder and lightning, — for rain\ instead of rain, in its place. 

— 33. And smote || brake in pieces^ by the violence of the hail, 

— their vines and fig trees \\ the trees of their border'] . 

Str. XI. Also two syn. couplets, enlarging upon the plague Ex. 
jQiiq. pg^ yg46^ — 2^ jj^ commanded and the locusts came || young 
locusts without number]. Innumerable locusts came up in obedi- 
ence to the divine command and devoured the land. — 35. Ate\ 
repeated for emphasis, — all the herbage in their land \ the fruit 
of their ground, 

Str. XII. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 36. And He smote all 
the first born in their land || The fi?'st fruits of all their strength]. 
This is the final plague, Ex. 1 1^*"!- Ps. 78^^ the seventh of those men- 
tioned in this Ps. — 37. And led forth His people]. The original 
doubtless was so ; but a copyist, by the omission of a single letter, 
reduced the object to the sf. " them." This sf. in all the previous 
context was used of Egypt, and it was necessary to distinguish in. 
some way that Israel was the object of this vb. — with silver and 
gold], jewels and ornaments, as Ex. 12^-^. — And there was none 
that stumbled among His tribes]. All the people were protected 
by Yahweh and made vigorous and strong. Thus far the original 
Ps., which was continued in 106^ ^'^•. But when the separation was 
made, it was evident that v.^'' was no proper ending for a Ps., and 
accordingly there was the gradual accretion of the glosses v.^^^. 

— 38 is a glossator's exultation over the terror of the Egyptians. — 
Egypt was glad when they went forth ; for the fear of them had 
fallen upon them], cf. Ex. 12^ 15^^. — 39 is a reference to the 
theophanic pillar of Ex. 1321-22 1419-20^ but in terms quite different 
from those of the ancient history or even of Ps. yS^'* : He spread a 
cloud for a screen, and fire to give light by night]. This was prob- 
ably influenced by Is. 4^"*^. In the history the cloud was a theo- 
phanic leader and guide, and not a screen from the rays of the 
sun. — 40-41. Three of the miracles in the wilderness are men- 
tioned: They asked, and He brought quails], Ex. i6^^"^- Ps. 78^^ 
The pi. of ancient Vrss. is to be preferred to the sg. of |^. — and 
with bread of heaven He used to satisfy them], the giving of the 
manna, Ex. i6''''^- Ps. 78^'^^^ This v. goes over into the narrative 
of 106^*"^^. — He ope7ied the rock, and waters gushed out], Ex. 
I7^«^- Nu. 2oi«i- Ps. ^%^^-^^-^'^,~and they flowed in thirsty lands 



348 PSALMS 

as a river. — 42-44 give a general statement of the Exodus and 
entrance into the holy land. — For He remefndered~\,3i?> v.^, His 
holy word with Abraham His servant'], as v.^, — and He brought 
forth His people || His chosen\ resumption of v.^^, — with joy || 
with Jubilation'], hardly consistent with the historic narrative, but 
an ideal situation. — and gave them the lands of the nations], the 
nations of Palestine, which were dispossessed at the entrance and 
in the subsequent history, — and the toil of the peoples], the fruit 
of their labours, especially in the cultivated fields, — they in- 
herited], took possession of as their inheritance, given to them by 
their God, which they would transmit to their children. — 45 is a 
legalistic conclusion : in order that they itiight keep || observe]. 
According to the legalistic mind the final aim and purpose of the 
entire history of Israel was, — His statutes || His laivs]. The 
divine Pentateuchal Law was the supreme purpose of God, as well 
as the highest ideal of His people. 

PSALM CVL 

Ps. io6, after its separation from 105, was made into a Hallel by 
prefixing v.^"*. — 1. Give thanks to Yahiveh^for He is good ; for 
His kindness endureth forever], the liturgical phr. 107^ 118^ 136^ 
Je. 33^^ Ezr. 3^^ I Mac. 4^*. Yahweh is "good" in the sense 
of kind, benignant, beneficent, being good to His people. — 

2. Who can utter || make to be heard], in public praise, — the 
mighty acts of Yahweh || His praise], for the doing of them. — 

3. Happy they that keep || that do], in the practice of right con- 
duct, — justice, 2iS the II righteousness requires; and not "judg- 
ment " as EV'., whether interpreted in the sense of the Law or 
more generally. Another hand appends v.*"^, apparently the 
petition of an individual, possibly originally a marginal gloss. — 

4. Remember me, Yahweh || visit me], the divine interposition 
is invoked, — according to Thy favour toward Thy people], the 
habitual goodwill shown by Yahweh toward His people, in which 
the petitioner longs to share. || Thy salvation], in the general 
sense, not only in deliverance from enemies and troubles, but in 
the enjoyment of prosperity. — 5. That I may look upon], preg- 
nant ; with gratification || that I may be glad with the gladness || 
that I may glory] in exultant boasting. That which is so ardently 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 349 

longed for is — prosperity, good things which were enjoyed by — 
Thy chosen 07ie || Thy nation || Thifie inheritance'], emphasizing 
the close personal relation of Israel to Yahweh. — 6-8 is a peni- 
tential gloss. — 6. We have sinned, we have done iniquity, we have 
done wickedly] ; the three vbs., in emphatic coordination without 
conjunction, are an explicit and solemn confession of sin, — with 
our fathers], participating with and sharing in their guilt. — 7. The 
specific guilt of the fathers especially in mind was in Egypt. There 
ihey considered not || they did not remember — Thy wondrous deeds, 
of deliverance from the Egyptians || the abundance of Thy kind- 
ness], in caring for them and providing for their needs. (^, Aq., 
J, C have the sg., in accordance with the usage of the phr., but 
J^, <S, followed by AV., have pi. " deeds of kindness," which was 
assimilated to the previous pi. On the positive side, — they re- 
belled]. We would expect the name of God against whom they 
rebelled ; and so doubtless the original reading was ^Elyon, followed 
by the locality, — at the Sea of Reeds] Ex. 14^^'^^ But J^, by an 
error, instead of the former, gives " at the sea," followed by S, J, 
2E, and EV*., an intolerable repetition. (§ interprets the form 
as a ptc, "going up"; but this does not suit the context. — 
8. A general statement prior to the beginning of the original Ps. ; 
And He saved them for His name's sake], for His own honour 
and reputation, cf. Ez. 20^- ^^ \ the last clause explained by, — in 
order to make known His might] ; the putting forth of His might 
in the deliverance of His people was a making it evidently known 
to all nations. 

Str. I. Two synth. couplets. — 9. And He rebuked the Sea of 
Reeds]. The sea is conceived as a servant, who had exceeded 
his authority and done what he ought not to have done, or rather 
neglected something he ought to have done. The sea should 
have been prompt to serve Yahweh and His people. — and it 
dried up]. Its bottom was laid bare by the flight of the waters in 
terror of the divine rebuke, cf. 104'' Ex. 14^^"-^. — and He led them 
in the depths as in a wilderness]. A mode of statement derived 
from Is. 63^^. The depths of the sea had become as dry as the 
wilderness on its borders. — 10 is an expansive gloss, intervening 
between the antithetic couplets. — And saved them || redeemed 
them — frotn the hand of], repeated in prosaic style, — hi7n that 



3 so PSALMS 

hated him || the enemy'], the Egyptians. — 11. And the waters 
covered over their adversaries], having returned to their depths ; 
and so completely were these destroyed by drowning that, — Not 
one of them was left over], cf. Ex. 14^. A glossator inserts a 
reference to the song Ex. 15: 12-13. And they believed in His 
word and sang His praise. This was followed by a censure in 
the spirit of v.^'. — They hurriedly forgat His works and tarried 
not for His counsel], cf. Ex. is^"^^- i62''^- \f^\ 

Str. II. Two syn. couplets. — 14. Then they desired a desire], 
cf. Nu. 11^ Ps. 78^^^^ : had an overpowering desire for fleshly food. 
This under the circumstances tested ^El], tried Him by questioning 
His ability to provide for them. — 15. And He gave to them || 
And sent food] ; the most probable reading in a difficult passage. 
An ancient copyist, by the mistake of a single letter, used a word 
which means " wasting, leanness, disease " according to J^, 
" satiety " according to (^, U ; both implying the punishment for 
the testing God, and making the line antithetical with the previ- 
ous one instead of synonymous ; which is altogether improbable, 
especially in view of the parallelism of the vbs. and also of the 
nouns : their request || their desire, cf. 78^^ 

Str. III. Two syn. couplets. — 16. When they were jealous], 
cf. Nu. 16, — of Moses \ of Aaron], the two leaders of Israel; 
this was partly tribal and partly personal. Aaron is further de- 
scribed as the consecrated to Yahzveh], doubtless referring to the 
inscription upon the high priest's mitre Ex. 28^^^. — 17. The 
earth opened], in earthquake, — and swallowed up Dathan || cov- 
ered over the company of Abiram]. The author leaves out of con- 
sideration altogether the Levitical Korah of the later narrative, 
and Hmits his attention to the Reubenite of the earlier narrative 
Nu. i6^'^*. A glossator, noting the incompleteness of the state- 
ment, supplies the defect by introducing a reference to the 
Korahites in 18. And fire consinned their congregation, flame 
licked up the wicked], cf. Nu. 16^. 

Str. IV. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 19. The7i they made a 
calf in Horeb || and worshipped a molten image], the story of Ex. 
32^"^. This is enlarged by a prosaic gloss. — 20. and changed 
their glory], the theophanic glory in which their God manifested 
Himself to them, — into the likeness of an ox that eateth herbage], 



PSALMS CV.-CVI. 351 

using the terminology of Dt. 4i6i7.i8_ _ 21. They for gat "El their 
Saviour^ Who did great deeds in Egypt']. He was their Saviour 
through the great deeds of salvation He had wrought in delivering 
them from the Egyptians. This is expanded by a glossator into 
22. wondrous deeds || awe-inspiring deeds, in the land of Ham 
II by the Sea of Reeds. 

Str. V. A synth. tetrastich. — 23. Then Yahweh had com- 
manded to destroy them]. This is the apodosis of a conditional 
clause, which the protasis shows to have been something about 
to take place, and not as having actually occurred. " Yahweh " 
was omitted in text by copyist's error, but it is necessary to 
complete the measure. — Were it not that Moses, His chosen], 
Moses was the chosen of Yahweh here, as Jacob 105^ and Aaron 
105^^. — Stood in the breach before Him], a warrior's interposition, 
of. for the phr. Ez. 22^^ BS. 45'^, and for the event Ex. 32^^"^. — 
To turn away His wrath from destroying], cf. Ps. 78^. 

Str. VI. Two synth. couplets. — 24-25. Then they refused the 
desirable land], cf. Nu. 14^^ for the event, and Je. 3^^ Zc. f^ for 
the phr. — And did ?iot hearken to the voice of Yahweh], to obey 
Him by going up to take possession of the land. The glossator 
enlarged this by inserting two lines : and did not believe His 
word], of promised help in battle against their enemies, — and 
they murmured in their tents], from Dt. i^^ — 26. And He lifted 
up His hand to the?n], the gesture of the divine oath Ex. 6^ Dt. 
32^^ Ez. 20^; and cf. for the event Nu. 14^^ — To make them 
fall in the wilderness], that is, fall in death until the entire gen- 
eration except Joshua and Caleb had perished. A glossator, with 
great historical impropriety, adds a clause which can only refer to 
the great Exile many centuries later : 27. to make their seed fall 
away among the nations, and to disperse them among the lands. 

Str. VII. A synth. tetrastich. — 28. Then they joined theftiselves 
to Baal-Peor], attached themselves to the worship of Baal as cele- 
brated at Peor; an apostasy from Yahweh Nu. 25. — And ate the 
sacrificial meals of the dead], the feasts attached to the offering 
of the peace offerings to Baal, whose real existence is denied by 
this poet, who lives at a time when other deities than Yahweh were 
considered as not real beings, but lifeless as their images them- 
selves, cf. 135^^^^ — 29. And provoked Yahweh by their doings]^ 



352 PSALMS 

their apostasy from Him and worship of Baal in fellowship with 
the Moabites. — And a plague brake out against them\ sent by 
Yahweh as a punishment. 

Str. VIII. Two synth. couplets. — 30. Then Phinehas stood 
up and interposed^ Nu. 25^"^^. This interposition of Phinehas was 
the act of a soldier rather than of a priest, executing vengeance 
upon the ringleader of the apostasy. AV. " execute judgment " 
substitutes the result for the act expressed by the vb., and over- 
looks the mediatorial significance of his act. — And the plague was 
stayed], by Yahweh in response to this interposition. — 31. And 
it was counted to him for righteousness]. Yahweh estimated it 
as an act of meritorious righteousness, and rewarded him with a 
covenant giving him an everlasting priesthood ; which was doubt- 
less in the mind of the psalmist in his phrase — To generation 
after generation forever. 

Str. IX. A synth. tetrastich, in which the third hne depends on 
the first, the fourth on the second. — 32-33. Then they enraged 
Him at the waters of Meribah] Nu. 20®'^^ This is explained by — 
For they rebelled agaifist His Spirit], an interpretation of the his- 
tory based on Is. 63'^ which identifies the divine Spirit with the 
angel of the presence of the Pentateuchal history. The narrative 
involves Moses and Aaron in this transgression, although it does 
not make it clear in what exactly their guilt consisted. So here : 
And it went ill with Moses for their sake]. The author thinks 
that Moses had to suffer not so much on account of what he had 
done as for his association with guilty Israel, and yet he tries to 
explain by : he spake rashly with his lips] , the most probable mng. 
of a rare word, which gives practically no better explanation of the 
sin of Moses than the original passage. 

Str. X. A syn. tetrastich. — 34. They did not destroy the peo- 
ples]. They were commanded to exterminate the Canaanites, 
but did not do it, cf. Ex. 23^2-^ 34^-"^- Dt. f^ Ju. i2i-27.29Bq. ^i.^.^ 
A glossator adds : which Yahiveh commanded them ; and also, 35, 
the antithetical positive offence : and mingled themselves with the 
nations, and learned their works, which seems to reflect a post- 
exilic situation rather than the time of the judges. — 36. And 
sefved their idols]. This is the second Hne of the original tetra- 
stich. The Israelites participated in the idolatry of the Canaanites, 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 353 

— and they became a snare to them], cf. Ex. 23^. — 37. And they 
sacrificed their sons to Shedim], The Shedim were the ancient 
gods of Canaan, called " Shedim," originally meaning " lords," and 
no more objectionable as a divine title than "BaaUm " or " Adonay " ; 
but it became so associated with the worship of Baal at a very early 
date that it won a bad repute, and so in the mind of later Israel 
it amounted to about the same as demons. Human sacrifice was 
common in ancient times among all the inhabitants of Palestine, 
and probably among the Hebrews also before it was prohibited by 
law. But for a long time it prevailed notwithstanding the pro- 
hibition, even down to the Exile. It was not common, however, 
to sacrifice daughters. This word makes the line too long, and 
was doubtless an insertion, due to the gloss v.^. A late glossator, 
long distant in time from the period when such sacrifices were 
made, filled with horror at the thought and not knowing much 
about them, adds : 38-39. And shed innocent blood, the blood of 
their sons and their datighters, which they sacrificed to the idols of 
Canaan ; and the land was polluted with their blood. And they 
became unclean by their works, and went a-whoring by their 
doings']. This glossator is evidently more disturbed by cere- 
monial desecration of the land and people than by moral or 
religious considerations. 

Str. XI. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 40. Then the anger of 
Yahweh was kindled against || A^id He abhorred], both Deu- 
teronomic expressions. The object of the divine wrath was : His 
people II His inheritance. As a consequence of this anger and ab- 
horrence — 41. And gave them into the hand of the nations], per- 
mitted them to be defeated in battle by the several nations, which 
subdued them in the times of the judges. — And they that hated 
them ruled over them]. Many times they became a subject people 
in bondage to their oppressors. A glossator enlarged upon this 
by adding : 42. and their enemies oppressed them, and they were 
subdued under their hand. This glossator also called attention to 
the fact that this was due to oft-repeated rebeUions. — 43. Many 
times He used to deliver them, but they rebelled in their counsel and 
sank low in their iniquity. 

Str. XII. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 44. Then He looked 
upon their distress j| When He heard their yell] . When His people 



354 PSALMS 

cried unto Him, He did not neglect them; but looked upon 
their distress with His eyes and heard their cries for help with His 
ears. — 45. And reme?nbered His covenant'], that made with the 
patriarchal ancestors 105^^^. — And was sorry], cf. 90^^. — accord- 
ing to the abundance of His kindness], so Kt. ; more suited to the 
context and the usage of the phr. than the pi. of EV. after Qr., 
whether we think of " kindnesses," or the more usual " deeds of 
kindness." The Ps. here reaches its conclusion with the times 
of the judges. But the glossator was not satisfied. From the 
point of view of his own times he appended a reference to the 
Exile : 46. Aiid He gave thetn for co??ipassion], a phr. derived 
from I K. 8^. — before all who carried them captive. A liturgical 
gloss is appended at the end ; a prayer of Israel in the Maccabean 
period, for deliverance from among the nations. — 47. Save us, 
Yahzveh, our God; and gather us from the nations, that we may 
give thanks to Thy holy namey that we may laud Thy praise. 



cv. 

1. From Is. 12*. — 3. v^-ji-i ou*2] cf. 103^ — 4. ^t>'] so Jf, ^; but (5 
KpaTaid}dr)T€j so B, F = 1U', so Houb., Street. — nin> "ri^aa] prob. for an 
original rt:'p3?:. — -i>cn vjd] prob. tiansposed, for thus far we have had 
assonance in ^_ and r_. — 5. r\t"; irs vpin'^dj] rd. ^t'V inf. cstr. with sf. 3 sg. 
preceded by pinSd: as Gn.3i28,cf.Ps. loi^. — re "as-j'::] cf. iCh. 16^2. rd.prob. 
vn. If ro is retained, we must let 1. close with vpflc. — 6. v-\>n3] has been 
assimilated to the previous 11.; but n>na refers to Jacob as n:i>' to Abraham. 
This couplet begins the original poem. — 8. in>i3 nor] phr. 106*^ iii^ char- 
acteristic of P, Gn. 915. 16 Ex. 224 65 Ez. 166O i Ch. 16^5 +. _n^T t^^s^l doubtless 
is based on Ex. 20®. — 9. pnt'-'S "^nyor] a gl. to bring in this patriarch also. 
X nvi30' n.f. oa^/i, as Gn. 26^ Dt. 78 Je. ii^ i Ch. 16^^ f P^'^": "• pr- !«• elsvv. 
Je« 33"^ Am. y^-'^^ for usual pnx\ — 10. zhv; r^na Ssir-'S] is repetition and a 
gl. c"?)-; nn2 phr. of P, Gn. 9I6 + 8 t.; also Is. 246 558 618 Je. 32*'^ 50^ Ez. 
i560 2726, — 11 is an expansive gl. J>'J3 ]nN not elsw. yp, but only ]';iD 106^ 
135II. _cpp|;'n_3 ^pn] cf. Dt. 32^ I Ch. 16I8. — 12, Dr^^na] inf. cstr. sf. 3 pi., 
temporal clause. — n3] for an original 'nsa ; change due to use of yya in the 
gl. — 13 is an expansive gl. — nr'^opr] is strange before nnx ay Sn. It is 
doubtless txt. err. for iSn eye. — 15 is an expansive gl. — "•n-'B'c] i.p. only here 
of patriarchs, from very late point of view, regarding them as kings, cf. Gn. 
14. Abraham is conceived as a n>2j, however, Gn. 20'. — 16. Dn^ ntsc] phr. 
Lv. 2626 Ez. 4^6 5I6 i4i8._i8. vSj-^] Kt. ^^j-> Qr. || Vi.i3j._Vn3] |1 ^3.-3, so 
^rn33, S, 01s., Bi., Che., al. — 20. "in->\n'>] Hiph. impf. i consec. f [inj] vb. 
only Hiph. loosen, set free, as 146^ Is. 58^ Jb. 6^ 2 S. 22^^ (?). — 21. ^rjf?] 



PSALMS cv.-cvi. 355 

context indicates the usual sense of possessions, not creatures as 1042*, — 
22. "^bs^] 6 Tov TraidevaaL, -\V''^, so <S, Street, Du., Ehr.; expansive gl.; 
pentameter 1, — itroji] in his pleasure ; v. @, Aq., ^, ^;^•DJ:) like himself. — 
24. -in>j] Hiph. impf. 1 consec. J nnc Qal be fruitful 128^, Hiph. make fruit- 
ful Gn. 28^ 48* Lv. 269. — ^.-,,^^ -""^p?;?.!}] is an intensive gl. not suited to con- 
text. — 25. D2> 'i^Di] vb, intrans. with CiS subj., and not trans, with God as 
subj. — iD;;_ Nrc''? makes 1. too long. It has been assimilated to the gl. 
V3p SsjnnS. It was originally noun nsr;;' n.f. hatred 25^^ \o(f'-^ 139^^. 
t ["73:] vb. Qal to be a knave Mai. i^*; Pi. beguile Nu. 25!^, Hithp. deal 
knavishly, as Gn. 37^^, c. pn, here with J. — 27. ^'2t''\ pi., referring to Moses 
and Aaron; but (&, ^, 5J, Aq., 2, 3, Hu., De., Ba., al., or more prob., as 78*^ 
with God subj. — en] is expansive gl. — r:^\-is nai] cf. '|\nN'7f5J nan 145°, acts 
of God which were miraculous signs. — 28. ^iS'nM "iii'n nSc']. This is out of 
place in the order of plagues, and doubtless was a later misplaced insertion. 

— in3i ns nD nSi]. (^, S>, have no negative, but all other Vrss. have it. 
^N. c. a. A. T. have 6tl for Kal. In any case it is not suited to the context, even 
if with Hi., Ba., Du., Ehr., we rd. na'.r. It was doubtless a marginal gl.; cf. 
ijD n-\D Nu. 2o2* 2714 (P). — 29. DPn'nx riJ?^}] is an expansive gl. against the 
measure, making 1. pentameter. — 30. Dr!!"'5^5 ^T.^?] is also an expansive gl., 
making 1. pentameter. For DHidSd rd. urhr:. — 31. J 3\3r] prob. gnats, as 
Ex. 812. 13- 14 Q)._37. dn>x^m]. The sfs. in v.29-36 have all referred to 
Egyptians. It is improb. that a changed reference to Israel would be left 
to context only with same sf. Rd. D,v for D_, which makes no difference in 
the measure. — 38-45 are a later addition; they go over into the period 
covered by Ps. 106. — 39. "iD;:^ ]y; tr'nc] phr. a.X., cf. 78I*. +"1?^ n.[m.] 
(i) covering, screen, elsw. 2 S. 171^ (of well). Is. 22^ (of eye); (2) the veil 
of the Tabernacle in P Ex. 26^ +. Here is a novel conception of the ]y;. 

CVI. 

2. SS-q>;\ Pi. impf. t '?':'D Aram. ; elsw. Gn. 21? (E) Jb. 82333.-3. r\vf\ 
pi. as (g = n.9tr. — 4. \n,0T] so %, 5, E, \\ 'n?^; but (&, Aq., 2, 8, Quinta, 
Sexta, Ba., Che., pi. u ; better suited to context, though prob. an assimilation. 

— mn">] gl.; makes 1. too long. — qDy psn] phr. a.X, ; constr. of object. — 
5. qn^nn] should be sg. in assonance with T'i and ^r'^nj. V.*"^ a trimeter 
pentastich with assonance in :]_ ; a gl. by another hand than v.i"^- ^"^ — 6 is gl. 
from I K. 8^". ijim^N □>' is, however, an insertion due to v."«. — 7. Dn:^:::]] 
late explanatory gl. against measure. — ^''7Dn 3i] improb.; <&,Aq.,3, C :i7Dn in 
accordance with usage of phr. — d> Vv] is tautological and improb., though 
sustained by 5', 3, ST. (& ava^alvovre's, U ascendentes, D-iSV. Venema, Ba., 
Dr.,Kau.,Du.,Che., tr'7;as78i^. — |niD d^] elsw. t/' v. 9- 22 13613-15. — 9. '\V}'f]. 
The original Ps. begins here. The 1. is dependent on Na. i*. — c?''^'*''^]' This 
1. is based on Is. 631^. — 10 is expansive and repetitious gl. — 11. D^r idd''i] 
= Ex. 1428. — one nnx] based on Ex. 1428. —12. A tetrameter gl., cf. v.2*& 
Ex. 1431 15I. — 13. A pentameter gl. — 14. msn iinp^i] z/.Nu. ii3i (E), cf. 
Ps. 7330. — Ss 1DJ>1] = 7818- Scf. Ex. 172- 7 Nu. 1422 (JJ) Dt. 616.-15. Qh^^n-^^] sf. 



356 PSALMS 

X n'j'Nc' n.f. asking, request, with |rj elsw. i S. i^^- 27 Est. 5«- ^ 72 912, _ j ^>p-j 
n. wastitig disease, ace. ^DB., elsw. Is. lO^^ leanness. Mi. 61"^ scantiness. ^ 
■r'Krja-fwvTjv, so U saturitatem, ^ n;':id, Houb., Street, Che., Dy., Du., al., N->r 
Nu. ii''^'^. But it is not suited to context. We should have, || sn^, yw-a food^ 
as Gn. 452* 2 Ch. 1 1^-^, — ds'dj3] = D'^'djS 78^^. — 16. nin> v\^^p'\ one conse- 
crated to Yahweh, a conception of P. — 17. yvK nncn] = Nu. i6''2. — f?'^"'] 
n. pr. m. Dathan, son of Ehab, Reubenite Nu. i6i- 12. 24. 25. 27 268 Dt. iVe. 
a-^ON n. pr. m. his brother; only in same passages. — 18 is an expansive 
generalizing gl. — 19. % 3nn] n. pr. loc, term of E, D ; elsw. Mai. 322 i K. 
89 198 2 Ch. 51^.-20. D-J025 PN n^CM] gl. from Je. 2", only sf. c_ for '\ which 
latter is, however, given here by &^- «• »• ^- ^ T^ of. Rom. i"^. — % n"'J3r] n.f. 
construction 144I2 Jos. 2228 (-p^^ pattern Ex. 25^ mo'^^f elsw. Dt. 4I6. 17. I8 
Is. 44I3 Ez. 83- 10 108. _ 22. Expansive gl. — en r-^N2] = 10528- ^\ cf. 78". — 
23. D-T'DcnS ncNM] = Dt. 925 DDPN -iTcnV nin> -irx id : nin^ should be inserted 
here for good measure. — p53 ir:?] as Ez. 22*^ BS. 452^. — ■)nDn3''trn] as Ps. 
7888. — 24. nncn ^ns] phr. elsw. Je. 31^ Zc. 7!*. — nanS ircNn n*^] is a gl. of 
interp. — 25. Qn>Snx3 "UJ^"!] dimeter gl. = Dt. i27. f p-, vb. Qal tmirmur 
Is. 292*, Niph. (I) same, elsw. Dt. i2"; (2) backbite Pr. i628 i88 2620. 22. _ 
26. cn^ >i; Nb'^i] = Ez. 2o23._a.n^N S^sn^] cf. 37I* 7318.-27. A gl. from 
Ez. 2o23, introducing reference to Exile; inappropriate here. — 28. nr5{»i] 
Niph. elsw. Nu. 2^^- ^ Hiph. Ps. 50I9. — f "^^/'fl '^V^] n- pr. dei., elsw. Nu. 253- & 
Dt. 43 Ho. 91^ — o^no >n3r] phr. a.X. — 29. nin> has been omitted by txt. err. 

— J -idj::] xi.i. plague, y.*^ Nu. 1487 i S. 6*. — 30. "<Vi,'.ni] Niph. impf. t "'X^ 
Qal restrain not used ^p ; but Niph. be restrained, stayed, here as Nu. 171* 25^ 
(P) 2 S. 2425. A word is missing for measure; insert cn^Sy::. — 32. -icxp^^] 
Hiph. t n^P vb. Qal not in ■^ ; but Hiph. provoke to zvrath as Dt. g"^- ^- 22 Zc. 
814. — 33. NW5>_i] Pi. tNa3 vb. Qal na^n Pr. 12I8 babbler, Pi. elsw. Lv. 5*. A 
word is missing for measure. Insert either Nin or nc'::. — 34. anS nin> idn hz'n] 
is gl. — 35 is tetrameter gl. — n-^vr-'i] Hithp. % 3i;' vb. Qal^<7 surety for 1 19I22 
Jb. 178 Gn, 43^ 44^2 (J). Hithp. have fellowship with, elsw. Ezr. 92 Pr. 2oi' 
2421. — 36. cn\3xy] % dox; always pi. idols v.38 Ho. 4!^ 8* 132 148 Is. 46^ Ps. 
115* =13516. — 37. D.n^P''J3 rsi] expansive gl. from v. ^8. Daughters were 
not usually so sacrificed. — f D"'-'r] n. pi. lords, old name of divinity as Dt. 321^. 

— 38-39. Expansive gl. — njnni] % [i^n] vb. Qal be polluted Is. 24^ Je. 31- 1 
of land, Mi. 4II of Zion, cf. Ps. 35^*. — t^<?p^1] become unclean religiously, 
as Ez. 22* Lv. 198I (H). — ijt»j] as Ho. 2^ 416 Is. 578.— 40-41. Original Ps. 
is resumed. — 42. Expansive gl. — nnn i;?J??i] = Ju. 3^^. — 43. Generalizing 
gl. — 1-'^^]] 1 13^ vb. Qal a.X. be low, humiliated, ^DB. Niph. sink in decay 
Ec. 10^8^ Hoph. be brought lo7u Jb. 242*. — 45. "^^Dn] Kt. more in accord with 
usage. viDn Qr. deeds of kindness not suited to context. — 46. c^n-iS |n»i] 
gl. from I K. 8^. — 47. Gl. of final petition with Exile in view. — nanrnS] 
form a.X., Aramaism. — 48. Benediction of the book. — ncNil i Ch. 16** 
nDK>l. 



PSALM CVII. 357 



PSALM CVIL, 4 STR. i2^ 

Ps. 107 is a summons to praise Yahweh for His redemption of 
His people from straits. Four are mentioned : (i) perils of caravans 
lost in the wilderness (v."^^), (2) of prisoners (y.^^- 1-- 1^'^), (3) of 
sickness (v.^^-^^), (4) the perils of the sea (yr^- ^'- -^'- ^''- ^^- ^-). An 
introductory gloss makes the Ps. into a Hallel (v.^). Other glosses 
interpret the redemption as from exile (v.""^), give a reason for the 
imprisonment in exile (v.^^), enlarge upon the perils of the sea 
^y 236. 24. 26a. 27^^ upou the gladness of a calm (v.^), heap up deliver- 
ances of various kinds mingled with discipline (v.^"^^). 

CTRAYING in the wilderness, in the desert, 

The way to an inhabited city they found not. 

Hungry, yea thirsty, 

Their soul fainted within them. 

TAen they cried unto Yahweh in their strait, 

That out of their distresses He might deliver them : 

Then He made them tread in a straight way, 

To go unto an inhabited city. 

Let them give thanks to Yahweh for His kindness. 
And His wondrous deeds to the sons of mankind. 

For He doth satisfy the longing soul. 

And the hungry soul He doth fill with good things. 
TOWELLING in darkness and dense darkness, 

Prisoners in affliction and iron. 

Their heart was humbled with travail : 

They stumbled and there was no helper. 

Then they cried unto Yahweh in their strait. 
That out of their distresses He might save them : 

And He leads them forth from darkness and dense darkness, 

And their bands He bursts asunder. 

Let them give thanks to Yahweh for His kindness, 
And His wondrous deeds to the sons of mankind. 

For He brake in pieces the doors of bronze, 

And the bars of iron He hewed asunder. 
■\^EAK because of the way of their transgression, 

And because of their iniquities they were suffering affliction, 

All food their appetite was abhorring ; 

And they had drawn nigh the gates of death. 
Then they cried unto Yahweh in their strait. 
That out of their distresses He might save them : 

He sendeth His word and healeth them, 

And delivereth (their life from the Pit). 

Let them give thanks to Yahweh for His kindness. 
And His wondrous deeds to the sons of mankind. 



358 PSALMS 

Let them sacrifice sacrifices of thank offering, 

And tell of His works in jubilation. 
r^OING down to the sea in ships, 

The stormy wind arose, 

And lifted up the w aves of the (deep) . 

Their soul was melting because of trouble. 

Then they cried unto Yahweh in their strait. 
That out of their distresses He might bring them. 

He setteth the storm into a whisper, 

And the waves (of the deep) are still. 

Let them give thanks to Yahweh for His kindness^ 
And His wondrous deeds to the sons of mankind. 

Let them exult in the assembly of the people, 

And in the session of the elders praise Him. 

Ps. 107 has no title in ^ ; but in ® dXXT/Xouid, which is doubtless correct, 
though in |^ it is attached to previous Ps. and so omitted here. The Ps. is 
composed in its original form of four parts of three tetrastichs each, and so 
resembles in length and measure 105, 106. These three Pss. are thus closely 
united, and may have been from the same poet. This Ps. is, however, more 
ornate, as it has a double Rf. It depends on Is.^ : v.^*^, cf. Is. 42", y}^ = Is. 452. 
In other respects the Ps. is original. There are several glosses : v.^, the mn 
phrase of introduction, as 106^, cf. 105^; v.''^^^, a series of additions without 
strophical organisation, to increase the number of exhibitions of the kindness 
of Yahweh. These show dependence on Is.^ and Job: v.^^, cf. Is. 50^; v.^, 

cf. Is. 41I8; v.4-'« = Jb. I221«; V.*'6 = Jb. I224&; y.*'^ = Jb. 2219 ^16. ^4Sa^ 

cf. Ho. 14!'^; v.*^*, cf. Is. 63'^. The Ps. is interpreted by glosses as referring 
to the Exile ; but in fact it mentions four kinds of deliverance from straits 
which have nothing to do with Exile. The Ps. is not earlier than the Greek 
period. 

Ps. 107 begins with an introductory tetrastich, the first distich 
of which is the ordinary formula of the Plallel : 1. Give //tanks to 
Yahweh, for He is good ; for His kindness endureih forever'], cf. 
io6\ — 2. Let the redeemed of Yahweh\ a phr. of Is. 35^ 51^^ 
62^^. — say it\ that is, the thanks. — whotn He hath redeemed 
from the hand of the adversary^]. The nations among which 
Israel was living in perils of various kinds. — 3. and from the 
lands gathered them ; from the east and from the west, from the 
north and from the sea]. This is against the entire tenor of the 
Ps., which has to do not with deliverance from enemies, but from 
straits of a more general character, which might come upon the 
people of God not merely during the Exile, but at any time in 
their experience of life. This is a prosaic gloss. 



PSALM CVII. 359 

There are four equal Strs. of exactly the same structure : ( i ) a 
synth. tetrastich describing the distress; (2) a synth. tetrastich 
describing the cry to Yahweh and the redemption that follows ; 
and (3) a synth. couplet of thanksgiving, with a syn. couplet of 
praise or its reason. Str. I. — 4. Straying]. In the other instances 
nominal or participial forms are used, y}^-^'^-'^. The use of the 
Pf. here, though sustained by J^ and Vrss., is improbable. — in 
the wilderness], defined more strictly as in the desert. — The way 
to an inhabited city they found not]. They were lost in the path- 
less desert ; they had strayed from the right way, and could not 
find it again. — 5. Hungry, yea, thirsty]. Having consumed their 
food and water, they had nothing to eat or drink, and were 
already suffering from hunger and thirst. — Their soul fainted 
within them]. They had become faint, and were ready to per- 
ish. — 6. Then they cried unto Yahweh in their strait, That out 
of their distresses He might deliver them]. This is the first Rf., 
which appears regularly in the same place in each of the four 
parts of the Ps., the only variation being in the vb., which in 
v.-^^-^^ is save and in v.^^ bring out. In the extreme distress in 
which they are perishing, they cry aloud to Yahweh their God for 
salvation. — 7. Then He 7?iade them tread in a straight way, To 
go unto an inhabited city]. Yahweh showed them the right way, 
and led them straight forward in it until they came to the city 
of their destination. — 8. Let them give thanks to Yahweh for 
His kindness, and His wondrous deeds to the sons of mankind]. 
This is the second Rf., which appears in each Part in the same 
place, v.^^^^-^^, in identical terms. It is a summons to all who 
have had such a deliverance to render thanks to Yahweh for it. 
It is the kindness of Yahweh which induces Him to make such 
deliverances. They are indeed wondrous works ; not miracles in 
the technical historical sense, but yet special interpositions of 
Yahweh in answer to prayer. — 9. For He doth satisfy the longing 
soul, and the hungry soul He doth fill ivith good things]. The first 
clause doubtless refers to the satisfaction of the thirst, the latter 
to the hunger of v.^. 

Str. II. — 10. Dwelling in darkness], emphasized by and dense 
darkness], not *' shadow of death" of EV. The darkness is 
here that of the dungeon, which was usually a pit or vault, deep 



36o PSALMS 

down and away from the light of day. — Prisoners in affliction 
and iron\ They were indeed prisoners, not only in dungeons, 
but in fetters there ; and in addition suffering cruel affliction, 
probably with stripes also, as usual in such cases. — A glossator 
gives this a reference to the Exile by adding : 11. because they 
rebelled against the words of *El and the counsel of 'Elyon con- 
temned']. They were punished by exile and imprisonment for 
disobedience to the Law. But the context shows that the impris- 
onment and suffering were not due to any such cause, but were 
of a more general character. — 12. Their heart was humbled 
with travail\ The forced labour of prisoners was a great humili- 
ation to them. — They stumbled], from weakness due to over- 
work. — and there was no helper]. They were friendless, and in 
an entirely helpless condition. — 14. He leads them forth from 
darkness and dense darkness]^ \.\\q gloomy dungeon of v.^°". — 
And their bands He bursts asunder]. The prisoners wear iron 
fetters, cf. v.^^''. They regain their liberty through the help of 
Yahweh, and through Him alone. — 16. For He brake in pieces 
the doors of bronze], the strong gates of the dungeon. — And the 
bars of iron He hewed asunder], the iron bars that strengthen 
the gates of the prison. 

Str. III. — 17. Weak], so many moderns conjecture, || were 
suffering affliction], %\, Aq., J, "the foolish," followed by EV^, 
does not suit the context any more than the reading of (©, F. 
The strait of this part is evidently mortal sickness. — This sick- 
ness the poet ascribes to guilt : because of the way of their trans- 
gression II because of their iniquities], in accordance with the older 
theory combated in the Book of Job and still prevalent in the 
time of Jesus, Jo. 9-, that disease was due to sin. — 18. All food 
their appetite was abhorring]. They were so reduced in strength 
that they could not eat. — And they had drawn nigh the gates of 
death]. They were about to die and enter into the city of the 
dead, who are here, as Is. 38^^, conceived as dwelling in a city, 
which has its gates just as any earthly city; cf. Mt. i6^^ — 
20. He sendeth His word and healeth them]. The healing of the 
sick is accomplished by the sending of the divine word, which 
is doubtless conceived as a commandment bidding the disease to 
depart. It is here personified as a messenger, just as in other 



PSALM CVII. 361 

passages divine attributes are personified and sent on missions 
of kindness or of judgment. — And delivereth their life from the 
Pit\ the original reading, which an early copyist, by the omission 
of a single letter, reduced to the unusual form " their Pits." The 
first hne of the v. corresponds with v.^^, the second with v.-^^ — 
22. Lei them sacrifice sacrifices of thank offering], offer the thank 
offerings with their festal meals usual on such occasions. — And 
tell of His works in jubilation], the religious shouts that were 
usual on festal occasions, of the nature of public applause of 
the celebration of the divine works of deliverance. 

Str. IV. — 23. Goijig down to the sea in ships'], mariners, — 
intensified by the gloss : doing busifiess in the great waters, con- 
tinued in 24. They see the works of Yahweh — and His won- 
drous deeds in the gulf . — 25. The stormy wind arose], so (^, F. 
This is explained by glossator as the great work of Yahweh by the 
insertion of " He commanded " and the interpretation of vb. as 
Hiph. "cause to arise." — And lifted up the waves of the deep]. 
The original form required by the measure, reduced by a copyist 
to "his waves," going back upon "the gulf" of v.^*, which was 
appropriate enough, if that were original, but impossible if it is a 
gloss. — A glossator enlarges upon the storm, and with a graphic 
touch which indicates real experience : 26-27. They go up to 
heaven ; they go down to the depths], the seamen ascending and 
descending with the waves. — Their soul was melti?ig because of 
trouble]. This is the only line of these verses which was original 
in the Ps. The storm is of exceptional violence, and they are in 
real peril, which they realise in terror. — 27. They reel to and fro, 
and stagger like a drunkard]. The irregular movement of the 
sea, in pitching and rolling, makes it impossible for them to keep 
their feet. — and all their skill is swallowed up]. The sailors' 
technical skill has become useless ; they are at the mercy of 
the sea, and they can only await in dreadful anxiety the result. 
— 29. He setteth the stortn into a whisper]. The roar of the 
storm dies away, until nothing but a gentle, whispering wind 
remains. This corresponds with v.^^". — And the waves of the 
deep are still]. They have subsided into a gende, quiet move- 
ment, in correspondence with v.^^*. — A glossator adds : 30. And 
they are glad, because they are calm ; and He leadeth them unto 



362 PSALMS 

the city of their desire. — 32. Let them exult in the assembly of 
the people'], give public praise. — in the session of the elders praise 
Him], the gathering together of the elders in council. The Ps. 
has here its appropriate conclusion, although there seems to be 
no special reason why the examples of the divine deliverance 
should be limited to these four. Later editors made the Ps. more 
suitable for a Hallel by adding a considerable number of other 
examples of divine redemption of the people, but without the 
strophical organisation and Refrain of the original Ps. — 33-34. A 
tetrastich of three syn. lines and one synth. : He turneth\ habitual 
action, and not vivid action in the past. — streams || water springs 
II a fruitful land], three syn. terms referring to an oasis, or fertile, 
well- watered valley. — into a wilderness || a thirsty land, without 
water, || a salt 7vaste]. Such a transformation was due to the 
withholding of rain, not uncommon in Palestine and neighbouring 
lands. This tetrastich is not in harmony with the Ps., which set 
forth straits of people, and not condition of the land. — Because 
of the evil of them that dive II thereifi], is not in accord with the 
conception of the original Ps., but of the glossator of v.^^ — 35- 
36 is in antithesis with the previous tetrastich. — He turneth the 
wilderness || a thirsty laiid — into a pool of water || into water 
springs], by bestowing an unusual provision of rain. — and He 
maketh the hungry dwell therein, and establisheth an inhabited 
cit)']. Men in great numbers assemble in this fertile oasis, satis- 
fying their hunger, and dwell therein in such numbers as to con- 
stitute a city. — 37-38. And they so2v fields, and plant vineyards, 
which yield fruits of increase. He blesseth thcfn, and they multiply 
greatly; and He suffereth not their cattle to decrease]. To the 
blessings of an agricultural life are added those of the nomad life. 
Another glossator seems to have added 39, 41, into which a 
still later one inserted 40, and to which he appended 42. — 
39. But when they are minished and brought low]. This glossa- 
tor is evidently thinking of a time of adversity, the reverse of the 
prosperity of the previous context. — through oppression, adver- 
sity, and sorrow], such as that the people had to endure in the 
Antiochean persecution. — The apodosis is in 41. He setteth the 
needy on high from affliction], gives them a safe refuge from their 
oppressors. — and maketh families like a fiock\ gives His people, 



PSALM CVII. 363 

who have sought and found refuge in Him, wonderful fertility, so 
that their families increase as rapidly as a flock of sheep. — A later 
glossator inserts from Jb. 12^^ : He poureth conte?npt upon princes'\^ 
doubtless referring to the defeat of the Syrian armies by the Mac- 
cabees; — and from Jb. 12^^^: and causeth them to stray in a 
pathless waste. — The same glossator also adds from Jb. 22^^ : the 
upright see it and are glad, — and from Jb. 5^^ : and all perversity 
doth stop her mouth. — He also probably appended the concluding 
lines from Ho. 14^*^ : Whoso is wise, let hifn observe these things, 

— and from Is. 63' : and let the?n understand the kind deeds of 
Yahweh. 

1 is the ordinary formula of the Hallel, cf. 106^. It is a gl. in order to 
make the Ps. into a Hallel. Indeed, v.^-^ are also glosses to give the Ps. a 
reference to the Diaspora. — 2. '•'ilix?] Qal ptc. pass, as Is. 35^ 51I0 62^- 63* (?). 
V. Ps. ig^^. — "ix-Tc] -IX adversary if part of the gl., but -ii* distress if 
original to the Ps., as in Rfs., so Ba., Che. — 3. 3i;;j:di miDD] as 103I2, — 
JraxJ 483 8913.— d;p] for West, cf 8012 8926.-4. pn^c^^D] as 688+.— 
^■^7] ^-P- incorrect; it belongs to next 1., as ®, %. — ivm:> n^] y?-^^, cf. 
Zion as dwelling place 1321^. — 5. fi'Jjjnp] Hithp. with t:'3J as Jon. 2^, cf. Pss. 
77* 142* 1434 with nn. — 6. f ^i";ii'?] n.f. v.i^- 19- 28^ as 25I" Jb. 152* Zp. i^s. _ 
7. DDm^i] Hiph. yr^, so 25^-9 _nTj'> *]"n as Je. 31^. — 9. n.^^-j-] Qal ptc. 
tp|->i:' (i) usually c. "y rush upon Is. t^-},^ Jo. 2^ Pr. 28^^; (2) here longing, as 
Is. 298. Hithp. Na. 2^. — 10. ^Tps] as 68'^ La. f^^. — \\ is a gl. giving 
the reason of the suffering ; interrupts the thought and makes Str. too long. 
— 12. ■'i't'C'2] in anxiety, distress, as 272 Is. 59^'^. — 14. p"!]; Dnvinmr] as ^. 
— 16. X Pc'n:] n.m. bronze, here of gates, Ju. i62i Je. 39'^ + of fetters, also 
ore Dt. 8^ armour i S. 17^ etc. — Sn3 "•n'^ia] bars of iron % nna n.m, elsw. ^ 
147I'. — 17. X 2"''?''in] adj. foolish, always ethically bad Je. 422 Is. 19II + , Aq. 
&(f>pov€s, 3 stultos, improb. here, @^*- ■^- ^ dvTeXdjSeTo avrCbv, H suscepit eos, 5 ">1>\ 
Rd. with 01s., Gr., Dr., Kau., Du., D-'S^n. — •"i:;':^''.] Hithp. aifflided in disci- 
pline ; cf. Pi. afflict as divine discipline 888 (^q\% i i^ts ^t, 82- 3 La. 323 Is. 64II. 

— 20. cr)\n>nr] pi. sf. r.''r\'d, elsw. La. 42*^ for rnt:* pit. Rd., however, with 
Du. Dn>n nn'J'k — 23. The inverted j here and v. 24- 25. 26. 27. 40 are of the 
nature of parentheses. They indicate that in the opinion of the early Masso- 
retes the verses were misplaced. They are indeed for the most part glosses. 

— Don D'>D3 hdsSd ''ii'v] begins the gl., though the j was for practical reasons 
placed at the beginning of the v. — 24 is a gl. throughout. — 25. i::x>i] is a 
gl. to indicate that the storm originated by divine command, and accordingly 
npVM Hiph. 1 consec; but ®, % rightly have "i;:r Qal, "F stetit, so Ba., Kau., 
Du., Che. — 25. X '^T>d] v.29 1488 Je. 231^ 3022 +, cf. "^VD Ps. 55^. — Dsnn^] a 
word is needed; rd. Dinp. — 26. J'Tn.-^] jir, cf. 75*, Hithp. melt in terror, 
cf. Na. i^ This v., except this word with n;;-ia □a'ijj, is a gl.; so v.27-29. — 



364 PSALMS 

27. u^i^] fully written, from nn reel as from festival dancing ; v. 42-^. — 
•i3;ir] stagger^ as Is. 29^. — J "<^::K'] adj. drunken, as Is. 19^* Je. 23*+. 

— 29. t''i??l] rxS. whisper, 2iS i K. 19^2 Jb. 4^^ — i^hm] Qal impf. T\Z'n be 
silent, still; here only of waves, 28^ of Yahweh. — 30. This v. is a gl. — 
iiintT'"'] tP'^'^ Qa-1 fest, be quiet, of waves, as Jon. i^i-i^, of conflict Pr. 26^0. 

— t [J^n?] n.m. city, loan word ^DB. V.^^-*^ are later addition to Ps. — 
33. tl"''<°^J n.[m.] //5z>j/y^r(7««^, as Dt. 8^^ Is. 35"^. — d:p "«nxo] v.^Is.4118, 
V. Pss. ig' y^''. — 34. t "'p^?] n.f. saltness, barrenness, elsw. Je. 17^ Jb. 39^. 

— 35. X o.3n] n.[m.] pool of water, as Is. 41^^ Ps. 114^. — nix v"*^] as 6j2 Ho. 
26 Je. 50I2 +. — 37. X nxon] n.f. produce, as Dt. 22^ Nu. iS^* Is. 3023 +.— 
38. £3"'];?:"'] Hiph. impf. J t^y:: Qal <^<r or become small v.^^, as Is. 21^"^ Pr. 13II. 
Hiph. w^7>^<? small here, as Je. 10-*. — 39. "^p^^^^)^ Qal impf. nntt* 42^ ^.f brought 
low. — t ■*??>] n.[m.] restraint, as Is. 53^ Pr. 30^^. — 42 is a compound of 
Jb. 2219 and 5^^ — rcp] cf. 77^0. 

PSALM CVIII. 

Ps. 108 is a mosaic of 57®"^ and Co'^"", with slight modifications 
discussed in notes upon these Pss. 

PSALM CIX. 

Ps. 109 is composite. A. The congregation prays that God may 
no longer remain silent ; for their enemies are slandering them 
(^16. 2!). 3a. 55^^ pursuing them to death (v.^^-^'^), with nothing but 
curses (v.^^"-^^) ; they pray Yahweh for deliverance from extreme 
affliction (v.^^'^), complain that they are ready to perish (v.^^^), 
and plead His kindness and the credit He will receive from the 
enemies (v.^^). B. An imprecation is upon a wicked ruler : that 
he may be condemned by a higher power more wicked than himself 
(v.*^^), that he may lose his position and leave his family destitute 
(v.®"*), may be exiled from home and oppressed by creditors (v.^^"), 
that his posterity may perish in a single generation (v.^-"^^), and his 
memory be blotted out (v.^*"^^). Glosses harmonize to some extent 
the two Pss. (v.2«3ft-5a. 19-20. 25. 28-29^^ q^^ gj^g ^ Uturglcal conclusion 

/^30-31\ 

^ yl5.26.3a.».l&-18.21-27^ 5 ^^^^ ^3^ 

C\ GOD of my praise, keep not silent ; 

For they speak with me with a lying tongue, 
And with words of hatred they compass me about, 
With hatred for my love. 



PSALM ax. 365 

I-IE remembered not to do kindness; 

And pursued the afflicted and poor, 

The one smitten in heart to kill him ; 

And he took no pleasure in blessing. 
A ND he loved cursing, and it came to him; 

And he clothed himself with it as his raiment; 

And it came like water into his inwards, 

And like oil into his bones. 
Q YAHWEH, work Thou with me; 

According to the goodness of Thy kindness deliver me; 

For I am afflicted and poor, 

And my heart writhes within me. 
AS a shadow, when it is stretched out, I depart. 

I am shaken out (when the light grows stronger). 

My knees totter from fasting. 

And my flesh without oil is (as one hasting away). 
J-JELP me, Yahweh my God ! 

Save me according to (the goodness of) Thy kindness; 

And they will know that this is Thy hand ; 

Thou, Yahweh, hast done it. 

B. V.^^^, 5 STR. 4^. 

A PPOINT a wicked one over him, 

And let an adversary stand at his right hand. 

When he is judged, let him come forth condemned; 

And let the decision of his case be his guilt. 
T ET his days be few, 

His office let another take ; 

Let his children become fatherless. 

And his wife become a widow. 
T ET his children wander about and beg; 

Let them be banished from their desolate homes. 

Let a creditor strike him for what he hath; 

And let strangers take his labour as spoil. 
T ET him have none that extendeth kindness, 

And let there be no favour to his orphans. 

Let his posterity be for cutting off. 

In a generation let his name be blotted out. 
T ET the iniquity of his fathers be remembered, 

And let not the sin of his mother be blotted out. 

Let them be in the sight of Yahweh continually, 

That He may cut off (his) memory from the earth. 

Ps. 109 was in IB, then in fH, and was also in 193^ before it received its 
present position (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31, 33). The original Ps. of IB had six 
trimeter tetrastichs, and is a strong and beautiful prayer, pleading with Yah- 
weh for help against unjust enemies, v.i^- 2^- ^"- ^*- ^^i^- 21-2*- 26-27^ ^^ impreca- 
tory Ps. of five trimeter tetrastichs, v.^-is, was inserted after the first Strophe 



366 PSALMS 

of the original Ps, This is smooth and artificial, and of an entirely different 
temper from the original Ps. The editor who united them introduced v.''^"- 36-6a^ 
in order to assimilate them, and also additional imprecations, v.^^^o. 28-29^ 
more suited to the composite Ps., and a description of a later situation, y."^. 
The Ps. has an appropriate Uturgical conclusion, v.^^^^^. The inserted Ps. is 
Maccabean, but the original Ps. is Davidic of the early Persian period. In 
the original Ps. there are many fine poetic conceptions, v.^'''- ^s. 23. 24^ j^ the 
inserted Ps. the use of x^'^' v.^^ is late; D^a>'D v.^ pi. elsw. only Ec. 5^. There 
is little real poetry in this piece. 

PSALM CIX. A. 
Str. I. A syn. couplet, enclosed between an introductory and 
a concluding line. — 1. O God of my praise']^ phr. a.X., the ob- 
ject of the praise of His people, cf. Dt. 10^^ Je. 17^*, — keep not 
sile7it\ cf. 35^ 39^^ ^y, implying the positive answer to the prayer 
for help. — 2-5. For they speak with nie\ in familiar conversation, 
and not in hostility as PBV., AV., JPSV., pretending to friendship, 
and so with a lying tongue. At the same time in their association 
with all others they show their hostility : with words of hatred they 
compass me about, With hatred for 7ny /ove'], cf. 35^^ 38"^ Israel 
had responded to the pretended friendship with real love, which 
only called forth hatred in return. The editor who combined the 
two Pss. endeavoured to adapt this one to the other by prefixing 
v.^" : the mouth of the wicked one\ the same as the one of v.^*''- ; 
emphasized by: even the mouth of deceit — is open against me\ 
The text of (5, U, J, followed by PBV., is to be preferred to 
that of J^, followed by RV., "they opened," assimilated to the 
following vbs. This line is a prose sentence, and can be made 
into poetry only by serious changes. The same editor introduced 
^ 3&-5a . -y^ p^j.j. ^Q g|.jj| further show the connection of these slan- 
derers with the wicked ruler of v.''"'i-, and in part to emphasize the 
gratuitous character of the hostility : a7id fight me without cause. 
For my love they are mine adversaries while I a?n in prayer, and 
they lay upon me evil for good^. This is prosaic, and cannot be 
made into poetry without entire reconstruction of the sentences. 
The congregation were so friendly to their secret foes that they 
were in fact supplicating Yahweh on their account, while the foes 
were endeavouring to rally a host of enemies against them. At 
this point the editor introduces the imprecatory Ps. which will be 
considered later. 



PSALM CIX. 367 

Str. II. Introverted parallelism. — 16-17 5. He remembered not 
to do kindness || And he took no pleasure in blessing\. In the 
friendly relation in which they were placed, he should have re- 
sponded to the love of Israel and the good which Israel did him, 
with kindness ; and to Israel's prayer on his behalf with blessing. 
But his enmity was so great that he forgot benefits received, and 
took no pleasure at all in Israel's happiness. The editor connects 
this Str. of the original Ps. with the last Str. of the inserted impre- 
cation by prefixing against the measure Because that ; and he also 
transposed v.^''"^"*^*, and because of the antithesis added the sen- 
tence, and it remained afar off fro7n him, making the line just 
these two words too long. The enclosed couplet states emphati- 
cally conduct justifying these words : pursued ~\, with deliberate, 
persistent effort, with the purpose to kiW], and, indeed, not only 
a friendly people as above, but one afflicted and poor'], usual terms 
indicating national affliction || smitten in heart], suffering in their 
inmost souls from the crushing blows they had received. 

Str. III. A synth. tetrastich. — 17 a. And he loved cursing], an- 
tith. the blessing he should have taken pleasure in, of the previous 
Str. ; and in ignoring of the love toward him of v.^^ — and it came 
to him], as a welcome guest, not in retribution as in the inserted 
imprecation, and further it took possession of him : 18. he clothed 
himself tvith it as his raiment], his habitual and favourite clothing. 
— And it came like water into his inwards], with the refreshment 
of water to his thirst for doing harm to Israel. — And like oil into 
his bones], healing and soothing his frame, agitated with hatred and 
malice. The fact that this Str. is placed between two imprecations 
induces many to think of imprecations here also ; but it is difficult 
to change the text so as to make the vbs. all jussives ; especially 
in view of the fact that the jussive forms of the vbs. of the impreca- 
tory Strs. are so well defined. The imprecation which follows, v.^^^, 
seems to be editorial, and not a part of the imprecatory Ps. v.^^^. 
— 19. Let it be to him as the garment he putteth on \ and for 
the girdle with which he is always girded]. This is the transfor- 
mation of the statement of fact of v.^^ into a couplet of impreca- 
tion with the same simile. — 20. Let this be the wage of my 
adversaries from Yahweh, and of those who speak evil against me]. 
This is an imprecation of exact retribution, cf. Is. 40^*^ 61^ 62^^ 



368 PSALMS 

Str. IV. Two syn. couplets. — 21. Yahweh^work Thou with 
me II deliver 77ie\ The deliverance implied is a work which Yah- 
weh alone can work in dealing with His people and on their behalf, 
A glossator emphasizes the divine name by adding " Adonay " and 
a plea ** for Thy name's sake," and a seam to make it antithetical 
to the inserted imprecation, " But Thou " ; each and all of which 
additions impair the measure and the simple poetic conception, — 
According to the goodness of Thy kindness'], so (3, which is greatly 
to be preferred to J^, followed by EV, " for Thy kindness is 
good," conceived as an additional plea, assimilated to the previous 
gloss. — 22. For I am afflicted and poor], resuming v.^**. — And 
tny heart writhes within me], in throes of anguish, as @, F, ^, to 
be preferred to J^, Aq., J, "is wounded," followed by EV. 

Str. V. Two syn. couplets. — 23. As a shadow when it is 
stretched out], cf. 102^^, as the day declines toward sunset, — 
when the light grows stronger], the advancing light of dawn. By 
this easy emendation the line harmonizes with the previous one, 
and we avoid the abrupt introduction of the '* locust," which does 
not seem appropriate in this connection. The locust is indeed 
shaken up and down by a strong wind, and so might be an appro- 
priate simile of helplessness. But there is no suggestion of a storm 
in the context, and the vb. properly means / am shaken out, 
that is of life, || / depart from life. The conception is, that as the 
day declines his life departs, and that at the dawn of another day 
he is shaken out of life as by a spasm. — 24. My knees totter from 
fasting]. He has fasted so long and so strictly in his humiliation 
before God and in the anxiety of long-continued pleading that he 
no longer has strength to walk, || and my flesh without oil is 
as one hasting away]. He has abstained from oil so long that 
his flesh has become hard, coarse, and shrunken, and resem- 
bles that of a man hasting away out of life. A glossator adds 
25. And I am become a reproach to them : when they see me, 
they shake their head\ the first line based on 31^^, cf. 79* 89"^, the 
second on 22'. 

Str. VI. Two syn. couplets. — 26. Help me || Save me], renewal 
of the plea v.^- ^. — 27. Afid they, the adversaries, will know that 
this is Thy hand \ Thou hast done it], namely, the work of deliv- 
erance of v.^^ 



PSALM CIX. 369 

The glossator appends to the original Ps. 28-29. Let thein 
curse J but mayest Thou bkss~\, taking up the term of v.^' ; it 
matters little whether they bless as they ought, or curse as they 
ought not, so long as the people have the blessing of their God. 
These vbs. are jussives, as EV'., because they come from the same 
hand as v.^^^. — Let them that rise up against me be shamed~\, so 
(^, F, PBV., to be preferred to J^, followed by AV., which gives 
a rendering impossible to either text, and RV. which has protasis 
and apodosis of a temporal clause, possible but awkward. — but 
let Thy servant be glad\ in antithesis with their shame, — Let 
mine adversaries be clothed with confusion, and let them put on 
their shame as a robe'], using the same simile as v.-^^ in slightly 
varying terms. 

PSALM CIX. B. 

Str. I. Syn. couplets. — 6. Appoint a wicked one over him], 
Yahweh is invoked to put on trial the wicked ruler, and in exact 
retribution to make his judge as wicked as himself, || And let an 
adversary stand at his right hand]. The adversary stands in 
order to make a charge against him and press it home before the 
wicked judge. While the word for adversary is the same as that 
for Satan, the context does not suggest a trial in the court of 
heaven, as Zc. 3^ where a wicked judge would be impossible, but 
on earth, where supreme judges are not unfrequently supreme in 
wickedness. — 7. When he is judged, let him come forth || And let 
the decision of his case be]. The syn. term suggested by Is. 28^ 
instead of the " prayer " of |^ and ancient Vrss., followed by EV^ ; 
which does not suit the context, whether we think of a prayer to 
God, the only usage of the word, or a prayer to the wicked judge, 
which has no support in Hebrew usage. — condemned], as wicked, 
II guilt, of sin. Even a righteous judge would make such a de- 
cision in this case ; but that a wicked judge should so decide 
greatly aggravates the situation to the wicked man, who is in the 
habit of depending on bribery and wickedness rather than on 
righteousness. 

Str. II. Syn. couplets. — 8. Let his days be few], not of hfe, 
but of position, as |1 His office let another take]. The whole con- 
text shows that a wicked ruler is in mind. — 9. Let his children 



370 PSALMS 

become fatherless^ And his wife become a widow"], by his speedy 
death, the impHcation being that he has been condemned to capital 
punishment for the wicked administration of his office. 

Str. III. Syn. couplets. — 10. Let his children wander about 
and beg f| Let them be banished from their desolate homes]. 
The last Hne is after (!^, U, which is more suited to the context 
than J^, followed by EV^, " seek (their bread) out of their deso- 
late places " ; for the former represents that they have been driven 
forth from their desolate homes by creditors in accordance with 
the subsequent context, and gives the reason why they are home- 
less wanderers and altogether destitute. The latter simply repre- 
sents them as seeking a home and food in desolate parts ; strange 
places in which to beg for food. Several moderns seek a better 
sense from J^ by rendering " far from their ruined home," which 
is quite possible, and certainly an improvement on EV. — 11. Let 
a creditor || strangers]. The creditors, especially as foreigners, 
not subject to the restrictions of Hebrew law, take advantage of 
his condemnation to death and appear upon the scene ; whether 
with just claims or not, it matters little, for they will be sustained 
by the wicked judge, to whom they will give a share in their spoil ; 
and their victim is helpless in their hands. — strike him for what 
he hath || take his labour as spoil]. They seize upon his posses- 
sions, and take to themselves all that he has laid up by his labour, 
by his wicked and unscrupulous dealings with others. 

Str. IV. Syn. couplets. — 12. Let hitn have none that extendeth 
kindness]. Ordinarily in such a case a man has some friends or 
neighbours who sympathize with him and are kind to him ; espe- 
cially if he has been a man of rank and position, his sudden fall 
from so great a height of wealth and power excites the pity even 
of strangers. But this man was so wicked that even this would 
be withheld from him ; and still further his children would share 
in his reprobation ; And let there be no favour to his orphans], 
after he had suffered capital punishment for his crimes. — 13. Let 
his posterity be for cutting off] . His orphaned children are not 
only to be reprobates, banished from home ; but their doom is also 
a speedy death, as the context indicates, because of destitution 
from exposure and hunger. || In a generation let his na?ne be 
blotted out]. His posterity are not to extend beyond the genera- 



PSALM CIX. 371 

tion then living ; with their death the name of their father would 
no longer be on the earth. (3, V, have " one " before generation, 
J^, Aq., :§, 3, "another" or "next," both of which are probably 
interpretations ; although they may have been variant readings, for 
in Heb. the words differ only by a single letter, which is easily 
mistaken. There can be little doubt that the text of (3, 3, " his 
name," the name of the guilty father, is to be preferred to " their 
name " of J^, that of the children who had not yet made themselves 
a name. 

Str. V. A syn. and a synth. couplet. — 14. T/ie iniquity of his 
fathers \ the sin of his mother]. It is here assumed that the 
wicked ruler had wicked parents, both on the male and on the 
female side. The guilt of these parents, not yet adequately 
atoned for, is imprecated upon him. — Let (it) be remembered || not 
be blotted out], from memory, and so estimated in the amount of 
retribution. — 15. Let them, these sins, be in the sight of Yahweh 
continually], so that He will never lose sight of them or overlook 
them, with the purpose That He may cut off his memory from the 
earth], exterminate him, the wicked man and his name, as v.^^*, 
and not " their memory," that of his ancestors, as |^ and Vrss. 
by an easy copyist's mistake. 

A Hturgical addition was ultimately made to the Ps. to make it 
more suitable for pubHc worship. — 30-31. / will give thanks to 
Yahweh, exceedingly with my mouth. In the midst of the multi- 
tude will I praise Him. For He standeth at the right hand of the 
poor. To save from the adversaries of his life]. Public praise in 
the congregation of Israel will be given to Yahweh for His salva- 
tion of His people from the wicked oppressor. He stands at their 
right hand as advocate, in antithesis with the adversary at the right 
hand of the wicked. The wicked judge would in his unrighteous- 
ness condemn Israel, were it not for their divine advocate, because 
the adversaries of his Hfe are also there. The term " adversaries " 
of the Ps. is more probable than " judges " of J^ and Vrss. 

CIX. A. 
1. >Thr\T\ ^hSn] so %, Aq., 2, % ; pbr. a.X., but ^^' a. R. T 5 ^^^y ^^^ atvech 
\ix>Vy'S Deusylaudem meam,%^~r\yi? d^hSn. — 2. "t"-\ ''d] interp, by nr^nn -"D sug- 
gests that we should rd. >"^H; so Hare, Houb., De W., Hi., Now., Ba., Vaieton. 
But ;'t:"^ prob. refers to an individual, whether Antiochus as Bar. Heb., or some 



372 PSALMS 

other tyrant. At all events, 1. is a prosaic gl, — inrs] but (S"*'- *-^ '^, 3f, Du^ 
n\-o more prob.; both interp. of an original nrc. — \"in no")] phr. of E, P, 
Jc, Ez.; wi^A, not against. — 3. Djn '•JiDn*7»i] is a gl. continuing through v.^", 
entirely prosaic in character. DJn as 35''. — 4. ^Jiwr^. as 38^^, due to jaa' vA 

— n^pn ^jN]] phr. a.\., but cf. 120^. — 6. '•Sj? ID-'C**]] Ba., Valeton, after 5 
^JV">D^ la^iy;}; Bi., Che., >jid'7!:'^i improb. — naio nnn n;?n] from 35^^ 3821. 

CIX. 5. 

6. ■'i^Pi?] Hiph. imv. npo Hiph. appoint^ make overseer^ 8^ c. S;' as Gn. 
39* Je. i^*^ Nu. 1^4- 9 t. — X j"jr] n.m. adversary ; not Satan as Zc. 31- 2- 2 jb. 
!«+ 13 t.; cf. v.*. —7. Vf";] as (gx. a.r.t ^^ ^j;^ 3^ ^„^ condemned as 
wicked. — ""P^pn] although sustained by Vrss., improb. Che. suggests twiSc; 
but ■in"»'?^SD as Is. 28'^ is better suited to context. — ■"'J^'^O^j giiHi of sin, cf. 32^ 
40^. — 8. a^-jj-;::] pl.elsw. Ec.5^ — ''"^^^f^] + •"'^9 n.i. office, charge, 2.sl>iw.^^^ (P) 
I Ch. 26^ 2 Ch. 23^^. (S rrji/ iiri(rK0ir7)v, so Acts l^^; 3 episcopatum ; but 
-5DB., Du., j/cr^r as Is. 15"^. — 9. ^^7';'|:!] needs vb. to complete 1.; prob. n-inn 
as Che. — 10. i;*"ir rJ^] inf. abs. is a gl. of intensification, making 1. too long. 

— '^'^171] ©"^'•■^•^•'^ iK^\T]dT^TU)aaVf ^\^-\'y is more suited to context, as Kenn., 
Street, Horsley, Houb., Ba., Ecker, Valeton. — Dn\^o->nt] has two tones: 
prep, from with vb. cnj; if with im not outo/hnt away from. ^^^'^ n.f. 
waste, ruin, of cities 9^, here from context of dwellings, home. — 11. nc;ij ^'^i\'] 
vb. as 38^^ strike at, @^- ^ ^-T, jj, *W|7?». nu'^j Qal ptc. creditor, usurer, elsw. 
Ex. 22^* (E) 2 K. 4I Is. 242 50I. — iib;i] 1 coord, with juss. J T13 vb. j/^?7 
a.X. ^, but common elsw. — 13. V'^"'"^nN] his posterity ^ as 37^7, but S, 3, C 
his end.—'ynH n^ia] so Aq., 2, &, 3 ; but ins ©s- a.r.t -^^ Houb., Horsley, 
Du., Che; prob. both interpretations. — ctr] but ">cc' (5, 3, Horsley, Che., 
more prob. — 14. nvi> Ss] makes 1. too long and is a gl. — 16. D";3r] pi. sf. 
improb.; rd. ^"^r, cf. v.^'*. 

CIX. A. 

16. '\v^'>t Vlil a gl. as a seam, connecting the two Pss. — ^^^}'] Niph. f hnd 
vb. de disheartened, BDB., as Dn. ii=^\ Hiph. Ez. 13^2 (?) ; but cf. nxpj nn 
Pr. 15I3 1722 i8i4, nn hdj Is. 66^. ©sa.r.t Karavevvyfi^vov ry Kapdiq., 3 
conpunctum corde, Aq., 2, ireTrXrjyixhov rrj Kapdlg., Hi., Ba., rd. 13 p';^^ a"?:. — 
17. n3-\33 yon nSi]. This makes a complete 1. II v. 16", with which it orig- 
inally formed introverted parall. It was transposed, and assimilated to its 
antith. by adding two words, i:p?3 pn-^n^ at the expense of the measure. — 
t ^!^^■'] "•^- ^^^s^, as Dt. 1 126 + 10 t. D. It is repeated in v.^^ because of its 
separation from v.^K The original was prob. n-;N. — 18. t ["'"T] n.m. ^«r- 
wifw/, as Ju. 3^«+. — 19. fn":] n.m. gird/e BDB., Egyptian loan word, elsw. 
Is. 23!^ but dub., cf. frrn*: Jb. 1221. —20. r^^n> rs;:] is prob. a gl., although 
v.i»-2o are a late addition to Ps. — 21. ■•:■<« nin'] conflation, prob. of Kt. and 
Qr.; but with the omission of "j-is the 1. is still too long. Doubtless n.-iNi is 
a seam, and :i^U' y;-z^ a gl. of pleading. — 3rj ^:] ST, Ba., 31:33 is more prob. — 
22. ^3JN jraxi ^j;] phr. 35IO 37H ^qIS ^qQ ^421 86i._S^n] so Aq.,3, vulnera* 



PSALM ex. 373 

turn ; but ®^- ^' "^ rerdpaKTai, TT conturbatum est, so S = "'''n> Qal impf. ^m 
writhe in anguish, as 55^ Gr., Kau., Che., Valeton, is more prob. — 23. v'^^'^'^J] 
Niph. a.\., i.p. prob. assimilated to Tii^'jj. Qal is used in the sense required 
here. — "TT)]?;;] Niph. | nyj as Jb. 381^ Ju. i6"2^ be shaken out. Pi. shake off, 
Ps. 1361^ as Ex. I4-^' (J) Ne. 5I3. — nfi-}Nz] is improb., though sustained by 
Vrss.; for locust may be shaken up and down, to and fro, by the wind, and so 
rendered helpless ; but the vb. has not this mng., and the context does not 
suggest a storm. Rd. ryz-^ niso as the light of ^z.y grows stronger. — 24. K'nr] 
vb. Qal a.X.; Pi. cringe 18^, a sense inappropriate here. @n-a. b. t ifWonhdii] 
81 eXaiov, U immutata est propter oleum, % ??iutata est, so 5 ; ^ ]'^'^iii 2 virb 
avrikeu^ias. The context suggests the prep. D and the Qal ptc. ;:'n of mn as 
one hasting away. — 25 is a gl.; the first 1. from 31^2^ cf. 79* 89*2, the second 
from 22^. — 26. ^"ipns]. As this 1. is too short, rd. i-iDn ait3D as v.21*, with 
which it is ||. — 28. •i^'?i"2^]. This and the following vb. are prob. juss. of im- 
precation, as they are gls. of the final editor ; although it is possible to take 
them as indicatives. — n^n and nnx in antith. make 1. tetrameter, as the mate 
is ; not surprising if a gl., although it is against the measure of both original 
Pss. — VD1>\ iDi^j] so %, followed by "i consec. of pf. may be interpreted as prot. 
and apod, of temporal or conditional clause ; but (5 ol iiraviaTavdixevoL fwi 
aiax^vd-qruxxav = 'it'3> iDp is better suited to the context and more prob.; so 
Du., Gr., Ba., Kau., Ehr., Valeton. — 29. | S''y?p] n.m. robe, a.X. \p, but common 
elsw.; fig. of attribute Is. 59!^ 61 10 Jb. 29I*. — 31. >;opb'?p] but (Sn'-a.r.t ^^ 
U, 3 D"'t3fltt'i:, which makes v.J'dj more suitably obj. of vb. It seems best to rd. 
'•JBB'D, the common term of these gls., v.*- 20- 29. 



PSALM ex., 2 STR. 5^ 

Ps. no is a didactic Messianic Ps. (i) The Psalmist lets 
David cite an utterance enthroning his lord at the right hand of 
Yahweh, with a strong sceptre to overcome his enemies. People 
volunteer for the war in multitudes like dewdrops at dawn (v.^"^). 
(2) He cites an oath of Yahweh, making him priest forever (v.''). 
He goes forth to war, overcomes kings and nations, and is exalted 
in victory (v.^^). 

UTTERANCE of Yahweh to my lord : " Sit enthroned at My right hand. 
Till I make thitie enemies a stool for thy feet. 
With the rod oi thy strength rule in the midst oi thine enemies." 
Volunteers on the sacred (mountains) are thy people, in the day of thy host : 
From the womb of the morn come forth to thee the dew of thy youth. 

YAHWEH hath sworn, He is not sorry : " Thou art a priest forever." 
My (lord) at {His) right hand doth smite in the day of His anger. 
He executeth judgment on kings. He doth fill the valleys with nations. 
He doth smite chiefs, (going over) a wide land, 
(An inheritance) on the way he maketh it, therefore he is exalted. 



374 PSALMS 

Ps. no was in Q, then in fH (v. Intr. §§ 27, 31). It was not used in 
Ml^. The Ps. in its present form is very late : (a) The words ••mn for p-^^n 
v.^«, \"i->3n *?> for -IDT '?;; v.'** are late formations, but the latter is a gloss and the 
former an error for nnn. (^d) The sentence pix""'0'?o \m3-i *?;* v.^' is based 
on the story of Melchizedek Gn. 14, which many critics regard as a post- 
exilic midrash, and also gives an explanation involving an anxiety to distin- 
guish this priesthood from the Aaronic, and so the period of the supremacy 
of the priestly Law. But this being a gloss, it does not give evidence as to 
the original Ps. {c) There is a reference v.'^ to the story of Gideon's men 
lapping water Ju. 7*^; but it is doubtful whether such a reference was in the 
original text. On the basis of these, many scholars refer the Ps. to the Mac- 
cabean times and to Jonathan, Hi., 01s., Ba., cf. i Mac. lo^o, or to Simon. 
The suggestion of G. Margoliouth that Simon's name is in the letters begin- 
ning certain lines of the Ps. y;r:\:\ though suggested independently by Bi. and 
sustained by Du., Charles, al., is based on arbitrary arrangement, and is against 
the usage of acrostics {v. K6. Einleittmg, S. 404). There are insuperable 
objections to any of the Maccabean princes, {a) They were not of the pos- 
terity of David, and the hopes of the nation as to the Davidic dynasty could 
not in fact gather about them. The Psalter of Solomon i728Bq^ in the first 
century B.C., looks for a son of David, and not for a Maccabean. The utter- 
ance and oath of Yahweh v.^- * refer to the covenant of David 2 S. 7 Ps. 2^ and 
the oath of Yahweh 89*- ^-^"^ 132^^ None but a son of David could enter into 
the mind of a Jewish poet. The reference to the Davidic covenant also favours 
the view that it is the Davidic dynasty that the poet has in mind, the seed of 
David of Nathan's prediction. The glorification of the dynasty at its cove- 
nant institution was the greatest glorification that could be given to any of the 
line of succession in that dynasty. We are obliged, therefore, to go back to 
the time of the Davidic dynasty, unless we regard the Ps. as altogether ideal. 
{b) The priest here is a king, or at least a sovereign lord. The Maccabeans 
were born priests of the line of Aaron before they attained sovereignty. They 
were not instituted as priests by divine oath. It was least of all appropriate 
to speak of any of them as a priest after the order of Melchizedek, implying 
not after the order of Aaron. In fact, it is just this that is emphasized, that 
the priest is not a priest as such, of an order of priests ; but a priest in the 
more primitive sense, when a king like Melchizedek could be priest although 
he was king. The conception of the monarch as priest is a primitive concep- 
tion, earlier than the establishment of the Aaronic priesthood of P, earlier 
even than the Deuteronomic conception of the Levitical priesthood, just such 
a conception as that in the earliest historical documents, of Jethro Ex. 2^^ 3I 
18^ (JE) and of princes 2 S. 8^* 20^6 i K. 4^ (Judaic sources). The Ps. must 
therefore be pre-Deuteronomic. The words "after the order of Melchize- 
dek " destroy the measure of the Ps. and are a gloss, giving an explanatory 
distinction, made necessary when the Aaronic priesthood filled the minds of 
the people and a Ps. using this ancient terminology needed to be explained. 

Gr. refers the Ps. to Jeshua, the great high-priest of the Restoration, in 



PSALM ex. 375 

accordance with Zc. 612-13, where he interprets the two crowns as for Jeshua 
and the ncx 3^ as referring to Jeshua. But the ncx has already become 
a title of a Davidic monarch Je. 23^ 33^*-^^ (v. Br.MP-496>)^ and Zerubbabel 
of the Davidic line is in the mind of the prophet rather than Jeshua the 
high-priest, and the predicted nc:^ is to be a priest-king, the crowning of 
Jeshua being symbolical of his crowning and enthronement. The reference 
to the crowning of Jeshua Zc. 6^^^ is denied by We., Now., as a gloss ; and 
Ew., Hi., al, think of two crowns, the royal one and the priestly one, for two 
different persons. Whatever interpretation we may make of this passage, 
there is yet an antithesis between king and priest which we do not find in 
Ps. no. The same utterance which enthrones him is an oath making him 
priest, and this was in the covenant of David at the institution of the dynasty 
and is a very different conception from the reestablishment of the kingdom. 
The author of the Ps. knows nothing of a dominion in the future and so 
postponed, or of a period of humiliation of the king and people such as is 
seen in Pss. 89, 132. The dynasty installed knows no defeat and is every- 
where victorious, therefore the Ps. must be preexilic, and not only pre- 
Deuteronomic, but earlier than the Assyrian invasions and not later than 
Jehoshaphat, who was in some respects appropriate as a representative of 
the conquering king of David's line. This Ps. is earlier than Ps. 2, because 
it does not contemplate a universal kingdom and rebellious nations. It 
resembles Ps. 18 in its victory over an indefinite number of kings and nations. 
The Ps. probably has the song of Deborah in mind, Ju. z^^, in its emphasis 
upon the volunteering of the people in the army of the king, and possibly the 
victory of Jehoshaphat over the Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites 2 Ch. 20 
The question now remains, whether a poet here speaks his own mind as a 
court poet, or the mind of the people and their hopes in the dynasty, or 
whether he makes David, the father of the dynasty, speak his hopes respect- 
ing his own dynasty. The former reference does not seem so appropriate 
when the people are represented as ^cy and ^mSi v.^, unless we suppose that 
the people who utter the Ps. are thinking of another and a later people and 
body of young men than themselves. It is improbable that the poet speaks 
merely for himself It is most probable that he lets David speak his hopes 
as those in which the people of the seed may join. The Ps. has two syn. 
Strs., each of five pentameter lines. In the first Str. the first line before 
caesura and at end has assonance in i, the remaining four lines before 
caesura and at the end all in ka. In the second Str. the first line has 
assonance in am. In the other lines there is no assonance in |§, but the 
text as restored shows assonance of second line in o, of third and fifth lines 
in im, of fourth line in ah. 

Jesus cites and interprets v.^ thus : " David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 
'The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine 
enemies the footstool of thy feet.' David himself calleth him Lord: and 
whence is he his son?" Mk. 12^^-^"^. Mt. in citing from Mk. changes the 
first clause into an interrogative, " How then doth David in the Spirit call 



376 PSALMS 

him Lord, saying"; and makes the quotation, "Till I put thine enemies 
underneath thy feet," and the final clause, " If David then calleth him Lord, 
how is he his son?" Mt. 22^^-^^. Lk. also citing from Mk. changes the first 
clause, " For David himself saith in the Book of Psalms," gives the quotation 
as in Mk. and slightly varies the third clause : " David therefore calleth him 
Lord, and how is he his son? " Lk. 20*2-44. The argument rests upon David's 
having said these words in the Ps., and it is justified if the author of the 
Ps. lets David appear as spokesman (v. Br.SHS. p. 263) ^ j^ does not require 
Davidic authorship of the Ps. We might say, furthermore, that Jesus is 
arguing on the basis of the common opinion as to the author of the Ps., and 
that either he did not in his Kenosis know otherwise, or else, if he knew, did 
not care to correct the opinion (v. Plummer^^"** pp- '♦^2-473) . but the latter view 
can be maintained only on the theory that he is arguing from the premises 
of his opponents to confute and to silence them, which he actually does with- 
out endorsing the premise himself. These words, by whomsoever uttered, 
have a Messianic reference to the seed of David in accordance with the 
covenant with David, and they do not lose their Messianic reference even 
though in the mouth of another. This Ps. is assigned in the Roman and 
Sarum use for Christmas and the Circumcision of Christ. 

Str. I. is composed of a synth. tristich and a syn. distich. — 
1. The psalmist speaks, not for himself as an individual, but for 
David in his seed, in accordance with 2 S. 7^^^, where he praises 
God that He has promised so much greater things for his seed 
than He has granted to himself. In view of the fact that the 
seed was to build the temple and as the son of God have an 
eternal throne, it was not too much for a poet to let David speak 
of his son as his lord. The view that the people of Israel, over 
whom the Davidic dynasty reigned by divine appointment, spoke 
these words, is not sustained by the context. — David cites the 
covenant with him as an Utkrance of Yahweh\ an utterance to 
a prophet in the ecstatic state (cf. Nu. 24^**^- 2 S. 23^^"^), a syno- 
nym of the "vision" 2 S. 7^' in which Yahweh spake to Nathan 
the words of the covenant (cf. Ps. 89^), interpreted as an pH 
Ps. 2^ This utterance was mediately through Nathan, but 
addressed to my lord'], the sovereign of Israel, the seed of David, 
the Davidic dynasty. Its contents were : Sit enthroned at My 
right hand], the right hand, the seat of the highest honor (cf. 
Ps. 45^®), occupy a throne nearest to Yahweh, implying therefore 
the sonship relation ; cf. Ps. 2^- ^. — Till I make thine enemies a 
stool for thy feet]. Yahweh is the one who subdues the enemies 



PSALM ex. 377 

here as in 2^ The Hne is synth.; but the second part of it is 
suggested by the sitting enthroned, the feet resting upon a foot- 
stool composed of subdued enemies. — 2. The enthroned lord 
now himself becomes active. — With the rod of thy strength^ the 
strong, powerful, massive sceptre or mace, suggested as held in 
the hand, in antithesis to the stool for his feet ; cf. 2^, where the 
Messiah rules with a rod of iron. — In the midst of thifie enemies']. 
He goes forth into the battle and uses his strong rod ; as in 2^ he 
dashes them in pieces like a potter's vessel. — A later editor in- 
serts here a gloss of petition. May Yahweh send it out of Zion\ 
implying impatience for the realisation of the promise, such as 
characterises Pss. 89, 123, but is foreign to the tone of this Psalm. 
— 3. The Str. concludes with a syn. distich, which is, however, 
synth. to the previous tristich. That tells of the activity of Yah- 
weh and the king, this of the people of the king. As in ancient 
times the people volunteered to follow Deborah and Barak Ju. 5^, 
so here. Volunteers are thy people]. They are ready and eager 
to follow their king, in the day of thy host], on the day when the 
host is mustered for war. They assemble on the sacred moun- 
tains], as J, ^, especially appropriate to the syn. simile of the 
dew. The sacred mountains are sacred because they are God's 
foundation, the place of His temple 87^, and as the place of the 
king's installation 2^ ; but ^, (3, have *' in sacred ornaments," 
cf. 29^ 96^, implying an army of priests, in accordance with the 
conception of the nation as a kingdom of priests in the covenant 
of Horeb Ex. 19^. This is the interpretation of Rev. 19", and 
is appropriate in itself and ancient. But it seems premature to 
mention priestly warriors before the priesthood of the king, which 
does not appear till the next Str. — The volunteers are compared 
to dew], drops of dew, abundant and fresh in vigor. They are 
thy youth], thy young men, with youthful enthusiasm and strength. 
They appear on the sacred mountains, as it were covering them 
in their battle array as dewdrops cover the mountains in the early 
morning, seeming to be born J^rom the womb of the morn], cf. 

Str. II. is syn. with the first, composed of three syn. 11. pre- 
ceded by a single line to which they are synth., and followed by 
a single line of climax. There is only a general correspondence 



378 PSALMS 

with the first Str. — 4. Yahweh hath sworn] \\ to " utterance of 
Yahweh " v.^ another interpretation of the covenant of David, 
sustained by the usage of 8g*-^-^ 132^^ — I/e ts not sorry']. It 
is an unchangeable oath, just as in 2 S. y^^ the kingdom is made 
sure, cf. Ps. 89^^. — Thou art a priest forever\ that is, a priest- 
king, as Jethro Ex. 2^^ 3^ 18^ (JE), and princes of David 2 S. S^^ 
20^ I K. 4^ all in sources of early history, not involving priestly 
office, but priestly functions of king. This is explained by a 
gloss : after the order of Melchizedeky that is, he was not a Leviti- 
cal priest of Deuteronomic law, or an Aaronic priest of the priest- 
code, but one after the order of Melchizedek, the friend of Abra- 
ham, Gn. 14. — 5. My lord\ just as in v.\ and not Lord of 
MT., which makes God the subject of subsequent vbs., which is 
appropriate v.*, improbable v.^, and impossible v.^, there being 
nothing to suggest change of subject. The parall. suggests the 
same reference as v.\ and this makes the king the subject of all 
following verbs and removes all difficulties. So we must read 
at His right hand, which is also favoured by assonance with " His 
anger," and not " thy right hand," which was due to the inter- 
pretation of "^HK as Lord, and which also involves the transpos- 
ing of the position of Yahweh and the king from that of v.\ — 
doth smite] \\ rule with strong rod v.^ ^ makes " kings " the 
obj. of " smite," but this destroys the measure, making this line 
too long, the next too short. — in the day of His anger], the day 
of battle, II with "the day of his host" v.^ — 6. He executeth 
judgment], that is, in battle, by overthrow. — On kings], obj. here 
instead of above, as J^. Kings lead the army of enemies, as in 
2^- ^° they plot, and are warned. — He doth fill the valleys with 
nations], after (§, 3, "valleys," instead of ?^ "dead bodies," and 
attaching "nations" to the vb. "fill," instead of J^ "fill (it) with 
dead bodies." The nations in the valleys, as in Jo. 4^^'^*, where 
they are assembled for judgment in the valley of Jehoshaphat, 
based on the narrative of the victory of Jehoshaphat over the 
Moabites and Ammonites in the valley 2 Ch. 20^^^, to which 
possibly also the Ps. refers. — He doth smite chiefs], that is, with 
his mace, rod of strength. He smites the leaders of his enemies, 
going over a wide land]. The battle-field is extended, and the 
land of the enemies over which he pursues them is far away. — 



PSALM ex. 379 

7. A change in text, chiefly in pointing, enables us to read : An 
inheritance on the way he maketh /V]. He takes possession of the 
wide land, the battle-field, and the land of the enemy, as his in- 
heritance ; cf. 2^, where Yahweh gives the Messiah the nations as 
his inheritance. This gives us the climax to the previous lines, 
and sustains therefore he is exalted ; that is, in the joy of victory 
and sovereignty. J^ gives, " of the brook in the way he drink- 
eth," as the men of Gideon lapped at the spring of Harod Ju. 7, 
in a rough and ready way of drinking, not waiting for drinking 
vessels, but in a hurry for battle. This suits the context, but does 
not give a good chmax. J^ also has " lifteth up his head." This 
suits the drinking of the brook, but the line is too long and the 
conclusion is weak. The word for " head " has crept into the 
text from the previous line. 

1. Dx^] utterance, declaration, revelation; v. ^6^. — 2t;~\ Qal imv. aty> 
pregn. sit enthroned 2^. — r-'rN'i;;] final clause; properly takes cohort, form 
nnv^rx, but this rule is not carried out even in earliest and most classic litera- 
ture, n-'tt' with double accusative, make a person or thing into another thing; 
so 18^2 2ii3 3^7 389, — :i\^_n^ din] stool for thy feet; f o^r! n.m. never apart, 
never literal: fp^r. used of Yahweh; earth as His footstool Is. 66^, the 
sanctuary La. 2^ (cf. "\ DipD Is. 6oi3), place of His enthronement in Israel, 
the cherubic platform Ps. 99^ 132"^ i Ch. 28'^; here only of the enemies of the 
Messianic king. This v. has two pentameters with assonance at the caesura 
and end of 1. : ''J''^S T'?'*'? 5 ^"'^"'^» T^Ji'^- — 2. 1,]'; ntoio] thy strong staff, so 
Je. 48^^ v; ntjri of Moab, cf. Sr"»3 DJty Ps. 2^. — jvxd nin^ nV;r^] is an abrupt 
change of subj. in midst of Str., incongruous with 2d pers. which precedes 
and follows. It is a gl. of petition, destroying the measure and the assonance, 
for ^[r; and rio-'X mark the two parts of the pentameter. — 3. ^d*;] so 3. 
ixerk <Tov @x.A. R. T. ^q., U, tecum, qo;]. — Pbn;] pi. abstr. voluntariness, 
readiness to volunteer for the war, v. 5^/ Aq. iKovaiaa/jLoi, 3 spontanei. 
Some think of free-will offerings, but there is nothing to suggest it in con- 
text ; cf. yMT\r\ for volunteering for war Ju. ^- ^. But (5^ o-px^], (gx-c-a.A.R.T 
T) dpx^f 'S principium nn-i^j n.f. as Jb. 30^^; cf. n-^^J adj. princely in rank 
Ps. 47^^^ +. — :i':^^n D'^^^] in the day of thy host, the day of the miUtary array 
for war, of mustering of forces; cf. Z'^'^-'^'^ 1361^ — -^ip "'T.l'^] in sacred 
ornaments, cf. 'p n'l-in Pss. 29^ 96^ I Ch. 16^^ 2 Ch. 20^1, always used in con- 
nection with public worship of Yahweh and implying priestly ornaments. 
This conception is in accord with that of the king as |n3 : his army would be 
a priestly army ; cf. Rev. 19^*, where the cavalry of the Messiah is " clothed 
in fine linen, white and pure " (probably an interpretation of our passage) ; 
cf. Ex. 196, where the nation is " a kingdom of priests." But why mn for 
nn-in? J[ has in montibus Sanctis, cf. 87^ t^'lp "•nnn ; so S and many Heb. 



38o PSALMS 

codd., Hare, Houb., Ols., Hu., We., Ba., Davies, al. This suits the figure 
of the dew^ and is also appropriate to the place of mustering and in accord 
with the installation 2^. There has been a transposition of words by copy- 
ist, and so the assonance has been destroyed. The original order was prob. : 
q'?>n-cr3 cn,-)-ni,-i3 r|::y ri:nj. — inc*;? Dn"^c] phr. a.X. f nnrp n.m. a.X. for 
usual nnc' dawn^ is suspicious; prob. dittog. of r. ® takes this d as prep. 
7r/>d €(j}(T<pbpov, 6.irb Tput, U anf^ luciferum ; & onp ]z, also prep., thinking 
of the dawn of time ; S ws Kad* 6pdpov ; Aq. i^cvpOpia /xivTjs, ptc. nntt'. — 
qn"<^2] t '"''"''?' ^.^. youth, elsw. Ec. ii^- ^"^ abstr. for concxeie young men, those 
assembled on the sacred mountains at the mustering of the volunteers. But 
^s. c. a. A. T has ^K yaa-rpbs irpb ewacpdpov iy^vvrjad ae ; i3^ i^ey^vv-qad ; 5J ex 
utero ante luciferum genui te,fro7n the womb before the morning star I begat 
thee, pointing '^T\-h\ just as Ps. 2}. This ignores ^r, prob. because it was simply 
figurative. @ is followed by Herder, Houb., Kenn., Minocchi, al. Other 
Vrss. agree with ^. The assonance of this 1. is in riS and rimV"'. — 4. r\\r\> y^cj] 
II r\\:\^ DNj v.i; cf, 89*- ^- ^"^ 132^^ — ^'^"^'h H^ '"'^"^] P^ ^^ usually employed 
for the priest of one of the historic orders. But there is also a usage in 
which it is applied to kings Gn. 14^8 (Mid.), chiefs of tribes Ex. 2^6 3I 18^ 
piD p^ (JE), and princes 2 S. 8^8 20"^ i K. 4^ so prob. Ex. 1922.24 q). go 
Israel as a nation is a kingdom of priests Ex. 19^ (E), cf. Is. 61* of Israel's 
ministry. In none of these instances is a specific priestly office involved. — 
pnx->3Sn '<nn2i"':'>] after the order of Melchizedek, that is, of the same kind as 
that of the ancient king of Jerusalem, to distinguish it from the Aaronic or 
Levitical priesthood, t [^l^l] n-^- l^ite word ; without prep, only Jb. 58 
suit, cause ; elsw. with ^;' as prep, because of Ec. 3^8 7^* 8^. The reference 
to the covenant of David and the attachment of the word to the king make 
it necessary to think of |n3 in the earlier sense, in which it does not imply an 
order of priesthood distinct from royalty. There is no reference to priestly 
function in this Ps. This explanation involves a time when the Aaronic 
priesthood was so much in mind that the use of pD in connection with the 
king needed explanation ; and it prob. also implies the story of Melchizedek, 
Gn. 14, as so well known that a reference to it would be readily understood 
in a congregational poem. Such an explanation would not have been thought 
necessary in a preexilic Ps. This v. cannot, as it stands, be arranged in any 
good measure. It has four beats in the first part and four in the second 
part, ace. to f^ ; but the second part has really five words. The Ps. is a 
pentameter in the first Str., and only one 1. is needed in this v. We must 
therefore throw out the glosses for good measure. This explanation is a 
gl. of a later age. No poet would have constructed such a line, cnr kS| 
has been changed from an original cnrsS by adding conj. ] and changing 
pf. to impf. Assonance requires O- not 0_. The 1. in its original form would 
then be : oSiy'? pD'nPN DnrxS nin> p^rj. This is then essentially the same 
as 2 S. 7^^ cf. Pss. 89*- ^-^ 132^^' — 5-6. "•n?^]- '^^^ wox^ is pointed as a 
divine name; but point >j-in, as v>. — rn::] vb. cf. \%^^, smite through, has 
o>oSd as obj. ace. to verse division ; then || itni f no v.®. But this L has too 



PSALM ex. 381 

many words, and the next too few, for good measure. Therefore remove 

D'^oVn to next 1., and make yn^^ abs. — ^an cvj] || r^'^^n ZV2 v.^ ; the day of 
Yahweh's wrath follows the day of muster of the army of His king. The 
king shatters the enemy here, as Yahweh makes the enemy His footstool 
in v.i. — pi^] Qal impf, |n ; exectite judgment in war, here, c. ace. Is >jnN 
subj. ? This is most natural, carrying on subj. from previous v. This leaves 
only v.'^, which it is impossible to attribute to Yahweh ; and yet there is no 
hint of a change of subj., and why should the king drink of the brook unless 
he had done something to weary him? Most interpreters therefore think of 
the king as subj. of v.^. But the difficulty remains, that in the pre