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O R, 

Annals of Literature. 

A Society of GENTLEMEN. 


— Nothing exteniuUey 

Norfei down aught in malice. 


Pleravere full non rejpondere faverem 

Spfratum meritis- HoR» 

Printed for A. H a u i l t o n, in Falcon-Court, Fleet- Street; 

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C >> N T E N T S. 

LETTER to tbe Blfliop of Carlifle, containing Remarks oa 
* Confiderations on the Propriety of requiring a Subfcrip- 

tion to Articles of Faith/ Page x 

Henley's Difiertation opon the controverted PafTages in St. Pe- 

ter and St. Paul, 7 

Mortimer's Student's Pocket Didionary, 16 

Dr. Ogden's Sermons on the Articles of the Chriflian Faith, 18 
Melmoih's Cato: or, an Eflay on Old Age, 2Z 

' Lelius: or, an Eflay on Friendfliip, ibid. 

William's Rife, Progrefs, and Prefenc State of the Northern 

Governments, 28, 91 

Dr. Henry's Hiftory of Great Britain, Vol. UI. concladed, 36 
Tbe Laws refpe&ing Women, 44 

Dr. Tucker's Seventeen Sermons on Natural and Revealed Re- 
ligion, £0 
Dr. Amory's Sermons, 5^ 
Clarke's (H.) Rationale of Circulating Numbers, 57 
Dr. Trufler's Account of the Iflan(]| in the South Seas, 61 
FoasiGN Articles, 62, 138, 123, 302, 388, 467 
Foa£iGN Literary Intelligence, 65, 142, 224, 306, 389* 

Letter to the right hon. Willoughby Bertie, by Defcent Earl of 

Abiifgdon, &c. 66 

Plan of Re-union between Great Britain and her Colonies, 68 
Thoughts on the Prefent State of Affairs with America, and the 

Means of Conciliation, 70 

A Bill upon the Principles of Lieut. Tomlinfon's Plan, for the 

more eafy and efieAually manning of the Royal Navy, &c. 71 
Political and Religious Condufi of the Diflenters vindicated, ib. 
Fawcet's Candid Reiiedions on the different Manner in which 

many have exprefled their Conceptions concerning the Doc* 

trine of the Trinity, yz 

Dr. Enfield's Sermon at the Ordination of the rev. John Tatea 

and Hugh Anderfon, in Liverpoole, 06t. 1, 1777, ibid. 
Biikop. of St. David's Sermon at Lincoln, on opening the new 

County Infirmary, ibid. 

Greenhill's Sermon on Innoculation, ~ 73 

A Philofophical and Religious Dialogue in the Shades, between 

Mr. Hume and Dr. Dodd, ibid* 

Dr. D. Smith's Treatife on hyfterical and nervous Diforders, 74 
Bath's Addrefs on the Subjedl of Innoculation, ibid. 

Hayes's Prayer, a Poem, ' ibid, 

Wifdom, a Poem, 75 

Perfeaion, a Poetical Epiftle, ibid. 

Saber na, a Saxon Eclogue, 76 

Fabplae SeLeflse, Audlore, Johanne Gay, Latine redditae, ibid« 
Fifth Ode of the K-^g of P— 's Works paraphrafed, ibid. 

The Audion ; a Town Eclogue, ibid» 

Devis's Accidence; or, Firft Rudiments of Eng, Grammar, 77 
Scott's Principles of EngUfli Grammar, ibid. 

A z Sharp's 

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Sharp^s Traft on the Law of Natare and Principles of Action' in 

Man, 7» 

Letter to Benj. Franklin, LL. D. F. R. S, 79 

A new and complete Hiftory of ElTcx, ' 80 

Nicolfon and Yarn's Hiftory and Antiq^uities of Wedmorland and 

Cuinberland, 81, 257 

Lietters of certain Jews toM, de Voltaire, 98 

Letters to the King, from' an old Patriotic (^aker, - 107 

Cole's Obfcrvations and Conjedlures on the Nature and Proper- 
ties of Li^hr, and on the Theory of Comets, 1 10 
. Hull's Seledl Letters of the late Duchefs of Somerfet, &c. 113 
Dr. Beattie's EiTays on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, 

&c. I20» 185 

Tatham^s fifTay onr^ Journal Poetry, 120 

Macaulay's Hiftory of England from the Revolution, Vol I. 130 
Letters from Portugal, on the late and prefeot State of that 
. Kingdom, 134. 

Letter to the Duke of Bocdeogh, on- National Defence, 1 36 
Ths Cafe fluted on philofophical Ground, between Great Bri- 
. tain and her Cblonies, 145 

Con f] derations on the prefent State of Affairs between England 

and America, ibid. 

The deluiive and dangerous Principles of the Minority expofed 

and refuted, ibid. 

.Remarks on General Howe's Account of his Proceedings on Long 

Ifland» 146 

The Patriotic Minifler, ibid. 

Collins's Addrefs to John Sawbridg«, Richard Oliver, Frederick 

Bull, and George Hayley, Efqrs. ibid. 

Experiments (hewing that Volatile Alkali Fluor is the mod eiHi- 

cacious Remedy in the Cureof ACphyxies, ibid. 

Baron Dimfdale's Obfervations on the Introdudion to a Plan of 

the Difpenfary for General Inoculation, 147 

Dr. Vaughan's T\yo Cafes of the Hydrophobia, ibid. 

An Addrefs to the Public (by Mr. Hawes), ibid. 

Plain and Scriptural Account of the Lord's Supper, ibid. 

Brief Enquiry into the State after Death, ' 14S 

Dr. Randolph's Two Sermons on the Truth of the Chridian Re*- 

ligion, ibid* 


iSW 395 


Dr. Ibbetfon's Sermon preached at Naffington, 

The Conquerer;, a Poem, 

Tranfmigratiouy a Poem, 

The Watch, an Ode, 

The Family incoropad, a Tale, 

Elegiac Verfes to the Memory of a married Lady» 

An Ode to Peace, 

Alfred, an Ode, ; 

Cumberland's Battle of Haftings, a Tragedy, 

Aifredj a Tragedy, 

Foote's Cozeners, a Comedy, 

■ ■ Maid of Bath, a Comedy, 





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Wafes's Remarks on Forftcr's Account of Cook's Voyage, i ^7 
Forfter*8 Reply to Wales's Remarks, ibid. 

New Difcoveries concerning the World and its Inhabitants, 1 ^9 
Sketch of a Tour in Derbyihire and Yorkihirey &c. ibid, 

laterefting Letter to the Dachefs of Devonlhire» ibid. 

En^iry into the Nature of.the Corn Laws, ibid, 

Bouarelli's Italian, Englifli, and French Pocket DiGdonzry, 166 
The Infant's Mifcellany, ^ ibid. 

Dr. Stuart's View of Society in Eui;ope» 161 

Nimmo's General Hiftory of Sterlingfliire, - 17 3 

Pneftley's Difquifitions relating to Matter and Spirit, 178, 273 
Travels into Dalmatia. By the. Abbe Alberto Fortis, 193 

Hunter's Pradlical Treatife on the Difeafes of the Teeth, 203 
Apthorp's Letters on the Prevalence of Chriftianity before its ci* 
vil Eftablifiiment, 1 206 

Farmer's Letter to Dr. Worthington, in Anfwer^to his * Impar- 
tial Enquiry into the Cafe of the Gofpel Demoniacs,' 213 
Mrs. ThickneiTe's Sketches of the Lives and Writings of the La* 
dies of France, 218 

Dr> Hulme's Remedy for the Relief of the Stone and Gravel, 
the Scurvy, Gout, &c« 221 

The Indian Scalp, or Canadian Tale, a Poem, 227 

TheProjea. A Poem, 228 

Jamaica, a Poem, in Three Parts, 230 

The Refutation, a Poem, 231 

The Diaboliad. A Poem- Part IL ibid. 

Jerningham's Fugitive Poetical Pieces, 232 

The Mufe's Mirrour; ibid. 

The Theatrical Bouquet, ibid. 

Poor Vulcan ! A Burletta, ibid. 

A Trip to Melafge, ^ ibid. 

Thiillethwaite's Man of Experience, 234 

Dr. Falconer's Obfervations on feme of the Articles of Diet and 
Regimen ufually recommended to Valetudinarians, ibid. 

Spilfbury's Phyiical Differtations, 23 5^ 

. Dr. Slsunders's Obfervations and Experiments on the Power of 
the Mephytic Acid in diifolving Stones in the Bladder, ibid; 
The R—1 Regifter, Vol. I. ibid. 

A Layman's Sermqn for the General Faft, ibid. 

A Form of Sermon, defigned as a Supplement to a Form of 
Prayer, 2^6 

Every Man his own Chaplain, ibid. 

' Bifliop of Oxford's Faft Sermon Feb. 27, 1778, ibid. 

Bifhop of Chefter's Sermon, January 30, 1 778, 237 

Dr. Markham's Sermon, on June. 29, 1777, before the Hur 
mane Society for the Recovery of Perfons apparently dead by 
drowning, ibid. 

Howe's Sermon at Yarmouth, in Norfolk, on the Death of the 
rev. Richard Froft, 238 

Leake's Sermon, before the Free Mafons of ElTex, ibid. 

Letter from a Father to his Son on his Marriage, 239 


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^ O N T t N T S. 

Jofco Bancle, Juoior, Gentleman, (Vol. TI.) 239 

I)r. King^s Letter to the Bilhop of Durham, on the Climate of 
Rttflia, &c. ibid. 

JLUCmy on the Education of Toath intended for Agricaltore» ibid. 
Wood's Miller's and Farmer's Gikide, ibid. 

A Literary Scourgei for thofe learned Affaffini the Critical Re- 
viewers, 240 
Fleet's Addrefs and Reply to the London and Monthly Review- 
' ers, ibid. 
Magellan's Defcription of a Glafs Apparatus for making Mine- 
ral Waters like thofe of Pyrtnont, Sec, ibid. 
The Tragedies of iEfchylus, cranflated by R. Potter, 241, 339 
Clarke's (Cuthb.) True Theory and Practice of Hulbandry, 248 
A Philofophical Survey of the South of Ireland, 252 
Holliday's Introduflion to Fluxions, 26^ 
Pennant's Tour in Wales. MDCCLXXTFL 268 
Bourn's Fifty Sermons on various Subjeds, 27S 
Sheridan's Hiftory of the late Revolution in Sweden, 282 
Xowers's Obfervations on Mr. Hume's Hiftory of England, 289 
Duncombe's Elegy written in Canterbury Cathedral, 292 
Mountaine's Defcription of ihe Lines on Gunter's Scale, 297 
Munfter Village, a Novel, 300 
Propofals for a Plan towards a Reconciliation and Re* union with 
the tbirteen Provinces of America, 308 
The Conc^iatory Bills coniidered^ ibid. 

Unanimity in all the Parts of the Britifh Commonwealth necef- 
fary to its Prefervatlon, &c. ibid. 

Letter to the Hon. C — s F— x, upon his Proceedings in Parli^* 
ment, 309 

An Appeal to the People of Englandi on the prefent Situation 
of National Affairs, &c. ibid. 

The Wreath of Fafliion, 3 1 o 

.Heard's Sentimental Journey to Bath, Briftol, &c. 311 

Journey of Dr. Robert Bongdut and his Lady to Bath, ibid. 

Liberty and Patriotifm, a Mifcellaneous Ode, 312 

Royal Perfeverance, a Poem, ibid. 

An Heroic £piftle to an Unfortunate Monarch, ibid. 

Matrimonial Overtures from an enamoured Lady to Lord G-- > , 
G— rm— e, ibid. 

Poetical Epiftle addreAed to William, Ear] of Mansfield, ibid. 

Elegy on the Death of the late George Lord Pigot, 3 1 3 

An Apology for the Times: a Poem addreffed to the King, ibid. 

Sketches for Tabernacle Frames. A Poem, 314 

Gray's Tranflation of fomeOdes and Epillles of Horace, &c.ibid. 

foote's Devil upon Two Sticks, a Comedy, ibid. 

■' ' Nabob, a Comedy, 315 

Reeve's Old Engiifh Baron : a Gothic Story, ibid. 

Greenwood Farm, 316 

A^emoirs of the Countefs D'Anois, ibid. 

Fiihop of Worccfter's Sermon before the Society for the Propa"- 
gation of the Gofpel in Foreign Parts, Feb. 20, 1778, 317 


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Palcy's Vifitation Sermon at Carliflc, July 15, 1777, 317 

Dr. Vyfe's Sermon before the Hoofc of Commona, on the Faft 
Day, Feb. 27, 1778, 319 

De Courcy's Two Sermotfs, ibid. < 

Home's Sermon, at Hereford, ibid. 

Hunter's at Liverpool, ibid. 

Farfons's, at Mitcham, Surry, ibid. 

Loft's Obfervacions on Macaulay's Hiftory of Englanc!, 320 
Pr, Magenife's Reformation bf Law, Phyfic, and Divinity, ibid. 
Trial of Robert Hitchcock, for the wilful Marder of his owa 
Father, ibid. 

Warton's Hiftory of Englifh Poetry, vol. ^ 3^ i» 417 

Dr. Hardy's Examination of what has been advanced on the Co* 
lie of Poitou and Deyonfliire, &c. 330 

Hamilton's Introdudion to Merchandife, Vol. L 33$ 

i^nderfdn's Obfervationt on the Means of exciting a Spirit of 
National Indnftry, 345, 433 

Fhilpfophical Tranfadions, Vol.LXVIL Part I L 354, 413 
J^etters between Lord Hervey and Dr. Middletoa concerning the 
Roman Senate, 361 

Travels of Hildebrand Bowman, Efq. 367 

Burgh's (William) Inquiry into the Belief of $he Chriflians of 
the three firft Centuries, 371 

Gillies's Tranflation of the Orations of Lyfias and Ifocrates, 376 
Dr. Langhorne's Owen of Carron, a Poem, 383 

TwoLetters fromMr. Burke toGentlemenin the CityofBriftol, 39s 
Jitter to the Dean pf Guild, Merchants, &c* of Glafgow, 393 
The Revolutions of an Ifland: an Oriental Fragment, 394 

Impartial Sketch pf the Indulgencies granted by Great Britain 
. to her Colonies^ ibid* 

llaftings's Teairs of Britannia, a Poem on the Death of the Earl 
. pfChatham^ : < ibid** 

An Adieu to the Turf, 39s 

Epiftle from MadenioiTelle D'Eon to Lord M— — d, 396 

l^piftle to Lord Pigot on the Annivertary of hb raifing the Siege 
ofMadrafs, ibid. 

Love Elegies, 397 

The Woman of Fafliion, a Poem, ibid* 

The Travellers, a Satire* ibid. 

An Invocation to the Genius of Britain, . 398 

Verfes on die prefent State of Ireland, ibM* 

Marriage, it>id. 

The Maid of Kent, a Comedy, ibid. 

Keid's Enquiry into the Merits of the Operations uied in Ok- 
ftinate Suppreffions of Urine* ibid. 

A Guide to the Lakes, 399 

A Calm Enquiry into rational and fanatical Diflention* ibid. 
Kirby's Analyfis of the Eledrical Fire. ibid. 

.Mifs Murry's Mentoria ; or, the Young Ladies Inflruftor, ..400 
A Catalogue of the Coins of Canute, ibid. 

.MifceUancoas State Papers, 401 


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More's Stri^ares oo Thomfon's Seafbiis, 426 

Pryce's Mineralogia Cornubieniis, 438 

Tacitus's Treatife on the Situation, Manners, and Inhabitants of 

Germany,^ tranAated by John Aikin» 446 

Dr. Wcale*« Chriftian Orator, 45^4 

Chambaud's new French and Ensliih Diftionary, 461 

Bell's Treatife on the Theory and Management of Ulcers, 463 
Scotch Modefty difpiayed, 470 

Letter from a Member of the Long Parliament to a Meinber of 

the preient, ibid. 

The Memorial of Common Senfe, ^yt 

CoBfiderations on the alledged NeceiEry of hi ring Foreign Troops, 

Tyranny the worft Taxation, ibid. 

The Spirit of Frazer to General Burgoyne, an Ode^ ibid. 

John and Sufan, or the Intermedler xtPfSLticd, ^ji^ 

An Elegy in a Riding- Houfe, ibid. 

The Love Feaft, a Poem, ibki* 

Poetical Eflays on Religious Sabjeds, 47^ 

Sonnets and Odes, tran dated from Petrarch, ibid. 

A Panegyrick on Cork Rumps, ibidT 

Second Thought is beft, an Opera, ibid. 

The Unfortunate Union j or, the Tcft of Virtue, ibid. 

The Hfftory of Melinda Harley', Yorkfhire, 474 

The Offspring of FaBX:y, ibid. 

Dr. Stonehoo&'sMo(i important Truths ofChriftiaiiityftated,ib. 
"Dr. Gerard's Fail Sermon, at Aberdeen, Feb. 26, 177*8, ibid. 
Mr. Bedford's Faft Sermon, at Bedford, Feb. 27, 1778, 475 
Mr. Hunt's Sermon before the Antigallicans, Ap. 25, 1778, 476 
Mr. Hcy's Sermon before the Governors of Addenbroke's Hof- 

pital, Jane 26, 17771 ibid. 

Evanfon's Letter to the Bifhop of Litchfield and Corentry, ibid. 
Loftus's Reply to the Reafoniogs of Mr. Gibbon, 477 

Dt. Hugh Smith's Philofophy of Phyiic, ibid. 

Dr. Peyrilhe's DiflerCation on Cancerous Difeafes, 47S 

' Bureau's Effay on the Eryiipelas, ibid. 

jyt. Lyfons's Farther Obfervations on the EiFedls of Cahmel and 

Camphire, ibid. 

The Life of Dr. Abbot, Archbifhop of Canterbury, ibid. 

Lnter to David Garrick, Efq. 470 

Ariftophanes ; containing the Jefts, &c. of S. Foote, Efq. &c. ibid. 
Cafe of Thomas Jones/ CI. of Ely, Cambridgefhirei ibid. 

Owen's Britifh Remains, ibid* 

Shaw'« Methodical Engliih Grammar, ibid. 

The Abufe of unreftratned Power, an hiilorical Eflay, 480 

Faden's Geographical Exercifcs, ibid. 

Modern Charaders, for 1778, by Shakefpeare, ibid.^ 

Defultory Thoughts on reading an incerefting Letter to the Duch. 

efs of I)3vonihire| ibid. 


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I i ] 



For the Month of January^ 1778. ^ 

* V mi I ~ r ir lu I ..i.m . I - . . . ■ - ^^ 

, A Lettir to ihi right twinnd thi Ltd Bijbop ef Carlifle, contain'* 
ing dfenu Reamki itfime PaJ/agts tf bis Lor if/hip's Pamphlit^ in* 
titlid^ ** Confidirations w the Pr^ritty of requiring a Suhfcriftiom 
to Artiths •/ Faith/* Zvo. u. Johnfon. 

THE learned author of this Letter introduces his R,emailLS 
with encomiums on his lordfliip's literary abilities, mo- 
deration, and candor. He fuggefls fome arguments againfl all 
fubfcriptions to human articles of faith, and points out fbtne 
particular objedions to the articles of the church of England. 
He maintains, that an aifent and confent to everj thing con- 
tained in our Liturgy, is a grievous impofition ; and that tio 
inan, with a good confcience, can make ufe of prayers, formed 
on a plan, which he thinks ' * contrary to the gofpel.* He 
then endeavours to (hew, that it is incumbent on thofe di- 
vines, whofe ideas of feripture do not perfedly coincide with 
the. doctrines inculcated in our eftablifhed forms, to refign thchr 
preferments, and unite in focieties, • where divine worlhip may 
be conduced in a manner more agreeable to reafon and 

* This, he fays, will 1)e a convincing proof to the world, 
that they believe the objedions they make, to be of an import^ 
ant and interefting nature/ . 

On this palTage it may be obierved, that a learned and gbod 
man may fee fome blemifhes and' imperfedlions in the churchy 
without thinking himfelf under a neceflity of retiring, and re- 
nouncing her communion. 

He may pofQbly confider the doSrints in difpute as ppints.of 
mere fpeculation, of which it is impoffible to form a com^ 

Vol. XLV.7tf«. 1773. B plct9 

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t A Litur to ihi Bifitp •/ Carlifle. 

plete and adequate idea ; or if he conceives, that his noHam 
Mxt agreeable to the cliTareft dedu£iions of reafon, he may 
choofe to avoid a hafty determination , cr an abfolute ieceJSibii 
from the eftabliihed church, on principles of modefty and mo* 
deration, on a full perfuafion, that perfection is not to be ex* 
peded in any human fociety ; that in a more enlightened ftafe 
the moft perfect wifdom of man may be looked upon as folly^ 
and all our abfira£led notions and learned difquifitions on 
points of theology, which polemical writers detef mine wit)i an 
' air of arrogance and ielf fufikiency, may appear as vain and 
inconfiflent, as the itlufions of a fick man's dream. 

There is a paffage in thle works of the celebrated Mr. 6oy]c» 
' wliich deferves the attention of all enquirers after truth of every 

kind, ^ , . 

^.^A^JCpu will.wonder;> fiys be, that in almoft every one of 

"thefe eiTays, I fhould ufe fo often ptrbaps^' it fiem^ ^tis noilm- 

frolfa}Ui as arguing a diffidence of the truth of (he opinions I 

inQtine to, and that I Ihould be fo ftiy of laying down piin* 

^. ciples, and fometrmes of fo much as venturing at expHcattons, 
Biit I miiflt' freely confefs, that having (net with many things^ 
of which 1 could give myfelf no on^ probable caufe, and Tome 

• tbingSi of which feveral caufes may be adfgned, (o difFeiu^^ 
as not to agree in any thing* unlefs in their being all of theoi 
probably enough, I have often found fuch difficulties in fear ch* 
ing into the caufes and n^anner of things, and I am A> fenfiSle 
of my. p7m dirability to furmount thofe difficulties^ that I dare 
fpeak c^nfidintly and pofitivtly of very few things," except roat- 

. pf fa£t. Apd when I venture to deliver any thing by way 
of oDipioQ, I ihould, if it were not for mere Khame, i]>eak yet 
more diffidently than I have been wont to do. Nor have my 
. thoughts been altogether idle in forming notions, and' attempt- 
ing to deviie hypothefes. But I have hitherto, though not al- 
ways, yet not untrequently, found, that what pleafed me for 
a while, was fopn after diigraced by fome farther or new ex* 

. perinieDt. And indeed I have the lefs envied many (for I fay 
not all) of thofe writers, who have taken upon thecfi to deliver 
the caufes of things, and explicate the myfleries of nature^ 

. fince I have had the opportunity to obferve ho'iju many of their 
dsSrinii^ having hetufir a tvhili applauded and ivtn admired^ have 
^ternuards heen confuted hyfomt ne^w phenomenon in nature;^ njubich 
ntfeu iitbor uninoHVn to fuch iMrturs, or not JuJJiciemlj confidered by 

# Proemial Eflay, vol. i. p. 307. edit. 1762. 


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If lth!s great philofopher proceeded with fb mdch diffidence* 
Wlien he was delivering the refult of his fludles in a fcience# 
whtrein, by the united confeflion of the whole world, he fo 
tmrnently excelled, every wife man will be extremely cautious 
hi matters of much greater difficulty and importance, the de- 
terminatioh of queHions relative to the Deity, the demolition 
bf eflabliihments, and the inftitution of new modes of 

If the church, of which he Is a member, admits of no fu- 
]:^r(t!tibus or ridiculous rites ; if it encourages no licentiouf* 
kiefs ; if it requires no pradices^ but fuch as are conformable 
to his mofi refined ideas of moral virtue, he may be very well 
Iktisfied with his ftation, till that VDbicb is perfta it tomi, and. 
tboi iviicb is defe^lve Jba/i be dons awaj, 

• The reiignation of thefe divines, continues our author, 
wfll be a nobUprwf of their zeal for pure chriftianity, if they 
will make fd great a facrifice, as an evidence of their fincere 
atrachmetit to it.^ 

Refignatlon, we beg leave to obferve, is no fuch 
proof. Many Chriflians, in the days of perfccution, fuflFcred 
martyrdom on account of their religion ; the greateil part, n9 
dtnibt, en a principle of confcience, and out of a perfedi fenfe 
of their duty; but fome, it is poffible, might be prompted to ^ 
fkCfi0ce their Ifrcs to their obftinacy or their vain glory : for, 
as ar facred writer has* remarked, we tm^ give the body to bt 
Mnfil^ and yet be deftitute of the moft effential principle of 
' The author, fpeaking of our reformers, obferves, * that 
niany of them forfook every dear and valuable connexion ia 
their native land, and that others patiently underwent the fie^y 
trial, rather than countenance what their judgements led 
them to difapprove, though efiablilhed by the greateft au- 

This we admit as a fafk; but the argument deduced from 
foch examples is of no weight. There is a wide difference bc-^ 
tween the (late of our reformers, and the clergy of the church 
of England in the prefent age. When our reformers fuifered 
at the ftake, the proteftant caufe was defperate. They had 
neither power nor intereft to moderate or refift the fanguinary 
zeal' of their enemies* They had no profpefi df a reform- 
ation, and they nobly fifdained to fhelter themfelves in the 
bofom of a moft corrupt, immoral, and abandoned church* 
They who belie ved» that Providence might pofliWy interpofe 
in their favour, fyifely retired, in compliance with our Lord's 
prudential advice : '* When they p^rfecute you in one city, dec 
into another.'* 

B a .But 

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4 A letter to the B'Jbop of Carlifkr 

But WE live in happier times ; wfe are members of a rcH 
gious community, which is favourable to the mod exalted at-., 
uinments in virtue and piety; and have no room to doubt^, 
but that every reafondble 6bje<Elion will in time be Confidercd 
and removed. ' In this cafe, a hafty reparation would betray a. 
degreeof impatience and intemperate zeal on one fide; and 
would naturally produce ianimofities on the other, as it would . 
indicate a contempt of the fociety,^ which we think it necei^^ 
fary to relinqu'fh, 

• Craiimer (as a French hiftorian * has obferved) who was a. 
fmcere and moderate proteftant, and an enemy to all violence, 
v^as convinced, that ^ change, without danger, could only be. 
brought about h^ Jtoiv degrtts^ and that it was neceifary to lead 
ttie people /f^ h P^P ^o the point at which they aimed; that, 
befides, as the enthufiafm of the reformed would naturally 
grow weaker by time, they ought to obferve a medium be-. 
t\vecn both extremes, and not to pu(li too far a reformation, * 
which it was of futh importance to render folid and durable. 

But above .all, it fhould be cooHdered, that our reformers 
cjid notforfake rhe church of ft.ome on account of any thing, 
which is a ftumbling- block to our prefent feceders. So far 
from it, ihey ftrenuoofly fopported those very doctrines, 
which are retained in the church, and which we are now re-. 
cjuired to abohfh ! Their cafe and ours are therefore by na, 
m.eans parallel, and fhould never be placed in competition^ 
till the church of England is as corrupt as the church of 

• But, fays ,o«r author, a refignatioii woi^ld by rto meaHS 
Alige you to remit in your endeavours, as to' obtaining aa. 
amendment.' ^ 

] 'Does this writer know any thing of the world ? If he does, h»' 
muft be fenfible, that from the njoment a man defcends into 
cbfcurity, his opinion is either totally difregarded, or received 
with indifference. If he would wifh to fucceed in any point of 
c6nfequence, he muft maintain his importance. Men in power 
will hardly be inclined to attend to tlie remonftrances, or re- . 
ceive the advice and ailiftance of difTenting vicars, or non-conb^ 
forming bilhops.' 

« Bcfides, if it is the duty of one, it is the duty of all 
confcientious clergymen, who fee the imperfedlions of our 
eltablilhment, to fcparate from the .church. Let ps now 
.fuppofe, that this were to take eife£l, what would be the con- 
ifcjuence ? — The church would be deferted by her bcft and 
sfbleft proteflors in the hour qf diftrefs. Thefe excellent men 
would fmk into iniignificance ; their places would be filled by 

" ■ ■ ■ ' ■ ' " t* > " ■■ I 

• Abb^Milot. , 
' thofc. 

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A letter t9 the Bificp ef CarJifle. 5 

rfiofe," wT)o, on our author's hypothefisj would hare no regard 
.^ther for confcience or genuine Chtiftianity ; no abilities, or 
no inclination to alter our exceptionable forms upon the plan, 
>rhich he propofes. 

-* Y.Qur lordfhip (fays he to the bifliop of Carlille) or any 
other clergyman may open a place of worfliip in any part of 
£ng!and, as Mr. Lindfey has done in London. 

Here we cannot forbear admiring the Qnlxotifm of this' 
writer, five thoufand learned and confcientious clergymen, it 
is true, may open five thoufand places of worfhip; they may' 
model their liturgies as they pleafe, and take infinite pains to , 
bring their hearers to a right way of thinking, but by what 
expedient, in the mean time, would khey fubfift ? In opulent 
cities, perhaps fifty out of thefe five thoufand would be de- 
cently fupported : the reft, having no legal maintainance, no 
cftabliftiment to protect them, would be ftarved. The ardor of 
thefe venerable non-conformifts*would ab^tc, and their pious 
ptroje6i would be foon abandoned. 

* It appears, fays oar author, viery clear and evident, that 
ISfebucharfnezzar had as much right to fet up a golden image, 
lind command all his fubjef^s to worfhip, as any governors 
<iivhatever, even of the Chriftiai> religion, have to make ar- 
ticles of faith, and eftablifc modes of worfhip, for which they 
have no warrant in holy yvrit, and then punifh men in any fe- 
i^eft for refufjng a confipliance . . • Was [were] l forced either 
to bow down and worfhip a golden image (whether it was de- 
ijgned to reprefent fome deity, or the chief magiftrate himfelf) 
or to declare in a Chriftian congregation my unfeigned affent ta 
the thirtyrrhin^ Articles of the church of England, I really be- 
Kevc I ihoiild prefer doing the former, if the weaknefs of hu- 
ihan nature ihould prevent me from fiicrificing my life to my 

- On this paiTage, and the cafe at large, we fhall fubjoin the 
fentiments of a learned friend, comprifed in the following 

•* Does not this very clearly ftrike at all religious eflablifh* 
mjcnts as fuch ? and yet is not fomething of that kind neceflary 
to keep up the very face of religion amongft us? Do not all 
fuch eilablifhments imply public liturgies, and thefe again in* 
elude leveral particulars, not exprefsly delivered in holy Scrip* 
fure, and in that fenfe * warranted* by it, any farther than 
the coinmand, not to forfoke the affemblin^ §f eurfilves together^ 
lOUfl fuppo/e fbme dated forms of worfhip in that djjemhlj f Oi 
will no lefs authority for fuch public fervice fatisfy us» thaii 
that' every part of it be made up of Icripture teronsy and con« 
tained^ totidem verbis, in the Bible ?*» ^^ 

B 3 WeU 

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Well tben : here is a perfon originally entered intd oq« fA 
thefe communities, the church of England, for inftance ; but 
by his progrefs in religious knowledge he detcds feveral errors 
in its fydem, and inconveniencies in its ritual ; mod of which 
having crept in by length of time, apd the ignorance of fbme 
former ages» are dill fuffei ed to remain, like ilaws in an ancient 
fabric, for want of fuch occafional repairs, as every human 
edifice or inftitution will require : what is now to be done in 
the cafe ? Mu^ he forthwith quit his flation in fuch eftabliffa- 
inent, and go about the world in queft of fome other, that is» 
as he thinks, pn the whol^, more pure and perfeA ? TTo <^t^ 
cover this, and determine on the point with precifion, wilt 
perhaps prove no very eaiy talk; and if upon a dill ftridler 
fcrutiny he continues fcrupling to join with any one, that does 
not appear to be abfolutely free from imperfe^ion, I fear, that, 
as the apoflle intimates in a fimiUr cafe, be mu/i mtds g9 liut ef 
the <world. 

Or, fecondly, Ihall he try to make the beft of our prefent 
ferms, and reap the benefit o( all that is truly excellent and 
unexceptionable in. them ? While ifi return for fqch a benefit 
be is labouring to procure fome amendment in other parts of 
our ecclefiaftical conAitution, and paving the way for a more, 
uniform and perfe£l reformation, whenever our governors, vritb« 
oyt whofe concurrence we can do nothing, ihall be well dif-r 
ppfed towards it : to obtain which £»vourable diipofition no 
human m^ans feem more effedual, than fuch a patient ^nd 
perfevcring moderation ; while he is all along prodnoting and 
encouraging a fober fpirit of enquiry, founded upon the )uf^ 
rights of confcience, a true Chriiiian policy, and m.utual to- 
leration, and be^ooie^ equally fiplicitous to f^cure the no left 
^icred principles of unity and public order in the bond of 

Or, laftly, ftall be leave this whole matter to the direfkioti 
of ibtoe perfops, in wtsom he oiay place a confidence, and who 
will undertake to condudl his devotions for him, either by foqie 
piivate forips of their own cdmpofition, or by tb^ more eafy, 
^ut not inOJCe edifying method of extempore effufions I / 

Atnoogft thefe feveral vifays of carrying on this great work» 
is it not, at l^aft, a poflibic; fuppofition, that the fecond ol 
them may be, in ib(De cafes, fafeiy adopted ?- And therefore vi 
it tiot begging the queiHontp affirm, that fuch a coio^liaocei 
With what he cannot whoUy appcpve^' * is always doing evil 
that good qiaj come/ .when in truth of two oeceffary evils» 
^his i» only choofuig the lefs? Hpf is ther^ opcafion for any 
other 'facrifi,ce/ befide tfaatof a man'sprejudiipes, p^ffions^pr 
partial mterefts, to oiake aohoneil determination; 

...■■•. •- After 

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HenJ^'i Difiruum nfm St. Peter /mJ $/• Jude* 7 . 

After all, I am very far from intending to caft any refleAioa 
on thole good and worthy men, who have found themfelves 
X>bl]ged to give up every thing in this world by purfuing a difr 
ierent courfe : and heartily wifii» that every one/ who is fe* 
^iouily engaged in fuch a deliberation^ would endeavour to dif* 
charge his duty faithfully, with care and diligence, equal to 
^be importance of the fubje£t, and the diiHculties which attend 
jl; .4Uld/that ail others, who ^Tcjiren^ in de/ai/h^ and agreed. 
upon ithe qnode of profefling it, as well as of performing every 
part /^f their public worfliip, -inflead ofcenfuring and condemn* 
ihg all other modes, or calling a tumbling block in the way 
jof any weak brother to difcourage and diiire/s him, m^ ra* 
ther lend their charitable afliflance towards the lightening of. 
tAs burthen, ai)d removing fome oF his doubts and diflicuhiet, 
by allowing him the fame perfedl liberty of judging here for: 
^imfejf, and ading in purfu^nce of fuch judgement, that they 
jthemfelve^ expe£l in pther points of confcienje.'few of wliich 
j|iay perhaps row a,d^ys either want it fo much, or prove £> well 
/d^ftrving of it," 

J J}ifftrW$9n upM thi eontrweriul Pajfagts nv 5/. Peter mmi S$ 
Jude fnamiug tbi Angtls^ that finntd^ and nnbo ktpt not their 
fifi Efitatf 4f Sf miiel Hpnley. to«. a/. Joho4>n. 

TI^IS pi/Iertat]on is a vpry ingenious attempt to explain 
the two following paflages, which have occafioned many 
labori9U$ enquiries, and many curious fpeculations. 

<< If pod fpsred not the angels, that fioned, but caft them 
^own to bell,' anci delivered them into chains of darkoefs, 40 be 
l^^^rved; unto judgement : — And turning the cities of Sodom and 
Gomorrah into aihes, condemned them with an bverthroir, 
making them an example onto thofe, that after (hould live ua« 
godly.?' a Pet. ii. 4, 6. 

V The an|;els/ which kept not their firfl eftate, hot left their 
own habitation, be hath referved in everlafttng cbaini under 
^arkneis', unto the judgement of the great day. £ven as Sodom 
and Goinorraij, and the cities aboat them, in like manner, giv^ 
ing themfelves over to fornication, and going after ftraage 
fleih, are let forth for an example, foftring the vengeance ot 
$t^rnal'£re.'*. Jude v. 6, 7/ * 

Writers unanimoufly apply tbe|V paflages to a fup)x)fed de- 
fection of rebellious angels in heaven ; bnt this author pror 
poles a new explicatbn, making tbem a4ttde ta a rebellbua 
people upon earth. 

B^ * Wf 

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t " Uenltfs Difertatm uftn St. Pctcf an^ St. Jude^ 

* We learn, Cays he, > from tfaefe pafTage?, that there wa« fer-^ 
jnerly a people, who did not keep their eiVate, and who forfook ^ 
their habitation : that the/ were called angels ; and for their 
difobedience condemned to Tartarus : and were to be preferved 
in' chains and darknefs until the great day. The judgments ex- 
ecuted upon them were like tbofe of Sodom and Gomorrah : and 
it is intimated that among other indances of wlckednefs the^r 
were guilty of th? fame crimes, as the people of thofe cities. ' 
We have in the Mofaic hiftory an accoiint given of the firft apo-^ 
ilacy and rebellion upon earth ; which was carried <ui by the 
fonsofChus, under their imperious leader Nimrod. And to 
thjo rebellion, and to this people, I imagine that the apodles 
aU.ide. The hiftory is of great confequen^e in the annals of the 
world ; and confifts of many interefting cJrcumftances : each of 
which is iignificant,; and will be {bund to have been compleated 
in the perA)ns of whom I treat. They aiTumed to themfelves 
divine titles ; and were efteemed by their poflerity as a fuperior 
qrder of beings. They did not preferve their eftete ; nor regard 
the rule and government, under which they were placed : but 
levohed, and forfook their habitation • On this account the/ 
were reprefented as condemned to Tartarus ; and there referved 
in chains and darknefs. The apoflles throughout keep up a 
coroparifon between the apoftates of old, and thofe which were 
riling in the church : and one great article is the defbiiing of 

Having given this general account of Nimrod* and his af- 
fociates, the author proceeds to authenticate every circumftance 
of it, by quotations from the fcriptures and from hedthed 
writers, founding his procefs upon Mr. Bryant's account of 
thefe tranfaflions *. 

Part of what that learned writer has advanced upon this iub« 
jeft is as follows : ^ 

— *« Mankind for, a long time lived under the mijd rule of the 
great patriarch, Noah. When they multiplied, and were be- 
come very numerous, it pleafed God to allot to the various fa- 
iniiies different regions, to which they were to retire : and they 
accordingly in the days of Phaleg, did remove, and betake 
themfelves to their different departments. But the fons of Chus 
would not obey. They went off under the conduft of the arch- 
rebel Nimrod ; and feem to have been for a long time in a roving 
Hate, but at laft they arrived at the plains of Shinar. Thefe they 
found occupied by Affur and his fons : for he had been placed 
there by divine appointnient. But they cjcded him, and feized 
Upon his dominions, which they fortified with cities, and laid 
the foundation of a great monarchy. Their leader is ofteo meiiu 
iioned by the gentile writers, who call him Belus ; and ^e is 

^ •' • • Analyfis, vol. iii.t-P»~^3« 


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fieoley^ Bi£irmlpn ppon Sn Pctct and 8f. Jjaiev ^ 

IDfiiverfally fpoken of as the builder of the tower called the tower 
of Belus and of Babel.. He was fiiOfted in the building of it byt 
Wis aiTociates', and it is cxj^refsly (aid, that they ere^ed it to 
prevent their being fcattered abroad ♦• . . According to ,the gen- 
tile accounts, a large body of them were driven weilward, aS far 
s^ Mauritania* (o the extremities of the eajfthf and the foppofed 
qanfines of TarUros. Heje they fettled under the names qf t))e 
Titanians and AtUntians^ Oppofite to them another body was 
filid to have taken up their refi^ence at T^rteQus, under th<; 
cpndud of Gyg^9 t whp way alfo a Titanian from C)ialdea,': 

In a treatifc of Philo, fays bur aqthpr, there is an account 
9f thefe tranfadlions, which confirms the fummary Mr. Bryanf; 
has here givep us of this remarkable hiflory ; and, at the Camp 
time, illuftratcs the words of the apoftle. This writer j-elates^ 
V tjiat the defcendants of Chus broke through the fubordj? 
nation, in which they had been placed, and deferted their owi| 
eftate ; that they took up arms, and waged open and deter- 
mined war againfl thofc, who were at enmity with them ; and 
that Nlnirod, to whofe name the appellation of the revoltee 
from hence became fynonymous, was the inftigator of this ift^ 
ftrreftlbn.** Philo dc Gigant. p. 272. 

The original habitation of Nimrod and his followers, con- 
tinues our author, was under the patriarch Noah ; and the 
^efertlon of it the apoftle defcribes in thefe terms, ^h rnpH^eiy* 
jAf 7nv Uv70)v AfX^v* '* ?o^ k^epipg theif firft dlate." If 
they had afted as they were bound by every tie of duty and aU 
}egiaQce, tbey would have waited for the general roigrationy 
f/hich they feem to have anticipated ; and they would then^ 
according to the divine appointment |, have departed to thoft 
regions, which were occupied by the Mizraim, Lubim, and 
other fons of Ham. But they refufed to fubmit to the divine 
({ecree, and difregarded to icT/ok oimrnftoVt the place to which 
\hey^ Had been deilined. 

The perfonf mentioned by the two apoflles are (lyled ay- 
yi\9h angtls. This, Mr. Henley thinks, is a title, which 
will be found by no means to difagree with the hiftory given 
of Nimrod and his aflbciates. Angels a^e reprefented as hea- 
venly beings, the miniflers of God's wiU,^ apd the guardians of 
mankind. Nimrod took upon himiel^ibe titles of Alorus, Ti- 
tan, and Orion, which were facred names ; 9iid he gave out, 
as we learn from Berbfus [Abydenus §] that hewas appointed 
of God to be his minifler, and a guardian of his people. The 

* * • "We omit the Mofaic account of this difpcrfion, quoted by Mr* 
Bryant,' as the reader will find it, Gen. xi, 3, 7, 8, 9. 

f See Thallus ap. Theoph^ ad Autoh iii« p, 339. 
J ^ ^ee Deut. xxxii« 7% Aas xvii. a. % Eufeb. Chron. p. 5. 


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xo Kenley'i pijirt^m npn St. Peter and 9** Jude. 
principal of his companions were In aftertimes rjeprefented «9 
faperior to the race of man ; and ililed, ihfetS'cLiy n^Jt^^tot^ 
a6a¥Ato^j J'etifAmfi ^^^ off^pnng oftbtjitn^ demi-go^s, immortalt 
and dimonsm 

— ♦ The term AsyyeXoc, an angel, is by the (acred \yriters in- 
(difFereptly referred both to celeftial and infernal beings ; an4 
even to men, when they were at any time thoiighc to be mef* 
Icngers of the divine wiiL This was the charadler, which Nim- 
rod and his companioivs^irumed : and it was confirmed to them 
by their ill-judging pjollerity • • • Nimrod under the name of chp 
£rft Jcing of Babylon/ Alorus, " fpi-ead abroad a report/ that 
God had appointed jiiim to' be the fhepherd of his people */?. 
This is the very jdea of a perfon ftiled "^j^^JJ and ayyc^0J, by 
the facred wricecs. His being efieemed ^at^cvv, a dxmbn» aftef 
bit death, coDfirmed it dill more; for Philo, an epiinentjkwiih 
author, who wrote in the time of the apoiUes, positively anrms^- 
that '* though' foals, daemons, and angels, be diHerent terms; 
yet iQ reality they are 6f one common import, and all belong t^ 
ihe fame perfoos/' He moreover ailcrts» V< that thofe. whoni 
OJift^a ftiled dsmons were called aogels by Mofes ^*\*, I'^ei^ 
is* in the book of Job, ^ beautiful allufion to Nimrpd and 
his aflbciates, in which the Seventy 'exprefsly denoniinate theni 
angels : .a«'orii?^» AFFEAOTL •^ % fiattered angels^ in lyratl^ 
Hence the term is in every refped v^ry properly applied by 
theapoftles. / i f . . .♦ 

< The perfons, of whom I am treating, were alfp looked op 
to as flars and conftellations. Nimrod in particular was ftiled 
§ Orion ; and at other, times the Morning Star; and the Son o| 
tilt Morning. We may learn from one of the Orphic hymaa^ 
Ihac the daemons and ftars were eAeemed the fame. ' ' ?' -^ 

< The titles aSove were kept ap by mpft of t^e aQ<;i^at Chtlh 
^c and Ethiopic race. The Titaniana of Mai^itania are, in 
tijus lone of Euripides, ftiled Artfii *E<intfu* and the daughters, qt 
Atlas in the fame country were referred to an afierifin, in the hes|<' 
vens, and called the Pleiades. When Homer mentions th'e 
death of Antilochus, the fon of Neftor, he fays, that be was 
flain by Memnon, the Son of the Morning ; which Memnon waa 
an Ethiopian, 

ff Toy f Htf( tKTun fcmm ayXxo^ mo(* 

• £ufeb'. ubi fupra. t ^ Gigant. p. 164, %6%. 

J job, xl. II. The original word, here tranilated /<:4!/|rf« isap* 
pViedi by Moles to the difperfion from Babel, Gen. xi. S> 9. 
§ Chron. Pafchale, p. 36, tt Hymn vi, 

f OdyO; A. V, 188. 


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• Virgil i9aket Dido inqaire about thit perfen ii4(}ef thf ff mf 
fUle $ aad ftiles him the Son of the Morning, * ^ 

!^ t^pnc qi9ibH9 Auror^ veni&t Filius ^rmis ? 

^ It is remarkable* that the prophet Ifaiah, when he is de? 
flouncing God's vengeance againil Babylon and its princes^ 
makes ufe pf the fame exprefllon. In\ doing this, he feems to 
allude to the firft apoHate monarch* who alFe^ed to obtrude him* 
ielf among the angels of heaven ; and to be diftinguiOir^ bjr 
divine tittes. *• f How didft thou fall from heaven, 77^n» 
nniS^Il O Lucifer! thou Son of the Morning ! Howartthoa 
cat^down, that didft weaken the nations !" The perfons to whom 
he likened himfeUi Oi was likened by his pofterity, were thofc 
celeftial beings, the imnpiediate minifters of God : who by way 
of eminence are (tiled (tars. There is a welUknown paiTage ia 
the book of Job to this'purpofe, which has extraordinary beauty* 
It is* where the Deity makes his appeal to Job* concerning the 
creation of the world ; and bids him* if he be able, to anfwer. 
V X Where wall thou* when I laid the foundations of the earth ? 
i>eclare, if thou haft any underftanding.— — When the morning 
flars fang together; and all the Sons of God ftiouted for joy«'* 
|!rom the inftances produced above we may perceive* that both 
ihe fons of God; and the daemons of the Gentile worlds were 
alike ftiled angels and ftars : and from hence* I think* we mav 
be certified concerning the meaning of the two apoftles in the& 
^xts, when they fpeak of thefe per^ns as angeU.' 

The author mentions* the complicated crimes of thefe apof* 
|ates, and thus proceeds : 

.»< St. Jvide fays, that the overthrow pf this people ^rded 
an example like to that of Sodom and Gomorrah ; and we ms^ 
infer, that their defeat was attended with many circumftances, 
which were iimilar. It is faid of the cities of the Afphaltic vale* 
that ** God overthrew them :" that is, he fubverted their very 
fiiXiA and buildiiiffs. Hence t&ey muft have been aiiedted not 
only with a fiery deluge from above ;, but with bituminous erup- 
tions and ^onyul^oivs of tl\e earth below. The account given by 
Abydenns % concerning thiE tower of Bsibel, inendoiis ftoirms and 
whirlwinds, which beat upon it. By other writers there ^re 
(aid to have been fiery meteors* attended with earthquakes* that 
fliook it to its bafis. Hiftiaeus adds* that thofe* who efcape4 
the calamity fled to Shenaar, and were afterwards diflipated over 
the face of the earth* 

* The word TOfKo^wra;* ttied by the apoftle* denotes fbme* 
thing violent in the mode of ezecmion. It iotimates* that the 

• .^£neid« Lib. vi. v. 751. f Isaiah, c auv. v. i** 
\ Chap, xxxviii, vcr. 4.. 7. 

I EtticD. Chron. p. ss« Theoph. ad AutoUii. p. 371. 

. 5 ■' per- 

Digiti^ed byVjOOQlC 

1 1 Htiiley*/ bfJuiatUn vptn St. Peter and 5/. Jude. 

perfons fpokeo of were forcibly expelled from the region, wbidi 
ihey had occupied, and driven lo the place called TaruruB. - 
The language,, in which both of the apoftles have defcribed this 
^vent, has no iimilitiide Co the didlioa io any other part of the 
}<feiy T^Sament. from hence, and frpm the dithyrambic tiun 
of their expre^ons, there fcems room to conjedare« that they 
hj^d each in vie^r fome ancient hiftory : and this probably had 
been tranflated into poetical i^eafure by fonne Hcllcpiftic Jew ; 
»s wp qiay judge from the rythni, with which it is attended. 
The latier part pf the book of Wifdom fcems to h^ve been com- 
pofed by a like hand, and in the fame manner^ Many of the 
prophets a'pparently allude to hiftories long loft ; which though 
they were not admitted into the canon of fcripture, yet were 
lookji upon as authentic^ and quoted accordingly. The words 
ciifcui ^o^» ra^rapaierekq are remarkable ; as are likewife Jccr^ot; 
aiiun^ vTTo ^o^oif TiTvtfTiicif, Wc meet with among the Gentile 
Writers repeated accounts of Nimrod, and his aflbciates, who 
mre reprefented a^ Titanians, and are faid to have warred againft 
beaven/ They are defcribed as beitig at laft overpowered with 
ilorms and whirlwinds, and blafled >yith lightning: and at the 
clofe of it is faid tha^ they werp ^"^p? to Tajtarus, apd there 
kept in chains of darkncrs, 

* — ,* They are reprefented by St. Peter as held cru^i^ fo^y, and 
by St. Jude as ha-yM^i m^M^ v^o ^o^oy, all which bears a great re- 
femblance to the phrafeology as well as to the narrative of the 
Grecian writers. Nor muft we think this at all ftrange, when 
we confider, that the Grecians in their mythology referred to the 
fame perfons,. the affociates of Nimrod, under the chara£lter of 
the rebellious Titans. Heiiod mentions their being overthrow^ . 
^ thepeity^ and red|iced to a Jtat<^ of amazement and ftupe- 
fa^ion : that they were driven to Tartarus, where they were to 
be for ages configned to chains and darknefs. After having de- 
Ibribed their oppofiiion and difcomfiture, he then comes to theif 
captivity and place of refidence ; 

Km re^ fHf vvo x^opo^ tvfvo^unq 

TlifA'^cu, tt»i ^iO'i^otait sir «pya^0»0'iy thiffau 

fCix^aro*, &c. Hcf. Thepg. 717, 729. 

The author produces many paiTages from the Gree^f: and 
Latin poets, to ihew, that the Titans were conligned to Tar-^ 
tarus (which fbme placed at the extremities ^f the earth beyond 
the region of Mauritania ; others in an imme^furable depth, far 
removed from the furface of thr earth, and the regions of day) 
and continues the argument in this manner : 

* It is remarkable, that the apoftle, when ' he mentions the 
judgements, witl\ whith this people were punifhed, does not 
immediately fay, that God overthrew them in his difpleafure i 


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iithUy^i Dijirtatiott updn St, Peter akd Si. Judd. 1} 

%dl only, wt i(pi«r»t», * ht did not 'fparc them.* This fccms to 
incimate^ that there wal a rcafoiv, ^Ky they poffibly might hav<^ 
^jfpcaed, that fome metc^ would have been (hewn them. The 
like mode of cxprcffion occurs iii Ecclefiafticus, ch. tvl 7. where 
tiie judgements of God upon the Titans, and upon the inha- 
bitants of Sodom are faitntioned together. " He was not pa- 
cified (or fofiened) towards the Gi^NXSof old, when they fell 
away m the ftrength of their fooliftinefs; neither fpared he, wi, 


events are brought together, as we have before feen, by the ^ 
apoftlcf, and in a manner exadly finlilar. 'And as it was a quef- 
tion with Viiringa and Dr. Lardner, to what fcriptoral hff- 
torics the apoftles in the forgegoing paffagcs allndcdf 
we may be certain, that this was one, and the chief texti 
10 which they referred. And we may be^ 1 think, farther af- 
fured from this paffage, that the apoftate angds of St^ Peter 
and St. Jude were no other than the rebellious Tiuns of pthcr 

writers. 1 . /• * 

— « It is obfervable, that In the three places, where thefe 
apoftates are fpoken of, viz. in Ecclefiafticus, St. Peter and SU 
Judc, they are uniformly introduced with the people of Sodom 
and Gomorrah *. • And the reafon is plain, becaufe they were 
certainly guilty of the fame unnatural lufta. St. Ptter joi<)$ ()^^a| 
together^ when he fpeaks of their prevailing crimes, and cth'^' 
tinually alludes to them in his admonitions to otliers f . . .St. Jude 
likewife mentions both people in fucceffion, and joins them to- 
gether in guilt. After having taken notice of the formei^per- 
fons, and the nature of their punifhment he adds, »<: lo^oaa, &c* 
*' Juft like Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities in their vi- 
cinity, who copied this people in their guilt.'' By this, I thinks 
we may learn, that the inhabitants of Sodom are faid to befimi* 
, lar in, crime to thcfe apoftates, whom the apoflles are juft de« 
fcribing. They finned rov o/MowrTwroK r^irov : by which ismeant^ 
that they refembled them in their iniquities. Such, in my 
judgement, is the natural purport of the words. And from 
hence, I think-, we may be afiured of two things, which will 
ferve farther to confirm what I have'been faying about this peo- 
ple. Fird, that the perfons filled ayyt>jin, were undoobtedl/ 
^ MEK ; and fecondly, that their hifiory was prior to that*of So- 
dom, the natives of which place copied the former in their wick- ^ 
ednefs. The depravity of the Cuthites in this refped was very :f 
great ; and we find fad tokens of it in many of the colonies where 
they fettled ... All of the Titanianr race feem to have been fo 
notorious on this account, that their very name betokened in- 
famy* Hence we find in Hefychius, Ttrdo, vrxih^urvu intro* 
duced as fynonymous terms. « 

• They are likewiie connefted in the fame manner by the pro* 
phets. Ifa. xiii. 19. Jtr.i. 40. 
f z Pet. ii« s, 10. 

« —St. 

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i4 fienley V Dljftrwtem up$^ Si. I^^ter 4uj St. jiide* 

»*-< St. Peter fpeaks of thefe people at coafiMd ia daikoefs^' 
and '^ there reierved for future jadgment.'' According to St. 
Jude they were in like manner referved *< onto the judgment of 
the great day." All people* even thofe 6f their own family, 
ieem to have been fenfible, how great the gdilt wte of fhefe re-^ 
beb» and have dcfcribed it accordingly.' 

This learned writer, having fliewn thit the Atlahtians, who 
were driven to Mauritania, had divine titles, and were looked 
op to as flats and conflellations, thus very happily illuilratei 
the .figurative language of the two apoiUes : 

* It has been fhewn» that the Atlantiand, who were drivel 
to Mauritania, had divine titles, and weie looked up to as ftara 
and conflellations. Hence in the lone of Eoripides, Creofa be«> 
idg in diftrefs wifhes, thit fhe could fly away to the people Of th^ 
wf ilern world *. 

«• O ! that I could be wafted through the yielding auv 

Far, very far, from Hellas, 
To the STARS of the Hefperian region f , 

So great is my load of grief." Bryant. 

* St. Jttde alludes to thefe firft apoftates and their wandering* 
wken he is fpeaking of others, who were arifing : and what is 
very particular he ftiles them, aartp^ nXMirreti^ *' tv^ndiring 
Jlarst to whom is referved l&e blacknefs of daHcnefs for ever.^ 

St. Peter has the fame allafions, when he fpeaks of people tvc cy 
wXdwiiicMenMfofUMrc *' who were in a continual flate (tf wander^ 
ing I*' and when he ftiles th^m if^i^, &c. '* clouds that are 
carried with a teropeil, to whom the mift of darknefs is referved 
forever/' We coald not have a fhxmger idea conveyed tons 
of that impuUe, by which the firfl apoftates were fcattered 
abroad, than that oT a cloud hurried on by a whirlwind : for 
nothing can be more forcibly impelled, or la more liable to be 
^ifipated. The ancients had always a notion, that when the 
gods fled weflward, they were driven by Typhon, by which was 
^gnified a whirlwind or ftorm. Tvf m^ • ^yac am^m^* Hefych. 
Ail which agrees well with the defcription of the apoftle. And 
it is farther to be remarked, that Apollonins and Callimachus % 
luive applied to the deicendants of theie Cnthites, though in a 
Ibmewhat di£^rent manner, expref&ons like thofe of St. Peter and 
St. Jude/ 

The author having obferved, that Nimrod was flikd Orion^ 
the morning flar, or the Ion of the morning, and bis ai^ 
Ibciates wandering ftars, produces feveral pafiagesfiom the 
prophets, which, he thinks, bear an allofioo to thefe rebellioas 

* A7Tt^c i'vtpitf;. Eurip. Ion. V. 79^* 
•f Apol. Arg. iii. 135*. 

X Call. Hym. in Delum, v. i74« 


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ttenley*! ViJerisHkM uf9u St. Peter and St. Ju^e. i^ 

l^ple *• He i\Ltn concludes with an account of the drift Oi 
the two epil^le^^ the fecond of St. Peter, and that of St. Jude : 
obferving, that the apoflles allude to the firft grand apodacy 
in the world under Nimrod, and to the (econd» which was to 
come, under antichrift, and lUuflrate the fecond falling off 
by fiinilar circumftances in the firft. There is indeed a ftriklng 
refemblance between St. Paul's account of ' the Man of Sin, 
exalting himfelf, above all, that is called God» or that is wor- 
Aliped ;' and the defcription of Lucifer, the Titanian prince, 
in Ilaiah, * exalting his throne above the ftars of God,' kc f • 
We find Ukewife a great fimilitude in the crimes of the £rft 
and fecond apoftates. The latter were to fpeak evil of digni* 
ties, and would pay no more regard to apoftolic authority, 
than the former had done to patriarchic of old. They were 
to deny ' the Lord that bought them,* which was to be ef* 
Ve^ed by introducing again demon worfhip, or the worlhiping 
of angels, to the exclufion of God their Creator, and Jefus 
•Chrift their Saviour. 

Hence probably the name of Titan was given to Antichrift, 
TiTAFj TO TK AfTiXfiT^ 09e[/Af Hcyfic. as Babylon has been 
appropriated t6 the place of his abode. And it is fuppoied 
by foipe, that this is the Babylon, from whence St. Peter wrote 
to thole diiciples, whom he addrefTed in his Epiftles %, 

We have now given a fummary view of this performance. 
The reader however will remember, that every abridgement or 
-abftrad moft be lefs precife and fatisfadory than the original, 
in confequence of thofe chafms and interruptions in the argu- 
ment, which in an epitome are inevitable. We have been 
more diffufe on this article, than we ufually are in our ac« 
count of pamphlets. But the reafon is obvious. The prefent 
I>iflertation is a work of learning and ingenuity. The hy* 
pothefis is new, and feems to throw great light on fome ob«* 
fcure paifages of fcripture. But if upon farther enquiry, it 
ihotild appear fallacious, the candid reader will, at leaft, ac- 
knowledge, that the argument is well fupported. 

The following confidcrations feem to corroborate the author's 
opinion, i . A defeflion of happy fpirirs in heaven is an event^ 
which can only become credible upon the cl areft atteftations 
of fcripture. But in this article we have only fome obfcure 
intimations and allufiom ; no regular hiftory. a. In heathen 
antiquity there is no hiftory, no fable, which bears a ftrift 
ajnalogy to the fall of the angels. But the ftory of the giants, 

• See Ifa. xni. i, 6, lo, 19, ch. xiv. 4, 12. xxxiv. 4. Jer.l. 21, sj. 
£zek. xxxii. 7, 8. 

t » Tbef. u 3, 4. Ifa. xiv. 13, 14. 

% Lardner'8 Hift. Oi the Apoit. and £v. vol. iii. 24^. 

4 placing 

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j>lacihg Pelion upon Olympus *evidehtl3r torrefpopds with ttil 
hiftory of Nimrod and his alTociates, tvho ahtfmpted to ered 
Sin enormous tower, which Was to rkath up u kd4fia. ' 

The falling away of thofe called angels being introduced firlif» 
has made many tbint^ that this fcvenC was firft ih drUer^ and 
prior to the creation. But if dn^ argument is derived from the 
Arrangement of the events mentioned by St. Peter, it is to- 
tally invalidated by St. Jude, who introduces the departure of 
the Ifraelites frdih Egypt, and their dedrudion in the witV 
dernefs, before {he apodacy in queftiofi, and th6 overthrow of 

The chief difficulties attending this h^pothefis, which we 
perceive at prefent, are thefe : it is hardly natural to fuppofe» 
^that the ipoftles would illuftrate their do^rines by a piece if 
hiilory, wrapped up in tfari and Jigurati*be exprellions, wheif, 
at the fame time, they have mendoded other events with ah 
hifh^rical fimplicity. 

Secondly^ our Saviour and his apoftles fpeak of the devil anil 
his angels, of our adverfary the devif, of the wiles, and the 
bohdemnation of the devil, &c» * But from whence could fucb 
^ rice of beings derive their malignity, if not from a voluntary 
dittdion, and an habitual depravity ? If therefore wc give ifp 
this pointy the whole fyftem of diabonfm will be fhaken to its' 

, Tbt Stuiltnt^s Peckii Di^icnaryy §r Compendium ofVni'otrfai Hiftory^ 
Cbronology^ and Biography: from tkt earliefi Aetounis to tbiprt" 
ftnt 7im. By T. Mortimer, izmo. 3/. bd. Johnfon. 

THIS work is divided into two parts. The firft contains a 
chronological account of the moft remarkable events from" 
the creation to the prefent time ; the fecond, an alphabefical' 
lift of eminent men, with a (hort account of their charadters ahrf 
country, the times of their birth, death, &c. 

The author is in general accurate in his dates. But by 
taking his materials from different fyftcms of chronology, he 
has iometimes fallen into i;iconfiftencies. For Example, he 
fays : • Helen was carried off by Paris, which occafioned Che 
Trojan war, 1218, B.C.— Ajax killed [more properly killed 
himfelf] at the fiege of Troy, 1200.— Paris (laia, ii88j— 
Achilles flain at the fiege of Troy, ab. 1 180.' '' 

• Fratrefque tendentes opaco 
Pelion impofuiiTeOlympo. Hoa. 

f Matt. »xv. 41. I, Pet. v. X. Eph, vi. ii. Tim.iii. <• 

. *. Ac* 

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The Studint*s Podet DiBl^ftarf. if 

According to this account, Helen was carried to Troy 40 
years before the deftruftion of that city ; and confequently muft 
have been an oU ivomatty when the Trojan fenators admired her 
for het 6eaury, Il.iii. 156. Ajax was killed 20 years before 
Achilles; though he furvived that hero, and afterwards con* 
tended for his arniour. And, lailly, Paris was killed 8 years 
before the man he flew. 

Again : * Epeus, a Greek architeft and engineer, to whom 
IS attributed the Trojan horfe, fl. 1209. B. C. — Ulyflcs fl. 
ab. 900/ 

Epeus and Ulyfles are here plared at the diilance of 300 
years, though they were both, at the fame time, in the Trojan 
horfe. iEn. ii.'26i, 264; 

* Homer, fays our chronologift, fl. 907. B. C* — That ij, 
feven ^ears before Ulyfles ; contrary to the teflimony of all an- 
tiquity, and of Homer himfelf. 

• * John the Baptift, we are told, was beheaded A. D. 32, 
ag. 37.* — By this computation it appears, that he vtzs five 
jfiarj, though in reality, he was only^* months^ older than Chrift. 

Thefe and the like inconfiftencles can only ferve to perplex and 
confound the fludent, and fhould, upon all accounts, be rec« 
tified in the next edition. 

There are many cafes, in < which the tnoft learned writers 
have differed from one another, fever^l hundred years. Iqi 
tbefe inftances the chronologift fliould produce their rc(peaive 
opinions, and fubjoin his authorities. This would obviate many 

Our author's lift of eminent men is copious and compre- 
hendve. But then the names of many infignificant writers, 
philofophers, painters, fculptors, engravers, muficians, and 
architeds, are inferted, which perhaps would not have been 
known, if they had not been mentioned in the writings bf 
Diogenes Laertius, Pliny, Melchior Adamus, Felibein, Du 
Piles, Moreri, Ant. Wood, and others. 

We have no obje£lion to the names of lady Eliz. Germait^e, 
biihop H^yter, Mr. Arnold King, Dr. Munckley, }yr, Sam. 
Nicolls; or even to the names of players, Mr. Rich, Mr. Mof- 
fop, and the like. But if the author extends his catalogue to 
thefe worthies, a thoufand others will put in their claim to the 
fame diflinfllon. 

He feems to be tob dilFufe in his account of kings and 
queens. The dates of a few capital incidents, in the courfe of 
their refpedive reigns, would have been fufficient. 

The compiler fays, * he flatters himfelf, that- throughout the 
circle of the fciences and the arts, no living profeflbr will have 
it in his power to fay, that he has fought for the name, date 

Vol.. XLV. Jan. l^^9. C tf 

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V$ Ogden'i Sermons sn the ArticUi of the Cbrifttan Faith. 

of exiftetice, and proper defcription of any eminent man in hif 

art or profelTion, and could nor find it in this work/ 

A man mult have a very contraAed notion of the republic 
of letters, if he fuppofes, that this little volume contains the 
iiames of every eminent writer. Wc would engage to find fc- 
vcral hundred authors well known to men of learning, who 
are not mentioned in this work ; as, Fcneftella, Apicius, Tc- 
.remianus Maurus, CaeL Aurelianus, Nonius Marcellus, Saxo- 
Gramoiaticus, Gael. Rhodiginus, Nat. Comes, Curcellseus, 
Scapula, Sixtus Senenfis, Hephaeftion, Phavorinus, Jfid, Cla- 
rius, Ofiander, Vatablus, G6ropius Becanus, Diodati, Glaf- 
fius, Hottingcr, Pifcator, Gabriel Sionita, Lipenius, Tille- 
mont, Vitringa, Outrani, Baglivi, Turner, Heifter, Knatch- 
bull, Geddes, Aberncthy, Ibbot, Mangey, Sykes, Coneybearc, 
Delany, Lavington, Clayton, Markland, Hunt, Birch, &c. 

We cannot therefore, by any means, look upon this work as 
a finiifaed performance*. Yet notwithflanding the errors and 
defers we have pointed out, i(. will be a ufeful compendium 
to young ftudents, and men of letters, if ufed with caution, 
as it contains a great variety of chronological and biographical 
information, and is much more commodious for ordinary ufe 
that! any voluminous compilation. 

Sermons on tbo ArticUs of ibt Cbriftian Faith. By Samuel Og« 
den, D. D. Svo. 4/. 6d. Beecroft. 

p^ VERY ordinary reader fees a remarkable diflimilarity in the 
*~^ hand writing, the voice, the countenance of different 
men. The difcernlng reader perceives an equal diflimilarity in 
the flyle of different authors, though they are all men of learn- 
ing, and write on the fame, or fimilar fubjedls. For example: 
in one colledion of fermons, he will find good fenfe and fblid 
reafoning, in a rough and intricate flyle i in another, a num- 
ber of trite and fuperficial obfervations, in fmooth and ora- 
torical language ; in a third, plain pradical piety, but nei- 
ther life' or fpirit ; in a fourth, pompous expreflions, fplendid 
epithets, and laboured antithefes ; in a fifth, a multiplicity of 
precepts and admonitions, without order or connection ; in a 
fixth, a fententious brevity ; in a feventh a prodigality of 
,word5, a fpark of fenfe in a * period of a mile ;' in an eighth, 
. a mixrisre of common language and fcripture phrafes, with 
heaps of quotations from the Old and New Teflamenton everj 
trivial occafion ; in a ninth, two or three flowery defcriptions, 
or a little comic raillery, interfperfed with a few tragical cx^ 
clamations ; and in a tenth perhaps, a happy combination of 


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Ogicn*! Sermons w thi Artklnrftb* ChrifiiaH Faiih. 19 

good language and good (enfe ; a purity of moral fentiment, a 
delicacy of thought, a force and perfpicoity of reafoning, and 
an elegant iimplicity of didion. 

We have been led into thefe remarks by a certain peculiarity 
of flyle and manner, obfervable in thefe dtfcourfes. The . 
learned author generally ilates his arguments in two or three 
ihort icntences ; and anfwers the objections of the unbeliever 
by a laconic reply ; or filences him by a fmart, unexpe£ted# 
queftion. As thefe difcourfes were probably delivered before a 
learned audience, the profeflbr very properly coofidered, that . 
there was no occafion for a long train of reafoning oh points 
of do6lrine, which have been repeatedly difcuITed ; that a fevir 
iketches were fufiicient, in confirmity to the proverb, *virbum 

The following extrads will be no unfavourable, fpecimen of 
Dr* Ogden^s manner of writing. 

« He [our Saviour] came down from heaven j and ftill con- 
tinuing to be one with the Supreme Nature, he a^amed our^«. 
He became man : he lived upon earth, did good, endured 
patti, preached piety and righteoufnefs, worked wonder^, fuf- 
fered death as a maiefadior, reftored himfelf to life, returned 
to heaven, and now governs his church by the operation of 
yet another Divine Perfon, who with him and the Father^ is 
one God, bleiTed for ever* 

* All this, you feem to fay, is ilrange and wonderful. It Is 
t(y. The Divine exiftence, eternity, infinity, which yet reafon 
obliges us to acknowledge, is very wonderful. The divine go- 
vernment of the world, which we experience, is in many in- 
ilances exceedingly adonifhing. The world is filled with woi|- 
ders ; and if you attempt ignorantly to remove them, they be- 
come greater. If ypu deny what is ftrange, you muft admit 
what is impoffible. 

* It is (Irange, perhaps you think, that our firfl parents 
ihould compsit (in. This part of the wonder, that any of our 
kindred Ihould do what was not right, we mufl not indd* on. 

* It is ftrange that they were not immediately punifhed with 
death. How ! (hall we make it a wonder that God is mer- 
ciitil ? It mofl: be a wonder then that we are living. 

* It is however, very (Irange, you are pretty fure, and 
hardly rigiit, you humbly think, that their pofterity (hould be 
involved in their guilt, and made to fuffer for an offence that 
was not their own. 

< Now firft of all, is it not furprifing that this fhould ap» 
pear fo (Grange to us who iiave lived all our lives in a world, 
in which the. fame thing has happened every day? Is any 

C a thing 

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f o Ogden'i Sermons on tbt AnicUs of the Chriftian Fdii$» 

thiiig more common than to fee men fufft? ring the moft griev- 
o\is calainiiieSy through the fauit or only the folly of other 
perfons ? 

* * But this is natural. And who made it to be natural f 
Did nol he who made the world ? 

* A great change took plnee at the fall : do yon know the 
)>art}cular manner In which it was efFe6ted ? Caiiyou fay how 

%far that was, or was not natural ?- 

* Bur, what think you of the remedy provided for this ca- 
lamity, the redemption of man in Jefus Chrift ? of the ftate of 
happinefs offered him in heaven, inftead of his earthly para- 
dife ? Is not the feverity of your complaint foftened by thefe 
conffderattons ? 

* But waving thefe anfwers, let us, for a moment foppofe 
thiU thefe things are indeed fo flrange as to be incredible ; that 
the fall and the redemption of man 'is all a iidiion ; and the 
world in as good a condition as it was at firff, or was ever 
meafnt to be. 

« The wickednefs and the mifery that arc in the world, ftill 
remain in it, after all our fuppoHcions : thefe are matters of 
'fB&f alas ! and mufl be acknowledged by as all, whatever 
opinion we entertain concerning the caufe of them. The ftate of 
man, whether a fallen ftate or no [not], is what it is. Evidently, 
the world lieth, in a very great degree, in wickednefs ; the life 
of men, of all men, is full of trouble, of many is fo diftrefs- 
fol that it affeds u^ with horror, till death, very foon» the 
Ibotier often (he better, puts an end to it. Man appears upon 
the fea of life, ftruggles with waves and ftorms for a few mo- 
ments and finks again into the abyfs, forever. 

* And is this your vindication of God's love and g6odnefs f 
This the heft defence you can devife of thofc tender mercies 
which are over all his works. 

* It would b^ fevere in him, you thirik, to degrade us to 
•fuch a fad ftate as this for the offence of our firft parents : but 
ybu can allow him to place us in it, without any inducemerrt, 

' Are our calamities leffened for not being afcribed to Adam ? If 
our condition be unhappy, is it not ftill unhappy, whatever 
was the occafion ? with the Aggravation of this refleftion, that 
if it is as good as was at firft defigned, there feems to be fome- 
what the lefs reafon to look for its amendment. 

^ * Or will you fay that the Supreme Being was not able to 
accommodate us in a better manner ? or that he was not de- 
firous of doing it ? that he is wholly unconcerned tbout us ? 
or that he never made the world at all ? and that we came 
into it of ourfelves> or by the help of fate or fortuoe f 

• Which 

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Ogden"/ Sirmem •n tht Arti<IiS ,efihe Ckrifiian Faith. zi"^ 

* Which now of thefe truly ftrange fuppofitions ihall we 
pleafe to adopt? choofing what is abfurd, to avoid what is 
fvo^iderful ; and driven by the fear of JiciJe difficulties, iii:o 
great con traditions.' 

In a difcourfe on the refurreftion of Chrift, the author thu^ 
difpatches one of the moft formidable objections of a cele- 
brated fceptic. 

< The adverfaries of our faith finding no further refources on 
the plain ground of common fenfe, make their laft retreat into 
t^^ thorns of fubtilty. 

* The refurre^ion, it feems, was an event fo flrange, that 
jio teftinoony whatever is enough to prove it : the ftory, we 
may be fure, is not true ; whoever he be that tells it. 

* On what foundation pray^ do you build an aifurance k 
very abfblute ? 

* On the foundation of experience* 

* As how? 

* I am to tell you, then^ that we know nothing of the efr 
fence o^ cav/ality\ but found all our a (Tent \i^oii Jimiiitiuli. 

* I am not fure that I comprehend you. 

« You cannot be pofiefied of fo fine an argument in its per- 
fe£lion, wijthojut having recourfe to the original inventor : it 
may fuflice to let you know in brief, that we believe always 
what is mod likely^ and call that mod Fikely^ which moft re-> 
fembles what we have before met with. 
. * Bnt things often fall out that were not likely. 

* Yes ; fo oftien, that we find it, in general, likely that they 
ihould ; and ia each particular cafe refle(^ which of the twq is 
lefs likely, that the thing fhould be as it is reprefented, or the 
Reporter reprefent it falfejy. 

* Have you ever found in the courfe of your experience that 
^ny thing was not true, which had been as well attefted as the 
refurreftion ? 

' It was a miracle : experience therefore, univerfal experience 
jdeclares againd it. 

* That of the/<v/ hundred hntbrtn who faw it, was, fure, on 
the other (ide. 

* You muft appeal to prefcnt experience. Nature we fiiid 

, * Nature! When I difpute with you about Chrifliahity, I 
fiippofe that you believe a God. 

* You fuppofe perhaps too fad. 

* Then I have no further difpute with you : I leave yoo to 
other hands. Chridianity defires no greater honour than to be 

. i:j^(;e|v/ed by every one that is not an Atheid. 

* Suppofe there be a God : what then } 

C 3 • Why, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tt Cato : 9r, an IJfay on OU Jg$. 

* Why, then he made the world. 
' Well. 

* And a multitude of things muft have been done at that 
time of the creation, which are not comprehended within the 
prefcnt courfe of nature. Every animal, every vegetable, muft 
have been brought into Being at firft in fome manner of which 
the woild now affords no examples. Of this we have no ex- 
perience, yet we allow it to be true ; and we need no tcftiiponv, 
for we know it muft have happened.' 

The fubjedls, which the profeflbr has illuftrated in this vo- 
lume, are-^the Being of God ; the Redemption of Man ; the 
Incarnation, Sufferings, Refurrediion, and Afcenfionof Chrift; 
a future Judgement; the Being and Afliftance of the Holy 
Ghoft ; Zeal for Articles of Faith ; the Forgivenefs of Sins i 
the RefurreAion of the Body ; everlafting L.ife ; and the Su- 
periority of the Chriftian Religion over all other Religions. 

The author {teeps within the pale of ortMox}', while he dif^ 
cuffes the common points of controverfy. 

Cato • *r, a^ EJfay on Old Age. By Marcus Tullius Cicero. 
With Remarks by William Melmoth, Efq. The ftcond Edition^ 
renjifed and cwreStd^ VoL L 8vd. 5/. in boar di, Dodfley. 

La:Uus : cr, an EJfay on friendjhip. By Marcus Tullius Cicerq. 
With Remarks by William Mehnoth, EJq, FoL IL Sw. 5/. 
in boards* Dodfley. 

'TpHE literary charafler of this ingenious tranflator is fo wer 
-*^ known and eftablifhed, that it would be unneceflary for 
. us to fay any thing in his praile. We fhall only obferve in 
general, tha( the work before us is executed with that ac- 
curacy, elegance, and fpirit, which diftinguifli his former pro- 
dudlions \n this department of literature •. The mere Engli& 
reader may be aflured, that the fentiments of Cicero are re- 
prefented ip their fqll fenfe and beauty ; and even the man of 
learning, if he can only lay afide that enthufiafm and partiality 
in favour of a claflical compofition, which education is apt to 
infplre, may read thefe Eflays with as much pleafure in the 
language of ^r, Melmoth, as in that of the Roman author. 

Thefe ireatifes are two of tlie moft valuable pieces of the mo- 
ral kind, that have been tranfmitted to us froni the ancients. 
The fubjedt, upon which they refpeftiyely turn, * comes home, 
. as lord Bacon fays of his own eflays, to every man's bufmefs 

• Dialogue concerning Oratory, Pliny's Epiftles, and Cicero's 
Familiar letters. ' ' ] ' 


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Laelius: er^ an Kffky m Trttndfiip, jj 

and bofbm ;* and the noble principles they inculcate, are fop- 
ported and in forced with all the advantage, that elegance of 
genius can give to truth of (entiment 

Mr. Melrooth^s tranilation of the ElTiJy on Old Age was pub- 
liflied in 177^* and mentioned at that tinne in our Review *; 
we fliall therefore confins our prefent obfervations to the ElTay 
oa Friendihip. 

This admirable treatife * (cems to hare been drawn op with 
a particular view to the (lace of public affairs at the time it was 
\vritten, as well as for the more general and extenfive purpofe 
«f moral inftruf^ion ; feveral paflages evidently alluding to the 
ytf^ critical circamftances of the commonwealth at that period. 
It was publifiied immediately after the aiTaflination of Julius Cse- 
dar; when ibme of the moft refpe^lable partizans of that ambi- 
tious chief, were indiredlly endeavouring to turn the popular 
odium upon the caofe and the perfons of theconfpirators, by the 
public honours they exhibited to his memory : a condud which 
they attempted to juilify by the duties of private friendihip. At 
a conjondure, therefore, when thereftoration of the republic in 
fome meafure depended upon the notions that were entertained 
concerning thofe obligations ; to afcertain the true principles of 
that connexion, and marl^ out the juil limits of its claims, was 
a deiJgQ worthy of Cicero, no lefs in his patriotic than his phi- 
Jofophical charader* Many of the ancients, indeed, maintained 
ytry jextravagant opinions upoa thofe points : and for this rea- 
,fon, perhaps, it is, that there is fcarcely a (ingle ethic writer of 
eminence during the philofophic ages of Greece, (of whofe 
works any account has been preferved,) who does not appear to 
fiaire 4ifcuired the auedion, as a necefTary and important branch 
of his moral fyftem. It is probable^ that the fubllance of what 
tiie modjndipioos of thoie philofophers had delivered in relatioa 
tP that inquiry, is wrought into the prefent performance ; it it 
certain, at leaft, that Cicero has coniiderably availed himfelfof 
Aridotle's diiTertation, inferted in his ^thics ; as he may be traced 
likewife in the few fragments that dill remain of a difcourie on 
the fame topic, Qompofed by Theophraftus. In faft, he hath 
fo acqirately fketched the principal outlines of his fubjedl, as 
to have left little niore to thofe who might refume it after him, 
than to porfue his principles, extend his reafonings, and apply 
his maxims^ Accord itigly, bilhop Taylor in our own language, 
and the very ingenious Monf. Sacy in the French, (the only mo- 
dern authors of diftindlion who have written treatifes profef- 
fedly on friendfhip) have added nothing eiTential to the admi- 
rable draught he has delineated/ 

Cicero, |n his treatife on Old Age, reprefents tb6 elder Cato 
fs the principal fpeaker; being perPuaded, that no perfoQ 

* , .1 J / I. ' - '■ ■'■■ I ' ■ » '! II . l»ll ■ - I 

• Crit. Rev. vol. xxxv. p. 455; 

C 4 could 

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94 Laelius : #f» an Efaj en Fmndjlnp. 

could with more weight and propriety be introdaced» as de« 
livering his ideas in relation to that advanced (late, than one, 
who had fo long flonriihed in it with unequalled fpirit and vi- 
gour. In purfiiance of the fame principle, he imagined that 
the bfiemorable intimacy, which, we are told, fubfifted be^ 
tween Lazlius and Scipio Africanus f, rendered the former a 
very fuitahle chara£ler to fupport a converfation on the fubjeQ 
of friend (hip. 

In this conference Qj^Mucius S.scvola, and Caius Fanniuj 
are fappofed to make a vifit to Laelius, their father-in-law, 
foon after the death of Scipio, and from that circumdance to 
give him occafion to enter upon the fubjefl in queflion. He 
therefore delivers his opinion concerning the nature of tr*ue 
friendfhip, the extent of its obligationi>, and the maxims by 
which it ought to be conducted. 

We give, our readers the fallowing extra£l, not becanfe it 
contains any peculiar beauty of fentiment, but chiefly on ac* 
count of art excellent note, which may ferve to (hew the mo- 
dern reader, that there are paflages in the fcriptures, whic!^ 
would be highly admired in a claflic writer. But, unhap- 
pily for them, they are read with coldnefs and indifference, 
becaufe they are in a book, which it is too faihionable to de* 

« I have been told likewife, that there is another fet of pre- 
tended philofophers of the fame country, whofe tenets cou- 
cerning this fubjefl, are of a Hill more illiberal and ungenerous 
cad : and I have already in the courfe of this converfation* 
flightly animadverted upon their principles. The propofition 
' they attempt to cftablilh, is, that •* friendfhip is an affair of 
felf-intereft intirely, and that the proper motive for engaging iii 
it, is,' not in order to gratify the kind and benevolent affec- 
tions, but for the benefit of that afliftance and fupport which 
is to be derived from the conneflion." • Accordingly they af- 
fert, that thofe perfons are rtoft difpofed to have recourfe to 
auxiliary alliances of this kind, who are leaH qualified by na« 
ture, or fortune, to depend upon their own flrength and pow- 
ers : the weaker fex, for inftance, being generally more in- 
tlined to engage in friendfhips, than the male part of our fpe- 
cies t • and thofe who are depreil by indigence or labouring 
under mi sfortunes, than the wealthy and the profperous, 

• ; « Excellent 

t The fecond of that name, the fon of Paulus ^milius. 

X It would be an invidious talk, perhaps, to eflimate the cbmpa* 
rative qualities and difpofitions of the two fexes, with refpeft to 
ihe connexion mentioned in the text ; but let it be remenrbered, 
for tt^e honrnn- of ttie fairer part of the crention, that one o.f the 
ftrongeft and molt affc6ting it^ftances of a faithful attachment to 


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h^iilSi pr^ an EJftQ. on Friinjfi^f* 1| 

f Excellent and obliging fages thefe, undQub|ted}y ! To (Irike 
put tjie friendly aiFedlions from the moral world, would be like 
jextinguifking the fun in the natural : each of them being the 
(burce of the bej^ and jnofi grateful fatisfadlions, that the gods 
liave conferred op the fons of men. But I ihould be glad to 
know what the real value of this boafted exemption from care» 
Vvhlch tiiey promife their 'difciples,Juftly amounts to? an ex- 
jkmption flattering to felMove, I confefs ; but which, upon man/ 
occurrences in human lifi?« (hould be rejefled with the otmoft 
difdain. For nothing, furely, can be more inconfiftent with a 
well-poifed and maoly fpirit, than to decline engaging in any 
laudable adion, or to be difcouraged from perfcvering in it, by 
ian apprehcnfion of the trouble and folicitude with which it may 
probably be attended. Virtue herfelf, indeed, ought to be to- 
tally renounced, if it be right to avoid every poflible means that 
inay be produdive of uneafinefs ; for who that is afluated by her 
'principles, can obferve the condu£t of an oppofiie character, with- 
put being affefted with fome degree of fecret difTaiisfa^ion? 
*Are not the jail, the brave, and the good, necelTarily expofed 
to the difagreeable emotions of diflike and averfion, when they 
jrefpedively ineet with inflaaces of 'fraud, of cowardice, or of 
Villainy ? It is an effential property of every weil-conftitutei 
inind, to be aiFeded, with pain, or pleafure, according to the 
hatuxe of thofe moral appearances that prefeot themfelves to ob* 

be met with in hiftory, occurs in the friendship which fubfifted be- 
tween two females. The inftance alluded to, is recorded in the 
Jewifli annals, and moft pathetically related by one of the facred 
pen -men. The reader need not be told, that Naomi together with 
fter bufband and their two fons, being compelled by a general fa- 
mine which defolated the land of Judea, to feek for fuftenance in a 
tnore plentiful country 5 retired into the kingdom of the Moabitet. 
^aomi bad not been there long, before flic had the misfortune to 
jjury not only her h\in>and, but her two fons j the latter, however, 
before their deaths, had taken "them wives of the daughters of 
Moab/* In procefs of time, being informed that the famine ivas 
ceafed which had driven her frorii her native country, (he deter- 
mined to' return ; and fetting out for that purpofe, her two daugh- 
ters-in-law aifeftionately conducted her part of the way. But when 
they arrived at thejplace where it was intended they (hould take leave 
of each other, the faithful Ruth could by no perfuafjons be prevailed 
tipon to undergo the pain of a final feparatipn. Neither diiierence 
*f rctigion, nor tlvc fJowerful tie« o4' country, or family attach- , 
ments, were equally ftrong with thofe which the mod: coi'dial amity 
had formed in her heart. " Intreat me not, faid this amiab/e wo- 
man to her beloved friend and mother-in-law, intreat me not to 
leave thee: for whither thou goeft, I will go; and where thoii 
lodgeft, I win lodge. Thy people fliatl be my people 5 and thy 
Godj vffj God. Where thou dieft^ will 1 die ; and there will I be 
buried : the Lord do ia to m^, and more alfo^ if aught but death 
fbart theeand me."' 
J . . .; . .. ^ . • * If 

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«6 Delias : «r» am Ejfof 9n FrimJ/bip. 

* Iffenfibiiky, therefore, be not incompatible with (roe wif^ 
dom ; (and it furely is not, onlefs we fuppofe that philofophy 
deadens every finer feeling of oar nature) what jnft reafon caa 
be afligned, why the fympathetic fufferings which may refolt 
from friendlhip, ihonld be a fufficient inducement for bani&inz 
that generous affedtion from the human breaft i Extinguifli all 
emotions of the heart, and what difference will remain^ I do not fajr 
between man and brute, but between roan and a mere inanimate 
clod ? Away then with thofe auftere philofophers^ who reprefent 
virtue as hardening the foul agaioft all the fofter impreffions of 
huananity ! The fad, certainly, is much otherwife : a truly good 
man is upon many occaiions extremely fufceptible of tender ien- 
timents ; and his heart expands with joyy or flirinks with for/ow» 
as good or ill fortune accompanies his friend. Upon the whole 
then, it may fairly be concluded, that as in the cafe of virtue^ 
fo in that of friendflitp, thofe painful fenfations which may fome« 
tiroes be produced. by the one, a« well as by the other» arc 
equally infufficient for excluding either gf thepi from taking 
poiFeffion of our bofoms,' 

The following pathetical lentimieat remiods as of thp fate of 
the unhappy author. 

< On? would wiih to preferve thofe friends through all the 
fucceilive periods of our days, with whom we firft fet out to* 
gecher in this our journey through the world. But fince man 
holds all his poiTeffions by a very precarious and uncertain te- 
nure, we (hould endeavour, as our old frie^ids drop off, to rcr 
pair their lofs by new acquiiitions ; left one Aiould be fo unhappy 
as to liand in his old age, a folitary, unconneAed individual^ 
bereaved of every perfon whom he loves, and by whom he is be* 
loved. For without a proper and particular objed upon whicb 
totx4fcif the k-nd and benevolent affeflions, life is fieilitute of 
every enjoyment that can render it jullly defirable.' 

Cicero wrote this dialogue at the age of fixtyrthree. Thp . 
next year he had the mortification to fee himfelf in the me- 
lancholy fituation he defcribes, feparated from * every per(bn« 
whom he loved, and by whom he was beloved.' For in the 
utmofl anguifh and diflrefs he was obligedy in confequence of 
the perfecutions of Marc Antony, ivhomhe had exafperated by 
his Philippics, to fly from his family and his country. In this 
attempt he was purfued and beheaded by one Pupilius, whom 
he had formerly defended and faved^ when he was under a 
criminal profecutions on a charge of having killed his fa- 
ther *^. 

To this tranflation the author has fubjoined a confiderable 
number of elegant and ufeful remarks ; from which we can- 

• Valerius Maximus mentions the bafenefs and ingratitude of 
Popilius with a proper deteftation. Libt y. 3. 


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Lasllus : «r, an Ej/ay on Triendp^ip* 27 

1)0 rcfift the pleafure of citing one or two of his obfervations 
on the aifertions of an ingenious writer, who attemprs to prove, 
that friend fhlp is * totall^r incompatible with the genius and (jpt* 
lit of the gofpcl.* 

< That private friend&ip does not exprefsly enter intb tlie pre« 
ecpts of Chriftianity, is anqueftionably troe: for, the nature of 
the connection ncceiTariiy excludes it from being thefubjeft of a 
rcligiojjs, or moral, obligation. The diftin£tive charader cf 
this relation, confiUs in a fpontaneous fenciment of the hearty 
unX:on drained ^and uninfluenced by compuliive, or external, mo- 
tives of every kind and degree. To attempt therefore to pro- 
duce a voluntary afFe.ftion, by the authority of a pofitive com- 
inand ; would be to publifh a law evidently dellruCtive of its 
own end : for, its fanAions could no fooner operate as primary, 
or determining, ioducemlents, than the fentiment they were 
ideiigned to create would utterly be prevented from exiHing. 

* But a general ordinance for this purpofe, would not mere!/ 
be abfurd ; it would be unjuft : becaufe ic would require uni- 
verfally, what is not in every man's power to perform. A 
great variety of circumflances mufl concur, to form and cement 
this union } and thefe are of a nature fo exceedingly contingent 
and fortuitous, that they are frequently never realized in the 
courfe of the longed life. Indeed, they fo rarely meet together, 
that what a fagacious obferver of mankind remarks concerning 
love, holds equally true in refpeCl to friendfhip : •* il 'eft da ve- 
ritable comme de 1' apparition des efprits; tout le monde en 
parley mais peu de gens ont vii/' 

< \i what the noble author rehires from revelation is, in 
the firft inftance, inconfiftent with the elfential nature of its ob- 
jeO ; it implies, in the next, an aflertion no lefs contrary to 
fa£l: for although friendfhip could not, either in reafon or 
juftice. haye been commanded by the precepts, it is evidently 
encouraged by the fpirit, of Chrifiianicy. Univerfal benevo- 
lence or good will to mankind, is the vital principle that ani- 
^a.tes av^d pervades the whole fyftem of evangelical morality: 
and it is by a proper cultivation of this enlarged and compre^ 
iienfive virtue, that the heart is beft prepared and qualified to 
enter into the engagements, and difcharge the offices, of private 
friendfhip. This the noble moralift himfelf acknowledges in a 
fabfequent treatife : for when the religion of his country was not 
in his immediate contemplation, and his inveterate prejudicea 
had not their nfual objedl to call them forth ; his lordfhipy afks 
** can any friendfhip be fo heroic, as that towards mankind \ 
Do you think— that particular friendfhip can well fubUfl without 
fnch an enlarged affedion and fenfe of obligation to fociety r" 
^his kind of reafon ing, however, when applied to revelation, 
will not fatisfy his demands ; he contends, that ** friendfhip is 
no effential part of a Chriftian's charity." But if there were 
any fgrce in this objeftiony it would ovetfhootiu intended aim* 
' and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^8 Williams*/ Rift, Progrt/j, Sec. tfNwthtm GwirnmnU. 

^nd wound natural religion no Icfs than revealed ; as friendfliipy 
for the reafons above aSigned, can no more be the cflemial part 
of a thcift's bencyolencc, than it is of a Chriftian's/ 

For farthft- obfcrvations on this fubjcft \rt muft refer the 
reader to Mr. Melmoth's Remarks at large. 

^be Rifit frogrefiy and Prtfint State of the Northern Govtrmmnts ; 
'vix. tbi United Provinces, Denmark, S^veded, Ruflia, and 
Poland. Sj J. Williams, Ejq. z ijols. ^to, il. 161. boards^ 

'TpHE northern countries, on account of their intemperature, 
^ and the lefs advanced (late of civilization among the in- 
habitants, have hitherto been feldom vifited by inquNitiv^ 
Grangers, and their political conflitutions not invefligated with 
that minutenefs which is neceflary towards affording an ade-r 
quate idea of their government. With pleafure therefore we 
t)shold this fubjeft treated by a perfon who feems to have en- 
joyed the moft favourable opportunities both for information 
and remark, and whofe induflry appears to have availed itfelf 
of every advantage. Befides the hiftorical records, to which 
Mr. Williams has had accefs, he confers no fmall degree of 
Authority on thefe obfervations, by poli'einng the acquaintance 
of fuch men, in the different countries, as were capable of fup^ 
plying him with the trued account of the police, and prefeot 
Hate of each government^ a Aibjed which coniiltutes the prin- 
cipal merit of this work. 

The firft chapter contains a recital of the rife and progreft of 
the United Provinces; the fecond, of the prefent form of go^ 
vernmedt ; the third, of the religion, manners, and cuiloms of 
the Hollanders ; and the fourth, obfervations upon the true 
principles of laws and commerce. A reader who is moderately 
acquainted with the (late of Europe, will meet with little 
tkat has any claim to novelty in thole feveral divifio4is of the 
work ; but the author proceeds, in the fubfequent chapter, to 
more interedlng obfervations on the laws, cuftoms, and policy 
of the United Provinces refpeding trade* nianufaaares, and 
' commerce. 

Mr. Williams remarks, that the policy of Holland, relative 
to commerce, is io many things imperfed, and in fome in- 
fiances opprelTive* As an example of the latter, he mentions 
the bankrupt laws^ which are not properly calculated to 
guard the fair trader againft defigns of the fraudulent. 

The following is the author's account of the revenues of the 
United Proyincest with Ihat of cbeir oiiUury and naval power. 
. ' * The 

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WiltiainsV Rlfi^ Pr0^/$f &c. o/Northtrn Govtrnmentt. 2^ 

« The common revenue of this republic confifts in the ordinary 
funds which the Seven Provinces provide every year, according 
to their feveral proportions, upon the petition of the council of 
ftate, and computation of the charge of the enfuing year, givea 
in by them to the ftates general ; and as well upon what is levied 
in the conquered towns and country of Brabant, Flanders, or fhfe 
Rhine: and this revenue generally amounts to about 25,000,000 
of guilders a year. 

« The principal funds out of which this revenue is raifed, are 
the different excifes, the cuftoms, and the land-tax. The excifea 
are fo very high and general, that they are not to be paralleled in 
any part of Europe ; aJ there is fcarcely one article of the necef- 
faries of life in this country but what pays this heavy tax ; the 
cuftoms, as I have already obferved, are low and eafy, and that 
part of the revenue is applied particularly to the admiralty ; the 
land-tax. is likewifc moderate, on account of the great expcnces 
the landholders ai-e at in fupporting their dikes and windmills* 
and in keeping the country dry, Out of this revenue are paid all 
the military forces by land and fea ; all the public officers of the 
date; all their ambaiTadors and miniflers in foreign countries; 
^nd the intercfl of all the public debts of the States General, 
which at the clofe of the war in 1748 was vtxy condderable • 
but fince that time it has been diminifhed. Beiides the debt of 
the generality, all the provinces refpe£lively have very great pub- 
lic debis, the intereft of which is paid out of the provincial re- 
venues. The province of Holland at the treaty of Aix la Cha- 
pelie had a debt of above 140,000,000 of guilder.v 13,500,000 
pounds fterling, for which they paid an intereft of three per cent. 
But as the republic has been in peace ever fmce that time, they 
'have reduced this debt very much ; and the intereft upon a great 
part of it is now only at two and a half per cent. The intereft 
is paid with great exadlnefs, fo that no perfon ever demands it 
twice ; and when they pay off any part of the principal, thofe 
who are the proprietors of it receive it with great reluctance, 
not knowing how to place it out to intereft again with fuch eafe- 
and fafety : and the principal part of the revenue of numbers of 
private families is received at the public cantore^, either of the 
generality or of the feveral provinces, where thefe public debts are 

• All the 'public debts of thefe provinces, including thofe of 
the generality, and of the particular provinces and cities, amount 
"to v^ry near 50,000,000 pounds fterling. All the excifes and 
taxes that are laid upon landed property and imqaoveable poffef- 
£on8 are collected by the magiftrates of the feveral places, and. 
by them, paid into the receivers, becatifc both the number and 
value of theni are conftant and eafily known: but thofe which 
arife out of uncertain confumptions, are generally farmed out to 
'people who bid moft for them; fome for three months, fome for 
fix, and fome every year. The colledlion, receipt, and payment 
of all the public money are made without any fee to officers* 


Digitized byVjOOQlC 

3© Williams'/ Rifi, Progn/s, Sec. rfNmhtm Givirnmnts. 
who.receivc fixed falarics from the date, which they dare not iff- 
creafe by any private praaices or extortions ; fo that a bill of any 
public debt, payable to the bearer, or to order, is here like ^ 
bank bill,^ or a bill of exchange. 

' The extraordinary revenues of this ftatc are, when upon any 
preffing occafion, or in the time of war or public danger, the 
generality agree to levy exaraordinary contributions : as fome- 
times the one hundredth penny of the eftates of all the inha- 
bitants, the poll-tax, or any other fubfidics and payments, ac- 
cording as they can agree, and as the occafion is more or left 

* Formerly they laid a tax upon all thofe who travelled in their 
country, whether in the tracfcouts, or in a coach, in a waggon* 
or on horfeback ; which was then thought to be very opprei&ve 
and difgufting by all ranks of people ; but in the laft war they 
had with France this tax was made perpetual, and is now be- 
come a part of the provincial revenue. The taxes io this coun- 
try are at prefent fo heavy- and fo general, that it is almoft im- 
poffib.e to augnaent the public revenue by this means, without 
endangering a commotion in the ftate ; and whatever extraor- 
dinary revenue is raifed in the prefent ftate of their affairs, muft 
be raifed by extraordinary contributions among the principal in- 
habitants : and certainly there is nd country perhaps in the 
known world of equal extent where there is fuch a mafs of riches ; 
and where a great part of the individuals are better in a fituatioa 
to make public contributions of this nature, than they are m 
thefe provinces. 

' • I believe it will be found that the Hollanders have, at thiy 
time, faboui jC.COOjOCO of pounds flerling in the Eogliih funds ; 
and lince the bankruptcy which France made in the year 1760, 
fh^ir capital in the public funds of that kingdom has been efii. 
mated only at 28,000,000 of pounds fterling : with the emperor 
and the princes of Germany, and with Denmark, Sweden, and 
Rufiia, they have about 15,000,000 more ; to which if we add, 
at a moderate computation, 40,000,000 of pounds Iterling of 
their own debts, it will be feen that the perfonal property of the 
inhabitants of this date, exdufive of their ftock in trade, mope/ 
in circulation, bank, &c, jewels, and other ornaments, amount 
to 1 13,000,000 of pounds ilerling : an amazing mafs of treafure 
for a Hate where the greatefl number of her inhabitants never 
exceeded 2,000,000. 

• Their (landing land forces at prefent, fuppofjng all their re- 
giments to be complete, are 32,000 men, and are compofed of 
the troops of fevcral of the little princes in Germany, of Scotch, 
of Swifs, of Walloons, and of the deferters from almoft every 
ftate of Europe: there are very few of the natives of the Sevea 
Provinces in their army, except the officers. Thefe troops are 
paid differently, according to the contrads made with the re- 
ipedlive ftates from whom they were hired. The admiralties in 
time of peace maintain about five or fiit and thirty fhips of virar 

of , 

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Willianis'i 2?/>J, Progrefiy &c. of Northern Govirnmints. ji 

of different burthens, for conveying and proteaing their .tradiffg 
ihips, and for any fudden accidents of the ftate. The eftimates 
for the yearly expences of the army, and for the repair^ of for- 
trefTes,. magazinesy &c. amount to about 720,000 pounds; the 
common cftimate of the admiralties, for the maintenance of ^ia 
fleet and for the building of fhips, is about 550,000 pounds » 
year.. I count 1,000,000 of guilders for 90,000 pounds. 

• In their former war's they had about 60,000 landmen in their 
pay, and a fleet of above 100 fail of men of war at fca ; and upoa 
extraordinary occafions they have raifed, in the provinces, vtry 
near 4,000,000 of pounds flerling yearly; of which the province 
of Holland alone raifed 2,igo>OGo pounds. 

• Certainly the United Provinces are in ^ fituation to fopport 
a war by fea with any power in Europs, except England, and 
that with advantage; but notwithftanding all their. land forcej, 
and their frontier towns and fortrefTes, I am afraid they would 
be obliged to call in their allies to, their afliftancc, if they were 
attacked with only an army of 40,600 men, who were well dif. 
ciplincd and commanded. It is true their troops make a great 
parade in reviews, exercifes, 4:c. but when they came to ajftipn, 
in their laft war againft the troops of France, the States fopi| 
perceived that exercifing and reviewing alone were not fufficicnt 
to infpire troops with bravery,* 

In the next chapter, the author treats of the caufes of the 
various revolutions that have happened in the Low Countries • 
afcnbing thofe events to a diflatisfadion among the people' 
which IS indeed the moft general, as well as the nioft natural 
caufe of revolutions in every country. According to his re- 
prefentation, many of the Dutch are far from being pleafed 
with the prefent form of tl^cir government. He tells us that 
the generality of the better fort of people in thofe provinces, 
who are not immediately dependent on the prince of Orange' 
are diffatisfied that the office of ftadtholder (hould be reni 
dered a part of their conftitution ; and that even the moft rao- 
derate people make no fcruple of declaring to their friends 
that they are ftiil at a lofs wherher they ihall educate their 
children in the ideas of a ftadholderian government, or thoft 
©f a genuine republic. Mr. William's hence concludes, that 
notwit^iftanding the union which appears to fubfift in this 
ftate, it is not firmly eftabliihed; and that it is not fo much 
affcaion to the government, as fear and prudence, which pre. 
ferves the tranquility of the republic. Such, we doubt not, 
are the fenriments at prefent of many of the Dutch ; but there 
is ground to prefume, that a few more years 6f moderate ad- 
jminiftration may eradicate thofe prejudices, efpecially aiViong 
a people fo little difpofed to fpcculaiion, and fo immerfed in 
JjHfineft, as the Hollanders. 


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32 Williams*i Ri/e, Proghfs^ &c. of Nartbirn Govirhmttitil 

In the accouot of Denmark, Mr. WUUams follows the fani^' 
)>lan wl^ich be had purfued in that oi th« Ufiited Provincet i 
begmning with the hiftory of the nation, and afterwards deli- 
neating its prefent (late. He obferve^i that notwithflanding 
many falatary regulations in this kingdom, the courts of judi- 
cature are extremely liable to corruption. A poor man can 
ne^et obtain judice againtl one of the nobility, or any perfbti 
who is favoured by the court. For it the laws afe io clearly 
In favour oi the former, that the judges cannot decently de- 
cide the caufe to his prejudice, the, latter obtains from the 
jLiag; either a writ to flop all proceedings, or a difpenfation 
from obferving particular laws. A ftronger inilance of def« 
potifm cannot be produced, than fuch an arbitrary interpo- 
^tiofi of the reg'<il power, which diredtly violates the moft 
facred principles of political ailbciatton among mankind. 
While the corruption of the government is fo great, it cannot 
be expelled that the commerce of the nation fhould be flou- 
Tifhiftg; and Denmark therefore is at prefcnt one of the 
tnofi iiKiigent and diArelTed dates ia Europe ; her agriculture 
and manufactures in a languiihing condition, and the people 
at the fame time oppreifed with an almoU intolerable load of 

The Daniel army confifts of regular troops and militia, and 
ctf the foiriner the greater part is compofed of German mer- 
oenaries* The number of the cavalry is eleven regiments ; and 
of the infantry iixteen, of two batallions each. At prefenr, 
the cavalry and dragoons, amount to ten thoufand men, and the 
sn&ntry and artillery to about thirty thoufand. 

Every perfon in the kingdom who poiTelTes three hundred and 
fixty acres of land, is obliged to furniOi one man for the mi- 
litia, and pay half the expence of a man for the corps de re* 
ierve. Four regiments, confiding each of twelve companies 
of a hundred and fifty men, are i:aifed in Denmark ; the Daniih 
dominions in Germany ^urnifh militia in nearly the fame prd* 
portion ; but the kingdom of Norway forms the greateft part 
of the national force. 

The fleet of the king of Denmark is compdfed of 
thirty (hips of thtf line, with fifteen or fixteen frigates ;^ but 
many of them being out of repair, our author is of opinion, 
that the government would find difficulty to equip twenty 
^ips upon the greateft emergency. 

' The following pafiage excites a mean idea of the pecuniary 
refources of the Danifii crown, as well as places the profligacy 
of the adminiftration in a very ilriking light. ^ 

* Scon after the birth of the prince royal, when the king,^y 
tke advice of his council, refolved to travel into fingland, France, 


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• Williams*/ R/fii Pr9grtji^ &c. 9fNtHhtrn Gtvifnminis. ' 33 

%iicl other parts of Europe, every means was ufed to raife roooey» 
in the ordinary way, to defray the expences of this joarney, baC 
withootany ejfed ; fo that at length they were obliged to borrow 
a large fum of money of the baron de Schimmelman, upon « 
mortgage of part of the revenues of Norway ; and after the king's 
return, in the beginning of the year 1769, when a bill of ex-» 
change for near 100,000 pounds fterlingwas drawn from Franco 
upon the treafury of Denmark, for the payment of- the manu* 
fadlured goods which the king was obliged to take of that polite 
people during the fhort ftay he made among them, as there 
was not money enough found in the treafury for the payment 
of that fum, they were obliged to have recourfe again to Schim- 
melman for the greated part of this money upon the fame mort- • 
gage ; fo that this artful and intriguing baron is now r.ot only 
become mailer of the greateft part of the revenues of Norway, 
particularly of the mines, but he has likewife got himfelf to be 
appointed treafurer of Denmark. 

.* In the fame year it was refolved to efiablifh a date lotterf 
at Altona for the payment of this debt, which was to be goa-* 
rantied by the king; and as fuch a lottery was a new thing ia 
this country, and the propofals fair, with at leaft the appearance 
ofjuftice, a great number of Danes, as well as many Urangers, 
fnbfci>bed to it upon the public faith ; but how great was their 
difappointment and concern when they foond that they had beea 
made dupes, and that all the great prizes in this lottery fell into 
the hands of Mohke, Schimmelman, fome of the other miniflers, 
and their friends: the national faith as well as the national ho^ 
nelly were proOituted to the avarice of thofe people : to complain 
to the king would be to bring on fudden de^trudion ; and there«> 
fore to fee their country plundered, their government difcredited, 
and to mourn in iilence was all the confolation that the honeil 
Danes had on this occalion.V 

The kingdom of Sweden exhibits a profpefi no lefs melan- 
choly than Denmark. Its dominions are acknowledged to be 
nearly as extenfive as thofe of France; andyer, accordmg to a 
calculation laid before the diet in the year 1770, the inhabit- 
ants amounted to no more than two millions three hundred 
and fifty thoufand ; of which number almod eleven thoufand 
are nobility, who are in veiled with privileges and immunities 
extremely injurious to the democratical part of the nation. 
Public juilice, we are infortired, is as much perverted here as 
in the adjacent kingdom before-mentioned, not by the op- 
jyreiiive authority of the crown, but the corruption of rhe 
judges. To which we may add, that nothing can be more 
abfurd than the interna] policy of this country. While they 
continue to profecute a variety of ruinous manufadores, ia 
which they are perpetually underfold at every foreign marker, 
fo great are the difcouragements to agriculture, that only « 

Vol. XLV. 7i»», 1778. D imOi 

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34 ^lliamsV Rifi^ Pfogr//s, &c. ofNinhm G^^oimmeutf. 

fmall part of the lands is cultivated, and the pfovtfions im-^ 
ported from other countries frequently bear fuch a price, that 
the lower clafs of the people has difiiculty to find a fubfiftenre. 
Every farmer is prohibited by law to keep more than one fer- 
vant for the cultivation of his land, if he has ever fo great anr 
cftate to improve ; and he is alfo debarred the privilege of 
making a divifion of his farm. Whoever attempts to culti- 
vate fmall parcels of land, are folemnly declared from the pul- 
pit, every year, to be vagabonds, and are forced into the mi- 
Ktary fervice, from which they can never^ be released except 
they are maimed pr difabled. It is computed, that on account 
of thofe impolitic feveritles, ten thoufand men emigrate yearlv 
from the kingdom. 

The militia of Sweden confirts of thirty-eight thou'fand men^^ 
which, with four thoufand regular troops in Pomeranta, and 
two thoufand foot guards, forms the military eftabliHiment iiS 
the kingdom. The naval power is at prefent not near ib. re<* 
fpedlable. In the year 1770, when our author was at Carlo- 
crona, where the fleet is ftationed, it conOfted of no mora 
than about twenty old fhips of the line, the half of which 
rotten, and ten or eleven frigates and floops of war, almod in 
the fame fituatioil* 

Mr. Williams ^informs us, that the ftanding revenues of 
Sweden amount to about 10,104,406 dollars of fiker mint, 
which in the year 1769, when the pound llerling was worth 
about copper dollars, was about 594,130 L yearly., 
Very near a third of this fum is appropriated to the fupport 
of the royal family,, and the remainder to that of the civil and 
military eflablifhments* 

The wretched fituation of this country is fufiiciently apparent 
from the following account of its commerce. 

* The inhabitants of Sweden, fays Mr. Williarosi, have verjr 
Jittle fpecie in circulation ; large pieces of copper flamped and 
fmall bank notesi are their only circulating money. The balance 
cf fpccie which they receive from England and Holland is chiefly 
drawn off by France : and as the other [5t>wers from whom they 
draw a great part of their grain and other proviiions have like* 
vvife a great balance againft them, for which thofe powers refuie 
payment in the current paper circulation of this country, the 
Swedi(h merchants are obliged to procure thenifelvea bills of 
exchange upon England, Holland, Hambourg, &c. wherewiih 
to nnake their payment : and this is one great fource of their 

, '* At a time when the exchange is about fifty Swedlfh copper 

dollars for a pound ilerling, a merchant, forinftance, buys up a 

quantity of corn or any oiber merchandize in foreign countries* 

which he is to pay for ia bills of exchange, and immediately 

4 ^ fells 

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Williams*/ Rije^ Proffrefi^ Sec* rfNturthirH Gavinmiafs. 35 

fells^it out for Swedifli money, foas to gain, as he imagioes, a 
reifoaable profit ; but before he fias got bis bills ready to make 
his payment, the courfe of exchange is fo raifed by the demand 
for bills, and partly by artifice, that the^poiind ilerling is worth 
ieventy, eighty, or one hundred copper dollars, and confequently 
this merchant, fo far from beiog a gainer by his contrads, be- 
comes a very confiderable lofer, and thinks himfelf happy if 
he can prevent his bankruptcy. This is Co frequently the cafe in 
Sweden, fcarcely a week pafling without there being foqie coh- 
£derab!e alteration in the exchange, that merchants are gr/eatly 
intimidated, not only, if I may u(e the expreffion, from enter- 
ing into a fpeculative commerce, but from entering deeply into 
any commerce at all. Indeed when there is a great balance of 
trade againft any country, and when the me^ns for payment 
of that balance becomes thus difficult and uncertain; the mer- 
chant will always iland upon a very precarious foundation ; 
his credit wilt be greatly limited, and hd cannot exped to reap 
thofe advantages from commerce that another can whofe credit 
18 better eftablifhed. This is the cafe of the Swedifli merchants^ 
who arb frequently obliged to draw bills apon England and 
Holland upon fpeculation, and confequently muH: pay much 
above the ufual courfe of exchange for the fame, which is a tax 
upon their foreign commerce too great for merchants of their 
fmail capital to-bear. 

* For this, and other reafons of the like nature, the principal 
iierchants of this country are fond of monopolizing the different 
branches of comnierce, and of raifing the prices of their mer- 
chandise to an unwarrantable height. Thus the different forts 
of their iron, their copper, and brafs wire are made monopolies 
by {Private perfons, who enhance the price of them to (uch a 
degree, that the merchants of other dates, particularly the 
Ruflians, can. bring the fame kinds of commodities to foreign 
markets -at a much cheaper rate than thofe of this country c^a 
bring theirs. 

* Their trade to Portugal and Spain for fait, fruit, and wines 
is not much againft them, efpecially the former, las they barter 
their iron, 6fh, and copper in exchange for thefe articles ; they 
could not fubfift without great quantities of fait, not only for 
their ordinary confumption, but for* preferving their herrings* 
with which likewife they carry on a coj^iiderable commerce td. 
all parts of Europe. From the port of Gottenbourg alone they 
export,' one year with another, 150,000 barrels of herrings to 
the different parts of Europe. 

« The worft branch of trade which they have is what they 
carry on with f rancc, as it draws off all their ready money for 
the objeds of luxury only, and takes off very little of their na- 
tural commodities, except a fmali quantity of brafs wire and of 
iron. It is calculated that Sweden makes about 31,000 ton of 
iron yearly^ of which 'England, and in fa6^ the Britiih do^ 
minions^ take oiFfrom 16 to 19,000 ton, and Fiance only 200 
~ D z t^n^ 

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3« Hcnry'i Htpry of Great Britain. /V/. ///• 

ton. Sweden takes of France a great qaantity of wine, Ska, 
and a variety of other little articles of luxury. From Great 
Britaio (he takes only a fmall 4|aancity of tin, lead^ Newcaflle 
coals, fugar, and fuodry fmall articles of manufafture whicb 
the captains of merchant ihips frouggle into the kingdom. 
From Holland they receive fpicesr coffee, fugar, and a fariety 
' of little articles from the We^-lndia iflands. Their trade with 
all parts of the Baltic is againft them, as they are obliged to 
draw from thence great quantities of grain and of all kinds of 

— * There are few foreign merchants in Sweden ; the laws of 
that kingdom are rather ievere againft them : no foreign mer- 
chant who has lived any time in Sweden can retire and* carry off 
his property with him without paying one third part of it to 
the government, even though fuch merchant has been natoraHzed 
in the kingdom. The fame law like wife enads, that the one 
third part of all the property of any foreign merchant who dies 
in Sweden (hall be forfeited to the crown ; but this law has not 
been fo beneficial to the Swedes as formidable to foreign mer- 
chants, efpecially the Englifli, who for thj^t and other reaibns^ 
never think of marrying and fettling in this kingdom fo long as 
their affairs are in good order to return home with a competent 
el^ate and credit, the former of which they may ea41y remit by 
bills of exchange. Hence therefore, by examining and comparing 
the policy and legal regulations of Sweden relating tocommerce» 
notwithftanding their boafted liberties, with the policy and re- 
gulations of other commercial nations, it will foon be ieen that 
ms long as the prefent regulations and plan of policy are con- 
tinued this nation can never be brought into a flouriihiog ftate by 
her agriculture, manufaflures, or commerce, and that every at- 
tempt which is made cowards it, before their whole political fy- 
Hem is altered, will prove abortive.' 

From this author's repre(eotation of the ftate of thofe two 
jfiort)icrn kingdoms, we have authority to pronounce, that the go- 
vernment of each is highly defeAive in the nioft eflcntial parts of 
civil polity ; and that a degree of barbarifm, unknown even 
-10 their Gothic anceftors, pervades their fyftems of adrai- 
niflrati >n« 

[ To be conclude J in our next. } 

'" ■ -■ — • ' ■ ••■- " .,, I I ■ ., ■■■,., ■ . . ■ I , ■. ,^ . 

^he Hiflcry of Great Britain, frcm the fir ft Invafion of it by the 

Romans under Julius Caefar. IFriiten on a newo Flare, B^ 

Robert Henry, Z>. D. FoLIIL Ato, i/. u. beardi. {^Continued 

from VoL XLIV. ;>. 9.] Cadell. 

N continuing our examination of this work, we often meet 
wiih matter for reprehenfion. And we proceed in the ne* 
ccdary but dlfagreeable taik of illuftraiing our cenfure by ex« 


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Henry'/ WJtury of Great Britain. I^oL III. 37 

The plan pf this work, though ftrongly marked, and dif^ 
iindtly feparated by, general divifions, is often vioratcd from in- 
attention and carelefTnefs. Church mufic, though a part ofthe ce- 
remonial of religion, is not treated in i he chapter which has for » 
its title * the hiilory of religion,* but is dcfcribed in the chapter 
concerning arts. Eating is not clafled by the author among the 
mecijjary arts, but is treated as a part of manners. Among the 
pleafing arts he enumerates fetirical verfes ; and among the 
neceflary ones he ftatcs the art of embroidery. Infringements 
of his own plan, fo obvious atid ftriking, do not deferve coin-^ 

To the laws of Henry I. he appeals without hefitation, con- 
ildering them as authentic. Yet doubts, ^ell founded, are, 
entertained concefning them. Of thefe, no intimation is 
given ; and the inadvertent reader is led to confidier, as a 
decifive evidence, an ignorant compilation, or a fh am el e(s for- 
gery. Jf th€, author h-ad compared the laws afcribed to Henry 
I. with the Salique and 'Ripuarian codes^ he might have learned ' 
that the former are often only tranfcripts of the latter. 

The general of the militia of the Saxon times, was the earl^ 
in the opinion of the author in one place of his work. Yet, 
from other paflages it is to be inferred as his noiion, that the 
^Wa/,^^^i» prevailed not among the Anglo-Saxons; and the 
tarl is univerfally allowed to be a feudal dignity. But waving 
this abfurdlty, we know from the Anglo-Saxon laws, that the' 
iiretociff and hot the earl, was the officer who commanded in 
thofe times, and called out the force of the county. In thefe 
laws a minute defcription is given of the eledion of this officer ^ 
and of his duties *. 

To all in the order of harom^ Dr. Henry affiJ^ns, withotit 
dlfcri mi nation, the prerogative of punifliiiig capitally or with 
dieath. B'lt there is no evidence in hiftory to fup'poft this opi- 
nion. This prerogative belonged exclufiveiy to earls-palatine, 
or the higheft nobility, who had a princely jurifdidlion in their 
edates or territories \. He would advance every harcny into a 
faiatinait^ and forgets a diftindtion that is familiar to every 
perfbn, who has ftudied with a decent attention the hiilory of 
the tniddle times. 

The Scottifli ftatnte of guild is afcribed by the author to 
Alexander il. and he ventures to reafon from it as a regulation 
of this prince. Yet to this prince it belongs not. There is at 
leaft no proper foundation for imputing it to him. This fla- 
lute v& to be found in the trcatife Dt judtcns^ of which the ag« 

.1 . .11 I .mi III I I. ■ ^ ■■ -■ I. I .I . .. ■..■■■■ii.rf 

* Edward Conf. ap. Wilkins. Spelm. voc. Heretochius. 
t Seldeii> Titles of Honour. 

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38 Hcnry'i Hi/^tffjF ^ Great Britain. FoL III. 

is unknown. Dr. Henry might rely indeed on the authority of 
Skene ; but Skene is a writer whofe blunders have thrown ari 
obfcarity over the laws and hiftory of Scotland. 

After remarking, that too ereat an intenfineft of thought 
was the caufe of the logical lubtilties of the twelfth century, 
the author gives the following example of it, which feems to 
turn what h& had faid into ridicule. 

< When a hog is carried to market with a rope tied about its 
seek, which is held at the other end by a man, whether is thd 
hog carried to market by the rope or by the man ?* This appears 
to ns to be too ridiculous to be mentioned ; but it appeared in a 
\txy ferious light to the logicians of this period* who declare^la 
with great gravity, that it was one of thofe queftions that coold 
not be folved, the arguments on both fides were fo'perfeflly 
equal. In a word, the far g^reateft part of the qoeftions thaK 
were inveftigated by the logicians df thofe times, as John of Sa« 
lifburyjuftlyobferves, «« were of no ufe, in the church or the 
ilate, in riie cloifter or the court, in peace or war, at home 09 
abroad, or any where but in the fchools,f' ' 

He charaSerifcs as. a treuhadourj or poet, Richard I, of Eng- 
land. And he appeals to the Catalogue pf royal aiid noble Au- 
thors as his authority. He even a^rts that one of the poems 
of Richard was publillied in this work. Yet in this work ho, 
fuch poem is to be found; and Mr. Walpole, the ingenious 
author, is of opinion, that Richard was no poet* and that it 
is abfurd to metamorphoie this ambitious and reftlefs monarch^ 
into the foft lute-loving hero of poefy *. ■ ' - 

By affedling to confider the difpute about the antiquity of 
our conflitution * as a queftion of no great importance,* Drl 
Henry mufl have intended to fopef (ede the neceflity and tho 
labour of all refearches of this fort. And, in fadl, he ha$ 
avoided all formal invedigation of the fubjedt. • In this view; 
his indolence is reprehenfible, and his fears to lofe himfelf ia 
a path fo intricate, are to be confidered ^s unmanly. But if 
he is to be undcrftood ferioufly, his way of thinking will hie 
found to be abfurd. For what can b^ more wild than the fug- 
gef^ion, that a great nation ought to entertain no curiofity for 
difqoifitions into the ancient ftate of its government ? 

It is in a fnnilar method that he avoids all inquiries concern- 
ing the intrbduaion of the feudal fyftem into Scotland. He 
abandons his reader to the writers who have fubmitted to the 
drudgery of this fpeculation, and is not afraid exprefsly to 
affirm, * that it would be improper to revive tbh unimportant €$m* 

n • --i . ; —^ i,^ 

• Walpole, vol. i. p. 3» 

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Hcmyi^^tfrjry Great Britain. ^VollII. 3^ 

n*fit by repeating the fenriments of dtfFcrent authors* and 
their arguments in fut>port of thefe fentiments.' Is it impro* 
jwr to revive an enquiry that promifes to explain the confti- 
•tution and forms of the ScottiOi parliament, that is to furnifh 
a piAure of its ancient ftate in legiflation and manners, that it 
to hold out the condition of its fociety, and, in a word, to re- 
•ileft an infinite light to its ftory ? It is improper indeed to re- 
peat with fervility what other men have written, to be the 
ffCho of other men's fentiments. And a writer who has no- 
thing original to coainaunicate» has no call to obtrude himfelf 
aipon the public. 

Amidit furprifing negle6ls and errors in matters of impor« 
tance, there is yet in our author an affedlation of exadnefs, 
tand perfpicuity in minute and trifling particulars. Of David 
jLing of Scotland, he obferves, that he died « exadly five 
months before king Stephen/ Of Becket he has laid, that he 
fiad a cholic on a Monday of 06lo^er, in the year 1 164. And 
;of a poem of the twdfth century ^e records, that it had no 
fewer than 3646 lines. To this Grange exadlnefs, he joins at 
iftiroes an afedaVion of point and fagacity, which appears to us 
to be equally ridicnlous. Thus of Henry II. he pronounces 
' that his eyes were mild^ unlefs when he was angry* And 
:of {^ufOs he has remapfced, that ' as he was never married he . 
Jeft no iigitimsu ifTae.' 

It is irkfome to dwdl on imperfedlions, and it may be novir 
proper to lay before our readers, without^any obfervations, a few 
pages of this work. The death of Becket, an interefting por- 
tion of hiilory, and in which many of our hiflorians have ex* 
^rted themfelveS} is thus defcribed by our author. 

' When Becket had refted about eight days at Canterbury, 
iWhere he had been vifited by very few perfons of rank, he fee 
out with a defign to wait upon the young king at Woodftock, 
in order (o appeafe his anger, and regain bis favour, by valuable 
prefents, and other means. As he approached London, of 
which he was a native, prodigious crouds of men» women, and 
children, came out ta meet him, and conduced him through 
the city to his lodgings in South wark with loud acclamations, 
in return for which he fcattered* amongft them both money and 
cpifcopal benedi^ions. But his vanity was foon after mortified 
by a meffage from the young king, forbidding him to proceed ^ 
any further, or to enter any royal town or caitle; and commands 
ing him to return immediately to Canterbury, and confine him- 
felf within the precincis of his church. After hefitating fome 
time, herefolved to comply with this meffage; and returned to 
Canterbury, efcorted by a company of armed men, to protect 
him from any fudden affault. Here he refided about a week ia 
ereat folitude. reccivft)? daily accounts of freft infalts ofFered to 
-* Pi Ua 

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4^ Hcmy*i Hifitry tf Great Brittin. Vol. IIL 

bis frien^Sy and dep^(iation8 committed on his eftates; wbich 
made him fay to one of his greaceft confidents. That he was now 
convioced this qoarrel would not end without blood ; bar that 
he was determined to die for the liberties of the church. On 
Chriiimas day he preached in the cathedral; and at the end of 
his fermon pronounced a fentence of excommunication againd 
Ranulph de Broc, (his great enemy)» Robert de Broc, and 
almoll all the king's mod; familiar ferrants, with viiible maYks 
of the mod vioient anger in his voice and countenance. 

* When the archbiihop of York, with the biihops of London 
and Salifbury, arrived in Normandy, they threw themfelves at 
the king's feet, and implored his protection from that difgrace 
and ruin with which they were threatened by the primate, paint- 
in;; the violence of his proceedings again ft themfelves, and 
others, in fuch ftrong colours, that Henry fell into one of thofe 
vioient fitsoif paffion co which he was liable. In the height of 
his fury he cried out,*—" Shall this fellow, who came to court 
on a lame horfe, with all his eflate in a wallet behind him, 
trample upon* his king, the royal family, and the whole king- 
dom ? Will none' of all tliofe lazy cowardly knights whom I 
maintain, deliver me from this turbulent pried?" 

' This paflionate exclamation made too deep an impreflion on 
fome of thofe who heard it, particularly on the four following 
barons, Reginald Fitz-Urfe, William de Tracy, Hugh de Mor- 
vile, and Richard Breto, who formed a refolution, either to 
terrify the archbiihop into fubmiflion, or to put him to death. 
Having laid their plan^ they left the court at different times* 
and took diiFerent routes, to prevent fufpicion ; but being con- 
duced by the devil, as fome monkiih hiilorians tell us, they all 
arrived at the cadle of Ranulph de Broc, about fix miles from 
Canterbary, on the fame day, December 28th, and almoft at 
the fame hour. Here they fettled the whole fcheme of their 
proceedings, and next morning early fet out for Canterbury » 
accompanied by a body of refolute men, with arms concealed 
under their cloaths. Thefe men they placed in diiFerent parts 
of the city to prevent any interruption from the citizens. The 
four barons above named then went unarmed, with twelve of 
their company, to (he archiepifcopal palace, about eleven o'clock 
forenoon, and were admitted into the apartment, where the 
archbiihop fat converiing with fome of his clergy. After their 
fldmiillon a long iilence enfued, which was at length broken by 
Reginald Fitz-Urfe, who told the archbifliop, that they were 
fent by the king to command him to abfolve the prelates, and 
others, whom he had excommunicated ; and then to go to 
Winchelier, and make fatisfadion to the young king, whom he 
had endeavoured to dethrone. On this a very long and violent 
* altercation followed, in the courfe of which they gave feveral 
Jiints, that his life was in danger if he did not comply. But he 
remained undaunted in his refufal. At their departure they 
charged his fervaats jftot to allow him to 4ee$ oil which be cried 


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Hcnry^ Hifm^ %f Great Britain. Vol ItT. 4 f 

cat with great vehemence, — «' Flee! I Will never flee from any 
nan living. I am not come co flee, but to defy the rage' of 
imptons aflfaffins.** When they were gone, his friends blamed 
him for the roOghnefs of his anfwers, which had inHamed the 
fury of his enemies, and earneilly preiTed him to make hii 
cfcape; but he^ or^y anfwered, — " I have no need of your ad- 
vice. — I know what I ought to do.'* The barons with their 
accomplices finding that threats were ineiF^dual, put on their 
coats of mail; and taking each a fword in his right hand, and 
an ax in his left, returned to the palace; but found the gate 
ihot. When they were preparing to break it open, Robert de 
Broc conducted them up a back flair, and let them in at a win« 
dow, A cry then arofe, ** They are armed! chcy arc armed I" 
on which the clergy hurried the archbi(bop almoft by force into 
the church, hoping chat the facrednefs of the place would pro- 
jtedi him from violence. . They would alfo have ihut the ddor^ 
but he cried out,— •* Begone, ye cowards! I charge you on 
your obedience, do not fliut the door. What! will you make 
a caflle of a church?" The confpirators having fearched the 
palace, came to the church, and one of them crying, — *• Where 
is that traitor r where is the archbifhop?" Becket advanced 
boldly, and faid, •• Here I am, an archbifhop, but no traitor!" 
*• Flee,** «ficd the confpirator, •* or you arc a dead man.^ 
^* I will never flee," replied Becket. William dc Tracy then 
cook bold of his robe, and faid. You are my priibner; come 
along with me. But Becket feizing htm by the collar, fliook 
him with fo much force, that he almoft threw him down. De 
Tracy, enraged at this reManco, aimed a blow with his fword^ 
which almoft cut oft' the arm of one Edward Grim, a prieft^ 
and ilightly wounded the archbiihop on the head. By three 
other blows given by the other three confpirators, his fcull was ■, 
cloven almoft in two, and his brains fcattered about the pave* 
ment of the church. 

* Thasfeli Thomas Becket, December 29th, A. D. 1170, ia 
, the fifty-third year of his age, and ninth of his pontificate. He 

was evidently a man of very great abilities, particularly of con- 
fummate canning, undaunted courage, and invincible conftancy 
in the proAscation of his defigns. But his fch^mes were of a 
moft pernicious tendency, to emancipate the minifters of religioa 
from the reftraints of hw, and to fubjeA his king and country 
to a foreign power. He was vain, obftinate, and in:vplacable % 
as little afFeded by the entreaties of his friends, as by the threats 
of his enemies. His ingratitude to his royal benefadlor admits 
of no excufe, and hath fixed an indelible (lain upon his charac* 
ter. Though his murderers were highly criminal, his death 
was v^ry feafonable, and probably prevented much mifchief and 

* Few events in hiftory have made a greater noife than the 
murder of archbiftiop Becket. It was generally imputed to the 
CPrnm^iuis of C|ie King of SngUnd^ and reprefented as the moft 

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4« Henry'/ HiJIofy e/* Great BrilMii. : Foh III. 

execrable deed that ever had been perpetrated. The king of 
France, the earl pf Blois, the archbi(hop of Sens, and feveral 
other prelates, wrote accounts of it to the pope, in the moft 
tragical ftrains, calling upon him to draw the fword of St. Peter, 
and infli£t fotoe exqnifite puniOiment on ** that horrible per* 
iecotor of God, who exceeded Nero in cruelty, Julian in per- 
fidy, and Judas in treachery.*' But none'expreded greater grief 
and horror at this deed than Henry himfelf, who broke out into 
the loudeH lamentations, refufed to fee any company, to take 
- any food, or admit of any confolation for three days ; of whick 
iie took care to have a pathetic narrative tranfmitted to the pope 
by the bifliop of Lxsieux, declaring his innocence in the ftrongeft 
terms, and intreating his holinefs to fufpend all cenfures till he 
^ad examined into the truth.' 

While we have found ourfelves under the neceffity of ex- 
hibiting ftri^ures on the matter of this hiftorian, it would 
have been a pleafure to u^ to have been able to have com* 
mended his %le and compofition. But this is not in our 
power ; for the prefent volume is evidently inferior in every 
refpedi to tbpie which preceded it. The dignity of hiftorical 
narration is never attained by the author. His manner is dry 
and cold, and feriops even to fadnefs.. And while he no where 
pre&nts any fymptoms of elegance, he offends by a want of 
grammatical precifion and accuracy, which in the prefent cuU 
tivated itate of our language is uncommon and difguding. 
An attention to promote refinement in literature, difpofes as 
on this occafion to ofFet fpme remarks ; and that the author 
ipay have no juft reafon to complain, we (hall apply odr dif- 
japprobation with a geatlenefs, that' i^ unequal to the errors 
to be pointed out.J 

1 . * Soon after this a Danifh fleet and army arrived en the 
Englifti coait, to the alTiftance of the confpirators; but hearing 
that they were fupprefied, returned to I)eiimark withoiijt land-* 

ang.' p. 19- • 

An Engliih writer will employ the expreffion /« fupprt/s 4 

iinjpiracjfi but will not fay that cdnfpiratvn wtre fupprejftd. 

a. Speaking of Williffin Rufus, the author has this pafiage* 

After his coronation he returned to Wincheftcr, to take ^ 

more particular account of his father*s tfeafures, which' he 

found to ampunt to 60,000 1. in money, equal in weight of 

iilver to i8o,oqol. and in egUacy to 900J000I. of our money*? 

p. 2IB- 

That William Rufus fhould know the efficacy of money in 
the cloie: of the eighteenth century, is a furpriiing circam- 
ilance. ^ 


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Henry// Bft^rj ff Great Britaia. FoL IIL 43 

3, < The two armies, at their approach, being nearly eqoal, 
«nd ftruck with mutual awe, fiood facing each other fi'on^ 
'4ajh without coming to aftion.' p. 43. 
' 4. Of Becket he thus fpeaks, ' On Chriftmaji day be 
preached in the cathedral ; and at the end of his fernion, pro- 
nounced a fentence of excommunication againft Ranulpb 4p 
Broc, (hfs great enemy) Robert de Brock, and againft all the 
king's moit familiar fervants, with 'oifihk marks of the meft 
violent anger in his n)cice and countenance.' p. 276 « 
' That the voice, or that found is vifible, is rather an o^fbr« 
tunate expreflion. 

' 5. < Thefe lemd* fo granted, m^ very well be confidored as 
the Jaifypayoffi certain number of troops, which the perfbns 
io whom they were granted, were obliged to keep in conftant 
rcadinefs ' p. sn- ' ' 

- H feems to us a very improper mode of exprei&on, to caU 
hiu^uary j^^nfi tfland or eftates in perpetuity a ^«i^ pay. 

6. * To the king's ambafiadors he made the moft folemn 
promifes in private, that hie would wink at their nafter's giving 
iaveftitures and receiving homage.' p. aio* 
"■; 7. * The detedlion was i^ undeniable, and feon became jfb 
public, that the legate dared not to ihew his ftce ; but fnt^hd 
s>vx of England, with the greateft fecrocy and precipitation/ 
*p« 234. , ' 

* $« ■ He divided two hundred marks among the iAfl^&ri 
pf the court.' p* 239. 
' 9. < Delve as much land with hand and foot.' p. 452. 

10. ' AddiStd to, and greatly excelled in the woQlltm maim' 
f^&vry: p, 465* ' 

' II. ' Much addiStd to building royal cajlles and palaces.' 
p.. 459. ■ • • ,., 

r 12. < Then: countenances^, p. 291. 

Expreffioos. like thofe we have noted, are common in 
«very portion of the volume before us, and are too vulgar for 
liiftory. 'The fpecimen might be extended to a great length, 
if it were neceflary. But the remarks in this and in our former 
article, will poflibly be deemed fufHci^ntly decifiv^ of the merit 
of this hiftorian. A Ad the reader may draw a concluflon from 
the whole. It might appear indelicate in us to uiie th^ ftrong 
langi^age we are intitled to employ. We wib at all tio^}^ to^ 
m^^ our intentions, to prpmote literature; but willingly ah-i 
(lain froip inferences, which though juft are difagre^able, and 
might be reprefented as proceeding from a diQiofition to cavil» 
^ a propenfity to triumph over- weaknefs and error* 

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t 44 ]. 

ni Laws rtfpeSing Wtmtn^ as they reganl thiir Naiswal Rights^ 
§r thsir C^nneSions and C^ndu^. In four Books^ ^V9» 6s* 
Iff hoards, }ohn(bn. 

'TpHAT the great btilk of the body of the laws of this coun- 
-'* try is a public grievance, few, who are i Ahe lead act 
quainted with the laws under which they live» will deny. 

it is a melancholy truth, that, during the prefent reign» of 
cp}y fixteen fefiions of parliamenr, our Aatute law has fwolen 
to a iize equal to all the flatutes from Magna Charta down to 
the death of queen Anne — a period of five centuries. In an- 
other century, the moft learned of our judges will have as 
conEned a knowledge of the laws, as the nooft learned Chinefe 
braoain has of the langua|;e, of his country — the neceiTary con« 
fequence of tautology and redundance. 

To arrange our laws under proper heads, and to dafs 
them under diftinft titles, would be perhaps as great a fervice 
ms any Englifiiman could render to his country. Notwithitand- 
ing thefe are days of patriotifm, more hands are employed, we 
fear, to break the laws, than to mend, or to explain them.— « 
The author of the book at prefent before us has thought as we 
think. He has fixed upon tho(e laws which concern women ; 
and we fincerely hope that he will be followed .by other gen- 
tleman, uoder other head$-->or rather, as he feems h very well 
qualified for the tafk, we wifh foon to have occafion to pay 
our thanks to him for his induflry and information, exerted 
to bring into one point of view (bme other title of our law. 

This is not merely the compilation of a man of profeiiional 
knowledge — the gentleman and the< fcholar appear in It, as 
confpicuoufly as the lawyer. — In the ftibfequent paiTage the 
fentiments have not the left merit for being unfashionable ; 
and the (lyle, except an error or two which we ihali mark 
by Italkks, is by no means bad. 

< England has been ililed the Paradife of women ; nor can 
it be fappofed that in a country where the natural rights pf man- 
kind are enjoyed in as fu^ an extent as is confident with the 
cxiflence and well-being of a great and extenfive empire, that 
the interefls of the fofter fex (hould be overlooked. A' nation of 
men charaderifed for bravery, generoiity, and a love fiiperior > 
to mean fafpicions, maft confider the happinefs of women as 
infeparably blended with their own. When pnblic virtue pre- 
vails, each individual will have the jufteft idea wherein his own 
private happinefs really coniifts, and he will place it in thofe 
domeHic endearments which ari/e oat of virtuous love: mutual 
confidence will ripen mutual afiedion^ and the only family con- 


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Ztf wi nfpiSing Womw. 45 

tcft will*c who (hall contribute moff tp th6 general ftock of hap- 
pinefs. ^n proportion s^s the . rchnejmcnts of life, and the cre- 
ation of artificial wants oppofe themfelves to^ the fimplicity of 
nature, men rove at large in purfuit of gratification, and tht 
band of domcftic union becomes relaxed. The natural right* 
of women therefore are rooft readily acknowledged during thofd . 
periods of fociety, in which fimplicity of manners moft prevaiL 
The ferocity of barbarifm is untriendly to erery foft fenfation ; 
love is then what a great critic fuppofes it to be in civilized fo- 
dcties, *« one of many paflions ;" the enly diftin6lion in fuch 
communities is that of the ftrong and the we^k ; and on the other 
hand, when unhriMid luxury has rendered mankind debauched 
and unprincipled, the dilTolute manners of a courtefan are ad- 
mired, whilft the folid accomplifhments of a virtuous woman 
have no attraftions. The men becoqae domeftic defpots, and 
though the politcnefs of fuch tinoes may reftrain them from^^roft 
afts of violence, yet they indulge thenifehes in a fpecies of 
cruelty not lefs oppreffive and painful, if the torture of a faf- 
ceptible mind is fuperior to any Jbodily fuffering. Whilft men al* 
low themfelves in a wanton gratification of their paiBons, they 
cxpeft from their wives an unexceptionable conduct, yet tbefc 
very men are the moft forward and loud in ftigmatifing the 
whole fex as governed by whim, caprice, inconftancy, and an 
unbounded love of pleafure, at the lame time that they cxpeft 
that a nice fenfe of honour Ihould make them fteadily adhere to 
what is right; that the fatisfaaions arifing from felf-approbation 
ihould lead them to overlook, or at leaft not to refent, every 
fpecies of negligence and indifference ihewn them by thofe huf- 
bands ; and that the principles of duty and moral obligation 
ihould fortify them againft all the attacks of pleafure or vice. 
Do not fuch men indiredtly and undefignedly pay the fex the 
higheft eulogiura, whilft tlry profeffedly inveigh againft them ; 
by fuppofing them to pofTefs principles that are proof againft the 
ftrongeft temptations combined? And experience fu rely proves^ 
that th^ir tacit praife is better founded than their open cenfure.. 
But the whole fyftem of a man of pleafure is built upon abfurdity 
and contradi6lions.' 

The laws refpefting women our author has divided into four 
books. The firft treats of thofe laws which refped the 
pcrfonal rights of women ; the fecond of thofe which concern 
their property ; in the third we find the cri^pes which women 
may commit, and their confequent punifhmcnts ; in the 
fourth all the laws refpefting parents, children, and minors— 
Thefe four books are, with great clearnefs and precifiori, ^ 
fubdivided into chapters ; and every chapter into fcdionr. 
And the points, of which the author treats, appear to be 
illuftrated by all the learning, doarincs and decifions. down 
almoft to the prefent moment. In a word, we will venture to 
recommend this publication to the fine lady, the finQ gen* 
I tieman^ 

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4^ tnws rijj^aiii^ Whtiek 

tlemiiif, ^iifh^liti&-ftbdfent^^FroTn a diligent perufil of it; (ke] 
firft wlH learn th* rank Ae holds in fociety, without endan-. 
gferifig her itioi-als or her tafte; the fecond, if he defpife in*-' 
ifru^lion, will yet derive aroufem'eht ; and the lall will ac- 
qcife a regulated idea of- the numerous and perplexing law!f 
rrfpe£ling the women of his Country, for many of which he 
inight perhaps in vain have ranfacked his memory and tornedf 
over his books. 

That our female readers may learn the punxfliment our law^ 
have fixed on fcolds, 'we tranfcribe for their perbfal the Tub- 
ftqobnt pafiage. 

^ A common fcold, or communis rixatris« is eonfidered inf' 
tli^ eye of the common law, as a public nuifance to her neigH-i 
bOurs, for which ofFenCe fhe is indiJlable ; the form of which 
iadiflment does not require the particulars of her offence to be 
ftt forth, but tht offence muft be fignified with convenient cer- 
tainty, and the indldckieQt muft conclude not only " againf^ 
the peacej but to the common nuifance olT divers of Jiis maje%'^ 
li^ge fubjcfts " A cafe of this kind happened H. 19. Geo. II. 
K. arid M. Cooper^ on an in d lament for being '< a commoa 
and tttrbuleht brawler, and (bwer of difcord againft her quiec 
attd honeft ni?ighbottrs, fo that fhe hath dirred, moved, and in^ 
cited divers flrifes, controverfies, quarrels, and difputes amongft 
his majefty's liege people, againfl the peace, &c/' on which m- 
diftment fhe was convifted. . The punifhment for this crime, it 
to be placed in a certain engine of corredion, called a trebucket^ 
Cucking-ftool, or caftigatory, though now frequently corrupted 
ifato ducking-(lc6l, becaufe her furtherjudgment is, to be placed 
therein, and plunged into the water. Lord Coke fays, that 
€uck or qucky in the Saxon tongue, fignifies to fcold or bawl i 
taken from the bird cilckow, or qucRhaw ; and ing in that Ian- • 
goage fignifies water, becoufe a fcolding woman was for her pd- 
Bifhmetit fowfed in the \\^ater. And Mr. Burn remarks, that the 
common people in the northern parts of England, amoneft 
whom the greateft rdmains of the ancient Saxons are to oe 
found, pronounce it ducking-fioul ; which perhaps may have 
fprong from the Belgickor Teotonick ducken^ to dive under wa» 
W ; from whence aifo probably we denominate our dutk, the 
-water fowl ; or rather it is more agreeable to the analogy and 
progrefs of language to afTert, that the fubftantive ducA is the ori- 
ginal, and the verb made from thence ; as much as to fay, that 
to duck is to do as that fowl does. 
^ * But though many men may be fligmatized as ** turbulent 
brawlers, &c/* yet the punifhment for committing thi^ kind of 
nuifance •• againfl his niajefly's liege fubjedls," is confined to 
Wbnien only, which certainly does no credit either to the juftice 
or gallantry of oar anceftors.' 

Had 'u>e been painters, our ladies may fay, like the lion 
ii the fable, things would have been ordered other wife. 


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What this writer fays under the he^d ' Gypfies;* at the 
fame time that it entertains and inftrudSi fpannot fiiii« we 
fear, to make our readers ihudder at the feveruy of ibme of 
the laws under which they live, with the exigence of which x 
they were not, perhaps, before acquainted. 

• Of Gypfies. 

< Tbefe are a counterfeit kind of rogues, that being EngKA 
or Welch people, accompanied themfelvea together, difguifed in 
the habit of Egyptians ; blacking their faces and bodies, and 
framing (o themfelves an unknowa longae, Wander ap and down^ 
vnder pretence of telling fortunes, abufing the ignorant common 
people, and dealing all that they can lay their hands on* Thei« 
are puniQiabie as vagabonds and beggars. — Thefe are a (Iraago 
kind of commonwealth among themfelves, of Wandering im- 
podors and jugglers ; who made their firft appearance in Ger-' 
snany. about the beginning of the i6th century, and have fince 
fpread themfelves all over Europe and y^fia. They were ori* 
ginally called Zinganus by the Turks, from their captain Zitt* 
ganeus, who when fultan Selim conquered Egypt about the year 
15 17, refufed to fubmit to the Turkifti yoke, and retired into 
the defarts, where they lived by rapine and plunder, and fre* 
qaently came down into the plains of Egypt, committing great 
outrages in the towns upon the Nile, under the dominion of the 
Turks. But being at length fubduedand ba^iflied from Egypt^ 
fhey difperCed themfelves in fmall parties, into every country ia 
the known world ; and as they were natives of Egypt, a conn» ^ 
try where the occult Sciences, or black art, as it was called, was 
foppoied to have arrived to great perfediion, and which in that 
credulous age was in great vogue with perfons of all religions 
and perfuafiops; they found the people, wherever they came, 
very eafily impofed upon. In the compafs of a very few years, thejr 
gained fuch a number of idle profelytes, who imitated their ]an« 
guage and complexion, and betook themfelves to the fame arts 
of chiromancy, begging and pilfering, that they became troa* 
blefome and even formidable to moft of the ftates of Europe* 
On which account they were expelled from France in the year 
1560, and, from Spain in 1591 ; and the government in England 
took the alarm much earliei ; for in 1530, they are defer i bed 
by the ftatute iz Hen. VllfTc. lO. as •* Outlandifh people call- 
ing themfelves Egyptians ; ufing no craft or feat of merchant 
dize, who have come into this realm, and gone from (hire to 
ihire, and place to place, in great company^ and ufed great, 
fubtle, and crafty means to deceive the people, bearing then 
in hand, that they by palmiftry could tell mens and woment 
fortunes ; and fo many times by craft and fubtilty have de- 
ceived the people of their money, and alfo have* committed 
snany heinous felonies and robberies." Wherefore they are di* 
rcfied to avoid the realm, and not to return^ under pain of im« 


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4t £«<c;i rt/ptaing J9^§mi9h 

prtibninent» aad forfeitare of their goods and tliattels; tnd 
upon their trials for any felony which they may have com- 
mittedy they fliall not be entitled to a jary di midietate liaj^u^* 
And afterwards it is ena^ed, i & 2 P. aod M. c. 4 & 5 Eliz. 
c* 20. that if any fuch perfon (hall be imported into this king- 
dom, the importer fiiall forfeit 40I. and if the Egpptians them- 
felves remain one this kingdom, or if any perfon be- 
ing fourteen years old, whether natural born fabjeftsor a ftrah- 
fir, whi^ch hath been feen or found in the fellowihip of fcfch 
gyptians* or which bath difguifed him or herfelf like them 9 
iball remain in the fame one month, at one or feveral times, it 
is. felony without benefit of clergy. And fir Matthew Hale in- 
forms us, that at one Suffolk affixes, nolefs than thirteen gypfies 
were executed upon thefe (latutes, a few years before the refto- 
ration. But to the honour of our national humanity, there are 
no inflanccs more modern than this of carrying thefe laws into 
execution. Scotland alone feems to have afforded a friendly 
afylum for thefe emigrants, for in the year i^94» a letter patent 
by king James Vi. of Scotland, afterwards king James I. of 
England, was granted to the leader and head of thefe people, 
wherein he is ItyJed ** our beloved John Faw, lord and earl of 
14«le Egypt," which is now extant amorig the writs of prij^y 
feal. And the fame Faw appears to have bee^ honoured long 
before that time, by the countenance and protection of Mary 
Queen of Scots, as the fame record contains a writ of a (imilar 
tenor, dated 2; April, 1553; and 8 April, 15549 he obtained 
a pardon for the murder of Ninian Small. So that it appears* 
that he had continued long in Scotland, (or perhaps fome part 
of the time in England) and it is poffible, that from him this 
kind of ilrolling people might receive the denomination which 
they ftill retain of Faw-gang. The ad 17 Geo. 11. c. 5, 
commonly known by the title of the Vagrant A£l, regards 
gypiies only under the general denomination of rogues and va- 

Foreigners, particularly Beccaria and Voltaire, complaiQ 
alfo of 01 her laws which are made to prevent the murder of 
baitard children. 

* Murder of a baftard child. 

. • If a man who is the reputed father of a baftard child un- 
born, or any other perfon whatever advifes the mother of it to 
snurder it when born, and (he does fo, that perfon is confidered 
as accefTary to the murder before the fa£t. For though he may 
i^ot be prefent or aflifting when the crime is committed, yet by 
counfeliing or commanding another ta commit the crime, he 
becomes fubje£l to the punifhment inflidted on the crime itfelf. 
For the influence of the felonious advice, continuing till the 
child was born, makes the advifer as much a felon as if he had 
.^ivcQ his advice after the l^irth. To conditate an acceifairy 


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tafUfs rifptStng Womti^ ^jf 

here, it is neceiTary, that the party be abfent wtieU the crun« 
is coromitced, otherwife if be be prefent, be incurs the guih of a 
principal. For though in fome cafes an acceflary before the fa^ 
is confidered in a lefs^ criminal light than the adual perpetrator 
of the crime, and isfometimes allowed the benefit of hisclfrrgy, 
yet in this inOance the crime of each is- coniidered as equally 
great. Jf a woman is with child^ and any gives her a potion to 
oeflroy the child within her, and ihe takes it, and it works fo 
Urongly that it kijls her: this is murder. For it was not givea 
to cure her of a difeafe, but unlawfully to dei^roy the child within 
her ; apd therefore he that gives her a potion to this end, muft 
take the hazard, and if it kills the mother, it is murder^ ** H 
any woman be delivered of any ifTueof her body, male or female^ 
which being born alive, fhould by the laws o/ this realm be a 
hailard, and (he endeavour privately, either by drowning or fe« 
cret burying thereof, or any other way, either by herfelf, or the 
procuring of others, fo to conceal the death thereof, as that ic 
may not come to light, whether it were born alive or not, but 
be concealed, ihe (hall fufFbr death as in cafe of murder, except 
ihe can prove by one witnefs at leaft, that the child was bo>n 
dead.*' By which law the concealment of the death is confidered 
as conclufive evidence of the child's being murdered ; and that 
by the mother ; but this (evere law is at this day more mildly 
interpreted ; and fome kind of prefumptive evidence is required 
that the child was born alive, before the other conflrained pre- 
fumption is admitted, that the child was killed by its mother^ 
becaufe it is concealed by her. It hath been adj iidged» where a 
woman lay in a chamber by herfelf, and went to bed without 
pain,, and waked in the night, and knocked for help, but could 
get none, and was delivered of a ballard child, and put it in a 
trunk, and did not difcover it till the following night, yet that 
fhe was not within the ftatute, becaufe (he knocked for hefp.' 
And if a woman confefs herfelf with child jbeforehand, and af<« 
terwards be furprized and delivered, nobody being with her, ^e 
is^ not wi.hin the ftatute, becaufe there was no intent of con- 
cealment, and therefore- in fuch cafes it muft appear by figms 
of hurt upon the body, or fome other way, that the child was 
born alive.' 

After expreffing our regret for the want of gallantry in 
the laws, which, in fome inftances, particularly in thole of 
high treafon, or murder of the matrimonial companion, in- 
flia feverer punifhmenrs upon female than on male offenders | 
we fhall clofe our criticifm of this uieful and inftru£live pub- 
lication with tranfcribing what we find faid in it of a woman, 
who defcrved, perhaps, the mod cruel tortures that were evc^ 
infii^led by any laws on any criminal. 

< A child taiy be baftardlzed by the folemn confeffion of the 

mother. As ^,fLs the cafe of Richard Savage ia 1697, whofe 

Vol, XUV. Jan. I778, E mother, 


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5^ Tvickcv* I fiVintitn Sirmdnt. 

mother^ Ann countefs of Macclesfield^ hnving lived for fontir 
time on very oneafy terms with her hu(band, thought a public 
confeflion of adultc.ry the moft obvioUs and expeditious methpd' 
of obtaining her liberty ; and therefore declared, that the child" 
with which fhe was then great, was begotten by the earl Ri-^ 
vers« Her hufband, as may be eafily imagined, being thus- 
ttiiide no kfs deiirous of a reparation than^herfelf, profecuted his 
defign in the mod efFeftual manner ; for he applied, not to the 
ecclefiaftical courts for a divorce, but to the parliament for .ao- 
a^, by which his marriage might be diflblved, and the child 
with which his wife was then great Hlegiti mated. During the 
feilion in which this bill was depending, the countefs was 
delivered of a fon, loth of January, 1697-8, and on the 
thii-d of March following the divorce bill was pafied, and 
his wife's fortane, which was very coniiderable, was repaid 
her, and ihe in a flsort time married colonel Brett. It feeois 
that the lords were not unanimous in their opinion of this 
proceeding, for the following proteft is entered on their journals 
agairft this bill. " Diffentient — Becaufe we conceive that thig 
i» the firil bill of that nature that hath paffed, where there was 
not a divorce firft obtained in the fpiritual court, whiph we look 
vpon as an ill precedent, and may be of dangerous confequence 
in the future. Haiifax* Rocbefltr.** And Salmon in his review 
of thofe times obferves, ** this year was made remarkable by the 
diiToImion of a marriage folemnized in the face of the church."* 
But after-times havecftablifiied this mode of proceeding, by ob- 
taining a bill to annul a marriage without the intervention of 
the eccleiiaftical courts : but it is always in that cafe founded on 
a verdid obtained in the temporal courts. So that it (hould feent 
that ac this day the proceedings of parliament to annul a marriage 
without any verdifl obtained in any court bdow» iis fuppoited by^ 
this inHance Singly and alone.' 

SifvenUin Strmons orijome of the moft important Points on natural and^ 
rtveaied Religion, rejpe&ing thi Happint/s both of tbi prefent^ and 
efafutun Life. Together ^wiib an appendix. By Jofiah Tucker^ 
jp. Z>. 8w. .5;. Rivingjbn. , 

AS the abilities of this writer is fufficiently known, we fhall 
proceed to give our readers a general- %4ew of thefe dif- 
courfes, without any prelinoinary remarks. 

Serm. I. Hath not the potter pcn^er omr the clay. Sec. Rom. ix. 
«'•— 'The general defign of this difcourfe is to fhew, thai 
whatever inequaliiies there are in the creation, or in the gifts, 
VI hch Providence has beftowed upon mankind, there will be- 
Doieinthe diftribution of rewards and puniihtnents : every 
one wi.l bu deilt with according to hib defcits. 


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Tvickefs /iwnfiht SerHtons*^ Jt 

Serm II. By grace je itre fiiiftd^ &g. Eph. li, 9, ib.^— The 
|m>per meaning of thi$ text, as our author flates it, is this : 
Solvation by grace, or the fyfteni of our redemption, is the 
gift of God. ft is not of ourfil*!/e3 ; it is nof of nvorks (and fof 
ttie very fame reason alfo it is not x^i faith) ^ led any man fhould 
boaft. But it is altogether /r^« and uncmditionaif totally inde* 
pendent of every confideration, exce|it that alone, "which gavji 
exiftence to it, the love of God, and his companion for a 
nsiAed world* 

Serm. liL Wbtn yifhallbmn done ally &c. Luke xvii. 10. — Ifl 
oppofition tothofe, who either excelUvely magnify or depreciate 
human obedience and perfonal holinefs, the author (hews, thit 
thei-e is a dignity in virtue, a worth and excellence in good<>> 
nels, though not properly a merit; and that there can be no 
impropriety in maintaining^ that our good works are profit 
able ; provided we mean, that they are profitable only to our* 

Serm IV. Let no man decei^ue you : be tbat doth righteoufnefs is 
righieouif &c. John iii. 7, 8. — In this difcourfe the cafes of itt- 
fi^ntaneous, and of gradual converfions, are diflindly conddered* 
The former, which fanatics have groftly mifrcprefentcd, are 
allowed in ibme extraordinary inflanc^s : fuch as that of tl\e 
converts at the feafl of Pentecod ; that of the jailor, Adls xvii 
that of St. Peter, when jiie wasconvided of a (hameful weak- 
nefs by a look from his mailer ; ^ and that of king David^ 
when he inadvertently condemned his own flagrant crimes. 

Serm. V. On the cafe of the penitent, thief : fliewing, that 
hts example \i not once propofed in fcripture for our imi- 
tation ; that probably his repentance was neither (hort nof 
fiidden; and that our penitential ftate of mind can hardly be 
iimilar to his, in any one material circum fiance. 

-Serm. VI. Preached before the contributors to the Brlftol 
Infirmary'. The purport of it is to fhew, that, through the 
abufe of liberty, the common people of this nation are be* 
come debauched, licentious, and immoral, to an alarming 
degree ; and that infirmaries, among other goodufes, ought 
to be app]i€;d as correctives and reformatories. 

Serm. VII. Qodlinef is prefital^eunttfoil things^ &e. I Tim. iv. 
8. — The chief defign of this difcourfe iS to prove, that lh€ 
three fyflems of religion,' government, dnd commerce, are 
parts of one general plan of Providence; and that no par- 
ticular inflitution in any one of th«m can be right, if it in 
found to be repugnant to either of the others. 

Serm. VIII. Th^ tbat ufe this ^orld as not abufhig it. 1 Cor» 
vii. 31. — Indifcoivrfmg on thefe words^ the author endeavour* 
to dcmoDitrate^ that the vulgar notion of luxury's being the 

£ z nieaftt 

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5? • Tucker*i fiventan Berm^nt^ 

means of ennploytng a greater number, of hands^ than otfter- 
wife would have foapd employment, and conCequently of be* 
ing thereby beneficial to commerce, is a grand mistake^ 
founded on (hallow and rupcrficialobfervations ; that the prio- 
clples of pure and uncorruptcid morals will evtr be found to be 
the bed rules for promotix>g and extending mutual and mvx" 
xtiM commerce. 

As the word lu:tury, extravagance, prodigality, &c. convey no^ 
precife idea, the author thus endeavours to afcertain the poiol. 
in queflion. 

' The terms ufing the world, or ahujkg it, or, in other 
words, tmptrance and exie/s^ are relative expreflions, whofe fig- 
nificatlon muft be afcertained by the circumilances of the cafe. 
For what may be the firideA temperance in one man, may ne- 
verthelefs become a great excefs in another; and both the 
uHng this world, and the abufing it, mul^ refer to the refpedive 
conflitution, circumftance, age, or condition, of this or that 
particular individual. 

* Thus, for example, he who ufes this world properly, and 
es a wife and good man ought to do, is be who.adjuds his eo^ 
joyments by the following flanflard, viz. ill, When his ex- 
pences are brought within his income :: — 2dly, When lie makes ■■ 
a decent and adequate proviHon for his family and dependents r 
'— 3dly, When he lays by for contingencies ►-•-4thly, When he 
obliges himfelf to he a good oeconomift, in»order to be the bet- 
ter able to provide for the neceflities of the poor :. — 5thly9. 
When he indulges himfelf gratifications,, which may in- 
jury either th« health of h»s body, or the faculties of his mind : 
and lailly, .When in all his enjoyments, he has « regard to- 
the influence he may have over others^ fo as to fet them no bad 
or dangerous example. 

' Now whoibever will li^nit his pleafures, diveriions, or ex- 
pences, by tbefe regulations, he is not a luxurious but a tem* 
peiate man : he doth not abufe the good things of Provi* 
dence, but rightly ufes them, according to the gracious de* 
^gn of the donor. Nay, were he to do lefs» were he to deny 
himfelf fuch gratifications as can b^ enjoyed compatibly with- 
thi^fe rules, he would not fill the flation, nor live up to the 
rank and character allotted for him. In (liort, he would be 
the ceveious nM/t, whom God abhor re th ; a man, who, by not 
lUing the world enough, does nOt promote that circulation of 
labour and induftry in it which' he ought to do. He is there-, 
fore injurious to fociety by a defeftj as the other was proved to 
be by an excefs. 
.Serm. IX. On the moral ufes of the inrtitution of Lent, 

SiejTOi.. «. 

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Serm. X. Fn this difcoorfe the indirpenfible duty of refli^ 
tiitioo, in its feveral branches, is particularly inculcated ; and 
It is clearly (hewn» that injuries done to the public revenue^ 
und to the charaders of perf^ns in hijgh (latibns (though 
feldom regarded as criminal, nay fometimes rattier extolled as 
itieritorious,) are of a more atrocious nature, than injuries' 
^one to privjte property, or to private charafters. 

Serm. XI. On the errors of the church of Rome. The au- 
thor coniiders popery in two dif^in^ points of view : firft, as 
containing grofs errors in religion : fuch as, praying in an un- 
known tongue, denying the people the ofe of the fcripturcs, 
praying to departed faints, tranfubftanttation, purgatory, 
works of fnpererogatibn, indulgences, and prctenlions to the 
working of miracles. Secondly, he conliders popery as pro- 
pagating dangerous principles in regard to the peace and fafety 
of the ilate : fuch as, the fu])remacy of the pope^ his power 
to depofe kings and princes, and the lawfulnefs of ufing force 
in matters of religion. Under the laft article he pleads for 
■univerfal toleration : but makes a proper diiftiflion betweea 
matters of right and matters of favour. 

Serm. XII. A continuation ^f the fame fubjeft. Here he 
•endeavours to prove, that the parallel pretended to be drawn 
between the dodrine of ih« Trinity, and that of tranfubflan- 
tiaiion, and of other errors of the church of Rome, is falfe and 
groimdlefs. in the queftion concerning the Trinity, • tKeobjeft, 
tie obferves, is infinitely too vaft for finite comprehenfion ; but 
in the cafe of tranfubftantiation, the obje6\ is as much on a 
Jfevel with the humaji capacity, As any thing in nature cau 
poflibly be.* The proofs alledged for fome of the do£trines of . 
)»opcry are nof clearly revealed, but drawn fj'om dark and ob- 
fcure cjiprefllons. Qt\ the contrary, he tells us, * the doc- 
trine of the Trinity is contained not in one fingle* paffage, but 
in marfy ; not obfcurefy hinted at, but plainly declared ; not 
wrapped up in iigures and metaphors, but fxprefled in the 
cleared and ftrongeft terms.' This point is confidered in 
various other lights : but if the doflrine of the Trinity he ex- 
preiTed in the clearefl and ftrongcft terms, the abovementioned 
parallel cannot poflibly be admitted. 

Serm'. XJII. On the ufes and abufes of auricular con- 

Serm. XIV. IFbat is that to thetF follonxj thou me, John xxi. ' 
2.2,— --The author difplays the dn and danger of improper cuii- 
©fity in matters of religion; which, he fays, confifls in ar-'. 
tempting to fathom the deep myfteries of our faith by the (hort 
line of human reafon ; in inquiring too nicely into the precife 
^•uadarks oi virtue and ?ice ; and ia undertaking to judge of 

B 3 the 

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the whole adminiftration of providence by thoie gfimmeringf 
lights and imperfeft notions^ with which we are furniOied in 
our prefent Aate. 

Serm. XV. GeJ^ n»bo at /undrj timei^ and in dhftrs manner t^ 
^c. Hcb. i. I.-!— This difcourfe fets forth the diflFerent periods 
and difpcnfatioDS of religion, and explains in it what fenie 
every difpenfation, whether general or particular, muft have 
foroething in it fixt and invariable, (viz. obedience and repen- 
tance) and in what fenfe it may admit of variety and alterations* 
It alfu points out the charadleridic difference between particu-. 
lar and general covenants : (hewing, that the nature of the 
one is to fuit only a particular people, and to keep them fepa- 
rate from the refl of mankind ; that of the other, to accommo- 
elate itfelf to all nations and all ages. . 

From hence we may iee the fignificancy of the Jewifli cercn . 
xnonials. < If they were £t materials for building up the par* 
lition wall between the Jews and other people, they were abfo- 
lutely the very things, of which a particular and local covenant 
ought to confift.* . ^ 

Hence likewife we may fee the abfurdtty of contending about 
local rites and ceremonies, about didinfiions of dreiTes, and 
fuch like outward forms. Baptifm and the Lord's fupper are 
cflential to tbe Chriftian covenant. But, as our author re- 
marks,. * it is only tbe fubftance of them, that is elTential : for 
as to the mode or form of adminiilering them, that may vary 
according to the cuftoms and manners of ^ilBFerent nations ; 
provided no variation is made in the injundions of our Lord, 
provided alfo that the remainder of the ceremonials is modelled 
^ according to decency and ord<;r.' 

Serm, XVI. On training up the children of the poor in the 
duties of practical religion ; preached before the governors of 
the charity fchpols in London, 1765. 

Serm. XVII. Preached on the 30th of January. In this 
difcourfe it is obferved, that the beft human governnients are 
often fubjed to great changes and revolutions for the worfe ; 
that our obedience therefore to fuch governments ought not to 
be abfolute or unlimited, without any referves or exceptions. 
T^^everthelefs, he fays, as there muft be human governments, 
thejgeaeral duty of the fubjedl is ohtdienft and non-refijlanct^ and 
exceptive cafes of r^fifi^iice muft be left to the natural feelings 
< ofniankSnd. 

To this difcourfe is fubjoined, * A brief and difpaflionate 
View of the Dii^iculries, attending th,e Trinitarian, Arian, and 
^ocinian Syftems ; with an cxtradi from archbiftiop Wake's Ca- 
techifm in favour of the Athanafian do6trine, and another 
from bi(hop BuUer's Analogy, relative to..the feme fubjcft. 


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AmoryV Strm»nu *^ 

This ifzCt appears to be only a flight and partial reprefenta- 
'tion of the three foregoing fyftems. What the author fays of 
riie Trinitarian is nd compliment: « The Trinitarian judges it 
to be the wifcr, and more prudent, as well as the more modeft 
part, to accept the dodrine in tht grofs^ without entering into 
any curious difquintions about it.* — Would this writer have us 
Fcad the fcriptures, and accept the interpretations of rhofe, who 
ftyle themfelves orthodox, without any farther enquiry? Or 
would he have us fit down contented with a mere fuperficial no- 
tion of thofc paflages, which relate to the fupreme objedl of our 
faith and adoration ? When our Saviour fays, * My Father is 
greater than I,* muft we forbear enquiring into the meaning 
of this declaration, and underftand the words in their plain and 
limple acceptation ? If we do, we fliall never be good Athana- 
iians. In fhort, if we take things in tbt grofs^ and enter into 
no di/qui(itions lipon the fubje6t, our faith muft be founded in 
ignorance ; myftery will be a convenient name and cover for 
abAirdity ; and our reafon will be of no ufe in the fludy of the 
fcriptures, where it would be moft honourably and profitably 

Sermem. By Thomas Amory, D. Z>. 5/. Buckland. 

TH £. worthy author of thefe difcourfes, fome time before 
his death, intended to publifli two volumes of fermons, 
and had made fome progrefs in preparing them for the prefs. 
On examininjg; his manufcripts^ only thirteen were found tran- 
fcribed by himfelf from his (hort-hand notes. Some others were 
indeed marked out for the fame purpofe ; but the editor did 
not live to accomplifh his defign*, and no one could be found, 
capable of decyphering his (hort hand. 

The prefent volume, as well as the two former, publlfhed 
ki' 175^, and 1766!, has this to recommend it, that it does 
not contain matters of doubtful fpeculation, or angry contro- 
verfy, but important principles of religion, and (bntiments, in 
which tlie generality of judicious Chriftians agree. 

Thofe that were tranfcribed by the author are upon the fol- 
lowing fuhjeAs : the divine Omnipreience, the Afcenfion of 
Chrift; Diredions for attaining the true Senfe of the holy 
Scriptures, our Obligations and Encouragenients to fludy the 
Scriptures, and Qbjedlions to their Excellence and Ufefulnefs 
confidercd and anfwered.— Thofc that follow were -printed fe- 

•,t)r. Amory died June »4. i774> aged 74. 
t Cfit. Rev. Vol. xxii. p. 9^ 

£ 4 . parately 

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56 Amory*i Strmns* 

parttely ibme years ^^o^ and are republiihed in this volame, 
to prevent their being loft. The fubjeds are : the CharaAer 
and fikfTednefs of the RighteouSt our TifQe in the Hand of 
Godf the Shortnefs and FralUy of human Life* Habitual Reli-** 
gion, and God's crowning the Year with his Goodnefs. 

The following fentiment, though not new, is well ex|>reired, 
and fufficicntly demonftrates the abfurdity of thofe, who difbe* 
lieve the Omnipreienceof the Deity, merely becaufe he isinvinble. 

^ We cannot, it is true, fee him with our bodily eyej, be* 
caufe he is a pure ffirit ; yet this is not any proof that he is not 
prefent. A judicious difcourfe, a feries of kind adions, convince 
' us of the prefence of a friend, a perfon of prudence and benevo- 
lence. We cannot fee the pttfint mnd^ the feat and principle 
of thefe qualities; yet the coniiant regular motion of the 
tongue, the hand, and the whole body, which are the iaftru* 
ments of our fouls, as the material univerfe, and all the vari- 
ous bodies in it, are the inftrumtni$ of the Deity^ will not fuf- 
fer us to doubt, that there is an inuUigent and hiKevoUnt princt* 
pie within the body, which produces all thefe ikiUul motions 
and kind anions.* 

The following paragraph may ferve to (hew us, that the 
fcriptures illuminate the human mind to an extraordinary de- 
gree, and enable a Chriflian writer to entertain more honour- 
able and exalted fentiments of the Deity, than any that are to 
be met with in the writings of Plato, Cicero, or Seneca. 

. * Is God omniprcient ? How immtnfi the greatnefs and per- 
fe£lien of the Deity ; and with what humility and veneration 
ihould we think of, and approach him ; to be at once prefent 
all over this immenfe creation, and through infinite fpace, to 
aduate univerfal nature, continually to roll round the great bo- 
dies of the univerfe, the fun, the flats, and planets, to guide all 
t(he fenfelefs and in themielves motionlefs particles of matter, for 
the production of light and rain, and plants, and trees, and 
bruits »^ to create ^t the fame time in numberlefs regions of 
his boundlefs dominion countlefs varieties of living creatures, to 
maintain alfo in life and a£lion every animal and rational crea- 
ture, to fupply all their wants, and dired all their motions and 
thoughts — to pofiefs a wifiBiom which an infinite variety of af- 
fairs cannot perplex, a power not to be wearied by conflant in- 
finite exertions, and^ a benevolence inexhaulllble by ioiinite 
communications of good, and infinite fupplies conAantly de- 
rived from it. — What an exalted, what an aflonifhing idea of 
the divine grandeur and perfection ; how adorable and how 
amiable ; vthich while it attradis our contemplation, and ex- 
<ites to the utmofi flretch of .thought to take it in, is after all 
jncomprehenfible 1* — We may add, what indeed jpajafl God 
iiixnfeif be^ when his woiKs are fo magnificeiiti . 


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7hi RaiionaU tfctrcuUting Numhrs. 57 

The reader will find many excellent directions for attainiitg 
the lenfe of fcripture^ in our author's difcourfe on that fub- 
jeA; and, through the whole volume, the indications of folid 
^{e^ extenfive benevolence, and rational piety* 

A chronological account of the writings of Dr. Amory, 
drawn op by his friend, Dr. Fkxman, is fubjoined to thefe 
- I ------ - - _ ,. ■ 

Tbt RationdU of Ctrtulating Numbers ^ nvith tbi Invejfigation tf all 
the Rules and peculiar Procejfes ufed in that Part of Decimal Aritb" 
metic, ^y H.Clarke, ivo. 5J. Murray, 

THAT branch of arithmetic which forms the firfl and prin- 
cipal part of this work, it muH: be acknowledged, is more 
carious than generally ufeful. Not but that it is alfo very ufe^ 
ful on many occafions, when properly underftood and applied. 
On both accounts it requires a clear and particular difcuUion ; 
and although the fubjeft has been treated by feveral good 
writers, as Wallis, Cunn, Malcolm, and Emerfon, we think 
the xvzQl given by this gentleman has the preference, in point 
of perfpicuity, Simplicity, and extent. 

. In the preface to this book, I^k. Clarke gives a (hort hiflory 
of decimal arithmetic and the principal improvers of it, parti- 
cularly in that part which is the fubjc£lof his own performance* 
The decuple fcale of numbers came to us from the Indians and 
Arabians, and foon fupplanted the fexagenary and literal arith- 
metic, delivered by the Latins, in moil: fciences except fbme 
part« of ailronomy, &c* in which it is dill ufual to divide cir- 
cles into parts which are (ixtieths of each other. The decuple 
icale has this peculiar property, that in it all numbers, as well 
integers as fradlions, are alike exprelTed without denominators, 
which is a moil! fortunate convenience attending it. The firft 
fpecimen of decimal fractions, that we know of, is in the Agro- 
nomical Tables of Arzachel, a Moor, who was eminent in Spain 
about the year looo. Since which time it has had many 
fucceffive improvements in Europe, efpecially by the invention 
and life of logarithms, by lord Neper, di Scotland. Dr. Wallis 
ieems to have been the firft who took any great notice of the 
nature of infinite repeating and circulacing decimals, mod of 
the properties of which he has remaiked. Since his time fome* 
thing has been continually adding to the fubjefl ; either new 
properties, or the demonftrations of old ones, or in the me* 
thod of treating it, &c. Our author's is the cleareil, and in 
.ether refpedls the beft that we have fcen. 

This part of his book confilh of five fcdllons. The firft 
ti;icats of the theory ofcirculattsj containing the demonftrations 


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58 - . Clarke*/ Rattonah of circulating Kumh^j. 

and aiuftrarions of their chief properties, in which are many 
rules and cafes for finding terminate vulgar fraflions, that 
Ihall be equal to any given infinite repetends or circulating, fi- 
gures ; and the contrary. In the other four feaions are 
taught the addition, fubtraaion, multiplibation, and divifion 
of repetends and circulates of all kinds j thereby completing 
this part of arithmetic. The rules and properties are here de- 
Vionftrated and illuftrated by the aftual performance of fevcral 
examples under each rule; and for the further exercife of the 
lear/ier, and the ufe of fchools, there are added to each cafe a 
coUedlion of examples propofed for folntion ; which is a good 
i^cthod of t^ac^ing any fabjea. In all thefe operations and 
rules, Mr. Clarke has made his traft very clear and intelligible, 
not only by his orderly and diftinft method of arrangement, 
butalfo by the very notations of his numbers; in which he 
marks the repetends* not by a daih through the body of the 
' figure, but over the top of it ; and the decimal point, which 
di(\ingui(hes decimal fra^ions, and feparatjes them from inte- 
gers, is not placed in the old way, but more properly near the 
fop of the figures ; a method which we have never feen prac- 
^fed but in one book before, profefledly written on arith^ 

Mr. Clarke employs a fixth feaion in teaching to find the 
logarithms of repetends and circ*ilates. This he efiFeas by firft 
finding a finite vulgar fradlion equal to the given circulate, by 
the rules in the firft fedlion ; and then takes out the logarithm 
of this vulgar fraftion in the common way. After which he 
gives the folutions of a promifcuous colledion of queliions, 
Jropofed out of various fciences, and chiefiy intended as gene- 
ral ^1 the preceding rules on this fubjea. 

The other parts feem to have been thrown in chiefiy to make 
up a fizeable volume ; though it will be allow)cd that there are 
to be found many ufeful and pertinent things A:attered up and 
down anridng them. The firft of thofe parts, is a colkaion of 
• queftions, chiefly originals, with their folutions, for the 
araufemeht of fuch pupils as have touched on the firft princi- 
ples of algebra and geometry ; and fome are given without {o* 
hitions, which are intended for the exercife of thofe that are 
farther advafl:edl' Some of thefe queftions arc rendered re- 
markable by the jiotes a»)d obfervarions added to the folution of 
them. The 29th queftion, which is this, * Required a gene- 
ral rule for the inferibing of regular polygons in a given circle,* 
gives hinrk occafion to retnark 00 fome exprelfions ufed by a late 
writer on the principles of geometry, who had obferved on the 
folution of it, that • Of this conftruflion or equal divifion of 
the diameter and the circumference, no demonftration can be 


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1 . ^ f * 

Clarke'i Rationale of dfcuUting Numhrs^ %^ 

given, having confulted feveral able geoaietricians concernlog 
tt; who fay, that it is only an approximation, and not mathe- 
matically true. Yet I muft own, that I do believe it to be per- 
fe6lly true, or it could never anfwer fo very accurately, as it 
does, in all divifions whatever/ On which Mr. Clarke re-* 
marks, * It feems to me fomething very extraordinary to fee % 
profelTed geometrician reafon fo very ungeomttricallj . I always 
thought that not even a mere reader, much lefs a reformer of 
Euclid, could give his alTent to the truth of a geometrical con- 
ilru£lijn barely from a feeming concurrence of points, or co-p 
incidence of lines ; but from an obvious regular dedu&ion fronts 
firft principles. For I am very clear, that there can be nothin^^ 
cfFe6ted by lines (at leaft in plane geometry), but a demon* 
ftration may be given, diredlljr or indlre^ly, of its truth or fal- 
fity. If geometry were founded on no better a baGs than the 
feare teftimony of external fenfe, I am afraid we (hould fooa 
Tiew the whole fabric in ruins. Mr. Malton, through bis 
whole performance, (eems to lay a great flrefs on an ocular de- 
monftration. From whence it (hould feem, that in order to 
become a proficient in geometry, it is indifpenfably neceflar/ 
to be furnifhed with the whole apparatus of a good microfcope, 
which (hould be the criterion of every linear conftrudion. It 
is to be hoped, however, that the following invedigation wilt 
fully Convince this gentleman (without relying wholly on our 
tptic faculty) that this rule is fo far from being ** perfedly 
true" for all regular polygons, that it aqfwcrs in one cafe only, 
when the cofine of the angle at the center fubtended by the 
fide of the polygon is equal to half the radius, which is eafily 
(hewn to be the property of an arch of 60 or 1 20 degrees, an- 
fwering to the trigon or hexagon. 

* It is fomewhat furprifing that fo many able mathematicians 
.ihonld be confulted, in order to be fatisfied of the truth or 
falfity of this rule, which may be fo eafily demonftrated in the 
following manner.' By a^calculaiion of the true dimenfions he 
then (hews the falfity of the firlt general conftrudtion above referred 
to. After which he fays, * The latter part of Mr.Malton's 47th 
prob. is in the fame predicament with the oth^r, being proved 
to be falfe as follows :' And having gone through the calcula- 
tion for this purpofe, he adds, • Since the above was written, 
the invedigation of the veracity of thefe rules.has been propof- 
cd in the Ladies Diary, to which the above anfwers were fcnt 
with fonae alterations.* — We find that they have been printed 
in thjit"^ work for the year 1776, with this additional note, 
• The falfity of this latter conftruAion, with other curious pro- 
perties relating to it, are demondrated in art. 48. of profedbr 
Jfutton's Mathematical Mifcellany.' - 


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6o Clarke*/ Rathnali 0/ linulatm^ Numieru 

In the notes to fome other of the quedions, he reprehends 
Ibme practices of arrother gentleman, of a nature ftill worfe than 
iniftakes in judgment, Mr. Clarke next adds ' feveral remarks 
on thofe parts of the mathematics which feem to the young 
reader to be rather obfcur e, natneiy, on Cardan's and Col(bn*s 
Theorems for Cubic Equations, wherein a very clear and con- 
cife rule is given for exirading the cubic root of an impoflible 
binomial ; by which Cardan's theorem' is rendered generalif 
ufeful, in finding the roots of an equation when they are aii 
real, as well as when there is but one real and two ingaginary — 
On the improbability of obtaining general formulae for the fur-i 
folid and other higher equations — On the method of tabulating 
literal equations, illuflrated by examples ; from whence the re- 
verfion of a feries, however affected with radicals, may be eafily 
performed — On the direfl and inverfe method of fluxions, 
wherein the principles are fully explained, and by avoiding all 
metaphyfical confiderations, rendered clear to the loweft capa- 
city. The whole bufinefs of finding fluxions is reduced to one 
general rule ; and the particular forms of fluxionary exprefiions. 
aie fo dlftinguifhed, that the learner mayalmoft immediately 
determine in what manner the fluent may be obtained — On 
the correflion of a fluent, and the rcafon of it— On trigonOi^ 
metrical fluxions, with their great importance In. aflronomy-— 
On the Phaenonrtena of Saturn's ring, being a new and curious 
analytical folution of the problem refpefting the times of its 
appearance and difappearance ; whereby is alio exhibited a new 
fpecies of curves, &c. which is extracted from a treatife juft pu- 
bliflied, entitled, EJfaifur Us Phimmenes relatifs au» DifparUions 
feriodiques de /' Anmau de Saturne. By M. Dionis du Sejour, 
Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Paris.* ' I have 
alfo,' fays he, * added feme new and ufeful geometrical propo- 
rtions ; and, laflly, have given a catalogue of the moft ap^ 
proved authors in the fevieral branches of mathematics, philo- 
fophy, and aftronomy ; from which are feledled thofe that are 
generally eftcemed the moft ufeful, and ranged in the order 
they may be read by th'e young fludents to the moft advantage.' 
Thefc remarks feem not to be all new ; nof are they perhaps 
all quite unexceptionable; for inftance, it appears to us that 
our author, with fome lormer writers, has fomewhat miftaken 
the meaning of Sir J. Newton's firft lemma : * Qnantitates, 
ut et quantitatum rationes, quas ad xqualitat^m tempore quo- 
vis flnitoconflanter tendunt, et ante flnem temporis illius pro-, 
pius ad invicem accedunt quam pro data quavis difl^erentia, fl- 
unt ultimo aequalesl* In this lemma, we apprehend that great, 
man did not mean that a// quantities, being dimiuiflied, would 
become ultimately equal, and much kfs all Cijch quantities as 


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Trofler'i Aceeunt of the tJUnd$ in tb$ S^uib Seas. 6t 

mt diminiflied by parts proportional to the quantities them- 
selves, as fome have imagined ; but only tl^ofe quantities whofe 
ratio is dicntniihed at the fame time with the quantities them- 
ielves; as the arc of a circle with its fine, chord, and tangent; 
and fuch like. . 

We apprehend thar^ in a future edition, our author may thinfc 
it neceiiary to make fome alterations in the coUedion of book» 
added at the end of the work. 

On the whole, however, we think this an ingenious and ufc- 
fal performance, and heartily wrlh the author that fucceft 
which bis merit intitles him to., 

Jl difirtpti*oe Account of the Jfiands lately difcovired in tht Soutb 
Seas; with fome Account of the Country 0/ ChsLtachsitCZ^ Bj the 
riv. Dr. John Trufler. 8w. 5X. hoaieds* Baldwin. 

Judicious and faithful compilations are ufeful works ; but 
where they are made without fufficient knowledge of the > 
fubjed, they rather miflead than inftruft the reader. We da 
not, by any means, look upon a Defcription of the new Difco* 
▼eries in the South Sea as a fuperfiuous Work ; but, to anfwer oup ^ 
cxpeftations, it Ihould be very diflEerent from the publication be» 
fore us. Nothing'can have been eafier than copying from the 
different authors who have written on the fubjedl; and yet even 
that ta& has been too difficult for the compiler. His judg- 
ment at leai>, as well as his memory, do not appear to have 
been prelent at the undertaking, where fancy on the contrary 
mufl have a£ied a principal part. 

We remember reading with great attention raoft of the vcy* 
ages quoted in Dr. Trufter's, title- page, and are perfuaded that 
be has in many of the moft important points entirely miftakei^ 
their meaning. Where has he read, what he affirms, p. 11.^ 
that all the people of O-Taheitee • in general have whifkers, 
which they keep clean and neat, and permit to grow fo as to flowr 
about the (boulders, or tie them in a bunch on the crown of the 
head ?* That the women at Taheitee eat apart from the men 1$ 
known ; but we know not on what autbarity Dr. Trufler fays, 
p. I f^, ttiat ' if ti family are to dine, each will have his feparate 
provifiooSf and they will fet themfelves down at three or four 
yards diftance from each other, &c. Sec* — Pag. 2 1. we find an 
obfervatiun relative to our own climates which had hitherto 
efcaped us, and will, we doubt not, be equally new j:o all our 
readers, viz. That we hlonv our German flute through the mjijih,'-^ 
The Dr. fays, p. 43. That a chief of O-Taheitee alone, * hatb 
power to plant the Bahjlonian willov^ before his houfe ; for by 


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fa, F^O KKICN ARtlCLBfi 

blending down the branches of this tree, and planting the* fit- 
the ground they will ihoot afreih ; thus the (hade may be. ex- 
tended to any difiance and in any dirediion. Under thefe^^^y 
arcbii the chiefs regale^ &c. &c.* 

Where has the good Dr. picked up this curious piece of infor- 
mation ? This new quality of the Babylonian willow is truly ad<i- 
snirable ; pity, that it fhould not exifl in nature, and pity too^ 
/or the dodor's veracity, that the tree itfclf (Itould not exiil ac 
O-Taheitce, as we are well informed it does not, by a gentleman 
who has been there. Miftakes of the fame kind are frequent 
In this compilation, where many improbable gueiles.and opini- 
ons of different voyagers are alfo affumed as well-edablilhed 
fa£ls; and where circumflances are often recorded, without 
the leafl appearance of critical difcernment. Thq negligent 
ftyle in which it is written^ makes no amends for thefe defeds; 
on the contrary, it proves the whole to be a bafly and ill-di- 
gefted performance. 


Confidtratiom fur V Etat prefijnt ie la Colonie Fran^oife de St. Do* 
jningue ; Ouvrageyolitique ^ Icg^fl^^tif^ preftnti au Miuiftre de 
la Marine^ far M. D. H. 2 vols, ^vo, Faris. 

n^HE author of this in^ruftive work attempts to procure areform- 
•*■ ation of various abufes, which, he fays, have for a long time pre* 
vailed in all the branches of the conftitution and adminiftration of the 
French colony of St, Dohiingo. For this purpofe he not only points 
out every error and abufe, but alfo propofes the proper remedy td 
it. His work coniifts of two parts, each 6i them fubdivided into 
four books. 

In the fird book of the firfl part, he gives a defcription of the co- 
lony ; his notions concerning the r^fpedlive rights and duties of the 
mother country and the colony ; his reflexions on the queftion, whe- 
ther the purpofe of. the ftate has been beft anfwered by the traders 
or by the planters ; and fpeaks of the power and amount of the in* • 
duftry of the-fettlement. 

In the fecond book, he treats ©f thi rights and laws of property 
and fucceflion in St. Domingo j and efpccially of the flavery of the 
negroes, like a man of fenfibiiity. ' 

. « The idea hardeft to conceive for a favage,' fays he, * is the idea 
of fervitude \ as compaiTion on the other hand^ is the moft natural 
of human feelings, '^^his f^ntiinent is the fourceof all the human 
virtues ; hence man is in his natural ilate befl difpofed to virtue $ 
and among civilized men, he who ftill enjoys moft of liberty, is alfo 
apt to be moft virtuous ; fmce beneficence is the prerogative of li- 
berty. No wonder then, that the negroes on becoming our /laves, 
contraS nnmberlefs vices frohi which they_were free in their native 
ftate J as they lofe the fenfe of compaffion, with regard to us } and 
as it is equally cei tain, that we want that fcnfe for them. Since 


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Foreign Articles. 6j 

isfe have Itrayed from nature, and are no more free, we are forcetf 
to fapf>ort a (^Item of inhuman politict by a feries of cruelties. . . ^ 
And we are befides carried away by a crowd of violent paiiions crav- 
ing indulgence.* 

• Without entering however into an examen of the lawfulnefs of 
this fpecies of property, he only confiders the negroes here as be- 
longing to the toil, (adfcriptos ^lebae,) and as fuch, thinks the pro* 
perty of them, at head gainful, if not ju(t $ and that their (laveryy 
were they treated with humanity, would not make them very uu« 
happy. The negroes are good natured, and eafily led j laborious^ 
when not diflieartened : there is not a race of men naturally more 
intelligent ; their found fenfe, while yet uncivilized, is obvious: if 
we would exa^ great talks from them, we mud; ufe them well, and 
make them happy, which is not difficult, as they are content with 
little. If, on the contrary, they are in want of neccflaries, they 
mttft of couffe turn robbers ; as nothing attaches them to (he fet* 
iHement. The author concludes this article with contrafting the fi- 
tuation of a negro under a humane, with that of, another under a 
cruel mafter. 

The third book treats of hu(bandry ; the improtement of lands j 
tiie means of manuring and fertilizing them ; of the neceffary tools | 
of the feveral products of the lands, and their refpe^tive value 
and price. 

The fourth book, treats of mont^ ; of the commercial laws j of 
foreign trade 5 and of the means of procuring to the mother coun- 
try all the advantages (he has a right to expe6l from the fettlement 
of a colony. 

Thefecond volume treats in general, of the government of the 
French colony of St. Domingo j thefirft book, in particular, of the 
climate X)f the ifland, and otits influence on the cbara£^er of its in- 
habitants; of its population ; of the emancipation of flaves ; and 
of luxury. The climate of St. Domingo is not immoderately hor» 
becaufe its air is continually refreflied by regular winds, and it$ 
temperature varies according to the elevation and iituation of places. 
it is preferable to frigid zones, and free from the various and cruel 
dKeafes occafToned by the rigour of winter in the countries of Europe. 
Tlie only changes perceptible in the temperature-of the ifland are 
from dry to ramy weather. 

The author chara^lerifes both the Creolians and the new fettlers. 
Thofe latter are defcribed as being for the greater part lazy, un-« 
principled and vicious youths, efcaped from paternal corrcftion j or 
cheats and criminals fled from juftice, fome of whom become ho- 
ned: men $ difguifed and fugitive monks ; priefts tired of their pro- 
feflion ; reformed orcafliiered military officers $ footmen and bank, 
rupts. Yet in a colony filled with fuch a hopelefsand motley crew* 
great crimes are faid to be rare. There are few murderers and rob- 
bers among a people living in plenty ; but there are already a num- 
ber of cheats and fwindiers, and from the want and defers of juftice^ 
and of police, it is to be feared that their numbers will rather in- 
creafe than diminifli. 

' The Creolians are faid to be brave, lively, generous, but with an 
alloy of oftentation 5 rarely fufpicious 5 would be fociable if the 
bands of fociety had not been injured by the nature of the govern- 
ment. They are inconltant in their tafles, addi^ed to pleafures* 
iiidolent and flcklej candid and honed, buttoo creViulous and t09 
eafily impofcd upon. They would have many excellent qualities, if 
tiiefe were not too often over-ruled by the force of their tempers ^ 

y thcir^ 

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^4 FoRltGN AftTICLtS. 

their wictt arife from the climate^ and are incrcafed by political 

In the fccond book, the author treats of the military government ,* 
of the roilitia, and of war. In the third, of taxes, of the admini'* 
ftration of juttice, of magiftrates, of the general police, and of the 
payment of debts. In the fourih, of the royal ordinances, and the 
by-laws of the fcttlcment, of the laws of the prince, and of their in- 
fufficiencyin the actual Itate of the colony i and concludes bis wof k 
with a chapter on legiflatlon. 

The work has been judged an interefting performance for the mo- 
ther country, as it explains all the advantages which an indaltrioua 
nation may derive from fugar colonies $ the increafe that may be 
hoped, in the produce of thofe colQnies,without diminiHiing its value; 
as it contains juft refleflions concerning the commerce for wbicli 
they afford materials and means ; on the debts of the colonies.^ and 
on the refources which thefe colonies offer for re-edablifhing the 
French navy, and for enabling it to cope with any naval power. 

All the reflexions of the author are faid torelt on fadls atteitcd by 
the adminiftration of St. Domingo, and on the exacted inquiries- 
into the records of the colony. He has employed ten years on 
tbefe difquifitions, and in making obfervations in foreign colonies. 

The book is written with method, peripecuity and elej^ancej and 
its value is increafed by an appendix, containing a particular trea- 
tife on the legiflation proper for the colonies in that quarter. But 
the French government have paid a particular attention to the au* 
tbor*s reflexions on the memory of count de Hennery, governor of 
St. Domiiigo, and on the adminiftration of his fucceubr, M. de 
Vaivre, and fupprefl'ed his book by an order of the council of flate, 
dated Verfailles, Dec. 17. 1777, and iigned Amelot. 
— ■ . -■ 

Hi/toirt di la Villi de Rooeo, dipuit/a Fondathnju/qu^tm P Annii 
1.774. fuivit d*un EJJfai fur la Normandie Litttraire, Par 
Af. S* (Servin) Avocat au Par'lemtnt dt Rouen. 2 *yoU, iimo. 
Rouen and Paris. 

'T'HIS hiftory of the city of Rouen is writen on a judicious plan," 
^ and in a good tafte. The author includes nothing of public 
events but what belongs to his fubje6t, and nothing of particular 
fz&.% but what may intereft or entertain every clafs of his readers. 
His work is neither dry nor prolix, but as to its refpedVive parts 
well proportioned, in its totality complete, and contains the hiftory 
of Rouen from the foundation of the city to the re-e(tabli(hment of 
its parliament and magiftracy in 1774 ; with the names and dates of 
the fcveial foundations, the defcriptions of thofe that are remark- 
able i a chronological lift of the archbifhops, governors, military 
commanders, chief inagiltrates, the eminent writers who were 
Datives ,of Normandy, and an enumeration of their principal 

The text of the hiftory contains the principal events, raoft of 
which are already related in general or Ipecial hiftories ; but the 
notes often inform the reader of anecdotes hardly to be found any 
where elfe. Such, for inftance, is the following remarkable fa& 
which happened in 1361, at the famous fiege of Rouen^ in which 
the king of Navarre was flain. 

M. de Civile, a citizen of Rouen, and captain of a regiment of 
foot^.was wounded in an alTaulti thought to be killed^ and ftripped 



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l^OREIGK AUTJCtfit* dj 

and buried by pioneers. His body remained in the grzv^ from 
eleveh o'clock in the forenoon, to ux o'clock in the evening, when 
his faithful fervant la Barre, learned the fate of his mailer, dug him 
up, and thought hd perceived fome (igns of life, lie carried him to a 
convent, where the furgeons employed in drefllng the wounded, in- 
fnlted his zeal, and afTured him that his mailer was dead. Th6 
iervant, however, without being diiheartened, carried his mafter 
home, waihed his wounds, and put him into a very warm b'ed$ 
where the body lay motionlefs for five days together. But on %hc 
£xth day, the wound on a fudden difcharged agreat quantity of btood 
and matter. The wounded man opened his eyes,.fighed, complain* 
ied, received reiloratives, and within a few days; perfedlly re- 

In another note, we are told that the founder of the famous be]l» 
called George d* Amboife, after Lewis the Twelfth's miniiler, was 
fo violently agitated, firil by his fear of mifcarrying. and afterv^ard* 
by his joy at bis fuccefs in that work, that he died at the end ot 
nineteen days. 

Trattato Jeiie Aqut mintrali dt Nicola Andria, M. Z>. et Proftf* 
fore ftroMriinariB di Storia NaturaU nella Regia Vni*uerfita M 
Napoli. ^vo. In Napoli. 

A Valuable treatife, divided into two parts 5 of which the firft 
treats of mineral waters in general, and of their diviiions ; and 
the fecond contains i^nalyiTes of agreat number of mineral waters ia 
various places. 

De/crixiomt topegrBfica i ftorica del Dogado di Vinezia, eek una 
nuo'va Carta di quefta Profoincia* %<uo», In Vinezia. 
The firil number of a very n^inute defcription of the environs of 
Venice, containing the Dogado, or Duchy, divided into its ten po- 
deftaries or fmall governments, and illultrated with a valuable map. 
The defcription comprizes the rivers, hills and mountains, antiqui. 
ties, natural productions, population, and hiltorical notices. The 
author, a. young Abbe, propofes to defcribc the other Venetian pro- 
vinces on the continent, in the fame manner. 

Injlru^i^nt Pbyfico-micbaniquis a I* U/agt des E coles rojales d* Ar* 
tilUrie^ \3 du GenUt dt Turin, traduius de l^ Italien dt M4 
de Antoni. 2 vols, %'voy ivith Cutts. Strafburgh and Paris* 
Signor de Antoni appears in bis inltrudlive work, to prefer expe- 
riments to calculations ; and his intelligent tranilator advifes his 
countrymen to adopt the fame principle and method, as likely to im« 
prove the fcience of engineers and gunners, and to facilitate vi^ory^ 

Contrepi^i/ons de I* Ar/enic^ du Suhlime corrojif, du Vird-de-gris, ^ 

du Plomb. Par M. P. ToulTaint Navier, ^e. z vols. 12m* 


A happy and valuable application of phyiic^ 
Recbtrcbes fur Us Maladies Cbroniques, fariiculierement fur Its Hjm 

droptfies \£ fist les Moyens de Us guerir. Par M. Bacher, Doc 

teur-^Regentf &c. %<vo* Parist 

An original and capital work, replete with accurate and inftrutf- 
ttve obferv'ations. 


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E 66 1 



A Leittr 10 thi Right Hon^urabli Willoughby Bertie, by defceat 
Earl of Abingdon, by defcent Lord Norreys ; High S/gwarJ 
cf Abingdon a«^ Wallingford. la <which his Lor^jbip^s candiJf 
and libifal Tnatment ef the now Earl of Mansiield, i^fufy vtn'* 
dicatid. %vo. One Pound Scotch, ?zyne. 

THIS Is an ironical pablication, in which lord Abingdon i.4 
feverely handled for his attack upon lord Mansfield in ^ 
late pamphlet, and the chief-juftice as ably defended. The aa« 
thor appears to bold no common pen. His performance haa 
much merit, and fpeaks a mailer's hand. Independently of po- 
litics, its'genuine wit and humour intitle it to a perufal. Were 
;t not for what it fays of a publication ^^ which we reviewed laft 
month, we might perhaps afcribe it to the fame author. The 

farophlet before us is confefTedly written by a gentleman at tKe 
ar. Our readers may judge of the whole from the firft page Ct 
two, ^hich we fliall transcribe for their entertainment. 

• My Lord, 
« There is a part of your lordfiiip's very mafterly performflRC^f 
entituled — *« Thoaghts on the Letter of Edmund Burie, Efy. io tbi 
Sheriffs of BnfloV^ — which has, by many, been fcirerely, but 
unjuftly, cenfured. Whether it be from envy, or from what 
other motive, I cannot fay ; but there are, who have gone (b 
far as to brand it with the unfeemly epithets of—- <« ill-timed» 
uncandid, illiberal." It is that part, my lord, where yoi» fpeafe 
of the noiu earl of Mansfield f . I thought, therefore, — think- 
ing your lordihip fees, is catching — 1 thought I could not render 

• Second Thoughts, or Obfervations upon Lord Abing^onV 

• f The author of" Second Thoughts" has feverely handled many 
of our noble author's Thoughts. I would n6t wantonly expbfe hiy- 
felf tb his gripe. Thefe unfortunate Thoughts, therefore, I muft 
leave undefended. But I will venture to reprove this fecond tbii^ker 
for his uncandid infinuation, th?.t lord Abingdon meant any r}fle3i9H 
by jEjiving to the word noiv *' all tlie emphafis of italics." LoiHl 

T*ffeftibn at ail. "Tlje emphatic /row v/aS fuggeftftd bythtfihbred 
inodcfty of diffident merit, as- much as ** by the inbred poHtenefs of 
hereditary rank. *• It is the voice of humility. *< Rank roe*** 
)liE^ l^rdHiip (hould be underilood**-*< Rank me among titio/e, ^hA 

" Nothing themfelvcs, are of their fathers vain." 
" Remember my antagonift is a man, who, even had he not been fi> 
nobJy defccnded, 'woutd 

^* Have earned tbofe honours I was b^rn to wean" 

a more 

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MoiTTfflTCATALOOirf; €f 

a more acceptable fervice to yoar lordfhip, nor a more o/efol 
one CO the public, than to iend forth this ihorc» bot» limit, 
fuW, defence of the paflage In queftion. To encourage jOung 
fpeakers is araong the merits of governor Johnftone • : be jt 
ainiofig mine to encourage young writers* For maily reafons £ 
deferred the publication ^of this my Commentary to the prcfcnft 
bpnr. The bufinefs of my profeflion gave me no earlier oppor- 
tunity of perufitjg your lordihip's w^orfc with meet attention/ I 
was willing, befides, to wait, till more editions than one haj 
appeared : becaufe I was willing to have your iordfiiip's cool, delf- 
berate. Thoughts. For, I faw, your lord (hip had offered the 
captivating excufes of incapacity and inability ; the conciliating 
appeal to the candor of the world: in a firft edition thofe ex- 
cuie« might have been troublefome ; becaufe they kept open to 
your lordihip a door of retreat : in a fourth edition they sltH 
mere nullities ; all retreat is precluded. I may now, therefore, 
enter upon my tadc with greater boldnefs. Whatever It might 
be at the firfV, your lordfliip's aim in fubmiiting your Thought* 
a fourth time to the public, muft 6e *' to tonfvu^ hot to hi con' 
njinced ; to point out error ^ not to arrive at truth f." For the fake 
of mutual eafe I fh'ill lay afidc the pedantic (lile of ordinary com- 
mentators, and follow the example of Mr. Burke. As he com- 
ments upon a£ts of parliament, I (hall comment upon the 
Thoughts of peers, in the loofe, defultory, ftilc of a letter- 

* What efFeft the Letter of Mr. Burke may have produced upoat 
the good IherifFs of Briftol, is more than 1 am able to deter- 
mine. Be that as it may, great is the merit of this Letter ; im- 
meofe the advantages, which this thrice happy country has al- 
ready derived, and will, no doubt, continue to derive, from ir. 
To have produced no cfFeft on the (herifFs of Brkflol, would not 
detract from the merits of the Letter. Poffible it is, as one oF 
our advetfaries has fuggeftcd J, that " the underftandings of 
IherifFs may be flower than the underilandings of all other hii 
majefty's liege fubjefls ; and the underftandings of the (heriiFs of 
this fame gobd city of Briftol flower than the' underftandings Of 
|he fherifFs of all other cities." A wool pack is faid to be im- 
penetrable to a cannon-ball : and fo might be the heads of thefe - 
flierifis to the Imjpetuous momentum of Mr. Burke^s eloquence. 
But into penetrable master the Letter forced its way. It di4 
more than the learning, the inflruftion, the rod of a Mark- 
haro ; it produced eff'e^s, which neither the acquaintance of a 
De Lolme, the converfation of a Forfter, the intimacy of ^r 

« • See Mr. Almon's account of the governor's reply tp a youni 
barpnet at the opening ©f this feffion. 

« f See his lord{hJp*s Thoughts, fol. 4. 

« t See a Letter tp Edmund Burke, Efq, ad. edit, printed for 
CadcU. . i- 1 . . 

F 2 Vivian, 

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Vivian, were able lo produce *' It taoght your lordfliip t# 
Uiink^. it emboldened you to publim your Thoughts to an allo-^ 
niflied world. And here, as it was to be expeded, its miracu- 
lous eiFedls have ceafed. 1 am not among thofe who think it 
ought to have done more; who think that to ** the pen of a 
ready writer," it fhould have added •* the gift of tongues}" 
(hould have given your lordihip courage to fpeak f .' 

We wi(h the limits of our Review wpuld fuffer us to contri- 
)>ute to the entertainment of our readers by tranfcribing more oi 
this well written performance. 

Plan of Rt'union httiofen Great Britain and bit Colonies* 8v^ 
3/. td.Jt'wed* Murray. 

The profits arifing from this performance are dedicated to the 
committee appointed to receivje fubfcriptions fur the foldiers 
wounded in America. 

After reading the advertiiementprefixed tothebook» no reader 
can entertain a doubt concerning the purity of our author'^ in« 
tentions. It only remaikis to fpeak of the execution of the work. 
The praife of meaning well is clearly this writer's due. The 
next queflion is whether he deferve the praife of writing well. 
The pafTage which follows, at the fame time that it lets the in- 
telligeoc reader into a conception of the author's plan of -re-unioD» 
yi'iW refolve that queflion in the affirnriative. 

' Ihus all local privileges, hardfhips, and taxes, would be 
done away ; every province would pulh on its nattrral advan« 
taees for the general benefit. Scotland would attend to its fifh- 
eries, and improve its linen. England would multiply its grain* 
and polifh its manufadures. Ireland would flock its patlures, 
and extend its fifheries to the banks of Newfoundland. Public 
burdens would be equally borne ; common advantages would be 
equally ihared. The whole cemented by the bands of trade and 
policy, would acquire a llrength and confidency, of which, in 
our prefent difcordant flate, we are incapable of forming an opi- 
nion. England has more than doubled the exertion of her 

. « • It is certain, however incredible jt may appear, that our no« 
ble author had the happinefs of being educated by Dr. Markham j 
of being acquainted, convcrfing, travelling, with the three other 
gentleinen ; the lirft of whom is well known by his Hiftory of the 
Conftitution of England; the fecond by feveral political works, as 
well as by many able performances in his profe(Tional line; and, by 
4he way, ought to be known, by a more diftinguifhed rank in that 
|)rofcfrion : the third, alas I is dead. 

< I am ferry his lordihip yet remembers the fmart of his mafier^s 
rod. It may be dangtrous to fpeak of it fo publicly. Departed 
kings-are, among fubj:6ls, the beft of kings.. Departed mailers arc, 
among fchoJars, the beft of mafters. In the eyes of fcholars, to teH 
tales out of fchool i*s a high crime and mifdemeiinor : and, ever a'nd 
anon, fcholars, faking upon them to puni(h fiich crimes and mifdc«- 
meanours, have iifed the birch as ieverely as mailers, Gaveat-1* 
. < f To read a fpeech is not to fpeuk,' 

8 flrength. 

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, Monthly Catalogs Ji»\ 69 ' 

firengthy by ttie incorporation of Scotland; how much more 
WQuM her energy increafe, were Ireland and the colonies adopted 
intooi|e equal fyftem of laws and commerce. For as England 
is the undonbted, though the reludlantly allowed, head, fo 
would Ihc reap the greatelt profit, from this cxtenfion of freedom 
and commercial advantagi?s. And as the tide of commerce flows 
naturally towards the capital, that city would moil feniibly feel 
the benefit of the regulation. 

* This incorporation, or communication of privileges and ' 
rights, is that plan of equal liberty and equal law, which ge^ * 
nerous freedom would extend 'to all her children, and which, 
for the improvement and liability of the Britifli empire, it were 
to be wiihed the manners of the prefent age were prepared to 
receive. And which, could example perfuade us, we fhould 
embrace. It was the abfurd reludlance, which the Athenians 
had, even to communicate to individuals the rights of citizens, 
which made th^ir once fplendid maritime ednpire of fo fhort a 
duration, it was the readinefs, with which the Romans-incor- 
porated their conquefls, that gave ftability, extenfion, and 
firength to their fovereignty. 

* In this general plan, we have not repeated what we have al« 
ready propoied, concerning the admifiion of American repre- 
fentatives into parliament ; becaufe, though fuch a meafure 
would no doubt fall in with the common prejudices, refpedting 
reprefentatioo, and might, in itfelf, be a proper and ju^ mea- 
fure, though we think the meafure highly praj6ticable, and the 
prefent the feafon for enafling it, yet, in the plan, which we 
have propofed for the government of the colonies, by the im- 
partial extenfions of privileges and burdens, it is in no refpeft , 
aecefiary for the purpofes of freedom or fecurity, while our le- 
jgiflature already contains an effential branch taken, for a period 
from, and returning after a pe^^iod, again into the mafs of the 
people. It is remarkable that the Greeks, whofe love of free- 
dom cannot be difputed, had (o little notion of the necefiity of 
reprefentation, in that very exten five light for which our Ame- 
rican patriots contend,, that, though they thought themfelves 
capable of managing in their own perfons, in their affemblies, 
the ordinary affairs of the community ; yet when any violent dif- 
order or confufion had crept in among them, they were ac« 
cuftomed to refign their legiflative powers into the hands of fome| 
fingle citizen, whofe fkill and candour they held in eHimation, 
reckoning themfelves fecure in the refie^ion^ that when he 
inade laws for them, he bound himfelf, his family, and friends. 
3Vith a/1 due de&rencc to the fages of antiquity, the Britifh par- 
Jiainent, to the great emolument of the colonies^ has been ac- 
caftomedto exercife a power of like kind with the Grecian Ic- 
giflators, over them; and fuch are the prejudices, intrigues, and 
jiittle, narrow, exclufive fchemes, prevailing among the co- 
lonies, that parliament will continue under the neceffity of daily 
/pxerciiiog this authority. Why may it opt then, under proper 

F 3 reg^^ 

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yo Monthly Catai.oqvb* 

reguUtiqns, at ooce afTume the power of ordinary 4egiflation for 
them ? Did tbcy not grafp at the ihadow, while, in fetting up 
for themfelves, they fpora at the Aibftaoce of freedonii they 
would (elicit parliamertt to take upon it this talk. 

* In truth, the prefent ty -s between Great Britaioy iu 1e- 
glflature, and America, properly drawn ooc into a£tion, are fof- 
ficient, in our fyllem, to fecure every valuable purpofe of fo- 
ciety, which the lall can claim or defire. In faying this, I for- 
bid all reference to the gloomy inexperienced fears of fufpiciony 
and the dread of what parliament, poiBbly, may do, deilru£iive 
ot the rights of America * becaufe there is nothing more vague» 
more filly, more uncertain, yet more unanswerable than fuck 
fu^gelljons. The friends of America place the height of po- 
litical fecurity in every man's being his own legiflator ; that is, 
in the diiTolation of all the claims of fociety. But fuppoie every 
iingle perfon ereded into fo many individual dates, without 
even the mutual attrafUon of Epicurus's atoms, for attradioa 
would produce mutual dependence ; what, in a melancholic dlf- 

fufted mind, ihall preferve this kingdom of /from fuicide or felf* 
eArudion : or, is this a government for which EtigliQimeD are 
particularly adapted ? We know tbis cafb happens every day ; 
tke other« parliamentary oppreHion, remalBS yet a non-entity in 
tbe regions of difcontent. 

* To conclude, if our plan of incorporation, and equal tax<» 
j^tion^ fhould take place, the union between Britain and her. co- 
lonies would be ilreiigthened, the energy of government would 
be felt in the mofl diitant provinces ; and the whole cp-operating 
to one point of eqnal liberty and equal law, would flourifli, in- 
vincible by any force. 1 hus wculd Britain, enriched by, and 
protiedline her colonies, fit as the revered, watchful, invigorating 
bead of the empire, the center of co;nmerce, and <^EfiN of the 
" This publication contains much information judicioufly put 
together, and fairly applied in argument. The language is fpi- 
rited and manly^ and much fuperior to, the ufual llyle of tem« 
porary political efifayf. A warmth, perhaps a virulence, breaks 
out here and there, which we might polfibly blame if it did 
tiot ferve to convince us how piuch the writer is ii^ earncft. 
fhis warm til is particularly confpicuous in the notes. 
^ They who are not tired of the American queft ion, will find fa<» 
tisfadion from turning to this book. 

Thoughts o» iht preftnt State of Affatrt with America, and th^ 

Means of Conciliation, >i*vo, ts. Cadelf • 
^ This pamphlet is written with tolerable ability and Informa- 
tion. It begins alfo with fome degree of impartiality ; but the 
American fcalc, gradually finking, at laft fettles, and 'difcover* 
the true weight of our conciliator's arguments. 

* I apprehend it would prove anoft cffe^luat, for diftp- 
Jjointing the arts of ontradtable fpiriis; in both countries, if, 
iviihout minutely entering into k detail of tonditi6tos, the moil 

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MoMTHiT Catalooui. yt 

etteftive general powers were immediately granted, by a& of 
i^«'liaAi^t> to proper commiffioners, named in the ad, to con- 
clude an agreement with America, upon fuch terms as (hall bis 
Ittmnd ffioft efiejftoa], Ipr eftabliihing a mutual and laAing confi- 
dence, between the two countries.' 

We difcover rather too much of the dfflatorial fpirit in this 

The idea of proportionate taxation is a good one ; bat it was 
originally ftarted in the plan of reconciliation fubjoiued to the 
well known * Remarks on the Ads which have pad relative to 
America.^ If our author knew this, he fhould have acknow- 
ledged it. 
jl Bill mp$H tbt PrinctpJes rfLiiut, Tomlinfon's Plan^ for the mon 

tafy and effedlual manning of tbt Royal Navj^ &c. Bj thi bin 

nourahli Temple Luttrell. 8z'0. u. Matthews. 

For our own parts, we are fuch fimple politicians as to difco- 
ver no great ufe in putting any queflion in any aiTembly upon 
any fubjefl, if the minority be not to abide by the fate of i^. 
Why are we to believe oppofition, when they tell us of the yil- 
lany of adminiftration I When they get where they want to be, 
they alfo will be oppofed. — The prefent bill was rejc<5ed by a 
moderatt majority of z to i — odds, we fhould conceive, in po- 
litics — io8 to 54. This modeft publication, of it, is like a 
fchooUboy's printing a poem deemed unworthy the prize, which, 
nine times oat of ten, only proves him to have more vanity thaa ~^ 
^be Political and Religious ConduSi cf tht Dijfenters Vindicated ^ in 

uin/vjfir to a Lttter addrejfed to tht tvtoie Body of Protejiant Drf" 

/enttn. By tkt Author of a Letter to the Bifbop of Landaffl. 

8<z;0. is,6d, Dilly. 

The author of ihe Letter^ to which this is an anfwer, had af- 
ierted, that the public condu^ of the Diffenters has hardly in 
any fingle inl^ance been actuated by truly patriotic principles ; 
that their oppofition to arbitrary power has fcarcely ever been 
fupported .by a fingle motive, which extended beyond the enclo- 
fures of their own conventicles ; that they have been left to the 
ridicule, reproach, and rellraint, which their real views pro- 
bably deferyed ; that even the hiflorians of our own country 
feem defirous to conHgn them to oblivion ; that they have op- 
pofed arbitrary princes, to introduce a worfe kind of tyranny 
under the name. of a republic ; that government hat generally 
found it necefljiry, under religious pretences, to reHrain their 
ambition ; that the Diffenters never meant by liberty any thing 
more, than the liberty of deftroying the church of England, 
and fetting up Prefhyterianifm in its ftead ; that they have been 
worryitig One another, and have redliced their numbers, (heir 
credit, and their influence almofl to nothing ; and that, when 
they applied for the repeal of the tefi laws, fir Robert Walpole 
infuhf d theta with a bribe ; nay, bought thcnr filence and fu- 
anre obedience for fifteen hundred pounds a'year. 

F 4 theft 

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^t Monthly GArAVocuK.' 

Tfaefe Are diflionoarable iniinuations, which the audio? t^f 
this pamphlet, Mr. Benj. Thomas, endeavours to refute. He 
does not attack his antagonift in a grave argumentative flyle, 
but lafhes him, as a boy fcoarges hb top, in (port ^ad good 

panMd ^efie^ions on the ciifferent Manner in ijohicb maa^ »/ fhe 

harned and pious ha^pe txfrejfed their Conceptions concerning the 

DoSrine of the Trinityf By Benjamin Fawcet, M* A^ 8«ufl. 

1/. 6^. Buckland. 

The firft part of this trad contains a (hort hiftory of the Trir 
nitarian controyerfy, from the time of the Nicene Council in 
the year 325, to the prefent time. The latter part cpniifts oF 
general obfervations on the preceding hiflory^ 

The authorV principal inference is to this effeft : that vitry 
fcrious perfon, who attentively examines the fentiments and ex-r 
preffions of the moft eminent writers in this controverfy, muft 
acknowledge, that thefe are difficulties attending every fcheme, 
which has been propofed for the explanation of this doctrine; 
and that there difficulties oas^ht to teach them moderation 
and candor, and infpire them with brotherly love towards each 
pther, inflead of mutual animofity and contention, ccnfure and 

This pamphlet is' written with a ufeful defign, and niay be 
read with advantage by thofe,. who wifh to have a general view 
of the Trinitarian controverfy. 

An Apology for the Clergy^ and particularly for P rot efi ant dijfenting 
Min(fiers : A Sermon preachfd at the Ordination of the reverend 
John Yates, and the re^v, Hugh Anderfon, in Liverpoole, Oft. 
't ^777 5 6' ^^f^ ^^'^' William Enfield, LL.D. with a Fieiv 
ff the Cbarqder of the Chrijiian Minijler, in a Charge deli'^ 
*vered on the fame Occajiony by the rcif, Richard Godwin, 4/^. 
1/. 6d. Johnfon. 

A vindication of the clerical character, and an apology for 
(hofe diflenting minifters, who are ambitious to be confidered 
as fteady friends to free enquiry, and rational religion. The 
Charge annexed contains fome excellent advice to young dvr 
vines, deduced from thefe words of St. Paul to Timothy ; 
f Take heed unto thy klf, and unto thy dodrine.'— Both thefe 
pieces are well written. 

A Sermon preached in the Cathedral Church of Liucolo, pn opening 
, the Nenv County Infirmary, before the Governors, And pubiifhed 

at their Requffi, By James, Lord Bijhop of St, David's. 4/^, 

IS, Crowd er. 

From this text, ? Ye have the poor always with you,' Mar. 
xiv. 7. his lordOiip takes occaiion to tonfider the wifdom pt 
Providence in the appointment of different orders of men in fo- 
piety ; the refpcftive duties of the poor and the rich, and t{ie 
peculiar circumHances of the infirmary. 
' ■ A Sir- 

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MoHTHLT Catalog HI. 7j 

^ i%rfk§n. Inoculation for halving the Small Pox^ a PraSiet pro^ 
fumptnous andfinfnU By Jofcph Grccnhill, A. M. Small Svo^ 

bd. E. Johnion. 

By thk performance the anthor appears to be a pioos confci<* 
entioas divine ; but a Yery indifferent writer, and a worfe rea* 
^ PbilofopbUal and Religious Dialogue in the ShadiSt hii^ein Mr* 

Hume and Dr, Dodd, with Notts fy the Editor. 4/0. 2s» 

Hooper and Davis. 

The chief fubje£t of this conference is a queilion darted 
by Mr. Hume, viz. Whether there is any neceflary oppofition 
between faith and reafon, religion and philofophy ; or whether 
the charaAer of a Chriftian and Philofopher may not be happily 
united. It is fuggefted by Mr. Hume» that the moral condu£t 
of a philofopher is actuated and governed by fentiments and 
ideas very different from thofe of Chriilianity, and that his 
principles are of a more fublime cafl ; that the idea of forgive* 
nefs through repentance and the interceffion of another being 
piuft, by conflantly operating on the mind, render it lefs cau- 
lious in tranfgeffing the boundaries of morality; and that the 
notion of future rewards and punifhments is mercenary, and de- 
trads from the generous nature of true virtue. Thefe objec* 
tions are anfwered by Dr. Dodd. Mr. Hume then replies, ,tbat 
if the praftical principles of Chriftianity have neceffarily fo 
powerful and fo falutary an influence on the heart, ar the dodor 
and others maintain, it is furprifing, that he, whp was daily 
converfant with them, fhould have cgregiouily deviated from 
the line of moral reaitude. Dr. Dodd accounts for his eccen- 
tricities ; and, in his turn, expreffes his furpl'ize, that a man of 
Mr. Hume's judgement, in other matters; fhould adopt fuch 
abfurd opinions on the fubje£l of religion ; and that one of his 
principles fhould retain fo fair a moral charader through life. 
In anfwer to this enquiry, Mr. Hume ingenuoufly acknowledges 
the prejudices which biafied his mind on the fubjed of religion. 

* In the firfl place, he fays, the example of the venerable 
philofophers of antiquity was all before my eyes. I could not help 
' entertaining the higheft admiration for thofe enlarged minds, 
who foared above their contemporaries, broke the fetters of fn- 
perlUtion, and aiTerted the rights of reafon. To imitate thefe 
great men, it mud be allowed, was no vulgar ambition. 2. 
The various and fantaflic appearances of religion in different 
ages and countries filled my mind with difguH and perplexity. 
3. The feeming contradidion between prophecies and miracles, 
dnd the ordinary apparent courfe of nature, in a great meafure 
determined me againfl the belief of Divine Revelation. 4. I 
could not review the religious wars and animofities of Europe, 
but with a mixture of horror and pity. 5. My unfavourable 
impreflions of religion were not a little flrengchened by the aver- 
fion which I had conceived againll the ecdeliallic order in ge- 

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•p4 M<>nthltCatalo6VS. 

nerth it IS wonderfal what efTedl all thefe combined priejadices 
lad apot> my mind, and how they engaged my reafon on their 
fide» Such was the progrefs of my fentiments, that at length it 
2pfttirtA to me no inglorious, enterprise to overtarn the motley 
ffitm^ of fapbrllition, as f deemed them> which preirailed qvet 
Europe, and to edablifh upon their ruins the rational principle* 
of ^ure theifm/ 

Here the author very properly fabjoins the foliowihg note : 
* If there be any probability in this theory of the origin and 
jprogrefs of Mr. Hume's opinions, it ought to teach the young 
and the ingenious how infenfibly the mind inay co]\(ra£l a dark 
and fceptical colouring/ 

After fome farther debate, the converfation ends With thb 
ieclaratioa by Mr. Hume :. * Pofterity, Dr. Dodd, will re^rlew 
jour charafler with a high degree of abhorrence, on account dF 
their vices ; and the pernicious tendency of my metaphyfical 
fySttm will confiderably leiTen their admiration ofmj <virtues and 

This ingenious performance is intended to furnifti an antidote 
jugainft the pernicious inEuence of the opinions of the one, and 
Se morals of the other. 


A Trtaii/e an hyflerical and ner<veus Di/orders, By Paniet Smltbv 
M.D* ^v(y. li, 6<^. Carnan tfsd' Newbery. 
A panfiphlet containing feventy-feven pages, lixty-one of whidi 
are filled with quotations from ether writers ; vamped up to re* 
commend a xioflrum that is olTered to the public, upon the au- 
thority of itsfuccefs in two indiitinA cafes only. 

jSn Jddrefs on the Suhje^ of Inocula hn. By R. Bath. S^muU Sv9» 
6d. Bcw. 
This addrefs relates to a plan of inoculating perfons for the 
fmall pox, at^ moderate expenqi. As the defign may prove of 
advantage to the lower clafs of the people, and it is not impro- 
bable that Mr. ^ath is a better practitioner than he is a writer^ 
we wifh him fuccels in his proved. 


TretyiT t A F<f0m. By ibi rf<u. Samuel Hiiyes, M, A. /^'p^ jw- 
The great point, to which poets Jftiould attend, is the in trod ac- 
tion ofthbfe topics, which furnifh them with magnificent images, 
and romantic dei^riptions. If the fubjedl will not admit of. ttiQfe 
poetical embellishments, it is injudicioufiy chofen, and will in- 
evitably, deprefs the writer's imagination. It was principally on 
this atc6Qnt, ttii^t Milton w«s onfuccefsful in. his attempt to 
' write an epiic poem on Pared ife Regained. The fubje£l was 
barren, and did notlbpply the poet with that grand and beanti- 
fiil fceiftery, which appears wilh diHiY^guifiied luilre in feveral 
apatite of Paradife Loft. 


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There IS, Wwever, kardly any fubjeft, on which a real poc^ 
nSav ^ot ftrike odt fomething beautiful ox fublioie, and preferye 
ad eqoal fpirit bf ehthufiafm, through two or three hundred 

"Thfs writer, in treating of prayer, has very properly made 
choice of two or three topics, which admit of poetical ornameot, 
the pompous ceremonies of fuperilition, the orifons of the monk, 
the ptaycr of the hypocrite, &c. His piece may ftand in the 
£rft clafs of thofe, which have entitled their authors to the reota 
of the Kiflingbury eilate. 

Wifdom. J Poem, ^to. Bcw. 
"jrhe produdlion of a young writer, whofe judgment, we fup- 
< pofe, is not yet come to maturity. In the following lines h0 
cacf^refl^s hiibfelf &s if he had an apoflblical commiffion. 

« When, lo ! more awful fpeaks th* eternal Word— 
Go on, fear not, I'm with thee, J, the Lord. 
Obedient now with faith, I take the pen — 
Awake, arife, attend, ye fons of men.' 
Sometimes he finks intQ ungrammatical abfurditiex s 
Claim not the glorious title of my fong. 
To you, proud nat'ralifts, it dg nU kikng.^ 

Sometimes into vulgarifois : 

« Through him alone, who ancient is of dayi : 
*< From babes and fncklings he ordainetfa praire.'* 
Doft ajk what prailfe ? 
Then why doft t^emble, why hfav'n's aid implore? 

Sometimes into the bathos of nonfenfe : 

< Haft thoo an arm lik« God, thou earthly limhf 
And can'lt thou thunder With a nj$i€t like hin V 
Jit other times he writes in a higher ftrain. Wifdom, he f^p 

Jaunes ihejpnngs of joy, and charms defpair ; 
Calms to fweei peace, and bpe's the door of ^Jray'l"; 
Gives the fick foul with livelier hopes to rife. 
And feek an heritage beyond the ikies. ^ 
Oh, what amazing wonders does Ihe heire ! 
Makes ba'rt'eh 'fruitful, makes the rough path clcar^ 
Makes rofes fpring Where thirties gVew before. 
And lambs to bleat where wolves were wont to roar. 
Before her tempefts ceafe, and ftorms fubfidc, ^ 
iRocks melt, and mountains fink, and feas divide; 
O'er Death's dark (hades Ihe pours her living ray, 
' Aiid ope's the gate's of everlafting day.' 

TerftSiion. A Poetical Efipe, ^to. 2x. Bew.. 
A feverej impetuous attack upon Mr. John W ^y. An- 
other piece in the fame l4yle and pinner by the fame author, 
entitled. The Saints, is mentioned in our laft Number- , 

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^6* Monthly C a t.a locui.- ' 

Saberna. A Saxon Eclogue, is. Be«y. 
In this poem • Difmay goes forth on the wings of night'-^ 
•Ways are patbcfd'— Skies are brnmar — «A lady feeks out a 
lone fequefterment' — A man * feems like Mifery wedded to Pc- 
fpair' — and * The morn peers.' — Thefc arc unpardonable a4cc- 
tations of thought and exprcffion : buc the poem altogether is not 
without merit. 

FaMdg Selta4e, JuSion Johanne Gay, Lathe reddiia. %'v. No 
Bookfeller's Name. 

An elegant tranflation of eighteen fables. The aathof has» 
in general, p.referved the eafe and delicacy of the original, and 
every fentiment, as far as the idiom of the Latin language would 

fifth Ode of the K-^g of P *s Works Parapbrafed. Om. 

tbi Frejtnt War., ^te* gd, Baldwin. 

Bad poetry, worfe grammar, and, in ihort, every thing that 
is defpicable. Jf his majbfty of Pruflia had the author in his 
dominions, we fufpedi he would prefix his head to his poe^m. 

ne jluSion : a ^(nvn Eclcgue. J^fo. is. Bew. 

The preface to this publication has more merit than th^ poem. 
We have continual occaiion to defire our minor poets would 
rhyme more to the ear than to the eye — It would not beamifs.if 
they fuppofed that fightlefs Milton were to bear sHi their compo- 
fiiions recited. He would not fufFer * town-^own,' ' tone — 
gone,* * mourn'd — fcorned,- * ihcwn — town,' • (hewn— gown,* 
• come— doom,' • plac'd— feaft,* * boaft— loft.* It does not al- 
ways happen, chat, becaufe two words have two or three letters 
alike, they muft therefore foand alike. 

We have met with nothing rn the poem which deferves fo 
well to be tranfcribed as the Asbfequent paflfage from ^the Pre* 

* No greater proof of modern extravagance need be required, 
than the frequent audions of the property of living perfons. 
Do we not daily fee chofe ancient feats whith have been confidered 
as almoft facred by former polFeflbrs, difmantled by the rude 
hand of their extravagant owners, and every thing that had given 
fplendor to hofpitality, borne away to the aui^ion-room ; while 
it as often happens, that the domellic apparatus of modern mag- 
nificence is almoft without an interval of repofe between the 
warelioufe of the upholfterer and the repofitory of the audioneer. 

• Perfons of eminence in the latter profeflion poflefs, I am moft 
credibly informed, fuch a furprifing infight into future events, 
as to have along previous knowlege of the greater part of chofe 
lots which are to receive their future fate from the ftroke of their 
hammers. Nay, I have it from undoubted authority, that they 
will, frequently, direft the attention of their particular friends 
to the well-furni(hed houfes of many in the adual flourifliof high 
life^ for a fpeedy decoration of their own. 

• I am 

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M p H T H L T Ca T A L O O U K. 7% : 

« I am foj-ry to fay it, butthefe audions are fo many, genteel^ 
honourable, aii() right honourable, bankruptcies ; thoqgh with- 
out the forms, and, too frequently, without the jiiftice of a legal 
conamiffion. I might produce a long train of circumilances to. 
prove a fimilarity ; but I will not difgrace,. by fuch a comparifon, 
tfie hoaefttradefman, who may, by various unforefeen acci-" 
dent», be reduced to this fituation without the leaft imputatioa of 
his diligence, his fkill, or his integrity.' 


Tbi Acciienu ; or firft Rudiments of EngHlh Grammar, iefig^ed 
for the Ufe of Young Ladies. By Ellin Devis. The Third 

Edition, i2mo. is.6d. Beecfoft. 

This Accidence is mentioned in the xxxixth volume of oar 
Review. At prefent therefore we need only obferve, that it ig ' 
sow improved by many condderable additions. ' . 

Principles c/Englifh Grammar, ly William Scott, Teacher in 
Edinburgh. 1 2mo. Richardfon and Urquhart. 

'the merit of this grammar confitfts in its being clear and con- 
cife, and confequently eafy to be underftood and remembered. ' 

As the aut^hor intimates, that every friendly hint will be 
ti)anlcfully received, it may be worth his while to conlider the , 
following queries. 

. Is not the arrangement of the verbs under fix different tenfes^ 
via. the prefent i'mperfefl, pafl-imperfe6t, future-imperfeft, 
prefent-perfed, paft7perfe£t, future- perfefl, too prolix and fcho- 
laftic, in a grammar intended for children ? 

Is. not the following mode of comparing monfyllables abfurd ^ 
* Great, greater or more great ^ greateft or moji great i lomgy 
longer or more long, longefl or mof long*, young, younger or 
more young, youngeft or moft young. ^ No polite writer can even be 
fuppofed to fay, a thing is mo ft great, moJi long, or moft youngs 
All monofyllables, except a very fmall number, are compared 
by er and eft. 

. Is not the wot^ firft ly a vulgarifm ? Is it not a manifeft im- 
propriety to call j'^a, as well as thou, the fecond perfon fingular, 
as it can never admit of a verb in the fingular number f We 
conftantly and invariably fay, you are, you have, yoa Jhall, and 
aot you art, you haft, you Jhait, 

Is not writ improperly ufed as the paft time of the verb nvrtte f 
The true infleftion is "jjrite, wrote, written, and in the partici'* 
pie *writ by contrajftion : dis/mite, fmotey fmitten. 

Is not this formation of the verb lay equally exceptionable, 
lay, laid, laid or lain f Lain is the participle of //>, and fhould 
never be ufed as the participle of the verb lay. 

The author informs us, * that what feems farther neceffary 
to render this work complete will be publifhed hereafter, as an 
additional part or appendix. 


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7f MovTHtr . Cat4loov9« 

A TfB 99 thi Law of NatuTif and Friutipltt tf ASUm /ar Mam* 
Bx Granville Sharp. 8v0. 4/. Boards. White. 

The pqinti which this author endeavours to eflablifh, is» the 
vnlawfulnefs of fabiefting inankind to involuntary fervitude, 
cither under political, or priv;ite dominion. 

with this view he endeavours to afcertain the true idea of the 
law of natere, and the principles of aflion iii man ; for which 
parpofe he has recourfe to the Mofaic hiftory of the Fall ; and 
(e.diere finds, < x\^t n^an w^s not fnlightened by the divine 
law of reafon within himfelf when he was firft created ; or at 
leaft hot with fo great a Ihare of it, as has fince been joftly at- 
tributed to him ; — that the knowledge of good itnd evil was an 
additional faculty acquired by human nature, through the tranf^ 
gr^ffion of our firft parents; — that by th^ir friminai ufurpation 
0/ fprbidden knowledge, mankipd are rendered accpuntable %o 
the eternal judge, and through knowledge become guilty before. 
God, and continually fubjedt to fin and death ; — that confcience, 
jreafon, and finderefis, though fometimes treated as diftin^^ are- 
neverthel^s efientially founded on one great principle, the 
knowledge of ^ood and evil ; — and that this diyine faculty is 
the grano principle, whereby men, who have not the law, are a, 
liW to themfelves.* 

Having thus inyeiUgated the law of nature, heobferves, < that 
doing as we would be done by,' is a fundamental axiom of this. 
law, and o^ght to be the umverfal principle of a6\ion. 

Nfivertbelefs, he (ays, finider motives frequently preyail, and 
engage the greater part of itiankind in the purfuit of temporal 
intereft, or partial and fenfnal happinefs. This brings him ta 
iy>nfider the corrupt affedions, lud, avarice^ pride, revenge,' 
Ipye of povver, &c. together with the influence of the fpiritqal 
cmevies, as motives to adion, which produce injuftice and op* 
pieffiQU, afkd lead men to de(!rud^ion. 

Qn die contrary, be obferves, that by a right nfe of our know-i 
INge^ ifi cbpofing apd preferring the good, and in refii^ing an^ 
reje^ng the evil, we are capable, through Chrift, of partaking 
even of tbp divine nature ;-^bttt t^at i^en can have no preten- 
$01111 to this ii^eftimable privilege, or the gtoriops proq^ife of 
divine inlpiratiop, as a principle pf adioo, if they form to 
tbemfelyes « mode of believing, vybich is tot^ly diiferent fromj 
the feith once delivered to the faipts.' 

Tbe idea of this necefiary Biith leads the anthor into a Iqng 
and laborious defence pf the doflrioe of the' Trinity, v^hji^b^ 
he thin'ks, is by i^o means foreign to the fubjedi and i^iteAtion 

We dp Qot, hpwever, fee tbe propriety of launching intp thif 
profound controverfy, or into a {opg diiTertationcQncerning the 
infloep^ of t^vil fpirits, in a treacife on the Law of Natprcl 
Such djgrQiiions-etpb>arr4^s tlte ijrgument, apd deflroy that pexy 
fpicuity, order, and concifenefs, whic)x ought to be inviolab|j^ 
pbferyed by every writer. ' * * " 

'-' JLetitr 

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^ftUnfioniU the TitU of Natural Bbilojophtr arg confid^rti. ^yu 

ThUlett^ miglil, at this time, tave b^e^ fparcd. ff Dr. 
PraokUn, in the eftima^ion of the majority of this comitry* tie 
a reb«^, it folio ws not, as of confequence, that tie; cannot i»e m 
natural philofopher. The anecdote which is circulated of talu 
iirgcfowQthe dolor's condudors froja 9 cert«|iii great homSe^ 
canoo^ be true, as it favoors more of the petulance of a fchoo^* 
boy, than of the pride of iojured majeAy. We ihall Cfk«^ilc 
%hu writer «ri^ more fairnefs than he criMcizea the do^Qr« m4 
lU kaft kt him fpeak for himfelf. ' ' 

1 Whca (he public have ooce f oaceiv^d a great opioioa of 
s^ m^n-s abilities, they give him credit for, whatever he cha&s 
10 advance ; and whoever ihould endeavour to perAiade them ' 
that they have been midaken, will ^eet with an 'indi^ereot «e»- 
•cep^on, and may probably be confidered as o^ering tkebi a« 

* This itiakes it neceiTary that the republic of letters fhomVL 
nevff be. withpqt ibme bold critict in evay branch of kafntiig',, 
to bring a n;ian'a pretenfions to a flri^ exaoiination, before h^ 
teputation get to ii|ch an height as to be. of pernicious examj^ 
< Bat a^ author, whofe reputation has been acquired by (bmc 
4tfcov<;ry in Science, and who has beildes the meat of betagiU 
literate, i« in foroe r^fpeds out of tl^e reach of criucifm ; be- 
caofe, in this cafe, things not very co^fiilent with each othor 
arefure to be advanced and defended. For, if he be coovi^e^ 
of blundering in points of learning, or Qipuld be proved igso* 
rant of every thing done by others, in the viery fcience to whtdi 
he choofes to refer his own difcoveries, his ddicienae», iiiflead 
of turning to his difcredit, will be confide/ed as fo many vouch- 
ers for his great abilities. , Nor will his admirers reft. fati>iie4 
. with this, but the man himfelf muft be reputed a prodigy, and 
all ufeful knowledge limited to his acquirements : and, in order 
to favour this opinion, the phUolbphet himfelf (for he can be 
no leis) never fails to inform us, if not in direA terms, at kaft 
by broad hints, that he arrived at his prefeoc eminence, though 
ignorant of many branches of karoiog which, have been gentr 
xally reputed ufeful. 

* S4ich prodigies have never been fevouHtes of mli^ ; nor 
can I recolledl any inftance, where their writings have not con^ 

_ viac^d me; in the ftrongeil ownner, of the ^eceflity of a regu- 
lar education, for every one from whom any ufeful improvc- 
me-nt in icieace is to be expeded. 

* As you are one of thufe felf-taMghtphilofopheri, lam fuffi- 
ciently fenfible of the difad vantages which I labour under, ia 
attempting to call in queflion your pre teniions to the title of 
Natural Philofopher : though I might take fome boldnefs from 
this conHderation, that the matter in debate may be cqnfidered 
as capable of demonftration ^ and yet 1 ih^ll be ^^ry much dif- 


Digitized by Google' 


to MoKT»LY CATALobVft. 

appointed if this endeavoar to fet them right uieet with a tolef* 
able reception /rom the public' 

Oar letter-writer here feems angry that the doAor never 
took his degrees at his own univerficy of Oxford — we are forry 
to find no more liberality of fentiment in a gentleman who feems 
to have experienced that good fortune. Another paffage con- 
uin6 ftill lefs. 

* The modern method of handling Natural Philofbphy, is apt 
to put one in mind of the virtuofos in Gulliver's Travels, who, 
negledting the ufe of language, were to converfe together by 
producing the things themfelves which were the fubjeS of their 
difcourfe ; only with this diiFerence, that if a modern philopher 
were to explain, in his way, what Newton has univerfally and 
fully demonftrated in a (ingle corollary, concerning the Mecha- 
nical Powers, (whether oblique or dired) inftead of a pedlar's 
pack, he muft be attended by a waggon loaded with things. 

' Nor is this the word eonfequence of fuch ti method ; for 
men wholly illiterate are, by the afliflance of thefe inftrusbents, 
qualified for commencing philofophers ; feeing one who can nei- 
ther underftand a demonftration or computation, may heverthe- 
lefs be qualified for blowing up bladders in an air-pump, or 
for drawing fparks from an eledlrical machine. Thus the fci- 
ence has been filled with mechanical and vulgar expreflions, 
even to fuch a degree, as to difcover the company it has kepc» 
by the language it fpeaks. You yourfelf furnilh us with many 
infiances of your low- breeding in this refped ; and, amidft all 
your philofophic^l parade, it is eafy to difcovcr the Worker at 
ibt Pre/s : for inftalnce, what do you mean by a fBur-fquart 
hole?' , 

That the do£lor has been a workei* at the prefs does him much 
more credit than his adverfary acquires by the obfervation. 

A New and Complete Hijlory of ^^tx. 6 'vols* Svo. il, i6s, hoards* 

' The firft volume of this work made its appearance in 1769, 
and contained very little of an interefting nature * ; nor have we 
reaped greater fatisfadion from the additional volumes now be- 
fore us. We would not, however, impute this defeft to the au- 
thor, who difcovers much induftry, but to the fituation of ihc 
* county of EfTex, which affords but few materials for the purpofc 
cither of the antiquary or natural hifiorian. 

The work contains a minute detail of the feveral paril^es in 
the county, and is ornamented with a number of plates. 

•.Crit. Rev. vol. xxviii. p, 3^3, 

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t 91 J 


I" H E 


For the Month of FdrUaty^ lyyi. 

Tii Hiftwry and JntifmtiiS of tin Couniia •/ Wcftmorland iind 
Cumberland. By Jofeph Nicolfon, Efq. ««</ Richard Burn, 
LL.D* zFols. j^o. tL if^ CadcU. 

OF the dignity and the value of hiftory, and the ufe of 
fearching into antiquities, we are perfcaiy fcnCble— as ^ 
well as of the labour and the attention requifite for the latter, 
and the genius without which the former cannot be ctecuted. 
We fee with concent the few candidates whom this country hat 
produced for the hiflorical crown of famewr-'It cannot' there* 
iore be our inclination to depreciate a mw work of hiftory 
and antiquity, which muft have coft much pains and labour, and 
which comes recommended to the world by a name to which it 
has fuch obligations for legal inftruaion and entertainment.* 
Dr, Burn already poflefles no common fhare of reputation— it 
only remains to be determined whether he deferve the fame of 
an hiftorian in addition to that of a lawyer. 

But, perhaps, the work before us will be found to bear too 
pompous a title — at lead we . acknowledge that, were it not 
our duty carefully to review this publication, not our love of 
hiftory, nor our afFedion for the good counties of Wcftmor- 
land and Cumberland, nor even our refpeft for the name of 
Butn,' would have induced us to venture upon a w6rk con« 
taining as many pages and as much matter as hiftories of coun- 
tries which are more confpicuous in the map of the world than 
Wcftmorland and Cumberland In the map of this ifland. Hovr 
cxtenfive this work might have been, if its authors, or rather 
its compilers, had not, thank heaven ! / judged it more eligible 
tbgft it ihould come abroad in its prefect ftate, however im- 

VoL, XL V. Fit. 1 77 «; Q jgcrfe^ 

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8 2 H'tftcry and Antiquititi of Weftmorland and Cumberland. 
pcrfe£l, than to wait for further Information, whiift the pre- 
fent materials are penfhing,* we jfhudder but to think. The 
counties might hardly perhaps have been fufficiently extenfive 
/ta eontatn their own hMory^ aox the life of tEeir oldeil ii»«^ 
h'abitant have been long enough to read it. Lawyers are ri- 
diculed for their parchments, which fbmetimes more than cover 
the lands they dcfcribe — Dr. Born is a lawyer, if not an hif- 
toriaR. — 

Yet there are thofe who will have their obligations to the 
hiftorian ; who will be pleafed to fee t|;ie thfiii: re&dei>c^ 
or nativity, prrhafs thi^irfamili^s»^ make a figure in two quaao 
volumes ; and who will tell us that their own little parifh is 
more to them than all the reft of the world. This may be 
true — we Only obferve that the pre feat vk'ork is not rtt£kie(Uly> 
general to demand a tranflation into the languag^es of ipiany Eu- 
ropean cougtrks^ whofe natives never heard either of Weftmor- 
hnd or of CumberlaFKi. 

With the name of the learned do,5lor*s fellow-labourer in ' 
this wofk, Jpf^ph NicoU^^a; EI^. \ve aire nk>t acquainted.; bu> 
we c|n a]l<^ to neither the fatne of elegant writing. 

The fubfequent pal&ge we U^fcribe, from the general ac- 
count of Weilmorland in the firft volume, as a fpecimen of ibe 
Tulgar, incorred^ and antiquated language which difpleafes i«^ 
almoft every page €»f this performance. 

< Tht/aid moantaifls al/o ab6ood with rivulets, which watct 
the ^Mes Beneath : injlmuch that in almofl every little village 
there is wa^r faiiicient to carry a mill ; which renders the pre- 
carhus help ol windmills fuperfiuo'us : though, (f needJhouldBei 
vhcte are few coaocrics ieuer itaate for fucb like conveniences.^ 

This the more furprJfed us, becaufe we learn^ from the/axpe 
general account of Weftmorland, that Mts inhabitjants are i^ 
civilized people ; infimuch that it is a rare thing in this county 
to find any perfon who cannot both read and write tolerably 
,w«ll :' But perhaps tokrabfy iJntU is their greateft praife — as y^e. 
are told^ when our hifiorians come to the parifh of Raven- 
Hondale, p. 527. vol. I. that * bifhop Nicolfon, at his pa^ 
rochial vifitation in 1763, was informed by the churchwardens 
they badtiot had ^ beggar in the parlih within the meniory t>\ 
. man ; and, at the fame time, that they had n^vtr a gentleman 
among them, except wly the curate and fcbpolmaftcr.'rflrA- 
mean, more defirable in property,' fban in ftyle. 
• In the courfe of the quotatioijs which, we intend to make froea 
diferent farts of the work, we fhall have further occafionp 
we fear, 10 take notice 6f the lajiguage— — -We will, iii9[^ 
give our readers an idea of the plan on which the Hi^ory 


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Wft9rj and Antiquiti'ts •/ Weftiiiorland «ry Cumberland. . %i 

and Antiqaities of the Coonties of Ciunberland and WeAmor- 
land is executed. 

The firft volume begins with a preface, inrorming u$ of . 
the fources from which Mr. Nicolfon and Dr. Burn drew their 
information. The merit of arranging the colleflions of otherg, 
the labour of tranfcribing the obfervations of former inquirers, 
appears to be their chief> if not their 6nly» praife. We find 
no apology of any kind but what our readers have already 
feen, for the imperfedion of the work ; whitb evidently aU 
ludes'^'to \Xs fifortnifa. If the geotletnen thought it advifbable to 
retain the lingjuage of men)otrs baftily commlited to pitper a* 
century or two ago, they (bould at leaft have tdd us their in- 
tention ; and we would xeadily have ijpared them the trouble of 
carefully imitating their great- grandmothers in the di&ion and 
phrafeology of thpir own remarks. 

Before the HKibry of Weftmorland, which fills the firft vo- 
lume, as that, of Cumberland takes up the iecood* we fiad a 
very laborious and fatisfa(lory * di/cour(e of the ancient and 
modern ftate of the borders ;' throngboot the whole of which 
the indefatigable refearches of Dr. Burn lay his country under 
frefh obligations. This very curious difcourle is divided into- 
ten chapters : 

< Chap. I. Of the comnencemeDt of Border fervice; tHth 
the authority and power of the lord warden of the Marches* 

« Chap. 11. Of the Border laws. 
' Chap. lU. Of the manner of keeping warden cottrts* 
* Chap. IV. Of chefiateof the Borden froor the reign of 
' king Edward the &s2l to the reigfi of king Richard the fecond 

< Chap. V. Of the fUteof the Borders from the reign of king 
Richard the iecondto the reign of king Henry the eighth. 

< Chap. VL Of the ftate of the Borders during the reign of 
king Henry the eighth. 

< Chap. VII. Of the Hate of the Borders during the reign of 
king Edward the fixth. 

< Chap, VIIL Of the ftate of the Borders during the reigns of 
cpieen Mary and queen Elizabeth. 

: • Chap. IX. Of the Hate of the Borders during t1ie reiga of ^ 
king Janes the firft. 

< Chap. X. Of the ftate of the Borders from the reign of kiag 
Jaaies the firft to the prefent time.* 

Every man, at leaft every borderer, who reads this ^Icoorfet 
inuft reflect with gratitude on the ineftimable bleliing of the 
onion of the two kingdoms under ore government.-— Perhapa 
it would make ^o contemptible publication feparate from 
the work. It contains many fmgular papers, which have hi* 
tfaertocfcaped the fearch of hiftory. The following note^ on 

G a a^ 

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84 W^^JI ^^ jfntiquitlis ^ Wcftmorland attJCoitnbetUni. 
anaccount of that traft of landt which was daimed by liotfi 
kinjgdoms, and thence caMerf the debateable, ground, we? 
tranfcribc for the benefit of thofe of our readers who do not 
wifli to be inftruded by turning to the difcottrfe itfelf. 

•. The (lory of king James's favourite cow is well known, that 
not liking her atcommodations in England, (be found her way 
back to Edinburgh ; which the king faid he did not To much 
wonder at, as how (he got through the Debateahle Ground with- 
out being ftolen.-^Had thefingularityof thectcnt been remarked 
upon, that' (he was the onty one of the king'^s train that had any 
thought of returning ; it would have been not uniike him to have 
anfwered, with the fame kind of humour* that *^fhe was » 
brute, and knew no better." 

Before the particular hiftory of each county there is a chap- 
ter of each county * in general.* Thefe chapters, like thofe 
which follow them, contain many things worthy notice, and 
not a few which might have been omitted. The inquiry into 
the derivation of the word Weftmorland may be in the ftyle of 
an antiquarian, bat does not throw much light upon the 

* Weftmorland, Wifimorelandf^ or^ as it is anciently written, 
Weftmtrlandt hath its naihe, according to cbmnfion acceptacion, 
from its being a ivefttm fruorijb coMntty, The learned arch - 
bilhop Uflier, in his Antiquities of the Britifii Churches, page 
303, quotes feveral authors as^ deriving it from Marius a king of 
the Britons, who in the fir ft or fecond century defeated Rodoric 
or Rothipger a Pi£tifti general from Scythia, upon the mountain 
now called Stanemore; in memory whereof (he faye) Reicrois or 
Kerecrofte (a red, or royal crofs) was ere^ed : and from bin» 
that part of the kingdom was called Wtftmerland. But Mr. 
Camden treats this notion as chimerical, and fays, it is only a 
fancy that fome people have taken in their fleep, and is pofitive 
that the county hath received its name from the barren, moun- 
tainous, uncultivated, mooriJhlKnd (as he is pleafed to reprefent 
it). Nevertbelefs, there is not one ancient record that we have^ 
met with, wherein it is not ezprefsly called WefimerlanJ^ and 
not Weftmorland^ or Weftmwrdand \ which doth not altogether fa- 
vour Mr. Camden's fuppofition » the Latin termination in Wtft^ 
mariaf fometimes JViftmria^ which hath ftill lefs referoblance of 
the moor, if the county had bordered upon lYkt nxjeftern fia^ it 
might have been conje6tttFed that it had received its name from 
thence ; but as Cumberland lies between this county and the (t% 
on the weft,, it can fcarcely admit of that derivation. Therefore 
we muft be content to leave it in the famp uncertainty as we 
found it.* 

Of the fame obfcure nature is what thefe gentlemen fay of 
Dunmal Ralfe. 


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tBpnj ani JntiquiUii $f Weftcnorland and Cumberland, f 5 

* Panmal Raife afgrefaid is a large moan tain, a great part 
wheteofia in this pariflj, over which the highway Icadeth froraf 
Kefwick by Ambleiidc unto Kendal. It is fo called from a great 
heap or rai/J of Hones, by the highway /ide, which divides Cqm- 
berland from this connty, thrown together in ancient time, ei- 
ther by Dunmaile fometime king of Cumberland, as a mark of 
^he uc(noft -borderof his kingdom, or by fome other in remem- 
brance of Ills name, for Tome memorable a6t done by hira there* 
.or fome vidlory obtained over him^* 

That ' the air in this county is fonu^Cobat iharp and fisvere* 
fffedally in nuinter^ p. 2, is not furely a fad remarkable enough 
to< merit notice: nor will it much aftoniih naturalilts that* 
' when the ling is in AoWer^ it attradts the inJuftriws bee; > 
ibat the heath, at that feafoR, leems to be covered, tis U wtrtf 
mtb one large fwarm,^ p. 3. 

The account of the helm- wind is indeed more lingular. 

* In thefe mountains, towards the north-eafi part of the 
county, is a very remarkable phenomenon, foch as we have not 
found any account of elfewher^ in the kingdom, except on!/ 
about Ingleton and other places bordering upon the mountains 
of Inglebdrrow, Pcndle, and Penigent, m the confines of the 
counties of York and Lancafler. It is called a Jielm-wind. A 
rolling cloud, fometimes for three or four days together, hovers 
over the mountain tops, the iky being clear in other parts. 
"When this cloud appear.*, the country people fay the btlm is up ; 
which is an Anglo-Saxon word, fignifying properly a covering 
for the head, from whence comes the diminutive helmet, ^his 
belm is not difperfed or blown away by the wind, but continue^ 
Sn its nation, although a violent roaring hurricane comes 
tumbling down the bountain, ready to tear up all before it. 
Then on a fudden enfues a profound, calm. And then again 
alternately the temped : which feldom extends into the country 
above a mile or two from the bottom of the mountain. 

* In the modern part of the Univerfal Hiftory, vol. xv, p. 5 ig, 
wt find an account of exactly the like appearance of fome of the 
hills near the Cape of Good Hope, thus defcribed by thofe ele- 
gant authors : ** In the. dry feafon, a white cloud hovers over 
the top of the mountains ; from which cloud iiTue the fouth* 
wefl winds -with incredible fury, fliattering houfes, endangering 
Ihipping, and greatly damaging the fruits of the earth. ' Upon 
>lifcovery of which cloud, the failors immediately prepare for 

Another extraft will ihow how long national enmities exift, , 
and how difficult they are to be extingui(hed« 

* Sven the diverfions of the children had a reference to this 
border enmity. The boys to this day have a play which they 
call Scotch and Engliih ; which is an exadt pi^ure in miniature 
x)i the TAidf that is, of the inroad by plundering parties* The 

G 3 boys 

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8i BiJIwy mJ Mftquuiis of Weftmcrland anJ Cumberland* 

boys^ivide themfelves into two conipa&ies» under twp captains 
who chufe tbeir i&en alternately. Then they ftrip off their c<Ms, 
the one party calling themfelves Scots, the other Engl iih. They 
' ]ay their cloaths refpedively all on an heap, and fet a ftone as 
it were a bonnder mark between the two. kingdoms, exadiy in 
(he middle t)etween their heaps of cloaths. Then they begin to 
make incurfions into each other's territories ; the Engiim be- 

?;ilinin? with this reviling expreflion, << Here's a leap in thy 
and, dry-bellied Scot/' And fo they plunder and fteal away 

. one from another all that they can lay their hands on. Bat if 
they can take hold of any invader within their own jurifdidion, 
either before or after he catcheth- his booty, which they calk a 
«i»#^ (the iame being a Saxon word, njuaed, mada^ Hve§dt not yet 
qntte otft of ufr, £gnifying tUatbing} tfnle/s be eicape clear ioto 
bia own proviace, they take him prUbner, and ceny him to the 
ivf 4/ or. heap of deaths, from whence he is not to remove till 
fome of his own party break in, and by fwiftoefs of foot lay hold 

. of the prifoner, before he himfelf be couched by any of the ad* 
verfe party ; which if the adverfary do, he hath refcued his 
man, and may carry him off withoat moltrftation. And thus 
ilbmetimes one party will fo far prevail over the other, wKat 
with plonderingy and what with ticking prifoner^, that the 
other ihall have nothing at all left. Ic is a vtry adtive and vi6- 
lent recreation.' 

What is faid in this chapter on the fubjed of the land* 
tax, deferves the attention of more than common readers. 

« It is a vulgar miftake, that this^ county paid no fubfidies 
daring the exiftence of the border fervice, as fappofing. it to be 
. exempted from fuch payment merely upon that account. For 
we find all along foch and fuch perfons coHedorsof the fubfidies 
in this county, granted both by clergy and laity. The land-tax 
fttcceeded into the- place of fubfidies ; being not fo properly a 
new tax, as an old tax by a new name. From the ^reign of 
Edward the third downward, certain fums and proportions were 
fixed ujpon the feveral townihips within the relpeftive counties, 
according wbereunto the taxation hath conliantly been made. 
In proceis of time this valuation may be fuppofed to have be- 
come unequal, efpecially fince by the increafe of trade and ma- 
nnfapure in fome large towns much wealth is accumulated 
'witbtn a fmall comp«ii», the tax upon fuch diviiion continuing 
fiin the fame. And hence a new valuation hath often been fug- 
gefted to render this tax more adequate, which nevefthdefsYrom 
ithc nature of the thing mua always be flu6loating according to 
-the incteaie or disnntttion of profKcrty in difieient parts of the 
kingdom. But in reality this notion proceeds upon a very nar<- 
Tow and partial principle. An equal tax, according to what sL 
tnan is worth, is one thing ; and an equal land-tax, all the othd^ 
taxes being unequal, is quite another. Setting alide the po*. 
puloas manafaaniing towAf, kc as take the coiinty of Well^ 
*' -^ norland 

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Rijl^ mtd Aiaifuitiu tf Weftinorfand tf/r/Cumberland. %j 

iBorlaifd in general (in which there is no fach manafaAuting 
tOwn» Kendal only excepted) ; and wefhall findlthatthis county, 
apon the whole, taking all the taxes together, pays more totht 
^government, in proportion to the wealth of the inhabitants^ than 
^perhaps any Other county in the kingdom. And that is by, rea- 
fon of its conparacive populoufnefs. Soppofe a townfliip (which 
•is a common cafe in WeHmorland) worth about 400I. a year^ 
In this townfhip there are about 40 meHuages and tenements, 
Sind a r^diily in each mefluage. And at the proportion of five 
perfons to a family,, there are 200 inhabitants. Thefe, by their 
labour end what they coniume« am worth to the pnbltc double 
and treble the value of the land«-tax in its hlgheft eftioratioo* 
These 49 mefluages or dwelling honfes* at 3s. each» 4>ay yeaviy 
61. houfe duty ;. and fo many of them perhaps have above (even 
windows* as will make up 6U more. Now let us advance further 
South. An eflate of 400!. a year is there frequently la one 
hand. There is one family of perhaps 15 or 20 perfons ; one 
iioofe duty of 3s. fomd few ihillines more for windoivs; and a 
tenth pSirt of the confumption ofthings taxable, as fait, foap, 
leather,! candles, and abundance of other articles • Now where 
is the eqaalttyj One man for lol. or ;l. a year, pays as much 
hoiiie dtfty, as another perfon for 400I. a jear. In WefiiOdor- 
Jand many perfons (and the clergy almoft m general) dwell fa 
houfes that pay more houfe and window duty than the houfe it* 
felf ^oald letfor. And in other refpeAs, the public is as much 
benefited by three or four famil ies occupying ten or twenty pounds 
a year each, as in the c^her cafe by one family occupying tei^ times 

* It hath heen computed by political calculators, thateirery 
perfon, one with another, is worth to the public 4L a year. Oa 
that fuppofitibn, the inhabitants in one cafe are eilimated at 
Bool^ in the other cafe at 80I, ^o if we reduce the fum to half* 
or a Quarter, or any other (urn ; It will always come out the fame» 
that the one ancl tne other are of value to the public, juli in the 
proportion of ten to one. 

* In ^ort ; pppttloufoefs is the riches of a nation ; not only 
from the confumption of things taxable, but. for the fupply of 
hands to arts, manufaftnre, war, and commerce. A man that 
pnrcha^ttth an eftate, and lays it to his own, making one farm 
of what was two beibre, depriyes the ptibiic of a proporttonable 
ihare of every tax that depends upon the number of ho^fes and 
inhabitants. A oiaa that ^kv awhole village or two into his 
pofieffion by this means, confiding of an hundred ancient feudal 
cenementsj evades ninety *ntne parts in an hundred of fuch taxes, 
hnd throws the burcien upon others, who by reafon of the fmalk 
nefs of their property^ are pr^Doctioftably lefs able to bear it; 
Tor a fnan of an hundred pounds a year can better fpare twenty 
pounds, thah a man of ten poui^ds a year can^ fpare forty iki& 

(s; ioj: Uveonehas eighty poufida left, and the other only 

G 4 The 

- •' "' Digitized by Google 

$% Hijify and Antiquitus tf Weftmprland mni Cmnberknd* 

The fubfequent little eztr^A does credit either to the par* 
*tiality of the good dodor, or to the cbaftity of his country- 

* By coftom within the barony pf Kendal, the widow enjoys 
the whole cufto|nary eftate during her widowhood ; or/ as others 
fay, daring her cbaftt viduity. Whether fach diftindion ought 
to be admitted, cuftom hath not eilabliihed. To the honour of 
the fex, there is no infiance upon record, that we know ofj^ 
wherein that matter hath been contefted/ ' 

The remainder of the firft volume treats of the two baroniet 
and the different parifhes in Weftmorland. regolarly and mi- 
nutely. We have firft a criticifm of the name of the parti- 
cular parifh, which fometimes leaves us where it found us ; and 
fometim^s contains information— we then find an exaift pedigree 
of all the families, which would tire the patience of Foote's 
C^dwallader, though he claimed honourable kindred with them ; 
and an account of every thing which is, or whiph has been re- 
markable, and of fome things which we cannot allpw either 
to be, pr to have been, fo. We (hall exhibit to our reilderf, 
before we quit thefe memoirs (for that would be a more prcK 
per name for this work than lufl^ry)^ fpecimens of both 
kinds. , . * 

Another obje^ion which we have to this wprk> is its being 
drawn up like a journal---* Defcending from Appleby towards 
th^ weft, at about a mile's diftance, we iirrive at the village 
of Coleby.' And again -^' From Barwife advancing towards 
the foutKeafr, we arrive at Hoff and Dry beck ; whi^h finiihef 
. our perambulation qf the parifli of St. Laurence.' And again^ 

« Having thus finished what we had to fay concerning the 
town of Kendal and its environs i we proceed to the other parti 
of this exteniive pariih, beginning with Helfington on the South, 
and fo travelling eailward through tb^ feverai townihipi and ma* 
nPrs, and from thenc^ going abbot by the north and weft, natU 
we arrive where we firft fet Put.' 

Does not the dignity of quarto call fpr different language I 
However, proceed we to our piramhuUuiui of the wPrk be« 
/ore us. 

An exertion of defpotifm, the. moft flagrant perhaps whieli 
is to be found in Englilh fiory, is a proclamation by king 
lames ageiinft tenant rights, ^ublUhed the 28th of July, 


The epitaph upon Mr. Ralph Tyrer, a vicar ofKendalj com^ 
pofed by himfelf, is whimficaU He died June 4, 1697 • 

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fOp^rj and JmifuUifs rf Weftmorland mJ Guipbptland* g^ 

* London bred mee* Weftminfter fed mee, 
Cambridge fped mee, my filler wed mee. 
Study taaght mee, living fooght mee« 
3Learning brought mee, Alendal caught mee. 
Labour prefled mee, (icknefs cJiftrelTed mee» 
Death oppreiTed mee« the grave poffefled mee^ ' 
God firil gave mee, Chrift did fave mee. 
Earth did crave mee, and heaven would have mee/ 

The fubfequent extradl is a curious fpecimen of the medicat 
fimplicity of ancient times, 

• Sir Waiter Strickland, knight.*-In the 19 Hen. y. he was 
conilitoted by George lord Lumley his fenefchal (or (lew'ard) of 
Kendal for life. 

< In the 10 Hen. 8. he had a charter of pardon for all tref- ' 
palTes and negled of homage, with a renewal of the grant of 
all the manors and land which his father Walter was found 
leifed of at his death, and were held of the king im capite, 

* This fir Walter was much afili6led with an afihma, which 
gave occafion to the following indenture: " This indenture 
tasade 26 Apr. 18 Hen. 8. between Sir Walter Strickland, knt. 
of one part ; and Alexander Kenet, do^or of phyfic, on tha 
other part ; Witnefleth, that the faid Alexander permitteth, 
granteth, and by thefe prefents bindeth him, that he will, with 
^he grace and help of God, render and bring the faid Sir Walter 
Strickland to perfe£l health of all his infirmities and difeafes con^ 
tained in his perfon, and efpecially fiomach, and lungs, and 
breaft, wherein he has moft dtfeafe and gt\t^i and over to mi- 
niver fucb medicines truly to the faid fir Walter Strickland, in . 
Tuch mant)er and ways as the faid Mr. Alexander may make the 
faid ^T Walter heal of alt infirmities and difeafes in as fhort a 
time as poffible may be, with the grace and help of God. And 
alfo the faid Mr. Alexander granteth be (hall not depart at no time 
from the faid fir Walter without his licence, unto the time the faid 
fir Walter be perfed heal, with the grace and help of God. For 
the which care, the faid fir Walter Strickland granteth by thefe 
prefents, binding himfelf to pay or caufe to be paid to the faid 
Mr. Alexander or his aiSigns 20I. flerling monies of ^ood and 
lawful hioney of England, in manner and form following ; that . 
is, 5 marks to be paid upon the firft day of May next enfning, 
lind sdl tlie refidue of the faid fnm of 2ol. to be paid parcel bjr 
parcel as fiiall pleafe the faid fir Walter, as he thinks neceflary ' 
to be delivered and paid m the time of his difeafe, for fnflaining 
fuch charts as the faid Mr. Alexander moft afe in medicine, 
for reducing the faid fir Walter to health ; and fo the faid pay- 
inent continued and made, tp the time the whole fum of 20K 
afbrefaid be fully contented and paid. In witnefs whereof, ei- 
ther to thefe prefent indentures havp interchangeably fet their 

. jt^ls. the day and year abovementtoned/'— Sir Walter; never* 
-^-'^ . ' . ^ - jhrtcfs, 

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fO Hifierj and Jntiqnitiis of Weft morland and Cu mberlan^i 

thelefs» died qb tke pthof Jaaoary fdkmiiigy of appean bj inw 


In the chapel of Grayrigg oar bi/tmans tell us art thcfe three 
/ lines, X 

<< Zeal for the houie of God hare yoo do fer. 
Shining with brighteft beams .even to faturiiy. 
May heav'n be th' reward of all fuch boondlers charity.** 

To -which they iiitijoin this note, 

< Unto which triplet a wag of onr acquaintance propofea 4 
line to be added, to make it run npon all fonr, viz. 

«• And the d take the authors of all fuch poetiy.** 

A pleafantry which would better become a jeft-book than what 
is called a biftory. 

Of Bafebrowne we are told, with all the gravity of hit 
torians, that — * eagles &nd ravens fometimes boild in this cha- 
pelry i* and of Windermere-water that — * water-fowl in great 
plenty refort to this lake ;' — Fads too (jngular to be omitted. 

It is indeed fomewhat more fingular that in Jam^s the fecood'a 
rc^Bt a cotttefted eleaioo 9X Cockermouth, coft Daniel Fle- 
ming, e(q. of Rydal, only aol.^-^Tfae cockades of an defiioa 
in thefe days amount to twenty times as much I 

Notwithftanding the many whimfical and ridiculous paflaget 
in thefe volumes, th^y certainly have their merit, and contain 
matters which well deferve to be noticed. 

'in our next Review we fhall again fpeak of this publicarion-— 
par prefent account of it will conclude with William Gilpin*$ 
infcription on the third bell belonging to the chgpel pi Crof- 

•« A yoang man giave in godlinefit 

William Gilpin by name, 
•Gave fifty pounds, to make thefe ioaoda^ 

To God's eternal fam^ 

. To which, in order to keep oar readers in good humour, we 
4hall jofl add an inftance of poor Mr. Hilton's frailties, axtra^ed 
Uota his daily journal. 

• '* On Sunday," fays bft in one place, •* I vowed to abftaia 
from three thln^» daring the coorPe of theenfving week [which 
iwas in Lient], vi«. the «He of women, eating flefh, and drinking 
ague. Bat, alas, the frailty of good refelutions ! I broke the* 
all, laid with a gfitl at the $andfide, was tempted to eat the win^ 
ef a fowl, and got drank at Milntfaorp.*' 

£ 7i h tminuid, ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

. C 9« 3 


Tiht Rifif PfogTifit ^^ Prtfm Stati »/ tbi iforihrn Gwtrmmtmfsy 
wc. the United Proyinges, Denmark, Sw^eden, Ruflia, «w# 
Pdlaod. By J. WiUiams, EJq, t nioU. ^t9. \h i6i.hoardu 
Becket. iCffUcJtukii, Jrsm f. ^6.] 

THE fecond volume of this work commences with a brief 
defcript'ton ^f the empire of Ruifia, and an ablhadl of 
its hiftoryy after wKkh the author proc^ds to give an account 
of the government. According to his reprefeotation,- these is» 
perhaps, no (late in the world whftre the courts of jufttce are 
' ib corrupt, and their members fo ignorant, as in the greateft 
part of the Ruflian dominions. We are informed, that in 
this country, a man who , has learning enough to read the 
ukafes or lnws, and fo write his name, thinks himfelf well 
qualified for occupying an important place in the juridicaltri- 
bunals of the nation* In refpeft to the adminiilration of juf- 
ticei ilrangers enjoy greater advantages than the natives of 
the empire ; for the latter are judged according to the Roman 
laws, and in a feparate tribunal, chiefly compofed of German 
lawyers. Since the acceffion of the prefent emprefe to the 
• throne, (he has meditated a reformation of the judicial fy&em 
' of the country ) but it feems to be the opinion of Mr, Wif- 
liams, that this laudable project can hardly be produ&tve of 
the defired fuccefs. • • ^ 

In point of learning, the Ruflian clergy appear to be on 
a level with the lawyers. It is reckoned a qualification fufii* 
cient for the clerical office, that a perfon knows-a little LatiiH 
^nd is able to read and write, without being acquainted witk 
the fundamental principles of religion. A clergyman herv, 
according ta the law, muft marry a virgin. If his wife dies, 
be muft no longer adminifter the fiicraments ; and if he mar- 
ries again, he lofes all his ecdefiaftical preferment. 

Our author represents the citizens ind meirhants of Ruflia 
as no lefs unintelligent in trade and commerce, than the two 
cUfies abovementioned in the principles of their refpedlive pro- 
fefiions. Fraud and difingenuous dealing, we are told, paft 
among thofq people for addrefs and knowledge of the fyftem 
of trade. Nor can they boafi: of more expertnefs in the arti 
and manufi^fiurcs that have been lately eftablilhed «mong 
them, in which they generally .commence mafters before they 
are half taught*. 

. Mr. Williams observes, that though the Ruffian dominions- 
are at prefent nearly as eirtenfive as ail the other Europeai) 
Aates, they do not contain much above eighteen millions of 
people, according to die following computation^ made ten 
years ago. 
' ' In 

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^Z Williams*i Rtfif Pr^gnfst &c. o/Northirn Govirumintu 

« In the year 1768 it was found that the n amber of mafes 
who paid the capitation tax were nearly as follows ; merchant 
SOi»ooo ; workmen of dift'ereot kinds 17,000 ; farmers who 
contributed to the.fopporc of the militia 431,030 ; workmen of 
different kinds whofe parents were unknown 2200; others who 
were not incorporated in the ciaffes of the different tradea 
4500 ; farmers who occupied the crown lands $52.000 ; ilavea 
who were employed in the mines of the crown 6 j, 300 ; other 
ilaves of the crown who worked in the mines and at the mann- 
fafiures of particular perfons 24,150; of the Mahometan/ and 
sdolateri who have lately been converted to the Greek church 
6o,ooo ; of the different kinds of Tartars 280,000 ; the flavea 
of feveral merchants and others who were privileged, and who* 
though they were not proprietors of lands, might have ilaves^ 
9800 ; ilaves who cultivated and occupied the lands that were ap* 
propriated for the fupport of the court 420,000 ; flaves whocnU 
tivated the lands whicn appertained to her majeily independently 
of the right of the crown 58,000 ; flaves who cultivated the 
lands confifcated to the crown 22,800; flaves of the nobility 
attd gentry 3,6409000 ; flaves who cultivated the lands which 
formerly belong«l to the clergy and to the religious honfes 
^96,100 ; other flaves and workmen, nbt regularly clafled, who 
iveife employed in menial drudgery upon the public works, and 
as well in the mines and at the manufadures of particular pbr« 
fons 41 coo. 

' Hence it will be feen that there were fix millions, (even 
hundred and fourteen thoufand, eight hundred and eighty males, 
who paid the capitation ; old men Ind children were included 
in this calculation, but the women and girls were not ; and there- 
fore if we double this number, we fliall find thirteen millions, 
four hundred and twenty-nine thoufand fouls ; I muft likewife 
0bferve that none of the titxsps, which at that time were abbot 
3 $0,000 men, nor any of the nobility, gentry, and clergy of 
the whole empire, who were about 200,000, were included ia 
this number, as they are not liable to this capitation tax. The 
gangers who refide in the empire, of what profcffion, or of 
what country foever they are, are all exempted from this tax ; 
and fo are likewife the inhabitants of the conquered provinces ; 
namely, of Livonia, Eflonia, Ingria, Carelia, and part of Fin- 
land, and of the Ukraine, as well as feveral hords of the Tartars, 
and all the idolatrous people of Siberia, which, upon a mode- 
rate calculation, will make the number of the inhabitants in the 
Ruffian dominions amount to above eighteen millions ; and by 
comparing the extent of this empire, with that of any other 
Hate of Europe, with Spain, for example, which is the leaft 
peopled of any other European kingdom in proportion to the 
extant of her territories, it will be found that Ruffia, in propor- 
tion to her territories, is ^^t times lefs peopled than Spain, and 
confecjuently it will be feen that this flate can neyer make apy 
great ngare ID manufadttrcs, while flic has not inhabitants fj/- 


Digitized by 


Wniiams*! Rift^ Prognfi^ &c. of Northtrn OgHnrnmnts, Jj 
ficient to cultivate her lands, and to improve the prodadions of 
agricaltare, the firft and great object of commerce. 

On fhe acceffion of Peter the Great, the whole revenues of 
the Rulfian empire did not amount to fix millions of rubles, or 
tweUe hundred thoufand pounds ; but at the beginning of the 
late war with the Turks, after the emprefs had annexed the 
church, lands to the domains of the crown, and thegov^efn* 
tnent had impofed fame additional taxes, ihe public revenues 
vere foudd to be full tv^renty-eight millions of rubles. This 
augmentation is faid to arife chiefly from the impofts on fo- 
reign merchandize ; notwithftanding which, Mr. Williams is 
of opinion, and we think with reafon, that Rullia can never 
become a great commercial ftate, in proportion to her natural 
advantages, as long as her government is fo defpotic, and fub* 
]tSi to revolutions. On thofe accounts, no merchant will ven* 
ture into extenfive plans of commerce; and hence we find, 
that moft of the foreign merchants at prefent eflablifhed in 
Rufiia, a£t only as commiflioners for companies abroad, which 
carry on the trade for the RuiHans, who are afraid to ent*er too 
far into it themfelves. 

We are informed that the military force of the Rufiians at 
prefent, exclufive of the Cofacks and Tartars, amounts to 
three hundred and fifty thoufand men ; but our author ob- 
ferves,- ^o great is the extent of their territories, and the num« 
ber of the fortreffes which they have to fupport from Petcrf* 
burg to the borders of China, that it is with difficulty they 
can bring a hundred ^nd fifty thoufand into the field to ad of« 
fcnfivcly againfi an enemy. With refped to the fpirit and 
difcipline of this army, Mr. Williams obferves, that * the 
common Ruffian foldiers, from a principle of fuperilitton, are 
taught to defpife life, and by this means are brought to hand 
their ground, and keep their ranks, perhaps, equal to any 
troops in the world. 

* < They are likcwife ytxy bold and refolute in attacking ; 
and if their generals pofTeiTed that judgment and knowledge 
of military affairs which is neceflary to dired properly the 
sifotions of fuch a foldiery, certainly they would be equal 
in every refped to the beft troops in Europe; bat this is 
v/anting : merit i^ not rewarded in Ruflia at prefent as it was 
in the reign of Peter the Great, when a man who fold tarts and 
' fruit in the flreets became chief general of all the Ruffian 
armies as the jufl reward of his fuperior abilities : every thing 
i^ upon a very difierent footing from what it was in thofe days ; 
there are many young fops who have the rank of lieutenant- 
general and of general, whqfe want of talents and miiicary iktU ^ 
can only be equalled by ^their impertinence and turbulent 
difpoiition ; there is now no Peter to keep them in order, and 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 

94 Wil!iatns*i Rifi^ Pfogrefi^ &C. of Northern Gtvtrnmint$. 

to difttngmfh tibe man of merit from the block&ead. The pre- 
fent emprefs Catherine the Second does every thing, it i« triiCy 
t^c a woman of great taknts can do in fuch a fituation: but 
alas! (be is afraid of their cabals^ls often obKged to'give' 
way to them, and to fitut her eyes again ft many abofes which a 
^man of refolutton would have immediately reAified. The' 
Ruffian guards are become as iormidaUe and tsrbuicat as (he- 
Strelitzs were when. Peter the Firft cai»e to the throne. The 
'Officers of this corps, which is at preicot at leaft iO,ooo men^ - 
are for the mod pare Ruffians, and the fons of the nobility, who - 
have great infiaence and power over the men, and who io two 
hoars time can lead them to rebellion, and overtorn the whole . 
government. Tbefe officers^ who have a high idea of their own - 
merit, the effed of ignorance and pride, muft be managed: 
they demand high ranks and poib in the amy for which they 
ace hot in any reijpedl qualifiedf and the emprefs, to avoid the 
ill eficdUof their cabals and intrigues, is obliged to comply with 
their requefts i hence it is that t^ere are fo many bad officers of 
rsnk in the Ruffian army, and that men of merit are at ^refent 
difregarded and overlooked in this country. Theie regiments 
of guards are the word troops of all the regulars in the Ruffian * 
empire : they have not been in a£Uon, as far as I can difcover, 
£hce the time of the emperor Peter the Great ; fo that now * 
they cheriih the idea that they have no other duty than to 
guard Peter(boorg and the perfon of the fovereign, and, like 
the«ancient Strelitzs, to endeavour tb overturn the government 
when any bold and audacious villain will put himulf at their 

The naval power of Rudia confifts of at leaft fixty (hips of 
the line, and between thirty and forty frigates j befides about 
a hundred and fifty row-galires, which they formerly ufed up- 
on the lakes againft the Swedes, and which are ftill ufefal in 
many parts of the Baltic, where it would be dangerous for 
large fhips to enter* But notwithftanding they have all the 
materials for (hip-building, we are told diat their dock-yards, 
flore-houfes, ic. are very badly provided. 

The late partition of Poland by the three great neighbour-^ 
ing powers, has b^en juftly regarded as an enormous viohition ' 
of the rights of th^ kingdom i yet when we confider the 
wretched (late of the people under their former government, ~ 
this event can hardly be regretted upon the principle of hu« 
manity, as may appear from the following recital. 

« From^ being a free people, nine tenths of all the Poli(b nation 
are ia a (late of the groHeft ienoraace and of the moft abjed (la- 
very, and though tkey are called Chrillians are treated with more 
cruelty than many of the N^gro flaves in the Weft-India idands. 
Every gentleman has a right to give his voice at the eledion of a 
kine» and even to be ekdVed himielf ; but this is one of the fources 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


, WaiUma'i Ri/if l^ffitrrfs^ &c. $fNmhim G09^munu. 35 

<if all tWit cvi]» and of the vitiated fta«» 0/ the pfefeat gp?era^ 
meat ; the throne, fince the extiadioa of the fanEuly of t)ie 
Jagelloas, has been always put up to the be^ bidder, and as 
there have been few 6f the Poles rich enough to buy it» it haa 
often been ibid to ftraagers : the nobility and clergy generally 
defend their liberties againft the king and keep the reft of the 
nation vk flavery. The farmers do not cultivate and fow the 
lands for theni£eiveB,. bat for their lords, to whom they and their 
faaiiUetappertaia, and by whom they are bought and fold like 
{4 oi^afky iheepaad cattle^ and are denied even the common 
rights of hamaaity i tbe confcientioos clergy, who are {o ex« 
tiemely aealoas oa account of their religion , make no fcruple to 
keep thaif fellow- creata res in this nMferable ftate, and are con* 
ftantly takiag tvtty advantage to make them more fo : the 
luimbec of tMe farmers conftitute the riches of the nobility ; 
oyeiy fiurmer is obliged to work four days in the week for his 
lord, and one day for himfelf and for his family ; his labour 
produces, to his proprietor about four guineas and a half yeaily. 
The lord may lell his farmer to whom he pleaies^ if he kills, 
him the law condemns him to pay a £ne, which is about one 
pound fterling : but as a gentleman is not dependent upon any. 
other perfon, he cannot be judged in any criminal affairs but by 
aa alTembly of the ftates, neither can he be arrefted til! after he 
has been judged and condemned, fo that the guilty perfon is ge- 
nerally left unpuaiihed. H this farmer killed by a nobleman ap« 
pertained to aoother lord, the former is obliged ta replace hitft 
bfr another flave« Gveat numbers of the nobility are very poor, 
and rather eiideavour to enrich chemfelves by commerce; they 
put theml^lves in tbe fervice of others wHo are rich and power- 
ful, condefcend to do the moft menial offices in the houfes of' 
their equals, and give themfelvcs the titles of ileftois of their 
equals, and give themfelves the tides of eledors of kings and 
of deftroyers of tyrants. To fee the king of Poland in all 
his ponip of royal m^jefty, one would imagine him to be the 
moft al^folute prince in Europe, though he is, flri£lly fpeak« 
log, the lead ib»' 

The poor, and thofe who are paft the year? ef labour/ are 
iff this country extremely mifcrable, there being very few pub- 
lic foundations for their fupport. Their poverty is faid to be 
fa great in nnaay parts of the kingdom, that they are obliged 
to live in hole^of the earth, to feed upon the fruit and roots 
which grow wildj or upon the flefh of wild beafts which they 
iHay take in hunting, and with the (kins of which they cover 

' The conftitution of Poland has been in all age^ extremely 
ilnfavourable to, commerce. By the fundamtntal laws, no 
merchant or aunufadurer is at liberty to purchale any landed 
dlate# or to acquire any real property ia the kingdom. Such 
if the pride aad ignorance of the aohiiity*and clergy^ that they 
- , 4 hold 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' --*— ^ 

96 WilHams*/ 'Rtfei Pr^grift^ &c. ofNerthirn Qtnkrimeniu 

bold thofe indoftrious dalTes of the people in the greateft coii'^ 
tempt, and as hardly' fuperior to their flaves. Hence th^ fpi-^ 
rit of manufafture is exceedingly languid, and all the inland 
commerce is carried on by Jews and foreigners, who take every 
opportunity to defraud the Polifh inhabitants. 

< The PoliOi nobility, fayaour author, were fo extremely ig^ 
norant of their own real interefta, that it waa the geoeral opw 
Bion the introdadion of the arta and commerce would tend to 
enlighten the people, aod to iiir up fuch an emulation among 
them as would make them turbulent and be highly injurioua to 
their property, without coniidering how much the cultivatioa 
and improvement of the kingdom by manufaflurea and com-« 
merce would increafe the value of their landed eftatea, and at 
the fame time procure them all the necefCiriea and even the loxu*' 
riea of life from among their fellow-^fubjeda at a much cheaper 
rate than they can procure them from foreign ftatea/ 

The revenues of the king of Poland formerly' arofe from 
certain lands which were vefted in the crown, and from tho 
produce of the falt-works and the cuftoms, all which never 
exceeded two hundred thoufand pounds a year, and fometlmes- 
did not aoiount to the half of that Turn. Since the kingdota 
has been divided, the fait- Works, with fome of the crown- 
lands, have been feized upon by the em prefs queen of Hun- 
gary, the produce of the cuftom-houfes in Pruflia by the king^ 
of Pruflia, and another part of the crown-lands, with part of 
the cuftoms of Mohilow, by theemprefs of Ruflia. 

The army confifted ufually of thirty-fix thoufand men, At'* 
tinguifhed into two corps independent of each other, viz. thrft 
of Poland, whicK was fixed at twenty-four thoufand, and the 
troops of Lithuania at twelve thoufand ; of the latter of wbicti 
two thirds were cavalry. 

Our author with juftice imputes the calamities of Poland ta 

the intolerable oppreflion exercifed by the nobility and clergy, 

the confequence of which was the extinction of every principle 

. among the people, that could infpire them with the love of 

their country, or animate them to any ufeful purfuit. 

* Dirmembering, %s he, the provinces of the kingdom, and 
veiling the fovereign authority of different diftriCIa in^ifierent 
perfona, which waa heretofore pradiifed by feveral kinga of Po<« 
land, likewife contributed greatly to weaken the power of the 
crown and to increafe the authority and independency of the 
nobles and clergy. Whenever there ia a number of little inde* 
pendent governmenti, which are bordering upon fovereign tiea, 
in a ftate, the government of that flate will be always weak and 
enervated, and as thof<^ little governora are generally fo man/ 
tyrants, who are jealous of each other, the ilate will alwaya be 
agitated like a troubled fea, and exhibit a fcene pf confufion and 

. opprcf- 

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Wfllianos*/ Rtfu Progrtfi^ &c. ofNcrtiirH Govirnmnts* gf 

Of^preffiofl/ This has always been the cafe in Polaqd, and wilt 
continue To to be as long atB the prefenc form of government 
exiftsin this kingdom ; forfo long^as confederacies are tolerated^ 
and there are great numbers of flaves ready fo obey the'c'orf- 
federates, there will always be ambitious and ill-^defigning peo- 
ple enough to keep the government in a conilant fcene of confu- 
£on and di(cord. A flate in fuch a fnuation will always be like a - 
general who(^ army is ready to mutiny ; he never will be in a 
condition to defend himfelf againft an enemy, whitfl his army is 
in thia difpofition, neither can a kingdoni fubHiH whofe govern* 
mentis undermining itfelf. Poland has experienced this great 
truth ; her own divifions and a vicioufnefs of a part of her in- 
habitants, who would trample under fcot the juil rights and pri« 
vileges of the others, have rendered' her the prey of her ambitious 
enemies. In the year 1648, when this flate appeared to be very 
farmidable in Europe, her government would have been totally 
deftroyed by the Cofacks and Tartars, if thofe robbers had not 
quarrelled about their plunder. Charles Gullavus and Charles 
the Twelfth of Sweden conquered this kingdom with great fa- 
cility with a handful of troops, and if they had taken prudenC 
roeafures might have eftablifiied what government they thought 
proper, notwithftanding the boafted forces of the nobility ; and 
we have lately feen a fmall body of RufBan troops difperfe all the 
idle parade of their aflbciations. Though they have always been 
fnrrounded with enemies^ the nobility and clergy would neveir 
fnfFer any regular military forces to be maintained and properly 
difciplined in the kingdom, iearing that they ihould be a check 
upon their illegal roeafures and tyranny : thefe Tons of infamy 
and rapine would rather fee their country deflrbyed by the Tar- 
tars, Turks, o? by any other foreign ftate, than'do juftice to 
their ivjared fellow ^creatures' and fubjeds : notwithftanding the 
brave Sobeifki fo often faved them when they were at the brink 
of deilrjudlca, and again placed them upon a refpectable footing 
among the other European ftates, to fuch a degree of degeneracy 
and corruption were they then arrived, and fo great were theii" 
fliviiions and animo6ti^s againft each other, that they refufed 
the crown to his fon in order to give it to a dracger wi-ch whom ^ 
they were almoft totally unacquainted | and when Auguflus, 
from a principle of generofity, attempted tq reftore the ftate to 
its ancient fplendor, they joined his enemies to dethrone him« 
after he had fiiewn his benevolent difpofirion towards them in ths 
government of the ftate, and fpent fevcral millions to fave- both 
tbesn and their country from plunder and devadation.' 

Through the whole of thefe two volumes Mr. Williams has 
delineated diflihSly the rife'and progrefs of each government 9 
find he feems to exhibit a faithful, as well as judicious repre- 
fcntation of their prefcnt ftate. 

Vol-. XLV. Jan. 1778. H 4#/- 

~ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t 9« ] 

Letter i 6/ eerlain Ji<wi to Monjtiur de Voltaire. 7ranjlaiei hy itnt 
ten), Philip Lefanu, Z). Z>. 2 Wi. 8«i/o- lOi. m hoards. Robinfon, 

•1TI7I^EN we confider, that, according to the common com- 
^^ pu ration, it is 3 239 years fince the death of Mofcs ; that 
his five books, flylcd the Pentateuch, were written in a lan- 
guage, which is now but very imperfeflly underftood ; that int 
nuinbeilefs infl^nces we are unacquainted with the fofce, the 
beauty, and even the meaning, of his exprcllions, the ufe and 
propriety of his institutions, and the fingular notions and cufl^ 
toms of the ancient patriarchs and Jews % and that he has 
been expofed to peculiar envy, on account of his pretenfions 
to a facred and prophetical charaflcr, and more particularly iti 
confequence of having been the legiflator and. hiftorian of a 
people, who have been defpifed \i^ all other nations; under 
thefe circumftances, we fhall not be furpiifed to find, that his 
writings have been mifreprefented and ridiculed by faperficiai 
writers, wits, deids^ and unbelievers. 

The celebrated M. Voltaire in feveral of his pieces, parti- 
cularly in his Treatife on Toleration, his Philofuphical Dic- 
tionary, and his Pbilofophy of Hiilory, has thrown many af-» 
' perflons on^the Jewifh nation and religion. Befldes fbme n'evir 
objedions, he has produced thofe of Collins, Tindal, and 
others ; and, by the help of an inventive genius and a lively 
iiyle, has given them additional force and poignancy. 

The defign of this performance is to wipe ofF thofe aiper- 
fions, to remove thofe objedlions, to make the illuflrious an* 
thor fenAble of his miflakes and mifreprefentations, and' to 
engage him to corre^ them in the next edition of his 

Thefe letters are faid to have been written by certain Jews 
of the German and Polifli fynagogue at Amfterdam. They 
are dated from the neighbourhood of Utrecht in 177 1> and 
fince that time have gone through three numerous impreffions. 
The prefent tranilation is made from the third, which is im- 
proved by feveral additions.. 

The aiithors are acute and learned writers. They treat their 
adverfary with great refpeft 5 but efFedlually expofe the errors, 
inconfldencies, falfehoods,. and injurious refledtions, which are 
fo be found in his remarks on the hillory of the Jews and the 
writings of the Old Teftament, 

The principal point's in debate are the chara^lers and fub- 
flances ufed for writing in the lime of Mofes, and the polTibilit/ 
of his writing the Pentateuch, the ftory of the golden calf, the 
expence of the tabernacle, the Ifra^lites that were flain on ac- 
count of the Moabitidi vromen and the worlliip of Baal-peor, 

Digitized by ViiOOQlC 

ttlim of cMain Jews to Monf. it Voltafrt; §^ 

wleration under the Hebrew government, the number of wo- 
men and cattle taken from the Madlanites, the Moiaic laws* 
the travels of Abraham, the origin of circumcifiony the richeS 
of Solomon, and the progrefs of arts and fciences among the 

Though thefe topics have been frequently dlfcufTed, yet thefe 
learned Hebrews have placed fomeof them in a new light, and 
foggefted many oblervations, which will afford pleafure and fa^ 
tisladion to all impartial enquirers. 

In order to prove, that it was impoflible for Mofes to write 
the Pentateuch, M. Voltaire obferves, that Collins, Tindal, 
Shaftefbury, Bolingbroke, and others, have Alleged, that in 
thofe ages men had no other way of committing their thoughts 
to writing, but by engraving them upon polilhed flone, brick,, 
lead, or wood; that the Chaldeans and Egyptians had no 
other method, &c. 

On this argument one pf thefe learned Jews niakes the fol* 
lowing remarks : 

« Sappofmg men did not yet know the ufe of colours for 
writing, or did not pradife it, by what authority do thofe critics 
confine the fubftances, on which writing might be engraved, Co 
Aone, wood, or metals ? What reafon have they to doubt that 
in Egypt it %vas engraved on the in fide bark of certain trees ? 
And upon the leaves of the palm-tree ? As has been long prac- 
jtifed in the Indies and in China. 
• * But 'tis too little to fay that their principle is uncertain, I 
fliall add that the contrary is no way doubtful ; and it is not 1, 
but the learned count de Caylus who will inform you. 

*« It is clear, fays he, that as foon as writing was found out, 
it was laid on every thing that could receive ic." Therefore the 
firft writers wrote not only on ftone, metals, or wood, but upon 
every thing that could receive writing. This is the di date of 
reafon, improved by an acquaintance with the arts, and which 
no man of good fe'nfe will deny, if fome private intereft does 
• not fway him to maintain the (Contrary. ^* The fubflances, adds 
th^ illufirious academician, have varied according to times and 
countries. It may however be affirmed that the molt common 
fdbftance, and the lightefl for carriage, claimed the preference 
in a thing fo neceffary;" Without doubt all nations would 
liave preferred fuch fubflances. fiut by a whim inconceivable in 
any other country, the Egyptians and the Chaldeans, precifely in 
the time of Mofes, did quite the contrary. This wife people 
pfreferred fubftances, fo uncommon, fo hard, and fo difficult of 
carnage, that it is paft conception, how any work of moderate , 
length could have been written on them ! 

* * But further, ^even fuppofe your principle as true as it is 
falfe : fuppofe it was an inconteftible fad, that " in the tiafie 
pf Mofes, the only manner of writing was to engrave our 

H 2 thoughts 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

ipo LiU^n ifufUun Ji-ws U l/Unf, dc \5oltaire.. 

thoaghts on poliihed (tone, brick, lead, or wood," woald it 
follow from this, that Mofes could not be the author of the FeH- 
tateach? We allow that it would have been difficult fo engrave 
It on poliffaed done or on burned bricks : but what impoffibilicy' 
inetaphyfical, phyfical or morkl, could there be in his engraving 
it on fofc brick, or if that was inconvenient, on lead^ and if lead 
failed, on wood ? ' 

«* In the time of Mofes, fay thefe learned critics, they bad 

Dp other way of writing but in hieroglyphicks, and therefore 

'they could only write the fubftance of thofe things, which they 

drought worthy of being tranfmitted to pofierity, and could never 

form regular hiftorics in detail*" 

'But firft, is it v^ry certain that in the time of Mofes, the 
only method of writing was hieroglyphical ? The Angularity of 
an opinion is not a title which dt/penfa the propofer from ad« 
ducing proofs : where are the proofs of your writers ? 

< We have fome proofs on the contrary, and I think ^ood 
ones, that even the alphabetical charaAers were known *. Such 
are the novelty of your opinion, and the antiquity of oifr'fi t 
this is a kind of pofieffion which is valid againft vague copjcc>- ^ 
tures and groundleis aiTertions. . Tber^ i% aa improbability in 
your fyftem, that Mofes, who ac^oding to you wrote at leaft 
ills chief laws and the mod interefling events in the hiftory of his 
people, (hould have done it in hi/sroglypbicSf which are. made 
up moilly of the figures of men and animals. He according to 
you, had forbad [forbidden] the engraving any figure, and muft^ 
as other learned men faf » have known that the abufe of thofe 
charafters had been one of the fources of £gyptian idolatry* 
And lafljy, it is improbable, that charaflers very different from 
thofe which were employed by the legiflator and confecrated by 
God himfelf ihould have been fubftituted in the pUce of.thde 
latter, without the leail trace of this remarkable change haying 
been left, in our writings or o«r tradition, 

* To thefe proofs, which relate immediately to u^, add tl^ 
teftlmony even of prophane biilory. This inforq^s us that at- 
snoft all nations have looked on the invention of letters as of 
the moft remote antic[uity ; that the AiTyrians and Chaldeans 
thought them as .ancient as their empire ; that, the Egyptians 
pretended their Thor, or fome of hjs children, were the iiv« ' 
ventors of thena ; " they, fays the celebrated Warburton, wha 
never afcribed the invention of any thing to their gods of which 
they knew the origin ^ that thefe people, in all wjiofe fcienc^s 
Mofes was inftruded, had apolitical and a facerdotal alphabet, 
even in the times of their ancient kiogs ; that Cecrqps a^d Cad- 
mus, one of whom is fuppofed to have lived before the Jewiih le- 
giflator, and the other to have been his cotempprary^ conveyed 

• See Remarks on the Origin of Alphabetic Writing, Crit. Re*. 
vol. xli. p. 3J4, 

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Ziitnj tfctnmn j^rwi n Monf, de VoltaFre* lo| 

^veti tlieii the knowledge of alphabetical charaders int6 
Greece^ &c* &c. 

* All thofe traditions concerning the antiquity of letters^ tra« 
tlitioQs fo ancient, fo univerfal, and which agree fb well with 
ofir facred writings, mud certainly have had fome foundation', 
and deferve fome credit; if not in every minute particular, yet 
in fiibftanCe. Even the uncertainty and variety of opinions on 
this difcovery^ and the difficulty, or rather impoilibilicy, not<- 
withilanding all the refearches of the learned, of affigning ^ 
period to it, (hew incontellably that it runs back to the moQ:* 
diftant ages. Are not thefe reafons, fir, plaufible enough, againil 
kn aiTertion which is delUtute of proofs i 

* Therefore it is not certain that in the time of Mofes the only 
Way of writing was hreroglyphical.* 

, The author proceeds to Ihew, that the following point it 
not more clear^ viz. that with tlie help of hieroglyphics he 
could not have written the Pentateuch. 

* We (hall begin by obferving that thecharaders of. reprefcn^ 
tative and hieroglyphical writing underwent fucceffively divers 
changes. Fird, objeds, filch as they were feen in nature, were 
painted in a clumfy way, and this was probably the firfl manner 
of writing of the ancient Egyptians, Chaldeans, Chinefe, dec. &cw 
and this is Aill the manner of fome American nations. After,* 
^ards thefe object were no longer painted in full, they jud drew 
the contour of ibme of their principal parts. And la/lly, they 
'confined themfelves to thofe lines which were the fitted for de* 
Scribing them. Such Is dill the writing of the Chinefe, as the 
learned tell us ; and it feems to have been that of mod nations, 
«nti], by an happy effort of genius, men thought of defcribtng 
jso longer the ohjeds, but the figns of their coocepttons, that is, 
the words which recall them to our minds. 

* Let us now fuppofe, what you have in no wiie proved, that . 
Mofes really knew none but the hieroglyphical charaders'of the 
iird fort, was it impoflible for him to write, by the help of 
them, fuch a hidory of the Pentateuch, which is an abridgment, 
and confined to things necedary ? The Mexicans were not ac- 
quainted with any other reprefentative kind of writing but the 
fii'd ; and yet tliey had their hidory, which ran from the time 
they entered that country, until the Europeans came and con« 
quered them, and this hidory cogiprehended their laws, the re- 

■galations of their police, the particulars of their £:overnment, &c. 
&£« And why could not the Hebrew legidator write fuch an 
hidory with the fame charaflers. 

* Now if it was not iropoflible to have regular hidories, and 
of a certain length. With the iird kind of reprefentative writing, 
was it not dill mnch lefs fo with the fecond kind, and dill 
lefs again with th« third ; that is, the running hieroglypbicks ^ 
Have not the Chinefe regular hidories in detail ? And yet their 
liFritiDg, as w^ have (hewn, is in the third hieroglyphical man- 

H3 « »cr» 

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los .Litiiri efeirt»M Jmjos i^ Man/, de Voltaire. 

Ucr, or comes very near to it. Now what proofs can yonr critkt 
produce to ihew that Mofes did not know the fecond, or even the 
^ird kind of hieroglyphical writing? 

* Therefore, even fappofing th^t in the time of Mofes hiero* 
^lyphical chara^^ers v^ere ufed, and alphabetical ones unknotyn^ 
It was not iqipoffible for him to wiite (he Pentateuch,! 

In oppoiition to the hiAory of the gatdencalf, M. Vqltaire 
alledges, that chemiftry, in its higheft ftage of perfefiion, can- 
jiot reduce gold to potable powder. Thefc' Jewilh writers 
reply : Stahlj th? celebrated chemift, affirms, that the fait of 
tartar mixed with fulphur, diifolves gold fo as to reduce it to 
fi potable powder. The author of a work, called the Origin 
of Laws, Sciences, and Arts, afferts, that Natron, a fubflanc^ , 
Itn'own in the Eaft, and more particularly near the Nile, pro». 
duces the fame effe£l ; that Mofes, who had been inftrufled ia 
all the fciences of the Egyptians, was very well acquainted with 
the whole power of its operation ; and that he cbuld not have 
devifed a better method of puniihing the treachery of the 
Ifraelites, than by obliging them to drink this powder ; be- 
caufe gold rendered potable in this manner, has a^eteilable 
tafte. Baron, Macquer,Le Fcvre, and other eminent chemift?» 
agree, that nothing is more certain than tlie pollibility of this 
operation, and that we can no longer entertain the leafl doubt 
of the matter. « 

It was impoflible, fays yo}taire, for any artift to make a 
ilatue of gold in lefs than three months. Our authors aiTerty 
that they have confulted feveral workmen upon this occaiion, 
and that thofe artifls have alTured them, that the operation 
might be performed in three days, or in a. lefs time, in pro« 
portion to the fize and fimplicity of the ilatue. 

M. Voltaire, with the writers aboVementioned, thinks it ex- 
traordinary, that Aaron, who was the mod guilty of all, fliouM 
have been rewarded for that very crime, for which the reft 
underwent a dreadfpl puniQicpent, by being appointed high* 
priefl:. ' V 

« The tranfgrcilion of Aaron was certainly grievous and abo- 
minable ; but I pray you noble criticks, Bolingbrooke, Tin* 
dall, Collins, &c. confiderthe circumftahce^he finds himfelf in* 
On one fide, he is as ignorant as the other Hebrews, whether 
his brother will ever return, and whether God, who is now filent, 
will ever again deign to fpeak to his people. On the other hand » 
be is hurried, he is imperioafly commanded. ** Up, fay they, 
inake us gods.'' In vain he drives to calm their fpirits, and to keep 
them faithful to their duty. He knows their violent and im- 
petaoas charaftcr. O fablime philofophers ! your fouls, intrepid 
^nd Grangers to fear, would perhaps have remained unfhakea 
ii^ t)icfe Qurcvmftanccs. Sut a w^ak mind might have been 
i 4^ant«4 

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LtUirs 9/tirtamJiwt H Mf^ de Voltaifc, i^j 

idaunted without a miracle. All hearts are notpofTefTed of that 
Intrepid courage, which philofophy infpires. 

" He fhouid have died," you fay, in another place. He 
ihouldy nobody difputes it But do we always adl as we fhouid ? 
And do we pretend to fay that he was innocent ? 

«* Aaron, the moll guilty of all." Who told you this ? Did 
you read his heart ? How do you know but the dread of vio- 
jeoce, hisrelu^ance in yielding to it, and the bicternefs of his 
repentance rendered him more worthy of being fpared than the 

* He tranfgrcffej, but repentance foon follows the tranfgrefllon. 
; I^hefincericyof his forrow, and the prayers of his brother, dif- 
arm the Lord, who was preparing to exterminate him, with the 
sef( of the guilty. He obtains his pardon, and fome time after is 
raiied to the facerdotal ofHce. This is what your writers call, 
•• being rewarded for his crime." You mull allow, fir, thac 
although this expreilion has the merit of energy, yet it has not 
ipntirely thatof jufioefs/ 

Hei35 our authors very properly obferve, that it ii impoffible 
the relation of Aaron's tranfgreifioq and of the . adoration of 
the calf c^uld have been added to the books of MoTes. 

Who, fay they, could have added the tranigreflion of 
Aaron I it could not have been an author not of the facer- 
dotal order : the priefls, the guardians of the facred writings 
jwould not l^ave fuifered it. It could not have been one of 
ihat order* It is utterly incredible that the priefls fhoold have 
corrupted the records of their religion to diihonour themfelves 
without reafon, by difhonouring their chief and father. Witli 
refpe^l to the people's adoration of the golden calf, if this is 
an apochryphal fa6l, added to the books of Mofes, when, by 
jwhom, and how was it done ? It is not conceivable, tha^ this 
forger could have any intereft to cail a blemifh on his an* 
ceflors and his nation ; or that this forgery could be committed 
without dete£lion and abhorrence* 

What M. Voltaire fays concerning toIeratioR among the 
Jews is particularly diPruffed in "thefe letters. The authors 
Aew, that the fa^ he quotes from their facred hiflory, are 
either foreign to the queflion, or fallly reprefented, or that 
they happened in times of anarchy, captivity, or general cor- 
ruption ; that mofl of the inflances he produces, prove no- 
thing, or militate againft himfelf ; that the Jewifh legiUation 
was of neceflity intolerant, but not the only intolerant one, 
and that this feverity was better conduced among them, than 
amongfl other nations. On this occafion many inflances of 
want of toleration among the ancients are produced, efpecially 
fiinoDg the Greeks and Romans. 

H ♦ ? Th« 

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104 Liittrs rftfriainjtwi U M$nf. de VolraiilB. 

« The decree of Diopyrhes, comntanding, that they fhooM 
be impeached, who denied the exigence of the gods^ the pro* 
fecutions commenced againil Protagoras, the reward offered 
for the head of Diagoras, the dangers of Alcibiades, the flight 
of Ariftotle, the banilhment of Stilpo, Anaxagoras with dif- 
ficulty efcapihg death, Afpafia owing her life to the tears and 
eloquence of Pericles, all the philofophers profccuted for hav- 
ing written or fpoken againft the gpds of the countiy, a 
prieftefs execqted for having introduced ftrange gods, Socrates 
condemned to drink hemlock, ' becaufe he was accufed of not 
acknowledging the gods of the Aate: thefe are fads, which 
atteft too ftrongly the intolerance and feverity of the laws con- 
cerning worlhip, even in the mofl humane a nd.poliih'ed nation 
of Greece, to leave any doubt of the matter. 

The Roman laws Were no lefs clear and fcvere in this refpefl, 
Deos peregrinos ne col unto, •* ftrange gods ihall hot be wof- 
ihipped." A tolerating government does not exprefs itfelf in 
this manner. Folk) w the hiftory of this great people and you 
will find the fame prohibitions given by the fcnate, upon fe- 
veral occasions. See Liv, iv, 30. xxv. i. x^ix, 16. Val. Max** 
irous, Jii. i. Thi$ intolerance was continued under the em- 
perors j witnefs the councils of Maecenas to Auguflus againft 
thofe, who fhould introduce, or honour in Rome other gods 
Than thofe of the empire; witnefs the Egyptian, fuperftitions 
profcribed under this emperor, and under Tiberius | the Jews 
baniihed, if they would not renounce their religion ; but wit- 
nefs, above all, the perfecutions of the Chriftiatis under Nero, 
Domitian, Maximian» Dioclefian, and even under Trajan, and 
M, Aurelius. 

'More examples yet might have been quoted, efptcially m 
reafoning agJtinft M. Voltaire; for example, Abraham perfe- 
cuted for the fake of religion by Nembrod ; Zoroaftcr waging 
war againft the king of Touran, in order to make him con» 
form to the worftiip of fire ; the oath, which every citizen of 
Athens took to defend his religion, and to conform to it withr 
out referve; i^fchylus condemned and led to execution for hav- 
ing fpoken ill of the gods ; the Epicurean philofophers ba- 
niftied from two cities, becaufe ihey corrupted the wiorals of 
the citizens by their maxims and examples ; tne works of Cre- 
mutius Cordus burnt by order of the fenate, &c. which added 
to the others our authors produce, entirely fubvert M» Vol- 
taire's affcrtiorr, that there is tio inftftnce in hiftory of a phi-* 
lofopher's having oppoftd the will of the prince and of the goh* 

Thefe writers have fuggefted thvny fenftbtt rematks on thd 
Jewiib laws j and the comp^rifw they hifvc drawn betweca 


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iMtirt rfiirtnin Jews u Mtmf* it Vdtaire^ ioj 

them, and t>c laws of modern nations, will contribute to give 
us a higher opinion of the Mofaic code, than is generally en^ 
tertained. We ihall fubjoin two or three (hort examples. 

< Mofes fays, *< If a man fmite the eye of his fervant or the 
eye of his maid, and if he finite out his tean-fervant's tootb.or 
his maid^fervant's tooth, he (hall let them go free for the fake 
of the eye or the tooth." You, gentle and humane nations^ 
fay to your negroes, «* that thev arc men like you, redeemed 
With Ihe blood of that G«^, wlio' died for them as well as for 
yoQ. And after this yon make them work like beads of burthen, 
you feed thete ill, and if they attempt to run away, you cutoff 
obe of their legs, and you oblige them to turn a fugar-mill, after 
giving them a wooden one." 

< Our code fays, '' there (hall be no whore [that is, no wo- 
man devoted to proftitution, like the courtezans in the temple 
of Venus at Cofinth] of the daughters of Ifrael." All your ci- 
ties are full of them ; and if we are to believe your wife men, 
there ought to be public endowments for them, and their calling 
ought to be held honourable. 

* It fays, <' lie that is emafculated (hall not enter into the con- 
gregation of the Lord." And Philo afiirms that death was the 
punilhment appointed for thus mutilating a man. But you mu* 
tilate your children '^ to make muGcians of them for the pope's 
chapel," and you poft up in your towns. adverti(emeots int- 
forming the public, where the bed operators in this way maj be 
found. * ^ ... 

* You laugn at the particulars, into which Mo(es enters for ' 
keeping wboleibme air in our camps and cities, and cleanlinefa 
about our houfes and perfons; at the ablutions he prefcribes 
^fter havlAg touched dead bodies ; at the attention he recom* 
mends to us to cover the blood of (laughtered animals, &c* 'Tis 
true your Jaws lay no/uch tronblefomc obfervances on you. No, 
but the mod public places in your capitals prefent us with a 
iiiocking fpe^acle of the carcafes of animals cut up ; the blood 
Dows from ftreet to ftreet, anl the dead infedi the living even 
in your temples. 

^ A contagious difiemper raged in Faleiline and the neigh- - 
boarhood ; the wife precautions of our legiil^tor prevented its 
communication; and your fathers by obferving thefe, at lafl: 
kept off this fcourge. A flill more deHrudive contagion itnows 
down the flower of your youth, and you have no other fecret for 
(curing it, but to give it to yourfelves, and your only method of 
preferving yourfelves from it is to fpread it.* 

. Our authors do not mean, in this laft paragraph, tp con* 
<lemn the pradice of inoculation. They would only^ive the 
preference to Mr, Paulet's prcfervative method, which is the 
fame as that of Mofes against the leprofy. And they tdl us, 
that an emment phyfician is preparing to ftrcngthen it by hew 

M, Vol- 

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io4 tetters tf attain Jvmi to Monf. de Vokaire. 

M. Voltaire iays, the Jews were a wretched nation, ever ig* 
norant and vulgar, iirangers to the arts, and the rooft fupat^ 
ilitious of all people. The fons of Jacob thu$ apologize iof 
their forefathers. 

** The Hebrews were a vulgar people." Do you think, fir, 
that no nations are worthy of efteem but polifhed nations, fuch as 
the Athenians, and the French ? What do you thjnk then of 
thofe renowned people the Cretans, the Spartans, were they 
wretched nations ? 

" Strangers to the arts." Does it become you, a writer of 
the eighteenth century, to charge the ancient Hebrews with ig? 
Borance? A people, who, whilft your barbarous anceftors, whillt 
^ven the Greeks and Latins wandering in the woods, could 
Icarcely procure for themfelves cloaching, and a fettled fubllil-? 
ence, already pofTefled all arts of neceffity, and fome alfb of 
mere plea fu re ; who not only knew how to feed and rear\cattle, 
till the earth, work up wood, ilone, and metals, weave cJoath. 
dye wool, embroider EufFs, polifh and engrave on precious 
ilones, but who, even then, adding to manual arts thofe of 
talleand refinement, fnrveyed land, appointed their fedivals ac- 
cording to the motion of the heavenly bodies, and ennobled 
their folemnities by the pomp of ceremonies, by the found of 
Inllruments, mufic, and dancing ; who even then committed to 
writing the hiAory of the origin of the worjd, that of their own 
nation^ and of their anceftors ; who had poets and writers ikilled 
In all the fciences then known, great and brave cominanders, a 
pure worfhip, jull laws, a wife form of government: in ihort^ 
who is the only one, of all Ancient nations, that has left us au- 
thentic monuments of genius and of literature/ Can this natioa 
be juftly chai-ged wi(h Ignorance?' — 

*< The moft fuperiiitpus of all people." Either you are ab- 
fe;nt, fir, or you do not fpeak ferioufly. Yoo certainly forget 
the Greeks, with their abfurd theogony, and their adulterous, 
ravrfhing, plundering gods, &c. the Egyptian worihipping g09ta 
and monkies, and olFering incenfe to cats and crocodiles, tp 
]eeks and onions ; the Romans confulting the facred chickens on 
the fate of battles, and confecrating ftatues to the god Fart, al- 
tars to Terror, and temples to Fever ; the Perfian proftrate be- 
fore fire, covering his mouth with a veil, left be fiiould contar 
ninate it with his breath, and rubbing himfelf over with th^ 
orine pf an ox, as a purification ; the Indian ftanding whole 
months on one leg, his arms extended, his neck inclined, or 
driving large nails into his buttocks, and dying with refign- 
ation, holding a cow's tail in his hand. You forget all the na- 
tions of antiquity paying religious worfhip to wood and ftone, 
fearching for future events in the courfe of the heavenly bodies, 
and in the flight of birds, confulting foothfayers, interrogating 
the dead, applying to enchanters, trembling before forcerers, Slq^ 
in « word, given up to the moft abfurd and extravagant fuper^ 


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4itioQ8» And even if their faperditions had been merely ridi-r 
culous and abfurd, buc they had many befides which were im? 
pure and cruel ! How many nacioRS thought they honoured their 
gods by infamous debauchery and (hocking facrifices, in which 
their fellow*creatures or their own children ferved as viflin^s ? 
All thefe ridiculous and abominable fpecies of fuperflition tole* 
rated, authorifed by their laws, and which amongft them formed 
a part of publick worfliip, were exprefly forbidden to the Jew by 
his law ; and yet you charge him with having been the mod fa. 
perftitious of all men ! If we judge of this people as we ought to 
do, by its worfhip and its laws, it has been certainly lefs tainted 
with fuperdition than any pther ancient people.' 

In this manner thefe learned Jews have endeavoured to vin- 
dicate their nayon, their legiflator, and their ancient writings ; 
«nd we muil confefs, that, though there are difficulties and 
objedions ftill remaining, we have read their apology with 
pleafure* We are indeed fo far from joining M. Voltaire in 
wiihing to expofe the character of the Jewifli legiflator, that we 
ihould rejoice to fee it raifed above all exceptions : net merely 
becaufe the Pentateuch is admitted into our canon of fcripture» 
but on account of his hiftory, which, in our eAimationt is in- 
finit.ely more valuable than that of Herodotus, Thucydidest 
Livy, in (bort, of any other Greek or Roman writer, as it 
comprehends an interval oi 2S5* years* which, without it, 
would have been a blank in the annals of time, a period of 
titter darknefs and oblivion* 

*- >" ■ ■ ' > 

Letters f the King^ from an old patriotic ^uaker^ laielj deceafed. 
%*vo* 21. 6d.fewed. Baldwin. 

^T^HE charaSer in which this author writes^ is peculiarly fa* 
-*> vourable to his piirpofe,. uniting in its idea that fimplicity 
of manner which excludes the imputation of artifice, and is the 
beft calculated for qualifying the unreferved freedom of a fub« 
jed in a public addrefs to his fovereign. But a nominal dif^ 
tindion, however privileged, we fhould not confider as worthy 
of any regard, were it npt fupported by the more eifential in* 
dications of candour and benevolence ufually afcribed to the 
fed, and which, it mufl be admitted, this author appears to 

The correfpondence begins with the following letter, on the 
delicate fituation of princes* 

< To George the Third, King of Great Britain and the do^ 
IBJnions thereunto belonging, one of the people called Quakers 
-irifUetb all happinefs in (oui, body, and eftate. 

' Patriots didate to kings, and I afTume the name merely 
^ my advice may have the more dignity and weight. Nor 

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lo8 I "^ ^utit^ Lif/irs t§ thi Kiig. * 

<i« I approach the throne either with fear or tremblittg, bat 
with a heart full of confidence in thy docility and attention. 

< It is not the province of one mortal to know the thoughts 
of another; but the countenance is often an index to the mind;^ 
and Heaven has marked thee with diftindion infinitely prefer- 
able to all the enfignia of royalty— /ifc^ exterior of an bomft mmm. 
, V * In the entry, it may be proper to obferve tjiat it will be as 
much for thy convenience as for mine, to forget but a few mo. 
ments where and what thou art. 1 afk nothing more to the 
fuccefs of my propofal. The fycophants and fpaniels who 
fawn, uncover, and kneel in thy prefence, may fometimes va^ 
fluence thee to think thyfeif more than man, while the hividi- 
ous and lefs fucoefsful rivals of thy favour, would have us be^ 
lieve thee to be lels. For my part, I wifh to find thee only ift 
the full and liberal exercife of all thofe powers and faculties 
which God has given thee, with thine ears unoccu^d, thy 
heart unbtafTed, and thy mind open to convtdtion. 

< I miift be free to confider thee fimply as one of the bre- 
thren and fiiends, wluch would to God thon wert. This ide^ 
will-be h« degradation of thee, and will, befides give a loofe 
to my whole heart, which in truth is as full of affeAion far thee 
and thine, as thou can'ft wiHi. Truft me, it will be no blot 
pu tbe. annals of thy reign, when both of us are reclaimed bf 
^ur niother earth, that a .poor, obfcure Quaker had the ho«- 
nefty, amidfl the tumult of the people, to lift op hi» voi^ 
from afar ; and that the greateft of kings, by deigning him a 
hearing, ihewed himfelf alfo to be among the heft of men, 

' As highly as thou art exalted above thy fellow creatures, it 
becomes thee to underfland a little of their roihds. Providence. 
as thou well knoweft, hath placed thee on an eminence to watcn 
the interefl of others with fympathy and tendernefs, not to look 
down upon any with rndifFerence or contempt ; and it is not 
lefs happy for thee than for them, that thou art io deeply cor^^ 
cerned in their fentimehfs. Thou mighteft, otherwiTe, liftfe 
many unfortunate pfinces of -immortal infamy, have precipi- 
tated thyfeif into immediate wretchednefs and U(!ing difgnlce^ 
but Whilft thy only glory is in the love and loyalty of ir popuP- 
ouSf powerful, and undivided kingdom^ while thy greafnefs 2s 
their happinefs, and their liberties the ible objefl of all thy ml- 
toiftrationsi the crown (hall iiouriifa on thy head and defcend 
with honour to thy fon, 

'* fi deferves to be engraven on thy heart, as the firft and bcft 
of all maximSy ** that our civil and religious privileges are tfife 
only ftaple pillars of thy th/oncj and that our profpcrir^ is- tttjr 
fele ibcority." Then art ta us what the head is to the body. 

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A ^ier*s Letttrs to thi King. I«9 : 

and haft all the reafon in the world to fufpcft thyfclf, whenever 
not fenfibly afFe£ted with our minutc<l complaints. 

* Thou can'ft no^, therefore, in the prefent critical pofture of • 
aflPairs, be indifferent to our opinions. It is well known (low 
rudely and roundly thou and thy fervants are cenfured* for car- 
rying on a bloody and expenfive war againft the FriiuJj, and 
others in America. Far be it from one of the fuffering, pcrfe- 
cuted, and deprefTed brethren, to join the clptdren of thia 
world in waging their intemperate tongues againd the JLord's 
anointed. Nor have I the vanity to expert that from thee^ 
which thou haft denied to thoufands : much lefs that my ad- 
vipe Ibould be followed in oppofition to thatof thy parliament* 
and privy council. I am old enough to know what influence 
the voice of a private individual generally has on thofe in a^ 
poblic ftation^; but, whatever fhould be the confequence, thoti 
ibalt moft certainly hear from me, what thou never didft, nor 
eyer can hear from fuch as have an intereft in deceiviog^ 

The fubfequent Letters are employed on the following fabjeds' 
refpediv^ly $ on the religious fyftem of the Quakers, and hoir 
it regelates their manners ; on the religion of the world as it' 
operates on various faihionable profeflions in-fociety ; on our 
national profperity at the commencement of the prefent reign ^ 
on the difiicul ties infeparable from a continuance of the war;- 
ob augmenting the ftrength and heightening the clamouc of 
oppofition ; on tlie importance ot a prince's underftanding the 
real condition of bis people ; on the immoral tendency of the 
prefent commercial fpirit ; on the infidious policy of France, 
and the probability of a French war ; on the dilatory and im- 
politic manner if> which our colonial war has been hitherto 
conducted ; on their fyllem of politics to whom every meafure 
of adminiftration i& equally obnoxious ; on the principle of re«- 
Aftance inherent in the Englifh conftitution ; on the diftrefsfut 
fuuatipn to which we are at prefent reduced ;. on extent of ter^ 
ritory as inimical to the profperity of the ftate ; on the impro^ 
bability of fubjugating the rebels ; on the bad confequences in* 
evitable from the fuccefis of oup arms ; on the neceffiry of an 
immediate accommodation ; on what the moft political mea» 
fures to be stdopted are, on the fuppofition we were conquerors;, 
on political writers ; on the profpe^lof a general reformation^ 
We have been the more gratified in the peruial of thefe Let« 
ters, a$ the author feems not to he inlifted on the fide of any: 
party, and exprefies an honeft indignatipn at the fa^ious opp(^• 
fition to government, which h unfortunately dtfiingliiihes the* 
prefent times. He difcovers fuCh an apprebenfion . however^ 
refpe^ng the peraicfQus coAftquence^ of the prefent war. to the. 


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I Id Cole*i OhfifvattMS « tbi Natan and ProptrtUs »/ Light i 

mother country, that we cannot entirely acquit him of a latent 
prediledion for the colonics. But let it be acknowledged that 
his opinions and arguments are confiflent with the pacific dif* 
pofition of that ie£t of which he profefies himfelf a member i 
and that while he has fuggefted many important and judicious 
obfervations, he has neither addrefTed the throne with Che en- 
thuiiafm of a religious, nor the more offeniive petulance of a 
political zealot.* He has equally avoided adulation and arro* 
gance, and his ftile is poltihed without deviating from the 
cbafte fimplicity of his charader. 

Obfer^vathns and CenjeQurei en tbi Natmn and Fnpirtin tf Lights 
and on tbt fheorj of Comits. Bj William Cole. 8«0. zs. 

€ r^ F all the operations of nature, fays this writer, that 
^^ have engaged the attention of philofbphers, none have 
been more clearly explained, or more fatisfadorily accounted 
for, than thofe which relate to light and colours. The theory 
eflablifhed by Sir Ifaac Newton,, upon the folid bafts of expert- 
inent and fa6l^ feems to carry with it fuch force of convidion, 
as is fcarce pol&ble to be refifled by an unprejudiced enquirer 
after truth. Objedions however have been often flarted againft 
this, as well as the other difcoveries of our great philofopher ; 
and of late fome opinions ieem to have been gaining ground 
relating to this dodrine, which flrike at its root, or at leafltend 
to involve it in confiderable obfcurity. 

• My defign in the following papers is, to examine the force 
of thefe objections, and this chiefly in order to introduce fbme 
obfcrvations and conjcftures which either arife from the New- 
tonian theory, or at leafi tend to confirm and illudrate it« 
Premifing however, that fuch of them as do not appear to be 
fufficiently warranted by experiment, I would wi(h the reader 
to confidcr as bypotbefis merely, till they fhall be either eflablifh- 
ed or exploded by further experiments.' 

Mr. Cole then mentions what feems to have been Sir Ifaac 
Newton's idea of the nature of light. And after fpecifying fe- 
parately fome objeflions that have been flarted, and fome novel 
opinions that have been broached, he delivers, in a plain, mo- 
dcfl manner, his defence againfl the former, and his examina- 
tion of the latter. The particulars which he chiefly animad- 
verts upon, are fuch as thefe : That of an univerfal ple-^ 
num. That the particles of the xtherial medium and thofe of ' 
light and heat, are the fame. That light is not matter, but 
only an aiFedtion of it, or a vibratory motion propagated in the 
« particles 

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Cote*i Ol/ervMHoat en tbi Nature aai ProptttUi of Ligit. 1 1 f 

t^iarticles of matter; And feveral other things that have appear* 
ed as obje^ions. His examinations of thefe pofitienSy although 
they may not fuggcft the opinion of great erudirion, are yet 
delivered in fuch a manner as difcovers a modeft difpofition, with 
a fufficient degree of penetration and knowledge of the fubjedk 
of his enquiries. In his examination of fome objedlions made 
from the opinion that light has been confidered as a continued 
fnediumy that in fach cafe its amazing velocity and great 
quantity of matter muft produce very fenfible momentum, &c. 
he has the following ingenious reflexions, < Light, then, I ^ 
apprehend, pofTelTes none of the properties of a fluid ; but con* 
fifts of foiid bodies, or particles of matter, projeded from the 
luminous body, and fucceeding each mother in right lines. For 
if light were a fluid, the rays or fireams, muf^, according to 
the foregoing objedion, tertainly 0bflru6l each other in. their 
pafTage. The fame objeXion would dfo obtain, if the parti* 
cles that compofe a ray of light be fuppofed to follow inftanta-* 
neoufly, or to, be contiguous to each other. Now there are 
many ohfervations which flrongly incline us to think, that th^y 
do not follow indantaneoufly, but fucceed each other at con* 
iiderable dif^ances. 

* In the fiiil place, the great Author of Nature has fo formed 
our organs of fight, that the idilantarieous fuccelHon of the 
particles in a ray of light is not neceflTary to produce diftinft 
vifion. For the impreffions made by a ray of light upon the 
fetina, and communicated from thence to the brain throii^h 
the optic nerve, are of a lafling nature i and therefore if a fe- 
cond particle fucceeds before the impreflion made by the fit ft 
ceafes, the vifion will be as diAinfl as if the fucceflion were in- 
Aantaneous. Now as the all-wife Author of our being has 
made no part of our frame without its ufes, it is reafbnable to 
fuppofe, that this would not have been the confirudlion of the 
organ, if there had been no necedity for it ; and it does not ap- 
pear, that there would be any fuch neceffity, if the particles of 
light, were contiguous, or fucceeded each other inflanraneoufly. 
Therefore we may with great reafon conclude, that the parti- 
cles do in fa£l fucceed each other at confiderable diftances. 

' But it will be worth while to examine this matter further, 
and endeavour to find out, nearly, the diflances at which the 
piirticles may fucceed ; and this may be done by the following 
eafy and fimple experiment. Let a burning coal be moved 
round in the circumference of a circle, with fuch a velocity as 
fo make one revolution in about one fourth ef a fecond of time, 
then a beholder will fee an entire circle of fire ; confeqnentiy 

. the impreflions on the retina continue, during one revolution of 
the coal, or about one fourth of a fecond of time,. Hence it 


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1 1 9 1 Oole'i Oifi¥v0iUns en ih Nature and Fnpittm •/ Light. 

appears, tbat \i the particles of light fueceed each other every 
quarter of • fecond^ the vifioa will be diftiaa. But we will ^ 
fuppofe the panicles to fueceed much quicker, and to ftrike the 
reiiiia an hundred titnet in a feeond, or fi^ thoufand rimes in a 
minute. Now as light is about fevcn minutes in paffing from 
the fun to the earth, or about eighty one millionirof miles, we 
find, that, according to this fuppofition, the particles will fue- 
ceed each other at a dithnce of near two thoufand niiles. 

* If then we confider the particles of light as fucceeding each ' 
other at this diftance, the greateft part, if not all, of Mr. Bry- 
dojie's objeflionis entirely vaniih. For though the fuccelfion' in 
refpe^i to time be almoft Inftantaneous, yet the diftance of the 
particles from each other being very confiderable, it will be ea- 
fijy conceived, that the feveral rays, or dreams of fuch parti- 
cles, may pafs through the vaft regions of fpace without any 
fcnfible obhru&ion. For thoUgh ibme of the particles may 
poilibly firike others intl^eir paiTage, yet if only one particle in 
tv^eiity, p3fling in the fame direAion, arrives at the eye unin- 
terrupted, the vifion wHl be diftinfl and perfedt, 

• Hence alfo we fee the reafon why the momenta of the par- ^ 
tides of light produce no greater efFeds. For the motion ex- 
cited h^ one particle in fome m^afure fubfides before a fecohd 
particle fucceeds; and in the interval between thefe fuccelfive 
ilrokes, the particles ef the body upon which the light falls 
will be reftored to their former fituation, by their own elafti-' 
city, and alio bythc p^rcuiiion of the adjacent rays; The par-' 
tlcles of the body, being thus alternately impelled and reftored, 
w4U be put into a vibratory motion, like that, whereby heat is 
excited, or wherein it is fuppofed by fome to confift/-— But as 
o^r limits will pot permit us to make extrads Arfiicieht to ex- 
plain his feverai ingenious refledlions, we mud refer to the book 
itfelf, fuch enquirers as would be fully acquainted with them. 

The other part of this ' little work, is employed in con- * 
(klerations on the phaenomena of comets.— The author here 
v^ry ably refutes the notions of fome modern pbilofophers, who 
having amufed themfelves with twirling an eledlrical machine, 
imagine they are able to explain all the operations in nature 
hy its rotation ; and the motion of comets, among many others 
equally rational.^ — The obje^lipns of fuch gentlemen, fcarcely 
deferve notice^ being the refult of the grofleit ignorance in the 
mechanical efFeds ot combined forces.- * 

Mr. Cole then takes occaOon to remark on the very irregular 
n)otions and appearances of comets, and he feems inclined to 
think, not only thai towards their extreme diflances from the 
^vii they may be fenfibly aflfedled by the attraction of other 
fyflems or flacs, bat that they may frequently go off from n^t- 

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StUa Litters from th Huthefs of Somerfet , Gfr. ii^ 

fun with v«locit»cs foAicient to give them a paraboHc or hy- 
perbolic path, in whiph cafe their motion, contitiping till they 
reach the outlines of other fyftcn;is, they may either become 
permanent partsr of them, or be returned thence in like .manf» 
ner from them towards other different fiars» and fo be made a 
kind of fugitives through unbounded fpace ! 

Whether any truth may hereafter be found. in thele re^ 
fledions, it muft be owned that the author manifeAs a good 
degree of ii^enuity, and renders them feemingly neither im- 
poffibk nor improbable. 

, SmUB LHt9f$ httnMin thi hte Dmbefi of Somerfet, Loily Loxbo^ 
rough, Mifi Dolman, Mr. Whiftlcr, Mr. R. Dodfley, WiU 
liam Shenftone, Efq. and others ; includini a Sketch of the Man* 
fsersg Laws, b^e, of the Refuhlic of Venice, and fome poetical 
Pieces i thi tuboU now frft fuhlijhed from original Copies f hy Mr* 
Hulh 2 Wi. %vo. lou hoards. Dodfley. 

THE propriety of giving to the public letters never defignel 
for its perufal, is a queftion which yet remains to be de* 
termined, Mr. Pope in fome of his writings, unlefs ofxr mc* 
mory fail us, declares that it would give him pleafure to rea4 
the private letters of a child, if it could expreis its ideas. They,, 
wbd are of the fame opinion, will not be dlfpleafed at the dally 
increa^ of publications of this mature. Notwiihftandiog we 
hav|? gen^roufly given the woipen all the credit for curiofity, it 
is R^ pertfaps equally i^ommon to both fexes. There is fomething^ 
fo agreeably in feeing tvhat was not defigned for us to fee« in 
reading what was not intended for our perufal, that private 
letters wilil nercr ceafe to be a fund of public amufement. 
One of the ancients wifhed he had a window in his breaft» that 
mankind might fee his very foul — we moderns wifh one an- 
other's bofbms were glazed, merely, from motives of curiofity* 

The prefenteoUe^ion of Letters is publifhed by Mr. Hull^ 
of Coveot* garden theatre. Though fome of them be intereft- 
Jing^ and isany entertaining, not a few might be fpared; 
^Ipecially in the fecond. volunEie. - To fay the truth, if it had 
not been determined, from reverence for the memory of Mr. 
Shcfnilone, or from fome more politic motive, to fpread thit- 
publication into two o6tavo volumes, we could have liked it 
better in one. But the nibft difficult talk, either for the pub- 
liflier, or the author, is to hlot. Churchill faid, < it was like 
cutting iiway one's owti flefh.' 

The fabfequent letter ibems to give a perfeA picture of Mr« 
Shenftone^s turn of mind« Reynolds might aloliofi paint his 
portrait from it. 

V6l. XLY. fit. i%7S. i ! W. Shctt* 

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1 14 SiUa Uitm frm th Vuhtfi 9/ Soimcrret, tfr* 
« W. Shenftoae, Efq. to Lady Laxboroagb, 
* Dear Madam, The L^afower^ 

* Though I think it a fort of maxiniy that a pcribn in London 
fehiom complains he is forgotten by his friends in the coantry, 
-yet 1 cannot, by any means, prevail upon my confcience to ac 
quit me of a fort of difrefpedlfuf filence, fioce yon r lady fhtp 
went to town, it was not either the politics or the amofements 
cf our great metropolis, that could make the letters of yoor 
if lends appear impertinent, or even indificrent to you ; and 
' though the fublime entertainment you muft receive from thecon-' 
verfation of fo great a man as lord Bolin^broke, might bid the 
faireft to dofo, yet was I not without conviAion, that your lady- 
ihip would feel fome fort of complacency i|pon the fight of afcrip 
pf paper, which ihou-d acqaaint you that I w^s alive* . 

* Alive, indeed, I am ; at lead, if it may be called fo, to 
cxlft among a fet of people, whofe employments, paffions, and 
ientim.ents, are entirely foreign to my own ; and where I fee, 
iind he^r, and do nothing, but what 1 think may as well be 
left unfeen, unheard, and undone. What can your tadyfhip 
. lexpedt from a correfpondent fo iituated, befide pore refpeft and 
Criend(hip, and many artlefs affurancea of their reality and cea« 
jy nuance ? 

, * Mr. 0—*- ftayed pretty near a week with me. He has, I 
think, Arid honour, good nature, and good fen{e. What he 
wants, in my eye, is a little genuine talle ; for though good 
lenfe may, by degrees, enable a prerfon to difcover the beauties 
^f nature or art, yet it can never fumifh him with any extra- 
ordinary reliih cr enjoyment of them, which is the effect of in* 
pate tafte alone, and whiph diCers as widely from the former, as 
the palate differs from the brain. Your lady(hip has, I dare fay, 
frequently made the fame obfervation. . 

• You will hear fir Thomas Lyttelton, notwithflanding h* 
complained almrays of his head, died of a polypus in the great 
artery ; which, I do not find, was ever, in the leaft, fufpeded 
by his phyficians \ but which, if it had been ever fo apparent, 
they could not pofllbly have cured. You will imagine that bis 
death mail have thrown a fort of gloom round the villages in 
iis neighbourhood. A numerous and falhionable fjynily ani* 
mates a country place to an inconceivable degree. The family 
at Hagley will be immediately difperfed. Mifs Lyttelton goea 
to lady Litchfield's, to the colonel's, to London, and doe* not 
ihink to fettle. Mifs Wefl goes firft taStow, and then intends 
to reftde with her brother the commodore. Sir George and hit 
lady fet out for Londoa to morrow, and as they propofe to 
)>uild, next fpring, upon the ddfowdati^n^ it may be many 
years ere they come to refide among^ us, evea for a fmall par^ 
of the fummer. 

• * Lord Dudley and I dined together at Hagley laft WedneC- 
day, where we foaad lord Anfoa'r brother, a&d fome dflter com^ 


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S^A^ lannfrem tit, buthifs 6f%omtxT^t^ tSt. 1 1 y 

)»any. Mr. Miller unlackily alked me at table, how I liked 
the new fituation of their column i which threw me under a oe« 
teflity of ofFendiDg cither againft the rules of politentfs^ or (what 
is more facred with me) the laws of fincerity^ The truth is, I 
do not like it upon many accounts ; and I am perfuaded, before 
inany years are pad, they will be of the fame mind. But Icaft 
^f ally do 1 approve their intentions of building three new 
fronts, and altering every room by a Gothic model, and that 
with an eye to frugality, at the fame time that they have not aa 
inch of Gothicifm about the houie, to warp thei^r imagination 
that way. But this fubjeft never fails to lead me too far ; nor 
can Texplain royfelf to the full, nnlefs I could fhew yoni* lady« 
Ihip their plan. The fine fituation they have, within an hun- 
dred yards, they neglcft ; — in ihort, as it appears to me, they 
ar6 goi|ig to facrifice an opportunity of rendering their place 
complete, for the fake of an imperfect, butexpenfive fpecimea 
of Gothic ar'chitedure ; which, not having; its foundation ei- 
ther in truth or proportion, will fall into diigrace again in the 
courfe of a few years — Can one then forbear cryjng out, ** The 
graces droop" — " Am I in Greece or in Gothland ?" But as 
their refobtion fee nis fixed, 1 mention this in confidence, aoTd 
iaaft» for the future, lay my finger on my mouth. 

« Mr. S ■ ■ has fo mangled and disfigured my grove, that 

5[ dare not fend it to your ladyfhip, till he* has altered the plate» 
b as to render it lefs intolerable, Flaellin, as I remember, ia 
Shakefpeare, fpeaking of the near , refemblance betwixt Ma« 
cedon and Monmouth, obferves, '< There is a river in Macedon* 
there is a river alfo in Monmonth — peradventure, there be fifh 

in both.— Would you dcfire better fimilitude?'*S being a 

XDodeft man, bae (eemed to content bimfelf with fome degree of 
refemblance; bot I wifh, him well, and will caufe him, ona 
day, to do the place judice, for his own fake as well as mine— » 
'for his own, as his piece will be feen by many who know the,, 
|>lfce, and for mine, as the placets known to dfibrd the'beft 
icene I have. - I am, &c. 

W. Shenftone/ 

Another to the faibe lady, on the death of his brother^ 
will not fail to affect our readers, and to ma(&e them love the 

* DiearMadam, Dec. 30, 175 1. 

. < I had wrote to your ladyflilp !on^ before this time, to ac- 

• knowledge the kindnefs of your letter and prefent : but I have 

Jtmoil deplorable account to give of my delay, and what fo 

good a friend as yourfelf wjll not read without a figh. Alas, 

dear madan), I have kft my only brother ! A more fincere or 

' tnrly afiFeAionate one never bore the name. I cannot now add 

. more ; thoegh I ihould not want matter to expatiate upon hui 

aierit,, if I w^re not at the fame time to rievive and lament the 

..l«^ of it* He is gone before me in the very prime of his days. 

La ii^d 

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1 16 SfU^l Lftfirs/rottt thi Ducbtfs ^Soincrfat, tit^ 

andeisc the force of hisjinderilaDdiAgy or the benevoteaceof bu 
heart has bceo half exei'^ed or knpwa. 

' Future letters, and other converfatjons, roayvaiford ine an 
opportunity to pdur out all my foul ; at prefenty I am not 
enough maftcr pTmyfelf. I find all my viewjs intercepted: my 
ichemes, meafures, and even my heart itfelf, to he well nigh 
broken. I have loft that fpirit of a man, which alone is able cp 
fuftain bis iofirmities. Every objed round me, that was onc^ 
the fourcfS of my amufement, revives a train of ideas that I can 
hardly render fupportable. I procure a fet of low friends to chadt 
around me, and call off my attention. Bat the gceatpil relief ^ 
have found, fince the fatal clofe of November, is what I havp 
drawn ffom ilupefa£lion. 

• Pardon me, my good lady ; I do not mean to make a dif- 
.play of i^y afiidioh.. 1 mention it, that you may account for, 
and excufe a;py omiffions or improprieties in your unfortunate 

^ Since this unhappy cataftrophe, it has been my lot to hear 
of one that mnil xi^nTly atfedl your ladyfliip. Believe me, my 
honoured lady; I am far from an unconcerned obferver of events., 
that mud afford you either pleafure or pain. But I am not in )a 
condition to receive relief, and how can I pretend to give it ? 
0*e thii.g, however, 1 will fgggeH— I thinly Caefar coofe^nTed 
at an earlier period of life than what my lord Bolingbroke at* 
lived at, that he ha4 lived enough, either in rqgard.tpnatarie 
or to glory. 

• Duiing the hejght of oar aiKi^iqus, we can fcarce belieKp^ 
it poffible they fh odd ever wear ofF. In my cafe, therje arp 
feme particulars which render it improbable they fliould. Yei 
time, we find, alleviates the misfortunes of oihers, and it is 
fiiriii^ we fhould hope implicitly, that it may fome how di- 
minilh our own. 

• I will excafe your ladyfhip from dwelling upon the fabjefi. 
Aiiire me only of the continuance of your cftcem, and it wiii 
be of greater fervice than wholc^ volumes of philofophy. 

• Pr4y be To good as to write or dilate a letter to me. I 
carneftly pray that it may be the former^ I am, dear madam, 
with ail the tend«rnefs of my prefent iiate of mind, }^oujr '^mofl 

obliged, faithful, 

and very afFedionate fervant, 

' W. Shcnftone. 

« This is the third time 1 have be^un this letter, witiduC bc-^ 
ing able to iiniih it till now. If your ladyihip will favour mc* 
with a line, i hope to be able to anfwer it without the fame ^ 
difikulty. " .'• 

• 1 have fome thoughts of waiting on you at Barrels tw a 
ve^k, when 1 hear you are come down, but! have had a kiifd 
of nervous h\eT^ for which I have been taking medicine*^ 
This I did, though 1 knew at the fame time how inefieAual ihty 

4 . mull 

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SfUQLttiirsfrom thi Duct/ft g/^Sodicrfct, fafr. X 1 7 

mail prove. I was taking drugs from the ihop to core anxiety 
of. the mind.' 

We Aall give part of a Ihort letter from a Mr. H — to Mr. 
Shenflooe; becaufe it ihows how the human mind takes its 
colour from the laA fceoe it fees; whether that laft fcene be 
the city or the country, the college or the camp. We do 
not know who this Mr. H~> is, but we would not lay a wager 
that, notwithflandiftg this letter, he is not flill to be found 
amidil the buftle and the hurry of the world. Retirement, 
dear retirement, is in every body's mouth, and in moft peo- 
ple's power — ^but how few do any thing more than talk about 
i^-and about it, to the end of the chapter? 

< I have not been at Coventry yet : neither d6 I intend to 
enter often into a place fo diametrically oppoiite to thofe fylvan ^ 
fcenes I was entertained with at the Leafowes. Oh !. when fhall 
I fit doij^n and end my days on fttch^ a fpot fom'ewhere near 
you ? The money-getting flaves all think me mad, to fpend my ^ 
lifjP in idlenefs, and wonder I have pafled another year without 
iettiog up in my bufinefs. Sordid wretches ! whofe only God^ 
is gold. How defpicable moil life appear, when it has pad' 
away only in colledihg a heap of ihining cinders ! My refo-» 
latioDs are more ftrongly attached than ever to retire. When I 
co^e over, I porpofe to ulk with Mr. Shaw about Palmer's- 
Hill, which, if not much out of the way, I will parchafe. I 
fiiould be glad, when you meet any of the workmen, yoa would 
a(k, now and then, how they go on at Northfield. { hope 
yourfelf and all friends are well, to whoin m^ beA devoirs,. 
from ' ^ 

Your affedionate friend and humble fervant, - 

J. S. H--n.' 

Part of another letter we (hail infert, on which our readers 
vr\\ make their own obfervations. 

' * This can prove no other than an heavy, ftppid letter, agree- 
able to the prefent difpofition of my mind. The mod it can 
pretend, is to acquaint yod, in vulgar terms, that you retain 
your ufual place in my a^^Erdion and efteem: yet this may bd 
no trivial inTorraation, now you have accepted a place at coiirr, 
irnd ha^e left your friends at liberty to form conjedures about 
yodr ftttvre condud; to continue, or to difmifs you, as oar 
eledors do their reprefentatives. Be this as it will, I coofefs 
that J recfanfe yon, and wiih that every court in Burope confided 
of as honeft men« 

» You 4tt in the right to decline taking M-^^— s, if you find 
the fchene too expen five ; and as he could not have coAie int6 
your fervice, without purchafing his time out ^m bis mafier, 
i beHeve it will now be his- point to continue with hito till the 
CxpiradoA of his iadentJires. 

I J ?!« 

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a iS SiM Litlmfrm th Puchfi of SotnttttU He. . 

< I am now in fome fort of doubt, concerning the managip- 
meot of my fnuff-box ; whether to have it repaired in the cheap- 
en way, with a figured tortoife-lhell on the top, and a plain 
ton^ife-fliell in the bottom ; or to Exchange the gold of it, and 
have a figured tortoife-ihcU box with a gold rim, Ukeyoun wfb , 
a gilt etUf only in the ihape of an oblong fquare, a lictle rounded 
at the corners. 1 fhould have no thoughts of this, but that my 
own feems too little and unmanly. Give me your opinion 
foon ; though, if this latter fchem€ includes much expence, pro- 
ceed with the former, if you pleafe, immediately. 

' I defire my gold clafp and rim may be dirc£tly exchanged ; 
I i}i^ll have a new gold clafp and rim : perhaps, may enclofe a 
pattern for the former, before I feal this letter, ^tere^ there- 
fore, whether the man, who makes it, will now allow molt in 
the exchange. 

; < I believe I fhall defer the purchafe of my favourite watftcoat 
till the fpring. My vifitants begin to fail me, (though fir George 
Lyttelton, the dean, and Mr. Lyttelton, were here yefterday) 
my verdure abandons me, and I nave little elfe to do, than go 
to deep for the winter.' 

No itian is a heroe to his valet de chambre, was the remark 
of a French prince. Permit us to obferve, that no man is. a 
pdct while he is fo carneft infuch trifles as thefe. 

The fixth letter of the fecond volume from a Mr. Whiftler 
to the bard of the l.cafowes, does credit to the heart of the 
writer, and cannot fail to pleafe the reader. 

* Dear ^u 
f I received your agreeable letter ; read all the fine things 
your (I fear prejudiced) good-nature made you fay ; at firft, 
diftruiled them s but when I tefieded on the pcufon who faid 
the;n, I found a flrong inclination rife in me to believe ihem^ 
'but how to be convinced I was flill at a lofs ; for I know it. is. 
in your power, either to make flattery pafs for fincerity, or fin* 
cerity (fo juflly dreaded from the unfkilful) pleafing. But be ie 
•s it will, I fliall be a gainer by it ; for if 'tis flattery, it wiQ 
give me a fair reputation, though undeferved, with all who hear 
It ; but if 'tis true, it will aiTure me, I deferve oue from «11 who 
can like you beflow one. 

< You enquiri^d after Mr. D — • He, and his lady, and Mifii 
B— 8, have drank tea with me twice within this fortnight. W9 
went to Chrift^Charch prayers together, from thence^ arrayed 
in gold and filver, we ruOied into St. John's- Chapel, where w» 
dood, knelt, and fat^, (I wont fay prayed) the whole fervice- 
time; for you know it is ufual there for Grangers to fit in the 
choir, which we did, to the great advantage both of the fan 
and the fnuiF-box, which were neither of them long unemployed, 
during divine fer vice. You know they are great helps to dc-r 
votion : fnufiT certainly compoies^ aQd^ fan may waft a foul tQ 
lieaveA before it is aware* 

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SekS Ltttinfr^ tU Ihuhefs of Somerret, tsTc, 1 1 9 
« Mrs. L ftill perfcveres. SJie gave it out before (he had 

fceii her, that Mifs B— ^ was like a cat, which vhen (he,, 
foand Mifs B— ~ had heard, (he wrote a letter to excofe herfeif, 
and concluded mod emphatically with thefe words, '* No, ma- 
dam, i am not quite (b unbred \ it wa^ not I, but common- 
fame, faid you were' like a car." I really think here, that Mrs. 
L — topt Mrs. L — *s part, . Mr. G — is ftill a prude ; 1 fee h'^n-. ,k 
fometimes, but fliould be glad to fee him oftener. 1 know no 
one cifcumftance, bat breach of fincerity, that can ever be a 
reafoD with me to flight my friends. If a friend of mine had 
broke all laws, both human and divine, yet had coiifpicuoudy 
prefefved hw integrity to me, I ihoald only think myfclf the ' 
more obliged to him, and though I pitie:^ him, would ne- • 
ver forfake him firft; I (honld think he had a higher notion of 
friendihip, and that that was the only tie which he dared not 
violate, for which reafon I would not dare to be a greater vil- 
lain than he. I dont know how this thought came into my head, 
bat you fee 1 was willing to fpin it to its full length ; if I have 
gone too far, you mail impute it to that rapture of friendlhip ' 
with which I am yours eternally, 

« Oxford. A. Whiftler/ 

We (hall clofe otjr account of thcfe Letters with a fingulaV 
extract from one wTiircn by Mr. Shenftohe. We have heard of * 
rannifig for a fmock, and cudgelling and grinning fiyr a hat, 
but never till now of preaching for a hat. We willi the lat- 
ter part of the paffige tnay gain as much attention as it deftrvcs } 
f Some fort of apology I ought to make, that 1 did not 
write before ; you aill therefore pleafe to obferve, that I am 
bot juft arrived at. home, though I left Cheltenham tifie day af- 
ter you. 1 ftayed, indeed, to hear Mr. B — preach a morning' 
fermon ; for which I find Mrs. C<— r b^s allotted him the hac, 
preferably to Mr. C— ->. Perhaps you may not remember, nor 
did I hear till very lately, that there is a hat given annually ac 
Cheltenham* for the ufe of the beft foreign preacher, of which 

the difpofal is affigned to Mrs C , to her and her heirs ' 

for evtr. I remmiber (though I knew nothing, of this whilft I 
was upon the place) f ufed tb be a licd^ mi^eemful, that all 
who preachtd there had fome fuch premium in their eye. This* 
hat, 'tis true, is not qui^e fo valuable at that of a cardinal, but 
while it is made a retribution for excellence in fo (if properly 
confidered) fubiime a fandion, it is an objeA for a preacher ii^ 
aay degree. I am forry; at the fame tame, to fay, that as a 
common bat^ merely for its ufei^ it would be an obje^ to too 
many country cumtetf whofe iituaiions and ftender incomes too 
often excite our blufhes, as well aa compa^on. There ihould 
be no fuch thing ^ jonrntyman parfon \ it is beneath the dignity ' 
of the profeiCoa. If we h|td fewer pluralities In the church, this ' 
indecorum might, in a great meafure, be abolifhed.' 

The Sketch of the Manners, Laws, &c. of the Republic of 
Venice, though probably added to fwejl the volume, befpeaks a * 
jnaft^rljr pcncH^ , * 

I 4 £Jfays 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

t ItO ] , 

jy/i^sM tht Naiwriani Immulahiiitj of Truths h Oppojtti&n ft &- 
plff/lry .tutd S€9pudfm ; m Poitrj mmd Mufie^ Mt tbtf mfftS tk$ 
Mind ; •» Laughtiff Mnd iudi^r^ut Comptfition ; on tht VUiiiy of 
tlmffiemi Limming. Bj James Bcattie, LL* [j, ^t; iL is. 
hoards. Diily. 

rpHIS edition of Dr. Beattte*s works in quarto, owes its ez-» 
^ iftence^ we are told, to fome perfons of diilin6lion in Eng- 
land, who were pleafed to expreis a deGre, that the Eflay on 
Trut.h (hould be printed in a more fplendid form than that, ia 
which it bad. then appealed, fo as to enfure. profit, as well 
ps honour, to the author. The do^or had fome objedions to 
this propofal ; but they were obviated by his friends ; and he 
was perfuaded to extend his volume to a proper (ize, by pHnU 
ing) along with the EfTay, fome other pieces, which were 
thought worthy of publication^ though not originally ^intended 
for the prefs. 

The firft is a Diflertation on Poetry and Mufic, as they zfftQL 
the Mind. 

In this trad he propofes it as a truth in criticifmi that the 
end of poetry is to please. * Verfes, he fays, if pleafing^ 
may b^ poetical, though they convey little or no inilrudion; 
but veifes, whofe fole merit is^ that they convey ioArudion^ 
are nor poetical.' He adds, ' inftrudion however, efpecially. 
in poems of length, is necelTary to their perfection* because 
they would net be perfectly agreeable without it. - 

To this opinion it may be objected, that Horace, in a well 
known verfe, declares the end of poetry to be twofold, to 
pleafe, or to inftrud. Dr. Beattie replies : « To the porfeBion 
of dramatic poetry, or, if you pleafe, of poetry in general, 
. both found morals and beautiful fidiion are requilite. But 
Horace never meant to fay, that inAruQion, as well as plea- 
fure, is neceflary to give to any compofition the poetical cha« 
rader : or he would not in another place have celebrated, with 
fo much affedion and rapture, the melting ftrains of Sappho, 
and the playful genius of Anacreon; two authors tranicen-* 
eotly fweet, but not remarkably inftrudiive. We are fure, that 
pathos and harmony, and elevated language, were, in Ho* 
race's opinion, eflenrial to poetry; and of the(e decorations 
no body will affirm, that inftruAion is the end, who confiders^ 
that thp mo(l InHrudlive books in the world are written Jn 
plain profe.* 

This reafoning, it may bfe faid, has a tendency to degrade 
the poetical charader^ I|i many pieces, we confefs, the poet 
has only amufed his res^der.' But then we can fcarcely allow, 
|hat we are to form bur ideas concerning the end of poetry, 
ftQXS^ iucb compofitions ; wbi^h ar^ rather the prodaftions of 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 


Seattle'/ Mffi^s m thi Naturi andJmmMialility 9/ Trutb^ &e. I^t 1 ^ 

inferior capacities, or of a fportiye imagination, than the ef- 
forts of a manly genius. For furely, thofe performances, in , 
which no kind of inftrodioii is conveyed, muft be ejctremeljr > 

Verfus iiiopcs renim, riog«qotf caobrae. • 

If there can be no /<ir/>^/0« in poetry, without tnflroi^ns. 
as our author feems to acknowledge, then inilruftion ihuft bit' 
the nobleft end of poetry^ or the ultimate aim of ererjr good 
poet : otherwife perfedion is not his objed. 
1^. We can indeed have no notion of any tdeiable prntbrm^ 
aace being dc^ftitute of every thing, that may be cdied ta«» 
flrodion. To open th? reader's underftandingi to eniai^ hlv 
ideas, to esttend his imagination, to improve hh tsMe, and W 
bring him acquainted with the works t)f nature, o^ tte cpiz, 
rations of the human heart, are diifferent modes of infthiHibbi - 
not only pcrfe£lfy confident with poetry, but, one 6t o1:her, • 
abfolutely neceifary in every poem, and of much greater im- 
portance than the mere embelliflimcnts of ftyle. From hence 
we are led to conclude, that inflru£iion, as well as pleafure^ 
is heceiTary to gite to any cempofition the poetical ctfara^er^ 
or at lead a charader of confequence in the poetical WcM, 

In afcertaifling the ftandard of poetical invention, oar author ^ 
fays : * We neither expedt nor defire, that every homkn kh- 
mention, where the end is oit)y to pleafe^ ihoald be an istdtt^ 
tranicri|>t of real exiflfence. It is enough, that the itiiAd at*' ' 
qniefte in it as probable, or platifible, or ftfcli afs Wt; tMiik 
might happen, withont any dtreA oppofition to the hws of aa- 
tuYe. Or, to fpeak more accurately, ft is enough, that r<, be 
confident, j|ither^ firft, with general experience; or, iec^ndly^ ~ 
with popular opinion; or, t!}irdly, that it be conliftent* with 
itfelf, and connedied with probable circumftances. 

The la(l of thefe pbfTtions he iiluftrates by the following lA^ 
g^iou^ rematks : 

* Calyban, in the Tempeft, would have (hocked the Qiiad as , 
an improbability, if we had not been made acquainted witK his 
origin, and feen hU charadter difplayed in a feries of confiftenC 
behaviour. But when we are told that he fpruhg from a witch ' 
and a demon, a conne£lion not contrary co the hwi Of NatOTe, ' 
aft-they were trnderftcHod in Shakefpeare's time, and find hisf mait- 
ners conformable to hit defcent, vve are eafily reconciled to the ' ^ 
£^on. In the fame fenfi?, the Lilliputians of Swift may pafs 
for probable beings ; not fo much becaufe we know that a belief r 
in pygmies was once current in the worl^,^ (for the triie^ ancient 
pygmy was at leaft thrice as tall as thofe whomGulliyer yifited), , 
bat becaufe we find, th^t every circamflanee relating^ to them ^ 
ll<^rd$ with itfe|f, and with their fuppofed character. It is not . 

Digitized by 


t If Brtltie'i tffAyi m ihi Naitifi and Immutahilltj of Truth, &c. 

tbe fixe of the people only that is ditninutire ; their coantiy, 
feat, (hips, and towns, are all in cxadt proportion; their theo- 
logical and political principles, their paiTions, manners, caftoms, \ 
and all the parts of their conduct, betray a levity and lictlenefs 
perfectly faitable : and fo fimple is tbe whole narration, and ap- 
parently io artlefs and fincere, that I (hould not much wonder, 
if it had impofed (as I have been told ic has) upon fome perfons . 
of no contemptible underftandiog. The fame degree of credit 
may perhaps fbr the fame reafons be dae to hrs giants. But when 
lie grounds his narrative upon a contradiction to nature ; when ^ 
\t pr^fents us with rational brutes, and irrational^ men ; when 
he tells tts of horfes building boufes for habitation, milking cows 
ftr foody riding in carriages, and holding converfations on the 
laws and politics of Europe; not all his genius (and he there 
exerts it to the utmofi) is able to reconcile us to fo monftrous a . 
£&ion : we may fmile at fome of his abfurd exaggerations ; we 
may be pleafed with the energy of Hylcy and accuracy of defcrip- 
tion, in particular places ; and a malevolent heart may triumph 
in thefatire; but we can never relifli it as a fable, becaufe it is 
at once unnatural and felf-contradiflory. Swift's judgement 
ieems to have forfaken him oh this occafion : he wallows m naf- 
tiaefs and brutality ; and the general run of his fatire is down- 
right defamation. LucianV ^rue Hifiory is a heap of extrava- | 
gancies pnt together Without order or unity, or any other appa- \ 
rent deiign, than to ridicule the language and manner of grave ' I 
authors* His ravings, which have no better right to the name . I 
of Fable, than a hill of rubbifh has to that of palace, are deditute | 
of every colour of plaufibility.' Animal trees, fiiips failing in . 
the &y» armies of monArous things travelling betv^een the fun ! 
and moon on a.pavement of cobwebs, rival nations of men in- . 
habiting wobds and mountains in a whale's belly, — are liker the , 
dreams of a bedlamite, than the inventions of a rational ' 

It may not be improper to remark, as an apology for Lu- 
atan, that the Trm Hiftory is a title ironically applied ; that it 
is a whimfical romance in ridicule of lambulus, Ctefias^.and ^/-^ 
others, who had impofed upon the world many improbable ! 

ftbries, and defcriptions of things, which never exided ; and ', 
that a confident fable would not have anfwered his purpofe ib 
effectually, as a coUe^lon of extravagances. . 

Poetry, continues this writer, exhibits a fyfieoi of natura 
ibmewhat different from the reality of things. ^ I 

^ Horner^ no doubt, took his characters from the life ; or at 
leaft, in forming them, was careful to follow tradition as far as | 

the nature of his plain would allow. But he probably took the 
freedom to add or heighten fome qualities, and take away others ; . 
to make Achilles, for example, flronger, perhaps, and mxotp 
impetttotts, and more eminent for filial affeCUon, and Hedor 


Digitized by'LjOOQlC 

Ke^tiie's Egi^t^n iiiNatMn and ImkuiahilUy •/ ttmly Ac/ xij 

more patriotic and more amiable, than he really was. If hr 
had not done this, or (bmething like it, his wo^k would hav« ' 
been rather a hiftory than a poem : would have exhibited mea 
and things as they were, and not as they might have been ; and 
Achilles and Hedor would have been the names of indivUoal : 
and real heroes ; whereas, according to Ariflotle, they are ra« 
ther to be confidered as two diitind modifications or ^ectes oC • 
the heroic character.— Shakefpeare's account of the clitts of Do- 
ver comes fo near the truth, that we cannot doubt ^f its having 
been written by one who had feen them : but he who takes it for 
nil exaft hiftorical defcription, will be furprifed when' he comet - 
to the place, and finds thofe clifFs not half fo loftv as the poet 
had made him believe. An hiftorian would be ta blame imt f«dt 
amplification : becaufe, bei^ to defcribe an individual pred« 
pice, he ought to tell us jult what it is; which if he did» the 
defcription would fuit that place, and perhaps no other in the 
whole world* But the poet means only to give an idea of what 
fach a precipice may be ; and therefore his defcription may per«< 
haps b^ equally applicable to many fuch chalky precipices on the 

In the next chapter the author treats of poetical charac* 
ters, and makes the following very ingenious obfervations on ' 
the charafler of Achilles, which has been generally milbnder- 
ftood and mifrepref^nted. The claffical reader will he obliged 
to us for this quotation. 

< Of all poetical charaAerSy the Achilles of Homer leemsto 
me the moft exquifite in the invetation, and the moll highly fi*' 
niihed. The utility of this chara^er in a moral view is obvi- 
ous ; for it may be confidered as the fonrce of alt the morality 
of the Iliad. Had not the generous and violent temper of 
Achilles determined him to patronife the ausur Calchas in dei- 
fiance of Agamemnon, add afterwards, on being affronted \yf 
that vindiAive commander, to abandon for a time the common 
canfe of Greece ;-«*the fatal effects of difienfion among confede« 
rates, and of capricious and tyrannical behaviour in a fove- 
ieign» would not have 1>een the leading moral of Homer't 
poetry ; nor could Heftor, Sarpedon, Eneas, UlyiTes, and the 
other amiable heroes, have been brought forward to fignalixe 
their virtues, and recommend themfelves to the efteem end imi- 
tation of mankind* 

• They who form their judgment of Achilles from the imper- 
Ml ftetch given of him by Horace in the Art of Poetry * ; and 
confider him only as a hateful compofition of anger, revenge* 
fiercenefs^ obftinacy, and pride, can never enter into the viewe 
of Homer, nor be fuitably affeAed with his narration. All thefo 
vices are no dodbt, in fome degree, combined in Achilles ; but 
they are tempered with qualities ^t a difFbrent fort, which render 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 S4 rBettti^t mikf$ M thi Nitiri anJ ImturmMUr^ $/ Truth, fc: 

him afiioftintereiiiti^ charaAe^ and 6f coiirfe make tfae Iliad a 
mdift inte^ftiqg potfm. ' Bvcry reader abhoi-s the faolts of this he- 
r<H and yet, to an attentive reader of Homci^r, thii hero nittft Be 
th^ object of efteim, admiration, and pity ; fot, he has many 
CcM » 1^ell at bad affedions, and is equally Violent in all :— nor 
is^e ptoflefied of ii£ngfe vite or virtae, which the wonderful ah - 
of the ^t baa not made fnbfervient to the defign of tlfe poem, ^ 
and ft>.th^ phmreis and cnaftrophe of the a6Hon ;' fo that the 
hero of ihe Ill&> confidered as a poetical personage, is jdft what 
haiboakl'1>e9 ileither greater nor lefs, neither wori^ nor better* 
-^e is e^^ery inhere dtftinguifhed by an abhorrence of oppref- 
fioBy by li liberal and elevated mind, by a paflion fdr glory, and 
by Jk loite of crath, freedom; and fincerity. He fs for the 
inoft part attentive to the duties q^ religion ^ and^ except to 
tfaofc v^b have injured him, courteous and kind : he is aJFedio- 
nate to his tutor Pbenir ; and not only pities the misfortunes of ' 
hii aaemy Priani» but in the moil Toothing manner adminifters to 
him the - b«ft confblation that poor Homer's theology could 
furnifh* Thoi^h no admirer of the cailkfe in which his evil de- 
ftiny compels him to engage, he is warmly attached to his native 
laad ; Aad; ardent is he is in Yecgeance, he is equally fo in K>ve 
tq i^isaged father Petens, and to his friend Patrotlus.- He is not ' 
Juxufioos like Paris, nor clowntfii like Ajak ; his accopiplifli* 
laents are princely, and his amufements worthy of a hero* Add 
to this, as an apology for the vehemence of his anger, that the 
affront he .had received was (according to the manner^ of that 
afe) '6f tie mod atrocious nature ; and not only unprovoked, bat ^ 
fudh 4s, on the part of AgAmemnon, betrayed a brupil infenfi- 
bllity to 'merit, as wejl as a proud, felfiih, ungrateful, anfd ty- 
rannical diTpoiitipn. And though he is often inexcufeably fu« 
riotts ; yet it is but juftiee to remark, that he was not. natural]/ 
cruel ^ ; and fHat his wildeft outrages wereiuch as in thofe rude 
times might be'expeftedfrom a violent man of invincible Itrength 
and valour, whpn exalperated by injury, and frantic with for-. 
^rbW.«— -Our herb's claim to the admiration of mankind is ipdif«. 
.putable^ Eveiy {>art of his chara^er is fublime and aftpnifbing.^ 
In his perfohi he is the firohged, the fwifteit, and moft beaoti* 
fui of men :— thi9 fail circumftance, however, occurs not to his 
owil obfeVvation, being too trivial to attrad the notice of fo great 
a mind. ' The Fates had put it in his power, either to return 
home before the end of the war^ or to remain at Troy :— if he 
chofe tHe former, he would enjoy tranquillity and happiaefs ia 
his o^Xk cbiintiy to a good old a|;e \ If the latter, be muft periOi 
ih the bloofn m his youth :— his affedlioa to his father- and na^ 
tive country, and his hatred to Agam^mabn^ Urongly (irged him 
to the firil ; but a deiire to avenge the death of his friend deter* 
^ine^ him tp accept the laft,' with all its cooiequences. This at 
pQce diiplays the greatnefs of his fortitude, the warmth of hia 

a See Iliad X3U. 190, and jtitiv. <jS5^67^.* -■—. ^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Beatrices Epji in tb$, Hatun ^nA /«w'f&^> ^ Trutk, kc; |*j 

friendfhip, s^Aihe vble^ce of his (^nguinfrjf pf ffij^*.:.. ;wj4;^ i| 
this tbat fo often ana jo power fully re^omixiei)ds mm tolthe^ityi^ 
as well as admiration^ of the attentive reader. -^-^B^t (he fO()e- 
naniroity of this hero is fuperior, hot only to the fear or deatS^ 
but alfo to prodigies, and thoie too o£ the ihoft crcmandoa^ im^ 
port. I alla4e to tkc fpeech of his hbrfe Xancfitts* ih tfa« end 
of the nineteenth book, and to his'beh^fiouroa ibst^occafion^ 
and I (hall take .the liberty to expatiate a Httle f pon liiat incident^ 
with a view to vindicate Hooieri as well as to illailrate the cha- 
rader of AchHies* ■ ^ I 

« The incident is nsarvdloiiSy no doabt* and has been generally^ 
condemofd even hy the>adnurer8 of Homer ^ yet to qie wiio am 
- no believer in the infal^hilitv of the great poet, feems nQt only 
allowable, bat ufefal and finpo'rtant. t'hat this miracle has: 
pi^.^tlilUx CA^Ulgh Xtt warrant us admiflion lata Hoaaeria poefafy, 
IS faliy preyed (>y Madame Dacier. It is the efie^ of J^nc^*e 
power ; which if we a^mit in other parts of tKe poem,' we ojight 
' not to rejed in this : and in the poetical hiftory of Greece, ind . 
even in the civil hiQery 6f Rome, there are fixpilar fables, wHicli . 
were once in nafmall degree of credit. Bat neither M. Daeier^ 
nor any other of the commentators, (fo far as I know), has taken : 
notice of the propriety of introducing it in tjiis plap^f npr^ i|t 
ntifity lii raifine ouf idea of the hero.-— — Pa^roclus was npy 
ilain ; and Achules, forgetting the injury he had receii^ed frooi 
AganiemnoRf and franpc with revenge an 4 forrow^ was rufliing 
to the battle, to'fadatehis fury upon He£tor aad thet'rojans. 
TUU^aa .the critical moment on whichhis foture dediny de*- 
pended. It was ftill in his power to retire* and go home in peaot 
tobis beloy§d/9|]|^r,aaci native land, with the '^rtatn prefpedt 
of a long and^appy, tbongh inglprious, life: if he went feiv 
ward tp . the battle, ^e might avenge his f^iead's de^h up^fi 
. the eneiny, pjif his bwp muH ineyit4|>ly h^ftpea fc^on afte^ 
This was the decree of Fate cop^en^ijf^g him, as. he |ii^iiplf vfry 
well knew. But it would not be wonderful, if ifuch f n imf^e^ 
-tuOQS fpiritAionld forget all this, during the orefent paroxyfm of 
kis grief and rage. His horfe, therefore, miracnloaily gifted by 
Jano ibr that purpofe, after exprejQing, ip duq^b fhow, the deep- 
' eft concern fejr hi* lord, opens his mouth, and in human fpeech 
4nnQpnce9 his approaching fate^ The fear i:>f deatir, and the Ms 
of prodigies, are diiFerent. things; and a brave man, dMMgli 
proof againll the one, may yet bp oyeccome i>y the other* ** I 
liaye known aToldier (fays Addifon) t|ia( has entered a breach* 
affrighted at his own fhadow; and look pale npoh a little . 
^iicauching a^ his door* who^ the dnj h^ore had. narchcd* ujp 
.^gaind a battery of ca^inon ^•" But AchiUes» «f whflin w^A* 
ready knew that l^e feared nothing human, now Oiowit' wW «e 
bad not as yet oeen informedof, and whatinnft therefore h^gl^tyi 
oar ides^ of his fortitude, that hp i3 pot p be terrified or maved> ^y 

' ' • ' ■ " ' die 

Digitized by 


iz6 T^thim*s £ji;^ i» ysMmat-pMffy. 

Ae vieWmf terUuo deftruAion.or even by tbemoft alarming prd«' 
4igiei. I ihall quote Pope^s Tranflatioo, whick ia this plact it 
c^oali if not fuperior, to the original. 

« Then ceasM for even by the Furies tied. 
His fateful voice* Th* intrepid chief replied^ 
With unabated rage : ** So let it be! 
. Portenu and prodigies are loft on me< 
I know nly fat« ;-^to die, to fee no more 
My much-loved parents, and my native fliore« 
, -Enough : — ^when Heaven ordains, I fink in night««« 
Now periiht Troy." He faid« and rufh'd to fight/ 

C 3« fc C9ntmu$il. ] 

> ■ — r 

4n EJ/kf «r ymmiJ' Peary : With a S/tdmeu fy tin r/v. -^— 
Fleming, Pnbindary^ aui aftirwardt Dtan §f Carlifle. Im a 
Lsitir $9 thi Tiv. Erafinus Head, Prtbttidatj tfth/am Cburcbk 
Wrimm abMi ibe Yior 1740. ' By Edward Tatham« ^mail 
8v». a/. Richardibn and Urquhart. 

|> Y Journal-poetry the author means a poetical account of 
*^ the incidents, which occur in a journey, or a (hort excur* 
^fion\ Horace has left us a fpecimen of this fpecies of poetry 
in his fifth fatire, which is a defcription of his journey ftoni 
Rome to Brundufium. But this writer confiders that piece at 
A rude and unfiniAed performance. 

« Horace and bis companions, he ftys, were relieved fmit 
the tedium and fatigue of their journey by thofe low-lived ridi^ 
Cttlous fcenes he reprefents, and the poet took the hint to con. 
4gn them to pofterity by virtue of his art. Let it do fufiicient 
honour to the name of Horace that he was the inventor of thia 
lianch of poetry. No one of the leaA pretentions to improve^ 
tafte will defend his Journal as a piece of elegant poetry addrefi[^ 
ing the finer affeCiions and producing a ferious rational plea- 
fure. It is rude, low-lived, and indelicate*, find greatly inferior 
to his more elegant produdioas^ it is a diigrace to the name of 

'< Horati qnis tarn fautor inepte e(l 
Ut non hoc fateator?^-— ^ 

« It is claftdamong hh Satires, hot I confefi I coutd never 
Cee the propriety of calling it a fatire unlefs we may confider ft 
aibneon himfclf and fellow travellers, the great Maccnai, 
Cocceius, Foriteius, Plotxns, Varius, and Virgil, men of U^ 
snoft diftiDguilhed eminence for taftein the Roman hiftory, and 
engaged on the impomftt cmbaflyof reconciling twoof tfitf- 
^cateft perfpnages and mofi enfanipiined enemiea in the world. 


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Tfttban'i BJpty on JwrnU^Pahyi r 2^ 

If we may view the compofition m this light it is the (evertit 
jatUe he ever, wrote. — Truly thefe accomplilhed gentlemen 
travelled in elegant fiyle — Thefe polite companions were highly 
tntertained.-^How were they diverted and charmed upon the 
toad with the fcenes and incidents that occurred f 1 * ■' 

'* Prorfus jucundf ccenam prodcuimus illam." 

•—But what was f^ili more fortunate they had a poet in tom^ 
pany to iing the glories of the journey, to repeat the enjoy* 
fenent, and hand it down to others. Nothing but the burtheoi 
and diftrefs of travel uneafy to be relieved at any rate can takt 
off the edge of the fatire which the poet has fo dexteroufly ftar^ 
pened agdnft himfelf and his companions. 
'• < No art or fubdivifion of art was fcarce ever carried to any 
•degree of perfection by its inventor. The difficulty and no* 
irelty of inyention is fufficient for one man. Improvement anc^ 
perfeAton mufl be derived from the labours of manjf. Origi- 
nal invention in the arts and fciences is generally the child of 
chance or a lucky hit-off. This feems to have been the cafe 
with Horace's Journal. He did not even make a fecond at«^ 
tempty or perhaps ever confidered the nature and capability oE 
this new branch of poetry. Had this great genius cultivated 
and refined his invention we might have etpe^ed fomething 
greater from his pen, and the fucceeding tribe of imitators had, 
profited by his labours. He was not the inventor of odes which 
are the flower of his works, though he brought them to per«> 
feAion. He h^d Pindar and all the Grecian bards as models to 
improve upon. He invented the Journal, and if he has been left 
fuccefsful in it this fingle confideration is fufficient to exculpata 
ins charader, and, we hope, to reconcile his admirers. 

* The fault lies on fpcceeding poets who received it from hit 
Jiands and tranfmitted it from one to another without any im- 
provement. Indeed after Horace^s day, the elegant arts de« 
dined at Rome, fo that it had not much time to receive ad- 
vances firom the ancients ; and the plan on which the moderns 
cultivated them after the revival of letters was too fervile and 
contracted to admit of any. Thus the Journal remains pretty 
much at this day in the fam^ (late in which Horace left it^ 
though it ha$ perhaps been, as much hackneyed as any other 
kind pf writing, which is at once a convincing argument how 
blindly the artifls of modern date have been attached to imita«< 
<ion, and how little they have afpired to real improvement. 
Hence it is that this ipedes of poetry capable of the greatefl 
ddiciicy, is fordid and indecent ; though it might]be made pro- 
dudlir6 of lober refined and rational pleaforei it is inL general 
: prof. 

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ts9 TaftamV jf§^ tm Jfurnat-Patrji^ 

l^ofttlHte^ to ridieule and buffoonery* and has not eren k 
daim to the tftle ei lutiitrous** 

iThongh we do not entertain ~fo delpicable an opinion of H<>- 
fice's pofcrtcal Journal, as Mr. Tathatn) yet we readily allow^ 
that this fpeetts of poetry is capable 'of much higher refine- 
ment, lyavclling opens a fruitful and extenfive field to the 
hna^ination^ and prefents to it many beautiful objie^».|ind 
pleafing opcurretxces, which may be fct off with the moft cn^ 
chanting ornaments of (lyles aa the plaint and fimple p^rfiiita 
knd amufem^nts of ihcph^rdsy ^nd the natural charq^si of the 
couofry, m^, be agreeably represented in paAoral poetry. 

*'From the nature of the Journal, fays our author, it if 
plain it will not a4mit of continued imagery, lengthened fi- 
inile, or welUcpntinued metaphor ; its ornament^ fho^ld bf 
fmaijy (Irikihg, and delicate. It is ndt to be confidered as a 
%vork where a fingle beauty is u^i;iiformly profecuted through ie* 
Tcral fiage^ to periefHop, where all the particular pieces of or- 
nament have a i^eq)ing among themfelvesi are fubo/dinSite and 
confpire with (he general plan ; but as a colledion of detached 
. l^eauties thrown togetlier with eafy negligence. 

* There is no fpecicjs of poetry more generally pleafing tha» 
defcxiptivc. . This iin a}l its vs^^i^ty can never be i(^troduced wttk 
ino^e propriety or a better grace than in the Joiiroa}, But it 
Qiovla fo far comply with the nature of this comptofition as to 
be fimple, concife, exa£l, yet adorned, which req^ifCSS thr 
band of no vwl^zx artiil. Long defcriptions are t^dicyus an4 
lyoiild en^jrofs too much of the ptoepa to themfelves^ 

« Humour, provided it be delic^^ and fine, can fca^c^ly be 
foo iavifiily employed in the Journal. It is the iratura] eot^r 
ta'uiment of the travellex on the road, and capnotfaU to divert 
the reader in his chamber cfpecially wl^ei^ introduced, hx « {IQ? 
atjcal. drefj, 

' * A thoufand little incidents and tri^ipg adventiV^a wUcb 
occ^r to the jQurnalift, may by the magic of poetry i^ (QOATcrt* 
fd into a variety of b^aut^e's i^ddreffipg <|pe lively apd kfa intfr 
reding aff^dlions, and which a^e admirably adH^fited to tbe gCr 
nius of this delicate fort of writing. 

^ Evf n the graver a^d more ieri^^us affeAipna may bf: occa? 
jSona\ly touched with the utmoft propriety and of|^ to thf 

5;reateft advant^. Variety is the life and ipjril of thf 
ournal. . _l 

* But whatever is calculated to pTeafe^ enliven, ente^^, pf 
operate agreeably on any of the affe^ions, and car^ ^ 'madf 
delicate and concife, is a fuiiahle ornament for thjs iSpfet^aof 
poetry. The poetical J<^urnal has no poflible merit unlefe it 
pleafe. It may iaftrud, provided the inftruttiQii caa put on a 


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poetical drefi and bf coocila: bot.thus.ooiy tlut U may the 
iDore efFeaually pkaie. 

* The Ayle iboald be adapted to the moaners. It Aobld h& 
free eafy and elegant, and in general lifted a little above the 
tone of the narrative in coaveriktion* In the poetical parts it 
will fwell with the tnofe an(i fink again (o its natural tone.' 

The piece of Joiiriial- poetry), which ^ccafioncd this Efby, 
was copied verbatim from an original letter/ found in the li* 
brary 6f the late Mr. Hedd, prebendary of Cafltfley which had 
been fent liim from Scarborough by the late reverend Mr* 
Fleming, fon of bidiop Fleming, a brother^^prebendary, and 
afterwards dean of Carlifle. ^ 

The following ektra^ wilt give oor readers a fiiSciaat ide^ 
of this extempore iketch. 

< Firft then fr^m Rofe * I iffu'd forth 
And reach the beaoty of the north 
Dear Rydal, whofe roai^antic hills» 
And gloomy walks, and gargling rilb • 
Would equal Soudley's ^ leafing view 

If penfil'd out by Buck br you. 

Here bkft with aunt and eoufins three 

I i^nt cwo days with merry glee. 

* From thence «roDa)Uiiii-Tower I rode 
With thoughts of~^ — all that's dear and gwii 
But hoId--«*i've/offiathiDg more to fay-— 
My heart went pit-par all the way— • 
At lift defying fear and care 
I enterM with intrepid air. 

< What happened there I think it better 
To tell you private* not by letter. 
However yoall judge I lik'd the feaft 

For here I fla/d a week at leaft. 
Yet oft with flghs and aching heart 
. .' I took my leave loath to depart. 

jA^ )en£th t*avoid a town's difcpurfea 
I refolutely call'd for horfes. 
And mounting took my laft cotQmand 
When Dolly wav'd her lilly hand.' 
The author defcFibes the incidents, whieh occurred In b^a 
Journey frgoi hence to ^rbyiionfdale^ Settle* Skiptoo, tfc^ 
.ai)d thus proceeds : 

« To Otley next we took our rout, 
JE'am'd for its calves and fpeckled trout« 

-.tiy' " '' -^ . . I ■ i - i i ii. » I II ' , ,1 ^ I III I i»i iwi II I m iiwiiwwyp 

,# IWecalUe. 
yoi. XLV. Fti. i77». K ; Pronj 

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fl Si^ Macaulay'i tJiJIity (f England. 

* From thence up Chiven's rock we breath 
, Charm'd with the pleafant vale beneath. 
Where rivers, .paflures. Woods, and vills. 
At once the ravilhM eye Co fills. 

That had I Pope's or Denham's (kill * ,; 

Windfor ihould yield, or CooperVhill. 

* Forward to^Kirkftall then we prefs, 
Emble^n of greatnefs in diflrefs. 

Here fpacious vault and lofty tower 

Declare the iponkifli pride and powers 

Here ihatter'd roof and tott'ring wall 

Confefs that pride mufl have a fall. 

Sad change I from friars deck'd with cowls 

To croaking ravens, foxes, owls ; 

Yet, fpite of Harry's dreadful law. 

The view commands fuch. facred aweji 

That infidels themfelves revere 

That God who long was worfhipM here. 

* Struck with the fcene we fpur our deeds 
And fix our ilation next at Leeds* 

Bled town ! where flocks their tribute bring 

To cloath the beggar and the king ; 

Where love and loyalty are join'd^ 

And peace, with induftry combin'd ; 

Where commerce every ftreet doth grace^ 

And plenty fmiles in every face.' 
We have extended this at tide beyond the limits which we 
.vfually aifign to a fmall pamphlet, on account pf the fubjed, 
that is in fome refpeds neyir, and worthy of a little farther in- 
Teftigation. We can .have no dpubt, but. that an ingenious 
poet niay produce fomething admirable in this way, when we 
confider what fertility of imagination* and what beautiful va* 
riety of defcription. Homer has difplayed in relating the tra* 
?els of Ulyifes, or even in the catalogue of the Grecian ifaips. 

Tlfi Hipry £^ England, from tbt Rtvoluthn iq tbi prtfent Ttmt, in 
a Series of Letters to the rev. Dr. Wilfon, Bj jCatharine 
Macaulay. 4w. FoL I. 15/. ioarils. iDilJy. . 

^^N what account Mrs. Macaulay has changed her narrative 
^^ from the diredl hillorical to the epiftblary form, we ihsU 
not determine. Her reafon, perhaps, was, that, by relating 
the tranfadtons of later times in a familiar ftylfe, they might 
te i^ced in -a light lefs important, and therefore more (t^^^ 
i^hle to the idea which the writer eatertaioed of the motives 
y -^ * wlsence 

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Macaulay*/ HiJI»ry tf England. ij f 

Xf hence they derived their origin. Or, it may be, that, di£^ 
gulled with the Infipidity ctf nnodern politics, (he imagined nO'* 
thing could animate her refearches {o much, as keeping ^on« 
fiantly in her ^ye a perfon who was not only art avowed abet* 
tor of her principles, but had a peculiar claim to her atten- 
tion, from the compliment which he lately paid to our 
fair hiftorian, by erefting a ftatue of her, while alive, in one of 
thoie manfions from which, in this country, every repre* 
fentation even of the living God is excluded. But without en- 
quiring into the matual (ympathy (b confpicuous between 
thofe Platonic lovers, let us proceed to the confideration of 
the work. It may, hbwever, be proper to lay before our 
readers the charadler here drawn of the reverend Dr. Wilfon# 
redor of St. Stephen's Walbrook, and prebendary of Weft- 
roinderj that our readers may judge of Mrs, Macaulay's im« 
partiality and difcernment, qualifications ^o ciTentially requi- 
fite in a feithful writer of hii^ory. 

' The virtues of your charafVer, it mufl be owned, afford an 
ample field for literary eloquence : a detail of filial piety in 
iaflances the mofl trying to human fortitude ; the fupporting 
an independent temper and condudl in the midft of the fer- 
vile depravities of a court; the almo/l lingular inflance of 
warm patriotifm united to the clerical charat5ter ; your mode- 
ration in every circumflance of indulgence which regards your« , 
felf, whilfl you are lavifhing thoufands on the public caufe, 
and to enlarge the happinefs of individuals ; the exemplary 
regularity of your life ; your patience and fortitude, and even 
chearfulnefs, under the infirmities of a weak and tender con« 
flitution; and, laftly, the munificent favors you have con- 
ferred on me, are fubjcdls of fufficient power to animate the 
dulleft writer ; but thefe are fubje^ls, my friend, which I am 
convinced wilt pleafe every reader better than' yourfelf: and 
as the love of your country and the welfare of the human race, 
is the only ruling paHion I have ever difcerned in your cha- 
rader, I (hall avail myfelf of this inclination, and endeavor 
to fix your attention by the interefling detail of thofe caufes 
and circumflances, which have infenfibly led ^ us from the airy ' 

height of imaginary fecurity, profperity, and elevation, to our 
prefent flate of danger and depravity.' 

Our hiflorian, confiflently with her prejudice againft mo* 
narcUcal government, begins with difplaying the infecure flate 
in which public freedom was left even at the glorious epoch of 
the Revolution ; but it is evident from this recital, that her 
ideaof liberty extends to the abolition of fuch prerogatives in 
the crown, as are totally infeparable from its nature, confidered 
as an executive power, and an efficient balance to'the two other 
C^^ates of the natloa. The Eoglifb conftitution, it will be 
K a grantcdt 

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f$Z Macaulay'i Hijlory tf Eiiglaad. - 

granted* .wasnot improved by this event to that degree of per? 
te^ion which might have refulted frofii more maiore dcUbera^- 
fionSy and fuch as were not diftra£ied by the jarring f^dipos 
gS thofe times ^ but the hiflorian, doubtlefs, carries her iin>- 
peachment too far, when (he ventures to pronounce, that* in- 
ile^d of public liberty being firmly edabllibed by (be Aeiroltf* 
j^oD, its deftruAion was a^ually accomplifhed. This ^beM 
propofition jj^lrs. Macaul^y feems chiefly to fouod upon th.e i^- 
^rodudion of a f^anding army which t09k place in the fubfa- 
guent retgn. Mufl it not be admitted, however, that jtb,e gf* 
fenfive capacity df the ether' dates of Europe, rendered fuch. ^ 
meafure neceflary for the protedion pf thefe kingdoms ? With 
refpedt to the edablilhment of the public funds» jnc a^ree j^ith 
this hiHorian, that they tend to the corruption of the .pcpple ^ 
jthough thefe alfo bad their origin in political expediency. 

The following are Mrs. Macaulay's obfervations on the con- 
duct of the fovereign whofe reign (be has prtncipally narked 
jwith thofe inaufpicious innovations. 

< Candor rouft acknowledge, that the total corruption pf 
.whig principle rcflefls as much' djfliooour on the Sovereign 
as it does on the party* But without entering into a ininute 
•defcription of the conduct and character of William, ^re y^'dX^ 
ipy friend, compare his opportunities, with the ufe h,e fpide 
of them ; and we (hall in fome meafure be enaWed to judge^. 
whether public good or private intereft, virtue or am{>ition, 
bad the ftroi\geft influence oyer his mind, 

* Placed at the head of his native country, astbe laft hppes 
of his fafety from a foreign yoke, and railed to the throne pf 
England, under the name of her deliverer from civil tyranoy 
and religious perfecutton, it mud be acknowledged, that for- 
tune did her utmoft towards exalting her favorite, Wiil^m^. 
to the firft rank of refpedabfe charaders ; but the great au- 
thority which this Prince obtained over the Putch, pp tl^e 
merit of preferving them from the yoke of France, he in 
many indances ufed in a manner inconfiilent with tbe rjgbts 
of a free (late ; and, inflead of edablifhing their repul^licaa 
liberty on a^ permanent bafis, he laid the foundation fpr chat 
monarchial power, which is to this day exercifed l>y his 

* Succefs, which ever enlarges the noble mind, Arnnk 
William's to all the littlenefs of vulvar charadler^ Whep 
f aifed to imperial dignity by the efforts of the whigs, for the 
generous purpofe of enlarging and fecuring liberty,' he aban- 
doned his benefa^ors, and entered into di(hone(l intrigues 
with the torie^, in order to increafe the influence and extend 
the power of the cfoWn 5 nor did he ever ,qu^rrel vtith thefe 


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vod CRemi^s to civil and rdigious freedom, till' they op!: 
pofed aieufures which tendied to the manif^nr difadvantag^, Ff 
nait to the, ruin of thtin country* 

. * Ambttiocrs of bdn^. confidered' as tKe arbher oftiftfe fat^ 
oli. Europe, and' anxious for tlie fafety and pTofperity of the 
]>i>rch, WiJiiam ruined the finaiii:es.of England, by engaging* 
he* in. two long and expenfive wars. By the means of protufe 
and extenfive bribery^ he obtained from the Commons what 
Claries the Second could never obtain fronl the wickedtefl? 
parliament with which England had been ever curfed, namelyy 
sr fVandfng army^ and a landed debt ; a circuniftance which*^ 
rendered. our deliverer To tenacious of corrupt influence, that 
he twice refufed his aflent to a bill for triennial parliaments/ 
and nevei^ would give his con fen t ,to an afl fdr fiinhing the 
nutober of placemen and penfioners. 

. * I h»ve now related ta you, my friend the remarkable 
parts of the policy and conduct of William after his acceiTion 
to the throne of England ; and I believe you will Jiot find it 
a di^cult: matter to determine the queilions. Whether public 
good or private intereA, vLtue of aipbitton, had th6 l^rongei^ 
infiuence over his mind \ and,' whether he has the faviour and' 
deliverer of this country, or the Aibverter of the remaining^ 
idond principles he found in the conQitution ? > 
- WiiliaiQ, however, is not the only prince whole meafurer 
^e reprobated by the hi(!orian ; for in treating of the periocE 
fu bfequent to the acceilion of the houfe of Hanover, when pub* 
lie freedom is fuppofed to have been ^rther contirmed, Hie ufes' 
this. remarkable exprefiion, * that for every law of the conditu* ' 
tian» if there are any which yet remain unviolated, we are en- 
tirely indebted to the moderation or the timi^jity of our governors,'. 

With whatever degree of juflicQ the hiftorian may difapprove 
of feptennial parliaments, againft whith (lie feem.s to have a 
hereditary averfion, we cannot accede to her opinion, in coilfi- 
d«ring the introdudlion of courts- martial as any viofation of 

. The portrait with which we are prefented of George I. is 
fuffieienily candtd, and we quote it only with the view orpoint- 
ing out the inaccuracy of the expreffion, in making an agent 
of the medium of party ; to which we (hail add what occurs in 
ar few other pjaeea, viz. x\\t lucre cf gain, 

* You know, my friend, that I have totally rejefted the in-' 
vidious taik of' giving cbaradlers : in the hiftory of thefe mo- 
dern times, I cannot fubmit to the drudgery of culling pane- 
gyric frq^ addrell'es or birth-day odes ; and other refearches' 
might lead tne into dangerous paths. The medium of party 
undoubtedly viewed the political conduit of George the FirH:^ 
K 3 . *as 

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'1 34 Littmfrt^ PortugtU 

as coloured by the prejudices of the eye through which it 
furveyed ; but whatever might be the virtues, vices, or errors 
of his polical conduct, he was liked, and even loved by the 
indtvidaals who had the honor of a familiar converfation with 
bim, and was generally regarded by thofe who do not exa- 
mine clofely or critically into the nature of virtue and vice* 
or the motives and principles of human condud, as a man 
who had an honeft heart, and whofe faults in his government* 
if there are any faults to be found, were entirely owing to the 
fuggeftions of a venal miniftry, who, having neither iufficient 
virtue, or fuffictent underftanding, to goverfi parties by the 
confidence which thefe great qualities give, their power and 
V influence were folely grounded on corruption.' 

This volume, confifting of Six Letters, comprifes the hiftory 
of England from the Revolution to the end of iir Robert 
Walpole's miniAry ; a period diftinguifhed not only by many 
iplendid atchievements in war, but by an almofl coatinual fe* 
ries of doffieftic factions and iiitrigues. Our hiflorian has very 
properly declined giving a minute detail of the former of thofe 
events, but (he has developed the latter with greater pr/ecifion, 
if indeed (lie does not, on fome occafions, exaggerate the un« 
favourable reprefentation both of men and meafures, with 
too prejudiced a hand. Her obfervations, however, arc fre* 
qoently both judicious and liberal ; and, excepting a hw di- 
grefltons, with the apoftrophcs addrefTed to her excellent frund^ 
jhe difplays the fame fpirit and elevation as in her Hiftory i 
which, we are informed by an advertifement, fhe is continuing^ 
frooi the Reformation to the Revolution, in hifiorical detail. 

Idtttnfrom Poriugaiy on the late and prefint State pftbat Kingdom^ 
8<i^4« li, Ahnon. 

CINCE the publication of the well known Letters vpen the fru 
^ fent State of Poland, which defervedly gained much credit, the 
prefs has been teeming with letters upon the prefent ftate of 
almofl every nation now exifting. Though thefe Letters 
would perhaps have never feen the light but for the fuccefs of 
thofe we have firft mentioned, yet it muft be confefTed that 
they are not without their merit.. They appear to be written 
by one, who, in addition to tolerable information^ poflefTes an 
cafy pen. 

The writer of thefe Letters confirms us in an opinion which 
we have long entertained, that the adminiftration of the Mar- 
quis de Pombal defervcs as niuch praife as it has, fince his re- 
treat from power, been loaded with execration. That the def- 
pptic miniftcr of a dcfpoiic court ihould, in a country like this, 
6 where 

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litursfrm Portugal. V . 131^ 

ivbere the meaneft fubjed is free, and. the tnoft ignorant a poli- 
tician» be branded as a tyrant — that Englilhnoen, thofe at lead 
vrhofe fouls, in fpite of all the liberty they boaf^, are Hill con<« 
fined and narrow, ihould hate the nao^e of Portugal-— are fadls 
mrhich will furprife thofe only who have not enlarged their minds 
, by .experience, and expanded their ideas by obfervation. Eng- 
land, which at this moment talks of its freedom, has feen its 
days of defpotifm, and in thofe days has produced defpotic mi- 
nifters ; it is the natural growth of the foil. — As well expreft 
your furprize at the vineyards of Oporto, as wonder to behold 
upon the banks of the Tagus an abfolute minifter — that hardy 
plant, whtcrh is .not to be nourifhed by all the richheft 
of a free country ; which is the only (hfub that thrives amid 
the barren ftormy defart of a defpotic government. 

The niinifter who broke the pride of the nobility, aqd over« 
turned the tyranny of the church, could expert little mercy at 
the enraged hands of the clergy or the nobles. Fixing their 
Ihort-fighted eyes only upon >hat they narrowly deemed their 
own private injuries, but which in truth were public benefits, 
they entirely overlooked the fervices which he had rendered to 
their country — the height to which he had carried its arts, its 
commerce, its manufactures ; the weight which he had given to 
it in the fcale of Europe; the abilities with which he had raifed 
it from the ruins of conflagration, with which he had defended 
it from the perils of war — and the firmnefs and intrepidity, with 
which he had refcued and fortified againtt future aiFaQi^iation 
th« life of their fovereign, whom their intrigues had endeavour- 
ed mentally to enilave, and their cabals finally to deflroy. 

It is notiingular that fuch a character, Ir fuch a country as 
Portugal, did not acquire the reputation it deferved. We are 
not to wonder that the clergy and the nobility endeavoured toruia 
the marquis de Pombal while he remained in power, or that- 
they continued to propagate every falihood of him and his gc»- 
veroment as foon as he had retired to his beloved qui^t of a 
private life — to this retirement the great man of whom we have 
fpoken betook himfelf the moment of hts mafler*s death» 
That mailer was fucceeded by a Weak and timid, female, who 
was perhaps fearful about the lability of her throne, if (he 
ihowed any favour to a man whofe virtues had irritated agatnft 
them fo many of her fubje^is. 

If Pombal be really the murde^rous minifter which fbme have 
painted him, is it not fingular, that he has not fallen aviftim 
to that defpotifm which be fo mifufed? Pombal is ftill living in 
peace, and in more happinefs than he enjoyed as minifter — and 
his character, both as a man and a politician, every hour gains 
new admirers.-— Above all, the memory of his adminiftration 
K 4 ihouid 

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%i6 A Leittrff fh Dui»fif Bctcckogh. 

gioiAA fS6t be t}Itf€kert*rf by Brtg^meft. If ^v*r tli« li#-i 
iWfl^r'of tf ftrdfrt<fo«rf cdiifd bd called an Unglifli dikfifivr* 
tte lAarqOtf cfe fctttbil' dcfe/v^ that corttrMdiabfJr ^pel- 
latloh* Tbcfftf of our couiitryrtitfri vi^ho' fratlo t<y Portugal v»ttf 
Vcit ^hjMfy to th« tmtli of this affllfrtieit. / 

Thus iftuch wc btfvtf been led to fsry of fbb lare'P6rWig<ieltJ 
frirtW itilfliftef, from * perufal of this wdl'v^ri^cri^ partprtfet,- 
atfd ft6ai whaft htfs chadced to fall within oup'^i^n iCrio^i^edg^ 
^f bin jJihtfiflfftratiort. Thtfrc LctlWs g6 rtto^c? ftilPy fot(^ hii 
JiriVaW as \»ell as ptfbltc chara^er, and adtftifcc (yi'od^ wlii^K 
|llat^ that cb^radlci' beyond the reach of ctthitthiy, 

Tht laflf two Of thrte letfers fpeak of the Amtrf^art diff^nhi 
fot boufldiifi^s between the twb crowns of Spfeir^ and Portugal, 
which is not eVpllTlndd fo clearly ad we could wifll.— ^This dif- 
piit^ li rfot yet fefthd ; hlttons do rtof finifh qa*rre1s fo expe- 
dkrouffly as individuals ;— bulky bodied ate inovcd with- thd 
|;rerfteft dffSculfy. 

V " ' • ^ ' ' ' ' . ' " 

'J Lettir u bis Graet tht t)uke of Ruccfiifgh, •n national IJifefUi : 
With fimt Rmdrfs en Dr. Smiths Ckapur en thbt SutjeS^ in 
hit Book iniitUdf * dn Un^uity into thi Natuti' dnd CUi^tigf tbi 
Wealth of Nations * Zvo. is". 6d. Murray, 

^HIS Littler relates to the cftaWHhmcnt of a militia in 
^ Scotland, a meafure which the author dearly proves 
•would be higftly advantaget>us to both the a nked kingdoms; 
A biU for thi^ puTpofe has twice been brought into pariiameoN 
fit-it in the' year 1760, and again in 1776^ bot w^. rgeCled 
e^h^ time. With refpeA to its fate in the latter of.thofe pe- 
riods t}ie wrher obA*rves, that 

* The pretence on which tlie bill wat thrdWn ont of parlia* 
ftitviU Hnd which induced fo many of the Englifli members to 
t6t on tbttt otfCdiion^ againft: their avowed principles for a mt* 
iitifl, wis its not containing a claufe, ordairifng the funds for 
the feppdrt of the militia o^ Scotland, to be raifed by ataic on 
'the r^fpei^li^e counties. A pretence founded on manifeft ia- 
judii^ey becaufe the militia of England has been» ever fiace its 
iniKtW^, fopported out of the common funds of both kin^ 
<doms ; for though their pay and other expences are drawn im*> 
'mediately from the receivers general of the land \ix in the rcr 
fpedive counties, ^r the fake of conveniency, yet it is allowed 
them as part payment of the faid tax, in their accompts with 
the treafury. So that never was there an argument more ab- 
surd formed/ than that oti which the reje^lioa of the Scotch 
l»QiUa bill ^^t foanded; hat it anfwered the porpofe of the 

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fhy^ wi^h v^s to make the ScigtiA iDemberf, vho' iir Arid 
lirincipies were friendly to a militia, ima^gpoe that ttie Scotete 
were maltifig.ftii unre^fonabh- domtad ; and to cool the lacter 
by^ the fear of an additional iahd t#> a;g^n(l riie ejdpnefsil^do 
latioi^ of the imion. N($r was tf^e pretence fefr inconfiderjTO 
and an wife, than it was unjuft;. becatxie whatever internal de^ 
fence fiiail be thought neceifary for the pea^e ind fecui^y of 
Scotland, will prove an addhioaial ftreogth^ to the whole king^ 
idoiHy and guard the wealtii and liberties of ail.' 

After refuting in the moft Iktisfirddry fnanner the v:^ioos 
objiedions th«t have been made againfi a militia in generate 
and pertieularly vagainft the eftablifhment of fuch* 3 defietice in 
Scotland, the author thos remon&rates, inbehalf of theScots^ 
to the members of the legiflatnro for Soihfh Brhahi. 

' Ye generous friendg of liberty, and of valour, which is kt 
offspring and its gnard ! What had our cojintrymen done; be* 
fore. they tanoely endured the vile diffin^on your maide between 
you and them, what had they done tiii then to deftrve kf 
Was their fame in martial atchtevementis inferior to that of 
ofher nations ? Or has their fidelity, when called into exertion 
by confidence, been unequal to their courage ? Did they not 
in the lad war, fo glorious for Bri^n, fight the battles of theilr 
king and cQUotry, in all the wide regions io which the BritiA 
eonquefl^ extended ? Ye ihades of departed heroes ! is it lor 
your blood (o amply ihed in the caufe of Britain, that diilrttft 
JKod difgrace is entailed on your . pofterity ? Ye fons of (6 many 
thottfand Scottiih who fell in battle^ or by climes mor« fiitdl 
than i^e fword, was, this the promife which your fathers made*, 
when they left their native ihore never to return ? Was thk Che 
toward which Erigland, the emprefs of the main, the qneen of 
commercQ, the arbitrefs of Europe, provided for that vatotif* 
by whofe aid file conquered in the mofi di^nt re^ons of the 

. * Tell ttSr ye feg^s of t-ho Souibr ye wi(e fibnators^ who^ gifo 
laws to fo many kindred nations, what intereft has North Bri- 
tain di£Ferenc frbrti y6uTS ? ^re yoii not the fame people, tied 
together by the mod facred bopds of. union f, 3y mixture of 
blood through- thoafitnds of various fh-eams I By the fame ld« 
giflature and the fame laws? By the fame bleflTing^, derived 
, through all the channels of civil liberty and political order ? 
3y every thing th'at' cdn incorporate focieties of inen.. together? 
As they are one kingdom with you, can there be a dilHndlion 
of intcreft or honour between you? Whatever hurts theol, 
itwft it not hurt you? Whatever dilgraces them, muft 
it not difgrace you ? If they are nnade flrong, will not 
y:OU be flreqgthetied ? If th^y became wenk^ wiU tiQt you be 
|(Bfeebled? If th^ are conquered or enilaved by a foreiga 


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f jt .POftllGKARTICLBf* 

power, of an ambitious prince^ . will not yoor fovereignty or 
freedom be in danger. 

* Steady and united they have conftantly fupported the claims 
of Great Britain againft America, though you bitterly re* 
proached them for it : whilft you till of late, deceived and 
miiled by popular demagogues, were willing to yield to all the 
nnjuft demands of the colonies. They have furpaifed you in 
adherence to the confiitution, let them not outdo you in gene- 
rofity ! fn fpite of all the infults, abufe, and contempt which 
joti have poured upon them ; no fooner have the difafters of 
war humbled your pride, alarmed your fears, and made yoa 
liften to the voice of reafon ; than with the true fympathy of. 
Uood, and of kindred fpirits, they kindle at your danger, and 
fiy to arms for your aid I Yet this is the people whom, in peace 
mild profperity, you will not truft with armafor their own de- 
fence ano yours I This is the very peop'.e, who have paid their 
proportion tor the militia of England for thefe twenty years 
paft ; and yet againft whom you dated with a minutenefs, 
which was as much beneath you as the injuftice of it, the in^ 
equality of the land tax ; that tax which was fettled for ever by 
the iblemn covenant of the union. Time will teach you, it is 
lobe hoped, that the importance of nations does not depend 
Jblely on their wealth, butlikewife on the numbers and bravery 
of the people. For the fake of that liberty which is fo dear to 
you ! For the fake of that conftirution which is fo much your 
boaft 1 Ye patriot legiflators ! if ye Hill deferve the name, 
leize this opportunity, and form and extend a lafting military 
,eftabliihment over'both parts of the united kingdom, for their 
common fecurity and glory.* 

The Letter contains a variety of judicious qbfervations on the 
ftate of public affairs, and the whole is written in a ftrain of 
ienfiment equally animated and liberaL 


Orachn Funthn^ qut en Us Exequias^ qu$ celtbro la Real Jcademia 
Efpanola for eL Alma d§l excmo. fcnor Duquede Alba, /u ^ifmnf 
Dinaor tlDia-l de Enero it 1777 tu la ual Iglefia OraUri^ 
dil Salvador de tftt Corte dix9 D. Jofeph Vela Dodor enjagrada 
Ttoh^a. 4/0. Madrid. 

irHS, fermon before us gUes us a higher idea of the eloquence of 
-■• the pulpit in Spain, than wc have been taught by the greater 
part of Europe, for many year* back,* to conceive. The extraordi- 
nary talents of the eminent perfonage^ who is the fubjeft of this 
piece, and the mal^erly manner in which it is handled, equally 


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FonBiGN Articles* tj^ 

claim our applaufe. Don Vela, we are toId« is a clergyman no left 
diftinguifhed for his public and private virtues, than Tor the Attic* 
tafte and elegance of his difcourfes as well as writings, and being- 
mafterof the pureft idiom of the Caftilian tongue, (in .the reforms* 
tion of which the Spani(h aca4eniy, of which the do6lor it a mem- ' 
ber, has made a rapid progrefs) he has been able to delineate the 
heroic virtues of the duke of Alba in their proper colours^ and to 
enrich and adorn the Spanilh language. 

He takes bis text from chap. i. verfe i$. of EcclefiaKes, * Be-* 
liold I am raifed high .... and have found that even here there it 
nothing but labour and affliction of fpirit.* From which the preacher 
draws the moft pathetic as well as eloquent inferences on the fysWtf 
and emptinefs of all fublunary glory. His patriotic principles, at the 
beginning of his exordium, are not unworthy the breaft of an Athe** 
nian or Roinan citizen in their meridian fplendor $ at the fame time 
that they breathe the true fpirit of the humble Cbriftian law. 
•^ God, fays our orator, created all things in the moft concerted or- 
der and fubordination. Behold the heavens I fee what ftupendoua 
magnificence ! The circumvolutionsof thofe immenfe bodies, with- 
out confuHon or interruption, tending to fome u(eful end, bringing . 
about the alternate feafons of the year, with their various iruits 
and flowers. Behold the whole inanimate creation, not one dif- 
jointed fibre or hair! all anfwering fome wife purpofe of the great 
Creator. His wife deligns as perfe6); in the meaneft reptile as in the 
angels and feraphs that furround his throne ! 

* This pcrfcfk order and ©economy which Providence has difplay- 
ed in the inanimate creation, he defigns as a model for the govern- 
ment of ftates and empires; where each member is meant asfubor-^ 
din ate, in his refpeftive place, to" promote the good of the^whole. 
And whofoever, through idlenefs, d^ilipation, or vice, refufei to 
apply each talent to advance the welfare and happinefs of his coun- 
try, defeats the purpofe of his creation as well as the great end of 
the Chriftian religion/ 

After this the do6lor takes a retrofpedlive view of the dates of' 
Greece and Rome, and (hews thefe patriotic principles to be the 
four<ce of their power and glory | and then proceeds to make the 
moft happy appUcation of them to his hero, who employed all bis 
reat talents in itrengthening the prefent Spanjfh government, and 
nifhes the chara6ler, by (hewing how the duke thade all his heroic 
adiicns finally fubfervient to the honour and glory of God, and the 
fan£tification of his own foul. The ftile of this lermon, in the be- 
ginning is fome what quaint and aflfedled, but as it prbceeds it abounds 
with pathos and energy ; and will ever remain a fta^iding proof hovr 
this fpecies of eloquence may €ouri{h under the moft abfolute mo-p 
narchical governments. 

We (halt extract the conchifion as a fpecimen of the doctor's abi- , 
Ikies, and of the progrefs made by the Spaniards in polite litera- 

< Hafta aquL, amados oyentes, h^ podido feguir con mi tibio y 
defmayado e^piritu los pafos del gran Duque de Alba. Pafar^ ade- 
lante ? i Pero como me atrever^ yo a entrar en los profundus arca- 
nos de la eternidad ? ^ Efperaisacafo, quei-4^ifta de efta muertey 
de fus iluftres defpojos, recoja yo el debil alien to que me ha que- 
dado para accordaros la trifte necefidad de morir ? No, catolicos x 
mas eloqiiente que mis voces fera la vifta de efe tumulo, dpnde efta , 
»-educida k polvo toda la gloria que el mundo ofrece en La cuna mas 
^ oble, en los empleos mas elcvadosi y en hM honoici pias diftlngui- 



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d08« Si .\o^ rips grander fe pierden e.Q efte abxfmp <.donde-|itrarail« 
Ibf arroyos bftfcuros y fin nonibre? Si efte iin tienti^ |a« grandeaa^ 
xnas elevaoas e t^ue fin efpera una d€\o\\ porcion de vanidadcs huma«- 
i^s, que nos ha tocado por hAeAci^i y qa^ es nada a yifta de 
c({as foberantas ? Siendo las mifmas ioberanias otra nada^ api'enda* 
nios, amados oyenUs, a no correr tras una vana fombra de fdicidad,. 
<^e va iiempre huyendo delante de nueftros ojos i a no edificar itabi* 
taciones de barro fobre cimientosde arena, que los vientosderratxanfi 
y loft torrentes arreba{an, y uniei)do nueftros v^tos con los Aifra^os 
mie la igUria ofrece hoy .por el alma de nue^ro dtfanto. duq^t, pi«* 
oamos a Dio&y que por fu piedad y mifericordia Ifo lleve a la com*- 
pauia de los bienaventura4oSy adonde por toda una eternidad def*-* 
ciiiir& en paz. Amen.' 

J^H^wric\% Sthiegel^j, &c. Dstnikhc Ref/ih/chnshawfert^ und an-* 
. ditf mirkfuuT^rgfi HardJ-brifttH in dtt ^amnkluttg Dasnifcher G/-* 
fchiebtan^s Licht gtftiilis^ &c- ^cyages and Travils, nuitb ethtr 
tmarkahU MSS. firfi pukUJhed in the Colhaion of Danilh Hi/- 
ioritst and nonjo tfanjlatcd, %vo, Copenhagen. German. 
IAttS find in this volume, i. an account of the voyage of a Mr. 
•" Ove G!<*(1den, fent out, in 1618, with a fquadron to Ceylon 
ahftfCoromandel, in ordtfr to conclude a treaty with the king of 
Ctfylbn. to creft a fortrefs on that ifland, and afterwards to fortify 
T'rarjquebar on the coafV of Coromandel. This narrative Is not very 
entertaining ; the commander's perpetual difputes with his re- 
ffa6Vory crews, his difobedient officers, and with the Ceyh^n 
plenipotentiary, and an obfcure treaty concluded at length, but 
n'eV^^r yet executed, will hardly intercft any modern reader. «• 
King Chriftiart the Fourth's voyage to Wardbus, as defcribed by 
hVs ftcretary John Carifius; whole account, though authentic, is 
alfb'itot very. inftru6live. The royal fquadron, it teems, feized i^" 
veifai foreign vefTcls, and among them 'foine Englifh, merely 
for. being found in Danifh harbours. Yet it was one of thofe 
f'nglifh captains that faved the king from the mod imminent 
danger of p^ri(hing among rocks and (helves, out of which none 
of his own feamen were able to extricate him. 3. A minute table 
pf tht whole revenue arid expenditure of the kingdoms of Den- 
Ifl^rrk and Norway. Their nett ordinary revenue amounted in 
1602, to 411,002 rixdollars; the cafual to 65,236 more ; the expen- 
diture only to 146,667. 4. Chriftian the Fourth's remarkable i^i- 
nutes andaccoUntSj kept and entered by himfelf in his memorandunr- 
bboks of the years 1607, 160^, and 1621. He certainly was a great 
' ar^d ftrift oeconomift, for here he himfelf balances every month bis rc» 
c^ipts and payments, and' the balance generally turns out in his own 
favour. Though he conftru^ed feveral buildings, purchafed many 
jeVds; and even though his famous favourite Cbriftina Munk, at 
that time returned to him; his oeconomy enabled him to place 
inany confiderable fums out at fix per cent, intereil among bis own 
fabjefls, and one hundred thoufand rixdollars at once, with king 
JaWJes hh brother-in-law. His alms, indeed, on a new year's day,* 
Nan\ounted to no lefs than two marks. He frequently made excur* 
- iibns in his dominions, to Schonen efpecially, and to his German 
provinces: was fond of gaming, won, and fometimes even loft, 
cOnfiderable fums; dealt in horles \ bought a pair of oxen for an 
hundred dollars ; and got 50,000 dollars of the count or Schaumr 
bUrg'forgrantang him'the permiiHon of aflfunung the title of Holflein. 
' " Uier 

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flktr din Druck ier Gtographijcben Cbartiu, ffthfi S^gtfugttr 
Proh eintr dutch dit Buchdrucitr Kunfl gtftt%ten und gl^ueiii^ 
Land Cbarttt von joh, Gottlob Immanuel fireitkopf. 0« /A« 
^rt jtf.priMUtig GfBgrapbical Maps^ voiib a Spedmen of d Map 
ampofed amd prinitd by Msam rf thi typographical 4^t. ^tU 

THE a.uthQr of this very ingenious performance is a Icamed and 
eminent printer at Leipzig, who has enriched hM art with fonae 
ureful and elegant improvements* The fpecimen he here gives, 9 
a part of Peter $cbenk.*s geographical delineation of the diltrii^ of 
Leipzig, without any alteration of the fcale. The attesapt of tbiv 
^l^prefling accurately not only the real fixations and exaS diAaooas 
of places, but the winding.cojir&.^nd the various {\yt% of brookm 
and rivers, ouift have been liable to ma^y and great iltilEQiiUies;^ 
and yet it ha^ fucceeded to a furpriling degree. He thinks that 
Tchools may, by means of this invention, be farniihed withfiefs isi 
good and neat printed maps, Msl very moderate price j and ia will- 
ing to execute this uiefjjl deijgn with Dr. Biifching*s afliftatt^e. 

In order to found the public with regard to the proprktyof thii 
iindertakingy and to the price at which he ou|[ht to fell, the ^Mr/4iil 
maps, be propofes to publiOi tbem by fubfcription ; tmA the iiifi- 
prifing accuracy and elegance of his fpecimei^i wiU^ UQ Aonktt pro* 
ci^re him an adequate encouragement. 

' ■ - . ■. . . -. . — -^ ,11 - 

Btfiomrs qui ajtmporteU Prix de PAcademit de Marfeille,^ attp 

^eftion ; * ^eile a ete dans tons Us Terns t*Influtnce dn Q$9^ 

mtrct/urPE/prsi e$ Us Mceurs des PeupUs V 8 vtf. Paris ^ Mar-^ 


"iirH AT influence has oomnnercis iji a^I ages hfd on tl^}iu^«Ms of 
^ natrons, ^ queftion not lefs interefting than that concerning 
tlie effe^s «f fciences and arts on nafipnafinioirals, has as boldl^ 
been propbfed, as freely ^niisrered* and the anCwer as juftly crowned 
by the academy of Marfeilles, a$ Mr. RqufTeau's iamous .c^c^ujcie 
was by the academy of Dijon. 

Our aHthoi^s general purpofe fufficiently appears from his mott^* . 

' • Attonitus novitate mail, divefque, miferque, 

Eifugere optat opes, ct qux modo voverat pdit/ Qvid. 
He has divided his difcourfe into two parts. In the fird, he efta^ 
blifhes his principles ; in the fecond, he fupports them by hiilorical 
fa^s. Be begins with carefully itating the queAion» and with iuftlv 
xiiftinguiihing the domeftic and internal trade, dealing in the n«cd& 
Varies of- life, and exporting them from one proi^ince |^o soother* H 
trade which he highly commends as the fupport of agriculture and 
^he fpriojg of circulation, from a foreign, remote, maritime com*- 
jnerce dealing in exotic .luxuries, which he a) zealoufly condemns as 
«4eilru^ive and fatal to- agriculture, to population, and to morals. 

To provf the truth of his aflertions was no very difficult tafk. 
,That fpirjt of calculation^ and fraud, that fordid avarice^ whieh 
cbara6lerifes nations who live by trade, and who fubjt6^ eveiV , 
pther coniideration to that priniary intereft j the Aate 4>f languor 
to which Spain and Portugal have be«n reduced by their American 
polonies ;th^ continual outrage oifered to humanity by the Afrieah 
{lave*trade ; the enorii)ous inequality {of fortunes $. the cbcceilive 
prices put on the aits of luxury \ the dlfcouragement of ufehil arts ; 


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1^2 FonEiGN Article s. 

the iofatiable rapacitjr and the Extreme dKToIution unavoidat^If 
produced by the combination of thefe various caufes, ofFer no veiy 
-flattering pi^ure of the influence of commerce on the conduct and 
fate of nations j and thefe fentiments he ftrongly illuftrates and en- 
forces by the examples of the nations of antiquity. 

From all this, however, he does not conclude, that we ought or 
^en <ouldzX. prefent entirely retrafl: our fyflero, and flop ^bat inv* 
anenfe movement by which the raoft diftant nations are attrafted to- 
wards one another from the extremities of the globe: but he con-^ 
tends that this fo general commercial fpirit ought to be fomewhat 
checked and confined within reafonable bounds, inftead of being 
§1^ zeiilouily favoured and extended. He is, of courfe, very far from 
approving the wifhes and attempts of fome modern writers, to make 
noblemen and gentlemen merchants ; and bis ideas on this head ap- 
pear to reft on a true knowledge of the charafi'er of the French na- 
tion* He concludes with the following feniible apoftrophe to coun- 
try gentleman, and country people. 

< Pour.voos, heureux h^birans des campagnes, chez qui la nature 
Ct les moeurs ont encore un afyle, ne quittez point vos paiiibles de« 
jneores pour courir aprcs une fortune dont la pourfuite vous caufe* 
Toit milie repentirs avant de Tavoir obtenue, et dont la jouiffance 
%t voos d^dommageroit jamais de jours obfcurs mais tranquilles 
^ne Vous lui auriez iacrifiL S^chez vous contenter d*un vie iira- 
pie et douce, fi pr^i^rable a la vie inquiete ,& tumultueufe de not 
YilleSy oh la foif des ripheflfes s'eft tournee en rage, et l*amottr dea 
plaiiir« en fureur, & d* ou les commerce a bannt pour toujours cette 
confideration qu^eit la fource de toute f^licit6 & le garaat de la 


Briani Waltoni in BihJia Polygkua Vrohgomena, Pre/atsu efi* 
D. Jo. Aug. Dathe. %vo. Lipiiae; 

AS Dr. Walton^s in(lru6live Prolegomena were originally prefixed 
to his voluminous Polyglott Bible» and, from the high price of 
' that work, inacceflible to many readers ; the whole apparatus was 
in ^673, already reprinted at Zurich, in a fmall folio volume, and 
publiflied feparately by Heidegger, who enriched his edition with 
Prufitts's valuable coUe6(ion of Hebrew proverbs. As this edition 
lias become fcarce. Dr. Dathe has now obliged the public with an- 
other corre6^, commodious, and cheap edition of that ufeful work, 
to which he has prefixed a preface, containing many judicious and 
learned remarks on feveral of Dr. Walton's opinions. 

Mtmoria tpifielart fopra /* EpixeoHa Awvina /coper fafi uliimameMfi 
im Mkmni luogbi ddla Dalniatitt. %vo. Modena. 
In 17759 an epidemical diftemper broke out among the horned 
cattle near Scardona in Dalmatia, and fpread to the diftrifl of ' 
Zara* This induced the board of health at Venice, to fend fignot 
Monis, a profeflbr of the veterinary art, with two of his pupils^ 
^to that country 5 whofe journey is, together with the nature ot the 
diftemper, the curative metlioos, aiul their various fuccefles, mi« 
nutely related in this fenfibic and ufeful letter, addrcflcd by fignor 
Antonio Fantlni to fignor Antonio Ardtiini. 

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FoRCioH Art^icles. 141 

AfpUgiaferMiiici Pavefi, con la Giuftijuawm it una c$n/ultm 
fipra i* una Atrojia mern/o/a» 4/0. Fa via. 

Signor Ign. Monti, the author of this performance, was called 
from Pavia to Milan to a confultation on a dtfeafe of a youn^ 
iDarrie4 lady, and gave his (entiments and advife on the ca^, ia 
writing. , Thefe were by the ordinary phyiician of the family pub- 
lished, with fome cenfuring remarks; which prompted Dr. Monti 
to publifh, in his turn, this ample juitification of his fentimentt 
and advice. It evinces much medical learning, mixed up with gail 
. and afperity quantum fufficit, or rather more. But the Mi tart efe 
phyfician had preferved his credit with the family of the patient^ 
and periifted in his method^ and the young and amiable lady ua« 
happily died. 

Die Alterhumer D^cieni in Jem beniigen Sithtn^rgeu. Jus dem 
ZeitfHt ah dii/es fcbant Land dit Roemer regierun, auf BtfM 
und Koften Ibrtr Maj, der Kai/erin gidrucki, Thi JfitifuUies 0/ 
Dacia, -in modern Tranfylvania ; from the Timu when that fiat 
Country was governed hy the Romans. Fuhlified at the Cem-^ 
mand and Etptnce of her Majefiy the Emprefe ^eem. ^to» Vienna. 

The whole of this very fplendid work will confift of three parts; 
It contains a valuable mifcellaneous coUe^^ion of elegant plans of 
diftrids, of Roman infcriptions, ftatues, and a variety of fragments 
and decorations ingenioufly drawn and defcribed by baron ,de Hq. 
henhaufen, a major in the imperial fervice. 

Detail de la nouvelle DireSion du Bureau dts Nourices ie Paris. • • • 
Deux Qonfuhations medieoflegaies relatives a tet, ohjet^ la Re^ 
pon/e de la Faculte de Medecine de Paris a M. M, let Admiinftra*- 
teurs de l^H6pitdl d^ Aix en Provence concernant la Neurriture IS 
ie Trait ement des Enfans trowves Malades. Par J, J. Gardane, 
Medecin du Bureau des Nourias, 1 2/00. Paris. 

A fmall booJc, but from the nature of its contents, worthy tbt 
attention of the magiftrates and phyficians of populous cities. 
Let Promeurs, ou Ie Tartu/e literarfe. Comedies If'ith 4 Plates. 
S'ue. Paris, 

A very fine and fcvcre fatrre by Mr. Dorat, on the coritemptibfe 
ways and means of the Parifian clubs of pretended philofophers 
and wits, to bepraife each other, and to revile and depreciate tvcry 
writer who does not belong to their own refpcftive focietics. 

Metnoiri gut a remperte Ie Prix an Jugement dePA^ademie ^^DijoDt 

U i8« Aoftt lyjS^/ur la ^eftion prepo/ee en ees Termes ;. • 2)/- 

tertttiner qu*ellisfont let Maladies dans le/queUes la Medicine agf/'. 

fante efi preferable a VexpeaatUe, W ceile-ci a tAgiJante, & a 

quels fignes Ie Medicin reconnoit quil doit agir ou refltr dans Vln* 

eiSion^ en Attendant Ie Moment favorable pour placer lesRemedes% 

Ptfr iif. Voullonc, ilf. />. Zvo, Avignon. 

A more delicate and interefting problem could hardly be pr9- 

pofed in phyfic than this ; nor would it be an eafy taik to give a 

more folid, methodical, and fatisfa£tory folution of it than that 

MinUii)(d in Pr« Voullone^i excellent memoir. It clears up and 


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144 FojLCfGirAtTtcttf<t 

fixes ideas that are of \ht higk/ttt confeanence tp t^eli&and health 
oir mankind » contains 2 com))Tete cl^afllncation of* all the difealies^ 
and points out, through all their divifiont and fubdivifionsy wha( we 
l&now of ^hcir ^aAifes, of tibe l!ieA>iif'€ea of luiture for their core, and 
pi the pieant which a^t c^B fuccefsfully apply to theiame end* 
The author difcovers every when^ A great confidence in the eff^st 
^nd refour^es of nature, and flcjieraily'prefers.expcding to adinc 
]^yfic. Hi9 memoir evinces iTvoc/ly, viodefty, prudence* combined 
ivith inteafe reflexion and profound ikitl in tbeoiy and pradlice* * 
As it treats a fubieA thus generally and efientially iatereftingin iu 
iclf, in a fpiiited, cQrre.dl* and eioquent Ayit, it ought tobeaitea- 
ti«dy4neditat0d ai»d conisdex^d by itadencs of phy^c as a daffical 
. ^performance. . 

ZkJ Comdaatrt tk^rico fofto ntl Campanile dl S, Marco /« Vineaia 
Mimoria^ in cmi oec4ijS§m^im§me fi tagiohi dti CondM&ari cbe f&f-' 
fino apflicarfi aj Fafitliit ai Maggazzini da P^lvtre^ ed altri 
Sdifici, 4/^ in Viaexi^. 

The famous fteeplc of St. Mark at Venice having often been ftmck 
by lighming» the procurators of St. Mark co^nmiflioned fignor Tor 
alfio> profefTor at Padua^ to guafd it againft like j|ccident8 for the 
future^ by a good condu^or. In this ihort memoir, he rebtes the 
iqaiiner in which be has acquitte4'himrfK of .this commjilvin \ and 
treats of the ufe of conduaors in fliijps, veiTels, powder jpagazioff, 
and other buildings, and of their utefnlnefs in general* One re- 
mark piay be acceptable and ufeful to the fair fex, who» though of- 
ten fo much afraid of lightning, increafe their dangers by the ex- 
ceiEve height of their bead-drefTes, fupported by metal pins, by 
.which' the lightning is attraded, 4vhich, by a humbler dre&yOiiebk 
be avoided ; * Graviori cafiid^cidunt turrcs» feriuntque fumiBPS Jul- 
mina montes.* If they cannot, hii^ever, be prevailed up^n tp l^wer 
their crefts, it were to be wished at leaft that they might fubAitute 
to metal pins, long (hell, or ivory pins completely covered with illk| 
«r any other animal Aibiiance fit to avoid the elefiric fliock< 

Efbmiridts Jftrenomica A^ni 1777, ad Mfndianj/m Mfidialmi^tn* 
itm fuj^putqia ah Aogelo de C^f^fis^ 0<(iditl4pf$mdixtt^* 
cifci Reggie^ 8v0. Milan. 

This third volume of the Agronomical ^phemerides of Milan^ 
CQntains, befides the ufual articles of the almanac 3ud their expli- 
cation, ^veral other valuable obfefvatipns ^ erpecj^Uy fome m^ife J^y 
order of the imperial court for determioing the longitude andl^ti- 
t\ide of Cremona and Pavia, by Mefi'. de Cefaris and^ R.cggio, and 
fome others made by their correfpondents at Paris, Geneva,' Pa- 
^oua , and other places. 

Contifiuaiicn de PHifloire des Revolutions di Suede, de M. PJhhi 
de Vertot. Hijtoire d* Eric XIF. Roi di Suede, icrite fur itt 
J3ei du Temfs^ par M. Olof Celfius, t^c* et traduite du Sut* 
dois par M. Genet le Fils, 13 c. 2 Vols. 1 iiM. Paris, * 

Though this work is not equal in point of tafte and elegance 
to that of M. de Vtrtot, it is valuable for the remarkable fa§s i| 
contains, and lor being drawn up from authentic records. 

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C '45 I 



fks CaJc ftand 9n Pbihfophtcal^ Gnoutui^ ^ifwie^ Great Bnt^Ia 
aaJ btr Cahnies, %V9, 2^ Kearily. 

THAT the ttnhapp7 dUl^erence between this country and 
ker colonies has been produdiveof numerooii misFortiiness 
BO one will be found hardy enough to deny. There is a mif- 
chieF, however, which has not yet been noticed, and which is not 
the 4*malleft we experience. are naturally poiiti* ' 
cianiSy from (be freedom they enjoy ; bat, fince the beginning 
of thefe troubles^ Engliihmen have been polincians in the fulleil 
Ifeiifc of the words* Nerone neronior. They have outdone ^ 
thnnfelvefi. Our very women and children have fcribbled 
paoDphletSy propofed plans of reconciliation, and obligingly 
come forward to fettle the affairs of the nation. - 

A bill is, at iaft, before the parliament for the fettling of 
the mifunderftanding between Britain and America. May it 
be attended with ail poffibl^ fucceis ! Bat there is acharity which 
we ar^ of opinion ihould be efiablilhe4 by the kglilatt^e the 
moment matters are concluded — an hofpital, in which poor ladies 
aH)d gentlemen whofe heads have been turned by coniidering ^ 
thefe affairs, may fpend the evening of their days. Such a re-. 
treat would fcreen them from the finger of contempt, and pre- 
vent thediftemper from fpreading among the long-eared cattle^ 

We hereby certify that the author of *'Thc Cafe ftated on 
Philofophical Ground,' is clearly intitled to claim the clofeft cell, 
and tlie ilraitefl waidcoat. ^ 

ConfiderdtUns ou the Prefent ^tate of Jffairj het*ween England and 
America. Zvo. ij. Sewell. 

This, like ever^ other pamphlet which we hive hitherto feen 
0|) tbt prifent ftau of affairs, has y^ithin thefe few days become 
dbiblete ; and we may therefore confign it to.the regions of ob- 
livion, as indeed it deferves. 

Tbt dtlmfi<ui and dangtrom Prfnciphi of the Minoriiy txpcftd and 
ufia$d. ' 8v0. u* 6^ Fielding and Walker, 

The author of this pamphlet afTumes the fignature of Ho- 
fitftus ; and though we cannot cdnfider him in any important 
light aia writer, he appears to be a perfon who loeafis well. 

Vott XliV. Fit. I77S; L Rmarh 

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^mark's upon General Howe*/ Jccount of his Precfedingf on Long« 
Ifland. %vo. u. 6^. Fielding and Walker. 

We pre,te1ad not to interpofe our opinion in a cafe which is 
cognizable pnly by a court fnartial. 

The Patriot 'Mini fter : an Hiftorical Panegyric on Michael de I'Hof- 
/ pital, ChancelUr tf France. Tra^Jlated from tbi French. 8«»#. 
2/. 64/. Durham. 

The original of this pamphlet is faid to hare been fuppreflfed by 
an order fromthe court of France, on account of the generous fpi- 
rit'of liberty with wbich it is animated. The chara£ler of the cele- 
brated chancellor THofprtal is here drawn with fuch juHnefs and 
energy of expreiTion as does equal honour to the noble obje£k,^nd 
the ingenious author of the panegyric. That the latter fhould be ' 
di veiled of all partiality in delineating a charadler fo truly ve? 
nerable, is not to be fuppofed ; but if the virtues of this great 
minifter be in any degree exaggerated, they have at leaft their 
foundation in the mod genuine hidories of thofe times. . 

An Adirefi to John Sawbridgc, Richard Oliver, Frederick Bull, 
tfWi^ George Hay ley, Eiqr$* Rfprefntati'ues in Parliament fir 
thi City of London. (Vith Prcpofah for the fjetttr Rfgulation 
of Bankers ani Brokers ^ and for fiuring the Property of the fair 
trader from Sivindisrs and Sharpers, hy reftraining^ , nuithin 
proper Bounds t public Au^cons* Afo a Scheme for efahlifhing a 
Loan Bank. By Walfinghao) Collins. %vo, is. 6d. Kearfly. 

Thefc propofals are evidently founded on the idea of public 
utility, and therefore entitled to regard. 


Experifnents fiftnving that Volatile Alkali Fluor is the rneft efficacious 
Remedy in the Cure of Afphyxies ; (or apparent Death by Dro*wn^ 
ing,) &c. Tranflated Jrom the French of M, Sage. ' By Tho- 
mas Brand, ^vo, is, Bew. 

This pamphlet is a tranflation from the French of M. Sage, 
which has lately been publiftied abroad^ and well received. 
The medicine here recommended is the volatile,alkali difengaged 
from fal ammoniac by three parts of flaked lime, and named 
fluor, from its being always in a fluid form. M. Sage produces 
fcveral caies to confirm its efficacy in the circumflances for which 
it is advifcd, by being applied in fmall quantity to the noflrils, 
fome drops of it mixed with water being likewife introduced by 
the mouth. The fnccefs of this medicine is afcribcd to its neu- 
tralising thic mephitic, or deleterious acid air; fuppofed by the 
author to be the immediate caufe of death in perfcns who are 
drowned. Upon the fame principle of an acid acrimony, he 


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recommends this remedy alfo in burns, and the bite of Ibme 
animals and infedts, as well as in the apoplexy. From the tefti- 
xnony which the author has produced of its fnccefs, there is rea- 
fon to exped that it will be diligently apf^ied in the cafe of 
drowned perfons, efpedally as it is not meant to foperfede the 
manual refources commonly pra^ifed on thofe occafions; 

Ohfifvatiens on tie Intr9du&i§n t$ ihg PJan^f the Di/ptnfafy fir 
Gemral InocuUaion. Bj tbt hou. Baro/t T. Dimfdale, 8vf • 
2s. Owen. 

Jn thefe obfervations baron Dimfdale clearly refutes the erro- 
neous opinion^ th^t the inoculated fmall-pox are not infe^ious; 
and he alfo evinces beyond a doubt^ the danger which may re- 
fult to the pablic fropi the Difpenfary for General Inoculation* 
in confequence of the miftakea idea upon which the plan of 
that inditution is founded. 

9at'tf Cafit of the Hydropbohia % nvitb Obfervations en tbi^t Difeafe^ 
By J. Vaughan, M. D, ^vo. 2s, 6d, Robinfon. 

Thofe two onfortanate cafes confirm the inefficacy of the 
Qrmfkirk medicine, as well as of all the other remedies that 
have been recommended in this dreadful difeafe; the nature of 
which, however, feems to be more clearly afcertained by the 
accurate obfervations of this author. From both the cafes here 
'defcribed, and from the diffedlion of the patients, we are of 
opinion with Dr. Vaughan, that there is the ilrongell reafon for 
concluding the hydrophobia to be a difeafe not of the inflam* 
aiatory, but fpafmodic kind, and therefore, that blood-letting 
cannot contribute towards the cure ; the poflibility of which we 
wiih to fee as much evinced by poiiiive, as it has hitherto been 
oppofed by negative evidence. 

This pamphlet alfo contains an account of the Casfarian ope- 
ration lately performed at Leicefter ; which, though executed 
with dexterity, and the woman was judicioufly treated, (he did 
Bot furvive many days. 

Jn Addrefs to the Fuhllc. Small Svo» 

This addrefs, which is intended to diiTnade from the prad^ice 
of premature intermenjt, is prefented^ to the public by Mr. 
Hawes, who, in a reply to Mr. Ren wick, explains his opinion 
concerning the poffible'recovery of perfons apparently dead. 


^ Plai4 and Scriptural Atconnt of the hordes Supper ^ colle3ed from 
every Fi^Jfage which occurs in the Nsvi Tejtammt on that Subjedm 
Zvo. I J. ^Matthews. 
The firft article in this publication is taken from Hoadly. 

the iitcond is an etymological explanation of the names of the 

L a patri- 

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148 Monthly Catalogue. 

patriarchs from Adam to Noah, which the author fuppofes to^ 
contain a feries of predi^ions, pointing out the origin, the fall, 
aod the redcmptioo of mankind ; Adam iignifying, man or red 
earths Srtb, fet or placed; Enoa, in mifery, &c. The third 
is a coliedlioo of fcriptnre-pafTages on the natarai ftate of man, 
the deliverance propofed to itnners, the inability of the natnral 
man to uoderftand the fcriptures, the neceffity of regenerati6n» 
faith being the gift of God, the confequences of rejecting the 
gofpel, • the unity of the Godhead, or tht dodrireof theThrce 
10 One,' ^c. The produ&ion of a-^well mettning writer* 

Ji Briif Enquiry into the State after Deaths as touching the Cer* 
tainty thereof \ andivhthn nue fiall exift in a material or im- 
material Suhftance ; and *whtther the Scripture Dp^rine of a 
future State he fupported by the Light of Rtafon* 8<iW. bd^ 
Printed at Mancheftcr for the Author. 

It is no eafy matter to afcertain the notions, whick- are ad- 
vanced in this pamphlet; we. (hall therefore give the reader two 
or three fketches in the author's own words : 

' I troft I fl) all be able to make it manifeft, for I reckon, (and 
obvious both from Scripture and reafon) that betwixt the time 
of our death and the refurredion; is not one unconfcious (late, 
fls> feme moderns affirm, but a ftate ofitorment, inafmuch as 
there is nothing to fuifer and enjoy but matter. — I obferve, that 
if our eziflence be derivative from a being prior to nature, that 
can create and annihilate at pleafure, on fuch an hypothecs the' 
iiiturefiate of man is at beft contingent an<l uncertain. — It -is 
evident from the concurrence of fcripture and reaibn, there is 
no immaterial fubdance or any dead matter ; that miieries and 
joys are the Infeparable confequences of AttS^ and rarified 
;^rms ; that the grave is. the place of torment t*-^-** and that 
we muft be rarified by fire» before we can poflefs a ftate of hap^ 
piaefsy.&c' . " 

This» we apprehend, is enough. 

7he Proof of the Truth of the Chriftiam Reiigioft^ drannn fromiu 
fuuefsful andfptedy Propagation^ confidered and enforced^ in T<wo 
^ Sermons preached icfafe the Uni*otrfuy j/" Oxford, hy ThomaS 
. Randolph, D.D. %vo. \ Rivington. 

In thefe difcourfes the author gives us a general view of thcf 
hidory of the fird publication of the gofpel, as it is exhibited 
in the Adis of the Apoflles^ and from its fpeedy and extenfive 
propagation, in oppofition to all the pailtons and prejudices of 
the Jews and heatbens, he evinces the truth and divinity of the 
Chriflian religion. "^ 

* The prcfe&r has taken great pains in collefling all thofe paf« 
fages from the facred hiflonan, which tlirow any light upon the 
fubjea. His arguments are not ne\Y> but they are^rand con^ 

d-aiiv^ . . **. ^ , . . . .. y 

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M.o NTHLy Cat AhoqvMm • 149 

jf Sermon prtathitt 'wiihin the Peculiar of Na^oj^tpn anJ it$ 
. MimifrSf in the County of Noxthampton^ in the Month of Oc* 
tober» I777» Bj tbt rtv* James Ibbetfoo^ D.D. ±iOm' i/« 

< It is more bleifed V9 gi^e tfian C5 rective^* A£ls xx^ 5^. la 
difcoarfing on tbefe words the author recommends the virtues of 
benevolence and clarity, as the fources of the higked pleafure 
and felicity. From thence he takes occafion to make Tome re- 
in axks on the diAreiTesy which, he tells us, are ready to fall on 
tbe poor of four pariihes, by an ' intended enclofure. * borne . 
judgement, fays he, may be formed of their future calamities 
from the diftrefs of a poor weaver, who accoAed me yeHerday 
in the common fields, with a rnefal vifage and lamentable 
voice : <* What fliaili do, when ( am turhed out of my little 
homeHead by thefe barbarous people? I cannot dig ; to beg I 
am a(hamed."»«*«In the following paragraph he feems to fpeak 
ilill more J gelingif, 

* View now yoor own uncultivated farms ; lo there the rough 
thiflles^ the barf, and 4he hateful docks, inftead of the verdadC 
blades of corn coming up I caft then an eye of pity and itidig* 
nation upon the slebe lands ready to be parcelled out to :Otheri« 
the tythes aboliik^ after poifeffion of more than half a millen* 
Slum, the ancient rights annihilated, many valuable in tereils can* 
celled and made void» the manors invaded, the endowments of 
the church, analienable virithont the confent of the biihop and 
impropriator, aliened for ever^ I am come to yi>u nevertheleft 
in the fpirit of meeknbfs ; though perfecuted by my fuperiors« 
for jianding up in my place among the reprefentative body of the 
clergy in convocation, and aiTerting the king's fupremacy» 
which themfelvef are vnder the mod folemn cagagementi to 
rodntain and defend ; though moreover my freeholds are taken 
from roe by the fupremacy of law, in dired oppofition to juftice 
and equity and the invariable rule of common law. Did I fay 
the fupremacy t>riaw? pardon the folecifnv, call it what ye 
will i the ebullition of party zeal, the rant of modern politicians^ 
derogatory to majeftyitfelf; of which they would be thought to 
have the mod profdund veneration, yet are real delinquents with 
xefjped to the king's fupremacy.' , ' 

it IS to be hoped, that the enclofures, to which our author al- 
ludes, will npt be attended with the calamities he feems to foe* 
Dode. , In the prefent cafe we do not pretend to* judge of cifcum- 
Hances, and private grievances. But, in general, we are en- 
claned to think, that enclofures are calculated to encourage agri- 
culture, and confeqnently to produce fertility^ plenty, and prof- 
perity in the nation. Soppofe we were to demolilh our en- 
dofares, and convert this iiland into a common, the inhabitants 
«>f the country might indeed have their Mhtle homcAeadsi' and 

L 3 th« 

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the privilege of feeding tbeir cattle, ilieep» and geefe» withoir 
cxpcipce ; but they would be apt to wear as ruefaT faces as the 
weaver, who accofted our author. In Head of| well cultivated 
fields, we (hould have heaths, decorated with burs and docks, or 
as an old writer exprefiee it, thIlUes inflead of wheati and cockle 
ijiftead of b^rky. 


The Conquerors. A Potm. 4/^. 2i. 6d. 'Sefcchel. 

This poem feems deiigned for the perufal of aftronomers ; 
there are more flan in it than the galaxy contains. — If defa- 
mation can only be conveyed by ufing the party's name, this . 
author does not abuife a fingle individual — if a ftar and a dafh 
can do it as well, then has .our patriot dafhed through thick 
and thin at every public character in the kingdom— which is 
jDOt in oppofition. 

What claim this writer can make to the godlike name of poer» 
our readers may judge from the following lines, which he puts' 
joto the mouth of lord Chatham ; and, as his lordfhip is a t/aft 
favourite, it is likely that be has provided him with the belt he 
could put together. 

« For England's good by duty now impeird^ 
My warmeft efforts cannot be with-held. 
I rife, my lords, in humble expedlation. 
That my propofals for th' unhappy nation 
May be receiv'd as for my fov'reign's fame* 
The peopk's int'reft and Great Britain's name. 
Thefe objeds move— but 'fore my wifli 1 ftatc, ' 
Let's view the caufes that our ills create. 
Without confent, with force you took away 
Eftates and lives— and are thcfc legal prey ? 
You would not hear when provinces complain'd. 
But fa^ious call'd thofe men who truths maintain'd, 
i^meric's fons, when arg'd by wrongs, petition ; 
Their hutt^bleft prayers you call a iT/// feditioo. 
A paUry tax on tea by war's defended. 
Without efFe^ have millions been expended. 
Britain de/pis'd, with trembling fears depend 
On fickle France her old and treacherous friend.' 

Of this mod impartial and difpaffionatc poet's afFedUon for 
truth. Our readers may judge from a roodeft afier^tion in a note^ 
« The Americans have never yet employed, a -fingle Indiaa 
againft us.' p. 63. 

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^ 1 



Tranfmigration : a Potm. \to. 2/. 6 J* Bci^. 

Written, as it is pretended, with a view to comfort the au- 
thor's lady-mother, for the freedom with which, nvt are tcU, 
ihe was treated by. Mr. Cradock, in his late viiit to her. 

< There, funk in grief, thepenfive dame, 
Expofed to ridicule and (hame. 
Left, nnrevenged, her woes to mourn, 
Infulted Cambria fits forlorn.' 

Poor lady ! it grieves one's heart to fee her. But though 

the poem contains a few tolerable lines, we are of opinion 
that it was thrown out with 2 view to inflame the minds of 
fome of the inhabitants of North- Wales, by applying feme 
particular pafTages of Mr. Cradock's Tour, as cenfures on the 
whole principality— We confidcr the following general re- 
mark of Mr. Cradock's as highly complimentary : • By a fta- 
tute of Henry Vlll. all laws and liberties of England was to 
take place there ; from which time the Welfh have approve4 
themfelves truly wort bj »/ their high erigitij loyal and dutiful to 
their king, and always zealous for the welfare of the com* 


The JVateb, an Oiey hufuhly inferihd to the right hon.tbe Earl of 

M— f-'d. To which is addtdy the Genius 0/ AmcriQa, to General 

Carleton, om Ode. ^to. i/. Bew. 

The fubjc£l of this lively Ode is the prefent of a watch which 
the king is faid to have received lately from the French court. 
Though the poet has not perhaps made the mod of the idea, 
bis Ode has much merit, and contains fome Arokes of true wit. 
The motto from Virgil is apt-^— 

•-^-^Timeo Danaos 8c Dona ferentes. 

We (hall felefl a few lines, in order to entertain our readers; 
mnd give them fome idea of this little piece. 

« This gimcrack's in perpetual motion ; 
' Like us, at ev'ry knave's devotion 
A moft obfequious thing ; 
Thus at one point no taxes Hand, 
Wound up for ever by the hand 
Of minifter ^nd k . 

* Of pafllve members all compafl, 

When G- wou'd wi(h (o make it aA, 

Let him but treat it like 
His lower houfe — when need demands, 
His prcfFurc all its pow'rs commands. 

One touch will makts it Rrike. 
< By weakeA hands with eaf&'tis wound | 
Emits, when touched, afilverfcund} 

L 4 A fottsd 

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15s' MOHT fl &T'C A TiTftO tt «S» 

A foand fa very fweet, • ^ " 

That wbcD its pleating chimes are rung, . . 

They found like N-rtn's hooey 'd tongae 

When extra-thoofands greet. , 

* Thus Britilb kings by cap'ring Frsfnce 
Are taught in fymbols to advance 

With bold, defpotic fway ; 
And thus tame Britons, who once ftood 
Oo charters purchased with their blopd* 

Like mere machines obey.' 

We have little doubt that our poet's Wa|ch will go^ and( 
turn out to be a rtp^aur* 

The additional ode, .though ic may not deferve the praiie 
of reafon, will merit that of rhyme and poetry. 

The Family In-compa3f eontrajlid iviih tbt Family ComfaS; a 
Talt^ from rtal Life. 4/0. u. 6d. Bew.- 

There are authors who feem to think that any publication . 
upon political fubje^s, efpecially if it be in favour of the. A me- ^: 
ricans* whether' rhyme or profe, fenfe or nonfcnfe,. muft ineyit* ; 
ably fucceed. l*he author of this tale, or poem, or whj^tevcc , 
it be called, may not come exadlly under this defcription ; bu( 
he forely could never hope that his performance had merit- 
enough, to deferve fnccefs. If this be any family jn com pa€l. 
It is not the faniily of Apollo and his nine Afters, we venture to. 

Elegiac Fxrfis t» the. Memory of a Married Lady. ^to» iSm 
A flight, nnelaborate performance, yet not deflitute of me- 
rit. There is an air of tendernefs and fenfibility in fever al 

« J fee thee, flroggHng in the pangs of death. 

Strive to retign the laft dear gafp or breath ; 

J fee, and at each paufe thy nature makes, 

A throb kyeti as thine my feeling wakes/ 
« • • • •-• • . • • 

• Ere yet I clofc, bleft fpirit. fare thee well ; 

Remembrance on thy image {lili fhall dwell ; 

The pleafing fcenes'l*!! frequently review, 

Whic4i once were fpent with innocence and you ; 

Pieafing indeed ! but blended Hill with pain. 

The cruel thought! they'll ne*er. return again!' 

This poem is free frbm a common, but unpardonable fault ia 
elegiac compoiitions, afFeftation. 

Ja Ode to Peace ; occafioned by the ptefent Cr'tjis of the Britiih Em^ 
. fir em ^o» IS* Almon. » 

The &xfi :ftanza wijl ^ive. the reader a competent noiioo of the 
verii^cation and the fpirit of this Ode. 

« Haa 

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M o It v^ivi^v C A T A L.aa v e» 't^4^ 

• ttailpeace! dioudtaghterof tfaefkkf» 
thottcldeft, gentifilbornof heav'a{ 

Tboo idol -of the good and wife. 

For whom all ftates, aUe»pire» rift, 
TouchM and refiaM Iron feudal leav'iiy 
The drofi of fcbools, afid^nift of timey 
Phibfopby's and viitoe's trtat fubliae* 

From heav'n, the legiflarive fource 

Of joftice, tqnity and rightr 

All ftatntes flkoold derive their force, 
- All governmentt their pow*rj fupreme ; 

Elfe a mere MachiaveliaQ dreasn» 

Embryo of fickly fttidyV lamp«^il light : ' . 
And heaven, where grateful pee^s never ceafe. 
Is the congenial latitude of peace ' 

The claffic reader will certainly make objeAions to thefe Iinet | 
he will obferve, that it is rachejr improper toreprefent peace as ski 
iM; he will fay» that he has no idea of empires, < uuebid.MjodL. 
refined from /rav/ji% of their becoming * the trui/uilime* of phir. 
lofophy and virtue ; or of government's being a Jream, and» at 
the fame time, ah /si^;^0 of Jickfy ftudyU lamp^H iigkt ; and» 
laily, that the two lines, which exhibit this inconfiftent and 
inelegant imagery, are exceedingly defe^ve in piOeiical ham 
jnony. -. 

Alfred. JnOda Wttbjhc Sonnet f. ^ Robert Hblnies, ilf; ^ 
j^u* li. 6^. Rivington, 
In this Ode, king Alfred, afier having defeated the Danes at 
Eddington, is placed on the White Horfe Hill^ in Berklhire^ 
which Hood near the northern extremity of his grandfather Eg- 
bert's hereditary kingdom of the Weil Saxons, and ovef4ooked 
Wantage, the place of his own nativity. From this filuation, 
which was not very remote from the fcene of his late vi€lbry» 
hh eye migKt commai^d a diftant view.of that vale,; ia whidi 
Oxford now Hands. Tlii» circumftance leads him» vtty natu- 
rally, as the founder of Univerfity college, to launch out into a 
prophetic defcription of the Greek and Roman Mufes BaAn^ their 
xefidence in that ple^^g and peaceful reueat, and aoimatingrtfab 
Britilh yonth to the love of claffic learningJ-^Tbis is* no meaa 
.imitation of Mr. Gray's A^elch Bard^ The fqaocu are^of a giw9 
caft» in lines of ten fyllables. 

D R A M A, T I a - 

The BailU •/ Hajlings, A Tragedy. By Richard Cumberland, 
Efq. as it is aSIed at tbi Tbtatre-Royal in Drnry-Lane* 8 w. 
I/. (}d. Dilly. 

The langna^ and the ^Kietry of this play are fuperior to {bme 
modern tragedies, but yet it is a modern tragtdy. Why Mr, Ctim** 
berland has chofcn to call it < The Battle of H^ings/ we do 

4 not 

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2^4 MoNTMxr Cataloovs. 

not ree-*to be furc we hear fometbing of fuch a battle lo tbe laft 
mBt; but almoft the whole of the tragedy Goafifts of love fccnea 
between a difguifed prince, and a couple of food maidens. The 
Rival Beantief would have been a more proper name for it. 
The French are blamed .for filling their tragedies with love; 
Mr. Comberland appears inclined to keep them in coantenance* 
Whining tragedies are» if poffible, more unnatural than fcpti* 
mental comedies, 

Notwithftanding thefe objedions, we have found many paf* 
fiiges in this performance which pleafed us. To infert them is 
impoffible. We fluiU mention the few thoughts and ezpreifions 
of which we do not approve* 

< Provoke the bugle,*-*Anglice found the horn, feems bor- 
rowed from Pope's famous Treatife on the Profound. 

Shakefpeare moft poetically defcribes * the poet's eye, in a fine 
pbren^sy rolling, elanclng from earth to heaven.' Mr. Cumber* 
land, with fomewhat lefs of infpiration, makes bis poet * in his 
•irs and extravagant flight h/f wide creation's round*' 

Edwin tells Edgar, 

— — « You abufe 
The weaknefs of > fond unguarded orphan, 
Parlying in fecret by the moon's pale beam.' 

Modern poets are much too fond of epithets. ^-Edgar couM 
not abufe the weaknefs of Edwin's filler m the fmalleft degree, 
becanfe the beam of the moon by whofe light he par lied with her 
was fait. 

* How did hit tMgui run aver /* 

|s not this metaphor vulgar, and improperly applied?. 

< Leaden affli£iion lies fo heavy on me, 
. Imagination cannot ilretch a wing 

To raife'me from the dud.' 

That perfiormance is not necefTarily a tragedy which abounds 
in overftrained imagery and far-fetched metaphor. 

* Why Hand thefe guards like hounds apon the flip ?' 

Nor is every fimile proper, becaufe }t is ttnv. This hunting 
fimile does not much become the mouth of the gentle Matilda. 
One of lord Edwin's foredcrs might indeed have ufed it pro- 

Similes are the edged tools of tragedy-mongers. They (honld 
be handled carefully. — We find another in the mouth of the 
faifte prittceft, which we prefume to fay even a princefs of' 
thofe rude days would have been too delicate to ufe ; efpecially 
as the juRnefs of it is not fo very tempting. 

< I faw your hero dart into the fight 

As the train'd fwimmer fpiings into the flood/ , 


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Though the gladiators; at ottc period of tBofe polite anufe- 
jncnts, engaged in buff ; yet we do not recoiled that the Roman 
ladies were prefent at the naked cxercifca in the Campus Martias 
and the Tiber—at leaft we remember no naked fimile put into m 
Roman lady s mouth upon their ftagc— And we do not doubt. 
that if Matilda's eyes had ever. hyiucUtnt, been gratified with 
theiightofarwimmerfpringingintotbe flood, the voubk lady 
Ka<l more judgment ^hao to ufc it in her common convcrfktion 
By ibi way of fimile. ' 

When the fame lady talks of being « ftruck from out the book 
of hope, Ihe is not indelicate, but only vulgar.—Who would 
not think that her rcjal bigbm/s had heard an Irifti chairman talk- 
ing of boxing one of his companions, and beating him out of the 
book of life, ** 

^ After all, there are many good lines, and poetical pafla«5,: 
in this tragedy--Mr, Cumberland feems blcffed with a haphy 
memory : it is, perhaps, owing to this circumftance that wc fo 
often trace him m the fnow of other writers,: efpcciali? of 
Shakefpcare. ^ ' 

Alfred. A Tragedy. As perfermd at tbt Tbeatre-RoyaL ig Co- 
veilt-Garden. Svo. is. 6d, Becket. 
This play, we learn from the preface, has not been received 
with the warmeft applaufe upon the ftage. Intcrdum vulgus 
reaum videt. We^fhoiild have conjeaurcd as much from the: 
languid effea which It has in the ciofct. Yet are there in it 
incidents which ftrike, and paflbges which pjeafe ; and the Ian- 
guage, in many places, well become* the mouth of tragedy 
The objedions which the preface endeavours to remove, ftill re-' 
mam m full force. What we have remarked of the £uitU •f 
Haftings IS equally applicable to Alfred. Love is too much the 
bufinefs of both. We are forry tp find that gentlemen who write 
tragedies are of opinion nothing will do witiran EngliA audi- 
ence but what pleafes green girls and beardlefs boys, Inourac- 
count of Percy *, we obferved' the fingularity of a Udy's putting^ 
together fo much blood and death. We mufl do the lady the juftice 
to fay, that her performance better deferved the name of tf^aze4f 
than either of the love- plays which we have criticized this month. 
The two fexes ieem to have exchanged theatrical taftes, a« well 
as the two nations of France and England. 

TbeCtm^eners. A Corkedy, in three A^s. Aj it is ffrfirmed at ihi ' 
Theatre •^Rvydi tn the Hay-market. Written by the iati 
Samuel Fogte, E/q. and now publijhed hy Mr. Colman. Mvo. '• 
IS. od. Cadell. , ^ 

It is well known that when the late Mr, Foote transferred his 
theatre to Mr. Coiman, he alfo made over the, copy-right of his 

• Crit. Rev. vpl, xliv. p. 477. 


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i^fit MeifTHirCATAtooui, 

unprinted dramatic piccw, among which were Th^ Ceziners^ The 
Maid tf Bath, and Tbi Druil wfffn Tivo S/uks. The proprietor, 
th<refore. it may be eafiJy conceived, was not a little Airprized 
to fee thofe three pieces adfertifed for fate, ander the idea that an 
oral delivery on the ftage was a poblication ; but being a pobli-. 
cation incapable of beiYig entered at Stationers' Hall, that it in- 
▼efted every atiditor with a right of printing the plays he had feea 
Tepreftnted. The Court of Chancery, however, it feems, did 
not ratify this doArine, bat confidered an unprinted work as the 
fole right of the proprietor, and confeqaently entitled to protec* 
tion. On thefe principles, an injundion was granted to reftraia 
the firft pnbli&ers. The public, however, have derived fome 
benefit fronn the contefl, as it has induced the proprietor himfelf 
to pablilh the pieces in queftion. To Thi Cozfgers is prefixed 
the following Advertifement. 

* Somre copies of fpurioas impreflions of this comedy, and of 
the "Maid of Bath, having been printed atid circulated before the 
application to the Court of Chancery for an injun£lion» it hat ' 
been thought advifeable, in vindication of the property of the ' 
editor, as well as in juftice to the deceafed author, Immediately* 
t6 commit to tht prefs genuine editions of the two dramatick 
pieces above-then tioned, together with the Comedy of, the pe* 
vil Qpon Two Sticks, which had been alfo without authority aif^. 
TCrtifed for publication. 

*On infpe^lion of the fpurious impreflions,. it appears, that all ■ 
the errors of carelefs and ignorant tranfcribers are there religi- 
oufly preferred ; and all the additions and improvements, made 
by the facetious writer, are omitted. Many inftances of this 
will occur on pernfal of this Comedy ; in which, befides the rc- 
fioration of feveral parages always fpoken on the fiage, the' 
readei- will find a whole fcene, at the end of the firft a£l, and 
anotner, ftill more entertahiiog and popular^ at {he beginning ^ 
of the third ; both which were wholly wanting in the (purious 
impreffions. • 

• * Unauthorized publications are not only always detrimental 
to privafe property, but cbnimonly prove in^rious to tiie pub- ' 
lick: for the copies, being obtained by clandeftine and indire£l | 
tD^ns, are, for the moll part, as has happened in the prefent ' 
inftauce, incorreft and imperfefl.* 

The pleafan tries contained in this piece have To long been fa- ' 
nilliar to the public, that it is almoft n^edlefs to obferve, that it 
abounds with that fpirited fatire* with which moft of the lively 
dramas of the facetious writer are fo highly feafoned. Aircaft]*, 
Toby, Mrs. Simony,' Paul Prig, &c. form an entertsuning 
group, admirably calculated to create mirth and laughter in the 
l^e^ators ; thdugh moH of the charadlers would, iu other countfiesn 
rather have appeared worthy of corre^ion in a court of juflrce ' 
tbaa at the theatre. 

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STii Maid of JisLih. A C^mtiy^ ik thru aQi* M it is perfirmtd ' 
^tiht Tbiatr^'-Royal injbt Haynarket. Wtitun, hy ibt Ute 

'. Saihtt^l Foote^ E/q^ ami ttow fubUfliid hj Mr. CoLpao, ivo* 
IS. 6d. Cadcll. 

The local faiumour of the gay fpot, where the fcene of this co*" 
medy is (>Iaced, is Eappily maintained. , The fable is jittle more 
than a dramatic narration of a well known h&. ; but the feveral 
chara^ers of Flint» Billy Button/and laciy Catharine Coldftreaoi; 
are conceived and delineated with xnach fpirit ^nd original 


Rimarks on Mr. Former*/ Account of Caftatn Cook* s loft Voyagt 

round the Worlds in the ITears I772, 177 3 > I774t 4nd 177c 

By Wiiriam Wales, F.R. S. 8-i;i». i/. 64. NouHe. 

Jtefly ^ Mf' Wales'/ Remarks. By Geprge Forftcr, F. R. S^ 

^toi ASn6d. White. . , 

When an attack is made upon. any perfo|i in print, ao reader 

ihoald immediately conclude that he who begins is in the right; 

bat ihoald wait wi^h patience to fee what can be urged on the 

Qt)ier fide. Much Icfs would it become the impartiality of 

a Reviewer, to inform the world which ftTale preponderates- 

in. the hand of juilice, before both fcalea are fairly filled* 

Tliis it was which p< evented our taking any notice of the Remarks 

by Mr. Wales on Mr. Former's bopk, until we ihoald fee ^what 

be could fay in anfwer to them*— this it is which induces us to 

xoake one article of the Remarks and the Reply, and to give oue 

opinions on both at the fame time. 

Before we fpeak of either, let us be allowed to lament, not 
only that two* gentlemen, of abilities and reputation, in their 
dffierent walks of life, but that two human beings, (hould 
enter into fuch a difpute. Surely they, might have learned- 
better leflbns of mildnefs and philoiophy from fome of the favag« 
nations which ,they vi£ted in their voyage 1 And yet we jnnft 
corre^ ourfelves, by confefltng that we do not fee how Mr. Former 
coald have avoided entering into the contrpverfy, or could have 
entered into it , more temperately or difps^onately. The 
illiberal reflexions which were thrown upoh Dr. Forftar by 
Mr, Wales in his Remarks, wonld have juIUficd any thing 
Ms iba could fay in reply; efpecialjy when that ibo, ac- 
cording to Mr« Wales, is ' a young man fcarcely twenty yeara 
of agei* 

*But proceied we to an account of this difpate«-^Mr. Forfter^ 
naturalifi in the late voyage round the world, in page 55^, of the 
firH volume of his account of that voyage, had written this para- 
graph— * We had the greateft reafon to admire the ingeniout 
contrivance of the two watches which we had on board ; one exe-' 
jpoted by Mr. Kendall, exactly after the model of that made by 


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15' Monthly Catalogue* 

!Mr. Harrifeny an(} the other hj Mr. Arnold on his own plan, 
both which went with great regularity • The laft *was unforto- 
iv^tely topped immediately after our departure from New Zee- 
land, in June, 1773.' — To have forefcen that this paflage would 
liave called down upon him ihe vengeance of fuch an attack » 
not only in viiitation of his own but of his father's fms^ 
the yonng man mufl have been, not only a natUralid, but «i 
prophet. And yet we will venture to aifTert, that from an 
impartial and attentive perufal of the Remarks they appear 
to have originated from that innocent paflagej The waccb^ 
which ** was unfortwiateiy flopped" (not by Mr. Wales, but' 
by— accident) y* was ia the care of the aftrononier of the 
▼oyage, and the delicacy of that gentleman imagine^ that 
Ihe paragrajph befofc cited, as completely accufed him of 
flopping the watch, as if it had proceeded to fay by what, or 
by whom, it was flopped — v\t. by Mr. Wales, who had charge 
of k.; As well might the keeper of the city mace profecute for 
a libel and an accufation of theft the nei^fpaper which fhould 
tell the world that yeflerday the city mace was unfortunately 
ftolen. What aflronomers read among their ftars we cannot pre^* 
tend to fays but, with fimple mortals, to talk thus is to relate 
a fa£t, and by no means to make a man < fufFer in the efletm^ not 
only of thofe who employed him, but of all the world.* 

To Mr. Wales it ieemed other wife. . A correfpondence com* 
menced between him and young Mr. Forfler, which does ere* 
<lit 10 the calmnefs and moderation of the latter. This cor. 
lefpondence produced only folemn a/Turances from Mr. Forfler 
that he never meant to infinaate a charge agatnfl Mr. Wales, 
which he had never thought htm to dcTerve; while that gen- 
^eman iniifled upon the publication of an erratum, which 
Ihould tell the public t\izC nuas (the unfortunate monofyl* 
lable which we have diflinguiflied by rtalics) had flipped into 
the pafl^age by mi flake. Mr. Forfler not immediately doin^ 
this* though . he does nOt abfolutely decline it, Mr. Wales 
threatens him with the publication which has fi nee appeared, 
and to which the young gentleman has replied with all the cool- 
nefs and dignity of age. Had he replied with more warmth, 
cr in a different way, it would not have been wonderfol, as 
the book to which the fon has put his name, and which ho ; 
now folemnly declares he wrote, Mr. Wales cboefes fliall have 
been written by the father, and his whole pamphlet is a ftadied 
attack upon the Dr. as a man and as a writer, for a fuppofed 
affront which came from the* fon, who, Mr. Wales grants in a 
note, p. 44, \ie nevtr fu/peSid of an intention to injure him* 

In order to compafs his aim of affieding Dr. Forfler's repata* 
tion, Mr. Wales points outfeveral miflakes which have flipped 
into his fon's work, combats rooft of his philofophical opinions, 
and undertakes to prove that he has oialicioufly wronged the 
crew with whom he failed, by mifreprefeftting their cruelty. to- 
wards the natives of the coaniries they vjfited. — His corfeaions, 


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thcQghthe moft ufefol part of his Remarks, are infignificJint; 
and even from his own manner of defending the failors, we may 
conclude, that their charader* were not lefs tainted with immo- 
rafity than voyagers in general, and Mr. Former in particular, 
have delineated them.— rOpinions, in philofophicj|l difquifition», 
00 not, we conceive, fcflea difhonour on their authors ; and 
though Mr. Wal^s could prove that Mr. Forfter, or his father, 
were miftaken in fome inftances, it would be little to his porpofc 
of detrading from their literary merits. 

From the good* fenfc contained in Mr. Forfter's acconnt of the 
▼oyage, we had little doubt that he would reply to Mr. Wales 
M he has done •— in a manner which befpeaks the gentle- 
man, the fcholar, and the man of fpirit. . There ts but' 

one part we could wifh omitted the line or two in which 

he alludes to the education of Mr.. Wales. But it is lefs 
wonderful that the violence of /we/ty /hould onoe forget itfelf 
in the defence of a father, than that it fhould be always mailer 

JV/w Di/cevertis concerning thi World, and its hbahUants. ' Im 
tvj9 Parts. Zvp. 6/. Johnfon. * 

^ This volame contains an account of the difcoveries made by 
the fevcral navigators during the prefent reign, viz. commodore 
(now admiral) Byron, captafns Wallis, Carteret, and Cook; 
thofo of M. Bougainville ; and alfo captain Phipps (now lord 
Mulgrave;) cxtraded from the hi ft ory of each voyage, andcom- 
prifed in one general colleftion, judicioufly compiled^ 

SAiub tfa Tour into Derbylhire and Yorkfhirc, including part^f 
..BuckinghajB, Warwick, Leiccfler, Nottingham, Northamp. 
ton, Bedford, and Hertford- (hires. 8«0. White. 
" The author of this Tour begins his narrative at Buckingham, 
whence he leads us by the way of Banbury, Warwick, Lei- 
cefier, and Derby .into Yorkihire ; pafiing through the leaft fre* 
4}oented parts of which county, he returns by Mansfield, Not- 
tingham, Northampton, Woburrt, and St. ^Ibans. The va- 
rious places on this route are defcribed in a familiar m?nner, 
intermixed with fuch hiilorical anecdotes as may be colle^edon 
a ihort excurfion by an inquifitive traveller. 

Jn inttrejling Litter to ibe Duche/s «/* Devon fljirC!. Small Svo» 
Zs^/enved. Bew. 

The produdlfon of an uncourtly, but, to all appearance, a 
pious, well meaning writer, AdvlUng her grace * to fet tlie faihioa 
of being a Chriftian.' 

^a Enquiry into the Nat lire of the Corn-ia'ws; with a Vienv t0 tbi 
new Corn-Bill propo/cd for Scotland. 8v«, Edinburgh. 
A well written performance, worthy (he attention of the Ie« 
^}/Iature, which does equal credit to the good fenfe of the wHter, 
juid to his feelings a^ a maV* 

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ifc MoilTiti.T Catalooits. 

Th4 Nmf luHaii, Eoglilh, mad Fttndk P^ekn-DiSiprnmy. J^ 

P. Bottareili, J. M* $ nf^it, i8i« Noarfe^ 

. This work u founed «poii • acw pten, aad to tbofe vrho lead 

lullu^ Ffench* tod Eb^ lift, mAybcmom tccepadile tbanaiiF 

CCber di^ioiiary, «0 it cxiiibiits tilde tliTM fiiiiioiiabie l»g«ag4i 

itftdcr oae view. 

The firft voliinie contaiiu the kalioa Meie the Eaflilh tod 
Fiench i the feoood, the Ensliih before the Preach end ItoUaft ; 
and the third, the French .hmve the Italian and Enelifli. 

It if oQDifilad ffoiii tlfe didimiarietof LaCMfea, Dn Johiifens 
aad the Piench Academy. 

UfOB a oorfory iaipeaiott we haf«>ohrenrtd-feiBe finall iato^ 
cnraci^y fuch as thejMlowtng: 

Pamphlet, / /tui/k 'vUmf^ libielto di pachi f<>glL 

Pamphlet^/, unlibelk^ «a libello, 

Pajnphleteer, / 4uieMf ik fftiij mfrimis^ ferittoic di libretti* 

Pamphleteer^ / wtmr de IMlu^ ao^one di Jibelli* 

The fccond and lad of thefe articles are improper traollatioBS 
f^famfhUt and pamfU<i$ir. The word paiophJf t is deiived froaa 
far unfilitt Fr. becaufe it is properly a book /old unboundt or : 
only ftitched, toother. The word is written by Caxton and 
other andent writers, paunflet. It can never fignify what Mr. 
Bottarelli iuppofesj a libel, without (bme fuch word ^AfcurriUut 
, prefixed. 

However, we readily allow, that the work in queftion is at 
atecorate as the generality of dictionaries ; and may be equally 
ferviceable in all the three languages. A good Italian g/ainmar 
ii prefixed to the firft volume. 

Sn# Jitfwa^M W/celhuty : or ettfy UfoMs^ ixlr^Bid from difirtfU 
jimikortt om m mmf Plam* i zm$. tu Beecroft. 

This work confifts of extra^s, fables* and tales, taken from 
different aut&acsy adapted to the capacities pi the youageft read»v 
eri» children oiMler ei^t or nine years of age. In or&r to.ex«*« 
tend their ideas, to give them a notion of that varietyH>f ex* 
pceffioot in. which their thoughts may be communicatedt and 
t^iaakethem undetftaad what they read, the author has fob- 
jfin^ .an appendij|» containing the fame fables or taks» ex—* 
preiTed in other terms and phxafis, with explanatory iiotca. 

This istheprodttftion of an insentous lady, who lately'fa- 
voured the* public with another work of ..the fame fine, intithd^* 
The Accidence,, or firft Rudiments of £ng|ifii Grammar* 

Errata in the Review for Jawvaxy, 177^- 

Page 10, line 23, for fcattered, nod fcatter.-— Page iS, I. 25^ 
/dr ordinary reader, rw^ ordinary obferver.— Page 50, I. 37^ 
for abill^es is, rtad are.— Page 55, 1. ^7ffir editor^ rutddsK^ 
(pn-^Page ya, L ao,/#r there, nmlihw. - 

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i ifii 3 

T H E 


For the Month, of Mdrcb^ 1778. 

■ ■ ' 1.1 . * I ■ t ■ H III , 

jf View of Society in Europe, in its Progrt/sfrtm Rudtnt/s to Ri* . 
finetktnt : w. Inquiries eonctrning the Hijiory of LaiVy Goift^n* 
mtnty and Manmrs. By Gilbert Stuart, LL*D. 4/0. i5i, 
boards. Murray. 

IT is not eafy to dlfcover a more interefting fubje£l thaa 
the progrefs of fociety from barbarifm to civilization. To 
mark, in the degrees of gradual aicent, that variation of pur- 
fhit, and difcriroination of chara^er, which diAinguiih the 
fierce inhabitant of the woods from the cultivated ciHzen> of 
the world, is, even in the abilra6l, an important obje£l to the 
philofephic eye t but that importance mud increafe in mag- 
nitude, when fuch inveiligation points to the origin and zA^ 
vancement of the .government, laws, and manners of modern 

. To the hiftorian, to the lawyer, to the man of the world 
as well as to the man of folitude and reflexion, the work be- 
fore us muil be a valuable acquifition : for, as our author 
juflly remarks, * It is in the records of hiftory, in the fcene of 
real life, notNin the conceits 0/ fancy s^nd philofophy, that hu* 
man nature is to be flu'died.* , 

To trace the rude invader of the Roman empire from that 
iituation of wild independence^ which he cherifhed in his fo- 
refls, to accompany him through all the gradations k>f feudal^ 
fubordinatio% and oppreflion ; to mark the dawn, the vigour^ 
the corruption, and the fall of this extraordinary fyftem ; to 
difplay the fmgular flyle of manners which it introduced ^nd 
cultivated ; to develope the rife, the grandeur, and the <^e- 
cline of chivalry ; with the importance and influence of w^« 

Vol., i77«* M mea 

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i6t Dirl Stuart'i Vitnu ofSotUty in Europe, 

men in the early and middle ages ; td inquire into the pro* 
greff^n and abolition of fiefs ; with the confequent eftablifh- 
iment of taxes and ftanding armies ; and to throw pew Hghrs 
on the improvement of learning, commerce, and refinement, 
are objefls worthy the pen of a Tacitus j the model our in- 
genious author feems to have followed, with a fuccefs which 
does honour to his judgment, penetration, and tafle. 

Dr. Stuart's great objedl is to treat of laws, cuftoms, aad 
government, as they are conneded with hiftory; to which 
their relation ai^d dependence is clofe and intimate. * They 
all (as he obfervcs in his advertifement) tend to the fame point, 
and to the illuflration 6f one another. It is from the confider^ 
ation of them all, and in their union, that ^weare to explain 
the complicated forms of civil fociety, and the wifdom and ac- 
cident which mingle in human affairs.* 

He afterwards proceeds : 

• The foundations of a work like this I have attempted, muft 
be laws of barbarous ages, ancient records, and charters. Thefe 
I coold not incorporate, with propriety, in my narrative. This 
inftrudlive, but taftelefs erudition, did not accord with the tenor 
of a portion of my performance, which I wiihed to addrefs to 
men of elegance, as well as to the learned. It con/ifted, how- 
ever, with the fim^pler and the colde^ftyleof diiTertation. My 
proofs, accordingly, appear by tkerafelves ; and, in confe- 
quence of this arrangement, I might engage in incidental dif- 
cufTions ; I might Catch many rays of light that faintly glimmer 
in obfcure times; and, I might defend the novelty of ray opi. 
nions, when I ventured to oppX)re eflabliihed tenets, and authors 

. of reputation. 

* Though I have employed much thought and afllduity to 
give a value to thefe papers, yet I communicate them to. the 
public with the greateft diffidence. My materials were buried 
in i\it midft of rubbiih, were detached, and unequal. I had to 
dig them op anxioufly, and with patience ; apd, when difco- 
▼crcdairtl colleaed, it was fiili more diHicuic to digtll and to 
falhion them. I had to ftruggle with the darknefs and imper- 
feaion of lime and of barbarity. And, from the moil abJe 
hiftortaos of our own and foreign cations, who might natu- 
rally be expcded to be intelligent guides for ihe paths 1 have 
chofen, I could derive' no advantage. They generally pj-cfer 
what is brilliant to what is ufeful ; and they negled all difqui- 
fitions into laws and into manners, that they may defcribc ai*d 
cmbcUifli the politics of princes, and the fortunes of narions, 
the fplendid qualities of eminent men, and the luitre of. heroic 

Having thus explained the ground- work, of his inveHiga- 
tion, he conAders the Germans before they left their woods ; 


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Dr. Stuart'/ T/Vw ef Society in Europe. l6% 

the political efiabliOiments of the Bftrbarians ^fter they ha4 
made conquefts ; the fpirit of fiefs ; th^ power of a feudal 
kingdom; and the military arrangements which prevailed in 
the declenfion of fiefs and chivalry : in the condudl of this 
inqairy, he has proceeded far in the difpelling of that ob- ^ 
Icurity, which has fo long enveloped the hiftory and the man* 
ners of the middle ages ; the great foundation of the laws^ 
the liberties, and the cuftom? of modern Europe. • 

To lay any paffage before our readers, as more inftruftlve 
than anpther, would be ataikpf fome difficulty ; asihofe fub* 
jedts already treated by our greatefl writers, acquire here a 
degree of novelty and importance, which places them in a very 
in terefting point of view* Without any (ludied feledtion vft 
ihall infert, therefore^ a few extradls, to give &me idea of our - 
author's manner, reafoning, and refearch. 

The origin of knighthood ; of the point of honour; of 
judicial combats; of tournaments and blazonry, the doitor 
thus traces to the German tribes in their rude ftate. 

« The inclination for war entertained by the Germanic flates, 
the refped and importance in which they held their women, and 
the fentiments they had conceived of religion, did not fo'-fake 
thetn when they had conquered. To excel in war w^s flill their 
ruling ambition, and ufages were ftill connedled with arms. To 
the fex they ftill looked with afFe6tion and courtefy. And their 
theology was even to operate in its fpirit, after its forms were 
decayed, and after Chriilianity was eflablifhed. Arms, gallan- 
try, and devotion, were to ad with uncommon forCe ; and, to 
the forcft^ of Germany, we mull trace thofe romantic inftitu- 
tiotis, which filled Europe with renown, and with fplendor s 
which, mingling religion with war, and piety with love,* railed 
up fo many .warriors to contend for the palm of valour and the 
' prize of beauty. ' 

* The paffion for arms among the Germanic dates was car- 
ried to extremity. It was amidft fcehes of death and peril that 
the young were educated : it was by valour and feats of prowefs 
that the ambitious figi|alized their manhood. All the honours 
they knew were allotted to the brave. The fword. opened the 
path to glory. It was in the field that the ingenuous and the . 
noble flattered moil their pride, and acquired an afcendency. 
The ftrength of their bodies, and the vigour of their coun- 
fels, furrounded them with warriors, and lifted them to com- 

* But, among thefe natioiis, when the individual felt the call 
of valoar, and wifhed to try his lErength agaihft an enemy, he 
coold not of his own authority take the lance. and the javelin. 
The adffli^on of their youth to the privilege of bearing arms, 

M z was 


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1 64 fir. Stuart*i r/#«w tf Sodity in Europe, 

was a matter of too mnch importtoce to be left to chance or 
their own choice. A form was invented by which they were ad!- 
▼anced to that hoooar. 

* The council of the diftrid. Of of the canton to which the 
Candidate belonged, was aflembled. His age and his qualifi* 
Cations were inquired into ; and, if he was deemed worthy of 
being admitted to the privileges of a foldier, a chieftain, his fa^ 
ther, or one of his kindred, adorned him with the (hield and 
the lance. In confequence of this folemnity, he prepared c^o 
diftinguilh himfelf ; his mind opened to the cares of the pub« 
lie ; and the domeflic concerns, or vhe offices of ^he family 
from which he had fprung, were no longer the objeds of his 

' * To this ceremony, fo firople and fo in tereft in g, the inftitn* 
tion of knighthood is indebted for its rife. The adorning the 
individual with arms, con tinned for ages to charaderiie his ad« 
vancemenc to this dignity. And this rite was performed to bin 
by his fovereign, his lord, or fome approved warrior. In con- 
formity, alfo, to the manners which produced this inflitntion, ie 
is to be obierved, that even the fons of a king prefumed not to 
approach hfs perfon before their admiilion to its privileges ; and 
the nobility kept their defcendants at an equal diflsKice. it was 
the road, as of old, todiftindion and honour. Without the ad- 
vaocement to it, the moft illuflrious birth gave no title toper- 
fonal rank. 

* Their appetite for war, and their predatory life, taught the 
Germans to fancy that the gods were on the fide of the valiant* 
Force appeared to ihem to be jaftice^ and weaknefs to be crime. 
When they would divine the fate of an important war, they fe- 
leded a captive of the nation with whom they were ac variance, 
and bppofed to him a warrior out of their own number- To each 
champion they prefented the arms of hiscouatry; and, accord- 
ing as the victory fell to the one or the other, they prognofti- 
cated their triumph or defeat. Religion interfered with arms 
and with valour ; and the party who prevailed, could plead in 
his favour the interpofition of the deity. When an individual 
was called before the magijlrate, and charged with an offence, if 
the evidence was not clear, he might challenge his^ accufer. The 
judge ordered them to prepare for battle, made a fignal for the 
onfet, and gave his award for the vidlor. 

< Nor was it only when his interelt and property were at ilake» 
that the German had recourfe to his fword. He could bear no 
ISain on his perfonal character. To treat him with indignity or 
difdain, was to offend him mortally. An afiront of this kind 
covered liim with infamy, if he forgave it. The blood of hia 
adverfary could alone wipe it away ; and he called upoa him to 
▼indicate his charge, or to perilh. 

* In thefe proceedings, we perceive the iburce of xht jitdtcial 
tmiaf, which fpread (o univerfally over Europe, and which i& 

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Dr. Sttiart'i F^fiw §/ S^ctify in EiKopi?* 167 

tfaey were prefented by the fair oftes with a riband, a bracelet* 
a veil) or fome detached ornamrnt of their drtfs, which chey 
affixed to their helmets or their fhields, and confidered as tKe 
pledges of vidlory. Every fignal advantage won iq the con*- 
fix^Sy was proclaipaed by the inftrnments of the mrnftrels, and 
the voices «f the heralds. Animated by the prcfence of the U* 
dies, by the fenfe of their former renown, and of that 0/ their 
ancedorsy the champions difpUyed the mod brilliant feats of 
a£livi^r, addrefs, and valooK And the ladies, entering into 
their agitations, felt the ardours of emulation, and the tranf- 
ports of giory« When th$ torneaments were finiflied, the prizes 
were diftributed with a ceremonious impartiality. The officers 
who bad been appointed to obferve every circumftance which 
palled in the conduct of the combatants, made their reports to 
the judges. Thefuffragcs of the fpeftators were coUedled. Af- 
ter H^ions deliberation, in which the mod celebrated perfooag^a 
who were prefent were proud to affift, the names of the conquer- 
ors were pronounced. Ladies were then chofen, who were tp 
prefent to them the fymbols of viftory ; and, in thefe forttt- 
BatV moments, they were permitted to imprint a kifs on the lips 
of thefe fair difpofers of renown* Amidft the contending praife 
of the judges and the knights, the muiic of war, and the fhouts 
of the people, the vidors were now conduced to the palace of 
the prince or the noble who exhibited the torneament. There, 
at the fead, which concluded their triumph, they were expofed 
to the keen look, and the impaffiofled admiration of whatever 
was mod accompHfiied in beauty and in arms. And, in the height 
of 8 glory, in which they might weU have, forgot that they were 
snorcal, jhey employed themielves to confole ^the knights they 
had vanqui(hed, and ascribed their fucpefs to fortune, not to va- 
lour ; difplaying a demeanour complacent and gentle, difarming 
envy by modedy, and enhancing greacnefs by generous fym- 
pathy and magnanimous condefcenfion.' 

Our greateft hiftorians, lawyers, and antiquaries havin'g 
been divided in opinion, whether the idea of fiefs were brought 
into England at the Conqueft, or were known in Anglo-Saxoa 
times. Dr. Stuart offers the follovving among other reafons, 
to prove that our Saxon ^nceftors were by no means ftrangefs 
to fiefs ; it being only the tenure by knights fervice which 
wa.s introduced by the Norman. 

* Many learned writers are pofitive, that the Anglo-Saxons 
were drangers to £efs, and that thefe were introduced into Eng- 
land by William duke of Normandy. There are writers not 
lefs learned, who afHim that fiefs were not introduced into Eng- 
land by the duke of Normandy, but prevailed among the Anglo- 
Saxons in the condition in which they were known under Wil- 
liam* Great men rai>ge themfelves on each fide of the quedion, 
and I will not detra^ from, their merits. But, it will be' per- 
aitted to me to exprefs my fentimenis. 

M 4 /It 

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l68 Dr. Stuart*/ r/Mu of Scchty in Europe. 

« It cannot be true, that the Saxons, who fettled in EnglancJ^ 
were ftrangers to iiefs. For, in this cafe, they rouft have tc- 
noonced the manners to which they had been accaftomed in 
Germany. They mnft have yielded to views different from all 
the other Gothic tribes who made conqucfts. They muft have 
adopted new and peculiar culloms. And hiiiory has not re- 
marked thefe deviations and this di Similarity. 

* It cannot be true, that William the Norman intfodaced 
fiefs into England. The introduAicn of a fyftem fo repugnant 
to all the iniVitutions which ufually gov'ern men ; which was to 
force into an uncommon direction both government and pro- 
perty : which was to hold out new maxims in public and in pri- 
vate life; which was to alFedi, in a particular mannerj, inherit- 
ance and eftates ; to give a peculiar form to judice and courts ; 
to change the royal palace, and the houfeholds of 'gentlemen ; 
to overturn whatever was fixed and eftablifhed in cpftoros and 
tifages; to innovate all the natural modes of thinking and of 
ading ; could not poffibly be the operation of one roan, and of 
one reign. ; ' 

* Let us not be deceived by names and by authorities. Fiefs 
were to run the fame career in England which they had expe- 
rienced in the other countries of Europe. They were to be at 
pleafure and annual, for life, a feries of years, and in perpe- 
tuity ; and, in all thefe varieties, they were to be exhibited in 
the Anglo-Saxon period of our flory. The hereditary grant, 
as well as the grant in its preceding floftuations, was known to 
our Saxon anceftors. Of this, the conformity of manners which 
muft neceffarily have prevailed between the Saxons, and all 
the other conquering tribes of the barbarians, is a mofl poir- 
erful, and a fatisfadory argument. Nor is it fingle and un« 
fupported. Hiftory and law come in aid to analogy ; and thefe 
things are proved by the fpirit and text of the Anglo-Saxons 
laws, and by adtual grants of hereditary eflates under military 
fervicc. j 

' It is, at the fame^ time, not lefs true, that the ftate of fiefs 
in England, under William the Norman, differed moft effentially 
from their condition among the Anglo-Saxons. The writers, 
therefore, who contend that they exifted in the ages previous to 
duke William, in the fame form in which they appeared after 
his advancement to the crown, are miftaken. For, under the 
Anglo-Saxon princes, no mention is 'made of thofe feudal ^- 
vtrttUs luhich were to fhake the throne under William and his 
fucceffors. Yet fiefs, under the Anglo-Saxons, in every ftep of 
their progreffion, muft have been conneAed with thofe feudal //r- 
lidenis which were the foarces of thefe feverities. 

* This difficulty, which, on a flight obfervation, appears to 
be inexplicable, will yield to my principles. The varying fpirit^ 
of the feudal afTociacion, which I have been careful to remark, 

'.ace 4ints for it in a manner the moft eafy and the moft natural. 
Wiicn tlic fuperior and the vaflal were friends^ and their con- 


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Dr, Stttart'i Fhw o/So€stfj in Europe. 165 

myt.only to be confidered as a precaution of civil policy, bat as 
an infiitotion of honour. 1 

* Thefe nations, fo enamoured of valour, and fo devoted to- 
arms, courted dangers.even in pailime, and fported with blood. 
They had (hows or entertainments^ in which the point's of the 
lance and thefword urg^d the young and the valiant to feats of a 
defperate agility and boldnefs i and in which they learned to 
confirm the vigour of their minds, and the force of their bodies. 
.Perfeverance gave them expertnefs, expertnefs grace^ and the 

applaufe of the furrounding multitude was the envied recom« 
penfe of their audacious temerity. 

* Thefe violent and military exercifes followed them into the 
countries they fubdued, and gave a beginning to the jpu^s and 
torntamentss which were celebrated with fo unbounded a rage» 
which the civil power was fo often to forbid, and the chMrch fo 
loudly to condemn ; and which, refilling alike the force of re- 
ligion and law, were to yield only to the progrefs of civility and 

* Unacquainted with any profeifion but that of war, difpofed 
to it by habit, and impelled by ambition, the German 
never parted with his arms. They accompanied him to the fe- 
nate houfe, as well as to the camp, ^od he tranfadled not with- 
out them any matter of public or of private concern. They. 
were the friends of his manhood, when he rejoiced in his 
Arength, and they attended him in his age, wbe^ he wept over 
his weaknefs. Of thele, the raoft memorable was the JbielJ, 
To leave it behind him in battle, was to incur an extremity of 
difgrace, which deprived him of the benefit of his religion, ancl 
and 6f his rank as a citizen. It was the employment of his 
leifnre to make it confpicuous. He was fedulous to diverfify ic 
with cho/en coicurs ; and, what is worthy of ps^rticular remark^ 
the ornaments he bellowed, were in time to produce the art of 
ilazonry and the occupation of the herald. Thefe chofen co- 
lours were to be exchanged into reprefentations of ads of he* 
roifm. Coats of arms were to be necefTary to diilinguifh from 
each other, warriors who were cafed compleatly from head to 
foot. Chriftianity introduced the fign of the crofs ; wifdom 
and folly were to multiply devices; and fpeculative and po« 
litical men, to flatter the vanity of the rich and great, were 
to reduce to regulation and iyllem wl^at had begun Without rul« 
or art/ 

The heroic and courteous demeanor of the knights; the 
virtuous and dignified deportment of the ladies ; wicb the re« 
ciprocai influence of that elevated intercourfe which took 
place between the fexes in the purer ages of chivalry, hc 
places before us in a Ayle piflurefque and animated^ 

« Splendid with knighthood, of which the honour was fil 
great as to give dignity even to kings and to priact s» the ge«t 

M } Btroaa 

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1 66 Dr, Stuaft'/ FUw ef Smsiy in Europe. 

neroas and the afpiriog were received in every quarter with at- 
tention and civility. The gates of every palace, and df every 
caflle, were thrown open to them ; and, in the fociety of the 
fair, the brave relieved the feverities of war, |ind fed their paffioa 
for arms. Though it was the ftudy of the knight to confultthe 
defmce and the glory of the date, and to add to the ftrength 
and the reputation of his chief, yet' the praife of his miilrefs 
^as the fpring of his valour, and the fource of his aflivit/* 
It was for her that he fought and conquered.^ To her all his 
trophies Were confecratcd. • Her eye lighted up in his bofom 
the fire of ambition. His enterprise, his courage, his fplendor, 
his renown, proclaimed the power and the fame of her per* 
feftions, ' . . 

* The women failed not to fee! their dominion. The dig- 
nity of rank and its proprieties, the pride of riches, the rival- 
fhip of beauty, unfolded their excellence and chafms. Their 
natural modefly, the fandlity of marriage, the value of chaftity* 
improved with time and with Chriftianity. The refpedllul in- 
tercourf^ they held with the knights, the adoration paid to 
them, the torneaments at which they prefided, the virtues tbey 
infpired, the exploits atchieved to their honodr, concurred to 
promote their elevation and lullre. To their enamoured vo- 
taries they feemed to be divinities ; and toils, conflifls, and 
blood, purchafed their favour and their fmiles. 
^ « Placed out to general admiration, they ftudied to deferve 
it* Intent on the fame of their lovers, watchful of the glory of 
their natioii, their alFeftions were roufed ; and they knew not 
that unquiet indolence, which, foftening the mind, awakens 
the imagination and the fenfcs. Concerned in great affairs, 
they were agitated with great paflions. They proipered v/hstt" . 
ever was moll noble in our nature, generofity, public virtue^ 
^humanity, prowefs. They partook in the greatnefs they com- 
municated. Their foftnefs mingled with courage, their fenfibi- 
lity with pride. With the charadcriftics of their own fex, they 
blended thofe of the other, 

* Events, important and affefting, anions of generofity, cn- 
terprife, and valour, exhibited in the courfe of public and pri- 
vate wars, were often en\ploying their thoughts and converfa- 
tion. And, in the feafons of TelUvity and peace, the greater 
«nd the leffer torneaments eiercifed their attention and anxiety. 
Thefe images of war were announced with parade and ceremony; 
Judges were appointed to determine in them, and to maintain 
■ the laws of chivalry ; and they were generally feleded from 
among the aged knights, who came in crouds to live over again 
the fcenes they had adted, and to encourage and dirt&. the in- 
trepidity and the Mil of the afpiring youth* The combatants; 
entering the lifts flowly, and with a grave and majeHic air, pro-^ 
Dounced aloud the names of the ladies to whom they had vowed 
their hearts and their homage. This privilege they bad ob- 
laified at the ejtpeoce of many a gallant atchievement ; and 

•''■"'- they 

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Dr. StiiiTt*s Fhw of S^cuij sM Eutope.' ^ iy% 

>dacby of Normandy, when granted to Rollo by Chalks the 
Simple, in the year ^12, had yet experienced all the ricifGtndes 
of £efs. And William, being the iiapth prince in the dachy.' 
was familiar with the mofl extended ideas of the feudal fyftem. 
Thefe he brought with him into England, und they were to 
govern axvd dijred his condudt. 

« The followers of Harold having forfeited their eftates, thef 

reverre^ to the crown. An immenfe nomber of lordfliips and 

manors being thus in the difpofai of William, benatnrally gave 

them out after the forms of Normandy. Each grant, whether 

to a baron or a gentleman, was computed at fo many fees ; and 

each fee gave the fervice of a knight. To the old beneficiarjr 

tenants, he was to renew their grants under this tenure. By de« 

grees, all the military lands of the kingdom were to fubmit to it, 

' i^nd, with a view, doubtlefs, to this exteniion,. the book of 

Domefday was undertaken, which was to coiltain an exz€t ftate 

of all the landed property in the kingdom. InQead, therefore, 

of bringing fiefs into England, this prince was only to introduce 

the laft Hep of their progre6, the invention of the knight's fee, 

or the tenure of knight-fervice. 

' V In fai6l, it is to be feen by his laws, that he introduced 
knigbt'/erwce^ and not/0. Nor let it be fancied, that this 
improvement was made by his fingle authority and the powei^ 
of the fword. His laws not only exprefs its eiiadment in fait 
reigo, but mention that it was fandioned with the confent of 
the common council of the nation. It was an z€t of parliament* , 
and not' the will of a defpot, that gave it validity andeftab-^ 

* The meafure, it is to be conceived, was even highly ac« 
ceptable to all orders of men. For, a few only. of the benefices*' 
of the Anglo-Saxon princes being in perpetuity, the greateft 
proportion of the beneficiary 6r feudal tenants muft have en^ 
joyed their lands during life, or to a feries of heirs. Now, 
the advancement of fuch grants into hereditary h^U, uiyder 
knight-fervice, was an important advantage and acquifition. 
While it operated to the convenience and the grandeur of the 
fovereign, it bettered the property, and fecured the indepen- 
pendence of the fubje^.' 

The decline of the feudal fyftem,- and the fall of chivalry. 
Dr. Stuart accounts for on a variety of grounds, and concludes 
with the following obfervation on the extenfion of commerce* 

« To all thefe caufes, the rife of commerce is to be added. 
Its various purfuits, and its endlefs occopations, were to ac- 
tuate the middle, and the lowelt clafles of men, and to give the 
killing blow to a fyllem, of. which the ruins and decline have 
an intereft. and importance that bring back to the memory its 
inagnificeoce and grandeur.' ' ^ ' 

Purftting this fubje^ in the following fedioo, be fays» 


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rft Dr. Stuart'/ Fimv of Speiityim Europe. 

< All the fplendpr and advantages of the ancient chivalry 
co^ld not uphold the feudal niilicia. The dubbed knight, or 
the knight of honour, was to fall with the mtrz military tenant* 
or the knight cf tenure. Chivalry was to decay as well as 
knight-fervice. When they ceafed to give a mutual aid and 
Aipport, they were foon to operate in a contrary diredion, and 
to promote the decline of each other. 

* In the order of dubbed knights, there were neceiTarily a 
multitude of warriors, whofe military renown had chiefly en- 
titled them to the invefliture of arms, and whofe accomplifh- 
stents were greater than their fortunes. Their knowledge in 
war, and the rank to which they were advanced by the ce- 
retnonial of knighthood, gave them the capacity of adling ia 
^11 ftations. Their poverty, fplendid, but inconvenient, made 
them attach themfelves, in a more particular manner, to princes 
and nobles. From thefe they received peniions, and, in the 
hottfeholds of thefe, they enjoyed and fuftained honours and 
offices. Men of rank were to vie with one another in their 
numbers and attachment. They became a part of the garni^ 
ture, the magnificence, and the pride of nobility. 

* There were thus, in the decleniion of the feudal army, a 
fociety of men, who could fupply the perfooal fervice anVi at- 
tendance of the luxurious and the gr^eat. A fubditution of 
knights, in the place of the barons and vaiTals of the crown, was 
thence to prevail very generally. And, while knights were, in 
this manner, to wound deeply the military difcipline and ar- 
rangements, they were to throw a contempt on knighthood by 
their numbers and venality. The change of manners, and the 
ufes of wealth, had tarniflied the ludre and the glories of the 
ancient chivalry. 

* In the date of its d'egradation, the long and hard appren- 
ticefhip to arms lyhich, of old, had prepared the candidate for 
the ftruggles and the cares of knighthood, was forgotten. The 
pofTeilion of a portion of Iknd was to be fufiicient to give a 
title to this dignity. It was annexed to a knight's fee. The 
nnaccomplilhed proprietor of a few acres was to be adorned 
with the fword, and to be admitted to the ceremonies of knight^ 
hood. But he could not hold its honours. They had paiTed 
away for ever. The order, which had ennobled kings, and 
greatnefs, fupreme power, and the loftiefl acquirements, grew 
to be mean and trivial. 

* The afpiring and the meritorious who, of old, courted and 
expedled knighthood, with the moft paffionate ardour and the 
fondeft hope, were naw to avoid it with anxiety, and to receive 
it with difguft. An unhappy exertion of prerogative was to 
add to its humiliation. Princes, to uphold their armies, were 
to iflue frequent proclamations, which required all the military 
tenants of the crown to appear before them on a certain day, 
and to be girt with the belt of knighthood. Having ceafed to 
be an objeS of choice, it was to be made a fiibjea of com* 


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Dr. StuartV Fhv) rf S^ity in Europe. 1^9 

DC&ion was warm and geoeroas, the feudal incidents were a^t 
of cordiality and afFeAion., When they were enemies, and their 
xonne£lion was preferved, not by the commerce of the patCont 
and the heart, but merely by the tie of land, the feadal inci- 
dents were a^s of opprcffion and fevcrity. Daring the Anglo- 
Saxon times the affedionace (late of the feddal aiTociattoo pre- 
vailed. Daring the times of duke William, and his imme- 
diate fncceifors, their hoftilis condition was experienced. 
Hence the mildnefs anid happinefs of oor Saxon anceftors ; 
hence the complaints and grievances of car Norman proge- 
nitors. , 

< This folntion of a difQculty, which has been a fruitful 
foarce of miftake, is ilrongly confirmed by a peculiarity which 
I am now to mention, and which^ in its torn, is to lead to the 
explication of a problem that has been alike perplexing to oor 
antiquaries and hiftorians. 

* It was from duke William, down to king John, that the 
people of England were to complain loudly of the feudal fe ve- 
rities ; and; during this long period of outrage and lamentation, 
it was their inceiTant defire. that the laws of Edward the Con- 
feifor (hoold be reftored. Jt is, therefore, beyond all doubt, that 
the feudal feverities were not beard of during the times of king 
. Edward. The fuperior and the. vaGal were then cordial aifd 
happy in each other. The feadal incid'ents were then expreffiona 

of generoiity and attachment. 
« Bat duke 

e William, who was to acknowledge, by his laws, 
the freedom of the Englifli government, which he was to infalc 
by his adminiilration, enacted, that the poiTefTors of land (bould 
not be. harraiTed with unjuft txaaioni and tallagun He thus 
promifed an alleviation of the feadal feverities. And» what 
feems conClantly to have attended this promife, he formally re- 
flofed and confirmed the laws of the ConfefTor. In allufion to 
the fame feverities, William Rufus engaged to abftain from il- 
legal aids and oppreffions ; and, in reference to the fame cuHoma 
of the CoofefTo.r, he became bound to govern by mild and fane- 
tificd laws. Henry I. executed a celebrated charter, which con- 
tained direct mitigations of the feudal incidents, and he ex- 
prefsly reflored and confirmed the laws of king Edward. Ste- 
phen gave a charter of liberties to the barons and people ; and 
it was its purpofe to bedow his fan£lion on the grant of Henry, 
and to confirm the good laws and cuftoms of the ConfefTor. 
With^the fame intentions, a charter of liberties was framied and 
granted by Henry II. 

* Thefe /grants, though invaluable as ample and decifive tef- 
timonials of oar ancient liberties, by their perpetaal and anxious 
retrofpe£lton to the Saxon times, could not be carried into exe- 
cution, and maintained in the parity of their intentions. The 
altered condition of manners, and of the feudal affociation, did 
not permit their exercife. Notwithftanding the hij^h and inde- 
j^ndeat fpirit of the Eoglifh nation^ which occaiioned thefe 


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170 Dr* Smart*/ Fhw tf S»eiity in Europe. 

grants, the feodal feverities were to continae. They prevailed 
under duke William, onder Rofus, under Henry L under Ste*- 
phen, and under Henry II. They were known under Rt- 
chs^rd 1. And, in the age of kin^ Johp, they became fo exor- 
bitant and {q wild, from the eccentric and thoughtle'fs nature 
of thiscdpriclons and dcfpicable prince, that the barons and the 
people confederated to vindicate their liberties, and produced 
the magna charta, ^Arhich* while it offered a limitation of the 
feudal rigours, was to be declaratory of the conflitutional freedom 
that had difttoguiibed this fortunate ifland: from the earlieft 

*#This conftant coa^eAion of the complaints of the feudal fe* 
verities, and the revival of the laws and cuftoms of the Confef- 
for, from the a^e of duke William to king John, is a moft re- 
markable and . important peculiarity. ** What thefe laws were, 
of Edward the Confcifor, fays Mr. Hume, which the Englifli, 
every reign, during a century and a half, defired fo paffionately 
to have reftored, is much difputed by antiquarians ; aod our ig- 
norance of them feems one of the greateft defefls in the ancient 
Englidi hiftory," 

« The train of thinking into which I have fallen, points, with 
an indubitable clearnefs, to the explanation of this myftery. 
By the laws or cu (lorn s of the Confeflbr, that condition of fe- 
licity was exprefled, which had been enjoyed during the Anglo- 
Saxon tiroes, while the feudal incidents were expreflions df ge- 
nerofity and friendfhip. Thefe incidents, in the fortunate ftate 
of the feudal afTociation, a6ling alike to public and private bap« 
pinefs, produced that equal and afFedlionate intercourfe, of 
which the memory was to contitiue fo long, and the revival to 
create fuch ilruggles. It was the cordiality, the equality, and 
the independence of this focicty and communication, which are 
figured by the laws or coftoms of the Confeflbr, and which made 
them the fond objedls of fuch lailing admiration, and . fuch ar«* ' 
dent wiihes. 

' But, while the times of duke William and his fucceiTors 
were difcriminated from thdfe of the Confeflbr and the Anglo- 
Saxon princes, by the different dates they difplayed of the 
feudal aflbciation, there is another circumftance in the pro- 
grefs of fiefs, by which they were to be diftinguiihed more ob- 

• Knight- fervice, which, in France, and in the other king- 
doms of Europe, was introduced in the gentle gradation of man- 
ners, was about to be difcovered in England, after the fame 
manner, when the battle of Haftings facilitated the advance- 
ment of William the Norman to the crown of the Confeflbr. 
The iituation of the Anglo-Saxons in an ifland, and the Danifli 
invaflons, had obilruAed their refinement. In the memorable 
year ic66, when they loft king Edward, and acquired duke 
William, they knew the perpetuity of the fief; but they were 
altogether tlrangcrs to knight -fervice and a knight's fee. The 
s . duchy 

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Nimino^ Gtneral HiJIory tf Stirlingihtfe. 175 

pulfion. A Angle knight's fee held of the crown, being deem- 
ed an ample enoogh fortune to entitle to knighthood, its poA 
feflbr, if unwilling to accept this dignity, was compelled to re- 
ceive it. Senility, irrecoverable weaknefs, and lofs of limbs. 
W€re the only excufes to be admitted for his refufal. If he haa 
not thefe reafons to plead, and neglefled to take the honour of 
knighthood, his eftate was diftrained by the officers of the re-* 
venue. Men were to buy, as a privilege, a refpite and an ex* 
emption from knighthood ; and princes, when they could not 
recover their armies, were to fill their exchequers. 

< In a condition, not merely of meannefs, but of di/grace and 
calamity, the ancient chivalry could not exift long« It was 
worn out to extremity ; and the military and regular ellabliih* 
ments to which the defeds of the feudal arrangements pointed 
fo ftrongly, were to fuperfede its ufes and advantages. It did 
not die; as fo many writers have &ncied, of the ridicule of Cer- 
vantes, but of old age, defpondence, and debility.' 

The bounds of our Review obliges us to refer the curious 
reader to the work itfelf ; where he will difcover an exprefltve 
elegance of ftyle ; an uncommon vigour of. mind; with a 
fpirit bi refearch and inveftigation, which judiciouily refufes 
implicit confidence in the greateft names : for» as the author 
with much propriety obfervcs, * The undue weight of what 
are called great autAorides, gives a ilab to the fpirit of inquiry ia 
all fciences.' ' 

J General Hi/lory of Stirlingfhire j eontaimng an Account of tht 
ancient Monuments^ and moft important and enrions ,Tranfaaiotu 
in that Sinre, from the Roman Ittvafion to the prefent Tinus. 
JVitb the Natural Hiftory of the Shire. By William Nimmo, 
Miniftir'of Bothkennar. 8v«. 5/. hards. Cadelh 

THIS author does not afpire to any difplay of genius. He 
is content with being ufeful. To indullry he adds abi* 
lity ; and his performance abounds In inftrudlive information. 
His fubied is ample, and he treats it in all its exten(iveneis; 
The (hire of Stirling has been the fcene of important events 
and tranfa£iton$. It pofifelTes many monuments of antiquity, 
and it is remarkable for many modern improvements. It is 
from the invafion of Scotland by the Romans, to the prefent 
times, that the hiftory of this ihire is here prefented to the 

The forts of Agricola, and the Roman caufeway or military 
road,, which pafTes through Stirlinglhire, are objects of at- 
tention to our author. He examines the. wall of Antoninus, 
9r Qrahame's 4ike. He furveys the ancient monuments oa 
I ' the 

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174 Nimmo'i Gintrat Hiflory of Stirlingfliire. 

the river Carron ; and, under the title of Mifcellaneous Ob- 
iervations, he treats fome ebfcure topics of antiquity. 

Leaving the dark and unfatisfadory operations of early ages^ 
Mr. Nlopoip applies his remark to the more recent octur«» 
rences which diftingutih this ihire. ^He c'afts his eye upon the 
accounts given in authentic records, and in approved hiRo- 
rians. From thefe he turns to ^he fields themfelves, whicH 
have been illuftrated by great or memorable aflions. And, 
^hen it is neceffary, he calls in tradition to his aid. This 
portion of his inquiries is the moil valuable. 

The abbacy of Cambuikenneth and other religious houfes 
are traced to their rife, and explained in their hiftory. The 
battle of Stirling, in 12^7. The battle of Falkirk, in 1298. 
The battle of Bannockburn, and the battle of Sauchieburn ^re 
defcribed with a minute propriety. All the curious particu- 
lars which have a reference to the cadle of Stirling, and the 
ceremonial of the baptifm of prince Henry in 1594, which i« 
fo charaderidic of the times, are delineated with a happy pre«» 
ciiion. ' The town pf Stirling is defcribed at different periods ; 
9nd, to give a variety to bis fubjcj^l, the author furniibes fuc- 
cin^ memoirs of the flatefmeo, foldiers, authors, and divines^ 
who have had their birth, their refidence, or their property la 
Stirlingfliire, before the year 1700. 

Mr. Nimmo affords an accurate defer! ption of the battle of 
Kilfyth in 1645 5 and of the battle of Falkirk in 1746. He 
has entered upon the natural htftory of the fhire of Stirling ; 
but his views do not feem to have induced him to canvafs 
this p^rt of his fubjed with the adiduity which it merits. 
In what he has faid of its commerce, manufadures and agri^ 
culture he is better informed. In its civil and ecdefiaftic 
hiflory, however, he is again defedive ; and this, in a more 
particular manner* when he fpeaks of its 'ancient officers, and 
its ancient juriididion. 

. Amidft the wide variety of details which appear in this 
volume, a chapter it devoted to the great canal, or the na« 
vigable communication between the Friths of Forth and Clyde. 
This undertaking, which is magnificent in itfelf, and fo ho- 
nourable to Scotland^ will engage t|?e curiofity of our readers ; 
and we Aiall extrad part of what the author has remarked 
on this fubjed, as a fpecimen of his ability^ 

* This great undertaking, which began July 10, 1768, and 
is now carried on to the neighbourhood of Glasgow, does much 
honour to the promoters of it ; and, though 'the nation is not 
yet fufficicntly able to ju^^ge of the full extent of its utility, will 
uodoubte(lly prove, in procefs of time, of no fmall advaotage 
to commerce* It will at leaft remain a lading monument of the 


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poblteand commercial fpirit of the eighteenth centiiry, ' And, 
though the proprietors may not meet with fo quick returns for 
their money, as perhaps they expelled, they have the pleafore 
of reile£ling upon their own generous forwardnefs to advance the 
public intereilt upon probable grounds, and of adapting to them* 
I'elves the old adage, iu magnis ^oluijftfat eft. 

* It extends from the river Carron, near its influx into the 
Frith of Fort^y to the river Clyde, two miles north of the 
city of Glafgow, a courfe of twenty-feven Engiifh miles., iu 
breadth is twenty-four feet at bottom, and Sfty-four at the 
furface, containing (even feef depth pf water, h was at firft 
carried on with great vigour, and with an induftry which fur- 
mounted all oppoiition. Where its courfe is intercepted by val- 
ines, rivers, or brooks, it is conduced over them by aquedud- 
bridges and banking, the largeil of which, in the ihire of 
Stirling, are thofe at Bonnie- mill, and Caillecary-burn. Small 
rills are conveyed below it by arched conduits, called tunnels s 
and the public roads, which interfe^l its courfe, either pais 
beneath it, through large arches, or are carried over it by draw- 

* As the ground through which it paiTes gradually rifeth from 
each entry to the fammit, or higheft point between the two 
feas, the navigation is performed by means of locks, which are 
oblong bafons or ciflerns, with a two- folding gate at each end, 
and fo conftruAedi that^ the bafon being filled with water, by 
an upper fluice.'^o the level of the waters above, a veflel may 
afcend through the upper gate ; or the water in the bafoa being 
xeduc^d to the level of the water at the bottom of thecafcade, the 
veflel may tiefcend through the lower gate. 

* To reprefent this operation Hill more clearly ; when a vefiel 
is afcending to the fumrait, fhe is introduced into the bafon 
by opening the lower gate, which is immediately ihut behind 
her; and, upon drawing a fluice in the upper gate, the water 
mfiieth in till it is upon a level with the reach above, gradnaily 
raiiifig the vefiel along with it ; then the whole gate is opened, 
by means of long wooden beams or levers, moved horizontally, 
and ihe pafies over the bar or cafcade, to proceed in her voyage* 
When a veflel is defcending, the upper gate is firft opened, and, 
as foon as the water is upon a level, fhe advances Into the. 
bafon, upon which the upper gate is immediately ihut, and the 
lower opened for her entrance into the reach below. 

* The locks are founded upon piles and platforms of wctod» 
Slid lined with llrong walls of hewn (lone upon each fide. The 
Ipace between two locks is called a r,each, and is digged the 
ioll.height of the cafcadct which is eight feet deeper at the 
end next the fummit than at the other, that the water in it» 
when fettled on a level,, may be all of an equal depth. 

' The whole procefs of this navigation depends vpon a fuf-^ 
£cient quantity of water at the fummit or point of partition, to 
lefuod the daily wafie occaiioned by vefiels paffing through the 


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176 Nimtno*i Geturai KiJIwj •[ Stirlingfhire. 

locks, by exhalation^ by fabterraneous filterings wliere tke hflaky 
are fandy, and other canfes ; for» without a conftant fupply* 
the water would foon be totally expended, and a dry ditcis 
would prefent itfelf to the eye, inftead of a navigable canal. 
The fummit is fituated within the ihire we are furvcyiog, and 
nature hath been very liberal in furnifhing an advantageoas ika- 
ation for it. 

• A morafs, two miles in length, called Dolater bog, a little 
to the eaflward of Kilfyth, is the higheli ground through which 
the canal paiTes, being elevated above the high water iHeap-tides 
in Carron, about one hundred and forty^feven feet, and diftanc 
from the eaftern entry about ten miles. Info this bog, the large 
burn of Auchinclough, with fun dry other fmaller brooks, per* 
petually difchargesitfelf ; and the country upon each fide rifiog 
high, affords a number of fprings and rills, which bring down 
confiderable quantities of water upon the kaft fall of rain. By 
this means, together with fome artificial improvements added ta 
the natural fituation of the ground, a perpetual refervoir is 
formed, for furnifliing both ends of the canal with frefh fupplies 
of water^ fuiHcient to carry on the navigation, even in feafons of 
the greateft drought. 

* We now proceed to a fhort furvey of this great work, in it» 
pafiage through the (hire of Stirling, within the limits of which , 
the half of the locks, amounting to twenty in number, are 
fitoated. At the eadern entry, which is from the river Carron 

, at Grange burn, two miles eadward of Falkirk, a double lock 
' is ereded, that is, two Ipcks dofely adjoining to each other,, 
the ontermoft or lower, being defigned to render the bottom 
of the canal of an equal level with that of the river. At this 
entry, which is called the Sea-lock, are built granaries and 
warehoufes for lodging grain, and other goods belonging to 
the, canal' navigation, as alfo a number of dwelling boufes, 
which are yearly increafing, fo that it bids fair to become a 
place of no fmall refort. Adjoining to the fea4ock is an ex* 
cellent harbour, called the Green brae, fheltered on all fides by 
the high' banks of the river, fo large, according to Mr. Smea* 
ton's account, as to be capable of containing a thoufand fail of 
Ihips, and of fufiicient depth of water to carry thofe of five or 
£x hundred tons. From the fea-lock, the canal ftretches weft* 
ward by Dalgreen and Dalderfe, through a gently rifing traft of 
ground, fo as to require only three locks in the fpace of twa 
miles ; but, when it arrives at Mungall, oppofite to Falldrk 
upon the north, the ground begins to rife fo quickly in the 
alcent of an eminence called Tophill, that, in the courfe of 
little more than half a mile, no lefs than eleven locks are re- 
quired. Between the fea-lock and Mungall^ it interfeds two 
public roads, which are conduced over it by as many draw- 
bridges, one at Dalgreen, the other at Bainsford in Graham's 
muir. At Tophill, in the very midfl of the group of locks, it 
iHterfe^s the high road leading from Falkirk to Glafgoiw and 


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fetiriingy which is carried throo^h below hj a munificent 
• iiqaedud-brid|;e, alongft which, the naWgationy with afi its ap- 
pendages, pafieth. After it had reached the liigh grounds at 
Camelon^ it (lands for a long way upon a levels fo as to re- 
qnire no locks for the fpace of four miles. In that part, how- 
ever, . fundry difficulties occnrred in the iormation» which were 
~ not furmounted withoat much labour and expence. DifFereftt 
Vallies and rivulets intercepting its coorfe, could not be pafied 
t^ithout arching and barilcing. The largeA of thefe hollows Is 
at Bonnie-miln, over which a large and elegant arch is thrown. 
When it comes near to Caftlecary, the ground begins to rife, fo 
^8 to demand fodr locks at different places ; and, in its paffing 
"Bonnie water, another aqaednd-bridge is required. Soon. aff« 
ter, it arrives at Dolater bog, the point of partition, or fummit 
between the two feas, where the water ilands nearly upon a level 
for feveral miles* As foon as it hath got clear of the bog, it 
leaves .the ibire of Stirling, and enters upon that of Dunl- 

* VelTcls, twenty feet wide, and fixty feet long, and carry-* ^ 
ing feventy, or eighty tons, may navigate the canal from one 
Fnth to the other. The veiTels make ufe of a fail when the wind 
is fair ; but, in calm weather, or whf n going againft the blafl^ 
they are drawn by horfes, which walk upon a road formed 
along the north bank, called, in the a£t of parliamentj the 

— * Tne canal hath already made a vifible alteration upbii 
the face of the country through which it pafleth. Dwelling 
houfes and granaries areereded in fuddry places upon its banks ; 
as alfo brick- works, and yards for the fale of fo^ign timber ^ 
boats for the navigation have been built apon the brink of it ; 
the adjacent fields begin to be endowed and better cultivated, and 
the buftle of trade gives an enlivening afpeA to feveral placea 
which were formerly quite defert and lonely/ 

The great merit of a publication like this before ds, depends 
On the exadtnefs with which it is executed. In what refls on 
the veracity of the author, he may be relied upon with a firm 
atiTurance. In what refpe^s a remote antiquity, there is oc« 
cafion, at times, ro fufpedl his diligence. His authorities are 
ftot always fpecified with: minutencfs. The antiquary will 
fometimes require a clofer evidence, and the hiftorian a more 
diflFufe and extended difplay of fa6ts. But where, a great 
deal is done, a fadidioos criticifm is improper. 

Throughont the whole of the work, the manly carriage of 
the author is interedipg to the reader of penetration. His 
good fenfe, his good* tafte, and his hofieft plainnefs, are ftVong 
recommendations. His compofaion is fimple, and we meet 
no where the powers of a vigorous exprefilon* It is corrodl^ 
however, and not apt to languiih qs di(guft« ^ 

Vol.. LX V. Munk, 1778. N fo . 

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17* Friiftley*! ^tJqmfiiUn nUuh^ f Uai4ir ttnif Spirit. 

In England the hlftory of coaDtks and towns has been <:ut- 
Ijvated with infinite labour, and a fplendid expeiice. lo Scot-- 
hnd, compofitioBs of this kind are rare. Yet, from the prefent 
performance we ihould hope, that its clergy, who have fo 
many opportunities, will be difpofed to carry then- l'efeardlM^ 
into a line of inquiry, which is fo curious, and might be fo 
extremely beneficial, not only with regard to the purpofes of 
general hlftory,. but with regard to thofe of trade and coni- 

J)g/fuifiihnt nlating to Matter and S fir it. To ^uihicb arotuUed^ 
tho Hi/lorj of ibi Pbilo/ofhital Dphriiu couetrning tbi Origin of 
tbg Somit #W tbi Natun qfhhtttri noitb its hfaiuu 9m Cbri^ 
fiitmtyy officially nvitb rt^i£t to tbi DoSritu if tbo^ Bn-'OmJkm^ 
yChrift. i^y Jofeph Prieftleyg IJLB. F.R.^' 8<«w. 
3/* 6d. in boards, Johnfon. 

THE nature of the human foul is a rub}e£^, which haa extf -^ 
cifed the philofophers of almod all ages. But thoagb 
the objeA of .their enquiries was conftantly at bati^, and in* 
fome meafure under their immediate inlpe^lion, it has eluded 
their moft penetrating refcarcbes. Its e^lTehce, its properties^ 
its bond of union with the body, are yet undeteriidined. The 
ancient Nphilofophersamufed the world with, many curious fpe* 
culatious bn this fubjeft.. They fuppofed the foul to Ise air^ 
earth, water, fire, or light. They called it the exerdfe of the 
fenfes, the complexion of the four elements, and the fiftH 
eflence.* — - Dicsarches' reje^ed the notion of a foul, and 
imagined) that the body was' abated by, the mere conftitution- 
of nature. Democritus mainlined, th^t the foul was made bf 
a concourfe of fmooth, round atoms. Empedocles thought, 
that It confided in the blood, which flowed through the he^rt. 

. Zeno fiippofed, that it was a flame. Xenocrates conceived 
that it was number; and Arifioxoiius, that it was harmony^ 
rcf^ing from. the corporeal parts, as mufic from a harp. Ari- 
fiotleftyled it ^ntelechia, the perfection of nature, or the prin- 

. ciple^of motion f • Plato fuppofed it to be threefold, reafon in 
ti;ie head, anger in the breail, and defire fubter prascordisr 
below the waiii;. Cicero, having enumerated thefe .opinions, 
concludes with an obfervation, which (hews, that he had 
formed no determination on this intricate fub^e£l : ^ Harom 
fententiarum quae vera fit, deus' aliquis viderit.' Some deity 
■• -^ ■■ . ■ ■ ■ > 

♦ Corn. Agrippa, of the Vinity of Arti and Scicnccsj c, 51. 
t Animii il. u 


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t^loUe can determine, which of (hefe hypoth^Sfe; gives tts the 
true idea of the foul *. 

Some of thfe moft eminent of our modern philofophers have 
divided human nature into two diftinft kinds of fubftaocc, 
tvhiclvthey have diftinguiQicd by the terms, matter ahd fpirit. 
They .have carefully analized e^ch part* and by this procefs 
have infinitely exceeded the ancients in the pei'fpicuity and ac« 
curacy of their flietaphyfical diflTertations. 

Matter, according to their opinion, polTeiles the properties 

- of extenfion, and folidity or impenetrability, ac/bompabied 
with a certain w inerti^e, or ina£live principle, by tvhich it 
rcfifts every c)iange of ftate, wherein it is placed ; and is there- 
fore naturally de^itute of all powers whaterer. . 

Tiias faysDr* .Clarke, * Matter is not at all capable of znj 

laws or powers wbatfbyer, any more than it is capable of in- 

.ttUigeiice, excepting , only this one negative power, that every 

: part of it will of itfelf always and neceiTarily continue in that 

i^^te, whether of red or motion, wherein it at prefent is« So 

that all thofe things, which we coinmonly fay are the efieds of 

. the natural powers of matter^ a^d laws of motion, of gravitation* 

. attradlioui or the like, are indeed, if we will fpeak dridly and 

. .£r9per}y, the eSe{l> of God/s ading upon matter continually 

and every iuoment, cither immediately by himfqlf, or mediately 

by (bme created intelligent beings/ £vid* pt ^00, 

: ' * All gravity, fays Baxter, attrad^ion, clafticity, repulfion, or 

whatever other tendencies • to motion are obferved in matter, 

' l:ommonly called natural powers of matter, are not powers im« 

- planted in matter, or poflible to be made inherent in it, but 
inipulfe ot force imprefied upon it ab extra.' Enq. § 16. 

Derham differs fi-om Dr. Clarke irt fuppofing, that gravity 
h the effeft of the Creator's original appointment^ aftd'not of 
his Immediate and c<^nftant agency. • This attradive or gra- 
vitating t power, fays he, I take to be congenial to matt^r^ 
find irfi printed on all the matter of the univerfe by the Crea- 
tor's fiat at the creation/ b. 1. c. 5. note i. Sir Ifaac Newton, 
tells us^ * That to flicw he did not take gravity for ian 
ijiniiai property of bodies, he had added one queftion con- 
cerning it? cauft, choofing to propofe it by way of a queftion, 
becaufe he was not fatisHed about it, for want of experiments*' 
Adv.^^^toOpt. ad edit. 

• Cic. Tufc. Qoielt. 1. § 19. 

f (gravitation and attra^ioa are both one and the fame^rincl* 
. pie, or at leaft neccffarily cionnefted. With refpeft to the body 
containing the center of gravity, this principle is called attradtion. 
With regard to ihofe bodies, which are moved towards this center* 
it is called gravitation, e. g. the loadftone aitraffi (Uel^ aad Ileel 
frtfKtiittifr/totfae loadAonr. 

N a Th9 

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l8o Prieftley'i Vlfqulfit'tHiS rdating t9 Matter and Sftrin 

The fcntixnents of Mr. Keill on this Aibjefl are worthy of 


* If we had perfed ideas of bodei, if we well knew what 
they are in themfelves, and what their properties ; how, and in 
what number refident in theoi, we ihould be able to pronounce, 
wheeler or no attradion is a property in matter. But, fo far 
from being fufiicientiy informed, we know bodies but by fome 
properties only, withoat the leaft knowledge of the fobjed^ in 
which thefe properties, are united. 

* We perceive fome different aiTemblages of thefe properties ; 
apd this AifHces fbr our ideas of fuch and fuch particular bodies. 
We go a ilep farther ; we diftinguifh certain orders or claHes of 
thefe properties; we obferve, that while fome of them vary in 
different bodies, others of them are always the fame, and thefe 
therefore we efleem as the primordial properties^ and as the bafes 
€f tbe reft. 

<^ The leaft attention will conclude, that extenfion is one of 
thefe invariable properties. It is fo nniverfal in all bodies, that 
I am apt to think, the other properties cannot fubfift without it, 
and that it is their fupport. 

* I find alfo that there is nb body, but is foltd or impe- 
netrable. I then again look upon impenetrabirity to be an 
c£ential property of matter.' Diflert. on the Fig. of Celefl* 
Bodies, p. 12. 

Thefe are the fentiments of our inoft eminent writers on 
the fubjeft of matrer. 

Spirit has been defined to be a fubtlance entirely deflitute 
of all extenfion, cr relation to (pace, fa a^ to have no pro- 
perty in common .with matter, and therefore to be properly 
immaterial ; and to poiTefs the pewers of perception, intelli- 
gence, and felf-motion. 

Matter is that kind of fubftance^ of which our bodies are 
compofed; whereas perception and, thought are faid to refide 
in a fpirit, or immaterial principle, intimately united to the 
body. The higher orders of intelligent beings, efpecially the 
divine Being, are faid to be purely immaterial. 

In. the treatife now before us the author mAintains, ' that 
matter is not that imrt fubflance, which it has been fuppofed 
to be; that /)i7<u/^n of artradion or repulfion are iiecefTary to 
its very being, and that no part of it appear* to be impenetrable 
to other parts.' I therefore, fays he, define it to be a fub- 
fiance pofTefTed of the property of txtenfion, and of ponv$n of 
attra^ion or repulfion. And fince it has never yet been af- 
ferted, that the powers of fenfation and thought are incompat- 
able with thefe (folidity or impenetrability, and confequently a 
vis inertias only having been thought to be repugnant to them) 
I therefore maintain, that we have no reafon to fuppofe, that 
i .. there 

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Pr i«ftley */ Di/qvifithns nlatin^ u Matter and Spirit, ♦ 1 8 f 

iiierc are in man two fiibflances fo diftindl from each other, as 
liavc been reprefcnted.. 

It is likewife maintained ifl this treati(c» ' that th« notioa 
of two fubftances, that have no common proptrty, and yet 
are capable of ihtimate connexion and mutual adion, is both 
abfurd and modern ; a fubftance without extenfion or relatioii 
to p]ace> being unknown, in the fcriptures, and to ail anti- 
quity ; the human mind, for example, having till lately been 
thought to have a proper prefence in the body, and a proper 
motion together with it ; apd the divine mind having always 
been reprefcnted as being truly and properly omnipre/ent/ 

In entering upon this difquifitioa, the author profelTes an 
uniform and rigorous adherence to /the following rules laid 
•down by Sir Ifaac Newton : i. That we are to admit no nrore 
caufes of things, than are fufficient to explain appearances. 
2. That to the fame efFefls we mud, as far as poffible, adiga 
the fame caufes. 

After making fome remarks on the fuperficial and fal(e 
judgements, which we are apt to form, /rom common ap» 
pearances, concerning the properties of matter, he thus pro- 
ceeds : 

* When the appearances abovementidned are coniidered in 
the new and juft lights, which late obfervations have thrown 
upon this part of philofophy, they will oblige us,' if we adhere 
%o thefe rules of philofophizing, to conclude, that Tefiftance, on 
which alone our opinion concerning the foHdity or impenetrar 
bility of matter is founded, is never occafioned by folid matter, 
but by fomething of a very different nature^ viz. a power of 
repallion, always adliog at a real, and in general an aflignable 
diftance from what we call the body itfelf. It will alfo appear, 
from the uioft obvious confederations, that without a power of 
attraflion, a power which has always been confidered as fome- 
thing quite diilind from matter itfelf, there cannot be any. 
fuch thing as matter; confequently that this foreign property, 
as it has been called, is in reality abfolutely eOeotial to its very 
nature and being. f*or when we fuppofe bodies to be divefted 
of it, they come to be nothing at all. - ^ 

' It will readily be allowed, that every body, as^iblid and 
Impenetrable, muft necefTarily have fome particulai' form or 
ihape^ bat it is no lelis obvicas, that no fuch figured thing can 
exift, unlefs the parts, of which it confifts, have a mutual at- 
cradion. fo as either to keep contiguous to or preferve a pertain 
diftance from each other. The power of attra^ion, therefor^, 
mull be eifential to the adual exigence of all matter i fince no 
Aib^ancecan retain any form^ without IL 

* Ihe reafoD why folid extent has been thought to be z 
co^nplete definition of matter i9i because it was imagined, that 

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i8i Prkftl£y*4 Difyuifithm^ utailng u Mstfir aniStariu ' 

we could feparate from our idea of it every thing elfe belonglos 
tb ir« and leave thefe two properties independent of tlie re^ 
«nd. fabfifting by thennfelves : but it was not confidered. that in 
confeqaence of taking away attradion, which is a power, foli« 
dit^ itfelf vaniihes, 

' It will be obfervedy that I by no means fuppofe, that thole " 
powers^ which I make to be dfential to the being of matter, 
and without which it cannot exifl as a material fubSance at all, 
are felf-exiiient in it. All that my argument amounts to ia* 
that from whatever fourte thefe powers are derivedt or by whau 
erer being they are communicatedn matter cannot exiil without 
'them; and if that faperior powert or being; withdraw its in- 
fiuence, the fubftance itfelf necefTarily ceafee to exifl* or is an* 
nihilated. Whatever foiidity any body has, it is po flTefTed of it 
only in confequence of being endued with certain powers, and to- 
gether with this caufe, foiidity being no more than an effect, muft 
ceafe ; if there be ai^ foundation for the^ plaineft and beft efta- 
bliihed rules of reafoning in philofophy/ 

In oppoiition to our author's reafoning it may be fald, that 
there muft be fome fubftratum ♦, or fome bafis of attra^ion, 
prior in nature to th? exertion of that power : for power, withw' 
out a fubftratum, in which it may exifl, and exert itfelf, is a 
mere non-entity. And if we fuppofe a fubftratum antecedent 
to this power, the power is not eflential to the exillence of the 
fubdratum ; confequently attradion is not an eifential property 
of matter. 

In the next place, our author ihews, that matter is invefted 
with another power, viz. the power of repulfion, 

* If, fays he, there be any truth in late difcoveries in philofo-^ 
phy, reGilance is in moil cafes caufed by fomething of a quite 
difierent nature from any thing material or folid, viz. by a 
power of repuliion, ading at a diilance from the body, to which 
It has been fuppofed to belong; and in no cafe whatever caa 
it be proved, thatf efiftance is occafioned by any thing elfe, 

* When I prefs my hand againft the table, I naturally imagine, 
that the obftacle to its going through the table is the folid 
matter of which it confifts ; but a variety of philofophical con^ 
^derations demonHrate, that it generally requires a muCh greater 
power of preflure than I can exert, to bring my fingers into 
a£lual contad with, the table, Philofophcfs know, that, not« 
with^anding their feeming contadl, they are adually kept at a 
real diflance from each other by powers of repulfioo common to 

* According to Sir If. Newton it fccms highly probable, that God 
in the beginning formed matter into folid, maily, impentfrable* 
moveable particles, or atoms, of fuch fizes and figures, and with 
luch other properties, and in fuch proportion to (pace, at moft 
conduced to the end, for which heformed them, N^wt. Prii q. 
I, iii. in pi", p. 3S8. QptiCv p. 3^ 3^ 


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lEbem both. AlfOy ele6lrlcal appearances ihevr, that ir confider • 
'abje weight is requi&te to bring inta contact even links of a 
<hain hanging freely in the air ; thay being kept afander hv a 
repalfive power, belonging to a very ffsall far&cey fo that 
<^ey do not adualiy touch, thoi^h they ai^e fupported by each 

^ Having mentioned ibi&e bther £milar fafis, he addst * Since 
^it is demonftrable, that no common ^refTare is fufficient to bring 
i)odies eveji into teeming -contact, or that near approach, 
vvhich the component parts of the fame body make to each other 
(chotigh thde are by no means in abfolnte conta^^, as the phe- 
nomena of heat and cold folly prove) bat the refiftance to a 
near approach is in ail cafes cauled by the powers of repulfion. 
There can be no fufficient reaioa to afcribe refinance in any cafe 
-to any thing' befides f»m i la r powers: Nay the eftabliAed rulea 
' of pbilofophizing, above recited, abfolately require, that we 
afcribe all re£llance to fudi powers: and confeqnently the fup. 

• portion of the folidity or impenetrahHity of matter, derived 
fdlely from the confideration of the refinance of the folid parts of 

. j^pdles (which, excliiiive of a power operating at a diftance from 
them, cannot be proved to have any exigence) appears to be 
«deftici]tt of all fupport whatever/ 

The r^fult of this reafoning is, that matter is not a (bl|d 
impenetrable fubllafice, abfolutdy paffive and inert, but in* 
ire^ed with the active powers of attra^ion and repulfion. 

Now if we dived matter of its folidity aod impenetrability^ 
what do we leave remaining ? — Nothing, we prefume, in 
which the power of repulfion can poOTibly fubfift. A real 
. ^wer pre-fupperes a teal fubjedl, in whicl) it inheres, fiut 
matter, witiiout ibiidiry, is inconceivable, or, at Ueft, a mere 
mu ftuiom$^ utterly incapable of an^ real po«er or projperty 
whatever. . - 

Oof author proceeds : ^ The coiviideratiofls fng^efted above, 
tend to remove the odium, which has hitherto lain, upon Qii^t- 
ter, from its fuppofed pecefi'ary property of (blidity, inertnefs, 
' or flttggi^Defs, as from this circumflance only the bafenefs 
and imperfection, which have been afcribc^ to it,. are derived* 
2>ince matter has, infadt, no propertiea, but thofe of attradlion 
and repulfion, it ought to riie in our efieem, as making a 
nearer approach to the nature of fpiritual and immaterial beings, 
as we have been taught to call thofe, which are oppofed to 
grqfs fiiatter. 

* Since the only reafpn why the principle of thoyght* or 

• fenfation, has been imagined to be incompatible with matter» 
goes upon the fuppoiition of impenetrability being the efTen- 
ti^> property of it, and confequently that folid extent is the 
founclation of all the properties, that it can pofiibly fudain, 
diiiwhole argument for an immaterial thinking principle^in man, 

N 4J oa 

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y84 Pneftley*i DifqmfitM riUaiwg f9 Motor snd Sptrh. 

on this new foppofition, falls to the ground^ matter, deftitute 
of what has hitherto been called folidity, beln? no more in? 
compatible with fesfatioD and thought than that fubflancey v^hicb, 
urithottt knowing any thing farther about it, we haVe been ufed 
to call immaterial.' 

Admitting, that there is fucb a thing in nature as matter 
without folidity, or without any properties but thofe of at* 
tradtion and repulfion, the author gains very little ground in 
the argument by this conceilion. For attradion and repulHon 
(which for any thing we know tO' the contrary, may be owing 
to mechanical caufiis *) are properties very different from 
fenfation a,nd thought. We Tte the defcent of bodies, £he 
' force of cohefion, the elafticity of the air, the fluidity of water^ 
the heat of the fun, and the effeds of the loadftone ; but iu 
thefe natural phenomena we cannot perceive the leaftima- 
' ginable tendency to thought and reflfedlion. All the at- 
tradive and repulfive powers in the world can never excite 
the leaft perceptivity, or contribute to the formation of one 
idea. We i:annot therefore allow, that matter, by being in- 
Tefted with thefe properties, makes any < near approach to 
the nature of fpiritual* and immaterial beings.' The diflance 
is infinite. 

If thought then be a property ^ fui gineru^ eflentially dif< 
ferent from attraction and repulfion, and totally independent 
on them, it was as eafy for Omnipotence to fuperaddthe fa-* 
culty of thinking to a fyflem of folid and impenetrable mat* 
ter, as to a fubftance (if it may be called a fubilance) in- 
vefted only with the properties of attraction and repulfion. 
The union would be as natural in one cafe as in the 
other. For the thinking principle, or the thinking property, 
would meet with no more oppoiition from the wi imrtiit^ 
than from the blind and jarring- tendencies of attradjon anc) 

The author, therefore, by excluding folidity, and contending 
for thefe powers, feems to have made no grea^ a^Tance^ 
towards jthe fppport of his bypothefis. 

^To bt (ontinuiJ, ] 

• Sir If. Newton gives many reafons, which induced him to be- 
lieve, that there was a fubtiie elaiHc fluid, which might be the cauft 
of gravity, and the caufc of many other phenomena, particularly 
thole of heat and light, at the fame time. Prin. fub fin. Optic. \s^ 

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t >85 ] 

mjayi on the Nature and Immutdhility of Truth, in Oppo/ttUu U $9^ 
pUftry ami Scepticifm ; on Po$try and Mufec^ as they afia th 
Mind I en Laughter 9 and ludicrbus Cmpeifit^n\ en the Utility rf' 
ilajpcal Liarning. By James Bcattie, LL. D. 4/*'. lA li. 
hoards. Dilly. [Cimdudedt from p. 126.] 

'TPHIS excellent writer, in the former part of bis Eflay on 
-*' Poetry, which we mentioned in our laft Review, layt 
down theie principles, which he endeavours to iJluflrate ^nd 
cftabliih by proper examples, viz. That the end of poetry if 
to pleafe; and therefore, that the moft perfe^ poetry muft 
be moft pleafmg : that what is unnatural cannot give plea* 
i^urc ; and therefore that poetry muft be according to nature ; 
that it muft be either according to real nature, or according 
to nature fomewhat different from the reality ; that if accord- 
ing to real nature, it would give no greater pleafure than hif- 
tory, which is a tranfcript of real nature, that greater plea- 
fure is however to be expcfled from it, bccaufe we grant it 
fuperior indulgetice, in regard to fiftion, and the choice of 
words ; ^nd ponfequently, that poetry muft be not according; 
to^real nature, but according to nature improved to that de« 
.gree, which is confiftent with probability, and fuitable to tl^e 
poet's purpofe. 

All thefe pofitions are unqueftionable, except the firft, which 
we ventured to controvert, upon a fuppofition, that inftrudlioa 
is fuperior to pleafure ; that different writers purfue different 
courfes to attain the fame grand* purpofe, viz. inftruQion; that 
the hiftorian aims at this point by a plain, ingenuous, and 
methodical narration ; the poet by elevated language, fic- 
titious events, and an artificial arrangement ; that, in ihort« 
Ihe latter does not make his prod^diions inftrudiive, in order 
to give pleafure ; but renders them pleafing, in order to con- 
vey inftrndlion with more efficacy, by engaging the imagiQatton 
and the paflions on the fide of truth. 

The author having fhewn, in a former chapter, how far the 
poetical charader (hould be conformable to nature, proceeds . 
to confider poetical arrangement. Under this head he (hews, 
that the evepts of poerry muft be more compact, more clearly 
conneded with caufes and confequences, and unfolded in aa 
order more flattering to the imagination, and more intereft- 
\n^ to the paHions, thafi the events of hiftory commonly 

In the next chapter he treats of the extent and merit of 
ipitatjve mufic, of the pleafure we derive from pmfic, and the 
peculiarities of natioi^al m||)Qpy - . 


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« 96 Beattie*! EJijfs §n tin Natun and Immutaiility of Truth, ftc. 

To account for thefe pecuiiarities, he fiippofes, ^at dif- 
-fcrent fenttments, or difivrent paffions, in the mind of the 
ntificiany wUl give different and peculiar expreiSon^ to his 
jnufic. Tbi$ opinion he iUuftrates by the following obierv- 
ations. ' . . 

< The highlands of Scotland are a pidarefque, but in general 
a melancholy country. Long trads of mountainous defer t, co« 
wtrt^ ,vf\th dark heath, and often obfcured by mifty weather ; 
narrow vallie's, thinly inhabited, and boanded by precipices re- 
foundfng with the fall of torrents ; a foil fo rugged, and a cli- 
mate fo drrary» as. in many parts to admit neither the amufe- 
jnents of paftmrage^ nor the labours of agricolture ; the mourn- 
ful datbing of waves along the friths and lakes that ioterfe^ the 
coantry ; the ^ortentoot noifes which every change of the wiod, 
and every intreafe and diminution of the waters, is apt to ratfey 
in a lonely region, full of echoes, and rocks> and caverns ; the 
grotefque and ghaflly appearance of fuch a landfcape by the 
light of the moon:--obje^s like thefe diiFufe a gloom over the 
fancy, which may be compatible enough with occaiional aud 
focial merriment, bnt cannot fail to tindture the thoughts of a . 
native in the hour of filence and folitude. If thefe people, not- 
withftanding their reformation in religion, and more frequent 
intereonrfe with ftraogers, do ftill retain many of their old fu- 
perftitions, we need not doobt but in former times they mqft 
nave been much more eaflaved to the horrors of imagination, 
when befet with the bugbears of Popery, and the darkaefs of 
Paganifm. Mod of their fuperflitions are of a melancholy caft. 
That fecond fight, wherewith ibme of them are dill fuppofed to 
.be haunted, is confidered by themfelves as a misfortune, on ac- 
count of the many dreadful images it is faid to obtrade upon the 
fancy. I have been told^ that the inhabitants of fome of the 
Alpine regions do likewife lay claim to a fort of fecond fight. 
Nor is it wonderful, that perfons of lively imagination, immured 
in deep folitude, and furrounded with the (lupendous fcenery of 
clouds, precipices, and tori'ents, ihould dream, even wh«n they 
think themfelvep aWake, of thofe iew ilriking ideas with^ which 
'their lonely livas are diverfified ; of corpfes, funeral p/oceffions,. 
and other ofcje^s of terror ; or of marriages, and the arrival of 
jftracgers, and fuch like matters of more agreeable eurioiity. 
Let it be obferved alfo, that the ancient highlanders of Scotland 
had hardly any other way of fupporting themfelves, than by 
hunting, fifhing, or war, profeffions that are continually ex- 
\ pofed to fatal accidents. And hence, no doubt, additional hor- 
rors would often haunt their folitude, and a deeper gloom over- 
ihadow the imagination even of the hardied native. 

* What then would it be reafonable to expert from the fanci- 
ful tribe,. from the muficians and poets« of fuch a region? 
Strains, expreflive of joy, tranquillity, or the fofier paSoasi 
No : their ftyle muil have been better fuited to their circum- 


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BeAtie^s t^s m thi KaTBft Ani ImmtaVtUij $f tfuit^ ice. ity 

ftances.^Ancl fo we Rnditk fa6l that their tnufic is« The wildeft 
irregtifafity stppe^s in its campo^tion : the expreflion is warlike, 
and inelanchoIy» and approaches even to the terrible.—- And that 
their poetry is almrdb unifpfinly mOurnfal, and their views of na« 
ture <&rk and dreury^ wil^ be Allowed by all who admit the 
anthenticity of Oflian ; and not doubted by any w^o believe 
diofe fragments of highland'poetry to be genuine, which man/ 
old^|yeop1^9 now alive, of that country, remember to have 
Beard in their youth« and were then taught to refer to a pretty 
high antiquity/ . 

To this extra£l we fball fubjoin the author's. renfiarks on 
the pretended gift of fecond (ight : as nothing perhapfs can Jse 
(aid upon the fubjed more reafonable and iatisfadlory, than ^ 
what is here advanced. 

^ I do not find fufficient evidence for the reality of fecond 
fight, or at leaft of what is commonly underdood by that terra* 
A treatife on the fubjedl was publifhed'in tEe year 1762, in 
which many tales were told of perfoos, whom the author be- 
lieved to have been favoured, or haunted, with thefe illumi- 
nations ; but moft of the tales wefe trifling and ridiculous: and 
the whole work betrayed on the part of the compiler fnch ex-* 
treme credulity, as could not fail to prejudice many readers 
^gainft his fyilem.— That any of thefe vliionaries are liable to be 
fwayed in their declarations by iinifler views,. I will not fay; 
though a gentleman of charadker aflured me, that one of them 
offered to fell him this unaccountable talent for half a crowti. 
But this I think may be faid with confidence, that none but ]g«- 
norant people pretend to be gifted in this Way. And ia them it 
may be nothing more, perhaps, than fliort fits of fudden fl«jep , 
or drowflnefs amended with lively dreams, and arifing from fome 
bodily diforder, the eifed of idlenefs, low fpirits, or a gloomy 
imagination. For it is admitted, even by the moft credulous 
highlanders, that, as knowlec^ge and indudry are propagated 
in their country, the fecond fight difappears in proportion : and ' 
nobody ever laid claim to this- faculty, who was much employed 
In the tnterconrfc of focial life. Nor is it at all extraordinarv, 
that one ftpuld have the appearance of being awake, and (kould 
leven think one's felf fo, duriiig thefe fits of dozing ; or that they 
fliould come on foddenly, and while one is engaged in fome bu- 
linefs. The bme thing happens to perfon^ much fatigued, or 
long kept awake, who frequently fall afleep for a moment, or 
for a longer fpace, while they are ftanding, or walking, or 
riding on horfeback. Add but a lively dream to this ilumber, 
jGind (which is the frequent efFeA of difeafe) take away the con*, 
icioufnefs of having been afleep ; and a fuperflitious man, who 
is always bearing and believing tales of fecond fight, may eafily 
yniftake his dream for a waking vifion : which however is foon 
forgotten when no fu(}{^quent occurrence reeals it to his me- 
9ioxy ; bat which, if i( fhalJ be thought to itfembte any future 


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l88' BeattieV il^/ m tie Nafttn mui Immutaklity of Trutb, See, 

event, exalts the poor dreamer into a highland prophet. This 
conceit makes'him more reclufe and more melancholy than ever, 
ajnd fo feeds his difeafe^ and multiplies his vifions ; which, if 
they are not diflipated by buiiDefs or fociety, may continue to • 
haunt him as long as he lives ^ and which, in |heir progrefs, 
tliroagh the neighbourhood, receive fome new tin^ure of the 
marvellous from every month that promotes their circulation. — 
As to the prophetical nature of this fecond fight, it cannot be- 
admitted at all. That the Deity (hould work a miracle, in 
order to give intimation of the frivolous things that thefe talet 
are made up of, the arrival of a ftranger, the nailing oi a coffiq, 
or the coloar of a fuit of cloaths ; and that thefe intimations 
ihould be given for bo end,* and to thofe perfoos only who are 
idle and folitary, who fpeak Erfe, or who live among moan- 
, tains and deferts,— is like nothing in nature or providence that 
we are acquainted with ; and muft therefore, unlefs it were con- 
firmed bv fatisfadtory proof, (which is not the cafe}j be reje£led 
as abfurd and incredible. The vifions, fuch as they are^ may 
reafonably enough be afcribed to a di (tempered fancy. And 
that in them, as well as Jn our ordinary dreams, certain ap- 
pearances ihould, on fome rare occailbns, refemble certain 
events, is to be expeded from the laws of chance ; and feems to 
have in it nothing more marvellous or fupernaturaf, than that 
the parrot, who deals out his fcurrilities at random, ihould 
fometimes happen to falute the paiTenger by his right appeU 

In this note Dr. Beattie has conlidered the claim of iecond 
fight with as much ferioufnefs and attention as it deferves* 
It is an idle and ridiculous pretention, founded on ignorance 
and fuperilition, which have given birth to innumerable vi- 
fions and reveries of a fimilar kind ; as bifhop Lavington has 
demonflrated in his excellent treatife en the Enthuiiafm of 
Paplfls and Methodiils. 

i^s a great part of the pleafure we derive from poetry de- 
pends on' our iympathetit feelings, the author fubjoins fome 
remarks on* that fubje^ ; and having thus iinilhed what he 
intended to fay on the general nature of poetry, as an imita* 
tive art, he proceeds to confider the inftrnment, which k 
employs in its imitations ; or^ in other words, to explain the 
general nature of fonic Unguagt : for language is the poet's in« 
Arumerit of imitation, as found is the mufician's, and colour 
the painter's, 

The principles, which he lays down, in treating on this 
fubjeft, are thefe : that . the language of poetry muft be na- 
tural, fuited to the fpeaker's condition, charaifler, and circum- . 
fiances 5 that natural language is improved by the ufe of 
poetical words, tropes, arid iigures ; that the poet muft attend 
to the harmony of his fiyle, the regulariry of his meafure> aad 

the ' 

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Beattie's tjfup mtht Naiun anJ tiimutalnlUy of Trutb^ Uc. i9^ 

the artifice, by which ^he found is made, as Pope fays, an echo 
to the fenfe. 

The next article in this publication is an Eflay on Laughter 
and ludicrous Compofition. 

In this ingenious fpeculation the author has analized aad 
explained, 'that quality in things or ideas, which makes them 
provoke pure laughter, and entitles them to the name of lii«> 
dicrous or laughable^.' If then it be afked. What is. that 
quality in things, which makes them provoke that pleafing^ 
emotion or fentiment» whereof laughter is the exteiual fign, 
he anfwers : it is an uncommon mixture of relation and con- 
trariety, exhibited, or fuppofed to be united, in the &me af* 
iemblage. If again it be afked, Whether fuch a mixture will 
always provoke laughter ? he replies ; it will always, or for 
the moft part, excite the rifible emotion, nnlefs when the 
perception of it is attended with fome othe^ emotion of greater 
authority, fuch as moral difapprobation, pity, fear, difgufl, 
admiration, &c. 

Having obferved, that wickednefs is no obje£k of laughter, 
he makes the following judicious remarks eo the fatires of Ho- 
race and Juveaaf. 

* As to fatire, we mufl obferve, that it is of two forts, t&e 
comic aad the ferious ; that human foibles are the proper ol^edls 
of the former, and vices and crimes of the latter; and that it 

. ought to be the aim of the fatirill to make tl^ofe ridiculous, and 
thefe detellable. I know not how it comes to pafs, that the 
comic fatire fhonld be io much in vogue; but I End. that the 
generality of critics are all for the moderation and fmiliog graces 
of the courtly Horace, and exclaim againft the vehemence and 
vindidive zeal of the unmannerly Juvenal. They may at well 
blame Sophocles for not adopting the flyle of Ariftophanes, and 
infift that Cicero fhould have arraigned Verres in the language 
of Anacreon. Nor do Horace and Juvenal admit of comparifba 
in this refpe^ ; any more than a chapter of the Tale of a Tab 
can be compared with one of the Saturday papers in tlie Spec- 
tator. Thefe poets had different views, and took different fiib* 
je£ls ; and therefore it was ri^ht that there fhould be a dif- 
ference in their manner of writing. Had Juvenal. made a jet 

, of the crimes of his contemporaries, all the world would 

* This word has been lately introduced, and is often ufed by \yr» 
Beattie \ .but it feems to be. a term, which neither our language re- 
quires, ner analogy can juftify. A laughable obje^l can never fig- 
nify an obie£t, which the fpeCtator laughs at. To laugh is a verb 
neuter or Intranfitive, and the prepdfition is necefi'ary to conneft it 
with the objed. Come^i-ahU, though a vulgar term, has an ob- 
vious meaning ; but, if the propofition is omitted, it 
idea. Laughabli, we are inclined to think, is equally uniAtellJ^i)>le 
and barbarous, • 


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Jhavexslled kirn a bad writer and a bf d i;q^^. And bad Hoh* 
taccy witb tb« fevfricy of Juvenal, acuckcd tbeanfcrtinei^ 
cf coxcombs, tbe pedantry of the Stoics, the fi^diopfnefa of 
Inxiiry, and the felly of avarke, he would have proved hisnfe]f 
^norant of the nature of things, and even of the meaning of hit 
Wb preeept : 

• • Adfit 

Reguh, pcecatisqae p«nas irroget aeqnas^ 
Me fcntica dignam -horribili federe Aagello. 

mat neither Horace nor Javenal ever endeavoured to make u< 
, tlaogb at crimes, I wfti not affirm ; bat for every indifcredba 
.«f this kind thef are to be condemned, not imitat^. And this 
ia net the general charader of their fatire. Horace laug^d at 
tibe ibffies and foibles of mankind ; fo far he <iad well. But Jo- 
^'venal (if his indecencies had died with himfelf) might, as a mo- 
.xal (atirift, be faid to have done better. Fired with honeft in- 
.dilation at the unexampled degeneracy of his age ; and, dif-* 
daininji that tamenefs of expreffion and fervility of ientiment, 
^hich in fome cafes are infallible miM-ks 6( a daftardly foul, 

ke draggisd vice frohi the bower of pleafure and from the 
ribroneof empire, and exhibited her to the world, not in a lu- 
'lliorous attitttde, but in her genuine form ; a form of fuch 

loathfome uglinefs, and hideous diilortion,, as cannot be viewed 

without horron* • 

In the cooblofion of this elTay the author attempts to account 
for the fuperiortty of the moderns, compared with the an- 
cients, in ludicrous compofition. 

There are many circumftances, he thinks, vfhich will con- 
\ ^nce us, that modern ridicule is more copious ,a^d more re* 
. fined, than that of the ancients. We have greatly the advan- 
tage of tbe ancients in mofl branches of philplbpby,Aad:qa« 
. tural hi^ry. H^npe ytt ^derive an eadlefs moUitudeof no- 
tions and ideas unknown to antiquity, whicbnby being dtf^ 
rfei^ntly combined. nnd compared, give rife^ to innnmerable 
(..varieties of that ijpecies of ludicrous afibciation, which is 
• cajleduwft. The nioderns are better intruded in all the va- 
'-rietles of human manners. Their improvements in Commerce^ 
- geography, and navigation, have wonderfully extended their 
]&nowledge of mankind within the two laft centuries. Chi* 
' iralry, religious controverfy, gallantry, cuJUoms in regard to 
, .drefs,, &c. have \opened new iburces of ridicule. 

With refpe£i to the fuper^or refinement of modern rrdicuter 

' he fays, Nothing perhaps, more effectually fof((^ned,^coii- 

verfation by difcQUj^t^D^^g.iiideluHicy, imd by promoting. 

-;gopd humour, gentle manners, and a defire. to. jilede,- than 

'« the-fociety of the fair iex; an ac^uifttion, of which neither 

'*^thi iftges oC Greece and Rom^, nor the tolupti^^s of^^a, 


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^eattie^i Eff»ft tm tbt Namt Mid ImmutfihiUtj •/ Trmb, &e. rp f 
ever kncwr the value; and for which Europe is indebted tO 
tfie-rtfiiiements peculiar to modern gallantry. It is obfervabl© 
that in modern times monarchy gives the law to 'thofe part* 
of the world, that afpire to a literary character, as republicafi 
' government did of old. Now monarchy, he thinks, U, on 
feveral accounts, more favourable to a general .pqlitenais. The . 
example of a court is aione fufficient tP make it falkioaable. 
l^afily, he obferves, that, the meek and benevolent ^tit of our 
reli^on has had a powerful influence in humanizing focklf* 
and caning converfation. On all thefe ^ccoums tbe moderHf 
kave greatly excelled the ancients on fubjefts of wit tiid 

The conchi^ng article in this volume is an 'ClTay 6n tbet 
I][iiruy,of claflidli Learning. 

' Theobje^ions, which are moft commonly made to the fiudf 
of the -Greek and Latin anthors, may be reduced to four. It 
is faid, firft, that this mode oC education obliges the ftudent 
to employ too much time in the aci^iiiiion of words : a. fihtt 
vhen he has acquired thefe languages, he does not find, that 
•they repay his toil: 3« that the (ludies •{ a grammar ichool 
have a tendency to encumber the genius, and confei^uently to 
Weaken* rather than improve the human mind r and, 4. that . 
the chiflic atithors contain many defcriptions and dodrinef^ 
\vhich may feduce the underftanding, and corrupt theteatt. 

In anfwer to the lail of thefe objections the author nHkfS 
the following obfervations. 

* Betaufe ps^ages that convey improper ideaa. may be fbwi<t 
in fome ancient writings, (hall we deprive young people of all 
theinftrudion and pleafare that attends a regular conrfe of 
ckffical ftttdy f Becaufe Horace wrote fome paoltry lines, and 
Ovid ibine wortjblefs poems, m^ft Virgil, and Livy, and Ci- 
cero, and Plutarch, and Homer, be configoed to oblivion ? ' I 
.v4o not here fpeak of the beaaties of > idie Greek* and Latin au* 
kors, nor of thevaft ^ifproportion there ia between what is 
good in tbem, and what is bad. In every thing human there 
is a fixture of evil : but are we for that reafon to throw off all 
concern about human things ? Muft we fet our harveils on fire» 
or leave them to perifh, bccaafe a few ^rcs have fprupg up 
with the corn? Becaufe oppreflion will fomedmes take place 
where-ever there is fubordination, and luxury where-ever there 
as fecurity, are we therefore to renounce all government ^— or 
Ihall we, according, to the advice of certain bmous projectors, 
' yun' naked to the woods, and there encounter every hardflup 
^^nd brutally of favage tlife, in order toeicape from the tooth- 
«ch and rheumaiifm? 4f we reject every ufefol inftitution chat 
. may pofiiWy be attended with inconvenienee, we*mttft rejed all 
bodily exercife, and all bodily seft» all acU and fiucncaa, alllair^ 
. CAnuaerce^ and fociety* 

i ' f If 

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Mfz Seattle'/ Ejajs pm ihi ffafurg anJ immutaillifj rf truths ict. 

* U the prefentobjedion prove any thing dedfire ^tinit 
^tncient literature, it will prove a great deal more againft tBe 
* modern. Of claffical indecency compared with that of latter 
dmea, J do not think fo favoarably as did a certain critid* 
trho likened the former to the nakednefs of a child* and tKe 
latter to that of aproftitdte} I think there is too much of the 
laft.chara^er in both : btijt that the mv 'ern mufei paruke of it 
nore than the ancient, is ondeniable. I do not care to proiie 
what I fay, by a detail of jiaxticnhrs ; and am forry to add, 
that the point is too plain to require proof. And if fo^ mzy 
aot an e^ly acquaintance with the beil ancient authors, as 
teaciiers of wifdom, and models of good tafte, be highly ofeful 
89 a preiervative from the fophiftries and iqimorilities that dir« 
grace fome of our fa(hionable moderns f If a rruetafte for claiCc 
karning Ihall ever become general, the demand for licentious 
plays, poems, and novels will abate in pYoportion ; for it isi to 
the more illiterate readers that this fort of traih is moft accept* 
able. Stody, fo ignominious and fo debafing, fo unworthy of 
a fcholar and of a man, fo repugnant to good tafte and good 
manners, will hardly engage the attention of thofe who can 
leliib the original magnificence of Homer and Virgil, Demoft-> 
kenes and Cicero. ' 

* A book is of ibme valae, if it yield harmlefs amufement? 
it is ftill more valuable, if it communicate inllfudlion ; but if 
it anfwer both purpofes, it is truly a matter of importance ta 
mankind. That many of the claffic authors pofleifed the art of 
blending fweemefs with utility, has been the opinion of all mea 
without exception, who had fenfe and learning fufficient to qui- 
lify them to be judges. — Is hiftory inflrudlive and entertainfng^ f 
We have from thefe authors a detail of the moft important 
events unfolded in the rood intereding manner. \^thout the 
kiilories they have left us, we (boold have been both ignorant of 
their affairs, and unikilled in the art of recording our own : for 
I think it is allowed, that the beil modern hiftories are chofe 
which in form are moft fimilar to the ancient models. — Is pM- 
lofophy a fonrce of improvement and delight ? The Greeks and 
Romans h«ive g;iven us, 1 (hall not fay the mod ufeful, biif I 
will fay the fundamental, part of human fcience; have led us 
into a train of thinking, which of ourfelves we (honld not fo 
foon have taken to ; and have fet before us an endlefs multitude 
of exari^ples and inferences, which, though not exempt from 
error, do however fugged the proper methods of obfervacion sttd 
profitable inquiry. ^ Let thofe, who undervalue the difcoveries 
of antiquity, only think, what our condition at this day mad 
have been, if, in the ages of darknefs that followed the de- 
firudlion of the Roman empire, all the literary monuments of 
Greece and Italy had perifhed.-^Again, is there any thing prO- 
dadlive of utility and pleafure, in the fidUons of poetry, and ta 
the charms of harmonious comppfition f ^Surely, it cannot be 
doabtcd ; nor will they, who have any knowledge «of the hif- 

, •• ^ toxy 

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loryof leftroings hcfitate to afBrm, tbat tlie modern &^ropeal)J 
«re almoft wholly indebted for the bcaaty of their writings both' 
in piofe and verfe, to thofe models of elegance that firft appeared 
In GreecCf and hare fince been admired and imitated ail over 
the weftern world. It is a ftriking fadl, that while, in otYi%t 
parts of the earth there prevails a form of language, fo dif* 
^aifed by 6gare8, and fo darkened by incoherence, as to be 

Suite onfoitable to philofbphy, and even in poetry tirefome, thp 
uropeans (hould have been fo long in poflefBon of a ftyle, in 
which harmony, perfpicuity, and elegance, are fo happily anited* 
That the Romans and modern Enropeans had it from the Greek^^ 
is well known : but whence thofe fathers of literature deriv^ 
kt is not fo apparent, and wpold furniih matter for coo long a 
digreffion, if we were here to inquire. — In a word, t^e Greeks 
and Romans are our mafters in all polite literature ; a confider* 
•tion, which of itfelf ought to infpire reverence ibr their writii^ga 

The reader, who has a tafte for claflical learning, or for 
critical remarks on the ftyle and the beauties of the ancient 
]K>ats, the nature and properties of elegant compofition, and 
other fttbjedf of this nature, will find entertainment in thefe 
•Bflayst The author writes in clear, corredt, and nervous Ian- 
"gnage. The examples he produces from the ancient and mo- 
dern poets, in confirmation, of his alTertions, are appofite and 
' ftriking ; and his obfervations manly and judicious. 

Travilt into Dalmatia. In a Sirits of Litttrsfrom Abbi Alberto 
Fortis, io the Earl of Bute^ /itr ^ij^dj^ ^ Londonderry, John 
Strange, Efy. &c. &c. HUflrattJ with twenty Cofpit-flaiiu 
4/9. i/. ti« bwrir. Robibn. ' 

TH the firft pf thefe Letters, which is addrefled to the earl 
-^ of Bute, we are prefented with a variety of obfervations 
r^fpedting the natural hiftory of Dalmatia and the adjacent 
Hlands. The author begins with an account of Ihe iflands pf 
Ulbo and Selve, which are contiguous to each odief. He, in* 
forms us that they abouiui in a kind of whitiih marble of a 
dicioos appearance, iimilar to what is called the taUartus/^ 
Udus^ purtitmHs impalpttbilihm^ and on which artificial acids are 
flow in making any impreffion. In the ifland of Ulbo tl)e 
anithor collefted (bme curious fpecimens of the oftracites, which 
lie found for the moft part difpofed horizontally in difierent 
firata, but neither calcined nor petrified, notwithftanding the 
peat leng^ of time that they aiuft have remained «in thia 
^ iituaHoa. They fiill retail their natural brightnefs, and brcfk 
in ianinated Icaies, ffiucb in th^ Ame manner m dioie takta 
VOL.XLV. iUarr^, 177S. O fr«% 

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^^94 Xravth into Dalmathi* 

fre(h oat of the ^a^ The air of both thofc iilands is heaUby 
but their water not good. 

Id the ifland of Zapuntello, the Meleta of Porphyro^enhus, 
the author collected large pieces of a hard kiiid of ilone, full 
of an unknown fpecies of foflil, belonging to the clafs^ot the 
ortocerati. The moft remarkable fofTil produdlion of this 
ifland, however, is a calcareous (Vone, very whiie, and almofi 
as hard as mafble* though, when broken, it appears fari- 
naceous, and difcovers imprefiions of flones, wood, and ma^ 
rine infefis. The fea-fand in the creek is full of microfcopie 
ihejls, of the nautiii and eernua ammonu kind- 

In the ifland of Uglian the number of fnails is prodigioul^. 
) Its fdffik nearly refemble thpfe which have been already roen« 
4ioncd. Mr. Fortis here met wiih a curious fpecies of kenne$> 
if not rather a new genu<;, growing upon a fig-tree. 

CJuitting the iflands, the traveller condu^s us to Zara, a 
townon the continent of Dalmatiai Thifi was iormerly the 
metropolis of Liburnia, or the great pemnfula which rulis 
into the fea, but is at prefent the capital of a more extea- 
live province. The buildings are faid to be elegant, and the 
inhabitants as much civilized as in any of the cities of Italy. 
Mr. Fortis confirms, the remark, that the Tea isconflantly gain- 
ing ground on the coafV of this country, as appears from the 
pavement of ftreets obferved under water, as well/as from fome 
i\Qb)\t fabrics difcovered a few years fince, in cleaning the har- 
bour of Zara. 

Of the city of Nona hardly any vefiiges now remain ; but at 
San. Filippo and Gtacomo, may be fetn the ruins of an 
aq\iedu^, either Jbuilt or repaired by tbe emperor Trajan. 
Having traced thofe vediges a confiderable way, our author 

' I can pofitively afHrm. that the Dalmatian hif!orians, par- 
ticularly Simon Gliubavez, whofe manafcripi lies before me, 
and Giavanni Lueio, in his celebrated work, concerning the 
kingdom of Dalmaiia, and Croatia, were grofsly miftaken, when 
' they wrote, that Trajan brought water to Zara, from the river 
.i Fizio, or Kerka, taking it from the cafcade of Scardona, called 
. in the language of the country, ^kradincki-Jla'p ; in the neigh- 
bourhood of which, feme trifling ruins of aqueduds are Jlill to 
be fcen. But they are furely excufable ; if, through cageroefs 
to do honour to their native country, they have afcribed to Tra- 
jan; a merit thirty times greater than he really had, in either 
building,' or repairing this aquedu£l ; as they were certainly un- 
acquainted with the country that lies htiwt^n Skradintk i -flap , 
and tie fea coall of Za'ia, for thie Turks were in pufTefOon of it, 
when they wrote. The remains of the aquedu€l are firft feen, 
' at a little diilance fr^om the walls (^ Zar% along the fea fide, 
- . . towards 

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Tr^tb ikt$ Dalmaria. 195 

towards the village of San. CafTano : then through the* wood oi 
Taftiza, as far as the Torretce, where they (erve as a foot-path 
to travellers ; and laftty at San. Frlippo and Giacomb ; and far- 
ther on, at Zaravecchia, where their traces are loft, but feem ^o 
have been directed to the neighbouring river of Kakma, which 
Is diftant from ^krandin ki-Jlap^ thirty miles at leafl, in a right 
line. The moantains that rife between that place, and Zara* 
vecchia> are much higher than the cafcade of the river, and 
therefore it would have been impoilible to convey water from 
thence. They are alfo divi4ed by large valleys, fo that there 
ooght to appear frequent remains of arches, fuppoling the wa- 
ters of the Tizto could have been brought by fuch a road s 
now there is not a fingle veftige of an aqaedu6l to be feen*^ 
within the compafs of thirty miles, that caa'juflify this in« 
confiderate alTertion of Lucio and Gliubavaz, and the vulgar 

Veftiges of the walls of Afferia yet remain, the circumfer- 
ence of which is clearly diftinguifliable above ground, and 
meafures three thoufand fix hundred Roman feet. They form 
an obloog polygon, and are built with common Diiilmatiaii 
marble. The tiii knefs is copnmonly about eight feet, bat 
in one extremity eleven. The height in fome piarts reaches to 
thirty feet. 

The fecotid of thefe Letters is addrefled to his excellency 
J. Moroiini, a noble Venetian, and treats of the manners of 
the Morlacchi, a people that inhabit the valleys of Kotar, and 
the inland mountains of Dalmatia. 

For the entertainment of our readers, we (hall extra£l a few 
pafTages on this fubjedl. ; 

* Friendfhip, that among us is fo fubje6l to change on the 
ilighteft motives, is lafling among the Morlacchi. They have 
even made it a kind of religious point, and tie the facred bond 
at the foot of the altar. The Sclavonian ritual contains a par- 
ticular beoedidlion for the folemn union of two male Or two fe- 
male friends in the prefence of the congregation. I was pre^ 
fent at th6 union of two young women, who were made 
po/efirt^ in the church of rerufficb. The fatisfa^on that 
fparkled in their eyed, when the ceremony was performed, 
gave'a convincing proof, that delicacy of fentiments can lodge 
in minds not formed, or rather not corrupted by fociety, 
which we call civilized. The male friends thus united, are 
called ^r^^d/iW, and the females pcf/efireme^ which mean half- 
brothers, iand half-fifters. Friendfhips between thofe of differ- 
ent fexes, are not at this day bound with fo much folemnjty, 
thbogh perhaps in more ancient and innocent ages it was alfo 
the ciillom.' — 

--* The Morlacks, whether they happen to be of the Roman, 
•r (tf the Greek church, have very Angular ideas about religion s 

O a ' an4 

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f^i fWradb r«ff Dalmatit. 

^nd t1i« jfupnmc^ of Aeir teachers daily augments this ffioa- 
ilront etil. They are as firmly perfwaded of the reality of 
witchet, fairies, eiichalitmeiit9» nodornal apparitions, and for* 
ci!ages» as if they had ieen a ihoafand exaisples of them. Nor 
do they make the leaft doobt about the exigence of vamptiea ; 
and attribute to them« as in Traafilvania, the fucking the blood 
•f ioliifttt. Therefore when a bmo diet fufpeded of becoming 
ft vampiie» or nfuk9dUkt as they call it, they cut his hami, and 
prtek hit mMtt body with fnat ; pfetendtng, that after this ope- . 
ration he cannot walk abo«t» There are evea inftaaces of Mor- 
lacchi, who imagjining that they may pofiibly thiift for chil- 
dren's bldod after death, intreat their heirs» and fometimea 
oblige diem to promife to treat them as vampires when they 

. ' The boldeft Haidoc wonld Sy trembling from the app»- 
ritioo of a foeAre, ghoft» phantom, or fuch Tike goblina at the 
heated imaginations of credulous and prepoflefed people never 
fail to fee. Nor are they aihamed, when ridiculed for thia 
terror, but an(wer, moch in the wurda of Pindar: ** fear that 
jgro c ced i from fpirits, caufes even the font ^ the gods to fly.** . 
The women, at may be natorally foppofed, ate a hmndred times . 
more dmoroos and vifionary than the men ; and fome of them» 
by frequently hearing themfcives cftUed.witchesy aftnally believe . 
they arc fo.*— 

— * When a Morlack hufliand meatioos his wife, he always 
premifes, by your leave, or begging your pardon. And when 
the bolband has a bedftead, the wife mnft fleepoh the floor near 
h. 1 have often lodged in Morlack houfes, and obferved, that 
the female (ex ia univerfally treated with contempt; it is true, 
that the women are b^ no means-amiable in that country % they 
even deform, and fpoi) the gifts of natnre, 

* The pregnancy and births of thole women, would be 
thought very extraordinary among us, where the ladies fufier (a 
much, notwitbftanding all the care, and circumfpeftion ufed 
.before and after labour. On the contrary, a Morlack woman 
.neither changes her food, nor interrupts her daily fatigue, on 
account of her pregnancy ; and is frequently delivered in the 
£elds» or on the road, by herfelf ; and takea the infant, wafliea 
it in the firft water (be finds, carries it home and returns the day 
^after to her afual labour, or to feed her flock. The eoftom of 
the nation is invariable in walbing the new-born infants in co{d 
water.'— ^ 

«-< The little creatures, thus carelefsly treated in their ten- 
.derefl moments, are afterwards wrapt in iniferable rags, where 
they remain three or four months, onder the fame ungentle ma« 
aagement ; and when that term is efapfed, they are fet at 11- 
.berty, and left to crawl about the cotuge, and before the door^ 
till they leaifl to walk upiiglt by themfelves ^ and at the fame 
time acquire that Angular degree ijli ftrength, and health witli 
'which the Morlacchi art fcadoifredy and are able, withont the 


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^awli iftip Paloiatit. 107. 

- ' i , ^^ 

1«^ lOQOiiveiiieiice, tofxpofe iiheir oako4 bwaUt lo tlie.i«vereft 
froil ^ni fnow* The lofaaM are allowed to fuck their mofrber'^a 
okillfi whUe ibe has any, or till (be is with child agaioy and If - 
that ihould not happen for tihree, foar, or fix years, tbey con- 
tinue all that time to receive oouriflimeat froiD t\ip breaft. The 
prodigious length ol. tbe brealts of the Morlacchian women ia 
iomevrbat extraordinary 5 for it is very certain, that they can 
give the teat to their children over thfiir ihoalderst or under 

The third Letter it addrefled to Antonio Vellifoieri, pro- 
feflbr of natural hillory in the univerfity of .Padua. The au--.' 
<hor begins, with defcribing the courfe of the river Kerka, the 
Titios of the ancients. Near this rtver^ at Suppliacerqu4^ are 
ieen fome ancient arches, fuppofed to have belonged to the 
city of Bnmum, ofherwife called Liburna. Five of thtfe archea 
remained a 'few years ago, but two of them were taken away 
hf a Morlaccho for his own particular ufe. One of tbe remain* 
Sng thrte has a chord of twenryone feet, and the other t«^o 
about half as much; They are built of a foft ftone, but ap- 
pear to have been of good architeSare. For what purpofe 
they were ere^led, the author does not determine. They pro^ 
bably have been a tiiumphal monument : and Mr. Fortis is of 
'ppiilion that they were intended to fland ilblated, as the chaa« 
fiels and cornices are equal on both fides. 

The fourth Letter is written to tbe abbe Bronelii, profelToc 
of natural hiftory in the uolverfity of Bologna, and contains 
an ticcount of the didrifl of Sibenico, or Sebeneco. In tht 
idands of Simo&oi and Rogofnira, pertaining to this di&riQ^ 
the t.^avelier found a variety of folfil .bones, which were in 
fmail quantity io the forn\er, but in the latter in large maflbs. 
, The next Letter, which is direfted to Mr. Ferber, treats of 
the country of Trau, anciently diftinguilbed for tlie excellence 
of its marble. The mofl remarkable object ia this difiridl is 
the piflafphaUurn, or pitch that drops from a rock. 

The fucceeding Letter is addrefled to Mr. Strange; the Bri* 
tiQi minifter at Venice, and prefents us with a defcription qi 
Che didridtof'Spalarro. Naveftiges remain of the city of Sa-> 
)ona« but three mHes beuce lie tbe ruins of the ancient 

* The plafce is now called Stobrez. Near the road thither by 
.land from Salooa, are (everai arches of Dtoclefian^s aquedu6l» 
vulgarly called p9nuficC9^ and above it is an infulated mats called 
ifimn^ i. e. the ftoae, by way of excellence, where in former 
dme9, ai fnaaU fqrt has fiood, as may be deduced from the vef« 
liges of i)^f jvalU Aat.Oi.U f^snaio. 
^ O J ? The 

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'i^t Travth intd DaXm^^z* 

* The iitaation of Epetiom was very beaatiful. The atf ' 
flood on the fea fide, biit on a plain much above the level of the 
water. The pleafant little river of XerDOvniza," ' of which I 
liave not hitherto been able to find the name among ancient 
geographers, falls into the ^arbour, capably from i^s extent, of 
receiving many fmall veflels ; but in our days, the water is 
fliallow, perhaps by the mod and flones brought by ^he river 
abandoned to itfelf. The adjacent fields though ill cultivated, 
are delicious. The Turks had made lalc pits there; but after 
^ the country pafTed from the Ottoman yoke to the Venetian go- 
vernment, they were abandoned. Yet that tra£^ of plain, which 
was occupied by the fait pits, is neither damp nor unwholefome ; 
and it invites fo me induftrious and intelligent perfon, to make a 
trial how valuable the perennial water of the adjoining river,'the 
fweetnefs of the climate, and the open warmth of the ihore» 
night be made. 

' On the banks of the fmall harbour of Stobrez the veHiges 
- of the ancient walls of Epetium are fiill didinguifhable ; and ap- 
pear to have been built of folid materials, but without that 
nice connedlion, that is admired in the Roman fa,brics A fub- 
terraneous palTage, oif which the mouth remains in its primi- 
tive flate, extending far under the buried ruins of the city, 
feems to have ferved in ancient times, for an outlet to the 
waters. Near the parochial church, which is a good quarter of 
a mile dillant from the (bore, appear the foundation^ of a 
tower, which Hanked Epetium on that fide ; and the church it* 
felf is built on thofe old foundations.' 

In the fubfeqoent letter, written to Signor Mardli, pro* 
fieflbr of botany in the univerfity of Padua, the author gives 
an ^count of the river Cettina, the Tilurus of the anpents. 
On an eminence near this river, flood the ancient city of 
Equum, where veftiges of the' amphitheatre are yet to be feen. 
The canals are ftill vifible that ferved to condud the water 
into its area, and they were cut out of the rock, not built. 
Oar author informs us, that from Trigl to Duarej the Cettina 
precipitates from roclf: to rock, in a very romantic liianner. 
About a mile from the place laft mentioned, the river forms a 
magnificent cafcade, for obtaining a view of' which, the tra- 
veller feems to have expofed him felf to confiderable danger. 

'I was pbliged, fays he, fometimes to creep, and foroetimes 
to leap from one rock to another, in order ta arrive at a place 
from whence I could have a good view of the cafcade. Let 
them tell you what they wiy of the precipices of Mount Pilate 
in Switzerland, they cannot poffibly be more impradicable* 
'Notwithftandtng this, the fhepberds, with their leather fiaiks 
full of water, climb, with furprifing dexterity, from the bottom 
of ihefe abylTeSf to the plain tops of the hills where their thiiffy 


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Travels inf Dalmatia. 199 

Bocks feed . If «ny of them mirs « ftepi ihe^ mnfl iadfttaUy be 
precipitated^ aod become food for the vultures ; but fuch acci* 
^nts rarely happen. The vultures of thofe parts, near the 
mouth of the Cettinat are dreadful animals, meafuring above 
twelve feet from the tip of one wing to the other, and are able 
to lift up in their claws, arw) carry away to their neils, lambs,, 
nay^ fometimes iheep> and even the children of the ihepherds. 
I faw one of them, and meafured it royfelf. 

' The right hand bank of the river, which role perpendico- 
Iflrly to the clouds above my head, when 1 was within reach 
of having a fall view of the fall, is about five hundred feec* 
high-; and the left fidev on which I flood, is fo flepp, that with« 
Qut.the Inequalities of prominent rocks to lay hold on, it would 
be abfoltttely Imppflible to defcend. 

■ In that place, the bed of the river is fcarcely eight feet 
liioad ; this profound narrownefs, added tp the horror of the 
anany hanging rock^, is fufiicient to deprefs the higheft fpirits. 
The water of the ^:iv^r does not, however, precipitate from fo 
enormous a height. Us fall ^may be compared to that of Ve- 
lino near Terni in Umbria. But the wild craggy precipice be- 
low Duare has no kind of refemblance to the valley of Pepigne, 
which, amidft its htirror, is rather pleafant. There a man ha« 
liitually melancholy, and who chofe to indulge his gloomy ilate 
of mind, might fee up his habitation ; but, in the noify horror. 
of the Cettina, buried between immeofe rocks, no man could 
live, but one abandoned to defpair, an enemy to light, to fp- 
ciety, . and to himfelf. The waters that precipitate from m 
height of above a hundred and Urty feet, form a deep majeftic 
founds which is heightened by the echo refounding between the 
fieep and naked marble banks. Many rocks tumbled down, 
which impede the courfe of the river after its fall, break the 
waves, and render them i^ill more lofty and founding. Their 
frothv by the violence ef the repercuflion^ flies oH' in fmall 
white particles, and is raifed in fucceiEve clouds^ which by the 
agitated air, are fcattered over the moift valleys jwhere the faya 
of the fun feldom penetrate to rarify them* When thefe clouds 
afcend dire^ly upwards, the inhabitants exp dt the Scircuo, or 
Iburh-eafl wind, and their obfcryation never fails. Two huge 
pilailers (land, as if for a guard, where the river takes its fall ; 
one of them is joined to the craggy brink, and its tops covered 
with earth, where trees and grafs grow; the other isof marble, 
bare and infuJaced.* 

Mr, Fortis here found a very remarkable fpecies of oclithu^, 
the grains of which are connefted by a ftrong fparry cement, 
ipreading like net: work ; and a beautiful kind of angular 
breccia, with Urge white fpots, and flreaks of lively red. 

The next letter is addrefled to the bilhop of Londonderry^ 
and contains an account, of the diftri£l ofPalmatia, called the 
l^rimorici the fame, with the Paratalaflia of the ancients. The 

O 4 / Only 

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sea ' Aam/i ta» IM^maflt. 

etAy tbwh !fi tlib territory at prefent, is liacaroct^ fopp^ed^toi 
have rifen out of the roins of the ancient Rataneum, or Refmiifli. 

The letter immediately facceedtng is directed to the Abb£ 
Lozzero Spallanzani, profefibr of Natural Hiftory in the uni^ 
Veriity of Pavia. . It relates to the iilands of Liifa, Pelagoili, 
Lefma, and Brazia in the Dalmatic Tea* and the ifland of 
Arbe in the Qiiarnaro. The iirft of theft iilands is men* 
tioned with particular marks of diftindtion both by the tireek 
and Latin geographers. It is* however, only thirty miles in 
circumference, and is mountainous, though not without plains 
that are capable of cultivation. The temperature of the air 
is delightful » and the ifland has no other inconvenience than 
a fcarcity of frefli water. The principal fubftance in the 
bowels of Lifla is marble, in the lower firata of which tame 
brtboceratites is found, and in the upper are namifmales; jHit 
in fowe places this order is inverted. Here is alfo a flaty 
marble of very thin ftrata, and a whitifh calcareous tlooe» 
frequently containing foffil bones. This iiland was anciently 
celebrated for its wine^ which is not at prefent Of the beftqiiut'- 
llty. The honey, however, is Aill reputed excellent, but the 
bees do not make much, on accounts as is fuppofed, of the 
fcarcity of freih water. 

The ifland of Pelagofa,, with feveral rocks that appear above 
water near it, feem to be the remains of an ancient volcano. 
The face of the ifland is exti'emely rugged, and it is chiefly 
formed of a lava refembling that of Vefuvius. 

Lefina u about forty- four mifes long, and eight in the 
(»roadeft part. The traveller here colleSed a variety of mar-^ 
bles, wfth yellow, greeO) and red Jiints, all penetrated by a ' 
pyritic^l denromorpbous fluor* In the fmall rock of Borovas 
there are alfo heaps of foflTil bones. This ifland, though Aooy 
9nd barren in the higheft parts, contains good land, lit to bear 
not only fruit-trees, but likewife corn« 

Brazza is in length about thirty- two miles, and of unequal 
breadth, but never exceeding nine. Being remarkably moun« 
tainous and rocky, it is ill adapted to cultivation ; and the 
fcarcity of frefli water often fubje^s it to fatal droughts. This 
ifland was anciently diflinguiihed for the excellence of its kidff|| 
which, as well as the laipbs, continue to be highly valued for 
the delicate tafle of their flefli, and on account of the fiae 
paflure, the cheefe of Brazza is by far the beft in Dalmatia. 

The ifland of Arbe is about thirty miles in circumference, 
and thdugh wholly uncultivated in the higher parts, has an e«^ 
(deeding pleafant appearance. The clinoate, however, is tione 
of the happieft, the winter being for the mpft part very tern* 
(cduoiisj efpecially during the prevalence of dif norA winds. 

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"The noft remarkable circomftance relative to the natural hif- 
tdry 6f this iflaifd fa. that oh the heights the traveller mtt with 
Ikrge traas of fandp ibii^ed with nn iron ochreotts earthy (Se- 
poUted in regular ftrata, liice thofe that are formi^d' in feme 
other countries by the inundation of great rivers. On ejca- 
SBlaiiig the fand with a nricrofcope, he foun<} it to confift ^df 
qoartZt and evidently produced by the trituratfcn d ounter fe* 
p«rafed from mineral mountains. 

The fereral Letters already mentkAied are-feUowtd by co* 
piotts obfervations on the iHand of Cherfo and Ofero, 

Cherib and Oftro are ibclofetoeach others, that they me €<;iii- 
fidered by the author as one idand. It is iitaated betv^een the 
eoaft of idria and Dalmatia, eatendtng from north to fouth^iifetf 
nii3es in length, with a very unequal breadth. This filaii^ 
has often changed its name, but was Isnown almoft three 
thouland ^ears ago by that of Aptirtides, Apfiitus, or Apfir- , 
tins. It is mentioned in the poem of Orpheus upon the ex« 
pecUtion of the Argonauts. In the heat of fummer, the air of 
Ofero is extremely t^nwholefome, on account of the i^oxiooa 
vapours arifingfrom fome pieces of ftagnant water. But this 
"was not the cafe formerly, and might be eafily remedied. 

The town of Cherfo is the moft confiderable in the place. 
It is fituated at the bottom of a large harbour, and contains 
above three thonfand inhabitants; but from the many ruins of 
hoafei.fcattered over the tihndy it appears to have been for- 
merly more populous. 

Both parts of the ifland zxt mountainous and ^oiizy^ bat 
peculiarly adapted for producing trees, if the inhabitants were 
fufficiently tn^ii^rious. Oil. is the moft valuable produce inCherKb, 
and isVeckoned the beft in quality of any maiie in the Vene- 
tian Aate^ The iflMders compure that they make of it annually 
from three thonfand to three thouland five hundred barrels. 

The narrative prefents us with a curious account of foliU 
bones found in the idand of Cherfo and Ofero by this travel- 
ler and thofe wlio accompanied him on the excurfion. — ^To ac- 
count for this extraordinary phenomenc^n, which have alfb 
been difcovered in feveral other parts of the world, is a problem 
that has much exercifed the ingenuity of naturalids ; but our 
author has prudently declined offering any opinion on a fub- 
je£l of fo hypothetical and conjedlural a nature. 

The work contains farther remarks on Cherfo and Qfero^ 
with fbme account of the Lhtoral Croatia, the iil<mds of 
P^kgo^ Veglia, &c. The abbe Fortis evidently appears to . 
be an accurate and judicious obferver, and the perfpicuity of 
bis defcriptions, in thofe feveral Letters, is rendered yet more 
ciFpIkitby the number of beautiful plates with ^whicU the vo« 
Ittnle is ornamented^ 

>. ' Digitized by VuOOQlC 

A^ Pra^ieal Tnatifi $9 thi Difiafis rf the Tatb ; tutiudtd at m 
Suppkwuni t9 tbi Natural Ihftwry »f thoft Parts. By Joha 
Hunter, SurggM ExttMrdinafy /• the King^ and F. R, S, ^4/*. 
5 i. /iwed. Johnibp • 

TN the former part * of this work Mr. Hunter delivered ah 
^ anatomical and phyGologieal account of the teeth ; in 
which he difplayed much greater depth and accuracy of Snvefti- 
gation than had before been employed on that fubje^l. In 
particular, he evinced, by a variety of ingenious experiments 
and oblervations, that thofe organs of the body are not vafcu- 
tar ; and he elucidated the procefs of nature in refpe£t to the 
fliedding of teeth, upon a new principle, fupported by fa6U 
iiod arguments that appear to be fully decifii^e. Having in 
the courie of his enquiry mentioned one prophyladlic, and one 
radical remedy in the dtfeafes of the teeth, we expreiTed a wtfh 
that a perfen of To great experience, and of a genius fo hap- 
pily adapted to fuch refearches, had alfo favoured the public 
with his fentiments concerning the palliative methods of cur^. 
In the prefent treatife we have the pleafure to find that he 
lias profecuted this fubje^ with with his ufual prectfion. 

The firft chapter of the work treats of the difeafes of the teeth, 
and the confequences of them, which he confiders under the 
following different heads, viz. the decay of the teeth artfing 
from rortennefs, fymptoms of inflammation, flopping of the 
;teethf the decay •f the teeth by denudation, fweliing of the fang» 
gum boils, excrelcences from the gt^m, deeply -feated abfcefles, 
in the jaws, and abfcefs of the antrum maxiliare. 

The following are part of the author's judicious remarks 
relpe^ing the fymptoms of inflammation in the teeth. 

* The pain, however, appears to take its rife from the 
tooth as a centre. That it -fhonld be more fevere than whae 
18 generally produced by fimilar inflammations in other parts 
of the body, may, perhaps, be accounted for, when we confi* 
dcTf that theft parts do not readily yield; as is like wife the cafe 
in whitloes, 

* It.fometiines happens, that the mind is not directed to the 
real feat of the difeafe, the fenfation of pain not feeming to 
be in the dKeafed tooth , but in fome neighbouring tooth which 
is perfeflly found. This has often mifled operators, aUd 
the fympathifing tooth has fallen a facri6ce to their ignorance. * 

* in all cafes of difeafed teeth, the pain is brought on by 
circumflances unconne^ed with the difeafe ; as Jor inflance 
cold ; wherefore they are more troublefome commonly in win* 
ler than in fummer. Extraneous matter entering the cavity, 

• SetCrit^Rcv. voL xxxii, p,4io. 


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, Hantcr'j Pra^csl Tr4attfe m thi Difiafts •/ tbi TMh. 20 j 

«fld touckiog the nerve and veiTels, will alfo bring on tke 
pain. ^ ^ * 

* This pain 19 frequently obferved to be periodical; fome- 
times there being a perfedl intermifGon, fometimes only aa 
abaienaent of it. The paroxyfm comes on once in tweaty-foar 
hours ; and, for the moft parc^ towards the evening. The 
bark has therefore been tried; bat that failing, the diforder 
has been fofpedied to be of the rheumatic kinc, and treated 
^accordingly, with no better 'fuccefs. At length, after a more 

particular examination of the tee<h, one of them has beea 
ftifpefted to be unfound; and, being extraded, faa< put aa 
end to the difoi-der This (hews how injudicious it is to give 
medicines in fuch cafes, while the true (late of the tooth it 

* This difeafe is often the caufe of bad breath, more fo than 
any other difeafe of thofe parts ; efpecially when it has ex- 
pofed the cavity of the tooth. This moil probably arifes from 
the rotten parts of the tooth, and the juices of the mouth, and 
food, all fiagnating in this hollow part, which is warm» and 
halleQs putrefa^ion in them. 

< I come now to the prevention and cure of this difeafe. 

« The firft thing to be confidered, is, the cure of the de- 
caying ftatc of the tb^oth, or rather the means of preventing the 
farther progrefs of the decay ; and more efpecially before it 
hath reached the cavity, whereby the tooth may be in fome 
degree preferved : the confequent pain and inflammations^ 
commonly called tooth-ach, avoided, and often the confequent 
abfcefies called gum boils. I believe, however, that 190 fuch 
means of abfolate prevention are as yet known. The pro« 
£;refs of the difeafe, in fome, caies, appears to have been re- 
carded, by removing that part which is already decayed ; but 
" experience fhews, that there is but little dependence upon this 
pradice. I have known cafes, where the black fpot having 
been filed off, and fcooped entirely out, the decay has ftopped 
for many years. This practice is fuppofed to prevent at leaft 
any eiFedt, that the p^rt already rotten may have upon the founder 
parts; however, if this is all the good that arifes from this 
pradice, I believe, in moil cafes, it might be as well omitted. 
£ven ,if it were an effeflual prafiice, it could not be an oni- 
▼erfal\)ne; for it is not always in the power of the operator 
to remove this decayed part, either on account of its fitua- 
tion, or on account of its haying made too great a progrefs, 
before it is difcovered. When it is on the bails of a grinder^ 
or on the poUerior fide of its neck, it can fcarcely be reached. 
It becomes alfo impracticable, when the difeafe is dill allowed 
to go on, and the cavity becomes expofed, fo that the patient is 
now liable to all the confequences already defcribed, and the 
tooth is making hade towards a total decay ; in fuch a cafe, if 
the decay be not too far advanced ; that is, if it be not rendered 
ukUU fiioply as > toothi I would advife that it betjctrafied; 


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9Ci, HooterV Pra&cal Trgatifi en iii Dijkafet tfibe Tigth, 

then insmedlately boUed, with a view to make it perfe^Iy 
cleaoy and alfo deftroy anjr life there may be jn the tooth ; and 
then that it be reftored to the focket; this will prevent any 
farther decay of the tooth, as it is now dead, and not to be 
afled upon hy any difeafe, but can' only ibffer chymicaliy or 

* This praftioe, however, I woald only recoaioiepd in 
grinders, wnere we have no other refource on account of the 
Bomber of fangs, as will be more fully explained hereafter. This 
pradice has fometimes been followed with fuccefs ; and when it 
does fncceed, it anfwers the fame end as the burning the nerve* 
but with much greater certainty. 

* If the patient will not fubmit to have the tooth drawn, 
the nerve mav be burned : that this may have the defired effeft*, 
it tnuft be done to the very pofnt of the fang, which is not 
always poffible. Either of the concentrated iicids, foch as 
tbofe of vitriol, nitre or fea-fah, introduced as far into the fang 
of the tooth as poflible, is capable of deftroying its foft parts, 
which mod probably are, the feat of pzin; a little cauftic alkali ~ 
will produce the fame effe£l. But it is a difficult operation to 
introduce any of theie fubftances into the root of the fang, till 
the decay has gone a confiderable length, efpecially, if it be a 
tooth of the upper jaw; for it is hardly poffible to make fluids 
pafs againft their own gravity ; in thefe cafes, the common 
cauflic is the beft application, as it is a rolid. The caulHc 
ihottld be introdaced with^a fmall dofCl of lint, but even this 
will fcarcely convey it far. enough. If it be the lower jaw^ 
the cauHic need only be introduced into the hollow of the 
tooth, for by its becoming fluid, by the moilltire of the part, 
it will ^then defceod down the cavity of the fang, as will alfo 
any of the acids; but patients will often not fuffer this to 
be done, till they have endured much pain, and feveral in« 

* When there is no other fynpptoffl except pain in the toothy 
we have many modes of treatment recommended, which can 
only be temporary in their effedls* Thefe ad by derivation, or 
^Unulus applied to fome other part of the body. Thus to burn 
the ear by hot irons, has fometimes been a fuccefsful pradlicci 
and has relieved the tooth-ach. 

* Some Simulating medicine, as fpirit of lavender, -fnuffed 
up into the nofe, will often carry off the pain. 

< When an inflammation takes place in the furrounding parts, 
it often is affifted by an additional caufe, as cold, or fever; 
when tbe inflammation iiath taken place in a great degree* . 
then it becomes more the objeA of another confideratien ; for 
it may be leflened like any other inflammation arifing from &* x 
milar caules, the preflure of an extraneous body, or expofnre of 
aa internal cavity. 

^ * If the inflammation be very great^ it will be proper to 
take away fome blood. The patient may likewife ppperly ^ 


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Hunter'i PraaUal Tteatifi in (hi Difiafis of tbi Tfitk S05 

.advifed to hold fome ftrong vinoo9 fpirit for a ^onfiderable 

time, in h« inouili. Diluted acids, aa vinegar, &c. mav like- 
wife be of ofe, applied in the fame minner. Likewiie pre- 

«jMracioBs ^ lead would be advifeabie ; bat tbefe might prove 
dangerous, if they^oald be accideacally fwallowed. 

* It the fldn is afTefted, poultices, containing (bme of the 
above-mentioned fabftances, prodnce relief. The pain, in many 
cafes, being often more than the patient can well bear, warm 
applications to the part have been recommended, fach as hot 

'hrttndy, t6 divert the teind ; alfo fpices, efientlal oils. Bet* 
which laft are, perhaps, the beft. A little lint or cotton fbaked 
ill landaBum, is often applied with foccefs; and laodanam 
<>ught Ukewifc to be taken internally, to procure an interval of 
{bme eafe. Blifters are of fervice in moll inflammations of thtfe 
parts, whether they arife from a difeaied tooth* or not. Tbcgf 
cannot be applied to the part, but they divert the pain, and 
draw this ftimulus to another part: they may be convenientlv 
placed either behind the ear, or in the nape of the neck* Theie 
laft-mentioDed methods, can only be confidered as temporary 
means of relief, and fuch as only ailed the inflammatton. 
Therefore the tooth is ftill expofed to future attacks of the 
laaae diAa(e« 

The fecond chapter treats of the difeafes of the alveolar 
proceifes, and the confequences of tbeoi.. The third, of the 
difeafes of the gums, and the coofequencea of them, diftin- 
guifhed into what is vulgarly called the fcurvy in the- gunof^ 
and the callous thickening of the guoas* In the five fubfe* 
quent chapters, the author refpedively enters upon the coafi- 
deration of i^Brvpus pains in the jaws, extraneous natter upon 
the teeth, the irregularity of the teeth, irregularities between 
the teeth and jaw, and of fupernumerary teeth. The eighth 
chapter explains ihe method of correding the deformity, wheo 
the fore* teeth of the lower jaw pafs before thoie of the upper 
jaw; the ninth contains various obfervatioos and diredtione 
relative to the drawing and tranfplanting of teeth ; and the 
laft chapter comprizes the fiibjed of dentition, with the 
cure of the difeafes arifing from this caufe, and ibaie fin- 
guiar cafes which have occurred to the author in pradice. 

The whole treatife is calculated to eftabliih a fcientific kiiow- 
ledge of the difeafes of the teeth, and the art of the dentift 
upon the principles of experience and reafon, and diflcovers 
that fuperior ftf ain of phyfiological di(quifitioB, fo evicKftt m 
$\VAc prododions of ttus ingemous authoh 


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f .06 J 

Luiirs OM th$ Prtvalmce •/ Chrifiianitjf ie/ort its eMl SftMifif^ 
mint : with Oifirvatioms m a late Hifiory of the Dstihu pf tbt 
Roman Empire. By EaA Aptborp^ M. J. Vicar e/Qrojdt>n* 
S'w. ^s./eweif» Robibn* 

TNnumerable waters have attempted to demonftrate the truth 
-*' of Chriftianity; and, in purfuance of this defign, have 
produced all the arguments they could find in its favour. This 
method has its peculiar advantages^ and, it muft be' confefTed, 
its inconveniences. The evidences are thus prefented under 
one view» and undoubtedly convince the reader by their united 
' force. But they are too complex and too numerous tp be 
diftindlly confidered in one treatife, or by one author. Gro* 
tios's defence of Chriftianrty is admirable in its way ; but it 
is formed upon this general plan, and is cdnfequently fuper- 
liciaf. Many circumftances are only barely mentioned by that 
learned writer, which are of great importance, and merit a 
particular inveftigation. Accordingly, Tome ingenious authors 
bave confined their inquiries to one point, or one incident in 
the evangeftical hiftory : as, the converfion of St. Paul, the 
refurreAion of Jefus, the teftimony of John the Baptifl, the 
prophecies of the Old Teftament, the conceffibns of the 
.Jews and Heathens^ See, By this expedient they have been 
enabled to difcuis their refpeftive fubjeds more attentively 
and more completely* 

The learned author of thefe Letters has purfued this plan, 
and only (Hted a jSngte argument for the truth of Chriftianitjr, 
drawn from the prevalence of this religion over geuttlifm in its 
bigheft degree of fplendor and authority. "^ 

.As he appears to have been engaged in a literary correfpon- 
dence by an ingenious friend, and gradually M intd this dif- 
quifttioh, he does not immediately enter upon the lubje£(» 
but expatiates on a variety of other topics, which are more 
properly preliminary confiderationsi than parts of his chief 

The firft Letter gives the reader a general view of the great 
controverfy concerning the truth of ChriAianity. The fecond 
confifts of obfervations on the compofition, the Audy, and the 
ufe of hiftory. To this Letter is annexed a catalogue of the 
principal writers in almofl every department of civil and 
'Ccclefiaftical hiftory, extraded from Voiiius's account of the 
Greek and Roman hiftonans, . Fabricius's Bibliothecfe, IXu 
Frefnoy's Methode pour etudier THiftoire, Walch's Bibliotheca 
Theologica, Sec. The ufe of this catalogue is to aflift the 
vneitperienced in the choice of original authors^ and the proper 
method of reading hiftory. 


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L^tm 9n th$ PrfivAmt 9f ChriftUmty. %^ 

In the- third letter the author endeavours to reprcfent the 
peculiar charaAeriftics of the firft ages, of the Chriftian aera, 
and oF the i6th, 17th, and iSth centuries; he points out the 
caufes and eiFe^s of modern irreligion ; refutes fome objec* 
tions, which have been urged agauift revealed religion; and, 
in order to evince the infufficiency of the moft cultivated rea« 
Ton, in difcovering the firil principle of religion, he gives us 
a (hort analyfis of Cicero's Treatife on the Nature of the 

In the fourth letter, which is the laft in this volume, ^be 
coniiders the origin of idolatry, ,the eftablifhed religion of 
Egypt, Perfi^, Carthage, and Greece ; the Gothic and Celtic 
fuperilitions, the religion of Rome^ the firength and fpiendoff 
of gentilifm, its temples, priefthood, viaims, Aatues, wor- 
iliip, and other circumftances. 

As the fate and fortune of Chriftianity were f«r fevetal 
ages very intimately conne£led with the Roman empire, he 
gives us a general view of the religion of Rome, from the 
laudation of that city to the reign of Auguftus* In this 
enquiry we meet with (everal obfervations highly worthy of 
our attention. 

Cicero's conduct, as this author obferves, on the death 
of his daughter, is a demonftraciou both of the abfurd Aiper- 
iiition of that enlightened age, and of the inefficacy of reafoa 
in regulating our ideas of divine things. 

< Give me leave, fays he, to prefent you in this place with « 
few extrads of chat great mao's letters, written to his confi- 
dential friend, from the gloomy iblitude of the groves of Aftara; 
where he was medicating, wich the complacei^cy of grief, thole 
impious honours, which even then appeared to have a cindure 
of inianity. 

< In . his letters on that occafion, he has exhaufted all the 
eloquence of grief. In the firft he wrote after her dea^h, xii. l[6« 
he tells his friend, << whenever my mind (hall be open to confo- 
lacion^ yours will have the firft accefs. Hitherto, nothing is 
preferable to this folitude— -writing; and ftady rather blunt than 
looth my angoiOi.** 

< In xii 9. of a fubfeqoent date ; '* yon cannot imagine any 
thing more charming than this country-hoofe, the (hore, the 
profpedt of the fea, and every objedl. But ail this merits not 
a longer letter. Sleep comes on, my beft reftorative." xii. 12. 
*^ The ifle of Arpinum (formed by the conflnence-of the Fibre-* 
nus and the Liris) is fuitable enough for the apotheofis of one 

* of my family : but ic is too much out of the way ; and, I fear, 
will not refledt foifictent honour on the dear obje^.'^ After manf 
pafliomite expreffions of forrow, he faya, lett. 18. '< I am (hy 

. of iotimatYDg to you 9iy prefent intentions \ ftrange as thej may 


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Mi Latin mi fhi PrivMkiM •/ CMJIiaMity. 

ftem» they muft chim yoar indalgeoce. Some oftlioA writeft^, 
with whom I am wholly employed, authorite what I have oftea 
iBCBtiMad to ybu^ I fpeak of the temple, of which, 1 hope» 
mi will- think as favoonibly, as yoa do of mher defignt, whkb 
I have «uch at hearc I have ao fvfpenfe, either aboot tho - 
/k^ind of edi£ce» or about the thia| itfelf, which is refolvcd itpoa* 
The place 1 have not yet determioed* la theia learaed and po« 
fifited times, I will engage the beft abilities both of Greek and 
kwnaa writers, and employ every monumenc of genius to 
CQufecrate her memory; though ihey mud caufe mt wound to 
^leed afrefli. But I qow hold myfelf bound by a lacred vow: 
and I am more inflneaced to perform it, by the coafideratton of 
fhat lottg fueceffion of ages, when I fhftll oe no more, than of 
te fliort fomainlng ipace of my own life, which h^s been but 
too long prouaAad.** 

* To Atticos, xiii. 26. ** You know how immoderately fond 
I am, of my projeA of a temple : which makes me ^reqoeatly 
fccnr to my firft defiga of placine it at Toicnhim.*' And 
|ett. ao. ** For the confecration I have (o much at heart, no 
place leems more faitabte than the ^rcrve««— In this one iaftwo^, 
iDjr dear friend, hnmour my feemiog -.arrogance*** The celcf 
brity of the fane of Tullia, and the nonours of an apotheofis, 
might well be confidered by himfelf and tytty one as an in- 
isnce of great prefumption. But fuperftition is a rank weed, 
the luxuriant growth or which is peculiar to certain climates : 
amoag which, Italy ancient and modern, has been ever diftin- 

Eiiihed, by a depraved tafte for deifying and canonising the dead, 
ad Cicero liv^d under papal Rome, bis Tullia would probi^bly 
luve been caaoitjiaed by a confiiiory of ecdefiaftic;/ 

Haring mentioned- the divine honors which were paid to 
Angoftus» during his life, and many inftances of his fop^r* 
ftition, ho adds : . 

< The death of Au^ftts, a. v. dcclxviii. we may well 
.imagiise, wanted ao curcamftaace of religious honours. The 
very hoofe in which he died was confeerated; as was aUb 
his pontifical palace at Rome : and a temple was ereAed to 
him at Nola. His will was in tha cnftody of the Veftals, to- 
gether with three volumes, written by his own hand ; Contain- 
4og a breviary of the fate of the empire and direftioos to his 
i«cce£br. Dio. lvi« 27* Scalig. on Eufeb. Chr. p« i6i» Tacit. 
i, J'— II. 

* Tiberius fpoke his funeral oration, Dio has given the 
fttbllaoce of it in bis oufoftyk. Ivi. 3$— 41* he^>eaksof hia 
care of religion and repairing the templM, c« 40* aad condodea 
vrith reciting the divine honoars, conferred on Augnftas iff 
.the fenate. To complete the farce, a« e^le was let ^uc from 
the toj> of the funeral pyre, to bear his ^al to heaven; and 
M&marius Atticus was bribed to fwear^ 4hat li« ftw him in the 
-, ' . afceat. 

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Litiiri m tht Prfvaknct of CbriJItaniiy. 109 

ifcent. His. apotheofis equalled the higheft pagan wbrihip^ 
He w$s immortalizedy coniecrated, and deified ia form, wlch 
temples, priefts, and altars, thro tig ho uc the Roman empire.—* . 
• Hadrian, a prince whofe great capacity was only equalled 
by his fuperdition, gave the fame luftre to the religion of 
Greece, which Aqgiiflus had given to the Roman eiiablifh- 
jnent. Paufanias, a fincere and devout polythelia, fpeaks in 
raptures of.Hadrian*s fupport and revival of the religion of' 
Greece. He %les him the moft religious of princes, and the 
inoil' attentive to make -his empire happy ; it would furnifh aa 
ample detail, to relate how many temples he built, enriched, 
or decorated: his benefits of this kind were recorded at Athens, 
in a temple confecrated to all the gods. i. 5/ 

To tfoei^, and other fimiiar fa'ftsi the author fabjoins thb 
following refiedions. 

« < Thus it appears, that it was not ah old and worn«OHt 
e^abliihment, which the Chridian religion had to contend with: 
but under every apparent difadvantage, without temples, altar^^ 
fiatues, or endowments, perfecuted and difgraced to the utmoi^ 
it fubverted gentilifm in its highefl degree of fplendpur and 

< Paufanjas in his accurate travels, makes us fpeftatprs of 
the Greek religion. It is a genuine pi6lure of the gentilifm of 
die evangelic age :ihe writer was him felf initiated atEleuiis; 
fall of veneration for the religion of his anceftors, it does not 
appear that he has taken any notice of Chriftianity throughout 
biai ample colledlioiis. Yet he confirms that portrait of tlus 
jGreek idolatry^ which is occafionally given us by St. Paul, 
and Su Luke, Thus in the very opening of his work» 1^9 
mentions feveral '* altars confecrated to the unknown gods/* 
He fpeaks in the plural, meaning that /^^ altar was infcribed 
to an unknown God. And it is tLus, that St. Paul, frqm l\ia 
own infpe£lion cited the infcription of one of thefe altars to tho 
Athenians themfelves in the Axeopagns. 

< This writer is fo redundant in his rpcital of facred edifice^, 
fiatues, paintings; as to furnilh any one with the moft con-* 
wincing demonftration of the firm, eilabliihment of the Grecian 
idolatry/ when St. Paul and his aflbciates undertook the heroic 
cnterprize of making a progrefs through the. moft learned and 
poliOied cities of Greece and Aiia* in order to f^bvert (he^na* 
tional polytheifm. 

* All hiftory concurs in evidence, how little can be effe^led 
.in changing religious eftabliihments, however abfurd,.by ha* 
man means. . ILeafon in vain employs her perfuafive powers 
againft inveterate fuperftition, who, ** like the deaf adder, t^'^" 
fufer ^o hear the charmer's voi^, charm (he «eyer fo wifely.'* 
God alone can efied fuch a change jn the religion of a great 
empire, as the gofpel produced in the ^firit andfecoAd centu** 

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tic LittmntthtPrfosUmirfChrifiUnity. 

ties ; and it it impoflible to folve (b fiogular a probleiD« othec' 
wife than by admictiDg a divine and a miracalout ajgency. . 

' If we may be permitted to illofirate in a familiar way, tbis 
great atchievemenc of the Cfariiliad religion ; fuppofiog there 
was nothine more than human and nagiral efieds of rational 
cau(ef , in the fuppreffion of the Roman idolatry* let «[8 imagine 
a parallel cafe at preient. Let ns imagine a virtuous and ra- 
tional philofopheror deift» with twelve or more of his aflbdates, 
the beft and wifeft of their fchool, to have the courage or te- 
merity to aflault the principles, not of the ChrifUan churchy 
but of that corrupted part of it which moft refembles paganifm, 
the church of Rome. Lee them fet about this great work ia 
perfon; with incredible perfeverance, vifiting all the countriea 
where faint-worfliip is now eilablilhed. Let them preach and 
write the pnreft tenets of natural relieion, to which the human 
niod tvtry where aflents. Let them demonftrate the falfity and 
impofture of the papal fyftem, particularly in multiplying the 
obje£l8 of divine worihip* This» we know, has been done 
with all the precifion of proof and ceruinty, bv our proteftant 
divines. Yet the popi(n eftabliftinent has fubGfted above a 
thoufand years ; and will fnbfift in all its grandeur and opa- 
lence, till the time appointed for its fobverfion in the decrees of 
Ikaven, and recordea in the archives of Chriilianity. 

• On the foregoing fuppofition, (hould the papal eftabliib- 
ment be aiTaahed in m ftrong holds at Rome, Madrid, or 

* Liibon ; the bold preacher either of natural religion or the 
primitive |ofpel, fo far from fncceedjn| in his enterprisse, woul4 
be the vi^im of the inquifition, and his opinions would expire 
with his perfon. 

• Should this argument be oppofed» by alleging the won- 
derful fuccefsy that has attended Luther's great and daring; 
atchievement ; I (hould not heiitate» to afcribe the prevalence of 
the reformation in the fixteenth century to the fame omoipo* 
tent though not miraculous proteaton* which watched over the 
original fortunes of Chriftianity. 

• What can be effeded hyftm or pcUey tn propagating this 
catlefiial fyftem hath been exemplified in fome memorable in** 
fiances. The Crufades which exhaufted the combined powers, 
of Europe, in the 12th and 13th centuries^ made few or no con-^ 
vcrfions in Afia : while the apodles, armed with no power bot 
of miracles, carried their do«rine beyond the bounds of the 
Roman empire, and to tbofe regions into which their conqtier- 
ing armies had never penetrated. A religion which difclainis 
all force^ and refts on perfuafion only, and at the fame time 
afpires to univerfality, can only juftify its claim by icia aolis** 
and if its preteniions are juflified by the event* the efed is pro. 

. perly miraculous and divine. 
a. < What may be done in fuch an enterprise merely by human 
tm^iftUt was exemplified in the beginning of this age, in the 
^laufibte bot unfu^^Afid attempt to inuodoce the Chridiilii 


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.X-eligion into the emptre of China. Notwithftanding the ton* 
currexice of many favourable circom dances, the Miffionaries 
were obliged u> take a final leave of that empire in mdccxx t 
and few if any veftiges of their religiotts labours art now re^ 
mainlng in China, where the ancient worlhip of the heavens* 
oP their anceilors, princes, legiflators, and of Confucius, is 
ftHi the eftablilhed religion. It-is eafy toaflign the true reasons . 
of the failure of that enterptiae.^ The chicane, the artifite, the . 
concealment of the truths the impious compliance with falfhood» 
and the fcandalous diifenfions of the Chinefe mifGons, were the 
very reverfe of that facred fimplicity, with which the gofpel , 
was diffiHed over the Roman empire. Not that the fuccefsof 
this arduous enterprize can poffibly be accounted for from any . 
natural or human caufes. The agents in that great work were . 
lb dtfproportioned to the attempt and its* effed, as to leave 
tlie glory of a divine and miracatons energy clear »aad one<)ui* . 
v«aU« From every circamftance of the prevalence of Chriftia* 
nity; from the nature of the religion, the character of ita^ 
teachers, and the ceadnft of the moft powerful and arbitrary < 
^government in fupport of a moft inveterate and politic fuper*. 
fiition : we muft conclude, that the fubverfioa of geiitilifiii 
and the eftablilhment of Chriliianity was miraculous and diviae* 

< That the a^e of Augnftns was ** the fullnef^^of time," and^ 
the nioft fuitable for the fending the son of con to redeem 
the world, hath been (hewn by many writers, Origen^ who 
has anticipated moft of the arguments of the moderns, faya 
madi in few words *. At the conclnfion of his fecond book 
againft 'Celfas, he exprefies the juft inference which follows 
from an attentive furvev of the ancient polytheiim : '* I know 
not, fays Origen, whether, a mere roan, who attempted to fow 
the feeds of his own opinions in religion over all the worlds 
cbuld be able, without the affiftance of God,' to effefi his de« 

, fign ; and Could rife fuperior to all the obftades, which op- 
pofed the prevalence of^ his do^rine, from kings and gover* 
noors, from the Roman (enate, from the tnagiftrates in all 
countries, and from the people. How could mere hunjanity* 
havfng nothing higher in itfelf, convert fo great a multitade? 
«— But Christ effeded thefe things, and ftill efFeds them» 
notwithftanding the oppofition of the unbelieving Jews and 
Gentiles; becaufe he ^as the power of Goo, and the wifdoia 
of the THB Father.'* 

' Several important confeqoences follow, from the nature 
and genius of the Pagan eftablifhment. 

' ' I. An eUabliihment bf fuch ftrength and duration could 
not have been ihakcn by any humoM power inferior to its own. 

< 2. The intelkdual blindnefs of man, in the Augudan an4 
all preceding^ ages of gentilifm, required a divine revetation to 

'.f Contra Celfttm> lib. i. % 25- ^« Ub. ii. § 30. 79^ 

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STp Littift en ti^ Pt^mUm rf Cbfl^iamtyw 

IHttininatc Ms mind in the principles of tb^ifm, and- tx^redeien 
him from his vices and foperftitions. 

< 3. The iiibverfion o^ this portentous fabric of idolatry fs a 
fofficieot proof of a divine Tcyelation having been adualiy an- 
Boanced to the world. / 

• 4. k is our doty toeonfider, that the evidence for the 
Cfcriflian religion refalting from this and other proofs is not 
impaired by length of time : and convinced by thefe atteftations» 
We ooghc without fuf^nce to believe and obey the gofpel of 
JesusCHRiST, a$being maJi to us of GoJ, nnifdam ami ri^iov^ 
nift^ and fedttnption and fanSificamn* 

" < Any perfon at all acquainted with atttiquity» maft atknow* 
ledge the extirpation of idolatry to have becQ folely the efFeft 
of the Chrillian religion ; which it could not have efeded bf 
fttch weak inilruments, had it not been the revelation and pe-^ 
culiar care of heaven. So plain a fodl as that great revdotion 
in the religion of manjcind is, in the elegant expreffion of aft 
able defender of revelation, ** an additional proof that our re- 
ligion is from, God, adds another motive to the power of its iiu 
flttence, and another ray to the fplendour of its evidence. ** ^ 

• if then we feek for demonilrations of the truth of the. 
ChriAian religion ; here we have one founded on the moft evir 
dent and ftrikfng: fadl. 

' * Another re^eflion is no lefs certain. The worlo »y 
wispoM KNEW NOT GoD. U the nio^ern world can boaft of 
feperiottr wifdom, it is the gift of revelation : and ourphifefb* 
^phers of the preftot age, had they been contemporaries of So- 
crates and Plitby of Varro and Cicero, woUld have made thdr 
adorations to the whole rabble of Pagan idols/ 

. The author adds iou^ r^qnark^ on the flattering p^ure of. 
heathenifm, drawn by the; author of a late hiftory on* the. 
decline of the Roman Empire^ and then concludes this vo*. 
lume ; intwidipg in the fequel to obviate the fevera) objeftioiw 
to primitive Chriftianity advanced in that hiftory, torcprefcnt 
the arduous conteft, fuftained by the ChrifVian religion agaihft 
the idolatrous eftabtifliment,' for near 400 years, and ter* 
ipinated by the fubvetfion of paganifm under Theodofins the 

At the end of each letter this learned writer has fubjolned 
a great number of hiltorjcal notes, which are extremely proper 
in a work of this nature; but the generality pf readers, we are 
perfuaded, would rather wi(h to fepthem immediately below 
the text, than at a confiderable. difiance from the pai&ges to 
ivhich they relate. •'.*?•. 


• Dr. Be]], preface to the Enquiry ^ptQ ^the divine MilHons of 
John the BaptUi and Jefus QuilU ;*•**,.-" 

*■ L»ms 

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I ^13 I " . 

£«Mifn U tie Rev. Dr. .Worthington, fir. df^kxier n iti /«fp 
Publicfittok^ futitUdt * An impartial Enquiry inf the Cafe •/ 
the Go/pel Demoniacks.^ By Hugh Farmer, ^mo. 3/, 6</L 
/iH/oid^ Robinfoit. 

T^R. Worthington^ enquiry was publiflied in the laucf pvt 
^^ of laft year, and is mentioned in our Review for 0£tober» 
with fome occaiional (lri£tures« It was an unmet'dfiil attack 
upon Mr. Farmer's fiflay on the Demoniacs of the New Teflfi-- 
ment ; and therefore, it has given occailoa to tbefe Letters, 
in which ' the author endeavours to vindicate himfelf and hts 
|)erforman€e agaiali the cenAires and objections of bis ad* 

' In the £^y Mr. Farther undertook to prove, that the pot 
iefling demons, fpoken of in the New Teilameur, were the 
•deities of the Heathens, or fuch human fpirits, as, after the 
dUTolution of their bodies, were fuppofed to be converted into 
demons* • 

In fupport of this opinion, he obferves, th^ the fcr ipture 
Clever delcribes more than one evil fpirit by the word devil, 
and never reprefents any perfon as poiTeiTcd by the devil, or 
by devils, not even in a (ingle inftance, irotwithftaiiding the 
^reat frequency, with which tlie evangelifts fpeak on the fub- 
jeft of pofieiTions. In all the inflances, in which the term 
Ji<oih occurs in the EngliHi tranflauon of the New Tcflament, 
the original word is /<£/^9Hf t /Ai/Lccyiflt, ^lemouf^ and. pot //«- 
^oA0o ^^^^^ whence comes the EngliOi word ^evH, 

In order to determine who thefe demons were. It is /hewn 
in the Eflay, th^t the ancient Heathens and Jews, and the 
primitive Chriftians, did all agree in reprefenting them as tio 
•other than human fpirits. From thefe premifes the following 
conclulion is drawn : viz. that the facred writers having given 
lis no notice of their ufing the word in a new or peculiar lenfe» 
did certainly employ it, in reference to poiftrflions, in th'e 
fame fenfe, in which all other perfons did. To fuppofe the 
•contrary would be to iuppoie, that they intended to deceive 
their readers. 

• It is the more necefiary, fays the aathor, to allow, that 
the Evangelids when fpeaking of pofleffing demons did not refer 
to any other than human fpirits, as they knew, that to fach 
fpirits the term demofii was applied -by the Heathens, and by 
the authors of the Septuaginc. Nay, they have themfelvcs 
ttfed it to defcribe fuch dead men, as the fuperdition of the 
Heathens deified *, and corrupt Chriftians have propofed as 
obje^s of worihip f . It can bear no other meaning in any of 

• i Cor. X. 20, lu t 1 Tim. iv. i. Kev« ix; ao« 

- P 3 ' the 

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Str4 iMtm to til Riv. Dr. Worthiogton. 

the paflkgcs in the Nevir TeflamMit» in which it occurs without 
having any relation to pofleffionjs, as was ihewn by a diftindb 
examination of each.* 

. Dr. Worthington, in his Enquiry, refers polTefiions to the. 
devil, or the chief of the fallen angels; he alTerts, that he is 
the chief aathor of*theai; and attempts to juftify the Englilh 
traoflation in rendering the Greek' word ^tm»m by Jg*vih » he 
affirms, that as God is the author of all good, fo the devil 
is the author of all evil ; and that be is juftly to be reckoned 
the evil principle ; he undertakes to ihew, that J^Atfju^r^ ^^ 
ffr#«» is a name belonging to the devil, and given to him bf 
ancient Heathen writers ; that the Jews held only one prince 
of demons; that demonarch was a term never applied by 
them to any but the devil i and that, according to the lan- 
guage of Chriftianity, his apoftles, and the primitive Chriflians, 
poiTtifing demons were not human fpirits, but apofiate an* 
gels. Sec* 

In the iecond Letter the author anfwers thefe ohje^ions, 

and produces feveral arguments to corroborate what he had 

before afierted, that the Heathens^ the Jews, the founders of 

Chriftianity, and the primitive Chrifttans, were all agreed in 

' confsdering them as human fpirits. 

But, fays his opponent, * as thefe fpirits were judged capa- 
ble of entering the bodies of mankind, I would fain know« 
where the difference lies, with regard to the argument, be<i- 
tween fuch poifeffions, and pofleflions by other evil fpirits.* 

The letter.writer replies : * Were the reality of pofieffions 
to be taken for granted, it would, i allow, be a matter of 
very little moment, to determine who the poilefling fpirits 
were. But as the reality of polTeflions is the main point ift 
quefiion, it is of great importance to determine, whether the 
caufe, to which they are referred, be capable of producing 
ibch cffeAs. If the poffefiing demons, fpoken of in the New 
Teftaroent were Heathen Gods, that is, fuch human fpirits, 
as were thought to become deities, then the fcripture furniflies 
US with two unanfwerable objedlions againft the reality of 
their pofleflions. For the fcripture both afierts the vt^er im« 
potence of all the Heathen Gods$ and gives fuch an account 
of the (late of departed fpirits, as is abfolutely inconfifteht 
^ith their having any power of entering the bodies of man* 

In the third lettir Mr. Farmer Rates what he confiders as 
the true notion of demoniacs. 

* Demoniacs, fays he, or if I may be allowed the expreflion* 
demonized perfoosi were fuch as were thought to have a de- 


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littirt tbt Rtv. Dr. WorthlogtOR^ a t { 

lOOB or demonsy not only within them, but inspiring an^ 
^duatlog them, fufpending the faculties of their minds, and 
governing the members of their bodies. The demons^ were 
fuppoied to inform the bodies'of the poffe^edt in the fame 
manner as their pwn fouls did at all other times. Hence it 
came to pafs^ that every thing faid or done by the domoniaca 
was often aflHbed to the indweUing demons. Demontaca 
having been educated i^ the common opinion concerning the 
iiature and reality of poflellions/ did, as it was natural to fup- 
pofe they would, frequently fancy themfelves to be pofiefied* 
Accordingly^ we find ^hem addrelling the fptrits they fuppofed 
to be within. them, and fpeakiog and acting in conformity to 
the apprehended fentiments and inclinations of thofe fpirits. 
They either concei:ved of themfelves as being demons, or fpoke 
In the fame manner, as if they had been fuch ; becaufe they 
coofidered themfelves as fpeaking in their name, and under 
their influence. 

* The peculiar fymptoms of demoniacal pofieflioa were 
certain kinds of infanity, f4ich as the ancients could not account 
for by natural caufe^, and (ttmtd to argue the feizure of the 
underAanding by a malevolent demons vyko inAigated the un- 
happy patient to ts^ry thing that was extravagant, and injtt- 
jurious tu himfelfand others. It has been fhewn^ that among 
^he Greeks, the Latins^ the Jews, and other eallern people, 
infanity was an infeparable efFedt of polTeflion ; that amongft 
.the primitive Chrillians. reputed demoniacs were all m^d, me- 
lancholy, or epileptic perfons; and that fuch likewife were all 
tJhe demoniacs of the New Teftament. The fymptoms of the 
latter are the very fame wifh thofe of the demoniacs defcribed 
' jtn other ancient writings, and are all maniacal or epileptic' 
Dr. Worthington has alledged, that this is a queftioa of 
.£iAs^ that fadsai'e objeAs of fenfe, &c. 

In anfwer to, thefs obje£lioas our author (hews, i. that the 
.pcffellion ax)d drfpolfeiiion of demons, as they are explained 
in the Enquiry, even fuppofing them to be real i^a^ls, are not 
in their own nature objeds of fenfe : and therefore cannot be 
.fupported by the teHimony of fenfe. 2. That the reality of 
poiTenions and difpoffeflions neither was, nor could fitly be, 
j^fVabrtflied by the authority of Chrift and his apoAles*-^ 1 For 
the miracles performed upon the demoniacs, like thofe per- 
formed upon other petfons, were defigne^ for the cbnvi£lion« 
not of believers but unbelievers. They do not fuppofe faith 
in the authority of Chrift, but beget jr* Confequently the 
nattire of thefe miracles is to be judged of by natural ceafon 
alone, not by an authority, which is not admitted previous to 
tb^ir j^rforo^nce— 3. That the language of the New Tef- 
, r 4 tament 

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2 tS Leturs to ibi Rtv» Dr. WorlhUigton. 

lament relative to pcfTelTions did always imply certain outward 
and fenfible fyonptoms and cSe&s s but was ufed principally to 
bxprefs thofe fymptoms and eflfe^s, and commonly without 
any oiher intention. 4. That Chrift and his apoftles might 
defcribe the diforder and cure of demoniacs in the popular 
.language, that is, by poffeliions and dirpoCTefiions, without 
jnaking themfeWes anfwerable for the hypothefis^ on which this 
language was originally founded. * 

^.■] In the two following letters (he author anfwers fome other 
objeftions, and obferves, that Dr. Wortbington's hypothefis it 
£0 far from promoting the credit of revelation, that it is in- 
jurious to it, in ail its moft eiftntial articles* 

In his Enquiry the dodor has aiferred, that as God is the 
author of all good» fo the devil is the author of all evil; that 
he is juilly to be reckoned the evil prinptple; that God fqme^ 
times gives the devil great power oven he elements, the brute 
creation, the perfons of inen» &c. 

This dodrine, fays our author, is inconfiftent with innu- 
merable pafiages of fcripture, which rcprefent God as the only 
. ibvereign of the world, who alone can controul the operation 
of natural caofes. This do^rine fubverts the very foundation of 
all truft in God, and refignation to his- difpofals. It is de- 
firuftive aifo of the virtue and happinefs of mankind. Under 
the influence of this very do&rine, the benighted heathens af- 
cribed their frofts and tempefls, their di^ppointments and 
difeaies, and all the evils of the creation to a malevolent fpU 
rlt; and thereby, plunged themfelves into all the guilt and all the 
sniiery of the mod direful fuperftition. 

a. The dodrine of real poiTeflions fubverts another funda- 
mental principle of revealed religion* namely, the nuliity of all 
the heathen gods, or their abfolute inability to do either good 
or harm to mankind. 

3. This notion defiroys the evidence of revelation. * For 
if evil fpirirs can perform miracles, how (hall we fupport the 
authority of thefe works ? How ihall we vindicate the repre* 
fentation made of them in fcripture, as works appropriate to 
God ; or the ufe which the fcj-ipture makes of them, as 
in themfelv^es authentic and decifive evidences of a divine 

„ .mifiion ? 

4. This hypothefis caftf the greatfeft refl^dlion upon thecha* 
ra£ier and condu^ of Chrid: and his apoflles. . . ' Our Saviour 
told the unbelieving Jews, «* The works that I do in my Fa- 
thcr'« name, they bear witnefe of me." Among thefe works, 
he reckons his cafting ou| demons, to which he refers his mod 
malicious enemies, Herod and the pharifees, for conviction. 
Now, if you place this miracle in barely ejecting a fpiritiial 

^ and 

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littm /# ih Ksm' Pr: Worthington. 1 17 

and invilible being from the human body, and reft even tb« 
faA itftlf» his being rcjeAed, opon the tedlmony and authority 
^f Chrift, you make Mm offer his enemies an evidence of his 
miffion, which in itfelf could carry no convidion, and which 
therefore would have been received as an infult ; and you make 
him urge his authority, before he h^d efi^linied it, and m of* 
derto fupport the protof h^ gave of k to thofe, by whom It 
was not acknowledged* According to your mifrepreftntatiofi 
^f him, our Sa?iour, infiead of faying^ with refpeA to difpof- 
feffions, ♦* The works that I do, they bear witneft df m*,** 
ought to have ftid, *• I be^r witned of my works,** But no 
fuch abfurdity can be fixed on him, who was the wiftiom of 
God, as well as the power of God* . 

* With refpea to the apoftles and 6yangdifts, coofider, £ * 
entreat you, in how odiou$ a Ught you place them. They 
profefs'to give us 9 hiftory of the great Ads, upon which 
Chriftianity is founded ; and tell us, that they were careful to 
relate only fuch, as they were either eye-witneiTes of them- 
ielves« or cpncerning which they bad received certain inform^ 
ation from others. But I have already ihewn, that you make 
them atteft fads, which, fuppofihg them to be true, could 
not be known to be fb, unleft by fupernatural reveiatidn, 
which the evangelifts did not pretend to. You fmk the cha- 
rader and credit of the evangelilts in another view : for' you 
make them refer to a fupernatural agehcy thdfe manlcal fymp- 
toms, which are known to proceed from natural caiifes ; and 
thus to give a fallacious account of the conftitution of na^ 
ture ; and fet reafon (our only inftrudior in natural ttfirfgs) 
at variance with revelation. Nor is it merely in th^^fe view^, 
but in many others, elfewhere taken notice of, that your doc- 
trine has expofed Chnftiantty to contempt; and not only to 
have afforded 4natter of impious mockery to men of a profane 
difpofition, but (I fpeak it from knowledge) proved a ftumbiing 
block even to ferious and upright minds.* ^ 

The author co^icludes with feme candid acknowledgements 
refpcdting the * ability and addrefs' which- his opponent has 
difcovered in the defiance of his opinion ; and feme remarks 
en the abAirdity of mifrepre(entation and calun^oy, in a con^ 
troverfy, wherein the difcovery or advancement of trut& is 
' ihe objeft in view. 

They, who have read the EiTay on Demoniacs wifh- appro- 
bation will be equally pleafed with thefe Letters, as they 
bring the argument into a narrower compafs, prefent it under 
different views> and confirm it by many additional obferv^tions. 


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tiiithes ^ thi Livis omJ WrUings of the Laditi rf France. Ai^ 
dnJfidtoUu.YXiZdk^^iCL Carter. By Ana Thicknefie. Vol, I. 
^0. zs.^d.ftwed^ Brown. 

JT moft be ackjiowleged to the; honour of France, that no 
other country has ever produced fb great a number of wo- 
0ie& diilinguifluMi for their literary talents, whether this be ow- 
ing to any peculiar advantages derived from nature, or to the 
general vivacity of the natioo. During almoft thefe three cen- 
-tttfiet they feem to have maintained a conilant rivalfhip with 
the writers of the other^ex, to whom, a few excepted, they 
can hardly be reckoned inferior, if not fn the more abftrufe 
parts of fcience, at lead in the vigour of undetAanding, and 
a brilliant difpl^y of genius. 

The firft lady upon the lift is the celebrated Heloife, who is 
followed by Marguerite de Valots, filler to Francis I. and queen 
of Navarre. This lady viras born at Angouleme in the year 
1492. She was firft married to the duke d'Aleif^on, and af- 
terwards to Henry d*Albert,* king of Navarre. She pclfefled 
4 lively fancy, which on feme occasions however led her be* 
yond the bounds of difcretion. The writings (he publifhed were, 
Le Miroir de I'ame Pecherefle, and Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, 
SI collection of ftorica partly founded in fadk, and partly fie* 

The next is Louife Lab^, bom in 1517. Being extremely 
handfome, and the wife of a ropie-maker, fhe obtained the ap* 
pellation of la belle Cordiere. fiefides her beauty and genius, 
Ae was alfo diftinguiihed by a fingular tafte for military ex- 
ctcifcs I in fo much, that before the fixtesnth year of her age, 
ihe ferved at the fiege of Perpignan, where (lie took the 
name of Capitaine Loys. The beft of her compo(itions is a 
romance, entitled Debat de Folie, & d'Amour, of which Mrs^ 
Thicknefie has given a general account. 

Contemporary with the preceding were, demence de Bourges, 
eminent for her poetical talents, and Pernette de Guillet, who 
compoied many Latin poems. 

Next follow Madeline, and Catherine Ats Roches, the mother 
€nd daughter, who both died of the plague, oni^ the fame day, 
in ^587 } with Georgette de Montenay, and Anne de Mar- 
quetz, air contemporaries, and chiefly diftinguifhed for their 
poetical eompo(itions ; as were alfo Marie de Br aroe, Marie de 
Komien, and Marfeille d'Altouvitis. 

The hiftory is then adorned with the name of another Mar- 
Ifuerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II. and wife of Henry 
IV. of France. Of this celebrated lady Mrs. Thickneflfe juftly 
ebferves, that - 

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' Shuhis of ihi Lhti and fFritingt •ftbi LaMts fifVtanct, t tg 

* Her indifcretions, and love of gallantry were unpardonable. 
-—She was of an unfettied and wavering difpofition ; her cpn^ 
<!u€t full of iRconfiftcncy ; and her life an odd mixture of plea- 
fure» diflipation, and devotion.— ^One while (he pra^ifed 
Chrlftian charity ; at another, (he was guilty of the higheft 
injuftice.. In ihort, her time was equally divided between her 
coofefTor and her ciciibeo: and it is certainly true, that file 
at laft became fo abandoned, that Henry ftrongly folicited the 
pope td annul his marriage, and gave in the famous manifefto 
which contained the hiflory of tht^ princefs's licentious life. 
If any thing could be alledged in favour of the qaee^n, that 
could poflibly palliate her condoA, it 'was the ill treatment ifae 
received from Henry, who negledted her fooa after their mar« 

We are next preicnted with Catharine de Partbenay, born in 
1554. She was daughter of a nobleman of Soubife , and fuc- 
ceiUvely married two men of quality, by the latter, of whom 
ihe had the famous duke de Rohan. She compofed many 
theatrical pieces, of which however none was^ver printed* 
except the Tragedy of Holopberne, a£ted at RocheUe with 
great applaufe# ^ . 

Anne de Partheny, aunt to ^he laft mentioned lady, was allb 
vitW knnwii for her literary abilities, but none of her writiogt 
were ever publifhed. 

Next follow the names of Anne de Sequier, EUfene de 
Crenne, Antoniette de Loyne, Suzanne Habert, Efther de 
Beauvais, Nicole Etienne, Modefie Depuis, Philibert de t\mn. 
-Jeanne^ Flore, Anne Bino, Marguerite de Cambts, Marie de 
Coteblanch, Madeleine Defchanops, Madeleine Chemereao* 
Anne de GrevUle, Madame La Vicomtefie D*Anchy, Madeleine 
f!e L'Aubefpine ; Lucrece, Diane, and CamUle de Morel ^ 
Fran9oife Hubert, and Claude Catherine de Clermont ; fome 
pf whom were diftinguifhed for their learning, and others for 
(diderent degrees of genius. / 

. The lady that fucceeds is Mademotfelle de Gournay, a g|eat 
fiivourite of cardinal Richlieu. Afterwards comes Louife^Mar-- 
guerite of Lorraine, piincefs of Conti, born in 1589, and 
Madeleine de Scudert. «, 

. ^ This celebrated lady was born at Havre de Grace, in i6oy, 
and in her early infancy difcovered fueh an extraordinary ge- 
nius, fuch ilrength of underftanding, joined to fuch delicacy 
of tafte» that (he was looked upon as the greateft prodigy of 
li)e age. But nature, that beftowed on ; her thefe rare and, 
itnedimable qualities, denied her even the fmallpft portion of 
/#/#rff^/ chartnd ; and as the famous PelilTon (with whom (he 
^»$ intimately coonefted} was not more fortunate in his per^ 

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S so HitiAes tfthi tivit ^d WrUmgi tfihi LmHts 9/Vmitt. 

Ion, they were both the fubjea of much raWery^ and the 
hon mtt4 of all the celebrated wits of their time. — Bot if Ma-»~ 
decnoirelle de Scuderi had not the frivolous advantages of be* 
ing ^ pretty woman, ihe juftly acquh-ed the reputation of be* 
ing a wife, ingenious, and, above all, a good woman. They 
gave her the name of Sappho, with whoAi flie was comparedt 
for her fine fenfe, and ^ir/r/ figure ; but the purity of her man^ 
nets rendered her much fuperior to that celebrated Iiclbian. 
The hotel de Rambooillet was, at that time, the center of wit 
and knowledge, of which Mademoiietle de Scuderi was ad*- 
mitted a member, and fooa after became its piincipal oma* 
ment. Necellit^, rather than tafte or inclination, induced her 
to eompofe romafices ; for at that time, as well as this, thofe 
kind of productions were read with avidity, being greatly in. 
rogue ; and the name of Scuderi, which her brother had al- 
ready made famous, acquired new glory by the works of this 
modern Sappho.-^The academy des Ricovrati, of Padua, re« 
ceived her as a member, in the room of the celebrated Helene 
Cornaro, after the death of. that lady. All the other aca« 
deknies^ where Wonnen are admitted^ were alio defiroas to re* 
ceive her. In ftiort, her uncommon merit, and reputation^ 
ptocmtd her from all ranks and orders of people, and evea 
from Grangers, the mod ample tefttmoiiies of their eftecm and 

The writer of the Sketches next delivers tn account of* Ma- 
dame de Motteville, daughter of a nobleman, and born ill 
i6i 5. This lady is followed by Antoniette Baorignon, fb well 
ktiown for her religious dffcourfes ; Ninon L'Enclos, chiefly 
dilliugui(hed for her gallantries ; and the Cemteife de la Suze, 
whofe genius was principally adapted to elegiac compofition. - 

The ladies next mentioned are queen Chrtftina of Sweden^ 
the countels de Bregy, the duchefs of Nemours, the mar- 
chionefs de Stvigny, Mademoifelle de Montpenlier, Elonore de 
Rohan, daughter to the duke of Montbazon, Mademoifelle 
Cofnard^ Mademoifelle de S. Balmont^ Fran90ife Pafc^l, Mar- 
guerite BufPei, Jacquette Guillaume, Madame de TEfciache^ 
Madcmoiielltt .Certain, MademoifeUe de Bl^mur, Julie d'An- 
gennes, Mademoifelle de la Vigne, andcomteifd de la Fayette^ 

Mrs. Tbickneiie has not only enlivened her work with arfec- 
dotes and charaders of the ladies ihe memionsi bot alfo given 
a general account of their moft confptcuous produdlkms^ ac- 
companied with pertinent remarks ; and we doubt not of her 
affording yet greater entertainiAent in the fubfequent part of 
her Sketlhes. 


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[ «l 1 

Afttfi and tafy Rtrndy propofed fir the ReUef 9/ the Stone and 
Gravel, the Scurvy, Gout, &C- and f of the DeftrM&htt tf Wormt 
in the Human Bedy^ 4^ Nathaniel Hulme, M. /)« ^. 24. 
*Robinfon. ' 

'T^HE remedy here advi&d by Dr. Hulaic is the fame as that 
-S- which he recommended laft year, in the cure of the ftone *• 
It confifis of a folutien of fak of tartar in water, the admi- 
niOration of which is to be followed by a fuitable quantity of 
the fmall fpint of ^ vitriol, given likewife in water, ib thut the 
mixture of thefe medicines may produce fixed air in the fto« 
mach. ' The efll<;acy of this met4iod of cure. Dr. Hulme now 
confirms hy four other cafes which have fallen under his own 
obferyation, as well as by a cafe tranfmitced by Dr. Ho^ack, 
at Cokhefler, and (one of the •^ame natui*e b/ Mr. Kipping, 
apothecary at Brighthelm ftone. 

Befides farther afcertaining the good effe^s of this medi* 
' ckie in the (Vooe, Dr. Hulme informs us that he has alfa 
found it prove fuccefsful in the fcurvy, gout, heAic fevers, 
dyfeptery, fome kinds of diarfhcea, and worms. He gives 
the ibllowifig account of his< motitret for trying i^ ia the 
gout, with the beneficial consequences that enfoed. 

• What firll induced roe to give the above-mentioned re- 
medy to perfons liable to the gout, was a converfation I h^d' 
on this fubjedl, fome time ago, with an ingenious friend ; who 
told me he had long entertained an opinion, that the chief 
caufe of that difeafe is a retenti9n of too much fixed air in the 
b|dy, which ought to be difcharged, chiefly by the pores of 
the iktn. Hence the gout, faid he, is n>ore prevalent, r^t/^fiV 
parihuij in (old than in warm dimates; in fedentary perfens, 
than in thofe who ufc much cxercife; Hence alfe the lux* 
urious and athletick* man v^Hlbe peeuliarly fubje^ to. thiS; 
complaint^ from hts high mode of living, and drinking plen* 
tifully of fuch liquids asahound .with fixed air ; Aich as wines 
of various kinds, malt liquors and cyder* He obferved, at' 
ttie fame time, that Dr, Macbride, in bis Experimental £& 
fays, was the only author he bad met with, who had thfrowtl^ 
out a hint of this kind. This opinion (eemed very plaufible 
' a^nd ingenious. The di^ulty then was how te come at the 
faft, by experiment. After fome re#6&lon -l imagined, ihat if 
a medicine abounding with fixed air, were given daily 'for. z^ 
length of time to peribns greatly fubjedl* to the gout, it would' 
hf ing 1 the matter to a pretty full -proof. For if the difeafe was 
^eally owing to fixed air, ' then this method ibould increafe the 
■*-■•■■■ ,. 1. . .■-■■■, - -■ ■ . '• ' •'11 

. <| See OriC Rev* vok xjiii. p. 47$. 

» " malady, 

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%t^ Hulmc*/ Rtmijff th KnUifpfthi ium^ See* 

maladVy and brjng on gouty complaints ; but on trial it feemedt. 
to have had <)uite the contrary efFed, as far as a judgment mty 
be formed from the two following cafes.' 

« R. J. ajged fevcnty-two years, of a robuft habit of body, 
bad been fubjedl to the gout twenty-nine years. He fome- 
times had a fit twice a year» but always once, and that com- 
monly in the autumn. It generally continued upon him one^ 
two, or . three months. The lirft joint of the great toe, in 
one^ or both feet, was the part principally afi^edled. Some- 
times his head, ibmetimes his ftomach, fuffered. The dif- 
order alio fell upon the joints of the fingers, and would fre- 
quently affed the whole hand. By repeated attacks of this 
kind» he has quite loft' the ufe of feveral joints of the fingers^ 
He is fubjedl to no other complaint, and in general, his appe- 
tite is very good, and he ufes a moderate degree of ex'ercife. 
He took the medicine daily, for half a year together^ The 
quantity, for the firfl three or four months, was fifteen grains 
of fait of tartar, three times a day, diluted with three ounees- 
of pure water ; taking immediately afterwards the fame quan- 
tity of water, acidulated with as much weak fpirit of vitriol 
ms would iaturate that portion of alkali. He then took 
double the quantity of the alkali and add, mixed together in 
SI peculiar manner ; but only repeated it night and morning. 
The medicine in both forms agreed with him perfe^Iy well 
through the whole couri^ ; and he enjoyed a better ftate of 
health, after he began to take it, than he had done before , 
for many years paft. The gout did not in the leaft return this 
laft autumn. « 

* J. .M. aged fifty-fix, had been afBiaed with the gout teh 
years. The fit generally came on in the month of January or 
February, and continued three or four weeks; but the laft 
paroxyfm he had, held him thirteen weeks. The great toe 
was the part principally afifeOed, which firft grew painful and. 
inflamed, then.fwelled; but as the tumour increafed, the pain 
was alleviated. The pain was more fevere in the night than, 
in the day. The diforder feldom affeQed both feet at the 
fame time, but firft one and then the other. The fkin during 
the fit, was generally hot and dr)' ; and the body coftive. 
This laft year both his^ands were greatly afFe£ied| but chiefly 
the right ; and a cretaceous concretion formed in the middle 
joint of the ring-finger of the right hand. He took the me* 
dicine daily, as in, the laft mentioned cafe, fpr the fpaceof four 
months, and obferved that it gave him unufual fpirits ; and 
he has had no gouty complaints fince/ 

Dr. Httlmeha) fubjoined an extemporaneous method of im*^ 
pregnating water, and other liquids, with fixed air| by f^mpte 


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PORBIOII Aft* jty 

mixture only» without the afliftanre of any apparatus, or com- 
plicated machine. The grcfat diligence he difcovers in en<* 
tieayouring to extend the utility of a medicine fo fimple and 
eafily procured, is highly commendable* and we wifh that 
the feveral Cafes which he has related in fupport of its eood 
effects, may be fdllowed by others of fufficient authority to 
dtablilh the prafiice. 


J>9r neuefi Religions Zufiand in Holland. Tkiprefint State of Rellgionht 
Holland, deiineated hy ike rev, Adam Fred. Emeft Jacob!. 8^^. 
Gotha. (German.) 

A Short but inftru^ive and eintertaining performance In two fec'- 
tions : the £rii treats of the prefcnt ftare of the Lutheran, Me- 
sionift, Armenian, Reformed and Herrenhut churches in Holland^ 
to which a fuccindt account of the meetings of the Quakers, of the 
Armenic church, of the Rheinlburgers, and of the Hattemi^s hat 
been added in the Preface* The fecond fedion relates the lateft 
theologieal difputes in Holland, concerning the heft method of 
preaching; the right of patronage, the ccclefiaftical rights of the 
Reformed, their fyroboUcal books, and toleration, the falvation of 
Heathens, and the virtue of Socrates. The account is accuiatci 
faithful, and interefting. . ^. 

The tafte and method hitherto prevailing in the Dutch fcrmons^ 
fccm to be nearly related to that of the tamous father Gcrundio, 
and rather furprifing in a country furrounded w^th modelt and ex* 
amples of .more natural and rational inftru6iion. The Dutch, 
preachers generally expound, whole books of the Bible, without 
ever omitting any imgle verfe, or even words, whether eafy or dif- 
ficult. In thefe minutQ^expofitions they ftudioufly colIe6i: and diA 
play all the grammatica|,critical, antiquarian, ind other learning,the]F 
can pofUbly come at } and, the fermon moft heavily encumbered witii 
fuch mifplaced erudition, is moft admired and valued. Nor are they 
deftitute of allegories and other tropes and curiofities . of the fame 
kind. Our author, hi mfelf once aifilled at a fermon on Soloraon*s 
Canticle, iii. 9. from which inftru£live text the preacher difplayed 
to hts audience, the heart of a faithful communicant as a coftlj 
€hair of the heavenly Solomon ; and then proceeded to explain with 
great ingenuity, the filvercolumns and the aotden cover, the purple 
feat, and the beautifully inlaid bottom of that chair. This Itrange 
method of preaching was, indeed, in S76S, attacked and expqie4 
by profeffor Hollebeck, in fome Latin difl^rtations j but ftoutly dev 
fended by a number of prjeachers andprofeflors, who fagacioudy and 
gravely protefted, that the natural and rational method of inftruc* 
tion recommended by their aata^onill would be apt to betray their 
auditors into hereiies, fmce it left them uninformed of the comf^re* 
bcnfive fenfe of the Bible, and that there were reafons to fear that 
all the Dutch Chriftians might in time become mere Arfneiiian he* 
rctics} iince mankind were naturally infefled with Arminianifin^ 
StCk ^ Belle peroraiibni .& digne de Teitorde I 

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( "4 I 
VmT^Mm. VewfMes. Po9, Berfio,. (Gennan.) 

I^Enerally fpeaking} thefe Fables are original, iiigenioas» raoftl^r 
^^ fatirical, and rather calculated for grown peo|ne tban for cbil* 
dreit; but ftill iiifceptible of correftion and improvements for in-> 
teice, that of * The two Cameb.* 

' Of two brother cameh, in the train of a Turkifli army, one^ from 
the difparity of their fate, belonged to a ba(ba, the other to a cons* 
jBon Arab loldier. Tbc baiha^s camel was heavily laden, bat co* 
vered with Perfian carpets, and adorned with fplendid feathers s that 
of the Arab foldier was deftitute of oovelruig, and carried only the 
trifling baggage of his poor mafter. Once on a time the Arab hav* 
iDg made (ome booty, and placed it on hif camd^t back, tbe 
beaft very frequently ftooped and refufed to proceed. Art thou 
not aihamed, thou Jaftardly wretch, cried the inoenied ibldier, for 
thus refufing to cariy fo trifiine a burthen, wbilft thy brother 
yonder, though rooch more heavily laden, trips along with fpirit and 
alacrity ? How can yon pndie my brother's fpirit, replied thecamel, 
when it either ari(es from his pride at his fplendid appearance, or 
from his being habituated to heavier burthens, or from his being 
more plentifully fed, or— >A prophet's curfe on thy or*s I cries tbe 
' ibldier, and thrufts his lance to the earners Me f not contented with 
^in|; a la«y beaft tbyfclf, thon alfo trieft to depreciate thy brother's 
merit, merely becaide becxc^lls thee. 

. * Surely, the camel was infpired by the fpirit of onr faAioiiaUe mo^ 
raliils, who would fain degrade os to bnitfs, becaufe we cannot be 
angels. For virtues, though tindured with the dcfefh of hnmaa* 
Jry, are yet better tban no virturat all.' 

Yet, for aught that we find in the ftory^ the meek, half-ilarved 
camel may have been !very much in the right, and his brutal mafter 
very much in the wrong. Our fabolift will Airdy allow, that neg* 
le^, want of food, and of boMtual exerciie, niiift deprefs the ftrengdi 
and fpiritof camels as weir as of men ; and in accounting for tho 
difference of his carriage from' that of his* brother camel, the poor 
beaft feems to have rather been willing to exculpate faimfelf, thaa 
f o depreciate the merits of his neighbour : and, of courfe, his paA 
iionate mafter ought not to have been applauded for juftneis of re.^ 
mark jbut, by way of ^etribntion' fcA* his brotality, left, for the fu- 
ture, to carry his own baggage and plonder. Whether light or 


Gidanhn 'ewes tehrers an der hohen Schule ««. S ... uber die Aetrtigi^ 
Vcrkehrungen in Beireffe der Geiftliehkeit, mit einer Vorfttllung em dAt 
Oberhaupt der Kirche. % Thcughn of a Profeffor in the Unroerfity ef 
S . .. ., on the prefent Meafures ' cottcefning the Clergy \ vntka Ri-* 
monjirance to the Chief of the Church: %<vo, Ratifbon. (Gerraali.) 

npHE awfhor of thefe Thoughts appears to be a fenfible and pa- 
•*• triotic Catholic. He conftffes that twto thirds of the regular 
tclergy are utterly ufelefs ; and propofes to difmifs fUch asajre unit^ 
and fuperiluou^ from their consents. His remonftrance to the chief 
of his church is written with the warm ai>d undaunted fpirit of 

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Pot ti Git A tLTictts: tis 

toifit ii Ranieri Caialbigi. i r<^. %ntQ, Liroriv^. 
iSigiTOr Cafalbigt ib one of the beft imitators of Metadafio. Th« 
Krft volume of his «i^orks contains two dramatical pieces, Orfeo and 
Alcefte, with fome dramatical fragments. The fecond» a numbef 
Xii odes, an eflay of a tranflation of Milton*s Paradife Loft s of ^'^ 
ode of Gray, and Tbompfon^s Hymn, with the DilTertation, pre* 
lixed to the PariHan edition^ on the works of Metaiiafio. 

Pitturt, Scu&ure, Architelturt delle Chiefsy Luogki pnhbHci, PaiaKZi &c* 
i(e/U Citta d* l^olognn., i2mo, Bologna.. 
A faithful guide^ for travellers, to the moft remarkable works o^ 
art extant in the city of Bologna. 

La Filefofia, Poema fn VerfifciM di Giufeppd Colpani. t*vo. in Ltitca. 
This poet (ings the whole hiftory of philofophy to his beloved 
^ide, in three eafy and elegant canton. 

Scelta d* hilti di Gefnef tradatti del ttMco, Zvo. 'Napolj. 
An excellent tranflatibn of Mr. Gcfner^s rural poems, by doji 
Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola j who has prefixed to it a preface on the 
jftU^y of nature, and on deicriptive poetry, and who promifes td 
tranflate feveral other German poems^ particularly Mr. Gefiier^s 
PeaYh. of AbeU 

VBiJhire des fowoeraim Pontifes qui mt fiigi dam Avignon, 4f», 
Avignon k 
A faithful, impartiial, and well written work, 

Trecls h'tfiorique de la We de jefus Cbtift, dt fa DaSrine, defes Mtra* 
cles, tX di V Etabtipment defon Eglife, accomfagne de R^xions & di 
Penfiti choifiei Jur U Religion & fur Nacreduliie, &c, Pat feu M. 
Tritallet, ^c^ KouK;etle^Edinon. 
A compilation! containing a large extract from biftop BoflTuet^t 

I^ifcourfe on Univerfal Hiftory> and from St. Chryfoftom and St. 

Au£uftin ) to which felefl reflexions from various other well knowa 

t^oncs have been fubjoined. 

Sjmtymee Latins ^ kuts differentes Significations, Par M. GardiA dui 
Mefnil. itmff, Paris. 
An excellent fcbool-book. 

Slemims di TaSique demontris gimt^riguement i Ottvrage AWtm^n^, 

ornede Planehes, compofe tn 17 71, par un (>gicier de t* k*mt Mi^ da 
iTroufee Prufliennesf traduit tn Francois par M. It Baron de Hol«* 

zendorf, &r. % vols. %<vo^ Paris. 

The original is the production of a judicious and fkilful officer § 
and the trandatjon made by another, wcU ferfed in rhe fobje^ and 
th^ language. ^ 

Dir nmhbk^Hgi iMekannft^ tint familitn Seine Hfon Helnrrdi Leopold 

Wagner ) <«>*, Tke Unkn$wn BenefaBor^ a Famify Sam. %9/4m 

Frankfui^ on the Mayn* (German*) 

Montefquiea (Cor his name, needs no epitbet) once gave hiKi'(ei£ 
tlie pleafure to redeem ati unfortunate captive from ilaverys t^ tc-. 
fiore him to his family, and effectually vo preclude his ditcovertng . 
ibis tlnknown redeemer. This difcoyery was made only by chanc<[^ 
and fome time after Montefc^uieu^s death. This noble adion, fo 
interefting and amiable in itfelf, has here, tery defervedly aiid ju« 
didotrll^5 "been made the fubjedt o( a fine drama» and of a general 
and lading applaufe. 

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Glauhin/hekenntnifs eines CarthsEufers, Welches bey Ahhnchung ehter 

ZiUt imWaifenhaufe %u Bafcl -<*. 176(6, &c. or. The ConJeffioH of 

Faith of a Carthufian Monk, found at the Demoiitiw of a Cell in the 

Orphan houfe at BsL(t\, in jj66. tvo. Bafil. 

A remarkable memorial of very pure untainted Cbriftianity, 

anterior to the Reformation, and written in 1456. Tbe pious and 

^nfible Carthufian referved liis worfliip and confidence to his God 

and Redeemer alone \ without putting any truU in the merits and 

interceffion of creatures. 

Nic. Dav. Gaubii, MeJ. et Chem. Prof. Sermones IL Academtd^ dm 
Megimint Mentis-quod MedUorum efi, Acceffit A- H. Boerhaave ^er- 
mo Acad, de iis qua Virum Midicum perfic'tunt & exornant, Edith 
tertia. 8v«. Argcntorati. 
A correct new edition of fome excellent academical fpeeches* 

Les derniens Avantures de Jeaji d'Alban. fragment dii Amours AV* 
faciennes. %*vo, Iverdon. 
A drama overcaft with the gloom of a deep romantic melsn- 

i>e la LeQure des Romans^ Fragment d^un MS, fur la Senfibiliti. S«flw 

Paj is. 
A ihort but excellent performance^ by the noble author of the faite 
Mr. Qoefnay's Eulogium. 

Hrfloire des Revolutions de Corfe, depuis fes premiers habitans jufqu'a 
nos Jours, Far M. VAbbede Germanes. Tome III, Paris* 
It is % difficult talk for a contemporary hiftorian impartially to 
delineate fa£ts and charadlers, in which his nation is eflentially con- 
cerned. How far our writer has continued true to his motto— *fine 
ira & ftud'^o — we will not determine. This third and laft' volume 
of his work contains the hiftory of general Paoli, and of the late 
war in Corfica i to which he has fubjoined an abftra^bof the cc- 
cicfiaftical hitlory of that ifland i an hiftorical notice of the nobility 
and worthies, and feveral papers relating to the prefent con^itiitioa 
of its government, 
r Di^ionnaire hijforique et bibliographique port/iiif, &fr. Par M. VAbb^ 
L'Advocat, &€. NoWvetie Edition corngee et augment e. 3 *uoU^ 
ivo. Paris. 

This new edition has been improved with a great variety of cor^ 
redtions and additions. 

Second Memoire fur les Advantages qu^ily auro'rt a Changes la Nourriturt 

des Gens de Mer, Par Af. Foiffonnier Dcfperriercs, &c. Vvd. 


Of the firft Memoir of this benevolent writer, we have formerly 
taken notice. In this Second' Memoir, he anfwers all the objedlions 
3»ade to the fivit^ and Aipports and enforces his earneft recommen- 
dation of a vegetable diet for mariners, with new proofs, 
Abrige etc Men t aire de la Geographie unhjetfelle de fa France, @*r. 

Par M, Maifon, de MorviUters en Xjorraine. a vols, izmo, 
. Paris. 

This nfeful and methodical abftrail is illuftratcd with.a map pf r 
France, and another of the ifland of Corfica» 


*^ .f » 

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[ ^^7 1 


Tii Indhn Scalps or Canadian Takt a Pom* \to. is, Folingfby* 

THE authors of periodical pablications have been accufed* 
and fometimes not without reafon, of writing th>ir papers 
firft» and then of ranfacking their memories^ or turning over their 
libraries, for a^otto. We fafpedl .oar prefent author of fpme« 
thing of this nature with regard to his title. The gentleman 
tells as that his poem is ' The Indian Scalp, a Canadian Tale;* 
bnt the fadt is, that he might, with as much propriety, have 
chriilened it, * An Irifti, or a Chinefe Tale.* We believe that 
this deformed and fpurious offspring of the Mufes, like the ad- 
herents to a particular kGt of religion, was not chriftened till he 
had arrived to the age of maturity ; in ilort, that when the 
poem was finifhed, its father began to coniider what captivating 
name he'fhould give it. The name, we' confefs, is a popular 
name — we only wifh it applied a little to the poem. 
But the author (hall fpeak for himfeif : 

* Near Hudlbn's banks, unknown to public view. 
From youth to age, a beauteous couple grew.' 

' One blooming bpy, the image of them botk^ 
Compleated blifs unknown before on earth* 
' . * Hard by the Tea, fcarcc leen by human eye, 

* The^r hovel flood— theiryj-tf/? was fiftiery.' 

What is meant by * their /ca/e was filhery,* we cannot goeff. 
As oai znthoT^a/ca/e is not poetry, we ihall proceed with this 
aff$Qifig tale in our own words. 

After thcfe good people have lived very pleafantly together 
through a dozen dull pages, comes a cruel florm, and, of courfe, 
a wreck, from which only one man efcapes ; who dies in their 
liovel, but leaves behind him a letter, which, (as it were injuf- 
tice-here not to i^e the poet's words) informed them what tbej ne- 
nftr kne-w, viz. that the veflel was freighted by a friend who 
did not come in perfon for fear of being fcalpeJ* Upon this the 
father leaves his, wife and fon, and takes his fifhing-boat to go 
in fearch of his friend. No fooner had the boat reached thedif- ^ 
tant ihore than the poet introduces a party of Indians, who, 
after a bloody combat, carried away his fcalp, but left the friend 
to bear the fad news to his expeding wife and ibn, to whom he 
had hardly told it when, 

* The wife looked up, and, heaving o/a figh. 
Welcomed death, as medicine of woe.' 

The ofe this author has contrived to make of did is wonderful* 

* Than they continual in this place didm&tX. \ 
, No cares enfued, no troubles did torment/ 

' Such were the favourite fubje6is they did ule $ 
With fuch, the father did bis child amufe $ 
With fuch, lifers pi^ure <//i he hold to view.* 

* 0.2 , Wf 

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228 MoiTTHtY CArALOG^B* 

We know not whether the dcfcnption of the ftorm can be 
cqualftd by any other Writer. 

< One winter's night, of all the nights the worft 
That time cojald bring, fd fatal t fo aecurs'd I 
Such dreadful ftorras were never known before^ 
Such feas were never burfting on the fiibre j 
Such winds wei e never heard to rage fo hi^. 
Such pines and daks were never iktn to lie ; . 
As, that fad night, the book of fate prod He'd 
To this greatjjairj to which, thopgh yet unus'd. 
They bravely ftood j nor ti-enibled all the while i 
An cafy con fcience father made thera fiiiile,* 
T^e three following lines iland^ we are convincedr umiv%iled 
in modern rhime* 

« Lo one poor wretch, half dead^ and fpeecblels too m 
Was caft on Ihbre, efcap'd df all the creW J 

, That that night periftkM lilrTth the cargo tod.* J 

What do our readers imagrne an author can mean who fpeajcs 
of fomething * that ^rifw/^r ever /mfling 4n fie /ace ?* It fliould 
bcartofe, you fay; but, as nofes feldom /milcTj it maft be an 
cye.-^Neithef— the fniilingj growth Of tie Uce is s^r-,i/^artmJ 
/r/if^-^Iaipoffible I— Then give two fhHlingi for * The Indran 
Scalp,* and convince yourrelves. 

Children tell you, tliat nothing fo much rcfemSIes a cat look- 
ing in at a window, As-— a cat footing out at b'ne. Hear- our 
Canadian bard. 

-«^ Thfen down at oncie they dropped their little boaf. 
And all leap'd in, and all— at once leap*d out,* 
The four next lines muft not be lofl. 

* One heart, one mind; one plan, ceniienfed all ; 
Twas Sca/p*f the word, fuch brutes ^^ dieferauft fall j 
*Tis Bri'tain*s wrffi, and Britain's pay befife. 

To murder rebels, and ifa /tf« 'M^/r >i/^^j.' 
With two curiotrs ffrfiiJes which occur alinoft ft theftmepaee 
wc mall conclude our account of this poiem. 

* He trembling looked';— a monument of woe ; 
And marble like, had loft his nriotfoA too.' 

* He told the talc;— attentive, all tlit^ heard ; 
And, fix'd as ftone, they neither of thiem ilirr'd ] 
But, marble-like, cut out to graCe a tomb. 
They flood cntrancM, and wonder'dat hi» doom;* 

Among certain tribes of Indiahs an idea prcvafls, tb^ the 
abilities of any perfon arc immediately courmimfeited fo t^e 

anan who kills him If our author has diQrfayed his beft M^' 

lities in this poem, they will never raife the envy of the nidcft 
Indian ^ and he may fafely venture into the moil favagc p^ts of 
America* His head is not worth fcalping. o ^ 

TbeFrojea. A Pum. 8w. \s. Bcckct. 
After having heavily travelled over a dull dreary walle with- 
out a fingleoly>a to enicrtam the fancy, or to pFeafc the eye, 
itiswnpoiSbletodefcnbe the feelings of a. Wfed reviewer' 
when he comes to fomethmg plcafing and- ddightfal^ 

* The 

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Monrntr OrAL^oout. '^12^ < 

Tflie aiithar of * The Projed,* fliall explain his own perforin* 
«nce bjr part of his humotiroas ciedication to dean Tucker. Af- 
ter obfervjng that his o6jed is to root out all oppofirion, he^pro- 
cccds— *",' 

* It was in confequence of an attentive perufal of )'ourTra6l», 
that I f<t myfelf to fearcb for tfiii grand arcapttm.— ^fter ranging 
in vain through Grotius» Qurlamaqui, and PulTendorf, I read thir« 
teen boaksof'Mootejqaieu^s Spirit of, without making the 
leaft difcovery— But at length the fourteenth book rewarded all my 
toils — i need not refr^ your memory with the partioulafs of his ' 
iyftem upon the relation between climate and national chara^er— Ft 
vrouldy however, be great -prefumpt ion to arrogate to myfelf the me- 
rit of a difcovery, which I owe entirely to the great Montefquicu— ' 
It is from that profound philofopber that I have learnt to account 
for all the variations of jtemper, by the operation of the atmofphere 
upon the fibres, and theqceoa th^aftion, and re-a^ion of the heart. 

By him I have been taught, that the different proportions of heat 
or cold produce (imilar degrees oi cowardice or courage-^fo that it 
folely depends upon the latitude, whether a nation is relaxed into 
Turki(h flavery, or braped and hardened to Englift^ freedom— Upon 
this foundation my projejAisraifed—- which I fubmTt toyoyr wifdom 
and candour — but, as moft prc^edtors ai*e of a fanguine temper, and. 
I own, I entertain no doubt of the full fuccefe of rayprojeft, I 
cannot conclude, without protefting againft that Noh Bptfcopari 
which accompanii^dypttrs-^NQthing can be more oppoiite to my fen* 
timents than your total abjuration qf all poSible reward Tor your 
political labours— On the contrary, I hereby moil Aafemnly engage 
fo receive, with great r.eadinefs, any and every honourable fpcom- 
' pence that thefe'my refearches inay lead the king, lords, and coj]^ 

flioias, in the depth of their wifdom to beltow ori nie.' ' ' 

• In all other |>oTitical tenets, believe me. Reverend Sir, 
• Your moft devoted difcfple. The Authoe/ 

Cur good-humoured poet's Proje£l is this ; 
« A fimple plan the mufe explains i 
Nor afks a patent fpr her pains, 
lo eitb^er h9ure. belojv th^ chairs, 
where Batburtt rules, and Norton glares. 
There ftands a'tablc, where they place 
The votes, the journals, and tlie niace ;• 
.♦* Henee with that bauble I" Cromwell cried j 
And wifely too \ 'tis ufeleft pride j 
Hence with it all i it fills a place 
A Aoblcr ornaflaent ihall grace. 
Here, with capacious bulk, profoun4 
As Falltaff's pa^unch,' as Plymouth's round* 
A vaft Buzaglo, day by day. 
Shall chaie the noxious BTaits avyay. 
And rpr^ad an artiHcial glow ; 
Tho' Palace-yard is wrapt in Ihow, 
Around the flarQ^ l^i^h veilal pridle« 
^ A Fire Committee flwU prefide» 
Ballotted by the fanie direftions 
As ^renwlfe"! lottery for eUBions 5 
With Nominees to i^t^ the fire^ 
And make it fpread, and blaze the higher % 

0*3 An* 

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^3P MoKTiftr Catalooub« 

. And Chaifmen more fedately fagei 
To quench its too cxceflivc rage. 

< The fuel, for fuch deep dfefigiw,^ 
i^for fprings from groves, nor lurks in mines \ 
Gombuftibles for ftate affairs 
* The prcfs more fpeedily prepares ; 

The teeming prcfs (hall hither fcattcr 

Kheams of inflammatory matter ; 

Here, <' thoughts that glow and words that burn^ 

To their own element (hall turn 5 

But, fhifted from their author's aims. 

Shall fpread more falutary flames. 

* Almon^ by contra6V, fhall provide 
The libels fvamp'd for either fide, 
And ftipulate'throughoutthe feafon 
To furnifli proper ftock of ^reafon. 
How bright will the Buzaglo glow. 
While heaps of Junius blaze below ? 
What ardours will Plain T^ruth difpenfq 
Fir*d with a page of Common Senfe f 
Yet in a moment 'twill he flack'd. 
By thrulVmg in Dean Tucker* s Tra£f j 
Again 'twill kindle in ^ trice, 
Refrefh'd with fcraps of Dr, Price ; 
Kow moulders flow with clumfy fmoke. 
While Johnfon's fogs each paflfage choak } ' 
Now hifs, and fputter> and befmear 
The houfe with briraflone of Shebbeare,^ 

We do not remember to have feen truer wit conveyed in beN 
ter lines ; and in the prefent dearth of real poetry, we do npt 
think this fpecimen of it can be too much praifed. We hope 
this will not be our poet's laft Proje^i. To recommend it to the 
crown to grant him a patent iox his prefent ingenious inventioa 
were ufelefs, as this age can bQail few writers Capable of imitate 
ing it. 

Jamaica, A Poem, in Three Parts, ^to^ 1 /, 6^, NicolL 

The author of this poem informs us, that, upon his going toi 
Jamaica, he was captivated' with the profpedt of the country, 
and the delicioufnefs of its. fruits ; but, at the fame time, ihock- 
cd at the cruelty of the planters, and the niiferies of the Havest 
His defign is to celebrate the various htauties of the ifland, and, 
if poflible, to perfuade the planters to adopt a milder difcipline 
in the management of their negroes. 

This piece is a juvenile produ6lion, and has fome defcriptioni; 
in it, which are not ^ little grotefque. The following lines, 
for example, exhibit a fingular tete-a-tete, an image of gal- 
l^i^try in the vegetable creation. 

* Here orang'd boughs their yellow clufters join, 
And fears and pumpkins, like to lovers, twine.' 

The enfuing couplet fuggefts iikewife an idea of rural coart^i 
S^ip \ 1>P( it i» 4eA;rib^d| witl^ ^ 9D]|;maticst) obfcurit^. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC . 

Monthly Ca t a l o g tr e« i^i 

* Romantic tow'rs 'mldft gloomy groves appears 
There fails the breeze, .wheels court the rivers here,' 

• Thefe lovers are, what the reader cannot eafily guefs, wind 
^nd water->-niil]s, ufed in grinding fugar-canes. 

We have fometimes heard of bailding caftles in the air. Here 
tbe poet has exalted a cabbage-tree to fnch an elevation, that its 
roots reaebing tht earth is mentioned as a circamftance worthy 
•f notice. 

• Pride of the mount, iofoar ahft is giv^n. 
His roott tht earth, his branches reach the hcav'n.* 

Demetrins Phalereus, in his Treatife on ^location, cenfures 
an hiftorian for his pompous defcription of a wafp : « It feeds/ 
iays he, • on the mountains, and flies into hollow oaks,' § 330. 
It feems, fays Demetrius, . as if he were fpeaking of a wild bull, 
or the boar of Erymanthus, and not of fuch a pitiful creature 
as a wafp. Oar author, in defcribing the mofchecoes, prefents 
us with juil fuchj a fwelling image. 

< - ■ ■ Fan me from the bloody bite 
Of keen mufquitoes, nuho infert their bilU^ 
Fill their fmall tubes, and drink the blood in rilUJ* 

An ignorant reader would certainly conclude from this .defcHp- 
tion, that thefe Weft Indian gnats are as big as fnipes or wood- 

' But notwithftanding thefe and the like puerilities, it nriuft be 
allowed, that this poetical (ketch has fome degree of merit ; it 
is written with a benevolent intention, yand gives us a good idea 
of the country. 

Tbt Refutation ; a Poem. AddreJJed to the Author of the Jufiifica' 
tion f . 4/0, I/, 6i, Dodfley, 

To this performance the author has prefixed a feniible pre-, 
face, on the impertinence of the man, who abufes the reft of 
the world, and pretends to vindicate his condadt by calling 
himfelf dk/atyrift. 

The defign of this piece is to recommend a mild and bene- 
volent method of correding the follies and foibles of mankind. 

' . * Kindnefs oft wins, when (harp reproaches fail. 

And vice will liften to a melting tale. 
Soft is th' advice, that r«il friends impart. 
Mild the reproof, that fpeaks the friendly heart.* 
This is the produClign of no contemptible pen. 
The Diaboliad. J Poem. Part IL 4J0. 2/, 6d. Bcw, 
We obferved, refpcding the Fir ft Part (>i this whimfical poem, 
that it was neither void of poetical fancy, nor defedive in point 
of verfification. The fame charader is applicable to that bow 
before us, which is a counter-part of the former, and employed 
in the fatirical difplay of fome female charadlers well- known in 
the polite world., 

- ' " I ■ I. . , ' 1 I ■ „ .11 ^l,.,,., . I.I .IW l», . ■■ I 

t The author of the Diaboliad. 

CL4 fxjgiV 

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%i% M.ON.THLY CATAf.06VB« 

fygiiivt feitkal Pie<9ithy Mr»}tTum^\izm^ 8<irtf. 7/. 64/, Robftn. 

This colledion coofifls of thd following pieces : Margaret of 
ArJQu» as hidorical interlude, founded on thedlory 9f tSat pn<« 
fortunate queen flying with her fon, Edward 1V« intp a foiwtt 
after the battle of Hexham»-*On Dreams, fox the VaT^ at Biith 
Eafton. — Albina, the flary of a lady cfroelly deceived ¥y her 
Ipvert — The Indian Chief, — ^VeHei on feeing Mrs, Mnotagu'^ 
FiAure.*<-'Infcription for a Reed boufc.— The Venetian Marrj^e* 
the llory of two lovers. repairing to a hermitage to be married. 
—The Mexican Friends, an inftance of heroic frieodihip* ^^'^ 
corded by Antonio de Solis, in his Hiftpry of the Co^u^uiA of 

The reader will find that delicacy of expreflion and fentim^nt 
in thefe pieces/ which diftingoifhes the furner publications of 
this ingenious writer. 

^be Mu/e*s Mirrour. t Voh.fmaU 8w, 7/. feiuta. Baldwin- 

This coHe^ion confifls of odes, epigrams, and t>ther Ifttia 
pieces of poetry, which have appeared in the newfpapers or ma- 
gazines, within the coarfe of the lad twenty years. The gen-* 
tlemen and ladies, to whom they are attributed, are, or havp 
been, the principal wits, poets, and poetafters of the age. ' 


7hi ^hentrical Bouquet : containing an jilfhabetiad \4''Taf^iment 
§f FroUguti and Epiloguts» nmo* zu 6d* Lowndes, 

Though the pieces in this literary bouquet feem not to 
have been feleAed with taile, it if, however, calculated to 
afford variety of entertainment. 

Poor Vulcan ! a Burletfm in Two J^s, as ptrformtd at tbt Tbeatn* 
Jifijaif in Covent Garden* 2'vo. u* Kearfly, ^ 
This little piece is afcribed to the author of Mldaa^ Sec. and 
abounds in the fame comic -fpirit that diftiogoiihes his other pro* 



ji Trip 10 MeUfgti or^^Comz/t Infirm£iions /p a Tffmig penilmoim 
entering into Lift r ivitb bis Ohjityatious 9m tbe GenittSf Manners^ 
Ion, Opinions, PbiUfopby^ ondMoraU^ of tbi Mtiajgeam^ 81^*, 
2^ Hfols^, /mall 8<v«. 6j« Law. 
As the author defires pernaiiHon to prefent his tu^ri with' an 

cp\toine of Us work, we (hall by all means indulge him, 

• < Permit me, Sir, to prefent you with an epitome of the follow* 
ing pages, in order to obviate a poflibiiity of erroneous conception, 
and give you a clear perfpe^ive of th«ir real purport. The autbor> 
aim (kewe<ver the poor creature may fail in his dtfign) Js tp expofa 
folly and reprobate vice, in every garb, without laying wafte sq 


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^thoot ittcuring the laih of cenfare i for which reatbn he b^^ 

tho^^ht it DO Ufs ii6c^0ary to ftrip off the gu'^fe of finnpUcU^ thai| 

to difpel the glare of fplendor, as both do not felidom blind th^ 

underftanding, and conceal qualities and difpofitions ^bich Nati^ro 

sAd judgment difapprove of $ neverthelefs^ thefe are intended to 

li0 i)mwa forth with that lenient hand, and dtfsrence to hnmii'' 

W>tf» which the (ketch of educatioA yoa are prefented with ftu* 

4iou(ly inculcates! fome, probably, who look upon bur own coar 

lin^ yvith an eye gf feverity, will infiih that, to make th^ ffoth. 

y^Iu^ble, the views (hould have beeii taken at home $ but yon, X 

Matter myfelf, will indulge me in an honeft pj^rtiallity (qv ^ny W- 

Ibw-citi^cns, and fupportthe fcntir^ent, that our morals and m*in- 

iiers are too jull and rational to admit the intervention of folly, and 

abfurdity, the growth of luxuriant excrefcence amongft Us. For thefe 

and other obvious motives, I have carried my hero abroad i fo that 

whtn^v^r others travel, they will have it in their power to pofieft 

acpmpendium.of what they may expe^ to find, and, being pre^ 

iriouiiy initrn^ied, enter the more readily intQ the brighter and 

more amiable fcenes they muft inevitably be engaeed in i and bring 

to their native land, fome of thofe excellent qualities which refine 

' snsuiners, and diffufe trye elegance and talle, ac^uifitions of fuch 

|>ubllc and private utility, that it will not contribute a little fo 

(he happinelsof each individual to attain a perfe^ acquaints^nce 

with them/ 

If our readers have been able to underiland this epitome, ai the - 
Itathor^calls it; we will defy them, with all his affiflance, to 
underiland the work itfelf. Af^T having waded through two 
voluxBes of affe^led language, incorred expreilions, ridiculous 
metaphors, and infufferable allo^ons, we are flill at a lofs to 
di^ver the author's idea, ancl totally unabl^ to give any ac-^ 
count of his meaning,— It (hould fepm thaf, by defcribing the 
manners of Melafge, whither our author conduds his pupil, he 
meant to ridicule and to reform die prefent age— but multum, 
-fihludit imagOM^^We could not help chinking ot Martial's epi- 
gram, QA not finding his friend ac honie; it is fome what to this 
purpoff, that iow futk miles, for the fake of feeing hiipi were 
9 good deal ; but eight, for nothings were the vtty devil* 

^ « Ah! my fajgadous friend ! I perc^iye thou haft already con- 
tracted the orbit of thine eye into the fmalleit focus to ken «ath 
prying curiofity, at the particular tendency of my narration 5 but 
you will pardon me if, urged by a juft irilSute to decorum, like 
Homer*s wandering mufe, 1 take my leave of this, delicate branch 
iof my fubjea, l^ft 1 fliould be kicked out of reading, as Momus was 
/out of l}efiye;n.* 

If tbe fagacious author inean* in this pafiage, bis friendl, 
|the Reviewers, he is right in his pterce^tipn ; and not ^rpAgt 
yre are afraid, in his apprehea^iop of being kicktdout of reading 
exaaiy (fince he is fond of the fubUme) at Momus ^us 09^ of 

In friend(hip to oar author, we earneftly beg of him, apoa 
AO account' whatever, to make any fuch tripj as this— aad» ia 
/riendihip to our readers,. W6 adviff thcA never to think of * A 
T^rip .to MeUfge.* ^ 

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a34 MflrwTHLY Catalogue* 

Ti^ Man ef Exfierienct ; cr, The Ad'venturts of HoiJorlas, By Mr. 
Thilllcthwaite, 2 'voJ. 1 2«p. 6/. /enjind» Boofey* 

Sterne and Goldfmich feem to ]^ve been intimate acqnaint- 
ftD^es of oar aathor—* but from the latter he has not learnt the 
art o£ working up incidents naturally, nor from the former the 
ability of relating them ludicroufly or afFeflingly, We queflios 
whether * The Sfan of Experience' may not rather induce the 
reader to think ill, than well, of the world — a dodrine which, 
as men of experience, we cannot fail to condemn. Honorias 
and his friend Raymond, accompanied by, the author, for the 
purpofe of writing thefe two volumes, in the courfe of lefs than 
a week are witneiTes to more icenes jof viilan^, than almoft anjf 
xn«n is anfortunate enough to fee in his life. Honorius, it is 
tf oe^ is not a villain ; and {oit^^ of thofe characters who ar^ vil- 
lains, repent — but ftill the Man of Experience f^ems to argue 
in favour of the depravity of hutnan nature. This gentleman, 
however, is not fufficiently captivating cr entertaining to do 
inuch harm* We cannot fay we are defirous to hear of his 
further peregrinations, unlefs he fiiould change his principles. 

The llor^ of thefe two volumes 15 this — Honorius, an advo- 
cate for the depravity of human nature, begins a journey with 
our author in order to be made a convert to the contrary opi« 
siion. lii the courfe of this £ve days, journey they meet with 
four or five charaders, who relate the miieries they have fufiered, 
as it appears at lafl, by the fame perfon ; whifih perfon, for 
the dignity of the fiory, is a lord. All the parties, at the con>- 
clufion of the fecond volume meet together, rather wonderfully, 
at Maidenhead; wTien his lord&ip repents, and * The Man of 
Experience' finiffies with thefe words from the mouth of Ho- 
norius — 

. ' Ah then, faid Honorius, } at laft find by experience, that al« 

tjiough mankind are corrupt, they are not; totally irreclaimable. 
, And, notwitbftanding too many of them are proud, felfiih, and 
jnfincere, yet theie are fome amongft them capable of honour 
and the refinements of friendfhip. I will henceforward thinii; 
tbem ion'' 


Oh/ervathns en /ome of thi Ariiclis of Diet and Regimen ufually 
recommendtd to VaUtudinarians, By William Falconer, M. Z>. 
F.'R.S: Small Sve. lu Dilly, 

A flri£l prohibition from vegetable food, bread, butter, and 
fugar, with the fubftitution of brandy or rum and water, for 
drink, inftead of malt liquors,' are here cenfured by Dr. Falconer, 
as frequently produdlive of bad efFeds, when long continued. 
Extremes of every kind may doubtlefs prove" hurtful, and it is 
prudent to avoid fuch an^error; but in general, the bed rule for 
the diet of valetudinarians muft be drawn from a careful obferva- 
tion of the juvantia and Ixdentia in their rerpedivcconftitutions. 
6, . ■ Pi^jJ^cal 

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tlyficai Dijffittathns ; in which iht *uarious Cau/is^ ^alJ/ifs, and 

" Symptoms^ incidint to thf Sfuwy and Gout are c^mprihenfivtlj 

treated on, andfuch Remedies pointed out as can only refultfrom an 

€Xtinfiw Pra^ice* 3; Francis Spilfbary, Chemiji^ %vo. 21,6/, 


A labdured attempt to acqoire the reputation ofmedicnl know* 
ledge, which may indeed be difplayed by fome friendly coadjator, 
but can never be juftly afcribed to the anchor of * Free Thoughts 
on Quacks and their Medicines */ 

Ob/ervations and Experiments on the Power of the Mephytie Acid 
in dtjfolving Stones of the Bladder. In a Letter 10 Dr^ Percival. 
By William^Saanders, Af. D\ and one of the Phyjtcians to Goy*# 
HofpitaU 8w. 6^, 

Thefe Obfei^vations and Experiments tend farther to cdr.firm 

the efficacy o£ 6xed air in diffolving the human calculus ; and as 

this remedy is fo much more fafe than the alcaiine KblVents an 

. important acquificion will refolt from its virtues being fully 

afcertained in a greater variety of cafes* 


^i R, i ■/ Regijier : nvith Annotations hy another Hand. VoL /• 

Zmedl %-uo. zs. 6d, Bew. 

We are here prefented with characters of upwards of £fcy of 
the Engiifh nobility » pretended. co be drawn from a confjpicuous 
{tation, and accompanied with reile^lions, r 

' The Layman* s Sermon for the general Fafl* ^fo, 6d. Wilkie, 

This writer has thrown together feveral paffages from the pro- 
phet Ifaiahy which, he thinks, are as applicable to ourfelves, \n 
our political capacity, as fthey were to the Jews. The following 
verfes will fufHciently explain his meaning. 
, < Your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with 
iniquity ; your lips have fpoken lies ; your tongue hath mut- 
tered perverfenefs. — Their feet run to evil'^ and they makehafte 
to fhed innocent blood : their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity^ 
walling and deftru<Slron is in their paths. The way of peace 
they know not ; and there is no judgement in their goings, 
chap, lix, vi 3, &c. Behold ye faft for ftrife and debate, and 
to fmite with the fill of wickednefs. — Is not this the faft, that I 
have chofen ? to loofe the bands of wickednefs; to lighten the 
Aeavy burthens ; and to let the Opprefied go free j and that ye 
break every yoke ? chap. Iviii/ 

By thefe, and many other extracts to the fame effeft, the au- 
thor has artfully thrown the fevereft refledion on our natronal 
conduct* while he appears to make only fome natural and obvious 
remarks on the text. • ^ 

If this Layman is impartial, he cannot do better, in his next 
difcourfe, than give us a comment on this emphatical cxcla- 

♦ §ec Cm, Rev. vol. 3tliii. p, 159, . 


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f^6 M9»T|»fT CAT4tfl« uir. 

njatipn, th«;Very gr^ igit^xds of rtf iaqie pf^pj^et : * If^, O 
leavens, and gi?f car, Q cart)? ! t have »i?af ^/^ and *W% iri 
<^/A/r/^,^and they have rfMJe^i 9jisan(t me !* His illa'firations,' no 
doubr, vvoBld then be as ^difyiipg to thq coloniUs, as they are 
;ac prcfent to >he people of this kingdom. 

irf /^r«i (/ S(Xm9n^ dtjigwd ^s a S^Mme9i to Form tf Prffftr. 
4/f. I/. Al|Qqn. 

Tbia ff titer warmly inveighs againft the vices of the agc-^ 
Heobferves, that inftead of emuljiting thfs fublime virt^^s of 
oar forefathers, we arc cultivating the mean arts of fervile cop|- 
jpiaifance, afahHityy znd <tMife/a»jfon ; that thc/cer fiiperflux of 
0UT opulence is profu/elj layilhed in the eredion of h^fpUals, 
with a boa^fal oftentation, from which none lint little (buls 
can derive fafisfaftion; that large fubfcriptions are raifed for 
fiMU$us nmdows and fbibirin i that the wars, plots, confpira- 
ties, and divifions, which, ever iince the time of king Charles L 
i?ve rent this devoted land, plainly prove, f that the blood of 
t^^ri^hteftMs nMTtyr ftill cricth from the ground ;' that the co- 
lonifts are now contending for independence, wJiich if they 
^onld obtain, ^widows ^d ^rpbans- wil| receive them with at- 
flamatton:^ hiftorians will immortalize their memory, and laieft ' 
pofterity 6^ill blefs it ; but if they fliould retraft, fcorn and op. 
preffion will be their portion : yet, he fays', if colonifts have a 
aataral right to independence, the moment they acqoire aVuf- 
ficient flrength to maintain it, it woaid be extreme foliy ia 
any nation to encoarage fuch (ettlements. 

While tha author was <;ompQfiAg this declamation, we are 
perfuaded, that he was in fuch a ferio-comic humour, fuch a 
whirl of thought, that whi^ther it is jto be underilood io a li* 
teral or an ironical feiife 15 a pi^'adox i^hich neither his readers, • 
nor perhaps" he liimfcJf pan determine, 

D I V I N I T V. 

MvtrjMan bis e<wn p&afiaw; or^ Family Worjbip regulated akd 
enfireed* izmo. ^f fiiufd^ Bucklandf 
TT^is worjc confifts of forms of praypr, hymns, and gracjCSj 
with direftipn? fqr reading the tripiurcf, and other wiafpau 
books. It is the compo^iticm pf aprAJtedanxi^ilTenter, and.fcc^is 
to be fttited to the tafle and capacity of plain^ ferio^^s pec^le pf 
his own denomination. 

J SerntQn freacbid btfore the Heufe rf liaidh 4^ the 4it*J Cbufeb^ 
Weftminfter, en Friday, February ay, 177^; being fkf Dpy 
appoimed to bt »b/erffs4 as a Dety of filemn Fafii^^ a^d Humt- 
liation. JBj Joha^ Zord Bijbofof Oxford. 4/0. u. Cade^I. 
* In the day of adverfity, coniider,^ Ecc!. vii. 14. From 

thefe words his lordihip is naturally led to coniider, whether our 

nisfortonea are impotable to the merits of oor caufe, or to the 

religious and moral ftate of the nation t - 

With refpedio the former ^ueftion, he thus concludes his et^ 



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« It was the glory of this ifland, to have extended her jprote£Hoa 
fo far and vnde, A foreign natit^rt might etkvf an extentive power^ 
fa favourable to the rights of mankind. But it wis not the part of 
ijjbie£(s» who (hared in the honour And the beiiefit of it« tD be the 
firft to ere£^ a ilandard againll their king and cotintty; No in- 
genious fubtilties will juftify their conduct The events of W3f n&ay 
for a tit^e be favourable to them : but the truth will dill remanh^ 
tiiat they were fubje^ls, and owed the comVnon obedience of other 
f^ee fubjeds to the crowii and lej^iihiture of Great BriVafn.* 

HAVing found, that the merits of the caafe do toot jnifitate 
Againft al, his lotidfhip proceeds to the {ecptiii enquiry ; oa 
^hicfa he does not attempt to Acquit as ; but after fotbe remarks 
bn oar levity and irreligion, he v^ry pro^drly addr this ferious &nd 
interefling confuieration : 

< The fi^voOr of God cannot be expeAed to dSftingnifh a people^ 
who thus catt oiF the fear of bltn. Or whb attempt to 11 vt without 
him i And a nation, in which the influence of religioA is Co weak^ 
that irreligion is openly avowed, may account for many misfortunei 
§f<fUL that p^lential caofe.* 

Jl Btrtkon frettcbti before the Ltirds Spiritual ani Temporal^ in the 
Mbey-Churcbt^t^mm^tVt w Friday, Jan. 30, 177s. Sting 
tbi i>ajf appointed U be thfer*if(d as the Day of tb'e Martyrdom of 
iEfitg Charles /. By Beilbjr^ Lord Bifiiop of Cheiler* 4/9. 
I/. Jvmd. Payne. 

In this elegant and animated diicourfe his Ybrdihip prodacCf 
a tmibber 6( inftances ftein the hiftory of oar anceftors» which 
give tto the ^ongeftreafons tocondade, that divine ProVidince 
fts^ often interpoltBd for the prefervation of thi^ k{n6;dom in the 
mot critical and perilbos cireiHtiilances. From this vieW of 
things he tiakes oeorfion to i^ggeft iotkz obfetvatioh^ on the pre« 
fefit trifisk whkh a)re extreiBel/ feafooahle and jAil. 
A^trtihn prtathed at ^/. Cfement Diknes 0* SuYiday, March 9« 
• and dt GhTift-chorchi Spitalficlds, on Sunday, June 29^ 1777- 
for ibe Beiitjit of ibe Humhrie Society 9 inftituted for tbe Reco^eryt 
af Pirfofis apparently dead by Drowning, Bj Robert Markhaill» 
/>. D. t*vp, hd. Rivington, 
. '!^he preacher appeals to his auditors as men, as members of 
ibctety, and as fellow-cfariflianf. There are fbmt^ j^aflages in thiA 
difcobrle, w^rich feem to be a little inaccurate, eQ>ecrairy the 
foHowing: * Within the laft two years, fcvehty-five perfons^ 
fbkne of t^^hdWi yo6 now fee, were reftored to themfelveSft to tteir 
friends, to the community, to their almigbj Saviour and deli* 
nferer^ ibeir God,* There was no bccafion to ckrrv the climax fa 
high. A .perfott is n6t reftored to his Saviour ana his God an/ 
more by his retorn to life, than by his death* The facred writers 
generally nfe fuch expreffions, as rather imply the contrary. If 
this difcoorfe has tiot all the accuracy of a laboured CQmpo(ition» 
it has, perhaps, for that reaf<!)n -more of that pathos, which is 
chiefiy. adotired in a popi/ltir difcourfe. 

To^is feribon is annexed a brief accoa tit of thfe fociety, be* 
fore which it was preached,- froa its cfUbliihmcnt^i& May^ i774t^ 
to the end of the year 1776. * ^ 

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«i3S MoNTHLV Catalogus* 

J Sermon preached at Yarmouth /« Norfolk, January 1 1, 'l77d« 
On Occafion of tbi Death of the rev. Richard Froft: who died 
January 3, 1778, in the y^tb Tear of bis Age. i^ Thomas 
fiowe, ^vo, (>d. Bucklan^d. 

Mr. Froft was ordained paftor to a congregation of proteHant 
cliiTenters at Yarmouth, in 1732, and difcharged his duty ia 
that capacity, with integrity and reputation, for near thirt/ 
years. But, we are told, ' his abundant labours brought upoa 
him fuch an univerfal relaxation of nerves, and fucl^ confequent 
dejection of mind, that he was not only incapable of farther 
pul4/c fervice, but even of enjoying the fociety of his friends/ 
for near twenty years. 

This melancholy circurofl^nce gives the preacher occafion to 
make fome pious and confolatory obfervations on the wife and 
gracioos defigns of Providence, in the fufFeripgs of good men. 

jS Sermon preached at St, Peter*/, in Colchefter, June 24, I777» 

before, the provincial grand Lodge of the mojt ancient and honour'' 

ahlt Society of free and accepted Mafons of Eflex. Bj the rt<v» 

W. Martin Leake, LL. B* Svo. u. Robinfon. 

' Authors differ about the antiquity of Free Mafonry* Some 

derive it from the firil ages of the world, when men began to 

form focieties, and boild houfes. Others (nO friends perhaps 

to the inftitution) date its coipmencement at the building of the 

tower of Babel. This writer does not make its origin fo ^m» 

cienti but he makes it more honourable, deducing it from the 

building of the Temple at Jerusalem, and the league, which So- 

romon made with Hiram, king of Tyre, on that occafion* 

* Here, he tells us^ Free Mafonry began its ufefiil progrefs. Tbi« 
was the period, which gave rife to this indent and honourable fo^ 
ciety J but it is now advanced to a far higher degree of perfe6lion, 
than it could boaft, upon its iirft inilitution. Formerly it was only 
operative, confined to manual labour, and iludied only the im- 
provement of krt : but as morals, learning, and religion, advanced 
in the world, fo mafonry then became fpeculative, and attended to 
the cultivation: of. the mind, as well as to the improvement of art. 
All who wei*c now to be admitted into this laudable eftablilhment, 
were required to poiTefs an earnelt defire to promote the good and 
happineis of their fellow-creatures 5 to have brotherly love, cha- 
rity, benevolence, generofity of heart, and all other moral vir- 
tues, which do honour to the nature and conltitution of man.* 

To this Sermon is added a Charge, delivered to the members 
of a Lodge, held at the Caftle Inn at Marlborough, by Thomas 
Dunckerley, efq. grand mailer. The purport of this Charge is. 
CO remind the fociety, that * brotherly love, relief; and truth, 
are the grand principles of mafonry ;' and to recommend tljefe 
virtues to the pradice of the brethren. 

This publication likewife contains an Addrefs delivered by tbe 
rev. Henry Chalmers, A- M, and P. M. in the Lodge of Perfeft, 
Friendfliip, held ^t Chelmsford, ia Effex, on thcfeftiral of St. 
John the Bajjjtifl, A, L. 5767* , 

V. . ; MIS- 

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Monthly Cataloqub. 


jf Litter from a Father to a Son en bis Marriagt, Small Svo* 
i<. Dilly. 

This Letter is written in a rongh and unplcafing ftyic, b«t 
contains fome advice, which may deferve the attention qf a 
yoang man on his marriage. The points, which the author 
treats of» are, the folly of difputingaboac the prerogatives of a 
hufbandy the good efFed of delicacy in hisperfon and drefs, the 
beft way of difen^aging a fprightly young woman from the 
immoderate purfait of j^leafure, the proper conduct of a . ' 
hulbandy where the wife is onreaibnably fufpicious, and other 
points of this nature. — ^Wc can by no means agree with this 
writer when he fays : « Never fafFer your wife to approach yoa . 
in any little illnefs, as a nurfe, but only as a friend.* I^e mail 
Have very little fenfibility, who does not know, that the atten« 
tion of either party, in cafes of /icknefs, is produdivc of mutual 
endearment and aife^lion. Pity is the nurfe of love. 

John Buncle, ^WV» Gentleman, 8^0. ^s./iweJ. Johnfon* 
I'he charadler of Mr. John B uncle has been announced on « 
former occaiion *. He is one of thofe facetious and eccentric 
gentlemen who aFordentertainment even by their oddities. The 
proluiioDS in this volume are employe^ on Stow Gardens* . 
Learned Ladies, Love to Rakes, Sedudion,. the Cottagers, the 
Politicians, the Progrefs of Criticifm, and feveral other fabjeds. 
In general, they difcover a fund of good fenfe, often enlivened 
with a ftr^n of pleafantry peculiar to this author, 

J Litter to the Right Rev. the Lord Bijhop tff Ourbam. Conienning 
fame Ohftrvations on the Climate of Ruifia, ^e. By John Glea 
Ki^» D. D. ^to. 2/. Doddey. 

This Letter contains a few obfcrvations on the climate of , 
Rnflia, and the Northern Countries, with a view of the Flying 
Mountains. at Zariko Sello near St. Peteribotirg, br a fore of- 
diverfion which coniiAs in rolling down a deep declivity. 

Effaj on the Education of Youth intended for the Frofejp.on of Jgri* 
culture. 8i/*» is* Davie^. , 

A tranflation of a treatife publifhed by M. Mochard in the 
Memoirs pf the Oeconomical Society of Bern; to which are 
added foch remarks as mby render it more particularly tt&ful to 
the £ngliih farmer. 

The Miller and Farmer^ s Guide., By Thomas Wood. Billerica 
Mills. Printed at Chelmsford. Si/tf. 2/. 6</. 
The author of this pamphlet is Mr. Wood, fo remarkable fpr 
his abftemious courfe of life, that an account of it was publiflied; 

* SceCrit»Rev. vol.xiii« p« S'd* 

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in the fecood volaififc of Mfdiial Tranfaaioiis by theColkge of 
Phyiicians in LoDdon% It coniifls of tables ihewing the prico of 
aby quantity of wheat, from one poitnd to fix loads, at every 
intervening fum from five to twenty pounds per load» and can- 
not fftil of provittg highly ufefbl to tfadfe for whom it b in'* 
tended. ' 

J LiNrary Siour^t^ far th<(fi Uarlkti Af^nu the Qtittiti Rm* 

The following charader^ which appeared in ou^ Heview^ 
for Deceinbei' laft, of a produftion entitled^ • A Treatift oil th* 
Nature and Quality of the Diftafes of the Livet, and feiliayy 
Dofls^ by R. 6ath» Sergeon/has, it feemtf, given nfe to this- 
c^nterdptible piece t>f fnafigtiity. 

< This author is one of thofe fmatterere in phyiic, who hovejuft 
talentft fufficient to impofe upon the ignorant, but *< tnak« xkk^ 
Iffarned fmile." The trcatifc, as may beAippo^d^ is defigned to 
yecomraend a^u'ackin^dicihei ^htch confid's of powders and drops.^ 

Thie opinioii abov^ deliver^ having bfe^ft given with Ac 
lEHdteft ]«ilf>anillity^ ^^viit iidmit of no pa!liatfon.-^Nei^er^wa& 
any Scourge wielded by a ^ote impotent hand. In all ht» 
attetopu lit fntattni^sv he i^nfdf¥nnatery protes himfelf td be 
eq^ddy dul! and illiterate, ignorant not only of the Greek, 
Latin, and French languages, bat even of EngUih. .With ftich 
an a^td'gonift, tb^refote, it is not to be ex^eded that we ftoirld' 
simtaifi aay ^ncroveriy. 

Jm Addnjs and Rtph t^ iht London and Monthly Rt'viewtrs en 
iMr €aH*Oifs 4} Aa Bxamination tf Dr. ]fe[aclaitieV AnfviStt rtr 
Soame jeAfns, Efy. «te ibi FHhu tf fht int&nal EH>idena 0/ tht 
Chriftian Religion. By the Re^, Edward Fleet; jwrn Jf, A. 
$fOivA CoUige^ Oxford. 8v«* .• 6d^ Browa* 
Ti!ie Monthly and Loadon Reviewers li^^ eeaftHfd a late 

poblicfttion by Mr. Fleet, hk their crltki^s, he thf*ksr 

they have treatni kim very 4ifh^fvaurably f aad-* 1^ ft(ytv>^^^la' 

to the public. 

Defeription of a Gldfs Apfttfotm^ fir tuiBng IM^nerai JFaters, Hie 
fbcfe ^ Pyrmontv ^^ fiy J. H, De Mag^laa, P. & 4, 8^f« 
2/. Johnibn. " .. 

Sy this improvement on Mr. Parkej^'giapparittiia ^r tlie fafii» 
purpofe, it appears that water may be impregftaced witk fisnd- 
air in half the ufual time. We here alfa meet with the defcrip'* 
floo of infti^ments, ingenioofly invented^ for a(iertaiiiin|f thtf 
falubrity of the air ; but as they are toototnplid^ted to be clearlf 
soderftood wkfaokt a plate» we m\A refer ciar tiiM^ra^ t» ^ 
l^phlet* • . -.^- ' • ..';: .- . I' 

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i «♦» ] 



C R I T I G A L R E V I E W. 

For the Month of Jpril^ ^778. 

Th$ Tragfdiii rf ^IchyluS' trtmjktti hy R. Potter. i^9. if, 1 1« 
/iwid. Payne* 

THC celebrated author, whore remaining trage<fies «rft 
here prefented to the public, was born at Athens, about 
525 years'before the Chrifttan «ra. His twa brothers, Cynae* 
girii!^ and Amynias, acquired immortal 1)on<Hir in the battk 
of Marathon, and the fea-fight of Salamts. Onr poet ttke^ . 
yvlCs diftinguiflied himfelf in thefe engagementa,. and after* 
wards, in the battlf of Plataea, jas an^aftive and intrepid 

He Had read Homer witb the warmefi enthuiiaim, and find* 
ing hiin inimitable in the epopea, he xbncei«ed .the defign of 
forming the drama into anew fpectes of poetry, which ihotild 
rival even the epic in fpleodor arid dignity. He availed him* 
felf of the opening made by Tbefpis. He retained the ode 
and mufic, which, properly fpeaking» conltituted the original 
tragedy* But he introduced the, dialogue. He made his fpeak- 
ers undertake an action, into which he tranfplanted every cic* 
cnmftance of the epic poem, which Aiited his purpofe. . He 
formed, a ploif or intrigue, and z cataftrophe ; he interefted 
the pailions of his auditors. He gave charadlers, mannerts 
and a proper elocution to his adors. He is therefore, with 
propriety, called the father of the drama. But, in his pieces; 
th( tragic mufe has a fierce and gigantic air, with very few of 
thofe artificial embellifho^ents, which are now fappofed to con* 
ftitute the n^oft .attradive part of her character. The- beft 
critics aflign ta ^fchylus tragic dignttyy to Sopiiocles har- 

Ygt'i JHYj 4trih iJ7h R mooirai 

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f 4t Thi Tragiifyi ^^Efchyltw. 

monious elegance, to Euripides the moral and the pathetic. 
'H,Eufi^//» ao^iety KAt i So^oxA€«f Kry tariff j kai to Ai^p^uAv 
roptsCf «re tnc nti oned hj Phitarcfa *, tl^ the diftingulflilfl^ "^Itir- 
raderinics of thefc writers. , 

^fchylus wrote a great number of tragedies, fome fay ninetj, 
ef which there are only fcven remaining. 

L Prometheus chained tp a ^odr[on Mount Caucafus]. — lo 
this drama there b a fublimity of conception, a (Irength, a 
fire, a certain favage dtgnity peculiar to this bold writer. The 
wild and deiblate rock frowning over the feai the ftem and 
imperious. fbas of Pallas and Styx, holding up Prometheus to 
Its rifted fide, while Vulcan fixes his chains, the nymphs of 
the ocean flying to its fammit to commiferate his unhappy 
ftate, old Ocean us on his hippogriflF, the appearance of lo, 
the defcent of Mercury, the whirlwind tearing up the fands, 
fwelHng the boiAerous fea, and daihing its waves to the ftars, 
the voUied thunders rolling all their fiery rage againit the 
rock, and the figure of Prometheus unappalled at this terrible 
fiorm» afld bidding defiance to Jupiter, form a fucceilioa of 
fublime images, an^ an auguft and awful fcenery. , 

* Yet this horrid grandeur is tempered with much teaderneis^ 
The reludance of Vnlcan to execute the fevere commands of Jfti- 
piter, 18 finely contrafted to the eager unfeeling infolence of 
Strength and Force ; tlie charafter of io is mournfully gentle ;, 
and tue Oceanitidae are of a rooft amiable mildnefs, joined to a 
firm hot modefi ptudence; even the nntameable ferocity of 
Prometheus, a god of the haughty race of Titan, difcovers tin. 
dtr it a benevolence, Ittat int^refia us deeply in his fufFerings/ — 

In the midfl of the hurricane, Prometheus exclaims : 
* I feel in very deed 
The firm earth rock ; the thunder's deepening roar 
Rolls with redoubled rage; the bick'ring flames 
Flaih thick ; the eddying fands arc whirPd on high ; 
In dreadful oppofition the wild winds 
Kend the vex'd air ; the boifi'rous billows rife 
Confounding fea and iky ; .th' impetoods ftorm 
Roils all its terrible fu^y on my head. . 
Seed thou this, awful Themis, and thou, ^ther. 
Thro' whofe pore azure floats the general firtam 
Of liquid lights fee you. wW wrongs I fuffer !* 

II. The SuppKcaots.-— Thefe fopplicaHts are the fifty daugh- 
ters of Danaus, «vho fied with their father from iEgypt to 
Argos, and implored the pf^OMAfon ef felafj^us, to whom 
ihey were diflantly related, againft Ihe fifty foni of iEgyptus, 

< ' i-— 'i ■■ • ^ ' ■ * 

• Pliiude -Gloria Atbciu p. i^t* * , 

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. * Th TragiJhs of ^icbylus. t4} 

' wbo» by the order of their fether, demandeci them in mar- 
riage* m oppoiition, as they reprefen ted it, to their own in- 
cKnations, the laws of nature, and the will of the gods. The 
fuppHcants are purfued, ; but proteded by Pelafgus,— The 
marriage and the maffacre of the fans of ^gyptus are fub- 
lequent tranfadlions *, not included in this drama* 

* The fire and fury, , that rages through th» former play, is 
agreeably contrafied, where perhaps the reader may leaft ex- 
jpedi it, with the fober fpiric of the daughters of Danans* 
Thefe illuflrious fupplicants are drawn indeed with a firmnefs of 
foal becomiog their high rask* but tempered with a modefi 
and amiable fenfibility, and an intercftiog plaintivenefs, that 
might have been a model even to the gentle and paflionate Ovid ; 
and that heart ^ud: have little of the fine feelings of humanity, 
that does not fympathize with their diftreTs. The provident 
wiixlom of their father Danaus, the calm but firm dignity of 
F^elalgus, the inviolable attachment to the laws of hofpitality, 
theKblemn fenfe of religion, and the chaRenefs of fentimenc 
through the whole, mad pleafe every mind, that is capable of 
being touched with the gracious fimplicity of ancient manners.' 

III. The Seven Chiefs againft Thebes ► — Eteocies, the elder 
(on of Oedipus and Jocafla, agreed With his brother Polynices, 
that after their father's death they (hould reign year by year 
alternately. But the former, having reigned his year, would 
not reiign the government ; u[5on which the latter, determining 
to profecute his claim by force, bcfieged the city. The Seven 
Chiefs, who are placed at the gates, and command in the at* 
tack, are Tydeus, Capaneus, Eteoclus^ Hippomedoti^ Par- 
thenopoBUS, Amphiaraus, and Polynices. The perfons of the 
drama are, Eteocies, a Meifenger, Antigone and Ifmene, fiders 
to the two contending princes, a Herald, and the Chorus. 
Eteocies and Polynices fall by each other's hand ; arid on that 
event, Antigone and Ifmeoe are introduced, bewailing the 
•ofs of their brothers, and the misfortunes of their family. 

* ^fchylus has fixed the fcene of t^is tragedy in Thebes, 
before the principal temple. The clafh of arms, the neighing of 
the horfes, and the fhouts .of the foldiers are heard. Eteocies 
appears furrounded with the citizens, whom he animates to de- 
fend the walls. In the mean time the chorus, which is comr 
pofed of Theban ladies, diftradted with their fears, ars hanging 
on the flatues of the gods, that adorn the area before the temple. 
Longinus has remarked on the fublimity of the dialogue ; it is 
woruiy of an experienced veteran, and a brave young king arm- 
ing in defence of his crown, his life, apd his honour. The cha^ 
ladters of tjie feven chiefs are exquifitely marked and varied | and 

• Vide Hygini fab, x6l 

it 2 their 

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f 44 ^^' Tragidia •/ ^fetiylits. 

their impetaoas ferocity is admWably contraded with tbe calte 

»Rd deliberate courage of thofe appbinted to oppofe them. 

' The judicious choice of the perfona of the chof as fbrim one 
cf the principal graces of this tragedyt ar it gave the poet mn 
opportunity of mixing the natural timidity qf the female cba- 
rader with the animated and fiery daring 9f heroes % the fears of 
thefe daaghters of Cadmos prefenting nothing to their imagi- 
nation but the fcasea ^ diftrefs and horror, which the infoleoce 
of conquefl fpreads through a vanquiflied and plundered city, 
and this paiated in the warmeft coloars, in the ftrongeft flyle of 
^fchylns. . 

* Befides the intrtnfic beauty of this tragedy, which b y^rf 
ftriking, it has to tis this farther merit, that it has giveti 'birth 
to three of the ftneft poems of antiquity, the Antigone of ^^' 
phocle8» the Phoeniflat of Eiirifidts^ and the Thebaid of 

Ariftophanes * ftyles this tragedy, cPfdtfwt Aff»f /^ror» * a 
drama breathing -a martial fpirit ;' and Gorgias, as Plutarch 
tells us t, called it, fityg^ov Afs«»f> * the gri^taft effort of a 
martial genius.' . 

IV. Agamerpnon.— This prince, on his return from the 
fiege of Troy, carried with him CaiTa^dra, the daughter of 
Priam, to his palace at Argos. Soon after their arrival, they 
were bafety murdered by Clytemneftra, the wife of Agamemnon, 
and her paramour i£gi(lhus. 

* Short as the part of Agamemnon is, the poet has the ad- 
drefs to throw fnch an amiable dignity around him* that we fooa 
become interefted in his favour, and are predifpofed (o lament 
his fate. The charafier of Clytemneftra is finely marked ; an 
high fpirited, artful, clofe^ determined, dangerous woman. Bat 
the poet has no where exerted fuch efforts of his genius, as in 
the fcene where Caflandra appears. As a propheteis, ihe gives 
every mark of the divine infpiration, from the dark and diftanc 
hint, through all the noble imagery of the prophetic en thuiiafm s 
till as the cataftrophe advances, ihe more and more plainly de. 
dares it. As a fuffering princefs, her grief is plaintive, lively, 
and piercing ; yet fhe goes to meet her death, which fhe clearly 
foretells, with a firmnefs worthy the daughter of Plriam, and 
the fider of He6lor. Nothing can be more animated or more 
intereAing than thi; fcene. Th^ condud of the poet f through 

' this play is exquificely judicious. Every fcene gives us fome 
obfcure hint, or ominous prefage, enough to keep our attention 
always raifed, and to prepare us for the event. Even the ftudied 
caution of Clytemnelira is finely managed to produce that ef^ 
fea ; whilft the fecrecy, with which ihe cot^du^s her defign, 
keeps us in fnfpence, and prevents a difcovery, till we hear th^ 
dying groans of her mvrdered hulband.* 

• Sympof. lib. fii* p. 7^5* t Rauuc, ^ft iv; a.. 


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iPtioagh the real motive; which inftigated Cfytemneftra and 
iEtifthuf^to the murder of Agaitiemnon, was their criininal 
cotinedioii ; jretafter his death both of them attempt to viii* 
<llrate thfe ^trecioas aA by recrimination. The former brand- 
ing hid) with inhumanity ipr facrificing his daughter Iphigeoia^ 
tHe fatter repoaching him with the crimes of his father Atreus. 
This Is the natural language of guilt. ^ 

The following fpeech ofXlyteameflra, 10 Agamemnon^ oit 
their firft interview, after his return froo) Troy, when fhe and 
^gyfthus had previoufly concerted the icheme of murdering 
him» exhibits a more firiking pidtare of treachery and diffi* 
omUtioo, than is perhaps to be met with iin any other 

* C1ytemnefira« 

^ Friends, fellow-citizens *, whofe coonfils guide 
The flate of A rgos, in yoar reverend prefence 
A wife*s fond love I bUifli not to difclofe : 
Thus habit foftens dread. From my full heart 
Will I recount roy melancholy life 
Thro* the Jong ftay of my lov'd lord at Troy 5 . 
For a weak woman, in her hofband's abfence^ 
Penfive to fit and lonely in her houfe, 
•Tis difmal, lift*ning to each frightfuU tiile : 
Firft one afairros her, then another comes - - 

Cbarg'd with worfe tidings. Had my poor lord hert 
Sttfifer'd as many wounds a« common fame 
Reported, like a net he had been pterc*d : 
Had he been (lain oft' as the loud-tongued. ramour 
Was noisM abroad, Geryon's triple mail 
Muft yield the palm to bim, were he now living* 
For of the dead I fpeak not, and coald boaft 
His triple form thrice multiplied^ to die 
In each form fingly f . Soch reports opprefs*d me» 
Till life became diftaflefull, and my hands 
Were prompted oft' to deeds of defperadon. 
Nor is my fon Oreftes, the dear tie 
. That binds us each co th' other^ prefent hero 
ni o aid me, as he ought; nay, marvel not, 
The friendly Strophios with a right llrong arm 

• The' Chorus, con lifting of Argive fenators. 
<f It is difficult to fay, what is the precife meaning of Clytem^ , 
aetra in this paflage« We fhall f ubmtt it to the critical reader* 

JleXXn* «vw0fy (tuv ac«TM yti^ tt My» 

R I ' Pro- 

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246- Thi iElchylu$. 

Protedi him in Phocaea ; whilft Ms care 

Saw daager threat me io a doable form» 

The lofs of thee at Troy, the anarchy 

That might enfue, Oiould madnefs drive the people 

To deeds of violence, a< men are prompt 

Infultingly to trample on the fall'n : 

Such care dwells not with fraud. At thy retarn 

The gulhing founuins of my tears are dried, "* 

6ave that my eyes are weak >*ith^ midnight watchings 

Straining, thro- titers, if haply they might fee 

Thy fignal fires, that claim'd my fix'd attentioD* 

If they were cloe'd in ileep,' a filly fly 

Woo'd, with its fHghteft murmVings* make; me HarJ^ 

And wake me to more fears. For thy dear fake 

All this r fuffer'd : but my jocund heart 

Forgets it all, whilft I behold my lord. 

My guardian, the ftrong anchor of my hope» 

The ftately column that fupports my houfe* 

Pear as an only child to a fond patent ; 

Welcome as land, which the loft mariner 

Beyond his hope difcries ; welcome as day 

After a night of ilofms with fairer beams 

]Returning ; welcome as the liquid lapfe 

Of fountain to the thirfty traveller: 

So pleafant is it to efcape the chain 

Of hard conftraint« Such greeting I efteem 

Piie to thy hqnour : let it not ofFejid, 

For I have fuffer'd much. But, my lov'd ]or4. 

Leave now that car ; nor on the bare ground fet 

"^hat royal foot, beoeath^whofe mighty tread 

Troy trembl'd. Hafte, ye virgins, to whofe care 

T^is pleating office is entrufted, fpread 

The fi'reetf with tapeftry ; let the ground be corer'd 

With richeft purple, leading to the palace; 

That ho<iour with doe (late may grace his entry 

Tho* unexpeded. My attentive care 

Shall, if the gods permit, difpofe the reft 

To welcome his high gk>ries» as I ought.* 

As Clytemneftra was confcious, that (he had not fpent her 
time in a melancholy retreat, but io the company of her gal- 
lant, ihe paints the horrors of (blitude in the flrongefl colour;* 
•n*^ thereby endeavours to Aiggeft fuch an apology for her cc|- 
tnioal conduct, as might ferve tp extenuate her guiltj in cafe 
W hufbandihouldhear ofit, and charge her with it, befi^ 
the accomplifliment of her defign* 

' Penfive to fit 8|Dd lonely in \tt houfe. 


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Or, 4f U 18 emphatically exprdfed in the original %Y.j^y>^ 
icff^o)^ ; and therefore it could be no wonder, that file was 
teiiipted to take a companion* 

Defigning hypocrites urually exceed the bounds of'tl-uth 
smd reafon, in their addrefies to thofe, whom they wifh to 
circumvent. The fpeech of Clytemoeftra is of this kind ; . 
ftili of falfe infmuations. and extravagant flattery » She t«lls 
her hufband, that irt the height of her defpair, and the agonyf 
ihe fufFered for his abfence, (he had often attempted to put anf 
end to her life, and had only been prevented by the interpo- 
fition df her attendants. She apologizes for t4ie abfence- of 
©reftes, by pretending, that (he had put him under the pro- 
tedion of a powerful friend, out of real affeflion, left he (hould 
ht killed in any popular infurreftion ; when in faft, (he herfetf 
«nd jEgifthus had obliged him to fly frond Argos. « Than 
mother, faysxOreftes, caft meout to want and mifery/ She then 
accofts her huiband with many flattering appellations, and ex* 
preflions of endearment, and propofes, that the (Ireets flioutf 
be covered with the richeft tapeftry, left his royal Veet (houM 
be injured by walking from his car to bis palace. This pro* 
f)oral the hero reje^s with a noble difdaifu ' > 

, * Agamemnon. 

< Daughter of Leda, guardian of my hoiife. 
Thy words are correfpond^ut to my abfence 
' Of no fmall lerrgth« With better grace my praife « 

Would coine from others s (both me not with ftraxaa.^ 
Or^ulation, as a girl ; nor raife, 
As tq fottie prOdd barbaric king, tkat loves' 
. Loud acclamations ecchocd from the mouths 
Of prbftrate worfliippers, aclamorous welcpme: : . 
Nor fpresM the ftree€s with tapeft^r ; 'tis invi^ttii 
Tbefe are the honoufs we ikould pay the. gods* 
For mortal man ^ to tread on' ornameats ^ s 

Of rich embroidery— —No : I dare not do it. -^ 

Refpedt' me as a man, not as a god. 
Why (hoald my foot pollute tkefe vefts,. that gbw 
With various tin6^iir*d radianee? my fall-fame 
Swells high without it ; and the temperate role 
Of Cool difcretion js the choiceft gift 
Of fav'rittg heav'n. Happy tiie man, whofe lifir ' ^ 
Is fpent in frtendthip's calm fecurity. t 

Thefe fober joy» be mine, I a(k no more/ ^ h 

We fliall give our rejideirsjm/accoun* of th^ tjirpe reflnafning 
tragedies, and pay a proper refpea to thia oia(|«cly U^nflatiout 
iii-oor B8zt* 

a 4. ' . «• 

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[ M« 1 

Tii irtii Vhnry and FwMBkt •/ Hufiandry : iiimtii firm pbiUfi^ 
fbscai RifiarchiS and ExfirJiMCi. By Cuthbtrt Clarke. 4r#. 

lo/. 6/. Robinfon. 


A S all the operations of nature, botl^ in the anitnal and ve* 
^^ getable world, appear to be condu6led by general laws, 
it is obvious that in agriculture, no lefs than in phyfic^ the 
theory and pradice of the Tcience muA be intimately conne^ed 
with each other. Excellent crops have doubtlels been raifed 
by perfons who were little acquainted with theory,, but fuch 
snen have generally reduced, if not exhaufted their land,, or 
proved fuccefsful only when a rich freAi foil was that on which 
they employed their labour. A work, therefore, which tends* 
to eftabliih agncuUure upon fixed principles, cannot fail of 
being highly uieful ; and the volume now bt^fore us is un- 
queiVfonably of this kind. 

. This treatife is written in the form of dialogue, and divided 
into three feAions. The author begins with demonftrating the 
neceffary connexion between the theory and pradice of huf- 
baodry,. ^fter which he delineates a plan of education parti- 
cularly adapted to the young farmer. 

* Yputh, fays he, intended for that laborious, though inte- 
refting profeffioo, require (in their infancy) no other treatment 
than what is common to thofe intended for other profeflions, viz. 
a due care of their temperance, good example, and proper ez- 
ercife :— -on which depend many perfedlions of both body and 
mind, that are mod defirable in manhood. In a word, let the 
doathing and diet be as fparing, and the exercife as great as 
en uninterrupted Hate of health can admit. No oppreffioo ; 
little indulgence; and as to the. example, let it be moral and 
devoDt : fleering clear, however, of old-wifery and pioos fraud* 
If fuch attention is alfo given to the dialedk and pronunciation, 
^ fo form their langoage to the national ftandard,^ they may 
one time or other be benefited thereby ; efpecially if they have * 
occafion to be in places diAant from that of their nativity. I 
have feen mep who knew not p from f, by berog habituated in 
yonth to bear and fpeak the. ftandard language, have more ad« 
drefs and fentiment, than others who had been taught reading, 
writing, and the oft of numbers, and no way inferior in judge- 
ineiit, but embarrafled with a vicious pronunciation, and a bad 
arrangement of wbrd^ or figns of ideas. It is in the nurfe'a 
band that diilind pronunciation may be acquired witbmoft eafe : 
and then, and as fooo after as may be, that the proper names of 
things, and trqe figns of ideas be grafted in the memory. Af- 
ter which, to'accuROm them to hear nothing but clear, deciive 
anfwers, and interrogations, concife and fair reaibhings, aire the 
likelieft means at that age to enrich and cultivate the fool. : At 
iikf or pei'haps five years old^ if healthy, they ooght to be pat 

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GlarkeV Trtu Tbeofy ^nd PraSia of HufiwUtyl S49 

tofcJiooU and there continued, (if health permit) until they at* 
completed in reading, Englifh grammar, writing, and accounts* 
And if tangbt to make a gracefol bow, &c. m much the bet* 
ter; for I fee. no reafon why a farmer, more than any othe^ 
reputable man, ihoold appear or be aukward in any refpe^* 

* This circle of inftru6lion, provided they are onder the care 
of proper mafters, may be perfedUy accompliflied in four or five 
years ; daring which time the' utmod attention ought to be paid 
to the above particulars, and to their general deportment : cn« 
couraging by every means diligence, cleanlinefs, aAivity^ acute* 
nefs, and probity : taking al£ care to mark with doe difrefpeffc 
whatever is ilovenly and mean. And above all, the goldea 
axiom, << Do to others, as you would have them do to you,'' 
Qught to be urged, both in example and precept, at this feafoo; 
Becaufe, youth about that age, have an exceiSve defire to be 
poifeEed of fuch thiqgs as pleafe the animal nature; hence, if 
the divine or rational nature is not kept a full match for thofe 
defires, opportunity will certainly induce them to embrace un* ^ 
warrantable gratifica^ons ; which once grown to habit, may 
prove irremediable. The axiom ought, therefore, in the folleft 
extent, to be inculcated, as it is the mod faithful monitor; 
containing not only the eiTence of every human inftitotien 
worthy ol notice, but alfo the will of the £ternal and Adorable 

' In treating of this fubje6t, the author difcoversa laudable 
zeal for promoting the moral, fociai, and beconomjcal duties^ 
the importance of which he places in a juft point of vi^w. 
. The fubje^s' next confidered are, the nec^flity of farmers 
making entries of their tranfa^ions; who are, and who iire 
not fit for hufbandmen \ the criterion of good plowing ; ob^^r 
fervations on thin plowing ; .experiments to (hew how corn ve« 
getates ; the affinity between plants and animals^ The fol« 
towing are part of the author's remarks in explanation of thit 

* Fir ft, then, in the analyfis of a grain of wheats .we^find the 
embryo plaDt or germ placed in two lobes, in a manner exactly 
^inilar to the fcstus in the placenta or cotyledones of animals. 
We alfo find the germ in the firft ilagcs of vegetation nouri(hed 
by the matter the lobes contain, through veins difperfed amongS 
h, and connedled to the germ in a manner analogous to the urn* 
bilical vein of the foetus. And as the umbilical orifice of ae 
animal is clofed (after it is protruded from the womb) by a li-» 
gature formed of ihe veins and arteries, which conftitute the tube 
or funUulii umbilicalisy z$ it is called ; fo, in like manner, whea 
abe. nouriihment which the lobes contained, is exhaufl:^,— the 
veilels which were difpierfed ainongil it, and coiinecle4 to the 
germ, contrail and draw the hu£k or covering^upon the orifice; 
aadlliffe it cpntinues as a ligature^ until the jS^|;lutination,of 

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9S9 Ghirfce^ Trmi fBicry and Praake of Hufitmiry^ 

die orifice isi completed: — than which nothing can be a more 
finfLing induce of famenefs. 

* Plants are alfo analogous to animals in the circnlatioft oC 
the juiees and haraoucs of their bodies ; having air and :fap 
▼efieU <;orrefponding to the veins and arteries in the animak 
body ; and the genial beat occafioned by fermentation^ (erves the 
parpofes of the throbbing heart* They alfo> like, animals, if 
their head, or top is long deprived' of air, after they are deliy^ed^ 
dirbyTu&)Cation : as is the cafe when feed is laid too deep in 
(he mouldy and when the moold has been trampled or rolled, too 

• Secondly; From this period, until they refpeflively arrive 
at maturity/'we find the plant and the animal under m^ch the 
iame predicament ; fometimes ileeping and fometimes awake ;' 
fometimes in motion, and fometimes Sanding dill. The one 

' nuDvcs by yoJuotary ageircy, and the other, by fortuitous means,. 
it is acknowledged ; but the exercife a plant receives by vi"^ 
brating in a breeze, probably as much afiids its digeftion and 
j^fpi ration, as a gallop afliAs thofe qperatlons in a colt, '&€.—' 
We Hkewife- find them in the fame expofure,. fuifering together 
ffom the feverity of feafons, and recovering alike when thefe 
«re paft. 

' We alia perceive them improve reciprocally by an enlarged 
paftiire ; and mutually thrive better by being kept clean. In 
^rt, e)ccept in poiot of mere fenfation and voluntary motion, 
as before obierved, from the womb to the fummit of inaturity^ 
tiiere Is the moft unexceptionable analogy between thefe 
worlds « 

' • And thirdly, When they have arrived at maturity^ we be- 
liold^ if poflfble, a ftill greater affinity ; each having their fexea; 
their propen&iiei, their fcafonsi of copulation, and pregnancy, 
cfi^ofequent thereon : after which their eiforts are ftiU exadly 
fipoiar^ being in both cafes principally diredted to promote the 
grq^th,aAd welfare of their y9ung: — and aUhoagh fpme ani-^ 
mals furvive the operation, there are others, like the corn tribe, 
that die as foon as they have protruded their ovaries ; and alt' 
d^'them, .af(er they become through age incapable of reypro- 
d|]dio]>, hailea to a diiTolation/ ' ^ 

We are afterwards prefented with experiments to fliew the 
j^oper d^pth a( which corn-fepd ought to be depofited ; the 
V^y to niake wheat in the leaf keep or recover its v/erdure ; 
4^ t>f fl fpraov of ridge^ pointed out ; the joint ufe of plowing, 
andr manure recommended ; explanations of the nature and ufe 
q£ foil ; what the real food of plants is ; a common error in 
iMiibandry pointed out, with its remedy ; the u(e and abuie of 
Hming land ; feled matters in the bufmefs of hulbafidmeii 
pdivt^dottt; analogy between foil and the animal ilomach 
pointed out ; the ufe of inftinfi aipong animals ; the neceflity 
of huibandmen being ludges of ftock ; the true Ihape of a^ 


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Clarkq'i Trjii fieorj and Pra^icf of Hujiaw(ff. «j^ 

l|Qrle ; the irue (hape of a bull, &c. dilTertation on t))c Af- 
ferent breeds of (beep.; thq caufe of the rot or decay aniopg^ 
t/ie ' flieep, Vith its remedy; a diiferts^tioii oi» the diffcirent 
breeds of fwine, their comparative excelje^^^ei &<;• thq bfift 
method of choofing and prefervi;ig feeds ; the caufe and re- 
medy of the fmut in wheat ; the beft fteeps for feed pointed 
out ; the reafon of corn degenerating ; the leaii weight tb^^t 
(eedrcorn (houid be taken at, minutely pointed out : exordium 
to the dilTertation on graifes. We i^ext'meet with a new theory 
Qf al^forption, &c. in which . the aittl^or i^ot, only difplays m 
lively imagination^ but an intimate acquaintance with natural 
and experimental philofophy. In refpeQ of thia theory ho#» 
ever, the author deftres that it iChould b^ confid^red merely as ^ 
hypothefis, until it receive, confirmation f^pm. farther Ct^pcrw 

The fubfequent topics of tbe author^s olilervations are, the 
time to harve(l graffes for feed ; the time and manner of making^ 
good hay ; the preparation of foils for graftes of difFe|rent, f<Mf ts s^ 
a cheap and effe^ual artificial manure pointed out ; its i^^tracfi 
tive quality demonftrated ; the manageq|)e^(;of ray-grafs;. reaft 
fpps fpr omitting a crop of cprn when gr^is-fe^df aris fofra.s. 
remarks on dinting new., land ; on changing land fromgrafr 
to corn ; beft grafi*es for (heep-pafhire, &£. feeds improper for 
pleafure ground pointed out; precautions relative to draining^ 
land ; diredlions to reclaim poor land ; the rationale of turnip 
culture ; an efFeftual method to dcftroy the turnip fly ; bow t^ 
manage lands that have been pared, and bur^it ; the walte oi^ 
manure by field-foddering pointed oqt ; th^ advantage of loy^ 
fhearing corn ; the ufe of water as a manure ; befl grafief (ok 
flooded land pointed out ; beft way to ufe watered lapdi; cu^t) 
ture of artificial graffes ; red clover taken iI^.lie^ ofoaiit r^q^oifi 
mended ; rationale of planting ; remarks qn pruning; ,^he wayi 
to raife and -preferve good live f|(nce5; the befldiredionsm" 
fences to give ihelter ; the caufe of pinching winds in tb^ 
fpring, and fhaking winds in autumn ^ accounted for upon a 
new principle ; an impartial method of valuing and letting^ 
land ; the form of the courfe of htifbandry, and leafe of' a 
&rm ; neceffary particulars to be bbferved in taking a^ 
firnri, &c, 

' The fecond feQion contains a diflinft analyfis of tl\e ra^ 
rious mechanical powers, inte^fperifecl witb n^any judkio^s ob^ 
iervations ; and Jn the third we meet with the d^fcripttonir 
c^ feivrftl inflrumen.ts that feem to be. well contrived? fbi^ 
tbe purpofe. of the. farmer, in refpeft both of profit and 


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jjs AflnlifyUcel Sm^vrf rf th Siuih of Ireland. 

Mr. Clarke has thrown new light upon the abdrufe parts 
.<ir agriculture ; but he has not paid that attention to elegance 
atid ilyle, which inifht have been expedted in fo philofophical 
ana ingenioits a writer. 

Jt phihfophical Survijf rf tbt Zouth tf Ireland, in a Seria •/ Lit- 
/#ri /• John Watkinfon, ill. Z>. Sv0. ^s.inhamrds* Cadell. 

THESE Letters ^gin with an account of^he city of Dub- 
lin, which the author concludes to be in magnitude nearer 
a fourth than a fifth of that of London. The bulk of it, 'he 
informs us, refembles the worft part of St, Giles's, but the 
flew ftrects are in elegance equal to thoferof the'^Britifti ca- 

* The quays of Dublin, fays he, arc its principal beauty ; 
they lie on each fidelche river, which is baulked, iand walled in» 
fhe whole length of the city; and at tbe'bre^dfh of a wide 
llreetfrom the river on each fide, the houfes are built front- 
ing eath other, which has a grand efFe6l. When thefe quays 
•re psved like the ftreecs of I^ndon, we (hall have nothing to 
aiaa|»are with thiem«> 

* The Liijr rans ibr about two miles almoft ftralght through 
lih«city, and over it are thrown five bridges; two of which, 
%S^n aa4 Qveen^s Bridges, are newly built. The former has 
raifed foot-p^ths» alcoves, and baluftradesi like Weftminfter; 
jihe latter is exceedingly neat, and, like the other, of a white 
fione, coarfc but hard* which is found near the city. The re- 
maining three are as poor firudares-asyou can conceive. 

* Eflex bridge fronts Capel-ftreetr'one of the largeft in town, 
CD the north, and Parliament-ilreet, a new and exceedingly neat 
tradinjg ftreet, to the fouth : ^at the end of which, is almoft 
tiiilhed an exchange, a moft elegant ftrufture, which does the 
snerchaBts wba conduced the building of it great honour ; the 
•x|>eocle being moftly defrayed by lotteries. The whole is of 
white ftonef richly embellifbed with femicolumns of the Co- 
sinthian order, a cupola, and other ornaments. 

* Near this, on a little eminence, ftands his majefty's caHle, 
the refideoce of the chief governor; confifting of c«yo large 
courts, called the upper and lower cafUe-yard : in the lower h 
the trefforv, and fome other public ofKces. Though there is 
little grandeur in the appearance of either, yet, upon the whole, 
this caftle is far fuperior to the palace of St. Tames's, in theex* 
aarior, aa well as in the fixe, and elegance of*^ the rooms within* 
Ottr the gates, leading to the upper yard, are two handfome 
tatses, oneof JufHce, the other of Fortitude; thefe, wieh an 
equeftrian ftatue of William III. in College Green, another.of 
George li, in the centre of Stephen's Green, and a third of 


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J pMfiphiCMl Survey •fihtSinthtflffAthi. tfi^ 

George I. in the Mayoralty Garden, nake up the fam Iota! of 
the ftatuary I could either fee or hear of in Oabliii ; anicfs mp 
reckon the two upon the Tholifl|(the Gnildhall of Dublin) 
which I don't know whether to call monarchs or k»d nufort* 

• Bat to expeA many works of the finearta in a country, 
bat juft recovering from an almoft anintcmipiBd warfait of 
Aear ^x hundred years^ would be to look fpr the ripe fiuiti of 
autumn in the lap of fpring. Even London cannot boaft of 
manyy coniidering its mighty opulence* A fingle churchy oa 
the continent, is fometiines decorated with more ftatoet, tkaa 
are to be feen in th^greateft city of Europe* 

« There are but few public buildings^here of any note ; ibme^ 
however, there are* The parliament-houfe it truly a moft aa* 
guft pile, and admirably conftrnded in all its parts* The hoofs 
of lords is beautifnl ; the houfe of commons capacious and con- 
venient* The front is a grand portico, in form of the Greek SI, 
fopported by lofty columns of Portland ftone; behind this, and 
over the houfe ^f commons, is raifed an oblate dome, which 
not appearing from the ftreet, gives a^ heavitfefs to the perfpec* 
tive, and the vnant of ftatuesover the portico increafes it; Diit« 
could it be viewed in its geometrical elevation, it would appear 
a very light ftrudure* 

_ < Near the parliament-houfe ftands the vniverfity, confiftinr 
of two fquares; in the whole of which are thFrty-three boiled 
ings, of eight i^ms each* Three 6des of the farther iquare 
are of brick, thWbunh is a moft fuperb library, which, being 
built of very bad ftone, is unfortunately mouldering away. The 
infide is, at once, beautiful, conimodious, and magnificent; 
embelliihed with the bnfts of feveral ancient and modern wor* 
thies. A great part of the books on one fide were colleded b^ 
arbhbiihop Ufher, who waCDne of the original members of this 
body, and without comparifon the moft learned man it ever prQ« 
duced. The remainder on the fame fide were the bequeft of a 
Dr* Gilbert, who, it is faid,* colleaed them for the |^urpo(e |o 
which they are now applied. Since his time, which is above 
forty years, their number has not been much increafed, though ^ 
there are many vacant fhetves on the other fide* Of courfe 
the modern publications in this library are very few ; yet 1 aqa 
told there is a fufficient fund for purchafing tivcry thing that 

Among the improvements of Dublin, Dr. Mofle's Holpitat 
deferves particular attention* This edifice^ which is not only ^ 
large but beautifnl, is appropriated to the u(e of lying-in wa» 
men ; the fupport of it arifing chiefly from mufical entertain* 
ments, and from fubfcriptions to a right of walking in th^ 
gardens* Here has been lately built a large circular room» 
called the rotunda, in fize about a third of that of Ranelagb^ 
but without .any pillar in the centre. This is the grand fcene 
in Dublin for all their mufical entertainments, and the pub- 

* lie . 

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-254 • JpMftfblud Zur^tf of tbi Sduth of Irdand. 

lie tffidiy reibrts hither for recrei^'tlon even on the Sunday 
€vef}lng$« ^ ' 

Of the commoti people in this city we nieet with the fd- 
Jowing kccount. , ' , 

. * I, who you kapwalwaya fpeak and write from prefent fed' 
iagt cannot defcribiB to yoo how mach I was hort by the naf« 
' tinfefs of thefe ftreets, and by the fqualid appearance of the r«- 
mail/g^ The vafl inferiority of the lower ranks in Dublin, com- 
ipnv^even with thofe of the conntry towns in England, is very 
' Iriking. Seldom do they (have, and when they do^ it is but to 
<iinniaik the traces of meagernefs and penury. In a^ morning, 
before the higher ciafTes are up, you would imagine that half 
the prifons in Europe had been opened, and their contents 
emptied into this place. What muft it have t)een then, even 
within three years, when near 2000 wretches, much worfe, of 
conrfe, than any now to be feen, exercifed the unreftrained trade 
.of begging? I am told that the nuifance was rifen to fach'n 
•pitch, that you could fcarceJy get clear of any fhop you entered, 
without the contamination of either bikers or vermin^ from the 
iCrow^d of mendicants, who befet the door. 

* Dublin, by the bye, is indebted to one of our conntryttiea, 
m Dr. Woodward, who has a deanry in the country, and a pari(h 
in the city, for its riddance of this peH. He, with a laudable 
'«nd unremitting perfeverance, (b vanqoifhed ^e national preju- 
dice on this head, that he attrngth pre vailedW have a poor bill 
pailed, free from all thofe errors that experinee'had difcovercd 
in the Engliih poor laws.' 

Wc are told that the pradlice of drinking to excefs, formerly 
to common in Ireland, is i}ow almioft entirely abolished among 
the better fort of inhabitants'; who have banifhed from their 
tables the large goblet called a conjlabie^ which the perfon 
that flinched his glafs was obliged to drink full of liquor. 
^ On leaving Dublin the author entertains us with an account 
W feveral parts in the country, and likewife with foiiie -re- 
marks in favour of Iriili traditions. Prom the partiality he 
'difcovers in treating of which fubjedl, we diould fufped him to 
be a native of that kingdom, notwithftanding his infinuations 
to the contrary. He feemsalfoto have imbibed from another 
quarter,, an opinion concerning the Poems of Oilian whiclj 
may be confidered as erroneous; the authenticity of thoie 
poems being now almoil generally admitted. 

We ihall next prefent our readers with the author's account 
of Cork. 

• This is, a city large and extenfive, beyond my expedtation. 
J &ad been uaght (o think worfe of it, in all refpedts^ than it 

' . de-i 

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jf phihfophical Sumey 9/ ih Setifb cf IreWnd* ^ fj 

^cferves ; it was defcribed as the magazine of naftinefs; Ani 
as it is the great (hambles of the kingdom, I was pxedifpofe^ 
to tredit thefe reports; bat it is really as clean, in general, ^ 
tke metropolis. The flaughter-houfes are all in the faburbs» 
and there, indeed, the gale is not untainted ; but in the cicyv. 
properly To called, all is tolerably clean, and confeqaently 
fweet. If fufficient care were taken, even the fuburbs might be 
purged of every thing ofFenfive, cither to the fight or fmell ; 
for they (land upon the declivity of hills/ and down each ftreet 
there is a copious flow of water, perpetually wafhing down the 
filth, from thb door of each flaughter-hoafe into the rivey 
which fnrrounds the town. The city is iituated, as Spencer 

fraphically defcribes it» in his marriage of the- Thames an4 
ledway. ' . 

• The fpreading Lee, that like an ifland fair> 
Eoclofeth Cork, with his divided flood. 

« This ifland is inter(e£led with fev^ral canals, either natural 
or artificial, which, being banked and quayed in, bring up 
fliips almoft to every ftreet. The city, however, is moftly com- 
posed of lanes, cutting the main-ftreets at right angles, and Co 
narrow, that one of them, which is but ten feet wide, is called 
Broad-lane. The houfes are old, and far from being elegane 
id their appearance. On the new quays, indeed, thare are. 
fome fair looking buildings ; which they are obliged to wea<- 
ther-flate* Aiid this they do in a manner fo neat as to render it^ 
almoft, ornamental. 

* There are two large fione bridges, one to the north, and 
the other to the fouth, over the grand branches of the Lee, be- 
fides feveral fmalt ones, and fome draw-bridges thrown over ' 
the leflier branches or canals. There are feven churches, ak 
(exchange; a cuflom-houfe, a barrack, feveral hofpitals, and 
other public (lro£iures, yet none of them worth a fecond look* 
I have not feen a Angle monument of antiquity in the whole 
town, nor heard a bell in any of the churches, too good for 
the dinner-bell of a country fquire. But here is fomething in* 
finitely better. Here is the bufy buftle of profperous trade, and 
all its concomitantibleilings ; here is a moft magnificent temple, 
eredied to plenty, in the midfl of a marfli. For that it was ori<i 
finally fuch, if there were no other evidence, the very name 
imports : the work Cork or Corrach fignifying falus or fen, as 
1 learn from Lhuid's didlionary. 

" * A bookfeller here has put this, and other tra£lis into rojr 
Jiands, which have been ufeful to me in my refearches. 
Smyth's hiilory of Cork, quoting Stanihurft, repdrts that 126 
years ago Cork was but the third city in Munfter, now k ik 
the. fecond in the- kingdom, and therefore called the Briflol of 

.. ; < Except in the article of linen, its exports are more con fider- 
able than thofe of Dublin. The balance of trade, Ifliould con- 
ceive, to be againtt Dublin, the trade of which, chiefly confifts 


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M^6 dpMofiphital Survey rfth S§utb •f Ireland. 

in the iniportatioii of laxuriet ; whereas Cork deals almoft en* 
tirelyin exporting the neceiTaries of Hfe, beef, pork, butter* 
iHdes. tallow, &;c. 

* All the wealth of Moniler and Connaaght paiTes through 
twoW three cities, wh'ch may be faid to have eaten op the 
farroanding coantry, where the wretched peffant never tafte*- 
the fle(h of the cattle which he /eeds i but fubfiftt upon po- 
tatoes, generally without boiter, and fometimes without 

— < In the reign of Edward IV. there were eleven churches in 
Cork ; now there are bat fe^en. Yet it has ever fince that time 
been efteemed a thriving pty, and in the memory of man it 
is faid to have been doubled. But we have already feen that 
the fiateof popolatioa" cannot be afcertained from the number 
of ^churches; if our anceftors had not more religion thaa 
we have, they were certainly more addided to building re- 
ligious houses. 

* To fee the i;earon, why the number of churches has de« 
creafed with sncreaiiog population, we ihould recoiled, that in 
the time of Edward IV. they had but one religion, that now 
t^ey have many ; and that the catholics outnumber all other de- 
nominations, feven to one at leafl. 

* As the Romanids adhere religioufly to all their old infti- 
tutions, in the number and divi£ons of parifiies, and as they 
have now but feven mafs-hcures in ib large and populous a city, 
we may fairly fuppofe that there were no more pariihes in Ed« : 
ward's time; though there might have been eleven churches, 
reckoning in that number the chapels belonging to the four 
monafteries, which were then in Cork, viz. St. Dominick's, 
St. Francis's, the Red Abbey, and the Ctll Abbey. 

* It muft too be obferved, that though the monafteries are 
deftroycd, the monks remain to this day, and have regular fer- 
vice in their didtud houfes, as in the parifh mafs-houfes. In 
all of which they have a fuccefCon of fervices, on Sundays 
and holy-days, from eaily in the morning, till late at night, 
for the accommodation of their numerous votaries.' 

The Letters in this volume, which confifts of forty five, 
are written in an agreeable manner; containing, befides other 
Information, many pertinent remaiks on the prefent ftate of 
Ireland, and' a i^iew of ^ the advantages which the author 
fupppfes would refult from the co/Vimercial and political unioo 
ot that kingdom with Great Britain.«-«A Ihort appendix is 
added, giving an account of ibme antique cariofities found in a 
final! bog near Callcn, 


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C *57 ] 

Tbi Hiftory and Anttquitin of the Ceuntia of Wt^movUnA dnJ 
Cumberland. By Jofeph Nicolfon, Efq, and Richard Burn, 
LL, Z>. 2 Fois. 4/tf. 2/. 2/, Cadell. [Ceniinuid /rem p. 390.] 

XTI7E return with pleafare to our criticifm of this work, 
^^ fmce, whatever objedlion we have been obliged to mak< 
to the execution of it in/ome refpeSls^ much is due to the pub- 
lifhers for the many curious and entertaining articles which it 

The infcription in the fouth porch of the church of Kirkby 
Lonfdale is fufficiently mufical, though rather barren of ideas. 

. * Thiis porch by Baynes firfl builded was, 
Of Hegholm-ball they were : 
And after fold to Chriiler Wood, 

To keep in good repair. 
And is repaired as you fee. 
And kept in order good ; 
By the true owner now thereof. 
The forefaid Chrifter Wood.* 

Speaking of (ir Hugh Afkew, our hiftorians have this paiTage. 

* Of. which fir Hugh, there is a curious anecdote in a man a ^ 
fcript account of Cumberland (a copy of which is in the fixth vo- 
lume of Mr. Machel*s colledtion) written by Mr. Edmund Sandi* 
ford a gentleman of the houfe of Aikbam. Speaking of Moncafter 
and the country thereabouts, he fays, '* Pour miles fouthward 
ftands Seaton, an eftate of 500!. a year, fometime a religious 
houfe, got by one fir Hugh Afkew yeoman of the cellar to queen 
Katharine in Henry the Eighth's time, and born in this country. 
And when that queen was divorced from her hufband, this yeo- 
roan was deflitute. And he applied himfelf for htlp to the lord 
chamberlain for fome place or other in the king's fervice. The 
lord chamberlain knew him well, becaufe he.had helped him t6 a 
cop of the beft, but told him he had no place for him bat that df 
H charcoal carrier. Well, quoth Afkew, help me in with One foot, 
let me get in the other as I can. And upon a great holiday, the 
king looking out at fome fports, Afkew got a courtier, a friend 
of his, to Hand befide the king }. and he got on his velviet caiTock, 
aud his gold chain, and a baScet of charcoal on his back, and 
marched in the king's fight with it. O, fays the king, now I 
likb yonder fellow well that difdains not to do his dirty o£ice in 
bis dainty cloaths ; what is he ? Says his friend that' flood by on 
purpofe; it is Mr. Afkew that was yeoman of thexellar to the 
late queen's majedy, and is now glad of this poor place, to ke^p 
him in your majefly's fervice, which he will not forlake for all the 
world. The king fays, I had the befiwine when he was in the cd- 
lar : he is a gallant wine taller : let him have his place again* He 
afterwards knighted him, and gave unto him Seaton. At laft he fold 

Vol* XLV. Jpril. 1778. S his 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

t^9 Hifioiy and Anitquitit$ rf Wefimorland'#i»y (^oiaherlsfid. 

his pi ace, and came to Seaton, and married the daughterof fir Jobi^ 
ricddleiloD, and fettled this Seaton upon her. And ihe afterward* 
married Mr. Pennington lord of the manor of Moncafter, and had 
a Ton JofepH) and a younger fon William' Penniugton, to whom 
flic gave Seaton." 

' In the pariih of Kirkby Lon^fdale is Hawkin Hall we are 
told, where was born Dr. Bain bridge, of^after of Chrid CoL 
lege, Cannbridge, in the reign of Charfes 1. wbo married a| 
Jixty^ and had nineteen children by his wife. « 

This is a circumflance rather more remarkable than any 
contained in the following ihort paflage, concerning the manor 
' of Betham. 

< Within thii manor alfo is Helflack Tower, now in ruins. 
Helflack mofles are remarkable for the ant or pifmire : aboat 
the middle of Aaguft, when they take wiog, a thoa(knd fea 
mews may be feen here catching thefe infeds : the neighboora. 
call them the pifmire fleet. In thef<i moffes are found likewife, 
as in many others, large trees lying in all dircdtions at £?e foot 

That feamews fliould catch infects, is not wonderful, any 
more than that trees (hould be found in 'moles. As to the (ea 
mews, our hiftorians would not, we da^e fay, engage for a 
ihoqfand every Augud — th^ maft be governed, like homas 
in fed- catchers, by the caprice of their commanders. What 
we are here told of the tpnftant frequency of fea mews^ re- 
minds us of M. Grofley, who in his tour te this country, 
written within thefe few years, affures his readers that in Lon* 
don all the women walk in fhoes, raifed out of the din by a 
ring df iron, Anglice pattens ; and ^hat they make fuch an 
infufFerable clattering you can't hear yourfelf talk. — Grofley 
was in London about a week, walked out perhaps about once, 
and, nreeting three or four pair of pattens, gave all our women 
credit for them. 

We are much obliged to our hiftorians for informing us that 
• there is a remarkable range of rocks called Whitbarrow fear* 
at Witherflack — but, that * they afford a romantic prof^efi to 
the country all ahout/h what w6 might without much difficulty 
have conjeftured. 

The following r% a cthious will of fir Lewis Clifford, who, 
with his patron the duke of Lancafter, was aiavourer of the 
doflrines of Wicliff; but afterward recanted, and confeffed his 
errorsi to the archbifhop, Dec. 5, 1404. 

*« The fevententhe day of September, the yere of our lord 
}efa Chrift a thoufand fbure hundred and foure, I Lowys Clyf- 
forth, fals and tray tor to my Lord God and to all the^ bkfled 
toQipany of heveae', and nnworthl to be clepyd a Chriften maa, 


Digitize^ by VjOOQIC 

Uijhry tmJ Anttfuitiit tf Weffmorlamf and Cumberland.' 359 

make and ofd«ine my teftament and my laft will in this maiiere* 
»Lt the begy lining I nioft unworthi and Goddis traycor recom* 
maunde my wrechid and fynfole foole hooly to the gface and to 
Ae grete mercy of the WefTed trynytie, and my wrechid" careyne 
to be l^eryed in the fertheft corner of the chirche'zerd, in which 
pariche my wrechid foule departeth fro my body. And I prey 
and charge my furvivors and mine executors, as they wollcn 
Bnfwei^ to fore Qod, aiid as all myne hoole truil in this matere 
is in him, that on my iHnking careyhe be neyther leyd clothe of 
gold,- ne of filke» bat a black clothe, and a taper at myne hed* 
^and another at my fete« ne fione ne other thing, whereby eny 
znaii may witt where my ilynkyng careyne liggeth. And to 
that chirche do myne executors all thingis, which* owen daly 
in fuch caas to be don, without eny more coil faaf to pore men. 
And alfo I prey my furvivors and myne executors* that eny 
dette that eny man kan axe me by true titb, that bit be payd. 
And yf^ny man kan trewly fay, that I have do hym eny harme 
in body or in good, that ye make largely his gree, whyles the 
goodes wole flreeche. And I wole alfo, that none of n^yne ex- 
ecutors meddle or mynyftre eny thinge of my goodys, withontya 
vyfe and confent of my furyivor? or fum of hem. I bequethe 
to fire Phylype la Vache knight my maffe book and my porhoos^ 
and my book of trrbulaciop tp my daughter his wyf.'* — 

What we are told of George the third earl of Cumberland; 
would almofl ipake us think our hlftoriaQS were fpeaking of 
fome nobleman rather later than queen Elizabeth's retgnv 
« He was.ib much addifted, fay they, to tilting, horfe-courfing, 
ihooting, and other a£iive, bat expenfive, exercifes, that thefe 
recFeations were the great occailon of his feHjng Kis lapds.^ 

And again, in a curious memorial of the life of a Mr. v. 
Sedgewick, who was born in i6j8, written by himfclf, 
he fays that Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgoniery, 
' could fcarcely read or write, being addided to all manner 
of fports and rccreatiops. His greateft delight was in hunting. 
He was alfo an excellent bowler ; fo as he would oftemime^ 
make bowling batches /or 500 1.* This earl's fon loft gce^t 
fums, the memorial fajs, at bowls and dice — * one time he 
Jo'ft at Greenwich 300I. in money, and his coach and fix horfes.' 
This is almoft equal to the fpirit of modern days. 

The fame memorialift mentions a couplet, often repeated to 
^<9 by bis good xniftreli$ the lady Pembroke, written by Mr. 
'Samuel Daniel, the famous poet and hiftork>grapher> whidi 
Mil fall in with ^very reader's feelings — 

^ To have ibme .filly home I do defire. 
Loth dill to w,arm me by another's fire.' 

' The fubfequent anecdote of this lady Pembroke^ related \x$ 
4fae fame Mr. Sedgewick, isafmgular inftanc^ of the wanton 
tyranny of the power which prefides over marriages. , 

S a •* Itt 

Digitized'by VjOOQIC 

z6o Hiflary and Antiquhia 9/ Wcftmorlaiid and Camberltml. 

** In hrr firft widowhood (as I have heard her hy) (he refold- 
ed, if God ordained a fecond xnarriage for her, never to have 
one th^l had thildren, and was a coortier, a ciirfer and fwcarcr. 
>\nd it was her fortune to lighten one with all thefe qualiEcationt 
in the extreme* / 

■ — « In a bill of cxpcnces'of the funeral of one Guy Nelfon, 
about the reign of king Henry VII L are ihefe items 1 to fex 
priefles 29. 2d. For proving the teftament 3s. ^d. Making it. 
^d. Item, 10 the priorof freers for fraternyie.' 

An epitaph upon the wife of* Lancelot Dawes, efq. in the 
church of Birton, written by her huiband 1673, merits pre - 
fervation. The (ixth line is curious. • 

** Under ibis ftone, reader, inter'd doth lye 

Beauty and virtue's true epicomy. 
At her appearance the noo'ne-fon 

Blufh*d and ihrunk in 'caufe quite outdon. 
In her concenterM did all graces dwell : 

God pluckM my rofe, that he nii^ht take a fmeL 
• I'll fay no more : bat weeping wifli I may 

Soone with thy dear chafte afhes com to lay.*' 
.A Latin epitaph which we (hall tranicribe, is remarkable at 
teaft foF its rhyme. 

« Moribus expertns, et miles honore repertus, 
Lowther Robertusjacet umbra mortis opertas. 
Aprilis menfe decimante diem, necis enfe 
Tranlit ad immenfc celeflis gaudia menfe* 
Mille quadringentis ter denis, mens morientrSy 
Annis, viventis efcas capitomnipoientis.' 

In the parifh of Crofby Ravenfworth was difcovered fomic 
years ago a fpaw water, now known by the name of Shapwell. 
^ It is impregnated with fulphur, and fmells,* our exaSf hif- 
torians tell us, * like rotten eggs, or the barrel of a muiket 
juft fired.' 

What the good doftor fays when he comes to Orton church, 
merits notice. 

- •• The people come regularly to church, five^ fix, or (even 
miles, every Sunday. And the modern pradic6 of appropriating 
feats hath not yet obtained in this church. All the feats, except 
'^he vicar's, are repaired at the public expence ; and no one of 
the parilhioners hath a ngh^ to any particular feat. The con* 
trary pra^ice is extremely full 0/ inconvenience in many places; 
particularly in the metropolis, where one may frequently fee 
mod of the congregation fta'ndiag in the alleys, whilft the pewi 
are locked up, the owners thereof being in thecoaAtry^ or ftr^ 
kaps in btd^ 

We (hall give our readers a Latin epitaph on Thomas».the 
firft lord Wharton, for the fake of the paraphrafc of it, aa4 
the note upon it. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hiftory an^Jnttqftsties of Weftmorland an^^ Cu mberla nd. 261 

• T^homas Whartonus jaceo hie, hic utraque conjux ; 

Elifiora fuumhincy hinchabet. Anna locum. 
£n tibi, terra, tuum, carnes ac ofTa refume ; 
~ In coelos animas, tu Deuls alme, tuum *.* 

The ingenious enquiry why horns (hould be the cu.kold'* 
cfeft doe^ not allude, we hope, to the frequency of thofe bear- 
ings in the counties of Cumberland and Weftmorland. 

The fubfequent is an extrad of a curious letter from the duke 
ofNorfblk to Henry Vyr. in the year 1*537, after A&'srebelKon, 

** Aglianby, I doubt not, or now hath fliewed your highne' 
what was done at Carlifie. And thoughe nqne were quartered* 
becaufe J knewe not your pleafure therein before ; yctt all the 
threefcore and fourteene be hanged in cheaines or ropes uppon 
gallowes or trees, in all fuche townes as they did dwell in. 
And whereas your majefty would have fend the vickar of Perith 
to you ;' it is not of Perith, but of Brughe, that your grace doth 
Bieane, for there is none foche : for whome I have fent to my 
lorde of Cumberland, for I lefte him in his keepinge. And 
alfo I have for doctor Tpwneley, and doubt not within three 
dales to have them both with me, and foe ihall fend them up.*' 

This is as cool a thing as we ever read ; except only an Baft 
Indian .difpatch, in which a commander informs the Cam- 
pany that he had fup pre fled a rebellion of the natives by ty- 
ing a couple of dozen to the mouths of cannons and blonuing 
them aivay^ and then a dozen more and blo*wing them a^way^ and 
then another dozen and Slowing them aivay, till at lafl the 
fpirit of driving thefe intruders out of their native land, was 
happily extinguifhed. 

* Concerning the bells at Brough, there is a tradition that they 
were given by one Brunfkill, who lived upon Scanemore, in the re- 
nioteft part of the parifli, and had a great many cattle. Qne time it 
happened.that his bo]l/(f//a bellowing, which lb the dialefl of the 
country is called cruning (this being the genuine Saxon word to 
denote that vociferaition). Whereupon hie faid to one of his 

* ♦ Under this head i& the creft of the Wharton arms, viz. a bull's 
ftead (for in the days of coat armour Ibmething terrible was gene- 
rally erefted upon the helmet), which is fuppofed by the common 
people to reprefent the devil in a vanquifhed pofturc : under which 
jiotionawaggifh fchooUmailer once ot that place thus paraphra/ed 
the above legend I 

Here I Thomas Wharton do lie. 

With Lucifer under my head \ 
And Nelly my wife hard by. 

And Nancy as cold as lead : 
Ohi how can I fpeak without dread t 

Who could my fad fortune abide. 
With one devil under my head. 

And another laid clofe on each fide T 

S 1 neighit 

Dic^itized by 


26 z Wftwy and AniiqmtUi of Wedmorland and Cumberland. 

neighbours. Beared thou how loud this bull crunes ? If thefe 
cattle ihould all crune together, might they not be heard from 
Broagh hither ? Heanfwered, Yea. Well, then, fays Bruofkill, 
I'll make tbem all crune together. And he fold them all ; and 
with the price thereof he boaght the faid bells : (or perhaps he 
Biight get the old bells new cad and made larger).— There is a 
monument in the body of the church, in the fouth wall, between 
the higheft and fecond windows ; under which it is faid the faid 
Brunikill was the lait that ijoas interred.* . 

' Of the name of the manor of Helbeck we find a whimsical 

* Helbeck, by a kind of delicacy of the modern proprietors, 
is ftyled Hilbukt as if fo denominated from the bills adjacent. 
But it was of ancient time invariably written HglUfsck; not 
from any infernal idea (for it is a pleafant fituation enough), 
but from the water pouring down, exprefled by the Saxon word 
bellit which is a word not yet out of ufe to fignify the pouring 
out of any liquid :< as htling fignifies inclination or Ip^ing 
afide, as when lailors fay the fiiip haletb* 

When our hiftorians fpeak. of the family of the Mu%raTes, 
we. have the following note. 

< Concerning this Thomas we have met with an anecdote, 

which is cni;ious, as it exhibits to us the form and manner of 

proceeding to the ancient trial by battel :<viz. ** It is- agreed 

between Robert Mufgrave and Lancelot Carleton, for the true 

trial of fuch controverfies as are betwixt tbem, to have it openly 

tried bv way of combat before God and the face of the world, 

to try It in Canonby holme before England and Scotland, upon 

Thurfday in Eailer week> being the 8ch day of Aprill next en- 

fuing, A. D. 1602, betwixt nine of the clock and ore of the 

fame day ; to fight on foot ; to be armed with jack, fteel cap, 

plaite fleeves, plaite breeches, plaite fockes, two baflaerd fwords, 

the blades to be one yard and half a quarter of length, two . 

Scotch daggers or dorks at their girdles ; and either of them to 

provide armour and weapons for themfelves according ta this 

indenture. Two gentlemen to be appointed on the field tp view 

both the parties, to fee that they both l>e equal in arms and 

weapons according to this indenture ; and being fo viewed by 

the gentlemen, the geqtlemen to ride to the refl of the company, 

and to leave them but two boys, viewed by the gentlemen to 

be under fixteen years of ^ge, to hold their horfes. in teftimony 

of this our agreement, we have both fet our hands to this in- 

denture, of intent all matters (hall be made fo plain, as there 

ihall be no queflion to Aick upon that day. Which indenture, 

as a witncfs, ihall be delivered to two gentlemen. ^ And for 

that it is convenient the world (hould be privy to every parti» 

cular of the grounds of the quarrel, we have agreed to fet it 

down in this indenture betwixt us, that knowing tjie quarrel, 

their eyes may be wiinefTcs of the trial. 

^4 ••'The 

Digitized by 'CjOOQIC 

SBfi9rp Md Antiqm$h% $f ^«ftiiiorIand mtd Cumberia nd. 263 

•« The grou^de of the qaarrel : / 

** I. Lanceloc Carlctdn did charge Thomas Ma^ra^^ before 
die lords of her ma^efty's privy Gounoil, that Lftncdot Carleton 
waa told by % geocleman, one of her majedy's fworn r^Vvai>t8» 
that Thomas Mafgrave had offered to deliver her roajefty's caille 
of Bewcaflle to the king of Scots, and to witnefs the fame, 
Lancelot Carleton had a letter oader the gentleman's own hand 
for his difcharge. 

<< 2. He chargeth him, that whereas her majefty doth yearif 
befiow a great fee upon him as captain of Bewcaflle, to aid and 
dlefend her majedy's fabjefts, therein Thomas Mufgrave hath 
neglected his duty; for that her majefty's cail]eof Bewcaftle was 
by hitt made a den of thieves^ and an harbour and receipt for 
murderers, felons, and alhforrs of mifdemeanors. The prc- 
cedest was, Quitiun Whitehead and Runion Blackburne. 

** J. He chargeth him, that his office of Bewcaflle is open for 
the Scotch to ride in and through, aad fmall reiillance made by 
him to the contrary, ^ - 

*< Thomas Mufgrave doth deny all this charge, and faith that 
he will prove that Lancelot Carleton doth falfly bely him, and 
will prove the fame by way of combat, according to this inden- 
ture. Lancelot Carleton hath entertained tbe challenge, and To 
by' God's permiffion will prove it true as before, and hath fee 
his hand to the fame. 

Thomas Mufgrave: Lancelot Carleton.** ' 

—What the event of the combat was, we have not found.* • 

How much Kendal alone will probably Io(b by the American 
war, appears from a paflage in the addenda to the firft volame. 

• As a fpecimen of the large trade carried on in Kendal cot- 
tons, it appears from the cuftom-houfe books at Liverpool, that 
in one ye^r, viai. 1770, there were exported to America from 
that port only between three and four thoufand pieces \ 

ToBarbadoes — 120 pfecea 

Dominique — 30 

y Jamaica — • 810 

St. Kitts — 40 

Newfoundland — 194 

New York —go 

Virginia and Maryland 2693 

Carolina 640 yards ; which may be about 40 pifeces 
more. So that the total will be 3^00 pieces and upwards ex* 
ported from this port only in one year.' 

What oar authors add concerning Windermere water is 
worthy notice. 

' This lake, with regard to the fiflieries^ is at pre(ent di- 
vided into three €ubkUs (as the people call them, which in Mr. 
Machel's time were called r^Ar/ ; but^from what foundation tU 
V thergf the words is derived we have not found) ^ The firft 

S 4 .cub- 

^ Digitized by LjOOQIC 

f $4 ^fi^ry ^»^ JintifuUits of Weftmorland and Cumberland. 

cubble or diviflon, being the high end of the lake, cooiains 
one fiibing. The fecond cubble or divifioo, being the middle 
part of the lake, contains five fifhings. The third cubble or 
^ivifion, beir^g the low end ol the lake, contains fix filing*. 

Mn the year i/74t the houfe called Holme-hoafe in the 
middle of the great ifland in this lake was demolished, in order* 
|E0 be rebuilt and enlarged ; in the place whereof, a very carious 
edifice hath been ercdtcd by Mr. Englilh the prefent owner : 
which having attra^ed the attention of travellers and other vi- 
Atants of the lake, it is thought proper here to give fome ac- 
count thfreof.-A-The birtlding is a perfeft circle fifty-four feet ia 
diameter. The roof thertrof is a dome» flaced with fine blue 
flate got in the neighbourhood. The walls of this building are 
built of a blue flint flone, nubicb c^mt from a place called 
I^acklerigg, the property of Dr. Atkinfon. The ilones njobicb 
•re rai fed from the quarry are very large. There arc.fevcral 
^ones in the bqildlng %vbicb are twenty-two feet in length, and 
a great number fifteen feet. The building is four fiories high, 
exclufive of the garrets* wbicb are in the roof, nabicb is fome- 
jwhat remarkable, it being a dome : the faid garrets are lighted 
frbm the roof, but it doch not in the.leaft affedi the outline of 
]the building. The principal rooms are lighted by Venetian, 
windows, and are {o placed as to have a view on each end of 
the lake. The principal entrance is under a portico fupported . 
by fix columns and two pilafters fix fpot in height exclufive of 
the bafe and capital. The columns Aand on pedeilals fix foot 
in height, and continue all round the building; nuhhb form the 
iirea for the lower part of the building, nMfhUb is nine foot be- 
low the furface of the ground, and cohtains the kitchens, brew- 
. houfe, fervantshall, cellars, and other oflkes. The afcent into 
the above-mentioned entrance is by two flights of circular ileps 
as high as the pedeflal, where there is a large landing before 
the hall door. The whole building is intended to be very ele- 
gantly finifhed, with mahogany doors, window-frames apd every 
other article fuitable thereto. The pedeflal part flands upon 1 
fquare plauj and the proprietor propofes planting different kinds 
of trees in clumps, at a certain difiance from each angle, which 
will form four yift^s from the building. The height from the 
ground floor to the ceiling is fixfeen feet. From the fecond 
floor to the cieling, fourteen feet and fix inches in height. From 
the third floor to the cieling, ten feet in height. From th^ 
, fourth floor to the cieling, eight feet and Bx inches in height. 
.The principal rooms are feventeen feet fix by twenty-two feet, 
and continue the fame from the ground floor to the top of the 
building. — In cutting a large drain on the weft part of the build-* 
in^, which is to take away the wafli from different parts of the 
building to the lake, were found feveral pieces of lead and old 
iron, and a great number of old bricks. About fix feet deep rn 
the earth, they dug through feveral old drains. And a chimney 
Was found in its perfeft ft^te. Thfiy found ?t Uic fame time ft-' 


Digitized byCjDO^lC 

' WtAYx^^^s IntroduBhn to Fluxions* 265 

veral pieces of old arroonf . In levelling the ground on the north 
part of the building, they dug through a beaVitiful pavement^ 
curiouOy paved with pebbles of a fmail kind. They alfb dag 
through feveral curious gravel walks.' 

The fubfequent epitaph in the parifli church of Catterick in 
Yorklhire is curious. 

** Gracia, Belingamii filia, vidua Clibuvni, Gerard iLovtr- 
therii uxor, lediflima fcemina, fumrose pietatis, invitlse pt- 
tientiae, charitatis in pauperes 'maxiroae, ^verborum parcior; 
eximias prudentiae^ fingularis in maritos obfequii, mortis 
adeo memor, ut feptem' hujus peregrinationisvfux annis 
nunquam f ro6cifcereta qoin linteum fepulchrale circu,aafer« 
rtx. Obdoroiivit in Domino, A onoiEtatis fuae 36. 1594.." 

. We will give our readers till the next month to determins 
whether this lady were more remarkable for btxngvtrherum par-' 
€ior ; or for always carrying her fhroud about with her, like 
the great Saladin. 

. In our next Review we (hall take our leave of this work ; 
which would Ajpply us wirh amufing.and enterfaining paflages 
for many more articles, could we fpare room. 

jin IntroduQhn to Fluxions^ defignedfor Vfi, and adapted to tht Capa^ 
citiit of Beginner i. By the re<u. F/HoUiday. Svtf. 6s, Nourfe. 

'TpHE difcovery of fluxions was undoubtedly the moft ufe- 
•* ful that ever was made in mathematics, the univerfality 
of its nature extending to and comprehending every 
-branch, befides performing them in the eafieft method yet 
known : • a difcovery, fays a late author, of the greateft im- 
portance both in philofophy and mathematics ; it being 4 
method (b general and extenfive, ais to include all inveftigations 
concerning magnitude, diftance, motion, velocity, time, ic, 
with wonderful «afe and brevity ; a method eflabliihed by its 
great author upon true and inconteflible principles, principles 
perfedlly confiftent with thofe of the ancients; and which were 
free frotn the imperfeflions and abfurdities attending fome that 
I»ad lately been introduced by the moderns: he rejedled no 
qualities as infinitely fmall, nor fuppofed any part^ of curves 
to coincide with right lines; but propofed it in fuch a form as 
admits of a ftrid geometrical demon ft rat ion. Upon the intro- 
-dudion of this method, mod fciences aifamed a different ap- 
pearance, and the mo(l abdrufe problems became eafy and fi^- 
miliar to every one ; things which before feemed to be infu- 
perable, became eafy examples, or particular cafes of theories 
Hill more general and extenfive; redtifications, quadratures, 
cubatMres^ ^Li^genci^, c^fes d^. mdximu l^ mmmh siod many 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

s66 Hoilidftj^V Itar9Aakn to FUtxiins; 

Qther fiibjeAsy became general prablems, and delivered in the 
form of general theories which included all particular cafes ^ 
thus, in quadratures, an expreflion would be invefligateJ 
which defined the areas of all poifible carves whatever, both 
known and unknown, and which, by proper fubftitotions, 
brought out the area for any particular cafe, either in finite 
terms, or in inifinite feries of which any term or any number 
of terms could be eafily alltgned ; and the like in other things. 
And although no curvtf whofe quadrature was unfucceisfully 
attempted by the ancients, became by this method perfe£tly 
quadrable, there were afligned many general methods of ap* 
proximating to their areas, of which in all probability the 
ancients had not the lead idea or hope, and innumerable 
curves where fquareii which were utterly unknown to them *.' 

The illuftrious inventor (fir Ifaac Newton) of this happy 
method, brought it near to perfedion, leaving little to be per- 
formed by his followers befides illuArating and exemplifying 
hh rnlei ; this has been amply andvingenionily done by Cotes, 
Maclaurin, Emerfon,. Simpfon, &c. and by feveral ingenious 
foreigners, particularly the celebrate^ Euler, who have alfo 
added xonfiderably to the inverfe method of this art. or the 
finding of fluents. This cafe was the only part left incomplete 
by the great author ; and,^ notwithftanding the many partial . 
rules and improvements added by the gentlemen jufl men- 
tioned, it muft bd acknowledged, that it is not likely to be 
^ever brought to a perfed and general folution. 

Several of the authors above-named have been faid by ibme 
to be too abflrufe in their writings on this fub}e£l, for begia- . 
ners ; and therefore others have undertaken the more humble 
employment *of writing eafy introdufiions to explain tho(e 
writings, and even the art itfelf ; fome particular parts of al- 
gebra which are much ufed, and which had not -before been 
properly inveftigated in books treating only on the latter feience* 
Of this number is the author of the prefent performance, who 
gives the following ihort account of it, in the preface. 

* The defign of writing this (hort Introdu6tion was for be- 
ginners, in order to render the entrance into this moil fnblime 
geometry plain, eafy, and delightful as pofDble; which is ^- 
nerally very intricate and nartow, though the fubje^ is admir- 
able, and every part of it ufefal and eotertauiiDg. As the 
entrance into this fcience will always be recommended to be- 

ftntiers with better foccefs, when its principles are explained 
y a variety of examples in an elementary way,th|n by any other ; 
fo I hope I have hit upon a method, better adapted to begin- 
ners, by reafon of its plainnefs and perfpicuity, than has hi> 
— - - / J 

« Preface to Hutton^s Menfiiration# 


- Digitized by VjOOQtC 

therto appeafe^d ; wherein I have eDdeavoured not t4> p«s5%]« 
, and confound, but to make things plain and practicable^ and 
have omitted nothing that might be materially ufeful^ with re* 
gard to the limits of this Introduction. 

* The book is divided into four feCUons, as follows. In the 
firft are given the generation of powers*, and notation of in* 
dices or exponents, of which I have treated largely, which will 
be found very nfefal in infinite feries and fluxions, the want of 
knowing how to exprcfs quantities by indices^* I have often 
found to be a great hindrance to beginners.^ 

* The fecond feClion treats of infinite feries, that is, fheWing 
the method how to pot an exprcilion into a feries, whether it bo 
wboleor a fradlion, affirmative, or negative, i. By divifioQ^ 
2, By extraction of roots. 3; By the binomial theorem, wherein 
the algorithm of indices are greatly illuilrated. The operation* 
at large are. annexed, where there feems to want, any expla- 
nation, and in order to prove the truth of the inveftigatipn, t 
^ave ffaewd how to reftore the original powers, whether by di- 
vifion. or extraCHon, whereby the learner will be enabled of 
faimfelf to raife any multinomial to any given power, or to find 
the root of the fame. I have alfo (hewn the ufe of fir Ifaae 
Newton's fa,mous binomial theorem, by a great variety of ex* * 
amples ; to all which I have fubjoined a method for obtaining a 
formula, for raifing an infinitinomial to any powers, and'fix 
theorems in reverfion of feries. 

* In the third fedion are laid down thefiril principles of flux* 
ions according to the inventor, fir Ifaac Newton, treating 
both of the direCt and inverfe methpd ; the rules are illuflrated 
with a great variety of examples, as well for putting exprefiions 
into fluxions, with feveral uoiverfal theorems, as thofe for find- 
ing of flnents. To which are annexed feveral general propo- 
rtions for finding and torn paring fluents, and one communicated 
to me by that ready analyfl, Mr. Powle of Hereford, 

* The fourth feftion (hews a brief application offlnxions in 
naximis & mini mis ; drawing tangents to carves ; finding the 
length of curve lines ; the areas of curves ; the furfaces of fo- 
lids, generated by the rotation of planes about an axis ; the 
contents of folid bodies, to which are added above [near] forty 
fiuxionary problems with their folutipns at large.' 

Bacon faid that * an introduction ought to have two pro- 
perties ; the one, that of a perfpicuous and clear method ; and 
the other, that of an univerfal latitude and comprehenfion ; 
where the ftudents may have a little pre-notipn of every thing* 
like a model towards a great building.' It would be well if 
writer's of introductions kept thbfe outlines of fo great a niaf^ 
ter always in view« We think they are not to be met with, 
in any great degree, in Mr. Holiiday's IntrpdnClion, ashis me- 
thod is rather dark and cpnfufed, both with refpeCl to the or- 
~der of placing the matecialsy aod the explanation of the rules 


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26t • Pennant'i Teur in Wales. 

and example^. In ibme parts it is too full, and in others to« 
ihort for an Introdu^ion. 

In the compilation of this performance Mr. Holliday feems 
to. have ufed two models, Mr. Emerfon's tnafterly Treatife on 
fluxions, and Mr. Rowe's eafy and elegant Introdudlion ; but 
had the imitation been lefs in the manner of the former, and 
more in that.of the latter, we think the book would have been 
fitter for beginners. We arealfo of opinion, that altbough<an 
IntroduQion to any branch of fcience fhould explain the more 
fimple and eaiy parts of it in a clear and comprehenfive man- 
ner, it (hould not include any other branches preparatory to it, 
unlefs fuch as are- not to be found in books which treat ex- 
prcfsly on the fubjeft ; for that were to write a circle of the 
fciences inftead of an introdudliori to one of them. On this . 
account, the dodrines of general exponents, of infinite ferles, 
and fuch like, are now improperly placed in an Introdudion 
to Fluxions, as they have lately been pretty fpily treated in 
bo6ks of algebra, of which fubjefk they now form a confider- 
,able part. 

Mr. HoUiday does not pretend to have added any new ««/- 
ter to this fubjed; and we are forry we cannot fay his manner 
is better than we have before met with. Some of the rules for 
finding fluxions of quantities are not demonflrated or invef^i- 
gated ; the fe^tion on finding of fluents is too full and in:ri* 
cate ; and that on the correfUon offiuents, imperfefland ob- 
fcure. Howevel*, the book contains a very numerous colle6lion 
of examples in mod cafes of fluxions, which may prove ufeful 
exercifes for fludents in this interefllng branch of fcience. 
-^ , — - I. . .1 ■ » ■. . " ..I.I .. ... .11 <i « 

JTeurinWsLUs. MDCCXXITI. ^to. iL u. White. 

MR. Pennant begins this Tour with a'defcription of Down- 
ing in the county of Flint, the place, as he informs us, 
of his nativity. The pi;incipal objcft in the neighbourhood is 
Tre-Moftyn, the ancient feat of the family of that name. 
The great hall in this caftle is of old date, furnifhed with the 
high dais, or elevation at the upper end, where flands the 
long table appropriated to the entertainment of the lord and 
company ; with another in the fide 0/ the apartment, for per- 
fons of inferior rank. The walls are decorated with ancient 
roilitia guns, fwords, and pikes, and other martial accoutre- 
ments, befides funereal atchievcments, and various trophies 
of the chacc. At the upper end of the hall is nailed a falcon, 
with two bells hung to each foot. We are told that w?th thefe 
incumbrances it iflew from its owner, a gentleman in the 
,^ounty of Angns ia Scotland, on th^ morning of the 34th of 


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September ty??* and was killed near TreMoftjTn On the 
morning of the ^6th ; but the precifc time when it.arrived at 
this place is not exadlly known. 

A room at one end of a great gallery is mentioned as re* 
markable for a Angular event. While Henry, earl of Rich- 
mond was meditating the overthrow of the Houfe of York, he 
privately perforn^ed k tour through Wales, to form an intereft 
among the inhabitants, who were .difpofed to favour his caufe 
on account of their refpedl to his grandfather, Owen Tudor, 
their countryman. While he was at Moflyn in difguife, a 
party attached to Richard III, arrived there to apprehend him* 
He was then about to dine, but had juil time to leap out of a 
back window, and make his efcape through a. bole, which has 
ever ^ince been called the king's. 

In the higher part of this town (hip ilands the curious crofs 
called Maen Achwynfan, or theftone of lamenration ; becaufe ' 
it had often been the fcene where penances were performed. 
This piece of antiquity is reprefented fo be of an elegant form, 
twelve foot high, two foot four inches broad at bottom, and 
tea inches thick, adorned with fculpture well executed. The 
top is round, and includes, in raifed work, the form of a 
Greek crofs. Beneath, about the middle, is another in ^'the 
form of St. Andrew's ; under whjch is a naked figure, with a 
fpear in its hand ; and clofe by, on the fide of the column, 
the rcprcfentation of fome animal. , The other parts are co- 
vered with beautiful fret-work. Mr. Pennant gives no opi* 
nion concerning the antiquity of this obeHfk* but only ob- 
ferves, that it mufl have been ere£led before the introduction 
of grofs fuperilition among the WelHi; as otherwife, it is 
probable that the fculptor would have covered it with legen- 
dary emblems, inflead of the elegant knots and interlaced 
work, which have been reprefented. Near it are feveral iumuUg 
with an ancient chapel, now a farm houfe. 

Mr. Pennant next condufts us to Tre Bychton, another of 
the maritime tbwnfhips, where flands his paternal manfion« 
At a fmall diflance (as ufual in the principality) is a fummer 
houfe, with a cellar beneath, whither the owners and their 
company were wont to retire, when they had a mind to indulge 
themfelves in a cheerful glafs. 

After vifiting St. Winifred's Well, and a few other places, 
the traveller brings us to the town of Flint ; near which, on 
a low free-ftone rock that juts into the fea, flands the caftle, 
a fquare building, with a large round tower at three of the 
corners, and a fourth a little detached. Here the unfortunate 
Richard II. was depofed. 

From Flintfhire we pafs into Chelhire. Mr. Pennant obferve^ 
that the form of the city of Cheiler evinces it to be of Roman ori« 


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V;^ ' Pentiafifi flwr in Wales. 

gin ; Its (Igvfs being that of their camps, accommodated with 
four gate«» The four principal ftreets of this city cieferve to be re- 
niarked on account of their (ingularconilrudion. They are ezca-*' 
vatell out of the earth,;ind funk msoy foot below the furface. The 
carriages are driven far below the level of the kitchens, on a 
Itne with ranges of.ihops; over which, on each (ide of the 
ftreetSy run galleries, or rows, open in front, and baluftradedi 
fer the convenience of foot pafiengers. Mr. Pennant is of 
opinion that thefe rows are the fame with the ancient veftibules, 
and that the fiiops at present occupy the place where the crypi^e 
•Bd aftbeetg formerly flood. 

♦ Of the four gates of the city, fays the traveller, one of 
them, the Eaft gate, conHnued till of late years ; of Roman 

- architefiure, and confiftipg of two arches, much hid by a 
tower, ereded over it in the later days. A few yeai:s ago it 
was pulled down, on account of its (Iraitnefs and inconve- 
niency, to give way to^a magnificent ^gate, which roie in its 
place by the munificence of lord Grofvenor* I remember the 
demolition of the ancient flrudlure ; and on the taking down 
the more modern cafe of Norman mafonry, the Roman ap- 
peared full in view. 

* it coitfifted of two arches, formed of vaft flones, fronting 
the Eaft- gate ftreet and the Foreft ftfeet: the pillar between 
ihem dividing the ftreet exactly in two.* — 

«— ^ The Roman bath beneath the Feathers Tnn, in Bridge ' 
ftreet^ is probably ftill entire ; but the only part which can 
be feen, by reafbn of the more modern fuperftru£iures, is the 
hypocauft. This is of a redangular figure, fupported by 
thirty-iwo pillars, two feet ten inches and a half high, and 
about eighteen inches diftant'from each other. Upon each is 
m tile eighteen inches fquare, as if defigned for a capital ; 
«{id over them a perforated tile two feet fquare. Siich are 
continued over all the pillars. Above thefe are two layers ; 
^one of coarfe mortar, mixed with fmall red gravel, about three 
inches thick ; and the other of finer materials, between four 
and five inches thick: thefe feem to have been the floor of 
the room above. ' The pillars ftand on a mortar-floor, fpread 
<n€t the rock. On the fouth fide, between the^ middle pil- 
lars, is the vent for the fmoke, about fix inches fi}uare, which 
is at prefent open to the height of fixteen inches. Hcire is 
«lfo an ami- chamber, exa^ly of the fame extcAt with the 
liypocauft, with an. opening in the middle intp it* Thi& is 
funk near two feet below the level of the former^ and is of 
the fame rectangular figure ; fo that both together are an ex« 
aft fquare. This was the room allotted for the flaves who 
f^eiided to heat the place y the other was the receptacle of 
• , the 

, Digitized byVjOOQlC 

the fttei defigned to heat the room abofe^ the eomMurmra 
fodath^ or fweating- chamber; where people were feated, ei* 
ther in niches, or on henches, placed one above the other, 
during the time of the operation. Such was the objedt of thh -" 

kypocauft ; for there were others of different forms, for the 
{mrpofes of heating the waters deftined for the uie of the 
bathers. • • 

' I mud ROW defcend towards the bridge, in (barch ef the 
few further reliques of the ancient colooiiis. After palfing 
through the gate, on the right, near fome (k'mners hoafes, is 
a fmali flight of fteps, which lead to a large round arch, feem** 
kigly of Roman workman (hip, , It is now (tibd with more mo* 
dern mafonry, aiid a paflage left through a fmall afch of l 
Very eccentric form. On the left, within the very paffage, is 
the appearance of another round areh, now tilled up. This 
poftem is called the Ship gate, or Hole in the WalL ' 

' This feems originally defigned for the common paiTage 
over the Dec, into the country of the Ordovices, either bf 
means of a boat at high-water, or by fording at low, the river 
here being remarkably (hallow. What reduces this to a Cer- 
tainty is, that the rock on the Hanbridge fide is cut down, 
as if for the coflfreniency of travellers. Afkd knmediately be* 
yond, in tibe field called Edgar's, are the vefligesof a road 
poimifigAip thehsi] ; and which we ifaall have hereafter occaiidR 
to fay, wa9 continued toward Bonium, the pre fen t Bangor. 

* In a front of a rock in the fame tield, and facing thfa 
relique of the Roman road, is cut a rude figure of the Dm ar^ 
mgera^ MiiierVa with her bird and altar. This probably Wfl9 
/a fepulchral monument ; for fucti were eery ufbai on the ^fided 
tyf highways ; but time or wantonnefs has erafed all kh 

— * The beautiful altar, in pofTeffion of Mr. Dylba, and 
-the foldier in the garden of Mr. Lawton, are the only pieces 
of detached antiquities now remaining in this city. The fhrft 
^ 4s t>f great elegance, and was erected by Flavius Longus, tii. 
lyiuie of the twentieth victorious legion, afid hts fon Lewginli^y 
In honour of the emperors Diocletian and Maxim iain. The 
father and Ton, who thus exprefled their gratitude, were t( 
Samofata, a city of Syria. On one fide is the infcription, on 
the oppofite is a curtain with a feftoon above. On one of 
the narrower fides is a genius with a cornucopia $ and on the 
other IS a pot with a plant of the fuppofed acanthus, ele- \ 

' gantly leaved. On the fummit is a head included in a circu* , 
lar garland. I forgot to remark, that immediately over the 
]itfi:rfpfi6n is a globe overtopped with pal^-leaves. If this is 
not a general compUmfefit to their victories, I flKwld imagiiie 
, '• -',**■ 

^ . ./ Digitized by LjOOQIC _ 

tjt Pennant'/ T»ur in Wales. 

it de(igned to exprefs their particular fuccelTes in AhiCtf of 
which, the palm tree was a known emblem. 

• This was found in digging for a cellar near the £a(l gate^ 
on the ancient paven^ent* which confjfted of great (lenesy 
i^round it were found the marks of facrifice; heads, horns, 
and bones of the ox, roe-buck, &c. and with them two 
coins; one of Vefpafian in^brafs, with his head, inftribed 
Imp, Cas. Visp. Aug. Coss. III. and on the reverfe. Vie. 
TORiA AuGUSTi S C. and a winged Vidlory (landing. The 
other was of copper, infcribed round the head, of Conftantius^ 
Fl. Val. Constantius Nob. C and on the other fide, Ge^ 
mo PopuLi RoMANi ; aUuding to a genius holding in one 
hand a /*acrificing bowl, in the other a cornucopia.' 

Having mentioned a variety of particufars, both defcriptive 
and hiflorical, relative to this ancient ciry, the traveller leads 
us into the country by the village of Ecclefton, and foon af. 
terwards into Den high (hire, returning thence', through part of 
Cheihire, to Flintfhire. Speaking of the houfe of Broughton, 
in the latter of thofe counties, *Mr. Pennant thus proceeds ; 

' At the back of this houfe lies the noted common of Threa{i« 
wood, from time immemorial a place of refuge for the frail 
fair, who make here a tranfient abode, clandeflinely to be 
freed from the confequences of illicit love. Numbers of houfes 
are fcattered over the common for their reception. This trad, 
till of late years, had the ill fortune to be extra-parochial : at 
lirft, either becaufe it was in the hands of irreligious or care- 
]efs owners, or was fituated in foreft or defert places, it never 
was united to any pariih^ The inhabitants, therefore, con- 

iidered themfelves as beyond the reach of law, refifled all 
government, and even oppofed the excife laws, till they wc/e. 
forced to fubmit ; but not without blood (bed on the occaftgo. 
The very name of the place fpeaks the manners of the dwel- 
lers* Threap- wood, derived from the Anglo-Saxon Thrtt^iam^ 
to thriup (a word ftill in ufe), ftgnifying to per (ill in a fa£i or 

.argument, be it ^ight or wrong. It is feated between the 

.parifhes of Malpas, Hanmer, and Worthenbury ; but belonged 
to none, till it was, by the late militia a£ls, decreed to be in 

;tlie lad. Still doubts arife abont execution of feveral laws 
within this precind. It is to be hoped, that legidature will 
take an opportunity of rendering the magiderial power as valid 
here as in other places ; efpecially when it is to be confidered, 
that there are to. the amount of xvto hundred and fijbty-(eve|i 
inhabitants, who want inflrudion in the dodtrine of univerfal 
fubmilllon to law.' 

Next follows an account of various places in Salop, or Shrop- 
fliire, whence we pafs to Mcrionethfliire, and again return to 
the county of Flint. 


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PHeflley'i Difqulfitioni nlatwg to Maitir and 6ptriu 17 j 

This volume is cmbellifhed with many beautiful copper 
plates of old buildings* and other antiquities. / It contains a 
complete Tour of the interior parts of Wales ; and the in- 
genious author propofes to give, in a future volume, a de- 
fcriptiori of the more romatttic parts of the* dountry. 

Difquifitions nlattng to Matttr and Spirit* To nvbi<b it addeJ^ 
the Hiftery of, the Phihfopbical DoSrihe concerning tke Origin of 
tbe Sou/, and tbe Nature of Matter : nvitb its Influence on Cbrif^ 
tiafkiiy^ efpecially nxAtb refpe& to tbe DoSlrine of tbe Preexijiemo 
bf Chrift. By Jofeph Pfieftley, LL. D. F. R, S. 8w* 
$s.6d, in boardi, Johnfon. [Contintiidfrom p. 184.] 

'TpHIS learned writer, as we have before obferved, has at* 
-*• tempted to prove, that there is nothing that is properly 
iblid or impenetrable, confequently no foundation for What iil 
termed a vis inertiaci in matter ; but that matter pofTeiTes the 
powers of attradlion and repulfion. Upon this principle h6 
thinks, * it ought to rife in our efteem, as making a nearer 
approach to the nature of fpiritual and immaterial beings, aft 
we have been taught to call thofe, which are oppofed to grois 

In our lad Review we produced fome reafons, which induce 
us to think, that the properties of attraction and repulfion 
neceifarily imply, and cannot exift without that of folidity ; 
and therefore, that a vis inertie is effential ,to matter. ^ 

To the arguments already advanced for this purpofe, we may 
add the following coniiderations : i. Since the gravitation of 
all bodies is proportional to the quantity of matter they contain, 
there muft be what is properly called iblidity. For nothiifg 
can poflibly conflitute quantity, but folid matter. If this is 
excluded, we can only fay, the gravitation of bodies is pro- 
portional to their gravitation ; which is as abfurd, as it would 
be to affirm, that a line is parallel to itfelf. 

2. Though the author has told us, that * matter has no pro- 
perties, but thofe of attraction and repulfion,' yet he goes on 
and alTerts, that it alfo poffefTes the property of extenfion. 
Now extenfion, when we fpeak of matter, mull necefTarily 
imply folidiry ; otherwife there can be no difference between 
matter and empty fpace. The confequence of which would 
be, that there is not one material objeA in creation. — And 
indeed this enterprizing metaphyiician has intimated as m^ch : 
for he fays, * it has been afferted, and the aiTertion has never 
been difproved, that, for any thing we know to the contrary, 
sii tbe /olid matter in tbe fotar fyflm migbt bi contaimd witbin a 

Vol, XLY.~-^/rr7, 1778. T »«/- 

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^74 Priefll€)*i Di/qtafitiom riUting to Mat fir and Spirit* 

^.utJhtlU there is fo great a proportion of void fpace within the 
fubilance of the mod folid bodies. .Now when ibiadity had 
apparently fo very little to do in the fyllem, it is really a won- 
der» that it did not occur to philofophersy^^fffr, that perhaps 
there might be nothing for it to do at all, and that tbirt might 
be nofucb thing in nature* But, 

3. That there is fuch a thing as folid matter is a point, 
which our fenfes clearly atteft. If we have reafon to donbt the 
truth of" their information in this infl:ance» we can believe them 
in no cafe whatever : the world is a fcene of delufion ; we can 
have no affurance, that there is fuch a perfonin nature as Dr. 
Prieftley ; or if we are perfuaded, that he really exifts, we are 
only (upon his own hypothefis) to confider him as a phantom, 
a body without folidity,; and his philofophical treatiie as no- 
thing more than a congeries of attractions and repulHcns. 

He now proceeds to Ihew, that befides the properties above- 
mentioned, man poiTefTes the powers of fen fa tion and thought;, 
and that thefe powers belong to matter : or, in other words, 
* that the whole man is material.' 

In this enquiry he propofes to follow this maxim laid down 
by fir Ifaac Newton, ** to admit no more caufes of things than 
are fufficient to explain appearances." Now, fays he, * if one 
kind of fubflance be capable of fupporting all the known- 
properties of man, wje (hall be, obliged to conclude, that no 
other kind of fubftance enters into his compofition.' 
. We have no objeflion to this rule of philolbphizing ; but 
we mufl obferve, that before it can be admitted, the point in 
difpute is to be proved, viz. that matter is capable of fupport- 
ing fenfation and thought. For if it ft^ould be found in- 
capable^ the rule will oblige us to explode the author's by* 

To facilitate his progrefs in this argument, he diverts mat- 
ter of it^ folidity, allowing it only extenfion, attradion, and 
repulfion. But hs this procefs it does not appear, that he 
gains any advantage. For attraction and repulfion are blind, 
impetuous, and oppofite tendencies. The 'momentum or 
force, which thefe tendencies difcover, evidently (hews, that 
the matter, in which they refide, is refifting matter. And 
where is the difference between the refiflance, produced by at- 
traftion or repulfion, and the refiftance, which is properly 
termed a vis inertiae ? They are in^eff^ed the fame; an^ there* 
fore equally incompatible with fenfation, and thought. 

Oiir author calls attradlion and repulfion, po^wers ; as if tbey 
i<nplied asnatural, inherent adivity in matter. Biit this term 
is employed without any ftri^i, philofophical propriety. For 
that cannot proper>y be ftid to have a power, which cannot 

8 move 

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Pricftley*i Dt/qutfitiom nlathg to Matter and Spirit • 275 

mo^e itfelf, when at reft, nor ftop itfelf, when in motion. 
The word fo*wer is therefore a veil, which the author has thrown 
over his bjrpothefis to hide its weaknefs, and to give^ us a 
higher idea of matter, than we have been hitherto inclined to 

To corroborate the arguments, which he has produced in 
favour of the materiality of the human foul, he obferves, that 
all the powers of man have a con(lant> and necefTary depen- 
dence upon one another ; that there is not a /Ingle idea of 
which the mind is polTclTed, but what may be proved to have 
' come to it fa)m the bodily fenfes, or to have been confequent 
upon the perceptions of fcnfe ; that as the architypes of ideas 
have e>ctenfion^ the mind, in which thefe ideas exifl, cannot 
be that, fimple, indivifible, and immaterial fubdance, that 
fome have imagined it to be; but (bmething that ha§ real ex- 
tendon, and therefore may have the other properties of mat- 
ter; and laftly, that every faculty of the mind, without ex- 
ception, is liable to be impaired, and even to become wholly 
extindl before death. 

Without entering into the difcuilion of thefe arguments in a 
formal and metaphy(ical manner, we will venture to aflert, 
that things would be juft the fame, fuppofing the foul to be a fub- 
ftancc purely fpiritual, but only in a ftate of union with matter* 

Let us imagine an immaterial being, by the appointment of 
his Creator, at his %fl: introdudlion into life, confined, for a, 
fmall period, to an earthly habitation, and only formed with 
a capacity of difcerning external objects* He has no ideas of 
the world, but what he gains, by the help of two or three 
windows, commodioudy placed for that purpofe in the fide of 
his apartment. If thefe windows are of glafs, we are not from 
thence to infer, that he htmfelf is glafs. If he fees twenty 
objeds at a diftance, from which he forms various ideas, we 
are not from thence to conclude, that hehimfelf is multiplied 
into fo many different eflTences j and if the building decays, 
and he is almofi overwhelmed in its ruins, it will by no means 
follow, that the inhabitant and the houfe are for;ned out 0^ 
the .fame materials. 

It may be aiked, what advantages attend the fyftem of ma-> 
terialifm, for which this writer, fo earneftly contends ? He ' 
anfwers, * we thereby get rid of a great number of di^icul- 
tics, which exceedingly clog and embarrafs the oppofite fyftem,* 
fuch as thefe : When was the foul united to the body ? How 
do they mutually a£t upon each other ? What are the fouls of 
brutes ; and how, and where are they to be difpofed of after 
death ? What become» of the foul during fleep, in a fwoon, 
when the body is fcemingly dead, and efpecially after death ? ^ 

T ;^ It 

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ty6 Pfieftley^ Difqutfitions rthuing $o Matter \mi Spirit, 

Is the unembodted fpirit to be clogged by a fecond union fea 
matter I &c. 

Thcfe are difficulties, we muft confefs ; but to get nd of 
thenl, as our author does, by denying the exigence of an im- 
material fubOance, is a mode of proceeding in metaphyftcs» 
which, if purfued to its full extent, muft lead us into many 
ra(h and erroneous concludons. It is only building hypothefes 
apon the weakeft of all poftible bafes. our own ignorance. 

Having thus attempted to eftablilh the do£lrine of ma- 
terialifm, refpe^^ihg human nature, the author endeavours to 
remove fome objedions^ which may be alledged againft his 
hypothefis, particularly that which may be derived from the 
coufideration of the divine eflence. For if the divine nature 
be abfolutely immaterial, there can be no reafon to fuppofe, 
that the principle of thought in man is the property of a ma- 
terial fubftance. Here then he undertakes (o (hew, that the 
doQrine of the proper impiateriality of the Deity has no foua- 
dation in nnture or in revelation. 

In commenting on fome palTages of fcripture, he fays, 

* When the Divine Being Js exprefsly faid to be invjfible, no 
words are ever added to faggeft to us that it is becaafe he is 
immaterial; but we are rather given to underiland, that we 
cannot fee God on account of the fplendor that furrounds him.' — 

— * When our Saviqur fays, John iv. 24, ** God is a fpirit, 
and they that wor(hip him muft worihip him in fpirit and ii% 
truth ;" there is no reference whatever to the immateriality of 
the divine nature, but only to hi^ intelligence, and moral per- 
fedions ; and therefore requiring truth in the inward part, or a 
* fpiritualy as oppofed to a corporeal homage; and this very paf- 
fage is alledged by fome of the fathers as an argument for' the 
corporeity of the divine nature. 

* When the Divine Beiog compares himfelf with idols, which 
is frequent in Ifaiah, Jeremiah, and other prophets, on which 
occaHon they are faid to be wood and (lone,, incapable of motion, 
knowledge, or fenfe, it is never faid, by way of contrail,, as. 
might naturally be expedled in this connexion, that the true 
God is altogether immaterial, and incapable of local prefence. 
On the contrary, we £nd nothing on thefe occafions but decla- 
rations concerning the divine power and knowledge, efpecially 
with refpedl to future events, on which fubje^l the true God more 
efpecially challenges the falfe ones. ' 

* I think I may conclude this fedlion with obferving, that our 
modern met'aphyfical notions, concerning the Uriel immateriality 
cf the Divine Being, were certainly not drawn from the fcrip* 
tures* In thofe facred' books we read of nothing but the in- 
finite power, wifjom, and goodnefs of God; and to imprefs our 
xiiinds with the mqre awful ideas of him, he is generally repre- 
ftnted as refiding in heaven, and furrounded with a fplendor, 


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PrieftleyV Di/qtiijithm refaiing to MaiUr and Bpirit* 277 

tbrOQgh which no mortal eye can pierce. But he is fo far from 
being faid to be what we now call immaterial, that every de- ' 
fgripiibn of him, even in the New Teftament, gives us an idea 
of fomething filling, and penetrating all things, and therefore of 
no form, or known mode of exigence. 

* For my part, I do not fee how this notion of rmmateriality, 
jn th€ firidt metaphyseal fenfe of the word, is at all calculated 
to heighten our veneration for the Divine Being. And though, as 
is no wonder, we are utterly confounded when we attempt to 
form any conception of a being properly pervading, and fup- 
porting all things, we are dill more confouiided when we en- 
deavour to conceive of a being that has no extenfion, no com* 
mon property witK matter, and no relation to fpace. Alfo, by 
the help of thefe principles, which I have been endeavouring to 
eilabliih, we get rid of two difficulties, which appear to me 10 
be abfolutely infuperable upon the common hypothefis, yiz. 
how an immaterial being, not exiftiog in fpace, can create, or ^ 
ad upon, matter; when, according to the definition of the 
terms, they are abfolutely incapable of bearii^g any relation to 
each other,' 

On this extrafl we may obferve, that the facred writers call 
God a fpirit; and that this implies an immaterial being. But 
if it did not, it is univerfally allowed, that they do not fpeak 
in the language of metaphyficians, but in that which is accom« 
modated to popular notions, and ordinary capacities ; and that 
confequenily no inference can be derived from thence in favour 
of materialifm. 

From the fciiptures the author proceeds to confider the dif- 
* ferent opinions, which have been maintained concerning the 
divine effence and the foul of man, by writers in different ages, 
and different fyftems of philofophy ; and from this view, ' it 
will appear, he thinks, to the faiisfadlion of all unprejudiced- 
perfons, that the ftria metaphyfical nbtion of immateriality, 
was unknown to all the wile ancients, whether heathens or 
Chriilians; that it is an upilart thing, and a non*entity; and 
therefore, that the rejection of it ougjit not to give any alarm 
to the feriousiChriftian.* 

In the latter part of this volume the author gives us a hi(^ 
tory of the philofophical dodlrine concerning the origin of the 
foul, and the nature of matter, with its influence on Chrif^ 
tianity, efpecially with rcfpeft to the doftrine of the prc-cx- 
irtence of Chrift. 

As the pre-exiftence of Cfcrift is a fubjeft, which has been 
repeatedly difculTed, ^e fhall not detain our readers with any 
particular remarks, but only obferve, in general, that the 
apihor has oppofed this dodrine by fonie fpecious argu- 

T 3 This 

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tjS Bournes //ty Sermons* 

This performance, though it is the work of an able writer^ 
and fuperior to any that has appeared in favour of ma- 
terialiffi), contains io many paradoxical fentiments and extra- 
vagant fpeculations, that it ivill inevitably meet with oppo« 

Th? author is a bold adventurer in metaphyflcs. He afTures 
us, that the fun, together with the earth, the moon, and the 
reft or the planets, might be packed up in the . (hell of a fil- 
bert. But not content with this wonderful comprefiion of the 
folar fyftem, he ftrips matter of its folidity, and in this man- 
ner turns it out of the creation ; he reduces the human body 
to an apparition, or, more properly fpeaking, to a non-entity^ 
^nd then annihilates the human foul ; and when he has thus 
difpofed of matter and fpirit, he materializes the Deity. 

In a fecond volume, which treats of NecelHty, he makes 
man a machine : but of this in our next Review. 

fifty Sermons on various Suhje^s^ Criticaly Pbilofophical^ and Mo-- 
ral. By Samuel Bourn, z vols. Zvo. lo/. bd. ys boards. 
Robin fon. 

THIS learned writer is already known to the public by 
two volumes of fermons which were published in the 
j^ear 1760, and abound with judicious criticifm, iblid rea- 
foning, and excellent obfervations on the wifdom of Divine 
Providence, the nature and credibility of the Chriftian re- 
ligion, the refurredlion, the future ftate of mankind, and 
other important fubjeds. And here, in juHice to' Mr. Bourn 
we acknowledge, that the author of the account of thofe 
difcourfes in the Critical Review, on their firft publii* 
cation, has by no means treated them with that refpedl, to 
which they were entitled. That article indeed was written by 
©ne of our predeceflbrs ; and therefore we are not account- 
able- for the fentiments, which are there delivered. But if it 
had not, we fincerely declare, that were we confcious of hav- 
ing thrown out one injurious refle&ion in the courfe of our 
remarks, we would refcind the exceptionable fentence without 

, In the Sermons now before us the author treats of the Ob- 
ftru6lions to Religion and Virtue, the principal parts of our 
Saviour's Difcburfe on the Mount, the Caufes of .the Afto- 
nifhnient of his Audience, the Advantages of a religious Life, 
the Benefit of good Advice, the Aggravation of Guilt in Pro* 
portion to KnoVledge/ the Advantage of Knowledge in order 
to Practice, the Reward of fidelity} Prefumptuous Pleas for 


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Negleflof Duty, the Wifdom of providing for Futiinty, th^ 
evil Influence df evil Company, the Deflnition of Wifdom, the ^ 
miraculous Origin of the Chri(\ian Religion, the cverlafting 
Slingdofh pf our Saviour, the Veneration due to the Holy 
Spirit, the Boundaries of divine and human Agency, the Means 
of Salvation, the Meannefs and the Dignity of human Nature, 
human Ignorance and Mortality, Humanity, Peffecution, Co- 
vetoufriefs, Profufion, Beneficence, Self-conceit, Prayer, Sub- 
jedtion to Government, Cenfbrioufnefs, profane Swearing, and 
'Other praftical fubjedls. 

In dilcourfing on thefe topics the preacher has generally 
confined himfelf to thofe arguments and obfervations, which 
ar^ plain and o6*vhus, and adapted to ordinary capacities. Yet, 
throughout the whole, he has difcovered a delicacy of tafte, a 
liberality of ientiment, and a rational fenfe of virtue and re^ 
ligion. ' * 

We (hall only give our readers two or three ihort extrafls 
from thefe difcourfes. 

The fdlowing remark difplays the confummate purity of our 
Saviour's dodlrine. 

* In oppofition to this vice, [hypocrify] our Saviour requires 
his difciples to avo?d oftentatious ^appearances, and to chufe 
privacy in performing their afts of virtue and piety : particu- 
larly, whef! they gave alms, not to let their left hand know 
what their right hand did — A beautiful and nervousj expref- 
fion ! denoting that unafFe^ed goodnefs, which is fatisfied with 

the pleafure of doing a beneficent aftion ; and which is Co far ' 
from proclaiming it to the worid, as to let it efcape eveniheir 
own memory : for to forget what we beftow, befpeaks a noble 
mind. In Iik€ manner, when they prayed, to withdraw from 
the eyes of men; and -when they fafted, to appear with as 
chearful a countenance and garb as at other times; and in ge- 
neral, to defire no witnefs to their beft aflions but God alone, 
and his approbation rather than the applaufe of men. He 
adds this mod encouraging argument. That ^fuch private fin- 
cere virtue and piety would not be loft in perpetual oblivion, 
but redound to their honour at laft, when ** he who feeth in 
fecret vyill reward it openly," 

The following paragraph explains a pafTage in the 4th chap- 
ter of St. Luke, which many inattentive readers have palTed 
over without underftanding ; at the fame time i^^ (hews the bi- 
gotry of the Jews in the time of bur Saviour. 

* He was teaching in the fynagogue at Nazareth ; and at 
. firft the people admired the gracious words which proceeded 

out of his mouth. But as foon as he levelled a ftroke at their 
national and religious pride, by reminding them> that the 
■ ■ , T ^ . pro- 

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M$o BKmrn'tFifySirmwfp 

prophet Elijah was fent to heal iniraculoofly, not any IfraelitOy 
but a heathen woman of $arepta — and in like manner Eliflia 
was fent to heal, not an Ifraelite^ but Naaman, the Syrian, a 
heathen — as foon as he thus intimated to them» that a heathen 
might be a more proper and worthy ohjtO, of bis miraculous 
power and goodnefs than themfelves ; their admiration was 
inflantly changed into rage, and they attempted to throw 
bim headlong from the rock on which the city was built.' 

It is obfervable, that in every age» and in every place, there 
have been objedts fit to excite companion, fpe^iaclesof mifery. 
correfponding to that fenfe of pity, which God has implanted 
in the human heart. 

This providential difpenfation, fays our author, * has an 
evident tendency to improve the virtues and good difpoiitions 
of all, to connefl and unite them, by the moft proper and 
pleafing ties of affeflion and refpefl, of generofity and grati-^ 
tude. This fcheme appears to be bed adapted to a ftate of 
probation, in which men are trained up for a foperior date. 
Fpr it is of far more confequence and advantage, to gain thofe 
difpofitions of mind, which will qualify us for the bufinefs, ho- 
nours, and enjoyments of the eternal world, than only to hsive 
the infelicities taken away, to which we are liable in the pre-^ 
fent world. In this view a wife and good man would be lorry 
for his own fake, if he had no opportunities of ihewing mercy 
and kindnefs, not only as he would lofe one of the nobteft 
pleafures, but as he would wa,nt fit occafions to improve and 
perfect himfelf in fo excellent a virtue.' 

The meannefs of man may be very properly difplayed by the 
confideration of that poor, diminutive appearance, which he 
makes on the great theatre of nature. Our author jufl intro- 
duces this thought ; but has not extended it to its full ad- 

^ |n fituation, we are confined to a little corner of the uni- 
verfe, from whence we may difcern indeed, at an immenfe 
dillance, the fun, moon, and ilars, butVan make no approach 
towards them, cannot leave the furf^ce of the earth, and take 
a flight to other worlds, to' fee their magnitude, and conte'm- 
plate their nature and form, the ends for which they were 
made, or the inhabitants that may poiTefs them. We cannot 
fo much as fur round this globe, or vifit the diftant nations 
that live upon it, without great toil and danger ; fo that 
though we are riot rooted to the earth, like the vegetables* 
yet our compafs of aclion, and fphere of motion, are txceeding 
narrow.' ' * i 

It is above all things neceflary, that theological writers 
ihould pntertain elevated ai^d honourable fentiments of th^ 


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divine nature. Our author fpeaks on this fubje6l with great 

* If we form fuch conceptions of him, as the fuperflition 
and melancholy of fome, and the wiekednefs of others have 
difpofed them to entertain, the mind will be filled with. horror 
and. averfion, indead of the affedions of gratitude, admiration^ ' 
and delight. A fovereign tyrant ruling his dependent crea- 
tures, merely to difplay his power, eafily incenfed againft them, 
and withal implacable, is a character which the whole world 
tnay tremble at the thoughts of, but which no human heart 
can love or confide in. If we adore and worfbip fuch a Deity» 
It will be from a motive of dread only ; if we obey, it will be 
by mere compulfion, and every %6L of religion will be performed 
with the abje^ temper of flaves, not as the free fervice of wil- 
ling fubje^s. It is necelTary, firft of all, that we entertain 
,yi\\t fublime, and engaging fentiments of the divine nature 
and charafter, and to contemplate him, as adorned with thole • 
excellencies and perfections, which will naturally raife ad mi* 
ration and efteem. If we come, with enlightened minds, to 
behold him, as he appears in the works of hi^ creation, the 
ceconomy of his providence, and the revelation of the gofpel, 
we (hall difcover him to be fupremely good, and attradtive of 
the higheft veneration and love. Every a,bje£l impreffion of 
horror will give place to the liberal aiFe£tions of a voluntary 
and cordial adoration. The heart, being influenced by the(b 
views of his goodnefs, can no longer refufe being reconciled 
to him; and all the gratitude and fervice he requires, ^will be 
eAeemed as the moH natural and worthy employment of every 
rational creature.' 

As this ingenious writer ieems to have been particularly 
attentive to his language, we (hall take the liberty to fubmtt 
the following fentences to his confideration. ' Our compafs 
of aClion, and fphere of motion, are txaeding narrow.' Vol. ii. 
p. 248. Here the adjective exceeding is improperly ufed, in- 
Head of the adverb exceedingly* — '^ Wa% this rule of equity uni- 
verfally obferved,- there would be an end of all war and dif- 
cord.' p. 312. * If there ovtfi no fucce(s nor pleafure to be 
•met with, all temptation, all allurement muft ceafe.' p. 23i, 
■ ■ Wat is the pad time of. the indicative mode, and cannot 
properly relate to a future contingency : nvere^ in the fubjunc- 

tive form, would be more grammatical. * We (hall pro- 

' ceed to confider the hardening quality of vice ; which confifts 
in eradicating out of the mind all love of wifdom and goodnefs/ 
vol. i. p. 277. Nothing can be eradicated by a hardening qua« 
lity : thefe two metaphorical expreffions are therefore incon« 
fiftent with e^h other. 

. But 

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ttt AHifiwy •f thi lnU XdVilutUn in Sweden: 

But notwithAanding tbefe, and perhaps fome'other trifling Inac- 
curacies of this nature, it tnuft be allowed, that there are 
▼ery few authors, Who write in more correal: and claffical lan- 
guage that Mr, Bourn. 

M Hiftory of the late JU'volution in Sweden •* tentainiftg an Account 
' of the Tran/aSions of the Three laft Diets in that Country ; pre^ 
ceded by ajhort AbftraH of the Swedish Wfiory^ fo far as was 
mceffary to lay open the true Caufes of thjit remarkable EveUt* By 
Charles Francis Sheridan, Ef^> «/* Lincoln's-Inn, and Secretary 
to thi Britiih En^vcy in Sweden, at the Time of the late Rivoiu^ 
tion, Svo, ^s, Je-wed, _ Dilly. 

I^ARIOUS are the changes which the government of 
^ Sweden has undergone, but iti none of tbofe, was the 
dcfign fo well planned, or carried into execution with fo amaz- 
ing a celerity, as in that which took place in 1772. The 
author of the Hiftory now before us inveftigates with great 
judgment the caufes that gave rife to thi» event, by tracing, 
the Swedifh confiitution through its preceding periods ; firfVy 
from its origin to the accefiion of Guflavus Vafa in 1523 ; fe- 
condly, from that epocha to the death of Charles XII. in 1713; 
and lailly, from this period to the memorable Revolution 
tbove mentioned. 

As we doul^ not of its proving acqeptable to our readers, 
we ftiall prefeni them- with part of his obfervaiions on the 
caufes which concurred to retard the civilization of the Swedes, 
in which they have been much later than moft of the other 
nations in Europe. 

' ift. Previous to the eflabliihment of the communicatloa 
which commerce opens between the mod diHant countries, Swe- 
den w^as, from her northerly Situation, in a great degree (hue 
out from the reft of the world : and if the Swedes were, on thi« 
accouj^, exempted from taking any part in thofe quarrels, in 
which the reft of Europe was continually involved ; they were 
' lil^ewiffi <leprived of the advantages tbey might have reaped 
from an iotercourfe with nations, which had fo conliderably got 
the fta'rt of them in the progrefs ihpy had made towards refine*^ 
inent. The Ruffians certainly could not, on the one hand, con- 
tribute to civilize them,, whilft their conftant wars with the 
Danes, a people as barbarous as (hemfelves, ferVed only, on the 
other, to increafe their natural ferocity, adly. The nature of 
their country, as well as that of their climate, are likewife very 
obvious caufes of the wild licentious fpirit which diftingaifhed 
thefe people. 

♦ Where the climate is temperate, and the foH fertile, they 
dnvite to agriculture, by rendering the life of a hulbandman 


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4 Hift^rj rfthe late Riwiutrcn in Sweden. aSj 

both pleafant and profitable. . Agricfihnre contributes 'greatly 
to foften the manners of thofe who apply them (elves to it, and 
has a natural tendency to promote the love of order and tran- 
quilHty among mankind : it difpofes them to peace, as without 
it, he who cultivates his land, cannot hope to reap the fruits o^ 
bis labour. For the fame reafbn, it introduces among men, 
all thofe ideas concerning the fecurity of private property and 
the rights of individuals, which forni the bails of civil focieties. 
Wtfere therefore the climate is rigorous and the foil barren, as 
in Sweden, the progrefsX)f the inhabitants towards civilifation 
will be proportionably flow. 

* The Swedes were however by thofe circomftances inured 
to hardlhips, which rendered their minds daring, and their 
bodies vigorous. 

* The firft infpired them with a love of independence, whicii 
the Jatter enabled them to preferve. Difcouraged by the nature 
of the climate, they negIe(Jled agriculture ; and the immeufe 
woods which cover the face of their country, abounding with 
game, afforded them a fiieans of fubfiHfnce by hunting, more 
fuitable to their genius than the milder occupations of hu(^ 

* It is obvious how much fuch a mode of life muft have 
contributed to maintain them in their native flate of barbarifm. 
That love of change and reftlelTnefs of difpofition which are 
the natural confequences of it, are confpicuous in the conduct 
of the Swedes, through all the early periods of their hiilory; 
and were no confiderable fcources of the convulfions which fo 
often fhook the ftate. , 

* It is true indeed, that the more fouthern provinces of 
Sweden, were neither unfertile nor ^together uncultivated. 
But as thefe were continually changing their matters, fome- 
times belonging to the Swedes, fometimes to the Danes, they 
were a conftant fubjedt of contention between the two nations, 
and as conftantly the feat of war. This circumftance muft 
therefore have in a great meafure counteracted, among the in- 
habitants of thefe provinces, the tendency which their applying 
themfelves to agriculture would otherwife have had towards 
foftening their manners. Such an eifeft could hardly be cx- 
peded to have become either general, or of long continuance^ 
in a country where every peafant- was a foldier, and obliged to 
ufe the fword more frequently th^n the plough. 

* Sdly. From what has been faid in the preceding article, 
it is evident, the peafants 0/ Sweden ranft have been poffefTed of 
the Qtmoft degree of independency. 

* If we take a comparative view of the flate of fociety ia 
Europe previous to the thirteenth and fourteenth^ centuries, we 
ihall perceive the condition of the Swedifh peafantry was totally 
different from that of the fame order of men, in other Europeaa 
countries. In thefe they were reduced to the moft abjedl Hate 
of fervitude, and were not only deftitutc of any weight or in- 

^ fluencc 

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284 -^ HiJIefy rftht hue Rtvdlutm in Sweden* 

fiaeDC« 10 the government, but were, for the moft part,^ de- 
prived of the natural rights of mankind. 

' In Sweden, on the contrary » the pea(antry did not content 
themfelves with having preferved their independency, and 
with pofTeffing the peculiar privilege of fending depoties of 
their own body to the ilates general of the kingdom ; bat 
they likewife frequently aiTumed to themfelves the diredion. 
of pnblic affairs; took the lead in every reifolation ; and feemed 
to a^ on all occa£ons as a difiindi body, which had views and 
interefts of its own, feparate from thofe of the iiher members of 
the flatc. i^ 

< It might naturally be expeded the gr&teft advantages 
would have refulted to liberty, and confeqnently to fociety» 
fi:om the bulk of the people's being poflefled of fo much weight 
and influence : but the lame cau^s to which they owed their 
importance, not only rendered them incapable of making a 
right, but for the mofl part prompted them to make a wrong 
life of it* 

' To their mode of life they were indebted for that fpirit, 
with which they oppofed' every invafion of their rights. And 
if the Swedifli monarchs appear feldom to have been awed into 
a refpedl for privileges, which the fierce difpofition of their 
fubjeds rendered it fo dangerous to attack ; at lead, it was on 
this account that their attempts to invade them, feldom proved 
fuccefsful in the end. But this mode of life, at the fame time, 
communicated to the people an impatience of control, and 
fiercenefs of manners, that were incompatible with any regular 
government*, and equally repugnant to tvtry principle of real 
freedom* If at one time, it inipired them with a fpirit of re- 
finance, calculated to preferve their liberty; at another, by plung* 
ing them into anarchy, it expofed them to the lofs of it. When 
they delivered themfelves from the opprcflion of the few, they be<« 
came expofed tp the licentioufnefs of the many; and continually 
iiudluating between thefe two extremes, they never once flopped 
at any intermediate point, where a balance might have been 
' eilablidied between their rights and the prerogative of their fo- 
vereign. Ignorant of the true nature of liberty, as well as of 

• • The ancient law in Sweden, which ordained that a part, or 
the whole, of the houfeof any one who had injured another fhould 
be puUed down, and burned, in proportion to the injury Aiftained 
by the party aggrieved j furnifhes a ftriking proof Of the unfettled 
ftate of the government, which wa& obliged to have recourfe to fuch 
an expediei!t. This law has been confidered only as a mark of the 
iimplicity and ignorance of the age in which it was enacted; but it 
may with more juftice be attributed to the difficulty of feizing the 
per(on of an offender, among a people fo little accuftomed to order 
and fubordination. It was, therefore, in that part of his property 
only which it was cafy to Come at, that there could be found a 
means of punifliing him.* 


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A Hiftsry tftU lau Rivduiion In Sweden. a8; 

that of govetnmenty they neither perceived the necefficj of fuch 
a ballance, nor did they poiTefs fkjjjl to have formed one if they 
had. Incapable of forefight, and roufed only by what they fek» , 
they oppofed the monarch, but knew not how to limit the 
regal authority: and in all their ilruggles, there Teemed rather 
to be a perfonal qoarrel between the king and the people, than 
a contention between the popular branches of the legiflature and 
the crown. 

' Union to concert, defign to form, or judgment to execute 
any effeAual meafares, to prevent or oppofe the conflant endea- 
vours of -their fovereigns to acquire abfolute power, could not 
be expelled from men like thefe, - 

« When they fought redred of their grievances, their tem- 
porary efforts to obtain it, were diftinguifhed by that rafh zeal 
and blind impetuoiity, which charadlerife the proceedings of all 
irregular and tumultuous afTemblies of men ; and which feldom 
fail to defeat the very end« they have in view : the opprefTor, 
indeed, often fell a facrifice to their refentment : but as they 
negleded to guafd againft the oppreffion, fubfequent princes 
, were almoft fure to give them the fame caufes of complaint, 
and ia compel them to have recourfe to the fame mode of 

Mr. Sheridan juftly obfei*ves, that the fate of Sweden has 
1;>een fingularly various, both with refpeft to her revolutions 
at home, and the figure (he has made at different periods 
abroad. At one tim^ we behold the nation animated with 
the moil enthu(iaf!tc love of liberty ; at another time funk, 
without any apparent relu£lance, in the lowefl flate of defpotifm. 
Thoie variations, however, were not owing to any fudden 
change in the difpofition of the people,. but to the gradual 
operation of fuch caufes as have a neceflary influence on the 
human mind. Our author clearly evinces, that never, vyas 
there any jundlure in the Swedifh government fo favourable to 
the eflablifhqient of abfolute monarchy, as when Guftavus 
Vafa afcended the throne ; and he alfo lays open, with equal 
precifion, the circumilances which confpired to occafion a 
limitation of the monarchy on the death of Charles XII. 

It appears from this narrative, that at the period whea 
the late revolution was eiFedled, the Swediih government 
was reduced to a flate of the greated weaknefs and corruption. 
Not only the power of the crown, and the liberty of the peo- 
ple, were almoft utterly extinguiChed ; but the ariftocracy 
which diredted all public meafures, was become^the venal and 
abandoned tool of foreign courts. The exiflence of the nation 
feemed to require that a change in its government fhould 
again take place; and the prefent king was every way fitted to 


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2H " A Htficfj 6/ tht late Rivofution in Sweden. 

carry th^ defign into execution. Of the manner in whicli it 
was eflFeded, the author gives the following account. 

* His Swediih majefty, in the morning of the nineteenth of 
Auguft, deteritiined to throw off the maflc> and feize by force 
upon that power which the ilates had fo long abufed» or perifh 
in the attempt. 

< As he was preparing to quit his apartment^ fome agitation 
appeared in his countenance : but it did feem to proceed from 
any apprehenfions for his own fate. Great as this prince's 
ambition is, his humanity is not inferior to it. He dreaded 
left the blood of fomo of his fubjefts might be fpilt In con J 
fequence of an enterprize, which he could not flatter himfelf to 
fucceed in without having recourfe to violence. 

< His whole condud during that day, as well as after the re- 
lation had taken place^ juftifies this conjedlure. 

* A confiderablc number of officers, as well as other per- 
fons, known to be attached to the royal caufe, h^d been fam- 
moned to attend his majefty on that morning. Before ten he 
was on horfeback and vifited the regiment of artillery; As 
he pafled through the ftreets he was more than ufually conr* 
teous to all he met, bowing familiarly to the lowefl: of the 
people. On the king's return to his palace, the detachmient 
which was to mount guard that day being drawn up together 
with that which was to be relieved, his majefty retired with the 
officers into the guard-room. He then addrefled thgn with all 
that eloquence of which he is fo perfcd a mailer; and after in- 
£nuating to them that his life was in danger, he expofed to' 

' theni in the ftrongeft colours, the wretched itate pf the king- 
dom ; the fhackles in which it was held by means of foreign 
gold; and the diiTenfions and troubles arifiQg from the fame 
caufe, which had diflradled the diet during the courfe of four- 
teen months. He affured them that his only defign was to put 
an end to thefe diforders ; ^to banifh corruption, reftore true 
liberty, and revive the ancient luftre of the Swedifh name, 
which had been long tarniihed by a venality as notorious as it 
was difgracefnl. Then afTuring them in the ftrongeft terms that 
he difclaimed for ever all abfolute power, or what the^ Swedes 
call fovereignty, he concluded with thefe words ; " I am obliged 
to defend my own liberty, ^nd that of the kingdoln, againft the 
ajiiftocracy which reigns. Will you be faithful to me as your 
forefathers were to Guftavus Vafa,, and Gullavus Adolphus ? • 
I will then rifk my life for your welfare, and that of my 

* The officers, moH of them young men, of whofe attach- 
ment the king had been long fecure, who did not thoroughly 
perhaps fee into the nature of the requeft his majefty made them, 
and were allowed no time to refled upon it, immediately 
confented to every thing, and took an oath of fidelity to him. 

< Three 

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A Hiftwy 9f tht laii RevJuticH in SweJe it. i9f 

« Three only reefed. One of thcfe, Frederic Cederftrom^ 
captain of a company of the guards, ailedged he had alreaciy 
and very lately taken an path to be faithful to the flates, and 
cofifequently could not, take take that which he maje{!y then 
exa6ted of him. The king, looking at him (lernly, anfwcred, 
** Think of what you are doing," " I do," replied Cederftrom, 
*< and what I think to-day I (hall think to-morrow ; and were 
I capable of breaking the oath by which I am already bound to 
the^ate9,'I fiiould be likewife capabla. of breaking that youc 
majefty now requefts roe to take." 

* The king then ordered Cederftrom to deliver up his fword, 
and put him in arreft. 

* His majefty however, apprehenfive of the impreUion which 
the proper and refolute condud of Cederftrom might make upon 

•the minds of the other officers, (hortly afterwards fof&ened his 
tone of voice, and again addreffing himfelf to Cederftrom, told 
him, ^ that as a proof of the opinion he •entertained of^im, and- 
the cdnfidence he placed in him, he would return him his fword 
without infifting upon his taking the oath, and would only 
defire his attendance that day. Cederftrom continued firm; 
he anfwered, that his maje'fty could place no confidence lu. 
him that day, and that he begged to be excufed from the 

* While the king was (hut up with the officers, fenator Railing* 
to whom the command of the troops in the town had been given 
two days before, came to the door of the guard^room, and. 
was told that he could not be admitted. The fenator infifted upon 
being prefenc at the dift:ribution of the orders, and fent into the 
king to defire it ; but was anfwered, he mufl go to the fenate, 
where his majefty would fpeak to him, ' 

« The officers then received their orders from the king; the 
£ril of which was, that the two regiments of guards and of 
artillery ihould be immediately afiembled, and that a detach- 
ment of thirty-fix grenadiers Hiould be pofted at the door of 
the council-chamber, to prevent any of thefenators from 
coming out. 

* But before thefe orders could be carried into execution, 
it was necelTary that the king fhould take another ftep ; a ftep 
upon which the whole fuccefs of his enterprize was to depend. 
This was to addrefs himfelf to the "foldiers; men wholly unac*- 
qnainted with his defigns, and accuftomed to pay obedience 
only to the orders of the fenate, whom they had been taught to 
hold in the higheft reverence. 

* As his majefty followed by the officers, was advancing from 
the guard-room to the parade for this purpofe> fome of them 
more cautious, or perhaps more timid than the reft, became, oa 
a (hort refiediion, apprehenfive of the coniequences of the mek- 
iure in which they were engaged : they began to exprefs their ' 
fears to the king, that.unlefs fome perfoi^s of greater weight 
and infiuence than themfelves were to take a part in the fame 

> caufe. 

Digitized by 


s88 A Biftity of the Uti Rivoluticn in Sweden* 

caufe, he could hardly hope to Aicceed in his enterpriase^ T)ie 
)cing flopped a while, and appeared to hefitate--the fate of the 
revolution hung upon that naoment. A ferjeant of the guards 
overheard their difcourfe, and cried aloud — '* It ihall fucceed-r- 
long live Guftavus." His majedy immediately faid, ** then I 
will venture" — and ilepping forward to the foldiers, he addreiTed 
them in terms nearly fimilar to thofe he had made ufe of to the 
officers, and with the fame fuccefs. The^y anfwered him with 
loud acclamations ; one voice only faid, no ; but it was not at^ 
tended to. ^ 

' In the mean time fome of the king's emifiaries had fpread a 
report about the town that the king was arrefted. This drevtr 
the populace to the palace in great numbers* where they arrived 
as his majefty had concluded his harangue to the guards. They^ 
teftified by reiterated (houts their joy at feeing him fafe ; a joy 
which promifed the happieil concluiion to the bufinefs of the 
day» ^ 

* The fenatora were now immediately fecured. They had 
from the window of the council-chamber beheld what was going 
forward on the parade before the palace; and at a lofs to know 
the meaning of the (houts they heard, were coming down to. 
enquire into the caufe of them» when thirty grenadiers with 
their bayonets fixed, informed them it was his majefty's pleafare 
they (honl^ continue where they wece. They began to talk ia 
a high tone, but were anfwered only by having the door ihut 
and locked upon them. 

' The moment the fecret committee heard that the fen ate was 
arrefted, they feparated of themfelves, each individual providing* 
for his own fafety. The kit^g then mounting his horfe, fol« 
' lowed by hia officers with their fwords drawn, a large body of 
Ibldiers, and numbers of the populace, went to the other quar- 
ters of the town where the foldiershe had ordered to be afiembled 
were pelted. He found them all equally willing to fupport his 
caufe, and take an oath of fidelity to himt As he pafifed through 
\ the flreets, he declared to the people, that he only meant to 
defend them, and fave his country; and that if they would not 
confide in him, he would lay dowikhis fceptre, and furrender tip 
his kingdom. So much was the king beloved, that the people 
(fome of whom even fell down upon their knees) with tears in 
their eyes implored his majefty not to abandon them.' 

* The kipg proceeded in his courfe, and in lefs than aa. 
hour made himfelf mailer of all the military force ia Stock* 

In this Hiflory Mr. Sheridan's information and abilities are 
equally confpicuous, and he writes with a degree of elegance 
that gtves dignity to the narrative. 


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I 2^9 J 

OifirvafhMS Bn Mr, Honift*/ BUjkry «/* England. £/ T» Towem 
Sv9. 2s. 6ti. Robinfon, 

npHE author of thefe Obfervations is not the firft that has 
•* accufed Mr. Hume of partiality in thq charafler of hif- 
torian ; yet, how far fuch a charge is well founded, may per« 
haps be matter of difpute. • Though the civil broils which agi- 
tated this kingdom towards the middle of the laft century, have 
long (ince been extinguifhed, fo have not likewife the prin- 
ciples by which the 'oppofite parties were a^uated; and he 
who relates thofe contefts with the greateft moderation, may 
frequently, on that very account, be expofed to particular 

Oheof themoft rhaterial objeAlons urged againft Mr. Hutne 
is, that he has reprefented the government of England, under 
the princes of the Houfe of Tuddr, as more defpotic than it 
really was, with the view of extenuating the condud of the 
, fabivqaent fovereigns. In anfwer to this obje£lion we fhould ' 
agree with Mr. IJume, that the Englifli coniiitution was far 
fitbm i>eing rightly poi fed in thofe ages; and it feems to be 
unquefiionable, from nume'rous fa As, that the prerogatives of 
the crown were then frequently exerted in meafures which 
feem inconfiftent with a regard to public freedom, as the latter 
has fince been afcertained. Nor is it indeed to. be expe^ed* 
that before the privileges of the people weref fix^d with gre^te'r 
prectiion, a degree of authority mucV fuperior to what is veiled 
at prefent in the crown, (hould not, on many occafions, have 
been affiimed by the executive power. If thofe arguments be 
admitted, the principal objeflions againft Mr. Hume's repre- 
lentation of the Engliih government before the time of the civjl 
wartf, will fall to the ground. 

But Mr. Towers alfo accufes the hiftorian of doing injuftice 
to the chara^er of individuals in feveral inflances, and even of^ 
fiudioufly endeavouring to diminidi the reputation of the mod 
celebrated Engliih geniuiTes. • He generally begins, fays our 
author, with beilowing feme compliments uppn thenr, and thea 
contrives, with great dexterity, to throw o.ut fuch iniinuations 
againil them, A> magnifies their defedls, real or imaginary, as 
almoil wholly to overturn what he has faid in their favour : and 
the ideas which he eitdeavours to convey are fuch^ as, if we adopt 
them, muil greatly leiTen our opinion of the merit of the eminent 
perfons of whom he fpeaks.' Our author examplifies theie re^, 
marks in the cafe of Spenfer, Shakefpeare, Bacon, Milton^ 
Boyle, and Newton'; but we would not infer from them, an/ 
real defign in Mr. Hume of depreciating the merit of the 
Xngtiih writers. ' 
VOL.XLY, Jifril, 1778. U We 

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Google -— 

t^ Otjervatient §n ilff . HumeV Hifttfy of Englancf, 

W« fliall lay before our readers what is faid of Mr. Humt 
•r a wfitcr, in the beginning and end of this produatbir* 

• Few of our modern hiftorical performances have been more 
read, or mow celebrated, than the Hiflory of England by Mn 
David Hume : and as an elegant compofition, and the pro- 
duftioa of real and diflinguilhed genius, it is unqueftionably 
entitled to great applauTe. But though beauty of diaion, har^ 
inony of periods, and acuterjefs and fingularity of fentiment^ 
may captivate the reader, yet there are other qualifications cf- 
fentialFy neccflary to the charafier of a good hiftorian. Fi- 
delity, accoracy, and impartiality, arc aJfo rcquifitc : and in 
ihefc, it is apprehended, Mr. flume is frequently deficient j 
fo that thofe who read his work, with a view to obtain juft 
ideas of the moft remarkable tranfaflions and events which 
have happened in this country, will, if iljey rely folely on his 
authority, be led to form conceptions exceedingly erroneous 
refpeaing matters of very confiderabic importance. It is, 
therefore, the defign of the following Obfei^vations to evince, 
that thofe who wi(b to acquire an accurate knowledge of the 
real ftate of fads, and to think juftly of the perfons and 
tranfaQions treated of in Mr. Hume*s hiftory, (hould rea^ his 
•work with fonric degree of caution and circumfpeftion, with- 
out too implicit a reliance on his integrity as an hiftorian, 
and that they fhould compare his relations with thofe of other 

• The great obje£l of Mr. Hume's ambition, as we are in* 
formed by himfelf, was literary fame. And in order to ex- 
cite public attention, he feems to have thought it neceffary to 
be fingular. Accordingly, we find an afFeftation of fingula*. 
rity of fcntiment, very predominant in his writings. But 
though opinions are not therefore true, becaufe they are com* 
roon; yet he whp affefts, on almofl every occafion, to differ 
from the generality of mankind, will much more frequently 
be wrong than right. To oppofe the fentln.ents of others, 
when they appear to be the ufult of prejudice or ignorance, is, 
in many cafes, extremely laudable : but to contradidl cftab- 
lifhed opinions only for the fake of being fingular, may juftly be 
tonfidered as a cenfurable affeftation. 

^ • Mr. Hume appears to have been milled by his prejudices, 
. as well as by affectation. And men who write under the ia. 
fluence of any particular biafs, are apt to deceive others as 
well as theipfelves; unlefs their readers are aware of the pre- 
pofleirions to which they are addicted, and the falfe views by 
which they are mifled. And it fometimt^s happens, that men 
atitft'.ng great freedom of thought, and originality of fenti- 


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inenty aiid who preteod to dcfpife vulgar prejudices, arei. at' 
the fame time, under the inftaence of inveterate prejudiced ot 
another' kind, and a^ fl'avifhly attached to a favourite hypo- 
thefis, as the oneanefl of the vulgar can be to thofe prepof- 
leffionsi^bich they have imbibed in their youth, and which thei^ 
>l^ant of education, knowledge, and more enlarged views, haS 
prevented them from (haking ofF.'— * 

— • Th<^rei$ a neatoefs, an elegance, and a perfpicuify, lit 
Mr. Hume's narrations, which cannot fail to captivate hb 
readers. But thofe who' read hiftory from rationaPmotiveSj 
Oiuft wilb .to be inflrudled^ as well as entertained : and no 
elegance of compofition can atone for grof$ mifreprefentationd 
o/ the real ft ate of h&s. Indeed, the greater the liberties 
inay be which are taken by an hiftorian, in difguifing and or- 
namenting fafts and charadlers, and* the Inore whit is called 
hiftory approaches to romance, it may be- the oiorc plcafing> 
but it mu/t be the lefs inftrufiive. It may alfj be rtmarked^ 
that an hiftorian may b^ thought profound, when he points 
Dnti or fcems to do fo, the motives by which thofe were ac- 
tuated of whom hfr writes ; though It may often happen, thdt 
thefe are nothing hot the mere imaginations of the writer^ 
and the motives which he fuggefts, may 'be totalljr dlfFei'ent 
from thofe by which the parties Vvere really Influenced. ' There 
is reafon to believe, that this is not unfrequently the cafe iti 
Mr. Hunie's hiltory. 

; * Though pur hiftorian, froih ' his defire of placing thd 
princes of the houfe of Stuart in a favourable point of view» 
frequently palliates the moft exceptionable parts of their con« 
dud ; yet it is but juftice to him to acknowledge, that there 
are fundry paflages in his hiftory highly favourable to the ge- 
neralinterefts of libef ly, and the common rights 6( mankind. 
But thefe are much more than counterbalanced, by a great 
iiumber of paffages and fcntiments df fo different a nature* 
that we have little reafon to applaud our author for his totx^ 
iiftency. And, upon the whole, it is apprehended, that the 
Obfervaiions which are offered to the public in thefe p&ges, 
mCKft be fufficient to evince, that whatever, commendation ttiiy 
be due to Mr. Hume as an ingenious, elegant, and polifhed 
Writer, he is' not entitled to eqCial praife as an 6xadt, faithful* 
and Impartial hiftorian. Whatever may be the beauties of hift 
ftyle, and however we may admire the eloquence with which 
his work is emhelliftied, it is neverthelefs certain, that WO 
iouft hzie recourfc to other fources of information, if we would 
<ibtftin an accurate kitbwledge of the Englifh hiftory, It 
we would form jUlV Ideas of ^ the ftioft remarkable tranfac* 
' ^ V Z tioofi 

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T93f M JSligy narimp hi CiiiKrborf CiiMlhdC 

tioiis md chara^ers which occur in the aonalt of thii warn- 

Thefe extraAi are fufficient to gke a faroarable opinion of* 
Mr. Towers's ingenuity and candor ; and though hhtklelfp 
perhaps,, may not be entirely void of modifications of theianie 
qualities which he afcribet to the htdorim, hit remarks* 
even where they Teem not to \>e ftrt^iy joft, aft rendered 
extremely plaufible, and »ay be read with adraalage. 

jU EJtgy writttM in Canterbury Caibid^tLU B) Job^Doncombe^ 
* Jf. A. 4/#. II. Dodilry. 

/i T what timeChriflianity was firft intpodaced into England^ 
^^ it is not eafy to deteroftine. The anthor of a Chronicfo* 
afcribed to Maximiis^ bi(bop of Saragofla, affipms , that Jamea 
the Ion of Z^jbcdee ' vifited Gaut and Britain in the' year 41^. t 
Nieephorus the ecclefiafiicat . htfloriaa aflerts, that Simon Zc-! 
lotes brought tfir d«»firiDe of the gofpel * into the- Britid^ 
fflands/ I>orotheiis Tyrius in hia Synopfis feports» that Simony 
' was crucified and buried io> Britain*. Simeon Metaphrafte$ 
tclts us, that St. Peter * cominiied a long time in Britain, 
and converted great nooabers to the Chriftian faith.? So* 
phronius patriarch of Jerufalem fays, that St. Paul * preached 
the gofpel in Spain and Britain.* Dorotheus and others pre^* 
tend, that Ariftobultts, mentioned by St. Paul, Rom. xvi. to, 
was made * bi(hop of. Britain */ William of Malmefbury, iff 
his treatir<^ concerning the Antiquities of the Church ot Gla-r 
fionbury, relates, that St. PhHip * coming into Fiance to 
preach the gofpel of Chrift, and being willing to fpread it far? 
iher, chofe twelve of his difciples, over whom he fee his dear 
friend Jofeph of Arimathea, and fent them to preach the worii 
in Britain^ in the year 63/ This Hory is likewife related by 
John of TinmoHthy Thomas Walfingham, Polydore Virgil^ 
and many others. Nonnius, Bede> AfC?r, William of Mai mei^ 
bury, the authors of the Saxon Chronicle, GeqflFry of Mon- 
mouth, William of Newburg, Matthew of Weftminfter, &c. &c» 
Folate that one Lucius, a king of the Britains, about the year 
i8ot feot to Eleothertus then biihop of Rome, defiring, as 
Bede exprefles it, * ut Chriftianus efficeretur,* tl^.t he might 
be made a Chriftian, or, as William of Malmei^^iry phrafea 
It, *.ut Britanniae tenebras luce ChrUKane prasdicationb il-^ 
luftraret/ that he would illuminate the darknefs of Britain \xf 

* Tide UiHrr. dc 6rit« Eccl. Primord, caj^ i» 


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An Bifgy tvnffnf tm Ciiiifterbin7 G^lsJS^iV^. 193 

%he4iglit of the goTpel. Th«ie writers add, that this reqticft 
"was co^iplied .witby and the king and his people cofi verted to 
'Chi;|ftianity,, But all thefe teftiaioDies conc^ning the apoitles* 
: Jofeph ' of Arimathea, and king Lucius, are of fufpicious cre*- 
dit I atld perhaps there is hardly any thing in them, on which 
we can depend. Yet» as there had been a general intercourfe 
l}etween Rome and Britain during the firft century, it is very 
probable, that Chridianity muft have been propagated in this 
country within that period. 

GHdas, who wrote his Epiftle about the year 580 or before* 
informs us, that ' there were * quamplurimos mlniRros,' grQ(ft 
jiombers of clergy in England at that time* In 596 or 597, 
pope Gregory the Great fent-Auftin, with about forty, other 
monks, into this ifland to preach the gofpel to the' Anglo* 
Saxons*. Ethel berr, king of Kent, and hts. people, . were 
Pagans : but his queen Bertha, who was of the royal family of 
Prance, was a Chriftian. Ethelbert received thefe mifiionaries 
with refpe^l, and permitted them to refide at Canterbury, the 
capital of his kingdom. Soon afterwards Auftin was apjSointed 
archblibop. Upon this pro(6otion, alHfted by the king, he re* 
' {)alrfd an old church, which had been built in the tim^ of 
^ 4h6 Romans, and dedicated it to Chrift f. This was the origin 
of the prefent cathedral. In ion, when Elphage was arch- 
'bifliop, this church was burpt^y the Danes ; and about twenty- 
ieven years afterwards rebuilt by Agelnoth ];. . Some years iS*^ 
; t«ci«rds it was again injured by fire, when Lanfranc, who 
^ Cft|i)e.i|o.ttie fee of Canterbury in 1070, repaired or rebuilt »it 
\i^m its foundation §• After his death, the choir was takf a 
down and rebuilt on a nobler plan ; and, about the year 1 1 %f » 
completed by prior Conrad. This choir, * the roof of which 
was a iky finely painted/ was called the glorious choir of Con- 
rad. Sixteen years afterwards the church was again burnt 
down ; and rebuilt by Corboil j|« Laftly, in 1174, ^^^ choirs 
of Conrad wa^ burnt to. the ground ; the particulars of which 
are related by Gcrvafe, who was an eye-witnefs of this dif- 
after. But foon afterwards a new choir was eredled with milch 
greater magnificence ; and the whole building completed in 
1184. In this form, or neariy in this form, with fome im* 
^proveroents, ir has flood near ^00 years, a noble monument of 
ancient architecture. 

'^ Chron. Sax. an. 596^ 597. B^e Bed* Hift. i. sj, 26. ' 
f Bede, cap, ai« t Antiq. Brit^ficcU oap« %j^ a9«- 

I .Jbid. cap. 3i. Jl 6ap. 36. 

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»94 ^» JSUff writitn in CanterWiry Catbeiral. 

* We have been led into thefe hiflorlcal enquiries by tht 
publication pow before ,U5, which contains a poerical review of 
the rooft remarkable incidents, that have happened in thjs ca- 
thedral, in former ages. - 

« Within thefe longi-drawn iflesi where Cjnthia^tS light - 
From ftory'd glafs receives a cheqaerM hoc. 

Scenes long /org of tin and involved in night. 
With alUheir bufy adlors^Wi^ my view. 

* Princes and peers, whofe deeds of high reBOwi^ - 
In yooihful breads//// fan the martial flam^; 

^ prelates, who propp*d or undermin'd the crown, 
^ Alternate fiibjeds of applaufe and blame. 

• •.• • • • • » 

* Though Silence now her lonelyfway maintaihs^ 
Copes, crofiers, cowls my mental eye furveys. 

And Hill in rfenry's and in Brenchefly's fanes 
The votive mafs refounds, the tapers blaze : 

< Ev*n Conrad's choir fo glorioas I behold. 
With ilars befpangled like the nightly (kies ; 

$hrine$, altars, images, with reiics, gold, 
Acd geD0» Adorn'd, in long fucceifion rife.' 

Henry's fane is a fmall chapel over againft the monument cf 

king Henry ly. fuppofed to have been built for M a chantry 

©f two pricfts to fing and pray for his foul,** as ordered by 

his will. Brenchefly's is a like chapel or chantry,* built by 

' iady Brenchefly, 1447. 

Archbifliop Bccket Was murdered at the foot of the altar of 

* St. Benedidt, 'Dec. 29, 1170, with the fame breath infohing^ 
' his aflaffins, and recommerrding his foul to the Virgm Mary» 

Und all the faitits of the cathedral. 

* Mark well this fpot ! triumphant here in death*. 
Hark ! how proud Becket every faint invokes I 

See ! how he fallf,' and with his lateft breath 
^ ' Infulcs th'' affaffins, and defies their ftrokes !* 

On Juqe .|0, 1 174, king Henry IL walked barefoot to the 
. cathedra), proftrated himfelf before Beckei's tomb, pafled a 
'day and a night there in prayers, and Tubmicted to be fcourged' 
by all the monks. '' 

. . * .*Tiil thca.refi(Uefs, thus fut^ueJ hj Re^e^ 
In garb a penitent, a beaten flave». / 
'Great Henrys dreading a {^ycrtt. doom» 
Lies weeping, faftiiJg 00 a rebel's grave, f 

It is pr#b*bre, that Henry'^ chief ro^tiv© was, not a de- 
ferctace to the ch»fch of Rome, but the hopes. of gaining the 
affedions of his people l^y this' bumlUatiorv, Becket was ge- 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Jh Eiigy mjrkitn in Canterbury Coihedrid. tfg 

vieraily confidered as a martyr, A fuperftitious veneration for 
l>is Ramt and memory was daily encreafing. It was. now near 
four years fince his death. He had been canoni^zied as a faint. 
The very nanae of the church, ili which the murder was cpm- 
tnitted, was changed from that of Chrift, to that of St. 
Thomas, which it retained 350 years. The fnrracles, which. 
wrc fuppdfed to be perftirmcd by his dead body, brought vo- 
taries and offerings to his (brine from all parts oi Chrillendom; 
In 1179, Lewis VIL king of J'rance, came to Canterbury, 
aund oflfered to the (brine of the martyr a rich cup of gold, and 
« precious (lone of great value, which Henry VII1% fet i^ % 
ring, and wore on his thumb. - 

• Tiiither what crowds from every clime repair. 
The iick in body, the diftrefs'd in mind, 

I^eers, prelates, kings ; and all their weight of care, 
By nveigbiier goldajjtfiedy It^vththxtiiiV 

On JuJy 7, 1220, this reputed faint was trandated from his 
tomb to his (hrine, with the greateft fojemnities and rejoijang5» 
Many biihops and abbotis carried the co$n on their fhouj- 
ders, and placed it on the .new fhrine. The king (Hen. III.) 
was prefent.' 

• What pomp, what fplendor Langton here difplays. 

When Becket'9 bones for ages deem'd divine, 
From their low tomb bbfeguioas abbucs raife. 

And prelaies bear them to their fomptuous (hrine !' 

Sept. 9* 1999, archbiihop.Winchelfey celebrated the nup- 
^fjf of ;Edw4i^d I. and Margaret filler to the king of France, 
.aear the door of the martyrdom of St. Thomas^ 

'^ On the fame fpot where Becket bled, a fcene 
^ Of mirth and joy now ruftes on my iighc. 

While the iirll Edward and his Gallic qnee^, 
^ The brave and fair, in wedlock's bands unite.' 

Speaking of Chaucer, and his fellow-pilgrims, wh6 are 
fuppofed to have lodged at the Old Chequer inn, the pqct 
fays : 

• Seel from th* expanding Cheque^ gates proceeds 
A jocund train of votaries young and old. 

And at their head, yclad in paltner^s weeds, 
' Ifright I ween, Dan Chaucer I behold.* 

^ept., 29, 1376, Edward tl?e Black Prince was brought to 
Cajpterbury, and buried in tbe cathedral with great folemnity, 
jthe pariiamgnt attending. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ZgS Am SUgf-njorhOn in dviierbury Cathdrd, 

^ Midft podding plpinea and dirges full and Oowfy 
What tears now ftreanit what f\gh9 alTail my ear] 

My heart too heaves with fyqni pathetic wpe» ^ ' ' 
My tears too ftreaa bn fable Edward's bier.* 

Th^ ajut)ior mentions the funeral of Henry lY. and tbea 
fakci occafion to introduce the celebrated Erafmus, who vU 
fited the chnrch of Canterbury in 1510, accompanied by aa 
Bffigtifli friend [* Dr. John Colet dean of St. Paul's'] whom, be 
calls GrattaiNis PullaS* They were entertained with a fight of 
all the relks, which Krafmus has defcribed with great huiTipttr 
und well direfled fa tire, in his dialogue entitled, Per^grioacio 
ileligionis ergo. 

* Next, Holland's boaft, of every cloiflerM band 

TheJcDurge and dre&d, Er^fmus I furvey, 
"With fmiles attending to the monkish wand f , 

Which paints the wealth that here fequefterM lay.* 

Whe|t Beck^t's fhrine was applied to the ufe of the kiQg ia 
IJ38, the fpoii in gold and precious flones filled two great 
^heds ; each of which was as much as fix or feven ftrong mett 
^ould carry out of the church. 

' « Now fee that hoarded wealth, a regal prize, 
SeizM and difpers'd by Tudor's ftern decree'; 
And nothing left to charm our curious eyes, • 
But marbles worn by many a holy knee/ ' 

The poet having in this manner brought a ,great number of 
illuitrious perfonages into view, and defcribed * fome of the 
Ares, by which the church was repeatedly de(^Fp>yfed^ together* 
with other remarkable circumftanccs, relative to -this ^venerable 
ilrudure, from the beginning of the i ith to the "pr^fent em* 
tury, thus concludes, in allufion to the 0)rine of Becket^: 

< What though, extoU'd by lying monks, this Ihrine 

Its wealth and legendary fame has lofl. 
Richer in Works Wa«e, HeaaiNO, Secrbr, flnoe« 

And a true martyr we in CRABfMEa boaft.' 

There are feyeral paffages in this Elegy, which have not that 
elegance we might have expelled in one of Mr- Duncomb^^fis 
compofitions. Put we are far fVom cenfuring the iogenioui 
author, when we confider the difficulty of fqpportin^ an hif- 
torical narrative (in which manynajp^es of pe^fons and places 
afe introduced) with poetical harmony and beauty of imagery. 
Mr. Gray, in hi$ celebratec) Elegy, had no difficulty of this 
'satnre to eneounter. There is another circod[>ftance, which 
has laid bar author under great difad vantages : and it is fh^ 

* ' ' ; . ' ■ . ' ^ ' ■■' *■' " ■ . ' ■■' . ' >■' ■ * 

• t ^ov; candidH virg^ 4<!nioBftrabat coi^tadl^ fmguUs gemmaf, 
««e* Eraua^ 


Digitized by LjOOQIC- 

Almoil every incident be r»kites require a {Kirticiitar explieation* 
This o bicurity -is farther «ticre»fed by fome deviations f^om chro- 
nological ©inler. it is therefore by repeated fyertMs only, 
that the reader <an enter -intp the narratiye wkh any^gree of 

jt hifcripiion of tht Lines 4ira*wn 0m Gunter^/ Stak^ ^s intproufkd 
bj Mr, John Robertfbn, late .Lihr4irian u the Raj^ai Sotutja 
and executed by Mefn.^tiiT fit affi/filunt, Maibematital InfirJ" 
meut Makers^ Cornhiliy London* With ibeir XJfe and 4^^ 
ealtM to TraSiice^ exempbfied more t/pecially in Navigation 4md 
JJtronomy. Ry William Moun^aine, Matbematicdl Sxammor 
to the Honourable Corporation of Trinity Hou/e 4f Deptfbr4* 
Strond, and F, R. S. Hvo. Nairne W.fllMOt. Si. 6d. 

'"V/i^. ^Robertffon, not long before his death, was appHied fb 
r^-*" by fome genrlcmen of fcience to examine and correfl the 
tervoK Which hod crept into tbe rommon Gunter's fc^te, by 
negligence in its fabrication^ or other caufes. He according* 
iy (et about this work, though he was then in a very infirm 
^ate of heahh, and re-conftrufted all the line§> wi^h fome im- 
frovements, and then had the whole mechanically finilhed un- 
-der his own infpedion, by MefTrs. Nairne and Blunt. But, 
4ying after he had juft begun the defcription of this new and . 
^mprov^d fcale,* the con(^pleting of the defcription and ufes df 
it was committed to the care of Mr. Modnt^ine, Who has £-* 
nifhed the undertaking in a plain and intelligent manner* Ii^ 
the beginning of the Defcription, &c« he gives this ihort i^- 
•counrof it; 

" * This Englifh inftruinent has been for many years in great 
tfteem among the mariners of Several nations, and particular- 
ly thofe of Britain, on account of the readinefs with whij^h 
pautical cafes were iblved by it ; but it having, like marty 
other ufeful things, at length been in general carelefsly £^ri« 
cated, fo as to become a cheap article in the bufinefs of iitting 
put feadien, it was not ea(y, even among fome of the/<iooft rc- 

.putable (hops of inftrument makers, to meet with ^he divided 
with *fuilicient' accuracy and convenience to ^iktisfy a careful 

. ariift, or to accommodate beginners ; for./half of one fide, be- 
ing moftly taken up wjth two diagotntf fcales, it did not giye 
learners' a fufBtient choice of fcales to fit to the fize of their pa- 
per the figure they wanted to conftrufi : and there being no 

. niher dMe of chords \h^^ tp ^ rf^dius (>f tiyo ipchesi aU the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i^ MooiAaifie'i Diftrtpthn qftbi Dnu on Gdnt^r'i ScAl 

circles defcribed were to a diameter of four incises, which oh 
many occafions were larger than convenient : befides, a mer- 
cator chart conftru^ed by the ti^eridian line, gave a degree of 
longitude of the length only of about one eighth of an inch* 
which was much too (mall when applied to a particular cbarr^ 
containing but few degrees of latitude and longitude* Thefe 
imperfections being taken notice of above thirty years fince, 
fome inftrument makers had new patterns made to remove 
them ; and a better fort of Gunter» (as they are ufually called) 
have been in the ih6ps ever fince, 

^ Of late, fome ingenious mariners, and others, have wiflied 
for a fcale of this fort fomewhat longer, and where the meri« 
dian line might be fitted to a degree of longijtude fufficiently 
large to conftrudl any particular chart by ; and the life pf com- 
paffes avoided, by having a proper Aiding fcale : to accommo- 
date the curious in thefe matters, the fubje6l has been re-con- 
iidered by the promoter of the aforementioned improved Gun« 
ters ; and he conceives that an. inftrument with the following 
fcales accurately laid on them» in the order pnqmerated, will 
fujly anfwer their defire. 

* This, fcale is then made thirty inches Jong, two inches 
broad, and about half an inch thiqk : one face to contain^ 
what may be called, the natural fcales ; find the other face to 
have put upon it tho logarithmic fcales ; and in fome conve^- 
nient part, is to be marked two fea feet, each of 13)8258 
English inches; and each foot divided into twelve squill partj|| 
called fea inches. 

« Of the Faci of th Natural Numhm. 

* Hal^ the length of this face is filled with fcales of equal 
parts, which are denominated by the divifions of an inch.; viz. 
fcales of 10, laf, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 5^0,, the left- 
hand primary divifion of each fcale to be divided into 10 equ^i 
parts, and alfo into 1 2 equal parts. 

* On the other half of this face is put the feveral lines whic|i 
conditute what is ufually called, the plane fcalje. 

' * Such as the fcales of rhumbs, chords, fines, fecants, tan- 
gents and half-tangents, fitted to a radius of two inches. 

* Alfb the dialling fcales, viz. inclination of meridians, lati- 
tudes, chords and hours^ to a radius of two inches. 

* A fcale of chords and miles of longitude, to a radius of 
three inches, other fcales of chords and rhumbs, to a radius of 
one inch. 

. :-.•:...:..■ _^ . •. Q^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

* 'Of the Faa eontmnittg the Logarithmic Sealei, 

* The breadth of this face is divided into tv^elve paits^nor 
ftalesy running nearly the whole length; nine of thefe (bales 
may be called iixed, and the other three moveable ; being oh a 
Aiding piece, of about 3 of long, fan inch broad, and of tfit 
thicknefs of the fcale, 

« The order of thefp fcales, or lirtes, are, " 

{I A lineof fsne rhqmbs, marked S. R. 
2 A line of tangent rhuri)bs, marked T. R« 

A line of vdrfed fines, marked V. S. 
A line of fines, marked Sin. 


f Fixed 

5 A line of fines, marked Sin. , 

yf gliding ^ 5 A line of numbers, marked Num. 
7 A iine of tangents, marked Tan. 

' 8 A line of tangents markfed Tan. 
9 A line of numbers, marked Nunri 

10 A line of meridian degrees, to 50, marked Mi^, 

11 A line of meridian degrees^, from 50 to abour^49 
marked Mer. 

.12 A }ine of degrees of loogitude, marked Lom. 

* Along this face an index or thin piece 0/ brafs, about ai| 
Inch broad, is contrived to ijide, which going acrofs the edge 
ofthefcale at right angles thereto, will (hew on the fevep$il 
Jines the divifions that are oppofite to one another; although 
fhe lines are not contiguous. The apparatus at the right«hand 
jconfiib of a brafs bpx and two fcrew.^; the ilider palTes freely 
through the box when the perpendicular fcrewis ea(ed,.^^d 
may be readily fet by hand to the terms given ; yet to be more 
accurate, and to keep the Aider In its true pofitton^ move 
the perpendicular (crew, which, by a fub-fpring, will fix the 
^ider in the box, and then by the motion of the horizon- 
tal fcrew, the greatefi degree of accuracy poflible may be ob- 

• If, by choice, or for the fake of variety, any perlbn wiihes 
to ufe compafTes, as on the conimon Gonter, the (ame may be 
done here, firft bringing the radius on the fiider exa6lly in a line 
with the others on the right hand, and there to continue fixt ; 
t)ut it (houid be obierved, that the compafiTes have very^ fine 
points, and even then, with the greateft care, they are apt to 
indent, and otherwi(e defftce the £ib-divifiohs.' 

« Mr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f5Cf . Murtfter 9^ge, m NdwL 

Mr. Moantatfie' then enters .00 the^ufes of^this iftftru* 
n^enr* which he illuflrates pretty fui]y, and particularly ia 
iJiiWgation^ (be bufinefs towhi^h it is 'more peculiarly a« 

Munfier fillagt^ m No^tl. .% FpL. Small 9m. 6/« Ro^ 


THBSE two little volumes are written in the form of 
narratife, with ieireral letters interfperfed. The Inci- 
dents are not numerous nor very (Iriking, but the charaders 
are naturally drawn, and fupported with confiftency. We 
muft therefore pneient our readers with feme of the entertain* 
snent wl^hmuniberVIDage affords.— The fbllowing dtalogdt 
is held between 'GhiM'on 'tnd a beau, -at a mafquerade. 

< beau.] I hare Teen all parts of ihe woilc), and fhoold like 
to take a viejir of Elyfiuro, being rather tired of tthis fide of 

* Mercury to Cbaron.] He is too friiroloos an ainflial' to 
prefent to the wife Minosi 

* Charon.] Minos, fir^ knows nothing of /ikgivrr«r— bat if 
you pleafe I will row you to the infernal regions. 

^ « 4e»u.] With all nmy 'heart, I believe 1 ihall :fne^t more 
-peopfle of fafliion there ; but, good mailer Charoo, io whit 
v^y fhtll I pafs niy time i 

< Obaron.}Jf you are fond of doing nothing (a fiivourita 
|>affion with many fine gentlemen) The^os kill readily refign 
his f«at to you: or if it is yoor <ge'nius, like many others, to 
(bpofe to be, 

<< Though whhoat bufioefi^ ^t io {iill <eniploy,^ 

yon may join Sifyphus^ or accompany the Danaides. 

* Beau.] ^kiiher ^f tb^fc.wiil fuit me; idlene& is in* 
iipid, aisd I deteft boiinj^fs ! But are there no public places ? 

' Charon] O ! yes 9 gveat variety : > each .perfon in that 
place, pufffues tthofe ifidioations, whereby he had been fwaytid, 
or had nsodeeed htmfelf fremafiable heje on e^cth. 

* fieau.:] There lie fine wofneo the n^ of courie ? . 

* Charoni] A% to women, ^no fef^gUo io the «K>rld comes 
iiptoiit; ae-a.partaf ^whatever the world, fmce its ci^tion^ 
has ever yet pcoduced, of tovelyraRd enchanting aipongft wo- 
iBf^n ^re there a0embl^,<-p*There you ouy vi^w and eaze, with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tdmiraliofli upon Helen* vrboie bowitchin^ chtrms were ft 
deftrudlive to the-family* th« city, and the empire of king 
Priam. ^ On pach fide of her are Galatea^ and Breffis, Lais,, 
Phryne,.and thoufands paore " T here alfo you nuiy behold 
in all their charms, in \hp full luftre of attraction/ and decked ' 
in ev^ry grace, feme of thofe happy fair-ones, whon» the 
greatell poets, fo laviih in their praife^ have in their lays im* 
mortalifed ; fuch, ^mongft many others, are the Corfona of 
Ovid, the Lydia of Horace, the Lefbia of Catullus,, the Delta 
of TibuUus, the Llcoris of GaUos^ and- the Cynthia of Pro* 

* Beau.] I will go; I ana enchanted whh the idea of kt*. 

ing thefe dear cnatures* But I wiU fhir^r the whed and 

diftaflf of the Pef^inies again ft the wall, and fpoil their houfe*^ 
wifery— ril take their fpindiei where hang the threads o( 
human life like. beams driven from the fi)f» and mix them 
all together, kings ^nd beggars I But^haiVee, mafter Charon^ 
is there good mufic ? I cafinot do well without mufic t . 

^ Charon.] There are all kinds of concerto's and.opera^^ 
both vocal and inftrumentaf, executed by the very hji. of the 
Italians, and the mod celebrated voices from every part* of 
the world. There are various pieces performed in all Ian* 
guages, and in aU kinds of tafte, for the umvcrral fatisladtioQ 
of the audience. Thofe who have a tafte for ancien4: Qiuiici^ 
will be more gratified than they can be in Tottenham -ftreeU 
They will hear with admiration the gentle ftuie of Marijus,, be 
raviflied with the thprough-bafs of Stentor, and expire wi(ti 
delight at the thrilling pote of Mifuru^'s. trumpet. , 

' Beau.} All tbi;i is charming; but what fort of a t9bl<s 
is kept 2 One cannot altogether Jive on Ip^t and mufic ; though 
. <^n& muft languijb dnd ixfki without thenit as well as Hniik 

* Charon. [( If you are food of good chear, you have nothing 
to do bat ta pay a Vifit ta Tantalus. Are you thirftyi The 
Styx, the Cocytus, and the Phlegethon preient their waves to 
your acceptance. 

. * Beau.] I fliould indeed rather prefer the ncdar of the 
gods— -^ut as ! ifaail not (lay long (for I mftke it ft rule ne« 
ver to (lay long in a place) -water may foi&ce ( 

* Charon.} It would have been as eafy to have eftep^firofll 
the Labyrinth of Daedalus, as the infetnal regions^t 

' ^ Beau.} I h^ve always (though a$ wild as March^and itt« 
. conftant as April) been a favourite with the fair t Ariadiie 
procured for ket Thefeus a means* of efeape. 

* Charon.] imekeno doubt; fhnn^your conVerfetion, that 
you are .not only the l^vourite, but the bkfled Adonis of aft 


I Digitized by LjOOQIC 

3^ FoitBlGK AlLTtCtit* 

, Ae women: bat fifae will ava?l you ftottiing, Lucifer, thrf 
vtipityiTig Lucifer, though you fliould promife to offer him 
every day three hundred bulls in facrific*, would not Ithd 
you even one of the fmalleft of his loops to, help you to got 
out. . 

• * Beau.] Did not Hercules efcape from it, arfd carry Cer- 
berus along with him? Did ^ot iEneas (with the affiftance 

^of the golden bough, and led by the Cumxan Sybif) take the 
fame journey to pay a vifit to his father f Why may not T, 
Eke Orpheus, go to vifit h while living ? 

« Charon.] Orpheus, was particularly indulge^, . and Eu- 
tydice reftored to him on account of his charming voice, and 
rhe delightful mufic of his lyre ! You have no fuch preten- 
fion's. But Ale£lo, Megara, and Tyfiphone, will receive yoa 
gracioufly and open the gates of Tartarus to you. The leaft 
6t y6ur exploits *will entitle you to their attentions:^—-' 
fbey are too good, too reafonable, too indulgent to re- 
quire from you the very great pains you have taken^' 
through the whole courfe of your life, to recommend yonrfelf^ 

* Beau.] Let us go then» old boy ! I will try what a little 
flattery will do with them ! I can fay with Caefar, I wonder 
^hat fear is !-^( Afide) But 'my heart plaguily mifgives me for 
ail that ! but in my circumftances I muft change for the bet- 
ter ; my money It gone ; and as I never gamed, I cannot ex«' 
pe£t' the ciu6, tr the waiters at tbt club, to make a fubfcriftiw 

firfktr ' 

This agreeable Novel, the author of which appears to 
be a perfon of extend ve reading, abounds with pertinent 6b- 
fenrations on life and manners. A variety of. fubjeds* in- 
ftroflive a^ well as entertaining, is occaironally introduced i 
and we have only to fuggefl, that this writer would pay r 
fittle tiiore regard to corrednefs^ of compofuion, in any fu-^ 
ture work. 


Ulrich Zwingli' J Ltben/bifckreihun^ und Portrait 5 Ulric Zwin'gliV Lifi 
'■ MttdForirmtt pub/i/bed ly Vt\\x Nufcheler, Fri/ffirat Zurich. 8«i;tf. 
Wintertbiir- (German.) 

»p HIS valuable performance is intended for a biography of eminent 
^ $mf» divines. 5 and as it relates the life ofa very refpeaable re- 
former not yet fufficicnily known, we will fclca fome leading faa* 
and feature> fufficicnt to enable our readers to cftimatc his charafter 
and merits. 

' i Zwingli'i 

Digi^zed by VjOOQIC 

FoREiosr Artiglbs** 503 > 

. 2«iriAgH*ft early iiiftru6^ors were Henry Lupulus of Berne, ftn4 
Thomas Wittenbach of Biel. His abilities and learnwg icon- pro* 
«ured hini an extend ve reputation, and even a penfionjrom the 
comt of Rome. . By his early intimate acquaintance with the origi* 
nal texts of the Bible he foop difcovered the eifential deviations of 
Popery from the true principles of Chriftianity. He fpoke his 
thoughu freely j and in cenfuring the ahufes of popeij^^nd in- 
iifting that every Chriftian ought to read the Bible himfelfy he wat 
at firn fupported by the abbot of £tnfiedeln and the biihop of Con- 
ftance. In 15 19 he was appointed a preacher at the great churcb 
of Zurich i thus enabled to proceed to a more capital reformation^ 
and foon revered by feniible men as a fincere teacher of truth. Hi» 
a6livity was quickened by the fame abufe which had roufed Dr. Lu- 
ther's zeal } the fiiamelei^ trade with abfolutions artd indulgences^ 
then carried on in SwiiTerland by Bernhard Samfon, whom he had 
credit enough to keep off from Zurich. So. earlr as 15SO' the fenatv 
of Zurich ordered the clergy to confine their fermoos to the ^oc» 
trines of the Old and New Teftaraents, and to abftain from alttra* 
ditions and precepts founded on mere human authority. In 15149 
the biihop of Conftance oppofed Zwingli, who was from that time 
ever conildered ind treated by theRoman church as a profefled enemy t 
' except by the feniible pope Adrian, who in order to gain him over, 
offered him .every thing in his power to beilow $ but was refufed by 
the zealot. Zwingrrs party was now itrengthened by the jun&ion of 
feVeral priefts, .efpecjally of the hiiiorian Stumpf, and of John Hal- 
ler, prelare of Almandingen, (an anceftor of Mefl; Haller at Berne,) 
for which he was deprived of his benefices. In 1 523, eleven clergymen 
petitioned for a free exercvfe of religion. Several public difputa^ont 
were held at Zurich, in which Zwingli oppofed the defenders of Po« 
pery fo much the more eafily and fuccefsfuUy, as both the contend* 
jng parties had been ordered to ufe or admit no other proofs than 
thofe derived from the Bible. Some of the leading men of theftate 
ridiculed the defeat of the Roman combatants, in a printed fatire; 
Several pricfts refoived on marriage, and Zwingli himfelf, in 1584^ 
married the widow of a nobleman, who for bis fake immediately re<* 
iiounced all the ornaments and trinkets then refervcd to the nobility. 
^ne Hottinger, a (hoemaker, who with an excefs of zeal bad infufted 
an image, was by the Catholics apprehended and excuted. But th« 
defend,ers of imagoes were afterwards defeated in another deputations 
and the images aboliihed : as was the mafs in 1514., after the 
mature deliberations of a committee appointed for that purpofe } 
and in iq»5» the convents and monafleries were. fuppreiTed in the 
city of Zurich. Zwingli's book, of true and falfe religion/ in which 
he declared his fentiments concerning the I.ord*s Supper, which were 
afterwards embraced by the wjiole reformed churchy met with great 
applaufe. But he declined hi^ving any church called after his name, 
and chiefly infifled on the amendment of «the heart. His cares and 
labours were, in 15x5, encre^fed by the exceffes of the Anabaptifts, , 
whofe fanaticifm thf^eatened deitrtt<Rion to every ecclefiaftical and 
political order and government. Some of.thefe fanatics were con« . 
verted by Zwingli ; others were puniOied, but with moderation.; 
and one of the molt obftlnate amongft them, whofe life was en- 
dangered by the imperial pei fecutors, was indebted to Zwingli him- 
felf for an aiylum. In i^t6 the Catholic cantons appointed a fo- 
Icmn difputation atBadeii, where Zwingli refufed to appear^ on ac^ 
' count of an ambuih l^i^ for him, and of a plot to kidnap him 
Hvcn from Zurich.. But ;.c the important difputatlon heidat Berne 
• * in 

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|04 Konyicit^ Aur-^eti^j. 

^1591$ by wliitb po|)trf in thsit c^in^on V9%s {ixhvtft'ti^, he' wil- 
lingly apptszed ; but» thoi^-l^ efeorted by (bme treops, he ira« 
Amx aD* At'Zctrich tbc^ril iynod men in iciSi in which Zwtnglr 
prefided, wrbo.was now unfortunately involved in a dil^me concern^ 
mg tlie peviVmal furefencc of Chrift in the Lord's Supper, with Lq'- 
tfaer, whraai- be yet rei'pe&c^j and apphuded in other articlet. The 
Ilonian Catfaoiift were now more and more exaiperated againft* th^ 
proteftanta; a ckrgyman of tht canton of Zurich was burned at' 
SchweitZ) and Znrich ciencHinced waraf ainft the Catholics; however 
jpeaoe^ai foqn reftore#. At this time ZwingH uttered Co tnild att<l 
Uberai fentimcats concerning; the falvation of virtuotis Heathene, atf 
'drew on hirat fevere reproacbetf from his contemporary* zealots* 
The }awof natav^ faid h«, is a^o a divine law^ and given by Go<l 
• bin»^ to Heathens i and if jthey obey that Jaw, they obey it atfo 
by the grace of God. Zurich at len|[th once more refolved on re<« 
fufing the Catholic cantons the permiHion of purchafing corn j and 
at Scbewits and Uri e-fpeciaNytWere by thehr (itoation almoft entirely 
precluded from every other way of procuring that nectflary, the 
Catholics In a fit of delpatf roit in arms, ami towards the end of 
l^vcmbiery fuddonly attacked and routed the troops of Zurich. 
Zwtngii» who affifted in this expedition, and who diidained to fly» 
waa flaih witb many wounds, and burned : his heart, howeVer, 
•was iaved entire, from among his afhes by Thomas Plater. He 
died at the agfe of forty-feven years, and might have done many an 
impoptant and intereitiAg fervice to his country, if he had faved 
bis Wit by a timely retreat. Tor he certainly was a wife and 
af^ive patriot j an enemy to foreign penfions, he fcvercly cenfored 
the mercenary engagements of Swifs troops in the fervice of foreign 
powtca^ waa very feniible of the adviftntages of a juft and virtuous 
admintfti'StioR of internal government ^ and on many occafioni 
iflBfted Zurich with the mod: jiK^icibus advice. Its coin was re* 
formed and improved; proftitutc* were fupprefled ; the afylums 
fori criminals abotiihed ) fchiio\m?i'Jtef$ were better provided fox and 
encouraged by more liberal falaries ; the places and revenues of ec- 
ciefiaftical fine cures applied to the improvement>Tfchoolsand edu- 
cation^ and even the exceffive influence and authority of a turbu- 
lent and haughty nobility wei-e reduced to a level more confident 
trith the meek and humble fpfritof ChriiVianity 

Tboujg^h deeply immerfed in an a6tive life, in fevere iludies, and 
ntrce duputcs, Zwingli was by no means a (trasger to the graces 
^od delights of polite literanire. He had improved his mind by an 
intinsate acquaintance with the ancient Greek and Latin claffics) 
and bis pranciency in tside appears from a chara6ler of Pindar, 
written aod prefixed by him 10 an edition publilhed in i526« in 
which beclearly difcems and points out the genuine and charafte- 
riftical beauties of that fublime poet $ but more efpecially his love 
of virtue^ bis dncerity and candour. 

I>ifftriatUftt»rlaC9mp4Krtttfin des TkertiMmetres. far M. Van Swin* -■ 
dtn^Prtfefiur al^tufi^eTf&c. Sow. Amfterdam« 

QT aH the treaiifes hitherto publifhed on the comparifon of thcF- 
mometers, the prefent performance feems to be the completed, 
porh with refj^e^ to what the author ftiys of that comparifon in 
gentraT, and to the number of thermiimeters whofe oefcription 
he here publifhes firft, and which he coitparea to fuch at are more 

* Hsa 

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'Foreign A r t i c i e «•' 305 . 

ilh'worV cohfifts of .two partt. The firft treats of the piinc;- 
ples On which the compari.rQn of thermometdrs is founded ; ,of 
^'er'mometer^ in general $ of the diiferences between thermometers 
compofed of different fluids, and of%a varietyof neceiTary and uiefiil 

The fecond part treats of the comparifon of the' different ther- 
mometers ufed by natural phtiofophers, under feveral diftin£l fed' 
tions*. the firit pontains, in feveral chapters, a defcription of the 
thermometers moil in ufe, viz. thofe of. Mcfl' De Luc, Fahrenheit 
Reauniur, de Ll/le, Michely du Creft, &c. The fecond thapter is 
a complete diflerration on Fahrenheit's thermometer : the third on 
that of M. Reaumur, is conieflcdly extradled from M; de Luc's 
excellent and claflical work, whofe principles and refle'dtions havt 

tenerally been adopted, and fometimes iliuftrated by M. Van 
winden. The fecond feftion contains a delcription of the therw 
momcters of Meff. la Hire, Newton, Amontohs, D^irham, Ja Courts » 
^ale?, Richt^r, of that of Edinburgh, of MeflT. Revillas and Sul'- 
z^r; of the thermometers imitated fram thofe of M. de Amontons | 
and of thofe of McflT. Poleni, Cruquius, and Balthafar^ 

The third feftion contains a general comparifon of the thermo- 
meters hitherto defcribed ; the author begins with an account of the 
|3rincipal tables of comparifon that h^we hitherto been publifhed> 
then examines the purpofes that ought to be anfwered by a good 
table; and at la(l prefents us with a very minute, accurate, diftind^ 
and ufeful table of comparifon of twenty -fcven different thermoiHe»- 
tfers, neatly engraved, and fubjoined to his work-j yet alfo fold 
feparately. This plate contains moreover the proportion of the de« 
grees of feven thermometers, and a very extenfjve and interefting 
Rft of the choiceft obfervations for the ufe of natural philofophers 
and chymilts. The third chapter contains a difquifition of the 
jnterefting queflion, ' which of all the fcales deferve the prefer- 
ence;* and an abilradl of MtiF. Maira'n s and De Luc*s thoughts oa 
the fdbje^, accompanied with reflexions; by which our author is ' 
inclined to give the preference to Mr. Reaumur's fcale, and to mer- 

In the fourth fe6tion, M. Van Swinden attempts a defcription of 
Tome thermometers lefs known, and hardly to be reduced with cen- 
tainty to fixed points, becaufe the naturalifts who made ufe of thein 
bave not defcribed them with fufficient minutenefs, viz. 1. thcr*- 
liiometer of Derham, Patrick's, G. Kirch's, de Viile's, KniphoPs* * 
I. and 2. of Hawkfbee, T» iche's, Arderon's. 

In the fixth feftion,' he gives fome reflexions on thermometers^ 
entirely undetermined, viz. thofe of Florence-; the ancient Parifian 
one 5 thofe of Auguet, of Marfilly» and of Paifement. "Thu's the 
total number of thei monjcteis defcribed in this work, amounts to no 
lefs than 58. 

^ In the laft feftion M. V. Swinden examines the alterations made 
either in the figure, or in the fcale of thermometers, in order to 
adapt them to particular purpofes. Thus thofe of MtlT. Soumille 
jund Fontana afford much larger and more perceptible degrees | 
and thofe of Mefl*. Bernouilli, Kraft^ and Cavcndifli, point out 
the greateft degrees of cold or heat which the thermometer has , 
'dicated during the obferver's abfence. 

In the fecond chapter of this fe61ion, the autbor treats of 

^ the alterations made in the fcale, by M. de Luc, in order to 

make fpirit-of-wine-thermometers coincide with iiicrtury ther* 

Vol, XLV, /^/r//i 778, X momcicrs § 

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3p6 FoKBiQK Akticlbs. 

momtttr$i or, to facilitate his calcolations of particular ob« 
fcrvations. • 

.The appendix contains a concife enumeration of metallic 
thermometers, invented and executed by feme naturalizes. Tlie 
author could not enter into a more minute defcription of thefe 
without illaftrating his Account by a very great number of copper 

J)e Catholicis, feu Patriarchts Chaldarorum et Neftorianorum, Com- 
ment arius HifioricO'ChronoUgicuSf AuQore Jofepho Aloyixo Affc- 
manno. 4/0. Romae. 

THE Chaldaean Chriftians have, ever (ince their reparation from tht 
"^ other oriental Chriftians, who adhere to the decrees of ths 
councils of Ephefus and Chalcedon, had a chief to themfelves, 
whom they ftyle the Catholicus, and fometimes the Patriarch. 
Thefe chiefs have formerly refided at Seleucia, and at Ctefiphon, 
and, though they afterwards often changed their reHdetice, they 
have/etained the title of. Patriarch's of Cte/iphon, or, which is the 
ikme, of BabeU 

An account of thefe Patriarchs would be an interefting acceflion to 
ecclefiaftical hiftofy $ but mull not be expelled in the prefent per- 
formance, from which we can only learn the names, and fometimek 
ibme flight iketch of the lives of the patriarchs, of the fynods held 
by «he Chaldsan Chriftians, of part of their decrees, and finally, 
the names and, works of the writers of reputation under every re- 
ipe^tre patriarch.' The appendix contains moreover, a Syriac 
letter written in 1770, by Mar. Simeon, to the pope, in the 
Eaftern ftyle } but utterly uninterefting to hittory ; Syriac and 
Arabic lifts of the names of the Patriarchs $ and an account of fome 
perfonages of modern times, who were moft of tiiem inftru£(ed at 
Rome, and of courfe adherents of the Roman fee, afterwards dig- 
nified with the title, and adtuaily invefted with the office of pa- 
triarch of that always fmalt party of Chaldean Chriftians wha 
adhere to the Roman fee ; but who afterwards retinned to Rome, 
nvhere they fupported themfelves by copying MSS, or by performing 
other fervices to the Congregation de Propaganda. 

Ail the remainder of this voiume may as well be found In the 
elder Afteman's (who .was our author's uncle) Bibliotbeca Oricn* 
talis, or in Lequien*s Oriente Chriftiano. 


Jiares Experiences fur V£Jprit Mineral pour la Preparation et Traxf- 
mutation de Corps MetalUques. Par M. de Rcfpour. %vo, Leipzig* 

THESE reveries of an adept were originall/ piiblilbed in i668j 
at Pans, and were become fcaice. Whether they were worth 
re-printing, xnuft be determined by adepts in the alchemiftical 
Jargon ; rot by profane readers, wjjo would never ai-rive at thi» 
myrtic fenfe of fuch paflages as thefe t 

* Par:e que le centre de la tcrre, joint a Tinterieur de Tcau fait^ 
r^rprit mineral. Le fcl provient quand I'eau envelope la terre, 
l« ioufre^ iorfque Teau & la tcrrc s'envelop^nt £gal(uuent, &c.^ 

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F CI R E I G K M ft T I G Ip B &• 


yourrni ^nn t^cyage qui contjent Jifferentes Obfervations mhiraloftt* 
ques particuliereinent fur lerAgatet it Jur Us Bafaltes,. avic rni De* 
tail fur la Mauiere detravailler les Agatss. 80/9. Mannheim. 

, ' This tour was made through the lower parts of tK Palatinate, &€* 
by Mr. Collini, fecretary to his highnefs the iilfi^or Palatine, 
and has produced many new and valuable rainfi^alogical obfer- 
▼ationsj minutely and acQ.urately recorded in the pref^nt journal. 

X>es SitcUs Chretiens p ou> Hiftoire du Chriflianifme dans fon Etahliffe" 
tnent etfes Progres. ^ Par Af. tAbbe * • •. 5 wi!f . i««ffl.' Paris* 
Ttis hew and elegant ecclefiaftical hiftory is not written on a 
cbroBologicaly but on an analytical plan. The author has fe- 
parated the general fafls which intereft the whole Chriftian church, 
from particular fa6h, that concert^ onlf fome countries, or fon^e 
«:iaflcs of men 5 the hiftory ef the dogma, from that of morality 5 
the hiftory of ecclefiaftical councils, from that of ecclefiaftical 
writers j the hiftory of public inftitutions, from that of perfon$ 
eminent for theii' virtue or their knowledge. 
BJais de Jean Rey, M. D. fur la Recherche de la Caufe pour^ fa quelle 
' I'Etaim H k Piamb augmentent de Poids quand on -les calcine. %vOm 

This vciy remarkable treatife wa^ originally publifhed abont 
I5<> years a^o, when it was little noticed, though it contains the 
folution of one of the moft difiicillt ^ueftions in phyfics. Its author 
Was a man of genius and judgment; whofe performance is now re- 
printed, the original copy revifed, and improved from the MSSi 
in the refpe^liye libraries of the king of France and of the Minims 
at Paris, with notes by M. Gobet. • > • 

J>e i'OpimoH et des Maurst au de Plnfiuinee des tettres fur les Mceurs^ 
i2«io. Paris, 

A feeble imitation of the late M. Du Qos* excellent Confidcra- 
tions fur les Moeurs j in twelve chapters, treating of manners ia 
general, of literature, and its influence on opinion and manner; 
of the influence of ^literature among the neighbours of France j of 
the niultifarious complaints againft men of letters; of^thc ideas of 
equafity diff\ifed by learning in the nation ; of the practice 0/ writ- 
ing on political fubje^b; of education; of ftyle; of honour; of 
critics ; of women ; of the province 5 and of Paris. ^ 

The author endtavours not only to ftiew thC/ empire of opinion 
on manners, but alfo to prove that the authority of opinion be- 
comes beneficial, fince it is now enlightened by learning. He fees 
or paints every objeftin its faireft light, and is rather inclined to 
flatter than to cenlure his contemporanes. 

TraduSion de differens Traites de Morale de Plutarque. Par M. • ♦ ». 
izmo, Paris. 
The Treatifes comprised in tljis volume, are : 1. That a prince 
fieeds to be inftructed. a< Whether philorophers ought to live 
with princes. 3. Of avarice and prodigality. 4. Of loquaciouf- 
jrefe. 5. Whethei; one ought to borrow at an ufurious intereft. 
6. In what manner we m»y derive benefit from our enemies. 7. 
Of the plurality of friends. «. Of chance and fortune. 9. Of fra- 
ternal fricndlbip. 10. Of fuperftition. 11. Of the fortune of the 
Romans, iz and 13. Two difcourfes on Alexander's fortune. The 
traaflai'tioD Is not accompanied with notes. 

X % VExpe^ 

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jo8 Foreign Articlbs. 

UExptdition di Cyrus dtms TAfie Sup^rieure, & la Retraite dt$ Dix 
snille, Ouvrage traduit du Grec, avec det Notes hijioriques, ^««- 
graphiquis, & critiques. Par M. 1' Archer, a loU. i zmo* Paris. 
Another French cranflation of this excellent book, illullratcd 

with valuable notes. 

A la Memoire de Madame G 8i/0. 

A lafting monument raifed by friendfiiip and gratitude to the 

memory and meats of a celebrated lady. 

• Ob/ir«u(itieits pkilcfipkiques Jur les Syfi ernes de Newton »V/r Copermc, 
de la Pluralite des Msndes, &c, price. ices d'une Dijfertation theo^ ' 
lagique fur les TrembUmens de Terti, les Orages, &c. iimo. -Liege 
,ef Paris. , . 

The production of a pfeus clergyman, who fearing left aftro- 
Qomy and phyfic might hurt the inteieAs of religion,, has here 
endeavoured to ftem the tide of modern philofophy. For this< 
purpofe, he quotes authorities that prove nothing, and fa6is de- 
nionftrated'to be falfe; nay the very names and iUtes- are in hi» 
book often disfi|ored. May Teligion never be encumbered with 
defenders like this ! . 

Htfloire Naturelie du Ghbe, ou Geographie Phyfiquet &c. Par M, fjibbi 
Sauri, M.D, &€, % vols, iimo^ Paris, 
Comprizing an immenfe variety of ufeful information, in a AnaH 



Prcpo/als/or a Plan tc^*ards a RecouciUation and Re-union wfk 
the Thirteen Provinces of America, and for a Uniom niuub ib$ 
0tber Co'oniej, Sve* is, bd, Kearfly. 

THIS performance feems to be dictated by good intentions. 
— It has been obferv^d that there is no book fo bad 
from wliich a reader may not derive fome inftruilion— this may 
be laid with truth of the numerous plans offered to the public 
towards a re-union- with America* The plan, however, now 
"before us, is by no means the worft we have feen. 

Tie Conciliatery Bills conjidertd. Svo. i/. 6d^ Cadcl*. 
This pamphlet is the produ6lion of a clear head and able pen, 
aOtiled, as it ihould feem, by no common information.— 
We cannot help confidering it rather as a defence of what 
the minifter has done, than ajnanly impartial Inquiry into what 
he ought to have done — But poffibly it was intended to be no 
more than a defence. 

Unanimtiy in all the Parts of the Britifh Commonnvesiltb nectj/ary to 
r Pre/era^ation^ Inter eji^ and Happtnefs, ^V. ^vo. I/. 

A (hort, .but, at the fame time, a fingular and uncommon 
performajqice.^-lt is the free, bold, and manly (ketch of a 


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nailer) wKo, hurt to fee the daubings of ignorant pMpifs» . 
haflily faatches tip the pencil* and works off the whole figure 
before his generous indignation cools. How juft that indig* 
a«tk>n>i«» his readers muft deterniine. , n 

This politician does not ilop to throw away a (ingle glance 
upon 'what is.paO', but iixes his eye uptin the prefent 
t/ttly important criiis. He fpeaks of Britain, of America, 
of France, and of their relative and feparate interefts, but 
with more Warmth perhaps than judgment : and aiTerts that 
a political connexion between America and France is not only 
impoSible, but is not ferioufly intended even by Franklin. 
He tells OS, chat nations have their charaders, their difpo- 
iitfons, ' their ajfedioos, iind their p'aiTions; as well asJndi- 
viduals — of iheCe charafters'he advifes the ftudy ; to thcfe paf- 
iions he propofes the application. • Show more than the con- 
fidence you want to infpire, fays he, and there are hardly any 
/avaget on earth who would not feel the proper efFefls of fuch 
genuine heroifm.' But if the ill-treated parent, in private life, 
bare her bofom to the flroke of her utidutiful child, did there 
never yet exift the monfter who would ftrike ? We fear our fen* 
fihle Author e?f peels too much from men -^certainly, too much 
from America?is, 

Above all, this writer obferves that * our commlffion to the 
Americans fliould be a re/peSlabU one.'— Alas ! while he was 
yet tracing his valuable advice upon paper, before his ink was 
dry J Mr. and Mrs. Eden, and lord Carlifle, who is fpeedily to 
be followed by her ladyihip, had failed for Anierica. 

ji Litter to the Hon. C s F— x upon his Proceedings in P ■ / 

upon that memorable Day f Tuefday, Feb. 17, 1778. %vo, is. 
Fielding and Walker^ 

A publication from which the reader is to learn that Mr. C— * 

F — is the only true patriot this country can boaft a difco- 

ytry which this writer only has been lu;;ky enough to make. Cre^ 
dat Judaus Jpeila i Irfdeed we a 1 moll fufpeft it to be the pro- 
dudlion of fomc of that honourable gentleman'* Jewifti Afullas^ 
with a view of procuring him a place, and « paying themrelves 
with the profits. 

An JppeaVto the People ^England, in the pr^fent Situation ef Nu' 
tional Affairs ; and to the Caunty r/* Norfolk, on feme late Tranf- 
aShns and Reports. ' 8i;o. 6J. Bew. 

' A fenfible pidlure of the times, chiefly calculated to rouze 
the county of Norfolk into that indignation againft .France' 

which feems to fire the whole kingdom. In many places this 

writer is rather vvarm*-*but what writer is not fo, wno chinks his 
country in danger ? « 


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^ P'O E T K Y. 

t rFaihiottt or thf Art of ^tntimental Potiry. 4/#» 
fit^fi^^'^' ^ IS. Beckct. 

' rOftm >' ^^ proda£tioii, it i«ems» of the pleafing 

-^^r 'to whom the public were obliged for The Projcaj 

^/*wbich ivc /poke in our laft Review* It by no means 

difsr^ccB its author, and is a proof of the i^iprovement of 

his gcnios. 

The Wreath of Fafhlon is levelled at the fame vice in the 
poetical world, at which the School for Scandal was aimed in 
the theatrical and moral worlds, — at the prefent faftionable ilraia 
of fen ti mental whining. .Our poet", indeed; takes occafioa to 
boall his friendOiip with the author of the School for Scandal. 
We ihall quote ihe lines, *as they will give our readers an idea 
pf the plan of the poem. 

* At Fafliion's (hrine, behold a gentler bard, 
Gaze on the myftic vafe with fond regard-^- 
But (ee, Thalia checks the doubtful thought. 

f* Canft thou ((he cries) with fenfe, with genius fraught, 

Canft thou to Fafliion's tyranny fubmit, • 

Secure in native,, independant wit ? 

Or yi^Id to ientiment's infipid rule. 

By talte, by fancy, chac'd thro' Scandari School f 

Ah, no I-— be Sheridan's the comic page; 

Or le^ me fly with Garrick from the ftage." 

* Hafte then, my friend, (for let me boaft that name) 
Halle to the opening path of genuine fame : 

Or, if thy mu(e a gentler theme purfue, 

Ab, 'tistolcve, aird thy Eliza, due! 

For fure the fweeteft lay (he well may claim, 

Whofe fbul breaths harmony o'er all her frame j 

Wiiile wedded love, with ray ferenely clear. 

Beams from her eye, as from its proper fphere.' 

The laft couplet is particularly beautiful. — Our poet thas hap- 
pily defcribes the my/tic <vafe into which the tandidates for th^ 
Wfe4th throw their compoiitions. 

' On a fprucc pedeftal of Wedgwood ware. 
Where naotley forms, and tawdry emblems gl^re^^ 
Behold ftie conucrates to cold applau(e« 
A petrefaflion, wq^k'd into a vafe : 
THe vafe of fentiment ! — to this impart 
Thy kindred coldnefs, and congenial art, 
Here, (as in humbler fcenes, from cards and Joi|t, 
I»"illar cpnvenes her literary rout) 
With votive fong, anfl tributary verfe, 
F^fliion's gay train her gentk rites rchearfe. 
What foft poetic inceniie breaths around l- 
What foothing hymns from adulation found I* 

The fubfequcnt eight Jines ar^ %^ elegant, perhaps, as any this 
ffgejiasfcen^ ^ / 

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M OUT n L r C A T A i o 9 I. 3ii 

< Mulgravel whofe mule nor winds nor waves controuli 
t^ould bravely pen acroftics-r-on the Pole. 
Warm with poetic fire the Northern air, 
And (both with tuneful raptures— the great bear i 
Join but his poetry to Burgoyne*s profe, 
, Armies ihaliytf///?/?^^/ and py rates </(?2f. 

So when the rebel winds on Neptune fell, 
They funk to reft, at found of Triton's (hell/ 
The only fault we are able to difcover in this poem is tbe praife 
it beftows upon Shenftone. Simplicityi we (hould hope, is not 
«lead— - we are fure (he did not die with Shenilone : nor does 

* -»-~.vanqui(h*d nature mourn 

Her loft (implicity o*cr Shcnltone's urn.' 
We have only to add, of this performance, th^t its author has 
clearly gained the nureath of poetry, and we hope it will proyd 
the wreath o/fajhit^n f He deferves it ihould. 

t)ttur pukhricri, > 

A Sentimtutdl Journey to Bath, Briftol, and Us Environs. By 
William Heard, ^to. 55. Beckit. 

This is by much the moft tirefome journey we ever travelled/ 
In a littlo time we may exped to fee fentimental ftage- coaches 
and diligences advcrtifed, to any part of his majelly's domi^ 

Mifs H. More is the perfonage chiefly be-rhymed with this 
gentleman's fentiments, of whom ho^either iings or fays-t^r*. 

* From TindaPs charming villa we defcend. 
To where fefides the poet and the friend, 
Where genius lives 5 wher* tafte and wit combine | 
Where fancy wantons with the tuneful Nine. 

Ob, More ! a mu(e to paint thy generous heart, 
«• Muft catch a grace beyond the reach of art," 
Devoid of pedantry,, thy i^umbcrs flow. 
And fwcet inftruftioa with'^dellght beftow : 
The rough, unpolifh'd manners you refine. 
For fcnfe and fenfibiliiy are thine 5 ' 
All thofe fwcet courtefies that friend(hip loves, 
AH that the heart fufceptible approves. 
Spontaneous flow with fuch peculiar grace 
As time fr«m memory can ne*er efface ; 
*' O be thou bleft with all that heaven can fend, 
Long life, long health, long pleafure, and a friend.** 
This may be fentimental,-— we think it is neither originaJt 
poetical, 'nor any thibg elfe quod exit in al. 

The Journey of Dr. Robert Boiigoat, and his Lady to Bath, 
Small %vo. is, 6d. Jen»td. Dodfley. 
Another journey to Bath ! which feems to have been lately 
the fafliionable refort of poets. We catinot fay of them, as 
Yoiiiig fays of his female charioteer, that they 
< Wbiftle fweet their diuretic flrains.* 
This is not a featimental journey ; but it is almoft as bad and 
as dull. ■ 

X4 i'J^O' 

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-r^ii MoHTHLT Cataloovs* 

Lihrty and Patristi/m; a Mifcelianeous Odi^ &€• 4/^, j/« 
^ Fielding tf»^ Walker. 

A lively, elegant fatire upon modern patriotifm, of niuch rae-i 
rit ;' but, like all pariy-ppblications, whether in profeor verfc, 
Sometimes too fevere. 

Royal Perfe^viffime, A Poem. \to^ i/. hd, Bew. 

.., This piiblicatipQ abounds with all the virulence of Churchill, 
^nd only wants the fire and fpirit and poetry of that writer's 
compoiition^ to poiTcfs as much merit, and to defer ve as mQcb 
praife. It has little to recommend it but the violence of party, 
and the jcmphafis of Italuh. Writers fhoald be careful how 

^hey ufc Italicks they almoft always offer an infult to. the 

lindcrftanding of readers. — Dlredlion-pofts are only neceiTary 
where two ways meet, They are the worft painters who have 
occaiibn to write under their worlds — * this is a Uon,' * this is 9^ 

Ah Heroic Epiftle to an utifirtunate Monarch ^ &c, 4/^. i/. 6d^ 

Eighteen pennyworth of low and virulent abufe. But they 
who write fach Epiftles for bread, are, ifpofllble, lefs culpable 
th^ they who read tjiem for— pleafure. 

Mammonial Overtures from an enamoured Lady to Lord G % 

G— rm— ne, 4/1). u. 6d. Bew. 
Our criticifm of the lall article may be juflly appUe4 to thi% 

A Poetical Efiftle addrrjfid to William, Earl of Mansfield. 44^, 
is, Bew, 

We are happy to be able to fpeak raiher better of this per- 
formance than of theCiceroniad. The lines are more mufical y 
it is a little more like poetry : and it is^^r/rr-=-No vulgar codfi- 
(deration to 'us, who muil read the tuholc of fuch publications^ 
Notwithflanding thefe praifes, it is our advice to this gen- 
tleman* to quit the dangerous Heeps of Parnafius. In all 
this Poetical Epiftle, as the author choofes to call it, there 
is not one poeiical idea, whether original or even {^orrowtd, 
that we have been able to difcover, The whole is little more 
than ^ twelvepenny tranflation of Lord Mansfield's motta« 
*vir!utl^atque fjus dmicis% or, in the words of Pope, whof<^ 
Epiftle to Lor4 Mansfield our author feems to have read m^ri . 
than cnce, 

* Tp virtue only, and her friends, a friend/ 

^ Our poet does not appear to be well read in the Rambler, 
pr he would never have written thefe two lines — r— 

* Sooner (hall fenfe in Johnfon's periods flow-^ 
Than knaves and foojs revere a Mansfield's naoyj.' 


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MoKiT'HLr Cataloqvb. 31J 

It ihonld feem by this fai^e Epillle that Lord Mansfield and 
his bard are abufed, the former by the worlds and the latter by 
the criticks, becaofe they 

i^< Follow virtue for fair Virtue's fake/ 

We do not prefume to determine whether our poet be, as 
be fays, 

* S^ilt fond of virtue, though ftie brings no dower i 
Tb6 fame to me in high or Iqw ^ftate. 
Whether flie gains me love, or gains me hate $ 
Whether Jhe make^ me foes, or makes me friends, 
• The fame my motives, and th^ fame my ends.* 

All this may be true-— we can only anfwer, that Virtue is a 
epod kind of a lady, but not one of the nine Mufes. 

J» Elegy on tbi Death o/tJ^e late George Lanl Pigot. /^fc, u. 6d. 

Ycry/ad indeed ! — ^The coroner's jury brought in their ver- 
did wil/ul murder, it is faid— <Our critical in^ueft returns the 
fame verdift. 

4n Af^logj for tbi Times : A Porm^ addreffed i9 the King* ^to» 
2j. 6d* Rivington. ' 
Though this performance is too diffufe, and abounds with 
repetitions, jthe author is no contemptible fatyrift : his, language 
is generally animated, and his chara^ers drawn with fpirit. He 
is a ftaunch loyalift, and pafles fome high encomiums dn his 
majefiy, lord North, and other refpe£lable characters ; but ve- 
hemently' fatirizes the fomenters of the prefent rebellion, the 
mock patriots, demagogues, declaimers, and fcri biers, 'who 
do nothing but harrafs the minifters of ftace, in their moft laud* 
ai^Ie exertions, and perplex the minds of the people with their 
lamentable predidtions, and feditioos effufions. The following 
lines, which may ferve as a fpecimen. of the writer's poetical 
abilities, very properly charaderizes the martial fpirit and the 
generofity of old England ; and the ingratitude of her difcon- 
ientedy fanatical^ and rebellious children. 

* What bold invader haft thou not fubdu'd ? 

What daring foe with vidl'ry not purfu'd ? 
Whom haft thou not relieved, when fad diftreft 
' Hath fu'd for aid, and fuppHant begg'd rcdrcfs ? 
Foe to oppreffion, happy ftill to blefs. 
Thy attribute is mercy in exce/s. 
Let Yankee Doodle, thy ungrateful fon, 
Tellwhat for him thy gen'rous heart hath-done : 
What trcafures haft thou fpent, what battles fought ? 
What prodigies of matchlefs valour wrought ? 
How oft for him hath thy fond bofom bled ; 
Shed fi^as of blood, heap*d mountains of the dead ?, 
When pale dtfmay fat anxious on his brow, 
yrg'd on both.iides^ by French and Indian foe | 


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Tf lumpbant to hit aid thy legionl At^f 

Taught him to« fight, and inanfuHy fubdue. 

0*er nim thy bounty like a fountain flow'd. 

And endlefs ftreams of comfort ftill beflow*d i 

Arduous to his wants with tefxd*reft cftre, W 

Thou gav*ft him more than prudence well could fptrCf 

The viper kindled in the foftVing breaft, 

Againit the parent rears ktr venom'd crcft j 

And, with a bloody Nero's vengeful heart. 

Would in bis mother's bofom plunge the dart.* . 

tktichtsfir TahtrnacU Frames, A ?um. By tht Author tf PtT" 
feSiion^ a Poitical E^ftki Isfc. 4/0. 2u Bew. 
The Sketclses, ivbich this fatyrical limner holds up to rhw, 
are the charaAefs or caificaturas of Mr. W. and two faints of 
the Foundery, whom he calls Aquila and Prifcilla. Whether 
ihefc are canting hypocrites, jirftly fligmatized ^ or pioiis Chris- 
tians, buiFeted by Satan, the world moll determine. 

Tranjtatkns of fome Odes and Epi/ths of Horace, kic. 6y johxk 
Gray. %vo, u. 6d. 

The following ftanzas are as poetical as any we caft £ad in 
tUa pablicatioD. 

• Thee, Liber, in war ^nterpriling we know, ^ 

And admire, thee, IHana, the fright 
Of monftcrs, and, Phoebus, with terrible boW| 
Ever aimed aright I 

• Alcides, and Leda*$ two fons I will praii<$» 

For horfe-racc priaes winning extoird. 
And gantlets, whole ftars ihining bright on the fe^t 
When the failors behold, 
*■ Diilplyed the fnow from the rocks trickles down. 
The winds fettle, the clouds fly away. 
And threatening waves, by their look overthrown. 
Tumble down in the ica-*^ 

Horace ,i magines himfelf transformed into afwan; bat (hit 
tranflator has converted him into a goofe. 

7 he Devil upon T^ivo Sthks» A Comedy y in three ASis. As it is 
performed at the Theatre- Royal in toe Haymarket. Written hy 
the lati Samuel Foote, £/f. and noiv publijhid by Mr. Colmaa. 
%vOm li. td* CadeJI. 

Few writers could have derived fo mbch pleafantry from the 
difpotes between the college and licentiates, as is here exhibited 
by Mr- Fx^o'tj;. He fairly, in this piece« carries ofTthe palm from 
Moliere, whofe Malade Imaginaire is in almod every refped io* 
f^rior to the Devil upon Two Slicks. The iirft appearance and ' 
adnnfiion'c^f Dr. Laft. the conferences between the two" Apothe- 
caries, thefiegeof Warwick-Lane, the charader of the politi- 
cal . phyficiaa, &€« $itt all molt admirably humorous, and de- 
6 lineated 

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MoKlri!itCATAL66t)t. pf 

fineattd with all thit fl:reng:th and frcedbtA fo «dtif|>itiotti ill 
noi! of Mr. Footers performances. > r v 

Th Nahh A Cmeify in Three ASs, As it is firformti itt iti 
Theatre-Reyal in the Hay-Market. Written by the lots Samuef 
Foote, £/^. and mn» puhlijhtd by Mr, Colman. 81/0. I/. 6it 

^ The late Mr. Footc, ^ver attentive to the inenn^r^ 6f hh owii 
timesy coold not remain a dlent obferver of the variation of 
cHarader introduced by oar acqujfitions in the EaU. The ilighc 
pf Oriental pigeons foon became an ornament of his ddve-houfe 
in the Hay-market ; and he has with much addrefs diveriifi«d 
the peculiarities of up/tarts in this comedy and that of th^ CoiDQ«» 
jni^ary* The rough ighorance of the one, and the infolent 
prefumption of the other, are happily difcriminated. The au- 
thor is peculiarly excellent in the fccne of the Antiquarian So* 
ciety^ and in the encounter of Putty and fir Matthew Mite. 


the Old Englifh Baron i A Gothic Biory. By Cldta Reeve. 
8vtf. 3J. b^. Dilly. , 

Let OS hear the lady fpeak for herfelf, iii an extradl or'twcy^ 
from her preface. 

* As this ftor^ is of a fpecies whicb^ tho^ not new« is out of the 
common track, it has been thought neceftary to point out feme 
circumftances to the reader, which will elucidate the defign, and« 
it is hoped, will induce him to forih a favourable, as well as a right 
judgment of the work before him. 

« This ftory is the literary offspring of the caftle of Otranto, 
written upon the iame plan, iinth a deiign to unite the moii attrac* 
tive and interefting circumftances of the ancient romance and mp^ . 
dern novel, at i^be fame time it affumes a character and nianner of 
its own^ that differs from both$ it is diftinguiflied by the appel- 
lation of a Gothic Story, being a piQure of Gothic times and 

« Having, in fome degree, opened my defi^n, I beg leave to 
condu^ my reader back again, till^be comes within view of theCaftl^ 
of Otranto^j a work which, as already has been obferved, ib an at^ 
tempt to unite the various merits and graces of the ancient ro« 
anance and modern novel. To attain this end, there is required a 
fufficlent degree of the marvellous, to excite the attention ; enough 
of the manners of re^l life, to give an air of probability to the 
work ; and enough of the pathetic, to engage the heart in its 
behalf. . . ' . 

* The book we have mentioned is excellent ih the tW6 Ihft 
points, but has a redundancy in the £ril ; the opening excites the- 
^'tteiftion very ftrongly ; the condu^ of the ftory is artful and )U« 
dicious ) the charaffers are admirably drawn and fupported ; the 
diftion poliflied and elegant ; yet, with all thcfe brilliant advantages,. 
it palli upon the mind (though it does Aot upon the ear) $ and tiie 

. • rckfon 

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)i6 Month XT Catalog v i. 

I^afon 18 obvious, the machinery is fo violent* that it (!eftroys the 
c£fe^ it 18 intended to excite. Had ]the/ftory been kept jvithin 
the Qtmoft 'uergi of probability, the effe£l had been preferved 
iiritliotit ]ofing the leaft circumftance 'that excites or detains the 
attention. ^ ■ .^ 

* In the courfe of my obfervations upon this fingular book, it 
leemed to me that it was poHible to compofe a work upon the fame 
plan* wherein thefe defeats might be avoided ^ and the keepings as 
in ^tff«^M^, might be preferved. 

* But then I began to fear it might happen to me as to certain 
tranilators* and imitators of Shakefpeare; the unities may be 
fireferved, while the fpirit is evaporated. ■ However, I ventured* 
to attempt it $ I read the beginning to a circle of friends of ap-^ 
proved judgment, and by their approbation was encouraged to 
proceed, and to finiih it. 

« By the advice of the fame friends I printed the firft edition in 
tbe country, where it circulated chiefly, very few copies being 
fent to London, and being thus encouraged, I have determined 
to oflPer a fecond edition to that public which has (b often rewarded 
the efforts of thofe, who have endeavoured tb "contribute to its end 

« The work has lately undergone a revifion and corre^^ion, the 
former edition being very incorredl ; and by the earneft folicitation 
of feveral friends, for whofe judgment I have thegreateft deference, 
1 have confented to a change of the title f^om the Champion ofVir^ 
tut to the Old Englijb Baron : — as that charadter is thought to be the 
V principal one in the ftory? 

* I have alfo been prevailed upon, thoug:h with extreme rcJuc- 
tance, to fuffer my name to appear to the title>]page j and I do now,' 
With the utmoft refpeft and diffidence, fubmA the wliole to the 
candour of the public* 

This is no common novel— it may, in foroe refpefls, claim a 
place upon the fame fhelf with The CalUc of Otranto, which 
ias its faults as well as The Old EngH(k Baron. — The Baron 
will probably live as Jong as the CaJ/ii ftands, but he (hould 
never forget that he was Som in the Caftle of Otranto. 

, GrttTi'wood Farm* znnls. itmo. ^s. feuoeJ. Noble. 

They who vifit GreenuueoJ Farm^ though they may not find, 
there the richcft and moft beautiful profpeAs, or company the 
Ittoft refined and elegant, will yet meet with much to entertain 
and plcafe them, and nothing to hurt their morals, jor their 

Utmaifs of the Couniefi D'Anois. z mots, i imo. tu /ewd. 

Noble. ^ "^ 

^ This lady is a much more dangerous lady than any of the 
Wtabitants of GreeniuooJ Farm.- We can difcovcr no ground 
on which to recommend her countck-fiip to our female readers. 
We fufpca that Madame la Comteflc may be found in fome 
Britifli garret J without breeches perhaps, bat yet not in pci^ 


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Monthly Catalocve^ ny 


jf.Sirmon preached befort the Inc^rparaied Sodety for the Pjrop^gatiom 

ef the Go/pel im Foreign Patts ; 4tt their Anni'vetfary Meeting at 

, ^/. Mary-le-Bow, r*f Friday, Feb. a o, 177S. ^ Browabw» 

lord Bijfopc/W orceHer^ j^fo^ i/. HarrifonnW Brooke. 

His lordfhip^ points out the pioos and noble porpofes, fof 

which the Society for the Propagation of tne Gofpel in Foreign 

Parts was inftituted. lie pays a proper tribute of praife to the 

mildnefs and benevolence of the cl^urch of England f and, witk 

great delicacy, exprefies his -concern for the delufion of our bre* 

thi-en in America. 

A Sermon preached July 15, I777» in the Cathedral Church *>/ 

Carlifle, at the Vifitation of the right rev- Edmund, Lord Bi' 
pop of Cirliae. By William Paley, M. A. 4/fl. i/. White. 

If we woa'd enter into the true fpirii and meaning of the 
facred writers, we mud abftradt our thoughts ixQX\ the cuSoms, 
manners, and opinionf of the prefent aera, and fuppofe ourfeWesi 
tranflated into the country and age> in which our Saviour and 
his apoftles lived ; we muft confider the circuro (lances, to which 
they allude ; the irregularities they endeavour to reform-; the 
difputes they propofe to adjuil, and the peculiar exigences of 
thofe times* There are many things, which relate to the dif-* 
ciples, the apodles, or the primitive churches, which ought not 
to be extended to Chriflians in general ; and perfons of this agQ 
are to apply thefe particulars to themfelves, as far as their cir- 
cumfiances are (imilar, but no farther- 

This, or fome thing like this, fliould certainly be obferved as 
a^ fundamental rule in explaining the fcripture. For more ab- 
furdities perhaps have been introduced into fyflems of divinity, 
by a contrary fcherae of incerpretation, than by the negleft of 
any other canon, which commentators have ever prefcnbed. 

The ingenious author of this dii'courfe has very judicioufly 
pointed out the .error of thofe, < w^ho exped to find, in the pre- 
fent circumftances of Chriftianity, fometbing anfweringto every 
appellation and expre/Iion, which occur in fcripture;* or, io 
other words, the error of thofe, ' who apply to the perfonal con- 
dition of Cbriflians at this day, thofe titles, phrafes, propo- 
£ticns, and arguments, which belong folely to the iituatioA of 
Chriilianity at its firft inflitution.* 

Ignorant readers, or enthuliads', have grofsly mifapplied manyt 
pafl'ages of fcripture relative to eieHicn^ predeftination^ regenc 
ration, &c, by not knowing, or not attending to the circum- 
fiances of the apoftolic age, and the original import of thefe 
wordii. Qur author therefore has hid open the fources of their 

In the New Tellaroent, baptifm is frequently reprefgitcd as 
fiOQ\it\ng Jai nation and remiffianai fins*. Our author affigna 

^ • Mai-k xvi, i6. A^s iiTJi. xxii. i^. Tit. iii. 5. 


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the reafoii* When thefcriptures were written, none were bap. 
fifed but converts, and their converfio'n was fuppofed to be the 
effeA of ji fincere convidion* Bat, he obferves, < wben we 
come to ^eak of the baptifm^ which obtains in inoft Chriftiaii 
churches $t! prefent, wfhere no converfion ia fuppofed, or pofliUea 
thefe expreifions mud be applied with extreme qualification and 

The firft ChrKiian^, confidered coIleOively as a body» were 
fet apart for a more glorious diipenlalipib and diilingut&ed by 
a fuperlor purity of life* In this view» and in oppofitioa to the 
it&beHfrving'worldy they were ily led r/r<ffy called, /ai»ts, britbnn 
tHyChriJit &c. * The application^ fays this writer, of fiicfa 
phrafes to the whole body of Chriftians is now become obfcurej^ 
partly* becaufe they are no longer fuch a fmall, united fociety ; 
and partly becaufe the heathen world, with whom they were 
compared, and to which comparifon thefe phrafes rektei ia 
jiow ceafed, or is removed 'from our obfervation • • • We may 
plainly fubftilate the terms eonvirt or coifvirud for the flrongeft 
of thefe phraifes, wkhout any alteration of die author's mean- 

In oppofition to the Jews» who were ofTeoded by the preach- 
ing of the gofpel to the Gentiles, St* Paul maintains, that it 
was God's intention from the £rft to fubftitute, at a £t feafon, 
into the place of the reje^ed Ifraelites, a fociety~of -men, taken 
indifierently out of all nations, and admitted to be the people 
of God upon more compreheniive. terms. — This fcheme, as oar 
author obierves, was what God is faid to Yk2Lye fovekaoivn, and 
fridtftinattd^ was the ettrnal purpofi^ which hepurpofed inChrift 
Jefus ; and thefe phrafes are therefore improperly applied to the 
final deiliny of individuals. 

* The converfion of a grown perfon from heath^nifm to Chrif- 
tianity, which is the cafe 6f the converfion commonly intended 
in the epiftles, was a chaage, of which we have now no juil con- 
ception. It was a new name, a new language, a new fociety $ 
a new faith, a new hope ; a hew objed of wOrfhtp ; a new rule 
of life ; a hillory was difclofed full of difcovery and furprize ; a 
profpe£t of futurity was unfolded ^beyond imagination awful and 
auguH. This, accompanied with the pardon of every former 
fin, was fuch an sera in a man's life, fo remarkable a period in 
bis recollection, fuch a revolution of every thing, that was moft 
important in hiqa, as might well admit of thofe firong figures 
and fignificant ailufions, "by which it is defcribed in fcripture; 
it was a regeneration, a new birth, a new creation,' &c.— - 
There is nothing in the prefent circum (lances of Chriilianity, to 
which thefe phrafes are applicablci 

By thefe exan^ples- and arguments, of which we have only 
given an imperfed abflradt, the author has clearly (hewn th^ 
necefiity of a 'Careful attention to the variation of times and 
drcumilances, in the u(e and application of fcripture language; 

■ I ■ ' I - i ' l m ■ .1.1 III . I ■ II . ' I' »■* 

t I Cor, vi. I.- vii. iS. x Pet. v. i3> Rom. xvi. 7. 

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A Strmon ^eacbtd bifiretbe hen. Houfe of CommoifSf on February 
27, 177S, being tie Day apfptnted t§ be obJer'veJ ds a Day of 
Solemn F^fting and Humiliation. By William Vyfe, LL\Dn 
^0. IS. Cadell. 

* Wh^n the hoft ^oeth forth againft thine enemies^ then keep 
tliee from every wicked thing-* Dcut. xxiii. 9 — Thcfe wow 
lead the 9uthor into a train of juH and feafonable refleflions on 
a fuperinteilding Providence, the rife and fall of empires, our 
national immoralities, and the duties, which are more particti-' 
larly required of us, at this dangerous )and important crifis, 

Tbe Ldf^s Qwtroviffy witb a guilty Natianl Two Sermons t prtaebtd 
February 27, 1 778, being tbt Day appointed far a general Fafh. 
i^ /i&/ r^<z;. Richard de Courcy. %<vo^ \s. Robinfon. ' . 

If we may judge by the {lyle» the orthodoxy, and the pathos 

of theffB difcourfes, the author is ^popular preacher. 

A Strmon preached on the 2yth ofYehmAry, 1778, being, the Daf 
appointed for a general Faft and Humiliation^ in the 'Parijh 
Church of St. Peter, in Hereford. By Thomas Horife, M},Jk 
j^o.^ IS. Baldwin. 

A plain practical difcourfe on thefc words of Solomon, Pro\r» 
adv. 34. « Righteoufnefs exalteth a nation, 5?c.'— The author, 
tdkbg notice of the rcbeUion in the colonies, and the feditious 
difpofitiop of fomc peoplb in this kingdom, very properly intro- 
duces a refledion on the fatal efFefts of the grand rebellion in 
the laft century ; which ought to be an eternal warning to Eng- 
lilhmen and their brethren in America, and excite a horror at 
every ftep, that has the rcmoteft tendency to bring them into the 
dreadful fituation of their forefathers. 

4 Strmon preached on the 27/^ e/^ February , 177S, beft^ tb^ Day 

appointed for a. Public Faft. By William Hunter, i^ ^. ^yo^ 

IS. Cadell. 

In this difcourfe the preacher has endeavoqrjed. by many 
pious and feafonable confiderations^ to imprefs hjs andience 
with proper and becoming notions of the great end apd imporfcr 
ance of the foiemnity, on which it; lyas deliv^r.cdf 
4 Sermon preached at "idiichsLm in Surry, en Feb. 27, 1778, */- 

ing th^ Day appointed for a General Faft. By J. W, Parfons, 

A. B. 4/0. I/. Becker. 

Reflcaions, fuitable to a d^y of general humiliation, on thp 
infeparable conneaion between the religious and civil profp^* 
rity of a nation, drawn from this afFeaing reprefen ration qf 
one of the moft venerable judjjes of Ifrael, when his people 
were engaged in a war with the Philil^ines ; * Lo, Eli fat upoa 
a feat by the way fide, watching ; for his heart trembled foi thp 
ark of Qod,' rSam.iv, i> 

"~ M I S- 

Digitized by 



M I S C E L I, A N E O U S. 

Oi/irvati9ns em Mru Macaolay^ Hi/tory of England,- flatgfyfui^ 
' liJbeJJ. By Capcl Lofl, Efy. j^e. in 6d, Dilly. 

« In the profccution of thcfe ObfervatJonsi fays this ^author, I 
doubt my anxiety for an ekccllcnt mother, an anxiety which you 
will readily cxcufc, has made my imperfcft, very imperfeft endca- 
Tours^ yet more fo than otherwife they might me. Howevei*, fuch 
as they are, they have ferved as a ferious amufement to my own 
Ibougbts ; and I know all juft allowances, and more than rigorouHy 
juft, will be made by the candour pf yours } and \yith this advan- 
tage, I have reafon to hope the favourable judgement of the public/ 

This, we confeils« is a mode of reafoning which we do not 
wellronderftand, even granting that we are jdifpoied to make 
'more than rigoroufly jaft allowances.' But this is not the moil 
improbable expedlation entertained by the anthor in refpe6( of the 
prefent pamphlet, from which he even feems to prefage to him*- 
felf in^mortalicy, if we do not miilake his. meaning in the follow 
log paffage. 

' « Such as they are I hope the public will accept them s aiid 1 
Aiould have been happy to have made tliem more worthy of their ac- 
ceptance ) of the refpe£lable opinion wliich fuggefted the attempt, 
and encouraged the making of them public; and of the name, 
which as it will naturally immortalise whatever may he right in 
them, -is not likfcly to fufJer their defeats to fink into obffvion;' 

This Letter, coAiilling of fixty-feven pages in quarto, abounds 
in panegyric on Mrs. Macaulxy's late publication, of which Mn 
Loft feems to have been impatient to inform the public that ht 
entertains the higheft opinion. 

TJbe Reformation ofLaw^ ^hyfic^ and Divinity : wib Argumgnfj i§ 

pro*ve that their Spirit Jbould ht the Bafis of our- facial Con^ 

traStf l^€* By Daniel Magenife, M, D. Sv*. is. (ui* Bew. 

On perufmg the former edition of this pamphlet, we ac- 

«iuicfccd in the propriety of thfe reformation which the anthor 

propofed •. He has now enlarged, as well as farther inforced 

his original plan ; but we rather wi(h than expea to fee it 

adopted, at leail in fomc inftances, which might prove of pubKC 


Tbt Trial at Large tf Robert Hitchcock, for the Wilful Murder of 
Edward Hitchcock bis o^n Father. Before the bon. Mr. Jufi'ue 
Nares, at the Leot Ajfiztr beU at Oxford, March 4, 1778. 
4/d. 6^. Bew. " 

The crime, for which this wretch juftly fuiFered, was attended 
with cirtumftances that difgrace the age and country in which • 
it appeared. Old Lear's lifage from his daughter was kindnefs 

to the manner in which he treated his father but, let poets 

feign what they pleafe, the depravity of human nature will 
fomctimes go beyond even fancy.— The trial gratifies caridfity- 
and appe ars to be accurately taken. 

• Crit. Rev. Vol. xl. p. 165. 

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t 3" 1 

T H £ 


For the Month of Afoy, 1778. 

rbi Bfitry 9f £og1i(h PMty, from tbi Chfe of the Eltvetith to thi 
CommnKimnt of tbi Esgbtuntb CentMfy* To wbicb an prefixtd 
two bifflrtatioksm L On tbi Origin of tomaptic fiaion in Eu- 
rope. //• On tbi Introifuaion of Lenfmng into England. JE^ 
Thomas Warton, B.D. ^0. tA p/* in boards. Dodlley. 

THE firft volatne of this interefiing work concluded m^ 
a& account of the writings of Chaucer ; and that which 
now lies before us opens with a detail of the compofitions of 
Gower, another Engltih poet who lived in the fame age. The 
capital work of this author confifts of three parts, refpeAively 
entitled Speculum Meditaotis, Vox CUmantls, and Confeffio 
Amantis* The firft is written in French rhymes* in ten 
books, but was never printed. It difplays the general na- 
ture of virtue and vice» contains remarkable examples of con- 
jugal fidelity y felefled from different authors, and defcribes the 
means of obtaining divbe grace. The Vox Clamantis like- 
vfSt exifts only in manuicript, and contains feven books of 
Latin. Elegiacs. This work is chiefly hiftorical, and is little 
• more than a metrical chronicle of the infurreAion in the reign 
of Richard IL The Confeffio Ahiantis is an Engli(h poem^ 
Sn eight books» written at the defire of that prince. The fub- 
je£l is the PaiSon of Love, which is treated with the pedantic 
affe^ation fo common in the amorous produ^ons of thoie 
times. Mr. Warton obferves, that in general the poetry of 
Gower is of a grave and fententious turn, hts verfificatton 
often harmonious, and that he difcoversr much folid 3re«> 
Vol., XLV* W«f, i778t X The 

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3 2 X Warton'i ttfttry of Englflh Pour^. VJ. IL 

The next poet of eminence mentioned in the Hlflory is 
Lydgate, whom our aothor places in the reign of Henry VI, 

^ He was» fays Mr, Wiirton, a^mook of riie BeucdfCLiBe ahr 
bey of Bury in Suffolk, and an uncommon ornament of bis pro- 
feflion. Yet his genius was {o lively, and his accoii^pliihmcntt 
fo numerous, chat I fufpe^k the holy father faint BenediA would 
hardly have acknowledged kirn for a genuine dticiple» After a 
ihort education at Oxford, lie Ira^elled into France and Italy ; 
and returned a complete mafter of the language and the lile« 
rature of botl^ countries* He chiefly ftudied the Italian and 
French poets, particularly Dante, Boccacio, and A lain Char* 
tier; and became fo difttnguiflred a proitcient in poHfeieMi- 
ing, that he opened a fchool in his monaftery. for teaching the 
fons of the nobility the arts of verfificatiott« and the elegancies 
of compofitioD. Yet although philology was his objcft, he^w>a 
not unfamiliar with the fafliionable philofophy : he was not 
only a poet aud a rhetorician; bat a geomctriciaB^ an aftroao* 
0rer, a theologid, and a difputant. On the whole I am of opi- 
nion, that Lydgate made confiderable additions to thbfe ampli- 
^cations of our language, in whi<Ji Chaucer^ -Gpwer. aad Op* 
cleve led the way : and that he is the ^x^ of our writers whofe 
flyle is cloathed with that perfpicaity^ in which the Engiifli 
phrafeology appears at this day to an Engliih reader. 

< To enumerate Lydgate'« pieces, would be to #rite'tlft^ ca-. 
talogue of a littFe 'library. No poet feems to have-poSided a 
greater verfatility of talents* He moves withequal ealein every 
mode of compofition. His hymns, and his ballads, h'av% tile 
fame degree of merit: and whether his fubjed be the life of a 
hermit or a hero, of faint Auftin or Guy earl of Warwick, Ib- 
dtcrons or legendary, religious or Tomantic> ahiftOryer*aA sft« 
legory, he writes with facility. His traniitions were rapid fron 
works of the moil (erious and laborious kind to fallies of levity 
and pieces of popular entertainment. His vtife waa of oi^t* 
verfal accels ; and he was mot only the, poet of ;hii mQnaiUjiy^ 
but of the world in general* If a difgoifing was intended by 
she company of goldfmiths, a mafic before his majefiy at El- 
tham« a may -game for the fherifFs and aldermen of London, 
a mumming before the lord mayor, a proceliion otf. pageants 
from the creation for the fefiival of Corpus Chriftt, or a carot 
for the coronation, Lydgate was confultcd and gave *the 

The chief poems of Lydgate are, the Fall oiF Princes, the 
Siege of Thebes, and the Dcftrudlion of Troy, of each "of 
which our author gives a particular account ;^ as he likewife 
does of the poems of Hugh Campeden, and Thomas Cheftcr, 
who were contemporaries witli Lydgate, \ 

. The reign of Edward IV. is diftinguilhed in this Hiftory, 9s 
the firft in which any mention occurs of the appellation of 
laureate, originally bcftowed on John £ay« It is Mffiaikable, 


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tliat though he is faid to have been invefted with this officd 
by the king, no piece of his poetry remains to ihew any title! 
to fuch an honour. For the gratification of oar readers Wtf 
' fhall preirejit them with Mr. Warton's account of the Jnftitutioii 
of this office* 

« Gi-eat confafion has .entered iilto this Aibjeft, on accpan^ 
of die degf ees in gframinar, which incladed rhetoric and ver** 
fificatiotiy anciently taken in our nniverfities, partkolarly at 
Oxford < on which occaHon, a wreath of laurel was prefentedto 

' the new^ graduate, who was afterwards ulbaliy ftyled ^^/i /m- 
f€iaus. Tkefe fcht>laftic laureations, however, feem to have 
given dfe lo the appellation it queiUon. I will give fome in- 

. fiances at Oxford^ which at the fame time will explain the ma* 
tttft of the Hudies for which our academical philolpgifts received 
their rewards. About the year 1470, one John Watfoui a ft«- 
detft in grammar, obtained a conce^on to be graduated and 
laureatedin that fctence; on condition that be compofed one 
hundred Latin verfes in praife^of the univerfity, and a Latin 
edme^. Another grammarian was diftinguiihed with the iarae 
badge, after having Jli^nlated, that, at the next public ad, he 
would affix the fame number of hexameters on the great gatea 
of St. Mary's church, that they might be feenixy the whole uei- 
verfity. This'Was at diat peHod the moil convenient mode o( 
pablicntion. About the fame time, one Maurice Byrchenfa^^ 
a Scholar in rhetoric, fuppUcated to be admitted to reiid,l0c« 
tores, that is, to take a degree, in that faculty ; and his petition 
w^ granted, with a proyiiion, that he fiiould write one hun« 
dred verfes on the gbry of the univerfity, and not fn^r Ovid's 
Art'of Love; and the Elegies of Pamphilus, ta be ftudied in 
•uditoryb Not long afterwards, one John Bulman, another rfae« 
tertciany havingcomplied with the terms impcfed, of explainiag 
the frril book of Tully^s Offices, and likewife^ the -firft of his 
£pidles> wltbont any pecuniary emolumeat^ was graduated in 
rheroric ; and a crown of laurel was publicly placed on bis head 
by the hands of the chan^elloar of the univerfity. About the 
yea:r 14S9. Skelton waa laureated at Oxford, and in the year 
1493) was permitted to wear his laurel at Cambridge. Robert 
Whittington aiFords the laft inftance of a rhetorical degree at 
Oxford. He wss a fecular prieft, and eminent for his various 
creatifes in grammar, and for his facility in Latin poetry : hav- 
ing exercifed his art many years, and fubmitting to the cuftom* 
ary demand of an hundred verfes, he was honoured with the' 
laurel in the year 151 2. This title is prefixed to one of his 
gramm^ical Yyftems. ** Roberti Whittintoni, Lithfil* 
dtinfiiy^GramtnatUis Magifiri^ PaoTOVATis ^«^^^, in fiorentrf^ 
Jima Q^entenfi ,Acbaitmia LAUREATiy OB OcTO Partibvs 
' Grationis." In his Panegyric to cardinal Wolfey, he men* 
• tkms his laurel, 

< Sttfcipe LXtrfciGOMi moitn&ula panra Robetti* 

Y a ! With 

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Google • — 

5«4 Warton'/ Hj/f#rf $f Englifi ft#/i>. /•/. /T- 

' With regard to the poet laureate of the kings of EmglaBdV 
an officer of the court remaining aii4er that title to this day, fie 
18 andoobtedly the fame that is ftyled the Kinc'^s Versifiikiv, 
and to whom one hundred fliillings wefe paid as his annaal S\^ 
pend. in' the year 1251, But when or hou/ that title com-r 
snenced^ an^ whether this officer was ever folemnly crowaed 
with lanrel at his firfl invediture; I will not pretend to deter- 
mine, after the fearches of the learned Sclden on thi» quefti^n 
have proved unfuccersfaL It feems moft,probabIe» that the bar* 
barons and inglorious name of 'vtrfiJUr gradually gave way to an 
appellation of more elegance and dignity: or rariher, that at 
length, thofe only were in general invited to this appointiiieot» 
who had received academical fandio»» and had mefited z 
crown of laurel in the nniveriitics for their abiUtiea in La^ 
cofflpofition» particnlarly Latin verfificatioo. Thus the ki9g*s 
Uunate was nothing more than «< agradmattd rhetorieian em- 
ployed in the fervice of the king.'* That he originally wrote 
in Latin, appears from the ancient title verJijScator : and may 
be moreover colleded from the two Latin poems, which Bafton 
and Gulielmus, who appear to have refpedively a^ed in the ca- 
pacity of royal poets to Richard the Firft and Edward the Se- 
cond, officially compofed on Richard'a crofade, and Edward*** 
fiege of StriveHng caftle. 

-• Andrew Bernard ^ fucccffively poet laureate of Henry the 
Seventh and the Eighth, affords a ftill ftronger proof that this 
officer was a Latin fcholar. He was a native of Tholoofe, aad 
an AngaAine monk. He was not only the king's poet laureate* 
as it is fuppofed, but his hiftoriographer, and preceptor in 
grammar to prince Arthur. He obtained many ecclefiaftical pre- 
fertnents in England. All tbe pieces now to be found, whi^h 
he wrote tn the charader cf poet laureate, are in I«atin. Thde 
are,^ ** an AdAnfi to Henry the Eighth for the moft aufpicioas 
beginning of the tenth year of his reign, with an EpithaUmium 
on the marriage of Francis the dauphin of France with the king's , 
daughter." A Nfnv Ttar's Gift for the year 1515. And verlca 
wlihing profperity to his majefty's thirteenth year* He has left 
fome Latin hymns : and many of his Latin profe piecea» which 
he wrote in the quality of hiftoriographer to both monarchs, are 
remaining. t 

^ I am of opinion, that it was not caftomary for the roya! 
laureate to write in Englilh, till the reformation of religion 
>h9d begun to diroiniih the veneration for the Latin language; 
or rather, till the love of aovelty, and a beuer fenfe of things^ 
had baniihed the narrow pedantries of monadic erudition, and 
taught OS to cultivate oar native tongue. In the mean time it 
is to be wifhed, that another change might at leaft befuffered to 
take place in the execution of this inftitution, which is con- 
ferred ly Gothic, and unaccommodated to. modern manners. I 
mean, that the more than annual return of a compofition QB,a 
uite argument would be qo longer reqaire4« I am confcioos 

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Wftrtotf/ Hi/kry if EnglHh Pottiy, n/. //. 315 

I fay this at a time, wheii the befl of kings affords the xnoit 
juft and copious theme for panegyric : bat I fpeak it at a 
thne, when the department is honourably filled by a poet of 
tafte and genias, which are idly wafted on the moft fplendid 
fobjc^by when impofed by conftraiat, and perpetually re* 

' In refpeft of the poems faid to have been lately difcovered 
atBriftol/and afcribed to Thomas RowHe, who lived about 
this period, Mr. Warton is of opinion that they are a modern 

A number of obfcure verfifiers appeared in the three fub- 
fequent reignsr of Richard III. Edward V. and Henry VI j and 
tinder that of Henry VII. the only perfon deferving the name 
of a poet was Stephen Hawes» a native of Suffolk. The beft 
of this author's compofitions, in the opinion of Mr. Warton^ 
is the Temple of Glafs. * • 

At this period of the narrative Mr. Warton introduces an 
account of a few Scotch writers, who adorned the fifteenth 
century with their poetical com portions, and difcovered a 
greater degree of genius than had appeared among the Eng-^ 
li(h bards from the days of Chaucer and Lydgate. The firft 
of thofe is William Dunbar, born at Salton in Eaft Lothian 
about the year 1470. His moft celebrated poems are, the 
Thiftle and the Rofe, and the Golden Terge ; the latter of 
which was occafioned by the marriage of James IV. king of 
Scotland, with Ms^rgaret, eldefl daughter of Henry VII. 

The next of the Scotch poets is Gawen Douglas, bom ifi 
1475, and defcended of a noble family. In his early years he 
tran^ated Ovid*s Art of liOve, and afterwards the Eneid of 
Virgil into heroics. The former of thefe is lofl ; bat of the lat« 
ter, Mr. Warton obferves, that it is executed with equal fpi- 
rit and £delity ; and affords proof that the lowland Scotch 
«nd EngUfii languages were at this time nearly the fame. 
Douglas, befides other benefices,, enjoyed the bishopric of 
Dunkeld, and had been nominated by the queen regent to the 
archbifiiopric, either of Glafgow or of St. Airdr^^s, but the 
appointment was repudiated by the pope. In tbe year 151 3, 
to avoid the perfectttions of the duke of Albifiy^ he fled into 
England, where he was gracioufly received by king Henry VIIL 
who, in confider^tioii of his literary merit, allowed him a li- 
beral penfion. He died of the plague in London, in 15219 
^t the age of forty- fix, and was buried in the Savoy church. 

To the two lafl mentioned poets the author fubjoins fir 
David Lyndeiay, a particular favourite of James V^ and an ex* 
4BfiUeat fcholar, as well as a man of genius* Hif chief pro- 

Y 3 duAioflS 

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duaions are the Dreme> and the Monarchie* which abot^d i^- 
rkh imagery and poetical invention. 

Mr. Warton obferves» that a weU executed account of th^ ' 
Scotch poetry from the thirteenth century, would be a va» 
luable acceOion to the general Ikewy xneuioirs of Britain^ as 
being a fubjedt pregnant with much curious and inftro&lve in- 
formation. The Scots, he remarks, appear to have had an 
early propenfity to theatrical reprefentations ; and he thinks it 
i^ probable, that in the profecution of fuch a dedgp, among 
other interefiing difcoveries, many anecdotes, tending to. illuf- 
trate the rife and progre&of our ancient drama«^ might be drawn 
fiom obfcurity. 

On returning to the JSnglift poetry, the firft' writer n5eptione<l 
by our author is John Skelton, who was laureated at Oxford v\ 
1489, but eompoied his prpdudlions, chiefly in the reign of 
iienry ViH. He was promoted to the reftory of Difs to Norir 
fplk; but becoming obnoxious to many of the clergy by his 
ffityrical ballads againd the mendicants, he was feverely cen« 
i)ired, if not fufpended from his office, by Nykke, a rigid bi- 
^op of Norwich. Incurring afterwards the difpleafore of 
(^aidinal Wolfey, he took refuge in Weflminflei^ Abbey, where 
];ie was kmdly entertained -by abbot lilip dnring the remakidet 
cf his life., lie died in J 5 29, and was buried in St. Marga* 
l^t*s Church, 

Mr. Warton having in the courfe of his nai'rative ind* 
den*tallx mentioned a m^rali/jf a (pecies of theatrical compo* 
jpition, he enters upon an inquiry concerning the rife of the 
POftiriiSf which preceded, and afterwards produced thofe alle- 
fioiical fables. We ffliall lay before our readers a part of what 
|s advanced on this fubjedl. > ^ 

* To thofe who are accaflomed to contemplate the groat pie* 
ture of hufnan follies, which the uopoliihed ^%6i of Eorope 
)xold up to our view, in will not appear ffirprifing, ^that the pcofe* 
pie^ .wiu>. were forbidden tQ read .the events of j^hei f^cred hif- 
p^y iju the Hible, in which j^ey were jfai;hf^lly an4 beautifully 
xeUtfd,, ihofdd at the faipe .time be pern^tted ta fee them je« 
prefeiited on ^e Aage, difgaced with thegroiTelt improprieties, 
corrupted with inventions and additions of the moft' ridiculous 
l&iad, fullied'with impurities, and expreifect in the language and 
gefticulatioDs of the loweft farce. 

* On the whole, the myflerles appear to have originated 
Htnonfg the eccleftaftics \ and were moft probably iirft a&ed, a( 
l^afl with any degree of form, by Ihe monks. This wm ceiv 
sannly the cate in the Englifli v^ooafteMce. I have already men- 
^toced the play of St, Cacbarlne, performed at Donftahle abbey 
b9rthe bovi^s . in ihe eleventjt ce^tii^^ under tbe fnperjoteiv- 

> 4^w» of C^ofiry a FarifiaAfc^fiaftic ; and the (exhibition of 

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ibe Paffion« by the mendicant friers of Coventry and other places* 
IixHances have been given of the like, praftlce ampng tfie 
French. The only porfons who could read were in the re- 
ligions focieties: and various other circun^ftances, peculiarly 
ariibg from their Situation, profeflion* and inftitution> enabled 
the monks to hp the foie performers of thefe reprefentations. 
' * As learning encreafed, and was more widely di0eminated« 
from the monaieries, by a natural and eafy tranfition, the prac- 
tice nugrated to fchools and univeriities, which were formed 0|i 
the monaftic plan, and in many refpedls refembled. the ecclefi* 
aftical bodies* Hence a paffaee in Shakefjpeare's Hamlet is to 
tae es^plained ^ where Hamlet fays to Poloniosy ** My Iordj» you 
played once in ^he Univerfity, yoi; fay*'* Polonios adWers. 

high antiquity, <* vetuHiiTima confuetudo," to a6t tragedies and 
comedies m the univerfity of Paris. (le cites a ftatute of the ' 
college of Navarre at Paris, dated in' the year 131^, prohi- 
biting the fcholars to perform any immodeft play on the fefti- 
Vals bf Sr. Nicholas 'and St. Catharine. «« In fcftis ianAi Ni- 
^olai et beatae Catharinx nullum ludum inhoneftum faciaot.*' 
J^enchlb, one .of the German claOics at the reHoration of an- 
cient literature^ was the firft writer and a^or of Latin plays in 
the academies of Germany. He is faid to have opened a theatre 
ait Heidelberg : in which he brought ingenious youths or boyt 
on the ^age, in the year 1 49S. In the prologue to one of hii 
comedies, written in trimeter iambics^ and printed in i$t6^ Are 
die following lines : 

. » ^' Ppi;^ns poeta plfcere pa«cis verfibos# 

Sat ^ile adeptum glorias arbitratas eft, . \ 

Si autore fe Germaniae fchola Inferic , ' ' 

Gxaecanicis et Romuleis lufibus.'* 

»' The firft of Reuchlin's Latin plays, fecm« to be one entitled, 
' ** Sergia^, feu capitis caput, comoedia,'' a fatire on bad kings 
or bad minifters, and printed in ' i $08. He calU it his frimiii^m 
It confifts of three a6ts, and is profeifedly written in imitatroa 
of Terence, But the author promifes, if this attempt ihonld 
pieafe, that he wilt write ** Integra* Comedias,** that is co« ' 
medies of five ads. I give a few lines from the Prologae. 

*' Si unquam tuliftis ad jocum veftros pedes, 

Aut (] rei aures prxbuiftis ludicrac^ 

In hac nova, obfecro, poetae faliula, 

Dignemini attentioreseiTe quam antea; 

Non hie erit lafciviae aut libidini 

Meretriciae, auttrifli fenum curse locus, 

Sed hiftrionum exercittts et fcommata.'* , 

. * Foi: Reuchlin's other pieces of a like natore, the cenons 
te^dei ii» rcfcircd to t itcrjrrate volume i& quarto, *•* Pjrogym- 

Y 4 nafBiatA 

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5lS Warton'i Wiflory j/^Engllfli FotHfyi VJ. IT. 

ffafmata fceoica, feu ludicra Praeexercicamenta varii geoerfs 
Per Joannem Bergman de Olpe, 149^.'' An old biographer af* 
^rms, that Conradns Celtes was the firft who introdttce'd into 
Germany the falhiOn of aQing tragedies and comedies in public 
halls, after the manner of the ancients* *\ Primas comoedias et 
tragoedias in pnblicis nulls veteram more cgit^'* Not to enter 
into a controverfy concerning the priority of thcfe two obfcure 
theatrical authors, which may be fyfictently decided for oiur 
prefent fatisfadion by Obferving» that they were certainly cq* 
temporaries; about the year 1500, Cdtes wrote a play, or 
inafquCt called the Playof Diana^ prefented by a literary fociety* 
or feminary of fcbolars, before the emperor Maximilian and hia 
court. It was printed in 1502, at Nuremberg, with this title, 
'* Incipit Lndus Dyanae, coraqi Maxim ilia no rtgc^ per Sodali^ 
tatem Litterariam Damulianam in Linzio^*' It c-^nfifls of the 
iambic, hexameter, and elegiac meafnres ; and has five a^» 
but is contained in eight quarto pages^ Th^ plot, if any, is 
entirely a compliment to the emperor ; and the perfonages^ 
twenty-four in number, among which was the poet, ^re Mer- 
cury, Diana, Bapchns, Silenus drgnk on his ^.h^ Satyrs, 
|*4ymphs, and Bacchanal] an $. Mercury, fent by Oian^, fpeaka 
the Prologue, In tbc middle of the third a^r the emperor 
places a crowp of laurel on the poet's heat ; at the concli^fion 
of which ceremony, the chorns ungs a panegyric ip verfe to the 
emperor. At the clofe of the fourth a6t, in the t^lie fpirit of 4 
perman (hew, the imperial butlers refrefli the perfofiners witl| 
ynneout of golden goblets, with a fymphony of horns and drums ; 
mnd at the end of the play, they are invited by his majelly tq 9 
fomptuous banquet. 

Mt is more generally known, that the praAice of a6ling 
Latin plays in the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, continue^ 
to Cromwell's ufurpation. The oldeft notice I can recover of 
this fort of rpedtacle in an Englifb univerfity, is in the fragment 
of an ancient accompt-roll of the diflblved college of Michael* 
houfe in Cambridge: in which, under the year 138^, the fol« 
lowing expence is entered. ^ Pro ly pallio brufdato et profex 
iarvis et barbis in comedia.'^ That is, for an embroidered pall, 
pr cloak, and fi;^ vifors and fix beards, for the comedy. In the 
year i J44, a Latin comedy, called Pammachius, was afted a( 
Chrid's. college in Cambridge ; which was laid before the privy 
i:ounciI by bilhpp Gardiner, chancellor oi the univerfitya as a 
dangerous libel, containing many offeni^ve reflexions on the 
papiilic ceremonies yet unapolinied. The con^edy of Gammar 
Gurton^s Needle was afted in the fa^ne fociety ^bout the year 
1552. In an original draught of the datutes of Trinity col- 
lege at Cambridge, founded in r44<^, one of the chapters is en-? 
titled, *' De Piaefe^o Ludorum qui im'perator dicitur," under 
)yhofe direction and authority, Latin comedies and tragedies are 
to he exhibited in the hall at Cfariftmas;'as alfo, ** bex Sj^ec* 
tac\}la/- or AS m^ny Pialogqes* Another (ide to ihls ftatute^ 
^ . - Whicll 

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Warton'j fl^diy !f EngUih Pir/jy. Vol It. ji^; 

wUcfc feems to be fubftitated by another and a more modern 
fcaDdy 18^ '< De Comediis ladifboe in natali Cbriili exhibciidis.** 
With regard to the peculiar buuneft and office of lmperator» it 
19 ordered, ihat one of the maf|;a8 of arts Audi be placed over 
the juniors, every Chriftmas, for the r^olation of their gamea 
and diverfions at that feafoa of feftivity:. At the fame time, he 
is to govern the whole fociety in the hall and chapel, as a re* 
public committed to his fpecial charge, by a iet of laws, which, 
he is to frame in Latin or Greek verfe* His fovereignty is to 
laft during the twelve days of Chriftmas, and he is to eaercife 
ihe fame power on Candlemas-day* During this period, he ia 
to fee that fix jSpedUcIes or Dialogues be prefented. His fee ia 
forty (hillings. Probably the conflitntion of this officer, ia. 
other words, ** a Mailer of the Revels," gave a latitude to fom« 
licentious enormities, incompatible with the decorum of a hoafo 
of learning and religion v and it was found neceflary to reftraia. 
thefe ChriSmas celebrities to a more rational and £bber plaiu 
The Speftacula alfo, and Dialogues, originally appointed, were 
growing obfolete when the fiibftitution was made, and were 
giving way to more regular reprefentations. I believe thefo 
ilatuces were reformed by queen Elizabeth's vifitors of the uni« 
verfity of Cambridge, under the condud of archbifliop Parkern 
5n the year 1573. John Dee, the famons occult philofophern 
one of thp firft fellows of this noble fociety, acquaints os, that 
by his advice and endeavours, both here^ and in othier coll^;ea 
at Cambridge, this mafter of the Chriftmas plays wa^ firft 
namtd and confimud an £mperor« " The firft was Mr* John 
Doa, a yttj goodly man of perfon. habit, and complexion* 
and well learned alfo." He alfo further informs us, little think- 
injg; how important his *^ boyifli attempts and exploits fchola& 
cical** would appear to future ages, that in the rdPedory of thitf 
college, in the charader of Greek lefturer, he exhibited, before 
the whole univerfity, the Et^un}, or Pax, of Arifiophanes, ac- 
companied with a piece of machinery^ for which he was takea 
fcr a conjuror : '< with the performance of the fcarabeus his fly^ 
ing up to Jupiter's palace, with- a man,- and his bafket of vic^ 
|uals on her back : whereat was great wondering, and many vaiik 
reports fpread abroad, of the means how that was efiefled.'* 
The tragedy of Jepthah, from the eleventh chapter of the book 
of Judges, written both in Latin and Creek, and dedicated to 
king f^nry VIll. about the year 1546, by a very grave and 
learned divine, John Cbriftopherfon, another of the firft fellow^ of 
Trinity college in Cambridge, afterwards mafter, dean of llor^ 
fvich, and bi^op of Chichefter, was moft probably compofed aa 
a Chriftmas-play for the fame fociety* It is to be noted, that 
this play is on a religious fubjeft. ' Roger Afcham; while or 
)iis travels in Flanders, fays, in one of his Epiftles, written about 
I {50, that the cijy of Antwerp as much exceeds all other cities* 
as the refedory of St. John's college in Cambridge exceeds it- 
hVf Vhen jfurnij^d atChrillmas with its theatrical apparatus 
' for 

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for ^ding plays. Or, 19 hiar own words, •< QuemadmodQW 

IM9U JoHs^nnlsa (heatrali iiH»re oraaHi, ieipfam pott Natalem^ fa-' 

^etmt,^ Ib an audit book of THnity college in Oxford, I chink 

for the year rsS9' ^ ^"^ ^^ following difburfements relating to. 

this fubj^^. ** Pro ^pparatq in comoedia Andris, vii/. igr/« iv/* 

Pro prandio Principis NatalicH eodem tempore, xiiii. ixi. Pro 

rtitG^nt praefeflqrum. et dodtorum magis illuilrivini cum B or- 

i^rfis'prandcntium tempore compedis, ivA vii^. That is, for 

drefTes and fcenes in ading Terence's Andria, for the dinner of 

mie Gh'tiftmas Prince, and for the entertainment of the heads of 

£kfi coH^g'es and the mod eminent doflors dining with the bar- 

tif9 w treafnrers, at th^ time of afting the comedy, twelve 

pounds, three fliillings, and eight penc.e, A Chriftmas Prince« 

orUord <)f Mtfrule, correipond^ng to thp Imperator at Cana-' 

Bridge juft mentioned, ^yas a common temporary magiftrate in; 

^e ooHeges at Oxford : bat at Cambridge, they were cenft|red 

in the fermons of th<; puritans, in the reign of James J, as a 

itlie of ^he Pagan ritual. The \H article of thi^ difborfemenc 

ihews, that the moft refpe£babfe company in the univerfity were 

xnrited oh. thefe occafipns. At le;?gth our nniverfities adopted 

fte reprefbhtat^.n of plays, iq which the fcholars by frequent ex- 

crcifb had undoubtedly attained a confiderable degree of fkill and 

addreff^, as a part of the entertainment at the reception of princea 

and other eminent perfonages/ 

la pMcraiDg this interefiiiig digreffion, our author takes no« 
llRti Qi fevejrM dri^ttiAtic pieces, perfornned at the univerfitieSy 
public fcliaala, j^ inns of tx>urt, for the eDtertaiiUDeatofper* 
limsof diAin^blDii. 

' [ 70 be continutii. ] 


Ji eandWExaminafidn of nvbat has been advanced on tht Colic ef 
Foitou and Dcvonlhtre, 'with Remarks en the mtji probabU and 
£xperimnts intended to a/certain the trui Cau/(u. of the Gout. Bj 
Jan^es JHiardy, M. Z). ^vo. ^s.Cd./ewfd. CadelU 

BOUTP eleven years ago rouch was written in this country 
Tilaiive to the difeafe which is the fubjedl of the treatife 
now before us, and the controverfy was maintained, on both 
f^de?, with a degree of warmth unufual in difquifitions of f 
znedic^l nature. By one party» the colic of Devonihire was im-' 
put^ the Uad fcequently ufed in the vats in which the cy- 
^er is made; and by the other thk opinioa appeared to be 
clearly refuted. It was {>roved, upon good authority, that lead 
%as not ufed in all'the vats employed in the making of cyder; 
-and that thole who drank of the liquor thus prepared, were not 
therefore left liable than others to the influence of the difeife. 
Expertence however has fQlly. afce^aiaed^ (bat the Devonihire 


. " Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hardy m tit C^tc of Prnt^u 4mI Devonihire.. 3^ i ^ 

coliciRfly be excited by lead, when this metal bas entered the 
alimentary canal even in a very ineonfiderable quantity ; oa 
in1iiCh-acc6uht it nmfl: -remain an objeft of futt)icion, if evi- 
dence is brought of its being conveyed into the body» * In the 
laft vdom'eof Medical Observations amd £Hquiries» Dr. FtK 
thergill related a cafe, of whicb he had been inforimed. by ak> 
peribn of veracity in CornwaU. Two pertona in tbat eoantff 
bad purchafed between them a hogfhead of cyder, for the ufe of ^ 
the people they employed in harveft. Thofe in the fervice of 
one of the parties had no^complaints, but enjoyed tbeh* health 
su uTualt while his neighbour's work-ptople had> i|K»(jt of them» 
fome degree of the Colica PiAonum» and many pf them fc«^ 
venely. The cyder was the fame, and given ia like qn^ntilic^j^ 
the people worked in the fame neighbourhood, and at the faanf^ 
ieafon. On enquiring into the caiUe of this Angular differeneew 
it was found that the former of tbofe neighbours had aWay» 
ftnt his cyder to the field in a fmaU barrel; and ihat*^ 
ether had as conftantly ufed a glazed eartiien pitcher for thia 
purpofe. The cyder was thtq and fliarp ; the gl^adng wat 
almoft diflblved. 

The anecdote above related affords ftrong prefumption tbat 
the glazing of the veffel had been the qaufe of the di&aie ; 
but the juUnefs of this opinion feems to be eflablifiied beyon4 
^ doubt by the author under connderaU^n. . Having Judicioufly 
commented on the feveral hygothefes which have been, maio^ 
tained re^edtiog the Colica Fi£lonum, Dr. Hardy thus pro« 

< Convinced, after the moft matare deliberation, that fif 
caufe which had hitherto been afligned, was eqnal to the pa* 
ralytic eHeds produced, except the admiffion of lead into the 
)iuman fyftem ; the regular, uniform and iingular charafleri&ip 
of which is, to caufe thefe efFeds ; and obferving alfo that th^ 
colic chiefly prevailed amongft the inferior dais of people, I 
was led to confider, what driqking veflels they had in commou 
ufe among them, which at the fame time were different fron 
thofe employed, for that purpofe, by perfons of fuperior rank in 
life. It occurred to me, tbat the common glazed earthen jagv 
were the univerfal drinking veiTels of the lower clafs in thia 
county. Upon enquiry 1 found the quantity of lead, made ufe 
of in glazing them, much greater than I fufpeded ; being nearly 
in the proportion of one ounce of lead-ore, to every quart ia 

Many experiments are afterwards related, pioving the lb« 
Inbility of the lead in glazed veifels, both by cyder and other 
Jiquors. We (hall lay before our readers thofe that were made 
.with tbeformer^ aftor mforming tbem of the preparation of 


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5*5« , Hardy wr tie CoJic •f Poitou 4«^ DevOnihirc, 

the liquor called the /{/?• which fo often occurs in the recitaL 
The. following is the method of makinig it» prefcribed by Dr«r 

* «* Take oF yeHow orpnnent, one ovnee ; qQickflime, tw(> 
<ttnM8; powder them feparately, and thpa mix them. Ponr 
WWA 4heni9 in ft proper glafs, twelve ounces of pure rain-water* 
Havii^ iecored the top of the glafs, diged in. a moderate heat, 
fox twenty four hoars ; (haking the phial or ^lafs tytiy two 
hours.-^Let it grow cold.—- When clear, pour it off, and keep 
it in a bottle well corked. Should you prefer bQiling it half an 
Ifour, to diis flow manner of digeflion, you may prepare it 
equally good, jf upon adding a few drops of this liquor to 
mnegar of lead, or litharge^ it foon grows black and turbid^ 
4(^end on it, the teft is good. Be very careful that you cork 
the boule well ; and do hot open it often, left the virtue of the 
liquov evaporate. It will therefore be moft advifeable, to keep 
}k ilk half Ottote or ounce phials« Should you have a mind i<» 
^juifnine, whether white- wine be adulcj^rated, pour a few drops 
into a clean glafs half full of wine : if it becomes from a yellow^ 
of ared," l>rOwn, or blackiih cdlour, and is likewife turbid, in 
proportion as thefe alterations are more or lefs apparent, fo muft 
the degree of adulteration, by the means of lead, have been 
greater or lefs : but when the wine is not adulterated^ only a 
milky pale cloud will be produced .'' — 

«— ^ Experiment L A quart of mail, frelh from the pound, 
fiood in a glared earthen veffel, without being agitated, fix 
Ihours. Upon the application of a few drops of the teft to a 
glafs of the muft, a reddiih cloud was produced. After ftandiog 
nine hpurs, the like application produced a deepei: cloud. After 
Jlanding twelve hours, the cloud was yet more deep ; and, in a 
little time, the muft became opake. After twenty-four hours, 
a deep, and almoft liver-coloured cloud was produced ; which, 
on being (lirred with a fmall piece of wood, infiantly occafioned 
that colour through the whole. 

* I remarked that it did not feem of much importance, whe- 
ther the teft was ufcd in the quantity of only fiyt or of ten drops. 
As to the degree of colour it produced, it feemed to depend, 
folejy, on the quantity of mineral particles with which the liquor 
-was impregnated. 

* No alteration whatever was produced by an addition of the 
like quantity of the teft to a glafs of the fame muft, which had 
been preferved in a bottle. 

* Experiment If. Two quarts of ordinary cyder, about two 
months old,, Dood in a common glazed earthen veflel, that had 

.t>^en nfed,' wixhout beins agitated, two hours; when, UpOn 
adding a few drops of teft, as before mentioned, a fenftble al- 
teration was produced in the colour. The like uial was re- 
peated at the feveral diftances of three, four, five, fix^ feyen and 
eight hoarse wh^n the change ia ea^b glafs was gradually deeper 


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Bardy 0%4lt C9IU rf Poitoii 4mi Dci^oalhire* . 5}^ 
«lid deeper ; To as to enable any pcrfon to diHinguifh clearly, 
by the degnee of fltade, the different nomber 6f hours each glaf» 
had ftood. That whtdi had Hood eight hours» was the colour 
of Madeira wine ; after eighteen hoars (not ihook) deeper; after 
twenty-four hours, dill deeper and footy. 

^ I mud obferve, that this cyder, and all the other liquora 
upon which any experiment was made, were conftantly ex* 
amined, before they were pat into the glazed and other vefTela^ 
by means of the teft, which never produced any dark difcd* 

« Experiment III« A quart of the fame cyder was heated» 
atmoft to boiling, in a common glazed earthen veflel, that had 
Aood on the iire abont twenty minutes. Th^ teft produced as 
deep a colour, as in that which had £ood eighteen hours witH- 
out heat. 

« Experiment IV. A quart of ordinary cyder was gentty 
agitated in a glazed earthen veflel half an hour, in order to give 
it that degree of motion, which might be fuppofed equal to its 
being carried into the field for the farmer's fervants. Upon 
examination, by means of the teft, it appeared evidently impreg- 
nated, equal to that which had remained two or three noura 
quiefcent in the fame kind of veiiel; 

< Experiment V. A quart of generous rich cyder was placed 
in a glazed earthen vefTel, without being agitated, two hours'; 
when, on ufing the teft, a very flight degree of impregnation 
was difcovered. After three, four, five, fix, feven, and eig^t 
hours, this appearance gradually increafed. Upon the whole, 
it (eemed, that the degree of impregnation was three hours be* 
hind that of the rough cyder, which had ftood the fame fpace ^f 
time in the fame kind of vefleU 

' Experiment VL Ten grains of fugar of lead were added 
to one quart of ordinary cyder. After fo^-ty-eight hours, it 
bpre a finer face, and was greatly improved in tafie; but, cte 
mixing a few drops of the teft, it inftantly became as bldck as 
that cyder, which had ftood in a glazed earthen vefiTel twelve 
hours.' ' , 

It is necefTary that we fubjoln to tbefe experiments (bme of 
the author's obfervations upon them. 

* Whoever, fays he, will attentively confider thefe expert* 
ments, or, what would be much more fatisfadtory, whoever will 
be at the trouble of making all or any of them, mufi, I am per-* 
fuaded, find the refult uniformly and conftantly the fame : and I 
think t^^t^ perfon will then readily agree, that the certain ge« 
neral caufe of the endemial colic of Devonfhire, is by tt^nt 
clearly demonftrated. 

« That thefe glazed earthen vefiTels (of different fizes, from a 
pint in meafure, to thofe which contain three or even four gal- 
lons) are in conftant ufe with us, the whole county will bear 
tefiimony. It is alfo well known, that the cyder is frequently 
ient in them from the fftrmer'a honfes^ to their fetYants and la« 


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bouren it a dift&ncein ihe fields foxa^tia|e« hot, wliich, as ip«« 
pears by Exp. III. excludvc of the agitatkm, renders it liable cd 
be inore readily inpregnated* This is a fad which flionld be 
talceo into confideratioiiy when we enquire after a general caufe. 
Bciides, we may coafideatlv fuppofe, thatr as no public fufpicion 
. IS entertaioed of danger tropi the life of thefe veiTcisy people 
eie not very cantious refptftiag the time their cyder has been in 
them; and, that it may happen more baring b^n drawn the 
night before, or for the preceding meal, than was neceflary, in- 
dividaals may drink of the cyder which hath remained in fuch 
Te£e2s many hoars ; long enough to take up fo much of the 
lead, as to produce the colic of Pcvoa(biie» and all iu fapcr^ 
vening fymptoaw. . . 

* It appears from Exp. IL that the cyder fufFered to remain in 
thefe vcffcls 4W0 hours, is impregnated very pt:rceptibly with the 
fliincral particles ; it conlisqaentlyf every hour afur, becomes 
mdre and more fo. 

* Hence it appears, that, as thefe veffels are vaiverially in 
ufe with the lower clafs of people through this county, ^ofe of 
the inhabiiaets who eccoftom themfelves to drink cyder, for thc^r 
common liquor, are conftaqtly liable to receive a fdution of tbjs 
aoxiotts mineral intp the fte^ach atfd bow.e)s, 4he 4Mily certain 
general caufe of the difeafe. 

< Hence aHb it is eafy to account, why one family continues 
free from .the colic, while its neighbours are ^ffli^d with it i 
many circomftances, as to the preparation of their cyder, and 
then node of their diet, being nearly the fame : becaafe; the one 
siay make nfe of glaft, or wood, or ftone-waie,^ for their do* 
sneftijC purpofes ; whilH they who are afHided with the colac» 
make ufe of die common glazed earthen veflels. 

' This, probably, is the reafon, why Devonihire b much 
jnon afllicM with this colic, ihaa ihe coiiatiee of GlouecHcr, 
Worcefter and Hereford; becaufe tbe ufe of glafs,.wood, ^r 
fione-warc^ may be mnch more prevalent with them» than 
with us. 

* We are now likewifefufficiently infouned why the poor, in 
^etitnl, are .moi^ liable to this difeafe than the rich, ** and 
efpecially why the fervants and labourers of thofe who make 
poor, 'crude, fbur cyder, are, of all perfons, the moft abided 
With it," ftot^only frdm their ufing the glazed eartiien veiTels, 
bat alfo in confeqoence of therr drinking ao inferior kind of 
cyder ; which, as appears by Exp. 11. compared with Exp. V* 
isv uttbappily for them, tnore adapted to diffolve, and be itfi* 
pregnated wfth, the deleterif)iis particles of this mineral, thaa 
the«more generous.' ... 

Dr. Hardy judicioudy advifes that all cyder ihoidd be ex- 
amined by means of the teft^ before it 4s purchafed or drank ; 
and he intimates a fAfpicion, perhaps well founded, that the 
dry*!wrHy*ache, fo frequent in the Weft Indies, may likewife 


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^l*ed froih the ufe of glazed Vfeffefs, Mftnjr obfervMofts of 
importatice, not only to ttic facjufty but to others, occot m tfcis 
treatife ; and Should ttie authOrVopuiion be confirmfedi refpfed'- 
ing the manner m which the difeafe in queftion is produced^ 
there is reafon to hope, that for the future this dreadful ca-* 
lami^ may be prevented. 

^ lihrpduffimi U Merehandiici. In ftuw Folumts. Fck L Svi^ 
' i^i.fiwtL- Cadell. 

•^r*HE grBit fiWpOTtatee of tridfe t6 thh cOntttry abondamly 
*' authorifes every attempt to improve, and facilitate tbte 
theory of accounts aftd computation, while the expitnding .na« 
ture of it, bpth with regard to countries and articles of traffit^ 
make repeated improvements, and publications relative to this 
fubjedt altogether neceflary : fo that this ingenious and welU 
Informed writer, needed not to have made any apology for the 
irabltcation of a work which ieems fo likely to improve the 
public ftock of knowledge in {o effehtial a fubjed. In the 
prefiice, Mr* Hamilton gives a modeft accouitt of his wotki, 2ii 

Ihefe words. 

\ . . 

< The following treaties comprehends feveral branches of 
ntrcaDtile education. It is chiefly intended for the ufe of aca- 
damiei and ichools*; at the fame time^ we- have attempted to 
lender it ufefiil to the man of bufinefs, and intelligible to the 
privaie fi«dent.t As' there are many fodoks of a like kind ex- 
tant, and fome of acknowledged merit, it is proper to explain 
the motives which gave rife to a new one. 

-* .A teacher has occafion to propofe « variety of quefttofts ta 
fce refolved, and of loofe materials, to be arranged by the 
learner. None of the books which- have fallen into the au- 
thor's hands contain a fnfficient variety pf thefe, or of a pro- 
per kind ; and, as this defsS occafioned much unneceuar/ 

* trouble and delay, he was iodoced, for the co'nventency of xhsy 
Itadents under his care» and others in the like fituation, to 
fapply it. 

* The greater part of the matter, in a new publication of 
this kind, muft be the fame as is to be met with in former ones. 
We have endeavoured to retrench what was fuperflaous, to fn- 
trodace a variety of new and ufefur articles, to unfold the gene- 
ral principles of the fubjedl, and lead /the ftadent to the moft 
eligible methods for pradice, fnited to the various circumftance» 

' of bufioefs, and not confined to fet rules or forms. The matter 
is arranged in that order which has been found mod convenient in 
teaching \ and, for that pnrpofe, the regtllar order of fyilem ia 
ibmetimesdifpenfed with. 

g « Part 

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< Parti, contains a fyftem of arithmetic Th^ young«Iearae# 
ftould firft be taught the four pHn^ary rules^ without any par-* 
ticular application, and then he miy ^o through tlit fyftein re* 
gularly. There are morequeilions proposed' ihaii may be deceit 
ftry for every ftudent ; bdt the teacher will find oCcafion foi' theoi 
all. As to thofe which arc cotnplejt, the ftudent, after r^folv- 
ing a few> ancier the infpeaion of the teacher* thufjt be left t6 
conduft the operation according to his own judgment; and, if 
his errors, and their confc»c[uences, be pointed oot, he wiu 
loon be able to feleft the circumftances io proper order, and 
perform the moft intricate computations with accuracy and ^ 

< The roles are prinited In Italics, as the teacher may fono- 
times find it convenient to caufe the learner to tranfcribe Ihevi. 

< 'The chapter on Interminate Decimals may be thought too 
long. This curious branch of arithmetic hies been opened, and 
pretty fully difcuffed by feveral ingenious aothori. We havto 
attempted to handle it as a fabjeA complete lA itfelf ^ and, ac 
the fame time, to explain the analogy which vulgar and decimal 
fra&ions bear to each other. This will be agreeable to the fpe* 
culative ftodent : but, as it is of little cm* no afe in bofinefs, the 
generality of learners ought to pafitiH)y. 

« Part 11. contains a iyftem of algebra, adapted to the general 
plan of this treatife, and including thofe branches of arithmetic 
which are befl illuftrated by the help of algebra. It may not fnit 
the leifure or capacity of every fhident ; but, as the dodrine of 
nnmbers cannot be fully underilood without fometbing of this 
kind, we hope that thofe whoperufe it with proper care will not 
regret their labour. The method Of expreffing a rule for compa« 
tation, by algebraic fymbols, is fo ufeful, and fo foon acquired^ 
that it ihould be taught to every ftudent, though he pnrfne thia 
fabje^t no further. 

* * Part III. contains an account of the monies, weights, and 

meafures, ufed in different nations, the nature and form of biHa 

~ cf exchange, invoices, and other mercantile accompts. The 

] fubjed of computation is re-aflumed, and diicuffed at greater 

length, in the particulars which this part relates to. 

* Part IV. contains the doftrinc of Italian Book keepings ia 
that form which is moft firiflly regular. 

* Part V. contains a variety of forms in Bookkeeping, fnited 
to particular circumflances of bufinefs, and varying, more or 
lefs, from the regular form, as the cafe requires. 

* Part VI. contains an account of the trade of Great Britain, 
and of thofe laws and cuftoms which merchants are particulariy 
interefted in.' 

The fjrft three part» are contained in the prefent volume 
of this work*; and the fecond, which is promifed to be 
publifhed foon, will be employed on the remaining parts.— 
In a fubjea naturally dry and uncntertaining, Mr, Hamiltpa 


^^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^amilt9n*/ tnthSu&m to Mtnh^M^^^ P^t. t 3|f 

has contriv.^d to make his book contain much informatiodf 
without being tedious to the reader. The parts are well coii-* 
trived to cotivey inftrudion either in the clofet or in the 
fchool ; the reafons ibr the feveral rales artrf operations afe 
clearly and naturally explained, and ^he numerous colle^ions 
of examples for praAice will be found very ufefiii anil reatJy 
for teachers to deliver to their pupils. In fubjedts (o frequeniijr 
* treated of by writers, much new matter is not to be expeQe4 1 
Mr. Hamilton however generally gives an air of originality to 
the mbfi common parts of the work, and renders t;hem in- 
tereftiag even to the more learned readers. Subjc^sof cofn- 
putatipn fi^l^om admit of extra^s that are both inftrudivd 
and eoterrmning, but we believe ,the following ingenious di£- 
fectation on weights and meafuresi, taken from the third part 
of this work, will be well relifhed by moft readers* 

* Tables of the monies, weights, and ineafures* nfedi la Brf* 

t^in, were jiyen Pa,rt X.. § 1.3.^ It ijs n^^ceflary, foi* |be con* 

venience of commerce, that ^n uniformity (hould be obferve^ in 

■ ihcfe articles, aad regulated by proper ftandards* A foot-rulfi 

^js^ybe u fed as a flandard for .n)e4rttrf:8 of* length, ^a btiihel fi9i? 

ilieafures pf capacity, and ^ po>3i>d'.for weights- There ihotlld' 

.be only on^ authentic (laniard qf each Jcipd) forpxed <)f tl^e^ 

. jnoft durable materiab, ap^ k^pt with, all pojCbip Qare. A <fu^^ 

ficient nun^ber of copiQs, ex^flly correfpon^jng tP.theprincii:^! 

Aai^dard, rpay be diflribpted for ^djudiag.the weights and mea'*' 

fares thar are made for common .uf<< Tbeic^ are feveral fian* 

dards of thjs kind bqth in England, ap.d ScQtland. 

< If any one of the flandards .above mentioned be juAly pr0« , 
fcrved, it will ferve as ii rfound^a^ion .fur the others, by which 
?hey may be corre£lcd, if i9ac<;fty>fe, or reftored, if intirely loft* 

. Fqr inftan.c^, if we have ^ ft^i^dard foot, we c^n.eaiily. obtain 
Miach, and can make a box* v^hich 0ia)l contaiti a cubi<»l 
iii,?h, atvd.piay ferve as a lland^ijd for meafqres qf capacity* if* 
it l^e known that a piat contains ipo cubical inches^ we may* 
niake a veiTel 5 inches fquare« and 4 inches deep, which will 
cqntaia a pint, tf the ftandar^.be required in .any other forin^ 
we may fill this velFel with wale r, a^d regulate another to contata 
no equal quantity. Standards for weights may be obtained frota 
the fame foundation ; for, if we know'bow many inches of wateif 
it takes to weigh, a pound, we have only to ^leaftrre that q^naa* 
tity, and the weight which balances it tx^y be alTamed as thi 
ilandard of a pound. 

< Again, if the dandard of a pound be :giVefi^ the meafdre 
of an inch may be obtained Up^i it ; for, we may weigh a cq<» 
bical inch of water, and pour it into a regular veflel, and, hav- 

"^ing noticed how far it is iilied, we may make another vefiel of* 

like capacity, in the form of ,a cube. The fide of this v^el 

nay. be affumed as . the ilandard for an inch ; and ^odards for 

,VoL. XLV- il/ity, 1778. Z* afooti 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

53^ HimStOO*/ lmtr$JftaiM t§ Mifiheniixi. F»h L 

a foot, a piott or a bofliel, may be obtained from it. Water 
U the moft proper fnbftanee for regolating flandardt ; for all 
other bodies differ in weight from others of the fame kind ; 
whereat, it is foand by expertenee, that fpring and river water* 
rain, and melted fnow, and all other kinds, have the (ame 
weight; and this uniformly holds in all countries when the 
water is pure, alike warm, and free from fait and minerals. 

• Thus, anyone fUadard is fufficient for refloring all the reft. 
It may further be defired, to hit on fome expedient, if poffible, 
for refloring the ftandards, in cafe that all of them ihould ever 
fall into diforder, or fliould be forgotten, through the length 
of *time, and the viciiGtndes of human affairs. This feems 
difficult, as no words can convey a precife idea of a foot rule, or 
a pound weight. Meafures, affumed from the dimenfionsof the 
human body, as a foot^ a hand breadth, or a pace, muft nearly 
be the fame in all age^, unlefs the fize of the human race 'un- 
dergo fome change ; and, therefore, if we know how many 
iquarefeet a Roman acre contained, we may form fome judg* 
nent of the nature of the latv which reftri£led the property ofia 
Roman citizen to 7 acres ; and this is fufficient to render hifto^y 
intelligible; but it is too inaccurate to regulate meafures for 
commercial parpofes. The fame may be faid of ftandards, de- 
duced from the meafnre of a barley-corn, or the weight of a 
grain of wheat. If the di^nce of two mountains be accurately 
meafured and recorded, the nature of the mealure nfed will be 
preferved in a more permanent manner than by any fiandard ; 
lor, if ever that meaiure fall into difufe, and another be fubfH« 
luted in its place, the diftance may be meafured again, and the 
proportion of the (landards may be afcertained, by comparing 
the new and ancient diftances. 

* But, the moft accnrate and unchangeable manner of eftab* 
lifting ftandards is, by comparing them with the length of pen- 
dulums. The longer a pendulum is, it vibrates the flower ; 
and it muft have one precife length in order to vibrate in a fe- 
cond. The flightcft dffference in length will occafion a difter- 
cnce in the time ; which will become abundantly fenftble, after 
a number of vibrations, and will be eafily obferted, if the 
pendulum be applied to regulate the motion of a clock. The 
length of a pendulum ^hich vibraies feconds in London, is 
about 39 J inches, is conftantly the fame at the fame place, but 
at varies « little with the latitude of the place, being fliorter as 
the latitude is leA. Therefore, though all ftandard* of mta^xt 
and meafures were loft, the length of a fecood pendulum miglkt 
be found by repeated trials ; au4» if the pendulum be properly 
divided, the juil meafure of an inch will be obtained ; and from 
thiaall other ftaodarda may be reftored.' 

Mr. Hamilton then delivers a very infiru£live account of the 
, weights and meafures of Britain, as well as of thofe of all other 
' knowo countries,, together with comparative tables of them« 


Digitized byVjOOQlC 

Snd of the monies in each. But it is unnectilary to point oat 
the qualities of any particular part, the whole performahce 
being . uniforoUy. conduced in a very ulefql and mafierly 

^h% Trmgtdiit •/ -^fchylos tranjlattd hy R. Potter. 4/*. l/. U. 
fi<wti. Payne. [C&ntluhd Jr$m p. *47.] 

TN a former article we have given a fhort account, of four of 
^ ^fchyliis's tragedies, Prometheus^ tl^e Suppliants^ the 6^- 
ven Chiefs, and Agamemnon; we come now to the fifth, in* 
titled the. Coephorae, that is* wo^en * bringing libations/ 
The Aory is to this effedt. Orefles, by the command of the 
oracle at D.clphi, returns to Argps, accompanied by his friend 
Fyladcs ; and, according to the cuQom of thofe times* offera 
his hair on the tomb of his father *• * At this inftant Clytem* 
neftra, having been terrified with dreams* and the apparition 
of hkt murdered hufband, fends a train of females to* pay him 
fome funeral honours at his tomb, in order to appeaie his in'*- 
dignant fpirit. Eleftra, the fifter of Oreftes, is one of the 
tram. Oreftes foon -difcovers her; and having learhed from 
her the fituation of tlie family at the palace, intro,duces him- 
felf to iEgifthus, under the charader of a Phocian traveller, 
who, comes to inform him, that Oredes was dead.' In this 
interview Oreftes ftabs ^£gifthus, 9Pd after.\^rds Clytemneftra: 
.but being periecuted by the Furies, he flies to the temple of 
Apollo at Delphi. 

In the l)f ft part of this tragedy, Eledra, before (be per- 
ceives QrePes, fees a lock of hair on her father's tomb, and 
immediately concludes, that no perfdn but her bfother could 
prefent fuch an offering. This is a natural concluiion. But 
. the two following reafbns, which ftie afterwards aftigns for this 
conjedure, feem frivolous and abfurd. 

* Then the coioar ; mark it well ; 
^Th iiie fame ft?adi njoitb mini, ^-^ 

— « Further mark 
Th' impreffion of thefcfeet ; tbey (hew, that two 
Trod here; himfelf perchance and his attendant 1 / 
One of th' txad diminfeons imtk my owm.* 

Eiedra's conclu(ion, drawn from the colour of the hair, is 

ridiculed by Ariftophanes» Nub, i. 6. But furely the obferv- 

. ation, which (he makes on the length of her brother's foot, it 

much more fantafticak In vindication of ^Sfchylus we can 

■ ' ■ ■ I H I U ■ ■ I I ■ I . 

. * Homer's Iliad^ xxiii* 134. 

Z; a 9uly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34^ f bi trageJhs of MCchylus, 

only fay, tnaV he lias not enrirdy deviated from ffaWfe : w6- 
men^s reafonin'^^ are hot always lo^icaU £le£lra's hopes and 
fiappincfs ' dep^hded oa ^er brother* Siie calls hhn * the 
deareft of mankind ;' and it is well known, that a fond ere- 
4lulity conftaatly accompanies^ tender paflion : 

. .Qui amant, ipfi (ibi fomnia fingunt., , . 
'••'-■-• . . 

We fhaH quote the tranflator's general (j^marks on this 


« The chara^ers of Orcftes and gledlra are finely rijppprte4* 
jji pioiis refentitient ol'the murder of his fathery^a confcioufne^ 
jcyfhis own high rank, and a juft indignation at the injuries he 
had receiVeil mm the mnrd^erers, 'a generous defiVe-to deliviAr 
lis ccTuiitry from the 'tyranny of thcfe ufurpei^s, and above aft 
the exprefs command of ApoUcu with apromife of.hrs-protedion 
'if heo6€3^d, and a di^nunciation of the {evercfi, puQiihmcnts 
AodU he dare ito difobey, incited OreftcB to tht« .deed^ he is 
accordingly idraiifn as a man of^a brave and daci^g f(|i/ifi touched 
:wi€h iheohigkeft fenfe ofhonour, and the mod rf^ious re- 
.v^reocoof ibe.gods: in fach a charader tl^ere could be nothing 
.iky am and ferpcious ; and We - ai:e pleafed to find him deeply 
^fen^ode of the horror of the deed which he was obliged to per- 
j^trA^e, 'ind averfe to plurige his fword into the bread df'hxs 
mother.. •* Eledlra^s charafter (in the words of the critic) is thit 
of a fierce and determined, but withall of a'-generbns a'l^d vir- 
tuous Svoman. Her motives to revenge wfrt^ principally^ a 
flrong fenfe of ju(H^e» and fvipenor affedion for a father; not a 
rooted* uniietara] airerfion lo a mother. She aded» as appears, 
not from the perturbation of atumultuous revebge» but from 
a ^xed': abhorrence of wroiifg, aiyi a vir^nqujs ienfe of (}uty.'* 
.Confiftently wtth^ this chari^der, when (he hadgiye^ Oreftes a 
fpirited accpunt of their father's murder, which dr^w him to de- 
clare his; redptlu lion to reven&e it, (h owing at the f^me trme fome 
^ £gn ofremor fe, iheadds a'mort relation of the barbarous rncli|- 
nities oftefed to the djcad Body; a deed of horror which,' me 
knew, would ihock his foul. She had feen her ilither' murder- 
ed, his body mjibglcd, and buried without, it^* honours; her 
brother, whom (he loted-with the tendereflaffediiop,' derived 
cff his throne, and exiled fit>m his cnantry.;, her mother in the 
arms of Agifthus abandooipg; herfelf tp her loofe and infamous 
pleafures:; ihe was herfelf cootiaually expofed to the infujts and 
barbarous treatment of this ungeptle tno.ther; what wonder then 
'that a fpirit naturally lofty and fenfible ihould catch fire at chefe 
injuries, contrad a wolfifh . fierce nefs, as ihe exprefifes it, and 
urge her brother to facrifice thefe proud opprefTors to juftice and 
revenge ? But the poet, with great ripgard to decorum, removes 
her from the fcene before the dreadful deed is to be committed : 
with regard to the management pf the catafirophe, nothiiig 
wqould be more judicious. Oreftes, who had 'rulhcd ob ^giUfaos 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

T6d Tragfdiii ff^'^tcbyl^* iii 

with tl^e fury of a tygcr, in the preiencc of his mother feds him- 
^If under the reilraint of filial Veyercnce/and"'confe<J'(^s4ris re- 
{tidlance to ihed her blood; till Pylades animates liiiii with a 
fentence as fblemn^as the Ddphic Otiiclc ; ^ieii finel)^mary 
the fatal blow is an ad of neceflary juftice, not qL rttffiao vio- 
lence. Even the C horns, who enter warmly into the interefls 
bfEleflraand Orelles, and had fired him to revenge by «vcrj? 
Argument of dcrty, juftice* law, and honour; Mi^htf hid wtftfed 
io hear the dying groans of the guilty tyrants, and to echd 
them back in -notes as difmal, after the deed is done, realTume 
the fofter fentioients of humanity, and lament tbeir fate. The 
Y?morfe and n^adncfs of Orefles is touched in the fineil manner. 
Thefe indeed are but iketches, ,but they are t^ (ketches of a; 
gre^t mailer; ^ fucceedirig poet had the ikill to give them their 
£niihingy and heightened them with the warme(l glow of co- 
louring. The fpiric of iEfcbylus fhines through this tragedy ; 
but a certain foftening of grief hangs oveir it, and gives it an air 
6ffolemn. magnificence/ " , 

The poet's defcription of the vifionary terrors, which haunt- 
ed Clytemnefira, after the murder of her huiband, would not 
have been unworthy of Shakfpeare: |t loies nothing in th^ 
tranflation : ' ' ^ . 

* For in th& fttll and midnight hour. 

When darknefs aids his htdequs powV, 

Affright, that breaths his vengeance deep. 

Haunts with wild dreams the troubled deep, 
^ That freeze the blood, and raife the brillling hair: 

(jfrim fpedre I he with horrid tread 

Stalk*d around the curtainM bed, * 
And rais'd a yell thai pierc'd the tortur'd ear. 
' Aghaft thtf heav*n-taught prophet flood ; 
The dead, he cries, the ah^ry dead around 

Thefe dreadfull no^tes of vengeance fofund, 

Dreadfull <o thofe that fhed their blood/ 

VI. The Ftiries. Ofcftes tormented by theFuries at Delphi 
by the advice of Apollo fiies to the temple of Minerva at 
Athens/ The Furies purfue him thittver. His caufe is heard 
before the court of Areopagus ; and he is acquitted *• 

^fchylus is charged by fome critics with having violated 
one of the three unities, in this tragedy, by changing the 
fcene frort Delphi f to Athens.^ His tranftator, in anfwer to 
this objedlion, remarks, * that Apollo and the Furies miift be 

• See N9tes.on the Epift. to thePifoSj V. 117. 

+. The propriety of uiing the word Detpht, in the nominative cafe, 
rather than Dtlphos^ ill the accufative, is fufHcieiitly demonftrated 
by Dr. Bentley, DilTifrtation on Pbalaris, pref. p. 46. See alfo Wot- 
ton> Defenee of Refi. on aficient and' tuoderA Learning; 

Z 3 allowed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34S T'Ai Tragidiis •/ JEfchyluf.' 

illowed the liberty to trmfport themfeWes whither and when 
they pkafe ; and that Mercury has the charge of condudiog 
Oreftes s fo that had Horace <iwr»/« [writteo] 

■ modo me Ditpbii^ modo ppnit Athents, 

• the allofion would, have added a wonderful propriety to the ex- 
preffioAy and the pafftge have conveyed a juft character of this 

\ tragedy. However a French or a Dutch critic may be (hocked 
at this change of (cene, to an Athenian nothing could be irtore 
agf^eeable than to fee a ^conteft, which Apollo could not com- 
poie at Delphos» brought before the 'great council of his own 
city, the god in perfon attending and pleading in the caufe. 
That refped to his eounrryi which diftinguifhes our noble 
poet above all the writers of antiquity, has an irrefiflible charm. 
'* Rules, art, decorum, all fall before it. It goes diredly to 
the heart, and gains all purpefes at once" The Englifh 
deader feels this in its full force $ and ^fchylus is acquitted of 
the charge of having violated an unity*' 

The infernal fifterhood (which forms the chorus) on the Athe- 
nian fiage amounted to fifty. The confternation arifing from 
their hideous figures, geflures; and yellings, had fach fatal ef-^ 
feAt upon the children, and the women with child *, that the 
ftate, by an exprefs law, reduced the number of the chorus to 
fifteen, and afterwards to twelve. 

As it may not be unpleafing to our readers to lee how ^fchy- 
lut has delineated this horrid train, we (hall prefent them with 
two or three (ketches, 

« Pritfitfs. 

Before him lies a troop of hideous women 
StretchM on the feats, and ileeping ; yet not women^ 
But Gorgons rather, nor the Gorgon form 
'Exaftly reprefenting, as 1 have feen them 
Drawn by the painter's ifnitacive pencil. 
Snatching the viands from the board of Phineos. 
Thefe have not wings ; bat cloath'd in fable doles, 
Abhorr'd and execrable ; as they (leep 
Hoarfe in their hollow throats their harlh breath rattles. 
And their gaird eyes a rheumy gore diftili. 
Ill fait fach loathfome weeds the hallow'd fane 
Graced with the forms of fcuIpturM gods, ill fait 
The tooU of men : fo foul a iiilefhood 
Till now I never faw ; no land can boaft 
To have produc'd a breed fo horrible. 
Bat toils, and groans, and mifchiefs mufl enfue*' 

• Jul* Pollux, iv. 15. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


When Apollo perceives thefe antiquated virgins, he throwS- 
out a farcafm, which naturally fuggefted itfelf to a >oung ^ 
/park, diftinguifhed for hi$ gallantry. 

< . ■ ■ S ee this griefly troop» 

Sleep has opprefs'd them, and their baffled rage 

Shall fail, grim-vifagM hajts grown old 

In Toach'd virginity : nor God, nor man 

Apptoach'd their bed, nor favage of the wilds t 

Par they were born for mifchiefs, and their haunts 

Jn dreary darknefs 'midft the yawning gulfs 

Of Tartaros beneath, by men sbhorr'd. 

And by th' Olympian gods.'— — 

Afterwards, when he expels them froa his temple, he 

* Hence, T command yoo, from mv hallow'd feat 
Begone with fpeed ; quit this oracular ihrine : 
This is no place to fnatch your winged ferpents. 
And hurl chem from your golden-twiiled nring, 
To wring the black blood from the human beaic ' 
With torture, then difgorge your horrid feaft 
Of clotted gore : fach gtiefts my houfe abhors*. 
Begone where vengeance with terrific rage 
Digs out the eyes, or from the mangled trunk 
Remorfeiefs rends the head ; to (laughters go. 
Abortions, lurking ambufli, rampir'd force. 
To fuff*rings, to impalements, where the wretch 
Writhes oh the flake in tortures, yelling loud 
With many^ a fhriek : in feafts like thefe, ye hags 
AbfaorrM, is your delight ; fufficient proof 
That execrable form : the defert wild. 
Where the blood-raV'oing lion makes* his den. 
Such ihou'd inhabit ; nor with impure tread 
Pollute thefe golden ihrines : begone, and graze 
Without a keeper ; for of fuch an herd 
Th* indignant gods difdain to take the charge/ , 

VII. The Perfians. — In this tragedy the poet introduces 
Atofla the widow of Darius, a MelFenger, the Ghoft of Da* 
rius, Xerxes, and the Chorus, confiding of Perfian counfel- 
loTs, lamenting the diilrefsful fituation of their country, after 
the fea fight of Saiamif, in which the Grecian fleet, under 
the command of Themiftocles, confining of 300 ihips, totally 
defeats that of the Perfians, amounting to laoy. 

* No reprefentation cap be conceived more agreeable to a 
brave and free people, than that which fets before cheir eyes the 
ruin of an invading tyrant defeated by their own valour; and 
no poet could ever claim the right of making fuch reprefen* 
sation with fo good a grace as uEfchylusy who bad borne a 

Z 4 difc 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

§44 ^^ tragtJiis rf ^fchyluf. 

dtftiiigmdief! part in the real fcene. Animated by his noble 
(ilbjeS, 'dji/d the entfaufiafm with which he loved his coantry, h^ 
bas here difplayed all the warmth and dignic)^ of his genios* 
but tempered at the fame time with fo chaAifed a judgement, 
that we are furprifed to fee the infant drama come forth at once 
with all thofe graces which conflicute its perfedioo ; it is like 
bis own Minerva, that fprang from the bead of Jopiter, 

* Then Ihtning heav'niy fair, a goddefs arm'd/ ^ 

Befides this wonderful management of the parts, the poet has 
the delicacy to fet the glory of his countrymen io the brij^hteft 
view, by putting their praifes into the mouths of their enelnies. 
)Not fatisfied with a fpiriced' narration of their defeat, and a re- 
cital of the .many royal chiefs that perifhed in the battle ; not 
fatisfied with fpreadiog the terror through all the realms of 
Iperfia, and placing them in a manner before our eyes in all the 
^\^tt.h of defolation and defpair, he hath interefled even the 
deadf and with theawefull folemni<y of a religious incantation 
evoked the ghoft of Darius to teflify to his Perfians that no fafety, 
no hope remained to them, if they continued their hoftile at<r 
tempts againft Greece • fo that his fublime conception hath en* 
^aged earth and fea, heaven and hell, to jbear honourable tef- 
ti^ny to the glory of his countrymen, and the fuperiority of 
their arms, 

* This tragedy was exhibited eight years after the defeat at Sa- 
lamis/ whilft the memory of each circumftance was yet recent ; 
fo that we may confider the narration as a faithfull hiftory of this 
great event. The war was not yet ended, though the Perfiaii 
monarch had offered to make the mott humiliating conc^JHons, 
and the Athenians were inclined to accept them ; but Tbe- 
jniftocles oppofed the peace. So that we are further to confidcr 
this play in a political light ; the poet, byfo animated a de- 
fcription of the pernicious elFeAs of an obftinate pride, and by 
filling the (jpe^ators with a malignant coropaffion for the van- 
quiflied Xerxes, indireiftlyindifpoiiog his countrymen to a 
continuation, of the war. Thus every thing at Athens, even 
their (hows, had a refpe^ to the public good, This is the fine 
remark of P^ Bremoy.' 

By the extradls we have already given, the reader will per^ 
ceive, that this tranflator has happily preferved that dignity of 
ftyle, that bold and defcriptive imagery, for which the author 
is peculiarly diftinguiftied, 

Mr. Potter, contrary to the ufual cuflotn of tranflators, has 
pot favoured his readers with one marginal note. This, wc 
apprehend^ will be regretted by ^fvery one, who cannot have re* 
tourfe to the learned annotations of Canter, Stanley, and Pauw, 

It* gives us pleafure to find, that this ingenious writer is now 
engaged in the tranflatioq of Euripides, 

Digitized by 


[ Uf 1 

Oijirv^i^s M th$ MiMi of exatrn^ 4 Spirit ef Nattcual laju/hj/i^ 
. chiefly inHndid to ffm»t€ the j^riculturet Commerce^ Mmuf$e* 
tunsf and Fi/biriis of Scotland, By James Anderlbiu 4l#t 
.' \%t. in hoatds^ CftdelK 

%^0 fpecies of obfervations can be more important to any - 
*^^ people, than fuch as ioveftigates thofe leading principled 
«t^h!ch conftitute the fource of national profperity and greatnefs. 
The treatife now before us ftands en^inent in this ufeful claf^ 
tii pradudlions, and though calculated in a pafticular manner 
ibt Scotland, the remarks which it contains are io univerlalfy 
dppircable, that the^ may almofl: equally tend to the improve- 
lyifent of every country on the globe ; the author not having