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Full text of "The military and civil history of Connecticut during the war of 1861-65 : comprising a detailed account of the various regiments and batteries, through march, encampment, bivouac, and battle, also instances of distinguished personal gallantry, and biographical sketches of many heroic soldiers, together with a record of the patriotic action of citizens at home, and of the liberal support furnished by the state in its executive and legislative departments"

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THE WAE OF 1861-65. 









Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 










THE History of Connecticut during the late civil war was announced by 
Chaplain John M. Morris more than two years ago, and was promised to 
the Publisher more than a year ago ; but the difficulty of obtaining precise 
information was vastly greater than had been anticipated, while many im 
perative duties of the projector consumed much coveted time. To prevent 
further delay, an arrangement was made whereby "W. A. Croffut became 
associated in the labor. The book has been mainly written by Mr. Croffut, 
from materials carefully collected by Mr. Morris. It is proper to bear tes 
timony, here, to the patient persistence, State pride, and devotedness to the 
cause, which luftve been exhibited by the Publisher, in overcoming the obsta 
cles that so long postponed a completion of the volume. 

This work aims to give a fair, accurate, and reasonably complete narra 
tive of the services of the soldiers of Connecticut in the field, with a briefer 
record of the patriotic support furnished by citizens at home.* It presents 
no scientific discussion of strategy, and no pi-ofound reflections on the causes 
and results of the war for the Union. 

We offer no elaborate description of battles, except at the points where 
the regiments of our State were involved : but troops fought under the tri- 
vined flag in every rebellious State, and in almost every important engage 
ment ; so that we rise from our wo.rk to find that the story of the soldiers of 
Connecticut, presents, with singular completeness, the story of the war. 

This general outline is rendered more palpable by the fact, that, instead 
of following the plan of giving each regimental record complete in itself, 
and detached from all the rest, we have rather tried to group events that 
are synchronous, and carry forward the whole with something of the con 
secutive method of history. 

It is impossible to estimate, even approximately, the number of men, 
much more the aggregate of power and character, which Connecticut con 
tributed to the war. On every great battle-field her sons and grandsons 
lie. In the regiments of every State they bore muskets and held commis 
sions. In every pivotal hour of the war, leaders appeared among the fore 
most, who went back to her sterile but man-nourishing soil for elements 
of strength, skill, and valor. Not only Winthrop, Ellsworth, Lyon, Poote, 
Sedgwick, Mansfield, Wadsworth, McClellan, Mower, Wright, Terry, but 
William Tecumseh Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant, sprang straight from 
the loins of our sturdy little Commonwealth. 

" The soldiers fight, and the kings are heroes," says a quaint proverb 
of the Talmud. It were an easy task to enumerate the illustrious officers, 
l i 

ii PREFACE. , 

who were lifted up in the gaze of all the world ; but there is a sense of 
pain and profound sorrow in the consciousness that it is impossible to 
render justice to the nameless rank and file who never wore even a corpo 
ral s chevron, but held to their duty with sublime patience. The last of the 
color-guard, who seized the standard that had dropped from the relaxed 
grasp of his comrades, and bore it on, and planted it and stood by it on the 
edge of the rebel rifle-pit ; the martyr who perished in prison, and ever 
since has been marked "missing" upon the roll of regimental casualties; 
the thousand glorious obscure, who were mown down by the flaming blade 
of battle, and died singing songs of triumph, and praying for the establish 
ment of Liberty and Law, these are the true he-roes and martyrs of all 
the wars of the world. But, in a book of limited scope, we have no alter 
native but to mention the officer as the unit standing for his command. 

Connecticut sent to the struggle fifty thousand soldiers in her own regi 
ments, and probably half as many more in the regiments of other States. 
A simple catalogue of their names and muster would fill two books as large 
as this ; while a complete chronicle of the service of all heY faithful sons 
would require a volume for each. Yet we have striven to record every act 
of conspicuous gallantry or merit that has come to our knowledge, without 
regard to rank, feeling rather that rare devotedness was nobler in the un- 
titled hero, who had little incentive of military ambition, and little hope 
that his deed would ever be marked or mentioned. 

In treating of affairs at home, we have kept strictly to what had a direct 
bearing on the war j and, in touching upon local politics, we have written 
in the spirit of fairness. 

In presenting the statistics of patriotic benevolence we confess to a dis 
appointment. No people beset by war ever gave, of their own free will, so 
lavishly as ours ; and we hoped to compile a record of this liberality, so 
specific and so remarkable, as to amaze the dwellers in this peaceful land 
when our villages shall have become cities, and our farms suburban gardens. 
But we find that our towns, societies, and churches kept, in most instances, 
no systematic record whatever. The meager facts submitted will probably 
be received as possessing a certain interest and value. 

It is also proper to say that the portraits which appear in this volume 
have been selected with regard not only to the merits of the subjects, but 
also to the desirableness of representing different regiments, every rank, 
and all sections of the State. 

Instead of relying upon some officer of each regiment to write the his 
tory of its service, we have preferred to have the whole book grow up un 
der our own hand ; and to this end we have gathered facts with diligence 
and care from official reports, diaries, scrap-books, newspapers, private 
letters, personal interviews, and every available source, seeking corrobora- 
tion as far as practicable. By this, we have incurred an enormous labor ; 
but we have secured absolute impartiality, and have attained, we trust, 
substantial accuracy, even in the multiplicity of detail and circumstance. 


Many gentlemen have placed at our disposal sketches, letters, documents, 
and valuable material. Our acknowledgments are duly expressed in these 
plages. There are a few to whom we feel peculiarly indebted, Col. Philo 
B. Buckingham ; Capt. T. F. Vaill of the Second Artillery ; Lieut.-Col. 
William S. Cogswell of the Fifth ; Chaplain II. S. DeForest of the Elev 
enth ; Capt. II. P. Goddard of the Fourteenth ; Cap"t. Henry G. Mar 
shall and Enoch E. Rogers of the Fifteenth ; Chaplain TV. C. TValker of 
the Eighteenth ; Capt. Luther G. Riggs of the Twenty-second ; Lieut.-Col. 
David Torrance of the Twenty-ninth ; Lieut. J. II. Lord of the Second 
(three-months troops) ; and John M. Douglass, Esq., for an admirably- 
written chronicle of the part borne by the citizens of Middletown. 

It is hoped that no critic Avill be so unjust as to compare this volume 
with the vast and eloquent unwritten history of the war. Keenly will the 
friends of many noble men feel that we have failed to portray the self-deny 
ing lives and valiant deeds of their heroes ; but they can not more than 
we do. Many, even of the worthy, are nameless here;- for their story 
has never been told us, and is unrecorded. The whole can not be written. 
Our facts and incidents are only illustrative, not exhaustive. They may 
not always be the most noteworthy ; but they are the best at our command. 
It is hoped that some compensation for any omissions of this kind may 
be found in the fact that we have maintained the local character of the 
work by introducing as much personal incident as could be added without 
burdening the narrative. Few books are ever published that are so full of 
individual achievement and experience. 

TVe present this volume, however, with confidence, because we feel, that, 
whatever may be its defects of construction, much will be preserved in it 
which would otherwise be lost, and much brought to the notice of the 
whole State, which has hitherto been known to few outside of town or 
neighborhood. It may tend to moderate the extravagant estimate which 
local partiality sometimes places on individuals ; Jbut it can hardly fail to 
exalt the general impression of the average patriotism and efficiency. 

Deeds of daring and devotion now ennoble the records of every town. 
A filial gathering of these seeds of history should have a present value in 
nourishing State pride and stimulating a generous public spirit. And it 
can not but be prized as a record of ancestral sacrifice by the generations 
to come, when grandchildren shall cluster around the chair of the gray- 
haired volunteer, and listen while he tells once more how he carried the 
flag at Gettysburg, and when the venerable dame shall resort to the old 
bureau fragrant with memories, and gaze again through the mists at the 
blue coat worn by one who went to battle with her blessing, and died joy 
fully that the Republic might have a second birth. 




Early History of Connecticut. The Pequot War. First American Constitution. Heavy 
Taxation. Courage of the New-Haven Colony. Character of the Civil Govern 
ment. The King s Officers resisted. The Charter preserved. Connecticut Decla- , 
ration of Independence. Putnam at Boston. The Statue at Litchfield. Brother 
Jonathan. Connecticut Men capture the first British Flags in 1812. The Blue- 
. Laws. Comparison with other Colonies. Pre-eminence in Mechanics. First 
Steamboat, Railroad, and Telegraph. Influence on other States . . . .13 


The War begun at the Ballot-Box. Elections in Connecticut in 1860. Attitude of Par 
ties. Secession becomes Formidable. Discussion and Recrimination. Our Repre 
sentatives in Congress. Their Action on Peace Propositions. Foresight of Gov. 
Buckingham. The Peace Conference. Hon. Isaac Toucey. Spring Election of 
1861. Connecticut declares for Coercion 29 


The Fall of Sumter. Enthusiasm in Connecticut. " Coercion" accepted as a Duty. 
A Battle-Sunday. Winsted and New Britain. Sympathy for the South. The Call 
for the First Regiment. Condition of our Militia. The Massachusetts Sixth. The 
Towns moving. The Hartford Companies. Meriden, New Haven, Danbury, Mid- 
dletown, Norwich, Derby, Willimantic, Mystic, Putnam, Danielsonville, Bridgeport, 
Waterbury, New London, Litchfield, Wallingford, Farmington, Salisbury. The Old 
Flag 38 


The Volunteers uniformed and equipped. Response of Wealthy Men and Institutions. 
Patriotic Work of the Women. Another Revolutionary Sunday. Call for Second 
and Third Regiments. The Troops at Rendezvous. Outfit completed. In Camp. 

Rations and Beds. Contributions flow in. Drill and Discipline. Sage Advice. 

Departure of the Three Regiments .66 


Capt. Dan Tyler. Henry B. Norton. Cassius M. Clay Guard. The Fourth Regiment. 

Towns represented. Departure. Colt s Revolving Rifles. It becomes the Fifth 
Connecticut. Towns represented. Home Guard. Yale College. The General 
Assembly. Message of the Governor. War Legislation. The Constitutional 
Amendment. Great Unanimity of Feeling. Independence Day . . . .70 


The First and Second Regiments in Washington. Welcome Reception. Camp at Glen- 
wood. Joined by the Third. Death of Col. Ellsworth. Ellsworth of Connecticut 
Stock. "Invasion" of Virginia. Ambush at Vienna. Holding the Advanced Post. 

Death of Theodore Wintlirop. Sketch of his Life and Character. Death of Capt. 
James H. Ward. An Advance. Blackburn s Ford. Bull Rur . Gen. Tyler be 
gins the Battle. The Army betrayed. Behavior of Connecticut Troops. The Last 
on the Field. They act as Rear-Guard in the Retreat. Good Order maintained. 
They bring off Public Property. Home, and Muster-out 83 





The Effect of the Defeat at Bull R .in. Second Uprising. The Fifth Regiment goes to 
Harper s Ferry. Six Regiments begun. A Squadron of Cavalry. Peace-Flags and 
Peace-Meetings. Seymour s Resolutions. Concurrent Action. Goshen, Bloom- 
field, Darien, Easton, Cornwall, Sharon, Prospect, North Guilford, Stonington. A 
New Saybrook Platform. New Fairfield. The Bridgeport Farmer. How Step 
ney stopped the War. The Farmer Office sacked. Gov. Buckingham s Proclama 
tion. Life and Character of Gen. Lyon. His Bravery and Decision. His Heroic 
Death 101 


The Fourth in Maryland. Dissatisfaction and Insubordination. The Fifth on the Poto 
mac. Recruiting active. The Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth. Towns represented. 

Departure. Sixth and Seventh at Washington and Annapolis. Eighth on Long 
Island. "The Sons of Connecticut." Ninth Regiment organized. "All Full 
Companies" accepted. The Tenth. Towns represented. Eighth and Tenth at 

* Annapolis. Meetings and Social Intercourse. The Eleventh. Recruiting. 
Towns represented. The Regiment embarks for Annapolis. Port-Royal Expedi 
tion. Landing of the Sixth and Seventh. First Union Troops in South Carolina. 
Tyler appointed Colonel of the Fourth. The New Discipline. Exposure and Priva 
tions of the Fifth 117 


Extra Session of the Legislature. Governor s Message. A. Carte Blanche. More Regi 
ments authorized. Gen. Butler and the Twelfth. A Light Battery and a Battalion 
of Cavalry. At Meriden. Off for the War. - The Ninth badly equipped. Twelfth 
in Camp at Hartford. Thirteenth in Barracks at -New Haven. Ninth and Twelfth 
at Ship Island. Blockading. The "Stone Fleet." Effect on the Harbors of the 
South 135 


Patriotic Benevolence. The Regiments in the Field supplied. Sewing and Knitting. 
Thar.ksgiviug Day. Soldiers -aid Societies. Systematic Effort. Alfred Walker. 

Thirteenth at New Haven. A " Dandy Regiment." Off for Ship Island. The 
Ninth. Dash at Biloxi and Pass Christian. Victory. Trophies and Thanks of 
Gen. Butler. Capture of New Orleans 148 


The Eighth, Tenth, and Eleventh leave Annapolis. Storm off Hatteras. Suffering and 
Depression. Battle and Capture of Roanoke Island. Death of C A. Charles L. Rus 
sell. Another Movement. Battle of Newberne. Death of Col. A. W. Drake. 
Incidents. Siege of Fort Macon 162 


The Connecticut Chaplains -aid Commission. Chapel Tents and Regimental Libraries 
furnished. Medical Examining Board. Spring Election of 1862. The War Spirit 
predominant. Governor s Message. Legislative Action. Special December Ses 
sion. Party Spirit Rising. Cornelius S. Bushnell builds the Monitor . . . 182 


The Sixth embarks for Florida. Return to Hilton Head. The Seventh goes to Tibee 
Island to besiege Fort Pulaski. Labor of getting the Heavy Mortars in Position. 
A Case of Insanity. Sixth goes to Dawfuskie Island to cut off the Approaches 
from Savannah. Seventh mans the Mortar Batteries. A Connecticut Affair. The 
Battle. Surrender of the Fort. The Sixth and Seventh and the First Connecticut 
Battery at James Island. Assault on Lamar s Battery. Severe Fighting. Re 
pulse and Withdrawal. Bad Management by Gen. Benham. Casualties. . . 191 


The Fourth becomes the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Recruits. Goes with 
McClellan to the Peninsula. "Siege" of Yorkiown. The Heavy Batteries. 
/ Ready." Magruder falls back. Detached as Infantry. The Seven-days Bat 
tles. "Malvern Hill. Back to Arlington Heights. The Connecticut Battalion of 
Cavalry. Among the Mountains of West Virginia. After Bushwhackers. Raids 
and Incidents. Battle of McDowell. Charge through Wordensville. Dash into 
New Market. Ambush at Harrisonburg. Cross Keys. Jackson Ubiquitous. 
The Fifth at Winchester. Battle and Repulse. In Maryland again. Slaughter at 
Cedar Mountain. Bravery and Severe Losses of the Fifth. Stone, Blake, Dutton, 
Smith 203 




The Summer of 1862. The Fourteenth Regiment called for. The Military Situation. 
Appeal of the Executive. Enthusiastic Response by the People. War-Meetings 
and Local Effort. Recruiting Committees. The Fourteenth full. New Haven 
raises the Fifteenth. Hartford recruits the Sixteenth. Seventeenth from Fail-field 
County. Eighteenth from New- London County. Nineteenth from Litchfield 
County. Twentieth and Twenty-first organi/ed. The Second Battery goes from 
Bridgeport. All assigned to the " Army of the Potomac " 222 


The Call for Seven Regiments of Nine-months Men. The second Great Uprising. Re 
cruiting Active. Meetings and Bounties. A Draft announced. The Camps. 
Exemption sought. Skulks and Cowards. The Surgeons besieged. The White- 
liver Complaint. Incidents. How New Haven filled her Quota. The Day of the 
Draft. The Mountain brings forth. All the Regiments Full. The Twenty second 
from Hartford and Tolland Counties. Twenty-third from Fairfield and New Haven. 
Twenty-fourth from Middlesex. Twenty-fifth from Hartford. Twenty-sixth from 
New London and Windham. Twenty-seventh, from New Haven. Twenty-eighth 
from Fail-field and Litchfield. The Rendezvous on Long Island 240 


The Eighth and Eleventh near Newberne. To Newport News. Re-organization of the 
Eleventh. To Fredericksburg. Pope, defeated, retreats on Washington. Col. 
Kingsbury in command of the Brigade. Arrival in Washington. Movement into 
Maryland. The Fourteenth and Sixteenth join the Column. South Mountain. 
The Affair of Turner s Gap. Choice Rebel Literature 255 


Battle of Antietam. Charge of the Eleventh. Exploit of Capt. Gibbons. The Contest 
for the Stone. Bridge. Inexplicable Conduct of ITurnside. Coolness and Efficiency 
of the Fourteenth^ Charge of Harland s Brigade. Capt. Charles L. Upham s Com- 
pany capture a Battery. Great Bravery of the Eighth. Gallant Conduct of Col. 
Appelman. Fatality of the Color-Guard. Harland assumes Command of Rodman s 
Division. Severe Losses. Sufferings of the Wounded. Corporal Henry A. East 
man of the Eleventh. Death of Col. Kingsbury and others. Total Casualties of 
the Battle. Death of Major-Gen. Joseph K. F. Mansfield. Biography of Mansfield. 

Retreat of Lee s Army 264 


Tardy Pursuit of Lee. The Eighth, Eleventh, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and 
Twenty-first Connecticut Volunteers. Gen. Burnside in Command. March to Fal- 
moutli. The Battle of Frederieksburg. Gallantry of the Fourteenth and Twenty- 
seventh. Gen. Harland s Official Report. The Disastrous Repulse. Whereabouts 
of the Fifth, Seventeenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-second. Private Elias Howe, Jr. 

The Army Ration. Camp at Stafford Court House 288 


The First Connecticut Battery and Seventh Regiment in Florida. Capture of St. John s 
Bluff. Sixth and Seventh in South Carolina. Battle of Pocotaligo. The Twelfth 
at Camp Parapet. Yankee Enterprise. Anecdotes of the Thirteenth. Services 
and Sufferings of the Ninth at Vicksburg. The Battle of Baton Rouge. The La 
Fourche Campaign. Battle of Georgia Landing. Thanksgiving. The Nine- 
months Regiments leave Long Island. The Twenty-eighth at Pensacola. Destruc 
tion of a Rebel Gunboat 303 


The Vote. Eaton s Resolutions in the Assembly. After Fredericksburg. The 
Eighth, Eleventh, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Twenty-first at Newport News. Siege 
of Suffolk. Skirmishes and Reconnois.*ances. Capture of Fort Huger. Raising 
of the Siege. Evacuation. "The Blackberry Raid." 


* * 



The Tenth Connecticut Volunteers at Newberne. Expedition to the Interior. The 
Tarborough Scout. Forage and Rations. An Incident of Slavery. The Battle of 
Kinston. The Tenth at the Front. The Contest for .the Bridge. Complimented 
by Gen. Foster. Heavy Losses. The Railroad destroyed at Goldsborough. Gal 
lantry. To St. Helena Island. Camp and Surroundi ngs. The Eighteenth Con 
necticut Volunteers still at Baltimore. Joins Milroy at Winchester. The Situation. 

Battle of the First Day. The Second Day at the Intrenchments. The Evacua 
tion. The Charge into the Woods. Surrender of the Eighteenth. Casualties. 
Colors saved 341 


Battle of Chancellorsville. Advance upon the Flank. The Fifth, Fourteenth, Seven 
teenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-seventh Connecticut Regiments engaged. The llth 
Corps overwhelmed by Stonewall Jackson. Terrible Battle of May 3. Heavy 
Losses of the Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers. The Twenty-seventh Regiment 
captured. r A New Line of Battle. Withdrawal of the Army, and Failure of the 
Movement. Losses of the Connecticut Regiments. Prisoners of War . . .358 


Race of the Hostile Armies Northward. Battle of Gettysburg. The Fifth, Fourteenth, 
Seventeenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-seventh Connecticut Regiments engaged. 
Second Light Battery. The Afi air of July 1. The Assault of July 2. Attack on 
the Left Flank. Terrible Fighting of July 3. C Minecticut Correspondents. The 
Losses in our Regiments. Scenes on tlie Battle-Field. The "Fourth of July." 
Tardy Pursuit of Lee. Our Troops again in Virginia 378 


Biographical Sketch of Admiral Foote. His Adventures, Battles, and Death. Banks s 
Expedition. Feint towards Port Hudson. March Southward. Battle of Irish 
Bend. The Cotton-Raid up the Atchafalaya. Investment of Port Hudson. The 
Fight of May 27. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, Twenty- 
sixth, and Twenty-eighth Connecticut. The Charge of June" 14. Failure and 
Heavy Losses. The Twenty-fourth in the Cotton-Fort. The Forlorn Hope. Our 
Roll of Honor. Surrender of Port Hudson 397 


After the Capture of Port Hudson. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Twenty-fourth, Twenty- 
fifth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-eighth Connecticut Regiments. Casualties. 
Incidents of the Battle. The Twenty-third in Southern Loa siana, Guarding the 
Railroad. At Brashear City. Battle and Capture. Casualties. Imprisonment 
in Texas. Return Home of the Nine-mouths Regiments 420 


Sixth and Seventh in Florida. The Advance on Charleston. The Situation at Folly 
and Morris Islands. Gen. Terry and the Tenth on James Island. A Detachment 
of the Seventh the First to land" on Morris Island. Capture of the Batteries. The 
Battalion of the Seventh in the First Charge on Wagner. Fight on .lames Island. 
The First Connecticut Battery. Daring Charge of the Sixth on Wagner. Three 
Hours in the Fort. Heavy Casualties. Important Service of the Seventeenth 
Connecticut Volunteers. Approaches to the Fort. The Seventh in Charge of 
Heavy Itatteries. Bombardment of Sumter. Capture of Wagner and Gregg. 
The Hollof Honor. TlieSixthat Hilton Head. The Seventh at St. Helena Island. 
The Seventeenth on Folly Island. The Tenth in Florida- Death of Col. Chutfield, 436 


More Troops wanted. A Draft. The Result. Call for Seven Hundred Thousand Men. 

Seven Hundred Dollars Bounty. Work of Recruiting. The Twenty-ninth Regi 
ment. Enlistment and Departure. R 3-enli<tinent of Veterans. Recruiting Rapid. 

The Quota of the State full, with a Surplus. Soldiers -aid Societies. Har ford, 
Bridgeport, New Haven, Norwich, Danbury, Derby. The Work at Home and in 
the Field. A Thanksgiving Dinner 456 



Harland s Brigade near Portsmouth. More Digging. A Handsome Camp. The 
Twenty-first on Provost-Duty in Portsmouth and Norfolk. Raid through Dismal 
Swamp. The Eleventh at Gloucester Point. Twenty-first at Newport News. 
An Expedition up the James. Fifteenth and Sixteenth go to North Carolina. 
" Accidental " Fire. Twenty-first at Newport Barracks and Newberne. The Six 
teenth at Plymouth. Battle and Capture by the Rebels. Gen. Peck s Order . . 457 


The First Cavalry Battalion. Demoralization. Increased to a Regiment. Fight in 
Virginia. At Baltimore. To the Field. The Eighteenth Connecticut. At Mar- 
tinsburg. Gen. Milrov on Winchester. Prison-Life. Officers at Libby. Diver 
sions. To Macon. Escapes. Aa Interesting Adventure 489 


The First and Second Artillery, Sixth, Tenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth, during the 
Winter of 1863-64. The Second Light Battery. The Seventh in Florida. Battle 
of Olustee. Xinth in New Orleans. The Twelfth at New Iberia. The Thirteenth 
in the Red-River Expedition. Battle of Cane River. Connecticut Regiments Home 
on Veteran Furlough. Speeches and Banquets 504 


The Sixteenth in Rebel Prisons. The Enlisted Men at Andersonville. Rations. Ter 
rible Suffering in the Stockade. The "Dead Line." Starvation. Insanity. The 
Patriot s Burial. The Hospital. Officers at Macon. Chivalry and Bloodhounds. 

The " Glorious Fourth." In Charleston. Efforts to escape. Exchange . . 526 


Up the James River. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twenty-first at 
Bermuda Hundred. A Reconnoissance. The Railroad destroyed. Battle of Dru- 
ry s Bluff. Repulse and Heavy Losses. "Bottled up" within the Intrenchments. 

Fight of the Twenty-first. Death of Col. Arthur H. Dutton. Losses of the 
Seventh. The First Connecticut Artillery ordered to Bermuda Hundred. The Non- 
Veterans mustered out 536 


The Fourteenth at Stevensburg. The Affair at Mine Run. How to build Winter-Quar 
ters, and how to enjoy them. Fight at Morton s Ford. First Connecticut Cavalry- 
joins the Army of the Potomac. Grant crosses the Rapidan. Struggle of the Wil 
derness. Flank March to Spottsylvania. Terrible Fighting. The Second Connec 
ticut Artillery (Nineteenth) comes up. Gen. Robert O. Tyler commands a Division. 

Spirited Contest. The First Cavalry in Front of Richmond. To the North 
Anna. Another Flank Movement. Death of Gen. John Sedgwick. His Character 
and Public Services 560 


The First Connecticut Cavalry. Severe Service. Battle of Ashland. Brilliant Per 
sonal Encounter. Bravery and Losses. Battle of Cold Harbor. Charge of the 
Second Connecticut Artillery. Terrible Losses. Death of Col. E. S. Kellogg. 
Casualties of the Fourteenth. The Charge of June 3. Losses of the Eighth, Elev 
enth, and Twenty-first Connecticut. Death of Col. Burpee and Major Converse. 
Organization of the Thirtieth Connecticut 581 


After Cold Hnrbor. The First Cavalry. To Petersburg. Exploit of the Eighth. 
Charge of the Eleventh. The Second, Fourteenth, and Twenty-first. The Sixth, 
Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth at Bermuda Hundred. Wilson s Ra id. The First Cav 
alry. Bold Ride of Capt. Whitnker. Incidents. First Connect ; cut Artillery. 
Siege-Work of fhe Summer. Battle of Strawberry Plains. The Thirtieth Connec 
ticut at the Mine. Death of Col. Stedman and Lieut-Col. Moegling . . -60S 



General Assembly. Adjourned Session in January, 1864. Spring Session. Governor s 
Message. The Ballot given to Soldiers in the Field. Calls for Troops. Recruit 
ing. The Quotas filled. How it was done. Presidential Election. The Twenty- 
ninth (colored) in South Carolina. The Eighteenth Regiment. Home on Furlough. 

Advance with Sigel. Defeat at Newmarket. Victory at Piedmont. Loss of 
Brave Men. Pushing South. Across the James. Advance on Lynchburg. Re 
pulse and Retreat. Early Attacks Washington. Affair at Snicker s Ferry . . 629 


The Dead Lock at Petersburg. Flank Movement on the Right. The Sixth, Seventh, 
Tenth, Fourteenth, and Twenty-ninth Connecticut, and the First Battery, engaged. 
Four-mile Run. Battle of Deep Run. Charge by Terry s Division. Strawberry 
Plains. JV ithdrawal. Casualties. The Fourteenth at* Reams s Station. Casu 
alties. Incidents along the Line 648 


Still in Front of Petersburg. Demonstration on the Left. The Fourteenth. Advance 
of Butler. Chaffin s Bluff. Capture of Fort Harrison. The Eighth and Twenty- 
first. The Sixth, Seventh, Tenth, and Twenty-ninth on the Right. Rebel Repulse. 

Casualties. Attack on Terry s Line. Repulse. Counter- Attack. Death of 
Major H. VV. Camp. Hawley s Brigade on the Darbytown Road. The Twenty- 
ninth as Skirmishers. The Second and Fourteenth on Hatcher s Run. Hawley s 
Division at New York. The First Artillery. Butler fails to capture Fort Fisher. 
Terry takes it by Storm 664 


The Fifth and Twentieth in Tennessee. Guarding the Railroad. Fight with Guerrillas. 

Retaliation. Advance of the Spring. The Twentieth at Boyd s Trail. Battle 
of Resaca. Amusing Incidents. The Fifth and Twentieth at Peach-tree Creek. 
Sherman s Flank Movement. Atlanta occupied. Casualties in the Connecticut 
Regiments. A Rest. The March to the Sea. At Savannah. Second Connecti 
cut Battery. in Louisiana and at Mobile. " The Bay Fight " 692 


Sheridan takes Command in the Shenandoah. The First Connecticut Cavalry, Secortfl 
Artillery, and Ninth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Eighteenth Infantry. At Winchester. 

Kearneysvilie. Skirmishes. Battle of Opequan Creek. Casualties. Spring 
Hill. Cedar Creek. Defeat and Victory. Heavy Losses. The Pursuit. Roll 
of Honor of Yale College and Wesleyan University. The Seventeenth in Florida. 
Battles and Raids. Successes and Disasters. Incidents. Casualties . . . 714 


Prison Experience of our Soldiers. Testimony of a Confederate Surgeon. Experience 
of Weston Ferris on Belle Isle. Great Privation and Suffering. Condition of Pris- rf 
oners at Camp Ford, Tex. Gen. E. M. Lee in Libby. Capture of Major Sanford 
and Men of the Seventh. Adventures of Three Officers of the Sixteenth. Fidelity 
of Surgeon Nickerson. Thrilling Narrative of Lieut. Bailey. Deaths at Anderson- 
ville. Incidents of Martyrdom I ..... 737 


Affairs before Richmond. Grant and Sherman of Connecticut Stock. Genealogy. 
Location and Organization of Connecticut Regiments. The First Cavalry returns 
to Petersburg. Whitaker captures Major Gil mor. Twelfth and Eighteenth Regi 
ments. First Artillery. Death of Lieut. -Col. Trumbull. Second Artillery. 
First, Second, and Third Batteries. Sixth and Seventh. Death of Chaplain Eaton. 

Eighrh, Eleventh, Twenty-first, and Twenty-ninth. Ninth and Thirteenth. 
Tenth and Fourteenth. Sherman s Great March Northward. The Fifth and Twen 
tieth. Incidents of the Campaign. Battles and Victories. Casualties. Disaster 

of the Fifteenth Connecticut. The Sixteenth 755 



Spring of 1865. The Beginning of the End. Petersburg. Rebel Assault on Fort 
Stedman. Repulse. Service of the First Connecticut Artillery. The Second 
Artillery and the Fourteenth on the Left.j The Tenth and Thirtieth. The First 
Cavalry at Five Forks 
Surrender. In North Carolina. The Capitulation of Johnston s Army . . .776 

y iuiu iue ruuneumii on uie L,HII. me i enia anu iiiiruein. me r irst 
at Five Forks. The Tenth at Fort Gregg. Unsurpassed Gallantry. 
e of the Whole Line. Lee evacuates Petersburg and Richmond. The 
and Pursuit. First Cavalry at Sailor s Creek. Lee surrounded. The 


Matters at Home. General Assembly of 1865. The Governor s Message. Legislation. 

Number of Soldiers sent from the State. Our Regiments after the Close of the 
War. Two Pictures from Richmond. Terry and Hawley in Virginia. Presenta 
tions. Muster-out of Connecticut Regiments. The Fourteenth. Twentieth. 
First, Second, and Third Light Batteries. Twenty-first. Eighteenth. Sixteenth. 

Fifteenth. Fifth. Seventeenth. First Cavalry. Sixth. Seventh. Twelfth. 

Second Artillery. Ninth. Tenth. First Artillery. Twenty-ninth and Thir 
tieth. Eighth and Eleventh. Thirteenth. Thanks of the Legislature . . . 798 


The Sons of Connecticut residing in New York. The Connecticut Agency in New York. 
The Agency in Washington. Gen. Aiken s Visit to Washington. Connecticut in 
the Navy. The Expenses for War Purposes. The Generals of Connecticut. 
Organizations and Casualties. Roll of Honor. Our Martyrs at Andersonville . 833 



Early History of Connecticut. The Pequot War. First American Constitution. 
Heavy Taxation. Courage of the New- Haven Colony. Character of the Civil 
Government. The King s Officers resisted. The Charter preserved. Connecticut 
Declaration of Independence. Putnam at Boston. The Statue at Litchfield. 
Brother Jonathan. Connecticut Men capture the first British Flags in 1812. The 
Blue-Laws. Comparison with other Colonies. Pre-eminence in Mechanics. 
First Steamboat, Railroad, and Telegraph. Influence on other States. 

HE colonists of Connecticut organized the first 
republic on the Western continent. While all 
the other inhabitants of the coast the Pil 
grims of Plymouth, the English traders of Bos 
ton, the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the 
Cavaliers and Huguenots on the distant shore of Virginia 
were living wholly under royal charters, and endeavoring to 
maintain public order by irregular and capricious penalties, 
the planters of the Connecticut * Colony assembled at Hart 
ford in January, 1639, and solemnly framed and adopted 
the first American Constitution. The promptness of her 
citizens in dictating statute law was equaled by their zeal 
in enforcing it to secure justice and promote tranquillity. 

Alike in domestic and foreign wars, Connecticut has al 
ways displayed great vigor and courage. In the spring of 
1637, two and a half years after the erection of the first 

1 Named after the River Quonektacut, Long River, so called by the savages. 



house, she was a little confederacy of three plantations, con 
taining about one hundred and sixty families. But the 
forests enveloping her embryo towns had already become 
the lurking-place of the jealous and vengeful Pequot ; and 
no traveler or loiterer was safe for a moment from his cruel 
tomahawk, and no dwelling secure for a night against his 
fire-brand. Numerous murders had already been committed, 
with every variety of torture. 

The first recorded act of the General Court 2 of that year 
" Ordered, That there shall be an offensive war against the 
Pequots ; and there shall be ninety men levied out of the 
plantations of Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor." This 
was more than half of the adult males of the colony ; and, 
after they went, those remaining at home were placed on 
short allowance of food, not the first time, nor the last, 
and there were not enough men left for the detail of sentries 
kept up night and day. " What we plant," wrote one of 
them, " is before our own doors ; little anywhere else." 

Foreseeing all this, the little army in one week set sail, 
under command of the sturdy Capt. John Mason, and, 
evincing both strategy and courage, surprised the Indian 
fort at Mystic, killed five or six hundred 3 of the hostile 
tribe, ruined its proud chief, Sassacus, and returned home in 
time to plant corn for that year. 4 

The activity and stern valor in war thus early exhibited 
by the planters in no wise surpassed their wisdom in civil 
affairs. Two years later, in general convention assembled, 
they declared, " We do therefore associate and conjoin our 
selves together to be as one public State or Commonwealth." 
They thereupon proceeded to frame an elaborate code of 

2 Fifteen members, six magistrates and nine committee-men. 

8 Trumbull s Colonial Records. 

* Capt. Mason was subsequently offered a commission as major-general in Cromwell s 
army, but refused it. Major John Desborough of New Haven actually returned to Eng 
land, and held that position ; while his brother Samuel also went back to fight against 
Charles, and became Lord-Chancellor of Scotland under Cromwell. At the same time, 
Gov. Hopkins of New Haven was appointed to the high office of commissioner of 
the English navy ; and Gov. Eaton, also of New Haven, was shortly thereafter made 
the king s ambassador at the court of Denmark. 



government, "the first written constitution of the New 
World, one that was the type of all that came after it, 
even that of the Republic itself." 5 Of this constitution, Mr. 
Bancroft has written, 

" Nearly two centuries have elapsed ; the world has been made wiser by 
various experience ; political institutions have become the theme on which 
the most powerful and cultivated minds have been employed ; dynasties of 
kings have been dethroned, recalled, dethroned again ; and so many con 
stitutions have been framed or re-formed, stifled or subverted, that memorv 
may despair of a complete catalogue : but the people of Connecticut have 
found no reason to deviate essentially from the government established by 
their fathers. . . . They who judge of men by their influence on public 
happiness, and by the services they render to the human race, will never 
cease to honor the memory of Hooker and Haynes." 6 

Of such prowess and intellectual force were the founders 
of our commonwealth. Sternly self-defended, and wisely 
self-governed, they and their children grew to a wholesome 
relish of public order, and an invincible love of freedom. 
They were quick to see the practical advantage of co-opera 
tion for mutual defense against Indians, Dutch, and French ; 
and earnestly urged the alliance o the New-England colo 
nies, formed in 1643, to that end. 

Then followed years of anxiety, vigilance, and war,, the 
latter waged mostly in behalf of sister colonies. In 1675, 
Major Treat led a hundred Connecticut men into Western 
Massachusetts, and rescued the garrison at Northfield be 
leaguered by King Philip s warriors, saved the day at Bloody 
Brook, and averted a massacre at Springfield. Later, the 
same officer, with three hundred men, marched into Eastern 
Massachusetts against the great fort of the Narnigansetts; 
and, after the troops of that colony had made a brave but 
unsuccessful attack, forced an entrance by a persistent and 
bloody assault. Four out of five captains, and more than 
eighty men, fell in the victorious onset. 

5 Rev. Horace Bushnell s Historic Estimate. 

6 Rev. Thomas Hooker, the eloquent pastor of the Hartford Church, and John Haynes, 
first governor elected in the colony. 


Major Treat was the acknowledged hero of King Philip s 
War, and the next spring was elected governor. 7 

During three years of this Indian war, the colonists un 
complainingly paid an annual tax o eleven pence on a 
pound ; and for two years thereafter, in order the more speed 
ily to free themselves from a heavy debt, they increased it 
to nineteen pence on a pound. This amounted, in the five 
years, to about thirty cents on each dollar of taxable property. 

Meanwhile the Protector had died, and a Stuart had re 
turned to the throne of England. The New-Haven colonists 
were anxious to conciliate the new king; but, at the very 
beginning of his reign, it became apparent that they loved 
justice more than they feared Charles Stuart". Though fully 
aware that the king s personal vengeance svas roused against 
the regicides who had been the judges of his royal father, 
yet, when the pursuers came to New Haven to search for 
and seize the fugitives, Gov. Leete interposed every obstacle 
except violence ; brave old Davenport preached to his peo 
ple with impressive eloquence from the text, " Make thy 
shadow as the night in the midst of noonday, hide the out 
casts, bewray not him that wandereth ;" while the uneasy 
agents of the king were watched by eyes so reproachful and 
menacing, that they hurried off without their prey. The 
fugitives were at that moment hidden within the limits of 
the town. Ever thereafter, Connecticut was a safe refuge 
for the oppressed of every clime, a sure "covert to them 
that flee from the face of the spoiler." 

The Hartford colonists more shrewdly improved the early 
and pliant days of the second Charles to fortify their pre 
cious liberties, by the guaranty of his own signature, against 
any future usurpation or exaction. Through Gov. Win- 
throp, the most gifted New-Englander of his time, they ob 
tained a charter more liberal than was ever before granted to 

7 Dr. Bushnell, in Work and Play, says of the early colony, " There never was a 
sp;\rk of chivalry in her leaders; and yet there was never a coward among them. . . . 
They knew nothing of fighting without an object; and, when they had one, they went to 
work bravely, simply because it was sound economy to tight well." 


any colony by an English king ; and under it they were able 
to re-enact, with royal sanction, their constitution and laws. 

The colonists of New Haven were, much to their sur 
prise, and against their inclination, included, by this charter, 
within the jurisdiction of Connecticut. In the Hartford 
Colony, none but church-members were eligible to the office 
of governor ; but all orderly freemen, on receiving a majority 
vote of the town, were electors. In the New-Haven Colony, 
no person could be a voter unless he was a member of the 
church in full communion. 8 Under their devout leader, 
Rev. John Davenport, the people had vested civil govern 
ment in the Church, and apprehended that religious and 
moral laxity might follow the proposed compromise. After 
serious discussion, obvious geographical reasons and the 
necessity of a closer defensive league prevailed over these 
fears ; and, in 1665, the two colonies became one, with John 
Winthrop for governor. 

The sagacity of the colonists, in anticipating that a Stuart 
once in power might become whimsical and tyrannical, was 
proved in 1674, when Charles gave a new patent to his 
brother, the Duke of York, transferring Connecticut to him. 
to be re-organized with the New Netherlands under the 
name of New York. Sir Edmund Andros was sent to lay 
claim to " all of Connecticut west of the river," and set out 
for Saybrook Fort to enforce his authority. Landing there, 
he was confronted by the militia drawn up in good order. 
Andros, a little disturbed, directed his clerk to read his 
commission as governor. The officer in command, having 
specific instructions from Gov. Winthrop, commanded him, 
with stern bluntness, to " forbear ! " " Go on ! " said Andros. 
" Forbear, sir ! " shouted the captain, with an uplifting of 
the sword so ominous as to check the frightened clerk with 
ludicrous suddenness. Sir Edmund was intimidated and 
perplexed, but, after a moment s pause, asked the captain 

8 This was also the rule in the Plymouth and other colonies ; and it was the estab 
lished law of England, even down to the present generation. 


his name. " My name is Bull, sir," was the reply. "Bull!" 
repeated Andros : " it is a pity your horns are not tipped 
with silver;" and, covering his chagrin with this bit of 
unmeaning pleasantry, he re-embarked. 

Every schoolboy knows how, twelve years later, another 
treacherous attempt was made to extinguish the sturdy 
colony ; how this same petty tyrant appeared at Hartford, 
and, in the name of the king, demanded the cherished 
charter; how, in the chamber of deliberation, the candles 
suddenly went out, and the charter mysteriously vanished ; 
how the colony maintained its rights ; how the precious 
parchment was ultimately found in a hollow oak ; how the 
venerable tree, after being visited by pilgrims for two cen 
turies, still lives in a thousand keepsakes and mementoes, 
while loving hands cherish the charter which no longer 
needs a defender. 

Once more, in a colonial capacity, Connecticut obstinately 
asserted the chartered rights of the colony against " the 
inherent rights of the king," when, in 1693, he conferred 
the command of the Connecticut militia on Gov. Fletcher 
of New York ; and that functionary, coining to Hartford to 
assume command, was silenced by Capt. Wadsworth s drums 
and muskets, and returned, baffled and sullen, to his home. 
The king, humoring this willful people, never again sought 
to muster Connecticut militia under royal officers ; but, 
whenever he wanted men or money, made formal requisitions 
on their governor, which were responded to with cheerful 
alacrity. Well did the stubborn colony earn her reputation 
as the land 

" Where none kneel, save when to Heaven they pray ; 
Nor even then, unless in their own way." 

Connecticut had already shed the first blood of the French 
and Indian War in the gallant but unavailing defense of 
Schenectady ; and thenceforward, to the close of the last 
French and Indian War in 1763, her citizens were almost 
constantly engaged in campaigns or preparations. A care- 


ful investigation shows that the colony furnished propor 
tionately a far greater number of soldiers than any other, 9 
though the frontiers of New York and Massachusetts were 
much more exposed. 

In these wars, Connecticut expended from her scanty 
treasury more than five hundred thousand pounds above 
the trifling sum repaid by the Home Government. England 
made many fair promises, but, after the close of the war, 
reimbursed not a farthing of this enormous outlay. The 
colonists were losing respect for the mother-country, and 
feeling daily their growing independence. 

The Connecticut General Assembly, as early as May, 
1764, entered a calm but vigorous and searching protest 
against the threatened Stamp Act. In the spirit of those 
who sent him, Mr. Jared Ingersoll, the special envoy of the 
colony to England, assured the secretary of the king s 
treasury that " p,ny supposable scheme " of taxation by 
parliament " would go down with the people like chopped 
hay ; " and that any plan for enforcing such acts would in 
volve an expense bearing a ratio to the profits, not unlike 
" burning a barn to roast an egg." The remonstrance 
secured a brief delay ; but the law was passed. 

The governor and his council, the envoy and many of 
the leading men, with sad but loyal hearts, advised submis 
sion to the la\v of the realm. Not so Trumbull, Putnam, 
Durkee, the veteran soldiers and sturdy yeomen. In town- 
meetings assembled, they repeatedly resolved that " busi 
ness shall proceed as usual" without stamped paper; and 
the Sons of Liberty, vigilant and resolute, rode in armed 
bands, destroying stamped material, and compelling the 
stamp-officer to resign. 

The substitute Revenue Act and the Boston Port Bill 
evoked a day of fasting and prayer, a refurnishing of 
munitions and supplies, the formation of an artillery com 
pany, and a thorough re-organization of the militia. 

9 Hollister s History, vol. ii. p. 118. 


Thus the colonists of Connecticut were unconsciously but 
fully prepared for revolution. 

In September, 1774, a premature alarm was sounded 
throughout the colony ; and, in sixty hours, more than ten 
thousand armed men started to the relief of Boston. This 
promptness but foreshadowed the alacrity with which they 
afterwards responded to the actual call. 

Eighteen hours after tidings of the engagement at Lex 
ington reached him, fiery Putnam, gray-haired, and verging 
on sixty, had visited and received orders from Gov. Trum- 
bull ; and, riding all night, he dashed into Concord at sunrise. 
Troops pushed on after him by squads and companies, until 
more than three thousand Connecticut soldiers confronted 
the enemy at Boston. These were pronounced the best 
equipped, drilled, and officered of the troops there collected. 

The retaliatory expedition against Ticonderoga was 
planned immediately after, by Connecticut men, during the 
session of the General Assembly at Hartford. It was led 
by residents or natives of Connecticut, was achieved in 
part by her soldiers, and paid for in full from her treasury. 
The capture of this fort was the first victory, and the first 
aggressive stroke, of the war; and the armament and muni 
tions thus obtained were essential to the success of the 
patriot army before Boston. 

By the end of April, Connecticut had issued bills of credit 
to the amount of a hundred thousand pounds ; and, by early 
summer, had twenty-two regiments organized and equipped 
for the field. 

Putnam was the most ardent and belligerent member of 
the council of war near Boston. The Massachusetts Com 
mittee of Safety and the officers in command were hesi 
tating and irresolute. Putnam insisted on the immediate 
occupation of Bunker Hill, and made a bold statement of 
the situation, ending with words which embodied his own 
stern purpose : " At the worst, suppose us surrounded, and 
no retreat, we will set our country an example of which it 
shall not be ashamed, and teach mercenaries what men can 


do determined to live or die free." This impetuous out 
burst overbore all opposition ; and Putnam was*directed to 
make the intrenchment In the battle which resulted, Put 
nam had command of the American forces. The terse 
orders of the day were his : " Aim at their waistbands ! Pick 
off the officers! Reserve your fire till you see the whites of 
their eyes; then fire low!" Re-enforcements or powder, 
both of which were denied to Putnam by his misjudging 
commander Gen. Ward, might have made the conflict, in 
stead of a glorious defeat, the bloodiest victory of the Revo 

The high estimate placed upon Putnam by Washington 
is indicated by the fact, that, bringing with him from the 
Congress at Philadelphia the commissions of four major- 
generals in the Continental army, he handed to Putnam his 
commission several days before delivering the others, in 
order thus to rank him as second in command. 

On the 14th of June, 1776, in advance of any tidings of 
congressional action, Connecticut pronounced for independ 
ence in these words : 

" Resolved unanimously by this Assembly, That the delegates of this 
colony, in General Congress, be, and they are, hereby instructed to propose 
to that respectable body to declare the United American Colonies free and 
independent States, absolved from all allegiance to the King of Great Brit 
ain, and to give the assent of this colony to such declarations." 

Connecticut, with her practical turn of mind, made the 
equestrian statue of King George, in New York, useful to 
rebels against his authority. On the llth of July, seven 
days after the declaration of the Continental Congress, this 
statue of gilded lead was visited by the Sons of Liberty, 
rudely toppled over, and hurried away the wondering Tories 
knew not whither. But any well-known patriot who visited 
the shed half hidden in the apple-orchard of Gen. Wolcott, 
in Litchfield, would have found his son Frederick chopping 
up the royal image with a hatchet into suitable lumps ; and 
before the glowing coals in the huge kitchen fire-place, wife 


and daughter, with neighboring matrons and maids, fusing 
the lumps into bullets with many a shrug and jest. It was 
so fitting that the hirelings of the king should have " melted 
majesty fired at them." 

Immediately after the British were forced from Boston, 
Putnam was ordered by Washington to the command at New 
York ; and the militia of Connecticut west of the river rallied 
there in obedience to his summons, while those east hurried 
to the defense of New London. Upon sending forward to 
New York additional volunteers to join the five Connecticut 
regiments already there, Trumbull thus exhorted the young 
men : " Be roused and alarmed to stand forth in our just 
and glorious cause. Join yourselves to some one or other 
of the companies of the militia now ordered to New York ; 
or form yourselves into distinct companies, and choose cap 
tains forthwith. March on. This shall be our warrant : Play 
the man for God, and for the cities of our God. May the 
Lord of hosts , the God of the armies of Israel, be your 
leader ! " The young farmers rose up from their half-gathered 
harvests, and forming themselves in nine regiments, self- 
equipped, marched to New York just in time to meet the 
advance of the British. Not less than twenty thousand of 
our citizens were then in actual service ; and, up to this time, 
" Connecticut had furnished and kept in the field full one- 
half the American army commanded by Washington." 10 

Putnam selected West Point ; and Gen. Parsons, with a 
Connecticut brigade camped there in 1778, without tents, 
and in snow two feet deep erected the fort, then and 
now impregnable, over which no flag but the stars and 
stripes has ever waved. 

At no time during the Revolution could Connecticut num 
ber more than forty thousand fighting men; but she put 31,959 
in the field. Her population was but eight per cent of the 
entire population of the colonies ; but she furnished fourteen 
per cent of the Continental troops, a larger ratio than any 

10 Hollister s History of Connecticut, vol. ii. p. 273. 


other colony. 11 Massachusetts alone surpassed her in actual 
numbers; though New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir 
ginia, and the two Carol in as, were also larger in population. 
Moreover, many Massachusetts troops enlisted for nine 
months, and were recounted at each re-enlistment ; so that it 
is asserted 12 that" Connecticut furnished for the Continental 
ranks, and kept in actual service, more men than any other 
State in the Confederacy." 

Of the quality of these men, their conduct bore witness ; 
but Gen. Root declared, that, in his brigade alone, there 
were seven ministers who had taken the field as captains of 
their own congregations. 

Upon no man in civil life in America did Washington so 
much depend for wise counsel and prompt aid in every 
emergency as upon Jonathan Trumbull, the bold but prudent 
Governor of Connecticut, the only governor on the conti 
nent, when the war began, who was not appointed by the 
king. His co-operation was so constant and so valuable, that 
the most intimate relations sprang up between him and 
Washington ; and the latter, in seasons of unusual perplexity, 
was wont to remark playfully, yet with serious purpose, " We 
must consult Brother Jonathan." And it is now well known 13 
that this affectionate sobriquet for Trumbull, passing from 
officer to soldier and from soldier to citizen, was made a 
popular catch-word, first applied to the State he represented, 
and finally becoming a synonym for the colossal young 

Before the Revolution, a tract of country seven hundred 
miles long and seventy broad, extending from the Delaware 
to the Mississippi, and embracing fifty thousand square miles, 
was a part of the Colony of Connecticut. In 1774, it was at 
tached, for judicial purposes, to Litchficld County, under the 
name of Westmoreland; and in 1776 was erected into asepa- 

11 According to the first census (1790), the total population of the States was 3,929,827; 
the population of Connecticut, 238,141. The total of the Continental army was 231,701, 
of which Connecticut furnished 31,959. 

12 Hollister s History of Connecticut. 

13 Stuart, 697 ; Hollister, 426. 


rate county by that name. Throughout the struggle that fol 
lowed, this vast area was deemed a part of Connecticut ; but 
in 1782, by the unjust decree at Trenton, it was wrenched 
from our jurisdiction, and subjected to Pennsylvania. Thus 
the State which had been the very keystone of the Union 
during the conflict, which had met every crisis with the 
utmost vigor and made every sacrifice for the establishment 
of the Republic, now suffered the mortification of seeing her 
laws nullified, her territory violated, and her rank in the 
Union reduced. 

During the conflict, Washington personally applauded the 
valor of Connecticut s soldiers : and the nation gratefully re 
members the services of her heroes, Putnam, Ethan Allen, 
Warner, Silliman, Waterbury, Wolcott; and the devotion of 
her martyrs, Wooster, Knowlton, Ledyard, and Nathan 

In the war of 1812, she was one of the first to defy and 
assail the hereditary foe; and in the first month of the con 
flict, both on land and sea, the first two British flags struck 
were surrendered to sons of Connecticut, as was the first 
British flag and the first British guns captured in the Revo 

It is a fact equally noticeable, that Connecticut has al 
ways defended herself against her foes single-handed ; and 
that, notwithstanding her expose;! position, no soldiers from 
any other colony or state ever fought upon the soil of Con 
necticut in her defense, though thousands of her own troops 
went to the aid of New York and Boston. 

There is no State in the world whose early statutes were 
more liberal and enlightened than those of Connecticut. To 
the epithet of " blue-laws," now used only by the ignorant, 
or by others in playful derision, our citizens are no longer 
sensitive; for well-informed people have learned that no such 
laws were ever on our statute-books. The absurd " code " 
which has been attributed to our infant colony was the in 
vention of " the Tory renegade, Rev. Samuel Peters, who, 
while better men were fighting the battles of their country, 

"BLUE-LAWS." 25 

was skulking in London, and getting his bread there by the 
stories he could fabricate about Connecticut." How this 
ridiculous forgery could have obtained currency and cre 
dence, it is difficult to understand. 14 

It is true that some of the early statutes are severe against 
the Baptists and Quakers, as in Massachusetts, New York, 
and Virginia ; but there were no Quakers in the colony, and 
it does not appear that the penalties against the Baptists 
were ever enforced. Nor does it appear that the persecu 
tions for witchcraft were so frequent or so severe as in other 
colonies or beyond the sea. The English statute against 
witchcraft stood unrepealed down to 1736; and women have 
been hanged in Europe within a hundred years for " selling 
their souls to the Devil." 

The Episcopal Church was tolerated here by public act, 
when there were not in the State seventy families of that 
denomination, and at the very time when two Presbyterian 
clergymen were imprisoned for months at New York, and 
fined five hundred pounds sterling, for the offense of preach 
ing a sermon and baptizing a child. 

It is true, that, for a short time, church-going was com 
manded by law in Connecticut ; but Virginia passed a law in 
1718 requiring every person to attend church on Sundays, 
on penalty of imprisonment for one night, and service of the 
colony as a slave for one week. And it was in force during 
this century. It cannot be denied, that, about 1644, Con 
necticut passed a law, ordering " that no man within this 
colonye shall take any tobacko publiquely in the streett, 
highwayes, or any barne yardes, or uppon training dayes, in 
any open places, under penaltye," &c. Those who deem 
this an unwarrantable infringement of personal liberty 

]4 Guthrie s Grammar, published in London about 1775, had this paragraph: 

" CONNECTICUT. The men of this country, in general, are robust, stout, and tall. The great 
est care is taken with the limbs and bodies of infants, which are kept straight by means of a board, 
a practice learnt of the Indian women, who abhor all crooked people, so that deformity is 
a rarity. The women are fair, handsome, and genteel, and modest and reserved in their manner 
and behavior. They are not permitted to read plays ; nor can they converse about whist, qua 
drilles, or operas : but it is said they will talk freely upon other subjects, of history, geography, 
and other literary topics." 


may remember that Boston has a kindred prohibition to 

These comparisons are cited only to show that Connecti 
cut, sometimes sneered at for "blue-laws" never enacted, 
was, in fact, ahead of the fashions of her time. " Her only 
reproach in the whole matter is," says Dr. Bushnell, " that 
she was not farther in advance of the civilized world by an 
other half-century." 

But a complete vindication is the Colonial Constitution 
itself, which gave a tangible and original shape to the repub 
lican instinct of New England. It organized an annually 
elective government; required deputies to be inhabitants 
of communities represented ; gave the elective franchise to 
any man admitted by a majority vote of his town. All 
these were novel and radical changes, a bold advance be 
yond the outposts of any existing government. At this 
very time, they were endeavoring in Massachusetts to com 
fort the "hereditary gentlemen" by erecting them into a 
kind of American House of Lords called the " Standing 
Council for Life." Their officers stood upon the theocratic 
basis ; and many of the principal men insisted, that, the 
governor once elected, his office became a vested right, of 
which he could never properly be deprived. 15 

Citizens of Connecticut may well be proud of the remark 
able fact, that in the constitution of the little republic of 
"Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor," no mention what 
ever is made of either king or parliament, or of allegiance 
owed to either; but it is expressly declared, with an impulse 
which could have sprung only from a consciousness of the 
divine right of the people, that in the General Court, under 
God, " shall exist the SUPREME POWER of the Commonwealth." 
Under this free-written constitution, Connecticut learned her 
lessons of liberty ; and she was the only one of all the 
thirteen colonies whose people never submitted to be ruled 
by a royal governor, and whose capital was never infested 
by a royal court. 

15 Vide Bushnell s Historic Estimate. 


The first law-school of the nation was the celebrated 
school of Judge Reeve at Litchfield, and Kirby s Connecti 
cut Reports were the first American reports published. 
Chief Justice Ellsworth, Judges Smith, Gould, Kent, Wai- 
worth, and many of the most distinguished jurists of the 
country, were sons of Connecticut. "Judge Ellsworth was 
chairman of the committee of Congress that prepared the 
Judiciary Act, by which the Supreme Court of the nation 
was organized ; and it will be found that some of the pro 
visions of that act that are most peculiar are copied, verba 
tim, from the statutes of Connecticut. The practice of the 
Supreme Court is often said to resemble the practice of Con 
necticut more than that of any other State." 1G 

In this brief rehearsal of the former heroism of our State, 
as a background for recent achievements, it is hardly neces 
sary to refer to her established pre-eminence in manufactures 
and mechanical skill. 

In our State, John Fitch made the first steamboat; Eli 
Whitney invented the cotton-gin that doubled the cotton- 
crop of the South ; Samuel F. B. Morse devised and con 
structed the first electric telegraph ; and Dr. Kinsley invent 
ed and exhibited, in the streets of Hartford, the first steam- 
locomotive ever built. 

Religion and popular education were inseparably blended 
in the minds of the colonists. Laws were to be enacted 
" according to the word of God." As early as 1650, the 
General Court directed the selectmen to " see to it " that " no 
family in the colony should permit such barbarism " as not 
to send their children and apprentices to school. But to 
those who acknowledge the supremacy of God, and who 
believe that intelligence is an efficient handmaid of 
righteousness and good order, a tendency to such enactments 
should scarcely seem a legitimate mark for derision. 

The result of the early school-discipline of the State is, 
that, in the legislative bodies of the West, the sons of 
Connecticut are in a large majority, compared with the 
emigrants from any other State. In the Constitutional Con- 

16 Bushnell s Historic Estimate. 


vention of New York in 1821, out of one hundred and 
twenty-six members, thirty-two were natives of Connecti 
cut, while only nine were natives of Massachusetts. In the 
Ohio Legislature of 1838-39, in the lower house of seventy- 
four members, twelve were from Connecticut, two from 
Massachusetts, two from Vermont. Hon. James Hillhouse, 
when in Congress, found that forty-seven of the members, 
or about one-fifth of the whole number in both houses, were 
native-born sons of Connecticut. Of the New- York repre 
sentatives, sixteen, or nearly one-half, were sons, or descend 
ants in the male line, of Connecticut. Mr. Calhoun once 
said that he had seen the time when the natives of Con 
necticut in Congress, together with all the graduates of Yale 
College there sitting, lacked only five of being a majority. 
This result is constantly repeating itself throughout the 
Western States. 

" How beautiful is the attitude of our little State," says 
Dr. Bushnell, " when seen through the medium of facts like 
these ! Unable to carry weight by numbers, she is seen 
marching out her sons, empowered in capacity and fortified 
by virtue, to take their posts of honor and influence in other 
States ; in her behalf to be their physicians and ministers of 
religion, their professors and lawyers, their wise senators, 
their great lawyers and incorruptible judges, bulwarks of 
virtue, truth, and order to the Republic in all coming time. 
And then, when the vast area of our country between the 
two oceans is filled with a teeming population, when the 
delegates of sixty or a hundred States, from the granite 
shores of the East, and the alluvial plains of the South, and 
the golden mountains of the West, are assembled in the halls 
of our Congress, and little Connecticut is there represented 
in her own behalf by her one delegate, it will still and always 
be found that she is numerously represented also by her 
sons from other States ; and her one delegate shall be him 
self regarded, in his person, as the symbol of that true 
Brother Jonathan whose name still designates the great 
Republic of the world." 


The War begun at the Ballot-box. Elections in Connecticut in 1860. Attitude of 
Parties. Secession becomes Formidable. Discussion and Recrimination. Our 
Representatives in Congress. Their Action on Peace Propositions. Foresight of 
Gov. Buckingham. The Peace Conference. Hon. Isaac Toucey. Spring Elec 
tion of 1861. Connecticut declares for Coercion. 

HE citizens of Connecticut retain their ancestral 
independence of thought, and tenacity of opinion. 
Though conservative in tendency, they accept, 
without flinching, the logical consequences of 
their principles. This characteristic was strik 
ingly exemplified in the elections during the year 1860. 
The spring election, instead of the presidential, decided the 
position of Connecticut upon national questions. The 
issues being already sharply defined, the campaign was 
intensely animated and vigorous, and brought out almost 
every elector. In the extraordinary poll of 88,375 votes, 
the Republican candidate received 44,458 votes ; a majority 
of only 541. 

A close and hotly-contested presidential campaign was at 
first expected ; but the rupture of the Democratic party, and 
the result of the October gubernatorial elections in Penn 
sylvania and other States, so clearly foreshadowed the 
election of Mr. Lincoln, that excitement and effort subsided. 
The people of Connecticut quietly assembled on the 6th 
of November, and polled a total vote of 77,292, distributed 
as follows : Lincoln, 43,792 ; Douglas, 15,522 ; Breckenridge, 
14,641; Bell, 1,485 ; Fusion, 1,852. Total opposition, 33,500. 
Majority for Lincoln, 10,292. 



The supporters of Mr. Lincoln did not generally believe 
the explicit and reiterated declarations of the Southern 
leaders, that his election would be the signal of an imme 
diate attempt at disunion. Those who did, decided to vote 
for their candidate, and abide the issue. 

The leading men and journals of this State opposed to 
Mr. Lincoln predicted, in case of his election, a determined 
effort at separation by the slave States ; but their fears of 
disunion, or objections to it, were not so serious as to heal 
their party dissensions, and cause them to unite to defeat 
the Republican candidate at the polls. 

After the election, they at once avowed for themselves 
entire acquiescence in the decision of the people constitu 
tionally expressed. 1 

Our people were turning with renewed energy to their 
usual business ; but the Legislature of South Carolina, 
convened for the purpose on the day after the election, 
voted at once to call a convention for secession. Other 
States prepared precipitately to follow. 

Action so abrupt and apparently resolute startled our 
people. They did not yet fear disruption by open rebel 
lion ; but they were alarmed, lest, by the unfamiliar process 
of secession, the dismemberment of the Union might, in 
spite of protesting millions, be adroitly compassed. 

They began at once to examine the theory of secession 
and the legal and practical effect of the actual ordinance, 
neither of which had been much discussed at the North. 
Prominent supporters of Mr. Lincoln asserted that "secession 
is treason, and must be treated by the government as 
treason," and that " the government has the right and the 
power to compel obedience." A considerable number of 
Republicans, while they emphatically denied the right of 
secession, questioned the policy of forcibly preventing it. 
They held, that, if an undoubted majority of the adult 

1 " It is right that he (Lincoln) should be inaugurated, and that he should be sustained 
in the legitimate discharge of the executive duties of the government. Certain it is that 
he will not be permitted to encroach on the rights of any State. Hartford Times, Nov. 7. 


population of any State deliberately pronounced for separa 
tion, the rest of the States, though they might legally compel 
that State to remain, would do better to assemble in national 
convention, and acquiesce in her departure from the Union. 
Withdrawal under these sanctions is the only secession ever 
deemed valid or permissible by any number of the supporters 
of Mr. Lincoln. Many who had voted against him also 
concurred in this view. 

Some of the opponents of the President elect denied the 
right of secession, but claimed that there was no constitu 
tional remedy against it. The greater part held that the 
recusant States were theoretically if not practically right ; 
that the United States was simply a confederation of sove 
reign States, any one of which possessed a constitutional 
right to withdraw whenever it should consider the arrange 
ment no longer profitable. They deemed an attempt to 
coerce a State, in order to vindicate the supreme authority 
of the Federal Government and to preserve the territorial 
integrity of the Union, to be both illegal and useless. 2 

Though the doctrine of secession found defenders, the 
champions of the overt act were few. The mass of our 
citizens deeply deprecated disunion, as portending only grave 
and measureless calamity. To avert this calamity, they pro 
fessed to be eager to act with " such moderation and forbear 
ance as will draw out, strengthen, and combine the Union 
sentiment of the whole country." But the attempt to 
reduce this general expression to a more specific statement 
revealed a wide difference of opinion. The opponents of 
Mr. Lincoln accused his friends of the ulterior purpose of 
interfering with slavery in the States, and asserted that the 
Southern people had abundant provocation for their treason 
able conduct. They demanded of the Republicans a repu- 

2 The Hartford Times of Nov. 7, after referring to the danger that the slave States 
would " form a separate confederacy, and retire peaceably from the Union," proceeds to 
say, " If they do so decide and act, it will he useless to attempt any coercive measures to 
keep them within the voluntary copartnership of States. ... We can never force. 
sovereign States to remain in the Union when they desire to go out, without bringing 
upon our country the shocking evils of civil war, under which the Republic could not, 
of course, long exist." 


diation of the distinctive principle on which the political 
campaign had been fought and won, and declared that the 
conservatives of the North would never consent to coercion ; 
adding the not unfrequent menace, that, " if war is to be 
waged, that war will be fought in the North." 

The Republicans replied, that no misstatement of their 
principles and purposes, and no threat, empty or significant, 
would move them a hair s-breadth ; and that the intemper 
ate language of their opponents tended rather to mislead 
than to undeceive the Southern people. At the same time, 
they avowed a sincere desire to make their real opinions 
and designs understood by the South, and a readiness to 
join in a convention of all the States and parties for mutual 
consultation and reconciliation ; and repeatedly pledged 
" any sacrifice of mere feeling or interest " for harmony and 
union. A majority of our people, though uneasy at the 
portentous and expanding proportions of secession, were 
confident that excitement would subside, reason displace 
passion, and a peaceful solution of our difficulties be at 
length safely reached. So believing, they anxiously awaited 
the assembling of Congress. 

Connecticut was represented in the Thirty-sixth Congress 
by Senators Lafayette S. Foster and James Dixon, and 
Representatives Dwight Looinis, John Woodruff, Alfred A. 
Burnham, and Orris S. Ferry. 

They, like their constituents, hoped much from personal 
intercourse and consultation with the representatives of the 
South; and were resolved to omit no honorable effort to 
avert disunion and civil strife. 

The House of Representatives, on the second day of the 
session, raised a committee of thirty-three one from each 
State upon " the state of the Union." Messrs. Ferry and 
Woodruff voted for the resolution ; Messrs. Burnham and 
Loomis, against it. Mr. Ferry was designated as the Con 
necticut member of that important committee. The mes 
sage of the President, and the thirty or more sets of reso 
lutions submitted, comprised every conceivable plan of 


On the 10th of December, a resolution, raising a similar 
committee of thirteen on the state of the Union, was intro 
duced in the Senate. Senator Foster favored the resolution, 
"as a step which may allay public excitement. It looks 
toward bringing back harmony and fraternal feeling to the 
country." 3 

Senator Dixon also, in advocating the resolution, said that 
he felt no desire " to threaten war in any event. . . . The 
slavery question must now have a final and rightful adjust 
ment, consented to by the people of both sections. . . . 
The first thing should be to restore fraternal spirit by cheer 
fully and honestly assuring to every section of the country 
its constitutional rights." He added, " My constituents are 
ready to make any sacrifice which a reasonable man can ask 
or an honorable man can grant." 

In reply, Senator Brown of Mississippi declared, " There 
is but one way. The Northern people must review and 
reverse their whole policy on the subject of slavery. There 
is no such purpose, and therefore no hope of reconciliation." * 
Mr. Brown and his coadjutors in the Senate and House per 
sisted. The Republicans refused to yield. Discussion now 
became obviously useless. 

Major Anderson s removal from Moultrie to Sumter 
stirred the heart of the North ; while the firing upon the 
Star of the West (Jan. 9) roused indignant resentment. 
The war-spirit began to kindle and glow. 

Gov. Buckingham, watching every movement intently, felt 
that war was imminent, and that Connecticut should be ready. 
On the 17th of January, he issued a proclamation, in 
which he recited the traitorous and hostile acts of the South, 
and reminded our people, that " when reason gives way to 
passion, and order yields to anarchy, the civil power must 
fall back upon the military for support, and rest upon that 
arm of national defense." With clear vision and resolute 
purpose, he said that " the active services of the militia may 

8 Congressional Globe, Thirty-sixth Congress, second session. 

4 The committee was ordered ; but neither senator from Connecticut was placed on it. 


soon be required ; " and urged companies to fill their ranks, 
inspect their arms and equipments, perfect themselves in 
drill, and " be ready to render such service as any exigency 
may demand." Then, as if foreseeing that the struggle was 
to be no easy one, he, on his own responsibility, quietly 
ordered his quartermaster to purchase equipments for five 
thousand men. 

The opponents of the incoming administration clamored at 
the delay of Congress to adopt pacificatory measures. The 
border State men now submitted propositions which they 
hoped would, if adopted, satisfy the border slave States, and 
keep them from secession. Petitions numerously signed, 
praying for the adoption of these propositions, were for 
warded from New Haven, Bridgeport, Fairfield, Derby, 
Hartford, Bethany, Westport, Seymour, New London, North 
Haven, Wallingford, Milford, and other towns. 5 Petitions 
from Hartford and some other towns, for the adoption of the 
Crittenden propositions, were transmitted to Congress. More 
were circulated, but were never sent on. 

The last-named petitions were viewed by some in a 
partisan light, because the Democratic State Convention 
had, on the 6th of February, recommended in its platform 
the Crittenden or similar propositions. 

Citizens of Mystic and neighboring towns united in a 
protest against any compromise involving the extension of 
slavery ; and those of Derby and vicinity sent a petition 
praying Congress to stand firmly by " the Constitution as it 
is, the Union of the States, and the enforcement of the 
laws ; " and pledging themselves, " separately and unitedly," 
to maintain " public liberty and national safety " against all 
enemies, abroad or at home. 

Meanwhile the Peace Conference had been in session. 
Connecticut was represented by Ex-Gov. Roger S. Baldwin, 
Ex-Gov. Chauncey F. Cleveland, Hon. Charles J. McCurdy, 
Hon. James T. Pratt, Hon. Robbins Battell, and Amos Treat, 

6 Congressional Globe, Thirty-sixth Congress, second session, Feb. 2-27. 


Esq. Ex-Gov. Baldwin, 6 eminent alike for learning and pa 
triotism, strenuously advocated a national convention, to pro 
pose amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 
This proposition was rejected by a vote of eight yeas to thir 
teen nays, each State casting one vote. The Connecticut 
delegation thereafter voted against most of the propositions 
submitted by the select committee. Neither the Peace 
Conference nor the petitions of citizens availed any thing. 

Our representatives in Washington became convinced 
that no compromise could check secession; that honor and 
safety alike called for decided action. On the llth of Feb 
ruary, Mr. Ferry offered in the House a resolution looking 
to such an amendment of the Constitution as " expressly to 
forbid the withdrawal of any State from the Union without 
the consent of two-thirds of both houses of Congress, the 
approval of the President, and the consent of all the States." 
Mr. Burnett of Kentucky proposing to debate the resolution, 
it was laid over, and never voted on. 

Mr. Burnham, on the 14th of February, addressed the 
House. He emphatically urged every citizen of every State 
to enforce all laws, and pointedly called on the South to 
guarantee protection to citizens of free States while traveling 
in slave States. He entered a vigorous protest against the 
amendment of the Constitution, or the adoption of any com 
promise " under coercion of fear." He declared that the 
government must be maintained and the will of the people 

On the 24th, Mr. Ferry made an earnest speech, affirming 
that the Southern leaders demanded that the Constitution be 
so amended as to give protection to slave-property every- 

" As early as Feb. 4, Gov. Buckingham addressed the delegation in a letter, in which, 
after counseling a conciliatory spirit, he said, " I would suggest as of primary impor 
tance that you have special regard to measures which tend to maintain the dignity and 
authority of the government; so that every citizen shall feel that it is, and is to be, a 
shield to protect him in every proper and lawful pursuit, as well as in his property and 
his person. 

" Also that no sanction be given to measures which shall bind the government to new 
guaranties for the protection of property in man, a principle subversive of the founda 
tions of a free government." 


where in the United States, while they refused to pledge 
that even such an amendment, with the repeal of the Per 
sonal-liberty Bills, should constitute a final and satisfactory 
adjustment. "To buy transient peace, even if possible, at 
the price of this amendment, is to enact a dangerous prece 
dent. Any new demand will be enforced by repeated seces 
sion. ... A compromise now is but the establishment of 
sedition as an elementary principle in our system. . . . There 
is no course left but for the government to vindicate its 
dignity by an exhibition of its strength." 

In the same spirit our entire delegation had voted in the 
Senate on the llth of February, and in the House on the 20th, 
for a proposition to build at once seven war-steamers. 

The only pacificatory measure adopted by Congress was 
a resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution, 
providing that the Constitution shall never be so amended as 
to give Congress the power to abolish or interfere with the 
domestic institutions of any State. In the Senate, Mr. Dixon 
voted for the resolution. Mr. Foster did not vote. In the 
House, our entire delegation voted against it. 7 

On the 2d of March, the House of Representatives passed 
a resolution censuring Hon. Isaac Toucey for the manner in 
which he had administered affairs as Secretary of the Navy. 8 

During the special session, Mr. Foster, on the 8th of 
March, moved the expulsion of Mr. Wigfall of Texas, because 
he had declared himself " a foreigner, and owing allegiance 
to the foreign State of Texas." He held that the secession 
of Texas in no way invalidated the right of the senator to 
sit in the Senate during the time for which he had been 
constitutionally elected ; but the contemptuous language 
and traito rous spirit of the senator rendered his presence 
dangerous and insulting. The motion passed by a party 

Seceded States were now organized, defiant, and belli- 

7 All of our representatives had, however, voted, on the llth of February, for a 
declaratory resolution <Jf the same purport. 

8 For a detailed statement, see Appendix. 


gerent. " Coercion " was the issue in the State election ; and 
each party met it squarely. The Democrats regarded dis 
union as an accomplished fact, and advocated a peace policy 
as a means of retaining the border States, and ultimately 
winning back those which had already seceded. In their 
State Convention (Feb. 6), they resolved that "the perni 
cious doctrine of coercion " is " utterly at war with the 
exercise of right, mature judgment, and the principles of 
the Constitution of the United States, and should be strongly 
resisted by every lover of our common country." 

The Republicans of Connecticut had kept pace with their 
representatives in Congress, and, on the 26th of February, 
had pronounced explicitly for the maintenance, by force, of 
"the supreme and perpetual authority of the National 

The canvass was spirited, and the vote large, exhibiting a 
total of 84,015 ; of which William A. Buckingham received 
43,012, a majority over James C. Loomis of 2,009. 9 

Thus the freemen of Connecticut by a majority vote 
decided for coercion. The stern meaning of that decision 
they were soon to know. Within fourteen days, the flag, 
not in half a century struck to any foe, to them the sacred 
emblem of resistless and protecting nationality, was hauled 
down in defeat, to be raised again in triumph on that spot 
by the hand that lowered it ; but not until four years had 
passed in civil war, matchless in cost, in magnitude, and in 

9 This vote is but little lighter than that of the spring of 1860, justly the test election ; 
the Republican vote being less by 1,446, the Democratic by 2,931. The majority, 
compared with that of 1860, shows for the Republicans an apparent gain in available 
strength of 1,485 votes. 


The Fall of Sumtcr. Enthusiasm in Connecticut. "Coercion " accepted as a Duty. 
A Battle-Sunday. Winsted and New Britain. Sympathy for the South. The 
Call for the First Regiment. Condition of our Militia. The Massachusetts Sixth. 
The Towns moving. The Hartford Companies. Meriden, New Haven, Danbury, 
Middlctown, Norwich, Derby, Willimantic, Mystic, Putnam, Danielsonville, Bridge 
port, Waterbury, New London, Litchfield, Wallingford, Farmington, Salisbury. The 
Old Flag. 

HE traitors are firing on Sumter ! " read the 
dispatch : " Anderson answers gun for gun ! " 
Men stood startled a moment, and half dis 
mayed ; then, with electric response to the 
echoing summons, they spoke out with indig 
nation and courage : " Parley is ended ; now re-enforce Sum 
ter ; avenge the insult ; vindicate the nation s honor ! " 

For six months, the impatient arms of the loyal people had 
been bound, and their patriotic resentments suppressed ; while 
traitors had gone on from arrogance to menace, and from as 
sault to assault, everywhere unresisted. They had captured 
and occupied nineteen national forts ; had taken possession 
of scores of Federal revenue-cutters and war-vessels ; had 
appropriated our arsenals and mints; had stolen twelve 
hundred cannon and a hundred and fifty thousand muskets 
from the national armories ; had caused the destruction of 
fifteen million dollars worth of ships and ordnance-stores at 
Pensacola ; had waged war on the government by firing upon 
and driving back a vessel sent to relieve a starving garrison ; 
had assumed to wrest State after State out of the Union ; and 
had made prisoners, through the treachery of commanders, of 
more than half of the regular army of the United States, 



all this without eliciting a single shot in defense of the 
nation. The patience of the Northern people was well-nigh 
exhausted. A majority of the supporters of President Lin 
coln believed that his policy was too timid and forbearing. 
They felt that the nation was weaker in April than in March ; 
and that the president still debated what he should have 
decided, and paused when he ought to act. The demand that 
the assaulted government should defend itself had been 
hitherto answered only by new efforts at conciliation, and 
followed by still grosser insults and outrages. 

From the bitterness of these humiliations, and from painful 
suspense and helpless inactivity, the first gun brought relief. 
All day Saturday the city streets were crowded, and from 
the country towns came riding anxious men asking for 
the news. The bombardment was going on ; Anderson was 
making a brave resistance : little else was known with certain 
ty. But this short message thrilled the State with a sort of 
angry exultation. The loyal people were of one mind: "Let us 
settle this trouble now, and not bequeath it to our children." 
The excitement swept across the State, kindling battle-fires 
in which the mortification of years was consumed. Doubt 
was succeeded by enthusiasm. The despairing felt that the 
Republic was saved. Conservatives who had grappled to 
the Crittenden Compromise, as the hope of the hour, were 
stunned by the sudden blow. Men who, by force of party 
habit, had justified treason in its preliminary offenses, were 
awed into silence now by the audacity of this act of war : 
while patriots thanked God, that, if war must come, it had 
been no longer delayed ; and forthwith fell into line for the 
front. Business was suspended, and men prepared to meet 
the crisis. 

The next day was a battle-Sunday all over the State. The 
news of the surrender of Sumter was announced in the large 
towns; and the event was alluded to in sermons, and responded 
to by congregations, in a manner worthy of Revolutionary 
times. Ministers prayed that the foes of the nation might 
be smitten down, and law maintained, and liberty given to 


the captive ; and urged their hearers to trust in God, and do 
their duty. The Hartford Daily Post, a Douglas Demo 
cratic organ, which had already pronounced heartily against 
treason, issued extras, and freely sold them within church- 
doors without rebuke. The New-Haven Palladium, an able 
supporter of the administration, sold that day eight thou 
sand extras. In the evening, people throughout the State 
assembled in unusual numbers at their conference-meetings, 
and expressed their solemn purpose in address and prayer. 

A war-meeting for the evening was announced from 
some of the pulpits of New Britain, and a great gathering 
was the result. Resolutions to sustain the government were 
passed ; and a volunteer roll, headed by Frank Stanley, was 
opened as a nucleus of the first company. " A handsome 
photograph of Major Anderson, encircled with a laurel 
wreath, prepared by a lady of New Britain, was presented 
in a thrilling speech by V. B. Chamberlin, Esq. ; the whole 
audience rising to their feet with the wildest demonstrations 
of enthusiasm." 

A similar meeting was called in West Winsted ; and Camp s 
Hall was filled with an enthusiastic crowd. In the midst of 
the excitement, Roland Hitchcock, a lawyer, offered a resolu 
tion declaring that the president ought to withdraw the 
United-States troops from the forts within the seceded States, 
stop the shedding of blood, settle the difficulties honorably 
by further concessions, and " revive the drooping business 
interests." He was fiercely hissed down ; and the proposition 
was indignantly and almost unanimously rejected. The 
meeting adopted a patriotic address ; and one hundred 
young men signed an agreement to go to the war. A sub 
scription-paper was also opened, and seven hundred dollars 
subscribed for the volunteers. 

Preparations for volunteering were made in all the large 
towns. Excited crowds filled the streets, and thronged 
telegraph and newspaper offices. 

The Hartford Times displayed a good deal of boldness in 
attempting to stay the rising tide. On Saturday, when 


Sumter was on fire, and Anderson and his intrepid little band 
were tearing up their garments to make cartridges, in the 
midst of smoke and flames, the Times reasoned thus : 

" But, say the yield-not-an-inch Republicans, the Southerners fired 
the first gun. Under what circumstances? As our fathers in the Revo 
lution declared their independence of Great Britain, so have seven States 
at the South declared their independence of the Federal Government of the 
United States. . . . Could that people wait until they were taken by the 
throat and held in subjection? Their position had been taken. That 
position was invaded by a powerful force, and to save themselves they 
acted. ... In the end, this controversy must be settled by treaty. The 
paper settlement alone will bring peace. Every battle, and every gun that 
is fired, complicates it. We cannot hold the South in subjection." 

Great indignation was expressed against the Times, and 
also against the Bridgeport Farmer arid New-Haven Regis 
ter ; the latter somewhat less emphatic in defense of " the 
rights of the South." There were angry controversies, and 
here and there personal collisions, growing out of expressions 
of disloyal sentiment. On Monday, the Times said, 

" The greater power lies in the States : they are sovereign. The 
Federal Government is subordinate to the States. South Carolina has 
repealed her ordinance by which she became a part of the Federal Union. 
Had she, a sovereign State, a right to do so? We claim she had ; for the 
State had reserved that right, and the reservation is written in the Consti 
tution. We have opposed the policy of fighting State against State, 
brother against brother ; we shall oppose it : for it is that policy which 
will impoverish the North, and break up the Union." . . . 

The Register had just said, "Henceforth these States 
pass into two republics instead of one ; " and, while declar 
ing that " the flag must not be dishonored," it pledged itself 
to " discountenance the war-spirit." 

"With these politicians sympathized a considerable number 
of Democrats, who quietly but sullenly refused to aid in the 
preparations for battle. Some declaimed against "an aboli 
tion war," and, whenever they could get breath during the 
tumult of these days, feebly demanded that " those who had 
made the trouble" should constitute the army. Other 


Democrats, like Henry C. Deming, Mayor of Hartford, sturdi 
ly opposed the use of force, even after Fort Sumter was taken, 
while the cry was, " On to Charleston ! " and pronounced for 
war only when secession had become a gigantic revolution, 
threatening immediate advance on the capital, and aiming 
no longer at independence, but supremacy. 1 

Daring Monday, the people of the State had received the 
president s first proclamation, 2 calling out, for three months, 
seventy-five thousand of the militia of the several States to 
" repossess the forts, places, and property " which had been 
seized ; " to maintain the perpetuity of popular government ; 
and to redress wrongs long enough endured." This call was 
received with earnest satisfaction. The crisis which had 
come was not unlocked for, and yet it was startling in its 
suddenness and importance. Until within two days, many 
had cherished a belief that the disloyal communities would 
not proceed to the ultimate act of war. No people had ever 
been so rudely awakened from a long dream of peace. For 
more than eighty years, we had been devoted to a develop 
ment of the industrial resources of the State. We believed 
that a standing army was a standing menace, an invitation 
to war. The forts on the Sound were dismantled, and falling 
to ruin. We had hardly cannon enough to usher in the 
Fourth of July. Not half the young men of the State knew 

1 Mr. Deraing was invited -to preside at the war-meeting to be held April 19. He 
declined in a letter, of which the following is an extract : " I am in favor of maintaining 
the government in Washington. I am willing to furnish it with the requisite force to 
defend it in the possession and occupancy of the Federal capital. I will support it in 
repelling invasion of the territory of any State which still adheres to the Federal Union. 
On the other hand, I am not willing to sustain it in a war of aggression or invasion of the 
seceded States. Such a war, to accomplish its avowed purpose of recapturing Fort Sum 
ter and of continuing the occupancy of Fort Pickens, must he a war for conquering, and 
holding in subjugation, more than three millions of an indomitable race of men." 

A week later he presented a flag to one of the regiments, and, within six months, was 
colonel of the Twelfth Regiment. The Times and Register also declared for the de 
fense of the capital, but against the invasion of any seceded State. 

2 By the law of 1795, the president had power to call out the militia of the different 
States to suppress insurrection or rebellion, provided that no man should be obliged to 
serve more than three months, or more than thirty days after the next meeting of Con 
gress. So President Lincoln was constrained to issue the three-months call, and to post 
pone the assembling of Congress to July 4. 


how to handle a musket. The venerable institution once 
honored in Connecticut as " Training Day " had been lauglied 
out of existence. 

Moreover, we had been for a whole generation virtually 
teaching our youths the wickedness of physical combat by 
forbidding them to defend themselves when assaulted, and 
instructing them that good boys ought always to run away, 
rather than stand and maintain their rights. We had now 
to prove to the world and to ourselves that our dogmas of 
non-resistance, added to a lifetime of tranquillity and money- 
getting, had not rusted out our manhood. 

Connecticut had on her militia rolls fifty-one thousand able- 
bodied men, with two or three nominal regimental organiza 
tions. Moreover, on examination, it was found that " the mili 
tary laws of the State were very defective, and of such a 
nature that the Commander-in-chief had no legal authority to 
answer a requisition from the president for the single regiment 
of militia called for " 3 as our quota. In this dilemma, the gov 
ernor promptly issued 4 a call for a regiment of volunteers, 
relying upon the legislature to indemnify him for assuming 
the authority ; 5 and the patriotism of the people instantly 
responded to the appeal. Enlistments began at once. All 
other employment gave way to volunteering and equipping. 
Within four days, the companies of the First Regiment were 
at the rendezvous at New Haven ; within six days, those also 
which were mustered in as the Second Regiment ; in two 
weeks, the Third went into camp at Hartford ; and, within 
three weeks, fifty-four companies had tendered their services 
to the governor. This was five times our quota under the 

But patriotism and zeal could not supply. the place of or 
ganization ; and, to our chagrin, Massachusetts was able to send 
forward her militia regiments that had volunteered, in a body ; 

8 Adjutant-General s Report, April, 1862. 
* April 16, Tuesday. 

6 A law for the organization and equipment of volunteer railiiia was passed at the 
succeeding May session. 


while ours, equally ardent, were assembling, but unorganized 
and undisciplined. On Wednesday, while our companies were 
concentrating at New Haven, her Sixth Regiment passed 
through the State for Washington, via Baltimore. Along the 
line of the road, the excited people had remained all night to 
greet them. They were delayed, but arrived at Hartford at 
two o clock on the morning of Thursday the 18th. Not less 
than twenty-five hundred still waited at the depot as the train 
of nineteen crowded cars came thundering along out of the 
darkness. Lieut. Hawley briefly welcomed them in the name 
of the citizens, assuring them of constant sympathy and speedy 
support. Cheer after cheer emphasized the welcome. Men 
and women shook hands earnestly with the travelers they 
never saw before, and prayed for victory on their flag. Young 
ladies exchanged handkerchiefs with the soldiers ; and old 
ladies, less sentimental, brought them lunches : and the train 
moved on. with shouts of, "Burn Charleston, and sow it with 
salt ! " mingled with, " God bless you ! " and ending with a 
prolonged cheer, that was at once a farewell and a benediction. 
At Meriden and New Haven, similar receptions awaited 
them ; though the crowds, standing since ten o clock, began 
to thin out towards morning. At New Haven, where three 
thousand were still congregated, sandwiches and coffee were 
served to the soldiers ; and the throng cheered the regiment, 
Plymouth Rock, Col. Jones, Gen. Butler, and every thing 
relating to the gallant Bay State. 

Our people resolved to make up in dispatch what they 
lacked in organization. Party prejudices were renounced, 
personal animosities laid aside : men forgot interest, sac 
rificed preferences, forfeited the profits of business, and, 
with an earnestness and abandon witnessed but once in a 
century, devoted time and money to the salvation of the 
Republic. Thousands came forward, without looking for 
office or promotion, and hoping only to vindicate the author 
ity of law, and save the imperiled country. The known 
horrors of battle, the unknown hardships of camp and field, 
and the terrors of prison, could not intimidate them. They 


knew that war meant wounds and death : but the stars and 
stripes had been struck down, and the national honor trailed 
in the dust ; and they sprang forward to the rescue. 

From all parts of the State, and all ranks of society, they 
came, young lawyers, farmers, merchants, gentlemen of 
education and leisure, mechanics; men worth their tens 
of thousands, and men worth nothing; boys from the rifle- 
factories ; waiters from the hotels ; under-grad nates from 
Yale, Wesleyan, arid Trinity Colleges, in the same ranks, 
shoulder to shoulder. 

Upon the reception of the governor s proclamation, Joseph 
R. Hawley, Albert W. Drake (a Democrat), and Joseph Per 
kins, met in the office of the Hartford Press, of which Haw- 
ley was editor, and, after discussion of the situation, signed an 
informal enlistment paper 6 as volunteers in the First, and is 
sued a-call in the morning paper for men to join them in a rifle- 
company. Before sundown, nearly the minimum had enlisted ; 
and at a great meeting in the evening, presided over by 
Lieut-Gov. Catlin, the company was filled up. In this com 
pany was only one man who had ever seen service on any 
field, and only two who had even been in the militia. The 
command of the company was offered to and accepted by 
George H. Burnham, lieutenant-colonel of the First Connec 
ticut Militia. Hawley became first lieutenant, and Drake 
second lieutenant; Perkins going into the ranks as a private. 7 

The Hartford Light Guard, Capt. J. C. Comstock, had 
already promptly volunteered as a company, and were not 
long in filling up vacancies of those who could not go ; 
and such was the rush of volunteers from the city and adja 
cent towns, that a third company, Capt. Ira Wright, was im 
mediately begun, and filled to the minimum before the first 
week ended. On Saturday evening, April 20, the latter was 

6 Drake had taken the initiative, and drawn up this paper in his own office early in the 

7 Capt. Burnham soon became colonel of the First, and afterwards of the Twenty-second ; 
Lieut. Ilawley ultimately brigadier and brevet major-general, and afterwards governor of 
the State; Lieut. Drake, colonel of the Tenth (died in service) ; and private Perkins, 
colonel of a United-States colored regiment. 


escorted to a position in front of the State House ; and Mayor 
Deming presented to them, in an eloquent speech, a hand 
some banner, inscribed " Right and Victory," and furnished 
by Messrs. Case, Lock wood, & Co., book-publishers. 

Meantime all the towns in the State were moving. New 
Britain speedily raised her militia company to a minimum, 
and divides with Danbury the honor of being the first com 
pany to offer its services to the State. The West Meriden 
company, also constructed on the basis of a militia company, 
was the first accepted by the governor; while Capt. Burn- 
ham s company was the first accepted composed wholly of 
volunteers. This priority was trivial, however, a matter of 
mere circumstance, and not of particular merit, as between 
the companies of the First Regiment. Lieut. Hawley went to 
Sharpe s rifle-factory on Wednesday, and engaged rifles for 
the company on his own personal credit. Some thirty com 
panies were begun during this first week, almost simulta 
neously, at New Haven, Bridgeport, Norwich, New London, 
Ansonia, Norwalk, Danbury, Birmingham, Waterbury, Rox- 
bury, Collinsville, Litchfield, Windham, Windsor, Middletown, 
in almost every village. 

The great Winsted meeting of Sunday resulted in a com 
pany filled and officered during the week. The first man 
who enlisted was Samuel B. Home, as a private, only seven 
teen years old. 8 At this meeting, the town voted a bounty 
of five dollars to each man, the first indication we find 
of the bounty system. 

An immense war-meeting was held in Meriden, at which 
Charles Parker (Democrat) presided; and speeches exhort 
ing to action were made by 0. H. Platt, Dexter R. Wright, 
(Democrat), Rev. D. Henry Miller, and G. W. Wilson, after 
wards captain. A company was immediately raised, and a 

8 Young Home, who was probably the first volunteer in Connecticut, was quite small 
of his age; and would have been rejected, had it not been for his importunity. He served 
faithfully during the three-months service; re-enlisted, and bore a musket as private for 
eighteen months; and was then promoted to a captaincy. He was in twenty-five battles, 
was wounded three times, and served at the close of the war as provost-marshal of 
the eighteenth army corps. Two of his uncles were officers in the English army, one of 
them on Welliu<itou s staff at Waterloo. 


Colt s revolver presented to each man by Charles Parker. 9 
The sum of five thousand dollars was raised for equipments. 

In Danbury, the citizens assembled at the Court House in 
large numbers in the daytime, and -resolved that the ad 
ministration must be supported in suppressing the Rebellion. 
Here, perhaps, was the first town provision made for families, 
in a vote to pay the wife of each volunteer three dollars per 
week, and each child one dollar per week, during his ab 
sence. 10 On Monday, the Wooster Guards, Capt. Wildmab, 
an excellent company, offered its services to the governor 
two days in advance of his call, and was the first company 
to arrive at the rendezvous. Nelson L. White, a prominent 
lawyer of Danbury, gallantly entered the ranks as a private ; 
but Gov. Buckingham soon promoted him to be major of the 
Third, and thence to be lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth. 

Birmingham held a large meeting in Nathan s Hall on the 
19th : Edward N. Shelton presided ; William B. Wooster made 
a bold and powerful speech, and was followed by Thomas 
Burlock, Robert N. Bassett, Charles L. Russell, Dr. Ambrose 
Beardsley, and other citizens. Three thousand dollars were 
raised at the meeting, and the sum was increased next day 
to five thousand dollars. Nearly an entire company volun- 
* teered on the spot, and passed under the command of Capt. 
George D. Russell. 

At New London, the city flag was raised, followed by a 
display of flags all over the city and on the shipping. At 
the Wilson Manufacturing Company s Works, all hands 
were summoned, and the flag saluted with repeated cheers. 
On the 19th, Mayor J. N. Harris received a dispatch from the 
Secretary of War, requesting him to furnish a company to 
garrison Fort Trumbull. The suggestion was immediately 
complied with; and the City Guards, Capt. Frankau, were 
put on duty there. On the same evening, " the largest and 

9 Mr. Parker remained faithful, one of the most patriotic and liberal supporters of 
the war. 

10 This liberal provision was applied to two companies of three-months men sent, and 
continued to them during the war in case of their re-enlistment. Edgar S. Tweedy and 
John W. Bacon were a committee to dispense the appropriation. 


most enthusiastic meeting ever convened in the city was 
held inside and outside the Court House." Hon. Nathan Bel 
cher was chairman ; and Hon. Augustus Branclegee offered 
a resolution, declaring that political differences must be 
buried, and all unite to save the Republic. "Passed with a 
unanimous and thundering ay." Speeches were made by 
Messrs. A. C. Lippitt, Thomas Fitch, Augustus Brandegee, and 
others. An enlistment-roll was opened. A subscription-list 
to equip and arm the soldiers was headed by Mr. Brandegee 
with five hundred dollars, and followed by J. N. Harris and 
Williams & Barnes, each for the same amount. Ten thousand 
dollars was raised on the spot. Capt. N. Frankau issued a 
call for volunteers to fill up the ranks of his company, the 
City Guards, "to be ready to inarch at a moment s notice." 

In Ansonia there was a great out-door meeting at Brad- 
ley s Hotel, presided over by D. W. Plumb, for many years an 
earnest antislavery leader in that section of the State. 
Speeches were made by Dr. J. M. Colburn and Major E. S. 
Kellogg (State militia). A subscription and a volunteer- 
roll -were opened, resulting in the formation of a company, 
which, within three we.eks, joined the Fourth Regiment, with 
Major Kellogg as their captain. 

On Saturday, the State was thrilled and enraged by the 
news that the Sixth Massachusetts had been assaulted, and 
some of its members murdered, in Baltimore ; and a fierce 
demand went up that the next regiments should be hurled 
on that city. 

At Mystic, a great Union meeting was held in Floral Hall ; 
and war-speeches were made by Col. Amos Clift, Hiram 
Appelman, Lucius M. Slade, Rev. S. S. Griswold, and others. 
Chauncey D. Rice of the Pioneer was secretary. A sub 
scription was opened ; and Isaac Randall, George Greenman 
& Co., Silas B. Randall, and Charles Mallory & Sons, gave a 
thousand dollars each for the prosecution of the war. 
Others subscribed largely. Twenty-four young men volun 
teered, and became the nucleus of a company, that, three 
weeks later, joined the Fourth Regiment. The Mallory boys 


offered their yacht, of a hundred tons burden, to the govern 
ment, free of expense during the war ; and she was accepted. 
A flag was raised from the ramparts of Fort Rachael by the 
hands of Capt. Jonathan Wheeler, a veteran of fourscore, 
who commanded the guard on duty at the fort in 1812 ; and 
its appearance was hailed with cheers and music, and saluted 
with cannon. 

In Windham County, the capture of Fort Sumter created 
a profound sensation. This county led all other counties of 
the State, in her prompt response with Putnam and his men, 
when the Revolutionary War n began at Lexington ; and she 
was not behind when the Republic was assailed by internal 
foes. Willimantic held a large meeting, began a company, 
and voted five thousand dollars to equip her volunteers. On 
the 22d, a county mass-meeting was held at Brooklyn, 
Ex.-Gov. Chauncey S. Cleveland presiding. Earnest war- 
speeches were made by the president, Col. D. P. Tyler, Col. 
Reach, J. J. Penrose, and others. The sum of five thousand 
six hundred dollars was subscribed on the spot, Hon. W. H. 
Chandler heading the paper with five hundred dollars ; and a 
volunteer company of sixty men was raised in thirty minutes. 
Resolutions were adopted, declaring that the citizens of the 
county " would expend their last dollar, and exhaust the last 
drop of their blood," rather than consent to a disruption of 
the nation. 

There was also, this first week, a meeting at Putnam, 
worthy of its name and the crisis. E. Wilkinson presided ; 
and speeches were made by Rev. W. C. Walker, Dr Plymp- 
ton, G. W. Phillips, and others. Patriotic resolutions were 
adopted, and thirty young men instantly volunteered. A 
war-meeting was held at Danielsonville (Killingly) with 
good effect ; and Mr. Wilkinson of the Windham-county 
Transcript, and twelve others, joined the Buckingham Rifles 

11 Windham and New-London Counties seem also to have made the first active 
resistance to the British Stamp Act of 1765. In September of that year, two hundred 
of their sturdy yeomanry proceeded on horseback to Hartford, and thence to Wethersfield, 
Tvlierc they found Jared Ingersoll, and compelled him to resign the office of stamp-master 
for the colony. 


at Norwich ; and many others soon followed. There was 
also a large meeting at Dayville, where, in less than forty 
minutes, fifty-six men enrolled themselves ; the venerable 
Capt. John Day at their head. Windham had a similar 
meeting on the 18th, and raised two thousand dollars to 
equip a company; and voted to pay to all volunteers twelve 
dollars a month " extra," and one dollar a week for each 
child under the age of twelve. Canterbury made a similar 
liberal offer. Pomfret was even more generous, voting twenty 
dollars a month to each volunteer for the three-months 
service, and six dollars a month to the wife, and two dollars 
a month to each child under fourteen. 

In Bridgeport, the feeling was intense. On Saturday 
evening, a war-meeting was held, presided over by Mayor 
D. H. Sterling, at which stirring speeches were made ; and 
resolutions offered by W. H. Noble were adopted, pledging 
the city to stand by the government in punishing treason, 
and requesting the city council to make instant and ample 
appropriations for the equipment of volunteers and the sup 
port of their families. Seven thousand dollars was raised on 
the spot. On Sunday, April 21, a Massachusetts regiment 
and battery passed through ; and the people rushed out of 
church, and the bells rang welcome and good speed. While 
firing a salute, a citizen was killed. 

The war-news created the utmost excitement in Norwich. 
On the 18th, at ten .o clock in the morning, was held a war 
mass-meeting, at which H. H. Starkweather presided : J. L. 
Spaulding was chosen secretary. A subscription-committee 
of seven was authorized, consisting of Amos W. Prentice, 
Frary M. Hale, John F. Slater, Henry Bill, John W. Sted- 
man, David Smith, and James A. Hovey. Gov. Buckingham 
made a patriotic speech, and headed the paper with a 
thousand dollars ; and William P. Green added a thousand 
dollars more. Fervid speeches and contributions followed : 
a subscription of five hundred dollars each was made by 
James M. and W. H. Huntington, D. Smith, J. L. Greene, 
John F. Slater, John W. Allen, Norton Brothers, and A. 


Hnbbard. Other contributions swelled the amount to twen 
ty-three thousand dollars. Among individual donors, Louis 
Mitchell sent his check, " payable to stars and stripes, or 
bearer," and " as part payment of an old debt due to the good 
cause." A venerable lady, who had neither cash nor coupons, 
sent an old-fashioned silver cup, with this note : " I have no 
money to give ; but this old cup has been in my family 
through five generations. It is small, but true. May it not 
have passed through one revolution to help our brave boys 
now ? I have given my younger son to his country, with 
regret that his elder brother cannot be with him." On 
April 19, Frank S. Chester, book-keeper in the Thames 
Bank, commenced a company, and enlisted sixty-five men 
before night. They took the name of the "Buckingham 
Rifles." Jared S. Dennis gave five able-bodied sons to the 

John L. Chatfield, of Waterbury, promptly recruited his 
company, the City Guard, to the maximum, and offered it 
to the governor on April 19. On the 20th, it left for New 
Haven, being escorted to the depot by an immense crowd 
of citizens and civil societies, and a speech of farewell being 
made by Rev. Mr. Hendricken of the Catholic Church. After 
their departure, an enthusiastic inpromptu war-meeting was 
held at Hotchkiss Hall. Mayor Bradley presided ; and 
speeches were made by E. B. Cooke, the venerable editor of 
the American, Lyman W. Coe, Dr. P. G. Rockwell, Hon. S. 
W. Kellogg, C. H. Carter, Esq., and others ; and a subscrip 
tion of nineteen hundred dollars was immediately raised. The 
special town-meeting of the 22d appropriated ten thousand 
dollars to the families of volunteers. A beautiful American 
flao- was raised over the old Catholic Church : the three him- 

o * 

dred Catholic pupils, under direction of the Misses Slater, 
participating in the patriotic ceremonies. The Irish Catho 
lics assembled, and fifty voted to volunteer. At this time, 
Waterbury held one hundred thousand dollars of govern 
ment securities, and her banks had loaned money to the 


- Middletown moved early and vigorously. On the even 
ing of the 19th of April, that night of national indignation, 
a war-meeting was held in McDonough Hall, and addressed 
by Mayor Samuel Warner, Lieut.-Gov. Benjamin Douglas, 
President Cummings of Wesleyan University, and other 
prominent gentlemen. While the meeting was proceeding, 
the members of the Mansfield Guard, militia, summoned to 
the armory by their resolute captain, David Dickerson, voted 
to go to the war ; and, before morning, the company was 

readv, with full ranks. 

/ ~ 

The citizens of New Haven rallied in great numbers at 
Music Hall. Mayor Welch presided, and all parties partici 
pated. Speeches or remarks were made by Rev. Dr. Leon 
ard Bacon, Rev. Dr. Cleveland, James F. Babcock, James 
Gallagher, Thomas H. Bond, W. S. Charnley, Thomas Lawton, 
Charles Ives, C. S. Bushnell, Ira Merwin, and Rev. W. T. 
Eustis ; and every patriotic sentiment was cheered to the 
echo. Resolutions were passed recommending the common 
council to appropriate ten thousand dollars for the families 
of volunteers. The city government conformed to the rec 
ommendation, but doubled the amount. 

At a similar meeting in Branford, Col. L. S. Parsons pre 
sided ; and the people were addressed by Rev. Mr. Miller, Dr. 
H. V. C. Holcombe, and others. Recruiting began at the 


Moses Y. Beach, former proprietor of the New- York Sun, 
sent a patriotic letter to Wallingford, his native town, offer 
ing to loan a hundred thousand dollars to the government, 
and providing for a liberty-pole and flag and the equipment 
of Wallingford volunteers. Fifty young men enrolled at 
once at a war-meeting, presided over by Roderick Curtis, and 
addressed by Israel Harrison, Dr. B. F. Harrison, and others. 

Woodbury held a large meeting, and began a company. 
A subscription for the families of volunteers was headed by 
William Cothren and Daniel Carter, five hundred dollars 
each. In Madison, E. C. and S. H. Scranton offered five 
hundred dollars each to equip the company raising in the 


town. East Haddam sent twenty-five men. Torrington 
voted four thousand five hundred dollars for equipments and 
soldiers families. Canterbury voted to raise a company, and 
equip it. Norwalk raised a volunteer aid-fund, from which 
every man was paid ten dollars on enlistment, and five dol 
lars a month during service. In Hartford, the fund reached 
thirty thousand dollars by voluntary subscription before the 
city assumed the responsibility. 

In many towns, as in Hartford, even after a liberal sub 
scription had been commenced, it was deemed best to do the 
work by a regular appropriation from the town treasury. 
Waterbury voted ten thousand dollars; Bridgeport, ten thou 
sand ; Meriden, five thousand ; Torrington, four thousand 
five hundred ; and many other towns in a ratio equally lib 
eral. Thus, by contribution or town vote, generous provis 
ion was everywhere made for volunteers and all dependent 
on them. 

In Salisbury, George Coffin offered one hundred tons of 
iron to the government, to be made into cannon-balls ; and. 
other citizens manifested equal zeal and liberality. A large 
meeting was held in Litchfield on the 22d, and measures 
taken to assist in the prosecution of the war. In this work, 
Hon. John H. Hubbard took an active part. The Rockville 
Guard voted to go to the war, and offered themselves to the 
governor. Sixteen hundred dollars was raised to equip 
them ; and the citizens went earnestly at the work. Mil- 
ford, at a special town-meeting, voted a bounty of ten dollars 
to every unmarried, and fifteen dollars to every married vol 
unteer ; and agreed to insure the life of each to the amount 
of one thousand dollars. At Farmington, a meeting was 
held on the 23d, at which W. M. Wadsworth presided ; and 
a full company of men enlisted for the war. East Hartford 
voted to pay a bounty of ten dollars, and ten dollars a 
month to each man while in service. Woodbridge raised 
forty men under Capt. Farren Perkins. From Unionville, 
one-tenth of the legal voters volunteered. Canterbury 
voted to raise a company, and subscribed two thousand dol- 


lars to equip it. In North Branford, the people raised a 
noble hickory, the gift of an old Jackson man, Capt. Jona 
than Rose ; and unfurled a handsome flag on the identical 
spot, where, in 1776, after the Sabbath service, Parson Ells 
called the young men of his congregation together, and led 
them to the war. These uprisings all over the State but 
illustrate the spirited resolves and earnest action of every 

The sons of Connecticut out of the State were also promi 
nent and active in similar patriotic demonstrations. 

The great mass-meeting in Union Square, of New York, 
had its initial movement in a preliminary meeting at the 
residence of that true man and patriot, Robert H. McCurdy, 
formerly of Lyme, but long a merchant in New York, a 
brother of the well-known Judge McCurdy of our State. 
This gentleman sallied forth in the rain, rallying his neigh 
bors, who assembled at his hotise the same evening, and 
there organized. A committee was appointed to issue a call 
-to the citizens of New York. The following day, this was 
done ; and, on the last of that week, that immense uprising 
of tens of thousands in Union Square was a fact accom 
plished and memorable. Nowhere on this continent, before 
or since, has there been seen such a mighty host swayed 
with but one earnest purpose. We find prominently asso 
ciated with Mr. McCurdy the names of other true sons of 
our State, Gen. Prosper M. Wetmore, William C. Gilman, 
S. B. Chittenden, and others to whom reference is made as 
we proceed in the narrative. It will be shown how they 
permanently organized ; also the efficiency of their labors, 
and their great liberality and personal sacrifices and constant 
sympathy with the soldiers of our State. 

In nearly all the cities of the West, we were represented 
in these uprisings. Soon after the attack on Sumter, the 
organization of the first Loyal League Club was formed, 
so far as known, at the city of Louisville, Ky. ; and chief 
among those who organized this society, which afterwards 
spread over the entire North, and was not unknown in 


many portions of the South, was Ledyard Bill, a citizen of 
Connecticut, at that time a resident of Kentucky. 12 

Already the national flag had come to have a new and 
strange significance. When the stars and stripes went 
clown at Smnter, they went up in every county of our 
State. Every town, from Thompson to Greenwich, suddenly 
blossomed with banners. On forts and ships, from church- 
spires and flag-staffs, from hotels, store-fronts, and private 
balconies, " the old flag " was flung out ; and everywhere it 
was hailed with enthusiasm; for its prose became poetry, 
and there were seen in it a beauty and a sacred value which 
it never before possessed. Loyal women wore miniature 
banners on their bonnets, and, with untiring ingenuity, 
blended the colors with almost every article of dress ; and 
men carried the emblem in pins and countless other devices. 
The patchwork of white, blue, and red, which had flaunted 
in our face* for generations, without exciting much emotion, 
in a single day stirred our pulses with an imperative call to 
battle, and became the inspiration of national effort. All at 
once, it meant the Declaration of Independence ; it meant 
Lexington ; it meant Bunker Hill and Saratoga ; it meant 
freedom ; it meant the right of a majority to elect their 
president ; it meant the honor and the life of the Republic. 
So a great crop of splendid banners came with the spring 
roses ; and hundreds of youths donned the blue uniform, and 
advanced to the line of battle, impelled not more by a con 
scious hatred of treason than by the wonderful glory that 
had been kindled in the flag. 

12 See Abbott s Civil War, vol. i. p. 144. 


The Volunteers uniformed and equipped. Response of Wealthy Men and Institutions. 

Patriotic Work of the Women. Another Revolutionary Sunday. Call for Second 
and Third Regiments. The Troops at Rendezvous. Outfit completed. In Camp. 

Rations and Beds. Contributions flow in. Drill and Discipline. Sage Advice. 

Departure of the Three Regiments. 

HE volunteers who, in these first memorable 
days, rallied with patriotic impulse around the 
national standard, were simply men in citizen s 
dress. Few had either uniforms or arms. 

Gov. Buckingham, as early as Jan. 17, had 
wisely ordered the purchase, on his own responsibility, of 
knapsacks, cartridge-boxes, bayonets, and every thing be 
longing to the full equipment of five thousand men. The 
State owned one thousand and twenty United-States muskets 
of the latest pattern, and more than two thousand percus 
sion-muskets not very serviceable. It was thought that 
these would be sufficient for any temporary service, and that 
the rifle factories of the State could speedily furnish other 
weapons for five thousand men if required. For this reason, 
and apprehending that the purchase of muskets might cre 
ate premature excitement, Gov. Buckingham did not then 
increase the supply of arms. 

But when the actual call came, on Sunday night, April 
15, he at once resolved to discard all smooth-bore weapons, 
and arm the troops of Connecticut with the best rifles. With 
this intent, he decided to go on Monday morning to the 
Thames Bank, and ask a loan of fifty thousand dollars, and 
pledge his private fortune for payment. 



But others were also thinking of the money needed. 
E. C. Scranton, president of the Elm-city Bank in New 
Haven, was early at his post. Thomas B. Osborne, vice- 
president, came in. There was a brief consultation. Be 
fore Gov. Buckingham left his house to go to the Thames 
Bank, he received a telegram, tendering a loan of fifty thou 
sand dollars, from the Elm-city Bank, for the emergency. 
The Thames Bank immediately offered a hundred thousand 
dollars. Almost simultaneously, the Pahquioque Bank, of 
Danbury, tendered fifty thousand dollars ; Mechanics Bank, 
of New Haven, twenty-five thousand dollars; Fairfield-county 
Bank, of Norwalk, thirty thousand dollars ; Danbury Bank, 
fifty thousand dollars. The banks of Hartford united to offer 
the State a loan of five hundred thousand dollars, one- 
tenth of their capital ; and the New-Haven banks soon after 
voted the same proportion, a total of more than a million 

Of private benefactors, one of the earliest and most 
thoughtful was Thomas R. Trowb ridge of New Haven, who, 
before a company was yet formed, offered five hundred dol 
lars for the support of the families of volunteers ; thus begin 
ning a course of unstinted liberality, which he continued 
throughout the struggle, and initiating that great patriotic 
charity, which, continued by private individuals, and finally 
adopted by towns and the State, extended a hand to all the 
families of absent soldiers. David Clark of Hartford rose in 
the first war-meeting, and pledged himself to give two 
hundred and fifty dollars to every company which the city 
should send ; and Hawley s company received his check on 
the spot. The next day, he offered to support one hundred 
families of volunteers during the war. This work was virtu 
ally taken off his hands by a vote of the town soon after; 
but the impulse continued active in that and similar chan 
nels, until, directly and indirectly, he had given the sum of 
sixty thousand dollars to the work of prosecuting the war. 

With still greater ardor, the women rose up to do their 
share in the great work of preparation. By Friday, April 


19, " within three days of the date of the governor s call/ 
the companies for the First Regiment had been ordered to 
move to the regimental rendezvous at New Haven. Com 
plete uniforms for nearly all were to be made. Wives, 
mothers, and sisters had no time for grief. With one heart, 
young and old, rich and poor, ransacked the wardrobes of 
their household, and the shops of the city and town, and plied 
shears and needles with unwearied diligence. April 21 
was a second Revolutionary Sabbath. Ministers expounded 
the right and duty of defending the government, and dwelt 
with fervor on the days and the men of" 76 " and the glory 
of our. great Republic. Among favorite texts were, " In 
the name of God we will set up our banners ; " " He that 
hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one ; " 
" Blessed be the Lord my strength, which teacheth my hands 
to war, and my fingers to fight ; " " Lift up a standard to the 
people ; " " I come not to bring peace on earth, but a 

The sacredness of the day seemed but to hallow labors 
of love and patriotism. The Bulletin of April 22 informs 
us that 

" The ladies of Norwich, to the number of three hundred, assembled 
early at Breed Hall, where they were engaged all day in making up uni 
forms for the company which starts to-morrow. Flags were flying, drums 
beating, and troops drilling in the streets ; clergymen preached war-ser 
mons in all the churches, and left the pulpits to encourage the women in 
their sewing, or the volunteers in their drilling." 

The Hartford Courant said, 

" A great many ladies served God yesterday by serving their country, 
in making uniforms for its gallant defenders. Some of them were at work 
at Schulye s, and some at Fisher & Co. s. One hundred and fifty were 
also busy on haversacks at Griswold & Co. s. George H. Hawk, of the 
Allger-house Saloon, furnished coffee and refreshments. Unknown friends 
dent in seven pails of lemonade." 

Henry Schutze and other tailors of Hartford cut for 
nothing all uniforms brought. A. M. Cosgrove of Middle- 


town offered his entire stock of under-clothing to equip the 
Mansfield Guards. All day Saturday and Sunday, the la 
dies of Middletown worked upon the uniforms of this com 
pany. "Places of public worship were deserted, and the 
entire population seemed engaged in the great work of the 
hour. In those churches where service was attempted, it 
was only a passing prayer, that the Great Ruler of nations 
would shield from harm those who were about going down 
to the valley of battle. Banners were flying from church- 
spires, bands of music were on the street, and processions of 
citizens marching, cheering, and encouraging the volunteers. 
At many of our prominent residences, blue flannel was dis 
played by the ladies at the windows, to show that they were 
engaged in the same patriotic work." 1 

Of the work in Killingly the Windham-county Transcript 

" Hundreds of fair hands and nimble fingers are at work in furnishing an 
outfit for the Union Guards, Capt. Granger. The ladies of Brooklyn, 
Woodstock, Pomfret, and other towns in this vicinity, have urged their 
claims for an opportunity to perform a share of the labor. In less than 
six days, three hundred and fifty shirts, eighty pairs of pants, and eighty 
coats, have been begun and finished. The misses have prepared for each 
soldier a very neat and convenient arrangement to carry pins, needles, scis 
sors, thread, &c., little matters which will be greatly appreciated by the 
boys when far away from home. The energy, patriotism, and enthu 
siasm displayed by the ladies is the theme of great praise. . . . The 
Guards yesterday marched into the hall where the ladies were preparing 
the outfit. One of the ladies addressed the soldiers with great eloquence ; 
urging them to fight manfully for their country, and to enroll themselves 
also under the banner of King Emauuel. The scene was very impressive, 
and there were few dry eyes in the hall during the delivery of the affecting 

Such incidents, with only the modification of name and 
local circumstance, occurred in every town and neighbor 
hood where a company had been enlisted. From every clus 
ter of houses, too, some boys were going ; and there was a 
never-ending repetition of the quieter but no less earnest 

1 Manuscript Record of Middletown during the War, by John M. Douglas. 


village sewing-circle, turning out the ready uniforms, the 
tricolor rosettes, the needle-books, and the thousand little 
tokens of patriotism and affection. 

Then followed hasty farewells, tears of loved ones, and 
hearty cheers of" good speed ;" and the companies hastened 
to the rendezvous. 

The work in the towns continued : cloth for uniforms was 
purchased as quickly as possible, and generally paid for by 
subscription in the towns represented, and the garments 
made up by the ladies at voluntary bees. In some towns, 
the work went on, by relays, night and day. In many towns 
and communities, it was, for weeks, the absorbing effort of the 
State, overshadowing all other interests. 

On their arrival at New Haven, the first companies were 
quartered at the various public and private buildings until 
the quartermaster could provide camp equipage. Company 
and regimental officers supplied from their private resources 
many pressing wants which the State found itself unable so 
suddenly to meet. The companies were still besieged by 
men begging the privilege of entering ranks already full. 
A score stood ready to take the place of every man rejected, 
while the rejected volunteer entreated to be retained. A 
member of the Meriden company was offered fifty dollars for 
his place, and rejected the offer with disdain. 

Among the companies formed, there was the utmost rivalry 
as to which should be so fortunate as to be accepted as mem 
bers of the regiment ; for many regarded it as inconceiva 
ble that the government could require more than the levy 
of seventy-five thousand men. This was deemed the last 
chance ; and in every part of the State alarmed volunteers 
deserted their half-formed companies, and precipitated them 
selves into New Haven, Hartford, and Bridgeport, that they 
might not be too late to join some company that was sure 
to go. Ten full companies were immediately assigned to 
the First Regiment. 

Despite the utmost efforts of all, many volunteers were 
still in citizen s dress; and the new uniforms, mingling with 


every other variety of costume, gave a curiously grotesque 
effect to the early company evolutions. The ladies of New 
Haven resolved to supply all deficiencies in uniforms, and 
worked by scores so diligently, that, within ten days, they 
had finished and distributed more than five hundred fall sets. 
They also provided a large number of caps, shoes, and socks. 
In this work, Benjamin Noyes and John G. North rendered 
efficient aid. 

Beds were now called for. To sleep on a dry floor and 
clean straw was a luxury to which at Falmouth, or in front 
of Petersburg, a brigadier-general hardly dared to aspire ; 
but to these unseasoned volunteers, and to the citizens, it 
seemed intolerable hardship. Material was quickly pur 
chased by voluntary contributions. Winchester & Davies 
save the use of their sewing-machines : and several hundred 

o * 

ticks were prepared in two days by men and women who 
volunteered for the work. The ladies then carried the fin 
ished ticks to the soldiers quarters, and filled them with 
straw. The first evening, they gathered at the State House. 
It did not once occur to them, in the plenitude of their pa 
triotism, that a hundred ladies was a force rather stronger 
than necessary to put straw in the same number of beds, or 
that the soldiers might do so simple a thing for themselves. 
No straw had arrived. A patriotic meeting was at once or- 
ganized by Chaplain Herbert Lancey ; and songs and speeches 
followed in rapid succession till a late hour. With equal 
spontaneity, the patriotic fervor of the people broke forth in 
speeches and songs, at all times and in every place. 

On Monday, April 22, the First Regiment went into camp 
at Brewster s Park. The Hartford Rifle Company (Hawley 
captain, vice Burnham, promoted) was assigned to the right 
of the line ; the Bridgeport Rifles, Capt. John Speidal, to the 
extreme left. This latter company was composed wholly of 
Germans; while every company contained soldiers of foreign 
birth. The first three companies in the regiment were from 
Hartford. Company C, Capt. Levi N. Hillman, received its 
officers and fourteen men from Windsor Locks, sixteen from 


En field, nineteen from Stafford, and nine from Simsbury; 
D, Capt. Marcus Coon, was from Waterbury ; E, Capt. E. E. 
Wildman, from Danbury; F, Capt. Theodore Byxbee, from 
Meriden ; G, Capt. F. W. Hart, from New Britain, with a 
squad of eleven from Farmington ; H, Capt, R Fitzgib- 
bons, from Bridgeport. Two companies were begun in New 
Haven for the regiment; but they waited to join the Second, 
together, under Col. Terry. Thirty impatient men from that 
city, however, obtained admission to Capt. Wright s Hartford 
company. Several from Manchester dropped into the first 
two companies. 

When the boys received the plain but plentiful govern 
ment rations of pork, fresh beef, soft bread, potatoes, coffee, 
and sugar, they knew neither how to cook, nor how to 
economize them. They declared them scanty, and " unfit to 
eat." They murmured, and almost mutinied. On the 30th 
of April, a number actually broke guard to "get their break 
fasts." They were court-martialed before Major Chatfield 
and Capt. Hawley, and the non-commissioned officers reduced 
to the ranks, and some of the privates expelled from the 
regiment, begging hard to stay. 

The citizens sympathized heartily with the soldiers. The 
daily papers defended them, and declared that it would be 
quite soon enough to starve the boys when they got into a 
hard campaign. The common council voted ten thousand 
dollars to supply bedding, food, and other necessaries. A 
soldier who could get clown town on a pass was sure to eat 
dinner at the private table of some pitying lady, or at a 
hotel, at the expense of some commiserating patriot. Roast 
meat and fowls, pies, cake, and delicacies of every sort, 
found their way from city and country to the " suffering " 
volunteers. The sauntering boy in blue whose hunger was 
appeased was sure of some other favor. Did he need a pair 
of boots ? They were his for the asking. Knives, razors, 
pistols, handkerchiefs, under-clothing, all things which 
promised to be of service, were urged upon the proud 
citizen soldiers. 


All ages and classes now vied with each other in efforts to 
do something for the volunteers. 

While the ladies of Hartford were busy making uniforms, 
the deaf and dumb pupils offered free use of their tailor-shop 
and their shoe-shop. Physicians throughout the State pledged 
their services gratuitously to the families of volunteers dur 
ing their absence, and in most cases faithfully redeemed 
their pledges. One hundred little girls visited the company 
of Capt. Ira Wright in camp, and presented to his men one 
hundred red-white-and-blue rosettes made by themselves. 

Mrs. Jansen of New Haven presented a red-white-and- 
blue work-bag to each member of Company B, Second Regi 
ment. Four New-Haven ladies went into camp, and worked 
all day in lining the blankets of Capt. Hawley s company. 
Mrs. Sophia Butler, seventy-six years of age, who did ser 
vice in the hospital in the last war with Great Britain, offered 
to go again to take care of the sick and wounded. 

Hundreds of employers continued the salaries of their em 
ployes, and retained their places for them till their return. 
The working-men, in many cases, combined to do the work 
of one of their number who had enlisted, so as to continue 
the wages to his family. 

Many proprietors retained the places vacated by their work 
men until their return. Mechanics clubbed together, and 
performed the work of comrades who enlisted. The Congre 
gational clergymen in the vicinity of Winsted in turn gra 
tuitously supplied the pulpit of Rev. Hiram Eddy during his 
absence as chaplain of the Second Regiment; and his con 
gregation gladly paid the salary to his family. 

Nor were preparations of a serious nature overlooked. 
The ladies of East Hartford had, by April 25, made and 
rolled up, at the house of Dr. C. M. Brownell, six thousand 
yards of bandages, and one thousand five hundred compress 
es. Ladies of other towns swelled the quantity of such arti 
cles to tons. 

In the mean time, Gov. Buckingham went to Washington ; 
and, after an earnest appeal, the Secretary of War was in- 


duced to accept two additional regiments from Connecticut. 
The clamor of repressed patriotism on the part of the multi 
tude who could not find place in the First Regiment was 
immediately relieved by another proclamation, directing the 
acceptance of all full companies offering. The Second Regi 
ment was ordered to rendezvous with the First at New 
Haven ; the Third, to go into camp at Hartford. 

On Monday, May 6, the Second Regiment joined the First 
at Brewster s Park in a rain that did not cease for twenty- 
four hours. Next day, it was mustered into the service ; its 
colonel being Alfred H. Terry, the popular colonel of the 
Second Regiment of State militia. He soon won the 
love and respect of the men by his constant attention to 
their comfort, and his ability as an officer. Several of these 
companies, like some of those in the First, were the result 
of the patriotic co-operation of various contiguous towns. 
Capt. F. S. Chester s company, of Norwich, contained six vol 
unteers from Griswold, and twenty more from Putnam, Pom- 
fret, Killingly, Woodstock, and elsewhere. Capt. Henry 
Peale s company, of the same city, had eight from Preston, 
and twelve or fifteen from Lisbon, Sprague, and Thompson. 
Capt. E. C. Chapman s New-London company contained a few 
volunteers from Stonington. Capt. Abram G. Kellogg s New- 
Hartford company contained sixteen from New Hartford, 
twenty -four from Winsted (Winchester), twenty-one from 
Canton, and six from Norfolk. Capt. James W. Gore s Hart 
ford company included men from Rocky Hill, New Britain, 
and other towns in the vicinity. This company was under 
the special patronage of Mr. David Clark of Hartford. Be 
fore leaving Hartford, it had received from his hands a beau 
tiful banner, with a charge to bear it in the face of the enemy 
as gallant soldiers should ; and each officer had been pre 
sented by him with an expensive sword and complete equip 
ments, and each private soldier with a revolver. Company 
A, Capt. David Dickerson, was from Middletown ; C, Capt. 
E. Walter Osborn, from New Haven ; D, Capt. George D. 
Russell, from Derby ; E, Capt. S. T. Cooke, from Winsted ; 
and F, Capt. A. B. Downs, from New Haven. 


As soon as the regiments were in camp (Camp Bucking 
ham), the rules of military life, slightly relaxed to suit the 
character of volunteers, were adopted and cheerfully ob 
served. The officers applied themselves persistently, first to 
learning, and then to teaching, the rudiments of military 
science ; and there was soon a marked improvement in drill 
and discipline. 

This was due largely to the pupils of the military school 
of Gen. Russell. Almost every company in the first regi 
ments was instructed in evolutions and the manual of arms 
by these efficient drill-masters, ranging from twelve to eigh 
teen years of age. Officers and men alike submitted with 
grateful attention to the dictation of these skillful striplings. 

Feeling that they would soon be face to face with a foe 
familiar with the use of arms, all kept closely to the work 
of preparing themselves for efficiency in service. Several 
hours of each dav were devoted to the facings and march- 

v O 

ing, and a study of Hardee s " Tactics ; " each man vying with 
his neighbor to acquire the elements of a soldier s education. 
The results of this discipline were apparent when they came 
into the field. 

The camps, both at New Haven and Hartford, were con 
stantly thronged by visitors and friends bringing all manner of 
gifts, useful and useless, all varieties of pastry and delicacies, 
towels and soap, blankets and hammocks, handkerchiefs and 
needle-books, tobacco, pipes, and pills. One officer was fa 
vored with a gallon jug of molasses. 

The simple suggestion that the soldiers should be supplied 
with reading evoked an avalanche of illustrated papers and 
magazines, with hundreds of books, both religious and general. 
The " Havelock " fever also raged. An English journal hav 
ing stated, that in 1857, during the suppression of the re 
bellion in India, the soldiers used with advantage the " Have- 
lock," a white cloth-covering for the head and neck, as a 
protection from sunstroke, our people went earnestly into 
the manufacture of these articles. Every soldier was pro 
vided with two or more ; and one company received six 


sets all around. Portable writing-desks, water-filterers, pat 
ent knives, and a score of other contrivances, had been in 
vented, declared to be absolutely indispensable to health 
and comfort; and were provided in great numbers. 

Volunteers were entreated to line their blankets with 
brown drilling, to carry a rubber blanket, extra shirts, an 
extra pair of shoes and stockings, and a variety of cooking 
utensils. These, with the paper and envelopes, the pocket- 
album, the Bible, and other good books, made with the 
musket and equipments, a load of from a hundred and twen 
ty-five to a hundred and fifty pounds. Most volunteers 
undertook to carry this burden. The veteran, content with 
blanket, canteen, haversack, tin cup, and jack-knife, smiles at 
the pack under which he perspired in those days ; and he 
laughs outright at the advice then solemnly spoken and re 
peated in the ears of the men. A writer who called himself 
" an old soldier " told the beginners, " Let your beard grow. 
March always in cotton stockings, but have a pair of woollen 
ones to put on when you stop. Wash your whole body 
every day." How easy to do this on a march in Virginia or 
Georgia ! and how invigorating in open air, after creeping 
out of a " dog-tent," on a December morning at Falmouth ! 
"A veteran" urged the soldiers to -avoid oily meat" as if it 
were possible to forego pork in Uncle Sam s family. He 
also warned the soldiers against "strong coffee," the wel 
come beverage which afterwards sustained them in privation 
and wearisome marches, and often seemed temporarily to 
take the place of food and sleep. 

Another thought " the soles of army-boots should be at least 
one-half, and, better, three-fourths of an inch in thickness ; " 
and bade his soldier-friends to " be sure never to sit down 
while heated, but to stand until cool ; and be very careful 
always to have your food well cooked!" The old soldier can 
find no more amusing reading than the newspaper files of 
those days ; and yet, as exhibiting the profuse liberality and 
the absorbing affection of a people who could not devise or 
do enough for their citizen-soldiers, it is a record to be con 
templated with gratification and pride. 


The First Regiment had received Sharpe s rifles. On 
Wednesday, May 17, Hon. Julius Catlin, formerly lieutenant- 
governor, presented the colors ; 2 and the next day the 
regiment broke camp for the seat of war. The city assem 
bled to greet them ; and, in their march down Chapel Street, 
they were hailed with uninterrupted cheers. Flags bloomed 
upon them from every portico, roof, and window. At last 
they embarked on the steamer Bienville, and, turning their 
faces from friends and home, disappeared down the harbor, 
bound for the still besieged capital of the nation. 

Sharpe s rifles also were distributed to eight companies, 
and Enfield rifles 3 to two, of the Second Regiment, on the 
morning of the 10th ; and, on the evening of the same day, 
they broke camp, under orders for Washington. Just before 
departure, the regimental colors, elaborately embroidered, 
were presented, in a speech of characteristic eloquence, by 
Hon. E. K. Foster, in behalf of the ladies of New Haven. A 
fine horse was also presented to Col. Terry by Arthur D. 
Osborne. Again the streets were filled with an enthusias 
tic multitude, hailing the volunteers with approving cheers 
and cordial farewells ; and the scene was one of solemn and 
triumphant joy. In the evening, the regiment embarked ; 
and, at eleven o clock at night, the Cahawba steamed into 
the darkness, along the track where the First Regiment 
had waved its good-bys only the day before. 

The same high-souled, uncalculating patriotism that had 
created these two regiments had also filled the ranks of the 
Third. It rendezvoused at Hartford, April 30 ; and was 
sheltered by the city and people, and hospitably cared for, 
until its camp was ready. 

2 His presentation-speech closed as follows : " Take the flag ; and, when it presses 
closest on the foe in some hard-set contest, will some brave boy among you strike one 
true blow for freedom for an old man at home, whose heart and prayers go with these 
colors to the field ? " Mr. Catlin became one of the most generous supporters of the war. 

8 The Enfield rifles were purchased by Gov. B. for seventeen dollars and thirty-five 
cents ; and were worth, when delivered, twenty-eight dollars. The Colt rifles, nearly all 
purchased at twenty dollars, immediately commanded forty and fifty dollars. The Sharpe s 
rifles, used by the three-months troops, were afterwards issued to the flank companies 
of the several regiments. 


On the day of the departure of the First, the Third went 
into camp on the Fair Grounds, Albany Avenue, two miles 
from the State House, Hartford ; and it was mustered into the 
service May 14. This regiment, like the others, was hetero 
geneous in character, and furnished from every part of the 
State. Capt. S. J. Root s New-Haven company was uni 
formed and equipped throughout by James Brewster, whose 
name they adopted. Company A. Capt. Douglass Fowler, 
was from Norwalk; Company B, Capt. Daniel Klein, Ger 
mans, from New Haven ; Company C, Capt. J. E. Moore, 
from Danbury ; Company D, Capt. Frederick Frye, was one 
half from Bridgeport, and the other half distributed among 
the towns of Fairfield County. Capt. G. N. Lewis s Hartford 
company contained squads from Wethersfield, Glastenbury, 
East and West Hartford, and East Windsor. Capt. Edward 
Harland s Norwich company represented also Sprague, Boz- 
rah, Franklin, and Lebanon. Capt. J. R. Cook s company 
was from Meriden ; Capt. Nelson s company, from Hartford. 
Capt. Albert Stevens s Stamford company had twenty vol 
unteers from Darien, and fourteen from New Canaan. Com 
pany E, Capt. John A. Nelson, was mainly from Hartford. 

The regiment was organized, at first, with Levi Woodhouse 
of Hartford as colonel; but, subsequently, Col. Woodhouse 
was transferred to the command of the Fourth, and was 
succeeded by John Arnold of New Haven. 

During the three weeks following the rendezvous at camp, 
the officers and men were vigorously engaged in mastering 
the theory and practice of military science and the various 
duties of camp and field. They had a better opportunity 
to acquire this discipline than either of the former regiments, 
because they were farther removed from the distractions of 
the city, and had longer time in which to familiarize them 
selves with their new life. About a week before they went 
away, they received Springfield smooth-bore muskets, flint 
locks altered to percussion, and were thus enabled to devote 
themselves for a few days to the manual of arms. On May 
19, they were ordered to Washington ; and next day struck 


tents, and marched into Hartford. The colors were presented 
in front of the State House by Gov. Buckingham ; 4 after 
which, through a surging and enthusiastic crowd of friends 
and neighbors, the regiment inarched to the depot, and took 
cars for New Haven. There they embarked upon the steam 
er Cahawba, and sailed forth cheerfully upon their strange 

A month had passed since the nation was aroused to arms, 
and since one regiment was called for from Connecticut. 
Three regiments had gone forward, so completely equipped 
as to become a model for general imitation, so well dis 
ciplined as to reflect honor upon the State in the excitement 
and confusion of battle. 

4 The governor made a brief speech, in which he said, " No father could welcome 
more cordially the presence of his sons than I welcome you to-day. Let these banners be 
your rallying-point ; and, if the hands that bear them be smitten, let your voices be heard 
inspiriting your fellows to their defense ; and, if you fall, others shall take your places to 
bear them on, and they shall be the signal and emblem of your liberties vindicated and 


Gen. Dan Tyler. Henry B. Norton. Cassias M. Clay Guard. The Fourth Regi 
ment. Towns represented. Departure. Colt s Revolving Rifles. It becomes 
the Fifth Connecticut. Towns represented. Home Guard. Yale College. The 
General Assembly. Message of the Governor. War Legislation. The Constitu 
tional Amendment. Great Unanimity of Feeling. Independence Day. 

IN these early movements, Gov. Buckingham re 
lied greatly upon Capt. Daniel Tyler of Norwich, 
who was burning with zeal, chivalric, high-spirit 
ed, honorable, indefatigable in his labors, and 
familiar with the details of organization. He 
was the only professional soldier in the first three regiments. 
He impressed upon all, both officers and men, correct views 
of the character of the true soldier, and taught them that it 
was as honorable to obey as to command. His discipline 
was exact ; and to those who forgot that an army can not be 
a democracy, and that a regiment is not a town-meeting, it 
seemed severe. Yet is it just to say that much of the sys 
tematic, well-disciplined character of Connecticut troops, 
which made so many of her regiments favorites in various 
corps and departments, was due to the soldierly spirit infused 
into the three-months troops by Col. Tyler of the First. 
The position of brigadier of the State militia was early 
offered to him by Gov. Buckingham, and accepted by him 
on condition that all duties should be " performed without 
remuneration for services rendered or expenses incurred." J 
Soon after reaching Washington with his regiment, he was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers at the earnest request 
of Gen. Scott. 

1 Gov. Buckingham s Message, 1862. 


Henry B. Norton of Norwich also rendered substantial 
service in chartering vessels, superintending the transporta 
tion of troops, and purchasing supplies at that early period. 
An upright, able, and influential business-man, he left his 
own affairs, and gave personal attention to the wants of the 
State in this emergency. He cheerfully spent months of 
time, refusing even the re-imbursement of his expenses. 

In the Cassius M. Clay Guard, which patrolled Washing 
ton in the days of alarm and peril, before the arrival of 
troops, Connecticut was represented by Orris S. Ferry, John 
Woodruff, Cornelius S. Bushnell, A. H. Byington, and William 
S. Chalker (captain of the first company of Wide-Awakes). 
The danger being passed, they were mustered out of service 
on May 18 by an order of the Secretary of War, expressing 
thanks for their faithful service day and night. 

Deeming the three regiments sufficient for the emergency, 
the president declined the services of the twenty-four addi 
tional companies still industriously drilling in squads all over 
the State ; and, on the 8th of May, Gov. Buckingham ordered 
them to be disbanded. The decision was received by the 
men with every expression of disappointment. 

The president had, however, on the 3d of May, issued a 
proclamation for forty-two thousand volunteers, an increase 
of the regular army of twenty-two thousand and sixty-eight, 
and for the enlistment of eighteen thousand seamen ; and 
the disappointment was quickly forgotten in the zeal to 
embrace one of these opportunities. The State-call was de 
layed until May 11 ; and it is estimated that "not less than 
two thousand men 2 from Connecticut enlisted in other 
States, or the regular army or navy." 

Our quota was considerably less than one regiment ; but 
the War Department had accepted the second and third three- 
months regiments from Connecticut, on condition that 
the State should immediately raise two other regiments 
for three years. Gov. Buckingham had gladly promised 
-this, because fully convinced that the government would 

2 Adjutant-General s Report for 1861. 


need them ; and now issued orders for two regiments from 


Connecticut. Men eagerly responded ; though they greatly 
feared, that, before they could get to the front, the three- 
months regiments would inconsiderately go ahead, and finish 
the war. 

The first full companies were accepted for the Fourth 
Regiment, and ordered into camp at Hartford. Lev! Wood- 
house, who had served with credit in Mexico, accepted the 
command. Company A, Capt. L. G. Hemingway, was mainly 
from Hartford ; though twenty or thirty men were from Man 
chester, Farmi ngton, and East and West Hartford. Company 
B, Capt. Elisha S. Kellogg, was from Derby; a few of the mem 
bers hailing from Seymour, Canton, and other towns. Com 
pany C, Capt. R S. Burbank, was officered by Suffield, which 
furnished about half the men ; the rest going from Granby, 
Enfield, the Windsors, and neighboring towns. Company D, 
Capt. J. C. Dunford, was mainly from New London ; a number 
of members, however, enlisting from Thompson and the vari 
ous Lymes. Company E, Capt. 0. A. Dennis, was mainly from 
New Haven ; also Company F, Capt. N. S. Hallenbeck ; both 
receiving a sprinkling of volunteers from adjacent towns. 
Middletown contributed the officers and fourteen privates of 
Company G, Capt. R. G. Williams; Killingly furnished twenty- 
two ; Berlin, eleven ; and Plainfield, Putnam, and other east 
ern towns, the rest. Middletown also officered Company 
H, Capt. C. C. Clark, and sent most of the privates ; Berlin fur 
nished sixteen ; and twenty more were chiefly from Crom 
well and East Haddam. Torrington contributed the officers 
and sixteen men to Company I, Capt. S. H. Perkins ; while 
twenty-seven were from Plymouth, ten from Thompson, and 
twenty-five more from Litchfield, Waterbury, and Goshen. 
Company K, Capt. D. W. Siprell, was from Hartford; surround 
ing towns supplying twenty-five, and Meriden ten. Company 
G was known as the Wesleyan Guard, most of its mem 
bers being students in Wesleyan University. It was more 
than an ordinary sacrifice for them to cease their studies, 
discard their hopes of distinction, and offer their young lives 
to their country. 


The regiment received careful and constant drill, and left 
Hartford for the front on Monday, June 10, seventeen 
days after the Third. At State-house Square, the regimen 
tal colors were presented by Lieut-Go v. Benjamin Douglass " 
in an earnest speech, concluding thus : " Remember Sumter ! 
Remember that there, for the first time in our history, this 
blood-bought flag of our fathers was lowered to Americans. 
Let this thought fire your patriotism, nerve your arm, and 
give strength to your determination to wipe out this gross 
insult from the records of our national history." The men 
then sought refuge from the broiling sun on board the boats. 
Fifteen or twenty thousand people were assembled to witness 
their departure; and in the midst of cannon-firing, martial 
music, and resounding cheers, they steamed down the pleas 
ant river, not to Washington, but to do picket-duty along 
the Upper Potomac. 

On the 25th of April, Col. Sam. Colt offered to raise a 
regiment, and arm it with revolving breach rifles of his own 
manufacture. His purpose was to have every man over six 
feet high, and a good shot, a regiment of accomplished 
grenadiers; and, on May 16, he was commissioned colonel 
of the First Connecticut Revolving Rifles. Parts of compa 
nies rendezvoused on South Meadows, at Hartford, in accord 
ance with this plan, under Major George D. Chapman. There 
was soon disagreement concerning arms, the appointment 
of subalterns, and other important matters ; and Col. Colt s 
commission was revoked June 20, and the regiment, then 
numbering nearly seven hundred men, was disbanded. 4 

3 Gov. Douglass, who had hitherto been known as an .uncompromising foe of slavery, 
was henceforth distinguished, also, as being one of the most enthusiastic supporters of the 
war ; giving freely of his time, labors, and money, first to put men in the field, and then to 
make them and their families comfortable. 

* A fine company of Irishmen from Norwich was raised for the Fifth Regiment ; but it 


More than half the men returned to their homes ; but those 
remaining were organized into skeleton companies, and des 
ignated as the Fifth Connecticut. Orris S. Ferry was im 
mediately commissioned as colonel, and abandoned a lucra- 
rative law-practice for the field. The camp was transferred 
to a lot on the New-Haven turnpike, a short distance out of 

Company A, Capt. H. B. Stone, was from Danbury; which 
town furnished its stalwart officers, and twenty of its men : 
fifteen were from Bethel, Redding, and Ridgefield ; and the 
rest from other towns in the vicinity of Danbury. Hartford 
officered Company B, Capt. Justin H. Chapman, and furnished 
a dozen of the men: the rest came from Bristol (twenty), 
Windham (fourteen), Griswold, Southington, and Farmington. 
Company C, Capt. George W. Corliss, was raised in New Ha 
ven ; a few of the men being from adjacent towns, and ten 
from Norwalk. Hartford and Waterbury furnished the offi 
cers of Company D, Capt. D. F. Lane, and most of the pri 
vates. Company E, Capt. Wilson Wyant, was the result of 
consolidating two incomplete companies from Norwalk and 
Seymour ; some thirty of the men, however, hailing from 
Westport, Weston, Woodbury, and Naugatuck. Company 
F, Capt. Edward P. Allen, was from Tolland County ; Vernon 
furnishing the officers and a majority of the men. others 
flocking in from surrounding towns. Groton contributed the 
captain (Warren W. Packer), first lieutenant, and ten men, 
of Company G; Hartford the second lieutenant, and five 
men ; and, of the remainder of the company, fourteen were 
from Norwalk, and twelve from Stonington. Company H. 
Capt. Albert S. Granger, was officered from Putnam ; which 
also furnished thirteen of the men : Killingly sent fourteen, 
Plainfield thirteen, Woodstock twelve ; and Thompson, East- 
ford, and Griswold, the rest. Hartford furnished the officers 
of Company I, Capt. Griffin A. Stedman, and two of the 

finally joined the First New-York Artillery. Capt. Thomas Maguire became major of the 
regiment, and was succeeded by Capt. William A. Berry, killed in front of Petersburg. 
He, in turn, was succeeded by Capt. Thomas Scott of Norwich. Vide Miss F. M Canl- 
kins s History of Norwich. 


men : twenty-five were from Cornwall, thirteen from Salis 
bury, and fifteen from Sharon and Norfolk. The captain 
(James Sutton) of Company K, and sixteen men, were from 
New London ; the lieutenants, and first two sergeants, from 
Waterbury : of the privates, twenty-one were from Wind- 
ham, and most of the others from Norwich, Sprague, and 

Systematic "recruiting" was not yet resorted to: the 
companies were chiefly the result of spontaneous enlist 
ment. It is noticeable thus early that the cities or large 
towns monopolized most of the officers; the commissions 
being frequently secured by those familiar with the ways of 
the world, and with managing, even where country towns 
supplied a majority of the men. There were men from 
Norwalk in almost every company of the Fifth, attracted at 
the last moment, even after companies were organized, by 
the call of their popular neighbor to the command. The 
regiment was soon full to the maximum, having 1,102 men. 
Physically, they averaged the best material ever enlisted in 
Connecticut ; and, feeling that they needed only proper dis 
cipline to make them the foremost regiment of the service, 
officers and men gave themselves assiduously to the drill. 

Many who did not join these early regiments felt that there 
might be another call, or even service in the State, and 
began to organize home-guards. In the larger towns, com 
panies were formed, and instructed in marching and in the 
manual of arms. The lessons were generally rude and 
unscientific ; yet many volunteers for the three-years regi 
ments went out from these early companies, more efficient 
for the discipline there obtained. 

The recruiting, the constant drills, the martial music, and 
the bustle of camp-life, greatly quickened the military spirit 
in New Haven. In her home-guard were enrolled more 
than four hundred members. Besides these, there were no 
less than five companies organized and regularly drilled at 
Yale College. 


The call for troops occurred during vacation at Yale ; and, 
when the students came back, they found themselves in 
camp. Many graduates promptly joined the ranks ; and 
students left their classes for a life in the barracks and on 
the field. Among the first of the volunteers came " march 
ing from Winchester down " white-haired John Boyd, of the 
class of 1821, a man of social and political influence, and 
conspicuous hostility to slavery. The venerable volunteer 
was importunate, but could induce no one to pronounce him 
young enough for military duty, and went reluctantly 
home. Rev. John Pierpont, 5 a graduate of the class of 
1804, also caught the war- impulse; and, at the age of 
seventy-six, marched into Virginia as chaplain of the Massa 
chusetts Twenty-second. 

Daily contact with soldiers, and the daily sight of the 
vacant places of undergraduates, tended to make the Yale 
students restless and uneasy. " We must be ready fbr the 
next call," they said. Each class became a military com 
pany, with frequent drills and creditable discipline. The 
same feeling prompted the organization of the Graduates 
Guard. Students of theology, law, medicine, and philoso 
phy, with the learned professors of the college, became, all 
at once, obedient and patient students in the school of the 
soldier. Very laugh-provoking to this day is the recurring 
vision of the graduates company-drill, on those bright, sum 
mer afternoons, in the field adjoining Tutor Lane. Some of 
the illustrious privates of " the Guard " were by no means so 
youthful or agile as to enjoy rapid marching; but one day 
a light-footed member maliciously informed the drill-master 

5 John Pierpont was born in Litchficld, April 6, 1785. He graduated at the age of 
nineteen, studied law at Litchfield, practiced a short time, and had a brief mercantile 
career. In 1816, he published at Baltimore the Airs of Palestine, a poem in heroic 
measure, which attracted much attention. He then studied theology, and was ordained 
in Boston, in 1819, as a Unitarian pastor. His activity and zeal for the temperance, 
antislavery, and other reforms, brought him into a sharp and prolonged controversy with 
some of his parishioners, in which he was completely triumphant. For fifty years, freedom 
and temperance were the burden of his song. In 1861, he went with Massachusetts 
troops to the field, but was rescued by Senator Wilson from fatal exposure, and served in 
the treasury department until 1864, when he resigned, and went home to a peaceful 


that there was a general desire to try company movements 
in quicker time. The wicked suggestion was accepted. 
Along the slope, up and down the declivity, by the right 
flank and the left, with an occasional bewildering " about- 
face," they lumbered along at a straggling double-quick. 
" Close up, close up ! " was an order shouted and repeated in 
vain. Onward struggled the heavy end of the line, with 
visible perspiration and audible puffings; while utter exhaus 
tion heaved in almost bursting chests, and glowed in fiery 
cheeks. Meantime, the lighter end of the line grew weak 
in the knees, and thick in the throat with irrepressible 
laughter at the droll display. The agony of that hour 
nearly proved fatal ; but, after a few days, nearly all the 
disabled veterans returned, and the drills were cautiously 

These drills, though at first almost ludicrous, were far 
from fruitless. The older members, one by one, dropped 
out ; but the rest drilled regularly, and with good progress. 
" The next call was made, and we sent to the front our full 
quota. Another call came, and a third. We gave our stur 
diest and best, until nearly one-half the Graduates Guard 
were soldiers of the Republic." 6 

The annual session of the General Assembly convened at 
Hartford on the first day of May, 1861. 

Fortunately, many of the first men in the State had been 
chosen, and entered on their serious duties with a determi 
nation to do all that was possible to put down the Rebellion 
at once. 

The House was organized by the election of Hon. Augustus 
Brandagee as speaker; and Cyrus Northrop, clerk. The Sen 
ate elected Hon. A. B. Mygatt president pro tern.; and W. W. 
Stone, clerk. 

The governor, in a short message, informed the Assembly 
that the services of forty companies had been accepted and 
mostly uniformed, but none had yet departed from the State. 

6 The Patriotic Record of Yale College, by John M. Morris in Hours at Home, vol. 
iii. No. 2. 


As if foreseeing the magnitude of the war, the governor, at 
that early period, recommended that a force of eight or ten 
thousand men be organized, armed, and equipped by the 
State, and drilled and disciplined, ready, when needed, to be 
called into active service. He discussed the critical condition 
of national affairs with clearness and manly courage. He 
suggested a modification of the Personal-liberty Bill in 
regard to the evidence necessary to prove a false declara 
tion of the claimant of a negro alleged to be a slave, but 
recommended that the bill thus amended be retained. 
He said, " We are in the rnidst of a revolution on which 
all that we hold dear as a free people is staked. Never 
have the liberties achieved for us by our fathers through the 
fire and blood of a seven-years war been in such imminent 
peril as now. The sceptre of authority must be upheld, and 
allegiance secured. It is no time to make concessions to 
rebels, or parley with men in arms ; " and, as if speaking for 
the people, declared, that " we will make the battle-fields of 
the second war of independence, if need be, altars of patri 
otic sacrifice and watchwords of liberty forever." 

Immediately after the organization of the House, the 
speaker appointed the following gentlemen the Committee 
upon Military Affairs : Messrs. Carpenter of Killingly (now 
a judge of the Supreme Court) ; Deming of Hartford (after 
wards colonel of the Twelfth Connecticut Volunteers), in 
place of Thomas H. Seymour, who declined to serve ; Wooster 
of Derby (afterwards colonel of the Twenty-ninth Connec 
ticut Volunteers) ; Geer of Lyme ; Cunningham of Norwalk 
(afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth Connecticut 
Volunteers); Burrall of Salisbury; Scoville of Haddam; 
and Pease of Somers. The Hon. Charles Briscoe of the 
second district was appointed senate-chairman of this 

On the third day of the session, a bill reported by this 
committee passed both Houses without opposition, which 

NOTE. The State debt on the 1st of April, 1861, was $7,709.50 ; a reduction during 
the previous year from $26,432.54. The debt in 1858 was $81,161.06. 


authorized the governor to accept the services of ten thou 
sand men for such time as he might deem expedient, they 
being liable at all times to be turned over to the service 
of the United States. All acts of the governor in raising- 
volunteer regiments were ratified and confirmed, and all 
expenses incurred by him for the same purpose were ordered 
paid from the State treasury. The sum of ten dollars per 
month, as additional compensation, was appropriated to every 
non-commissioned officer and private who was mustered into 
the service under the act. 

Towns and cities were authorized to vote money to aid 
volunteers or their families, and previous votes of this 
character were validated. The sum of two million dollars 
was appropriated to defray military expenses ; and the treas 
urer was authorized to issue six per cent coupon bonds to 
that amount, payable in twenty years. The act was approved 
by the governor immediately, and became the basis of much 
of the subsequent legislation upon war-matters. 

Mr. Sedgwick of Cornwall gave early notice of a bill to 
raise five regiments of negroes ; but the project, repeatedly 
broached by him, met with little favor. 

At this time, the patriotism of the people was glowing at 
a white-heat; partisan feeling was subdued; 7 and, w r ith few 
exceptions, the Democratic members of the Assembly vied 
with those of the majority party in expressions of loyalty 
and devotion to the Federal Union. 

Resolutions of inquiry or instruction upon the all-absorb 
ing subject were introduced nearly every day, many of 
them illustrative of the crude ideas that then prevailed con 
cerning the requirements of actual warfare. 

Before the close of the session, three-years regiments were 
begun ; and it was deemed necessary to reduce the extra pay 
of ten dollars per month, except in the case of those who en 
listed for three months, to thirty dollars per year, to be paid 
in installments of ten dollars every four months. This was 

7 At the city elections of New Haven and Norwich in June, a Union ticket was nomi 
nated by mutual agreement of parties, and elected without opposition. 


continued until the close of the war. By an act approved 
June 27, provision was made for the payment of a bounty 
for the support of the family of each enlisted man. 

This bounty was six dollars per month for the wife, and 
two dollars per month for each child, not exceeding two, under 
fourteen years of age. It was paid quarterly until the final 
muster-out ; and, whenever a soldier died in the service, it 
was continued until the expiration of his term of enlistment ; 
so that, in many cases, it operated as a pension for two or 
more years. 8 

The Corwin Constitutional Amendment w r as reported from 
the Committee on Federal Relations on the 3d of July with 
out recommendation, and continued to the next session of the 
General Assembly by nearly a strict party vote. Senator 
E. Johnson (Dem.) was for a peaceful settlement of the 
difficulties, and in favor of guaranteeing the constitutional 
rights of the South. He should consider a vote for con 
tinuing the amendment as a vote against it. Senator 0. H. 
Platt replied, " I wish the vote I shall give for continuance 
to be considered as a declaration that I will not compromise 
with traitors. I wish first to know whether we have a Con 
stitution to be amended, or whether it is to be subverted. I 
believe that those who talk of peace now mean sympathy 
with traitors, and a peaceable dissolution of the Union." 
The amendment was not heard of again. 

An act to repeal the Personal -liberty Bill was also con 
tinued to the next session by a similar vote. 

The resolutions upon Federal affairs, which were presented 
according to custom just before the close of the session, 
were very conservative in their character, declaring it to be 
the duty of the government to resist rebellion with all its 
force, and against interference with slavery in the States. 
They were passed by the votes of Republicans and Demo 
crats, and were opposed only by Mr. Thomas H. Seymour 
and a few others, who, in those early days of the war, were 

8 The bounty, in this beneficent form, was secured chiefly by the persistent efforts of 
William B. Wooster of Derby. 


known as " peace men." A large proportion of the Demo 
cratic party in the Assembly seemed, however, at this time, 
to be as earnest and hearty in their support of the war- 
measures as the Republicans. Several of them, like Dem- 
ing of Hartford, Atwater of New Haven, and Dibble of 
Branford, continued to act with the Republican Union party 
through the war. Much credit is due to the Military Com 
mittee of this Assembly for their arduous work and judicious 
recommendations. The principal bills relating to the con 
duct of the war were never repealed, and were only altered 
for the purpose of extending their provisions as circum 
stances required. The Assembly adjourned, sine die, on the 
evening of July 3. 

Independence Day was celebrated with earnestness and 
enthusiasm. Communities which had no suitable flag-staff 
commemorated the day by raising the tallest and hand 
somest the region afforded. Others gathered around the 
massive and shapely poles already erected, to renew with 
solemn emphasis their pledges of devotion to the starry, 
emblem, and the Republic whose majesty and power it 

Among the unique demonstrations was that at Walling- 
ford, where the citizens unfurled the flag that had been pre 
sented by Moses Y. Beach. Samuel Simpson presided, and 
the flag was received by E. S. Ives. After a bountiful colla 
tion, a miniature model of the flag and staff, surmounting a 
colossal loaf of cake, adorned with flowers, was presented 
to Mr. Beach by six daughters of M. W. Munson, who accom 
panied the gift with a patriotic note expressing thanks to 
him, and signed themselves " six sisters for the Union." 

Gov. Buckingham spent the day at New Haven. In the 
forenoon, there was a review of the volunteer and militia 
companies ; in the afternoon, a mass-meeting to listen to ad 
dresses and the singing of the Children s Brigade. 

Some weeks before, Benjamin Jepson had issued a circular, 
in which he urged that all our children might and should be 

imbued with ineradicable love of country by early instruc- 


tion in our national songs, and calling them together to re 
hearse a programme for the Fourth of July. In response to 
this call, a thousand children assembled, from time to time, 
for practice, and, at two o clock on the Fourth, gathered at 
" The Wigwam " in Olive Street, and formed in procession in 
the following order: Division of boys, Indians, represent 
ing the Boston Tea-Party; Washington Zouaves, Wide 
awake Fire-engine Company with a miniature engine, 
Marine Guard, Infant Rifles. Division of girls, Daughters 
of Columbia, Goddess of Liberty in a floral car, Young 
America with continental guard, Brother Jonathan in full 
costume, Union of States represented by thirty-four young 

The costume of the children accorded with the parts as 
signed them : each carried a flag, and the entire procession 
was interspersed with banners representing the battles of 
the Revolution and various appropriate devices. The pro 
cession passed through the principal streets to the north 
portico of the State House, and were seated on the broad 
steps in a prescribed order, making a most picturesque and 
impressive tableau. Mayor Welch presided : speeches were 
made by his Excellency the Governor, Ex-Go v. Dutton, 
Prof. D. C. Gilman, Deacon George F. Smith, John G. North, 
and others. The speakers were warmly applauded ; but the 
spirit and power of the singing, intensified by the effect of 
the decorations, elicited much enthusiasm. 

The vast audience, of from fifteen to twenty thousand, 
stood in compact, swaying mass, without sign of weariness, 
for four hours, and dispersed with hearts vibrating to this 
stanza, sung by the children with thrilling effect : 

" Still undaunted, still united 
By the fires our fathers lighted, 

We will stand, we will stand, 
As a noble band of brothers, 
Freer, prouder, than all others 

In the land, in the land ; 
While onward, with resistless tread, 

Unconqucrcd, unconquered, 
The Union s mighty hosts are led, 
Our standard waving at its head, 

Unconquered, unconquered, 
Against the lines of Treason." 


The First and Second Regiments in Washington. Welcome Reception. Camp at 
Glenwood. Joined by the Third. Death of Col. Ellsworth. Ellsworth of Connecti 
cut Stock. " Invasion " of Virginia. Ambush at Vienna. Holding the Advanced 
p os t. Death of Theodore Winthrop. Sketch of his Life and Character. Death of 
Capt. James H. Ward. An Advance. Blackburn s Ford. Bull Run. Gen. 
Tyler begins the Battle. The Army betrayed. Behavior of Connecticut Troops. 
The Last on the Field. They act as Rear-Guard in the Retreat. Good Order 
maintained. They bring off Public Property. Home, and Muster-out. 

pHE destination of the First was kept a secret, 
even from its line officers, until the Bienville 
was outside New-Haven Harbor, to avoid the 
necessity of a hostile reception by the rebels 
along the Potomac. The transport made straight 
for the Chesapeake, and steamed along without opposition. 
It was the first regiment up the river ; and rebel camps 
were seen here and there in the distance, while the strange 
flag of treason was flaunted at Alexandria. The regiment 
arrived not a day too soon ; for the capital was still at the 
mercy of the foe, had he been resolute and dashing. 

They were met on the Potomac, and cordially welcomed, 
by President Lincoln and his cabinet. While marching 
through the streets of Washington, they received much praise 
for their soldierly bearing and discipline, and for the perfec 
tion of their personal and carnp equipage. It was the first 
regiment from any State thoroughly equipped ; being fur 
nished not only with tents, but with a complete baggage- 
train. Gen. Scott reviewed them, and exclaimed, " Thank 
God ! we have one regiment ready to take the field." The 
day of their arrival, May 13, they pitched their camp about 
two miles north of the capital, on the pleasant grounds of 
the wealthy banker Corcoran, called Glenwood. 


The First Connecticut Regiment was taken as a model for 
equipment by other States. Before its departure, agents 
from New York, Massachusetts, Maine, and Vermont, were 
in New Haven to examine it ; and, when it arrived in Wash 
ington, it had more transportation than all the other regiments 
combined ; and the government sent next day to borrow the 
teams to distribute rations to the other troops. Moreover, 
the First had provided itself with fifty thousand rounds of 
ammunition, and rations and forage for twenty days. Col. 
Tyler was prepared not merely for a battle, but for a cam 

The steamer Cahawba, with the Second, leaving New 
Haven the day after the First, came to anchor under the 
guns of Fortress Monroe on Sunday morning ; and the 
sturdy old Cumberland sloop -of- war, thereafter famous, 
manned her yards, and gave the regiment three cheers. 
The sail was soon continued up the Potomac ; and, as the 
shores were occupied by the enemy, ball-cartridges were 
dealt out after divine service, and the companies were as 
signed positions for defense. Rebel sentries were visible on 
the Alexandria wharves, and armed traitors were grouped 
in the streets. The regiment reached Washington, and 
pitched its tents at Glenwood by the side of the First. The 
situation was a westward slope, covered with oaks and cecjars ; 
the ground thick with underbrush and decaying leaves. In 
a few days, the leaves had been swept up and burned, the 
stumps removed, and the inequalities of surface leveled 
down. The regiments built, of the evergreens, arches and 
arbors in front of the officers tents, and floored them with 
fragrant twigs, and festooned them with running vines, until 
the camp looked like a pleasant picnic-scene. They gave 
nine hours a day to drill, evolutions, and the manual of arms ; 
and, under diligent officers, their progress was rapid. Social 
religious meetings were held every evening, conducted by 
Rev. S. Herbert Lancey, a private in the Second, afterwards 
appointed by the Secretary of War to be chaplain. Feeling a 
strong desire for music, the members assessed themselves to 
pay the expenses of the Union City (Naugatuck) Brass Band, 
which reached the camp early in June. 


On May 23, the Third Regiment arrived, and joined the 
First and Second, by whom they were warmly welcomed. 
So far as was compatible with military discipline and the 
rules of camp-life, the members of the three regiments im 
proved the opportunity for social intercourse. The Third, 
like the First and Second, applied itself diligently to the 
drill. Col. Arnold, not having proved very efficient, resigned 
soon after arriving at Washington ; and his resignation was 
instantly accepted. Lieut.-Col. Chatfield of the First was 
appointed to the command ; but Lieut.-Col. Brady refused to 
recognize his authority, and exhibited gross insubordination 
in asserting his own right to the succession according to the 
laws of the militia. He was placed under arrest for muti 
ny, and so held, without trial, until the final muster-out. 
This folly was afterwards atoned for by patriotic service. Col. 
Chatfield took the place assigned him, and devoted himself 
with ardor to the work of transforming the raw volunteers 
into soldiers. A militia-officer, he was an admirable disci 
plinarian, one of the very best drill-officers in the whole 
United-States service. A distinguished graduate of West 
Point said, " Worth, in his palmy days, could not handle a 
regiment better." 

The hearts of the people went to the field with their 
brave boys. The daily papers were in unprecedented de 
mand. The telegrams and letters from the front were 
read and re-read with the greatest avidity. Scenes and 
events in camp were the absorbing topic of conversation 
in the streets and at many firesides. The mails were 
loaded with newspapers, packages, .and plethoric letters. 
Men were dispatched from all parts of the State to see " the 
boys," and carry them provisions and money ; and were in 
structed to provide, at any cost, whatever they might need. 
Craw and Martin, two young men of New Haven, started a 
" Connecticut Troops Express," leaving for Washington 
every Monday night, and taking parcels of every sort ; guar 
anteeing their safe delivery to the individuals for whom 
they were intended. They did a thriving business. 1 

1 The Connecticut Troops Express was continued by J. M. Crofut as long as any of 
the Connecticut regiments were encamped near Washington. When the troops moved 
farther into the field, it was necessarily discontinued. It was for seven or eight months 
both convenient and profitable. 


On Sunday, June 16, an accident occurred in camp, which 
cast a gloom over all. A member of the Third, Richard 
Howard of Madison, sat in his tent reading his Bible, when 
a companion, playing with a pistol which he supposed not to 
be loaded, snapped the cap at a fly on Howard s breast, and 
shot him through the heart. The body was sent home, and 
buried with a public demonstration of respect and sorrow. 

On the afternoon of May 24 came the news of the death of 
Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth at Alexandria, Brave, enthusiastic, 
and rash, he had ascended to the roof of the Marshall House 
to tear down a rebel flag, and had been shot dead by the pro 
prietor Jackson while descending the stairs with the trophy. 
The patriotic act and its result roused and enraged the North ; 
and thousands of young men sprang forward to avenge the 
murder, while the name of the dead hero became the inspi 
ration of battle and the assurance of victory. 

Young Ellsworth was of Connecticut stock. His grand 
father, John Ellsworth, was sexton of Center Church in 
Hartford for a quarter of a century; and had two sons, 
John and William. The former, developing considerable 
genius as an artist, became the protSgS of Daniel Wadsworth, 
and -painted for him the copy of Stuart s Washington which 
now hangs in the gallery at the Athenaeum. William mar 
ried, and emigrated at an early day to Michigan; and there 
Elmer was born. In the winter of 1860-61, he showed great 
skill in drilling Zouaves, and, at Mr. Lincoln s request, accom 
panied him to Washington. 

Col. Ellsworth was succeeded, as commander of the Zouaves, 
by Col. Noah L. Farnham, a native of Connecticut, born at 
Haddam, June 6, 1829. In 1861, he went to Washington 
as a lieutenant in the New- York 7th. He soon became 
lieutenant-colonel of Ellsworth s Zouaves ; and, at the fall of 
Ellsworth, he was made colonel. He rose from a sick-bed to 
command his regiment at Bull Run, where, after gallant con 
duct, he received a severe wound in the head, which shortly 
proved fatal. He was buried at New Haven with military 
and civic honors. 

There were various alarms of the comfortable camp at 
Glenwood. On the day of Ellsworth s sacrifice, the First was 


summoned by an excited orderly, and aroused by the long-roll 
to the defense of the threatened city. The men seized their 
arms, and rushed down to Long Bridge ; but it was a false 
alarm, and they turned back disappointed. Another week 
passed ; and at twelve o clock, midnight, of June 1, they broke 
camp in earnest, and marched to re-inforce the half-dozen 
regiments maintaining a precarious hold on the "sacred soil," 
as Virginia was now derisively termed. Followed by a 
long train of baggage and commissary wagons, through the 
deep woods the regiment wound its way into the broad 
streets of the capital, and silently and stealthily across Long 
Bridge, and over the crooked roads of Virginia clay, to 
Roach s Mills, on the Alexandria and Leesburg Railroad, 
where, at dawn, it relieved the 12th New- York, Col. Butter- 
field. Here a camp was established, and the routine of 
drill, resumed. 

Gen. McDowell, visiting the camp, inquired how many 
times the pickets had needlessly alarmed the regiment. 
" Never," was the reply, " except when there was a legitimate 
occasion." " I am glad," he rejoined, " that there is one regi 
ment this side the Potomac that does not unnecesarily alarm 
itself." A prisoner was brought in within a few minutes. 
He was found to be a brother of the rebel general at Fair 
fax Court House ; but, as was the rule in those easy-going 
days in the Union army, he was sworn, and set at liberty. 
On June 16, a detail of four hundred men, under Gen. Tyler 
and Col. Burnham, started to explore the country by railroad. 
They went three or four miles beyond Vienna ; and, while 
returning, the crack of a rifle was heard, and George H. Bug- 
bee of Hartford, a private in Company A, fell, shot through 
the shoulder from an ambush. The shot was probably in 
tended for Gen. Tyler, near whom Bugbee was standing. 2 
The men jumped from the cars, scoured the woods madly in 
all directions, and returned with a number of prisoners ; but 
the assassin remained undiscovered ; and the prisoners, after 
the administration of the government s favorite panacea, 
the oath of allegiance, were discharged. 

During the succeeding night, the Second had orders to 

2 Young Bugbee suffered severely; and his wound was the first one received by a son 
of Connecticut during the war. Since the war, a man named Frank Williams has 
acknowledged the shooting of Bugbee : he served afterwards in Mosby s bold riders. 


join the First ; and they broke camp in great glee, for they 
had heard exaggerated rumors about battles already fought, 
and believed that their "invasion" of Virginia would be 
stoutly contested. 

A description 3 of this weird midnight scene says, " About 
thirty wagons, drawn by four mules each, were provided for 
the transportation of tents and camp material. A Washington 
guide was to lead the column. The night was cloudy, with 
occasional showers. To give light for the necessary work 
of moving, the men set fire to the dried cedars, which had 
served as shades and ornaments. The effect was splendid. 
There was little noise, for silence had been enjoined ; and the 
figures of the men tugging away at bundles, packing and 
repacking, hurrying hither and thither, and leaping over ob 
structions, with the images of the long-eared mules reflected 
on the white-covered wagons, which were alternately brilliant 
in the glare, or darkened in the shadow, as the flames flashed 
up in wreathing spires, or the smoke rolled in clouds of 
pitchy blackness, made altogether a scene of wildness fit for 
the pencil of Salvator Rosa." How many times was this 
goblin picture, with every conceivable variation, repeated 
during the war ! 

After a weary night-march, they arrived at Roach s Mills 
at sunrise, and camped again at the side of the First. Next 
day, both regiments marched to the relief of the Ohio volun 
teers surprised at Vienna ; after which they occupied Falls 
Church, the advance post in the loyal line. That very even 
ing, 4 two men 5 were captured while incautiously supping 
beyond our lines. Two days afterwards, Capt. A. G. Kellogg 
of the Second, while out in command of the picket-guard, was 
taken prisoner. He left his command to escort two ladies, 
the Misses Scott, to their homes near by, and was seized by 
the enemy lurking near the road. The captors were pursued, 
but not overtaken. A few days afterwards, the young 
women, who were believed to have betrayed him, were 
brought into camp ; but, after a short detention, they were 
sent home again, after the fashion of that day. 6 

3 By Jesse H. Lord, in Connecticut War Record. 4 Wednesday, June 17. 

5 Sergeant Austin G. Monroe and Corporal C. E. Hawkes. 

6 It was the aim of the Federal authorities to do nothing to " exasperate " the enemy ; 
and it was some weeks before any captives were retained as prisoners of war. The oath 


The location of the regiments at this time was a perilous 
one, in the extreme front of the Union centre ; and, night 
after night, the men expected to be awakened by the long- 
roll and the enemy s advance. They were menaced, but not 
attacked ; and the Third Regiment immediately joined them. 7 
Col. Terry, who had been left in Washington ill, rejoined his 
command at this time, and was received " by the cheers of the 
entire regiment." Private property was sacredly respected, 
and the men lived in the midst of luxuries they were forbid 
den to share. The keeper of the Oak-hill Tavern was a 
rebel, and refused to sell a single pig, fowl, or vegetable to 
" the Yanks ; " yet he never complained of the loss of a 
cent s worth of property. 8 On April 27, Brig.-Gen. J. K. F. 
Mansfield, a Connecticut soldier, was placed in command 
of the troops in Washington. 9 

While our three regiments were holding the picket-line 
in Longstreet s front, one of the most brilliant sons of Con 
necticut, Major Theodore Winthrop, fell in the skirmish at 
Big Bethel, in Lower Virginia. 10 This fiasco was called a 
battle in those early days, and it excited a degree of inter 
est far beyond its actual importance ; and Winthrop s name 
became a watchword as Ellsworth s had been, and his hero 
ism an example. 

Theodore Winthrop, son of Francis R. Winthrop, was born 
in New Haven in 1828; and was a thoughtful, delicate, se 
rious child. He entered Yale at sixteen, and was graduated 
at twenty, taking the Clark scholarship, and dividing with 
another the honor of the Berkeleian. He traveled much, 
making a tour of Europe, which was not the conventional 
one, going much of the way on foot ; also to South America, 
California, and Oregon, Puget s Sound, and the Saskatchawan 
districts of British America. In 1855, he was admitted to 
the bar; but his roving habits, and an experience full of 
picturesque episodes, unfitted him for a sedentary life, and 
he was restive in the profession he had chosen. 

of allegiance was administered even to rebels taken with arms in their hands. The first 
prisoners retained were committed for contumacy, they refusing to take the oath. 
? On June 24. 

8 This circumspection and rigid regard for meum and tuum was considerably relaxed 
before the war was over, even among Connecticut troops. 

9 On June 26, he reported 27,846 men present for duty. 



He had strong administrative talent ; for he sprang straight 
from John Winthrop, who was the first governor of Con 
necticut. He would have made an enterprising and daunt 
less explorer. He wrote short tales and magazine articles 
with great success ; and the sketches which he contributed 
to the Atlantic Monthly had a certain dash and briskness 
of style that won instant favor. He wrote several books, 
but never published them, being deterred by a morbid sensi 
tiveness, which shrank from the criticism of his own maturer 
self. Most of these have been published posthumously. 

Winthrop was buried at New Haven, to which place large 
numbers of his old comrades followed his remains. In the 
funeral-procession" were more than a thousand persons, in 
cluding the veteran Grays, Governor s Foot-Guards, Emmet 
Guards, Russell s School Battalion, National Blues, officers 
of the Horse Guard, City Government, and the faculty and 
students of Yale. 

George William Curtis, under whose auspices his books 
have been brought out, says of his friend, 

" A wide readerj he retained knowledge with little effort, and often sur 
prised his friends by the variety of his information. Yet it was not strange ; 
for he was born a scholar. His mother was the great-grand-daughter 
of old President Edwards ; and, among his relations on the maternal side, 
Winthrop counted six presidents of colleges. . . . The womanly grace of 
his temperament merely enhanced the unusual manliness of his character. 
In walking and riding, in skating and running, in games out of doors and 
in, no one of us all in the neighborhood was so expert, so agile, as he. 
Often, after writing a few hours in the morning, he stepped out of doors, 
and, from pure love of the fun, leaped and turned summersaults on the 
grass before going up to town. . . . 

" There is an impression somewhat prevalent that Winthrop planned 
the expedition to Great Bethel. It is incorrect. As military secretary of 
the commanding general, he probably made suggestions, some of which 
were adopted. The expedition was the first move from Fort Monroe, to 
which the country had been long looking in expectation. These were the 
reasons why he felt so peculiar a responsibility for its success ; and, after 
the melancholy events of the earlier part of the day, he saw that its for 
tunes could be retrieved only by a dash of heroic enthusiasm. Fired him 
self, he sought to kindle others. For one moment, that brave, inspiring 
form is plainly visible to his whole country, rapt and calm, standing upon 
the log nearest the enemy s battery, the mark of their sharpshooters, 
the admiration of their leaders ; waving his sword, cheering his fellow- 
soldiers with his bugle voice of victory, young, brave, beautiful : for one 


moment erect and glowing in the wild whirl of battle ; the next, falling for 
ward toward the foe, dead, but triumphant. 

"On the 19th of April, 1861, he left the armory-door of the Seventh, 
with his hand upon a howitzer; on the 21st of June, his body lay upon 
the same howitzer, at the same door, wrapped in the flag for which he 
gladly died as the symbol of human freedom. And so, drawn by the hands 
of young men lately strangers to him, but of whose bravery and loyalty 
lie had been the laureate, and who fitly mourned him who had honored 
them, with long, pealing dirges and muffled drums, he moved forward. 

"Yet such was the electric vitality of this friend of ours, that those 
of us Avho followed him could only think of him as approving the funeral 
pageant, not the object of it, but still the spectator and critic of every 
scene in which he was a part. We did not think of him as dead. We 
never shall. In the moist, warm, midsummer morning, he was alert, alive,- 

Two weeks later, a spirited engagement took place between 
the defiant rebels on the right bank of the" Potomac and 
the United-States gunboats Pawnee and Freeborn, stationed 
in the river. Among the losses, the Union forces had to 
deplore the death of Capt. Ward, the gallant commander of 
the Freeborn. 

James Harmon Ward was the eldest son of Col. James 
Ward, commissary-general of our army in the war of 1812 ; 
and was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1806. He studied for 
two years at a military academy in Vermont, and entered 
the navy as a midshipman on the old frigate Constitution 
in 1823. He was promoted to be lieutenant in 1831, and 
sent to the Mediterranean, where, he compiled his Manual 
of Naval Tactics. In 1842, he delivered a course of popular 
lectures in Philadelphia on Gunnery, in which he urged the 
establishment of an American naval school. When the 
school was founded at Annapolis, he became one of its pro 
fessors, and shortly after published a book on Naval Ordnance 
and Gunnery, a work highly esteemed. At the commence 
ment of the Rebellion, he was summoned to Washington to 
aid the government by his counsel ; and he soon showed his 
efficiency by organizing the Potomac flotilla, of which he 
was placed in command May 16, 1861. This was our first 
war-fleet, and was a^ terror to rebels while he directed it. 
On the 31st, he attacked the rebel batteries at Acquia Creek, 
silencing three of them ; and, on June 1, resumed the cannon- 


ading, burning the depot and all the stores. On June 27, 
with the Freeborn and Pawnee, he attacked the batte 
ries at Mathias Point, and landed a party of men to burn 
the rebel ambush. The Freeborn kept up a constant lire 
to cover the landing, hotly replied to by musketry from the 
woods. One of the gunners was wounded ; and Capt. Ward, 
taking his place, was shot in the breast by a musket-ball, 
and killed, while in the act of sighting the gun. One of his 
acquaintances wrote, His death is a shock ; but we have 
expected it. He was always at the post of danger." He 
was a gentleman of thorough education, and in religion a 
devout Catholic. He was buried from St. Patrick s in Hart 
ford with all the honors of the Church, the State, and the 
Army. A eulogy was delivered by his personal friend Father 
O Reilly, and the burial-service was read by Bishop McFar- 
land. The governor, State officers, and legislature, the Fifth 
Regiment, and the Hartford military companies, joined in 
the last tribute of respect for the brave and patriotic man. 

In the mean time, the three Connecticut regiments held 
the aggressive point, eight miles farther into ftabeldom t than 
any Union troops had before been stationed. By either 
Ball s or Bailey s cross-roads, the rebels could throw a force 
in their rear, so that officers and men lay down in the nightly 
expectation of being aroused by an attempt to cut them off. 
Their situation was too critical to be entirely pleasant ; and 
the question of withdrawing them was discussed earnestly 
in the War Department. Gen. Scott telegraphed to Tyler, 
" You are too far in advance. Better draw back. You will 
be gobbled up." Gen. Tyler replied, that Falls Church was 
the place that ought to be held ; that there was no other 
point so naturally defensible ; that the rebels would seize it 
if he should abandon it ; and that he would take the respon 
sibility of holding it. Every evening, he consulted with his 
officers as to the preparations for a night-attack. 

During all this time, the loyal States were impatiently de 
manding a forward movement against the enemy. About the 
4th of July, an advance on Richmond via Manassas Junction 
was anticipated ; and from day to day thereafter the rumor 
assumed more defined and exact proportions, until, at dress- 


parade on the afternoon of the 15th, the fact was made cer 
tain by an order for a movement the next day. The three 
Connecticut regiments were now brigaded with the 2d 
Maine, under command of Col. E. D. Keyes of the llth 
regulars. The estimation in which Gen. Tyler and the Con 
necticut troops were held is shown by the fact that to him 
was assigned the command of the first and largest division, 
consisting of twelve thousand men ; while they were made 
the first brigade of that division, and were thus, in regular 
formation, the advance of the entire force. On the after 
noon of the 16th, the division left Falls Church, the Connecti 
cut brigade ahead, and led the way past Vienna towards Cen- 
treville. He halted his division on the heights, and with 
Richardson s brigade pushed forward, and encountered Long- 
street s division at Blackburn s Ford of Bull Run. He felt 
out with a battery to test the opposing strength ; and the 
rebels showed fight with a spirit that proved an intention to 
contest the run. In the slight conflict that resulted, the 
Union losses were nineteen (official), the rebel loss sixty- 
eight ; the former having largely the advantage of ground. 
The object of the reconnoissance was gained, and the ford 
was held during the two successive days of the tardy advance. 

If this success had been immediately followed up by the 
attack along the whole line, which did not come until three 
days afterwards, it seems almost certain that the result would 
have been a victory ; for Johnston s army of eighteen 
thousand had not yet stolen away, from Patterson s front, 
and the systematic treachery at Washington, which so soon 
betrayed us, had not yet done its work. 

Gen. Tyler advised the continuation of the battle next 
day. During the afternoon of the 18th, and the 19th and 
20th, McDowell s whole army was grouped in the rear 
of Centreville, and might have been hurled on the enemy in 
two hours at any time ; and Bull Run was fordable at all 
points. Tyler insisted that he could whip the rebels with 
his own division : and such a result was more than possible ; 
for he had sixteen regiments and two batteries, while Beau- 
regard had not more than ten thousand effective men during 
Thursday and Friday. Col. Chrisholm, aide-de-camp to Gen. 


Beauregard on that day, and afterwards his chief of staff, 
said in a recent conversation, " Beauregard s whole forces 
did not exceed twelve thousand men, stationed at Lewis s, 
Blackburn s, and Mitchell s Fords, and at the Stone Bridge, 
including Holmes s brigade at the Occoquan, out of reach." 
And he adds, "Had the affair of the 18th been vigorously 
pushed, Beauregard looked for certain defeat ; for not a man 
of Johnston s army had at that ^time come up." The first of 
them arrived on Saturday morning, and McDowell waited for 
his Grouchy in vain. This was the hour and this the place 
to strike ; but McDowell halted for " five days rations," and 
the men threw away their rations as the general had already 
thrown away his opportunit}-. 

When, on the memorable Sunday, July 21, 11 the main 
column, instead of crossing at the Stone Bridge, as first threat 
ened, made a wide detour to the northward, and crossed at 
Sudley s Church, expecting to flank and surprise the enemy, 
its commander was astonished, instead, to find himself con 
fronted there by an enormous force of the rebels, with 
preparations to receive him. When it is remembered 
that traitors walked the streets of Washington unmolested ; 
that spies, when captured within our army-lines, were dis 
charged on taking the oath of allegiance ; that secessionists 
remained in office, even in the War Department, 12 appointees 
of Jefferson Davis and Floyd, it is not strange that the ene 
my had the fullest information of our position and strength, 
and that the plans of McDowell, a secret to the few who 
were to execute them, were perfectly familiar to Beauregard. 
The latter had even obtained possession of a copy of Mc 
Dowell s map of the county, made on Friday. 

The possession of this complete and minute information 
enabled Beauregard himself to have a plan of the pending 
battle. A Confederate officer present at the council of war 
the previous day is authority for the statement, that it was 
the intention of Beauregard and Johnston to make a flank 

11 By this time, Beauregard had something like thirty thousand men (Pollard, in his 
Southern History, says " less than thirty thousand "), and McDowell had about thirty-five 
thousand; a slight disparity, considering the relative positions. 

w " Gen. Beauregard received the very earliest information from a friend of his in Wash 
ington, and had plenty of time to make all his preparations." Col. Estvan s War Pic 
tures from the South. 


movement to the south on Centreville simultaneous with 
McDowell s flank movement to the north on Manassas. 
Agreeably to this plan, the Sudley-church Road was left 
unobstructed, and the main body of the enemy was massed, 
under Beauregard, near Stone Bridge. His original design 
was to make a show of fight here in the morning against 
our left, and when the columns of Hunter and Heintzelman 
should be met by Johnston s reserves, now mostly on the 
plains, to wheel the whole main army to the left, make 
Mitchell s Ford a pivot, and strike the Union army in the 
rear at Centreville. 13 The scheme miscarried, the rebels 
say, because the Mitchell s-ford Road was blocked up. 

On Sunday, Gen. Tyler began the battle. At six o clock 
in the morning, he fired the first gun near the Stone Bridge, 
having been ordered to make a feint by threatening the 
passage of the run in force at this point. 

The Connecticut brigade, being detached to guard the 
Warrenton Turnpike, did not reach the stream until ten 
o clock, A.M., just as Col. Tecumseh Sherman s brigade of 
Tyler s division had crossed to attack. Here the enemy 
opened on the Connecticut men with twenty or thirty 
rounds of shot and shell from a battery across the run, from 
which several were wounded. The brigade rapidly ap 
proached at double-quick, dropping flat on the ground at 
each discharge to allow the missiles to pass over their heads. 
They crossed the stream on a run, and fell into line of battle 
beyond Young s Brook, farther west. Col. Keyes says, 

" The order to advance was given at about ten o clock, A.M. ; and 
from that hour to four, P.M., my brigade was in constant activity on the 
field of battle. The Firs.t Regiment Connecticut Volunteers was met by a 
body of cavalry and infantry, which it repelled ; and, at several other 
encounters at different parts of the line, the enemy constantly retired before 
us. At about two o clock, P.M., Gen. Tyler ordered me to take a battery 
on a height in front. The battery was strongly posted, and supported by 
infantry and riflemen, sheltered by a building, a fence, and a hedge. My 
order to charge was obeyed with the utmost promptness. Col. Jameson 
of the 2d Maine, aud Col. Chatfield of the Third Connecticut Volun 
teers, pressed forward their regiments up the base slope about one hundred 
yards ; when I ordered them to lie down, at a point offering a small protec- 

13 The second battle of Bull Run was fought by the rebels on precisely this plan. 


tion, and load. I then ordered them to advance again, which they did, iu 
the face of a movable battery of eight pieces and a large body of infantry, 
toward the top of the hill. As we moved forward, we came under the 
fire of other large bodies of the enemy, posted behind breastworks ; and, 
on reaching the summit of the hill, the firing became so hot, that an expo 
sure to it of five minutes would have annihilated my whole line." 

The battery was nothing like so terrible as this ; and, if 
the order of Gen. Tyler had been given to Gen. Keyes 
during the last year of the war, it probably would have 
been executed. But, as the enemy had retired to a height 
beyond, a movement by the left flank was ordered ; and the 
brigade passed to a piece of woods, whence they were again 
put in motion. Our further advance caused the rebels to 
retire from abatis, enabling the engineers to clear it away, 
and bring up the guns. The brigade, attempting to turn the 
battery, had now reached a point below the Warrenton Road, 
having succeeded in pressing the enemy back, and behaving 
with perfect coolness and intrepidity. Nothing like defeat 
was dreamed of. 

At this juncture, Gen. Tyler, perceiving a lull in the 
artillery-firing, sent Lieut. Upton to inquire the cause ; H 
and was astounded to receive an order to retreat. Even 
then, there was no panic. Col. Keyes says, 

" Before recrossing Bull Run, and until my brigade mingled with the 
retreating mass, it maintained perfect freedom from panic ; and at the 
moment I received the order to retreat, and for some time afterward, it 
was in as good order as in the morning on the road. Half an hour earlier, 
I supposed the victory to be ours." 

In his official report, Col. Burnham says, 

" While halting for orders, a mounted aide rides up, and directs the two 
regiments to march by the right flank. The Second files by the First ; and 
the latter regiment falls in, supposing they are to be placed in a more 
effective position. But those infernal guns of the rebels approach nearer 
and nearer ; and, as the two regiments near the open plain, every tiling 
is seen and understood. Our noble army is routed ; and the whole plain 
is covered with fugitives, nothing apparently left in an organized state but 
the Connecticut regiments. Marching across the level, they reach the 
woods, when the enemy s cavalry come down. Facing by the rear-rank, 

14 " The tide of battle was turned in our favor by the arrival of Gen. Kirby Smith from 
Winchester with four thousand men of Gen. Johnston s division." Richmond Despatch 
of Aug. 1, 1861. 

Gen. E. Kirby Smith was a Connecticut man, turned traitor. 


the regiments repulse them by well-directed volleys. Resuming the march, 
the Connecticut troops approach Cub Run, the bridge across which is 
crowded with the hurrying masses, of disorganized troops. Without 
mingling with them, they ford the stream, and, forming in line, protect the 
rear from the rebel cavalry, which here prudently withdraw." 

As Col. Keyes was a native of Vermont, he will be 
accepted as an impartial witness to the efficiency of Con 
necticut troops. We quote further from his report : 

" The gallantry with which the 2d Regiment of Maine, and the 
Third Regiment of Connecticut Volunteers, charged up the hill upon the 
enemy s artillery and infantry, was never, in my opinion, surpassed. I 
was with the advancing line, and closely observed the conduct of Cols. 
Jameson and Chatfield, which merits in this instance, and throughout the 
day, the highest commendation. 

" I also observed throughout the day the gallantry and excellent con 
duct of Col. Terry s Second Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, from whom 
I received most zealous assistance. At one time, a portion of his regi 
ment did great execution with their rifles from a point of our line which 
was thin, and where a few of our men were a little tardy in moving 

" Col. Terry, in his report, calls attention to the coolness, activity, and 
discretion of Lieut. -Col. D. Young and Major L. Colburn. The latter, with 
the adjutant of the regiment, Lieut. Charles L. Russell, showed conspicuous 
gallantry in defending their regimental colors, during the retreat this side 
of Bull Run, against a charge of cavalry. Col. Terry also commends the 
devotion of Drs. Douglas and Bacon to the wounded while under the 
hottest fire of artillery. Private Arnold Leach is also highly praised for 
having spiked three abandoned guns with a ramrod, and then bringing 
away two abandoned muskets." 

Col. Keyes also mentioned for gallant conduct Lieut.-Col. 
John Speidal, Capts. J. R. Hawley and J. H. Chapman, Adju 
tant Theodore C. Bacon, and Lieuts. Albert W. Drake, 
Charles Walter, and Alexander Ely. Gen. Tyler specially 
commended Col. Chatfield and Col. Terry; and Col. Chatfield 
gave especial credit to Major Warner and Adjutant Redfield 

As the Connecticut troops fired the first shot in the morn 
ing of that memorable day, so they fired the last shot in the 
evening ; and as they had been first in the advance, so they 
were last in the retreat, covering the stampede with solid 
columns. The rebel cavalry, after having broken through 
our retreating lines, and killed and captured many towards 
Centreville, turned back upon the Connecticut troops. Col. 



Radford, in a report giving a bombastic account of his achieve 
ments, says of this, 

" Having dispersed the enemy in our front in the direction of Cub-run 
Bridge, I charged upon them between Cub Run and Bull Run, and soon 
came upon a column of infantry, about five thousand, strongly posted, and 
supported by a battery of three pieces. They immediately opened upon 
my command, throwing them into some confusion." 

He then proceeds to report his killed and wounded. A 
less interested rebel officer says, " The fact is, no three of the 
cavalry could be found together after that." 

We do not claim for Connecticut troops in the battle of 
Bull Run a degree of courage and manly bearing superior to 
their loyal brothers from other States ; but it is known, that, 
in retiring from the field, they maintained a degree of per 
sistent good order and soldierly discipline not generally ex 
hibited by the men of any other regiments. This was due, 
perhaps, partly to the fact that they were near the flank, and 
so were not enveloped in the first bewilderment of defeat. 
To whatever it may be attributed, it is a fact, that they left 
the field without confusion, facing about, and firing a well- 
directed volley, whenever the foe pressed too eagerly ; and, 
during that unparalleled stampede, they covered the rear of 
the army, a service which was recognized by the regiments 
and the press of other States. 15 They occupied their old 
camping-grounds the day after the battle, and, being ordered 
to Fort Corcoran, made their appearance there with six pris 
oners (many more had escaped), two pieces of abandoned 
artillery, one caisson, the implements of the sappers and 
miners, twenty horses, all their own baggage and camp 
equipage, and the tents and equipage of two Ohio regiments, 
the 2d New- York, and a company of cavalry, with their 
baggage-wagons and property, which had been deserted. 
"And," says Gen. Tyler with some pride, in concluding his 
report, " at seven o clock on Tuesday morning, I saw the 
three Connecticut regiments, with two thousand bayonets, 
march under the guns of Fort Corcoran in good order, after 

15 " The Connecticut brigade was the last to leave the field of Bull Run, and, by hard 
fighting, had to defend itself and to protect our scattered thousands for several miles of 
the retreat." Stedman in New -York World, July 23, 1861. 


having saved us not only a large amount of public property, 16 
but the mortification of having our standing camps fall into 
the hands of the enemy." 17 

The casualties at the battle were as follows : 


First Regiment Connecticut Vols., 8 9 17 

Second " " " 2 5 9 16 

Third " " " 4 13 18 35 


Those knoWn to have been killed are Joseph Stokes of 
Norwich, James Fritz of New Haven, Sergeant John R. Marsh 
of Danbury, David C. Case of Norwich, and Jeremiah 0. 
Leroy of Hartford. Rev. Hiram Eddy, the devoted chaplain 
of the Second, remained with the wounded on the field, a 

The missing were mostly prisoners, and were retained for 
four to twelve months in the rebel prisons at Richmond, 
Salisbury, N. C., Tuscaloosa, Ala., and other places. Two 
members of the New-Haven Grays, captured while aiding a 
wounded rebel, were released on arriving at Richmond by 
order of Jeff. Davis, and supported at a hotel until there was 
an opportunity for their return. 

Col. Chatfield was presented with a new dress-uniform by 
Hon. James E. English, then representative in Congress, 
afterwards governor of the State. 

After the return from Bull Run, the regiments remained 
at Washington a short time, and soon returned home. The 
First and Second were mustered out at New Haven, and the 
Third at Hartford. As the people had gathered to bid them 
good-by, they now re-assembled to welcome them. The 
enthusiastic regimental receptions were followed by eager 
and hearty local receptions in all communities to which 
companies returned. They were praised, petted, and feasted ; 
and grateful citizens and proud relatives listened to the 
story of their exposures and services. These gatherings 
greatly augmented the martial spirit throughout the State. 

When the Second Regiment was mustered out, Col. Terry 

16 In value, upwards of two hundred thousand dollars. 

17 "This service was performed in thirty-six hours; during which time they were 
entirely without food, and drenched in the tremendous rain that raged without inter 
mission." N. Y. Times. 


presented gold medals, for bravery on the field, to Color- 
Sergeant Austin P. Kirkham of Derby, and Sergeant Robert 
Leggett of New London. 

The men of these regiments re-enlisted almost without an 
exception, and Jive hundred of them afterwards held com 
missions in the army. Of these, about one hundred and 
eighty were from the First Regiment, two hundred from the 
Second, and one hundred and forty from the Third. Three 
became major-generals, four brigadier-generals, and more 
than eighty field and staff officers. 


The Effect of the Defeat at Bull Run. Second Uprising. The Fifth Regiment goes to 
Harper s Ferry. Six Regiments begun. A Squadron of Cavalry. Peace-Flags 
and Peace-Meetings. Seymcfur s Resolutions. Concurrent Action. Goshen, 
Bloomficld, Darien, Easton, Cornwall, Sharon, Prospect, North Guilford, Stoning- 
ton. A New Saybrook Platform. New Fail-field. The Bridgeport Farmer. 
How Stepney stopped the War. The Farmer Office sacked. Gov. Bucking 
ham s Proclamation. Life and Character of Gen. Lyon. His Bravery and De 
cision. His Heroic Death. 

UR defeat at the battle of Bull Run corrected, as 
nothing else could have done, an extravagant 
estimate of our own strength. It taught us 
that the rebels had no respect for the national 
authority, except just so* much as could be en 
forced at the point of the bayonet : it swept away our " ninety- 
days " optimism, and showed us that what we had mistaken 
for an April shower was to be a long storm, and a hard one. 1 

The wonderful uprising which followed the fall of Sumter 
was repeated after our bewildered volunteers surged back 
upon Washington. If the second rally was less ardent than 
the first, it was more deliberate and determined. Instead 
of a brief military recreation, men felt it to be a struggle for 
life; and every town in the State renewed its patriotic reso 
lution, and every neighborhood responded to the recruiting 
drum. 2 The Fifth Regiment, now a splendid body of men, 
and ably officered, left for the seat of war a week after the 
repulse ; and, within two weeks thereafter, companies were 
started in more than half the towns in the State. War- 
meetings were held, and the enthusiasm rose to the level of 

1 The Lost Cause says, " The victory of Manassas was the greatest misfortune that 
could have befallen the Confederacy." 

2 Congress, the day after the battle of Bull Run, authorized the president to call out 
five hundred thousand men for three years. 


.102 . 


the emergency. Within a month, volunteers had poured 
into the recruiting centres so rapidly, that six additional regi 
ments were begun, from the Sixth to the Eleventh inclusive. 

About this time it was proposed to organize a regiment of 
cavalry for the regular service, to be formed of six squadrons 
from as many States. William H. Mallory of Bridgeport, who 
had served during the three-months service in Duryea s Zou 
aves, received authority to recruit a squadron in Connecticut. 
He was aided by Thomas B. Thornett and L. H. Southard of 
Hartford, and Marcus Coon of Waterbury, the latter a captain 
in the First Regiment; and the squadron was recruited in thir 
teen days. Edward W. Whittaker of Ashford went out in this 
squadron as sergeant, and was soon lieutenant. Hartford fur 
nished thirty men ; Canton, New Britain, and Berlin had ten 
men each ; and half the towns in the State had one or two. 
The squadrons rendezvoused in New York ; and, that State 
furnishing six companies, the regiment was assigned to New 
York as a State regiment, and became the 2d New-York or 
" Harris Light Cavalry." 

During the passage t9 Washington, Sept. 8, the rebel engi 
neer tried to throw the rear cars from the track by a high 
rate of speed. Sergeant E. L. Lyon, a nephew of Gen. Lyon, 
assisted by others, manned the brake, and, in attempting to 
stop the train, was thrown off and killed. William A. Ger 
man of Collins ville met the same fate. Lyon was buried 
with all honors by the side of Gen. Lyon on Sept. 13. 
His brother-in-law, Harvey Copeland, took his place in the 
ranks immediately, though leaving a wife and five children. 

The regiment went into camp on Arlington Heights, re 
maining for several months. Corporal Cornelius H. Bailey 
of Waterbury was killed by accident at Washington in 
October, and was buried at home with military honors. 
Capt. Thornett said of him, " I never saw a better soldier, or 
a more active and faithful man. The influence of his splen 
did conduct on his comrades was most beneficial." 

The men who opposed resistance to the South when the 
war began had been awed into apparent acquiescence by 


the first angry response ; but as soon as the patriotic out 
break had lost its novelty, and our soldiers had met with 
slight reverses, this faction gathered courage again, and 
came forth in a series of " peace " demonstrations, in which 
white flags were unfurled, and speeches made demand 
ing a withdrawal of the loyal armies from the field. Some 
times they went so far as to charge the absent soldiers with 
cowardice, and ridicule their officers for incapacity, while 
eulogizing rebel officers and exaggerating rebel success. 
Even the insignificant affair of Big Bethel was the occasion 
of exhibitions of this sort. 

As early as June 22, one Andrew Palmer had raised a 
peace-flag at his house in Goshen. A large crowd assembled ; 
and after considerable parleying and a slight contest, in 
which one peace-man was wounded, the obnoxious emblem 
was captured, and the star-spangled banner displayed upon 
the pole. Palmer swore allegiance to it, and some of his 
confederates were taken to jail. This was the first of a series 
of similar demonstrations. 

The "peace" movement in Connecticut seems to have 
originated in the May session of the legislature at Hartford. 
Ex-Gov. Thomas H. Seymour had there offered a resolution 
urging the Crittenden Compromise, the preamble of which 
assumed that disunion was a fixed fact. He prefaced this 
with a speech, of which the following extract indicates the 
tone : " There seems to be a radical mistake on the part of 
many people. They appear to think the South can be con 
quered. Sir, this is impossible ! You may destroy their 
habitations, devastate their fields, and shed the blood of their 
people ; but you can not conquer them." The resolution re 
ceived eighteen ayes, a hundred and seventy-three noes. 
This was the first platform of the " peace-party ; " and these 
eighteen represented its political strength. It soon became 
obvious that this was part of a concerted movement. It 
was expected that the " Breckinridge party " of the previous 
fall would form the nucleus of the forces. The utterances 
of Breckinridge and Vallandigham in Congress supplied am 
munition. Mr. Breckinridge in person opened the campaign 
which was to "revolutionize the North" in a speech at Balti- 


more, Aug. 9. He was received by such a tumultuous out 
break of indignant patriotism, that he was deterred from a 
further advance, and turned across the rebel lines ; but the 
movement had already acquired a momentum in Connecticut 
that carried it through the month. 

The name most prominently connected with the " peace- 
meetings " of this period is that of William W. Eaton, a suc 
cessful lawyer, able debater, and prominent politician, of 
Hartford. A meeting was held at Bloomfield, whereat reso 
lutions were passed " in favor of establishing a suspension of 
hostilities," after an argument by Mr. Eaton, and harangues 
by others, intended to show that the insurgents could never 
be conquered. 

The stampede at Bull Run made the peace-party bolder 
and more demonstrative ; but the Republicans and war 
Democrats were constantly alert, tearing down their flags, 
and gathering thousands of young men in war-meetings. 
One Stephen Raymond of Darien actually fired a cannon in 
rejoicing over the rebel victory at Bull Run ; but his cannon 
was promptly captured, and tumbled into the river. At Ridge- 
field, a man who expressed his joy at the defeat was drenched 
at the town-pump, and compelled to take the oath of allegi 
ance under the stars and stripes. At Easton, Cornwall, 
Prospect, Podunk, New Britain, North Guilford, East New 
London, Madison, and some other places, peace or Confede 
rate flags were raised, but were hauled down and destroyed 
almost as soon as discovered. The General Assembly, at its 
recent session, had forbidden the raising of the hostile flag, 
on penalty of imprisonment for thirty days and a fine of a 
hundred dollars ; but it does not appear that the law was 
ever enforced. 3 Peace meetings and displays seemed to be 
preconcerted throughout the State. 

Aug. 8, there was a peace-meeting at Cornwall Bridge, at 
which resolutions were passed looking to " peaceful separa 
tion," declaring that " the American Union is forever de- 

3 This law also provided, SECT. 3. Such flag or device so exhibited, with the 
apparatus connected therewith, shall be deemed a nuisance; and any constable, or justice 
of the peace, of the town in which the same shall be so exhibited, or the sheriff or a 
deputy-sheriff of the county in which the same shall be so exhibited, taking sufficient 
assistance therefor, may seize and destroy the same. 


stroyed," and calling on other towns to take ground " against 
a further continuance of this bloody spectacle." 

At Sharon, a meeting (E. P. Whitney, secretary) Resolved, 
" That the cost of this unnatural war will entail upon the 
people a system of taxation too intolerable to be borne." 
Aug. 16, similar meetings were held at Canaan, William S. 
Marsh in the chair ; and at Danbury, A. A. Heath presiding. 
On the same day, the Hartford Times said, " We are op 
posed to this war. It has already driven the border States 
out of the Union : it can never bring them back. It is 
crushing out the life-blood of New England." 

There was a peace-meeting at Stonington, Aug. 9, Luther 
Ripley in the chair. Resolutions against the war were of 
fered, and, to the astonishment and dismay of the signers 
of the call, were voted down. Finding themselves in a minor 
ity, they seized the lights., and retreated amid some confu 
sion and violence. A Union meeting was immediately or 
ganized, George E. Palmer in the chair; and war-resolutions 
offered by John F. Trumbull, jr., and supported by him in 
an eloquent speech, were adopted. 

On Aug. 16, several hundred peace-men assembled at Say- 
brook to hoist "a Federal flag, with nineteen stars on it," in 
dicating that fourteen slave States were out of the Union. 
W. W. Eaton was announced as the orator of the day. A 
pole was raised in front of Gilbert Pratt s house, and on it 
was tacked a handbill, headed by the device, " War is dis 
union." Hundreds of war-men gathered spontaneously from 
Saybrook and surrounding towns. They called for " the 
flag," and a speech from the orator of the day ; but, neither 
appearing, the familiar flag of stars and stripes was produced, 
and run up. Two or three peace-men were roughly handled 
while defending the pole. Capt. J. R. Hawley was called 
out. He deprecated violence at the meeting, but made a 
war-speech, contending, that, in the emergency, war was the 
most efficient handmaid of peace ; and that the thousands in 
loyal blue, who loved quiet and order so well that they 
would take the field for it, were the truest peacemakers. 
Capt. Morgan and John J. Doane also made stirring speech 
es. So the Unionists had a jubilee, and dispersed with cheers 



for the flag ; while many young men quietly resolved to join 
the next regiment, and fight for it. 

A white flag had been put up in New Fairfield ; and thirty 
or forty war-men from Danbury, attempting to take it down 
were attacked by a much larger number of " peace " men 
with spades and axes, and Andrew Knox, 4 John Allen, 
and Thomas Kinney, badly injured. Two of the peace-men 
were also dangerously wounded ; but they held their ground, 
and the flag remained. The Danbury men re-organized for 
another assault the next day ; but the flag was taken down 
and hidden by its friends. 

The Bridgeport Farmer was the most outspoken and 
ultra champion of the anti-war doctrines ; and most of the 
kindred demonstrations were within the range of its circula 

It fearlessly declared that the rebels were true patriots, and 
openly wished them success. A quotation or two will illus 
trate its position. On the 5th of August, referring to Bull 
Run, the Farmer said, with a manifest feeling of exulta 

"The grand army marched on the 17th, as the Standard man has 
informed us. It also ran back on the 21st, as the Standard man did not 
inform us. On the 17th, the heart of the Abolition party leaped for joy at 
the hope of a speedy crushing-out of the life of the Southern whites and the 
early freedom of their negroes. On the 21st, the heart of the Abolitionists 
heaved with sorrow at the blasted prospects of their fanaticism, and the 
diminished hope of a speedy gratification of their bloody will." 

This was followed up by the definite declaration, 

" The rebel soldiery, as you term them, are not fighting for money. 
Like our Revolutionary fathers, they are fighting for their just rights. In 
the Revolution of. 1776, the forces of King George were the ones who 
fought for money : in the Revolution of 1861, the forces of the despot Lin 
coln are the ones who are fighting for money. Men who fought for their 
constitutional rights in 1776 did not want to be hired to do it ; neither do 
the men who are fighting for their constitutional rights in 1861." 

Emboldened by this disloyal attitude in a journal which 
they had long accepted as their political gospel, its readers 
of Fairfield and Litchfield Counties showed the white feather 
extensively, rallying in peace-meetings under their blanched 

4 Knox afterward became a captain in the First Artillery. 


banner. In Hattertown (Redding), a handsome and expen 
sive white flag was suspended across the street ; but, being 
menaced, it was taken down, and buried by its proprietor to 
preserve it. 

In Monroe they were bolder in the display of their banner, 
even if the sequence shows they were not braver in its 
defense. A peace mass-meeting was called at Stepney, in 
that town, for Aug. 24, to declare against the war. The three- 
months soldiers, just mustered out of service, were in no 
mood to tolerate what they regarded as incipient treason, and 
resolved to disperse this assemblage. On the morning of the 
appointed day, two or three omnibus-loads of Capt. Frye s 
company, Third Regiment, armed with revolvers, made their 
way out of Bridgeport, accompanied by a long procession of 
citizens. There was an immense gathering of peace-men at 
Stepney. Families had come from all the towns around to 
"stop the unrighteous war." A very tall hickory pole was 
raised at the head of the green ; and to its top were run up 
two flags, one an ancient Jackson Avar-flag, with thirty 
stripes ; and the other the pale emblem of their patriotism, 
bearing the word " PEACE " in large letters. The flags were 
vigorously cheered ; and a multitude of armed peace-men 
rallied around the strange bunting, and swore to defend it 
against all comers and to the last dire extremity. The plat 
form under the flags was then occupied by Ellis B. Schnable, 
already notorious as an opponent of the war ; E. B. Good- 
sell, late postmaster at Bridgeport ; Gen. Judson Curtis, 
a neighborhood celebrity ; and D. H. Belden, a Newtown 
lawyer, who were to expound the doctrines ; and Mr. Charles 
Smith, an intermittent preacher of the vicinity, who proceeded 
to ask the blessing of the Lord on the movement. He had not, 
however, progressed so far as this in his supplication,. when he 
slightly opened his eyes, and beheld, to his horror, the Bridge 
port omnibuses coming over the hill, garnished with Union 
banners, and vocal with loyal cheers. This was the signal for 
a panic : Bull Rim, on a small scale, was re-enacted. The de 
vout Smith, and the undelivered orators, it is alleged, took 
refuge in a field of corn. The procession drove straight to 
the pole, unresisted, the hostile crowd parting to let them 


pass ; and a tall man, John Platt, amid some mutterings, 
climbed the pole, reached the halyards, and the mongrel 
banners were on the ground. Some of the peace-men, rally 
ing, drew weapons on " the invaders ; " and a musket and a 
revolver were taken from them by soldiers at the very 
instant of firing. Another of the defenders fired a revolver, 
and was chased into the fields. Still others, waxing bellige 
rent, were disarmed ; and a number of loaded muskets, found 
stored in an adjacent shed, were seized. The stars and stripes 
were hoisted upon the pole, and wildly cheered. P. T. Bar- 
num was then taken on the shoulders of the boys in blue, 
and put on the platform, where he made a speech full of 
patriotism, spiced with the humor of the occasion. Capt. 
James E. Dunham also said a few words to the point. Schna- 
ble, emerging from the cornfield, gave the speaker the lie ; 
when he was set upon by the crowd, and, says a newspaper of 
the day, " he was somewhat severely kicked." The Star- 
spangled Banner was then sung in chorus, and a series of 
resolutions passed, declaring that "loyal men are the rightful 
custodians of the peace of Connecticut." Elias Howe, jr., 
chairman, made his speech when the crowd threatened to 
shoot the speakers : " If they fire a gun, boys, burn the 
whole town, and I ll pay for it ! " After giving the citizens 
wholesome advice concerning the substituted flag, and their 
duty to the government, the procession returned to Bridge 
port, with the white flag trailing in the mud behind an om 
nibus. The soldiers threatened a descent on the Farmer 
office ; but, being appealed to by the leaders in the raid on 
Stepney, they promised to desist. They were received at 
Bridgeport by approving crowds, and were greeted with con 
tinuous cheers as they passed along. 

As evening fell, the crowd increased, swarming through 
the streets ; so that the vicinity of Main and Wall was com 
pletely blocked up. Five to eight thousand were out. A 
glee-club, on the balcony of the Sterling House, sang patriotic 
songs. The Stepney affair was eagerly commented on. 5 

5 At a meeting in the evening, a prudential committee was appointed, consisting of 
Hanford Lyon, Gideon Thompson, Frederick Wood, P. T. Barnum, S. B. Ferguson, 
Horace Nichols, A. P. Houston, B. K. Mills, Monson Hawley, Russell Tomlinson, George 
S. Sanford, E. P. Abernethy, William H. Noble, and Stephen Lounsbury. 


The Union, the songs, and the soldiers were cheered ; and 
the contiguous Farmer newspaper received hearty de 
nunciation. At length, the enthusiasm of the citizens and 
the rage of the soldiers culminated in a descent by the latter 
on the establishment. Down Wall Street they rushed with 
the cry, " To the Farmer office ! " A warm reception was 
anticipated ; for it was believed that Messrs. Pomeroy and 
Morse had a large number of friends on guard : but the 
" watchmen " were away, and the assailants, after forcing an 
entrance, met no opposition. They threw every thing portable 
paper, types, and machinery out of the window ; and the 
angry crowd below scattered them through the street. The 
newspaper and job presses were broken and destroyed. " A 
number of recently-occupied bunks, and two hundred turned 
clubs for defense, were found in an adjoining room." When 
the soldiers entered, Mr. Morse fled to the roof, whence, by 
neighboring buildings, he escaped. He was sheltered by 
political sympathizers ; but after remaining in the State a 
few days, hooted, groaned, and insulted wherever he ap 
peared in public, he " fled from persecution," and, via Canada, 
joined his fortunes to those of his rebel friends and co- 
laborers in Augusta, Ga, G 

A peace-flag having been unfurled in Morris, Litchfield 
County, a meeting was called for Aug. 28, duly to dedicate 
the emblem with appropriate oratory. Mr. Eaton was ex 
pected, also the redoubtable Schnable. The former failed to 
arrive. Schnable made an inflammatory speech to his friends, 
armed to defend him. After the meeting adjourned, the 
orator was arrested by Deputy-Sheriff Edward 0. Peck of 
Litchfield, delivered to United-States Marshal Carr, and by 
him consigned to Fort Lafayette. 

In order to put an end to these collisions, Gov. Buck 
ingham, about the 1st of September, issued the following 
proclamation : 

" Eleven States of the Union are now armed and in open rebellion 
against Federal authority. They have paralyzed the business of the nation, 
have involved us in civil war, and are exerting their combined energies 

6 There he edited a paper, until the insatiate Sherman thrust his sword-blade through 
the vitals of the Confederacy, when he again became a martyr for his principles. 


to rob us of the blessings of a free government. The greatness of their 
crime has no parallel in the history of free governments. 

" At this critical juncture, our liberties are still further imperiled by 
the utterance of seditious language ; by a traitorous press, which excuses 
or justifies the Rebellion ; by secret organizations, which propose to resist 
the execution of the laws by force ; by the public exhibition of peace-flays, 
falsely so called ; and by an effort to redress grievances, regardless of the 
forms aud officers of the land. 

" The very existence of our government, the future prosperity of this 
entire nation, and the hopes of universal freedom, demand that these out 
rages be suppressed. 

" The Constitution guarantees liberty of speech and of the press, but 
holds the person and the press responsible for the evils which result from 
this liberty ; it guarantees the protection of property, but regards no prop 
erty as sacred which is used to subvert governmental authority ; it guaran 
tees the person from unreasonable seizure, but it protects no individual from 
arrest and punishment who gives aid and comfort to the enemies of our 
country ; it provides by law for the punishment of offenders, but allows 
no grievance to be redressed by violence. 

" I therefore call upon the citizens of this State to support and uphold 
the government, and to abstain from every act that can tend to encourage 
and strengthen this conspiracy ; and I call upon the officers of the law to 
be active, diligent, aud fearless in arresting, and instituting legal pro 
ceedings for the punishment of, those who disturb the public peace, of 
those who are guilty of sedition and treason, and of those who are em 
braced in combinations to obstruct the execution of the laws ; so that peace 
may again be restored to our distracted country, aud the liberties of the 
people be preserved." 

This prompt manifesto, and the overwhelming popular 
sentiment, immediately put an end to public demonstrations 
against the war. A few irrepressible " peace " men for a 
while expended their surplus energy in visiting camps, 
and advising volunteers to desert : but even this was made 
perilous by a public notice from United-States Marshal Carr, 
that all persons detected in such attempts would " be sum 
marily dealt with ; " and the " peace " agitation entirely 

These eruptions were thought, at the time, to discour 
age enlistments : but it now seems rather, that, acting as 
a counter-irritant, the movement stimulated volunteering ; 
patriotic ardor being increased by the very means used to 
allay it. Certain it is, that at no other period of the war 
was recruiting so rapid as while Messrs. Schnable, Eaton, and 
Morse were appealing to the young men not to participate 
in " the wicked war of subjugation." 


Connecticut had now two regiments in the field, both for 
three years. On Aug. 15, the governor called for four 
more regiments ; and with such alacrity did volunteering go 
forward, that, within two weeks, the Sixth and Seventh 
Regiments were full ; and, before another call was out, twenty- 
four companies offered themselves for the Eighth Regiment, 
and eleven for the Ninth (Irish) . 

On Aug. 14, the nation was thrilled and saddened to 
hear of the death of the heroic Brig.-Gen. Lyon, slain four 
days before in the battle of Wilson s Creek, Missouri. He 
was the first Union general killed in the war ; 7 and the loyal 
people already looked upon him with hope and enthusiasm, 
as one of the stanchest of their defenders. Had he lived, 
he would have attained a high command ; for he had the 
modesty and the obstinate persistence of Grant, and the dash 
and boldness of Sheridan. 

Nathaniel Lyon was born in that part of Ashford which 
is now Eastford, Conn., July 14, 1818. It is not surpris 
ing that he early showed a bent for military life; for he 
was a grandson of Lieut. Daniel Knowlton of the Revolution, 


of whom Putnam said, " Such is his courage, that I could 
order him into the mouth of a loaded cannon." He pre 
pared himself in the district schools for West Point, where 
he graduated in 1841. As lieutenant, he fought through 
the Seminole War; and subsequently through the Mexican 
War, where he was brevetted captain for gallant conduct. 
For four years he was stationed on the Californian frontier, 
an experience full of hardship and perilous adventure. 

The year 1861 found Capt. Lyon in command of the 
arsenal in St. Louis. When it seemed possible that Fort 
Sumter was to be surrendered without a struggle, he 

" I would rather see the country lighted up with the flames of war, from 
the center to its remotest border, than that the great rights and hopes of 
the human race expire before the arrogance of secessionists. Of this, how 
ever, there i no danger. They are at war with nature and the human 
heart, and cannot succeed." 

7 It is a noticeable fact, that Connecticut furnished the first four martyrs of the war 
of the rank of general, colonel, major, and captain, Lyon, Ellsworth, Wmthrop, and 
Ward ; the first four men, also, whose heroic deaths gave a marked impulse and momen 
tum to the war-spirit of the North. 


Though assigned bj order to the arsenal, Capt. LyonV; 
vigilance included the whole State of Missouri and outwit 
ting the traitorous Gov. Jackson in council, and outgeneral 
ing him in the field, the Union cause grew strong through the 
overmastering strength of its champion. A secession mob 
gathered around the arsenal to appropriate the large amount 
of arms and ammunition there stored : Lyon decoyed the 
mob away, and, placing all that was valuable on board a 
steamer in the night, transported it to Illinois. The rebel 
governor, Jackson, demanded a withdrawal of United-States 
troops from all territory outside of the arsenal : Lyon refused 
compliance. A rebel camp of instruction named after the 
governor, and its streets named in honor of Jefferson Davis 
and Beauregard, was .established outside the city; and there 
several thousand young traitors were assembled under 
command of Gen. Frost, and armed with muskets stolen from 
Baton Rouge. Instead of waiting to be attacked, Capt. 
Lyon, on May 10, surrounded the camp with several thou 
sand raw volunteers, and compelled it to surrender in thirty 
minutes. St. Louis, thereupon, became a furnace of rage and 
riotous tumult. Lyon quelled it by promptness and sternness, 
under which a few of the traitors lost their lives. The timid 
Secretary of War, thinking him too precipitate, superseded 
him by Gen. Harney ; but one week of the one-sided 
" neutrality " of Harney was enough even for Cameron, and 
Lyon was reinstated as brigadier-general. 

On June 11, Gov. Jackson and Gen. Price sought an in 
terview with Gen. Lyon ; but their attempt to inveigle him 
into the Harney neutrality trap was a total failure. They 
were crafty ; but he was wise : and he not only firmly re 
jected their proposal that the home-guard should be dis 
persed, but demanded the nullification of all the recent 
State laws which impeded the free action of the United- 
States forces, or in any way qualified the loyalty of Missouri. 
Gov. Jackson, failing in his diplomatic treachery, now had 
resort to open war ; and next day he issued his proclamation 
from the capital, exhorting " the brave-hearted Missourians," 
to the number of fifty thousand, to " rally to the flag of 
their State," and " drive out the invaders who had dared to 


desecrate the soil." Lyon was the first man to respond ; for 
the very next day he started for Jefferson City with two 
steamers arid fifteen hundred men. The valiant governor 
fled at his approach, and retreated forty miles to Booneville. 
Lyon issued a proclamation to the people, full of kindness 
and dignity, but breathing his own resolute purpose. 
Re-inforced by five hundred men, he followed next day to 
Booneville, and, with two thousand men, attacked the rebel 
camp of not less than thirty thousand ill-armed adherents 
of Jackson. 8 The assault was so determined and rapid, 
that the rebels broke in twenty minutes, and threw away 
their muskets in a panic, which ended in a rout. The 
camp-equipage, provisions, ammunition, horses, and guns 
fell into Lyon s hands ; and the enemy was completely 

The vigor of Lyon had restored the authority of the 
Union in Missouri ; the rebels only appearing in the south 
western corner of the State, where Price and McCulloch 
industriously rallied the defeated armies. As soon as he 
could form his trains, he marched rapidly on Springfield. 
The whole distance of two hundred miles, including the 
crossing of two swollen rivers, was accomplished in eleven 
days ; and the last fifty miles was made in twenty-four 
hours, a celerity of movement almost without parallel. 
Here he was re-inforced by three thousand men ; but these 
were the last : and henceforth his little command grew 
weaker day by day. Meantime, the foe were gathering. 
Lvon resolved to defeat them in detail ; and, during the 
next week, fell upon and dispersed large bodies of rebel 
troops, under Gen. Rains, at Dug Springs and at McCulloch 
Springs, twenty miles from Springfield. He retired again to 
that city, and called earnestly for re-inforcements ; for the 
four rebel armies, under Price, McCulloch, Pierce, and 
McBride, were already united at Wilson s Creek, only ten 
miles distant, the combined forces numbering not less than 
twenty-three thousand men. 9 His calls were unheeded. 
Promises came to Lyon, but no soldiers; and he felt that 

8 Vide Life of Gen. Lyon. 

9 Pollard, in the Lost Cause, acknowledges only thirteen thousand. 



he was left to defeat. 10 As a last desperate resort, he con 
ceived the bold design of marching forth by night with his 
little army of five thousand, and surprising the rebel camp. 
" By striking a sudden blow, he hoped to inflict so deep a 
wound as to paralyze the enemy till he could be relieved by 
re-inforcements, or retreat in safety." n He left Springfield 
Aug. 9 ; and at night came in sight of the hostile fires, 
and rushed upon the camp at dawn, leading one column 
against the north side, while Sigel led another against the 
south. Nothing prevented the surprise from being complete 
and overwhelming, except the singular circumstance that 
McCulloch had simultaneously planned a night-attack on 
Springfield ; and the men, with no pickets out, were sleeping 
on their arms. Lyon s little army was within musket-shot 
before it was discovered; then it plunged through the camp; 
and McCulloch fled from the breakfast-table, and led the 
bewildered rebels to the adjacent hills. But they took their 
arms. The ensuing conflict was one of the most skilfully- 
managed and resolutely-contested, not only of this war, but 
of any war. 

The battle raged for six hours ; and how terrible were the 
onsets may be learned from the fact that the rebels acknowl 
edged a loss of over five hundred killed, while Lyon s loss 
was two hundred and fifty killed and a thousand wounded 
and missing. 12 Early in the engagement, Gen. Lyon s horse 
was shot under him, and he was three times badly wounded. 
The closing scene of his gallant life is graphically described 
by his biographer, Dr. A. Woodward : 

" Mounting another horse, he rode back to the front in order to rally 
the thinned and bleeding but not disheartened lines for a fresh attack. He 
now directed the fragments of one or two regiments to charge the enemy 
with the bayonet. Many of their officers were disabled, and they called 
for a leader. "With countenance blanched from the loss of blood, and hag 
gard from anxiety, Gen. Lyon threw himself to the head of the column, 
and, with hat waving, cheered it onward. Inspired with almost superhu- 

10 Gen. Fremont, in command of the Department of the North-west, was widely 
censured for failing to give Lyon proper support. 

" Woodward s Life of Gen. Lyon, p. 307. 

12 Major Sturgis, in his official report of the battle, said of Surgeon Sprague (of Dan- 
iclsonville, Conn.), that " he attended the wounded with as much self-possession as if no 
battle were raging around him, and not only took charge of the wounded brought to him, 
but found time to use a musket with good effect against the enemy." 


man energy by the heroism of their chief, the men rushed forward, scat 
tering the enemy like chaff. But in that charge the brave Lyon fell. Our 
country, in the crisis of her darkest peril, lost that hour one of her clearest 
heads and stoutest hearts. He placed no value upon repose, comfort, or 
even life, when the land that he loved with all the devotion of his gener 
ous soul demanded their sacrifice." 

When he fell, the battle ended : no other leader could so 
inspire the soldiers. Sigel took up a reluctant retreat to 
Rolla ; but the enemy were so badly crippled, that they could 
not pursue. 

In the confusion of the retreat, the remains of Lyon 
were left behind. Mrs. Phelps, wife of Col. John S. Phelps, 
member of Congress for the district, and an unqualified 
Unionist, caused the body to be incased in a coffin hermeti 
cally closed, then concealed it in an old cellar under some 
straw. Finally, fearing it would be disturbed by the rebel 
soldiers, she had it taken out and buried in the night. When 
Danford Knowlton of New York, and John B. Hasler, rela 
tives of Lyon, arrived, she assisted them to recover the 
body. To this lady the thanks and honors of the nation 
are due; for she gave her time and expended her fortune 
in the relief of sick and wounded Union soldiers. 

Gen. Lyon s remains were brought to Connecticut, to be 
buried at Eastford, tenderly greeted all the way by tearful 
multitudes strewing the choicest flowers on the brave man s 
coffin. At St. Louis, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, New York, and 
Hartford, the body lay in state. It was estimated that ten 
thousand attended the funeral at Eastford. From all Wind- 
ham and the adjoining counties they came ; for he repre 
sented the soul of the loyal North ; and it was felt, that, in a 
season of timidity and inefficiency, he had borne aloft in his 
own hands the flag and the hope of the nation. The services 
were held in the Congregational church at Eastford, Ex-Go v. 
Chauncey F. Cleveland presiding. Judge Elisha Carpenter 
delivered an historical address, and Hon. Galusha A. Grow of 
Pennsylvania (both natives of Eastford) an oration, which elo 
quently enforced the lessons of the hour. Remarks were 
also made by Gov. Buckingham, Gov. Sprague, Senator Fos 
ter, Major-Gen. Casey, Mayor Deming of Hartford, and 
others ; and the remains of the hero were affectionately con 
signed to earth with military honors. 


In a marked and peculiar sense, Lyon was the Leonidas of 
the war; so able in council, and so brilliant in battle, as to 
extort reluctant praise even from his enemies; 13 so patriotic, 
that he bequeathed all his property, as has been currently re 
ported, to the United-States Government; so daring, that he 
inspired raw farmer-boys to fight like veterans. He was not 
constitutionally courageous, but timid, yet he w;is as" brave a 
soldier as ever drew a sword, and gave his life joj^ously to his 
country like a gallant knight ; he was not religious, yet his 
honesty of purpose was proverbial, and he had a high up 
rightness of soul which even religion sometimes fails to con 
fer ; he was not a statesman, yet the schemes of wily trai 
tors, outnumbering him ten to one, dissolved at his touch. 

In Congress, Senator Pomeroy eulogized Lyon s heroism, 
and commended it as an example for emulation ; and resolu 
tions were passed, declaring that " the country to whose ser 
vice he devoted his life will guard and preserve his fame as 
a part of its owri glory." 

At the dedication of a handsome monument to Gen. Lyon, 
by the State of Missouri, at Jefferson City, Senator Brown 
delivered a biographical address, and Lieut.-Gen. Sherman 
recalled some interesting reminiscences. He said of Lyon, 

" He did not wait till the meshes and trammels which were being plot 
ted for him were perfected. He was the first man in this country that 
seized the whole question, and took the initiative, and determined to strike 
a blow, and not wait for the blow to be struck. That he did not succeed at 
Wilson s Creek was no fault of his, but the result of causes which he could 
not control. The act itself was as pure and god-like as any that ever char 
acterized a soldier on the field of battle. I wish he could have lived ; for 
he possessed many of those qualities which were needed in the first two or 
three years of the war, and his death imposed on the nation a penalty 
numbered by thousands on thousands of lives, and millions on millions of 
dollars." . 

13 Pollard, in the Lost Cause and his Southern History, says, "Lyon was an 
undisguised and fanatical abolitionist.* He was, undoubtedly, an able and dangerous 
man, a man of the times, who appreciated the force of audacity and the value of quick 
decision. No doubts or scruples unsettled his mind. A Connecticut Yankee, without a 
trace of chivalrie feeling ;t small in stature, wiry, active, of dark complexion, and brave 
to a fault. The fall of such a man was a serious loss to the Federals in Missouri." 

* Yet he voted for Franklin Pierce. 

t The rebels insisted that no man would fight against treason who was " chivalrie." 


The Fourth in Maryland. Dissatisfaction and Insubordination. The Fifth on the 
Potomac. Recruiting active. The Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth. Towns repre 
sented. Departure. Sixth and Seventh at Washington and Annapolis. Eighth 
on Long Island. "The Sons of Connecticut." Ninth Regiment organized. 
" All Full Companies " accepted. The Tenth. Towns represented. Eighth and 
Tentli at Annapolis. Meetings and Social Intercourse. The Eleventh. Recruit 
ing. Towns represented. The Regiment embarks for Annapolis. Port-Royal 
Expedition. Landing of the Sixth and Seventh. First Union Troops in South 
Carolina. T vler appointed Colonel of the Fourth. The New Discipline. Expo 
sure and Privations of the Fifth. 

N the mean time, the Fourth and Fifth Regiments 
were at the front. All the next day after its 
departure (June 10, 1861), the Fourth waited 
at Jersey City for transportation ; then made a 
night-trip to Philadelphia, eating the oranges 
Mrs. Sigourney had thoughtfully provided ; and took a pleas 
ant morning-ride along the Valley of the Susquehanna. 
Next evening they arrived at Chambersburg, where, after 
their novel and fatiguing experience, they wrapped them 
selves in their blankets, and tumbled down in the clover to 
sleep, their first bivouac. Here they pitched their camp, 
and tarried four days, brigaded with the llth Pennsyl 
vania and the 1st Wisconsin; the latter commanded by Col. 
John C. Starkweather, formerly of Norwich, and a native of 
Preston, Conn. The next week they made a camp at Ha- 
gerstown, Md., where they staid until July 6, behaving so 
well, that the citizens petitioned to have them remain. 

At midnight, June 17, the long-roll was beaten; and the 
excited men were hurried off on the double-quick for Wil- 
liamsport, " to meet the rebels, only six miles off" There 
were wild rumors that they had crossed the Potomac for an 
invasion of Pennsylvania. Forty rounds of ammunition had 



been dealt out ; and the men were eager to test their valor. 
"Now or never," they thought, "for the triumph of republi 
can institutions ! " On arriving, it appeared that the enemy 
had been seen across the river, but had drawn off on the 
approach of our troops. They then returned to the camp 
at Hagerstown ; but, on the 4th of July, advanced again 
to Williamsport, relieving other regiments in holding this 
frontier. Here, while the antagonists were measuring each 
other s strength in Central Virginia, the Fourth had a quiet 
time, occupying a charming and comfortable camp until 
Aug. 16. Officers and men seem to have been great favorites 
with citizens wherever they were stationed. 

The regiment was next encamped near Frederick City, at 
the White-oak Springs. Here the dissatisfaction which had 
been silently gathering came to a crisis. They had not been 
paid; their clothes were so worn in -three months of service, 
that " scarce two men had hats or shirts alike ; coats had long 
been discarded ; and many were obliged to appear, even on 
dress-parade, lightly and airily attired in simple under-clo- 
thino:." l So bitter was the discontent, that, on Aus;. 23, 

C3 O 

about two hundred men, including Company K, marched out 
with their arms, and formed in line, facing the camp, an- 
nouncing that they were going home. The colonel directed 
Capt. Kellogg to arrest them. " Shall I fire on them if neces 
sary ? " asked the captain. " Take your own course," was the 
reply. Capt. Kellogg ordered his men to load, marched 
them out, and formed line, facing Company K, within two 
rods. He bluntly ordered Company K to " shoulder arms." 
They sullenly refused. " You ll shoulder arms, or be shot ! " 
growled he. " Company B, ready ! " The muskets came to 
the shoulder before the order to fire was given ; and the 
men were marched into camp, and the ringleaders taken to 
Banks s headquarters as prisoners. Active resistance was 
quelled ; but discontent continued. Within a week, there 
were eighteen desertions, ten of them from Company K. A 
week later came pay-daj^. 

About this time, a temperance meeting was organized, 
of which Lieut.-Col. White was chairman, and Sergeant 

1 Anniversary Address by Chaplain E. A. Walker. 


Twining secretary. Remarks were made by Major H. W. 
Birge, Chaplain Walker, Capt. D. W. Siprell, Lieuts. E. H. 
Mix, J. A. Turner, D. R. Hubbard, and George Harmon, and 
Sergeant H. J. Hubbard ; and a pledge was numerously 
signed by officers and men. 

Sept. 6, the regiment was turned over to Gen. Banks, and 
started to report to him at Darnestown, where they met the 
Fifth Connecticut. Three days later, Col. Woodhouse re 
signed his commission, his continued ill health having long 
prevented him. from taking a vigorous part in the drill and 
discipline of the regiment. There is no doubt that it was, 
at this time, an inefficient body of men, poorly instructed 
both in evolutions and the manual of arms ; and this became 
more apparent by contrast when they found themselves in 
camp with twenty-five thousand soldiers. 

The Fifth left Hartford on the cars, July 29, escorted to 
the depot by a vast concourse of citizens. At New Haven, 
they embarked upon the Elm City for Elizabeth, N.J. ; 
where they arrived next morning, and took the cars to Balti 
more. Here they were transferred to the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, for the Upper Potomac. Going westward from 
the monumental city, the soldiers spent a dismal, gloomy, 
uncomfortable night in the freight-cars. A terrible storm 
broke upon them ; and the darkness was relieved only by the 
lurid lightning, that occasionally cast a momentary pallor 
over their faces, and showed through the apertures that they 
were being whirled across a densely-wooded country. Most 
of the men were weary with two nights of travel, and dis 
pirited with scant quantities of dry rations, and the rest so 
inspirited by frequent potions of Baltimore lager as to be in 
no very amiable mood. 

At last, after much discomfort, they came to a stop about 
a mile east of Harper s Fe^ry, where they left the cars, 
inarched two miles north, and made their camp on a stubble- 
field. They were first included in the brigade of Col. George 
H. Thomas, afterwards renowned in Tennessee ; and around 
them were twenty regiments of Banks s division. The Fifth 
was soon sent out on picket, in detachments ; and in this ser 
vice it was kept employed, marching and counter-marching 


in cold and rain, between Edwards Ferry and Hancock. It 
had no established camp, and the men suffered greatly from 
the constant exposure and privations. They were frequently 
alarmed to meet an attack, and several men were captured 
while on picket. Aug. 19, Lieut. Putnam Day, of Putnam, 
died. He was a manly soldier, respected and esteemed by 
all his associates. 

About the middle of August, the Fifth marched to Jeffer 
son, crossed the mountains, and encamped for a few days at 
Point of Rocks, Mel., on the Carroll Manor, a fine estate of 
thirteen thousand acres, formerly owned by Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton. 

Aug. 15, the governor issued general orders, directing that 
volunteers be accepted for the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, and 
Ninth, three-years regiments, a part of the quota of Connec 
ticut under the recent call. Cols. Chatfield and Terry, effi 
cient commanders of three-months troops, were appointed 
colonels respectively of the Sixth and Seventh ; and those 
regiments were ordered to rendezvous at New Haven. The 
camp was located in commodious barracks on Oyster Point ; 
and there squads and half-formed companies already raised 
in different parts of the State immediately reported. Many 
who had been in the three-months service joined these regi 
ments either as officers or privates. By the same order, the 
Eighth Regiment was directed to rendezvous at Hartford. 

The romance of soldiering had passed away, the fervor 
which followed the first call to arms had somewhat abated, 
the dream of taking Richmond without a struggle was suc 
ceeded by bloody realities, the day of large bounties had 
not come ; yet the patriotic purpose of the people was still 
so earnest, that the four regiments were quickly raised. Meet 
ings were held in the different towns, at which the citizens 
flocked to listen, to applaud, to encourage enlistments, and 
to contribute to the volunteer fund. Immense mass-meet 
ings were held in the cities, the largest and most excited 
gatherings ever seen in the State. 

During the last days of August, most of the companies for 


the Sixth and Seventh had arrived at the barracks. Sept. 3, 
a Windham-county company was mustered into the Sixth, 
followed next day by the Waterbury and New Britain 
companies. On the 5th, three more were mustered ; also 
the Hartford, Danbury, and Norwich companies of the Sev 
enth. The rest were added in a day or two. About this 
time, the first fractional companies of the Eighth began to 
move to their camp, the grounds the Fifth had vacated, 
just outside of Hartford. Drilling, which had generally begun 
at the places of original enlistment, was continued vigorously 
in the camps. Nearly all the officers, and some of the pri 
vates, had seen service ; yet at least three-fourths were raw 
volunteers, who knew no difference between " reverse arms " 
and " right-shoulder-shift." The three-months veterans put 
their awkward comrades sternly through the manual, and 
exercised them in company and battalion drill, morning, 
afternoon, and evening. Every squad made the most of the 
few days remaining, and instruction proceeded rapidly. The 
three regiments received Enfield rifles, the two flank com 
panies of each being armed with Sharpe s ; and succeeding 
regiments were generally furnished with the same admirable 
weapons, and the same proportion of each. 

The field and staff officers of the Sixth Regiment, Col. 
John L. Chatfield, Lieut.-Col. William G. Ely, and Major John 
Speidal, were from New Haven, New London, and Fairfield 
Counties ; and the regiment chiefly enlisted from the south 
ern part of the State, Company A, Capt. Thomas K. Bates, 
was from the north-eastern towns of Windham County; 
Putnam furnishing thirty-one, Killingly twenty-three, and 
Thompson, Woodstock, and Plainfi eld the rest. Company B, 
Capt. Benjamin F. Prouty, was officered by Hartford ; and 
the privates were from twenty towns. Company C, Capt. 
Daniel Klein, was mainly from the Germans of New Haven; 
twelve being from Norwich, and six from Waterbury. Com 
pany D, Capt. Lorenzo Meeker, was from Stamford ; thirteen 
being from Greenwich. Company E, Capt. Edward P. Hud 
son, was mainly from Waterbury and Prospect; neighbor 
ing towns contributing a few. Company F, Capt. Lewis C. 
Allen, was recruited in New Haven. Company G, Capt. John 



M. Tracy, was mainly from New Britain ; New Haven fur 
nishing a first lieutenant and four men, and twelve being 
from Farmington. Company H, Capt. Henry Biebel, another 
German company, received its officers, and fourteen men, 
from Bridgeport : Meriden furnished twenty-four, and New 
Haven twenty-three. Company I, Capt. Thomas Boudren, 
was mainly from Bridgeport : ten were from Trumbull, and 
a squad from adjoining towns. New Haven furnished the 
officers, and most of the men, of Company K, Capt. Henry 
G. Gerrish : eight were from Hamdeu. 

The Seventh Regiment represented every county of the 
State. Of Company A, Capt. Daniel G. Francis, the first two 
officers, and ten men, were from Hartford ; twenty-five men 
from Southington ; the second lieutenant, and seven men, 
from New Britain ; and twenty more from contiguous towns. 
The first two officers, and eight men, of Company B, Capt. 
Daniel C. Rodman, were from Hartford ; the second lieuten 
ant, and seven men, from Vernon ; and the rest of the com 
pany hailed from Farmington, Middletown, Portland, Som- 
ers, Wethersfield, and Bolton. Wallingford had eight men 
in the Meriden company (C), Capt. Oliver S. Sanford. Com 
pany D, Capt. Benjamin F. Skinner, was from Danbury, 
Bethel, and Norwalk. Company E, Capt. Charles E. Palmer, 
was from Winsted (Winchester) and New Haven; a few 
men being furnished by Goshen, Norfolk, Orange, Colebrook, 
and Canton. Company F, Capt. Theodore Bacon, was officered 
in New Haven ; that city also furnishing a third of the pri 
vates : the rest were from Derby, Waterbury, Woodbridge, 
and other towns of the county, with a little squad from 
North Canaan. The officers and half the men of Com 
pany G, Capt. Edwin S. Hitchcock, were from New Haven ; 
and Salisbury and Canaan sent sixteen. In Company H, 
Capt. John B. Dennis, Norwich furnished the officers and 
twenty-three men ; Windham had thirteen ; Sprague, elev 
en ; and Montville, Bozrah, Eastford, and Griswold, twenty 
more. The captain (Gray) and second lieutenant of Com 
pany I, and eighteen men, were from Bridgeport : Middle- 
town was represented by a first lieutenant and eleven 
men ; Canaan, by nine men ; East Haddam, eleven ; and 


Colchester, six. In Company K, Capt. Tourtellotte, the 
captain and twenty-four men were from Killingly, the first 
lieutenant and nine men from Putnam, the second lieuten 
ant and twenty-eight men from Woodstock, and eight from 

Col. Alfred H. Terry, colonel of the Second, was made 
colonel of the Sixth, Joseph R. Hawley lieutenant-colonel, 
and George F. Gardiner major; 

Sept. 17, amid the usual patriotic demonstrations by the 
assembled citizens, the Sixth took steamer for Jersey City, 
where it was transferred to cars for Washington. It arrived 
without unusual incident, and pitched its tents on the salu 
brious grounds at Glenwood, formerly occupied by the three- 
months troops. Next day it was joined by the Seventh ; 
and both were brigaded under Gen. H. G. Wright, a native 
of Clinton, New-Haven County, afterwards distinguished as 
the able commander of the Sixth army corps. It was under 
stood that they were to be assigned to Gen. Thomas W. 
Sherman s division, soon to make a descent upon the South- 
Carolina coast; and the officers vied with each other in a 
thorough discipline of their commands. They went to An 
napolis, Oct. 5, there to await the assembling of troops and 
the mustering of the great squadron. 

By Sept. 15, the Eighth was full ; and, on the 21st, the 
Danbury, Norwich, and Stonington companies were mustered 
into the service, the rest being soon added. Edward Harland 
of Norwich, a popular captain in the Third Regiment, was 
made colonel, and was presented with an expensive sword by 
the New-London County bar. Capt: Glasson s New-Hartford 
company had been presented with a good library by Lucius 

Company A, Capt. Henry M. Hoyt, received two officers 
and nine men from Hartford, a lieutenant and eight men from 
Bridgeport, and the rest from East Windsor, Manchester, Nau- 
gatuck, and other towns. Company B, Capt. Patrick K. Ruth, 
took its officers and seventy-eight privates from Enfield, and 
a few from Suffield, Simsbury, and East Windsor. Company 
C, Capt. Charles W. Nash, was mainly from New Hartford ; 
about twenty-five coming from Granby, Colebrook, Enfield, 


Torrino-ton, and Canton. Norwich furnished the officers and 

O 7 

thirty-three men of Company D, Capt. John E. Ward ; Leba 
non, twenty-two; and Windham, fourteen. The officers and 
twenty-six men of Company E, Capt. Martin B. Smith, were 
from Waterbury ; twenty from Litchfield ; and the rest from 
Rocky Hill, Woodbury, and Cornwall. Plainfield furnished 
half of Company F, Capt. E. Y. Smith ; the other half repre 
senting Canterbury, Griswold, Brooklyn, and Sterling. In 
Company G, Capt. Hiram Appelman, were seventy-seven 
from Stonington, and fifteen from Groton. Company H, 
Capt. Douglass Fowler, was mainly from Norwalk ; though 
Danbury, Ridgefield, Wilton, and Redding furnished a few. 
New Milford furnished twenty-nine men in Company I, Capt. 
F. W. Jackson ; and Brookfield, seventeen ; Newtown, Wash 
ington, and Danbury, twenty more. Company K, Capt. 
Charles L. Upham, was mainly from Meriden. 

The Eighth was well equipped, and an excellent regiment. 
It was assigned to Gen. Burnside s force, soon to depart for 
North Carolina; and, on Oct. 17, it left Camp Bucking 
ham for Annapolis. As it passed towards the river, the de 
parting soldiers were greeted with waving flags and resound 
ing cheers from proud relatives and friends, and grateful 
strangers, wlio only knew them as a part of the grand Union 
army going eagerly forth to offer vicarious atonement for 
the sins of the nation. The regiment proceeded by boat to 
Jamaica. L.I., where it made a temporary camp. The tents 
were not at hand ; and they were obliged to sleep on the 
ground, covered only by their blankets and the autumnal 
sky. Many favors were received from the hospitable citizens, 
among whom Ex-Gov. John A. King and Dr. Shelton are 
prominently named. The regiment attended church in a 
body. Soldiers and citizens also turned out to a lecture by 
Chaplain J. J. Woolly, at which a collection of forty dollars 
was made for a regimental library. 

On Sept. 25, 1861, the citizens of Connecticut resident in 
New York met at the Fifth-avenue Hotel to organize for 
the purpose of receiving and entertaining our regiments pass 
ing through the city. Organization was effected by the 
choice of Robert H. McCurdy, president ; W. H. Gilman, 



treasurer ; Charles Gould, secretary One of their first acts 
was to visit the Eighth Connecticut in a body, and present 
a very handsome regimental flag. Gen. Prosper M. Wetmore 
made the presentation speech, briefly responded to by Col. 
Harland. From this time forward, during the entire war, the 
" Sons of Connecticut " were unremitting in vigilance and 
effort in extending a cordial hospitality to every soldier of 
this State in the city. 

The Ninth Regiment, recruited at Camp English, New 
Haven, was composed of men of Irish birth or parentage. 
Col. Thomas W. Cahill had been long connected with our 
State militia as captain of the Emmett Guards, and was a 
capable officer. His immediate assistants were Lieut.-Col. 
Richard F. Gibbons and Major Frederick Frye, both of 
Bridgeport. During the last week of September, seven 
companies were mustered in. From this until November, the 
time was .employed in obtaining recruits, and acquiring the 
discipline of the service. The State and regimental colors 
w r ere presented, Oct. 30, in an impressive speech by Hon. E. 
K. Foster. One flag was the gift of C. D. De Forest ; the 
other, of the patriotic ladies of the city. 

The regiment was recruited chiefly in the cities and large 
towns in the lower part of the State. Company A, Capt. 
John Duffy, contained sixty-seven from New Haven; while 
Hartford sent eight, and Danbury four. Company B, Capt. 
Patrick Garvey, received thirty-five from Meriden, nineteen 
from New Haven, and twelve from Cheshire and Middletown. 
Company C, Capt. Michael McCartin, had sixty-eight from 
New Haven, and eight from Norwich. Company D, Capt. 
Thomas C. Coats, received forty-nine from Bridgeport, and six 
from New Haven. Company E, Capt. James P. Hennessey, 
was wholly from New Haven and Derby. Company F, Capt. 
John Foley, represented Waterbury alone. Company G, 
Capt. William Wright, had thirty from Hartford and vicinity. 
Company II, Capt. Silas W. Sawyer, contained eighteen from 
Norwich. Company I, Capt. Elliott M. Curtiss, was made 
up in Fairfield County ; and Company K, Capt. John A. 
Nelson, in Hartford. 

The four regiments called for were organized. Enlist- 


ments continued, apparently without abatement ; and, ac 
cordingly, Gov. Buckingham issued orders to accept all full 
companies offering. By Sept. 18, the members of the Tenth 
had begun to arrive at Camp Buckingham, Hartford ; and, on 
the 21st and 22d, two New-Haven companies were mustered 
in. Within another week, the first companies for- the 
Eleventh had reported at Camp Lincoln, near the arsenal, 
Hartford. Enlistments and drilling continued through Oc 
tober. Capt. Charles L. Russell of Derby, who, with Pardee 
and Jepson of New Haven, had recruited a company for the 
Eighth, was offered the lieutenant-colonelcy of the Tenth, 
but declined it, except on the condition that his company 
could be transferred with him. His proposition was soon 
accepted by the governor; and his company exchanged 
places with Capt. Ruth s En field company of the Tenth. 
Gov. Buckingham sought for the colonelcy a regular army- 
officer; but, the position being declined by Capt. Frederick 
Myers, Lieut.-Col. Russell was, before the regiment left, pro 
moted to be colonel. Col. Russell and Lieut.-Col. Albert W. 
Drake were both thorough soldiers, good disciplinarians, and 
enthusiastic in their military spirit. They had choice mate 
rial to deal with, and they infused their own zeal into the 
entire mass. Before the retriment left Hartford, its members 


had attracted much attention for their soldierly behavior. 

Of Company A, Capt. Benjamin S. Pardee, twenty-six 
were from New Haven, fourteen from Derby, and the rest 
from most of the other towns in the county. Company B, 
Capt. Philip W. Hudson, was from Manchester, Marlborough, 
Coventry, Glastenbury, and other towns in Hartford County. 
Company C, Capt. E. D. S. Goodyear, was a consolidation of 
squads from the two counties ; New Haven, Branford, and 
Bristol furnishing a majority. Company D, Capt. Lewis 
Judd, was mainly from the north-western corner of the State. 
Company E, Capt Henry A. Wells, hailed from Hartford 
County. Company F, Capt. Joseph W. Branch, was mostly 
raised in the town of Spragne. Company G, Capt. Isaac L. 
Hoyt, was a union of a company of fifty from New Canaan, 
and one of thirty from Darien and Stamford. Company H, 
Capt. Robert Leggett, was from New-London County. Com- 


pany I, Capt. Thomas R. Mead, was raised entirely in the 
town of Greenwich Company K, Capt. Edwin B. Munson, 
represented most of the towns of New-Haven County ; New 
Haven, East Haven, and Bethany leading off. 

This regiment also was assigned to Gen. Burnside s expe 
dition. The Eighth had already arrived at Annapolis, after 
a tedious passage of four days; and, Oct. 31, the Tenth 
broke camp, with orders to proceed at once to the rendezvous. 
Before the departure, a beautiful State flag was presented 
by Thomas R. Trowbridge of New Haven, made for the regi 
ment by his wife and daughter. Then taking the steamers 
Granite State and Mary Burton, and hailed by the cheers 
of thousands, the Tenth was fairly off for the war. 

They were received at New York next morning by the 
Sons of Connecticut, and breakfasted at the Park Barracks. 
The national colors were presented by S. B. Chittenden, 
Arriving at the City of Brotherly Love next morning, 
they were again cared for with great hospitality. In 
due time, the regiment found itself at Annapolis, snugly in 
camp, about a mile and a half from the town. The Sixth 
and Seventh had left ; but the Eighth was located near : and 
the two regiments cultivated each other s acquaintance, and 
prepared themselves, by constant drill on the same field, for 
that severe service they were destined to share together. 
Among the uncertain conveniences of the camps was the 
" stove," consisting of a hole in the ground, with the earthy 
sides pounded hard, or lined with stone, and a subterranean 
passage leading from the bottom of it to a pipe or rude 
chimney outside. These contrivances were expected to 
work on the plan of a tobacco-pipe, but, in some cases, per 
sisted in drawing at the wrong end, changing the tents into 

There was heartiness and unity in the work of prepara 
tion for battle. Strict discipline was enforced. A school of 
instruction and a board of rigid examination were organized. 
Drills were almost constant, and the regiments steadily 
gained in compactness and soldierly bearing. Some officers 
left on account of ill health ; a few were dismissed ; " others," 
wrote an officer, " strong men physically, found themselves 


entirely unfitted for the profession of arms, and bore the 
mortification of resigning that others might take their 
places. This was real patriotism and true courage." 

The morale of the regiments was correspondingly raised. 
Gambling and liquor-selling were suppressed ; offenders 
being severely punished, and their stakes and stock confis 
cated for the regimental fund. Profanity was rebuked. 
Unnecessary Sunday labor was avoided. Religious meetings 
were frequent ; and, in the Tenth, an officers special prayer- 
meeting was held at the tent of Col. Russell. Each regi- 
girnent also organized and supported a Sunday school, that 
of the Tenth attaining two hundred and fifty members. 
Companies had weekly prayer-meeting. The Eighth held 
a regimental prayer-meeting every Sunday night at their 
chapel, " an enclosure of trees and earth, with walls six feet 
high, and no roof." Just before sailing, about fifty partook of 
the communion here. The Sunday-evening meeting of the 
Tenth was held in a clearing. Of these exercises, Capt. 
B. S. Pardee gave a vivid picture in a letter : 

"There, at the sound of the bugle, the men assemble, and engage with 
marked interest and solemnity in the services. The sight is picturesque, and 
to the Christian mind impressive, especially at night. Then the bright camp- 
fire throws out in strong relief the figures o chaplain and men, and writes in 
grotesque characters upon the dense surrounding thickets. Occasionally, a 
fresh log thrown on causes showers of sparks to mount in glistening eddies 
skywards, and fall in fading glory among the worshipers. The men are 
grouped about in easy postures, and their mobile features express clearly the 
emotions of the hour. Close on one side rushes by the heavily-laden train, 
jarring the earth in its passage ; on the other comes from a camp the 
steady, monotonous drum-bear. The bayonets of our sentries glitter coldly 
in the moonlight ; and white and frosty, as if snow-clad, shine the long 
lines of the encampment. Solemn prayer goes up to heaven for strength 
in the hour of trial, and earnest prayer for protection from temptation s 
power ; comrades press home vipon their fellows the necessity of safety in 
Christ ; tearful eyes and softened hearts attest the fervor with which all 
unite in the petition for dear ones left at home- And so the hour passes 
almost unnoted, and men are surprised when the chaplain pronounces the 

The Tenth was brigaded with Massachusetts troops, under 
Gen. Foster. The Eighth was brigaded with some New- 
York and Pennsylvania regiments, and Col. Harland com 
manded the brigade much of the time. Details were made 


to assist in patrolling the city, now under martial law. All 
the Connecticut regiments occasionally held patriotic meet 
ings around the camp-fire, at which songs were sung and 
speeches made, graced with reminiscences of the pleasant 
home-life, and foreshadowing the battles and victories to 

Henry W. Kingsbury of Lyme was commissioned to be 
colonel of the Eleventh; but he declined the position to ac 
cept a command in the 14th regulars, and was succeeded 
by Lieut-Col. T. H. C. Kingsbury of the Fifth. All through 
October and November, recruiting for the regiment continued 
active. In every county of the State engaged in enlisting 
volunteers were embryo officers, their shoulder-straps de 
pending on their success. Sometimes the officer made his 
headquarters at a tent, sometimes in his office or at a hall; 
while, not unfrequently, he rode in a buggy from town to 
town, holding impromptu war-meetings at schoolhouses or in 
other convenient rooms, and summoning the young farmers 
from the harvest to the tented field. The growth of each 
company was rapid or slow, according to the influence of 
friends, the efforts made by advertising, and the activity 
and popularity of the proposed officers. At last the regiment 
was declared full, and the activity of drill was redoubled. 
Charles Mathewson of Pomfret was lieutenant-colonel, and 
Capt. Griffin A. Stedrnan was transferred from the Fifth to be 

Capt. George M. Southmayd s company (A) was from 
D anbury, New Fairfield furnishing sixteen. Capt. Timothy 
D. Johnson s company was mainly from Stafford ; Ashford 
sending sixteen, and Ellington and the Windsors a dozen 
more. C, Capt. William Moegling, was recruited from the 
Germans of New-Haven and Fairfield Counties. D, Capt. 
Edwin R. Lee, contained nineteen from Hartford, nineteen 
more from Canterbury and Winsted, and the rest from the 
northern range of towns. E, Capt. John H. Dewell, received 
thirty-five men from Norfolk ; Winsted, twelve ; Salisbury, 
eight ; Canaan, six. F, Capt. William Clapp, was made up 
from Killingly, Pomfret, Eastford, Brooklyn, and neighboring 
towns. In G, Capt. William I. Hyde, were represented Plain- 



field, twenty-three ; Newtown, thirteen ; Thompson, eight. 
H, Capt. Albert E. Daniels, was raised mainly in Windham 
County. I, Capt. John Griswold, was contributed by North 
Canaan and adjoining towns in Litchfield County. K, Capt. 
Charles S. Denison, was raised mainly in the towns at the 
mouth of the Connecticut; Danbury furnishing ten. 

The regiment left Hartford for Annapolis, Dec. 16 ; having 
also been assigned to the Burnside Expedition. They arrived 
at New York next morning, and partook of a substantial 
breakfast, provided by the liberal sons and daughters of 
Connecticut, residents of the city, whose organization has 
been mentioned. Speeches of encouragement and approba 
tion were made by Gov. Buckingham, Gen. Wetmore, Col. 
John H. Almy, and others. A handsome set of regimental 
colors was presented in the Park during the day ; and the 
regiment embarked on a steamer for Annapolis. While going 
down the bay in the evening, a revenue-cutter fired a blank 
shot across the bows of the crowded transport to bring her 
to. The captain, feeling that he was on patriotic service, 
failed to round to ; when Fort Hamilton fired a solid shot, 
striking the vessel, and obliging the captain to stop and ex 
plain himself. The boys of the Eleventh were somewhat 
startled to find themselves attacked so soon. 

On the second day they arrived at their destination, and 
pitched their tents. The Eighth and Tenth were still there, 
and had established a very picturesque camp, its streets orna 
mented with young pines. The soldiers shaded their tents, 
and constructed arches over the company-streets, in which 
the company-letter, shields, stars, and other devices, were 
neatly worked in evergreen, with red berries set among the 
wreaths. The Eleventh showed a spirit of emulation ; and, 
though they had but three weeks to remain, they laid out a 
camp, and went vigorously at work to build a log-village after 
the model of the 24th Massachusetts, lying near. The 
Massachusetts boys also took hold, and rendered brotherly 
assistance. One more flag was unfurled over the soil of Mary 
land, borne to the breeze upon a tall, straight pine pole ; and 
the Eleventh began to make itself at home. Here, drilling, 
visiting, and trying to keep comfortable, the three regiments, 


with fifty others, waited while Burnside mustered his fleet 
of war. 

On Oct. 20, the Sixth and Seventh Connecticut, and fifteen 
regiments from other States, assembled at Annapolis, and 
embarked on thirty-three transports for the long-talked-of 
expedition to South Carolina under Sherman. There were 
tedious delays, and the squadron finally left Fortress Monroe 
Oct. 29. Two days out from Hampton Roads, there was a 
terrible south-east storm, in which the fleet was thoroughly 
scattered, and two of the vessels sunk. The ships which car 
ried the Sixth and Seventh came only within speaking-dis 
tance, so that the men could hail each other during the storm. 
The squadron re-assembled off Port Royal Bar on Nov. 4. 
On the 7th was the brilliant naval battle by the ships under 
Com. Dupont, resulting in the capture of Forts Walker 
and Beauregard ; while the troops lay two miles off watching 
the splendid bombardment. 2 The Connecticut troops were 
selected to land first. It was thought that the rebels might 
rally, and contest the possession. The Sixth, under Lieut-Col. 
W. G. Ely, was on board the steamer Winfield Scott ; the 
Seventh, under Col. Terry, on boats in tow. Standing in near 
Fort Walker, the steamer ran aground : the crews of the boats 
rowed past ; and the companies of the Seventh jumped into 
the water, and formed on the beach. The Sixth immedi 
ately debarked, and joined them. Lieut.-Col. Hawley, in a 
letter to the Press, said, 

" Our Seventh Regiment landed first, and had the honor of taking charge 
of Fort Walker over night. The companies of Capts. Francis and Rodman 
did the advanced picket-duty for the night. Friday the regiment was sent 
about five miles in a westerly direction, on an armed recounoissance to 
Seabrook s Landing. We caught no rebels, but found a large quantity of 
provisions and other property. The rebels ran in the extremest fright, 
abandoning almost every thing but the clothing on them. It is as warm as 
June. I have oranges in my pocket picked at Seabrook s. The palmetto 
is plenty about us ; the leaves are green on all the trees ; the cotton-fields are 
white, waiting for the second picking ; and sweet-potatoes are plenty. There 
is scarcely a white man left on the island. The negroes greet us with great 
pleasure, and are wonderfully hearty in crying, God bress you, mass r. " 

Gov. Buckingham immediately issued a proclamation, 

2 Lieut. William S. Cogswell, of the Fifth Connecticut, commanded a detachment 
of the signal cor^s at Port Koyal ; and the success was so marked, that Col. Meyer men 
tioned it in the general orders. 


congratulating the State and her soldiers that " the two regi 
ments from Connecticut were the first to land on the hostile 
shore ; and, after the stars and stripes, the flag of Connecti 
cut was the first to wave above the traitorous soil of South 

The Connecticut troops also made the first advance from 
Hilton Head. The Sixth, under Lieut-Col. Ely, was sent 
out to Graham s plantation, where it found and sent in large 
quantities of corn and other supplies. The Seventh made 
a reconnoissance to the lower end of the island, some fifteen 
miles off, and took possession of the rebel batteries there. 
These they held, unspiking the guns, and blazing away at 
Fort Pulaski in the distance. On the 20th, they reconnoi 
tred to Dawfuskie Island, in the direction of Savannah. 
Capt. Rodman made his headquarters at a deserted planta 
tion, while Capts. Palmer and Gray occupied the residence 
of Rev. Mr. Lawton. A letter of that date says, " Oysters 
and fish are abundant, wild hogs run in the jungles, the men 
sleep under shelter ; and, on the whole, it is quite a jolly 
soldier life down there at Braddock s Point Contrabands 
come over as rapidly as they can ; their masters watching 
the coast, breaking up boats, and shooting the fugitives 
The negroes glorify us into saints. Let men in high places 
or low do what they please, and be as cowardly as they 
please, this army will not fight for slavery ; and the war is 
a war for liberty." 

Lieut-Col. Ely of the Sixth, with three companies, had a 
skirmish with rebels on the west side of the island. The 
detachment brought in two fine brass howitzers, with a val 
uable pair of horses, seventy other horses, six mules, six 
wagons, two yoke of oxen, and other property, of a total 
value of fifty thousand dollars. "For this," says one of the 
company officers, "we never received a particle of credit, 
not even a quartermaster s receipt" In December, the 
men were detailed to construct the new fortifications, and 
in three weeks moved their camps to the rear of them, and 
took turns at working the guns. 


At Darnestown, during September, the Fourth received 
a competent commander in Col. Robert 0. Tyler of the regu 
lar army, formerly from Hartford, and a nephew of Gen. 
Daniel Tyler. With him their true "army life" began. 
Of this undisciplined crowd of Connecticut boys he was to 
make soldiers. The vigor with which he went to the task 
indicated how thoroughly he meant to do it. He assisted 
at guard-mounting, and inspected every musket and every 
man. " There were no uniform coats, and few presentable 
pants, in the regiment ; but, whenever an effort at neatness 
was made, the colonel s eye perceived it, and a compliment 
was sure to follow. Even the man who put a coat of black 
ing on his bare feet was thus rewarded for his pains, and, 
though destitute of pantaloons, marched off with the air of 
a major-general." 3 Within a week, new uniforms were re 
ceived, and the old ones thrown away ; and the regiment was 
marched to Washington. Oct. 9, it crossed Long Bridge, and 
took formal possession of Fort Richardson, pitching its tents 
temporarily on the slope below, near the river-bank. 

Company A was detailed for the fort : the rest imme 
diately began " stump-grubbing " about the fort, Col. White 
superintending with untiring -energy ; and this recreation 
was continued until ten acres was reclaimed from the wilder 
ness of a Virginia forest, and made smooth as a parlor floor. 
Here a matchless camp was set, overlooking Washington and 
the Potomac. The rest of the winter was spent in constant 
ly rigid discipline ; but the days were without any exciting 
incident beyond an occasional review. Chaplain Walker, 
writing of this time, said, 

" Looking back over the five months spent at Fort Richardson, the 
mind is confused with details that struggle for expression. Time has not 
yet toned down these memories into their relative light and shade. We 
see them as in kaleidoscopic vision, long lines of snow-white gloves, of 
glistening bayonets, of polished brass, and spotless uniforms, mixed up 
with carriage-loads of ladies, officers on horseback, flags, and cannon- 
smoke ; and, with these, soberer bits of glass in the shape of sling-carts, 
statuary, and spread eagles ; and again, stumps, picks, shovels, and the 
like, set off by mud and cold and wind ; and these again relieved b y gor 
geous sunrises and sunsets, lovely days and nights, and the ever-changing, 

8 Anniversary Address, Chaplain Walker, p. 49. 


ever-charming views from the summit of the hill. Turn the glass, and 
again we have the same things in different combinations. But in every 
scene may be detected the vigilant eye of our commander, scrutinizing 
every thing, approving every soldierly act or trait, and punishing with 
rigor each minute offense against perfect military discipline." 

A correspondent of the Philadelphia Press said, " It is 
a picturesque camp, a model of military neatness. Com 
fort, economy, and discipline are marked. These Yankees 
are a great people. They carry their good order and steady 
habits everywhere. In every thing, there is the precision of 
the regular army. I have seldom seen a finer body of men." 

During these last months of 1861, the Fifth was still 
engaged in the most arduous and disagreeable duty known 
to a soldier s life, holding a long picket-line in the face 
of an alert enemy, exposed to snow and sleet, without any 
winter-quarters, and without comfortable tents. In October, 
it moved from Darnestown to re-inforce Gen. Stone. March 
ing all night, it reached Edwards Ferry the morning after 
the disastrous battle of Ball s Bluff; and was ordered to 
cross the river, and renew the attack. The order was 
countermanded, and the regiment went into temporary 
camp at Muddy Branch. Dec. 19, a company crossed the 
Potomac, and burnt the mill being used by the rebels at 
Dam Number Five. The regiment came near losing Col. 
Ferry, prostrated in Washington with fever; but he re 
turned in three weeks, and was warmly welcomed. During 
the winter, we find the Fifth successively at Darnestown, 
Rockville, Frederick, Monocacy, Edwards Ferry, Williams- 
port, Harper s Ferry, Jefferson, Hagerstown, Hancock, and 
in detachments at all the fords intervening. The first of 
December, their discomfort was materially modified by the 
receipt of a full set of Sibley tents. The winter was spent 
in ceaseless movements along the river, in which a degree of 
celerity was exhibited, which won for the Fifth the sobri 
quet of " the foot cavalry." 


Extra Session of the Legislature. Governor s Message. A Carte Blanche. More 
Regiments authorized. Gen. Butler and the Twelfth. A Light Battery and a 
Battalion of Cavalry. At Meriden. Off for the War. The Ninth badly 
equipped. Twelfth in Camp at Hartford. Thirteenth in Barracks at New Haven. 
Ninth and Twelfth at Ship Island. Blockading. The " Stone Fleet." Effect 
on the Harhors of the South. 

HEN Gov. Buckingham issued orders in Septem 
ber, 1861, for the formation of the Tenth Regi 
ment, he had reached the limit set by the 
General Assembly at its May session. He 
therefore issued his proclamation on the 25th, 
convening the Assembly to consider what more the grow 
ing power of the Rebellion demanded from Connecticut, and 
to provide for the payment, by the State, of its proportion 
($308,214) of the direct tax imposed by Congress at its 
July session. 

The legislature met on the 9th of October following. 
Mr. Brandagee being disabled by illness, Hon. Henry C. 
Doming of Hartford was elected speaker pro tern, by accla 
mation ; the Republican majority thus testifying their respect 
for a gentleman, who, elected as a Democrat, forgot all 
partisan feelings when he deemed his country in danger. 

The message of the governor was terse and earnest. In 
referring to the war, he said, 

" Instead of inquiring how much we have done, shall we not inquire 
what more we can do ? It is a privilege to live in a day like this ; to take 
a bold and energetic part in the conflict which is now raging between law 
and anarchy, and during this revolution, which, in the onward progress 
of events, is to accomplish the wise designs of an overruling Providence, 
to exert an influence which shall aid in advancing this nation to such a 
position of strength and moral power, that every citizen may safely, fully, 



and speedily enjoy the blessings of freedom. This is a high honor within 
our reach, a rich privilege which we may enjoy, and a solemn duty which 
God calls on us now to perform." 

A law was passed authorizing the governor to enlist, or 
ganize, and equip, according to his discretion, an unlimited 
number of volunteers ; and directing the treasurer to issue 
additional bonds of the State, to the amount of two million 
dollars, to meet whatever expenses might be incurred. 
This liberal action, in appropriating four million dollars in 
a single year, and intrusting its disbursement to a single 
man, evinced an uncalculating patriotism, and a confidence 
in the judgment and fidelity of the Executive almost with 
out parallel. 

Appropriations were made for the assistance of the fami 
lies of those three-months men who had been retained as 
prisoners; and the governor was authorized to pay the di 
rect tax due the General Government by crediting the amount 
on the claims of the State. 

A resolution was passed (the Republicans and one Demo 
crat voting for it) instructing the comptroller to remove the 
portraits of Ex-Go vs. Toucey and Seyniour from their places 
on the walls of the senate-chamber. 1 

The assembly adjourned Oct. 16, after a session of only 
one week. 

In September, it was announced that Gen. Butler had re 
ceived authority to recruit one regiment from each New- 
England State for a secret expedition of great importance. 
He visited Hartford during the special session of the General 
Assembly, was presented to both houses, and received with 
great enthusiasm. 

He counseled with the governor and prominent citizens, 
among them his old Democratic friend Hon. Henry C. 
Deming, then Speaker of the House of Representatives 
(elected by acclamation in a house largely Republican). 
Mr. Deming accepted a commission as colonel of a regiment 
to be raised for this service, and to be called " The Charter- 
oak Regiment," The other regiments were to take State 

1 The resolution provided that the comptroller mi^ht restore the portraits to their 
frames when he was satisfied of their loyalty. They were replaced before the meeting of 
the General Assembly in 1867. 


appellations ; as " The Pine-tree State," " The Granite State," 
" The Bay State," and " The Green-mountain Boys." 5 

The regiment thus decided on became, in the order of re 
cruiting, the Twelfth. Connecticut Volunteers, and was gen 
erally so designated. 

About the middle of September, the Secretary of War sig 
nified to Gov. Buckingham his readiness to accept a battery 
of artillery and a battalion of cavalry from Connecticut. -The 
governor immediately gave authority to proper persons to 
recruit for one company of cavalry in each congressional 
district, and to several persons in different parts of the State 
to enlist men for the battery. Both organizations were pop 
ular from the first, and volunteers were ra.pidly enrolled. 

Oct. 22, the battery went into camp in West Meriden 
(Hanover District) with about a hundred men. On the 
26th, the men were mustered into the service of the United 
States for three years. The same day, they elected Selden 
T. Porter of Andover, and John S. Cannon of New Haven, 
first lieutenants ; and William T. Seward of Guilford, and 
Georse T. Metcalf of Hartford, second lieutenants. Guns 


and horses were soon furnished them for temporary use, and 
artillery practice at once began. 

Recruiting-officers for the cavalry battalion were appointed, 
with the intention of raising one company in each congres 
sional district ; but the district-lines were not at all observed. 

Oct. 23, the battalion, numbering about three hundred 
men, encamped beside the battery. The men were soon 
equipped and mounted, and spent the bright days of autumn 
in learning camp and guard duty and cavalry tactics. They 
were at once the kings and pets of the town: The people 
opened their doors and their hearts, visited the camp with 
admiring curiosity, and rarely failed to leave some " creature 
comfort" as a token of cordial interest. 

Religious meetings were frequent, and well attended. A 
sentence from a discourse to them by Rev. E. Warriner, after 
wards their esteemed chaplain, recalls a conception of battle 

2 In making up the force of Gen. Butler, the original plan was departed from, and he 
received several regiments from each State; from Connecticut, the Ninth, Twelfth, and 
Thirteenth. The Ninth and Thirteenth were not recruited with a view to this special 




then shared by both, but which both would now smile at. 
It is this : " When you swing your saber over the head of a 
rebel, pray, God have mercy on your soul ! and then strike ; 
and don t you pray too long either, for fear you may not 
hit him." The prayerful Cromwellian style of fighting was 
more popular in early theory than common in later practice. 

The army-regulations make no provision for a chaplain to 
any. organization smaller than a regiment; but the Legisla 
ture of Connecticut passed a special act for the commission 
and pay, by the State, of a chaplain to this battalion. Rev. 
Mr. Warriner was appointed ; and he proceeded to organize 
a church on a simple basis of Christian brotherhood. Sects 
and creeds vanished. Christian faith, and a renunciation of 
sin, became the test of a hearty fellowship, which survived 
all the vicissitudes of camp and field, increased with the 
growth of the battalion to a regiment, and continued fresh 
and earnest to the final muster-out. It is, perhaps, worthy 
of record, that of the fourteen who originally united in the 
declaration of faith, though they were among the most de 
voted and daring men, all save two were preserved through 
countless perils to the end of the conflict. Capt. Elbridge 
Colburn and Sergeant William P. Traganza died in the faith 
they professed. 

Similar church-organizations were formed in nearly all the 
regiments of our State, and kept up with more or less ear 
nestness ; flourishing or decaying with the presence or ab 
sence of a chaplain, the nature of the service, and the char 
acter of officers and men. 

The members of the battalion, as a rule, were men of su 
perior intelligence and character. Still the chaplain is sorely 
exercised to find very soon one of those anomalous and 
versatile characters, occasionally met with, who "makes 
flaming speeches ; and the next we hear of him, he is playing 
cards, swearing, shearing horses tails, and then living on 
bread and water in the guard-tent." 

Drill was industriously continued in both the battalion and 
battery; and recruiting went on through October and Novem 
ber, when the men were mustered into the service. The 
cavalry battalion had three hundred and forty-six men, some 


from almost every town in the State. Company A, Capt. An 
drew Bowen, had eleven from Woodstock, and eleven from 
Hartford : the rest were mostly from towns in Tolland and 
Windham Counties. Company B, Capt. Charles Farnsworth, 
was recruited in New Haven, Derby, and adjoining towns. 
Company C, Capt. William S. Fish, received seventeen men 
from Stonington, the rest from New-London and Middlesex 
Counties. Company D, Capt. L. A. Middlebrook, was recruited 
in Bridgeport, which furnished thirty ; many towns in Fair- 
field and Litchfield Counties being represented. Major Henry 
Boardman, whose reputation as commander of the govern 
or s Horse Guards had greatly accelerated the recruiting, was 
appointed major of the battalion. He resigned Nov. 18 ; 
and Judson M. Lyon was appointed to succeed him, on peti 
tion of the citizens of Woodstock and neighboring towns. 

The battery was raised to a hundred and fifty-six men; 
Hebron having twenty-nine, and Guilford twenty-seven. 
Early in December, they received four bronze six-pounder 
James rifled guns. With these they learned artillery drill 
practically during the ample leisure of midwinter. In fact, 
both cavalry and artillery men found it necessary to exercise 
to keep warm. They were not inured to exposure, and had 
not yet learned how to make the best of their accommoda 
tions ; so that it is not surprising, that, living in a village of 
tents in this high latitude, the soldiers suffered as much from 
cold as at any subsequent time. 

They were impatient for active service ; and at last the 
welcome order came. Jan. 13, 1862, the battery, with full 
ranks and equipments, complete in every particular, broke 
camp for the seat of war. The destination was not definitely 
announced until they had turned their backs upon a dis 
mantled camp, and looked upon the receding shores of 
Connecticut ; when they learned that they were to follow the 
Sixth and Seventh to the original Secessia, the island-shore 
of South Carolina. 

Feb. 20, the mounted men of the battalion also spoke their 
reluctant good-bys, and, full of spirit and hope, set out for 
Wheeling, Va. 


Meanwhile, the Ninth Regiment, at New Haven, had been 
filling slowly. Recruiting for it, though carried on with the 
same auxiliaries, seemed to be less successful than for some 
other organizations. At no time did it attain the minimum 
number required. 

The men were in camp for two months in New Haven ; yet 
they received no muskets nor any general outfit. One suit 
of blue, of poor material, constituted their entire equipment. 
The regiment having been turned over to Gen. Butler, Gov. 
Buckingham considered that all further responsibility was as 
sumed by the Federal Government. The officers prosecuted 
their drills, and enforced discipline, under every disadvantage ; 
and neither officers nor men felt much of that military pride 
which accompanies the possession of the burnished arms 
and handsome uniforms that make a display possible. Feel 
ing sorely the apparent indifference of the government, 
quite a number were induced by their friends to desert, 
leaving the regiment with little more than six hundred men. 
In this condition, and with these feelings, they departed 
for Lowell, Mass., on Nov. 4 ; signalizing their progress 
through the State with conduct unusually boisterous and 
reckless. They went into camp by the side of the 26th 
Massachusetts, which was splendidly equipped in every 
particular. Here they resumed drill ; but few of the expected 
recruits were added. No arms or uniforms were received. 
Their pantaloons were beginning to assume various degrees 
of dilapidation. 

On Thanksgiving Day, the Ninth embarked, numbering 
about six hundred men, ragged, unarmed, and dispirited, 
accompanied by the 26th Massachusetts and a battery, on 
board the steam-transport Constitution, to do battle for the 
Union in the extreme South. At Fortress Monroe, Gen. 
Phelps was taken onboard. After an uncomfortable voyage, 
they neared the long, low, white level of Ship Island, off the 
coast of Mississippi. Here they landed, Dec. 3, the first of 
Butler s expedition, designed for the capture of New Orleans. 
Muskets and tents for the Ninth had been brought down, and 
were now distributed. The men were still wretchedly clad, 
and it was midwinter. Nearly half of them were without 


shoes, and as many more without shirts. Several had no coats 
or blankets. Some drilled in a primitive attire of blouse and 
cotton drawers. The tents were hardly capacious enough to 
cover them. There was no straw to sleep on. They were 
without transportation, and were obliged to bring the wood 
for their fires four miles. This was made into rafts ; and men 
almost naked, in water up to their arms, floated it down to 
camp. Chips were precious during the winter ; and not a 
shaving was burned, except for necessary cooking. The 26th 
was equipped with warm blankets, ample tents, and two uni 
form suits of clothing per man; and to them the members 
of the Ninth furnished a contrast, which would have been 
amusing, if it were not humiliating. With the -buoyancy of 
the Irish character, the men were hopeful, and, during these 
severe months, sent to their families not less than twenty 
thousand dollars, almost their entire pay. 

The Ninth were daily detailed to the performance of 
fatigue-duty, including the unloading of vessels, &c. One 
day. they came upon a stock of canvas shoes consigned to 
the post-sutler. These Col. Cahill immediately appropriated, 
receipting for them on his own account, and distributing 
them among his barefoot command. Gen. Phelps could find 
nothing in the regulations authorizing such an act ; but the 
colonel found sufficient justification in the paramount law 
of necessity. In this service, and in this state of discomfort, 
the Ninth awaited the approach of spring. 

Enlistments had continued for the Twelfth, and recruiting 
now assumed a thorough and systematic form. The bounty, 
National and State, was yet only a hundred and thirty 
dollars ; and patriotism was still the main reliance. Individ 
uals offered inducements to volunteers. Some towns voted 
small bounties. Many young men rode from house to house, 
in localities where they were known and esteemed, and made 
personal application to the young men at their homes, first 
rousing their martial ardor (generally an easy task), and then 
appealing to fathers and mothers to send forth their sons, 
with their parental blessing, to fight for freedom and the 
Union. These were the most successful recruiting-officers, 
and they gathered in the noblest and sturdiest volunteers. 


The Twelfth was rather a favorite regiment from the first, 
and especially popular with the young war-Democrats, who 
rose up in every county to affirm, on the battle-field, that our 
country is not a confederacy, hut a nation. Yet ten thou 
sand men had already gone from the State within six months, 
and enlistments were slower. It was Nov. 18, when Com 
pany A pitched its tents about two miles east of Hartford, 
on a smooth field owned by Mr. Hamilton, sloping to the 
south-west, and affording abundant room for evolutions. 
Eight companies were on the ground, and mustered in by 
the 20th; though several were not full. By Dec. 2, the other 
two had taken their places. The camp was named Camp 

Company A, Capt. George N. Lewis, was designated as the 
Colt Guards; Company B, Capt. Samuel H. Granniss, the 
Peck Rifles ; Company C, Capt. L. A. Dickinson, the Deming 
Guards; Company F, Capt. Sidney E. Clark, the Buslmell 
Rifles ; Company G, Capt. Lester E. Braley, the Lyon Rifles ; 
Company H, Capt. Foy, the Colburn Guards ; Company I, 
Capt. John W. De Forest, the Putnam Guards. These high- 
sounding titles soon fell into disuse. 

The fancy of naming each company after some martyr of 
the war, or, oftener, after some philanthropic benefactor, pre 
vailed in all the regiments ; but, in all cases, these were soon 
displaced by the company-letter. 

The towns which furnished the most men for Company A 
were as follows : Hartford, thirty-six ; South Windsor, six ; 
Glastenbury, six ; Middletown, five. Company B, New Ha 
ven, forty-five ; Branford, seven ; Ashford and Madison, four 
each. Company C, Hartford, eleven ; New Haven, twenty- 
four ; Windsor Locks, eleven ; Brooklyn, six. Company D, 
Capt. N. Frankau, New London, thirty-five ; Waterford, thir 
teen ; the Lymes, ten. Company E, Capt. Byxbee, Norwalk, 
thirty-eight; Danbury, ten; New Canaan and Brookfield, 
six each. Company F, New Haven, sixteen ; Westbrook and 
East Haddam, twelve each ; Chatham and Saybrook, six 
each. Company G, Windham, twenty-two ; Voluntown, 
Sprague, and Canterbury, nine each. Company II, Canton, 
twenty-six ; Hartford, eighteen ; Simsbury and Avon, seven 


each. Company I, Bridgeport, thirty-two ; Southington, 
twenty-three ; New Haven, thirteen. Company K, Capt. E. 
K. Abbott, Stonington, twenty-four; Ledyard, ten; Canter 
bury and Norwich, ten. 

It was late in the fall before the organization of the Thir 
teenth Regiment was begun; and, on Nov. 2, Major Birge 
was transferred from the Fourth to its command. Within a 
month, at least the nucleus of every company was at the 
barracks (Durham & Booth s carriage-factory), corner of 
Chapel and Hamilton Streets, New Haven. The regiment 
was the last to be raised under the call for five hundred 
thousand men. The State had been closely canvassed by 
a hundred recruiting-agents, and the companies filled up 

Company A, Capt. Henry L. Bidwell, entered the barracks 
as the Buckingham Guards ; and it was raised mainly in New 
Britain, Farmington furnishing fourteen. Company B, Capt. 
Apollos Comstock, was recruited by officers from New Ca 
naan ; and its ranks represented almost every town in Fair- 
field County. Company C, Capt. C. D. Blinn, was known as 
the Lyon Guards; and ten of the men were from Cornwall, 
thirty-six from Kent, seventeen from Sharon, eight from 
Goshen ; and Canaan, Salisbury, and New Milford made 
up the rest. Company D, Capt. C. E. Prindle, the Litchfield- 
county Rifles, had twenty-one from New Hartford ; and the 
rest were picked up through the central part of the State. 
Company E, Capt. E. Tisdale, was called the New-England 
Guards, and was raised in Thompson, Killingly, and adjacent 
towns in the eastern part of the State. Company F, Capt, J. 
J. McCord, known as the Catlin Rifles, was a consolidation 
of fractional companies from Norwich and Hartford. Com 
pany G, the Hebron Rifles, Capt. S. G. Gilbert, contained 
eight men from Hebron, fourteen from Marlborougb, and 
seventeen from East Haddam. Company H, Capt. H. B. 
Sprague, was raised as the Welch Rifles, mainly in New 
Haven. Company I, Capt. H. L. Schleiter, was a consolida 
tion of companies from New London and Litchfield. Com 
pany K, Capt. A. Mitchell, the Knowlton Rifles, was raised 
in New Haven and vicinity. 


Gov. Buckingham made it a matter of duty to visit every 
regiment organized in the State, and address to its officers 
words of affectionate counsel respecting their duties, rights, 
and responsibilities. " I remember their substance well," 
says an officer. " After telling us what a noble band of men 
we had the honor to command, and of the high motives 
which had actuated them to leave their homes for scenes so 
full of hazard and suffering, he told us that we could do 
much both to promote their usefulness and to relieve their pri 
vations. Remember, said he, that the government, though 
sorely pressed, makes ample provision for its defenders. 
Study well the Regulations : in them you will find your 
duties and your privileges clearly denned. Whatever the 
government provides, that your men are entitled to receive. 
See that they are thus provided. If, through the carelessness 
of officers on the higher staffs, such provision is not made, do 
not hesitate to make your complaints until the grievance is 
remedied. If you cannot get redress otherwise, then write 
me the facts fully, and I will apply to the highest power in 
the land for you. Then, after an earnest appeal to us to 
seek divine guidance and protection, he bade us farewell. 
I saw, during my connection with the regiment, frequent 
evidences that the words of his Excellency were warmly 
remembered by many of the officers." 

The Twelfth was rapidly taking shape as a first-class regi 
ment. Its ranks were full. Officers and men were diligently 
exercised in drill : nothing but a severe storm was allowed to 
interfere. Snow was cleared away or trodden down. " Lieut- 
Col. Colburn was enthusiastic in his drill. His experience 
in the State militia, and us major of the Second Connecticut 
(three-months troops), fitted him well for his post. Some 
times he was so engaged as not to. hear the recall. The pri 
vates usually did." 3 

The tents were of the James patent, like the Sibley in 
shape, having a vertical shaft of hollow iron in the centre, 
which served as a chimney : into this was fitted the pipe of 
a small sheet-iron stove, by which the tent was readily 
warmed. A board floor, rude tables and chairs, and beds 

3 Chaplain J. H. Bradford, Connecticut War Kecord, p. 134. 


of straw, made the tents quite comfortable on pleasant 
days ; and, though the men thought them hardly habi 
table, they lived to long for them again, and wonder that 
they had ever had such luxurious accommodations. 

The winter was unusually cold and stormy, and the men 
were sometimes pinched and uncomfortable ; but they were 
much healthier than the Thirteenth in the barracks at New 
Haven, and the hardier for their exposure. The measles had 
quite a run, and in two cases proved fatal. 

The camp was much frequented by friends and citizens, 
and was complimented by military visitors for its neatness 
and good order. The regiment was thoroughly equipped 
by the United States, through Gen. Butler. 

The privations in Camp Lyon were few compared with a 
soldier s experience in the field. The winter months came 
and passed, with little to disturb the ordinary routine except 
an occasional presentation of some equipments to an officer 
by friends at home. A few will recall the occasion of the 
presentation of an elegant sword and attachments to Lieut. 
Stanton Allyn by his fellow-townsmen of Ledyard. The 
company were drawn up in line, and the gifts presented by 
Ledyard Bill with an appropriate speech, which was fittingly 
responded to by the young officer. Similar scenes occurred 
at every camp throughout the State. 

Feb. 24, the order for departure was promulgated; and, 
on the following morning, they turned from their disrobed 
camp to say good-by to their assembled friends. It was a 
clear morning, after a hard snow ; and the men, in marching 
to the depot and loading their baggage, were chilled by the 
searching wind. At New Haven, they took the steamer 
Elm City ; whence, on arrival at New York, they were trans 
ferred, still shivering, to. the steam-transport Fulton, in 
whose capacious hold they found warmth and rest. Am 
munition was the next day dealt out to the troops; and, 
about noon of March 1, the Fulton steamed down the harbor. 

A quiet passage of eight days, with little sea-sickness, 
brought them to the low sand-beach of Ship Island. Four 
regiments had already arrived. There was nothing to eat 
except army-rations. An expedition to Horn Island prom- 



ised fresh beef; but the cattle captured were so poor that they 
were not eaten with any relish, even by hungry men. Early 
in April, sixteen regiments were reviewed, and the Twelfth 
was especially complimented. It was unusually well drilled, 
and made a fine appearance. 

The Confederate leaders were, at this time, obtaining their 
main army-supplies from their English friends by blockade- 
runners. In October, the government resolved on a novel 
plan of closing, temporarily at least, the ports of Charleston 
and Savannah, from which then chiefly the long, low, swift 
craft plied their trade. 

The Navy Department, after consultation with many gen 
tlemen familiar with shipping, committed the whole business 
of purchasing, loading, and sending out the vessels, to Richard 
H. Chappell of New London, giving him general instructions, 
and leaving all matters of detail to his discretion. 

The first order was for twenty-five vessels, of from two 
hundred to four hundred tons each. Before these were 
loaded, twenty more were ordered ; making a fleet of forty- 
five sail, to be dispatched at once. The entire coast of New 
England was traversed to find forty-five suitable vessels at 
prices within the limits named by the government. Mr. 
Chappell availed himself of the services of J. H. Bartlett & 
Sons of New Bedford, and Vernon H. Brown of Boston. 
Ships, barks, and brigs were purchased in New York, Fair- 
haven, New London, Mystic, Sag Harbor, New Bedford, Nan- 
tucket, Boston, Gloucester, and Portland. A large part of 
them were old whale-ships. 

Great dispatch was required : the vessels were concen 
trated for needed repairs, and for the better facility of 
loading and clearing, at New London, New Bedford, and 
Boston. Large numbers of workmen were employed at 
these ports in stripping, loading, and rigging ; and numerous 
teams engaged in hauling stone to the docks. The founda 
tion-rocks of several New-England farms were speedily 
shipped to a Southern market. Masters, mates, and seamen 
eagerly accepted a chance to go down and see the edge of 


the Rebellion. For a time, all was activity and bustle : even 
the teamsters caught the spirit of the enterprise, carried the 
American flag at the head of a line of teams, and sang patri 
otic songs in chorus. The arrangements for prompt sink 
ing of the vessels when in the right position consisted of 
a large hole under the stern, made before loading, stopped 
by an outer and an inner plug secured by an inside screw. 
This screw could be instantly withdrawn, and the vessel 
would fill with water in a few minutes. 

The first fleet of twenty-five sailed from their respective 
ports Nov. 21, 1861; while the second fleet of twenty fol 
lowed on the llth of December. Thirteen of these went 
from New London ; the commodore for the cruise being the 
veteran Capt. John P. Rice, well known as a competent 
shipmaster. One or two of the fleet put back from accident ; 
but nearly all were delivered to the naval commanders off 
Charleston and Savannah. A majority were used as at first 
designed, and, with their masts cut away, were, for a time, 
ugly customers for the keel of a blockade-runner to en 
counter as she tried to dodge in or out on a dark night. 
Some were used by the Navy Department as store-vessels in 
various places ; others constituted the foundation for tem 
porary wharves at Port Royal, or in the inlets where our 
navy was employed : not one, it is believed, " lived " to 

Foreign sympathizers with the Rebellion denounced this as 
an act of vandalism more atrocious than the bombardment 
of a city. In the results, the moral effect was evidently greater 
than the physical : the rebels and their friends were badly 
frightened, and this " feeling of the enemy " drew their fire. 
In a few months, the obstructed channels were replaced by 
new courses for the water ; and probably, at the present day, 
hardly a trace of the stone fleet remains. Blockade-running 
was checked, driven to Wilmington and other ports, and 
rendered less safe and profitable. Mr. Chappell s account 
of disbursements was accepted by the government, and set 
tled at once ; and he was thanked for the promptness, integ 
rity, and efficiency he had displayed. 


Patriotic Benevolence. The Regiments in the Field supplied. Sewing and Knitting. 

- Thanksgiving Day. Soldiers -aid Societies. Systematic Effort. Alfred 

Walker. Thirteenth at New Haven. A " Dandy Regiment." Off for Ship 

Island. The Ninth. Dash at Biloxi and Pass Christian. Victory. Trophies, 

and Thanks of Gen. Butler. Capture of New Orleans. 

HE generous beneficence of our people had now 
subsided from the sudden flash to the steady 
glow. Our women, with eyes ever towards the 
front, were quick to discern wherein their first 
spasmodic exertions had been well and wherein 
ill directed, and went forward more thoughtfully to wiser 

For the Fourth and Fifth Regiments, the proper authorities, 
having time to act, provided uniforms, with tolerable quar 
ters and rations, and left little for citizens to do in these re 
spects. That which was done in other respects for the first 
three regiments was done for them, less profusely, but more 

With these regiments, the making of havelocks ended; 
the soldiers having found that green leaves in the hat were 
more convenient, and quite as serviceable. 

The friends of the Fourth promptly supplied the regi 
mental hospital with every thing which affection suggested 
and good judgment approved ; sent many boxes to the 
" boys" in the various companies ; and in the autumn supplied, 
for a time, nearly all the clothing and shoes which the regi 
ment had. The Fifth reached Harper s Ferry on Aug. 4 ; 
and by the 10th a large consignment of miscellaneous 
supplies had been sent by the people of Southbury and 
Woodbury to the Woodbury company, enough, in fact, 



distributed with a soldier s generosity, to scatter some 
comfort through the entire regiment, as is indicated by a 
grateful acknowledgment from Col. Ferry. 

This was but the first of many welcome boxes and barrels 
from these and other towns. 

The hospital of the regiment was provided with bedding 
of every sort; with medicines, fruits, jellies, wines, for the 
sick and the convalescent. The hospitals of the regiments 
in camp in the State were similarly provided, so far as was 
necessary. Those who fell sick were generally sent to 
their homes to recover, except in cases of contagious mala 
dies ; and the ladies promptly provided every thing they 
could to alleviate these cases. As soon as cold weather 
came on, knitting-circles were formed. Among the earliest 
were those at Norwalk, which met on Tuesday and Friday 
evenings of each week, at different houses conveniently situ 
ated. On Dec. 20, one hundred and eight were present, all 
busily rattling the nimble needles. A box of mittens and 
stocking-s to the Fifth Connecticut Volunteers, and another 


to the Eighth Connecticut Volunteers, were early fruits of 
their diligent labors. Many boxes followed. 

Soon, in circles, or at their houses, women all over the 
Sta.te were knitting. This method of manifesting practical 
patriotism was particularly popular among the old ladies. 
Mrs. Abiah Cady of Plainfield, the widow of a Revolutionary 
soldier, then ninety-four years of age, finished, in six weeks, 
ten pairs of stockings for the boys from that town. Mrs. 
Prudence Stoddard of Norwich, then almost a century old, 
was almost constantly busied in the same way. She had 
knitted stockings for soldiers in three wars. 

Hon. Henry S. Sanford of Derby, our minister at the 
court of Holland, and one of the most accomplished repre 
sentatives of America abroad, sent home, as a present to the 
State, two handsome steel cannon. His patriotism was 
shown in similar gifts to some other States. 

When Thanksgiving approached, a goodly quantity of 
poultry and pumpkin-pies were dispatched from various 
towns to the men in the Fourth and Fifth in the field, and to 
the Eighth and Tenth at Annapolis. The happy recipients 


did their best to enjoy the day in New-England style ; and 
the remembrance made their hearts warm and grateful, in 
spite of the fact, that, in many cases, the uneasy chickens 
and pumpkin-pies had performed a good many revolutions. 

The ladies of Meriden bountifully supplied the First Cav 
alry and First Battery in Camp Tyler (at Hanover) ; the 
citizens of other places sent in a considerable quantity of 
provisions suitable to the day for troops encamped in their 
vicinity; while Mr. B. F. Mansfield of New Haven, then 
United-States commissary l for this State and Rhode Island, 
supplied deficiencies in all the camps at his own personal 
expense. The Thirteenth Regiment, in barracks at New 
Haven, passed, as a regiment, enthusiastic resolutions of 
thanks to Mr. Mansfield : and other regiments, through their 

* O O 

officers, handsomely acknowledged his welcome donations. 

The Sixth and Seventh Regiments had received, before 
their departure for Hilton Head, hospital-supplies, packages 
of books and papers, and a large number of boxes sent by 
friends to individual soldiers. 

The Eighth and Tenth Regiments, which remained longer 
at Annapolis, received large donations of books, papers, cloth 
ing, and delicacies, both for the hospital and for general dis 
tribution, from Norwich, Mystic, Bridgeport, New Haven, 
Norwalk, Washington, and other towns. 

The ladies of Bridgeport organized a soldiers -aid societj* 
on the 15th day of April, and those of Middletown on the 
20th, and those of a very few other towns about the same 

But during the summer the work for soldiers was chiefly 
in disconnected efforts, by families or groups of families, for 
a soldier or squad from their own neighborhood, or in re- 

1 Mr. Mansfield, as a militia-officer, was somewhat acquainted with military methods. 
Col. Loomis, the United-States mustering-officcr, who was a total stranger in .New Haven, 
finding him thoroughly competent, immediately requested him to prepare the camps of 
the three-months regiments, and then to provide rations and all kinds of supplies. This 
he performed faithfully, without compensation, until the three regiments left for the field. 
Col. Loomis recommended him to his successor, and also to Col. Tomkins and others in 
New York, who secured his permanent services as deputy commissary for Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. In this capacity, he supplied, besides many other troops, all the regi 
ments raised in our State, until a regular United-.- tates post was established at Grape-vine 
Point in the latter part of 18G3. 

He made numerous journeys to the army on business of the supply department, carry 
ing and bringing always messages and packages by the hundred, and distributing often, 
at either end of his journey, much more than had been put into his hands. 


sponse to some general appeal. In the latter case, the efforts 
of ^a large number of communities were sometimes directed 
to a single point ; and superabundance and waste ensued, 
while suffering at other points was unrelieved. But our 
women, as they had learned what to send, soon began to 
learn how to send ; and system was gradually evolved. 

On the 9th of June, the Sanitary Commission was organ 
ized, and issued its first circular from Washington on the 3d 
of July. The response to the call was not very general or 

The Commission had not yet a sure foothold in the army 
hospitals ; and was, in face of English experience in the Cri 
mean War, scouted and opposed by the medical department 
at Washington. Besides, the attention of the people was 
fixed on the camps and regimental hospitals. The general 
hospitals had yet comparatively few patients. 

We find, however, that the ladies of New Haven sent, on 
the 5th of August, several large boxes of supplies to Miss 
Dix for the hospitals at Washington. There were other 
small contributions from individuals, and occasionally from 
sewing-circles. The circular issued on the 5th of October. 
" To the Loyal Women of America," produced a much greater 
impression. Supplies of value were forwarded during the 
month of November from Hartford, Mystic, Stonington, and 
other towns. Women now resolved to accumulate supplies 
for coming exigencies. Societies were everywhere formed 
for regular continued labor. The larger number of these 
ultimately became auxiliaries of the Sanitary Commission. 

About the 10th of October, Alfred Walker of New Haven 
gave public notice that he would receive at his furniture 
store, and pack and forward, whatever the people saw fit to 
contribute for the Sanitary Commission. 2 Many smiled at 
the idea ; and some sterling patriots told him that he would 
not get five boxes. His own estimate, though higher than 
that, is yet revealed by the fact that he set out to keep his 
records on the last leaves of an old ledger ; devoting the last 

2 The effort grew out of the appointment, at an informal meeting in October, 1861, of 
A. C. Twining, Alfred Walker, Charles Carlisle, S. D. Pardee, Thomas R. Trowbridgc, and 
Moses C. White, as a committee to aid in furnishing supplies for sick and wounded 
soldiers. The other members of the committee assisted from time to time ; but the burden 
of care and labor was borne from the first by Mr. Walker. 


two pages to the cash account, and the preceding four to the 
record of articles received and forwarded. 

On the 17th, he collected twenty dollars from E. Salisbury, 
ten each from James Brewster, James M. Hoppin, and N. B. 
Ives, to pay for freight. 

On the 19th, he sent the first box ; on the 23d, the seventh ; 
by Nov. 6, he had filled the four blank pages, ending with 
box No. 28, twenty-seven bottles of wine ; and, wisely writ 
ing backwards from that time, he notes, early in February, 
the hundredth box ; and in November, 1862, his record shows 
that he had forwarded from eighty-six localities, including 
New Haven, three hundred and seventy -one boxes and bar 
rels to the Sanitary Commission, and forty-four boxes to 
Connecticut regiments ; the whole bearing a value, at mode 
rate estimate, of more than twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Seeing the rising tide, Mr. Walker, in November, 1861, 
secured free transportation by boat to New York, and thence, 
with government freight, to Baltimore and Washington. The 
records and accounts were kept gratuitously by himself and 
others in his store. His employes, assisted by ladies who 
volunteered, packed the goods free of charge. By these means, 
the entire cash expenditure for assorting, packing boxes, 
and freight, for the entire year, was but $1,242.01, of which 
he collected $1,232.03. The entire task was conducted by 
Mr. Walker with the exactness and system of his own private 

The name of every article was four times written out, 
once when received (and this time with the name of the 
town, and often of the individual donor), a second time for 
publication in the daily paper, again when packed, and a 
fourth time in an invoice forwarded with the box. Of the 
labor thus incurred, we may form some idea from the fact, 
that at the time of a partial report in April, when about one- 
third was done, 16,098 separate articles had been received. 3 
These minute statements indicate the nature and value of 
materials sent : Box No. 3 contained twenty-nine woolen 
blankets, thirty-three bed-quilts, thirty-three cotton sheets, 
thirty-eight pillows, thirty-eight pairs of pillow-cases. Box 

3 Accompanying this report of five months work is the tabular statement on p. 153. 



No. 34 had thirty-five pairs sheets, fifty-seven pairs pillow 
cases, thirty-one papers corn-starch, eight pounds crushed 
sugar, seven wrappers, seven bowls of jelly, nine bottles 
of wine, one bottle sherbet, one bottle brandy, one bottle 
peppermint, one bottle catchup, nineteen towels, sixteen 
pairs pillows, twenty-four pairs socks, six pairs cotton socks, 












Pillows and Cushions. 

z : 




Stockings and 




- -. 










Lot of Magazines and 
Number of Books. 








New Haven 


I * * 











































I ll 








East Haven 

West Haven 

Fair Haven 






1 1 









Woodbridfe . . . 


















Wallinfford . . . 























Southbury .... 

Meriden . 


Oxford .... 











Cheshire .... 

Milford. . . . . . 

North Branford .... 
North Guilford 

Nau^atuck . . . 








































- 6 

















Guilford . ... 





Mt. Carmel 

South Britain . . . 


Woodbury . . ... 

Huntino ton .... 

Plymouth Hollow . . . 
Farmin r ton 







Jewett Citv 












Since this table was made up, a large and valuable donation of articles has come from 
Essex and North Woodbury ; and it is proper to add, that we are still sending an average 
of six boxes each week. 



six skeins of yarn, two rolls linen, six rolls cotton, five bags 
of fruit, one pair of slippers, three cans sweetmeats, two 
backgammon-boards, one checker-board, needles, thread, but 
tons, books, cups, pans, soap, tallow, beeswax, &c. No. 232 
was packed with forty-one jars of jelly ; 237, with seventeen 
kegs of pickles; 239, with fifteen jars of currant-jelly ; 295, 
with eighteen gallons of pickles and a box of jellies ; while 
314 was a half-barrel of barberry-jam. These examples are 
selected with a view to variety, not superiority ; and arc 
little, if at all, above the average value. 

These records show, too, how this vast quantity came, un 
asked, by items, from the homes of soldiers friends. The list 
of contributors from out-of-the-way towns with sterile soil 
and scanty wealth is particularly impressive. From hilly 
Prospect, containing hardly sixty families, are donations from 
fifty-five persons, nearly all ladies ; from Wolcott, not much 
larger or richer, came offerings from sixty-seven inhabitants. 
From these towns came pillows, pillow-cases, blankets, feath 
ers, old linen, bandages, sheets, towels, handkerchiefs, dried 
blackberries, raspberries, currants, and apples, jellies, pickles, 
loose gowns, woolen blankets, books, papers, music-books, 
quilts, stockings, cushions, grape-wine, currant-wine, flannel 
sheets, corn-starch, thread, needles, buttons, cotton-cloth, 
and yarn, with small amounts of cash ; the variety showing 
that the houses had been searched from garret to cellar to 
find all that could be spared, and the quality proving that 
nothing was deemed too good for the soldier. And the sol 
dier acquainted with the families in such towns reads with 
moistening eye the familiar names, in these dull lists, of 
patient wives, of well-remembered comrades killed in battle, 
and other names of those, who, out of deep penury, have 
given that which cost them great self-denial, perhaps actual 
suffering. These records, kept then as a matter of business- 
habit, will be hereafter garnered as an historic treasure. 

The barracks occupied by the Thirteenth at New Haven, 
during the winter of 1861-2, were poorly warmed and ven 
tilated. Small-pox made its appearance ; but a knowledge 


of it was kept from soldiers and citizens. The infected 
were quietly removed to a pest-house. It was rumored that 
the patients absent and unaccounted for had deserted ; and 
so generally was this believed, that the afflicted wife of one 
of the nurses left her home in Norwich, and returned to her 
native Scotland ! Before the regiment left to join Butler s 
expedition, ten or twelve had died of diseases engendered 
within the unwholesome walls. But the barracks were not 
always gloomy. They were in the city, and patriotic men 
and women constantly brought the soldiers comforts and 
luxuries. Quartets came and sang to them, and orators 
lectured in their chapel. Prayer-meetings were numerously 
attended. A temperance society was formed, and large num 
bers signed the pledge. In "this connection, the soldiers 
mention Rev. Mr. Dudley with gratitude. 

Col. Birge was a strict if not severe disciplinarian, an 
accurate drill-master, proud of his men, and possessed of a 
quick military mind. He especially enjoined neatness, clean 
liness, and martial bearing. Every belt, shoe, and box must 
be neatly polished ; every gun-barrel and bayonet must shine 
like a mirror ; every hand must wear a glove of spotless white ; 
every form must be erect and manly. So much attention was 
given to appearance, that it is related, that, while marching 
through New Orleans, they were amused by the frequent 
comment of spectators, " This regiment is composed only of 
rich men s sons ! " And Parton, in his Butler in New 
Orleans, styles the Thirteenth " a dandy regiment." Col. 
H. B. Sprague, in his excellent history of the regiment, 
says, "Many prophesied that our soldiers would prove 
parlor-soldiers, fit only to 

Caper nimbly in a lady s chamber 
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute ; 

and that those fine clothes would never tarry to be riddled 
by bullets. A year or two afterwards, at the close of a hot 
battle, Capt. Sprague reminded Col. Birge of these predic 
tions. Well; he replied, I notice they didn t run away 
like some of those dirty regiments ! Drill was very con 
stant through" the winter. The men were mustered in by 


squads, at irregular intervals, from Dec. 17 to the date of 
departure, and the officers on Feb. 18. England was just be 
ginning to take sides with the Confederates : so the muster- 
ing-officer, in addition to the usual oath, bound the men to 
serve " against England or any foreign power that may wage 
war against us." 

Orders soon came to leave for Ship Island in the Gulf; 
and, on March 17, the life at the barracks ended. Mothers, 
brothers, wives, sisters, and " another not a sister," hastily 
assembled to give a farewell word of cheer and blessing; and 
see their loved ones march away upon a proud mission. 
There was a rush and a shout of eager citizens, a streaming 
of bright, new banners, a roll of jubilant drums, a moment 
ary vision of blue uniforms ; and the Granite State steamed 
down the harbor, and was gone. 

While in New York, the Sons of Connecticut paid the regi 
ment many attentions ; and Col. Birge was presented with an 
expensive pair of pistols by Robert H. McCurdy, the con 
stant friend of our troops. 

On March 18, the regiment was transferred, in New- York 
Harbor, to the ship City of New York, which, after five 
days waiting, weighed anchor to join Farragut and Butler 
at the mouth of the Mississippi. The voyage was meager of 
notable incident. They had evening theatricals, participated 
in by Sergeants Gardner of H, and Gardner of K, Corporal 
Devereaux Jones, and Private Charles Raffile, all expe 
rienced actors ; and songs by Jeremiah Keefe, James McAl 
lister, William B. Bragg, and Company A s accomplished 
Glee Club. The ship encountered a storm off Hatteras ; 
touched, with some peril, at Florida Keys ; sighted a rakish- 
looking steamer, and showed fight, with Sergeant Merrill and 
Private Thomas Harrison at the single cannon ; and, on 
April 13, disembarked on Ship Island, which had just been 
swept by a terrible storm. 

Assistant Surgeon John B. Welch of the Twelfth, from 
Winsted, died while the regiment remained at Ship Island, 
after brief but faithful service. 


During the latter part of March, the Ninth was relieved 
from the monotony of its discomfort by a raid upon the 
enemy. A boat with a little girl in it being found adrift, and 
brought to Ship Island, Gen. Butler sent it to the nearest 
town, Biloxi, under a flag of truce, in charge of Major 
Strong, his chief of staff While returning to the island. 
Major Strong was fired upon from the shore, an act of bar 
barism which so incensed Gen. Butler, that he ordered the 
Ninth to cross the sound, and burn the town if the outrage 
was not promptly apologized for. The force went ashore in 
a steam-transport, convoyed by the gunboat New London 4 
and another : and the landing was the signal for the flight 

O O o 

of rebel soldiers and citizens in great terror. Skirmishers 
were sent into the country, and brought back the fugitive 
mayor, who made atonement by declaring that the treachery 
of the morning was the act of straggling ruffians over whom 
he had no control. 

Col. Cahill took possession of the town. Next day it was 
rumored that there were eighteen hundred rebels at Pass 
Christian, twenty miles farther west, and that they were 
about to move on Biloxi. Col. Cahill and Major Strong con 
sidered the situation, concluded that the rebels would proba 
bly leave half their force at Pass Christian, and resolved 
immediately to sail down and attack the place, relying on 
success to justify them before their commander for exceed 
ing instructions. 

They went quietly aboard at dark, and started rapidly 
down the coast. The transport Lewis was a small, old, 
rickety craft, with a wheezy engine ; but she carried two 
smart three-inch Sawyer guns in the bow. Col. Cahill had 
gone on board a gunboat to arrange the plan; when just at 
daylight, off Mississippi City, three rebel gunboats attacked 
them furiously. The two gunboats replied sharply. A 
naval officer advised Col. Cahill to hurry to the transport, 
and run her into shoal water, so that, when she sunk, the 
men could get ashore. He started at once, and returned in 
an open boat through the midst of the fire. A gunboat 

4 The New London was formerly a propeller running between New London, Conn., 
and New York, now altered to a screw punbout with five guns. She was commanded by 
Lieut. Abner Reed, and captured many blockade-runners. 


was plying savagely, with shot and shell, the crowded 
transport. Several shots took effect. One passed through 
the wheelhouse ; one crashed through the cabin, turning 
Father Mullen, the chaplain, suddenly out of his berth. The 
greatest excitement and confusion prevailed. 

As soon as the colonel was within hailing distance, he 
shouted to his men to fire ; and the saucy little pieces in 
stantly replied to the enemy s guns. The rebel was now 
near, and broadside to. The officers of the Ninth super 
intended the firing. One lucky shot shattered the rebel 
pilot-house ; another cut the tiller-rope. The Lewis had all 
steam on, and was backing towards shore. Soon the over 
matched rebel gunboats made off, rapidly pursued by our 

The Ninth effected a landing at Pass Christian, and 
passed quickly through the town. Two miles beyond, the 
4th Mississippi was drawn up in line of battle. It kept 
up a constant fusilade as the Ninth advanced ; but the lat 
ter fired one volley, and charged with an Irish " Ya-a-a-a-ah ! " 
when the defenders of the soil broke, and ran to the woods. 

The victors scattered through the comfortable camp, and 
made themselves at home. Capt. Lawrence O Brien 5 found 
in the commander s tent a dispatch to Gen. Lovell at New 
Orleans: "The Federals are landing in force. I shall 
defend the place. Have eight hundred infantry, two com 
panies cavalry, and two batteries." The ink was not dry 
when he was retreating, demoralized, in the direction of the 
force that had gone to recapture Biloxi. 

The camp was well provided and amply furnished ; the 
officers quarters even possessing a piano. They abandoned 
tents and equipage, arms and ammunition, food, and every 
thing else ; and the Ninth loaded the transport with as much 
as they could carry back to the island. Next morning, they 
again embarked ; and, before leaving, a committee came 
down, and expressed the thanks of the citizens for the good 
conduct of the soldiers during the night. The regiment 

5 Under the name of Osborne, Capt. O Brien appeared, in 1867, as a Fenian officer in 
Ireland. He was captured and confined in Clonmel jail, one of the strongest in the 
island, but, to the astonishment of the English, escaped the first night. He was a brave 
and efficient officer, and fertile in expedients. 


returned to the island in high spirits, bearing among their 
trophies sundry wrought-iron bowie-knives (one of them 
marked " Yankee exterminator") and a beautiful silk flag 
(the colors of the 4th Mississippi), carried off in spite of the 
tearful protestations of the fair rebels who made it. 

It was not difficult to obtain the forgiveness of Gen. But 
ler for acting without authority. He issued, before going to 
New Orleans, the following order : 


GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10. The major-general commanding desires 
publicly to testify his appreciation of the gallant courage and good conduct 
of the Ninth Connecticut Volunteers, Col. Cahill commanding, and a sec 
tion of the 6th Massachusetts Battery, on a recent expedition to Biloxi 
and Pass Christian. 

Of their bravery in the field he felt assured ; but another quality, more 
trying to the soldier, claims his admiration. After having been, for 
months, subjected to the privations necessarily incident to camp-life upon 
this island, these well-disciplined soldiers, although for many hours in full 
possession of two rebel villages filled with what, to them, were most 
desirable luxuries, abstained from the least unauthorized interference with 
private property, and all molestation of peaceful citizens. This behavior 
is worthy of all praise. 

The general commanding commends the action of the men of this expe 
dition to every soldier in this department. Let it be imitated by all in the 
towns and cities we shall occupy, a living witness that the United-States 
soldier fights only for the Union, the Constitution, and the inforcement of 
the laws. 

By command of Major-Gen. Butler. 

GEORGE C. STRONG, Adjutant- General. 

Farragut being ready to attack the forts on the Missis 
sippi, Butler embarked his forces, and moved up to the 
passes. There was difficulty in getting on board the trans 
ports; and the Twelfth went to work at the -old sunken 
hulk of a vessel, got it afloat, and used it as a lighter. Then, 
taking the ship E. W. Farley, it started in advance of the 
troops. The Ninth took the steam-transport Matanzas. 
The vessels proceeded up the river near the gunboats, and 
witnessed the first day s bombardment and the burning of 
the wood-work of Fort Jackson. They were ordered down 
the river, and lay at the head of the passes for two weeks, 
where they ran a gantlet of rebel fire-ships and other 
perils. One night, about midnight, the men of the Twelfth 
were startled by a terrible crash ; and the ship careened so 


as to throw the men out of their berths. When order was 
restored, it was found that the vessel had been struck by a 
sunken gunboat. After the forts surrendered, the Twelfth 
was ordered to garrison Fort Jackson, with Col. Deming in 
command : but the order was changed ; and the regiment 
was the first to ascend the river, arriving off New Orleans on 
the evening of April 30, a day before any other troops. 
The 31st Massachusetts Regiment, with Gen. Butler and 
staff, coming up next day, heartily cheered the Twelfth 
Connecticut upon the Farley, that lay at anchor before the 
city. The first night, they bivouacked on a wharf; there 
after, in Lafayette Square. Col. Deming immediately went 
to Washington with dispatches from Gen. Butler. 

The Ninth were huddled upon a single transport, with a 
company of pioneers and a battery, in all, some eight 
hundred men. There was accommodation for only two 
hundred and sixty below decks. The men were so crowded, 
that they could only sleep by reliefs, a part at a time. 
The Matanzas took in tow the ship Great Republic, drifting, 
without a rudder, with three thousand men on board, and 
towed her about for several days before going up the river. 
On arriving at New Orleans, the Ninth was ordered to 
Camp Parapet, an abandoned rebel camp on the left bank 
of the river, twelve miles above the city, where it was 
joined by the Twelfth and other regiments. The guns 
had been spiked, and the gun-carriages burned, by the women 
of the neighborhood. The Ninth soon proceeded to Baton 
Rouge. The Twelfth remained at Camp Parapet, attracting 
much notice for its high state of discipline. Lieut.-Col. 
Colburn was in command of the regiment. He mounted 
guns along the parapet, and thoroughly policed the old 
rebel camp, cleansing and renewing it throughout. He 
insisted upon company-drills every morning, and brigade- 
drills every afternoon, with frequent exercise with the light 
and heavy artillery. 

The Thirteenth remained for three weeks on Ship Island, 
making itself familiar with its simple topography and geolo 
gy, drinking its sulphur-water, and going through battalion 
movements upon its snowy expanse of sand. They heard 


the cannonading and bombardment at Farragut s passage of 
the forts, and learned of the tame surrender of the city. May 
4, they re-embarked for New Orleans. 

All the way up the river, the whites glowered savagely at 
them, and the blacks capered with excess of joy, and shouted 
; Welcome ! glory to God ! " Arriving at the city, the sec 
ond mate threw ashore the looped end of a cable. " Boy," 
said he to a youth of a dozen years, who wore a Confederate 
artillery cap, " boy, won t you just put that ere rope over 
that post ? " " No, I ll be damned if I will ! " was the instant 
reply. The regiment got ashore, however, and went into 
temporary quarters in a cotton-yard near by ; but, as CoL 
Sprague says, " Gen. Butler s eye soon rested on it," and 
he assigned it the post of honor at the Custom House, the 
army headquarters. It was undoubtedly a handsome regi 
ment ; and it was much admired as it passed through the 
streets, even when it sang " John Brown " in concert. It 
was declared to be " the finest-looking regiment that ever 
entered New Orleans." 6 Soon its ranks were filled with new 
recruits, loyal men of Louisiana ; and a band of seventeen 
professional musicians was organized. About the middle of 
June, a gang of burglars was discovered, including a member 
of Company F of the Thirteenth. They went about the 
city robbing the people, under pretense of military authority. 
They were caught, and four of them tried by Gen. Butler, 
and hanged at the parish prison. 

Col. Sprague says that " Butler, at first, tried hard to pacify 
the people. For about three weeks, he used his influence, 
and, in one instance at least, his authority, to cause fugitives 
to be restored to their masters." In this purpose he was 
constantly thwarted by the New-England soldiers gathered 
about him. The Thirteenth early won the reputation of " an 
abolition regiment ; " its officers and men persistently favor 
ing; the efforts of the negroes to leave their masters. 


6 Col. Sprague s History. 


The Eighth, Tenth, and Eleventh leave Annapolis. Storm off Hatteras. Suffering 
and Depression. Battle and Capture of Roanoke Island. Death of Col. Charles 
L. Russell. Another Movement. Battle of Newberne. Death of Col. A. W. 
Drake. Incidents. Siege of Fort Macon. 

[HE Eighth, Tenth, and Eleventh at Annapolis 
waited patiently the great expedition under 
Burnside, in which they were to take a part; 
and the cold morning-air of Nov. 6, 1861, re 
sounded with the last reveille at that venerable 
capital. Three days meat-rations had been cooked, and am 
munition distributed ; and now tents were struck and rolled, 
and the last article of private baggage compactly stowed 

Then the men stood in melting snow around their fires 
again, and waited marching-orders. At evening, orders came 
to embark ; and wearily and tediously the companies plodded 
through slush and mire, huddling here and there in groups 
waiting their turn. The Eighth was divided ; six companies 
taking the bark J. P. Brookman, and four the steam-trans 
port Chasseur. Eight companies of the Tenth embarked 
on the steamer New Brunswick. The Eleventh was stowed 
away in the propeller Sentinel and bark Voltigeur. Before 
morning, most of the regiments were on board. Each vessel 
was expected to carry from two hundred to a thousand men. 
The following extract from a letter of Lieut-Col. Pardee 
of the Tenth shows the accommodations of soldiers in 
transports : 

" In the lower cabin were six hundred men. To accommodate all these 
soldiers, bunks had been built of unplaned boards, and ran in tiers, both 
against the sides and through the center, leaving narrow passages between. 


Into one of these spaces, six feet long, thirteen inches wide, and eighteen 
inches high, a soldier is expected to stow himself, his knapsack, gun, and 

Companies B and I, of the Tenth, were crowded into the 
filthy hold of a small schooner where coal had recently been 
freighted, and had neither bunks nor straw. 

The Eighth was no better off. There were no berths on 
the Brookman. The men slept in their blankets, on deck 
or in the hold, where the air was stifling with the odor of 
bilge-water. The Eleventh were huddled together in the 
same way. No adequate ventilation was possible, even with 
a windsail rigged down the forward cabin. It was supposed 
by the projectors of the expedition that the troops would 
certainly be less than a week upon these transports ; and 
that, for so short a time, they might be able to endure, with 
out material injury, the discomforts of the close crowding. 

Nov. 9, the signal rocket gave notice for the departure of 
the fleet. Next day, most of the vessels rendezvoused at 
Fortress Monroe. Here the soldier-passengers bought fifty 
thousand postage-stamps, indicating that they expected to 
have something to write about. . 

Nov. 11 and 12 they put to sea, to assemble again off 
Hatteras. The evening showed "a golden sunset, along, 
peaceful twilight, a calm sea, from which the glories faded 
only to give place to the mirrored stars. These bright smiles 
of Nature were looked upon as harbingers of a speedy voy 
age and brilliant triumph." But next morning, with little 
premonition, a fearful storm broke upon the fleet, increasing 
in violence from day to clay. Many of the frailer craft were 
lost. For three weeks, the helpless fleet lay tossing in the 
storm on either side of Hatteras Bar ; and the effect of the 
detention on both the health and spirits of officers and men 
was injurious in the extreme. 

" The history of this expedition so far," wrote the same 
officer, after a week or more of this inaction, "may be 
stated in brief thus: Delay, misfortune. We have been 
drifted, tossed, bumped, blown, sea-sicked, and so on, 
through all the varied exigencies of sea-service. We have 
long waited for the moment that should take us towards the 


foe : but the bar between the inlet and Pamlico Sound has 
proved an insuperable object to most of the fleet; and so we 
still wait." ] " Vessels are being lost every day," wrote Col. 
Russell of the Tenth, a little later in his diary ; " and 
things begin to look gloomy and unsatisfactory. Little prog 
ress has been made that is visible, and all are getting low- 
spirited and dejected." A member of the Eleventh wrote to 
the Palladium, Jan. 14, " The boys feel gloomy enough, 
boxed up in this tub with the sick. The stench is almost 

Many in every regiment were on the sick-list ; some died ; 
and others became permanently invalids, contracting disease 
which only ended with death. Capt. Pardee, writing of those 
long weeks on the swash, said, " How can I describe them ? 
Days of weariness and danger ; no news to cheer us ; disas 
ters all around us ; the skies black and unpromising ; the 
surf beating sullenly the solemn requiem of the lost ; sick 
ness on all the vessels ; epidemics rapidly extending ; deaths 
frequent ; no comforts for the sick ; scanty food for the well ; 
water, tainted with kerosene, served out in limited quanti 
ties ; our expedition a seeming failure ! Oh ! the darkness 
of those days, and the gentle, uncomplaining faithfulness 
of those men, none can describe. I heard no murmur or 
regret. All looked for bright signs, and talked more hope 
than they felt. The noted grumblers were for the time the 
stanchest in their words of cheer." The days were passed 
with charades, concerts by Jepson s glee-club, theatricals, 
eucher-playing, reading, writing, songs, and frequent prayer- 

Daring the last days of January, 1862, the vessels all 
passed over, seventy-two remaining afloat there out of the 
one hundred and twenty that had left Fortress Monroe. 
Bearing five hundred of the Eleventh, with Col. Kingsbury, 
the Voltigeur was beached near Hatteras, and no tug 
came to the rescue. They lay there twenty-three days in 
great distress, and finally got ashore, and the vessel went to 
pieces. Here the regiment lay, to its own great dissatisfac 
tion, while its comrades pressed on up the sound. 

1 Capt. B. S. Pardee s Letter. 


The fleet now cautiously approached Roanoke Island, held 
by three thousand rebels under Gen. Wise. On the 7th our 
gunboats attacked the rebel gunboats, and bombarded the 
fort. In the night, a landing was effected ; Connecticut s 
motto of faith and fortitude, " Qui Trans. Sust.," following 
the flag of Massachusetts ashore. The point of debarkation 
was a kind of marsh, described by Lieut. H. W. Camp as " soft, 
slimy mud, several inches deep, with pools and ditches thickly 
sprinkled in." Having struggled through this, the rebels 
falling back before them, the men spent the remainder of 
the night around camp-fires in the woods or the adjacent 
cornfield, shivering with cold, drenched with rain, and with 
out blankets ; those in the cornfield adroitly balancing them 
selves on the rows, to keep out of the water which filled the 

Half an hour before sunrise next morning came the order 
to "fall in;" and, shivering from their comfortless vigils of 
the night, the men sprang with alacrity to their places. It 
still rained ; but the men were full of spirit for the fight, and 
heartily cheered Gens. Burnside and Foster as they rode 

The Eighth was posted on an old road leading towards 
the right flank of the main battery, by which the enemy 
might turn the left of our advancing forces. The position 
was one of considerable responsibility, and Gen. Burnside 
ordered them to hold it at all hazards ; but no attack was 

The Tenth took its place in the 1st Brigade as it moved 
down the beach, and, by a wide detour, into the swampy 
road that bisected the island and led to the rebel position. 
Before going a mile, the enemy s skirmishers were met, and 
pushed slowly back. 

A letter of Capt. Pardee, written at the time, says, 

" A second mile was passed ; heavy guns boomed ; rifle-shots shrieked. 
We heard cheering. By and by, the woods showed more light. We heard 
balls among the leaves ; we saw men hurry by with medical stores towards 
the front ; we met men exhausted by the roadside. An aide came to us 
with the order, Advance the Tenth ! Col. Russell pressed his lips firmly 
together, and said, We are going under fire, captain. Forward, solidly, 
quickly ! Men came by with stretchers, carrying the brave Massachu- 


setts boys, frightful with bleeding wounds. We saw the dead lying beneath 
the trees on either side. Surgeons were busy at their vocation. We halted 
on the edge of a great clearing, and deployed to the right by companies. 
We sa^the smoke and flashes from the redoubt. At last, we were under 

" We had been pursuing an embowered path through the woods : sud 
denly it entered a broad clearing, where thick bushes (like the whortle 
berry) and tangled vines netted the marshes. Evergreen trees, principally 
pines, were on either side ; and three hundred yards iu front of us was the 
famous redoubt of which we had been told weeks before in Hatteras Inlet. 
When we debouched from the road into the cleared way, it brought us 
right in front of the rebel guns, and in perfect range. They had three 
pieces of artillery fronting and commanding this clearing ; and large num 
bers of riflemen perched in trees, behind the turfed walls, and under all 
possible covers." 

The Tenth, being ordered forward to relieve the 25th 
Massachusetts, advanced, and formed its first battle -line 
with precision and coolness, under a terrible fire. The left 
wins; was held in reserve. The riu;ht commenced firing; with 

o o o 

a will ; and it was immediately opposite this point that the 
rebels met their heaviest loss. " The firing on both sides 
was now terrific. The right wing stood up and fought 
nobly. They suffered severely." 2 " For an hour we fought 
on, not a man shrinking from his post. Other regiments 
were marched into the woods on our right and left ; but we 
kept our position. Balls came thicker and faster. We were 
ordered to lie down under the bushes, and stop firing. Down 
the boys piled themselves, and sought cover of logs, stumps, 
and whatever else furnished protection. Col. Russell for a 
long time refused to lie down. A ball whizzed close to him. 
Capt. G. M. Coit called out/ Colonel, that was meant for you : 
lie down ; do lie down ! The colonel stood quietly watching 
for the appearance of troops on the flank of the enemy. 
Again CToit entreated him to lie down, and this time success 
fully. We had been thus covered for a few minutes, when 
a shot came lower than usual : it entered his shoulder, and 
pierced him to the heart. It was to him an instantaneous 
death. His body was carried to the rear, and we lay still ! " 3 
" Bullets and grape-shot flew thick over the men as they lay. 
There was a constant Hst, hst ! as the musket-bullets whis- 

2 Lieut.-Col. Drake s Diary. 3 Capt. Pardee s Diary. 


tied past, cutting twigs from the bushes not two feet above 
their heads, or striking the trees behind which they were 
sheltered." 4 

By direction of Gen. Foster, Lieut. I. 0. Close of Company I 
was sent forward to reconnoiter, accompanied by Private 
Alexander Henderson of Greenwich, whom Lieut. Camp 
mentioned as " one of the bravest fellows and best shots in 
the company." They went out to the front of the battery on 
their dangerous errand, came back and reported ; and the 
general ordered an advance by the regiments in front and 
on both flanks. The movement was executed so rapidly and 
resolutely, that the rebels left their battery, and fled ; while 
our men stormed into it with a cheer, and planted their 
colors on the works. There was little more fighting, though 
the Confederates fired a few Parthian shots into Foster s 
pursuing columns before the final halt and surrender. 

The Tenth had borne itself nobly, and henceforth officers 
and men knew that they could fight. The regiment was 
ordered immediately forward to gain possession of the Pork- 
point Battery ; but it was found to be abandoned. 

Gen. Foster, in his general orders next day, after commend 
ing the " coolness and steadiness " of all the troops under 
fire, said, "The manner in which the Tenth Connecticut 
formed in line of battle under fire of the enemy, particularly 
deserves mention." " The gallant Connecticut Tenth," wrote 
a member of the Eighth Connecticut, 5 u was in the advance, 
and evinced a determination and heroism worthy of their 
cause and State." A correspondent of " The New- York 
Commercial " wrote, " The Connecticut men maintained their 
position with the fortitude of veteran troops." The Tenth 
was supposed by the rebels to belong to the regular army, 
on account of its superior steadiness ; and this impression 
was strengthened by the exhibition of gray satinet over 
coats, which, at that time, distinguished Connecticut regi 
ments from those of other States. 

Charles Lambert Russell was born in the year 1828, in the 
parish of Northfield, town of Litchfield. At the age of ten, 
he removed with his parents to Derby, and, at the proper 

4 Lieut. H. W. Camp s Diary. . 5 Rev. Jacob Eaton. 


time, was apprenticed in a tack-factory, where he toiled faith 
fully until the breaking-out of the war. He sought every 
opportunity for moral and mental improvement ; was a 
constant and active member of the village lyceum, and 
placed himself in reach of intellectual influences. He was 
first a private, and then captain of the Derby Blues, and 
afterwards an efficient commander of the Wide-Awakes. 
He was earnestly opposed to slavery, and early saw that it 
was menacing the nation s life. At the first cannon-roar, 
Russell promptly volunteered, and was selected by Col. 
Terry as adjutant of the Second; and he was mentioned b} 7 
that officer for gallantry at the battle of Bull Run. The 
writer of this found Russell in Derby during the summer of 
62, raising his company for the Eighth. His step was quick, 
and his face flushed with the work before him. " Yes, I m 
going to see this thing through," he said with a serious man 
ner. " We must defend the principles we have professed. 
Every young Republican ought to go to the front." Russell 
was moved by the same deep purpose that impelled Ellsworth : 
indeed, he called his company " The Ellsworth Guard." 
When promoted to the colonelcy for merit and military 
genius, he devoted himself conscientiously to the welfare of 
his men and the equipment of his regiment. The circum 
stances of his death, and the fact that he was the first 
regimental commander from Connecticut who fell, gave un 
usual prominence to his personal career, and secured marked 
honors to his memory. His remains were received at New 
Haven with public honors. His funeral, at Derby, was 
largely attended by public officials and military and civic 
organizations. In general orders, his death was lamented by 
his brigade and department commanders ; and Fort Defiance, 
one of the captured redoubts, was rechristened Battery Rus 
sell in his honor. The presentation of his sword to the 
State, by his widow, called out a special message from the 
governor to the legislature, which was the occasion of elo 
quent eulogies in both Senate and House, subsequently pub 
lished by the legislature in a pamphlet. At the time of 
Col. Russell s death, his father, Samuel S. Russell, then sixty- 
two years of age, was a musician in the Sixth. One of his 


brothers was in the Tenth, and another had been a captain 
in the Second. The following lines* were read at the re 
union of the Tenth in 1867 : - 

O brave and generous Russell ! well we know 

Thou sought no vulgar fame or poor applause : 
The sword leaped to thy hand to strike a blow 

For equal justice and the good old cause. * 
And now thy voice, as sweet as bugle-notes, 

Drops clear and pleasant through the liquid skies, 
Till thus we catch the message as it floats : 

" The cost was nothing ; for behold the prize ! 
Behold free nations waking into birth ! 

Behold the hope of tyrants tottering down ! 
For, lo ! the cynosure of all the earth, 

Our loved Republic, wears her laurel crown ; 
And, from the clod where crimson rivers ran, 
The unchained helot rises up a man ! " 

Lieut. Henry M. Stillman was one of four brothers in the 
Union army. He had been a teacher in the Sunday school 
of the St. John-street Methodist Church, New Haven ; and 
was a modest, quiet, conscientious man. " For months before 
the battle, he had a strong presentiment of death, and de 
clared that he should fall in his first battle. So decided was 
this, that some of his brother-officers urged him not to go 
forward^ but- he refused to shirk, and did not allow his pre 
monitions to affect his cheerfulness or efficiency." 

Company A, of the Tenth, was detailed to guard the cap 
tured rebel officers one hundred and forty in all until 
they were sent to be exchanged. 

The next day after the battle was Sunday, which was oc 
cupied by the soldiers, after religious services, in making 
themselves comfortable. An inquiry of Gen. Burnside, as 
he rode past them, as to their " prospects for fresh pork," 
was construed into a license to kill any of the hogs running 
at large over the island ; and their indiscriminate slaughter 
was at once commenced. Popping rifles and dying squeals 
were heard on every side ; until it seemed as if Pork Point 
covered all of Roanoke, instead of being one of its projec 

Next day, many of the men re-embarked ; and for a month 
the fleet of transports was quiet, occasionally making feints 
towards Albemarle Sound, or coasting along the mainland. 

22 * By W. A. C. 


Week after week the Connecticut regiments, with the rest 
of Burnside s force, waited impatiently upon the transports, 
drifting lazily up and down Croatan Sound, along the shore 
of Roanoke Island. All sorts of rumors prevailed, and the 
weary days dragged. When the order came, March 11, 
for an advance on Newberne, this entry pf Col. Drake of 
the Tenth, in his diary, doubtless expressed the general feel 
ing : " Started in the rain down the sound, away from 
Roanoke Island, of which we shall ever retain, I have no 
doubt, very disagreeable impressions. Good-by, dirty, muddy, 
swampy, brackish, diseased, and deathful Roanoke ! " On 
the 12th, the entire fleet stood down the sound, and that 
night anchored in the Neuse River, off the mouth of Slo- 
cum s Creek, some eighteen miles from Newberne. - 

" This morning, early," wrote Col. Drake on the 13th, 
" came the signal, Get ready to land ! then, almost immedi 
ately, the second signal, Pull for the land ! . . . Our big iron 
barge and the remaining boats were loaded the first of any 
in the brigade or the fleet. A little tug came and took us 
in tow ; and away we started for the shore, the shells of our 
gunboats showering the woods along; the bank." Other regi- 

O *-) O O 

ments were similarly arranged in boats astern, like flocks 
of ducks. "From the transport-fleet to shore, the boats 
sailed in a long, graceful sweep, with flags flying, bands play 
ing, and live thousand bayonets flashing in the sunshine that 
now streamed over the flotilla. The picture was really beau 
tiful ; while the solemn nature of the business before us 
lent to the pageant an air of grandeur peculiar to itself." 
Casting off from the tugs when near the shore, " each little 
boat and launch strove first to reach the land. Nearly every 
boat of any size grounded within from five to twenty rods 
of shore; and then what jumping into water, in some places 
up to the waist! and all, enthusiastic, pressing for the 
beach." 7 Some of the boats of the Eighth landed on the 
wrong side of the creek, and had to return. 

The land below Newberne is a level, swampy tract, thickly 
wooded, with occasional clearings, and small, bankrupt plan 
tations. The road is simply a path cut through woods, with 

6 New- York-Tribune Narrative. 7 Col. Drake s Diary. 


rarely a bridge, or a rod of corduroy. Along this road, 
soaked with spring rains, splashed the regiments. The gun 
boats moved up the river, abreast of the head of the column, 
flinging shot and shell into the woods in front, driving back 
in terror the rebel vedettes and pickets. These gunboats, 
as dreadful to the rebels as Attila, " the scourge of God," was 
to the Romans, were simply light-draught, stern-wheel tow- 
boats, or common ferry-boats, with a heavy gun at the bows, 
and sometimes another amidships. 

All day long the weary men toiled on ; and at eight o clock 
at night, twelve miles from the point of landing, the regi 
ments filed off into the woods, until the line was substantially 
parallel to the rebel work in front, and stretched from the 
river to the Beaufort Railroad. A picket-line was soon estab 
lished, and the force was in bivouac for the night. The rain 
fell steadily : but fires were quickly started, and the woods 
were brilliant with the glaring light, and weird with moving 
forms; while the dense smoke, rising slowly into the thick 
pines, formed a lurid and ever-shifting canopy. Many weary 
ones sank immediately to sleep on the wet ground ; others 
cooked a little pork and coffee, and dried first one side, then 
the other, at the fire, stirring at intervals the waning em 
bers, and watching the soaring sparks ; still others, wrapped 
in their blankets, leaned against the trees, and dozed away 
the dismal night. The bivouac was within range of the rebel 
works ; but all night the rebel pickets watched the illumi 
nated woods, and were silent. 

Next morning, our troops were early astir. " Men rose 
from the ground, where, with faces turned towards the tree- 
tops, they had lain all night, the big, pitiless drops pelting 
them, the icy cold ground spread like a frozen sponge under 
them, and they sleeping deeply, heavily, through the long 
hours, till daylight roused them. 1 believed at least a 
hundred men would grace the sick-list that morning; on the 
contrary, not one, that I am aware of: and they uttered not 
a murmur." 8 

Gen. Burnside promptly ordered an advance of the entire 
division. A massive battery, with casemates and heavy guns, 

8 Col. Drake s Diary. 


on the bank of the river, formed the left of the rebel works, 
which stretched across the high land southward, in breast 
works, for half a mile to the railroad, and thence in rifle-pits 
to a swamp deemed impenetrable. In front was an irregu 
lar abatis. Behind the intrenchments were seven thousand 

" Gen. Foster s brigade was ordered up the main country 
road to attack the enemy s left ; Gen. Reno up the railroad 
to attack their right ; and Gen. Parke to follow Gen. Foster, 
and attack the enemy in front, with instructions to support 
either or both brigades." The Eleventh Connecticut formed 
the rear of the column ; and the regiment was soon detailed 
to bring up the boat, howitzers, and guns which had arrived 
during the night. 10 After this service, it acted temporarily 
with Gen. Foster s brigade. " It had been quiet as the morn 
ing of a rainy New-England sabbath ; and the only sounds 
were the low moan of the woods, the dull tramp of the weary 
troops, and the occasional plash, plash, plash, of a mounted 
aide ; . . . when the roar of a great gun close at hand startled 
us, and the crash of a huge limb which a rifled ball had lopped 
off told us that a hidden enemy was near." n " We took an 
oblique direction, and hadn t gone a hundred rods, when a 
loud, swift whiz went through the air, sounding as if some 
one had torn a thousand yards of canvas from one end to 
the other at a single pull." 12 

The Eighth Connecticut had deployed to the left, near the 
railroad ; and Capts. Appelman s and Upham s companies 
were thrown forward, under a heavy fire, to the edge of the 
wood as skirmishers. The Tenth and Eleventh were farther 
to the right. The Tenth had been ordered to the left of the 
23d Massachusetts ; and the Eleventh, to the right of the 
same regiment, deployed upon both sides of the road. The 
line advanced, under a constant fire, up the slope, in plain 
sight of the rebel batteries, with their flaunting flags, and 

O O O / 

approached to within three hundred yards before returning 
the fire. Then a long line of unwavering musketry, broken 
here and there by howitzers, flashed and roared in angry 

9 Gen. Burnsidc s Report. 10 Vide Gen. Parke s Report. 

11 Capt. Pardec s Letter. 

12 Lieut. Camp s Letter in the Knightly Soldier. 


response. The line pressed up so close, and the fire was so 
well sustained and deliberate, that the rebel gunners were 
shot, or driven from their work at the field-pieces ; and the 
rebel infantry only here and there showed a head above 
the parapet. Burnside now pressed forward the troops both 
on the right and left. 

Col. Harland had moved the Eighth, by the flank, along the 
railroad, and quietly through the bushes to the open ground; 
and now, with a clear, shrill voice, and the emphasis of com 
ing victory, rang the orders, "By company into line!" An 
advancing front of forty men appeared before the astonished 
rebels. " Fix bayonets ! " It was done at a rapid walk. 
" Forward into line ! " Up the embankment, and across the 
railroad, dashed the rear companies, coming into line within 
a hundred paces of the works. " Steady, guide center, for 
ward, double quick ! " 

The Eleventh, which had been firing rapidly, some of the 
men assisting to man the howitzers, also now advanced. 
" The order to charge was given, when from the curtain of 
the woods up sprang thousands of blue-coats, a glittering 
wave of steel flashing in front, and rushed forward with 
loud huzzas, an invincible line." 13 

Only two other regiments mounted the ramparts as early 
as the Eighth and Eleventh. " The 4th Rhode-Island crossed 
first," says Gen. Foster in his report, " where the enemy s 
fire had much slackened in consequence of a steady and 
constant fire kept up by the 23d Massachusetts and Tenth 
Connecticut." " The Eighth Connecticut, 5th Rhode-Island, 
and Eleventh Connecticut, coming up to their support, the 
rebels fled with precipitation, and left us in undisputed 
possession." ] 

The Eighth contests the claim of the 4th Rhode-Island 
to having first entered the enemy s works ; and it is certain 
that the flag of the Eighth was first displayed therein. 

" We fired," wrote Col. Drake, " until they were dead 
silenced, not a gun in reply. In less than ten minutes 
afterwards, we saw the American flag coming along the left 

18 Lieut. J. H. Converse s Letter in Hartford Press.- 
14 Kettell s History of the Rebellion, p. 339. 


into their battery. It went in, and was planted there. 
Whipped, poor traitors ! " " We were still firing rapidly," 
wrote Lieut. Camp, " when cheering rose load in front ; and, 
in a moment more, our flag appeared waving from the para 
pet. They cheered on the right, and they cheered on the 
left, and they cheered before us, and we cheered, and had 
hardly finished cheering when the order came to resume our 
march." Gen. Foster, in his report of the battle, said, "I 
must mention in my brigade, where all behaved bravely, with 
particular praise, the 24th Massachusetts and the Tenth 
Connecticut. . . . The latter advanced close under the 
enemy s fire in line of battle, fired with the most remark 
able steadiness, and stood steadily up, giving and taking the 
most severe fire." 

Our forces are ordered forward at once in pursuit of the 
routed army. The boys soon come upon the cosy barracks 
where servants are preparing dinner for the rebels, expected 
to return victorious. They pick up the hot corn-dodger, 
snatch the half-broiled steak, seize hats, swords, guns, trophies 
of every kind, and rejoin the column in the wild race for 
Newberne. The rebels are demoralized by shells from the 
pursuing gunboats. Many are captured. Their main body, 
however, impelled by fright, won the race, crossed the Trent, 
burned the bridges, set the city on fire, and continued their 
flight to the interior. By this victory, we captured forty-six 
heavy guns and eighteen field-pieces, a large number of small 
arms, two steamboats, several sailing vessels, the rebels entire 
camp equipage, a large quantity of ammunition and general 
stores, and a city of considerable military importance. 

Finding close pursuit impossible, the troops stacked arms, 
and rested ; killed, cooked, and ate some captured beef-cattle 
on the south side of the Trent; and at five, P.M., the Tenth 
Regiment was ferried across with the 1st Brigade, and occu 
pied a just-deserted rebel camp beyond the city, where they 
prepared to make themselves comfortable. 

The Eighth and Eleventh, with other regiments, fell back 
to the snug rebel barracks, and took possession in high glee. 
"Here," says the correspondent of a New-York paper, " our 
privates strutted about in the brass-mounted uniforms of rebel 


officers." They were terribly punished for their audacity. 
For a single afternoon they strutted in the official attire, for 
a single night they slept in the warm barracks ; but that was 
enough of both. They had moved in under a misappre 
hension, only to find them already occupied in force by in 
sectivorous "graybacks" left to maintain possession. And 
these insidious tenants renewed the attack " alons; the whole 


line," driving out the invaders in confusion. The members 
of the Eleventh, in much perplexity, after scratching their 
heads, and considering what it was best to do, established a 
camp above the city, on a promontory that juts out into the 
Trent, and thrust their white conical tents up into the green 
pines and cypresses that cast their long shadows on the river. 

The triumph was dimmed by the loss of brave men. The 
Eighth had two killed and four wounded, among the latter 
being Capt. Upharn. 

The Tenth lost more heavily, having seven killed and six 
teen wounded. One of the slain was Sergeant Joseph A. 
Lombard of Greenwich, of whom Lieut. Camp said, " He was 
a man of excellent Christian character, and a true soldier." 
The Eleventh lost six killed and fourteen wounded. Among 
the killed was Capt. Edwin R. Lee. He enlisted from Hart 
ford, but was born in Plymouth, of Revolutionary stock. He 
was a young man of a clear head and earnest convictions, 
and made speeches for the election of Lincoln in 1860. He 
recruited a company, and led it to the war, and was struck 
in the abdomen by a shell as he was wheeling his company 
into line, and was killed almost instantly. His only words 
were, " Tell my brother I died at the post of duty. Good-by. 
Go on for your country!" His remains were buried at home 
with military honors. 

In the early summer, the following order was issued by 
Gov. Buckingham : 

General Headquarters, State of Connecticut. 

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 35. It becomes the sorrowful duty of the 
commander-in-chief to make to the militia and the volunteers of the State now 
in the field the official announcement of the death of Col. Albert W. Drake, 
of the Tenth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. 

On the breaking-out of the Rebellion, Col. Drake, impelled by a sense of 


patriotic duty, abandoned a profession upon which he had just entered 
under favorable auspices, left his home, and served with fidelity as a lieu 
tenant during the three-months campaign. 

At the battle of Bull Run, he exhibited the firmness and coolness of a 
veteran. -On his discharge, he engaged in organizing a company for three 
years service, was promoted to a field-officer, and went again to the scene 
of conflict. Upon the death of Col. Russell on the battle-field of Roanoke 
Island, he took command of the regiment, and for his bravery and soldier 
like bearing on that occasion, as well as in the battle of Newberne, won the 
respect and confidence of his superior officers, and the affection of his com 

He died at his home in South Windsor, on the 5th inst., of an insidious 
disease, the violence of which was undoubtedly increased by his exertions 
in the field. 

Col. Drake leaves behind him a bright record of unsullied honor and 
unselfish patriotism ; and the State mourns the loss of a noble officer. 

The commander-in-chief directs that these orders be read at the head of 
every Connecticut regiment. 

By order of the commander-in-chief. 

JOSEPH D. WILLIAMS, Adjutant-General. 

Albert Waldo Drake was born in that part of East Windsor 
which is now South Windsor, in 1834. His father was a 
prominent man, and had often represented the town, as a 
Whig, in the General Assembly. No efforts were spared to 
obtain a good education for young Albert. Early intended 
for a literary life, he was sent to the best schools, where he 
made rapid progress, especially in mathematics and the 
languages. He duly presented himself at the door of Yale, 
and passed an excellent examination for the freshman 
class. Stimulated to new exertions, he studied constantly, 
and in three weeks presented himself for entrance as a 
sophomore. Being " conditioned " to three weeks additional 
study, he refused it, and entered Williams as a sophomore ; 
returning the next year, and entering the junior class of 
Yale. He graduated with honors, chose the profession 
of law, and entered the office of Richard D. Hubbard, Esq., 
of Hartford. 

Drake was a Democrat, and in 1858 was elected to the 
legislature by his fellow-citizens of South Windsor, defeating 
his father, who ran as a Republican. Upon the first call to 
arms, Drake was the first man to volunteer. He drew up an 
enlistment-paper, and carried it to the Press, where he and 
Hawley started the first volunteer company that was raised 
in the State. He had a natural taste for a military life ; and, 


" Even when a child, 
His heart leapt forth to hear them tell of struggles fierce and wild ; " 

and he besought his father to obtain for him. a cadetship at 
West Point, He was highly esteemed and beloved by his 
soldiers ; they would follow him anywhere ; and he never 
shrank from danger. It is believed that the seeds of con 
sumption were sown during his college-life. The Courant, 
in a discriminating sketch, said, " He had all the elements 
of popularity to make himself acceptable to the people, an 
easy address, an intuitive sense of propriety, a genial tempera 
ment and ready wit, a whole-souled generosity which made 
him everywhere a favorite. He was an apt scholar ; had no 
visionary schemes or ideas ; no circumstances could discon 
cert or confuse him ; he possessed extraordinary practical 
sense ; and his perceptive faculties were so quick, that he 
seemed to comprehend every thing at a glance." His death 
deprived the Tenth of a gallant and accomplished com 
mander, and the State of a citizen before whom opened a 
brilliant career. 

Major Daniel M. Meade of Greenwich died on Oct. 26, of 
fever. He had been assigned, a month before, to occupy and 
hold, with two companies of the Tenth, a fort at Wash- 
ino-ton, N.C. : and there death found him. He was a fine 

O " 

specimen of the volunteer soldier. He was ever ready for 
duty, and was one of the best-disciplined officers in the regi 
ment. Lieut. B. L. Graves said of him, "He was dearly loved 
by us all. His character was above reproach, and we shall 
never forget the example and counsels that his daily life 
held up to us all." 

Dr. De Witt C. Lathrop, assistant surgeon of the Eighth, 
died April 18, 1862. He was born in Bozrah, and had prac 
ticed medicine ten years, the last two in Norwich. He was 
an officer of the First Congregational Church of that city, and 
a man of great moral and professional worth. Dr. Page, 
United-States sanitary inspector in North Carolina, wrote, 
" His devotion to the sick and wounded was untiring day 
and night. His humane sympathies were too strong for the 
heavy responsibilities which fell upon him. His heart was 
too much in his work, and led him to sacrifice to the preser- 



vation of others the strength which was necessary to his 
own." The men of the Eighth Regiment built a handsome 
monument to his memory in Windham. 

At this time, Rev. Henry Clay Trumbull joined the Tenth 
as chaplain, most fortunately for the regiment. The New- 
Haven Journal said, " He is not an austere religionist, but 
a cheerful, social Christian, a man to be loved and trusted." 
So it proved. 

As soon as the country about Newberne was firmly occu 
pied, attention was turned to Fort Macon, that still flaunted 
a rebel flag, and defended blockade-runners ; and, within two 
days, Gen. Parke had faced his little brigade that way. On 
March 19, the Eighth left camp, proceeded down the Neuse 
on transports, landed again at Slocum s Creek, and marched 
across the country towards the coast. The men made good 
time to "Carolina City," thinking of theaters, restaurants, 
and other city facilities ; and were somewhat chagrined, on 
arriving, to find that the entire municipality was contained 
in a dozen one-story houses and a few sheds. 

The force consisted of the Eighth Connecticut and the 
4th and 5th Rhode-Island. The trains were much delayed : 
there was little food, and no tents or cooking utensils. The 
weather became stormy, and the men dug holes in the 
ground, and sheltered them with boards; and here for a 
dreary week they lived, catching a few fish and oysters 
when they could. Here Col. Harland was prostrated with 
typhoid-fever. Two companies of the Eighth were sent over 
to occupy Beaufort, and others to Morehead City. Opposite 
was Fort Macon, on the extreme upper point of Bogue Banks, 
a low, sandy island, or spit, half a mile wide, stretching twenty 
miles south-west along the coast. Inside this island was 
Bogue Sound, three miles wide, with shallow water, only 
three or four feet deep. 

The Eighth Connecticut Volunteers at once knocked to 
gether some rafts, got some flat-boats, and floated over to the 
Banks a detail of men; carrying across the island upon their 
shoulders some boats they had seized at Beaufort, and 
communicating with the fleet outside waiting to co-operate. 
Here they were immediately joined by the 4th and a bat 
talion of the 5th Rhode-Island. 


There was little shrubbery upon the Banks, except dwarf 
juniper and a stunted growth of the yuba ; the leaves of 
which, resembling the box, are" used for tea in North Caro 
lina. The sand was so light and shifting, that it had formed 
countless sand-hillocks, some of which were six feet high. 
Between these, having almost perfect protection, the men 
advanced, pushing the rebel pickets into the fort. This was 
one of the strongest fortifications on the Southern coast, 
mounting twenty thirty-two-pounders, thirty twenty-four- 
pounders, six mortars, and thirty-two smaller pieces. The 
heavy guns were in two tiers ; one in casemated bomb- 
proofs, and the other en barbette. It was occupied by five 
hundred troops. 

The island sloped and narrowed towards the fort ; being, 
in places, scarcely wide enough for a small regiment to march 
in line of battle. April 12, Gen. Parke ordered the Eighth 
to advance, and drive in the rebel pickets. Major Hiram 
Appelman, now in command, marched his regiment by the 
right flank up the beach, and, when within three miles of the 
fort, filed across the island in line of battle. Company G, 
Capt. James L. Russell, was thrown out as skirmishers ; 
and the regiment waded forward knee-deep in the yielding 
sand. The rebel skirmishers contested the advance, but were 
driven steadily back ; and, while they retreated, they shouted, 

with absurd inaptuess, " Come on, you d d Yankees ! 

we are enough for you ! " Company H, Capt. Sheffield, was 
now deployed to skirmish ; and the captain was severely 
wounded in the body. The exultant rebels continued to fall 
back until they entered the fort ; the Eighth having passed 
through a cedar-jungle, about a mile from the fort. The 
enemy had the exact range, and opened a heavy cannon 
ading ; our men concealing themselves, as well as they could, 
behind the sand-hills. On the 14th, the fire slackened, and 
the regiment was temporarily relieved by the 4th Rhode- 

Now the work of the siege progressed in earnest. Heavy 
guns and ammunition were floated over to the Banks on two- 
masted scows, and pushed up the island in the night, slowly 
into position. Bags were filled with sand, and raised for a 


The Eighth Connecticut Volunteers and 4th Rhode-Island 
were alternately on duty; when off duty, occupying an 
uncomfortable camp down the island. Rifle-pits were dug 
at night within two thousand feet from the fort, and con 
stantly occupied. In front of them, in storms, the sea surged 
over the island. The sand was so movable, that the men 
were sometimes half covered. In the rear of these, half a 
mile from the fort, were three heavy batteries, built by the 
volunteers, and manned by a company of regulars. 

On the evening of the 21st, Gen Parke directed the estab 
lishment of a rifle-pit at shorter range, so that the sharp 
shooters would be able to silence the rebel guns. Major 
Appelman proceeded in the darkness, with a company of vol 
unteers under the immediate command of Lieut. Henry E. 
Morgan of Stonington, much nearer the fort, and began to 
dig near a naked brick chimney. The daring attempt was 
discovered ; and, just as Sergeant Amos Clift was stationing 
the pickets, a gun opened with canister, wounding Major 
Appelman severely in the thigh, and Private J. H. Alexander 
in the body. The enterprise was abandoned. 

This severe service was very trying to the men. Of the 
Eighth, sixty lay sick at once at Morehead City, and 
nearly forty died of typhoid-fever. There were only two 
captains present for duty, April 21 ; an d Surgeon Melancthon 
Storrs was the only well man of the field and staff officers : 
and it was fortunate that he was an exception; for his skill 
and tireless devotion to the regiment rendered him of in 
calculable service. 

The surrender of the fort was now demanded, and met a 
defiant refusal. Our riflemen pushed up so close as to pick 
off the rebel gunners. The most arduous service fell to the 
Eighth Connecticut ; and it was the only regiment that lost 
in killed or wounded. On the morning of the 25th, fire 
was opened, on the fort from the shore batteries and the 
three steamers moving in a circle. The latter drew off after 
an hour s fighting; and the siege batteries increased in 
energy, shaking the sandy beach, and knocking gun after 
gun from the fort s parapet. The Eighth was alone in the 
rifle-pits, between the thundering cannon, shooting the rebel 
gunners and infantry whenever a head was visible. 


At four, P.M., after a terrific bombardment of eleven hours, 
the commandant of the fort asked a truce to arrange terms 
of capitulation. Thirteen guns had been dismounted, and 
the shot had torn up the glacis and ramparts very thor 
oughly. Eight men had been killed, and twentj^ wounded. 
Firing ceased ; and the Eighth, tired, hungry, worn out, be 
grimed with powder, was now relieved by the 5th Rhode- 
Island ; and to this fragment of a regiment the rebel flag 
was given as a trophy next morning, when the formal sur 
render was made, and the regiment took possession of the 
fort. The Eighth considered itself again defrauded of its 
just rights ; and the Tribune s narrative said, " But for the 
accident that the 5th Rhode-Island had relieved the Eighth 
Connecticut the previous evening, the captured flag would 
have gone to grace the legislative halls at Hartford." Gen. 
Parke justifies giving the preference to the Rhode-Island 
regiment by the fact that the Eighth Connecticut Volun 
teers had no field-officer present to receive the surrender. 


The Connecticut Chaplains -aid Commission. Chapel Tents and Regimental Libraries 
furnished. Medical Examining Board. Spring Election of 1862. The War Spirit 
predominant. Governor s Message. Legislative Action. Special December Ses 
sion. Party Spirit rising. Cornelius S. Bushnell builds the Monitor. 

HE literary and religious privileges of some were 
sadly missed by our reading and thinking vol 
unteers in their early camps, and the people 
of the State supplied their wants as best they 
could. As soon as the Fourth was fairly in 
the field, its energetic chaplain, Rev. Edward A. Walker, ex 
pressed a desire to have a large tent under his own control 
for meetings of every sort. Mr. Alfred Walker, his father, 
immediately solicited contributions. Money came in from 
day to day in sums of one to five dollars, with one or two 
large donations. 

The tent, strong, neat, and commodious, was purchased for 
two hundred and twenty-five dollars, exhibited a day or two 
on the New-Haven Green, and forwarded to the regiment. 
Officers and men united to set up and prepare the canvas 
meeting-house ; and the chaplain shortly after wrote, 

" The Temple of Nature, sufficient in summer, is too chilly in Decem 
ber ; and of late it has been too leaky over head, and too wet under foot, 
to be very inviting ; and the number of worshipers has been sadly out of 
proportion to the accommodation. Now we have a church and divine ser 
vice, and something more like a sabbath. We have our prayer-meetings 
and Bible-class, our lectures, temperance-meetings, and musical society. 
We have also a melodeon ; for, when the men heard that the tent was com 
ing, they started at once a subscription, declaring that they would now 
have service in style." 

Almost every night, the tent was in use for social or reli 
gious purposes. 



About the first of January, 1862, the Rev. Dr. L. W. Ba 
con undertook the task of organizing an association to sup 
ply all Connecticut regiments with chapel-tents, circulating 
libraries, and regular newspapers, and .to co-operate with the 
chaplains in the mental and moral welfare of the men. In 
response to his circulars, prominent citizens from all parts 
of the State assembled, and formed the Chaplains -aid Com 
mission, with the following officers and members, represent 
ing all denominations, and authorized to add to their num 
bers : 

President, Gov. William A. Buckingham ; Vice-President, 
Lieut.-Gov. Benjamin Douglass ; Corresponding Secretaries, 
Rev. L. W. Bacon, Rev. A. R. Thompson ; Recording Secre 
tary, Francis Wayland ; Treasurer, Stephen D. Pardee ; Mem 
bers, Pres. Theodore D. Woolsey, Right Rev. John Wil 
liams, Rev. Robert Turnbull, Rev. Leonard Bacon, Rev. 
G. W. Woodruff, Rev. P. S. Evans, H. M. Welch, H. B. Har 
rison, William H. Russell, William B. Johnson, Edward W. 
Hatch, Richard D. Hubbard, Henry T. Blake, F. J. Kingsbury. 

Mr. Bacon was soon called away ; and the burden of labor 
fell upon Mr. Wayland, who cheerfully and heartily entered 
into the philanthropic work. His office became the head 
quarters of the Commission. 

Finding the duties more than he could alone perform, Mr. 
Wayland secured the aid of John M. Morris, who also gladly 
labored without compensation. 

Mr. Morris presented the subject to the people of Water- 
bury, Stonington, Hartford, Norwich, Meriden, Bridgeport, 
New Britain, and Greenwich. Chaplain H. L. Hall, of the 
Tenth Connecticut Volunteers, also spoke for the Commis 
sion at Meriden, Norwich, Stonington, and Greenwich ; and 
Chaplain J. J. Woolley of the Eighth (who had just resigned), 
in Meriden, Waterbury, Farmington, Danbury, Norwalk, 
South Norwalk, Madison, and New Milford. The people re 
sponded with liberality, with funds sufficient for the need. 
They also sent in hundreds of excellent books, thousands of 
magazines, and of illustrated papers uncounted numbers. 

Chapel-tents were now purchased for the Fifth, Sixth, Sev 
enth, Eighth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, and Thirteenth Regi- 


ments. Each of the ten regiments then in the field was fur 
nished with a library of from seventy-five to a hundred and 
twenty-five bound volumes. For these libraries, Mr. Way- 
land devised a strong portable case, with shelves, lock, and 
handles, so that the library was packed by simply locking it, 
and prepared for use by setting it up and unlocking it. Mr. 
Samuel Nichols, carpenter, made these cases for the cost of 
the materials. With each library was sent a written cata 
logue, with numbers, and in each book the proper regimen 
tal label. 

By July, twelve hundred and eighty-four bound volumes 
had been forwarded, and fifty-four hundred and forty-eight 
magazines, with a very large number of illustrated and reli 
gious papers. The books sent were not worn out or cast off, 
but of high character and great variety. In order to be 
sure of the newest and freshest, Mr. Wayland purchased two 
hundred and fifty volumes of the best recent publications. 

The tents and libraries were received with grateful delight 
by the officers and men. Every chaplain testified to their 
value. Chaplain Hall of the Tenth wrote, 

" It is the most convenient thing imaginable. I have constructed a 
long writing-desk, on which I place all the papers which you so kindly 
furnish me : at the end of the desk is my library of books. You will al 
ways find from ten to fifty men in the tent, reading and vyriting. The 
library is just the thing needed. The books are well assorted, and enter 

Of the books and pamphlets sent to the Eighth Con 
necticut Volunteers, Chaplain Morris wrote, " The nicely- 
selected stock was gone in two hours after I had opened 
the box. Since that time, the delivery and return of books 
has occupied several hours a day. Dickens has a great run. 
The tales by Miss Edgeworth and T. S. Arthur are very popu 
lar. The Army and Navy Melodies are hailed with delight, 
and the boys are singing right merrily almost every night. 
Day before yesterday, I received a box of pamphlets from 
the Commission. There were half a dozen men ready to 
open the box. and twenty more at hand to superintend the 
process and share the contents. The demand for reading is 
four times the supply." Mr. Morris having become chaplain 


of the Eighth Connecticut Volunteers, Mr. H. 0. Ladd, after 
wards of the Congregational church in Cromwell, rendered 
efficient assistance to Mr. Wayland. 

After the first set of libraries had been forwarded, circu 
lars were sent to chaplains, inquiring what else they needed, 
and how the Commission could aid them. 

The Ninth Regiment was supplied with Catholic books 
and papers. A large number of local and religious journals 
were subscribed for, and regularly sent to each regiment. 
Hundreds of singing-books were provided. 

No more chapel-tents were furnished, however. It was 
found that they could not be transported on long marches, 
and were liable to seizure in emergency for hospital-pur 
poses. In this way, nearly every one disappeared within a 
year. Those of the Fifth, Eighth, and Eleventh, were of 
substantial service in sheltering the wounded upon the san 
guinary field of Antietam ; but they were seen by the wistful 
chaplains no more. 

Books, magazines, and papers were repeatedly forwarded 
by Mr. Wayland throughout the war. By July, 1862, the 
tract societies were able to distribute all the religious read 
ing that was needed, and local soldiers -aid societies sent on 
magazines and papers with other supplies : so the Chaplains - 
uid Commission was not kept up as an organization. But 
Chaplain Hall doubtless said truly, "Connecticut leads every 
other State, even the old Bay State, in the aid she is furnish 
ing her chaplains." 

Early in the war, Gov. Buckingham, in order to secure effi 
cient medical officers, appointed Drs. G.W. Russell of Hartford, 
P. A. Jewett of New Haven, and Ashbel Woodward of Frank 
lin, an examining board. These gentlemen, at great personal 
inconvenience and sacrifice, met throughout the war, and con 
sidered with thoroughness the qualifications of candidates for 
those responsible posts. The traditions and rules of the army 
forbade the board to pass any applicants, except practitioners 
of the old school ; but this duty was performed with faithful 
discrimination, and it is safe to say that no man was commis 
sioned as surgeon in any Connecticut regiment who was 
incompetent for the position. 



A board for the examination of line-officers was also insti 
tuted, and was productive of considerable good. 

The State election of April, 1862, was very quiet. Party 
excitement had subsided ; the " peace " feeling and the 
" white-flag " demonstrations of the previous autumn had 
disappeared ; and the general sentiment of the people, irre 
spective of party, was, that the war must now be pushed 
with decision. The Democrats insisted that nothing could 
in any case be done that was not " strictly constitutional ; " 
while Republicans avoided that question, or maintained that 
war was never waged " according to law," and that all stat 
utes and constitutions must be held subordinate to the salva 
tion of the nation s . life. In their platform, however, the 
Republicans pledged themselves to " prosecute the war in 
absolute good faith, for the sole purpose of saving the 
Union." The Eaton-Seymour branch of the Democratic 
party was under a cloud, and there seemed to be general 
concurrence in the work of the hour. 

The Democrats affirmed a willingness to permit the Re 
publicans, with their wise and noble governor, to retain the 
responsibility for all acts relating to the war : so that the 
election went almost by default. Little effort was made, 
and only 70,416 votes were polled. Gov. Buckingham was 
re-elected by a majority of 9,148. 

The Senate elected was unanimously Republican ; and, in 
the lower House, that party had a hundred and thirty 
majority. More than thirteen thousand men had been 
mustered into the service, and recruiting had ceased. 

The Assembly met at New Haven on Wednesday, May 7. 
The Senate organized by the election of Hiram Goodwin as 
president pro tern., and Cyrus Northrop as clerk. The House 
chose Josiah M. Carter of Norwalk as speaker ; and Cooke 
Lounsbury and H. Lynde Harrison, clerks. 

The message of the governor was received with favor by 
both parties. It appeared that the total estimated indebted 
ness of the State for the year was $3,163,384. Of this 
amount, all but half a million was due for military ex 


Federal affairs were discussed by the governor in a digni 
fied, humane, and patriotic manner. In boldly stating his 
views on a subject concerning which many were still pain 
fully sensitive, he says, " Slavery has forced us to a civil 
war, but insists that we have no right to use the war-power 
against her interests. Slavery has repudiated her obliga 
tions to the Constitution, and yet claims protection by virtue 
of its provisions. Let us not be deceived by such fallacy. 
. . . Slavery, by denying her obligations to the Constitution, 
has opened the door for the operation of the principles of 
righteousness and justice which dictated that instrument; 
and if, in pressing those principles to their legitimate results, 
Slavery shall be undermined and perish, let us rejoice that 
the suicide is of no importance to enlarged and universal 

This was almost the first declaration in the State, by one 
of her public men, in favor of re-establishing the Union 
upon the foundations of liberty, justice, and equality before 
the law. 

With a view of testing the sentiments of the Union Re 
publicans on this irritating subject, perhaps with the hope 
of producing discord in their ranks, Charles Chapman of 
Hartford, early in the session, introduced a resolution 
indorsing the proclamation of President Lincoln which 
annulled the order of Gen. Hunter declaring the slaves of 
Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida, to be free. 

It was simply referred, without debate, by a yea-and-nay 
vote of one hundred and forty-nine to sixty-eight, to the 
Committee on Federal Relations. Messrs. Chapman of Hart 
ford, and A. P. Hyde of Tolland, were the Democratic lead 
ers ; but they took no other occasion to show party-feeling, 
and displayed no opposition to the war. The session was 
devoted chiefly to local matters. No new legislation con 
cerning the war was deemed necessary. 

The militia law of 1861 was repealed, and a new law en 
acted in its stead. James T. Pratt of Rocky Hill, a recent 
convert to the war-party, had been temporarily appointed 
major-general of- the State militia; but his administration 
was a failure. His command consisted only of himself; and 


his ideas on the subject of the militia were deemed imprac 
ticable and antiquated. He was promptly removed, and 
Prof. William H. Russell of the New-Haven Military School 
was appointed his successor. 

The new law provided all the necessary machinery for a 
good militia ; but it had not enough vigor to become effective, 
as it depended on the voluntary action of the young men, 
and held out no inducement for them to organize under it. 

The Assembly would probably have adjourned by the 1st 
of July, had not tidings of the disasters to Gen. McClellan 
held them together for such action as the worst contingency 
might demand. New bounties were authorized ; and the pay 
and bounties of volunteers were exempted from attachment 
for debt. 

Three reports came from the Committee on Federal Rela 
tions at the close of the session ; but, without debate, they 
were all indefinitely postponed ; and the following resolution 
was passed unanimously on the last day by both branches of 
the legislature : 

Resolved, That the State of Connecticut will stand by the old flag, and 
will furnish all the men and money that are required of her to put down 
this infamous Rebellion. 

This emphatic action, in the face of almost stunning 
defeat, tersely expressed the thought and temper of the 
people. The legislature of 1862 contained a large number 
of men of ability : among them were Messrs. 0. H. Platt, 
H. K. W. Welch, A. H. Byington, John B. Wright, and 
Charles Atwater, jr., of the Senate ; and Erastus Scranton, 
John T. Rice, Amos A. Treat, John T. Adams, David Gallup, 
Cornelius S. Buslmell, Alfred Coit, Abner L. Train, Abijah 
Catlin, B. Bent, jr., Dr. H. A. Grant, John E. Law, David 
J. Peck, and Erastus Day, of the House. 

On the 12th Of November, 1862, Gov. Buckingham issued 
his proclamation, convening the General Assembly in 
special session at New Haven for the sundry purposes 

In accordance with this call, the two branches met in 
their respective halls at New Haven on the 9th of Decem 
ber. The message was largely devoted to the action of the 


State in military matters since the adjournment of the May 
session. The attention of the legislature was again called 
to the unorganized condition of the State militia, and also 
to the justice of adopting some practical method of allow 
ing the soldiers in the field to vote. 

Laws were passed authorizing towns to fund their war 
indebtedness in bonds, confirming the action of towns in 
granting bounties to volunteers after enlistment, and 
authorizing the State treasurer to issue and sell bonds of 
the State to the amount of two million of dollars. Some 
legislation was also had on the subject of banks. 

That portion of the militia law relating to the enrollment 
of the inactive rnilitia and drafting for active service was 
amended, and rendered much more efficient. There was no 
more drafting for the militia. 

The judiciary committee reported a bill, drawn with great 
care, enabling electors of the State, in the military service 
of the United States, to cast their votes in the field at all 
State and Presidential elections. 

The bill was violently opposed in the House by the Demo 
cratic members ; but it was finally passed by a strict party- 
vote. The Republicans then submitted the whole matter to 
the Supreme Court, which decided that the clause in the 
State Constitution requiring the voters to " meet in the 
several towns " rendered the law unconstitutional. The 
legislation of 1863 and 1864 healed this defect in the 
organic law ; so that, before the close of the war, the citizen- 
soldiers of the State were enabled to vote. 

Amos A. Treat of Bridgeport introduced a resolution 
pledging the support of the State to the president in all 
measures he might adopt for the suppression of the Rebel 
lion. It passed by a strict party-vote. 

Already the national arms had met with defeat upon 
many hard-fought fields ; and the opponents of the war, 
silent during the cheers and songs of victory, were again 
making their remonstrances heard. 

On March 9, 1862, occurred the famous naval combat 
between the Monitor and Merrimack in Hampton Roads, 


revolutionizing in an hour the navies of the world. Connec 
ticut had an important part in the construction of the 

During the winter of 1861-2, Mr. C. S. Bushnell, an enter 
prising and public-spirited citizen of New Haven, contracted 
with the Navy Department for the construction of the 
Galena (the first iron-clad ordered by the United-States 
Government) ; and he called upon Capt. John Ericsson of 
New York to assure himself of the stability and buoyancy 
of the vessel under the stipulated weight of iron armor. 

Capt. Ericsson exhibited to him the plan of the original 
Monitor. Mr. Bushnell was satisfied at once that Ericsson s 
twenty-five years of thoughtful experiment had resulted in 
the perfection of a plan for an impregnable war-ship. Lack 
of funds had prevented the construction of the vessel ; and 
Bushnell instantly expressed a willingness to risk his entire 
fortune in the undertaking. A contract was signed, and the 
inventor gave him a carte blanche for the construction. 

In just one hundred days, the strange vessel was launched 
from the yard of Thomas F. Rowland, at Greenpoint, L.I. 
So incredulous were the Navy Board as to the value of the 
novel craft, that they refused to accept her until the builders 
had signed a guaranty that she should " prove a success." 

Her arrival at Fortress Monroe was greeted with repeated 
cheers from fort, ships, and shore ; for several of our best 
w r ooden frigates had the day before been burned, sunk, and 
blown up, and the rest scattered. As the Monitor imme 
diately ran down to engage the Merrimack, the rebels on 
board the uncouth monster derided the insignificant " cheese- 
box on a raft ; " but it was Goliath and David in deadly 
grapple again, and the giant was defeated. The Merrimack 
was soon after destroyed ; and from that day the Confed 
erates abandoned their pretense of a navy. The next mail 
carried to European nations news of a wonderful combat, 
involving their own destinies ; and the admirals of many 
victories w r ere startled to think how helpless would be their 
stoutest sloops of war before the iron beak. 


The Sixth embarks for Florida. Return to Hilton Head. The Seventh goes to Tibee 
Island to besiege Fort Pulaski. Labor of getting the Heavy Mortars in Position. 
A Case of Insanity. Sixth goes to Dawfuskie Island to cut off the Approaches from 
Savannah. Seventh mans the Mortar Batteries. A Connecticut Affair. The Bat 
tle. Surrender of the Fort. The Sixth and Seventh and the First Connecticut 
Battery at James Island. Assault on Lamar s Battery. Severe Fighting. Re 
pulse and Withdrawal. Bad Management by Gen. Benham. Casualties. 

HE Sixth and Seventh Regiments remained on 
the island, at Hilton Head, during the early 
months of the winter of 1861-2, perfecting 
themselves in drill, and awaiting orders. About 
Jan. 20, the Sixth was called to take part in a 
secret expedition by Gen. Wright s brigade, and embarked 
with that intent. A storm kept the vessels in the harbor a 
week ; when they dropped down to Warsaw Sound, with the 
idea of avoiding Fort Pulaski, and capturing Savannah by 
way of an inlet. A long experiment *was made by the gun 
boats, while the transports lay in Warsaw Sound till Feb. 27. 
The soldiers of the Sixth were fed for sixteen days on 
salt food only ; and " their drinking-water was from camphene 
casks, where it had been put some three months before. It 
was so foul, that the strongest tea could not conceal the 
nauseating flavor and smell, and, when poured into the sea- 
water, discolored it." J Severe sickness, in the form of spotted 
fever, broke out among the men in consequence, and became 
so aggravated, that there was an average of four or five 
deaths a day on board. The vessel was ordered back to 
Hilton Head, while the rest proceeded to take possession of 
the coast of Florida. The Sixth rapidly recovered health ; 

1 Letter of an officer. 



and Col. Hawley said in a letter, " Its appearance is a matter 
of just pride." 

On Dec. 16, the Seventh was removed from Fort Welles, 
Hilton Head, to the heavy earthwork built just below, 
expecting to remain there ; but, two days later, the men 
were summoned from their quarters to embark on the Ma 
rion for Tybee Island, below Savannah, to participate in the 
siege of Pulaski, under Gen. Gilmore and Gen. H. W. Ben- 
ham. On Tybee, the regiment made itself another camp, 
and then went vigorously at work intrenching the batteries 
along the side of the island, approaching obliquely nearest 
to the fort. The work of posting the batteries was mostly 
done in the night ; the men of the Seventh and two com 
panies of the 3d Rhode-Island making " burrows " and 
splinter-proofs near the guns for the protection of the gun 
ners. The 46th New-York shared these labors as far as 
their scanty numbers and imperfect discipline enabled 
them. Not only must all the ordinary camp, fatigue, and 
picket duty be done, but ordnance of the heaviest descrip 
tion then known, and ordnance-stores, must be unloaded into 
boats, and landed (without a wharf), then dragged by hand 
(with no draught beasts) for from one to two and a half miles, 
part of the way through sand, and part over a marsh whose 
muddy depths were first coated with a layer of earth. Lieut. 
Horace Porter of the United-States Ordnance Corps, ord 
nance-officer of the post, after alluding in his official report 
to the enormous labor involved in moving the thirteen-inch 
mortars (twelve in number) weighing seventeen thousand 
pounds, and the other ordnance and ordnance-stores, adds, 
"I can pay no greater tribute to the patriotism of the 
Seventh Connecticut Volunteers, the troops generally fur 
nished me for this duty, than to say, that when the sling 
carts frequently sank to their hubs in the marshes, and had to 
be extricated by unloading the mortar and then reloading it, 
they toiled night after night, often in a drenching rain, under 
the guns of the fort, speaking only in whispers, and directed 
entirely by the sound of a whistle, without uttering a mur 
mur. When drilling the same men in the mortar-batteries, 
they exhibited an intelligence equaled only by their former 
physical endurance." 


A letter of that time says, " Pulaski shoots at us occa 
sionally : and the boys rather like it ; for nobody gets hurt, 
and relics accumulate ; earthworks slowly rise ; a gun gets 
mounted frequently ; fleas bite continually ; once in a while, 
a mail comes in ; somebody shoots an otter or an eagle ; 
teams and mule-carts work eighteen hours a day, drawing 
great loads of shot and shell two miles ; and the beach is 
strewn with all the implements of war." 

Major G. F. Gardiner and three companies (B, E, and I) 
of the Seventh were for a short time over on Dawfuskie 
Island, north of the fort, doing effective service. With the 
48th New-York, they had cut ten thousand long poles for 
a causeway across the marsh on Jones Island to wheel a 
battery up to command the river. They carried these on 
their shoulders a mile ; others being engaged in carrying 
sand in bags four miles in rowboats to make a base for Bat 
tery Venus. 

During this arduous work of preparation passed January, 
February, March ; and the warmth of a Southern spring came 
with April. The health of the Seventh had not been seri 
ously impaired. There was one invalid whose case was 
peculiarly touching, set forth by Col. Hawley in a private 
letter : 

"PoorD ! Do you know the D s, who live near you? Well, their 

son, who belongs to Company D, got news that his wife, two children, and 
sister had all died of diphtheria. How he cried, poor fellow ! We com 
forted him all we could. I spoke pleasantly to him when we met, and 
hoped he was getting along well. We heard the other day that his mother 
was sick too. Somebody came to the supper-table last night, and called 

for the doctor to see a crazy man ; and, soon after, the man said that D 

wanted to see me. I went to his tent. Half a dozen of his comrades were 
there. One dim candle, stuck in a bottle, showed me the rifles stacked 
around the center pole, the cartridge-boxes, bayonets, and knapsacks. The 
ground was covered with the splendid long moss they had pulled from the 

live-oaks. D sat squat on the ground, his face and hands very dirty, 

his fingers constantly picking something, his body moving, his- head turning 
wildly from one side to the other, his eyes dreadfully swelled with weep 
ing. Halloo, D ! how are you ? And he peered up toward my face. 

Col. Hawley, said somebody. Yes, said he, that s Col. Hawley ; 
and he took my hand with a tight grip. Col. Hawley, look at my baby, 
my poor, sick baby ! He had a little pile of white moss, and in it his 
cartridge-box, carefully covered, all but one edge of it, with his blanket. 


That was his baby. And he turned the blanket down as tenderly as if the 
cartridge-box were a delicate little baby. He spoke brokenly, and at inter 
vals, with a quick but mournful voice, Poor baby ! babies both sick ; 
sister sick (and he pointed to where he supposed they lay). Poor baby ! 
very sick. Give baby some water. And he leaned on one elbow, and 
affectionately held a leaf up to the cartridge-box as if baby would drink. 
He seemed to consider himself in his own home ; but then he would say, 
Won t let me go home, no, no, no (waiting a few seconds), no, 
won t let me go home ; his hands constantly fidgeting. Then he considered 
them all dead, and he by their graves. Sister, and he laid his hand on 
one side, and then marked each grave, baby, wife, mother ! I kept 
his hand ten minutes, and sat down by him, and put my hand on his shoul 
der, and tried to compel him to listen. I told him his babies were happy, 
and his mother was not dead ; (is she ?) and that if he would be a good boy, 
and sleep, he should go home. I ve built six forts, and mounted six can 
nons ; and I m going to take down that one to-morrow, Pulaski over there. 
Well, poor baby ! and he put trees over the graves. Tears came into all our 
eyes sometimes, I think. He sent for me again to-day ; but he cannot con 
fine his attention to any thing. Poor baby is the burden of his talk, and 
still he tends his cartridge-box." 

On March 20, the Sixth Connecticut was transferred from 
Hilton Head to Dawfuskie Island to take part in the reduc 
tion of Pulaski. The men assisted the 48th New-York to build 
the batteries on Mud, Jones, and Bird Islands, commanding 
the river, Wall s Cut, and other approaches, and complet 
ing the investment. The material for these was all brought 
from the mainland. The Sixth was also engaged in making 
reconnoissances towards Savannah, up New River, and 
watching the enemy in that direction. 

The batteries on Tybee were now all placed and in 
trenched (the mortars out of sight of the fort), and every 
thing was ready. To the Seventh Connecticut was assigned 
the delicate and important duty of serving the mortars. The 
officers and men had been drilled only fitfully in the intervals 
of other severe labor ; yet they went to the novel work with 
that quick ingenuity which is a Yankee instinct. Five of 
the batteries, containing fifteen heavy mortars, were manned 
by the Seventh. 

Battery Totten on Goat s Point (nearest to the fort) was 
commanded by Capts. D. C. Rodman and S. H. Gray, with 
their companies ; Battery Halleck, by Capts. 0. S. Sanford 
and E. S. Hitchcock; Battery Sherman, by Capts. D. G. Fran- 


cis and J. B. Dennis ; Battery Lincoln, by Capts. C. S. Pal 
mer and Jerome Tourtelotte ; Battery Stanton, by Capts. B. 
F. Skinner and Theodore Bacon. 

Surgeon Francis Bacon and Capt. Rodman, and a lieuten 
ant in the regular army, accompanied by a boat s crew, went 
over to the fort, under flag of truce, on April 10, and de 
manded a surrender. The officer in command replied that 
he was placed there, not to surrender the fort, but to defend 
it. The visitors called his attention to the fact that he was 
" defending stolen property," and returned. 

Pulaski was a huge five-sided fortress, as strong as Fort 
Pickens. Its walls, seven feet thick, mounted one tier of 
guns in embrasures, and one en barbette. Twenty guns bore 
upon the Tybee batteries, including ten 10-inch columbiads. 
It was built by a Connecticut man. 

In fact, the whole affair now began to assume a Connecti 
cut character. The general commanding the district, and 
present on Tybee (H. W. Benham), was from Connecticut ; a 
majority of the investing forces were from Connecticut ; Col. 
Perry, of the 48th New- York, was from Ridgefield, Conn. ; 
and one of the officers of the 3d Rhode-Island was Capt. 
Thomas R. Briggs, of Danielsonville, Conn. The gunboat 
Norwich, from Connecticut, completed the blockading west 
of the fort. The fort itself was constructed twenty years 
before by Lieut, (afterwards Major-Gen.) Mansfield of Con 
necticut, assisted by Lieut. Benham, assistant engineer, from 
Connecticut. Moreover, it was now commanded by Col. 
Charles H. Olmstead, a rebel, to whom Ridgefield, Conn., 
gave birth. 

Surrender being refused, the fight began on April 10, about 
.eight o clock, at a signal-gun from Battery Halleck. Simul 
taneously, all the guns and mortars blazed and roared with 
an explosion that shook the island in its marshy anchor 
age. The response was sturdy and determined. From that 
hour onward, the artillery fire continued; the rebels hurling 
British projectiles at the island, while rifled shot and plun 
ging shell rained in fury upon the garrison. Great clouds 
of smoke eclipsed the noonday sun ; and the windows rattled 
at Port Royal and Savannah, twenty miles away. The dis- 


tance between the combatants was at least a mile ; yet it 
soon became evident that the fire from Tybee was telling. 
As the solid shot struck, great piles of the solid masonry 
gave way, and clouds of brick-dust filled the air. The Sev 
enth worked the mortars steadily and manfully. " Sergeant 
Lucas Sutliffe (of Southington) made every shot tell, cut 
ting away the staff, and bringing down the flag." Battery 
Sherman fired one shot every fifteen minutes during the 

The shots from the fort plowed up the sand in close fur 
rows ; but the men soon observed the range and caliber of 
the various guns of the fort, so as to dodge until the missile 
passed. Col. Hawley wrote in a letter, 

" Sometimes we called out, Ten-incher ! as a certain big columbiad on 
the south-west angle of the fort let off; sometimes Pocket pistol ! or Little 
rifle ! as a small, sharp, accurate Blakeley gun on the ramparts fired. We 
got so that we knew where each gun was trained, and could tell by the sound 
where the shot was going. Soon after noon of the llth, there were four or 
five holes in the fort, close together, one of them, perhaps, twelve feet in 
diameter. Now and then a cartload of masonry rolled down ; then every 
body yelled in triumph. The ditch was nearly full ; and a huge gun on 
the ramparts apparently tottered, ready to fall into the ruin. Our fire grew 
furious. Captains of guns jumped on the banks, and yelled, No. 1, fire ! 
No. 2, fire ! No. 3, fire ! No. 4, fire ! and the black and sweaty 
cannoneers jumped to the muzzles to reload. Oh, it was a maddening 
sight and sound ! " 

During the forenoon of the llth, the breach in the south 
east angle of the fort was enlarged. The entire casemate 
next to the pancoupe had been opened. Half the rebel guns 
had been dismounted. At two, P.M., the fort hoisted a white 
flag; and its appearance was greeted with the craziest 
demonstrations of enthusiasm on Tybee. 

The Seventh Connecticut had fired nine hundred and 
eighty -nine (989) 13 -inch shells, and five hundred and 
eighty-eight (588) 10-inch shells, in weight more than half 
that had been thrown from Union guns. These did not, how 
ever, prove so effective as the solid shots from the columbiads 
and the James and Parrott rifle-guns with which the Rhode- 
Island companies had made the breach. 

The Seventh had shown superior skill, industry, and en- 


durance ; and these were now duly recognized. The post 
of honor the fort itself was assigned to the regiment ; 
and to it was also awarded the rebel flag that came whirling 
down for the last time from the staff. The Tribune corre 
spondent said, " The Seventh Connecticut were immediately 
ordered to garrison the fort, a post of distinction which 
their faithful services in the erection of the works, and gal 
lant conduct in the batteries nearest to the enemy s fire, had 
honorably earned, and which the rest of the troops very 
heartily envied them." 

Gen. Benham wrote to Gov. Buckingham, "And it is a 
great pleasure for me to say to you that the first morning s 
sun of the occupation of the work by our troops gilded the 
banner of that State whose trust is still, as from the first, He 
who brought us over will protect us. " 

After the fall of the fort, the Sixth Connecticut was or 
dered to dismantle the battery erected in the marsh to com 
mand the river. By some misunderstanding, the gunboats 
were drawn off, so that the party were without defense. 
Col. Chatfield dismounted the great columbiad in the night, 
mounted in its place a black log, with a barrel fixed on the 
breech, and floated the real gun and equipments over to 
Pulaski on a large raft, arriving there safely next day. 
Meantime, the alert rebels sallied forth, and captured the 
" Quaker." 

During the last week in May, the Sixth moved from Daw- 
fuskie Island ; and the Seventh left the fort to a New- York 
regiment, and went on an expedition, under Gen. Benham, 
to occupy James Island, at the mouth of Charleston Harbor. 
They crossed via North Edisto and John s Island, through 
mud and mire, in a drenching rain that lasted three days. 

The expedition seems to have been shockingly managed. 
Ten thousand men were here set to make a five-days march 
on three clays rations ; and the sequel was, that they arrived 
without food, tents, or cooking utensils. The only " cooking 
utensil " the field and staff of the Sixth had was a gallon 
camphene can, with nozzle and top cut off. In this was 
cooked potatoes, pork, beef, coffee, tea, food of every sort, 
for three weeks. 


Col. Chatfield of the Sixth commanded a brigade including 
his own regiment ; and, on the night of June 8-9, he moved 
his command up the Stono River to Grirnball s plantation, 
about four and a half miles from Charleston, where a landing 
was made under a severe fire. On the evening of the 10th, 
the enemy attacked in front, but were repulsed after a brisk 
skirmish. The First Connecticut Battery was here doing 
excellent service. A correspondent of the New- York Her 
ald said, " Capt. Alfred P. Rockwell, with his Connecticut bat 
tery, responded to this fire, and poured percussion-shells into 
the rebels with great effect, and much more accuracy than 
they had shown. At the end of an hour from the time of 
attack, the rebels fled in great confusion, leaving knapsacks, 
muskets, and equipments behind in their haste. They 
retreated over two causeways, in the direction of Secession- 

The Connecticut regiments met with no loss in this affair. 
After two or three days more of skirmishing, the division 
was pushed forward by Gen. Benham, at daylight on the 
16th, to attack Lamar s rebel batteries, intrenched in front 
of Secessionville, near the north end of the island. This 
was a simple earthwork, heavily constructed, with a plain 
face, an obtuse angle on each side, and protected by rifle-pits 
and abatis in front, and flanked by creeks and marshes. 
The gunboats might have given effective aid, had not the 
assault been made at low tide. 

A soldier writing to the Palladium said of the attack, 

" Marching from the woods, which had hitherto concealed 
our advancing column, the order, Forward into line ! was 
given, and instantly obeyed. Before us rose a large fort, 
with a deep moat, and heavy, strong abatis, stoutly pro 
tected by cannon of different caliber. Our Connecticut bat 
tery fired the opening shot, and immediately the action 
became general. The rebels were concealed by their in- 
trenchments ; but onward we pressed, firing at their heads 
that fringed the ramparts." 

" By this time the Seventh had come into the field and 
formed in battalion line, and was marching at double-quick 
across the ridges of the cotton-fields. The line was formed 


with the center opposite to the right angle of the enemy s 
works, with the design of taking that flank." 5 " The grape 
and rifle shots came in showers. When within two or three 
hundred yards of the earthwork, the left wing came obliquely 
upon an unseen ditch and morass ; so that, in advancing, it 
must crowd by its right flank toward the center. At this 
moment, a terrible fire of grape and musketry opened upon 
us. The line was inevitably broken. The colors stood fast, 
protected by Capt. Palmer s company (E) ; Capt. Hitchcock 
with part of Company G, and Lieut. S. S. Atwell with part 
of Company C, having advanced within one hundred and 
thirty yards of the parapet. These and a portion of the 
rio-lit wino;, conceiving that the time had come when the 

O O fJ 

order not to fire might be waived, opened a brisk discharge 
upon the parapet. The men stood bravely ; but the line 
could not be formed until the colors were brought into the 
open field. As soon as this was done, the regiment moved 
by the right flank under the heaviest fire, the wing rapidly 
closing up ; and under your order, when well across the 
field toward the marsh, filed to the right, and advanced upon 
the enemy." 3 

Lieut.-Col. Gardner was conspicuous during the confusion 
spoken of in re-forming and dressing the regimental front. 
His coolness in getting the stragglers into line was much 

" An attempt was here made by the regiment to carry the 
left angle of the fort. The regiment marched by the flank 
under the heaviest fire ; the companies keeping nobly to 
gether, right along the face of the enemy s works." 4 Soon 
after, an assault at another point failing, Gen. Stevens with 
drew the regiment. " Faced by the rear rank, the battalion 
marched to the hedge, and lay behind it until an order from 
Gen. Stevens brought it back to the hedge in front of the 
hospital. In a few moments, the general again sent us for 
ward to the hedge across the first field, where we lay while 
three pieces two howitzers and a rifle of the First Connec 
ticut Light Battery came up, and carried on a rapid, and, 
for the most part, a very well-directed fire. Several times, 

2 Correspondent of the Press. 3 Col. Hawley s Report. 4 Letter in Press. 


my men assisted with the utmost eagerness in moving the 
guns and giving other aid. A portion of the best marksmen 
were permitted to fire at the enemy s parapets." 5 

" Our Connecticut battery worked admirably, and we 
stood by them to the last. Using four-second fuses, they 
loaded and fired with the rapidity of lightning. Our New- 
Haven Tom Lord was down on his knees, right under the 
muzzle of his gun, ramming home the cartridges and spon 
ging out his piece ; never once changing his position. I saw 
a shell explode inside the body of a horse, scattering frag 
ments of flesh and bones in every direction, and covering 
his rider with gore from head to foot." 

Soon the final command came to retire, and the battery 
and regiment drew off. " The Seventh was the only regi 
ment that marched off the field in order. They formed 
their regimental line under the enemy s guns, and marched 
away with the precision of veterans." 7 " I saw the Seventh 
Connecticut Volunteers halt and dress and correct its align 
ment within perhaps three hundred yards of the batteries, and 
retire with a well-preserved battalion-front as if on parade." 8 
The conduct of the battery received honorable mention in 
the report of Gen. Stevens ; and Col. Chatfield, cool-headed 
and full of expedient, was complimented by Gen. Wright 
for the manner of leading his brigade. 

Only two companies of the Sixth were engaged ; the body 
of the regiment being on picket-dut} , and held in reserve. 
The battle seems to have been an inexcusable blunder from 
beginning to end, in both its conception and execution. 

Of the casualties and conduct of the Seventh, the official 
report further says, 

" Capt. Edwin S. Hitchcock (of New Haven), Company G, 
among the foremost, and enthusiastically cheering on his 
men, was severely wounded in the thigh. He continued to 
call out cheerfully, and to fire rifles handed him by his men, 
until he received a rifle-ball straight from the front through 
his upper lip. Four of his men undertook to carry him to 
the rear. While they were doing this, two of them Ser- 

5 Col. Hawley s Report. 6 Letter in Palladium. 7 Chaplain Wayland. 

8 Correspondent of the N. Y. World. 


geant W. H. Haynes and Private J. N. Dexter were 
wounded by rifle-balls ; and they were obliged to leave the 
gallant captain dying there. 

" Lieut. Thomas Horton (of Norwalk), Company D, was 
doing his whole duty, nobly rallying and regulating his com 
pany, when a heavy grape-shot passed entirely through his 
right thigh, nearly up to his body. He was carried to the 
rear, praising his men and urging them on ; and lived but a 
short time. Sergeant (acting Second Lieut.) Henry Upson, 
jr. (of Hartford), Company F, was heroically at work when 
a grape-shot took off three fingers, and dashed through his 
right shoulder." 

The staff-officers are mentioned complimentarily ; and of, 
the line-officers the report says, " At a most critical moment, 
when we were re-arranging the line for a second advance, 
nothing could have been better than the conduct of Capts. 
Gray, Palmer, and Skinner, and Lieuts. Chamberlain, Atwell, 
Thompson, Townsend, and Burdick. Surgeon Bacon and 
Assistant Surgeon Porter and their assistants were very in 
dustrious in bringing off the wounded ; to which I attribute 
our small number of missing. Chaplain Wayland was also 
everywhere present, self-possessed and active." The regi 
ment had lost in this brief action nineteen killed and seventy- 
nine wounded. The color-staff was shot in two parts in the 
hands of Sergeant H. H. Smith of Meriden. 

The body of Capt. Hitchcock was taken home, and buried 
with honors at New Haven. He had been in the war from 
the beginning, and was a kind, skillful, and fearless soldier, 
as he was a patriotic man. A former employer of young 
Hitchcock wrote, " His impulses were always towards 
truth, justice, and liberty ; his thoughts and words came 
quickly; his advocacy of the right, under all circumstances, 
knowing no expediency, no policy, might be safely emu 
lated by many older men. Seeing in him these qualities, I 
loved him, and could not forbear adding this rude tribute to 
his memory." He set an example, in the army, of morality, 
purity, courtesy, and bravery ; and his men followed him 
devotedly. A chaste and stately monument was erected to 
his memory by the members of his company, on a lot donated 


by James M. Townsend, its untiring patron, whose patri 
otic benevolence seemed to increase with the burdens of the 

Sergeant Upson died of his wounds. Col. Hawley recom 
mended that his commission as second lieutenant be made 
out, and said, " Though he will not live to receive it, I should 
be glad to have the commission issued as recommended. 
The noble man deserves the honor." 

Capt. Charles E. Palmer, of Winsted, shortly after died 
from exposure in this campaign. Gen. Terry wrote of him, 
" At the time of the action on James Island he was so ill, 
that, under ordinary circumstances, he would not have been 
in command of his company ; but, prompted by the devotion 
to duty which always distinguished him, he led his compan}^ 
to the field, and gave to it and to the regiment a splendid 
example of courage and firmness under the most trying cir 
cumstances. . . . The noble purity and uprightness of his 
nature, and his eminently soldierly qualities, had not only 
endeared him to us all, but had led us to look forward to a 
brilliant future for him ; and we mourn his loss not only as 
ours and yours, but as a loss to the country which he served 
so faithfully." 

When Gen. Hunter returned, he ordered an evacuation of 
the island. This soon took the Connecticut battery to Beau 
fort. The Sixth and Seventh, in Gen. Wright s brigade, 
went to Edisto, and occupied the rude camp there ; but, after 
remaining two weeks, they returned to Hilton Head, and, 
in the familiar quarters of the previous winter, made them 
selves once more comfortable. Plethoric boxes from Con 
necticut were again received, and all the tender communica 
tions with home were re-established. 


The Fourth becomes the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Eecruits. Goes with 
McClellan to the Peninsula. " Siege " of Yorktown. The Heavy Batteries. 
" Ready." Magruder falls back. Detached as Infantry. The Seven-days Bat 
tles. Malvern Hill. Back to Arlington Heights. The Connecticut Battalion 
of Cavalry. Among the Mountains of West Virginia. After Bushwhackers. 
Raids and Incidents. Battle of McDowell. Charge through Wordensville. Dash 
into New Market. Ambush at Harrisonburg. Cross Keys. Jackson Ubiquitous. 
The Fifth at Winchester. Battle and Repulse, In Maryland again. Slaughter 
at Cedar Mountain. Bravery and Severe Losses of the Fifth. Stone, Blake, Dut- 
ton, Smith. 

AN. 2, 1862, the Fourth Regiment was changed, 
by order of the War Department, into the First 
Connecticut Heavy Artillery ; and before spring, 
under Col. Robert 0. Tyler, it had attained a 
remarkable degree of efficiency, and was soon 
after "ranked by military judges as the best volunteer regi 
ment of heavy artillery in the field, and considered equal in 
all respects to any regiment of the same arm in the regular 
service." 1 It received two additional companies, and was 
recruited to eighteen .hundred men. Company L was from 
Hartford County; Company M from Bridgeport and New 
Haven mainly. Other officers and men added at this time 
were largely from Norwich, Killingly, New London, Water- 
bury, New Haven, and Watertown. 

Its splendid equipment and its high state of discipline 
were soon to be tested. April 2, the regiment marched out 
of its comfortable barracks at Fort Richardson, and joined 
the vast army under McClellan 2 that moved to capture Rich 
mond through the Peninsula. The First was accompanied 

1 Adjutant-General s Report, 1863, p. 78. 

^ 2 Gen. George B. McClellan was a son of Dr. George McClellan, formerly of Wood 
stock. Conn. 



by a siege-train of seventy-one pieces of artillery. After a 
slow and tedious passage, it disembarked at Cheeseman s 
Landing, near Yorktown, April 12. 

McClellan had a hundred thousand men. Magruder, the 
rebel general, in his front, had seven thousand and five hun 
dred, which, says a Confederate authority, 3 he "adroitly 
extended over a distance of several miles ; a regiment being 
posted here and there, in every gap plainly open to observa 
tion ; and, on other portions of the line, the men being posted 
at long intervals, to give the appearance of numbers." With 
this absurd disparity of strength, McClellan announced that 
Yorktown and the line across the Peninsula were impregna 
ble, except to a regular siege. 

In this the First participated, having some of the heaviest 
ordnance in the service. The laborious task of getting bat 
teries into position was at once begun. In the siege-train 
of seventy-one pieces were two. 200-pounder Parrotts, five 
100-pounder Parrotts, ten 13-inch sea-service mortars, and 
sixteen 10 -inch sea -service mortars. To transport and 
mount these properly required the most arduous labor 
prolonged night and day, and unflagging energy. For two 
weeks, the work went on; the companies vying with each 
other in the severe task. 

"The heaviest pieces placed in position in the trenches 
before Sebastopol by the English were the 68-pounder 
gun of 10,640 pounds, and the 13-inch sea-service mortar 
of 11,300 pounds ; and by the French the cannon de fifty 
of 10,190 pounds, and the mortier de 32c of 9,615 pounds. 
The 200-pounder Parrott weighs 16,470, and the 13-inch 
sea-service mortar (1861) 17,120 pounds. The guns placed 
in position before Yorktown, therefore, exceed in weight by 
fifty per cent any guns that have ever before been placed 
in siege batteries." 4 

For the service of these guns, it was necessary to convey 
17,047 projectiles, weighing, in the aggregate, four hundred 
and twenty-eight tons. All this carrying was done by the 
regiment ; and, during the twenty-two days before the evacu- 

3 Pollard s Southern History of the War, p. 287. 

* Report of Major A. Doull, 2d New- York artillery, ordnance-officer to siege-train 
First Connecticut. 


ation, they carted seven hundred and twenty-six loads to the 

Only the battery of heavy guns was engaged during the 
siege. " This battery opened fire on the 1st of May, and at 
once drove all the rebel shipping from the wharves at York- 
town. In all, a hundred and thirty-seven rounds from the 
100-pounders, and four rounds from the 200-pounder, were 
fired." 5 The practice was very accurate, although firing at 
long range, two to three miles. 

Major Doull of the 2d New- York, ordnance-officer to the 
siege-train of the First Connecticut, says in his report to 
Col. Tyler, 

" In the three weeks during which these siege-operations have been con 
ducted, your regiment has worked with very little relief night and day. As 
soon as any battery has been completed, the companies to which it has been 
assigned have moved into camp near it, constructing such shelter from the 
enemy s fire as they could, and remaining with their guns ; differing, in this 
respect, from all other troops employed in the trenches, who returned to camp 
out of fire as soon as their duty was finished. 

" During the seven days that elapsed from the 26th of April to the 
evacuation of Yorktown, all the batteries have been fired at more or less 
continuously ; and though the regiment has never before been under fire, 
and is, like the rest of this army, composed of troops who have not been 
twelve months in the service, and who would therefore be considered in any 
regular artillery in the world merely as recruits ; and the officers have not 
had the advantage of that scientific military training which is usually con 
sidered necessary for this branch of military service ; and although a large 
part of the material employed has been of a weight hitherto unknown in 
sieges, and has therefore necessitated the employment of carriages and 
platforms, usually confined to permanent works, on account of the labor, 
care, and accuracy required in their construction, yet the condition of the 
batteries, and the accuracy with which all the platforms have been laid 
and the magazines arranged, give no indication whatever of these disad 

Major Doull says that this siege-train was placed in bat 
tery before Yorktown as quickly as the first siege-train of 
smaller guns by the English before Sevastopol, though the 
latter had " all the resources of a powerful navy and a large 
regular army, skilled by constant practice ;" and he concludes 
that " it is evident that the labors of the First Regiment 
Connecticut artillery will compare favorably with any thing 
of the kind that has been done before." 

8 Major Doull s Report. 


" On the day of the evacuation, there were six batteries 
of forty-eight mortars and guns ready to throw one hundred 
and seventy-five tons of metal daily into Yorktown." 6 At 
the end of all this tremendous labor, the rebels fell back ; 
Magruder having by this time been re-inforced so as to be able 
to check pursuit, while Lee chose his battle-ground nearer 
Richmond. " We worked night and day," says a young vol 
unteer, in the War Record ; " and, just as we had every thing 
ready, the bird had flown." Oh, how angry the men were ! 
all our work for nothing. Some of them almost cried for vex 
ation." But severe service still awaited them. All the guns 
and the four hundred tons of projectiles were re-embarked, 
and transported to White House. From this point, the men 
marched to Old Church in a terrible thunder-storm, with the 
mud knee-deep. The regiment performed valuable service 
in reconnoissances, and completely destroyed the enemy s 
communications ; so that he could not, at the time, cross the 
Pamunkey for a flank attack. Detached as infantry, the most 
of the regiment was at Hanover Court House in line of battle, 
but was not actively engaged. Soon after, the regiment 
formed the advance of the infantry, under Gen. McCook, that 
followed the rebels in Stuart s raid, and marched forty-two 
miles in thirty-seven hours. June 21, the disembarkation 
of guns and material at White House commenced ; and some 
of the heavy guns were got in position in three clays, in 
charge of Capts. E. C. Dorr, G. B. Cook, and A. F. Brooker. 
They " opened with good effect upon the rebel batteries on 
the opposite side of the Chickahominy, doing, as reported 
by the signal-officer, much damage ; dismounting the ene 
my s heaviest gun, and compelling them to remove their 
camps." 7 

Next day they were moved across the Chickahominy, and 
the batteries placed in position on Golding s Hill, where they 
were fought during the day under a severe fire. When the 
guns could be no longer useful, the companies were formed and 
led into the line of infantry defending the position, service 
for which they were thanked by the general commanding. 
The pieces were afterwards brought off by hand; and Lieut. 

6 Col. Tyler s Report to Gen. Porter. 7 Ibid. 


R. A. Sedgwick is especially commended for rapidly remov 
ing two 10-pounder Whitworth s, with only twenty men, a dis 
tance of two and a half miles; "the second gun being brought 
away when our most advanced pickets were retiring past it." 
On the night of the 27th, the guns under command of Major 
Kellogg were successfully retired behind White-oak Swamp, 
where they joined the remainder of the siege-train of the 
First, which had been in position in front of Sumner s corps, 
under command of Major Hemingway, in the immediate 
charge of Capts. T. S. Gilbert, T. H. Rockwood, D. R. Hub- 
bard, and George Ager. By the great exertions of these 
officers, the guns were successfully brought off after the re 
peated attacks upon our rear. During the night of June 30, 
fourteen guns with ammunition were dragged up the steep 
ascent of Malvern Hill by Companies B, D, F, K, and I, 
working all night after their tedious inarches of the week. 
The guns occupied the highest ground on Malvern Hill; were 
served with great rapidity and accuracy; and caused much 
destruction to the enemy s advancing column. Col. Tyler 
says in his report, 

" The companies, after working all the night of the 30th to place these 
guns in position, and fighting them daring the whole day on the 1st of July, 
spent that night in retiring the siege-train to the present depot near West- 
over Lauding : the guns, the ammunition of which had been expended, 
were also retired to Harrison s Bar, under Lieut.-Col. White. I would 
respectfully call your attention to the fact, that all the ammunition used at 
Malvern Hill had been transported, by way of Gaines s Mill, Savage s Sta 
tion, and White-oak Swamp, to that place ; and that the officers and men 
with the guns had been almost constantly laboring day and night from the 
22d of June ; and to the fact, that, out of twenty-six heavy guns, twenty- 
five arrived safely at their destination. This was accomplished under almost 
unheard-of difficulties, with mule-teams constantly breaking down, 
driven by frightened citizen teamsters, who deserted whenever the fire 
became heavy : frequently teams had to be pressed into the service to 
replace those which had been exhausted by the labor of drawing the guns ; 
and sometimes, for miles, the guns were drawn by hand by the different 
companies of the regiment." 

In the whole Peninsular campaign, though present at sev 
eral of the battles, and on duty night and day, the regiment 
lost only three killed and four wounded. Its services, how 
ever, were acknowledged by an order directing the names, 


"Siege of Yorktown, Hanover Court House, Chickahominy, 
Gaines s Mill, and Malvern," to be emblazoned on its colors. 

At the withdrawal of the army, the regiment resumed its 
place in the forts opposite Washington ; its jurisdiction 
being soon enlarged, so that it garrisoned Forts Richardson, 
Scott, Berry, Barnard, Reynolds, Garesche, and Ward, stretch 
ing along Arlington Heights, and commanding all the west 
ward approaches to the capital. This assignment to a 
position of supreme importance shows in what estimation 
the regiment was held. 

Gen. McClellan, in fact, just before the battle of Antietam, 
had such confidence in the First Connecticut artillery, that he 
insisted that " the troops in the forts " would be sufficient to 
check any probable rebel approach on Washington from the 
west if the two corps supporting them should be withdrawn 
to re-inforce him. 8 

As early as Feb 24, the Connecticut battalion of cav 
alry encamped on an island in the Ohio River, opposite 
Wheeling, Va. ; while Major Lyon reported to Gen. Rose- 
crans for duty. Here a camp was quickly made, and a 
month was spent in sword-exercise and battalion-move 
ments ; and, on the 27th of March, the battalion moved to 
report to Gen. Schenck at Moorfield. 

Moorfield, the court-town of Hardy County, is on the 
south branch of the Upper Potomac, here running parallel 
to the Shenandoah; and nestles in one of the many narrow, 
broken valleys formed by isolated peaks and abrupt spurs 
of the Alleghanies and the Branch Mountains. The wind 
ing roads and countless convenient hiding-places of that wild 
though fertile region swarmed with guerrillas. These parti 
sans of slavery and rebellion gathered everywhere in small 
squads to persecute Union citizens, annoy our soldiers, capture 
our scouts and carriers, and shoot our pickets; and, when fol 
lowed by a superior force, the bands dissolved into innocent- 
looking farmers. To destroy these roving rascals was to be 
the task of the force at Moorfield, consisting of the 55th 

8 See dispatch to Gen. Halleck, Sept. 11, 1862. 


and 82d Ohio infantry, a section of Beck s battery, and our 
cavalry battalion. 

The battalion arrived at sundown of March 30, and began 
its first scouting-expedition at sunrise of the 31st. Day 
and night thereafter, in detachments of ten, thirty, rarely 
a hundred men, they scoured every road and by-path for 
many miles, capturing these unorganized traitors with arms 
and supplies. Thus, hunting human game in squads, the 
mettle, good nature, endurance, tact, and energy of every 
man was tested. Each day brought fresh scenes, varied 
perils, and individual achievements. 

On April 3, Capt. Charles Farnsworth of Norwich, in an 
attempt to open communication with Romney to the north, 
was ambushed in a rocky ravine, and he and one of his men 
severely wounded. Two days afterwards, Capt. Middlebrook 
went out with a larger force, and cleared the road. This was 
the first blood drawn, and it roused the members of the bat 
talion to more determined if more cautious exertions. Spring 
ing upon the rebel plunderers at unusual hours and in almost 
inaccessible places, they killed, captured, or scattered them, 
and made themselves seem to their frightened foes a full 

Chaplain Warriner wrote of this time, " The history of the 
dashing, scouting, bushwhacker-hunting Connecticut cavalry 
has never been written. No one has a correct and vivid under 
standing of the part they performed in the campaign of the 
mountain department, except the boys themselves, or those 
who have heard them relate the story of their bold exploits. 
Risks were run, hardships endured, and achievements per 
formed, which have never been widely heralded, because 
they did not occur in connection with any great popular 
movement, or under the eye of any professional reporter." 

Capt. William S. Fish, a tireless rider and a vigorous com 
mander, led many brilliant and successful dashes among the 
mountains. The harassed rebels are said to have set a price 
on his head, which only made him and his command the 
more active and relentless. 

Another phase of cavalry life and adventure is illustrated 
by another class of incidents. Capt. Middlebrook, like nearly 



all officers, had his favorite tactical movements and com 
mands. At all irregularities of marching, he was sure to 
shout, " Guide left ! " It happened, that on the loth of April, 
while escorting a bearer of dispatches to Gen. Milroy at 
Monterey, he and his detachment found it necessary to ford 
the Potomac at Petersburg. The captain s horse was carried 
from his feet by the swollen current. The rider slipped off, 
and seizing the horse by the tail, and swimming behind, 
kept the animal headed toward the opposite shore. The 
boys, by this time nearly all safely on the land, viewing the 
amusing spectacle, shouted, " Guide left ! " Coming safe to 
shore, the captain, though quaking with cold, joined in the 
laugh, and doubtless still enjoys the joke. While the bat 
talion was at Moorfield, Company A, Capt. E. Blakeslee, was 
chosen as the body-guard of Gen. Schenck, serving to his 
great satisfaction. 

" To all the marches and sudden expeditions of this time," 
writes Chaplain Warriner, "the indescribable grandeur of 
the scenery, the roughness of the mountain-roads, and the 
terrific depth of the swollen streams through which we often 
plunged, lent the charm of romantic adventure. The bush 
whackers bullets whistled through the pines in wild harmony 
with the mountain-breeze, and the big guns roared like the 
voice of a mountain tempest as they echoed from hill-top to 
hill-top at the battle of McDowell." 

In April, the rebels, thoroughly alarmed for the safety of 
Richmond, resolved on a diversion up the valley, " to prevent 
re-inforcements for McClellan, or perhaps draw off divisions 
from him ; " 9 and forthwith strengthened the command of Gen. 
T. J. ( u Stonewall") Jackson. Jackson immediately sent Gen. 
E. Johnson, with a strong detachment, against Gen. Milroy, 
near Staunton. Milroy fell back, and Gen. Schenck promptly 
started (May 2) to his relief. Schenck had no pontoon- 
trains, and the streams were swift and deep. The cavalry 
and battery crossed first; then the wagons were dragged into 
the stream to make a bridge for the infantry. 

Milroy halted at McDowell on the 7th, in his retreat. The 
Connecticut battalion, marching forty-three miles in twenty- 

9 Letter of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to Jackson, May 27, 1862. 


four hours, were the first re-inforcements to reach him (May 
8). There was a prolonged artillery duel, and a short, sharp 
fight with infantry ; when Milroy, finding himself outnum 
bered, withdrew, and continued his retreat to Franklin. The 
rebels followed closely, and bushwhackers skulked in the ra 
vines and woods all along the flanks. The cavalry battalion 
covered the retreat with sleepless energy and intrepidity, 
checking the rebels at every point. Fremont s main body 
had arrived at Franklin ; and now the rebels retreated, and 
the Union forces pursued across the Alleghanies to intercept 
Jackson in the Shenandoah. 

Our cavalry battalion was in the advance, and at noon it 
arrived on the summit of the mountains. Suspecting that 
Jackson was advancing on Moorfield, Fremont sent the bat 
talion twenty-one miles to Wordensville to reconnoiter. It 
was sundown when they started, and very dark as they felt 
their way silently through the mountains. On their return, 
four miles from town, they were met with orders to go back 
to Wordensville, brought by a detachment which swelled their 
numbers to eighty, under Capts. Middlebrook and Blakeslee. 

A member of the battalion writes, "Just as we were 
re-entering the town, the adjutant having command of the 
advance-guard was startled by the command to Halt ! and 
Who comes there ? followed quickly by the crack of a car 
bine. He guessed in a moment the town was occupied by 
rebel cavalry, and the order was given to charge. Every 
man slung his saber to his waist by his sword-knot, drew 
pistol, put spurs to his horse, and dashed on. The ball from 
the gun of the rebel picket passed through the neck of the 
horse of the man next to the adjutant. 

" We found the rebel cavalry drawn up in line to receive 
us ; but we came upon them with such impetuosity, that they 
did not wait for a hand-to-hand conflict, but, after one dis 
charge from their carbines, broke, and fled in every direction. 
A more complete rout I never expect to see. Blankets, 
canteens, and the trappings of horsemen, strewed the street, 
from one end of the village to the other. I regret to say 
that we took no prisoners. They had splendid horses for 
the retreat. We contented ourselves with clearing the town 


of the vermin. We learned of the citizens that their force 
was seventy. Ours was eighty, not so great a disparity 
when we reflect that one Southerner can whip with perfect 
ease five Yankees." 

Col. Zagonyi characterized the affair as " a brilliant little 
dash." The battalion occupied the town until the main 
army came up. 

Fremont pushed on his column, and, finding that the wary 
foe had eluded him, fell on his rear to embarrass his retreat. 
By this time, on account of the illness of ranking officers, 
Capt. L. A. Middlebrook was in command of the battalion. 
He dashed through New Market on June 5, driving out the 
enemy s pickets. 

Next day the battalion was deployed as advance skirmish 
ers, and about noon formed a part of a force ordered to 
charge through the village of Harrisonburg. Rebel cavalry 
and infantry were posted in the edge of the village ; and, as 
the battalion approached, it rushed into a deadly ambush of 
several well-posted regiments of infantry. The companies 
were badly cut up, and made their way rapidly back in dis 
order, obliquing through the woods. After retiring to the 
rear, the men rallied and re-formed. 

In the new line of battle, the battalion s standard was in 
the advance. After a spirited fight, in which the noted rebel 
Ashby was killed, the rebels fled precipitately, leaving their 
camp and stores. 

Pursuit was immediately resumed next morning ; and the 
cavalry overtook the vanguard of the enemy at ten o clock 
at Cross Keys, but were withdrawn, and held in reserve ; 
while Fremont pushed on, and vigorously assailed Jackson 
in his strong position. The enemy held his ground, and the 
result was a drawn battle ; but Jackson slipped away in the 
night, and in the morning fell upon and crushed the forces 
under Gen. Tyler at Port Republic, and escaped to Char- 
lotteville, and thence, by a rapid march, struck McClellan a 
fearful blow on his flank at Gaines s Mills. 

During the last night at Cross Keys, Sergeant John B. 
Morehouse and four men, sent to reconnoiter close to the 
enemy s lines, were captured. Morehouse (of Fairfield) was 


a sober, solid man, near middle life, and possessed of consid 
erable wealth. He returned from California in order to enter 
the army, and enlisted in the first company he met, which 
chanced to be in the cavalry battalion. Attracting attention 
at once for his promptness and enthusiasm, he was offered a 
commission, but refused it, conscientiously regarding himself 
as unqualified. He studied tactics and practiced sword exer 
cise constantly. Through four years of sturdy service, he 
rose steadily to a major s commission ; never better earned 
by living soldier. 

The Union cavalry now fell leisurely back, without defi 
nite object, except to renew their supplies ; and we find the 
battalion on June 10 at Harrisonburg, 11 at New Market, 
12 at Mount Jackson, 19 at Woodstock, 20 at Strasburg, 24 
at Middletown, July 7 at Front Royal, 8 at Milford, 9 at 
Luray, 10 at Sperryville. 

At Milford, Major Lyon remained sick ; and Capt. Middle- 
brook again commanded the battalion. Major Lyon, finding 
that his ill health unfitted him for active service, soon after 
resigned. The battalion crossed the Blue Ridge, and on 
July 28 joined Col. Cluseret at Madison Court House ; 
scouting in that vicinity while Banks s corps moved up to 

The Fifth Regiment had not been enervated by luxury 
during the winter. It had probably done as much marching 
as any other regiment in the service from any State. In 
midwinter it made a forced march from Darnestown, and 
back again ; and of this, Major Henry B. Stone wrote to a 
friend, " When I tell you that the snow was driving all day, 
and ankle-deep ; that the men had just marched one hun 
dred and thirty miles with scarcely two days rest ; that their 
feet were sore and blistered, many of them without shoes, 
and using handkerchiefs and old rags to tie up their feet 
and keep them out of the snow, you may appreciate the 
march, and the indomitable perseverance of our men to 
accomplish it. Some of the boys were compelled to fall out 
from exhaustion ; and the poor fellows wept bitterly because 
they were unable to stand up longer." 


Before the keenness of the winter air was gone, the regi 
ment received orders to move across the Potomac, and occupy 
the Shenandoah Valley. Col. Ferry issued the following 
regimental order : 

Camp near Hancock, Md., Feb. 25, 1862. 

We are about to cross the Potomac. We go to liberate the loyal people 
of Virginia from the despotism of a wicked rebellion. Our enemies are 
those who are in arms against the government. The persons and property 
of citizens not in arms are to be sacredly respected. They have been told 
by their tyrants that we come to pillage, to ravish, and to destroy. Let us 
prove by our conduct that we come to establish rights, to maintain law, 
to restore order. 

To this end, it is ordered, 

First, All injuries to private property, without authority of the regi 
mental commander, are expressly forbidden. 

Second, Whoever shall maltreat any citizen not in the service of the 
enemy shall be punished by drum-head court-martial. 

Third, Whoever shall maltreat or abuse any woman shall be shot. 

Soldiers of the Fifth, I rely upon you, not only for courage in the 
face of the enemy, but for good order in the enemy s country. 


Colonel Fifth Rcgt. Conn. Vols. 

On March 1, the Fifth crossed the Potomac at Williams- 
port ; advanced into Virginia ; drove the enemy from Win 
chester, and occupied the place. The regiment was ordered 
to Manassas on the 18th; but, when one day s march from 
Winchester, it was recalled to participate in the defense of 
the place against the rebel attack of the 22d and the subse 
quent pursuit of Jackson beyond Harrisonburg. The regi 
ment took possession of an old press at Winchester, and 
printed four or five numbers of a newspaper under the title 
of The Connecticut Fifth." Curtis B. Wells and William 
Patch were the chief movers in this enterprise. 

Col. Ferry, having been appointed a brigadier-general, took 
command of the brigade under Gen. Shields, whose division 
was now ordered to join McDowell. On the 1st of May, 
the Fifth was living quietly in camp near Strasburg. "It 
seemed," wrote an officer, 10 " as if the war was over. We put 
on our new clothes, donned our white vests, and sat in the 
shade discussing the chances of being mustered out in a 
month or two. Soon there were rumors of an advance by 

11 Adjutant Edward F. Blake. 


Jackson ; and all at once the Union regiments faced towards 
Winchester, the band playing Oh, dear ! what can the matter 
be ? The regiment was ordered to leave knapsacks in a 
pile by the roadside ; and, the rebels soon pressing along the 
road, the guard was obliged to heap rails upon them, and fire 
the pile. These contained, among other things, new clothes, 
daguerreotypes, portfolios, diaries, money, and some watches ; 
all burnt up grimly." 

Banks, left with only five thousand men, was obliged to 
fallback before. Jackson s superior force; and on May 25 
there was a severe and well-fought battle at Winchester for 
the possession of the valley. The Fifth was under fire for 
the first time, facing the 28th North-Carolina. 

Lieut.-Col. George D. Chapman was in command of the 
regiment, and, in his official report, says, 

M About five o clock Sunday morning, as the men were rising from their 
sleep and heating their coffee in a field which we entered late the night 
before, a shell suddenly fell among them. This was followed by others 
in rapid succession. The men quickly seized their muskets, and fell calmly 
into line. The inquiry was sent back, whether we should hold the spot, or 
advance. Before receiving a reply, I ordered the regiment to a hollow in 
the field next to the rear ; which was done, by the right of companies to 
the rear, in good order. The enemy s infantry soon appeared on the hill 
in front, charging directly upon us. Companies A and F immediately 
moved forward, and delivered their fire with effect upon the enemy, now 
Avithin a few rods. The whole battalion moved up to their line, and, 
delivering three well-directed volleys, mowed down the enemy by scores, 
shooting away their flag each time. At the third volley, Companies I and 
B, by half wheeling to the right, delivered a cross-fire. At this the enemy 
broke, and ran in confusion. The order then came from the colonel for the 
regiment to fall back to a line of stone wall in the rear of the field next 
behind. During this movement, Company D deployed as skirmishers to 
hold the line we were leaving. A fog settled down ; and, for half an hour, 
firing ceased. As it lifted, I saw at some distance a large force of the 
enemy moving by the right flank to turn our left. Our skirmishers fired 
upon them ; but the movement remained unchecked till a few shells from 
our artillery forced them back. After this, their infantry paid but little 
attention to us ; but their artillery on the right and left poured a heavy 
shower of shells about us as we lay behind the wall." 

The result was, that Banks was largely outnumbered, and 
the army fell back to the Potomac. The Fifth made a 
forced march of forty-three miles in fourteen hours, cross- 


ing at Dennis Ferry at midnight. Major E. F. Blake, in a 
letter, thus describes the retreat of the regiment : " The left 
wing struck off across lots, at first for Berryville, but after 
wards changed its course for Martinsburg. It was well that 
we took a new direction; for we afterwards learned of a force 
of five thousand rebels at Berryville to cut us off Our 
retreat was most fatiguing. The enemy having gone down 
the pike ahead of us (in pursuit of the regiments that had 
fallen back first), we were cut off in that direction. Indeed, 
every one thought we were gone for good ; .and Gen. Banks, 
at Williamsport, ordered some of our men who went with the 
wagons to report to Col. Knipe of the Forty-sixth Pennsylva 
nia, as the Fifth Connecticut had been surrounded and cap 
tured. But, providentially, we met a guide, a refugee, when 
we were at Muddy Branch, who took us a zigzag through 
the woods, across lots, in gullies, thickets, and everywhere out 
of sight, crossing the pike behind the enemy, and then strik 
ing northward. Late in the afternoon, we again crossed the 
pike ; and at eleven o clock at night we stood on the shores 
of the Potomac, having marched forty-three miles from Win 
chester. Most of the men had nothing to eat after four, A.M. 
Col. Donnelly grasped my hand as we crossed the river, and 
said, : Blake, thank God that brigade is safe ! It is the hap 
piest moment of my life. " 

Lieut. David B. Hamilton of Waterbury, detached for 
duty in the quartermaster s department, won an enviable 
reputation by his skill and bravery in saving the baggage- 
train of the Fifth during this terrible retreat. He remained 
at Strasburg, loading the wagons, long after our forces had 
evacuated the place ; and finally reached Hancock in safety 
after the rebels had cut him off from the main column at 

Capt. Edward J. Rice was detailed for duty at brigade 
headquarters as an adjutant-general; and, during the pro 
tracted illness of the general commanding, much of the re 
sponsibility devolved upon him. He discharged the duties 
of his position ably. 

During the fight at Winchester, twelve of the Fifth were 
wounded, and seventy-five taken prisoners. Capt. James A. 


Betts, wounded, Capt. D. F. Lane, and Lieut. Henry M. 
Button, were commended for gallant conduct. (It was re 
ported at home that the regiment was captured.) 

Banks being shortly re-inforced by Fremont, the Fifth, 
after a brief rest, recrossed the river at Williamsport during 
the first week in June, and rapidly advanced again to Win 
chester, Front Royal, and the Luray Valley. When Fre mont 
was again driven back, after the defeat of Shields, the Fifth 
moved across the State, through Warrenton, in the direction 
of Gordonsville. The latter part of July it reached Culpeper 
Court House, being now in Crawford s brigade, Williams s 
division of Banks s corps. 

On the 9th, the corps was drawn up within a mile of Cedar 
Mountain, Jackson s army holding the wooded fields and 
cleared slopes in front. During the afternoon, the rebels un 
masked battery after battery along the hills in front and on 
the flank, until the ground between the forces was com 
manded by a semicircle of batteries more than two miles long. 
A fierce artillery-duel was the prelude to the bloodier collis 
ion of infantry. 

At five o clock, orders came to cease firing, and to charge 
an enfilade battery on the right front. To Crawford s brigade 
was assigned the duty of leading the assault ; and gallantly 
did they respond. The ground occupied by the Fifth in this 
charge was a rough wheat-stubble, upon which the sheafed 
grain still remained, gathered in heaps small, and far be 
tween. On its farther side was the battery, with a sturdy 
growth of saplings in its rear ; and upon its left a thicket of 
scrub-oaks. Down this declivity sprang the Fifth, at the 
word of command, into the midst of a murderous fire from 
every quarter. The battery in front belched grape and can 
ister, mowing their ranks. Guns beyond the undergrowth, 
and upon the hills to the left towards the mountain, now 
hurled herT; their storm of shot and shell. Moreover, as the 
companies passed from the cover of the projecting wood into 
the open stubble, a terrible infantry-fire broke upon them in 
an incessant flash from the low thicket encircling the field 
upon the right. 

Very few times during the war was a regiment the focus of 



such a fire. This narrow field was swept by all the engines 
of destruction. Here the Fifth Regiment was broken in 
pieces. It pushed bravely across the slope towards the un 
seen foe, and maintained something like order until reaching 
a small brook that flowed through the field. Here it wa 
vered, and became scattered. Several of its best men were 
killed : fifty were struck down within two minutes. The 
wounded crept behind the rocks and wheat-stacks, where 
some of them were shot again and again. Most of the com 
panies had lost their leaders, and straggled back to the wood 
whose protection they had left. A large number, borne for 
ward by the impetuosity of the charge, rushed into the 
midst of the enemy concealed among the saplings, and were 
there slain or captured. All the field-officers were killed or 
made prisoners ; and all the other officers, except five, were 

Other regiments plunged into this deadly breach ; but the 
battery was not taken, and night proclaimed a truce, the 
darkness illumined here and there by bursting shells. Next 
day, Jackson retired across the Rapidan ; while Pope, Banks, 
and Sigel fell to debating the question, who was responsible 
for the useless slaughter. 

The Fifth counted its dead, and tenderly gathered up its 
wounded. Major Blake, Adjutant Smith, Lieut. Button, and 
eighteen enlisted men, lay dead on the field. The brave 
Lieut-Col. Henry B. Stone was a prisoner, and soon died 
of^his wounds. Col. Chapman was in the hands of the 

Major Edward F. Blake, son of Eli W. Blake of New 
Haven, was born in 1837. In boyhood as in manhood, 
he was distinguished for energy, fearlessness, ingeftuity, 
enterprise, and strength and skill in all muscular exercises. 
He possessed that rare executive faculty which makes the 
possessor a leader trusted and followed by common consent. 
While in Yale, he pulled in the boat-race with Harvard. He 
also had excellent literary taste, and was one of the editors 
of the Yale Magazine. He was graduated in 1858, and in 
I860 commenced the study of law in New Haven. He did 
not yield to the first impulse when the war broke out ; but 


as early as October, 18G1, the governor had accepted his ser 
vices, and appointed him to be adjutant of the Fifth, then 
near Darnestown, Md. Though a civilian, he had pursued 
his military studies so earnestly, that he was able at once to 
discharge the duties of his new position to the satisfaction 
of even his jealous comrades ; and lie was soon a great 
favorite in the army, as he had been at home. He was a 
cordial, hearty, cheerful Christian ; and was not long in 
becoming a ready, spirited, accomplished soldier. His effi 
ciency procured him the appointment of acting assistant 
adjutant-general on Gen. Crawford s staff; and in June he was 
made major of the regiment, again being passed over his 
superiors in rank. Major Blake gallantly led the left of the 
regiment at Cedar Mountain ; and, when the little band was 

O 7 

swept back, he was killed instantly by a rebel bullet as he 
had grasped the colors from the hands of dying men to bear 
them on. Col. Ferry said of him, " He is earnest, brave as 
the bravest, always ready ; and by his happy temperament 
he is the best lightener of the cares, toils, and annoyances 
of military life I ever saw." 

Lieut. Henry Melzar Button was a son of Ex-Go v. 
Button of New Haven, where he was born in 1836. He 
graduated at Yale in 1857; after which he studied law, and 
commenced a promising practice at Litchfield. At the 
breaking-out of the war, he was one of the young Bemo- 
crats w T ho threw themselves earnestly into the contest. Indu 
cing scores to join him, he went to Hartford as a private in 
the Fifth Regiment ; but he received a lieutenant s commis 
sion for his services in recruiting. Once in the field, he was 
popular with officers and men ; being conspicuous for soci 
ality, generosity, buoyancy of spirits, and fortitude amid 
di-comfort. At Cedar Mountain, after Capt. Corliss was 
wounded, Lieut. Button led the company, urging them on 
while men were falling on every side. The color-guard 
were all either killed or wounded. " Lieut. Button is reported 
to have seized more- than once the colors from some fallen 
hero, and to have borne it along to the hands of others still 
able to bear it aloft. Buring this heroic and hopeless strug 
gle, his commanding form could not long escape unscathed; 


and he fell pierced by a volley of rebel musketry." He 
was very kind to his men, and was much beloved. 

Adjutant Heber S. Smith of Hartford was a student in 
Trinity College when the war broke out, of the class of 1862. 
He was apt to learn, and had a high appointment at the 
junior exhibition of that year. He made a most efficient 
adjutant. Prompt in the discharge of his duties, a genial 
companion and a true friend, he was sincerely mourned. 

Lieut-Col. Henry B. Stone was severely wounded, and taken 
prisoner. On Sept. 16, he wrote from Charlotte ville, Va., 
to a friend in Danbury, "I am lying here on my back, 
suffering continual pain, patiently waiting for my wounds to 
heal. I suppose, if every thing goes on as well as usual, I shall 
have to lie in this position four weeks longer, when they will 
take my leg out of the splints, and allow me to move about 
more in bed. How anxious I am to hear about the regi 
ment ! " The wounded man was destined never to hear. 
Not having proper care, inflammation ensued, and he died, 
still " patiently waiting." Mr. Stone was captain of the Dan- 
bury Wide- Awakes in 1860, and showed so much spirit and 
skill, that, when the war broke oat, he was recalled from 
New Jersey to command the first three-years company. He 
was a handsome, frank, generous, brave man, and beloved by 
his command. Lieut. Edwin E. Marvin of Rockville wrote 
after the battle of Cedar Mountain, 

" It seemed as if the sacrifices were already prepared for their offering. 
Major Blake was always, at home or in camp, an earnest, devout Chris 
tian ; but Lieut.-Col. Stone and Adjutant Smith had mingled in all our wild, 
ceaseless hilarity and revelry that absorbed many a rainy day, and almost 
every evening, of our early history, with great zest ; but they, too, had 
changed. Amid and contrary to the whole tenor of surrounding influences, 
we well recollect that these three had long ago left all our carousals ; had 
for the past months lived such lives, lives of governed appetites, of sober 
and earnest resolution and unwavering duty, that we could well say, as 
we remembered so much and more, Who of all of us was so well pre 
pared as they ? 

Here fell Color-Sergeant Elijah B. Jones of Wilton, a tall, 
soldierly man, perfect in bravery ; and Color-Corporal Daniel 
L. Smith of Bethel, a conscientious, prayerful, resolute sol 
dier ; both slain while bearing forward the flag. Here nobly 


fell, also, Corporal Oliver G. Brady of Norwalk, Blair of 
North Haven, Bailey of Berlin, Thompson of Windhara, and 

After the battle, Capt. H. W. Daboll of Groton, previously 
the eighth captain in rank, succeeded to the command of the 
regiment ; all his superiors being either killed, captured, or 
disabled. He was in hospital on sick-leave before the battle. 

On Aug. 18, the Fifth fell back with Pope s army to the 
line of the Rappahannock, and, as Jackson s movement 
around the right flank progressed, receded still farther ; re 
maining to protect the baggage-trains near Bristow Station, 
while the rest of the army advanced to the second battle of 
Bull Run. When the rebel army, supported by three Fed 
eral generals, had succeeded in defeating Pope, the Fifth was 
withdrawn nearer Washington, thoroughly exhausted by the 


The Summer of 1862. The Fourteenth Regiment called for. The Military Situation. 
Appeal of the Executive. Enthusiastic Response by the People. War-Meetings 
and Local Effort. Recruiting Committees. The Fourteenth full. New Haven 
raises the Fifteenth. Hartford recruits the Sixteenth. Seventeenth from Fairfiekl 
County. Eighteenth from New London County. Nineteenth from Litchfield 
County. Twentieth and Twenty-first organized. The Second Battery goes from 
Bridgeport. All assigned to the " Army of the Potomac." 

URING the winter of 1861-2, the Union forces 
made constant inroads upon the Rebellion ; 
and the magnificent prophecies of Mr. Seward 
seemed about to be fulfilled. The War De 
partment issued orders, April 3, discontinuing 
the recruiting service in every State. Men about to enlist 
turned gratefully to peaceful pursuits, assured that no more 
soldiers would be needed. When, May 16, the Secretary 
of War made a requisition on Gov. Buckingham for six 
hundred men to fill up the Eighth, Te-nth, and Eleventh 
Regiments, it is not surprising that the response of the peo 
ple was feeble. The government had justified the impres 
sion that the army was strong enough for any probable 
contingency. Moreover, there was a demand for labor ; and 
wages were high. The requisition not being met, it was 
modified to a call for another regiment to join the fifty 
thousand men designed for the "camp of instruction " at 
Annapolis. The governor summoned volunteers for the 
Fourteenth: D wight Morris of Bridgeport was commissioned 
to be its colonel ; Dexter R. Wright of Meriden, lieutenant- 
colonel ; and S. H. Perkins of Torrington, major. Companies 
were begun in Norwich, Waterbury, and Bridgeport; but 
the recruiting-sergeants met with little success. This state 



of apathy continued, while the Army of the Potomac was 
experiencing strange vicissitudes. 

The Federal arms had been everywhere victorious until 
this midsummer of 1862. The Union troops had overrun 
and occupied Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee ; the 
national flag was again unfurled in New Orleans ; while the 
Atlantic seacoast was being brought under Federal rule in 
accordance with Scott s "anaconda" plan. Suddenly the 
tide of battle seemed to turn. The repulse of the gunboats 
in their attack on Fort Darling was followed by the failures 
of McClellan ; Hunter s foothold in the Carolinas became 
precarious ; and again the enemy advanced in the West. 

This loss of ground caused great public solicitude, which 
resulted in a letter of the loyal governors to President Lin 
coln, urging him " to call upon the States for such numbers 
of men as might, in his judgment, be necessary to garrison 
and hold all the numerous cities and military positions that 
have been captured by our armies, and to speedily crush the 
Rebellion." The president immediately, July 1, issued a 
call for three hundred thousand volunteers for three years. 

The quota of this State, under this call, was fixed at seven 
thousand one hundred and forty-five. Gov. Buckingham 
immediately issued the following appeal for volunteers : 

CITIZENS OF CONNECTICUT, You are again called upon to rally to 
the support of the government. In the name of our common country, I 
call upon you to enroll your names for the immediate formation of six or 
more regiments of infantry to be used in suppressing the Rebellion. Our 
troops may be held in check, and our sons die on the battle-field ; but the 
cause of civil liberty must be advanced, the supremacy of the govern 
ment must be maintained. Prompt and decisive action will be economy 
in men and money. By our delay, the safety of our armies, even of the 
nation, may be imperiled. The Rebellion, contending with the despera 
tion of a hopeless and wicked cause, must be met with equal energy. 
Close your manufactories and workshops, turn aside from your farms and 
your business, leave for a while your families and your homes, meet face to 
face the enemies of your liberties ! Haste, and you will rescue many noble 
men now struggling against superior numbers, and speedily secure the 
blessings of peace and good government. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the State, at New Haven, this 
third day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-two. 

By his Excellency s command : 

J. H. TRUMBULL, Secretary of State. 


A bounty was now offered each volunteer, of a hundred 
dollars from the Federal Government, and ninety dollars 
from the State ; and all the recruiting machinery was put 
in active operation. Authority to enlist was granted to 
young men in every county, accompanied with a commis 
sion as second lieutenant, to be forfeited in case of failure. 
All expenses incurred for subsistence, quarters, transporta 
tion, &c., prior to muster, were borne by the United States. A 
stirring circular letter was written by Adjutant-Gen. J. D. Wil 
liams to the selectmen of towns, appealing to them to hold 
local war-meetings "to set forth to the people the exigen 
cies of the present hour," " to pledge private means to assist 
volunteers or their families," and to encourage enlistments 
in every way, and appoint men "of energetic habits and 
patriotic impulses to act as recruiting-officers." 

The response was spontaneous and vigorous. Again party 
differences seemed laid aside or forgotten, and the predomi 
nant love of country asserted itself. Enlisting, and persuad 
ing others to enlist, became once more the business of the 
hour. Every county was thronged with recruiting-officers. 
Almost every town held a war-meeting, and offered an addi 
tional bounty for men. In most cases, this was made fifty 
dollars at first, and increased to a hundred dollars, for each 
man. Windsor Locks early voted a hundred and twenty-five 
dollars, and increased it to a hundred and fifty dollars. 
Bridgewater also voted a hundred and fifty dollars. Hart 
ford and New Haven gave a hundred and seventy-five dollars 
bounty. Enfield gave two hundred dollars, and Bloomfield 
and Watertown even as high as two hundred and fifty dollars. 
This generous rivalry was an effective agent ; but it created 
great confusion in determining the proper credits and quotas. 
Prominent citizens acted as committees to forward enlist 
ments, so that the government had an agent in every neigh 
borhood. Mass-meetings were held in the cities and large 
villages, and the newspapers of the State were full of appeals 
and local military news. Hartford, New Haven, Norwich, 
Bridgeport, and Litchfield became centers of enlistment ; and 
the mind and heart of the State were given supremely to 
the work. The result was seen in the fact, that, within forty- 


five days, eight thousand and thirty-six men had volunteered, 
and were organized into eight full regiments and one light 
battery. Connecticut was the first State to fill her quota 
under the call, and a surplus of nearly one thousand had vol 
unteered. Gen. Daniel Tyler came home, and rendered great 
service in equipping these regiments, and preparing them for 
the field. 

The lonely squads that had been drilling for weeks as 
the nucleus of the Fourteenth were now immediately re 
inforced. Large war-meetings to this end were held in 
Bridgeport, Norwich, Middletown, Waterbury, New Haven, 
New Britain, Madison, Say brook, New London, and the towns 
in Tolland County; the regiment being recruited from the 
State at large. It rendezvoused at Camp Foote, on the New- 
Haven Turnpike, near Hartford, grounds which the Fifth 
formerly occupied. The colors of the regiment were fur 
nished by the State. 

Towns were represented in the regiment as follows: 
Company A, Capt. James D. Merritt, Bridgeport, forty-six ; 
Putnam, eight ; Stratford, six ; Norwalk, five ; Trumbull, four. 
Company B, Capt. Elijah W. Gibbons, Middletown, eighty- 
seven ; Durham, six. Company C, Capt. Samuel W. Carpen 
ter, Waterbury, ninety. Company D, Capt. Thomas F. Bur 
pee, Yernon, seventy-three ; Ellington, eleven. Company E, 
Capt. William H. Tubbs, Norwich, eighteen ; Middletown, six 
teen; Hartford, fourteen; and twenty from Windham County. 
Company F, Capt. Jarvis E. Blinn, New Britain, sixty-three ; 
Bloomfield, fifteen ; Berlin, thirteen. Company G, Capt. Sam 
uel F. Willard, Madison, fifty-three; OldSaybrook, ten; West- 
brook, eight ; Clinton, twelve. Company H, Capt. Samuel H. 
Davis, New London, fifty-nine ; Waterford, twenty ; East Lyrne, 
five. Company I, Capt. Isaac R. Bronson, New Haven, twenty ; 
Hartford, twelve ; Guilford, twenty-five. Company K, Capt. 
James B. Coit, Hartford, fifteen; Norwich, nineteen; Chatham, 
twelve; Somers, Griswold; and Ledyarfl, fifteen. 

On Aiicr. 25, with a numerical strength of a thousand and 

O O 

fifteen officers and men, it left Hartford on the steamer City 
of Hartford and the propeller Dudley Buck. At New York, 
it was transferred to cars for Washington. 



The remaining seven regiments were recruited by coun 
ties. A large and spirited meeting was held at Music Hall, 
New Haven, as early as the 8th of July. Com. Foote pre 
sided; and speeches were made by Gov. Buckingham, Senator 
Dixon, Rev. Dr. Bacon, and Charles Chapman, of Hart 
ford. It was resolved to put a regiment (the Fifteenth) into 
the field immediately. A recruiting committee was appointed, 
of which the active men were William S. Charnley, H. M. 
Welch, H. B. Harrison, S. D. Pardee, William H. Russell, 
A. D. Osborne, P. A. Pinkerman, Francis Wayland, jr., J. W. 
King, E. S. Quintard, D. J. Peck, Lyman Cowles, Lucius R. 
Finch, Wyllis Bristol, C. A. Lindsley, John Woodruff, Lucius 
Gilbert, E. J. Sanford, Eli Whitney, B. S. Bryan, James H. Lan 
sing, J. C. Hollister, J. D. Candee, D. H. Carr, E. Downes, 
C. S. Bushnell, Charles W. Elliot, D. C. Gilman, Rev. William 
T. Eustis, John A. Porter, C. B. Rogers, John W. Farren, R. S. 
Fellows, L. R. Smith, H. E. Pardee, Alexander McAllister, 
H. D. White, N. D. Sperry. 

At the first meeting of the committee, it was resolved to 
" postpone absolutely, for the present, all topics of dispute ; " 
and authority was received from the governor to raise a 
regiment, and nominate its field-officers. Recruiting began 
without delay. Sessions of the committee were held from 
day to day. The organization was called " the Lyon Regi 
ment ; " and it was voted to distribute fifteen hundred dollars 
as an extra bounty among the first six companies raised 
within four weeks to the maximum number. 

A vote was passed instructing the committee about to 
visit Washington (Hollister, Candee, and Sperry) to request 
the Secretary of War to cause the arrest and confine 
ment of all persons discouraging enlistments in New-Haven 

The camp was located at Oyster Point, where the Seventh 
had rendezvoused. Oyster Point soon became, and after 
wards remained, a favorite resort of the citizens ; for fathers, 
mothers, wives, and cousins ; for patriotic and tender-hearted 
young women, who rode down to distribute needle-books, 
sweet pickles, bouquets, and smiles ; for patriotic but reluc 
tant young men, who rode down to discharge their surplus 


emotion at the stars and stripes, and to enjoy the delicious 
feeling that they were serving the country by proxy. 

On July 21, the committee nominated Dexter R. Wright 
of the Fourteenth to be colonel ; and he was accordingly 
commissioned. They also named Samuel Tolles of New 
Haven for lieutenant-colonel, and Eli W. Osborne of New 
Haven for major ; and even the sutler was designated in the 
person of John A. Punderford, which proved an excellent 
appointment. Sub-committees visited Derby, Orange, Meri- 
den, Madison, Guilford, and other towns ; and the regiment 
was declared full to the maximum, and ready to leave on 
Aug. 25. 

Company A, Capt. Julius Bassett, was from Meriden. 
Companies B, Capt. Theodore R. Davis ; C, Capt. S. S. Smith ; 
D, Capt. Samuel Hubbard; E, Capt. George M. White; 
G, Capt. John D. Wheeler; and I, Capt. Frank M. Love- 
joy, were almost wholly from New-Haven City. Company 
F, Capt. Allen W. Harvey, was from Meriden. Company H, 
Capt. Henry B. Peck, was a consolidation of about equal 
squads from Naugatuck and New Haven. Company K, Capt. 
Henry H. Stiles, contained fifty-two from Wallingford, 
thirty from North Haven, nine from North Branford. Orange 
had also thirty-three in this regiment, East Haven twenty- 
five, Milford twenty, Guilford ten, and Wallingford seven. 

On Aug. 28, the regiment left for Washington, under a 
handsome flag made by the ladies of Meriden, and presented 
in an appropriate speech by 0. H. Platt. 

Hartford County felt that the call was imperative, and re 
sponded instantly. A great meeting was held in and about 
Allyn Hall on July 11. Mayor William J. Hamersley pre 
sided in the hall, assisted by W. W. Ellsworth, W. D. Ship- 
man, T. M. Allyn, Calvin Day, Henry Keeny, D. W. Pardee, 
Hawley Kellogg, Austin Dunham, Horace Lord, Julius Cat- 
lin, John C. Palmer, Charles T. Howard, Charles H. Northam, 
Jonathan Goodwin, Elisha T. Smith, Warren Griswold, John 
L. Bunce, E. A. Bulkeley, Roland Mather, James P. Powell, 
Erastus Collins, H. A. Perkins, Daniel Phillips, Mark Howard, 
A. N. Clark, Henry C. Robinson. The meeting was addressed 


by Senator Dixon and others, and an eloquent letter was 
read from Corn. Foote. At least five thousand people were 
assembled, and there was an immense outside meeting. 

Most of the above-named gentlemen were active members 
of the citizens committee, which assisted to recruit the Six 
teenth Regiment. The names of A. E. Burr (of the Times) 
and Thomas H. Seymour having been read in the list of 
officers of the meeting, the latter published a letter in the 
Times, in which he said, " I could not have been induced to 
attend it. I will contribute in no way to the accomplish 
ment of such bloody purposes. The monstrous fallacy of 
the present day," he continues for the benefit of the volun 
teers, "that the Union can be re-established by destroying 
any part of the South, is one which will burst with the shells 
thrown into its defenseless cities, and leave the condition 
of the country, after its treasures are exhausted, and its 
brave men on both sides consigned to hospitals and graves, 
a spectacle for the reproach and commiseration of man 

Towns were represented in the Sixteenth Regiment about 
as follows : Company A, Capt. Henry L. Pasco, Hartford, 
, forty-four ; Wethersfield, ten ; Somers, eight ; West Hartr 
ford, seven. Company B, Capt. Edward H. Mix, Hartford, 
thirty-five ; Guilford, thirteen ; East Windsor, eight ; Wind 
sor, seven. Company C, Capt. Edward E. Rankin, Hartford, 
forty-seven ; Farmington, thirty-five ; Rocky Hill, twenty. 
Company D, Capt. Samuel Brown, Suffield, sixty-two ; En- 
field, thirty-four. Company E, Capt. Charles Babcock, Can 
ton, thirty-three ; Granby, nineteen ; Simsbury, nineteen. 
Company F, Capt. Heber W. Seaver, Hartford, eighty-two. 
Company G, Capt. Nathaniel Hayden, Berlin, twenty-five ; 
East Windsor, twenty ; Farmington, fifteen ; Hartford, thir 
teen. Company H, Capt. Frederick M. Barber, Manchester, 
forty-three ; Glastenbury, seventeen ; Bolton, twelve ; South 
Windsor, eight. Company I, Capt. John L. Drake, Stafford, 
sixty ; Avon, ten ; Vernon, eleven ; Willington, eight. Com 
pany H, Capt. Newton S. Manross, mostly from Bristol ; 
Farmington, fifteen ; Burlington, eight. 

Francis Beach was commissioned colonel ; Frank W. Che- 


ney, lieutenant-colonel; and George A. Washburn, major. 
The regiment rendezvoused at Camp Williams. 

It was made up of excellent material, some of the old 
est and best families in the county being represented in its 
ranks, and cherishing high expectations of its future. On 
Aug. 24, 1862, the regiment was mustered into the United- 
States service for three years with a thousand and ten offi 
cers and men; and on Friday, the 29th, left Hartford for 
Washington. As they marched to the wharf at the foot of 
Morgan Street, they were cheered by friends, from whom 
many were parting for the last time. They left at three, 
P.M., on the City of Hartford and the Collins, and had a 
pleasant trip to New York, where they were transferred to 
the steamer Kill von Kull, and received a breakfast of soup 
and coffee. At Elizabeth, N.J., the regiment took the cars 
for Baltimore via Harrisburg. 

The Seventeenth was a Fairfield-county regiment, not 
fifty men enlisted from outside the county. It was begun 
as soon as the call was issued in July : and William H. Noble 
was at once commissioned its colonel ; Charles Walter, lieu 
tenant-colonel; and A.G.Brady, major. Headquarters were 
at Bridgeport. Recruiting was active throughout July, 
men being mustered as they arrived; and by the middle 
of August the regiment was full to the maximum, over a 
thousand men. A comfortable camp was established at Sea 
side Park, known as " Camp Aiken." Through the patriotic 
efforts of Rev. Alexander R. Thompson, the regiment was 
furnished with a large chapel-tent, a library of five hundred 
volumes, checker and chess boards, and many other articles 
to promote the comfort or pleasure of the men. Col. Noble 
and Lieut-Col. Walter were presented each with a fine horse 
and equipments. Bridgeport claimed to be "the banner 
town of the State," having furnished seventy men more 
than her quota, a total of eight hundred and fifty out of 
an enrolled militia of sixteen hundred. 

Towns were represented as follows, those which only 
furnished three or four to a company being omitted : Com 
pany A, Capt. Douglass Fowler, mainly from Norwalk ; Wil- 


ton, eighteen. Company B, Capt. Charles A. Hobbie, mostly 
from Stamford and Darien. Company C, Capt. James E. 
Moore, Danbury, fifty-eight ; Bethel, sixteen ; Ridgefield, 
twelve. Company D, Capt. William H. Lacey, Bridgeport, 
forty-four ; Monroe, seventeen ; Stratford, nine ; Hunting- 
ton, nine. Company E, Capt. Henry P. Burr, Westport, fifty- 
one ; Newtown, twenty-five ; Bridgeport, fourteen ; Weston, 
ten. Company F, Capt. Enoch Wood, mostly from Norwalk ; 
Wilton, fourteen. Company G, Capt. James E. Dunham, 
Ridgefield, fifty-three ; Bridgeport, twenty-three ; Redding, 
twenty. Company H, Capt. Enos Kellogg, mostly New Ca 
naan. Company I, Capt. D. 0. Benson, mostly Greenwich. 
Company K, Capt. John J. McCarty, Bridgeport, thirty-five ; 
Fairfield, thirty-five. 

Company F, the Lockwood Guards, was raised in three 
days, stimulated by the offer of a thousand dollars by Le 
Grand Lockwood, Esq., whose donations to the war-fund in 
every direction were large and constant. 

The Seventeenth left for the front Sept. 3, being greeted 
by a salute, and the cheers of thousands assembled from all 
parts of the county to witness its departure. Gov. Bucking- 
, ham reviewed the regiment, and gave it his parting counsel. 
During the firing of a salute at South Norwalk, the prema 
ture discharge of a cannon shattered the arm of Joseph Haw 
kins so terribly, that he died from the effect of the amputa 
tion. In New York, the regiment embarked at the foot of 
Twenty-third Street for South Amboy ; whence it proceeded 
by rail to Baltimore. In its ranks, as a private, was Elias 
Howe, jr., the inventor of the sewing-machine, in receipt of 
an annual income of a quarter of a million dollars, his long 
hair cut tight to his head, and a musket on his shoulder. In 
the Westport company was Mr. E. M. Lees, postmaster, and 
two brothers. The regiment, tired and hungry, arrived at 
Baltimore late in the evening ; and, finding no transportation 
to Washington, lay in the open street all night, and got a 
cold collation at the d^pot at daybreak. Here they passed 
another night on the floor, the colonel refusing to vacate 
until quarters were furnished. 


New-London and Windham Counties took hold with such 
earnestness, that the Eighteenth Regiment, begun after sev 
eral of the others, was the first to start for Washington. A 
county mass-meeting was held in Franklin Square, Norwich. 
Hon. John T. Wait presided, and made a most impressive 
speech, declaring that the question was, whether Americans 
were fit for a republic ; and that its settlement would affect 
all nations, and all generations of men. Mr. Wait was fol 
lowed by Senator Lafayette S. Foster, Gen. Daniel Tyler, 
Richard Busteed, Hiram Willey, and others. A war-commit 
tee was appointed, consisting of Amos W. Prentice, David 
Smith, John F. Slater, Henry Bill, F. M. Hale, James A. Ho- 
vey, and John W. Stedman, who went vigorously to work. 
Companies were started in every large town in the district. 
Isaac H. Bromley, editor of the Bulletin, raised a company, 
and went as its captain. The camp was established on the 
Fair Ground, about one mile west of Norwich, on the old 
Salem Turnpike ; and was, like that of the Seventeenth, des 
ignated Camp Aiken, after the popular quartermaster-general 
of the State, William A. Aiken of Norwich. Windham County, 
determined that no conscripts should piece out her quota, 
sent down company after company ; and by the middle of 
August the regiment was declared full. Lieut.-Col. William 
G. Ely of the Sixth, who had begun as a private in the three- 
months service, was called to the command of the Eigh 
teenth. Monroe Nichols was made lieutenant-colonel ; and 
Ephraim Reach, jr., major. 

Five companies were from New-London County, and five 
from Windham ; and towns were represented as follows : 
Company A, Capt. Henry C. Davis, Norwich seventy-three, 
Canterbury ten, Bozrah nine ; Company B, Capt. Thomas K. 
Bates, Killingly fifty-two, Putnam fourteen, Brooklyn twelve, 
Woodstock twelve ; Company C, Capt. Isaac H. Bromley, 
Norwich forty-eight, Lebanon thirty-one ; Company D, Capt. 
Joseph Mathewson, Thompson sixty-two, Pomfret eighteen, 
Woodstock ten, Eastford eight ; Company E, Capt. Isaac W. 
Hakes, jr., Norwich twenty-eight, Colchester twenty, Salem 
eleven, Andover five ; Company F, Capt. Henry Peale, Nor 
wich fifty-nine, Preston twelve, Griswold thirteen ; Company 


G., Capt. George W. Wanner, Woodstock forty-four, Putnam 
twenty-four, Windham eight ; Company H, Capt. Charles D. 
Bowen, Windham fifty-five, Coventry thirteen, Tolland four 
teen, Chaplin ten ; Company I, Capt. Samuel R. Knapp, Nor 
wich twenty-nine, Preston eight, Lyme seventeen, Plainfield 
fifteen, Griswold ten, Sprague eight ; Company K, Capt. Ezra 
J. Mathewson, Killingly seventy-seven, Plainfield fourteen. 

The friends of the Windham-county men came down on an 
excursion-train, and visited the camp on Aug. 20. "During 
the whole afternoon, the vast crowd swaj^ed hither and 
thither over the ground, or stood gathered in little groups, 
talking earnestly of the past and future. In the latter part 
of the day, the regiment was formed, and marched about the 
camp, a compact whole, the pride of the district whose gal 
lant sons filled its ranks. And, as the setting sun threw its 
rays across the tented field, there were the hurried parting, the 
last fond embrace, the affectionate good-by, perhaps forever, 
tremulously spoken by wives and sisters, aged fathers and 
mothers ; and the living current swept back, leaving alone 
the canvas city to the brave men who shall know no other 
habitation until the flao; of their fathers shall float a<min in 

O O 

triumph over a re-united republic." 1 

Just before the regiment left, Col. Ely found a swindler in 
camp, who was selling to the soldiers " bullet-proof vests." 
He straightway made half a dozen bullet-holes in the tin 
armor, required the fellow to return the money to the dupes, 
and then sent him to the guard-house. 

At four o clock, P.M., of the 22d, Gov. Buckingha m drove 
to camp, and presented the regimental colors in behalf of 
the ladies of Norwich. Col. Ely received the standard with 
a few appropriate remarks. Then the regiment formed in 
line, and marched to the city. Norwich had put on its holi 
day attire. " Finally, at seven o clock, the huge engines 
started, the boat moved into the stream, a loud cheer from 
its precious freight, an answering shout from the crowd that 
filled the wharves and lined the banks, a burst of music and 
the roar of cannon, and the Eighteenth Regiment had gone." 

The Nineteenth Regiment was from Litchfield County. A 

1 Norwich Bulletin. 


county mass-convention was held at Litchfield on July 22, at 
which every town was represented. Seth P. Beers presided. 
The convention resolved that a complete regiment should be 
furnished by Litchfield County, and unanimously recom- 
mende.d that Sheriff Leverett W. Wessells be commissioned 
as its colonel. An executive committee was also appointed, 
consisting of G. H. Hollister, Joseph Humphrey, jr., E. W. 
Seymour, and George A. Hickox. There was now a united 
effort to fill the ranks, and recruiting was rapid. Wessells 
was made colonel ; Nathaniel Smith of Woodbury, major. 

The camp was established on South Chestnut Hill, a mile 
east of Litchfield. The place selected was a beautiful sloping 
field on the farm of Cyrus Catlin ; and it was named Camp 
Button, in honor of Lieut. Henry Melzar Button, who had 
fallen nobly at Cedar Mountain. 

Major Elisha S. Kellogg, of the First Connecticut Volunteer 
Artillery, arrived at Litchfield, Aug. 20, with a commission as 
lieutenant-colonel. Lieut. William B. Ells, also of the First, 
came home to raise a company for the new regiment, and Pri 
vate Charles J. Beming to go out as its adjutant. This excel 
lent regiment had already graduated a colonel for the Thir 
teenth, two majors for the Fourteenth, a surgeon for the Fif 
teenth, a major for the Sixteenth, and a surgeon for the Twen 
ty-first ; and when Major Kellogg, Lieut. Ells, and Private 
Beming, received commissions in the Nineteenth, Col. Tyler 
is said to have exclaimed indignantly that the government 
seemed inclined to " make the First Artillery a d d yeast- 
pot to raise officers for the army." 

Towns were represented in the Nineteenth as follows : 
Company A, Capt. William Bissell, Litchfield, sixty-three; 
Harwinton, ten ; Morris, seven. Company B, Capt. James 
Hubbard, Salisbury, forty-three ; Kent, twenty-four. Com 
pany C, Capt. James Q. Rice, Goshen, forty-two ; Torrington, 
thirty-four. Company B, Capt. William B. Ells, Plymouth, 
fifty-three ; Watertown, eighteen ; Harwinton, thirteen. 
Company E, Capt. Jeffrey Skinner, Winchester, sixty-two; 
Norfolk, sixteen. Company F, Capt. Edward W. Jones, 
New Hartford, thirty ; North Canaan, nineteen ; Canaan, 
sixteen ; Colebrook, fourteen. Company G, Capt. Edward 


F. Gold, Cornwall, thirty-four ; Sharon, forty-one. Com 
pany H, Capt. George S. Williams, New Milford, thirty- 
seven ; Kent, twenty-one ; Washington, twenty-one. Com 
pany I, Capt. Eli Sperry, Woodbury, sixty-one. Company K, 
Capt. Edward 0. Peck, was made up by taking men from the 
other companies ; so that it represented every town in the 
county, except Cromwell and Sharon, and three towns in 
other counties. 

On Sept. 10, the regiment was declared full ; and an im 
mense meeting was held at Litchfield, and a stand of colors 
eloquently presented by William Curtis Noyes on behalf of 
his wife, a grand-daughter of Col. Tallmadge, the bold partisan 
leader of the Revolution, and aide to Gen. Washington. Hon. 
Bobbins Battell of Norfolk presented to Col. Wessells a fine 
blooded horse, and Hon. 0. S. Seymour gave him a McClellan 
saddle. On the 15th, the regiment left Litchfield on a train 
of twenty-three cars for " the front." 

On the 27th of August, the companies and squads that 
had been recruited for the Twentieth rendezvoused at Oyster 
Point, New Haven, more than a thousand men. Enough 
were exempted by the surgeons to bring the total down to 
nine hundred and eiarhtv. Uniforms and a few old muskets 

o */ 

for camp-guard were furnished, a camp was laid out, and a 
regular military life begun. Gov. Buckingham appointed 
Capt. Samuel Ross of the Fourteenth United-States Infantry, 
mustering-officer in the State, to be colonel ; William B. 
Wooster, Esq., of Birmingham, to be lieutenant-colonel ; and 
Philo B. Buckingham of Seymour to be major. 

The regiment now made its first awkward attempts at 
drilling and guard-duty. " Long will our first guard-mount 
ing be remembered as a splendid caricature. . . . Here you 
would see a sentinel attempting to salute an officer. Poking 
out his musket perpendicularly in front with the breech 
nearly as high as his breast, and his face turned over his 
shoulder, he continues his march on his beat until he strikes 
the toe of his boot against some unleveled corn-hill, and 
finishes his salute with a headlong sprawl. Another thrusts 
his bayonet into the ground, and leaves his musket, because 


he is tired of carrying the i darned thing/ and thinks it just 
as well to walk his beat without it." 2 

Towns were represented in the regiment as follows : Com 
pany A, Capt. Timothy Guilford, Cheshire, sixty-five ; Pros 
pect, eighteen. Company B, Capt. Sanford E. Chaffee, mainly 
from )erby ; Oxford, twelve. Company C, Capt. Henry C. 
Smith, Hartford, twenty-eight ; East Haddam, twenty ; Ches 
ter, seven ; Windsor Locks, eight ; Marlborough, six. Com 
pany D, Capt. Frederick A. Parker, Portland, fifty-four; Had 
dam, eighteen ; Cromwell, eighteen. Company E, Capt. Sam 
uel S. Woodruff, Southington, seventy-three ; Farmington, 
ten. Company F, Capt. Henry C. Pardee, New Haven, fifty- 
nine ; Newtown, fourteen. Company G, Capt. William W. 
Morse, New Haven, fifty-seven ; Guilford, six. Company H, 
Capt. Charles S. Abbott, Seymour, twenty-three ; Waterbury, 
twenty-one; Oxford, fourteen ; Derby, fourteen ; Southbury, 
ten. Company I, Capt. Ezra D. Dickerman, Hamdem, forty; 
Waterbury, eighteen ; New Haven, eight. Company K, Capt. 
S. S. Stevens, New Britain, forty-one ; Hartford, eighteen ; 
Waterbury, fifteen ; Cromwell, four. 

The regiment was paid off; and* at ten, A.M., of Sept. 11, 
18G2, the cars backed down, the bands played, the citizens 
cheered ; and, struggling with various emotions, the men 
started on their three-years campaign. 

The Twenty-first was recruited from the eastern and central 
part of the State, and rendezvoused at Norwich, being raised 
by the same impulse that had filled the Eighteenth. It was 
a very promising regiment. Arthur H. Button, formerly of 
Wallingford, but then a lieutenant in the regular army, was 
chosen colonel ; and so rapidly was the regiment raised in 
view of a threatened draft, that it was mustered into the 
service, Sept. 5, with nine hundred and sixty-six men. 
Thomas F. Burpee of Yernon was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel ; and Hiram B. Crosby of Norwich, major. 

Towns were represented in the regiment as follows : Com 
pany A, Capt. Joseph Jordan, jr., East Hartford, thirty-nine; 
Hartford, thirteen ; Glastenbury, sixteen ; Windsor, twelve. 
Company B, Capt. Charles T. Martin, mostly from Hartford. 

2 Licut.-Col. P. B. Buckingham s MS. History of the Twentieth. 


Company C, Capt. John E. Wood, wholly (ninety-two) from 
Groton. Company D, Capt. Charles G. Southworth, Mans 
field,, thirty-eight ; Ashford, seventeen ; Windham, fifteen ; 
Wellington, eight. Company E, Capt. Charles T. Stanton, 
jr., mostly (sixty -eight) from Stonington. Company F, 
Capt. William Spittle, Montville, forty-three ; New London, 
thirty-two ; Waterford, seven. Company G, Capt. James F. 
Brown, North Stonington, sixty ; Voluntown, twenty -two. 
Company H, Capt. Ralph C. Foot, jr., Colchester, forty-seven ; 
Chatham, twenty-eight; Haddam, ten. Company I, Capt. 
David Dickerson, Middletown, fifty-six ; Norwich, fifteen. 
Company K, Capt. Jeremiah M. Shepard, Plainfield, forty- 
seven ; Pomfret, fifteen ; Brooklyn, twelve ; Sterling, ten ; 
Killingly, Sprague, and Lebanon, twelve. 

Having been completely equipped and furnished, the regi 
ment was ordered on board the cars Sept. 11, and, bidding 
adieu to friends, proceeded to the seat of war. 

During these fall months, also, the Second Connecticut 
Light Battery had been organized, drilled, armed, and hastily 
prepared for the front. "It was composed of portions of two 
batteries of State militia at Bridgeport, consolidated under 
Capt. John W. Sterling. A quiet, unassuming man, attached 
to his home by family-ties and business-interests, he was 
filled with a martial spirit; and having, as an amateur, 
already made himself familiar with the theory of military 
tactics, he brought his command to a high state of efficiency. 
He was greatly assisted by his lieutenants, Walter S. 
Hotchkiss, Philip B. Segee, George Hunger, and Philo B. 
Sherman. The men were mostly (one hundred and twelve) 
from Bridgeport, eight from Fairfield, eight from Easton, 
and thirteen from Stratford. The battery was composed of 
the best materials, and was unsurpassed in its general equip 
ments by any battery in the service. It was armed with four 
6-pounder James s rifled guns, and two 4-pounder howitzers. 
The battery left Bridgeport on Oct. 15, 1862, with one hun 
dred and fifteen men, and proceeded to Washington, where 
it remained two months in the artillery camp of instruction, 
Camp Barry. 


These troops left the State thoroughly equipped ; but drills 
had been irregular, and the men started forth with little 
idea of the actual life and duties of a soldier. They were 
received with bountiful hospitality by " the Sons of Con 
necticut " in New York, co-operating with Col. John H. Almy, 
the State s agent, and sent forward with words of patri 
otic cheer. The eight regiments were assigned to the Army 
of the Potomac ; and most of them reached Washington 
over the usual railroad - route, and with about the same 
wretched experience of travel night and day. 

The Fourteenth was immediately sent across Long Bridge 
to occupy Camp Chase, back of Arlington Heights, where 
it remained the first night. Reveille was beaten at three 
o clock next morning ; and the men were started off for Fort 
Ethan Allen, opposite Chain Bridge, where a camp was 
pitched, and drills resumed. Cyrus C. Clark of Middletown now major, vice S. H. Perkins, promoted. 

The Fifteenth was kept in Washington, near the east end 
of Long Bridge, for a time, and was reviewed by Gen. 
Casey, whose headquarters were near. Some companies 
were detailed to guard the bridge on the Virginia side ; and 
the men rapidly learned the trials of their new life in 
encountering the wounded and invalids from the disastrous 
second battle of Bull Run. 

The Sixteenth arrived at Washington in the evening of 
Aug. 31, and bivouacked near the Capitol. It marched 
into Virginia next morning, and received a startling illustra 
tion of war, meeting a line of ambulances a mile long, 
brinirin"; dead and dying from the battle-field. The men 

O o / c? 

proceeded to Fort Ward, about five miles distant, and 
sat in the rain all night, the tents not having come up. 
Here they remained for several days, while Lee was hasten- 
in<T northward across the State to invade the North. 


The Seventeenth expected to join Sigel s corps, then held 
in reserve in front of Washington ; but Lee had just crossed 
the Potomac into Maryland, and the regiment was detained 
for the defense of Baltimore, where Gen. Wool was still in 
command. They were ordered into Fort Marshall, a new 
earthwork on the bights across the harbor from Fort Me- 


Henry, overlooking, that fortification and the city. This is 
the highest point of land in the city ; and the sweep of 
vision covers a radius of five or six miles in every direction. 
The view was fine : but no quarters or food had been pro 
vided for the regiment; so the men lay down upon the 
ground, and slept like veterans. Next day, there was great 
excitement caused by Lee s approach ; and twenty rounds 
of cartridges were dealt out ; and the men, for a few nights, 
slept on their arms. Here they remained for more than a 
month, the post-quartermaster seeming to delight in making 
them uncomfortable. 

The Eighteenth also stopped in Baltimore. Col. Ely re 
ported to Gen. Morris ; and the regiment was at once 
installed in Fort McHenry, just being vacated by a New- 
York three-months regiment. Here they were soon com 
fortably located in a camp on a cool and shady slope 
running off to the waters of the bay. Behind and above, 
the great guns of the fort frowned over the ramparts on the 
half-rebel city ; while over all floated the stars and stripes 
as proudly as when, " in the dawn s early light," Francis 
Rodman Drake gazed anxiously across these same waters, 
and that grand anthem, " The Star-spangled Banner," was 
born. The regiment remained here a month ; four compa 
nies, Capts. Peale s, Warner s, Knapp s, and Mathewson s, 
under Major Reach, being stationed at Havre de Grace, 
guarding the railroad. 

The Nineteenth arrived at Alexandria on Sept. 18, and 
went into camp a mile back of the city, in the brigade of 
Gen. Slough, military governor. Here the regiment did 
picket and patrol duty in and about Alexandria from this 
time until January, obtaining the good will of the citizens 
by circumspect behavior and soldierly conduct. These 
months were industriously improved. The regiment was 
daily and thoroughly drilled by Lieut-Col. Kellogg, who 
was the beau-ideal of a soldier, and one of the best drill- 
masters Connecticut produced. Col. Wessells health soon 
gave way, and he was but a few weeks with the regiment. 

The Twentieth reached Washington at four o clock, P.M., 
of Sept. 13 ; but, having reported to the " circumlocution 


office," it was five hours before it received an order to go 
into camp. The men stretched themselves upon the ground 
of East Capitol Hill, and slept without tents. Next morning 
the baggage came up, and a camp was laid out ; but, two 
days thereafter, they removed to Camp Chase, at Arlington 
Heights, under their new brigade-commander, Gen. Paul. 
Here officers and men studied Casey s tactics, and devoted 
four hours a day to the drill. 

The Twenty -first also reached Washington on the 13th, 
bivouacked near the Twentieth, and went with it to Camp 
Chase on the 17th. 


The Call for Seven Regiments of Nine-months Men. The second Great Uprising. 
Kecruiting Active. Meetings and Bounties. A Draft announced. The Camps. 

Exemption sought. Skulks and Cowards. The Surgeons besieged. The 
White-liver Complaint. Incidents. How New Haven filled her Quota. The Day 
of the Draft. The Mountain brings forth. All the Regiments Full. The Twenty- 
second from Hartford and Tolland Counties. Twenty-third from Fairfield and 
New Haven. Twenty-fourth from Middlesex. Twenty-fifth from Hartford. 
Twenty-sixth from New London and Windham. Twenty-seventh from New Haven. 

Twenty-eighth from Fairfield and Litchfield. The Rendezvous on Long Island. 

LMOST simultaneously with the call for three 
hundred thousand men for three years came 
(Aug. 4, 1862) a call for three hundred thou 
sand for nine months, under which the quota of 
the State was again 7,145. Including the last 
three-years quota, still incomplete., Connecticut had already 
raised 21,702 soldiers; and the various branches of industry 
showed the drain that was being suffered. Yet the startling 
reverses to our arms, and the excitement and war-meetings 
resulting, caused a very general response to this summons. 
Moreover, nearly half the number now called for had been 
furnished in the surplus volunteering for three years ; and 
there were many remaining whose circumstances prevented 
a three-years absence, who cheerfully volunteered to go for 
nine months, believing that such service would carry the 
war past the most critical point. 

Seven additional regiments were called for, from the 
Twenty-second to the Twenty-eighth inclusive ; and volun 
teers poured in to the recruiting-stations. All parties par 
ticipated in the new uprising. At the war-meetings of the 
time, Charles Chapman and Alvan P. Hyde, the acknowledged 
leaders of the Democratic party in the House of Represen- 



tatives, spoke on the same platform with prominent Repub 
licans, urging men of all creeds and politics to enroll them 
selves at once for the national defense. 

The last companies filled slowly ; and the governor, on 
Aug. 21, in obedience to orders from Washington, announced 
a draft for Sept. 3, unless the requisition should previously be 
filled. The number required of different towns beino- esti 
mated, they at once put forth prodigious efforts to fill the 
respective quotas. While nearly all the people heartily 
seconded recruiting, a large majority looked upon the draft 
as a disagreeable, if necessary, alternative : many objected 
to it, and a few openly opposed it. 

Dr. C. H. Atwood of Woodbury objected to bounties, and 
called upon the educated and wealthy to enlist, and not 
require it of the laboring-men, who could not leave their 
families. As the tendency, if not the intent, of this was 
obvious, his eloquence was received with hisses, and only 
served to augment the emphasis with which the town voted 
the bounty of one hundred dollars. At the town-meeting in 
Bethlehem, an old citizen named Beecher, who had presided 
a year before at a Schnable peace-meeting, was " afeard the 
town would be ruined by paying such big bounties." His 
son Marshall Beecher soon took refuge in Canada. L. L. 
Bloss offered a resolution, providing that, if a volunteer from 
the town should " run off anybody s nigger," he should for 
feit all his bounty. 

Meanwhile the enrollment for a draft was proceeding. In 
preparation for it, four camps were established, Camp Hal- 
leek at Hartford, commanded by Col. George S. Burnham, and, 
later, by Col. George P. Bissell, for Hartford and Tolland Coun 
ties ; Camp Terry at New Haven, for New-Haven, Fairfield, 
and Litchfield Counties, commanded by Col. James M. Wood 
ward ; Camp Russell at Norwich, for New-London and Wind- 
ham Counties, commanded by Col. Thomas G. Kingsley, and, 
later, by Col. Thomas H. C. Kingsbury ; and Camp Mansfield 
at Middletown, for Middlesex County, commanded by Col. E. 
W. N. Starr. Several of the last three-years regiments, and 
all the nine-months regiments, rendezvoused at these camps. 

General orders were published, giving full directions as to 



the manner of conducting the draft, with the classes exempt, 
and the provision for substitutes. It appeared that Sprague, 
Chaplin, Windham, Maryborough, New Hartford, Norfolk, and 
Saybrook had already filled their quotas. As the day ap 
proached, it became clearly impossible to prepare the cor 
rected schedule in time ; and the draft was postponed until 
the 10th. 

During this week, the exertions of loyal men were re 
doubled, and the solicitude of semi-traitors and cowards 
increased. Every subterfuge was resorted to by these last 
to escape service. Section 4 of the Militia Law, passed at 
the May session, provided for assistants of the surgeon-gen 
eral in each county, authorized to examine all applicants for 
exemption. Old certificates of disability suddenly became 
priceless. The halt, the blind, the diseased, swelled to a 
fabulous number. 

Some surgeons seemed, from excessive good nature, or for 
the sake of popularity, or for the paltry twenty-five cents re 
ceived for each certificate, inclined to grant almost every 
application. Dr. Beckwith of Litchfield was severely cen 
sured, as caring more for these than for the nation others 
were struggling to save ; but he asserted that he did what 
seemed to be his duty with impartial honesty. Be this as it 
may, his fame spread through all surrounding towns. Men 
swarmed into Litchfield with haggard and ghastly counte 
nances ; stout young fellows bent over canes, and feigned 
excruciating rheumatism, or moaned agonizing internal and 
invisible maladies. Every day some one received the twenty- 
five cents exemption, flung away his staff, and walked off 
with a firm step. 

The physicians generally were rigid, excusing none but 
those obviously unfit. A few left every county, and fled to 
Canada, where they were hailed as poltroons and skulks. A 
few who sympathized with the South maimed themselves that 
they might be exempt ! A " peace-man " in New Fairfield 
cut off his right fc-re-finger. Another extracted his full set 
of sound teeth, and presented himself to Dr. Ezra P. Ben 
nett to be examined, but subsided into a speechless rage 
when the doctor, disgusted with the spectacle, " passed " him, 


informing him that he could "go as well as not : don t have to 
bite cartridges now." A cripple from Preston presented him 
self to Dr. Farnsworth at Norwich with a stiff leg ; but the 
doctor, perceiving that the rigidity was voluntary, horse 
whipped the creature, and then kicked him out of his office. 
The lame leg was restored as good as new. Dr. Welch of 
Winsted used to ask, " Can you work ? " " Y es, work a 
lit-tle," was a common reply. "Then you can fight a lit 
tle ; " and the case was closed. 

At this time, Litchfield County was all astir with recruiting 
for the Nineteenth and Twenty-eighth Regiments. Every 
day, Hon. John H. Hubbard, and often Edward Seymour 
and others, would go out to the Green, where the candidates 
for exemption were congregated, and depict the need and 
peril of the nation, and set forth the meanness of shirking 
duty due to the flag and the country. Almost every day, 
a number thoroughly ashamed of their despicable inten 
tions banished pretended ills, stood erect in manhood, and 
enlisted for three years or the war. 

In Barkhamsted, at the town-meeting in which a hundred 
dollars bounty was voted to volunteers, it was also resolved 
unanimously, that "whereas a most dangerous and alarming 
epidemic, traceable in most cases to the pro tern, cause of an 
enormous enlargement of the white liver., threatens the total 
extinction of our able-bodied white male population be 
tween the ages of eighteen and forty-five years; therefore 
resolved, that, as a sanitary regulation, the names and 
alleged reasons of all citizens of this town who apply for 
exemption be published in the county newspapers." 

The aggregate of those who dishonestly sought exemp 
tion was, of course, very small, when compared with the 
whole number liable to military duty. The people gen 
erally were ready to stand the draft; and some calmly 
awaited the result as th i decision of Providence upon their 
duty to go or stay. Still there was a decided repugnance to 
a draft, however equitable ; and all, with Connecticut ideas 
of freedom, wished to see the ranks filled by volunteers. 

Many towns filled their quota on the morning of the day 
of the draft. At New Haven, an immense crowd, estimated 


at from three to five thousand, gathered at the north por 
tico of the State House. A citizens meeting was organized, 
with Thomas R. Trowbridge as" chairman, and Edwin A. 
Tucker as secretary. Joseph Sheldon immediately offered, 
on behalf of Arthur D. Osborne, fifteen dollars each for 
two volunteers, in addition to all bounties. James Gallagher 
offered fifteen dollars for one man. I. W. Hine and William 
A. Beckley each made the same offer. William Franklin 
offered fifteen dollars each for ten ; N. D. Sperry, fifteen 
dollars each for ten more ; John Woodruff, fifteen dollar? 
each for twenty; Thomas R. Trowbridge, fifteen dollars 
each for thirty more ; J. A. Bishop, fifteen dollars each for 
ten men. Each announcement was greeted by loud ap 
plause. Others followed. S. T. Parmalee offered a hun 
dred dollars, D. J. Peck fifty dollars, Hiram Camp fifteen 
dollars, each, for ten men. Rev. William Folsom made a 
short and very spirited address, offering at its close fifteen 
dollars each for five men. Men now enlisted rapidly. A 
call was made for a general contribution, to be divided 
equally among volunteers. Individuals began to pass up 
money in sums from one dollar to twenty. James Galla 
gher, in a patriotic and earnest speech, called for more men 
and money ; and they were forthcoming. At noon, fifty-two 
men had volunteered, fifteen dollars each had been offered 
for eighty-eight more, and twelve hundred dollars had been 
contributed for equal distribution. The crowd and enthusi 
asm were undiminished. The selectmen stood by the boxes, 
ready to commence the draft. Enlistments went on. At 
three o clock and forty-five minutes, P.M., twenty-five men 
were needed to fill the quota. The selectmen gave notice 
that the draft would begin at four o clock. They delayed 
half an hour more ; and, at half-past four o clock, N. C. Hall 
announced that the quota of New Haven was full, and that 
there would be no draft. Nine tremendous cheers broke 
forth, and all went home happy. More than one hundred 
men had enlisted since nine o clock. 

Similar scenes were enacted, on a smaller scale, in other 
towns : and, when the draft was made, one hundred and 
twenty-eight towns had filled their quota ; thirty-four had 


not. Windham County had an excess of men. New-London 
County needed but twenty-four. Hartford County lacked 
the largest number, four hundred and seventy-seven; and 
of these the city of Hartford drafted for four hundred and 

The returns from the draft show that the number drafted 
was thirteen hundred and three (1,303). Of these, nine 
hundred and thirteen (913) were exempted by selectmen 
or on surgeon s certificate. Seventy-nine (79) principals 
and one hundred and forty-two (142) substitutes were mus 
tered into the service, and eighty-eight (88) were detailed 
on government work ; making a total of three hundred 
and nine (309) accepted. Of these, again, one hundred 
and eighty-four (184) never reported, and eighty-one (81) 
deserted after being sent to camp ; leaving forty-four (44) 
to be sent to the front. McClellan s confidence was not 
restored by this re-inforcement. A conditional Border for 
another draft was soon issued ; but, within three weeks, the 
entire quota was furnished, and the regiments full; and the 
supplemental draft was indefinitely postponed. 

These seven being technically militia regiments, all the 
officers, both field and line, were chosen by election ; the 
enlisted men designating the company-officers, and these 
nominating the field-officers. 

Many of the members of these regiments were young 
farmers, who had about finished their haying, and " calcu 
lated " they should return in time to take part in the hard 
work of the next summer. Generally, at the rendezvous, 
before the loth of September, it was understood that 
their term of service would expire so that they would be 
mustered out by the middle of the next June. This view 
was confirmed by the appearance, during the last of Septem 
ber, of Lieut. Webb, who mustered them into the United- 
States service as individual recruits. There were a few 
skulks in each regiment, who desired to spend as much of the 
nine months as possible in Connecticut ; and who absented 
themselves, without leave, whenever the mustering-officer 
came for the purpose of accepting the regiment and send- 


ing it forward. This practice left each regiment without the 
required complement, and departure was postponed from 
day to day. About the middle of November, Lieut. Webb 
re-appeared, and re-mustered them as regiments ; informing 
them that their service only now commenced. There was 
some dissatisfaction ; for the better men felt that they had 
been trifled with : but they were in a mood to tolerate 
sharp practice from a nation in such a strait as ours, and, 
without much murmuring, gave the extra two months of 

The Twenty-second Regiment was recruited exclusively in 
Hartford and Tolland Counties, and four companies were 
raised in the city of Hartford. Recruiting commenced Aug. 
20 : and in just one month, Sept. 20, the regiment was mus 
tered into the service at Camp Halleck, Hartford ; having 
been full for two weeks. Again towns offered attractive 
bounties ; and there were also striking instances of individual 
liberality. Charles F. Hillyer, president of the Charter-oak 
Bank, gave nearly one thousand dollars in bounties to enlist 
men for the company of Capt. Luther G. Riggs, which took the 
name of "The Hillyer Guards." Col. George S. Burnham, 
who had led the First Regiment in the field, was appointed 
to command the Twenty-second. Only four other officers 
had ever seen service ; but they were patriotic, and willing 
to learn. 

Company A, Capt. Albert Armbraster, was raised wholly 
in Windsor and East Windsor. Company B, Capt. John 
G. Root, was from Hartford Wethersfield furnishing thirty. 
Company C, Capt. Luther G. Riggs, was from Hartford ; 
East Hartford and East Windsor also slightly assisting. 
Company D, Capt. E. B. Root, represented West Hartford 
twenty-two, Bloomfield forty-two, East Windham twelve. 
Company E, Capt. Frank Swan, Hartford fifty, Mansfield 
eleven, Wethersfield six. Company F, Capt. George Clark, 
was wholly from Enfield. Company G, Capt. George W. 
Johnson, was from Suffield ; Union contributing twenty-three. 
Company H, Capt. Charles C. Shultas, was from Hartford; 
Southington sending eleven, Canton eight. Company I, 
Capt. Charles Whittlesey, was from Hartford ; Canton having 


fifteen of the number. In Company K, Capt. Benjamin T. 
Loomis, Tolland had forty-two, Somers twenty-two. 

After a few weeks of irregular drill, the regiment left 
Hartford for the seat of war, Oct. 2, one of the stormiest 
days of the season, with nine hundred men, on the Granite 
State. They arrived in New York, and breakfasted at the 
Battery Barracks ; crossed by ferry-boat to Elizabeth City, 
and took cars; reaching Washington, via Harrisburg, on Sun 
day evening. Their first bivouac was on the flats near the 
Capitol. Next morning, the regiment became a part of the 
Second Provisional Brigade. After tarrying two days in 
Washington, they marched to Georgetown ; thence up to 
Chain Bridge ; when they crossed the Potomac, and came 
to rest under the barbette guns of Fort Ethan Allen. Next 
morning they advanced half a mile, and encamped in a beau 
tiful peach-orchard ; Col. Burnham, as senior officer, com 
manding the brigade of three green regiments. 

Tlie Twenty-third Regiment was raised in Fairfield and 
New-Haven Counties, mostly the former. Charles E. L. 
Holmes of Waterbury was early commissioned to be colonel. 
It rendezvoused at Camp Terry, New Haven. All the field 
and most of the line officers were connected with the active 
State militia, and several brought their companies bodily into 
the regiment. 

Company A, Capt. Alfred Wells, was recruited about equal 
proportions in Watertown and Waterbury. Company B. 
Capt. James H. Jenkins, represented Danbury alone ; and not 
a man. deserted during the service. Company C, Capt. 
Julius Sanford, was the union of squads from Newtown (forty) 
and Sharon (thirty-four). Company D, Capt. Charles W. Hall, 
had nineteen from Bridgeport, nineteen from Trumbull, and 
twenty-five from Huntington. Company E, Capt. George 
M. Godfrey, contained twenty-five from Wilton, nineteen 
from Weston, and thirty-six from Redding. Company F, 
Capt. David F. Johnson, was largely from Derby ; other towns 
furnishing half, most of whom (twenty-nine) deserted before 
leaving camp. Company G, Capt. George S. Crofut, had 
twenty from Bethel, twelve from Danbury, six from New- 


town, five from Ridgefield, and eight from Fairfield. Of 
Company H, Capt. A. Dwight Hopkins, Naugatuck furnished 
forty-three, Waterbury twenty-one, Watertown five. Com 
pany I, Capt. William H. May, had twenty-four from Bridge 
port, fifty-three from Fairfield, and seven from Easton ; and 
of these, many of whom were drafted men or substitutes, 
thirty-eight deserted before the company left the State. 
Company K, Capt. Samuel G. Bailej^, was mainly from Dan- 
bury ; New Fairfield contributing seventeen, and Litchiield 

The regiment was composed of excellent material. It 
was assigned to Gen. Banks s expedition, of the destination 
of which nothing was yet known; and on Nov. 17, with 
eight hundred and forty-eight men, it proceeded to the camp 
at Centreville (East New York), L.I. 

The Twenty-fourth Regiment was mostly raised in Middle 
sex County ; and Samuel M. Mansfield, first lieutenant in the 
regular army and a son of Major-Gen. Mansfield, was called 
to the command. Middletown contributed four companies : 
A, Capt. Isaac C. Gleason ; D, Capt. Timothy R. Parker ; F, 
Capt. William J. Addis ; and G, Capt. Charles H. Edwards ; in 
which, however, were twenty-two from Haddam, twenty-one 
from Cromwell, twelve from Clinton, and ten from Durham. 
Company B, Capt. H. P. Johnson, was mainly from Essex ; 
Westbrook furnishing fourteen, Old Saybrook five, and Kil- 
lingworth ten. Company C, Capt. A. G. Fitch, w r as from 
Colchester and Chatham ; Montville contributing six, and 
Lebanon eight. Company E, Capt, G. A. Denslow, was from 
Hartford. Company H, Capt. John J. Kealey, was from 
New Haven ; and, of fifty T fonr privates, twenty-four de 
serted before leaving for the seat of war. Company I, Capt. 
Alonzo L. Mobbett, was from Hamden ; and it set sail with 
sixteen officers and fifteen privates. Company K, Capt. 
Patrick Gilmore, was from New Haven and Bridgeport ; and 
twenty-seven of the privates deserted before leaving the 
State. At this time, men were sorely needed ; and they were 
accepted, and paid heavy bounties, without much regard to 
their character or purposes. Stimulated by the inducements 


offered, bounty-jumping was practiced as a science, until it 
became the bane of the army and the curse of every com 
munity. The catalogue of the volunteers of , Connecticut 
clearly shows what class of citizens most resorted to this 
method of profiting by the misfortunes of the nation. 

When the Twenty-fourth became purified by the depart 
ure of those who joined for fraudulent purposes, there 
remained a brave and efficient, body of men, tolerably 
well disciplined, and thoroughly in earnest. The regiment 
was mustered into the service at Middletown on Nov. 18, 
1862, and left immediately, assigned to Banks s expedition; 
arriving at Centreville, L.I., with less than six hundred men. 

The Twenty-fifth, like the Twenty-second, was raised 
almost wholly in Hartford County, with some assistance 
from Tolland; several companies forming the nucleus re 
ported at Camp Halleck, Hartford, the last week in August ; 
and enlistments continued from Aug. 20 to Nov. 11, at 
which time it was formally mustered into the service. 
George P. Bissell of Hartford was made colonel ; and he 
exhibited an energy in drill and discipline which promised 
to bring his men up to a high standard of excellence. The 
regiment was composed almost exclusively of young men 
impelled by a patriotic motive ; so that, except in the mixed 
company from Hartford and Ellington, the desertions were 

Company A, Capt. Mason C. Weld, had twenty-one from 
Farmington, twenty from Hartford, fifteen from Canton, 
nine from Wethersfield, seven from Berlin, and a dozen 
more from intervening towns. In Company B, Capt. Arthur 
T. Hinckley, Hartford furnished thirty-four ; Vernon, ten ; 
and West Hartford, Wethersfield, Rocky Hill, and East 
Windsor, the rest. In Company C, Capt. S. S. Hay den, were 
thirty-two from Windsor Locks, five from Windsor, nine 
teen from East Hartford, and sixteen from Hartford. Com 
pany D, Capt. George H. Foskit, was exclusively from Staf 
ford, a fine company. Company E, Capt. Newton P. 
Johnson, .consisted of twenty -nine from East Granby, 
twenty-seven from Hartland, and nineteen from Simsbury. 


Company F, Capt. George H. Na pheys, was from Hartford 
and Ellington. Company G, Capt. Charles H. Talcott, was 
a consolidation of fractional companies from Glastenbury 
and East Windsor; and Company H, Capt. William II. 
Abbey, of large" squads from Glastenbury, Rocky Hill, and 
Coventry. Company I, Capt. Barrett Darrow, from Bristol, 
contained eleven from Burlington. Company K, Capt. Wil 
liam F. Silloway, contained thirty-three inen from Hartford, 
twenty-six from Farmington, fourteen from Avon, and 
twelve from Canton. 

The muster-roll exhibited eight hundred and eleven men. 
On Nov. 14, the regiment sailed from Hartford, and, the fol 
lowing day, encamped on the Centreville Race-course, Long- 
Island, laying out camp and holding dress-parade the same 
evening, after making the distance from Williamsburg in 
heavy marching order. 

New-London County acted immediately and unitedly in 
response to the nine-months call ; and, on Sept. 5, the 
Twenty-sixth Regiment was ordered to rendezvous at Nor 
wich. Col. Thomas G. Kingsley of Franklin, who had served 
for eight years as colonel of the Third Regiment of militia, 
was elected to be colonel. Some of the companies were on 
hand promptly ; and by the 15th all were in Camp Russell. 
Drill was at once begun ; and, as most of the officers and 
many of the enlisted men had seen service, the work of 
preparation was continued intelligently. 

In this regiment, the eastern part of the State was thus 
represented : Company A, Capt. Jesse C. Mayriard, Salem, 
eighteen ; Montville, twenty-two ; Waterford, eight ; Sprague, 
Chester, and Lebanon. Company B, Capt. Clark Harring 
ton, Norwich, thirty ; Preston, twenty-five ; Franklin, twenty. 
Company C, Capt. Enoch Noyes, jr., Old Lyrne, East Lyme, 
and Lyme. Company D, Capt. Samuel T. Hun toon, Nor 
wich, thirty- three ; Ledyard, twenty - seven ; Voluntown, 
nine ; Preston, eight. Company E, Capt. Christian Goflj 
New London, forty-five ; Waterford, six. Company F, Capt. 
Loren A. Gallup, Norwich, twenty-five ; Lyme, twenty-one ; 
Griswold, fifteen ; Lisbon, six ; East Haddam, six. Company 


G, Capt. John L. Stanton, Norwich, twenty-one ; Woodstock, 
eighteen ; Pomfret, eight ; Ashford, five ; Scotland, seven ; 
Sterling, ten. Company H, Capt, Daniel Champlin, Ston ing- 
ton, sixty. Company I, Capt. William H. Bentley, New Lon 
don, seventy. Company K, Capt, Jedediah Randall, Groton, 

On Nov. 12 they vacated their camp, under orders to join 
Banks s expedition, still gathering in the vicinity of New 
York. Main and Shetucket Streets were thronged with 
friends and neighbors, who gave the regiment many words 
of good cheer as it inarched to the wharf. At five, P.M., the 
cables were slipped ; and the Commodore, with its freight of 
more than eight hundred men, swung out into the stream ; 
while the band, to make the occasion cheerful, struck up 
"The Girl I left Behind Me." The afternoon and night 
were pleasant. At seven in the morning, the boat arrived at 
Williamsburg. The regiment partook of an inadequate 
breakfast at the wharf; but, as the men marched through 
South Sixth Street, the ladies and citizens poured out, and 
furnished them with wholesome refreshments. The camp at 
the Centreville Race-course was reached by one, P.M. The 
Twenty-sixth was the first Connecticut regiment to arrive; 
and Col. Kingsley assumed command of the post, naming 
it, with Gen. Banks s approval, "Camp Buckingham," a 
designation which had by this time ceased to be original or 
novel, but never ceased to be popular. Every regiment 
named several of its stopping-places after the . favorite 
governor, until " Camps Buckingham " were scattered over 
Virginia, and extended down the Atlantic coast and up the 

The Twenty-seventh was recruited in New-Haven County; 
a large majority of officers and men being furnished by the 
city of New Haven. Richard S. Bostwick of New Haven 
was elected colonel ; and towards the end of August the 
regiment went into camp at Camp Terry, and began to pre 
pare itself for the service before it. By the last of Septem 
ber, all the companies were full. 

Company A, Capt. James H. Coburn, was from the city. 


Company B, Capt, Calvin L. Ely, represented Branford, 
thirty-six ; Wallingford, twenty-nine ; North Haven, seven ; 
North Branford, six. Company C, Capt. A. C. Taylor, New 
Haven, twenty-five ; Milford, twenty-seven ; Norwalk, nine 
teen ; Guilford, 1 six. Company D, Capt. Cornelius J. Du 
Bois, was mostly from New Haven ; Bethany adding ten. 
Company E, Capt. George F. Hotchkiss, was also mainly 
from New Haven ; Woodbridge having six. Company F, 
Capt. Joseph R. Bradley, was the union of incomplete com 
panies from New Haven and East Haven. Company G, 
Capt. Samuel T. Birdsall, was about equally from Meriden 
and New Haven ; Orange also having thirty in this and 
other companies. Company H, Capt. R. P. Cowles, was from 
New Haven. Company I, Capt. Charles M. Wilcox, was re 
cruited in Madison. Company K, Capt. B. E. Schweizer, 
was raised among the Germans of New Haven. 

All the field-officers and most of the company-officers had 
seen service ; and the regiment was made up of a superior 
class of men. Several weeks were spent in drilling and 
equipping ; and on Oct. 22 the regiment started for the 
field, numbering eight hundred and twenty-nine rank and 
file. The journey to Washington was uneventful. Again 
the inexhaustible hospitality of the " Quaker City " was 
tested ; and the regiment took a day s rest upon the pave 
ments of Baltimore, and arrived at its destination on the 
25th ; when the men pitched their tents in Lee s peach- 
orchard on Arlington Heights, Camp Seward. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment was raised in Fairfield 
and Litchfield Counties, and also rendezvoused at Camp 
Terry, New Haven. It was composed of eight companies 
only. Samuel P. Ferris of the regular army was appointed 

Companies A, Capt. Francis R. Leeds, and B, Capt. Cyrus 
D. Jones, were entirely from Stamford. Company C, Capt. 
Louis R. McD enough, had fifty-seven from Westport, twenty- 
two from Darien, seven from Stamford. Company D, Capt. 
David D. Hoag, contained thirty-four from New Milford, fif 
teen from Bridgewater, twenty from Sherman, and sixteen 


from Washington. Company E, Capt. Charles B. Landon, 
was wholly from Salisbury. Company F, Capt, L. B. Whee- 
lock, was almost entirely from Winchester ; Colebrook send 
ing nine, and Torrington and Barkhamsted ten more. Com 
pany G, Capt. Theodore L. Beckwith, was from Norwalk ; 
and Company H, Capt. George W. Middleton, from Green 

They were kept at New Haven two months ; when, weary 
with the monotony of camp-life, they gladly received the 
summons to proceed (Nov. 17) to the rendezvous where 
Banks was assembling his expedition. They took a night- 
boat; and the evening of the next day found them hastily 
laying out a camp on the Centreville Race-course, Long 
Island, where Col. George P. Bissell was in command. 

There were now at Centreville five of the Connecticut 
nine-months regiments the Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, 
Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-eight encamped 
together ; a village of more than three thousand men. The 
arrangements were in some respects seriously defective, or 
at least so regarded by the volunteers just from warm beds 
and plentiful tables. One of them wrote, " The excessive 
dirt in the food, and the excessive moisture in the lodging, 
form frequent subjects of complaint. All experience has 
shown that sleeping, or trying to sleep, in three inches of 
water, in the midst of November, is not conducive to good 
health, temper, or morals." 

There was one pleasant incident, however. When Thanks 
giving came, the tables were spread with lavish care by the 
" Sons of Connecticut " in New York ; and the regiments gath 
ered about them to express their patriotic resolves, and re 
new the fragrant memories of life in New England. All 
praise, as we pass, should be given those noble arid patriotic 
" Sons of Connecticut," before referred to, for their unweary 
ing kindness and liberality to the troops from their State as 
they passed or halted in the vicinity of New York. The 
activity of the agent of the State, and the liberality of Mc- 
Curdy, Wetmore, Gould, S. B. Chittenden, Gilman, arid oth 
ers, is beyond all praise, and most gratefully remembered by 
our troops. 


Again Connecticut had achieved a giant s work. In two 
months, from a condition of apathy and over-confidence, she 
had roused to an enthusiastic war-spirit, and had raised, 
equipped, and sent to the field, fifteen full regiments, or an 
average of about a hundred able-bodied men from every 
town. She was probably not the first to fill her quota, as the 
Tribune and some of our own newspapers at the time an 
nounced ; for the response of Iowa appears to have preceded 
ours : but Connecticut answered the requisition before any 
other Eastern State, and elicited from the Boston Traveller 
the comment, " Connecticut has behaved splendidly from the 
beginning of the war, and means to persevere in well-doing 
to the end. She does not brag so much as some other States ; 
but she does much useful work. She worships the Union, 
and believes that work is worship." 


The Eighth and Eleventh near Newberne. To Newport News. Re-organization of 
the Eleventh. To Fredericksburg. Pope, defeated, retreats on Washington. 
Col. Kingsbury in command of the Brigade. Arrival in Washington. Movement 
into Maryland. The Fourteenth and Sixteenth join the Column. South Moun 
tain. The Affair of Turner s Gap. Choice Rebel Literature. 

FTER the siege of Fort Macon, the Eighth re 
turned to Newberne, and encamped about a 
mile below the city, on the west bank of the lan 
guid and beautiful Neuse. The Eleventh still 
remained in its pleasant camp on the Trent; 
and the Tenth in the open plain, just above the city. Col. 
Harland much of the time commanded a brigade which in 
cluded the Eighth and Eleventh, and at battalion-drill was 
not surpassed by any officer of the division. Life at this 
place is still vividly remembered. Surgeon Meyer of the 
Eleventh wrote, " By the slow and solemn Trent stood our 
hospital, the ancient home of a Revolutionary general. 
Huge old mulberry-trees embowered it; and, opposite, a 
reedy peninsula stretched its green tongue far down the 
river. There we swung in hammocks through the long 
summer afternoons, reading hoary magazines that had come 
in the boxes of sanitary or soldiers -aid clubs, or dreamily 
discussing authors and books." 

June brought much bilious fever, particularly to the 
Eighth, which had been seriously worn down by the labo 
rious siege. Here many men of defective constitutions 
died, worn out in service. Convalescents obtained fur 
loughs to recruit in the bracing air and kind care of home. 
The tents were often chilly and very damp. Sometimes 
matches would not kindle, nor postage-stamps cling to let- 



ters; and boots gathered mold. Bathing became a great 
luxury. The regiments had, after dress-parade, a regular 
bathing-call; and hundreds ran to plunge into the cooling 
and healthful stream, to them almost a Siloam. This was 
the merriest hour of the day. Many bathed at morning 
also ; but none were allowed to go into the water under the 
burning sun of mid-day. 

Every day they watched for the steamer that brought the 
Northern mails, cheering it as it moved up the river, and 
waiting with patient hope, sometimes for twelve hours, pend 
ing the distribution of a huge mail for ten thousand men. 

On July 2, the Eighth moved to Morehead City, and 
thence on the transport Admiral to Newport News, where a 
camp was set on an exposed sandy plain. The Eleventh fol 
lowed closely. The beach of Hampton Roads, near at hand. 
protracted the delight of bathing. A few oysters were scat 
tered along the clean bottom ; and the boys felt out with 
their bare feet, dived down, and captured enough of the 
toothsome bivalves to break the monotony of salt pork and 

Here died Lieut. Charles A. Breed, of Norwich, of typhoid 
fever. He had been in the war from the first summons, 
and was buried at home with public honors. He was much 
lamented ; and his brother-officers sent their condolence to 
"his widowed mother, who had given two sons to sustain 
the cause of constitutional liberty." 

The field and line of the Eleventh were here re-organized. 
Its lieutenant-colonel, a noble and patriotic man, but not of 
a military turn of mind, had resigned at Newberne ; and its 
colonel, who had never much loved or adorned the service, 
here also took final leave of the regiment. Lieut. Henry 
W. Kingsbury of the regular army, who declined the com 
mission of colonel of the Eleventh in October previous, no\v 
accepted it; and Capt, Griffin A. Stedman of the Fifth, 
who had been transferred to be major of the Eleventh, now 
became lieutenant-colonel. The line-officers were immediately 
subjected to a regular drill and severe study ; and, at the 
end of two weeks, all who failed to pass a rigid examination 
were requested to resign, and complied. Vacancies were 
filled by deserved promotions from the ranks. 


The new colonel daily drilled the battalion in the strictest 
manner. Severe inspections also began. A spot of dirt 
secured a reprimand, and an unclean musket was a sure 
passport to extra duty or the guard-house. No man was 
allowed to step out of his company-street unless his coat 
was on, and every button buttoned. There was fierce com 
motion for a time, and smothered threats of mutiny ; but 
the colonel was master, and, within the three weeks of sta\- 
at Newport News, the regiment improved beyond descrip 
tion. From being the most disorderly and slovenly in the 
division, it became, perhaps, the cleanest and most orderly. 

Officers and men of other regiments crowded to witness its 

battalion-drills ; and the boys began to be proud of their 
colonel and themselves. Thenceforward, for three years, 
the Eleventh had few if any superiors. 

The first of August, the men got ready and departed for 
the North. McClellan had been beaten, and the rebels were 
falling upon Pope. On the 5th, the two regiments found 
themselves up the Potomac, debarking at Acquia Creek. 
Baggage was quickly loaded into freight-cars, and many of 
the men clambered and clustered on the top. The track was 
in w r retched order, the sun fierce, the smoke and cinders 

The men on " the upper deck " will hardly forget the 
frail trestle-bridge crossed at Potomac Creek. The stream 
rippled a hundred and fifty feet below the track : the old 
bridge had been burned, and a new one was built up from 
the very bed of the stream in a continued trellis, with strips 
of three and four inch pine-scantling. At a little distance, 
the light structure seemed like a delicate web with which 
some adventurous spider had spanned the gorge ; and, as 
they crept slowly and softly over its trembling timbers and 
creaking joints, those who peered into the chasm below 
shuddered, and shut their eyes. Not a word was spoken 
till the train reached firm ground, and then even the loco 
motive could not restrain a shrill cry of relief. 

Fredericksburg was soon reached. Few will forget the 
march from the station on the hottest day the regiment had 
seen in service. The surgeons of the Eighth were all 


absent or sick, and Chaplain Morris alone was left to care 
for the sick and weary men. More than twenty fell sun- 
struck. At last, the exhausted men lay down upon the 
ground, and slept. 

At Fredericksburg was spent a pleasant month of drill 
and picket duty. Most of the time, the Eleventh was on 
patrol in the city ; and never was that duty more acceptably 
performed. The Eighth was every second day on picket far 
down the road towards Richmond : one company detailed 
for Falmouth. Of Falmouth, Lieut. Joseph H. Converse of 
the Eleventh graphically wrote : 

" A dirty place, with but a few streets, and these snubbed into extrejne 
limits by fierce hills. We were much impressed on our first visit with the 
peculiarities of this town, primarily having an idea that it was au 
insane village on a maniacal march ; but were led to consider that it might 
be a fossilized suburb slightly inebriated. Every thing looks wild and 
dilapidated : crazy stairs run up to outsides of as crazy old barns ; chim 
neys reel as if with sun-stroke ; fences twist themselves into exaggerated 
attitudes, and look blindly for aid from decrepit old posts." 

While stationed here, the men had good water and plenty 
of wholesome food ; and the health of the troops rapidly 
improved. At last, there was booming of cannon near 
Manassas. Orders came to cut down baggage to the last 
notch. With a sigh, officers closed their trunk-lids on the 
gorgeous uniforms in which they had been wont to shine at 
dress-parade, and sent them to Washington. The chaplain 
of the Eighth here bade good-by to his personal and the 
regimental library, and the chapel-tent, to see them no more. 

The negroes, loyal first and last, shuddered at the pros 
pect of an evacuation that would leave them to the ven 
geance of their masters ; and, being entreated, Gen. Burn- 
side allowed them to go to Washington with the govern 
ment trains. They passed along in a continual stream, in 
groups, families, and singly, a motley, struggling host ; every 
one, little and big, carrying something, from the wee picka 
ninny with a broken coffee-pot to the huge wench bearing 
half the furniture of the family on her head, all moving 
towards freedom, and many beguiling the way with plain 
tive songs. 


Battle now threatened along the whole line of the Rap- 
pahannock. The greatest vigilance was exercised. The 
regiments were ready to march. These were felt to be the 
most critical days of the war. Pope had fallen back on 
Washington with an army beaten and disheartened, and all 
available troops were called to strengthen him. On Aug. 31 
the Eighth was withdrawn from, picket beyond Fredericks- 
burg, and retired through the town and across the river, 
greeted by the scowls and taunts of the rebel citizens, who 
threatened to fire upon the column from their houses. The 
bridges were fired ; then the ddpot at Falmouth. In the 
blaze of these expensive fireworks, the 9th Corps took up 
its line of march for the menaced capital. 

The Eighth and Eleventh reached Brooks s Station at one, 
P.M., next day. This is a place of easy defense, the road 
winding along between high hills. Col. Kingsbury of the 
Eleventh, now in command of the brigade, disposed his 
forces along the slopes; and a beautiful stream with a 
dilapidated dam afforded nearly all the men, by turns, a 
refreshing bath. Some families of negroes volunteered to 
bake hot corn dodgers till sundown for the hungry men, 
and joined the column, when, in the cool evening, it pro 
ceeded to Acquia Creek. 

On Sept. 3, soon after mid-day, the regiments embarked, 
and reached Washington in the evening. They bivouacked 
on the public grounds south of the White House, near that 
patriotic abortion, the Washington Monument. Next morn 
ing, they marched through the city in their best style ; and 
the boys of the Eighth long remembered, and repeated with 
a smile, the announcement in the Star next evening, that 
" the Eighth Regiment of United-States Regulars marched in 
splendid order to join the forces of McClellan." The brigade 
halted on Capitol Hill, and greedily received a large mail 
from home. 

On this same day, Lee s advance, pressing boldly north 
ward, crossed the Potomac at Edwards s Ferry, and moved 
directly upon Frederick, Md., which was occupied by Gen. 
D. II. Hill s force. On Sept. 8, McClellan moved his army 
northward from Washington with intent to encounter the 


Here, besides the Eighth and Eleventh, the Fourteenth and 
Sixteenth, new Connecticut regiments, joined the army in 
pursuit, The Fourteenth had been mustered in just two 
weeks, and had been sent to Camp Chase, on Arlington 
Heights, to form the nucleus of a camp of instruction un 
der Gen. Casey. Its men knew nothing about the manual 
of arms, or company or battalion drill ; yet they received 
marching-orders to follow the enemy before they had received 
their muskets. The regiment moved along the hights ; 
halted at Fort Ethan Allen, and found its untried arms 
awaiting it there. On Sept. 7, it went across Chain Bridge 
to report to Gen. Sumner at Rockville. 

The Sixteenth left Fort Ward, below Arlington, on the 
same day, a week after leaving home. Like the Fourteenth, 
it had received no drill, no discipline, few instructions even 
in marching. It was little more than a crowd of earnest 
Connecticut boys. 

The Fourteenth committed the common mistake of leaving 
knapsacks behind. A long march brought the regiment to> 
Rockville, where it made its first bivouac in a rye-field, and 
next clay was assigned by Gen. Sumner to French s division 
of the 2d Corps. Col. Dwight Morris of the Fourteenth, 
being senior, was assigned to the command of the brigade ; 
the command of the regiment devolving upon Lieut.-Col. 
S. H. Perkins. Henceforth, to the close of the war, the for 
tunes of the regiment were cast with the 2d Corps, Army 
of the Potomac. 

The weather was hot and dry, and the march exhausting; 
but the men pressed on, sleeping as they could, and eating 
whenever rations were to be had. The Sixteenth received 
shelter-tents at Leesborough, and hurried forward to join 
Harland s brigade, to which it was assigned. 

This brigade, with the 9th Corps, was still far ahead ; 
and, on the afternoon of Sept. 12, the column filed out of the 
road along a fertile ridge, which Whittier described as being 

" Fair as a garden of the Lord," 

and, facing into battle-line, saw before them 

" The clustered spires of Frederick stand 
Greeu-walled by the hills of Maryland." 


The entire corps advanced in a long, splendid line ; Har- 
land s brigade emerging through the hospital-barracks just 
in time to see the last of the rebel cavalry dash out of the 
streets pursued by our own. Women blessed God and the 
soldiers, and rushed out to kiss the old flag ; gray-haired men 
hobbled forth with radiant faces ; and the young shouted their 
welcome ; while children capered in holiday glee. 

If Dame Barbara Freitchie alone had dared, 

" When Lee marched over the mountain-wall," 

to set the starry flag defiantly in her attic window, thousands 
had kept the loved emblem ; and the line had not been five 
minutes on the street before national banners, large and little, 
were flung from the windows, and draped with inspiring 
grace almost every threshold. 

The range of hills, including South Mountain, and form 
ing the northern spur of the Blue Ridge, now lay directly 
ahead ; and Burnside with the right wing was sent forward 
to dislodge Hill s small division in possession of Turner s Gap. 
The 9th Corps, under Reno, was still in the advance ; and it 
pressed on, reaching the gap before sundown of the 13th. 

This pass is a deep gorge between rough, irregular hills 
rising a thousand feet. Early on the 14th the 9th Corps 
moved up on the left of the Hagerstown Pike, and by noon 
became warmly engaged ; quickly driving the enemy half 
way up the acclivity. By two o clock, the 2d Corps ar 
rived ; but the 9th kept the lead. The Eighth and Eleventh 
Connecticut Regiments were held in reserve, and were under 
fire without being engaged. At four o clock, the whole line 
advanced, after a fruitless artillery contest. 

It was emphatically an infantry fight. Our column, press 
ing resolutely forward, met with strong resistance. Now 
the rebel line would be driven up almost to the summit ; and, 
before the Union cheers died away, there would be a fresh 
crack of musketry, and our forces would recoil, while rebel 
yells echoed along the rocky hillside. The Union reserve 
was so near, that bullets chipped the branches overhead. 
Often the Eighth and Eleventh were called to their feet ; but, 
when the wave of battle receded, they lay down again. 


It was now night, and the combat deepened with the dark 
ness. Up and down surged the blazing lines, revealing the 
hostile hosts. The prolonged roar of musketry, undulating, 
tossed back from the cliffs, and crowding the whole sky with 
its rattling clangor ; the confused rumble, betokening a fresh 
advance ; the yells and answering shouts, drowned again by 
the crash of twenty thousand rifles, this was the fight for 
Turner s Pass. At nine, the noise of battle ceased ; the 
rebels fell back for the last time ; the Union line advanced 
near the summit, within a stone s-throw of the hostile picket ; 
and the surgeons on both sides were visible passing to and 
fro with lanterns among the wounded. The night sped 
with little sleep ; and at gray of dawn the rebel pickets 
disappeared over the hill, the main body having noiselessly 
slipped away hours before. 

The fight was won by soldiers of other States ; the Con 
necticut regiments being in reserve. The 17th Michigan 
especially was conspicuous for heroism. For the numbers 
engaged, it was one of the sharpest and bloodiest fights of 
the war. Not less than sixteen hundred ghastly bodies 
of fallen rebels lay along that narrow pass. Ragged, filthy, 
emaciated, our troops looked on them with pity, and won 
dered that such skeletons could fight so stubbornly. 

The haversack of a private of the 14th North-Carolina, 
who fell here, contained a soldier s hymn-book, printed by 
the South-Carolina Tract Society (the American Tract So 
ciety of New York having at last refused to obey longer the 
dictation of slaveholders). From this book is copied a stanza 
of the rebel version of " America : " 

" My country, tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee, I sing ; 
Land where my fathers died, 
Land of the Southron s pride : 
From every mountain side 

Let freedom ring ! " 

In the hymn beginning, " Sovereign of all the worlds 
above," appears the following verse, which must now look 
to the enterprising compiler like the wreck of an unanswered 
prayer : 


" These Southern States at Thy command 

Rose from dependence and distress ; 
And, stablished by Thy mighty hand, 
Millions shall join Thy name to bless." 

A sheet of brown Confederate note-paper, embellished with 
a coarse cut of a cannon, and bearing dotted lines instead of 
ruled, had a wretched travesty of the Star-spangled Banner, 

" For the flag of my country in triumph shall wave 
O er the Southerner s home and the Southerner s grave ! " l 

1 Still more 
books which lie 

e precious for a collection of literary curiosities are two Confederate school- 
ie before us, " The First Dixie Reader " and the " Primary Geography," 
both by Mrs. M. B. Moore, and published by Branson & Farrar of Raleigh, N.C. They 
are confessedly the result of an attempt to " render the Southern youth independent of the 
corrupt Yankee teachings," a sort of literary rebellion as a counterpart of the political 
rebellion. The following are literal quotations from the Reader : 

" The frog hops. He can-not run like you can. He sleeps in the day, and hops at night." 
" It is not bad to kill the owl ; for he does -us harm. His wing will make a good fan." 
" If I were a boy or a girl, I would not eat like a pig. I would eat like a lamb, and then 
skip and play, and be happy." " The way to be good is to never do a thing which you would 
not like for your pa-rents to know." " Three cheers for the cane-mill ! It is a fine time for 
boys and girls, and the ser-vants too enjoy it fine-ly. Some of them will have four or five 
gal-Ions by the time the sea-son closes. Well done for the dar-kies. Ma-ny poor white 
peo-ple would be glad of what they leave for the hogs." " A bad wo-man can-not be a 
good grand-ma, because she does not know how. God is good to give us such grand-mas." 
" They said if the dog dies we will trust in God ; but the dog got well, and still lives 
to guard his master s house." 

And here is a modest venture in astronomy : 

" The moon has a dark side and a light side, and when she turns all of her bright side 
to us, we have a full moon. When her dark side is to us we call it new moon." 

There is an affecting story of a deluded colored wretch, who was seduced by " the 
Yankee army " to try the horrors of freedom, but soon returned, glad to enjoy once more 
the blessings of servitude. This is given twice; and the little book of eighty pages ends 
with the touching salutation, " Adieu at present." 

In the geography is an incredible caricature of maps of the Southern States. We 
quote briefly: "The people of the torrid zone arc tall and dark complected." "The 
African or negro race is found in Africa. They know nothing of Jesus. These people- 
are descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, who was cursed because he did not treat his 
father with respect. It was told him he should serve his brethren forever. This would 
seem a hard sentence, but it was probably done to show other children how wicked 
it was to treat their parents so. We cannot tell how they came to be black, and have 
wool on their heads." " The United States. This was once the most prosperous coun 
try in the world. The people are ingenious and enterprising, and are noted for their 
tact in driving a bargain. They are refined and intelligent on all subjects but negro 
slavery ; on this they they are mad." ..." South Carolina. The people of this State 
are noted for their chivalry. You do not understand this 7 Well, when any one im 
poses upon them their motto is to fight." The following is from the appended cate 
chism : " Q. What is the condition of the United States "? A. It is tumbling into ruins. 
Q. What brought about this great calamity ? A. The injustice and avarice of the 
Yankee nation." " Q. What is the present draw-back to our trade 1 A. An unlawful 
blockade by the miserable and hellish Yankee nation." Happy Mr. Moore ! Happy 
Southern youth ! 

The Episcopal churches throughout the South, immediately on the secession of the 
several States, conformed their church-service to the altered condition of things ; reading, 
in place of the President of the United States, the President of the Confederate States, frc. 
During the progress of the war, a blockade-runner was captured, having ainong other 
things a quantity of Episcopal prayer-books with the above alteration duly printed in the 
text. These books were evidently manufactured in England, though the name of a Rich 
mond firm appears upon the titlcpage. 


Battle of Antietam. Charge of the Eleventh. Exploit of Capt. Gibbons. The Con 
test for the Stone Bridge. Inexplicable Conduct of Burnside. Coolness and Effi 
ciency of the Fourteenth. Charge of Harland s Brigade. Capt. Charles L. Upham s 
Company capture a Battery. Great Bravery of the Eighth. Gallant Conduct, of 
Col. Appclman. Fatality of the Color-Guard. Harland assumes Command of Rod 
man s Division. Severe Losses. Sufferings of the Wounded. Corporal Henry A. 
Eastman of the Eleventh. Deaths of Col. Kingsbury, Lieut. Marvin Wait, Capts. 
John Griswold, James E. Blinn, and N. S. Manross. Total Casualties of the Bat 
tle. Death of Major-Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield. Biography of Mansfield. Ketreat 
of Lee s Army. 

HE 2d Corps began early next morning to 
march by the pike over the mountain. The 
9th Corps started late, and marched slowly by 
the county road ; and by night most of the 
troops were in advance. About sundown it 
struck the pike, and began passing the regiments in bivouac 
on both sides of the road. Fires were now blazing ; camps 
were all astir with men setting up shelter-tents, cooking pork 
;md coffee, chatting, washing, singing, talking. For miles, 
the fields on both sides were crowded ; the waning fires at 
least revealing in quaint light and shadow the almost count 
less bivouacs of a silent and sleeping host. A little past mid 
night, having passed through the entire right and center 
to the front, the Eighth and Eleventh turned into a stubble 
lot for sleep ; while the next brigades in order filed by in the 
ever-moving procession. 

Morning found Harland s brigade near Antietam Creek, 
within easy range of the rebel batteries in position on the 
hights beyond ; and, several times during the day, shells were 
dropped near. Lieut, Samuel Fiske, "Dunn Browne," of the 
Fourteenth, wrote, "I had no disposition to run away; and, 
indeed, I didn t see any very favorable place to escape from. 



shot which fell in front, on both sides, and as much as a mile 
in our rear. You can calculate the probabilities as a thou 
sand to one, or ten thousand to one, against your being 
struck ; but, somehow, that one chance looms up rather dis 
proportionately in your view." 

Here the Sixteenth came up after a severe inarch, and 
joined Harland s brigade at dark. The wagons had not 
come within range, and rations were scanty. The hungry 
soldiers fell upon adjacent cornfields, where corn was in its 
prime, and made a supper of roasted ears. Green fruits 
added to the relish. Fences became little piles of ashes. By 
sundown, the land for miles was naked of every edible. No 
other crop thrives in the vicinity of a crop of soldiers. This 
pillage was necessary ; and the soldier-marauders will be glad 
to know that the government has compensated loyal owners 
for losses incurred. 

Harland s brigade moved up, and lay in line of battle all 
night behind a low ridge in rear of the Rohrbach House, and 
perhaps fifty rods from the creek. At sunrise of the 17th, the 
enemy opened on the position, which was disclosed by a 
crowd of curious greenhorns running to the hill to ascer 
tain if they could " see any thing of the rebels." Having 
thus perfect range, the second shot, a solid 12-pound ball, 
crashed diagonally through the Eighth, killing three men, 
and frightfully wounding four, in Company D. Lieut. Mar 
vin Wait, covered with blood and earth, rallied the men 
gallantly, and held them to their place. The brigade was 
soon moved to the left and rear, to a less-exposed position. 

Lieut. J. II. Converse of the Eleventh wrote, " I can speak 
of time no more. The battle had begun, and the day passed 
like a shrieking shell. The sky was filled with unearthly 
sounds, the howl of fiendish missiles, the crash of falling 
trees, the horrible discharge of hundreds of cannon. Along 
our entire front, rebel batteries were constantly discovered, 
till a long line of cannon could be seen through the murky 
canopy, panting with deadly heat." The brigade of Connec 
ticut troops, on the extreme Union left, was soon advanced 
to support a battery near the creek, and came again under- 
a sharp fire. 



" Col. Kingsbury now received orders from Gen. Burnside 
to march his regiment to the bridge, after the batteries had 
shelled the works on the other side, and hold it until Gen. 
Rodman could march his column over. Col. Kingsbury ap 
proached the bridge through a narrow defile in the woods, 
thence through a cornfield, and over a plowed field adja 
cent to the road. Our skirmishers, advancing, were briskly 
engaged with the enemy on the opposite side. Col. Kings- 
bury gave Lieut.-Col. Stedman command of the right wing, 
with directions to advance, and occupy a hill between the 
road and the river, overlooking the bridge. Having accom 
plished this under a heavy fire, the right wing immediately 
engaged the enemy, and lost very heavily in this position ; 
the sharpshooters of the enemy taking off our men very fast ; 
while the enemy s main body was so concealed, that we had 
little to aim at. Col. Kingsbury at the same time brought 
up the left wing, where he was exposed to the most intense 
fire while attempting, as at that time supposed, to take up a 
position very near, if not on, the bridge." 1 

All the rebel batteries were now roaring. The air rang 
with whistling balls, and the ground quaked with the hard 
breath of artillery. "The Eleventh Connecticut descended 
to storm Antietam Bridge. The rebel guns were pouring 
in a destructive fire of grape and canister; while continuous 
volleys from an unseen enemy in the woods were also show 
ered upon them." - Down the road leaped the Eleventh 
into this " valley of death." 

Companies A and B, under Capt. John Griswold, were 
deployed as skirmishers ; and they plunged into the swift 
stream, here some fifty feet wide and four deep, their daunt 
less commander taking the lead. He was shot through the 
breast while in mid-river, but struggled forward, and fell 
upon the opposite bank, among the rebels. 

The left wing of the regiment was now near the bridge. 

Col. Kingsbury was active, inciting his soldiers to the 

charge by his gallant bearing and the inspiration of his 

voice. Many men fell. The colonel was a special mark ; 

and he was soon shot in the foot, and immediately there- 

1 Col. Stedman s Official Report. 2 Narrative in New- York Tribune. 


after in the leg ; when he was at last prevailed upon to leave 
the field. While he was being carried off, he received a third 
ball in the shoulder and a fourth in the abdomen, inflicting 
a mortal wound. 

The men were still fighting ; now falling back, and again 
charging on the bridge. The official report says, " When 
he fell, the regiment felt their last hope was gone : we had 
lost the bravest of colonels and the best of men." Major 
Moegling now assumed command of the left wing, and led 
it gallantly ; while Col. Stedman held the right wing firmly 
to the support of the battery. Volleys were frequent and 

The Eleventh fought stubbornly, for a time without sup 
port ; but at last other regiments got up. It was afternoon 
when the 46th New- York, with a wild cheer, swept down 
the hill and charged across the bridge, driving the rebels 
back, and making a permanent lodgment on the opposite 
slope. The Eleventh was now relieved ; and an hour was 
spent in gathering up the dead and caring for the wounded. 

On the morning of this day, the Fourteenth, under Lieut.- 
Col. S. IL Perkins, had roused from its uneasy bivouac farther 
towards the right ; at three, A.M., received extra ammunition ; 
and at seven o clock moved out into the road. French s three 
brigades were formed in column by division (Col. D wight 
Morris s brigade in the center), and, marching down a slope, 
forded Antietam Creek ; an occasional rebel shell whizzing 
overhead. After a march of a mile along the south-west 
bank, the brigades were faced to the left, forming three 
lines of battle ; Morris s being still in the center, with Max 
Weber in front, and Kimball behind. Hooker was now hotly 
delivering battle on the right. 

The order, " Double-quick ! " was given ; and, under a 
heavy fire, Max Weber pushed forward ; while Morris s bri 
gade obliqued a little to the right, and charged in that direc 
tion, Kimball diverging to the left. As the Fourteenth 
swept on, over hedges and ditches, and through plowed 
fields, the left flank, Company B of Middletown, became 
somewhat separated from the main body ; and, in order to 
close up the gap, Capt. Gibbons led the company by the 


right flank between the house and barn known in the his 
tory of the fray as " Roulette s." The movement was exe 
cuted with such rapidity as to cut off the escape of some 
forty or fifty rebels who had been pouring rapid volleys into 
the regiment from this cover. 

The prisoners were sent back under guard ; and the re 
united regiment pressed on, and soon found itself in a corn 
field on the right, with nothing but a small open field 
between it and Longstreet s troops posted behind hastily- 
formed intrenchments. The firing now became general and 
constant. The Fourteenth was closely supported by old 
regiments ; and, considering its lack of discipline, it fought 
remarkably well. 

After an hour s engagement here, the Fourteenth ad 
vanced. Lieut. Samuel Fiske of Madison ("Dunn Browne" 
of the Springfield Republican) wrote, " The enemy held a 
very large cornfield, surrounded, on the three sides where 
we were obliged to attack, by a steep and difficult ravine. 
On the north, east, and south, we advanced to the attack ; 
our batteries playing over our heads. Our regiment came 
in from the north-east to attack on the north, being the 
second line ; the first line, a few rods before us, being com 
posed of a Delaware and one other regiment. As we came 
along even with the east line of rebels, we also entered a 
cornfield, and at once were opened upon by a raking fire of 
musketry ; and a good many of our men fell. The north 
end of our line pressed on till we came around facing the 
enemy on the edge of the ravine ; and we opened fire upon 
them across the ravine, firing into the corn which concealed 
them from our view. After a few minutes, the troops who 
had tried to cross the ravine before us broke, and came run 
ning back upon us, crying out, some of them, ( Skedaddle, 
skedaddle ! Some of our men tried to stop them ; and a few 
of them, it must be confessed, joined in their flight. But in 
the main, for green troops, I think we behaved well ; the 
men firing with precision and deliberation, though some shut 
their eyes, and fired up into the air." 

About noon, after several hours fighting, advancing and 
retreating, carrying off the wounded, and cheering each 


other on, the regiment, under orders, reported to Col. Brooks 
of Richardson s division, and was placed in support of a bat 
tery. It was again raked by a terrible fire ; while the battery 
lost every horse and half of its men. Here " Fighting Dick 
Richardson " received his wound, and was borne from the 
field by the men of the Fourteenth. During the afternoon, 
the regiment was marched to and fro as exigencies seemed 
to require ; and at night the men lay on their arms in a 
plowed field, under the constant buzz of sharpshooters 

A large detail of sharpshooters was made from the flank 
companies ; and here, as in line, the men did their duty 
nobly, acquiring a practical knowledge of their new Sharpe s 
rifles in a few hours, which months in a " camp of instruction " 
would not have given them. " Finally, towards evening," 
wrote Lieut, Fiske from, the field, " a stray general picked 
us up, and ordered us to hold an advanced position across a 
plowed field, within reach of the enemy s skirmishers, who 
have been practicing on us ever since." And here, under 
almost constant fire, the Fourteenth remained vigilant, until 
it had been thirty-six hours in battle, with nothing to drink, 
and nothing to eat but a little hard-tack. Morris s brigade 
had captured two rebel flags. 

On the left, Burnside still waited ! He had been ordered by 
McClellan, as early as eight o clock in the morning, to take 
the bridge, move on the Shepardstown Road, and cut off the 
rebel retreat. Hour after hour drifted by, while the battle 
was raging on the right, and Burnside only pushed forward 
a regiment here and there to contend alone against a supe 
rior force. In the morning, the troops of Longstreet in his 
front had been shifted to the rebel left ; leaving only one 
division under Gen. Jones, numbering twenty-five hundred 
men, to dispute the passage of the creek against the whole 
of the 9th Corps. Still the commander hesitated and de 
layed ; and no advantage was taken of the amazing dis 
parity of numbers. When at last the order to move at 
once became peremptory, the rebel division of A. P. Hill 
came hurrying across the Potomac from Harper s Ferry to 
join the main army under Lee. 


About two o clock, Rodman s division of the 9th Corps 
was moved down the stream, to cross, by wading, a mile be 
low the bridge. Two companies of the Eighth went ahead 
as skirmishers, and found a ford ; the other eight companies 
supporting a battery which covered the ford while the rest 
of the division crossed. The regiment soon joined Harland s 
brigade under a hill west of the bridge, near the extreme 
Union left, two or three hundred yards from the creek. 
The cannonading had become furious. Solid shot swept the 
crest of the hill in front, and tore up the ground behind. 
Shells burst overhead, and fragments dropped among the 

A battery was ordered up to engage the enemy, but was 
whirled back in three minutes, with the loss of every officer, 
half a dozen men, and five horses. The hill was a protection, 
and few were wounded at this point in the Eighth and Six 
teenth. The Eleventh had been misled by a cowardly or 
stupid aide, and had not yet come up. 

It was now four o clock. On the right, Hooker was 
wounded and off the field after terrific fighting; ; Mansfield 

o o 

was dead ; Sumner was leading the troops : and still the 
ground was being repeatedly lost and won. In the center, 
French s division stood firm. " At four o clock, McClellan 
sent orders to Burnside to advance, and carry the batteries 
in his front at all hazards and at any cost." 3 

Some officers felt that all was not right. Major Lyon, 
Harland s aide, brought word that the rebels were crossing 
the Potomac, and filing down the creek on the Union left. 
Gen. Rodman, commanding the division, was informed. He 
said Burnside had provided for that by facing Cox s division 
to the left. The advance was ordered. 

At the word of command from Col. Harland, the Eighth, 
which was on the right of the brigade-line, started promptly. 
" But," says Harland in his official report, " the Sixteenth 
Connecticut and the 4th Rhode-Island apparently did not 
hear the order. I sent an aide to order them forward. This 
delay on the left placed the Eighth considerably in advance 
of the rest of the brigade. I asked Gen. Rodman if I should 

, 3 Smalley s Narrative in N. Y. Tribune. 


halt the Eighth, and wait for the rest of the brigade. He 
ordered me to advance the Eighth, and he would hurry up 
the Sixteenth Connecticut and 4th Rhode-Island." 

The Sixteenth had moved to the support of a battery 
farther south on the extreme left of the line, and was lying 
in a cornfield. The rebels had quietly approached in force 
on the uncovered left flank, and were nearer than even 
Major Lyon had thought, them. " While we were lying 
here," says the diary of Lieut. B. F. Blakeslee, " we were 
suddenly ordered to Attention ! when a terrible volley was 
fired into us from behind a stone wall about five rods in 
front of us. We were ordered to fix bayonets and advance. 
In a moment we were riddled with shot. Many necessary 
orders were given which were not understood. Neither the 
line-officers nor the men had any knowledge of regimental 
movements." The most helpless confusion ensued. Another 
regiment rushed panic-stricken past them to the rear, and 
vainly did they endeavor to change front so as to face the 

The rebels discovered the disorder, and came down in a 
heavy column. The Sixteenth stood for a few minutes trying 
to rally, swept by a destructive cross-fire. Lieut.-Col. Frank 
Cheney and Major George A. Washburn were severely 
wounded ; while three captains, a lieutenant, and forty en 
listed men, were already dead. Men were falling on every 
hand. The survivors at last extricated themselves from the 
.fatal field, and fled, broken and decimated, back to cover 
near the bridge. Col. Beach was pbliged to report to Col. 
Harland that his regiment had never had a battalion-drill, 
and only one dress-parade, and hardly knew how to form in 
line of battle. 

When Gen. Rodman ordered an advance of his division, 
and Harland repeated the order to his brigade, Col. Appel- 
man led the Eighth forward in steady step up the hill. 
Nearly the whole corps was now charging, and the advan 
cing line stretched far away to the right. 

As they reached the crest, the rebel troops were but a few 
rods in front. The Union line halted, and poured in a telling 
volley, and again leaped forward ; and the enemy broke and 


fled, halting and firing as they could. A storm of shot, shell, 
and musketry , was sweeping through the ranks of the Eighth, 
now on the extreme Union left. Still farther to the left, a 
rebel battery rained canister. Capt. Charles L. Upham with 
Company K (Meriden) dashed up, and captured the battery ; 
rejoining the regiment as it came up. 

Steadily forward moves the line, now marking every yard 
of advance with blood of fallen men. The rebels still fall 
back. The 1st Brigade wavers, and slowly retires in dis 
order. Wilcox s division, too, is giving way farther to the 
right. Forward presses the Eighth, until the men can see 
the road whereby Lee must retreat. " The position is ours ! " 
they shout ; and a " Hurrah " goes down the line. 

But already many have observed an immense force mov 
ing straight up on the left flank. " Re-inforcements," say 
some : but Gen. TIarland knows better ; and he rides rapidly 
to the rear to hurry forward regiments to meet this new 
rebel move. The 4th Rhode-Island and Sixteenth Con 
necticut Volunteers are already in helpless disorder, and 
he dashes back again to meet the emergency as best he may. 
The Eighth is now alone clinging to the crest. Three bat 
teries are turned on them, and the enemy s infantry close in 

Col. Appelman tells the standard-bearer never to leave the 
colors. He responds firmly. One of the color-guard falls ; 
two ; three ; four ; the last, and the standard goes to the 
ground with him. Private Charles H. Walker (of Norwich) 
springs forward, and seizes it amid the storm of death; 
strikes the staff firmly in the ground; and shakes out the 
flag defiantly towards the advancing foe. 

No re-inforcements come. Twenty men are falling every 
minute. Col. Appelman is borne to the rear. John McCall 
falls bleeding. Eaton totters, wounded, down the hill. Wait, 
bullet-riddled, staggers a few rods, and sinks. Ripley stands 
with a shattered arm. Russell lies white and still. Morgan 
and Maine have fallen. Whitney Wilcox is dead. Men grow 
frantic. The wounded prop themselves behind the rude 
stone fence, and hurl leaden vengeance at the foe. Even the 
chaplain snatches the rifle and cartridge-box of a dead man, 
and fights for life. 


" We must fall back," says Major John E. Ward, now in 
command. Some protest against what they feel is inevitable ; 
and the hundred men still unscathed are faced to the rear, 
and marched back in unbroken and still formidable column 
down the hill. No regiment of the 9th Corps has advanced 
far, or held out so long, or retired in formation so good. 
By their stubborn fight they have saved many others from 
death or capture, and by their orderly retreat they save 

Rodman had fallen ; and Col. Harland now took command 
of the division, re-forming the disorganized regiments, and 
placing the whole in a posture of defense. A new line of 
battle was soon formed. By his self-possession, intrepidity, 
and good judgment, the lines were steadied, and the unsup 
ported fragment rescued from capture. 

When the advance of the afternoon to this point was or 
dered, an aide of Gen. Rodman, sent to bring up the Elev 
enth Regiment, misled it through the woods, pretending to 
be in search of the ford. After a tedious march of four 
miles, Col. Stedman brought the regiment back to the bridge, 
crossed, and advanced rapidly towards the cornfield where 
the brigade was fighting. The enemy was pressing down 
hard upon the left and front ; and he now charged upon a 
battery that had been advanced upon the crest in front of 
the Eleventh. Shot and shell rained plenteously. Lieut 
Converse wrote in a letter to the Hartford Press, " Twice 
had the Eleventh rallied for a charge. Col. Kingsbury was 
dead, it might be ; Lieut.-Col. Stedman was wounded, and 
weak with the loss of blood ; Major Moegling was wounded, 
Capt Griswold dead. Companies were squads without offi 
cers, and officers with broken swords and battered uniforms, 
but without commands. Burnside called for aid. It was no 
time to falter ; but one did falter, and refused to advance 
with the colors. There is a man for all emergencies ; and a 
man was now ready to fill that black chasm of cowardice 
with the impersonation of courage. Corporal Henry A. East 
man of Ashford stepped forth with flashing eye, and said, 
1 Give me the colors ! and, with a burst of cheers, the Elev 
enth followed her bold color-bearer, and the battery was safe." 



The Sixteenth and the 4th Rhode-Island now broke, and 
retired towards the bridge ; and, fearing that it would be 
difficult to keep his men together in the face of the stam 
pede, Lieut.-Col. Stedman, able only from excitement to stand 
longer upon a wounded leg, faced about, and led his regi 
ment back. He was then borne off the field, and his men 
placed temporarily under command of Col. Beach of the Six 
teenth ; but none of the Connecticut regiments were again 

Capt. William J. Roberts of the Eighth, from New Milford, 
had been ill during the advance to the field and through the 
battle, in great pain and frequent vomiting ; but he reso 
lutely kept on with his company, and shared the fight with 
great fortitude. 

Fresh troops were soon brought up ; and the shattered 
third division recrossed the creek, and bivouacked above 
the position of the morning. The hostile picket-line crowded 
forward till it was posted along the ridge west of the creek. 
In this neutral ground were many wounded and dying. 
Within the rebel lines were many more. The terrible yet 
merciful work of the surgeons went on. Chaplains with 
squads of detailed men scoured the woods and fields to bring 
in the wounded. All the early night, at risk of life, those 
able to crawl worked their way into our lines ; and brave 
men ventured down to bring off the helpless. "Even at 
midnight," wrote Dr. Mayer, " the chaplain of the Eighth, 
who had been under fire all day, recovering and bearing off 
the wounded, brought another squad into the barn." Yet 
thousands lay all night in agonizing pain on the bare ground, 
with no relief. Drs. Storrs, Whitcomb, Mayer, and other Con 
necticut surgeons, toiled till daybreak, and then rested only 
for an hour. Bandages failed, and the fresh leaves of corn 
were bound on many wounds. 

The next morning, Lee s pickets retired, and ours advanced. 
Ambulances moved forward, and Connecticut men rushed 
with pails of water to succor their wounded. Scores were 
quickly found. One of the men of the Eighth, shot through 
the body, still lay on his back, just as he had fallen. The 
fierce sun of the day before had blistered and blackened 


his face. His tongue, swollen to five times its usual size, 
protruded from his open mouth. He was sightless and 
speechless, yet breathing. Water was dropped on his parched 
tongue. A slight shudder convulsed his frame. A little 
more, and the tongue moved, and the breast heaved pain 
fully. At last the man revived, and was borne away to the 
hospital. Another lies cold and stiff in the cornfield, with 
his teeth fastened firmly in an ear of soft corn, with which 
he has vainly tried to quench his raging thirst. Here is 
a mere lad, shot through the thigh, pale, and with closed 
eyes. He has bled profusely, and is very weak, but alive. 
Not a drop of water has he had for forty hours. The cool 
water touches his lips, and he starts up as if from stupor, and 
eagerly grasps the cup with both hands. Memories of home 
flit through his weary brain, as, opening his eyes, he says 
with a smile, "And from a teacup too." 

The wounded cared for, they turned to bury the dead. 
All day went on the excavation of graves, where the martyrs 
found a truce ; and, as the shadows lengthened and faded out, 
the sad work was ended. The dead of the Eighth and the 
Sixteenth were laid side by side on the ridge just above the 
point where the gallant charge began, and those of the Elev 
enth near the edge of the open woods above the bridge. The 
graves w r ere marked with pine headboards, to tell where each 
patriot rested. 

" In passing over the hill," wrote Chaplain Morris, " we 
pause amazed when we reach the point where the Eighth 
met the enemy, and delivered their first tremendous volley 
at a distance of five or six rods. In a short lane running 
down to a little house near the road, within a space of a 
dozen rods, I counted one hundred and four dead rebels." 

Many of our dead were stripped and plundered. The 
swollen fingers of some had been cut off to obtain the rings ; 
and the wounded had received treatment ranging from kind 
ness to cruelty and outrage. 

All the Connecticut regiments had met with terrible casu 
alties, no less than a hundred and thirty-six being killed 
outright upon the field, and four hundred and sixty-six 
wounded. Among the latter were the lieutenant-colonels 


of the Eighth, Eleventh, and Sixteenth. No battle of the 
war inflicted such losses upon the troops of this State. 

The Eighth lost thirty-four killed and a hundred and 
thirty-nine wounded, eleven of whom were commissioned 
officers. This was nearly fifty per cent of the entire number 
present for duty. 

Marvin Wait, son of John T. Wait of Norwich, entered 
Union College in the fall of 1860; and in the fall of 1861, 
when but eighteen years old, he enlisted as a private in the 
Eighth. He was soon promoted to be second lieutenant, 
and, being detailed, attracted attention for his skill as a sig 
nal-officer at Roanoke Island, also at the reduction of Fort 
Macon. He returned to his regiment in July, 1862, and 
was promoted to be first lieutenant. " His versatile talents, 
well-stored memory, vivid imagination, ready command of 
language, pleasing manners, and frank, generous disposition, 
rendered him a favorite with officers and men." 4 Resolved 
to excel as an officer, he set before himself an exalted stand 
ard, and pressed upward with all his native energy and 
enthusiasm. His qualities as a man and a soldier were espe 
cially displayed during the march of our hardy regiment 
from Fredericksburg to Antietam. Hardly a halt during all 
the weary marches in the choking dust and intense heat of 
those midsummer days, but his brave or mirth-provoking 
words made his companions for a moment forget their 
fatigue and discomfort. When the battle was raging hottest, 
on the afternoon of the 17th, and when the rebel regiments, 
massed in front and flank, were pressing down upon the 
line, Lieut. Wait fell. " Just before he was wounded, he was 
seen closing up the ranks of his company, and deliberately 
dressing them in line." 5 "If Lieut. Wait had left the battle 
when first hit in the arm, all would have been well ; but he 
bravely stood to encourage his men by his example, and at 
last nobly fell, pierced by bullet after bullet." Major Ward 
wrote to his father, " When first wounded, he was advised 
to leave, but would not; and, before consenting to do so, he 
received three shots. I think, however, that his mortal 
wound was received while being taken to the rear. The 
death of your son is a great loss to the regiment. No offi- 

4 Lieut. Jacob Eaton. 5 Capt. C. M. Coit. 6 Lieut. Jacob Eaton. 


cer could be more popular. He had endeared himself to 
all." 7 His last words to Private Lewis D. King were, " Are 
we whipping them ? " Said Lieut. Jacob Eaton, in a memo 
rial, " A braver man than Marvin Wait never confronted a 
foe ; a more generous heart never beat ; a more unselfish 
patriot never fell. Connecticut may well cherish and honor 
the memory of such sons." 

Lieut. Edwin G. Maine, from Brooklyn, was a staid, earnest 
man, past middle life. He was esteemed for his paternal 
care of his men, and his unpretending bravery and firmness. 
In the afternoon, while calmly leading his men, he was shot 
through the body. For a month he lingered in hospital, 
with all that the loving care of a wife could do ; but he died, 
praying for God s blessing on the country he had so faith 
fully served. 

Sergeant George H. Marsh of Hartford was killed by 
the first cannon-shot that went through the ranks, at sun 
rise. He was ill, but determined to be at his post; and 
there he died, a trusty soldier with a spotless reputation. 
Sergeant Whiting Wilcox was a broad-shouldered six-footer, 
a model soldier. He was conspicuous in the charge ; but 
the bravery which would have won him promotion cost him 
his life. Sergeant Cyprian H. Rust of New Hartford was a 
thoughtful, serious, almost melancholy Christian man. Ser 
vice was to him a stern duty performed with rigid exact 
ness .and courage. He died as he had lived. John H. 
Simonds of Hartford was a bright, willing, genial man, and 
a universal favorite. When shot through the body, he only 
said, " Good-by, boys : I m going." John A. Dixon of Thorn- 
sonville (Enfield) was lying mortally wounded, when a rebel 
came along, picked up a Sharpe s rifle, hid it behind the fence, 
and passed on after other plunder. Dixon dragged himself 
to it, and, having rendered it useless, laid down to die. 

Here also fell Harvey E. Elmore, Elijah White, George F. 
Booth, Charles E. Lewis, Oscar W. Hewitt, David Lake, Rob 
ert Ferris, William G. Lewis, and other noble young men 
who had always fought in the front ranks of the Eighth. 

The Eleventh had lost thirty-eight killed and ninety-seven 
wounded. Among the killed were two of its choicest men, 

7 Lieut. Jacob Eaton, in Memorial, p. 12. 


Kingsbury and Griswold, both from the ancient town of 

Col. Henry W. Kingsbury came to the Eleventh Regiment 
crowned with triumphs at West Point, and fragrant with the 
smoke of all the Peninsular battles. Pie came when he was 
sorely needed. The regiment was declining in appearance, 
in spirit, in all soldierly qualities. The gallant Major Griffin 
A. Stedman was about to resign in despair, and leave the 
regiment to his superiors ; but they were wise enough to 
resign instead, and the regiment was saved. West Point 
was impressed deeply on the soul of Lieut. Kingsbury, even 
when he served as Tyler s aide at Bull Run. Military 
art possessed for him something high and ennobling ; and 
he regarded it with the same enthusiasm with which the 
devotees of art and music look upon their cherished callings. 
He loved the right because it was the right ; but he was 
virtuous also because he knew that vice degrades a soldier, 
abstemious because intemperance is fatal to military success, 
and manly and gentlemanly because it was impossible for 
him to be otherwise. 

His knowledge was mainly of the useful and practical 
order ; yet he possessed a keen appreciation of elegant cul 
ture, and delighted to listen to and join in conversations 
on literary or philosophical topics. He had a thoroughly 
military idea of what was due to his uniform, and insisted, 
to the smallest detail, on observances of etiquette and salu 
tations, because he " owed it to his straps to see them hon 
ored." It was a feeling akin to that we all have for the flag. 
He also insisted on the boundaries between staff and line 
officers and between line officers and privates being strictly 
drawn. On the whole, there was in this man the old light 
of chivalry, by which he walked in his profession, and which 
gave life and meaning to actions, which, in many others, 
would have seemed mere martinetism. 

Assistant Surgeon Nathan Mayer wrote, at the time when 
the Eleventh was provost-guard of Fredericksburg, 

" How pleasant was our social life at this time ! The most 
brilliant conversation flashed forth at each meal. There 
was an elegance of manner and a refinement of expression 


cultivated that might have graced the best circles. And so 
congenial were the tastes of all! Imagine the field and 
staff of a regiment, none of whom, with one exception, 
drank intoxicating liquors or used tobacco; and all of whom, 
with one exception (Surgeon J. B. Whitcomb), were under 
twenty-six years of age. 

" On our march through Maryland to Antietam, it was 
often in the midst of some charming landscape that we were 
encamped. A fire in the center of a circle of shelter-tents 
threw its fitful light on the occupants. There was the 
young colonel, wrapped in his blankets, with the square, 
manly face, the profusion of blonde mustache and whisker, 
the large, earnest blue eye, and the sweet, womanly mouth 
that could so easily assume the expression of firmness and 
determination. God bless him, dear Col. Kingsbury ! He 
made us all better and nobler ; and when soon after I pressed 
my lips in last adieu upon that forehead cold in death, I felt, 
that, when I should next behold it, it would be crowned with 
the aureola of a hero and saint. 

" When I said to Lieut.-Col. Stedman after the battle, * The 
colonel has opened his eyes, and given me the sweetest smile, 
and then closed them forever, he silently pressed my hand, 
and went to take a farewell look at him whom we all 

Gen. Burnside issued the following: 


..." By this sad calamity, the army mourns one of the most accom 
plished of those young officers who in a few months have become veterans 
in their country s service. After serving with distinction through the cam 
paign of the Peninsula, Col. Kingsbury was promoted to his late command ; 
and in that office, occupying positions of great responsibility, invariably 
proved himself equal to the occasion, displaying always a gallantry and 
.skill that gave high promise for the future. As a near friend of Col. 
Kingsbury, the commanding-general wishes to add this testimony to his 
private worth, to the purity of his character, and to the possession of those 
high qualities of mind and heart that form the sterling man as well as the 
finished soldier. 

" By command of MAJOR-GEN. BURNSIDE." 

Capt. John Griswold of Lyme was a graduate of Yale, of 
the class of 1857, and a soldier of perfect bravery. " His 
noble death was the appropriate solution of his noble life," 


wrote Surgeon Nathan Mayer. " He was a great-hearted 
gentleman, well born, liberally educated, and wonderfully 
retentive of all the studies in ancient and modern literature 
to which he had given so much of his time ; but, more than 
this, his character was trained, and his heart disciplined." 
The surgeon was much of the time near the young captain 
on the inarch to Antietam. He says, " We admired the 
mountain-gorges through which we passed. We saw green 
woods fair and orchards gay, rich fields, and well-to-do farm 
houses. We quoted Horace, and discussed questions of moral 
philosophy, and skipped over literature, from St. Augustine s 
De Civitate Dei to Hugo s Les Miserables ; and all this 
time, day or night, rain or sunshine, fatigued or fresh, 
hungry or satiated, he would preserve the same cheerfulness 
of demeanor, and never forget the least of those courtesies 
which make life in refined circles run in such an even course. 
It was as if he were never out of the drawing-room ; just as 
an Englishman is said never to leave England, no matter 
where he travels. He carried an imaginary salon with 
him ; and whoever approached him felt that he had entered 
a circle of refinement. Nor was this intended for equals 
alone. He was particular in extending the same courtesies 
to the soldiers under his command." After Griswold had 
received his mortal wound, Surgeon Mayer and four privates 
crossed the stream, and brought him back. The surgeon 
says, " We took him into a low shed near the bank, and 
laid him on the straw. The gallant fellow, sensitive as a Ro 
man to the exhibition of pain, like a Roman had covered 
his face. When I removed the handkerchief, he was ashy 
pale, so much had he suffered. 

" Doctor, he said, pardon the trouble I give you; but I 
am mortally wounded, I believe. I examined. The bullet 
had passed through the body in the region of the stomach. 
You are, captain, I replied. Then let me die quickly, 
and without pain, if you can, he rejoined. I am perfectly 
happy, doctor. This is the death I have always wished to die. 
Not even the pains of this body can make me unhappy. But 
oh ! Here another spasm of suffering came on. I gave 
him some morphine. He felt easier. Seeing through the 


door of the shed the blue water flash in the sunshine, he 
repeated the first lines of one of those gems of Horace we 
had so often admired : 

O Tons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digno mero, non sine floribus. 

" He then turned, and gave me directions regarding his 
baggage and servant. Having arranged his worldly affairs 
as well as he could, he added, * And tell them at home that 
I died for my country. The habits of refined life hung to 
him still. He thanked me for my services in elegant phrase, 
and attracted my attention to the number of wounded that 
now filled the shed, intimating that he feared that he had 
monopolized too much of the time of so good a surgeon on 
the day of battle." 

The end came soon. Gen. Burnside called. The suf- 
erer told him he had insisted on being relieved from de 
tached duty at Newberne when he heard that the Eleventh 
was going into active service. " I am happy, general," he 
added. " I die as I have ever wished to die, for my country." 
" Tell my mother," he said to a comrade, " that I died at the 
head of my company." Tears rolled down Burnside s cheeks, 
as, delicately trying to suppress all symptoms of his pain, the 
philosophic and heroic spirit calmly passed away. In the 
ancient family cemetery of the Griswolds, at Black Hall in 
Old Lyme, stands a new monument of most expressive design 
and elegant finish, telling in word and sculptured symbol 
how the young hero lived and how he died. 

Here, also, fell John R. Read, Hiram C. Roberts, Theodore 
S. Bates, Daniel L. Tarbox, Oliver P. Ormsby, George E. Bai 
ley, and a score of others, in the fatal charge on the bridge. 
Major William Moegling of Danbury was also severely 

The Fourteenth had lost twenty-one killed, eighty-eight 
wounded, and twenty-eight prisoners. 

Among the killed were Capts. James E. Blinn of New 
Britain, and Samuel F. Willard of Madison. Before leaving 
the vicinity of Sharpsburg, the officers assembled and adopted 
resolutions, of which the following is one : 



" Resolved, That we their fellow-officers do but simple justice to the 
memory of these brave and devoted officers when we testify iu this public 
manner to their efficiency in every public and private duty, to their watch 
ful kindness and care over the soldiers of their respective companies, to the 
fraternal courtesy ever manifested by them in their intercourse with others, 
and to their earnestness and zeal in the patriotic cause for which they drew 
their swords." 

Sergeant Frederick K. Eno of Bloomfield received a mortal 
wound in the abdomen. He refused assistance, but sent back 
to the front the comrades who came to help him. He walked 
nearly two miles to a barn used as a hospital, and died next 
morning. His last words were, " Tell my friends that I did 
my duty, and died like a man." He was universally esteemed 
for his many virtues. 

The Sixteenth had lost more heavily still ; the killed 
numbering forty-three, and the wounded a hundred and 
forty-three. Five officers were among the dead, Capts. 
Samuel Brown of Enfield, Frederick M. Barber of Manches 
ter, John L. Drake of Hartford, and Newton S. Manross and 
Lieut. William Horton of Stafford. 

" Capt. Drake was the most gentlemanly man in the 
regiment," said Surgeon Mayer. " He was the very soul of 
courtesy and unaffected dignity of deportment." He always 
had a quiet care for his men when they were sick, and w r a* 
a marked favorite with them, as well as with comrades in the 

Capt. N. S. Manross of Bristol was a man of learning and 
varied accomplishments. In his youth an ingenious mechanic, 
he showed a great aptness for study, and graduated at Yale 
in the class of 1850. His tastes and attainments took a 
scientific direction. He went to Europe, attended German 
lectures, and made very rapid progress ; taking the degree of 
doctor of philosophy. On his return, he devoted himself to 
mineralogy, publishing some able dissertations ; invented a 
machine for the cutting of crystals from calc-spar; and at 
last became connected with a mining-company in New York, 
and prosecuted elaborate explorations in Central America 
and Mexico. In 1861, Dr. Manross accepted the position of 
Professor of Chemistry and Botany in Amherst College. 
where he became very popular and successful. Returning 


to Bristol during a vacation, he made a patriotic speech to 
his fellow-citizens, who thereupon besought him to lead them 
to the field. He consented, saying to his wife, " You can 
better afford to have a country without a husband than a 
husband without a country." He refused the post of major 
in a Massachusetts regiment, preferring service with his own 
neighbors. He was greatly beloved by his men. His suc 
cessor in command of the company after his death once 
said to the colonel, " Those boys care more for Manross s old 
shoes than for the best man in the regiment." Capt. Man- 
ross was struck in the side by a cannon-ball, which passed 
under his arm. He bled inwardly. A powerful anodyne 
was administered, and he soon became unconscious. A friend 
bending over him heard him murmuring, " my poor wife, 
iny poor wife ! " Prof. James A. Dana said of him, " His 
death is a great loss to the scientific world." Prof. B. Silli- 
nian, jr., says, "As an explorer, Dr. Manross possessed re 
markable qualifications. To a rugged constitution and great 
powers of endurance he united great coolness, a quiet but 
undaunted demeanor, the courage of a hero, and unyielding 
perseverance. Had he lived but what need is there of 
conjecture now ? The world will never know its loss ; but 
his friends will never forget theirs." 

Capt. Barber was especially noticeable for his religious 
character, earnest convictions, and high regard for duty. 
His patriotism was of a sterling mould, and he was a brave 
and intelligent officer. 

The death of Major-Gen. Joseph K. F. Mansfield, a briga 
dier-general in the regular army, added to the terrible losses 
of Connecticut at Antietam. He was born in New Haven, 
Dec. 22, 1806 ; but, his parents removing to Middletown while 
he was yet an infant, he was trained and educated there. 
He early showed a taste for military life ; and his uncle, Col. 
Jared Mansfield, then Surveyor-General of the United States, 
obtained his admission as a cadet at West Point in 1820. He 
at once took a high position, and held it ; graduating second 
in his class. He commenced as second lieutenant of en 
gineers, and was at first engaged in New- York Harbor, 
and then in the construction of Fortress Monroe and Fort 


Mansfield was always apt to administer a reproof and re 
sent an insult promptly. He despised duelling, but never 
failed to defend his honor and himself. On one occasion, 
while building Fort Pulaski, he was invited to dine with a 
number of Southern gentlemen ; and, while engaged in con 
versation, a hot-blooded Southern officer opposite took occa 
sion to remark, in a tone of voice audible to all, " The 
Northerners are cowards, - men without any nerve." " Do 
you intend that for me ? " interrupted Mansfield. " I do, sir," 
replied the other, at the same time raising a glass of wine as 
if to hurl it in the face of this audacious Northerner. Mans 
field seized a decanter, when the other returned the glass to 
the table. But Mansfield was now roused. " Bring in my 
pistols ! " he ordered the servant. Pistols were instantly 
brought ; and Mansfield rose, and presented one to his inso 
lent antagonist, saying, " Now we prove who is the coward." 
The other diners interfered, agreed that the insult was gross, 
and demanded that an ample retraction and apology should 
be made to Mansfield. The atonement was humbly offered, 
and amicable relations resumed. 

At the breaking-out of war with Mexico, Capt. Mansfield 
was chief engineer on Gen. Taylor s staff. He built Fort 
Brown, opposite Matamoras ; and, in the absence of Gen. 
Taylor, had command of the American forces. The Mexi 
cans demanded a surrender of the fort. Mansfield promptly 
refused. For seven days, the fort was besieged and under 
constant fire ; but it was held, and the enemy driven away. 
This gallant defense won for him the golden leaf of major. 
Through the entire war, Taylor depended on Mansfield for 
his principal assistance in planning battles. On the eve of 
the battle of Monterey, he made a thorough reconnoissance 
of the enemy s works, and discovered the weak points; and, 
on the following day, led the first division in the grand 
assault. He was severely wounded in the leg, but held his 
place on the field until the final capitulation. The battle 
field of Buena Vista was chosen by him, and the batteries 
stationed under his direction. 

When peace was declared, Mansfield s services were recog 
nized by a promotion to be colonel in the regular army ; 


and on his return the citizens of Middletown went to Meri- 
den en masse, and escorted him home with every demonstra 
tion of welcome. 

He was appointed inspector-general of the United-States 
army by President Pierce ; and the Rebellion of 1860 found 
him inspecting the troops of the traitor Twiggs in Texas. 
Every offer was made Mansfield to support the Rebellion ; 
but he spurned the offers, and for his fidelity was subjected 
to the indignities of the perfidious " chivalry " around him. 
He escaped injury only by the greatest vigilance. He 
passed incognito through New Orleans when the city was 
illuminated in honor of secession, and at last reached the 
loyal lines. 

On account of age and long service, his friends besought 
him to retire from the army : but his prompt reply was, " I 
owe my country every hour that remains of my life ; and, 
in such a struggle as is now endangering her existence, I 
can not and shall not refuse to answer her call." About the 
15th of April, 1861, Mansfield was summoned to Washing 
ton : the city being blockaded, he reached it on horseback 
by a circuitous route. He was at once assigned to the com 
mand of the defenses. Scott did not quite agree to his 
suggestion to fortify Arlington Heights ; but he went ahead 
on his own responsibility. All the forts around Washington 
were engineered by Mansfield, and built under his superin 
tendence. 8 

Mansfield was for a time in command at Newport News, 
and led our forces in the capture of Norfolk. He was here 
when McClellan demanded that he be put in command of 
Bauks s corps in his army. Mansfield was pleased with the 
transfer ; and rode across the country, reaching the army 
before Sharpsburg the night before the battle. 

After Rickett s division was repulsed next day, Mansfield 
led his corps gallantly forward, but soon fell mortally 
wounded. Internal hemorrhage ensued ; and, on the even 
ing of Sept. 17, Major-Gen. Mansfield gave his life a willing 
sacrifice to his country. 

8 Credit for the defenses of Washington has sometimes been given to Gen.McClcllan ; 
but they were all laid out and plans for their erection made by Mansfield while McClel 
lan was still in West Virginia. 


Lieut.-Gov. Benjamin Douglass went to the front for the 
remains; and all the way home they were greeted with 
demonstrations of patriotic regard. No man was better 
known or loved in Middletown than Mansfield. To reli 
gion he was early committed at the altar of his ancestral 
church ; to law he always paid sincere regard ; to education 
he gave liberally of his fortune ; to liberty he gave his life. 

The funeral was attended from the North Congregational 
Church of Middletown on Tuesday, Sept. 23. Brief address 
es were made by the pastor, Rev. Mr. Taylor, and by his 
Excellency Gov. Buckingham, Ebenezer Jackson, and Sena 
tor Dixon. Military companies were present from all sections 
of the State, and the common councils of four cities ; and to 
earth, with honors, were committed the remains of a sterling 
soldier, to whose memory generations will do homage as 
they read the names of those who gave their lives in the 
cause of liberty protected by law. 


Here fell our best and bravest, Kingsbury 
The lion-hearted, Mansfield, Manross, Blinn, 
Drake, Horton, Willard, Wait, (heroic boy !) 
Brown, Barber, Griswold (dying like a prince 
Whose chivalry had charmed the Table Round), 
And all that speechless group of gallant men, 
The modest martyrs of the rank and file. 

Oh, rare and royal was the sacrifice ! 
For you and me they put their armor on ; 
For you arid me they stood in grim array 
Where death came hurtling ; and for you and me 
They joined the mortal struggle, and went down 
Amid the mad, tumultuous whirl of flame. 

And then the gentle goddess Liberty 
Whose unseen ribbon rippled on their breasts, 
The pledge of knightly troth bent tenderly, 
Closed the dim eyes, and cooled the fevered hand, 
And dropped a blessing into every heart, 
And helped each spirit from its mould of clay; 
And, as they rose to heaven, they sprinkled wide 
Upon the upturned foreheads of the world 
The purple drops of their vicarious love. 

The sequel to the battle of this day need not be rehearsed. 
The soldiers of the whole army expected to move next 

9 By w. A. c. 


morning, to swoop down upon the over-matched enemy, 
and give him the coup de grace. Instead of that, a truce 
was proclaimed, and the rebels permitted to bury their dead. 
This gracious office was neglected, and the time was occu 
pied by them in getting the trains and guns to the rear ; 
and the sun of Sept. 19 found Lee s army safely across the 
Potomac, and, with some plausibility, claiming Antietam to 
have been a drawn battle. 


Tardy Pursuit of Lee. The Eighth, Eleventh, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and 
Twenty-first Connecticut Volunteers. Gen. Burnside in Command. March to Fal- 
mouth. The Eighth lay the Pontoon-Bridge. The Battle of Fredericksburg. 
Gallantry of the Fourteenth and Twenty-seventh. Gen. Harland s Official Report. 
The Disastrous Repulse. Whereabouts of the Fifth, Seventeenth, Twentieth, and 
Twenty-second. Private Elias Howe, Jr. The Army Ration. Camp at Stafford 
Court House. 

IX weeks after the battle of Antietam, McClel- 
lan s army began tardily to pursue Lee ; moving 
from camp in Pleasant Valley, Mel., across 
the river at Berlin, just below Harper s Ferry, 
and passing south-west on the east side of the 
Blue Ridge. The Eighth, Eleventh, and Sixteenth Connec 
ticut Regiments were nearly together, and the Twenty-first 
now joined the brigade. Little of importance occurred to 
them until they reached Falmouth on Nov. 19, having made 
a hundred and seventy-five miles in twelve days. 

The Fifteenth Connecticut, after serving in Washington 
as " Casey s pets " for a few weeks, moved across Long Bridge 
on Sept. 17, and re-occupied their former camp on Arling 
ton Heights. Here they remained six weeks, sending a guard 
daily to the disagreeable duty of guarding Long Bridge. 
On Nov. 3 they removed to Fairfax Seminary, two miles 
back of Alexandria, and pitched a camp of Sibley tents. 
Here they dug some rifle-pits, industriously prosecuted drill, 
and had their first experience in picket-duty five or six 
miles beyond. 

Col. Dexter R. Wright of the Fifteenth now commanded 
a brigade ; and on Dec. 1 he marched it back through the 

O O 

city, and turned down the Maryland bank of the river. The 
regiments marched six miles below, and bivouacked their first 

o J 



night under shelter-tents. After a four-days march, they 
recrossecl at Acquia Creek, and slept upon the snow, which 
now covered Virginia with a thin coat. Reaching Freder-. 
icksburg, the regiment was put into Harland s brigade. 

After the battle of Antietam, the Fourteenth encamped in a 
lovely grove near the scene of Hooker s fight, where a few days 
were given to recuperation and an honorable burial of fallen 
comrades. The regiment had gone through the baptism of 
blood without flinching. Gen. French in his official report 
said of Morris s brigade, " There never was better material 
in any array ; and in a month these splendid men will not 
be excelled." It is proper to say that Adjutant Theodore G. 
Ellis of the Fourteenth showed great efficiency in the battle. 
During the year before the war, he had been a member of 
an accomplished military company of young men in Boston; 
and he now brought to the brigade knowledge, skill, activity, 
and bravery that were of marked value. 

On the 22d, the regiment marched with the 2d Corps 
to Harper s Ferry, fording the Potomac, waist-deep, just 
above the often-destroyed railroad-bridge. It was a most 
animated scene ; the enthusiastic thousands filing across, 
while the splendid band of the Fourteenth poured forth 
the stirring strains of " John Brown s body lies moldering in 
the grave." 1 The regiment bivouacked on Bolivar Heights, 
and remained there nearly six weeks, living in a few filthy 
old tents dug up from the spot where they had been hastily 
buried by Miles s men when the place surrendered. Many 
attempts were made to get the baggage of officers and men 
left at Fort Ethan Allen ; but, although Gov. Buckingham 
sent out a commissioner on purpose, red tape was too mighty 
to be prevailed against. The men had no changes of cloth 
ing, and could not keep clean. Much sickness prevailed. 
Marching orders were welcome ; and on Oct. 30 the regi 
ment crossed the Shenandoah, and pushed south-west through 
the London Valley. Here the delinquent knapsacks were 
?ent after them, but, not overtaking them, were stored in a 
barn ; and shortly afterwards the needy rebels appropriated 
the whole supply. 

1 This band became one of the very best in the army. 


On Nov. 9, the 2d Corps reached Warrenton ; and 
Burnside, now assuming command of the army, pushed on, 
occupying Falmouth on the night of the 19th. Morris s 
brigade was detailed for duty at Belle Plain, where the 
men soon bivouacked on the sandy soil ; and the drenching 
rain added discomfort to the hunger and fatigue. Here 
they staid two weeks on guard. The Fourteenth enjoyed a 
good Thanksgiving dinner, mostly obtained by foraging ; and 
ate and drank to the "good ship Mayflower." It moved 
back to Falmouth on Dec. 6, and encamped with the vast 
army now gathered there. 

The Twenty-seventh Connecticut had left its camp at 
Langley s, and hurried down the Potomac ; and now joined 
the 2d Corps in Hancock s division. 

Burnside s army was divided into three grand divis 
ions of two corps each ; and the 2d Corps (in which was 
the Fourteenth) and the 9th Corps (in which was the 
Connecticut brigade) formed the right grand division 
under Gen. Sumner. The Connecticut regiments did not 
enjoy this period. An officer of the Eighth wrote, " We 
put our little dog-tents upon the sticky red mud of Vir 
ginia ; made smoky fires outside, of wet wood ; half cooked 
our scanty food ; warmed and dried ourselves as we could, 
standing by the wretched fires in the rain : then we spread 
our blankets on the soft mud, and slept. We slept ; for we 
were tired out: but we awoke stiff, rheumatic, and cross. 
The weather was damp or rainy for several days, and few of 
us got our clothing dry under four days. It has rained 
about five days of the week." 

Burnside had marched rapidly to Falmouth ; but, before 
he was ready to cross the river, Lee, whom he had run away 
from at Warrenton, was in his path again, occupying in- 
trenchments five miles long in the rear of Fredericksburg. 
At last, every thing was ready. Sumner and Hooker were 
to cross their grand divisions at Fredericksburg, and Frank 
lin two miles down the river. 

Before dawn of Dec. 11, the pontoon-boats were launched 
from the teams, and men hastened to build the floating 
bridge. As soon as the fog lifted slightly, they were opened 


upon at short range by riflemen concealed in houses upon 
the opposite bank ; and this fire became so vigorous, that, by 
eleven o clock, the 57th and 66th New- York were driven from 
the work with a loss of a hundred and fifty men. Franklin 
had crossed the river below. Simmer became impatient : 
something effective must be done. 

At this juncture, one hundred men of the Eighth Connecti 
cut, under Capt. W. P. Marsh of Hartford, assisted by Lieuts. 
Henry E. Morgan of Stonington and Roger M. Ford of Men- 
den, volunteered to lay the bridge, and dashed down the 
slope to the work. They shouldered boards, and pushed out 
on the wooden pathway ;. when, as they reached the end, the 
rebel sharpshooters, who had been silenced for a time, re 
commenced a rapid and accurate fire ; and the men were 
quickly recalled. After a time, the Union artillerists were 
able to depress their pieces sufficiently to drive the rebels 
from their covert, or tumble the buildings about their heads ; 
when, at three o clock, the 7th Michigan made a splendid 
dash across the river, and held the opposite bank, while the 
bridge was laid by the Eighth Connecticut Volunteers and 
other regiments. By five o clock, our forces were in the 

The night was spent by the soldiers in the city in pilla 
ging and skirmishing by turns. Next morning (the 13th), 
many more crossed ; and by noon two-thirds of the right 
grand division were in the streets of Fredericksburg. The 
chaplain of the Eighth wrote, 

" The city has suffered frightfully. There is hardly a house in the lower 
part which is not pierced by at least one huge shot. Many are knocked 
to pieces almost beyond repair. I counted twenty-seven ragged cuts and 
perforations in the walls of the Baptist church, five through the steeple. 
Some thirty or forty buildings were burned to the ground in the business 
part of the city, including the Bank of Virginia. The streets are full of 
brick, splintered timbers, and rubbish of various kinds ; and the soldiers 
have made the desolation complete. The houses and stores have been pil 
laged thoroughly. Fifty dollars worth has been destroyed where one has 
been carried away for use. 

" I saw men break down the doors to rooms of fine houses, enter, shat 
ter the looking-glasses with a blow of the ax, knock the vases and lamps 
off the mantle-piece with a careless swing, and then lay down the ax to 
rummage for plunder. A cavalry man sat down at a fine rosewood piano, 
and drummed away till laughed at for his bungling performance ; when up 
he started with an oath, drove his saber through the polished keys, theu 


knocked off the top, tore out the strings, and carried away oue or two as 
trophies. One man entered a large parlor carpeted with a Brussels worth 
at least two hundred dollars. He cut out the center-piece, some four feet 
by six, for a saddle-blanket. I entered the iinest jewelry store of the city. 
The large glass of the windows was all broken, the splendid plate-glass of 
the cases dashed to pieces, the regulating clock smashed, drawers emptied, 
and the contents of the shelves tumbled upon the floor and trampled to 
dirty fragments ; and so throughout the lower part of the city. I never 
wish to see the like again." 

There is no need to characterize such conduct as atrocious 
and brutal; but it would be salutary for those who wantonly 
invoke the demon of war to take some account of the in 
evitable vandalism that marches with the conqueror. 

By the evening of the 12th the whole army had crossed 
the river, and was preparing to move next morning on the 
hights in the rear, where Lee was still strongly intrenching. 
Couch s (2d) corps occupied the town; while Wilcox s (9th) 
corps extended south-east towards Franklin s grand division. 

The Fourteenth was the only Connecticut regiment that 
was warmly engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg. Long- 
street held the Confederate left. His advance artillery was 
stationed on Marye s Heights ; and two brigades of infantry 
were posted behind the stone walls at the foot of the declivity. 
Burnside opened the battle on the right by hurling French s 
division against this position. 

The Fourteenth had slept during the night in the shelled 
and bullet-riddled houses of Caroline Street; and in the 
morning moved promptly out by the flank to the plateau 
back of the city, and formed in line of battle with the divis 
ion that had done such noble service at Antietam. " No 
sooner had this division burst out on the plain than from the 
batteries on the hights came a frightful fire, cross-showers 
of shot and shell, opening great gaps in the ranks ; but, 
closing up, the ever-thinning lines pressed on, and had passed 
over a great part of the interval, when met by volleys of 
musketry at short range." 5 From the semicircular crest 
of the hill came a direct and converging fire. 

The Fourteenth crowded on to the foot of the steep, and 
began to mount. They were now surrounded by an artillery- 
fire (for the cannon in the rear were nearly as troublesome 

2 Swinton s Army of the Potomac. 


as those in the front) ; and from the stone wall came showers 
of bullets. Men fell on every hand. The regiment wavered, 
recoiled, rallied, and again advanced ; firing steadily all the 
while. Three separate charges were made : in the last, 
Lieut-Col. Perkins fell at the head of the regiment. The 
men rallied around their wounded chief, and fell back witli 
the line of the division. 

Hancock now led his division to the charge ; and with it, 
in the front ranks, steadily moved the Twenty-seventh Con 
necticut, nine-months troops. The regimental historian, 
Lieut. Winthrop D. Sheldon, gives the following sketch of 
the charge : 

" As soon as we arrived at the railroad depot, several rebel gnus, 
trained upon the spot with fatal accuracy, welcomed us to the encounter. 
Very near this point fell Capt. Schweizer, the first of the long list of casu 
alties. . . . The division now advanced by the double-quick into the 
open field ; then, after resting a few moments on the ground, at the order 
Charge ! moved by the left flank with fixed bayonets, passing French s 
division, which had been obliged to fall back. A second brief rest, then 
on again ; while shot and shell plow the ground in front, burst over our 
heads, or make fearful gaps in the line. Yet on we rush. The wounded 
are left where they fall. Not a word is spoken ; not a gun fired. As we 
approach nearer the rebel lines, all the elements of destruction that inge 
nuity can devise are concentrated upon the narrow space. From rows of 
rifle-pits, protected by a heavy stone wall, bursts a continuous roll of mus 
ketry ; from neighboring houses flashes the deadly fire of sharpshooters ; 
while batteries posted on the hights behind strong field-works, and sup 
ported by infantry, sweep the field with shot and shell, and grape and can 
ister. Enfilading batteries on the right and left of the rebel semicircle 
pour in their swift discharges. . . . The line now begins to waver, and 
with some disorder presses forward to a brick house, from which a brisk 
musketry-fire is kept up in the direction of the stone wall. At this time, 
the various regiments became mingled together ; and the Twenty-seventh, 
in consequence of the confusion, separated into several fragments, advan- 
cin- to the right and left of the house. The time for a sudden dash had 
passed ; and unable longer to stem the avalanche of fire, which seemed to 
gather intensity as we proceeded, the charge was continued only as far as 
a board-fence, all full of bullet-holes and torn with shot, less than a hun 
dred yards from the famous stone wall." 

Here the Twenty-seventh remained all the afternoon, 
holding the advanced position ; while division after division 
charged towards the hill, and recoiled before the terrible 
tempest of death. 

A correspondent of the London Times, on Lee s staffj said 
that " no braver men ever lived than those who forced their 


way up Marye s Heights that day," and that their conduct 
extorted praise from the rebel chieftain. 

After this, similar charges were made up the impregna 
ble slope by Howard s, Sturgis s, and Getty s divisions, and 
finally by the divisions of Hooker s corps, all with similar 
result; while Franklin, after a sturdy grapple with Jackson, 
had been repulsed on the left. 

On the morning of this day, Col. Harland had, by order 
of Gen. Getty, placed his (the 2d) brigade on the bank 
of the river below the town, where the troops were con 
cealed from the enemy, and sheltered from their fire. The 
Eleventh Connecticut, present eighteen officers and two 
hundred and fifty men, was detached, and moved forward to 
support the pickets of the 1st Brigade. Its casualties were 
few, and it rejoined the brigade, which had occupied its shel 
tered position during the day; while Burnside, in a spirit of 
apparent desperation, was hurling forward, his troops to 
slaughter on the right and left. 

Col. Harland says in his official report, " About five, P.M., 
1 was ordered to move forward to the support of the 1st 
Brigade. I advanced the brigade in two columns, the 
Twenty-first Connecticut and the 4th Rhode-Island consti 
tuting the column on the right; and the Eighth, Fifteenth, 
and Sixteenth Connecticut that on the left. On the street 
in front of the slaughter-house, I re-formed the line, and 
advanced until the right was nearly up with the 9th New- 
York, and tlio left had arrived at the foot of a steep hill 
about ten rods in rear of the railroad, where the Eleventh 
Connecticut Volunteers had been stationed during the clay." 

The brigade remained in this position during the night, 
picketing in front, and in the morning was returned to the 
location of Friday night. The Fifteenth Connecticut, Lieut.- 
Col. Samuel Tolles commanding, was detached to support a 
battery. Capt. Charles L. Upharn with a detachment occu 
pied the ground in front and the block-house near the rail 
road. On the morning of Monday the 15th, the Eighth 
Connecticut, under Capt. H. M. Hoyt, reported to Capt. 
Upham ; and the picket-line was extended along the brow 
of the hill. At dark, the brigade, with these exceptions, 


was moved about two hundred yards in rear of Gen. Wil- 
eox s headquarters, where it spent the night. Next morning, 
the whole force was recalled across the Rappahannock ; and, 
with the exception of two companies, D under Capt. 
Samuel Hubbard, and I under Capt. Frank M. Lovejoy, 
detailed under Major Hiram B. Crosby on fatigue-duty, 
Harland s brigade returned to camp near the Lacey House. 

To say that the terrible battle had been a terrible failure 
is to speak quite inadequately of the result. The magnitude 
of the blunder seemed to be equaled only by the magni 
tude of the losses. The Union casualties numbered twelve 
thousand three hundred and twenty-one killed, wounded, and 
missing ; while the Confederate loss was less than half that 
number. Connecticut suffered less, proportionately, than 
any other State that had regiments engaged. The ratio 
came near being reversed. 

After the decisive repulse of Saturday, a return across 
the Rappahannock was urged by the chief commanders ; but 
Burnside, mortified by defeat, had apparently lost his mental 
equipoise, and resolved to form the remaining 9th Corps in 
a column of attack by regiments, the Eleventh Connecticut 
Volunteers in advance, and lead it in person to scale the 
hights. He was at last dissuaded from the desperate 
scheme by his counselors ; and the bloody and useless 
slaughter came to an end. 

The retreat over the central pontoon-bridge was mate 
rially assisted by Major II. B. Crosby of the Twenty-first, 
provost-marshal of the 9th Corps. Gen. Wilcox, command 
ing the corps, says in his official report, " The whole body, 
numbering about sixteen thousand officers and men, were 
withdrawn noiselessly in less than two hours. The most 
perfect order prevailed ; no confusion in the ranks ; no signs 
of alarm or demoralization, notwithstanding many hours of 
passive exposure to the enemy s fire. The ease with which 
this remarkable withdrawal was effected was due partly to 
the excellent judgment of Major Crosby in carrying out the 
special orders of Gen. Wilcox. With a pioneer party and 
a cavalry patrol he paved the way smoothly and rapidly for 
the movement." Major Crosby muffled the bridge with dirt 


about three inches deep, so as to conceal the retreat from 
the enemy, whose guns commanded the bridge. It was 
dark, cold, and stormy ; while he sat on his horse, and re 
peated in hushed tones private orders to commanders till 
near .daylight, by which time the army was again in 

The Eighth Connecticut had lost one killed and two 
wounded ; the Eleventh had one wounded ; the Fifteenth, 
two killed and eight wounded ; the Sixteenth, one wounded ; 
the Twenty-first, one killed and five wounded. 

The Fourteenth had lost twenty-four killed, or died of 
wounds, and eighty-one others wounded. Among those who 
were killed, or died shortly of wounds, were Capt. Elijah W. 
Gibbons of Middletown, and Lieuts. Theodore A. Stanley of 
New Britain, William A. Coomes of New Haven, and David 
E. Canfieid of Middletown. 

Capt. Gibbons was, before the war, a citizen of Middle- 
town, where he had many friends. He was an active and 
faithful supporter of the Sunday school. When the war- 
broke out, he went as first lieutenant in the Fourth Rein- 

7 o 

ment, but resigned his commission in May, 1862, and, re 
turning home, raised a company for the Fourteenth. Capt. 
Gibbons shared all the fortunes of his company, never being 
behind the regiment a day. In the attack on Marye s 
Heights, his thigh was shattered by a shot, and he was borne 
to the rear. lie lingered a few days, and died in great suf 
fering, but with becoming resignation. 

Lieut. Stanley was one of the gallant young Stanleys 
from New Britain who gave their lives for the country; and 
Lieuts. Canfieid and Coomes received their mortal wounds, 
as soldiers should, at the head of their men. 

The Twenty-seventh had lost sixteen killed and eighty- 
nine wounded. Among the slain was Capt. Bernard E. 
Schweizer of New Haven, a brave German soldier. Among 
the mortally wounded was Capt. Addison C. Taylor, also of 
New Haven. He was a pupil and military instructor in the 
Commercial Institute in that city when the war broke out, 
and drilled Capt, Joseph R. Hawley s company in the three- 
months service. 


At Fredericksburg, also, fell Sergeant Richard H. Fowler 
of Guilford, of a patriotic family, William A. Goodwin, 
Thomas E. Barrett, Frank E. Ailing, and George H. Mimmic. 
Young Ailing was a student at Yale when he enlisted ; and 
Sergeant Barrett was a much-esteemed and successful teacher 
at the Eaton School in that city. 

While the contest for Maryland was going forward at 
Antietam, the Seventeenth remained at Fort Marshall, 
menacing the rebels of Baltimore. When the excitement 
subsided, Col. Noble asked of the authorities at Washington 
that the regiment might be permitted to join Sigel s corps 
according to previous understanding. Gen. Wool was much 
incensed ; and, instead of this, it was ordered to Tenallytown, 
and put at work intrenching a hill that was afterwards 
known as Fort Kearney, in the northward defenses of Wash 
ington. For a fortnight, the men shoveled dirt here ; when, 
Nov. 3, the regiment was sent into Virginia to report to 
Sigel, commanding the llth Corps, and pressing forward 
beyond Manassas. 

It marched during that week to Thoroughfare Gap and 
other points beyond Centre ville, but met no enemy, and 
was withdrawn to a camp at Chantilly, nearer Washington. 
The regiment suffered considerable discomfort in snow-clad 
" shelters " and in long marches through Virginia mud. Not 
having been paid off, and the men needing money, Private 
Elias Howe advanced the thirteen thousand dollars clue 

The Seventeenth was not called upon to participate in 
the affair of Fredericksburg, but moved to the vicinity, and, 
after the battle, established its winter camp at Brooks s 
Station, south of Stafford Court House. Here the men 
found time to build for themselves semi-comfortable bar 
racks, huts of logs and mud, made habitable by many 
ingenious devices. They endured the ordinary privations 
and exposures of military life, and passed the cheerless 
months in drills, parade and picket duty, song and jest, 



reading and social intercourse. Capt. James E. Dunham 
of Company G was appointed provost-marshal of the di 

Soon after the Twenty-second took the field, in the fall of 
1862, it was called upon to do picket-duty out at Langley s, 
on the Washington and Leesburg Turnpike. A member of 
the regiment confesses, that " though still in the rear of cav 
alry-scouts and an advanced picket, and at least fifty miles 
from the enemy s picket-line, our first week of outpost-duty 
was fraught with more thrilling events and hairbreadth 
escapes from death or captivity than belonged to the whole 
remaining period of our service." 

On Oct. 22, the regiment marched to Miner s Hill, three 
miles from the fort, and was merged in Gen. Cowclin s bri 
gade, already consisting of regiments from New York, Massa 
chusetts, and Rhode Island. Within a week, the boys began 
to think of the coming winter, and, more ambitious than 
the other regiments, resolved to build for themselves a vil 
lage of wooden houses, and fold their breezy tents until 
summer. Some of the other regiments were skeptical as to 
the profitableness of the job ; but the Twenty-second went 
heartily at work clearing the land, cutting clown pines, dig 
ging stumps and pulling roots, and carting them out of the 
way, and preparing the timber for their new habitations. 
So vigorously did the work proceed, that in sixteen days the 
whole was accomplished, and a general " moving " took place. 
The ground had been cleared, the logs cut, and a hundred 
and thirteen cabins, ten by fourteen feet, were completed 
and occupied, all uniform in size and style, alike provided 
with doors and windows, and thatched, ventilated, and com 
fortably warmed by means of the portable camp-stove. All 
was done with only the most indispensable of tools, the 
saw, ax, and hammer. Subsequently, all the streets of the 
new city, "Camp Burn-ham," were corduroyed, and a large 
chapel was in process of erection. 

Dec. 12, the day before the battle of Fredericksburg, the 
regiment was under marching orders, and prepared to leave 


on the cars; but, after waiting two hours, the order was 
countermanded, and the 1st Brigade, in which was the 
Connecticut Twenty - seventh, was sent forward instead. 
Dec. 29, the regiment was aroused by the long-roll, and 
marched over eight miles of the worst of the roads to inter 
cept Stuart s cavalry. After watching twenty-four hours, 
they marched back ; that famous raider having vanished in 
an unexpected direction. 

The regiment, during the four months of its stay here, 
occupied its time profitably in company and battalion drills 
and occasional reviews. Feb. 12, the men left their com 
fortable cabins, and spent two months in preparing the 
groundworks of Forts Craig, McDowell, and McClellan. 

On Sept. 4, the Fifth once more crossed the Potomac 
into Washington, and with the main army proceeded 
slowly northward towards the fords where Lee s army was 
simultaneously crossing into Maryland. The regiment was 
halted at Frederick ; and here, on familiar ground, while 
the battle was progressing at^ Antietam, it was assigned 
to provost-duty. It remained nearly three months mend 
ing its shattered ranks. Col. Chapman here returned to 
the regiment after a short Experience in rebel prisons, his 
health seriously impaired. On Dec. 10, the regiment was 
assigned to the 12th Army Corps, Gen. Slocum. 

The Twentieth was kept in front of Washington 
until Lee had retreated below Culpeper; and, Sept. 29, 
was ordered to proceed by cars to Frederick, Md. By some 
blunder, the men were directed to leave their knapsacks 
in Washington. All night they waited at the depot for 
transportation, starting before daybreak, and made their 
next bivouac near Frederick without tents or blankets. At 
Sandy Hook, Oct. 2, the Twentieth was brigaded with 
some New-York regiments, and attached to the 12th Corps, 
like the Fifth Connecticut Volunteers. Thenceforth their 
fortunes lay mainly together. 

Rigid discipline was now adopted in the Twentieth ; drills 
were required daily ; schools of instruction were instituted ; 


and guard and picket duty regularly performed. Gen. 
Gordon, commanding the division, issued an order not un 
usual in the army, but widely at variance with the idea 
citizens sometimes entertain of military life. The following 
is the principal part : 

MARYLAND HEIGHTS, Oct. 20, 1862. 

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 40. "The evil, where it exists, of -commis 
sioned officers associating with enlisted men in any other relation than 
an official one, is, to both officers and men, most pernicious in its effects, 
and must in future be totally discontinued. Hereafter no enlisted man 
can be permitted to visit the tent or quarters of a commissioned officer 
for the amusement of either party. Except for official purposes, it is 
highly unmilitary for officer and private to associate together." 

The beautiful weeks of autumn had vanished while Lee 
was retreating, and McClellan had not pursued. The early 
winter rains were about to set in, making of the plastic 
Virginia clay a compound through which locomotion was 
almost impossible ; and the army was ordered to prepare for 
an offensive move. Perhaps such a state of things was un 
avoidable; McClellan so asserted : but Lieut-Col. Buckingham 
expressed the feelings of the army and the country when he 
wrote in his diary, " If it takes a month to recover from the 
effects of a victor}-. Heaven save us from the necessity of 
ever being obliged to recover from the effects of a defeat ! " 

About the 1st of November, the regiments north of the 
Potomac crossed the river, and advanced into Virginia. The 
Twentieth occupied Keyes Ford and Manning s Ford of the 
Shenandoah. Nov. 9, it moved over the mountains east 
ward into the London Valley ; and the forward movement 
seemed to be ended. An order was issued to the men to 
build huts, and make themselves comfortable for the winter. 

The manuscript regimental history of the Twentieth, by 
Lieut-Col. Buckingham, says, " Some of the old regiments 
in three or four days had nice, comfortable huts built, with 
doors, floors, windows, and chimneys, and then came and 
laughed at our awkwardness. There were in the regiment 
carpenters, shipbuilders, masons, wheelwrights, tinners, black 
smiths, men who could make the hair-spring to a watch or 
build a locomotive ; but, when it came to producing log-huts 
without tools, they could not get the hang of it. We won- 


clered where the veterans obtained windows and various 
other fixings that added so much to their comfort, and were 
told that they drew them. After a while, the greenness 
wore off from our men ; and they, too, learned to draw 
things, not always of Uncle Sam s quartermasters. Boards 
were afterwards sometimes drawn from the side of a barn 
two miles from camp ; windows were drawn a still greater 
distance ; and then they managed to draw hay or straw for 
a bunk. It takes soldiers a year to learn how to keep com 
fortable." That confession will answer for all the regiments 
during their unseasoned period. Sickness prevailed as the 
result of the exposure and the new life ; and, during the 
winter, more than thirty died. 

On Nov. 10, Slocuin s corps moved to join the main 
armv near Fredericksburg. The Fifth Connecticut, which 


had been detailed on provost duty at Frederick, now 
rejoined the corps. 

Passing through Hillsborough. Wheatland, Leesburg, Chan- 
tilly, and Fairfax Court House, they reached Fairfax Station, 
on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, on the 14th. They 
crossed the Occoquan next morning at Wolf-run Shoals, and 
pushed on through rain and mud for two days, while heavy 
guns were pounding away at Fredericksburg. On the 17th. 
Burnside having escaped from his cul de sac, they turned 
back to Fairfax Station, and began to make a winter 

For a time, rations were poor arid scanty ; and many 
actually suffered for food. While the 12th Corps was at 
Fairfax, the rebel Stuart rode with his cavalr}^ entirely 
around the force, and passed out below Leesburg unmolested. 
The Fifth and Twentieth were under arms for a time ; but 
there was no fight. The men built half-comfortable log- 
huts, and were beginning to settle down for the third time 
for a winter s rest, when orders came to march to Stafford 
Court House. Again the drudgery and toil of moving were 
repeated : the great wagons were loaded, and dragged on 
four miles a day, the corps keeping along so as to help the 
stalled teams out of the mud. Soldiers were most of the 
time on half-rations. 


The full army-ration is enough for any man. It consists 
of meat, either fresh or salt, hard or soft bread, or flour, 
beans or peas, rice or hominy, coffee or tea, sugar, vinegar, 
candles, soap, salt, pepper, potatoes, and molasses ; but 
after a battle, or during the prevalence of a long storm or 
deep mud, and very often when no sufficient reason was 
visible, this was diminished to suit circumstances. At Staf 
ford Court House, the men found food, rest, and the army 
paymaster. Capt. Cogswell of the Fifth, and Lieut. Beards- 
ley of the Twentieth, were detailed as brigade-inspectors; 
and Major Buckingham acted as assistant inspector-general 
of the division. Col. Chapman of the Fifth, to whom, mainly, 
the regiment owed its efficiency in discipline and drill, was 
compelled on account of ill health to resign, and was suc 
ceeded by Col. Warren W. Packer of Groton, who went out 
as captain of Company G. A correspondent wrote the 
Providence Journal at this time as follows : 

" We learned a day or two since some interesting facts of 
the Fifth Connecticut Regiment, which, for army-life, is as 
anomalous as it is pleasing. Its commander, Col. Packer, 
we are assured, is a teetotaler ; neither drinking any intoxi 
cating liquors himself, nor allowing any to his men. Its 
chaplain, Rev. Mr. Welch, is declared to be the very best in 
the army, though never preaching a sermon ; and its sutler, 
Mr. Randall, who acted in this capacity over two years, never 
sold or offered for sale a single drop of liquor." 

At Stafford Court House, the men once more built them 
selves winter huts; and occupied them, with only the 
usual incidents of camp-life, until the army was thawed out 
in April. 


The First Connecticut Battery and Seventh Regiment in Florida. Capture of St. John s 
Bluff. Sixth and Seventh in South Carolina. Battle of Pocotaligo. The Twelfth 
at Camp Parapet. Yankee Enterprise. Anecdotes of the Thirteenth. Services 
and Sufferings of the Ninth at Vicksburg. The Battle of Baton Rouge. The La 
Fourche Campaign. Battle of Georgia Landing. Thanksgiving. The Nine- 
months Regiments leave Long Island. The Twenty-eighth at Pensacola. Destruc 
tion of a Rebel Gunboat. 

URING the heat of the summer of 1862, the 
Sixth and Seventh, with the First Battery, re 
mained at Hilton Head ; while military inaction 
reigned, and the jurisdiction of the department 
contracted. The members of the Seventh 
named their camp " Camp Hitchcock," after their lamented 

In September, an expedition was planned to capture a 
fort at St. John s Bluff, Fla., which had considerably annoyed 
the navy, but was on such high ground, that the gunboats 
were unable to destroy it. The Seventh Connecticut, 47th 
Pennsylvania, Capt. Rockwell s First Connecticut Battery, 
and one company of Massachusetts cavalry, were selected 
for the purpose. They left Hilton Head on board the 
steamers Ben. Deford, Boston, Cosmopolitan, and Neptune, 
on the thirtieth day of September, 1862, arriving off the bar 
at the mouth of St. John s River on the morning of Oct. 1. 
They went over the bar; landed at a place called May- 
port Mills ; traveled across the country for miles, through 
swamp and mire, the most of the time through mud and 
water knee-deep; and came across a rebel cavalry camp, 
charging through it, and putting the cavalry to flight with 
an exchange of shots, but no loss of life to either side. The 
fugitives left their dinner smoking hot ; and the Union boys, 



tired, wet, and hungry, did ample justice thereto. After a 
two-days farther march, they came upon the rebel stronghold, 
only to find they had abandoned it in a hurry a short time 
before, leaving every thing behind them, camp-kettles on 
the fire with their rations in them, and guns unspiked. The 
fort was immediately dismantled, and all the guns sent to 
Hilton Head. The force went up the river as far as Jackson 
ville, bringing away a number of white and black refugees 
from Rebeldom, who hailed our men as their deliverers. 

In the afternoon of Oct. 21, two brigades under Connec 
ticut officers, with Gen. Brannan in command, started on 
an expedition inland to burn the railroad bridges between 
Charleston and Savannah. Sergeant Robert Wilson, an in 
telligent scout from Stamford in the Sixth Connecticut, had 
been out with a negro examining the rivers, landings, &c. ; 
and he now piloted the raid. 

The Sixth, commanded by Lieut-Col. Speidal, was in the 
1st Brigade, under Col. Chatfield ; and the Seventh in the 2d 
Brigade, under Gen. Terrv. The Connecticut regiments had 

fj v O 

each five hundred men. The Seventh Regiment embarked on 
the Boston ; and the whole force moved up Broad River to 
Mackay s Point, where they landed next morning, the 22d. 

The line of march \vas taken up, the 1st Brigade ahead ; 
and the force, in column by companies, moved briskly some 
five miles inland, where they discovered the enemy posted 
on rising ground beyond a marsh which was flanked by thick 
woods. The rebels opened with howitzers and musketry. 
The 1st Brigade advanced in line of battle, and soon became 
hotly engaged : but the rebels fled along the road before the 
2d Brigade was fairly up ; and our men jumped the ditch, 
waded through the swamp, and pursued. 

Another rapid march of two or three miles, much of it at 
the double-quick ; again the skirmishers were driven in ; the 
enemy had taken a new. position. Two field-pieces were 
posted on a slope beyond some sparse woods, while their 
infantry was stationed in the thicket, or concealed behind 
houses near by. The Sixth Connecticut, a New-Hampshire, 
and two Pennsylvania regiments, moved into the woods to 
dislodge the enemy. These regiments were subjected to a 


galling fire of both artillery and musketry. The Sixth suf 
fered severely at this point ; Col. Chatfield and Lieut-Col. 
Speidal being both struck with canister-shots while bravely 
leading their men. The line moved steadily forward, cut 
up by shot and shell, tangled by thickets, the men now stand 
ing, now lying down, now carefully advancing, pressing the 
enemy closer and harder in a fight of two hours ; when, de 
spite their advantage of ground, the rebels again fled, protect 
ing their guns, however, as they dragged them sullenly to 
the rear. During the fight, Capts. Chamberlain s and Bur- 
dick s companies of the Seventh had also done good service as 
sharpshooters, and the rest of the regiment had been for a 
short time briskly engaged. 

Again our forces pursued ; but the rebels retired deliber 
ately, our column being much harassed by guns unlimbered 
on commanding points in the road, and infantry firing from 
the fences and woods. The need of cavalry was much felt. 
Our troops successively charged upon and dislodged the 
enemy for a distance of nearly four miles ; when the rebels 
retreated across the Pocotaligo River, burning the bridge 
behind them. Across this creek, which, though narrow, was 
deep, the enemy posted batteries ; but some of our men pro 
ceeded to fell trees across for bridges. During the lull, a 
locomotive whistle was heard in the distance ; then a train 
loaded with rebel soldiers thundered into the village, and 
was received with cheers for " South Carolina." At night 
fall our forces returned to Mackay s, which they reached 
before daybreak, and re-embarked for Beaufort. 

The Sixth had lost five killed and thirty-three wounded ; 
Orderly Sergeant Eobert B. Gage of Bridgeport, a brave 
man, being killed by a rifle-ball in the side. Of the wound 
ed, Corporal David G. Shepard and Private Taylor died of 
their wounds. The Seventh lost in killed two, wounded 
twenty-seven. Five died of their wounds. 

The expedition did not result in any advantage to the 
Union cause. 

Our regiments in Louisiana were living by no means an 
inactive life. They had recruited their ranks to the maxi- 



mum number. At periods during the summer, the Twelfth 
was called upon to do provost-duty at various posts. Com 
pany A was at Jefferson City in June and July, Capt. Lewis 
provost-marshal. Company F went to Lake Pontchartrain 
during the same period, and, out of seventy men, returned 
with only fifteen fit for duty. Capt. Nathan Frankau was 
provost-marshal at Carrollton, with his company for guard. 
A detail of ten men captured the Laurel Hill, the largest ves 
sel at New Orleans, afterwards of great service to the gov 
ernment. In July, half the regiment, under Major Peck, 
went on an expedition to Lake Pontchartrain, having for its 
object the destruction of the railroad bridges and the capture 
of the rebel force at Pass Manchac and Pontchatoula. Two 
companies of the Thirteenth under Capts. Comstock and 
Blinn, and several companies of the Ninth under Major Frye, 
were also a part of the force. The expedition was but par 
tially successful. The rebels rallied, and drove our troops 
back, inflicting a severe loss. Assistant Surgeon Avery of 
the Ninth was among the prisoners. There is a story, that, 
while a captive, the shrewd doctor beat the rebel command 
ant, Jeff. Thompson, at cards, got him drunk, challenged 
him to a horse-race, and came near breaking his neck among 
the trees. 

Camp Parapet, the headquarters of the Twelfth, was one 
of the outer defenses of New Orleans, and there were fre 
quent alarms. 

The camp was terribly muddy ; and, in the later summer, 
typhoid-fever made fearful havoc. Sometimes a hundred 
were in the hospital at once. More than forty died during 
those months, including Capt. Toy of Collinsville, a faithful 
and excellent officer. The surgeons were constantly occu 
pied ; and Dr. Fletcher of Southington, a private in Compa 
ny I, on the meager pay of extra duty, devoted himself un 
tiringly to the care of the men. Lieut. Charles "W. Corn 
wall of New Haven, provost-marshal on Gen. Phelps s staff, 
also fell a victim to the climate. Of him Lieut-Col. Led- 
yard Colburn wrote, " In the name of the regiment, I would 
declare our sorrow and sadness at the untimely death of one 
beloved and respected by all." Lieut. Stanton Allyn, of 


Company K, was for a time prostrated, and obliged to go 
into hospital, but subsequently, and when quite out of health, 
rejoined his regiment to participate in the siege of Port 
Hudson, where perilous labors awaited him." 

More steamboats were wanted in New Orleans; and the 
general commanding, knowing that the Yankees could do 
almost any thing, and hearing that Col. Colburn of the 
Twelfth knew something about steamboats, applied to him 
in the dilemma. " The colonel, after looking about him and 
making inquiries, soon discovered that lumber was the impor 
tant item wanted ; but being of a progressive, ingenious, 
and go-ahead disposition, soon took his measures to obviate 
the difficulty. He went to Fort Pike, where he found a 
large raft of logs that had been placed in the Eigolets for 
the purpose of preventing the passing of our vessels. These 
were fastened together with several tons of chains, which 
were removed, and the logs got out. The next thing was a 
saw-mill ; but this was soon built, and was so successful, that, 
the necessary lumber was made from the logs obtained at 
the Rigolets. The engine was also built under the colonel s 
direction ; and the result was a steamer a hundred and fifty- 
four feet long by forty broad over all, stanch and durable." 

Col. Doming was seldom with the regiment, being ap 
pointed Mayor of New Orleans, an office which he ably 

The Thirteenth remained at New Orleans. During the 
summer, Company A was stationed on the lake ; Company 
E, Capt. Tisdale, was detailed as provost-guard ; Company I, 
Capt. Schleiter, was stationed at Gen. Twiggs s house as a 
body-guard for Gen. Butler; Company K, Capt. Mitchell, 
guarded Col. Birge s headquarters. 

In July, Major Holcomb of the Thirteenth was authorized 
to raise the 1st Eegiment of white Louisiana Volunteers. 
Commissions were also issued to Sergeants Charles A. Tracy, 
Oscar F. Merrill, George A. Mayne, James T. Smith, James 
M. Gardner, Charles H. Grosvenor, George G. Smith, Cor 
poral Devereaux Jones, and Private Leonidas R. Hall. 

In August, Companies A and K, under Capt. Mitchell, made 
a successful foraging expedition up the Mississippi, and 


brought back a few prisoners, and an immense number of 
horses, mules, cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. On Sept. 22, 
Capt. Sprague with Company H went up the river a few miles 
on a steamboat. They found a Frenchman with four hundred 
cattle trying to cross the river. A pass from Dick Taylor 
being found on him, the cattle were confiscated ; and, after 
hours of exciting labor, one hundred and seventy-six were 
driven aboard, the rest having escaped to the woods, or 
plunged into the river. The captain also captured eight 
hundred hogsheads of sugar, and landed the whole at New 
Orleans. He reported to Gen. Butler, who, after a brief 
examination of the facts, said, " Captain, you did right : 
when you re in doubt, take the trick. " 

On the last day of September, the regiment left the Cus 
tom House, and went to Camp Parapet, where it was bri 
gaded with the Twelfth under Gen. Weitzel. Here they 
had Sibley tents, and were comfortable. Both regiments 
had now acquired an excellent discipline ; and soldiers and 
citizens came to witness their dress-parades. 

We transfer from Col. Sprague s admirable history of the 
Thirteenth some anecdotes showing the wit and humor of 
Quartermaster J. B. Bromley : 

" The principal difficulty at this time was in getting wood. Our 
quartermaster, never long at a loss for expedients, finally proceeded to the 
depot of the Carrollton Railroad, and commenced loading his teams. The 
superintendent is said to have come up, and to have held the following 
dialogue with Bromley: 

" What are you going to do with that wood ? 

" Cook rations. (Go on with your loading, corporal.) 

"Who are you? 

" Bromley, Quartermaster of Thirteenth Connecticut Volunteeers. 
Allow me, sir, in turn, to inquire whom I have the distinguished honor to 

" I m superintendent of this railroad. 

" All right. (Go on with your loading, corporal.) 

" The wood belongs to the railroad. 

" So I supposed. 

" But I forbid you to take it. 

" Put your protest in writing in red ink. Tie it with a piece of red tape. 
I ll approve it and forward it. You see, we ve got to have wood to cook 
with. Can t eat beans and pork raw. I d prefer em raw ; but the men 
are so unreasonable they want em cooked. 

" But that wood s necessary for the use of the railroad. 

" It s necessary for the use of the Thirteenth Connecticut. 

" I should like to know how a locomotive is going to run without 


" I ve often wondered how a regiment could be run without wood. 

" Gen. Butler orders me to run this railroad. 

" Col. Birge orders me to run the Thirteenth Connecticut. 

"Who s Col. Birge? 

" Who s Col. Birge ? Why, the d deuse ! don t you know Col. 

Birge? If there s one man above another that everybody knows, it s 
Col. Birge. 

" Will Col. Birge pay for the wood? 

" Col. Birge pay for the wood ! Why, no ! It s a reflection on your 
sagacity to ask such a question. 

" Who will pay for it ? 

" The Quartermaster s Department. If there s one thing above another 
that I admire in the Quartermaster s Department, it s because they ll 
always pay for wood. Now, my friend of the railroad persuasion, if 
you ll come and see me, I ll give you receipts, and help you fix up the 
proper papers to present to the Quartermaster s Department. 

" How long will it be before I get pay ? 

" It will be at some future day, the futurest kind of a day, I m 

" The superintendent posted off to see Col. Birge. Bromley preceded 
him, however, and cautioned the sentinels to admit no citizen without a 
pass. Halt ! said the sentry ; and the superintendent gave up the 
pursuit in despair. 

" The instructions which Bromley gave to Corporal Strange, a member 
of his staff, as he termed him, were quite significant. Strange, we re 
going on an expedition. I want my staff to be on the lookout for turkeys, 
geese, pigs, and sheep. Don t be the aggressor in any contest. Stand 
strictly on the defensive ; but, if you re attacked by any of these animals, 
show fight, and don t forget to bring off the enemy s dead " 

During the last week in June, the Ninth, with Williams s 
brigade, left Baton Rouge, and went up the Mississippi on 
the Diana, William Benton, and Sally Robinson, river 
steamboats. Coming in sight of batteries which the rebels 
had posted here and there to command the river, the in 
fantry would go ashore and attack by land on the flank, 
driving the enemy from the position, and enabling the fleet 
to pass up. The Ninth was several times engaged in these 
operations, and rendered much service. The vessels went 
up to the very guns of Vicksburg, when the brigade was 
landed on the west side of the river, and advanced to 
Young s Station, opposite the city. 

Here Commodore Farragut had already arrived, and had 
set large numbers of soldiers and negroes at work digging 
the famous canal for a new channel of the river ; and the 
regiments of Williams s brigade at once joined enthusiasti 
cally in the excavation for the cut-off. Col. Cahill of the 


Ninth was the ranking colonel, and commanded in the 
absence of Gen. Williams. 

Here the Ninth again suffered greatly. There was nothing 
to eat for weeks but pork and hard-tack ; no water to drink 
but the muddy water of the Mississippi. The swamp reeked 
with malaria, and the men slept upon the mud. The supply 
of quinine, that panacea for all the soldier s aches and ills, 
was exhausted : there was little medicine of any sort. Re 
quisitions were sent as far as New Orleans ; but the medical 
Dogberry declined to honor them on the ground of " irregu 
larity." Almost the whole of the Ninth Regiment was at one 
time on the sick-list with fever caused by exposure and pri 
vation. The poor fellows died sometimes at the fearful rate 
of a score a week ; and, out of the three hundred and fifty 
Connecticut members present, the State catalogue of troops 
shows that one hundred and fifty-three died during this 
season, a mortality not equaled by any other of our regi 
ments within a similar period. 

After a month of this deadly service, the engineers dis 
covered that the water was falling, and would not flow 
through their canal; and the work was abandoned. Wil- 
liams s brigade returned down the river again about the 1st 
of August; Breckinridge pursuing along the shore. On the 
boat Algerine left behind were three hundred sick, in charge 
of Surgeon Gallagher of the Ninth, a brave and devoted 
officer, and friend of the suffering men. 

The Union troops, arrived at Baton Rouge, immediately 
took possession, and began to fortify, anticipating an attack 
from the rebels advancing in heavy force. Williams had 
seven small regiments and three batteries, which he disposed 
on the north-east of the town. The Ninth Connecticut and 
4th Wisconsin were on the left of the line, on a hill over 
looking the Bayou Gras, where was expected an attack 
from the rebel ram Arkansas, that had just caused such 
havoc in Farragut s fleet up the river. At daylight of Aug. 
5, Breckinridge threw his whole force against the Union 
center under cover of a fog, but was met with unflinching 
bravery. Again and again he assailed with great vigor, but 
each time was driven back with heavv loss on either side. 


When the battle had raged several hours, Gen. Williams fell 
mortally wounded ; and Col. Cahill of the Ninth succeeded 
to the command of the Union forces, Lieut.-Col. Richard 
Fitz Gibbons leading the regiment. Fifty men from the 
Ninth were detailed as artillerists to Whin s battery, and five 
to Everett s battery ; and the regiment was swung round to 
the support of the center. Col. Fitz Gibbons says in his offi 
cial report, " To complete this manoeuver, the regiment 
inarched along the North Road until it came within range 
of the enemy s guns, when it filed across the road in the midst 
of a shower of grape and canister, and formed in line of bat 
tle in a cornfield, the battery opening fire from the road. 
The enemy at this juncture appeared directly in front, yell 
ing, and firing volleys of musketry, which, however, did but 
little damage ; the shot mostly going over us, owing to the 
proximity of the enemy, who, on delivering his fire, fell back. 
The left flank being exposed, we were ordered to its de 
fense ; and the regiment resumed its first position, which it 
retained the remainder of the day and night." 

After the gallant leader was shot down, the valorous 
troops were skillfully led by Col. Cahill ; and the enemy, 
having lost fearfully, finally retired in disorder, leaving the 
Union forces in possession of the field. Col. Cahill says, 
u Capt. Silas W. Sawyer, Company H of the Ninth Connecti 
cut, deserves mention for his bold reconnoissance on the 
morning of the 6th, going out on the Bayou-Sara Road three 
miles, and finding no trace of the enemy. Taking a cattle- 
path through the woods, he came out on the Clinton Road, 
beyond the original line of our pickets. He scoured the 
country to Bird s Plantation, in scouting round which he 
found one of the enemy s caissons, and, near by, three others. 
Crossing over to Bernard s Plantation, he found another 
and a damaged ambulance." Returning to headquarters, he 
brought them safely in. 

Lieut.-Col. Fitz Gibbons mentioned Adjutant Kattensbroth 
and Sergeant-Major Curtis for gallant service. The regi 
ment took twenty-four prisoners, and lost one killed and 
nine wounded. 

The enemy fell back, but rapidly gathered re-inforcements. 


The general commanding the department ordered an evac 
uation of the post on account of its evident insecurity ; and 
the Union forces under Col. Cahill, acting brigadier-general, 
moved on transports down to Camp Parapet. Here the 
Ninth was again on outpost-duty, picketing the shores up 
and down the river. 

On Sept. 7, the Ninth, Major Frye commanding, partici 
pated with three other regiments in an expedition across 
the river to the neighborhood of St. Charles Court House. 
The object was to capture or disperse a camp of two thou 
sand rebel infantry said to be stationed there. The Ninth, 
with the 14th Maine, landed at daylight of the 8th at a 
point above Carrollton, and advanced westward ; the other 
regiments going six miles higher up. Major Frye says in his 
official report, 

" The artillery shelled the woods ; but, failing to dislodge the enemy, the 
Ninth Connecticut were thrown forward as skirmishers. After moving 
forward several miles through woods, swamps, bayous, and canebrakes, 
everywhere finding traces of a flying enemy, abandoned haversacks, 
blankets, bundles, paper, &c., it was found that the enemy, mostly cav 
alry, attempting to break through in this direction, had been driven back, 
and, abandoning their horses, saddles, and equipments, had fled into an al 
most impenetrable swamp. But, being surrounded on all sides, our troops 
killed and wounded eight, taking about forty prisoners, and bringing in 
upwards of two hundred horses ready equipped. This was accomplished 
without loss on our side." 

Stores and other property were also captured ; and 
the expedition then returned to camp at Carrollton with 
the booty. Though the Ninth had not recovered from the 
effects of the Vicksburg and Port-Hudson expeditions, we 
are told " not a man lagged." The regiment had earned an 
excellent reputation ; and a correspondent of the Tribune, 
in giving some account of its movements, said, " I may be 
allowed to acknowledge the services of one of our oldest 
and best-disciplined regiments, the Ninth Connecticut, which 
was the second regiment debarked at Ship Island. Col. T. W. 
Cahill has been for the past year an acting brigadier-general, 
and is still serving in that capacity." For a time, both Col. 
Cahill and Col. Birge commanded brigades, under Major- 
Gen. Beckwith, also from Connecticut. 

During September, the Thirteenth lost a popular and en- 


terprising officer in Lieut. Isaac F. Nettleton of Kent. " He 
was the first of our officers to die," says Col. Sprague. " His 
death caused a deep gloom and heartfelt sorrow among his 

On Oct. 24, Weitzel s brigade, at Carrollton, including 
the Twelfth and Thirteenth Connecticut, embarked, and pro 
ceeded ninety miles up the river to Donaldsonville . Next 
morning they moved westward, along both sides of the 
Bayou La Fourche, which, twenty miles from the Mississippi, 
courses southwardly through a district much broken by 
swamps and lakes, and connects with the Gulf. In order 
to concentrate, the enemy retired down the bayou. The 
Union column advanced ; while negroes thronged the way, 
and clamored their extravagant benedictions in bad English, 
only too happy to " tote " musket and knapsack for the 
weary soldier. 

On Oct. 27, the brigade came up with the rebel position 
at Georgia Landing, near Labadieville. There two veteran 
regiments occupied rifle-pits behind a stout cypress fence. 
To this position, from the left bank, the rebel force hurried 
to cut off the 8th New-Hampshire and Perkins s cavalry be 
fore relief could reach them. Weitzel divined the move 
ment, and threw the Twelfth and Thirteenth Connecticut 
across on an extemporized bridge of flat-boats. The rebels 
opened a fierce cannonade on the frail structure ; but the 
Twelfth dashed across, and deployed into line of battle. 
Again we copy from Col. Sprague s History of the Thir 
teenth : 

" For the first time, the Thirteenth was fairly in battle. The big solid 
shot were pounding upon us, and the rifled shells were whistling demoni 
acally over our heads. We had great confidence in Gen. Weitzel and Col. 
Birge, but not yet in ourselves. Would our men stand fire? Would they 
resist a cavalry charge ? for the enemy were superior in cavalry. Would 
our men march straight against a bristling fence of bayonets? . . . Such 
questions agitated our breasts as the enemy s shot came ripping up the 
ground, smashing the trees, or screaming and exploding overhead. 

" We neared the opening in the levee. Our step changed to the double- 
quick. . . . File left ! commanded Col. Birge ; and the regiment at 
double-quick gilded down the bank and upon the bridge, with muskets at a 
right-shoulder shift. Our pace quickened almost to a run, while the can 
non-balls were flying over us or plowing up the water under our feet. 
Up the steep bank on the other side, and straight out among the brambles 


and trees. . . . We reached the middle of the field. Battalion, halt ! 
Front ! On the center, dress ! rang out the voice of Col. Dirge. A shell 
exploded over his head at this moment, and a large fragment dropped un 
der his horse s feet. A piece of shell for you, boys, said he, smiling. 
They soon came thicker than was amusing. 

" The three regiments Avere now in echelon descending from the right, at 
about ten rods lateral and perpendicular distance between the steps ; the 
Eighth resting on the bayou, the Thirteenth in the center, the Twelfth on 
the right. The Twelfth were already in motion to the front when 
our colonel commanded, Battalion, forward ! Guide center ! March ! 
Through the thick thorn-bushes and among scattering trees, over stumps 
and ditches, we pressed forward. ... It gave us real pain to see the line 
become wavy. There was an astonishing and somewhat shocking quan 
tity of swearing expended to keep the ranks closed and companies even 
with the colors. There was, however, no lagging, except when an 
exhausted, sick, or wounded man fell behind. The Twelfth and Thirteenth 
were moving steadily forward. . . . 

" We were a little more than a quarter of a mile from the rebel line, and 
had not yet fired a bullet, when the enemy s infantry opened upon us with 
a rattle like the discharge of an endless string of fire-crackers. The invis 
ible messengers came humming and singing in our ears, and striking a 
man here and there with a quick chuck ! that sounded far uglier than the 
rush of the larger missiles, which can often be seen and frequently give a 
little warning before they strike. Here we passed the band of the Thir 
teenth Connecticut, and some of the drum corps, not standing up or 
marching to the front, blowing and drumming as if their life depended 
upon it, as one sees them represented in pictures, but lying flat on the 
ground behind stumps, and clinging fondly to mother earth. 

" We passed a few rods fariher, halted, dressed accurately on the center, 
and stood a few minutes in a line, while the hail flew over us. David 
Black, private of Company F, dropped dead, a bullet passing through his 
heart : others fell wounded. A large tree stood in touching distance of the 
line. A quick rush was made by a dozen soldiers and two or three officers 
to get behind it. Come out from behind that tree, and go back to your 
places in the ranks, or I ll blow your brains out ! exclaimed our colonel, 
witli a succession of oaths that sounded at the time emphatic rather than 
profane. Weitzel came up. It s getting pretty warm, said he. You d 
better lie down. Lie down ! commanded the colonel. This order did 
not need to be repeated, nor did any other. We had passed through the 
severest test of discipline, that which requires a soldier simply to stand 
straight up and be shot at, without flinching, and without returning the 

" As Weitzel sat on his horse at our left, intently watching 
the enemy, he suddenly said, Rise up ! A moment after, 
he quietly remarked, Their cavalry are coming. Bayo 
nets were fixed ; but there appeared not to be time to form 
square. We stood breathlessly awaiting the onset. You 
may lie down. They re not coming, said the general : we 
must charge them. Rise up ! Battalion, forward ! Guide 
center! March! Col. Birge again commanded. The 


Twelfth were in motion the same instant, and the final grand 
charge began. The enemy s fire redoubled its fierceness. 
From their cover in the edge of the wood, and down in their 
rifle-pits behind the stout fence, they had a full view of the 
four hundred men of the Twelfth and the long line of six 
hundred bayonets of the Thirteenth that came steadily for 
ward with unbroken ranks ; while we could see very few of 
our antagonists, though the innumerable puffs of white smoke 
and the terrible roll of musketry and cannon fully revealed 
their position. With difficulty, by savage threats, we 
restrained our men from shooting ; while the tempest of 
missiles was hissing past us, tearing through our colors, our 
clothing, and our persons. How we longed to return the 
fire ! But our leader seemed to rely on the bayonet alone. 
The flanking force which the enemy had sent round might 
fall on our rear at any moment. Not a second was to be 
lost by stopping to fire even a single volley. Forward, still 
forward, we pressed, shoulder to shoulder : and still we were 
the targets of their two batteries and three infantry regi 
ments. Our impatience to be shooting grew extreme ; and I 
think the sweetest sound that smote upon our ears during 
the war was the sudden crash of the four hundred rifles of 
the Twelfth Connecticut on our right. Heavens, what a vol 
ley 1 Unable to hold back longer, the Thirteenth instantly an 
swered with a tremendous roll of musketry. Both regiments 
poured in an unceasing fire, all the while marching steadily 
forward. The fence beneath which the first line of rebels 
lay was splintered, riddled, honey-combed. The excitement 
grew intense. Will they stand a bayonet-charge ? See, the 
rebel line wavers ! Their officers frantically brandish their 
swords, and in vain try to hold their men. Many are leap- 
irig out of the rifle-pits many more are fluttering their 
white handkerchiefs in token of surrender." 

Both regiments now rushed over the rebel position, sweep 
ing infantry, cavalry, and artillery away. They captured 
two hundred prisoners, a piece of artillery, and many arms 
and accouterments. Gen. Weitzel addressed the regiments 
briefly, expressing his approbation ; while Capt. Tisdale 
continued the pursuit to pick up stragglers. The Twelfth 


lost nineteen and the Thirteenth fifteen killed and wounded. 
Next day they marched to Thibodeau, and unfurled the flag 
of Connecticut, frowned on by the whites, and hailed by 
thousands of negroes as the emblem of emancipation. 

The battle of Georgia Landing was decisive. The rebels 
fled from all the region of the La Fourche, and west beyond 
Brashear City. 

The Ninth Connecticut Volunteers was part of a co-opera 
tive force that went by rail to the crossing below Thibodeau ; 
but it was not engaged. 

Assistant Surgeon M. C. Leavenworth of the Twelfth, 
from Waterbury, died Nov. 16. Lieut. John T. Wheeler 
of the Thirteenth, from New Haven, and Lieut. Andrew T. 
Johnson of Montville, were instantly killed, Nov. 7, by 
the explosion of an arnmunition-car on the railroad. 

At Thibodeau, Weitzel s brigade made a camp, and called 
it " Camp Stevens." There was an insufficiency of food, and 
the soldiers were sometimes very hungry. Foraging was 
freely carried on ; and the Twelfth and Thirteenth managed 
to keep in good spirits. 

The last Thursday in November, 1862, was celebrated by 
the regiments as a grand holiday, in memory of the Con 
necticut Thanksgiving. There were all sorts of races and 
games. Col. Birge temporarily abdicated his position, and 
allowed the regiment to choose a colonel for the day. They 
selected Sergeant Ezra M. Hull of Newtown, who arrayed 
himself as an Indian chief, and issued a series of amusing 
orders founded on the rule that whoever should do any thing 
right during the day should be put into the guard-house. 
The orders were strictly enforced, and great fun resulted, 
though there were few offenders against the edict. Then a 
good dinner was provided. " The whole concluded with a 
sham dress-parade, in which the line-officers, in disguise, per 
sonated a band of music, and the whole regiment, attired in 
a style that would have broken Falstaff s heart, obeyed the 
standing order to do nothing right." 

The nine-months Connecticut regiments the Twenty- 
third, Twenty -fourth, Twenty -fifth, Twenty - sixth, and 


Twenty-eighth did not tarry many weeks on Long Island. 
On Nov. 29, 1862, the Twenty-third and Twenty-eighth 
broke camp at Centreville ; and seven companies of each 
marched to Atlantic Ferry, Brooklyn, and embarked on the 
steamer Che-Kiang (Sea-King) to join the forces of Gen. 
Banks, now assembling in the Gulf Department. About 
the same time, the Twenty-sixth and five companies of the 
Twenty-fifth crowded the steam-vessel Empire City ; and the 
rest took passage later on the Mary A. Boardman and Mer- 
rimack. Col. Almy found it impossible to get adequate trans 
portation ; and the vessels were terribly overloaded, to the 
great injury of the health of the men. 

The first sea-sickness over, the soldier-passengers did not 
find it difficult to amuse themselves, and several pleasant 
days were passed. On the evening of Dec. 5, off Hat- 
teras, the usual storm burst upon the vessels in all its fury, 
threatening to ingulf them. The Che-Kiang, with its 
freight of a thousand men, refused to obey the helm, and 
wallowed helpless in the trough of the sea, shivering under 
the mountainous waves ; while flash after flash of lurid light- 
nino- revealed the terrors of the situation. However, the 


vessels all weathered the storm, and at last, after touching 
at the Tortugas, arrived safely at the rude wharf of Ship 
Island, and disembarked. " This low sand-bank is the crea 
tion of the restless Mexican Gulf. It boasts but little vege 
tation. A few grasses, cacti, flowering herbs and shrubs, and 
some stunted pines, exhaust the list. Nor is the fauna 
more extensive than the flora. A dilapidated cow and an 
untimely calf, some splendid horses and refractory mules, 
ugly alligators, venomous spiders, and spiteful mosquitoes, 
would chiefly claim the attention of, the naturalist. The 
encircling waves swarm with fish." * 

Here the regiments rested a few days, and inhaled fresh 
air, after their trying confinement ; then resumed their jour 
ney, and passed up the river, depositing an overgrown mail 
at New Orleans. The Twenty-third and Twenty-eighth 
landed at Camp Parapet, the northerly defense of the city, 
on Dec. IT, and laid out a camp. 

1 Chaplain Richard Whcatley. 


Hardly had the tents been pitched, and the wearied sol 
diers begun to think of the night s rest, when orders came 
from headquarters for the Twenty-eighth to re-embark, and 
repair to Pensacola, Fla., to relieve the 91st New- York. In 
two hours, the regiment was again on board ; and the trans 
port dropped down to the city, and proceeded through the 
Gulf, arriving at Pensacola on the 22d ; and the city appeared 
in sight when the vessel came over the bar ten miles off 
" Its solitary church-spire, houses, and streets looked prettily 
enough to eyes so utterly tired of the briny deep ; nor did 
it look less cosy and comfortable after a personal inspection. 
Three months were very pleasantly spent in that ancient, 
unenterprising city, with its singular population, gathered, 
apparently, out of every nation under heaven." 

The city had already been encircled with a barricade of 
strong stakes and an abatis of tree-tops ; and a small fort and 
redoubt commanded the principal -approaches. Under Gen. 
Neal Dow, the Twenty-eighth and two other regiments 
strengthened these works, added masked batteries, and made 
the place defensible. Chaplain Richard Wheatley, in a 
sketch of the regiment in the Stamford Advocate, says of 
the occupation of Pensacola, "Favored with good food, 
regular rest, clear skies, a balmy and delicious atmosphere, 
and an occasional scrimmage with the enemy, we should not 
have objected to spend the period of our enlistment there." 

But it was not so ordered. By direction of Gen. Banks, the 
city, being of no strategic importance, was evacuated ; and 
troops, ordnance, and materiel were removed to Fort Baran- 
cas and Warrington Navy-yard, eight miles west, and oppo 
site Fort Pickens. At Pensacola died the amiable and 
popular Capt, Francis R. Leeds, formerly cashier of the 
Stamford Bank. Detained at home by typhoid fever when 
the regiment went away, he had not wholly recovered 
when he rejoined his comrades in Western Florida, and was 
received with general joy. In another week, he had fallen 
a victim to the climate of the South. There was genuine 
grief at his loss. 

The regiment now comfortably settled in the edge of the 

2 Narrative in Stamford Advocate, by Chaplain Richard Wheatley. 


pine-woods near Barancas. Seven weeks sped swiftly by 
while encamped on that lovely spot ; the loose and yielding 
sand absorbing the moisture as it fell, the rustling branches 
of the dark old pines affording some protection against the 
rays of the sun, and the heat attempered by the invigorating 
breezes that daily came in from the bright and beautiful 
Gulf. The camp was neat; the tents admirably if not ele 
gantly furnished ; the culinary arrangements hardly suggest 
ing the privations of a state of war Here the winter 
(1862-3) wore pleasantly away. Of course, there was picket- 
duty and occasional alarms, disease and occasional death. 
Several faithful men went to sleep under the branches of the 
pines, whose leaves were vocal with a perpetual dirge in 
memory of the unre turning brave. 

The Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Regiments imme 
diately ascended the Mississippi to Baton Rouge, landing on 
Dec. 17, as the rebels evacuated the town under the fire of" 
our gunboats. Again the national flag was unfurled from 
the summit of the State House, and again a populous village 
of tents sprung up in the arsenal-grounds and the open 
places of the city. The Thirteenth also arrived about this 
time from the La-Fourche Campaign, and was at first with 
the Twenty-fourth, and afterwards with the Twenty-fifth, in 
a brigade under Col. Birge. The regiments suffered less 
than many others during this period of acclimation. 

The Twenty-sixth had remained with the Twenty-third at 
Camp Parapet, drilling, doing guard-duty, and on detached 
service. Some private soldiers died there ; and their remains 
were generally sent home in metallic coffins, by the compa 
nies to which they belonged. Not an officer of the Twenty- 
sixth died while in service. On Jan. 27, 1863, Lieut. Jonah 
F. Clark of the Thirteenth, from New Haven, fell a victim of 
fever. He was mourned as a gallant officer and a true man. 

The Thirteenth had left Thibodeau for Baton Rouge on 
Dec. 27 ; but the Twelfth remained with Weitzel s brigade. 
Lieut.-Col. Colburn was made superintendent of the railroad, 
and Major Peck was in command of the latter regiment. 
In January, 1863, the brigade went on an expedition up the 
Teche to destroy the gunboat J. A. Cptton. 


The infantry marched overland, sleeping the first night in 
a cornfield near Pattersonville. Next morning, the Twelfth 
went on in line of battle through a field of cane ; and before 
noon the huge boat was in plain view, and, being aground, 
she remained until they were quite abreast of her. After 
some of her men were shot by our sharpshooters along the 
bank, and under a terrible fire from our artillery, she backed 
off around a bend in the bayou. Her armament was power 
ful, and she used it well while she could. The obstructions 
prevented our gunboats approaching. 

" After a few hours, her black smoke was seen at the bend 
in the bayou ; and all eyes were turned up the river as her 
shot plowed up the ground around us : but our line 
wavered not. In a moment, the artillery opened upon her, 
and taught her, by many a shot crashing through her wood 
work, she must be off, or sink. We slept that night in a 
canefield, in the extreme advance. It was bitter cold, and 
a moderate rain added not a little to our discomfort. Our 
rations that day were raw pork and hard bread ; but food never 
tasted better. By daylight next morning, we saw the bright 
fire made by the burning of the saucy gunboat. She was 
so disabled, the rebels concluded to fire her ; and she lies 
in the Teche a charred, unsightly mass." 3 

The brigade now returned, and regained the camp at 
Thibodeau. In February, the Twelfth moved to Brashear 
City, and remained in Camp Reno and Bayou Boeuf during 
the remaining weeks of the early Southern spring. 

In March, Company A was detailed to go on board the 
gunboat Diana on a reconnoissance into Grand Lake. The 
rebels opened upon them so severely with artillery and 
musketry, that they were obliged to surrender. Lieut James 
L. Francis of Hartford was shot through the body. He had 
just returned to the regiment, having been taken prisoner 
at Labadieville ; and, after a few weeks on corn-meal in sev 
eral of the Confederate prisons, was exchanged. Thirty 
men of Company A were captured. One private was killed, 
and several wounded. Company A s revolving rifle, a 
present from Col. Colt of Hartford, was fired while the am- 

8 Narrative in the Connecticut War Record. 


munition lasted, and then taken apart, and thrown into the 
bayou in different places. 

" They are said to have fought with the greatest gallantry^ 
and only surrendered when surrounded by greatly superior 
numbers, after the boat had become disabled. After the gun 
ners of the boat had been driven from their pieces by the 
enemy s sharpshooters, Lieut. William S. Buckley, with the 
assistance of a small boy, loaded and fired a 20-pound Parrott 
gun three times; the last time sending ramrod and all." 4 

* Official Report of Col. Frank H. Peck. 


Spring Election of 1863. The Peace "Wing of the Democracy again Demonstrative. 
Buckingham versus Seymour. " No more War! " The Platforms. Gov. Seymour s 
Letter. Appeals from the Connecticut Regiments in the Field. Sharp Extracts. 
The Vote. Eaton s Resolutions in the Assembly. After Frcdcricksburg. The 
Eighth, Eleventh, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Twenty-first at Newport News. Siege of 
SuiFolk. Skirmishes and Reconnoissanccs. Capture of Eort linger. Raising 
of the Siege. Evacuation. " The Blackberry Raid." 

RECEDING the spring election of 1863, the 
campaign was far more exciting than the last 
had been. Again the Democrats resolutely 
contested the State, this time boldly rallying 
under the banner, " No more war." 
Two years of conflict had not seemed to carry forward 
the national array. The Confederates stoutly held about 
all they had at first claimed ; and recognition by foreign 
powers appeared to them nearer than ever. The Army of 
the Potomac, a hundred thousand strong, still struggled with 
Virginia mud within sight of Washington. The humiliating 
Peninsular campaign and Fredericksburg were behind, and 
Gettysburg and Vicksburg still ahead. President Lincoln, 
in the nation s dire strait, had just struck the Achilles heel 
of the Confederacy ; and the Republicans were called on to 
defend this " unconstitutional " blow at slavery, without yet 
being able to point to any of the compensating advantages 
that had been predicted. Some of the great Middle and 
Western States had just given Democratic majorities ; and it 
was plain, that, in a close State like Connecticut, even the 
popular incumbent, Gov. Buckingham, might be defeated. 

Again the " peace men " gathered strength, increased in 
numbers, frankly avowed their principles ; declaring that 
the Union could be saved only by an immediate cessation 



of hostilities. The Democrats were somewhat elated, and 
entered the field with great spirit. Their State Convention 
assembled in Hartford in February ; and by the shrewd 
management of Alfred E. Burr, editor of the Times, Hon. 
Thomas H. Seymour was nominated for governor. W. W. 
Eaton, the ablest and boldest advocate of the peace doctrine, 
reported the platform of the party. 

The resolutions set forth that " the United States are a 
confederacy of States co-equal in sovereignty and political 
power ; " and that " the Administration has, for nearly two 
years, been in armed collision with the people of more than 
one-third of the States composing this Confederacy ; " and 
declared, " while we denounce the heresy of secession as 
unwarranted by the Constitution, the time has now corne 
when all true lovers of the Constitution are ready to 
abandon the monstrous fallacy that the Union can be 
restored by the armed hand." They further called on all to 
unite in saving the Union by withdrawing our army from 
the field, and proposing a compromise. 

The Republicans opened the campaign with equal earnest 
ness ; renominating Gov. Buckingham, declaring plainly for 
the suppression of the Rebellion by war, and avowing that 
" the Emancipation Proclamation has our hearty support as 
a measure of military necessity alike expedient and just." 

Both conventions thanked the soldiers in the field for 
their patient endurance and courage, and both parties em 
ployed the usual weapons. 

The Democratic candidate for governor had, a short time 
before, written an anti-war letter to a Thomas Lawrence of 
New York. A. copy of this was found in the possession 
of Capt. Gladding of the rebel navy, detained at Hilton 
Head as a spy ; and it was greedily seized and published 
by the Republican papers over and over. The Hartford 
Times accepted it in Mr. Seymour s name, and declared 
that it was " a splendid letter." The following are some 
extracts, rendered important by the fact that the epistle was 
made his platform : 

. " Your allusion to constitutional liberty suggests pain 
ful reflections. Since the inauguration of this war, the men in power at 


Washington have been robbing us of our rights. The great safeguards of 
the citizen, protecting him against illegal arrests and false imprisonments, 
Lave been struck down by ignorant or wicked rulers. 

" I abhor the whole scheme of Southern invasion, with all its horrible 
consequences of rapine and plunder. You cannot but see, sir, what thou 
sands of us are beginning to see, that no Union can be got in this way. 
The war might have been avoided, and the Union saved. This is getting 
to be the prevailing opinion. And it would have been avoided, but for a 
frantic set of men besieging the president, and who wanted blood and plun 
der. They have got both, and humanity weeps over the wrecks of body 
and soul. Those who drive the car of war at this time have no more idea 
of saving the Union by their bloody sacrifices of this sort than they have 
of changing the course of nature. Still they go on. 

" In presence of the appalling fact, which should haunt them like a ghost 
of the damned, that we are losing our young men at the rate of twenty 
thousand a month, aside from those who fall in battle, in presence of all 
this, they demand new levies for the hospitals, the marshes, the ditches, 
and the gunboat shambles. 

" Depend upon it, Heaven will frown on such a cause as this : it can 
not and will not come to good. I would rather have the good opinion of 
fellow-citizens, who, like yourself, have given me their sympathy in a time 
of some considerable trial for one s faith, than to be first among the slayers 
of kindred, or wear the bloody laurels they may gather in a fratricidal war. 
I doubt if the Union can be restored at all : things have gone so far now, 
that the only possible chance will be by the adoption of a Christian policy, 
very different from that which prevails at Washington at the present 

" Though I only know you, sir, by your very kind letter, I shall not 
soon forget that it was written, or by whom." 

Dr. Crary of Hartford being among the vice-presidents of 
a Democratic mass-meeting in Hartford, the Press next 
day copied the following certificate of a birth returned to 
the register s office by him : 

"Father, Leverett B. Owen; house, Main Street. Occupation, 
Off South, murdering as many of our brethren there as possible " 

The campaign was bitter. The passions of the State were 
roused ; and the soldiers at the front, having no immediate 
fight of their own, took a hand in this. Almost every regi 
ment of the twenty-four in the field adopted an " Appeal to 
the Citizens of Connecticut " to re-elect Gov. Buckingham. 
These ranged in length from one-half to a whole news 
paper column each ; and they were generally adopted by 
unanimous acclamation, and signed by nearly every officer 
on duty. 

The appeal from the Twentieth came first. It was signed 


by Col. Ross, and indorsed u unanimously adopted by officers 
and men." The following is an extract : 

" The cry of peace is too old to deceive an intelligent patriot. We 
remember that the peace-men of the Revolution fled to British men-of- 
war. We remember that the peace-men of 1812 furnished the enemy 
with supplies, or sought refuge from conscription by cowardly flights to 
Canada. We know of no definition for peace-men in time of Avar but 
enemies of the government which protects and defends them. 

" Let the people of Connecticut remember that the issue is fairly before 
them, whether they will make a cowardly surrender of the cause of free 
government ; whether they will basely desert the thousands who are fight 
ing their battles to strengthen the arms and direct the bayonets of the foe ; 
whether they will cast contumely upon the noble dead who have already 
fallen in this struggle, and whose headstones point the way to duty. We 
are Avilling still to bear the hardships and brave the dangers of the field : 
we call upon you to decide whether you Avill sustain us, or give comfort 
and strength to our enemies. To us the Southern skies are brightening 
with the iislit of hope : let not defeat at home turn back the shadow on 
the dial. " 

The following is a paragraph from the appeal of the Nine 
teenth : it was signed by more than four hundred officers 
and men, whose names were published in the Litch field 
Enquirer : 

" Men of Connecticut ! did you encourage us by your bounties, your 
banners, your words, and deeds, to leave homes, friends, every thing, to 
fight Southern rebels, only that we might look back, and see foes not less 
malignant, and not less dangerous, assailing us from behind? We pray 
you not to crush our resolution and palsy our arms by electing for your 
governor and ours a man who hopes for our defeat and humiliation." 

The Connecticut regiments in the 9th Corps at Newport 
News sent forward an earnest address, somewhat acrimonious 
withal, from which the following is a quotation : 

"We may justly feel a soldier s respect for our foes on the James and 
the Rappahannock on account of their skill and courage ; but towards the 
enemies of the Republic on the Thames, the Connecticut, and the Housa- 
tonic, AVC can have no other feelings than those of unmitigated scorn and 
contempt. The former are foemen worthy of our steel ; for the latter we 
feel no such chivalrous regard." 

This appeal, of a column, was signed by eighteen com 
missioned officers of the Eighth, eleven of the Eleventh, 
seventeen of the Fifteenth, eighteen of the Sixteenth, and 
twenty-three of the Twenty-first, nearly all that were 

On March 8, a soldier in the Twenty-second wrote to 


the Hartford Times, that three-fourths of the regiment were 
Democrats. On the 10th, he wrote, that, on the previous 
clay, they were marched out in column by company, and " the 
colonel told them that the officers had unanimously adopted 
the resolutions for Buckingham. The adjutant then read 
them, and put them to vote, asking all who approved to say, 
i Yes/ and all who disapproved to say, No. The Yes/ " 
says the correspondent, "was freely given by Republicans 
and Democrats together. When the dissentients were called 
upon to speak out, not one man dared to raise his voice. 
Even the boldest would not dare to record his dissentient 
vote whilst out here in Virginia." 

The Fourteenth, in camp near Plymouth, passed similar 
resolutions, brief and unambiguous. 

The Seventeenth, just getting ready to march to battle, 
unanimously wrote to Fairlield County, 

" Can it be true that any considerable number of you, fellow-citizens, 
will be enticed by base appeals to the meanest motives that can actuate 
mankind, those of avarice and cowardice, to be false to your professions 
and pledges to us, recreant to your principles, and traitors to the thousands of 
your gallant brothers and countrymen with us in the field ? We can not 
believe it. Here, in the very tramp and bustle of movement to actual 
conflict, we, your sons, your brothers, and your friends, as the last appeal 
which we may make to you on earth, implore you to redeem your pledges, 
and be true to your duty." 

The Twelfth, at Brashear City, issued an appeal of unusual 
eloquence, of which the following sentences are extracts : 

" We call on Connecticut citizens to be as brave by their firesides as they 
expect Connecticut soldiers to be on the battle-field. We call on you, 
across a thousand miles of hostile territory, so to decide that we can look 
into the eyes of our Southern friends and our Southern foes, without being 
ashamed of you. When we face the rebel cannon, we do not wish to see 
your masses behind them giving them better support than that of their 
own infantry. And if Connecticut joins her voice with that of our own 
enemies, and the enemies of our country, we do not desire ever to tread her 
soil again. 

The enlisted men of the Seventh held a meeting, where 
they had songs and speeches, and passed, almost unani 
mously, resolutions concurrent in spirit with the above. The 
officers signed and sent home an appeal (written by Col. 
Hawley), of which the following is a paragraph:- 


" Fellow-citizens of New-Haven County, remember your own Hitch 
cock who died so nobly, and your adopted citizen the lion-hearted William 
Kay, who, with his wounds yet unhealed, hastened to another and fatal 
field of battle. Citizens of Hartford County, recall to mind Upson and 
William Soby and Francis Brainard. Men of Litchfield County, remem 
ber Palmer, the idol of his home and of his command, and Sergeant 
Reynolds. People of Windham County, remember your own Hibbard 
and Corbin. Citizens of Fairficld County, do not forget Starr, and the 
brave Thomas Horton, and Holmes, dying a prisoner, and wounded, and 
Eaton and Cooke. Men of New-London County, remember Joab Jeffrey. 
Remember these, your brothers and ours, and a multitude besides ; and for 
God s sake do not dishonor their fresh graves by declaring that they died 
in a fool s cause ! " 

Such appeals as these, signed in camp and hospital, on 
the hasty march and at the nightly bivouac, could not be 
unheeded in the canvass. The Democrats received them 
with the assertion that soldiers had no right to meddle in 
the affairs of the State, or that the dissentients had not been 
permitted to express themselves ; and the radical peace-men, 
sincere in their earnest purpose, went from town to town, 
and from house to house, and, in the name of the Prince of 
Peace, besought the men who had sons or brothers at the 
front to stop the unholy war, and save the lives of their 

The Republicans prosecuted the campaign with an energy 
that could not have been mustered a few weeks before; and 
the little State was rocked from end to end with the fierce 
and turbulent passions of partisan foes. Many soldiers came 
home to vote. 

Yet all the agencies Republicans could bring to their aid 
barely saved the State, always close in contested elections. 
Buckingham was re-elected by a majority of 2,637 in a total 
vote of 79,427, a poll of nine thousand over the total vote 
of 1862, and more than two thousand over the aggregate 
presidential vote of 1860. 

The General Assembly convened at Hartford on May 6 ; 
the Democrats having eight members of the Senate, and 
about ninety members of the House. The Senate organized 
by the election of G. W. Phillips as president pro tempore; 
and Erastus S. Day was chosen clerk. The House elected 
Hon. Chauncey F. Cleveland, speaker, and H. Lynde Har 
rison and William T. Elmer, clerks. 


Gov. Buckingham in his message, delivered in the darkest 
day of the war, just after the bloody repulse at Chancellors- 
ville, spoke the words of courage and hope. He said, 

" The conflict inaugurated at Sumter must go on until (he government shall 
conquer or be conquered. Let no one be deceived by the artful device of 
securing peace by a cessation of hostilities, or by yielding the claims of our 
enemies. A peace thus obtained would cost a nation s birthright ; while our 
adversaries design a perpetual separation of the United States, and proclaim 
from every public assembly, from every legislative hall, and from every 
battle-field, their determination to. continue the war until their independence 
shall be acknowledged. . . . Civil war is cruelty. Its fruits are desolation, 
sorrow, and death. Fear, hesitation, and a timid use of the forces of war 
to check its progress, will eventually increase the terrible sufferings. They 
will be diminished by courage, vigor, and severity. Humanity demands 
that we should endeavor to overcome the power and spirit of the enemy by 
assaulting his most vulnerable point, and by following up every advantage 
we may gain by the use of all the means which God and Nature shall place 
at our command. . . . Would it not be right for the parricide to perish by 
the instrument which he had forged for the life of his guardian and protector? 

"Whatever of trial, suffering, or privation, may be in store for us, or 
however long may be the controversy, firm in the faith that our nation will 
be preserved in its integrity, let us, in adversity as well as in prosperity, iu 
darkness as well as iu light, give the Administration our counsel, our con 
fidence, and our support ; that its power may drive those wiio have conspired 
against the liberties of the people, as vagabonds and fugitives through Un 
earth, or inflict upon them the penalties justly due for their treason. Let 
the retribution be so terrible, that future generations shall not dare to repeat 
the crime. Then, and then only, shall the wrongs of an outraged people 
be avenged, human rights be vindicated, and constitutional authority be 

William W. Eaton, on May 13, introduced a series of reso 
lutions known as the " Vallandigham Resolutions," which 
were under discussion for weeks, and created more excite.- 
ment than any other political proposition ever presented to 
the General Assembly of Connecticut. 

Clement L. Vallandigham had just been arrested, tried by 
court-martial, and sent beyond the Confederate lines, for 
inciting to rebellion by certain seditious speeches in Ohio ; 
and the preamble set forth that his arrest was in wanton dis 
regard" of his constitutional rights, and the first resolution 
denounced it accordingly. The succeeding resolutions em 
bodied, in the following cautious language, the doctrines of 
Calhoun, the principles whereby Jefferson Davis and his 
coadjutors sought to justify their treason : 

2d, That the General Assembly of Connecticut doth unequivocally 
express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the 


United States and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression, 
either foreign or domestic ; and that they will support the Federal Adminis 
tration in every measure warranted by the former. 

3d, That this. Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare that it 
views the powers of the Federal Government as resulting from the compact 
to Avhich the States are parties ; as limited by the plain sense and intention 
of the instrument constituting that compact ; as no further valid than they 
are authorized by the grants enumerated therein ; and that in case of a 
deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted 
by the said compact, the States who are parties thereto have the right, and 
are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, 
and for maintaining within their respective limits the authorities, rights, and 
liberties appertaining to them. 

These resolutions, plainly affirming the right of any State 
to resist the Federal Government whenever that government 
goes beyond the spirit and letter of the Constitution, and 
making a majority of the people of any single State the sole 
and final judge whether the Constitution has been so vio 
lated, raised the very question which was being debated with 
savage emphasis by the thinking bayonets and throbbing 
cannon at the front, the question, " Is the United States a 
nation, or a voluntary copartnership ? " 

Nearly every prominent member of the House spoke upon 
one side or the other; and the floor and galleries were daily 
crowded. Mr. Eaton delivered the most carefully-prepared 
argument in favor of the passage of the resolutions, showing- 
great power and scholarly research; and Col. Dexter R. 
Wright, the recognized Republican leader, in a -masterly 
speech of considerable length, eloquently maintained the 
duty of loyalty to the Federal Union, and roused the House 
and galleries to a high pitch of enthusiasm. 

On June 24, a vote was taken ; and the resolutions re 
ceived the ninety-four votes of the Democrats in favor, and 
one hundred and twenty-seven votes of Republicans against ; 
twelve members beino; absent. The effect of the discussion 


was to unite the Republicans more heartily in the prosecu 
tion of the war, and to commit the Democracy of the State 
more decidedly to the position of hostility, an attitude 
which the party now seemed to have officially assumed. 

Laws were enacted authorizing State banks to change to 
National ; appropriating the interest of the Agricultural-col 
lege Fund to the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale ; and, 



early in the session, a bill introduced by Sherwood Sterling 
of Fairfield became a law, passed by a strict party-vote, 
enabling persons holding funds in a fiduciary capacity to 
invest the same in State and National bonds. 

Other States had repeatedly furnished regiments of their 
militia, for short periods, to meet exigencies of the govern 
ment ; and it was felt desirable that Connecticut should be 
able to respond similarly. The existing militia-law having 
become practically a dead letter, Col. Wright, chairman of 
the military committee, prepared a bill which provided for 
a compensated volunteer force, not to exceed ten thousand 
men. This force was to be armed, uniformed, and equipped 
by the State ; and the several regiments were to be drilled 
at an encampment one week in every year : the commuta 
tion-tax to be paid by the inactive militia to be about equal 
to the annual expense of the whole system ; and the gov 
ernor to have the power of turning over any portion of 
this force to the General Government for short service. 
The bill met with violent opposition from the Democrats, 
and was finally lost between the two houses. A law simi 
lar in its leading features was enacted by the stronger Re 
publican legislature of 1864 and 1865 ; and under this an 
efficient militia was organized. 

The smoke rose, and floated off from the hard-fought 
field of Fredericksburg ; the wounded were sent home ; the 
dead were buried ; and thinned ranks answered the morn 
ing roll-call. The Twenty-first was now with the 4th Rhode- 
Island, the 25th New- Jersey, and the 13th New-Hamp 
shire, in a brigade commanded by Col. Arthur H. But 
ton ; leaving the regiment under Lieut.-Col. Burpee. The 
Eighth, Eleventh, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Connecticut Re 
giments were still brigaded together. Burnside resolved 
upon another attack on the enemy s works ; and the regi 
ments that were to form the right had moved several miles 
up the river, when a severe and protracted storm rendered 
the assault impracticable. It was consequently abandoned ; 
and the men inarched back in rain and mud. The command- 


ing general was soon succeeded by Hooker ; and once more 
the picket reported, " All quiet along the Rappahannock." 

After this the time passed for weeks with only the old 
daily routine of duty, and nothing of importance to vary the 
sameness of soldier-life, except that now and then the 
muffled drum sounded out the departure of a comrade to 
another life. Rations were scanty, the weather was inclem 
ent, and disease active. 

At last marching-orders broke the comparative quiet. On 
Friday, Feb. 6 (1863), the regiments of the 9th Army Corps 
bade adieu to Falmouth. The Connecticut brigade evacu 
ated Camp Mud, as they had designated their location, and 
took the cars for Acquia Creek. Here they embarked on 
transports. Precisely at noon of the 8th, the signal for 
departure sounded ; and next morning they found themselves 
at Fortress Monroe. In the afternoon, they proceeded to 
Newport News, and pitched their tents. 

Here a quiet month was passed in log-barracks, when on 
March 13 they went to Norfolk in transports, and thence by 
rail to Suffolk. The Connecticut brigade went into camp 
close by the town, in Gen. Peck s division. The programme 
was now somewhat changed ; for, instead of daily drills with 
the musket, the men were exercised in " the manual of the 
shovel and the hoe," excavating rifle-pits and erecting forti 
fications. The Twenty-first was ordered about four miles 
below Suffolk, upon the Nansemond River, to build a fort. 
Here they laid out a splendid camp ; and much ingenuity 
was displayed in the construction of rustic seats and chairs, 
and other articles of camp-furniture. They also planned a 
fort called Fort Connecticut, and worked upon it daily until 
it was nearly completed ; when, the siege of Suffolk having 
commenced, they left it yet unfinished on the llth of April, 
and proceeded to the defense of the city. 

Meantime the other Connecticut regiments had sprung 
into line at the sound of the long-roll ; and the alarm was 
repeated from night to night. The men slept on their arms. 
At last the pickets were driven in, and Longstreet began 
the siege of Suffolk. Gen. Getty commanded the Federal 
troops. During the succeeding weeks, considerable valor and 


vigilance were expended on both sides over the possession 
of a town so utterly without strategic importance as not to 
be worth either capturing or defending. April 14, the regi 
ments went into their rifle-pits ; and during the night, and 
every subsequent night, there was more or less skirmishing 
between the pickets, but no battle. The works of defense 
were unfinished ; and the alarms, watchings, and constant 
fatigue-duty, were very exhausting and dispiriting. It was 
not long before the men became pretty thoroughly disgusted, 
feeling (for even enlisted men frequently took that liberty) 
the uselessness of the work upon which they were engaged. 

About this time, the Twenty-second Regiment left its camp 
at Arlington, and joined the forces at Suffolk. The men 
worked for a time on Fort Connecticut and the Nansernond 
sand-batteries. They also helped to construct the miles of 
rifle-pits, and were out on picket almost constantly. Here 
the regiment found soldiers fare, and suffered much from 
privation and exposure. 

The Twenty-first picketed on the Nansemond, below the 
city ; the rebels holding the opposite bank. At first the 
pickets shot at each other; but their hostility relaxed, so 
that they began to converse familiarly together, and in some 
instances they swam the river and shook hands. 

A single brilliant episode relieved the dullness of the siege. 
It occurred on April 19, a patriotic anniversary which 
might stimulate any American to deeds of valor. 

The rebels had advanced cautiously to a slight elevation 
near the west bank of the Nansernond, and re-occupied Fort 
Huger, an old but unnoticed work of theirs, known to our 
troops as Hill s Point Battery, refitting it, and planting 
five new brass guns, four 12-pounder howitzers, and one 

The fortification was so located at a bend as to sweep the 
stream for a long distance, annoying our gunboats exceed 
ingly, and rendering all operations near that point quite 
perilous. It was thought best to dislodge the rebels. Late 
in the afternoon, six companies of the Eighth Connecticut, 
with six companies of the 89th New- York, in all about two 
hundred and eighty men, commanded by Col. John E. Ward 


of the Eighth, were embarked on board the gunboat Step 
ping Stones. A canvas screen drawn up around the boat 
effectually concealed the men. The orders from Gen. Getty 
were, " When the boat touches land, get off at once. Do not 
stop to call the roll or form a line, but let each officer rally 
all the men he can ; push right forward, and take the bat 
tery." After these orders, the gunboat steamed up the river 
as if to run past the battery ; and the rebels made ready to 
fire. They waited for her to come past a small bluff which 
sheltered the boat for a short distance from the view and 
the fire of the enemy. Instead of passing, she quickly 
turned, and made for shore. As she struck, the gang-planks 
were shoved off. The boat swung round with the current, 
making the gang-planks useless ; but the men leaped into 
the mud and water up to their arm-pits, rushed along the 
side of the friendly bluff and into a small ravine which led 
around past the rear of the intrenchments. The rebels, dis 
covering the ruse, now opened a sharp fire of musketry. 
Companies and regiments were hopelessly interspersed and 
commingled. Pausing a moment, they rallied around the offi 
cers indiscriminately ; then, Lieut. H. E. Morgan taking the 
lead, started at full run along the ravine, up the banks, over 
the rifle-pits, and into the enemy s works, without firing a 
shot. " We cave ! " screamed the astonished rebels : " we 
cave ! don t fire, don t fire ! " And the boys did not ; for the 
victory was won. 

The Connecticut and New- York soldiers were side by side. 
Both battalions dashed into the works together ; and the two 
old standards, torn by bullets in many battles, were planted 
on the breastworks. 

But the task was not ended. " Work quickly, boys ! " was 
the word. The prisoners, a hundred and twelve in num 
ber, were marched on board the gunboat; and the howitzers 
were rolled out of the works across a plowed field, and, 
within fifteen minutes, drawn to the beach. 

Hardly were the prisoners secured, when the rebels were 
seen swarming from the adjacent woods to retake the battery. 
The guns just captured were ranged as by magic around the 
bluff, and turned upon them with deadly effect. Meanwhile 


the marines had, with great labor and celerity, transferred 
several howitzers from the gunboat to the bank, and then 
dragged them up the bluff. They, too, opened on the rebels 
at the edge of the woods and in the woods with wonderful 
rapidity and accuracy. 

The rebels fell back. By this time, the other four compa 
nies of the Eighth were ferried over ; pickets were thrown out 
one-fourth of a mile ; and the whole remaining force were set 
at work vigorously digging rifle-pits in the rear of the in- 
trenchments. The pickets were once driven in, but soon 
rallied, and again took their position. 

To capture a strong battery with two hundred men, while 
thousands of rebel troops were within a mile, is no common 
achievement ; and the men were proud of the feat. 

The coolness and fearlessness of Col. Ward won for him 
the admiration and abiding confidence of the veterans of his 

The Union position in front of Suffolk was still almost 
incessantly shelled. The men had been without proper 
rations, and those in front obtained little refreshing sleep. 
On April 24, the whole division moved south and west on a 
reconnoissance in force. The Connecticut brigade advanced 
southward on the Eclenton Road, under Gen. Corcoran ; the 
Eighth being left to hold the position if attacked. 

The companies of Capts. Luther G. Riggs and E. B. Pres 
ton of the Twenty-second were placed in support of a Wis 
consin battery that did good execution. The Sixteenth was 
deployed to skirmish at the head of the column, and its com 
panies moved forward on both sides of the road. After pro 
ceeding half a mile, they encountered the enemy s pickets, 
and pushed them back steadily for an hour, replying rapidly 
to the rebel musketry-fire. The Eleventh advanced in line 
of battle on the right, and the Fifteenth on the left. The 
enemy was driven from his rifle-pits and into his batteries. 
At dark, the force was recalled. 

On May 3, another reconnoissance in force was made to 
hasten the raising of the siege already begun by Longstreet. 
A force, including the Eleventh, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Con 
necticut Regiments, advanced across the Nansemond, north- 


westward towards the Blackwater, along the Providence- 
church Road. The enemy skirmished spiritedly, still falling 
back, and that night departed from the front. 

The Twenty-first had marched down the river, north, to 
Sleepy Hole, with a section of the Wisconsin battery, crossed 
the broad Nansemond at three in the morning, and pushed 
directly into the enemy s country westward. Major Hiram 
B. Crosby led the regiment; Col. Button being in command 
of the 3d Provisional Brigade. As they advanced, the rebels 
fell back to the village of Chuckatuck, and retreated through 
it. Major Crosby ordered Capt. William Spittle, with com 
panies, to skirmish along the Reed s-ferry Road, while another 
company took the road to Everett s Bridge. On the latter, 
the rebels in ambush fired upon our force, killing one, and 
wounding two. They were soon driven off, and the regiment 
again advanced. When approaching the West Branch, the 
skirmishers, under Capts. Spittle, J. H. Shepard, and N. A. 
Belden, were again sharply engaged ; the skirmish resulting 
in the capture of one rebel officer and fifteen privates. 

Major Crosby tried to form a junction with the forces at 
the left, but found that they had all been withdrawn, and the 
regiment was unsupported. It then returned to the river, 
threw up intrenchments, and encamped behind them for the 
night, recrossing the river next morning. The regiment 
received the thanks of Gen. Getty. 

Buring the siege, the Eighth had lost two killed and four 
wounded ; the Eleventh, one killed and four wounded ; the 
Fifteenth, two killed and seven wounded ; the Sixteenth, six 
killed and twelve wounded ; the Twenty-first, two killed and 
five wounded. 

Capt. Charles A. Tennant of the Sixteenth (from Hart 
ford) received a severe flesh-wound in the right thigh in the 
affair across the Nansemond. He was taken to Fortress 
Monroe, where he died in hospital on the 24th, of lockjaw. 
He went out as second lieutentant, and was one of the best 
officers in the regiment. 

Lieut-Col. John H. Burnham of the Sixteenth was wounded, 
also Capt, Randall H. Rice of the Eleventh. 

An officer of the Eighth wrote, " For about two weeks 


we were kept busy at making gabions [barrel-shaped baskets 
open at both ends, to hold the earth in the construction of 
forts] and building a corduroy road. Our works, unlike those 
attributed to good men, will not probably live after us. As we 
failed to feel the importance of building the road, and did 
not think that a reputation for great mechanical skill would 
be for our advantage while in the field, we took care not to 
earn such a reputation. The boys styled themselves, after 
the manner of sensational authors, Peck s Avengers ; or, the 
Basket-Makers of the Nansemond. " 

On May 5, the Twenty-second Regiment went to West 
Point, at the head of the York River. Here it remained a 
month, the men working on rifle-pits, breastworks, for 
tifications, building military roads and bomb-proofs, and 
doing picket-duty. The force went on an expedition to 
White House, within twelve miles of Richmond, the very 
spot where Stonewall Jackson cut McClellan from his base 
of supplies a year before ; and, as the peril became realized, 
Gen. Dix withdrew the division to Yorktown. On June 9, 
the troops began a reconnoissance in force, inarching to Wil- 
liamsburg, Fort Magruder, Barhamsville, and the Chicka- 
hominy ; remaining out a week. The Twenty-second lost a 
colored servant killed by guerrillas, the only man con 
nected with the regiment who was shot by the enemy during 
its term of service. 

About the middle of June, Gen. Getty evacuated Suffolk, 
and fell back north-eastward to Portsmouth, across the Eliza 
beth River from Norfolk, and almost within sight of Fortress 
Monroe, rising over the broad James only twelve miles dis 
tant. Here they occupied some incomplete fortifications, 
and fell at work to finish them. 

During the last week in June, 1863, while the armies 
of Hooker and Lee were going towards Gettysburg, Gen. 
John A. Dix conceived the idea of moving on Richmond, 
up the peninsula; hoping to draw off Confederate troops 
from the Army of Virginia. Gen. Getty s division was 
immediately started from Getty s Station on transports, and 
moved around to Yorktown. Here the troops remained two 
days, the few rebels on the peninsula giving them plenty 


of room. The movement was continued up to White House, 
where the Twenty-first Connecticut was detached for provost- 
duty; Col. Button still commanding the brigade. 

At six 6 clock on the morning of July 1, the force crossed 
the Pamunkey River at White House, on the railroad -bridge. 
The day was extremely hot; but the column moved slowly 
northward, passing Lanesville and King William Court 
House, encountering no enemy. The Connecticut brigade 
bivouacked in a clover-patch of a Mr. Pemberton, while 
the horses were turned loose in fields of juicy oats. Mr. 
Pemberton was away at a meeting ; and every man for miles 
around was absent, "gone to mill," "gone to see his sister," 
gone to an indefinite meeting at some indefinite place for 
some indefinite purpose. 

Next day the force made eleven miles more, passing still 
westward towards Mongohick. Chaplain Morris, in a letter 
to the Palladium on that day. said, " There is a general 
order strictly prohibiting foraging by irresponsible parties; 
but I regret to say that it is openly disregarded in some 
regiments by both officers and men. The woods resound 
with the crack of the rifle ; and in all directions men are 
entering camp loaded with poultry, fresh pork, beef, and 
mutton. In an adjoining field, while I am writing, there lie 
as many as fifty sheep-skins. 

" We passed just after mid-day the princely mansion of 
Dr. Fountain, whose wife is a daughter of Patrick Henry, 
and is an outspoken and zealous rebel. The planter had 
gone to Richmond ; and the women fled in terror at our 
approach, leaving the splendid establishment in the hands of 
the blacks. When we arrived, marauders had been before 
us. Every chair and table was broken, marble tables and 
mantels, mirrors and picture-frames, smashed to fragments ; 
one old family portrait was cut from top to bottom, and 
hopelessly ruined ; bureaus were broken open, destroyed, 
and their contents torn and scattered and trampled by 
muddy boots; bedposts were split in twain by axes; jars of 
preserves were dashed against the clean white walls; a 
splendid library was tumbled from the shelves, and many 
books chopped in two and stamped to pieces. Nothing 


escaped the ax, or the butt of the musket : every room 
was strewn thickly with fragments and tatters, bedaubed 
and unsightly where every thing had been costly and 

" The indignation of Gen. Getty, and of every decent 
man, was unbounded. A guard was immediately posted, 
and every effort made to detect the miscreants. Several 
were arrested, and tried this afternoon by a drumhead court- 
martial ; but I regret to say the evidence was too meager 
to convict any of the despicable knaves. The perpetrators 
doubtless were professional stragglers. A majority of the 
soldiers, I am happy to say, condemn and execrate such 
men, and would deem the death-penalty inadequate pun 

On July 3, the Connecticut brigade had the advance, the 
Eighth out as skirmishers. It was fiercely hot, and many 
fell sun-struck. Surgeon Sabin Stocking of the Eighth, 
and the chaplain, impressed from the plantations along the 
march all the horses, mules, carriages, and carts they could 
discover to transport the loads of sick and fainting men. It 
was a motley collection of carts and gigs, of colts, toothless 
nags, and broken-down mules, uniform only in leanness and 
worthlessness ; but they served the purpose to the extent of 
their feeble ability, and were turned loose at the journey s 
end. At night, the force reached a point due north from 
Richmond, opposite Hanover Court House, on the Pamun- 

The next clay, the 4th of July, was spent near the bivouac, 
on the plantation of Mr. John Taylor, one of three wealthy 
brothers, a keen, cruel, sensual man, and a bitter rebel. 
Mr. Taylor was in a frame of mind to enjoy the day and the 
scene. Being a wily, fluent, and vehement talker, well 
posted in political history, and not at all backward in de 
claring his views, he volunteered to make a speech to the 
soldiers from his porch. Some of his slaves and quadroon 
women were peeping from the windows of the mansion. 
His wife had long been divorced. He spoke of the " inva 
sion of the South," but especially of slavery, in regard to 
the workings of which he claimed to be well informed. He 


said it was a patriarchal institution, good for the happiness 
of both races. He spoke freely of his kindness and gentle 
care of his slaves; admitted that he had to punish them 
occasionally, but explained that he stood in a paternal rela 
tion to them (which, in many cases, was believed to be the 
exact truth); that they regarded his correction as inflicted for 
their own good ; and that they were devoted to hiin ; and ready 
to do or die for him. Deluded orator ! at that very instant 
the hiding-place of his own son, a member of Stuart s cavalry, 
now home on furlough, had been betrayed by some of his 
most trusted "servants;" and others were pointing out his 
secreted treasures of meat, wine, grain, and store ; while 
every black that could hobble was gathering what he could 
to " tote " to the land of freedom. 

In the mean time, it transpired that the Connecticut brigade 
had been left as a reserve to assist Mr. Taylor in a proper 
celebration of Independence Day ; while the other regiments 
of the division had tried to cross the Pamunkey into Han 
over for the purpose of destroying the Richmond and Fred- 
ericksburg Railroad. The passage of the river was success 
fully resisted ; and, after burning a bridge or two, they 
returned to Taylor s next day. The expedition was sub 
stantially a failure, and the troops felt disheartened as they 
turned their faces again to the rear; their chagrin being 
modified, however, by exhilarating rumors from Pennsyl 

Early fruits were in their prime, and the troops lived 
voluptuously. The soldiers from the hard hills of New 
England had never before seen such a wealth of berries, 
especially of running blackberries, as now bestrewed the 
route of march. A man could sit upon the ground, and, 
without changing his position, pick as many as he could 
eat. An officer recalling this time says, " I picked a 
water-pail three-quarters full from the vines within my 
tent." These promoted the health of officers and men, pre 
viously inclined to dysentery; and the column returned 
rapidly and in good spirits, five hundred thoughtless, care 
less, jolly contrabands swarming upon the flanks and rear. 


The return through White House, Williamsburg, and 
Yorktown, to Hampton, was made on foot, through a region 
too poor for plunder; and the division crossed the Roads 
next day, and again quietly encamped for rest and drill, 
cheering over the news from Gettysburg and Vicksburg, and 
resolutely subduing their feelings of pride as they rehearsed 
the achievements of " The Blackberry Raid." 


The Tenth Connecticut Volunteers at Newberne. Expedition to the Interior. The 
Tarborough Scout. Forage and Rations. An Incident of Slavery. The Battle 
of Kinston. The Tenth at the Front. The Contest for the Bridge. Compli 
mented by Gen. Foster. Heavy Losses. The Railroad destroyed at Goldsborough. 
Gallantry. To St. Helena Island. Camp and Surroundings. The Eighteenth 
Connecticut Volunteers still at Baltimore. Joins Milroy at Winchester. The 
Situation. Battle of the First Day. The Second Day at the Intrenchments. The 
Evacuation. The Charge into the Woods. Surrender of the Eighteenth. Casu 
alties. Colors saved. Prison Life. 

EANTIME, in the summer of 1862, the Tenth 
staid at Newberne ; recovering its strength, 
and attaining admirable discipline. Major Pet- 
tiborie had been promoted to be colonel, and 
Capt. Pardee became lieutenant-colonel. The 
latter resigned, however, in September, and was succeeded 
by Major Robert Leggett. Inaction seemed not to dull the 
spirit, or injure the morals, of the men. Rev. Henry Clay 
Trumbull, who had brought to the regiment all the charac 
teristics of an admirable chaplain, wrote, " This is a noble 
regiment. I do not hesitate to say that the moral standard 
is now as high in the camp of the Tenth as with the same 
class of men in any part of Connecticut. I have heard more 
profanity in one day in some streets of Hartford than here 
in any week since my arrival. Many are far more manly 
than when they left home." 

The Tenth lost an excellent officer, Sept. 19, in Major 
Daniel M. Mead of Greenwich, who died of exposure to the 
debilitating influence of the Southern climate. He was a 
young man of sterling qualities, of earnestness, bravery, 
integrity, and he impressed himelf for good on all his 
associates. Capt. Thomas R, Mead, also of Greenwich, died 



in October. He had, within the single year of army life, 
been promoted from second lieutenant for his efficiency. 

During November, the monotony was broken by a raid 
to the north-west. Moving round on transports to Washing 
ton, at the confluence of the Tar and Pamlico Rivers, the 
regiment was put in the advance of Foster s brigade, Capts. 
Goodyear s and Greaves s companies out as skirmishers. 
Going towards Tarborough, they received the first fire of the 
enemy at Little Creek. Then the whole regiment forded 
an ugly stream after dark, under a heavy fire of musketry 
and grape, and drove back the enemy on the other bank. 
Two companies of a Massachusetts regiment were the only 
other infantry engaged. The rebels were pursued rapidly 
to Rawl s Mills, and shelled during their retreat. That 
night the Tenth bivouacked in the clear moonlight on the 
soft clay of the captured line of works. The next morning, 
Williamston was entered without opposition. There was a 
good deal of pillaging in the village ; pork, beef, and poultry 
being knocked over, and cooked in primitive fashion at 
fires in the streets, with fence-palings for fuel. Houses 
were sacked, our troops having been fired upon in the vil 
lage ; and " handsome furniture, pianos, crockery-ware, and 
every thing was turned topsy-turvy and destroyed by our 
soldiers, in search of relics and valuables." a 

Next day the column, the Tenth still in advance, pressed 
on, and captured Rainbow Fort on the Roanoke, and thence 
to Hamilton, and across the country to the suburbs of Tar- 
borough. In two days, they returned to camp ; having been 
absent two weeks, and marched more than a hundred miles. 

Of course, negroes were everywhere encountered, whose 
experience furnished fresh arguments for the war. Lieut. 
Henry W. Carnp of the Tenth wrote as follows concerning 
this class of people : 

" I was in a negro house yesterday, and had some conversation with 
the inmates. I asked a gray-headed old negress if she had ever had chil 
dren sold away from her. k Sold ! dey all sold ! chil en an gran chil en 
an great gran chil en, dey sell ebry one ! She clasped her bony hands 
over her head, and looked up at me as she spoke. Dere was one, de lass 
one, de o ny gran chile I did hab lef . He neber kuowed his mammy. I 

1 Letter of a member of the Massachusetts 44th. 


took him when he dat little. I bringed him up to massa, an I say, " Massa, 
dis my little gran chile : may I keep him bout heah?" An he say, * I 
don t care wot you do wid him." So I take him : he dat little. Den one 
mornin , wen he all rolled up in blanket tween my knees, Massa Green 
corned in an say, " Dis boy sold ! " and dey take him way, O Lord 
Jesus, help me pray ! 

In the Tenth, and in most of the other Connecticut regi 
ments, Thanksgiving was duly observed, as far as the limited 
facilities would allow. On Nov. 15, Col. Pettibone resigned, 
and returned to Connecticut, after faithful service. 

Great courage is sometimes shown in facing apparent 
peril, even where none actually exists. The Tenth had now 
an experience 1 of this kind. Report came to Newberne that 
the New- York Marine Artillery Regiment, which had with 
some justice felt aggrieved, had mutinied at Roanoke Island, 
and taken possession ; disobeying and defying the officers in 
command. Foster turned to the Tenth, always held by 
him in higher regard than any other regiment, and 
ordered it to Roanoke to subdue the insurgents. It started 
promptly; but for the first time the men were depressed in 
spirits. They were on a hazardous mission, to fight their 
own brother-soldiers, brave men who would fight desper 
ately, knowing that death was the penalty of their offense. 
But it was a false alarm. There had been no rebellion, and 
the Tenth was recalled. 

On Dec. 11, Foster s division left Newberne for a west 
ward expedition, to strike the Richmond and Wilmington 
Railroad. The force was twelve thousand strong, with fifty 
pieces of artillery. On the next day and the next, the 
advance had skirmishes with the enemy. At ten o clock 
Sunday morning, the 14th, farther progress was opposed by 
a body of rebels well posted, with several guns, in and about 
an old church an eighth of a mile from Kinston Bridge on 
the Neuse. Our artillery wheeled into position, and replied 
vigorously. The Tenth, with other regiments, formed line 
of battle in rear of the batteries. 

The enemy had great advantage in position. Col. Mallett, 
a rebel prisoner, said afterwards, " We had you just where 
we wanted you." The approach to them lay through a 
seemingly impassable swamp. A charge was ordered ; and 


the troops, throwing off encumbrances, rushed through the 
swamp, and halted for orders on the other side, the Tenth 
being held back in the third line. The regiments were now 
under a very heavy fire from the front. 

Chaplain Trumbull thus writes of what followed, " About 
noon, Gen. Foster, sending for Lieut.-Col. Leggett, told him 
he wished the Tenth to pass over two regiments lying imme 
diately before them, and find the enemy ; not returning until 
they had cleared them out. Our boys were well pleased 
with being preferred above other regiments, old and new, 
for the most difficult and dangerous task of the day ; and 
charged gallantly through a short piece of woods, under an 
incessant and murderous fire. Then seeing just the posi 
tion of the enemy, and being within short range, the regi 
ment opened fire, and continued it with telling effect." 

The Tenth was now in the first line of battle, some parts 
of which were already in disorder. Soon the regiment 
found itself in the extreme advance, and officers and men 
were falling rapidly. They were taken towards the rear, 
and the rest stood up stoutly to the work. Both the field- 
officers were struck down, and many others killed or 

After half an hour of incessant and close fighting, the 
regiment again pressed forward ; when the rebels broke, and 
ran towards the bridge. Then the Tenth, with a shout, 
charged down the hill upon the flying foe. The rebels set 
fire to the bridge as they crossed it, severely burning some 
of their own wounded endeavoring to escape. At the same 
time another rebel force, in line in a cornfield across the 
river, opened a cross-fire upon the Tenth as the latter 
dashed upon the burning bridge, extinguished the flames, 
captured a hundred prisoners, and pushed across, taking a 
Confederate flag and the enemy s artillery. " The regiment 
was in line of battle on the Kinston bank before any other 
[Union] infantry had crossed the bridge. At the close of 
the battle, Gen. Foster rode to the front, and, taking off his 
hat, publicly thanked the gallant Tenth for its part in the 
action., He said it had showed itself now, as before, the 
bravest among the brave ; and, if it would stand by him as 


hitherto, he could sweep the State of North Carolina. . . . 
But oh the cost of such a compliment! We went into 
action with three hundred and sixty-six officers and men ; 
and, of these, one hundred and six were killed or wounded. 
Of these, twenty-three were killed outright, or died" within 
four days. Five died afterwards of their wounds." 2 

" Among those who fell," says Chaplain Trumbull, " were 
some of our best and bravest. We sadly miss and mourn 
them. Our officers say that the fire of the rebels in rapidity 
and accuracy surpassed any thing they had met before. A 
number of our men were shot in two and three places at the 
same time. Three brothers Shepard and two brothers Zuich 
were in Company A ; and all were wounded." Drs. Newton 
of Suffield, and Hart of Hartford, were tireless in caring for 
the men. 

The Confederate flag was a lone-star banner, and was cap 
tured ,by Corporal Edwin D. Ayres, formerly of the Palla 
dium office, but was afterwards stolen by some " bummers " 
belonging to the New-Jersey 9th. 

Next morning the force pressed on towards Goldsborough ; 
and Tuesday afternoon the flying foe made another brief 
stand at Whitehall, where they had burned the bridge. The 
action here was mostly by artillery and sharpshooters, the 
Confederates having both posted on the opposite bank. 
Again the shattered Tenth was ordered to the front, and 
opened fire to the left of the road. Finding no ford, Col. 
Leggett called for volunteers to swim the stream. Five 
brave boys immediately stepped forward and stripped ; and 
on that cold December clay they swam the broad river with 
axes on their backs, and felled tall trees on the opposite 
bank, while others did the same on this. In half an hour 
more, a bridge would have been built ; but an order came to 
discontinue. The regiment met with no loss. 

Again, on Wednesday, they pressed forward, and had sharp 
fighting, both morning and evening, at the railroad bridge 
near Goldsborough. This was burned, and the track de 
stroyed for some distance ; when the force returned to New- 

2 Letter of Chaplain H. C. Trumbull. 



This was perhaps the severest battle in which the Tenth 
was ever engaged. It had more than one-fourth of all the 
casualties of the expedition, notwithstanding its small num 
bers. Its praise was on the lips of all. A colonel of one 
of the Massachusetts regiments which had been walked over 
at Kinston said he could not look upon a man of the Tenth 
without feeling the highest respect for him. 

Sergeant Henry E. Chitty of New London bore the colors 
until his right arm was shattered; and his subsequent anxi 
ety seemed to be only for the safety of the colors. Corporal 
Albert F. Wheaton of North Branford, one of the color-guard, 
was shot through the body, and died the next day. He said, 
" I did what I could to guard the colors : I d stand by them 
to the last. Where s the regiment now ? " he asked. " It 
has gone on to do its work," answered the chaplain. 
Glory ! " he cried. " If I die," he added, " tell my friends I 
gave my life for liberty, and I d gladly give another." 

Five officers of the Tenth had fallen to fight no more, 
Capt. Henry A. Wells of Hartford, and Lieuts. John M 
Simms of Stamford, John C. Coffing of Hartford, William W. 
Perkins of New London, and Theron D. Hill of Coventry. 

Capt. Wells, before the war, was in the United-States ma 
rine service ; and, when the call to arms came, he entered the 
first regiment for the three-months service. Chaplain Trum- 
bull says, " He was one of the bravest men we had : indeed, 
he was conspicuous among brave men. He was light-hearted 
amid the greatest dangers, and performed the severest ser 
vice with a cheerful alacrity that always inspirited the men." 

Lieut, Coffing was mortally \vounded, and did not long 
survive. The enlisted men of his company resolved, " That, 
in his death, we have lost an officer endeared to us by all the 
qualities which command the respect, confidence, and affec 
tion of his subordinates ; " and that he " died nobly in a 
cause which he devotedly loved." 

Lieut. Perkins was a son of Dr. N. S. Perkins of New Lon 
don ; and he and his brother, Major B. R. Perkins of the 12th 
United States, were the first volunteers from that city in the 
war. The New-London Star said of him, "It is seldom that we 
are called upon to mourn a firmer patriot, a braver soldier, or 


a truer or more genial friend, than was Lieut. Perkins. He 
sprang to arms with alacrity at the first call of his country, 
and established an enviable reputation in five hotly-con 
tested battles ; in the last of which he fell where a soldier 
would choose to fall, leading the advance, and expired 
amid the rattling volleys of his regiment and the loud cheers 
of victory." His body, like the remains of his comrades, was 
brought home, and buried with all honors. 

Lieut. Simms went out as sergeant of Company G. He 
was promoted in order, and was presented with a handsome 
sword by the Baptist Sabbath school at Stamford, of which 
he had been an active member. A bullet passed into his 
body early in this action ; but it was thought he would 
recover. In the hospital prayer-meeting in the evening he 
joined in social worship, in song and prayer. He lived some 
months, and died in the perfect love that casts out fear. 

On Jan. 26, 1863, the Tenth left Newberne by railroad for 
Morehead City, and the same day went on board of a trans 
port in Beaufort Harbor. " To Wilmington ! " was the word 
that passed round ; but, a monitor being lost, the expedition 
was turned to participate in the siege of Charleston. 

The Tenth had left behind all camp and garrison equipage 
and personal baggage ; but the regiment was ordered to 
camp on St. Helena Island, a few miles above Hilton Head. 
They adapted themselves as well as possible to the situa 
tion ; and of shelter-tents, with palmetto-trees as an auxiliary, 
soon made a comfortable and attractive camp on an old sea- 
island cotton-field. By sundown there was a home-like air 
to the whole encampment. Every day they expected to 
move ; but they kept at work, leveled the furrows, and laid 
out a fine parade-ground. The shelter-tents were raised on 
walls of logs, or banks of earth, their ends plaited with pine- 
boughs or rushes, or thatched with palmetto-leaves or the 
long gray moss that hangs from Southern trees. Cosy wig 
wams answered the purpose of company cook-houses. 

And finally a rustic chapel was erected at the end of the 
officers avenue, sided and roofed with the feathery pine. 
Seats were made by driving crotched sticks into the ground, 
and laying a stout pole across them. A cracker-box on four 


sticks was the pulpit-desk, and it was prettily curtained with 
palmetto-leaves. Here Sunday services were held, with 
preaching by Chaplain Trumbull ; also evening prayer-meet 
ings, when three lanterns were pendent from the festooned 
rafters, and stars twinkled through the lattice. 

The regiment tarried here, with daily drill and occasional 
dress-parade, until March 27, when it proceeded on a trans 
port to North Edisto Inlet, and took possession of the lower 
part of Seabrook Island. The upper part was held by the 
enemy, and picket-duty was sometimes exciting. 

Here were the tangled tropical undergrowth, palmetto- 
jungles, and low groves of live oaks. " Alligators moved 
lazily through the sluggish waters of the gloomy lagoon, and 
poisonous reptiles glided- through the grass before the tread 
of the passing soldier." 3 There were gnats, mosquitoes, 
spiders, lizards, scorpions, and moccasins. 

" When you hear of mosquitoes," wrote Lieut. Camp in a 
moment of desperate humor, " you think of a small brown 
insect, don t you ? with legs and wings almost invisible, and 
a hum audible some inches from the ear ? I wish you could 
see the animal that goes by the same name here. When / 
speak of a mosquito, I mean something that stands a little 
less than fourteen hands high (can t give the weight because 
we have no platform scales) ; whose wings are like Apol- 
ly on s in the Pilgrim s Progress ; whose muscular legs are 
horribly striped with black and white ; whose sting is like 
the dragon s which St. George slew; and whose voice is as 
the sound of many waters." 

Here the Tenth was doomed to stay, while down upon the 
breeze came the thunder of heavy guns pounding away at 
Sumter and Wagner. Gen. Terry, promoted after Pulaski, 
assumed command of these troops in May ; and here they 
waited, leading an uneventful life, until July 6, 1863, when 
they were ordered to participate in the advance being made 
on Morris Island. 

When the Seventeenth left Fort Marshall in Baltimore, 
the Eighteenth was transferred to it from Fort McHenry. It 

3 Chaplain Trumbull in the Knightly Soldier. 


was on higher ground, and much more healthful. Some of 
the men brought sickness with them, however : and Capt. 
Bromley appears to have had a touch of jaundice ; for he 
wrote to the Bulletin that iie was "looking through the 
yellowest pair of eyes that were ever hung out as a wrecked 
liver s signal of distress." 

Col. Ely hoped to be able here to devote some attention 
to the necessary drill : but the next day the right wing, con 
sisting of the companies of Capts. Isaac W. Hakes, jr., Mat- 
thewson, and Charles D. Bowen, went down along the rail 
road near Havre de Grace, under Major Ephraim Keech, jr.; 
and Capt. Henry C. Davis s company was dispatched to 
Upper Maryborough, a secession town, but returned next day. 
" The only accident," says Bromley, " was the sudden death 
of a pig, who ran against a bayonet on the march from Marl- 
borough back. He died so suddenly, that they roasted him 
to keep him from spoiling." 

The regiment remained all winter divided in Maryland, with 
headquarters at Fort Marshall. The men were industriously 
drilled in artillery and infantry tactics ; and the left wing 
was so thoroughly exercised in battalion-movements, as to 
win the approval of Brig.-Gen. Morris, an old army officer, 
who was chary of his commendations. Comfortable quar 
ters were built ; food was plenty, if not of a quality to tempt 
an epicure ; service was not arduous ; and, on the whole, the 
regiment had an easy time. Col. Ely was president of a 
military court, and Capt. Bromley judge-advocate. The 
officers enjoyed the society of the few Union families in 
the city. Capt. Bromley wrote, Col. Ely has won golden 
opinions from all the officers of the department with whom 
he has come in contact. No officer was ever more watchful 
than he for the welfare of the men, and none ever deserved 
more fully the confidence, which, without exception, they 
repose in him." 

At last, late in the spring of 1863, the monotonous life in 
barracks ended. Most of the men were tired of its unsol- 
dierly quiet, and rejoiced when orders came to go to the 
front, even though that front was the oftrcontested She- 
nandoah Valley. Already had the Rebel and Union forces 


been repeatedly driven through it from end to end, and 
already had veteran regiments learned to prefer any other 
service to the bewildering tramps through its rivers and 

By the middle of May, the detached companies had been 
called in from Havre de Grace and the Wilmington Road ; 
and on the 22d the regiment moved to the depot of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, took a train in waiting, and 
sped up the wild and picturesque valley. Crossing at Har 
per s Ferry, it shortly left the crowded cars at Winchester, 
joining the command of Major-Gen. Milroy. 

As far back as the previous November, Gen. Halleck s 
chief-of-staff, Gen. Cullom, had reported, after careful examina 
tion, not only that the works at Winchester were so located 
as to be indefensible per se, but that the place required no 
works, and should have no heavy garrison; being merely "an 
eye of the National army looking up the Shenandoah Val 
ley." He recommended that all infantry be withdrawn, and 
only a strong cavalry picket retained. The recommendation 
was not heeded ; and Milroy remained with seven thousand 
men, while Lee s army, flushed with the victories along the 
Rappahannock, was pressing towards Pennsylvania. About 
the 9th of June, Early, with Stonewall Jackson s old corps 
of thirty thousand men, pushed silently and swiftly north 
ward through the valley, while Lee seized and held the gaps 
of the Blue Ridge. Next day, Milroy exultingly telegraphed 
to Gen. Schenck at Baltimore, that his advance had had "a 
splendid little skirmish" with the rebels, and added, "The 
enemy are probably approaching in some force. I am en 
tirely ready for them : I can hold this place." And as late 
as the succeeding day, June 11, Col. Bonn Piatt, chief-of-staff, 
possessed by the same delusion, telegraphed, " All works tine. 
Can whip any thing the rebels can fetch .here. How is Mrs. 
Piatt ? " He did not wait long for an answer. 

On Saturday, June 13, the Union pickets were driven 
towards Winchester, and brisk skirmishing ensued. Col. Ely 
of the Eighteenth was in charge of a brigade ; and he im 
mediately advanced upon the Front-Royal Pike with his regi 
ment (under Lieut.-Col. Nichols) and the 87th Pennsylvania, 


and a section of battery, to " feel for the enemy." The feeling 
was mutual. They had gone little more than a mile from town 
when they were opened upon by a battery planted in the 
edge of a dense thicket on the opposite side of a deep ravine. 

The Union battery was wheeled upon a knoll, and opened 
briskly ; the Eighteenth lying down in high clover closely in 
the rear, except Companies A and B deployed as skirmishers. 
The enemy played upon our regiments at a distance of not 
more than four hundred yards, for an hour, with six Napo 
leon pieces, and at last exploded the caisson of the battery, 
and silenced the guns ; when the brigade fell back. 

Nearer the city, the artillery-fight was resumed at long 
range. Meanwhile Early had thrown other brigades around 
on the west, and there had been severe fighting there. 

Night came on, and the city was besieged. Milroy ascer 
tained that an overwhelming force was in front of him and 
on his flanks : this was his opportunity to retreat under cover 
of the blinding darkness and the heavy thunder-shower; but 
some fatuity detained him. 

The Eighteenth was stationed all night in rifle-pits just 
outside the city, wet through with the drenching rain. By 
midnight, it was obvious that Early was closing in ; and Ely s 
brigade of four regiments was recalled to the fort, but at 
sunrise was sent out again. " The 1st Brigade, under Gen. 
Elliott, occupied the main fort; the 2d, under Col. Ely, 
held the town and the space outside ; the 3d, under Col. 
McReynolds, was posted in the star fort." 4 

"The Eighteenth" (commanded by Major Henry Peale) "was sta 
tioned for a few hours in the southern part of the city, defending govern 
ment property ; and some of the companies skirmished with small parties 
of rebels. The command was soon ordered to the defenses in the north-east, 
commanding the Berry ville Road, in which direction the lines of the enemy 
could now be discovered. Severe firing shortly ensued, which lasted for 
several hours. The rebels took possession of a large house within rifle 
distance of the regiment, and annoyed us severely ; delivering their fire 
whenever a head showed itself above the rifle-pits. It was resolved to dis 
lodge them ; and a 24-pouuder brass howitzer was procured from the fort, and 
turned upon the building. After the firing of several shots, some of which 
penetrated it, a portion of the regiment (Companies F and H), under Capt. 
Charles D. Bowen of the latter company, charged, and captured eight pris 
oners ; the rest making their escape." 5 

4 New- York Herald Narrative. 6 Major Peak s Official Report. 


The 2d (Ely s) Brigade was. now stationed near the ceme 
tery, across which the principal firing took place. "About 
four in the afternoon, the rebel skirmishers charged up to 
the very edge of the town ; when a well-directed fire from 
our troops sent them back in confusion to their supporting 
line, which also caught the panic, and rushed back to the very 
edge of the timber." ( Here several of the Eighteenth were 
killed and wounded. 

About this time the rebels charged upon and captured 
the important outworks held by an Ohio regiment, on the 
other side of the main fort ; and the 2d Brigade fell back 
to the works north-east of the fortification, in which the prin 
cipal part of our forces were now besieged, and subjected to 
a severe bombardment. 

By sundown of the 14th, the city was three-fourths in 
vested. Early s right crossed the Berryville Road on the 
north-east, and his left intersected the Front Royal, Strasburg, 
and Romney Roads. 

"At 1, A.M., on the 15th, the order was given for the silent 
evacuation of Winchester. The night was intensely dark ; 
but the column moved with order on the road leading to 
Martinsburg, due north; the Eighteenth Connecticut forming 
the advance of the center brigade. The command had pro 
ceeded about four and a half miles, when the head of the 
1st Brigade suddenly encountered the right of the enemy 
posted in strong force in a piece of woods skirting the right 
of the road. The rebels threw forward with great rapidity 
a sufficient force to command the whole of the 1st Brigade, 
and a large portion of the 2d. One or more volleys were 
delivered by them and returned, but, owing to the extreme 
darkness of the morning, had little or no effect. At this 
time, the 1st Brigade charged ; and, having partially driven 
back the force immediately in its front, the larger portion 
passed on, and continued its flight to Harper s Ferry. The 
remainder pf the 1st Brigade, together with the 2d, fell back 
in a field to the left of the road, and re-formed their partially- 
disordered ranks." 7 

A letter written by one of the regiment soon after gives 

6 New- York Herald Narrative. 7 Major Peale s Official Report. 


the following account of the gallant part borne by the 
Eighteenth in the charge of the 2d Brigade : " We charged 
into the woods ; but, in the gray dawn, nothing could be 
discerned but the flash of their rifles. We could not see a 
man ; and they had every advantage of us, as we charged 
from light into the darkness, where they quietly awaited 
our coming. The crack of rifles was for a time terrific ; 
but numbers and position finally prevailed, and we were 
obliged to retreat. 

" We formed again, in perfect order, in the open field, and 
prepared for a second charge. By this time, we could form 
some idea of the rebel position; for we could see quite 
plainly. Gen. Milroy was behind us on his horse ; and he 
told us to take that battery ; that we could do it in ten 
minutes. Officers and men were cool again, and in good 
spirits. Well, the order was given, Forward, Eighteenth ! 
Charge bayonets ! Double-quick ! March ! and away we 
went into those woods again. We were met with a murder 
ous fire ; but forward sprang the line with a yell. Up the 
cross-road we charged, in point-blank range of the rebel 

"A long line of fire streamed from thousands of rifles, 
interrupted now and then by the blaze of the battery. 
Trees were peeled in all directions. We charged up to the 
battery and silenced it, killing or wounding every man 
that stood by it ; but they had plenty of artillery in re 
serve : so we saw it was useless to attempt to hold it. After 
fighting desperately for some time, and losing many valu 
able men, the order to retreat was given ; and we again fell 

This was the first battle in which the Eighteenth had been 
engaged ; and its behavior had deserved great credit. The 
above statement seems slightly colored by the interest 
which a participant would naturally feel; yet it is abundant 
ly corroborated by the list of casualties, and by the account 
given by the Confederates themselves. 

The Richmond Whig, during the same week, contained a 
letter written by a member of the 1st Maryland (rebel) 
Battery, of which the following is an extract : " About d^rk 


the same night, Johnston s division moved off to the right, 
and came on the road leading to Charleston. We marched 
all night ; and at break of day, as we were going towards 
Winchester, we received a volley of Minie-balls. We imme 
diately went into position ; but, as it was dark, we could not 
see the enemy, who continued to fire upon us. ... As 
soon as it was light, we commenced firing : then came a 
shower of Minie-balls such as I never heard before. With a 
yell, the Yankees charged our battery three times, and got 
within a few yards of it, but were driven off So many 
were killed at gun No. 1, that it had to be abandoned ; and 
we had fired every round of ammunition from gun No. 2, 
these being the only guns of our battery firing on the 
charging columns of the enemy. Then the Yankees made 
a final charge, and got nearer than before; and we thought 
we wore about to be captured. Two or three horses having 
been killed, we were unable to move off We then found a 
few rounds of ammunition in the caisson of No. 1; and, put 
ting them in No. 2, we drove them back for the last time." 

The Eighteenth had lost thirty-one killed and forty-four 
wounded, including five commanders of companies. After 
the last charge, Col. Ely looked about him for support, and 
found that the 3d Brigade had taken advantage of the fight 
to turn about, and make its way across the country towards 
Pennsylvania, Milroy and Major Peale had already escaped 
with a few men, including thirty from the Eighteenth. 

Col. Ely and Lieut-Col. Nichols were dismounted, and 
were immediately summoned to surrender. The rebels now 
occupied the road in both directions. The Federals num 
bered but a thousand men, jaded by two days sleepless 
service, and now badly cut up. Under the circumstances, 
Col. Ely surrendered the command. The men were imme 
diately placed under guard. 

Col. Ely s sword had been hit by a ball during the battle, 
shattering the blade near the hilt. When he delivered it to 
the rebel Gen. Walker after the fight, that officer asked, 
"When was this done, sir?" "This morning." "You 
deserve to keep this," was the rejoinder: "I will direct it 
to be retained for you." It was sent to Gen. Early, by 


whose order it was finally forwarded through, by flag of 
truce, to the father of Col. Ely, while the soldier who had 
borne it gallantly was yet a prisoner. 

Besides the thirty who got away with Major Peale, Com 
pany D of the Eighteenth, detailed as provost-guard, escaped 
intact. About half of the seven thousand of the division 
ultimately escaped ; stragglers coming into the border-towns 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania for a week, most of them 
unarmed and nearly famished. 

Within thirty minutes after Ely s surrender, Early s entire 
corps marched across the battle-field in swift pursuit of the 
fugitives. Many were captured. 

Among the killed in this battle was Capt. Edward L. 
Porter, only son of Dr. Isaac G. Porter of New London. He 
was a graduate of Yale of the class of 57 ; a young man 
of excellent literary taste, and had adopted the practice of 
law with fine promise. Surgeon Holbrook recently wrote 
of him, " I remember Capt. Porter as one of the noblest of 
our company of martyrs, who, on that memorable morning, 
offered up their lives on the altar of constitutional liberty. 
At my suggestion, he went to the hospital three days 
before ; being sick with what I feared might prove typhoid 
fever. I visited him on the day before the evacuation, and 
found him very weak, and was surprised, on the following 
morning, to find him at the head of his company. An offi 
cer informed me that he seemed possessed of superhuman 
energy in the battle, and gallantly led his men in the 
charge, when he was struck by a bullet in the forehead, and 
died almost immediately. He has left a bright record of 
honorable manliness. Dignified and gentlemanly, always 
prompt in the conscientious discharge of duty, he attested 
by his death the sincerity of his patriotism, and sealed with 
his blood his love of liberty." His watch was returned to 
his father ; and on the inside he had written, jap ip^srai vo* . 
" For the night cometh." The words characterized his gen 
eral thoughtfulness. 

The handsome regimental colors presented by the ladies 
of Norwich were not captured with the regiment. When 
they were inquired for, the men would not or could not give 


any information as to their whereabouts ; but in two days, 
after many "hairbreadth scapes," they crossed the Pennsyl 
vania border wound about the body of Color-sergeant George 
Torrey of Woodstock, who had taken to the woods during 
the confusion. He was subsequently commissioned captain 
in the United-States colored troops. 

About two hundred made good their retreat, and gradually 
gathered again at Maryland Heights, under Major Peale. 
H. H. Starkweather immediately went to the rendezvous, 
carrying food and other comforts from home, and sending 
back to the anxious relatives news from the regiment. 
Capt. Thomas K. Bates, a brave officer, severely wounded 
and a prisoner, was recaptured shortly after in a rebel 

The prisoners suffered from the first day of their cap 
tivity. They were not allowed to bury the dead of the 
regiment, as that would deprive the rebels of the Thenar- 
dierian privilege of robbing the corpses of the slain. The 
prisoners were hurried back to the fort, and next day were 
started for Richmond on foot. They made ninety-two miles 
in four days, arriving at Staunton on Monday the 22d, and 
thence took the cars for Richmond. They reached the Con 
federate capital early next morning, and, without making 
any triumphal entree, marched straight to Libby Prison. 

The food on the journey consisted of a pint of flour and 
a very small piece of pork to each man. The officers and 
enlisted men were in separate squads, and were not permit 
ted to communicate. 

Un the second day, the privates were transferred from 
Libby to Belle Isle in the James River, now so infamous in 
the annals of the war. Here they staid a few weeks, on 
scanty rations ; when they were taken back to Libby, paroled 
July 2, taken to City Point, released, and transported to 
Annapolis; having been under the stars and bars seven 
teen days. They remained at Camp Parole until the 1st 
of October, when they were duly exchanged, and returned 
to the nucleus of the regiment, now in camp at Martinsburg, 
north of Winchester. 

The officers were not so fortunate. They were detained 


at Libby through many weary months ; hoping, fearing, 
expecting, and sometimes almost despairing. They had 
scarcely food enough to sustain life ; but the miserable 
rations were supplemented with heavy boxes of succulent 
and nourishing food, prepared with loving hands in Eastern 
Connecticut. Officers of other regiments brought away 
letters concealed in their buttons, from Col. Ely, Capt. 
Davis, Lieut. Higgins, and others. Capt. Davis said, " On 
the prison-walls of the Conciergerie, in the days of the 
French Revolution, was written, He who retains his patriot 
ism can never be wholly miserable; so here in these days, a 
parallel with that time in fraternal bloodshed, this sentiment 
sustains many a prisoner. Deprived of liberty, and subsist 
ing on a scanty diet, we are not of all men the most misera 
ble when we remember for what we are here." 

About this time, Corporal Samuel D. Worden of Canterbury 
died of wounds received at Winchester, and disease engen 
dered on Belle Isle. He was liberally educated, a graduate 
of the Unitarian Theological Seminary at Meadville, and had 
occasionally occupied the pulpit of that denomination. He 
was an exemplary Christian soldier, and fought as he had 
lived, in compliance with his conscientious convictions. 
When the second call for troops came, he had charge of a 
school at Greenville ; but he joined Capt. Davis s company, 
and laid all the hopes and aspirations of his cultivated mind 
on the altar of American nationality. He finally died at 
home, where Rev. Mr. Stone of Brooklyn delivered a touch 
ing address ; and the remains of the fallen hero were borne 
to the grave by his companions in arms. Such were many 
of the men who fought in the ranks of our great army. 


Battle of Cliancellorsville. Advance upon the Flank. The Fifth, Fourteenth, Seven 
teenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-seventh Connecticut Regiments engaged. The llth 
Corps overwhelmed by Stonewall Jackson. Terrible Battle of May 3. Heavy 
Losses of the Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers. The Twenty-seventh Regiment 
captured. A New Line of Battle. Withdrawal of the Army and Failure of the 
Movement. Losses of the Connecticut Regiments. Prisoners of War. 

PRING came. It was 1863. Two years of the 
war had passed with little gain for the Union 
arms in Virginia. Hooker was in command of 
the splendidly-disciplined and plucky Army of 
the Potomac, which he declared to be " the finest 
army on the planet," His eight corps were eager to be led 
again towards Richmond., this time by the soldier who had 
borne the brunt of battle at Antietam. Five Connecticut 
regiments were with him, the Fifth and Twentieth in the 
12th Corps, the Fourteenth and Twenty-seventh in the 2d 
Corps, and the Seventeenth in the llth Corps. 

In the march to Chancellorsville, the llth and 12th Corps 
were in company ; while the 2d proceeded by the nearer 
route, via United-States Ford. 

On April 27, the reveille was sounded at three o clock in 
the morning. Breakfast was dispatched ; tents struck and 
knapsacks slung ; officers baggage sent to the regimental 
wagons ; and at six o clock the men were in line. They 
were supplied with eight days rations of hard-tack, sugar, 
coffee, and salt. Mules bore a blanket and a shelter-tent for 
each man. Fresh beef was driven along in the train ; one 
ration to be issued every three days. The men were in 
good spirits : the day was beautiful. At ten o clock, the llth 
and 12th Corps were in motion ; the march, of the day lying 



westward, parallel to the Rappahannock. They bivouacked 
upon a pleasant hillside near Hartwood Church that night ; 
waking early, and starting again at daybreak, still westward. 
At two o clock, the Seventeenth Regiment halted, and ate a 
frugal dinner near Barrett s Ford ; where, on account of a 
drizzling rain, they waited until midnight. 

They then crossed in silence, and without opposition, and 
pressed forward towards Culpeper. At four o clock in the 
morning, having been under arms twenty-five hours, the 
men dropped down in the woods, and slept till seven. Here 
the 12th Corps passed. The llth Corps was shortly in 
motion again ; and towards evening both corps turned short 
to the left, and advanced towards Fredericksburg. 

The question of how to cross the Rapidan was next en 
countered. The bridge was gone ; the banks were steep 
and high ; and the stream swollen by previous rains so as 
to be hardly fordable for artillery. Delay was defeat; so 
a ford was ordered. " The men fixed bayonets, hung their 
cartridge-boxes on them ; and then, with muskets at right- 
shoulder-shift, clambered down the bank. It was a cold day ; 
the water was chilly ; and, as they plunged in, it was like the 
cut of a knife : but they wallowed on, singing, John Brown s 
soul is inarching on, some shouting, Who wouldn t be a 
soldier? and others wondering why Hooker didn t make his 
regiments into gunboats, and use them in the naval service. 

" The current was so strong as to carry several of them 
down stream ; but they finally reached the opposite bank 
some distance below, with the loss of musket and cartridge- 
box. Here you would see a cautious fellow slip off his 
stockings, shoes, and pants, tie them in his handkerchief, 
and suspend the bundle on his bayonet to keep it dry then 
join the crowd to the river. Watch him : ten to one the 
current trips him, and he wets bundle and cartridge-box to 
gether, and is lucky if he get to the shore without losing a 
part or all of his load. On the south bank were men drip 
ping with water, and shivering with cold, wringing their 
drenched clothes." 1 Two miles farther on, they spent the 
night around blazing fires. 

1 Col. P. B. Buckingham s MS. History of the Twentieth. 


Companies A and H of the Fifth unpacked all the ammu 
nition from the mules, and carried it across by hand during 
the evening. In the night also, a detail of men, under Capt. 
Samuel S. Woodruff of the Twentieth, threw a rude bridge 
across the river, which was very seviceable to the llth and 
5th Corps. They pushed up to the Rapidan in the evening, 
where they bivouacked, and enjoyed the easy slumber of 
the tired soldier. At one o clock in the morning, they were 
awakened, and ordered to " fall in " to cross the river. Lieut. 
Wilcoxson of the Seventeenth, in a letter to his wife, wrote 
of this, 

" A wild and weird scene it was. Moving down the road 
to the abrupt bank of the river, we came upon the abutment 
where had been the old bridge, and where the rebels had 
lately begun the construction of the new. Here, dividing 
our ranks, each man groped for himself a way down the 
steep bank to the foot of the abutment, from which a rude 
and trembling structure scarcely four feet wide, and but a 
trifle raised above the surface of the rushing and foaming 
river, led to one pier and another, and so to the opposite 
bank. The night was pitchy dark ; and, to enable us to avoid 
a tumble into the boiling flood, fires had been built on the 
piers, which lighted up the tortuous course of the phantom- 
like train as it slowly crawled out of the darkness on one 
side, across the flimsy bridge in the ruddy glare, and into 
the darkness beyond." 

Two miles farther, and another halt. One rubber blan 
ket on the ground and another over him, the soldier s simple 
toilet is made, and he falls asleep to the music of pattering 
rain on the rubber covering. At daylight, the rain in 
creased ; but by noon both ^corps were again in motion, with 
a hot sun overhead. The march was rapid, without halt 
for dinner. They passed through the Wilderness, and at six 
o clock arrived at Chancellorsville. 

The line of battle was disposed in the form of an irregular, 
inverted V ; the left leg resting on the river, and Mr. Chan 
cellor s house being in the rather obtuse apex. The llth 
Corps, under Gen. 0. 0. Howard, held the right of the whole 
line ; Devens s division abutting on a dense wood assumed to 


be impenetrable. On the left was the 3d Corps, arid on the 
left of that the 12th ; while the 2d held a position to the left 
of Chancellor s house. 

The Seventeenth Regiment was stationed near the resi 
dence of a Mr. Hatch, a native of Farinington, Conn. : and 
Saturday, May 2, found it supporting Dieckman s battery ; the 
right wing being in Hatch s garden, and the left deployed 
along the Culpeper Road in line of battle. The house was 
the headquarters of Gen. Devens, commanding the division 
at the extreme right of the army. 

Notwithstanding this exposed situation, neither he nor 
Gen. Howard seems to have guarded against surprise. Re 
peatedly warned on Friday by the artillery duels at the right, 
and on Saturday by spies and scouts bringing information 
that the rebel infantry was massing there, they took no 
adequate precautions. Adjutant Wilcoxson, writing next 
day, said, " For some time, troops were seen passing to the 
south-west, along the crest of a distant hill ; in regard to 
whom conjectures were various. Gen. McLean (command 
ing the brigade to which the Seventeenth was attached) 
thought them to be rebels ; but Gen. Devens was confident 
it was another corps of our own army. At one o clock, in 
formation came to Gen. Devens that the rebel batteries were 
moving around our right flank. I have since learned that 
our generals had been informed that the enemy were in 
strong force upon our flank ; and why a stronger force was 
riot sent out as skirmishers, and the line of battle changed 
to front the foe, is more than I am able to understand." 

The fact is, that both Hooker and Howard were over-confi 
dent and incautious, and believed none of the stories of the 
Hank-movement. Hooker wrote 2 to Sedgwick at this hour, 
" We know that the enemy is flying, trying to save his trains. 
Sickles s two divisions are among them." Gen. (then Col.) 
Noble writes, "The disaster resulted from Howard s and 
Devens s utter disregard and inattention, under warnings 
that came in from the front and flank all through the day. 
Horseman after horseman rode into my post, and was sent 
to headquarters with the information that the enemy were 

2 Vide Swinton s Army of the Potomac. 


heavily marching along our front, and proceeding to our 
right ; and, last of all, an officer reported the rebels mass 
ing for attack. Howard scouted the report, and insulted 
the informants ; charging them with telling a story that was 
the offspring of their imagination or their fears." 

Two companies of the Seventeenth, Wilson French s of 
Ridgefield, and Albert II. Wilcoxson s of Norwalk, were out 
on picket, when they were attacked by the advancing hosts 
of Stonewall Jackson, and driven in upon the flank, rapidly 
pursued. As soon as the rebels were unmasked by the pick 
ets, the regiment poured several volleys into them ; but they 
rushed forward in overwhelming numbers. The battery 
retreated without attempting to fire a gun. The German 
troops at the left, exposed to the same tremendous shower 
of grape and canister and shell, accompanied by an attack 
of infantry, fell back, outnumbered ten to one. For a time, 
McLean s brigade alone remained on the contested ground, 
which had become a perfect Pandemonium, alive with shriek 
ing shells and whistling balls. 

"It was a complete surprise to this corps. Gen. Hooker 
had announced that the rebels were running away. Gen. 
Howard did not expect an attack ; and his men were cooking 
supper, some with their arms stacked, and hardly a single 
regiment in position to repel attack. Almost the first inti 
mation the men had of the presence of the enemy in their 
immediate vicinity was a volley of musketry, and a shower 
of grape and canister in front, flank, and rear. They were 
panic-stricken, as most troops would have been." 3 

The Seventeenth Regiment had been ordered to lie down. 
The heroic Lieut-Col. Charles Walter rose to ascertain the 
situation. He was seen to drop suddenly. It was supposed 
that he had lain down again for protection ; but he had been 
shot through the head, and was dead. Many were slain si 
multaneously in the fierce onset. The regiment yielded to 
vastly superior numbers pressing in on all sides; and the 
two wings marched out by the left flank, under a most 
galling fire. While gallantly rallying his men to return the 
rebel fire, a shot struck Col. Noble in the arm, severing an 

8 Col. Buckingham s MS. History. 


artery. He remained on the field until so faint from loss of 
blood that he could no longer manage his horse ; when he 
was supported to the rear. The horse had been wounded, 
and died soon after. The regiment made a brave stand at 
the rifle-pits, near headquarters, and remained there all night, 
supporting a battery ; while the 3d Corps was flung into the 

The retreat of the llth Corps, instead of being the rout 
and flight of poltroons, as described at the time, was inevita 
ble after the impetuous Jackson had got in its rear with 
forty thousand infantry. But it is unquestionable that 
McLean s brigade contested the ground stubbornly. Ket- 
tell s History of the Rebellion says, " The brigades of Bush- 
beck and McLean held their ground for a time, but were 
compelled to fall back before the irruption of the enemy." 
The New-York Times correspondent said, " The brigade of 
McLean remained fighting, and maintained themselves nobly 
as long as possible." The Tribune said, " McLean s men 
stood their ground manfully." 

The "Dutch" have been long enough held responsible for 
the repulse at Chancellorsville. The fact is, that less than 
half of the llth Corps were Germans, and they were at the 
left of Devens. 

On Friday, the day preceding Jackson s assault on the 
llth Corps, the Fifth and Twentieth, with some other regi 
ments, went on a reconnoissance in force towards Freder- 
icksburg, and were exposed to the fire of the enemy s 
batteries for two hours. For the first time under fire, the 
Twentieth behaved with great coolness and steadiness. It 
is not necessary to speak of the conduct of the Fifth. 

The repulse of the llth Corps next day was a severe trial 
to both, holding the line immediately on the left. Lieut. 
William A. Daniels, adjutant of the Fifth, in the official 
report of the action, says, 

" At four o clock in the afternoon, our corps was ordered out from the 
barricades, which had been constructed the previous night, to engage the 
enemy upon the left of our (corps) line. Before meeting the enemy, we 
moved about a mile and a half to the left, then formed line of battle, the 
Fifth Connecticut taking the right of our division, and forming part of the 
first line of battle ; Company H, under Capt. Daboll, being thrown forward 


as skirmishers. These having drawn the fire of the enemy, a rapid 
exchange of shots ensued, until within about fifty yards of the enemy s line ; 
when, the skirmishers being ordered to lie down, the regiment received 
orders to commence firing, which they did, alternating front and rear rank, 
with good effect. 

" After about a quarter of an hour s engagement, the entire line 
received orders to fall back, firing as they moved, which was done in good 
order, the men conducting themselves with the most perfect coolness and 
regard for discipline ; our regiment in the mean time performing the diffi 
cult maneuver of doubling on center. 

" After moving to the rear about two hundred yards, the entire brigade 
was ordered to move at double-quick in the direction of the intrenchments 
formerly occupied. Upon arriving within two hundred yards of our barri 
cades, we received a tremendous volley of musketry from the enemy, who 
had succeeded in obtaining possession of them in our absence, through the 
retreat of the llth Corps, which had occupied a position upon the right of 
our intrenchments." 

It is not surprising that this bold attack in the rear threw 
the regiments into some disorder. The brigade, however, 
instantly charged, and retook the intrenchments ; but was 
forced to withdraw by the overwhelming numbers of the 
enemy. In this confusion, Col. Warren W. Packer and five 
other officers of the Fifth were taken prisoners ; but the 
regiment rallied, and held a position near by. Col. Packer 
says he moved the regiment by the flank at this time, in 
obedience to explicit orders ; and that the whole regiment 
might have been captured if the rebels had been bolder. 

The Twentieth, early on the morning of the 2d, began to 
throw up intrenchments along its front. A member wrote, 
" The want of suitable implements for this work was felt ; 
but bayonets took the place of picks, cups and plates became 
the substitutes for shovels ; and so in a few hours our defen 
sive arrangements were complete." 

During the afternoon, as has been seen, the 12th Corps 
was swung to the left through the woods towards Freder- 
icksburg, with the intention of cutting off the rebel rear 
from joining Jackson in his retreat. The Twentieth was 
advanced through the woods, and was again under a severe 
fire of shot and shell. When the llth Corps gave way, the 
regiment retired slowly and in good order to a position 
behind the breastwork previously constructed. 

This was held for a time ; and still the retreating regi 
ments went surging past, and the rebels pressed closely after 


them. Here some severe hand-to-band fighting took place ; 
and in the almost total darkness friend could hardly be dis 
tinguished from foe, except when the fitful flash of musketry 
revealed the presence of one or the other. 

The 3d Corps had taken the place of the llth ; and a skir 
mish was kept up during the evening, sometimes bursting 
into sharp volleys, and then subsiding. " About eight o clock, 
P.M., Jackson opened with artillery, and hurled his massed 
columns of infantry upon this portion of our line with a 
vigor that it seemed impossible to resist. The advancing 
column was met on our part with great steadiness and a 
firmness that could not be overcome. Guided in its aim by 
the flashes of musketry, our artillery threw shells into the 
solid masses of rebel infantry, carrying destruction and 
death. The roll of musketry was incessant; the air was 
filled with missiles of every shape; solid shot hissed through 
the air, cutting off the tops and huge limbs of trees that fell 
crashing to the ground ; shells, shrieking and howling 
through the darkness, could be traced in their pathway 
by the fire from the lighted fuses, until they burst into 
hundreds of ragged fragments, carrying death and horri 
ble wounds on every side ; the red flashes from the mus 
kets, and pieces of artillery, lighted up the woods ; and, as the 
smoke settled over the combatants, you could see, under 
neath the sulphurous canopy, men begrimed with smoke and 
smeared with the blood flowing from their wounds, stalking 
about like fiends ; and one could not but think the whole 
scene belonged to the infernal regions." 4 

The Fifth was here under fire in support of a battery ; 
the Twentieth held an intrenchment a little at the left ; and 
during the night the Fourteenth had been removed from the 
left to this vicinity, and was engaged all day in a fierce 
guerrilla battle in the woods. 

The rebels pressed forward time after time during the 
night, apparently determined to break our ranks, or perish 
in the attempt ; the line swayed backward and forward ; 
charges and counter-charges were made ; our artillery, play 
ing over the heads of our men, made terrible havoc in the 

4 Col. Buckingham s MS. History. 


assaulting columns ; and the faces of the contestants glowed 
in the strange and grand illumination. During three long 
hours, our men stood firmly, holding the ground against the 
surging masses brought against them, and never yielding 
another inch. At eleven o clock, the rebels lost a little 
ground, and shortly after ceased firing for the night. 

The Fifth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth were involved in 
the terrible fight next morning on this front. 

Major P. B. Buckingham of the Twentieth, commanding 
at the close of the action, reports : - 

" Both officers and men manifested a determination to hold the position, 
should an attack be made upon this portion of the general line, which was 
momentarily expected, as the enemy had driven in the extreme right of our 
line, held by the llth Corps, and was making a murderous attack upon 
the center of our position, which was but a short distance to the right 
of the portion of the line held by this regiment. 

" On Sunday morning, the 3d iustaut, the enemy appeared in force near 
the point of attack on our center on the evening previous. The action 
soon became general, and extended along the left of the line till it reached 
the point occupied by the Twentieth Connecticut. The officers and men 
awaited with great coolness the approach of the enemy, who came up yell 
ing like fiends, till they arrived in a ravine about twenty rods from the 
front of the regiment; when the men rose, and discharged a well-aimed 
volley, which covered the ground with the killed and wounded of the 
enemy, and caused them to fall back in disorder. They again rallied, and 
advanced under cover of a battery of artillery, the fire from which enfi 
laded a portion of the breastworks occupied by. this regiment, up to, and 
some few rushed over, the works, and were either shot or taken prisoners 
by our men." 

During the first assault, the rebels captured a battery on 
the right front, and turned it upon our men. The fire from 
these guns enfiladed the right of the 12th Corps, including 
the Twentieth Connecticut. It was a trying time. Occa 
sional discharges of grape-shot came whizzing along ; and a 
constant hail-storm of bullets made the position one that 
would have tested the valor of any troops. 

" After maintaining its position for nearly five hours, and finding that 
the enemy had already driven our forces both on the right and lei t, and 
that the entire regiment was in danger of being surrounded and captured, 
Lieut. -Col. Wooster reluctantly gave the command to retire, which was 
executed in some disorder ; but the men rallied and re-formed, under the 
direction of the remaining officers, some half mile in the rear of the first 
position. It was behind the barricades, and during the time the regiment 
was falling back through the woods, that our entire loss occurred. The 
men, after leaving the barricades, were subjected not only to the fire of 
shot and shell from the enemy s artillery, but to a cross-fire of infantry." 


During the retreat to a new position, the rebels, who had 
instantly dashed over the works in pursuit, hedged the regi 
ment in upon both flanks, firing vigorously, and shouting, 
Halt!" "Surrender!" "Come in out of the cold, Yanks!" 
Some were captu red here ; but the most of the men attained 
the new line, where our artillery was massed. 5 

Major Theodore G. Ellis commanding the Fourteenth, in 
his official report, says of the action of his regiment, 
u About sunrise on the morning of the 3d instant, the first 
line of battle having been forced by a terrific assault of the 
enemy, this regiment became engaged; the enemy appear 
ing on our front and right flank almost simultaneously. We 
were forced to retire, principally on account of there being 
no troops on our right to prevent the enemy, who had 
engaged the front line on our right, from passing through 
the unoccupied interval, and attaining our rear. After with 
drawing, this regiment joined the remainder of the brigade, 
and was placed behind rifle-pits to the left." 

During the 3d, the Fifth moved off to the left, and formed 
a portion of the third line, lying in a very exposed position, 
where Capt. Benton was killed, and many wounded. 

In the mean time, disaster had overtaken the Twenty- 
seventh. During the afternoon of May 1, the regiment 
had participated in a reconnoissance to ascertain the ene 
my s position. After going some distance, the regiment 
retired at a double-quick to meet a rebel movement threat 
ening its right flank ; and soon after moved across the open 
ground near the Chancellor House, and down the road to a 
position in the tangled woods on the left. Here, though 
shelled vigorously, the men succeeded in throwing up an 
intrenchment. All next day they were engaged in extend 
ing and strengthening their works ; and towards evening 
they heard the wild shout of triumph that burst from the 
rebel line as Jackson s troops swept over the earthworks of 
the llth Corps. Doubt, apprehension, anxiety followed. 
Gen. Hancock rode up, and informed Col. Bostwick that the 

6 Capt. Andrew Upson of Southington was among those taken prisoner. In a letter 
to his wife, he gives an interesting account of how lie feigned death; the rifling of his 
pockets l>y the rebels, and their quaint remarks as to how he died ; and the final discovery 
of his ruse by a rebel surgeon lifting his eyelids. Capt. Upson was afterwards killed at 
Tracy City, Tenn., while lighting guerrillas. 


regiment would hold the position, and significantly called his 
attention to the fact, that, in extremity, the men could fight 
on either side of the intrenchment. The roar of battle 
came nearer. Our artillery receded to a new position, and 
again the forest reverberated with the cannonading. At 
length darkness dropped among the trees. The Twenty- 
seventh continued in position. 

Early on Sunday morning the battle was renewed, and 
again crept towards the left. After a hasty breakfast, the 
Twenty-seventh was ordered down into the intrenchments 
in the apex of the V, thrown up by the men on Friday 
night. This was in the extreme front, and very much 
exposed. The regimental history says, 

"As the regiment advanced at double-quick, down the 
hill into the ravine, it was met by a heavy fire of musketry. 
A number were wounded, and several shot through the head 
just as they entered the .breastworks. Not succeeding in 
their first attempt, the rebels made no further attack in 
force upon our part of the line; but, concealed in the thick 
woods, continually annoyed us with a scattering fire. The 
men replied as they had opportunity, and with considerable 
effect, as the rebels themselves afterwards acknowledged. 
Col. Bostwick was particularly noticeable for the almost 
reckless exposure of himself to the enemy s fire while 
attending to his duties at different points in the line. . . . 
Suddenly from unseen batteries behind us comes a deep 
roar ; and the next moment shell after shell shrieks through 
the trees, and bursts almost in the rifle-pits. The thought 
flashes upon us, that the rebels are in our rear ; but it is 
dismissed with the reflection that it is only a Union battery 
firing too low, which will soon correct its false aim. Mean 
while, our little band had been reduced to less than four 
hundred men, including two hundred and seventy of the 
Twenty-seventh ; and, this force being entirely inadequate 
to hold the extended line, Col. Bostwick dispatched Major 
Coburn for re-info rcements. 

" In a few moments the shelling ceased ; and for up the 
road in front appeared a rebel officer waving a flag of truce, 
and slowly advancing, waiting for recognition. The men 


stopped firing in the immediate vicinity of the road; while 
for a moment the musketry became more brisk on the left 
flank. At length the officer arrived within a few paces of 
the works, where he was halted to await the presence of 
Col. Morris of the 66th New- York, commanding the whole 
line. This officer was not to be found ; and the responsi 
bility of receiving the communication from the flag of truce 
devolved upon Col. Bostwick. 

" The rebel a tall, rough specimen, yet with the man 
ner of a gentleman announced himself as Lieut. Bailey 
of a Georgia regiment. He said he had been sent to inform 
us that we were entirely surrounded ; that there was no 
possible avenue of escape ; and therefore he summoned us 
to surrender, and thus avoid the loss of life which would 
inevitably follow any resistance to the overwhelming force 
in front and rear. The colonel replied that he did not see 
it; and proceeded to investigate the actual state of affairs. 
Meanwhile, Lieut.-Col. Merwin went up through the woods 
in the rear, only to find it too true that the rebels were 
posted in strong force to bar any escape in that direction. 
Masses of the enemy pouring in on the right and left re 
vealed at once the desperate position in which we were 
placed ; while the singing bullets from the woods behind, as 
well as in front, indicated that the foe were closing in upon 

" The first impulse among officers and men was. to attempt 
to force our way through ; but it \vas evident that such a 
course would result in the destruction of more than half our 
number, while the remainder would inevitably fall into the 
hands of the enemy. After a* hurried consultation among 
the officers, a surrender was agreed upon ; and the formality 
had hardly been completed, when a heavy line of rebel 
skirmishers swept out of the woods behind. Five minutes 
before, the men stood at their posts, undisturbed by even a 
doubt of their security ; now, astonished at the sudden 
denouement, we found ourselves about to enter upon the 
terrible uncertainties of rebel captivity. And this surprise 
and mortification was increased by the conviction that seri 
ous disaster must have overtaken the Union army." 



The impression was well founded. Our troops had been 
repulsed in a series of engagements along the right; and 
Gen. Hooker had withdrawn his line of battle towards 
the ford, and re-forrned it in an irregular semicircle, with the 
center of the front near a white house at the junction of the 
roads, and with both flanks resting on the river. Orders 
were sent to recall the Twenty-seventh ; but the carrier was 
intercepted, and the regiment was left to its fate. 

The rebels made a strong effort to seize the road leading to 
United-States Ford, and thus cut off the line of retreat ; but 
a storm of shot and shell from a hundred guns, supported 
by a concentrated fire from the 2d and 5th Corps, promptly 
repulsed the attack. One more assault was made on our 
lines during the day, with the intent to capture a park of 
artillery stationed near the center ; but again the enemy 
was hurled back by the combined fire of cannon and mus 
ketry, leaving the ground strewn with his dead. 

During Sunday night, the new line was thoroughly in 
trenched ; and Lee withdrew to overwhelm Sedgwick s corps, 
that had crossed and gallantly stormed Marye s Heights at 

The Fifth Regiment, under orders, recrossed the Rappa- 
hannock on the evening of the 3d, and was kept on provost- 
duty for two days by Gen. Patrick ; after which it was 
ordered to the camp at Stafford Court House, where the 
men arrived at nightfall of the 6th, in a drenching rain. 

The Fourteenth remained in the rifle-pits, under fire, but 
met with little additional loss. Early on the morning of 
the 6th, the regiment, now numbering about two hundred 
men, was withdrawn, and silently recrossed the river in the 
dark, and proceeded to its old camp. 

The Twentieth had lost fearfully. Lieut.-Col. William B. 
Wooster, " who had, through the whole action, manifested 
the utmost coolness and bravery," says the official report, 
was taken prisoner on Sunday ; and Capt. Sanford E. Chaffee 
thereafter led the regiment until the 5th, when Major Buck- 

6 Batteries B and M had been detached from the First Connecticut in 1862, and were 
engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg, winning commendation for their conduct. Thcy 
were still detained in the field, and were now stationed at Falmouth. They were of 
material aid in the capture of Marye s Heights. 


ingham was relieved from staff-duty, and took command. 
On the 6th, it returned to the camp near Stafford Court 

When our artillery checked the Confederate advance 
on the night of the 2d, the jaded Seventeenth gathered 
again on the top of a hill in rear of the guns, and slept. 
Lieut. Wilcoxson wrote, " While the ponderous diapason of 
the artillery rolled along the vibrating air, and the solid 
earth trembled with the oft-repeated concussion, I fell asleep ; 
and, with the serenity inspired by a good position and heavy 
artillery, rested pleasantly till Sunday morning." All next 
day and night, while the battle raged, the regiment was kept 
vigilant in defending the road to United-States Ford in the 
rear. Tents, blankets, and baggage were gone ; and the 
men were on less than half-rations. Then came a tremen 
dous thunder-shower, which subsided into a cold and settled 
rain. Two days more were spent in great discomfort ; then, 
after standing under arms all night, with the rain beating 
dismally about them, they returned with the army across 
the Rappahannock, and crawled back wearily to Brooke s 
Station, their old camp. 

The Twenty-seventh had nearly four hundred men on 
going into battle ; of these, the whole were captured, except 
ing companies D and F, with small squads of other compa 
nies ; numbering in all a hundred and sixty men, under 
command of Capt. Joseph R. Bradley. The regimental flag 
was still borne by these. This remnant of the regiment held 
an important point in Hooker s contracted line of battle; 
being in the front of the line, whose entire base rested on 
the river. On the morning of May 6, it recrossed with 
the rest of the command, and constructed for itself a new 
and more comfortable camp near Falmouth. The regiment 
had two men killed and seven wounded ; of the latter, Capt 
C. M. Wilcox of Madison lost a leg. 

The Fifth had lost one killed (Capt. George S. Benton of 
New Haven), eighteen wounded, and forty captured. The 
death of Capt, Benton was a loss deeply felt. Adjutant 
Daniels said of him in the official report, " Having been 
connected with the regiment from its formation, he early 


won the respect and esteem of the entire command, without 
distinction as to rank or position. Ever prompt to answer 
the call of duty, falling at his post upon the field of battle, 
none of our men has left a more honorable record as a leg 
acy to his friends and native State than has George S. 

Of the Fourteenth Regiment, thirty-eight were wounded 
and nineteen taken prisoners. Of the wounded, Capt. Isaac 
R. Bronson died in hospital on June 2, of a severe wound in 
the upper right arm. He was a native of Middlebury, and 
a son of Leonard Bronson, but was residing at New Haven 
when the war broke out. Jle abandoned a prosperous busi 
ness, and gave his heart and hand earnestly to the cause. 
After the repulse at Fredericksburg, he wrote, " I do hope 
the government will not patch up a peace on account of this 
affair. I would rather a thousand times leave my bones 
here than have my children inherit a government exposed 
to what ours must be, if we now surrender to our foes what 
we refused to our friends." Lieut. Samuel Fiske wrote of 

" He was one of the most earnest, honest, and fearless patriots whose 
life has been sacrificed in this great cause. In a camp-life, which is too 
often made an excuse for relaxing the principles of morality and religion 
that are a restraint at home, he led a pure and Christian life. Where pro 
fanity and obscenity are (I am forced to say) almost the rule, and decent 
language the exception, no impure or irreverent words came from his lips, 
nor, unrebuked, from those of his men. Of a courage that never left him 
satisfied to be away from his post when action and danger were before us ; 
of an earnest patriotism that left none of us in doubt what were his motives 
in coming to the field ; of an enduring fortitude that shrank from no extremi 
ties of hardship and privation that came upon us ; of a generous and cheer 
ful spirit that was an example to us all ; he was a soldier worthy of our 
cause, a patriot without a blemish, a Christian that does not dishonor the 
name, a comrade of whose loss I can scarcely trust myself to speak. Since 
the deajh of the lamented Willard of my own town and home, slain at An- 
tietam, no stroke has come home so deeply to me personally. The first 
captain of our regiment to fall on the field ; and now, as yet, the last. 
Noble, Christian soldiers both ! a tear to their memory and a lesson to 
each of us from their lives." 

Of the Seventeenth, two were killed on the field, thirty- 
four wounded, and eighty taken prisoners. Nine soon died 
of their wounds ; but most of the wounded, with careful 
treatment, recovered. The regiment was fortunate in pos- 


sessing a surgeon so accomplished, and so devoted to his 
duty, as Dr. Robert Hubbard of Bridgeport. He was one 
of the most skillful surgeons in the entire corps. 

Lieut.-Col. Charles Walter was born in Copenhagen, Den 
mark, in 1832, and came to America when young. He was 
a private in Capt. Speidal s company, in the First Regiment ; 
was promoted to be first lieutenant; and was aide on Gen. 
Tyler s staff at the battle of Bull Run. On account of his 
daring, he fell into the hands of the enemy, and spent a year in 
rebel prisons. On returning, he was made lieutenant-colonel 
of the Seventeenth. He was a man of education, of untiring 
energy, and great bravery. He showed singular coolness 
and resoluteness in battle; and his brother-officers said, "With 
deep sorrow and regret we have left him behind, in ground 
which needs no holier consecration than to entomb the re 
mains of such a noble patriot." He was an admirable com 
panion, possessing high social qualities, fine literary taste and 
culture, and excellent musical attainments. He was also 
something of a genius as an amateur artist, and made a 
striking sketch of the rebel prison, afterwards lithographed 
by his friends. 

Corporal Thomas D. Brown of Norwalk, whose wedding 
the company had attended on the morning of leaving home, 
died in hospital. His spirit took its flight just as he finished 
singing a patriotic song. Sergeant Martin V. B. Glover of 
Newtown also died at this time. He was an earnest and brave 
young man, and had, two months before, written to his neigh 
bors and friends a stirring patriotic letter, beseeching them 
to carry on the war. 

The Twentieth Regiment had lost fully one-third of its 
number ; twenty-seven officers and men being killed out 
right, sixty-two wounded, and one hundred and eight 
taken prisoners. Of the wounded, sixteen died. Col. Ross, 
commanding the brigade, was wounded in the leg in the 
early part of the action on Sunday, and compelled to leave 
the field. Lieut. David N. Griffiths of Derby was an officer 
of much promise. He was struck in the forehead by a bul 
let, and instantly killed, while encouraging the men to stand 
firm. He fell with feet to the foe, and his sword grasped in his 


hand, a pattern of determined courage. Sergeant-Major 
John S. Root of Hartford, killed by a grape-shot at the bar 
ricades, exhibited almost reckless daring. Assistant Surgeon 
D. L. Jewett of East Haddam remained with the wounded 
men who filled the Chancellor House. When our troops fell 
back, the rebels opened upon this hospital, and riddled it 
with balls. A man was killed under the hand of Surgeon 
Jewett, on the operating-table. Shells were exploded in the 
house ; and at last it was set on fire and burned to ashes. 
The helpless men were all removed to a place of safety. 
Surgeon William B. Casey had been promoted to be brigade 
surgeon, and rendered efficient service. 

In this battle, the regiment lost Sergeants Albert Stillman 
of New Britain, and Charles H. Smith of Orange, Corporal 
Titus Moss of Cheshire (three brothers were fighting at his 
side), Corporal David W. Jones of New town, William A. Cole- 
man of New Britain, and a score of others, bravely fighting ; 
and on that field most of the young patriots lie in unknown 

The battle of Chancellorsville was a Confederate victory ; 
yet the Federal arms effected one result, which, from a na 
tional stand-point, almost compensated for the repulse, 
Stonewall Jackson was dead ! 

" On to Richmond !" At least eight thousand of Hook 
er s army were still marching towards the rebel stronghold ; 
disarmed, however, more or less disrobed, and subjected to all 
the indignities of prisoners of war. Five hundred and three 
of these were from Connecticut; the Fifth having lost forty; 
the Fourteenth, nineteen ; the Seventeenth, eighty-four ; the 
Twentieth, one hundred and eight ; and the Twenty-seventh, 
two hundred and eighty-two. 

The prisoners were not detained long ; but their trials 
were severe even at this early day, before the world had 
been shocked with the horrors of Andersonville. Every 
thing was taken from them, knapsacks, blankets, shelter- 
tents, and canteens. Lieut. Sheldon says, " One of the rebel 
skirmishers had hardly lowered his gun from an aim, when 
he walked up to one of our men, and said, Have you got a 


knife to sell ? No. And, somewhat abashed, he went to 
try his luck in a more promising field. Quite a crowd of 
butternuts assembled to view the * Yanks, and prosecute 
their schemes of trade." Col. Wooster was deprived of his 
elegant cap ; the robbers substituting a rotten old slouched 
hat, almost too filthy for a rebel to wear. Lieut. A. E. 
Beardsley was similarly treated, and lost his coat besides ; 
but he defiantly refused any gift in exchange, and made 
his trip through the Confederacy and back to Annapolis 
bareheaded, protecting his head occasionally by a night 

Among the first to greet the prisoners was young Bob 
Stiles, a New-Haven traitor, who refused to shake hands 
with his old acquaintances, and contemptuously informed 
them, that, rather than live again under the hated Union, 
the Southern gentlemen would die in the last ditch. 

The next three days were days of speechless misery, 
hardly paralleled during the service of the men. They 
were broiled in the sun, soaked in the rain ; and no food had 
yet been dealt out. " At last the order is given, Fall in for 
rations! We had almost concluded that this order would 
never again greet our ears until we should once more stand 
under the flag of the Union. Immediately our thoughts 
recurred to camp near Falmouth ; and in imagination floated 
visions of beef, pork, hard-tack, fresh bread : in fact, Uncle 
Sam s army-rations loomed up in bolder relief than ever 
before. In silent suspense we advance and receive three 
pints of flour apiece ! The inquiry arose, What shall we do 
with it? Our extremely limited culinary facilities soon set 
tled that question. There was but one alternative ; and the 
men immediately built little fires, and were busily engaged 
in cooking up a bill of fare for the march to Richmond, 
said bill of fare consisting simply of flour and water mixed 
together, and dried before the fire. A New-England fanner 
would regard it a personal insult if one should offer such 
stuff to his hogs. . . . Two days later, at Hanover Sta 
tion, each man received five medium-sized crackers and 
an ounce of bacon. Our guards were very uncommuni- 


cative, but occasionally sung out, Git in yer groups of fours 
dar! " 7 

Thousands poured into the roads all along the route to see 
the strange procession, and to deride the prisoners as they 
inarched. " Well, here you are : you ve got Richmond 
now ! " shouted one. " Hardly an honest face among em," 
observed another. " What you uns want to trouble we uns 
faw ? " screeched a slatternly female hanging over the fence, 
unable to comprehend the political situation. "What are 
you doing down here ? " demanded a man indignantly. 
" Pall-bearers at Stonewall Jackson s funeral ! " was the re 
ply. The angry rejoinder came, "If you were not a prisoner, 
I d shoot you ! " 

So, insulted and exhausted, they arrived at Richmond, 
and were quartered at Libby Prison, the tobacco-factory, and 
among the sands and wild onions of Belle Isle. Some were 
not dejected, and insisted on seeing the humorous side of 
the journey. This, under the circumstances, was an achieve 
ment compared to which extracting sunbeams from cucum 
bers were a pastime. On entering the dismal walls of Libby, 
a lieutenant remarked to the grim keeper, that he " wanted 
to go home : he had some wood to saw and other chores 
to attend to." Capt. David S. Thomas of New Haven thus 
described the fare in Libby : 

" The old fat quartermaster of the prison used to visit us occasionally ; 
and, though he was a rabid old rebel, we rather liked him. He wasn t 
what we call a good provider, by any means ; but he was immense on dis 
tributing consolation. The bacon he gave us looked as if cut from the 
side of a hog about two weeks old, and tasted as if the deceased had known 
no other diet but granulated pebble-stones and black ink. With a slight 
process of tanning, our rations of bacon would have made excellent half- 
soles for boots. The officers were allowed to purchase some provisions ; 
but this privilege was denied privates, and they suffered considerably for 
palatable food. 

" It would astonish a stranger to see the variety of dishes we manufac 
tured from corn-meal alone. Mixed with water to a consistency of paste, 
it made what we called pancakes, a dish that constituted a large item in 
our diet. With a little less meal and more water, we had Indian pudding, 
to be eaten with a spoon. A more liberal donation of meal, with the 
same quantity of water, made a thick substance, which, when baked in 
the oven, was styled Johnny-cake. Then there are fish-balls, manufactured 
from the same compounds. This receipt requires about four meals to one 

7 Lieut. Sheldon s Regimental History. 


water, and, when moulded together, should be able to stand alone any 
where. Divide the aggregate into cakes one inch thick, and about the size 
of the palin of the hand. Lay these in rows on the top of the stove ; and, 
if there is any fire at all inside, you will have superior fish-balls in from 
one to three hours." 

Within two weeks, most of the officers and men were 
exchanged at City Point, and hailed the old flag with shouts 
of welcome. 



Kace of the Hostile Armies Northward. Battle of Gettysburg. The Fifth, Fourteenth, 
Seventeenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-seventh Connecticut Regiments engaged. 
Second Light Battery. The Affair of July 1. The Assault of July 2. Attack 
on the Left Flank. Terrible Fighting of July 3. Connecticut Correspondents. 
The Losses in our Regiments. Scenes on the Battle-Field. The "Fourth of 
July." Tardy Pursuit of Lee. Our Troops again in Virginia. 

OOKER had been out-generaled, defeated by 
superior skill rather than by superior numbers 
or courage. His army was diminished., but not 
disheartened ; for the men attributed their re 
pulse to the proper cause, and felt, that, effi 
ciently led, they were a match for any soldiers in the 

The Army of the Potomac had fallen into the habit of 
indulging in a long rest after every battle ; taking ample 
time for recuperation, improved by the rebels with equal 
zeal and profit. But Lee seemed inclined to act on the 
Napoleonic maxim, afterwards adopted by Grant and Sheri 
dan, " When we are weak, the enemy is weak : that 
is the time to strike." So now he did not wait for Hooker 
to re-organize. He believed the Union army dispirited, 
and in that fatal delusion projected an invasion of the 
North through Maryland. 

Hooker s army was hastily refitted for a severe campaign. 
The regiments from Connecticut held about the same rela 
tive position as before Chancellorsville, except that the 
Fifth and Twentieth were now brigaded together in the 12th 
Corps. Col. Packer and other officers of the Fifth, Lieut- 
Col. Wooster and his companions of the Twentieth, and Col. 
Bostwick, Lieut-Col. Merwin, Major Coburn, and other offi- 



cers of the Twenty-seventh, had been exchanged as prison 
ers of war, and now returned to their commands. Col. 
Bostwick was unable to accompany the army on account of 
a painful and protracted illness. Most of the enlisted men 
captured at Chancellorsville were still absent on parole. 

Hooker watched the crafty rebel general, and, even 
before his purpose became apparent, moved his army 
towards Warrenton ; covering Washington on one hand, 
while pressing the rebel flanks on the other. The 12th 
Corps was the first to move ; leaving its camp at Stafford 
Court House on the loth of June, and pushing northward 
all night, arriving at Dumfries early in the morning. Other 
corps followed closely ; the 2d being the last to leave the 
line of the Rappahannock. Lee maneuvered his forces with 
consummate ability, and kept his flank so covered with 
cavalry, that it was almost impossible to ascertain his loca 
tion or his movements from day to day. 

The Fifth and Twentieth Connecticut remained at Dum 
fries a day and night, and at three o clock next morning 
were again in motion. The day was oppressively hot and 
dusty (the thermometer standing at ninety-five degrees 
in the shade), and many fell out by the way with sun 
stroke ; but the column pressed on to Fairfax Court House, 
which place was reached at nine o clock at night, after a 
march of thirty-three miles. Serious inroads were made in 
the ranks of all the regiments, as appeared at roll-call when 
tattoo was beaten that night ; and the corps rested here 
another day and night. Many of the men had blistered 
their feet during the severe march. Reveille sounded at 
two, A.M., of the 17th; and the regiments advanced to 
Drainesville, and again bivouacked. Sunrise of the next 
day found them in line, marching towards the Potomac. 
They encountered a violent hail-storm ; and, in crossing 
Goose Creek, the men waded up to their waists in the 
stream ; but, before taking their evening rations, they went 
into camp near Leesburg. From this point, the Union army 
lay stretched south-westward beyond Manassas. The 2d 
Corps, in which were the Fourteenth Regiment and the rem 
nant of the Twenty-seventh, was picketing Thoroughfare 


Gap, a gorge in the Blue Kidge of strategic impor 

The 12th Corps remained at Leesburg nearly a week ; 
the Fifth Connecticut being there detailed to do provost- 
duty. Meantime, Lee was heard from, crossing the Potomac 
at Williamsport, and appealing to the people of Maryland 
for support ; and on June 26 the corps crossed the Poto 
mac at Edwards s Ferry, and moved rapidly northward in 
pursuit. The other corps had now come up ; and all crossed 
before night of the 27th, arid advanced to intercept the 
audacious march of the rebel army into Pennsylvania. 

On the morning of July 1, Gen. George G. Meade, now 
appointed to the command of the army, started the 1st and 
llth Corps from their camp, four miles south of Gettysburg, 
with directions to move rapidly northward, and find the 
enemy, whose infantry was supposed to be at least one 
day s march distant. Gen. Reynolds, with the 1st Corps, 
pressed forward through the town, and found our cavalry 
engaged about three miles north-west of Gettysburg. The 
enemy showed no disposition to yield ground, and, in repel 
ling cavalry-charges, had revealed something of an infantry 
force. Eagerly pushing on, Reynolds drew up his command, 
and engaged the enemy, whose divisions of infantry now 
poured upon and around him in overwhelming numbers. 
Howard hurried forward, deployed the llth Corps on the 
right of the 1st, and took command when the brave Rey 
nolds fell. 

In the mean time, Hill, with the advance of the Confede 
rate forces, had been largely re-inforced by Ewell ; so that 
the Union troops were again outnumbered. The afternoon 
witnessed a furious contest. 

The Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteers conducted itself 
with much courage and steadiness. It was the first regi 
ment of the corps sent forward as skirmishers ; and, while 
the left wing of the regiment was thus deployed under Major 
A. G. Brady, the, other wing w r as gallantly led forward by 
Lieut.-Col. Douglass Fowler in a charge upon the advancing 
rebel lines. Ewell s troops had arrived ; and the Seven 
teenth was flanked, and attacked fiercely on the right. 


The regiment stood firmly, and lost heavily here ; Lieut- 
Col. Fowler and Capt. Moore being struck down in the same 
charge. Gen. Wadsworth was also outflanked on the left; 
and it soon became apparent that these two corps of seven 
thousand men were face to face with nearly the whole rebel 
army. Howard withdrew his men through Gettysburg, 
fighting till within the very streets, and took possession of 
a range of hills a mile south of the town. 

The other corps of the army advanced rapidly across the 
Pennsylvania line, attracted towards the sharp cannonading ; 
and joined the 1st, llth, and 12th Corps in rear of the ceme 
tery, where Meade hastily arrayed them for the coming 
contest. The men were despondent; and Lee s army 
gathered exultantly around the pickets, shouting across, 
that they would " finish the Yanks to-morrow." The divis 
ions of Meade s army were silently marched into position ; 
rude intrenchments were thrown up during the night ; and, 
before Lee was ready to deliver a general battle next morn 
ing, the Union line was firmly formed. The 12th Corps 
held the eminences near Rock Creek on the right ; the 1st 
stood next at Gulp s Hill; then the llth and 2d defending 
Cemetery Hill, the key to the position ; while the 3d and 5th 
were drawn up along the ridge to the left ; and the 6th was 
held in reserve. The line described an irregular flatiron 
shape, with the toe towards Gettysburg, and the heel to the 
south-east. Opposite, Lee was marshaling his forces on a 
corresponding series of bights ; while between the contest 
ants lay a mile-wide belt of comparatively level and open 

It will be seen that the Connecticut regiments held posi 
tions of importance and peril. The Fifth and Twentieth 
were on the extreme right flank, the Seventeenth in the right 
center, and the Fourteenth and Twenty-seventh along the 
left. The Fourteenth was now reduced to a hundred and 
sixty men, while the Twenty-seventh went into action with 
seventy-five men. The Seventeenth carried three hundred 
and sixty-nine muskets into the fight. Capt. Albert H. Wil- 
coxson, detailed as provost-marshal of the division, petitioned 
to be relieved before the battle ; and served nobly as volun- 


teer aide to Gen. Barlow in the thickest of the fight. The 
Second Connecticut Battery, Capt. Sterling, had now come 
up, and took position with the 2d Corps in the left center. 

The forenoon of July 2 passed in continued preparations. 
Across the valley on Seminary Ridge, Lee was marshaling 
his men, and posting his artillery. Twelve o clock came : 
only the intermittent and feverish discharge of musketry in 
the skirmish-lines told that the foe was still wary. One 
o clock : Meade is painfully anxious, and every officer won 
ders when and where the crash will come. Artillery-men 
lean upon their guns ; the infantry in front of the cannon 
lounge about on the grass, crack jokes, and speculate about 
the dark masses maneuvering on the opposite hill. Four 
o clock : the oppressive silence is broken by a single cannon 
at the left ; and a single ring of smoke curls up from the 
rebel center. 

Within another minute, the air is filled with flying mis 
siles from the muzzles of hundreds of hostile cannon. At 
last, away towards the left, the long gray lines of Longstreet s 
corps, with forty thousand bayonets glistening in the sun, 
quickly descend the slope, and advance across the interven 
ing space. As they approach, the rebel cannonade slackens, 
and Tyler s artillery turn their guns upon them with terrible 
effect, throwing a shower of bursting shells into the midst 
of the solid masses, and, as they come nearer, serving them 
with deadly volleys of canister and grape. Rapidly moves 
the main line of the enemy, never flinching or faltering 
under the incessant fire of our batteries. When within mus 
ket-range of the 3d Corps, advanced beyond our main line, 
volleys of musketry are rapidly exchanged, and blend with 
the artillery in one continuous roar. Under the murderous 
fire with which they are received, the rebels first hesitate, 
then stagger back, and finally turn and fly. They are 
speedily rallied by Longstreet, and led again, yelling, to the 
charge, which this time is fierce, protracted, and bloody. 
The 2d and 5th Corps rush to the side of the 3d, which is 
now wavering and falling slowly back before the terrific 
onset. The fighting becomes more desperate ; and the foe 
is at last driven inch by inch beyond the wheatfield, where 
the first assault was made. 


The little band of the Twenty-seventh Connecticut has 
now become engaged. "Lieut-Col. Merwin fell while lead 
ing the command with his accustomed bravery. Under 
Major Coburn, the line still pressed forward at double-quick, 
through the wheatfield and woods beyond, driving the rebels 
a quarter of a mile across a ravine, which on the farther side 
rises into a precipitous ledge. The men with much difficulty 
clambered up the rocky steep ; but, as they appeared upon 
the crest of the hill, the enemy, drawn up just beyond within 
pistol-range, opened upon them a withering fire. The con 
test at this point continued for some time. Planting the 
colors upon the top, the men loaded their pieces under shel 
ter of the brow of the hill ; then, rising up, delivered their 
fire. Meanwhile the troops to the right gave way ; the 
enemy advanced a large body of troops from that direction ; 
and Gen. Brooke ordered our shattered line to fall back, 
which was accomplished under a heavy cross-fire." 1 

Gen. Robert 0. Tyler commanded all the reserve artillery 
at Gettysburg, and was constantly with it at the front. The 
guns were fought with great bravery. Sometimes the rebels 
would charge up to the muzzles of the guns, disabling every 
man ; then they in turn would be hurled back by our deter 
mined men. Gen. Tyler had a horse shot under him. 

The contest raged with doubtful result : first the rebels 
advanced with a wild yell, and then recoiled before our fresh 
troops ; and the surging masses swayed backward and for 
ward till the sun passed behind the hills. In the mean time, 
the 12th Corps, ordered to the relief from the extreme right, 
came over and plunged down the slope to the fight just as 
the rebels had, in a most determined charge, swept back the 
Union lines, captured their cannon, and occupied their ground 
nearly up to the works on Cemetery Ridge. As this corps 
and the reserved 6th rushed down, cheering loudly, the 
rebels gave way, apparently unwilling to prolong the strug 
gle with fresh troops. The men advanced rapidly; and a 
brigade charged, recapturing a battery of 12-pounders that 
was being dragged off through the woods. As twilight 
changed to darkness, the rebels retreated from this portion 

1 Lieut. W. D. Sheldon s History of the Twenty-seventh. 


of the line, clinging tenaciously to the wheatfield ; when the 
contest ceased for the night. The danger being passed, the 
12th Corps was ordered to return to its position on the ex 
treme right. 

During the night of the lst-2d, the Fourteenth Connecti 
cut had been out on picket some two miles back : in the 
morning it was on provost-duty, and in the afternoon was 
moved to its position in the 2d Corps, and placed in support 
of a battery. It was under a heavy shell-fire during the 
afternoon, but met with little loss. 

In the center, on Cemetery Hill, our batteries had been 
assailed in a desperate manner ; but the rebels had met equal 
valor, and been repulsed with heavy loss. The Seventeenth 
was posted behind a stone wall, and had acquitted itself nobly. 
After repeated onsets, the rebels had retreated to the town, 
leaving the ground strewn with their dead and dying. 

o o */ o 

The 12th Corps toiled wearily back to its position on the 
right, only to be surprised at finding the works which they 
had vacated three hours before occupied in force by Swell s 
corps of twenty thousand men. These troops had dashed 
up the hill after dark, and driven out Gen. Greene s brigade 
left in possession ; pouring into the intrenchments by the 
thousand. The woods were filled with solid masses of rebel 
infantry, waiting for the light of morning to give them surer 
footing. It was well for us that darkness enveloped the 
woodland here and now ; for another hour of daylight would 
have enabled the column to push on to the Baltimore Pike 
in the rear of our position on Cemetery Hill, when scarcely 
any thing could have saved the Union army from utter rout. 

As it was, the 12th Corps was stationed along Swell s front ; 
and the picket-line was pushed forward into the edge of the 
woods, as close as possible to that of the enemy. On the 
extreme right, some of the Union skirmishers advanced to 
the rifle-pits simultaneously with those of the enemy ; and 
they mistook each other for friends in the darkness. They 
mingled and talked freely, then went to a spring near by to 
;et some water, our men showing the " Johnnies " where to 

O O 

find it ; and, as they drank and filled their canteens together, 
a Union brigade moved up, and occupied the works. Return- 


ing, one of Ewell s men had his suspicions aroused by the 
remark, "The Rebs have caught Hail Columbia on the left;" 
when he cried out to his companions, " H 1 ! these are 
Yanks ! " A general melee took place : men rushed hither 
and thither ; muskets were clubbed, and bullets flew for a 
short time ; and the rebels found themselves prisoners. Pick 
ets were pushed closely forward all along the line. 

It was felt that Evvell would press his advantage at dawn ; 
and preparations to meet him were rapidly made. Troops 
moved into place and intrenched. Four new batteries were 
set, one on McAllister s Hill to the right ; another on an 
elevation in rear of the Baltimore Pike .to the left ; and two 
more on Power s Hill, directly in front of the point where 
the rebels lay in the gap. 

"Such of the men as could threw themselves on the 
ground, and tried to get a little rest : but occasionally some 
watchful sentry would fire his musket at an enemy whose 
tread he heard in the thick darkness of the wood ; and the 
flash, revealing his locality, would draw two or three shots 
from the opposing pickets, which would be answered by half 
a dozen more, until the firing extended all along the right 
of the line, and presently a volley would burst forth. Roused 
by the tumult, our men in the line of battle would seize 
their muskets, and spring into their places, thinking that the 
expected attack had begun : but the firing would subside into 
pattering shots along the picket-line, and finally die out 
altogether; and all except the pickets, and the detail at 
work intrenching, would again stretch themselves out to rest, 
only to be roused again by a similar alarm." 5 The Twentieth 
Connecticut lay in line of battle in a cornfield, ready at a mo 
ment s notice. 

With the first streaks of day, the men stood to their arms ; 
and the twenty-four pieces of artillery, whose muzzles pointed 
to the opening, began a terrible cannonade, hurling solid 
shot and shell over the heads of our infantry into the woods 
which concealed the rebel forces. This was continued for an 
hour ; when the corps advanced to a fierce and bloody con 
test to recover the works. 

2 Col. Buckingham s MS. History of the Twentieth. 


The Twentieth Connecticut occupied a post of honor, on 
the left of the front division-line ; and at five o clock, A.M., 
the regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Wooster, moved forward 
to the attack. At this point, there was a stone wall eight or 
ten rods in rear of the original line of works ; and this was 
early taken possession of by the regiment, and afforded con 
siderable protection. Now a charge would be made, and the 
line of works reached ; then the rebels, in overwhelming 
force, would drive the regiment back, and it would take 
refuge behind the stone -wall. 

On the right, the fight raged for hours ; the line swaying 
back and forth as ground was lost or won, until at last a 
firm and concentrated charge of the Union troops swept 
Swell s forces through the woods, and regained the works. 
When the rebels turned and fled, a genuine Yankee cheer 
went up with an emphasis seldom heard, except in victory. 
Our lines on the right were completely restored before 
eleven, A.M. 

During the forenoon, also, there were frequent skirmishes 
upon the left. The Fourteenth Connecticut gallantly charged 
upon and took a house and a barn occupied by the enemy ; 
the two wings of the regiment being led by Major Theodore 
G. Ellis and Capt. Samuel A. Moore of New Britain. The 
enemy attempting to recover possession, the buildings were 
burned by our men. The regiment afterwards supported 
Arnold s battery, under a terrible fire, until the battery 
retired disabled ; when the regiment advanced, and occupied 
the position. 

Again, during the two hours of mid-day, silence brooded 
over the field ; only the stretchers, the ambulances, and the 
surgeons were busy. " Suddenly the boom of a single gun 
broke the stillness ; the shell came screaming over into our 
lines ; and, before its echo died away, two hundred and fifty 
pieces of artillery belched forth in one tremendous roar. 
From almost every part of the concave arch of the rebel line 
came solid shot and shell, chiefly aimed to dismount the 
guns along Cemetery Hill in the center. The Union gunners, 
undaunted, sent back a defiant reply from all the awakened 
artillery ; and for more than an hour it was like the crash 


of incessant and loudest thunder. The solid earth trembled 
beneath the feet of the contending Titans ; above and close 
around was the smoke and crash of bursting shell ; and on 
every hand came some sort of missile charged with death." 3 

Soon the cannonade nearly ceased ; and at half-past two 
o clock, afar off, opposite the left center, comes the rebel 
infantry from its cover, and begins anew its charge over 
that field of death. Our artillery pour upon them once 
more a destructive fire, plowing up the earth, and strewing 
it with their dead. Quickly they press forward across the 
shot-swept plain, " in echelon by brigades," and approach the 
front of the 2d Corps. It is a grand sight ; and the daunt 
less tread of the compact hosts tells that serious work is 
again at hand. Shells explode constantly above and among 
them. Our gunners have the range, and pour a storm of iron 
hail upon the advancing ranks, making great gaps, and 
throwing them into wild confusion. The officers rally the 
men, and on resolutely they come. Tjder s reserve artillery 
is brought forward ; and, as the rebels near our line, canister 
is showered upon them from two hundred pieces of artillery. 
Fearful havoc ! yet they stagger on, gathering impetus ; and 
now, within range, deliver a volley of musketry, and rush 
forward confident of victory. They are met by a storm of 
grape and bullets that is irresistible ; and again they are 
broken, and turn and run in the utmost confusion, while 
our artillery-men rain shot and shell upon the flying throng. 

Three times the lines were re-formed, and driven up into 
this tempest of death ; but each time they were repulsed. 
Now the shattered lines would almost reach our works ; and 
hundreds would throw down their arms, and rush into our 
lines rather than attempt to escape. A whole brigade, while 
being almost annihilated within a few yards of our infantry- 
works, threw down their guns, and held up their hands in 

The Fourteenth, Seventeenth, and Twenty-seventh Con 
necticut, and the Second Battery, were here hotly engaged ; 
and the Twentieth Regiment, coming over with the re 
inforcements, was for a time under a sharp fire. 

2 Col. Buckingham s MS. History of the Twentieth. 


Major Ellis says of the action of the Fourteenth in his 
official report, 

" Our men were formed in a single line of battle along an almost con 
tinuous line of low stone wall and fence, which offered a considerable pro 
tection from the enemy s fire. When the first line of the enemy had 
advanced to within about two hundred yards, our fire opened almost simul 
taneously along the whole line. The enemy s first line was broken, and 
hurled back upon the second, throwing it also into confusion. Detached 
portions of the lines were rallied, and for a short time maintained their 
ground. Being mown down by our terribly-destructive fire, they com 
menced falling back ; when a portion of this regiment charged upon them, 
capturing five regimental battle-flags and over forty prisoners. 

"There also afterwards came into the lines of this regiment about one 
hundred or more of the enemy, some of whom were wounded, and gave 
themselves up. 

" Among the officers who personally surrendered to me were the fol 
lowing : Col. John Fite, Lieut.-Col. N. J. George, Lieut. -Col. Parkers, 
and Major John G. Richardson. 

" Many of the field and line officers were captured. 

" Thte colors captured belonged to the following regiments : 14th Ten 
nessee, 1st Tennessee, 16th North-Carolina, 52d North-Carolina, and 
4th Virginia. The color of the 14th Tennessee was the first taken, and 
was captured by Sergeant-Major William B. Hincks ; that of the 52d 
North-Carolina was taken by Corporal Christopher Flynn of Sprague ; 
and that of the 16th North-Carolina by Private E. W. Bacon of Berlin." 

The Second Connecticut Light Battery was .here envel 
oped in the fiercest of the fight. Sergeant D. B. Lockwood 
wrote to the War Record, " Our battery was in position 
for fifty-six hours without being relieved, and a portion of 
the time under the hottest fire of the enemy s artillery. It 
was our first engagement in a pitched battle ; but the 
courage and coolness of our officers and men were such as to 
elicit commendation from experienced field-officers, and vete 
rans in the ranks. It was an excellent opportunity to test 
the accuracy and destructiveness of our guns (the James 
rifle) ; and the result was highly satisfactory. . . . Amid 
such fearful carnage we providentially escaped without the 
loss of a man : three only were wounded. Three of our 
horses were killed, and a caisson exploded by a shell." The 
coolness of Capt! John W. Sterling was conspicuous. 

The Seventeenth had also been fiercely engaged at the 
cemeteiy, where the line was charged by the " Louisiana 
Tigers." The assault was reckless and desperate ; but our 
men, posted behind a stone wall, were immovable j and as 


often as the assailants gained the wall they were repulsed 
with slaughter. For hours the battle thundered here. 
Charge after charge was made up the hill upon the battery ; 
and the point was the focus of missiles from all the infernal 
enginery of war, while the regiment stood at its post return 
ing blow for blow. 

All of Gen. Robert 0. Tyler s reserve artillery was in the 
fight. The enemy would charge up to the very muzzles of 
his guns, and sometimes disable every man, and seize a 
piece, only to be in turn rolled back to the valley, leaving 
the ground covered with the slain. Gen. Tyler had a horse 
shot under him. 

Finally the rebels reeled back from that carnival of death 
for the last time, fled across the plain, and would not be 
rallied ; while there went up from the thousands of loyal 
living a cry of joy, and shouts of, " Victory, victory ! " and 
exultant cheers which rolled around the hills to the right, 
bearing glad tidings. Men shook hands with each other as 
if they had not met in an age ; and tears stood in their eyes 
as they exchanged congratulations. 

" He that outlives this day, and comes safe home, 
Will stand a tiptoe when this day is named. 
He that shall live this day, and see old age, 
Will yearly, on the vigil, feast his friends, 
And say, To-morrow is St. Crispian. 
Then will he strip his sleeve, and show his scar, 
And say, These wounds I had on Crispian s Day. 
Old men forget ; yet all shall be forgot 
But he ll remember with advantages 
What feats he did that day." 

Twenty-three thousand killed and wounded and missing 
on the Union side, and twenty-seven thousand of the ene 
my, 4 these are the horrible figures that tell how much 
slavery and the dogma of " State sovereignty " cost during 
three pleasant summer days. 

The first report of the victory of Gettysburg was sent 
North by a citizen of Connecticut. Several young men 
from the State were regular correspondents in the field for 
the press : A. H. Byington of Norwalk, and W. A. Croffut 
of Orange for the New- York Tribune ; D. W. Bartlett of 

* Swinton s Army of the Potomac, p. 365. 


West Haven for the Evening Post ; Edmund C. Stedman 
of Winsted for the World ; Henry B. Brown of the navy 
for the Boston Journal ; and that quaint and genial philoso 
pher, John Evans of Willirnantic, for the New-York Times. 
One of the most tireless and enterprising of these was 
Byington ; and the " heats " for which the Tribune became 
famous through his vigilance delighted Mr. Greeley even 
more than the productions of his model farm in West- 

During the night after the first day s fight, Byington 
arrived near Gettysburg. How to get the news to New 
York was the first question. The telegraphs were cut 
for miles, and the instruments destroyed ; for the rebels had 
been to the north and east. He obtained a horse, and 
scoured the country round ; found a frightened operator 
with his telegraph instrument hidden under the bed ; 
brought it out antl replaced it ; sent a squad of men ten 
miles along the line to repair the wire ; and, " click," - - it 
was in working order. Byington sent a dispatch to the 
Tribune, and made arrangements for monopolizing the 
wire for two days as the price of having repaired it. As 
was then the rule, the dispatch could go to its destination 
only by way of the War Department. There it made a 
sensation. " What about this battle ? Who is Byington ? " 
asked Mr. Lincoln through the wire. "Ask Secretary 
Welles," was the reply. " Send us more," was the next 
dispatch. "On these conditions," was the answer, "that 
you send my former dispatch immediately to the Tribune 
exclusively, and all others as soon as read." "Agreed." 
And under this stipulation was sent forward an account of 
the battle from beginning to end ; while other correspond 
ents were racing their, jaded horses across Pennsylvania 
with news a day old. Byington offered his telegraph to 
Meade; and the general gladly availed himself of the oppor 
tunity to rene\v communications with Washington. 

The Fifth Connecticut Volunteers had been held in reserve 
much of the time ; and, having been subjected to little infan 
try-fire, its losses were light, three wounded and five cap 
tured comprising all. 


The Fourteenth had ten killed and fifty-two wounded ; 
the latter including nearly all the officers present. Among 
the killed were Corporals Samuel Huxham of Middletown, 
William W. Goodell of Vernon, and Walter F. Standish of 
Sprague. Among the wounded were Capt. Walter M. Lucas, 
Capt. James B. Coit, Lieut. J. W. Knowlton, Lieut. Freder 
ick Shalk, Lieut. John A. Tibbetts, Lieut. Henry L. Snagg, 
Lieut. Frank E. Stoughton, Lieut. F. S. Seymour, and 
Lieut. S. H. Seward. Surgeon Frederick B. Dudley, who 
was constantly under fire, was wounded in the arm by a 

The Seventeenth lost more than half its number, having 
been under a severe artillery and musketry fire during each 
day s battle. Twenty were left dead on the field, including 
its commander and a captain ; eighty-one were wounded, 
and ninety-seven taken prisoners. 

Lieut.-Col. Douglass Fowler of Norwalk was shot dead 
during the first day s fight. He had been in the war from 
the beginning ; having led a company in the Third Regiment 
through the three-months service, and afterwards raised a 
company for the Eighth. When he resigned his commission 
in the latter, he recruited a company for the Seventeenth. 
He was sick before the battle of Chancellorsville, and was 
borne to the fight in an ambulance ; but he afterwards 
fought with great endurance, being among the last to 
retreat. He was by nature a true soldier, brave and skillful ; 
and his genial temper, generous disposition, and buoyant 
spirits, united with a fervent interest in the loyal cause, had 
won for him an enthusiastic regard ; and the men followed 
him willingly into the deadly strife. He was struck down 
while leading them in a charge ; and still he sleeps in his 
unknown grave upon the battle-field of Gettysburg. 

There fell also the senior captain of the regiment, Capt 
James E. Moore of Danbury. He was almost idolized by his 
company, and was a man of exemplary character and ster 
ling worth. He was a color-bearer in the war with Mexico, 
and led a company gallantly in the three-months service. 
His remains were taken home, and buried with all honors ; 
the vast concourse at the funeral attesting the high regard 


and admiration felt by his fellow-citizens of Danbury. 5 The 
regimental address said truly of both these officers, " Long 
tried, and bravely serving on many battle-fields, ever ready 
at the call of their country, flinching from no danger where 
duty led, Fairfield County may proudly point to them as 
model soldiers." 

Orderly Sprgeant Edwin D. Pickett of the same regiment, 
killed here, was a favorite with the men, and much esteemed 
in Ridgefield, where he lived. On the Sunday of his funeral, 
the churches suspended other services, and united in the trib 
ute to his high personal character and his manly virtues. 
To his children he left the legacy of an unspotted name and 
a record of noble deeds. " There also fell the young men 
of patriotic fire, ever foremost in encouraging their com 
rades by appeals to duty, Stephen C. Crofut, William 0. 
Dauchy, Bethel S. Barnum, Augustus E. Bronson, Westlake, 
Taylor, Rufus Warner, Henry Burns the color-bearer, and 
many others who fought bravely and died nobly." 

Among the wounded of the Seventeenth were Major 
A. G. Brady, Capt. Henry Allen, Capt. Wilson French, and 
Lieut. Henry Quien ; and among the prisoners were Capt. 
William L. Hubbell and Lieut. David S. Bartram. 

The Twentieth Regiment had lost, during the battle, Cor 
porals J. C. Dickerman and Thomas Simons and six others 
killed, and twenty wounded. 

The Twenty-seventh, going into the action with only sev 
enty-four men, had lost eleven killed, twenty-four wounded, 
and four captured; total, thirty-nine. Lieut.-Col. Henry C. 
Merwin fell in resisting the assault of July 2. A native of 
Brookfield, he spent the greater part of his life in New 
Haven, and, when the war broke out, went as sergeant, with 
the New-Haven Grays, 6 into the Second Regiment. After the 
muster-out, young Merwin wa.3 restrained by peculiar home- 
duties till it became obvious that the nation must put forth 

5 Mr. and Mrs. William R. White of Danbury gave several hundred dollars to release 
from debt the property left by Capt. Moore to his family. 

The New-Haven Grays had an honorable record during the war. They volunteered 
a full company on April 15, 1861 ; and during the war it furnished sixty-one officers, 
of whom three were generals, and eleven field-officers. In the roll of the dead, stand the 
names of Col. Merwin, Major E. W. Osborn, Capt. E. S. Hitchcock, Capt. Charles 
Smith, Capt. Edward Lines, Lieut. C. M. Cornwall, Lieut. J. Chapman, Lieut. David C. 
Hunt, and Lieut. Albert F. Sharp. 


all its strength. His popularity soon gathered around him 
a full company of men for the Twenty-seventh ; and, at the 
organization of the regiment, he was elected lieutenant- 

O tj f 

colonel. Thenceforward his life was identical with that of 
the regiment. He fought with them gallantly at Chancel- 
lorsville, went with them to Richmond, and returned in time 
to lead the brave remnant in the next battle. " Along the 
weary march to Gettysburg he inspired the men with his 
own indomitable spirit ; and on that fated wheatfield, where 
the missiles of the enemy mowed down the waving grain, he 
fell mortally wounded, breathing the words of noble self-for- 
getfulness, My poor regiment is suffering fearfully. With 
out disparagement to any, it may truly be said that no 
officer in the regiment attracted to himself such unvarying 
respect, confidence, and affection among the men of his com 
mand. Nor was this strange, in view of the remarkable and 
harmonious combination of noble qualities in his character. 
No pride of position ever marred the beautiful consistency 
of his life. . . . Duty was evidently the supreme motive 
of his life. He was quick of discernment and rapid in exe 
cution ; but no harshness ever dimmed the transparent kind 
ness of his demeanor. . . . All these more amiable qual 
ities were supplemented by a manly independence and 
decision which made him always jealous for the rights of 
his men. In his death, the Twenty-seventh laid its costliest 
sacrifice upon the altar of our country." 7 

At this battle, Capt. Jedediah Chapman of New Haven 
was killed. He also was a member of the Grays, and ac 
companied them through the three-months service. When 
the Twenty-seventh was recruited, he went out as first lieu 
tenant of Company H, and was constantly at his post. Too 
ill to be present at Chancellorsville, he was appointed to 
command a company made up of the squads saved from that 
wholesale capture, and fell at its head. He possessed a quick 
conscience, a clear mind, a ready hand, and was held in uni 
versal esteem. Among other brave men of the regiment 
killed here were Corporals Cornwall of Milford,. Wilson of 
New Haven, and Bodwell of Norwalk. 

7 Sheldon s History of the Twenty-seventh. 


During the night of July 3, 1863, the Union array, worn 
out with the stress of the terrible combat of Gettysburg, 
bivouacked in its position ; the men dropping in their places, 
and sleeping. Before the sun rose on the 4th, Lee had de 
camped with his whole army towards the Potomac. 

Details of Union soldiers were at once made to bury the 
dead. Along our lines, and down the slope in front, especially 
in front of the center and left, where the Fourteenth, Seven 
teenth, and Twenty-seventh Connecticut had been stationed, 
the ground was strewn with corpses, many of them already 
blackened and swollen, some still in striking attitudes. 
Here a soldier had evidently been engaged trying to save 
the life of a wounded comrade by binding a handkerchief 
about the shattered limb, but was shot, and, falling on his 
wounded companion, both had died together. 

One could see at a glance the truthfulness of the picture 
drawn by an officer in a letter : " I could imagine nothing 
more terrible than the silent indications of agony that 
marked the features of the pale corpses which lay at every 
step. Though dead and rigid in every muscle, they still 
writhed, and seemed to turn to catch the passing breeze for 
a cooling breath. Staring eyes, gaping mouths, clinched 
hands, and strangely-contracted limbs, seemingly drawn into 
the smallest compass as if by a mighty effort to rend asunder 
some irresistible bond which held them down to the torture 
of which they died. One sat against a tree, and, with mouth 
and eyes wide open, looked up into the sl\y, as if to catch 
a glimpse of its fleeting spirit. Another clutched the branch 
of an overhanging tree, and hung half suspended, as if in 
death he had raised himself partly from, the ground. An 
other had grasped his faithful musket ; and the compression 
of his mouth told of a determination which would have 
been fatal to a foe had life ebbed a minute later. Another 
clung with both hands to a bayonet which was buried in 
the ground. Great numbers lay in heaps, just as the fire of 
the artillery mowed them down, mangling their forms into 
an almost indistinguishable mass." 

Col. William H. Noble of the Seventeenth, who took a 
brief furlough after his severe wound at Chancellorsville, had 


obtained another horse, and returned to his regiment five 
days before his furlough expired, to participate in the battle 
of Gettysburg. In this he was disappointed ; but, after 
being thirty-six hours in the saddle, he arrived at the gate of 
the cemetery in the afternoon of the third day s fight, and re 
sumed command of the regiment. Col. Dwight Morris of 
the Fourteenth was unable to get nearer than Westmin 
ster, Md. 

Independence Day was strangely kept, in Connecticut 
with the traditional bell-ringing and cannon-firing, by can 
non that spoke a new language, and bells that shook out 
more jubilant anthems than ever before ; on the green slope 
of Gettysburg by weary ambulances and active surgeons, 
an anxious counting of thinned ranks, and a tender laying 
of martyred comrades in hallowed ground. 

As five Connecticut regiments had borne a creditable 
part in the defeat of Lee s over-confident army, so now they 
were ready to join with alacrity in the pursuit. But Meade 
did not seem to comprehend his great advantage. On the 
second day after the battle, he carefully pushed the Gth 
Corps towards the enemy ; taking his other corps by different 
roads, and advancing as rapidly as Lee moved on and got 
out of the way. The general course was towards Frederick, 
reached on the second day out. The Seventeenth pressed 
forward with the llth Corps to Hagerstown, which it occu 
pied on July 12, capturing one hundred and twenty-five 
prisoners. The Fifth and Twentieth overtook the enemy 
intrenched at Fair Play on the 12th, and were ordered to 
take position and throw up earthworks. Next night, the 
main rebel army escaped across the Potomac. The retreat 
and pursuit were continued, without much experience of 
interest, until Lee s army occupied the south side of the 
Rapidan, near Orange Court House. 

The 12th Corps went into camp near Raccoon Ford. Col. 
Ross, severely wounded at Chancellorsville, had now rejoined 
the Twentieth, and had temporarily command of the brigade. 
On Sept. 24, the 12th Corps was relieved, and marched back 
to Brandy Station ; and all property was turned over to the 
post quartermaster. The march was resumed to Bealton 


Station, where, to the surprise of all, the corps (with the 
Fifth and Twentieth Regiments) was embarked on board 
the cars to re-inforce the Army of the Cumberland in Ten 

After Gettysburg, the Fourteenth Regiment performed a 
number of marches and countermarches in Maryland, 
crossed the Potomac in the tardy pursuit, and, July 26, en 
camped near Warrenton. Col. D wight Morris, Lieut-Col. 
S. H. Perkins, and Major C. C. Clark had resigned ; and 
Adjutant Theodore G. Ellis, in April, September, and October, 
was promoted to be successively major, lieutenant-colonel, 
and colonel, an unusual recognition, which he had earned 
by faithful and gallant service. 

On Sept. 1, the regiment went on a reconnoissance to 
Hartwood Church ; and on Oct. 12 crossed the Rappahan- 
nock with the 2d Corps, and marched southward on Culpep- 
er. Again the Rapidan became the picket-line between 
the two armies. 


Biographical Sketch of Admiral Foote. His Adventures, Battles, and Death. Banks s 
Expedition. Feint towards Port Hudson. March Southward. Battle of Irish 
Bend. The Cotton Raid up the Atchafalaya. Investment of Port Hudson. The 
Fight of May 27. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, Twenty- 
sixth, and Twenty-eighth Connecticut. The Charge of June 14. Failure and 
Heavy Losses. The Twenty-fourth in the Cotton-Fort. The Forlorn Hope. Our 
Roll of Honor. Surrender of Port Hudson. 

10NNECTICUT lost an illustrious son during the 
summer of 1863 in Rear Admiral Foote. the 
hero of Island Number Ten and of Forts 
Henry and Donelson. 

Andrew Hull Foote was born Sept. 12, 1806, 
in what is now called " the Buddington House," corner of 
Union and Cherry Streets, New Haven. His paternal grand 
father, Rev. John Foote, was pastor of the Congregational 
church of Cheshire for forty-six years. His maternal grand 
father, Gen. Andrew Hull of Cheshire, was for many years 
a prosperous West-India merchant in New Haven. His 
father, Samuel A. Foote, was a graduate of Yale of the 
class of 1797, and studied law at the famous school in Litch- 
iield. He frequently represented Cheshire in the General 
Assembly, and was speaker of the House. He afterwards 
represented the State in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Con 
gresses, and in the United-States Senate for six years. 

From his seventh year, the beautiful village of Cheshire 
was the home of young Andrew ; and to his seventeenth 
year he was trained by his excellent mother Eudocia in 
right principles and moral habits, yet accustomed to the 
out-door activities of rural life, under the inspiring and 
restraining influences of an old-fashioned Puritan household. 



He grew up a bright, strong-willed, amiable boy, with a full 
share of that adventurous spirit which sends so many boys 
to sea at sixteen years of age. 

His father permitted him to choose his vocation ; and he 
entered the navy as a midshipman in 1822. His first voy 
age was under the command of a lieutenant who had gained 
experience and honorable distinction in the War of 1812, 
and who, having had the privilege of training him for the 
service of his country, and having shared with him the 
perils of sea and of battle, survived in a vigorous old age to 
share in a nation s grief at the death of his illustrious pupil. 
The intimate and affectionate friendship of forty-one years, 
between Admiral Gregory and Admiral Foote, was honor 
able to both. 

Midshipman Foote s first voyage was in the expedition 
against the pirates of the West Indies. In the course of it, 
he distinguished himself by courage and enterprise as well 
as by diligence in the duties of his position. His second 
cruise was under Commodore Hull in the Pacific. 

After this he made successive voyages in all parts of the 
world, followed by slow and well-earned promotion. His 
commission as lieutenant was dated eight years after he 
entered the service; and in the mean time he had been 
almost continually at sea. Twenty-five years more of 
arduous service made him a commander ; when he was as 
signed to duty at the Naval Asylum in Philadelphia, Even 
here, among pensioners, he found a good work to do. 

Devoting himself with characteristic zeal and kindness to 
the welfare of the pensioners under his command, he suc 
ceeded in winning their affectionate confidence ; he obtained 
a high and beneficial moral influence over them ; he became 
a moral and religious teacher among them without impair 
ing the dignity of his position as an officer, and persuaded 
many of them to give up their spirit ration, and pledge 
themselves to total abstinence from intoxicating drinks. 

On his next cruise, he further advanced this principle. As 
first lieutenant and executive officer of the Cumberland, in 
the Mediterranean, he persuaded the entire crew to forego 
their immemorial " grog." At the same time he became a 


volunteer chaplain to them, giving a lecture every Sunday 
on thje berth-deck to as many as chose to attend, and having 
a congregation of nearly two hundred willing hearers; 
the lecture being followed by a meeting for prayer in a 
more retired part of the ship. The Cumberland became as 
worthy of honorable memory from her association with that 
experiment of free moral and religious influence among 
the seamen of our navy as she afterwards became, when 
with her flag still flying, and her sighted guns exploding at 
the water s edge, she went down heroically in that conflict 
which changed ( in an hour the entire system of maritime 
warfare till wars shall be no more. 

After this he was for some years on duty at the Charles- 
town Navy Yard, afflicted with a disease of the eyes. Recov 
ering, he was attached to the African squadron, in command 
of the Perry ; and that service was rendered doubly valuable 
by his strenuous activity against the piratical slave-traders. 
He did much to break up a shameful traffic which had found 
safety under our flag, and upon which many of our politi 
cians still looked with favor. Among the honors of that 
cruise, also, was the fact, that through many months of ex 
posure along the unwholesome coast, so often fatal to life, 
the liquor-ration was voluntarily banished from the Perry ; 
and among her officers and crew there was not a death, nor 
a man disabled. 

Soon after, he published a book entitled, Africa and the 
American Flag, a volume full of condensed information, 
and valuable for its practical suggestions. 

In 1856, he sailed for China in the sloop-of-war Ports 
mouth, and returned two years thereafter ; having in the 
mean time distinguished himself by bombarding and storm 
ing the barrier forts in the Canton River. 

When the Great Rebellion broke out, he was in charge of 
the Brooklyn Navy Yard, from which duty he was soon 
summoned to the more arduous service of creating and 
commanding an inland navy on the waters of the Missis 
sippi. What he did in achieving the capture of Forts Henry 
and Donelson is well known; but quite as laborious was 
the exhausting work of brain and hand by which, under all 


sorts of embarrassments and discouragements, those victories 
were prepared in the creation of the resistless flotilla at St. 

After the fall of these strongholds, he swooped down upon 
Island Number Ten. The island shores were lined with 
heavy forts, and the banks adjacent were fortified in all 
directions, and held by a strong force ; while lying in the 
river was a floating battery carrying twelve 32-pounders. 
In this situation, it was proposed to cut a canal twelve miles 
around, through swamp and forest. In nineteen days the 
herculean work was completed. The channel was fifty feet 
wide, and passed for two miles through thick timber ; the 
trees being sawed off four feet below the water. 1 While the 
rebels were proclaiming their position impregnable, the gun 
boats appeared simultaneously below the island and above 
it, and advanced to take the batteries ; when the island sur 
rendered to Flag-officer Foote, with two thousand prisoners, 
a hundred heavy guns, and a large quantity of ammunition. 
" No single battlefield had yet afforded to the North such 
visible fruits of victory as were gathered at Island Number 
Ten." 2 

Foote was now promoted to be admiral, and recalled to 
the East, where he again mingled with his friends, and 
again showed his zeal in every good work ; now presiding at 
a war-meeting at New Haven ; now assisting some great 
reform in aid of seamen ; now accepting the presidency of 
the Connecticut Soldiers -Aid Society at Washington. He 
had received a painful wound, and he was pale and feeble ; 
but his indomitable spirit would not succumb to the depress 
ing influence of bodily weakness or disease. His medical 
advisers commanded him to rest ; but he went to Washing 
ton, and his great abilities were employed in organizing a 
new bureau in the Navy Department. 

He soon asked for more arduous service, and was assigned 
to the South-Atlantic squadron, to relieve Dupont. He ac 
cepted the assignment, and in that command he expected 

1 This great labor was performed by " the Engineer Regiment of the West," com 
manded by Col. J. W. Bissell of this State, a brother of Col. G. P. Bissell of the 
Twenty-fifth Connecticut. 

2 Pollard s Southern History. 


to die. It was in vain that friends and physicians entreated 
him to spare himself, and to ask from the government the 
relief which would have been granted to the slightest ex 
pression of his wishes. He was determined to do his utmost 
for the nation, at whatever sacrifice. His life, he said, was 
not his own, and should be freely surrendered at his coun 
try s call. 

His preparations for going were nearly completed, and he 
had parted with his family in New Haven, when the disease 
which his vigorous constitution had so long resisted overcame 
him ; and, after great suffering, he died at the Astor House, 
New York, June 26, 1863. 

He had expected to die in the malaria of the Carolina 
Islands, tended by the rough but loving hands of fellow-war 
riors on the sea ; or in the roar and fiery storm of battle. 
Where he should die, or how. was to him a question of little 
moment. Yet, when he found his time had come, he could 
not but be thankful for the opportunity of dying surrounded 
by his family and friends ; by his wife and children and 
brothers ; by old comrades, the heroes of many a conflict, 
whose voices had rung out, and were soon to ring again, loud 
and clear in the tempest of battle ; now confessing by silent 
tears how much they loved him. Assured that dearth was 
near, he waited calmly for the end ; and his last intelligible 
words were, " I thank God for his loving-kindness to me. 
Praise the Lord, my soul ! and forget not all his benefits." 

During the month of February, 1863, Gen. Banks arrived, 
and took command of the troops at Baton Rouge, which was 
made the rendezvous of the column for the projected assault 
on Port Hudson, a rebel stronghold in Louisiana, twenty-five 
miles up the river. 

The army gathered ; Farragut s fleet of mortar-schooners 
and gunboats was assembled ; and during the first week in 
March the regiments were under marching orders. At this 
juncture, a meeting of Connecticut regiments was held to 
consider the approaching State election ; and Col. Bissell of 
the Twenty-fifth and Capt. Sprague of the Thirteenth were 



appointed to draft an appeal to the people of Connecticut to 
re-elect Gov. Buckingham. This was prepared and numer 
ously signed, and had considerable influence on the result. 

On March 9, Col. G. P. Bissell of the Twenty-fifth was 
ordered to report in person to Gen. Banks, and was put in 
command of the advance guard (a regiment of infantry, a 
company of cavalry, and a section of battery), with directions 
to repair the roads and bridges towards Port Hudson. Col. 
Bissell seized the Bayou Sara, and built a substantial bridge, 
over which the whole army afterwards passed with its heavy 
guns. The construction was superintended by Private Wil 
liam Webster of Uuionville, who was au fait at bridge-build 
ing. This preparatory work was accomplished to the great 
satisfaction of Gen. Banks ; when Col. Bissell, taken severely 
ill, turned over the regiment to Major Thomas McManus, 
Lieut.-Col. Weld being still absent in hospital. 

On March 13, the Connecticut regiments fell into the 
strong column moving apparently to invest Port Hudson. 
The real object was a diversion in the rear to assist Farra- 
gut to run the batteries in front ; and it also answered the 
purpose of a reconnoissance in force. It was a severe test 
of the powers of endurance of the men. The first night 
they rested in a plowed field ; the second night the Twenty- 
fourth was posted in a cornfield. 

The army had now arrived at the east of Port Hudson, 
and stood upon the verge of battle ; but no battle was 
fought. l The roar of the guns of the ascending fleet on 
the river was distinctly heard, but its meaning was unknown ; 
the light of the burning Mississippi, casting a lurid radiance 
over half the visible heavens, was gazed at with inquisitive 
-wonder, but brought no intelligence of coming events; the 
terrible explosion, which out-sounded thunder and extin 
guished the gloomy radiance, awakened only fearful appre 
hensions in those who were watching by night the progress of 
events. Sunday afternoon a retrograde movement towards 
Baton Rouge began. The inarch, though rapid, was orderly. 
The men were very heavily laden. The day was hot ; but to 
wards night a terrible thunder-storm set in. The road became 
ankle-deep with mud where it was not entirely overflowed : 


night came on like the falling of a curtain ; onward pressed 
the eager column. A marsh strewn with brambles and 
rotting logs, where upturned stumps overlooked the puddles, 
welcomed the men and officers to moist beds. The glare of 
a wilderness of camp-fires, which served to make darkness 
visible, disclosed groups of uncomfortable men in all atti 
tudes, standing, leaning, sitting, reclining, smoking, swear 
ing, drinking, sleeping, and trying to sleep. It was a night 
to be remembered a life time." 3 

The Thirteenth and Twenty-fifth fared no better; for 
Col. Sprague says, "An hour after nightfall we were 
marched by the flank out of the road, and into a pond of 
water, and told to pass the night there." They obeyed; 
and the place is remembered as " Camp Misery." 

The wretchedness of the Twenty-fifth was greatly relieved 
by the exertions of Quartermaster John S. Ives, who rode 
fourteen miles in the terrific storm and mud, returning at 

f O 

midnight with bags of coffee and sugar across his horse. It 
was a work of military supererogation, but it brought upon 
the faithful quartermaster the cheers and blessings of the 
miserable host. Next clay they returned to Baton Rouge. 

The men were greatly disgusted with what seemed to 
them a foolish and objectless expedition, feeling little com 
pensation for the incomprehensible retreat in the fifteen 
hundred bales of cotton brought back. 

For a few days the new Sibley tents were spread at Baton 
Rouge ; but on the night of March 28, in the midst of a 
thunder-storm, Grover s division, including the three Connecti 
cut regiments, embarked, and sailed down the river to Donald- 
sonvillc, the advance of Banks s famous expedition. Here 
teuts were pitched again ; but on the 31st they started down 
the road which leads along the bayou towards Southern 
Louisiana, through a delightful region, and past fruitful 
fields. Stringent orders against straggling and pillaging were 

On April 2, they marched through Thibodeau to Terre 
Bonne, and took the cars westward ; the Twelfth Connecti 
cut now joining the column with Weitzel s division. 

8 Letter of Major Patrick Maher of the Twenty-fourth to Thomas R. Trowbridge, a 
generous friend and patron of the Twenty-fourth Regiment. 


Banks restricted officers baggage to a carpet-bag and a 
small roll of blankets; and the officers of all Connecticut 
regiments present stored their trunks, clothing, papers, and 
personal property, in a sugar-mill, where they were burned 
the following June on the approach of the enemy. 

On reaching the Atchafalaya River, fifty miles west of 
New Orleans, Weitzel moved towards Franklin to attack the 
enemy strongly fortified and in force just beyond; while 
Grover s division embarked, and steamed up Lake Chesti- 
mache to cut off the rebel retreat. 

On Sunday, April 12, the assault was made with great 
fury with artillery and infantry. All day the contest 
raged. The Twelfth supported a battery on the left, but at 
night withdrew out of range, and got some sleep. Monday 
they advanced to the extreme front through a canefield, hear 
ing the bullets " zip " through the cane on all sides. The regi 
ment again supported a battery here, not more than four 
hundred yards from the enemy s guns. The boys lay concealed 
in a plantation-ditch ; and the grape, canister, and shells 
swept over their heads. At dark they were again with 
drawn, having two killed and thirteen wounded. Capts. 
Samuel H. Granniss, John Brennan, Lester E. Braley, and 
Stephen D. Byxbee, and their companies, received honorable 
mention ; also Major Lewis and Dr. Cummings acting sur 
geon. Chaplain James H. Bradford was also awarded 
" great praise for the fearless activity with which he minis 
tered to the suffering during the battle and the night fol 

During the night, the rebels retreated towards Grover s 
division, that had already landed near a place called Irish 
Bend. In the night they slipped past ; but on the morning 
of the 14th turned a.gain, and accepted battle. The Twenty- 
fifth Connecticut, deployed to skirmish in advance of the 
division, pressed rapidly up to the woods. Suddenly a brisk 
musketry-fire opened upon them, which they warmly re 
turned ; being meantime the mark of a battery to the left, 
and the guns of the rebel gunboat Diana. Birge s whole 
brigade came promptly to the support. It was the first 
time the Twenty-fifth had been under fire ; but the men 


stood up to their work nobly, incited by the example of 
their gallant colonel, Bissell, who, regardless of his own 
safety, passed from end to end of the line, encouraging 
them to deeds of bravery. 

The regimental report of Adjutant Henry C. Ward of the 
Twenty-fifth says, " Shortly afterwards, the enemy opened 
with his artillery from the right of his line ; firing shell, grape, 
and canister with great rapidity. After some delay, two 
pieces of our own artillery were brought up, and returned 
the fire ; and, finally, the remaining three companies of our 
right wing were called up to rejoin the regiment, which was 
thus all brought into action as skirmishers, engaging the 
entire front of the wood, which was a line of fire. While 
thus in action, we were suddenly opened upon by two regi 
ments (the 18th Louisiana la Texas regiment) which had 
crept through the cane, a** appeared on our right flank." 
The cross-fire was terrible, and the regiment for some time 
suffered severely. 

While this was going on upon the right, the Thirteenth 
had moved by the flank to the left, and advanced against 
the rebel right. The regiment moved forward in firm line, 
greeted with a heavy fire from the gunboat, a New-Orleans 
regiment, and a battery. The Union regiments on the right 
had fallen back, when Col. Warner gave the order, " Com 
mence firing ! " and five hundred muzzles poured forth a 
steady stream of lead, while the men were rapidly advan 
cing. They fired fast and continuously ; and, as they showed 
no intention of coming to a halt, the rebel battery was 
whirled away, and the rebel regiment fled to the left and 

The Thirteenth captured the flag of the St. Mary s Can 
noneers, and was just giving itself up to rejoicing over a vic 
tory won, when Lieut. Perry Averill of Company D discovered 
a regiment of graybacks advancing straight upon the right. 
The Thirteenth was hastily withdrawn under a sharp fire. 
The enemy now rallied all along the line ; but another Union 
brigade came up, and the charge of the united division swept 
every thing before it. The rebels turned and ran in great 
disorder ; and, Weitzel s brigade arriving at this moment in 


the rear, the gunboat Diana was fired and blown up by the 
rebels. The victory of our forces was complete. 

The Thirteenth captured two caissons, one limber, four 
artillery horses, sixty prisoners, many small arms, and the 
banner, which is now preserved in the archives of the State 
of Connecticut. Especial praise was awarded to Chaplain 
Upson, Surgeon Clary, and Hospital-steward William Bishop 
for fearlessly exposing themselves to minister to the wound 
ed. The regiment lost seven killed and forty-six wounded. 
Of the former were Sergeants Frank E. Stanley and Frank 
W. Stanley of New Britain. 

Sergeant Frank W. Stanley was but a lad, bright, active, of 
superior talent, and noble character. He was one of the 
first to enlist at the outbreak of war; but quietly yielded to 
the judgment of his father, and remained at school until 
the second call for troops. His patriotic parent kept him 
back no longer, though an only son. He entered the ser 
vice with pride and zest, and, yet a boy, displayed the quali 
ties and character of a hero. He was neat, erect, strong, 
and grew swiftly to manly beauty. He ardent and 
ambitious, admired by all, and on the sure road to deserved 

Sergeant Frank E. Stanley was a cousin and playmate of 
Frank W., less lively and impressible, not so forward, but 
gifted with the elements of sturdy and faithful manhood. 
He seemed to have waited for the war to develop him. As 
a soldier, none could be more ready or trusty : in battle, his 
conduct was magnificent. 

The loss of these two was deeply felt in the army and 
also at home, .where they had occupied high social positions. 
Here, also, fell Corporals Edwin L. Nickerson of Cornwall 
and Leonard G. Roath of New London, who had been pro 
moted for their merits. 

The Twenty-fifth, after opening the battle, had been under 
fire eleven hours, and had suffered fearfully. Out of the 
three hundred and fifty who went into action, ninety-six 
were killed, wounded, or missing ; the latter counting but 
ten. Nine were killed outright, and five died of their 


Capt. Samuel S. Hayden of Windsor Locks was killed in 
stantly by a fragment of shell. The excellent chaplain of 
the regiment, Rev. George B. Oviatt, said of him, " He was a 
Christian patriot. I think I knew him well ; and the more 
thoroughly I knew him, the more I admired and loved him. 
He was one of the most frank and outspoken men I ever 
saw, a noble specimen of a Puritan of the olden time. He 
was a remarkably conscientious man ; and all his opinions he 
held with firmness, whether they were popular or unpopu 
lar, whether, in holding them, he stood alone or among the 
many." He was a brave, tender-hearted, generous man, and 
gifted with strong common sense. 

The Twenty-fifth also lost here one of its best men in 
Lieut. Daniel P. Dewey of Hartford. He was cut down in 
the front of battle, at the point nearest the enemy. When 
he enlisted, he was a sophomore in Trinity College, one of 
the first in his class, says Professor Brockelsby. He possessed 
a clear and vigorous mind, and was always buoyant in his 
disposition. Adjutant Henry C. Ward wrote to the parents 
of young Dewey, " I saw your son then ; and the sight I shall 
never forget. Waving his sword above his head ; calling to 
his men, Remember you are Company A ; his whole bear 
ing so brave and heroic that it seemed almost impossible for 
any enemy to avoid marking him ; standing unmoved in a 
rain of bullets, he had a word of encouragement for every 
man near him, kindly greeting for a friend, and even a 
merry quotation from a favorite song to fling after a shell 
that went shrieking by. So I last saw him ; so I shall 
always remember him." A memorial volume before us, con 
taining the letters of Lieut. Dewey, tells that he was a reli 
gious soldier, and, as Col. Bissell wrote of him, " brave, dis 
creet, reliable, just, a cheerful, fearless man." 

Lieut. William A. Oliver of Hartford, just promoted from 
sergeant, was a brave and impetuous soldier ; and, when 
wounded, a handkerchief was bound about his head by 
private T. H. Robbins ; and he was one of the last to leave 
the field. He died ten days later of his wound. 

Sergeants Charles D. Grover of Ellington and Jonas G. 
Holden of Hartford were also among those who here cheer 
fully gave their young lives. 


The Twenty-fourth Regiment arrived towards the close of 
the fighting, but was not under fire. 

The enemy now scattered to the woods ; and next morn 
ing the column pursued its march northward. From this 
time, April 14, to May 20, the force of twenty thousand 
men known as the 19th Corps moved towards the Red River, 
in a line generally parallel with the Atchafalaya. The, men 
blistered their feet, and suffered varied hardships. Vast 
quantities of cotton and sugar were taken out of the coun 
try and confiscated, ostensibly for the benefit of the govern 
ment. Sprague s History of the Thirteenth has the follow 
ing incident of this time : 

"What s the real object of this expedition?" asked Mrs. 
Semmes, at whose house some of the officers halted. " The 
real object of the expedition," replied the chaplain, " is to 
protract the expedition until the quartermasters and con 
tractors all get rich. I verily believe, if they had their way, 
they d keep us in these swamps as long as the children of 
Israel were kept in the wilderness." " Chaplain Upson," re 
sponded Bromley, " I can tell you why the children of Israel 
were detained so long in the wilderness. It was because 
they had too many chaplains and too few quartermasters." 

The men still vividly remember a long, tedious, useless 
tramp through a country full of rank tropical growths, and 
abounding in fruit and fowl which they were forbidden to 
touch ; " special agents " floating off the cotton, with enor 
mous snakes, athletic spiders, and slimy alligators in the 

The advance reached the mouth of Red River on May 18 ; 
and the whole corps sailed down the Mississippi to Bayou 
Sara, twenty miles above Port Hudson. Next morning, they 
marched towards that stronghold ; the rebel vedettes foiling 
back before our advance-guard, a detachment of the Thir 
teenth. On Sunday, May 24, the converging columns drew 
nearer, and the investment was complete. Sharp skirmish 
ing ensued. The Thirteenth and Twenty-fifth advanced 
in Birge s brigade ; and the Twenty-fourth farther on the 
right, and the Twenty-sixth away on the left, chasing the 
enemy through the woods, and taking possession of the re- 


doubts and earthworks outside the main rebel defenses. 
The regiments were under fire, and a few were wounded. 
In the afternoon, half the Thirteenth went forward to skir 
mish ; and there was a sharp contest. Here, bravely fight 
ing, far to the front, fell Sergeant James Torrence, a gallant 
young Scotchman of Norwich. 

On the 25th the Twelfth came up, and advanced to the 
front. The Thirteenth pressed the enemy s sharpshooters 
to the rifle-pits ; and at midnight Privates Charles Sidders 
(of East Hampton) and Walter McGrath and Ellis B. Robin 
son (of East Hartford) were selected by Col. Birge, and 
sent at midnight, with instructions to crawl up to the rebel 
parapet, and report upon the practicability of scaling the 
works. They went through the enemy s picket-line, and 
examined the ground ; all returning unhurt, though the 
pickets of the Twenty-fifth fired on them by mistake. 

On May 27, Weitzel led his brigade in the general line 
that advanced to storm the works. The Twelfth was ready 
for the business. As straight as the nature of the ground 
would allow, the line advanced through the woods, reaching 
the clearing in front at sunrise. u We were received as we 
emerged with volleys from artillery and infantry. I re 
ceived orders to advance to the front and left, and silence 
the artillery, now firing grape and canister into our lines. 
We moved by the flank under a heavy fire, past four pieces, 
and took up a suitable position. Three companies were sent 
forward as skirmishers, and soon came upon the skirmishers 
of the enemy, whom they drove. A detachment was sent 
from inside the works, which attempted to turn our flank. 
Our left being entirely unsupported, I sent one company, 
which succeeded, by sharp fighting, in repelling the attack. 
The entire regiment was finally engaged, and by noon had 
succeeded in driving the enemy inside the parapet ; and in 
a short time afterward had silenced four pieces of artillery, 
two of which, being field-pieces, were withdrawn ; the other 
two (mounted en barbette] the two wings of the regiment 
relieved each other in guarding till late in the day. Our 
line did not halt until it reached the parapet ; and at one 
time the extreme right had succeeded in scaling the work, 



but, for want of harmonious support of other corps, were 
compelled to rest satisfied with holding the position." * At 
nio;ht, the regiment was withdrawn. While in this advanced 

O * cj f 

position, Private Andrew B. Bartram of Berlin crept cau 
tiously up to a rebel embrasure, and reconnoitered the works. 
When he was discovered, the rebels seized their guns ; but 
Bartram slipped away and into cover before they could fire 
upon him. He was loudly cheered by our men. Gen. 
Stone sent for him, and pointed a Dahlgren gun where Bar- 
tram saw the sharpshooters, which tore a large hole in the 

Birge s Brigade, in which was the Twenty-fifth, was 
ordered to the right to support Weitzel, and directed to 
carry a redoubt on the north-east angle of the enemy s 
works. Advancing under a severe cross-fire through a 
ravine, waist-deep in water, forcing its way over a most diffi 
cult abatis, the column halted at the foot of the slope lead 
ing up to the redoubt. This it carried, capturing the out 
posts and rifle-pits, together with their occupants. But 
beyond, and between the column and the redoubt, lay an 
impenetrable ravine, forming a natural ditch. After twice 
vainly essaying to cross in the face of a tremendous fire, 
the attempt was abandoned ; and the two regiments lay on 
the position they had carried till ten, P.M., when they wore 
withdrawn under cover of darkness. At the time when 
both regiments were driven back under the fire that swept 
the ravine, the standard-bearer of the 159th New-York was 
killed, and the colors left upon the field. Sergeant Kolji-rt 
Buckley of the Twenty-fifth hearing of it, without a word, 
sprang forward again into the deadly storm of missiles, and, 
picking up the flag, brought it safely in ; but, turning to 
take up his gun which he had laid down, received the fatal 
ball in his breast: with but a groan his spirit passed away. 

The Twenty-sixth 5 took an honorable part in the ill- 
starred assault of this day. On arriving from Baton Itouge, 
the regiment was assigned to Gen. Neal Dow s brigade, on 
the extreme left, near the river. In the afternoon, the left 

* Col. Feck s Official Report. 

5 Major Henry Stoll, absent on leave, rejoined the regiment during the siege of Port 


wing advanced, and was received with a concentrated fire. 
Col. Kingsley of the Twenty-sixth was among the wounded. 
Lieut.-Col. Joseph Selden, afterwards commanding the regi 
ment, reports, 

" The brigade was ordered forward on the double-quick. Four fences 
intervened between us and the intrenchments, which greatly impeded our 
advance. In passing these fences, the different regiments were thrown 
into confusion, and became somewhat mixed up. On entering the field, a 
perfect shower of grape-shot and canister met us, severely wounding 
Gens. Sherman and Dow, and cutting down officers and men by scores. 
Still we advanced, and for more than two hours held the ground ; and, 
when obliged to fall back, it was not in disorder. I rallied our men, and 
formed the regiment near the entrance of the field ; and we held the ground 
occupied by our brigade during the day. This being the first time the 
regiment had been under fire, I must be permitted to say that they con 
ducted themselves with great gallantry and bravery." 

Out of a total of less than four hundred, one hundred and 
six were killed or wounded. Isine-months regiments were 
thereafter held at par. Gen. Clark, commanding the brigade, 
said in his report, " The nine -months men have demon 
strated by their gallant conduct that they can be relied on 
in any emergency." 

During the succeeding two weeks, all the regiments were 
engaged constructing covered ways, making counter breast 
works, digging rifle-pits and zigzags, removing obstructions, 
and mounting artillery. " On the night of June 10, four 
companies of the Twelfth were ordered to be thrown for 
ward as skirmishers to form part of a continuous line around 
the works, with the design of compelling the enemy to dis 
close the position of his artillery. Orders were also given 
by the brigade commanders to scale and occupy the works 
if possible. Companies A, B, F, and K, were sent out, and 
advanced, at the signal arranged, through a deep interven 
ing ravine obstructed by fallen trees and underbrush. They 
received a volley from the enemy as they came up, but 
pressed on to the base of the parapet." 6 The orders were 
not carried out by the other regiments, and these four com 
panies drew the enemy s concentrated fire ; and seventeen 
out of thirty-four of Company B were killed and wounded. 
Twenty others were wounded, including Capts. Granniss, 

6 Col. Peck s Official Report. 


Clarke, and Roach. The attempt was a signal failure on 
every side. 

The whole field was now swept with almost constant fire. 
Crash went the shell from multitudes of death-dealing can 
non ; and the " zip, zip," of Minie-balls, sang just over the 
heads of the men. Food was prepared in the rear, and 
brought to the front at night by the cooks. So difficult was 
the way, that one of the cooks of the Twenty-fifth actually 
carried hot coffee across the neutral ground ; but he offered 
none of the beverage to the self-denying rebel sentinel who 
challenged him. 

The terrible 14th of June will be long remembered. About 
twelve o clock, midnight, the Twelfth left their position. It 
was intensely dark. The guides who were sent to direct 
them lost their way ; the regiment got separated by flanks, 
but, after considerable wandering, came together, and en 
tered the ditch leading up to the parapet, where the assault 
was to be made before daylight. The Thirteenth and Twen 
ty-fourth were already at the ditch ; the duty assigned the 
latter being to swing their muskets on their backs, with an 
additional load of two 30-pound gunny-bags of cotton to 
each man with which to bridge the moats, and to advance 
with the charge. The Twenty-fifth was held for the present 
in reserve, now mirstering only ninety-five for duty. The 
Twenty-sixth was in line of battle, ready to charge the rebel 
works again across the broken field. From the Twenty- 
eighth a hundred men were detailed, under Capts. Brown 
and Iloag, to form a part of the hand-grenade constituent, 
consisting of three hundred men in all. Ravines of the most 
precipitous and difficult character covered the front of the 
enemy s works, and were both naturally and artificially ob 
structed by trees and brushwood ; in many instances, also, 
being under the fire of rifle-pits, or the guns of flanking 
angles of the works. 

Across this ground dashed the first line of battle, in which 
was a brigade led by Col. Richard E. Holcomb of the 1st 
Louisiana. The rebels madly plied the advancing regiments 
with shot and shell ; with all missiles known to war, and 
unknown, " explosive bullets, case-knives, flat-irons, spikes, 


hatchets, ramrods, pig-iron, and wooden plugs wound with 
cotton." 7 

As the battle was raging in front, and dead and wounded 
were brought to the rear, the Connecticut regiments ad 
vanced through the covered way, and issued into the open 
ground near the works of the enemy. The first attacking 
party had recoiled ; and , as the Thirteenth leaped from the 
end of the dry ditch, they caught a glimpse of Col. Holcomb, 
their old major, and gave him three hearty cheers. He was 
haranguing his brigade, and trying to rally them ; but they 
responded doubtfully; and he turned to the Thirteenth, 
commanded by a captain, and offered to lead it. Another 
rousing cheer accepted the offer; and they leaped to the 
front simultaneously with other regiments from this and 
other States. The Twelfth was deployed as skirmishers to 
the left. The men of the Twenty-fourth were running for 
ward with their cotton-bags ; and the hand-grenade party 
was also pushing for the rebel works. 

This broken plain was now mown by shot and shell in an 
increasing tempest. The companies that advanced over its 
most exposed parts were shot down almost bodily. The 
brave Holcomb was slain with a musket-ball in his head at 
the first onset ; Lieut. Strickland and twenty others fell close 
by him. Cautiously now the line pressed forward, the men 
availing themselves of the irregularities of the ground for 
cover, until the center rested upon the line of a ridge not 
more than fifty yards from the "Priest s Cap," a rebel redoubt 
projected beyond the parapet. The men fell on all sides; 
and the battle raged with great fury and clamor. 

In a moment, portions of the Twelfth and Thirteenth 
reached a concealed ravine, almost under the breastwork, 
and nearly parallel. The inner side was precipitous, barring 
further progress ; and into it officers and men poured head 
long, finding cover from the instant death that hurtled across 
the field. To this ravine, within thirty yards of the enemy s 
works, many ran the gantlet of fire, until five hundred to a 
thousand were there massed. Gen. Banks sent repeated 
peremptory orders for the senior officer to take the works at 

7 Sprague s History of the Thirteenth, p. 142. 


all hazards. The officers present regarded it as a wicked 
slaughter of men ; and every one refused to lead. Banks 
then directed the formation of a storming-column of two 
hundred ; and several officers and men of the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth immediately volunteered, with many others. 
The order was soon countermanded, on account of two heavy 
lines of rebel infantry having been discovered just inside. 
The men were without food or drink, and suffered fearfully, 
the day being very hot. At night this advanced force was 
withdrawn from its perilous position. 

In the mean time, the Twenty-fourth still maintained an 
exposed position at the right. In the murderous fire, which 
killed and wounded a thousand men, they had thrust their 
cotton-bags before them, and rushed on to the crest of a little 
hill, within fifty yards of the rebel works, where they con 
structed a temporary breastwork and held it. 

The hundred men of the Twenty-eighth, with the hand- 
grenades, had met with a bloody repulse, and had fallen back 
to the intrenchments with the main line. 

The Twenty-sixth, under Lieut.-Col. Selden, in Col. Clark s 
brigade, had steadily advanced upon the extreme left in col 
umn by divisions, to w r ithin about three hundred yards of 
the rebel works, under a raking fire. Here their advance 
was checked by the deep ravine, rendered almost impassable 
by felled trees and a dense growth of chaparral. The enemy 
had also planted a battery, which kept up a destructive fire. 
The regiment had already lost heavily. The first rebel 
shell killed and wounded sixteen ; another took six from the 
color-company ; but the men advanced steadily to the ravine, 
where they were showered with grape and shrapnel. In this 
ditch the Twenty-sixth was held all day, under a broiling 
sun, firing at the rebel gunners, and unable to retire until 
darkness covered the field. 

Of all the regiments that advanced across the plateau in 
the morning, the Twenty-fourth Connecticut was the only 
one so located as to be able to maintain its hold. Now re 
duced to less than two hundred and fifty fighting men, it 
defended the narrow arc of cotton-bags resolutely. When 
darkness fell, the cotton was strengthened by being covered 


with sand ; so that the morning s sun rose on an ambitious 
little earthwork, which its gallant garrison christened Fort 
Mansfield, after their accomplished colonel. So quietly was 
it done, that Gen. Grover thought the rebels had erected a 
new redoubt during the night, and ordered a battery to shell 
it out ; but, fortunately, the blue-jackets were recognized. 

Fort Mansfield was so near, that Capt. Mabbett of Ham- 
den threw a bullet into the enemy s works. The men talked 
with the rebels over the hostile parapet. " Shoot lower if 
you expect to hit anybody," exclaims one. u Come over 
here, and we will give you some ammunition," is the invita 
tion of another to a rebel rifleman whose cap does not ignite 
the powder. 

The position was subjected to a severe cross-fire ; but the 
handful of men poured in a shower of lead whenever a rebel 
head was visible. On the third day they felt sufficiently 
secure to unfurl the flag of Connecticut from their cotton- 
bales ; greeting it with- three hearty cheers and a shotted 
salute of a hundred guns at the rebels, who returned it with 
a yell of rage and a shower of leaden hail at the defiant 
banner. Chaplain J. C. Wightman of the regiment wrote, 
under date of June 17, as follows : 

" This morning, from the outskirts of the green woods 
which encircle Port Hudson, within whose dense foliage the 
army of Gen. Banks is completely embowered, the flag of 
the Twenty-fourth might be seen, far Out in the field, waving 
triumphantly in the very jaws of this rebel stronghold. The 
Hash of musketry blazed along the rebel parapet, and 
sent a shower of bullets upon this emblem of our national 
Union and keepsake of the ladies of Middletown. The 
smoke that rose from time to time beneath it showed that 
those who carried it thither had not abandoned it, but were 
jeoparding their lives for its defense. At first the area 
which intervenes between this pioneer band and the army 
might be mistaken for a traversable plain ; but minute ob 
servation will reveal most hideous features. Stumps, fallen 
trees lying one upon another, brambles, roots, and gorges 
which lie concealed like a stealthy foe till you reach their 
brink, make this outer point which is held by a single small 


regiment almost inaccessible to their friends, and seem to 
place it entirely within the power of their enemies, whose 
frowning breastworks rise within the distance of a stone s- 
throw, and overlook the little dwarf of % a fort that dared 
to be born so near." 

June 15, Gen. Banks promulgated his famous call for a 
storming column of a thousand volunteers. In this appeal 
he said, 

" We are at all points upon the threshold of the enemy s fortifications : 
one more advance, and they are ours ! For the last duty that victory im 
poses, the commanding general summons the bold men of the corps to the 
organization of a storming column of a thousand men, to vindicate the 
flag of the Union and the memory of its defenders who have fallen. 

u Officers who lead the column of victory in this last assault may be 
assured of the just recognition of their services by promotion ; and everv 
officer and soldier who shares its perils and its glory shall receive a medal 
fit to commemorate the first grand success of the campaign of 1863 for 
the freedom of the Mississippi. His name will be placed in general orders 
upon the roll of honor." 

In this forlorn hope, Connecticut took the lead of all the 
States. Col. Birge, at his special request, was assigned to 
lead the column ; and his old regiment, the Thirteenth, fur 
nished for the perilous service one -quarter of the whole 
number. Two colored regiments also furnished two hun 
dred. The following is our roll of honor ; the Connecti 
cut regiments not represented being on duty at other 
points : 


Col. Henry W. Birge (Thirteenth Connecticut Volunteers) commanding 
3d Brigade, Grover s division. 

Capt. Edward C. Weeks (Acting Master United-States Navy), A. A. 
D. C., Birge s staff. 

Capt. Charles L. Norton (Twenty-fifth Connecticut Volunteers), A. D. C., 
Birge s staff. 

Assistant Surgeon George Clary (Thirteenth Connecticut Volunteers), 
Birge s staff. 


George A. liar-mount (Adjutant Twelfth Connecticut Volunteers), Ad 

Hospital Steward William Bishop (Thirteenth Connecticut Volunteers). 


Company A. First Lieut. Charles E. Tibbetts. Second Lieut. John 
C. Kiuney. Corporals Francis J. Wolff, Christopher C. Fagan, Andrew 


Black. Privates Michael Cunningham, Walter Egan, John Fagan, Fran 
cis Gaffney, James Gilbert, Edward Lautz, Joseph S. Mack, John Mar 
tin, John Maguire, Henry Morton, John O Keefe, Loren D. Penfield, 
John Quigley, Thomas Reilly, Charles R. Rowell, John Smith, Edward 

Company B. Capt. Apollos Comstock. Second Lieut. Louis Beck- 
with. Sergeants George E. Faucher, Alonzo Wheeler, George H. Pratt. 
Corporals Roswell Taylor, Francis E. Weed, Isaac W. Bishop. Privates 
George M. Balling, John J. Brown, William E. Casey, Balthazar Emme- 
rick, Peter Gentien, Dennis Heggany, William W. Jones, John Klein, 
Benjamin L. Mead, James Mohren, Charles Niphols, Victor Pinsard, 
George Prindle, Morant J. Robertson, Sidney B. Ruggles, Felix Scheryer, 
Louis Schmidt, Frederick L. Sturgis. 

Company C. Capt. Charles D. Blinn. Second Lieut. Newton W. 
Perkins. Sergeants Everett S. Dunbar, Charles H. Gaylord, John N. 
Lyman, John Maddox. Corporals Lewis Hart, Homer M. Welch, 
Everett E. Dunbar. Privates Willis Barnes, Seymour Buckley, Chauncey 
Griffin, Charles Hotchkiss, Charles Mitchell, John Odell, Frederick W. Pin 
dar, Joseph H. Pratt, George Roraback, Mortimer H. Scott, Joseph Tay 
lor, Daniel Thompson. 

Company D. Capt. Charles J. Fuller. First Lieut. Perry Averill. 
Sergeants John J. Squier, Ezra M. Hull. Corporals William Finimore, 
Andrew Holford, Edward Altauo. Privates Thomas B. Andrus, Antonio 
Astenhoffer, Henry F. Bishop, Charles Bertz, John Cravey, John Dillon, 
John Fee, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Gotlieb Folkling, Henry F. Fox, Joseph 

A. Gardner, Newton Gaylor, Casper Heidrick, Louis Hettinger, Julius 
Camp, Jacob Kuhlman, Henry Long, George Lesser, Luke McCabe, 
Frederick Poush, Henry E. Pulling, Horace B. Stoddard, William H. 
Tucker, Martin W. Tyler, Louis Walters, Edward J. Welden. 

Company E. Second Lieut. Charles II. Beaton. Sergeants Nicho 
las Schue, Richard Croley. Corporals Robert C. Barry, Leonard E. 
Dugal. Privates Jacob Brown, Adam Geize, Frederick Harris, George 
W. Howland, Michael Murphy, Charles F. Odekoven, Fritz Odekoveu, 
F. F. Pfeiffer, Andy Regan, Frederick Schuh, Joseph Vogel, August 

Company F. Sergeants Eugene S. Nash, John T. Reynolds. Cor 
poral James Case. Privates James Barry, George F. Bogue, David H. 
Brown, Henry Clousent, James Cosgrove, Byron Crocker, Henry Finney, 
David D. Jacques, Abel Johnson, Patrick Leach, Patrick Martin, Thomas 
R. McCormick, James O Neil, Thomas Powers, Orrin M. Price, Theodore 

Company G. Capt. Denison H. Finley. Sergeants Samuel L. 
Cook, Charles B. Hutchins, John W. Bradley, Francis Huxford. Corpo 
rals Timothy Allen, Louis Foetish, Moses Gay, Edward Bogue. Privates 
Frank Austin, George J. Austin, John Brand, John Ceeressole, William 

B. Crawford, Charles Culver, James Gay, Albert Hopkins, John Hunt, 
Henry A. Hurlburt, Asahel Ingraham, Jeremi S. Jordan, Michael Kear 
ney, Joseph Kemble, Albert Lehleitner, William M. Mayuard, Walter 
McGrath, John McKevan, Daniel Moore, Moses Newhouse, Timothy 
O Conucll, William H. Reynolds, Ellis B. Robinson, Henry Robinson, 
John Ryan, Antoine Schlosser, Martin J. Sharden, Martin Shurrer, Charles 
Sidders, Edward Skinner, John Suarman, Auson F. Super, S. W. Tinker. 

Company H. Capt. Homer B. Sprague. Sergeant William H. Hunt- 
ley. Corporals George H. Twitchell, Thomas Harrison. Privates Phik) 


Andrews, Heraan W. Bailey, Miram Blackman, John Blake, Dennis Doyle, 
Francis Patterson, William H. Smith. 

Company I. First Lieut. Frank "Wells. Second Lieut. Louis Mies- 
ner. Sergeants Abner N. Steny, Samuel Taylor, Santer Engelbert, John 
Duress. Corporals Francis W. Preston, Joseph Franz, Garrett Herbert. 
Privates William Albretch, Fritz Bowman, Ulrich Burghardt, Michael 
Burke, James Dillon, Patrick Hines, Thomas McGee, Clifford C. New- 
bury, Henry Keltrath, Edward Smith, Edward O. Thomas, Henry White- 

Company K. First Lieut. William F. Norman. Second Lieut. 
Charles Daniels. Sergeants Miles J. Beecher, George A. Winslow, 
Charles E. Humphrey. Corporals Herman Sanders, Herbert C. Baldwin, 
Robert Hollinger, John Nugent. Privates John Bennett, Benjamin E. 
Benson, Frank C. Bristol, George Clancey, William J. Cojer, Thomas 
Duffy, Samuel Eaves, Edward Ellison, John Gall, Thomas Griffin, Wil 
liam Krieg, Patrick Mahoney, Thomas Morris, Richard O Donnell, 
George C. Russell, Bernard Stanford, John Storer, Bartley Tiernan. 


Second Lieut. James T. Smith, formerly of the Thirteenth Connecticut 


Company A. Private Charles J. Constantine. 

Company B. Sergeant John Mullen. Private Charles Duboise. 

Company C. Corporal John Moore. Privates George T. Dixon, Wil- 
loughby Hull, William Putnam, Christopher Spies, John P. Woodward. 

Company D. Sergeant Alexander Cohn. Corporals George Shaw, 
James Robinson. Privates Lawrence P. Ferrell, George Kohler, Reuben 
Miles, Frederick C. Payne. 

Company E. Private Edward Millerick. 

Company F. Private James H. Scranton. 

Company G.* Capt. Lester E. Braley. First Lieut. A. Dwight 
McCall. Sergeant C. E. McGlafflin. Corporal John T. Gordon. Pri 
vates Oliver C. Andrews, James E. Chase, James Dunn, Patrick Fitzpat- 
rick, Patrick Franney, William Jobin, Joseph W. Weeks. 

Company H. Sergeants John W. Phelps, Solomon E. Whiting, Jo 
seph W. Carter. Privates Edwin Converse, Hugh Donnelly, Warren 
Gammons, Miles P. Higley, William Lenning, Thomas McCue, Melvin 
S. Nichols. 

Company K. Second Lieut. Stanton Allyn. Privates Frank Beau 
mont, Daniel B. Loomis, Albert M. Perkins. 


Adjutant Henry 0. Ward. 

Sergeant Major Charles F. Ulrich. 

Company B. Private Eli Hull. 

Company F. First Lieut. Henry H. Goodell. 

Company II. Privates Samuel Slesinger, John Williams. 

These were the men, who, knowing the desperate situa 
tion, deliberately resolved to sacrifice their lives for their 


country. Day after day the storming column was ordered 
under arms, to be ready for an instant assault. 

The Twenty-fourth clung to its redoubt of cotton and 
sand. They were kept constantly on the qui vive, and the 
regiment was divided into three reliefs for vigilant watch. 
They bore this severe service like brave men. Here they 
remained for twenty-five days ; and fired, on an average, not 
less than four thousand rounds of cartridges per day. Many 
of them were killed and wounded ; but desertion of the post 
was not thought of. " From this little earthwork," says 
Major Maher in a letter, " the covered approaches to the 
works were dug, and the parallels were made ; also the zig 
zag approach right into the enemy s ditch. Besides these, 
we had, on the morning of July 8, a mine forty-two feet long 
under the enemy s works, capable of containing four hun 
dred pounds of powder ; and we were ready to blow up the 
fort if it had not surrendered." The surrender of Port 
Hudson, on July 8, relieved the regiment from its perilous 

Indeed, the whole investing force felt relieved of a terrible 
burden of labor and endurance. All the Connecticut regi 
ments mentioned had been almost incessantly engaged in 
the rifle-pits, digging, fighting, waiting, suffering untold 
exposure and privation. 

But none experienced a greater sense of relief than " the 
forlorn hope," most of whom had prepared for death, and sol 
emnly directed the final disposal of their effects. These 
men, from among the bravest, were given the post of honor ; 
and " the storming column " was the first to enter the captured 
stronghold, led by Col. Birge to the music of a Connecticut 
band, and under the folds of a tattered Connecticut flag. 


After the Capture of Port Hudson. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Twenty-fourth, Twenty- 
fifth, Twenty^sixth, and Twenty-eighth Connecticut Regiments. Casualties. Inci 
dents of the Battle. The Twenty-third in Southern Louisiana. Guarding the Rail 
road. At Brashear City. Battle and Capture. Casualties. Imprisonment in 
Texas. Return Home of the Nine-months Regiments. 

ICKSBURG 1 and Port Hudson had fallen; and 
once more "the Father of Waters flowed un- 
vexed to the sea." The reduction of Port 
Hudson involved a Union loss of five thousand 
killed and wounded, among whom were many 
from Connecticut. The Twelfth had twenty-three killed 
or died of wounds, and eighty-four wounded. Col. Frank 
H. Peck had been severely wounded twice, and Major 
George N. Lewis was shot through the body. Capts. Sam 
uel H. Granniss, S. E. Clark, John Brennan, and James D. 
Roche, and Lieuts. H. J. Fletcher and G. W. Stedrnan, had 
been wounded. Of the Thirteenth, four were killed and 
eighteen wounded. Among the former was Lieut. Joseph 
Strickland of New London. He had assisted greatly in re 
cruiting Company I, of which lie became first lieutenant. 
Col. Sprague says of the Port-Hudson charge, " Of the many 
gallant officers that then fell, there was none more fearless 
or more deeply mourned." 

Bravely leading the same charge, and within a few paces 
of young Strickland, fell Col. Richard E. Holcomb of the 1st 
Louisiana (white). At the beginning of the war, Mr. Hol- 

1 Major Frederick Hoadly, who was killed while fighting on the Confederate side at the 
siege of Vicksburg, was a young man belonging to an old and respectable Hartford family. 
His grandfather for many years held the position of high sheriff of Hartford County, and 
one of his brothers has been for a long time the State Librarian of Connecticut. Major 
Hoadly went to Little Rock, Ark., ten or twelve years since, and was there admitted to 
practice at the bar in that State. 


comb, a farmer of forty years of age, enlisted from his quiet 
home in Granby in the Third regiment, three-months troops. 
After serving faithfully as quartermaster, he returned to 
Granby, but could not be detained there while the nation 
was in peril ; and he raised a company, and was commissioned 
to be major of the Thirteenth. In Louisiana, he was pro 
moted to the colonelcy of the 1st Louisiana, and became its 
life and soul. His splendid courage, manly bearing, experi 
ence in dealing with men, superior qualities as an organizer 
and a disciplinarian, and his zeal in the work, gave him a 
high position in the department. His official successor, 
Lieut.-Col. William 0. Fiske, issued an order after his death, 
expressing the sorrow of the command at the loss of the 
true friend, the gallant gentleman, the brave soldier, the 
accomplished officer, the pure patriot, and peerless leader. 

The colors of the Twenty-fourth were borne throughout 
the terrible siege by Color-Sergeant John Bohan ; and thirty- 
seven bullet-holes attest the fierceness of the storm to which 
the little band was exposed. An instance of courage and 
humanity is mentioned in the case of Corporal William 
Clark of Middletown, who, at night and alone, went up to the 
enemy s works, carrying water to a wounded soldier who 
had lain there forty-eight hours ; and then came back, got 
assistance, and carried him off the field. After the surrender, 
"the Twenty-fourth was complimented -by the 1st Mississippi 
for its coolness and perseverance." Nearly fifty of the 
Twenty-fourth had died of disease in hospital, among them 
Lieuts. Bela C. Post of Essex and Luzerne G. Goodyear of 
Hamden. The regiment had lost during the siege sixteen 
killed and fifty wounded. Among the former were H. ,A. 
Brainard of Iladdam, Corporals Lellick Scott and Charles 
Rigbey of Middletown, and Edgar D. Ives of Hamden. 
Among the latter were Lieut.-Col. John D. Allison, Adjutant 
Clark Strong, Capt. Isaac C. Gleason, Capt. Alonzo L. Mab- 
bett, Lieut. Jesse B. Gilbert, and Lieut. F. E. Camp. On 
July 11, the regiment embarked for the Plaquemine dis 
trict ; the rebels having again overrun the whole of Louis 
iana west of the river, capturing Banks s artillery and stores, 
and a large amount of miscellaneous property. The regi- 


ment found no enemy, and enjoyed two weeks rest ; the 
officers sleeping under a roof for the first time in eight 

The Twenty-fourth left Middletown Nov. 18, 1862, with 
six hundred and ninety-eight officers and men. The regi 
ment served in the Gulf Department nearly ten and a half 
months, and was mustered out Sept, 30, 1863, numbering 
about four hundred and sixty. 

The Twenty-fifth, which had lost a hundred at Irish Bend, 
and which, on going into battle at Port Hudson, numbered 
little more than two hundred men, had lost of these seven 
killed and forty wounded. On July 4, there were seven 
officers and one hundred and eighty-eight men on duty. 

Among the killed were Corporals Ira B. Addis of Hartford 
and Erskine Wallace of Ellington ; among the wounded were 
Lieut. Alfred W. Converse, Lieut. D. M. Ensworth, Lieut. 
George Brennan, and Lieut. W. E. Simonds. 

On July 11, the Twenty-fifth left its camp outside Port 
Hudson, and, inarching through the works, embarked on the 
Laurel Hill for Donaldsonville. So reduced had the army 
become, that this steamboat of moderate capacity carried 
five regiments, among which were the Thirteenth, Twenty- 
fourth, and Twenty-fifth Connecticut. 

"The Twenty-fifth was ordered to proceed to a point 
About half a mile beyond and below the town, and, throwing 
out proper pickets, &c., to hold the position. We remained 
here, with our left on the Mississippi, and our right on the 
woods, until the following afternoon. During that time, and 
about two, P.M., on the 12th instant, the enemy endeavored, 
with some considerable force of cavalry, to cut off our 
extreme post on the right, which was established in an 
abandoned sugar-mill, and under command of Lieut. I. W. 
Beach (of Bristol). It became necessary to abandon the 
mill for a short time. It was retaken by Lieut. Beach, how 
ever, after a little skirmishing, and without loss on our part, 
and our line maintained." 2 

The regiment was shortly after ordered to the Bayou La 
Fourche, beyond the town, where Lieut-Col. Mason C. Weld, 

2 Report of Adjutant H. C. Ward. 


who had commanded the Twenty-fifth during the entire 
siege of Port Hudson, assumed command of the brigade as 
senior officer. Col. Birge commanded the division. On the 
13th, the rebels made a dash on our lineg on both sides of 
the bayou ; and Lieut.-Col. Weld led the skirmishers from 
the Twenty-fifth to the front : but the enemy retired without 
further engagement. On the 16th, Col. Bissell, having re 
covered from his long and tedious illness, rejoined his regi 
ment, and took command of the brigade. 

Among those who died of disease in the regiment was 
Surgeon Alden B. Skinner of Vernon. He was a faithful 
and skillful officer, and fell a victim of typhoid fever. Capt. 
Newton P. Johnson of East Granby also died during the 
process of acclimation. After the fall of Port Hudson, the 
excitement which had repelled disease being taken away, 
many in every regiment were prostrated with diarrhoea and 
climatic fevers. Private William W. House of Hartford 
died in hospital just after the capture. He was a brave and 
excellent young man, a graduate of Yale in the class of 63. 

When Paymaster Northrop was in New Orleans, he asked 
Col. Bissell whether there was any swearing in his regiment. 
"You may go through the regiment," answered Col. Bissell, 
" and I ll give you five dollars for every oath you hear from 
it." It is said the paymaster hunted diligently after his 
reward with good hope, but searched in vain. 

None of the nine-months regiments won a better reputa 
tion for pluck and endurance than the Twenty-fifth Connec 
ticut ; and the reports of Adjutant II. C. Ward to the 
adjutant-general s office were very complete. 

The Twenty-sixth had suffered more than any other of 
our regiments at Port Hudson ; having lost during the 
siege twenty-six killed and one hundred and fifty-one 
wounded, leaving after the last action, as reported by 
Lieut.-Col. Selden, about one hundred and eighty officers 
and men fit for duty. Most of the losses of the regiment 
were incurred on the ill-starred May 27, in its charge with 
Dow s brigade through a storm of grape and canister from 
. the rebel batteries. It was here that Capt. John L. Stanton 
of Norwich lost his life. He was a gallant and earnest 


soldier, and was in advance of his men, swinging his sword, 
and calling on them to follow, when he was pierced with a 
bullet, and died instantly. Orderly Sergeant Albert Smith 
of Salem was lingering behind in the retreat ; and, as he 
turned to fire, he received a mortal wound. On being 
carried to the rear, he shook hands with Capt. Gallup, and 
said, " Good-by ! Tell my friends I hope to meet them in 
heaven." Capt. Jedediah Randall of Groton fell mortally 
wounded, and lay where the deadly missiles flew thick. 
Lieut.-Col. Selden tried to help him; but he said, "Never 
mind me, colonel ; I m all right : go and take care of the 
boys." Capt. Jesse C. Maynard of Salem was wounded by a 
ball which passed through his breast, maiming him for life. 
Capt. Lorenzo A. Gallup of Norwich was indebted for de 
fense to a rifle directly m front of him. A bullet struck it 
with such force as to pierce the band. Eleazer Jewett of 
Norwich was saved by his belt>clasp, the ball spending its 
force after passing entirely through it. Benjamin C. Doug 
lass of Voluntown got a blow in the groin, that he supposed 
was caused by a piece of shell, but on examination found a 
bullet safely lodged in his tobacco-box. Almost every regi 
ment chronicled similar narrow escapes many times during 
the war. Private Babcock of Stonington was shot through 
the body, and the surgeons asserted positively that he must 
die. The prospect was doubtless rendered less bitter to him 
by the reflection that he had used the large bounty he had 
received to pay off the remainder of the debt upon his 
mother s house. He recovered and returned home. Here 
died Cyrus M. Geer of Lyme, Thaddeus M. Weenies of 
Stonington, and other heroic spirits. 

In the second assault, fell Lieut. Hervey F. Jacobs of Nor 
wich, a native of Thompson. He had taken a part of a 
course at Brown. University when he enlisted. Capt. Lorenzo 
A. Gallup wrote to the sister of his dead comrade after the 

"Your brother has fallen with a reputation that any soldier might 
euvy. All who saw him on that fatal day testify to his coolness and 
bravery. I can speak from personal observation. When that dreadful 
shell came which killed aud disabled twenty men, including himself, he was 
cheering aud encouraging his men, and pressing forward with the assur- 


ance of success. He was on my right, as he had been detailed to com 
mand Company A. After he was wounded, the noble spirit that animated 
him was manifested by his refusing to be taken to the rear until all the 
wounded about him had been removed." 

The knightly spirit of Sir Philip Sidney found its parallel 
a thousand times upon the battle-fields of the Rebellion. 
Young Jacobs 3 died at the Baton-Rouge hospital on July 5. 
His last message to his friends was that of a true soldier : 
(i I die at the post of duty." In the same hospital, next day, 
died his brother Joseph of the 50th Massachusetts. 

Lieut. Jacobs was succeeded by Lieut. Edward P. Man 
ning, promoted from the ranks. The latter died at home, of 
disease, three days after receiving his commission, and on the 
day the regiment was mustered out of service. He had 
been constantly on duty, serving at different times as 
quartermaster, commissary, adjutant, and chaplain of the 
regiment, and commander of a company. He had won the 
love of all, and exerted a most favorable influence upon 
the men of his company. On the field, as at home, he was 
a zealous Christian, and was widely mourned. 

Lieut. Martin R. Kenyon was sent home to Preston, where 
he died, Aug. 5, of wounds received at Port Hudson. His 
brother Masons 

Resolved, That we cherish the memory of our deceased brother as that 
of one whose zeal for the institution of Masonry, whose Avisdom in its 
mysteries, and whose bright example in all the virtues that adorn the 
Mason and the citizen, have been profitable to our fraternity, and a per 
petual pleasure to us as individuals. 

Another of the dead of the Twenty-sixth who was widely 
known and deeply mourned was Sergeant Edwin R. Keyes 
of Pomfret, a native of Ashford. He was a promising 
graduate of the State Normal School, and an eminently suc 
cessful teacher. He was a faithful, earnest, patriotic man. 
Rev. Walter S. Alexander, in a sermon, said of him, " The 
sacrifice he welcomed, in leaving a family to which he was 
devotedly attached to engage in our common defense, wins 

3 Rev. Samuel Graves of Norwich, who was the pastor of young Jacobs, in a memorial 
discourse preached Nov. 1, 1863, says, "Lieut. Jacobs was born Aug. 3, 1838, and was 
a young man of great promise ; frank, courteous, and high-minded in his bearing ; endowed 
with the happy gift of winning friends wherever he went, and of attaching them ardently 
to himself." 



our admiration. The Christian character he maintained till 
the last, against the pressure of iniquity, secures our grate 
ful love. The death-scene so far away, unhallowed by the 
presence of wife and babes, calls not in vain for our warmest 
sympathy for the bereaved." 

Dr. Ashbel Woodward of Franklin was surgeon of the 
Twenty-sixth; and in this capacity, and as a member of 
the examining board, he was in service during almost the 
entire period of the war. 

Col. Kingsley, who, since being wounded in the fight of 
May 27, had been in hospital at Baton Rouge, leaving Lieut- 
Col. Selden to lead the regiment, now returned, and was 
placed in command of a brigade. 

The Twenty-eighth had suffered severely in the assault of 
June 14, in which a hundred men, detailed as grenadiers, 
were led by two captains and four lieutenants. Chaplain R. 
Wheatley says of the casualties, 

"Lieut. Charles Durand of Stamford was shot soon after 
the order to charge was given. Capt. David D. Hoag of 
New Milford yielded up his godly and gallant spirit in the 
ditch, under the enemy s breastworks. Lieut. William 
Mitchell of Norwalk was wounded in four places ; and Lieut. 
Jonathan C.Taylor of Westport, with his hand badly shattered, 
and back torn by a large missile, was taken prisoner. Capt. 
Charles II. Brown and Lieut. Henry Avres escaped without 
a wound ; Corporal James Vail and Jason Wardell of Stam 
ford, two deservedly esteemed members of Company A, were 
also shot dead; and Sergeant George A. Waterbury of Com 
pany B taken prisoner, with several men of other companies : 
nor were these alone sacrificed. A sou of Lieut. Riley and 
an old companion of Fremont in his Rocky-Mountain explo 
rations was among the victims." 

Surgeon Ransom P. Lyon of Bethel, who was always at 
his post, died of disease resulting from exposure and over 
work, and was buried at Port Hudson, Au<\ 6. 


In the charge of the grenadiers, fell Private Mark H. 
Wheeler, a noble soldier from Winsted. lie enlisted from 
high motives o principle, and shrank from no dangers. On 
the day before the bloody assault, he wrote to his wife, " We 


must have this place at any cost ; and, if I fall in this affair, 
my last thoughts shall be of you ; and, if possible, I will re 
quest some friend to forward you this letter with my diary: 
but I hope to add more cheering intelligence. God shield 
me, and help me to do my duty ! " He did his duty, and, in 
the fury of the onset, passed from the sight of his comrades. 
The third day afterwards, a rebel officer came across the 
lines, under flag of truce, and brought the letter. It was in 
his diary, and a bullet passed through both to his heart. The 
officer said that Wheeler crossed the ditch, and scaled their 
breastworks, and " was shot on the top of the parapet." 

The nine-months men had discharged their duty nobly. 
Gen. Neal Dow of Maine wrote to Col. Kingsley of the 
Twenty-sixth, a few months after this experience, 

" I have reason to remember your regiment well ; for none better was 
ever under my command, either at Port Hudson or elsewhere, and none 
behaved better on that terrible day (May 27). I wondered to see the men 
so steady and firm, their first time under fire. The regular officers often 
sneered at the nine-mouths men, and said they would run away at the first 
shot. But never were braver men, though the situation was the most try 
ing that even veterans can be exposed to, compelled to stand a destructive 
fire without the power to return it with any effect. They were exposed on 
a wide, open plain, to a storm of grape, canister, and rifle-balls, from an 
enemy securely sheltered behind formidable field-works. All our brave 
men could do was to die ; and that they submitted to most heroically. 
There was not for a moment any panic or hesitation. Green troops will 
often manifest the steadiness of veterans in battle where they have a chance 
to give as good as they get ; but at Port Hudson they had no such 
support, and yet were as steady as old campaigners. Among them all was 
no regiment better or more reliable than the Twenty-sixth Connecticut." 

To return to the Twenty-third : it had an unfortunate 
experience from the day of its organization. Tn the voyage 
to New Orleans, the regiment was divided on two or three 
transports ; and the last detachment, under Major D. H. Mil 
ler, did not arrive until the middle of January, after being 
stranded on the Bahama Islands. The companies were never 
together long enough at a time to acquire any proper pride 
of organization. 

On Jan. 11, 1863, all the regiment that was present left 
Camp Parapet under command of Col. Charles E. L. Holmes, 
by boat for Algiers, opposite New Orleans. Here they took 
the cars of the Opelousas Railroad to Berwick Bay. They 


were expected to join Weitzel in the attack upon the rebel 
gunboat Cotton ; but, in consequence of not having been 
together since leaving Camp Buckingham, the regiment was 
ordered to remain and do guard-duty at Brashear. 

On Feb. 9, they were ordered to strike tents, and march to 
the railroad. They were now thoroughly distributed as a 
guard the whole length of the Opelousas Railroad, from Ber 
wick Bay to Jefferson (nearly opposite New Orleans). Head 
quarters were established at La Fourche, about midway. 
Company D (Huntington and Trumbull), under Lieut. Ste 
phen M. Nichols, was stationed at Jefferson ; Company G 
(Bethel and Danbury), Capt. George S. Crofut, at St. Charles ; 
Company F (of Derby), Capt. David T. Johnson, at Boutte 
Station; Company C (Newtown and Sharon), Capt. Julius 
Sanford, at Bayou des Allemands ; Company H (Naugatuck 
and Waterbury), Capt. A. D. Hopkins, at Raceland ; Company 
B (Danbury), Capt. James H. Jenkins, at La Fourche ; Com 
pany I (Fairfield and Bridgeport), Capt. William H. May, at 
Terrebonne ; Company K (Danbury and New Fairfield), 
Capt. S. G. Bailey, at Tigerville ; Company A (Waterbury 
and Watertown), Capt. Alfred Wills, at Bayou Boeuf ; Com 
pany E (Wilton, Weston, and Redding), Capt. Lewis Nor 
throp, at Bayou Romans. About March 1, Companies E and 
I were ordered to headquarters, and Company A to re-inforce 
Capt. Sanford at Bayou des Allemands. By the first of April, 
Company B was also transferred to Napoleon ville, south of 
Donaldsonville ; and Company A to Labadieville, still farther 
south. Thus the regiment remained for two months, con 
stantly occupied with guard and picket duty, with little time 
for drill or discipline. 

Now the main body of Banks s army was investing Port 
Hudson ; and Dick Taylor resolved to sweep Western Loui 
siana during their absence. The small Union force was con 
centrated to meet him. Col. Holmes was placed in com 
mand of the post at Brashear City ; and Capt. Sanford was 
ordered to take command at Bayou Boeuf, where Company 
A immediately reported. Companies B and E were sent 
to La Fourche ; and the other companies were recalled to 
Brashear City, where the principal resistance was to be made. 


Col. Holmes was soon prostrated with sickness, and was not 
again able to command the regiment. 

Brashear City is situated on an island formed by Lake 
Chestimache, Bayou Boeuf, and the Atchafalaya, and was 
the key to Western Louisiana. It had been Banks s base of 
supplies, and valuable stores still remained there. 

On June 1, the rebels attacked the hospital on the Ber 
wick side with a small force. Company K, under Lieut. Ed 
ward Nearing, instantly embarked on the steamer, followed 
by Companies G- (Capt. Crofut), I (Capt. May), and C (Capt. 
Jenkins). Capt. Crofut was placed in command. The de 
tachment advanced rapidly, and drove off the rebels on the 
double-quick ; afterwards covering the working parties in 
removing the sick and the public property. A Col. Stickney 
now assumed command of the post, on account of the con 
tinued illness of Lieut.-Col.Worden. Under the severe dis 
cipline of Col. Stickney, the regiment knew no rest. They 
were kept moving every day, and lay upon their arms 
almost every night ; and the result was, that, in ten days, half 
the whole number were on the sick-list. 

About the middle of June, Col. Stickney, being informed 
that the rebels were coming down the Bayou La Fourche 
from the Plaquemine district, took all the men that could be 
spared from Brashear City, and moved to La-Fourche Cross 
ing, where Capt. James H. Jenkins was in command. Another 
detachment started on the 19th; but, after proceeding as far 
as Tigerville, the train was forced to return to Bayou Boeuf. 

The rebels attacked La Fourche on June 21, and were 
repulsed three times ; the last time retiring, and leaving our 
troops in possession. Three companies of the Twenty-third 
were in the first line of battle, and showed commendable 

Capt. James H. Jenkins wrote from La Fourche, " About 
five, P.M., on the 21st, our pickets began firing. The enemy 
advanced, and soon attacked us with artillery and infantry. 
The day being damp, the smoke lay near the ground, ob 
structing the view ; so we reserved our fire. In a few min 
utes, the rebels charged on us with a hideous yell. We. 
waited until they came within a few rods, when our first 



volley told with ruinous effect. A sharp conflict ensued. 
The graybacks actually seized our guns, but were driven off 
at the point of the bayonet. In twenty minutes, they were 
repulsed at all points, and fled, leaving the bodies of their 
dead comrades lying in winrows, marking where their line 
had been. Our numerical weakness prevented a pursuit, 
so we lay on our arms till morning. The rebels sent in a 
flag of truce, and we delivered to them one hundred and 
eight dead bodies. We had captured forty prisoners. Our 
own loss was eight killed and sixteen wounded. The dis 
parity, doubtless, resulted from our fighting behind breast 
works." The next day Col. Stickney fell back on New Or 
leans, uncovering Brashear and Bayou Boeuf. 

The rebels, coming up in strong column, now turned down 
the railroad on Brashear. This was held by a small force, 
under Major R. C. Anthony of Rhode Island. Major Anthony 
immediately disposed his forces for defense. Companies A, C, 
and H, of the Twenty-third, were posted on the Brashear side 
of Bayou Boeuf. Lieut. Oscar H. Hibbard of Bethel, acting 
post adjutant, made a careful list of men, who, in case of at 
tack, would be able to stand up, and load and fire a rifle ; and 
reported one hundred and fifty. The situation was gloomy. 
The rebels were approaching, both in front and rear. 

At five o clock on the 22d, the enemy commenced shelling 
from the Berwick side of the bay. Capt. Noblett responded 
from his battery in front of the town. Capt. Crofut, now in 
command of the detachment of the Twenty-third, was or 
dered to take all the men he could get, and post them along 
the edge of the water, under cover, and open fire across the 
narrow bay. While carrying out this plan of operations, 
about eight o clock on the morning of the 23d, they were 
startled by unearthly yells in the rear. It soon appeared 
that a battalion of Texans had crossed to the Brashear side 
during the night, landing in a dense swamp ; and had cau 
tiously worked their way through our lines, and were almost 
in our camp before being discovered. The surprise was com 
plete. They rushed upon our line, and captured men before 
they had time to fire a gun. Capt. James R. Jenkins and 
Capt. Crofut rallied a crowd of forty, and opened fire upon 



the advancing foe ; but they were immediately surrounded, 
and compelled to surrender after a feeble resistance. 

In half an hour, Brashear was swarming with rebels, who 
had captured the immense amount of United-States stores 
there gathered. Among those burned, to keep them out of 
the hands of the enemy, were the valuable baggage and pri 
vate property of the Connecticut regiments before Port Hud 
son. The officers of the Twenty-third captured here were 
Capts. Julius Sanford, Samuel G. Bailey, Alfred Wells, Wil 
liam H. May, James R Jenkins, and A. D. Hopkins ; Lieuts. 
John A. Woodward, John F. Peck, 0. H. Hibbard, John G. 
Stevens, Charles Bailey, John W. Buckingham, and Charles 
D. Hurlburt. 

The prisoners were marched to the fort at Brashear City ; 
and during the two or three days following the enlisted 
men were parolled, and returned to New Orleans. The 
officers were moved across the river, and in two days more 
started on their tedious march, two hundred miles across the 
State, to Alexandria, on the Red River. Here they took a 
boat, and steamed up the river three hundred miles to 
Shreveport ; and thence another trying march, one hundred 
and twenty-five miles west, to Tyler, Tex. Here a stock 
ade fifteen feet high was built about the prisoners; and 
through the hot summer months they waited the tardy ex 
change. The location was healthful, and sulphur-water was 
given them to drink. As in every prison where Union offi 
cers were confined, there were many diversions to while away 
the tedious hours, debates, music, chess, cards, and, lastly, 
a newspaper. This last, the Old Flag, was a remarka 
ble production ; and some officers from all the regiments rep 
resented were its contributors. Its editors were Col. A. J. 
H. Duganne of New York, and Capt. William H. May of 
Bridgeport of the Twenty-third ; the latter being also pub 
lisher and printer. There was one copy of each number, 
and this was circulated throughout the prison. Four num 
bers were issued, in folio form, beautifully and uniquely 
printed with a pen by Capt. May. It was scarcely larger 
than a sheet of ordinary letter-paper, and the writing was not 
larger than newspaper-print. Capt. May succeeded in bring- 


ing the Old Flag safely off; and it has since been multi 
plied in lithograph, one of the most interesting relics of 
the war. 

During this eventful period, the Twenty-third had lost its 
faithful chaplain, Rev. James Averill. Mr. Averill was a 
native of Guilford, and was educated at Amherst, after 
wards preparing for the ministry at the Yale Theological 
School. He was pastor of the church at Shrewsbury, Mass., 
for eight years, and of the church at Plymouth Hollow, 
Conn., for ten years, ending with 1862. The voyage to 
Louisiana was very trying to his health and strength ; and 
the malarious climate to which he was exposed aggravated 
his tendencies to disease. He refused to leave his post ; and 
on the 28th of May he was suddenly attacked with fainting, 
followed by fever. The end rapidly drew on. The disease 
soon accomplished its appointed work ; and he sank quietly 
to rest, at four o clock, P.M., June 11, 1863. 

Among the dead of the Twenty-third was Lieut. Frederick 
Starr of Danbury. He was wounded in the battle at La- 
Fourche Crossing ; a ball shattering his thigh near the hip. 
The leg was amputated ; but he died two days afterwards, 
and was buried in rear of the hospital. Surgeon W. H. 
Trowbridge, always faithful and prompt in the discharge of 
his duty, wrote, " The record of the death of this truly ex 
cellent man is one of the most painful duties of my service 
here. Beloved by us all, brave, and devoted to the cause of 
his country, he fell in the discharge of his extreme duty ; 
died like a Christian soldier ; and our saddest recollections 
are blended with this comfort, living or dying, he was the 
Lord s." Lieut. Starr was profoundly mourned by his fellow- 
citizens of Danbury. Private Abel M. Wheeler of Danbury 
was mortally wounded in the same battle, and died on the 
same day. He went to the war solely under the impulse of 
duty, and gave his life to his country without repining. He 
will long be remembered for his patriotism and fervent piety. 
0. E. Trowbridge and Charles Hart also fell at the same time. 

Capt. George M. Godfrey of Wilton died April 23. Ser 
geant F. L. Curtis of Bridgeport was wounded at Brashear, 
and died on July 7. He was a talented and educated young 


man, with a lofty sense of honor and a resolute purpose. He 
won the high regard of his superior officers, and was always 
a favorite with his comrades. 

Lieut. William H. Bradley contracted the typhoid fever 
in the exposure and excitement of the service, and came 
home to his father s house in Derby to die. He was a true 
soldier, and was promoted from the ranks for merit. 

Nelson J. Peck of the Twenty-third was drowned at Bayou 
Boeuf, July 5. He was a son of Jabez B. Peck of Newtown, 
and left a fine social and mercantile position to enlist. In a 
letter home, he said, " Let them come on. I came here to 
fight, and if need be to die, to wrest from traitors hands the 
dear old flag. When I forget my country, may God forget 
me 1 " His eldest brother was Lieut. A. W. Peck of the 

One of the most faithful soldiers of the Twenty-third was 
Dr. Joseph Willimann of Danbury. He was educated as a 
plrysician in the best schools of Germany, and officiated as a 
surgeon during the greater part of his term of service ; re 
ceiving therefor only the pay of an enlisted man. He was 
constantly promised the rank of an assistant surgeon ; but 
there was no opening for his promotion. His valuable kit 
of surgeon s implements fell into the hands of the rebels at 
Brashear City ; and the poor man died a few weeks after 
wards, broken down in the service of his adopted country, 
and leaving his family only the scanty pension of a private 

The fraction of the regiment not captured retired towards 
New Orleans, and continued through the summer doing 
guard-duty in the " Lowlands of Louisiana." 

On June 26, its time having expired, the Twenty-second 
left Yorktown, Va., for home. At Philadelphia it met with a 
very refreshing entertainment, and at Jersey City it was 
properly fed and cared for by Col. Almy. Arriving at Hart 
ford, 4 the men were boisterously welcomed and greeted by 

4 When they arrived home, the soldiers of the Twenty-second found they had an un 
expended regimental fund amounting to four hundred and thirty-six dollars ; and instead 
of dividing it, or expending it for a dinner, they voted it to the Hartford Soldiers -Aid 



friends and kindred, as they were escorted through the 
streets. On State Street, the soldiers partook of refresh 
ments provided by Marshall P. Jewell & Son, before finally 
breaking ranks for their homes. 

The Twenty-second was among the fortunate regiments 
of the war. It had no regimental list of casualties, because 
it was never in an engagement. It was composed of patriotic 
and sturdy men, and its officers were as gallant soldiers as 
ever wore a sword. 

Early in August, 1863, our nine-months regiments in 
Louisiana were ordered home. The Twenty-sixth and 
Twenty-eighth came by boat up the Mississippi, and by 
rail across the Central States : the others returned as they 
went, by way of the gulf and ocean. All the regiments 
suffered severely with the physical prostration produced by 
a Southern summer; and those that came overland left 
patients in hospitals at Memphis, and in Illinois and Ohio. 
In every State through which they passed, they received 
grateful recognition of their uniform and their services. 
Gov. Buckingham promptly dispatched Capt. Lorenzo A. Gal 
lup of the Twenty-sixth, with directions to proceed overland 
to New Orleans, and, wherever Connecticut sick or wounded 
were found, to make arrangements for their comfort and 
their speedy return home. " He was very successful in his 
mission ; and through this instrumentality a number of our 
brave volunteers who most needed home, care, and comfort, 
were returned to their families and friends much sooner than 
would have been possible in the ordinary routine of the mili 
tary service." 5 Of the entire number left, thirty-one died. 6 

5 Adjutant-General s Report. 

6 Private Henry B. Milliard of the Twenty-seventh, from New Haven, died in hos 
pital, after a life of devotion to the welfare of others. This characteristic was quite 
as often found in the enlisted men as in the officers. lie went to the war deliberately, and 
as a matter of duty; and during his brief service he was marked for his kindness to 
those about him. He often carried the musket and knapsack of a weak comrade on the 
march to Falmouth, and gave much of his rations to the sick ; contributing his last 
dollar for their comfort. He himself became feeble and depressed ; but his ambition kept 
him generally on foot, and with the regiment. When urged to go to the hospital, he 
carried Frank Johnson, a sick friend, half a mile, to a place of shelter. In delirium, just 
before his death, he left his bed and lay on the floor, remarking that his wife had come, 
and was tired. Thus ended a life of heroic self-sacrifice. 

We wait no tidings now 

Of camp or field, or how 
Along the front went on the battle s fray ; 

For, be it lost or won, 

His part was nobly done : 
We crown him victor in our hearts to-day. 


Miles Bromley of Jewett City died on the steamboat be 
tween New York and Norwich, almost within sight of home 
and friends. 

The regiments were received at home by the same enthu 
siastic demonstrations of admiration and love that had greeted 
their departure ; and there were everywhere waving flags, 
thronging multitudes, and cheers of welcome. The Twenty- 
third was formally received in New Haven, by Mayor Tyler ; 
the Twenty-fourth in Middletown, by Hon. Benjamin Doug 
lass ; the Twenty-fifth in Hartford, by George Gilman ; the 
Twenty-sixth in Norwich, by Mayor Greene ; the Twenty- 
seventh in New Haven, by Rev. Dr. Leonard Bacon, and the 
Twenty-eighth, by Alderman Edwin Marble. These ceremo 
nies were repeated in all sections of the State as regiments 
and companies returned to the immediate localities that sent 
them forth, greetings succeeded by the more sacred and 
cherished welcome in the moistened eyes and loving hearts 
of home. 

All these nine-months regiments carried home with them 
evidences of exposure and of service ; and the men of the 
Twenty-seventh had this piece of testimony from Col. 
(afterwards Gen.) Brooke, commanding the brigade : 

Camp in Pleasant Valley, Md., July 1", 1863. 

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9. The colonel commanding the brigade de 
sires, in parting with the officers and men of the Twenty-seventh Connecti 
cut, to convey to them his sincere feelings of regret at losing their services ; 
while he at the same time thanks them for the obedience and faithfulness 
which has been a marked feature of the regiment. 

Knowing it intimately for so many months of active and arduous ser 
vice ; having been an eye-witness of its many deeds of gallantry, and of 
the noble devotion displayed by it on many a memorable day during the 
time in which he has had the honor to command its services, he feels it 
a duty he owes, riot only to the living heroes, but to the memory of 
those who have fallen in the field in battling in our righteous cause, to 
bear testimony to the valor and gallantry it has always displayed. 

Side by side with the veterans of the Army of the Potomac it has 
fought, and, by the gallantry of its conduct, won for itself an enviable 
name and reputation, which may well, in after-years, cause all who belong 
to it to feel a pardonable pride in having it to say that they served with 
the Twenty-seventh Connecticut. 

By order Col. Brooke, 

.CHARLES P. HATCH, Lieutenant A. A. A. G 


Sixth and Seventh in Florida. The Advance on Charleston. The Situation at Folly 
and Morris Islands. Gen. Terry and the Tenth on James Island. A Detachment 
of the Seventh the first to land on Morris Island. Capture of the Batteries. The 
Battalion of the Seventh in the First Charge on Wagner. Fight on James Island. 
The First Connecticut Battery. Daring Charge of the Sixth on Wagner. 
Three Hours in the Fort. Heavy Casualties. Important Service of the Seventeenth 
Connecticut Volunteers. Approaches to the Fort. The Seventh in Charge of 
Heavy Batteries. Bombardment of Sumter. Capture of Wagner and Gregg. The 
Roll of Honor. The Sixth at Hilton Head. The Seventh at St. Helena Island. 
The Seventeenth on Folly Island. The Tenth in Florida. Death of Col. Chatfield. 

OR several weeks of the winter, the Sixth and 
Seventh, with the First Connecticut Battery, re 
mained in comfortable camp at Beaufort and 
Hilton Head ; but in January, 1863, the Seventh 
left for Florida. The regiment landed at Fer- 


nandina on the 15th, relieving the 9th Maine; and Col. 
Hawley took command of the post. Here for three months 
they remained on guard, pleasantly located, with plenty of 
food and fruit, surrounded by the luxuriant vegetation of 
that flowery land, and bathing in the fountains of perpetual 
youth which Ponce de Leon invented. In April, Col. Haw- 
ley went with five companies to South Carolina to partici 
pate in another advance on Charleston ; but the expedition 
miscarried, and he returned. 

In a few days more, the two flank companies, under Capts. 
V. B. Chamberlain and Theodore Burdick, under Major 
Daniel C. Rodman, went to Hilton Head to join the force 
again mustering to move against Charleston. The Sixth, 
which had arrived at Jacksonville in March, also evacuated 
the city with other regiments in possession, covering the 
rear in the retreat, and returned .to Hilton Head. Soon 
they were joined by two more companies of the Seventh. 



under Capts. Sylvester H. Gray and Jerome Tourtelotte. 
The battalion that remained in Florida was not idle. Two 
companies, under Capts. Benjamin F. Skinner and John B. 
Dennis, made a raid into the enemy s country, capturing 
about three hundred head of beef-cattle, which were penned 
up by the rebel beef-contractors for the rebel army, and 
drove them into town in company with about forty horses. 

An ill-timed attack on Charleston failing, Gen. Hunter 
was relieved from the command of the department and suc 
ceeded by Gen. Gilmore, who immediately renewed prepara 
tions to make an assault from the south. His first objective 
point seemed to be Fort Wagner, situated on the north-east 
ern shore of Morris Island. 

This island is a ridge of sand formed by successive accu 
mulations from the tides, and running along the southern side 
of the entrance to Charleston Harbor. The ridge slopes 
from the shore inward, terminating in a series of salt 
marshes indented by narrow inlets. The width of the 
high land varies from twenty-five to two hundred and fifty 
yards. The island bears the same relation to Fort Suin- 
ter that Tybee bears to Pulaski. 

Folly Island is a long strip of land immediately south 
of Morris Island, from which its northern point is separated 
only by a narrow stream called Light-house Inlet. The 
lower two-thirds of the island is covered with a thick growth 
of pine and palmetto trees ; and the upper third is a low, 
marshy swamp. 

Gilmore immediately took possession of this island ; and 
early in June it was occupied by the Sixth and the little 
battalion of the Seventh, with one or two other regiments. 
The rebels suspected no serious aggression, and felt out 
from time to time, meeting with slight resistance. - But the 
business of the siege was at once begun ; and the engineers 
and working parties threw up breastworks of sand, and com 
menced batteries, on the upper end of the island, close under 
the rebel guns intrenched across the inlet. 

With the greatest secrecy the work was pushed forward. 
The enemy saw no men nearer than the distant woods, and 
heard no sound. But, if our forces were idle and listless by 


day, they worked at night with superhuman energy. Hun 
dreds of spades flashed in the moonlight. Transports arrived 
with more troops. Battery after battery rose in the white 
sand ; but nothing was visible to the rebels. Huge mortars, 
Parrott-guns, and Columbiads came from Hilton Head, landed 
at Stono Inlet, and, under the darkness, were dragged slowly 
and tediously into place behind their mask of sand. Ammu 
nition was also taken forward and concealed. To make the 
foundation for the batteries and the corduroy roads, trees 
had to be cut upon the island ; and, lest the rebels should 
hear the crash of their fall, the largest ones were sawed off, 
and then eased carefully to the ground with cables from 
neighboring trees. So the work went forward as noiselessly 
as the ice-palace of Queen Catherine. 

The pickets were on good terms ; they told one another 
the news, joked and chatted together, and sauntered with 
out fear as near as the dividing creek would let them. A 
member of the Sixth wrote to the Waterbury American, 
" Our boys make miniature ships, and freight them with salt 
and coffee, and send them over to the rebs ; and in return 
they send us tobacco." Gilmore even diminished the num 
ber of his picket, so as to re-assure the enemy. 

In all this work, the Sixth and the battalion of the Seventh 
found severe toil. For three weeks, every night, by moon 
light or in the midst of frightful thunder-storms, the work 
went on ; details from both regiments being constantly en 
gaged : and at the end of that time there had been erected 
ten batteries, mounting forty-eight guns of the heaviest 
caliber, within four hundred yards of the enemy s works. 
" And yet," says a narrative of the time, " the rebels had no 
suspicion that there was any thing more than light field- 
pieces within seven miles." This is not so certain, however, 
for they had begun very actively to strengthen their batter 
ies on the opposite bank. 

On the morning of July 10, some troops under Brig.-Gen. 
Terry, promoted after Pulaski, landed at the lower end of 
James Island, as a feint to draw off the rebels from the main 
attack. In this force was the Tenth Connecticut, just arrived 
from St. Helena Island, and the First Connecticut Battery ; 


and, on their advancing towards Secessionville, many of the 
rebels hurried over from Morris Island to repel them. Terry 
kept his regiments well in hand : he avoided a general en 
gagement, but showed a bold front, and skillfully held the 
enemy s attention during the day and succeeding night. 
The Tenth picketed in front, and was kept vigilant by the 
inquisitive rebels that crowded down the island. 

At midnight of the 9th, large detachments from all the 
regiments on Folly Island stepped quietly into boats, and 
rowed silently up Folly Creek, near the shore of Morris 
Island ; where the flotilla of eighty boats waited for the 
dawn. At five o clock, Gilmore unmasked his batteries, and 
opened simultaneously from fifty guns. The astonished rebels 
soon replied, showering the boats with shot and shell. A 
boat of the Sixth was struck, and one man killed and several 
wounded. The battalion of the Seventh was selected to 
lead the column. After the artillery duel had continued for 
about two hours, Lieut.-Col. Rodman of the Seventh was sent 
ashore with a part of Company A, to reconnoiter. He soon 
returned, and " said to the general, Let me land my com 
mand, and take that battery. The general hesitated at first, 
and then said, Go. Col. Rodman stood up in the stern of 
his boat, and in a loud voice gave the command, as the boats 
were all in line and good order, Seventh Connecticut, 
man your oars and follow me ! At the order, we all headed 
for the shore ; and, as the boats struck, every man sprang as 
if by instinct ; and in an instant they were in line. Capt. 
Chamberlain sent forward skirmishers under Lieut. Van Keu- 
ren, and we advanced rapidly to the first line of rifle-works. 
Our skirmishers cleared it with a bound, and advanced to the 
second line. Our main forces moved to the first line : 
the foe retired, firing. Lieut.-Col. Rodman now sent word 
back for the general to land his whole force, as we could 
hold the line we occupied." l 

A part of the force had already landed. The men of the 
Sixth Connecticut had sprung ashore towards the flank, and 
advanced with a rush and a wild cheer towards the batteries. 
The whole force joined in the onset; and in ten minutes the 

1 Capt. S. H. Gray s report. 


rebels at the sand-hill batteries turned and fled. The fire 
from Wagner and Sumter was incessant. 

Capt. S. H. Gray s report from the Seventh, says, 

" Lieut.-Col. Rodman sent Company B (Capt. Burdick) to the left, and 
Company I (Capt. Gray) to the right, to engage the enemy at short range, 
and drive them out, if possible ; while Companies A and K (Chamberlain 
and Tourtelotte) held our first position. After exchanging a few shots, 
the brigade being now landed and ready to advance, the enemy began 
to give way ; and Capt. Burdick followed them close on the left, and cap 
tured a number of prisoners and one or two camps. Lieut. Jordan, with 
a detachment of Company I, pushed right up into their batteries on our 
right ; and not finding the first gun in a working condition (it having been 
disabled by a shot), he pushed forward to what is now called Battery Rod 
man, in which there was an eight-inch seacoast howitzer, and turned it on 
the retreating foe ; bursting several shells over their heads before they 
reached Fort Wagner." 

The pursuit was eager. Two hundred prisoners were 
taken. Private Roper Hounslow of the Sixth (from Stam 
ford) shot a rebel color-bearer, and captured a battle-flag in 
scribed "Pocotalico, Oct. 22, 1862." Col. Chatfield led his 
men on the last series of rifle-pits, waving this banner aloft. 
The regimental flag of the Sixth was soon floating from the 
peak of the only house on the island. Two-thirds of the 
island was captured, with ten columbiads, two mortars, and 
a Whitworth gun; and the force threw up breastworks almost 
within rifle-shot of Wagner, and rested. 

Before leaving Folly Island, each had tied a strip of white 
cloth about his right arm, that they might know one another 
in a night assault; and they were slightly confused on find 
ing in the morning that the prisoners caught had, anticipat 
ing an assault from a feeble force, adopted the same badge. 

It was determined to take Fort Wagner by assault next 
morning ; all the regiments to be within supporting distance. 
Capt. Gray of the Seventh, in the official report, says, " We 
were to take the lead, and be supported by the 76th Penn 
sylvania and the 9th Maine. Silently we moved up to the 
advance line of our pickets; our guns loaded and primed, 
and bayonets fixed. We there deployed into line of battle, 
one hundred and ninety-one men and officers all told. It 
was said there were but three guns pointing this way. 

" Gen. Strong gave the order, i Aim low, and put your 
trust in God : forward, the Seventh ! and forward we went, 


being not more than five hundred yards from the fort. We 
had not gone far before the pickets fired ; and then we took 
the double-quick, and, with a cheer, rushed for the works. 
Before we reached the outer works, we got a murderous fire 
from the riflemen. A few fell ; a check in the line ; an en 
couraging word from the officers (they were all there, 
eleven in all, no sick ones) ; and right gallantly we 
reached the outer works. Over them with a will we went ; 
down the opposite side, and across the moat (there being 
about one foot of water in it) right up to the crest of the 
parapet. And there we lay, anxiously waiting for our sup 
port to come up so far as to make it a sure thing for us to 
rise up and go over with a bound ; our men, in the mean 
time, busying themselves picking off sharpshooters and gun 
ners. We lay so near the top, that one had but to put his 
head up and gun across the top of the parapet to kill his 

Here was fighting at close quarters ; and Corporal Giles 
James of Colchester, Arthur E. Lyon of Eastford, and William 
DeWitt of Windsor Locks, are mentioned for gallantry. We 
quote again from the report : " For a time, we had it all our 
own way ; but it was of short duration. As soon as the regi 
ments in front broke and ran, the rebels paid particular 
attention to our case. They threw hand-grenades over the 
parapet, and soon sent men into the flank of a bastion, which 
commanded the front upon which we lay. They had us 
then at great disadvantage. The question was, whether we 
should surrender as prisoners, attempt to carry the works 
and be entirely annihilated (as they greatly outnumbered 
us), or take the back track, and rim the gantlet for our 
lives. Upon consulting Lieut-Col. Rodman, he reluctantly 
gave the order to retreat ; and down we went, across the 
moat and over the work. They had a perfect enfilading fire 
of small-arms for a thousand yards, besides three pieces 
giving us grape and canister. They fell on all sides of me, 
and I alone of the four captains was spared ; and out of the 
hundred and ninety-one officers and men that marched out 
to attack the foe but eighty-eight returned safe to camp. 
And ever let it be said, to the credit of the Seventh Con- 



necticut Volunteers, that not one straggler could be discov 
ered. Fifteen minutes after arrival in camp, roll was called ; 
and but one man came in afterwards, and he was delayed by 
assisting a wounded comrade. I met Gen. Strong with tears 
in his eyes ; and he said we had done our whole duty, and 
covered ourselves with glory ; and that, if the support had 
come in time, we should have taken the w T orks. And with 
out a doubt we should have done so." 2 

Another bloody failure for want of co-operation ! Again, 
for a week, the whole force was engaged in intrenching, and 
wheeling great guns into position. Fort Sumter kept up an 
annoying fire into Gilmore s trenches ; and the front of the 
fort, where the island narrowed to twenty-five yards in width, 
was also swept by the batteries on James Island, besides its 
own armament. To take such a fort required all the skill 
and all the valor of veteran warriors. 

During the morning of the 16th, the enemy attacked the 
force on James Island. The Tenth held the extreme left of 
the line, and behind was a swamp, that could not be trav 
ersed. The regiments on the right were falling back rapidly ; 
and the Tenth probably escaped wholesale capture by pass 
ing at double-quick towards the landing. The enemy s ad 
vance was retarded by the guns of the Pawnee and the field- 
pieces of the First Connecticut Battery. "These," wrote 
Lieut. Camp of the Tenth, " were served with a rapidity and 
accuracy that spoke well for our friend Capt. Rockwell, and 
compared favorably with the rebel fire." That night, James 
Island was evacuated ; and the Tenth, resting briefly on the 
way, went to Morris Island. 

All night long, in a drenching rain, had the Sixth been in 
the rifle-pits before Wagner ; coming into camp late on the 
morning of the 18th, weary and wet, and covered with sand. 
Scarcely had they washed themselves, and cleaned their 
guns, and eaten their dinner, before the order was given to 
" fall in," to join in the assault on Wagner at dark. Never 

2 The correspondent of the New -York Herald wrote, "The Connecticut regiment 
succeeded in getting inside, and spiked six guns ; just then the Pennsylvania regiment fell 
back, and left this heroic Connecticut regiment to fight it out alone." The Savannah 
Republican (Confederate) said, " Willing to do justice to a brave foe, it may be added that 
a more daring and gallant assault has not been made on either side since the commence 
ment of the war." 


was an order more cheerfully obeyed, especially as the 
word passed around, that Col. Chatfield had determined to 
lead his own regiment into action ; refusing the command 
of the brigade, which belonged to him as the ranking officer, 
and declaring his preference " to stand or fall with the men 
of the Sixth." 

The Tenth also sprang to arms, and moved with Stephen- 
son s brigade up the ridge. Weary with days of toil and 
nights of sleeplessness, it was now to join in storming the 

The column was quietly formed upon the beach, under 
cover of the high bank, and there remained till night. The 
men we re impatient to move, as the scene around became 
exciting. The New Ironsides had left her moorings, and 
steamed within easy range of the fort, followed by five mon 
itors in line, and five gunboats ; and from them all, and from 
the forty batteries erected along the island, a direct and in 
cessant fire was now concentrated on the fort. 

" The scene became one of absolute magnificence. The 
firing of the fleet kept up an uninterrupted peal of thunder. 
Nothing in the way of pyrotechnics could equal in effect a 
broadside from the Ironsides ; its swift tongues of flame 
piercing deep into the darkness, and bringing into momen 
tary distinctness the immense hull from whence they sprang ; 
and the heavy boom of the discharges coming over the water 
after long apparent delay ; while the fancy followed into the 
dark fort the fourteen hundred pounds of solid iron, and 
wondered if they did their work." 3 Shot and shells crashed 
fearfully above and within it ; so that, when night came 
down, Wagner was silent, save an occasional gun, and seemed 
a ruined heap and an easy prize. 

Slowly and softly, as twilight deepened, had the troops 
advanced, till now but a short and level space lay between 
them and the stronghold. At the earnest request of the 
gallant Col. Shaw, Col. Chatfield had allowed the 54th Massa 
chusetts (colored) to occupy the extreme right, the post 
of honor. The Sixth came next; and seven other regi 
ments extended to the left. The remnant of the Seventh 

8 Lieut. Camp of the Tenth, The Knightly Soldier. 


Connecticut Volunteers was manning a battery of three 
30-pound rifled Parrotts under command of Capt. Gray. 
Stephenson s brigade was now detached from the column, 
and sent into the trenches as a reserve, until re-inforcements 
should be needed. The officers and men of the Tenth were 
chagrined to find themselves mere spectators. 

Faster and fiercer came shot and shell from batteries on 
shore and gunboats in the bay, till a signal-flag rose to 
" cease firing ; " and then the sharp, quick order ran along 
the line, " Forward ! Double-quick ! " Out and on rushed 
the charging column from its concealment ; and at the same 
moment, as if by a magician s touch, behind the parapet 
sprang up, in double line, the ready thousand of the rebel 

Forward rushed the 54th Massachusetts in " line of battle," 
followed by the Sixth Connecticut "in column by compa 
nies," with Col. Chatfield on the right, and Adjutant Fitch 
on the left, of the front, forward, till within point-blank 
range ; and then from Wagner and Sumter and the James- 
Island batteries, from casemate, parapet, and angle, burst 
forth a concentrated fire, the unintermittent flashings of 
which were like the vivid lightnings of a hot summer s 
eve, a fire as terrific and murderous as the annals of war 
fare have ever known. 

The 54th Massachusetts, which had but once before been 
under fire, pressed bravely forward : but some companies 
wavered ; and, pushing for the south-western angle, the line 
moved " by the left oblique " so far that it completely un 
covered the front of the Sixth, and left an unobstructed 
pathway to the fort. 

On moved the Sixth, steadily, quickly on, on through 
the outer work and moat, up the glacis, across the broad 
parapet, unchecked by the awful tempest of shot and shell, 
of shrapnel, canister, and grape, of bullets and hand- 
grenades, entering the fort at its south-eastern angle, and 
leaping down to the casemates and bomb-proofs, driving all 
before them in dismay. The fire in the fort paused at this 
audacious invasion, paused so long, that spectators upon 
the sand-hills said, " The work is over : the fort has surren 


And now the little band looked for succor ; but it did not 
come. Two or three of the advanced regiments., including 
the negroes, were still clinging desperately to the parapet 
outside ; a few, white and black, had even gained the inte 
rior; but the main supporting column, Jackson s brigade, 
terrified by the deadly cannonade, instead of following 
closely, relying on the bayonet to do the work, stopped for 
a moment to return fire, and again lost the fort. The rebels 
saw the mistake, and rallied ; now charging upon the Sixth, 
standing almost alone in their midst, under the flag of Con 

The charge was repulsed, and every effort to expel them 
failed. Three separate times, according to the Charleston 
papers of the 19th, did they charge most furiously ; and 
after great loss desisted. For more than three hours, the 
Sixth maintained its position in the fort, and waited for sup 
port, in vain ! and at last, with its leader and many offi 
cers struck down, the remnant one by one escaped ; but 
they brought off their colors with them. 

These were borne away triumphantly, torn into shreds, 
indeed, but hallowed relics of the fight. Eight brave men 
had snatched these colors from a dying comrade s grasp, 
and fallen dead or wounded upon them. Lieut-Col. Red- 
field Duryee, in transmitting the State flag to Gov. Bucking 
ham, said, 

" The German color-bearer, Sergeant Gustave De Bouge (of Water- 
bury) was shot through the forehead while carrying the colors at the 
assault, and fell dead upon them, staining them with his blood ; and, 
before they could be picked up, several other men fell upon them dead or 
wounded. They were, however, finally seized by Capt. F. B. Osborn, 
who attempted to pull them from under the bodies ; but, in so doing, the 
flag, which had become very much shattered by shots, was torn through 
the center, and the part attached to the staff only was saved. The 
United-States colors were so much torn during the assault, that they can 
not be unfurled." 

These colors, which now hang in their place among the 
treasured honors of the State, tell, better than words can tell, 
of the unparalleled fierceness of the struggle of that night. 

Among those who bore the tattered flag during the fight 
was the fearless Col. Chatfield, who was dangerously wound 
ed ; being struck both in the leg and hand. He was carried 


off the field by Private Andrew Grogan of Bridgeport, 
afterwards lieute