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Glass Culler, Glacier t Scii I Class luaki'i- in oi-dtnaiTtallic 

Kinu roe SiJOSlAHD 




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at A w ir A X 

Class CulUT. riJui.T .V Si. H. t ,.,. i.. 




VIKWDF.W'i'iWS CLASS IHir.SK. 



^ ^^ 



2S^ 






i 



THE 



CROWN GLASS CUTTER 



AND 



GLAZIER'S MANUAL. 



BY 



WILLIAM COOPER, 

GLASS CUTTEB, GLAZIER, AND STAINED GLA8S-MAKEB IN ORDINARY 

TO THE KING FOR SCOTLAND. 



ILLUSTRATED BY TWENTY-ONE ENGRAVINGS. 



EDINBURGH : 

OLIVER & BOYD; AND 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO. LONDON. 

1835. 

22/. 



PLATES. 



PLATBS. 

Interior of a Crown Grlass House, — Frontispiece 
View of a Crown Glass House, — Vignette 
IL Cutting Boards . to &ce page 35 

IIL Whiting Kiln — Cutting and Glazing 

Apparatus ... 37 

IV. Cross Cutting Board . . . 40 

V. Breaking out Board 38 

VL Sections of Tables . . . 47 

Vn. do. do. ... 48 

VIIL do. and Fan Lights 49 

IX. Crown Glass Theodolite . . 52 

X. Table of Boxes . . . 57 

XI. Hot House Frames . . 69 

XIL East Window of St Giles Church 126 

XIII, XIV, XV, XVL Patterns of Ancient 

Leading . . . . ib. 

XVII. Stained Window . . . ib. 

XVIIL Lead MiU, Drawings of . . ib. 

XIX. Diamonds, do. . . . ib. 



PREFACE. 



The general diffusion of knowledge, and the im- 
provements in the modes of its dissemination which 
have occurred within these few years, have made 
literature as familiar in the workshop of the artisan 
as in the closet of the student. There has thus been 
opened up to the labouring part of the community 
one of the purest sources of enjoyment, and the 
means suggested to the enterprising mechanic, 
whereby he may greatly extend the sphere of his 
own usefulness. It has likewise not unfrequently 
inspired him with a laudable ambition to contribute 
his quota to the general stock of knowledge through 
the medium of the press — to employ his pen as well 
as the implements of his trade — to teach as well as 
to practise. 

This association of literature with mechanical skill 
must have a beneficial effect in two respects. In 



vi PREFACE. 

the first place, its tendency is to raise the humblest 
mechanical trades to the rank of sciences, and im- 
part to the workman a sense of the worth and 
importance of his art, and such a knowledge, as 
well of its theory as its practice, as every craftsman 
ought to possess. It will elevate his own character 
by elevating that of his art, and, while it promotes 
his general intellectual advancement, it will, in the 
second place, enable him to refine and improve on 
that art to an extent which must soon be felt in 
the comfortSy elegancies, and conveniencies of life. 
We cannot but think that the skill and ingenuity of 
the mechanic, in ordinary things, are not sufficiently 
prized, and this merely because, from not being 
sufficiently known, they are accounted ordinary 
things. We look with indifference on the produce 
of hb intellect and die works of his hands, and say, 
with an emphasis which is meant to deprive him of 
all merit, ^^ It is his trade." True, it may be his 
trade, but what of that? Has there been no mind 
at work to regulate, no genius to direct his manual 
dexterity? Yes; in the meanest mechanical art 
there is much of these qualities displayed. Genius 
has, indeed, been allowed to the tradesman, and this 
quality of mind has been denominated mechanical 
genius. Now, whilst this term is understood merely 



ill a discrtminative sense, to distinguisli it from the 
other forms under which genius appears, and when 
it is not associated with any ideas of inferiority, it 
is well enough ; but when it ia understood as coupled 
with certain ideas of inferiority, we cannot assent 
to the propriety of that disparagement of the faculty 
which is thus implied ; for it cannot be denied, that 
genius exerciaed in making a shoe, or in any other 
piece of workmanship, is as <listinctly and purely 
genius as that faculty developed in writing a book. 
It is true, that in the former of these works it ap- 
pears in a less dignified form than in the latter, but 
is its result less an emanation of genius on that 
account ? A diamond is a diamond still, whether it 
be placed on the blue bonnet of the peasant, or the 
monarch's crown ; and who knows but that the ge- 
nius which may have discovered itself in the humble 
and homely form spoken of, might have raised 
its possessor to a high place amongst men, had his 
destiny been otherwise ordered ? Or who can say, 
that what is called mechanical genius, may not 
often be an accident of the quality, the result of a 
chance direction of its powers; thus making it 
possible, that Watt and Bonaparte might have 
exchanged places, without loss of any of that fame, 
which we now associate with the names of these 



I 



y\\\ PR£FAC£. 

extraordinary men. Apart from these considera- 
tions, bowever, who does not see, that the discoveries 
of Watt have been infinitely more valuable to 
mankind, and are attended with a much purer 
glory, than the matchless but desolating conquests 
of Bonaparte ? 

Leaving these speculations, we proceed to speak 
of the little work which these preliminary observa- 
tions are meant to introduce to the reader. . Some 
of the reasons which dictated its publication have 
been already alluded to, but there are others which 
have been still more influential than any of these. 

It may be held as a maxim, it is presumed, that 
every man desirous of advancing to excellence in 
his business, should know something of its past 
history, its present circumstances, and its future 
prospects ; and it was under this impression, com- 
bined with the idea that he could communicate 
some useful information to the glazier, that the 
writer threw together, into the shape in which he 
now presents it, the result of some experience in 
his trade, and some reading on the subject of the 
article in which he deals. 

As the title of the work iipplies, it has been 
written chiefly with a view to explain and illustrate 
the art of glazing. In those parts of it, therefore. 



PREFACE. ix 

which do not bear directly upon this subject, only 
general information has been communicated. Upon 
glass cuttiog, however, several hints and observa- 
tions have been given, which, it is hoped, will be found 
serviceable to the crown glass-cutter and glazier. 
In the historical department, and process of manu- 
facturing, such information has been given, as every 
glazier, it is conceived, ought to possess.* The 
writer makes no pretension whatever to the merit of 
suggesting any thing new, or of adding to the general 
stock either of chemical or scientific knowledge. 
In the article on staining and stained glass, though 
forming a part of the writer's own business, it has 
not been thought proper to give more than a general 
outline, because it was believed, that the numbers 
interested in it as a trade were too few to warrant 
his entering into details on the subject, in a work 
intended principally, as already said, for the glazier, 
to whom these could only be of secondary interest. 
Tables for the measurement of glass might them- 
selves form a volume. All the calculations neces- 
sary for ordinary purposes are given in four pages. 

* For a more detailed account of the history and manufacture 
of glass in all its branches, see article Glass, in the new edition 
of the Encyclopedia BrUannica, by the same writer. 



PREFACE. 



In large qoantitieSy the glazier would do well to 
go throngb the calculatioos himself, aocordlDg' to 
the plan laid down, which a little practice will 
enable him to do with ease. 



Edinburgh, Januanfy 18d5. 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The word Glass has been TarionBly derived, but 
is still of uncertain orig;in. The reader may take 
hia choice of the two derivations usually given, 
and which, of all the others, appear to be the most 
plausible, namely, glassum, the name given to amber 
by the ancient Gaub, and glacies, the Ladn name 
of ice. 

The first discovery of the art of manu^turing 
glass is of such remote antiquity, as to be altogether 
beyond the reach of inquiry. It precedes the 
commencement of history, and is connected witli 
its earliest records, by a tradition which is again 
lost in the obscurity of dme. Glass beads, and 
other ornaments made of that substance, skilfully 
manufactured, and beautifully culouted, have been 
found adorning the bodies of Egyptian mummies, 



2 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

which have been ascertained to be upwards of 
three thousand years old. There are, besides these 
ancient relics, many other proofs of this art having 
long preceded the Christian era. 

Glass is distinctly mentioned in the book of Job, 
and is also spoken of by Aristophanes, in his 
comedy of the Clouds^ four hundred and twenty- 
three years before the birth of Christ. 

Pliny, the Roman historian, gives a sufficiently 
plausible account of the first discovery of the art of 
manufacturing this beautiful and useful commodity, 
but it has all the appearance of being merely an 
ingenious &ble; well enough conceived, but 
undeserving of much credit. He says, that a ship 
laden with fossil alkali, a component part of glass, 
having been driven ashore on the coast of Palestine, 
the sailors accidentally placed their cooking vessels 
<m pieces of the alkali. The river sand on which 
the operation of preparing their food was performed, 
being vitrified by its union with the alkali, through 
the agency of the fire which they used, produced 
glass ; and hence, according to Pliny, the discovery 
of the art. 

The story bears evident marks of having been 
got up, a po^terioriy to suit the circumstances of the 
case, and its artificial adaptation to this purpose is 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 3 

SO palpable, as to destroy all faith in its credibility. 
There are, besides, many simple processes by which 
the art of glass-making might be discovered, such 
as the burning of bricks, which, after undergoing 
this operation, are more or less vitrified, or covered 
with an imperfect glass ; and, indeed, it has been 
asserted, that the idea of glass-making originated 
from this very circumstance. 

Whenever, or by whatever means, the art of 
glass-making was first invented, it is certain that it is 
of the highest antiquity — of an antiquity so remote, 
indeed, that it has hitherto defied all research ; and 
this should be nearly enough to satisfy any reason- 
able curiosity on the subject. ^ 

Although there is much uncertainty regarding 
the period when this art was first discovered, there 
is none as to the quarter of the world in which that 
discovery took place. This was the East, the original 
seat of nearly all the arts and sciences. Though 
first discovered there, however, and practised from 
time immemorial, the art of glass-making was con- 
fined for many centuries to the production merely 
of ornaments, no idea having ever occurred that it 
might be extended to the manufacture of really 
useful articles, such as domestic vessels, windows, 
or mirrors. 



4 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

The first glass-houses mentioned in history, were 
erected in Tyre, an ancient Phoenician city, on the 
coast of Syria. The towns of Sidon and Alexandria, 
also, belonging to the same people, became after- 
wards celebrated for the manufacture of this article. 
To these places the art was exclusively confined 
for many centuries, and during this time they alone 
supplied the world with its produce. 

From the circumstance of coloured glass beads 
and amulets having been found in Druidical 
remains in this country, it has been asserted that the 
art of making glass was known in Britain before the 
invasion of the Romans ; but this is wholly incredible. 
It cannot be believed, that a people, who were in a 
state little, if at all, removed from primitive barbarity, 
and who, it is known, were entirely unacquainted 
with any other art, should be found not only versant 
in the manufacture of glass, a complicated and 
highly ingenious process, but should excel in it; for 
the beads and amulets spoken of are of exquisite 
workmanship, and beautifully coloured in imitation 
of the rarest and most precious stones. There seems 
little doubt, therefore, that the ancient Britons pro* 
cured these in traflBc with the Tyrians, who would 
visit the island as we do those in the South Seas, to 
drive a trade with its savage inhabitants in toys and 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 5 

trhikctSj giving tliem these in exchange for skins, or 
other natural productions. By whatever means, how- 
ever, these ornaments found tLcir way into Britain, 
it is certain that they were in extensive use, though 
principally for religious purposes, long prior to the 
Roman invasion, as they are found in barrows and 
tumuli of a much older date than that period : one 
of the former, in particular, at Stonehenge, on being 
opened, was found filled with them. Another 
remarkable proof of the high antiquity of the art of 
glass making, and of the early perfection of which 
it boasts, is exhibited in a large plate of glass which 
was found in Herculaneum, an ancient city in Italy, 
which was destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in 
the year of our Lord 79. 

From Syria, where, as already mentioned, the 
manufacture of glass was first established on an 
extensive scale, or something like system, it gra- 
dually travelled west : the Greeks acquired it, and 
from thence it found its way to Rome ; but its 
march was slow, and for many centuries the Romans 
were supplied from Alexandria. 

The shape in which it was imported thither, 
liowever, still bespoke a limited knowledge of its 
uses. That shape was principally ornamental, — 
occasionally, and in rare cases, it extended to 




5 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

drinking cups, or glasses, but these were deemed 
fit only for a king; and though an excellence in 
colouring glass was attained at this early period, 
and long before, which is not yet surpassed, the 
art of producing it free from any colour — the 
most difficult part of the process of glass-making, 
since it is readily afiiected by extraneous substances 
— was scarcely known; for we are told that the 
emperor Nero paid six thousand sestertia * for two 
drinking cups, whose value chiefiy arose from the 
circumstance of their being entirely colourless. 
The poorest and meanest persons of the present 
day drink out of glasses in which this property is 
perfect. 

The glass ware imported into Rome from 
Alexandria, was, as already noticed, principally 
ornamental, and all coloured; but this colouring 
was so exquisite, and the workmanship otherwise 
of these little fragile toys so beautiful, that they 
were used and valued as jewels, and so employed 
in adorning the persons of the ancient Roman belles 
and beaux ; and thus a string of glass beads, which 
no servant girl would now wear, was considered an 
ornament to which the daughter of a patrician only 
could pretend. 

• A sum nearly equal to ^50,000 sterling. 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 7 

The art of making for themselves that article 
for which they had hitherto been indebted to the 
Tyrians, at length found its way to Rome. In the 
reign of the emperor Tiberius, a company of glass 
manufacturers established themselves in the city, 
and had a street assigned them in its first region ; 
but the produce of their manufacture was very early 
considered a fit subject of taxation, an impost having 
been laid upon it by Alexander Severus, in the 
year 220. 

Pliny, of whose credibility we have already 
spoken, relates that a glass-maker, who had invented 
a species of malleable glass, brought a vessel mad6 
of that material to Tiberius. To shew the emperor 
the singular property of his glass, he dashed the 
vessel on the floor with sufficient force to dimple it, 
and impair its shape. He then took a hammer, and, 
in the presence of the emperor, hammered it into 
its original form, removing the dimples, and restoring 
the beauty of its shape. Instead of rewarding the 
ingenious artist for this proof of his extraordinary 
skill, Tiberius ordered him to be instantly beheaded 
— alleging that this discovery, if known, would 
render gold and silver useless. Such is the story of 
Pliny, but like many of his other stories, it deserves 
no credit. 



g HISTORY OF GLASS. 

The precise period at which the Romans extended 
their knowledge of the art of glass-makings to 
window glass, and when they first used it for the 
purposes for which it is now employed in that 
form, is not certainly known. Previous to such 
application of the art, at whatever time it may have 
first taken place, the Roman windows were filled with 
a semi-transparent substance called lapis specukaris^ 
a fossil of the class of taJcs^ which readily splits into 
thin, smooth laminsB, or plates. This substance is 
found in masses of about ten or twelve inches in 
breadth, and three in thickness ; and when sliced, 
very much resembles horn, for which it is to this 
day often employed by lantern makers. The 
Romans were chiefly supplied with this article from 
the island of Cyprus, where it abounds ; and so good 
a substitute is it said to have been for glass^ that 
besides being applied to the purpose of admitting 
light into the Roman houses, it was also used by 
them in the construction of hot^houses, for raising 
and protecting delicate plants from the inclemency 
of the weather ; and by being so employed, we are 
told that the emperor Tiberius had cucumbers at 
his table throughout the whole year. 

Although the precise period of the introduction 
of glass into windows is not known, it is yet certain 



BISTORT OF GLASS i Q 

that it was applied to tliis purpose as early as the 
year 422 ; for glass windows are distinctly men- 
tioned by St Jerome, who flourished about that 
period. They are again spokeji of, and represented 
as being fastened in with plaster, by Johannes 
Philippinus, who lived in 630. 

Bede asserts, that glass windows were first intro- 
duced into England in the year 674, by Abbot 
Benedict, who brought over artificers skilled in the 
art of making window-glass, to glaze the church and 
monastery of Weremouth. 

Another authority attributes the introduction of 
this luxury to Bishop Wilfred, junior, who died in 
711. As the periods mentioned by these autlio- 
rities do not differ very widely, it seems probable 
that glass windows were first introduced into Eng- 
land either about the end of the seventh or the 
beginning of the eighth century. The use of 
window glass, however, was then, and for many 
centuries after, confined entirely to buildings appro- 
priated to religious purposes ; but, in the fourteenth 
century, it was so much in demand, though still 
confined to sacred edifices and ornamental purposes, 
that glazing had become a regular trade. This 
appears from a contract entered into by the church 
authorities of York Cathedral, in 1838, with a 




10 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

glazier to glaze the west windows of that structure, 
a piece of work which he undertook to perforin at 
the rate of sixpence per foot for white g^lass, and 
one shilling per foot for coloured. Glass windows, 
however, did not become common in England till 
the close of the twelfth century. 

Until this period they were rarely to be found in 
private houses, and were deemed a high refinement 
in luxury, and a mark of great magnificence. Pre- 
vious to this era, the windows of houses in Britain 
were filled with prepared oiled paper, or wooden 
lattices ; and in cathedrals, the latter and sheets of 
linen supplied the place of glass till the eighth 
century. In meaner edifices, lattices continued in 
use till the eighteenth. These were fixed in frames 
of wood, called capsamenta, from which is derived 
the word casement, now applied to the framework 
of a window. 

We are told that the manufacturing of window 
glass was first introduced into England in 1557. 
But it is evident, from a contract, spoken of by 
Horace Walpole, in his Anecdotes of Painting, 
between the Countess of Warwick and John Prudde 
of Westminster, glazier, whom she employed, with 
other tradesmen, to erect and embellish a magni- 
ficent tomb for the earl her husband, that window 



HISTORY OF GLASS. ' 1 1 

glass was made in England upwards of a century 
before that period. In this curious treaty, which 
is dated 1439, John Prudde is bound to use ^* no 
glass of England, but glass from beyond the seas." 
But it will be observed that the document, besides 
shewing that the art of making window glass was 
known and practised in England in the fifteenth 
century, seems also to shew that it was of inferior 
quality to that which could be obtained from 
abroad. 

The art of manufacturing glass, which we have 
traced from the Egyptians, as exhibited in the 
decorations of their mummies, to the Phoenicians, 
and from them to the Romans, lingered long in 
Italy, where it was brought to a degree of per- 
fection wholly unknown before. Some beautiful 
specimens of this proficiency of the Roman people 
in the art are found in ancient tumuli, the sepultures 
of their dead. These are bottles or vessels called 
lachrymatories, typically represented as containing 
the tears which were shed for the deceased by his 
or her surviving and sorrowing friends. These have 
been found of various shapes and sizes, but all exhi- 
biting great excellence of workmanship. 

The seat of the art, however, in process of time, 
changed from Rome to Venice, or rather to Murano^ 



12 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

a little village in the neighbourhood of that city, 
where extensive works were established; but the 
produce was always recognized by the name of 
Venetian glass. We are told by Baron Von Lowhen^ 
in his Analysis of Nobility in its Origin^ that ^^ So 
useful were the glass-makers at one period at Venice^ 
and so considerable the revenue accruing to the 
republic from their manufacture, that, to encourage 
the men engaged in it to remain in Murano, the 
senate made them all burgesses of Venice, and 
allowed nobles to marry their daughters; whereas, 
if a nobleman marries the daughter of any other 
tradesman, the issue were not reputed noble." 

For many years this glass surpassed any that 
was made elsewhere, and commanded nearly the 
whole sale of Europe. 

The ingenuity of the Venetians in glass-making 
was especially remarkable in the great improvement 
which they made in the manufacture of mirrors.. 
This new application of glass was first attempted 
at Sidon, about the thirteenth century; previous to 
which period, polished plates of metal were used at 
the toilette, and, in the rudeness of the first ideas 
which suggested the substitution of glass, the latter 
was made of a deep black colour to imitate them. 
This opacity was farther increased by laying black 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 



13 



foil behind them. Thus it was thought that the 
nearer they could be hrouglu to resemble plates of 
dark metal, the nearer they approached perfection. 

The metal mirrors, however, notwithstanding 
this attempt to imitate them, kept their hold long 
after the introduction of their fragile rivals; but the 
latter finally triumphed, and the metallic mirrors at 
length wholly disappeared, — a result accomplished 
chiefly by the skill of the Venetians, who eiFected 
such improvements in their manufacture, that they 
speedily acquired a celebrity which secured an 
Immense sale for them throughout Europe and the 
Indies. Glass mirrors came into general nse about 
the fourteenth century. 

From Venice, the art of glass-making found its 
way into France, where an attempt was made, in 
1634, to rival the Venetians in the manufacture of 
mirrors. The first essay was unsuccessful, but 
another made in 1665, in which Venetian workmen 
were employed, had better fortune, though, in a 
few years afterwards, this establishment, which was 
situated in the village of Tourlaville, near Cher- 
bourg, in Lower Normandy, was also threatened 
with ruin by a discovery, or rather improvement in 
the art of glass-making, effected by one Abraham 
Theverat. This improvement consisted in casting 




14 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

plates of much larger dimensions than had been 
hitherto thought practicable. Theverat cast his 
first plates at Paris, and astonished every artist by 
their magnitude. These plates were eighty-four 
inches in height and fifty in breadth, while none 
before had ever exceeded forty-five or fifty inches 
in length. Theverat was bound by his patent to 
make all his plates at least sixty inches in length 
and forty in breadth. The two companies, The- 
verat's and that at Tourlaville, united their interest, 
but were so unsuccessful that, in 1701, they were 
unable to pay their debts, and were, in consequence, 
compelled to abandon several of their furnaces. 
In 1702 a new company was formed, under the 
management of Antoine d'Agincourt, which realized 
handsome profits to its proprietors, a circumstance 
which is attributed wholly to the greater prudence 
of D' Agincourt 

We are told that, early in the fourteenth century, 
the French government made a concession in favour 
of glass-making, decreeing not only that no dero- 
gation from nobility should follow the practice of 
the art, but that none, save gentlemen, or the sons 
of noblemen, should venture to engage in any of 
its branches, even as working artisans. 

This restriction was accompanied by the grant of 



HISTORY OF GLASS. I5 

a royal charter of incorporation, conveying various 
important privileges, under which the occupation 
became eventually a source of great wealth to 
several families of distinction, whose descendants 
have, at different times, attained some of the highest 
dignities of the state. 

The exact period when the art of manufacturing 
glass was first introduced into England is not easily 
determined. As already mentioned, it is said to 
have been brought to this country in 1557; but 
we have stated a circumstance which, we conceive, 
leaves little doubt that glass was manufactured there 
at a much earlier date. In 1557, however, it 
certainly was manufactured in England. The finer 
sort of window glass was then made at Crutched 
Friars, in London. 

The first flint-glass made in England was manu- 
factured at Savoy House in the Strand, and the first 
plate-glass, for looking-glasses, coach-windows, &c. 
was made at Lambeth, in 1673, by Venetian work- 
men brought over by the Duke of Buckingham. 

The date of the introduction of the art of glass- 
making into Scotland is more easily determined, 
because of more recent occurrence. It took place 
in the reign of James VL An exclusive right to 
manu£eicture glass within the kingdom for the space 



15 HISTORY OF QLASa ' 

of thirty-one yean, was granted by that monarch to 
Lord George Hay in the year 1610. This right his 
Lordship transferred, 16279 for a considerable siun, 
to Thomas Robinson, merchant tulor in Londcm, 
who again disposed of it for £850, to 1^ Robert 
Mansell, vice-admiral of England. The fint 
manu£EU2tory of glass in Scotland, an extremely mde 
one, was established at Wemyss in Fife* Regular 
works were afterwards erected at Prestonpans, 
and at Leith.* 

Crown-glass is now manu&ctured at Warrington, 
St Helens, Eccleston, Old Swan, and Newton, 
Lancashire ; at Birmingham, Hunslet near Leeds, 
and Bristol. It is also manufactured of excellent 
quality on the Tyne and Wear.f Great improve- 

* A bottle was blown at the Leith glass works, Januaiy 7, 
1747-8, of the extraordinary capacity of one hundred and five 
imperial gallons. A neat pocket pistol for the moors ! 

t A very extensive crown-glass manufactory in the west of 
Scotland has, on account of the lamented death of some of the prin- 
cipals, been lately struck from the list of working establishments. 
A good many years since, one of the partners of this house, in a 
spirit somewhat similar to that which induced Peter the Great 
of Russia to leave his state at home and come to England to 
work as a common carpenter in the naval dock-yards of that 
kingdom, went to, and wrought as an ordinary journeyman glass- 
blower in several crown-glass houses in England. The result of 



H18TO&Y OP GLASS. 



17 



ments have recendy been made in the manufacture 
of crown-glass ; and we believe this article, as now 
manufactured in England, is superior in point of 
quality to that of any other nation. 

With regard to the art of staining or painting 
glass, (an art so blended with the history of the 
substance itself, that some notice of it becomes 
indispensable in a sketch of this description,) there 
is good reason to believe that it is coeval with the 
art of making glass, since, as has been noticed in 
another part of this sketch, it is a matter of diffi- 
culty to make it without colour. Thus the possibility 
of subjecting this propensity to the will of the manu- 
facturer must have very easily occurred, although 
it certainly requires both much art and chemical 
knowledge to produce perfect specimens of this 
description of manufacture ; yet this perfection, 
including, of course, all the necessary art and che- 
mical knowledge, seems to have been attained at a 
period as remote as tradition itself. Tlie tradition 
relating to this subject bears, that the art of tinging 
glass was the invention bf an Egyptian king ; but 



this determined snd e 
nhich tlie gentltman bI 
for the eicellenceof its 
spread fur and wide, ! 
reputation. 



uirdinary zeal vms, that the house in 
ed to was interested became unrivalled 
wn.glass. The fame of its manufacture 
its prosperity was proportioned to its 



1 s rnSTOKY OF OLASSL 

wliflth^r it wan so or uot, it is certiun tkat the ut 
lion boon known in Egypt for many thousand years, 
and tlic moat beautiful imitatioiis of precious stones, 
blui;, green, crimsoD, &c. of this date are stiU 
oxtniit. That the eolouring of glass, even when in 
tli« shiipe of domestic vessels, is of high antiqnitT, 
iippt^rs from the circumstance of the Bmperor 
Adrian Imving received as a present from an Egyp- 
tian priest, two glass cups which sparkled with 
oolourn of every kind, and which he prized so highly 
for their singular beauty and magnificence, that he 
ordered that they should be produced only on great 
occasions. The art, however, of combining the 
various colours so as to produce pictures, is of more 
recent origin. The earlier specimens of this branch 
of the art discover a tnetitious joining of different 
pieces of glass, differently tinged, and so arranged 
as to produce the figure, or figures, wanted, and 
are thus little else than a sort of mosaic work. The 
various pieces are held together generally by a vein 
of lead, run upon the back of the picture, precisely 
at their junction. 

Modern ingenuity has superseded this clumsy 
expedient, and every colour used in painting can 
now be introduced into one entire sheet. It is 
asserted that, for a long period, the pictured glass 
which was used in cathedrals, &c. was merely painted 



HISTOfiT OF Q1A3S. 



19 



on the surface — the art of incorporating tJie colours 
with tlie glass by fusion, the method now practised, 
being unknown tiU about the close of the fifteenth 
century. 

This great and singulaj improvement is ascribed 
to a painter of Marseilles, who went to Rome 
during the pontificate of Julius II: but his discovery 
went no ferther than that of producing different 
colours on different pieces of glass, and having them 
afterwards united in the manner spoken of above. 
This art was, at a later period, greatly improved by 
Albert Durer, and Lucas of Leyden, the latter of 
whom brought it nearly to perfection. 

The first painted glass done in England was in 
the time of King John : previous to this, all stained 
or painted glass was imported from Italy. The 
next notice of it occurs in tlie reign of Henry III. 
The treasurer of that monarch orders that there 
be painted, on three glass windows in the chapel 
of St John, a little Vii^n Mary holding the child, 
and the Trinity, and Saint John the Apostle. 
At an after period, he issues another mandate for 
two paintied windows in the Iiall. 

Even at this early period, however, England 
boasted of eminent native artists in glass painting, 
amongst the first of whom was John Thornton, 







20 HISTORY OF GLASS. 

glazier of Coventry. This person was employed, 
in the time of Henry IV, by the Dean and Chapter 
of York Cathedral, to paint the east window of that 
splendid edifice ; and for the beautiful and masterly 
workmanship which he exhibited in this specimen 
of his skill, he received four shillings per week of 
regrular wages. He was bound to finish the workin 
less than three years, and to receive, over and abo?e 
the weekly allowance, one hundred shillings for 
each year ; and if the work was done to the satis- 
fection of his employers, he was to receive, on its 
completion, a fsirther gratuity of Ten Pounds. 

From this period, downwards, there have been 
many skilful native artists, although the RefiNrma- 
tion greatly impeded the progress of the art, by 
banishing the ungodly ostentation of ornamented 
windows firom churches : indeed, so serious was this 
interruption, that the art had nearly altogether 
disappeared in the time of Elizabeth. Amongst 
the most eminent glass painters who first appeared 
on the revival of the art after this period, were 
Isaac Oliver, bom in 1616, and one William Price, 
who lived about the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. This last person was the only glass painter 
in England for many years. He is said to have 
discovered, what has ever since been a desideratum 



HISTORY OF GLASS. 21 

in the art of glass staining, the secret of producing 
a rich, clear, bright, and transparent red, the most 
difficult to strike, and the most expensive of all the 
colours employed in glass painting. 

Price having died soon after making this disco- 
very, it is said to have died with him. This artist 
was succeeded by a person at Birmingham, who, in 
1757, fitted up a window for Lord Lyttleton in the 
Church of Hajely. This glass painter was again 
succeeded by one Peckite, at York, who attained 
considerable eminence in the art. 

During all this time, however, and, indeed, up to 
a comparatively recent date, painted glass was con- 
sidered as too costly and too magnificent an article 
to be otherwise employed than in decorating religious 
edifices, or the palaces of nobles ; and even in the 
latter case it was but sparingly used. 

Modern improvement has now placed this beau- 
tiful ornament within the reach of very ordinary 
circumstances, and when this is considered, it must 
excite a strong feeling of surprise to find how little 
so elegant and refined a luxury is even yet in 
demand. On this subject we shall say more here- 
after under its proper head. 

The consequence of this rarity of painted glass 
was, that even so lately as 1753 it was considered 



jB HISTORY OP GLAS& 

in the lig^t of a ourioaity, and never dreamt of a» 
an article which might come into oonunon use for 
domestic purposes* In the year j ust mentionedy an 
Italian, named Asciotti» brought over a parcel of 
painted glass from Flanders, which be sold at a 
good price in London. Encouraged by his success, 
his wife and himself made a regular trade of import- 
ing the article, and paid stated periodical visits to 
the Continent for the purpose of procuring fresh 
parcels. These were mostly bought up by one 
Palmer, a glazier, who raised the price from one 
and two to five guineas for a single pieee — an 
enormous in^ease upon his first charges ; as Horace 
Walpole^ who gives this information, tells us that 
he had bought from the same man four hundred 
ai^ fifty pieces^ for which he paid only thirty-six 
guineas, and this specifically included the expense 
of Asciotti's journey. 

Eight yeturs after this, namely, 1761, one Paterson, 
an auctioneer in the Strand, had a public sale of 
painted glass, the first time that this article ever 
appeared in England in such circumstances. 



PROCESS OF MANUFACTUBIMO. . 2A 



CHAPTER II. 

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING. 

There are various species of glass, each produced 
by a different process of manufacture, and composed 
of different materials, and of different proportions of 
the same material ; but, in a work of this nature, 
which is chiefly intended for the glass-cutter and 
glazier, it does not seem necessary to speak of any 
other description of it than that which their trade 
leads them almost exclusively to employ. We shall 
therefore confine ourselves to crown, or window- 
glass, employing as few technical phrases as pos- 
sible. 

Crown, or window-^lass, is usually composed of 
only two materials, — these are kelp and fine white 
sand. The place of the former, however, is some- 
times supplied by pearl ashes, or by some other 
alkalis, but of these we consider it foreign to 
our purpose to speak. Kelp is a substance pro- 
duced by the burning of what is called, in the 
learned world, Jiici^ but which will be better and 



34 PROCE88 OP MANUFACTURING. 

more generally understood by the fhiniliar name of 
sea-weed, or wrack. Of this marine vegetable there 
are various kinds, all designated by different dassicai 
names, which we need not enumerate. These are 
eut from the rocks in the months of May, June, 
and July. After being so cut and brought to shore^ 
the weed, or wrack, is spread out to dry, that it may 
bum the more readily, and is then thrown into a 
pit lined with stones, in which a large fire of 
peat has been previously kindled. On this fire the 
weed is heaped from time to time, until a larg^e mass 
is accumukited, and the whole is reduced to a state 
of fusion. It is then well mixed and levelled, and 
allowed gradually to cooL When sufficiently cold, 
it is taken from the pit, and broken into portable 
masses for the convenience of transportation. Widi 
regard to the other component part of window-g^lass, 
namely, sand, the best description for the purposes 
of the glass-maker is procured from Lynn Reg^ in 
Norfolk. The superiority ol this sand arises from the 
circumstance of its containing a greater quantity of 
minute transparent crystals than is found in the 
sand of any other place in this country. 

When the two materials of which we have been 
speaking come into the possession of the glass- 
maker, for the purposes of his manufacture, they 
are thus treated, previously to their being employed. 



PROCESS OF HAMUFACTDRING. 



25 



in the formation of glass : The kelp is broken into 
small pieces, either by the hand or by a machine 
called a stamper. It is then put into a mill, ground 
to a fine powder, and afterwards passed through a 
brass- wire sieve. 

Having undergone this operation, it is removed 
into the mixing room, the apartment where the pro- 
portions of material are adjusted, and where, as the 
name implies, they are mingled together previous 
to their being /ritted, or calcined. The sand, again, 
is usually washed in a large vat with boiling or cold 
water, until the latter runs off quite clear. When 
not washed, the effect of this operation is produced 
by the use of nitre during the process of calcining, 
which consumes any sulphureous matter that may 
be present, or extraneous substances of an animal 
or vegetable nature, and reduces them to an eartli 
not injurious to glass. The sand, it may be observed, 
is sometimes put into an annealing or calcining 
arch, where it is subjected to a strong heat for 
twenty-four hours, and kept (iuring that time in a 
red-hot state, and then plunged into water. This 
operation has the effect of dividing the particles of 
sand, and making it unite more readily with the 
alkali during the process of calcining. When this 
operation is completed, the sand is also removed 
,JBto the mixing room. Here tlie materials, the sand 



L 



30 PBOCSBS OP MANUFACTURING. 

and the kelp powder, are carefuUy proportioued, 
generally in the d^^ee of one part of the former 
to two parti of the latter, and mingled tt^^ether 
according to the judgmmt of t^e mixer, an opera- 
tion which requires great care and experience. 
When thoroughly mixed, the compost is put into 
a calcining arch, or reverberatory funoace, where it 
is subjected to a heat so strong as to reduce it to a 
seni-fluid state. This substance, whit^ ia called 
frit, is now taken from the furnace, spread upon a 
ptote t^ iron while yet hot, and afterwards, but 
before it becomes quite cool, divided into lai^ 
cakes. The last operatioii consists in throwing the 
frit into the melting pot, which is of this form : 




This pot is made of the finest clay. The best is 
got from Stourbridge, and goes through a tedious 
and exceedingly troublesome process of drying', 
annealing, or tempering, &c. before it is fit for its 
ultimate purpose. To the frit thrown into this pot 



PROCESS OF MANUFACTURINQ. 27 

there is added a proportion of cuIIq^^ or brpk^n 
crown-glass. In about thirty to tbirty-»x hamiSf 
the whole is redo^edi by a powerfiil heat, to fine 
liquid glasS) a^d is then ready for the opeiatio^ of 
the workmm* 

The furnace is then slaekeneds and the meUd 
being now in a workable state, the first openitor 
who approaches the furnace in which the pot of liquid 
glass is placed, is the ^^ skinuaaer," who skims off, 
or removes all extraneous or crude substances 
from the surface of the metdLr Next follows Uie 
^^ gatherer," who is provided with an iron pipe, ox 
tube, about six or seven feet in length, aiid of this 
shape ; . 



Having previously heated that end of the tube 
which comes in contact with the glass, he dips it 
into the pot of metal, and by turning it gently 
round, gathers about one and a half pounds of 
liquid glass on the end of it. Having allowed this 
to cool for a short time, he again dips it into the 
pot, and gathers an additional quantity, of from two 
and a half to three pounds. This is also permitted 
to cool as before, when the operation of dipping is 
again repeated, and a sufficient quantity of metal, 



28 PROCESS OF BIANUFACTURINO. 

aboQt nine or ten pounds weight, is gathered, to 
form what is technically called a table, or sheet itf 
^ass about to be blown. The rod thus loaded is 
held for a fow seconds in a perpendicalar poeitioo, 
diat the metal may distribute itself equally on all 
rides, and that it may, by its own weighty be 
lengthened out beyond the rod. The operator then 
moulds the metal into a regular form, by rolling it 
on a smooth iron plate called tbe " marver," a cor- 
ruption of the French word marbre. 

He then blows strongly through the tube, when 
bis breath, penetrating the centre of the red-hot 
mass of glass, forms it into a hollow vessel of the 
shape of a pear, thus, — 




PROCESS OF HANDFACTUBIHa Q9 

The tube, with tlie elongated sphere of glass at 
the end of it, is then handed to the blower, who heats 
it once more, and again at the furnace ; and alter- 
nately, or between each blowing, he presses the 
end against the bullion bar, so called from the part 
thm pressed forming the centre of the sheet, or 
bull's eye, thus, 




By the dexterous managranent of this operation* 
the glass asaumes somewhat of a spherical form. 



ao 



PROCESS OF HANUFACTUHIKC. 



The blover heats a third time at the bottDtaing 
hole} and blom the ghsa into a fuU riaed gkAe, 




Again applying it to the same furnace, tbe 
globe of glass, by the agency of the fire, assumes a 
circular form, as shewn in the following Figure. 

When this part of the process has been com- 
pleted, and the glass has been allowed to cool a 
little, it is rested on the casher box, and an iron 
rod, called a "pontil, orpnntyrod," on which a little 
hot metal has been previously gathered to make it 
adhere, is attached to the flattened side, exactly 



PROCESS OF HAJiUFACrnUllG. 3| 

gpposite the botltnr tube iriudi is now detached by 
neam of a piece of ma preriouly dipped in eM 
water, leavii^ a drcnlar bole in the gbM af aboat 
two Indies diameter. Tbe fotlowlBg figwe icpce- 
sents the operation of ■**"*''"g the pnn^. 




Taking fa<dd <rf die prnity rod, the workman now 
presents the gkn to anodier part of the fanmce 
celled the " nose bole," n^ere, it mnt be obaerved, 
dte aperture made b^ its leparation frmn the tube ti 
now presented, and at which tt n kept until it has 
become sufficiently dnctile to adiqrt it for the oper»- 
tion of the fliwlyng furnace. Being here tamed 



32 PROCESS OF MANUFACTDRINO^ 

dexterously round, slowly at first, and afterwanb 
with greater rapidity, the glaaa yields to the ceiitri- 
fagal force, and thus necessarily enlargfes the 
aperture above alluded to. 




The workman, taking great care to preserve, by 
a regular motion, the circular figure of the glass, 
proceeds to whirl it round with increasiDg velocity, 
until the aperture, now diminished to a ring of only 
a few inches diameter, suddenly flies open with a 
loud ruffling noise, like the rapid unfurling of a 
flag in a strong wind, and leaves the glass a circular 



PROCESS OF makotactuhdig: 
plane or sheet, of from four to four and a half feet I 
diameter, of equal thickness throughout, except at 
the point called the bullioji, or bull's eye, where it 
is attached to the iron rod. The following figure 
will give some idea of this very beautiful part of the 
process of glass making. 

The sheet of glass, now fully expanded, is moved 

' round with a moderate velocity, until it ia sufficiently 

cool to retain its form. It is carried to the mouth 

of the kiln, or annealing arch, where it is rested on 

I a bed of sand, and detached from the punty rod. 

The sheet or table is then lifted on a wide pronged 




od. J 
i;ed I 



34 PBOC8SB Of MANOFACTDBINO. 

toA, called a bneet, and pot into the udi, 

where it ia tempered by being subjected to i 




gradually decreasing heat for about twenty-finn 
hours. Wlien taken from the ardi at the end of 
this period, the glass, after an account bas been ' 
taken of it by the exciseman, is ready for the glazier's 
nee. It is first, howerer, removed to the manu&o- 
tnrer'a varehouse, where the circular sheets are cut 
into halves, and assorted into the different qualities 
well known to the tradesman by the names of 
seconds, thirds, and fourths. 



CSOWH.GLASS COTTINO- 



1 



CHAPTER III. 

CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 

This is by far the most important department of 
tlie crown-glass cutter, or glazier's trade, for on its 
judicious performance depends a very large portioD 
of his profits. The skilful cutter is a gaioer» 
while the unskilful one is a grievous loser. The 
glass cutter must not only be able to handle his 
diamond well, but he must learn to cut to advantage ; 
he must cut methodically and judiciously, that there 
may be as Ettle waste as possible. 

We shall attempt to describe the best methods of 
doing so, in as clear and perspicuous a manner as 
possible. 

In the first place, the glass cutter must provide 
himself with cutting boards, as delineated in Plate 
II. a, is a breaking-out board, seven feet long, 
three feet broad, and two feet nine inches high, that 



L 



35 CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 

18} high enough to strike the upper part of the thigh 
when the glass cutter is at work ; and with a slope 
of from five to six inches towards the operat<»r. h, 
is a crib fourteen inches below the level of the table, 
and fourteen inches wide, on which it will be found 
exceedingly convenient to lay rang'cs or comer 
pieces, and this without the slightest intemiptioii to 
the work going forward. The cross-cutting' board is 
three feet long, by three feet broad, for cutting' up and 
squaring the ranges and corners ; the top, one foot 
in breadth, being level to lay squares on when cut, 
of the same height, and sloped in the same man- 
ner as the breaking-out board, with a crib, of 
the same dimensions as that already described to 
place squares on edge at either side of the crib, for 
assorting and packing, e, is a board running the 
whole length of the cutting board, and about 
eighteen inches in height, which forms a convenient 
place for depositing the cuUet or broken glass. 
Some glass cutters use a flat or level cutting board, 
and others cover it with a cloth or carpet. The 
sloped board is preferred by the experienced cutter, 
as it is easier stretched over ; but probably the flat 
table with a cloth is best suited to the less prac- 
tised workman. The cloth, however, should be 
used when large or fine picture glasses are to be 






::S!S8B9fS::iCS50sS 



J 



/J./ /. 



/>V .V 



/>./ t 



111 I 



.J 



I I . . I 



a. 



fiff. 6. 



-j^f=^ 



Fuifi. 



//v.; 





wKtm'JW'. 



A' Jikmttn, stuip t 



I 

I I 
J I 

I; . 
I .1' 

■> ! ' 
'ii' 



* 



i I 



I I 



1 1 ■ 



CaOWW-GLASS CDTTING. 



37 



cut, as they are liable to be scratched by particles 
of glass or sand, if cut on the uncovered board. 

For the purpose of ranging tables of glass, 
which is the first operation, the best instrument 
is a rule of fir wood, called a gauntling, fifty 
inches long, one and a half inch broad, and about 
one-eightli and one-sbtteenth of an inch thick, with 
two pieces or slips of iron eighteen inches long 
attached to it, and twenty inches asunder, with a 
moveable catch of the same metal, having a nut and 
screw to admit of their being shifted at pleasure, so 
as to outranges of various breadths. The instrument 
alluded to will be better understood, however, from 
Fig. 6, Plate III. a, is the wood ; bb, are the two 
pieces of iron attached to it, very slightly made, 
with a small nut or screw to secure the catch on 
the opposite side when adjusted, and which may be 
altered to cut a range from six to sixteen inches 
broad ; this instrument, though simple, is very 
useful, and will enable the woikman to range with 
greater confidence, and with more safety and des- 
patch, than he could do with the common straight 
edge. The cutter must also be provided with two 
pieces of cork, in the form of a wedge, one and a half 
inch thick, tapering to about one quarter of an inch, 
and one piece of the same size for the cross-cutter. 




J 



88 CROWN-GLASS CQTTINa 

For euttiiig up bullion nnges^ a small strip crfiriute 
iron, three-dghihs of an inch broad, may be attached 
to a role at a still less escpense, tamed up at tlie endsy 
and adjusted to the breadth of the rangfea wanted. 
The glass cutter ought also to be provided withs 
set of Tsquares and laths, 24, ao, and 36 inches in 
length, graduated by feet, inches, and fractioiiil 
parts, as shewn in figs. 1 and 2, Plate III. These 
instructions, with a cross-cutdng board, (Plate IV.) 
for croescutting, or for cutting up and squaring smaO 
or broken pieces expeditiously, are all that are 
necessary for ordinary purposes; but, to the eztoi- 
sive cutter or exporter, who requires a great yarietj 
of sizes, the breaking-out board, also indented wi& 
brass, will be found exceedingly useful, and a great 
saving both of time and materials. 



BREAKING-OUT BOARD. • 

PlatelV, shews the most approved kind at pre- 
sent in use. a a is the centre line from which the 

* Although the sizes are figured on these reduced scales, 
(which is in the proportion of one-fourth to one inch,) it is not 
necessary that it should be so on the indented board, as it might 
confuse the cutter, — a little practice only is necessary to become 
accustomed to the lines. The cutting-board, however, should be 



JT BOARD rLATE K 




-T 



-^ 



CROVn-QLASS CUTTING. 39 

lengths or breadths of panes are regulated ; b b also 
shew^ tlie length or breadth of the panes to be cut. 
Apply a rule, following the lines from b to b, the 
extremes being 24x16, and also from the cross 
centre line, and the two lines will intersect each 
other at the point where the size of the required 
pane is given. To reduce this scale to practice, we 
shall cut up a 50 inch table j see Plate VII. Fig. 1. 
Large Half. — Place tlie straight part of the 
table on a line with the lower part of the scale, on 
the left hand side of the table ; then square a pane 
15x13, taking your length 15 from the centre 
line ; and, for greater safety and despatch, be pro- 
vided with two gauntlings, one set at IT, and one 
at 13 inches, and, after squaring the pane to 15 x 13, 
you have from the same wing, on applying it to the 
scale, one 11 XS, and one 6x4; you then range or 
rip (technically so called) the table, also applying 
it to tlie scale, at 17 inches, squaring the piece oS 
at 23 inches ; also at the left hand side, which make 
two 17x11^; and from the right hand remaining 
wing, also applying it to the scale, you have one 
15x13, one 10x3, and one 6x4; and from the 

indented with bnua faintly, with half and qiioiter inch lines, but 
Ibis could not well be shewn on the ioibII ecale. 



i 



40 CROWN-OLABS CDTTDia 

remaining end piece you haTe two 6x8\ 
•ide of the bullion. 

Saail Haif. — Place one ride of the si 
inclies, and, as before described, rip up tl 
30 inches, whicli makes two 15 X 1% leani 
to make one 11x9 and one 7x5 ; frcna 
slab you hare one 10x7 and two 7x5. 

On cutting by this useful scaler both 1 
small halves are usually be^un to be cut 
left hand; but this is not alwajrs the case 
any definite rule be g^ren for so doing', m 
of the variety of sizes and different qw 
glass, — this must be left to the jodgment 
of the cutter. 



CROSS-CUTTING BOARD. 

Plate y. represents the cross-cutting I 
cross-cutting ranges, cutting up and squari 
pieces and breakage, or for assortiDg corrn 
to their proper sizes ; this scale, to the e 
cutter or exporter, will also be found esc 
useful. 

The black line a from 6 to 14 on the 1 
fide of the hoard, is what is called a heail. 



J-'7.^^T.A- jr. 



»,* f ^\' V 







,„,.! 












3 : 



■*T A 



WwJ— 



CROWTMILABS CTTTWO. 4| 

liead the glass aboat to be cut U placed to krrp it 
square ; b b top and bottom 6gurc9 f^raduated from 
4 to S7 inches, are the corresponding lenj^s or 
breadths of panes to be cut ; in every otiicr rc*pcct 
it operates in the same manner as the breakiii); out 
fcoard described. 

We Bhali here shew how it is used aIon|; wlh the 
breaking-out board, in cutting up large quantities 
with despatch ; and take as an example the 50 iuch 
table before dissected. 

The cutter, after plsciog the table on the break- 
ing-ODt board, cuts from the left hand side of the 
table a range to make 15x13; he hands this range 
to the cToss-cutter, who cuts from the cross-cutting 
board to one pane ISxI-l, one 11 x^ and one 6 4. 
The cutter then ranges, or rather rips tlie table at 
17 inches, which he squares otF at 23 inches ; he 
hands this to the crosscutter, who cuts 2 panes, each 
17xlH inches. 

The cutter abo bands over the right hand wing, 
which the cross-cutter squares to one pane 15 x l^i 
oae 10x8, undone 6x4. The bullion range is also 
lianded to the cross-cutter, who cuts two panes 6 x 5^. 
See large half, Plate VII ; the cutter at the break- 
ing-out board proceeds in the same manner with 
the small hsi£, or for any given number of panes. 




42 CROWN-QLASS CUTTINGk 

The crown-glass cutter will find these sodei 
useful and profitable, a great saving^ both in time 
and valuable materials; he at once sees the ozei 
that can be cut from any sheet, and can do so wiA 
a plain straight edge, without loss of time otherwise 
necessary in adjusting the graduated T squares and 
laths to the sizes wanted. 

With r^;ard to the selection of glam to be cut 
up, it may be useful to observe,— 

I. Tables cut at 5 inches from the bullion, aie 
better for country glaziers for jobbings than if at 
dose. 

II. Tables cut dose to the bullion, at 1^ or 
inches, or thereabouts, are calculated for the cutdif 
of no ranges above 9 or 10 inches wide. Glass d 
an inferior quality should be dose cut and used fo 
smaller sizes* Sheets for large or extra sizes aie 
also cut dose. 

III. Tables cut 3 to 4 inches from the buUioO) 
are for ranges not exceeding 12 inches wide. 

IV. Tables cut 5 or 6 inches from the bullion, 
are for ranges above 12 inches, and not exceeding 
14 or 14^ inches vriide; all other squares being 
more properly cut from slabs. 

The following are considered awkward sizes ; but 
when glass is cut 4, 5, or 6 inches from the 



CBOWN-GLASS CTTTTINC. 43 

' bullion, the slabs will produce the various sizes 
without waste ; they are principally got from small 
halves or back slabs from 13 to 17^ inches broad: 
12x12, 13x12,14x13,15x13, 16x14,17x16, 
18x16. 

The following, which are considered regular 
sizes, are found among breakage, and in working 
up of crates, and are placed in the pigeon holes, that 
they may be ready when wanted. Tliese sizes 
ought to be cut rough a quarter of an inch every 
way, except in executing an order to given dimen- 
sions, when, of course, they must be cut exact 
The sizes alluded to are 10x8, IQixSi, 11x9, 
12x10, 14x10,15x10, 15x11,16x12,17x12, 
18x 12, 18x 14, or half an inch more each way. 

All sizes under 10x8, must be cut rough one 
half inch each way ; all others a quarter of an inch, 
excepting where a ready sale for corners can be 
commanded, or when they are used for half panes, 
or jobbing work, in which form they may be 
assorted to cut sizes, such as 10x8, 9x7, 8x6, 
6x4, 6x3, 5X3, 4x3, or half an inch more 
or loss each way. The crass-cutting board will 
assist in assorting these to their various sizes speedily, 
and with accuracy. 



44 CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 

Altliougli Plate IV. shews at once lie size of 
panes that may be cut from tables or slabs of any 
size, it may be useful for the less experieaced glass 
cutter to know the sizes most frequently cut from 
slabs of various dimensions, taking a 49 inch table 



A 1 7 inch slab, * or table cut at 8 inches, will cut 
2 panes 15x12, or 
2 . 16x10, or 
2 . 17x10 

These slabs are very useful for jobbing work, 



1 

ill cut 1 



An 18 inch slab, or table cut at 7 inches, will 

3 panes 12x10, or 

2 . 15X13, or 

2 . 16x12 

These slabs are generally left to cut the sizes 

they will make, such as 2dxl2, or 26x13 inches. 



■ A )7 inch slab, Ecc. means cbnt tbe stab messures 17 incbti 
across tbc centre ; and cut at 4, 5, or 6 incbcs, that the table n 
Elit up or cut at that distance from tbe bullion, or bull's ejt, 
being the knot or centre of the sheet i the sizes enumerUed, 
exclusive of comer pieces, msy be cut &om tbe various slabs. 



CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 45 

A 19 inch slab, or table, cut at 6 inches, will cut 

3 panes 12x10, or 

2 . 14x10, and 1, 11x9, or 

2 . 15 X 13, or 

2 16 X 12, or 

1 . 16x12, 1, 14x JO, and 1, 12x10 



A 20 inch slab, or table, cut at 5 inches, will cut 
1 pane 13x12, 1, 16x12, and 1, 12x12, or 

1 . 14x10, and 2, 12x10, or 

2 . 18x12, or 
2 . 17X13, or 

I . 18x13, and 1, 16x13 



A 21 inch slab, or table, cut at 4 inches, will cut 
3 panes 12x 12, and 1, 11 x9, or 
1 . 13x 12, 2, 12 X 12, and 1, 12 X 8, or 
14x12, 1, 12X8, and 1, 11x9, or 
15x11, 1, 14x)l, and2, 11x9, or 
18x13, and 1, 17x13, or 

17 X 14, or 

18 X 13, or 
18x14, and 1, 16x14 



2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 



46 CROWN.QLA88 CUTTING. 

A 22 inch slab, or table, cut at 3 inches, will cot 
1 pane 18x12, 2, 12x12, and 1, 12x9 
4 • 14x10, or 



3 
1 
2 
1 



16xll»or 

15x13,2, 14X10, and 1, 12x10, or 

18x14, or 

20x14, and 1, 18x12 



A 23 inch slab or table, cat at 2 inches, will cot, 
3 panes 14x 10, and 1, 15x 12, or 

1 — 15X12, 2, 14x11, and 1, 14x10, or 

2 — 18X15. 



Crown-glass always cuts best in a warm tempt 
rature. When it happens to be hard, which is 
seldom the case, (a bad diamond, or not knowing 
how to use a good one, being the usual cause d 
breakage,) it has been found to cut better afiei 
warming the glass before the fire, which has tke 
effect of diminishing the tension of the ill annealed 
glass. 

The following shew the quantity of saleable 
glass to be cut from tables of 48, 49, 50, and 51 
inches diameter, sizes usually found in crates, and 
exclusive of 5X3, and 4x3. 




13«U 




15"10« 



6«& 



B'5 



U»*8 



IG'IO^ 




Mff. 


!•. 


/^ 


6> 


'6 




9*7 




6 


>«5 


\ 








ifj^ 












\r«. 


# 


















^e>;. 


f 






. 












\ 


V 






17*»»11* 






i7*^«n* 






vl 


/ 6-4 


















«»4 V 


I1»»M 




lli*9* 








U*«9* 




llixdi^ 










• 










pi 






















\ /•'" 




c^*\ 


?1 




01*51 




6 


xffl 








4 

« 


*k8 




Olx^ 




y^s 


/ 


y 


. - 




^*w^ 


'<iM^, 


%% 


'^M 


mm 


^s^ 







W.aaptr.Edui'TDd'. 



G.AUanajL.SatZp * 



CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 47 

48 Inch Table, Plate VI, Fig. !• 
Large Half. 





Ft. In. 


2 panes 16 X 10^ 


2 48 


1 . 15 xll 


1 21 


1 . 16 XlOi 


1 13 


2 . lHx8 


1 40 


2 . 6ix5 


65 


2 . 6 X5 


60 Ft. In. 


" 


fi 10*^ 


SmaU Half. 






Ft. In. 


2 panes 14x10 


I 136 


1 • 13x10 


130 


1 . 13X 9i 


123i 


2 . 8X 4 


64 


2 . 6X 4 


48 



4 69 



Saleable glass cut from a 48 inch Ft. In. 

table. . . 11 28 



49 Inch Table, Plate VI, Fig, 2. 
Large Half 

Ft. In. 

2panesl7ixlH 2 115 

4 . llix 9i 3 6 

1 . 9x7 63 
2.6x5 60 

2 . 6X4 48 Ft. In. 



SmaU Half 

2 panes 15x10 2 12 

2 . 13x 9 1 90 

2 . 8X 6 96 



7 4 



4 54 



Saleable glass cut from a 49 inch Ft. In. 

table, . . II 59 



48 CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 

50 Inch Table, Plate VII, Eg. I. 

Ldxrgt Half. 

Ft In. 
2 panes 15x13 2 102 

2 . ]7xlH 2 103 

1 . llX 8 88 

JOx 8 80 

6x 4 48 

6 X 5i 66 Ft In. 



1 
2 
2 



Small Half. 

Ft In. 

2 panes 15x13 2 102 

1 . llx 99 

2 . 7x 5 70 
2 . 6x 5 60 
1 . lOx 7 70 



7 55 



4 113 



Saleable glass cut from a 50 inch Ft. In. 

table . . 12 24 



51 Inch Table, Plate VII, Fig. 2. 

JLarge Half 

Ft. In. 
2 panes 22 x 14^ 4 102 

1 . 18^X16 2 8 

11 X 8 1 32 

6X5 60 

6X4 24 

8X4 bullion 32 Ft. In. 

8 114 



2 
2 
1 
1 



Small Half 

2pane8 16^x13^ 3 14 

2 . 7 X 5i 77 

2 . 7x5 70 



17 



Saleable glass cut from a 51 inch Ft. In. 

table, . . 12 131 



F'lATE VM. 




VrCocptnEdm^nut 



G.Aihmm,Sm»^f 



I 

! 



I'.i 



I. ■ 



4 




Figs. 




CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 



49 



Plate VIII. Fig. 1, shews the largest panes^ &c. 
cut from a Table 50 inches diameter, close cut. ^ 

Large Half. 

1 paDed4 Xl6^ 

2 . 15 X 4 



] 
2 
2 
1 



26 X 

Hix 

4 X 

10 X 



3 
6 
4 
3 



Or, 

1 pane 26 xlO^ 

2 . 16 X 4 

2 . llix 6 

2 . 4x4 

2 . 15 X 4 

1 . 10 X 3 

SmaUHalf. 

1 pane 34 x 16^ 

1 . 24 X 3^ 

2 . 7ix 6 

2 . 4x4 
1 . 9x3 

Or, 

1 pane 24 x20 

2 . 16ix 5 
2 . 7iX 6 
2 . 4X4 
1 . 9X3 



Ft. 

3 








3 








3 







3 
1 






In. 

129 

120 

78 

138 

32 

30 



95 



75 
132 
138 

32 
120 

30 Ft. 
6 



129 
84 
90 
32 
27 



74 



48 
21 
90 
32 
27 



Waste in cutting, 
Round contents of a Table 
50 inches diameter, 

D 



In. 
95 



74 



12 25 
1 f}Q 

13 91 



50 CROWN-OLA8S CUTTING 

The produce of tables of given diaineten» wil 
differ in qoantity according to tbe sizes of panes ti 
be cut ; and these are so various, that no fixa 
number of feet for practical use can be given. 

The following table shews the average quantil; 
of saleable glass to be cut from the various sizes o 
tables, and exclusive of 5 X 3, and 4x3: 



Dtametcrof 


Contents. 


Minble 


glaaa to be cut tnm 


MblM. 






carli crate. 






12^ 


12«. 


158. 

lee 


Id). 


48 . 


laH 


201 


49 


13 


. 140 


175 


210 


50 


13^ 


146 


182^ 


219 


51 


14 


. 152 


190 


228 



Plate VIII. Fig, 1. In reference to this figar 
it is not asserted that a 50 inch table will in i 
cases contain 13 feet 91 inches superficial, as tabl 
are seldom found circular ; but a 50 inch table w 
contain nearly that quantity, for what is deficie 
on one side of the table, is usually made up by tl 
i other side being so much larger. This figure 

meant to shew the largest panes to be cut from 
table 50 inches diameter, and the squares to be c 
from what remains over. The cutter might ha 
tables drawn in the same manner to various sizes 
tables, such as 49, 49^, 50, 50^, 51, 5li, 52, &c. 



CROWK-GLA88 CUTTllfa 5| 

Plate IX, which we shall call the crown-giatt 
Theodolite, shews at one view the largest panes thai 
ctti be cut from tables of pven diameters. The eonred 
Hoes describe the quadrant of circles of tables, firom 
48 to 64 inches diameter, being the largest sise oC 
erown glass now manufM^ured* 

The top and bottom graduated lines, a a, shew 

the length, and the end lines, b fr, the breadth oC 

the required panes ; and these lines intersect each 

other at the edge of the table which it takes to cut 

ndi panes. To find the largest panes, therefore, 

to be cut from a full half sheet or table of glass, of 

coarse the top and bottom lines are doubled, as 

they only represent one-half the diameter — the 

numbers being taken from the centre of the sheet. 

For example, what size of a table does it take to 

cat a pane 30 x 30 inches ? Look for 15 on the 

Hoes a a, (which, being doubled, is 30,) and for 20 

on the lines b b, and immediately, on the inter- 

^ting lines on the circle, you have 53 inches, size 

of a table required to cut a pane 30 x 20. It must 

abo be kept in view here, that tables of glass are 

sot always perfectly circular. This diagram is 

only intended to give an idea of the plan to the 

practical glass-cutter, who may have the same drawn 

to the full size, with the intersecting lines at quarter 



) 



52 CROWN^LAM CUTTING. 

and half inches, — to shew which, M'ould eonfoK 
small a scale. It b understood, though the 
diameters of tables are marked ob the curved K 
that the table or sheet of glass is calculated as h 
cut or slit at one and one-half inches from 
bullion, or, which is the same thing", at two in 
from the centre of the bullion. From this dii^ 
we learn, that 

A 50 inch half table 
will make panes 33 x 17 31 x IB 28 x 19 25 

51 — 33X18 30x19 27x20 23 

52 — 34 X 18 32 X 19 29 X 20 26 

53 — 33X19 30X20 28X21 24 

54 — 34X19 32X20 30X21 27 

55 — 34X20 32x21 28x22 26 

56 — 35x20 33x21 30x22 27 

57 — 35X21 32X22 29X23 26 

58 — 86x21 33x22 31x23 28 

59 — 35X22 83X23 30X24 27 

60 — 87 X 22 85 X 23 32 x 24 29 

The following theorem may give a pretty £ 
idea of the number of available feet to be cut 1 
a table of glass; although, as has been aire 
observed, tables of given diameters vary in tli 
ness and weight. 



\ 



CROWN-GLASS CUTTING. 53 

Suppose the average weight of a 50 inch table to 

be 9 lb. 
A crate of 12 tables will weigh 108 lb. 
Take the number of feet which a table of 50 inches 

diameter contains, which is liQ^ feet nearly ; 
A crate of 12 tables will produce 162 feet 
The cuUet or waste arising from the cutting of 

crates into squares, exclusive of the squares 

4x3 and 5x3, averages nearly 2 lb. per 

table, 
in a crate of 12 tables there wiH be 24 lb. 
Well, then, take die average weight of 100 feet of 

glass, 63 lb. 
Then, if 63 lb. produce 100 feet, how many feet 

will 24 lb. produce ? 
Ft lb. lb. 
As 100 : 63 : : 24 
24 



100 I 1512 I 15 feet waste in 1^ tables. 
Available glass, . , . . 147 feet* 
Waste, 15 



Round contents of a 12 table crate, 50 

inches diameter, . « . 162 feet. 

• See Plate VIL Fjg. 1, prodace of one table X 12. 



54 PACKING OF GLASS. 



CHAPTER IV. 



PACKING OF GLASS. 



In padui^ panes of crown-glass, care should be 
taken to have the boxes in which they are to be 
packed of sudi a size as that no more space shall hs 
left than is necessary to introduce the hay or other 
materials with which they are to be secured. 

By attending to this consideration, not only is a 
saving of wood effected, but a greater degree of 
safety ensured for the glass during its transit. 

The best material for padcing is meadow hay; 
and this should be pretty frequently intervened 
between the naked panes, as placing too many 
together without the intervention of some soft 
substance, greatly endangers their safety. Of su(^ 
panes as 6x4, 7x5, 8x6, 9x7, to 10x8, a dozen 
may be laid together; and of such as 10x8 to 
12 X 10, half a dozen ; of 14 x 12 to 16 x 12 five ; of 
from 16 X 12, to about 20 x 14, four; and from 20 x 12 
to 24x 16, not more than two or three panes should 



95 
i laid bother, observing, to ensure safety in the 
rriage, that in the quantities named, the panes lie 
)se to one another, packing separately such panes 
s are bent or twisted. 

It may not be unnecessary to mention here, that 
i dozen panes, when in close contact widi one 
mother, occupy nearly the space of an inch in 
hickness. 

The hay, or packing material, whatever it may be, 
ought to be well and lirmly stuffed around the glass, 
a£t«r it is deposited in the box ; and this will be most 
easily and effectually accomplished by a simple piece 
ofwoodof the shape represented in Plate III. Fig. 9. 
which can be made for the purpose in a few minutes. 
To each end of the box a handle of rope-yarn 
should be attached, for greater convenience in 
removing it irom place to place ; but care must be 
taken that the holes perforated in the end of the 
box through which the rope-yarn is passed, be not 
on a line with each other, but as represented in 
Plate X. Fig. 9 ; otherwise, if the boxes be made 
of 6r, as they generally are, the piece between the 
two holes, placed on a line, "would be apt to ccHue 
away, and the glass be thus broken to pieces by the 
fell which would necessarily ensue. The two ends 
of the rope-yarn handles arc secured inside by a 
|. luiot thrown on each ; and these knots must be ^_ 



56 PACKINQ OF QLA8& 

•ptro?ided. with a oorre$ponding koUow in the wood, 
'evoavated for their reception, to prevent their 
AiQUiing in contact with the glaas, which they might 
break ; or the handles may be spliced outside, and 
rank into, a hollow cut by a gouge on the end of the 
box, of a depth sufficient to cover the rope ; which 
jwoidd occupy less space iii stowage, and conse- 
quently be a saving of freight. 

fifty and a hundred feet are the usual quantities 
packed into one box ; but of small uses,- .two. haih> 
jjred feet may be put into one box, the squares 
being . packed on the top of each other. In this 
paae, however, the latter should be provided with a 
boaid'or.. support on the top of the first layer; 
^Figures 1], 12, and 14, only are made in' this form. 
t'iln calculating the size of the box or boxes 
ceiqpii^ . it is usual to allow about one or one and 
« )$aIiF> inches each.way, over and above the: length 
aod breadth q£ th^. piu^. for the length and depth 
^ die jbox, and to allow jhrther one-eighth of an 
inch on each pane for the breadth of the box ; these 
aU<Qwanoje9 are idade for hay and inside measure. / 
-. Tbe Qnpexed table shews the proper sizes of 50, 
100,. and 200 feet boxes — the contents of each 
pane — the number of panes per 100 feet — -the 
proper thickness pf wood employed in making 
bp^es,: and whe;:e the divisions ought to occur. 






50 Feet Boxes. 
2 3 



I 



lOO Feet Bofxes . 

6 



f 






\ 


1 






; 



) 





8 






End. 

9 


( 








) 


o 
6 













( 





lO 



( 



) 





11 




200 Feet Boxps 
12 


• 




iS 












) ( 








) ( 










( — 




















— . 





14 








15 










16 




t 






) ( 










) 


( 






1 


\ ■ 
















1 



17 



( 1 








\ 


1 




1 




t 



18 











( 

















) ( 



19 



) 







so 










21 










22 




( 








) 


( 










) 


( 








k 






















) 



r.XMr 



•:.« 







U r« 


'" '"* "°" 


, 1 




to,-.« 










Il 




1 


1 


ii 


1 


! 


! 


i 


1 


11 

Ll 1 


J^ 


1 










Jn. 




•- J»|«l« 




lOD 




! 


c 




1>1 


J 




^ 


M 1 
tt 1 


3]'» 















«l 






«i I 


« 1 11 














Si" 










11 ' IS 




^ 




1 


11 -1 


~, 


UA 


} 


''1 




i* 


3]'* 




*i 






10 » 


^ 










31 


8 1 10 


1 i 7 


tA 




a 


10 t 




»? 








Id 


1 ti J '* 










\i 1 




) 










111 m 




X 




ll 


1'? 






4 




^ 


i 




'' 










!> 

















1 ll 










^* 






N 






a 


4 




1 




IB 


n 


w 


1? 


^, 




m i 


'" 
















11 


a 






? 




: 














Id 


ft 










' t 


S3 


s 


I 


l 


7- 

5^ 


i 








1 i 


li* 






19 


Jl 




,JI 




yf 








i^ 






























tl 


ii 


'i 


a* 


In 




I 


2* 


jj* 


* 


IS 3 


1 






10 






Si 






3 


i'l 






IS 






a 










11) 


rt 


II 










'o I 


■ 


! 


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1 




1 


S 


11 












8 


a 




f, » 




14 


i 


U 












7 

i 

I 


in 

1 


K 
]7 
]9 
11) 

11 

1 


; i 

1, 


5 


IH 

fi 
16 

IE 

i 


J* 
t 

it 

3 

1 

i 

1 
1 


i 
j 


k* 








.£*!£•' 


zr 


*b«n 




;.'!« 


^ 


»r 




dow 


'■'_ 


Onr 


ch,«r 


lu.tr xn 



PACKING OF GLASS. 

llie wood for 50 feet boxes to be five-eighk 
inch at the tides, and three-fourth inch for the enii 
For 100 feet boxes three-fooiih inch sides, and one 
inch ends. For 200 feet boxes, one indi wi 
round and round. 

To find how many squares there are in IM 
square feet of any g^ven sise. 

Multiply 144, number of square inches in a foo^ 
by 100, and divide by the square contents of tk 
pane. 

EXAMPLE. 

How many panes in one hundred square feet 

144 
100 



Size 22i X 16 = 360 )14400( 40 sqiiares in 100ft. 

14400 !22^ >< 16 



•GLAZING OF WIHDOWft. 59 



CHAPTER V. 

GLAZING OF WINDOWS. 

In this part cf the work, it is meant to be as 
practical as possible, and we shall therefore, without 
hentation, sacrifice niceties of language, and all 
similar considerations, to brevi^ and perspicuity. 
Our great object here, as it has been throughout, is 
to convey our information in as distinct and intelli- 
gible a manner as possible. 

Before proceeding to speak of glazing, the order 
in which its various processes present themselves 
naturally demands that we should say something of 

PUTTY. 

This important and indispensable article in the 
glazier's trade, is composed of whiting and linseed 
oiL Chalk is sometimes used instead of the former, 
but tiie expense and labour incurred in preparing it 
is so much greater, that it can be no object to the 
glazier to employ it ; for although it is certainly 



50 GLAZING OF WINDOWa 

cheaper in the first instance, it will not ultimatdy 
be found so. Besides, the glazier will find k 
almost impossible to free it so completely of die 
sand and silica, with which it abounds, as to render 
it fit for making good putty. These will remainin 
such abundance, as to endanger the safety of die 
glass in working it in ; neither will the putty work 
kindly or well. 

Whiting being therefore, in every way, to be 
preferred, it must be thoroughly dried before ^ 
oil is added to it, otherwise the union will not be 
effected, or at least be very imperfect. 

Figs. 7 and 8, Plate III. represent a kiln fo 
drying and preparing whiting ; and we do not knov 
that any simpler, more economical, or more effective 
method could be employed. 

This kiln will dry a ton of whiting per day, at a 
very trifling expense of fuel,* and the kiln itself) 
with all its erections, will probably not cost more 
than fifty shillings. Every glazier, therefore, whose 
business is of any extent, ought to be provided with 
one of them. 

Fig. 7, Plate III. shews the ground plan of a 
whiting kiln. The grate room may be twelve by 

• The wood of one empty crate will dry whiting to glaze three 
J 8 table crates. 



GLAZING OP WINDOWS. ^f 

ten inches, with an aah pit one foot in depth. The 
ioe, as shewn in the plan, bfanches from the side 
of the fire place in a circular form, for the purpose 
of distributing the heat equally on the plate, and 
disdiai^es itself into the adjoining Tent 

fig. 8, Plate III. is an elevation of the kiln, 
about three feet square, on the top of which the 
cast iron plate, of the same dimensions, and half an 
inch in thickness, is placed, with raised sides, to 
keep the whiting firom felling over while stirring it 
occasionally, to prevent its being overheated, or 
homed ; in which case it will require more oil, and 
produce less putty. It ought not to be quite cold 
when wrought into putty ; the oil should be added 
while the whiting still retains a very slight degree 
ef heat. It will then expand, and consequently 
saturate a gresLter quantity of whiting, and with less 
labdur, too, than when cold ; and thus, of course, 
produce a proportionately greater quantity of putty. 
• In eases where the glazier has no such kiln for 
drying his whiting as that above described, he may 
produce the desired result on a small scale, by 
pulverizing newly slacked lime, say in the propor- 
tion of a piece about the size of an egg, to a hundred* 
weight of whiting, and mixing them together. This 
method of drying whiting is perfectly effective, and 



ea GLAZING OP W1X4DOW& 

answers very well where the buaineas is not exteo- 
sife ; but it is a tedious process, and isenly adq>led 
for small quantities. 

After the whiting has been thoroughly dried and 
prepared, it ought to be passed through a very fioe 
sieve, and all the lumps and Imots that remain 
pulverized with a three inch roller on a table; and 
then also passed through the sieve. Great care 
must be taken to keep the whiting free of sand and 
other extraneous substances ; the former, in partko* 
lar, is extremely injurious to putty. 

When putty is to be made, put the proper quan- 
tity of oil into a tub or other open vessel, (the one 
half of an oil pipe answers extremely well for the 
purpose,) and gradually add the whiting, at the 
same time keeping the whole in motion, with a stoat 
stick fashioned like an oar, until it becomes of a 
sufficient consistency to work by the hand on a 
board or table. Having been removed thither from 
the tub, it must be wrought up with dry whiting, 
until it is converted into a solid compact mass. 
When brought to this state, it ought to be put into 
a hollowed stone or mortar, and beat with a wooden 
mallet till it becomes soft and tenacious, when more 
whiting must be added, until it has attained a proper 
consistency. 



i 



pit is 



GLAZING OF WmDOWS. Q^ 

considered that the putty is improved, if tlie 



> •'whiting and oil, after being mixed, are allowed to 
remain for about twenty hours before being wrought 
up. Aftf r putty has been made, it should be firmly 
packed in a cask, from which it may be taken from 
time to time, as it is required. It onght not to be 
used for ten or twelve days after it is made, wUen 
its colour, from having at first been a dull yellow, 
will have changed to a whitieh free stone, which 
renders it more suitable for most purposes, from its 
being of a less conspicuous tint. 

After a lapse of six or eight weeks, the putty in 
the cask will become hard ; but it is easily restored 
to its original softness, by being beat as before, and 
it is much improved by this second operation. 

Putty is made in England in large quantities, and 
is ground in a mill in tbe same way as white lead ; 
but this is no improvement, as it is generally over- 
wrought in this method of preparation, and ren- 
dered ED tough and tenacious, that it does not work 
well, and is entirely without that degree of pliability 
which putty ought to possess. 

The glazier, therefore, will himself make a much 
more workable putty with his mortar and mallet, 
and fully as cheaply, by employing his apprentices 
in its manufacture at their leisure hours. 



(PI GLAZING OF WINDOWS. 

Allien putty of a superior degree of fineness, 
which will dry quickly, is required^ add a little 
sugar of lead, or litharge ; and if an increase ef 
strength be wanted, a little white lead. 

We now proceed to 

GLAZING. 

To glaze well, neatly, and expeditiously, simple 
as the operation may appear, is an art not to be 
acquired in a day. On the contrary, several yean 
of practice are necessary, before that degree of 
proficiency in it, which constitutes an efficient and 
expert glazier, is acquired. 

When a glazier receives an order to glaze a 
house, the first thing he must do, of course, is to pro- 
ceed to measure the work to be done. In doing this, 
he must take thejiill size of the panes, that enough 
may be left for stripping, so as to produce an accu- 
rate fit into the sashes. This fitting must be 
performed with great care and nicety, leaving about 
one thirty-second part of an inch of space on each 
side and end of the pane, between it and the cheek. 
In other words, the pane must fill the space appro- 
priated for it, to within the thirty-second part of an 
inch, or thereabouts. 

This space is left to provide for such occurrences 



GLAZING OF WINDOWS. 65 

as the wood swelling with moisture, or the building 
setting, in which cases the panes would be apt to 
crack. 

When the panes have been fitted into the checks 
uf the sashes in the manner spoken of, they must be 
removed, and the checks well bedded with beat 
putty. This done, the panes are again returned to 
their respective places, and gently pressed or lodged 
into the bedding, humouring tlie glass as it were, 
should it be bent or twisted, and taking care that 
there is no hard extraneous substance mingled with 
the putty, which might endanger, if not actually 
break the glass. 

When a pane is perfectly bedded, it lies quite 
firm, and does not spring from the putty ; but when, 
either from a perverse bend or twist in the glass, or 
any other accidental cause, it happens that it can- 
not be made to go quite close to the check, the 
vacant space must be carefully and neatly filled 
upon the back puttying, otherwise the window will 
not be impervious to the weather, and will be very 
apt to fall into decay by the admission of moisture. 
It may not be superfluous to observe here, that 
the convex, or round side of the pane, where such 
a shape occurs, should be presented to the outside, 
and the concave or hollow to the inside^ The 
reasons for recommending this disposition of such 



56 OLAZmO OP W1NOOW& 

panes are so obvious that they need hardly be 
enumerated. It may, however, be stated generally, 
that, when thus placed, they resist the weather 
better than if the hollow sides were exposed to it 

After the pane has been bedded, the next procea 
is the outside puttying. This putty should be 
kept in the fore cheek, about the thirty-second pert 
of an inch below the level of the inside cheek, sou 
to allow the thin layer of paint which binds these 
two substances together, to join the putty and gkn; 
and that it may not offend the eye by being seen 
from the inside ; and that, when it is painted, the 
brush may not encroach on any visible part of the 
pane, leaving those ragged lines or marks whid 
are so often seen from the inside on ill-finished 
windows, and which are so displeasing^ to the eye. 
This operation, and finishing the comers, are two 
nice points in the art, and therefore, when properly 
done, discover at once the neat-handed and skilful 
tradesman* 

It is the opinion of some experienced glaziers, 
that the inside puttjring, which is the next process, 
ought to be allowed to remain eight days before 
being finished off, while others, again, say that this 
should be immediately done. The experience of 
the writer inclines him to the former opinion. By 
standing over for some little time, the putty acquires 



GLAZING OF WINDOWS. 57 

a hardness which admits of a better and neater 
finish than when it is in the soft working state, and 
in this way also, the putty is not liable to shrink. 
Of course, this is only recommended in cases of 
extensive jobs. When only a few panes are done, 
it is better to finish them off at once, than subject 
the employers to the inconvenience of a second visit 
from the glazier for so trifling a purpose. 

When the finishing does take place, however, the 
patty must be cut clean off with the putty knife, 
and on a level with the style of the astragab. 
Complete the work by cleaning the glass and^putty 
with a 000 duster brush, which removes all dust and 
lo^e putty from the pane, lightly and effectually.*" 

Plate III. Fig. 3, represents a glazier's putty 
knife ; Fig. 5, a grosing iron, used for grinding or 
breaking off small corners, &c. when they cannot be 
easily cut by the diamond. 

* In taking out old glass from windows, the cold putty knife» 
I^g. 4, Plate III. is used ; but when the putty has been in the 
windows for ten or twelve years, it becomes nearly as hard as 
stone, and impenetrable to the knife. In this case there are 
various means used to extract the glass from the frames. The 
i^>plication of hot iron to the putty is sometimes adopted ; but 
this cannot with safety be applied to the bedding, to which the 
glass obstinately adheres. Muriatic acid diluted with water is 
an excellent means of removing putty from glass, its action being 



HUT-HOUSE GLAZma 



HOT-HOUSE GLAZING. 

The frames or sashes of a hot-bouse ought, before 
being gktzed, to receive two coats of white paint, 
to which a small portion of red lead has been added 
to facilitate its drying, and to give increased 
strength and durability to the paint. 

The panes in the roofs of hot-houses are generally 
of either of the three forms exhibited in Plate XL 
Figures 1, 2, and 3. The first is the square patten, 
the second is the tapered, the third the semicircular. 

Fig. 1, is the most generally used hidierto, and 
has a very good effect. 

Fig. 2, is considered an improvement on No. 1, 
in so far as the tapered point carries off the raia 
down the centre of the pane, and thereby preserves 
the astragals ; but there is a loss in shaping the glass 
to the tapered point. 

assisted by rubbing the patty occasionally with a bit of stick. 
The most effectual way to remove the glass, when the frames are 
worthless and the glass valuable, is to put the frames into a horse 
dunghill, keeping the whole damp (if the weather is not so) for 
several weeks, which completely loosens the glass, and rots or 
destroys the frames. 






< - - 






y 



I 

^ 



• 



-<-.._ 



^{ 



— i^ — <- 



4.^ 



I 







- 4 



J_ 



HOT-HOUSr GLAZING. (59 

~" Fig. 3, 18 decidedly the best pattern of the 
three — the water is not only drawn to the centre 
of the pane, and the astragals protected from 

_ the rain, but this pattern has a more elegant ap- 
pearance, when uniformly glazed, than either of 

- the two other shapes. There is no loss in cutting 
the glass to the curve, and it is therefore not more 
expensive. 

The dimensions of hot-house panes are generally 
about six inches, and are made to overlay each 
other, to an extent regulated by the circumstance 

" of their being puttied at the overlay or not. 

If it is intended to fill in the overlays with putty, 
they need not be more than a quarter of an inch in 
depth, but if it is not intended to putty them, they 
must then be at least five-eighths of an inch. 

The overlays, however, ought always to be 
puttied, and that for two reasons. First, because 
it will more certainly secure their being water- 
tight, and will, in the next place, prevent the 
breakage to which the panes are liable from the 

' freezing of the water, or moisture, which lodges iu 

the overlay, and which, thereby expanding, instantly 

shivers the glass in all directions ; when they are 

filled with putty, such an accident cannot happen. 

In glazing hot-house roofs, it must be observed. 



70 * HOT.HOUSE GLAZING. 

that the courses ought to run frmn end to end, and 
that the smaller panes, when such are used, should 
be reserved for the top. 

When sashes are glazed, they ought to stand for 
eight or ten days before taking off the back putty, 
and they ought not to be painted for about three 
weeks afterwards, that the putty may consolidate. 
Great care, too, should be taken, when the sashes 
are newly glazed, that they be not in any way 
tuisted or bent, as such an accident would almost 
inevitably start the panes from their beds, and thus 
render them pervious to water. 

When sashes are of considerable dimensions 
— say about six feet by three — they should be 
strengthened by having two iron rods placed across 
them at equal distances, and screwed to the astragals. 
This will go far to prevent the accident of twisting, 
to which such frames are extremely liable, and which 
is very injurious to them after they have been filled 
with glass. 

The putty used for glazing hot-houses ought to 
be of the ^^ery best description, as, from the circum- 
stance of its position, it is necessarily more exposed 
to the action of the weather, than in the perpendi- 
cular windows. 

Tlie putty used for filling in the overlays ought 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 7| 

to be of a black, or lead colour, which, every glazier 
knows, is imparted to the putty by working lamp 
black into it ; but as this substance has the effect of 
weakening the putty, the defect may be remedied 
by adding two pounds of white lead, ground in oil, 
to each stone of putty, and in a similar proportion to 
smaller or greater quantities. Indeed, all putty 
used in glazing hot-houses ought to have a portion 
of white lead mixed with it, as it adds greatly to its 
strength. 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 

This antique and singularly beautiful style of 
glazing has unaccountably fallen much into disuse, 
although in late years it certainly has undergone 
something like a resuscitation, in consequence of a 
revival of the public taste for stained glass, and a 
growing predilection for Gothic architecture in 
diurches, cottages, &c. For these, and for stair- 
case windows, and, indeed, all windows similarly 
situated, as in halls, lobbies, or the like, it is pecu- 
liarly adapted. 

It may be proper to premise, that lead windows 
require stained or coloured glass for producing their 



ft LATIKK. 0« I£UI VDmoVS. 

hUem. and be«t eflects, and U vaa mth bI»h4 

giaw ouly tlifit they were originally constructed; 
but verj- utm and elegant windows are executed 
in tUis Ktj'le witL plain glass, wLere variety and 
beauty of figure are made to compensate for the 
absence of coloor. It is thouglit that the glazier 
would find it for his adi'autage to turn more of bis ; 
attention to this very elegant branch of bis art, tbaa 
be bas hitherto done. 

Lead windows may be made to any pattern, and 
in this there is great scope for the display of a 
correct taste. In the time of Elizabeth, this branch 
of ibe glazier's art was carried to great excellence, 
pspecially by one Walter Gedde, who was employed 
in glazing most of the royal and public buildings of 
that period. This person executed in this style 
some windows of transcendent beauty, displaying 
on enilless variety of the most elegant and elaborate 
figures. 

The most useful and most common description of 
plain glass lead windows, however, are those of the 
diamond or lujtenge slmpo ; but, as already said, tbey 
may be made to any pattern desired. Annexed are 
various apeviuiens of windows done in this style, 
including itiul to which we have just now more 
iwtrtit'itlorly alluded. 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 73 

Plate XII. is the east window of St Giles' 
Church, Edinburgh. * 

Plat« XIII. is a very simple pattern, easily cut, 
and forming a neat, cheap, and durable window for 
a staircase, if the diamond panes were stained, and 
the remainder frosted glass. 

Plate XIV. is more ornamental; and although 
apparently more elaborate, the glass is easily cut, 
by forming the pattern as directed in a following 
part of this article. This window has a beautiful 
effect by introducing stained glass into the long 
skittle shaped pieces, and in the rosette in the centre. 

Plate VIII. Fig. 2, is well calculated for the 
bull's-eye of a large Gothic window, or a circular 
light, in any style of architecture. It has a beauti- 
ful eifect in colours, particularly if a handsome 
rosette is inserted in the centre. 

Plate VIII. Fig. 3, called St Catherine's Wheel, 
is a good common pattern, and looks well, if the 
stained glass is properly contrasted. Both this and 
the last, when divided in the centre, make good 
fan-lights. 

* The whole of this splendid Gothic edifice was reconstructed 
by William Bum, Esq. architect, Edinbui^h, in 1832. This 
window is wrought in the diamond or lozenge shape, which is in 
most general use at present. 



74 LATTICE, OH LEAD WINDOWS. 

Pkic XV. Fig. 1. The leading of the flat aieb, 
introduced Iicrt-, Ih ii belter method of leading i 
window ill common glass, than the usual diamond 
Hbaped piecci. The amaU quarries should be Med 
with stained glass, and thus a very neat wimlon 
will be formed. 

Philc XV. Fig. 2, is a fanJight, which, 
properly varied with stained glass, will have a 
beautiful effect, either in Grecian or Gothic archi- 
toeture. 

Plate XVI. is divided into large compartnienli, 
but not too large to be held togetlier by leading. 
This pattern will look very well even in plain glasS) 
but will have a beautiful effect when the small 
B*|uareg are filled with liandsomc sbiined glass rosettes 
— the other part of the window frosted, or, perhaps, 
stained glass, and the centre of the diamond shape. 

Plate XVII. The architecture of this window 
is from Oxford Cathedral, which the writer haa 
filled in with stained glass in the Gothic style. 

We have here instanced a few of Walter Gedde's 
simple patterns. As before observed, an endleM 
variety of figures and shapes might be introduced, 
and many examples of leading in ancient windows, 
which are still in exbtence, might be given. We 
vould recommend to the reader's notice the leading 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 75 

of the windows in York Minster, particularly those 
in the vestibule and chapter house. There are also 
beautiful examples of leading in the windows of 
Christ Church, and New College, Oxford ; as well 
as of stained glass, executed by Jervaise, from the 
designs of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

The lead work can also be adapted with equal 
ease to any pattern that may be chosen for the 
glass ; and it can likewise be made to any breadth, 
from one-eighth to five-eighths of an inch. The 
one-eighth, however, is only used for fency work, 
and is not, as yet, much in demand ; that which is 
most generally used, is three-eighth lead. This 
width makes neater and better work than that of 
any other dimensions. 

The glazier who would include this branch of his 
art in his business, would do well to provide himself 
with the necessary tools and apparatus for casting 
the lead, and act as his own plumber as well as 
glazier ; all the knowledge of the former art which 
lie would require, being very easily attained. He 
may purchase prepared leading for windows in any 
quantity ; but he will produce it himself at half the 
cost, and probably more to his own satisfaction. The 
apparatus and tools necessary for doing this, are, a 



BB iSTnce, or lxad wofooirs. 

■igbziiVi vice, or Iciul inill, moulds for casting t!ie 
ftlnd into klondiT l>a» or rods of about eigliteen 
KlncliM in lengtli, which is the first process ; a three- 
Mburtli inch cbiscl ; a har<l wood fillet for forcing 
VIkc Ifliuw into titc ^oovps Id the lead frame work; 
I inil nil opener or wedge tool, made also of bard 
I wood, or obony, for hiving open the grooves forlle 
I leceptinn of the ghiss; two copper bolts for soldering, 
itlte end formeil like an eg^. Annexed are correct 
B drawings of the vice or mill alluded to, in describing 
Kvhich, in its various connected parts, the same 

■ 'letters of reference are adapted to tlie different 

■ ftgures, S41 far ax necessary, which, with the isowe- 
lllrical vieWH, will facilitate the compreliension of 
Vltlieir parts and properties. 

I Phite XVIII. Fig. I. An end view, partly open, 
' of a mould for casting three varieties of patterns, 
which are thus prepared for being forced through 
the machine. By an ingenious construction of tbe 
handle, it is made to lock and unlock by inclined 
planes, acting on studs, a a. Fig. 1 1, A side view, 
also partly open ; and Fig. III. an isometriettl new 
of the mould prepared for pouring in the metaL 

The metal, or cast, being removed from the 
mould, a pair of the dies, (one only of each pair is 



LATTICE, OB LEAD WINDOWS. 77 

represented,) according to tlie pattern required, 
Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, are placed in the machine, as 
seen at ccy Fig. 8, isometrical view. After they 
are put in, a thin iron cover, {b. Fig. 10) with an 
oblong hole in the middle, is put on, to guide the 
metal into the rollers. Figs. 9, 10, and 11, repre- 
sent three views of the machine as prepared for 
operating. In Figs. 9 and 11, the metal, ddy is 
represented passing through the machine, which is 
accomplished by turning the winch handle, 6 6, acting 
on two equal sized toothed wheels, J]f. On the 
axles of these are two rollers, p g^ slightly serrated, 
(dotted through in Fig. 8 and 10;) these rollers 
draw the metal through, while the dies give the 
desired form. To allow the axles and rollers to be 
placed in the frame, or body of the machine. A, the 
cover, A, is removed by unscrewing the bolt i. Figs. 
8, 10, 11. The toothed wheels ff, are also taken 
off, by unscrewing the nuts k k. The tempering 
screw bolt /, is for adjusting the dies, after they are 
put in their place. The screw bolts, m m, are for 
fixing the machine to a table or bench. 

Fig. 12, is an isometrical view of the cover h 
removed, to shew the ports n n^ through which the 
axles of the rollers pass. 




Fig. la ifaM* Ae •h«pe of Uk- bolt ased for w^ 
tiering liia leiil wiiufaHn, and tTtg. 14, ike optw 
klrandy- dsscribMl. 

Thv lc»d uiteiKfe<l to be enploycd in vintoi |) 
aaiiiug, muM be mXi, and of tbc vcr^' best qiutlitj; 
and KTi-al otrc latut be t«k<'U to bave tlie muulili 
pn>pi.rly tt!ti)|>eri!d( MberwiM^ the lead will noi bt 
equally diffused in tbcm, suid the costings conse- 
(jiHUitly uot pBrirclly wtid throughout, as ther 
cMigtit to be. 

If this ii not utti-ndcd to, that is, if the castingi 
aro not p^tfet^tiy »oIid, they will come out of tht 
mill, tu whiL-li th«y ore prescuted, after being' takes 
from the moulda, all fretted on the edges, and tfam 
iu a »tate totally un6t for the purpose for which they 
were intended. 

The castings are, as already noticed, usually 
about eighteen inches in length, and are afterwards 
exU'rideil by the mill represented by ibe figure 
above, to the length of five or six feet. 

It may not be unnecessary to add, that the mill 
not only extends the lead, and redocM it at the 
pleasure of the operator, to the dimensions required, 
but at the same time forms the groores into which 
the edge of the glass is afterwards introduced in 
forming the window. 



•^TICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 79 

V,^ s been prepared in the manner 

^ iG^ht to proceed to cut out 

^^ this operation he must 

^ !»liapes and sizes of the 

^^ .iui it is here understood that 

^ , ./ill- is capable of drawing geome- 

Lorrectly, when such are required,) 
.c&e he must conform in cutting. 
c will, however, perhaps be better understood, 
.vlien we say that he must first outline the full 
dimensions of the window, and then line it off to the 
pattern required, shaping the panes accordingly. If 
the window is of a large size, this may of course be 
done by compartments to be afterwards united, and 
thus be more conveniently wrought. Great accuracy 
most be observed in cutting the panes, or a very 
irregular panel will be produced ; as those lines 
that ought to be parallel or otherwise, will not be 
correctly so, which will greatly injure the appear- 
ance of the work. 

When all the glass has been cut for the window, 
the next thing to be done, is to open the grooves in 
the lead with the opener or wedge tool. The panes 
are then, in order that they may be water tight, fas- 
tened very firmly into the grooves with the wooden 
fillet already spoken of, (which may be fixed on the 



80 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 



liaiidle of tlie chisel or cutting tool,) securing ttie 
parallel lines of lead in their proper places on the 
board, wlieu tlie window is of the diamond shape, by 
a small nail at either end, until the course is finished, 
when the work is permanently fastened by running 
a small quantity of solder gently over the two con- 
necting pieces of lead at each joint, or angular 
point. When the window has been completed, it 
should be removed from the working board to a flat 
table, where it must be covered with a thick layer 
of cement, composed of white lead, lamp black, red 
lead, litharge, and boiled linseed oil, with a half- 
worn paint brush, and the composition carefully 
rubbed into every joint. This will render the win- 
dow completely impervious to the weather, as the 
cement, if properly laid on, will fill every chink, 
where it will soon become as hard and durable as 
any other of the materials of which the window is 
composed. When this operation has been com- 
pleted, clean the wbidow with a clotli and whiting. 
Ijhonhl the outside be wanted black, omit the black- 
ing in the first compost; and finish by laying on the 
lamp black with a polishing brush. 

The window, on being fitted into the frame, that 
is, on being set in it^ place in the builduig for which 
it is inteudeil, ought to he supported with three- 




I 



LATTICE, OR L£AD WINDOWS. gf 

eighth inch iron rods, extending three-eighths of an 
inch beyond the breadth of the frame on each side, 
running across it at the distance of from twelve to 
fourteen inches from each other, and secured to the 
lead firame-work at intervals with copper wire or 
lead bands manufactured by the mill. These rods, 
for obvious reasons, ought to be so arranged as to 
intersect the window exactly at the terminating 
point of a row of the diamonds. For instance, if 
the diamonds are each six inches in length or 
height, the first rod ought to intersect the window 
at the top of the third row, or eighteen inches from 
the bottom of the frame, and so on, until the 
window be equally divided in this way throughout 
its whole length. If the diamond, again, be only 
three inches in length, then the first rod ought to 
pass at the top of the fourth row, or twelve inches 
from the bottom, this proportion of distance being, 
of course, maintained throughout. The usual 
distance is fourteen inches, but this must be regu- 
lated by the breadth of the window between the 
mullions. If the muUions are of stone, the grooves 
in which the window is set, ought to be filled up 
with Roman cement, or mastic. If of wood, with 
oil putty. 

Such is, in brief, the process of constructing lead 



St2 lATIMXr OR lEAD WIIIDOW& 

«r hfcdee wiifcwia^ aad il is snrprisii^ diat so litde 
gfasmp B mfOfw done in tUs wmy. Whatever may 
knte been &e cuee of its Ufing into desuetude, it 
is dbMifit iaqpossible to coneeire that taste should 
have lejected an otnaaent at once so beautiful, and 
so happity comhined wi& utility. 

All who have seen specimens of ameient windows 
of thkdescriptiony e^^ecially those filled with stained 
gbfis — and &ey can be as well executed at the 
pies»it day as at any former period — must have 
felt the highest admiration of their singular beauty, 
elegance, and sfdendour. Even drawings of such 
windows as we allude to, forcibly impress us with a 
sense of their peculiar fitness for conspicuous situa- 
tions, where imposing and striking effect is desired. 

For diurches they are peculiarly appropriate, 
being admirably calculated, from the solemn splen- 
dour of their character, to attune the feelings to the 
solemnities of devotion ; and it is really singular that 
they are not oftener employed in this way, in cases 
where the character of the building would admit 
ofit- 

But it is not to churches alone that their suitable- 
ness is confined. They might be employed in 
many ways, either coloured or plain, with great 
effect, in embellishing private houses, since they 



LATTICE, OR LEAD WINDOWS. 33 

m not only a highly ornamental, but a most 
able and economical window. They require no 
nt, nor any of that care which is necessary to 
»tect windows, whose frames are of wood, from 
mature decay, and have, therefore, more than 
re elegance and beauty to recommend them. 



34 THE CUTTIMO DIAMOND. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CUTTING DIAMOND. 

Under this head, we mean to confine ourselves 
chiefly to a few historical and traditional notices of 
the diamond, and these wholly with reference to its 
adaptation to the purposes of the croWn window 
glass cutter, adding a few practical remarks, partly 
the results of our own experience, and partly of that 
of others. 

Before proceeding to say when diamonds were 
first used for cutting glass, it may not be amiss to 
state when the art of cutting diamonds themselves 
was first discovered. The ancients were ignorant 
of the art of cutting the diamond, and hence they 
used it in its natural granular or crystallized state. 
Though probably known to the artists of Hindostau 
and China at a very early period, it was unknown to 
the Europeans during the middle ages ; for the four 
large diamonds which ornament the clasp of the 



THE CUTTING DIAMOND. ^ 35 

imperial mantle of Charlemagne, which is still pre- 
served at Paris, are micut octoedrical crystals. 

In 1456, Robert de Berghen, a native of Bruges, 
in the Austrian Netherlands, ' discovered that a 
diamond might be cut and polished by a powder 
made from itself, with the aid of certain iron wheels. 
Hence the well known adage of *^ diamond cut 
diamond." 

The earliest mention of the diamond being used 
for writing on glass occurs in the sixteenth century, 
when the following Unes, which may be considered 
as the first application of the diamond to this pur- 
pose, were written by Francis the First of France 
with his diamond ring on one of the panes of glass 
in the Castle of Champfort. The king's purpose 
in writing them was to intimate to Anne de Pisseleu, 
Dochess of Estampes, that he was jealous of her : 

Souvent femme vaiie, 
Mai habit qui s* 7 fie. 

Woman is changeful as summer's sky, 
*Tis folly to trust her constancy. 

This new mode of recording ideas was then 
thought exceedingly ingenious, and the merit of 
having discovered a new property in the diamond 
was awarded to his majesty. After this, but still 



g6 THE CUTTING DIAMOND. 

before it came into the hands of the glazier, tk 
diamond was snccessfully employed in etching or 
engraving figures on glass vessels, and some very 
beautiful specimens of this novel art were prodncel 
at Venice as early as 1562; so that little timehil 
been lost in applying the discovery of the Freni 
king to useful purposes. 

The first noted professional engraver on glas 
with the diamond, of whom any thing' is known, 
was George Schwanhard. In later times, John 
Rest, an artist of Augsburg, obtained g^eat celebrity 
in this art Two drinking glasses, curiously and 
elegantly ornamented by this artist, with his 
diamond pencil, were purchased by Charles VI. 
The art of cutting glass with a wheel, a method 
applicable to crystal only, was invented, in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, by Caspar 
Lehmann, lapidary and glasscutter to the !Emperor 
Rodolphus XL 

A knowledge of the diamond, however, either for 
use or ornament, is not at all of remote antiquity, 
if we except a very few instances where it was 
employed, but very ineiBciently, for the latter pur- 
pose. This is accounted for by the circumstance of 
its requiring to be cut and polished before it exhibits 
any degree of that shining quality which so pre- 



THE CUTTING DIAMOND. 



87 



ninently distinguishes it from all olLei' minerals. 
until, tLerefore, the art of cutting it was discovered, 
and tLat is not much more than three humlred years 
since, very little use could be made of itj as, in its 
original rough state, it is in no way attractive, being 
without lustre or beauty of colour. The ancients, 
therefore, though they might be perfectly aware of 
the ercistence of the diamond — and it is certain they 
were, for mention is made of it in their writings — 
must have been almost entirely iguorant of its 
properties, at least we find no mention of them. 
In the rare instances in which it was used by them 
as an ornametit, it was invariably of that description 
of form which presents what is called a natural 
point. This is a piece whicL has several natural 
sides or faces, and, being transparent, is thus an 
improvement on the ruder masses in which it is 
generally found. It is, in short, an approximation 
to artificial cutting; but the diamond is, even in 
this state, without lustre, an<l otherwise not at all 
remarkable. It is not, indeed, a century since the 
full value of this precious mineral was ascertained, 
and all its extraordinary properties discovered and 
developed. Before its introduction as an agent in 
cutting glass, that operation was performed by 
means of emery, sharp pointed instruments of the 




hardest st«cl, and Bomctinica red-bot iron. Thw 
were the only contrivances known and pracUsed by 
tbe ancient glaziers. 

In consiilering the diamond in its relations to the 
purpo«es of the window-glass cutter, there occur some 
circumstances uot unworthy of remark. Amongst 
tlieRe, it may be noticed, that the cutting point of 
the diamond must be a natural one ; an artificial 
point, however perfectly formed, will only aeratcli 
the glass, not cut it. The diamond of a ring, tot 
instance, will not cut a pane, but merely markit 
with rough superficial lines, which penetrate buti 1 
very Itltle way inwards. Artificial points, corners, 
or angles, therefore, produced by cutting the 
diamond are adapted only for writing or for drawing 
figures on glass, and such were those used by 
Scliwanhard, Host, and the other artists who onifr> 
mented glass vessels in the manner before alluded 
to. The cutting diamond does not write so weB 
on glass, from the circumstance of its being apt to 
enter too deeply, and take too firm a hold of the 
surface, and thus become intractable. It may farther 
be noticed, that an accidental point, produced by 
fracturing the diamond, is as unfit for cutting as an 
artificial one. Such a point will also merely scratdt 
the glass. No point, in short, that is not g:iven by 



THE CUTTING DlAliOIOl ^ 

the natond fonnadon of the minenl, wiU mntwer 
the purposes of the windov-giaat cutter. 

The lai^ sparks, as the dJamonAi used for cottiii^ 
g^asB are called, are generally preferred to the small 
<mes^ from the dreumstanoe of their being likely to 
possess, although this is by no means invariably the 
case, a number of cutting points ; while the rery 
small sparics, for obvious reasons, are not always 
found to possess more than one. Thus, if the point 
of the latter is worn, or broken oS^ although the 
spariL be turned, and reset in its socket, it will still 
be without the power of cutting, and consequently 
useless, while the former, on undergoing the same 
operation, will present a new and effectire point. 

The large sparks are called moiJker $park$^ and 
are sonaetimes cut down into as many smaller frag- 
ments bearing the same name, as there are natural 
points in the former. Each of these, therefore, can 
hare only one cutting point, and are consequently 
only proportionably valuable to the glazier, since 
they cannot be restored by resetting. 

SETTING DIAMONDS. 

This is a process with which every glazier ought 
to be acquainted ; nor is it an art of difficult acquire- 



iiwiit; like eT«ry thing else, it reqaires tarn 
prsetico, and o little patience, but these are tW 
only really forniiduhle requisites it presents. 

The tint thing to be done is, of course, to selM 
a stone, which must be chosen as clear and pelluciii 
as possible, resembling a drop of water, and lAn 
octoeilrical shape, or as near to that form as possilile, 

Having procured such a stone, let the workmu 
uext proceed to ascertain which Is its cuttiog poial, 
or, if it has more than one, which is the best. Tdb 
will be found to be thnt point which has the cutting 
edgcM of the crystal placed exactly at right an^M 
to each other, and passing precisely through a pwnt 
of intersection made by the crossing of tlie edg». 
{See Plate XIX, and explanations.) 

The next tiling to be done is, to provide a piece 
of copper or brass wire, a quarter of an incli in 
diameter. In one of the ends of the wire, a hole 
must be drilled large enough to contain three- 
fourths of the diamond to be set, which being 
temporarily secured, the setter again proceeds to 
ascertain the cutting point, by trying it on a piece of 
glass ; and when he has discovered it, he must mark 
its position by making a slight notch in the wire 
with a file or otherwise, exactly opposite to the 
cutting point, as a guide to him in his operations, 



THE CUTTING DIAAfONIX 9| 

when he comes to fix it pennaiiently in the socket 
head of the handle. When doing this, care must 
be taken to keep it exactly parallel with the inclined 
plane of the socket head. 

The cutting point having been ascertained, and 
the diamond fixed into its place, the wire is then 
cat off about a quarter of an inch below the diamond, 
and filed down to fit exactly into the aperture in the 
socket head into which it must be soldered. Let 
the rough or superfluous metal around the stone be 
removed with a file, and finished by polishing it 
with emery or sand paper. Such is the most 
approved method of setting new diamonds, and it 
applies equally to the resetting of old ones. But in 
the latter case, the first process, that of detaching 
the stone &om its bed, is accomplished either by 
means of a knife, or by applying the blow-pipe. 

It may not be altogether superfluous to add, that 
firom the extremely diminutive size of the stone, 
it is very apt to be lost during the operation of 
setting ; great care must therefore be taken to guard 
against this accident. Those who are much in the 
practice of setting diamonds, are provided with a 
small table covered with green cloth» and surrounded 
with a raised edging to catch the sparks, should 
they happen to fall; but for temporary purposes, 






tlip |{lMM-ciiit<>r will readily fall cm some expedient 
to MHruri- bim u^iiiiit an ac^cident of this kbd. 

We now proceed to the esplanation of ik 
fififures alluded to in anotlier part of the article. Set 
PUleXIX. 

Tlie annexed figures of a diamond drawn uponi 
larjco scale, are pointed a^eeably to the above ctn- 
diiium ; fiff. 1 being a Mde and end elevation, and 
fig. 2, llie pliiii of it A B represent the leading 
curvi'd part of the cutting edge of tlie diamond ; anil 
I), the line of intersection, crossing- the line AB 
at riglit angles : E, being the following part of the 

tting edge. 

The general figure of the stone is ^rtlier indicated 

all the figures by dotted lines. Its position In i 
hole formed in the metal block in which it is first 
adj usted, and afterwards secured as before described, 
b likewise shewn. 

Figure 8 is a side, figure 4 a front, and figure 5 
an end view of a glazier's patent diamond, mounted 
with a swivel adjustment, for the block F, when 
connected with the handle G, by means of tk 
screw H entering into a gap filed half way tbroogfa, 
and across the metal stem I. By this means, the 
cut of the diamond is much easier obtained, than 
when the diamond is mounted fixedly into the sten 
or pencil diamond. 



THE CUTTING DIAMOND. 93 

LUKEN'S IMPROVED BEAM COMPASS FOR 

CUTTING CIRCLES. 

This will be found a very convenient, though 
simple instrument, for cutting circles. Plate XIX. 
Fig. 6, is a perspective view or elevation of such 
parts of this useful instrument, as are necessary for 
understanding its construction, of their real size. 
O O is part of a square bar of brass, ten inches 
long, and graduated into half inches as radii, and 
answering to inches of the diameters of the circles, 
to be drawn with the instrument, and these half 
inches are again sub-divided into parts, and regu- 
larly numbered. Upon this bar the sliding centre, 
P, moves, and can be secured at any required 
situation by its binding screw Q. R is a cylindri- 
cal part fixed firmly upon an end of the bar ; and 
having a conical hole made through it in a vertical 
direction, to receive the tapering socket of a glazier's 
cutting diamond, S, within it, and which can be 
retained in a proper direction, when the cut of the 
diamond is found by trial, by the binding screw T. 
U is a brass wire firmly fixed into the cylinder R, 
having its foot, V, rounded, and turned up at its 
end. This foot is carried evenly along, in contact 
with the surface of the glass to be cut, and regulates 



St be likeww 



94 THE tlTTINti OlAUOKD. 

tlic indiaation of the dianiond, us must be likeww 
round by trial, iuiil bending tbe wire U moreorlns 
until tbo prop<.T degiee is ascertained. The other, 
or opposite sidv of the bar, O O, is terminated b)) 
brass bail aflixed upoa it, and the point, P, of ilie 
sliding centre h supported by, and turns in asndl 
conical hole made in a plaie of metal, the back of 
wliicb is coated with a thin layer of bee's wax, wliicli, 
upon being pressed into contact with the surface if 
the g\ass to he cut, readily adheres to it, witb i 
degree of lirmnesB quite sufficient for the purpoj*. 
The art of managing- the diamond in g-lass-cuttinj, 
so as to produce effective results, can only be 
attained by considerable experience. The diamond 
must be held in a particidar position, and with a 
particular inclination, otherwise it will not cut, and 
the slightest deviation from either renders an attempl 
to do so abortive. In the hands of an inexperieaeed 
person, it merely scratches the glass, leaving a long 
rough furrow, but no fissure. The glazier judges by 
his ear of the cut made. When tlie cut is a clean 
and effective one, the diamond produces, in the act 
of being drawn along, a sharp, keen, and equal 
Bound. When the cut bnot a good one, this sound 
is harsh, grating, and irregular. On perceiving 
this, the operator alters the inclination and position 



THE CUTTING DIAMOND. 95 

of his diamond, until the proper sound is emitted, 
when he proceeds with his cat. 

Although the diamond cuts glass of an ordinary 
thickness with &cility, it does not so easily cut that 
which is of more than a medium thickness. In such 
cases, the desired division is effected by the appli- 
cation of a hot iron, which being brought in contact 
with the glass at certain points, produces a fissure 
in the direction required. 

The diamonds employed in glass-cutting, are of 
the description known by the technical name of 
bort, a classification which includes all such pieces 
as are too small to be cut, or are of a bad colour, 
and consequently unfit for ornamental purposes. 
These are accordingly selected from the better sort, 
and sold separately, at an inferior price. 

The properties of the diamond for cutting hard 
substances — for it is employed by seal engravers, 
and by engravers on copper and steel, as well as by 
glasfih-cutters — are very singular, and form, perhaps, 
the most remarkable feature of this remarkable 
mineral. The lines which it cuts on glass, in par- 
ticular, when performed with a natural point, are 
found, even when examined by the microscope, to 
be exceedingly clear, smooth, and regular, and 
presenting such finely burnished surfaces, that, 
when a number of them are drawn close together. 



I 



9({ THE CUTTING DIAMONa 

they decompose the reys of lig^ht, and exhibit tk -^ 
mo8t beautiful prismatic appearances. In this dm I ^ ^ 
18 a remarkable difference between the catsrfa 
natural and artificial point; for, while the fbnffl^ 
produces the effects described, the cuts made bytk 
latter, when examined by the microscope, pi^l| 
exceedingly ragged edges, as if the gbuB 
splintered into minute fragments alongst the wU V { 
line of the fissure. It may be added, also, thits 
delicate are the lines produced by the diamoA 
that two thousand of them have been drawn widn 
the space of one inch, on plates of polished stedi 
which it cuts as readily as glass. It is thereftn 
peculiarly adapted for forming the minute sab* 
divisions on micrometers, and other nice pieces i 
mechanism, for which it is often employed. Tct 
with the knowledge of all these fiicts, and a dailj 
experience of all these effects, it is not certaiolj 
known how the diamond acts upon the glass. We 
know very well that it produces a cut, but, in the 
language of Dr Woolaston, the conditions on which 
the effect depends have not yet been duly inves- 
tigated. 

Though there are many substances that will 
scratch glaSvS, the diamond was thought to be the 
only one that would cut it; but some experiments 
of Dr Woolaston have shewn that this is not strictly 



THE CUTTUfO DlAMdllD. ^ 

tM>iTect. That eminent philosopher gave to pieces 
of sapphire, rnby, spinel ruby, rock crystal, and 
some other substances, that peculiar cunrilinear 
edge which forms the cutting point in the diamond, 
and in which, and in its hardness, its singular 
property of cutting entirely lies, and with these 
succeeded in cutting glass with a perfectly dear 
&sure. They lasted, however, but for a very short 
time, soon losing their edge, although prepared at a 
great expense of labour and care ; while the diamond 
comes ready formed from the hand of Nature, and 
will last for many yeani. 

Diamonds are found only in the I^t Indies, and 
in Brazil in South America. They are met with 
only in the provinces of Golconda, Visapour, 
Bengal, and the island of Borneo. In Clour, in 
Golconda, there were, at one period, no less than 
dxty thousand persons, men, women, and children, 
employed in collecting them. The finest diamonds 
are those that resemble a drop of pure water. 

Although the history of the diamond is exceed- 
ingly curious and interesting, and a great deal has 
been written regarding it, we conceive that every 
thing has now been said which could, with any 
propriety^ be introduced into a work of this nature* 

G 



9e STAINED AND 



CHAPTER VII. 

STAINED AND PAINTED GLASS. 

The invention of the art of colouring glass- 
that is, imbuing it throughout with any particular 
tint — seems to be nearly coeval with the discoveiy 
of the art of making the substance itself. Egyptian 
ornaments, and Druidical beads, of the highest 
antiquity, as already noticed in the historical depart- 
ment of this work, are found, of many and sar^ 
passingly beautiful colours ; but the art of staining 
and painting glass, so as to form pictorial represen- 
tations of objects, is of comparatively recent datCy 
although the precise period of its introdoction if 
unknown. It is certain, however, that it has existed 
for many centuries, but in different stages of excel- 
lence, and, like every other art, has been gradually 
advancing in improvement A pretty general, but 
very erroneous, idea exists, with regard to the 
superiority of the colours employed in ancient glass 



PAINTED GLASft. f^ 

punting oyer those in use at the present day. It it 
belieTed by many, and taken for granted by olbei% 
that not only is the brilliancy of the fonner nnal- 
lunable by modem skill, but that the art of prodocing 
them is itself entirely lost. This is a very misddLea 
notion, for not only are the colours now employed 
M brilliant and durable as those of the ancients, but 
sthers jiave been added, which they most probably 
did not know how to produce, or at least did not 
ase. Amongst these are pink, straw colour, and 
•dier compound tints. That indiscriminating vene- 
ration for every thing ancient, which has so often, 
so onjustly, and so seriously interfered with the 
daims of modem merit to the encouragement to 
wUdi it is justly entided, has operated against 
glass painting and staining with perhaps fully more 
Ibrce than against any other art It has induced a 
belief, that excellence in the art is confined to the 
ancients — that nothing can be now done to equal 
&&X triumphs in it — and that all the productions 
(tf the modern glass stainer and painter are mere 
fihnsy imitations of those of the artists of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. Than this there 
never was any notion more unjust or more dbsurd ; 
and the writer feels assured, that nothing fiuiher 
is necessary to convince any one of that injustice 



100 tTAOIBD AMD 

and abiuditjr, tlHai a Tiait to the war eh w a g 
worioliop of any w np e cta hl e glaaa puite 
•Ittner of the present daj. 

Bat glais painting and ateiniogr laboon 
odier, and perhaps greater, diaadTnntages iStmU 
of being reolumed a decayed art. Some ef Aai 
are inherent in itself others are contbgeol^ d 
others are the result ef prejudice, or spring from 
defideney of doe enoonragement. Not the lflait.d 
Aese disadvantages is the oircnmatanoe of.itiUp| 
eonndered a luxury of too preanmptaaoa a chsneki 
and of too expensive a nature, to be eia{doysdJ 
the embellishnient of the honsea of penou i 
moderate income. This is the Tmnlt nfimpinsiin 
derived from the uses to whidi painted and stuai 
glam was of old exclusively applied, — ^the adonuie 
of stupendous cathedrals, magnificent pali^iff, a; 
baronial mansions — a drcnmstance which has h 
the effect oi associating it with ideaa oiF goigea 
splendour and vast expense — ideas wliich are yeft.i 
fall operation, although the exciting cause has km 
since disappeared. Most people, as alread 
remarked, are under an impression that painted < 
stained glass is much too expensive, and too fine 
thing for them to think of indulging in as an artic 
of luxury, and they are at no pains to correct tl 



PAINTED GLASS. l(yx 

terror, either by reflection or inquiry. Were they to 



:e proper investigation, they would find that 
modern improvement has brought this elegant 
^/ornament within the reach of very moderate cir- 
Kf cmnstances. 

i It may be remarked, too, as something singular, 
n; that while almost every other art has been called on 
jT to contribute in some way or other to our domestic 
1 comforts, or to the adornment of our dwellings, that 
of glass painting and staining, though its produc- 
tions are not more expensive than some of these, 
and are certainly not inferior in elegance to many of 
tiiem, should yet be but rarely applied to domestic 
purposes, where it could be employed with such 
delightful effect. When stained glass has been 
used in the embellishment of the mansions of the 
middling, or even of the upper classes, it has been 
hitherto in a great measure confined to hall and 
staircase windows, and to windows placed in similar 
situations, but its use might be much extended, 
with great advantage in point of ornamental effect. 
If the windows, for instance, of a drawing-room, 
were filled with stained glass, whose prevailing tints 
should harmonize with the predominating colour in 
the apartment, an effect would be produced at oncQ 



Mvd* ilrildai^ aai ttrngtimif plMnig;^ IN 
t^g»wqiMi>, •^■lly^ft«^nljMilfaw»■i%^^^l 

^ifart ignnd gbiih inithkfc ■ rfWh 

■ritur w — ptoyJ* tiMrt JaMiipliou iHithii|lil 
■ad of one tint» — todi ao bravn* mbjr, pabtfrii 
Im.— aigbt be MbMitiitadi aMi* if wlietrfiil 
MfeMBee t»^ pnndHiig eel— r flf Oeiiald 
whh Ae view of either hiiiglm mimg m 



i;:- 



would be tkrawn aroimd ik» 
olhar €OiitriviDoe of art aoa rni—irfitia J 
vhoio bolk of dMM dewripttono oT colnndfcfl 
aigkt be fbud nnenilriik^^a ondaalilne:! 
wUdiy it it qppreheiided|<>dieraeoiild.he4Blpf 

letMliii^ namely, dwesqpeiae^ or the tod giMNW 
•km df ligbt— there is atflla fldid doocri|rtiei 
ornamental glaii» wfaidi migfat bo rnnplojuiij ' i 
which is free from both of these objoetionfl. His i 
pole traoery, lesemUing laeework, wliiefa^ iH 

m 

* In oomiectioii with this put of the ndjecty the author 
much pleuure in recoinmen£ng to the reader a Twy ened 
Treatise upon the Harmony of Colours by Mr Hay, pain 
Edinburgh. The work is replete with acute observation, 
clisplays all that exquisite taste, sound judgment, and skill, 
which Mr Hay is distinguished in his profession. 



i; ■ 



PAINTED GLASS. ](^ 

properly executed, is exceedingly beautiful, and 
in^Mrts to a room an iq[>pearance of singular light- 
ness and elegance. 

It would not^ perbaps, be altogether accurate to 
asy, that a want of taste is the cause of the neglect 
with which glass painting has been treated, and of 
the very little demand that there is for it ; neither 
do we think that it does entirely proceed from this 
eaose. It is one of those things of which it would 
be, probably, more correct to say, that it has rather 
been overlooked than neglected, and that, therefore, 
little more is wanting than to call the public attention 
to it^ to procure for it a share of that popularity and 
encouragement, which some more fortunate, but 
certainly not more deserving arts enjoy. 

Except in the name, painting on glass has no 
resemblance to any other department of the pictorial 
art but that of porcelain. Both the colours, and 
the process of their application throughout, are 
entirely different. While animal and vegetable 
substances are freely used as colouring matter in 
e?ery other department of the art, they are wholly 
excluded in that of glass painting, where all the 
pigments used are subjected, after being laid on, to 
the operation of fire, to make them penetrate the 



104 STAINED AND 

bmly of the glass, or become fused on its surface- 

a process whicli would wholly destroy the colounai 

properties of such substances. All the colons 

employed in glass painting and staining are ovki 

of metals or minerals, as gold, silver, cobalt, vUd 

not only st^md the fire, but require the poweih 

interference of that agent to bring* out their bii 

liunoy and transparency. Some colours, witk tl 

application of heat, penetrate the body of tl 

glass, and, from this circumstance, are calli 

stains; while others, being mixed with a vitreo 

substance called flux, become fused or vitrified 

the surface. The former produces a variety 

colours, and all of them are perfectly transparei 

The produce of the latter are only semi-tran^ 

rent, but they may be made to yield any colour 

tint required. 

In preparing these colours, the most imports 
point to be attended to is, to have all those that { 
to be used at the same time of an equal degree 
softness. To attain this, those that are hard, a 
require a great degree of heat to make them eff( 
tivc, must be fixed first ; leaving the soft colou 
tor which ii slight heat only is necessaryy to 1 
Uist. If used promiscuously, and without regard 



PAINTED GLA8& IQ^ 

diss precaation, some of the colours woald be ren- 
dered too fluid, while others would be insufficiently 
fused, and the work in consequence spoiled. 
' It is likewise of g^eat importance to make a 
pn^r selection of glass for the purposes of staining 
and painting, as one kind will assimilate more freely 
with one colour than with another. The description 
•f glass generally chosen for painting or staining is 
die best crown glass. 

It is not thought advisable to enter at greater 
length here into the details of the process of glass 
painting and staining; because, in the first place, 
this work is intended, by the author, for the use of 
die glass-cutter and glazier chiefly, to whom such 
mformadon is unnecessary, and which, therefore, 
were it introduced here, would swell the volume to 
too great a size. In the next place, all such details 
would be nearly useless for any practical purpose, 
there being scarcely a possibility of either commu- 
nicating or acquiring such a knowledge of the art 
of glass painting or staining as would enable any 
person to practise it successfully. Nothing but 
personal observation and long experience can do 
so. And thus it is, that all the printed directions 
and instructions for the prosecution of the art, o£ 



1Q0 VTABXED GLASS. 

whieh tibere is no lack, are foimd to be almoat whol 
useleM wben attempts are made to act upon the 
In short, to those who have no knowledge of t 
art, no written instructions oouU be of any ava: 
and to those who have, the writer has nothing m 
regarding it to communicate. 



MISCELLANEOUS. I07 



CHAPTER VIII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

NDER this title we propose to throw together 
"^O. desultory remarks, andodd pieces of information, 
' ^^uld not well be incorporated with any preceding 
^^ of this work, and which have been thought not 
^^Worthy of some place in a book compiled for the 
^e of the glass-cutter and glazier. As these remarks 
^nd stray fragments of information, however, can 
Neither be classified, nor reduced to any kind of 
^gular order, they shall just be set down as they 
present themselves, without any attempt to give 
them the consistency of a narrative. 

We begin with one of the most important and 
prominent considerations connected with the glass 
trade, — the window tax; and as we think every 
glaader should know upon what principle it pro- 
ceeds, we subjoin the scheme according to which it 
is at present levied, remarking, that it was reduced 
about one-half in 1823. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 









DUTIES ON WIDOWS. 










'*"™ "-*" 


»*r ^ 2^ 


^ 


h'^ 


cir 








6 
9 

11 
IS 


L. ..d. 

15 6 
100 

1 16 3 

2 3 9 


22 
23 

26 


6 16 6 36 

7 49 37 

7 13 3 38 

8 19 39 


11 173 aOto84M 8* 

13 2 6 95 91*27 » 
13 11 100 10939 78 


13 


a 12 3 


87 


8 10 to to 44 


14 7 9 110 1183! H» 

16 15 9 120 12933 178 

17 4 130 13930 JO 


14 


3 9 


28 


8 18 6 45 49 








9 7 IsO 54 


17 


3 17 6 

4 6 


30 
31 


9 IB 3 l&a 59 
10 3 9 160 64 


18 12 140 I49|3a 7 J 

19 16 9 160 1&9|J0 1 » 
ao 19 3 160 169,43 IS e 




18 


4 14 3 




10 13 3 65 69 




19 






11 6 70 74 


22 1 6170 17945 1 • 




20 




31 


11 9 75 79 23 4 180 41.™- 






5 19 6 




1 1 1 1 




Above 


80, li. Sd. esch, in addition to £46, 10«. 3d, 




EiiumoHB 
thin £200 p« 


_ Firm houK. occupied by-i tensnt »t . r«cS-ie»t !• 
year, or i« a.=y d-SuBi Uw, being . ft«D. h«^ 




ocoupied tod ati u sibi«Hiid by the owpex, or by tuv teniiil ol •a™ 
or «UM not . rich-rent, the v.lue of whicl. Judl be ooda fW 




«-y«r, provided 


he dcx. DOt derive .n Income eiceediiw £100 *1«» 
«urce; hoapitel., ch.rity-«hooliH,.^ pwr-hg* 




fnrni my other 




(MMpling the 


end cheew-roomg, if " D.iry end CheMe^rooa " 








«« xL' d»or. 








The ^indoj^8 of . room u«d mlely for > mU"A«- 




WryToor^m 







AU windows, of wlialever description and wkerertt 
situated in a house, whether garrets, ceUars, oi 
Staircases, and even those in outhouses, with the 
above exemptions, fell under this tas. Whenewi 
the divisiiuii or iiartition of a window amounts to oi 
cxcecils twelve inches in breadth, both sides aK 
cliarKwl us two so|K(rate and distinct windows, and 



MISCELLANEOUS. 109 

^ndow, measuring the outer aperture, exceeds 
feet in height, and four feet nine inches in 
-ireadth, it is charged as two windows. But the 
vbtole watchful ingenuity of the spirit of taxation 
iins to have been reserved for the following 
tuse: — "That every window so contrived, or 
situated, as to light more apartments, or other 
iJiOT spaces, than one, shall be charged as so 
nany distinct windows." Thus one window may 
; 1m isharged at the rate of a dozen, if it shall appear 
: that it affords liglit to so many chambers, staircases, 
CtT recesses, — the purposes which it serves being 
>^ lazed rather than the window itself. 
7, The principle on which the window tax is levied, 
' laying aside any consideration of its propriety, 
\ expediency, or equity, is not perhaps very faulty, 
but its operation will be found of a different cha- 
racter. The lower rates are too high, and the 
liigher too low, or rather the scale descends farther 
down than it ought to do. The whole bearing of the 
tax is evidently directed, or meant to be directed, 
against the wealthy, or at least against those who 
are in comparatively easy circumstances ; but this 
principle cannot be recognized in the tax, when it 
affects such low numbers as eight, nine, ten, or 
even eleven and twelve windows. Besides, its 



\ 



I 



lit mscEU-ASE^ra. 

p t t gl t m n v riw H not proportioned to wbai ostW 
supposed to b(> the ctrcumstiuiccs of the Mtm 
indinduftU vxpos^ to its operation. The pemi 
who ocmpiM a bouaa*, »r rnlher ]ialu«?e, of one W 
dr«J umI eijffctjr winrlown, pays only about 
timn moiv in ibr ^liape of window duiytlunkl 
who oeciipint a noderale mansion of tw«lTv: ul 
b Urns, in all |in>1nibitiry, taxed only to tbt 
«f AaM one-liuiHiretiili part of his income, iddi 
the btter, witb a similar probability, pays at toil 
ene-fortietli. 

But the greatest error whicli the tax JnvolvH, il 
tluit of its having the effect of lessening-, in placet! 
■d'tiug to the rerenae. This may seem parailoxiraL 
but it is true. It is the creating of one source M 
reveoue at the expense of another, by taking irtio 
that other exactly the amount wliicit it produce!. 
This is proved by the simple circHmstunce of it» 
limiting the manufacture of glass, on which a high 
duty is paid by the manufacturer, since it is plain, 
that if windows were not taxed, there would be 
more of them, and, as a matter of course, a greater 
consumption of glass. This effect of tbe window 
tax upon the revenue arising from glass, as paid by 
the manufacturer, is made sufficiently evident by 
the fact, that, for the three years ending 1828, tbe 



MISGELLANEOU& HI 

in the home consumption of window glass, 

ff ^¥er diat of the three years ending with 1791, was 

L ^ly two per cent, although the number of build- 

« tAgH in many towns and cities in Great Britain has, 

- is that time, been in some cases nearly, and in others 

■_- ^aore than doubled, as appears from the increase on 

r. kicks and tiles during the same period, an increase 

,. amounting to ninety per cent. 

, But the evils of the window tax are not yet 

«ldttiU8ted. It is in the last degree prejudicial to a 

▼alnable branch of the national trade, — the glass 

trade, and, of consequence, to all the various 

interests connected with it, some of which are of 

Tital importance to the state itself, particularly that 

of shipping, and the manufacture of kelp, the latter 

of which involves not only the comfort, but the very 

existence of thousands of the indigent inhabitants 

of the Orkneys, and Western Isles, and main land 

of Scotland. 

The window tax has the most prejudicial effects 
on our domestic architecture. One of these has 
been the introduction of a mode of building, by 
which the size and number of windows have been 
diminished, at the expense of taste, symmetry, 
elegance, comfort, and even health. Surely a tax, 
which is attended with such prejudicial conse- 



I M tbis, oqglii to btf alwlblied, 
ilv wbra it is mnsitlered, iJnit xticli BboHlia 
vouM not be followed by aoy diminutiDD <d 
rcmiBc, sincr, a> bu bcrn already tiliewu, a )it> 
poftioaol incmK wmiU undoubtedly lake pliccit 
iW dutin IrTicil M) Um nuum&ctnrers. 

It will not have escaped the reader, amonjC 
o(b«r caandemiow wfaidi tliis discussion will luit 
■HgMte d. tkat gbas b more unfortunately »tuaKl 
dan any otlior subject of taxation, inasmncliajiu 
■at flacr laxod, like otber thing?, but tmke.—iji 
at glaMi and again as a window. 

Haw thb unoffending and most useful artick 
akouM hare proroked such an extraordinary' m» 
tMn of pereecntion, wv bclieTe no one can expUii 
Considering the present st3t<? of our natiuiuJ 
fioaores, we do not pretend to assert, that the dulj 
«a wiadov |^>b shenld be taken off; but ttie 
wiDdow tax, for reasons already named, ought in 
justice to be abolished. It is so apt to be couu- 
dered uoder the obnoxious c^pecl of being a oi 
on the l^t of heaven, and tLe vital air, that it 
were well if some adequate, and less genetally 
objectionable substitute for it could be discorereJ 
by the legislature. As it is, it must be allowed t» 
be one of the best specimens of the art of imposing 



I 



IIS 

tees, wliicli ewm this knd, 9o celebrmted for iu 
tantioii* can exbibil. 

DUTIES, DRAWBACKS. Ice. 

Hie fini duties gimnted on glan, were imposed 
' hf Stitote 6 and 7, of William IIL These duties 
me ordaiined br a subsequent Act to be perma* 
sent, but were afikerwards taken off. By Statute 19, 
Geo. IL c 12, an excise duty is laid upon glass 
of 8d. per lb. upon all crown, plate, and flint glass 
{■ported. Other and higher duties were imposed 
\ff subsequent Acts. The duty now levied on 
crown glass, is 7ds. 6d. per cwt. A drawback to 
tke same amount is allowed on crown glass in tables 
or half tables, exported from Great Britain and 
beknd ; and on crown glass cut into panes, none 
less than 6x4 inches, 988. per cwt except in the 
eases of exportation to the isle of Wight, Jersey, 
Gruernsey, Aldemey, and Man, when the drawback 
k 738. 6d. per cwt on tables or half tables, and 
Qo drawback on panes. No drawback is allowed 
upon yolks or bullions, when exported. It may be 
tirorth while to remark, that though a greater allow- 
ance is made upon squares than sheets, when 
exported, there is little advantage in cutting up 
rlass for a foreign market, since the bullion and 

H 




1 



h^<-i. 



I 



on wUdi no drawback is allowed 
» JHrt iIhmC eqmi to t^ fifeicsee. 
t bs eirtReil md ak^ped vidii 
- bemiriiadmt and aealei; bM 
t mlii my permit gka» U bt 
dw infatDe dntv has bees pai 



■n^HHaa to fcpow, tfaat« (and 
bv wilU tfa faaglu: af portdiM* 




115 

Board of Excise, London, who transmit orders to 
the collector of the district for payment, at the rate 
of 7ds. 6d. per cwt 

In our accoont of the manufiMrture, we omitted 
to mention, that the use of kelp in the manufacture 
€t glass, is now generally declining. Of late, the 
improvements in the manufiicture of carbonate of 
soda have been rery gpreat, while it has also fiidlen 
considerably in price. Instead, therefore, of using 
sndi an impure alkali as kelp with sand, pure 
carbonate of soda with sand and lime are now 
employed. These materials produce glass of as 
good a colour as plate, besides possessing many 
other advantages over the old ingpredients. The 
preparation of the carbonate of soda for this pur- 
pose, is carried on within their own premises, by 
some of the most extensive manufacturers. 




Wii 



CHAPTER iX. 

MKASliRF.MENT OP CLASS. 

To uhfw tbc coDtritU of liny fi^iven number of pand-B 
would (H«:upy » volume of lUelf. 'i'lie followinjl 
instructions and Tables, are all that are necessary I 
for the glaz 

No. I. shows the contents of panes from 1 in. x 7 ir 



28 in. X 20 in 


increasing by 1 inch eacli way. 


11. 


10ix7 to 28^x20 


III. . 


. 10Jx7i to28ix20i 


IV. 


10ix7 to 28ix20 


V. . 


loix7J to 28^x204 


VI. 


10}x7 lo28}x2(l 


VII. . 


. 10|x7}to28}x20} 


VIII. 


4 X3 to 9Jx 6j 



To find the contents of any given square, — aay 
24^ inches X 14 inches, 

III page 120, Table No. II. look for the length 
'24i, and on the angular line for the width 14; in 
the same column, and opposite to 2*^, you have 28 



^ inch z= 


1 


i do. = 


a 


f do. = 


4 


i do. =: 


6 


1 do. = 


7 


i do. = 


9 


i do. = 


10 



MEASUREMSNT OF OLAW. | ij 

inches and three parts or #359 square inches =: tt sq. 
it 51 sq. in. — Contents of tlie square of ghss, 24 j^ 
iiLXM in. 

Fractional parts of an inch for finding the contents 

in square measure. 

6 



6 



6 





12 fourths = 1 third. 

12 thirds =r 1 part or second. 

12 seconds =r 1 inch. 

12 inches si foot. 

RULE. 

To find the contents q{ a pane of glass. 

I. Place feet under feet, inches under inches, 
seconds under seconds, &c. 

II. Multiply each denomination of the length by 
the feet of the breadth, beginning at the lowest, and 
place each product directly under the corresponding 
denomination from which it arises, and carry one 
for every 12. 



I 



-f^ MEASUREMENT Of GLASS. " 

III. Multiply by tbe inches, and set each pmk 
unc place ^thet to the right hand, then multiply^ 
the parts or Heconds, and set each product anotk 
pkice lartber toward the right hand. 

IV. Proceed in the same manner with all the IB 
of tlie denominations, namely, 3ds, 4ths, &c, u 
their auro will be tbe contents. 

NOTE. 
Feel X by feet give feel. 
Feet X by iaches give inches. 
Feet X by geconds give seconds or paru. 
Inches x by inches give seconds. 
Inches x by seconds give thirds. 
Inches x by thirds give fourtliB. 
Seconds X by seconds give fourths. 
Seconds x by thirds give fifths. 
Seconds x by fourths give sixths. 
Thirds X by thirds give sixths. 



m 



Jl. Ist. 
ft 1=. 
I 2 
I 


Jx^=o 
|xf=o 
|xf=o 
ixJ = o 

14^ in. X 12^ in 

Ml. Ul. 

1 6 
1 6 



1 
4 
9 


2 3 

8 3 
8 3 
2 3 
2d. l4fin.xl2S 

«- U. K.. M.. 

12 4 6 
10 4 6 


I 2 


1 6 

12 16 
7 9 


12 4 6 

4 9 6 

7 2 3 


1 ^2 


3 3 2 3 


1 2 9 10 8 



MEASUREMENT OF GLASS. 119 



3d. ] 


I4ii 


in. : 


< 12i in. 




4th 


1. 14^ in. X 12^ in. 


ft. in. 

1 2 


Sds. 

3 


Sds. 










ft. 
1 


in. ptB. ada. 

2 6 


1 


3 












1 


6 


1 2 


3 




1 


2 6. 




3 


6 


9 










7 3 


1 2 


6 


6 


9 


1 


3 1 3 


5th. 


14| 


in. 


X 


13f 


in. 




6th. 14|in.Xl3|in. 


n. In. 

1 2 


7 


Sds. 

6 










ft 
1 


in. pti. 

2 9 


1 1 


7 


6 










1 


1 9 


1 2 


7 


6 


1 


2 9 


1 


2 


7 


6 










1 2 9 




8 


6 
7 


4 
3 


6 
9 








11 9 










1 


4 10 9 9 


1 4 


7 


3 


2 


3 






X 


TC A \/ •^ •^ 








7th. 


14^ 


p in. 


X 


I3|in. 








ft. 

1 


in. 

2 


Sda. 

10 


Ms. 

6 












1 


1 


10 
10 


6 
6 








1 


2 












1 


2 


10 


6 












1 





4 

7 


9 
5 


3 



15 2 4 8 3 

NoTS. — The feet in the product are square feet, and the inches 
e twelfth parts of a square foot, or each of them is equal to 
^elve square inches, and the parts are square inches. The lower 
nominations are generally expressed in fractions of a«quare inch ; 
us, 4 parts are ^ of a square inch, 10 parts are ^ &c. 
The following Tables are expressed in Duodecimal Inches and 
arts; and may, if necessary, be easily converted into square 
ches, by multiplying the inches by 12, and adding the parts to 
le product. 



UEAiiUREIIENT OF GLAS& 




No. J. From 10in.x7m. to 38 in. by 30 v 



INCHES BROAD. 





7 


8 1 it 


10 
















2*i 

16* 




6.11 


7.B 


Bti 


1. F.l 12 


OJJ 


7.6 


e.G 1 9.4 


10.3 ' I. T. 


10 






9 a \\o.a 






7,0 


ail. 


9.11 


ll.U 


13.1 13.2 


U.4|,. ,. 15 










lao ,u.3 


15.5 |16.7 l.r.\ 16 








lli.8 


13.1115.3 


16.6 17.9 ia.0 ..P.! 1' 


IMl 


^^ 


mm 


lu.y 


1.1. H 




177 imil W.nt\ ul. 



MEA8DREH£NT OF GLASS. 



INCBBS BROAD. 





8i 


n 


loi 
















1 


^r. 


I. r. 


.... 


1. 1. 


11* 


1 




7.0 


7.10 


&a 


L P. 


lai 












....!lBi 




7.*! 8.5 


9.6 


1U.B 




ia.fl',.r.l 4i 




8.0; 9.1 


10.-.! 


iia 


ia.5 


13.0 U.7 t>. p. 


I6t 


1 


a^|9.9 






ia,4 


14.8 i]d,8 II6.I1I1.P. 


16i 


1 


;s.2;io.6 




13.0 


14.3 


ia.6 itt.ioia.i [19.4 




17i 


1 


19^.11. 2 


l-iAi 


IS.11 




16.7 17.1119.3 1S0.8 






I8t 


! 


^11.9 


laj 


rj.8 


iB.a 


17.7 19.0 ,ao.5 |21.1l 


23.4 


24.9 


I. p. 


19* 




I.01S.6 








18.7 80.1 21.8 3a,2 










20i 


.7;1M 


14.10 






19.7 21.S i23.i0.24.5 




27.8 




H0.1U 






IB.IJ 


li).7 


17.3 


i».i: 


20.8 2-2.4 i24.0 2&.a 


27.5 


29.1 


ao.9 


3a.ti 


34.2 


\ 










19. 1 


J1.B 23.5 I2S.3 27.0 


28.9 


30.6 |32.3 


MA 


35.10 


- 






-^ 


^ 


2rs- 


23.8 SaJ"i27T|29.7 


alX 


aa.a 136.4 


37.3 


39.2 


~ 




- 


-i- 


-^ 


a2.y 

23.8 


24.9 aa.9 [28.9 
23.9 37.1029.11 


30.9 


B4F 


96.3 |38.4 


iae"-^?" 


















15M 


37.8 139.11 


42.1 144.3 


.. 










!is.a 


27.9 30.1 32.4 


34.7 


«.!£ 


89.2 |41A 


43.8 '45.1 1 


. 1 . . 








i6.b 


2S.1031.2 I33.S 


ab.io 


aM.s 


40.7 142.1 1 


45J 47.8 



No. III. From lOi in.X7i in., to 28^ in.x20i in 













mCBES BB 


OAD. 




















8 

To 


9 1 10 


Jl. 


12 




6.8 


rt 


8.7 9.7 


;o.H 


ur. 


13 










10.1 iK"3 






nr 


14 






».( 


12.4 


iUA 


J. r- 


16 






S,S 


»j 


10.10 12.1 


13.3 


H.« 


15.8 


16.11 




16 










11.1 1IB.I] 










19.4 










e.7 


11.0 




15.1 


16.(1 


n.K 




20,7 




J. F 


IR 












Iti.O 




18.11 


>CJ. 


l.K 


iSA 


24.9 


I. r.| 19 




11.4 


J 2.4 

13.0 


13.1015.5 




I8.« 










20.2 


37.9.., 


20 




14.7 


18.3 


17.IU 


19.tl 


21.1 


22.9 




ses 






1. I. 


















ia.li 




]i^A 


i9.0 


sie 










19.8 


21.(1 








a 


8 
I 

8 


W.5 


1 


2 








■■ 






20.7 


22.6 24.4 


2H.3 


28.1 


31.10,33.935.7 








■■ 








2a6 


25.5 




29.4 








■ , . 










U2.5 


w* 




28.7 :30.7 


36.1 




g 


i? 














23.4 


2!i.U 


27,7 


29,9 [31.10 


* 





















28.8 












a 




rrr 


^ 






- 


2b.2 


27 .( 


1!9.9 


32.1 M.4 


1 


i 


S8. 11 '41 .3i43.fi |4S 












0'40.4 142.9'4S.l WA 






No 


IV. 




Fh 


m I 


J^in 


X7 


n. to 


28i 


in 


> 


I.«\ 











MKA^VKEUENT UF GLAS& 



iscMBS m*OAD. 



■ .'».!_"*. ?*. ?"*-, 





i-il 


Ml l(l,.-| 


ii.a i±.t i;Lioift.i laa iiT.e 1. r. 161 






•».- Hi.ll 


l-i.a lILli 14.111 ltl.l 17.3 1&8 ao.0 1. r. 


■■z 




1..S II.H 


I.t.() I4.A ».» ITS IKti ;I9.I1 21.3 -2S.e) 


<; 


■~l 




I.1.I014.3 iiin it.a ,i9.a ai.! Si? 24.0 




iHt 


l.i> l:vl 


14.T ItiJ li.H Itl.n a>B S-^4 23.I0*J5.& 






J.'J l!L!» 


li>.i> IT.0 KH aO» SI. 11^6 2S.9 ^.9 


^ 




i,9 14.*i 


lt(2 17.11 IftT 21.4 SitO 34.9 aj.5 28 2 




stt 


. . . . 


. . . . 20.7 2:i-4 •H.'i 3a.lI37.B 29.ti 




IStl 


. . . . 


ai.6 sis ai.3 i37.a 29.0 ao.ii 








. . 1 . . 22.6 24.i 36.S ;28.4 3a4 ,ai.3 




34t 





. . ! . . 2:l.& .25.1! 27.6 29.7 31.7 33.8 




^ 








. . 1 . . 


. . 1 . 2li.4 27.7 39.9 32.0 34.2 136.S 




f*i 




. . 1 . . .264 2X7 3a.n3U.2 95.6 ,37.9. 






. . 1 . . ,27.3 29.8 32.0 34.5 36.9 139.2 



No. V. From lOJ in.x'i in. to 28J in.X* 



INCHES BKOAS. 



. 7 


A 


9 


rr 


,, 


10} 6.3 

Hi 6.10 


7.2 
7,11 


V.0 


S.1I 

"95 


I. p. la 
in.i)"i. p., (3 


121 7.5 








11.8 12.9 1. p. ' 14 


iacH.0 

14} 8.7 


■fllS 


iW 


12.3 


ia.7 |iaB;i4.io i. f. ' la 

13,0 14.915.11I7.S >.T.[ 16 


153 0-- 


IA.0 




19.1 


14.5 15.9,17.0 1&4 19.B I. r.| 


16}. ».•■' 
17J 11'. 4 

lej 10.11 


11,10 
IS. 6 






154 ;t6.9;Ja.i 19.6 ar).ua9.4li 


MX) 


14,9 
15.7 


16.3 J7.g|19.2 20.8 22.3 23.*^ 

n,a iM9;a3.3 21.1023.5,25.0,2 


19} 11.6 








ISA lfl.R,2T 4 ,20.0 24.ll2fl.42 



UBASUKEHENT OF GLASS. 



3.0 
3.9 

!± 

2.3 
3^0 


J 

n 


r 

T 

n 


_1^ 
ioT 

12.3 


Hi 

11.6 t.T. 

iaTeiaie" 


ISJ 












14.S|1&.M 


16.3 1. F. 
16.10'lB.I 


iiL 


16i 




12.9 

i5T 


l-t.! 










171 




19.2 20.7 


21.11 




1. P. I8j 




14.S 


16.10 


11.<18.I( 


«.i 


21.U 


sa.d 


M.U 


36.3 1. p. 


19i 


as 


16.3 

ifto- 


18.419.11 


81.S 


a.0 






37.839.3 
29.830.10 

55:^^:6- 

82.333.11 
^7§T 


34.3 as. 10 

39.141,0 




19.1 sail 




M,3 


26.1. 






IB 


10 


so.8aao 


33.9 i35.6 


27.a 


^11 












3a8 


30.4 








32.SfU.a 


26.0 J27.11,39.H 


31.9 




TT 


^ 




2T.U 129.3 |SI.3 


31.1 




■2*.ol'S6.* 


28.4 30.6 139.6 




— 


36.0,87.* 


29.6 |31 7 !33.9 

90.7 133. 10,36.1 


J5.ll 
S7.4 


3B.l|40.2 


42.4 
44^ 

47^ 


44.0 
46.3 

49.8 


rr 


- 


■^ 


38.1,30.6 


a2.n:a6.4 '37.s 


S8.8 
40.1 


Jalttlsn 



No. Vn. From 10} in.X?} in. to 28J in.x20J i( 



INCHBa BROAD. 



i.a 


1.7 

rr 


rr' 

1.6 

rib 

3. -J 


A|,4 
'iifjix 

lDEl 

aTiarr 
e.9 laa 


A 
rii 

rr 

a.4 
H 

2.9 

a.o 


2.3 
%6 
2.9 

ao 

4.0 


1 

5To 

4.4 

vT 

4.11 


1 
-r 

? 


1 



III. Small or box bimi, from 4 in.xS in 



r 

I ]24 MEASUREMENT OF GLASS. 


1 




TABLE SHEWING THE VALUE OF ASV SQUARE OF GLASS FBOJ 




TO FORTr.ElOHT INCHES, AT VARIOUS TRICEft 






S,UB«., 1 


^'/^ 


@i/* 


@1/* 


@i/e 


©ifll®.^ 


®%t3 @ M 


@,*" 






lOQtsUllDg 1 


^(ool 


p.f«,t 


Vloa 


VfOD 


p.f«. 


Vfoo 


**foot ^r«. 


ytt«* 






I. d. 


t. d: 


I. d. 


I. d. 


<, d. 


4. d. 


.. d. .. d 


•. i 








flj 


SI 




n 


8] 




Hi 1 Oj 


1 11 












S| 




OlOi 




1 11 




■ M 






I 


BI 


9i 

uioi 




!'? 


1 ? 




\ t' 


! H 


1 11 








out 


1 


1 01 


1 >t 


1 3} 




1 81 


i7 


2 «| 








1 01 


1 1* 






1 5| 




110] 




8 31 






11 


1 ■] 


1 ^ 


1 ^ 


1 *i 


1 li 




2 0( 


2 31 


3 ^ 
































1 H 


1 5* 


1 6J 


1 ii 


1 11^ 




S Si 


8 1? 


1111 








1 i>i 


1 6i 


1 t! 




S Oi 




2 7i 




a 81 






16 


1 et 


1 »i 


1 9* 
1 lOi 


V« 


2 Hi 




3 ? 


3 11 


3 ? 








1 H 


1 lot 




a i( 


2 6i 




3 Si 


3 Hi 


3 10} 






HF.etorl8 


1 IDi 
1 llf 


8 li 


I 3 


3 H 


8 1?* 




3 4i 
3 ? 


3 Hi 


4 IJ 
4 41 










1 £1 


a H 




















8 Si 




E ^ 


i li 


3 OJ 




3 Hi 


4 41 


* 81 






££ 


s H 


2 5i 






a 21 




* 11 




i Oi 








a 4| 


B ej 


8 8) 


HtH 






* ^ 


t BI 


fl 31 






























«5 




3 Oi 


iU( 


3 >l 






» 8i 


S ^ 


S 81 










SlOi 


s iq 




3 Bi 




ll(^ 




5 111 












3 ai 


s ^ 


3 111 




5 0} 


5 11 


,fl 81 












3 3| 












a 6 










3 Si 




3 7i 


1 Bi 




S &i 


6 01 














3 Bi 




* Ij 




S 7i 




eioi 










3 a 


3 IJ 


3 10i 


* 61 




i fq 


6 ? 


i>* 










3 6J 


3 Oi 






















SIOJ 


* li 


* 9! 




8 21 


8 101 


•7 81 






31 










t Ui 




8 H 




■J BI 










3 10J 


1 11 


* *t 


5 li 




' 8t 


1 31 


8 0} 






SFoMor 36 






























4 H 


1 11 


s H 




6 111 


■7 81 


a it 






3S 






* 51 




3 (4 




J.' 11 




B ^ 






3» 






* 't 


1101 


5 81 




? * 




I'll 






40 






4 B| 










9 * 
















b 11 


aiij 




•7 8i 


*« 


S 41 












4 111 




6 1J 




7 101 




fl 11 






13 






s uj 


5 li 


3i 




8 f| 


Bill 


9 lot 
























10 1 












S 31 


9* 


a Si 




8 51 


a ?* 


Ifl SJ 
















8 8i 




8 ■>! 




10 81 






K 






6 Bi 


aioi 


BlOi 




H BI 


9 »1 


10 BI 




1 


iFtctor 4B 


z 


— 








3 










1 


IpirUMtln- 




_ 


(H 


tIJ 


Oi 


Oi OJ 


01 


D| 






Bp^uorjln, 






0| 


14 


c^ 


1 IJ 


IJ 


1( 




1 


Upirteorjio. 


z 


- 




u 


u 


li 11 




St 




L 


k. 



MEASCBEHEIIT OV OLAtS. 



/^^ 



J'l.ATS SH. 




rJLATEJM. 




\^. 



'x^ 



X 



4 



\ 



\ 







mC0ap«r.r.dmr^T 



6.Jikmdm, tcuipt 



r.L.^TJ-: XV. 




4 






^^1' 



'%f 



5, -J- V -/.» 



1 . 



1 



'1: 'iii.' 
•I 1' 



T. 



•I" 

•» 



!! I 






rj'Ai^ - 




Fi^.J 






j^LATEXl 




I'i^.2. 









^ -< 


^, 


. ^ — " 


r», 


n 


1 ' 'R 


1 


1 , V 

1 \^ >^__^ 


_ D 


n 


\ 


F 






1 


1 







Fi^.-i 




''^'t 




Fi^.4. 



Fig. 5. 




Fy.s 



^^ 




^^M^ 



/ 



i 



■— Ik » • •■ ■ • . f . . ■ -»