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Full text of "The cruise of Her Majesty's ship "Challenger" : voyages over many seas, scenes in many lands"

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THE CRUISE 



OF HER MAJESTY'S SHIP 



"CHALLENGE B." 



VOYAGES OVER MANY SEAS, 
SCENES IN MANY LANDS 



\ 






By W> J^Jr SPRY, B.N. 




CAPTAIN GEORGE S. NARE8, R.N., F.R 3. 

WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS, q 




TORONTO: ^ 

BELFORD BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

60 YORK STREET, 

iwmOCOLXXVTI. 



Gr 



Pointed and Bound 

BY 

Hunter, Rose & Co* 

TORONTO. 



Entered according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, by Belford BROTHERS, in 
the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. 



PBEFAOE 



The important objects for which H.M.S. Challenger 
was placed at the disposal of a scientific staff 
under the direction of Professor Sir Charles Wyville 
Thomson, F.R.S., the gratifying results obtained by 
the full investigation of the bed of the ocean, and 
the vast amount of information gathered by visits to 
distant lands very rarely explored, render the cruise 
of the Challenger highly interesting and instructive 
to the British public. 

Under these circumstances, I have been induced 
by numerous friends to revise my daily journals, and 
publish in a concise and readable form a continuous 
narrative of this celebrated voyage. 

In this volume I shall not in any way interfere 
with the scientific results, beyond simply naming 
them in a cursory and general way, leaving to 

a 2 



PBEFACE. 



Professor Thomson the task of dealing with these 
subjects, and the application of the information 
obtained to the furtherance of physical knowledge. 

The description of places visited is given in the 
way that I have viewed them, and under the im- 
pressions that filled my mind at the time ; but as the 
geographical aspects of foreign scenes must be similar 
by whomsoever observed, it is scarcely possible to 
avoid occasionally using descriptions almost identical 
with those published on the subject by previous 
visitors. 

The chief interest connected with this narrative 
will be the vast extent traversed in the pursuit of 
knowledge, which admits of the combination in this 
volume of the general outline of the manners and 
customs of nations and tribes rarely visited, and 
descriptions of scenery under every condition of 
temperature, from the fiery Tropics to the ice-bound 
Antarctic regions : thus combining in the work a 
fund of information that has been brought together 
through special aid of the Government, granted to 
the Committee of the Royal Society, and now dedi- 
cated to the public use. 

I now respectfully present the narrative of the 



PliEFACE. 



cruise of the Challenger to my readers, in the hope 
that, while affording information and instruction, it 
will prove of sufficient interest to reward its perusal 
with some pleasantly passed hours. 

WILLIAM J. J. BPRY. 



Devonport, 

December 1876. 



CONTENTS. 



PAG1 

INTEODUCTION 1 



CHAPTER I. 

ENGLAND TO LISBON AND GIBRALTAR. 

H.M.S. Challenger commissioned at Sheerness — Objects of the 
voyage— Equipment and fittings — Leave Sheerness — The 
stormy passage — Arrive at Portsmouth — Commencement of 
the voyage — Leaving England — Weather in the Channel — 
Across the Bay of Biscay — First sounding and dredging — 
The results— Land in sight— Enter the Tagus — Anchor off 
the city of Lisbon — Visit the shore — Sight-seeing — Church at 
Belem — Churches, gardens, and palaces — Early history of 
Portugal — Visit of King Luiz to the Challenger — Leave 
Lisbon — Dredging off Cape St. Vincent — First trial with the 
trawl — Venus's flower-baskets — Description — Trawling near 
Gibraltar — Obtain specimens of the Umbellularia— Their 
description — Pass Cape Trafalgar— Bock of Gibraltar in 
sight — Arrive, and secure alongside the mole — Sights in 
Gibraltar — Galleries through the rocks — Stalactite caves — 
Gibraltar as a military fortress — Ceremony of opening and 
closing the gates — The naval establishment — The town — Its 
churches— Garrison library — The Alameda— Neutral Ground 
— Campa and San Roque 

CHAPTER H. 

GIBRALTAR TO MADEIRA AND TENERIFFE (CANARY ISLANDS). 

Leave Gibraltar — Daily sounding and trawling— Sight Porto Santo 
— Its discovery and early history — Arrive and anchor in 
Funchal Bay, Madeira— Its early history — First impres- 



viii CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

sions — The gardens, buildings, conveyances, dress — Leave 
Madeira — Pass the Desertas — Cape Anaga, Teneriffe, sighted — 
The Peak — Anchor off Santa Cruz — The buildings and 
streets — Scenery in the country — Ascent of the Peak — 
Cruising amongst the group — Sounding and dredging— Ball 
at the English Consulate — Naval incidents connected with 
Teneriffe 25 

CHAPTER III. 

TENERIFFE (CANARY ISLANDS) TO ST. THOMAS (WEST INDIES). 

Leaving Teneriffe — Sight of the Peak — Commence section across 
the Atlantic — Daily soundings and trawlings — The results — 
Configuration of the bottom — In the Tropics — The officers of 
the ship — Life on board — Our daily doings — Description of 
the mode of sounding — The apparatus and appliances used — 
Taking serial temperatures — Dredging and trawling— Island 
of Sombrero in sight — Arrive and anchor at St. Thomas . . 36 

CHAPTER IV. 

ST. THOMAS (WEST INDIES) TO BERMUDA AND HALIFAX (NOVA SCOTIA), 
AND BACK TO BERMUDA. 

At St, Thomas — The town of Charlotte Amalia — Importance of 
the island— English vessel in distress — Tow her into port — 
Leave St. Thomas — The first death on board — Soundings — 
Burial at sea, — Bermuda in sight — Sounding round the reefs — 
St. George's — The Narrows — Pretty scenery — Reach the 
anchorage in Grassy Bay — The naval yard — Historical sketch 
of the Bermudas — Geological and botanical researches — Leave 
Bermuda — Soundings — The Gulf Stream — Long Island to 
Nova Scotia — In Halifax Harbour — The city and its suburbs 
— Gold and coal mines — Halifax to Bermuda— In the Camber 
— The sand glacier — The caves . 59 

CHAPTER V. 

BERMUDA TO THE AZORES, CAPE DE VERDE, ST. PAUL'S ROCKS, 
FERNANDO NOItONHA, BAHIA, TRISTAN D'ACUNHA, AND THE CAPE 
OF GOOD HOPE. 

Leave Bermuda — Sounding round the reefs — Commence another 
section across the Atlantic to the Azores — Anchor off Horta, 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Fayal — Fayal to St. Michael's — The gardens Foliage- 
Scenery — Lake of the Seven Cities — Public buildings and 
streets — Leave the Azores — Arrive at Madeira — Short stay 
there in consequence of epidemic — Section commenced across 
the Atlantic to the Coast of Africa — Palma, one of the Canary 
Islands, in sight — Sounding and dredging — Cape de Verde 
Islands in sight— Anchor off Porto Grande — Survey the 
anchorage — The town and adjacent scenery — Leave for 
Santiago — Anchor off Porto Praya — The town — Its natives — 
Dredging for pink coral — Proceed towards the African coast — 
Course altered for St. Paul's Eocks — The rocks in sight — 
Made fast by a hawser — Crossing the Line — The old customs 
— The southern constellations — Arrive at Fernando Noronha 
— Disappointment at not being able to land for collecting- 
specimens — Sounding and dredging — Cape Antonio in sight 
— Anchor off Bahia — The city — Excursions in the country — 
Brazilian scenery — Foliage and vegetable products — Case of 
yellow fever — Leave Bahia — Section commenced to Cape of 
Good Hope — Island of Trinidad — Passage across the South 
Atlantic — The drift nets — Incidents of the voyage — Sea-birds 
— The soundings — Pick up the westerlies — Tristan d'Acunha 
in sight — The settlement of Edinburgh — Squally weather — 
Visit the Inaccessible Island — The Brothers Stoltenhoff: 
their story — Table Mountain, Cape of Good Hope, in sight 
— Anchor in Simon's Bay — Placed in quarantine .... 78 



CHAPTER VI. 

simon's bay (cape of good hope) to marion and crozet islands, 
TO KERGUELEN land and the heard islands, the antarctic 

REGIONS, AND TO MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA). 

Simon's Town — Visit to Cape Town — Discovery of diamonds — 
From Simon's Bay to Table Bay, round the Cape of Storms — 
Anchor in Table Bay — The Challenger's ball — Return ball by 
the residents — Return to Simon's Bay — Leave the Cape — The 
Agulhas current — The " roaring forties " — Christmas Day 
1873— Sight and land on Marion Island — Vast numbers of 
albatross and other sea-birds — Prince Edward's Island— Sight 
the Crozet Islands — Passage to Kerguelen Land — Arrival at 
and description of the island — Leave Christmas Harbour — 
The scenery — Anchor in Betsy Cove — From thence to Royal 
Sound — Three Island Bay — Greenland Harbour — Cascade 



CONTENTS. 



Eeach — Hopeful Bay — Ehodes Harbour The seal fisheries — 
Return to Christmas Harbour — Penguin rookeries — The Arch 
Rock — Leaving Kerguelen for the south— The Heard Islands 
— Description of the land — Leave the Heard Islands — The 
first Antarctic iceberg — In the icy regions — The icebergs and 
pack-ice— Birds— Cross the Antarctic Circle — Early explorers 
of these inhospitable regions— Wilkes' Termination Land— 
The Aurora Australis — An Antarctic gale — Enter the pack — 
No signs of land — Leave the pack — Dredging — A second 
gale — Shape our course for Australia — Trawling — The weather 
— The last iceberg — Passage to Australia — Land in sight — 
Arrive and anchor in Hobson's Bay, Victoria Ill 

CHAPTER VII. 

MELBOURNE (VICTORIA) TO SYDNEY (NEW SOUTH WALES) AND WELINGTON 
(NEW ZEALAND). 

Melbourne— The city and suburbs — Visit to Ballarat— The city 
— Its gold mines — Melbourne to Sydney — First sight of 
Sydney Heads — Arrive at Sydney, New South Wales — Anchor 
in Farm Cove — Sydney Harbour — Picnic on Mount Victoria — 
Zigzag on the Great Western Railway — The Blue Mountains, 
and Valley of the Nepean — The city — Paramatta River — 
Rhodes — The dredging picnic — Entertainments during our 
stay — Early history of the colony — Leave Sydney — The stormy 
weather — Return and anchor in Watson's Bay — Sydney to 
New Zealand — Daily soundings — Rough weather — Anchor for 
shelter in Port Hardy and Queen Charlotte Sound — Man 
washed overboard and drowned — Sight Palliser Heads — 
Anchor off Wellington— Port Nicholson. 147 

CHAPTER VIII. 

WELLINGTON (NEW ZEALAND) TO FRIENDLY AND FIJI ISLANDS, TO 
THE NEW HEBRIDES GROUP, AND TO SOMERSET, CAPE YORK (QUEENS- 
LAND, AUSTRALIA). 

At Wellington — Results of the soundings — Formation of the 
bottom — Description of the city— Australia and New Zealand 
— Leave Wellington — Squally weather— Sight the Kermadec 
Islands— Sounding and trawling— The Friendly Islands — Eoa 
— Tongatabu — Anchor off Nukalofa — Tonga — The village: 
its natives — Tapa : its manufacture— Captain Croker's attack 
on Bea, and the result— Foliage and scenery— Leave Tonga- 



CONTENTS. xi 



tabu— Passage to Fiji— Off Matuki— Anchor in Ngola Bay, 
Kandavu — Kandavn to Levuka— Anchor off Levuka— Ecturn 
to Kandavu — Natives of the New Hebrides on board for 
passage to Api— Survey Ngola Bay— The scenery— Tattooing — 
Meke Meke— Leave Fiji for the New Hebrides — Off Api — The 
natives land — The landing, and what was seen — Sounding and 
dredging — On our way again— In the Coral Sea— Off the 
Louisiade Archipelago — Baine Island — The Barrier Beefs — 
Anchor off Bird Island — Arrive at Somerset, Cape York, 
Queensland 178 

CHAPTEB IX. 

CAPE YORK (AUSTRALIA) TO THE ARRU AND KII ISLANDS, TO BANDA, 
AMBOYNA, AND TERNATE (MOLUCCA ISLANDS). 

The settlement at Cape York — The aboriginal Australians — Foliage 
and birds— Leave Somerset— Pass through Endeavour Straits 
— Off Hammond Island — Ceremonies relating to the dead — 
Australian graves— Off Booby Island— The post-office — 
Passage to the Arru Islands — Anchor off Dobbo— Visit of the 
Dutch officials — The settlement — Its natives— Forest scenery 
— Birds of paradise — Leave Dobbo— Passage to the Kii 
Islands — Anchor off Kii Doulan — The forests — Beautiful 
birds and insects — Boat-building — The village and natives — 
Leave the Kii Islands — Pretty scenery — The Molucca Islands 
— Anchor off Banda — Gunong Api — Banda Neira — Nutmeg 
plantation — Animals and birds found — Banda to Amboyna — 
At Amboyna — The city — Get a supply of coal — Chinese burial- 
places — The harbour — Arrival of the mail steamer — Leave 
Amboyna — Cross the Equator (second time) — Pass the islands 
of Bachian and Tawali — Tidore and Ternate in sight— The 
charming scenery — Anchor off Ternate — The village— Club- 
house— Sultan's palace — Mohammedan mosque — Visit the 
spice plantations — Trees and fruits— Ball at Government 
House 202 

CHAPTER X. 

TERNATE (MOLUCCA ISLANDS) TO SAMBOANGA, ILOILO, AND MANILLA 
(PHILIPPINE ISLANDS), AND TO HONG KONG (CHINA). 

Leave Ternate — Mindanao, Philippine Islands, in sight— Anchor off 
Samboanga — The village — Hospitality of the Spanish officials 



xii CONTENTS. 



PAGK 

— Dance of the Malagahi Indians — Leave Mindanao, and anchor 
off Panay — The town of Iloilo — Leave for Luzon — Anchor 
in Manilla Harbour — The city — Cigar factories, &c. — Leave 
Manilla — Passage to Hong Kong, China — Arrive and anchor 
in Hong Kong Harbour — The city — Its residents, shops, 
theatres— Their temples and religion— Joss, the mystery — 
Captain Nares leaves for England to take the Arctic com- 
mand — Loss to the expedition by his leaving — Arrival of the 
Englishman 228 



CHAPTEE XI. 

HONG KONG (CKINA) TO MANILLA, ZEBU, CAMIGUTN, AND SAMBOANGA 
(PHILIPPINE ISLANDS), AND TO HUMBOLDT BAY (NEW GUINEA). 

Leave Hong Kong — Passage to Manilla— Sight a derelict — Tow 
her into Manilla — Scenery on the road and river — Leave 
Manilla — Passage through San Bernadino Straits — Numerous 
islands in sight — Arrive at Zebu— The town — Dredging for 
Euplectellas off the Island of Mactan — Oar success — Leave 
Zebu — Passage to Camiguin— The new volcano— Its effect on 
the surrounding country — Anchor off the village of Abajo — 
Proceed along the West Coast — Anchor off Samboanga — The 
scenery — Visit the Island of Basilan — Get a supply of coal — 
Leave the Philippine Islands— A course shaped for Greenwich 
Island — New route to and from Australia to China — Unfavour- 
able weather — Sounding and dredging — Cross the Equator 
(third time)— Course altered for New Guinea — Land in sight 
— The scenery and prospects of exploration — Anchor in 
Humboldt Bay, New Guinea 246 



CHAPTEE XII. 

HUMBOLDT BAY (NEW GUINEA) TO NABES HARBOUR (ADMIRALTY ISLANDS) 
AND TO YOKOHAMA (JAPAN). 

In Humboldt Bay — Natives alongside — Impressive appearance of 
the savages— Attempted landing frustrated — Hostility of the 
natives— Their villages, canoes, &c. — Leave the coast of 
New Guinea — Admiralty Islands in sight — Anchor in Nares 
Harbour — Natives alongside — Bartering — Landing at Wild 
Island — The natives at home— Description of the islands — 
Survey of the group— Leave the Admiralty Islands — Course 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

shaped for the Ladrone Islands — Deepest sounding for the 
cruise— Unsuccessful in reaching either Ladrone or Caroline 
Islands— The Japan Islands in sight— Enter the Bay of Yedo 
—Beautiful scenes— Anchor off Yokohama 261 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

JAPAN. 

Yokohama— The cemetery— Walks in the environs— "Visit Tokio 
(or Yedo), the eastern capital — Kail way from Yokohama to 
Yedo — Jinirikisha — Sojourn at Shiba — The suburbs of Yedo 
— The streets and people — "Curio" shops — Lacquer- ware — 
Street scenes — The great temple of Asakusa — Japanese 
wrestlers — Leave Yokohama for Yokosuka— The Imperial 
Arsenal — Challenger in dock — Secluded temple near Yokosuka 
— Will Adams and wife's tomb — Visit Kamakura — The shrine 
of Daibutsu, the great god of Japan — The tea-houses— Leave 
for Yokohama — Yokohama to Kobe — The rough passage — Take 
shelter in Oosima — Arrive at Kobe — Anchor in Osaka Bay — 
Hiogo, Kobe, and Osaka — Kailway to Osaka — Its people and 
streets— The great temple of Tonagee — Cruise in the inland 
sea — The fine and picturesque scenery — Eeturn to Kobe — 
Passage to Yokohama— Dredging picnic in Yedo Bay — The 
results 276 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

JAPAN TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Leave Yokohama — Soundings of the U.S. ship Tuscarora — Our 
course — Passing the meridian of 180° — Two Sundays in one 
week — Sandwich Islands in sight — Anchor in Honolulu 
Harbour — The city — Its streets — Business habits — American 
influence — The King — Hawaiian Government — Parliament — 
Taxation — The Nuanu Valley — Pretty scenes— Villa and other 
residences — The Pali — Horsemanship — Visit to the fish- 
market — The natives — Public buildings — Parliament House 
— Hawaiian Hotel — The churches — Queen's Hospital— Court- 
house — Iolani Palace — Levee at the Palace — King Kalakua 
and suite visit the Challenger — Leave the Island of Oahu 
— Squally passage to Hawaii — Arrive and anchor in Hilo 
Bay — Volcanoes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa — The charm- 
ing scenery — The Eainbow Falls — Bathing-places — Visit to° 



CONTENTS. 



the crater of Kilauea — Scenes on the road — The Halfway 
House — Eeach the crater — The first sight of the great cauldron 
— The Volcano Hotel — Mauna Loa — Eeturn to Hilo . . . 304 

CHAPTER XV. 

SANDWICH ISLANDS TO SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

Leave Hawaii, Sandwich Islands — Passage to the Society Islands 
— Sounding and trawling — Cross the Equator (fourth time) — 
Death of Dr. von Willemoes-Suhm — Biographical sketch — 
Burial at sea — Tahiti in sight — Sounding and dredging outside 
the reefs — Anchor in Papeite Harbour— The town and country 
— Streets and natives — Challenger's band on shore — Queen 
Pomare and suite's visit to the Challenger — Afternoon dance — 
Ride to Point Venus — The Broom Road — Charming scenes — 
Natives met on the road — Tamarind-tree at Point Venus — 
Waterfall— Hill fort of Fatauna— Fruits and plants— Along- 
side Fare Ute — Coaling from the French depot — A day 
outside the reefs— Dredging— The company on board— Swing 
ship 326 

CHAPTER XVI. 

SOCIETY ISLANDS TO JUAN FERNANDEZ AND VALPARAISO (CHILl). 

Leave Tahiti — Parting scenes — Westerly winds— Sounding and 
trawling — Juan Fernandez in sight — Picturesque scenery — 
Robinson Crusoe — Anchor in Cumberland Bay — The tablet at 
Crusoe's look-out— The settlement, past and present — Leave 
Juan Fernandez — The run to Valparaiso — Arrival, and anchor 
off the city — The city and harbour— Swinging ship for mag- 
netic corrections 336 

CHAPTER XVII. 

VALPARAISO, THROUGH THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN. 

Leave Valparaiso — Sight Juan Fernandez — Sounding and 
dredging — Strong head-winds — Fall in with the westerlies — 
Sight Cape Gallagos and Cape Tres Montes — Anchor in Port 
Otway — The Entrance Islands— Last day of 1875 — Leave Port 
Otway — Passing through the Messier Channel — Anchor in 
Hale Cove — The scenery — Foliage — Leave Hale Cove— Con- 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



timiance of passage through the Messier Channel — Stop and 
trawl off Middle Island — The pretty scenery — Anchor in Gray 
Harbour — The excursions — Grass and trees on fire — The 
grand effect at night — Leave Gray Harbour — Messier Channel 
and Indian Keach — The English Narrows — Mid-Channel 
Island— The fine scenery — Dredging off Saumaurez Island — 
Anchor in Port Grappler — The derelict Karnack — Weather 
during our stay — Leave Port Grappler — Pass through Wide 
Channel — Dredging, &c. — Anchor in Tom Bay— The excur- 
sionists — Squally weather — Drag our anchors — Leave Tom 
Bay — Conception Channel — Proposed survey in the Trinidad 
Channel frustrated through the weather — Pass through the 
Conception Channel — Soundings, &c, in the Innocent 
Channel — The fine scenery — Anchor in Puerto Bueno Bay — 
Pretty scenes — The weather — Leaving Puerto Bueno Bay — 
The scenery and weather in passing through Sarmiento 
Channel— Sounding and dredging — The Zach Peninsula— 
Anchor in Isthmus Bay — Leave Isthmus Bay— Passing 
through Mayne Channel and Smyth's Channel — The fine 
scenery— Enter the Straits of Magellan — Cape Pillar in sight 
— Enter the picturesque port of Churruca — The Glaciers — 
Leave Port Churruca — Pass through Crooked and English 
Beaches — Off Fortescue Bay — The Fuegians — Off Cape 
Froward — Anchor in Port Famine — The old Spanish settle- 
ment in 1581 — The Chilian settlement of 1843— Leave Port 
Famine and arrive at Sandy Point — The Chilian settlement- 
Coal mines and gold workings — Leave Sandy Point and reach 
the anchorage off Elizabeth Island — Exploring parties — 
Finding fossil bones — Leave Elizabeth Island — Passing 
through the Second and First Narrows — Off Gregory Bay — 
Pass the Meridian of Cape Horn — Again in the Atlantic— Pass 
Cape Virgin— Sounding and trawling 346 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CAPE VIRGIN TO FALKLAND ISLANDS AND MONTE VIDEO. 

Our first haul in the Atlantic— The Jason Islands — Eddystone 
Eock— Cape Pembroke, Falkland Islands, in sight — Enter Port 
William— Anchor off Stanley — The settlement — Climate — 
Death of an able seaman by drowning — Leave for Port Louis 
— Anchor in Berkley Bay — Funeral of our late shipmate — 
Beturn to Stanley — The stream of stones— Leaving the 



xvi CONTENTS. 



Falklands — Stormy weather — Sounding and trawling— Sight 
the land — Off Lobos Island— Pass Maldonado Point — Steam- 
ing np the Eio de la Plata — Anchor off Monte Video — The 
city and suburbs 364 

CHAPTEK XIX. 

MONTE VIDEO TO ASCENSION AND THE CAPE DE VERDE ISLANDS. 

Leave Monte Video — Swinging ship — Sounding and dredging in 
the Eiver La Plata— A Pampara off the coast— Enter the cold 
current — Its course — Completion of the voyage round the 
world — What has been accomplished — Course shaped for 
Ascension — South-east trades — Arrive at Ascension — The 
garrison — George Town — Scenery — The Green Mountain — 
Ascension turtle — Leave Ascension — Sounding — Cross the 
Equator for the sixth time — The oppressive region of equa- 
torial calms — Steaming through the Tropics — Sight the Cape 
de Verde Islands— Arrive at Santiago — Anchor off Porto 
Praya — Leave for St. Vincent— Anchor in Porto Grande — 
Strong trade- winds 372 

CHAPTEE XX. 

HOMEWARD BOUND. 

Leave St. Vincent — Head- winds and disagreeable weather — Sight 
the coast of Spain — Anchor in Vigo Bay — The city— Channel 
fleet — Leave for England — Off Cape Finisterre — Favourable 
run across the Bay of Biscay — The English Channel — The 
coast of England — Anchor at Spithead (Portsmouth) — Arrive 
at Sheerness — Eetrospect — Pay off at Chatham— Parting — At 
home— The end 381 



APPENDIX 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

View of St. Thomas, West Indies . . . Frontispiece. 

Captain George S. N ares, R.N., F.R.S. . . . Title-page 

The City of Lisbon, from the Tagus 7 

Chemical Laboratory on Board the Challenger . . 9 

Naturalists' Work-room on Board the Challenger . . 10 

Sounding and Dredging Apparatus ] 2 

The King of Portugal on Board the Challenger To face 16 

Plaza Constitucion, Santa Cruz, Teneriffe ... 25 

Sounding Accumulator 43 

" Hydra" Sounding Machine 44 

"Baillie" Sounding Machine 45 

Valve Sounding Lead 46 

Slip Water Bottle 47 

" Buchanan's" Deep sea Water Bottle .... 49 

" Miller-Casella" Deep-Sea Thermometer ... 50 

Cup-lead 53 

Deep-Sea Dredge 54 

Dredging Accumulator 55 

Camber and Floating Dock, Bermuda 59 

Oceanic Sections (St. Thomas to Bermuda — Bermuda ) m * a a 
v \ J o face 68 

to New York — Halifax to Bermuda) . . ) 

Natives of Santiago, Cape de Verde Islands ... 78 

St. Paul's Rocks, North Atlantic 85 

St. Paul's Rocks, from the East To face 86 

Peak of Fernando Noronha, South Atlantic ... 88 

View of Tristan d'Acunha 110 

Table Mountain, Cape of Good Hope Ill 



XV111 



ILLUSTBATIONS. 



Christmas Harbour, Kerguelen Land 

The Challenger amongst the Ice in the Antarctic \ 

Eegions ( 

Dredging on the Paramatta River, Sydney . . 
Sydney, from Pyrmont, Darling Harbour . . 
Natives op Tongatabu, Friendly Islands 
Street Architecture, Dobbo, Arru Islands . 
Natives of the Philippine Islands .... 
Indian Village on the Banks op the River Pasig, I 

Manilla f 

The Landing-place on Wild Island (Admiralty ) 

Islands) ) 

Village in Humboldt Bay, New Guinea . 

Village in Wild Island, Nares Harbour, Admiralty \ 

Islands f 

Ornaments of Dress, and Weapons, used by the ] 

Natives of New Guinea and the Admiralty > 

Islands j 

Tomb of Will Adams and his Wife, near Yoko- ) 

suka, Japan f 

Women on Horseback, Honolulu, Sandwich Islands 
Native Bamboo House, Tahiti, Society Islands . 
Tamarind Tree at Point Venus, Tahiti, Society ) 

Islands f 

Customs Guard House, Valparaiso, Chili 

The Challenger in Cumberland Bay, Juan Fer 

nandez 

Mountains and Glaciers in Magellan Straits . 

Cape Froward, Straits of Magellan 

The City of Monte Video, looking towards the ) 

Harbour ( 



To/ace 



To/ace 



To/ace 



PAGE 

124 
146 

147 

160 
178 

202 
228 

246 

261 

262 
269 

271 

276 



. 


304 


. 


326 


To face 


333 


. 


336 


To face 


339 


. # 


346 




364 



372 



CEUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Not many years ago, in fact within the memory of 
the present generation, our knowledge of anything 
below the ocean's surface was extremely indefinite 
and obscure. It was even asserted that the specific 
gravity of the water at considerable depths would be 
so great that any heavy weight thrown into the sea 
must be arrested, and remain suspended for ever. It 
was argued that no animal life could possibly exist in 
the great depths of the ocean ; and only some fifteen 
years ago doubts were entertained whether some star- 
fish brought up by a line from 1200 fathoms had not 
attached themselves to the line on its downward or 
upward course, and the very nature and habits of 
the animal were so modified as to suit this view. 

There can be no doubt that the invention of ocean 
telegraphy first stimulated the great desire as well as 
the necessity for a knowledge of the contour of the 
bed of the ocean. To insure success it was essential 
to know the configuration and the soundings of 

B 



CBUTSE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



the sea, the shape and character of its bed, the 
nature of the creatures and plants that haunt its 
depths, the force and set of its currents, the figure 
and dimensions of the great ocean basins, and the 
temperature of the water at various depths. 

Interesting as were the results of the various early 
sounding expeditions, it was not until 1868 that any- 
thing like a systematic examination of the ocean's 
bed was undertaken in connection with natural 
history and physical geography. In that year the 
Royal Society succeeded in getting H.M.S. Lightning 
placed at their disposal for some six weeks ; and 
though for so brief a period, the results were such as 
to give great encouragement for further investiga- 
tion. Although no great depth of water was obtained 
in sounding, dredging was effected in 650 fathoms, 
a greater depth than had hitherto been attempted. 
The next year (1869) the Council of the Royal 
Society were successful in securing H.M.S. Porcupine, 
which was fitted out for a more extended explora- 
tion of the deep sea ; and the experience of the pre- 
vious year was brought to bear on the improvement 
of the means for the purpose in view. 

The first cruise was between the latitudes of Cape 
Clear and Gal way, on the west coast of Ireland, where 
a series of soundings and dredgings were effected in 
1500 fathoms (more than double that of the previous 
year), and many creatures of great interest obtained. 

The second part of this cruise extended to the 



INTRODUCTION. 



south and west coast of Ireland, where a depth of 
2400 fathoms was reached with successful results; 
and the third part extended over some portion of the 
survey of the previous year (between the coast of 
Scotland and the Faroe Islands). On the termination 
of this voyage (taking into account the time occupied 
and the extent of the investigations), the cruise of 
the Porcupine was considered to have done more to 
advance our knowledge of the physical condition of 
the ocean than had been achieved by any former 
expedition that ever left our shores. 

In 1870 the Porcupine was again engaged in the 
service of the Council of the Royal Society, and pro- 
ceeded at first in a south-westerly direction towards 
the farthest point to which the survey extended the 
year before, and afterwards to the coast of Portugal, 
and to Gibraltar, where a vast quantity of interesting 
and important data was obtained. In addition to 
the sounding and dredging, thermometric observa- 
tions were constantly taken, proving even more 
successful than those obtained during the previous 
voyages. The results showed unsuspected variations 
in the deep-sea temperature, the existence of a 
general oceanic circulation, and the presence of life 
at the greatest depths. The scientific and practical 
importance of the facts revealed by these short and 
imperfect inquiries was such as to render their con- 
tinuance a matter of national concern : so much so 
that the Council of the Royal Society brought before 

b 2 



CBULSE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



the Government a project for extended investigation, 
which was eventually approved of, and a committee 
appointed to prepare the plans of operation. 

It was suggested that a vessel should be fitted out 
for a three or four years' cruise, during which time 
sounding, dredging, thermometric observation, and 
chemical examination of sea-water should be carried 
on continuously, with a view to a more perfect 
knowledge of the physical and biological conditions 
of the great ocean basins, of the direction and 
velocity of the great drifts and currents, of the 
faunae of the deep water, and of the zoology and 
botany of those portions of the globe which are at 
present comparatively unknown. 

II. M.S. Challenger, a spar-decked corvette of 2000 
tons displacement and 400 horse-power, was se- 
lected to carry out these recommendations ; and 
the necessary alterations to fit her for the service 
on which she was to be employed were made in the 
dockyard at Sheerness. With the exception of two 
64-pounders, all the guns on the main deck were re- 
moved, so as to obtain the required accommodation. 
In addition to cabins for the Captain, Commander, 
and Director of the Scientific Staff, there were 
spacious compartments for surveying operations and 
analysing purposes, a laboratory for the chemist, and 
a studio for the photographer, all fitted with every 
appliance which skill and science could suggest. On 
the upper deck stood an 18-horse double-cylinder 



INTBODUCTION. 



engine, with shafting and drums for heaving in 
the dredging and sounding-lines, extending entirely 
across the ship ; and on the after-part of the deck, be- 
sides the usual standard and other compasses, was the 
Fox dipping-circle, with which it was intended to make 
an extensive daily series of magnetic observations. 

From the Hydrographic Department at the Ad- 
miralty a code of instructions was issued, regulating 
the daily routine to be carried out whenever the 
weather and other circumstances permitted. The 
Challenger, after visiting Lisbon, Gibraltar, and 
Madeira, was to proceed across the Atlantic, through 
the trade- wind region, to the Virgin Islands ; thence 
to Bermuda, onward to the coast of North America ; 
and eastward again to the Azores, and thence to 
the Canaries, Cape de Yerde, and to the equatorial 
regions — which were to be thoroughly investigated 
— westward to St. Paul's Rocks, Fernando de No- 
ronha, and to the coast of Brazil. After leaving 
Bahia, it was desirable that the island of Trinidad, 
Martin Vaz, and Tristan d'Acunha should be visited 
on the passage across the South Atlantic to the Cape 
of Good Hope, which it was expected would be 
reached at the close of 1873. 

From the Cape it was proposed to examine the 
small groups of islands of Marion and Crozet, and to 
visit Kerguelen Land; from which the expedition 
was directed to proceed as far south as safety would 
permit in the neighbourhood of the Antarctic ice- 



CRUISE OF H.MS. CHALLENGER. 



barrier, and after a short survey to sail for Melbourne, 
Sydney, and the ports of New Zealand. If time and 
other circumstances would permit, it was intended 
again to proceed south, for the purpose of visiting the 
small islands of Campbell, Macquarie, Auckland, &c; 
then again north, sailing to Friendly and Fiji Islands, 
onward through the Coral Sea ; visiting the south 
coast of New Guinea, passing Torres Straits and the 
Arafura Sea, calling at Timor and Macassar, thence 
shaping our course through the Celebes and Sulu 
Seas to Manilla, which would probably be reached in 
November 1874. 

From Manilla the Challenger was directed to sail 
eastward into the Pacific, calling at those little-fre- 
quented regions, the Pelew Islands, New Britain, New 
Ireland, and the Solomon Group, en route for Japan. 

After leaving Japan, a course was to be taken 
across the Northern Pacific to Vancouver's Island, and 
thence southward through the eastern trough of the 
great ocean to Valparaiso, calling at Easter Island 
and Sala y Gomez. On leaving Valparaiso, it was 
proposed to return to the Atlantic through the 
Straits of Magellan, and by Pio Janeiro and St. 
Helena to England, which would probably be reached 
early in 1876. The globe will thus have been cir- 
cumnavigated, and the great oceans traversed from 
north to south, and from east to west. How far this 
programme was carried out will be seen by the 
following chapters. 




THE CITY OF LISBON, FROM THE TAGUS. 



CHAPTER I. 

England to Lisbon and Gibraltar. 

H.MS. Challenger commissioned at Sheerness — Objects of the voyage 
—Equipment and fittings— Leave Sheerness— The stormy pass- 
age — Arrive at Portsmouth— Commencement of the voyage — 
Leaving England — Weather in the Channel — Across the Bay of 
Biscay— First sounding and dredging — The results — Land in 
sight — Enter the Tagus — Anchor off the city of Lisbon — Visit 
the shore — Sight-seeing — Church at Belem — Churches, gardens, 
and palaces — Early history of Portugal — Visit of King Luiz to the 
Challenger— Leave Lisbon — Dredging off Cape St. Vincent — -First 
trial with the trawl — Venus's flower-baskets — Description — Trawl- 
ing near Gibraltar — Obtain specimens of the Umbellularia — Their 
description — Pass Cape Trafalgar— Kock of Gibraltar in sight — 
Arrive, and secure alongside the mole — Sights of Gibraltar — 
Galleries through the rocks — Stalactite caves — Gibraltar as a 
military fortress — Ceremony of opening and closing the gates — 
The naval establishment — The town — Its churches — Garrison 
library — The Alameda — Neutral Ground — Campa and San Boque. 

H.M.S. Challexger was placed in commission at 
Sheerness, on the 15th November 1872, for the 



CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 



purpose of proceeding upon a voyage of scientific 
discovery and deep-sea exploration in the Atlantic, 
Indian, and Pacific Oceans, descending into the 
Southern or Antarctic Ocean as far as the ice would 
permit. For some months previous to the date of 
her commission she had been in the hands of the 
dockyard officials, undergoing great changes both 
in equipment and internal accommodation, so as to 
fit her with every possible means for furthering the 
great work in hand. For the use of the scientific 
staff, of which Professor Wyville Thomson was the 
director, there was built an ample and compact 
work-room, containing numerous drawers and recep- 
tacles fitted with bottles and jars for holding spe- 
cimens of organic ocean life, and a well-stocked 
library of professional books in various languages. 

Here also were provided numerous instruments for 
dissection and microscopic observation, long tubes for 
preserving rare specimens, harpoons, and many in- 
genious devices for entrapping and securing larger 
game than the dredge can possibly furnish. 

On the opposite side of the deck, and somewhat 
farther forward, was placed the chemical laboratory 
for the purpose of analysing and testing the sea- 
water obtained from the different depths : here were 
ranged retorts, stills, tubes of all sizes, hydrometers, 
thermometers, blow-pipes — in fact, all the usual 
paraphernalia found in laboratories ; chemicals in 
drawers, and jars in racks ; all secured from accideW 



EQUIPMENTS ON BO AMD. 



from the rolling of the ship by many ingenious 
devices. 

The photographic quarters faced the laboratory, 
and consisted of a dark room and studio, where were 
ranged the battles, chemicals, and apparatus required 
by the operator. 




CHEMICAL LABORATORY ON BOARD THE CHALLENGER. 



A large aquarium was near at hand ; while the 
water bottles and sounding-machines were secured 
close by in racks against the ship's side. 

On large reels were coils of telegraph insulated 
wire, for the purpose of obtaining the temperature 
at different depths by galvanic influence. 



10 



CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



Secondly, but not less in importance to the duties of 
the scientific staff, were those of the naval surveying 
officers, at the head of whom was Captain Gr. S. Nares, 
distinguished as a surveyor for years past. For the 
use of the officers under his direction there was, oppo- 
site the naturalists' department, a spacious chart-room, 
for the purpose of laying down surveys and cori- 




NATURALISTS' WORK-ROOM ON BOARD THE CHALLENGER. 



structing diagrams and sections of the ocean's bed 
over which the vessel travelled on her voyage round 
the world. 

The direction of this great expedition was given 
into hands thoroughly well qualified for the respon- 
sibilities imposed upon them. 

The naval officers were selected, for some special 



LEAVING ENGLAND. 11 



acquirements, by the Admiralty ; and the staff of 
civilian naturalists and physicists were nominated by 
a specially appointed committee of the Royal Society, 
who also furnished instructions and suggestions for 
the work. 

On the 7th December, 1872, after having swung 
ship for adjustment of compasses and taking magnetic 
observations, H.M.S. Challenger left Sheerness, en- 
countering very stormy weather on her passage to 
Portsmouth, which was not reached until the 11th; 
here a fortnight was spent completing supplies. 
On the 21st December all was pronounced ready, 
and the most important surveying expedition which 
had ever sailed from any country left Portsmouth 
Harbour. As the day advanced, in our progress 
down Channel, we fell in with miserable, stormy 
weather, which was our accompaniment for some 
time. Thus we left our native shores. The sen- 
sations were indeed painful ; parting from home, 
with all its pleasing associations, and cherished re- 
collections, had a powerful influence, and gave rise 
to melancholy impressions, happily relieved by the 
comforting hope that we should one day be permitted 
to return to all those so dear to us. 

The weather continuing of the same wild and 
stormy character as we crossed the Bay of Biscay, 
it was not until the 30th December, nine days after 
leaving England, that an opportunity presented it- 
self of commencing scientific work ; when we were 



12 



CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



about 40 miles west of Yigo Bay, our first sound- 
ing was obtained at a depth of 1125 fathoms, the 

Fig.b 

(© 
Fry A 2 




SOUNDING AND DEEDGING APPARATUS. 

Fig. 1. Sounding machines. Fig. 2. Slip water-bottle. Fig. 3. Deep-sea thermometer. 
Fig. 4. The dredge. Fig. 5. Cup sounding lead. 

bottom being Grlobigerina ooze. After this the 
dredge was put over and lowered to the bottom, 



TEE FIRST SOUNDING AND DREDGING. IS 

where it was allowed to remain some hours, the 
vessel slowly drifting onward. On hauling* in it 
was found turned upside-down, and in a lovely 
tangle. A second attempt was made, and a 
few specimens were brought up, one a rare fish, 
and some others of scientific value, enough to 
compensate for the disappointment of the first 
failure. 

Dredging was resumed on the 2nd January, but 
with no better results, for the dredge fouled the 
bottom, and eventually the rope parted and some 
3000 fathoms were lost. 

The next day we steamed in for the land, the 
weather being much finer as we approached the coast, 
passing on our way between the rocky islands of the 
Burlings and Cape Carvoeiro on the main land, sight- 
ing the village of Peniche, with its numerous wind- 
mills and small houses scattered about, which have 
a very pleasing effect. We passed sufficiently near 
to get a capital view of the dark, frowning cliffs 
which sweep round the sandy beach, named by the 
residents the Praira Formosa, or Beautiful Beach, 
from its shelving sands. 

Happily our troubles were over for a time. 
Clearing Cape Roca and the beautiful heights of 
Cintra, we steamed slowly up the Tagus ; past the 
straggling suburb of Lisbon, with its many-coloured 
villas scattered over the slopes ; past the wonderful 
castle of Belem, with its elegant proportions and rich 



14 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



ornaments, recording the skill and the refined taste 
of the old master masons. 

About mid-day we moored in the Tagus, off the 
capital, and all who desired started for a run on 
shore. Some went to Cintra ; while others spent 
the time in seeing what was most interesting in the 
city and its immediate neighbourhood, or in resting 
after the knocking about experienced in our passage 
from England. 

There are many buildings and places of interest to 
be seen ; perhaps the monastery and church of Belem, 
of Gothic-Moresque architecture, is worth mention- 
ing ; no one could pass it without gazing on the 
beautiful porch, which is rich beyond description in 
carvings. Up to the very roof of the church, every 
pinnacle and buttress, and even the flat portions of 
the wall, are encrusted with ornaments. 

On entering, the interior is of a most charming 
nature. There seems no excess of ornament, and 
the delicate shafts of pale grey marble support a 
wonderfully carved and fretted Gothic roof, with all 
the effective airiness of Moorish architecture. Service 
happened to be proceeding during my visit. The 
church was cool and dim, and the clear sweet voices 
of the choristers rose and fell along the aisle, and 
seemed to linger in the roof among the sculptured 
palm-leaves. 

The high altar, with its lighted candles and vases 
of flowers, and the rich robes of the officiating priests, 



INCIDENTS IN THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL. 15 

formed a warm patch of colour strongly in contrast 
with the cold simplicity of the grey marble. 

The monastery of Santa Maria — commonly called 
the monastery of St. Jeronimo, from its having been 
occupied by monks of that order — is in connection 
with the church, and was founded with it in 1499 by 
King Manoel the Fortunate, on the spot where Vasco 
da Gama embarked on his first eastern voyage, in 
commemoration of the discovery of the Indies. 

Churches, gardens, and palaces are scattered about, 
all well worthy of a visit; for there was a time 
when this country was amongst the foremost in the 
world. When in the full tide of its prosperous 
colonisation (a.d. 1500), it was from this port that 
the great Vasco da Gama sailed to the Cape of 
Good Hope, which had been previously discovered 
by Bartholomeu Dias in 1487 ; and on a second 
occasion, visited India. Lope Luares Francisco de 
Almeida followed with ships and men, conquered 
the Maldives, and established factories in Ceylon, 
Malacca, Sumatra, when the greater portion of the 
Eastern Archipelago was in the hands of the Portu- 
guese. Trading relations were opened up with Pegu 
and Burmah, China and Japan, such as have only 
recently been granted us. In fact, no flag but theirs 
could fly along the whole African coast. No ship, 
without their permission, dared anchor in any harbour 
from Gibraltar to Abyssinia, from Ormuz to Siam. 
But in fifty -seven years — that is, at the end of the 



16 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

reign of King John III., in 1557 — began the great 
change. Misgovernment, tyranny, and the work of 
the Jesuits and the Inquisition strangled the rising 
fortune of this little kingdom. From that day up to 
the present, matters have seemingly been going from 
bad to worse, and now, stripped of nearly all its 
colonies, Portugal is indeed but a wreck of what it 
was in the sixteenth century, when England could 
not have disputed the possession of an inch of ground 
with her for a week. England now wears the mantle 
Portugal in her blindness and bigotry let fall. 

Before we left Lisbon, his Majesty King Luiz I., 
who is known to be very fond of natural history, 
&c, did us the honour to visit the ship, and remained 
on board for some considerable time, showing" the 
greatest interest in the captures which had been 
made on the passage from England. 

Other matters were at the same time fully ex- 
plained by Captain Nares and Professor Thomson, 
sufficient to enable him to thoroughly comprehend 
the object of the Expedition, also showing him each 
department in full working order. After luncheon, 
and previous to his departure, a group photograph 
was taken of his Majesty and the officers of the 
Expedition. 

We were detained here until the 12th by a 
heavy gale from the south-west. On its moderating, 
we steamed out of the Tagus, and the next day 
dredged in 470 fathoms off Setubal. The bottom was 



TRAWLING NEAR GIBRALTAR. 17 

of the ordinary grey ooze of the Atlantic. The gale 
had blown over, and we experienced light easterly and 
northerly winds, which enabled us to get a few suc- 
cessful hauls with the dredge, and soundings between 
the coast in the neighbourhood of Lisbon and the 
deep water to the south-west in the direction of 
Madeira : the incline was found to slope gently 
down to 1475 fathoms, with a muddy bottom at 
31 miles distant from the shore. 

When a little to the south of Cape St. Vincent, 
it was proposed to try the common trawl, and one 
with a 15-foot beam was lowered in 600 fathoms; it 
went down all right, and, after being towed for some 
hours, was drawn in just .as easily as the dredge. 

There was no lack of living things, strange-look- 
ing fish with their eyes blown nearly out of their 
head by the expansion of the air in their air-blad- 
ders, while entangled amongst the meshes were many 
starfish and delicate zoophytes shining with a vivid 
phosphorescent light. On another occasion of using 
the trawl, an object of very great interest was 
brought to light, and afforded an opportunity of 
seeing one of those highly prized and beautiful spe- 
cimens of the Euplectella, or Venus's flower-basket, 
alive.* It is an object most beautiful in form and 
structure, consisting of a slightly curved conical tube 
8 or 10 inches in height, contracted beneath to a 
blunt point and expanded above to the width of about 

* Professor Thomson, in ' Good Words/ 

C 



18 CRUISE OF KM.S. CHALLENGER. 

2 inches. The walls are of the most delicate tissue, 
recalling spun glass, and resembling finest transparent 
lace, or rather Shetland wool work. The lower end 
is surrounded by an upturned fringe of long, lustrous, 
glassy fibres, and the wide end, after giving off from 
its edge a fluted lacy frill, is closed by a delicate lid of 
open network. Hitherto these beautiful objects have 
only been obtained from the seas of the Philippine 
Islands, where they live buried in the mud at the 
depth of 100 fathoms ; so those obtained then were 
considered a most interesting addition to the fauna 
of Europe. 

Our last cast of the trawl before reaching Gibraltar 
was to the depth of 2125 fathoms; the result was 
very satisfactory. A number of things came up — star- 
fish mainly, and holothurids ; but among them was 
one species of great interest, historical as well as zoo- 
logical, the clustered sea-polyp, Umbellularia Groen- 
landica; twelve gigantic alcyonarian polyps, each with 
eight long fringed arms terminating in a close cluster 
on a stem 3 feet high. Two specimens of this fine 
species were brought from the coast of Greenland 
early in the last century ; somehow these were 
lost, and for a century the animal was never seen. 
A year or two since two were taken by the Swedish 
scientific expedition, and this obtained by us must 
be considered as the third specimen of this rare 
marine animal. 

On the evening of the 17th January we passed 



THE SIGHTS OF GIBRALTAR 19 

Cape Trafalgar, and sighted the light of Tarifa. At 
sunrise the next morning we were close under the 
Rock of Gibraltar, rising barren grey and gloomy 
before us. Shortly after we came to anchor, and later 
in the day proceeded alongside the New Mole to 
complete with coal, &c. 

This remarkable promontory, the Calpe of the 
ancients, constituted of old, with the opposite Abyla, 
or Apes' Hill, the boundary of the then known 
world. 

Gibraltar was strongly fortified when it belonged 
to Spain, but its greatest and grandest works date 
from the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), when it became 
attached to England. Stupendous and incomparable 
are the works which since that period have been 
executed on it. Excellent and well-kept roads lead 
to the principal fortifications, which begin at an 
elevation of only a few hundred yards above the 
town. 

The galleries hewn in the solid rock, forming 
a kind of casemate, have been constructed at an im- 
mense expense of labour and money. Their extent 
is over a mile in length ; and besides these galleries, 
passages run for miles in the interior of the Rock, 
affording the garrison a thoroughly protected con- 
nection with all points that might be at any time 
threatened. 

The grandest and most imposing of these marvel- 
lous excavations are the Queen's Gallery and St. 

c 2 



20 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

George's Hall, which, according to carved inscrip- 
tions, were mostly begun and completed between the 
years 1783 and 1789. At the period of our visit 
(1873), there were about 1800 guns mounted on 
the different fortifications. From the fortification a 
narrow and rather steep path leads to the Signal 
Station, at an elevation of 1300 feet above the level 
of the sea, where a sergeant of the Royal Artillery 
is placed in charge. From this point, an excellent 
view is obtained of the blue waters of the Mediterra- 
nean, and the many charming Spanish villages on 
the western shore of the bay. 

On the road down are to be seen some remarkable 
calcareous caves. That of St. Michael's is situated 
at a height of 800 feet above sea-level. It contains 
beautiful stalactite formations, and seems to be of con- 
siderable extent. It is somewhat difficult to get about 
in its intricacies, but one is well repaid for the trouble. 
On the south-east side of the Rock is another of these 
caves, dedicated to St. Martin ; it is smaller, but the 
stalactites are of a purer whiteness. Here we dis- 
covered a large accumulation of sand, recent shells, 
and many heaps of bones and teeth of large her- 
bivorous animals which possibly existed here ages 
ago, when Gibraltar, instead of having its present 
salubrious climate, was covered with icy peaks and 
glacial boulders. 

Gibraltar has little save its barracks, military store- 
houses, and fortifications to attract strangers ; in fact, 



THE TOWN. 21 



within the gates it may be considered merely a large 
garrison. 

The opening and closing of the gates is daily carried 
out with a certain amount of ceremony, as if in a state 
of siege. Immediately after sunrise the sergeant of 
the guard procures the keys of the gates, which have 
been deposited at the Governor's the night before, 
when, accompanied by a guard with rifles and fixed 
bayonets, he has the gates opened, and the drawbridge 
lowered ; and throughout the day visitors are free to 
come and go ; those from Spanish possessions having 
a pass which is " vised." 

Every evening, soon after sunset, the ceremony is 
repeated. The sergeant, accompanied by his escort, 
carrying a heavy bunch of keys, marches to the 
various town gates, the bridges are drawn up, the 
gates closed, bolted, and locked, and from this hour 
none can enter or leave the town, for the keys are 
returned to the Governor. 

The Naval Yard is a compact and excellent esta- 
blishment, where defects to the hull and machinery 
of vessels on this part of the station are well attended 
to. Stores of all descriptions are to be obtained, and 
large quantities of coal, some 10,000 or 15,000 tons, 
are usually on hand. 

The town, which is built on terraces on the side of 
the Rock, gives shelter to some 15,000 souls, consist- 
ing of Spaniards, English, Italians, Portuguese, Moors, 
Turks, Greeks, and Jews ; indeed, a mixture of races, 



22 GBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

customs, and manners, such as can scarcely be found 
at any other place in Europe. 

There are several churches, chapels, and syna- 
gogues, a couple of excellent hotels, and numbers of 
other houses for refreshment ; shops for the sale of 
Moorish curiosities, Maltese lace and filigree jewel- 
lery, cigars and tobacco. Being a free port, there 
are no custom duties (except on wines and spirits), 
consequently most things are so cheap as to induce 
smugglers to carry on an extensive trade with Spain, 
which persists in continuing to maintain her pro- 
hibitory duties on English goods. I must not omit 
to mention the Garrison Library, nor the kindness 
and cordiality of the military, who invariably, on 
the arrival of a man-of-war, take the earliest oppor- 
tunity of acquainting the officers that during their 
stay in port they are to consider themselves honorary 
members. Many a pleasant hour may be passed in 
this resort, with its thousands of volumes ; for, al- 
though amongst this vast collection there are many 
rare and costly works, especially of ancient Spanish 
literature, all the newest and most important books 
and magazines of the day are being constantly added. 
Add to these late newspapers, periodicals, and daily 
telegrams from England, and some notion may be 
formed of the value of the Garrison Library at 
Gibraltar. It was founded in 1793 by Captain 
Drinkwater, and is one of the finest and most im- 
posing buildings on the Rock. 



NEUTRAL GROUND. 



There are several pleasant walks about the town, 
but perhaps the best is in the Alameda, or Eliott 
Garden, situated at the south end ; it is prettily 
laid out, and in commemoration of the heroic de- 
fender, General Eliott (afterwards Lord Heathfield), a 
bronze bust on a column has been erected to his me- 
mory. Plants of different sorts — semi-tropical cacti, 
dwarf palm, Spanish broom, the yellow blossoms of 
which are mixed with the varied colours of fuchsia, 
orange, and oleanders — render it a most charming 
promenade, and during the fine evenings military 
band performances take place, when it is usually 
thronged with visitors. Continuing our walk farther 
south, we passed the dockyard convict establishment, 
and barracks, and on the lowest terrace, which juts 
farthest into the sea, came upon the lighthouse on 
the celebrated Europa Point. 

On the north end of the Rock is the sandy neck of 
land called by the Spaniards " El Istmo," and by the 
English the " Neutral Ground. " It runs between 
the Mediterranean and the Bay, and is about 1^ 
mile in length and 2700 feet in width. This plain, 
which is not more than 10 feet above the level of 
the sea, owes its origin to the formation of a dune 
in the rocky bed of the ocean. Strong easterly 
gales seem by degrees to have accumulated the sand 
on this shallow run of the sea, which formerly sepa- 
rated Gibraltar from Spain. Until quite recently 
the inhabitants were almost entirely dependent for 



24 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

water on that collected from rain in tanks. Artesian 
wells, however, have been sunk on the Neutral 
Ground, and now yield an extensive supply of 
excellent, pure water. 

On the east side of the Rock, near Catalan Bay, 
there is a sand formation similar to that on the Neu- 
tral Ground ; this deposit has attained the enormous 
height of 1000 feet. There is no road round this 
side, for a portion of the sand has been excavated 
at the point where the isthmus joins the Rock, and 
the water of the bay flows in so as to leave only a 
narrow low dyke of firm ground. 

The adjacent Spanish settlements of Oampamiento 
and San Roque are much resorted to by excursionists 
from Gibraltar, and during the summer months are 
selected by numerous families for a prolonged stay. 
However little pleasure or interest a ride over this 
arid and sandy plain affords, when once arrived at 
Campo, the rider enjoys a most charming prospect, 
as there is probably no other point from which the 
isolated Rock appears more grand or picturesque 
than fom this neat little village. 




PLAZA CONSTITUTION, SANTA CRUZ, TENERIFFE. 



CHAPTER II. 

Gibraltar to Madeira and Teneriffe (Canary Islands) 

Leave Gibraltar — Daily sounding and trawling — Sight Porto Santo— 
Its discovery and early history — Arrive and anchor in Funchal 
Bay, Madeira — Its early history— First impressions — The gardens, 
buildings, conveyances, dress — Leave Madeira— Pass the Desertas 
—Cape Anaga— Teneriffe sighted— The Peak — Anchor off Santa 
Cruz — The buildings and streets — Scenery in the country — Ascent 
of the Peak— Cruising amongst the group— Sounding and dredging 
—Ball at the English Consulate— Naval incidents connected with 
Teneriffe. 

While at Gibraltar, a new survey was made of the 
inner mole, the ship's chronometers rated, and mag- 
netic observations obtained. On 26th January we 
left the anchorage and proceeded round Europa Point, 
and as the day was well advanced, hastened on 



26 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



so as to get through the Straits before dark. After 
passing the Pillars of Hercules, the wind freshened 
considerably, and the intention of making a short 
detour from our course so as to visit Tangiers had to 
be abandoned. Early next morning we passed the 
most southerly point of Europe, and as we steamed 
on, we gradually lost sight of the coast, which was 
beautifully illuminated by the rising sun, affording us 
the last glimpse of the Old World. 

A westerly course was now shaped to continue the 
line of soundings we had dropped off Lisbon. Deep 
water, with a soft oozy bottom, was found to exist, 
favourable for telegraph cables ; and day by day, as 
the weather moderated, so the dredging and trawling 
became more successful, and a number of strange new 
forms of animal life were found ; some wondrous 
formation of sea-urchins and lily-stars, some clustered 
sea-polyp of singular beauty and of great scientific 
interest. Thus a week passed, and, on the 2nd Feb- 
ruary, Porto Santo was sighted — a barren, rocky spot, 
but, as its name (Holy Port) indicates, viewed by its 
first tempest-tossed discoverers with thankful hearty 
when in their attempt to circumnavigate Africa 
they were driven out to sea and on the point of 
perishing. 

The island, when first discovered (1416), was, 
according to some accounts, inhabited, according to 
others, desolate ; however, the voyagers were so de- 
lighted with the discovery that it was resolved to d^- 



SIGHT PORTO SANTO. 27 

continue the search along the African coast, and to 
return to Portugal with their present acquisition of 
knowledge, and with the evidences of their discovery. 
Prince Henry, who had been the means of fitting 
out the expedition, was so delighted with the ac- 
count of this first discovery that he immediately 
planned a scheme of colonisation. Vessels left Lisbon 
with a number of labourers fitted out for settling, who 
had been persuaded to go by tempting inducements, 
and who carried with them a varied stock of domestic 
animals, and all kinds of grains and plants suitable 
for cultivation. This expedition was placed in charge 
of Bartholomeu Perestrello, who was also appointed 
governor of the island. Thus was the father-in-law 
of Columbus engaged in the important pioneer work 
of discovery. He was the first coloniser and planter 
in newly discovered western ocean lands. 

But Perestrello failed in the cultivation, and after 
three years abandoned the governorship which had 
been vested in him. Some short time afterwards, 
Columbus and his wife Philippa came here to reside, 
in order to get a living out of the wild property 
bequeathed to him by his father-in-law. But he 
gained nothing by it, unless, perhaps, some increase 
of knowledge, and the birth of his son Diego in 
Porto Santo. 

We remained for a short time sounding and 
dredging in the vicinity of Porto Santo, which 
appears, on nearing it, like two islands. As we 



CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



passed to the eastward, the southern coast pre- 
sented a most conspicuous and pleasing aspect, 
giving an air to the place which probably would 
hardly be borne out on landing or making a closer 
acquaintance. 

The next morning we were off the anchorage in 
the Bay of Funchal (Madeira). This island was 
discovered soon after Porto Santo, and from its 
dense forests at that time received this Portuguese 
name for wood. The lovely and fertile island had 
no doubt a people and name of its own, but they 
have passed away, and the footsteps of the civilised 
discoverer have obliterated every trace of the ab- 
origines. The first act of the adventurers was to 
set fire to the dense forests, which fed a conflagration 
that was not fairly extinguished for many years ; 
and when the virgin soil of the land was fully 
exposed, colonisation was successfully, established. 

This colony of Madeira was the nursery of two 
notable things of momentous consequence in the 
history of all subsequently discovered and colonised 
western countries. One was the introduction into 
this island of some growing shoots of a plant obtained 
by Prince Henry in Sicily, but originally brought 
from South-Eastern Asia, and spoken of by an old 
Biblical prophet as the " sweet cane from a far 
country." Here, then, was organised and established 
the first sugar-cane plantation, and such was its 
success that after about five years' experience, 60,000 



ANCHOR IN FUNCIIAL BAY. 2D 

arobas of sugar were sent to Lisbon. This formed 
only twenty per cent, of the annual produce of the 
island, and was reserved as the especial revenue of 
the Military Order of Christ, of which Prince Henry 
was grand master. 

The other notable matter was the labour by which 
this sugar-cane was so abundantly produced. It was 
found from the first that Portuguese agriculturists 
would not voluntarily exile themselves, so recourse 
was had to the Negroes, who were imported in large 
numbers from Africa. These Negroes, who had, as 
we know, been toiling involuntarily ages upon ages 
in Asia, were now for the first time employed by 
Europeans in extracting wealth out of the new lands 
of the West. 

On the morning of February 3rd we arrived and 
anchored in Funchal Bay, just to the south of the 
Loo Bock, the only place of shelter at this season 
of the year, the open roadstead affording but little 
protection against the prevailing winds. The weather 
was fortunately very fine, and we were enabled to 
coal in safety. Coming in from the monotonous 
sea, the first impressions of Funchal are delight- 
ful and striking, with its luxuriant gardens smiling 
with gorgeous flowers, and its mountain-sides cul- 
tivated almost to their summits with beautiful plants. 
Nature exhibits herself here with such varied 
charms that imagination can scarcely picture a 
lovelier scene. 



30 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

I had a ramble on shore through some of the 
gardens, and although flowers were not exactly in 
full bloom, yet some of the most beautiful plants were 
in their highest development. Amongst others were 
seen sweet-smelling rose-trees, blooming oleanders, 
aloes more than 30 feet high, the shining green 
foliage of the camellia, chestnuts, cypress, plane-trees, 
Brazilian pine, laurels, myrtles, odoriferous magnolias, 
fuchsias, together with bananas, sugar-cane, coffee 
shrubs, mangroves, pomegranates, tamarinds, pine- 
apples, and gigantic dragon-trees. One must travel a 
long way indeed before meeting with prettier scenery, 
or a place that will surpass in fragrance and 
loveliness the floral beauty of this island ; and yet 
it is only within five or six days' run of our cold 
shores of England. 

The product which has made the name of Madeira 
famous and familiar is its wine, which is now pro- 
duced in great quantities ; this and the cultivation 
of the sugar-cane form its principal trade. 

The public buildings offer little to attract notice ; the 
churches are insignificant, and even the Cathedral, a 
building in the basilica style, is in no way remarkable 
otherwise than by the innumerable garlands and 
flowers, offerings of pious devotees. 

The charms of beautiful walks in the most en- 
chanting neighbourhood enhance the pleasantness of 
the climate of Funchal, so much resorted to by in- 
valids, for within a short distance of the landing-place 



MADEIRA. 31 



are splendid avenues of massive oaks and magnificent 
plane-trees, forming delightful promenades, with re- 
pose and shade, under the dense foliage of their 
wide-spreading branches. 

The existing conveyances are either horses, ham- 
mocks, sedan-chairs, or sledges drawn by oxen. No 
stranger should miss the diversion of travelling down 
from the Nossa Senhora de Monti, where one has a 
slide down the mountain-side, above 1800 feet, into 
the heart of the town, on small double-seated wooden 
sledges. These curious vehicles are guided in their 
descent with admirable skill by a couple of natives, 
and, notwithstanding the velocity with which they 
rush down the incline, it is very rare that even a 
slight accident is heard of. These sledging parties, 
which are inexpensive, constitute the favourite amuse- 
ment for visitors. 

The dress of the natives is extremely simple, and, 
as the climate is subject to such slight extremes, their 
winter and summei attire is much the same, and 
generally consists of a pair of trousers of some light 
material, a shirt, and linen jacket ; shoes are a rare 
exception. As a head-dress they wear a curiously 
shaped small cloth cap, terminating in an erect, 
pointed tail from 5 to 6 inches long. This seems to be 
a remnant of a turbaned head-covering worn formerly 
by the inhabitants of the African coast, with whom 
the early settlers carried on the slave trade. 

The women, like the men, are not overburdened 



32 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

with apparel, and are mostly employed as labourers 
in the vineyards and gardens. 

During the two days of our stay in Funchal the 
weather was very favourable for coaling, which was 
satisfactorily finished, and on the 5th February we 
proceeded out of the bay, and, with a favouring breeze, 
were soon off the " Desert as," a group of barren rocks 
about 11 miles S.E. of Madeira, These rocks appear 
to be only frequented by fishermen, who repair thither 
for collecting orchil. The northernmost isle is a high 
pyramidal rock, often taken for a sail, which it much 
resembles. The weather continuing very favourable, 
the next day we sounded in 2000 fathoms, and early 
the following morning the brilliant light on Cape 
Anaga (Teneriffe) was descried ahead. As daylight 
dawned, we steamed in for the land, and the high, 
precipitous rocks, all bleak and bare, here and there 
broken by deep and rugged clefts, rose in bold out- 
line before us. Somewhat later, as the clouds cleared, 
the celebrated Peak was in sight, a grand and 
solitary object towering in seeming desolation ; for 
although there is a certain amount of fertility on its 
sides, it was not apparent as we approached it. By 
7.30 am. we anchored off the town of Santa Cruz, 
Teneriffe. After, a visit from the health officers, all 
were free for a run on shore. There is little at 
Santa Cruz itself to interest a stranger ; the houses 
are poor structures, the streets narrow, and there 
are no public buildings with any pretension to taste 



SCENERY IN THE COUNTRY. 33 

or elegance. Nevertheless one is repaid for a stroll 
in the country, where the scenery is remarkably 
wild and impressive — deep ravines, from which 
mountainous rocks rise abruptly void of every trace 
of vegetation except a few cacti and other hardy 
plants. 

There is a sort of grandeur in this volcanic scenery 
— in the scorched craters of these enormous rocks, 
ribbed at the sides, rising into a variety of shapes. 
Now all is quiet, no traces of life, no appearance 
of vegetation — all is arid, dry, and parched ; while 
away to the southward can just be discerned a fine 
picture of woodland scenery, arresting the eye at 
once by its great contrast, and, as it were, com- 
pelling one to admire the extreme beauty afforded 
by the charming landscape. Here and there were 
noticed inclosures of cacti, used in rearing the 
cochineal, which, with the castor-oil plant, appears to 
be extensively produced for exportation. Our stay 
at first was only for two days, 'during which a 
party of naturalists landed, and made an attempt 
to ascend the famous Peak (12,180 feet). They had 
a pleasant time of it, reaching 9000 feet, where 
they found the temperature of the air at night 
intensely cold. It was too early in the season for 
natural history work ; still collections geological, 
botanical, and zoological were made. 

While the naturalists were away, the vessel cruised 
about, and obtained a series of dredgings, serial 

D 



34 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER 

temperatures and soundings, between Teneriffe and 
Palma, and past Gromera and Hierro. Considerable 
depths were found, varying from 200 to 1700 
fathoms ; as a rule discovering a dark sandy bottom 
and dead shells. 

Three days had thus been spent when we again 
anchored off Santa Cruz, and, as we were to leave 
the next day, H. B. Majesty's Consul issued in- 
vitations to a ball in honour of the visit of the 
Challenger. The weather was fine, and a large party 
started from the ship, arriving at the consulate in 
good time to find all the available Spanish beauty 
there to meet us. The ball was a very capital one, 
but the great drawback was our being unable to 
converse fluently with our partners when dancing. 
For all that the eye, whose language is so deep and 
expressive, the organ which the Spanish ladies culti- 
vate to such perfection, did all. What the heart felt 
and the tongue could not utter the eye interpreted. 
The company was not, however, entirely Spanish. 
The Consul's daughter, and Mrs. G-rattan, the 
American Consul's daughter, and an English lady, 
married to the Minister of Marine, were there to 
interpret our most pressing wishes and entertain us 
with their company. 

It was not until the early hours of the following 
morning that the pleasant gathering broke up, and 
we all retraced our way to the landing-place to get 
on board. 



INCIDENTS CONNECTED WITH TENERIFFE. 35 

The town of Santa Cruz is famous in our naval 
history. On the 20th April 1657, Admiral Eobert 
Blake attacked and utterly destroyed the Spanish 
fleet, strongly placed under the batteries, and, aided 
by a sudden shift of the wind, was able to draw his 
ships oif with comparatively little loss. 

It was here also that Nelson (July 24, 1797) under- 
took his expedition against Teneriffe, which, although 
unsuccessful and disastrous, displayed great heroism 
and bravery. The two flags captured on this oc- 
casion are retained in the church, and the inhabitants 
still bear in mind the attack and repulse relating to 
their capture. 



» 2 



36 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



CHAPTER III. 

Teneriffe (Canary Islands) to St. Thomas (West Indies). 

Leaving Teneriffe — Sight of the Peak — Commence section across the 
Atlantic — Daily soundings and trawlings — The results — Configu- 
ration of the bottom — In the Tropics — The officers of the ship- 
Life on board — Our daily doings — Description of the mode of 
sounding— The apparatus and appliances used — Taking serial 
temperatures — Dredging and trawling — Island of Sombrero in 
sight — Arrive and anchor at St. Thomas. 

As the evening of the 14th of February dawned, we 
left the bay of Santa Cruz, dispensing with steam 
when well clear of the land. The bright moonlight 
afforded us a capital view of the Peak, which frowned 
down in all its grandeur, clearly and sharply defined, 
and its head hoary with many a winters snow. A 
fine favouring breeze was with us all night : at dawn 
of the following morning the island of Teneriffe was 
looming far on the distant horizon. 

From the present may be said to commence the 
regular work of the Expedition. A section was now 
to be carried right across the Atlantic from Teneriffe 
to Sombrero (a small island forming one of a group 
of the Virgin Islands), a distance of about 2700 
miles ; and along this line over twenty stations were 
fixed on at which it was decided to make careful 



DAILY SOUNDINGS AND TBAWLINGS. 37 

observations as to depth, temperature, and nature of 
the bottom. These stoppages were about 100 miles 
apart, and each day, when the weather permitted, 
soundings and dredgings took place. For the first 
250 miles the bottom of the ocean was found to be 
nearly level at a depth of about 2000 fathoms, con- 
sisting, for the most part, of the Grlobigerina ooze of 
the Atlantic. On proceeding some 50 miles farther to 
the westward, we sounded in 1500 fathoms, identically 
on the top of a ridge, where, after dredging for some 
time, a quantity of dead, hard, white coral, together 
with several beautiful specimens of sponge attached 
to its branches, was obtained. From this position 
soundings made the next day showed that the 
bottom sank rapidly until reaching a depth of 
2700 and 2950 fathoms, from the first of which 
a few living specimens of starfish, annelids, &c, 
were obtained in the dredge ; but the most re- 
markable fact was that with the increasing depth 
there was a gradual change in the character of the 
bottom. 

On the 26th February, in latitude 23° 23' north, 
longitude 35° 10' west, being about 1600 miles from 
Sombrero Island, we sounded in 3150 fathoms. This 
was the greatest depth as yet met with, the ma- 
terial obtained from the bottom being quite new to 
science. For several days after, the dredge con- 
tinued to bring up a dark chocolate or red clay, 
scarcely containing a trace of organic matter, and 



38 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

entirely devoid of animal life. This newly dis- 
covered formation going on at the bottom of the 
sea appeared, as was found afterwards, to extend for 
some 350 miles, when the depth decreased gradually 
until 2000 fathoms was obtained, and the dredge 
brought up animal life. The nature of the bottom 
changed gradually into the usual Atlantic ooze, 
altering again in a few days, as the depth increased 
to 3000 fathoms, when the mud lost all trace of 
carbonate of lime and resumed its red colour, which 
continued to within 100 miles of Sombrero. The 
analysis of this red deposit proved it to be almost a 
pure clay (a silicate of alumina and the oxide of 
iron, with a small portion of manganese). From 
these results it was inferred that the circumstances 
which lead to the deposition of this bottom were 
the cause of its being so unfavourable to the develop- 
ment of species; and, although it has been since 
proved that animal life is possible at all depths, it has 
been found, after reaching, say, 1000 fathoms, that its 
abundance greatly diminishes. It was in one of these 
dredgings we were successful in obtaining a beau- 
tiful blind Crustacea, perfectly transparent, which, 
although found at such great depths, does not appear 
to suffer from this peculiarity either in development 
or colour, nature having supplied claws and feelers 
to make up for the suppression of eyes, the sense of 
vision being useless in its normal state of perpetual 
darkness. 



THE OFFICERS OF THE SHIP. 89 

When about two-thirds of the distance between the 
Canary Islands and the West Indies, we had reached 
the Tropics, and were fairly in the region of the trade 
winds, of which we took advantage ; still we occa- 
sionally " hove-to," for the purpose of sounding and 
dredging ; on its conclusion again standing on our 
course, with a steady breeze. 

And now, while enjoying such pleasant weather, I 
take the opportunity of introducing my reader to the 
officers who had been appointed, and who were for 
the most part our companions through the various 
incidents of the cruise. 

The naval officers had been selected by the Ad- 
miralty, in most cases, for some special acquirement ; 
and the staff of civilian naturalists and physicists had 
been nominated by a specially appointed committee of 
the Royal Society. 

Captain George S. Nares, F.R.S. &c, was ap- 
pointed in command of the Expedition. His name 
is familiar to the public from his surveying services, 
his standard works on seamanship, and, recently, 
from his having been in command of the late Arctic 
Expedition. From his previous scientific training, 
he was eminently fitted for the responsibilities im- 
posed upon him. His second was Commander J. 
F. L. P. Maclear, also well known in the scientific 
world, and who has seen much service in various parts 
of the world ; on him devolved the entire charge of the 
magnetic department. Lieutenants Pelham Aldrich, 



40 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

A. C. Bromley, and Gr. R. Bethel, were each specially 
qualified in surveying or magnetic work. Staff 
Commander Tizard, a surveyor of high reputation, 
was in charge (under Captain Nares) of the whole 
of the navigating and hydrographic duties, assisted 
by Sub-Lieutenants Havagal and Swire. The 
hygiene was in charge of Staff Surgeons Crosbie 
and Gr. Maclean. 

The engineering department, on which so much of 
the success of the Expedition depended, was under 
the direction of J. H. Ferguson, as chief, assisted 
by W. J. J. Spry, A. J. Allen, W. A. Howlett, and 
W. J. Abbott; and the machinery, on the return of 
the vessel after her long cruise, was as efficient as 
when she started. Paymaster R. R. Richard, Assist- 
ant Paymaster J. Hynes, with Sub-Lieutenants Lord 
George Gr. Campbell, A. F. Balfour, A. Channer, 
and H. E. Harston, were the other officers. 

Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson, F.R.S. &c, 
had been selected as director of the civilian scientific 
staff, and (as has since been proved) none could 
have been found better qualified to fill the important 
position. With the practical experience he had 
already gained in the Porcupine and Lightning, he 
was enabled to utilise and work out all the subjects 
that came within his reach during our more ex- 
tended cruise. His assistants were H. N. Moseley, 
M.A., Dr. von Willemoes-Suhm, and J. Murray, 
who undertook the naturalist and botanical de- 



LIFE ON BOARD. 41 



partraent. J. Y. Buchanan, M.A., acted as physicist 
and chemist, and J. J. Wild, as artist and secretary. 
This staff of specially selected scientists, each dis- 
tinguished for some particular attainment in his 
profession, completed the list. 

Life on board ship, the varied incidents at sea, all 
tend to rouse feelings and sensations which are re- 
served alone for those whose business is on the great 
waters. To those constituting the scientific staff, 
the routine, especially of a man-of-war, was entirely 
different from that they had hitherto enjoyed on 
shore ; and unfortunately their initiation to the ever 
varying scenes was under most unfavourable cir- 
cumstances as regards the weather. At first the 
etiquette and usages of naval every-day life seemed 
particularly vexatious and annoying ; but after a 
while, when fine weather again set in, and the sea- 
sickness had been got over, one and all perceived, to 
a certain extent, the necessity of order. Scrubbing, 
washing, and holystoning of the decks, cleaning 
brass and wood work, mustering at quarters and 
divisions, are all measures which tend to enforce 
the discipline so essential to good government. 

Existence in the limited space of a ship, which is 
frequently for months completely isolated from the 
outer world, is so peculiar and interesting to those 
unacquainted with the sea that I may be permitted 
to make a few remarks as to our daily doings. 

From the hour of four o'clock in the morning, as 



42 CRUISE OF EM.S. CHALLENGER. 

soon as the watch has been mustered, the bustle and 
activity begin, lasting throughout the day and even 
to the hour when night reminds one of sleep. Pumps 
are manned, and water is splashed over decks in all 
directions ; and, although apparently unnecessary at 
times, yet it is absolutely essential to the preservation 
of the health and comfort of those on board. By six 
o'clock the washing is nearly finished, when all ham- 
mocks are piped up and stowed ; it is now time for 
breakfast, consisting of cocoa and biscuit. The hands 
dress in the rig of the day, and all preparations are 
made for sounding and dredging. Sails are furled, 
and steam is ready, for it is essential to keep the 
vessel's head on to the sea during these operations. 
Before commencing, however, an account of how the 
soundings and dredgings are obtained, it might be as 
well to specify the sort of information that is required 
from us. Formerly the actual depth of the ocean 
only was required, and in extreme depths it was con- 
sidered a great feat to be able to bring up a specimen 
of the bottom. Our requirements and means of ob- 
taining information have so rapidly advanced that we 
not only obtain the sounding and bring up specimens, 
but we also ascertain the temperature of the sea 
at every 100 fathoms, from the surface to the bottom, 
and at the same time bring up samples of the deep 
water. 

It has been found that in all deep soundings it is 
absolutely necessary to use steam power. No trust- 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MODE OF SOUNDING. 43 



worthy results can be obtained from a ship under 
sail, as even in the calmest weather the heave of the 
sea, or the surface current, is sufficient to drift the 
ship in a very short time a considerable distance from 
the place where the lead was originally let go. It is 
thus impossible to obtain a perpendicular sounding ; 
besides the time intervals between the 100-fathom 
marks are upset, these time intervals being the only 
means of telling when the lead has reached the bottom. 

The first thing, therefore, to be done is to shorten 
and furl all sail, and bring the ship head to wind, 
regulating the speed in such a manner as to avoid 
forcing her through the water. 

The sounding apparatus is then got ready. A 
block is placed on the main-yard a Fig. i. 

little outside the boom iron, and a 
whip rove through it to trice up the 
accumulator (Fig. 1). These accu- 
mulators are india-rubber bands, f inch 
in diameter and 3 feet in length. 
They are capable of stretching 1 7 feet, 
when they each exert a pressure of 
70 lbs. Twenty pairs of these accu- 
mulators have been found sufficient 
for most of the soundings obtained, as 
they are strong enough to withstand 
the strain of the weights on the lead line without 
being too strong to give readily with the motion 
of the ship ; their greatest use being to keep the 




44 GBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

sudden jerks of the ship's motion from bringing too 
great a strain on the lead line. At the bottom of 
the accumulators, which are kept separated from 
each other by being passed through holes in a 
Fig. 2. circular disk of wood, a 9 -inch block is 
hooked, and through this block the lead 
line is rove. The end of the line is then 
secured to the sounding-rod, to which is 
attached the number of iron weights re- 
quired to sink it rapidly. A short distance 
above the rod the slip water-bottle is fas- 
tened, and above that a deep-sea thermo- 
meter. 

Two descriptions of sounding-rods have 
been in use during the cruise. The one 
first employed is known as the " Hydra " 
rod (Fig. 2), and consists of a brass tube 
1-^ inch in diameter, and 42 inches in 
length, having at its extreme end a but- 
terfly valve, and at its top a sliding rod 30 
inches in length. On the upper part of 
this rod is a small stud, with a spring 
reaching to its head (when there is no pres- 
sure on it) ; to this rod .the weights are attached, 
and, by means of the spring, disengaged, when at the 
bottom, in the following manner. 

The sinkers are of cast iron, and average one hun- 
dredweight each. They are cylindrical in form, having 
a hole through the centre ; through this hole the rod is 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 



45 



placed, and as many weights are put on as are deemed 
necessary (generally speaking, one for every thou- 
sand fathoms). At the bottom of the last weight a 
small iron ring is rove on the rod, to which is at- 
tached a piece of iron wire about 12 feet Fig. 3. 
in length. The bight of the wire is passed 
over the projection, and the rod being 
lifted, the weights rest on the ring, which 
is supported by the wire sling. The strain 
of the weights falls on the stud, thus 
pushing back the spring ; and as long as 
the pressure of the weights continues on 
the ring at the bottom, the wire remains in 
its place. When the weight of the sinkers 
is relaxed, by their reaching and resting on 
the bottom, the spring pushes the wire off, 
and the rod, being hauled up by the line, 
unreeves itself from the weights, leaving 
them at the bottom. 

The second sounding-rod (Fig. 3), which 
was principally used, is the invention of Staff 
Commander Baillie, R.N., and consists, as 
in the " Hydra," of a cylindrical rod, of 
3 inches in diameter and some 48 inches in length. 
The iron sinkers are rove on the rod in a similar 
manner to the former, but the means of disengaging 
and the safety in lowering are more to be depended 
on. The bight of the wire supporting the weights 
is placed over a sliding " ketch." On the rod reach- 



40 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

ing and resting on the bottom, the " ketch " drops 
over a conical end, and thus releases the weights, 
which remain at the bottom. The tube being larger 
than that of the " Hydra," it brings up a greater 
quantity of sample from the bottom. 

These rods are only employed when the depths 
are considered to be over 1500 fathoms ; 
Fig. 4. for less depths a conical lead weight (Fig. 4) 
is used, which has fitted to its bottom an 
iron cylinder, 3- inches in diameter, with 
butterfly valves at its base for securing 
samples of the ocean bed. 

The line used for sounding is 1 inch in 
circumference, and is specially prepared for 
this service (having a breaking strain of 
14 cwt.) ; it is marked at every 25 fathoms, 
the 25- and 75-fathom marks being white, 
the 50-fathom marks red, and the 100- 
fathom marks blue. Worsted is used to 
mark the line, and the number of hundreds 
are distinguished by tucking the worsted 
under and over the strands of the line, one tuck for 
each hundred fathoms. This leaves the line per- 
fectly smooth ; no additional friction is caused in 
the water, nor is there any danger of the marks of 
the line fouling in the blocks through which it 
passes. The line is kept on reels (3000 fathoms on 
each) conveniently situated near the sounding-plat- 
form, from which it is led through a block to the 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 



47 



winding-engine, then up through the block at the 
mainyard, and attached to the sounding-rod. 

Fig. 5. 



The slip water-bottle (Fig. 5) consists of a brass 



48 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

rod with three radiating ribs to strengthen it, and to 
act as a guide for a brass cylinder which incloses the 
water. At the bottom, and halfway down the radiating 
ribs, are two finely ground seatings, and the brass 
cylinder is so arranged that its upper and lower sur- 
faces fit with great accuracy on these seatings, thus 
inclosing anything that may happen to be between 
them. At the top of the rod is a brass tumbler, with 
a slit in it ; to this tumbler is attached a lanyard to 
fasten the bottle to the sounding line, and over the 
slit of the tumbler is placed the bight of a piece of 
small line (the ends of which are secured to the 
cylinder), by which the cylinder is kept suspended 
above the seating while the bottle is descending, and 
being in this position quite clear of the radiating 
ribs, it allows the water to pass freely through it. 

Directly the strain is released on the sounding 
line above, through the bottle reaching the bottom, 
the tumbler falls over, pushing off the line that sus- 
pends the cylinder, leaving it free to fall on the two 
seatings, and thus effectually inclosing a specimen of 
the bottom water. A tap is arranged at the lower 
end to facilitate the emptying of the bottle when 
again on board. 

Other bottles (Fig. 6), but of different construction, 
for carrying out similar results were employed with 
equal success ; they consisted usually of a brass tube 
about 3 inches in diameter and from 2 to 3 feet in 
length, fitted at either end with stop-cocks connected 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 



49 



to each other by means of a rod on which is a move- 
able float. When lowered to any desired depth, 
both cocks being open to allow the column of water 
to freely pass through, immediately the motion of 



Fig. 6. 



m 

1 

1 1 MM 


k I I 


I ill 

1 1 H 

! 1 

i i 




I 
1 




^ 1 

1 1 in 


L l 



lowering is reversed and hoisting commenced, the 
flat float being pressed on by the weight of water 
above it, shuts both cocks simultaneously, and so 
incloses a specimen of the water at that particular 
depth. 



50 



CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGED. 



The thermometers (Fig. 7) used to ascertain the 
temperature at the bottom or at any intermediate 
depth are self-adjusting maximum and minimum 
instruments, known as Miller-Casella thermometers, 
from the names of their inventor and maker, and 

Fig. 7. 
Thermometer Outer Casing 




are so constructed as to resist the pressure of the 
water at very considerable depths. They consist of 
a curved tube with a bulb at each end, one of 
which is filled with creosote, the expansion and 
contraction of which gives the temperature. The 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 51 



creosote acts on a small quantity of mercury in the 
tube, which rises or falls as the creosote expands or 
contracts. 

In each of the tubes above the mercury is a small 
metallic index, having a hair attached to it, which, 
pressing against the glass tube, acts as a spring, and 
keeps the index in its place, so as to be read off and 
recorded. 

It is evident that the bulb of the thermometer 
would be exposed to the pressure of the water as 
well as the temperature ; to prevent this, an additional 
bulb is blown outside the bulb of the thermometer; 
this is partially filled with spirit, which is boiled 
before it is hermetically closed, so that it contains 
in addition to the spirit some spirit vapour. The 
pressure now acts on the outer and not on the 
inner bulb, which is therefore only affected by 
temperature. These thermometers are tested by 
hydraulic pressure, from two to three tons on the 
square inch, and are considered trustworthy up to 
3000 fathoms. 

On commencing the operations of sounding, the 
weighted sounding-rod, the water-bottle, and the 
thermometers are suspended to the line, and lowered 
from the sounding-bridge by reversing the engine 
for 500 fathoms ; the line is then let go and allowed 
to run out freely. As it runs out, the exact time of 
each 100-fathom mark entering the water is regis- 
tered and set down in its appropriate column in a 



52 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

book provided for that purpose. These intervals 
gradually increase in duration as more line is run 
out, the weights having to overcome the friction 
of the line in the water, which becomes greater 
with the amount run out. The intervals are found, 
however, to extend in regular proportion, so that 
when four minutes are taken up by one interval, 
the weights have reached the bottom, or a depth of 
between 2000 or 3000 fathoms has been obtained. 

The time intervals having informed us that the 
weights are at the bottom, the line is brought to the 
engine, and hove in, gently at first, but faster as the 
quantity out decreases ; care being taken to keep the 
ship still in her position over the line, as, if allowed 
to fall off, the line has not only to bear its own fric- 
tion, and that of the attached rod, water-bottle, and 
thermometers, but also the additional friction of the 
drift of the ship. Eventually the rod, water-bottle, 
and thermometers reach the surface, the thermometer 
is carefully read and registered, the water-bottle is 
sent down to the laboratory, where the specific gra- 
vity of the water is taken, and the contents of the 
sounding-rod are examined to ascertain the nature of 
the bottom, after which they are dried and bottled. 

The soundings having been obtained, and the line 
hove in, the next proceeding is to register the tem- 
perature of the ocean from the surface to the bottom. 
This is done by attaching thermometers with equal 
spaces between them to the sounding-line ; a cup-lead 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 53 



(Fig. 8) of 1 cwt. is attached to keep it perpendicular, 
and immediately above a thermometer is placed ; the 
line is then eased out to the first 100 fathoms, when 
a second thermometer is secured, and the line low- 
ered to 200 fathoms, a thermometer being placed at 
each 100-fathom mark until six or eight have been 
attached and the line run out to the required depth, 
say to 1500 fathoms ; it is now belayed and allowed 
to remain for a few minutes. The thermometers 
register the temperatures of the different fig. 8. 
depths at which they are submerged. The 
line is now hove in, and as each thermo- 
meter reaches the sounding-platform, it is 
removed, and the results are carefully read 
off. The temperature is then taken from 
the surface to 700 fathoms in the same man- 
ner. Sometimes it is considered necessary 
to obtain temperatures at every 10 fathoms 
from the surface to 200 fathoms, and at 
every 50 fathoms to 600 or 700 fathoms; 
this, of course, considerably increases the time occu- 
pied in obtaining these observations. 

When the whole of the soundings and temperature 
observations have been obtained between any two 
places, a plan is drawn showing the section of the 
bottom and isothermal lines at different depths. 

For the purpose of dredging in deep water, three 
different-sized ropes are supplied, of 2, 2^, and 
3 inches in circumference. Each rope is spliced so 



54 CEUISE OF R.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



as to form one continuous length of 3000 to 4000 
fathoms, and is kept coiled away in a large rack, 
conveniently situated for use. These lines are 
marked at each 100 fathoms in the same manner as 
the sounding-line. 

Fig. 9. 




The dredges (Fig. 9) supplied consisted of an iron 
frame, and were of three sizes, 5, 4, and 3 feet in 
length, and from 15 to 9 inches in width. The iron 
frame, to which was secured the bag or net, is in- 
tended to skim the surface of the bottom, and the 



APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES USED. 



55 



Fig. 10. 



net to catch and retain all that might come in its 
way ; at the bottom of this bag a number of hempen 
swabs were generally secured so as to sweep along 
and bring up small animal life, 
coral, sponges, &c. These dredges 
after a time were set aside and re- 
placed by the ordinary beam trawl 
used in shallow water around our 
own coast. 

The operation of dredging or 
trawling, like that of sounding, is 
carried on from the mainyard, the 
dredge rope being rove through an 
iron block which is attached to the 
accumulator in the same manner as 
described for sounding. 

For this operation it is neces- 
sary to use a much larger accu- 
mulator (Fig. 10), consisting of as 
many as seventy or eighty india- 
rubber bands, 3 feet in length, 
capable of stretching to nearly 20 
feet when a force of 2^ tons is 
exerted (that is, equal to the 
breaking strain of the 2i-inch 
rope) 

The accumulator is secured to 
the masthead by means of a long pendant, and hauled 
out, or eased in, by a tackle at the end of the yard, 



56 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

as may be required. The dredge or trawl being 
ready to go over, is triced up clear of the platform 
and hauled out by the tackle until well clear of the 
vessel's side ; the rope is then let go and allowed to 
run out freely, the ship steaming slowly ahead ; from 
2^ to 3 hours are usually required to sink the dredge 
in this manner, when the depth is about 2500 fathoms. 
When it is once down, which is easily found by expe- 
rience, the vessel is allowed to drift, or steams slowly 
on for some hours, the accumulator illustrating by the 
expansion and contraction how the dredge is being 
dragged over the inequalities of the bottom. Should 
it foul anything, the strain of the vessel immediately 
stretches the accumulators to their utmost, the line is 
at once eased out to prevent it carrying away, and 
various plans are tried to release it. If all turns 
out favourable, when it has been on the bottom a 
sufficient time, the rope is brought to the deck-engine 
and the dredge hove up. When it appears above the 
surface, there is usually great excitement amongst 
the " Philos," who are ever on the alert with forceps, 
bottles, and jars, to secure the unwary creatures who 
may by chance have found their way into the net. 
Such a sight when it is really inboard ; here we 
have no lack of wonderful things, strange-looking 
fish, delicate alcyonarian zoophytes, sea-urchins, star- 
fish, besides shell, mud, &c. 

During the time of sounding and dredging, the 
ship's company not specially employed on these 



DAILY LIFE ON BOARD. 57 

operations have been mustered at' division, attended 
prayers, and engaged during the forenoon in their 
various and requisite duties. At noon, dinner is 
piped, and although consisting, as it usually does, of 
either salt junk and duff, or fat, greasy salt pork 
and pea soup, there are few men healthier than 
the sailor. Grog-time comes next (when half a gill 
of rum with two parts of water is supplied to each 
man), and, with the hour for smoking, constitutes 
a pleasant break in the day. Duty is resumed again 
at 1.30, and various drills occupy the afternoon until 
4.30, when all hands assemble at their station, with 
rifle, cutlass, and pistol for inspection by their divi- 
sional officer. 

The inspection over (we will presume the dredge 
to be up, and the excitement of the haul subsided), 
" Hands ! make sail," is the pipe. Steam is dis- 
pensed with, in a short time the sail is all spread, 
and with a favouring breeze we are running on our 
course at an eight-knot speed. Supper is now pre- 
pared, consisting of tea and biscuit, after which, 
until 9, smoking is permitted, hammocks having 
been piped down at 7.30. The commanding officer 
usually goes the round of the decks, to ascertain 
that all is correct, when those off duty are expected 
to turn-in their hammocks, and so ends the day and 
its duties. 

At 6 p.m. the officers usually dine together, when 
the incidents of the day, the results of the dredging, 



58 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

the prospect of the morrow, and other affairs which 
are sure to turn up, form a lively conversational 
hour. After dinner the assembly of smokers usually 
muster on the half-deck, where all sorts of yarns and 
topics engross the attention till bed-time. 

Sunday alone seems to break the monotony and 
routine of every-day life at sea, when, after divisions 
and prayers, the remainder of the day is usually 
spent in reading or sleeping. 

In this manner, and notwithstanding the continued 
sameness, days and months slip by, until we reach 
port and again anchor ; and only when we look 
back over the work accomplished can we realise the 
length of time passed at sea. 

On the 14th March, just a month after leaving 
Teneriffe, we reached the island of Sombrero ; here 
we hove-to, and remained sounding and trawling in 
shallow water for a couple of days, with satisfactory 
results. 

On the morning of the 16th the island of St. 
Thomas (one of the Virgin group) was in sight ; 
and later in the day we anchored in the outer 
harbour. 




CAMBER AND FLOATING DOCK, BERMUDA. 



CHAPTER IV. 

St. Thomas (West Indies) to Bermuda and Halifax (Nova 
Scotia), and back to Bermuda. 

At St. Thomas — The town of Charlotte Amalia — Importance of the 
island — English vessel in distress — Tow her into port — Leave St. 
Thomas — The first death on board — Soundings — Burial at sea — 
Bermuda in sight — Sounding round the reefs — St. George's — The 
narrows — Pretty scenery— Keach the anchorage in Grassy Bay — 
The Naval Yard — Historical sketch of the Bermudas — Geological 
and botanical researches —Leave Bermuda— Soundings — The Gulf 
Stream — Long Island to Nova Scotia — In Halifax harbour — The 
city and its suburbs — Gold and coal mines — Halifax to Bermuda 
— In the Camber— The sand glacier— The caves. 

The island of St. Thomas being usually very un- 
healthy, it was decided to anchor in the outer harbour, 
or G-regorie Channel. Here we swung ship, rated 
chronometers, and filled up with coal. 



60 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Naturally enough, after being a month at sea, 
most were anxious for a run on shore. We found 
the country and scenery pretty ; the lofty hills were 
varied in colour, and appeared to be thickly wooded 
with a variety of trees, all green and tempting, as 
far as the eye could reach. 

The town, named Charlotte Amalia, has no pre- 
tensions to size or elegance. It is, however, most 
picturesquely situated along the northern shore of 
the island, backed up by high hills, and having a 
curious saddle-shaped mountain running through 
its centre, terminating in two peaks, some 1525 feet 
in height. 

This island, which has in later years been visited 
with so many calamities, and laid waste from time to 
time by hurricanes and great revolutions in nature, 
still holds its position, and will continue to be an 
important possession, not from its trade or produce, 
but from its geographical situation. At the present 
time it is one of the most important ports of call in 
the West Indies, particularly for the mail service, 
some ten or twelve different lines reaching here 
monthly. There can be little doubt that the traffic 
will increase in proportion as sailing-vessels are 
superseded by steam. 

A pleasant week had passed, several excursions had 
been made to the adjacent islands of Sombrero and 
St. John's, where not only dredging and sounding 
but good shooting were obtained. 



ENGLISH VESSEL IN DISTRESS. Gl 

Just as we were on the point of leaving, intelli- 
gence reached the port of an English vessel (of about 
1600 tons) being in need of assistance. Instructions 
were given from the Consulate, and on the morning 
of March 23rd we steamed in search of the derelict. 
After a short time the vessel was discovered at 
anchor, taken in tow, and brought into harbour. 
It proved to be an iron ship, named the Varuna, 
of Liverpool. We learnt she left New York in 
January last, and through falling in with very 
stormy weather had lost her main and mizen masts, 
and nearly all her sails, before she was abandoned 
to her fate. 

Eventually it appears she was boarded by another 
vessel, a prize-crew sent on board, who jury-rigged 
her, and thus she reached within 15 miles of St. 
Thomas, where we discovered her. 

On the morning of March 24th, we left the an- 
chorage under sail ; with the light prevailing winds 
we made but little progress, and the next day sounded 
and dredged in shallow water (390 fathoms) off the 
north coast of Culebra Island (near St. Thomas). 
During the operation of heaving in the dredge a fatal 
accident occurred, by the parting of a rope span used 
for securing the iron leading block for the dredge-rope, 
which in its flight across the deck struck a seaman, 
named William Stokes, so severely on the head as to 
produce concussion of the brain, from which he died 
in a few hours. 



62 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

A short time after, when the dredge came up, it 
was found to contain the usual Grlobigerina ooze, and 
some specimens of coral and broken shell. On the 
26th, being about 85 miles north of St. Thomas, 
a sounding was made in the great depth of 3875 
fathoms ; the dredge was lowered, and after some 
hours it was brought up with a considerable quantity 
of grey ooze, but no traces of animal life were 
detected. 

After evening quarters, the bell tolled, and all the 
ship's company assembled to pay their last tribute to 
their late shipmate. The captain read the beautiful 
and appropriate service for a burial at sea, and on 
reaching that portion, " We commit his body to the 
deep," it was slid out of the port, wrapped in a ham- 
mock weighted with shot, into the bright blue tide, 
to be seen no more until that day when the sea shall 
give up its dead. 

For several days soundings showed an average 
depth of 2800 fathoms, with a red-clay bottom ; this 
continued until within about 100 miles of Bermuda, 
when we again came upon the grey ooze. 

On the 3rd April land was in sight ; and as we 
approached the Bermudas, which are mere specks on 
the chart of the wide Atlantic, one was immediately 
struck with their somewhat dull and sombre aspect ; 
the land nowhere rising to a greater height than 
260 feet (where the lighthouse is situated), and by far 
the greater part not being more than from 25 to 50 



ST. GEORGE'S. 63 



feet above the sea-level. We hove-to for the night, 
and for a portion of the next day were engaged 
sounding and dredging round the reefs in a depth 
of 400 fathoms on a coral clay bottom ; the results 
were, as is usually the case in the proximity of 
coral reefs, extremely poor, the coral sand debris 
being apparently unfavourable to the development 
of animal life. 

On its conclusion, we closed on the land ; and as we 
stopped off St. George's for the pilot to navigate the 
vessel through the intricate and dangerous narrows 
between the reefs, it was indeed a pretty sight. 
Seemingly nothing could have been more romantic 
than the little harbour stretched out before us : 
the variety and beauty of the islets scattered 
about ; the clearness of the water ; the number 
of boats and small vessels cruising between the 
islands, sailing from one cedar-grove to another, 
made up as charming a picture as could well be 
imagined. 

Proceeding on, as we near the shore, the white 
houses of Hamilton are seen peeping out from 
amongst the dark-green foliage ; then Clarence Hill, 
the official residence of the naval Commander-in- 
Chief, is in sight, overlooking a pretty little bay and 
landing-place, with the dark cedars and other trees 
coming close down to the water's edge ; Mount 
Langton, a charming spot, the residence of the 
Governor, has been passed, and in a short time we 



64 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

anchor in Grassy Bay. Nature is looking beautiful, 
and the temperature is genial and pleasant. These 
islands, situated as they are between the parallels of 
32° and 33° north latitude, are about equally distant 
from the West Indies and the coast of North America, 
consequently the climate is a mean between the two, 
partaking neither of the extreme heat of the one 
nor the excessive cold of the other. 

April hth. — The morning was lovely, and from the 
anchorage the view in either direction was very 
beautiful : look where we would, there was a sort of 
prettiness. The land broken up into little knolls and 
cays ; the sparkling sea running here and there into 
creeks, bays, and inlets, together with the ever-green 
foliage of the cedar and oleander, made up a very 
attractive landscape. Directly in front of us is the 
Naval Yard, with its jetties and cambers, in which 
were H. M. ships Royal Alfred (flying the flag of the 
Commander-in-Chief), Terror, Irresistible, and several 
small gunboats ; later in the day the Challenger 
joined them, so as to facilitate refitting and com- 
pleting necessary stores. 

Close at hand is the great iron floating dock; and 
stretching away in either direction are extensive 
stores,, factories, and the residences of the officials 
connected with the establishment. 

These islands are said to have been visited nearly 
400 years ago by a Spaniard named Juan Bermudez, 
and on their discovery being reported to Spain, they 



BISTOBICAL SKETCH OF THE BERMUDAS. 65 

were described as the most remote of all the islands 
yet found in the world. From this date many years 
seemed to have elapsed without anything being re- 
corded about them, except an occasional wreck, or 
stories of the old buccaneers, who were said to hold 
court here after some of their successful raids on the 
Spanish Main, and tradition even now informs us 
of untold wealth being buried about amongst the 
islands. Perhaps the earliest authentic account is 
that given by one of the crew of the Sea Adventure, a 
vessel that was wrecked off the coast in 1C09. It 
appears this vessel had been fitted out in England to 
convey the newly appointed Governor, Sir Thomas 
Gates, together with Admiral Sir George Somers 
and other officials, to the recently formed colony of 
Virginia ; meeting with a dreadful storm, and suffer- 
ing great privations, their vessel was run on shore, 
and became a complete wreck. The islands were 
found to be uninhabited, although there were evident 
traces of earlier visitors, for hogs were found to be 
very numerous, having probably been set adrift by 
them. Fish and turtle were also abundant ; and, 
finding the climate so pleasant and the land so pro- 
ductive, a year passed before any attempt was made 
to get away; by which time they had managed to 
build a small vessel, and in May 1610 they set sail 
for their original destination. 

On reaching Virginia, they found the colony so 
badly off for the necessaries of life that Sir George 



66 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



Somers and a party of volunteers started for 
Bermuda to obtain supplies ; and during this trip 
Sir George died, near the site of the present town 
of St. George, where there is a monument erected 
to his memory. 

From reports reaching England about this time 
(1612), a chartered company was formed, colonisa- 
tion commenced, and soon after the first party of 
settlers arrived, under the charge of Mr. Richard 
More as Governor. From this date Bermuda became 
a British colony, with representative government 
and a legislative assembly. 

As time passed on, its importance as a naval and 
military station became apparent, and large sums 
of money were expended on fortifications and im- 
provements. Of late years the islands have become 
well known as the site of extensive convict establish- 
ments; but these, like all the other outlying penal 
settlements, have been broken up, and the convicts 
sent back to our own shores again. 

At the present time the imports and exports are 
but small ; and although possessing such a fine cli- 
mate, its agricultural produce is limited (perhaps 
from a dearth of labour), for only about one-tenth of 
its area is cultivated, and this is only in isolated 
patches, where arrowroot and early crops of vegetables 
are produced for the American markets. 

Here a fortnight was spent in scientific pursuits. 
The dredging around the reefs and the several deep- 



GEOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL BESEARCIIES. G7 

sea soundings taken in their neighbourhood prove 
Bermuda to be a solitary peak, rising abruptly from 
a base of only 120 miles in diameter. 

The geological structure of this island was most 
carefully studied; results showing them to be only 
one kind of rock, a grey limestone, which with but 
few exceptions was found to be of a soft, crumbling 
nature, yet capable of being employed for building 
purposes. 

The botanists paid a good deal of attention to 
the flora of the island, for the charming walks through 
the avenues and forests were additional inducements 
to persevere in this study. 

We left Bermuda on the 21st April. On clearing 
the Narrows, soundings commenced around the reefs 
in over 2000 fathoms ; bottom of coral clay. Search 
was made for a reported patch, which was found on 
the 23rd, about 13 miles south-west of the island, with 
32 fathoms of water on it, and a bottom of pebbles 
and stones. Here we anchored for one night, and 
the next day shaped a north-westerly course so as to 
carry a line of soundings to Sandy Hook. 

The weather on the whole was as favourable as 
could have been expected at this season of the year. 
For a few days it was squally, when in the vicinity 
of the Gulf Stream, but when fairly across this belt, 
fine agreeable weather again greeted us. 

The soundings obtained showed the bottom to be 
fairly level, at an average depth of 2600 fathoms to 

f 2 



68 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

within 200 miles of Sandy Hook, when it shallo /ed 
to 1700 fathoms. 

The soundings taken in crossing and near the 
Gulf Stream were of very great interest. On each 
side the depths were found to be respectively 2400 
and 1700 fathoms, grey ooze bottom; while in the 
stream itself the line ran out over 2600 fathoms 
without reaching the bottom. This sounding, how- 
ever, was considered doubtful, there being a strong 
wind and current at the time dragging the line out 
of the perpendicular. The stream was found to be 
about 60 miles broad, which was easily detected by 
the 8° difference of temperature on entering and 
leaving. 

Tiiis influential current, little as it may be appre- 
ciated in a general way, is of the greatest importance 
to those countries whose waters are influenced by its 
flow. It takes its rise in the Gulf of Mexico, though it 
might be regarded as a continuation of the equatorial 
current which flows from the western coast of Africa 
across the Atlantic, absorbing the suns rays as it 
advances, and storing away the warmth for future 
use. It then passes into the Mexican Gulf, where its 
waters are raised to the high temperature of 86°, 
and then sweeps through the pass of Florida, skirting 
the shores of North America, until it takes that re- 
markable curve off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 
which throws its waters across the Atlantic, towards 
the coast of Europe. 







■ 



ill 



Hti-^ri-tri^hri-n^VrM-^--i-i-i-i-ii-ii-i+ii-i-i-1 



VERTICAL SCALE — FATHOMS 




THE GULF STREAM. G9 



One branch curves downward, and flits past the 
Azores, the other glides northward in the direction 
of the British Isles, and the Polar Sea. 

Its length, if reckoned from its Mexican bead to 
the Azores, is upwards of 3000 miles, and its average 
velocity is about 40 miles a day. 

The great function of this stream is that of a 
bearer of heat, setting out at a temperature of 86°, 
losing not more than from 10° to 15° in its progress. 
It thus reaches our coast and ameliorates the climate, 
for in point of latitude England corresponds with 
Labrador. All are familiar with the fact that in 
the latter regions the winters are exceedingly severe 
and protracted, and the vegetation poor and stunted. 
Had our shores been without this warming influence, 
and the British Isles compelled to subsist on their 
own geographical allowance of heat, we should have 
been left in the same condition. 

We were within 100 miles of Long Island, when our 
course was shaped so as to pass south and west of the 
little George Bank, and so on to Halifax. In this run 
several dredgings and soundings were obtained in 
average depths of 1350 fathoms, the bottom yielding 
chiefly grey ooze, and the course of the Gulf Stream 
wtis again crossed. On the 8th May, when about 
90 miles south of Halifax, we sounded in 75 fathoms 
on Le Have Bank. On the morning of the 9th May, 
the outline of the coast of Nova Scotia was before us, 
**jv later in the day we entered between the head- 



70 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

lands of the magnificent harbour of Halifax, which 
is so well sheltered by McNab's Island, lying at its 
mouth, that it affords security and safe anchorage to 
vessels of any magnitude. 

This island is covered with extensive foliage and 
vegetation, all bright and green, and, with the pretty 
white lighthouse at its western extremity, can scarcely 
be surpassed for pictorial effect. Steaming on, we 
next pass St. George's Island, which seems to lie in 
the very heart of the harbour, and is well and 
strongly fortified. A short distance farther and 
we reach our destination, alongside the wharf of 
the Naval Yard, for the purpose of completing 
stores. 

This colony, the history of which dates back to 
July 1749, was founded at the instigation of the 
Earl of Halifax, at that time President of the Board 
of Trade and Plantations. 

The city, with its suburbs, extends, for over two 
miles in length, along the slope of a hill on the 
western side of a very fine harbour. To the tourist 
it presents varied and numerous attractions. 

Its charming situation, its safe harbour and splen- 
did scenery, are not to be surpassed on this side of 
the Atlantic. The sea runs up into various little bays 
and coves indenting the land in many directions, 
giving a variety of charming aspects to the entire 
scene, and finally ending in Bedford Basin, a broad 
sheet of water covering an area of nine square 



HALIFAX. 71 

miles, its banks rich in all sorts of charming foliage, 
where cluster numerous pretty villa residences of the 
wealthy families. 

The appearance of the city on first landing is not 
very prepossessing, but on reaching its centre, there 
are seen good broad streets, well built upon, with shops 
and stores of large dimensions, where all the luxuries 
and requirements of life are to be obtained. Amongst 
these, Granville and Hollis Streets take the pre- 
eminence, containing as they do the best of the shops, 
and most of the principal public buildings, such as 
the new Post Office, House of Assembly, Public 
Library, &c, besides club-houses and banks, all 
worthy of note for the beauty of their architecture ; 
in addition to which may be enumerated Govern- 
ment House, Dalhousie College, Wellington Barracks, 
Hospital, and Admiralty House, all fine buildings of 
their class. 

It is the seat of two Bishops, the Anglican Bishop 
of Nova Scotia, and the Roman Catholic Archbishop 
of Halifax. There are over thirty churches and 
chapels, some of them very handsome structures, 
including almost all important denominations ; and 
for charitable institutions, Halifax is said to out- 
number any other city of its size in the Provinces. 
Among them are asylums for insane, deaf and dumb, 
the blind, besides some twenty others, where all sorts 
and conditions of men and women can receive aid 
and assistance in time of need. 



72 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

There are in the city seven or eight banks, 
Masonic Hall, and clubs ; there are several gold- 
mining and joint-stock companies, news-rooms, pub- 
lic libraries, museums, and other institutions, of all 
of which the Halifax people are very proud ; and 
well they may be. 

The Naval Yard, which covers an area of fourteen 
acres, is at present principally used as a depot for 
stores ; its value as a naval station is consider- 
able, and was fully known as long ago as 1793, 
in the wars of those days, and even later, when 
it became the rendezvous of our West India 
squadron, and received all its prizes. Attached to 
it is the Naval Hospital, which should not be over- 
looked, for here many a poor, stricken fellow is 
brought up from the West Indies with fever, to 
recover by the aid of this healthy, invigorating 
climate. 

The famous Citadel, situated on the crest of the 
hill overlooking the town, is said to be, after Quebec, 
the strongest in the Dominion. From here we have 
a fine panoramic stretch of scenery ; the picturesque 
abounds everywhere, and from every point there is 
some glimpse of nature to charm, whether it be 
mountain, valley, island, or lake. From this stand- 
point we can obtain a peep of the north-west " Arm," 
with the number of pretty little islands scattered 
over its length and breadth. The nature of the 
land about here, with its green slopes running close 



HALIFAX. 78 



down to the water's edge, has greatly assisted, with 
the many charming villas erected in the midst of 
the ever-green foliage, in combining art and taste, 
giving such charms to the surrounding scene that the 
most enthusiastic admirer of nature could scarcely 
desire more. 

Then there is the eastern shore and town of Dart- 
mouth, which has to be reached by steam-ferry. 
Here are many pleasant walks, and during the 
winter seasons its inland lakes are gay with crowds 
of skaters. 

The public gardens, covering an area of nearly 
twenty acres, deserve more than a passing men- 
tion ; for their loveliness and beauty can be ap- 
preciated by the ordinary observer as well as the 
learned. 

Picnicking is one of the favourite amusements 
of our Haligonian cousins, which they appear to 
heartily enjoy : during the season everybody goes 
picnicking, from the government official to the 
poorest member of the community, in one or other 
of the many beautiful little bays or coves in the 
harbour. 

Then, with such facilities as the harbour pos- 
sesses, all sorts of boating and yachting and 
fishing are in high favour. Capital regattas are 
frequently held, and the clubs usually make good 
shows as regards number, build, management, and 
speed. 



74 CRUISE OF RM.S. CHALLENGER. 

Halifax is the port of call of nine lines of steamers ; 
and in the course of a short time, when the great 
intercolonial railway shall be completed, it will 
give easy access to all the markets of Canada 
and the United States, and become the great winter 
terminus of the Dominion. 

During our stay, as we lay alongside the Naval 
Yard, every facility was afforded our Halifax friends 
to visit the ship. Many availed themselves of the 
opportunity, and evinced the greatest desire to see 
and examine the many submarine wonders that had 
up to this date been collected. 

The members of the Halifax Institute of Natural 
Science mustered in strong numbers, and appeared to 
take a special interest in the work already accom- 
plished. 

The blind crustacean zoophytes, the varieties of 
rare and new forms of corals and sponges, were 
well scanned ; while for the geologists, amongst 
other things attracting their attention, was a large 
boulder, which had been brought up in the dredge 
some 300 miles south of the coast. This was care- 
fully examined, and eventually recognised as a piece 
of Shelburne granite, which perhaps was carried off 
to sea in long past ages, on an iceberg detached from 
the coast glacier of Nova Scotia, and deposited where 
we had found it, to be ag;;in recovered after such a 
lapse of time, and to help the solution of the glacial 
theory, according to which, at one time, ice held 



HALIFAX TO BERMUDA. 75 



Nova Scotia in as close an embrace as it does 
Iceland and Greenland at the present. 

The weather had not been of the best ; cold winds, 
with occasional snow and rain, greeted us during the 
time at our disposal here ; yet we would fain have 
made a longer stay amongst such kind friends, of 
whom it is a pleasure to speak. There was a good- 
ness and cordiality with their hospitality and warm- 
heartedness that can never be forgotten by those 
who know them. 

On the 19th May, we steamed out of the harbour, 
and before nightfall the coast was out of sight. 
On clearing the land a section was commenced 
in almost a straight line to Bermuda. The serial 
temperatures taken during the passage were ex- 
tremely instructive and important, showing, as they 
do, that a belt of warm water of a temperature of 65°, 
and nearly 400 fathoms in thickness, extends from 
the eastern margin of the G-ulf Stream to within a 
short distance of the West Indies, encircling the 
Bermudas, and actually raising the average tempera- 
ture of its superficial water above that of the corre- 
sponding layer some 650 miles farther south. It 
also proved that the cold surface current running 
to the southward along the American coast merely 
lowered the temperature of the intermediate strata, 
the bottom water not being in the least affected by it. 
In fact, the results of the temperature observations 
already obtained seem to indicate that the cold water 



76 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



at the bottom of the Atlantic is obtained from Ant- 
arctic sources. Nine important stations had been 
examined on our way, showing an average depth of 
2500 fathoms. 

Late on the evening of the 28th we observed the 
light on Gibbs Hill, Hamilton, sparkling brightly 
ahead. Hove-to for the night, and for the next two 
days continued sounding and dredging round the reefs. 
Swung ship both for magnetic and azimuth correc- 
tion, after which stood in for the Narrows, got the 
pilot on board, and a few hours later we were along- 
side the jetty of the Naval Yard, where we found 
H. M. ships Terror, Sirius, Minstrel, Fly, and Brito- 
mart. Here we remained for ten days refitting 
and completing stores, and during this interval 
many scientific excursions were made about the 
islands. To the geologist, particularly, the exa- 
mination and phenomena of the sand glacier were 
exceedingly interesting. It appears that the fine 
coral debris which surrounds the shore is caught at 
certain exposed parts of the coast by the prevailing 
winds, and so blown into heaps more than 30 feet 
in height. We were informed that on some parts of 
the southern shore, where deep valleys once existed, 
level plains are now to be seen. And this is still 
going on, overwhelming gardens, houses, and planta- 
tions in its way, and but few attempts appear to be 
made to stay its progress. 

In some places where these great heaps of sand 



THE SAND GLACIER. 77 



had accumulated and hardened by the action of rain 
and other processes (by which this coral sand is 
converted into limestone), were to be seen rocks of 
the most irregular and fantastic shape, forming many 
of those remarkable caves which are, in most cases, 
covered with luxuriant vegetation, and add so much 
to the interest of these islands. 




NATIVES OF SANTIAGO, CAPE DE VERDE ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER Y. 

Bermuda to the Azores, Cape de Verde, St. Paul's Eocks, Fer- 
nando Noronha, Bahia, Tristan d'Acunha, and the Cape of 
Good Hope. 



Leave Bermuda— Sounding round the reefs — Commence another pec 
tion across the Atlantic to the Azores — * nehor off Hor f a, Fayal 
— Fayal to St. Michael's — The gardens— Foliage scenery— Lake of 
the Seven Cities — Public buildings and stree + s — Leave the Azores 
— Arrive at Madeira — Short stay there in consequence of epidemic 
— Section commenced across the Atlantic to the coast of Africa — 



LEAVE BERMUDA. 79 

Palma, one of the Canary Islands, in sight — Sounding and dredg- 
ing — Cape de Verde Islands in sight — Anchor of Porto Grande- 
Survey the anchorage — The town and adjacent scenery — Leave 
for Santiago — Anchor off Porto Pray a — The town — Its natives — 
Dredging for pink coral — Proceed towards the African coast — 
Course altered for St. Paul's Eocks — The rocks in sight — Made 
fast by a hawser — Crossing the Line — The old customs — The 
Southern constellations — Arrive at Fernando Noronha — Disap- 
pointment at not being able to land for collecting specimens — 
Sounding and dredging — Cape Antonio in sight — Anchor oif 
Bahia — The city — Excursions in the country — Brazilian scenery — 
Foliage and vegetable products — Case of yellow fever — Leave 
Bahia— Section commenced to Cape of Good Hope— Island of 
Trinidad— Passage across the South Atlantic — The drift nets — 
Incidents of the voyage — Sea-birds— The soundings — Pick up 
the "westerlies"— Tristan d' Ac unha in sight— The settlement of 
Edinburgh — Squally weather — Visit the Inaccessible Island — 
The brothers Stoltenhoff: their story — Table Mountain, Cape 
of Good Hope, in sight — Anchor in Simon's Bay — Placed in 
quarantine. 

On the morning of June 12th we proceeded from the 
Camber, and anchored for a short time off St. George's. 
During the two following days we remained in the 
vicinity of the reefs, before taking our final departure 
from Bermuda, when it was decided to make another 
section across the Atlantic to the Azores. Seventeen 
stations were decided on, and during the passage we 
had most favourable weather for carrying out the 
proposed programme. 

The soundings showed that almost a level plateau 
existed, with a bottom of grey ooze, and an average 
depth of 2600 fathoms. The dredge frequently 
brought up many creatures of the greatest interest, 
and current observations were most successfully 
carried out. 



80 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

On the 1st July anchored off the town of H<^rta, 
in the island of Fayal, but on ascertaining from the 
health officer that a small-pox epidemic had broken 
out, it was deemed prudent not to land, and therefore 
on the next day proceeded for St. Michael's, which 
was reached on the 4th ; finding it healthy, it was 
determined to remain for a few days. 

These islands, known as the Azores, lie in the midst of 
the Atlantic, occupying a line of about 300 miles from 
N.N.W. to E.S.E., and are peculiarly remarkable for 
the incessant gales to which they are subject through- 
out the year, and on this account, joined to that of 
being destitute of any port that can offer a safe re- 
treat and shelter to vessels, they have hitherto been 
held somewhat in dread and avoided by the trader. 

The whole range, it is evident, is of submarine 
volcanic formation, symptoms of which are manifest 
to the geologist at almost every step. Their general 
aspect is certainly very picturesque, presenting, as 
they do, a series of scattered conical hills, which 
are in most cases extinct volcanoes, the sides of 
which are now beautifully clothed with verdant 
heaths and shrubs. Nature appears to have been 
very bountiful in bestowing on it all the advantages 
that a fine atmosphere and a pure air can impart. 

In the private gardens in the immediate vicinity 
of the town are to be seen all the rare productions of 
flowers and shrubs that usually constitute our Euro- 
pean conservatories, tastefully mingled with orna- 



THE AZORES. 81 



mental trees and plants of the Tropics. The great 
variety of palms, of cacti, dragon-trees, aloes, and 
others, blended with the orange, lemon, fig tree, and 
lime, produce a most pleasing effect ; even the beauty 
of our own familiar flowers seems improved, and 
they grow to an enormous size. 

Sugar-cane at one time was produced to a large 
extent ; but the demand appears to have declined, 
and, in consequence, the cultivation of grain, oranges, 
lemons, and the vine has been substituted : the pro- 
duce of these is an extensive and profitable source 
of revenue. 

During our stay, exploring parties visited man}/ 
places of interest some few miles inland, especially 
the Lake of the Seven Cities, on their way passing 
through gullies, chasms, and long deep ravines, that 
evidently have been formed by torrents rushing from 
the mountains to the sea, all of which are now, by 
the bounteous aid of Nature, covered with luxuriant 
foliage and charming shrubs. 

The Azores abound with a great variety of mineral 
springs of the most valuable qualities and tempera- 
tures, which might be rendered a source of wealth to 
the inhabitants if the condition of the country and the 
accommodations of life were such as to induce visitors 
to resort thither to profit by their beneficial effects. 

The public buildings are of but little interest. The 
streets are narrow, as in most southern climates, 
principally for the purpose of excluding the rays of 

G 



82 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the sun. Every house, of high or low degree, ap- 
pears to have its latticed windows and balconies, 
behind which the ladies of the household seem to 
pass a large proportion of the day, gazing out on the 
passers-by. 

In the course of a few years the breakwater will 
probably be completed ; it is being carried out for 
some distance, and will be sufficient to shelter all the 
shipping that visit the port during the fruit season, 
which commences in November and ends in May, 
during which period it is usually very bad weather. 

On the evening of July 9th we left the anchorage 
under steam, and proceeded to the offing, when the 
ship was swung for magnetic and azimuth correc- 
tions. On their conclusion, a course was shaped for 
Madeira, which was reached on the 15th. Here, as 
at Fayal, we were informed by the health officer that 
small-pox was very prevalent ; it was therefore de- 
cided to have very little intercourse, and no com- 
munication with the shore was permitted. The island 
scenery, as viewed from the ship, is certainly very 
charming, and one cannot help enjoying the beau- 
tiful prospect stretching out before us. As there 
appeared to be no prospect of landing, it was de- 
cided to proceed on our way ; accordingly, on the 
morning of the 18th July, we left, and commenced 
to make a section along the west coast of Africa. 
The weather on the whole was very fine, and, with 
a. capital breeze in our favour, good progress was 



POETO GRANDE, ST. VINCENT. 83 

made : still it did not deter our stopping daily a 
few hours for sounding and dredging purposes, depth 
being found from 1125 to 2400 fathoms. Palma, 
one of the Canary Islands, was sighted on the 19th, 
and sounding and dredging carried on in its vicinity. 
On one occasion we alighted apparently near the 
same spot dredged in the February previous, bring- 
ing up in the dredge some of the dead hard coral 
and volcanic sand, as on the former occasion. 

Thus the time passed pleasantly enough. We had 
found deep water day after day close up to the island 
of Antonio (Cape de Yerde), which was sighted on the 
26th ; the soundings now got less, and showed that 
this island was connected by a ridge with St. Vincent, 
only 52 fathoms of water being found in some places 
on it. On the morning of July 27th we anchored off 
Porto Grande, St. Yincent, and remained until the 
5th August. During the stay a survey was made of 
the anchorage, and the vessel filled up with coal. 

What a contrast in the scenery between this place 
and Madeira ! Here are barren rocks, and not the 
faintest indication of vegetation to be seen in any 
direction, although its formation, there can be no 
doubt, is precisely similar. 

The town, if it can be so named, consists of a few 
straggling houses and the stores of Messrs. Millar 
and Co., the coal contractors, situated along the 
shore, while, stretching away behind, are several 
high, rough, and jagged peaks and mountains, afford- 

G 2 



84 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

ing a fine background for the barren and uninterest- 
ing coast scenery. Scarcely any supplies were to be 
obtained here. We left on the 5th of August, and 
the next day reached Santiago, another island of the 
same group. Here we had somewhat better success, 
and a fair supply of fruit and vegetables was obtained. 

Porto Praya is prettily situated, at least it appears 
so from the sea, on an elevated piece of land at the 
extreme end of an open roadstead, which is well 
protected from the prevailing winds : still there ia 
generally a long Atlantic swell setting in, which 
makes landing unpleasant and difficult. 

Visiting the shore on one occasion under a verv 
hot sun, the walk to the town was found exceedingly 
fatiguing. The roads were deep with sand, and the 
views obtained on reaching it anything but enticing ; 
and any idea previously formed in its favour was 
soon dispelled. 

The houses, with but few exceptions, are poor 
specimens of habitations, usually built of stone, one 
story high. The interiors present only a few articles 
of absolute necessity ; of home comfort or cleanliness, 
in our sense of the word, they seem to have no idea. 

The population appears to be made up of an inter- 
mixture of descendants from Portuguese settlers and 
negroes from the adjacent coast, who cultivate little 
patches of land in the valleys, where are produced 
a few varieties of tropical fruits for the market. 

It had been reported that a species of pink coral 



ST. PAULS ROCKS. 85 

was found on this coast ; but the result of our dredg- 
ing was not very successful. A few specimens 
were, however, obtained, similar to the red from the 
Mediterranean, but no pink. 

After three days, we started on the 9th of August, 




ST. PAUr/S ROCKS. 



and continued our section towards the coast of Africa. 
It was now the rainy season, and each day as we 
neared the Equator we felt its disagreeable eifects. 
We ran on under the favourable influence of the 
trade-winds, taking a line of soundings as far as lati- 
tude 3° north, when we were just off Cape Palmas, 



86 CRUISE OF R.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

on the west coast of Africa. The south-east trades 
now compelled us to alter course, and we stood to 
the westward so as to reach St. Paul's Rocks, nearly 
900 miles distant. The Gruinea current had been in- 
vestigated ; and it was found we had fallen in with 
the Equatorial current, which continued with us until 
we were near the coast of Brazil. The dredgings 
obtained were particularly rich and interesting, and 
the frequent soundings showed we had been sailing 
over an average depth of 2200 fathoms. 

On the 27th August land was reported, and as we 
neared St. Paul's Rocks, so the little pinnacles in the 
midst of the ocean became clearer and clearer. There 
was deep water close to ; so we secured to the lee-side 
by means of a large hawser. 

The rocks are situated in 0° 58' north latitude, and 
29° 15' west longitude. They are 540 miles from 
the coast of South America, and 350 from Fernando 
Noronha. The highest point is only about 60 feet 
above the level of the sea. In moderately fine 
weather a landing can usually be effected. Hundreds 
of sea-birds frequent them ; but there was not a single 
plant or moss to be found, nor any fresh water to be 
obtained. 

During the two days of our stay the rocks were 
alive with surveyors, naturalists, and others. Fish 
was to be obtained in abundance. A thorough geo- 
logical examination was made, with a view to test 
the practicability of erecting a lighthouse, as a monu- 



iiiiiiiiii[ii'!iiiiiii[im! 



pwiiii 

iifi I 

WW* 

■ffM 




CROSSING THE LINK 87 

ment to the memory of the late Captain Maury, 
United States Navy — who was the father of deep-sea 
exploration, and who has rendered such important 
aid to navigation. However, from our observations, 
the decision was altogether unfavourable. 

On the morning of 29th August hawsers were cast 
off, and we steamed round the rocks, taking sound- 
ings and current observations ; and on the next day 
crossed the Equator in longitude 30° 18' west. The 
disagreeable practice of shaving, &c., those who for 
the first time " cross the Line " was not permitted, 
although there were many who were anxious to join 
in the usual sport. This old-fashioned custom, which 
the present age seems inclined to get rid of, is 
gradually falling into disuse, and but few ships' com- 
panies now pay that homage on entering Neptune's 
dominions as they were wont to. So the invisible 
belt was crossed ; and as the night advanced the 
more striking became the aspect of the Southern Con- 
stellations. The sparkling light of the North Star had 
for some time past been growing fainter, and at 
length disappeared altogether. On the other hand, 
the Southern Cross, and other stars with which we 
were not so familiar, had taken their places ; and 
each night, as we moved farther south, for a time we 
felt a difficulty in recognising our new acquaint- 
ances. 

Though the Line had been crossed at a more 
westerly point than usual, on the 1st September we 



88 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

were enabled to sight the island of Fernando 
Noronha ; and later in the day came to anchor in 
35 fathoms. The captain landed, and paid his 
respects to the Commandant, explaining the object of 
our visit, asking permission to survey round the 
island, and to explore the interior for botanical and 
zoological specimens. This was readily granted ; 
but on the morrow, just as the various parties had 
started, a message arrived withdrawing the permis- 
sion previously given ; the commandant stating that 
he could not, without the sanction of his government, 
take upon himself the responsibility of allowing any 
investigation, or of collecting a single insect or plant. 

This group consists of two islands and several 
rocks, exposed to the whole swell of the Atlantic, 
and the surf breaks constantly and heavily on its 
shores. The islands are strange specimens of volcanic 
formation, needle4ike rocks, sugar-loafed pinnacles, 
and overhanging cliffs. 

The central peak is named the Pyramid, and is 
about 1000 feet above the level of the sea, the 
upper part of which seems to overhang the base. 
The islands appear to be well wooded. Trees 
abound on the higher parts of the land, with 
wondrous creepers clustering among their branches. 
Of fruit, the principal seem to be bananas and 
melons. At the present time it is used as a penal 
settlement by the Brazilian government, giving 
shelter to some 1500 to 2000 prisoners. A fort, 



ANCHOR OFF BAHIA. 89 

strong in appearance, is garrisoned by a company 
of soldiers. It is situated about 300 miles from 
Pernambuco, from which place a vessel periodically 
calls with provisions. 

The naturalists particularly regretted to let slip the 
opportunity of instituting a comparison of the vege- 
tation and its organisation with that on the main- 
land of South America. As it was, however, in the 
first landing a few specimens were secured ; and 
the little that was seen was sufficient to clear up any 
uncertainty hitherto existing as to its geological 
structure, which was decidedly volcanic. 

As nothing farther could be done, it was decided 
to leave on the 3rd. For some 20 miles round the 
island the soundings showed a rocky bottom of 
800 fathoms ; outside which, in a south-westerly 
direction, a depth of over 2000 fathoms was found, 
proving that a deep channel exists between this 
group and the Eocas. 

For the following ten days the weather continued 
unsettled and squally. Still, very frequent soundings 
and dredgings were onward in depths varying from 
800 to 2275 fathoms. On the morning of 14th 
September, Cape Antonio was in sight, 15 to 20 
miles distant. This forms the eastern side of the 
entrance to Bahia ; it is covered with trees, and the 
lighthouse and flag-staff on its extreme point stand 
prominently to the front. 

On rounding the cape, the entrance to Bahia de 



90 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

Todos Santos lies immediately in front, with the 
fine town stretching away on its eastern side. The 
bay is full of shipping, and extends for over 20 miles 
northward. There are several islands at its head, 
and sundry rivers run into its waters. Later in the 
day we anchored off the Public GTardens, from which 
point a capital view of the city is to be had. It con- 
sists of a higher and lower town. The higher por- 
tion includes the suburbs of Victoria and Bomfra, 
and has several fine streets and stately houses, where 
the officials and principal merchants reside. The 
lower portion is devoted to commerce, and contains 
shops and warehouses for the sale of inland produce 
and foreign goods. There is a Naval Arsenal, but 
apparently of very little pretensions to size or utility. 
The public buildings are of no importance, except 
the cathedral, which is built of marble, and is said to 
be the handsomest of its kind in Brazil. 

During our fourteen days' stay here, numerous ex- 
cursions were made both by rail and river, for 
through the courtesy of the directors of the respective 
companies free tickets were placed at the disposal of 
the officers. This afforded special opportunities for 
seeing the country for some miles' radius. A short 
distance beyond the city the land for miles appears 
to be covered with forests of charming trees, of all 
shapes, sizes, and unknown names ; while nestling 
around their green borders are plantations and little 
farms, giving the scene a most picturesque effect. 






BRAZILIAN SCENERY. 91 

The botanist, naturalist, and even the ordinary 
observer of nature, who for the first time wanders 
through a Brazilian forest, cannot fail to realise 
sensations of the utmost delight at the lavish beauty 
met with ; all this Providence has bestowed, in 
an extraordinary degree, attesting the illimitable 
power and beneficence of the Creator. All those 
interesting objects that Nature loves to blend may 
be found here. The beauty of the trees, enhanced 
by innumerable vine-creepers, parasites, and orchids, 
shrouding every trunk and festooning every path, 
the luxuriance of vegetation, the elegance of the 
ferns, grasses, and flowers, tend to awaken in the 
observer a sense of his own littleness, and to force 
him, even in spite of himself, to acknowledge the 
Power that formed them. 

The number of vegetable products found here is 
almost beyond belief. Coffee, cocoa, tea, all sorts of 
fruit, scents and spices, sarsaparilla, quinine, tonquin 
beans, indigo, india-rubber, bread-fruit, the beautiful 
cashew-nut, gay-coloured apples and plants, gums, 
seeds, and leaves, of infinite variety and great value, 
everywhere abound. 

Such are among the elements of scenery met with ; 
but to paint its effect is a hopeless endeavour. 

Thus the time at our disposal soon passed. Leave 
had been granted to the ship's company, who en- 
joyed themselves after a fashion in this expensive 
locality. A theatrical entertainment on board the 



92 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

U.S. flag-ship Lancaster, and a match with the Bahia 
Cricket Club, all tended to make our stay agreeable, 
which at length was cut short by the appearance of 
a case of yellow fever. The sufferer was landed, and 
on the 25th September we sailed to secure against 
the spread of the disease by seeking a colder climate. 

A section was now commenced across the Atlantic 
to the Cape of Good Hope. When clear of the land, 
sail was made, and with a pleasant breeze we raced 
on into cooler and healthier latitudes. It had been 
intended to sight and make a short stay off the little 
island of Trinidad, a rocky and barren spot, sur- 
rounded with a dangerous shore of almost unap- 
proachable, sharp, rugged rock, over which generally 
a rough and turbulent surf breaks, affording security 
to innumerable sea-birds, for whose refuge it seems 
expressly formed. 

Owing, however, to unfavourable winds and other 
causes, we were unable to get nearer than 300 miles; 
so our course was altered for Tristan d'Acunha. 
During the passage the usual programme of sound- 
ing and trawling was carried out when opportunities 
offered. The ocean seems teeming with animated 
organisms. The drift nets, which are always trailing 
behind us, get filled in a short time with immense 
numbers of little living creatures, pretty-looking red 
and blue cockles, sea-nettle, and various other in- 
habitants of the deep, many of the most minute size 
and delicate form and tint. 



SEA-BIRDS. 93 



In the work-room was disclosed, by aid of the micro- 
scope, to the observer, an entirely new world in the 
economy of nature as displayed in animal life from 
the surface of the sea. 

During the passage many events took place 
which, although trivial in themselves, contributed 
to render the voyage less tedious and monotonous. 
Occasionally we spoke or sighted a vessel, or fell in 
with a barnacle-covered fragment of timber, which was 
secured and overhauled for the sake of any living 
creatures adhering to its sides. But what seemed to 
impart an extra interest to our every-day life, when 
clear of the Tropics, was the vast number of sea-birds 
constantly accompanying us, probably attracted by the 
numerous fragments of provisions thrown overboard. 

Cape pigeons, those prettily marked birds about 
the size of doves, the majestic albatross, stormy 
petrels of all sizes, follow on in motley groups, never 
seeming to weary in their search for food. These 
birds appear to possess a remarkable capacity for 
remembering the exact time when they are likely to 
get a feed, for day after day, soon after noon, the 
vicinity of the vessel was usually animated with 
their shrill shrieking and fighting with each other 
for the dainty morsels thrown overboard. 

The soundings appeared to indicate that a bank 
with about 2000 fathoms of water on it connects the 
Tristan Islands with the coast of South America. 
The dredgings were not quite so productive as had 



94 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

been previously the case. On the 6th October, in 
lat. 30° south, we picked up the commencement of the 
" westerlies," and by their influence we made short 
work of the 900 miles still separating us from the 
islands. On the morning of the 15th land was in 
sight, a little speck at first rising up dark and rugged 
out of the sea, growing larger and larger as we 
neared, terminating at length in a huge conical peak 
some 8000 feet in height covered with snow. 

It seems surprising that people can be found to 
leave associations and friends, and isolate them- 
selves in such an out-of-the-way place as this, more 
remote from other inhabited places than any other 
settlement on the face of the globe. At the time of 
our visit the population consisted of some twenty 
families, numbering eighty-four in all. Soon after 
our anchoring a boat came off with seventeen of 
the islanders. Amongst them was Peter Green, 
their governor, from whom it was ascertained that 
they had plenty of cattle and vegetables for sale. 
This was welcome news, for fresh provisions are 
always acceptable after being a long time at sea. 
They however proved, as was found out later, that 
they were not above trying to make a good bargain 
out of us, and consequently spoiled the market for 
themselves. 

We had approached the land as near as safety 
permitted ; the weather promising to be fine, oppor- 
tunities were taken to land. Soon after leaving the 



THE INACCESSIBLE ISLAND. 95 



vessel, an extensive belt of sea-weed was found en- 
circling the island, forming a natural breakwater, 
and so preventing the violence of the heavy Atlantic 
surf breaking, as it otherwise would, along the 
shore. 

Before reaching the land, all, more or less, got a 
wetting, as the rollers break along the beach, but 
after a scramble all landed right enough, and made 
a tour of the settlement, which is named Edinburgh, 
in compliment to Prince Alfred, who visited here in 
1867, when in command of the Galatea. 

About fifteen houses are seen scattered over an 
open space on the north side of the island. There 
are several enclosures where potatoes and other vege- 
tables are grown, and the islanders possess, in com- 
mon, some four or five hundred head of cattle and 
a plentiful supply of poultry and pigs. 

As the day advanced, the weather changed to wind 
and rain, and it was with some difficulty all got on 
board in safety. 

During the visit to the shore a story was told of 
two Germans, who had been living at the well- 
named Inaccessible Island 30 miles farther south, 
who had voluntarily exiled themselves with the hope 
of obtaining seal skins, but lately nothing had been 
heard of them, and it was supposed they had perished. 
Throughout the night the vessel was steamed across 
the channel, and on the following morning the land 
was closed, but nothing indicating life was at first seen. 



96 CBTJISE OF HM.S. CHALLENGER. 

A boat's crew, however, landed, and in a very short 
time the would-be Robinson Orusoes were discovered 
near a little grass hut they called their home. Not 
much pressing was necessary to induce them to come 
on board, when, after a good breakfast, they were 
able to toll their own story, which was as follows: — 

THE STOKY OF FREDERICK STOLTENHOFF (THE ELDER).* 

Born in Moscow, of German parents, cloth dyers by trade 
in 1846, at the outbreak of the Franco-German war, I watt 
employed as a clerk in a merchant's office at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. I was called on by the government to serve 
with the German army, being attached to the 15th division 
of the second army, and by the following Christmas I 
reached the position of second lieutenant. After taking 
parts in the siege of Metz and Thionville, the battalion 
I served in was detached south to join General Werder's 
army. At the finish of the campaign I was discharged and 
returned home. 

In June 1871, my younger brother, Gustav, returned 
home from Tristan d'Acunha, where he landed with the 
crew of a St. John's (Newfoundland) vessel, the Beacon 
Light, which had been lost by fire about 300 miles to the 
north-west of Tristan. The crew were taken from the island 
by the Northfleet (the ship afterwards sunk off Dungeness), 
and carried to Aden, from whence Gustav, having joined an 
English steamer, came to Germany. 

My brother's account of the life at Tristan, and his desire 
to return there, led me to join him in a venture to the 
island, not with a view to remaining there by settling, but 
to endeavour to realise a sum by seal-hunting and barter. 

* For this story I am indebted to E. E. Eichards, Esq., Paymaster, 
who wrote it at Stoltenhoff's dictation. 



STOUT OF THE BT10TI1EIIS STOLTENIIOFF. 97 



With this view, after making preparations, we left South- 
ampton for St. Helena in the English steamer Northam, in 
August 1871, and were landed there the following month. 
On the 6th November we left St. Helena in an American 

whaler, the Java, Captain Manter, hailing from New Bedford, 
bound on a cruise in the South Atlantic. We shipped as 
passengers, and were to have been landed at Tristan. During 
the passage across, the captain's account of the settlers at 
the island, and the probable reception we should meet with 
from them, was in direct opposition to my brother's de- 
scription of the place and people, after a stay of eighteen 
days only. Captain Manter described Inaccessible Island as 
a fertile place with a valley running up from the beach on 
the west side; and that the island itself and the next 
(Nightingale) were the seats of a seal and sea-elephant 
fishery. His knowledge was derived, so he said, from 
several visits to Inaccessible Island, where he had landed 
and seen both pigs and goats. Eventually my brother and 1 
decided to try our fortunes at Inaccessible Island, and we 
were landed there by the whaler's boats on 27th November, 
1871. We had with us a whale boat (old), bought at 
St. Helena, with mast, sail, and oars, two hundred pounds of 
rice, two hundred pounds of flour, one hundred pounds of 
biscuit, twenty pounds of coffee, ten pounds of tea, thirty 
pounds of sugar, one barrel of coarse salt (afterwards washed 
away), thirty pounds of block salt, and a small quantity of 
pepper, eight pounds of tobacco, fourteen empty barrels for 
oil, five bottles of hollands, six bottles of Cape wine, six 
bottles of vinegar, some Epsom salts (the only medicine). 
We each had two blankets, some shoes and boots, and our 
ordinary clothes. The captain of the whaler sold us a lantern 
and a bottle of oil; but we had no candles. For lighting 
purposes we had six dozen boxes of Bryant and May's 
matches. We also had a wheelbarrow, two spades, a shovel, 
two pickaxes, kettle, frying-pan, two saucepans, and eating 

H 



98 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

utensils. For arms, we were in possession of a short Enfield 
muzzle-loacling rifle, an old German fowling-piece, two pounds 
and a half of powder (and to this the mate of the whaler 
added one pound of blasting powder), two hundred bullets, 
and sufficient lead with which we made one hundred bullets 
more ; four sheath knives (such as are used by sailors), a saw, 
a few nails, hammer, two chisels, some twine, two or three 
gimlets, a door, three spars for a roof, a glazed sash for a 
window, and two iron buckets. Our clothes were in chests ; 
and we brought covers which were easily filled with birds' 
feathers, and made good beds. On the 27th November, 
1871, we came ashore on the west side of the island, the 
whaler leaving in a quarter of an hour's time, after giving 
us a few potatoes for seed — and we had brought with us 
seeds of nearly all the common garden vegetables. A bitch 
and three pups accompanied us. 

My brother at once started in search of goats or pigs, 
climbing, by the aid of the tussack grass, the side of the 
cliff to the top of the island. He was too tired to return 
that night, and failed to shoot any game. The next day he 
rejoined me, and we built a hut for shelter. The whaler 
crew had hauled our boat up for us. After a day's rest we 
both in company went after game, and shot a pig, and saw 
bat failed to get near any goats. Four days after landing 
we received a visit from sixteen men, in two boats, from 
Tristan d'Acunha — which island was cleared of men with 
the exception of two. The sealing season had set in, and 
this was their yearly visit, hastened after learning from the 
captain of the Java that we had landed and were in possession 
of four boxes and letters from St. Helena for the islanders. 
The Java, after leaving us, had been becalmed off Tristan, 
and during the night a boat had come off to her to procure 
supplies. The captain of the Java, so the men told me, 
refused to barter with them, being so short a time from port. 

As soon as our goods were housed, it was our intention to 



STORY OF THE BROTHERS STOLTENHOFF. 99 

take advantage of the first southerly wind and fine weather 
to visit Tristan, and deliver the four boxes, letters, and 
messages from the relatives of the islanders living at 
St. Helena. The two boats landed at the north side of 
Inaccessible Island, and the men came round in their boats 
to meet us. Their stay, it being late in the afternoon, 
extended over an hour only, and during this time they 
behaved very well towards us, and offered assistance, teach- 
ing us how to build huts from the tussack grass. The next 
morning we received another visit from a dozen of them 
who had been in search of goats and crossed the island by 
land. These men helped us to build a small hut. They also 
explained that the position we had taken was bad, and ad- 
vised us to shift to the north side of the island. Bad weather 
prevented any further intercourse for a couple of days ; 
after which my brother and I crossed the hills to the north 
side and were shown the road down the cliff by one of the 
party, and the position of our future home. We returned to 
our first position the next day. Up to this time the Tristan 
people thought that we were going to return to their island 
with them, and showed friendly feelings towards us. Our 
goods were fetched to the north side by one of their boats 
during their ten days' stay, and we ourselves lived there 
with them for two days. Eeing anxious to obtain a cow, a 
heifer, and a young bull, I made arrangements with Green to 
bring them over, if possible, and this he agreed to do about 
Christmas. After a stay of nine or ten days the Tristan 
men left for their island ; they had procured only one seal. 

This brings us to the commencement of December 1871. 
We at once set about building a house, cleared some ground, 
planted our seed and potatoes, and made preparation for 
staying some time on the island. It was summer, with fine 
weather as a rule ; a splendid supply of water fell down the 
side of a mountain, within a hundred yards of our hut, and 
firewood was easily procured in the wood alongside of us. 

H 2 



100 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. ■ 

The seals were landing in different spots, it being the pup- 
ping season, and we were able to procure nineteen ; the 
skins were afterwards sold, and we were not able to make 
any quantity of oil. Three sea-elephants were ashore on 
the north side when the men from Tristan landed, but they 
were not captured. Our first house failed to stand the rain, 
the pitch of the roof being too little. This necessitated its 
being pulled down, and we shifted our quarters a little 
nearer the waterfall, our water supply. Up to this time, 
although hard work was necessary, we had experienced no 
hardship ; but our supplies of rice, flour, and biscuits, were 
rapidly disappearing. Working on the beach every day we 
were unable to climb the cliff in search of pigs or goats, and 
thus supplement our first supply of provisions. The middle 
of January saw the end of the regular sealing season. In 
seal-hunting around the island our whale-boat, which was 
too heavy for two men to handle, was damaged in landing in 
the surf; but was yet serviceable by aid of constant bailing. 
We had seen nothing of our neighbours; and only a few 
ships passed within sight of the island, without stopping. 
In the beginning of April 1872, the tussack by which we 
had ascended the cliff close to the house caught fire, whilst 
we were clearing the ground below by burning, and all the 
tussack on the north side was destroyed. Our means oi 
reaching game being thus cut off, and winter approaching, it 
became imperative to begin laying in provisions. With this 
view we cut the whale-boat in halves, and, discarding the 
worst portion, succeeded in making a smaller boat, which 
would float in fine weather. To this specimen of naval 
architecture we gave the name of Sea Cart I By aid of the 
boat a visit was made to the west side of the island, whence 
we could climb to the plateau ; and shooting two goats we 
salted them down. A fat pig also assisted our store, by 
furnishing a bucket of fat for frying potatoes ; the carcase of 
the pig was too heavy for our boat when laden with other 



STORY OF THE BROTHERS STOLTENHOFF. 101 

supplies. The meat of the wild goats we found to be most 
delicate and finely flavoured. In November 1871 the 
number of goats we counted to be twenty- three, chiefly 
rams. Of these, three were shot by the Tristan people, six 
were shot by us, and fourteen remained during the winter. 
The number of wild pigs was great ; the boars, although of 
different sizes, standing in some cases as high as a sheep. 
Their food, other than roots and grass, is furnished in 
endless quantity by the birds and their eggs, of which an 
immense number are consumed by them. The meat of the 
boar is rank and uneatable ; that of the sows wholesome and 
good. On 14th May 1872 (by our reckoning) an English 
ship came in sight ; we lighted a fire and attracted the 
attention of her crew. The Sea Cart was not in a condition 
to go off to the vessel, and the look of the surf on the beach 
prevented the captain from attempting to land ; and to our 
regret and disappointment the vessel made sail again and 
passed on. At Tristan d'Acunha her master reported that 
he had seen two people and a large square-sterned black 
boat on the beach, but that no one came off. Had we been 
able to communicate with this vessel, it was not our intention 
to leave the island if we could have obtained supplies. The 
winter set in in June, the month following; but was never 
very severe, although we experienced a lot of rain, and 
heavy gales generally from the north-west. It never froze 
on the level of the sea ; but during a strong gale from the 
Bouth-east the Sea Cart was washed off the beach and broken 
up. In May our first and only crop of potatoes obtained 
that year was dug, and during the following months some of 
the other vegetables were fit for food. Unable to reach the 
plateau, after the loss of the boat, our store of provisions 
was soon so reduced, although husbanded with care, that 
we were obliged to diminish our allowance daily to a quantity 
just sufficient to maintain life ; and at the middle of August 
we were little better than skeletons. The male penguins, 



102 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

forming part of a rookery about a mile from our hut, had 
landed at the end of July ; and in the middle of August, 
when it became almost a necessity to resort to killing 
them for sustenance, the females came ashore, laid their 
eggs a fortnight later on the nests already formed or 
built by their lords, and we were only too glad to avail 
ourselves of this supply of food. The day previous to the 
penguins laying we had eaten our last potato, and were 
without any supply of provisions whatever. The only 
other birds within our reach were the night-birds, and a 
few thrushes and canaries ; of these the thrushes only 
were fit for food. In the first week of September 1872 
we were glad enough to sight a French bark, which hove- 
to off our beach, and whose captain landed after seeing 
our signals. We shipped in her our nineteen seal skins; 
and in return for a lot of eggs, her captain gave us about 
sixty pounds of biscuits and a couple of pounds of tobacco. 
Fearing the weather, the captain of this vessel did not land 
again, and we could not obtain any farther supply. The 
bark was bound to the East Indies, and had she arrived 
a fortnight sooner both my brother and myself would cer- 
tainly have been most glad to quit our habitation. A fort- 
night on a diet of eggs ad libitum had so far restored our 
strength that we decided yet to remain. During the next 
month our food consisted of eggs and biscuits from the 
French vessel. In October 1872, on the 20th, a schooner 
(fore-and-aft) was seen standing in towards the island. 
She proved to be the Themis, a schooner making sealing 
voyages amongst the islands in the South Atlantic, from 
the Cape of Good Hope. A gale of wind drove her to sea 
for two days, when she returned and communicated, landing 
six men and boys in a boat from Tristan d'Acunha. The 
captain of the schooner, who landed with them, was civil, 
and offered me some salt pork and biscuits; we accepted 
about thirty pounds of the former and a small quantity of 



STORY OF TEE BROTHERS STOLTENTIOFF. 103 

the latter. The schooner sailed the same day. Both of 
us were anxious to take passage in her, and intended to 
have done so on her return in a few weeks* time, when her 
captain stated he would revisit the island. The interim was 
to have been spent in trapping seal, the season for which had 
commenced. Indeed, the next day we obtained the finest 
skin of our collection. Although civil in making us a 
present of pork and biscuits, to which was added two pounds 
of tobacco, the captain of the Themis declined to barter 
except for seal skins, and of these we were unfortunately not 
possessed. The men of Tristan had come over, they stated, 
to see what we were doing ; but they had not availed them- 
selves of the opportunity by the schooner of sending the 
cattle promised ; and they excused themselves in different 
ways for not having brought them in their own boats. 
Several small articles were appropriated by our visitors 
during their stay of half a day, when they returned to the 
schooner and left the island. No goats or pigs were shot 
by them, and they promised another visit in a fortnight. 
During the next few days we worked hard to catch seals, 
with which to pay our passage to the Cape on the return ot 
the Themis. The Themis never returned, and we were 
doomed to disappointment. At the end of October our 
supply of penguin eggs failed, and we were compelled to 
seek another source of subsistence. On the 10th November, 
our supply of biscuit and pork being exhausted, and the 
weather being very calm and fine, my brother and I swam 
around the nearest point to the eastward, with our blankets, 
the rifle, and a spare suit of clothes — the latter, with our 
powder, matches, and kettle in one of the oil casks. Stopping 
the night at the foot of the cliff, the next morning we both 
mounted by aid of the tussack grass to the plateau, and went 
over to the west side, and descended to the vicinity of our 
first abode. Here we built a hut, and, having shot a pig, 
enjoyed a feast of fresh meat. The next day I shot a goit, 



104 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

on which, with the meat of six others subsequently killed by 
me, we lived till the 10th December. The goats I found had 
increased to nineteen during the winter. Returning on the 
lUth December to our house, we arrived at the conclusion 
that our stay on the island would be prolonged, and repaired 
our thatch, weeded the garden, gathered the early potatoes, 
planted, and put things in order. 

I have omitted to state that in fine weather, in summer, 
we fished from our boat with good success, and alter her 
loss, from a rock to which we waded at low water, and thus 
changed onr diet. In winter time the occasions on which 
it was possible to fish did not exceed three or four times ; 
the weather and surf preventing our reaching the rock, and 
the fish avoided the beach during heavy seas. 

Whilst on the west side during this month, we were 
visited by an American whaler (schooner), whxh sent in two 
boats to fish, and from her we procured five pounds of 
tobacco, three shirts, twenty-five pounds of flour, and six 
or seven pounds of molasses, in return for six small seal 
skins. The Themis was expected, or we should have gone 
away in this schooner. On the 19th December we were 
aroused by firing and shouting, to find our Tristan neigh- 
bours once more among us. They had spent nine days on 
the west side of the island, had procured forty seals and one 
sea-elephant ; and two seals from Nightingale Island, where 
they had spent a couple of days. One of our casks on the 
west side they had taken to stow blubber in, and we received 
a small quantity of flour in exchange. After staying half 
an hour, they left, telling us that the Themis would visit 
Tristan the following month, and afterwards Inaccessible 
Island. Although anxious to leave, I was not desirous, 
except as a last resource, to go to Tristan ; and buoyed up 
by the hope, again revived, of an early visit from the 
Themis, my brother i. nd I remained on the island. This was 
the last communication with us until the arrival of the 



STORY OF THE BROTHERS STOLTENEOFF. 105 

Challenger, ten months afterwards. The Tristan men, during 
their nine clays' stay, had shot eight of the remaining- twelve 
goats, and expressed their regret openly that they had not 
been able to shoot the other four. 

The Themis we saw at Tristan in January, but no visit 
was paid to us. 

About the 22nd January I swam round the point again, 
mounted the cliff, and succeeded in shooting four pigs. 
From these two buckets of fat were filled. I saw the four 
goats, but refrained from shooting them. The hams of the 
pigs I threw over the cliff to my brother. On this occasion 
I remained eight days on the hills, paying a visit to the hut 
on the west side every night to sleep. At this time the 
albatrosses and sea-birds ^ere laying on the top of the island, 
and their eggs formed a portion of my food. The young 
sea-birds were also palatable. 

On the 1st February, the day after I rejoined my brother, 
a boat came across from Tristan, landed on the west side, 
and her crew shot or took away the only remaining four 
goats ; for what reason it is difficult to say, as there is an 
abundance of food of every description, including sheep, at 
Tristan. Their object appeared to us to be to drive us from 
the island. After a detention of a clay, by bad weather, 
the boat returned to Tristan without communicating with 
us ; indeed, they endeavoured to avoid being seen, or so it 
appeared to us, who were in a measure unable to communi- 
cate with them. February passed quietly ; we were living 
on potatoes and vegetables from our clearings, mixed with 
fat. 

In March, our fat and potatoes being expended, another 
visit around the point was made by both of us in company. 
We discovered the loss of the goats ; but shot several pigs, 
and lived on the west side for a fortnight. During this 
time, on our excursions to the top of the island, we built on 
the summit a small hut of tussack grass, large enough to 



106 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

hold one. The petrels had landed in November, and their 
young in April formed a capital addition to our food. It 
was now decided that I should remain at the top to secure a 
supply of pig's fat sufficient for the winter, whilst my brother 
lived below, and collected in a barrel the fat thrown down to 
him by me. After killing a pig, the hide with the fat 
attached was rolled up, secured by pieces of hide, and thrown 
over the cliff. The want of salt prevented us salting down 
the meat. Tobacco now failed us, and its want was much 
felt, both of us being heavy smokers. 

My brother, on separating from me to live below, had 
taken three young pigs which we had managed to catch, by 
running them down. Secured to our barrel they were towed 
round the point and safely landed, although nearly drowned 
en route. These were placed in an inclosure and carefully 
tended,* being kept for a possible dearth during winter. 
The pigs being small, it was possible, by means of a rope, to 
lower them down the most difficult places, and carry them 
down the easier ones. My sojourn on the top of the island 
came to an end with the last days of April. Eeturning to 
my brother, we lived on petrels and potatoes until the end 
of May. A supply of two live pigs which I had brought 
clown with me met a watery grave in my endeavour to 
weather the point with them in tow. I was fortunate enough, 
notwithstanding the surf, to get ashore without serious 
injury. 

Finding the supply of potatoes insufficient for the winter, 
on 8th June I again visited the top of the island, remaining 
there until the 18th August. Before parting company from 
my brother, we decided to shift quarters for the winter a 
little farther from the waterfall, and succeeded in building 
a house, which stood during the bad weather, and in which 
we were living until quitting the island. 

* The pigs were fed on grass and green stuff generally, and penguin 
eggs when in season. 



STORY OF THE BROTHERS STOLTENHOFF. 107 

The month of June I spent in our hut at the top, that of 
July in a cave — the latter the better habitation during cold 
weather. I saw my brother nearly every day, and unless 
prevented by a high wind or high surf, we could hold a sort 
of conversation. Gustav, whilst below, saw a large iron ship, 
filled with people, pass within a mile of the hut. This 
happened during the first lull after a heavy gale, with thick 
weather. When seen, the crew were employed making sail 
to clear the island. 

During this winter we suffered no great privation, always 
having enough to eat, although consisting of pig's flesh 
only. Of flour, rice, potatoes, or vegetables, I was destitute. 
I had a little tea ; no tobacco. My brother was no better 
off. As soon as the penguins began to lay, we set to work, 
collecting their eggs, and were living on them, chiefly fried 
in pig's fat, when the Challenger hove in sight. At this 
time I had left my rifle, with about fifty rounds of ammuni- 
tion, in the cave. Although the piece had burst in two 
places, it was still in a sufficiently good condition to shoot a 
pig. The fowling-piece burst, and was of little use except as 
blow-pipe to freshen up the fire. Our knives we had lost 
amongst the high grass, and the saw furnished steel enough 
for half a dozen knives in their place. We placed the saw in 
a fire, and cut off the knives with our chisel, hardening the 
iron, then placed it in a handle, and it was ready for use. 
Oar clothes were still in wearable order ; boots and shoes we 
were in want of, although mocassins had taken their place. 
The medicine, providentially, had not been required ; neither 
of us was sick a day. Eight or nine pounds of coffee 
was still left, and about one pound of tea; four bottles 
of vinegar remained, but their contents were spoiled. W T hen 
together, the days on which we were confined to our hut 
by rain passed heavily. Our library consisting of only eight 
books and an atlas, its contents are well known by us- 
both. 



108 CBUISE OF E.M.S. GHALLENGEB. 

When met by the Challenger, our time reckoning was one 
day wrong. This error, I suspect, occurred soon after our 
landing. 

The dogs left us for the penguin rookery, in spite of our 
efforts to secure them with ropes near the hut. They killed 
a large number of penguins, and became very wild and 
savage, paying no attention to us. One of them appearing 
mad, we shot all three. 

To mount to the top of the island on the west side was 
comparatively easy; the tussack grass was not necessary 
to aid the climber, the ascent being made easier by the 
existence of two or three ledges, on which a rest could be 
procured whilst walking along their extent. The lowest 
ledge might have been about twenty acres, the higher ones 
decreasing into mere shelves. The top of the island, over 
which we could roam for game, was about four miles in 
diameter, almost round ; but the ground was much cut up 
by ravines and valleys. The whole top was covered with a 
poor sort of grass and sedge, and trees blown down by the 
winter gales ; the sheltered spots only being wooded by live 
timber, and that of a small description. 

Close to the ridge, on the north side, there was a long 
valley, through which the water of the cascade ran, and here 
was situated my hut. The cave was on a ledge lower down, 
on the north-east side. 

To mount to the ridge on the east side, after swimming 
the point, great exertion and caution were necessary. With- 
out the aid of the tussack grass it would have been im- 
possible to mount; and even with this an hour and a 
half's hard work with hands and feet, and at times teeth, 
was required. The height of the ridge was about 1200 
feet. 

On the north side, the beach to which we were confined was 
about a mile in extreme length, and from 300 yards on the 
right to 200 yards on the left broad. Our hut was on the left, 



TABLE MOUNTAIN, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 109 



the narrowest part ; but this was chosen on account of the 
nearness of the water. 

We remained during the day off the island, sound- 
ing, dredging, and completing a running survey, 
the brothers Stoltenhoff accompanying us to the 
Cape on our leaving, which we did on the 19 th 
October. The strong westerlies caused the weather 
to be of such a boisterous character that but few 
soundings were able to be obtained on this section ; 
however, what was observed proved the existence of 
a deeper channel than was found on the west side 
by at least 600 fathoms, the temperature remaining 
about the same (33°). 

On the 28th October the land was reported, and 
soon the famous Table Mountain of the Cape was 
visible from the deck ; the thirty-three days of our 
passage had now seemingly quickly passed, and we 
were still able to easily recall the many incidents at 
Bahia, and the varied scenes occurring in the 3000 
miles just traversed over. 

And now as we near the African shore, with 
its outline of peculiar shape, our hopes and thoughts 
fly back to other lands, on the one hand thankful 
for successes so far, and on the other full of hope for 
the future. It was late in the day before we were 
fairly in for sounding ; serials and current observa- 
tions had to be taken off the Cape of Storms. 

Therefore it was about 4 p.m. when we anchored 
in Simon's Bay, within half a mile of the shore, where 



110 



CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES,. 



Simon's Town is situated. In consequence of the 
case of yellow fever while at Bahia, two days' qua- 
rantine was imposed, after which all were free for a 
run on shore. 




VIEW OF TRISTAN d'ACUNHA. 




TABLE MOUNTAIN, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, to Marion and Crozet Islands, 
to Kerguelen Land and the Heard Islands, the Antarctic 
Regions, and to Melbourne, Australia. 



Simon's Town — Visit to Cape Town — Discovery of diamonds — From 
Simon's Bay to Table Bay round the Cape of Storms — Anchor in 
Table Bay — The Challenger's ball — Return ball by the residents — 
Beturn to Simon's Bay — Leave the Cape— The Agulhas current — 
The "roaring forties"— Christmas Day 1873— Sight and land on 
Marion Island — Vast number of albatross and other sea-birds — 
Prince Edward's Island — Sight of the Crozet Islands — Passage to 
Kerguelen Land— Arrival at and description of the island— Leave 
Christmas Harbour— The scenery — Anchor in Betsy Cove — From 
thence to Royal Sound — Three Island Bay — Greenland Harbour 
— Cascade Reach — Hopeful Bay — Rhodes Harbour — The seal 
fisheries — Return to Christmas Harbour — Penguin rookeries — 
The Arch Rock— Leaving Kerguelen for the south— The Heard 
Islands — Description of the land — Leave the Heard Islands— The 
first Antarctic iceberg — In the icy regions — The icebergs and pack 
ice — Birds — Cross the Antarctic Circle — Early explorers of these 
inhospitable regions — Wilkes' Termination Land — The Aurora 
Australis— An Antarctic gale — Enter the pack — No signs of land 
— Leave the pack— Dredging — A second gale— Shape our course 



112 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGE!*. 

for Australia— Trawling— The weather— The last iceberg— Pass- 
age to Australia — Land in sight — Arrive and anchor in Hobson's 
Bay, Victoria. 

There can scarcely be a landscape more gloomy and 
desolate than the sterile rocky mountain and white 
sandy plains which inclose Simon's Bay. Coming 
from the coast of Brazil, and the beautiful garden 
scenery of St. Michael's, with its luxuriant verdure, 
the contrast becomes doubly unpleasing and cheerless. 
The town consists of about a couple of hundred 
of square white-washed houses, which are scattered 
along the beach, with scarcely a single tree in the 
neighbourhood for shelter, backed up with lofty, 
steep, bare hills of sandstone. The Naval Yard 
occupies a prominent position, and is of great service 
to the vessels employed on this station ; here repairs 
are efficiently performed, and stores of all descrip- 
tions are to be obtained. 

The Naval Hospital is a capital airy and well-venti- 
lated establishment ; this, together with the residence 
of the Commodore, and two or three churches and 
chapels, constitutes all the buildings with any preten- 
sions to size. 

Shortly after our arrival, parties were made up for 
visiting Cape Town, and having secured seats in the 
car which runs daily to Wynberg, we started one 
fine morning from Simon's Town. The road ran 
along the seashore for some distance, which, before 
reaching, appeared to consist of nothing but sand 



VISIT TO CAPE TOWN. 113 

and rock, but on nearer acquaintance showed up 
many pretty little spots, with here and there banks 
of charming flowers. 

After an hour's drive we reached the little village 
of Cork Bay, whose inhabitants appear to get their 
living by fishing, for there were vast numbers of the 
finny tribe spread out in all directions to dry. Here 
all surrounding nature seemed fishy, the strong 
effluvia permeating everything, even to the trees, 
foliage, and flowers. 

From here the road leaves the coast, and proceeds 
in almost a straight line over the plains which unite 
the Cape with the continent. The high land seem- 
ingly now recedes, and as we ride on, the scenes 
become more and more charming ; the range of hills 
with the celebrated Table Mountain, Devil's Peak, 
Lion's Rump, &c, is visible, beautifully tinged in 
varied colours, while on the left we are passing Con- 
stantia, with its renowned vineyards. On we go, the 
road still leading through a park-like country, with 
charming plantations of pines and oaks on either 
hand, interspersed with elegant villas and stately 
mansions. Having now arrived at Wynberg, we 
complete the rest of the journey to Cape Town by 
rail, and, on approaching our destination, obtain 
glimpses of beautiful landscapes, Table Bay, with its 
shipping, and the gigantic rocky wall of the Table 
Mountains, rising nearly perpendicular to an altitude 
of 3500 feet. On arrival we found convenient and 

I 



114 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

comfortable quarters at the Masonic Hotel in Plein 
Street, facing a large square planted with pines. 
Remaining here for several days, we had oppor- 
tunities of seeing the town. It is destitute of any 
imposing buildings ; even the metropolitan cathedral 
and the other churches are very plain. * * * The 
Museum deserves more than a passing mention ; it 
contains a very good collection of natural history 
and other interesting curiosities ; also the South 
African Public Library, the Literary, Scientific, and 
Mechanics' Institutions, besides many other establish- 
ments and societies for religious, benevolent, and 
industrial purposes, attesting the public spirit and 
enterprise of the inhabitants. The Botanical Gardens 
are a most agreeable resort ; they are well cared for, 
and tastily and prettily laid out, containing many 
rare, interesting, and useful plants from all quarters 
of the globe. 

There is scarcely anything remaining to indicate 
that Cape Town was founded by the Dutch, and 
were it not for the yellow Malay faces, with their 
gaudy head-covering or umbrella-shaped hats, and 
the tawny Mestizos, who remind us of the aboriginal 
inhabitants, and give a complete foreign colouring, 
one might easily fancy we are in an old English 
provincial town. Generally speaking, any one ar- 
riving here with preconceived notions of finding 
himself amongst Hottentots and Bushmen, or in a 
state of society differing materially from that of 



DISCOVEBY OF DIAMONDS. 115 

Europe, will soon find that he has been entirely 
mistaken, for they are only to be met with after 
a troublesome long journey into the inhospitable 
interior. 

There can be no doubt that when the English took 
possession (in 1815) they found that a firm founda- 
tion had been laid by the Dutch a hundred and fifty 
years before, but the real progress of the country, and 
the development of its natural resources, date only 
from the commencement of British rule. * * * 
Within the past few years great impetus has been 
given to trade by the discovery of diamonds in the 
colony. But the means at present available for 
reaching the Fields are both difficult and dangerous ; 
they are more than 600 miles in the interior, and 
from Zoutkloof to Saltpans Drift (386 miles) the road 
is over the Karroo Desert, which during the dry 
season presents considerable difficulties to travellers. 
Yet the wagons which start weekly are generally 
filled, notwithstanding the very high prices charged. 

It appears that the first diamond was found by 
some children who had been gathering agates and 
other pebbles in the bed of the Orange Eiver. This 
stone (weighing 21 T 3 g- carats) attracted the attention 
of an inland trader, and was sent by him to Dr. 
Atherstone, of Graham's Town, by whom it was 
pronounced an unmistakable diamond of the first 
water. Systematic search was then made, which 
resulted in the finding of numerous small diamonds 

i 2 



116 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

on the surface. About twelve months after the first 
one was found, the Star of South Africa, of 83^ 
carats, was discovered near the Orange River by a 
Griqua shepherd. This caused the search to be 
carried on with redoubled energy. The soil on the 
banks of the Vaal River was dug, washed, and sorted 
by Captain Rolleston and party, without success for 
a time ; but after nearly three months' persevering 
labour the first diamond was found in the gravel on 
the 7th January 1870. Within two months the 
party had collected some hundreds of sparkling 
gems. Since then, the Diamond Fields have attracted 
many thousands, and still continue to draw adven- 
turers. 

The area over which diamonds have already been 
found is very extensive, and how much farther it 
may extend cannot even be conjectured. Suffi- 
cient diamondiferous country is already known to 
provide many years' employment for a large popula- 
tion. Diamond-digging is certain to become a per- 
manent industry, though, to insure its becoming a 
profitable one, it will be necessary to work on a 
different plan to that at present adopted. Larger 
areas of ground must be obtainable, capital will need 
to be employed, and such appliances devised as will 
perform the maximum of work with the least amount 
of labour. Companies worked by skilful and intelli- 
gent managers, if backed with moderate capital, are 
almost certain of success. 



ANCHOR IN TABLE BAY. 117 

The first diamonds found at Du Toit's Pan and 
Bultfontein were picked out from the mud plaster 
covering the walls of an outbuilding at Bultfontein 
in 1869. Shortly afterwards several Kafirs were 
employed to look over the land for them. They 
succeeded in finding a great many small ones on the 
surface of the sandy soil. After searching on the 
surface, digging and sifting the surface soil was 
undertaken ; next, the lime tufa was bored into, and 
now large " paddocks " are sunk to a depth of over 
twenty feet in the decomposed igneous rock. 

There is a tradition among the Bushmen that in 
former times their forefathers made journeys to the 
banks of the Yaal River to procure a small white 
substance with which they bored holes in the per- 
forated stones used by them to add weight to their 
digging sticks. Possibly this white substance was 
diamond, as the material out of which the digging 
implements were formed was often intensely hard. 
These perforated stones were afterwards handed 
down from father to son as heirlooms. 

After completing stores, and having refitted ship, 
we steamed round the famous Cape of Storms for 
Table Bay. The forty miles run was soon accom- 
plished, and the anchors let go about a couple of 
miles from the shore. It was intended we should 
have gone in the dock basin, so as to have given the 
inhabitants of the town free run on board, but the 
dock master was afraid of our size, and the damage 



118 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

we might probably have caused to his jetty and bol- 
lards, if a south-easter should come on, which seemed 
very likely at this season ; so we had to be visited 
at this distance, with all the inconveniences of again 
reaching the shore. 

A ball was given during our stay in the Com- 
mercial Buildings. Our guests told us that nothing 
so perfect and complete had ever been held before. 
Concerning the decorations, they were particularly 
enthusiastic, for there were, as novelties, trophies of 
dredging and sounding apparatus, with flags, flowers, 
and evergreens, giving certainly a very pleasing 
effect. Suffice it to say, all passed off most agreeably. 
The following night the citizens of Cape Town gave 
a return ball in the same building, when everything 
was done by them to insure success, and, without 
any flattery, nothing could have exceeded the com- 
pleteness of the arrangements or the hospitality of the 
givers. * * * The next day the ship was swung 
in the Bay for magnetic corrections, after which 
we proceeded to Simon's Bay to complete stores and 
refitment. This was finished by the 16th December, 
and the next day we steamed out of Simon's Bay for 
our Antarctic cruise. 

The weather was beautifully fine, and as Cape 
Point was passed, and the high land of the Table 
Mountains receded from our sight, a southerly 
course was shaped : and on the 19 th, 80 miles to 
the southward of the Cape, we entered the Agulhas 



THE AGULHAS CUBRENT. 119 

current, the breadth of which was found to be about 
250 miles, and the temperature of the surrounding 
sea was influenced to a depth of at least 400 fathoms. 
It was intended to have made a close examination 
of this enormous body of heated water, which is de- 
rived from similar sources as the Gulf Stream of the 
Atlantic, and exercises such great influence on the 
climate of the Cape and its adjacent seas. 

The heated water of the Indian Ocean, forced to 
the westward by the north-east monsoon and south- 
east trade-winds, has only one outlet, the sea south 
of the Cape. On arriving there, it is met, and 
stopped, by the cold Atlantic easterly drift current, 
produced by the continuous westerly winds of the 
higher latitudes, which is sufficiently powerful to turn 
it aside and absorb it. It is then driven to the south- 
east and eastward, the two bodies of water intermixing. 
This drift also prevents any branch of the warm 
current passing to the northward round the Cape. 

The strong winds now met with prevented a 
closer examination, but from the observations made 
it appears that the water in Table Bay, derived from 
the South Atlantic, is usually 10° colder than that in 
Simon's Bay, 30 miles to the southward, which is 
derived from the Indian Ocean. But on the approach 
of a north-west wind the Atlantic water drives the 
Indian water out of Simon's Bay, and occupies its 
place. Thus the water of the bay is liable to sudden 
changes of temperature to the extent of 10° or 12°. 



120 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

The usual westerly winds and boisterous weather 
of the " roaring forties " were experienced as the 
ship ran quickly on for Prince Edward and Marion 
Islands, lying 1100 miles to the south-east of the 
Cape, only one sounding in 1600 fathoms being ob- 
tained to the westward of them. Christmas Day was 
spent in these latitudes, with anything but seasonable 
weather ; temperature of air being from 38° to 43°. 

On the 25th land was seen, and the next day, 
weather being much clearer, a landing was effected 
on Marion Island. One of the cutters, after a long- 
pull through extensive fields of kelp (forming a 
natural breakwater to the long swell rolling in along 
the beach), reached the shore. A regular landing- 
place was not to be expected ; however, by dint ot 
jumping from rock to rock, a method far more agree- 
able and better suited to penguins than to steady- 
going philosophers, a footing was accomplished on 
the firm soil. 

What a scene of wild desolation and solitude met 
their gaze ! Around nothing but huge blocks of 
rough and rugged rock rolled about by the breakers, 
slippery with half-dry algse. Still onward was the 
order, and it was found on reaching the higher land 
there was but little else than a wide boggy swamp. 

The slopes of the hills are used by the prion and 
other petrels as breeding warrens. The whole of 
the wet, sodden flat lands was studded with large 
white albatrosses sitting on their nests. These mag- 



VAST NUMBERS OF SEA-BIBBS. 121 

nificent birds covered the ground in great numbers. 
It was evidently the commencement of the breeding 
season, as few eggs were obtainable. These splendid 
birds, weighing 20 lbs., and measuring from 11 to 12 
feet from tip to tip of wing, seen to such advantage 
while in their glory at sea as they sweep so grace- 
fully through, the air, are altogether out of their ele- 
ment on shore. In order to rise again after settling 
on the land, they are obliged to run some distance 
before they obtain sufficient velocity for the air to get 
under their wings and allow them to feel themselves 
masters of the situation. Three descriptions of pen- 
guins were found on the island, in considerable num- 
bers — the king, a black and white, and a small 
yellow-crested one. Their breeding season was nearly 
over ; but there were still some eggs unhatched. A 
flock of pretty white birds, only found in these seas, 
about the size of a large pigeon, was met with here. 
While the naturalists were on shore, the vessel was 
engaged sounding and dredging in the channel which 
separates Marion from Prince Edward Island, in 
from 75 to 100 fathoms, with good results. It was 
intended, on the following day, to land on Prince 
Edward Island, but from the unfavourable apj3ear- 
ance of the weather the idea was reluctantly given 
up. After having accurately fixed their position, we 
bore away for the Crozets, distant 600 miles. The 
former islands were discovered so long ago as 1772 
by M. Marion de Fresne, who was in command of a 



122 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

French surveying expedition. In the haze which 
surrounded them at that time he thought he had dis- 
covered the Southern Continent, as they seemed to 
be some miles in extent, with hills rising in double 
and triple ranges, the summits of which were covered 
with snow. About five years after this Captain Cook 
sailed through this same channel, and not knowing 
of their previous discovery, named them Prince 
Edward Islands, in compliment to the Duke of Kent. 
From this date but very little was known or written 
about the islands until Sir J. C. Ross visited them 
in April 1840. Sealing schooners have called here 
from time to time from the Cape, but of late without 
any success. 

On the 31st December, after a succession of strong 
north-westerly winds, the first of the Crozet group 
of islands was seen ; but the weather prevented any 
hope which might have been indulged in of effecting 
a landing ; however, the islands, six in number, were 
all seen, and their correct position ascertained. It 
is over one hundred years ago that they were dis- 
covered and reported. Possessing no interest in a 
geographical point of view, and having no resources, 
they are therefore more to be avoided than ap- 
proached. Yery little is known about them, for Sir 
J. C. Ross's expedition was unable to land in 1843, 
and now the Challengers was equally unfortunate. 
Later in the day the lofty mountain of East Island 
was seen through the haze, and on it clearing we had 



THE CROZET ISLANDS. 123 

a good view of this perfect mountain mass of volcanic 
land, with its bold and precipitous shores and pro- 
jecting rocks, which seem to have been formed by 
the unceasing action of the waves cutting away the 
softer parts. We stood up between the channel sepa- 
rating East and Possession Islands, the largest of the 
group, but saw no indication of tree or shrub. It 
was intended to make a short stay in America Bay, 
but the strong north-west wind prevented our reach- 
ing it before dark, and encountering a heavy cross 
sea, it was not considered safe to venture nearer. A 
dense fog now setting in, and a heavy gale of wind 
springing up, it was evident we were to be disap- 
pointed ; so we stood off to sea, and the opportunity 
of again closing the land was not afforded. 

Favoured by a strong north-westerly breeze, we 
advanced rapidly under sail towards Kerguelen Land ; 
on our way passing several patches of floating sea- 
weed. We were daily accompanied by many of the 
great albatrosses and the large dark petrels, and still 
more numerously by several varieties of speckled 
Cape pigeons. These birds added a degree of cheer- 
fulness to our solitary wanderings, contrasting 
strongly with the dreary and unvarying stillness we 
experienced while passing through the equatorial 
regions, where not a single sea-bird is to be seen, 
except in the immediate vicinity of the few scattered 
islets and rocks. The strong breeze continued, and, 
with a heavy north-westerly swell assisting, on the 



124 CRUISE OF EM.S. CHALLENGER. 

6 th January land was reported : at first a small islet, 
known as Blight's Cap, and afterwards the black, 
rough-looking coast of Kerguelen Land (or the 
Island of Desolation). Thick weather prevented ap- 
proach to the land until the next day, when it cleared 
sufficiently to run into port, when the anchor was 
let go in 18 fathoms, in Christmas Harbour. 

In this harbour Captain Cook, when in command 
of the expedition sent out to explore the South 
Seas, anchored his two vessels, the Resolution and 
Discovery, on Christmas Day 1777, and, although not 
the actual discoverer of the island, his were the first 
vessels to anchor in any of its numerous harbours. 

This inhospitable island and its surrounding group 
are very little known, although discovered over one 
hundred years ago by Lieutenant Kerguelen, who 
had been sent out from France on a voyage of 
discovery to determine the existence of the great 
Southern Continent, which the philosophers of that 
time considered was necessary to maintain the balance 
of the earth. It was on January 13th, 1772, that it 
was first seen, amidst fog and rain, when, in conse- 
quence of the tempestuous weather, landing was out 
of the question, and only a very cursory view was 
obtained of the land, when he was again driven to 
sea, and, on reaching Fiance, gave such an exaggerated 
account of his discovery that he was sent out again 
the following year ; and it is from his second visit 
that our present knowledge of the group is chiefly 







CHRISTMAS HARBOUR, KERGUELEN LAND. 



KERGUEIEN LAND. 125 

derived. Although Cook and Ross afterwards visited 
here, and added certain information, still the chart 
is very vague, except in the delineation of the east 
side of the island, which is very much cut up by 
fiords, forming a chain of magnificent, well-sheltered 
harbours. It is thirty years ago that Ross anchored 
his vessels, the Erebus and Terror, in Christmas 
Harbour, which he describes as being nearly a mile 
wide at its entrance, between Cape Francoiz on the 
north, and Arch Point on the south, on which side is 
a small bay, that increases the breadth for nearly half 
the depth of the inlet, when it suddenly contracts to 
less than one-third of a mile, and thence gradually 
diminishes to the head of the bay, which terminates 
in a level beach of dark sand, extending across for a 
distance of 1200 feet. Here we pitched our magnetic 
tent for observation. The shores on each side are 
steep, and rise in a succession of terraces to the 
height of more than 1000 feet; the highest hill 
being on the north side, which attains an elevation of 
1350 feet, and from its form received the name of 
Table Mountain. * * * The weather being favour- 
able, it was determined to make a running survey of 
the west coast. 

Jan. $th. — Steamed out of Christmas Harbour, on 
a course S.S.E., along the coast, surveying and 
sounding as we go. The land is made up of rough 
sterile rocks ; the shore indented with bays and 
rivulets. The vegetation that exists is composed of 



126 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

mossy grass, mixed with a dirty brown plant ; while 
on the higher land were patches of perpetual snow. 
Later in the day anchored in Betsy Cove, and re- 
mained for eight days, during which time many 
excursions inland were made for collecting speci- 
mens, botanical and zoological. One evening we 
were surprised by the arrival of an American sealing 
schooner, from the captain of which much information 
was obtained relative to this inhospitable coast. We 
sailed on the 17th, and, before clearing the land, 
encountered a strong head-wind, which speedily 
worked itself up to a heavy gale. Under sail alone 
we rolled and pitched about in the turbulent sea like 
a plaything, causing woeful destruction to furniture 
and crockery, while the masts and ropes creaked and 
groaned, producing a perfect medley of sights and 
sounds. The next day it moderated sufficiently to 
close on the land, and later we anchored in Eoyal 
Sound, the deepest bay on the south coast. The 
scenery was very lovely, with a labyrinth of islets 
interspersed over upwards of twenty miles of nearly 
land-locked waters, sheltered on the south by the 
Wyville Thomson range, containing a fine volcanic 
peak, 3160 feet high, rising as an enormous cone in 
the midst of a surrounding circlet of sugar-loaf peaks, 
each dwarfed only by the parent mountain ; on the 
west by Mount Tizard, and the towering snow-clad 
summit of Mount Eoss, rising 6200 feet in one con- 
tinuous slope from the sea ; while on the north ex- 



THE SEAL FISHERIES. 127 

tended the Crozier range, 3250 feet in height. * * * 
After leaving Betsy Cove, we successively visited 
Three Island Bay, Eoyal Sound, Greenland Harbour, 
Cascade Keach, Hopeful Bay, Rhodes Harbour. Thus 
three weeks passed in exploring the various shores 
and inlets, in order to ascertain the position where 
the finest weather might be expected at which to 
establish an observatory for the astronomers who 
intend (if our report should be favourable) to visit 
here in December next to observe the transit of 
Yenus. From observations, the results seem to be 
in favour of establishing a station here, for out of 
the twenty-five days of our stay sights might have 
been obtained at least on ten. 

Jan. 29th. — We anchored yesterday in Rhodes 
Harbour, in company with two sealing schooners, the 
Betsy Jane and the Rossel King, which had been 
fortunate in capturing twenty-two fur-seals, which 
they were willing to sell at 405. each in the rough 
state. The manner in which the seal-fishery is 
carried on in the surrounding seas is both extravagant 
and destructive, for at the time of the discovery of 
this island it swarmed with sea-elephants, whales and 
fur-seals. On this becoming known, it soon became 
a favourite cruising ground for those engaged in the 
M trade." This led, in an incredibly short space of 
time, to the reduction of all these species to a mere 
remnant ; and in a few years their utter extinction 
is sure to follow, for it can hardly be expected to be 



128 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

otherwise. The men, engaged in such arduous 
avocations as they are in these wild and inhospitable 
regions, must be expected to make all they can, and 
they care for none who come after them, but kill old 
and young as they fall across them in their cruises. 
The same might be said of the whales and sea- 
elephants. 

On parting company with the schooners, we pro- 
ceeded through Aldrich Channel ; the scenery very 
fine — high snow-clad peaks and ranges of lofty 
hills in all directions. When through the channel, 
Blight's Cap and the Cloudy Isles were once more in 
sight. Here we stopped, and a few hours were spent 
in dredging off the Arch Rock, with very good re- 
sults ; after this, steamed into Christmas Harbour and 
anchored. 

The next day parties were away for surveying 
and other services. The number of birds found here 
is surprising. Although I had often heard of the 
great numbers met with on uninhabited islands, I 
was scarcely prepared to see them in such vast 
multitudes, particularly the penguins, for the whole 
sides of the rugged hills and ledges of rock were 
literally covered with them. They averaged from 10 
to 20 inches in height, with white breasts and nearly 
black backs. The king bird and another species 
have four or five yellow feathers, from 3 to 5 inches 
long, adorning each side of their heads in graceful 
plumes. They stand erect in rows, which gives them 



LEAVE CHBISTMAS HARBOUR. 129 

a novel and curious appearance ; and the noise from 
these rookeries was deafening. Besides these birds, 
we were enabled to secure specimens of twenty other 
varieties. 

Probably there is no place under the same parallel 
of latitude in either hemisphere which affords so 
scanty a field for the naturalist as this barren spot. 
Remote, and comparatively bare of vegetation, still 
there are several interesting points connected with 
its botany. Though now destitute of even a shrub, 
the abundance of fossil remains proves that many 
parts were for successive ages clothed with trees, 
which were probably destroyed by frequent over- 
flowings of volcanic matter, of which the remains 
found and the numerous beds of coal afford abundant 
proof; since that period it appears to have remained 
in a state of almost entire vegetable destitution. The 
end of January found us in Christmas Harbour (the 
northern extremity of the island), the tranquil waters 
of which were quite a relief after the knocking about 
we experienced during the past month ; but every- 
thing was now ready for sea, and later in the day 
anchor was weighed, and under sail we beat out, 
with a fine fresh breeze, passing close along Terror 
Reef, over which the sea was breaking with suffi- 
cient force to indicate its danger, and affording a 
capital sight of the celebrated "Arch Rock," an 
oblong block, 150 feet high, of bedded volcanic for- 
mation, like a piece of ordinary masonry, with a 

K 



130 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CRALLENGEB. 

curiously shaped arch, about 100 feet wide, worn 
through the middle of it. On getting clear, a 
southerly course was shaped along the land. 

Feb. 1st. — With a capital breeze we proceed on 
our course, rapidly passing the land and some of our 
familiar landmarks of the preceding three weeks — 
Mount Ross, Mount Campbell, Wyville Thomson, 
and Crozier ranges, all snow-topped and glistening 
in the morning sun. At noon we were off Cape 
George, and an hour later we had reached the most 
southern extremity of this isle of desolation, which 
was named Cape Challenger. A fair wind had 
sprung up, and away we went farther south to the 
Heard Islands. On our passage, sounded and dredged 
frequently; bottom from 200 to 400 fathoms. We 
crossed the track of the Australian clippers running 
by the great circle route, and it was in one of these 
vessels that Captain Heard, in 1853, first saw the 
islands we are bound to. For three days very light 
winds, with fog and rain, were experienced. This, 
added to the risk of meeting icebergs, during the 
misty and dark nights, made it anything but cheerful, 
for it is very questionable if these islands are cor- 
rectly laid down on the charts. 

Feb. bih. — The fog continued, and for two or three 
days previous, the cry of the penguin, and several 
patches of sea- weed, gave indications we were not 
far from land. The next morning during a lift in 
the fog it was seen right ahead, which we closed 



TEE HEARD ISLANDS. 131 

under sail, and found to be a cluster of black, inhos- 
pitable, precipitous cliffs ; Meyer's Eock and Mac- 
donald Islets having quite a singular appearance. 
A thick fog again concealed them from us, but having 
bearings we proceeded until they appeared through 
the haze at less than five miles distant, and we were 
enabled to run along their eastern side, which pre- 
sented truly a rough and rugged scene. These 
islands, some 400 or 500 feet high, were perfectly 
inaccessible, not presenting a point along their 
rugged shores where it was possible to land. We 
passed on, and another 20 miles disclosed a very 
remarkable headland, which we found out afterwards 
was known as Rogers' Head. As the roadstead was 
approached, the squalls came down with great violence, 
threatening to blow us to sea again ; but having 
steam at command, we were able to hold our way, 
and eventually reached the anchorage in Corinthian 
Bay (or Whisky Bay of the whalers, so named from 
the quantities of that spirit said to be consumed by 
them on the arrival of their store-ship with sup- 
plies for the year). All the places previously 
visited, however inhospitable, really seemed paradise 
compared with this wretched mountain of ice rising 
from a base of black lava cinder. This largest island, 
off which we are at anchor, is said to have its 
mountainous peak some 7000 feet high : we had no 
means, however, of judging, for the top was never 
free from cloud and mist during our stay. Here 

k 2 



132 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

we had our first glimpse of really Antarctic scenery, 
for picturesque glaciers descended to the sea on 
all its sides. Explorers landed and discovered a 
party of sealers located here, " living " in a couple of 
dirty huts sunk in the ground for warmth and pro- 
tection from the winds, which frequently blow with 
violence through a deep ravine. There are some forty 
or fifty men distributed about the island in small 
detachments, each party having a defined beat where 
they watch for the sea-elephants coming on shore. 
What a miserable affair a sealer's life evidently must 
be, hard and monotonous, living in those desolate 
regions, completely isolated from the world ! Here 
they remain for three years at a time, when, if they are 
lucky, they return home, with perhaps 50/. or 60/. 
in their pockets. This is probably spent in a couple 
of months, and they again return to their voluntary 
exile and live on penguins, young albatrosses, and 
sea-birds' eggs for another period. The roads (?) in 
every direction were swampy and exceedingly un- 
pleasant ; wading through the snow and slush, the 
miserable huts were reached, looking lonely and 
desolate, the shore for some distance being strewn 
with bones and fragments, the remains of sea- 
elephants, &c. Several excursions were planned 
during our short stay to visit the glaciers and the 
penguin rookeries, for these birds seemed to be in 
myriads, covering every ledge and precipice pre- 
senting a footing. 



THE FIRST ANTARCTIC ICEBERG. 133 

All those prearranged plans were, however, frus- 
trated, for during the night the barometer fell, and 
the weather put on a very threatening appearance. 
The anxious circumstances now under which we 
were placed on this inhospitable coast caused a 
move to be made at a very early hour the following 
morning, at which time it was snowing very heavily 
as we proceeded to sea. Before well clear of the 
land (for we had endeavoured to make a rough 
running survey), the expected gale burst upon us ; 
still it was a fair wind, and the ship ran on pleasantly 
towards the Antarctic ice until the middle of the 
night, when the sea and wind increased to such an 
extent that we had to heave-to. But it was not of 
long duration, and as daylight came, the weather 
moderated, and under a bright sun and clear sky, 
with a favourable breeze, we sped on at a rate of 9 
or 10 knots an hour to the southward, causing us to 
forget the few miserable days spent at and near the 
Heard Islands. During the next three days, we 
pushed on under sail, the weather continuing very 
squally, with rain and frequent snow-storms, the 
temperature of the air being down to 33°. 

Feb. Wth. — This morning at an early hour we en- 
countered the first Antarctic iceberg, bearing E.S.E. 
to our course. On passing within a few miles, it was 
from observation considered to be three-fourths of a 
mile long and 200 feet in height. We are now 
in latitude 60° 52' south, longitude 80° 20' west, 



134 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

dredging and sounding frequently with good results. 
From this time the icebergs became very numerous, 
and great was the excitement on board as we passed 
these novel sights. The rich cobalt blue tints blend- 
ing into the white of the ice produced a very fine 
effect. The weather was very fine, and each day 
now we continued to meet icebergs of all shapes and 
sizes, some apparently much worn by the sea into 
cavities and great fissures, as if they were ready to 
split asunder ; others of tabular form, with heavy 
surf breaking up their perpendicular sides. Sailing 
on, we pass much loose ice, evidently fragments of 
broken-up icebergs ; and a beautiful white petrel, 
Procellaria glacius, was seen for the first time. From 
this we were led to believe we were in the vicinity 
of large masses of ice, for it is known that these 
birds never wander far from the main pack. 

Feb. 13th. — The weather became hazy, with occa- 
sional snow-storms. Many large icebergs in sight. 
some of which are of magnificent dimensions, nearly 
a mile in length, and from 150 to 200 feet in height, 
with sides perfectly smooth as if they had been 
chiselled ; others again exhibited lofty pinnacles, 
with sides and ends of many-coloured tints, leading 
into deep caverns open to the swell of the sea. 
At noon to-day we were within 120 miles of the 
Antarctic Circle. Continuing our course until mid- 
night, we found ourselves in a fog, close to an 
extensive area of brash ice, extending far away in a 



IVEBEBGS AND PACK ICE. 135 



south-east direction. Fortunately at the time the 
wind allowed us to back out again, and we hove-to 
for daylight, when a beautiful sight was presented, 
for we were close to the edge of the pack, which 
from the masthead appeared to be perfectly solid, 
without any opening in either direction. The 
north-west wind of the previous day had apparently 
forced all this mass together. Some hours were spent 
dredging in 1675 fathoms (bottom greenish mud). 
A small number of starfish, some small shrimps, 
and a few curious Crustacea and diatomacese were 
obtained. After dredging, we stood on a westerly 
course under sail. The novelty of being surrounded 
with icebergs (for they were now so numerous that 
we had to alter course occasionally so as to clear 
them), and having on one side of the horizon a 
boundless field of ice, with calm weather, and a 
totally new set of sea-birds, amongst which was the 
elegant, pure white little petrel (which became more 
numerous), gave us intense delight. Experiments 
were now carried out relative to the temperature of 
the sea. At the surface it was found to be 30°, and 
at a depth of 1600 fathoms 26°. Snow and sleet 
came on, accompanied with an easterly breeze, and 
the temperature of the air fell to 28°. 

Feb. Ibth. — The day was dull and cold, tempera- 
ture of air down to 28° ; wind light and sea calm, 
so made but little progress under sail. There are 
several large " bergs " in sight, and an extensive 



136 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

field of pack ice extending from the south-west. 
A line of eight bergs and low masses of ice extends 
from north to south-west. About 9 p.m., in the 
twilight, had a fine sight in passing close to an 
immense iceberg, with its strange and curious form, 
reflecting very brilliant blue rays in every variety of 
shade. A magnificent sunset caused the horizon 
to be illuminated with bright red streaks up to 
10.30 p.m. by refraction from the ice. 

Feb. 16th. — The weather was remarkably fine, such 
as is but seldom experienced in these high latitudes 
— bright sun and blue sky, with but little wind ; so 
had recourse to steam, passing some magnificent ice- 
bergs, extending in all directions and in every con- 
ceivable shape and form ; for the most part having 
flat tops covered with snow, glistening in the sun, 
with smooth, inaccessible sides, beautifully tinted with 
every shade of blue and green. It was about 1.30 p.m. 
when we crossed the barrier of the Antarctic Circle 
(latitude 66° 30' south), in longitude 78° east, situated 
about 1400 miles from the South Pole. The sight 
was indeed a grand one as we threaded our way 
through the pack ice and up through avenues of vast 
bergs, over a course never before taken by explorers ; 
all this left an impression of those icy desolate regions 
that can never be forgotten. It seems most difficult 
to attempt a description, for all I could say would 
convey but little of the reality to the imagination 
of one who has not been similarly situated. Pro- 



EARLY EXPLORERS. 137 



ceeding on to latitude (j(j° 40' south, the course was 
altered, and the horizon scanned in all directions for 
land; the weather was unusually clear, so that we 
should certainly have seen it had any existed within 
a considerable distance : none however was visible. 
The Circle was recrossed, and we proceeded east 
along the margin of the great pack. The icebergs 
had now become so numerous that it was not unusual 
to be able to count over one hundred and fifty from 
the deck, and many of them appeared to be miles 
in length. 

The next day was very squally, haze extending 
all round the horizon, and frequent snow-storms 
occurred, we steering east for Wilkes' Termination 
Land, which was supposed to be 440 miles distant. 
This land, which was believed to exist, and which 
appeared on all early charts of the world as the 
" Terra Australis Incognita," was considered neces- 
sary to counterbalance the land known to exist 
around the North Pole ; but such men as Cook, 
Weddell, Bellinghausen, Kerguelen, and others, 
searched these inhospitable latitudes in vain for it. 
Many years passed without anything further being 
done towards its discovery. However, it seems that 
the subject was revived in 1831 by Captain Biscoe 
reporting having seen land ; and a few years later 
another whaling captain (Kemp) gave forth a 
similar statement ; both these discoveries being 
between 65° and 67° south, and longitude 59° and 



138 CRUISE OF B.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

67° east. In 1839 Captain Balleny reported land in 
latitude 66° 44', longitude 163° east. D'Urville, with 
his vessels of the French expedition, discovered (?) 
Adelia Land and the Ciaria Coast (?) about the 
same time. And in 1840, Captain Wilkes, in com- 
mand of the United States exploring expedition, 
gave forth to the world his discovery of the Ant- 
arctic Continent, which he describes as follows : — 
" In latitude 64° 31' south, longitude 93° east, we 
made what was believed to be land to the south and 
west, at least so far as ' terra firma ' can be distin- 
guished when everything is covered with snow. 
Soundings were obtained in 320 fathoms, which con- 
firmed all our previous doubts, for on later observa- 
tion a dark object, resembling a mountain in the 
distance, was seen, and many other indications pre- 
sented themselves confirming it. Advancing to the 
westward, the indications of the approach to land 
were becoming too plain to admit of a doubt. The 
constant and increasing noise of the penguins and 
seals, the dark and discoloured aspect of the ocean, 
strongly impressed us with the belief that a positive 
result would arise in the event of a possibility to 
advance a few miles farther to the southward." * 

This, to a certain extent, they thought conclusive, 

and fully believed that an extensive continent existed 

within the icy barrier, extending perhaps for nearly 

1000 miles near the Antarctic Circle, between the 

* ' United States Exploring Expedition.' 



THE AUROBA AUSTRALIS. 139 

Balleny Islands and Enderby Land ; but this region 
of vast mountains has such a barrier of impenetrable 
ice encircling the Pole that there appears but little 
probability of ever penetrating. The supposed exist- 
ence of this continent was, to a certain extent, 
proved to be erroneous by Sir James 0. Boss's 
expedition the following year sailing over two of the 
positions assigned to it. For another point of this 
continent- (?) we are now shaping a course. 

Feb, \%th. — The coldest weather yet experienced ; 
temperature of air down to 23^°. All the forenoon, 
we sail through vast fields of ice, and large numbers 
of bergs are in sight in all directions. Some of these 
great perpendicular masses overtopped our mast- 
heads by many feet. In many places, where there 
happened to be a break, we could see the upper 
surface, which appeared quite smooth, and conveyed 
to the mind the idea of an immense plain of frosted 
silver. Following in our track were great numbers 
of sea-birds — albatrosses, petrels, Cape pigeons, terns, 
night hawks, &c. As the day advanced, we rounded 
the northern extremity of the pack, and stood east, 
intending to run on this course for about 250 miles. 
During the evening a beautiful view was had of the 
Aurora Australis extending across the zenith, of a 
bright yellow colour, its edges tinged with purple, 
exhibiting at times vivid flashes of a bright pink 
colour. A strong light appeared behind the dark 
cloud, and afterwards pink yellow, and green 



140 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

colours were traced along its edges. Bright streams 
of light frequently darted upward from the clouds 
to the zenith, forming coronse, and exhibiting 
brilliant flashes of all the prismatic colours. Several 
whales and numerous sea-birds were in sight. 

Feb. 19th. — From the great quantities of ice found 
drifting along our course, it appears evident we are 
not far from extensive fields, and as many as eighty 
magnificent icebergs were in sight at one time ; thus 
for days we sail on a straight course, bounded with ice 
islands from a quarter of a mile to five miles in length. 
The question naturally arises, how and where are 
these masses formed ? * That they are commenced 
on the land seems to be considered conclusive from 
the fact that earth and stones are frequently seen 
on them. After a time they are probably detached 
from their original place of formation by some violent 
storm, and the prevailing winds drive them to the 
north and west, where they are met with in every 
stage. Those that had been recently detached were 
easily detected by their beautiful stratified appearance, 
while others of older date had lost their original 
form by the sea constantly washing over them. 
There is a great variety of opinions as to the time 
required for the formation of these immense masses 
of ice, for those met with farthest south, and seem- 
ingly showing but little signs of decay, averaged 
200 to 250 feet in height above the water. The 
* ' United States Exploring Expedition.' 



AN ANTARCTIC GALE. 141 

depth below the surface is supposed to be three times 
that above. Some of these masses were at least 
900 feet in thickness. Assuming the fall of snow 
to average an inch daily, or 30 feet each year, it 
would require thirty years to form one of these 
blocks, which are found floating here in such 
numbers. 

Their specific gravity varies very much, as might 
naturally be expected ; for while some are of a porous 
and snowy texture, others are in a great measure 
composed of blue flinty ice. This difference is 
occasioned by the latter becoming saturated with 
water from the rain and fogs, which afterwards 
freezes. * * * 

Feb. 23rd. — Clear blue sky and bright sun, weather 
calm and pleasant ; steaming amongst vast numbers 
of magnificent icebergs, some like fairy palaces of 
alabaster, with numerous caverns and arches through 
which the sea dashed its spray. The evening was 
beautifully fine, and a very brilliant sunset illumi- 
nated the horizon, shedding golden rays which were 
again refracted from the pack. We are now within 
20 miles of the position assigned by Wilkes as land, 
but with a clear horizon none was visible. 

Feb. 24:th. — This morning, instead of being able to 
approach the pack, we were in a fearful gale of wind, 
with a heavy and constant fall of snow which com- 
pletely hid the surrounding dangers from us ; for 
being in the vicinity of such vast numbers of bergs 



142 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

rendered our position very perilous. Steam was 
at command in four boilers ; it was as much as the 
engines at full speed could do to keep station, and 
in a position considered safe from the ice. The 
barometer fell to 28' 9, and the wind rose to a force 
of 10 ; soon there was a heavy and turbulent sea. 
As the darkness of the night closed, the wind mode- 
rated ; still it was a very critical time, and all felt 
glad when daylight arrived, as we were then enabled 
to shape a course for the pack under sail. From 
the direction the wind had been blowing, the ice at 
its edge was scattered and sufficiently open to allow 
us to push on to within 15 miles of the supposed 
Wilkes' Termination Land ; although, having a clear 
horizon, no indication of it could be seen, we sailed 
for two or three hours, picking our way among blocks 
of loose ice, varying in size from 5 or 6 feet to 
60 feet across, and which no doubt are kept separate 
by the continual motion of the long swell. Their 
depth below the surface did not appear to exceed 
20 feet. The greater part was washed into all sorts 
of fantastic forms, and showed evidences of decay 
and the length of time they had been in the water. 
In addition to this, hundreds of icebergs could be 
seen from the masthead. Having now gone as far 
as practicable in an undefended ship, course was 
altered, and once more we reached clear water. The 
weather was getting very unsettled ; it was therefore 
deemed useless to remain in proximity to so muck 



A SECOND GALE. 143 



ice, as a strong southerly breeze had sprung up, and 
squally weather set in, of which advantage was taken ; 
as it was considered that any further stay in these icy 
regions would not only be attended with peril to the 
vessel, but would cause a delay in time, which was 
required for other services, and having nearly 3000 
miles to sail to our next port (Melbourne), course 
was altered to the northward, and throughout the 
remainder of the day good progress was made. 

Feb. 26th. — Hove-to this morning for dredging 
from a depth of 1300 fathoms. The wind and sea, 
however, gave evidence we were in for another blow 
before leaving these regions, lest we should think 
too lightly of the dangers of ice navigation. The 
dredge was quickly hauled in before it had reached 
the bottom. We then steamed under the lee of a large 
iceberg, which somehow or other we ran into, carry- 
ing away our jib-boom and head-gear. Some little 
excitement now prevailed, for the weather had 
become so thick with the falling snow that we 
could scarcely see 100 yards' distance. Steam was 
ready, and the ship hove-to, drifting to leeward 
before the storm, with the certainty, as we were 
perfectly surrounded by icebergs, of sooner or later 
coming across the path of one of them. In the 
afternoon, during the worst part of the gale, one 
of these great ice islands was seen looming through 
the mist, close to, and directly to leeward of us. 
With the engines going at full speed, the ship just 



144 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

managed to clear it. After this we endeavoured to use 
our enemy as a breakwater ; but the violence of the 
gale caused a difficulty in bringing the vessel head 
to wind, so there was no other course but to continue 
our drift. As the evening advanced, the weather 
cleared, and during a momentary lull in the storm, 
while passing to leeward of another great iceberg, 
the ship was brought round on the other tack. The 
passage between the two icebergs proved to be clear 
of danger, and the night was spent in drifting back- 
wards and forwards from one to the other, the steam 
enabling the ship to hold her own. It was altogether 
a fearful and perilous night. 

Feb. 27th. — Daylight was hailed with much thank- 
fulness ; the gale still blowing its utmost. However, 
such fierce squalls are never of long duration in these 
latitudes. Most providentially the weather, as the 
day advanced, seemed to subside ; and as there had 
been no mishap, we had much to be thankful for 
in being preserved from the dangers and perils of 
the past twenty-four hours. Later in the day sail was 
made, and we again proceeded on our course. Next 
noon we were in latitude 62° 2' south, longitude 97° 6' 
east, and about 2215 miles from Cape Otway, Vic- 
toria, Australia. Before the strong favouring gale 
good progress was made, every one heartily glad to 
take leave of the desolate icy regions, after our late 
experience of what a gale really was in the Antarctic. 

On the 4th March, in latitude 53° 17' south, longi- 



ANCHOB IN HOBSON'S BAY. 145 

tude 109° 23' east, we passed our last iceberg, but the 
sea-water remained sufficiently cold for them to float 
about in it for some time without melting until we 
attained the 50th parallel of latitude. Whenever the 
weather permitted, we sounded and trawled with good 
results. Upon investigating the proceeds, it was found 
to consist of nearly the same fauna as that discovered 
farther north. 

On the 13th March, 400 miles from Cape Otway, 
an extremely interesting haul with the trawl was 
obtained in 2600 fathoms; 600 to 700 fathoms 
deeper than we had met with since leaving the 
Cape. The bottom proved to be of the same kind 
of dark brown mud. 

The weather continued variable as we proceeded 
north, one day squally, the next calm, with heavy 
rain and fog ; and not until reaching latitude 
44° 30' south did fine weather really greet us ; then, 
with a favourable westerly breeze, good progress was 
daily made, and on the evening of March 16th land 
was in sight, the first for forty days. Cape Otway, 
Australia's south-western point, was ahead, and the 
bright light glimmering in the darkness of the night. 
A short distance farther, and we are reminded that 
our voyage will soon be at an end. Next day crossed 
the bar, and passed Port Phillip's headland ; shortly 
after Hobson's Bay was reached, and we anchored 
in the harbour of one of the finest colonial cities 
England possesses. 



146 



CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



Numbers of influential citizens immediately boarded 
us, offering every assistance, and a cordial welcome to 
Australian waters. 

The city is some four or five miles from the anchor- 
age ; but on reaching the shore, we found railway 
communication near at hand ; so there was no diffi- 
culty in reaching town, for which, through the 
courtesy of the railway authorities, free passes were 
supplied. 




THE CHALLENGER AMONGST THE ICE IN THE ANTARCTIC REGIONS. 




DREDGING ON THE PARAMATTA RIVER, SYDNEY. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Melbourne (Victoria) to Sydney (New South Wales) and 
Wellington (New Zealand). 

Melbourne — The city and suburbs — Visit to Ballarat— The city— Its 
gold mines — Melbourne to Sydney — First sight of Sydney Heads — 
Arrive at Sydney, New South Wales — Anchor in Farm Cove — 
Sydney Harbour — Picnic on Mount Victoria — Zigzag on the 
Great Western Eailway — The Blue Mountains, and Valley of the 
Nepean — The city— Paramatta Biver — Bhodes— The dredging pic- 
nic — Entertainments during our stay — Early history of the colony 
— Leave Sydney — The stormy weather — Beturn and anchor in 
Watson's Bay— Sydney to New Zealand — Daily soundings — Bough 
weather — Anchor for shelter in Port Hardy and Queen Charlotte 
Sound — Man washed overboard and drowned — Sight Palliser 
Heads— Anchor off Wellington— Port Nicholson. 



Victoria is the wealthiest of all England's colonial 
possessions ; her trade exceeds thirty-two millions 

l 2 



148 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

per annum, with a yearly revenue of four millions 
and a half, which is greater than that of Den- 
mark or Portugal, and several other monarchies of 
Europe. 

Melbourne has made a name for itself, and is un- 
doubtedly the capital, not only of Victoria, but of all 
Australia ; and though only just forty years have 
elapsed since the first white man landed on its site, 
it has already, with its suburbs, 240,000 inhabit- 
ants : in other words, it may be classed as the ninth 
city in the British Empire, exceeding as it does in 
population such ancient cities as Bristol and Edin- 
burgh. 

It is adorned with fine public buildings, and pos- 
sesses ail the comfort and luxuries of a European 
capital. Its internal appearance is certainly very 
fine : the streets are all straight, and are arranged 
at right angles to each other. 

East and west are Great Flinders Street and 
Collins Street, which is the high -street of the 
city ; then there are Swanson and Bourke Streets, 
each filled with handsome business premises, banks, 
theatres, opera-houses, churches. In fact, it is im- 
possible for an)^ one (particularly strangers coming 
in from the monotonous sea) to walk its length 
and breadth without being struck by its grandeur 
and dimensions. 

The public buildings, warehouses, and private 
residences are remarkable for their extent and archi- 



TIIE CITY AND SUBUIiBS. 149 

tectural beauty, imparting a most stylish appearance 
to the city. 

This most truly wonderful country, with its 
enormous wealth, is enabled to devote annually 
nearly one-third of its revenue raised by taxation 
to aid public instruction ; a fact, I believe, without 
parallel elsewhere. Grants are annually made to 
public schools, universities, libraries, picture-galleries, 
and museums, to schools of art and mining, and to 
various literary and scientific institutions. 

The universities and colleges are found with 
talented professors on their staff in the varied 
branches of science. Museums and national galleries 
are filled with interesting specimens of local and 
world-wide fame, and paintings of the highest 
merit ; the free libraries, with thousands of volumes 
on their shelves, are open to all comers. How 
proud, then, are the residents of this Greater 
Britain of their institutions ; and well they are 
justified in their pride. 

The Botanic Gardens, well stocked with all that is 
beautiful in flowers, plants, ferns, and lovely trees, 
are of themselves a perfect paradise of science to 
those interested in botanical studies. 

The suburbs, including Bichmond, Brighton, and 
St. Kilda, are very lovely spots : the foliage, the 
charming villa residences, with glimpses here and 
there of the bright blue sea, all tend to complete 
this pretty picture ; while away in varied directions 



150 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

are the public gardens, or Reserves, as they are 
named, affording green walks and shady retreats, 
and mainly assisting to bring much of the health, 
and some of the pleasures, to those whose business 
may keep them in town. 

Such is this truly wondrous place — a city which 
has risen to its present proud position as if by magic ; 
but it is only another evidence of the energy and 
perseverance of the English race. 

While in Yictoria, I had opportunities of seeing 
much of interest, and to join in many pleasant ex- 
cursions in the suburbs ; amongst others was a trip 
by rail to Ballarat. On leaving the Spencer Street 
Railway Station, after a run of somewhat over 100 
miles, the destination was reached, which since the 
gold fever of 1853 has been metamorphosed from 
a few canvas tents to an extensive and beautiful 
city. From the discovery of the riches of Golden 
Point — the first opening of those famous "jewellers' 
shops " — the progress of Ballarat has been steadily 
onward. 

At the present time there are about one hundred 
and twenty streets, some of them containing hand- 
some buildings ; there are forty or fifty schools 
full of scholars ; hospitals, asylums, a town-hall, 
and police-courts ; several banks, mechanics' in- 
stitute, two or three theatres, gasworks, foun- 
dries, machine- works, flour-mills ; and a fine com- 
modious market has been built ; reserves, and an 



VISIT TO BALLARAT. 151 

extensive Botanic Garden, have been laid out for the 
pleasures of the people. The merchants have their 
Chamber of Commerce ; the mechanics, their Literary 
Institution ; the farmers, their Agricultural Society ; 
and those interested in mining, their school and col- 
leges. But the rate of progress has not been con- 
fined to the limits of the city, for thousands of acres 
all round are under cultivation for agricultural pur- 
poses, where many of those who spent their early 
colonial days mining are now, after their toil, content 
to settle down in the bliss of having a farm of their 
own, and of sitting under their own vine and fig-tree. 

Opportunities were afforded for visiting some of 
the famous gold-mines in the immediate neighbour- 
hood, one of which, belonging to the Black Hill 
Mining Company, situated at the foot of the hill 
which gives the company its name, on the banks 
of the river Yarrowee, was particularly interest- 
ing : here is a most complete and novel set of 
machinery. The steam-engine, a horizontal one, 
of 100 horse-power, is placed in the centre of the 
works, and drives six batteries of ten stamps each. 
The quartz is supplied to the stampers by a self- 
feeding apparatus, when it is reduced sufficiently fine 
to pass through wire gratings, at the back and front 
of the machine, having one hundred and twenty 
holes to the square inch. 

A small quantity of mercury is put into each stamp- 
box twice a day. The crushed quartz is then carried 



152 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

through the grating by a stream of water into ripple 
troughs containing mercury, extending along both 
sides of the battery, and thence over some twenty- 
four feet of blanketing ; the material collected by 
this process is conveyed into revolving barrels, with 
half its weight of quicksilver, sufficient for proper 
amalgamation. Heat is then applied, the mercury 
evaporated, and from the residue is collected the 
gold, which is afterwards taken to the bank or assay- 
house. The working manager was very communi- 
cative, and from him I ascertained that the mine 
occupied the principal portion of the Black Hill, 
and contains about forty acres. Tunnels, nine feet 
high by seven wide, had been excavated at different 
levels, amounting in length to over 3000 feet ; these 
tunnels are connected at several points with the 
open workings at the top of the hill. 

Mining operations were in a depressed state at 
the time of my visit, but a few years before they 
were crushing here their 2000 tons of quartz per 
week, yielding, on an average, about fifty grains 
of gold per ton of quartz. * * * From here drove 
for a couple of miles, reaching the scene of the 
Winter's Freehold Mining Company ; and having 
an introduction from Mr. J. Morrison, the manager, 
there was no difficulty in seeing everything of in- 
terest. At first I was struck by the appearance of 
the surroundings, from which I was led to imagine 
(from the tumble-down appearance, &c, of every- 






GOLD MINING WORKS. 153 

thing) that it was not the rule amongst mining 
companies to waste money in needless buildings, 
or useless ornamentation — the test of success being 
in their handsome dividends. I intended going 
down this mine, but time did not permit, so had 
to be content with a walk over the surface. The 
workings are from 300 to 400 feet deep ; four 
layers of bluestone, varying from 5 to 25 feet 
in thickness, were cut through. The machinery 
consists of two engines of 25 horse-power, one 
used for pumping and winding, and the other for 
puddling. At the time of my visit very few hands 
were employed, the funds of the company having 
run low, and the results of their findings being 
very small ; but I ascertained that when fairly under 
weigh, work was carried on in three shifts day and 
night. The cuttings, or wash-dirt, is sent up the 
shaft in iron buckets, then by means of the steam- 
driven puddling machines the useless is separated 
from the good : a stream of water is now let into 
the head of a long wooden trough, in which a 
ribbed false bottom and movable cross-bars are 
placed ; the puddled stuff is wheeled to the head of 
this trough in barrows, thrown in, and worked back- 
wards and forwards until the whole is thoroughly 
disintegrated ; the large stones passing over the 
false bottom, while the heavy gold, falling through, 
is caught on the cross-bars, the smaller gravel 
passing to the bottom, when it is collected by 



154 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

Chinamen and trucked to the waste heap. Several 
hours are consumed in this washing process ; and I 
was informed that some years ago they used to net 
about 120 ounces of gold a day : then the gold used 
to be lifted out in bucketfuls, for final washing and 
weighing, before removal to the bank. The process 
is efficient, though it seemed to be rude, and the 
time spent in sight-seeing here was one of rare 
interest and curiosity. 

Tunnels have been cut in various directions in 
search of the precious metals. * * * When these 
golden deposits had their origin, and when the great 
successive layers of bluestone were thrown over them, 
are amongst those lost incidents in the history of 
creation concerning which science can do no more 
than speculate. The extent to which these great 
quartz boulders have been rolled, shows that they 
had been carried a very much greater distance than 
the ranges to which we ascribe their origin ; or that 
they were shaken to and fro in some great con- 
vulsive struggle of nature, such as the earth has 
not experienced since man came upon it from the 
hands of the Creator. Four successive layers of 
basaltic rock have overrun at long intervals and 
buried the golden stream of an ancient world ; and 
so changed has the crust of the earth become since 
the last of these great seas of molten rock passed 
over the land that the craters from whence they 
issued have themselves become lost. The stories 



SUBUBBS OF BALLABAT. 155 

of these waves of fire and smoking floods are epics 
of the grandest order. And now, after long ages, 
in these calm and settled days, when our earth 
is unshaken by the war of the fierce elements, she 
holds these rich treasures in her bosom, and we probe 
our way through the thick rocks and recover from 
the beds of these ancient streams the precious metal 
hidden there, perhaps, when the first great fiat went 
forth, and the waters were parted from the land, and 
out of chaos a new planet sprung into being, at the 
command of God. * * * 

After returning to the city from my mining ex- 
cursion, I called on Mr. Bardwell, with whom I drove 
round the suburbs, visiting Buninyong, a mining 
and agricultural district containing 1981 inhabitants, 
and passing through Sebastopol, a mining village 
containing some 6000 inhabitants, where in all direc- 
tions are to be seen evidences of the past — numberless 
mounds and deserted claims, now being reworked by 
persevering Chinese, who succeed occasionally in 
obtaining a few ounces of gold from amongst the 
debris. Driving back, we passed through the new 
Public Gardens, and on reaching the city, I left by 
the 7.15 train for Melbourne, arriving there after a 
four hours' run, and then by rail to Sandridge. 

During our stay various entertainments were 
arranged for the benefit of the " Challengers." 
Eventually it was with great regret we found that 
we must be on the move again. 



156 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

April 1st. — This morning, under steam, proceeded 
out of Hobson's Bay. The once famous city of 
Geelong, prettily situated on the western arm of 
Port Phillip, then St. Leonard's, Queenscliff, and 
Lonsdale, are respectively seen. Steaming for some 
40 miles through the inland sea, we pass between the 
two narrow promontories of Point Nepean and 
Lonsdale, and entering Bass's Straits, Wilson's Pro- 
montory, the most southern part of Australia, is 
before us. Having a pleasant breeze, steam is dis- 
pensed with, and, under sail, good progress was made 
along the land. Passing Cape Howe, the coast line 
appeared steep, rocky, and covered with monotonous 
forests of gum-trees; but as we drew nearer, the 
grandeur and size of the cliffs and heights became more 
and more apparent. On their tops could be seen little 
specks of white houses dotted over bright green downs. 
Sounding and trawling occasionally, Twofold Bay is 
passed, with villages nestling along its shores. Closing 
on the land, we stopped off Montague Island, swung 
ship for magnetic corrections, and, after dredging, 
proceeded for Sydney Harbour. Those who had been 
on this station before, were eagerly questioned by the 
uninitiated, as to the distance we had still to go, as 
each successive bay or headland was passed. All 
those whose duty permitted were on deck watching 
the progress ; but what seemed to arrest our atten- 
tion was the apparently impregnable wall of high 
land stretching away on either side; but we were 



ARRIVE AT SYDNEY. 157 

told there existed an opening in this wall, leading 1 
into a beautiful, commodious, and, in fact, the most 
perfect harbour in the world ; but were it not for the 
fact of the vessel heading direct for this seeming 
barrier no one would have believed it contained 
such an opening. Passing each successive bay, 
we began to get a closer view of the land ; and as 
we drew nearer the houses and villa residences on 
the cliffs showed our proximity to some large town. 
And now the Sydney Heads, with the entrance 
between them, were clearly discernible, through 
which we passed soon after mid-day. The South 
Head, on our left hand, bears on its top a square 
tower, built by the late Benjamin Boyd when he 
founded a township, at the end of the bay ; and 
on a mast near flags were being hoisted signalling 
our arrival, which was speedily flashed by telegraph 
to Sydney. The North Head, on the right, is a bold 
precipitous rock rising perpendicularly from the sea 
more than 300 feet. After progressing for about a 
mile, another lighthouse was passed, named the 
Hornby Light, which was erected on the inner 
South Head after the wreck of the emigrant ship 
Dunbar; this light marks unmistakably the true 
entrance into the harbour. We rounded the point 
and entered the waters of Port Jackson. The 
lovely view presented, with the handsome villas 
standing amongst trees and gardens along the 
shore, was enchanting, while the number of yachts r 



158 CRUISE OF H.M.S, CHALLENGER. 

boats, and steamers cruising about (for it was Easter 
Monday and high holiday), and the weather being 
beautifully fine, combined to make it one of the 
prettiest scenes possible to imagine. We were now 
seven miles up the harbour, and had passed Fort 
Macquarie, Darling Point, and Garden Island. A 
short distance farther, and we are reminded that our 
voyage is ended — the anchor is let go in Farm Cove. 
Bumboats, shore-boats, washerwomen, dealers in all 
sorts of wares are swarming off soliciting orders. 
Here we found H.M.S. Dido and the German frigate 
Arcona. The fine view afforded from the anchorage, 
with its charming surroundings, was very enjoyable. 
Away to our left is a pretty little bay, its shores 
surmounted by a rough-hewn seat known as Lady 
Macquarie's Chair; while, stretching to the right, 
are the beautiful park-like reserves of the Botanical 
Gardens ; still farther is the inclosure, at the top 
of which stands Government House, with grounds 
sloping down to the sea, in a position of great 
beauty. This castellated building of freestone has 
an air of magnificence about it such as should 
belong to the residence of the governor of so 
important a colony. * * * 

On first landing in Sydney Cove, one cannot help 
being struck with the many fine buildings rising in 
all directions, including wool stores of five and 
six stories, the Custom House, and numerous hotels. 
Stretching round here is Circular Quay, having an 



SYDNEY HARBOUR. 159 

available length of 3100 feet, wliere are numerous 
large vessels awaiting and unloading cargoes. 

I despair of being able to convey to the reader 
my own impression of the beauty of Sydney Harbour. 
I can call to mind no other place with such lovely 
glimpses of nature — nothing equal to it. Many 
beautiful scenes are to be met with in our own 
British Isles, but they dwarf into insignificance in 
comparison with this magnificent land-locked ex- 
panse of water and scenery spread out before 
us, extending in bays, coves, and rivers for some 
twenty miles inland, ramifying in every direction ; its 
bold and rocky shores presenting a succession of pic- 
turesque and beautiful landscapes, in which every 
nook and headland is studded with elegant villas 
and snug cottages, surrounded with park-like grounds 
and gardens, full of orange-trees, bananas, and num- 
berless semi-tropical plants, unfamiliar to the eye of 
the newly arrived stranger. 

Endless facilities are afforded for all kinds of 
yachting, boating, and fishing, which are in high 
favour. Capital regattas and races are frequently 
held. The two Yacht Clubs make a very good show 
as regards numbers, build, management, and speed, 
though in tonnage they rarely exceed 40 or 50 tons. 
The harbour is usually safe for boating parties, 
though southerly bursters and other sudden squalls 
are often fraught with risk to the inexperienced. 

The eastern shore of Darling Harbour, which skirts 



160 'JRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the western side of the city, has its frontage entirely 
occupied with wharfs and quays. Here all the inter- 
colonial steam companies have their stations ; while 
ferry-boats run in all directions to the north shore, 
to Balmain, St. Leonard's, and higher, to the town- 
ship of Pyrmont, and so for some eight miles up the 
lovely Paramatta River, passing Cockatoo Island, 
where is situated the government dry-dock, in which 
we were on the 20th April successfully placed, and 
had sundry repairs, &c. The dock is 400 feet long, 
with 20 feet depth of water over the sill. Work- 
shops are provided, with an extensive plant of 
modern machinery, so as to be enabled to undertake 
any repairs to the vessels on the station. 

I have no recollection of seeing in any early 
work on this colony reference to the charming 
scenery of Sydney Harbour, or the many navigable 
rivers which are near it ; nor is much said of the 
glorious ranges of the Australian Alps. But there 
are scenes of nature here at hand as lovely as are 
to be met with in any part of the world. A few 
days after our arrival, invitations were sent by the 
members of the Government to a picnic on Mount 
Yictoria, in company with the officers of the German 
frigate Arcona. A special train started at 7 o'clock 
from the City Station on the Great Western 
line, with a very large party of us; and as an 
escort were the Hon. Samuel Lloyd, Treasurer, Hon. 
Saul Samuel, Postmaster-General, the Minis'b. . A 



ZIGZAG ON GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. 161 

Works, and others. By 9 o'clock we had reached 
Penrith, the line passing through orangeries, vine- 
yards, and homesteads. Shortly after it was decided 
to stop at a convenient siding for breakfast. Pro- 
ceeding onward after this, we began to ascend the 
Blue Mountains, which rise abruptly on the west 
side of the valley of the Nepean. The ascent is 
made by a zigzag on gradients, the steepest of which 
is 1 in 30. The line, on reaching the summit of Lap- 
stone Hill, follows a winding course on the main 
range ; and for 60 miles it pursues its tortuous way 
along the top of mountain ridges, until gaining an 
elevation of 3758 feet. Near the Clarence tunnel, 
on both sides of the line, is a vast expanse of moun- 
tain scenery, covered with forest timber, presenting 
a view indescribably wild and grand. The route 
which the railway takes is the only passable track 
over the mountains, the sides of which are covered 
with many varieties of the Eucalyptus (gum-tree), 
besides a profusion of flowering shrubs. Having 
now reached the zigzag, by which the line is taken 
along the face of a precipitous cliff, we descend into 
the Lithgow Valley. This zigzag is the greatest 
achievement of railway engineering in Australia, and 
it challenges admiration for its handsome appearance, 
as well as for the stupendous character of the under- 
taking. This portion of the line, over which we 
had travelled, cost in construction from 20,000/. to 
25,000/. per mile. After an extensive survey, this 

M 



162 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

point was fixed upon as the least difficult for making 
the descent, but so rugged was the place then that 
those engaged upon the survey of the land had to 
be lowered down the cliffs with ropes, to enable them 
to measure and peg out the line. Two or three gorges 
on the route are spanned by viaducts built of white 
freestone, and one projecting rock is pierced by a 
tunnel. It was altogether a most enjoyable trip, and 
after spending a short time in the vale, which is over 
ninety miles from Sydney, we retraced our way to 
Mount Victoria, where a most excellent lunch had 
been prepared. Ample justice was done to the good 
things provided, and after a few speeches the train 
was once more in motion, and we were speeding on 
towards Sydney, where we arrived at 7.30 p.m. 

The town is of itself both pleasant and interesting. 
The ground on which it is built undulates consider- 
ably, giving it a most picturesque effect, although 
perhaps interfering somewhat with the appearance 
of regularity; in the business part of the city are 
George Street and Pitt Street, the shop-windows of 
which would remind one of London or Liverpool, were 
it not for the verandahs which stretch across the 
pathway in front of each house. The other streets 
are all named after the old governors — such 
as Macquarie, King, Blyth, Hunter, and Philip. 
Amongst these, Macquarie Street is the most im- 
portant, containing the Houses of Parliament, the 
Treasury Buildings, the entrance to Government 



SYDNEY. 163 



House, the residence of the Naval Commodore, the 
Mint, and the old Hospital ; but none of these build- 
ings present any features in design worthy of atten- 
tion, being all of old date ; the buildings, however, 
erected within the last ten or fifteen years have 
really some architectural pretensions. Its fine bank- 
ing-houses, mercantile establishments, and handsome 
public edifices give the town an aspect bespeaking 
substantial wealth, advancing cultivation, and enter- 
prise. The portion near to the quays contains many 
of the best buildings for commercial purposes. The 
majority of the banks are on the west side of G-eorge 
Street, and these, with the extensive blocks of spacious 
and handsome warehouses in their neighbourhood, 
give a distinctive character to that section of the city. 
In Pitt Street are three more banks; and here is 
situated the Exchange, a large stone-built erection, 
with columned front of the Corinthian order. The 
new Post Office, in the centre of the city, now on the 
eve of completion, is a building of exquisite pro- 
portion, noble in its general outline and sumptuous 
in detail. It occupies a space between George Street 
and Pitt Street. Another great building in course of 
erection is the Town Hall, the foundation-stone of 
which was laid by Prince Alfred when here in the 
Galatea. The Museum, on the eastern side of the 
city, is a massive building, with a bold Roman front. 
But the finest specimen of architecture Sydney dis- 
plays is the University, a noble stone building in 

m 2 



164 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the Perpendicular style, extending some 400 feet 
in length, situated on the top of a neighbouring 
eminence, forming a conspicuous and handsome 
feature in the Sydney landscape. The principal 
courts of justice are in King Street and at Darling- 
hurst. The first-mentioned, where the civil business 
is transacted, is a large rectangular building of brick- 
work, with arcaded front, decorated with Doric 
architecture. The Court-house at Darlinghurst, for 
criminal trials, is a fine stone building of the Doric 
order. In the rear is the gaol, occupying a large 
area, and built with spacious wards radiating from 
the centre. The private buildings or residences in 
the neighbourhood of Sydney are of a superior cha- 
racter, and are generally in the vicinity of beautiful 
recreation grounds. The fashionable quarter, par 
excellence, is the east end of the city, the su- 
burban localities stretching thence along the shore. 
Here are most of those splendid mansions of which 
glimpses are caught from the harbour, which they 
overlook ; while to the south rises the important 
town of Woolloomoolloo, which has become almost 
as large as Sydney, and much more fashionable. 
Beyond this we reach Elizabeth Bay and Rose Bay, 
Double Bay and Rush Cutter's Bay, where cluster 
various villa residences of the wealthy families. 
Look where one will from the city to Darling Point, 
and even farther along the coast, there are more fine 
houses, many of which have been erected at great 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 165 



cost, and which for extent, tastefulness of internal 
decoration, and beauty of their grounds and gardens, 
are perhaps unequalled by any private residences on 
this side of the Equator. Notably I might mention 
those of Mrs. Carfra (Double Bay), J. Jackson, Esq. 
(Darling Point), Hon. T. Holt (The Warren, Cook's 
River), &c., each of which I had the pleasure of 
visiting. Of churches, &c, I believe there are up- 
wards of one hundred and twenty in the city and 
suburbs, all more or less of imposing architectural 
pretensions. The cathedral church of St. Andrew, 
in Greorge Street, is a Gothic building, occupying a 
fine site in the most elevated part of the district, 
but it is comparatively small in dimensions, being 
160 feet long by 62 feet in breadth. The Roman 
Catholic community are building a large Gothic 
cathedral on the site of one that was burnt down a 
few years ago. 

The Public Gardens, where I spent many pleasant 
hours, deserve more than a passing mention. They 
appear to be singularly aided by nature for charming 
scenes, which have been most cleverly taken advan- 
tage of to augment the effect of art. The delightful 
results are probably heightened by the beautiful 
views afforded over cliffs, from under branching 
palms, out of long avenues of stately trees, of the 
bright blue sea glistening in the sun. Beyond this 
rises the rocky tree-covered north shore, with villas 
peeping out here and there, in strong contrast to 



166 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the dark hulls of the Pearl, Challenger, Dido, and 
other vessels snugly moored in Farm Cove. Passing 
through the Gardens, we emerge into the Domain, 
a charming expanse of park-land of 138 acres, of 
which Sydney has indeed cause to be proud. Every 
variety requisite to produce picturesque views is 
here obtained. The landscape effect, through the 
disposition of the groups and avenues of trees, makes 
it a most charming promenade. Near the main 
entrance as we leave is an excellent bronze statue of 
Sir Richard Bourke, erected a few years ago. Facing 
this is the Public Library. We are again in Mac- 
quarie Street, through which we pass, and con- 
tinuing our walk a short distance farther, we 
are at the entrance to Hyde Park, where is a 
bronze statue erected in memory of the late Prince 
Consort. This park is a beautiful plateau of 40 acres, 
and as it is nearly in the centre of the city, is a 
favourite resort of the citizens. It has a fine 
avenue half a mile long, and is nearly surrounded 
by plantations and clumps of trees, affording a 
grateful and pleasant shade. On the south-eastern 
side a monument to Captain Cook is being erected 
in a position which commands a splendid view down 
the harbour. 

More recently formed reserves are Prince Alfred 
Park, in which stands the Exhibition Building, 
erected in 1870 for the Inter-Colonial Exhibition held 
that year, which was the centenary anniversary of the 



PARAMATTA RIVER. 1G7 

discovery of the eastern coast of Australia by Captain 
Cook ; so it was a festal time for the colony ; and the 
result of the exposition of Australian industry was 
a thorough success. Every year the Agricultural 
Society hold their exhibitions here ; and in this 
building the Society gave their annual ball, at 
which many of the " Challengers " had the pleasure 
of attending, as also those given by the officers of 
H.M.S. Pearl and the Hon. John Campbell. 

Belmore Park and a tract of 500 acres of land on 
the south-east side named Moore Park are the other 
recently formed reserves. 

I must not omit to mention the Masonic Hall, as 
it was here the Challenger $ ball was given, proving 
a thorough success, and giving the greatest satis- 
faction to our large company. * * * 

Before closing my sketch of Sydney, I must return 
once more to the beauties of Farm Cove, and the 
pleasant times spent there. * * * 

Beyond our anchorage the harbour wanders in- 
definitely into all sorts and sizes of pretty bays and 
arms of the sea, the longest being that which finally 
ends in the Paramatta River, up which small steam- 
boats run hourly. The scenery on its shores is very 
charming ; passing rugged islands and cliffs and 
rocky tree-covered shores, dotted here and there with 
pretty villa residences. It was on its banks that I sjDent 
some of the most pleasing of my days in the colony. 
At about seven miles' run is situated "Rhodes," 



168 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the residence of Mrs. T. Walker and family, who, 
one and all, for kindness and hospitality, stand un- 
rivalled. Theirs is a charming villa, surrounded 
with lovely gardens, orangeries, and pretty walks, 
overlooking the bright and picturesque river. It 
seems impossible to describe the scenery as it should 
be. Many talented writers have written of this place 
and that as beautiful or grand, and by their de- 
scriptions have induced great numbers to visit the 
scenes so praised ; but as I possess no such power, 
the task would be hopeless, were I even to attempt it, 
or try to make others understand the nature of the 
beauty of this place. 

A few miles farther on the river is another 
charming retreat, ** Yarralla," the seat of T. Walker, 
Esq., a mansion replete with every luxury, having 
extensive grounds to match, all laid out with great 
care, where the varied and beautiful combination of 
trees, shrubs, and flowers peculiar to all climates 
makes the picture one of perfection. During my 
stay amidst such lovely scenes, I could not fail to 
enjoy the treat ; and I deeply regretted it could not be 
of longer duration, for the end of May had arrived, 
and our time in Australia was drawing to a close, 
when those ties of friendship would be severed. Still, 
although time and distance may separate, there is a 
certain amount of satisfaction in looking back on the 
days spent here with feelings of pleasure ; and I can- 
not refrain from saying, both of Sydney and Mel- 



DIIEDGING PICNIC. 169 

kourne, that as regards those with whom I was on 
terms of friendship, their goodness, cordiality, and 
noble generosity, combined with that hospitality 
which makes a friend's house one's home can never 
be forgotten. * * * 

We had now been here (at Sydney) some sixty 
days ; and before finally leaving it was decided 
to give a dredging picnic. This was to have a 
number of friends on board, and take them out 
into deep water, so as to let them see some of the 
mysteries of dredging and sounding. 

The day decided on arrived, and a large party, 
chiefly consisting of gentlemen more or less in- 
terested in scientific pursuits and maritime affairs 
availed themselves of the opportunity of having a 
cruise. On passing through the Heads and getting 
into deep water away from the land, we steered for 
a short distance east, and then for a while E.S.E. 
The ship's head was then turned in a northerly 
direction towards Broken Bay, and when about four 
miles distant, soundings were taken in 40 fathoms, 
and specimens of water brought up from various 
depths. The dredge was lowered, and on being 
drawn up, little or nothing appeared to have been 
secured ; but small as the first haul was, it encouraged 
other attempts being made, and a move was made 
farther from the land, when several hauls of dredge 
and trawl were again taken, with satisfactory 
results. 






170 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Many of the specimens of marine zoology were 
vastly interesting, and in some cases quite new. 

On each occasion as the trawl appeared above the 
surface of the water the interest of our visitors was 
very great ; the silent eagerness of the experienced 
naturalist and the feverish exultation of the amateur 
conchologist as they pounced upon the newly dis- 
covered specimens formed quite a lively scene, in 
which the opinions of those learned in such matters 
were often very amusingly expressed. 

After mid-day we steamed in towards Long Bay, 
where a dredge was lost through getting entangled 
amongst the rocks, and another shared the same fatt 
soon after between Coogee Bay and Bondi, the 
ground here being very unsuitable for our operations ; 
still, other trials were made, and altogether the 
results were considered very satisfactory. On its 
conclusion we returned to the anchorage, and took 
in moorings off Fort Dennison, at the entrance to 
the Circular Quay, all our visitors, before leaving, 
expressing jthat they had spent a most delightful 
and pleasant day. 

A farewell party was afterwards given to our lady 
friends, at which there was dancing and other 
pleasures suitable to the occasion in the society of 
those it had been our good fortune during the past 
two months to have met frequently at similar 
entertainments on shore. 

It passed off well, and gave great satisfaction to 



ENTERTAINMENTS DURING OUR STAT. 171 

all concerned, every one regretting that we were so 
soon to part. 

June 7 th. — We leave to-morrow, and I feel assured 
no one can visit here without being at once struck 
with the singular beauty of the harbour and the 
surrounding scenery ; and I shall not easily for- 
get the feeling of regret with which my mind dwelt 
on the thoughts that I was bidding it a long, long 
farewell. 

It was a lovely evening ; not a single breath dis- 
turbed the glassy surface of the silent water; and yet 
how eloquently that silence spoke to the heart ! And 
as I leant over the vessel's side, filled with all those 
nameless feelings which such an hour is so well 
fitted to call forth, I felt, notwithstanding all the 
temptations of promised adventure, the full bitter- 
ness of the price we have to pay for its excite- 
ments. 

That we had been great favourites, and had made 
many friends during our stay, was very evident, and 
there can be no doubt that the Challenger s visit will 
long remain in the recollection of our Australian 
cousins. 

It is worth remarking that the traveller, on reach- 
ing these shores, should remember it was here 
at Sydney where our Australian Empire was com- 
menced, amidst dangers and difficulties of which 
those in England at the present time think very 
little. 



172 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Captain Cook landed in Botany Bay, which is a 
few miles south of Sydney Harbour, in 1770, and 
took possession of the land on behalf of the British 
Crown.* But Captain Cook was by no means the 
first to find Australia, for some hundred of years 
before this a Portuguese navigator is .said to 
have landed. After this the Dutch appear to have 
seen a great deal of not only the coast, but the 
various islands, which were then named Terra Aus- 
tralis. Indeed, they did so much, and were so ener- 
getic in their voyages, that they were quite justified 
in calling the continent New Holland. 

It seems now to us very strange that a people so 
enterprising, and at that time so prone to get and to 
keep territory, should have lost their hold on this 
great Terra Australis. 

It appears that they defeated their own object by 
their own secrecy and selfishness. They published 
no records of their voyages, neither made any 
charts of the newly discovered continent, fearing 
that their discoveries, or these great possessions, 
should become too well known to other explorers. 
Consequently, even amongst themselves the doings 
of their sailors were unknown and unappreciated, 
and no national desire was created for the possession 
of the land. 

It seems a Frenchman was the next who anchored 
off Cape Leewin — the south-eastern corner of the 

* Trollope's ' Australia and New Zealand/ 



LEAVE SYDNEY. 173 



continent; this was in 1640. After this some forty 
years elapsed, when William Dampier landed on the 
western coast, and was, as far as we know, the first 
Englishman to put his foot on the soil of our great 
dependency. For nearly a century now, it seems, 
English, French, and Dutch, with intermittent ener- 
gies, endeavoured to become masters of New Hol- 
land. It was not until some seventeen years after 
Cook had really taken possession (in 1787) that Com- 
modore Phillips, the first Australian governor, was 
despatched from England with the view of forming 
a penal settlement at Botany Bay ; but soon after 
his arrival he found that locality altogether unfitted 
for the purpose. Then he sailed northward, entered 
Port Jackson (as he first called it), and created the 
colony of New South Wales, from whence have sprung 
all our Australian colonies. 

This (June 8th) might be said to have brought 
our visit to a close. Unfortunately, it was a rough 
and boisterous morning ; so the plan that had been 
in contemplation by some of our friends to accom- 
pany the vessel outside the Heads was frustrated. 
Instead, however, of their presence on board, the 
white signals of waving handkerchiefs from the 
shore showed that they were near at hand, and, 
with all their good wishes, about 11 a.m. we steamed 
out from the anchorage, receiving quite an ovation 
on passing the Pearl and Dido, by the ships' com- 
panies manning the rigging and cheering heartily, 



174 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGED. 

while the bands were playing appropriate and 
inspiring airs. 

The weather had moderated as we reached the 
mid-channel, passing round Fort Dennison, Bradley, 
and through the Heads. 

On clearing the harbour we found a rough and 
troubled sea ; so in sight of the land we rolled about 
most unpleasantly all night. 

June 9th. — A gale of wind and heavy and rolling 
seas prevented any sounding or dredging being under- 
taken ; and, as the day advanced, it was found neces- 
sary to return to port once more, anchoring within 
Sydney Heads, in Watson's Bay ; remaining here 
until the weather moderated, which was not until the 
12th, when a second attempt was made. Immedi- 
ately on getting well clear of the land, soundings were 
commenced, and bottom was found at 85 fathoms. 
Eight or ten miles farther it was found to deepen to 
120 fathoms; about the same distance, again, it had 
deepened to 290 fathoms. The next day's soundings 
indicated 1200 fathoms, the bottom showing sand 
and mud. Course was now altered nearer the shore 
until in a depth of 400 fathoms, when dredging 
operations recommenced, but nothing of any im- 
portance was obtained. 

A heavy gale now sprung up, and we got into 
deeper water, the next sounding giving 2100 fathoms, 
with a bottom of mud. In this rough and tem- 
pestuous weather the following day observations were 



DAILY SOUNDINGS. 175 



again resumed, and showed a depth of 2550 fathoms ; 
and the next, 2600 fathoms ; the temperature at this 
depth being 33°, and at the surface 64°. 

From this date the soundings commenced getting 
less, showing 1975 fathoms. A day or two after 
this it was 1100 fathoms; the temperature rising to 
36°. These indications of shallower water were not 
without cause, for now unexpectedly we came into 
400, 300, and at last only 275 fathoms. This was 
about 200 miles from the land. The question of the 
nature of the bottom at this part, where the land 
was being neared, was especially interesting and 
important. Eesults showing that the bottom was of 
a hard, stony kind, probably rock, which became 
more marked the nearer we got to the shore ; while 
the temperature had now risen to 38°, giving ad- 
ditional evidence of a decrease in the depth of the 
water. 

Placed in the very track of storms, and open to 
the sweep of seas from every quarter, exposed to 
waves that run from pole to pole, the shores ot 
New Zealand are famed for surf and swell, and so 
we had found it up to the time that Cape Farewell 
was sighted, when the wind freshened considerably 
and increased in force, blowing violently from the 
south-east, with a very heavy sea, and it was decided 
to take shelter in Port Hardy (an inlet in the north 
of D'Urville Island) ; and none too soon, only just in 
time to escape the fury of the gale, which lasted 



176 CBU1SE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

all the next day, compelling us to remain until it 
had moderated, when another attempt was made ; but 
after accomplishing about twenty miles (in eight 
hours), the gale still blowing furiously, it was found 
necessary to again seek shelter — this time under 
Long Island, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, where we 
anchored for the night. At daylight next morning 
we made a successful run across Cook's Straits, and, 
fortunately, having a strong tide in our favour, it 
enabled us to beat up under steam and sail. When 
about ten miles off the anchorage, we were visited with 
an unlooked-for calamity. Edward Winton, A.B., who 
was standing in the forechains heaving the lead, 
was washed overboard by the heavy sea. He was 
not missed for some minutes, when the engines 
were stopped and the vessel immediately rounded to, 
but no trace of him could be seen ; he must have 
gone down at once in the turbulent sea running at 
the time. The gloom which the loss of one of our 
small party occasioned was felt by every one on 
board. On nearing port, we were glad to escape the 
long rolling seas that seemed to surge up from the 
Antarctic. Our observation showed that not only 
was the intervening ocean we had just passed over 
wild and stormy, but that New Zealand invariably 
presents a rough and rugged coast, backed by tower- 
ing mountains, with frightful chasms and tremendous 
cliffs surrounding them on every side. Experiencing 
such unfavourable weather, it prevented much use of 



ANCHOR OFF WELLINGTON. 177 

the dredge ; still the few hauls obtained, although 
producing many interesting and rare specimens, indi- 
cated that the bottom in this locality is, for some 
reason, more scantily supplied with animal life than 
many other more favoured regions. 

On the 28th June we sighted the Heads with 
their frowning cliffs, where the bold bluff, coming 
sheer down 3000 feet, receives the full shock of the 
South Seas. This was an introduction to the wild 
and grand scenery of New Zealand. Our troubles 
were over for a while, for within a few hours we 
were in smooth water, running up the great sea-lake 
of Port Nicholson towards long lines of vessels lying 
at the Queen's Wharf, behind which stretched away 
the houses, &c, comprising the City of Wellington : 
off here we came to anchor. 




HHIWw W'™ r-^rai f WWm\twv\ 
NATIVES OF TONGATABU, FRIENDLY ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Wellington (New Zealand) to Friendly and Fiji Islands, to 
the New Hebrides Group, and to Somerset, Cape York 
(Queensland, Australia). 

At Wellington — Kesults of the soundings— Formation of the bottom — 
Description of the city— Australia and New Zealand — Leave Wel- 
lington— Squally weather— Sight the Kermadec Islands— Sounding 
and trawling — The Friendly Islands— Eoa— Tongatabu — Anchor 
off Nukalofa — Tonga — The village : its natives — Tapa : its manu- 
facture—Captain Croker's attack on Bea, and the result— Foliage 
and scenery — Leave Tongatabu — Passage to Fiji— Off Matuki — 
Anchor in Ngola Bay, Kandavu — Kandavu to Levuka — Anchor 
off Levuka — Eeturn to Kandavu — Natives of the New Hebrides 



BESULTS OF THE SOUNDINGS. 179 

on board for passage to Api — Survey Ngola Bay — The scenery — 
Tattooing— Meke Meke— Leave Fiji for the New Hebrides — Off 
Api — The natives land — The landing, and what was seen— Sound- 
ing and dredging — On our way again— In the Coral Sea —Off the 
Louisiade Archipelago — Raine Island — The Barrier Reefs — Anchor 
off Bird Island — Arrive at Somerset, Cape York, Queensland. 

The special object of our visit was to ascertain the 
oceanic section between Sydney and Wellington. 
The information obtained removes the last elements 
of uncertainty in the matter of submarine telegraphy 
between Australia and New Zealand, for during 
some time past the governments of the respective 
colonies have been negotiating on this subject. The 
soundings show that the depths increase gradually 
after leaving Sydney, but that the extreme deepness 
does not vary much for some hundreds of miles in 
mid-ocean, the water again decreasing as the coast 
of New Zealand is approached. For the greater part 
of the way across, the bottom was found to be very 
favourable for the repose of a light cable, it being 
composed of mud and sand. It is only when the 
shores of this coast are nearly reached that the 
bottom becomes of a somewhat doubtful character; 
a stronger cable will therefore be required for the 
shore end. In all probability, now that these correct 
data have been ascertained, we shall find very 
shortly that New Zealand, like the Australian 
colonies, will be in instantaneous communication 
with Europe aud America. 

Wellington, which since 1864 has been the capital 

n 2 



180 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

of New Zealand, the residence of the Governor (Sir 
James Ferguson), and seat of the Legislative Assembly, 
is but a small straggling city containing between 8000 
and 9000 inhabitants. It is built almost exclusively 
of wood, the use of which has been found necessary, 
from the frequency of earthquakes. The position it 
occupies — lying high up in a bay — gives it a some- 
what pretty appearance, surrounded as it is by 
mountainous land. To us, just coming from Sydney 
with all its gaieties, Wellington seemed a poor, dull 
place., especially at this season of the year. Possibly 
it brightens up a little when the Legislative Assembly 
is sitting. Auckland was the capital from 1840 to 
the date when this was chosen, which was not on 
account of its commercial prosperity, but because it 
was more centrally situated for political purposes. 
Had the weather been fine during our stay, there 
were several interesting spots round Wellington that 
might have been visited ; for within two or three 
miles are the remains of an old forest ; while up the 
valley of the Hutt is still a Maori village, to which 
a line of railway runs ; and the Horokiwi valley, a 
beautiful glen 40 miles out of town, is well worth 
seeing. Near at hand are the Botanical Gardens, 
neatly laid out, and possessing great advantages in 
the position of the land and the shapes of the sur- 
rounding hills. 

Perhaps no two countries in the world, within 
such a short distance of each other, are so wholly dis- 



LEAVE WELLINGTON. 181 

tinct as Australia and New Zealand. Here the 
natives are Polynesian, similar to most of those found 
in the South Sea Islands, while Australia's aborigines 
are of the negro type. The scenery and climate also 
are equally distinct. New Zealand is of volcanic 
origin : hence high mountainous cliffs surround it 
on almost every side ; a chain of mountains runs 
through the length of both islands from north to 
south ; hot springs abound, often close to glaciers 
and eternal snows ; earthquakes are common, and 
active volcanoes are not unknown. The climate is 
damp and stormy, and the land is covered with 
tangled masses of jungle and tree-fern. In addition 
to all this, even the very fossils are dissimilar, as 
are the fauna and flora. Australia (South and 
West) possesses a semi-tropical climate, for there is 
as great a variety between Sydney and the inland 
towns as between the midland counties of England 
and the moors of Scotland. Although tropical plants 
grow in the gardens of Sydney, a short run by 
rail is sufficient to reach a climate where British 
fruits, flowers, and grasses are cultivated with great 
success. 

Here we remained, in this proverbially wet port, 
for ten days, and at length left somewhat suddenly 
on the afternoon of the 6th July, although it was 
blowing very fiercely from the north-west at the time. 
We had hardly cleared the Heads of Port Nicholson 
when a dense fog, accompanied with heavy rain, set 



182 CRUISE OF ff.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

in, causing us to let go the anchor in Worser Bay, 
where we remained for the night. 

The next morning the weather had moderated 
sufficiently for us to make a start. On getting 
through Cook's Straits, we made sail, and did a little 
sounding and dredging, but after a few days out, a 
gale drove us fast to the northward, and so prevented 
our completing the section, which had been so much 
desired ; as the similarity of the flora of New Zealand 
to that of its neighbouring lands indicates that they 
were at one time joined, and that New Zealand was 
part of a large continent embracing the islands to the 
south and east of it, and also the Kermadec group and 
Norfolk and Lord Howe's Islands, near the Australian 
shore. If the weather had been favourable, a few 
soundings would have helped to settle this interesting 
question. 

On the 13th we passed within a short distance of 
a dangerous reef, indicated as Esperanza Rock, and 
at daylight the next morning land was seen, and 
proved to be the islands comprising the Kermadec 
group. They were first reported by Admiral d'En- 
trecasteaux, who saw them on March 15, 1793. This 
cluster of rocky islets, from their hidden reefs, &c, 
is to be avoided rather than approached. The 
largest, Sunday Island, is not more than 12 miles in 
circumference: its highest point is 1627 feet above 
the level of the sea, presenting a rugged and steep 
appearance. Until recently an American family was 



THE FRIENDLY ISLANDS. 183 



living here, earning a very precarious livelihood by 
supplying the whalers which happened to call with 
poultry and vegetables, but the frequency of earth- 
quakes, and a sudden eruption of the volcano, forced 
them to abandon it. At present it is understood 
that no one is living on the island. The others, 
named Curtis and Macaulay, are not more than 800 
feet above the sea, and only from one to three 
miles in extent. We dredged here with great 
success from a depth of 700 fathoms, the rich ground 
yielding some very fine sponges, pentacrinus, asterias, 
and other stalked starfish, and many varieties of 
deep-sea fish, and other things of interest. The 
weather continued of a very squally character. On 
the 17th we sounded, and somewhat unexpectedly 
came on a depth of 2850 fathoms, the deepest 
water found since leaving the Atlantic. The bottom 
was composed of red clay, without the least trace of 
carbonate of lime, which is usually found in deep 
water. At daylight on the 19th land was in sight, 
and as we proceeded, we were soon almost sur- 
rounded with islands and small rocks, some only 
giving indication of their position by the surf break- 
ing over them : many are not more than 30 or 
40 feet above the surface, but in most cases are 
covered with dense vegetation. Eoa Island was 
passed at 11, and by noon we came to anchor off 
Tongatabu, the principal island in the Friendly 
group. 



184 CRUISE OF H.MS. CHALLENGE!!. 

We were soon surrounded with canoes and natives, 
who were indeed fine fellows, of a light brown com- 
plexion. These people have been described as the 
flower of the Polynesian race, and those alongside 
seemed worthy of the title. 

Only a short stay was made at this interesting 
group of the Western Pacific, as it was necessary to 
get on our way, so as to meet the favourable mon- 
soons in the Chinese seas. But, short as it was, every 
opportunity was taken of seeing the surrounding 
country. 

The town of Nukalofa, off which we anchored, 
is prettily situated in a bread-fruit and cocoa-nut 
grove, which gives it a pleasing shady appearance, 
and yet is sufficiently open to admit the cool refresh- 
ing breezes of the trade-wind. Facing the sea are 
the government offices, the residence of the king, the 
governor, &c, while the native houses are prettily 
situated in a valley at the back. The houses are 
lightly constricted of bamboo and palm leaves, and 
are, for the most part, surrounded with little in- 
closures, shut in by fences made of cocoa-nut fibre 
and leaves, shaded by bread-fruit and other varieties 
of tropical trees of luxuriant foliage. 

We had frequent opportunities of seeing the king, 
who, since embracing Christianity, has taken the 
name of George Tabu ; he and his queen, Charlotte, 
expressed a wish during our stay to have their 
portraits taken. This was attended to, and for the 



THE TONGANS. 185 



occasion their Majesties were got up in regal attire : 
George L, in naval uniform coat, with four gold lace 
stripes surmounted with a crown, and laced trousers ; 
while Queen Charlotte was attired in a light muslin 
costume of European make. 

His Majesty is a tall, hale old gentleman, at least 
eighty years of age, who doubtless during his early 
days saw much fighting, and was probably mixed up 
with most stirring affairs in his native land ; for, 
in a conversation with his secretary, or Prime 
Minister (who is an American gentlemen), we were 
informed that during his younger days he had the 
reputation of being a distinguished warrior. But 
since embracing Christianity, he has continued to 
devote himself to the business of State and the 
improvement of his subjects. 

The Tongans have by some travellers been styled 
the Anglo-Saxons of the South Seas. They are 
a fine race, tall, robust, and of a lighter com- 
plexion than the inhabitants of the adjacent isles ; 
they have little or no beard, their noses are some- 
what flat with wide nostrils, yet many of the men 
and women might pass for handsome types. The 
women follow the fashion of the men, cutting their 
hair very short, and staining it with chinam, which 
gives it a reddish tinge. 

The dress of both sexes is made of similar material, 
but is differently arranged. The fabric (tapa) is made 
from the bark of a tree extensively cultivated through- 



186 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

out the islands, and is beaten out with a wooden 
mallet about a foot long and two or three inches 
thick. The bark is at first soaked for a couple of days 
in water, and is usually so prepared in strips of from 
2 to 3 feet in length, and from 1 to 3 inches in 
width ; it is then laid on a beam about 10 feet long, 
and about 1 foot in breadth and thickness, supported 
at each end, a few inches from the ground, on a 
couple of stones, so as to allow a certain amount of 
vibration. Two or three women generally sit at the 
same work : each places her strip of bark transversely 
on the beam, and while beating with her right hand, 
with her left she moves it to and fro, so that every part 
becomes alike. The grooved sides of the mallet are 
used first, the finishing touches being given with the 
smooth side. In the course of half an hour it is 
brought to a sufficient degree of thinness. Piece after 
piece is thus made, and eventually stuck together. 
Many I saw were from 40 to 50 yards long by 
20 wide. It is then printed on with a dye obtained 
by scraping the soft bark of the cocoa- tree, or the 
tooi-tooi-tree, which gives, on being pressed, a 
reddish-brown liquid. The stamps used are made in 
various devices for ornamenting the native cloth. 
While they are at work, a very pleasing effect is pro- 
duced, when the air is calm, by the beating of the 
tapa : some sound near at hand, others in the dis- 
tance, but all with singular regularity, the whole 
producing a remarkable and agreeable sound. 



CAPTAIN CllOKEWS ATTACK ON BEA. 187 

The wearing of this native cloth, and consequently, 
the manufacture of it, are ordered to be discontinued 
in three years' time, after which period calico is to be 
worn. This mandate has been given in the hope of 
developing the cultivation of cotton, and by so doing 
enriching the islands ; but probably it will be diffi- 
cult to induce the natives to give up their old usages 
and customs. 

Before leaving I had an opportunity of visiting 
the native church, which is prettily situated on the 
top of the highest hill. It is a neat-looking building, 
consisting of a nave and two aisles : the frame-work 
of the roof is cocoa-nut tree, supported on columns 
of hard wood, and thatched with palm leaves. 
About a dozen windows on each side light the build- 
ing. Benches are provided to seat about eight 
hundred. There is a fine pulpit, and a good-sized 
organ, which was well played by one of the natives. 
The sermon was preached by a Tongan, and the 
singing was very good. 

Public schools are giving most satisfactory results, 
and a large proportion of the rising generation can 
both read and write. 

Near the church door is a monumental stone, 
which has recently been erected to the memory of 
Captain Croker, R.N., of H.M.S. Favourite, who 
was killed by the natives in an attack on Bea, in 
June 1840. Its history, as told in the school-books 
here, is that " the natives of Bea continuing their 



188 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

heathen practices, and resisting all the efforts 
of the missionaries to change their evil ways, 
the king, who was a zealous convert about this 
time, sought the assistance of the captain of an 
English man-of-war then in port to chastise these 
idolaters, and so help convert them by the aid of 
the sword." Captain Croker landed ; taking two 
field -pieces with him and a number of blue-jackets 
and marines. The village is about five miles from 
the anchorage, and it seems that on their arrival 
they found that the natives had fortified it with 
an earth embankment. The assault was led by 
Captain Croker, it is said, with sword in one hand 
and Bible in the other. However, very early in 
the engagement, he received a mortal wound from 
an arrow, several of his followers were killed or 
wounded, and the cannon captured ; the English 
retreating, without at all assisting the mission. The 
old king remembers all this, and has caused the 
monument to be erected. 

These islands are all of coral formation, and sur- 
rounded with extensive reefs extending away to the 
northward. The luxuriance of the foliage is not 
surpassed anywhere within the Tropics. Although 
but little attention seems to be given to cultivation^ 
yams, sweet potato, banana, cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, 
sugar-cane, shaddock, and limes are produced plenti- 
fully, and find a ready sale with whale-ships and 
other vessels visiting the port. 



MATUKI. 180 



On the 22nd July we got under weigh, and, passing 
without the reefs, stood away to the westward. It 
was blowing somewhat squally, and in the darkness 
of the night it was by no means pleasant running 
over unknown and uncertain ground. 

At daylight on the 24th we found ourselves in the 
midst of a number of beautiful islands all girt with 
white circling reefs. Each island had its own pe- 
culiar beauty, covered as it was with luxuriant 
vegetation. About mid-day we stopped off Matuki, 
which is one of the southernmost of the Fiji group. 
A large party landed with rifles, and got excellent 
sport in the forests, while the vessel cruised back- 
wards and forwards dredging, and some excellent 
hauls were made. Among other things a fine nau- 
tilus was brought to the surface, and the opportunity 
was thus given of seeing this beautiful creature alive 
in its native element. The old popular idea that 
this animal lived on the surface, and floated along, 
using its shell as a boat while it was being propelled 
by its own sails and oars, is altogether fabulous, for 
it is now proved that the creature lives at or near 
the bottom, using its shell, with the curved side 
uppermost, as a protection, and that it never comes 
to the surface except after death. When the explor- 
ing party returned, we again proceeded on our way, 
and on the following day arrived (July 25 th) at 
Kandavu. After a couple of days here, we left 
for Levuka, a run of 120 miles, amongst most 



190 CBTJISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

charming scenery, numbers of islands being scattered 
about, each possessing some peculiar charm. But 
the eye, as well as the mind, felt greater satis- 
faction as we approached the Island of Ovalau, 
which, on nearing, had more the appearances of 
civilisation about it than the others. It is also the 
highest, most broken, and most picturesque. On the 
28th, we were off the harbour, which is surrounded 
with detached coral reefs, over which the surf was 
breaking in white foam : passing through an opening 
only 800 or 900 feet wide, we reached the anchorage, 
with its shallow, clear, and still water, affording as 
great a contrast as possible to the dark turbulent 
waves outside. The town is much larger than one 
would at first imagine : a row of stores, hotels, &c, 
occupies a position fronting the beach, while many 
of the better class of residences are situated on the 
side of the hill. In various directions beautiful walks 
stretch away through peaceful valleys, surrounded 
with dense groves of bread-fruit and cocoa-nut 
trees. 

Nature seems to have been very bountiful in dis- 
tributing her vegetable treasures to these islands, 
and annexation by the English Government seems to 
be the one great thing to be desired,* for colonial 
produce, properly so called, such as sugar, coffee, 
tamarinds, tobacco, and cotton, &c, may be expected 
in considerable quantities as soon as the settlers 
* Since this was written, it has become a British colony. 



BETUBN TO KANDA VU. 191 



have had time to devote attention to their culti- 
vation. 

This archipelago is one of the largest and most 
beautiful in the Pacific Ocean, lying due north of 
New Zealand, and to the east of New Guinea. We 
owe its discovery to Tasman, who sighted the group 
on the 6th February, 1643. Some additional interest 
is just now attached to these islands from the desire 
of the chiefs to cede the sovereignty to Great Britain. 
The inducements and reasons offered in support of 
their cession are — their importance to commerce, 
which would be developed in the archipelago, their 
rich production, the growth of cotton, and the oppor- 
tunity for the formation of a naval depot and port of 
call for the trans-oceanic mail service between San 
Francisco and Australia. 

From Levuka we returned to Kandavu, and here 
remained sufficiently long to make a survey of the 
anchorage (Ngola Bay). As yet it cannot boast of 
the pretension of even a village. A few houses are 
scattered along the beach, which probably before long 
will assume a more important aspect. Kandavu 
is the south-westernmost of the Fiji Islands, and, 
except around its highest mountains, cultivation or 
its traces can be seen in all directions. It is about 
25 miles long, and throughout its whole length 
is high and precipitous. The island is well covered 
with timber resembling the New Zealand kauri 
pine, and most of the large' canoes used amongst 



192 CBULSE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the islands are built here. The harbour is well pro- 
tected by a reef, through which are several passages. 
Yery little appears to be known of the coast, so 
an accurate survey is much needed, and on this 
we were partially engaged during our stay. 

A walk in the interior was very enjoyable, although 
requiring great exertion from the rough roads: the 
pedestrian having here, perhaps, to toil up an almost 
perpendicular rise of 15 or 20 feet, then to cross a 
narrow ridge, followed by a descent into a deep 
valley, all clothed with tangled vines and shrubs. 
Walking was occasionally all the more awkward 
from the number of roots and the slippery mud ; 
again, rivulets were met with, from which water 
continually bubbled across our path, and hurried 
headlong down the ravine. The scene that pre- 
sented itself was truly beautiful ; the picturesque 
valleys of the adjacent islands lay in full view 
beneath, exhibiting here and there spots of culti- 
vated ground, with groves of cocoa-nut and bread- 
fruit trees; while in all directions were native 
houses, perched on apparently inaccessible cliffs 
overlooking small domains, and the several peaks 
rising in sight all cut and broken in the most 
grotesque manner : in the distance the various 
islands in the group, and the fantastic needle-shaped 
peak of Yanua Levu were distinctly to be seen. 
The detached reefs could be traced for miles by 
the water breaking over them, until they were lost 



TATTOOING. 193 



in the haze. I called on my way at many of the 
natives' houses, and was always received with marked 
hospitality. In one place the inmates had recently 
had their hair dressed for some coming festival ; it 
had been washed in lime-water, so as to make it 
frizzed, and then dyed in various colours and 
arranged in different ways. Several days must 
have been spent in getting these extraordinary 
head-dresses into shape ; and for fear of again dis- 
arranging them they are content to sleep on a 
pillow made of a length of bamboo, on two short 
cross-legs, so constructed that no European could 
rest his head for five minutes without suffering 
dreadful pain. 

It is all very well to talk about the ease of living 
in a state of nature, but the inconveniences to which 
savages put themselves in order to gratify their 
vanity are quite as great as, if not greater than, 
those forced upon us by the fashions and dictates of 
our society. Think of the agonies of tattooing. What 
would the natives give to escape them, if society 
would let them? But the stern laws of fashion, even 
here, allow of no exception. The practice seems to be 
confined to the women, the operation being performed 
by members of their own sex, and applied solely to 
the corners of the mouth, and to those parts of the 
body covered by the scanty clothing. The process 
is generally tedious and painful. The skin is punc- 
tured by an instrument made of bone, or by the 

o 



194 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGED 

spines of the shaddock-tree ; whilst the dye injected 
into the punctures is obtained chiefly from the 
candle-nut. No reason is given for the adoption of 
this custom beyond its being commanded by God. 
Neglect of this divine commandment is believed to 
be severely punished after death. 

The walk back to the shore, although another 
route was chosen, was just as rough as the one 
taken in the morning. At times we had to climb 
nearly perpendicular rocks, to creep under low 
bowers formed of reeds and brushwood, to wade 
through streams and rivulets, or tramp over 
swampy ground, the whole being very tiring. 
Clothes were torn by brambles, and hands and 
face were cut by sharp-edged leaves of shrubs and 
grasses. 

On reaching the settlement, we found that great 
preparations were in progress for giving us a grand 
Meke Meke at night in honour of our visit. After 
dinner a party was made up, and about eight o'clock 
we landed and were received by the Governor of 
Kandavu and some of his officials. There were about 
two or three hundred of the natives assembled, 
dressed out in their best finery ; their faces hideously 
painted black, their bodies bright with red and blue 
paint, and pretty well besmeared with cocoa-nut oil. 
The greater part of the men, and women too, wore 
only the sulu, with strips of tapa, or dried banana- 
leaves, dyed in different colours, hung round their 



MERE 3IEKE. 195 



loins, or suspended across their shoulders like scarves ; 
others were similarly decorated with the green leaves 
of a strongly scented weed and dried grass. At a 
given signal all were in readiness, armed with clubs, 
spears, and battle-axes, which were fantastically 
decorated with coloured paint; while from their 
large war-fans, of which a goodly number were dis- 
played, floated long streamers of tapa, as delicate 
and white as the finest muslin. The music was pro- 
duced by an extensive orchestra, from instruments 
made of hollow bamboo, which were beaten by short 
sticks or by striking the ground, and excellent time 
was kept by singing and shouting. The dancers 
worked themselves up to a pitch of excitement, 
making the most violent gesticulations, and waving 
their arms about frantically ; and this scene, being 
illuminated by the fitful glare of numbers of 
torches, was one of a most interesting character. 
On its completion, all returned to the ship well 
pleased. 

The natives are a fine race, and doubtless possess 
many good qualities ; formerly they were pre- 
eminently bloodthirsty, ferocious, and cruel. Can- 
nibalism was then indulged in to an incredible 
extent; and this not from mere satisfaction of re- 
venge, but to satisfy appetite, friend, relation, or foe 
equally affording food to the most powerful. These 
degrading features, however, are rapidly passing 
away, under the influences of the Christianising 

o 2 



196 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

efforts of the missionaries, who have been er^f, 3d 
amongst them since 1835. 

Our stay at Kandavu occupied over a week ; and 
on finishing the survey of the harbour there was 
nothing further to detain us ; so on the morning of 
10th August steam was up, and a course shaped 
through the barrier of reefs encircling the island. 
When clear, the vessel was swung for magnetic and 
azimuth corrections; after which she proceeded 
for the islands of the New Hebrides, a group 
about 500 miles distant. The run was not marked 
by any particular incident, but it was in every re- 
spect pleasant and agreeable. The south-east trades 
wafted us well on our way, and sounding and 
dredging were very frequent, and showed that 
the Fijis and New Hebrides are joined by a bank 
with from 1300 to 1400 fathoms' depth of water 
on it. Other depths showed from 2000 to 2600 
fathoms; and on nearly every occasion some new 
and interesting creature was brought up, thus 
adding more and more to the already vast collec- 
tion on board. 

On the evening of the 17th we sighted some of 
the eastern islands of the New Hebrides, passing 
very near to Mai or Three Hill Islands, and a small 
cluster known as the Shepherd group. 

The next day we were off the island of Apr, 
where it was intended to land; for before leaving 
Fiji, a number of labour hands, who had com- 



API. 197 

pleted their engagements, were embarked for pass- 
age to their homes on this island, which was 
reported to be one of the most savage of the 
^roup. While they were on board, they were 
^uiet and tractable, and relished their allowance of 
provisions greatly. Boats left the ship, taking all 
those desirous of visiting the shore, and some of the 
natives with them, as an introduction. As the land 
was . approached, a tolerably fine beach was ob- 
served, backed with mountainous land covered with 
luxuriant vegetation. Our passengers were much 
alarmed at the idea of not being able to land exactly 
at their own part of the island, and it was with great 
difficulty that the boats found a convenient place. 
When a landing was at length effected, a large number 
of natives hove in sight : amongst them were two 
bearing palm-branches, supposed to indicate their 
friendly intentions, but the rest of the crowd had 
clubs, spears, bows, and arrows. They had none of 
their women or children with them, and that is 
not usually a good sign. The natives are very dark, 
almost approaching to black, and are considered as 
belonging to the Papuan race. They are described 
as hostile and treacherous in all their intercourse 
with the white man ; therefore, although their man- 
ners seemed favourable, they were not to be trusted, 
and it was not considered advisable to ramble beyond 
the beach, or out of sight of the boats and the armed 
crew. In consequence, none of the villages or houses 



198 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

were seen. The missionaries report the islanders as 
being amongst the worst they have to deal with in 
the South Pacific ; those who have been labouring 
amongst them during the past few years have been 
treacherously killed and eaten. 

The remainder of the natives we had brought with 
us from Fiji were afterwards landed : some had been 
absent for three years, employed on Captain Hill's 
cotton-plantation at Ramby, and had received as 
payment some 51. or 6/. worth of goods. Besides 
other things, such as calico, a looking-glass, and 
small trifles, were two Tower muskets, powder, shot, 
bullets, caps, and a bullet-mould. The hatchets and 
knives were of the usual useless kind, manufactured 
expressly for the South Sea Island trade, and which 
turn at the first blow. The influence of the labour 
men in civilising their friends must be considerable. 
Men who have worked side by side on the same 
plantation are, on their return home, unlikely to 
continue the hereditary quarrels, which they must 
recognise as the cause of the desolation of their 
island. They remain at home generally but a very 
short time ; life, with plenty of good food, even 
when accompanied with compulsory labour, being 
preferable to the nearly destitute state of existence 
to which they have been reduced, in consequence 
of their family feuds having destroyed most of the 
plantations. 

We found that nothing could be done here, 



IN THE CORAL SEA. 199 

although, from the fact of this group, comparatively 
speaking, being but little known, an extensive and 
careful survey is much needed. It was considered, 
however, unsafe to remain long amongst such people, 
and on the boats returning, it was decided to proceed 
for Torres Straits, distant 1500 miles, and having a 
capital breeze after us, the land was soon out of sight. 
During the stay off the island frequent casts of the 
trawl were made in 50 fathoms, but there was 
nothing of interest obtained. 

On the 21st we sounded in 2325 fathoms, and on 
the 24th in 2450 fathoms. We were now off the 
Louisiade Archipelago, and might fairly be said to 
have entered the Coral Sea — a most expressive and 
appropriate name for this dangerous part of the 
Pacific. Frequent soundings showed a depth vary- 
ing from 2000 to 2500 fathoms as we proceeded on 
for Raine Island, which was sighted on the 30th. 
This coral reef is nearly a mile long and about a 
quarter of a mile wide, showing some 10 feet above 
the level of the sea. It is an important guide for 
making the route through Torres Straits, and a 
beacon was erected on it some thirty years ago. 
Stretching away from here in a north-west direction 
are the Great Barrier Reefs ; which are probably the 
grandest and most extraordinary coralline structures 
existing in any part of the world. A turbulent 
sea is constantly rolling and causing a very heavy 
surf to break over the numberless islets and reefs 



200 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

with which the Coral Sea is studded ; and which, 
therefore, makes this passage very dangerous, not- 
withstanding all the recent surveys which have been 
made. 

We anchored in shallow water off Raine Island, a 
low reef covered with scanty vegetation. On land- 
ing, sea-birds were found to exist in vast numbers, 
rising and hovering above us in clouds thick enough 
to darken the air. Each description appeared to 
keep its own selected breeding-place, the nests being 
on the bare sandy ground, with little or no attempt 
at building, except on the part of the pretty black 
and white tern, which prefer to build on the low 
scrub, slightly raised from the ground. The next 
day we proceeded towards Bird Islands, where we 
anchored for the night. They are three low, wooded 
islets, situated on the margin of a circular coral 
reef. There were no natives seen either here or 
on Sir Charles Hardy Islands, which we after- 
wards passed. On the 1st September we arrived 
at Somerset, Cape York, the north-east point of 
Australia. The barren, sandy appearance of the 
coast, seen through the thick mist which, appa- 
rently, always accompanies the trade-wind, as we ran 
quickly past, gave anything but pleasing or hopeful 
first impressions ; and this feeling each day's stay 
at this solitary outpost only served to intensify. 
The Colonial Government support the small settle- 
ment, and the monthly mail between the colony and 



SOMERSET, CAPE YOItK. 201 

Singapore makes it a port of call ; it is besides of 
some importance as a station for the numerous small 
vessels engaged in the productive and increasing 
pearl fishery, which is carried on in the shallow 
waters of Torres Straits, and gives employment to a 
great number of South Sea Islanders as divers and 
boatmen. 




STREET ARCHITECTURE, DOBBO, ARRU ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Cape York (Australia) to the Arru and Kii Islands, to Banda 
Amboyna, and Ternate (Molucca Islands). 

The settlement at Cape York— The aboriginal Australians— Foliage and 
birds — Leave Somerset— Pass through Endeavour Straits— Off 
Hammond Island — Ceremonies relating to the dead — Australian 
g raves — Off Booby Island— The Post Office — Passage to the Arru 
Islands— Anchor off Dobbo — Visit of the Dutch officials— The 
settlement— Its natives— Forest scenery — Birds of paradise- 
Leave Dobbo— Passage to the Kii Islands— Anchor off Kii Doulan 
—The forests— Beautiful birds and insects— Boat-building— The 
village and natives— Leave the Kii Islands— Pretty scenery— The 
Molucca Islands— Anchor off Banda— Gunong Api— Banda Neira 
— Nutmeg plantations — Animals and birds found — Banda to 
Amboyna— At Amboyna— The city— Get a supply of coal— Chinese 
burial-places— The harbour— Arrival of the mail-steamer— Leave 
Amboyna— Cross the Equator (second time)— Pass the Islands of 
Bachian and Tawali— Tidore and Ternate in sight— The charming 



SETTLEMENT AT CAPE YORK. 203 

scenery— Anchor off Ternate— The village — Club-house — Sultan's 
Palace — Mohammedan mosque — Visit the spice plantations — Trees 
and fruits— Ball at Government House. 

The half-dozen houses forming the settlement are 
readily seen from the anchorage ; but we looked in 
vain for the town with its several streets, as shown 
on the charts. There is only one small store in the 
place. The remaining dwelling-houses are those 
left behind by the detachment of Royal Marines, 
when they gave up the place to the Queensland 
Government in 1867. One is now occupied by the 
agents of the London Missionary Society, as a train- 
ing establishment in connection with the mission 
they are successfully working at Port Moresby, 
New Guinea. The Colonial Government have for 
some time been endeavouring to establish a settle- 
ment here, but the soil is found to be very poor, 
and the climate anything but healthy ; the chances, 
too, of frequent skirmishes with the savage natives 
from the adjacent islands make it far from a de- 
sirable locality for settling. I frequently landed, 
and had opportunities of seeing the country in 
the immediate vicinity. It appears to consist of 
low, wooded hills, valleys, and plains of great ex- 
tent ; the coast line, when not consisting of rocky 
headlands, being either a sandy beach or swamps 
fringed with mangroves. On the plains, character- 
istic of the poor soil, the first objects to attract 
attention are the enormous pinnacled ant-hills of 



204 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

red clay and sand scattered profusely about on each 
grassy slope. These singular structures, some of 
which were 10 or 12 feet in height, seemed of great 
strength and toughness : on breaking off a piece, 
they appeared to be honeycombed inside, the nu- 
merous galleries being then displayed. The ants 
themselves are of a pale brown colour, and about a 
quarter of an inch in length. 

In my wanderings I came across some of the 
aborigines, houseless and homeless. They are poor 
wretched specimens, the lowest in the scale of 
humanity : their dwellings, if such they can be called, 
being formed by a few bushes, behind which they 
creep for shelter ; dependent from day to day on what 
they can pick up for food, not even having arrived 
at the first and simplest form of civilisation; and, 
in like manner, destitute of all traces of religion, 
except, perhaps, a faint symptom of belief in a good 
and an evil spirit. 

These people differ but very little from those of 
other parts of Australia. The septum of the nose is 
invariably perforated, and one of the front teeth 
usually knocked out. No clothing is at any time 
worn, and their ornaments are scanty. Their utensils 
are few in number, consisting merely of a few 
baskets made from the stems of a rush-like plant ; 
while for drinking and cooking a large shell is 
used. Their weapons are clubs and spears, and 
thro wing-sticks, with which they propel small spear- 



FOLIAGE AND BIRDS. 205 

like arrows. I spent some time amongst them, and 
gave them a few trifling presents, but could obtain 
little information ; for their intellectual capacities ap- 
peared very low, and they showed but little interest 
or curiosity in the visits that had been paid them. 
Their food usually consists of a fruit resembling 
a large yellow plum, mealy and insipid, and a species 
of mau grove. At low water the women generally 
disperse in search of shell-fish on the mud flats, or 
amongst the mangrove swamps ; and the men oc- 
casionally fish either with the spear or hook and 
line. 

The dull and sombre vegetation of Australia 
spreads all over Cape York and the immediate 
adjacent islands. Wide forests of large but ragged- 
stemmed gum-trees, with their almost leafless and 
quite shadeless branches, are the principal charac- 
teristics of this vegetation ; here and there are 
gullies with jungles of more umbrageous foliage, 
and a few ragged stunted palms. Across the Straits, 
on its northern shore, the contrast is very great, for 
travellers tell us not a gum-tree is to be seen, but that 
the woods are close and lofty, and afford the deepest 
and most refreshing shade, and are often matted 
into impenetrable thickets by creepers and under- 
growth, and adorned with varied foliage, such as 
cocoa-nut, plantain, bamboo, and other plants, not 
only useful but also beautiful. 

Birds were plentiful, and very interesting, and I 



206 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

now saw for the first time many new species which are 
quite distinct from those previously met with. White 
and black cockatoos were abundant, and their loud 
screams, conspicuous colour, and pretty yellow crests 
rendered them a very important feature in the land- 
scape. Besides these were white pigeons, beautiful 
coloured parrots and lories, thrushes, leatherheads, 
the gorgeous rifle bird, and some thirty or forty 
others. Amongst this strange lot were the mound- 
makers (Megapodius Gouldii), which are found here 
and in the surrounding islands. They are allied to the 
gallinaceous birds, but differing from them and from 
all others in never sitting on their eggs, which they 
bury in mounds of sand and rubbish, and leave to be 
hatched by the sun or by fermentation. Several of 
these birds were shot by our party, and all seemed to 
be characterised by very large feet and long curved 
claws, which probably enable them to scratch to- 
gether all kinds of rubbish, dead leaves, sticks, 
stones, earth, rotten wood, &c, until they form a 
large mound, often 6 feet high and 12 feet across, in 
the middle of which they bury their eggs, which are 
of a brick-red colour, about the size of a swan's. A 
number of birds are supposed to join in making these 
mounds, and lay their eggs together ; so that some- 
times as many as forty or fifty are found on one 
mound. These nests are met with in the densest 
parts of the forests, and at first we were quite puzzled 
as to who could have gathered together these heaps of 



CEREMONIES RELATING TO THE DEAD. 207 

rubbish in such out-of-the-way places ; for it would 
seem the wildest romance to believe that it could 
have been done by birds that are not much larger 
than the ordinary turkey. 

Sept. 8th. — This morning left the anchorage, steam- 
ing through Endeavour Straits, and so had our last 
sight of Australia. Later in the day we hove- to 
off Hammond Island. Several landed, all well-armed 
with rifles, &c, so as to be prepared for any treachery 
of the natives ; but they kept out of sight, and we 
walked about unmolested through the woods, collect- 
ing botanical specimens and shooting the few birds 
that were seen. While roaming about near the beach, 
we saw some of the natives' graves, and were 
informed that they have some peculiar ceremonies 
relating to the disposal of their dead. After death 
it seems the remains are kept with the tribe until 
decomposition sets in, when the bones are carefully 
removed, painted red, and wrapped in bark ; they 
are then, with some ceremony, deposited in the 
grave, which consists of a mound of sand around 
which a trench is dug. A stout post is fixed upright 
at each of the four corners, and the sides are usually 
ornamented with large shells, skulls, and bones 
of the dugong. Evidences were not wanting here 
that a camp of the natives had been but recently 
broken up ; and as the day advanced, it was decided 
to return on board, for the vessel had anchored a few 
miles off, after having had an afternoon's dredging. 



208 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



Sept. 9th. — At an early hour this morning proceeded 
under weigh, and after a few hours' run hove-to off 
Booby Island, where a party landed for shooting 
and to look up. the post-office, a rough log shanty in 
which is kept a record book ; for it seems to be a 
rule with vessels to heave-to here, after the dangers 
of Torres Straits are passed, and leave their names and 
letters to be forwarded by the first vessel. There 
were no letters for any of our party, but one directed 
to the first visitor, describing a sunken rock not laid 
down on the charts. 

On the boats returning, we proceeded on our way 
for the Arru Islands. For some eight days we cruised 
on a north-westerly course, having frequent success- 
ful dredgings and trawlings. On the 15th, after 
passing a small detached coral reef, course was 
altered as requisite for the island we were bound 
to. The group extends from north to south about 
100 miles. Its eastern limits, however, are but im- 
perfectly known. The islands seem low and swampy, 
but, from being well-wooded, have the appearance of 
being much higher than they really are. On first 
sight, they appear as one continuous low island, but 
on n earing, intricate channels are found winding 
amongst them, through which set strong tidal currents. 

Sept. \§th. — We stood along the land all night, and 
early on the morning of the 16th were off the en- 
trance of Dobbo Harbour, situated between the two 
islands of Wamma and Wokan, and during the fore- 



VISIT OF THE DUTCH OFFICIALS. 209 

noon anchored off a low sandy spit. Immediately 
after we were visited by the Malay officials in their 
gay and pretty state dresses, their prahs being de- 
corated with numerous flags, and their approach 
announced by the sound of the tom-tom and shouts 
of the rowers. Others who came on board after- 
wards looked and seemed remarkably awkward and 
out of their element, probably because they felt 
dressed up for the important occasion ; for every one, 
it seems, holding a government appointment (under 
the Dutch) must appear in a black suit when paying 
official visits. It was with the utmost difficulty we 
kept from laughing when it was expected we should 
look very solemn at their reception, for some of our 
visitors appeared in costumes apparently of the last 
century, in long-tailed coats which trailed on the 
ground, for which they had never been measured, 
or with sleeves so long that the tips of their fingers 
could scarcely be seen. But their hats were the 
treat to see, for each sported a chimney-pot of some 
distant age, which was, in some cases, three or four 
sizes too large for the wearer, and to make a fit, 
a large pad of paper or rag had been introduced. 
After fulfilling their mission on board, they were 
glad to hurry away, and could be seen stripping off 
their official dress on their way to the shore. 

These islands are situated on the south-west coast 
of New Guinea, quite out of the track of all Euro- 
pean trade, and are inhabited by black mop-headed 

p 



210 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

savages. We anchored off the trading settlement 
of Dobbo, which the Malays and Chinese annually 
visit for procuring the birds of paradise, &c. We 
landed on the beach, along which a luxuriant grove 
of cocoa-nut trees extended for more than a mile. 
Under their shade were the houses, arranged with 
much regularity, so as to form one wide street, 
from which narrow alleys branched off on each 
side. 

The people who thronged the shore were of a 
dark brown colour, many with large mop-like heads 
of hair ; besides a few Papuans, Malays, and Chinese. 

From what could be seen of the natives, they 
appeared to be a strange race ; with an intelligent 
expression of countenance. Their dress consisted of 
a cloth round their waist, reaching to their knees ; 
their arms and ankles were decorated with rings 
made of wood, shell, beads, or coloured glass. The 
lobes of their ears were perforated with large holes, 
from which enormous earrings were suspended, some- 
times two and three in each ear. They wore neck- 
laces and finger-rings; and all appeared to have a 
band of plaited grass tight round the arm, to which 
they attached a bunch of hair or bright-coloured 
feathers, by way of ornament : this seemed to com- 
plete their ordinary decorations. 

At the southern extremity of the landing-place 
the sandbank merges into the beach of the island, 
and is backed by a luxuriant growth of lofty forest 



THE SETTLEMENT. 2ii 

trees. Though at first sight it seems a most 
strange place to build a village on, it has many 
advantages by being fully exposed to the sea-breeze 
in three directions, and is usually very healthy in 
consequence. 

The houses are all built after one pattern, being 
merely large rude sheds supported on rough and 
slender posts ; no walls, but the floor raised to within 
a few feet of the eaves ; the roofs neatly thatched 
with palm leaves, and formed with a very steep pitch, 
projecting considerably beyond the lower side, sur- 
mounted at the gables by large wooden horns, from 
which long strings of shells hang down, giving the 
village quite a picturesque appearance. This is the 
style of architecture usually adopted. Inside there 
are partition walls of thatch forming little sleeping- 
places, to accommodate the two or three separate 
families that usually live under one roof A few 
mats, baskets, and cooking utensils, purchased from 
the traders, constitute the whole of their furniture : 
spears and bows are their weapons. A sarong or mat 
forms the clothing of the women, a waist-cloth that 
of the men. The women, except in their extreme 
youth, are by no means pretty. Their strongly 
marked features are very unfeminine, and hard work, 
privations, and very early marriage soon destroy 
whatever beauty they might ever have possessed. 
Their toilet is very simple, consisting solely of a mat 
of plaited grass, or strips of palm-leaves worn tight 

p 2 



212 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

round the body, and reaching from the hips to the 
knees. This is the universal dress, except in a few 
cases where the Malay sarong has come into use. 
Their hair is frizzled, and tied in a bunch at the back 
of the head. 

The forest scenery possesses a brilliant and varied 
vegetation ; the beautiful Causurina tree, luxuriant 
groves of cocoa-nut, and palms of graceful forms 
were seen everywhere, while climbing rattans formed 
entangled festoons from almost every forest tree. 
Here the lovely bird of paradise, and scores of others 
with gorgeous plumage, flew in and out amidst the 
bright green foliage, forming a magnificent sight. 

From an early hour in the morning the forests are 
all alive with lories, parroquets, and cockatoos, whose 
shrill screams and cries resound through the woods ; 
while numerous smaller birds, many of the most 
lovely form and colour, chirruped and whistled all 
the day long. 

In and amongst this beautiful forest scenery we 
remained for a week, while daily excursions were 
made to the other islands of the group, and large 
numbers of very beautiful birds obtained, including 
many varieties of the rich-plumed birds of paradise. 
So gorgeous and beautiful are some of these (the 
king-bird) that the natives name them God's birds. 

All were sorry to leave these fascinating shores, 
for the many pleasant cruises in the steam-pinnace 
up the rivers and to the adjacent islands, together 



ANCnOB OFF KII DOULAN. 213 

with the good sport in the forests, made the time pass 
very agreeably ; but on the 23rd September we were 
off again, steaming along the land, which appeared 
very lovely and fertile, rising abruptly from the 
ocean, with its green hills piled gracefully together, 
presenting a mass of evergreen vegetation most 
inviting to the eye. Flying fish were very numerous ; 
they appear to be a smaller species than those of 
the Atlantic, and more active and elegant in their 
motion. As they skim along the surface, they turn 
on their sides, so as to fully display their beautiful 
fins, taking a flight of more than one hundred yards, 
rising and falling in a most graceful manner. At a 
little distance they exactly resemble swallows, and 
no one who sees them can doubt that they really do 
fly, not merely descend in an oblique direction from 
the height they gain by their first spring. 

As the day advanced, we were close to Great Kii, 
and we came to anchor late in the evening off the 
tillage. Canoes were soon alongside, and it required 
but little persuasion to induce some of their occupants 
to come on board, where we were for some time 
enlivened with their dances. Next morning, moved 
on our way and anchored off the village of Kii 
Doulan. 

The island is long and narrow ; it appears to be 
everywhere covered with luxuriant forests, and in its 
bays and inlets the sand is of dazzling whiteness, re- 
sulting from the decomposition of the coralline lime- 



214 CBUISE OF EMS. CHALLENGER. 

stone, of which it is entirely composed. In all the 
little swampy inlets and valleys sago-trees abound, 
and these supply the main subsistence of the natives. 
The forests afford abundance of timber, though not 
probably more so than other islands, and, from some 
unknown causes, these remote savages have made 
boat-building their study, in which art they pre- 
eminently excel. Their canoes and prahs are beau- 
tifully formed, broad and low in the centre, rising at 
each end, where they terminate in high pointed 
peaks, more or less carved, and ornamented with 
shells and waving plumes of cassowary's hair. They 
are not hollowed out of a tree, but are regularly 
built of planks running from end to end, accurately 
fitted together without a nail or particle of iron being 
used, the planks being dowelled together with 
wooden pegs, as a cooper fastens the head of a cask, 
and the whole afterwards strengthened by timbers, 
lashed with split rattan to solid cleats left for the 
purpose in each plank. 

The village had a pretty appearance as seen from 
the anchorage ; but on landing the illusion was soon 
dispelled. There seems to be but little care or clean- 
liness in or around the houses; but a ramble through 
the beautiful forests, hunting for plants and insects, 
many of which were altogether unknown, was very 
enjoyable. 

Sept. 26th. — Left the anchorage this morning, and 
proceeded amongst a group of beautifully wooded 



GREAT BAND A. 215 



islands, many of which were either unknown or in- 
correctly laid down on the charts ; so a running survey 
was made of this archipelago. Three days of most 
pleasant cruising followed, during which frequent 
soundings and trawlings were onward, and on the 
20th September the volcanic group of Banda was in 
sight, covered with an unusually dense and brilliant 
green vegetation, indicating that we had passed 
beyond the range of the hot dry winds from the 
plains of Central Australia. 

As we proceed, on passing the shores of Great 
Banda, composed seemingly of a series of perpen- 
dicular crags from 200 to 300 feet high, covered 
with luxuriant vegetation hanging down in festoons 
of bright green unfading verdure to the water's 
edge, a beautiful sheet of water is disclosed, like 
an inland lake, showing up the northern shores, 
covered with dense matted masses of foliage, while 
scattered about ahead are two or three small islands, 
with the swell chafing their abrupt sides as they rise 
out of the bright blue sea, which is only ruffled here 
and there by light breezes, or flecked by shadows from 
the fleecy clouds that slowly cross the sky. 

Banda is a lovely little spot, its three islands inclos- 
ing a secure harbour, from which no outlet is visible, 
and with waters so transparent that living corals, 
and even the minutest objects, are plainly seen on the 
volcanic sand at a depth of seven or eight fathoms. 

We anchored within the circle formed bv these 



216 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

islands, between Great Banda and Banda Neira, at 
the foot of G-unong Api, or Burning Mountain, a 
conical active volcano 2300 feet high. Banda Neira 
is in full view before us. It is composed of hills, 
which gradually rise in a succession of ridges to the 
height of about 500 feet, covered with beautiful vege- 
tation to the very top. On one of these prominent 
positions is Fort Belgica, with bastions surmounted 
by circular towers, resembling some old feudal 
castle, from which flies the Dutch flag. Its walls are 
white and dazzling in the bright sunlight, and be- 
neath is a broad, neatly clipped glacis, forming a 
beautiful green descending lawn. At the foot of this 
hill is Fort Nassau, which was built by the Dutch 
when they first arrived, in 1609. On either hand, 
along the shore, extend the chief villages of Neira, 
with rows of pretty shady trees on the bund, or front 
street, bordering the bay ; while at some little dis- 
tance behind the beach are spice plantations and 
large groves of cocoa-nut trees. In front of our 
anchorage the town stretches along, consisting of 
scattered houses, with not much sign of regularity. 
One or two roads run up the valley, where are 
pleasant groves of orange, tamarind, nutmeg, bam- 
boo, banana, and other stately tropical trees and 
plants, lending their shade and beauty to the scene, 
which, with the white walls and red-tiled roofs of 
the houses, together with the many strange faces 
and still stranger dresses, formed a great contrast to 



NUTMEG PLANTATIONS. 217 

anything we had hitherto seen. These natives are 
apparently a very mixed race, and probably three- 
fourths are made up of Malay, Papuan, Arab, Por- 
tugese, and Dutch. The first two form the larger 
portion of the inhabitants, but the dark skins and 
the more or less frizzly hair of the Papuans appear 
to predominate. 

During our stay here the Governor (or Eesident, 
as he is styled) made up a party to visit the nutmeg 
plantations on Great Banda. Our steam-pinnace was 
in requisition, and a most enjoyable trip it was, for, 
on reaching the landing, horses were provided to 
take the party the remaining eight miles to the 
gardens. And what a treat presented itself, for there 
are few cultivated plants more beautiful than nut- 
meg-trees. They are handsomely shaped, growing to 
a height of 20 or 30 feet, with bright glossy leaves, 
and bearing small yellowish flowers. The trees were 
now in full bloom, and in a few weeks the fruit would 
be ready for picking. It grows in size and colour 
somewhat like a peach, but rather oval ; it is of a 
tough, fleshy consistence, and as it ripens splits open, 
showing the dark-brown nut within, surrounded with 
the crimson mace, forming a very beautiful object. 
The nutmeg trade was for a number of years a strict 
monopoly ; recently the monopoly has been given up. 
The indignation at one time expressed against the 
Dutch for destroying all the nutmeg and clove trees 
on the many islands then covered with those valuable 



218 CBTJ1SE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

spices, in order to restrict the cultivation to the two 
or three that they were able to watch over, showed a 
narrowmindedness in the government of that time 
which has since happily passed away. After spending 
some hours here, we returned to the vessel, well 
pleased with the day's recreation. 

Shooting parties left for the interior, as it was 
reported that the forests contained deer, pig, and a 
species of cuscus, but none were met with. Of birds, 
the naturalists collected some seven or eight species ; 
the most remarkable being a fine and handsome 
fruit-pigeon, which feeds upon the nutmegs, or 
rather on the mace, and as we strolled through the 
forests, its loud booming note was continually heard. 

Oct. 2nd. — Our stay was limited to three days, 
when we proceeded on our way. The sea was 
beautifully calm, and the bright sun and clear sky 
threw a flood of golden light over all. The distance 
was only 115 miles, and we were now approaching 
Amboyna, the most important of the Spice Islands, 
where we arrived and anchored on the 4th October. 
Amboyna is the name both of the island and its chief 
city — in fact, it is regarded as the capital of the 
Moluccas. 

The island consists of two peninsulas, so nearly 
divided by inlets of the sea as to leave only a sandy 
isthmus about a mile wide near the eastern extre- 
mity. ' The western inlet is several miles long, 
and forms a fine harbour, on the southern side of 



CITY OF AMBOYNA. 219 



which is situated the town, backed up by high hills 
rising abruptly from the sea. Along the shore are 
many little bays, where coasting- vessels and prahs 
were seen at anchor. Viewed from the anchor- 
age the city has a pleasing appearance, its streets 
being broad, straight, and well-shaded, with num- 
bers of roads set out at right angles to each other, 
bordered by hedges of flowering shrubs, and inclosing 
country-houses and huts embosomed in palm and 
fruit trees ; and, with the high land forming the 
background, there are few places more enjoyable for 
a morning or evening stroll than the sandy roads 
and shady lanes in the suburbs of this ancient 
city. 

Landing on the mole in front of Fort Nieuw Vic- 
toria, we passed through this old stronghold out into 
the pretty lawn beyond, which is surrounded by 
officials' and merchants' residences. Nor must I 
omit to mention the Societat, or Club-house, which 
occupies a prominent position just opposite the fort. 
It appears that every place of any pretension to size 
in Netherland India has one or two of these pleasant 
resorts, where newspapers and periodicals are re- 
ceived, and all the social Europeans gather in the 
cool of the evening to enjoy each other's society, or 
smoke and drink their favourite gin - and - bitters. 
Through the courtesy of the Resident, invitations 
were extended to the " Challengers " during their 
stay in port, and thus opportunities were afforded 



220 CBUISE OF EM.S. CEALLENGEB. 

of passing a pleasant evening, especially when the 
band played. 

The Dutch Government have a large coal depot 
here. One day we proceeded farther up the har- 
bour for the purpose of taking in a supply, lying 
alongside a jetty during the operation ; it was, how- 
ever, a slow and tedious process, for no inducement 
could make the coolies get in anything like a reason- 
able quantity per day. It was a pretty place, and 
as we had the additional facilities of lying along- 
side a pier, many excursions were taken. All along 
the beach are small groves of cocoa-nut palms, 
which furnish food and shade to the natives dwelling 
in their huts beneath. Away at the back are the 
favourite burial-places of the Chinese, whose tombs 
are curious horseshoe-shaped inclosures, their white 
walls making very conspicuous objects on the hill- 
side ; while scattered far and near are numerous little 
plantations filled with small trees which have a 
bright green foliage. These are the gardens of clove- 
trees, which have made this island so famous through- 
out the world. On the completion of the coaling 
we returned to our first anchorage off the town. The 
passage down the harbour afforded one of the most 
astonishing and beautiful sights to behold. The 
bottom was absolutely hidden by a continuous series 
of coral, sponges, actiniae, and other marine produc- 
tions of varied forms and brilliant colours ; the waters 
were clear as crystal, and the depth varying from 



LEAVE AMBOYNA. 221 

eight to ten fathoms. All along the uneven bottom 
were rocks and stones, offering a variety of stations 
for the growth of these animal forests. It was a 
sight to gaze on for hours, and no description can 
do justice to its surpassing beauty and interest. It 
had generally been considered that this coast was 
particularly rich in all kinds of marine productions, 
such as corals, shells, and fish, but the results of our 
dredging outside the harbour did not in any way 
prove such to be the case, to our great disappoint- 
ment. During our stay the mail-steamer arrived ; 
this seemed to be almost the only chance to break 
the dull monotony of a residence in this enervating 
climate, unless an earthquake happens, which affords 
a grand opportunity for something to talk about to 
new arrivals. 

Life at Amboyna, and at almost every other place 
of the Dutch possessions, at the best is dull. Once 
or twice a month the Resident gives a reception, 
when all the Europeans and most of the Mestizos 
come and dance till late ; and as there are some 
seven or eight hundred people in the city, and the 
larger portion are usually invited and attend, it is 
frequently a brilliant affair. 

We had been here six days when it was deter- 
mined to make a move from the anchorage. Accord- 
ingly, all was ready, and on the morning of the 
10th October we were again under weigh, steaming 
through beautiful calm seas, with numerous islands 



222 CBUISE OF HM.S. CHALLENGER. 

of varied form and size in sight, sounding and 
dredging daily with most satisfactory results. On 
the evening of the 13th we crossed the Equator, and 
on the next day passed the islands of Bachian and 
Tawali, which are great volcanic masses heaved 
up into ridges about 1000 feet in height, and 
separated by a long, narrow strait abounding in 
the grandest scenery. Here on Bachian the clove- 
tree grows wild. North of this island is Makian, 
an old volcano; in fact, we were just now sur- 
rounded with extinct craters. The next day (14th) 
we passed through the channel separating Tidore, 
with its high, prominent peak, from that of Ternate, 
and late in the evening anchored in the well- 
sheltered bay, off the village of Ternate, situated at 
the eastern declivity of a volcanic mountain 5000 
feet high. This is one of four or five conical vol- 
canoes, which skirt the west coast of the large and 
almost unknown island of Grilolo. The town is 
concealed from view until close up to the anchorage, 
when it is seen stretching along the shore at the 
very base of the mountain. Its situation is fine, 
and there are grand views on every side. Op- 
posite is the rugged promontory and fine volcanic 
cone of Tidore ; to the east is the long, mountainous 
coast of Gilolo ; while immediately behind the town 
rises the huge mountain, sloping easily at first, and 
covered with a thick grove of fruit-trees, but soon 
becoming steeper, and furrowed with deep gullies 



TEBNATE. 223 



almost to the summit, whence issue faint wreaths 
of smoke. The scene looked calm and beautiful, 
although beneath are hidden fires, which occasion- 
ally burst forth in streams of lava, but more fre- 
quently make their existence known by earthquakes, 
which have on several occasions devastated the 
town. It was in 1840 that the last great eruption 
took place, and destroyed everything within reach, 
inflicting a loss of something like 100,000/.; but 
after a while the present town sprang up on the 
ruins, and now contains about nine or ten thousand 
inhabitants. 

Near the landing-place is the residence of the Resi- 
dent, or Governor, a large roomy bungalow, prettily 
situated, and surrounded with beautiful foliage, and 
close at hand are the Societat, or Club-house, and 
the residences of the Europeans. Like all Dutch 
cities in the East, it is divided into kampongs, or 
quarters, the southern being occupied by Europeans, 
and the northern by Chinese and Arabs. Near 
the latter is Fort Orange, built by the Portuguese 
in 1607, in an open space facing the beach, and 
beyond this the native town extends for about 
a mile to the north-east. The road leads to the 
palace of the Sultan of Ternate, which is a small 
building in the European style, standing on a terrace 
facing a wide and beautiful lawn reaching down to 
the sea. The rajahs who at one time reigned over 
the savage and cruel pirates who infested these isles 



224 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

are now reduced to a state of vassalage, and are but 
regal slaves, whose pomp and state are maintained 
by the dollars of the Dutch. The villages close at 
hand consist of a number of bamboo-built houses, 
nicely sheltered with cocoa-nut and banana trees, 
and picturesquely situated on a little projecting 
point almost surrounded by the bright blue sea. 

On my way back to the European quarter I heard 
the booming of the drum from the large mosque 
close at hand, calling all the faithful to assemble to 
return thanks to the Prophet at the close of the 
departing day. I went into the building, which is 
a square, pagoda-like structure with several roofs, 
one above the other, and each being a little smaller 
than the one beneath it. A wall surrounds the build- 
ing, inside which was a large well, or pool, where all 
the faithful performed their ablutions before pro- 
ceeding into the sanctuary. After getting within 
the inclosure, an inclined terrace of steps led to the 
entrance door, where boots had to be removed, and 
I entered barefooted the sacred precincts amongst 
the worshippers, who were kneeling in front of a 
recess, or niche, and a gaily painted and decorated 
dais, or throne ; but I could learn nothing as to the 
objects in view, and the whole of the religious cere- 
mony appeared to consist of the repetition of a 
certain number of prayers or passages from the 
Koran, on the termination of which all seemed 
to disperse highly pleased. Before we left Ter- 



TBEES AND FRUITS. 225 

nate, the Resident made up a party for the purpose 
of visiting the spice plantations. Landing at an 
early hour, we found a walk through the charming 
avenues most enjoyable. The whole surface of 
the land is covered with various kinds of stately 
trees, interspersed here and there with neat little 
inclosures and huts of the natives. It must be re- 
membered that we were in the Tropics, where the 
wild luxuriance of nature runs riot, for the natural 
vegetation of the hedges and hillsides overpowers 
in picturesque effect all the artificial productions of 
man. Wending our way along paths where the line 
of vision is very limited from the dense foliage, we 
occasionally got, on reaching a clearing, alternate 
peeps into wooded valleys and fertile plains, and 
glimpses of the bright blue sea beyond, backed by 
hills and bordered with low, wooded shores, on the 
surface of which were numerous coasting vessels, 
boats, and canoes, whose white sails looked bright in 
the morning sun. Still continuing our walk along 
shady pathways, and admiring each successive view, 
we reached the plantations. Delight itself, however, 
would be but a weak term to express the feelings 
even of the most ordinary observer of nature here. 
The lovely sago-palm, with its great bunches of 
fruit ; the fascinating betel-nut, tall and tapering ; the 
luxuriant profusion of pepper, cinnamon, cocoa, nut- 
meg, and clove trees, with numberless others pro- 
ducing durians, mangustans, lansets, and mangoes, 

Q 



226 CBUTSE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

whose wide-spreading branches and bright green 
foliage are offered to the hand of indurtry for fulfilling 
the varied purposes of life, whether useful or orna- 
mental — all gave to the general aspect a picturesque 
beauty only to be met with amongst these lovely 
islands. 

It was soon time to retrace our steps, yet I could 
not help stopping again and again to gaze on these 
scenes, and to endeavour to fix on my mind an 
impression which at the time I knew I should wholly 
or partially lose. The form of the beautiful nutmeg 
fruit and other spice-producing trees, the sago-palm, 
or betel, may possibly remain clear and separate, but 
the thousand and one beauties that unite them into 
a perfect scene must surely fade away. 

It was past noon when we again reached Govern- 
ment House ; and now each of our party strolled 
away, either to the Club or for a farther walk in the 
country, so as to pass the time until the evening, 
when a reception in honour of the " Challengers " was 
held at Government House, finishing up with a ball. 

All the rank and beauty of Ternate were of course 
there to meet us, besides the officers from a small 
Dutch war-ship in port. The company was a med- 
ley of nationalities. There were Arabs in jaunty 
turbans and long, flowing bernouses ; curious-looking 
Chinese in silks and long tails ; Malays, with close- 
shaven crowns and richly brocaded jackets; and 
sober, quiet-looking Dutchmen in evening dress. Nor 



BALL AT QOVEBNMENT HOUSE. 227 

must I omit to mention the one resident Englishman 
(Mr. Edwards) and his family. The ladies were, 
with few exceptions, all Mestizos, got up in silks 
and muslins, and looking their best. The Challenger s 
band attended, but the company preferred dancing 
to their own plaintive tunes, produced from a fife 
and a couple of fiddles. Thus pleasantly passed a 
few hours; and from the kind consideration and 
hospitality of our host and hostess, memories will 
long remain of the ball at Ternate. 



Q 2 




NATIVES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



CHAPTER X. 

Ternate (Molucca Islands) to Samboangan, Iloilo, and Manilla 
(Philippine Islands), and to Hong Kong (China). 

Leave Ternate— Mindanao, Philippine Islands, in sight— Anchor off Sam- 
boangan — The village — Hospitality of the Spanish officials — Dance 
of the Malagahi Indians — Leave Mindanao, and anchor off Panay 
— The town of Iloilo — Leave for Luzon — Anchor in Manilla Har- 
bour — The city — Cigar factories, &c. — Leave Manilla — Passage to 
Hong Kong, China — Arrive and anchor in Hong Kong Harbour — 
The city— Its residents, shops, theatres — Their temples and re- 
ligion — Joss, the mystery — Captain Nares leaves for England 
to take the Arctic command — Loss to the expedition by his 
leaving — Arrival of the English mail. 

On the morning of the 17th October we left Ter- 
nate, greatly to the regret of our hospitable friends. 



ANCHOR OFF SAMBOANGAN. 229 

Steaming on with fine weather across the Molucca 
passage into the Celebes Sea, the scenery in every 
direction was very lovely, the lofty, high volcanic 
land affording more than ordinary interest as we 
occasionally stopped off the steep shores for trawling. 

Crossing the Celebes Sea on the 23rd, the high 
land of Mindanao, covered with bright green foliage 
to the very top, was before us. Stopping again for 
soundings, it was nine o'clock on a bright moonlight 
night when we anchored off the village of Sam- 
boangan. After the Spanish officials had boarded 
us, and visits of ceremony exchanged, those so 
desirous were free for a run on shore. 

The next day, early in the morning, as the sun 
rose, the picture from the deck was very charming. 
The little village before us was almost concealed 
from view by the varied foliage stretching from 
end to end, backed up with high land cultivated 
nearly to the summit ; while in the fertile plains 
below the waving palms and the bright green 
stalks of the rice stood out in pleasing relief. 

As is usually the case on landing at these villages, 
Samboangan lost much of the charm apparent from 
the anchorage ; but the country and roads were 
found prettily decorated with thick and many-tinted 
foliage; tall bamboos shaking their feathery heads 
aloft, the cocoa-nut still loftier; palms of various 
sorts; the plantains and bananas, the huge green 
leaves of which give such richness to a tropical land- 



230 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

scape, and the many-coloured bright flowers, and 
trailers hanging over banks of rivers that flow into 
the sea. 

With the proverbial kindness and courtesy of the 
Spanish officials, a pleasing entertainment was ar- 
ranged for us during the only evening of our stay. 
On landing it was found that the upper room of the 
large house of the Captain of the Port had been 
prepared for the occasion, and was pretty well filled 
with a number of Moros Indians from Malagahi (the 
hill tribes), who were busily preparing to give us a 
national dance. The musicians were mostly women, 
who played with drum-sticks on gongs of various 
sizes, arranged in sets of ten or twelve in number, 
and on instruments formed of long metallic bars and 
strips of bamboo on strings stretched across frames, 
besides flutes, drums, and a curious two-stringed 
fiddle. The variety of sounds produced was both 
harmonious and pleasing. When all was ready, at a 
given signal, the dancers sprang to their feet, and 
soon we had a sight not easily forgotten. 

The performers, principally girls, were dressed in 
bright and gorgeous costumes, in silk, satin, and gold 
embroidery, with rings, armlets and jewellery. Their 
pleasing and easy motion, the graceful attitudes and 
movements of their body and arms, had a novel effect, 
and on its conclusion we could be no other than 
highly pleased with the treat. There was a large 
attendance of Spanish officials, both of the navy and 



THE TOWN OF ILOILO. 231 

army, who did their utmost in providing many good 
tilings for our enjoyment and comfort. 

Being anxious to push on, so as to reach Hong 
Kong before the change of the monsoons, early 
the next morning we were under weigh, passing 
through the Sulu Sea, reaching the Island of 
Panay, and anchoring off the town of Iloilo on 
the 28th. 

The approach to the port is by a narrow channel 
between a sandbank and the Island of Guimaras, and 
we anchored very near the shore. A few straggling 
houses are all that is seen of the town, which has 
no pretensions to size or beauty ; one portion of it 
lies so low that its streets are usually, at high-water, 
submerged, the houses being built on high piles. 
The roads in the suburbs are pretty, and many 
Indian houses are seen, where most of the women are 
employed making that extremely beautiful fabric, the 
pina, which is prepared from the leaves of the pine- 
apple. The white and delicate threads, being separated 
from the leaves, are sorted with great care, and 
woven into a very delicate material resembling very 
fine muslin. Such are the patience and care required 
in its make that sometimes not more than half an inch 
is made in a day. 

After taking in coal, we left, on the morning of 
the 31st, for Manilla. The 350 miles were soon got 
over, and, after trawling on two or three occasions, 
on the 4th November we sighted the lighthouse at 



232 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

the entrance of the magnificent harbour of Manilla, 
and some hours' steaming brought us to the anchor- 
age, at about a couple of miles from the shore. 

Soon after we were visited by the various officials, 
and opportunities were given for landing. The 
business portion of the city is prettily laid out 
with numbers of long and handsome streets, exten- 
sive stores and warehouses, affording employment to 
hundreds of coolies and others, who are seen rushing 
about with bales and packages, loading or unloading 
vessels in the river. Among the interesting sights 
of Manilla are the cigar factories. There was no 
difficulty in obtaining a permit from the chief of the 
administration to see them. We were informed that 
in the one visited four thousand women and half 
that number of men were employed, while in the 
neighbourhood as many as nine thousand women 
and seven thousand men find employment in pro- 
ducing cigars. As we entered the building, our ears 
were almost deafened by the chattering produced 
and noise made by some hundreds of women seated 
on the floors, each provided with a small wood 
mallet, with which she hammered the tobacco leaves 
on blocks to polish them for the outside of the cigars. 
In other rooms they were employed in rolling them 
up into their proper shape, finishing off, and other- 
wise preparing them for the market. 

Tobacco being a strict monopoly of the govern- 
ment, it is entirely in charge of a military adminis- 



MA NILLA. 233 



1 ration, and during the harvest, we were informed 
by the officials who accompanied us, the greatest 
care and supervision are necessary to prevent the 
best leaves of the crop being carried off by the 
employes. After the gathering in from the plan- 
tations the leaves are at first placed in heaps under 
cover to ferment, then sorted according to size and 
quality and allowed to dry ; finally reaching the 
manufactory, where they are made into cigars as we 
saw them. 

The city is situated in a rich and fertile district, 
in the midst of magnificent scenery, splendid alike 
in form and colour, but, like every town in these 
islands, has one great enemy to dread — earthquake, 
which has from time to time made frightful ravages 
in this city, evidences of which are seen at the present 
time in the ruins of churches, cathedrals, and public 
buildings. 

On the 11th November our visit came to an end, 
and we proceeded out of the harbour under steam. 
Before clearing the land, we had all the prospects of a 
rough passage before us. At the best of times the 
China Seas are anything but calm, but now we had 
the full force of the monsoon against us ; and the wild 
cross waves breaking on our bows tossed us about 
with great violence, to the destruction of crockery and 
furniture, until Hearing the coast, when it moderated 
sufficiently for us to have a few hauls with the trawl 
with satisfactory results. The 16th November, Vic- 



234 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

toria Peak (Hong Kong) was seen, and a few hours 
later we were threading our way through a very maze 
of boats and shipping until reaching the anchorage 
off the Naval Yard. Soon we were surrounded by a 
host of sampans and junks, whose noisy occupants 
were each seeking the honour of being appointed tli€ 
Challenger s bumboat. 

Few places are more interesting to the traveller 
from Europe than this city, furnishing as it does such 
a change of scenery, manners, and customs, so widely 
different from anything he has probably seen be 
fore. 

The harbour is crowded with men-of-war and 
trading vessels of many nationalities, while hundreds 
of junks, sampans, and fishing-boats, full of life and 
movement, contribute in making the scene one of 
great attraction. Not more than half a century has 
elapsed since England took possession of this island, 
at which time it was little less than a bare uninviting 
rock, affording a haunt and home for pirates and 
desperadoes, who were the terror of these seas. 
What a change has been brought about in this 
brief period ! Now it is a great centre of trade and 
commerce, and vessels come from Bombay, Calcutta, 
and Singapore, laden with the choicest products from 
these lands for trans-shipment to England, America, 
or our colonial possessions, receiving in return 
tribute from those distant countries, in exchange 
for teas, silk, opium, and other requirements. It *» 



UONG KONG. '231 



already one of the most flourishing of our colonies 
in the East, and destined to still further extension 
and greater importance. It has become the postal 
terminus of the many lines of mail-steamers that 
arrive weekly from Europe and America, and now, 
with submarine telegraph, is in instant communica- 
tion with every place of importance. 

Victoria, the chief town, is situated along the 
northern shore of the island, with its magnificent 
harbour stretching out in front, and backed up with 
mountainous land, culminating in Peak Victoria, 
1200 feet above the level of the sea, and stretching 
along the length and breadth of the city, shutting 
out the invigorating breeze for half the year, and 
causing it to be one of the most unhealthy of our 
colonial possessions. It is laid out with fine streets, 
and its hillside is crowded with villa residences of 
the wealthy traders and merchants. 

The Chinese population, who are ever alive when 
an opening occurs for trade, have come here in 
swarms from the main-land, and made this once 
almost barren rock their home, building a town of 
their own, which skirts the bay and scrambles 
upward and onward over the hill behind. 

The cathedral, Government House, clubs, and 
public buildings are splendid specimens of archi- 
tecture, and thus exemplify the energy and industry 
of the Anglo-Saxon race. What other race would 
think of placing house and home in such a locality ? 



236 CBUISE OF HM.S. CHALLENGEB. 

The summers are usually hot, and the town un- 
healthy; still manifold precautions and sanitary 
measures have done much of late to diminish the 
amount of sickness. As it is, however, great numbers 
are invalided home from the vessels employed on 
this station, while others find rest in six feet of earth 
in the Happy Valley, where a Protestant cemetery is 
situated. 

Warehouses and stores, for supplying every 
requisite and luxury of life, are numerous. The 
houses of business along the Queen's Road would 
do credit to many an European town, and the 
naval yard is complete with every requirement 
for refitting vessels employed on this part of the 
station. 

On reaching the shore, a walk through the Chinese 
quarter is most interesting. The houses and shops 
are most curiously constructed, and just as strangely 
fitted up ; not one, however small or poor, but has its 
domestic altar, its Joss, and other quaint and curious 
arrangements known only to these peculiarly strange 
people. Look where we will, there are evidences of the 
untiring industry and enterprise of these surprising 
sons of Shem. Up every alley, and in every street, 
we see crowds of little yellow faces, and stumble 
against the brokers or merchants hurrying on to 
their business, clad in the universal blue jean jumper 
and trousers, cotton socks, and shoes of worked silk, 
with thick wood soles ; some with, and others without 



THE CHINESE QUARTER. 237 



hats : the shaven face and pigtail so typifying the 
class that to note a difference between Sun Shing or 
Wang Heng is sometimes most embarrassing. The 
dress of the women differs but little from that of the 
men. The curious, built-up style the married ladies 
have of wearing their hair gives them a strange ap- 
pearance ; while the younger lasses allow thsirs to 
hang down their back in tresses, or wear it bound 
tightly over their foreheads, and secured au chignon. 
Their cheeks are tinted bright pink, and with their 
neat little feet, and clean and loose clothing, they 
make a very pretty picture. By far the most con- 
spicuous of the various kinds of people, and those 
which most attract the stranger's attention, are the 
Chinese, although great numbers of other nationalities 
are to be seen ; and, when once the business of the 
day has begun, the din and traffic are enormous ; for 
crowds of men, of all creeds and colours, Jew, pagan, 
and Christian, Buddhist and Parsee, Chinese, Japanese, 
and European, fill the streets, while gangs of coolies 
chant to keep step, as they press on beneath their 
heavy burdens. The merchants, whose places of 
business lie along the Queen's Road, are so similar 
in appearance that a description of one will apply to 
all. He is generally a fat, round-faced man, with an 
important and business-like look, wearing the same 
style of clothing as the meanest coolie (but of finer ma- 
terial), and is always clean and neat, and his long tail, 
tipped with red or blue silk, hangs down to his heels. 



238 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

The Chinese never depart in the least from their 
national dress, which is, indeed, impossible to improve 
on for a tropical climate, whether as regards comfort 
or appearance. The loosely hanging trousers and 
neat white half-shirt, half- jacket are exactly what a 
dress should be in these latitudes. 

Continuing the walk along the Queen's Road, 
hundreds of small shops are passed where are seen 
the most marvellous and miscellaneous collection 
of " curios " possible. The shopkeepers are, as a 
rule, very good-natured, and will show one every- 
thing they have, not appearing to trouble whether 
a purchase is made or not. They always ask 
for their goods about twice as much as they are 
willing to take. If you buy a few things from 
them, they will invariably speak to you afterwards 
every time you pass the shop, asking you to walk 
in and sit down to rest, or to take a cup of tea 
or some chow-chow ; and you wonder how they 
manage to get a living where so many sell the same 
kind of article. 

Farther on are to be seen carpenters busy at 
packing-cases, cabinet-makers hammering away at 
camphor-wood chests, brass-workers clattering away 
making bowls or gongs ; while at every step are met 
sellers of water, vegetables, fish, soup, fruit, &c, with 
as many cries, and just as unintelligible, as those of 
London. Others carry a portable cooking apparatus 
on a pole, balanced by a table at the other end, and 



RESIDENTS, SHOPS, ETC. 239 

serve up a meal of shell-fish, rice, and vegetables for 
a few cash; while coolies, boatmen, and others, wait- 
ing to be hired, are everywhere to be met with. 

Here are dentists, letter-writers, fortune-tellers, 
and hawkers of odds and ends, in all directions; 
while the barbers have plenty to do shaving heads 
and cleaning ears; water-carriers, bearers of sedan- 
chairs, coming and going in all directions, dressed in 
their peculiar national costume, with their long tails 
either wound about their heads or trailing down 
behind. The streets of Hong Kong offer a thousand 
reflections to those who have never been brought in 
contact with the celestial race. 

The restaurants, grog-shops, tea-houses, and gam- 
bling saloons are very numerous, and under strict 
surveillance of the police ; but what usually at first 
arrests the attention of the stranger are the numerous 
little niches along the street sacred to Joss, where at 
certain hours are burnt strips of coloured paper and 
scented sticks, for some mysterious rite known only 
to those strange people. To see them at their chow- 
chow is of itself a treat, for it is all done openly in 
their shops ; they have no glass fronts to them, as 
we are accustomed to see in most European cities. 
They have the character of being most patient in 
poverty, and if ill-luck befalls them, they will live on 
rice alone and suffer without murmuring. A dis- 
orderly Chinaman is rare, and a lazy one scarcely 
exists ; so long as he has strength to use his hands, 



240 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

he needs no support from anybody. Europeans often 
complain of want of work, but a Chinaman never 
does ; he always manages to find something to do ; 
consequently, beggars are but seldom met with 
amongst them. 

All Chinamen can read, write, and cipher with 
facility. It is a curious sight to see book-keepers 
in the stores tallying up their accounts on a 
machine like a gridiron, with buttons strung on 
its bars, the different rows representing units, tens, 
hundreds, and thousands. With all the shopkeepers 
the value of the slightest article purchased is calcu- 
lated in this way in dollars and cents with great 
rapidity. The studs are pushed about from place 
to place as fast as a musical performer's fingers travel 
over the keys of a piano. 

The theatres, or (as they English it) the sing-song 
houses, are amongst their principal amusements, 
and exhibit the peculiar traits and character of these 
strange people. Being possessed of a language which 
may be termed the very music of speech, from 
its capabilities of modulation, great things might be 
expected ; but the vocal music seemed to us of an 
extraordinary character, little resembling any de- 
scription of sounds with which we were at all 
familiar. Pitched in the highest falsetto tone, the 
voice of the singer flies from note to note in the most 
singular manner, producing a very unearthly noise, 
which has no relation to any conceivable progression 



RESIDENTS, SHOPS, ETC. 241 

of human sounds. Nor is their instrumental accom- 
paniment any better. The musicians are on the 
same stage with the actors, with gongs, horns, and 
cymbals. Melody there is none. They blow and beat, 
and beat and blow, varying the monotony of the 
sound by frequent and successive crashes. The 
plot of the drama, whether tragedy or comedy, it 
is impossible to understand. It seems to have no 
proper beginning or end, but to go on from day 
to day in a succession of battles and love-makings, 
until the patience of the audience is exhausted. 

After leaving the theatre, we reach the native 
quarter, and passing through " Curio " Street, the first 
thing to arrest our attention being the busy, untiring 
industry of the Chinese in their little shops, where 
sandal-wood boxes, ivory turning and carvings, 
lacquer-ware, tortoise-shell and bronze goods, silks, 
and embroidery are laid out in tempting array. 

Continuing on through long lengths of streets, we 
pass corn and rice mills, dye-houses, blacksmiths, 
carpenters, umbrella and lantern makers, bootmakers, 
tailors, and barbers, shops with gaudy swinging 
sign-boards — the several characters noting the name 
and style of the firm. 

Some of the narrowest parts of the road we find 
quite a difficulty in passing, from the crowds of 
purchasers and vendors of fish and pork and vege- 
tables and endless other articles of food, whose stalls 
and tables occupy the side walks in front of the 

R 



242 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

shops. Jostling on amongst this busy scene, we 
hear the constant " Ah ho!" of the palankeen- 
bearer, causing us fresh confusion at every step. At 
length we turn down a small side-street, where are 
gambling-houses, money-changers, Joss temples, 
samshu and sing-song houses, from which are heard 
the screaming of song and the twanging of the 
stringed lute. 

We enter a temple, whose outside is adorned with 
gilding and lacquer, and quaint designs of birds, 
animals, and unreal monsters. 

They have a religion of some sort, as Wang Heng 
(a very intelligent Chinese with whom I was ac- 
quainted) assured me, with churches and endow- 
ments as in England ; that is to say, they have the 
system, but not the faith. I had supposed all along 
that the curiously constructed temples, sacred to Joss, 
had more or less of a religious character about them, 
but I was now undeceived. My habit on passing 
these edifices was to call in and see what was going 
on, and one day I found out that Joss was nothing 
more than a fortune-teller, after the manner of the 
Oracle of Delphos. 

When inside the temple, we see the figure of Joss 
placed on high, with ornaments of peacocks' feathers, 
whilst long streamers of coloured ribbon, pictures, and 
flowers, presents of tea, oil, or opium, lighted tapers 
in coloured wax, joss sticks burning slowly, and 
sending their perfume around, heaps of joss paper 



JOSS, THE MYSTEBY. 243 



smouldering in trays, bamboo boxes, with bundles 
of small sticks, on the end of which are inscribed 
certain cabalistic characters, surround the figure. At 
certain hours in the morning the temple becomes 
sacred. It is the hour of divination. Any one now 
about to undertake a journey or make a purchase, 
and desirous of knowing if he will arrive in safety 
or make a profitable investment, comes to Joss. 
He pays his obeisance by profoundly bowing and 
salaaming, then lights a certain number of matches 
or tapers, and makes a present ; after a while, 
when it is thought Joss is conciliated, the suppliant 
takes the box of marked sticks, and, after shaking 
them about, selects half a dozen and passes them to 
the priest, or Sheong-ti (son of heaven), in attend- 
ance, who refers to the book of mysteries, and there 
reads the will of Joss. If he is warned of misfor- 
tune, he forbears the journey, or declines the bargain, 
and waits for a more fortunate day. If Joss advises 
otherwise, and a good profit is the result, the happy 
merchant makes a substantial present. Joss is 
therefore (as will be seen) a fortune-teller, and 
nothing more, and Sheong-ti is only a sensible, 
cunning fellow, who prefers to live by the credulity 
of his neighbour rather than by the labour of his 
hands. 

Buddhist temples literally swarm over China. The 
officiating priests are consequently very numerous. 
The gods they worship are the three precious 

R 2 



244 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

Buddhas — the past, present, and future. These 
images are usually of gilded wood, represented half 
naked, with woolly hair, in a sitting position : one 
holding the mundane egg in its lap, one adorned 
with the sacred thread, and one engaged with 
its finger upraised, as though instructing mankind. 

In front of these three images are usually three 
smaller ones, representing the goddess of mercy, the 
god of war, and one described as the protectress of 
seamen. A high table for candles and incense stands 
before these images, and in the centre of the build- 
ing is a large metal cauldron for burning coloured 
paper, while near at hand are the great bell and 
drum which are sounded to arouse the attention of 
the god when any important persons arrive : these 
things, with a few cushions and mats on which 
the worshippers kneel, make up the furniture of a 
Buddhist temple. 

These people have no Sabbaths, nor periodical 
seasons of rest ; the only cessation from their daily 
toil is the Feast of the New Year, when they gene- 
rally have a week's holiday. 

During the stay here, Captain Gr. S. Nares received 
telegrams from the Admiralty, offering him the 
command of the Arctic Expedition, fitting out in 
England. This was a great blow to us all, for he had 
acquired the full confidence and regard of those who 
were associated with him, and it was considered on 
all hands a most unfortunate event that he should be 



CAPTAIN NABES LEAVES FOB ENGLAND. 245 

removed from the head of our expedition, which had 
hitherto worked so well, and produced such valuable 
practical results, under his direction. Still we could 
not help recognising the importance of having one 
of his experience in command of the Arctic Expedi- 
tion, which will have the best possible chance of 
coming to a successful issue under his guidance. 

On the 10th December he left (accompanied by- 
Lieut. Aldrich *) in the mail-steamer for England, 
taking all our hearty good wishes ; " and may God 
bless him and his endeavours," we all fervently echo. 
Captain F. T. Thomson, who was on the station in 
command of the Modeste, is appointed to take Captain 
Nares' place, and all we have to hope is that the 
remainder of the cruise will go on as successfully as 
it has hitherto done. 

Jan. 6th, 1875. — At length the seven weeks have 
passed ; the mail is in, after some grumbling at it 
being a few days late ; for now if the gun announcing 
its arrival does not fire within the forty-two days, 
everybody begins to complain — fewer days nearly 
than a century ago it required weeks. 

* Who was succeeded by Lieut. A. Carpenter. 




INDIAN VILLAGE ON THE BANKS OP THE RIVER PASIG, MANILLA. 

CHAPTER XL 

Hong Kong (China) to Manilla, Zebu, Camiguin, and Samboanga 
(Philippine Islands), and to Humboldt Bay (New Guinea). 

Leave Hong Kong — Passage to Manilla— Sight a derelict — Tow her into 
Manilla — Scenery on the road and river — Leave Manilla — Passage 
through San Bernadino Straits — Numerous islands in sight — 
Arrive at Zebu — The town— Dredging for Euplectellas off the 
island of Mactan — Our success — Leave Zebu — Passage to Camiguin 
— The new volcano — Its effect on the surrounding country — Anchor 
off the village of Abajo — Proceed along the west coast— Anchor 
off Samboanga— The scenery — Visit the island of Basilan— Get a 
supply of coal — Leave the Philippine Islands— A course shaped 
for Greenwich Island — New route to and from Australia to China 
—Unfavourable weather— Sounding and dredging — Cross the 
Equator (third time)— Course altered for New Guinea — Land in 
sight — The scenery and prospects of exploration— Anchor in 
Humboldt Bay, New Guinea. 

The morning of January 6 all was ready, and after 
receiving a great number of visitors, all bidding us 






PASSAGE TO MANILLA, 247 

good-bye and a pleasant cruise, at noon a move 
was made from the anchorage, the bands in the 
various vessels playing the farewell tunes, for there 
were a goodly number in port of English, French, 
Russian, Austrian, and Prussian nationalities. 

And now farewell to China, as we steam out 
through the Lye-moon Pass, and long before night- 
fall the long, low coast was out of sight. 

The passage from Hong Kong to Manilla was, as 
is usual at this time of the year, a most disagreeable 
one. On the morning of the 8th January the wind 
fell somewhat, and soundings were obtained, showing 
a depth of 2100 fathoms, with a bottom of pale grey 
ooze. A series of temperatures was taken at inter- 
vals of 50 fathoms down to 400 fathoms, and 100 
fathoms down to 1000 fathoms. 

This station was just about the middle of the China 
Sea, so that the serial observations were somewhat 
interesting. At 900 fathoms the temperature was 
36° Fahr., and this was maintained to the bottom ; 
so that a layer of water 1200 fathoms in thickness, 
at a uniform temperature of 36°, occupies the basin 
of the China Sea. From these results I believe the 
conclusion arrived at was that this sea is cut off 
by a barrier, which rises to a height of between 
800 and 900 fathoms below the surface, and so is 
prevented from communicating with the Antarctic 
basin. 

On the morning of the 10th the weather had 



248 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

moderated, when a vessel apparently in distress was 
observed on the horizon. Our course was altered, 
and as we neared the stranger, grand visions of prize- 
money or salvage flitted through our brain ; but on 
closing it was found to be a miserable old brig of 
some 50 or 60 tons, without either masts, cargo, or 
anything else, all having been cleared out before 
being abandoned. Still we took her in tow, passing 
along the west coast of Luzon, its bold outlines and 
rugged volcanic ranges, covered with luxuriant 
tropical vegetation, in full view. 

The next day, January 11th, we entered the 
harbour of Manilla. Soon after anchoring we 
were visited by the various officials, and by repre- 
sentatives from the Spanish, Russian, and Prussian 
vessels in port. One of our own vessels was also 
here, H.MJ3. Elk, homeward bound from the China 
station. Just before we left Hong Kong, Admiral 
Shad well had received a telegram from England 
announcing the proclamation of Don Alfonso as 
King of Spain, and we were the first to bring 
the news to the Philippines. It was difficult at 
first for the Spanish colonists to really credit the 
news, coming on them so unexpectedly. It caused 
no excitement, nor were there any steps taken by 
the authorities to make it public. 

The city of Manilla (proper) is surrounded by 
ramparts, and has running through it a broad river, 
navigable for ten miles, up which we went in the 



SCENERY ON THE ROAD AND RIVER. 249 

steam-pinnace till reaching the landing-place, near the 
office of the Captain of the Port, on the right bank of 
the stream. Everybody rides here, and numbers of 
light and handy vehicles are always at hand waiting 
for hire. Driving through Binonda, the commercial 
capital, we find the bulk of the business people, full 
of life and activity, the cigar factories of themselves 
giving employment to thousands of men, women, and 
girls — the scenery from either bank of the river par- 
ticularly fine, whether amid the wharves, warehouses, 
and busy population on the right, or the churches, 
convents, and public walks on the left. In all direc- 
tions, particularly on the left bank and its neigh- 
bourhood, we seldom meet with a carriage or a 
traveller seeking to enjoy the beauty of the fine 
scenery of river, road, or villages. One could almost 
imagine, and expect to find, skiffs and pleasure- 
boats without number on the river, and yachts and 
other craft in the bay, ministering to the enjoyment, 
and adding to the pleasures, and easing off the 
monotony, of life ; but there are none. By me, 
the country villages, the beautiful tropical vege- 
tation, the banks of the rivers, and the streams 
adorned with scenery so picturesque and pleasing, 
will not be easily forgotten. Almost every house 
in these Indian villages has a pretty little garden, 
with bamboos, plantains, and cocoa-nut trees, and 
some have a greater variety of fruit. Nature has 
decorated them with spontaneous flowers, which hang 



250 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

from the branches or fences, or creep up around the 
simple dwellings. 

While here, the English residents made our stay- 
as agreeable as possible. There was a dance at 
the Consulate, and this with two or three cricket- 
matches soon brought the time round to say farewell 
to Manilla. 

We left Manilla on the evening of the 14th January, 
and on the 15th passed down San Bernadino Straits, 
with land fully in sight on both sides: on the 
left, the island of Luzon, with the fine volcano of 
Taal, many high volcanic peaks richly wooded 
to the top, and low intervening volcanic ridges, 
partially cleared, with here and there pretty groups 
of cottages, and patches of yellowish grass or bright 
green sugar-cane ; on the right, the islands of Oabra 
and Lubang, and then the long stretch of coast of the 
wild island of Mindanao, showing little cultivation, 
but said to be full of deer and other game, and to 
be inhabited by a dangerous race of " Moros," as the 
Spaniards call all dark men beyond the pale of 
Western or Eastern civilisation. 

About noon on the 16th we passed through the 
narrows among the islands, and into a little closed 
sea, about 70 miles long and 35 miles wide, extending 
from the north point of the island of Tablas to the 
strait between the north-east angle of Panay and the 
south-west point of Masbate. It is bounded on the 
north-west by Tablas ; on the north-east by Romplon 



ARRIVE AT ZEBU. 251 

and Sabuyan ; on the south-west and south by Panay ;, 
and on the south-east and east by Pulanduta Point, 
in Masbate. As this, which we may call for con- 
venience the Panay Sea, seemed likely to be one of 
the inclosed basins, presenting peculiarities in the 
distribution of temperature, we stopped to take 
serial soundings and to dredge. From a depth of 
150 fathoms, to the bottom at 700 fathoms, the tem- 
perature was 51*7° Fahr. ; while at the surface it 
was 80° Fahr. The other temperatures obtained 
were about intermediate between those in the China 
Seas on the one side and the Zebu Sea on the other, 
leaving it uncertain whether the cleft in the barrier, 
to the depth of 150 fathoms, is between Tablas and 
Panay or between Bomplon and Sabuyan. 

Early on the morning of the 18th we were close 
under the east coast of the island of Zebu, apparently 
the finest of the Philippines, and we steamed along 
the coast all the forenoon. A ridge of hills with a 
rugged crest rises almost from the shore, and behind 
this there is a second and somewhat higher range. 
The first range is cleared nearly to the top, and 
above the clearings there is a belt of trees running 
to the ridge and fringing it against the sky or 
against the foliage of the more distant range. Where 
glimpses can be had into the valleys as we pass, it 
seems to be well cultivated. The sugar-cane gives, 
as usual, the brightest green patches, and the lower 
slopes are covered with groves of the Manilla hemp 



•252 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

plant, but we were rather too far off to make out the 
other objects of cultivation. The beach is of pure 
white coral sand, and above it are almost continuous 
groves of cocoa-nut trees, with here and there groups 
of native huts — pretty, light, basket-like dwellings, 
mounted on wooden piles 10 or 12 feet high. 

About noon we entered the strait between the ill- 
starred little island of Matan, where Magalhaens met 
his death, and Zebu, and had a distant view of the 
monument erected by Queen Isabella II. to his 
memory. In the afternoon we anchored off the town 
of Zebu, an active business place, with a population 
of about 35,000. There are a few roomy and hand- 
some houses, but for the most part it consists of a lot 
of tumble-down shanties and rickety old buildings, 
with a great show of poverty and but little riches. 
The chief articles of trade are Manilla hemp and 
sugar ; coffee is also grown, and tobacco in con- 
siderable quantities. Coal of very fair quality has 
been found, and would form a lucrative article for 
exportation ; but the great difficulty at this place, as 
in the rest of these islands, is the scarcity of labour. 
The natives will not work. The banana, the cocoa- 
nut, and the bamboo supply them with all they re- 
quire of food and shelter ; and the additional luxury 
of a little rice, and dried fish to flavour it, is pur- 
chased at the price of half a day's labour in the 
week. The soil is, however, evidently productive to 
a marvellous extent ; and the same redundancy which 






DBEDGING FOB EUPLECTELLAS. 25£ 

almost relieves the natives from the necessity of 
work supplies the merchant with valuable products 
with little effort or outlay. 

One special object which we had in selecting the 
town of Zebu as one of our places of call was to 
make out, if possible, something of the habits and 
mode of life of the beautiful sponge, the " Yenus's 
flower-basket," which is said to be obtained only at 
one spot off the island of Mactan, close to Zebu. A 
party of Indians used to this work were engaged, 
and accompanied our " Philos " in the steam-pinnace 
to the fishing-ground. They brought with them some 
curious and ingeniously contrived instruments with 
which they bring the sponges up : two long strips of 
bamboo, meeting at an angle of about 45 degrees, to 
the outer edges of which are secured some forty or 
fifty large fish-hooks, with their barbs set forward 
towards the angle. The whole affair is strengthened 
with an elaborate system of stays, and weighted with 
stones, so as ,to sink it to the required depth. When 
all is ready, it is put overboard, and with a tow-line 
dragged slowly over the bottom. After about an 
hour has elapsed, it is hauled in, and several Euplec- 
tellas are found entangled amongst the hooks. They 
have a very different appearance at first from the 
cones of glassy network that they afterwards present 
when cleaned. The silver beard is clogged with the 
dark-grey mud in which they live, buried to about 
one-third of their height, and the network of the 



25 i CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

remainder of the tube is covered with a quantity of 
yellow gelatinous matter, which greatly diminishes 
their beauty ; however, this coating is easily removed 
by washing and bleaching processes. These dredgings 
were repeated afterwards with great success, multi- 
tudes of these " Regaderas," as the Spaniards call 
them, being obtained, besides several other sponges of 
the same group, some of very graceful forms, and 
quite new to science. 

After coaling it was decided to leave, which we did 
on the 24th January, passing down the channel be- 
tween Zebu and Bohol. Before leaving our anchor- 
age, a very interesting account had been given of an 
active volcano in the small island of Oamiguin, near 
the coast of Mindanao. As it was but little out of 
our way, it was decided to visit it, chiefly with a 
view to ascertain whether the immediate neighbour- 
hood of volcanic action had any influence on the 
temperature or other conditions of the sea-water. 

About noon on the 25th we were midway between 
the southern point of Bohol and the high, imposing 
island of Siquijor; the splendid mountain-range of 
Cuernos, in the island of Negros, closing in the view 
to the westward, with its dense forest and bright 
green vegetation reaching down to the sea. To the 
east we could see, at a distance of 50 or 60 miles, 
the island of Camiguin, its volcano giving out both 
*moke and steam. From this distance the top of the 
volcano seemed just on a level with the water, the 



VOLCANO IN THE ISLAND OF CAMIGUIN. 255 






most prominent part of the island being an older 
volcano, which rises up behind the active cone to a 
height of upwards of 5000 feet. 

Being in shallow water (375 fathoms) the oppor- 
tunity was taken to trawl, and eventually a multi- 
tude of very small sea-urchins, and other specimens 
of great interest, were brought up. 

On the morning of the 26th we gradually ap- 
proached the island, and at noon we were close 
under the volcano, when parties of naturalists landed 
to explore, and the vessel proceeded on and came to 
anchor off the little village of Abajo, a few miles 
distant. It seems, early in the year 1871, this island 
was visited with several violent earthquakes, which 
resulted in the first eruption from this volcano ; from 
this date the accumulation of the mountain has been 
going on gradually, and apparently with little vio- 
lence. The general colour of the cone is a rich 
chocolate brown ; it has now reached some 2000 
feet in height, and its base has gradually extended 
until it entirely covers the town of Camiguin, for- 
merly the largest on the island (with a population of 
10,000 inhabitants). Now only a few ruined walls 
remain of this town, which was formerly on one of 
the most fertile and prosperous of the smaller islands 
of this archipelago. Since the eruptions the island has 
become almost desolate ; only a few hundred inhabit- 
ants remain ; most of the houses are in ruins, and 
the paddy-fields and groves of flax are deserted and 



256 aBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 



overgrown with a second jungle. For miles on either 
side of the volcano the trees are blighted, and vege- 
tation is destroyed by the sulphureous exhalations. 
Temperatures were taken in 185 fathoms, close to the 
foot of the mountain; but that shown, 57°, was in 
no way other than usual at similar depths in these 
seas. 

From Camiguin we proceeded along the west coast 
of Mindanao to Samboanga, a distance of 250 miles 
(occasionally sounding and dredging), where we 
arrived on the 29th January. The scenery is very 
pretty. Indian houses were visible through the 
plantain-trees and cocoa-nut groves; and scattered 
here and there amidst the woodland of the coast 
were storehouses, barracks, and a large fortification, 
with the yellow and scarlet flag of Spain flying, 
advising us that we were near the seat of govern- 
ment. At the landing-place is a convenient wooden 
pier, with a lighthouse on it, which is carried out for 
some distance in the harbour. From the appearance 
of the town, I should think that it is not likely to 
become a port of much importance : there seems but 
little capital invested, and the trading establishments 
are on a small scale. The few stores seem to be 
occupied by Chinese, who supply all the wants the 
population appear to have. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of the town the 
roads are in tolerably good order, and the country is 
rich in all the varieties of tropical vegetation ; but 



NEW ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO CHINA. 257 

the interior of the island is not well known, for 
the Spanish authority appears to be confined to a 
narrow strip of land along the coast; and as the 
Spaniards allow the wild Malay tribes to be governed 
by their own rajahs, very little is done towards 
civilising them, or opening up its resources, which 
(if report be true) include gold, silver, and quicksilver 
mines. One day we proceeded to the island of 
Basilan, some 20 miles distant, and took in a supply 
of coal from the government depot, and then re- 
turned to our late anchorage, swung ship for mag- 
netic and azimuth corrections, and finally left on 
the 5th of February. 

The winds were light, and for the most part un- 
favourable for reaching Greenwich Island, which it 
was desirous to sight, so as to fix the correct position 
of this rock. Eecently a new route from Australia 
to China and JajDan has been advocated, including 
in its track a course somewhat near the position 
assigned to this island. A vessel leaving Sydney, 
after reaching 20° south latitude, would make for 
Teste Island, the weathermost of the Louisiade group, 
to the west of the enormous reefs stretching to the 
eastward for about 200 miles. The discoveries made 
by H.M.S. Basilisk have opened up this course ; for 

I the surveys by that vessel show that, immediately to 
the east of Teste Island, the reefs sink from the sur- 
face to a depth of 10 or 12 fathoms. From there 
a run of 40 or 50 miles brings the vessel to Goshen 



258 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Straits, when all risk ceases, and the open sea is 
gained. The weather for some days was dull, gloomy, 
and squally, with showers of very heavy rain, so that 
but little progress could be made to the eastward ; 
frequent soundings and occasional dredgings were 
made from an average depth of 2000 fathoms, with 
but scanty results. 

Finding the prospect of being able to reach Green- 
wich Island getting more and more improbable, it 
was decided on the 21st February to shape a course 
for New Guinea ; and later in the day we crossed the 
Equator for the fourth time. In the afternoon of 
the 23 rd we sighted Mount Cyclops, in New Guinea ; 
this is a high serrated ridge, rising 6000 feet from the 
level of the sea, and covered with dense tropical 
forests up to its summit. Shortly after, Cape Caillie 
and Cape Bonpland came into view ; they are two 
rocky bluffs which mark the entrance into Humboldt 
Bay, so named by Dumont d'Urville, who, in com- 
mand of the Astrolabe, visited this part of Papua 
in August 1827 ; the only other vessel recorded is 
the Dutch war-steamer Etna, which anchored here 
in 1858. Opposite to Mount Cyclops rises Mount 
Bourgainville, over 4000 feet high, most lovely and 
fertile, springing abruptly from the ocean, with its 
green heights piled gracefully together, presenting 
a mass of evergreen vegetation most inviting to 
the eye. This was our first view of the shores of 
New Guinea, and all gazed with profound interest at 



SCENEBY AND PBOSPECTS OF EXPLORATION. 259 



what seemed the portal (as it were) to the most un- 
known and, up to this date, the least explored region 
of the earth. It is well known that but few Europeans 
(if any) had ever trodden the shores we gazed upon, 
the exploration of which appeared so flattering to the 
imagination, so likely to be fruitful in interesting 
results, whether to the naturalist, the ethnologist, or 
the surveyor, and altogether so well calculated to 
gratify the enlightened curiosity of an adventurous 
explorer, that all were in high spirits at the apparent 
prospect of getting into the interior of New Guinea, 
for its plants, birds, animals, and inhabitants would 
be entirely a new study ; so speculation ran high 
on what the next few days would bring to light as 
we neared the anchorage. 

The obstacles which hitherto have been said to bar 
access to the interior of this continent are fevers, 
impenetrable forests, and swarms of hostile cannibals ; 
but experience has since contradicted more or less 
these discouraging reports. 

The fevers will be found restricted to certain 
localities ; the cannibals may, by judicious treatment, 
not prove so bad as represented ; and the difficulties 
of locomotion may be overcome by exploring the 
great rivers which are known to reach the coast 
from the interior. 

For several days past we had noticed numerous 
trunks of trees, brought down probably by the river 
Amboruth, which forms the delta terminating in 

S 2 



260 GBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

Point d'Urville, and is supposed to drain the northern 
slopes of the Charles Louis Mountains. It was dark 
as we anchored off Cape Bonpland, and at first the 
only signs of natives were the numerous lights, which 
formed a kind of illumination all round the shores of 
the bay. 

After a while some voices were heard, and by the 
light of lanterns a canoe was seen alongside, manned 
by a few dark forms clad only in their ornaments, 
consisting of white cockatoo feathers stuck in their 
woolly hair, or wreaths of bright scarlet flowers. 




THE LANDING-PLACE ON WILD ISLAND, ADMIRALTY ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Humboldt Bay (New Guinea) to Nares Harbour (Admiralty 
Islands), and to Yokohama (Japan). 

In Humboldt Bay — Natives alongside— Impressive appearance of the 
savages— Attempted landing frustrated— Hostility of the natives— 
Their villages, canoes, &c. — Leave the coast of New Guinea — 
Admiralty Islands in sight — Anchor in Nares Harbour— Natives 
alongside — Bartering — Landing at Wild Island — The natives at 
home — Description of the islands — Survey of the group — Leave 
the Admiralty Islands— Course shaped for the Ladrone Islands — 
Deepest sounding for the cruise — Unsuccessful in reaching either 
Ladrone or Caroline Islands — The Japan Islands in sight — Enter 
the Bay of Yedo— Beautiful scenes — Anchor off Yokohama. 



The next morning at daylight showed that we were 
in a most interesting and beautiful bay. The ship 
was surrounded by about eighty canoes, each 



262 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

manned by half a dozen savages, armed with bows, 
arrows, spears, and stone hatchets. It was decided 
to shift our position for one farther up the bay ; and 
as the screw made its first revolution, the astonished 
natives pointed their arrows at it, as if they expected 
some enemy to rise from the foaming waters. 
Slowly we steamed on our way, followed by all the 
canoes on starboard and port sides doing their utmost 
to keep pace with us. 

At this moment the scene before us was probably 
the most novel and most impressive of all that 
had been witnessed in the course of the expedition. 
Above a sunny sky, swept by a morning breeze ; in 
the background the hilly shores of the bay, covered 
with the most luxuriant foliage, the trees crowding 
down to the water's edge, and dipping their boughs 
into the white breakers ; around us a moving mass 
of dark brown figures, some decked with leaves, 
flowers, and birds' feathers, others in enormous 
frizzled wigs and all the savage glory of war-paint, 
breastplates, bows, and arrows — all joining in a 
monotonous chant, in unison with the sound of 
the conch-shell ; in the centre the Challenger, at this 
moment the only representative of Western civilisa- 
tion in this rarely visited region — a period of two 
thousand years of progress separating us from the 
people we had come to see. It was intended to re- 
main near the shore off one of the villages, but no 
safe anchorage could be found ; the bottom seemed 



IMPRESSIVE APPEARANCE OF THE SAVAGES. 2G3 

to be composed of loose stone and masses of coral 
rock ; so after all we had to anchor in mid-channel in 
40 fathoms. The canoes remained around us, and a 
lively trade soon sprang up between the ship's com- 
pany and the savages. To one unfamiliar with the 
South Sea trade it was rather a surprising spectacle 
to see an armful of weapons, belts, necklaces, and 
earrings, the result of many days' patient labour, ex- 
changed for a few pieces of rusty hoop-iron or a 
string of beads. Bartering thus went on all day ; and 
when the natives saw some of the trade gear with 
which we were supplied, it was surprising how their 
cupidity was excited, and their evident willingness 
to part with anything and everything they possessed 
for small hatchets, knives, beads, or iron. The 
noise and scrambling alongside while this trading was 
going on baffles all description ; for, besides the usual 
talking and shouting, they had a singular habit of 
directing attention to their finery by a loud, sharp- 
sounding ss, ss ! — a kind of hissing sound equivalent 
to " Look at this !" In their bargaining they were 
generally very honest, passing up the articles 
selected on the end of their fishing-spear, receiving 
in exchange the pieces of hoop-iron, which seemed to 
be much prized by them ; at the same time showing 
great eagerness to obtain the small hatchets and 
long knives, but seemingly attaching little value to 
calico or handkerchiefs, although a gaudy pattern or 
bright colour was sure to attract their attention. 



264 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

As soon as we anchored, all our boats were got 
out, as it was intended to spend a week here and 
make a survey of the bay ; and great were the pre- 
parations amongst the naturalists and others at the 
prospect of exploring the beautiful forests, &c, 
stretched out around us, where altogether every- 
thing was likely to be new. 

On the first of the boats approaching the shore, 
it was closed upon by a number of savages in 
their canoes, and all that could be stolen they laid 
hands on. A second boat was similarly treated, and 
they evidently opposed any landing being made with 
hostile demonstrations, bending their bows and inti- 
mating their intention to shoot if we persisted in the 
attempt. Yery judiciously we gave way, although 
all were fully armed, and the boats returned to the 
ship, every one feeling disappointed at the result. 

Later in the day another attempt was made to 
land at a village on the other side of the bay ; and 
as the shore was approached, a few natives, who 
appeared on the platform (which connects their 
different huts), assumed a threatening attitude at 
first, but as the party neared, they seemed convinced 
of their peaceful intentions, and allowed a landing to 
take place on the beach. A large crowd soon col- 
lected around us, and followed in our track through 
the village. The natives met with have a dark 
brown skin ; they are rather short, but otherwise 
well-formed, with woolly hair usually stained with 



DESCRIPTION OF THE NATIVES. 205 

a red powder, good foreheads, eyebrows slightly 
contracted, broad flat noses, with wide nostrils, 
generally adorned with a pair of boar's tusks, which 
give them a very fierce appearance ; thick lips, 
retreating chin, and sometimes a little beard and 
whiskers. The ornaments worn by them were very 
numerous, besides which they seemed to be very fond 
of decorating their person with flowers and strong- 
scented plants. In what might be considered full 
dress (?), with their face and body painted (the most 
common fashion was a broad streak down the fore- 
head and a circle round each eye, with daubs of 
paint round the mouth, and some over the entire 
body, rendering them inexpressibly hideous in our 
sight), they were often decorated with belts and 
breastplates made of the bones of the cassowary and 
dog, together with long streamers of pandanus leaf. 
They wear bushy wigs of frizzled hair, dyed in 
various colours ; bracelets and armlets of woven 
grass, and necklaces of shell, black seed, and dog's 
teeth. 

Nearly every one was armed with bows and 
arrows. The bow is made of a tough, black, close- 
grained wood, the string being of bamboo. Their 
arrows consist of a head of cocoa-nut wood or bam- 
boo, tipped into a light reed, and secured by a neat 
cane-plaiting. They are variously barbed on the 
edges, and some are so constructed as to break off 
in the wound and remain there. 



266 CRUISE OF EM.S. CHALLENGER. 

Unlike the men, who were entirely naked, the 
women wear a sort of apron, about a foot square, 
made apparently of the pandanus leaf, divided into 
long grass-like shreds ; their hair is cut short. Of 
personal ornaments, they had none ; this seems to be 
almost the exclusive privilege of the men. 

They would not permit us to look into their huts ; 
so no idea could be formed of what they were like. 
The village consisted of some dozen or twenty houses, 
built on a platform on slender posts standing in the 
water, and connected with the mainland by a sort of 
bridge. They have tall tapering roofs, covered with 
palm leaves. As it was not considered safe to 
venture far (for they are known to be a treacherous 
race), after a few hours, the pinnace returned to the 
ship, still followed by a flotilla of canoes, with the 
lively and excitable natives trying to keep pace. 
The canoes, usually from 20 to 30 feet in length, 
are made from the trunk of a tree hollowed out 
like a long trough, roundly pointed at each end, 
not more than 18 inches wide; the sides bulge out 
below, and fall in again at the top, leaving only 
some 8 or 9 inches between the gunwales. The bow 
and stern are alike, and usually carved in various 
devices, some resembling birds, snakes, or other 
familiar objects. A long outrigger is attached, and 
on the portion of framing supporting these out- 
riggers are planks or long bamboos, forming a small 
stage, which will accommodate two or more persons,, 



ADMIRALTY ISLANDS. 207 

and on which articles for barter are stowed. The 
paddles have spear-shaped blades, measuring about 
6 feet in length ; some of very neat description, with 
blade and handle carved with some fanciful device. 

As nothing farther could be done here, steam was 
in requisition, and before night set in we were fairly 
off, and out of sight of land. For a week we shaped 
an easterly course for the Admiralty Islands, sighting 
Boissy Islands, and on the 28th one of the Schouten 
Islands, and a few days later the Hermit group. 
Frequent soundings and dredgings were undertaken 
with good results, from an average depth of 2000 
fathoms. The morning of the 3rd March turned out 
cloudy and wet. As the day advanced and the horizon 
cleared, three small islets were seen, which, according 
to D'Entrecasteaux's chart, lie off the north-west 
extremity of the Admiralty Islands. Shortly after- 
wards two other small islands came into view, all 
situated apparently on the same coral reef. As we 
approached, several canoes were seen under sail, 
crossing the line of breakers ; and as they passed 
alongside, the natives made signs of amity by holding 
up their arms. On nearing the anchorage we found 
ourselves in the midst of a number of beautiful 
islands, all girt with white encircling reefs. Each 
seemed to have its own peculiar beauty ; but the eye 
as well as the mind felt more satisfaction in resting 
on what was afterwards named Wild Island, where a 
fine beach was seen, protected from the heavy swell 



268 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

by extensive coral reefs, and affording a convenient 
landing. The whole island was clad in a thick 
forest of tropical vegetation. Having reached a 
convenient anchorage (which was afterwards named 
Nares Harbour), the beautiful view before us, and 
the smoke rising from the native huts between the 
trees completed a perfect landscape. 

Next morning at sunrise we beheld a repetition 
of the scene witnessed in Humboldt Bay. The ship 
was surrounded with natives, all eager to trade, and 
the noise made by their combined voices was deaf- 
ening. The principle articles of exchange were tor- 
toise-shell spears, stone knives, axes, earrings, brace- 
lets, ornaments worn from the nose, circular plates of 
white shell, some finely carved bowls, and models of 
canoes, &c. Hoop-iron and trade-gear (small hatchets, 
calico, beads, and knives) formed the medium of 
exchange. To describe the scene alongside is alto- 
gether impossible. We soon discovered that there 
would be no difficulty in establishing a good under- 
standing with these people, and almost immediately a 
landing was effected, all being armed so as to be on 
the guard against any treachery ; for these islanders 
are of the same race as those inhabiting the Solomon 
group, and travellers speak of them as hostile and 
treacherous. Of their being cannibals, there can be 
no doubt ; so at our first intercourse great caution 
was certainly necessary. After a while, however, 
when we had got somewhat familiar, and numerous 



THE NATIVES AT HOME. 2G9 

presents had been given to the chiefs, there was no 
obstacle in the way, and we were free to wander 
through the village, and even enter their houses and 
see their women and children. 

The village consisted of a large number of huts, 
built -of logs of wood, covered with a solid thatch 
of palm-leaves, with a fence of the former material 
surrounding every three or four. The paths and 
open spaces through the settlement were strewn with 
white sand, and inside the fence were seen some 
attempts at ornamental gardening, several bright 
flowering shrubs being selected. 

The natives are somewhat darker (a kind of sooty 
brown) than those met with in Humboldt Bay. The 
expression of their faces was decidedly intelligent, 
and sometimes very pleasing. We noticed no signs 
of bows or arrows amongst them ; their only weapon 
of defence being a spear, which they make of 
obsidian, a hard volcanic glass. This is split into 
the required shape, and fixed to the head of the 
shaft with fibre coated with gum. 

Their clothing is very simple ; the women wearing 
a broad belt round their waist, to which are suspended 
leaves and grasses reaching to their knees, and 
the men nothing but a large white shell (Ovulum 
ovum). They have bracelets and armlets, made of 
plaited grass and fibre, and belts of similar material. 
Some had bracelets of large sea shells (grinding out 
the middle and rounding the edges) ; and ornaments 



270 CBUTSE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

of similar character were hung round their neck and 
in their ears, which in some cases were dragged down 
to such an extent that the lower tips of the lobes 
were within a few inches of resting on their shoulders. 
The septum of the nose was pierced, and from it was 
suspended a number of teeth of the dog, or cuscus, 
strung on a fibre (hanging in front of their mouth), or 
a long piece of bone was reeved through from side to 
side. Human arm-bones, covered with feathers, &c, 
of the cassowary, hung down their backs. They 
were in most cases painted over the body, with 
pigments probably made from pounded charcoal, 
mixed with cocoa-nut oil, or lime made from burnt 
shell. 

The particular vanity of these people, especially 
the men, was their hair, which was usually frizzled 
up into mop-like shape, or tied in some fantastic style 
on the top of the head, and coloured with a red clay 
and oil. Nearly all carried in their hair a comb pro- 
jecting in front or on one side, usually made of wood, 
about a foot in length, with six very long, slightly 
diverging, needle-shaped teeth ; the handle usually 
decorated with feathers and long streamers. Both 
sexes had their shoulders and arms roughly tattooed. 
They appeared to be much astonished at our white 
complexion, which they at first took for the effect of 
white paint ; nor were they satisfied on this point for 
some time (not until they had actually felt and seen 
closely). This would almost confirm the supposition 




ORNAMENTS OF DRESS, AND WEAPONS, USED BY THE NATIVES OF NEW GUINEA 
AND THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS. 

(For description, see opposite page.) 



CANNIBALISM. 271 



that these people had never previously seen any 
white men. They are, as I remarked before, very 
fond of using paint as a means of personal adorn- 
ment ; black, red, and white being their favourite 
colours, with which they also paint their canoes, door- 
posts, weapons, wooden bowls, and idols. There was 
not the least indication of any advance made towards 
civilisation ; yet, with all this, they show a certain 
amount of intellectual development and feeling for 
art, decorating their canoes, houses, weapons, and 
almost every domestic utensil, with elaborate carving 
and painting. In all our researches and wanderings 
over the islands we saw no signs of graves, nor could 
we ascertain with any degree of certainty how they 
disposed of their dead. From signs they made, such 

Description of Illustrations facing this page. 

Figs. 1, 2. Obsidian pointed spears (Admiralty Islands). 

Fig. 3. Hair ornament (Admiralty Islands). 

Figs. 4, 5, 6. Ornaments of shell and tortoise shell worn on the forehead 

(Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 7. Musicaf instrument (Admiralty Islands). 
Figs. 8, 9. Fish hooks made of shell (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 10. Bone ornaments worn through the septum of the nose (New Guinea). 
Fig. 11. Knife made of obsidian (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 12. Plaited grass belt (Admiralty Islands). 
Figs. 13, 14. Armlets of plaited grass (Admiralty Islands). 
Figs. 15, 16. Plaited grass anklets (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 17. Shell bracelet (Admiralty Islands). 

Fig. 18. Nose ornament made from dog and cuscus teeth (Admiralty Islands). 
Figs. 19, 20. Combs (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 21. Necklace of dogs' teeth (Admiralty Islands). 
Figs. 22, 24, 25. Necklaces of bone, shell, and berries (New Guinea). 
Fig. 23. Comb (New Guinea). 
Fig. 26. Head of stone hatchet (New Guinea). 
Fig. 27. Shell, full-dress of a man (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 28. Bone nose ornament (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 29. Shell adze (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 30, 32. Chinam holders (Admiralty Islands). 
Fig. 31. Grass bag (Admiralty Islands). 

Fig. 33. Ornaments of human bone and cassowary feathers (Admiralty Island!) 
Fig. 34. Waist-belt made of small shells (Admiralty Islands). 



272 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

as placing a large earthen vessel on the fire, and indi- 
cating that they cut off parts of the body, place 
in the vessel, and afterwards eat them, our sus- 
picions were aroused that they honour the memory 
of their friends and relations by eating them. At 
all events, they had no objection to sell human 
skulls, of which several were procured, and no sacri- 
fice seemed too great for them if they could only 
get hold of that priceless material — iron hoop. 

We have no record of any visit of Europeans to 
these islands since that of D'Entrecasteaux, in 1792, 
who did not land, and could not prevail on any of 
the natives to visit his vessel. But from the first we 
seemed to have established a good understanding, 
and our stay was sufficiently long to render us 
familiar with the faces of our daily visitors. Their 
conduct seemed always cheerful and friendly, and 
they had no objection to come on board, and submit 
to the processes of being photographed, weighed, and 
measured. 

Thus a week passed. The bay, reefs, and islands 
were surveyed and named, and many a pleasant day's 
sport had on Pigeon Island, where there were num- 
berless birds and pretty tropical scenery. The survey 
and magnetic experiments being completed, on the 
10th March we steamed out of Nares Harbour, not 
without regret at leaving these interesting savages ; 
and before sunset they and their beautiful islands had 
sunk below the horizon. 



DEEPEST SOUNDING. 273 

Leaving the Admiralty Islands on the 10th March, 
a course was shaped for Yokohama, with the inten- 
tion of reaching Guam, one of the Ladrone Islands. 
We lost the trades in lat. 17° north, and after that 
had a succession of easterly, north-easterly, and 
baffling winds, from every point of the compass 
except where it was . wanted, thus preventing our 
visiting either the Carolines or Ladrones, which were 
passed some 100 miles to leeward. On the 23rd 
March, in lat. 11° 24' north, and long. 143° 16' east, 
bottom was touched at 4475 fathoms, the deepest 
successful sounding made during the whole cruise. 
Specimens from that depth showed a dark volcanic 
sand, mixed with manganese. In consequence of the 
enormous pressure at that depth (some five tons on 
the square inch) most of the thermometers were 
crushed. However, one stood the test, and showed a 
temperature of 33*9°, the surface temperature being 
80°. Three other attempts were made to determine 
the temperature of water at these great depths, but 
in every instance the instruments came to the surface 
in a damaged condition. 

We were clear of the Tropics on the 1st April, but 
in consequence of the continued light winds, and re- 
peated soundings and dredgings, the thirty-two days 
at sea passed somewhat wearily and monotonously. 
Three months from Hong Kong ; but the longest 
voyage, like the longest lane, must come to an end 
at last. 

T 



274 CRUISE OF HMS. CHALLENGER. 

April 11th. — Early this morning the light on Ku- 
wanon Saki, at the entrance of Yedo Bay, was seen 
shining brilliantly, and as the day advanced, wind 
fell light, steam was got up, and we proceeded on to- 
wards the anchorage. Island after island comes in 
view as the bay is entered ; many of most picturesque 
form, with numerous fishing villages scattered along 
the coast. As we move on, places of great interest 
are passed : Yokosuka, and soon Kanagawa, then 
Treaty Point, and Mandarin Bluff, &c, each place 
having a little history of its own in connection with 
the early days of the Europeans in Japan. 

Yokohama is now before us, with the sacred 
mountain Fuji-yama, the snow on its high peak look- 
ing like frosted silver as it stretches away in the 
distance, pointing, cone-like, high into the clouds, and 
far above the elevation of the blue mountains that 
surround it. On reaching the harbour, and at anchor, 
the reward begins. It happened to be a fine day on 
our arrival, the sun was shining brightly, and the 
few passing clouds cast fleeting shadows on the fine 
panorama of hills which form the background, pro- 
ducing one of the most pleasing landscapes possible 
to see. Even to ordinary observers of the picturesque, 
there was much to compensate for the long, weari- 
some, monotonous voyage. Many ranges of hills, in 
graceful ines, carry the eye far into the distance ; 
while the beauty of the shore, with its luxuriant foli- 
age, is aided by cloud and sunshine, which give a most 



BEAUTIFUL SCENES. 275 

perfect effect, clothing all the mountain sides with 
purple and russet hues, giving a mantle of rich and 
ever changing colour to all the headlands and dis- 
tant ranges. Junks and boats, with their picturesque 
sails, and war- vessels of different nationalities, are 
never wanting to give life and movement to the 
whole. 

There must be something essentially pleasant in 
new sensations and novelties in almost every form, 
since not only do we give ourselves much trouble to 
acquire them, but generally find gratification when 
they are secured. No travelling in Europe can rob 
Japan of its peculiar claims to admiration under this 
head, for nothing in the West resembles a thousand 
things that meet the eye. It must often have been 
remarked how books or photographs fail to enable 
any one completely to realise a new country and 
people. Once amongst them, it is discovered imme- 
diately that the ideal is something very different 
from the actual embodiment. This is essentially true 
of people, towns, and streets, and the effect of cos- 
tumes, differing widely from those to which the eye 
has been accustomed. Certainly, as regards the first 
view of Japan, there are special items, in the figure, 
physiognomy, costume, and customs of the people, for 
which even I was not prepared, although I had so 
recently seen much of the Chinese. 



T 2 




TOMB OF WILL ADAMS AND HIS WIFE, NEAR YOKOSUKA, JAPAN. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



Japan. 

Yokohama— The Cemetery— "Walks in the environs— Visit Tokio (or 
Yedo), the eastern capital — Eailway from Yokohama to Yedo— 
Jinirikisha— Sojourn at Shiba — The suburbs of Yedo— The streets 
and people — " Curio " shops— Lacquer- ware — Street scenes — The 
great temple of Asakusa — Japanese wrestlers — Leave Yokohama 
for Yokosuka— The imperial arsenal— Challenger in dock— Se- 
cluded temple near Yokosuka— "Will Adams and wife's tomb — Visit 
Kamakura— The shrine of Daibutsu, the great god of Japan — The 
tea-houses— Leave for Yokohama— Yokohama to Kobe— The rough 
passage— Take shelter in Oosima — Arrive at Kobe — Anchor in 
Osaka Bay— Hiogo, Kobe, and Osaka — Eailway to Osaka — Its 
people and streets— The great temple of Tonage— Cruise in the 
inland sea — The fine and picturesque scenery— Return to Kobe- 
Passage to Yokohama— Dredging picnic in Yedo Bay— The results. 

The first landing in a new country is generally a 
moment of some excitement even to the oldest 



YOKOHAMA. 277 



traveller, for the numberless objects of interest to 
be seen at almost every step fill the mind with ad- 
miration ; and although it would really take months 
to see all (in Japan) in detail, yet it is well 
known that, to the sightseer, a great deal may be 
crowded into a short space of time ; and so one 
was enabled to realise something of this country and 
people. 

I landed on the 12th April at Yokohama, a town 
which has within the past few years risen from a 
small fishing village to a place of great importance, 
possessing numerous fine buildings, such as a large 
town-hall, custom-house, imperial post-office, and 
residences for officials and foreign consuls, telegraph 
offices, banks, several churches, a railway station, race- 
course, and public gardens ; also wide streets, both 
in the foreign concession and Japanese quarter, with 
business houses of various kinds ; streets lighted with 
gas ; and, if so many Japanese were not met with, 
it would not be difficult to imagine oneself in some 
European town. 

There are special points of interest to the stranger 
at every step in Yokohama, whether in passing 
through the native quarter, where the silk, bronze, 
lacquer, porcelain, and curiosity shops are located, or 
a pleasant walk over the Bluff — either will give one a 
good idea of the topography of Yokohama ; while a 
ride by the new road around Mississippi Bay and 
through the village of Negishi affords fine scenes and 



278 CBU1SE OF H.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

accurate, if not fascinating, pictures of ordinary 
Japanese life and character. 

The cemetery in Yokohama should by all means 
be visited : the tombs and epitaphs give a vivid 
picture of the stormy days and dangerous times 
in the early settlement of Yokohama, when it was 
unsafe to venture outside the settlement; for the 
Japanese rdnin — a creature as cowardly as mur- 
derous, since he always struck from behind — was 
ever ready to cut down the unwary foreigner. 

The most imposing tomb in the cemetery, near the 
entrance, is that of a murdered Russian officer. The 
bodies of two Dutch captains, killed in Benten, Yoko- 
hama ; Major Baldwin and Lieut. Bird, hewn down 
near Kamakura ; Mr. Richardson, hacked to pieces 
near Kawasaki ; and eleven French soldiers, shot 
in cold blood near Osaka, are buried in this place. 
Several other tombs, each possessing an historic in- 
terest, are here; in fact, there are few places more 
worthy of a visit by the stranger, or more profoundly 
interesting to a student of the early days of the 
foreigner in Japan. 

Piers and cambers run out, and the bay is full of 
shipping of many nationalities ; but by far the greater 
number fly the national flag of Japan, for the country 
possesses several war-vessels and a large coasting 
fleet, manned and officered entirely by Japanese. 

Walking into the country, we find shady lanes 
and trim hedges, with glimpses of wooded hill and 



VISIT SHIBA. 279 



cultivated valley at intervals, which render the 
place so beautiful that they might be transplanted to 
England without any violence to the harmony of our 
own scenery ; for here many of our familiar plants 
flourish, and everywhere our common fern may be 
seen, and ivy covering the walls, while by the way- 
side the thistle is not wanting to complete the 
picture. 

The visit to the capital, Tokio, was a most interest- 
ing treat. The progress already made by the 
Japanese in establishing railways removes all diffi- 
culties in reaching our destintion. The seventeen 
miles between Yokohama and Shinbashi are run over 
in somewhat less than an hour, although we stop at 
three or four stations on our way ; passing some pretty 
scenery through garden-bordered streets, and the 
open country, with rice and wheat fields everywhere, 
indicating, unmistakably, signs of skilled and careful 
agriculture. After reaching the city I made my way 
to Shiba, travelling in the new vehicle of Japan (the 
jinirikisha) to the residence of Mr. Harding, R.N., 
instructor in steam at the Imperial Naval University, 
with whom I was to stay for a few days. Merely 
telling my conductor, " Shiba ni iki nasai," off he ran 
along handsome roads, passing continuous rows of 
shops, which are open to the streets like stalls at 
a fancy fair, and which contained all those articles 
seemingly in common request among the people. 
Umbrella fan, and shoe stores abound, also eatables 



280 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

in any quantity; then basket and lacquer work, 
earthenware, toys, and glass ornaments. However, 
passing on so rapidly, it was not more than a cursory 
glance that could be obtained of the novelties dis- 
played. Hundreds of similar vehicles to the one I 
was in were passing in all directions ; while the 
number of foot-passengers, all apparently happy and 
contented, gave the scene an air of life and animation. 

Leaving the streets for the suburbs, showy little 
cottages, each surrounded by gardens laid out with 
tasteful neatness and artistic skill, are passed ; and 
so through shady lanes, bordered by hedges with 
rich and waving foliage, until reaching the inclosure 
where my vehicle stops. " Ikura ka," I was taught to 
say, and I found I had been riding all this distance 
for an ichi-bu. My friend was in waiting to receive 
me, and we entered the building he occupies, which 
had at one time been attached to a large temple near 
at hand, and for which this part of Yedo is famous. 
The house appears to have been built in the position 
it occupies with a view to the charming prospect it 
commands. It has broad verandahs running round 
it, every door and partition sliding backwards and 
forwards in grooves, instead of opening and shutting 
in our ordinary way. 

Entering by the doorway, and passing through a 
spacious hall, matted according to the government 
regulation, which prescribes that every mat manu- 
factured throughout the empire shall be of one size, 



SOJOURN AT SniBA. 281 



we reach the spacious rooms, the walls and panels of 
which were ornamented with paintings of various 
animals and figures — tortoises, cranes, dragons, and 
wondrous unreal monsters. All the furniture, light, 
neat, and airy, with lacquer- ware, china, and bronzes, 
gave the entire aspect of the place one of seductive 
repose. Opening out from the verandah was a well- 
cultivated garden, where most that was lovely in 
nature was to be seen : choice flowers and shrubs ; 
ponds in which were gold and silver fish, ever ready 
to exhibit their lovely tints, amidst water-lilies and 
other beautiful aquatic plants. This, then, was to 
be my home for the next few days. During my stay 
I made the most of the time at my disposal in sight- 
seeing, and under the guidance of my host many 
a pleasant trip was arranged. We did not confine 
ourselves to exploring the city alone, although the 
sights to be seen there were of the greatest interest, 
but cruised for some miles round, where are snug 
little villages with fertile fields highly cultivated, 
combining to form scenes of beauty and abundance 
that can scarcely be conceived. 

On one occasion, after passing the imperial resi- 
dence, we ascended one of the highest points of the 
fortifications in the rear of the castle, from which 
a fine panoramic view was obtained of the vast city, 
with its two millions and a half of inhabitants, 
occupying an area equal to, if not greater than, 
London. Looking in any direction, the view was 



282 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

one of beauty. Everywhere are picturesque scenes ; 
hill and dale, clothed with brilliant vegetation of 
sparkling green. Up the hillside temples tower 
over the more modest houses of the people, and 
pretty pleasure villas peep forth from the flowers 
and verdure of the tea-gardens. 

After leaving this, the aristocratic quarter of the 
city, we went on, passing through streets which 
seemed interminable, where shops containing mis- 
cellaneous assortments of goods suited to the wants 
of the population were to be seen. At last, when 
somewhat clear of the crowded thoroughfares, we 
found ourselves traversing pleasant suburban lanes, 
occasionally passing spacious inclosures, at one time 
the homes of powerful princes or daimios, some of 
which are said to have afforded accommodation to as 
many as ten thousand retainers within their walls. 

I was filled with feelings of astonishment and 
delight as we passed through fragrant avenues of 
peach, cherry, and plum trees in full bloom, over 
arched bridges spanning the bright blue river that 
flows through the heart of the city ; getting here 
and there glimpses of the exquisite taste displayed 
in the gardens and cottages along the roadside. No 
model estate in England can produce structures 
in any way comparable with those which adorn 
the suburbs of Yedo. These charming little chalets, 
raising their thatched roofs amid numberless fruit- 
trees and creepers, were usually surrounded by flower- 



TEMPLES. 283 



beds and artificial rockeries, laid out with exquisite 
taste. Frequently we met men, children, and beauti- 
ful girls, amiable, winning, and full of gentleness, in 
light and gauzy costumes ; their hair tastefully drawn 
from off their forehead, and fastened with gold or 
silver pins in graceful knots on the crown. All 
seemed happy, talking, laughing, and smiling — their 
greetings and salutations assailed us wherever we 
went. 

Here and there, at the end of long avenues, were 
to be seen gorgeous temples embosomed amongst 
giant camphor and cedar trees ; standing about at 
their entrances were lazy -looking priests with shaven 
crowns, in robes of silk and transparent material. 
Sauntering up the shady walk, we ascend the steps and 
enter the sacred edifice dedicated to Buddha. The 
priest, for a few tempos, shows us all that is of interest. 
The floors are matted, the pillars lacquered and 
richly gilded. A large shrine, with a gilt image 
in its recess, gold and porcelain vases, lighted candles 
and tapers, surrounded by a forest of artificial flowers, 
at once attract our attention. In the rear are the 
imperial mausoleums, where lay the remains of Ty- 
coons of centuries past. Before leaving, we are 
reminded of the collecting boxes in various parts of 
the building, where the pious worshipper fails not to 
contribute a few " cash," not as an act of charity, 
but to provide the means by which the priest may 
be enabled to feed the hungry demons. 



284 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

The extensive grounds surrounding the edifice are 
beautifully laid out with refreshing groves of laurel, 
citron, and peach trees ; miniature bridges span little 
streams and fish-ponds, and the number of huge 
candelabra in stone and bronze present a most 
imposing appearance. Away in the distance are 
wooded hills, with spreading pines and sombre yew- 
trees, giving it an air of sheltered repose and secluded 
rusticity. 

As we got farther in the country, the cottages 
became more scattered, but the scenes presented were 
equally agreeable, reminding us frequently of the 
lanes in Devonshire and some of the fairest portions 
of the Isle of Wight. 

At frequent and short distances along the road 
were little stalls with fruit and tea, the universal 
beverage, always hot and ready, to quench the thirst 
of the weary pedestrian. 

At length we suddenly came upon a little village 
embosomed in a wood. Here we stopped for refresh- 
ment at one of the tea-houses situated on the edge 
of a stream, the balconies of the upper room over- 
hanging the water. Entering, we find, through the 
absence of chairs, sofas, and other requisites we 
consider essential to our comfort, that, if we would 
rest, we must seat ourselves, a la Japanese, on the 
clean matting ; and joining a party of Japanese ladies 
and gentlemen, with whom my friend was acquainted, 
we soon became on the most excellent terms. Re- 



TEA-HOUSES. 285 



freshments had been ordered, and we were invited to 
join ; but my alarm was great when I saw what was 
spread before us — lacquer bowls, containing such 
odd mixtures : fish, raw and cooked ; rice, seaweed 
and soy ; slices of strange-looking materials, whether 
flesh or fowl, it was difficult to say ; vegetables and 
saki. These dishes the pretty girls in attendance 
seemed delighted, with roguish fun, to press on us, 
apparently for the amusement our wry faces afforded 
them. It was a hazardous attempt at first, but, after 
all, some of the dishes were palatable enough. 

By way of dessert, oranges, apples, pears, and 
sweets were brought in ; so there was no difficulty 
in satisfying our hunger. 

Pipes, tea, and saki were afterwards served by our 
fair attendants, and after ( the long walk we were 
glad to stretch on the soft matting for repose, 
while imbibing the pleasant-flavoured tea, and 
inhaling through a short pipe the fragrant tobacco 
of Japan. 

Afterwards the dancers, the G-eisha girls, with 
sam-i-sen, lute, and tom-toms, came tripping in ; but 
they elicited from their musical instruments such 
discordant sounds that we were glad to take refuge 
in the balcony, from which point nothing could have 
been more picturesque than the landscape presented ; 
the hillsides, dotted with temples and tea-houses, 
combining to form a scene of beauty that we could 
not fail to enjoy. 



286 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

As the evening was closing on us, we took leave of 
our friends at the tea-house, and retraced our way 
back to Shiba in a jinirikisha. 

A tour through the business quarter of the city is of 
great interest, for at every step something new is to 
be seen. The streets are always filled with vast 
numbers of people, and run on for miles. The shops 
are filled with goods to suit every requirement : some 
are rich in specimens of Japanese ingenuity and per- 
fection of work in lacquer, porcelain, basket-work, and 
bronze, fancy silks, and embroideries spread out in 
every tempting form. 

Like every visitor, I had come with the intention 
of getting some of the many beautiful things in 
cabinets and lacquer ware for which Japan is so 
famed, but the variety on view is beyond my powers 
of description, for we see lacquer trays, oblong, round, 
and oval, of beautiful design and wonderfully cheap , 
boxes and cabinets, with every kind of gold tracery 
and design, some with birds and trees in raised gold 
and bronze relief, as rich as well as can be, of 
all prices, from one dollar to five hundred. Besides 
these were cabinets of many woods, inlaid, some of 
infinite ingenuity and perfection of form, opening 
out into a multiplicity of drawers and trays, of 
finished workmanship, embossed in silver and gold, 
such as could not fail to win the most fastidious of 
mortals. 

The silk stores and book-shops are equally attrac- 



STREET SCENES. 287 



tive. The carvings in wood and ivory, of groups 
and animals, are in the best style of art. Figures 
and vases in bronze are artistic and marvellous 
in their make. China and porcelain from Kiota, 
Satsuma, and Nagasaki, beautiful and delicate, with 
a thousand other articles, are laid out in tempting 
array, puzzling the visitor to decide what to select. 
One can walk on for miles and see a repetition of 
shops of this description. Wherever we go, the city 
is full of life and excitement, with a swarming 
population. 

The street vendor, with his ambulatory stock over 
his shoulder on a bamboo pole, or pitched down at 
the corner of a street, is surrounded with a varied 
assortment of odds and ends. The acrobat and con- 
jurer amuse extensive audiences collected round 
them. The story-teller, with his wondrous tales (after 
the style of the familiar ' Arabian Nights '), delights 
an attentive crowd. Hundreds of officials (army, navy, 
and civil service), all in European costume, are deco- 
rated with gold lace, gilt buttons, and other insignia 
of rank ; even the police and soldiers are after our 
own familiar models. Jinirikisha men, coolies, and 
porters dragging carts laden with goods, all help to 
swell the tide of human life. 

Continuing my way, I paid a visit to numerous 
temples, and in describing the one at Asakusa, which 
is situated in one of the most populous quarters of 
the city, I shall nearly convey an idea of the whole. 



288 CRUISE OF H.MS. CHALLENGER. 

This is one of the largest and most celebrated in 
Tokio. On reaching the locality, we pass on through 
long avenues crowded with men, women, and chil- 
dren. Here, on either hand, are stalls filled with 
nicknacks of all descriptions, with refreshments, and 
troughs containing sacred water, with numberless 
sacred towels flying like so many flags. As we 
approach the Holy of Holies, a large bronze figure 
of Buddha is in view, and we pass on to the building, 
gorgeously decorated in gold and lacquer work, with 
elaborate and ornamental carved roofs and pillars. 
The sacred shrine to which the multitude come to 
pray is protected by a large frame of wire netting. 
A curious practice seems in force with the hundreds 
who pay their devotions here : they purchase from 
the priest in attendance small squares of paper, on 
which are inscribed certain hieroglyphics ; these 
they chew for a time, and then throw as pellets at 
the grating (which is consequently covered with 
the results). And the precision with which these 
pellets strike the grating, or go through the mesh, 
determines certain inferences as to good or bad 
luck. 

Near at hand are large buildings devoted to 
various exhibitions, all more or less for the benefit 
of the temple (in a pecuniary sense). I went to one, 
and saw the wrestlers. This is one of the sights of 
Japan. There were some ten thousand visitors 
present, and some twenty or thirty performers. 



JAPANESE WRESTLERS. 289 

They were men of tall stature and of immense 
weight. A circular mound some 10 or 12 feet in 
diameter, on a raised platform in the middle of the 
building, is the place selected for the performance. 
On a given signal two of the number present them- 
selves and commence the contest. They eye each 
other for a while, as if watching a chance to 
catch their antagonist off his guard, stamping the 
ground as if with impatience. At length they close 
together, a struggle ensues, the result of which is 
that one is forced off the mound ; so the contest ends. 
This was repeated hour after hour, and the audience 
generally, as they also do in their theatres, come pre- 
pared to make a day of it ; for waiters with rice, 
fish, and other eatables, and saki, are constantly 
in attendance to minister to the wants of the 
spectators. 

The streets are full of life and movement. People 
are wending their way home, or to the bathing- 
house, which, strongly lighted up, shows through 
its lattice bars crowds of both sexes enjoying the 
luxury of the bath. The tea-houses are filling, and 
the plaintive sounds from the sam-i-sen are heard 

*om many of the upper stories. Gaily painted and 
figured lanterns are flitting to and fro, and light up 

>mewhat dimly the shops and roads, for the gas 
is not as yet laid on all over the city, and the 

iw still remains in force that everyone after dark 

U 



290 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

shall carry a lighted lantern on which his name is 
painted. 

While here in Japanese waters the opportunity 
was taken to have the vessel docked, for at Yokosuka, 
a run of 1*7 miles from the anchorage (Yokohama), 
is situated the government arsenal, where some two 
thousand Japanese workmen are employed, under the 
superintendence of French officers. Here they have 
already built two vessels for the Imperial Govern- 
ment, and at the present time there is a large paddle- 
wheel vessel well on towards completion as a royal 
yacht for the Mikado, and engines on the most 
approved compound principle, with high-pressure 
tubular boilers, are also being prepared. All honour 
to this nation, which, after living an isolated life 
for centuries from the rest of the world, has now 
gone ahead in such an earnest manner, leaving all 
that any other Eastern nation has attempted far 
behind. In going over the workshops, which are 
well supplied with every modern appliance of ma- 
chinery for successfully carrying out extensive en- 
gineering work, we find that steam hammers, forges, 
lathes, and other appliances in the fitting, smiths', and 
boiler shops are in full swing ; so a stranger cannot 
fail to be struck with the singular combination of 
energy and perseverance of these wonderful people, 
who within the past few years have thus almost by 
themselves laid the foundation of a steam navy, and 
taken quite naturally to a modern science which was 



!. 



CHALLENGER IN DOCK. 201 

to them altogether unknown, notwithstanding the 
difficulties encountered at every step. A branch of 
the Imperial Naval College at Yedo is situated here, 
where the students of marine engineering have the 
advantage of studying the practical as well as the 
theoretical part of their profession. This department 
is under the immediate direction of T. S. Grissing, 
Esq., Chief Engineer, R.N. ; and by his judicious 
system, and the facilities given to these young men, 
the progress they make is really surprising. The 
University, of which this is a branch, is situated at 
Tokio, with F. W. Sutton, Esq. (Chief Engineer, R.N.), 
as director, and W. J. Harding, Esq. (Engineer, 
R.N.), as assistant. 

The docks are excellent specimens of work. The 
longest is 395 feet, in which the Challenger was 
placed, and remained for a week, undergoing certain 
repairs to the rudder, &c. The second dock is of 
smaller dimensions, and had the strange-looking 
vessel which the government purchased some years 
ago from the United States (then known as the steam 
ram Stoneiuall) under repairs. Basins and jetties 
made the arsenal quite complete. The harbour is 
spacious, perfectly landlocked, and easy of access. 
At the right of the entrance to Yokosuka is one of 
the small temples, built in a glorious cluster of rare 
old trees, under the shade of their branches. In this 
temple is retained one of those forms of worship 
which have come down from a time which it is 

u 2 



292 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

impossible even to guess at — a worship founded on 
the veneration due to the origin of life. Formerly the 
shrine was richly embellished with votive offerings 
in stone, wood, and paper of all sizes and colours ; 
but visitors from time to time have carried off the 
principal ones, leaving almost a barren house with 
only a few rudely carved offerings. 

Near at hand, on the top of a high hill, in the 
village of Hemi-Mura, are situated the grave and tomb 
of Will Adams (who was the first Englishman to 
visit Japan) and his Japanese wife. A large monu- 
ment marks that of Adams, a smaller one that of his 
wife. Adams was an English pilot, who left Holland 
in one of a fleet of vessels bound on a trading voyage 
to Japan in 1607. After many vicissitudes and great 
sufferings by the crews, only the vessel in which 
Adams was reached its destination. The crew were 
treated at first with great cruelty by the Japanese, 
but afterwards with leniency and kindness. Adams, 
having a knowledge of mathematics and shipbuilding, 
ingratiated himself with the Shogun, who promoted 
him to a high position, and he lived in Yedo, beloved 
by the people, for many years. Not being permitted 
to leave Japan, he took to himself a Japanese wife. 
Adams himself chose this spot for his resting- 
place ; and the people living in Anjin cho (Pilot 
Street), Tokio, defrayed the expense of the tombs and 
lanterns at the grave, and now celebrate an annual 
festival in honour of him on the 15th June. 



KAMAKUBA. 293 



From this position the scenery is very fine. The 
undulating hills, between which we get glimpses of 
the open country beyond, where the rice-fields, sur- 
rounded with trim hedges, and the wheat-fields of 
brightest green carpet the uplands, and the clear 
blue waters of the bay stretching before us complete 
the charming picture. 

In all seasons of the year verdure and beauty of 
no common character clothe the hills, broken into a 
hundred winding vales for many miles around. After 
seven miles' walking through pleasant fields with 
trimly kept hedges, passing cheerful country-houses, 
we reach Kamakura, which lies in a valley inclosed 
by hills. Almost every spot of ground in and around 
here is classic to the Japanese, the great bulk of 
the vast store of Japanese histories and historical 
romance having their chief scenes laid in or near 
Kamakura. However, very little now remains of 
its whilom greatness. The chief place of interest 
to visitors is the Shinto temple of Hachiman. This 
temple stands on a plateau reached by sixty steps. 
In the courtyard inclosing the buildings are com- 
partments in which are displayed some very valuable 
and interesting relics. About a mile from here is 
the village of Hasemura, near which stands the 
famous bronze figure of Buddha, called in Japanese 
Dai-butsu ; the approach to it is through a very 
beautiful avenue of evergreens. 

The immense casting, although not in one piece, is 



294 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

so cleverly jointed as almost to avoid detection. It 
stands upwards of 50 feet in height. Its interior is 
hollow, and forms a temple, where are numerous gilt 
idols, chiefly images of Kunanon, with prayers and 
vows of worshippers, written on papers twisted to- 
gether. A priest in attendance disposes of historical 
books and photographs of this great divinity. 

The tea-houses in the vicinity are enjoyable places. 
There is always something or other to amuse 
visitors, either gardens with beautiful flowers or a& 
agreeable view of the surrounding country, so af 
to tempt the traveller to enter and enjoy himself. 
The eatables, consisting of cakes and various sorts 
of fish and vegetables, and often sweetmeats, are 
usually far more agreeable to the eye than to the 
taste. Tea is the universal drink, but it is not in 
accordance with European flavour, tasting somewhat 
like an infusion of wood ashes; yet the Japanese 
consider it far more wholesome than that which 
we are accustomed to use. A favourite drink is 
also made from the peach blossom, which is even 
worse in flavour than the tea; for the flowers, 
after picking, are kept in salt, and, when required, 
a slight infusion is made ; these, with saki, a spirit 
distilled from rice (which the Japanese are very 
fond of), constitute nearly all their refreshments. 

Docking and refitting having been completed, 
we returned to the anchorage off Yokohama, and on 
the 10th May left for Hiogo. After passing through 



BOUGH PASSAGE. 205 



the Uraga Channel (where a day was spent in sound- 
ing and dredging in 350 fathoms, with very satis- 
factory results), and getting clear of the coast, there 
was every indication of squally weather ; and soon 
after we came in for the full force of the north-west 
monsoon, which with squalls, drenching rain, and 
a rough and turbulent sea, made the passage very 
unpleasant. 

Our utmost endeavours were used to get round Siwo 
Misaki, but it seemed almost hopeless attempting to 
steam against the strong wind and heavy seas. Even- 
tually it was decided to run into the well-sheltered 
harbour of Oosima. The weather, as soon as we were 
sheltered under the land, brightened up ; and the 
entrance was not devoid of beauty, as island after 
island came into view. We passed a peculiar cluster 
of rocks forming a portion of the harbour at the 
south-east entrance of the Kii Channel, the Japanese 
name of which is Ishi Bashi, or Stone Bridge. Two 
pretty little fishing villages (Hasingui and Kusimota) 
are here situated, lying at the foot of a range of 
hills. 

During the night the weather moderated, and 
early the next day we left the anchorage, steamed 
round the extreme south point of Nipon (Siwo 
Misaki), and entered the Kii Channel. It was a 
clear and beautiful morning, but a mist lay along 
the horizon, which, however, as the day advanced, 
cleared, and at length the high land of the coast was 



I 

296 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

in sight. All were eagerly watching the beautiful 
scenery which from time to time presented itself, 
until at length we anchored off Kobe, in the Bay of 
Osaka. On either side were towering peaks covered 
with vegetation to their very summits, and shady 
groves, among which appeared temples, and pretty 
cottages, not altogether unlike those seen in Switzer- 
land ; while stretching along the bund before us is 
the foreign concession, with its hotels, clubs, and 
consular residences, its regular terraces and streets 
of prim stucco-fronted houses and villas, forming 
as great a contrast as possible to the surrounding 
scene. 

It was high holiday during a portion of our stay 
here; everybody en fete. Opportunities were there- 
fore presented to us of seeing some of the religious 
ceremonies and processions for which Japan is so 
famous. The streets were gaily decorated with flags 
and festoons of brightly coloured lanterns ; little 
chapels, gilded and varnished, dedicated to local 
deities, and quaintly carved cars filled with musicians, 
whose drums and gongs sounded in harsh and dis- 
cordant clashes, were carried by coolies on bamboo 
poles ; vehicles drawn by girls and boys, gaily 
dressed, in which were local celebrities, priests and 
others ; ladies and courtesans followed in palanquins, 
amidst a host of banners. These processions were 
*kept up for several days, ' and the festivities con- 
tinued until late in the evening, when the city was 



KOBE. 207 



illuminated with lanterns. Occasionally there was a 
halt made in front of the house of some magnate, 
when addresses were given, followed by theatrical 
representations and dancing. 

The Japanese hold that one of the best means 
to propitiate the divinities is to be happy, and not 
seek to annoy them with incessant prayers and 
supplications, feeling assured that their gods take 
pleasure in seeing every one enjoying innocent 
recreation. 

I was, of course, very eager to learn all I could 
about the country and people, but there was so much 
of interest, and such a short time to inspect it, that 
I was frequently almost in despair. These people 
have for centuries kept aloof from other nations, and 
retained their manners, customs, and ideas unchanged; 
these seemed so peculiar to us that it was with some 
anticipations of pleasure I made one of a party to 
visit the most important resident of this port, Mou- 
magami, who is brother to the great high-priest of 
Honganji Kyota. Arriving in due course at his 
residence, which was situated on the side of a hill, 
we entered the vestibule, where were several at- 
tendants, who saluted us in their national style, 
which was by passing their hands down the knee 
and leg, at the same time giving a strong inhalation, 
indicative of pleasure. Our arrival was now an- 
nounced to Moumagami, who came forward and 
welcomed us. 



298 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Close at hand a new temple had been reared, and 
was now to be dedicated to the service of Buddha, 
in whose honour theatricals and dances were onward. 
The entertainments presented were so peculiar, and 
so beautiful were the dresses and decorations worn 
by those taking part in it, that we could not fail to 
enjoy the spectacle thoroughly. 

The ladies of the household, Noriko and Satshiko, 
two of our host's sisters, and other friends were 
present, to whom the strangers were introduced. 

They were very pretty women. One in particular 
I may mention, whose jet black hair, ornamented with 
amber and tortoiseshell combs, was bound up into 
thick masses at the back of the head with flowers 
and ribbons, and further decorated with a number 
of gold and silver arrows, and similar ornaments. 
Her costume was very beautiful — pale grey crape, 
embroidered with gold and silver, and a profusion of 
flowers. It was lined with a bright blue silk quilting, 
which formed a train on the ground. Only a part, 
however, was visible, as the silken belt round the 
waist allowed it to open only very slightly. Over 
this she wore a broad sash of dark colour, embroidered 
in gold, and tied in a very large knot behind. This 
was the obi. The sleeves were long, and reached 
nearly to the ground. All the colours of the duesses 
worn by the company harmonised so beautifully that, 
although there was a most brilliant collection of tints, 
the aspect was most pleasing. The Japanese in- 



VISIT TO MOUMAGAMI. 299* 



variably show exquisite taste in the arrangement of 
colours. 

Tea, sweets, and said were served in diminutive 
china cups, and before we left, attendants brought 
in, and placed before each, gold and lacquer 
bowls with chopsticks. Chicken and vegetables, 
duck and sweet jelly, fish and seaweed, were passed 
round. 

At first we found some difficulty in using the 
chopsticks, which amused our fair friends very much ; 
nor could we help laughing ourselves at our awkward 
attempts. Then pipes and tobacco were in requi- 
sition, the ladies joining ; and although their pipes 
are small, and the tobacco used is of a delicate de- 
scription, I should infer from what I saw that they 
are great smokers. 

It was near sunset as we took our leave, the ladies 
bowing low and speaking a few words in their 
native language, which we understood to be all sorts 
of good wishes for our future success, the host ac- 
companying us to the porch, bidding us farewell. 

We had spent a most agreeable and entertaining 
day, the kindness, hospitality, and general good 
temper of our host and hostess leaving a very 
pleasant impression. 

The view from this point was very fine, embracing 
the far-off hills of the opposite shore, the island of 
Awadji, at the entrance of the inland sea, the river 
to Osaka, and an ever moving mass of white sails of 



300 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

junks and boats; while stretching out below us lay 
the richly cultivated plain, dotted with white roofs, 
amongst the bright colours of the cornfields and the 
sober olive of the surrounding foliage. 

During our stay we visited Osaka, which is about 
30 miles from Hiogo. There is a railway between the 
two, and trains run frequently during the day. The 
trip is most enjoyable. Nearly the whole way lay 
along slopes and through villages, valleys inter- 
vening between the sea and mountain ranges. An 
hour's run and Osaka is reached. This is one of the 
five imperial cities, and is most pleasantly situated 
in a fruitful plain near a navigable river, which is 
spanned by upwards of a hundred bridges, many of 
extraordinary beauty of design. 

The streets are, as in all Japanese towns, very 
narrow ; still they are regular, and cut each other at 
right angles. The internal arrangements of the shops 
are simple and uniform, though somewhat modified 
according to the business of the occupants; still 
there is a great sameness in every town. 

The buildings are not of a very imposing character, 
with the exception of the temples, many of which are 
splendid specimens of art, rich in gold and lacquer 
work ; particularly the one at Tonagee, with its grand 
and stately pagoda, from the top of which a fine 
view is obtained all over the city. 

A week was spent at Kobe, and on the 25th May 
we left for a cruise through the inland sea. 






CRUISE IN THE INLAND SEA. 301 

It seems impossible to do justice to the beauty of 
the scenery here; talented writers have attempted 
the description, but the best have failed, and to my 
mind fall far short of the beautiful reality. Assuredly 
I cannot paint its loveliness adequately by any words 
of mine. 

Amidst this beautiful scenery we remained for a 
week, occasionally dredging, but not with much 
success. At the close of each day we anchored off 
some pretty little village, and then made our way on 
again early in the morning, until reaching Matsu- 
hama, which is about halfway through, when our 
course was altered so as to return to Hiogo. There 
appears to be an extensive traffic, from the vast number 
of junks and coasting-steamers daily met with, and 
swarms of fishing-boats seem to abound everywhere, 
making quite a lively scene. All this, with the 
marvellous richness and fertility of the innumerable 
islands, leaves nothing to be desired. On the 29th 
we reached Hiogo, and once more anchored in Osaka 
Bay. 

On the morning of June 2 we left Osaka Bay for 
Yokohama, where we arrived and anchored on the 
5th. Swung ship for magnetic and azimuth cor- 
rections; coaled, and filled up with stores and pro- 
visions for a long voyage. Before finally leaving 
Yokohama, a large number of the European residents, 
together with many of the members of the imperial 
government from Tokio, Sir Harry Parkes (British 



302 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Minister) and Lady Parkes, many of the American, 
French, and Japanese naval officers, accepted invita- 
tions to take a trip for a few miles in the Bay of 
Yedo, for the purpose of witnessing the operations 
of sounding, dredging, and trawling for specimens of 
marine zoology. 

The weather at first was most unfavourable (wind 
and heavy rain). However, it eventually cleared, 
and a large party of ladies were amongst the number 
of visitors. About noon we steamed out from the 
anchorage, and when an offing of some four or five 
miles had been gained, preparations were made for the 
first operation, which was sounding. The depth was 
found to be 120 fathoms. The trawl was lowered. 
The processes were watched with seemingly great 
interest by the guests on board, and after a short 
interval had elapsed, the trawl was drawn up by 
the deck engine. The anxious crowd gathered on 
the bridge, and as fathom after fathom of the line 
came in, the eager throng held their breath in 
expectation of what was coming. They were, how- 
ever, not kept long in suspense. First appeared the 
shackle, then the trawl itself, with a few specimens 
of life from the bottom, including fish of various 
kinds, shells, stones, and mud. Water-bottles were 
lowered, and specimens obtained from various 
depths. The mode of taking serial temperatures 
was illustrated. 

After this lively scene, in which the different 



DREDGING PICNIC IN YEDO BAY. 303 

opinions of the learned in such matters were often 
amusingly expressed to their lady friends, it was 
time to adjourn for lunch, which afterwards finished 
up with a dance ; so on the whole we had a most 
enjoyable time. It was after five before the vessel 
returned to her anchorage. 




WOMEN ON HORSEBACK, HONOLULU, SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Japan to the Sandwich Islands. 

Leave Yokohama — Soundings of the U.S. ship Tuscarora— Our course — 
Passing the meridian of 180° — Two Sundays in one week — Sand- 
wich Islands in sight — Anchor in Honolulu Harbour — The city — 
Its streets — Business habits — American influence — The king — 
Hawaiian Government — Parliament — Taxation — The Nuanu valley 
— Pretty scenes — Villa and other residences — The Pali — Horse- 
manship — Visit to the fish-market — The natives — Public build- 
ings — Parliament House — Hawaiian hotel — The churches — 
Queen's Hospital — Court House — Iolani Palace — Lev6e at the 
palace— King Kalakua and suite visit the Challenger — Leave the 
Island of Oahu — Squally passage to Hawaii — Arrive and anchor 
in Hilo Bay— Volcanoes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa — The 
charming scenery — The Rainbow Falls — Bathing-places — Visit to 
the crater of Kilauea— Scenes on the road — The Halfway House 
— Eeach the crater— The first sight of the great cauldron— The 
Volcano Hotel — Mauna Loa — Beturn to Hilo. 

June 16th. — This morning terminated our stay in 
Japanese waters. At noon all was ready, and soon 



SOUNDINGS OF THE TUSCARORA. 305 

after we were steaming out from the anchorage, 
the weather bright and clear, and everything pro- 
mising a pleasant and speedy run to the Sandwich 
Islands. 

Last year (1874) the United States Government 
despatched the steam-vessel Tuscarora on a deep-sea 
sounding cruise between San Francisco, the Sand- 
wich Islands, and the coast of Japan, with instruc- 
tions on their return route to complete a line of 
soundings from Yokohama, extending in a great 
circle to the north, passing along the islands of the 
Aleutian group, and so towards Puget Sound, with 
a view of finding a practicable cable route across. 

The course therefore selected by us was one inter- 
mediate between these two (through the parallel 
of 35° north latitude) until reaching 155° west 
longitude. 

The voyage at first promised to be pleasant and 
speedy, but ere many days had passed, we found 
that we were to be delayed (except in one or two 
cases) by light and contrary winds ; still, the fine 
weather was eminently favourable for sounding 
and trawling; while, on the other hand, the want 
of a breeze made the voyage long and monotonous. 
No such extraordinary depths were found on the 
course selected by us as those reported by the Ameri- 
can expedition, their deepest being 4655 fathoms, 
while ours was 3900 fathoms; the average being 
under 3000, with a bottom of red clay and brown 

X 



306 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

mud. Yery little of interest occurred from day to 
day, and the results of the trawling and additions 
to the natural history collection were very scanty. 

The principal occurrence of the voyage that 
made an impression was the passage of the meridian 
of 180°, which took place at noon on the 3rd July; 
and we now entered on west longitude. Accord- 
ingly, a day had to be "dropped" out of our reckon- 
ing, and Sunday, 4th July, was continued for two 
days, so as to prevent our returning to England with 
our log and journal one day ahead of the calendar. 
It requires but little explanation as to the neces- 
sity of this alteration. However, while on this topic, 
I may refer to the dismay of the early Catholic 
navigators when they found that they had been 
keeping irregular fast-days. Thus, when Magalhaens 
made his first voyage round the world (September 
1519 to July 1522), he found, on his return, that he 
was a day behind his countrymen, having sailed from 
east to west round Cape Horn. The idea of having 
lost a day of their lives puzzled them very much, 
but what disquieted the minds of these pious navi- 
gators still more was the fact that they had been 
observing their saints' days erroneously, and had 
actually eaten meat when they ought to have fasted. 

The proof of the sphericity of the earth is thus 
clearly shown, and the improvements in navigation 
have pointed out that a day must necessarily be 
lost in a course steered from east to west ; while, on 



SANDWICH ISLANDS IN SIGHT. 307 

the other hand, a day is gained by sailing from west 
to east. In short, the mode of reckoning time 
amongst the South Sea Islands depends solely upon 
whether they have been approached in the first 
instance from the west or the east by the navigator 
who introduces amongst them the Christian calendar. 

On the 22nd July, in lat. 29° 1' north, long. 154° 
43' west, we reached the commencement of the north- 
east trades. The weather was very fine. The deep 
blue sky above, and the calm beauty of the long, 
full moonlight nights exercised a beneficial influence 
on all hands, and now day after day the sea-birds 
— those constant attendants — gradually began to 
cease flitting round the ship as we approached the 
Equator. 

July 27th. — This morning land was reported, and 
although at first some twenty miles distant, yet in 
the clear atmosphere could be seen a group of grey, 
barren peaks, rising verdureless out of the quiet, 
lonely sea. Everybody was soon on deck to have 
a look at the land after the 4500 miles of watery 
solitude, and the sight was indeed a welcome one. 

As we neared it, lofty peaks, brown and red, sun- 
scorched and wind-bleached, showing here and there 
traces of their fiery origin, were in view. Nearer 
yet, and the detail of the land began to make itself 
manifest : first the line of beach, marked by a long 
line of surf, and then the waving cocoa-nut trees, 
with the imposing promontory of Diamond Head 

x 2 



308 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

terminating the wavy line of palms; then the 
Punchbowl Hill, a very perfect extinct crater, bright 
and brilliant in the sunshine. By noon we were 
close to the coral reef where lay at anchor the U.S. 
flag-ship Pensacola, rolling about in the long swell. 
After waiting a short time, the pilot came alongside, 
and we steamed into the harbour. The surf ran 
high as we passed through the narrow channel and 
entered the quiet and placid haven of rest, where we 
anchored very near the shore. We were speedily 
surrounded with boats and canoes, with enterprising 
tradesmen for orders, or natives for the washing. 

All along the shore were the neat wood and grass 
houses and huts of the natives, and away in either 
direction was the city of Honolulu, hidden behind 
palms, bread-fruit, bananas, and other trees, with 
the public buildings and church spires just showing 
above all. 

The city is built on a narrow strip of land very 
little above the level of the sea, and at the foot of a 
number of volcanic hills, which rise almost perpen- 
dicularly behind, clad in refreshing green, and cleft 
by deep, cool, chasm-like valleys. This island (Oahu), 
though neither the largest nor the most fertile of the 
group, was originally selected, from its geographical 
position, as the seat of the Hawaiian Government. 

It is now ninety-seven years ago that these islands 
were first discovered by Captain Cook, and as late as 
1830 the city of Honolulu consisted of only a few grass 



HONOLULU. 309 



huts, &c. At the present time, although by no means 
an imposing city, it gives house and home to some 
15,000 inhabitants, and is spread over a sandy plain 
extending from east to west, with wide streets con- 
taining hotels and business houses, giving the place 
a very different appearance to what might have been 
expected in a Polynesian town. 

The streets and avenues are shaded with palms, 
bread-fruit, and other pleasant trees. The retail 
stores are owned principally by Americans and Chi- 
nese, and a very fair amount of business appears to 
be done. There are ice manufactories, foundries, and 
factories ; a steam laundry employing about thirty 
hands, and capable of turning out forty to fifty 
thousand pieces in a week, belonging to Mr. W. M. 
Wallace, who, for perseverance, industry, and 
thorough business habits, I should say was un- 
equalled in the island. There are half a dozen news- 
papers published, two of which are monthly, and 
four weekly. There are free libraries and reading- 
rooms, fire-engine companies, Masonic, Odd Fellows', 
and Good Templars' lodges, theatres, and other 
amusements, so as to keep pace with the times. 

The stamp of social life is unmistakably American. 
The currency, the hotels, and private companies are 
all types of the Great Republic. The principal 
business done has hitherto been with America, the 
great majority of Hawaiian citizens and public men 
have been Americans, the government and constitu- 



310 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

tion have been largely framed by the aid of American 
influence, and though the independence of the Ha- 
waiian Government is secured at present by a tri- 
partite treaty between England, America, and France, 
the destiny of the Sandwich Islands will probably 
be what its geographical position would indicate — 
annexation to the United States. 

His Hawaiian Majesty Kalakua is a monarchical 
ruler, with a paraphernalia of sovereignty as im- 
posing in design, if not in execution, as that of Great 
Britain itself. Each of the eight islands that are 
inhabited is governed by a viceroy, under the king. 
Then there are privy councillors, ministers of state, 
and other high functionaries, the Legislative As- 
sembly consisting of forty-five members, thirty of 
whom are elected by the people and fifteen appointed 
by the king, who hold their seats for life. In addition 
to all this there are a host of dignitaries with mys- 
terious names and functions taken most faithfully 
from the models of European courts. The Hawaiian 
ministry does not hold office at the will of a majority 
of Parliament, as with us, but as long as the king 
pleases, irrespective of what Parliament may think. 
The public money is supposed not to be expended 
even by the king without a vote of the Assembly. 
The Hawaiians formerly possessed two Legislative 
Houses, but now the nobles and representatives sit 
and vote together. The experiment, however, does 
not, it is said, work quite satisfactorily, and there is 



THE KING. 311 



a party agitating for the reconstruction of the 
Council of Fifteen. There are two qualifications 
necessary to enable a man to vote for a member 
of Parliament here — he must be able to read and 
write, and have an income of 75 dollars a year. 

The kings of Hawaii do not succeed to the throne 
exactly as sovereigns do in England, but are ap- 
pointed by the nomination of the preceding sovereign 
or by the vote of the Legislative Assembly. The 
late King Lunalilo died in February 1874, without 
naming his successor. There were two candidates 
brought forward for the vacant throne. One was the 
Queen-Dowager Emma (widow of Kamehameha IV.), 
the other was a high chief named David Kalakua. 
David was elected by thirty-nine votes, Emma re- 
ceiving only six. The result was a riot on the part 
of the supporters of the defeated candidate, which 
was soon, however, quelled, the English and Ameri- 
can war-ships in port sending to the rescue a number 
of blue-jackets and marines. The rioters were after- 
wards imprisoned and peace restored, and now all 
works harmoniously. 

The revenue of the Hawaiian kingdom is about 
500,000 dollars a year, and is derived principally 
from taxation, from custom duties, and from the sale 
of government land. The local tax amongst the 
people is five dollars a year — two dollars for roads, &c, 
two for education, and one as a poll-tax. 

The entire revenue of the king is at the rate of 



312 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

50,000 dollars per annum, and each of the principal 
ministers of state receives 5000 dollars. 

Soon after anchoring, opportunities were afforded 
for a run on shore, and a great crowd was assembled 
on the landing to give us a hearty welcome. Men 
and women of a rich brown colour, with long, wavy, 
black hair and large brown lustrous eyes, all seem- 
ing happy, talking, laughing, and smiling ; their 
greetings, "Aloha!" assailed us wherever we went, 
floating on the breeze sweet as the sound of distant 
bells. As I passed through the midst of this throng- 
ing crowd, every step seemed to reveal something new, 
and to recall recollections of my previous visit here, 
some eighteen years ago. 

I cannot say that there is any great beauty in the 
location of the town, or much taste displayed in its 
plan ; but the streets and dusty roads may soon be ex- 
changed for one of the most agreeable and delightful 
climates possible, by a short ride to the Pali, through 
the Nuanu valley, which is formed by a break in the 
central volcanic ridge of the island. 

The entrance to the valley, for some considerable 
distance on either side, has a number of charming 
residences of the wealthy settlers, forming, during 
the summer months, pleasing retreats from the heat 
of the city. It would be difficult to adequately 
describe the scenery, or the architecture of the villas, 
so beautifully are they festooned with flowering 
plants and evergreens ; shady lawns, too, stretch 



THE PALI. 313 



out in front with every variety of charming vege- 
tation, and trees sending their pleasing shadows 
over all. Thus it is for some miles, until reaching 
the cemetery, cosily situated in a way-side hollow ; 
and almost opposite is the royal mausoleum, where 
the remains of the Kamehamehas lie entombed. The 
road narrows somewhat now, and the green taro 
patches and charming avenues afford a most agreeable 
relief to the eye, enhancing the beauty of the views 
from the various colours of the foliage, produced evi- 
dently by the fertilising showers from the clouds, 
which are occasionally seen lowering on the mountain 
peaks, where they are, as it were, held in check 
and condensed, producing numerous small waterfalls, 
leaping from rock to rock on all sides, and being 
again distributed by the natives for irrigating their 
taro patches, and for giving fertility and luxuriance 
to the plains below. 

The valley takes numberless eccentric windings, 
and the peculiarity of the scenery is, that the hills, 
which rise to several thousand feet, are precipitous 
ridges, broken up into all sorts of fantastic shapes, 
which suddenly terminate in deep precipices known 
as the Pali. 

The beauty of the scene from here is unsurpassed 
in the island : stretching away seaward are the coral 
reefs, with the white wavy line of endless surf break- 
ing restlessly over them ; while in the valley below 
are charming glimpses of vegetation ; clusters of 



314 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

palms and sugar-cane, interspersed with native huts, 
each surrounded with its little plantation of bananas 
and other fruit, suggesting the boundless liberality 
of nature. 

During our stay it was a daily treat to stroll along 
the shady streets, and out through the pleasant 
roads, particularly on Saturdays, which seemed a sort 
of gala day, when the roads were usually thronged 
with natives of both sexes on horseback, riding 
up and down at full gallop, and seeming perfectly 
at home in the saddle — the women even more so than 
the men : they sit astride barefooted, with their 
bright-coloured riding-dresses, like banners, stream- 
ing behind them ; all apparently happy and reck- 
less : their bright eyes flashing, their long black 
hair, encircled with garlands and wreaths of flowers 
— making a gay and graceful spectacle. The men 
looked hardly less attractive, for they had wreaths 
of bright flowers round their hats, and garlands 
around their throats. 

Sometimes a crowd of these careless riders came 
galloping in from the plains, full of fun and laughter, 
accompanied by a lot of blue-jackets on leave from 
the Challenger, rushing on, helter-skelter, upsetting 
everything and everybody they came in contact 
with ; bestriding their horses as they would a topsail- 
yard in a breeze ; hanging on to manes and saddles, 
and evidently enjoying themselves to their heart's 
content. 



VISIT TO THE FISH-MARKET. 315 

One of the sights of Honolulu is the fish-market, 
and there we were escorted one Saturday afternoon. 
Although only a tumble-down sort of a place, with a 
number of rickety stalls, yet these were in many 
cases covered with numberless varieties of blue, red, 
and yellow fish, spotted and banded, and striped in 
the most striking manner. Of shell-fish also there 
was abundance, crayfish, lobsters, crabs, and many 
strange orange- and rose-coloured medusae, and here 
and there little heaps of various qualities of sea-weed,, 
of which the natives are particularly fond. 

Here, strolling about making purchases, we saw a 
laughing, joking crowd of men and women ; the latter 
clad in a single bright-coloured or white garment,, 
falling free and in uncon fined folds from the shoulder 
to the feet, while all wore wreaths of gorgeous 
flowers round their jaunty hats. The men, with their 
cheerful smiling faces and friendly greetings, added 
greatly to the animation of the scene. These people 
are, on the whole, much better-looking than those 
met with farther south. The nose is less flat, the 
lips are less prominent ; the colour is a nearer 
approach to white, and the face is altogether more 
indicative of intelligence and good-nature, and they 
take more kindly to the forms of European civilisa- 
tion. 

Of public buildings, the new Legislative Assembly 
Chambers rank first ; they form an extensive pile of 
buildings of the most modern style, built of concrete,. 



316 CRUISE OF R.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

from jolans prepared by a Sydney architect, at a cost 
of $120,000. I had an opportunity of going through 
the spacious halls of this massive structure ; they are 
elaborately furnished, and each appropriated to some 
department of law and justice. The Council Chambers 
are only required for a short session once in two 
years, for voting the required supplies. 

In the absence of other outlets for the public funds, 
the Government, at the instigation of a popular 
member of the Ministry, voted a large sum of money 
for building an hotel for the attraction and con- 
venience of visitors. Plans were completed, and the 
building was finished in 1874 It consists of a large 
concrete, two-storied house, well situated, with veran- 
dahs decorated and festooned with flowering trailers, 
covering up all that might be unsightly with jessa- 
mine and clematis, and bright and pleasing flowers. 
It stands on a trim-kept lawn, planted with exotic 
trees, lending shade and beauty to the whole. 
Military bands occasionally play, and the large 
number of visitors give quite a busy and imposing 
aspect to this portion of the city. 

The churches claim our attention, and Sunday 
proved a most pleasant day. Church-bells rang, and 
the streets and roads were filled by the people in 
their holiday attire. 

Whatever may be the religious requirements of 
other islands of the Pacific, the wants of the Ha- 
waiians are well supplied. At least three of the 



THE CHURCHES. 317 

great denominations work side by side. The Roman 
Catholics, who were introduced to the islands by the 
aid of a French man-of-war, have had a large church, 
a local habitation, and a name, since 1847, and now 
number a very large proportion of converts amongst 
the population of the islands. 

The Church of England has had a Bishop, if not 
a very large ecclesiastical interest, here since 1802. 
The cut-stone cathedral, brought all the way from 
England by Bishop Staley, is still the work of the 
future. The foundations were laid some years ago 
by the late king, but the superstructure lies packed 
in cases within the church inclosure. The funds 
being exhausted, the chance of erection is somewhat 
remote. The services are at present carried on in a 
small temporary building, on which some 20,000/. 
has been expended, and in this Bishop Willis (Ijt. 
Staley's successor) carries out a daily High Church 
ceremonial, which, from the scanty number of wor- 
shippers, does not appear to be very attractive. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have a church, but I 
learnt that this body has not succeeded in making 
any great head-way in the islands. 

It is due to the early missionary enterprise — 
carried on principally by the American Board of 
Mission (embracing the operations of the Presby- 
terians and Independents) — that any moral change 
has been produced amongst these people. 

There are two native churches ; one of which is a 



318 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

large structure, built of coral stone, fitted up with 
modern pews and carpeted floors : it boasts of a 
trained choir and an organ of superior construc- 
tion, with a Sunday school building at one end, and 
a church sociable, after the American fashion, 
underneath. 

The Queen's Hospital, the Court House, and the 
lolani Palace almost exhaust the list of public build- 
ings. The Palace is only a small frame building, 
standing in solitary grandeur in an inclosure of about 
an acre in extent ; but plans are being prepared for 
a larger structure, and probably we may soon hear 
of its commencement. 

A Levee was held at the Palace, at which the 
officers of the Challenger and others attended, and 
were duly presented to his Majesty in the orthodox 
fashion by the British Minister (Major J. H. Wode- 
house) ; and before leaving the harbour, the King 
made a return visit on board. His Majesty embarked 
from the jetty-stairs in the Challenger s barge ; he 
was dressed in plain morning suit, with a single 
decoration (the star of the order of Kamehameha). 
His suite, consisting of Governors, Ministers, and 
Court dignitaries in gay uniform, with plumes, 
epaulettes, and gold lace, followed in other boats 
after him. 

As soon as the king arrived on board, the royal 
standard was loosed at the main, ship's company 
manned yards, the guard presented arms, and the 



LEAVE 0A1IU. 319 



band struck up the Hawaiian national anthem. The 
party remained some time, seeing all the wonders, 
and entering fully into the details of our scientific 
doings. After lunch, &c, they again returned to the 
shore ; and in the evening the King gave a dinner 
at the Hawaiian Hotel, there not being sufficient 
accommodation at the Palace. 

During our brief stay (for fifteen days was all the 
time allotted here) I was most favourably impressed, 
not only with the beauty of the scenery, but with 
the hospitality of the residents. Amid many happy 
remembrances of other scenes, the thoughts of these 
will remain a pleasant memory of my visit to the 
Sandwich Islands. 

Aug. Wth. — This morning all was ready, and with 
much regret we left the hospitable shores of Oahu, and 
steamed out through the passage of the coral reefs. 

Some hours were afterwards spent in swinging 
ship, both for azimuth and magnetic corrections. 
Finally we proceeded on our way for Hilo, steaming 
on over the golden tropical sea, and before sunset 
these beautiful islands had sunk below the horizon. 
A strong head-wind unfortunately sprang up, and 
very soon we were lurching and tumbling about in 
the open channel separating Oahu from Hawaii. 

After three days of this squally, boisterous weather, 
land was again in sight ; and as we neared it, we 
could see a pretty coast-line of grey cliff, many 
hundred feet in height, draped with green, showing 



320 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

out here and there masses of black volcanic rock. 
Into cracks and caverns the heavy waves surged, 
sending the spray high up amongst the ferns and 
trailers. 

On the summits of these cliffs were dense forests of 
the ohia, koa, ieie, mamane, mamaki, alii, and many 
other trees, crowded together and sheltering an 
almost endless variety of ferns and shrubs, encircling 
M auna Loa and Mauna Kea, two vast volcanic moun- 
tains, whose snow-capped peaks rise to nearly 14,000 
feet. 

We pass on, catching glimpses of native churches, 
villages, and sugar-plantations, their bright green 
vegetation looking most charming. 

Aug. \Uh. — Later in the day, we arrived and 
anchored in Byron's or Hilo Bay, a pretty crescent- 
shaped sheet of water, fringed all round the shore 
with cocoa-palms and other tropical foliage. 

Hilo looks very pretty from the anchorage; its 
bay, said to be one of the most beautiful in the 
Pacific, is a semicircle of about two miles in extent ; 
the native houses are half hidden by tall trees that 
spread their foliage about in all directions ; and near 
the landing-place some white frame-houses and three 
church-spires are prominently seen. 

Soon after our arrival I landed (not for the first 
time, for I was here in 1858) at. a small pier run out 
through the surf for the convenience of passengers 
landing from the coasting steamer Kilauea. 



HILO. 321 



Roads branch off in several directions ; that along 
the beach contains a few frame-houses, in which 
apparently all the business of the island is done. 
Another road passes the three churches, the most 
prominent of which is the Roman Catholic, with its 
two towers. A native church is next ; and then a 
small one for the foreign residents. 

The Court House, a large wooden building, with 
verandahs, surrounded by beautiful exotic trees, is 
the most imposing building on the island. Go where 
one will, in either direction, are great varieties of 
houses ; for the foreigners have all seemingly 
carried out their own individual tastes in their dwell- 
ings, and the results are very pleasing and agreeable, 
although for picturesqueness they must yield the 
palm to the native houses, which, whether built of 
wood or grass, plain or plaited, whether of one or 
two stories, seemed so much more in harmony with 
their surroundings. 

In nearly every instance these dwellings have a 
cool and prepossessing appearance, with their deep- 
thatched roofs and verandahs, fantastically latticed 
and screened with gorgeous trailers of jessamine, 
clematis, and the gorgeous passion-flower. Passing 
along here leads one to the Anuenue, or Rainbow 
Falls. The track is a scramble among rocks and 
holes concealed by grass and ferns, with several 
small streams to cross. The fall itself is four or five 
miles off, but the sight is well worth all the trouble 

Y 



322 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

taken to reach it ; it is a broad stream of water 
rushing on from the high land, forming on its way 
numerous delicious and cool bathing-places, until 
reaching a precipice of about 100 feet; it falls 
into a basin with a deep cavern behind, surrounded 
by beautiful ferns and a jungle of tropical shrubs 
of great variety. To this spot many made their daily 
visits, not only for the pleasure of bathing, but 
to enjoy the delightful scenery in every direction. 
The principal object of our visit to Hilo was that 
opportunities might be afforded to those who desired 
to visit the celebrated Crater of Kilauea. A day or 
two after our arrival horses and guides were provided, 
and a large party started to do the thirty miles of 
rough road leading to the shrine of " Pele," the home 
of the dreaded goddess of volcanoes. The weather 
was fine, and all started from Hilo in the best of 
spirits, well-mounted on sure-footed horses, and in 
this way for some miles proceeded in single file along 
narrow roads of hard lava rock, about a couple of 
feet wide, occasionally passing through forests of 
true tropical jungle, where Nature seemed to riot in 
the production of strange and curious forms ; where 
trees have grown and fallen, and where they lie 
a new vegetation has sprung up over them, alto- 
gether obliterating any signs of decay. 

Thus all went on for miles ; in fact, the whole 
track is a perpetual upward scramble, rough and 
rugged in the extreme ; for though the ascent is 



VISIT TO THE CItATEB OF KILAUEA. 323 

gradual, so that it is only by the increasing coldn 
of the atmosphere that the elevation is detected, it 
is really a rise of 4000 feet in the thirty miles. The 
half-way house (just a rough grass native shanty) was 
reached in due course, and here a short stay was 
made for rest and refreshment, after which we 
started on again, all being anxious to reach the 
crater before night set in. Continuing our journey, 
the country altering but little in appearance, except 
that, perhaps, the trees appeared of more sombre 
aspect, all at once, on emerging from a dense forest, 
a glare, brighter and redder than from any furnace, 
suddenly brightened up the whole sky. The 
heavens became brilliant, and when the Volcano 
House (a small hotel) was reached, clouds of red 
vapour, mixed with flame, were curling ceaselessly 
out of a large invisible pit of darkness, and Kilauea 
was in all its fiery glory : we had reached the crater 
of the largest volcano in the world. 

We took up our t quarters at the Yolcano Hotel, a 
long building, constructed of grass and bamboo, 
which all thought very comfortable after the long 
and wearying journey. Here a good dinner was 
ordered, and during its preparation it was cheerful to 
sit round the great wood fire, for the night was 
somewhat cool at this altitude. 

After rest and a refreshing dinner all set off 
to see the sights ; not far to go at first, for the 
mighty crater is situated only a short distance from 

y 2 



324 CBU1SE OF R.M.S. GBALLENGBB. 

our house. The abyss, which is at a height of 
4000 feet, on the side of Mauna Loa, has the appear- 
ance of a large pit, which is estimated to be nine 
miles in circumference. The guides informed us 
that there was nothing to fear ; the edge of the 
crater was approachable with safety, except during 
an eruption. After an hour of very difficult climbing 
and scrambling, the lowest level of the crater was 
reached. My highest expectations were more than 
realised, and I can hardly find words suitable to 
describe my sensations after seeing such a spectacle. 
All was confusion and commotion ; for the lava, like 
red-hot metal, broke about with a surging noise on 
the rough craggy cliffs, cooling as it fell over the 
edge, where it hung in festoons. With all this, I 
noticed but little smoke or vapour, and what there 
was seemed carried away by a light breeze. 

Here we remained for a long time, so engrossed by 
the grand spectacle, that when it was decided to re- 
turn, by some means we got on the wrong track, and 
were for more than an hour seeking the right road ; 
however, eventually we reached the hotel, nearly 
tired out. 

Kilauea never overflows its vast crater, but appears 
to burst a passage for its lava through the mountain- 
side when relief is necessary, and then the destruc- 
tion is usually fearful. Fortunately this seldom 
occurs, for it is many years ago that so great an 
eruption took place : then it rent its stomach, and 



LEAVE HAWAII. 825 



sent a broad river of fire careening down to the sea, 
sweeping away forests, huts, plantations, and every- 
thing else that lay in its path. The last eruption 
occurred in April 1868 ; it was accompanied by 
fearful earthquakes, and was more destructive to life 
and property than any previous one. 

After spending the night at the Volcano Hotel, the 
next morning we left Kilauea in a heavy rain-storm, 
which lasted, with but little intermission, nearly all 
the way back. * * * In the evening we straggled 
into Hilo, thoroughly tired, still greatly pleased and 
delighted with the trip. A few days longer here, 
and preparations were made for leaving. On the 
19th August all was complete, and we steamed out 
clear of the land on a southerly course, and ere night- 
fall the coast of Hawaii had faded from our sight. 




NATIVE BAMBOO HOUSE, TAHITI, SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Sandwich Islands to Society Islands. 

Leave Hawaii, Sandwich Islands — Passage to the Society Islands — 
Sounding and trawling — Cross the Equator fourth time— Death of 
Dr. von Willemoes-Suhm — Biographical sketch — Burial at sea — 
Tahiti in sight — Sounding and dredging outside the reefs — Anchor 
in Papeite Harbour —The town and country — Streets and natives — 
Challenger's band on shore — Queen Pomare and suite's visit to the 
Challenger — Afternoon dance — Eide to Point Venus — The Broom 
Koad— Charming scenes — Natives met on the road — Tamarind 
tree at Point Venus— Waterfall— Hill fort of Fautana — Fruits and 
plants — Alongside Fare Ute— Coaling from the French depot — A 
day outside the reefs — Dredging — The company on board — Swing 
ship. 

The run of 2400 miles to Tahiti (Society Islands) 
was of a very dull and monotonous character. Sound- 
ings were obtained on seventeen occasions, and dredg- 



DEATH OF DB. VON WILLEMOES-SUHM. 327 

ing was frequently carried out. The average depth 
found was 2800 fathoms, and the bottom composed of 
a red or chocolate-brown clay, and occasionally large 
quantities of black manganese. Nothing new or 
important was obtained in the trawl ; so the additions 
to the natural history collection were somewhat 
small. 

It is with great regret that I have to record the 
death, on the 13th September, of Dr. von Willimoes- 
Suhm,* a native of Germany, one of the naturalists 
attached to the expedition. He had, during the time 
he had been associated with the scientific department, 
entered most fully into all its details, and mastered 
some of its most difficult subjects, and his loss, there- 
fore, was much felt. The next day he was buried 
with naval honours — his body committed to the deep 
blue tide. " One sudden plunge, and all was o'er." 
This was in lat. 11° 15' south, long. 150° 30' west, 



* The following biographical sketch appeared in ' Nature : ' — 
" Dr. von Willimoes-Suhm died near Tahiti on the 13th September, 
and the expedition thus lost one of its most valued members. 

" He was a native of Schleswig-Holstein, and studied in the univer- 
sities of Gottingen and Bonn. He showed at a very early period a 
strong taste for natural science, and shortly after the conclusion of his 
studies he was appointed Privat-Docent in Zoology in the University of 
Munich. This appointment he held at the time of his death, having 
obtained leave of absence to join the Challenger expedition. He has 
published many valuable papers, chiefly on the structure and physio- 
logy of invertebrate animals. He devoted himself with the utmost 
earnestness to the work of the expedition, and in addition to several 
important communications to the scientific societies, he leaves behind 
him a fine series of drawings and a great amount of material, which 
must now be worked out by other hands." 



828 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

380 miles from Tahiti. Head winds and calms suc- 
ceeded each other as we passed on through the 
Tropics. 

At length, on the morning of the 18th September, 
we came in sight of Tahiti and the outlying island 
of Morea, and, as we neared, could be seen very 
plainly the singular zigzag outline, precipitous crags 
and crater-like depressions, of every shade of blue, 
grey, and purple, broken into every conceivable 
fantastic shape, with deep, dark, mysterious gorges, 
showing almost black by contrast with the surround- 
ing brightness ; while in the foreground, stretching 
away from the base to the shore, is a forest of tropical 
trees, with the huts and houses of the town peeping 
out between them. 

Some hours were spent outside the reefs in sound- 
ing and dredging, in a depth of 1525 fathoms, but 
not much of interest obtained ; it was near 4 p.m. 
before we entered the lovely harbour of Papeite, 
which is surrounded by coral reefs, forming a most 
safe and pleasant haven of rest after the thirty days 
at sea. Of all the innumerable islands of the vast 
Pacific, there is none which has at various periods 
attracted the attention of the civilised world in the 
same degree as that in whose harbour we are now at 
anchor. At first, it was from the pleasing description 
given by Captain Cook of his stay here ; then the 
events connected with the mutiny of the Bounty ; 
and still later, by occurrences of a political nature, 






PAPEITE. 



329 



which resulted in the French Government taking 
possession and establishing a Protectorate, and from 
that date (1843) up to the present administering the 
affairs, levying the import and export duties, and 
making the Queen an annual allowance of 1000Z. per 
annum to keep quiet ; in fact, treating it to all intents 
as a French colony. 

Papeite lies at the end of a semicircular bay, 
seven miles west of Point Yenus, the northernmost 
part of the island. It is the chief town, the resi- 
dence of the Queen and seat of government ; but this 
is not incompatible with its being of very limited 
dimensions, not rising above the grandeur of an 
ordinary English village. 

The dwellings of the Europeans, constructed for 
the most part of wood, roofed with palm-leaves, extend 
all along the edge of the bay, while diverging or 
running at right angles or parallel are pretty 
roads, which help to make regular streets, around 
which, and on every side, rise up bread-fruit, cocoa, 
palm, and orange trees, which make up in cheerful- 
ness for any deficiency in aspect. 

The streets of an evening, the lighted shops 
and stores surrounded by the beautiful trees and 
gaily dressed girls, the rollicking " blue-jackets " 
from the two French war-ships in port and from 
the Challenger, the universal good-humour of every 
one, made a very novel, picturesque, and pleasing 
scene. 



330 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

My first evening on land I went, with others, 
for a stroll through some of the beautiful shady 
avenues, and followed the run of the crowd of pe- 
destrians (everybody seemed to be out in holiday 
attire, for, in addition to gangs of sailors, there 
were French soldiers, gendarmes, native girls and 
men), all strolling on, in the best of spirits, reck- 
less, happy, and good-tempered. At length, on 
reaching the Queen's Square, in which the amateur 
band of the Challenger was advertised to play, the 
strange, motley scene that burst on us was altogether 
indescribable. 

All shades of beauty were here represented, from 
the swarthy Tahitian to the charming European; 
all, however, dressed much alike, in long, loose, 
cool-looking drapery, consisting of a sleeved gar- 
ment, falling in ample and unconfined folds from 
shoulder to feet, of all hues, shades, and colours; 
their luxuriant tresses set off by brilliant flowers and 
masses of snowy reva-reva, a gauzy white material, 
looking like strips of silver paper (made from the 
shoots of young cocoa-nut trees). French officers, 
naval and military, in gay uniforms, with white, 
brown, and pretty half-caste ladies; several of the 
Challenger s officers, and numerous civilians from far 
and near, helped to fill in the large space. The 
music was enjoyable in the cool still night; and 
it was pleasant to wander about amongst the merry 
crowd, speaking freely and sociably to anybody we 



QUEEN POMARE'S VISIT TO THE CHALLENGE!*. 331 

pleased without fear of giving offence ; picking our 
way amongst the numerous parties that were seated 
about, interchanging jokes and compliments, or 
squatting down amongst a lot of lively native girls 
on their outspread mats, and carrying on a broken 
sort of conversation with them — all generally so 
good-humoured and merry that they could not fail 
to win one's esteem. 

All appeared thoroughly to enjoy the music, and 
to regret when the programme came to an end with 
the " Marseillaise ;" mats, bundles, and babies were 
gathered up, and the crowd, in a short time, dis- 
persed to their various homes. 

A levee was held at the palace, at which the 
officers of the Challenger were presented to royalty in 
due form. And (on the 1st October) a return visit 
was made by the Queen ; on which occasion the op- 
portunity was taken to entertain her Majesty at a 
ball on board. The quarter-deck was prettily deco- 
rated with flags, trophies, and flowers ; and as there 
were several princes and princesses present, together 
with the French Governor and staff, the party was a 
gay and merry one. 

During our stay here excursions were planned to 
various parts of the island ; amongst them, that made 
to Point Yenus had a double interest attached to it. 
It was on this promontory that Captain Cook first 
made the astronomical observations by which he 
determined the correct position of the island, and, in 



332 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGEB. 

1769, from here he, with a scientific party, observed 
the transit of Venus, 

The ride thither lay through delicious groves of 
cocoa palm and bread-fruit trees, mingled here and 
there with citron, orange, bananas, and guavas. The 
tree-like oleander and beautiful red-flowered hibiscus 
towered above all, bright and blooming ; the entire 
scene being one not easily forgotten. 

The Broom Eoad (as it is named) ran on thus for 
a long way parallel with the shore, taking us under 
the shade of charming trees, and across innumerable 
little streams, where were seen numbers of native 
girls either bathing or washing their garments; 
and occasionally on the way meeting many of the 
men in their clean white shirts and parti-coloured 
waist-cloths; each, on passing, greeting us with a 
cheerful smile and a hearty " Ya rana," which means 
all kinds of salutations and blessings ; sometimes even 
stopping and shaking hands, with no other earthly 
object but kindly good-fellowship. 

The scenery, look where one would, was exceed- 
ingly pretty. Wherever there was a break in the 
glorious tropical foliage could be seen either pre- 
cipitous mountains, clad in refreshing green, and 
cleft by deep, cool gorges, or the fine sweep of the 
ocean, a brilliant, transparent blue, bound and 
bordered by a long white line of foamy surf dashing 
against the reefs. 

For some miles the road ran on, intersected occa- 



POINT VENUS. 333 



sionally with charming little villages, with houses, 
cool and comfortable, built of hibiscus or bamboo 
poles, fixed in the ground a few inches apart, 
giving them the appearance of enormous bird-cages. 
The roofs are overhanging, and ingeniously con- 
structed of plaited palm leaves. At Point Venus 
is a lighthouse, with a flashing light visible for 
14 miles, and close at hand is still to be seen the 
tamarind-tree planted by Captain Cook near the 
spot where he completed those renowned labours 
which still single him out as the greatest of Pacific 
discoverers. 

Another agreeable excursion was one taken to the 
beautifully situated hill-fort of Fatauna — renowned 
in the annals of the country — which well repays the 
trouble of reaching it. 

The road lay through guava fields and sugar plan- 
tations, and delightfully cool and shady forests, until 
reaching one of the most important waterfalls in the 
island, where a broad sheet of water is seen leaping 
over a perpendicular precipice nearly 700 feet high, 
falling into a huge basin some 1500 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The naturalists and others took every opportunity 
of becoming acquainted with the productions, soil, 
climate, and inhabitants. The natives (that is, those 
living away from the town and European influences) 
are found to be of the same indolent nature which 
characterises all those met with amongst the South 



334 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Sea Islands, having but few wants, and those easily 
supplied ; for bananas, bread-fruit, oranges, pine- 
apples, and fais (a sort of wild plantain) grow luxu- 
riantly in all directions. All around are picturesque 
and rugged hills, imparting a beauty to the scene 
which cannot fail to arrest one's attention ; while in 
close proximity, yet separated from each other by 
deep, dark gorges, showing up their precipitous and 
inaccessible sides, are great crags, almost entirely 
overgrown with the guava (a plant which was first- 
imported from South America, in 1815, by an 
American missionary, and which has since increased 
at so rapid a rate as to extend over some of the 
loveliest spots in the island). The " Diadem," a 
name given to several peaks which have a striking 
resemblance to a crown, displays itself from this 
point in all its wondrous loveliness ; and away in the 
distance are still more and more lofty mountains, 
6000 or 7000 feet high, which probably have never 
yet been trod by the foot of the naturalist. 

All visitors unite in praise of the beautiful ap- 
pearance of Tahiti, and speak of the climate as 
being uncommonly delightful and salubrious. It is 
moderated by sea and land breezes ; this, combined 
with the fertility of the soil, makes it perfectly 
evident that almost every tropical plant may be ex- 
tensively cultivated with but little labour. As it is, 
the sugar-cane, coffee-tree, cotton shrub, the vanilla, 
cocoa plant, indigo, rice, and maize are produced ; 



DREDGING OUTSIDE THE REEFS. 335 

while of fruits, the banana, bread-fruit, mango, pine- 
apple, papaya, cocoa-nut, pandanus, orange, lemon, 
custard-apple, guava, &c, are plentiful. 

On the morning of September 27th the vessel 
warped alongside the promontory of Fare Ute, where 
the French Government have what they designate 
an " arsenal," if a few rickety sheds, a blacksmith's 
shop, and a patent slip (for hauling small vessels up 
for repairs) can be so considered. However, such as 
it was, we were enabled to fill up with coal, and 
soon all was ready for sea. 

A day was spent outside the reefs dredging 
amongst the corals, on which occasion we had a small 
party of ladies, &c, amongst whom were included 
Moa, Queen of Raiatea, Maru, Princess Royal of 
Tahiti, the Chieftess of Morea (Mrs. Brander), and 
others. Of the gentlemen, the most distinguished 
was the King of Raiatea. The trade-wind was blow- 
ing very strongly outside, and a rough and squally 
day was the result ; so there was but little enjoyment 
for the ladies, who were, after all, far better pleased 
when, in the evening, the vessel again anchored 
inside the reefs. 

The next day swung ship for azimuth and magnetic 
corrections. 




CUSTOMS GUARD HOUSE, VALPARAISO, CHILI. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Society Islands to Juan Fernandez and Valparaiso (Chili). 

Leave Tahiti — Parting scenes — Westerly winds — Sounding and 
trawling — Juan Fernandez in sight — Picturesque scenery— 
Kobinson Crusoe — Anchor in Cumberland Bay — The tablet at 
Crusoe's look-out — The Settlement past and present — Leave 
Juan Fernandez — The run to Valparaiso — Arrival and anchor 
off the city — The city and harbour — Swinging ship for magnetic 
corrections. 

Oct. 3rd. — This morning steamed out clear of the 
reefs, and so had the parting view of Tahiti. The 
breeze freshened in our favour, and steam was dis- 
pensed with. When a good offing had been made, a 
course was shaped south-east, and beautiful Tahiti, 
with its imposing and irregular outline of hills and 



SOUNDING AND TBAWLINO. 337 

rich vegetation, was soon left behind us like a 
shadowy vision of dream-land. 

We had a capital breeze, and all seemed to pro- 
mise a speedy run over the solitary waste of waters 
intervening in the 5000 miles between Tahiti and 
Valparaiso. 

On October 17th, however, the wind headed us; 
and until the 21st we were running on a southerly 
course. When reaching latitude 40° 8 ; south, longi- 
tude 132° 52' west, we picked up the commencement 
of the westerlies, which carried us on until the 3rd 
November, in latitude 39° 22', longitude 98° 46', and 
1368 miles from our destination. For a week now 
we had calms, during which steam was used for 
about 300 miles. On the 8th a breeze sprang up, 
but it was of short duration, and the remainder 
of the distance, until sighting the island of Juan 
Fernandez, was performed under steam. 

Thus nearly six weeks passed, during which sound- 
ings were obtained on twenty different occasions, 
showing an average of 2160 fathoms (the least 
being 1500, and greatest depth 2600 fathoms). 
Dredging was successfully carried out at intervals ; 
the bottom was found to consist for the most part 
of a chocolate-coloured mud. Large quantities of 
manganese modules, and on two or three occa- 
sions several sharks' teeth, were brought up in the 
trawl. 

Through a succession of unfavourable winds, 

z 



338 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER 

causing us to run so far to the south waru of our 
course, the change of temperature was much felt ; 
for having been so long accustomed to the warm, 
smiling tropical skies, the dull and overcast weather, 
the low temperature, and frequent rains seemed to be 
doubly cold and gloomy. 

Nov. 13th. — A thousand miles north had to be run 
when land was reported — the solitary island of Juan 
Fernandez. The morning was fine, and I think ] 
may say I have never seen a more remarkable and 
picturesque view than the approach to the anchorage 
presented. Great mountains appear, torn and broken 
into every conceivable fantastic shape, with deep 
ravines, through which the torrents at times sweep 
down from the precipitous cliffs, which rise one 
above the other, finally culminating in a great 
mass 3000 feet high, known as the Yunque, or 
Anvil (from its resemblance to the iron block used 
by blacksmiths). This is wooded nearly from the 
summit to the base, where are indications of its 
having been at one time cleared for cultivation (at 
the time probably when the Spaniards made the 
attempt to colonise it), for the stone walls which 
served to divide the inclosures still remain. There are 
also the remains of a fort, named San Juan Bautista, 
and a few tumble-down shanties, in which some forty 
or fifty people are existing, seeking a precarious 
living by supplying vessels that occasionally call here 
with fresh provisions, &c. It is certainly a strange 



JUAN FEBNANDEZ. 330 

fact that people can be found to isolate themselves in 
such out-of-the-way places as this. Doubtless, in the 
abstract, it is a fine thing to be monarch of all one 
surveys ; but those who have realised it are generally 
found to reverse their early aspirations, and own that 
solitude is not good for mankind. It was on this island 
that Alexander Selkirk was landed in 1704, from 
a ship he was serving in at the time as master ; 
and here he remained in solitude for more than 
four years. Eventually, on being rescued, and re- 
turning to/ England, he gave the narrative of his 
sojourn here to the great romancer of his day, Daniel 
Defoe, in order to prepare it for publication ; and it 
was from the ideas so furnished that the excellent 
and well-known story of Eobinson Crusoe was 
formed. 

Anchoring in Cumberland Bay, in 40 fathoms, not 
far from the shore, we found it quite safe and 
pleasant. The bay has much the appearance of a 
huge crater of an old volcano, surrounded on all 
sides, except one (the entrance), with high precipi- 
tous cliffs, which are torn up into deep ravines and 
valleys. Here, at anchor, a couple of days were 
spent, and in the brief time permitted the most was 
made of it. All the places near at hand immortalised 
by Selkirk were visited — the " caves," his " huts," 
and "look-out" (a gap some 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea), where a glorious view, both north 
and south, was obtained. Here H.M.S. To/jaze, in 

z 2 



340 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

1868, placed an iron tablet, with the following in- 
scription: — 



3En Mtmotp of 

ALEXANDER SELKIRK, Mariner, 

A native of Lagos, in the County of Fife, Scotland, 

Who was on this Island in complete solitude 
for four years and four months. 

He was landed from the Cinque Ports Galley, 96 tons, 

16 guns, a.d. 1704, and was taken off in the 

Duke privateer, 12 Feb. 1709. 

He died Lieutenant of the Weymouth, a.d. 1723, 
Aged 47 years. 



This tablet is erected near Selkirk's look-out by 

Commodore Powell and Officers of 

H.M.S. Topaze, a.d. 1868. 



Naturalists and others were busily engaged collect- 
ing birds and specimens, and a few photographs 
were obtained ; and, what was very acceptable after 
the long voyage, plenty of fresh food, for the bay 
proved a most prolific fishing-ground, and from the 
settlers, beef, &c, of excellent quality was supplied. 

The island is only some ten or twelve miles long, 
by four broad. The shore is formed by a steep, 
dark bare rock, rising up some 800 or 900 feet, 
through which wild ravines run, giving here and 
there views of grassy plains and verdant valleys of 
considerable extent, thickly wooded with a luxuriant 
foliage of great variety, amongst which were notice- 
able great numbers of peach-trees, which are said to 
have been planted by Lord Anson in 1741, when on 
his famous voyage round the world. Figs, straw- 



THE SETTLEMENT PAST AND PRESENT. 341 

berries, and cherries are also obtainable in their 
seasons. Twenty-four varieties of ferns were found 
by the collectors, and myrtle-trees abound in great 
numbers over the island. 

Since the discovery of the island in 1563 it has 
been the scene of many vicissitudes. At first it was 
much visited by the old buccaneers, when on their 
marauding expeditions against the Spaniards ; and 
during one of these visits, in 1681, a negro (from the 
West Indies) belonging to one of the vessels was 
accidentally left behind, and remained in solitude for 
three years until rescued. Twenty years after this 
(1704) we hear of Selkirk's solitary life, and of 
several others, each of whom has at times been the 
solitary inhabitant of Juan Fernandez ; which seems 
to entitle the island to be called the land of Robinson 
Crusoe. In 1717 the Spanish government, jealous 
of other nations coming here, established a colony; 
but it was soon after almost totally destroyed by a 
dreadful earthquake, a calamity the island has been 
subject to on more than one occasion since. In 1810, 
when the Chilians gained their independence, this 
island formed a part of their possessions; and in 
1819 they formed it into a penal settlement, and 
have had as many as five hundred prisoners at a time 
here. But it was found expensive; and in 1835 the 
prisoners mutinied, and for a short time overcame 
the troops. After this the convicts were removed to 
the mainland, and the island was again deserted, and 



342 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

so remained for some forty years. At the present 
time it is leased to a Chilian merchant, who employs 
all the settlers in cutting wood, tending cattle, &c, 
and during the season seal-hunting, both here and 
at Masafuera, 90 miles distant, when they usually 
capture some two thousand, the skins of which are at 
present worth $16 each. The climate is mild, and 
considered healthy; but the weather is subject to 
great changes. During our stay the mornings were 
generally cloudy, with showers of rain ; towards 
noon it cleared, and for the remainder of the day it 
was usually fine and pleasant. 

On the evening of the 15th November we left 
Cumberland Bay, steaming out clear of the head- 
lands, when sail was made, and the 360 miles 
separating us from Valparaiso were expected to be 
soon got over ; but rough seas and head- winds de- 
layed, and made a long passage. It was not until 
the morning of the 19th November that land was 
in sight, and as the haze cleared, it proved to 
be the faint outline of Aconcagua, the highest of 
the Chilian Andes. A few hours later we made 
the lighthouse on the southern part of the bay. It 
was a pleasant sight on approaching the anchorage, 
which was full of shipping ; and the appearance of 
the city to us, just come in from the turbulent sea, 
was very charming ; the buildings extend along, 
row after row, for a considerable distance in front of 
the bay, and surmount the hillocks which rise at 



VALPARAISO. 843 



short distances from the shore, forming the districts 
known to the sailors as the Fore, Main, and Mizen 
Top. 

The west point of the bay (San Antonio) is well 
fortified with strong batteries, a precaution taken 
since the bombardment by the Spaniards a few years 
ago. A well-built mole extends from the Plaza in 
front of the Custom House and Exchange, and to the 
right a pile of fire-proof bonded warehouses are built, 
and others are in course of construction. 

The railway runs for 110 miles, passing several 
small wayside villages, and by the valley of the 
Aconcagua, to the north-east of Quilliota and its 
mineral deposits, and so on to Santiago. 

A three weeks' stay in the port of one of the 
principal commercial cities in South America made 
us quite familiar with the sights. But after all, 
even by frequent walks through its lengthy and 
elegant streets, and occasionally a run up the line 
by rail, it is difficult to form even a slight con- 
ception of Chili and the life and country beyond the 
Andes. 

Everything about the town — the houses, shops, 
and population — has quite a European aspect ; so 
that go where one would, through streets and 
squares, with their lofty edifices, gay hotels, and 
large and splendid stores, abounding in everything 
that can minister to human requirements and luxury 
(but, I might add, at a most exorbitant price), it 



344 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

required but little stretch of the imagination to fancy 
oneself in some European capital. 

Nothing here can be seen to tell of its early days, 
or to show it up as the native home of the Arau- 
canian Indian. All is changed ; and it is only when 
reaching the capital, and contemplating the fine 
panorama there presented, that the fact can really be 
realised of our close proximity to the Andes. 

Of public buildings there are several ; those oi the 
Exchange and Custom House and Palace of Justice 
being the most extensive and commodious. Banks, 
theatres, masonic halls, and other edifices, are 
scattered over its length and breadth. Tram-cars 
run from one end of the city to the other. It is in 
communication with Europe by submarine cable, and 
the numerous lines of mail-steamers, both via Panama 
and the Straits of Magellan, give great facilities 
to commerce, and increase its importance. Near 
at hand are numerous protective batteries, and on 
the heights are the artillery barracks, &c, from 
which point can be had a fine view over the city 
and its environs, hemmed in by the ocean. The 
roadstead resembles that of Bahia, and is about 
2| miles wide and 1J mile deep, entirely open 
to the north ; and when strong weather from 
that quarter sets in, there is usually a very heavy 
sea, that occasions much mischief amongst the 
shipping, which are usually moored head and stern 
in pretty regular order, with the double object that 



SWINGING SHIP. 345 

in case of a sudden " norther " they may not suffer 
from dragging their anchors, and be able to slip their 
cables and proceed to sea at once. 

During a stay of three weeks (19th November to 
11th December), refitting and completing with stores, 
a day was spent outside for swinging ship, with a 
view of ascertaining (as has been our usual course 
in every port) by observation the local variation of 
the needle. 




MOUNTAINS AND GLACIERS IN MAGELLAN STRAITS. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Valparaiso, through the Straits of Magellan. 



Leave Valparaiso — Sight Juan Fernandez— Sounding and dredging — 
Strong head winds — Fall in with the westerlies — Sight Cape 
Gallagos and Cape Tres Montes — Anchor in Port Otway — The 
Entrance Islands — Last day of 1875 — Leave Port Otway — Passing 
through the Messier Channel — Anchor in Hale Cove — The scenery 
— Foliage — Leave Hale Cove— Continuance of passage through 
the Messier Channel — Stop and trawl off Middle Island — The 
pretty scenery— Anchor in Gray Harbour— The excursions— Grass 
and trees on fire— The grand effect at night — Leave Gray Harbour 
— Messier Channel and Indian Eeach — The English Narrows — 
Mid-Channel Island — The fine scenery — Dredging off Saumaurez 
Island — Anchor in Port Grappler — The derelict Karnach — Weather 
during our stay — Leave Port Grappler — Pass through Wide Chan- 
nel — Dredging, &c. — Anchor in Tom Bay — The excursionists — 
Squally weather — Drag our anchors — Leave Tom Bay — Concep- 
tion Channel — Proposed survey in the Trinidad Channel frus- 
trated through the weather — Pass through Conception Channel 



LEAVE VALPARAISO. 347 

— Soundings, &c, in Innocent Channel — The fine scenery — 
Anchor in Puerto Bueno Bay — Pretty scenes — The weather — 
Leaving Puerto Bueno Bay — The scenery and weather in pass- 
ing through Sarmiento Channel — Sounding and dredging — 
The Zach Peninsula — Anchor in Isthmus Bay— Leave Isthmus 
Bay — Passing through Mayne Channel and Smyth's Channel— The 
fine scenery — Enter the Straits of Magellan — Cape Pillar in sight 
— Enter the picturesque Port of Churruca— The Glaciers — Leave 
Port Churruca — Pass through Crooked and English Reaches— Off 
Fortescue Bay — The Fuegians — Off Cape Fro ward — Anchor in Port 
Famine — The old Spanish settlement in 1581 — The Chilian settle- 
ment of 1843 — Leave Port Famine and arrive at Sandy Point — 
The Chilian settlement — Coal mines and gold workings — Leave 
Sandy Point and reach the anchorage off Elizabeth Island — Ex- 
ploring parties — Finding fossil bones — Leave Elizabeth Island — 
Passing through the Second and First Narrows — Off Gregory Bay 
— Pass the meridian of Cape Horn — Again in the Atlantic — 
Pass Cape Virgin — Sounding and Trawling. 



VALPARAISO TO PORT OTWAY. 

At length all was ready, and on the morning of 
11th December we took our departure, favoured 
with fine weather. On clearing the land, we made 
sail, and, with a promising breeze, there seemed good 
prospect that the 800 miles to the entrance to the 
straits would soon be accomplished, but we had 
reckoned without our host ; strong southerly winds 
prevailed, causing us to run far to the westward. 
On the 17th sighted Juan Fernandez, when we 
dredged in 1375 fathoms with satisfactory results. 
For another week we continued on our cruise, fre- 
quently sounding and dredging from an average 
depth of 1600 fathoms, by which time we had run as 
far west as 89° 25', when we fell in with the com- 
mencement of the westerlies, and were able to lay a 



348 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

course for our destination. On the morning of De- 
cember 31st, land was reported ; amidst the haze 
and fog, Cape Gallagos was observed, a bold pro- 
montory rising from the waters ; and somewhat 
later, on the mist clearing, Cape Tres Montes, a 
remarkable headland, was seen stretching before 
us to the height of 2000 feet. We stopped for 
a short time, and sounded and trawled in 1500 
fathoms with good results, then proceeded for some 
fifteen miles, and came to anchor in Port Otway, a 
pretty, snug place, with a sandy beach, and several 
small islets covered with trees (the Entrance Islands), 
amongst which is the Logan Rock, having a strong 
resemblance to the celebrated rock of that name on 
the coast of Cornwall. Here the last fleeting hours 
of 1875 were passed. We all sat up late, spending 
a jovial evening with the Captain and Professor, till 
the advent of the New Year, when, in conformity 
with an old custom (at the conclusion of the first 
watch, midnight), sixteen strokes of the bell were 
given — eight in honour of the departing year, and the 
same number in celebration of the birth of the new 
one. 

PORT OTWAY TO HALE COVE. 

Jan. 1st, 1876. — At an early hour this morning 
we steamed across the Gulf of Penas, and had several 
trawlings ; bottom at 50 fathoms. We entered Messier 
Channel in the course of the afternoon, and anchored 
about 6 p.m. in Hale Cove, surrounded by high, 



ANCHOR IN GRAY HARBOUR. 349 

steep hills, thickly covered with a scrubby vegetation. 
Immediately afterwards parties landed, and set out 
for a cruise in the vicinity of the anchorage. It was 
a perfectly still evening, and the scenery was exceed- 
ingly pretty. The wooded hills bathed in sunlight, 
and the placid surface of the water, which reflected 
the clear blue sky, the delicate clouds, and the trees 
growing at the margin, made a charming picture. 
The vegetation consisted principally of winter's bark, 
evergreen birch, with ferns and mosses in profusion. 

HALE COVE TO GRAY HARBOUR. 

Jan. 2nd. — A fine morning as we steamed from the 
anchorage ; we pursued our way through the Messier 
Channel, stopped off Middle Island, where we 
sounded in 340 fathoms, and afterwards proceeded. 
The perfectly calm surface of the water made it 
very charming. The mountains on either side rose 
high out of it, clothed with trees from the base to 
a height of upwards of 1000 feet, with here and 
there numerous cascades rushing down their sides, 
pouring their waters into the channel. It was 6.3Q 
p.m. when we anchored in Gray Harbour, a quiet, 
secluded spot. Here a second day was spent, and 
the weather continuing fine, it enhanced the beauty 
of the scenery, consisting of numerous small islands, 
and banks well-wooded even to the water's edge, 
while behind high mountains rose, capped with 
large quantities of snow. Excursions were made 



350 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGES. 

to a large lake-like expanse of water, with a river 
flowing into its upper end. A few fish were 
caught, and several birds (fine ducks, geese, &c.) 
were shot. 

Amongst the numerous picnic parties scattered 
over the shore, some " by accident " set the long 
grass on fire, which speedily communicated with the 
trees and foliage, and after a short time fires were 
raging with great fury, sweeping up the valleys and 
along the shore, continuing all the remainder of the 
day. As night advanced, it was a grand sight ; the 
roaring of the fire in the stillness of the night, 
and the bright glare illuminating the hill-tops and 
placid waters of the harbour, had a fine effect. 

GRAY HARBOUR TO PORT GRAPPLER. 

Jan. Ath. — The fire still burnt in various directions, 
and trees and shrubs continued to fall under its de- 
vouring effect as we left the anchorage, steaming 
onwards past Indian Reach. The morning was fioe, 
and a bright, clear calm allowed us to fully enjoy the 
splendid scenery on either side of the channel. We 
had now entered the English Narrows, where great 
care is necessary in navigating, for a strong cur- 
rent sweeps through, and a small islet (Mid-Channel 
Island), situate in the narrowest part, requires 
to be quickly rounded. After clearing these in- 
tricate passages, we came into broader water. The 
nearer hills rose perpendicularly out of the waters, 



THE DERELICT KABNAGK. 351 

clothed almost to their summits with trees, while 
others more distant were dark and gloomy, their 
high, jagged peaks covered with glaciers and many 
a winter's snow. 

As we proceeded farther southward, changes be- 
came noticeable in the appearance of the land, which 
on either side became of a much bolder and more 
elevated character. The sky had become cloudy and 
overcast, and the temperature of the air had fallen 
several degrees, while icy blasts came howling down 
deep gorges and crevasses, with occasional squalls of 
rain, giving us warning of what we had to expect 
on our further progress through these wild and in- 
hospitable regions. On arriving off Saumaurez Island, 
we stopped and dredged in 147 fathoms, obtaining 
a few starfish, some echini, corals, a couple of fish, 
and some stones. After this we stood across to the 
mainland, and entered the excellent and well-sheltered 
harbour of Port Grappler. On anchoring, a small 
steam-vessel was observed at the head of the harbour, 
which, when we boarded, was found to be a supposed 
total wreck. On the boat returning, it was accom- 
panied by a stranger, from whom the following 
particulars were elicited. 

The vessel was named the Karnack, belonging to 
a German company trading between Hamburg and 
Valparaiso, and had left the latter place about a 
month before. On her way through the straits (about 
ten miles to the north) she had struck on a sunken 



352 CBUISE OF E.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 

rock, and, although the water gained rapidly, they 
were enabled to reach this harbour, and get her into 
shallow water : they then cleared out all they could 
from her (for high-water came up to the main-deck), 
and encamped on the Middle Island. After a short 
time they were rescued by the French war-steamer 
La Cher, and taken to Sandy Point. On their way 
they fell in with a steam-vessel bound to Valparaiso, 
to which they gave information of the wreck. This 
caused the ship to call here ; and finding matters not 
so bad as represented, they took possession of the 
derelict, leaving four men behind them in charge, 
intending, on their reaching Loto or Valparaiso, to 
send assistance to save the cargo (which consisted of 
silver ore, hides, sugar, saltpetre, and nuts), and to 
get her afloat again — to do which there appeared to 
be but little difficulty. Those in possession would 
accept no assistance from us. 

Although it rained continuously during our stay, 
it did not deter our sportsmen landing to explore the 
surrounding land. After scrambling through thick 
shrubbery, a flat space of tolerably open ground was 
reached. Here a few ducks and geese were bagged. 
The whole country seemed drenched with moisture, 
which we afterwards found, on proceeding farther 
south, was the normal condition of all the land 
bordering this part of the straits and channel. 



ANCHOB IN TOM BAY. 353 

PORT GRAPPLER TO TOM BAY. 

Jan. 5th. — There being nothing further to detain 
us, it was decided to proceed on our way southwards 
through Wide Channel. 

The day at first gave promise of being very fair, 
and the view of the great masses of rock on either 
side, the dark frowning headlands, and snowy peaks 
beyond, was remarkably fine. We stopped for a short 
time in the channel and dredged, getting a collection 
of starfish, echini, corals, and sponges; then pro- 
ceeded on, and anchored in Tom Bay, quite near the 
entrance to Conception Channel, on the east coast of 
Madre Channel. 

A few geese and other birds were observed, and it 
was decided to remain the next day for exploration, 
and to survey the anchorage. Many parties landed, 
but, after a fatiguing scramble through bushes and 
over the boggy ground, very little was obtained. 
However, sufficient of the vegetation was seen to 
show that it was very similar to that met with at the 
other anchorages. Continued and heavy rain fell, 
and during the early hours of the morning violent 
gales of wind, in squalls, swept down the gorges on 
us, causing the anchor to drag. Steam was, how- 
ever, at command, and no danger resulted. Still, all 
day the furious squalls blew through the ravines 
from the mountains at short intervals until evening, 
when the wind moderated. 

2 A 



354 CRULSE OF JS.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

TOM BAY TO PUERTO BUENO BAT. 

Jan. 8th. — This morning*, as the weather had 
cleared, and appeared to be promising, we proceeded 
down Trinidad Channel, where it was proposed to 
remain a few days to complete a survey of some of 
the harbours on the south coast. However, we had 
hardly cleared our late berth when the weather be- 
came overcast ; rain and a settled haze set in, and 
we were prevented from carrying out our intended 
survey, which had to be abandoned, and our course 
altered ; afterwards, with a fair wind, we entered 
Conception Channel, and proceeded at a good pace. 
We stopped in Innocent Channel ; sounded and 
dredged in 142 fathoms (green mud), temperature 
at bottom 47° Fahr. ; passed some beautiful and 
wild scenes, great ravines opening into charming 
spots, which occasionally were enlivened by the 
sun peeping out in the calm intervals between the 
squalls. Our track now led us through Guia Nar- 
rows ; here we dredged in 50 fathoms, getting a good 
haul ; at 4.30 p.m. we anchored in Puerto Bueno Bay. 
Two days were spent here, and the weather being 
moderately fine, this pretty harbour, which well 
deserves its name, appeared to full advantage. 
Many charming little islands, covered with trees, 
are scattered over its waters. 

Close along the water's edge is a narrow strip of 
grass, and immediately behind is a mass of thick 



/ 

PUERTO BUENO BAY. 355 



vegetation and trees, consisting of winter's bark, 
evergreen birch, &c. ; while beyond, and as far as the 
eye can reach, are extensive bare hills, with occasional 
patches of stunted shrubs, and tracts of boggy ground 
covered with a thick, low vegetation. In the even- 
ing the weather was very squally, with thunder and 
lightning and heavy rain, and all were thankful we 
were lying in so comfortable a berth instead of 
being at sea. However, in the intervals many parties 
started for a run over the country with gun and rod, 
but the sport was not very encouraging. 

PUERTO BUENO BAY TO ISTHMUS BAY. 

Jan. lO^A. — Left the anchorage at an early hour ; 
the rain fell heavily, it was exceedingly cold, and 
the landscape presented a most wintry appearance ; 
the snowy hills ranging along on each side, and the 
bare rock looking most desolate and dreary in the 
surrounding haze, and this was midsummer. Steaming 
on through Sarmiento Channel, we dredged in 400 
fathoms (soft green mud) ; temperature 46*5° Fahr. ; 
we got several specimens of coral, sponges, and fish. 
On the conclusion of this operation, we proceeded, 
passing Esperanza, Vancouver's, and Owen's Islands, 
Staines Peninsula, Carrington Islands, and through 
the Farquhar Pass into Collingwood Straits ; passed 
Newton and Hunter Islands, and so through Victory 
Pass, a lovely spot studded with small islands ; 
reached the Zach Peninsula, and anchored on its 

2 a 2 



356 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

western side, in Isthmus Bay, finding it an excel ^nt 
and well-sheltered port. 

ISTHMUS BAY TO PORT CHURRUCA. 

Jan. 11th. — Weighing early this morning, we 
sighted the high mountain of King William IY. 
Land, and passed through Mayne Channel, which led 
us into Smyth's Channel. It rained heavily and fre- 
quently throughout the day, but in intervals of clear 
weather it was a fine sight to contemplate the mag- 
nificent scenery on the Patagonian and Fuegian shores, 
the mountains towering up steeply from the water's 
edge, with their summits in most instances covered 
with snow. Keeping along the Patagonian side, we 
passed some striking cliffs, with deep chasms and 
gorges, down which cascades ran from their snowy 
heights. We had now reached the east coast of 
Queen Adelaide's Land. On passing, a splendid view 
was had of rugged grey mountains and snowy peaks, 
with glaciers of many miles in length. At noon we 
stopped off Sholl Bay, the south point of Queen 
Adelaide's Archipelago ; here we trawled, obtaining 
several interesting specimens. We had now really 
entered the Straits of Magellan, and some few miles 
in the distance could be seen Cape Pillar, its western 
entrance. We steamed across, passing Beaufort 
Bay and Tamar Island, and at 2.45 p.m. we entered 
by a narrow passage a very remarkable port — Chur- 
ruca, surrounded on all sides by high and rugged hills, 



POUT CIIUHRUCA. 357 

eventually anchoring in a beautiful landlocked bay. 
On landing, the woods were found so thick and tangled 
that it was hardly possible to penetrate into them 
for any distance ; so the sportsmen had to be content 
at getting a stray shot from the beach, or scrambling 
over some steep banks close to where some cataracts 
came rushing down the mountain-sides, from which 
could be seen masses of ice extending a considerable 
distance, exhibiting deep longitudinal and transverse 
crevasses, the fine blue colouring of which formed 
a great contrast with the dazzling purity of an 
extensive snow-field. 

PORT CHURRUCA TO PORT FAMINE. 

Jan. 13th. — We spent a second day at Churruca 
for an inland excursion, which was much enjoyed 
by the naturalists, in search of sport and specimens. 
This morning, being anxious to get on, we again 
got under weigh. On clearing the harbour, we found 
a very strong breeze in our favour, and under steam 
and sail rapidly passed the land, which was covered 
with thick haze. As the day advanced, it cleared, 
and massive glaciers could be seen extending almost 
to the water's edge. Proceeding, we passed the 
Cordova Peninsula, and through Crooked and 
English Reaches; the coast appeared to be high, 
rugged, and seemingly continuous, but on nearing it 
was seen to be made up of numbers of small islands, 
the sea intersecting the land in every direction, 



358 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

and opening into large gulfs and sounds. By noon 
we were off Fortescue Bay, where it was decided 
to remain for a short time for dredging. On the 
somewhat cleared spaces could be seen the fires of 
the Fuegians, and well can I remember when last 
here seeing the canoes alongside, with the natives 
screaming and gesticulating for "tabac." Some of 
them had small seal-skins over their shoulders, but 
the greater number, both of men and women, were 
entirely naked ; and considering the severity of the 
weather, it seems strange how they exist. Yet with 
all this there is no reason to balieve that these people 
are decreasing in numbers ; therefore we must sup- 
pose that they enjoy a sufficient share of happiness, 
of whatever kind it may be, to make life worth 
having. Nature, by making habit omnipotent, and 
its effects hereditary, has fitted the Fuegian to the 
climate and the production of his miserable country. 
Proceeding on our way, at 4 p.m. we were off 
Cape Froward (the most southern point of South 
America), Here we encountered some fierce squalls 
(williwaws) of wind rushing down the gorges and 
channels. We shortened all sail and steamed on the 
remainder of the way, until reaching Port Famine, 
where we stopped for the night. It was here the 
first penal settlement was established by the Chilian 
government in the straits, in 1843. This place 
expresses by its name the lingering and extreme 
suffering of several hundreds of Spaniards, who had 



THE CIIILTAN SETTLEMENT OF 1843. 350 

landed here with a view of establishing a settle 
merit, under the direction of Sarmiento (in 1581), 
their object being to fortify two positions (one here, 
the other at Cape Possession), in order to prevent 
the English from passing through. After a short 
time Sarmiento left for Spain, and on his way there 
he was taken prisoner by Sir Walter Ealeigh, and 
brought to England, while the unfortunate colonists 
were left to starve in the straits. Their fate re- 
mained unknown, until Cavendish passed through in 
1587, when he found only twenty -four out of the 
original four hundred colonists. The port was then 
named Port Famine, in commemoration of the sad 
fate of its first settlers. 

The excellent anchorage and sheltered position 
were the chief reasons for its being selected by the 
Chilians for establishing their first colony ; bur the 
same ill-lack appears to have attended it ; for after 
struggling on for some years, during which time the 
colonists were frequently reduced to great distress by 
the failure of supplies arriving from Chili, it was 
sacked and burnt down by the convicts, who 
mutinied and killed all the officials, making good 
their escape in a small vessel. Eventually, how- 
everT'they were captured, and met with their de- 
served punishment. 

Our stay was very short here. Still numbers 
landed as usual in search of sport and specimens ; 
but as so much rain had fallen, the country in all 



360 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CRALLENGEB. 

directions was like a great bog. Had several hauls 
with the trawl in the harbour, getting plentiful 
supplies of large prawns, starfish, coral, and sea- 
weed. 

PORT FAMINE TO SANDY POINT. 

Jan. 14iA. — A charming morning. We left the 
port, and steaming over a calm sea, and passing the 
land rapidly, it was near 9 a.m. when the anchor 
was dropped in the roadstead off Punta Arenas, the 
site of a small settlement established by the Chilian 
government. This colony, the only one in the 
straits, has a governor and other officials, and some 
hundred colonists. 

I took the opportunity of landing, and had a stroll 
round the settlement, which consists of a number 
of wooden buildings so grouped as to form one long 
straggling street, running nearly parallel with the 
beach. From this it is intended that other streets 
shall branch off, but they are at present only indi- 
cated by scattered buildings half a mile apart. A 
large square, or Plaza, is provided for, on one side of 
which is the hospital, and on the other the residence 
of the British Consul (Mr. Hamilton). At the ex- 
treme end of the main street is the residence of the 
governor, and beyond is a large inclosure containing 
the barracks, the prison, and the guard-house. 

A small river is at hand, and forests where abun- 
dant supplies of timber are to be obtained ; here 
also are considerable tracts of open country for cattle- 



COAL MINES AND GOLD WOIIKINGS. 361 

grazing. Before leaving, I took the opportunity of 
visiting the coal deposit which has recently been 
discovered, and for the working of which a company 
has been formed. 

The mine is situated some six miles inland, and 
is easily reached by a line of railway, over which 
a locomotive and trucks run frequently during the 
day., After leaving the cleared space of the settle- 
ment the road lies through a dense forest (just cleared 
sufficient for traffic), until reaching the bed of a 
stream which debouches at Sandy Point. After cross- 
ing this stream by a light bridge, a ravine is reached, 
and in the side of a mountain rising some 300 feet 
above the level of the sea the shafts or burrows have 
been driven, perhaps in some places to a depth of 
50 or 60 feet ; the seams vary from 4 to 5 feet in 
thickness, and are deposited between layers of clay 
and shell, with bands of shale in immediate contact. 
From what could be seen of them, the specimens pre- 
sented the appearance of the bituminous fuel known 
as caking coal. The " out-put " as yet has not been 
very great, but from the results of some thirty tons 
tried by us, very fair reports have been made, 
especially when mixed with Welsh. ■ 

G-old is also found here. For its working a com- 
pany has been started. The results, however, have 
been small, yet I believe sufficient to give encourage- 
ment to go on with it. 

As population and colonisation increase, the in- 



362 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

terior of the country will get opened up, and 
further discoveries be made, and the accommodation 
afforded by the Pacific mail steamers calling will, 
ere long, doubtlessly have a beneficial effect on the 
prosperity of Punta Arenas. 

SANDY POINT TO ELIZABETH ISLAND AND CAPE 
VIRGIN. 

Jan. 18th. — For four days we remained in the 
roadstead off the settlement, enjoying the favour- 
able weather. This morning proceeded on a course, 
passing thickly wooded hills/ until clear of Cape 
Negro. The coast consisted of low, undulating 
plains. The weather being bright and pleasant, a 
capital view was afforded us of the snow-clad peak 
of Mount Sarmiento, on the southern part of Tierra 
del Fuego. 

Three hours' run, and anchor was let go off the 
Island of San Isabel, or Elizabeth Island. From oui 
position it appeared to consist of a range of heights 
extending in ridges for some eight miles, covered 
mostly with a thick wiry grass. Exploring parties 
were soon away, and, besides getting lots of sport with 
the gun, they were rewarded by discovering numerous 
remains of dry bones. This caused our remaining 
a day longer, when reinforcements landed with pick 
and shovel, and before leaving at night a large heap 
of dry and fossilised bones was collected, and may 
possibly by and by suggest the existence of some 



AGAIN IN THE ATLANTIC. 3C3 



strange and unknown creatures, which ages ago roamed 
over hill and dale in these remote regions. On the 
morning of the 20th got under weigh with the flood 
tide, which, with the strong breeze in our favour, took 
us rapidly through the Narrows, the scenery on either 
Bide showing but little variety until sighting the 
high land near Gregory Bay, which has a very 
picturesque effect, rising near the shore and running 
on for some distance in an easterly direction. 

On the Fuegian side, as far as Cape de Espirito 
Santo, the land was low and uninteresting near the 
coast, but amidst the haze in the distance high, 
bleak, and rugged mountains were observed. 

We had now passed the meridian of Cape Horn,, 
and were again in the Atlantic, and notwithstanding 
the squally and uncertain weather during the past 
three weeks, we had been enabled to make a great 
variety of most interesting daily observations in our 
passage through the straits and channels, and to 
obtain many valuable results for the benefit of science. 
A few hours later, and we w r ere clear of the straits, 
passing Cape Virgin, a long, low, dark cliff sloping 
down at one end into the sea. 



CArE FU0WAPD, STRAITS OF MAGELLAN. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Cape Virgin to Falkland Islands and Monte Video. 

Our first haul in the Atlantic — The Jason Islands — Eddy stone Rock— 
Cape Pembroke — Falkland Islands in sight — Enter Port William 
— Anchor off Stanley — The settlement — Climate — Death of an 
able seaman by drowning — Leave for Port Louis — Anchor in 
Berkley Bay — Funeral of our late shipmate — Beturn to Stanley — 
The Stream of Stones— Leaving the Falklands — Stormy weather 
—Sounding and trawling— Sight the land off Lobos Island— Pass 
Maldonado Point — Steaming up the Rio de la Plata — Anchor off 
Monte Video — The city and suburbs. 

CAPE VIRGIN TO FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

Having a strong and favourable breeze, good progress 
-was made, and before nightfall the coast-line was 



ANCHOB OFF STANLEY. 365 

out of sight. Again we were sounding and trawling, 
and the first haul in the Atlantic, from a depth of 
55 fathoms, was very satisfactory. The weather 
was bright and clear, with a heavy swell from the 
southward. 

Jan. 22nd. — This morning, amidst fog and haze, the 
Jason Islands were reported, a group lying on the 
north-east side of the West Falklands ; and later the • 
remarkable Eddystone Kock (about 250 feet high), 
situated off Cape Dolphin, on the north coast of East 
Falkland, was to be seen. Here we sounded in 110 
fathoms, and trawled, but without success. Con- 
tinuing our course, the next morning the lighthouse 
on Cape Pembroke was seen, A few hours later we 
entered Port William, and soon after passed through 
the narrows, and had our first sight of the town of 
Stanley, anchoring within a short distance of the 
shore. The weather was fine, which caused Stanley 
to have a pretty appearance from the anchorage, with 
its white cottages and light frame-houses scattered 
somewhat irregularly on the slope of a hill, brighten- 
ing up the otherwise desolate and sterile appearance 
of the settlement, where not even a single tree exists 
or a strip of wood grows of sufficient size for the 
most ordinary purposes. Attempts have been made 
from time to time to propagate trees, &c, but in all 
cases they have been attended with entire failure. 
On landing at the town pier, the first thing to notice 
is a small obelisk, erected in commemoration of the 



S66 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

visit of Prince Alfred, in 1868, when in command of 
H.M.S. Galatea. From here a street so called leads to 
the top of the hill, and branching away is Ross Road, 
which runs along for some two miles, facing the 
harbour, and in front of all the houses ; at its western 
extremity is Government House, a plain stone build- 
ing within a fence. At the other extreme is the 
cemetery. This appears to be the only level walk in 
the colony. The hills are but very rarely available 
for a walk, consisting, for the most part, of little 
else than rock and boggy ground. I cannot call to 
mind any other settlement (except, perhaps, Tristan 
d'Acunha) more dismal, miserable, and devoid of all 
interest, than this at the Falkland Islands. It has 
formed a portion of our British colonial possessions 
since 1833, when a Lieutenant-Governor was first 
appointed, the seat of government at that time being 
at Port Louis, but in 1842 it was changed to its 
present site — Stanley. The position these islands 
occupy in a commercial point of view is of great 
importance, being placed in the great highway from 
Australia, and to and from the west coast of America ; 
they are certainly dangerous to approach, yet abound 
in safe harbours, with facilities for repairs and for 
obtaining refreshments ; beef and mutton being both 
excellent and very cheap. Of late but very few 
vessels have called. 

The climate is considered remarkably healthy. 
The winters are about as severe as those usually felt 



DEATH OF AN ABLE SEAMAN. 3G7 

in the north of Scotland ; the summer months are 
not so genial, and usually very boisterous. We 
experienced a little of its inclemency ; having to visit- 
Port Louis, some fifty miles distant, to make magnetic 
and tidal observations, we found the weather exceed- 
ingly stormy, and even while at anchor in Berkley 
Sound it was most unpleasant. While here, we buried 
one of our shipmates, Thomas Bush, A.B., who fell 
overboard from the steam-pinnace, before leaving 
Stanley, one dark, rough night; his remains are 
buried in a little inclosure, on an exposed swampy 
moorland — not alone, for two or three head-boards 
indicate that other wanderers have found rest here. 
On the completion of our scientific observations, we 
returned to Stanley, which, in the dismal weather, 
we all concurred in regarding as one of the most 
wretched settlements we had seen for a long time — 
all the houses, this cold and rainy afternoon, appear- 
ing most dreary 

The next day it was a little brighter ; but there is 
little of interest here, except, perhaps, to the geologist, 
whose attention is sure to be attracted by the extra- 
ordinary stream of stones, which is so difficult to 
account for. They are formed of great numbers of 
fragments of quartz, which are spread out in rows, 
from half a mile to one mile in width, and two or 
three in length, extending along valleys and to the 
tops of some of the highest hills, from which they 
appear to have descended. 



368 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

We had now been here some fourteen days, and 
during that time had imparted a little gaiety to the 
colonists, with dances and dinner parties. 



FALKLAND ISLANDS TO MONTE VIDEO. 

Feb. 6th. — Rain, or wind, or both combined, seem 
to constitute the normal state of things in these bleak 
and desolate islands ; although during our stay we 
had two or three fine days, yet all were glad when it 
was decided to proceed on our way north, the weather 
promising to be very squally, and soon after clearing 
Cape Pembroke there was every indication of a rough 
passage before us. Three reefs were taken in top- 
sails, and all made snug for the night, during which 
but little progress was made. The next day for a 
time we had clear blue sky ; still there was a rough 
and heavy sea. Pictures from a sailor's note-book 
in these wild and stormy latitudes rarely contain any 
sketches of blue sky or smooth water, but are more 
frequently descriptive (as we now found it) of 
fierce and stormy waves and howling winds ; how- 
ever, the wind being from the south-west, it was in 
our favour, and each day brought us nearer our 
destination. On four occasions we stopped for sound- 
ings and trawlings, getting depths of from 1035 to 
2425 fathoms. On the 11th, quite unexpectedly, at 
a depth of 2040 fathoms, we came across a cold 
current, temperature 33*8° Fahr., and the next day the 



ANCHOR OFF MONTE VIDEO. 3G9 

temperature was 32|°, surface being 76°. The results 
from our dredgings to the natural history collection, 
however, were but scanty. 

As we neared the coast of South America, the 
weather was much finer, and on the 14th we dredged 
in 600 fathoms, from a rock bottom, and got numerous 
specimens, but nothing new. 

Feb, 15th. — This morning, in the haze, we had 
a glimpse of the low land lying to the south of 
Maldonado Point. We now entered the River La 
Plata, or Plate, as it is commonly termed by sailors. 
Steaming on over a calm sea for some eighty miles, 
at 4.30 P.M. the fine panorama of Monte Video and 
its suburbs, with the harbour full of shipping, was in 
view, and here we anchored, some two miles off the 
shore. From what could be seen of the city, it 
seems a charming place, full of bright-looking, hand- 
some edifices, built on the side of a hill. Here were 
H.M. gun- vessels Cracker and Ready, and represen- 
tative men-of-war steam -vessels, flying the national 
colours of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Brazil, and 
Uruguay, with great numbers of merchant-vessels of 
different nations. 

The Piver La Plata owes its name to the Spaniards, 
who transferred the produce of the silver mines of 
Chili and Peru, on its waters, to the ocean, and thence 
to Europe. The gold and silver was brought from 
those provinces across the Andes, to Buenos Ayres, 
from whence it was shipped ; but the extension of 

2 B 



370 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

discovery no sooner opened the passage round Cape 
Horn than this river lost its original importance. 
In point of magnitude it is the third river of the New 
World. At its mouth it is 100 miles wide, and off 
Monte Video it is 50. The banks for some hundreds 
of miles are the terminations of vast plains, on which 
there is little visible to cheer or enliven the scene, 
and nothing to break the solitude, save extensive and 
numerous herds of cattle. 

Twelve hours' run up by steamer and Buenos 
Ayres is reached, a fine large city, where many things 
of interest are to be seen. The city of Monte Video 
stands on a strip of land, which forms the eastern 
side of a small bay, on the north bank of the river, 
but with our draught was not approachable within 
two miles from the shallowness of the water ; what 
could be seen of the city from that distance was 
somewhat pleasing ; the towers and domes of the 
cathedral, churches, and public buildings, probably 
appeared all the more charming and picturesque 
coming as we did from such a miserable place 
as the Falklands. On landing, I found the city 
laid out in the regular Spanish style, so prevalent 
in South America, that is, in rectangular blocks. 
The streets are wide and clean, intersecting each 
other at right angles. There is a large proportion of 
good dwelling-houses and shops, abounding in every 
necessary and luxury. The Cathedral Square, with 
its charming gardens and pleasant walks, where the 



THE CITY AND SUBURBS. 871 

military bands play every evening, forms the prin- 
cipal promenade, and makes it a cheerful and agree- 
able resort of the wealthy residents. From here the 
road leads to a long straight street, with lofty build- 
ings and extensive shops abounding in every require- 
ment; trees are planted on each side, and at the 
extreme end is a tall column, bearing on its sum- 
mit a bronze statue of Liberty. The inhabitants 
swarm in the thoroughfares, where are incessant 
throngs of vendors, purchasers, and idlers, inter- 
mingled with every variety of conveyance ; while 
the ear is stunned by the shrill conflicting cry of 
the ambulatory dealer of every conceivable com- 
modity. Pleasure-gardens are close at hand, besides 
theatres, operas, circus, and other places of amuse- 
ment suited to the seasons. Bull-fights were being 
carried on, and many from the ship visited the ex- 
citing but cruel pastime. 



2 b 2 




THE CITY OP MONTE VIDEO, LOOKING TOWARDS THE HARBOUR. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Monte Video to Ascension and the Cape de Verde Islands. 

Leave Monte Video— Swinging ship — Sounding and dredging in the 
Eiver La Plata — A Pampara off the coast — Enter the cold current 
— Its course— Completion of the voyage round the world— What 
has been accomplished — Course shaped for Ascension — South-east 
trades — Arrive at Ascension — The garrison — George Town — 
Scenery — The Green Mountain — Ascension turtle — Leave Ascen- 
sion — Sounding — Cross the Equator for the sixth time— The 
oppressive region of equatorial calms — Steaming through the 
Tropics — Sight the Cape de Verde Islands — Arrive at Santiago- 
Anchor off Porto Praya — Leave for St. Vincent— Anchor in Porto 
Grande— Strong trade-winds. 



Feb. 25th. — We had now been ten days at Monte 
Video, during the greater part of which the weather 
had been exceedingly unpleasant ; strong northerly 



ENTER THE COLD CUBBENT. 373 

winds and heavy seas made it both disagreeable and 
difficult to land, lying, as we did, fully two miles 
from the shore. It happened however to be a fine 
day on leaving, and a few hours were devoted to 
swinging ship for magnetic corrections and de- 
viations. We then proceeded, under steam, out 
of the River La Plata. When off Maldonado Bay, 
we sounded and dredged in 13 fathoms, getting a 
good haul of fish, shrimps, holothuria, and dead 
shell. 

On clearing the land, the barometer gave indica- 
tions of a coming change in the weather, and, ere 
long, the wind freshened, and rain fell in torrents. 
It soon became evident we were in for one of the 
Pamparas, for which the Plata and its vicinity have 
been long celebrated, and which owe their name 
to the circumstance of their blowing from off the 
Pampas or plains. 

All due preparations were made by shortening 
sail, and as the wind increased, it found us well pre- 
pared. Fortunately it did not last long, and the next 
day (Feb. 28) we were able to recommence sounding. 
Found bottom at 1900 fathoms; temperature 32*7° 
Fahr. ; showing that we had again fallen in with the 
cold Antarctic current. Daring the following nine 
days, daily soundings were obtained from an average 
depth of 2700 fathoms, showing the same tempera- 
ture results (for 400 fathoms from the bottom it was 
below 32° Fahr.). On the 9th March the depth was 



374 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

found to be 1715 fathoms, temperature having risen 
to 34°, showing the limit of the cold current in an 
easterly direction ; this was about 900 miles from the 
first sounding. The current now appeared to turn 
north, and after crossing the Equator in the vicinity 
of St. Paul's Rocks, to take a course again to the east- 
ward, and so strike down the western coast of 
Africa; for on the 27th Oct. 1873, when 130 miles 
from the Cape of Good Hope, a cold under-current 
(temperature 32*9°) was found at a depth of 2325 
fathoms, which, in all probability, was a branch of 
this now met with. On March the 10th the depth 
was found to have increased to 2200 fathoms ; 
temperature 34°. We trawled and obtained serial 
temperatures during the two following days. The 
weather continued very miserable — heavy rain and 
calms ; so the progress towards Tristan d'Acunha was 
very slow. 

The 13th March possessed an interest of its own 
for those on board, as on that day we crossed the 
course which had been followed some two years and a 
half before in the passage from Bahia to the Cape 
of Good Hope. Thus the actual circumnavigation of 
the world had been successfully completed, and at 
least the greater portion of the cruise happily 
achieved. Since leaving this position, latitude 35° 41 
south, longitude 20° 55' west, the vessel had sailed over 
about 44,000 miles. Some two hundred soundings, 
and nearly as many successful dredgings, had been 



COURSE SHAPED FOR ASCENSION. 375 

taken in all the great oceans and channels of import- 
ance in our track, in depths averaging from 1000 to 
4000 fathoms. The soundings and temperatures 
have supplied the material information, by which 
oceanic sections have been constructed, showing for- 
mation of the bottom, the depth, variation in the 
temperatures, the currents, and specific gravity, &c., 
in all the great seas sailed over. 

This, together with the abundance of material 
collected in the department of natural history and 
other scientific branches, will make this voyage 
one of the most important that has ever taken 
place. 

On March 14th, in latitude 35° 45' south, we 
trawled in 1400 fathoms, and obtained a few speci- 
mens at its conclusion, being about 300 miles from 
Tristan d'Acunha. Course was altered, and we stood 
north for Ascension Island, distant 1700 miles. 
Having a favourable breeze, we daily made good pro- 
gress. On March 18th we sounded in 1890 fathoms, 
temperature 36*8°, and reached the south-east trades, 
which blew with unbroken regularity ; not even for- 
saking us as we occasionally stopped to sound and 
trawl. However, as we ran farther north, the breeze 
got lighter, and each day saw the barometer rising, 
and clear, bright weather greeted us as we entered 
and passed through the tropical regions. We sounded 
every 200 miles on the course, the depths varying 
from 2900 to 1400 fathoms. 



376 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

On March 27th the solitary island of Ascension 
was in sight, rising alone in the midst of the 
vast Atlantic. When about eight miles distant, 
we sounded and dredged in 425 fathoms, getting 
a good supply of mud, echini, coral, &c. A heavy 
squall of rain set in, which detained us for a short 
time ; after which we proceeded towards the land, 
and later in the day came to anchor off the south 
or lee side of the island. The island as seen from 
the ship has a barren aspect, although warmed by 
the light colour of the sand. It was taken possession 
of by the British in 1815, and is about nine miles 
in length from east to west, and five or six miles 
from north to south. 

The surface of the land consists of ridges of naked 
rock, hills of clinkers and cinders, and plains of 
ashes, dust, and lava. Just abreast of the anchorage 
is a somewhat level, cleared space, where are situated 
the buildings used as stores and workshops, a small 
fort, a pretty little church, and the hospitals. Bar- 
racks and scattered residences of the naval officials 
complete the group. The garrison is at present 
under the command of Captain J. W. East, R.N. ; 
man-of-war routine and discipline are carried out in 
every department as if on board ship ; the island 
is under the direction of the Admiralty, and used 
as a depot for stores for vessels employed on this 
part of the West African Station. The hills of 
Ascension are very numerous. The most elevated 



THE GREEN MOUNTAIN. 377 

rejoices in the name of the Green Mountain, from 
the light hue of the verdure at its summit, where 
there are excellent gardens producing many varieties 
of vegetables and fruits. It is situated nearly in the 
centre of the island, and is about 2800 feet high, 
rising amidst waste and desolation ; for around is 
to be found neither verdure, shade, nor shelter, but 
one entire field of lava. Over this rough material 
a road has been made for the six miles leading 
to the summit. The lofty ridge of this mountain 
arrests the watery vapours that would pass it, and 
supplies the settlement with water. Numerous tanks 
on its side are so situated as to secure every drop of 
that most essential element. Occasionally the resi- 
dents run very short, when the distilling appa- 
ratus has to be brought into requisition. When 
about 2250 feet up, the Mountain House is reached, 
where refreshments are to be obtained ; and quite 
near at hand are the Convalescent Hospital and 
numerous cottage residences, from which capital 
views of the island are to be obtained. In various 
directions are seen craters of extinct volcanoes, vary- 
ing from 100 to 300 and 400 feet in height. One 
of these, more terrific and rugged than the rest in 
appearance, is named the Devil's Riding Ground ; 
it is an elevated mound about half a mile in cir- 
cumference, with a road winding round it reaching 
to the top, closed in at the sides by a ridge of lava ; 
and quite near at hand is " Wide-awake Fair," a 



378 CRUISE OF E.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

rough stony plateau, where thousands of sea-birds 
land for breeding during the season. 

On the whole, the climate of Ascension may be 
regarded as very healthy, as it is situated in the 
direct track of the south-east trade-wind, having a 
particularly dry soil — nothing like swamp or marsh; 
and from the absence of all vegetation there is 
nothing to taint the air or to produce impurity. 

Fever has occasionally been imported here from 
the pestiferous coast of Africa, but even that now 
appears to be a thing of the past. The coast being 
comparatively healthy, and the vessels not being kept 
so long on the station, we rarely hear of those dread- 
ful epidemics which formerly made such havoc. 

Ascension is famed for its excellent turtle, at one 
time considered the support of the island, the flesh 
being termed island beef. Large ponds are con- 
structed for keeping the fish. 

During the season, from December to June, men 
are employed along the sandy beach watching for the 
full-grown females to land for the purpose of laying 
their eggs. They crawl up the sandy beaches, and 
make a large hole by scooping the sand up with their 
flippers ; having deposited their eggs in it, and care- 
fully filled in the hole again, they prepare for their 
retreat to the water, but are intercepted by the 
watchers, who speedily turn them on their backs. At 
daylight they are taken to the inclosed ponds. Some 
of those captured weigh as much as seven cwt. They 






LEAVE ASCENSION. 379 

lav from seventy to eighty eggs at a time, and repeat 
this operation two or three times in a season. The 
eggs are an inch and a half in diameter, and covered 
with a soft semi-calcareous shell. 

A week was spent very pleasantly at Ascension, 
Captain East, R.N., and the officers of the island 
under his command doing their utmost to make our 
stay amongst them agreeable. However, after com- 
pleting with stores, there was nothing further to 
detain us ; so on the morning of April 3rd we pro- 
ceeded on our voyage, and, when in the offing, 
remained a few hours, swinging ship, both for azi- 
muth and magnetic corrections. On its conclusion a 
course was shaped north for the Cape de Yerde 
Islands, distant some 1800 miles. 

Sounding and trawling were frequent on our course 
over an average depth of 2000 fathoms; crossing 
the Equator on the 7th April, for the sixth time. 
Previous to this, in latitude 4° 10' south, we lost the 
south-east trade-wind, and for more than a week 
afterwards we were steaming through a tedious and 
depressing region of calms and squalls of rain off the 
African coast. Its effect on the health and spirits of 
us all was most enervating; the oppressive and damp 
heat made it one of the most unpleasant parts of the 
cruise ; calms and head-winds accompanied us each 
day. At length the island of Santiago was in sight, 
and early on the morning of the 16th April we 
anchored off the town of Praya. From what could 



380 CRUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

be seen from the vessel, it is altered but little in 
appearance since last we were here (August 1873). 
After obtaining a few fresh supplies, we left the 
same evening for St. Yincent, which was sighted the 
next morning, and later in the day anchored off Porto 
Grande. Here a week was spent, completing stores 
and filling up with coal. A busy shipping-trade 
appears to be carried on ; for numbers of mail 
steamers and traders make this a port of call for 
filling with coal, before shaping course to distant 
lands. The harbour is safe and convenient, but 
the scattered houses comprising the town, backed up 
with high volcanic rock, are dismal and uninteresting. 



ANCHOR IN VIGO BAY. 381 



CHAPTER XX. 

Homeward Bound. 

Leave St. Vincent— Head-winds and disagreeable weather— Sight the 
coast of Spain — Anchor in Vigo Bay— The city— Channel fleet — 
Leave for England— Off Cape Finisterre— Favourable run across 
the Bay of Biscay — The English Channel— The coast of England 
— Anchor at Spithead (Portsmouth) — Arrive at Sheerness — Retro- 
spect — Pay off at Chatham— Parting— At home — The end. 

On the 26th April we left under sail, homeward 
bound. When well clear from the land, we picked 
up the trades, and ran on merrily through the 
Tropics towards the Azores, full of the hope of 
speedily seeing the coast of England. But we were 
too sanguine ; for after meeting with strong and 
adverse winds, our coal was soon consumed, and we 
were compelled eventually to run into Vigo for a 
fresh supply. The coast of Spain was sighted on the 
morning of the 20th May, and soon after we had ex- 
changed the rolling, turbulent sea for the quiet and 
placid waters of the Bay of Vigo, which sweeps inland 
for more than 20 miles. We anchored off the prettily 
situated town, which is built on the side of a hill 
overlooking the broad expanse of water, where at 
the time of our visit some half-dozen ironclads be- 
longing to the Channel squadron were at anchor, 



382 CBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

forming the centre of a scene Oriental in its wealth 
of palms, orange groves, flowers, and orchards. 
Just time enough was allowed for a scamper on shore, 
through the narrow, steep, and winding streets of 
the town, and only a glimpse could be had of its old 
walls and gates, its churches and. quaint-looking 
houses, of all shapes, sizes, and colours, in white, red, 
or green, according to the taste of the owners. All 
this, with a charming bright and sunny sky, and 
the pretty and picturesque dress of the peasants, 
made up a picture delightful to the artist as well as 
the ordinary observer. 

By midnight sufficient coal had been taken in, and 
early the next day we were again at sea. The weather 
was still squally and unpleasant, yet we managed to 
get round Cape Finisterre ; and now, with the wind 
somewhat fairer, a capital run was made across the 
dreaded Bay of Biscay. The evening of the 23 rd, 
the bright light on Cape Ushant was seen ; and the 
next morning, amidst haze and fog, we had our first 
sight of the English coast, as we passed up Channel, 
amidst a very maze of shipping outward and home- 
ward bound. 

Onward we go, sighting the old familiar head- 
lands and landmarks — the Eddystone, the Start, the 
white cliffs at Portland and St. Alban's Head — until 
at last the Needles are in sight. After a few hours' 
steaming through the Solent, we reach Spithead 
(Portsmouth) ; and late on the evening of the 24th 



ABBIVE AT SHEEBNESS. 383 

May we anchor in English waters, after an absence 
of three years and a half. 

A few days more, and we are at Sheerness and 
Chatham, amidst all the bustle and excitement at- 
tendant on returning stores and paying off. 

Thus the cruise has been successfully accomplished, 
and the intentions of the expedition happily achieved. 
That it will exalt our national reputation to a very 
considerable extent, in one of the most popular 
branches of the service, cannot for a moment be 
doubted.* The completion of surveys ; the success 
of soundings ; configuration of the depths of the 
great ocean, with its nature and temperatures, and 
the composition of its bottom, have all been inves- 
tigated and carried out by the hydrographic staff; 
and Professor Thomson and his talented assistants 
may well be complimented on their labours, which 
have contributed such an abundance of material to 
the various departments of natural history and the 
other scientific branches under their direction. 

By-and-by, when all these subjects shall have been 
investigated, and opinions formed from the nu- 
merous and valuable collections sent home from time 
to time, then — and only then — will a true idea be 
obtained of the activity and research of each member 
of the expedition during the course of the voyage. 

* The Geographical Congress held at Paris, August 1875, awarded 
to the members of the Challenger Expedition a first class medal as a 
token of admiration for the work done by them in the cause of science. 



384 GBUISE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

Doubtless we shall be told of wondrous facts 
which will read like fairy tales; for previously no 
sounding-line had ever traversed the great oceans, 
or mapped out their figure. We now know that 
there are laws which govern the geographical dis- 
tribution of marine plants and animals, as well 
as those we are familiar with on the earth's sur- 
face : of the myriads of curious creatures, orga- 
nised with delicacy and beauty, existing in these 
previously unsounded depths; creatures with num- 
berless eyes, and others without any ; starfish, grow- 
ing on long and slender stalks ; of beautiful phos- 
phorescent avenues of vegetation ; fish of all hues, 
blue and gold, striped and banded, in all colours and 
sizes, from the tiniest infusoria to the huge whale. 

It is impossible at present to foresee or estimate 
the vast amount of information that will result from 
this the greatest scientific expedition that ever sailed 
from any shore. 

The last day has come (June 12th), when all these 
close associations will be severed ; and each one of the 
Challenger s crew goes his own way, to seek relaxation 
and pleasure amongst home scenes and friends near 
and dear to him. 

A last shake of the hand, with " Good luck and 
good-bye !" and so now, to you, my reader, I say 
farewell. 



APPENDIX. 






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APPENDIX. 



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388 



CBUISE OF H.M.S. CEALLENGEB. 






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CATALOGUE 



BELFORD BROS' PUBLICATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS* 



PUBLISHED BY 



BELFORD BROTHERS, 

1 1 Colborne Street, Toronto. 



A.NCKETILL, (W. R.)— The Adventures of Mick Callighin, 

M.P., by W. R. Ancketill — Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, 75c, Paper, 50c. 

11 It is difficult to characterize this little work. It is apparently a pseudo- biography 
of a young Irishman whose tendencies are healthy and not at all as rollicking as those 
of his teachers. Father McQuade is a glorious old character of the true Irish type — 
such a man as is dear to every one, whatever his nationality is. The mixture of piety, 
pipes, 'bacco, and Bacchus generally is very ' taking ' The humour running through 
every page and line of the book has a smack of freshness and relish which it is hard to 
get in these days from many books of so-called professional humorists. In ' Mick 
Callighin ' we have the real virgin humour of the soil. Would there were more 
of it ! " — Detroit Free Press. 

" The author is apparently a Milesian ' to the manner born,' his rendition of the 
brogue being superior to that generally met with in books of this class. * * The 
humour is so rich and the descriptive power of the author so forcible, that the reader 
will not be likely to lay the work down until he has finished it." — Toronto Mail. 

BILLINGS (Josh)— Billings' ^Immaxsfor 1816-17. Illus- 
trated. Demy 8vo. ; Paper Covers, 1 5c. 

" As usual, the ' Alminax ' is brimful of fun, and contains many excellent sayings. '» 
— St. Mary's Argus. 

" The ' Alminax ' is full of good humour and philosophy." — Collingwood Bulletin. 

"Josh jocosely jostles jests and wisdom together, and spells as industriously ba 
as is his wont." — Guelph Herald. 

BLACK, (Wm.)— Madcap Violet, by Wm. Black, author of the 
" A Princess of Thule," " Three Feathers," &c. Crown 8vo. \ Cloth, 
$1.25, Paper Covers, 75c. 

" Madcap Violet has already been variously appreciated, especially as regards the 
character of the heroine. * * ' Madcap Violet' is eminently readable throughout. Vio- 
let is a delightful person, even when she pretends to be dead, and her character, 
whether inconsistent or not, is at least interesting as a study." — London, Eng. y PaU 
Mall Budget. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF HOOKS. 

HAMILTON (J. 0.)— The Prairie Pi ovince, Ky J. C. Hamilton, 
M.A., L.L. B. Sketches of travel from Lake; Ontario to Lake Win- 
nipeg, and an account of the geographical position, civil institutions, 
climate, inhabitants, productions, trado and resources of the Red 
River Valley, with maps of the North-west and Manitoba, Plan of 
Winnipeg, view of Fort Garry, and other illustrations. Crown 8vo. ; 
Paper, $1.00, Cloth, $1.25, doth, gilt edges, $i.50. 

The book contains a new map of Manitoba and the North-west, and of the 
Dawson Route, expressly drawn and engraved for this work. The new settle- 
ments, reserves and railway routes, and District of Keewatin, are shown on the 
map. 

11 This pleasant gossiping book, which carries one on without effort or fatigue, 
through an agreeable narrative of a trip through the Red River country, comes in 
very appropriately in this hot weather, when dry reading is almost impossible for 
most people." — Perth Expositor. 

"The descriptive dementis, of course, very prominent, and is both graphical 
and interesting, while the historical and statistical information will be of great 
use to those who have not had access to other sources of information." — Toronto 
Globe. 

" It is a book that we can cheerfully recommend to those who desire to post 
tnemselves before coming here to try their fortunes, as well as to those who are 
desirous for other reasons of knowing something about this portion of the Domin- 
ion." — Winnipeg (Manitoba Standard. ) 

" Well and ably written." — Stratford Herald. 

"This is one of the most interesting of the U.oks that have been written on 
the subject of which it treats." — Montreal Gazette. 

"Within the limits of 259 pages, we have an ev.cy :Irpe.Ji<* >f knowledge od 
all points relating to the Northwest." — Toronto New Dominion Weekly. 

" We can cordially recommend this work, because it contains, in a concise 
form, a graphic and interesting account of the scenery, resources, and present 
condition of Manitoba, and adjacent country, such as is to be found no where else. 
It is by no means dry and heavy, as such books are apt to be. " — Canadian Monthly. 

" We know of no work which contains ■ o much useful information in so small 
a *pace. Our public men and public writers 'an find in it all the data they need 
towards an accurate comprehension of che present position of Manitoba, while for 
■^migration purposes, we should fancy, that i cheap edition would materially 
facilitate the task of our agents abroad." — Canadian Illustrated News. 

HARLAND (M.)— Common Sense in the Household, by 
Marion Harland, author of " My Little Love," " Alone," " Hidden 
Path," " Nemesis," etc. Crown 8vo. j Cloth, $1.00, Boards, 75c. 

" Such a directory will be a great help to one who goes to the book for aid in 
preparing a pleasant and savoury meal without much experience in cooking. The 
language is so simple, and the directions so plain, that a reasonably intelligent 
cook might avail herself of it to vary her manner of preparing even ordinary 
dishes. The introduction to the book should be printed as a tract and put in every 
house. " — Harper's Monthly. 

" In the hands of the author, whose name is well known in another depart- 
ment of literature, the subject has been treated with thoroughness and skill, show- 
ing that a little common sense may be as successful in concoction of a toothsome 
viand as in the composition of a romance. " — N. Y. Daily Tribune. 

" Any one who contributes to the general stock of knowledge in the culinary 
art is a public benefactor. ... A glance over the list shows that they are 
suitable to the every-day life of those of the large or of moderate means, who wish 
to eat well in order that they may live well. A cookery book is indispensable in 
every household, and those in want of one could not do better than get ' Common 
Sense.' " — Toronto Nation. 



1LLUSTEATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

11 . . We commend this book as the plainest and most simple of its kind 
that we have ever seen. " — St. John Globe. 

" This book gives full and common sense directions for cooking everything 
that can possibly come within the range of ordinary human necessity, and much 
more." — Toronto Christian Guardian. 

" . . . Who would be without such a book." — Victoria ( B. C.) Standard. 

HARLAND (M.)— My Little Love, by Marion Harland, author 
of "Alone," "Nemesis," "Common Sense in the Household,'* etc. 
Cloth, $1.00, Paper Cover, 75c. 

"The authoress of this pleasing novel is so well known, that anything from 
her pen will be read with avidity. Her new story is well written, the plot simple, 
yet perfect, and the manner in which it has been brought out by Messrs. Belford 
Bros., is equal to the high reputation of the firm." — Ottawa Citizen. 

" This work is written in the easy flowing style for which the author has been 
celebrated. If it is not pretentious, it is at least engaging, and will afford many a 
pleasant hour's reading to those who prefer the trifles to the more solid things of 
life. " — London Free Press. 

"Marion Harland's works are all well worth reading, and "My Little Love,'| 
is one of the best we have seen." — Stratford Beacon. 

"Marion Harland in all her writings, has a particularly fascinating and 
pleasing style, and her latest production is no exception to the rule." — Toronto 
National. 

" Marion Harland has acquired a well merited reputation in being the author 
of many good books, which, while partaking of the nature of fiction, at the same 
time have thrown around them a halo of virtue that makes some of the characters 
stand pre-eminently high as models for any person to imitate. " My Little Love " 
is dedicated by the author "To the memory of the sweetest soul that ever looked 
with human eyes." Of absorbing interest, this book will find its way to the hands 
of many of those who appreciate this class of literature, and will be assigned a 
place in many libraries." — Guelph Mercury. 

HALL (DR. W.W.)— Dyspepsia and its kindred diseases, 

by W. W. Hall, M.D., author "of " Health by Good Living," " How 
to Live Long," " Health at Home," etc. Crown 8vo. • Cloth, $1.00. 

This is the last work of the late Dr. Hall, and it is admitted, by professional 
judges, to be a very valuable book. It gives, in concise form, an account of how 
to cure, prevent, and treat oneself, not alone for Dyspepsia, but a great many 
other diseases, which the Doctor claims, arise from the same cause as this dis- 
ease. This work should bo in every house in the country. 

HALL (W. W.)— How to Live Long, by Dr. W. W. Hall, 
author of " Dyspepsia," " Health at Home," editor of " Hall's 
Journal of Health," etc. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper, 75c. 

" ... After a careful perusal of the work which has been laid before us 
we have no hesitation in expressing our approval of its contents." — Guelph Herald. 
■j> "The purpose of this useful book is to communicate in a popular and easily 
understood form some generally accepted principles, and their application to the 
preservation of health. The author's method is not that of a laboured treatise, 
but rather of a multitude of short, tersely expressed hints upon almost every con- 
ceivable subject bearing upon physical and mental health, the home, domestic 
habits, and in short whatever bears upon the mens rasina in corpere sano ; which 
one desires to realize but not everyone knows how. The book is full of sound 
common sense and valuable information, clothed in acceptable shape. A complete 
index enables the reader to consult the volume upon any topic with facility. "— 
Toronto Daily Mail. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

" This is a useful yet unique medical book, written in a somewhat ' proverbial 
philosophical' style, inculcating, by 'numerous examples,' that ' Fun is better 
than Physic' The practical and proverbial sentences in the book number 1,408 
and are admirable." —Toronto Journal of Education. 

HARTE (BRET.)— Gabriel Oonroy, by Bret Harte. Crown 

8vo. ; Cloth, $1.25, Paper Covers, 75c. 

' ' ' Gabriel Conroy ' is written in the author's most original vein, and altogether 
the story has proved to be one of Bret Harte's masterpieces." — Kendal Mercury. 

"Bret Harte's novel introduces many truly fine descriptive passages and 
heart-thrilling incidents. The writer's vivid power as a poet has long been recog- 
nized, not only in America, but in this country, and ' Gabriel Conroy ' will we ven- 
ture to think, add greatly to his fame, and to a large extent increase the number 
of his admirers." — Jpsivich Chronicle. 

" . . We have found at last the American novel." — Canadian Illustrated 
News. 

" . . The second installment is even stronger than the first, justifying all 
that was looked for.'''— Louisville Courier Journal. 

" Among those authors who combine • humour with variety of other gifts, the 
most conspicuous is Bret Harte. His subtility of ethical insight, his depth 
of senbimcnt, his power of solid characterization, and his pathetic and tragic 
force are as evident as his broad preceptions of the ludicrous side of things. In 
his California stories, as in some of his poems, he details ' the soul of goodness in 
things evil,' and represents the exact circumstances in which ruffians and profli- 
gates are compelled to feel that they have human hearts and spiritual natures. 
He is original, not only in the ordinary sense of the word, but in the sense of dis- 
covering a new domain of literature, and of colonizing it by the creatures of his 
own brain. Perhaps the immense popularity of some of his humorous poems, such 
as ' The Heathen Chinee,' has not been favourable to a full recognition of his 
graver qualities of heart and imagination. " — First Century of the Republic. 

HOWARD (B. W.)— One Summer, by Blanche Willis Howard. 
16rno. ; Cloth, red edges. $1.00, Boards 75c, uniform with *•' Their 
Wedding Journey," " A Chance Acquaintance," and second edition of 
" Helen's Babies." 

" The story is delightfully written." — Owen Sound Times. 

" A charmingly amusing, interesting and exciting romance." — Barrie Advance, 

" It is just the thing for quiet, meditative reading on Sunday afternoon, when 
the reader's surroundings bear the air of silent repose." — Waterloo Observer. 

" If all, or at least a fair proportion of the novels that are published each 
year, were as good as ' One Summer, ' reading them might become instructive, 
and reviewing them a pleasure. ' One Summer ' contains thoughtful writings, 
some humour, and not a little ingenuity. The conversations in ' One Summer/ 
are sensible, spirited, and witty. " — Belford's Monthly Magazine. 

HOWELLS (W. D.)— Their Wedding Journey, by W, D. 

Ho wells, author of " A Chance Acquaintance," etc. Uniform with 
" One Summer," and second edition of " Helen's Babies." Cloth, 
$1.00, Boards, 75c. 

" Their Wedding Journey " is a novel, describing in beautiful language Cana- 
dian Scenery from Niagara to Quebec. 

"The story is well told, the incidents on the way are delicately and neatly 
sketched, and the plan of the story is clever and piquant." — St. John Watchman. 

" Mr. Howells knows how to describe what he sees, so that he combines gen- 
uine amusement with valuable information." — Mount Forest Examiner. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

" There are as lovely landscapes in ' Madcap Violet,' ftl gleesome a freshness in 
the descriptions of animate and inanimate nature, as hearty an appreciation of beauty, 
as high a standard of goodness, as in the best of his earlier books." — Standard. 

"Will Mr. Black tell us by what art it is that he makes his men and women so 
life-like, and instinct with so lovable a kind of life, so sweet and companionable?" — 
Examiner. 

"The book is in many respects the best Mr. Black has written."— Scotsman. 

CARLETON (Will)— Farm Legends. By Will Carleton, 
author of " Farm Ballads," etc., etc. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. j Cloth, 
$1.00, Gilt edges, $1.25. Full Morocco, $4.00. 

" The paper, print, binding, and illustrations are as pretty as could be turned out 
in English or American cities. * * * The ballads are charming — full of the atmos- 

Shere of home and country life, and human thoughts and affections." — Toronto Daily 
(ail. 

" We have every confidence in recommending ' Farm Legends.' " — Gudph Herola. 
" Mr. Carleton's work is honest and faithful and graphic," — Independent, N. Y. 

" There is about the author's style a quaint humour, which renders the most com- 
monplace subjects interesting when touched by his pen." — Brooklyn Union. 

" The poet who writes the ballads of a nation need not care who makes their laws. 
Carleton is one of the few balladists who have gotten down into the hearts of the common 
people of America. He is enshrined in their affections more, perhaps, than any other 
ballad writer in this country." — Syracuse Courier. 

"The moral, as well as the influence of the ' Legends ' will be most salutary. 
The ' Ballads ' have proved themselves so, and in ' holding the mirror up to nature ' 
in farm life, they have rubbed the rough corners off many points of rural life, and have 
corrected many social errors and mistakes." — Toronto Journal of EducatiiM. 

"There is a great deal of human nature of the truest kind in Carleton's poems, 
as they well illustrate the frailties and inconsistencies of human nature, its stern virtues 
and its greatest failings." — St. John Globe. 

CHAMBERS (Julius)— A Mad World, by An Amateur Lunatic 
(Julius Chambers). Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper Covers, 75c. 

" This book, which has its origin in an idea similar to that of 'The Amateur 
Casual,' carried out to a greater extent and in a much more startling fashion, gives an 
account of the visit of Mr. Julius Chambers, correspondent of a leading New York 
journal, to a private Lunatic Asylum in that city, he having procured his own incarcer- 
ation, remained there a fortnight, and taken notes of all that he saw and heard during 
that time. The scheme was cleverly contrived and admirably carried out, and Mr. 
Chambers gives a very dramatic account of the whole affair. * * — but his account of 
the game of cards, in which Frisco played casino, the Senator poker, Thaddeus euchre, 
and he himself whist — the latter game being the one which the party had been supposed 
to sit down to — is indeed a strange exhibition of the vagaries of mad mortality. * * * 
The close of his little drama, when he obliges Drs. Baldric and Quotidian to produce 
him in court, and so thoroughly exposes their disgraceful proceedings, is given with 
great spirit ; indeed the whole is capitally told, and it is impossible to read it without 
feeling forsiH«»«- , «'« -^miration for the pluck and public spirit of the writer." — The 
Sprrfyfor, London, England. 

OARTWRIGHT, (C E.)— The Life and Letters of the Hon. 
Richard Oartwright, edited by the Rev. C. E. Cartwright. 
Crown 8vo. ; Cloth 75 c. 

"It contains an abridged report of a sermon preached soon after Mr. Cart- 
wright's death, by the late Bishop of Toronto, in which the career of the subject of 
the work is sketched in an interesting manner. The book contains a considerable 
amount of valuable information regarding political affairs in Mr. Cavtw right's time. 
It should meet with an extensive circulation." — Kingston New*. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

DAVIN, (N. P.)— The Fair Grit, by Nicholas Flood Davin, 
author of " The Earl of Beaconsfield," etc., etc. Crown 8vo. ; Paper, 
25 cents. 

" Mr. Davin is to be congratulated on the possession of the rich vein of humour 
developed in the ' Fair Grit,' which appears at a time that will secure to it plenty 
of readers." — St. John Telegraph. 

"The book contains many clever hits at the expense of the Grits, and bears 
evidence of having been written by one well acquainted with the current political 
events of the Dominion." — London Herald. 

" The Farce deals with topics that are peculiarly Canadian, and political, and 
Mr. Davin has exhibited considerable ability in his treatment of the various promi- 
nent episodes in the lives of our present rulers. It is well worth perusal, and 
deserves an extensive circulation." — Toronto Leader. 

" The Globe and Mail and some of our leading politicians receive some hard 
hits. * * It is written in a good vein, and will doubtless have a large sale among 
those well posted in politics." — Brantford Expositor. 

DAVIN, (N. P.)— The Earl of Beaconsfield, by Nicholas Flood 
Davin, author of " The Fair Grit," etc., etc. Crown 8vo. ; Paper 
Covers 25c. 

" Mr. Davin has, we think, succeeded in supplying the public with what will 
be welcomed as a valuable addition to our literature. " — Stratford Weekly. 

"This is a brilliantly written account of the life of Mr. D'Israeli from the 
pen of Mr. Davin, who has enjoyed the pleasure of personal observation of him 
for four years in the English House of Commons." — Goderich Star. 

" This a clever and complete sketch of D'Israeli's career, from the standpoint, 
of course, of an ardent admirer of the author of Lothair." — London Advertiser. 



>>» 



FLEMING (M. A.)— Kate Danton, by May Agnes Fleming, 
author of " Norine's Revenge," u A Mad M arriage," etc., etc. Crown 
8vo. j Cloth, $1.00, Paper Covers, 75c. 

" Mrs. Fleming's stories are growing more and more popular every day. (Their 
delineations of character, life-like conversations, flashes of wit, constantly varying 
scenes, and deeply interesting plots, combine to place their author in the very first 
rank of modern novelists." 

FLEMING (M. A.)— Norine's Revenge, by May Agnes Fleming, 
author of " Kate Danton," &c, &c. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth $1.00, 
Paper Covers, 75c. 

" A very interesting story." — The Toronto Irish Canadian. 

" This story is an intensely interesting one." — Hamilton Spectator. 

" Mrs. Fleming never forgets that she is a lady, and she has given us a very 
interesting and a fairly clever story." — Montreal Herald. 

" Norine's Revenge ' is the work of a Canadian authoress, a daughter of New 
Brunswick. We were interested to the extent of not laying aside the book until 
we had finished it — a process which lasted us through two cigars. We believe all 
those who peruse it, will be equally interested. The language is simple, natural 
and correct ; much of the dialogue is lively." — Montreal Can. II. News. 

& " ' Norine's Revenge ' is the name of the last published and best of May Agnes 
Fleming's novels. The story becomes interesting in the very first page, and never 
flags for a moment until the conclusion. The characters are well drawn, and the 
author is to be congratulated on the product of her pen." — St. John Daily TeU* 
graph. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

GRANT (Rev. G. M.)— Ocean to Ocean, by Rev. George M. 

Grant. New and revised edition, with map and nuu^rous illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.50, Paper Cover, $1.25. 

" This is, by the universal acknowledgement of press and public, the most con - 
plete work on the ' Great Lone Land ' of British North America, which has evi . 
been published. The present edition has been thoroughly revised and correcteu 
by the author, and a new chapter has been added, which brings down to the latest 
moment the official and other information bearing upon the vast territory so 
graphically and fully treated of. The illustrations have all been newly executed. 
It is a book of rare value. 

GAY (F. D.)— The Prince of Wales in India, by F. Drew Gay. 

Profusely illustrated. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, gold and black, $1.50, 
Paper, $1.00. 

" A lasting memorial of an interesting journey." — Daily Telegraph. 

" Will no doubt find an extensive public, and be read by them with interest." 
— Nonconformist. 

" Written in a lively and unpretentious style, and sparkling here and there 
with genuine humour, the book is a decidedly attractive one." — Leeds Mercury. 

GUTHRIE (D. K. &0. J.)— Autobiography and Memoir of 
Thomas Guthrie, D.D., by his sons the Ptev. D. K. Guthrie, M. 
A., and C. J. Guthrie, M.A. 1 vol. Demy 8vo. with steel portrait ; 
Cloth, $2.50, Half Calf, $4.00, Full Morocco, $6.00. 
" One of the most interesting books recently published." — Spectator. 

" Of great interest, even as a mere piece of reading, and of no small value as 
a contribution to Scotch history." — Scotsman. 

" Both interest and amusement will be found in this picture of a stirring time 
in which an eager, busy nature played its part." — Saturday Review. 

GARNEAU (F. H.)--History of Canada from the time of its 

discovery till the union of 1840-41. Translated from " L'Histore du 
Canada," ofF, X. GarneAU, Esq., and accompanied with illustrative 
notes, by A sdrew Bell. Third edition, revised, in two volumes. 
Demy 8vo. ; Cloth, $4.00 set. 
The press acknowledge that this is the best History of Canada published. 

GLADSTONE (W. E.)— Essays on Macleod and Macaulay, 
by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. Demy 8vo. j Paper Covers, 25c. 

" Gladstone's remarks axe of a peculiar interest to the student of history." — 
Toronto Globe. 

" Mr. Gladstone's keen critical character, is well exemplified in both essays, 
which the Canadian public will, no doubt, avidily seize upon." — Toronto Mail. 

" Mr. Gladstone's pen produces nothing inferior." — Halifax Herald. 

History Of the Grange in Canada, with hints on the manage- 
ment of Subordinate Granges, ruies for Patrons' Co-operative Associa- 
tions, list of Masters and Secretaries of Dominion, Division, and Sub- 
ordinate Granges, by Members of the Dominion Grange. Demy 8vo ; 
Paper Covers, 25c. 




Specimen Illustration in "The Old Lieutenant and His Son."' 



ILLUSTKATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

HELEN'S BABIES. With some account of their ways, innocent, 
crafty, angelic, impish, witching, and repulsive. Also a partial record 
of their actions during ten days of their existence. By Their Latest 
Victim. Illustrated. 12mo., Cloth, Gold, 75 cents; Paper Cover 
50 cents. 

" It is full of richness." — Citizen, Ottawa. 

** Helen's Babies is one of the most Comical books we have seen for some 
time. " — Perth Expositor. 

" It is as fresh as its life-like. It is overflowing with good nature and humour." 
—Globe, St. John. 

" Don't fail to read it. It will wonderfully aid digestion and to the numerous 
dyspeptics in our midst, we would say, chase away that dire incubus, indigestion, by 
reading Helen's Babies. " — Truro Sun. 

" We confidentially recommend the work to our readers, knowing that all who 
read it will derive a great deal of pleasure from it." — Port Hope Times. 

" Helen's Babies is a charming tale." — Observer, Toronto. 

" The thing is exceedingly well told, and the work is one intensely interesting to 
those having youngsters of their own, or intending to have them." — Courier, Perth. 

" This pleasant little volume should be read by all. The blues will then be 
effectually banished from the most lugubrious desponder. " — Colonial Standard, Picton. 

" Budge and Toddie count their admirers by the thousands. It is one of the 
brightest publications we know of, and certainly everybody should buy and read it." 
— Chronicle, Halifax. 

" ' Helen's Babies ' — The most amusing bit of reading we have seen for some 
time, is, the little volume with this title, just issued in gorgeous panoply of red and 
gold, by Messrs. Belford Bros., Toronto." — Beacon, Stratford. 



HOLMES, (MRS.)— Edith Lyle, by Mrs. Mary J. Holmes, 
author of " Lena Rivers," " Darkness and Daylight," &c. Crown 
8vo., Cloth, $1.00 ; Paper Cover, 75 cents. Third Edition. 

" Mrs. Holmes has the faculty of writing a very entertaining book, and all her 
novels meet with a ready sale. Edith Lyle is one of her best stories, and in its 
present form it is exceedingly attractive," — Watchman, St. John. 

" The style is, as usual, very pleasant and pure, and as with the rest of her 
works, the book is characterized by a good moral tone throughout." — Toronto 
Christia n Guardian. 

" We are inclined to place Mrs. Holmes' last production on a higher rank than 
her previous works." — Toronto Telegram. 

" We commend this last production to our readers." — Oxford Tribune, In%ersoll. 

" In Edith Lyle, Mrs. Holmes has not lost, but added to the reputation she has 
acquired of being a pleasant and interesting writer of fiction. One whose books will 
amuse many a weary traveller, and wile away the tedious hours that pass so sternly 
to the invalid. " — Expositor, Perth. 

" Almost anyone picking up Edith Lyle will read it without stopping."- Hali- 
fax Chronicle. 

" The value of this work is peculiarly adapted to those who love a novel for its 
being a Novel." — Brockville Recorder. 



\FRONT/Sr/ECE.] 




"The Princess soon found out the Pearl Fountain, and saw the Fairy and the Wren 
playing together." — Page 16. 

Specimen Illustration in "The Pearl^ Fountain." 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

HOWELLS (W. D.)— A Chance Acquaintance, by W. D. 

Howells, author of " Their Wedding Journey.' Uniform with 
" One Summer/' and second edition of " Helen's Babies." Cloth, 
$1.00, Boards, 75c. 

' ' The writings of William D. Howells are masterpieces of literary workman- 
ship, resembling the products of those cunning artificers who add one or two 
thousand per cent, to the value of their raw material by their incomparable way 
of working it up. What they are as artizans, he is as artist. His faculties and 
emotions are in exquisite harmony with each other, and unite to produce due effect 
of beauty and grace in the singular felicity of his style. He has humour in abun- 
dance, but it is so thoroughly blended with his observation, fancy, imagination, 
taste, and good sense, that it seems to escape from him in light, demure, evanes- 
cent flashes rather than in deliberate efforts to be funny. He has revived in some 
degree the lost wit of Addison, Goldsmith, and Irving. Nobody ever ' roared ' 
with laughter in reading anything he ever wrote ; but few of our American 
humourists have excelled him in the power to unseal, as by a magic touch, those 
secret interior springs of merriment which generally solace the soul without be- 
traying the happiness of the mood they create by any exterior bursts of laughter. 
His 'Venetian Life,' ' Italian Journeys,' ' Suburban Sketches ; ' his novels, 
entitled 'Their Wedding Journey,' 'A Chance Acquaintance,' and 'A Fore- 
gone Conclusion,' all indicate the presence of this delicious humourous element, 
penetrating his picturesque descriptions of scenery, as well as refined perceptions 
of character and pleasing narratives of incidents ; his prose style, with its 
' polished wants of polish ' and elaborate, deliberate simplicity, is marked not 
only by felicities of diction, but by the continual oversight of an exacting taste. 
Indeed the story goes that when, as editor of The A tlantic Monthly, he incurred 
the ire of a rejected contributor, the latter was consoled by the remark of Howells, 
that he frequently rejected his own contributions when he found that they did 
not satisfy his austere editorial judgment, "---i^i. P. Whipple in the First Century 
of the Republic. 

The Home Cook Book, by the Ladies of Toronto. Published for 
the benefit of the Hospital for Sick Children. Crown 8vo. , Cloth, 
$1.50. 

This book is the joint effort of the publishers, and of a number of Toronto 
ladies, with the object of adding to the funds of the Hospital for Sick Children, a 
most worthy institution, depending wholly upon voluntary contributions. The 
receipts contained in the book, are supplied by the ladies, and none have been 
given by them except such as have stood the test of experience in their own house- 
holds. Unquestionably it is one of the most valuable Cook Books ever published. 

HISTORIOUS.-History of King WiUiam III.,' Prince of 
Orange, by Historicus, of Belfast, Ireland. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, 
7 5 c.j Paper Covers, 50c. 

' ' The volume before us supplies a much felt want. Within the compass of an 
ordinary book we have here a comprehensive, intelligible and well written history 
of one of England's greatest kings." — Orange Sentinel. 

" ... The present work gives this in short compass, and will doubtless 
be read by many for whom larger and more elaborate historical works would not 
be so convenient." — Toronto Mail. 

"... Let all such purchase this work, and be able to give a logical 
reason for the pageantry of the Twelfth of July." — Brantford Expositor. 

" . . . The work is the best modern one on its subject. " — St. Catharine's 
News. 

"... The book is well written, and of such a pleasing nature, that we 
predict for it an immense sale among the Orangemen and Protestants generally." — 
London Herald. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OK BOOKS. 

" The author has striven to make this the most complete life of William IIL, 

extant, and that he has succeeded, all who read the work will be convinced." 

Brock inlle Enterprise. 

KAVANAGrH(B. & J.)— The Pearl Fountain, bv Bridget cV- 
Julia Kavanagh. 8vo. ; with 30 illustrations hj J. Moya Bmith 
Cloth, Gold and Black, $1.60. 

"A rara avis among books for children. . . The stories are brightly and 
beautifully told, and the illustrations unique in art character." — New York Pub* 
Ushers' Weekly. 

" The high quality and brilliancy of the engravings in this volume, together 
with its low retail price, will make it a favourite gift book." 

LESPERANCE (JOHN)— The Bastonnais. A Tale of the 
American Invasion of Canada in 1775-76, by John Lesper- 

ance. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper Covers, 75c. 

This is a story whose main events centre around one of the mosc thrilling and 
interesting periods of Canadian history. It is written by the editor of the Cana- 
dian Illustrated News, and as it passed through the pages of that journal from 
week to week, attracted a great deal of interest. It is an admirable contribution 
to our yet nascent Canadian literature- 

LEWIS (R.)— Lewis's Readings and Recitations, by Richard 

Lewis, author of " The Dominion Elocutionist," etc. Boards, 75c, 
Paper, 50c. 

This work presents the following new features and advantf ges : — Classic 
standard selections. Selections from the best and the most recent productions of 
living authors. Favourite readings of Vandenhoff, Bellew. Mrs. Scott Siddons, and 
other eminent readers. Gems from Newspapers and Periodicals. The oiiginal mat- 
ter will consist of Hints and Suggestions on Public Reading, tho Culture and Manage- 
ment of the Voice, Gesticulation, etc., etc. A large number of the leadmg selections 
will have Foot Notes explanatory of the manner of reading them. 

LYTTON (BULWER.)— Pausanias, by the late Lord Lytton. 
Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper Covers, 75c. 

" To the classical reader, this work will be highly interesting ; at every turn he 
meets familiar faces." — Sarnia Canadian. 

"It is well worthy of perusal." — Free Press, Ottawa. 
"It is of great interest." — Toronto Mail. 

"It bears the impress of masterly genius." — Collingwood Bulletins 
" It is well deserving of a careful perusal."' — Gudph Mercury. 
" Lord Lytton has done well in publishing, after much hesitation, his fathers 
iatest work." — Toronto Nation. 

" There are many scholarly hints throughout the book, and several fine transla- 
tions." — Montreal Canadian Illustrated Neivs. 

"The romance gives evidence that the master hand of the eminent novelist had 
not failed when he wrote it." — Brantford Expositor. 

LAVELEYE (EMILE.)— Protestantism and Catholicism, 

in their bearing upon the liberty and prosperity of nations. A study 
of social economy, by Emile DeLaveleye, member of the " Insti- 
tute de Droit International," of the Royal Academies of Belgium, 
Madrid, and Lisbon ; correspondent of the " Institut de France," 
Academy Officer of the University of France, &c. With an introduc- 
tory Letter by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M. P. Crown 
8ro. ; Paper Covers, 25c. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

"M. Laveleye, the distinguished Belgian publicist, has recently issued a short 
but vigorously written work. • • • He writes upon a subject which he has long 
and carefully studied." — Toronto Globe. 

MACLEOD (REV. D.)— Memoir of Norman Macleod D.D., 

Minister of Barony Parish, Glasgow ; One of Her Majesty's Chap- 
lains ; Dean of the Chapel Royal ; Dean of the Most Ancient and 
most Noble Order of the Thistle, by his brother, the Rev. Donald 
Macleod, B. A., one of Her Majesty's Chaplains, Editor of " Good 
Words," &c. Complete in 1 vol., Demy, 8vo., with Portrait; Cloth 
gold and black, $2.50 ; Half Calf, $4.00 ; Full Morocco, gilt edges' 
$6.00. Ninth thousand. 

The following extract is from the " Memoir" itself; it shows what Dr. Macleod 
thought of such a work as the present : — 

"From his Journal, Oct. nth, 4.45 a. m. 

"Have been reading a little of 'Brainard.' Next to the BIBLE Christian 
Biography is the most profitable. In as far as it is true, it is a revelation of the living 
God, through His living Church." 

The following extract is taken from a letter of Dean Stanley's : 
"He was the chief Ecclesiastic of the Scottish Church, No other man during 
the last thirty years, in all spiritual ministration, so nearly filled the place of Chalmers • 
no other man has occupied so high and important a position in guidinv the Ecclesi- 
astical movements of their country since the death of Robertson, we might almost say 
since the death of Carstares Macleod represented Scottish Protestant- 
ism more than any other single man. Under and around him men would gather who 
would gather around no one else. When he spoke it was felt to be the voice, the 
best voice of Scotland." 

. . . "The lesson of his life cannot but have an important bearing on the 
lives of all Christians, if carefully studied. . . . It is really a handsome and ex- 
ceedingly well got up octavo volume, of about 500 pages, well printed, and a credit 
to the publishers." — Observer, Sarnia. 

. . . " It contains an excellent photograph of Dr. Macleod, is unexception- 
able as to binding and typography, and is issued at one-third of the cost of the Eng- 
lish edition." — Beacon, Stratford. 

. . . "The Canadian reprint of Dr. Macleod's Memoir, has reached the fifth 
edition, and the demand shows no sign of falling off. It has proved emphatical- 
ly TO BE the book of the season, and everyone who has perused it will learn the 
fact without surprise." — Globe, Toronto. 

. . . * ; We can cordially recommend the Canadian edition "of the ' Memoir of 
Norman Macleod, D.D.,' to our readers." — Telegraph, St. John. 

. . . " The work is one deserving a large circulation, and§ its influence, like 
that of Dr. Macleod in life, must be beneficial. " — Packet, Orillia. 

. . " The mechanical part of the work is in Belford Bros, best style, and is 
certain to give satisfaction. Already five editions of the book have been exhausted in 
Canada, and a sixth edition has just been issued. The indications are, that several 
more will be required to satisfy the almost unparalleled demand which there is for the 
work." — Spectator, Hamilton. 

MACLEOD (N.)— The Gold Thread, by the late .Norman 
Macleod, D.D. Square 8vo., beautifully illustrated, Cloth, full gilt, 
$1.00. 

" This is one of the prettiest, as it is one of the best, children's books in the lan- 
guage. Wherever there are children, if our advice is taken, there will be a Gold 
Thread." — Caledonia Mercury. 

"It is a charming story for children, and as a holiday gift foi little folks it is 
admirably suitable, being richly bound and profusely illustrated." — Stratford Beacon* 







Specimen Illustration in " The Prattler." 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

*' In this book Dr. Macleod appears at his best as a story teller." — Globe, St. John. 

. . . " and is one of the most attractive works that can be placed in the 
hands of the young, combining, as it does, a thrilling narrative, with the inculcations 
of lessons that cannot be too deeply impressed."-— Herald, Guelph. 

. . . " The work is beautifully embellished with engravings, and it is one of 
the most handsomely got up books yet placed in the market by its publishers." — The 
National, Toronto. 

MACLEOD (N.)— The Old Lieutenant and his Son, by the 

late Norman Macleod, D.D. Illustrated, Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, 
Paper Covers, 75c. 

''The work will, doubtless, in his own words 'do good to many and harm to 
none.'— The Globe, Toronto. 

" As a book in the hands of youth we especially commend it."— Mercury, Quebec. 

. . . "Everybody who takes it up will be delighted with it." — Canadian 
Post, Lindsay. 

"No one can fail of being benefited as well as amused by the story, and the 
young especially wilJ find it most delightful reading, as indeed will children of a larger 
growth. ' ' — Toronto Mail. 

"Those who carefully read it, must be influenced for the better." — Chronicle, 
Kentville. 

MACLEOD (N.)— The Earnest Student, by the late Norman 
Macleod, D.D. Crown 8vo. : Cloth, $1.00, Paper, 75c. 

" It is full of the most instructive materials, and breathes forth in every page an 
earnest spirit of true religion." — Star, Goderich. 

" It is a book that will do good wherever read." — Bulletin, Collingwood. 

"The example of candour, assiduity, and self-consecration portrayed in these 
memorials must strongly impress the reader." — Colonial Farmer, Fredericton N. B. 

MACLEOD (N.)— Wee Davie, by the late Norman Macleod, 
D.D. Crown 8vo. ; Paper Covers, 15c. 

" It is of this and kindred books that our Sunday School libraries ought to be 
composed." — Reporter, Cornwall. 

"Apathetic tale, told with a heart full of sympathy." — Weekly Canadian, 
Sarnia. 

MACLEOD (N.)— The Starling, by the late Norman Macleod, 
D.D. Crown 8vo. Profusely illustrated. In press, and will be ready 
early in 1877. 

MATHEWS (W.)— Getting on in the World, by Prof. 
William Mathews, LL.D. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper, 75c, 
Half Calf, $2.00. 

"Worth any day ten times its cost for the tenth part it contains. A book 
fuller of sensible sense and sounder soundness we have not seen for a long day." — 
S. S. Times, Philadelphia. 

"A book in which there is abundant matter of great interest." — From Rev. 
Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D., President of Yale College. 

" It will give heart and hope to many a struggling young man." — Rev. M. B. 
Anderson, D.D., LL.D., President of Rochester University, N. Y. 

"What wealth of illustration he brings in from English poets, dramatists, 
divines, lawyers, and iurists !" — Edwin P. Whipple, Esq., the distinguished critic. I 



nxTTSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

"The road to prosperity is marked out with a masterly hand. The rolume 
is replete with thought and excellent information on the many perplex n 
blems that are constantly arising in the various vocations <>t life. The farmer 
merchant, student, teacher, lawyer, preacher, editor, etc., etc., will .til find valu- 
able lessons for their life-work. No one that reads the twenty-one chapters, 
will lay aside the book without being benefited. Everyman, especially every 
young man, should have it. It should be found in every family library throu li 
out the whole country."— Rev. A. JIudster, Ph. D., in ih< "Evangelical M 
ger." 

" There are a great number of good passages and much valuable advice in this 
book." — The London Spectator. 

"Every page contains a wealth of valuable information, and is brimful of 
vivid biographical illustrations." — New York Home Journal. 

" While it enforces a truth in every line, and teaches invaluable lessons on 
every page, it is in manner as absorbing and attractive as a bit of Eastern fable." 
Philadelphia Enquirer. 

" Adorned with the graces of polite literature, and polished to a degree of re- 
finement which adapts it to the demands of modern taste. . . . While an- 
nouncing the laws of wordly prosperity, he holds up an elevated standard of 
character. His appeals are not made to human selfishness, but to the love of 
excellence." — New t York Tribune. 

" It is sound, morally and mentally. It gives no one-sided view of life ; i^ 
does not pander to the lower nature ; but it is high toned, correctly toned, through- 
out. There is an earnestness and even eloquence in this volume which makes the 
author appear to speak to us from the living page. It reads like a speech. There 
is an electrical fire about every sentence."— Episcopal Register, Philadelphia. 

MULOCK (MISS.)— Sermons Out of Church, by Miss 

Mulock (Mrs. Craik), author of " John Halifax, Gentlemen/' etc., 
etc. Crown 8vo. , Cloth, $1 00, Paper, 75o. 

"This is a book that we can conscientiously recommend to our readers. 
Those who have read ' John Halhax ' will recognise with pleasure Miss Mulock's 
pleasant style in her serious mood all through these sermons. They are six in 
number, and are devoted tc important and suggestive subjects. In this age, when, 
notwithstanding the death of most of the great novelists, a fresh novel appears 
every day, it is a relief to turn to something serious, sensible, instructive and 
well-written — a something that will repay perusal, and not send one away weary 
and disgusted. Those who have undergone the infliction of ' Bluebell ' and kin- 
dred rubbish will find a balm in Miss Mulock's ' Sermons Out of Church.'" — 
Toronto Nation. 

. . . These ' Sermons ' have nothing of the sermonizing style about them, 
but are written in a practical, popular style. They deal with the many ' blisters 
of humanity ' in a kindly, loving spirit, and cannot but have a good influence on 
those that read them." — The Journal of Education, Toronto. 

MULOCK (MISS.)— The Laurel Bush, an old-fashioned 

love story, by Miss Mulock (Mrs. Craik), author of " John Halifax, 
Gentleman,'' "Sermons Out of Church," etc. Demy 8vo. ; Paper 
Covers, 50c. 

"The tale is told in Miss Mulock's usual clear and forcible manner, and 
cannot fail to prove highly interesting." — Guelph Daily Mercury. 

NASBY (P. V.)— Abou Ben Adhem, by Petroleum V. Nasbt. 

Crown 8vo. ; Paper, 50 cents. 

. . . " Everybody will buy it, everybody will read it, and everybody 
leill feel better for buying and reading it." — Boston Transcript. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

..." Written in a lively style. . . . Will be sure to be read." — 

Worcester Spy. 

. . . "Mr. Nasby is a funny fellow, and we have had a good many 
hearty laughs over his pages." — Congregationalist. 

" It is spiced with rich humour." — Boston Journal. 

OXENHAM (REV. F. N.)— Everlasting Punishment, 

Is the popular Doctrine de Fide ? and if not, is it true ? Considered in a 
letter to the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M. P., by the Rev. F. N. 
Oxenham, M. A. Paper, 25 cents. 

. . . " It may be added, in conclusion, that Mr. Oxenham's letter deserves 
serious perusal at a time when men are proving all things, and endeavouring to hold 
fast to that which is good." — Canadian Monthly, 

. . . " The treatise is very learned and exhaustive on the negative side of the 
question, and those having an interest in the question should not fail to read it." — St, 
Catharines News. 

PINKERTON (ALLAN)— The Expressman and the 

Detective, by Allan Pinkerton, author of " The Detective and 
Somnambulist," " Claude Melnotte," etc. Crown 8vo. ; Paper, 40c. 

" It abounds in dramatic situations, exciting incidents, and startling denouments ; 
and everything is told in a charmingly easy, clear, natural style, with here and there 
almost exquisite touches of humour." — The Laporte Herald. 

" The stories are told in a straightforward manner ; and the appearance of the 
volume is most creditable to the publishers." — The Journal of Education. 

" If you are hungry for a rich and charming story, told with simplicity, vivid- 
ness and force, buy ' The Expressman and the Detective.' It interests you, absorbs 
you ; you are hurried from page to page, chapter to chapter, as through the acts and 
scenes of a great and thrilling play." — The Laporte Herald. 

PINKERTON (A.)— The Detective and the Somnambu 

list, by Allan Pinkerton, author of "The Expressman and Detec- 
tive," " Claude Melnotte," etc., etc. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00, Paper 
Covers, 75c. Profusely and beautifully illustrated with full page 
engravings. Bound in the best style, with black and gold ornamenta- 
tion. 

" It is sufficiently exciting as a romance, to gratify the most insatiable appetite 
or strange occurrences." — Golden Age. 

" Mr. Pinkerton has met with very curious adventures in the course of his detec- 
tive experience, and he has turned certain of them to excellent account in the present 
volume." — New York Graphic. 

" The interest which the reader feels from the outset is intense and resistless. He 
is swept along by the narrative, being held by it whether he will or no. " — Hartford 
Evening Post. 

" We noticed that more copies of these books were sold on the trains than al 
others combined." — Sterling (III.) Standard. 

SCHULTE, (REV- J)— Roman Catholicism, old and new] 

from the standpoint of the Infallibility Doctrine, by John Schulte, 
D.D., Ph.D. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, $1.00. Full Gilt, $1.50. 

"It will be welcome as an interesting addition to the literature of a subject 
which has for a large class of minds an attractiveness amounting almost to fascina- 
tion." — Toronto Globe. & 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

"The spirit in which the author writes is excellent, anxious far more for truth 
than for victory. His book should not offend, if it does not satisfy Dr. S's former co- 
religionists. His manner of meeting Roman error is that modest manliness which 
marks its own conviction of truth, and at the same time evidences anxiety that men, 
once fellow-travellers, should be found so yet again, though in regions more becoming 
* revelation from God. Beyond question Dr. Schulte's effort is worthy of all praise." 
-Evangelical Churchman, Toronto. 

" This is a work of honest intent and snbstantial merit, such as deserves a careful 
perusal from those who take an interest in the chief religious controversy of the day." 
— Illustrated Canadian News, Montreal. 

STOWE, (Mrs. H. B)— We and Our Neighbours, by Mrs. 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of " Uncle Tom's Cabin," " My 
Wife and I." Crown 8vo. j Cloth, $1.00, Paper, 75c. 

" It is one of the best of Mrs. Stowe's novels ; and Mrs. Stowe is incapable 
of writing a poor one." — St. Louis Globe. 

" ■ We and Our Neighbours ' is written in Mrs. Stowe's genial, hearty style, 
with the sparkle of fun, wit and humour, and the touches of deep pathos which 
characterize her work. " — Worcester Spy. 

" This is one of Mrs. Stowe's best novels ; it is racily written, and, moreover,, 
has touches of deep pathos." — Montreal Herald. 

STOWE (Mrs. H. B.)— Betty's Bright Idea, by Mrs. 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of " We and Our Neighbours," 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin," etc. Crown 8vo. ; Paper, 25c. 

. . . "Mrs. Stowe's name is guarantee of the merits of the story." — 
Kingston Whig. 

" These stories are impregnated with true religious feeling and kindly human 
sympathy, and are therefore adapted to improve the heart as well as to afford 
pleasant reading." — Christian Guardian, Toronto. 

" It is the most vivacious bit of hers which we have read for a long time." — 
Canadian Illustrated News, Montreal. 

STOWE (Mrs- H. B)— Footsteps of the Master. A 

series of readings, meditations, carols, hymns, poems, etc. Following 
the course of the life of our Lord on earth, by Harriet Beecher 
Stowe. 1 vol., Crown 8vo., with illustrations, illuminated titles, etc, 
Ex. Cloth, beveled, gilt and ink stamped, $1.25, Paper Covers, $1.00 
Cloth, full gilt, $1.50. 




•' I have loved to hear my Lord spoken of ; and wherever I have se*n the print 
of his shoe in the earth, there have I coveted to set my foot too."— Mr. S tan d' 
r ast dviny words. Pilgrim' Progress. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

Jl 

'* It consists of readings and meditations for different church seasons, follow! Wg 
ing the life of Jesus from Advent to Ascension, though not in ecclesiastical pr<l p 
oision of form. It is interspersed with poems, carols, hymns, etc., and, with ifl : 
tasteful typography, illustrations, and illuminated titles, will make a pretty gi» I** 
book, as well as a helpful and useful manual of religious reading." — New Yor 
Times. 

btCJOL 

SPSNCE (JACOB.)— Readings and Recitations speciaii; U 

adapted for Temperance workers and social gatherings, by Jacoi c 
Spence, Secretary Temperance and Prohibitory League. 8vo. ; Cloth n 
75c, Paper, 50c. 

. . . " It is a book that will serve a good purpose among the young mei W 
and women of our Temperance organizations, and will enable them to make th» F 
lodge room far more interesting than what it often is. The selections are all of t R 
high order, while a number of the best articles are original. As a whole, we cai F 
most heartily commend Mr. Spence's little volume to our Temperance friends. "— 
Evening Journal, St. Catharines. 

SALM-SALM (PRINCESS.)-Ten Years of my Life, 

by Princess Salm-Salm (the Canadian Princess). Crown 8vo. 
Cloth, $1.00, Paper Covers, 7 5c. With portrait of Princess. 

" The Princess Salm-Salm was recently married at Stuttgardt to a wealthy 
English gentleman, a Mr. Heneage by name. The marriage was celebrated with 
great eclat. Representatives of foreign courts were present, and the Emperors of 
Germany and Austria sent their congratulations. The bride was most elegantly 
dressed, and is described as still being singularly handsome . Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances a paragraph of this nature would have appeared among our gossipy 
clippings, but on account of the very remarkable history of the heroine — for 
heroine she is — we give the item greater prominence. It may be also worth while 
to add a word or two about the Princess. She is a native of Phillipsburg, Quebec, 
and daughter, as we have before stated in those columns, of Mr. Wm. Joy. 

Striking out for herself while young, in her teens, she was first a waiter girl in 
a Vermont hotel. Subsequently she distinguished herself in a circus, and after 
wards passed on to the boards of an American theatre. It was as an actress that 
the Prince Salm-Salm, who was a wild, roving character, met the Phillipsburg lass 
in Washington, and becoming fascinated with her charms, for she was unmistak- 
ably beautiful, proposed, and married her. 

The Princess has been once home to see her parents since her brilliant career 
dawned upon her. It was during the lifetime of her first husband, though he did 
not accompany her. She writes them at intervals, and has been mainly instru- 
mental in supporting them foi years past. 

Strange as may appear the foregoing, f it is true in every particular, and capable 
of the amplest verification." — St. John's Quebec News* 



In 



itii 



TWAIN (MARK)— The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 

by Mark Twain, author of " Innocents Abroad," " Roughing It," 
" Old Times on the Mississippi." Crown 8vo., 350 pages, Cloth, J 
$1.00, Paper Covers, 75c. 

. . . " The limitations of his transgressions are nicely and artistically 
traced. . . In a word, he is a boy on the moral side. What makes him de- 
lightful to the reader is that on the imaginative side he is very much more, and 
though every boy has wild and fantastic dreams, this boy cannot rest till he has 
somehow realized them. The local material and the incidents with which his 
career is worked up are excellent, and throughout there is scrupulous regard for 
the boy's point of view in reference to his surroundings and himself, which shows 
how rapidly Mr. Clemens has grown as an artist. We do not remember anything 
in which this propriety is violated, and its preservation adds immensely to th« 
grown-up reader's satisfaction in the amusing and exciting story." 

. . " Tom Brown and Tom Bailey are, among boys in books, alone de- 
serving to be named with Tom Sawyer." — The Atlantic Monthly. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUB OF BOOKS 

TREVELYAN, (Q. O)— The Life and Letters of Lord 

Macaulay, by his Nephew, G. Otto Trkvkiaan, MP. With 

Portrait on Steel. Complete in 2 vols. 8vo., Cloth, $3.00 j Half Calf, 

M $5.00 ; Full Morocco, $8.00. 

Mr. Trevelyan has written the memoir of his uncle with as much good taste as 
grateful and affectionate feeling. * * * Mr. Trevelyan has chiefly relied on copious 
•'J selections from a mass of the most unreserved family correspondence; for from his 
0! boyhood to the latest days of his career Macaulay lived with his sisters on terms of 
d he most loving intimacy, making ihem the confidants of all his hopes and feelings. 
' His letters to lady Trevelyan and others, while they bubble over with verve and j lay- 
illness, resemble rather those private journals which some men keep for their own 
atisfaction, but scrupulously reserve for personal reading. They make us intimately 
cquainted with the great author and statesman. We are presented to a man of most 
Jfectionate and lovable nature, with the gift of inspiring intense attachment and ad- 
niration in those who were the nearest and dearest to him. " — London Times. 

" The correspondence which fills so large a space is remarkable for its naturalness 
nd freedom, written without the slightest aim at literary effect, and relating the cur- 
ent events of the day with the frankness and hilarity of a roystering school-boy. 
lacaulay's warm domestic affections crop out on every occasion, and the whole tone 
f the letters indicates a man of unaffected simplicity of character and true nobleness 
f purpose. His sketches of the literary society of London, of which he was not to 
the manner born,' will charm many readers who retain a taste for personal gossip 
bout famous writers. " — N. Y. Tribune. 



We do not doubt that these volumes will be read throughout the world with a 
iriosity and an interest only to be surpassed by the success of Lord Macaulay's own 
ritings. " — Edinburgh Review. 

Mr. Trevelyan has produced, from very rich and attractive materials, a very 
slightful book." — Spectator, London. 

1 A delightful surprise even to the most insatiable devourer of biographies. * * * 
ire to be a classic among biographies. — N. Y. Times. 

It is rarely that a biography of a man of letters, a poet and a statesman, a man 
the world and a retired student, a favourite in society and a lover of home, can be 
herwise than interesting. It would be difficult to find one half so full of interest in 
details, and narrated so simply, eloquently, and judiciously, as this Life of Macau- 
y by his nephew, * * * There is not merely not one page that is dull, but there is 
t a page which has not some variety of charm to attract and absorb the delighted 
ider." — Notes and Queries, London. 

The biography is in every respect worthy of the subject. Mr. Trevelyan has 
ecuted his task with most praiseworthy modesty and good taste, and with great 
:rary skill. * * * Macaulay's life forms a most interesting book, living as he did 
the thick of the literary and political activity of his time. It affords us many fresh 
:tures of incidents in which he played a part, and amusing and instructive anecdotes 
the celebrities with whom he came in contact, and above all, it throws a great deal 
unexpected light on his own personal character." — Examiner, London. 

" In the pages of Mr. Trevelyan, readers will find that which ought to be studied, 
I can hardly be abridged." — Gladstone in the Quarterly Review. 

There has not been so good a biography since Stanley's Arnold." — Westminster 
piew. 



m 

it; 

lota 

icallj 
m 

■, and 
leiisi 
h his 
rd for 

shows " The biographies of three men, Samuel Johnson, 1709- 1784 (Boswell) ; Walter 
itnin| tt, 1771-1832 (Lockart) ; and Thomas Eabington Macaulay, 1800-1859 (Trevelyan), 
m er one hundred and fifty years of the literary history of England, and are probably 
best works of their class written." — Am. Bibliopolist. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

TWAIN (MARKO— Old Times on the Mississippi, by 

Mark Twain, author of " Innocents Abroad," "Roughing It," etc., 
etc. Tenth Edition. Crown 8vo. ; Cloth, 75c, Paper, 50c. 

" This is, without doubt, Mark Twain's most humourous work, it describes 
the ' good old ' racing days on the Mississippi in a manner which cannot help to 
please and instruct the reader. The work is now issued for the first time in book 
form." — The Press 

"The genial humour and wit of Mark Twain have made his name familiar 
wherever those qualities are appreciated. The present volume is in no way 
inferior to his numerous popular works, and in many respects it may be classed 
among his best. . . The book is most amusing." — Toronto Daily Mail. 

. • # "Is one of his best productious." — Kingston News. 

THOMPSON (H. L) — Thompson's Miscellaneous 

Readings and Recitations. Illuminated cover. Price, Boards, 
50c. Paper, 30c. This volume contains a series of pathetic, comic, 
and serious selections, edited by H. L. Thompson, Many of them 
are quite new, and all will be found well adapted for school exhibi- 
tions, literary entertainments and temperance gatherings, 

TROLLOPE (A)— The Prime Minister, by Anthony 

Trollope. Crown 8vo. j Cloth, $1.25, Paper, $1.00. 

" Mr- Trollope is the great master of the society novel of the day. 
He is her (George Eliot) superior in narration, and in the production of a sense of 
variety in the characters and in the every day scenes which he depicts. On great 
occasions his female rival rises superior to him ; but on all others he has, with an 
ease and simplicity of style in which he is without a superior, almost without a 
rival, a power like to yet different from that by which De Foe compels us to ac- 
cept his purely fictitious narratives as literally true relations of something that 
actually happened. . . . De Foe's manner is like modulation in music for the 
sake of modulation ; Trollope's like modulation by melody, or by harmonic pro- 
gression, which is in itself beautiful. . . . But Lady Glen is the life and soul 
of the book, she is so hearty, so earnest, so really unselfish ; and her talk is the 
most delightful womanly talk that was ever put on paper; witty, headlong, per- 
verse, whimsical, penetrative, unreasonable, unconsecutive, delicious, a more per- 
fectly natural or charming character than Lady Glen does not exist in modern 
fiction. 'The Prime Minister' will add to Mr. Trollope's reputation." — The 
Galaxy. 

" There is nothing in his novels to which Mr. Podsnap could object as likely 
to be offensive or harmful to ' the young person. ' Moreover, he is jacile princeps 
as a delineator of love and love-making ; and the wonderful power of invention 
displayed in turning the kaleidoscope of the tender passion, and presenting it in a 
hundred patterns cunningly differentiated, forms one of his chief attractions. 

" His novels have always been, and will doubtless continue to be, prime 
favourites with the fair. In the novel reading body politic, woman suffrage not 
only prevails but dominates, and, therefore, Mr. Trollope will never fail so long 
as he charms the majority of the electorate. . . . The present work is graphic 
and interesting. . . . The novel altogether is refreshing reading. "—-Thi 
Canadian Monthly. 

TURNER (MISS BESSIE)-A Woman in the Case, 

by Miss Bessie Turner. Demy 8vo. ; Paper, 50c. 

' ' A novel with a good deal of incident ingeniously conceived and well describ- 
ed. It is certainly readable and on that^ account to be praised. — Toronto Daily 
Mail. ■** 

11 The book is exceedingly|interesting, and well described." — Toronto Evtnmg 
Sun. 



(D 



G Spry, William James Joseph 

420 The crise of Her Majesty 1 s 

S78 ship "Challenger" 



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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

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