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Full text of "Our country's birds and how to know them. A guide to all the birds of Great Britain"

Ou\ tmftf^ BIWJ5 




CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



THIS BOOK IS THE GIFT OF 

John P. Young 



RETURN TO 
ALBERT R. MANN LIBRARY 

ITHACA, N. Y. 



°1iimK.Tf«,l^i/:^.f,.?"'' ""w «o know them 




3 1924 000 056 279 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000056279 



L J- 




OUR COUNTRY'S BIRDS 

AND HOW TO KNOW THEM. 

A GUIDE TO ALL THE BIRDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



BY 

W. J. GORDON. 



WITH AN ILLUSTRATION IN COLOUR OF EVERY SPECIES 
AND MANY ORIGINAL DIAGRAMS BY 

G. WILLIS AND R, E. HOLDING. 



NINETEENTH THOUSAND. 



LONDON : 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., Limited, 

^ llSUAI;Y 



©ur Counter's Series. 

By W. J. Gordon. 

Each with 33 coloured plates and other 

illustrations. Crown Suo, 6/- each. 

Also in a leather binding. 



Our Country's Flowers and How to 

Know Them. A complete Guide to the 
Flowers and Ferns of Great Britain. 

Our Country's Birds and How to Know 
Them. A Guide to all the Birds of 
Great Britain. 

Our Country's Butterflies and Moths 

and How to Know Them. A Guide to 
the Lepidoptera of Great Britain. 

Our Country's Shells and How to 

Know Them. A Guide to the British 
Mollusca. 

Our Country's Fishes and How to Know 
Them. A Guide to all the Fishes of 
Great Britain. 

Our Country's Animals and How to 

Know Them. (Mammals, Reptiles, 
Amphibians.) 



Egfgs of British Birds. Being a supple- 
ment to " Our Country's Birds." With 
i6 full-page coloured plates. 3/6 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE object of this book is to enable anyone to recognise and 
readily distinguish the birds on the British list ; and this it 
does by a system of elimination somewhat similar to that adopted in 
" Our Country's Flowers." 

To the beginner it is assuredly of the first importance that he should 
know the name of the thing with which lie is dealing. Until he 
knows that, he is unable to ascertain what is already known about it, 
for the existing books invariably assume that he possesses this 
preliminary knowledge. And when he knows more of his subject a 
handy method of separating family from family, genus from genus, 
and species from species, by a few prominent characteristics, must 
have its advantages, if only in the saving of labour and time. 

Although our book necessarily touches on the general subject, its 
examples are strictly limited to our country's avifauna, concerning 
which an awkward question presents itself, which may fitly be 
answered in this introduction. 

What is a British bird ? Strictly speaking, there is but one British 

bird, and that is the one the state of whose health is invariably 

chronicled in the newspapers on or about the 12th of August. The 

Red Grouse is the only bird peculiar to this island, and found native 

nowhere else. The rest of the birds we see around us are mostly 

characteristic of the whole Palaearctic region, stretching right away 

to Japan, while some go as far south as the Victoria Nyanza, and 

A 2 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

further to the Transvaal, and others even breed as far to the north 
as Grinnell Land, within eight degrees of the Pole. 

Of this miscellaneous troop of residents and visitors, regular and 
irregular, there are nearly four hundred ; but among the visitors are a 
large sprinkling of "casuals," included on very doubtful pretences. 
Englishmen are often accused of a desire to paint the world red ; the 
average British ornithologist would apparently like to paint all the 
birds red, provided his name appeared on the label. Really one 
shudders at the audacity with which the Flamingo, for instance, is 
claimed as British, although there is an excuse for so claiming him ; 
but when we find Bulwer's Petrel duly naturalised on the strength of 
a solitary specimen found floating dead in a Yorkshire river, we feel 
that we are quite near enough to the unreasonable. 

There are at least a hundred and fifty species gathered under the 
home flag, owing to their having been killed in this country in much 
the same way as if we were to shoot the Chinese Ambassador and 
claim him as British because he died on British ground. But would 
he have come in a " wild " state ? Perhaps not ; but neither did all 
the birds that figure in the British list. 

It is very difficult to draw the line ; though, at first sight, the 
only true ground of admission would seem to be a birth qualification. 
If a bird can be shown to breed here, out of captivity, some at least 
of his kind can be assumed to be of British nationality. If, however, 
we were to adopt this qualification, we should only have the birds 
whose names appear in the outer margin in our third chapter, and 
many of our familiar friends would be lost to us. But we need 
hardly trouble ourselves further in this matter, although we could not 
well pass it unnoticed. This is a book of identification, not of classi- 
fication ; and it is obvious that our only course is to adopt the full 
authorised Ust, and show how the species can be distinguished from 
each other ; and when we have done that, we can remark on the 
fewness of appearances which has enabled so many of the rarer birds 
to lengthen and complicate our task. 

In our first chapter are the names, both popular and technical, 
which have been used throughout ; in the second is a long list of the 



common and rarer local names, with references to the numbers under 
which the birds are described, although, to save mere repetition, these 
names may not again be mentioned. In the next chapter is the 
systematic list, so that with the first part of the book, and the plates, a 
bird whose name is known can be at once identified. The plates 
contain a figure in colour of a male in full plumage of every species in 
the three lists, and in a few instances the female is also given. In the 
fourth chapter the families are sorted out so as to leave the Passerine 
birds for special treatment ; and in the fifth the key to this sorting is 
given in the table to which the specimen it is desired to name should 
be referred. The sixth and seventh chapters are on a similar 
principle: in the one the Passerines are sorted out, and examples 
given of identification, and in the other the key to this arrangement 
is given in tabular form. In the eighth chapter the families are 
grouped into the orders, old and new, although the orders are not 
necessary in our plan of identification. In the ninth chapter the 
families are arranged alphabetically, and with this index the specimen 
should be compared to confirm the diagnosis obtained from the 
previous keys. When the family is known, reference should be made 
to the next chapter in which is the analysis into genera; and when 
the genus is known, the index of species should be consulted in which 
the genera are in turn analysed, and brief notes given as to plumage, 
flight, song, and nest. In the twelfth chapter the dimensions of each 
bird are worked out so as to help in its identification by measurement ; 
and in the las^t chapter is a tabular arrangement for the identification 
of the eggs. In short, we have endeavoured to get at the bird's iden- 
tification in many ways, and have relied on combination for success. 

W. J. G. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

I. The Names of the Birds ...... ' 

II. Local and Popular Names , , , . ? 7 
III. The Coloured Plates . . , , ■ • i5 



Plate 


i.,f 


igures 


i I to 


II. 


Plate 


ii., 


)J 


12 - 


26. 


Plate 


iii., 


>» 


27 - 


44. 


Plate 


iv., 


)) 


45 - 


59- 


Plate 


v., 


>» 


6o - 


72. 


Plate 


vi., 


Jl 


73 - 


86. 


Plate 


vii., 


)J 


87 - 


lOI. 


Plate 


viii., 


»1 


I02 - 


I iS. 


Plate 


ix., 


Jt 


119 - 


131- 


Plate 


X., 


,, 


132 - 


143- 


Plate 


xi., 


?1 


144 - 


152. 


Plate 


xii., 


» 


153 - 


160. 


Plate 


xiii., 


)J 


i6i - 


170. 


Plate 


xiv., 


T 


171 - 


17S. 


Plate 


XV., 


J) 


179 - 


187. 


Plate 


xvi., 


JJ 


188 - 


198. 


Plate 


xvii., 


>» 


199 - 


207. 


Plate 


xviii., 


n 


208 - 


216. 


Plate 


xix., 


51 


217 - 


226. 


Plate 


XX., 


Jf 


227 - 


234- 


Plate 


xxi., 


U 


235 - 


248. 


Plate 


xxii., 


,, 


249 - 


262. 



Plate xxiii., figures 263 to 272a. 

Plate xxiv., „ 273 - 2S4. 

Plate XXV., „ 285 - 291. 

Plate xxvi., „ 292 - 303. 

Plate xxvii., „ 304 - 316. 

Plate xxviii., „ 317 - 32S. 

Plate xxix., „ 329 - 340. 

Plate xxx., „ 341 - 353. 

Plate xxxi., „ 354 - 368. 

Plate xxxii., „ 369 - 383. 

Plate xxxiii., „ 384 - 398. 

IV. SORTATION 29 

V. The Families , ... 40 

VI. Examples of Identification 43 

VII. The Passerine Sub-Families 55 

via. The Orders 57 

IX. Index to the Families and Sub-Families . . 62 

X. The Genera - 67 

XI. The Species 75 

XII. Dimensions 131 

Kill. Eggs ... ...... .140 



DIAGRAMS. 



Foot of Falcon 

Foot of Owl . 

Foot of Guillemot . 

Wing of Rook 

Foot of Stone Curlew 

Foot of Golden Plover 

Dorsal View of Thrush 

Ventral View of Thrush 

Foot of Cormorant 

Foot of Ivory Gull 

Foot of Swan 

Foot of Avocet 

Foot of Kingfisher 

Foot of Pheasant 

Beak of Nightjar 

Foot and Claw of Nightjar 

Foot of Heron 

Foot of Grebe 

Foot of Coot 

Foot of Moorhen 

Foot of Swift 

Foot of Cuckoo 

Wing of Lark 

Head of Corn Bunting 

Palate of Corn Bunting 

Head of Swallow . 

Wing of Thrush 

Foot of Creeper 

Head of Flycatcher 

Head of Shrike 

Head of Nuthatch . 

Head of Hedge Sparrow 

Dorsal Feather Tracts 

Ventral Feather Tracts 

Sternum of Carinate Bird 

Schizognathous Skull of Crane 

/Cgithognathous Skull of Raven 

Desmognathous Skull of Goose 

Typical Eggs . 



pAca 
29 

30 
31 
31 

32 
33 
33 
34 
34 
35 
35 
36 
36 
36 
36 
Z7 
37 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
45 
46 

46 
46 
46 
48 
49 
58 
59 
59 
60 
141 



CHAPTER I. 

THE NAMES OF THE BIRDS, 



HEREUNDER are the names which our country's birds bear in 
this book. They have many other names, both popular and 
technical, and some of them have even shared several of these names 
amongst them ; in fact, the synonymy of ornithology is so peculiarly 
rich and bewildering, that the only way of avoiding confusion would 
seem to be this, of beginning with definitions in the manner of Euclid, 
that there may be no mistake as to what we are talking about. 

The numbers refer to the coloured plates, and are the numbers used 
throughout. 



Alpine Accentor, 46 

Accentor collaris. 

Auk, Great, 374 

Alca impennU. 

Auk, Little, 378 

Mergulus alle. 

Avocet, 304 

Recurvirostra avocetta. 

Bee-eater, 154 

Merops apiaster. 

Bee-eater, Blue-tailed, 

Merops phihppiiius. 
Bittern, 210 

Botaurus stellaris. 

Bittern, American, 211. 

Botaurus lentiginosus. 

Bittern, Little, 208 

Ardetta mlnuta. 

Blackbird, 9 

Merulavu'garis. 
Blackcap, 26 

Sylvia atricapilla. 
Bluethroat, Red-spotted, 
20 

Cyanecula suecica. 

Bluethroat, White-spot- 
ted, 19 

Cyanecula wolfi. 



Bramblin^, 96 

Fringilla montifringilla. 

Bullfinch, to2 

Pyrrhula europEea. 

Bunting, Black-headed, 

109 

Emberiza melanoccphala. 

Bunting, Cirl, 112 

Emberiza cirlus. 

Bunting, Corn, no 

Emberiza miliaria. 

Bunting, Lapland, 117 

Calcarius lapponicus. 
Bunting, Little, 115 

Emberiza pusilla. 

Bunting, Ortolan, 113 

Emberiza hortulana. 

Bunting, Reed, 116 

Emberiza schceniclus. 
Bunting, Rustic, 114 

Emberiza rustica. 

Bunting, Snow, 118 

Plectrophanes nivalis. 

Bunting, Yellow, in 

Emberiza citrinella. 

Bustard, Great, 287 

Otis tarda. 

Bustard, Little, 288 

Otis tetrax. 



Bustard, Macqueen's, 289 

Otis macquceiii. 

Buzzard, 176 

Buteo vulgaris. 
Buzzard, Honey, i83 

Pernis apivorus. 

Buzzard, Rough-legged, 

177 
Archibuteo lagopus. 



Canary, Wild, 90 

Serinus canarius. 

CapercaiUie, 269 

Tetrao urogallus. 

ChafSnch, 95 

Fringilla caelebs. 
Chiffchaff, 33 

Phylloscopus rufus. 

Chough, 122 

Pyrrhocorax graculus. 

Chough, Alpine, 123 

Pyrrhocorax alpinus. 
Coot, 284 
Fulica atra. 

Cormorant, 199 

Phalacrocorax carbo. 

Courser.Cream-coloured, 
292 

Cursorius gallicus. 



THE NAMES OF THE BIRDS. 



Crake, BaiUon's, 281 

Crex bailloni. 

Crake, Com, 278 

Crex pratensis. 

Crake, Little, 280 

Crex parva. 

Crake, Spotted, 279 
Crex marueLca. 

Crane, 285 

Grub communis. 

Crane, Demoiselle, 2S6 

Grus virgo. 

Creeper, Tree, 85 

Certhia familiaris. 

Creeper, Wall, 85 
Tichodroma muraria. 

Crossbill, 105 

Loxia curvirostra. 
CrosBbiU, Parrot, 106 

Loxia pityopsitlacus. 

Crossbill, Two-barrea, 108 

Loxia bifasciata. 

Crossbill, Wbite-winged, 
107 

Loxia leucoptera. 

Crow, Carrion, 128 

Corvus corone. 

Crow, Hooded, 129 

Corvus comix. 
Cuckoo, IS7 
Cuculus canorus. 

Cuckoo, Black-billed, r6o 

Coccyzuserytlirophlhalnms. 

Cuckoo, Great Spotted, 
158 ^ . 

Coccystes glandarius. 
Cuclioo,YeUow-l>illed, 159 
Coccyzus americanus. 

Curlew, 338 

Niimenius arquatus. 
Curlew, Eskimo, 340 

Numenius borealis. 

Curlew, Stone, 290 

CEdicnemus scolopax. 

Dipper, 47 

Ciuclus aquaticus. 

Dipper, Black-bellied, 48 

Cinclus meianogaster. 

Diver, Black-tliroated, 
382 

Colymbus arcticus. 
Diver, Great Northern, 

380 
Colymbus glacialis. 

Diver, Red-throated, 383 

Colymbus septentrionali.s. 

Diver, Yellow-biUed, 381 

Colymbus adamsi. 



Dotterel, 293 

Eudromias morinellus. 

Dove, Ring, 263 

Columba palumbus. 
Dove, Rock, 265 
Columba livia. 

Dove, Stock, 264 

Columba osnas. 

Dove, Turtle, 266 

Turtur communis. 

Duck, Buffel-headed, 250 

Clangula albeola. 

Duck, Harlequin, 252 

Cosmonetta histrionica. 

Duck, Long-tailed, 251 

Harelda glacialis. 

Duck, Ruddy Sbeld, 234 

Tadorna casarca. 

Duck, Sheld, 233 

Tadorna comma. 

Duck, Tufted, 247 

Fuligula cristata. 

Duck, WMte-eyed, 246 

Fuligula nyroca. 

Dunlin, 316 

Tringa alpina. 



Eagle, Golden, 179 

Aquila chrysaetus. 

Bagle, Sea, 180 

Haliactus albicilla. 

Eagle, Spotted, 178 

Aquila clanga. 

Egret, Little, 205 

Ardea garzetta. 
Eider Duck, 253 
Somateria moUissima. 

Eider, King, 254 

Somateria spectabilis. 

Eider, Steller's, 255 

Somateria stelleri. 



Falcon, Greenland, igo 

Falco candicans. 
Falcon, Gyr, 189 

Falco gyrfalco. 

Falcon, Iceland, 191 

Falco islandus. 
Falcon, Peregrine, 192 

Falco peregrinus. 

Falcon, Red-footed, 195 

Falco vespertinus. 

Fieldfare, 4 

Turdus pilaris. 

Flamingo, 216 

Phoenicopterus roseus. 
Flycatcher, Pied, 79 

Muscicapa atricapilla. 



Flycatcher, Red- 
breasted, 80 

Muscicapa parva. 

Flycatcher, Spotted, 78 

Muscicapa grisola. 

Fulmar, 389 

Fulmarus glacialis. 

Gadwall, 236 

Anas streperus. 

Gannet, 201 
Aula bassana. 

Garganey, 241 

QuerqueduLi circia. 

Godwlt, Bar-tailed, 336 

Limosa lapponica. 

Godwit, Blaok-taUed, 337 

Limosa belgica. 

Goldeneye, 249 

Clangula glaucion. 

Goldfinch, 87 

Carduelis elegans. 

Goosander, 259 

Mergus merganser. 

Goose, Barnacle, 224 

Bernicla le^copsis. 

Goose, Bean, 218 

Anser segetum. 

Goose, Brent, 223 

Eernicla brenta. 

Goose, Canada, 225 

Bernicla canadensis. 
Goose, Grey Lag, 217 
Anser cinereus. 

Goose, Lesser White - 
fronted, 221 

Anser erythropus. 

Goose, Fink-footed, 219 

Anser brachyrhynchus. 

Goose, Red-breasted, 226 

Bernicla ruficollis. 

Goose, Snow, 222 

Anser hyperboreus. 

Goose, White-fronted,22o 

Anser albifrons. 
Gos Hawk, 181 

Accipiter palumbarius. 

Gos Hawk, American, 1E12 

Accipiter atricapiUus. 

Grebe, Eared, 387 

Podiceps nigricollis. 

Grebe, Great Crested, 38.) 

Podiceps cristatus. 

Grebe, Little, 388 

Podiceps fluviatilis. 

Grebe, Red-necked, 385 

Podiceps gnseigena. 

Grebe, Sclavonian, 386 

Podiceps auritus. 



THE NAMES OF THE BIRDS. 



Greenflncli, gi 

Liguriniis chloris. 

Greenshank, 335 

Totanus canescens. 

Grosteak, Pine, 104 

Pyrrhula enucleator. 

Grosbeak, Scarlet, 103 

Pyrrhula erythrina. 

Grouse, Black, 270 

Tetrao tetrix. 

Grouse, Pallas's Sand, 268 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus. 
Grouse, Ked, 271 

Tetrao scoticus. 

Guillemot, 375 

Uria troile. 

Guillemot, Black, 377 

Uria grylle. 

Guillemot, Briinnicli's, 

37'5 
Uria bruennichi. 

Gull, Black-headed, 358 

Laru.s ridibundus. 
Gull, Bonaparte's, 356 

Larus Philadelphia. 
Gull, 361 
Larus canus. 

Gull, Glaucous, 36s 
Larus glaucus. 

Gull,Great Black-backed, 

364 

Larus marinus. 

Gull, Great Black-headed, 

360 

Larus ichthyaetus. 

Gull, Herring, 362 

Larus argentatus. 

Gull, Iceland, 366 

Larus leucoptcrus. 

Gull, Ivory, 368 

Pagophila ebumea. 

Gull, Lesser Black- 
backed, 363 

Larus fuscus. 

Gull, Little, 3S7 

Larus minutus. 

Gull, Mediterranean 
Black-beaded, 359 

Larus melanocephalus. 

Gull, Sabine's, 354 

Xema sabinii. 
Gull, Wedge-tailed, 355 

Rhodostethia rosea. 



Harrier, Hen, 174 

Circus cyaneus. 

Harrier, Marsb, 173 

Circus a^ruginosus. 



Harrier, Montagu's, 175 

Circus cineraceus. 

Hawfinch, 92 

Coccothraustes vulgaris. 

Hemipode, Andalusian, 

277 

Turnix sylvatica. 

Heron, 202 

Ardea cinerea. 

Heron, Buff-backed, 206 

Ardea bubulcus. 

Heron, Great White, 204 

Ardea alba. 

Heron, Night, 209 

Nycticorax griseus. 

Heron, Purple, 203 

Ardea purpurea. 

Heron, Squacco, 207 

Ardea ralloides. 

Hobby, 193 

Falco subbuteo. 

Hoopoe, 156 

Upupa epops. 

Ibis, Glossy, 215 
Ibis falcinellus. 

Jackdaw, 127 

Corvus monedula. 

Jay, 125 

Garrulus glandatius. 

Kestrel, 196 

Falco ti'nnunculus. 
Kestrel, Lesser, 197 

Falco cenchris. 

Kingfisher, 151 

Alcedo ispida. 

Kingfisher, Belted, 152 
Ceryle alcyon. 

Kite, 184 

Milvus ictinus. 

Kite, Black, 185 

Milvus migrans. 

Kite, Black-winged, 787 

Elanus cxruleus. 

Kite, Swallow-tailed, 186 

ElanoTdes furcatus. 

Kittiwake, 367 

Rissa tridactyla. 
Knot, 322 

Tringa canutus. 

Lapwing, 301 

Vanellus cristatus. 

Lark, Crested, 134 

Alauda cristata. 
Lark, Shore, 137 
Otocorys alpestris. 



Lark, Short-toed, 13s 

Alauda brachydactyla. 

Lark, Sky, 132 

Alauda arvensis. 

Lark, White-winged, 136 

Alauda sibirica. 

Lark, Wood, 133 

Alauda arborea. 

Linnet, 97 
Linota cannabina. 



Magpie, 126 

Pica rustica. 

Mallard, 235 

Anas boscas. 

Martin, 82 

Hinmdo urbica. 

Martin, Purple, 84 

Hirundo purpurea. 

Martin, Sand, 83 

Hirundo riparia. 

Merganser, Hooded, 262 

Mergtis cucullatus. 

Merganser, Ked- 
breasted, 260 

Mergus serrator. 

Merlin, 194 

Falco xsalon. 

Moorhen, 283 

Gallinula chloropus. 

Nightingale, 22 

Dauli.is luscinia. 
Nightjar, 141 

Capriraulgus europa:us. 

Nightjar, Egyptian, 1.13 

Caprimulgus aigyptius. 

Nightjar, Ked-necked, 142 

Caprimulgus ruficollis. 

Noddy, 353 

Anous stolidus. 

Nutcracker, 124 

Nucifraga caryocatactes. 
Nuthatch, 58 

Sitta C£esia. 



Oriole, Golden, 72 

Oriolus galbula. 

Osprey, 198 

Pandion haliaetus. 

Ouzel, BiBg, 10 

Merula torquatus. 

Owl, Bam, 161 

Strix flammea. 

Owl, Eagle, 169 

Bubo ignavus. 

Owl, Hawk, 166 

Surnia ulula. 



THE NAMES OF THE BIRDS. 



Owl, Little, 1 70 

Athene noctua. 

Owl, Long-eared, 162 

Asio otus. 
Owl, Scops, 168 

Scops giu. 

Owl, Short-eared, 163 

Asio accipitrinus. 

Owl, Snowy, 165 

Nyctea scandiaca. 

Owl, Tawny, 164 
Syrnium aluco. 

Owl, Tengmalm's, 167 

Nj'ctala tengmalmi. 

Oystercatohsr, 303 

Haematopus ostralegus. 

Partridge, 275 

Perdix cinerea. 

Partridge, Eed-legged, 

274 
Perdix rufa. 

Petrel, Bulwer's, 395 

Bulweria coltimbina. 

Petrel, Capped, 390 

Futmarus hsesitatus. 

Petrel, Fork-tailed, 396 

Procellaria leucorrhoa. 

Petrel, Stormy, 397 

Procellaria pelagica. 

Petrel, Wilson's, 398 

Oceanites oceanicus. 

Plialarope, Grey, 307 

Fhalaropus fulicarius. 

Fhalarope, Bed-necked, 
306 

Fhalaropus hyperboreus. 

Pheasant, 273 

Phasianus colchicus. 

Pigeon, Passenger, 267 

Ectopistes migratorius. 

Pintail, 238 

Dalila acuta. 

Pipit, Meadow, 66 

Anthus pratensis. 

Pipit, Richard's, 69 

Anthus richardi. 

Pipit, Kook, 71 

Anthus obscurus. 
Pipit, Tawny, 63 
Anthus campestris. 

Pipit, Tree, 67 

Anthus trivialis. 

Pipit, Water, 70 

Anthus spipoietta. 

Plover, Eastern Golden, 
29s . 

Charadrius fulvus. 



Plover, Golden, 294 

Charadrius pluvialis. 

Plover, Grey, 296 

Squatarola helvetica. 

Plover, Kentish, 299 

yCgialitis cantianus. 

Plover, Eilldeer, 300 

.(Egialitis vociferus. 

Plover, Little Ringed, 298 

iEgialitis curonicus. 

Plover, Ringed, 297 

^gialitis hiaticula. 

Pochard, 245 

Fuligula ferina. 

Pochard, Red-crested, 244 

Fuligula rufina. 

Pratincole, Collared, 291 

Glareola pratincola. 

Ptarmigan, 272 

Tetrao mutus. 
PufSn, 379 

Fratercula arctica. 



Quail, 276 

Coturnix communis. 



RaU, Water, 282 

Rallus aquaticus. 

Raven, 131 

Corvus corax. 

Razorbill, 373 

Alca torda. 

Redpoll, Greenland, 100 

Linota hornemanni. 

Redpoll, Lesser, 99 

Linota rufescens. 

Redpoll, IKealy, 98 

Linota linaria. 

Redshank, 332 

Totanus calidris. 

Redshank, Spotted, 333 

Totanus fuscus. 

Redstart, 17 
Ruticilla phcenicurus. 

Redstart, Black, i3 

Ruticilla titys. 
Redwing, 3 

Turdus iliacus. 

Bohin, 21 

Erithacus rubecuJa. 
Rohin, American, 5 

T.-iiius migratorius. 

Roller, 153 

Coracias garrula. 

Rook, i3o 

Corvus frugilegus. 
Ruff, 323 

Machetes pugnax. 



Sanderling, 324 

Calidris arenaria. 

Sandpiper, Bartram's, 

326 
Bartramia longicauda. 

Sandpiper, Bonaparte's, 

315 

Tringa fuscicollis. 

Sandpiper, Broad-billed, 

313 

Limicola platyrhyncha. 

Sandplper,Buff-breasted, 

325 

Tryngites rufescens. 

Sandpiper, Common, 327 

Totanus hypoleucus. 
Sandpiper, Curlew, 320 

Tringa subarquata. 

Sandpiper, Green, 329 

Totanus ochropus. 
Sandpiper, Pectoral, 314 

Tringa maculata. 

Sandpiper, Purple, 321 

Tringa maritima. 

Sandpiper, Solitary, 331 

Totanus solitarius. 

Sandpiper, Spotted, 328 

Totanus macularius. 

Sandpiper, Wood, 330 

Totanus glareola. 

Scaup, 248 

Fuligula marila. 
Scoter, 256 

CEdemia nigra. 
Scoter, Surf, 258 

CEdemia perspicillata. 

Scoter, Velvet, 257 

CEdemia fusca. 

Serin, 89 

Serinus hortulanus. 
Shag, 200 
Phalacrocorax graculus. 

Shearwater, Dusky, 394 

Pufifiiius obscurus. 

Shearwater, Great, 391 

PuliEinus major. 

Shearwater, Manx, 393 

Puffinus anglorum. 
Shearwater, Sooty, 392 

Puffinus griseus. 
Shoveller, 237 

Spatula clypeata. 
Shrike, Great Grey, 73 

Lanius excubitor. 
Shrike, Lesser Grey, 74 

Lanius minor. 

Shrike, Red-backed, 75 

Lanius coUurio. 
Siskin, 88 

Carduelis spinas. 



THE N\MES OF THE BIRDS. 



Skua, Arctic or Richard- 
son's, 371 

Stercorarlus crepidatus, 

Slma, Great, 369 

Sti:rcorarius catarrhactes. 

Skua, Loug-talled or 
Buffon's, 372 

Stcrcorarius parasiticus. 

Skua, Fomatorliine, 370 

Stercorarlus pomatorhinus. 

Smew, 261 

Mergus albellus. 

Snipe, 310 

Gallinago ccelestia. 

Snipe, Great, 309 

GalUnago major. 

Snipe, Jack, 311 

GaUinago gallinula. 

Snipe, Ked-breasted, 312 

Macrorhampus griseus. 

Sparrow Hawk, 183 

Accipiter nisus. 

Sparrow, Hedge, 45 

Accentor modularis. 

Sparrow, House, 93 

Passer domesticus. 

Sparrow, Tree, 94 

Passer montanus. 

Spoonbill, 214 

Platalea leucorodia. 

Starling, 120 
Sturnus vulgaris. 

StarUng.Eed- winged, 119 

A^elseus phoeniceus. 

Starling, Rose-coloured, 
121 

Pastor roseus. 

Stilt, Black-winged, 305 

Himantopus candidus. 

Stint, American, 319 

Tringa minutilla. 

Stint, Little, 317 

Tring? minuta. 

Stint, Temminck's, 318 
Tringa temmincki. 

Stonechat, 16 

Pratincola rubicola. 

Stork, Black, 213 

Ciconia nigra. 

Stork, WMte, 212 

Ciconia alba. 

Swallow, 81 

Hirundo rustica. 
Swan, American, 230 

Cygnus americanus. 
Swan, Bewick's, 232 

Cygnus bewicki. 

Swan, Hooper, 229 

Cygnus musicus. 



Swan, Mute, 227 

Cygnus oUir. 

Swan, Folisb, 22S 

Cj'gnus'immutabilis. 

Swan, Trumpeter, 231 

Cygnus buccinator. 

Swift, 138 
Cypselus apus. 

Swift, Alpine, 139 

Cypselus melba. 

Swift, Needle-tailed, 140 

Acanthyllis caudacuta. 

Teal, 239 

Querquedula crecca. 

Teal, American Blue- 
winged, 240 
Quenjuedula discors. 

Tern, Arctic, 349 

Sterna macrura. 

Tern, Caspian, 345 

Sterna caspia. 

Tern, 348 

Sterna fluviatilis. 

Tern, Black, 341 

Hydrochelidon nigra. 

Tern, Gull-billed, 344 

Sterna anglica. 

Tern, Lesser Sooty, 352 

Sterna anse^theta. 
Tern, Little, 350 

Sterna minuta. 

Tern, Roseate, 347 

Sterna dougalH. 

Tern, Sandwich, 346 

Sterna cantiaca. 

Tern, Sooty, 351 

Sterna fuliginosa. 
Tern, Whiskered, 343 

Hydrochelidon hybrida. 

Tern, White-winged 
Black, 342 

Hydrochelidon leucoptera. 

Thrush, 2 

Turdus musicus. 

Thrush, Black-throated,6 

Turdus atrigularis. 

Thrush, Missel, 1 

Turdus viscivorus. 

Thrush, Rock, 11 

Monticola saxatilis. 

Thrush, Siberian, 8 

Geocichla sibirica. 

Thrush, White's, 7 

Geocichla varia. 

Tit, Bearded, 49 

Panurus biarmicus. 

Tit, Blue, 56 

Parus coeruleus. 



Tit, British Coal, 54 

Parus britannicus. 

Tit, British Long-tailed, 

SI 
Acredula rosea. 

Tit, Continental Coal, 53 

Parus ater. 

Tit, Crested, 57 

Parus cristatus. 

Tit, Great, 32 

Parus major. 

Tit, Marsh, 55 

Parus paiiistris. 

Tit, White-headed Long- 
tailed, 50 

Acredula caudata. 
Turnstone, 302 

Strepsilas interpres. 
Twite, loi 

Linota flavirostris. 

Vulture, Griffon, 171 

Gyps fulvus. 

Vulture, Egyptian, 172 

Neophron percnopterus. 

Wagtail, Blue-headed 
Yellow, 63 

Motacilla flava. 

Wagrtail, Grey, 62 

Motacilla melanope. 

Wagtail, Grey-headed 
YeUow, 64 

Motacilla viridis. 

Wagtail, Fled, 61 

Motacilla lugubris. 

Wagtail, White, 60 

Motacilla alba. 

Wagtail, Yellow, 65 

Motacilla raii. 

Warbler, Aquatic, 41 

Acrocephalus aquaticus- 

Warbler, Barred, 28 

Sylvia nisoria. 
Warbler, Dartford, 29 

Melizophilus undatus. 
Warbler, Garden, 27 

Sylvia hortensis. 

Warbler, Grasshopper, 43 

Locustella nxvia. 

Warbler, Great Reed, 40 

Acrocephalus turdoidcs. 

Warbler, loterine, 36 

Hypolais icterina. 

Warbler, Marsh, 39 

Acrocephalus palustris. 

Warbler, Orphean, 25 

Sylvia or^jhea. 

Warbler, Reed, 38 

Acrocephalus streperus. 



THE NAMES OF THE BIRDS. 



Warbler, Rufous, 37 

Aedon gatactodes. 

Warbler, Savl'a, 44 

Locusteila luscinioides. 
Warbler, Sedge, 42 

Acrocephalus phragmitis. 

Warbler, Yellow-browed, 

Phylloscopus superciliosus. 

Waxwing, 77 

Ampelis garrulus. 

Wheatear, 12 

Saxicola cenanthe, 

Wheatear, Black- 
tiroated, 13 

Sax'.cola stapazina. 

Wbeatear, Desert, 14 

Saxicola deserti. 

WMmbrel, 339 

Nuiiienius phcCopus. 

TMiincbat, 15 
Pratiiicola rubvtra. 



Wbltetliroat, 23 

Sylvia cinerea. 

Wbitetbroat, Lesser, 24 

Sylvia curruca. 

Wigeon, 242 

Mareca penelope. 

Wigeon, American, 243 

Mareca americana. 

Woodchat, 76 

Lanius pomeranus. 

Woodcocls, 308 

Scolopax rusticola. 

Woodpecker, Downy, 147 

Picus pubescens. 

Woodpecker, Great 
Black, 143 

Picus martius. 

Woodpecker, Great 
Spotted, 144 

Pictei major. 

Woodpecker, Green, 149 

GeciDus viridis. 



Woodpecker, Hairy, 746 

Picus villosus. 

Woodpecker, Lesser 
Spotted, 14s 

Picus minor. 

Wren, 59 

Troglodytes parvulus. 

Wren, Fire-crested, 31 

Regulus ignicapillus. 

Wren, Gold-crested, 30 

Regulus cristatus. 

Wren, Willow, 34 

Phylloscopus trochiliis. 

Wren, Wood, 35 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix. 

Wryneck, 150 

lynx torquilla. 

Yellowshank, 334 

Totanus flavipct- 



CHAPTER II. 

LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



' I 'HE references in this list are not to the pages, but to the figures on 



i 



the coloured plates. It will be seen that many of the names given 



in the preceding chapter are unfortunately borne locally by very different 
species, and more instances of this might have been included, as well as 
more names ; but the list as it is seemed to contain all that was note- 
worthy, and to be quite lengthy enough. 



Aberdevine, 88 
Accentor, 46 
AUsa Parrot, 379 
Alpine Accentor, 46 
Alpine Chough, 123 
Alpine Swift, 139 
American Bittern, 211 
American Blue - winged 

Teal, 240 
Ammer Goose, 380 
American 60s Hawk, 182 
American Kobin, 5 
American Stint, 319 
American Swan, 230 
American Wigeon, 243 
Andalusian Hemipode, 

277 
Annet, 361, 367 
Aquatic Warbler, 41 
Arctic Skua, 371 
Arctic Tern, 349 
Assilag, 397 
Auk, 373-378 
Avocet, 304 

BaiUon's Crake, 281 
Bald Duck, 284 
Bald Goose, 3so 
Bald Pate, 242, 243 
Bank Swallow, 73 
Bardrake, 233, 260 
Bar Gander, 233 
Bar Goose, 224 



Barker, 304 
Barley Bird, 22, 361 
Barnacle Goose, 224 
Bam Owl, 161 
Barred Warbler, 28 
Barred Willow Warbler, 

Barred Woodpecker, 145 
Bar-tailed Godwit, 337 
Bartram's Sandpiper, 326 
Bass Cock, 379 
Bass Goose, soi 
Bawkie, 373 
Bay Duck, 233 
Beam Bird, 79 
Beau Goose, 218 
Bearded Tit, 49 
Beardie, 23 
Bee-eater, 154 
Belted Kingfisher, 132 
Bernicle Goose, 224 
Bewick's Swan, 232 
Bilcock, 282 
Billy Biter, 56 
Bittern, 210 
Bittour, 210 

Black-bellied Dipper, 48 
Black-billed Cuckoo, 160 
Blackbird, 9 
Black Bonnet, 116 
Black Cap, 16, 26, 55, 

358 
Black Cock, 270 



Black Curlew, 215 
Black Duck, 248, 256 
Black Eagle, 179 
Black Game, 270 
Black Goose, 223 
Black Grouse, 270 
Black Guillemot, 377 
Black -headed Bunting, 

109 
Black-headed Gull, 356 
Black-headed Tit, 52 
Blackie, 9 
Black Kite, 185 
Black Oxeye, 54 
Black Poker, 247 
Black Redstart, 18 
Black Sandpiper, 322 
Blackstart, 18 
Black Stork, 213 
Black Tern, 341 
Black-throated Diver,382 
Black-throated Thrush, 6 
Black - throated Wheat- 
ear, 13 
Black Thrush, 9 
Black Wigeou, 247 
Black-winged Kite, 187 
Black-winged Stilt, 305 
BlakeUng, in 
Blethering Tarn, 23 
Blood Hawk, 196 
Blue Back, 4 
Blue Bird, 4 



8 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Blue Breast, 19 

Blue Darr, 341 

Blue Dickie, 45 

Blue Dove, 265 

Blue Felt, 4 

Blue Gled, 174 

Blue Hawk, 174, 183, 192, 

194 
Blue -beaded Tellow 

Wagtail, 63 
Blue Kite, 174 
Blue Merlin, 183 
Blue Oxeye, 36 
Blue Poker, 243 
Blue Kock, 264 
Blue Tail, 4 
Blue - tailed Bee-eater, 

155 
Blue Throat, 19, 20 
Blue Tit, 36 
Blue Yaup, 56 
Bohemian Chatterer, 77 
Bonaparte's Gull, 336 
Bonaparte's Sandpiper, 

315 
Bonxie, 369 
Bottlenose, 379 
Bottle Tit, SI 
Brambling, 96 
Bran TaU, 17 
Brent Goose, 223 
British Coal Tit, 54 
British Long-tailed Tit, 

SI 
Broad Bill, 237 
Broad-billed Sandpiper, 

313 
Brook Ouzel, 2S2 
Brown Hen, fem. of 270 
Brown Owl) 164 
Brown Woodpecker, 85 
Briinnich's Guillemot, 

376 
Buff-hacked Heron, 206 
Buff-breasted Sandpiper, 

32s 
Buffel-headed Duck, 250 
Buffon's Skua, 372 
Bullfinch, 102 
Bull Thrush, i 
Bulwer's Petrel, 395 
Bumble, 210 



Bundle, 316, 327 
Bunting, no 
Burgomaster, 365 
Burrow Duck, 233 
Bush Chat, 12 
Bush Dove, 264 
Bush Quail, 277 
Bustard, 287 
Butcher Bird, 73, 73 
Buzzard, 176 

Cackareen, 367 
Caloo, 231 
Canada Goose, 223 
Capercaillie, 269 
Canary, 90 
Capped Buzzard, 1B8 
Capped Petrel, 390 
Carrion Crow, 128 
Car Swallow, 341 
Caspian Tern, 345 
Cat GuU, 362 
Chafianch, 93 
Chalder, 303 
Channel Goose, 201 
Chatterpie, 126 
Cheeper, 66 
Cherry Finch, 92 
Cherubim, 161 
Chickell, 12 
Chiffchaff, 33 
Chink, 116 
Chip Chop, 33 
Chough, 122 
Church Owl, 161 
Churn Owl, 141 
Churr, 23, 316 
Cirl Bunting, 112 
Claik, 224 
Clatter Goose, 223 
Cliff Hawk, 192 
Clinker, 304 
Clod Bird, no 
Coal Goose, 199 
Coal Hoodie, 26 
Cobbler's Awl, 303 
Coble, 92 
Cobweb, 78 
Cockandy, 379 
Cook of the Wood, 269 



Cock 0' the North, 96 
Coldie, 231 
Cole Finch, 79 
Collared Pratincole, 291 
Coney Chuck, 12 
Continental Coal Tit, 33 
Coot, 284 
Copper Finch, 93 
Corbie, 128, 131 
Cormorant, 199 
Corn Bunting, no 
Corn Crake, 278 
Cornish Crow, 122 
Courser, 292 
Cow Bird, 63, 139 
Cowprise, 263 
Crake, 278 
Crane, 2S3 
Cream-coloured Courser, 

292 
Creek, 278 
Creeper, 83 
Creshawk, 196 
Crested Cormorant, 200 
Crested Lark, 134 
Crested Tit, 37 
Cricket Bird, 43 
Crocker, 223 
Crossbill, 103 
Crow, 128 
Cuckoo, 137 
Cuckoo's Mate, 150 
Culver, 263 
Curlew, 338 
Curlew Sandpiper, 320 
Curre, 249 
Cushat, 263, 264 
Cushledoo, 263 

Dabber, 388 
Dabchick, 283, 3S8 
Daker, 278 

Dalmatian Regulus, 32 
Dalmatian Wren, 32 
Darcall, 231 
Darcock, 282 
Dartford Warbler, 29 
Daw, 127 

Demoiselle Crane, 286 
Desert Wheatear, 14 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



fiiedapper, 388 
Dipper, 47, 151 
Dlshwasber, 61 
tolver, 380-383 
Diving Kgeon, 377 
Doo, 263 
Dorble, 316 
Dor Hawk, 141 
Dot Plover, 293 
Dotterel, 293 
Double Snipe, 309 
Dove, 263, 264, 265, 266 
Downy Woodpecker, 147 
Duck, 235 
Dun Bird, 243, 248 
Dunlin, 316 
Dunne, 322 
Dunnock, 45 
Dusky Duck, 253 
Dusky Eedshank, 333 
Dusky Shearwater, 394 

Eagle, 178, 179, 180 
Eagle Owl, 169 
Eared Grebe, 387 
Eastern Golden Plover, 

29s 
Eider Duck, 253 
Egret, 204 

Egyptian Nightjar, 143 
Egyptian Vulture, 172 
Elk, 229 

Ember Goose, 380 
Erne, 180 
EsMmo Curlew, 340 

F«lcon, 192 
/allow Finch, 12 
Fallowsnatch, 12 
Fauvette, 27 
Feather Poke, 51 
Felfer, 4 
Felflt, 1 
Feltie, i 
Fen Goose, 217 
Fen Thrush, 1 
Fern Owl, 141 
Ferruginous Duck, 246 
Fieldfare, 4 
Field Sparrow, 45 
Fire Crest, 31 



Fire-orested Wren, 31 
Fire Tail, 17 
Fish Hawk, 198 
Flamingo, 216 
Flesher, 75 
Flitterchack, 10 
Flycatcher, 78, 79, 80 
Fork Tail, 1B4 
Fork-tailed Petrel, 396 
Frank, 201 
French Magpie, 73 
French Partridge, 274 
Frosty Back Wlgeon, 248 
Fulfer, i 
Fulmar, 389 
Furze Chat, 15 

Gadwall, 236 
Game Hawk, 192 
Gan, 201 
Gannet, 201 
Garden Ouzel, 9 
Garden Warbler, 27 
Garganey, 241 
Gaunt, 384 
Gaverhale, 311 
Gaw Thrush, 1 
Glaucous Gull, 365 
Glead, 176, 184 
Glossy Ibis, 213 
Goatsucker, 141 
Godwin, 336 
Godwit, 336, 337 
Gold Crest, 30 
Gold-crested Wren, 30 
Golden Eagle, 179 
Goldeneye, 249 
Golden Oriole, 72 
Golden Plover, 294 
Goldfinch, 87 
Goldle, III 
Goosander, 259 
Goose, 217 
Gorcock, 271 
Gor Crow, 128 
Gorse Chat, 15 
Gorse Hopper, 15 
Gorse Linnet, 97 
Gos Hawk, 181 
Gowdy Duck, 249 
£ 



Gowk, IS7 

Grasshopper Lark, 43 
Grasshopper Warbler, 43 
Great Auk, 374 
Great Black-backed Gull, 

364 
Great BlackWoodpecker, 

148 
Great Bustard, 287 
Greater Pettychaps, 27 
Greater Plover, 333 
Great Crested Grebe, 384 
Great Grey Shrike, 73 
Great Northern Diver, 

380 
Great Plover, 290 
Great Beed Warbler, 40 
Great Shearwater, 391 
Great Skua, 369 
Great Snipe, 309 
Great Spotted Cuckoo, 

Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker, 144 

Great Tit, 52 

Great White Egret, 204 

Great White Heron, 204 

Grebe, 384 

Green Cormorant, 200 

Greenfinch, 91 

Greenland Falcon, 190 

Greenland Redpoll, 160 

Green Linnet, 91 

Green Plover, 301 

Green Sandpiper, 329 

Greenshank, 335 

Green Woodpecker, 149 

Green Wren, 35 

Grey Crow, 129 

Grey Duck, 235, 236 

Grey Goose, 217 

Grey Gull, 363 

Grey-headed Yellow 
Wagtail, 64 

Grey Hen, fern, of 270 

Grey Lag Goose, 217 

Grey Linnet, lot 

Grey Loon, 384 

Grey Partridge, 273 

Grey Pate, 87 

Grey Phalarope, 301 



to 



tOCAL AND POPULAR NAMfeS. 



Grey Plover, 294, 296, 322 
Grey Ptarmigan, 272 
Grey Redstart, 18 
Grey Skit, 282 
Grey Thmsh, 4 
Grey Wagtail, 62 
Griffon Vulture, 171 
Grosbeak, 104 
Ground Wren, 34 
Grouse, 271 
Guillemot, 375 
Gull, 361 

Gull-billed Tern, 344 
Gyp, 120 
Gyr Falcon, 189 

Hackbolt, 391 
Hacket, 367 
Hagdown, 39T 
Hairy Woodpecker, 146 
Half Duck, 242 
Half Snipe, 311 
Harlequin Duck, 252 
Harrier, 174 
Hawfinch, 92 
Hawk Owl, 163, 166 
Hay Bird, 34, 35 
Hay Tit, 23 
Hazel Linnet, 24 
Heath Cock, 270 
Heath Fowl, 270 
Heath Throstle, 10 
Heather Bleater, 310 
Heather Lintie, 66 
Heather Peeper, 327 
Heckymal, 52, 56 
Hedge Accentor, 45 
Hedge Sparrow, 45 
Hedge Warbler, 43 
Hemipode, 277 
Hen Harrier, 174 
Herald, 260 
Herdsman, 369 
Hemshaw, 202 
Heron, 202 
Herring Gant, 201 
Herring Gull, 362 
Herring Spink, 30 
HiU Chack, 10 
HUl Lintie, loi 



HUl Plover, 294 
Hill Sparrow, 66 
Hobby, 193 
Hoddy Craw, 128 
Holm Screech, i 
Holm Thrush, i 
Honey Buzzard, iSB 
Hooded Crow, 129 
Hooded Merganser, 262 
Hooded Mew, 358 
Hoodie, 129 
Hooper Swan, 229 
Hoopoe, 156 
Homed Grebe, 386 
Horned Owl, 162 
Horse Thrush, 1 
House Martin, 82 
House Sparrow, 93 
Hover Hawk, 196 
Howster, 322 

Ibis, 215 

Iceland Falcon, 191 

Iceland Gull, 366 

loterine Warbler, 36 

Imber, 380 

Isle of Wight Parson, 199 

Ivory Gull, 368 

Jack, 127 
Jackdaw, 127 
Jacksaw, 259 
Jack Snipe, 311, 316 
Jack Straw, 23, 26 
Jadreka Snipe, 290 
Jager, 369 
Jay, 125 
Jay Pie, i 
Jay Teal, 239 
Jedcock, 311 
Jenny Wren, 56, 59 
Jer Cock, i 
Jer Falcon, 189 
Jill Snipe, 310 
Judcook, 311 
Juddock, 311 

Keltic, 367 
Kentish Plover, 299 
Kestrel, 196 
Killdeer Plover, 300 



King Eider, 234 
Kingfisher, 47, 151 
Kinglet, 30 
Kite, 184, 196 
Kittiwake, 367 
Kitty Carew, 393 
Knot, 322 

Land Bail, 278 
Lapland Bunting, it^ 
Lapwing, 301 
Lark, 132 

Laughing Goose, 220 
Laughing Gull, 358, 362 
Laverock, 132 
Lesser Black - backed 

Gull, 363 
Lesser Golden Plover, 

29s 
Lesser Grey Shrike, 74 
Lesser Kestrel, 197 
Lesser Pettyohaps, 33 
Lesser Redpoll, 99 
Lesser Sooty Tern, 352 
Lesser Spotted Wooc'- 

pecker, 145 
Lesser White - fronted 

Goose, 221 
Lesser Whitethroat, 24 
Ling Bird, 66 
Links Goose, 233 
Linnet, 97 
Lintie, 97 
Little Auk, 378 
Little Bittern, 208 
Little Bunting, 115 
Little Bustard, 288 
Little Crake, 280 
Little Egret, 205 
Little Grebe, 388 
Little GuU, 3S7 
Little Owl, 170 
Little Ringed Plover, 298 
Little Stint, 317 
Little Tern, 350 
Liver, 213 

Long-eared Owl, 162 
Long Tall, 50 
Long-tailed Skua, 372 
Long- tailed Duck, 251 
Long-tailed Pie, 51 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



II 



Loon, 380, 3S1, 382, 383 
Lyrle, 393 

Macqueen's Bustard, 289 
magpie, 126 
Magpie Diver, 261 
MaUard, 235 
Man o' war Bird, 371 
Manx Shearwater, 393 
Marble Thrusb, i 
Market Jew Crow, 122 
Marsh Goose, 217 
Marsh Harrier, 173 
Marsh Hawk, 173 
Marsh Hen, 283 
Marsh Tit, 5s 
Marsh Warbler, 39 
Martin, 82 
Martlet, 82 
Marygold Finch, 30 
Mavis, ^ 

Meadow Drake, 278 
Meadow Lark, 66 
Meadow Pipit, 66 
Mealy Mouth, 34 
Mealy RedpoU, 98 
Mediterranean Black- 
headed Gull, 359 
Merganser, 262 
Merle, 9 
Merlin, 194 
Miller, 174 

Miner's Thumb, 30, 34 
Missel Thrush, i 
Mistletoe Thrush, i 
Mizzly Dick, i 
Mock Nightingale, 26 
Mollymoke, 391 
Montagu's Harrier, 175 
Moor Buzzard, 173 
Moorcock, 271 
Moor Fowl, 271 
Moor Game, 271 
Moor Hawk, 173 
Moorhen, 271, 283 
Moor Titling, 16, 66 
MoriUon, 249 
Moss Cheeper, 66 
Moss Duck, 235 
Moth Hawk, 141 



Mother Carey's Chicken, 

397 
Mountain Blackbird, 10 
Mountain Finch, 96 
Mountain Linnet, loi 
Mud Plover, 296 
Muff, 23 
Muftie, 23 
Muir Duck, 235 
Mullet Hawk, 198 
Murre, 373 
Mussel Duck, 248 
Mussel Pecker, 303 
Mute Swan, 227 

Needle-tailed Swift, 140 
Nettle Creeper, 23, 26 
Nettlemonger, 26 
Night Churr, 141 
Night Hawk, 141 
Night Heron, 209 
Nightingale, 22 
Nightjar, 141 
Noddy, 3S3 
Norfolk Plover, 290 
Norman Thrush, i 
Norway Duck, 248 
Norway Nightingale, 3 
Nutcracker, 58, 124 
Nuthatch, 58 
Nutjobber, 58 

Orange - legged Hobby, 

195 
Oriole, 72 

Orphean Warbler, 25 
Ortolan Bunting, 113 
Osprey, 198 
Ouzel, 9 
Owl, i6i 
Oxbird, 316 
Oxeye, 52 
Oystercatcher, 303 
Oyster Plover, 303 

Pallas's Sand Grouse, 268 
Parrot CrossbUl, 106 
Parson Gtill, 364 
Partridge, 275 
Passenger Pigeon, 267 
Peaseweep, 301 
Pectoral Sandpiper, 314 

B 2 



Peewit, 301 
Peggy Chaw, 23 
Petrel, 397 
Phalarope, 306, 307 
Pheasant, 273 
Picarinl, 304 
Pickerel, 316 
Pie, 126 
Pled Finch, 93 
Pled Flycatcher, 79 
Pled WagftaU, 61 
Pled Wigeon, 241 
Plet, 47 126 
Piewipe, 301 
Pigeon, 263, 264, 265 
Pigeon Felt, 4 
Pigeon Hawk, 183 
Pigmy, 320 
Pigmy Curlew, 320 
Pine Grosbeak, 104 
Pink, 95 

Pink-footed Goose, 219 
Pintail, 238 
Pipit, 66 to 71 
Pipit Lark, 67 
Pit Martin, 83 
Plover, 296 
Plover's Page, 316 
Pochard, 245 
Poker, 245 
Polish Swan, 228 
Pomarine Skua, 370 
Pomatorhine Skua, 37a 
Pool Snipe, 332 
Popinjay, 149 
Pratincole, 291 
Ptarmigan, 272 
Fuckeridge, 141 
Puffin, 379 
Purple Heron, 203 
Purple Martin, 84 
Purple Sandpiper, 321 
Purre, 316 
Puttock, 173, 176 
Pye Finch, 95 

Quail, 276 
Quaketail, 61 
Queest, 263 
Qulnk Goose, 22J 



12 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Rafter Bird, 78 

Rail, 282 

Rain Goose, 383 

Rantock, 259 

Rat Goose, 223 

Rattlewing, 249 

Raven, 131 

Razorbill, 373 

Red-backed Slirlke, 75 

Redbreast, 21 

Red-breastedFlycatcber, 
80 

Red-breasted Goose, 226 

Red - breasted Mergan- 
ser, 260 

Red-breasted Snipe, 312 

Red Cap, 87 

Red-crested Focbard, 244 

Red-footed Falcon, 195 

Red Godwit, 337 

Red Grouse, 271 

Red Hawk, 196 

Red Hoop, 192 

Red-legged Partridge, 
274 

Red Legs, 321 

Red-necked Grebe, 385 

Red-necked Nightjar, 142 

Red-necked Fbalarope, 
306 

Red Owl, 163 

Redpoll, 98, 100 

Red Ptarmigan, 271 

Red Sandpiper, 322 

Redshank, 4, 332 

Red-spotted Bluethroat, 
20 

Redstart, 17 

Red Tail, 17 

Red-throated Diver, 383 

Red Thrush, 3 

Redwing, 3 

Red-winged Starling,! 19 

Reed Bunting, 49, 1 16 

Reed Pheasant, 49 

Reed Sparrow, 116 

Reed Warbler, 38 

Reed Wren, 38 

Reeler, 43 

Reeve, fem. of 323 

Richard's Pipit, 69 



Richardson's Skua, 371 
Ring Dotterel, 297 
Ring Dove, 263 
Ringed Blackbird, 10 
Ringed Dotterel, 297 
Ringed Guillemot, 376 
Ringed Plover, 297 
Ringed Thrush, 10 
Ringlestone, 297 
Ring Ouzel, 10 
Ringtail, 174a 
Ring-tailed Eagle, 179 
Road Goose, 223 
Robin, 21 
Rock Dove, 265 
Rock Grouse, 272 
Rock Hawk, 194 
Rock Lark, 71 
Rock Lintie, loi 
Rock Ouzel, 10 
Rock Pigeon, 265 
Rock Pipit, 71 
Rock Starling, 10 
Rook Thrush, 11 
Rodge, 235 
RoUer, 153 
Rook, i3o 
Roseate Tern, 347 
Rose-coloured Starling, 

121 

Rose Linnet, 97 
Rose Lintie, 99 
Rough-legged Buzzard, 

177 
Royston Crow, 1-29 
Ruddock, 21 
Ruddy Sheldrake, 234 
Ruddy Sheld Duck, 234 
Ruff, 323 

Rufous Warbler, 37 
Rustic Bunting, 114 

Sabine's Gull, 354 
Saddleback, 364 
St. Cuthbert's Duck, 253 
St. George's Duck, 233 
Sanderling, 324 
Sand Lark, 324, 337 
Sand Martin, 83 
Sandpiper, 327 
Sandwich Tern, 346 



Sand Wigeon, 236 
Sandyhead, 245 
Savi's Warbler, 44 
Sawbill, 259 
Sawneb, 260 
Scammel, 336 
Scarlet Grosbeak, 103 
Scart, 199, 200 
Scaup, 248 

Sclavonian Grebe, 386 
Scobby, 9S 
Scooper, 304 
Scops Owl, 168 
Scoter, 256 
Screamer, 138 
Screech Hawk, 141 
Screech Owl, 161, 164 
Screech Thrush, i 
ScuU, 369 
Scutty, 59 
Sea Crow, 199 
Sea Dotterel, 302 
Sea Eaglet 180 
Sei Kittle, 367 
Sea Lark, 297, 316 
Sea Lintie, 71 
Sea Mew, 361 
Sea Parrot, 379 
Sea Peck, 316 
Sea Pheasant, 238 
Sea Pie, 303 
Sea Pigeon, 265 
Sea Plover, 296 
Sea Snipe, 316, 322 
Sea Swallow, 348 
Sea Woodcock, 336 
Sedge Warbler, 42 
Sedge Wren, 42 
Serin, 89 
Serula, 260 
Seven Whistler, 339 
Shag, 200 
Shearwater, 391 
Sheldrake 233 
Sheld Duck, 233 
SMeldrake, 233 
Shore Lark, 137 
Shore Pipit, 71 
Short-eared Owl, 163 
Short-toed Lark, 135 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



13 



Shovelard, 237 
Shoveller, 237 
Slirike, 73-76 
Shrite, i 
SUufflewmg, 4S 
Siberian Thrasb, 3 
Silver Owl, 161 
Silver Plover, 322 
Silvery Gull, 362 
Singing Titlark, 67 
Siskin, 88 
Skeldrake, 233 
Skirlcock, 1 
Skirl Crake, 30a 
Skite, III 
Skltty, 2S2 
Skua, 369-372 
Skylark, 132 
Sly Goose, 233 
Smee Duck, 242, 245, 261 
Smew, 261 
Snake Bird, 15a 
Snippack, 310 
Snipe, 310 
Snorter, 12 
Snow Bunting, 118 
Snowflake, 118 
Snow Goose, 222 
Snowy Owl, 165 
Solan Goose, 201 
Solitary Sandpiper, 331 
Solitary Snipe, 309 
Song Thrush, 2 
Sooty Shearwater, 392 
Sooty Tern, 351 
Sparrow, 93 
Sparrow Hawk, 183 
Sparve, 45 

Spectacled Goose, 201 
Spoonhill, 214, 237 
Spotted Crake, 279 
Spotted Eagle, 178 
Spotted Flycatcher, 78 
Spotted Guillemot, 377 
Spotted Redshank, 333 
Spotted Sandpiper, 328 
Sprite, 149 
Squacco Heron, 207 
Stanepecker, 302, 331 
Stank Hen, 283 



Stannel Hawk, 196 
Starling, 120 
Steller's Eider, 253 
Stilt, 305 
Stock Auuet, 233 
Stock Dove, 264 
Stock Duck, 235 
Stock Hawk, 192 
Stock Owl, 169 
Stonechat, 12, 16 
Stone Curlew, 290 
Stone Falcon, 194 
Stonehatch, 297 
Stone Plover, 290, 297 
Stone Runner, 293, 297 
Stonesmith, 16 
Stone Thrush, 1 
Stork, 212 
Storm Cock, i, 4 
Storm Petrel, 397 
Stormy Petrel, 397 
Strawsmear, 27, 34 
Stuhble Goose, 217 
Summer Snipe, 316, 327, 

329 
Summer Teal, 241 
Surf Duck, 256 
Surf Scoter, 258 
Swallow, Si 

Swallow-tailed Kite, 186 
Swan, 227 
Swift, 138 

Tangle Picker, 30a 
Tarrock, 349 
Tatler, 327 
Tawny Owl, 164 
Tawny Pipit, 68 
Teal, 239 

Teaser, 369, 370, 371, 372 
Temminck's Stint, 318 
Tengmalm's Owl, 167 
Tern, 348 
Thicknee, 290 
Thistle Finch, 87 

Three-toed Sand Grouse, 

268 
Throstle Cock, 1 
Thrush, 2 
Tinkershire, 375 



Tinnock, 36 
Titlark, 66 

Titmouse, same as Tit 
Titterel, 339 
Tom Tit, 56, 59 
Tom Noddy, 379 
Tor Ouzel, 10 
Tree Creeper, 85 
Tree Goose, 224 
Tree Lark, 67 
Tree Pipit, 67 
Tree Sparrow, 94 
Trumpeter Swan, 231 
Tufted Duck, 247 
Turnstone, 302 
Turtle Dove, 266 
Twink, 95 
Twite, 10 1 

Two-barred Crossbill,ioa 
Tystie, 377 

Van- winged Hawk, 193 
Velvet Duck, 257 
Velvet Scoter, 257 
Vulture, 171, 172 

Wagtail, 60-65 
Wall Bird, 78 
Wall Creeper, 86 
Warbler, 27 
Ware Goose, 223 
Water Crake, 47, 279 
Water Crow, 47 
Water Eagle, 198 
Waterhen, 283 
Water Ouzel, 47, 48 
Water Pipit, 70 
Water Rail, 282, 283 
Water Sparrow, 38, 116 
Water WagtaU, 61 
Waxwing, 77 
Wedge-taUed Gull, 355 
Whaup, 338 
Wheatear, 12 
Wheeter Why, 23 
Whewer, 242 
Whey Beard, 23 
WhUk, 256 
Whim, 242 
Whimbrel, 339 



M 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Wlinohat, ij 

Whiskered Tern, 343 

Wliistler, 242, 249 

Whistling Plover, 294, 
296 

Whistling Swan, 229 

White-billed Diver, 381 

White - breasted Black- 
bird, 10 

WMte Cap, 17, 23 

White-eyed Duck, 246 

White Finch, 95 

White-fronted Goose, 220 

White Game, 272 

White Grouse, 272 

White - headed Long - 
tailed Tit, 50 

White Lintie, 23 

White Partridge, 27a 

White Rump, 12 

Whiteside, 249 

White - spotted Blue- 
throat, 19 

White Stork, 212 

White-tailed Eagle, 180 

WTiltethroat, 23 

White's Thrush, 7 

White's Ground Thrush, 7 

White Wagtail, 60 

Whitewing, 95 

White - winged Black 
Tern, 342 

White-winged Crossbill, 
107 



White-winged Lark, 136 
Whitterlok, 33B 
Whole Snipe, 310 
Whooper Swan, 229 
Wlgeon, 242 
Wlgeou Leader, 238 
Wild Canary, 90 
Wild Duck, 235 
WUd Goose, 217, 218 
Wild Pigeon, 265 
Wild Swan, 229 
Willow Wren, 34 
Willock, 375 
Wilson's Petrel, 398 
Wind Fanner, 196 
Windhover, 196 
Windle, 3 

Window Swallow, 82 
Wind Thrush, 3 
Winnard, 3 
Winter Duck, 23B 
Winter Mew, 361 
Winter Wagtail, 62 
Woodohat, 76 
Woodchuck, 149 
Woodcock, 308 
Woodcock Owl, 163 
Wood Dove, 264 
Wood Grouse, 269 
Wood Lark, 133 
Wood Owl, 164 
Woodpecker, 144, 145 



Wood Pigeon, 263 

Wood Quest, 263 

Wood Sandpiper, 330 

Wood Thrush, i 

Woodwall, 144 

Wood Warbler, 35 

Wood Wren, 35 

Woosel Cock, 9 

Wrannock, 59 

Wranny, 59 

Wrekm Dove. 266 
Wren, 59 

Wryneck, 150 
faffie, 149 
Yarwhelp, 336 
Yeldrin, rii 
yellow Ammer, iii 
TeUow-billed Chiff Chaff, 

Yellow - bUled Cuckoo, 

159 
Yellow-billed Diver, 381 

Yellow-browed Warbler, 

32 
Yellow-browed Wren, 32 

Yellow Bunting, m 
YeUowhammer, m 
Yellow Owl, 161 
Yellow Plover, 294 
Yellowshank, 334 
YeUow Wagtail, 62, 65 
Yellow Yite, III 
Yelper, 304 



NOTE — The following names are occasionally met with:- 



Alexaudrlne Plover, 299 
Banjo Bill, 214 
Black-toed Gull, 371 
Blood Ulf, 102 
Boatswain, 370 
Bottle Bumper, 210 
Cadder, 127 



Draw Water, 87 
French Linnet, loi 
Grey Back, 248 
Guler, III 
Half Curlew, 339 
Kentish Crow, 129 
King Harry, 87 



Penny Wagtail, 61 
Scotch Goose, 223 
Scoultou Gull, 358 
Snowman, m 
Spink, 95 
Sprat Loon, 383 
Weasel Duck, 261 



CHAPTER III. 

THE COLOURED PLATES, 



'T'HE following is a complete list of the birds figured in our 
'- coloured plates. The species are arranged in ornithological 
order, so as to show the system of grouping adopted as being most 
convenient for the purposes of identification. The names of those 
birds not yet on record as breeding in this country appear with a 
wider margin than the rest. The dimensions of all will be found 
given in tabular form in the twelfth chapter; the eggs are tabulated 
in the thirteenth chapter. 

PASSERID^ 

Turdina. 

Plata L 1. TURDUS VISCIVORUS— Missel Thrush, p. 128. 

Dimensions, Jj ; Eggs, Hj. 
=, TURDUS MUSICUS— Song Thrush, p. 128. 
Dimensions, Hi ; Eggs, Gg. 

3. TURDUS ILIACUS— Redwing, p. 188. 

Dimensions, Gq; Eggs, Fj. 

4. TURDUS PILARIS— Fieldfare, p. 128. 

Dimensions, ]c; Eggs, Hn. 

5. TURDUS MIGRATORIUS— American Robin, ^ 128. 

Dimensions, lo. 

6. TURDUS ATRIGULARIS— Black-lhroated Thrush, #. 128, 

Dimensions, Jl ; Eggs, Gs. 

7. GEOCICHLA VARIA— White's Thrush, p, 99. 

Dimensions, Kk ; Eggs, Hb. 

8. GEOCICHLA SIBIRICA— Siberian Thrush, p. 99. 

Dimensions, Hq. 

9. MERULA VULGARIS— Blackbird, p. 108. 

Dimensions, Im ; Eggs, Gl. 
JO. IVIERULA TORQUATA— Ring Ouzel, p. 108. 

Dimensions, Jk ; Eggs, Gt. 
II. MONTICOLA SAXATILIS— Rock Thrush, p. 108. 

Dimensions, Gs ; Eggs, Ga, 
Plate n. 12. 3AXIC0LA (ENANTHE— Wheatear, p. 120. 

Dimensions, Ef; Eggs, Dk. 

13. SAXICOLA STAPAZINA— Black-throated Wheatear, p. 120. 

Dimensions, Cj ; Eggs, Dl. 

14. SAXICOLA DESERTI— Deiert Wheatear, p. 120. 

Dimensions, Dl ; Eggs, Br, 

15. PRATINCOLA RUBETRA— Whinchaf,^. 117. 

Dimensions, Bb ; Eggs, Bq. 

16. PRATINCOLA RUBICOLA— Stonechat, p. 117. 

Ditnensions, Bi ; Eggs, Ch. 

17. RUTICILLA PHCENICURUS— Redstart,A «". 

Dimensions, Cg ; Eggs, Bs. 

18. RUTICILLA TITYS-Black Redstart, p. 12a. 

Dimensions, Cs; Eggs, Di. 



j6 coloured plates. 

Plate 11, ~ continued. 

19. CYANECULA WOLFI— White-spotted Bluethroat, p. ga. 

Dimensions, Cd ; Eggs, Cm. 
30. CYANECULA SUECICA— Red-spotted Bluethroat, p. gj. 

^ / ' Dimensions, Cc ; Eggs, Bm. 

VK^-^.jT '•yg 'Jj2i. ERITHACUS RUBECULA— Robin, #. 95. 
' / Dimensions, Cp ; £ffffs, Do. 

32. DAULIAS LUSCINIA-Nightingale, p. 93. 
Dimensions, Ea ; Eggs, Ec. 

23. SYLVIA CINEREA— Whitethrcat, />. 124. 

Dimensions, Bs ; £g"ffs, Ce. 

24. SYLVIA CURRUCA— Lesser Whitethroat, p. 124. 

Dimensions, Bh ; £g"g's, Ai. 

25. SYLVIA ORPHEA— Orphean Warbler, />. 124. 

Dimensions, Dq ; £g"es, Dk. 

26. SYLVIA ATRICAPILLA— Blackcap, #. 124- 

Dimensions, Cq ; JSggs, Dj. 
Plate IIL 27. SYLVIA HORTENSIS-Garden Warbler, p. 124. 

Dimensions, Ca ; Eg'fifs. Dn. 
38. SYLVIA NISORIA— Barred Warbler, p. 124. 

Dimensions, Eb ; Eg'gs, Ek. 

29. MELIZOPHILUS UNDATUS— Dartford Warbler, p. 107. 

Dimensions, As ; Eggs, Be. 

30. REGULUS CRISTATUS— Gold-crested Wren, p. 119. 

iJimeBStOHS, Aa ; Eggs, Aa. 

31. REGULUS IGNICAPILLUS— Fire-crested Wren, /I, itg. 

Dimensions, Ac ; JESS'S, Ab. 

32. PHYLLOSCOPUS SUPERCILIOSUS— Yellow -browed 

Warbler,^. 115. 

Dimensions, Ad ; Eg-g-s, Ag. 

33. PHYLLOSCOPUS RUFUS— Chiffchaff, />. 115. 

Dimensions, Ao ; Eggs, Ad. 

34. PHYLLOSCOPUS TROCHILUS— Willow Wren,/). 115. 

Dimensions, At ; Eggs, Ah. 

35. PHYLLOSCOPUS SIBILATRIX— Wood Wren, />. 115. 

Dimensions, Bj ; Eggs, At. 

36. HYPOLAIS ICTERINA— Icterine Warbler, /i. loi. 

Dimensions, Be ; Eggs, Cd. 

37. AEDON GALACTODES— Rufous Warbler, ^. 77. 

Dimensions, Ep ; £^gs, Er. 

38. ACROCEPHALUS STREPERUS— Reed Warbler, p. 76. 

Dimensions, Bp ; Eggs, Bd. 

39. ACROCEPHALUS PALUSTRIS— Marsh Warbler, />. 76. 

Dimensions, Bq; Eggs, Ca. 

40. ACROCEPHALUS TURDOIDES-Great Reed Warbler, /■. 76. 

Dimensions, Gn ; Eggs, Ep. 

41. ACROCEPHALUS AQUATICUS— Aquatic Warbler,/). 76. 

Dimensions, Ah ; Eggs, Bg. 

42. ACROCEPHALUS PHRAGIWITIS— Sedge Warbler, #. 76. 

Dimensions, Ap ; £^ies, Ba. 

43. LOCUSTELLA N/EVIA— Grasshopper Warbler,/). 105. 

Dimensions, Co ; Eggs, Bo. 

44. tOCUSTELLA LUSCINIOIDES— Savi's Warbler, p. 105. 

DtweMiioMS, Bt. ; Eggs, Cq. 
j4 ccentorina. 
Pl^te rV. 45- ACCENTOR MODULARIS— Hedge Sparrow, p. 75, 

Dimensions, Br; Eggs, Da. 

46. ACCENTOR COLLARIS— Alpine Accentor, />. 73, 

Dimensions, El ; ^^g-s, Fe. 

47. CINCLUS AQUATICUS— Dipper, p. 87. 

Dimensions, Fb ; Eggs, Fo. 

48. CINCLUS MELANOGASTER— Black-bellied Dipper, /). 87. 

Dimensions, Fc : £^gs, Fp. 
Panurina. 

49. PANURUS BIARIVIICUS— Bearded Tit, p. 112. 

Dimensions, De ; Eggs, Bl. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



17 



Plate IV.- 



■continued. 
Parina. 
50. 



Plate V. 



Plate VL 



ACREDULA CAUDATA— White-headed Long-tailed Tit, 
p. 76. 

Dimensions, Bo ; Eggs, Af. 
5r. ACREDULA ROSEA— British Long-tailed Tit, p 76. 

Dimensions, Bn ; Eggs, Ac. 
52. PARUS MAJOR— Great Tit, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Bm ; Eggs, Bk. 
53 PARUS ATER— Continental Coal Tit, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Ae ; Eggs, Be. 
54- PARUS BRITANNICUS— British Coal Tit, f. nz. 

Dimensions, Af ; Eggs, Bb. 

55. PARUS PALUSTRIS— Marsh Tit, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Aj ; Eggs, Aj. 

56. PARUS CCERULEUS— Blue Tit, #. 113. 

Dimensions, Ai ; Eggs, Ae. 

57. PARUS CRISTATUS-CrestedTit, #. 112. 

Dimensions, Ag ; Eggs, Aq. 

58. SITTA CiESIA— Nuthatch,/!. 121. 

Dimensions, Ch ; £§"§"5, Co. 

59. TROGLODYTES PARVULUS— Wren, p. 128. 

Dimensions, Ab ; £s'^s, Bl. 

60. MOTACILLA ALBA— White Wagtail, p. 108. 

Dimensions, Fq ; Eggs, Dh. 

61. MOTACILLA LUGUBRIS— Pied Wagtail, f. 108, 

Dimensions, Ga; Eggs, Dd. 

62. MOTACILLA MELANOPE— Grey Wagtail, #. 108. 

Dimensions, Gm ; Eggs, Cf. 

63. MOTACILLA FLAVA— Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail, #. 108. 

r»jmeMS?o«s, Dj ; Eggs, Cn. 

64. MOTACILLA VIRIDIS-Grey-headed Yellow Wagtail,/!. 108. 

Dimensions, Dt ; Eggs, Ci. 

65. MOTACILLA RAII— Yellow Wagtail, p. 108. 

Dimensions, Ei ; Eggs, Cl. 
65. ANTHUS PRATENSIS— Meadow Pipit, #. 81. 
ZJtmensi'ons, Da ; Eggs, Dm. 

67. ANTHUS TRIVIALIS— Tree Pipit, p. 81. 

Dimensions, Dk ; iig'g's, Eb. 

68. ANTHUS CAMPESTRIS— Tawny Pipit, #. 81 

Dimensions, Ff; Eggs, En. 
6g. ANTHUS RICHARDI- Richard's Pipit, p. 81. 

Dimensions, Gc; Eggs, Eh. 

70. ANTHUS SPIPOLETTA— Water Pipit, /■• 81. 

Dimensions, Ek ; Sg'g's, Ee. 

71. ANTHUS OBSCURUS— Rock Pipit, />. 81. 

Dtmensions, Ee ; Eggs, Ef. 
OnoKK«. 

72. ORIOLUS GALBULA— Golden Oriole, p. iil. 

Dimensions, lb ; £g'^5. He. 
Laniina. 

73. LANIUS EXCUBITOR— Great Grey Shrike, p. 103. 

Dimemions, Ig'; £^^s, Gh. 

74. LANIUS MINOR— Lesser Grey Shrike,^. 102. 

Dimensions, Hh ; Eggs, Fm. 

75. LANIUS COLLURIO— Red-backed Shrike, p. 102. 

DiwcMitons, Gb ; Eggs, Eo. 

76. LANIUS POMERANUS— Woodchat,/>. 102. 

Dimensions, Fg ; Eggs, Et. 

77. AMPELIS GARRULUS— Waxwing,/!. 79. 

Dimensions, Gh ; Eggs, Fl. 



l8 COLOURED PLATES. 

Plate Yl.-— continued. 

Muscicapina. 

78. MUSCICAPA GRI SOLA— Spotted Flycatcher, p. 109. 

Dhnensions, Bl ; Eggs, Bt. 

79. MUSCICAPA ATRICAPILLA— Pied Flycatcher, p. log. 

Dimensions, Be ; Eggs, Co. 

80. MUSCICAPA PARVA— Red-breasted Flycatcher, p. IQ9. 

Dimensions, Ar; Eggs, An. 

81. HIRUNDO RUSTICA— Swallow, p. 100. 

Dimensions, Gf; Eggs, Cp. 

82. HIRUNDO URBICA— Martin, ^. 100. 

Dimensions, Cm ; Eggs, Bp,' 

83. HIRUNDO RIPARIA— Sand Martin, #. 100. 

DimensioJis, Bg ; Eggs, Bh. 

84. HIRUNDO PURPUREA— Purple Martin, ;!>. 100. 

Dimensions, Es; £fi'g:s, Fi. 

85. CERTHIA FAMILIARIS— Tree Creeper, p. 8S. 

Dimensions, CbJ; £^^s. As. 

86. TICHODROMA MURARIA— Wall Creeper, p. 126. 

Dimensions, Em ; £g"^5, Cj. 
Fringillinis. 
Plate VII. 87. CARDUELIS ELEGANS— Goldfinch, p. 85. 

Dimensions, Bf ; ^g'^s. Ar. 
88. CARDUELIS SPINUS— Siskin, p. 85. 

Dimensions, Anj Sg'ffs, Ap. 
8S- SERINUS HORTULANUS— Serin, f. 121. 

Dimensions, Am ; Eggs, Ac, 

90. SERINUS CANARIUS— Wild Canary, p. 121. 

Dimensions, Al ; Eggs, Cl. 

91. LIGURINUS CHLORIS— Greenfinch, #. 104. 

Dwwnstons, Dm ; Eggs, Dp. 

92. COCCOTHRAUSTES VULGARIS— Hawfinch, />. 83. 

Dimensions, Fe ; Eggs, Fb. 

93. PASSER DOMESTICUS— House Sparrow,^. 113. 

Dimensions, Df ; ^^g's, Ej. 

94. PASSER MONTANUS— Tree Sparrow, p. 113. 

Dimensions, Ba ; Eggs, Ea. 

95. FRINGILLA C/ELEBS— Chaffinch, #. 96. 

Dimensions, Ct ; Eggs, Cg. 

96. FRINGILLA MONTIFRINGILLA— Brambling, />. gS. 

Dimensions, Dp i.Sgg's, Ct. 

97. LINOTA CANNABINA— Linnet, p. 105. 

Dimensions, Db ; £g"^5, Bj. 

98. LINOTA LINARIA— Mealy Redpoll, p. 104. 

Dimensions, Bd ; Eggs, Ak. 

99. LINOTA RUFESCENS-Lesser RedpoU, #. 104. 

Dimensions, Ak ; Eggs, Al. 

100. LINOTA HORNEMANNI— Greenland Redpoll, p. 105. 

Dimensions, Bk ; Eggs, Am. 

101. LINOTA FLAVIROSTRIS— Twite, #. 105. 

Dimensions, Ce ; Eggs, Bp. 
Plate Vin. 102. PYRRHULA EUROP.ff;A— Bullfinch, /i. 118. 
Dimensions, Di ; Eggs, Db. 

103. PYRRHULA ERYTHRINA— Scarlet Grosbeak, #. 118. 

Dimensions, Ci ; Eggs, Do. 

104. PYRRHULA ENUCLEATOR— Pine Grosbeak, #. n8. 

Dimensions, Hg ; Eggs, Fq. 
103. LOXIA CURVIROSTRA— Crossbill, ^ ic6. 
Dimensions, Eg ; Eggs, Em. 

106. LOXIA PITYOPSITTACUS— Parrot Crossbill—^. 106. 

Dimensions, Fj ; Eggs, El. 

107. LOXIA LEUCOPTERA— White-winged Crossbill, #. 106. 

Dimensions, En ; Eg-grs, Cs. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



19 



Plate VIll.—conHnued. 
108. 



Plate IX. 



Plate X. 



LOXIA BIFASCIATA— Two-barred Crossbill, p. 106. 
Dimensions^ Do ; Eggs,CR. 
Emberizinn. 
109. EMBERIZA MELANOCEPHALA— Black-headed 

Bunting, p. 94. 

Dimensions, Eq ; Eggs, Ei. 
no. EMBERIZA MILIARIA— Corn Bunting,/!. 94. 
Dimensions, Fd; Eggs, Fn. 

111. EMBERIZA CITRINELLA— Yellow Bunting, />. 94. 

Dimensions, Ej ; Eggs, Eg. 

112. EMBERIZA CIRLUS— Cirl Bunting, p. 94. 

Dimensions, Dh ; Eggs, Eg. 

113. EMBERIZA HORTULANA— Ortolan Bunting, p. 94. 

Dimensions, Ec ; Eggs, Dr. 

114. EMBERIZA RUSTICA— Rustic Bunting, p. 94. 

Dimensions, Cf ; Eggs, Ds. 

115. EMBERIZA PUSILLA— Little Bunting, #. 94. 

Dimensions, Aq; Eggs, Bn. 

116. EMBERIZA SCHCENICLUS— Reed Bunting, />. 94. 

Dimensions, Cr ; Eggs, Cb. 
h;. CALCARIUS LAPPONICUS— Lapland Bunting, p. 84. 

Dimensions, Ed ; Eggs, Dp. 

118. PLECTROPHANES NIVALIS— Snow Bunting, p. 116. 

Dimensions, Fmj Eggs, Fc. 

119. AGELjEUS PHCENICEUS— Red-winged Starling, #. 78. 

Dimensions, la; Eggs, Fh. 

120. STURNUS VULGARIS-Starling, />. 123. 

Dimensions, Hb ; ^ffg"*. Go. 

121. PASTOR ROSEUS— Rose-coloured Starling, p. 113. 

Dimensions, Hk ; £ggs, Gf. 

122. PYRRHOCORAX GRACULUS— Chough, p. 118. 

Dimensions, Ni ; Eggs, Kh, 

123. PYRRHOCORAX ALPIN US— Alpine Chough, /i. tiB 

Dimensions, Ml; £^^5, Jr. 

124. NUCIFRAGA CARYOCATACTES— Nutcracker, />. no. 

Dimensions, La ; Eggs, In. 
i;5. GARRULUS GLANDARIUS— Jay,*, ga. 

Dimensions, Lo ; Eggs, Hk. 
vaS. PICA RUSTICA— Magpie, p. 116. 

Dimensions, Oc ; £^ffs, Ij. 

127. CORVUS MONEDULA— Jackdaw, p. 90. 

Dimensions, Mc; Sg'^s, Ji. 

128. CORVUS CORONE— Carrion Crow, p. go. 

Dimensions, Om ; .E^g"5, Kr. 

129. CORVUS CORNIX-HoodedCrow, *. 90. 

Dimensions, Pb ; Eggs, Kg. 

130. CORVUS FRUGILEGUS— Rook,*. 90. 

Dimensions, Pi ; Eggs, Ke. 

131. CORVUS CORAX— Raven, /p. 90. 

Dimensions, Re ; £^^s. Mm. 
A laudina. 

132. ALAUDA ARVENSIS— Sky Lark, p. 78. 

Dtmensions, Ft ; Eggs, Es. 

133. ALAUDA ARBOREA— Wood Lark, *. 78. 

Dimensions, Dq*; Eggs, Ed. 

134. ALAUDA CRISTATA— Crested Lark, p. 78. 

Dimensions, Fi ; £g)7S, Fg. 

135. ALAUDA BRACHYDACTYLA— Short-toed Lark, p. 78. 

Dimensions, CI ; Eggs, Dt. 

136. ALAUDA SIBIRICA— White-winged Lark; #. 78. 

Dimensions, Gj ; £ffgs, Fd, 



20 COLOURED PLATES. 

Plate X. — continued* 

137. OTOCORYS ALPESTRIS— Shore Lark, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Fk ; Eggs, Ff. 

CYPSELID^ 

138. CYPSELUS APUS— Swift, p. 93. 

Dimensions, Fp ; Eggs, Fk. 

139. CYPSELUS MELBA— Alpine Swift, p. 93. 

Dimensions, He ; Eggs, Ho, 

140. ACANTHYLLIS CAUDACUTA— Needle-tailed Swift, y>. 75. 

Dimensions, Ho. 

CAFRIMULGID.S. 

141. CAPRIMULGUS EUROP^EUS— Nightjar, p. 85. 

Dimensions, It; Eg'g'5, Ht. 

142. CAPRIMULGUS RUFICOLLIS— Red-necked Nightjar, p. S3 

Dimensions, Kt ; Eggs, Ht. 

143. CAPRIMULGUS ^GYPTIUS— Egyptian Nightjar, p. 85. 

Dimensions, Jn ; JEfi'^s, Ht. 

PICID.S. 

Plate XI. 144. PICUS MAJOR— Great Spotted Woodpecker, p. 116. 

Dimensions, li ; Eggs, Fr. 

145. PICUS MINOR— Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, p. 116. 

Dimensions, Dc ; Eggs, Ck. 

146. PICUS VILLOSUS— Hairy Woodpecker, #. 116. 

Z)«Mi*nj:io«s, Hn; Eggs, Fs. 

147. PICUS PUBESCENS— Downy Woodpecker, p. 116. 

Dtmewsions, Er ; Eggs, Ft. 

148. PICUS MARTIUS— Great Black Woodpecker, p. 116. 

Dimensions, Ok ; £g-^s, lE. 

149. GECINUS VIRIDIS— Green Woodpecker, p. 99. 

Dimensions, Li ; Eggs, Ha. 

150. lYNX TORQUILLA— Wryneck, /i. 102. 

Dimensions, Eh ; Eggs, Do. 

ALCEDINIDA 

151. ALCEDO ISPIDA— Kingfisher, p. 79. 

Dimensions, Et ; Eggs, Dg. 

152. CERYLE ALCYON— Belted Kingfisher, ^. 86. 

Dimensions, Ld ; £^^s, II. 

CORACIID.S. 

Plate XII. 153. CORACIAS GARRULA- Roller, p. 89. 

Dimensions, Ks ; Eggs, Jc. 

MEROPID^. 

154. MEROPS APIASTER— Bee-eater, p. 107. 

Dimensions, Jq ; Eggs, Gc. 

155. MEROPS PHILIPPINUS-Blue-tailed Bee-eater, /.. 107. 

Dtwemtoni, Kg. 

UPUPID.ffi. 

156. UPUPA EPOPS— Hoopoe, p. 129. 

Dimensions, Kc ; £g"fi's. Go. 

CUCULID.S. 

157. CUCULUS CANORUS— Cuckoo, p. 91. 
Dimensions, Md ; Eggs, Fa. 

158. COCCYSTES GLANDARIUS— Great Spotted Cuokoo, p. 88 

Dimensions, Nb ; Eggs, Ia. 

159. COCCYZUS AMERICANUS— Yellow-billed Cuckoo, #. 88, 

Dimensions, Kq ; Eggs, Hp. 

160. COCCYZUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS— Blaok-biUed 

Cuckoo, />. 88. 

Dimensions, Kp ; Bg'g's, Gm, 

STRIGIDiE. 

Plate XIII. 161. STRIX FLAMMEA— Barn Owl, p. 123. 
Dimensions, Le ; Eggs, Ld. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



21 



Flats XIU,— continued. 

162. ASIC OTUS— Lon^-eared Owl, p. 83. 

Dimensions, Mf ; Eggs, Kp. 

163. ASIO ACCIPITRINUS— Short-eared Owl, p. 83. 

Dimensions, Mq ; Eggs, Jp. 

164. SYRNIUM ALUCO— Tawny Owl, p. 124- 

Dimensions, On ; Eggs, Me. 

165. NYCTEA SCANDIACA— Snowy Owl, p. no. 

Dimensions, Rf ; Sfi'g's, PL. 

166. SURNIA ULULA— Hawk Owl, p. 124. 

Dimensions, Lr ; Eggs, Kl. 

167. NYCTALA TENGMALMI— Tengmalm's Owl, p. iio. 

ZJm^wstons, Id ; Eggs, Ii. 

168. SCOPS GIU— Scops Owl, p. 120. 

Dimensions, Gk; Eggs, Hh. 

169. BUBO IGNAVUS— Eagle Owl, p. 84. 

Dimensions, Rp ; Sg^^s, Qg. 

170. ATHENE NOCTUA— LittleOwl,/!. 83. 

Dimensions, Hd ; ^^g's, Jb. 

VULTUKID^. 

Plate XIV. 171. GYPS FULVUS— Griffon Vulture, p. 99. 

Dimensions, Tj ; Eggs, So. 
172. NEOPHRON PERCNOPTERUS— Egyptian Vulture, p. 109. 

Dimensions, Ri ; Eg-fs, Qj. 



FALCONID^ 

173. CIRCUS iERUGINOSUS 



174 & 174a. 



176. 



Plate XV. 



178. 



179. 



182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 



Plate XVI. 18 



192. 



Marsh Harrier, p. 87. 
Dimensions, Qg; Eggs, Nl. 
CIRCUS CYANEUS— Hen Harrier (male and female), p. 87. 

Dimensions, Oo ; Eggs, Lq. 
CIRCUS CINERACEUS-Montagu's Harrier, /i. 87. 

Dimensions, 6a ; Eggs, Km. 
BUTEO VULGARIS— Blizzard, p. 84. 
Dimensions, Ql ; Eggs, Of. 
ARCHIBUTEO LAGOPUS— Rough-legged Buzzard, /■. 82. 
Dimensions, Rr ; £5"j?s, Os. 
AQUILA CLANGA— Spotted Eagle, />. 8i. 
Dimensions, Rq ; £§"^5, Qh. 
AQUILA CHRYSAETUS— Golden Eagle, />. 81. 

Dimensions, Te ; jEg-fS, Rt. 
HALIAETUS ALBICILLA— Sea Eagle, #. 100. 

Dimensions, Sr ; Eggs, Rl. 

ACCIPITER PALUMBARIUS— Gos Hawk,#. 76. 

Dimensions, Qj ; £g'^5, Pp. 

ACCIPITER ATRICAPILLUS— American Gos Hawk, p. 

Dimensions, Qd ; Eggs, Ph, 

ACCIPITER NISUS— Sparrow Hawk, p. 76. 

Dimensions, Kh"; £g"j?s, Jt. 
MILVUS ICTINUS— Kite, />. 108. 

Dimensions, Rs ; Eggs, Pk. 
MILVUS MIGRANS-Black Kite, ^ 108. 

I)t»i£n5»ons, Qo ; Eggs, Oh, 
ELANOIDES FURCATUS— Swallow-tailed Kite, p. 93. 

Dimensions, Rj ; £^g's, Ml. 
ELANUS CCERULEUS— Black-winged Kite, p. 94. 
Z)i»len5to«5, Lf. 
PERNIS APIVORUS— Honey Buzzard, ^. 114. 
Dimensions, Re; Sg-^s, Nj. 
FALCO GYRFALCO— Gyr Faloon, ^. 95. 

Dimensions, Po ; E^^s, Ot. 
FALCO CANDICANS— Greenland Faloon, p. 95. 

Dimensions, Qe ; Eggs, Ox. 

FALCO ISLANDUS— Iceland Falcon, #. 95. 

Dimensions, Qk ; jBg'g'S, Ox. 

FALCO PEREGRINUS— Peregrine Falcon, #. 95. 

Dimensions, Nt; Eggs, Oe. 



76 



22 COLOURED PLATES. 

Plate XVl.— continued. 

193. FALCO SUBEUTEO— Hobby, p. 95. 

Dimensions, Lg ; Eggs, Kq. 

194. FALCO ^SALON— Merlin, p. 95. 

Dimensions, Ja ; Eggs, Jn. 
195- FALCO VESPERTINUS-Red-footed Falcon, p. 95. 

Dimensions, Jr ; Eggs, Js. 
196 & 196a. FALCO TINNUNCULUS— Kestrel (male and female), p. 93. 
Dimensions, Lo ; Eggs, Kk. 

197. FALCO CENCHRIS— Lesser Kestrel, p. 95. 

Dimensions, Ki ; £g"gs, Jp. 

198. PANDION HALIAETUS— Osprey, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Qn ; jE^^s, Pr. 

FELECANIDJE. 

Plate XVII. 199. PHALACROCORAX CARBO— Cormorant, p. 114. 
Dimensions, St; Eggs, Qs. 
zoo. PHALACROCORAX GRACULUS-Shag, ^. 114. 
Dimensions, Rt; jBg'g'5, Ps. 

201. SULA BASSANA— Gannet, p. 123. 

Dimensions, Sj ; £^g'5, Rq. 

ARDEID^. 

202. ARDEA CINEREA— Heron, p. 82. 

Dimensions, Tb ; £^^s, Pt. 

203. ARDEA PURPUREA— Purple Heron, p. 82. 

Dimensions, Sn ; Eggs, On. 

204. ARDEA ALBA— Great White Heron, p. 82. 

Dimensions, Th ; Sg'g's, Qd. 

205. ARDEA GARZETTA— Little Egret, p. 82. 

DmfiMSWMS, Qb ; Eggs, Le. 

206. ARDEA BUBULCUS— Buff-backed Heron, p. 82. 

Dimensions, Pe; Eggs, Lm. 

207. ARDEA RALLOIDES— Squacco Heron, p. 82. 

Dimensions, Oh ; Eggs, Jo. 
Plate XVIIl. 208. ARDETTA MINUTA— Little Bittern, p. 82. 
DjweMsions, Km ; Eggs, Ig. 

209. NYCTICORAX GRISEUS-Night Heron,/., no. 

Dimensions, Qr ; Eggs, Mc. 

210. BOTAURUS STELLARIS— Bittern, p. 84. 

Z)twl£nston5, Sg ; Eggs, Ne, 

211. BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSUS— American Bittern,/.. 

Dimensions, Sa ; Eggs, Nf. 

CICONIID^. 

212. CICONIA ALBA— White Stork,/. 86. 

Dimensions, Ti ; Eggs, Rn. 
2J3. CICONIA NIGRA— Black Stork,/. 86. 

Dimensions, Tf ; £g-^s, Qq. 

PLATALEID^. 

214. PLATALEA LEUCORODIA— Spoonbill, /. iiS. 

Dimensions, Sp ; .Eg'g'5, Qb. 

IBIDID.iE. 

215. IBIS FALCINELLUS— Glossy Ibis, /. lor. 

Dimensions, Qa ; Eggs, No. 

FHCENICOFTERID^. 

216. PHCENICOPTERUS ROSEUS— Flamingo, /. 115. 

Dimensions, Tn ; Eggs, Sl. 

ANATID.S. 

Plate XIX. 217. ANSER CINEREUS— Grey Lag Goose, /. Bp. 
Dimensions, Sh ; Eggs, Si. 
21S. ANSER SEGETUIVI— Bean Goose,/. 80. 

Dimensions, Sq ; Eggs, Sf. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



23 



Plate XIX.- 



-conlittucd. 
219. 



ANSER BRACHYRHYNCHUS-Pink-foot5d Goose, p. 80. 
Dimensions, Se ; Eggs, Sc. 

220. ANSER ALBIFRONS— White-fronted Goose, p. 80. 

Dimensions, Sc; Eggs, Rk. 

221. ANSER ERYTHROPUS— Lesser White-fronted Goose, p. 80. 

Dimensions, Pk ; Eggs, Rm. 

222. ANSER HYPERBOREUS— Snow Goose, /i. 80. 

Dimensions, Si ; jE^jTS, Sd. 

223. BERNICLA BRENTA— Brent Goose, #. 83. 

Dimensions, Qi ; Eggs, Rb. 

224. BERNICLA LEUCOPSIS— Barnacle Goose, p. 83. 

Dimensions, Rh ; £^,55, Rl. 

225. BERNICLA CANADENSIS— Canada Goose, p. 83. 

Dimensions, Tg ; £g"fs, Sj. 

226. BERNICLA RUFICOLLIS— Red-breaated Goose, p. 83. 

Dimensions, Qi; Eggs, Qt. 
Plate XX. 227. CYGNUS OLOR— Mute Swan, #. 92. 
Dimensions, Tr ; Eggs, Sr. 

228. CYGNUS IMMUTABILIS-PolishSwan,^. 92. 

Dimensions, To. 

229. CYGNUS MUSICUS— Hooper Swan, /i. ga. 

Dimensions, Tq ; Eggs, Sq. 
i36. CYGNUS AMERICANUS— American Swan, /i. 92. 

Dimensions, Tm. 

231. CYGNUS BUCCINATOR— Trumpeter Swan, p. 02. 

'Dimensions, Tp. 

232. CYGNUS BEWICKI— Bewick's Swan, p. ga. 

Dimensions, Tl ; Eggs, Sp. 
333. TADORNA CORNUTA— Sheld Duck, />. 135. 

Dimensions, Ro ; £^^"5, Qp. 
234. TADORNA CASARCA— Ruddy Sheld Duck, p. 125. 

Dimensions, Rb ; fig-^s, Qr. 
Plate XXI. 255. ANAS BOSCAS— Mallard,/!. 79. 

Dimensions, Qp ; £f^a, Pa. 

236. ANAS STREPERUS-Gadwall, p. 79. 

Dimensions, Ph : Eggs, Oc, 

237. SPATULA CLYPEATA— Shoveller, ^. 121. 

Dimensions, Pg ; Eggs, Nh. 
338. DAFILA ACUTA— Pintail, /i. 93. 

Dimensions, Rn ; Eggs, Ns. 
2:19. QUERQUEDULA CRECCA-Teal, /). ii8. 

Dimensions, Ln ; Eggs, Lf. 

240. QUERQUEDULA DISCORS— American Blue-winged 

Teal, />. 118. 

Dimensions, Lm ; Eggs, Ko. 

241. QUERQUEDULA CIRCIA— Garganey, jf. 118. 

Dimensions, Mi ; Eggs, Ma. 
2+2. MARECA PENELOPE— Wigeon, #. io5. 
Dimensions, Oj ; Eggs, Nc. 

243. MARECA AMERICANA— American Wigeon, #. 106. 

Dimensions, Os ; £;?g5, Ol. 

244. FULIGULA RUFINA— Red-crested Pochard, />. 97. 

Dimensions, Pn ; Eggs, Pc. 

245. FULIGULA FERINA— Pochard, p. 97. 

Dimensions, Od ; Eggs, Pi, 

246. FULIGULA NYROCA— White-eyed Duck, #. 97. 

Dimensions, Na ; Eggs, Ng. 

247. FULIGULA CRISTATA— Tufted Duck, ^.97. 

Dimensions, Nq ; jEg-fS, Pf. 

248. FULIGULA MARILA— Scaup, p. 97. 

Dimensions, Pc ; £f;?s, Qa. 

Plate XXII. 249. CLANGULA GLAUCION— Goldeneye,^ 87. 

Dimensions, Oi ; K^g's, Pd. 
350. CLANGULA ALBEOLA— BufTel-headed Duck, p. 87. 

Dimensions, Mh ; Eggs, Mr. 



24 COLOURED PLATES. 

Plate XXU.—coniinaed. 

251. HARELDA GLACIALIS— Long-tailed Duck, p. 100. 

Dimensions, Rl ; Eggs, Ob. 

252. COSMONETTA HISTRIONICA— Harlequin Duck, p. gft. 

Dimensions, Np; Eggs, Oo. 

253. SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA— Eider Duck, p. 121. 

Dimensions, Rg ; Eggs, Sb 

254. SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS— King Eider, p. 121. 

Dimensions, Qt ; £g"g"S, Qf. 

253. SOMATERIA STELLERI— Steller's Eider, p. 121. 

Dimensions, Pd ; £^^s, Pa. 

256. CEDEMIA NIGRA— Scoter,/, in. 

Dimensions, Pf ; Eggs, Qk. 

257. CEDEMIA FUSCA— Velvet Scoter, p. in. 

Dimensions, Ps ; Eggs, Rf. 

258. CEDEMIA PERSPICILLATA— Surf Scoter, f. in. 

Dimensions, Pm; Sg-g-i, Qc. 

259. MERGUS MERGANSER— Goosander, />. 107. 

Dimensions, Rk ; jBg^g-s, Ra. 

260. MERGUS SERRATOR— Red-breasted Merganser, p. 10?. 

Dimensions, Qq; £^^"5, Qm. 

261. MERGUS ALBELLUS— Smew, #. 107. 

Dimensions, No; Eggs, Nl. 

262. MERGUS CUCULLATUS— Hooded Merganser, p. loj 

DimetKions, Oq ; Eggs, Nk. 
COLUMBID.ffi. 

Plate XXin. 263. COLUMBA PALUMBUS— Ring Dove, ^.88. 
Dimensions, Ng ; Eggs, Kn. 

264. COLUMBA CENAS— Stock Dove, p. 88. 

Dimensions, Kr; Sg-gs, Jg. 

265. COLUMBA LIVIA— Rock Dove, p. 88. 

Dimensions, Jp ; Eggs, Jd. 

266. TURTUR COMMUNIS-Turtle Dove, *. 129. 

Dtmenst'oMS, Jt ; Eggs, Gr. 

267. ECTOPISTES MIGRATORIUS— Passenger Pigeon, p. 93, 

Dimensions, Nd ; Eggs, Jj. 

PTEROCLID.S. 

268. SYRRHAPTES PARADOXUS— Pallas's Sand Grouse,/). 125 

Dimensions, Nh ; Eggs, La. 

FHASIANID.S. 

269&26ga. TETRAO UROGALLUS—Capercaillie (male and female), /i. 125. 
Dtmenstons, Ta ; Eggs, Og. 

270. TETRAO TETRIX— Black Grouse, p. 125. 

Dimensions, Pt ; Eggs, Mp. 

271. TETRAO SCOTICUS— Red Grouse, p. 125. 

Dimensions, Nc ; Eggs, Lo. 
272 & 272a. TETRAO MUTUS — Ptarmigan (summer and winter), p. 125. 
Dimensions, Mj ; Eggs, Li. 
Plate XXIV. 273. PHASIANUS COLCHICUS— Pheasant, /). 113. 
Dimensions, So ; £ggs, Md. 
274. PERDIX RU FA— Red-legged Partridge, p. 113. 

Dimensions, Lh ; Eggs, Ka. 
273. PERDIX CINEREA— Partridge, /). 113. 
Dimensions, Kj ; Eggs, It. 

276. COTURNIX COMMUNIS— Quail, ^.gi. 

DjmemtoMS, El ; Eggs^ Ge. 
TUENICID^. 

277. TURNIX SYLVATICA— Andalusian Hemipode, p. 129, 

Dimensions, Go ; £ggs, Gb. 
BALLID.S. 

278. CREX PRATENSIS— Corncrake, ^.91. 

Dimensions, Jh ; Eggs, Ja. 

279. CREX MARUETTA-tSpotted Crake, p. 91. 

Dimensions, Hr ; Eggs, Ic. 



Plata U,\p2^ 




Plate IV. 45-59- 




Plate V. 60-72. 




Plate VI. 73-86. 




Plate VIL 87-101. 




Mate VIII. T02-11S. 




Plate IX. 119-131. 




Plate X. 132-143. 




j-iaw JU. 144-152. 



1 lApmnc 




Plate Xn. 153-160. 




Plate XtU. [61-170. 




Wate XV. 179-187. 







Plate XVI. 188-198. 




'wnin fS J 



Plate XVn. 199-207. 




Pta,te XVm. 2o8-2i6. 







Plate XIX. 217-226. 




Plate XX. 22/'234- 










Plate XXI. 235-248 




Plate XXII. 249-262. 




aS9 



a6i 



Plate ZZm. 263-2723. 




368 




Plats XXIV. 273-284. 







Plate XXV. 285-391. 




'-.^TS^^i^' 390 



^^^i'*^^^^^""' ■ ;aj^^^^^^^-'-^.._^^^ 



Plate XXVI. 292-30^. 




Flate XXVII. 



304-310. 




Tlate XX vm. 317-328, 




324 



322 



y g^g feg awf :«»&' " 



Plate XXIX 



3=9-340- 




^^'j^m'vwxtp^^'K^ 



Plate XXX. 341-353. 




Plate XXXL 354-368. 




Plate XXXII. 369.383. 




Plate XZXm. 384-39S 




COLOURED PLATES. iK 

Plate XXIV.— continued. 

2S0. CREX PARVA— Little Crake, f>. Qt. 

Dimensions, Gp; Eggs, Hm. 
aSi. CREX BAILLONI— Baillon's Crake, p gi. 
Dimensions, Fa ; Eggs, Gk. ' 
282. RALLUS AQUATICUS— Water Rail, #. 119. 

Dimensions, Jd ; £fffs, If. 
S83. GALLINULA CHLOROPUS— Moorhen, p. 98. 

Dimensions, Ko ; fife's, Lj. 
284. FULICA ATRA— Coot, p. 07. 

Dimensions, Mk ; Sfirg's, Nm, 
GRUIDJE. 
Plate XXV. 285. GRUS COIWMUNIS— Crane, #.99. 

Dimensions, Tk ; Eggs, Sn. 

286. GRUS VIRGO— Demoiselle Crane, p. 03. 
_ Dimensions, Td ; Eggs, Sh. 

OTIDIDjB. 

287. OTIS TARDA— Great Bustard, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Tc; EgKS, Rs. 

288. OTIS TETI^X— Little Bustard, p. 112. 

Dimensions, Ne ; -Eg'g's, Og. 
48g. OTIS MACQUEENI—Maoqueen's Bustard, /li.iii. 

Dimensions, Sf : Eggs, Qi. 
CEDICNElVtIDiE. 

290. CEDICNEMUS SCOLOPAX— Stone Curlew, j>. lU. 

Dimensions, Mn ; Eggs, Oa. 
GLABEOLID^E. 

291. GLAREOLA PRATINCOLA— Pratincole, #. 99. 

Dimensions, Ik; Sg-gs, Hi, 
CHARADRIID.S. 

Plate XXVI. 292. CURSORIUS GALLICUS— Cream-coloured Course,/!, gi. 

Dimensions, Ip ; Eggs, Ih. 
293. EUDROMIAS MORINELLUS— Dotterel,/!. 95. 

Dimensions, le ; Eggs, Kx. 
894. CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS— Golden Plover, /i. 86. 

Dimensions, Ir ; ^g^g-s, Nr. 

295. CHARADRIUS FULVUS-Eastern Golden Plover, p. 86. 

Dimensions, Ic ; Eggs, Mi. 

296. SQUATAROLA HELVETICA— Grey Plover, p. 121. 

Dimensions, Jm ; Eggs, Nb. 

297. ^GIALITIS HIATICULA— Ringed Plover, /p. 77. 

Dimensions, Fn ; ^Eg-g-s, Ir. 

298. .^GIALITIS CURONICUS— Little Ringed Plover, p. 77. 

Dimensions, Ds ; Eggs, Hd. 
agg. iEGIALITIS CANTIAN US— Kentish Plover, />. 77. 
Dimensions, Eo; Eggs^ He. 

300. iEGIALITIS VOCIFERUS— Killdeer Plover,,/). 77. 

Dimensions, Iq ; Eggs, Iq. 

301. VANELLUS CRISTATUS-Lapwing, />. 130. 

Dimensions, Lb ; £^^"5, Mb. 

302. STREPSILAS INTERPRES— Turnstone,/!. 123. 

Dimensions, Ht ; £ggs, Kb. 

303. HiEMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS— Oysteroatcher, /I. 100. 

Dimensions, Nf ; Eggs, Om. 
SCOLOPACID,ffi. 
Plate XXVII. 304. RECURVIROSTRA AVOCETTA— Avocet, /!. iig. 
Dimensions, Oe ; Eggs, Na. 

305. HIMANTOPUS CANDIDUS— Black-winged Stilt, p. 100. 

Dimensions, Lc ; Eggs, Ls. 

306. PHALAROPUS HYPERBOREUS— Red-necked Phalarope, p. ri4. 

Dimensions, Fh ; ^g'g'i, Gq. 

307. PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS— Grey Phalarope,/!. 114. 

Dimensions, Gt ; Eggs^ Hf. 

308. SCOLOPAX RUSTICOLA— Woodcock, /. 120. 

Dimensions, Lp j Eggs, Lp. 

C 



i^ 



COLOURED PLATES. 



Plate XXVll.— continued. 



309. 



311- 



315- 
316. 



flateXXVlII. 317. 
318. 



322- 

323 & 323a. 



325. 



3=6. 
327- 
328. 

Plate XXIX. 329. 



332. 

333' 



335- 
336. 
337- 
338. 



340. 



i>S. 



GALLINAGO MAJOR— Great Snipe, p. 98. 
Dimensions, Js ; Eggs, Ll. 
GALLINAGO CCELESTIS— Snipe, />. 98. 
Dimensions, In ; Eggs, Kc. 
GALLINAGO GALLINULA— Jacl< Snipe, #. 9S. 

Dimensions, Gd ; Eggs, Jk. 
MACRORHAMPUS GRISEUS— Red-breasted Snipe, />. 

Dimensions, Je ; Eggs, Lb. 
LIMICOLA PLATYRHYNCHA— Broad-billed Sandpiper, 
p. :o4. 
Dimensions, Dr ; Eggs, Hr. 
TRINGA MACULATA— Pectoral Sandpiper, #. 127. 

Dimensions, Hf ; EggSt Jq. 
TRINGA FUSICOLLIS— Bonaparte's Sandpiper,/". 127. 
Dimensions, Gi ; Eggs, Ik. 
TRINGA ALPINA— Dunlin, p. 127. 

Dimensions, Gg ; Eggs, lo. 
TRINGA MINUTA— Little Stint, p. 127. 

Dimensions, Ck; £fi'g's, Gj. 
TRINGA TEMMINCKI— Temminck's Stint, p. 127. 

Dmiensions, Dd ; Eggs, Gp. 
TRINGA MINUTILLA— American Stint, #. 127. 

Dimensions, Dn ; ^g-g-s, Gi. 
TRINGA SUBARQUATA— Curlew Sandpiper, p. 127. 
DimeHSJOMS, Er. 
TRINGA MARITI MA— Purple Sandpiper, p. 127. 
Dimensions, Hj ; £g"g"S, Jh. 

TRINGA CANUTUS-Knot, p. 127. 

Dimensions, Ij. 
MACHETES PUGNAX— Ruff and Reeve, p. io6. 

Dimensions, Jl; Eggs, Lk. 
CALIDRIS ARENARIA— Sanderling, #. 83. 

Dimensions, Gr ; E.fg's, Im. 

TRYNGITES RUFESCENS-Buff-breasted Sandpiper, 
#. 128. 

Dimensions, He ;'Eggs, Je. 

BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA— Bartram's Sandpiper, /i. 83, 
Dimensions, Kf ; Eggs, Ln. 

TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS— Sandpiper,/). 126. 
Dimensions, Fs ; Eggs, If. 
TOTANUS MACULARIUS— Spotted Sandpiper, #. 126. 

jDiwcrts^ns, Ge ; Eggs, Hg. 

TOTANUS OCHROPUS— Green Sandpiper, p. 126. 

Dimensions, Hm ; Sg-g-s, Jl. 

TOTANUS GLAREOLA— Wood Sandpiper,/). 126. 

Dimensions, Ha ; £.f^s, Jm. 

TOTANUS SOLITARIUS-Solitary Sandpiper,/). i::6. 
Dimensions, Hs. 

TOTANUS CALIDRIS— Redshank, p. 126. 
Dimensions, Jf ; Eggs, Lt. 
TOTANUS FUSCUS— Spotted Redshank, 

Dimensions, Ke ; Eggs, Mj. 
TOTANUS FLAVIPES— Yellowshank, /). 126. 
Dimensions, Ji ; Eggs, Ks. 
TOTANUS CANESCENS— Greenshank,#. 126. 
Dimensions, Lj ; Eggs, Mo. 
LIMOSA LAPPONICA— Bar-tailed Godwit, ^. 

Dimensions, Mr ; -E^g'S, Ok. 
LIMOSA"beLGICA— Black-tailed Godwit,/), 104. 
Dimensions, Or ; £«rgi, Od. 
NUMENIUS ARQUATUS-Curlew, ^. no. 

DM»ens»on5, Ra ; Eggs, Qo. 
NUMENIUS PH<E0PUS— Whimbrel, #. no. 
Dimensions, Og ; £fffs, Pj. 
NUMENIUS BOREALIS -Eskimo Curlew, /*. no. 
Dimensions, Lq ; £ffg5, Nq. 



. 126. 



104. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



27 



LAKIDA. 
tlate XXX. 341. HYDROCHELIDON NIGRA— Black Tern, ^ 101. 
Dimensions, Jb ; Eggs, lo. 

342. HYDROCHELIDON LEUCOPTERA— White-winged Blacli 

Tern, p. loi. 

Dimensions, II ; Eggs, Hs. 

343. HYDROCHELIDON HYBRIDA— Whiskered Tern, p. loi. 

Dimensions, Ka ; Eggs, Kf. 

344. STERNA ANGLICA— GuU-billed Tern, p. 122. 

Dimensions, Mg ; ^^g's, Mq. 
345 STERNA CASPIA— Caspian Tern, p. 122 

Dimensions, PI ; Eggs, Qe. 

346. STERNA CANTIACA— Sandwich Tern, /i. 122. 

Dimensions, Ms ; Eggs, Nn, 

347. STERNA DOUGALLI— Roseate Tern, #. 132. 

Dimensions, Nm ; JESS'S, Lc, 

348. STERNA FLUVIATILIS— Tern, p. via. 

Dimensions, LI ; Eggs, Lh. 

349. STERNA MACRURA— Arctic Tern, p. isa. 

Dimensions, Mo ; Eggs, Kd. 

350. STERNA MINUTA— Little Tern, /■. 122. 

Dimensions, If; £g'fi'5, Hl. 

351. STERNA FULIGINOSA— Sooty Tern, p. 122. 

Dimensions, Nj ; Eggs, No. 

352. STERNA AN^STHETA— Lesser Sooty Tern, p. lit. 

Dimensions, Lt ; Eggs, Mh. 

353. ANOUS STOLIDUS— Noddy, p. 80. 

Dimensions, Mb ; Eggs, Np. 
Plate XXXI. 354. XEMA SABINII— Sabine's Gull, p. 130. 

Dimensions, Lk ; Kg'g's, Lr. 

355. RHODOSTETHIA ROSEA— Wedge-tailed Gull, p. 119. 

Dimensions, Me. 

356. LARUS PHILADELPHIA— Bonaparte's Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Mm ; Eggs, Ms. 

357. LARUS MINUTUS— Little Gull, /■. 102. 

Dimensions, Jq ; ^g^gs, Kl. 

358. LARUS RIDIBUNDUS— Black-headed Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Nk ; Ejfgs, Mt. 

359. LARUS MELANOCEPHALUS — Mediterranean Black- 

beaded Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Nr; Eggs, Mk, 

360. LARUS ICHTHYAETUS-Great Black-beaded Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Sb ; fig'g's, Rr. 

361. LARUS CANUS— GuU,^. 103. 

Dimensions, Op ; Eggs, Or. 

362. LARUS ARGENTATUS— Herring Gu\],p. 103. 

Dimensions, Qm ; ^ggs, Rg. 

363. LARUS FUSCUS— Lesser Black-backed Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Pq; Eggs, Qn. 

364. LARUS MARINUS— Great Black-backed Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Sd ; Eggs, Rp. 

365. LARUS GLAUCUS— Glaucous Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, SI ; Sgffs, Sa. 

366. LARUS LEUCOPTERUS— Iceland Gull, p. 103. 

Dimensions, Qh ; Eggs, Re. 

367. RISSA TRIDACTYLA— Kittiwake, /i. 119. 

Dimensions, Mp ; Eggs, Op. 

368. PAGOPHILA EBURNEA— Ivory Gull, /r. ns. 

Dimensions, Ns ; Eggs, Pq. 
Plate XXXIL 369. STERCORARIUS CATARRHACTES— Great Skua, #. 12a. 
Dimensions, Rd; fggs, Rh. 

370. STERCORARIUS POMATORHINUS— Pomatorhine Skua, 

p. 122. 

Dimensions, Pp ; Eggs, Pg. 

371. STERCORARIUS CREPIDATUS— Arctic or Richardson's Skua, 

p. 122. 

/)t»KHSto»s, Pj ; Eggs, P«. 

C 1 



aS COLOURED PLAtES. 

Plate XXXII.-continued. 

372. STERCORARIUS PARASITICUS— Long-tailed Skua, 

p. 122. 

Dimensions, Qc ; Eggs, Nt« 
ALCIDJE. 

373. ALCA TORDA— Razorbill, p. 7g. 

Dimensions, Nn ; Eggs, Rd. 

374. ALCA IMPENNIS-Greal Auk, p. 79. 

£>tme»sio«s, Sk ; Eggs, Ss. 

375. URIA TROILE— Guillemot, p. 130. 

Dimensions, Ob ; Eggs, Se. 

376. URIA BRUENNICHI— Brijnnich's Guillemot, ^. 13O, 

Dimensions, Of: JB^^5, Se, 

377. URIA GRYLLE— Black Guillemot, p. 130. 

Dimensions, Kn ; Eggs, Pe. 

378. MERGULUS ALLE— Little Auk, #. 107. 

Dimensions, HI ; Eggs, Mf. 

379. FRATERCULA ARCTICA— PufSn, #. 98. 

Dimensions, Kdj £^gj, Pn. 

C6LYMBID.ffi. 

380. COLYMBUS GLACIALlS— Great Northern Diver, p. 89. 

Dimensions, Sra ; Eggs, Sm. 

381. COLYIMBUS ADAMSI— Yellow-billed Diver, p. 89. 

Dimensions, Ss ; £g'gs, Sk. 

382. COLYMBUS ARCTICUS— Black-throated Divet, p. 89. 

Dimensions, Rm ; Eggs, So. 

383. COLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS— Red-throated Diver, ^. 89. 

Dimensions, Qs ; £g'g'5, Ro. 

PODICIPEDID.ffi. 

Plate XXXIII. 384. PODICEPS CRISTATUS— Great Crested Grebe, #. I17. 
Dimensions, Pr ; Eggs, Oi. 
383. PODICEPS GRISEIGENA— Red-necked Grebe, p. 117. 

Dimensions, Mt ; £^^5, Mn. 

386. PODICEPS AURITUS— Sclavonian Grebe, p. iiy. 

Dimensions. Kl ; Eggs, Lg. 

387. PODICEPS NIGKICOLLIS— Eared Grebe, ^. 117. 

Dimensions, Kb ; Eggs, Mg. 

388. PODICEPS FLUVIATILIS— Little Grebe, p. 117. 

Dimensions, Hp; Eggs, Is. 

FROC£LLARIID.£. 

389. FULIMARUS GLACIALlS— Fulmar, ^.98. 

Dimensions, Ot ; -E^g5, Rj. 

390. FULMARU.S H^SITATUS-Capped Petrel, p. gS. 

Dimensions, Nl. 

391. PUFFINUS MAJOR-Great Shearwater,/). 117. 

Dimensions, Pa ; Eggs, Re. 

392. PUFFINUS GRISEUS-Sooty Shearwater, p. 117. 

Dimensions, 01 ; Eggs, Ql. 

393. PUFFINUS ANGLORUM— Manx Shearwater,/!. 117, 

Dimensions, Ma ; jBg-g-s, Po. 

394. PUFFINUS OBSCURUS— Dusky Shearwater, />. 117. 

Dimensions, Jo ; Eggs, Oj. 

395. BULWERIA COLUMBINA— Bulwer's Petrel, />. 84. 

Dimensions, Is ; £gff5, Kj. 

396. PROCELLARIA LEUCORRHOA— Fork-tailed Petrel, ^, ji,, 

Dimensions, Fo ; jBfffi, Ib. 
397- PROCELLARIA PELAGICA— Stormy Petrel, p. 117. 

Dimensions, Cn ; Eggs, On. 
333. OCEANITES OCEANICUS-Wilson's Petrel, /p. m. 

Dimensions, Gl ; £fg'5, Hq. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SORTATION. 



WHAT is the name of the bird we have brought in with us fron. 
our walk ? Probably it has many names, both local and 
technical ; but its local name is useless to us, to begin with, for such 
names are not systematic, and give no clue to classification. What 
we have to do, then, is to identify the bird, to discover the species 
under which it has been described, and in that way arrive at the plain 
English name by which it is generally known in our district. 

Now, individuals are grouped by naturalists into species, species 
into genera, genera into families, families into orders, and orders into 
a class or classes. In this case we do not know the species, but we 
know the class. Here is unmistakably one of the class Aves, or birds ; 
and that is all we can say about it in the present stage of our progress 
from the general to the particular. 

The Aves consist of certain orders, but these it will be convenient 
to leave for a while. These orders are made up of families, and as 
there are only 35 families in the scheme we have adopted, we can at 
once begin to sort them out by using whatever characteristic is readiest 
and handiest for identification, even though it may only hold good for 
such of their representatives as are found in our list. 
To begin with, there is one well-defined group of birds which are 
easily distinguishable. These are the so- 
called " Birds of Prey," the AiiomorplicE nf 
Huxley, the Raftores of the older classifi- 
cations. There is no mistaking the long, 
strong, cruel claws, and the sharp-curving 
bill of such birds as these ; and, for the 
purposes of identification, though not for 
classification — which is a very different 
thing — it will be found as simple a way as 
any to work on two main divisions, the first 
including the birds of prey, and the second 
all the rest. Retaining, then, the old namt- 
of Raptores, which has the advantage of 
being familiar, we have : — 

1. Raptores. 

2. Non-Raptores. 

It fortunately happens that the first is represented by only three 
families in the British list. These are : — 

1. The Owls. 

2. The Vultures. 

3. The Eagles, Hawks, Falcons, &c., &c. 

or, to use the technical names, the Siri^ida, Viilluridce, and Falconida: 





30 SORTATION. 

In the Owls the head is large, the eyes are in front, and the face is 
round, although in some the " facial disk," 
as it is called, is not as complete as in 
others. Many of the Owls, too, have 
bristles on the feet instead of feathers ; 
but surely we are safe in assuming that 
anyone likely to take an interest in birds 
will know an Owl when he sees one ; and 
a lengthy description of the Strigidae would 
here be waste of space. The bird we are 
seeking to identify is certainly not an Owl. 
Then, if it be a bird of prey at all, it 
must belong to either the VulturidsE or the 
Falconida;. The chances are very much 
against its being a Vulture, for the very 
good reason that only three Vultures have been shot on British 
ground within the memory of man. Vultures are but British birds 
by courtesy, like a good many others. It is interesting to know that 
our country has been visited by representatives of that singularly 
uninteresting family ; and that is about all that need be said. The 
Vultures have bald or downy crowns ; and, consequently, if your bird 
of prey has feathers on its crown, you may rest assured that it is not 
one of the Vulturidje. 

We are thus left with the Falconidas, comprising the true Falcons 
who capture their prey in the air, the Hawks who capture it on or 
near the ground, the Harriers, Kites, and Buzzards, who capture it 
on the ground, and that bird by itself, the Osprey, which captures it 
from the water. Our bird, however, is not a bird of prey at all ; its 
claws and beak and the absence of the " cere," or bare skin at the 
base of the beak, show that clearly enough. It is not an Owl, it is not 
a Vulture, and it is not a Falcon in any sense of the word. 

We have got rid of the Raptores by their claws and beak ; in the 
identification of the rest it will be found that we can go a very long 
way on their feet. The feet will not take us all the way, but we shall 
considerably lighten our load by using them as long as they last. 
Now, the normal number of a bird's toes is four — three in front and one 
behind — but in a large number of cases the hind toe is small, and in 
others it has become obsolete. We can thus start our second group 
with two main divisions : — 

1. Three toes. 

2. Four toes. 

Let us take the three-toed birds first. These we can sort at once 
into those that are web-footed, and those that are not ; but as it will 
be found that the web extends farther along the toes in some than in 
others, we can further set up four minor divisions : — 

1. United as far as the claws. 

2. United as far as the second joint. 

3. United at base. 

4. Divided throughout. 

If the bird's foot be found to consist of three toes only, and these 



SORTATION. 



31 




toes be webbed up to the claws, it will be assignable to one of four 

families, and to three of these in respect 
' of only one representative, so that in that 
case we can tell at once, not only what in 
its family, but what are its genus and 
species. If its wings are fin-like and its 
tail rudimentary, it will be one of the 
Alcida, an Auk, a Guillemot, a Puffin, or 
a Razorbill. If its wings are not fin-like 
and its tail is of ordinary proportions, it 
may be either a Wilson's Petrel, Pallas's 
Sand Grouse, or a Kittiwake Gull. The Petrel you will know by its 
very long legs ; it is the longest legged Petrel in the British list, and 
our only representative of the genus Oceajiites, which is the only genus 
of the Procellariidce having only three toes. It is not a common bird, 
but it is unmistakable. Pallas's Sand Grouse is also a rarity, an 
occasional straggler from the depths of Tartary, that caused quite a 
sensation amongst sportsmen by its first appearance here some thirty 
years ago. It is the only species on our list of the one genus 
Syrrhaptes, which is, in its turn, the only representative we have of 
the family PterocUda. It is separable from the rest of this three-toed 
group by its long wings and its wedge-shaped tail, which has i6 
feathers in it. 

As the Petrels have one three-toed representative, so have the 
Gulls, that being the Kittiwake. Occasionally we may find a 
Kittiwake with the hind toes rudimentary and not obsolete ; but in 
that case we shall pick him up again among the rest of the Gulls, 
from whom he is generally distinguishable in the way we have stated. 
If he has only the three toes he is not likely to be mistaken for a 
Petrel, a Sand Grouse, or a Guillemot ; he is a true Sea Gull, white 
and silver grey ; his tail is not wedge-shaped ; and he has very long 
wings, the flight feathers in which generally number 31. 

But, it may be asked, what are the flight feathers of a bird ? Let 
us strip a wing and study it a little. Here is one, a Rook's, freely 
treated so as to be clear. 




32 SORTATION. 

It will be seen at once that the wing- answers to the man's arm 
from the elbow downwards. Only so much of the humerus — called 
the " funnybone," from the pun on humorous, which has become 
classical — is left in the drawing as to show its position. Joined on to it 
at the elbow are the radius and ulna, just as in the human arm, 
leading on to what represents our wrist and hand. At the joint are 
the scaphoid and cuneiform bones ; and leading on from them is the 
well-developed second metacarpal, with a rudimentary first meta- 
carpal on one side of it, and a more easily recognisable third 
metacarpal on the other ; to the first metacarpal all that exists of the 
first finger is attached ; to the second metacarpal hang the joints of 
the second finger ; while the third metacarpal has the only repre- 
sentative of the three joints of the third finger. On the first finger, 
answering to our pollex, or thumb, grows the " bastard wing ; " on 
the other fingers and metacarpals, up to the wrist joint, come the 
"primary" feathers; and on the ulna come the "secondary" feathers, 
often called the " cubitals." 

The most important point to be noticed at this stage is that the 
flight feathers, or " remiges " as they are generally called — from the 
Latin remex, an oarsman — are divided into primaries and secondaries 
at tiie carpal joint, just where the cuneiform comes, and that the 
secondaries fit into little pits along the ulna, while the primaries are 
distributed over the hand and fingers, or, to speak more technically, 
over the lower metacarpals and the phalanges of the lower digits. 
The secondaries vary a good deal, but the typical number of primaries 
is 1 1 ; of these six are on the metacarpals ; one, the " addigital," is on 
the third digit; two, the "mid-digitals," are on the first phalaiix of 
the second digit ; and two, the " pre-digitals," are on the next phalanx 
of that digit ; the outer of the pre-digitals being the "remicle," which 
is always rudimentary and sometimes obsolete. 

And now, having cleared the ground a little, let us resume. We 
have seen that our bird does not belong to the Strigida, or VulturidcE, 
or Fakonidce, or Alcida, or Pteroclida, and we have thus definitely 
identified five families out of thirty-five, and have also discovered that 
our specimen belongs to neither of the genera of two other families, 
which can be separated out by their having only three toes, and those 
united as far as the claws. 

Our next group consisted of the three-toed birds with the web 
extending only as far as the second joint. There is only one family 
answering this description, and that is the (Edicne- 
mida, which has in our list but one genus, CEdicnemus, 
and that with only one species. We are thus able to 
identify the Stone Curlew by its foot alone. 

Our third group with three toes has its toes united 
at the base, or practically anywhere below the second 
joint ; and our iourth has the toes entirely free, 
without any webs at all. We can make as short 
work of the fourth as we did of the second. There is 
only one family in the list with three toes unconnected 
by a membrane, and that is the Turnicida, repre- 
sented by the one genus Tu7nix^ and that by its one 
species, known as the Andalusian Bush Quail, or 
Hemipode, which is only admitted as a Britisher under protest. 




SORTATION. 



33 




We have only one three-toed group left. To it belong the Bustards, 
the Otididce, which have their toes edged with a membrane ; the 
Sanderling, which is the one representative of 
the genus Calidris, the only genus of the Scolopa- 
cidffi which has but three toes ; and last and 
chiefly the whole family of Plovers, or Charadriidce, 
with the exception of the Grey Plover, the Turn- 
stone, and the Lapwing. From the Plovers the 
Sanderiing is at once distinguishable by its 
having its bill as long as its head, and having it 
dilated at the point ; while the Plover's bill is not 
dilated at the point, and is always either longer or 
shorter than the head. And thus by taking out 
the birds of prey and the birds with three toes we 
have got rid of eight families out of thirty-five, 
and claimed eight genera out of four more. 

But before we consider the four-toed class, which comprises the 
bulk of the birds, British and otherwise, it would be as well to produce 
our example, which it would not have done to have brought forward 
before, inasmuch as it is only too plain that he is not a bird of prey, 
and that he has more than three toes. 

Here he is, mapped out as far as it is necessary for him to be at 
present, and it would be as well to identify his "districts." Here are his 

" primaries "and his 
"secondaries," and, 
at the upper angle, 
the "alula ''or "bas- 
tard wing" we have 
already spoken of. 
.. On the top of the 
" remiges," or flight 
feathers, come the 
" wing coverts,"and 
over them come the 
" lesser coverts." 
Between the wing 
and the back come 
the shoulder fea- 
thers, or " scapu- 
lars," and at the 
base of the back 
come the " upper 
tail coverts,'' from 
beneath which run 
the "rectrices," or 
tail feathers. Above the back is the neck with the " nape," which 
bears the "nuchal" feathers, the "occiput,'' or poll, the "crown," 
already spoken of as being bare in the Vulturidas, and the "forehead," 
just above the beak and in front of the eyes. 

But let us turn him over. Here we see that the "lore " is between 
the eye and the beak, and that the " chin " is just underneath the 




34 



SORTATION. 




beak, leading on to the 
" throat," which in turn 
leads on to the "breast." 
Below this is the lower 
breast, bordered by the 
"flanks,"and then comes 
the abdomen, ending 
with the "under tail 
coverts," from under 
which come the tail 
feathers, whose upper 
side we have already 
seen. Again we have 
the primaries and se- 
condaries, with the con- 
spicuous break between 
them, leading up to the 
carpal joint, the "under 
wing coverts " being 
along the top ; and on 
""• "" '^"'-••»- what answer to our 

armpits are the bird's "axillaries" we shall find so useful in 
identification when we have to deal with genera and species. The 
legs will be seen to correspond to human legs, much in4he same way 
as the wings did to arms. The "femur," or thigh bone, is short and 
is well up ; and the knee, with its " patella," comes above where the 
wing crosses in the sketch. Below it is the " tibia," which has the 
fibula as part of it, and then comes what is often called the bird's 
knee, but which you can at once see, from the way it bends inwai-ds, 
must be its ankle, and which is really in its upper portion the tibio- 
tarsus ; from the knee to the foot runs what is known in the bird 
books as the " tarsus," though it is really the tarso-metatarsus ; but the 
point is of no practical importance in our present endeavour. Below 
the tarsus come the toes ; the hallux, answering to our great toe, at 
the back ; then the inner toe, coming from between the legs 
outwards; then the middle toe; and the fourth or outer toe. The 
fifth toe is missing in the birds ; when there are but three toes it is 
the representative of our great toe which has gone ; when there are 
but two toes, as with the Ostrich, it is the second and third that 
remain. The normal number of phalanges or toe joints is 14, two 
being in the hind toe, three in the inner toe, four in the middle toe, 
and five in the outer toe. As we go on we shall find that these 
numbers vary. But enough of this for a time; we are now strong 
enough in terms to begin our attack on the four-toed birds. 

And we cannot begin better than by 
I eliminating the PelecanidcB, which have 
not only four well developed toes, but 
have these toes all webbed together up to 
the claws, being " totipalmate," as it is 
called. That one distinction separates 
the Cormorant, Shag, and Gannet, the 
only representatives we have of the group, 
from every other family in the British list. 




SORTATION. 



35 



We can form another group of the birds which have 
the three front toes webbed together and the fourth 
webbed on to the tarsus. Under this heading would 
come the Colymbidcg, or Divers; and one repre- 
sentative of the Laridse, the Ivory Gull, which is our 
only species of the genus Pagophila. There is no 
difificulty in distinguishing the Gull from a Diver, for 
he is an entirely white bird, and he has long wings, 
while the Divers have short wings, and he has a 
decurved bill, while their bill is compressed or higher 
than it is broad. 

We have now to deal with the birds that have the 
hind toe free. We can divide these into four groups : 

I. — Those that have the three toes united as far as the claws. 

2. — Those that have the three toes united as far as the second joint. 

3. — Those that have the two united as far as the second joint and 
two as far as the first. 

4.^Those that have the three united near the base. 




To the first group there belong — 

Phoenicopteridas. 

Ibididse. 

Anatidse. 



Laridse (all that are left). 
Procellariidce (all that are left). 



The Phmnicopterida have one representative. He is the Flamingo 
His webs are cut into a good deal, but still his feet are undoubtedly 
webbed to the claws. And really it does not matter. No one i? 
likely to mistake our sample bird for a Flamingo, and the sooner he 
goes the better. In the Ibididm we have another case of " sole 
representative in this district." This is the Ibis, with long, slender, 
down-curved bill ; not the Scarlet Ibis, but the " Glossy," or bronzy 
one, a very unlikely bird to meet with in the fenland now, and 
recognisable at once as soon as seen. We have 
now but three families left, and these are of real 
importance. To say nothing of the occasionally 
lobed hind toe, and the extra lobe in some cases on 
the front of the foot, the Anatidae, comprising the 
Ducks, Geese, and Swans, are separable from the 
rest by their bill, which is either toothed, as in 
Mergus, or else lamellate. The Gulls have their 
bill neither toothed nor lamellate, and in that respect 
resemble the Petrels ; but then the Petrels have a nail 
at the end of their bill, which the Gulls have not ; and 
the nostrils of a Petrel are in a tube, while those of a 
Gull have no such arrangement. The three main 
families of the "palmate" division are thus marked off with ease, and 
we can resume the main line with our second group, that including 
the birds which have three of their four toes webbed as far as the 
second joint. There are not many such birds. The Spoonbill is 




30 



SORTATION. 





one. He is the sole representative on our list of the 
Plataleidai, and with him we bid farewell to another 
family. His spatulate bill distinguishes him from every 
other bird. The Scolopacidae are represented in this 
group of ours by one species only, and that also, curiously 
enough, is recognisable at once by its bill, which is 
long and narrow, and curving upwards. There is no 
trouble in identifying either the Spoonbill and the 
Avocet, although the latter's web may, exceptionally, 
stretch a little beyond the second joint. To this group 
the only other birds that belong are the Parince, or 
Tits, a sub-family of the Passeridaa ; but it will be 
sufficient for the moment to have mentioned them. 
V7e will leave the Passeridas as the loose ends of our fabric, and pick 
them up and deal with them by themselves in due course. 

Our next group includes the birds which have two 
of their toes united as far as the second joint, 
and two united as far as the first. To this group 
we can assign but two families — the Kingfishers and 
the Bee - eaters, otherwise Alcedinidce and Meropidce. 
There is no difficulty in separating these. The King- 
fishers have short tails, the Bee-eaters have long tails ; 
the Kingfishers have a ridged beak, the Bee-eaters have 
no ridge ; and, if it be necessary to go into details, 
the Kingfishers have 22 remiges while the Bee-eaters 
have 23. 

We are left with the last group in which three toes are united, 
and in this case the web extends only a little beyond the base. The 
most familiar example of this kind of foot is found 
among the Phasianidce, which family is made up of 
most of the game birds — the Pheasants, Partridges, 
Grouse, Quail, and Ptarmigan. Let our representa- 
tive foot be that of a Pheasant, which is recognisable 
by its spur. The Phasianidee have short legs and 
short bills, and a curious peculiarity of their's is that 
the eleventh remex — that is, flight feather — is always 
shorter than any of the others. The short legs and 
short bill sufficiently distinguish the Phasianidte from 
the Cicomida, another member of this group. The 
CiconiidsB consist merely of the two Storks, the 
black one and the white one, neither of which is a 
Briton by birth or a frequent visitor. With these 
come three more families — the Capritnu/gida, the 
Charadriidce in respect of the three genera already 
excepted, and the Scolopacidce, in respect of the 
Black-winged Stilt, the Woodcock, the Red-breasted Snipe, the 
Broad-billed Sandpiper, the Buff-breasted Sandpiper, and the Cur- 
lews and Whimbrel, all of which we will sort out by-and-bye. 
To the Caprimulgidae belong the Nightjars, whose gaping bill at 
once marks them off from the rest of the group. Another 
characteristic mark of the Nightjars is the foot, which 
has the phalanges of the toes as 2, 3, 4, 3, instead of 
?i 3> 4) 5) as usual ; in another way they are recognisable 




SORTATION. 



37 




from the other families with whom we have brought them, by their 
having only lo tail feathers ; and finally their curious comb-like 
middle claw will betray them anywhere even if their bill 
did not. There is, therefore, no difficulty in separating 
the Ciconiidse, the Phasianida, and the Caprimulgida: ; 
nor is there any with regard to the remainder of the 
Charadriidas in this division. They consist of three 
genera only, each containing but one species. The 
Grey Plover is known at once by his white tail broadly 
barred with black and brown, the Lapwing is at once 
detected by his long crest, as the Turnstone is by his orange legs. 

We have only one group left in which the feet are united by 
membranes. To it belong the whole of four families and certain 
representatives of the Scolopacidas and Pas- 
seridcE, the two families in which the feet give 
us so much trouble because the foot is no 
basis of classification. These four are : — 

Ardeidas (the Herons). 
Gruidae (the Cranes). 
Glareolidse (the Pratincole). 
Upupidse (the Hoopoe). 

Here we can pick out the Hoopoe at once; 
his erectile crest distinguishes him. And the 
Pratincole need not linger in the list ; his 
short bill, short legs, forked tail, and long 
wings are sufficiently distinctive. With regard to the Cranes and 
Herons we can divide them on their middle claw, which is smooth 
in the Cranes and pectinate in the Herons ; but the long pendent 
secondary feathers of the Cranes at once mark them off from the 
Herons, even if their shorter beak did not. The genera of the 
Scolopacidas are at once recognisable by their long thin bills ; and 
when we come to deal with the Scolopacida; as a family by 
itself, we shall have no difficulty in sorting out Totanus, Machetes, 
Bartramia, and Limosaj and the few Passerines that come into the 
group we can leave as we did before till the final settlement. 

It will be remarked that we have completed every family we have 
yet mentioned except the Scolopacids and Passeridas, which we 
agreed to treat exceptionally; and that we have now dealt with 
all the families in which the feet are united, and including the birds 
of prey, have eliminated from our thirty-five families : — 




Strigidse. 

Vulturidas. 

Falconidse. 

Alcidas. 

Laridas. 

PteroclidsE. 

Procellariidas. 

CEdicnemidae. 

Otididse. 

Charadriidae. 

Turnicidas. 

Pelecanidae. 

Colymbidae. 



Phoenicopteridse. 

Ibididas. 

Anatidse. 

Plataleidas. 

Alcedinidae. 

Meropidae. 

Ciconiidas. 

Phasianidas. 

Caprimulgidas. 

Ardeidas. 

Gruidae. 

Glareolidai 

Upupida;. 



38 



SORTATION. 




And we have left in for further treatment certain species of 
Scolopacidse and Passeridas. We have not said much of our sample 
bird as yet, for it is evident from his portrait that his feet are not 
webbed at all, and consequently we have been dealing with groups to 
which he could not possibly belong. 

Neither can he belong to our next group in 
which the feet are webbed to each other in 
peculiar lobes. The best example of a lobed foot 
is that of a Grebe. It is so unlike anything else 
that the Podicipedida are as easy of recognition as 
the Pelecanidas. 

This broad flat foot is the paddle by which the 
bird propels itself when under water ; for, unlike 
the Alcidse, the Podiclpedidse do not use their 
I wings in their sub-aqueous explorings. There are 
no representatives of either of these families that 
dive as men dive; the Auks really fly under 
water, the Grebes really swim, keeping at any 
depth, and working in and out among the sub- 
merged plants as expertly as a Duck does among the leaves that rise 
above the surface. In both families the legs are placed so far back 
that the bird stands upright like a Penguin. 

There are only three families in which lobed 

feet are found, and it is only in the Podicipedida: 

that the peculiarity is common to every species. 

Among the Rallidce there are two genera, each 

with a single species, which have lobed feet. 

These are the Coot and the Moorhen, the former 

of which has the lobes in broad scallops, a foot so 

remarkable that it cannot be mistaken for that of 

any other bird on the British list. The Coot has 

two marks which make his recognition the easiest 

of tasks. If you do not know him by his broadly 

lobed foot, you will know him by the white shield 

on his forehead, which a facetious naturalist has 

described as being as useful as a brass plate. 

The other representative of the Rallidae, and the last 

of the birds with lobed feet, is the Moorhen. In this 

case they are not so well marked as in the others, but 

narrow as they may be they are clearly distinguishable, 

and not likely to be mistaken for the membranes we 

have previously noted. And they are unlike the 

narrowly denticulate lobes oiPhalaropus, which is the 

only genus of the Scolopacidas that comes into this 

group. 

We have now to deal with the four-toed birds 
which have their feet entirely divided from the base. 
These naturally fall into three groups : — 
■I. Having four toes in front. 

2. Having two toes in front and two behind. 

3. Having three toes in front. 

And to the last — the "three fingers and a thumb" brigade- -belong 
our most familiar birds, including our example. 






SORTATION. 39 

But first for the others. There is only one family 
having its four toes in front. This is the Cypselidce in 
respect of the one genus, Cypselus, of which the only 
representatives are the Swifts. There are two Swifts in 
the list, one of which, the Alpine one, is never known to 
breed here, and is a very infrequent visitor ; so that, 
practically, we have only one bird with four toes in front. 
The Cypselidce have, however, another genus, Acanthyllis, 
in which three toes are in front, in the ordinary way ; but 
we shall have that exception to deal with presently. 
Some birds have two toes in front and two behind. Amongst us, 
this " zygodactyle " group is represented by the Wood- 
peckers and Cuckoos. The distinction, like most of those 
we have been giving, only holds good for the birds on the 
British list, for some of the foreign Woodpeckers have only 
three toes. The Cuckoos belong to the Cuculida, and the 
Woodpeckers to the Picidaj and, while the Cuculidse can 
be at once recognised by their long graduated tail, the 
Picidffi are as readily recognisable by their long wedge- 
shaped bill and long extensile and bristly tongue. 
We have now reached the last of our divisions as regards the feet. 
The families remaining to be dealt with are only half a dozen in 
number. They are : — 

Cypselidas, in respect of the one genus Acanthyllis. 
Coraciidas, which has only one representative, the Roller. 
Columbidae, the Pigeons. 

Rallidse, in respect of the genera Crex and Rallus. 
Scolopacidas, in respect of the genera Tringa and Gallinago. 
Passeridffi, in respect of all its genera as yet unmentioned. 

To one of these groups our bird belongs. It does not belong to 
the first, for that consists only of the one genus and one species, the 
Needle-tailed Swift, only two specimens of which have ever been 
heard of here, and which is known at once by its having its tail 
feathers ending in sharp spines. It does not belong to the next, for 
that also has only one representative, the Roller, which is a brightly 
coloured bird, not unlike a Parrot in Oxford and Cambridge blues, 
whereas ours is mere brown and grey. It does not belong to the third, 
for it is not a Pigeon ; its bill is not deflected, nor does it thin in the 
middle, and swell towards the point ; nor has it its nostrils in a soft 
skin at the base of the bill. It is not a Crake, for its beak is neither 
short nor stout, nor are its wings rounded, nor its feet large, nor its 
legs or tail short. It is not a Snipe, nor a Stint, nor a Sandpiper, for 
that is what the only remaining genera of the Scolopacidae represent. 

And as it is neither assignable to Cypselidas, nor Coraciidse, nor 
Columbida;, nor Rallidaa, nor Scolopacidae, the only family that can 
claim it is the Passeridas, which is the most important family of birds, 
not only in Great Britain, but in the world. 

Thus far, then, have we gone with the feet. By leaving the 
Passerines for special treatment and eliminating the birds of prey we 
have been enabled to sort out all the families in our list. And before 
we proceed further it will simplify matters to print the plan we have 
worked to in tabular form. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE FAMILIES. 



RAPTORES, or Birds of Prey ; with powerful claws, sharp 
curving bill, and a cere at the base of the bill. 
Strigid^ (Owls) — head large, face round, eyes in front. i6i- 1 70. 
VuLTURlDiE (Vultures) — crown bald or downy. 1 71-172. 
FalconiD/E (Eagles and Hawks) — crown feathered. 1 73- 19S. 

NON-RAPTORES— 

1. With three toes. 

2. With four toes. 
Three toes — 

1. United as far as the claws. 

2. United as far as the second joint. 

3. United at base. 

4. Divided throughout. 
United as far as the claws — 

Alcid^ (Auks, Guillemots, Puffin, and Razorbill) — wings fin* 

like ; tail rudimentary. 373-379. 
Larid^ (in respect of most specimens of the genus Rissa, the 

Kittiwake) — wings long, remiges 31 ; tail not wedge shaped. 

367- 
Pteroclid^ (Pallas's Sand Grouse)— wings long ; tail wedge 

shaped and of 16 feathers. 268. 
Procellariid^ (in respect of the one genus Oceanites, 

Wilson's Petrel) — legs long. 398. 
United as far as the second joint — 

CEdicnemiDjE (Stone Curlew) — remiges 29. 290. 
United near base — 
Otidid^ (Bustards) — -toes edged with membrane. 287-289. 
CharadRUD^ (Plovers, with the exception of the Grey Plover, 

Turnstone, and Lapwing) — bill longer or shorter than head 

and not dilated at point. 292-295, 297-300, 303. 
SCOLOPACID^ (in respect of the one genus Calidris, the 

Sanderling) — bill as long as head and dilated at point. 32.). 
Divided throughout — 

TURNICID^ (Andalusian Bush Quail). 277. 
Four toes — 

1. Four united. 

2. Three united ; one webbed to tarsus. 

3. Three united ; hind toe free. 

4. Two united. 

5. Lobed. 

6. Divided throughout. 



THE FAMILIES. 4I 

Four united — 
Pelecanid* (Cormorant, Gannet, and Shag) — bill long; tarsus 
compressed ; third claw pectinate. 199-201. 
Three united ; one webbed to tarsus. 

COLYMBlD/12 (Divers) — wings short ; bill compressed. 380-383. 
LariDjE (in respect of the one genus Pagophila, the Ivory 
Gull) — wings long ; bill decurved. 368. 
Three united ; hind toe free — 

1. As far as the claws. 

2. As far as the second joint. 

3. Two as far as the second joint and two as far as the first. 

4. Near base. 

As far as the claws — 

Phcenicopterid^ (Flamingo) — webs incised ; bill bent half 

way. 2 1 5. 
iBlDlDjE(Ibis)— bill long, slender, and decurved, point rounded; 

27 remiges. 215. 
AnatiDjE (Ducks, Geese, and Swans) — bill broad, and 

lamellate, or toothed. 217-262. 
Larid^ (Gulls and Terns, except the Kittiwake and Ivory 

Gull) — bill neither lamellate nor toothed, and without a nail; 

fourth toe rudimentary. 341-366. 
Procellariid^ (Petrels and Shearwaters) — nostrils in a 

tube ; bill unserrate and ending in a nail. 389-398. 
As far as the second joint — 

Plataleid^ (Spoonbill) — bill spatulate ; 30 remiges. 214. 
ScoLOPAClDiE (in respect of the one genus, Recurvirostra, the 

Avocet) — bill boldly curving upwards. 304. 
Passerid^ (in respect of the Parince) — very small birds, for 

which see analysis further on. 
Two as far as the second joint and two as far as the first — • 
Alcedinid^ (Kingfishers) — upper mandible ridged ; remiges 

22 ; tail short. 151, 1 52. 
MEROPlDiE (Bee-eaters) — upper mandible not ridged; remiges 

23; tail long. 154, 155. 
Near base— 
ClCONilDiE (Storks) — long bill; over 30 remiges; long legs. 

212, 213. 
Phasianid^ (Pheasants, Partridges, Grouse, Quail, and Ptarmi- 
gan) — short bill ; eleventh remex shortest ; short legs. 269-276. 
CaprimulgiDjE (Nightjars)— gaping bill ; 10 tail feathers ; 

middle toe pectinate ; phalanges 2, 3, 4, 3. 141-143. 
Charadriid^ (in respect of the Grey Plover which has a 

white tail broadly barred with black and brown, the Lapwing 

which has a crest, and the Turnstone which has orange legs). 

296, 301, 302. 
SCOLOPACID^ (in respect of the Black-winged Stilt, the Wood- 
cock, the Red-breasted Snipe, the Broad-billed Sandpiper, 

the Buff-breasted Sandpiper, and the Curlews and Whim- 

brel. 308, 312, 313, 325, 338-340- 
Two united — 

ARDEiDiE (Herons and Bitterns)— bill long and straight ; legs 

long and straight ; middle claw pectinate. 202-211. 
D 



42 THE FAMILIES. 

Gruid^ (Cranes)— bill moderate ; 33 remiges ; secondaries 

long and pendent ; legs long, middle claw not pectinate. 

285, 286. 
Glareolid^ (Pratinco'e)— bill short; wings long ; legs short; 

tail forked. 291. 
UpupiD/E (Hoopoe) — erectile crest ; remiges 20. 156. 
SCOLOPACID^ (in respect of the Ruff, Bartram's Sandpiper, 

the Godwits, and the genus Totanus)—\or\i slender bill. 323, 

326-337. 
Passerid^ (in respect of certain genera as given in the 

special analysis of that family). 
Lobed — 
PODICIPBDID^ (Grebes)— lobes pennate and entire ; tail ru- 
dimentary and downy ; tarsus compressed. 384-388. 
Rallid^ (in respect of the Coot and Moorhen, the former of 

which has the lobes broadly scalloped, the latter having them 

straight and narrow). 284, 283. 
bcOLOPACID^ (in respect of the genus Phalaropus) — lobes 

narrowly denticulate. 307. 
Divided throughout — • 

1. Four in front. 

2. Two in front, two behind. 

3. Three in front. 
Four in front — 

CypseliD/E (in respect of the genus Cypselus, the Swift . 

138, 139- 
Two in front, two behind — 

r'lCiD^ (Woodpeckers and Wryneck) — long bill ; long extensile 

and bristled tongue. 144-149. 
CucuLiD^ (Cuckoos) — long graduated tail. 157-160. 
Three in front — 
Cypselid^ (in respect of the Needle-tailed Swift)— tail feathers 

with sharp spines. 140. 
Coraciid^ (Roller) — bill compressed ; upper mandible de- 
curved at tip ; 23 remiges ; tarsus scutellate in front, 

reticulate at back. 153. 
CoLUMBiDiE (Pigeons) — bill deflected, thinnest in middle, 

expanding towards point ; nostrils in soft skin at base of bill: 

feathers without aftershafts ; no down ; second primary 

longest. 263-267. 
Rallid^ (Crakes, except the Coot and Moorhen) — short stout 

beak ; rounded wings ; large feet ; short legs ; short tail. 

278-282. 
SCOLOPACID/E (in respect of the genera Gallinago and 

Trhjq^a] — long slender bill. 309-311, 314-322. 
Passerid^. t-137. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EXAMPLES OF IDENTIFJCATION, 



IN sorting out the British passerine birds we can simplify matters 
considerably by beginning with four sub-families which are 
represented by only one species each, which species is almost 
certain to be recognised immediately. 

These are : — 

Oriolinje. I Panurinas. 

Icterinas. | Ampelinae. 

Is our sample bird a bright-yellow one, like a large canary with 
black wings, and a black tipped tail ? Is it in fact a Golden Oriole ? 
No; it is not. And as the Golden Oriole is the only species we have 
of Oriolus, which is our only representative of its sub-family, we can 
at once eliminate Oriolints. 

Is it a glossy black bird, with bright scarlet wing coverts ? No. The 
only bird like that in the British list is a rare, and nrobably escaped, 
American, known as the Red-winged Starling, w'. i :h is a species of 
Agelaus, and our only representative of its sub-family ; and conse- 
quently we need not further trouble ourselves with Icterince. 

Is our bird a little fellow with a rufous tail over three inches long, 
and much longer than the rest of his body, and has he in full plumage 
a black pointed moustache, which, though obscure at some periods of 
the year, is always traceable ? No. Our bird is quite two inches 
longer, his tail is not as long as his body, and he has no moustache at 
all. In short, no one would imagine he was a Bearded Tit; and with 
Its sole representative we have done with the Panurince. 

Has he a bold erectile crest like a Cockatoo, and has he red waxy 
tips to his secondary feathers or his tail ? No. Then he is not a 
Waxwing; and the Waxwing is the only species we have of the 
Ampelincj:. 

There is another sub-family we can bracket with these, and that is 
the Cinclina, which is represented by only one genus Cindus, which 
has two species, one differing from the other only in the greater 
blackness of its breast. These Dippers as they are called, are, however, 
so distinct from the rest of our birds, that they are at once re- 
cognisable. Their plumage is blackish brown, dense and fibrous, and, 
as befitting the only passerine water birds, they are provided with a 
thick undercoat of down, which some people are inclined to describe 
as the only tiue down in the order. That, however, is open to 
discussion. For our purposes it is enough to know that the foregoing 
five sub-families are unmistakable, and that our specimen belongs to 
neither of them. 

D 2 



44 



IDENTIFICATION. 



We have 1 5 sub-families left. These we can sort out on the com- 
parative length of the first primary, which is always narrow among 
the Passerines. In some of our group this first primary, which rnust 
not be mistaken for the remicle, is absent altogether, in others it is 
just apparent, in others it is almost half as long as the second primary, 
in others it is more than half as long as the second primary. We can 
thus, for the purposes of identification, separate the birds we have left 
into three divisions : — 

1. Having the first primary quite half as long as the second. 

2. Having the first primary obsolete or minute. 

3. Having the first primary less than half as long as the second. 

Of the first division we had a capital example in our typical wing 
on page 31. There are only two Passeiine sub-families which have 
wings like that. One is the Corvina, comprising the Raven, the Crow, 
the Jackdaw, Magpie, Jay, and Nutcracker ; and the other is the 
Troglodytijtce, which has as its only representative the well-known 
Jenny Wren. Now, no one is likely to mistake the diminutive Wren, 
which is one of the smallest birds we have, for one of the CorvincE. 
If the size were not enough to prevent the mistake, the long soft 
plumage, the erect little tail, and the con- 
cave wings, compared to the flat wings of 
the larger birds, would at once remove 
all difficulty in recognition. 

Our 15 sub -families have thus be- 
come 13, and these we can separate into 
six of one and seven of the other. Let 
us take the six first. Here is the typical 
wing of this group. It is that of a Skylark. 
See how small the first primary is to what 
it was in the wing of the Rook. In some of 
the Finches, as we shall see immediately, 
this feather is absent altogether ; and in 
none of our six is it a quarter as long as 
the second. The six are : — 
Fringiltina: (the Finches). Sturninse (the Starlings). 

EmberizinjE (the Buntings). Hirundininae (the Swallows). 

MotaciUinm (the Wagtails). Alaudinse (the Larks). 

Let us consider these in order. Does our bird belong to the 
FritigillincE ? Is he like a Sparrow, Passer himself — whence the 
Passerines etymologically — is he like a Canary ; a Goldfinch ; a 
Bullfinch ; a Greenfinch ; a Chaffinch ; a Linnet ; a Crossbill .? Has he 
that peculiar beak, hard, short, and conical.' No. Then he is not 
one of the Fringillinas. We need not have looked at his wing in this 
case ; the beak alone would have been enough. 

Is he a Bunting? But how can you tell a Bunting from a Finch ? 
Look at the gape line. Look at the head side- 
ways, and see the sharp angle with which the 
upper mandible shuts on the lower. In the 
Finches, as in all the sub-families that follow, 
as you can see by their heads, this line is 
straight. But there is another distinction 
between the Finches and the Buntings, and 





IDENTIFICATION. 



45 




the one that separates the Buntings out at once. That is, the 
knobbed palate, that has been made so prominent in 
our sketch. Open the bird's mouth, and look in the 
roof of rt. The " Bunting knob " is unmistakable. 
Our bird has no knob, and his gape line is straight. 
Evidently hs is not one of the Emberizinte. 

Is he a Wagtail or a Pipit.' Has he a narrow, 
slender bill, long legs, and a long tail ? Certainly not. 
He is not built lightly enough or gracefully enough for that group. 
He is not one of the Motacillinse. 

Is he a Starling? Is his plumage shining and metallic in lustre 
and spotted? If not we can pass the Sturniuee. 

Is he a Swallow? Look at his head from above. 
Is his beak as short and wide as this ? Is he a 
Swallow, a Martin, a Sand Martin ? Has he short legs, 
long wings, and a forked tail ? No. Then he is not 
one of the Hirundininas. 

Is he a Lark ? Look at his legs. Is his tarsus 
plated back and front ? No. Then he is not a Lark, 
and we can clear the track of the Alaudinze, and try 
back for our last division. 




In this the first 




primary is about as long as the coverts. Even 
should there be a difficulty in separating 
between this and the preceding, it will 
be found that the characteristics of the 
sub-families are so clear that the two 
divisions could very well have been treated 
as one. At the same time were the 
thirteen wings before you, you would 
easily sort out the seven that follow : — 



Certhiinse (the Creepers). 
MuscicapinEe (the Flycatchers). 
Laniinaa (the Shrikes). 
Sitting (the Nuthatch). 
Parinse (the Tits). 
Accentorinffi (the Accentors). 
Turdinas (the Thrushes and Warblers). 



There 




are only two of the Creepers. One is the Wall Creeper, our 
sole representative of Tichodroma, and of him only two 
specimens are on record in this country. He is a slaty 
grey bird, with grey and crimson wings. The other 
Creeper is the common one, a little fellow, spotted brown 
above and whitish below, with a long curved slender bill, 
a rounded tail, with its feathers pointed, and a long curved 
hind claw. Evidently our bird is not a Creeper ; and we 
can pass CerthiinEE. 



46 



IDF.yTJFICATION. 





Is he a Flycatcher? Look at his bill. Is it bioad and flat, with 
bristles at its base ? Is it such a bill, in fact, 
as he would catch flies with when he is on 
the wing? Are his nostrils partly hidden 
under the frontal plumes ? Are his toes all 
free of each other, and the middle one much 
longer than the rest ? Has he small feet ? 
Is his wing long and pointed, and with the second primary a trifle 
shorter than the third, fourth, and fifth, which are longer than any of 
the others ? If not we can pass on from Muscicapinse. 

Is he a Shrike ? Has he a short bill with a tooth in it, as if he 
could be a bird of prey on occasion ; has 
he a good deal of soft slaty grey in his 
plumage ; are two of his toes united, the 
middle toe with the outer? Has he 
forward pointing hairs at the base of his 
bill ? Is his middle toe shorter than his 
tarsus ? Are his nostrils oval ? Is his 
third primary longer than the others ? 
No. Then he cannot be assigned to the Laniinae. 

Is he a Nuthatch ? Has he a long straight bill like this? Is he a 
bluish little fellow, with his two middle tail 
feathers grey, and pale brown legs with 
strong and clumsy feet ? No. Then he is 
not one of the Sittinae, for the Nuthatch is 
our only representative of that sub-family. ^^®ik$'~^^ 

Is he a Tit ? Are his three front toes ^w4^ 

united as far as the second joint, and is his ^ 

hind claw long ? No. He is too big for a Tit, even for a Great Tit, 
and he has no black apron which would distinguish him if he were. 

We have only two groups left. One, the Accentorinas, has only two 
representatives, the Hedge Sparrow and the 
Alpine Accentor, one of which has the throat 
bluish grey, while the other has it white, with 
black spots. He is too large for either of ' 
these, even if his bill were strong enough and 
his wings rounded enough. That he should HiM'l'*" 

be the Alpine bird is unlikely, for only a few 
stragglers of that species come over here. That he might be a Hedge 
Sparrow is more reasonable, but then everyone knows the Hedge 
Sparrow. And as we have thus eliminated twelve of our groups, our 
representative specimen can only belong to the thirteenth and last. 
He is either a Thrush or a Warbler. 

But suppose we have made a mistake ? Then we shall soon find 
it out, as we should have found it had we allocated him to any of the 
other families or sub-families ; for our scheme is so arranged that if 
we take the wrong road we shall soon come to " no thoroughfare," 
and have to return and try somewhere else down the hne. This time, 
however, we have been right in disregarding the junctions, and 
following the main line of the plan given in our next chapter. 

Our bird, then, is one of the Turdinas, and we have discovered what 
he is by separating him from what he is not. Let us pursue that 
method. To what genus of the Turdinae does he belong ? 





IDENTIFICATION. 47 

Open his wing and look at his armpits. Are his axillary feathers 
chequered ? No. Then he is no Geocichla ; he is not a White's 
Thrush nor a Siberian Thrush, and he would be a rarity if he were. 
Are his axillaries black ? No. Then he is not a Blackbird or a Ring 
Ouzel. Perhaps they are yellow, and he has an unspotted breast ; if 
so, his genus is either Phylloscopus or Hypolais; Phylloscopus if his 
legs are brown, Hypolais if his legs are blue. But his axillaries are 
not yellow and his breast is not unspotted. Are his axillaries buff? 
Has he a buff breast, a reddish brown back, a reddish brown tail ; is 
he, in short, a Nightingale? No. He is not a Nightingale ; and he 
is thus unclaimed by five genera. 

Now let us try him in another way. Is his chin red ; and is his lower 
breast white ? No. He is not a Robin Redbreast. Is his chin 
chestnut and his lower breast chestnut ? No. He is not a Dartford 
Warbler. Two more genera are eliminated. The next we might 
have started with. Has he a bright yellow crest ? No. He is not a 
Gold-crest or a Fire-ciest ; and no one would have supposed so from 
his size. 

Perhaps he is a Rufous Warbler? If so his head and back would 
be chestnut, his breast buff ; his tail rounded and long, and tipped 
with white ; and he would have been the fourth specimen on record. 
Evidently he is not A'edon. Has he a white rump, black legs, 
unnotched bill ? Is he a Saxicola, in fact ? No. He is not a 
Wheatear. Has he a whitish rump, black legs, a notched bill, and a 
short square tail ; is he a Pratincola f No. He is neither a Stone- 
chat nor a Whinchat. Has he a bright blue throat ? No. He is not 
a Cyanecula. Has he a bluish grey head, a black bill, and a chestnut 
breast ? No. There was only one bird ever seen like that in this 
country. He is not a Monticola; and so far we have tried him in 
vain for 13 genera, and we have only five to run him down in. 

Has he a black throat and a red tail, with black or brown on its 
two middle feathers ; is he a Ruticilla ? No. He is not one of the 
Redstarts. Is his bill without rictal bristles, are his axillaries brown, 
and is his tail pointed and shorter than the wing? No. That com- 
bination will not suit him. He is not a Locustelta. Are his axillaries 
whitish, is his bill large in proportion to his head, and depressed and 
broad at the base, and is his tail short and rather round ? No. 
That combination will not do. We cannot get rid of him in 
Acrocephalus. But we have only two left ! 

How long is he ? Over seven inches^over eight really. Then he 
cannot belong to Sylvia, he must belong to Tardus. That is one 
way out of the difficulty, certainly. But suppose he were an under- 
sized specimen ? 

Then, if he were assignable to Sylvia, his bill would be faintly 
notched, and very short and stout, but not broad at the base, his 
breast would be plain or barred, his wings would be moderate in size, 
his first primary would be noticeably less than half the length of the 
second, and his tail would be ashy or brown and white. And as our 
specimen does not meet these requirements, all we can say is that 
his genus must be Turdus. And if we look on pages 73 and 74, we 
can try him again through the tabular analysis of the Turdina. 

But to what species of Turdus does he belong ? Let us analyse 
the species and tabulate them, as we shall have to tabulate all the 



48 



IDENTIFICATION. 



species, and for ready reference arrange them in the alphabetical 
order of their genera. 

Is our bird black with a red breast ? No. He is not migratorius, 
and it would have been a wonder if he were. Has he a black throat 
and breast ? No. He would have been the third of his kind to be 
caught in this country if he had. He is not atrigularis. Turn him^ 
over and look at his axiUaries. Are they red ? No. He is not a 
Redwing. Are they white ? No. He is not a Fieldfare nor a Missel 
Thrush ; and if he were a Fieldfare he would have a blue rump. 
What colour are his axillaries ? Pale yellow. That alone will 
distinguish him. He is olive brown above and whitish below, 
with a number of triangular brown spots and streaks about him. In 
fact, he is T. musicus, otherwise the common Song Thrush, whom 
recent classifiers have promoted to the second place on the British 
list. 

And now, with a view to advancing beyond the mere knowledge 
of the bird's name, let us take the feathers off our Thrush. 

These chiefly consist of 
the penna, or contour 
feathers, which are so- 
called from their giving 
the outUne of the body. 
They are exposed to the 
light. The other feathers, 
- the down feathers, are 
hidden from the light. In 
the contour feathers we 
have a main stem or axis, 
the vexiUum, or vane, 
divided into the solid four- 
sided shaft or rachis, and 
the hollow, somewhat 
rounded hollow end, we 
know as the quill, or cala- 
mus, which ends in a small 
aperture through which it 
receives the vascular pulp. 
With the sac in which this 
is embedded are connected the muscles which give the feathers motion. 
The vane bears the plates, or barbs, which are linked together at their 
free ends by the barbules, which are again generally interlinked by 
hooklets. In the Ostrich we have free barbs, and, consequently, 
loose plumes, but the case is exceptional. In a good many birds 
each quill has two vanes, one being the shaft, the other the aftershaft, 
which always springs from the underside ; and, occasionally, shaft 
and undershaft are almost equal, and a "double feather" is the 
result. 

The down feathers, hidden from the light in adults, are the first 
feathers of the young bird which are generally replaced by the pennce, 
and their barbs invariably remain soft and free. In some birds we 
have a third kind of feather, one with a long shaft and a sort of brush 
of barbs ; this is a "filoplume." In the Ardeidje, and in some of the 
Falconidte, there is a fourth kind of feather, the summit of which 




IDENTIFICATION. 



49 



breaks off into fine dust as fast as it is formed. Sometimes these 
feathers are scattered all over the body, but in many cases they are 
in well defined positions which are known as " powder down tracts," 
and these tracts are of considerable use in identifying the Herons, for 
instance. Just as the powder down is distributed in tracts, so are the 
contour feathers, except in the case of the Ostriches and their allies, 
and the Penguins and a few more birds. 

That the feathers should be arranged in a definite pattern was 
to be expected. If the body were feathered evenly it would 
hamper the bird in its movements. The coat is in fact made 
to fit, and is cut in such a way as to be workable by the 
muscles. These "tracts," with their resulting spaces, which were 
worked out by Nitzsch, are of considerable importance in ornithology, 
and promise to be of more importance in the future ; and 

we have, in consequence, 
given two sketches of our 
thrush ; the first dorsal, the 
second ventral, with the 
chief tracts and spaces 
marked out. 

Most birds have a spinal 
. or dorsal tract, a humeral or 
shoulder tract, a femoral or 
lumbar tract, and what is 
known as the inferior tract ; 
some of them have a neck 
tract ; and besides these, 
are the head tract, the alar 
or wing tract, the crural or 
leg tract, and the caudal 
tract. The spaces are the 
laterals of the neck, the 
laterals of the trunk, and 
the inferior lateral ; and 
besides these, the more or 
less common spaces are the spinal, the upper wing, the lower wing, 
the crural, and the head. 

The spinal tract is occasionally bordered below with a row of 
feathers, as in the Woodpeckers. Sometimes it is weak at the nape, 
as with the Kingfisher. In the Golden Oriole it is widened on the 
back into an ellipse. In the Crows and Larks it has a space within 
its boundaries. In the Woodpeckers, including the Wryneck, and in 
the Swallows it has two lobes. In the Pheasant, the Partridge, and 
the Quail it is well marked and continuous, and narrow on the neck, 
but widening from the shoulder blades ; while in the Capercaillie it is 
cleft where it broadens by a longitudinal space from the shoulders 
upwards. On the other hand, in many birds of prey, it is interrupted 
at the ends of the shoulder blades, the anterior part becoming wider, 
and the lower part becoming narrower. And a further variation 
occurs among the Plovers and Sandpipers, where the hinder part is 
cleft throughout. 

The humeral tract, in the Passerine birds, runs nearly over the 
middle of the humerus, but in the Pigeons it crosses much nearer the 




50 IDENTIFICATION. 

shoulder blade. In the Swifts, kingfishers, and Hoopoe the femoral 
tract extends from the extreme end of the ischium to the knee ; but in 
the Bee- eaters it reaches neither the knee nor the pelvis. The 
ventral tract is generally unbroken, but in the Cranes and Curlews it 
has a long branch. In the Passerines, as shown by our Thrush, it is 
a narrow strip with four branches. 

Probably few but cooks and poulterers know to what narrow spaces 
a bird's feathers are confined ; and fewer still are aware that the 
pattern of the tracts is an aid in identification. In Nitzsch's 
" Plerylography" there are a number of maps of feather distribution, 
to which those taking an interest in the subject should refer ; and in 
the Central Hall of the Natural History Museum, at South 
Kensington, will be found our typical Thrush, with a large number of 
examples of bird structure and plumage — an admirable arrangement 
which every one should visit, as they should also visit the Bird 
Museum at Brighton, once Mr. Booth's and now the Corporation's, out 
on the Dyke Road, a mile from the Jubilee Clock Tower. 

But are there no other means of identifying a bird? Yes ; by his 
flight. But how can you classify flight ? It is as difficult as classifying 
a man's gait, which is just as unmistakable once you know it. In our 
notes we have endeavoured to give as good an idea of the flight as we 
could, but we are conscious of the feebleness of our effort. And so 
•with the syllabisations of the song. Attempts have been made to 
reduce the song to musical form, but those who have tried over such 
things even on the flute and piccolo and flageolet, know what a 
burlesque is the result. The nearest approach to it is got by a series 
of whistles, one for each bird, artificial syringes in fact, for a bird's 
voice does not come from his larynx but from his syrinx lower down. 

Another means of identifying birds is by measurement. That we 
have done our best to encourage by a table, which is the result of a 
large number of observations and some two thousand calculations, 
and which took more time than anything else in our little book. If 
this is used in addition to the analyses and keys, there will be few 
failures in identification. The eggs we have dealt with in a similar 
manner, and we would have added the nests had we been able to 
discover a workable system of sorting. There are several well- 
defined types of nests. There is the Sand Martin's nest, for instance, 
which is a burrow, such as is used by the Kingfisher and others ; there 
is the Duck's nest made on the ground ; there is the floating nest such 
as is made by the Grebe ; there is the mud nest such as is made by 
the Thrush and the House Martin ; there is the nest in a tree trunk 
bored by the Woodpeckers ; there is the flat nest of the Ring Dove, 
and the Stork ; there is the cave nest of the Rock Dove : there are 
the woven nests of so many of our small birds, the basket nests of 
the Crows, the felted nests of the Dippers, the bottle nest of the 
Tits, and the domed nests of so many other birds ; and then there 
are, of course, the mere scratch nests of the Phasianidce, and the no 
neits at all of the Terns ; and in addition to these are the adapted 
neits of the Hobby and Peregrine, and the peculiar foundling 
arrangements of the Cuckoo. 

And among these nests we can have another division into those that 
are built only for the year, and those that are returned to again and 
again, which are generally bulk by the birds that pair for life, like the 



IDENTIFICATION. 5 1 

Swallow, the Raven, the Magpie, the Jackdaw, the Starling, the 
House Sparrow, the Robin, the Wren, the Ringdove, the Tits, and the 
Falcons ; the nests for the year being by far the most numerous, and 
being tenanted by the birds who take a fresh mate annually, such as 
the Thrush, the Chaffinch, the Whitethroat, the Skylark, the Willow 
Warbler, and the Snipe, who all abandon their nests when the brood 
is reared, and in some cases migrate about the country; for there is 
an inland migration as well as a foreign one. 

A bird always breeds in the coldest climate he visits, and some 
birds are migrants in one country and residents in another. The 
Robin, for instance, is resident here, but migrant in Germany ; and 
the search for food, warmth, and light will take a bird about an 
island, just as it will take him across the sea. No bird breeding 
south of us comes here, except as a straggler ; but a large number of 
birds breeding in the north visit us for about a month, twice a year, 
like the Little Stint and Redshank, which linger here on their way to 
and from more genial climes ; while others, hke the Wigeon and 
Fieldfare, find we are as far south as they care for, and stay the whole 
of the winter with us. These winter visitants only stay to breed here 
in rare instances. Those that nest here come in the spring, and some 
of these come back to their old nests, though the majority merely 
settle in the same neighbourhood. The same thing holds good 
regarding the residents that merely migrate about the country ; some 
will return, year after year, to the old nest, and some will always build 
afresh. But in most cases, when the nest is returned to, it is improved 
and enlarged, and we thus have another variety of nest — the one with 
additions. 

But we must not give way to " migration fever " ; let us return to 
our proper task, having given up flight and song and nest as useless 
for the main subject, though useful as auxiliaries. Let us take a bird 
of prey, which, being neither an Owl nor a Vulture, must be one of 
the Falconidas. The first question to ask is, if its lores are feathered. 
The "lore," as we showed in our diagram of the Thrush, on page 34, 
is the space between the eye and the base of the beak. If the bird 
has feathered lores, it is a Honey Buzzard, our sole representative of 
the genus Pernis, which is the only bird of the Falcon family in this 
country that has not its lores bare. If its lores are not feathered, has 
it a forked tail ? There are only three Falconine genera with forked 
tails — Elanus, of which only one specimen is on record, and that from 
Ireland ; and Elanoides, of which only two specimens have been taken 
here. It is therefore antecedently improbable that it will be one of 
these. However, you will know Elanoides at once by his white head 
and neck, and his long black narrow wings ; and a handsome fellow 
he is ; and Elanus will give you as little difficulty with his grey head 
and neck, and his black and white wings. As our bird has neither 
black nor black and white wings, he must, if he has a forked tail, be a 
Milvus, and of Milvus we have two species on the hst — one only seen 
here once ; the other, ictinus, the Kite, which was at one time one of 
our commonest birds, and even caught his food in Cheapside. 

But our specimen has not a forked tail, and therefore he is no 
Kite. Look at his feet. If his tarsus is feathered to the toes, his 
genus is Aquilaj if it is only feathered in front, it is Archibuteo ; and 
if he belongs to either of these genera his fourth primary will be the 



52 inENTIFICATION. 

longest feather in his wing. But as this is not the case, we must 
continue our search. Is his tarsus " scutellate,'' that is plated, in 
front, and " reticulate," that is netted, at the back ; if so, his fifth 
primary will be the longest, and he will be Halia'ehis albicilla, the 
Sea Eagle, always distinguishable at a glance from Aquila by the 
featherless tarsus. But there are no reticulations on the back of the 
tarsus, neither are there on the front ; and we thus get rid of two 
more genera, in each of which the first primary is longer than the 
secondaries. One of these is Falco, which has breeches, or feathers 
looking like such, on the legs, and has also a deeply notched bill ; 
while the other, Pandion, has no breeches, and a very faintly notched 
bill ; in addition to which, Pandion has an outer toe that he can turn 
backwards or forwards as if he were an Owl, and he is the only 
Falcon that can do this ; " Falconine " had been better said, perhaps, 
for it seems rather far-fetched to call an Osprey a Falcon. Looking 
again, we find our bird's tarsus has scutellations both in front and at 
the back, and examining the wing we find the first primary is very 
short. He must, consequently, belong to one of three genera. If his 
fourth primary is the longest, and his first four primaries have a notch 
in them, he is a Buteo; if his third and fourth primaries are the 
longest, and he has a ruff round his neck, making him look something 
like an Owl, he is a Circus; but if he has the fourth and fifth 
primaries longest, he is an Acdpiterj and you can confirm the 
diagnosis by referring to his wings, which are short compared to the 
long wings of Circus and Buteo. 

But if Accipiter is his genus, what is his species ? There are three 
Accipiters, one of which is but half the size of the others, so that by 
measurement he is unmistakable. But leaving measurement alone, 
we can discover him by his colour. If he were ashy brown above, 
and whitish below, he would be either atricapillus or palicmbarius j 
the former of which has only three appearances on record, while the 
latter is yearly becoming rarer, being no other than the once common 
Gos Hawk, which in flight can be recognised at once by the vigorous 
use of the tail in steering, and by the croaking sort of scream. Our 
bird is greyish blue above, with a white patch on the nape, and he is 
bufifish in ground colour below, the buff being barred with brown ; 
and lastly, he is a foot long, while the Gos Hawk is nearly two. 
There is, therefore, every reason to suppose that he is a Sparrow 
Hawk ; and a Sparrow Hawk, Accipiter nisus, he is. 

And now, having taken an example from each end of our table, 
from the Raptores we ruled off at the beginning, to the Passerines we 
left at the end, on the principle that if a bird did not belong to any of 
the other families, he must be placed there ; let us have a third and 
last example from the main brigade — that is, the main brigade of our 
tabulation, and not in reality, for out of the 10,000 species of birds in 
the world, more than half are Passerine ; and if we were to count 
heads instead of species, the preponderance of Passerines would be 
enormous. 

Here is a bird with four toes. Three of them are webbed to the 
claws, and the hind toe is free from the tarsus, although it has a sott 
of lobe to it. One look at the broad lamellate bill tells us it is a Duck. 
The fact is too obvious to be overlooked. Let ug turn up at once our 
analysis of the Anatidse. 



IDENTIFICATION. 53 

Now, just as we picked out Pernis ftom the Falconidae by his naked 
lores, so can we pick out Cygnus from the Anatida;. No one is likely 
to be in doubt as to what is a Swan ; but should he be so, let him 
look at the lores. Our Duck is not a Swan. Does he belong to the 
genus Mergus f Is he a Merganser ? Look at his beak. Is it cut 
into fine sharp teeth, projecting backwards as if it were a saw ? No. 
Look at a Swan's beak ; you will see that the under mandible fits 
right up into the upper one, and that the sides are apparently 
grooved. Look at a Goose's beak, and you will see that the leaf- 
shaped edges look like the edge of a lace collar. Look at a Duck's 
beak, and you will see the plates as fine as a comb. But a Merganser's 
beak ? It is undoubtedly a saw, and a saw such as is possessed by 
no other British birds than the four of the Mergus genus we know 
as the Goosander, the Smew, the Hooded Merganser, and the Red- 
breasted Merganser, M. serrator. 

Our exainple is not a Merganser. Is he an Eider? Do the feathers 
of his forehead come down to form a central tract along his bill ? No. 
Is his bill spatulate, like a spatula ? Is he, in fact, a Shoveller .? No. 
Now, we know that he has a lobe on his hind toe. If that were not 
well developed, or if it were absent, he would belong to one of seven 
genera. Let us run him through these. 

The group can be divided into those having the feet webs notched, 
and those having them entire. The genera with notched webs are 
Dajila and Qtierquedida, the former with a pointed tail, the latter with 
a rounded tail. The genera with the unnotched webs can be divided 
into groups — one with the tarsus reticulate all round, and one with the 
tarsus of any other pattern. Those with the entirely reticulate tarsi 
are the Geese, Anser and Bernida; Anser with the beak nearly as 
long as the head, and Bei-nida with the bill much shorter than the 
head — a distinction that may not be very great, but is really as great 
as that adopted by such authors as are not content to treat these two 
genera as one. There are three genera with the tarsus not completely 
reticulate ; these are Mareca, Tadorna, and Anasj the last with a 
wedge-shaped tail ; the first with a bill much shorter than the head ; 
and the third with a white wing shoulder, and being, in fact, the 
handsome Sheld Ducks, or Sheldrakes, if you so please. 

But our bird had a well-developed hind lobe, and consequently does 
not belong to this group of seven. It must be one of the five that 
are left. Look at its axillaries ; are they white or brown ? White. 
That is enough. But suppose they were brown. Its genus would 
then either be CEdemia, which are black Ducks with a tumid bill ; or 
Clangula, which has the nostrils in the middle of the bill and i6 
feathers in the tail ; or Harelda, which has a tapering bill, and two 
enormously long middle feathers in a tail which has 14 in all ; or 
Cosmonetta, which is the Harlequin Duck, so gaily striped and spotted 
that he can be picked out at a glance from the whole of the British 
avifauna. But a Duck with a large lobe on the hind toe and white 
axillaries must be of the genus Fuligula. 

But which Fuligula ? He has no't a black head, and consequently 
can be neither cristata or marila. He has not a brown back, and 
consequently he is neither nyroca nor rufina. There is only one species 
left and that fits him exactly :— " head, chestnut ; back, grey ; wing 
speculum, grey " ; further, his bill is black, blue and black ; and 



54 IDENTIFICATION. 

finally there is no doubt he is a Pochard. Let us compare his 
measurements. His reference letters are Od ; the average length of 
the species is given as i8in. ; the proportion that his wing should 
bear to his length is '47 ; the proportion his tail should bear is '15 ; 
the proportion his beak should bear is '12 ; the proportion his tarsus 
should bear is '08. And now for the actual measurements : — length, 
i75inches — we cannot quite stretch to the extraeighth — wing 8| inches; 
tail, 2| inches ; beak, 2j inches ; tarsus, I5 inches ; which are surely 
near enough for all practical purposes. 

A word of caution in conclusion. Do not let it be supposed that 
the accepted classification is dependent on the mere external 
characters we have chosen as our guides to identify. For the 
technical descriptions of the different families, genera and species, 
the student must go elsewhere, and he will then have his work cut 
out for him in exploring the intricacies of synonymy, and deciding on 
the authority he will follow in each particular case. And he will 
probably end by being quite ready for the new classification and tlie 
revision of the British list. 



T 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PASSERINE SUB-FAMILIES. 



HE sub-families of the Passeridffi are distinguishable as follow?; 
the remiges being i8 or 19, except where stated : 

Oriolin^ (Golden Oriole) — bright yellow, with black wings and 

tail, remiges often 20. 72. 
ICTERIN^ (Red-winged Starling) — glossy black with scarlet wing 

coverts. 119. 
PanuriNjE (Bearded Tit) — black pointed moustache, long rufous 

tail. 49 . 
AMPELlNiE (Waxwing) — red waxy tips to secondaries ; erectile 

crest. "]"]. 
CincliNjE (Dippers) — dense fibrous blackish plumage, with 

undercoat of down ; white ihroat ; concave wings ; two toes 

united. 47, 48. 

These five sub-families are unmistakable, the rest can be divided 
into — 

1. First primary quite half as long as second. 

2. First primary obsolete or minute. 

3. First primary less than half as long as second. 

First primary quite half as long as second — 
Troglodytin^ (Wren) ^plumage long and soft; wings 

concave ; two toes united. 59. 
CorviNjE (Raven, Crows, Jackdaw, Jay, and Magpie) — wings 

flat ; remiges 19 to 22 ; plumage close and glossy. 122-131. 

First primary obsolete or minute — ■ 

FR1NGILLIN.E (Finches) — bill short and conical; gape line 

straight or arched ; remiges 18. S7-108. 
Emberizin^ (Buntings) — bill short and conical ; gape line 

angular ; palate knobbed. 1 09- 118. 
MoTAClLLlN^ (Wagtails and Pipits) — bill narrow and slender; 

legs long; tail long. 60-71. 
Sturnin^ (Starlings) — metaUic plumage with spots ; bill 

straight and slender. 120, 121. 
HirundiniNjE (Swallows) — bill wide; legs short ; wings long; 

tail forked. 81-84. 
ALAUDiNiE (Larks) — remiges often 20 ; secondaries long ; 

tarsus scuellate back and front. 132-137. 



56 THE PASSERINE SUB-FAMILIES. 

First priinary less than half as long as second— 
Certhiin^ (Creepers) — bill long, curved, and slender ; tail 

rounded ; hind claw long and curved. 85, 86. 
MuscicapiNjE (Flycatchers) — bill broad, flat and bristled at 

base. 78-80. 
Laniin^ (Shrikes) — bill short and deeply toothed ; two toes 

united. 73, 76. 
SittiNjE (Nuthatch) — bill long and straight ; feet large and 

strong ; two toes united. 58. 
PariNyE (Tits) — three toes united as far as second joint ; hind 

claw long. 50-57. 
ACCENTORIN^ (Accentors) — bill strong and straight ; wings 

rounded ; tarsus scutellate ; two toes united. 45, 46. 
TuRDlN^ (Thrushes and Warblers) — see analysis of g-enera. 

1-44. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TH E ORDERS, 

A RRANGED as in the list of coloured plates, our 35 families will 
-^^ be found to group themselves into the following 18 customary 
ornithological orders. 

Passeres — Passeridae. 

PlCARliE — Cypselidaa, Caprimulgidas, Picidse, Alcedinidas, 
Coraciidae, Meropidas, Upupidae, Cuculidas. 

Striges— Strigidae. 

ACCIPITRES — Vulturids, Falconidas. 

Steganopodes — PelecanidcE. 

Herodiones — Ardeidae, Ciconiidae,- Plataleids, Ibidida. 

OdONTOGLOSSjE — Phcenicopteridae. 

Anseres — Anatidas. 

CoLUMB^ — Columbidae. 

Pterocletes — Pteroclidae. 

Galling — Phasianidae. 

Hemipodii — Turnicidaa. 

FulicarI/E — Rallidse. 

Alectorides — Gruida:, Otididre. 

LiMiCOL/E — QEdicnemidas, GIareolidce,Charadriidas, Scolopacidffi. 

GavIj« — Laridas. 

Pvgopodes — Alcidas, Colymbidae, PodicipedidK. 

Tubinares — Procellariidae. 
This, or something on similar lines, is the classification to be found 
in most of the modern books on birds, the old arrangement into 
Rapaces, Passeres, Scansores, Gallinaces, Grallse, and Palmipedes, 
as given in Stanley, for instance, having long since been abandoned. 
But it is generally admitted that this classification is merely 
temporary, and that a new system is inevitable. What this system is 
to be, except that it will be an anatomical one, is not clear ; but it 
seems probable that it will be based on the arrangement proposed by 
Huxley in his paper in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 
1867, which arrangement, with a few changes, was that adopted by 
W. K. Parker in his article on Birds in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Professor Huxley's paper appears in brief in his " Manual of the 
Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals." He divides the birds into two 
great groups : 

I. In which the metacarpals are not anchylosed together, and 

the tail is longer than the body — by the tail being meant 

that member itself and not the quill feathers it supports. 

II. In which the metacarpals are anchylosed together, and 

the tail is shorter than the body. 

To the first group belong the Saurur^ represented by the 

Archaeopteryx, that curious extinct bird found fossil in the Upper 

Oolites of Solenhofen, which was about as big as a Rook, which had 

a long lizard-like tail of twenty separate vertebrae, all distinct from 

one another and carrying a pair of feathers, one on each side, and 

which had also two free claws to the wing, &c. 

E 




58 THE ORDERS. 

To the second group all the existing birds can, as far as we know 
be referred. It can be divided into : 

I. Ratuve, having the sternum or breast bone devoid of a 
keel. 
II. Carinat*, having the sternum with a keel. 

We need not concern ourselves with the subdivisions of the Ratitas, 
as no birds without a keel to their breast bone have been recognised 
as belonging to our national avifauna, and we doubt if any enthusiast 
would be bold enough to add one to the British List on the strength 
if having shot it on British ground. 

Familiar as the breast bone may be, on the dinner table and else- 
where, it is perhaps as well to give a sketch in order that there may 
, be no mistake. Here is one seen in section 
and in three-quarter view, in which the 
keel- is duly, though somewhat microscopi- 
cally, noted. Of the Ratitae the most 
familiar example is the Ostrich, which has 
a breast bone as flat as a raft, raft being 
ratis in Latin and thus being responsible 
for the derivation. 
In the Carinatse, then, the sternum possesses a keel, and ossifies 
from a median centre in that keel, as well as from lateral paired 
centres. The long axes of the adjacent parts of the scapula and 
coracoid make an acute or a slightly obtuse angle, and are never, even 
approximately, identical or parallel. The scapula always has a 
distinct acromion and the coracoid a clavicular process. The vomer 
is comparatively small, and allows the pterygoids and palatines to 
articulate directly with the basisphenoidal rostrum. 

The CarinatEe, so-called from the Latin carina, a keel, are classified 
according to their palatal bones ; or, to be more precise — we will 
explain the technical terms immediately we have cleared the 
way — into : 

I. Having the vomer broad behind, and interposing between 
the pterygoids, the palatines, and the basisphenoidal 
rostrum. 
II. Having the vomer narrow behind ; the pterygoids and 
palatines articulating largely with the basisphenoidal 
rostrum. 
To the first of these no British birds belong, the type of the group 
being the Tinamous. Of the second there are three divisions ; and 
representatives of each of these are to be found in our list. But, to 
proceed in proper sequence. The group having the vomer narrow 
behind can be divided into : 

I. Having the maxillo-palatines free. 
II. Having the maxillo-palatines united. 
Dealing first with those having the free maxillo-palatines we find 
them further classified into : 

I. Having the vomer pointed in front — Schizognathse. 
II. Having the vomer truncated in front. 
The Schizognathous birds we will tabulate presently, and to save the 
repetition of some very long words, we will here be satisfied with 




IHE OKDEka. 



59 



a representative. Here is a " Schizogna- 
thous" skull, that of the Crane, with 
the lower half removed so as to show 
the arrangement of the bones we want. 
Here quad, is the quadrate bone on 
which the lower jaw works ; jtter. is 
the pterygoid ; pal. is the palatine ; max. 
pal. is the maxillo-palatine ; premax. is 
the premaxillary, and vomer is the vomer, 
the bone which is the key to the classifica- 
tion, and which varies more than almost 
any other bone in the skull of a bird. It is 
a small bone, thin as a knife blade and 
rarely broader, standing on its edge in the 
very centre of the roof of the bird's mouth, 
a bone so delicate that it is one of the 
first to vanish when the student in search 
of it first prepares a skull. It will be 
noticed that in the case of the Crane it 
ends in a point towards the beak, and it 
so ends in the skulls of Plovers, Gulls, 
Fowls, and Pigeons, and others. In this 
group, we may as well quote as paraphrase, 
" the maxillo-palatines are usually elon- 
gated and lamellar ; they pass in-<vards 
over the anterior processes of the palatine 
bones, with which they become united, and then bending backwards, 
along the inner edge of the palatines, leave a broader or a narrower 
fissure between themselves and the vomer, and do not unite with it or 
with one another." 
But in the skulls of the Passerine birds the vomer is not pointed 
in front. Here, for instance, is the skull 
of a Raven, one of the Passerines. 
It is " .(Egithognathous," with the 
maxillo-palatines free, and the vomer 
unpointed, or rather cut off at a blunt 
angle. The lettering is as before, but 
owing to the more open character of 
the skull the parts are more clearly 
traceable. Again, the quadrates lead on 
to the pterygoids which lead on to the 
palatines, and in the centre of the 
palatal framework we see the thin edge 
of the vomer. It will be seen that in 
this skull, as in that of the Crane, the 
maxillo-palatines are clearly separate. 
The vomer in this group is cleft behind, 
embracing the rostrum of the sphenoid 
between its forks. "The palatines have 
postero-external angles. The maxillo- 
palatines are slender at their origin, and 
extend inwards and backwards obliquely 
over the palatines, ending beneath the 
E 2 



PremA*. 



VOr-lBW.. 




6o 



THE ORDERS. 



vomer in expanded extremities, which do not become united by bone 
either with one another or with the vomer. The anterior part of the 
nasal septum, in front of the vomer, is frequently ossified, and the 
interval between it and the pre-maxilla filled up with spongy bone ; 
but no union takes place between this ossification and the vomer." 

Dealing next with the group in which the maxillo-palatines are 
united, we find that a large number of birds have the vomer " either 
abortive or so small that it disappears from the skeleton. When it 
exists it is always slender, and tapers to a point anteriorly. The 
maxillo-palatines are united across the middle line, either directly or 
by the intermediation of ossifications in the nasal septum." And the 
posterior ends of the palatines, and the anterior ends of the pterygoids 
articulate directly with the rostrum, as they do in the Schizognathse. 
Under such circumstances the skull is " Desmognathous.'' 
Of such a skull we have an example in that here given of the 

Goose. We need not repeat the 
references. The differences in the 
structure of the palate, and con- 
sequently of the whole skull are 
^ clear enough. This type of skull 

is represented in the Birds of 
Prey, the Cuckoos, Kingfishers, 
Swans and Ducks, Storks and 
Cormorants, and others. To this 
group has since been given the 
name of Saurognathas, and then 
^ it includes the Woodpeckers, the 

Picidas, in whom the vomerine 
halves are permanently distinct and 
the maxillo-palatines arrested. 
■"** Huxley's grouping has not, 

however, been accepted without 
*■"""•- modifi-cations, vifhich. the student 
who takes any interest in the 
matter should investigate for 
BRv^o.o himself. On the opposite page 
is given one of the most recent 
arrangements, that adopted at 
the Natural History Museum. 
It is abbreviated to include only 
those families we have been 
endeavouring to identify, being 
quite British and no more — 
in other words, out of the 39 orders of the world's avifauna 
it deals only with 23, which is not a bad proportion consider- 
ing the size of these islands. The 16 orders exclusively 
foreign, are the 7 of the Ratitae (I. Struthioniformes, the 
ostriches ; 11. Rheiformes, the rheas ; III. Dinornithiformes, 
the moas ; TV. .lEpyornithiformes, the Madagascar moas ; V. 
Casuariiformes, the emus and cassowaries ; VI. Apterygiformes, the 
kiwis ; and VII. Tinamiformes, the tinamous) : the 9 Carinate 
orders being VIII. Sphenisciformes, the penguins ; XIII. Opistho- 
comiformes, the hoatzins ; XVIII. Palamedeiformes, the 




THE ORDERS. 



6l 



screamers ; XX. Cathartidiformes, the turkey-vultures ; XXI. 
Serpentariiformes, the secretary-birds ; XXIV. Psittaciformes, 
the parrots ; XXVI. Trogoniformes, the trogons ; XXIX. Eurylae- 
miformes, the broadbills ; and XXX. Menuriformes, the lyre-birds. 

AVES. 
Sub-class — ■ 

1. Saurur^ — as Gastomithidae, only found fossil. 

2. Neornithes — modem birds. 

Section A — Ratitse, as the Ostrich, none British; 
Section B — Carinatae — with keeled breastbone. 



RS 


OF 


iHE Carinat^ represented in Britain — 


I 


Gain formes — Phasianidffi and Tetraonidae. 


2. 


Ptevocletiformes — Pteroclidae. 


3- 


Turniciformes — Turnicidae. 


4- 


Columbiformes — Columbidae. 


S 


Ralli formes — Rallidae. 


6 


Podecipediformes — Podicipedidae. 


7 


Colmybiformes — Colymbidae. 


9 


Procellariformes — Procellariidae. 


lO 


Alciformes — Alcidae. 


II 


Lariformes — Stercorariidas and Laridje. 


12 


Charadrnformes — Charadriidae, Cursoriidas, Glareo- 




lidae, CEdicnemidse, and Otididae. 


H 


Gruiformes — Gruidas. 


15 


Ardeiformes — ■ Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Ibididae, and 




Plataleidje. 


16 


Anseriformes — Anatidje. 


17 


Phcenicopteriformes-Vh.cRTnco^tQ.ridsE. 


19 


Pelccaniformcs — Phalacrocoracida; and Sulidae. 


22 


Accipitrifonnes — Vulturidae, Falconidse and Pan- 




dionidae. 


23 


Strigiformes — Bubonidae and Strigidae. 


25 


Coraciiformes — Coraciidae, Meropidic, Upupidae, 




Caprimulgidas, and Cypselids. 


27 


Cuculiformes — Cuculidae. 


28. 


Piciformes — Picidae. 


31- 


Passeriformes — PasseridEE of the following families 




of the Acromyodi : — 




2. Hirundinidas. 21. Regulidae. 




3 


Muscicapidffi. 22. Sittidas. 




7 


Troglodytidae. 23. Certhiidae. 




8 


Cinclidae. 30. Motacillidee. 




10 


Turdidse. 31. Alaudidae. 




11 


Sylviidas. 32. Fringillida;. 




13 


Ampelidae, i^. Icteridae. 




17 


Laniidae. 57. Oriolidse. 




18 


Paridae. 41. Stumidae. 




19 


Panuridae. 45 . Corvidae. 



CHAPTER IX. 

INDEX TO THE FAMILIES AND SUB-FAMILIES. 



IT is to be understood by the student that the particulars given 
hereunder are not necessarily those on which the customary 
ornithological classification is based, but simply such as happen to be 
•nost useful for purposes of identification, and that only such points 
are mentioned as are necessary for distinguishing the families and 
sub-families from each other with regard to their representatives on 
the British list. 

AccENTORlNvE — sub-family of Passerids (range 5 in. to 7^ in.) 
— first primary less than half as long as second ; bill strong and 
straight ; remiges ig ; tarsus scutellate ; two toes united. Genus, 
Accentor; the Hedge Sparrow. 45, 46. 

ALAUDiNiE — sub-family of Passeridae (range 5 in. to ^\ in.) — first 
primary very small ; remiges 19 or 20 ; tarsus scutellated back 
and front. Genera, Alauda and Otocorysj the Larks. 132-137. 

Alcedinid^ (range 6J in. to 13 in.) — four toes, two of them united 
as far as the second joint, and two as far as the first ; remiges 22 ; 
third primary longest. Genera, Alcedo and Cerylej the Kingfishers. 
151, 152. 

ALClDiE (range 8^ in. to 32 in.) — three toes, united as far as the 
claws ; wings fin-like ; tail rudimentary. Genera, Alca, Uria, 
Mergulus and Fratercula j the Razorbill, Auks, Guillemots, and 
Puffin. 373-379- 

AmpeliNjE — sub-family of Passeridas (range 7 in. to •]\ in.) ; red 
waxy tips to secondaries ; long erectile crest. Genus, Ampelis; the 
Waxwing. 77. 

ANATlDiE (range 13 in. to 60 in.) — four toes, three of them united as 
far as the claws ; bill broad and lamellate, or toothed. Genera, 
Anser, Bernicla, Cygnus, Tadonia, Anas, Spatula, Dafila, 
Querquedula, Mareca, FuUgula, Clangula, Harelda, Costnoitetta, 
Somateria, CEdemia, and Mergusj the Geese, Swans, and Ducks, 
.217-262. 

.ArdeiDvE (range 12 in. to 42 in.) — four toes, two united ; bill long 
and straight ; legs long ; middle claw pectinate. Genera, Ardea, 
Nycticorax, and Botaurusj the Herons and Bitterns. 202-211. 

CaprimulGID/« (range 10 in. to 13 in.) — four toes, three of them 
united no further than the first joint ; phalanges, 2, 3, 4, 3 ; bill 
gaping. Genus, Caprimulgus ; the Nightjars. 141-143. 

CerthiiNjT, — sub-family of Passeridae (range 45 in. to 6 in.) ; first 
primary less than half as long as second ; bill long, curved, and 
slender ; rounded tail and long curved hind claw. Genera, 
CerthiaxaA Tichodroma ; the Creepers. Sj, 86. 



INDEX TO THE FAMILIES ftND SUB-FAMILIES. 63 

Charadriid^e (range 6 in. to i6 in.). 

I. — Three toes, united near base ; bill longer or shorter than head, 
and not dilated at point. Genera, Cursorius, Eudromias, 
Charadrius, jEgialitis, and Hcematopus ; the Courser, Dotterel, 
Plovers (except the Grey Plover), and the Oystercatcher. 292- 

29s. 297-300, 303- 

II. — Four toes, three of them united near the base. Genera, 
Squaiarola, Strepsilas, and Vanellus; the Grey Plover, which has 
a white tail with broad black and brown bars ; the Turnstone, 
which has orange legs ; and the Lapwing, which has a crest. 
296, 302, 301. 
ClCONllDiE (range 39 in. to 44 in.) — four toes, three of them united 

no further than the first joint ; long legs ; long bill ; over yi 

remiges. Genus, Ciconia; the Storks. 212, 213. 
ClNCLiNiE — sub-family of Passeridaa (range 6 in. to 6^ in.) ; two toes 

united ; dense, fibrous blackish plumage ; white throat ; concave 

wings. The only passerine birds with down. Genus, Cz«r/ajy the 

Dippers. 47, 48. 
COLUMBiDiE (range 11 in. to 17 in.) — four toes, three in front, divided 

throughout ; bill deflected, thinnest in middle, expanding towards 

point ; nostrils in soft skin at base of bill ; no down ; feathers 

without aftershaft ; second primary longest. Genera, Columba, 

Turtur, and Ectopistes; the Doves and Pigeons. 263-267. 
ColymbiDjE (range 21 in. to 33 in.) — four toes, three of them united 

as far as the claws and one welibed to tarsus ; wings short ; bin 

compressed and pointed ; tail very short and rounded. Genus, 

Colymbus ; the Divers. 380-383. 
CORACIID^ (range 11 in. to 12 in.) — four toes, three in front divided 

throughout ; bill compressed ; upper mandible decurved at tip ; 

23 remiges ; tarsus scutellate in front, reticulate at back. Genus, 

Coracias; the Roller. 153. 
Corvine — sub-family of Passeridse (range 14 in. to 24 in.) ; remiges 

19 to 22 ; first primary quite half as long as second, fifth and sixth 

longest, first four graduated ; plumage close and glossy ; two toes 

united. Genera, Pyrrhocorax, Nucifraga, Garrulus, Pica, and 

Corvusj the Chough, Nutcracker, Jay, Magpie, Jackdaw, Crow, 

Rook, and Raven. 122-131. 
CucULlD^ (range I2 in. to 17 in.) — four toes, divided throughout, 

two in front and two behind ; bill short or moderate. Genera. 

Cuculus, Coccysies, and Coccyzus; the Cuckoos. 157-160. 
CypseliDjE (range 7 in. to 84 in.). 

I. — Four toes, divided throughout, all in front ; remiges 18 ; 
phalanges, 2, 3, 3, 3. Genus, Cypselusj the Swifts. 138, 139. 

II. — Four toes, divided throughout, three in front ; tail feathers 
with sharp, protruding spines. Genus, Acanthyllis ; the Needle- 
tailed Swift. 140. 
EmberiziNjE — sub-family of Passeridas (range 4f in. to 7 in.) — first 

primary obsolete ; bill short and conical ; gape line angular ; 

knob on palate. Genera, Emberiza, Calcarius, and Plectrophanes ; 

the Buntings. 109-118. 
FalconiD/E (range 10 in. to 36 in.) — Birds of Prey ; bill strong, 

sharp, and curving, and with a cere at base; claws powerful; 

feathers on crown. Genera, Circus, Buteo, Archibuteo, Aquila, 



54 INDEX TO THE FAMILIES AND SUB- FAMILIES. 

HaliaUus, Accipiter^ Milvus, Elatioides, Elanus, Pernis, Falco, 

and Pandionj the Harriers, Buzzards, Eagles, Hawks, Kites, 

Falcons, and Osprey. 173-198. 
FRiNGlLLiNiE — sub-family of Passeridaa (range 41 in. to 9 in.) ; 

remiges rarely more than 18 ; first primary obsolete or minute ; 

bill short and conical ; gape line straight or arched. Genera, 

Carduelis, Serinus, Ligurinus, Coccothraustes, Passer, Fn'ngilla, 

Linota, Pyrrhula, and Loxiaj the Finches, Sparrows, Linnets, 

Grosbeaks, and Crossbills. 87-108. 
GlareoliDjE (range 85 in. to 9 in.) — four toes, two united ; bill 

short ; wings long ; legs short ; tail forked. Genus, Glareolaj 

the Pratincole. 291. 
Gruid^ (range 39 in. to 48 in.) — four toes, two united ; bill long ; 

legs long, middle claw smooth. Genus, Grusj the Cranes. 285, 286. 
HirundiniNjE — sub-family of Passeridse (range 4I in. to 85 in.) ; 

nine primaries ; secondaries broad and notched ; wide bill ; short 

legs ; long wings ; forked tail. Genus, Hirundoj the Swallows 

and Martins. 81-84. 
Ibidid^ (range 21 in. to 22 in.) — four toes, three united as far as the 

claws ; bill long, slender and decurved, point rounded ; 27 remiges. 

Genus, Ibis; the Ibis. 215. 
IcteriNjE — sub-family of Passerida: (range 8^ in. to 9 in.) ; glossy 

black with scarlet wing coverts. Genus, AgelcBus; the Red-winged 

Starling. 119. 
Laniin/E — sub-family of Passeridje (range 7^ in. to 9 in.) ; remiges 

19 ; first primary less than half as long as second ; bill short and 

deeply toothed ; two toes united. Genus, Laniusj the Shrikes and 

Woodchat. 73-76. 
LariD/E (range 8| in. to 33 in.) 

I. — Three toes, united as far as the claws ; wings long ; remiges 
31; tail forked or square. Genus, Rissaj the Kittiwake. 367. 

II. — Four toes, three united and one webbed to tarsus ; bill short. 
Genus, Pagophila; the Ivory Gull. 368. 

III. — Four toes, three of them united as far as the claws, the fourth 
very short. Genera, Hydrochelidon, Sterna, Anous, Xema, 
Rhodostethia, and Lariisj the Terns and Gulls. 241-366. 
MeropiDjE (range 10 in. to 11 in.) — remiges, 23 ; second primary 

longest ; four toes, three united, two as far as the second joint and two 

as far as the first ; tail long. Genus, Merops; the Bee-eaters. 1 54, 1 5 5. 
MoTACILLINiE — sub-family of Passeridas (range 5^ in. to 8 in.) ; two 

toes united ; first primary obsolete or minute ; narrow, slender bill ; 

long legs ; long tail. Genera, Motacilla and Anthusj the Wagtails 

and Pipits. 60-71. 
Muscicapin^— sub-family of Passeridae (range 5 in. to 5^ in.) ; 

remiges 19 ; first primary less than half as long as second ; bill 

broad, flat, and bristled at base. Genus, Muscicapa; the Fly- 
catchers. 78-80. 
CEDlCNEMlDiE (range 16 in. to 17 in.) ; three toes united as far as 

the second joint ; remiges 29 ; Genus, QLdicnemus ; the Stone 

Curlew. 290. 
OrioliNjE — sub-family of Passeridae (range 9 in. to 9^ m.) ; golden 

yellow bird with black wings ; remiges often 20 ; first primary half 

as long as second. Genus, Oriolusj the Golden Oriole. 72. 



INDEX TO THE FAMILIES AND SUB-FAMILIES. 61; 

OtidiDjE (range 16 in. to 45 in.) ; three toes united near base 
and edged with membranes. Genus, Otis; the Bustards. 287- 
289. 

PANURINiE — sub-family of Passeridse (range 6 in. to 6J in.) ; black 
pointed moustache; long rufous tail. Genus, Panurus ; the 
Bearded Tit. 49. 

PariNjE — sub-family of Passeridae (range 4 in. to 6 in.) ; first 
primary less than half as long as second ; three toes united as far 
as the second joint ; long hind claw. Genera, Acredula and 
Parus; the Tits. 50-57. 

PASSERIDiE (range 3J in. to 24 in.) — four toes, three united or two 
united, or all divided ; remiges 18 to 22 ; indexed under the 
different sub-families — Alaudins, Ampelinse, Certhiinae, Cinclins, 
Corvinse, Emberizinae, Fringillinas, Hirundininie, Icterinae, Laniinte, 
Motacillinas, Muscicapinse, Oriolinas, Panurinae, Parinas, Sittings, 
Sturninae, Troglodytinae, and Turdinae. 1-137. 

Pelecanid^ (range 27 in. to 36 in.) — four toes, all united ; bill 
long ; tarsus compressed ; third claw pectinate. Genera, Phala- 
crocoraxa.nA Sulaj the Cormorant, Shag, and Gannet. 199-201. 

Phasianid^ (range 7 in. to 36 in.) — four toes, three united no further 
than first joint ; eleventh wing feather shortest ; short legs ; short 
bill. Genera, Tetrao, Phasianus, Perdix, and Coturnix; the Caper- 
caillie. Grouse, Ptarmigan, Pheasant, Partridge, and Quail. 269- 
276. 

PhcenicopteriDjE (range 50 in. to 70 in.) — four toes, three united as 
far as the claws ; web incised ; bill bent half way. Genus, 
PhcBiiicopterus; the Flamingo. 216. 

Picid^ (range 5J in. to 14 in.) — four toes, two in front, two behind ; 
bill long ; tongue long ; 12 tail feathers, two outer ones hidden 
under the two next. Genera, Picus, Gecinus, and lynx; the 
Woodpeckers and Wryneck. 144-150. 

Plataleid/E (range 30 in. to 32 in.) — four toes, three united as far 
as the second joint ; spatulate bill ; 30 remiges. Genus, Platalea; 
the Spoonbill. 214. 

PodicipediDjE (range 8 in. to 24 in.) — four toes, with pennate and 
entire lobes ; tail a tuft of small downy feathers ; tarsus com- 
pressed. Genus, Podicepsj the Grebes. 384-388. 

PROCELLAEllDiE (range 5 in. to 19 in.) — nostrils in a tube ; bill 
unserrated and ending in a nail. 

I. — Three toes, united as far as daws. Occnnites, 398. 
II. — Four toes, three united as far as the claws. Genera, Fubiiarus, 
Pufflnus, Bulweria, and Procellaria ; the Petrels and Shear- 
waters. 389-397. 

PxEROCLiDiE (range 16 in. to 20 in.) — three toes, united as far as the 
claws ; tail of 16 feathers, two of considerable length ; wings long ; 
tail wedge-shaped. Genus, Syrrhaptes ; Pallas's Sand Grouse. 
268. 

RalLIDjE (range 7 in. to 16 in.). 

I. — Feet lobate. Genera, Fulica and Gallinula; the Coot and 

Moorhen. 283, 284. 
II. — Feet divided; short stout beak; large feet; short legs; 
short tail ; rounded wings. Genera, Crex and Rallusj the 
Crakes and Water Rail. 278-282. 



66 INDEX TO THE FAMILIES AND SUB- FAMILIES. 

SCOLOPACID^ (range 5J in. to 26 in.). 

I. — Three toes, united near base ; tail feathers doubly notched 

Genus, Calidris ; the Sanderling. 324. 
II. — Four toes, three united as far as the second joint ; bill boldly 

curving upwards. Genus, Recurvirostra ; the Avocet. 304. 
III. — Four toes, three united near base. Genera, Himantopus, 
Scolopax, Macrorhampus, Limtcola, Tryngites, and Numenius , 
the Black-winged Stilt, the Woodcock, Red-breasted Snipe, 
Broad-billed Sandpiper, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Curlews, and 
Whimbrel. 305, 308, 312, 313, 325, 338-340. 
IV. — Four toes, three in front, two united. Genera, Machetes, 
Barh-amia, Limosa, and Totajtus; the Ruff, Bartram's Sandpiper, 
the Godwits, the Sandpiper, the Spotted, Green, Wood, and 
Solitary Sandpipers, the Redshanks, Gi-eenshank, and Yellow- 
shank. 323, 326-337. 
V. — Feet lobate ; lobes narrowly denticulate. Genus, PhalaropuSj 

the Phalarope. 306. 
VI. — Feet divided ; long slender bill. Genera, Gallinago and 
Tringa; the Snipes, Stints, and other Sandpipers. 309-311,314- 
322. 
SiTTiNiE— sub-family of Passeridas (range 5 in. to 6 in.) ; first 
primary less than half as long as the second ; third, fourth, and 
fifth longest ; long straight bill ; large powerful feet ; two toes 
united. Genus, 6'z'//ay the Nuthatch. 58. 
StrigiDjE (range 7 in. to 27 in.) — Birds of Prey ; bill powerful and 
with a cere at base ; large head ; round face ; eyes in front ; claws 
well developed. Genera, Strix, Asia, Syrnium, Nyctea, Surnia, 
Nyctala, Scops, Bubo, and Athene; the Owls. 161-170. 
STURNlNiE — sub-family of Passeridce (range 7^ in. to Z\ ip.) ; remiges 
ig ; first primary minute ; second primary longest in wicg ; 
plumage with metallic tints and spotted ; bill straight and slender. 
Genera, Sturnus and Pastor; the Starlings. 120, 121. 
TroglodytiNjE — sub-family of Passeridae (range 3^ in. to 4 in.) ; 
first primary quite half as long as second ; plumage long and soft ; 
tail short ; two toes united. Genus, Troglodytes ; the Wren. 59. 
Turbine — sub-family of Passerida; (range 33 in. to 12 in.) ; remiges 
19 ; first primary less than half as long as second ; bill with or 
without tooth ; toes united or not (see analysis of Genera), 
Genera, Tiirdus, Geocichla, Merul.a, Monticola, Saxicola, Pratincola, 
Ruticilla, Cyanecida, Erithacus, Daulias, Sylvia, Melizophiius, 
Regulus, Phylloscopus, Hypolais, A'edon, Acrocephalus, and Locus- 
tella. 1-44. 
Turnicid^ (range 6 in. to 6J in.)— three toes divided throughout. 

Genus, Turnix; the Andalusian Bush Quail, 277. 
UpupiDjE (range 10 in. to 12 in.) — four toes, two united; erectile 
crest ; remiges 20 ; first primary small, second equal to seventh 
and third, fourth and fifth the longest. Genus, Upupa; the Hoopoe. 
156. 
VuLTURlDiE (range 25 in. to 40 in.) — Birds of Prey ; strong, sharp, 
curving bill, with a cere at base ; powerful claws ; head bald or 
covered with down ; wings long and rounded ; tail rounded 
Genera, Gyps and Neophron; the Vultures, 171, 172. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE GENERA, 



IN this list thefiiinilies and sub-families are arranged alphabetically 
so as to facilitate reference ; and only such particulars are given 
as are needed to distinguish one genus from another as regards its 
representatives in the British List. For the separation of the families 
reference must be made to the preceding chapters, the separation of 
the species being given in the chapter that follows. 

ACCENTORIN^. (Plate iv.) 
Accentor — 45, 46. 

AlaudiN/E. (Plate x.) 
Alauda — third primary longest ; breast spotted ; tarsus longer 

than middle toe. 132-136. 
Otocorys — second primary longest ; breast black ; tarsus not 
longer than middle toe. 137. 
Alcedinid^. (Plate xi.) 

Alcedo — without a crest ; tail short. 151. 
Ceryle — with a crest ; tail long. 152. 

Alcid^e. (Plate xxxii.) 

1. Bill unfeathered at base. 

Fratercula — bill sheathed with orange. 379. 

2. Bill feathered at base. 

Aha — bill large and compressed ; remiges 30. 373, 374. 
Mergulus — bill broader than high ; remiges 26. 378. 
Uria — bill strong, straight and pointed. 376, 377. 

Ampelin^. (Plate vi.) 
Ampelis — long erectile crest. ^^. 

ANATIDyE. (Plates xix. xx. xxi. xxii.) 

Cygnus — lores naked ; neck long ; legs short. 227-332. 
Mergus — bill narrow, with sharp teeth. 259-262. 
Somateria — bill with a central tract of feathers. 253-255. 
Spatula — bill spatulate and long. 237. 

1. Lobe of hind toe absent or rudimentary. 

2. Lobe of hind toe well developed. 

Lobe of hind toe absent or rudimentary. 
Feet webs notched. 
Dafila — tail pointed. 238. 
Querquedula — tail rounded. 239-241. 
Feet webs entire. 
Tarsus reticulate all round. 
Anser — bill nearly as long as head. 217-222. 



68 THE GENERA. 

Bemicla — bill much shorter than head. 223-226. 

Tarsus otherwise. 
Mareca — bill much shorter than head. 242, 243. 
Tadorna — wing shoulder white and knobbed. 233, 234. 
Anas — tail wedge-shaped. 235, 236. 
Lobe of hind toe well developed. 

1. Axillaries brown. 

2. Axillaries white. 

Axillaries brown. 
CEdemia — bill tumid ; body colour black or brown, 256-258. 
Clangula — nostrils in middle of bill ; 16 feathers in tail. 249, 250. 
Harelda — bill tapering, lamellas exposed ; 14 feathers in tail, 

two middle ones very long. 251. 
Cosvionetta — bill like that of a goose, lamelte hidden ; body gaily 
striped and spotted ; 14 feathers in tail, which is much 
graduated. 252. 

Axillaries white. 
Fuligula — 244-248. 
ARDElDiE. (Plates xvii. xviii.) 

1. Bill much longer than head. 

Ardea — bill long and straight; six powder down tracts; 12 

tail feathers ; tarsus scutellate in front. 202-207. 
Ardeita — bill slender and pointed ; four powder do»vn tracts ; 10 

tail feathers. 208. 
Botaiirus — bill higher than broad ; four powder down tracts ; 10 

tail feathers. 210,211. 

2. Bill about as long as head. 

Nycticorax—11 tail feathers ; six powder down tracts ; tarsus 
reticulate in front. 209. 
Caprimulgid^. (Plate x.) 

Caprimulgus — gaping bill with large rictal bristles. 141- 143. 
CerthiiNjE. (Plate vi.) 

Certhia — tail feathers pointed and stiff. 85. 

Tichodroma — tail feathers rounded and soft. 86. 
CharadriiDjE. (Plate xxvi.) 

1. With three toes. 

2. With four toes. 
Three toes. 

Bill longer than head. 
H(Bmatopus — remiges 29. 303. 
Bill shorter than head. 

Second primary longest ; middle toe very long. 
Cursorius — tarsus long and slender, and scutellate back and front. 
292. 
First primary longest. 

Inner secondaries much shorter than primaries. 
Charadrius — tarsus reticulate ; tail feathers barred. 294, 295. 

Inner secondaries as long as primaries. 
.Egialilis — tarsus reticulate. 297-300. 
Eudromias—XtVLSVts scutellate. 293. 
Four toes. 

Axillaries black. 



THE GENERA. 69 

Squatarola — first primary longest ; black legs. 296. 

Axillaries white. 
Strepsilas — first primary longest ; orange legs ; toes cleft to 

base. 302. 
Vanellus — head with a crest ; third and fourth primaries longest ; 

brown legs ; two toes webbed nearly to first joint. 301. 

ClCONTlDiE. (Plate xviii.) 

Ciconia — bill and legs deep red. 212, 213. 

CiNCLiN«. (Plate iv.) 

Cinclus—zxi under coating of down. 47, 48, 

COLUMBID^. (Plate xxiii.) 

Columba — tail even ; brown and grey. 263-265. 

Eciopistes — tail long and wedge-shaped ; two middle feathers black. 

267. 
Turtur — black and white patch on neck ; tail rounded ; two 

middle feathers dusky brown, tipped with white. 266. 

COLYMBlDiE. (Plate xxxii.) 
Colyinbus — 280-283. 

CORACitD^. (Plate xii.) 

Coradas — narrow bill and flat pointed wings. 153. 

CORVlNiE. (Plate ix.) 

Corvus — bill black ; tail black. 127-131. 

Garrulus — crested ; blue, black and white chequer on wing. 125 
Nvcijraga — bill black , tail tipped with white. 124. 
Pyrrhocorax — bill red or yellow. 122, 123. 

Pica — tail very long and iridescent black ; first primary sinuated. 
126. 

CuculiDjE. (Plate xii.) 
Coccystes — head with a crest ; tail long. 15S. 

Coccyzus — tail of 10 feathers, which are black and white. 159, 160. 
Cuculus — tail of 12 feathers, which are black and grey. 157. 

Cypselid^e. (Plate x.) 
Cypselus — four toes in front ; middle toe three phalanges, outer 

toe three phalanges. 138,139. 
AcanthylUs — three toes in front ; middle toe four phalanges, outer 

toe five phalanges. 140. 

Emberizin^. (Plate viii.) 

Calcarius — bill yellow, tipped with black, i r". 
Emberiza — bill brown, grey, or buff. 109- 116. 
Plectrophanes — bill black. 118. 

FalconiD/E. (Plates xiv. xv. xvi) 
Lores feathered. 

Pernis — ^tarsus reticulate back and front. 188. 
Lores not feathered. 
Tail forked. 
Milvus — tarsus scutellate in front, reticulate behind. 184, 185. 
Elanoides —y^Yatt head andneck ; longblacknarrowwings. 186. 
Elanus — grey head and neck ; black and white wings. 1 87. 
Tail even or rounded. 

Tarsus feathered ; fourth primary longest. 



70 THE GENERA. 

Afuila—tarsvis feathered to toes ; 27 remiges. 178, 179. 
Archibuteo — tarsus featherless at back ; 24 remiges. 177. 
Tarsus scutellate in front, reticulate at back ; fifth primary 

longest. 
Haliaetus — white tail ; 27 remiges. 180. 
Tarsus reticulate back and front ; first primary longer 

than secondaries. 
/Vr/iTO— legs with breeches ; outer toe not reversible ; bill 

deeply notched. 189-197. 
Pandion — legs without breeches ; outer toe reversible ; bill 

faintly notched. 198. 
Tarsus scutellate back and front ; first primary short. 
.g«/£0— fourth primary longest ; first four primaries notched ; 

wings long. 176. 
OrcKJ— third and fourth primaries longest ; wings long ; 

head with a ruflf. 173-175. 
Acdpiter — fourth and fifth primaries longest ; wings short. 

181-183. 

FringillinA (Plates vii. viii.) 
Mandibles crossed. 
Loxia — 105-108. 
Upper mandible overhanging. 

Pyrrhula — 102-104. 
Upper mandible rather larger than lower. 
Passer — tail square. 93, 94. 
Seriniis-\.?A forked. 89, 90. 
Mandibles nearly equal. 
Tail square. 
Coccothraustes — primaries hooked at the tip. 92. 

Tail forked. 
Ligurinus — second, third and fourth primaries equal, gi. 
Carduelis — second primary longer than third, and longest in 

wing. 87, 88. 
Fringilla — second primary shorter than third, which, or the 

fourth, is the longest in the wing. 95, g6. 
Linota — second and third primaries nearly equal, and the longest 
feathers in the wing. 97-101. 

Glareolid^. (Plate xxv.) 
Glareola — 291. 

Gruid^. (Plate xxv.) 
Grus — 285, 286. 

HiRUNDININiE. (Plate vi.) 
Hirundo — 81-84, 

IBIDID^. (Plate xviii.) 
Ibis — 2 1 5. 

IcteriNjE, (Plate ix.) 
Agelaus — 119, 

LANllNit, (Plate vL; 
Lanius — 73-76, 



THE GENERA. 7' 

LariDjE. (Plates xxx. xxxi. xxxii.) 
r. Three toes. 
Rissa — remiges 31 ; feet black. 367. 

2. Four toes ; three all united and one webbed to tarsus, 
Pagophila — plumage pure white. 368. 

3. Four toes ; three united. 
Larus — tail square. 356-366. 

Rhodostethia — breast white and rose ; tail wedge-shaped. 355. 
Sterna — bill longer than head ; tail forked. 344-352. 
Anous — whole body blackish brown ; tail graduated. 353. 
Xema — bill shorter than head : tail forked ; legs long. 354. 
Hydrochelidon — bill as long as head ; tail slightly forked ; legs 

short ; webs incised. 341-343. 
Stercorarius — bill strong, cutting, compressed and with a 

cere ; remiges 26 or 28 ; tail rounded. 369-372. 

Meropid*. (Plate xii.) 
Merops — wings long and pointed ; bastard primary very small ; 
tail long. 154, 155. 

MOTACILLINJE. (Plate V.) 
Anihus — tail short and forked. 66-71. 
Motacilla — tail long and even. 60-65. 

MuscicapiNjE. (Plate vi.) 
Muscicapa—']%-Zo. 

CEdicnemid^. (Plate xxv.) 

CEdicnemus — tarsus reticulate before and behind. icf> 

OrioliNjE. (Plate V.) 
Oriolus — 72. 

Otidid^. (Plate xxv.) 

Otis — tarsus reticulate before and behind. 2S7-289. 

Panurin^. (Plate iv.) 
Panurus — 49. 

PariNjE. (Plate iv.) 
Acredula — long tail, much graduated. 50, 51, 
Parus — short tail, nearly even. 52-57. 

Passerid^. (Plates i. to x.) 
(See under its various sub-families.) 

PelecaniDjE. (Plate xvii.) 
Phalacrocorax — wings moderate; middle toe shorter than outer. 

199, 200. 
Sula — wings long ; middle toe not shorter than outer. 201. 

Phasianid^. (Plates xxiii. xxiv.) 
Tarsus feathered — 

Tetrao — tarsus without spurs. 269-272. 
Tarsus unfeathered. 

Coturnix — wings long ; tail very short. 27b. 

Perdix — first primary short ; wings short ; tail short. 274, 275. 

Phasianus — wings short ; tail very long. 273. 



72 THE GENERA. 

Phcenicopterid^. (Plate xviii.) 
Phcenicopterus — 2 1 6. 

PlClD^. (Plate xi.) 
Tail feathers stiff and pointed. 

Gecimis — greenish in colour. 149. 
Picus — black and white or black and red. 144-148. 
Tail feathers soft and rounded. 
lynx — brown and greyish white. 1 50. 

Plataleid^. (Plate xviii.) 
Platalea — 214. 

PqdicipediDjE. (Plate xxxiii.) 
Podiceps — 384-388. 

Procellariid^. (Plate xxxiii.) 
Bill as long as head. 

Bulweria — unspotted brownish black. 395. 
Bill longer than head. 

Puffinus — bill slender. 391-394. 
Bill shorter than head. 

Fulmarus — bill indented or curved. 389, 390. 

Procellaria — bill straight to the nail. 396, 397. 

Oceanites — bill small and weak ; tail square ; tarsus plated. 398, 

Pteroclid^. (Plate xxiii.) 
Syrrhaptes — 268. 

Rallied. (Plate xxiv.) 
Forehead feathered ; remiges 26. 

Crex — bill shorter than head. 278-281. 

Rallus — bill longer than head. 282. 
Forehead with a shield. 

Fulica — foot lobes denticulate ; remiges 25. 284. 

Gallinida — foot lobes entire ; remiges 23. 283. 

SCOLOPACID^. (Plates xxvii. xxviii. xxix.) 
Three toes. 

Calidris — 324. 
Four toes. 
Three united as far as second joint. 
Recurvirostra — remiges 30 ; bill curved upwards. 304. 

Three united near base. 
Himantopus — remiges 29 ; black wings ; very long legs. 305, 
Limicola — bill long, flat, and wide in the middle. 313. 
Macrorhampus — remiges 20; bill long and rounded ; outer web 

of foot larger than inner. 312. 
^umenius — bill more than twice as long as head, and curved 

downwards ; 30 remiges. 338-340. 
Scohpax — bill long, straight, and compressed ; 26 remiges. 30S. 
Tryngites — bill shorter than head. 325. 

Three in front, two united. 
Bartramia — remiges 26 ; bill no longer than head ; wings not 

reaching tip of tail. 326. 
Limosa — remiges 28 ; bill nearly twice as long as nead and 

curving slightly upwards. 336, 337. 



THE GENERA. 73 

Machetes — male with a ruff ; bill as long as head ; wings reaching 

tip of tail. 323. 
Totaniis — bill rather longer than head ; tail barred and short. 

327-335- 

Feet lobate. 
Phalaropus — remiges 25. 306, 307. 

Feet all divided. 
Gallinago — bill very straight and long. 309-311. 
Tringa — bill rather longer than head ; tail without bars. 314-322. 

Sitting. (Plate iv.) 
5zVi'fl— 58. 

Strigid^. (Plate xiii.) 

Bill straight from base, curved only at tip ; 24 remiges ; second 
primary longest. 

Strix — feet rather bristly ; nostrils not in cere. 161. 
Bill curved from base. 
Tail long. 

Syrniiim — facial disk complete. 164. 
Stcrnia — facial disk hardly traceable. 166. 
Tail short. 

Lower mandible sinuate. 
Athene — nostrils in cere ; feet bristly. 170. 
Lower mandible notched. 
Head with plumicorns. 
Scops — feet bare ; 22 remiges ; fourth primary longest. 168. 
Asio — feet feathered ; wings long ; 24 remiges ; second primary 

longest. 162, 163. 
Bilbo — feet feathered ; wings short ; 29 temiges ; third a^rd 
fourth primaries longest. 169. 
Without plumicorns. 
Nyctala — ears with operculum. 167. 
Nyctea — ears without operculum. 165. 

STURNiNiE. (Plate ix.) 
Pastor — crested. 121. 
Sturnus — uncrested. 120. 

TROGLODYTINiE. (Plate iv.) 
Troglodytes — 59. 

TurdiNjE. (Plates i. ii. iii.) 

Geocichla — axillaries chequered. 7, 8. 

Merula — axillaries black. 9, 10. 

Phylloscopus — axillaries yellow ; breast whitish ; legs brown. 32-35. 

Hypolais — axillaries yellow ; bill stout ; legs blue. 36. 

Daulias — axillaries buff; breast buff ; back reddish brown ; tail 

reddish brown. 22. 
Erithacus — chin red ; lower breast white. 21. 
Melizophilus — chin chestnut ; lower breast chestnut. 
Aedon — head and back chestnut ; breast buff; tail rounded and 

long and tipped with white. 37. 
Regulus — bright yellow crest. 30, 31. 
Saxicola — rump white ; legs black ; bill unnotched. 12-14. 

F 



74 THE GENERA. 

Pratincola — rump whitish; legs black; bill notched; tail short and 

square. 15, 16. 
Cyanecula — throat blue ; head brown. 19, 20. 
Monticola — head bluish grey ; bill black ; breast chestnut. _ 1 1. 
RiUicilla — throat black ; tail red, with black or brown on its two 

middle feathers. 17, 18. 
LocHstella — no rictal bristles ; axillaries brown ; tail pointed and 

shorter than wing. 43, 44. 
Acrocephalus — bill large, depressed and broad at base ; axillaries 

whitish ; tail short and rather round. 38-42. 
Sylvia — bill obscurely notched, very short and stout, but not broad 

at base ; breast plain or barred ; wings moderate ; first primary 

noticeably under half the length of second ; tail ashy or brown and 

white. 23-28. 
Turdus — bill distinctly notched ; outer and middle toes united .- 

tail rather long. Range over seven inches. 1-6. 

TURNICID^. (Plate xxiv.) 
Turnix — 277. 

Upupid^. (Plate xii.) 

Upupa — slender curved bill ; crested head ; rounded wings. 156. 

V'ULTURID/E. (Plate xiv.' 

"■ ' " " ■ ' 17V. 

J7S. 



'ULTURID/E. (Plate xiv.) 
Gyps — fourth primary longest ; legs bluish. 175 
Neophron — third primary longest ; legs pinkish. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE SPECIES. 



TN this Chapter only such particulars are given as are needful to 
-*- separate between the species. For the distinctions between the 
Genera, &c., reference must be made to the preceding chapters. As 
an aid in identification the species are arranged in order of their 
average size ; their accepted ornithological order will be found in the 
coloured plates. In the notes a few particulars are given as to 
flight, song, and nest. Where not otherwise stated, the plumage 
of the sexes is alike. The dimensions are fully given in the chapter 
devoted to them, and the eggs have also been dealt specially with in 
a similar way. 

AcanthyUis. Plate x. CYPSELID^. 

140. caudacuta, SJ in. Needle-tailed Swift. Head greenisli black ; 

forehead white ; back brown ; wings dark green witli 

a little white on secondaries ; throat, breast, and 

under tail coverts white ; tail shafts ending in spines. 

The Needle-tailed Swift — Dimensions, Ho — is an Asiatic, which has been added to the 

British List on the strength of two specimens only, one shot in 1846 and the other in 1879. 

Nothing is known of its eggs, but it is said to breed in Tibet and thereabouts. As the two 

British victims are the only two ever heard of in Kui'ope, and as the bird is a regular visitor to 

Australia, it is not unlikely that our specimens were brought home as examples of the 

Colonial avifauna to be promptly shot on escape, and so made into British Birds. 

Accentor. Plate iv. ACCENTORINM {?3s.%a\i'^). 

45. modtilaris, si in- Hedge-Sparrow. Throat bluish-grey, shading into 

buff. 

46. collaris, 6J in. Alpine Accentor. Throat white, spotted with 

black. 

The Hedge Sparrow — Dimensions, Br ; Eggs, Da — is with us always, and is distinguishable 
from the House Sparrow by its bluish breast and its slenderer beak, as well as by its generaj 
bearing and behaviour. Its gait is a shufiling hop, which has given it one of its local names — 
the Shufflewing — and its flight is short and direct from point to point without undulation, but 
it rarely crosses a fleld if it can work round it among the hedges. Its note is a cheery sort of 
" cheep," varied by an occasional " treep." The female is rather smaller than the male, and 
more thickly striped about the head and neck. The nest is a fairly neat one, built low down 
in a hedge, or among evergreens, and its materials are rootlets, twigs, green moss, dry grass, 
and wool, lined generally^ with hair, feathers being present occasionally. The pretty blue 
eggs are from four to six in number. 

The Alpine Accentor — Dimensions, El ; Eggs, Fe — is an occasional straggler from Southero 
Europe. ^ Its flight is hasty and undulating, and occasionally soaring, somewhat like a lark's. 
Its note is ** chich-ich-ich," with a call of '* tri-tri-tri." There are from five to six eggs ^n a 
clutch, but the nest has not yet been found in Britain. 

F 2 



76 THE SPECIES. 

Accipiter. Plate xv. FALCONIDM. 

183. nisus, 12 in. Sparrow Hawk. Greyish blue above, with a 

white patch on nape ; buffish below, barred with 

rufous brown ; tail with light and dark brown bars. 

182. atricapillus, 22 in. American Gos Hawk. Ashy brown above ; below 

white, irregularly freckled, or marbled with brown. 

181, palumbarius, 23 in. Gos Hawk. Ashy brown above ; below white 

distinctly barred with brown ; tail brown with four 

dark brown bars. 

The Sparrow Hawk— Dimensions, Kh ; Eggs, Jt— is, with the possible exception of the 

Kestrel, our commonest falcon. Its flight is swift and gliding, not far from the ground, in 

long sweeping undulations ; threading the woods in bold easy curves, and occasionally 

hanging in the air with quivering wings and tail. Its note is a screaming " mew.*' The 

femade is larger than the male, as is the case with all the Falconidse, though the peculiarity 

is not confined to birds of prey. She is greyish brown above and much whiter below than 

the male, though in old age she assumes the male plumage ; and she may, as a rule, be 

distinguished by a reddish patch of downy feathers on the flanks. The iris of the male is 

yellow; hers is orange. The nest is a large one of sticks, lined with rootlets and occasionally 

a little mo«^ and it is placed among rocks, or in the fork of the main trunk ofa tree, or of one 

of the larger boughs. There are from three to six eggs. 

The American Gos Hawk — Dimensions, Qd ; Eggs, Ph — has made three appearances in 
these islands, the first in 1869. Its eggs have not yet been found here. 

The Gos Hawk — Dimensions, Qj ; . Eggs, Pp— is now but a rare visitor. Its flight is long 
and gliding, somewhat low, rarely circling, with the steering action of its tail very apparent. 
Its note is a " kurk kairk kirk,*' with a sharper intonation when alarmed. The female is 
about three inches larger than the male. The nest, on some lofty tree near the skirt of a 
wood, is of sticks, roots, moss, and lichens; it is known by its hardly ever having any green 
leaves in it, and it grows very large by being occupied year after year and added to at each 
occupation. The eggs are generally four in number, but sometimes tljree and sometimes 
five have been found. The Gos Hawk obtains its specific name from the pigeon, and its 
popular name from the goose. The adult may be known by the narrow white line above the 
eye and ear coverts ; the young are buff below, streaked with blackish brown ; the full grown 
birds are white below, barred with ashy brown. 

Acredula. Plate iv. PARINM (Passeridse). 

50. caudata, 5J in. White-Headed Long-Tailed Tit, Crown all 

white. 

51. rosea^ 5I in. British I.ong-Tailed Tit Crown black, with 

a narrow white central patch. 

The White-Headed Long-Tailed Tit — Dimensions, Bo; Eggs, Af — has been occasionally 
met with in our woods in the winter. The female has a dusky lateral stripe in her crown. 
In every other respect this bird resembles 

The British Long-Tailed Tit — Dimensions, En; Eggs, Ac — which is a common resident 
south of the Clyde. Its flight is short and swift, with a very quick movement of the wings, 
flitting jerkily from tree to tree, and around the trees and blackthorn bushes, and then darting 
off in a series of dips, followed in single file by the wife and family. The note can be 
likened to " te-te," or " tse-re-re," or "zit-zit," or " zee-zee-zee." The female is blacker 
than the male, and the young have not so much red about them. The nest is the best buiit 
in Britain. It is generally ten feet or more from the ground, in tall hedges or trees ; it is 
oval in shape, and the materials are moss, lichens, wool, and cobwebs, all beautifully felted 
together with a lining of hair and feathers; it is entered by a hole in the side, which i^ 
generally closed with a feather when the bird is away. The eggs are from 6 to 20 in number, 
and have fewer spots than those of any other of the Parinse. 

Acrocephalus. Plate iii. TURDINM (Passeridse). 

41. aquaticus, 4^ in. Aquatic Warbler. Crown stripes buff anc 

brown, 

42. phragmitls, 4I in. Sedge Warbler. Crown stripes all brown. 

38. strepcrus, $\ in. Reed Warbler. Eyes brown , legs purplish 

brown. 

39. palustris, 5^ in. Marsh Warbler. Eyes hazel ; legs flesh colour. 

40. turdoides, 8 in. Great Reed Warbler. Eyes brown ; legs horn 

colour ; second primary longest in wing. 
The Aquatic Warbler-Dimenbions, Ah; Eggs, Eg— readily recognisable by the bufl 



THE SPECIES. 77 

streak down the middle of the crown, is one of our very occasional spring and summer 
visitors. The female has much the same plumage as the male. The eggs are either four 
or five in number, but the nest Has not yet been found in this country. 

The Sedge Warbler — Dimensions, Ap ; Eggs, Ba — comes amongst us every spring to 
breed, and remains with us till September. Its flight is hardly worthy of the name, for it 
rarely flies, as it contents itself with skulking amongst the rushes and undergrowth. Indeed, 
it is curious how a bird with so poor a flight can cross the English Channel. Its note is a 
vehement " cheep " or a " churr " — as if it had a brogue in it. The female is much duller 
in colour than the male. The nest is never suspended, and it is never found among reeds, 
and rarely among sedges, but it is built close to the ground, or even on the ground, among 
bushes and osiers. It is composed of moss and coarse grass, lined with horsehair, reed tufts, 
and dry grass. The eggs are either five or six in number. 

The Reed Warbler— Dimensions, Bp ; Eggs, Bd — is not only longer but slimmer than the ; 
Sedge Warbler. It also comes about April and leaves in September, and has a skulking sort '-'"' 
of flight, now and then just clearing the reed tops and vanishing into them. Its note is a 
sort of whistle, a kind of "choh-choh " in variations, which is heard at its best long after 
sunset. The female is of a paler brown than the male. The nest is the deep one, builc over 
the water on two or three reed stems, which carry it up with them as they grow. It is 
compactly built of reeds and dry grass, moss, wool, feathers, and horsehair ; and sometimes 
it is attached to willows or alders, but it nearly always hangs over water, and contains four 
or five eggs. 

The Marsh Warbler — Dimensions, Bq ; Eggs, Ca — is a somewhat rare visitor reported 
every summer, chiefly from the West of England. Its flight is a trifle bolder than that of 
the Reed Warbler, but it is marked with the same eagerness to get out of sight as soon as 
possible, Occasionally it can be seen singing on the top of a low willow. It sings by night 
as well as by day, and its note, syllabised by an admirer as "chiddy, chiddy, chiddy, chit, 
chit, cha, cha, cha, chit, chit," is said to be ''varied and melodious, like a nightingale's, but 
not so loud." The female is of a very retiring disposition. The nest is never over water, but 
generally, though not always, near it. As a rule it is found among osier beds, and is built of 
leaves, round grass, and moss, felted with cobweb and seed down, and lined with horsehair. 
It is quite as deep as that of the Reed Warbler, and contains five, six, or seven eggs. 

The Great Reed Warbler — Dimensions, Gn ; Eggs, Ep — is more often talked about than 
■seen. He is a very rare summer visitor, and his flight is of the timid, skulking kind, 
avoiding observation as much as possible, though his occasional captures of insects on the 
wing show what he could do if he tried. His note is loud and unmusical; a series of 
monotonous variations on "karry-charry-karry," with a croak as an alarm. The female is 
about half an inch shorter than the male. The nest is suspended from two or three reeds, 
but is never over water though often over mud. It is a deep cup made of reeds, leaves, 
and flowering scapes, and contains from four to six eggs ; but it is very rarely met with. 

Aedon. Plate iii. TURDINM (Passerids). 

37. galaciodes, 6| in. Rufous Warbler. Chestnut above ; wliitish 

below ; white eye stripe ; two central tail feathers 

tipped with black, others tipped with white. -ji <j^ 

The Rufous Warbler — Dimensions, Ep ; Eggs, Er — is a rare accidental straggler which 

has been found here some three times since 1854. It is well-known round the Mediterranean, 

and gets as far south as Abyssinia. Its flight in this country is not on record, owing, 

probably, to its being cut short by the sportsman in his eagerness to make the bird British. 

The female is paler than the male. 

^gialitis. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDM. 

298. curo?iicus, 6 in. Little Ringed Plover. Broad black ring on 

white chest ; white on first primary of wing ; 
scapulars same colour as back ; outer tail feathers 
a quarter of an inch shorter than middle ones ; legs 
yellow. 

299. cantiatiuSf 6\ in. Kentish Plover, White nape joining white 

throat , black ring on chest not meeting in front ; 
legs black. 
297, hiaticula. 7 in. Ringed Plover. Broad black ring on white 
chest ; white bar across wing ; white below ; legs 
orange. 

300. vociferus, 10 in. Killdeer .Plover. Two narrow black rings on 

chest; lowei back and rump chestnut buff ; legs 
grey. 
The Little Ringed Plover— Dimensions, Ds; Eggs Hd— has been recorded about half 



7^ THE SPECIES. 

a dozen times as an unexpected straggler from the north. As in many other cases it is only 
a British bird by courtesy. 

The Kentitsh Plover— Dimensions, Eo ; Eg:gs, He— has an undoubted claim to be con- 
sidered British, inasmuch as it was first described from a specimen taken at Sandwich, and 
is found every summer all along the Kent and Sussex coasts. Its flight is rather slow, 
notwithstanding the quick beating of its wings, and it starts and alights with a run of a few 
yards, with its wings expanded. Its note is a sort of " pittwee " or *' ptwee." The female 
IS recogrtisable by her being brown where the male is black, the absence of black being 
especially noticeable on the fore-crown. The nest is a mere hollow in the shingle ; the eggs 
are four m number, though occasionally only three have been found. 

The Ringed Plover— Dimensions, Fn ; Eggs, Ir— is with us all the year round. Its flight 
is low or high, made up of quick flappings and long glides, straight for a time, then wheeling, 
and rolling leisurely from side to side so as to show first the back and then the underparts. 
The note is a whistle, with "penny-yet" as an alarm. The female has a much less 
conspicuous collar. The nest is a mere hollow in the sand or shingle. The eggs are four m 
number and very pointed in shape. 

The Killdeer Plover— Dimensions, Iq ; Eggs, Iq— is so called from its call of "killdeer.'' 
It is an American species, of which two examples have been shot in these islands, and none 
on the Continent of Europe. The female has much the same plumage as the male. 

Agelaeus. Plate ix. ICTERIN^ (Passeridag). 

119. phceniceus, 9 in. Red-winged Starling. Glossy black ; lesser 

wing coverts red ; legs and bill glossy brownish 

black ; tail rounded, but with two rather short 

middle feathers. 

The Red-winged Starling— Dimensions, la; Eggs, Fh— is another rare visitor fromacross 

the Atlantic, probably shot on escape from confinement. The note, as pronounced with the 

American twang, is " kork-ker-ree." The female is unknown in this country. The nest is 

of the hanging purse-shape, characteristic of all the Icterinae. 

Alauda. Plate x. ALAUDINM (Passeridae). 

135. brachydactyla, <,\ in. Short - TOED Lark. Crown fawn ; bill flesh 

colour ; brown above, unspotted below. 

133. arhorea, 6 in. WOOD Lark. Broad white eye stripe ; throat and 

breast more streaked than spotted ; tail short, outer 
feathers brown. 

134. cristata, 7 in. Crested Lark. Crest pointed ; outer tail feathers 

half buff. 
132. arvensis. 7J in. Sky Lark. Faint yellowish eye stripe ; throat 
and breast more spotted than streaked ; outer tail 
feathers mostly white. 

136. sibiriccLy 7^ in. White-winged Lark. Secondaries white. 

The Short-tailed Lark— Dimensions, CI ; E^gs, Dt — is a rare visitor to the South of 
England. Its flight is a jerky, undulating one ; its song is of the feeblest, and like its flight 
is generally cut short by some enthusiastic gunAer. There is only one record of one of these 
birds being taken alive in this country, and that was at Amberley, in Sussex, in 1888. It 
has never been known to breed here. 

The Wood Lark — Dimensions, Dq ; Eggs, Ed — is one of our resident birds, and migrates 
about the country. Its flight is not so high as that of the Sky Lark, and it soars in more of a 
circle. Sometimes it sings on the ground, sometimes on a tree, and often its melodious 
" lu-lu " will be heard far into the night. The female is much the same in plumage as the 
male, and like him, is of a deeper richer brown in the winter. The nest is rather a compact 
one, of coarse grass outside and finer grass within, mixed with moss and lined with hair ; and 
it is generally placed on the ground under a tuft of grass or low bush. The eggs are either 
four or five in number. 

The Crested Lark — Dimensions, Fi; Eggs, Fg— is a rare visitor to our south coast. Its 
flight is like that of the Wood Lark, and its note is a melodious *' coo-hai." The female is 
not so large as the male and somewhat darker. The nest has not been found in Britain. 

The Sky Lark — Dimensions, Ft ; Eggs, Es — is resident amongst us though reinforced in the 
autumn by visitors from the Continent. Its flight is fluttering and gliding, rising in long 
slopes, almost vertical at times, and soaring as the song is trilled forth. Sometimes the 
lark will sing from a tree top, sometimes from a telegraph wire. The song has beeu syllabised 
as " cherry do, cherry do, pretty joey, pretty joey, pretty joey, white hat, white hat, pretty 
joey," and one ornithologist^ of Scottish parentage, has likened it to a bagpipe heard at a 
distance — of course a considerable distance. Another Scotsman gives it as, " Up in the 
lift go we, te-hce, te-heei t6>hee, te-hee 1 There's no' a cobbler on the airth can mak' a 



THE SPECIES. 79 

shoe to me, to me I Why so ? Why so ? Why so ? Because my heel is as long as my toe."' 
The female resembles the male in plumage. The nest is always on the ground, and is 
composed of grass or herbaceous plants with a little moss, lined with dry grass, rootlets, and 
hair. The eggs are from three to five in number. It is perhaps worth noting that the 
larks, unlike the pipits, never bathe in water, but dust themselves clean. 

The White-winged Lark — Dimensions, Gj ; Eggs, Fd — made one appearance in this 
country and was promptly bagged as British. Curiously enough, this solitary specimen, 
caught near Lewes, in 1869, was a female. Its nest has to be sought for in Siberia and 
Turkestan. 

Alca. Plate xxxii. ALCIDM. 

2,73. tarda, 17 in. Razorbill. Black above, white below ; thin white 

line from bill to eye ; 12 tail feathers. 

374, impennls, 32 in. Great Auk. Black above, white below ; broad 
white patch between bill and eye ; 18 tail feathers. 

The Razorbill — Dimensions, Nn ; Eggs, Rd— can be found in our estuaries all the year 
round, but it comes ashore in its thousands in the beginning of April. Its flight is rapid and 
direct, with a considerable roll so as to display its breast and back alternately ; and when the 
birds are in any number they always fljr in single file. Afloat it can be distinguished from 
the Guillemot by its upturned tail. In winter it loses its green gloss, and its chin and throat 
become white. Its note is a grunting croak, which some have syllabised as " hurray." 
The female lays but one egg, and this in a crevice or on an overhung ledge, without any 
attempt at building a nest. In incubation she takes watch and watch with the male, neither 
of them couching across the egg, but along it. The Razorbill egg is greenish when held to 
the light, while that of the Guillemot is yellowish white. 

The Great Auk — Dimensions, Sk ; Eggs, Ss — is said to be extinct, and is only included 
here by request, in the hope that some day it may, in Miltonic phrase, return from visiting 
" the bottom of the monstrous world." Like the Razorbill, it built no nest and laid a 
solitary egg. 

Alcedo. Plate xi. ALCEDINIDM, 

151. ispida, 7 in. Kingfisher. Head black and blue ; back blue ; 

white spot on neck ; chin white ; breast chestnut ; 

legs red. 
The Kingfisher — Dimensions, Et ; Eggs, Dq — is one of the gayest in plumage of our 
resident birds. Its flight is straight and unwavering, like a flash of blue flame, but 
occasionally it pauses and hovers in the shade, though it never does so in the sunshine. Its 
note is a shrill "pip, pip, pip." The female has the beak orange on the lower base, and is 
not so bright in colour generally. The nest is in a slimy hole in a bank near water, and is 
composed of ejected fish bones. The eggs are from six to nine in number, and are of a deep 
pink colour until the yolk is blown out of them. They are nearly round in shape. 

Ampelis. Plate vi. AMPBLIN^ (Passeridse). 

77. garrulus, 7^ in. Waxwing. Brown and chestnut above ; throat 

black ; secondaries tipped with scarlet ; tail tipped 

with scarlet or yellow. 

The Waxwing — Dimensions, Gh : Eggs, Fl — only finds its way to this country in 

exceptionally cold continental winters. Its eggs were first discovered by Wolley, in 1856, in 

Russian Lapland. The females have fewer wax tips than the male, particularly as they gSt 

older, when the male often has wax tips to his tail as well as his wings. 

Anas. Plate xxi. ANATIDJE. 

236. strepera, 20 in. Gadwall. Wing bar white. 

235. boscas, 24 in. Mallard. Wing bar purple ; tail of 14 feathers. 

The Gadwall — Dimensions, Ph ; Eggs, Oc — is resident in the eastern counties of England, 
but the numbers are occasionally swollen by winter migrants. The flight is very strong, the 
wings whistling as they flap. The note is a shrill "quack" — whence the specific name — 
but occasionally a double quack ** is given. The female has very little chestnut on the 
shoulder of the wing, and is brown in colour, but like the male is distinguishable from the 
other ducks by the white wing bar or "speculum." In summer the male assumes the 
female plumage, but the bill is always black with blue at the base, while the female's bill is 
dusky with dull orange at the sides. The nest is placed on the ground under the shelter of 
a bush, and not far from water, but in a dry place. It is formed of dry grass, leaves, and 
rushes, and lined with smaller down than that of the Mallard. The eggs are from 8 to 13 
in number, and of a greenish hue when fresh. 



y 



80 THE SPECIES. 

The Mallard— Dimensions, Qp ; Eggs, Pb— is the common Wild Duck, fiom which our 
domesticated ducks are derived. As with them the drake can be distinguished by the curl 
of the upper tail coverts. The flight is straight and swift, and the wings work rapidly in 
long full strokes, without any intermission. The duck always rises first, the drake follows. 
The note of the male is " quork," that of the female is *' quark," and the female invariably 
makes the most noise. The female has a dark grey bill with a black nail j the male s bill is 
greenish yellow. In summer the male assumes the female plumage. The nest is o" 1"^ 
ground^ and generally— but not always— near water, and sometimes the Mallard will take 
possession of an old crow's nest. The nest is always lined with down from the female 5 
breast, neutral grey in colour, with small white tips. When specially built it is composed of 
dead grass, reeds, and leaves. The eggs are from 8 to 16 in number, and have smooth 
shells. The female is generally smaller than the male, and sometimes she lias been found to 
assume the male plumage. In fact our No. 235 is a confusing sort of bird from all pomts of 
attack. To avoid calling a drake a duck, its name of Wild Duck was discountenanced in 
favour of Mallard, which simply means Drake. 

AnouB. Plate xxx. LARIDM. 

353. siolidus, 14 in. Noddy. Crown grey ; throat greyish ; the rest 

dark sooty brown ; bill black ; fourth tail feather 

from outside longest ; feet brown with yellowish 

webs. 

The Noddy— Dimensions, Mb; Eggs, Np— is a tropical species, which in 1830 sent two 

representatives to be shot off the coast of Wexford. It had never been seen in Europe 

before nor has it been seen since. Its eggs are worth noting as being the only tern's eggs 

laid in a nest. 

Anaer. Plate xix. ANA TID^. 

221. erythropus, 20 in. Lesser White-fronted Goose. Forehead 

white ; bill pink, with horn coloured nail ; legs 

orange. 
220. albifrons, 28 in. ■ White-fronted Goose. Forehead white ; bill 

yellow, with white nail ; black bars on lower 

breast ; legs yellow. 
z\^.hrachyrhynchus,-2<^\Vk. Pink-FOOTED Goose. Bill pink with black nail; 

legs pink. 

217. cinereus, 30 in. Grey Lag Goose. Bill pink with white nail; 

black bars on lower breast ; legs flesh colour. 
22;?, hyperboreus, 30 in. Snow Goose. White ; wings black and white ; 
bill and legs red. 

218. segeium, 34 in. Bean Goose. Bill orange, with black nail ; legs 

yellow. 

The Lesser White-fronted Goose— Dimensions, Pk ; Eggs, Rm— i^ a very rare winter 
visitor from Scandinavia. The female is more rutescent in colour and smaller than the male. 

The White-fronted Goose — Dimensions, Sc ; Eggs, Rk — visits us every winter, but does 
not breed here. It has large spots of black on the breast and below. The female is smaller 
than the male and has much less black on the breast. 

*rhe Pink-footed Goose— Dimensions, Se ; Eggs, Sc — is another winter visitor, but much 
rarer. 

The Grey Lag Goose — Dimensions, Sh ; Eggs, Sr — was once resident amongst us in 
considerable numbers, but it is now best known as a regular visitor. Its flight is high, heavy, 
and sedate ; in the breeding season it flies in pairs, the goose being in front ; on mfgration 
it flies in families in a V formation, and the families often join company so as to make up a 
series of W's. The note is "gag, gag," or "kak-kak," or "gaggle. The female is a 
seventh shorter than the male. The nest is generally among the heather, or on a crag, or 
lome lonely moor, and consists of a few sticks with a pile of reeds, grass, and sedge nearly 
a yard across, and lined with down as soon as the eggs are laid. The eggs number from six 
to fourteen. According to the older etymologists this bird derives its name from the grey 
wings which are so conspicuous in its flight. 

The Snow Goose— Dimensions, SI ; Eggs, Sd— is a straggler from North America, 
first shot in Ireland in 1871. 

The Bean Goose— Dimensions, Sqj Eggs, Sf— is one of our usual winter visitors. It has 
no black on the breast. It rises heavily, striking the water with its wings to begin with, and 
flies in lines either straight, angular, or wavy. Its note is a trumpet-like "clank," The 
female is rather smaller than the male. 



THE SPECIES. 8l 

Anthus. Plate V. MOTACILLINyE (Passeridse). 

66. praiensis, 5f in. Meadow Pipit. Plumage whitish ; throat and 

chest spotted with blackish brown. 

67. trivialis, 6 in. Tree Pipit. Plumage yellowish ; hind claw 

shorter than toe and much curved. 
71. obscurus, 6\ in. RocK Pipit. Hind claw same length as toe and 

curved ; tail feathers entirely dark brown. 
70, spipoletta, 6^ in. Water Pipit. Throat and chest unspotted. 

68. campestris, 7 in. TAWNY PiPiT. Hind claw same length as toe and 

curved ; tail feathers edged with light brown. 

69. richardi, 7^ in. Richard's Pipit. Hind claw not less than an 

inch in length. 

The Meadow Pipit — Dimensions, Da; Eggs, Dm— is one of our residents whose numbers 
are increased by migration in spring and thinned by departures for the Continent in the 
autumn. It is quite as well known as the Titlark — indeed all the Pipits are known as 
Titlarks — and like all the rest of the genus, and all the Larks and Wagtails, it runs when on 
the ground and does not hop. One of its distinctive marks is its nearly straight hind claw, 
which is longer than the hind toe. Like all the Pipits it varies very much in size, but its 
proportions are fairly constant. Its characteristic odour is stronger than that of any other 
ground bird. Its flight is at times swift and undulating, but generally wavering, as it sings 
on the wing, fluttering up for a short distance, and then slowly descending with expanded 
wings and tail. Its note is a feeble warbling " cheep-teep," with a sharper alarm or call of 
" whit." The female is not so spotted as the male, and in the winter resembles him in 
being greener above and buffer below. The nest is always on the ground and generally on 
a bank under a tuft of grass ; it is made of moss, dry grass, and seed stalks, lined with fine 
grass and hair. The eggs are from four to six in number. 

The Tree Pipit — Dimensions, Dk ; Eggs, Eb — is a summer migrant, arriving early in 
April and leaving us in October. Like all its namesakes, it has the bill of a wafitail, and the 
long hind claw of a lark. Its fh^ht is of the same character as that of the Meadow Pipit. 
It mounts nearly straight up and hovers over a tree, trilling out its canary-like song ; and then, 
with its legs hanging and its wings almost meeting over its back, it drops in a spiral to the 
bush from which it rose, and from which, in a few moments, it rises to sing again. Its note 
is " twee, twee, twee, twee," — longer than the Meadow Pipit's — and it has also a call of 
'* tick-tick," and another of " tsee-a, tsee-a, tsee-a." The female is not so large as the male, 
and is not so spotted on the breast. The nest is placed on the ground, generally on a bank, 
and sometimes in a hole; and it is made of dry grass, rootlets, moss, wool, and horsehair. 
The eggs, of which there are from four to six in the nest, are more variable than those of 
any other British bird, except, perhaps, the Cuckoo and the Guillemot. 

The Rock Pipit— Dimensions, Ee ; Eggs, EF~frequents our coasts all the year round, and 
breeds annually north of the Humber. It has no white in its tail, its axillaries are smoky 
brown, and its hind claw is very much curved. It is the highest flyer among the Pipits, 
rising 30 ft. or more in a wavering desultory way, singing as it flutters aloft, and slowly 
circles to the ground again. Its note is a shrill "cheep.' The female has no rosy tinge on 
the brea-st. The nest is generally near the sea, under a stone or in a hole ; it is made of 
grass, seaweed, and moss, and lined, as a rule, with horsehair ; and it contains from four to 
five eggs. 

The Water Pipit— Dimensions, Ek ; Eggs, Ee— is a very occasional straggler into the 
south of England. Its flight is " Pipit-like," and the note is reported to be " ting-ting-ting " 
on the rise, and " si, si, si, si '* on the fall, 

The Tawny Pipit— Dimensions, Ef; Eggs, En— is another rare stragglernever known to 
breed here. 

Richard's Pipit— Dimensions, Gc ; Eggs, Eh— often straggles over here in the autumn 
from its home in Turkestan, but it never stays the winter with us. 

Aquila. Plate xv. FALCONID^. 

178. clanga, 26 in. SPOTTED Eagle. Wings brown, spotted with 

greyish white ; tail brown. 

179, chrysa'elus. 36 in. GOLDEN EAGLE. Wings brown, shaded with 

black ; tail mottled. 

The Spotted Eagle— Dimensions, Rq ; Eggs, Qh— is a very rare straggler to these islands, 
and only about half a dozen specimens are on record, and there is some doubt as to whether 
these are of larger or smaller species. If they are of the smaller kind it would seem that 
they should be ncevia and not clanga. 

The Golden Eagle— Dimensions, Te ; Eggs, Rt— is undoubtedly a British bird, although 



82 THE SPECIES. 

it is not shot quite as often as is reported in the newspapers. Most of the Golden Eagles 
shot in England b^ gamekeepers are Sea Eagles, from which the Golden bird is at once 
distinguishable by its having the tarsus feathered right down to the toes. The Golden 
Eagle rarely hovers ; he flies with a few powerful strokes, and then glides along with no 
apparent motion of the wings, his neck and feet drawn in so as to make his lengj:h seem much 
shorter than it really is, in proportion to the wing-spread. The note is a " yelp ' and a 
" squeal." The female is rather larger than the male, and the young have their tails_ white 
at the base. The nest is a flat mass of sticks, often five feet across, placed on some precipitous 
cliff, or in a tree, or even on the ground, and it is roughly lined with moss and heather, or 
grass and fern. The eggs are generally two in number, but cases are on record in which 
three and four have been found, and sometimes there is only one. 

ArcMtouteo. Plate xiv. FALCONIDjE. 

177. lagopus, 26 in. Rough-legged Buzzard. Crown and neck white. 

with brown patches ; plumage generally brown 

above, white below ; tail white, barred with brown ; 

thighs barred with brown ; 24 remiges, fourth 

primary longest, first four primaries notched. 

. The Rough-legged Buzzard— Dimensions, Rr ; Eggs, Os— once a resident, seems to be 

\/ now only a visitor. On the wing it is distinguishable from the ordinary Buzzard by the 

white on the tail. It is rarely seen to glide, but leisurely strokes along as if intent on a very 

(ong journey. Its note is a squealing " mew." The female is larger than the male, and like 

him varies considerably in size. The nest is generally placed on a clifl" or on a tree, and 

consists of a large flat mass of sticks lined with grass ; the eggs being from two to five in 

number. 

ARDEIDM. 

Squacco Heron. Head buff; crown black and 
white. 

Buff-backed Heron. Head buff ; crown buft. 
Little Egret. All white ; bill black. 
Purple Heron. Crown black ; crest black. 
Heron. Crown white ; crest black. 
Great White Heron. All white ; bill yellow. 
The Squacco Heron — Dimensions, Oh ; Eggs, Jo — is one of our occasional straggler.s, 
apparently arriving in the spring and summer and, once at least, staying here till November. 
The Buff-backed Heron— Dimensions, Pe ; Eggs, Lm — appeared in Devonshire in 1805, 
and was promptly shot and sent to the British Museum where it now is. Two other 
appearances are recorded and that is all. 

The Little Egret — Dimensions, Qb ; Eggs, Le — occasionally straggles here from the Lower 
Danube, and a specimen was shot on the £xe, in 1870. 

The Purple Heron— Dimensions, Sn; Eggs, On — is more frequently met with in this 
country than the three last species, but it is still very rare. 

The Heron — Dimensions, Tb ; Eggs, Pt — is the only species of Ardea breeding in this 
country. Its flight is a slow, steady flap, with the wings much arched, the legs held out, 
the neck doubled back, and the beak out straight like a bowsprit. Its cry is a croaky sort 
of "kronk." The female is duller in plumage, and has a smaller crest and shorter pUinies. 
The nest is a flat one, built of twigs, turf, moss, roots, and wool, and is generally placed in 
tall trees- The eggs are from three to five in number. 

The Great White Heron — Dimensions, Th , Eggs, Qu— has straggled over here about 
eight times, probably on a voyage from the Crimea. The bird, which has been found as far 
east as Japan and as far south as the Transvaal, has a black bill when in summer plumage. 

Ardetta. Plate xvii. ARDEIDM. 

208. minuta, 13 in. Little Bittern. Crown and back black ; four 

powder-down tracts ; primaries and tail brownish 
black ; legs greenish yellow. 

The Little Bittern— Dimensions, Km ; Eggs, Ig — has put In one or two appearances in 
nearly every county in England at all seasons of the year, and is even said to -have bred here. 
Its flight is low, but very quick and strong, and its note is a peculiar " wof-wof." The female 
has no green gloss in the crown, which is brownish, and the primaries are dark brown instead 
of black. The nest is generally hung to reeds, a little above the water, or built in pollards, 
and it is composed of flags and grass, and holds from five to nine eggs. This bird has been 
known to breed in a Magpie's nest. 



Ardea. 


Plate xvii. 


Ai 


207. 


ralloldes, 


18 in. 


206. 


bubulcus, 


20 in. 


205. 


garzetta. 


22 in. 


203. 


purpurea. 


33 in- 


202. 


cinerea, 


36 in. 


204. 


alba, 


42 in. 



THE SPECIES. 83 

Asio. Plate xiii. STRIGIDM. 

162. oius^ 14 in. Long-eared Owl. Plumicorns nearly upright, 

and exceeding an inch. 

163. accipitfinus^ 15 in. Short-eared Owl. Plumicorns nearly upright, 

but not exceeding half an inch. 

The Long-eared Owl — Dimensions, Mf ; Eggs, Kp — is generally found in fir woods. It is 
orange buff in colour, with a good many blackish bars and streaks. Its flight is buoyant and 
silent, like that of all the Owls, but very undecided, and the bird is hardly ever seen out in broad 
daylight. The note is a mew and a bark, not a hoot, and the bark is often given when on the 
wing. The female is rather redder than the male, and she is a little larger. She never builds 
her own nest, but adds a few sticks to a crow's or a wood-pigeon's, or something of the sort, 
and lines the cavity with rabbits' fur. The eggs are from four to seven in number, and are 
without any gloss. 

The Short-eared Owl — Dimensions, Mq : Eggs. Jp — is a. bird of very different habits. 
It haunts the open moor, and comes abroad in the daytime. Its flight is soft and silent, but 
not unlike the Gull's. Its numbers are increased by migrants in the winter, who come with 
the^ Woodcock, and, from being about during the daytime, it is the most frequently 
noticedOwl we have, though not, perhaps, the commonest. Its note is a scream. The 
female is larger, but much the same as the male ; but the young are darker in plumage, and 
very pale in the eye. ^ The nest is a hollow in the ground, among the reeds or heather, and 
consists of a few sprigs or broken leaves ; lihe eggs are smooth, and vary from four to 
seven in number. It may be worth noting that the ear opening on the right of this bird is 
directed upwards, while that on the left is directed downwards. 

Athene. Plate xiii. STRIGJDM, 

170. noctua, 8 in. Little Owl. Greyish brown above ; whitish 

with brown streaks below ; tail barred with white ; 

toes covered with bristles instead of feathers. 

The Little Owl — Dimensions, Hd ; Eggs, Jb — is known to have been frequently imported 

and turned loose here, but has never been proved to come here of its own free will. Its first 

primary is eq^ual to its sixth, its second to its fifth, and its third is the longest, and, like most 

of the Owls, It perches with two toes in front and two behind. It is generally about in the 

daytime; its cry is " cuckoo, vah-ee " ; and its nest is a mere scratching of rubbish low down 

near the ground. 

Bartramia. Plate xxviii. SCOLOPA CID^, 

326. longicavda^ 12 in. Bartram's Sandpiper. Head and breast rufous 

with angular spots ; chin white ; lower breast white 

and spotted ; under-surface of wings barred black 

and white ; remiges 26 ; tail long and wedge-shaped. 

Bartram's Sandpiper — Dimensions, Kf; Eggs, Ln — is an American very occasionally met 

with on this side of the Atlantic. Its axillaries are white, barred with brown, and its tail 

feathers are barred with black. It has a habit of flying in large circles, and its call is a soft 

whistle. The female is always bigger tha.n the male. 

Bernicla. Plate xix, ANA TIDM, 

226. ruficollis, 22 in. Red-breasted Goose. Head black ; white patch 
in front of eye. 

223. brenta, 23 in. Brent Goose. Head black ; white patch on each 

side of neck. 

224. Icucopsist 25 in. BARNACLE Goose. Head white ; crown and 

nape black ; black stripe from eye to bill. 

225. canadensis^ 41 in. Canada Goose. Head black ; white patch under 

chin. 

I'he Red-breasted Goose — Dimensions, Qf ; Eggs, Qx — has appeared on the east coast 
about half a dozen times during the last hundred years. It is a handsome bird with chestnut 
throat and breast. Its home is in Siberia, where it is known as the Shakvoy, from its call. 
The female is much the same as the male, but rather smaller. 

The Brent Goose — Dimensions, Qi ; Eggs, Rb — is one of our regular winter visitors, but is 
seldom found inland. It never dives. Its call has been variously rendered as "rot," 
'* cronk," and " torock." It breeds within the Arctic Circle. 

The Barnacle Goose — Dimensions, Rh ; Eggs, Rl— is another winter visitor, much rarei 
on the east coast than on the west. Like the Brent, it breeds somewhere in the far north. 



84 THE SPECIES. 

The female, as with all the other Geese, is not so large as the male. The note has been 
rendered as " halm, halm," or '* a-what." The popular name is due to the popular notion 
that it is bred not from eggs but from barnacles. 

The Canada Goose — Dimensions, Tg ; Eggs, Sj — is almost as big as a Swan. It has often 
been imported but has never been proved to find its way across the Atlantic on the wing, and 
it owes Its place in the list to the fact of its having been shot when escpped from confinement. 

Botaurus. Plate xvii. ARDEIDM, 

211. lentiginosus, 27 in. American BITTERN. Crown black ; primaries all 

brown. 
210. stellaris, 30 in. Bittern. Crown brown ; primaries chestnut 
barred with brown. 
The American Bittern — Dimensions, Sa ; Eggs, Nf — has occasionally straggled here 
during the winter, but has not yet got as far as the Continent. It can be distinguished from 
the Common Bittern by its primaries having no bars. Its call is "like the noise made by 
driving a stake in boggy soil," whence its local name of the Post-driver. 

The Bittern— Dimensions, Sg ; Eggs, Ne — does not often breed here now. Its flight is 
low, slow, steady, and silent. Its note is a deep "boom," a sort of bellowing *' proomb," 
with a sharper call of ** ca-wak." The female is like the male in size and plumage. 
The nest is generally placed on the mud in the thick of a reed bed, and it is composed of 
dead reeds and flags, with no sign of interlacement or regular arrangement. It contains 
three, four, or five eggs. 

Bubo. Plate xiii. STRIGIDM. 

169. ignavus, a6 in. EAGLE OwL. Facial disk obsolete over eyes; 

plumicorns large and falling , no opercuhim ; 

plumage dark brown above, yellowish below, 

m-ottled and patched ; bill black ; 29 remiges, 

third primary generally longest, but rarely much 

longer than fourth ; claws black. 

The Eagle Owl— Dimensions, Rp ; Eggs. Qc — is a very doubtful resident in this country, 

except in confinement. Its cry is a deep "oo-hoo," which is rarely heard except in the 

spring. The female is about two inches longer than the male, and never makes a nest, 

Bulweria. Plate xxxiii. PROCELLARIIDM, 

395. columbina, 10 in. BuLWER's Petrel. Plumage black ; tail wedge- 
shaped. 
A Bulwer's Petrel— Dimensions, Is; Eggs, Kj — was found floating dead on the Ure in 
that year of Accession, 1837. Its home is on the Desertas, near Madeira; the species had 
never been seen in this country before nor has it been seen here since. The case is worth 
noting as showing that is not even necessary for a bird to be seen here alive to secure its 
admission to the British list. 

Buteo. Plate xiv. FALCONIDM, 

176. vulgaris, 23 in. BUZZARD. Remiges 25; fourth primary longest, 

third almost as long, first as long as the eighth, and 

second longer than the sixth, first four notched ; 

tail whitish brown with ten or more dark brown 

bars ; legs yellow ; claws black. 

. The Buzzard— Dimensions, QI ; Eggs, Of— is still resident in this country," but is not 

■' often met with. The plumage is very variable, being sometimes nearly white, but the size 

and tail and short legs are enough to know him by. His flight is low, heavy, and leisurely, 

with a spiral rise. His note is like a long-drawn scale of vowels, "a-e-i-o-u." The female 

is like the male, but larger. The nest ison some tall tree in the thick of a wood ; it is about 

two feet across^ built of large sticks outside, twigs within, and lined with fresh beech leaves. 

The eggs are either two, three, or four. 

Calcarius. Plate viii. BMBERIZINM (Passerid^). 

117. lapponlcus, 6\\n. LAPLAND Bunting. Black head; white eye 

stripe ; chestnut collar ; black and brown spotted 

back; spotted wings ; tail brown and white ; throat 

black ; under parts white, joined by thin white line 

to eye stripe. 

The Lapland Bunting— Dimensions, Ed ; Eggs, Dp — is occasionally met with in the 

autumn among a flock of larks. It was first found here, in Leadenhall Market, in 1826. The 

female has a brown head instead of a black one. 



THE SPECIES. 85 

Calidrls. Plate xxviii. SCOLOPACIDM. 

324. arenaria, 8 in. Sanderltng. Under parts white, e.\'cept the 

breast, which, hke the head and neck, is of pale 
chestnut spotted with dark brown. 

The Sanderling — Dimensions, Gr ; Eggs, Im — visits us twice a year, in spring and autumn, 
on its way to and from its breeding haunts in the far north. In the spring its upper parts 
are rufous and black ; in the autumn they are grey. The young are buffish white above and 
below. 

Caprimulgus. Plate x. CAPRIMULGIDM. 

141, europ<sus, 10 in. NiGHTjAE. Ashy grey, pencilled and spotted; 

small whitish spots on wings and tail. 

H3- agypiius, 11 in. Egyptian Nightjar. No whitish spots on upper 
surface of wings or tail. 

142. riificollis, 13 in. Red-necked Nightjar. Rufous collar ; large 

whitish spots on wings and tail. 

The Nightjar— Dimensions, It ; Eggs, Ht — arrives here in the middle of May and leaves 
us in September ; but being a bird of the night he is more often heard than seen. He is the 
latest of our summer migrants, and the only night bird among them. His three first primaries 
have a white spot near the end, and his two outer tail feathers have broad white tips. His 
palate is faintly transparent; and he has the curious pectinate middle claw, which, according 
to some people, he uses to hold on by as he sits sideways on a branch, and according to others 
uses as a small -tooth-comb for the special discomfort of the species of Nirmus with which he 
is infested. He begins to sing exactly at sundown, the note being a "churrrrr," and an 
occasional *' wh-ip, wh-ip," which may, or may not, be due to the rapid movement of his 
wings. His flight is soft and gliding, with his tail well out, so as to show off its white spotb. 
He feeds entirely upon insects ; he does not suck goats ; he is not a Hawk ; neither is he an 
Owl; but he generally falls a prey to some owl of a gamekeeper. The female has the spots on 
the wing and tail pale buff. She makes no nest, but lays her eggs on the ground under a 
fern or furze bubh. The eggs are two in number, and have both ends equally rounded. 

An Egyptian Nightjar — Dimensions, Jn ; Eggs, Ht — was shot by the usual gamekeeper, 
in 1883, in Nottinghamshire, and so made into a British bird. That is the only appearance 
of the species in these islands. 

A Red-necked Nightjar— Dimensions, Kt ; Eggs, Ht — was shot at Killingworth, of 
railway fame, in 1856 ; the species had never been recognised here before, nor has it been 
heard of here since, 

Carduelis. Plate vii. FRINGILLINM (PasseridEe). 

88. spinus, 4^ in. Siskin. Blackish forehead ; plumage yellowish 

green above ; chin black ; throat and cheeks 
yellow ; sides of neck yellowish. 

87 elegans, 5 in. Goldfinch. Scarlet forehead ; plumage ruddy , 

brown above ; upper throat and cheeks scarlet, the ( 
scarlet mask with a broad black edging; wings s 
black, barred with yellow and tipped with white ; ' 
tail black, tipped with white. 

The Siskin — Dimensions, An ; Eggs, Ap— occasionally breeds here ; it visits us in late and 
early winter, on its way to and from its northerly haunts within the limit of the pine forests, 
and it is imported, in cages, in large numbers, from Germany'. Its tail is blackish, though all 
but the two middle feathers have yellow bases ; its lower breast shades into white. Its flight 
is undulating and irregular, and its note is "tit-tit-tit-tit," with a sharp call not unlike its 
name. The female has a whitish throat, and no black on the head and chm, which are 
marked with brown, and she is not so large as the male The nest is generally in a fir tree, 
in a fork, about 20 feet from the ground, and it is made from grass-stalks, heather twigs, and 
pine needles, lined with rootlets, moss, and rabbits* fur — a very similar nest to that of the 
greenfiinch ; it contains from four to six eggs. 

The Goldfinch — Dimensions, Bf ; Eggs, Ar — is a resident, partially migrating about the 
country, and reinforced by migrants from the Continent, but yearly becoming rarer, owing 
to the efl'orts of the bird-catcher. He is the " Thistlefinch," and is not often found where 
thistles are not close handy. His red mask distinguishes him from every other British bird. 
His flight is light and buoyant, but somewhat drooping and jerky, with a good deal of 
wheeling up and down as he travels. His song is loud, sweet, and canary-like and his call 
\>i a sharp glit." The female has a slenderer bill, no yellow on the breast, less red on the 



S6 THE SPECIES. 

forehead and upper throat, and is much duller in plumage altogether. The nest !s generally 
in a garden or orchard, or among evergreens ; it is even neater than the Chaffinch s, and 
smaller, and it has no lichens, but consists of rootlets, grass, moss, and wool, woven together 
and lined with willow down ; there are either four or five eggs. 

Certhia. Plate vi. CERTHIINM (Passeridae). 

85, familiaris, 5^ in. TREE Creeper. Spotted brown above, buffish 

white below ; bill slender and decurved ; tail 

brown and long, with stiff points. 

The Tree Creeper— Dimensions, Cb ; Eggs, As— is well known in nearly all our woodland 

districts. His flight is quick and direct, and almost always downwards. Hehops up the tree 

trunks spirally, but keeps on the further side when observed, pressing his pointed tail agamst 

the trunk to support him, much as if he were a bracket ; when he reaches the top of a tree, 

or the extremity of a branch, he dives down to the root of another tree, and works up that to 

dive again to another, and so on. The note is a shrill *' tree-tree-tree," with a cnsp "cheep " 

as an alarm. The female does not differ from the male in plumage. The nest is in a hole m 

the tree, or in a gap between the bark and trunk ; tiny twigs are woven to narrow the 

entrance, and the nest always has a bit of bark in it, generally birch, besides the usual roots 

and feathers and moss. The eggs are from three to nine in number. 

Ceryle. Plate xi. ALCEDINIDM, 

152. alcyon, 13 in. Belted Kingfisher. Crested ; slaty blue with 

a white collar and rufous band on breast ; wings 

spotted and barred ; tail long. 

The Belted Kingfisher— Dimensions, Ld; Eggs, II— is a North American bird, of which 

two specimens, unfortunately for themselves, and for writers of bird books, strayed into 

Ireland, in 1845, to be forthwith shot for the Dublin Museums. This was the_ first time the 

species was ever heard of at large on this side of the Atlantic, and apparently it was also the 

last. It is hardly likely to visit us without recognition, for its call is dgscribed as a noisy 

edition of the twirl of a watchman's rattle ! 

Charadrius. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDj^. 

295. fulvus, 9 in. Eastern Golden Plover. Throat and breast 

black ; axillaries grey, 
294. pluvialis, 10 in. Golden Plover. Throat and breast black ; 
axillaries white. 
The Eastern Golden Plover — Dimensions, Ic; Eggs, Mi — otherwise the Lesser Golden 
Plover, has been found here three or four times, generally in Leadenhall Market. It is a 
remarkable bird, for, according to Morris, it has been seen in the Land o' the Leal ! 

The Gulden Plover — Dimensions, Ir ; Eggs, Nr — visits us on his _ migration from the 
north in August and September, and calls again on his way home during March, leaving a 
few representatives here throughout the year. The flight is very high, powerful and 
sustained, flapping fast and steadily, sweeping to the ground and up again, and always 
circling before alighting. The note is "kelleeee" or " kloveeee," with a call of " klee,*' 
and an alarm of "ko." The female is not so black below as the male, her breast being . 
mottled with white. The nest is a little heather and moss scratched together in a hollow of 
the ground, or in a clump of cotton ^rass, and is generally found on the moors and in 
mountain districts. The male helps in incubation. The eggs, like most pyriform eggs, are 
four in number. 

Ciconia. Plate xviii. CICONIIDM, 

213. ??7gra, 39 in. Black Stork. All iridescent black except from 

lower breast to tail, which is white ; remiges 32. 
212. alba, 42 in. White Stork. All glossy white except primaries, 

secondaries, scapulars, and great wing coverts, 
which are black ; remiges 34, 
The Black Stork — Dimensions, Tf ; Eggs, Qq— has appeared in England about a dozen 
times. He is not really black, but black and white, and like the White Stork, who is not 
really white, but white and black, he has a red bill and red legs. Like his relative he 
generally stands on one leg, and hangs his legs down as he flies. 

The White Stork — Dimensio"s, Ti ; Eggs, Rn — is another occasional visitor, but has 
never been known to breed here. He has a patch of bare skin round his eye, which is black, 
while the corresponding patch in the Black Stork is red. It is a very curious thing th»t a 
large bird so common in Holland should so rarely find its way across the ChanneL 



THE SPECIES. »7 

linclus. Plate iv. CINCLINM (Passeridse). 

47. aquaticuSf 7 in. Dipper. Blackish brown head ; dark grey back ; 

chest white ; breast brown. 

48. melanogaster, 7 in. Black-bellted Dipper. Blackish brown head ; 

dark grey back ; chest white ; breast black. 

The Dipper — Dimensions, Fb ; Eggs, Fo— otherwise the Water Ouzel, is one of the most 
iteresting of genuine British birds. Wherever there is a roar of waters, his short cheery 
)ng is almost sure to be heard. Although he is not web-footed, he is truly aquatic in his 
abits, and floats, and swims, and dives, and actually flies under water, as if water were his 
■ue element. He flies like a King^fisher, but with rather more labour, but he never plunges 
irect at a fish, but alights on the shore, and wades in until he is out of his depth. Dippers 
enerally go in pairs, the sexes being alike in plumage. The nest is a beautiful felt-work of 
reen moss, lined with dry grass and withered leaves, and is always domed when it is not in 
hole. There are from four to six eggs. 

The Black-bellied Dipper— Dimensions, Fc ; Eggs, Fp — only differs in colour from his 
ilative, and is generally found in East Anglia. 

Circus. Plate xiv. FALCONIDM, 

175. cineracens, 17 in. MoNTAGU'.? Harrirr. Greyish above, whitish 

below ; outer web of fifth primary without a notch ; 

inner web of outer tail feathers barred white and 

brown. 
174. cyaneuSt 18 in. Hkn Harrier. Greyish above, whitish below ; 

outer web of fifth primary with a notch ; head 

greyish, streaked with brown ; wings brown and 

whitish ; throat grey, 
173. esi'uginos7is, 22 in. Marsh Harrier, Brownish above, whitish 

below ; outer web of fifth primary with a notch ; 

head buff ; wings brown and grey ; throat buff. 
Montagu's Harrier — Dimensions, Oa ; Eggs, Km — is a rarer resident than formerly. His 
'hite breast feathers have a narrow central streak of chestnut. He flies lightly and grace- 
illy;, darting with his wings half closed, sailing in widening circles with them outspread, and 
Lirning with one wing higher than the other, as if to help his tail in steering. Like all the 
larriers, he chiefly feeds on reptiles. The female is brown above, not grey, and the tail 
?athers are brown, with broad grey and buff bars and pale tips. She is rather larger than 
he male. I'he nest is always on the ground, made of heather twigs, and lined with grass ; 
nd the eggs are from four to six in number. 

The Hen Harrier — Dimensions, Ooj Eggs, Lq — is larger, but shorter in the wing-spread, 
ban Montagu's bird. Like it^ it is resident, but rare. Its flight is lower, and the whitish 
ump is unmistakable, as the bird flaps leisurely along, somewhat like a heron, hovering with 
s tail half spread, swaying from side to side, and now and then giving its tail a twist in the 
lanner of the Kite, to steer in a wide circle. The female is rather larger than the male, and 
i brown above, with white streaks on the nape ; the ruff being very distinct, and the tail 
eing very much like that of Montagu's Harrier. The nest is always on the ground, and 
'hen in a reed bed, or other wet place, it is of considerable size ; it is made of sticks and 
eather, wool, and dry grass, and contains four, five, or six eggs. 

The Marsh Harrier — Dimensions, Qg ; Eggs, Nl — has almost disappeared from this 
ountry. It varies very much in plumage. The flight is very low and spiritless, the bird 
1st skimming the tree-tops in a leisurely laboured way, as if not caring to exert himself more 
lan necessary. His note is a sort of " pitz-pitz." His eyes are yellow ; those of his mate 
re hazel. The female is larger than the male, and has a white edge on the shoulders of thi 
■ings. She is brown below, and has a brown tail, while the male's tail is ashy grey. Tha 
est is sometimes in the lowest branch of a tree overhanging a marsh, but more usually on a 
lump of sedge, or in a reed patch on the ground ; it is a large structure of reeds and grass 
nd dry flags, and contains three or four e^gs. As in the other two Harriers, the powder 
own tracts extend up to the shoulders in this species. The Harriers, owing to their ruff, are 
le most owlish-looking of the Falconidae. 

langula. Plate xxii. ANA TIDJE. 

250. albeola^ 15 in. Buffel-headed Duck. White patch on nape 

forming an erectile crest, 
249. glaucion^ 18 in. Goldeneye. White spot at base of bill ; wing 
speculum white ; remiges 26, 
The Buffel-headed Duck— Dimensions^ Mh ; Eggs, Mr— is a North American which very 



88 THE SPECIES. 

/arely indeed straggles over here across the Atlantic. The male's bill is greyish blue, the 
female's blackish grey. 

The Goldeneye — Dimensions, Oi ; *Eggs, Pd— is one of our reEjlllar winter visitors. It 
makes a great splash as it rises, and a great noise as it flies vfith its whistling wings. Its 
note isa loud "kr-kroak," The male's bill is black, the female's brown. This duck lays 
its eggs in the hole of a tree as if it were a Woodpecker. There is no nest beyond the chips 
of wood that may be in the hole. "The clutch ranges from lo to 19. 

Coccotliraustes. Plate vii. FRINGILLINM (PasseridEe). 

92. vulgaris, 7 in. Hawfinch. Chestnut brown above ; nape grey ; 

wings purplish black ; five inner primaries jagged 

or hooked at the tips ; black patch on chin ; bill 

bluish or pinkish and very large. 

The Hawfinch — Dimensions, Fe; Eggs, Fb — is a resident reinforced in winter by 

migrants from the north. It is at once recognisable by its large beak.^ Its flight is generally 

an undulated one, but often it is straight and rapid. Its song is a whistle of four notes in aj 

ascending scale, and its call is a "click." The female h.is much less black on the throat 

than the male, and has the secondaries edged with bluish grey. The nest is a large edition 

of the bullfinch's, usually in an old tree from 5 to 25 feet from the ground, built of small 

twigs and grey lichens lined with rootlets and hair, but with a very shallow cavity for the 

eggs, which are from four to six in number. 

Cocoystes. Plate xii. CUCULIDM. 

158. glandarius, 16 in. Great Spotted Cuckoo. Crest, head, and 

nape bluish grey streaked with black ; plumage 
brown above, white beneath ; wings spotted with 
white. 

A Great Spotted Cuckoo — Dimensions, Nb ; Eggs, Ia — appeared off the coast of 
Connemara, in 1842, and another was bagged in Nortliumberland in 1870. These are the 
only two instances on record of the species ever visiting these islands. 

Coccyzua. Plate xii. CUCULID^. 

159. americanus, 13 in. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Dark drab above. 

greyish white below ; tail black, tipped with white, 
except the centre feathers, which are of the same 
coloLir as the back ; bill yellow. 
i6o. erythnphthalmus, 13 in. Black-billed Cuckoo. Brown above, white 

below ; bill black. 
The Yellow-billed Cuckoo— Dimensions, Kq ; Eggs, Hp— is the American Rain-bird. 
Its cry is " cow, cow, COW, cow, cow." Unlike our Cuckoo it generally builds its own nest 
and hatches its own eggs. It has only been recognised in Britain twice, and twice in Ireland. 
The Black-billed Cuckoo— Dimensions, Kp ; Eggs, Cm- is another Americ.in of normal 
breeding arrangements. Only once, however, has he crossed the Atl.intic, and that was to 
be shot at Belfast, in 1871. Like the Yellow- bills he probably came by steamboat. 

Columba. Plate xxiii. COLUMBIDM. 

263. livia, II in. RocK DovE. Bill black ; plumage bluish grey ; 

rump white ; two broad black bars on wings , 
axillaries white ; legs dark red. 

264. anas, 13 in. Stock Dove. Bill red at base, white at tip ; 

plumage bluish grey ; green patch on neck ; one 

bar only on wing and that brown and incomplete ; 

axillaries grey ; legs coral red. 
263. falumitis, 16 in. Ring Dove. Bill red at base, yellow at tip ; 

plumage brownish grey ; white patch on neck ; 

white on outer wing coverts ; legs bright red. 
The Rock Dove— Dimensions, Jp ; Eggs, Jd— is to be found all the year round on our 
coasts wherever there are high cliffs and deep caves. It rarely is seen on a tree, as it always 
alights on a rock or on the ground. Like all the pigeons it bobs its head as jt walks. As il 
rises it beats the ground with its wings and produces a peculiar crackle by doing so ; its 
flight is rapid ; and so powerfully are the wings worked that they whistle as they flap. Its 
note is " coo-coo-roo-coo," Th? female is smaller than the male and duller about the neck. 



THE SPECIES. 



89 



The nest is always in caves, and often dry only at low water ; it is a very slight flat arrange- 
ment of seaweed, grass, and sticks, with now and then a sprig of heather. There are two 
eggs. 

The Stock Dove— Dimensions, Kr ; Eggs, Tg — is most abundant in the Midlands, Its 
note is a short **coo-oo." Its flight is light and swift, with busy beats and a glide 
downwards. The female is not so pink on the chest as the male. The eggs are laid in a 
rabbit-burrow, or in a. hole in a tree, and generally no nest is built, but sometimes a few 
twigs and roots are. scratched together. 

The Ring Dove— Dimensions, Ng ; Eggs, Kn— is the well known Wood Pigeon. Its 
note is "coo-oo-coo, coo-oo-coo," and it is easily recognisable on the wing by its white 
collar and wing bars. Its flight is light, deliberate, and persistent, and its gait is of the 
strutting, head-bobbing variety. Its nest is generally in a tree, and so lightly built of sticks 
that the two eggs can be seen in it from below. The female has a fainter collar than the 
male. 



Colymbus. Plate xxxii. 



COL Y MB I DM, 



•^'^.sefientrionaUs,^^vs\. Red-throated Diver. Throat grey and red 

head streaked black and while and patched wilh 

grey ; bill black, 
jSa. arcticus, 26 in. Black-throated Diver. Throat black ; head 

streaked with black and white and patched with 

grey ; bill black. 
380. glacialis, 33 in. Great Northern Diver. Throat with two 

black rings, and two black and white rings streaked 

vertically ; bill black. 
3S1. adatnsi, 36 in. Yellow-billed Diver. Throat with black and 

black and white rings ; bill pale yellow. 

The Red-throated Diver^Dimensions, Qo ; Eggs, Ro — is the commonest of the family in 
this country and breeds in the North of Scotland and the islands off the coast. Its dusky 
brown back is streaked with oval spots. Its legs are greenish black, and its feet are 
yellowish. In autumn the red on the throat is not always present. In winter the browns 
become greys, and the underparts are pure white. This bird is the Rain Goose, whose call 
of '' ak-ak-kakera-kakera," is rarely heard except when rain is approaching. The female is 
similar in plumage to the male. There is no nest as a rule, although now and then the 
hollow in which the eggs are laid may be lined with a few leaves. There are two eggs, and 
they are generally laid so near the water as to be wet underneath. 

The Black-throated Diver — Dimensions, Rm ; Eggs, Sg — is rarer, but is also found 
breeding in the north country. It maybe known from the Red-throat by its having red 
eyes instead of brown. In winter it is brown above, with white spots, and pure white below. 
There are about a dozen white bars on the scapulars, which are constant ail the year round. 
The sexes are alike in plumage. The flight is very swift and so is the diving. The note is 
a noisy "deoch ! deoch 1 deoch ! tha'n loch a traoghadh," which is the Gaelic rendering of 
" drink 1 drink I drink 1 the loch is nearly dry I " The nest is of reeds and water plants, 
lined with grass, and is generally so near the water as to be half afloat. There are two 
eggs. 

The Great Northern Diver — Dimensions, Sm ; Eggs, Sm — loses the throat band in the 
winter and becomes brown above, with a great increase of the white spots. Its eyes are red. 
It breeds in the Western Isles. The flight is rapid and straight, and the cry a "who? who?" 
generally heard at night, with an occasional ' karok." There are two or three eggs ; the 
nest is of reeds and water plants, and can be recognised by the bird making a path to it 
from the water. The sexes are alike in plumage. 

The Yellow-billed Diver — Dimensions, Ss ; Eggs, Sk — sometimes called the White-billed 
Diver, is an American straggler of which only a few specimens have been identified in this 
country, the first having been shot at Lowestoft, in 1852. 



Coracias. Plate xiL 

^53- ^arrula. 



COR AC I ID M. 



13 in. Roller, Head and nape green or blue ; mantle 
chestnut ; wings black, and light and dark blue ; 
chin white ; underparts blue or green ; 23 remiges ; 
first primary short, second, third, and fourth 
longest ; tarsus scutellate in front and reticulate 
at back. 

The Roller— Dimensions, Ks ; Eggs, Jc— has been noticed here about a hundred times 
since it was first recorded by Religio Medici Browne, in 1644. Its flight is like a Tumbler 



Corvus. 


Plate ix. 


127. 


monedula. 


128. 


corone, 


129. 


comix, 


130. 


friigihgus. 



90 THE SPECIES. 

Pigeon's, rapid and acrobatic. Tt would seem to be the total abstainer of the bird-world, foi 
we are gravely assured that "it has never been known to drink." Not unnaturally, its cry is 
a peculiarly dry and thirsty " rakker-rakker-crea." This handsome but eccentric straggle* 
seems to prefer a telegraph wire as a perch. 

CORVINM (Passeridas). 
14 in. Jackdaw. Cindery, with grey collar ; iris while; 

18 in. Carrion Crow. Greenish black ; nostrils alwayi 
feathered. 

19 in. Hooded Crow. Grey and black ; hood black, 
wings black, tail black, other parts grey. 

20 in. Rook. Purplish black, with blue reflections ; bal« 
over nostrils, lores, and throat. 

131. corax, 24 in. Raven. Glossy steel black, with green and purple 

reflections ; bill black and strong ; lanceolate throat 
feathers. 

The Jackdaw — Dimensions, Mc ; Eggs, Ji— is one of our most popular residents. When 
on the wing its progress is of the yawing, unsteady variety. Its call is a " kae," which some 
have imagined to resemble " Jack," while others will have it that it is " daw," — but, then, a 
Jackdaw will say anything, and do anything, to oblige. The female is smaller than the male, 
and has the grey collar somewhat obscure. The ne'it, in which there are from four to six 
eggs, is an untidy heap of miscellaneous matter, in some tower, or wall, or chimney, or tree, 
or in any hole — even in a rabbit-burrow ; and where there is one there are generally many. 

The Carrion Crow — Dimensions, Om ; Eggs, Kr — is generally found in woods near the 
sea and inland waters. It has whitish bases to its body feathers ; it has a stouter bill than 
the Rook, and a more laboured flight, besides a quicker walk, and a curious habit of keeping 
its bill to the ground ; and it is generally found alone or in pairs. Its cry is a '* croak-uk-uk " ; 
or " There's a hog dead 1 Where ? where ? Up the burn ! up the buirn ! Is't fat ? Is't fat? 
It's a creesh ! It's a creesh 1 " Its nest is of sticks, with the twigs inside plastered over with 
mud, the lining being of wool and feathers ; and it is generally placed in the fork of the main 
trunk of a tree, or on a rocky ledge. There are from three to six eggs. The female is rather 
browner than the male. 

The Hooded Crow — Dimensions, Pb ; Eggs, Kg — is retained in the list, though generally 
admitted to be a variety of C corone^ not breeding true to colour. Its eggs are said to be 
smaller, and they appear as such in our table ; but the birds themselves, in measured speci- 
mens, are certainly larger on the average. 

The Rook — Dimensions, Pi ; Eggs, Ke— has a feathered beak during its first year, but the 
young can be distinguished from those of the two preceding Crows by the inside of the mouth 
being of dark flesh-colour, turning to purplish, instead of being of a very pale tint. The 
bases of its body feathers are grey, with no white. The flight is straight and assured, easy 
and regular, with the primaries extended so that their tips look like short fingers. The Rook 
is often very noisy on the wing, with his well-known " caw "—the characteristic call of the 
Corvidae. Rooks are not often alone ; they are generally in straggling flocks ; and they build 
in colonies. The nest, in the top of a tall tree, is a large one of sticks and twigs, plasterefl 
with mud, and lined with grass and moss and wool ; the cavity is rather deep, and contains 
"rom three to five eggs. 

The Raven— Dimensions, Re ; Eggs, Mm— is yearly becom.ing rarer. It has the boldest 
flight of all the Corvidae ; with its neck and feet drawn in, it floats high over the mountain- 
tops, leisurely, steady, and self-possessed, and then sweeps off, as if to be punctual to an 
appointment. Its note is a hoarse " cawruk," or a " craugh," with a bark when attacked, 
«nd an occasional "gorbel." _ The nest, now generally found on some rocky cliff, but formerly 
niore frequent in lofty trees, is an untjlastered mass of sticks, lined with twigs and grass and 
wool. The eggs are from four to six in number. The female is not so iridescent in plumage 
as the male, and she is generally smalle:. 

Cosmonetta. Plate x.xii. ANATIDM, 

252. kisinonica, 17 in. Harlequin. Gaily striped and spotted ; wing 
speculum purple. 
The Harlequin Duck— Dimensions, Np ; Eggs, Oo— has a beak like a goose, with a small 
k)be at each side, and its tail ie not nearly so long as that of the Lone-tailer) Duck for which 
it is occasionally mistaken. It is an Icelandic species usually visiting us in the winter. h 
has a swift and powerful flight, and is the most daring of swimmers among rapids and 
waterfalls. Its note is a loud croak, a sort of " eck, eck." The female is of smaller size, 
aind is brown in plumage, with a white patch on the fnt-ehead. and a brown stripe across the 
eye-patch. 



THE SPECIES. 91 

Hurnix. Plate xxiv. PHASIANIDM. 

276. communis, 7 in. Quail. Back light brown, marked with black and 
streaked with buff. 
The Quail — Dimensions. Fl ; Eggs, Ge — is a resident, reinforced by spring migrants which 
some years are very numerous. It is one of those birds who are never seen to perch ; and 
1 flight is short, quick, whirring, about a yard from the ground. Its note is the flute-Iike 
weet-my-feet," or " clook-look-leek," for which it is occasionally kept as a song bird. 'I'he 
male is larger than the male, and has a buff throat, while that of the male is black. The 
St is a mere hollow in the ground. It contains from 5 to 12 eggs. 

rex. Plate xxiv, RALLIDM. 

28 r. bailloni, 7 in. Baillon's Crake. Bill olive ; under tail coverts 

black and white ; legs flesh colour. 

280. parva, 8 in. Ltttle Crake. Bill green ; no white on first 

primary ; flanks grey ; legs green. 

279. maruetta, 9 in. Spotted Crake. Bill yellow ; axillaries barred 
with white ; under tail coverts buff; legs green. 

278. pratensis, 10 in. Corn Crake. Bill flesh colour ; axillaries chest- 
nut ; legs flesh colour, 
riaillon's Crake — Dimensions, Fa ; Eggs Gk — is a rarity said by some to be resident, by 
hers to be only a spring visitor. It lurks about pools and marshes, is an excellent 
'immer, diver, walker, and runner, and has a short heavy Right, hanging its legs down as 
they were broken. The base of its bill is red : its eyes are red ; the outer web of its lirst 
imary is white ; and its flanks are black and white in bars. Its note is a whistle, with a 
kik, kik," as an alarm. The female has a white chin. The nest is loosely made of water 
ants, and is placed in a swamp ; and there are from five to eight eggs. 

The Little Crake— Dimensions, Gp ; Eegs, Hiw — has been found here 3 few times in spring 
id autumn. It has a low unsteady flight, and runs well over land and over water plants, 
id swims well and dives boldly, and, like all the rails, hides itself in the water with only its 
;ak above the surface. Its note is a loud whistle, with a " kek, kek " alarm. The female 
IS a pearly grey patch round the eye. 

The Spotted Crake — Dimensions, Hr ; Eggs, Ic — is generally said to be a spring visitor, 
lOUgh some claim it as a resident. It hangs its legs as it flies, and makes the most of its 
oad wings, but its flight is low and wavering, and rarely prolonged, as it will always rim if 
can, taking very long strides. The nest is generally on a tussock surrounded by water, a 
■fis of leaves and dead reeds, in which the eggs are often quite wet. There are from 8 to 12 
fgs. The female is a smaller and browner bird than the male. 

The Corn Crake, otherwise the Land Rail —Dimensions, Jh ; Eggs, J a — is one of our 
immer migrants. It is a short-tailed bird, with a flight of the brief and fluttering kind, 
hich becomes unexpectedly vigorous when in full swing. When pursued, this bird prefers 
I run and to climb, and it never runs straight, but makes as many turnings as a hare. Its 
)te is the "crake-crake," from which it takes its name. The nest is on the ground, in a 
>rnfleld or meadow ; it is generally in a hollow and is made of grass and lined with grass, 
he eggs are from 7 to 12 in number. The female is smaller and not so grey as the male.' 

uculUB. Plate xii. CUCULWAS, 

137. canorus^ 14 in. CuCKOO. Slate grey and brown above ; wings 

slightly spotted with white ; tail tipped with white * 

lower parts huffish white, barred with black, similar 

to Sparrow Hawk ; remiges, 19 ; first primary short 

fourth and fifth longest ; tail feathers, 10 ; contour 

feathers witli no aftershaft. 

The Cuckoo— Dimensions, Md ; Eggs, Fa— is a summer migrant, appearing here in April, 

id generally leaving us early in August, though the young ones linger on till well into 

sptember. The male Cuckoos come first, and the m^es are always in a majority. The 

uckoo ranges as far eastward as Japan, and as far south as Abyssinia. The note m April 

id May is the familiar " cuck-oo," but in June this changes to *' cuck-cuck-00," and in July 

I " cuck-oo-oo " ; but the bird has another note, a sort of chuckle ; and the female has a cry 

" her own, a chattering '* kwow-ow-wow." The cuckoo calls on the wing, and also when at 

:st. The flight is hurried and straight, with an occasional twist and swoop, the long tail 

iing held out horizontally, the white in the plumage being well shown. Sometimes the 

■ey of the plumage is brown, but the brown bird is not necessarily a female, although she 

m always be recognised by a rufous tinge on the breast. Instances are on record of the 

uckoo's hatching its own eggs, but the evidence is not generally accepted ; usually there is 

3 nest, the egg being laid on the ground, and then carried in the mouth, and placed in the 



92 THE SPECIES. 

nest of some otiier bird. Asarule, the nest chosen is that of a Meadow Pipit or a Pied Wag- 
tail ; but Hedge Sparrows, Warblers, Wrens, Redstarts, Magpies, Jays, Shrikes, Finches, 
Bantings, Pigeons, and even Little Grebes, have been made to do duty as foster parents of 
the Cuckoo. The eggs are laid at intervals of a week or more, and there are several of them ; 
they vary much in colour, but not so much as those of the Guillemot. They are often some- 
what of the colour of the eggs among which they are placed ; the Cuckoo does not, however, 
colour her egg to suit the nest, but wanders about with it until she finds a suitable clutch; 
and she would seem to be easily satisfied, for the egg is in nine cases out of ten unmistakable, 
and can be instantly distinguished from the rest by its colour, as well as by its shape and size. 

Cursorius. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDM. 

as*, gallicus, loin. Cream-coloufed Courser. Sandy buff, spotted 
and edged with black ; black streak from eye to 
nape ; primaries black ; outer web of secondaries 
buff; axillaries black ; bill black ; tail not forked ; 
legs grey; tarsus scutellate. 
The Cream-coloured Courser— Dimensions, Ip ; Eggs, Ih — is a Mediterranean species now 
and then straying here during the last three months of the year, 

Cyanecula. Platp u. TURDINM (Passeridae). 

19. wolji, si in. White Spotted Blue-Throat, Blue throat, 

white centre. 

20. succica, 5| in. Red Spotted Blue-Throat. Blue throat, red 

centre. 
The Blue-Throats— Dimensions, Cc and Cd ; Eggs, Bm— only differ from each other in the 
colour of the spot. They arc not often seen in this country ; in fact, there is a doubt as to 
whether the white one comes here at all. The flight is a short, dipping one, and the bird 
sings as he flies, and as he alights with outspread wings. The song is said to be recognisable 
by Its always ending with " tmg-ting." 

Cygnus. Plate xx. ANA TIDM. 

232. bewicki, 50 in. Bewick's Swan. Bill, as far as nostrils, yellow; 

the rest black. 

230. americanus, 55 in. AMERICAN SwAN. Orange patches at base of bill. 

228. iminntabilis, 60 in. Polish Swan. Bill red, with small black tubercle. 

229. musicus, 60 in. HooPER SwAN. Bill, to below nostrils, yellow ; 

the rest black ; remiges 34. 

231. buccinator, 60 in. Trumpeter SwAN. Bill black. 

227. olor, 60 in. Mute Swan. Bill all reddish yellow, with large 

black tubercle ; remiges 31. 

Bewick's Swan — Dimensions, Tl ; Eggs, Sp — is an occasional visitor to this country from 
its breeding haunts in Siberia. Its note ib "tong," or "a-kloong." 

The American Swan — Dimension-^. Tm — owes its place on the list from its having been 
found in a poulterer's shop at Edinburgh. 

The Polish Swan— Dimensions, To— is generally considered to be merely a variety of the 
Mute Swan. It owes its specific nnme to the fact of the cygnets being white ; although called 
Polish it is unknown in Poland, and, in fact, has only been found once outside the British 
Islands, and that was in the case of a solitary specimen from Haarlem, in 1840. 

The Hooper Swan— Dimensions, Tq : Eggs, Sq— was at one time oneof our residents, but 
is now only a winter visitor. It was formerly called the Whistling Swan, from its call of 
" hoop," like the base note of a trombone. 

The Trumpeter Swan — Dimensions, Tp — is an American, claimed as British on the strength 
of four birds shot at Aldeburgh, in 1866. 

"The Mute Swan— Dimensions, Tr ; Eggs, Sr— is the Swan, the largest and handsomest 01 
British birds, said by some to have been brought here from Cyprus over seven hundred jears 
ago. No bird dare attack the swan when on the wing. He flies high and fearlessly, with 
his neck out at full stretch, and his wings audibly swishing in a flap somewhat like a heron's. 
Swans journey in files or en echelon, the birds taking it in turns to lead, and falling to the rear 
as they tire. The Swan is only mule by name. He hisses like a goose, gives a low trumpet- 
like "maul," and according to some people, even *' sings " at other times than just before his 
death. The Swan's nest is usually on a small island, and it is a large mass of reeds and 
other water plants. There are from five to eight eggs. The female has a smaller tubercle 
than the male, and swims much lower in the water. The young are grey, with bluish beaks 
«jid tegs. 



THE SPECIES. 9.3 

Jypselus. Plate x. CYPSELIDM. 

138. apus^ 7 in. Swift. Plumage black ; chin and upper throat 

greyish white. 

139. melba, 8 in, Alpine Swift. Plumage dark brown ; while 

below, with a broad brown band on chest. 

The Swift — Dimensions, Fp ; Eggs, Fk — comes in April, and is occasionally found as late 
IS November. In flight the narrow wings are almo'^t at a right angle, rapidly beating for a 
noment or so, and then held motionless, as the bird glides along, curving and swaying in 
esponse to the working of the tail. The note is a screaming " swee-ree-ee." The sexes are 
ilike in plumage, the young having rather more white about them than the adults. The nest 
s in a hole in some cliff or building, generally high up ; and it is returned to year after year, 
t is made of straw and dry grass, and other li^ht materials, stuck together with saliva 
LS if with glue, and lined with feathers ; it is flat in shape, and contains from two to four 
■ggs. 

The Alpine Swift — Dimensions, He ; Eggs, Ho — is a rare summer visitor, never known to 
)reed here. The note is a louder scream than that of the Swift, and the flight is more power- 
ul, with a glide " like the shoot of a Kestrel." 

)aflla. Plate xxi. ANATIDM, 

238. acuta, 26 in. Pintail. Wing bar iridescent green ; tail of 16 

feathers and pointed ; neck long. 
The Pintail — Dimensions, Rn ; Eggs, Ns — is an uncommon resident, whose numbers are 
[reatly reinforced in the winter by migrants from the north, and in spring by migrants 
eturning from the south. ^ The male's beak is black, with pale blue under the nostrils, while 
he fernale's beak is greyish black above, and reddish brown below. The male has the 
ong tail which has given him his name of Sea Pheasant ; the female is a brown bird with a 
jrownish wing bar, and is not so large as the male. In summer the male is not unlike the 
emale, and his beak is blue. The flight is of the ordinary duck character. Ihe note is a 
ow " quaark." The nest is on the ground ; it is made of dead grass and sedge, and lined 
vith brown down having faint white tips. There are from five to nine eggs. 

Jaulias. Plate ii. TURDIN^ (Passeridse), 

22. luscinia, 6:| in. Nightingale. Reddish brown above; huffish 

below ; tail reddish brown ; first primary longer 

than primary coverts. 

The Nightingale — Dimensions, Ea ; Eggs, Ec— comes in the second week of April, and 

eaves us in September, although the song generally ceases in the first week in June. He 

lings only until the eggs are hatched, and then he croaks ; but if the brood be destroyed, he 

iings again, to wind up with a croak again. The best rendering of the famous song is the 

?" reach one quoted by Macgillivray: " Le bon Dieu m'a donn^ une femme, que j'ai tant, tant, 

ant, tant battue ; que s'il m'en donne une autre, je ne la batterais plus^ plus, plus, plus, qu'un 

jetit, qu'un petit, qu'un petit ! " ^ The Nightingale is not the only bird that sings at night ; 

ind he often sings in the daytime. His flight is buoyant and quick and smooth, and 

;enerally short, for he skulks in the underwood, among the hazels, and rarely takes to t)ie 

ipen. The female is like the male, but the young are spotted like young robins. The nest 

s near the ground, sometimes on it, in a hedge-bank, or under a bush ; and is generally of 

lead oak leaves and grass, lined with rootlets and hair ; there are from four to six eggs. 

Sctopistea. Plate xxiii. COLUMBIDjE, 

267. migratorius, 16 in. PASSENGER PiGEON, Head slate blue ; throat, 
breast, and sides reddish hazel ; back dark slate ; 
wings black, brown, and white. 
The Passenger Pigeon— Dimensions, Nd ; Eggs, Jj-is an American bird, whose be.'t 
laim to be Kriiish seems to be based on some bpeciniens brought over here in a basket and 
hot when they escaped. According to Seebohm, "there is no reason why this bird should not 
ross the Atlantic if it felt so disposed ; but there is not the slightest evidence that it has 
ver done so." 

:ianoides. Plate xv. FALCONIDM. 

186. furcatus^ 25 in. SwALLOW-TAiLED Kite. Bill black ; cere blue ; 

head and neck white ; back black and rump white ; 

under parts white ; wings greenish black and very 

long ; tail purplish black, very long, and much 

forked. 

The Swallow-tailed Kite — Dimensions, Rj; Eggs, Ml— is an American from the Mississippi 

nown in no other couiUry of Europe than Britain, and only known here by two specimens, 

le til St of which arrived in 1772 and the other in 1S23. 



94 THE SPECIES. 

Elanus. Plate xv. FALCONIDM. 

187. cmruleus, 13 in. Black-winged Kite. White forehead ; white 

eye stripe ; grey above ; white below ; small wing 
coverts black. 
The Black-winged Kite— Dimensions, Lf— sent a solitary representative from the tropics 
to be made into a British bird by an untimely death in County Meath, in 1862. 

Emtoeriza. Plate viii. EMBERIZINM (Passeridse). 

115. pusilla, 4I in. Little Bunting. Head chestnut, striped with 

black ; throat reddish white ; breast streaked with 

black. 
114. rustica, 5^ in. Rustic Bunting. Head brown, with black crown 

and sides ; throat white ; rufous band on chest. 
it6. schceniclus, ^% in. Reed Bunting. Head black, eye stripe white ; 

throat black ; lower breast white. 

112, drills, 6 in, CiRL Bunting. Head olive brown, eye stripe 

yellow, lores and ear coverts black ; throat black 
and yellow ; breast chestnut and yellow. 

113. horiulana, 6^ in. Ortolan Bunting. Head greenish grey; throat 

yellow ; breast reddish buff ; a yellow ring round 
eye. 
III. citrinella, 6^ in. Yellow Bunting. Head yellow ; throat yellow ; 

breast yellow — all with chestnut streaks. 
109. meianocephala, 6f in. Black-headed Bunting. Head and ear coverts 

black ; throat yellow ; breast yellow, 
no. miliaria, 7 in. CoRN Bunting. Head brown, spotted and 
streaked ; throat whitish, with angular brown spots 
at side. 
A Little Bunting— Dimensions, Aq ; Eggs, Bn— was found by a boy in Sussex, in 18G4 ; 
the first, and apparently the last, to be identified in this country. 

The Rustic Bunting— Dimensions, Cf ; Eggs, Ds— has been found here three times, the 
first record being In 1867. 

The Reed Bunting — Dimensions, Cr ; Eggs, Cb— is with us all the year round. It is 
known by its monotonous double note repeated several times and ended with a long drawl. Its 
flight is a dipping one, ending in a flutter of the wings and a sudden spread of ihe tail so as 
to show the white. The female has no black on the head and throat which are reddish brown. 
In winter the black and white of the male are edged with brown. The nest is on the ground, 
or near it, always in a swampy place ; and it is made of moss, grass, and reeds, lined with 
reed flowers and horsehair. The eggs are from three to six in number. 

The Girl Bunting— Dimensions, Dh ; Eggs, Eg — was discovered by Montagu, at Kings- 
bridge, in 1800, and is a not uncommon resident south of the Thames. Its note is tirrilirrilul," 
and Irs call " chea-chee." Its flight is swift and graceful, with a long dip and a rise. Its 
nest, in which there are four or five eggs, is generally on the ground, or in a furze bush, and 
consists of dried grass, moss, and roots, often, but not always, lined with hair. 'J'he female 
has black in the crown, and the eye stripe pale yellow, but in winter the plumage of male and 
female is much duller than in spring. 

The Ortolan Bunting— Dimensions, Ec ; Eggs.DR— occasionally comes here in the spring, 
but does not breed here. Most of those recorded are probably escapes from the poulterer's. 
The Yellow Bunting — Dimensions, Ej ; Eggs, Eq — is the Yellow Ammer (so called to 
distinguish it from the other Ammers grouped under the Latinisaiion of Einberiza), to which 
some cockney humorist prefixed an *' h " which seems so difficult to remove that it has been 
thought better to give the bird its older name. Its flight is quick and undulating, with a 
characteristic wheel in the air, and a jerk of the tail on alighting. Its note is the often quoted 
*' little bit of bread and no cheese I" with an emphasis on the " no *' and the " cheese ; " or 
in its Scottish form, " deil, dell, deil, tak* ye ! " The call is a " chick, chick, churrr," It is 
asserted that this bird invariably sings at three o'clock in the afternoon, and certainly a good 
many of them seem to do so. The streaks in the male's crown are brown ; in the female's 
they are black, and there is much less yellow about her. In summer the male's crown is 
often pure yellow. The nest is generally on a hedge bank, and always near, or on, the ground. 
It is made of dry grass and moss, with finer grass, and roots, and horsehair ; £.nd contains 
four or five eggs. 

The Black-headed Bunting — Dimensions, Eq ; Eggs Ei — is an Asiatic, occasionally 
straying here. 



THE SPECIES. 95 

The Corn Bunting — Dimensions, Fd ; Eggs, Fn — is one of our uncommon, but widely 
stributed and partially migrating residents. It has a whirring, slightly undulating flight, 
ith the legs dangline until it gels fairly under way ; and on the ground it both hops and 
ins. Its note is a tees-ees-ees," with a peculiar skirl described as resembling a jingling 
lain, the alarm being " tzit-kaak." The sexes are alike in plumage, and in the winter both 
■e darker above and buffer below. The nest is generallyon or near the ground, often in the 
iddle of a field, among coarse grass or young corn. It is a loose afl*air of straw and grass, 
ith perhaps a little moss, lined with roots and hair, and contains four, five, or six eggs. 

ritnacus. Plate ii. TURDINM (Passeridas). 

21. rubecula, sf in. ROBIN. OHve brown above ; throat and upper 

breast chestnut red ; lower breast white. 
The Robin — Dimensions, Cp ; Eggs, Dg — is the most popular of British birds. According 
I a French author, " this beautiful songster is very good with bread crumbs " ; but it is not 
)oked in this country. The song is a mellow '* yoop ! tirry lil, tirry HI, tirry lirry lirry lil," 
id is heard till very late in the evening, the Robin being one of the last birds to go to bed, 
i he is one of the earliest to get up. His flight is rapid and straight from bush to bush, 
he sexes are alike in plumage. The nest is rather large, with the cup out of the centre • 
is found in many strange positions, but oftenest in a hole or on the ground, under ivy ; it is 
ade of dead leaves, grass, and moss, lined with rootlets, hair, feathers, and now and then a 
ttle wool. The eggs are from five to seven in number. 

udromias. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDM. 

293. morinellus, 9 in. DOTTEREL. Black crown ; white eye stripe ; 

rufous breast; black below; grey.axillaries. 
The Dotterel — Dimensions, le ; Eggs, Kt — has its numbers reinforced in spring and 
Litumn by migrants to and from the north. It has a hurried sort of flight, and its call is the 
dot, dote," which gives it its name. The female is larger than the male, and much more 
cilliantly marked, especially below. The eggs are laid on the ground on some unfrequented 
loor ; there are generally three of them, but occasionally four have been found, as one would 
cpect from their shape. 

FALCONIDM. 

[oin. Merlin. Above slaty blue and black; below 
rufous, with blackish brown streaks ; throat white ; 
tail with a broad black band. 
n in. Red-footed Falcon. Dark grey above ; pale 
grey below ; tail black ; thighs chestnut ; legs red ; 
feet red ; claws yellowish white. 

197. cenchris, 12 in. Lesser Kestrel. Head and tail grey ; back un- 
spotted chestnut ; claws white. 

193. subbuteo, 13 in. Hobby. Above bluish black ; black moustache : 

buff below, with black stripes ; thighs reddish ; two 
middle tail feathers black. 

195. tintjunculus, 14 in. Kestrel. Head and tail slaty grey ; back chest- 
nut, spotted with black ; legs yellow ; claws black. 

192. peregrimts, 17 in. Peregrine Falcon. Bluish grey above ; black 
moustache ; huffish, barred with brown, below ; 
crown black. 

1S9. ^r/alco, 21 in. Gyr Falcon. Grey above ; whitish below ; crown 
slate-coloured ; moustache slate-coloured ; breast 
streaked with black ; tail barred with slate, 

190. candicans, 22 in. Greenland Falcon. Bill yellowish white ; 
plumage white, with dark brown markings above ; 
white below ; tail white. 

xgt. isiandus, 23 in. Iceland Falcon. Brownish grey above ; whitish 

below; head white, but finely streaked ; throat white ; 

flanks barred ; breast spotted ; bill blue. 

The Merlin— Dimensions, Ja; Eggs, Jn— is the smallest of our Falcons. It can be 

:cognised on the wing by its tail being longer than the Hobby's in proportion to its body, 

id by its body being bulkier. Its flight is low and gliding, and rather slow, but persistent. 



alco. 


Plate xvi. 


19-1. 


(Bsalofit 


I9S- 


vespertinus, 



96 THE SPECIES. 

as it flies down its prey. The '* mew " is a tremulous scream like the Kestrel|s._ The female 
is like the young male, and is brown where the adult male is grey, and her tail is barred with 
brown and tipped with white ; she is larger than the adult male, whose plumage she 
occasionally assumes. The nest is generally a hollow in the moor, lined with a few twigs 
of ling, although the deserted nest of some other bird, in a tree, is used. There are four or 
five eggs. 

The Red-footed Falcon— Dimensions, Jr; Eggs, Js — is occasionally found here in the 
summer, but its visits have been few and far between. 

The Lesser Kestrel — Dimensions, Ki ; Eggs, Jf — has put in two appearances in this 
country during the last quarter of a century, and it was never heard of here before. 

The Hobby— Dimensions, Lg; Eggs, Kq— when on the wing looks like a miniature 
Peregrine, with its slender form and long, narrow, pointed wings, flying swiftly, swooping, 
and hovering, and then swooping again to catch the insects on which it feeds. The "mew " 
is a " pree, pree." The female is like the male, but larger. The young are huffish on the 
head and thighs. The nest is generally the deserted one of a Crow or a Magpie, and is 
always in high trees. There are three or four eggs. 

The Kestrel — Dimensions, Ls; Eggs, Kk — is our commonest Falcon, and can be recpg- 
oised by its hovering (whence its name of Windhover), head to windward and hanging 
down, tail downwards and slightly spread, feet hidden, and wings quivering, the hover 
changing into a swift, easy flight, with a few rapid flaps, a glide, and then another hover to 
carefully examine the ground. One of the most interesting of experiences is that of standing on 
a lofty, precipitous hill, and looking down on to a Kestrel as he hovers over the deep valley 
below. The call is a screaming '* keelie-keelie, kee, kee, kee," and a chatter. The male is 
grey above, the female is brown ; his tail is tipped with white, while hers has a broad brown 
tip. She is two inches longer than he is, and sometimes assumes his plumage. The eggs, 
from four to six in number, are generally laid in the deserted nest of a Crow or Pigeon ; but 
occasionally a nest is specially made in a hole in a cliff, of a few twigs and heather, with a 
lining of grass. 

The Peregrine — Dimensions, Nt ; Eggs, Oe^s the Blue Hawk, with the strong, rapid, 
circling flight, who screams " hek, kek, kek," and gracefully sweeps out of view. The 
female is also blue, but is from three to four inches longer. The eggs, from two to four in 
number, are either deposited in a deserted nest of a Crow or Heron, or else laid in a hollow 
on a ledge. 

The Gyr Falcon — Dimensions, Po ; Eggs, Ot — is the "gyr"-ating bird etymologically, 
but not in any other sense. There is onlj- one record of his having been seen in this country. 
His flight is so swift as to make a noise in the air, and he is very seldom seen to glide. His 
cry is a loud shrill '* mew.'* 

The Greenland Falcon — Dimensions, Qe ; Eggs, Ot — is a rare winter visitor here. 

The Iceland Falcon — Dimensions, Ok ; Eeets. Ot — is another occasional winter visitor 
whom some ornithologists consider to be, like the Greenland Falcon, merely a Gyr in a 
difl'erent state of plumage. 

Fratercula. Plate xxxii. ALCIDJE, 

379. arctica, 12 in. Puffin. Head and back black ; collar black ; 

under parts white ; bill sheathed with orange ; 

legs orange. 
The Puffin— Dimensions, Kd ; Eggs, Pn— has no colour on its bill in winter. It visits 
our coasts in summer and breeds here. It has a whirring flight when on the wing, anddives 
and flies underwater for long distances. When wounded its mates swarm around it and 
push it with their bills to encourage it to fly or dive out of danger. Its call is " orr-a-orr." 
The female is like the male but has a smaller bill. The egg, for there is only one, is laid in 
a rabbit burrow or in a crevice in the rock, which is occasionally lined with a little grass oi 
a few rootlets. 

FringHla. Plate vii. FRINGILLINM (Passeridae). 

95. cmlebs, 5I in. Chaffinch. Forehead black ; head greyish ; 

back chestnut ; rump green ; wings black, white, 
and yellow ; tail brown and white ; bill bluish. 

96. montifringilla, 6 in. Brambling, Forehead black ; head black spotted 

with brown ; back black ; rump white ; wing with 

a white spot ; white below, reddish on throat, and 

with black spots on the flank ; bill horn colour. 

The Chaffinch— Dimensions, Ct ; Eggs, Co— is one of our commonest birds. Its flight is 

a nipid undulating one, with many pauses, and an abrupt sort of alighting,^ the male 

raising his head feathers when in safety. The note is a ringing " tol-de-rol, lol, chickweedo," 

or a " tol, lol, lol, kiss me dear," with an occasional '* wee, wee, wee." or a snore as of some 



THE SPECIES. 97 

drunken man. The female has the head and back ashy brown, the rump yellowish green, 
and the breast yellowish grey. The nest is a beautiful, compact, structure of rootlets, moss, 
and grass, lined with hair and feathers, and generally with some chips of decayed wood 
outside. There are four or five eggs. 

The Brambling— Dimensions, Dp; Eggs, Ct— visits us in the winter. It has a rapid 
undulating flight. Its note is a flute-like " chip-a-way." The female has a dark brown 
head and shoulders, and has no black and chestnut. The nest is higher in the trees than a 
Chaffinch's, and nearly always has birch bark in it, the other constituents being green moss,' 
lichens, cobwebs, and thistle down, forming a rather large accumulation. There are from 
five to seven eggs. 



Fulica. Plate xxiv. RALLID^. 

284. aira, 15 in. Coot. Broad white shield on forehead ; plumage 

blackish grey, with narrow white wing bar ; remiges 
25, third primary longest ; tail feathers, 14. 

The Coot — Dimensions, Mk; Eggs, Nm — can swim, dive, walk, and run. It can fly 
strongly, but prefers to skim along, touching the water every now and then with its feet. 
The call is " kew." The sexes are alike in plumage. The nest is a bulky structure of 
rushes and flags, often two feet high, built up from the bed of the water to form an island, 
and occasionally afloat or moored to a reed. It is lined with dry dead reeds ; and the eggs, 
which number from 6 to 12, are of the colour of the reeds among which they are laid. 



Fuligula. Plate xxi. ANATIDAi, 

246. nyroca, 16 In. White-eyrd Duck. Head ferruginous ; back 

brown ; lower breast white ; eye white ; 18 feathers 
in tail. 

247. cristaia, 17 in. TuFTED DuCK. Crest and head black ; back 

black. 

245. ferina, 18 in. Pochard. Head chestnut ; back grey ; wing 

speculum grey. 

248. maj'iia, 2.0 in. Scaup. Head, neck, and shoulders black ; back 

white or speckled. 

244. rujina, 21 in. Red-crested Pochard. Crest and head chest- 

nut ; back brown ; eye brown ; 16 feathers in tail. 

The White-eyed Duck — Dimensions, Na ; Eggs, Ng — has not only a white eye but a 
white wing bar or speculum. Its bill is dark blue with a black nail. It is almost as well 
known as the Ferruginous Duck. It has been occasionally found here, generally in 
Leadenhall Market. 

The Tufted Duck — Dimensions, Nc^ ; Eggs, Pf — is very common in Nottinghamshire. 
Its bin is greyish blue with a black nad. The female is brown where the male is black, and 
the white wing patch is smaller. They are capital divers. The flight is a strong, steady 
one, close to the water for some distance and then with a considerable rise. The call is 
a *' kr-kr-kurra." There are from 8 to 12 eggs. The nest is in a tuft, generally on the 
brink of a pond, and it is built of dry reeds and grass, lined with small down, which is 
greyish black, with an obscure white centre. 

The Pochard — Dimensions, Od ; Eggs, Pr— is another of the Diving Ducks now increasing 
in this country. Its bill is black, blue and black, the blue being a stripe in the middle. 
The sexes are alike in plumage, except that the female has a dull brown head and neck, 
and a white chin. Both sexes have a grey wing bar. The flight is straight, rapid, low, and 
noisy, and the call is a " kr, kr, kr," with a whistle. The nest is always near water, and is 
made of dry grass and sedge, lined with brownish grey down, having obscure white centres. 

The Scaup — Dimensions, Pc ; Eggs, Qa — is so called from its call. It has a light blue 
bill with a black nail, and its tail is not longer than its closed wings. Its wing bar is white. 
The female, like the young male, has a white band round the base of the bill. The flight is 
noisy and rapid. The cry is given with a peculiar tossing of the head and opening of the 
bill. The nest is usually on a sloping; bank, and is made of dry grass and sedge, lined with 
broken sedge and dark brown down without white tips, but with pale centres. 

The Red-crested Pochard— Dimensions, Pn ; Eggs, Pc— has a red bill and red legs. 
Its wing bar is white. The female is light grey on the cheeks and throat. It is well known 
in Northern India, but Is only a rare straggler to this country. 



gS THE SPECIES, 

Fulmarus. Plate xxxiii, PROCELLARIIDM, 

390. hmsitatus, 16 in. Capped Petrel. Head brown ; rump white ; 
white below. 

3Sq. glacialis, 19 in. Fulmar. Head white ; rump grey ; buff below. 
A Capped Petrel — Dimensions, Nl — was once found by a boy in a furze bush near Swaff- 
ham ; it bit his hand, and he thereupon killed it, and made it into a British bird. It is a 
tropica] species, and its eggs are unknown. 

The Fulmar — Dimensions, Ot ; Eggs, Rj— is well known to sailors as the Mollymoke, and, 
on the American seaboard, as the Noddy. Its flight is like a Gull's, sweeping along with only 
an occasional flap, following the curves of the waves hundreds of miles out over the sea, on 
which it sleeps ; but, unlike a Gull, it holds its wings out straight, instead of curving them. 
Its first primary is the longest ; it has a short, reticulate tarsus ; and its nasal tubes join on to 
the maxillary margin. Its note is a cackle. It is said to breed in Britain, on the strength of 
its haunts at St. Kilda, which is rather a long way out in the Atlantic. It makes no nest, and 
lays but one egg, which can be recognised by its coarse grain and strong smell. 

GaUinago. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPACIDyE. 

311. gallhiula, ']\ in. Jack Snipe. Mantle glossy purple; inside webs 
of scapulars glossy green ; remiges, 24 ; axillaries 
white ; tail feathers, 12. 
310. ccelestis^ 10 in. Snipe. Axillaries whitish ; tail feathers 14, 
309, major^ \\\ in. Great Snipe. Remiges 25 ; tail feathers 16 or 

18 ; four outer ones on each side whitish ; median 
wing covers tipped with white. 
The Jack Snipe — Dimensions, Gd ; Eggs, Jk — comes to us in September, and leaves us, 
for his breeding haunts in the north, in April. The flight is straight and rapid, beginning, in 
silence, with a few zigzags. This bird used to be considered the male of G, ccelestis, which 
was the "Jill" Snipe. 

The Snipe — Dimensions, In ; Eggs, Kc — unlike the Jack Snipe, calls as he rises, the note 
being "chiswick," given as he zigzags up, preparatory to getting straight away. In the 
breeding season the male makes a curious drumming sound as he swoops down in his flight, 
with his tail outspread. The sexes are alike in plumage. The nest is in a hollow in ihe 
ground, generally under a tuft of grass, and always in a swampy place ; it consists of a few 
scraps of sedge or dry grass, and there are four eggs. 

The Great Snipe — Dimensions, Js j Eggs, Ll — rises silently, like the Jack Snipe, but is a 
mere straggler to this country. It has a good deal of white in its tail feathers, and keeps its 
tail well spread as it flies. Its call is " bad, bad 1 " 

Gallinula. Plate xxiv. RALLIDM. 

283. chloropus, 13 in. MooRHEN. Red or brown shield on forehead ; 

plumage blackish grey ; wing with white streak ; 

flanks streaked with white ; under tail coverts 

' ' barred with white ; remiges 23, second primary 

longest ; legs greenish. 

The Moorhen — Dimensions, Ko ; Eggs, Lj — is almost as well known under the more 

appropriate name of Waterhen. It bobs its head as it swims, and bobs its tail as it walks ; it 

dives readily; and its flight is low and slow, with the legs hanging, legs, which it may be as 

well to note, are not webbed, although It is a water bird. The call is " krek-rerk-rerk." 

The sexes are alike in plumage, both having the red frontal plate, and the white line on th" 

wing feathers. The nest is a mass of reeds, often on the ground, sometimes afloat on ^ 

pond, and now and then up a tree 20 feet or more above the water. It is lined with dry 

grass and sedge, and contams from 4 to 10 eggs. 

Garrulus. Plate ix. CORVINjE (Passeridse). 

125. glandai'ius, 14 in. jAY. Crown white, buff, and black; face with a 
black moustache ; throat white ; upper parts 
brown ; wing coverts chequered with blue, white, 
and black ; tail barred with blue ; under parts pale 
brown shading into white; lower back white 
The Jay — Dimensions, Lo \ Eggs, Hk— has pale blue eyes and a peculiarly wide swallow, 

and is generally found where there are oak trees about. The flight is a floppine one, with a 

closure of the wings preceding the downward shoot. The call is a screeching riike, rake," 

but the Jay can imitate anything except the human voice. The sexes are alike in plumage. 

The nest is in the lower branches of some good sized tree, generally in the thick of a woud ; 

it is a bulky cup-shaped structure of twigs and roots, lined with rootlets and grass, and it 

contauis from five to seven eggs. 



IHE SPECIES. 



99 



Gecinus. Plate xi. PICID^. 

149. viridis, 13^ in. Green Woodpeckek. Crown grey and scarlet ; 

moustache black and red ; back green ; primaries 

brown spotted or barred with white. 

The Green Woodpecker — Dimensions, I,i ; Eggs, Ha— has a laughing " hyu, hyu, hyu " 

for a call, and a dipping flight, but is generally detected as it taps the tree trunk up which 

It works obliquely, while its peculiarly nicked tail feathers keep it from slipping backwards. 

The female has no red in her moustache. The nest is generally in a beech, or ash, or poplar 

tree, in a hole about a foot long, made by the bird straight into the heart wood, and then 

curving downwards to an enlargement, which contains a few chips of wood and the clutch of 

from five to eight white glossy eggs. 

CeocicWa. Plate i. TURDINM (PasseridEe). 

8. sibirica, 9 in. Siberian Thrush. Axillaries white and grey ; 
tail feathers 12 ; plumage olive brown and slaty 
grey, with brown spots ; broad yellowish white eye- 
stripe ; wings brown, 
7. varia, 12^ in. White's Thrush. Axillaries white and black ; 

tail feathers 14 ; plumage yellowish brown above, 
buffish below, with dark brown crescentoid blotches ; 
wings brown, edged with buff. 
The Siberian Thrush — Dimensions, Hq — has only been heard of once or twice on this side 
of the Channel, although it is occasionally seen in France and Belgium. 

White's Thrush — Dimensions, Kk ; Eggs, Hb — or White's Ground Thrush, as it is belter 
called, is named after Gilbert White, of SelbornCj who died five and thirty years before the 
first specimen was heard of in Great Britain. It is imknown in this country except as a raie 
winter visitor. Its nest has only been found once, and that was at Ningpo, in North China. 
Its flight is like a Woodcock's, and its note is a plaintive " see 1 " 

Glareola. Plate xxv. GLAREOLIDJE. 

291. pratincola, 9^ in. Pratincole. Olive brown above ; tail coverts 

white ; wings blackish ; axillaries chestnut ; throat 

buff, with a narrow black edging; remiges 26; 

tail much forked ; bill black, red at base. 

The Pratincole — Dimensions, Ik ; Eggs, Hi — is an African species occasionally visiting us 

in spring or autumn. It has long wings and flies like a Tern, and it calls " bedice, 

bedree ! " 



Grus. Plate xxv, 
286. virgOf 



GRUID.^. 



36 in. 



Demoiselle Crane, Tuft of white feathers 
behind the eye; innermost secondaries straight; 
bill green. 

285. communis^ 48 in. Crane. Crown naked and red; no tuft of while 
feathers ; innermost secondaries plumed ; bill 
brown ; remiges 33, first primary as long as fourth, 
second and third longest. 

A Demoiselle Crane — Dimensions, Td ; Eggs, Sh — was once shot in the Orkney Islandi 
and thereby became a British bird. 

The Crane — Dimensions, Tk ; Eggs, Sn — is said to have bred in the Fens in the days of 
Elizabeth. It certainly does not do so now; but it straggles here very occasionally. Ii 
flies with its head and neck out straight, and its legs out straight. Its call Is " cooirr ! " 



171. 



Plate xiv. 
fulvuSf 



VULTURID^, 
42 in. Griffon Vulture. 



Gyps. 

Head and neck downy ; 

plumage ashy ; ruff white ; wings and tail dark 

brtiwn ; bill pale brown ; legs bluish. 

A Griffon Vulture — Dimensions, Tj ; Eggs, So — in the springtime of 1843, sat on a rock 

near Cork Harbour, and is now to be seen, duly stuffed, in Trinity College, Dublin. He was 

the first and the last of the Griflbns on record in the British Islands ; and in many binl bo'^V s 

he proudly heads the British list. 



lOO THE SPECIES. 

Hsematopus. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDM. 

303. ostraleguSf 16 in. Oystercatcher. Black and white ; bill orange ; 

remiges 29, the 26th at the elbow, and equal in 

length to the third primary ; legs flesh-colour ; 

tarsus reticulate all round. 

The Oystercatcher— Dimensions, Nf; Eggs, Om — derives its generic name from its red 

^' foot, and its specific name from its gathering shells with which to line the hollow in the beach 

*^ it uses as a nest. In the spring there are chestnut markings on the back, which are absent in 

the winter plumage. The flight is a strong, skimming one, with rapid wing work. The call 

is a shrill "keep, keep." There are from two to four eggs, in colour resembling the pebbles 

with which, and the shells, it lines its nest. 

Haliaetus. Plate xv. FALCONIDM, 

180. albicilla^ 34 in. Sea Eagle. Bill yellow ; head ashy brown ; 
brown above ; dark brown below ; 27 remiges ; 
fifth primary longest, first primary equal to eighth, 
and second longer than seventh ; tail wedge-shaped 
and white. 
^ . The Sea Eagle —Dimensions, Sr ; Eggs, Rt — is the bird beloved of sculptors and plasterers, 

•^ who will never feather an eagle to the toes if they can help it. In its flight its wings seem to 

curve upwards at the points, as it gives a few regular flaps, and then sails along, with feet 
and head short in, and wings full out. Its cry is a peculiar " yelp." The sexes are alike in 
plumage. The nest is occasionally in a tree, but generally on a lofty ledge in some pre- 
cipitous cliff" ; and it is built of sticks and twigs, and turf and seaweed, being sometimes six 
feet across. There are one, two, or three eggs, and these are much rougher in texture than 
those of the Golden Eagle. 

Harelda. Plate xxii. A NAT I DM. 

251. glacialis, 26 in. Long-tailed Duck. Head white ; cheeks brown : 

back black ; remiges 26 ; tail blackish. 
'^. The Long-tailed Duck — Dimensions, RI ; Eggs, Ob — is one of our regular winter visitors, 

and is generally recognisable by its peculiar cry, which has been rendered as " coal an' candle 
licht !" The male's beak is black and orange ; the female's is bluish grey. The male is 
unmistakable in winter, owing to his two long black tail feathers. The female is browner 
than the male, with a brown patch on the side of the neck. Both sexes have a swift and 
rolling flight. 

Himantopus. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPACIDM. 

305. Candidas, 13 in. Black-winged Stilt. Head and neck white ; 
black and white above ; white below ; bill black, 
pointed, and straight, and twice as long as head ; 
remiges 29 ; legs pink, web extending down the 
toes but incised almost to the base. 
The Black-winged Stilt — Dimensions, Lc ; Eggs, Ls — has come here at long intervals for a 
very long time, but has apparently never bred here. Its very long legs render it unmistakable. 

Uirundo. Plate vi. HIRUNDININM (Passeridae). 

83. riparia, 5 in. SAND Martin. Brown above ; rump brown ; 

white below ; brown band across chest ; legs 
brown. 
82. urbica, $\ in. Martin. Blue black above ; rump white ; white 

below ; no band across chest ; toes feathered. 

84. purpurea, 6| in. Purple Martin. Purplish blue body ; brownish 

black wings and tail ; small white patch under 
wings ; legs purple. 
81. rustica, 'j\ in. Swallow. Blue black above ; rump blue ; white 

below ; throat chestnut ; legs black. 

The Sand Martin— Dimensions, Bg ; Eggs, Bu — arrives here during the last week of 

\y March and leaves us in October. It has a light, skimming, fluttering flight. Tlie song is a 

iwitter, and the alarm a ''share." The female's throat band is narrower than the male's, 



THE SPECIES. lOI 

but otherwise the sexes are alike, both having a characteristic tuft of feathers just above the 
hind toe. The nest is in a hole in a sandbank, the hole sloping upwards and generally 
swarming with fleas, the nest a mere bed of grass and feathers. There are four, five, or six 
eggs, which are white, smooth, and glossy. 

The Martin — Dimensions, Dm ; Eggs, Bp — comes at the end of April and lingers on till 
December. He flies in shorter curves than the Swallow, and not so swiftly. His note is 
" screeb," often uttered when on the wing. The sexes are alike in plumage. The nest is 
built under the eaves of a roof, and on walls and cliffs, and consists of a ball of mud, having 
a hole just lar^e enough for a doorway, and lined with dry grass and feathers. There are 
four, five, or six eggs. 

A Purple Martin — Dimensions, Es; Eggs, Fi — was once shot near Dublin. It is an 
American, and beyond the fact of its luiving once been shot in the British Inlands has no 
claim to be considered a British bird. 

The Swallow — Dimensions, Gf ; Eggs, Cp — arrives xn the first half of April and leaves us 
in November. The female differs from the male in having the tail not so forked, and the 
throat bands narrower. The flight is bold and graceful, wavering at times, but usually in 
easy curves and long undulations. The Swallow has a gentle warbling song, and a call of 
" whit, ceep, cheep." The nest is of mud like the Martin's, but it is open at the top, and is 
larger and more loosely made. It is lined with dry grass and feathers, and contains from 
four to six eggs. 

Hydrochelidon. Plate xxx. LARIDM. 

342. leucoptera^ g| in. White-Winged Black Tern. Black, with 

broad white edge to wings ; tail white ; bill red ; 
legs red. 

341. nigra, 10 in. Black Tern. Black, with slaty wings and tail ; 

bill black ; legs brown. 

343. hybrida^ 11^ in. Whiskered Tern. Crown and nape black ; 

cheeks white ; grey above ; wings whitish below ; 
tail white ; lower breast brownish ; bill red ; legs 
red. 

The White -winged Black Tern — Dimensions, II ; Eggs, Hs — is occasionally found on the 
east coast, generally in May or June. It is a widely distributed species, having been 
recorded in Sweden, North China, Celebes, New Zealand, and the Transvaal. 

The Black Tern — Dimensions, Jb ; Eggs, lo — is better known as a spring and autumn 
migrant than as a resident. Like all the Terns it is recognisable by its forked tail ; and it 
carries its wings crossed one over the other as it walks. The sexes are alike in plumage, 
though the female is generally lighter in colour below than the male. The note is a shrill 
" hear ! hear I " The nest is a mass of decaying vegetable matter on a mud flat, a floating 
raft, or a marshy island, and contains three eggs. 

The Whiskered Tern — Dimensions, Ka ; Eggs, Kf — has been recorded in this country 
about half a dozen times. It is the rarest of the Marsh Terns as far as Europe is concerned, 
for though it breeds along the Danube, it breeds more freely in the Orange Free State, 
forming a curious, but not the only, instance of a bird nesting both north and south of the 
Equator. 

Hypolais. Plate iii. TURDINM { Passeridas). 

36. icterina^ 5 in. Icterine Warbler. Olive green above ; green- 

ish yellow below ; greenish yellow eye stripe ; legs 
blue. 

The Icterine Warbler — Dimensions, Be; Eggs, Co — has only been recorded three times 
in this country. 

Ibis. Plate xviii. IBIDIDM, 

215. falcinellus^ 22 in. GLOSSY IBIS. Bronze brown with green and purple 
reflections ; bill decurved ; face bare ; 27 remiges ; 
legs dark green. 

The Ibis — Dimensiona, Qa ; Eggs, No — was once made out to be the Liverpool Liver, 
and it certainly seems to be the Black Curlew of East Anglia ; but its visits are at very 
distant intervals. It gives its name to the magazine under whose auspices the list we are 
working to was originally compiled. 



THE SPECIES 



lynx.. Plate xi. 



PICIDj^. 



150 torquilla, 6^ in. 



Wryneck. Above greyish brown, much spotted; 
throat buff with many narrow blackish bars ; 
remiges 21 ; first primary short, second and third 
longest ; tail soft and rounded, greyish, with five 01 
six rippling dark brown bars ; 12 tail feathers, the 
two outer ones hidden under the two next. 

llie W.yiieck — Dimensions, Eh ; Eggs, Do — gains its name of lynx from its shriek, and 
its popular name from its habit of twisting its neck round. Its call is "oh, dear, dear, dear, 
dear, dear ! " It is a summer migrant, often known as the Cuckoo's mate from coming at the 
same time as the Cuckoo. Its flight is a short and quick one, but it is generally seen at rest. 
It lays its eggs in a hole in a tree, but, unlike the Woodpecker, it never bores the hole in 
which they are laid. The eggs are from 6 to 10 in number, and are laid among a few chips 
■af rotten wood. 



Lanius. Plate vi. 



LAN/IN^ (Passeridse). 



76. pomeranus, 7 in. 



75 



74- 



collurio. 



73- 



excubitor. 



7iin. 



SJin. 



9^ in. 



WooDCHAT. Crown and nape chestnut ; head 
black ; back black ; rump white ; white below ; 
wings black, tipped with white ; two middle tail 
feathers black, the rest black and white. 
Red-backed Shrike. Head grey ; back chest- 
nut ; chin white ; lower breast buff ; wings black, 
edged with chestnut ; two middle tail feathers 
black, with white tips. 

Lesser Grey Shrike. Grey above ; whitish 
below ; forehead black ; wings black, with one 
white spot , first primary very short, third primary 
longest. 



Great Grey Shrike. Pearl grey above ; whitish 
below; forehead whitish ; wide black stripe through 
eye ; wings black, with one or two white bars ; two 
middle tail feathers black, others edged with while. 

The Woodchat — Dimensions, Fg ; Eggs, Et — is a rare visitor, recorded as having bred in 
the Isle of Wight. The flight is swift and cnrvnig, with an occasional hover. The call is a 
" kra, kra," but there is also a somewhat musical song, mostly mimetic of the birds in th; 
neighbourhood. The female has red margins to the wing coverts, but is otherwise much, 
duller in plumage than the male. The nest is a conspicuous one in the fork of a tree ; it is 
made of twigs, and grass, and wool, and generally has a few flowers of Gnaphalium, and 
there are four, five, or six eggs. 

The Red-backed Shrike — Dimensions, Gb ; Eggs, Eo — arrives in May, and is our 
commonest representative of the Butchers, for such is the meaning of Lanius, the 
name being derived from the way in which these birds kill their victims and hang them up 
on thorns, so as to form a larder near the nest. The flight is a dipping one, with many a 
poise and hover ; and in times of danger the bird can be recognised by a characteristic twirl 
of its tail. A Shrike never pursues its prey, but it will attack and kill any bird under its own 
iiize. The note is " tst-tst-tsook-tsook^" but the male can mimic the song of his neighbours. 
The female is brownish red above, with very pale edges to the secondaries. The nest is 
ubout seven inches across and easily found ; it is made of twigs and plant stems, and lined 
with hair and wool, and contains from four to six eggs. 

The Lesser Grey Shrike — Dimensions, Hh ; Eggs, Fm — is an accidental straggler to oui 
chores. 

The Great Grey Shrike — Dimensions, Ig;_ Eggsj Gh — is a regular winter visitor. It 

' dangles its legs as it flies, works its wings rapidly, dips and swoops, and frequently ho^-ers. 

\x\% Z2^\^6. excubitor. Qx the sentinel, from sitting on some conspicuous bianch. Its alarm 

'lote is a "shake;' its call a " trui." The female is duller in plumage, and has grey 

crescents on the breast. It breeds in Northern Sweden. 



Larus. Plate xxxi. 
357. minutus^ 



LARID^. 



Little Gull. Head .changing from black to 
white ; back grey ; primaries tipped with white, 
without black bars, and being black below ; re* 
miges 28. 



THE SPECIES. 



103 



356. Philadelphia, 15 in. 



358. ridibundus, 16 in. 



361. canus, 



18 in. 



363. 


fuscus^ 


366. 


leiicopterus. 


362. 


argentattis. 


3S0. 


ichthy actus. 


364- 


marinus, 


363. 


gtaucus, 



23 in. 



27 in. 



28 in. 



32 m. 



Bonaparte's Gull. Head changing from greyish 
black to white ; back grey ; inner webs of the two 
outer primaries edged with white. 
Black-headed Gull. Head changing from dark 
btown to white ; back grey ; remiges 30 ; outer 
primaries with white centres ; inner webs edged 
with black. 

359- melanocepkalus, 17 in. Mediterranean Black-headed Gull. Head 
black ; back grey ; wings white ; first primary with 
black line on outer web ; bill red, with a dark band 
in front of the angle. 

Gull. Head white or spotted with brown ; back 

grey ; primaries brown with white spot ; bill tipped 

with yellow ; legs greenish yellow ; remiges 31. 

Lesser Black -backed Gull. Head white; 

primaries dark brown ; back blackish ; legs bright 

yellow. 

Iceland Gull. All white ; legs and wings very 

long. 

Herring Gull. Head white or spotted with 

grey ; back grey ; bill yellow ; remiges 34 ; legs 

flesh-colour. 

Great Black -headed Gull. Head black; 

white patch round eye ; bill yellow with a black 

bar ; legs greenish yellow. 

Great Black-backed Gull. Head whiter 

back blackish ; remiges 34 ; legs flesh-colour. 

Glaucous Gull. All white ; legs and wings 

rather short. 

The Little Gull — Dimensions, Jq ; Eggs, Kr — is the smallest of the Gulls, and only visits 
our coasts occasionally. The first specimen on our record was shot on the Thames, at 
Chelsea. 

Bonaparte's Gull — Dimensions, Mm ; Eggs, Ms — is an occasional straggler from across 
the Atlantic. It is, perhaps, worth noting that this bird builds its nest in tall trees. 

The Black-headed Gull — Dimensions, Nk ; Eggs, Mt — is best known by its brown head, 
which is only black by courtesy. It flies buoyantly, with much circling and hovering, spreads 
its tail, raises its wings, and pats at the water as it drops to its prey. Its call is a varied 
"hyuk-kak-kah," which has the fancied resemblance to a laugh, from which comes the 
specific ridibundus^ and the popular " Laughing " Gull. In winter the head is white, with a 
grey patch round the eye and on the ear coverts. The sexes are alike in plumage. The 
nest is a mere holldw in a swamp, or on an island j it is lined with a little grass or weed, and 
contains two or three eggs. 

The Mediterranean Black -headed Gull— Dimensions, Nr ; Eggs, Mk— has been here twice. 

The Gull — Dimensions, Op ; Eggs, Or — is well known for its beautifully buoyant flight, 
now busily flapping, and now sailing and swaying on its long arched wings, which are mottled 
with brown below. The first six primaries are grey, brown, and white ; the secondaries aie 
jjrey and white ; the coverts are all grey ; the first and second primaries are equal, and the 
longest in the wing. In summer the head is white ; but in winter the head is streaked with 
brown, and the yellow of the legs darkens considerably. The call is a " kyah," and a laughing 
" kree." The nest is a large one, usually on a low grassy island, but occasionally on a cliff ; 
it is made of grass, heather, and seaweed, and shore plants, and contains three eggs. 

The Lesser Black-backed Gull — Dimensions, Pq ; Eggs, Qn — is as common a bird as the 
last, and can be distinguished from it by the black back and small feet. In winter the white 
head is streaked with brown. The call is an "ah-ah-ah," and the alarm is "jock." The 
nest is always on the ground, but at any height above the water ; it is a large ma.>^s of grass 
and dead leaves, with a little seaweed and other plants ; it contains two or three eggs. 

The Iceland Gull— Dimensions, Qhj Eggs, Re— has occasionally been recorded as a winter 
visitor. 

The Herring Gull — Dimensions, Qm ; Eggs, Rg — is known, all the year round, all round 
the coast — flying like a heron, following the herring, and stealing the eggs of every sea bird it 
meets with. Its outer primaries are mainly black, with a grey wedge down the Inner webs, 
increasing till the feathers are mainly grey. In winter the head and neck have grey streaks- 






I04 THE SPECIES. 

Its call is a croak and a ''peewheel." Its nest is generally on a ledge of rocTc, but sometimes 
on level ground, and is a bulky construction of seaweed, lined with straw and shore plants. 
There are two or three eggs. 

A Great Black-headed Gull—Dimensions, Sb ; Eggs, Rr— straggled from the Persian 
Gulf into the estuary of the Exe, in 1859^ and, after a few foolish " croawks," fell a victim to 
an excited gunner, and thus became a British bird. 

The Great Black -backed Gull — Dimensions, Sd ; Eggs, Rp— is a not uncommon resident. 
a " murderous thief," feeding on fish and the eggs and young of other birds, recognisable by 
his great size and Eagle-like flight. His cry is a yelpmg " kyauk." The nest is on some 
crag or islet— a big untidy mass of grass and seaweed, lined with a few feathers, or wool, and 
containing two or three eggs. 

The Glaucous Gull — Dimensions, SI ; Eggs, Sa — is the Burgomaster of the whalers, and is 
distinguished by the enormous spread of its wings. It is the largest of our Gulls, but is only 
an irregular visitor. It has grey streaks on its head in winter. 

Li^rinus. Plate vii. FRINGILLINM (Passeridas). 

91. chloris, 6 in. Greenfinch. Crown and back olive green ; wings 

greyish brown, edged with yellow ; axiUaries brigh; 
yellow ; outer tail feathers black, yellow at base, 
and tipped with greyish brown. 
The Greenfinch — Dimensions, Dm ; Eggs, Df — is one of our common residents, yearly 
becoming commoner. It has a rapid drooping flight, with occasional glides. It has a twitter- 
ing song of its own, but generally imitates that of other birds. Its call is "meay," or *'yik, 
yik, yik." The female is not so green as the male, and has the tail feathers tipped with 
yellow on the outer webs only. The nest is generally in a tree which has a good deal of 
lichen on it, but frequently it is among evergreens. It has moss outside, with grass and 
wool, and it is lined with hair and feathers, and contains four, five, or six eggs. 

Limicola. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPACIDM. 

313. platyrhyncha, 6 in. Broad -billed Sandpiper. Blackish brown 
above ; white eye stripe ; brown spot in front of eye ; 
bill broad in the middle and longer than head ; 
little or no white on secondaries and upper tail 
coverts. 
The Broad-billed Sandpiper— Dimensions, Dr ; Eggs, Hr — occasionally straggles here 
from its Swedish home. 

Umosa. Plate xxix. SCOLOPACIDM. 

336. lapponica, 15J in. Bar-tailed Godwit. Back spotted brown ; rump 

whitish ; axiUaries white, faintly barred with 
black. 

337. helgica, 19 in. Black-tailed Godwit. Back spotted chestnut ; 

rump spotted chestnut ; axiUaries white, or brown 
and white ; tail feathers black with white bases. 

The Bar-tailed Godwit — Dimensions, Mr; Eggs, Ok — visits us in autumn and spring on 
its way from and to its breeding grounds. It has a call like the bleat of a goat; and another 
which lias been syllabised as " Poor Willie." In summer it is red below; in winter it is white 
below. The females are much larger than the males. 

The Black-tailed Godwit — Dimensions, Or ; Eggs, Od — is also a spring and autumn 
visitor. The females are also much larger than the males. In winter its back is ashy brown. 
Its cry is a " yelp." It has two flights, a leisurely one with the wings fully spread, and a 
hurried one with the wings shortened in. 

liinota. Plate vii. FRINGILLINM (Passerid^). 

99. rufescens, 4^ in, Lesser Redpoll. Crown red ; rump brown ; 

throat pink ; chin black ; bill horn colour and 

small. 
^3. linarirt^ 5 in. Mealy Redpoll. Crown red ; rump white ; 

throat pink ; chin black ; bill horn colour and 

small- 



THE SPECIES. 105 

100. kornemanni, 5J in, Greenland Redpoll, Crown red ; rump rosy ; 
throat pink ; chin black ; bill brown and large, 

loi, davirostris, 5^ in. TwiTE. Crown brown ; rump red ; throat brown; 
chin buff ; bill yellowish and short, 

97. cannabina, 5I in. Linnet. Crown reddish, streaked with grey and 
blackish brown ; rump pale brown ; throat yellowish 
grey with red and brown streaks ; chin brownith 
white ; tail dark brown and white ; bill brownish 
or blue. 

The Lesser Redpoll — Dimensions, Ak ; Eggs, Al — is our smallest Finch. He isdaikei" 
than the Mealy Redpoll, and has whitish red bands on his wings. He has a jerky, swimming 
sort of flight, generally starting off with a chattering rattle and continuing with a prolonged 
trill. His call has been syllabised as *' honree." The female is smaller than the male, and, 
unlike him, has no red on the breast and rump. The young birds have no red at all. The 
nest is generally low down among willows, or in a hedge or bush ; it is neatly made of 
slender twigs, grass, and moss, and lined with hair or willow catkins or cotton grass, and 
contains four, five, or six eggs. 

The Mealy Redpoll — Dimensions, Bd ; Eggs, Ak — has a longer tail than the last, and it is 
deeply forked, but as he is only an irregular visitor the chances of his being met with are 
somewhat remote. 

The Greenland Redpoll— Dimensions, Bk ; Eggs, Am- put in a first appearance among us 
^t Whitburn, in 1S55, and has not been seen here since. 

The Twite — Dimensions, Ce ; Eggs, Bf — is a native found mostly among the northern 
moors and hills, whence its other name of Mountain Linnet. ** Twite" comes from its call, 
tvhich has otherwise been syllabised as " twah-it." Its flight is the jerkily buoyant one, 
characteristic of the Linnet family, with a little " chatter" to start with, a *' twitter *' on the 
wing, and a circling sweep before alighting. The female has no red on the rump, and is 
tawnier above and buffer below than the male ; she has a dusky brown tip to her beak. The 
nest is either on the ground or near it, among heather or furze as a rule, beautifully made of 
heather and ^rass, and lined with roots, feathers, wool, hair, and thistledown. It contains 
from four to six eggs. 

The Linnet — Dimensions, Db ; Eggs, Bj— is one of our most popular songsters, with a 
sweet and mellow " twit, twit," and tye wee, tye wee," of his own, to which he adds 
whatever he thinks best of the notes and calls of other birds. He has a rapid, wavy flight, 
with alternating flappings and pausings, glidings and wheelings, displaying all the white in 
his wings, and in his full spread tail, as he alights. In summer he has a good deal of red in 
his plumage, on his crown and breast, and chest, but this disappears in the autumn. The 
older he gets the redder he gets. The female has no red in her plumage at any time, and 
lias little white on her wings, and many more brown stripes below than the male has, 
although in the winter he is much more streaked than in the summer. The Linnet in confine- 
ment loses much of the little bright colour he possesses, and is not unlike a hen sparrow. 
The nest is generally in a furze bush, occasionally it is in a thorn hedge, or even in a tree, 
and more rarely it is on the ground. It is a well built little affair of twigs, grey moss and 
wool, and grass, lined with rootlets, hair, feathers, and thistledown, and it contains from four 
to six eggs. 

Locustella. Plate iii. TURDINM (Passeridae). 

44. luscinioides, 5^ in, Savi's Warbler. Back russet biuwn ; throat 
white ; under tail coverts pale chestnut. 

43. ncevia, 5I in. Grasshopper Warblek. Back greenish brown ; 

throat brownish white ; under tail coverts bufifish 
brown, 

Savi's Warbler— Dimensions, Bt ; Eggs, Cq— has not been seen in this country since 1856, 
but was formerly a regular visitor to the Fen district. Its nest was a deep cup of interwoven 
sedge blades. 

The Grasshopper Warbler — Dimensions, Co ; Eggs, Bo — is one of our spring visitors, 
arriving at the end of April, and leaving us in September, It is more often heard than seen. 
It skulks about the underwood, running like a Sandpiper, and only occasionally takes to the 
wing. Its note is like the sound made by a grasshopper, whence its name, a sort of trilling; 
"tric-tric-tric,** shrill and monotonous. The female is like the male, with the brown barred 
rounded tail, which is characteristic. The nest is compactly built and deep, and generally 
has some Galium in it. It is, as a rule, in a clump of grass, or at the bottom of a furze bush, 
and, with the bedstraw, has a good deal of flat grass and moss. It is lined with grass, and 
contains five, six, or seven eggs, 

H 



Loxla. 


Plate viii. 


108. 


lifasciaia, 


loS- 


curvirosira, 



106 THE SPECIES. 

FRINGILLINM (Passeridse). 

6 in. Two-barred Crossbill. Pale scarlet spotted 
with brown ; wings black with two white bars. 

6^ in. Crossbill. Dull crimson, brighter on chest and 
rump ; wings and tail brown ; under tail coverts 
white with brown centres. 

107. ieucopiera, 6\ in. White-winged Crossbill. Dull crimson, with 
blackish scapulars and wings mostly white ; bill 
slender. 

106. pityopsittacus, 7 in. Parrot Crossbill. Similar to curvirosira but 
with bill longer, more arched, and very strong. 

The Two-harred Crossbill— Dimensions, Do ; Eggs, Cr— has a stouter beak than the 
While-winged Crossbill, which it somewhat resembles. Only a few stragglers have been 
noticed in this country, and it has never bred here. 

The Crossbill— Dimensions, Eg; Eggs, Em— is a winter visitor, occasionally remaining 
here to breed among the pine forests. It is generally seen on the wing when fluttering 
round the pine cones, on which it feeds. Its note is a " tsip, tsip," or " tsoc, tsoc." The 
female is dull yellow, where the male is red. The nest is always in a fir tree, and generally 
at the top. It IS built of fir twigs, dry grass, lichens, and wool, and contains four or five eggs. 

The White-winged Crossbill — Dimensions, En ; Eggs, Cs — is an American classed as 
British on the strength of a few escapes. 

The Parrot Crossbill — Dimensions, Fj ; Eggs, El— is occasionally met with. It is larger 
than the others, and has a stouter bill. 



Machetes. Plate xxviii. SCOLOPACIDM, 

323. pugnax, II in. Ruff. White axillaries. 

The RufF— Dimensions, Jl ; Eggs, Lk — is an uncommon and perhaps doubtful rfisidentj 
reinforced twice a year by flocks on migration to and from the north. It varies very much 
in the colour of its plumage, ringing almost every change on chestnut, black, and white. 
In spring the feathers of the face are moulted, to be replaced by hard pimples, and a ruff is 
developed which lasts through June. The pimples come in useful as a protection during the 
cock-fights which begin daily at sunrise during May and June, whence the bird's names of 
Machetes, a fighter ; and/w^wdj:, fighting — for he fights much, but only with his beak, and 
does little damage. His cry is '* kick-kick." The female, known as the Reeve, which is 
merely another form of Ruff, is a smaller bird, and has no ruff or occipital tufts, and is 
black and brown above. The nest is always in a swamp ) it consists of a few leaves of grass 
or sedge, and contains four eggs. 

Macrorhampus. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPA CIDM. 

312. griseuSt loj in. Red-ekkasted Snipe. Remiges 20 ; first primary 
white ; axillaries white ; tail coverts barred with 
black and white. 

The Red-breasted Snipe— Dimensions, Je ; Eggs, Lb— is an American, occasionally 
stra^ling across the Atlantic. 

Mareca. Hate xxi. ANATIDM, 

242. penelope, 18 in. Wigeon. Crown white ; cheeks and neck chest- 

nut ; 14 feathers in tail. 

243, americanat 19 in. American Wigeon.. Crown buff; a green stripe 

passing backward from eye. 

The Wigeon— Dimensions, Oj ; Eggs, Nc — breeds in the north of Scotland, but arrives 
here in thousands in September, and leaves us in March. The flight is a rapid and vigorous 
one. The call is the *' wee-ju,' or " wigeon," from which it gets its name. The female haa 
a bluish bill, tipped with black, like the male, and also the green wing bar, which is rather 
greyer ; but she is greyer above and buffer below. The nest is in a clump, always near 
water, and is made of grass and sedge, lined with down, which is sooty brown with white 
tips. It contains from 7 to 12 eggs. 

An American Wigeon-^Dimensions, Os ; Eggs, Ol— was once found ia Leadenhall 
Market ; but it is doubtful if it was ever seen elsewhere in these islands, 



THE SFECiES, 

Melizophilus. Plate iii. TURDINM (Passeridse). 

29, undatus^ 5 in. Dartford Warbler. Dark brown at 

chestnut brown below ; tail dark grey, half as 
as the bird, with its outside feathers tipped 
edged with white ; legs brown ; eyes orange ye 

The Dartford Warbler— Dimensions, As ; Eggs, Be — is an uncommon but undo 
British bird. The first specimen on record was discovered near Dartford, in xqjZ' 
wing it looks like a black Wren. It has a curious way of working up a bush in sear 
insects, and_ then flying off to the base of another bush, and working up that, spread! 
long tail as it settles after each change. The note is "pitchoo," with a chiding *' cha, 
The female has a cinnamon breast. The young have yellow eyes ; those of the adu! 
almost red. The nest is generally in a furze bush, and is so loosely made of bedstraw, 
and grass as to be seen through. It is small and deep, and lined with moss and 
There are four, five, or six eggs. 

Merg^ulus. Plate x.xxii. ALCID^. 

378. alle^ 8^ in. Little Auk. White spot over eye ; edg 

scapulars white ; remiges 26 ; primaries 11 ; 
feathers 12 ; legs brown. 

The Little Auk — Dimensions, HI; Eggs, Mf — is a winter visitor, generally found a 
swimming much by the stern, and occasionally calling " try, try, try." 

MergTis. Plate xxii. ANA TIDM. 

261. albellus, 17 in. Smew. Rump grey ; bill grey ; 16 tail feathei 

262. ciicullatus, ,19 in. Hooded Merganser. Rump white ; headw 

18 tail feathers. 
260. serrator, ■ 24 in. Red-breasted Merganser. Rump white; 

black ; 18 tail feathers. 
259. merganser, 26 in. Goosander. Rump grey ; bill vermilion ; i£ 

feathers. 

The Smew — Dimensions, No j Eggs, Ni — is a winter straggler from Finland. It is 
a white bird, with black, and a few grey, markings, and a crest. It has a rapid, noi 
flight, and its call is " lor, kr." The female has a black patch on the lores. She ii 
grey above ; and her beak, like the male's, is bluish. 

The Hooded Merganser — Dimensions, Oq ; Eggs Nk — is an American bird founc 
occasionally, but unknown elsewhere on this side of the Atlantic. 

The Red-breasted Merganser — Dimensions, Qq ; Eggs, Qm — is with us all the jjear r 
His flight is powerful and quick, and his wings whistle as he goes. His call is a " 
karr." The female has a white speculum divided by a black bar, while the male ha 
bars. The nest is generally near water, and always on the ground, in some dry place, 
made of heather and dry grass and leaves, and lined with brownish grey down, havin; 
pale tips and centres. It contains from 6 to 12 eggs. 

The Goosander — Dimensions, Rk ; Eggs, Ra — breeds in Scotland, and is known all 
the coast in the winter. When in flight its wings are conspicuously long. Its call is '' 
karr," and it has a cry like a whistle. The male's head is black, the female's chestnut : 
have crests. The nest is in a hole of some tree, or on the ground, generally in a tree, 
is lined with pale grey down, and contains from 8 to 12 eggs. 

Merops. Plate xii. MEROPIDM. 

154. apiaster^ loj in. Bee-eater. Chestnut, gold, and green at 

gold and black below ; forehead white, lores b 
wings green, black and chestnut ; tail green ; 
central feathers an inch longer than the others 

155. philippinus, 12 in. Blue-tailed Bee-eater. Blue tail ; che 

throat and no black band on breast. 
The Bee-eater— Dimensions, Jg ; Eggs, Gc — has been occasionally shot in this coi 
but it is very rare. 

The Blue-tailed Bee-eater — Dimensions, Kq — is even rarer, for it hns only been seei 



Io8 THE SPECIES. 

Menila. Plate i. TURDINM (Passeridas). 

9. vulgaris^ 10 in. BLACKBIRD. Plumage brownish or glossy black ; 

bill orange or brown, 

10. iorquatUf n in. RiNG OuzEL. Plumage brownish black, with 

white crescent on chest ; bill orange or brown, but 
black at tip. 

The Blackbird — Dimensions, Im ; Eggs, Gl — might have a better name, for it is not the 
only bird that is black ; and the female is brown, and the young are spotted. He has a hasty, 
fitful flight, low, but straight across open ground, making a spurt at the finish, and cocking up 
his tail as soon as he settles. His note is a deep contralto warble and pipe, with a callof 
" pic, pic, pic." He has a yellow bill ; the female has a brown one until she ages. The 
young male has a blackish bill ; the young female a brown one ; and the male is darker 
generally than the female. The nest is among evergreens or in a hedgerow, and is within a 
few feet of the ground. It is made of twigs and roots plastered with mud, and lined with 
dry grass and moss. There are from four to seven eggs. 

The Ring Ouzel — Dimensions, Jk ; Eggs, Gt — is a bird of the wilderness, resident in a few 
favoured localities all the year round, but mostly coming in April and leaving his moorland 
haunts in December. Like the Blackbird he raises his tail as he settles, and his flight is 
strong and straight. _ The song is flute-like and melodious, but not so musical as a Black- 
bird's ; and the call is a sharp " tac, tac, tac." The female is chocolate brown instead of 
black, and the gorget (whence the name iorquata, collar wearer) is not clear white. The 
nest is on the ground, and generally by the side of a stream. It is made of coarse grass and 
heatherand twigs, plasterud with mud and lined withdrygrass, audit contains four or five eggs. 

Milvus. Plate xv. FALCONID^. 

185. migrans^ 23 in. BLACK Kite. Bill black ; wings brown beneath ; 

tail dark brown and moderately forked. 
184. ictinus, 26 in. Kite. Bill horn colour ; wings whitish beneath 

with a broad black patch ; tail rufous, barred with 
brown, and much forked. 
The Black Kite— Dlm.nsions, Qo; Eggs, Oh— was unknown in this country until 1866, 
and it has not been seen here since. 

The Kite — Dimensions, Ro ; Eggs, Pk — is now a rarity in this country, though at one 
time it used to be our commonest bird of prey. It is very reddish in plumage, and has 
yellow eyes and cere, and feet and legs. Its gliding flight gave it its old name of Glead. It 
seems to swim in the air, steering itself with its forlced tail, m long sweeps and shorter curves, 
much as does the schoollaoy's toy to which it gave its name. Its cry is a "whew," with an 
occasional *' keh, keh." The female is larger than the male, and is greyer above and redder 
below, and shorter in the tail. The nest is in a tall tree ; it is built of twigs and many other 
things, including rags and paper ; it is very large for the size of the bird, and contains two, 
three, or four eggs. 

Monticola. Plate i. TURBINE (Passeridae). 

11. saxatllis, 8 in, RoCK Thrush. Axillaries chestnut ; tail chestnut. 

with two darker central feathers ; bill black ; legs 
black. 
A Rock Thrush— Dimensions, Gs ; Eggs, Ga— was shot in Hertfordshire, in 1843. There 
is no other authenticated record. 

MotaciUa. Plate v. MOTACILLINM {Passeridse). 

63. Jlava, 6 in. Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail. Bluish heatl, 

white eye stripe ; white chin ; white throat ; yellow 
breast. 

64, vifidis, 6\ in. Gkey-headed Yellow Wagtail. Grey head, 

no eye stripe ; white chin ; yellow throat ; yellow 
breast, 
6$. rait, 6\ in. Yellow Wagtail. Yellow head, with brownisli 

crown. 

60. albUf 7^ in. White Wagtail. White head ; black cap ; 

black throat ; greyish back. 

61. litgubf'iSt 7i in. Pied Wagtail. White head; black cap; black 

throat ; black back. 

62. melanope, 8 in. Grey Wagtail. Grey head ; narrow white eye 

stripe ; black patch on throat ; green rump. 
The Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail — Dimensions, Dj ; Eggs, Cn— has occasionally bred in 



THE SPECIES. log 

Durham, but generally straggle; over here on migration. It has a buoyant, airy flight, a 
shrill call of "chit-up," and a twittering song. The female is a paler bird than the male, 
with the eye stripe less marked. 

The Grey-headed Yellow Wagtail — Dimensions, Dt ; Eggs, Cr — once sent two specimens 
to Penzance, but they proceeded no further into the country owing to their being made 
British in the usual tragic manner. M. viridishsLS not been seen here since. 

The Yellow Wagtail —Dimensions, El ; Eggs, Ci — arrives here annually shortly after Lady- 
day, and leaves just before Michaelmas. It has a fluttering flight with long, bold 
undulations, and an occasional soar, and as it drops to settle it spreads its tail so as to show 
ofT its white. As it starts it gives its call of "gee-up," in addition to which it has a short and 
rather cheery song. The female is browner on the back than the male, and is much paler 
below. The nest is usually on the grass, or on a bank, or else at the foot of a wall. It is 
made of dry grass, moss, and rootlets, and lined with hair, or feathers, or fur. It contains 
five or six eggs. 

The White Wagtail — Dimensions, Fq ; Eggs, Dh^s a rare summer visitor, first noticed 
in 1841, and probably often mistaken for the common Water Wagtail, which it resembles in 
its flight, its song, and its nesting arrangements. Tlie female has less white on her head, 
and less black on her throat than the male, and the throat patch is mottled with white. 

The Pied Wagtail — Dimensions, Ga ; Eg^s, Do — is the Water Wagtail so often alluded to 
as the " smallest bird that walks," which it very nearly is. It stays with us all the year 
round. It is generally found near water, running about with much bobbing of the tail to 
balance itself, and then taking to flight with a few rapid flaps, to soon ease its wings and 
float off in curves " like Hogarth's line." The note, loud and short, is often given when on 
the wing ; the call is " which is it 7 " The female has a shorter tail than the male, and less 
black about her. The nest is in a hole in a wall, or bank, or tree, or among a heap of stones; 
it is rather a large mass of moss, grasses, and leaves, lined with wool, hair, and feathers, 
and it contains four, five, or six eggs. 

The Grey Wagtail — Dimensions, Gm ; Eggs, Cf— is one of our less commoner residents. 
It has the Wagtail walk, with the tail jerking and the head nodding; and its flight has the 
long bold curves of its congeners, with a similar spreading of the tail as it comes to the 
ground. It is more of a percher tlsin its fellows, and has a longer tail. Its note is shriller 
but just as short, its call being " who ? te ? 'tis he ! 'tis he ! *' The female has little or no 
black on the throat, and more green in her plumage, and her tail is shorter. The nest is 
generally under a ledge in a quarry, or on a bank near running water; it is made of rootlets, 
grass, and moss, and lined with white cowhair ; and it contains five or six eggs. It may be 
worth noting that Motacilla is merely wag-tail Latinised. 

Muscicawa. Plate vi. MUSCICAPIN^ (Passeridse). 

80. parva, 4^ in. Red- breasted Flycatcher. Olive brown 

above ; red throat. 
79. atricapilla, 5 in. Pied Flycatcher. Black above ; white throat, 
78. grisola, 5J in. Spotted Flycatcher. Brown above ; streaked 

or spotted throat. 

The Red-breasted Flycatcher — Dimensions, Ar ; Eggs, An — wns first noticed in this 
country in 1863, and since then there have been several records. The female has no grey in 
her plumage. The nest is to be found on the shores of Lake Baikal. 

The Pied Flycatcher — Dimensions, Be ; Eggs, Cc — arrives annually in April, and leaves 
in Septf'mber. Its flight is not unlike that of the butterfly. It catches insects on the wing, 
but, as a rule, picks them ofl" the leaves, or lays in wait for them at the end of a bough and 
darts down at them. Its song is short and weak, and rather like the Redstart's. The female 
has no white on the forehead, and has brown where the male has black, and her inner 
secondaries have thin white edges. The nest is generally in a hole in a tree — oak, birch, or 
poplar for choice — but sometimes it is in a hole in a wall ; it is a loose collection of dead 
leaves, moss, feathers, wool, and hair, and contains from five to eight eggs. 

The Spotted Flycatcher — Dimensions, Bl ; Eggs, Bt — is the common one in this country, 
and stays here from the end of April to September, Its flight is low, jerky, and hovering, in 
order that it may take its food on the wmg. It has a feeble twittering song, and a call of 
"chick, fee, chack, chack." The female has the male's winter plumage — grey above, and 
ashy white below. The small nest is about lo feet from the ground, on almost anything that 
will hold it, and it is neatly built of moss, dry grass, cobwebs, hair, and feathers ; it contains 
from four to six eggs. Just as Motacilla is the Latin for Wagtail so Muscicapa is the 
Latin for Flycatcher. 

Neopliron. Plate xiv. VULTURIDM. 

172. percnopierus, 25 in. Egyptian Vulture. Plumage huffish white ; 

head and neck yellowish ; wings black and brown ; 

legs pinkish ; claws black. 

The Egyptian Vulture — Dimensions, Ri ; Eggs, Qj — has been shot on two occasions on 

British ground — once in Bridgewater Bay, in 1825 ; and once, 43 years afterwards, nea' 

Bumham-on-the-Cropch. 



no THE SPECIES. 

Kucifraga. Plate ix. COR VINM (Passeridae). 

124. caryocaiactes, 13 in. Nutcracker. Plumage brown, spoiled with 

white ; outer tail feathers tipped with white ; a 

dark brown crown ; bill black ; tail black. 

The Nutcracker— Dimensions, La ; Eggs, In— has been noticed south of the Tweed about 

twenty times. Its call has a fancied resemblance to "crack, crack," and it has a leisurely, 

undulating fliglit. 

Numenius. Plate xxix. SCOLOPACID^. 

340. borealis, 14 in. Eskimo CURLEW. Crown dark brown with a paler 

stripe ; no white on rump ; axillaries chestnut 
barred with brown. 
339. pkcsopus, 18 in, Whimbrel. Crown dark brown with a whitish 
stripe ; axillaries white barred with brown ; lowei 
back and rump unstreaked white. 
338. arguatns, 24 in. Curlew. Crown pale brown ; rump white with 
black streaks ; axillaries white barred with brown; 
tarsus more than three inches long. 
The Eskimo Curlew— Dimensions, Lq ; Eggs, Nq— is an American species occasionally 
straggling across the Atlantic. 
y The Whimbrel— Dimensions, Og; Eggs, Pj— breeds in the northern islands, and gets as 

far south as Cornwall, in May, whence its name of May Bird. When on migration it flies 
higher than at other times, as is the case wiih all birds, but as a rule its flightis low and quick, 
with its wings held bent and motionless^ as it alights. Its note is a whistling "tifterel," 
repeated seven times, from which it receives its names of Titterel and Seven Whistler ; it 
owes its more popular name to the "whimbrel," which its note is also said to resemble. The 
female is larger than the male. The nest is a mere hollow in the ground, generally near the 
sea, lined with a few heather twigs and grass blades, and containing four ^'riform eggs. 
The Curlew — Dimensiqns, Ra j Eggs, Qo — is to be found on the coast all the year round. 
\ ^ Its bill is very long but its tongue is rather short. It is a very wary bird^ with a stately walk 
1^ and a swift flapping flight, ending in a long glide as it settles. Its cry is the wild scream of 
*' cur-lew." The female is larger than the maleand her bill is longer in proportion ; in winter 
she also resembles the male in being nearly white below. The nest is a hollow in the ground 
on a heath or moor near the sea. It is lined with a few twigs and leaves, and contains four 
eggs which are not pyriform, 

Nyctala. Plate xiii. STRIGIDM. 

167. iengmalmi, 9 in. Tengmalm's Owl. Brown above, lightly spotted 

with white ; greyish white below, barred with 

brown ; feet with long white feathers. 

Tengmalm's Owl — Dimensions, Id ; Eggs, Ii — has its home in the far north, and has now 

and then straggled here in a very cold winter, either on its way to the south or on its return 

to the north. This owl is remarkable for having one ear larger than the other, not only 

externally but internally. 

Nyctea. Plate xiii. STRIGID^. 

165. scandiaca, 24 in. Snowy Owl. Plumage white, barred with blackish 

brown ; disk incomplete ; 29 remiges, third primary 

longest, first equal to the fifth, and second equal to 

the fourth ; feet feathered. 

The Snowy Owl — Dimensions, Rf; Eggs, Pl — occasionally appears in this country when 

an unusuall^jevere winter drives it from its home within the Arctic Circle. It flies more 

swiftly and less buoyantly than any other owl ; and it does not hoot, but cries " krau-aw 1 " 

Kycticorax. Plate xvii. ARDEIDM, 

209. griseus, 24 in. Night Heron. Cfown black ; plumes white ; 

bill black ; six powder down tracts ; wings and 
tail grey. 
The Night Heron— Dimensions, Qr; Eggs, Mc— was first noticed in this country in 1782, 
and has been recorded about once every two years since then. It is quite a globe-trotter, and 
has been reported from all quarters, except Australia, where it (^ represented by a brighter- 
coloured species. It has a noiseless flight, and a npisy cry, described as "a moi;rnfwl 
qua-a," otherwise "cow-ow," 



THE SPECIES. Ill 

Oceanitea. Plate xxxiii. PROCELLARIIDM. 

398. oceanicus, 7J in. Wilson's Petrel. Black, with a white bar on 

upper base of tail, and white spots on the flanks ; 

tail square ; legs long. 

Wilson's Petrel — Dimensions, Gl ; Eggs, Hq — has been occasionally noted among our 

visitors since 1838. It is recognisable at once by its long legs. In flight it seems invariably 

to cross the waves at right angles, leaping from one to the other in the Petrel way, Petrel 

being Peterel, or Little Peter, from the Apostle who tried to walk on water. Its eggs have 

been found on Kerguelen Island. 

CEdemia. Plate xxii. ANA TID^. 

256. nigra, 20 in. Scoter. All black; remiges z6 ; tail of 16 

feathers. 
258. perspicillata, 21 in. Surf Scoter. All black, except patches of white 
on forehead and nape. 

257. ftisca, 22 in. Velvet Scoter. All black, except a white patch 

on wing. 

The Scoter — Dimensions, Pf; Eggs, Qk — is our common black Sea Duck, so plentiful in 
the winter. Its black and yellow bill, with the knob at the base, at once distinguishes it. It 
dives well, and flies rapidly. The note of the male is " tu, tu, tu" ; to which the female 
replies with a louder^ grating " kre-kr-kre." The nest is a mere hollow on the shore, hidden 
among the bushes, hned with dead ^rass and leaves, and much down ; the down in colour 13 
like the Wild Duck's, but the quantity is far greater. There are from six to nine eggs. 

The Surf Scoter — Dimensions, Pm ; Eggs, Qc — is a North American, occasionally wander- 
ing over here. It is the " Coot " of the American magazines, having received the name from 
the white patch on the forehead, which is a very diflferent sort of thing from that of the shield 
of Fulica. 

The Velvet Scoter — Dimensions, Ps ; Eggs, Rf — is one of our doubtful residents. It is 
never very numerous, but appears every winter, mostly along the east coast. Its diving 
propensities have led to its being taken, in fishing nets, under water. It is occasionally seen 
mland. It flies rapidly, and is the boldest of the Scoters. The nest is a mere hollow, lined 
with leaves, and a lar^e quantity of down, browner than that of the Black Scoter, darker ip 
the centre, and larger m size. The eggs are from 8 to 10 in number. 

(Edicnemus. Plate xxv. (EDICNEMID^. 

290. scolopax, 15 in. Stone Curlew. Greyish brown above ; whitish 
below ; eye very large ; bill half yellov/ half black ; 
remiges 29 ; breast boldly streaked ; dark band 
across wing, with pale narrow band inside it, 
between the lesser and greater coverts, the latter of 
which are tipped with white ; central feathers ot 
tail more than one inch longer than the outer one^ ; 
tarsus reticulate. 

The Stone Curlew — Dimensions, Mn : Eggs, Oa — is often called the Thicknee, which may 
have its advantages as suggestive of the CEthickneemidae, but is otherwise misleading, as it 
is not the bird's knee which is thick, but its ankle. It is also known as the Norfolk Plover. 
It is a resident, whose numbers are increased by migrants in the Summer. The Stone 
Curlew always runs for a few yards before taking to flight, and as it flies the markings on its 
secondaries are conspicuous. It has a loud plaintive cry. The nest is a mere hollow among 
shingle, and the eggs, like all those laid on a beach, are found by looking for two stones 
alike. 

Oriolus. Plate v. ORIOLINM (Passeridas). 

72. galhda, 9 in. Golden Oriole. All yellow except wings, which 

are black with a yellow bar, and the central tail 

feathers ; black spot between bill and eye ; remiges 

20 ; first primary half the length of the second. 

The Golden Oriole— Dimensions, lb; Eggs, He— is too conspicuous a bird to be left in 

peace, although it still breeds in Cornwall every year, and is frequently reported from the 

eastern counties. It does not walk, but is one of our largest birds that hop, and it is^ noticeable 

that its folded wings reach to within an inch of the end of its tail. Its flight is easy and 

undulatory. Its call is " Ah! How d'ye do?" and its alarm is a *'khrr." The female is 

greener than the male, and her tail is brown, with a narrow yellow tip. The nest is a 

suspended one, hanging from two forking branches, and formed of interwoven bark strips and 

sedge leaves lined with grass flowers. There are four or five eggs. 



112 THE SPECIES. 

Otis. Plate xx^r. OT/DWyE. 

288. tetrax, i6 in. Little Bustard. No crest ; chest striped with 

white and black bands. 

289. macqueeni, 29 in. Macqueen's Bustard. Head with a crest ; 

chest pale grey. 
2S7. tarda, 36 in. Great Bustard. No crest ; chest chestnut and 

grey. 
The Little Bustard— Dimensions, Ne ; Eggs, Oq— is an occasional straggler, generally 
appearing in the winter months. The female has black blotches on the back, 

A Macqueen's Bustard— Dimensions. Sf ; Eggs, Qr— was shot in Lincolnshire, in 1847, the 
first and last appearance of what is really an Indian species. 

The Great Bustard— Dimensions, Tc ; Eggs, Rs — was once a resident, but is now one -^f 
the rarest of stragglers. 

Otocorys. Plate x. ALAUDINM (Passeridas). 

137. alpestris, 7 in. Shore Lark. Erectile black crest on each side of 

head ; a black band across upper breast. 
The Shore Lark — Dimensions, Fk ; Eggs, Fp — was first recorded in 1830, and occasionally 
appears during the winter months on the east coast. 

Pagophila. Plate xxxi. LARIDM. 

368. eburnea, 17 in. IvoRY Gull. All wliite ; bill greenish yellow ; 

legs black. 
The Ivory Gull — Dimensions, Ns ; Eggs, Pq — appears on the north coasts when severe 
winters have driven it south from Spitzbergen and thereabouts. 

Pandion, Plate xvi. FALCONID^. 

19S. lialiaUus, 23 in. OsPREY. Purplish brown above;' white below; 

crown and nape white, streaked with brown ; legs 

and feet blue, reticulate, and prickly below. 

The 0>prey — Dime:isions, Qn ; Eggs, Pr — still breeds here, but to nothing like the extent 

It used to do, and it is best known as an autumnal visitor. There is only one species in the 

world of this bird. Its contour feathers ha.ve no aftershaft and are small and short, and 

hence its legs have no breeches. It flies with its legs out straight, and its flight is a hovering 

and gliding one with little wing work. Its wings look very long as they are stretched out 

apparently motionless. The Osprey feeds on fish, and catches it with a sudden swoop, 

bearing it away in its claws. The call is "kai, kai, kai ; " the alarm a scream. The female 

i'; browner on the breast than the male, and larger. The nest is a big one of iwigs and turf, 

lined with moss, and situate on a tree-top or some lofty ledge. There are from two to four 

cffgs._ The Osprey is often placed between the Owls and birds ol prey in the sub-orde 

Pandiones. 

Panunis. Plate iv. PANURIN^ (Passeridre). 

49. biarmicus, 6 in. Bearded Tit. Crown grey ; long black mous- 
tache ; back orange tawny ; tail fawn coloured 
and over three inches long. 
The Bearded Tit— Dimensions, De ; Eggs. Bl— is resident but rare. It has a varied 
undulating flight, with many glides and pauses. Its note is "ping, ping," its call is 
"chirrrr,' and its alarm '*hear, hear." The female has no black feathers on her neck or in 
her under tail cove-ts. The male's beak is orange ; the female's is yellow. The nest is 
V always near water, but is never hung from reeds. It consists of dry leaves of reed and grass, 
and is lined with reed flowers. There are from four to seven eggs. 

PARINM (Passeridaa). 

Continental Coal Tit. Nape with white patch ; 
back greyish blue ; two white bars on wing. 
British Coal Tit. Nape with white patch ; back 
olive brown ; two white bars on wing. 
Crested Tit. Black and white crest. 
Blue Tit. Crown light blue edged with white. 
Marsh Tit. Nape greyish black without a white 
patch ; back greyish brown ; no bars on wings. 
52. major, 6 in. Great Tit. Black apron from ciiin to vent. 



Parus. 


Plate iv. 


PAR 


53- 


ater, 


4i in- 


54- 


britannicus, 


4jin. 


57- 


cHstatus, 


4iin- 


56. 


ctEruleus, 


4iin. 


ss. 


palusiriSt 


4iin. 



THE SPECIES. 113 

fhe Continental Coal Tit- -Dimensions, Ae j Eggs, Be— is said to be born abroad, and 
only to come here on migration. 

The British Coal Tit^Dimensions, Af; Eggs, Be — is resident here and seemingly 
increasing. It has a short fluttering flight. The note is a shrill " ping, ping," or " che, chee." 
1 he female is duller than the male in colour. The nest is in a hole either in a stump, or the 
ground, or a wall^ and is loosely made of dry grass, feathers, moss, hair, and wool ; the eggs 
are from five to nine in number. 

The Crested Tit — Dimension*, Ag ; Eggs, Aq — is resident among the Scottish pine forests. 
It has the usual fluttering flight of the tits. Its note is " ptur-re-re-ree," with a call of 
" si-si-si, "_ The female has a shorter crest than the male, and is not so black on the throat. 
The nest is in a hole, and is a felted mass of grass, moss, wool, fur, and feathers. Sometimes 
a deserted Crow's nest is adapted. There are from four to seven eg^s. 

The Blue Tit — Dimensions, Ai ; Eggs, Ae — is the commonest of the family. It has not 
only a blue crown, but blue wing coverts. U'he flight is a fluttering uncertain one, with rapid 
flappings and sudden undulations. _ The note is " chee, chee, chicka, chee," with an 
occasional '' chirr-r," and a call of " si, si, si." The female is not so bright in plumage as the 
male. The nest is generally in a hole, but it does not seem to matter where the hole is. It 
is rather loosely built of moss, grass, wool, hair, and feathers ; and it contains from 5 to 
12 eggs. 

The Marsh Tit — Dimensions, Aj ; Eggs, Aj— is resident, but rather uncommon. It has a 
short, fluttering flight ; its call is " ti, ti, ti," and its note is "sis, .sis, sis, would ye, would 
ye." The female is indistinguishable from the male. The nest is in a hole, which the bird 
has been seen to make in some decayed stump, though rat holes are sometimes adapted to 
suit the purpose. The nest is a felted mass of moss, wool, fur, and willow down ; and 
contains from five to eight eggs. 

The Great Tit — Dimensions, Bm ; Eggs, Bfc— is one of our commoner birds. It is often 
called the Oxeye, and its note has been described as resembling " oxeye, oxeye, oxeye, 
oxeye, twink, twink ! " which same " oxeye " has also been compared to the sharpening of a 
saw. The call is " teeta tee." The flight is a short, irregular flutter. The female is not so 
bright in plumage as the male. The nest is in holes and elsewhere, and is a felted mass of 
grass, moss, hair, feathers, and wool, containing from 5 to 11 eggs. 

Passer. Plate vii. FRINGILLINJE (Passerid^). 

94. montanus, 5 in. Tree Sparrow. Crown chocolate ; ear . coverts 

whitish with a black patch behind them. 
93. domesticus, 6 in. House Sparrow. Crown grey, bordered with 
chestnut ; ear coverts whitish with no black patch. 
Tlie Tree Sparrow — Dimensions, Ba ; Eggs, Ea — seems to be on the increase, though .still 
far less numerous than the House Sparrow. Its flight is easy and swift ; its note is 
" see-you-eat," and its call a " chirrup." The female is like the male. The nest is domed 
when it is not in a hole or under shelter, and it is often found in quarries and rocks. It is 
built of straw, grass, and wool, lined with hair and feathers, and contains from four to six 
• eggs. 

The House Sparrow— Dimensions, Df ; Eggs, Ej — is said to be the friend of man, probably 
from his making as much use of him as possible. He is never seen to walk beyond one or 
two steps, but hops and jumps, as do all the finches ; and he is said to cock his tail in wet 
weather and droop it in dry. His is a rapid and direct flight as a rule, though he often 
undulates and flutters. He has a twittering note ; a call of " Philip, Philip, get up I " and a 
chirpy alarm. The female wants the grey crown and black on the throat. The nest is domed 
when in a tree, but is oftener built under cover on some outside part of a house. It is an 
untidy collection of straw, grass, wool, hair, string, rags, paper, and sundries, lined with 
feathers, and containing from five to seven eggs. 

Pastor. Plate ix. STURNINM [V^%^x\6.^\ 

121. roseus, Z\ in. Rosr-coloured Starling. Crest, head, and 

neck violet black ; back and breast rose-coloured ; 
wings and tail black ; bill red ; legs brown. 

The Rose-coloured Starling— Dimensions, Hk ; Eggs, Gf— was first recognised at Norwood 
in 1742, and has since been a somewhat frequent spring visitor. 

Perdix. Plate xxiv. PHASIANID^. 

275. cinerea, 12^ in. Partridge, Tail of 16 feathers ; legs blue. 
274. rufa, 13^ in. RED-LEGGED Partridge. Tail of 14 feathers; 

legs red. 
The Partridge — Dimensions, Kj ; Eggs, It — is almost as familiar as the barn-door fowl, 
which is not however recognised as a British Bird. The male has a horse-shoe rrjark on th* 



M4 THE SPECIES. 

breast, which is absent in the fcjnale. The flight begins with a noisy whirr which sooii 
changes into a glide with the hollow wings spread out, to be whirred again when needful ; 
the bird rarely flying far, and always gliding to the ground. The note is a '' kir-rik, kir- 
rik." The nest is on tlie ground, and is a mere scratching together of weeds and leaves, 
containing from lo to 20 eggs. 

The Red-legged Partridge — Dimensions, Lh ; Eggs, Ka— was acclimatised in this country 
in 1770, and is now quite as common in the Eastern Counties as the Grey Partridge, from 
which it differs in its habit of perching in trees Which the other never does. The male has 
rudimentary spurs on his legs ; the female's legs are smooth. The flight is much like the 
other Partridge's but lighter and not so noisy. The call has been syllabised as '* cock-a- 
leekie " ; but this would seem to be more appropriate in another of the Phasianidas. The 
nest is generally on the ground ; but sometimes on a straw stack. It is merely a scratching, 
and contains from 10 to 18 eggs. 



Pemis. Plate xvi. FALCONIDM, 

i88. apivorus, 34 in. Honey Buzzard. Head grey ; lores feathered ; 
upper parts brown ; lower parts brown or white, 
blotched and barred with brown ; tail with three 
black bars ; tarsus finely reticulate all round. 

The Honey Buzzard— Dimensions, Re ; Eggs, Nj — is a doubtful resident and not a very 
common summer visitor. The flight is not unlike a buzzard's, but the bird's longer tail, more 
pointed wings and smaller head m.ike it easily recognisable. Its cry is '* kee, kee, kee." 
Tlie female has no grey on the head. The nest is like a peregrine's, but it is lined with 
fresh green beech I'-aves, which are renewed as they dry. There are from two to four 
eggs. 

Piialacrocorax Plate xvii, PELECANIDM, 

200. graculus, 27 in. Shag. No white in the plumage; 12 feathers in 

tail. 
199. carbo, 36 in. CORMORANT. White patch on thigh ; 14 feathers 

in tail. 
The Shag — Dimensions, Rt ; Eggs, Ps — is very greenish in plumage, and in spring has a 
crest which curls forwards. The flight is very speedy and regular. The Shag swims low in the 
water and dives magnificently, swimming under the surface for long distances with both 
wings and feet, and so deep does it go that it has been caught in a crabpot one hundred and 
twenty feet down. The nest is generally in a cave, and is an odoriferous mass of seaweed, 
grass, and heather, containing from three to Ave eggs. 

The Cormorant — Dimensions, St ; Eggs, Qs — is almost as good a diver and a better flyer, 
gliding straight along after a hw short powerful flaps, with his wings at full stretch, his 
neck straight out, and his legs close under his tail. In spring he has a few hair-like feathers 
on his head, which disappear after the breeding season. These head feathers form a crest, 
and the female's crest is the larger. In the winter there is more white in the plumage round the 
throat. The cry is a croak. The nest is on the ledge of a cliff, and is a large mass of sticks 
and seaweed lined with leaves, which can generally be smelt from afar. It contains from two 
to five eggs. It is said that the Cormorant can swim at different draughts, but as a rule he 
bwims very low, with the water awash across his shoulders. 

Plialaropus. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPACIDM. 

*3o6. hyperboreus, 7 in. Red-Necked Phalarope. Bill thin and tapering, 
and black throughout. 

307. fulicarius, 8 in. Grey Phalarope. Bill flat and broad, and 
yellow, tipped with black ; middle tail feathers more 
than half an inch longer than the outer ones. 

The Red-Necked Phalarope— Dimensions, Fh ; Eggs, Gq— is best known as a migrant 
from and to its northern home, but it is resident in the Western Isles. Its name is in allusion 
lo its lobate feet, the phalara meaning fringed, and the pous, a foot. It can both fly and 
swim. Its note is " wick." Thefemale is larger than the male and brighter in colour. The 
nest is in a tuft in a swamp, and, is made of dry grass, and contains four eggs. In winter 
these birds have white foreheads, and are much whiter below. 

The Grey Phalarope— Dimensions, Gt ; Eggs, Hf— occasionally visits us in flocks, 
apparently strayed down from the Arctic Circle. 



THE SPECIES. 115 

Phasianus. Plate xxiv. PHASIANIDM, 

273, colchicus, 34 in. Pheasant. Remiges 26 ; tail long and wedge- 
shaped, and of 18 feathers. 
The Pheasant — Dimensions, So ; Eggs, Md — was acclimatised from the Phasis, whence 
also the colchicus, a lon^ time ago, and seems always to have been *' preserved " in this 
country. This is the kind without a white neck-ring. The one with the white ring, 
P. iorguatus, was acclimatised from China, also a long time ago, but is not yet considered to be 
British. _ The pheasant never flies if it can help it. It runs alon^ with its tail horizontal, and 
it flies with its tail spread ; a heavy, rapid, whirring flight taken in short stages as a rule, hut 
occasionally settled down into and prolonged for miles. The female is smaller than the male 
and much duller in plumage, and she has a shorter tail ; but pure bred specimens of the real 
F. colchicus are very rare. The nest is a mere scratching, and hardly thatj amid grass and 
weeds ; and the^eggs are from 8 to 13 in number. 

Phoemcopterus. Plate xviii. PHCENICOPtERIDM. 

216. roseus, 60 in. Flamingo. Plumage rosy-white, with scarlet wing 

coverts and black primaries. 

The Flamingo — Dimensions, Tn ; Eggs, Sl — is not quite the sort of bird' one would expect 
to see in the British List, but as some one once happened to shoot one on British ground, its 
inclusion was inevitable under the prevailing rule. At the same time it is only feir to note 
that a few flamingoes are stated to have been seen in this country outside the Zoological 
Gardens, and that flocks of them yearly come north and visit Southern and Central France. 

Phylloscopus. Plate iii. TURDINM (Passeridae). 

32. superciliosuSf 4 in. Yellow-Browed Warbler. Six outer primaries 
notched ; plumage yellowish green ; distinct eye 
stripe ; two yellow bars on wing ; legs brown. 
' 33* fufus, 4I in, Chiffchaff. Six outer primaries notched ; 

plumage olive green ; faint greyish white eye 
stripe ; legs nearly black. 

34. trochilus^ 5 in. Willow Wren. Five outer primaries notched ; 

first primary over half an inch in length ; plumage 
olive green ; faint greenish eye stripe ; legs light 
brown. 

35. sibilatrix, 5J in. Wood Wren. Four outer primaries notched ; first 

primary under half an inch in length ; plumage 
yellowish green ; bright yellow eye stripe ; legs 
brown. 

The Yellow-browed Warbler- -Dimensions, Ad; Eggs, Ac — is a rare straggler from 
Siberia. 

The Chi ff'chaff— Dimensions, Ao ; Eggs, Ad — is one of the earliest of our summer 
migrants, and comes in the middle of March. Its wings when closed cover hardly a quartea 
of Its tail, and its second primary is equal to the seventh and halfway in length between 
the sixth and ninth. It has an undulatory flight, with the wings flapping rapidly. The song 
from which it derives its name " Chiffchaff'," is usually delivered from near the top of some 
good sized tree; it has been also syllabised as " till-tell-true, jink-junk." The nest is 
generally within a foot of the ground — a complete oval with the hole near the top — made of 
grass, leaves, and moss, and lined with feathers. It contains from five to seven eggs. 

The Willow- Wren — Dimensions, At ; Eggs, Ah — is the commonest of the warblers, and is 
with us from April to September. Its wings when closed cover less than half its tail, and its 
third and fourth primaries are the longest. It hops like a robin, and has a short, rapid^ 
dipping flight. Its song is a descending scale of " twin, twii:, twin, tiu, tiu, tiu, tiu, twee, 
twee, twee, twee, twee, twai, twai," with an alarm of ]' na, na, najna," and a call of " whit." 
Its nest is on or near the ground, a flattened sphere, with the rim sloped at half a right angle, 
of dead grass and moss, dry leaves, roots, horsehair, and feathers, particularly feathers, con- 
taining from five to eight eggs. 

The Wood Wren — Dimensions, Bj ; Eggs, At — arrives a little after the Willow Wren. Its 
wings when closed cover three-quarters of the tail ; the second primary is the same length 
as the fourth, and the third and fourth primaries are sloped off. It is generally found in 
beech woods, and its flight is swift, dipping, and gliding, with a spiral descent as it settles. The 
call is " dear, dear, dear,'* and its song is a rippling ** chit, chit, cherry-tr-tirrereetirreree," 
with a rapid jarring trill and much vibration of the wings and tail. The nest is near the 
ground, semi-domed like that of its congeners, but it has no feathers in its lining. It contaiii« 
from five to seven eggs. 



it6 the species. 

Pica. Plate ix. COR VI NM (Passeridas). 

126. rustica, 18 in. Magpie. Head and back greenish black ; nimp 

greyish white ; tail greenish and large ; scapulars 
white ; lower breast white ; first primary sinuated. 
The Magpie— Dimensions. Oc ; Eggs, Ij— is distinguishable by its long iridescent green 
tail alone, which it invariably raises as it alights. Its flight is graceful and easy, but some- 
what slow. Its cry is a noisy chatter. The female is the smaller bird and is not so iridescent 
I in the plumage. The nest is nearly a sphere, built generally of blackthorn twigs cemented 
with mud, and lined with rootlets and grass, the entrance to which is a circular hole. There 
are from six to nine eggs. 

Picus. Plate xi. PICIDM. 

145. minor, sf in. LESSER Spotted Woodpecker. Crown red ; 

back white and black ; under tail coverts with no 
fed in them. 
147. pubescenSf 6| in. DowNY Woodpecker. Crown black ; nape red ; 
back black, with a white central stripe ; legs blue. 

146. viilosus, 8| in. Hairy Woodpecker. Crown black ; back black 

with a white central stripe ; no red on under tail 
coverts ; legs brown, 
144. major, 9I in. GREAT Spotted Woodpecker. Crown black ; 

back black ; under tail coverts red. 
T48. marfius, 18 in. GREAT Black Woodpecker. Crown red ; back 
black. 
The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker— Dimensions, Dc ; Eggs, Ck— is the commonest Wood- 
pecker in the Thames Valley. Like all the Woodpeckers it has a peculiar nick in its tail 
feathers. It is a restless bird, with a short flieht from tree to tree as it picks and taps up one. 
sometimes head downwards, and then flies off to the next. The note is " keek." The female 
has no red about her head. The nest is in a hole so small that a larger bird cannot enter, 
and which is often a foot deep, and contains only a few chips and the eggs, which number 
from five to nine. 

The Downy Woodpecker — Dimensions, Er ; Eggs, Ft — is a straggler from North America 
that once had a representative shot in Dorsetshire, 

The Hairy Woodpecker— Dimensions, Hn ; Eggs, Fs— has on'y appeared twice in this 
country. 

The Great Spotted Woodpecker— Dimensions, li ; Eggs, Fr— is a resident, whose numbers 
are swollen by migration. It works up a tree in spirals, picks and taps at it rapidly, and 
then flies off tobegm at another in the same way. Its call is a " chick, chink." Ihe female 
has no red on her head, but the young of both sexes are red in the crown for a time. The 
nest is in a hole in a tree. There are from five to eight eggs. 

The Great Black Woodpecker — Dimensions, Ok ; Eggs, Ie— seems to have been mserted 
in the List out of respect for tradition. 

Platalea. Plate xviii. PLATALEIDM, 

214. lezicorodia, 34 in. Spoonbill. Pale yellow crest ; plumage white, 

tinted with yellow and pale orange ; 30 remiges ; 

second primary lon.cest. 

The Spoonbill — Dimensions, Sp ; Eggs, Qb —was at one time aresident, but is now only an 

occasional summer visitor. Its flight is slow and regular, with the wings spread to their 

utmost. As a call it clicks its bill. Its nest is on a grassy tussock, or in a tree, and consists 

of a few sticks and dead leaves, with a lining of grass. It contains four or five eggs. 

Plectrophanes. Plate viii. EMBERIZINM (Passeridae). 

118. nivalis, 7 in. Snow Bunting, Black, brown, and white above ; 

whitish below ; four central tail feathers black, 

two nearly black ; the others white tipped with 

black. 

The Snow Bunting — Dimensions, Fm ; Egg'^, Fc— is often called the Snowflake. It nins 

like a lark and flies like a butterfly, and crows and sings on the wing. The call is " tsee " 

The female is brown where the male is black. In winter the black in both sexes is brownish. 

The nest has been found in the Scottish Highlands, and it has been found in Grinnell Land, 

in lat. 82" 33' at Midsummer, li is generally placed among stones, and consists of dry 

grass, moss, rootlets, and twigs, lined with hair, down, or feather.^ and containing from four 

to eight eggs; 



THE SPECIES. 117 

Podicepa. Plate xxxiii. PODICIPEDIDM, 

388. Uuviatilis, 9 in. Little Grebe. Bill decurved. 

387. nigricollis, 12 in. Eared Grebe. Bill curved upwards. 

386. auritus, 13 in. SCLAVONiAN Grebe. Bill straight. 

385. greiseigejia, 16 in. Red-necked Grebe. No white eye stripe. 

384. crisiaius, 22 in. Great Crested Grebe. White eye stripe. 
The Little Grebe — Dimensions, Hp ; Eggs, Is — otherwise the Dabchick, is our bird with 
the smallest tail. It has a black chin in summer and a white chin in winter. The nest is a 
floating one moored to a reed, and made of rotting water plants. It contains from four to 
six eggs. 

The Eared Grebe— Dimensions, Kb; Eggs, Mg — has the four inner primaries all white. 
It is an occasional winter visitor, not yet proved to breed here. 

The Sclavonian Grebe— Dimensions, K,l ; Eggs, Lg— is also known as the Horned Grebe, 
It is a winter visitor. 

The Red-necked Grebe— Dimensions, Mt ; Eggs, Mn — is another winter visitor. 

The Great Crested Grebe — Dimensions, Pr ; Eggs, Oi — is a resident. It flies with its 
neck oat and its legs out extending beyond the rudimentary tail, and flaps rapidly with its short 
winj^s. Its call is *' kewawk.'* The female has a smaller crest and tippet than the male, and 
as with him, these almost disappear in the winter. Its nest is usually afloat, and consists of 
a wet mass of decaying vegetation, containing three or four eggs. 

Pratincola. Plate ii. TURDINjE (Passeridas). 

15. rubetra, 5 in, Whinchat. Throat light reddish brown. 

16. rubicola, 5^ in. Stonechat. Throat black. 

The Whinchat — Dimensions, Bb j Eggs Bq — is a summer migrant, arriving in April and 
departing in October. Its three outer tail feathers have white bases. It roosts on ihe 
ground, but is generally seen on the top of a bush, from which it dijis oflf in a short flight to 
another bush. Its note is "00-tac, oo-tac, tac, tac, tac," and it sings on the wing. The 
female is heavier than the male, paler in plumage, and with a much smaller win^ bar. The 
nest is on or near the ground, well hidden and approached by a mazy run, and built of straws, 
moss, and gratis, with a lining of flne grass. It contains from lour to six eggs. 

The Stonechat— Dimensions, Bi; Eggs Ch — is a resident. The outer web of his tail 
feathers has a bufl* edging, and he has a white stripe round the nape of his neck. He has a 
darting flight from bush to bush. His song is a " wheet, chook, chook/* and his call is a 
sharp "chack." The female is a browner and plainer bird, with her upper tail covtrts 
reddish brown. The nest is generally at the bottom of a bush, and rather large for the !.ize of 
the bird, often very neatly built of moss and dry grass, lined with hair and a little wool and 
feathers. There are from four to seven eggs. 

Procellaria. Plate xxxiii. PROCELLARlID/€.. 

397. pelagica^ 5^ in. Stormy Petrel. Black, with a broad white ring 

round the base of the tail ; remiges 22, second 

primary longest, first equal to fourth ; tail slightly 

rounded. 
396. Uucorrhoa, 7 in- Fokk-tailed Petrel. Black, with a white bar 

on upper base of tail ; tail much forked. 

The Stormy Petrel — Dimensions, Cn ; Eggs On — is the smallest web-footed bird. In its 
flight it follows the curves of the waves and pats them as It feeds. Its call is " kekerek-ee." 
Its nest is in a hole in a cUff or wall, and consists of ^ few blades of grabs or plant stalks. It 
contains but one egg. 

The Fork-tailed Petrel— Dimensions, Fo ; Eg^s Ib— is a straggler, breeding no nearer 
than St. Kilda, Its call is ** peer wit." Its nest is in a burrow, and it is made of a few blades 
of grass and a scrap of moss, and contains but one egg. 

Pufllnus. Plate xxxiii. PROCELLARIIDM, 

394. obscurusi II in. Dusky Shearwater. All white below ; remiges 

30 ; first primary longest. 
393. anglorum^ 14 in. Manx Shearwater. Breast white ; lower breast 

grey. 
392. griseus, 18 in. Sooty Shearwater. All brown below. 

39L major, 19 in. GREAT SHEAKWATiiR. White below, but thighs 

and lower breast tinged with brown; hind toe 

modified into, or replaced by, a son of spur. 



Il8 THE SPECIES, 

The Dusky Shearwater— Dimensions, Jo ; Eggs, Oj— has strayed here twice from Its 
tropical home. 

The Manx Shearwater— Dimensions, Ma ; Eggs, Po— is the commonest of the foir and is 
here all the year round, generally in single files, gliding close to the surface of the waves and 
following their curves. The call is " kitty-coo-roo," or the "kitty carew," from which it 
gets its Cornish name. The nest is a little grass at the end of a hole or burrow, and it 
contains a solitary egg. 

The Sooty Shearwater— Dimensions, 01 ; Eggs, Ql— has only of late been recognised as 
a distinct species, it having been taken to be the young of the Great Shearwater. It is a 
South Atlantic species, only occasionally straggling into our latitudes. 

The Great Shearwater— Dimensions, Pa ; Eggs, Re— has been occasionally noticed here in 
the Autumn. There is a good deal of doubt as to its nesting places, and the eggs usually 
ascribed to it are said to really belong to another species. It "shears the water " as it 
alights and dives. In flight it keeps its wings bent and glides along without much flapping, 
rolling from side to side and just skimming the waves. 

Pyrrhocorax. Plate ix. CORVINM (Passeridse). 

123. alpinus, 15 in. Alpine Chough. Plumage black ; bill yellow, 

short, and straight ; legs yellow. 
122. gracnluSj 16 in. Chough. Plumage black ; bill orange, long, and 

curved ; legs orange. 

An Alpine Chough — Dimensions, Ml ; Eggs, Jr — was once shot near Banbury, having 
probably escaped from confinement. This is the only record. 

The Chough — Dimensions, Ni ; Eggs, Kh — is rare, but resident, and is only found on a 
rocky coast. In flight it yaws like a Jackdaw, and is very laboured and irregular in its 
progress. Its call is " cling," or the " chough-chough," from which it is named, or a peculiar 

khew, khew.** The female is smaller than the male. The nest is a hole in the rock. It 
is built of sticks and lined with grass roots, and a good deal of wool andfthair. It contains 
from three to six eggs. 

Pyrrhula. Plate viii. FRINGILLINM (Passeridse). 

103. eryihrijta, 5^ in. Scarlet Grosbeak. Crown red ; rump red ; 

breast rose pink ; legs reddish brown ; bill yellowish. 
102. europcea, 6 in. Bullfinch. Crown black ; rump white ; breast 
brick red ; legs dark brown ; bill black. 

104. enucleator, 8J in. Pine Grosbeak. Crown red ; rump red ; breast 

vermilion j legs blackish brown ; bill dark brown. 

The Scarlet Grosbeak— Dimensions, Ci ; Eggs, Dc— has been found twice in this country, 
once in 1869 and once in 1870. 

The Bullfinch— Dimensions, Di ; Eggs, Db— is a resident. His wings are longer than his 
tail, and his nostrils are hidden by the plumelets. He has a jerky dipping flight; and his 
native song is not a loud one although he is taught to pipe. His call is " do you? do you 1 '* 
with the accent on the " you." The female is brown where the male is red. The nest is a 
flat one of slender twigs with a cup of rootlets and perhaps wool or feathers. It contains 
from four to six eggs. 

The Pine Grosbeak— Dimensions, Ha ; Eggs, Fq— visits us so rarely that his visits are 

doiibted. 

Querquedula. Plate xxi. ANATIDM. 

239. crccca, 14 in. TEAL. Wing bar black, purple, and green, with 

white at one edge ; tail of 16 feathers. 

240. discors, 14 in. American Blue-winged Teal. White crescent 

in front of eye. 

241. circia, 13 '"■ Garganey. Wing bar green, with white at both 

edges ; tail of 14 feathers. 

The Teal— Dimensions, Ln ;_ Eggs, Lf— is our smallest duck. His numbers are much 
augmented in the winter by migrants. His flight is lighter than that of most ducks, and 
when in company his column of march is angular. His cry is a sharp croak or " knake." 
The female has only a trace of purple in the wing bar, and her upper feathers are edged 
with grey. The nest is generally in a swamp, and is made of dead rushes and reeds, lined 
with feathers and brown down, which is small and has no white tips. There are from 8 to 
la eggs. 



THE SPECIES. 119 

The American Blue-Winged Teal — Dimensions, Lm ; Eggs Ko — paid us one visit, as did 
also the Green-Winged Teal, of which no further mention is necessary. 

The Garganey — Dimensions, Mi ; EggF, Ma — is a spring visitor, resident only where 

Srotected. He has a grey bill, while the Teal's is black, and he has bluish wing coverts, 
[c swims high in the water, and flies high in the air and very rapidly. His call is like the 
Teal's, but the " crik," which the Teal gives occasionally, is his usual cry, and hence he is 
locally known as the Cricket Teal. The female has no gloss on the wing bar. The nest is 
always on the §;round and often away from water, and it is built of grass and leaves, and lined 
with down having long white tips. It contains from 8 to 14 eggs, 

Rallus. Plate xxiv. RALLIDM, 

282. aquaticus, loj in. Water Rail. Spotted brown above ; greyish 

below ; axillaries black barred with white ; flanks 

black with narrow white bars ; bill reddish ; 

remiges 26. 

The Water Rail — Dimensions, Jd; Eggs, If — is a bird of the marshes, never flying if it can 

escape by running in and out through the reeds. Its flight is low and laboured, with the 

legs hanging. It can swim and it can dive. Its call is '* kreek," and in thebreeding season 

it " sharms," The female is not so bright in colour as the male. The nest is always on the 

ground, generally amid a clump of rushes or osiers, and it is built of reeds and flags, and 

contains from 5 to 11 eggs. 

Recurvirostra. Plate xxviL SCOLOPA CIDM. 

304. avoceita, 18 in. AvoCET. White and black above ; white below ; bill 

black, long, pointed, and curved upwards ; remiges 

30 ; legs grey. 

The Avocet — Dimensions, Oe ; Eggs, Na — was formerly one of our regular summer 

migrants, but is now merely a straggler. He bobs his head as he swims ; and flies with his 

head in, his beak down, his legs out, and his wings arched. His call is " klint." 

Regulus. Plate iii. TURDINj^ (Passeridae). 

30. cristatus, si in. Gold-crested Wren. One black streak and 

that over the eye. 

31. ignicapillus, 3^ in. F[RE-crested Wren. Three black streaks, the 

middle one through the eye, the lowest forming a 
moustache. 

The Gold-crested Wren — Dimensions, Aa ; Eggs, Aa — is the smallest European bird. Its 
flight is straight and fluttering when short, but dipping and steady when long. Its call is 
" zit, zit," and its note "chip chirrrr, if-he, if-he," somewhat weak and distant. The female 
has the crest lemon yellow. The nest is hung from a horizontal branch of some coniferous 
tree, and is almost a sphere of felted moss, cobweb, wool, and lichen lined with feathers. It 
contains from six to ten eggs. 

The Fire-crested Wren — Dimensions, Ac ; Eggs, Ab — is practicalljr the same size as the t 
Gold-crest, althfaugh our average is higher. It is merely an occasional visitor ; the first 
recorded specimen was killed by a cat at Cambridge, in 1832, 

Rhodostetliia. Plate xxxi. LARID^. 

355. roseat 14 in. Wedge-tailed Gull. Head and neck white 

with a narrow black collar ; back grey ; under parts 
rosy ; outer web of first primary black ; bill black ; 
legs red. 

The Wedge-tailed Gull — Dimensions, Me — once provided a specimen for the Leeds 
Museum, but as it is the only specimen claimed as British, we can leave to others the un- 
ravelling of the doubt as to whether it was mounted from a relaxed skin or from the flesh. 
It is an Arctic species. 

Rlssa. Plate xxxi. LARIDM. 

367. tridactyla^ 15 in. Kittiwake. White and grey above ; tail white ; 
first to fifth primaries tipped with black, sixth barred 
with black ; white below ; bill yellow ; remiges 31 ; 
legs brownish black. 

The Kittiwake— Dimensions, Mp ; Eggs, Op — so called from its call or " kittiwake," is ■ 
bird of the rocks found only on the coast. It is the most graceful of the gulls in flight. In 



120 THE SPECIES 

summer its head and neck are spotless white ; in winter they are grey, ITie full grown 
birds have yellowish bills, the young ones have black bills, and their tails have a black band. 
The nests are in colonies on ledges of rock, aiid consist of seaweed, grass, and feathers. 
They contain from two to four eggs. 

Ruticilla. Plate ii. TURDINM (Passeridae). 

17. phcenicuruSf 5^ in. Redstart. Forehead white; back dark grey; 

rump chestnut ; throat black ; breast chestnut red ; 
legs black ; bill black. 

18. titys, si in. Black Redstart. Forehead black ; back dark 

grey ; rump chestnut ; throat black ; breast black ; 
legs black ; bill black. 

The Redstart — Dimensions, Cg ; Eggs, Bs — is one of the handsomest of our summer 
migrants, and is regularly here from April to September. It is the Red-tail — ^Start being 
Steort, the Old English for tail. Its tail is always on the jerk, for the bird is never still, and 
even its flight is jerky and irregular. It sings on the wing and when perching, but the song 
is not very elaborate. The call is ** wheet." The female is dull brown above, with a good 
deal of white on the chest. The nest is found everywhere, and is built of grass, moss, and 
roots, lined with hair, wool, and feathers, and contains from four to seven eggs. 

The Black Redstart— Dimensions, Cs ; Eggs, Di — is a winter visitor. It is often called 
the Blackstart, which it is not, for its tail is red. It is rather quicker and easier on the wing 
than the Redstart. Its second primary is equal to its seventh, while the Redstart's second 
is equal to its sixth. 

Saxicola. Plate ii. TURDINM {Passeridae). 

13. stapazina, 5^ in. Black-throated Wheatear. Throat black ; 

tail black and white. 

14. deserti, 6 in. Desert Wheatear. Throat black ; tail black. 
12. cenanthe, 6| in. Wheatear. Throat white; t^l black and white. 

A Black-throated Wheatear— Dimensions, Cj ; Eggs, Dl— was shot here on one occasion 
only. This was at Bury, in Lancashire,^ in 1875. Another Wheatear, S. isabellina^ was once 
found here at Allonby, in Cumberland, in 1887, but our list is quite long enough without it. 

The Desert Wheatear— Dimensions, Dl ; Eggs, Br— has once or twice straggled here from 
the Sahara, or else escaped from captivity. 

The Wheatear— Dimensions, Ef ; Eggs, Dk— is one of our earliest summer migrants, and 
stayswiih us from March to October. Its bill is black and broad, and bristly at base ; and 
its axillaries have a mottled look owing to the white feathers having grey centres. Its 
under wing coverts are black and white. The flight is a low and dipping one; it generally 
begins from a wall on which the bird will always perch if it can, and it ends in a characteristic 
hopping. The call is **chack, chack"; the song, often given on the wing, is a monotonous 
twitter. The female differs from the male in being brown above, and having a buff eye- 
stripe. The nest is on the ground, or in a hole in a low wall, or under a stone ; it is a loo'^e 
collection of grass and moss, lined with fur, hair, wool, and feathers, and contains from four 
to eight eggs. 

Scolopax. Plate xxvii. SCOLOPACID^. 

308. rusticola, 14 in. Woodcock. Breast thickly barred with brown ; 

26 remiges, 9 primaries, with webs obscurely barred ; 

first primary longest ; tail tipped with grey above 

and silver below. 
The Woodcock— Dimensions, Lp \ Eggs, Lp— is now claimed as a resident, whose numbers 
are enormously augmented by the migrants arriving in October. The woodcock rises with a 
whirr, and flies with bent wings, and his beak pointed down. The flight is a straight one 
with an occasional yaw, and not particularly fast. The call has been syllabised as *' vessop." 
In the male the first primary is spotted, in the female it is plain. The nest is a hollow in the 
ground, lined with a few dead leaves. There are four eggs, which curiously enough are 'not 
pyriform, although Scolopax is the type of the Scolopacidae. 

Scopa. Plate xiii. STRIGID^. 

168. giu, 'jI in. Scops Owl. Facial disk obsolete above ; 

plumicorns small ; bill black ; no operculum , 

plumage greyish brown above ; greyish white below ; 

22 remiges, fourth primary longest ; legs featheriid ; 

toes bare and brown. 

The Scops Owl— Dimensions, Gk ; Eggs, Hh— is our smallest owl, but is only an occasiona,' 

straggler amongst us. The call is the "giu" from which comes its name. The female is 

redder than the male, and, of course, larger 



THE SPECIES. 131 

Serinua. Plate vii. FRINGILUNj^.. (Passeridai). 

90. canarius, 4^111. Wild Canary. Feathersofbackedged with grey, 
and marked willi olive green ; wing coverts tippea 
with olive green. 

89. koriulanus, /\\ in. Sehin. Feathers of back edged with yellow ; wing 
coverts tipped with yellow. 

The Wild Cannry — Dimensions, Al ; Eggs, Cl — has occasionally been reported as 
appearing in small flocks on the Sussex Downs. 

The Serin — Dimensions, Am ; Eggs, Ac — occasionally appears in the same locality. Rut 
in each case there are doubts as to whether the birds are not "escapes " ; and, in fact, the 
evidenoe in favour of the Canary is stronger than that in favour of the Serin. 

Sitta. Plate iv. SITTING (PasseridEe), 

58. cmia, 5^ in. Nuthatch. Bluisli above, huffish below ; black 

streak through eye ; remiges 19 ; first primiiry ' 
short; third, fourth, and fifth longest; two middle- 
tail feathers slaty grey, each of the others black, 
white, and grey ; legs pale brown. 

The Nuthatch — Dimensions, Ch ; Eggs, Co— is a resident. Its peculiar toe enables it to 
run down the tree trunks, as well as up them, and thereby it can be distinguished from the 
Creepers and Woodpeckers. It sleeps head downwards ; and it perches across the twigs like 
a Nightjar. Its call is *' whit, whit," The female is not so brightly coloured. The nest is 
in a hole of a rotfen tree, which is plastered up all but a small opening just large enough 10 
admit the bird; it consists of a few dead leaves and chips of bark, and contains from five to 
eight eggs, 

Somateria. Plate xxii. ANATJDM. 

255. stelleri, 20 in. Stellkr's Eider. Crown white. 

254. spectabilis, 24 in. King Eider, Crown grey, basal tubercle of beak 

orange red. 
253. mollissima, 25 in. ElDER DucK. Crown black ; central line of 

feathers on beak reaching only half way to 

nostrils ; remiges 26. 

Steller's Eider — Dimensions, Pd ; Eggs^ Pa — occasionally wanders here from the Arctic 
Regions in the winter. ]t has -a blue wing bar with white edges. The female is ruddy 
brown with a duller wing bar. 

The King Eider — Dimensions, Qt ; Eggs, Qf— is another winter straggler from the far 
north. It has a narrow black chevron under the chin. 

The Eider Duck— Dimensions, Rg ; Eggs, Sb— is a regular winter visitor, and breeds 
along the coast north of the Fames. It has an easy powerful (light. The call is a rolling "kr, 
kr, kr." The female is dark brown with white tips to some of the secondaries and the 
greater wing coverts. The nest is sometimes in a hole in the rocks, sometimes on the ground, 
and is a mass of sea campion and grass lined with grey down. There are from five to eight 
eggs. 

Spatula. Plate xxi. ANA TIDM, 

237, clypeata, 20 in. Shoveller Duck. Bill dark slate ; wing bar 
green ; tail of 14 feathers. 
The Shoveller— Dimensions, Pg ; Egtrs, Nh — is always found in pairs. The male hns a 
black bill ; the female's is greenish brown above. The male's eyes are yellow, the female's 
are brown. The female has dark brown plumage, and this is assumed by the male in the 
summer. The flight is rapid and rather laboured, "The call is " took, took." The nest is on 
the ground in grass or heather, and is made of dry grass lined with dark grey down, tipped 
faintly with white. There are seven, eight, or nine eggs. 

Squatarola. Plate xxvi, CHARADRIID/^. 

296. helvetica^ 11 in. Grey Plover. White above barred with black and 

brown ; black below ; axillaries black ; tail coverts 

white ; bill black ; tail barred ; legs black. 

The Grey Plover — Dimensions, Jm ; Eggs, No — calls here in July and August on iis way 

from its northern breeding haunts, and calls again in the spring on its way back, though a 

good many remain here during the winter. In winter the under parts are mostly while. Thf 

female is browner on the back than the male. 

I 



122 



THE SPECIES. 



BtercorariUB. Plate xxxii, 
371. crepidatus^ 20 in. 



370. pomatorhinus, 21 in, 

372. parasiticus^ 22 in. 
369. crUari'hactes, 24 in. 



Richardson's Skita. Two central tail feathers 

three inches longer than the others. 

POMATORHINE Skua. Tvvo central tail feathers 

four inches longer than the others, and twisted 

upwards. 

Long-tailed Skua. Two central tail feathers 

nine inches longer than the others. 

Great Skua. Two central tail feathers less than 

an inch longer than tlie others. 

Richardson's Skua — Dimensions, Pj ; Eggs, Pm — is the commonest of the four in this 
country. He is also known as the Arctic Skua, owing, apparently, to a mi<itake. He breeds in 
Caithness and the Orkneys, and comes south on migratioa. Like all the ** pirate gulls " he 
has a somewhat hawk-like flight, and chases birds on the wing until they drop their food, 
which he catches before it reaches the sea. He never dives and rarely settles on the water. 
His cry is the " skuaw," from which he gets his name. The nest is a hollow, lined with grass 
, and moss, and contains one, two, or three eggs. 

The Pomatorhine Skua — Dimensions, Pp ; Eggs, Pa — or as it is now more generally called 
the Pomarine Skua, is a regular winter visitor. 

The Long-tailed Skua — Dimensions, Qc; Eggs, Nt — is often known as BufFon's. It is 
an Arctic species, and its visits are somewhat rare. 

The Great Skua— Dimensions, Rd ; Etjgs, Rn — breeds on the Shetlands. It is very 
powerful on the wing, and is distinguishable by the white bases to its remiges. It has a luud 
hoarse cry of " skuah-h-h " ; and its nest is a hole perhaps a foot in diameter, lined with moss 
and heather, containing one o:- two eggs. 



Bterna. Plate xxx. 
350. minuta. 



LARIDM, 



gin. Little Tern. Crown black ; forehead white; 
tail white ; bill yellow ; legs orange ; remiges 26. 
Tern. Crown black ; head white ; tail white and 
grey ; bill red, black at tip ; legs red ; remiges 29. 

352, an^stheta, 14 in. Lesser Sooty Tern. Crown black ; nape white ; 
two of ihe toes only webbed to the claw. 
GuLL-BiLLED Tern. Head black ; tail grey ; bill 
black ; legs black. 

Arctic Tekn. Crown black ; head grey ; pri- 
maries with narrow grey band on inner webs; remiges 
29 ; tail white and grey ; bill red ; legs red and 
short. 

Sandwich Ticrn. Head black ; tail white ; bill 
black witli yellow tip ; legs black. 
fuliginosa, 16 in. Sooty Teun. Crown black ; nape black ; all three 

toes webbed to the tips. 
doHgalli, 16J in. Roseate Tern. Rosy breast; bill black ; legs 
red. 

345. caspia, 20 in. Caspian Tern. Head black ; tail white ; bill 

red ; legs black ; remiges 33. 

The Little Tern — Dimensions, If; Eggs. Hi. — arrives early in May, and stays till nearly, 
the end of the year, when the black on its head becomes very dull. It has a slow flight, low 
over ihe water. Its call is "kiriree." The eggs are laid in a hollow scratched on the 
shingly beach ; sometimes there are three of them, sometimes four. 

The Tern— Dimensions, LI ; Eggs, Lh— is almost as often called the Sea Swallow, and 
is one of our regular^ summer migrants. It has a slow skimming flight with occasional 
hoverings. In wmter its black crown is sprinkled with white, and its bill and legs are very 
pale in colour. The eggs are laid in a hollow of the ground in twos and threes, and there 
are usually a number of these " nests '* together. 

The Lesser Sooty Tern— Dimensions, Lt ; Eggs, Mh— has only been seen here twict 
as yet. 

The Gull-billed Tern— Dimensions, Mg ; Eggs, Mq— is a rare visitor notwithstanding iti 
cosmopolitan range. It has a laughing cry of ha, ha, ha." 



348. fluviaiilis^ 13^ in. 



344. anglica, i^\ in. 



349. macrura, 1$ in. 



346. cantiaca, 15J in. 



351- 



347. 



THE SPECIES. 123 

The Arctic Tern — Dimensions, Mo; Eggs, Kd — breeds on our northern coasts, and is 
with us from May to October. Its cry is "give, give, give." It lays two or three eggs in a 
hole among the shingle, which are recognisable by being alike and thereby differing from the 
pebbles. 

The Sandwich Tern — Dimensions, Ms ; Eggs, Nn — was first described from a specimen 
found at Sandwich, in Kent, It is a regular summer visitor. Its flight and nesting arrange- 
ments are similar to those of the Arctic Tern. Its call is "correct." Its tail is unusually 
deep in the fork. 

The Sooty Tern — Dimensions, Nj ; Eggs, No— has strayed over here across the Atlantic 
two or three times. 

The Roseate Tern— Dimensions, Nm ; Eggs, Lc — used to breed on the Fames and Scillies, 
but is now rare. Its primaries have their inner web white throughout, and the outer feathers 
of the tail are six inches longer tlian the middle ones. Its cry is "crake," and its eggs arc 
two or three laid in the usual hollow. 

The Caspian Terp — Dimensions, PI; Eggs, Qe — is only occasionally seen here Its cry 
is " krake-kra." Its tail is only slightly forked. 

Strepsilas. Plate xxvi. CHARADRIIDM. 

302. interpreSt 9 in. Turnstone. Black and wliite ; chestnut and 

brown on shoulders and wings ; bill short nnd black; 
remiges 25 ; legs orange ; toes cleft to base. 

The Turnstone— Dimensions, Ht ; Eggs, Kc— is a shore bird, visiting us in spring and 
autumn on its way to and from the north. In winter it loses the chestnut in its pinninge, 
and its legs become of a paler yellow. Its note is a shrill whistle, with a " keet, kilterrr ' 
when on the wing. 

Strix. Plate xiii. STRIGIDM, 

161. flammea, 13 in. BARN OwL. Facial disk complete ; no plumicorns ; 
operculum large ; plumage tawny buff above, face 
and under parts whitish ; bill yellow ; 24 remiges, 
second primary longest but only a little longer than 
first and third ; feet generally with bristles ; claws 
black, middle claw serrated. 

The Barn Owl— Dimensions, Le ; Eggs, Ld — is our commonest owl. It has a leisurely 
noiseless flight. Its cry is a screech ; and it snores. The female is, as usual, the larger bird. 
There is no nest. The eggs are laid in some hole in a church tower or other building, 
there are from two to seven of them, and it is supposed that they are usually laid in pair;,. 

Sturnus. Plate ix. STURNIN^ (Passeridas). 

I30. vulgaris, 8 in. STARLING. Plumage bronze blue and black, 

thickly spotted with small triangles of buPt ; remiges 
with pale brown margins; second primary longest. 

The Starling — Dimensions, Hb ; Eggs, Go — is gregarious and only rarely found alone. He 
has a straight, strong flight, with a rapid flapping and then a glide, with a sudden descent ; 
but he can perform the most remarkable evolutions in the air when in chase of insects. The 
natural note is a scream and a twitter, but a Starling is a born mimic. In summer his bill is 
yellow ; in winter, when he is more spotted, it is horn colour. The eyes of the male are all 
nlack, those of the female have a brown iris. The female is more spotted than the male. 
The nest is in a hole in a house, or in a tree, or anywhere. It is a slovenly mass of grat,s, or 
of sticks, straws, and miscellaneous matter, siring, paper, and rags. There are from four to 
seven eggs. 

Sula. Plate xviu PELRCANIDM. 

201. bassana, 31 in. Gannet. Plumage white, except head and neck, 
which are buff, and primaries, which are black. 

The Gannet — Dimensions, Sj ; Eggs, Rq — has a curious black pencillin|; round the beak, 
which makes the gape line look much longer than it really is. The flight is rapid, but easy, 
with a good deal of high soaring without much effort. The call is simply •* grog," given 
with every phase of emphasis and expression. The full plumage is not attained till the sixth 
year; young birds are blackish brown with white spots, and the older they get the whiter 
they get. The Gannet breeds in colonies on rocky ledges. The nests are of seaweed, straw, 
and turf. There is but one egg. 

I 2 



124 THE SPECIES. 

Surnia. Plate xiii. STRIGIDAL. 

t66. vhila, 14 in. Hawk Owl. No disk ; no tufts ; no opcrcTiIum ; 

plumage dark brown above spotted with wliite ; 
face white ; lower parts finely streaked wit'i brown ; 
tail graduated and tipped with white ; legs covered 
with greyish feathers. 
The Hawk Owl — Dimensions, Lr ; Eggs, Kl — is a rare visitor. In flight he resembles a 
hawk, and he hunts his prey in daylight. 

Sylvia. Plates ii. iii. TURDINAl (Passeridce). 

24. curruca, 5J in. Lessek Whitethroat. Back grey ; throat white ; 

legs bluish. 
23 cinerea, 5^ in. Whitethroat. Back brown ; throat white ; legs 

brown. 

27. horiefjsis, 5^ in. Garden Warbler. Pale eye stripe ; legs blue. 
26. atricapilla, sf in. BLACKCAP. Crown black ; tail brown. 

25. orphea, 6 in. Ori'hean Warbler. Crown and sides of face 

blpLck ; tail brown and wliite. 

28. visoria, 6J in. BARRED Wakbler. Throat and breast barred 

with brown. 

The Lesser Whitethroat — Dimensions, Bh ; Eggs, At — has been found here from April to 
November, but the return generally takes place in September, Jtis a slenderer bird than 
the Whitethroat, and has yellowish white eyes and black ear coverts. It has a dipping fliRhi 
when fairly on the wing, but is generally noticed darting and hopping about the hiplier 
branches of trees. The call is "chick," and the song a monotonous "sip, sip, sip." The 
female is smaller than the male and has the head browner and the lower plumage tinged with 
grey. The nest is low in a hedgerow, and is a shallow structure of grass and rootlets, 
bound together with cobwebs, and cocoons, and hair. It contains four or five eggs. 

The Whitethroat — Dimensions, Bs ; Eggs, Ck — is one of our commonest summer migrants. 
It is a busy, inquisitive, brisk sort of bird, almost as fearless as a robin, hofping about 
unwearyingly on the hedge tops, fluttering after insects, and occasionally soaring up almost 
perpendicularly, singing as it goes. Its call is " lueet, lueet " ; its alarm is " shuh," or 
" cha, cha, cha " ; and it has a sweet little song, to give due emphasis to which when he is at 
rest he raises the feathers of his crown. The female lias no rosy tinge on her breast. The 
nest is in thick herbage near the ground. It is a slight shallow structure of grass, galium, 
and hair, and it contains from four to six eggs. 

The Garden Warbler — Dimensions, Ca ; Eggs, Dn — i-< another of our summer migrants, 
arriving in the beginning of May, It has a short, rapid flight, but is of rather retired habits 
and does not often take to the wing. Its call is *' check "; its song is rather like a Blackbird's, 
but more hurried and capricious. The female has buff" axillaries like the male, but is rather 
paler. The nest is generally among thick brambles, and close to the ground. It is a slightly 
built firm affair of galium, grass, rootlets, cobwebs, and horsehair, containing four or five 
eggs. 

The Blackcap — Dimensions, Cq ; Eggs, Dj — is one of our residents, but is also, and to a 
great extent, a summer migrant. He has a short rapid flight from bush to bush, but dips a 
good deal when fully under way. His call is " tac tic." He is our best native songster, 
lull, deep, and wild, beginning with two or three double notes and working up to a loud, 
varied, and continuous triJl. " He has caught from the Blackbird his rich mellow tone, from 
the Skylark his melody shrill, and the notes of the Woodlark, the Thrush, and his own he 
varies and blends at will." The female has a brown cap. The nest is near the ground in 
bushes and brambles ; it is neatly but slightly built of galium, grass, rootlets, and cocoons, 
with a little hair, and contains from four to six eggs. 

The Orphean Warbler — Dimensions, Dg ; Eggs, De — is occasionally seen and more often 
heard of in this country. It was first recorded in 1848. 

A Barred Warbler — Dimensions, Eb ; Eggs, Ek — was shot near Cambridge forty years 
ago, and_ there have been a few recorded here since. It can always be identified by its 
eyes, which are of such a pale yellow as to be taken to be white. 

Symium. Plate xiii. STRIGIDAi, 

164. aluco, 18 in. Tawny Owr,. Facial disk complete ; no plumi- 

corns ; operculum large ; plumage reddish brown 
above with much white below ; 23 remiges, fourth 
and fifth primaries longest ; feet feathered to the 
claws, which are whitish at base and brownish at tip. 



THE SPECIES. 125 

The Tawny Owl — Dimensions, On ; Eggs, Me — otherwise the Wood Owl, is our typical 
Owl, the one that says *' Quotha ! tu whit ; tu whoo I oh-h, h, h ! " and flies so softly, and 
lives in a tree, and never comes out till after dark. The eggs are often laid in the deserted 
nest of a dove, a crow, a magpie, or in a squirrel's drey; but generally it is in a hole, the 
three or four eggs being laid on disgorged food pellets. 

Syrrhaptes. Plate xxlii. PTEROCLID^. 

268. paradoxus, 16 in. Pallas's Sand Grouse. Buff barred with dark 

brown above ; sandy below ; lower breast blackisli ; 

tail of 16 feathers, with two of them long and 

pointed ; toes feathered to the claws. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse — Dimensions, Nh ; Eggs, La — first appeared here. in 1863, on a wave 

of migration from the Tartar Steppes. It is now an occasional visitor. Its flight is riifmi, 

high, and loud ; and its cry is *' truk, turuk." The female is spotted with black on the ht:ad 

and neck. 

Tadorna. Plate xx. ANATW^. 

234. cas.irca, 24 in, RuDDV Siield Duck. Bill black; tail black; 

legs black. 
233. cornuta, 26 in. Sheld DuciC Bill oninge ; tail white; legs 

orange. 

The Ruddy Sheld Duck — Dimensions, Rb ; Eggs, Qit — is generally shot in this country 
on its escape from captivity, although there is no reason why it should not come in a wild 
stale occasionally. It is the Brahminy Duck of Anglo-Indians. The male's bill is bright 
red, the female's is black, and she has no black ring round the neck. 

The Sheld Duck — Dimensions, Ro ; Eggs, Qv — is our old friend the Sheldrake renamed, 
as a revenge probably for the renaming of the Wild Duck. It is our largest duck, and 
a handsome one, with its beautiful green head and neck, and its broad collars of white and 
chestnut, its white wing coverts and its green wing bar. The male's call is a whistle, the 
female's a loud " kor, kor," and a "quark." The female is like the male but not so 
brilliant, and not so large, and she has no knob at thj base of her bill. The nest is in a 
rabbit burrow or in a burrow made specially by the bird, which is almost circular in ground 
plan, or among thick furze. The materidU are dry grasS| and moss, and pale lavender 
coloured down. There are fri^m 7 to 16 eggs. 

Tetrao. Plate xxiii. PHASIAN/DyE. 

272. mutus, 15 in. Ptarmigan. Primaries white ; tail rounded, with 

16 feathers. 
271. scoticus, 16 in. Red Gkouse. Primaries brown ; tail square, with 

16 feathers. 
270. tetrix, 22 in. BLACK GROUSE. Tail forked, with 18 feathers ; 

25 remigcs. 
269. urogailus, 36 in. Capercaillie. Tail slightly rounded, with 18 

tail feathers ; 29 remiges. 

The Ptarmigan — Dimensions, RIj ; Eggs, Li — is a familiar bird owing to its being imported 
so largely from Norway for food purposes, but it is resident in several pans of Scotland above 
the forest Une. In summer the male has red wattles over the eyes, and is black and brown 
above, except on the lower back and rump, where he is white. In autumn the blacks and 
browns become greys ; and in winter the plumage is almost all white. The flight is whirring 
and very rapid, low and straight, and it ends with a long run. The call is a croak like a 
frog. The male has black lores ; the female has not. The nest is a hollow on the ground, 
lined with some scraps cf grass and heather, and a few feathers. The eggs are from 8 to 12 
in number. 

The Red Grouse — Dimensions, Nc ; Eggs, Lo — is the only real and original British Bird 
who is never seen out of Britain. He is the "Saint** to which the 12th of August is 
dedicated. The n.al; has a sort of long moustache and a very large red wattle. The female 
is smaller in size, paler in colour, without a moustache, and with a much smaller wattle, or 
" comb,** as it is often called. The flight is a low one, with many a glide with outstretched 
wings. The call of ihe male is "go back, go back, go go back " ; that of the female is a 
croak. The nest is a hollow in the ground, lined with heather, grass, and teathers, and there 
ftre from 7 to 15 eggs. 

The Black Grouse — Dimensions, Pt ; Eggs, Mp — is the inclusive designation of the Black 
Cock and Grey Hen, and is perhaps better known as Black Game. The male has a broad 
white bar on the wing, and he has white axillaries and tail C'>vertA, The female is chestnut in 



126 



THE SPECIES. 



colour, much freckled with black, and much smaller than the male. The call is a crow; ana « 
noise "as of whetting a scythe." The flight is heavy and low, but rapid and occasionally 
prolonged. Unlike the Grouse, Black Game are very partial to perching in trees. The nest 
is a hollow, often in damp ground. It is lined with heather or fern, and contains from 6 to lo 
eggs. 

The Capercalllic— Dimensions, Ta ; Eggs, Og— seems once to have died out in Scotland, 
but to have been reintroduced in 1837. It is dark ashy grey in colour with black chin 
feathers, forming a sort ofheard. The call is "peller, peller," "klickop," and also ' heed._ 
The night is a particularly powerful one, with a terrible whirr to start with. The female is 
smaller than the male, and is pale chestnut in colour, much mottled with black, and she nas 
white tips to her tail feathers. The nest is a hollow among the heather or whortleberry 
bushes, lined with a few sprigs, and containing from 5 to 15 eggs. 



Tichoiroma. Plate vi. 
86. muraria, 6\ in. 



CBRTHIINM (PasseridK.) 



Wall Creeper. Back slaty grey ; wings grey 
and crimson ; five of the primaries spotted with 
white ; dark grey below ; tail black, tipped with 
grey, and almost square in shape. 

The Wall Creeper— Dimensions, Em : Eggs, Cj— has been recorded twice in this country, 
once in 1792 and once in 1S72. It is a well known native of Central and Southern Europe. 



V 



SCOLOPACIDM. 

Sandpiper. Remiges 24, much patched with 
white ; eighth and ninth secondaries nearly white ; 
upper tail coverts brown ; wings white barred ; 
axillaries white ; legs olive. ^ 

Spotted Sandpiper. Remiges 27 ; eighth and 
ninth secondaries with abroad brown band across 
both webs ; circular greenish black spots on breast 
and neck. 

Wood Sandpiper. Remiges 26 ; upper tail 
coverts white ; axillaries white, often with brown 
bars ; legs pale olive. 

Gkeen Sandpiper. Remiges 29; upper tail 
coverts white ; axillaries white with brown bars ; 
legs slaty blue. 

Solitary Sandpiper. Central upper tail coverts 
brown ; no bars on primaries ; axillaries brown and 
white ; two middle tail feathers olive brown speckled 
with white. 

Redshank. Lower back white ; secondaries 
wliite ; legs red. 

Yellowshank, Legs bright yellow. 

Spotted Redshank. Head, neck, mantle, and 
underparts grey ; secondaries white and grey ; legs 
reddish brown. 

Greenshank. Lower back white ; remiges 27 ; 
secondaries grey ; legs green ; no web between 
middle and inner toes. 

The Sandpiper — Dimensions, Fs ; Eggs, Ip — is almost as well known as the Summer Snipe; 
and is with us from April to September every year. It is a greenish brown bird, barred with 
bronze. Its wings are much bent as it flies ; it glides with them half open, then flaps them 
rapidly and regularly for a time, and finally holds them almost upright as it alights and runs* 
Its call is '* weet, weet, killy Icepie " ; and it has a cheery little song which it sings on the 
wing. The sexes are alike in plumage, and lose much of the dark brown in the autumn. 
The nest is a hollow, near water, lined with a little grass or moss, and it contains four eggs. 

The Spotted Sandpiper— Dimensions, Ge ; Eggs, He — is an American bird of whoso 
appearances here there are only a few somewhat doubtful records. 



Totanus. Plate xxix. 

327. kypoleucus, 7I in. 



32S. mmitlarhts, 7?, in. 



330. glareolat 8 in. 



329. ochropus. 



331. solitariuSf 9 



332. calidris, zo\ in. 



334. 
333- 



fiavipes, 
fuscust 



335- cancicenSf 13.5 in, 



lof in. 
12 in. 



THE SPECIF.S. 127 

The Wood Sandpiper — Dimensions, Ha; Eggs, Jm — has bred in this country but is 
chttfly known as an irregular straggler during its autumn and spring migrations. It has a 
quick shifty flight, and a call of '* treacle." The nest is a hollow near a marsh, lined with a 
little dry grass, and containing four eggs. 

The Green Sandpiper — Dimensions, Hm j Eggs, Jl — is with us nearly all the year, except 
during the summer months, when it goes northward to breed. It has a rapid, hasty flight, 
never fully opening its wings, and almost closing them during the final turns it takes before 
it alights. Its call is " dlee, dlee, dlee." This sandpiper lays its eggs in some deserted nest 
in a tree. 

The Solitary SandpiDer — Dimensions, Hs — is an American, occasionally wandering here. 
Its eggs are unknowL. 

The Redshank — Dimension'?, Jf ; Eggs, Lt — is resident in many of our marshes^ and has 
its numbers increased in the winter by migrants from the Continent. It has a quick, jerky 
sort of flight, its white secondaries being conspicuous. Its call is a loud '* took," or " tyook." 
Its nest is on the ground, well hidden among the herbage, a mere hollow trodden by the bird. 
There are four eggs. 

The Yellowshank— Dimensions, Ji ; Eggs, Ks— is an American, found here only two or 
three times. 

The Spotted Redshank— Dimensions. Ke ; Eggs, Mj-is occasionally met with in th« 
eastern counties on spring and autumn migration. It breeds in Finland. 

The Greenshank— Dimensions, T>j ; Eggs, Mo — is a summer migrant, breeding in the north 
of Scotland. It has a strong quick flight, and a call of " tyu tyu." The nest is a hollow in 
the ground, lined with a few heather 1 wigs and leaves. There are four eggs. 



SCOLOFACID^. 

Little Stint. Wing less than four inches ; six 
outer tail feathers brov/nish grey ; wings levd with 
tail ; legs black. 

Temminck's Stint. Six outer tail feathers white ; 
legs brown. 

American Stint. Six outer tail feathers grey ; 
legs and feet pale brown. 

Curlew Sandpiper. White ring baned with 
black round base of tail ; bill decurved. 

Dunlin. Black and chestnut above ; chin white ; 
breast greyish white ; lower breast black ; axillaries 
white ; wings not reaching to tail ; legs black. 

315. fuscicollis, ']\ in. Bonaparte's SANDPIPER. Upper tail coverts 
white, lightly streaked with brown ; bill short ; legs 
and feet brown. 

314. mactilata, 8^ in. Pr.CTORAL SANDPIPER. Upper tail coverts blackish 
brown ; wings extending beyond tail. 

321. striata, %\ in. PURPLE Sandpiper. Upper tail coverts blackish ; 

white bar on wings. 

322. canutus, g| in. KNOT. Back black with chestnut spots ; upper tail 

coverts white with black bands ; axillaries white 
with brown bars. 

The Little Stint— Dimensions, Ck ; Eggs, Gj— comes in spring and autumn on its 
migrations to and from the north. The flight is a rapid, unsteady one, with bent wings. The 
call is " stint," a sort of grasshopper's chirp. 

Temminck's Stint— Dimensions, Dd : Eggs, Gp— also visits us twice a year in its 
journeyings north and south. Like the Little Stint it is greyish brown above in the winter. 
It has a quick, vigorous flight, and a call of " tirrr." 

The American Stint— Dimensions, Dn ; Eggs, Gi— is very rare, in fact it has only been 
shot twice in this country. 

The Curlew Sandpiper— Dimensions, Fr— visits us on migration in the spring and autumn 
on its way to and from its breeding haunts in the north. Its eggs are unknown. In flight it 
i| distinguishable by its curved beak and sharply pointed wings. 



Tringa. 


Plates xxvii, 


. xx\ iii. 


317. 


minuta. 


Sjin- 


318. 


temmincki, 


Sjin. 


319- 


minutilla^ 


6 in. 


320- 


subarquata, 


7jin. 


3.5, 


alpha. 


7jin. 



128 THE SPECIES. 

The Dunlin — Dimensions, Gg; Eggs, Id — is the commonest Sandpiper, and is found on 
our coast in all months of the year. The flight is swift, with occasional sprints," and on 
alighting the wings are held up during the run. During the breeding season the Dunlin 
soars. The call is a "twee wee wee." In the winter the plumage is white below and grey 
above. The nest is a slight hollow, lined with rootlets, and containing four eggs. 

Bonaparte's Sandpiper — Dimensions, Gi ; Eggs, Ik — is an occasional straggler from across 
the Atlantic. 

The Pectoral Sandpiper — Dimensions, Hf ; Eggs, Jq — is another American species, but a 
far commoner one. 

The Purple Sandpiper — Dimensions, Hj ; Eggs, Jh— appears on our rocky coasts in 
September, and stays with us all through the winter. It has a swift, dipping flight, and 
swims well. Its call has been syllabised as " ince " and " weet, weet." 

The Knot — Dimensions, ]j — is really the Knut, from the king whose courtiers forgot the 
double tide in Southampton Water ; the Latinisation of his name gives the specific 
Canutas. It is a winter visitor like the Purple Sandpiper ; and in the winter months u is a 
greyish bird, with white under parts. Its llight is strong and straight, and it always alights 
head to wind. 

Troglodytes. Plate iv. TROGLODYT/NM [Vassenix). 

59. parvulus, y^ in. WREN. Brown above, barred with darker brown ; 
greyish brown below ; wing with two faint while 
bars ; remiges 18 ; the secondaries and tertials 
equal to primaries ; tail barred with black and held 
nearly upright. 

The Wren — Dimensions, Ab : Eggs, Bl — is one of our commonest residents, but is not so 
common as it gets credit for. It hasa short, straight, whirring flighty, with no dips in it ; but 
it is generally noticed skulking among the hedgerows. It often sings on the wing, and it 
sings all the year round; its call is a clicking as of winding up a clock.. The female has 
paler legs than the male. Its nest is a large one, built with a dome, and it has the eiurance 
at the side, generally with woven straws round the doorway. The materials are moss, leaves, 
hair, grass, and feathers. There are from four to nine eggs. 

Tryngites. Plate xxviii. SCOLOPACIDM. 

325. ru/escens, 8 in. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Buffish brown, 
mottled with black above ; primaries and 
secondaries marbled with black on undersides. 

The Buflf-breasted Sandpiper — Dimensions, He; Eggs, Jh — is an American straggler 
recorded here about half-a-dozen times. 

TurdUB. Plate i. TURDINM (Passeridae). 

3. iliacus, 8 in. Redwing. Spotted olive brown above ; broad 

white stripe over eye ; spotted buffish below ; 
axiUaries and flanks red. 

a. mudcus, 8J in. Thrush. Olive brown above, whitish below ; 
crown very flat ; plumage spotted and streaked with 
dark brown ; axiUaries pale yellow. 

6. atrigularis, 9J in. Black-thkoated Thrush. Throat and breast 
black. 

S. mtgratorius, 10 in. American Robin. Plumage black, with reddish 
breast. 

4. pilaris, lo^ in. Fieldfare. Greyish brown above ; wings and 

tail dark brown ; axiUaries white ; bluish rump ; 
legs dark brown. 

I. viscivorus, 11 in. Missel Thrush. Brown above, buff below 
spotted with dark brown ; axiUaries white ; rump 
brown ; legs pale brown. 

The Redwing— Dimensions, Gq ; Eggs, Fj— comes from its northern haunts in September 
and leaves us in May. ^ It appears in loose flocks. Its flight is rapid and straight, with the 
wmgs motionless in gliding down to settle. Its call is a shrill "yelp," and its song a rich, 
wild, flute-like trill. The female is not 50 bright in colour as the male. 



The Thrush — Dimensions, Hi ; Eggs, Gc — is a resident, migrating a good deal about the 
Country. It has an undulating flight, with much rapid wing work and occasional clips and 
ghdes. On theground the wings are frequently drooped and the tail stuck out straight. The 
well-known song has been syllabised as judy, judy, judy ! bopeep, bopeep, bopeep, bopeep, 
how d'ye do? how d'ye lIo?" but Macgillivray's more elaboiate version seems nearer the 
truth^ " gui, qui, qui; kweeu, quip; tiiirru, tiurru, chiprivi; tootee, tootee ; chiu, choo; 
chirri, chirri, chooee ; quiu, qui, qui." The female is rather smaller than the male, and is 
paler on the breast. The nest is often amongst evergreens ; it has been found on the ground, 
but is generally about six feet up a tree ; tt is built of grass, rootlets, twigs, and moss, and is 
plastered with cowdurig, mud, and decayed wood, so that its inside resembles that of a cocoa 
nut. It contains four, tive, or six eggs. 

A Black- throated Thrush — Dimensions, Ih ; Eggs, Gs — arrived at Lewes, probably from 
Turkestan, in 1868, and another was bhot in Scotland, in 1879. 

An American Robin — Dimensions, lo— was once heard singing near Dover, "probably 
escaped from some ship passing through the narrow seas." 

The Fieldfare — Dimensions, Jc ; Eggs, Hn — comes from (he north to winter here, and has 
been noticed from September to the beginning of June. It flies in loose flocks, starting with 
much noise, progressing by flaps and pauses, a pause to about _ every dozen flaps, and then 
sweeping round and settling with head up and tail down. It sings on the wing a soft ' 
" fu-igh, fu-igh," and its call is "yack, yack." The female is duller in colour than the male. 
It is said to have bred here occasionally, but the statement is not generally accepted. The 
nest is not unlike that of the Missel Thrush. 

The Missel Thrush— Dimensions, Jj ; Eggs, Hj — is with us all the months of the year. It 
is greyer on the wing than the other Thrushes, and has a heavier and more jerky flight, with 
pauses at regular intervals and no undulations. The song is a rich mellow ** churrr, wheep, 
wheep, whirrow, whirrow, wheep," with often a low scream when on the wing. It is th-^ 
earliest songster of the year, and is called the Storm Cock from its singing its cheeriest in the 
roughest weather. The female is paler than the male. The nest is a mass of twigs and 
lichens, lined with a deep bowl of mud ; but unlike the Song Thrush, the Missel lines the 
bowl with fine grass. There are four, five, or six eggs. 

Turnix. Plate xxiv. TURNICIDM. 

277, sylvatica^ 8 in. Andalusian Hemtpode, Crown black and brown ; 

sandy brown above ; buff below ; sides with black 
spots ; hill yellowish ; tegs yellowibh. 

The Andalusian Hemipode — Dimensions, 00 ; Eggs, Gb — otherwise Bush Quail, has been 
shot three times in this country. 



Turtur. Plate xxiii. COLUMBIDM. 

266. communis, ii^ in. Turtle Dove. Bill brown ; plumnge ashy grey ; 
white and black chequered patcli on neck ; mantle 
brown ; lower breast white ; tail tipped with white 
at sides ; legs crimson. 

The Turtle Dove — Dimensions, Jt ; Eggs, Gr — is a summer migrant, arriving in April and 
leaving sometimes as late as November. It has a rapid and peculiarly crooked flight. Itii 
call is " coor-r-r, coor-r-r." The female is browner than the male. It builds a slight flai 
pest of slender twigs, generally rather near the ground, and so open that the two eggs can 
often be seen by looking up through ii. 



Upupa. Plate xii. UPUPIDM. 

156. epops^ 12 in. Hoopoe. Crest buff, tipped with black ; warm buff 

above ; spotted below ; rump white ; remigeb 20 ; 
first primary small, second equal to seventh, and 
third, fourth, and fifth longest ; tail black with a 
broad white bar. 

The Hoopoe — Dimensions, Kc, Eggs, Gd — is a somewhat rare visitoi, arriving in the spring 
and autumn, and occasionally breeding here. It has an easy, dipping flight, and the call nf 
" hoopoe " or rather " hoop, hoop, ho I " which has given it its name. The ne^i is a strongly 
smelling one of straws and cowdung,and contains from five to seven eggs. 



ti6 



tat spncjts. 



Uria. Plate xxxii. 
377- ^7^^^'. 



A LCI DM. 
13 in. Black Guillemot. 



37S- troile, 



\'j\ in. 
376. bruennicki, 18 in. 



Breast black or speckled 
remiges 30. 

Guillemot. Breast white ; bill long and pointed 
reniiges 26. 

BrQnnich's Guillemot. Breast white ; bill short 
and thick ; remiges 26. 

The Black Guillemot— Dimensions, Kn ; Eggs, Pe— has a whitish head and white under- 
parts in the winter. His flight is low, rapid, and straight, and he dives almost as fast as he 
flies. The call is a scream. The nest is a mere hole, containing two orthr<;e eggs. 

The Guillemot — Dimensions, Gb ; Eggs, Se— has the throat and cheeks white in the 
winier._ He flies dartingly like a Kingfisher, and in diving he uses only his wings, while in 
swimming he uses only his le^s. The call is a murmuring "gurr"; theory of the young 
being the " willock," from which the French made "guillemot. The female is smaller than 
the male. On high cliffs, where many birds breed, the Guillemots occupy the zone below the 
Razorbills and above the Kittiwakes. There is no nest, the one egg being laid on the bare 
ledge of rock. Guillemot's eggs vary more in colour than those of any other British bird. 

Brunnich's Guillemot— Dimensions, Of ; Eggs, Se— is an Arctic straggler recorded here 
once or twice. 



Vanellus. Plate xxvi. 
301. cri status, 



CHARADRIIDM, 

13 in. Lapwing. Crown and crest greenish black ; sides 
of throat and lower breast white : upper parts 
blackish green ; outer primaries tipped with white ; 
secondaries almost wholly black ; tail coverts pale 
chestnut ; tail white tipped with black, except the 
two outer feathers ; legs brown ; hind toe small ; 
two toes cleft to base, two united nearly to first 
joint. 

The Lapwing — Dimensions, Lb ; Eggs, Mb — otherwise the Peewit, is the bird that lays 
rhe Plover's eggs for the London market. It has long been held in esteem. There is an old 
Scottish Act of Parliament, of the time of Edward the First, ordering all its eggs to be 
broken when found " in order that Peesweeps may not go south and become a delicious 
repast to our unnatural enemies, the EngHshI"_ '' Peewit," "Peesweep," " Weet a weet," 
" pee ween," " dix-huit," all do duty as syllabisations of its plaintive cry. The flight is a 
regular lap, lap, lap, of the wings, which are kept open for a little after the birds alight. 
The nest is a hollow, lined with grass and moss, and where there is one there are generally 
more. The eggs are four or five in number. Another Vanellus, the Sociable Plover, 
gregarius^ seems to have been shot in Lancashire, in i860, but our list is already so long that 
the mere mention of the fact is enough. 



Xema. Plate xxxi. LARIDM. 

354. sabinii, 13J in. Sabine's Gull. 



Head dark grey with narrow 
black collar ; beak red at tip ; back and wings grey ; 
primaries black ; white below; tail forked. 

Sabine's Gull— Dimensions, Lk j Eggs, Lr— was first found by Sir Edward Sabine in 
Greenland, and has been met with as far south as Callao. It has been recorded several timei 
since it was first shot at Belfast, in 1822, but it can only bd looked upon as a very occasional 
guest. 



CHAPTER XIl". 

DIMENSIONS, 



TN this list the birds are for the first time arranged in the order of 
-^ their average size, with their chief dimensions reduced to 
decimals of their length. Though birds vary much in stature, they 
vary very little in their proportions, and thus their measurement put 
in this way is an important aid in their identification. 

The double letters have been adopted to avoid any confusion that 
might arise from having two series of numbers running through the 
book. The length is taken from the tip of the beak to the tip of the 
tail. The wing measurement is that of the one wing, not of the wing- 
spread, which is a most difficult thing to measure accurately. The tail 
is measured from the pygostyle, which is perhaps more generally 
known as the " ploughshare bone." The body is measured from the 
base of the beak to the pygostyle. The beak is measured along its 
culmen, or upper edge ; and the tarsus, which, as we have said, 
is really the tarso-metatarsus, is measured from the ankle joint, 
popularly and erroneously called the " knee," to the junction with the 
toes, which is, quite as erroneously and popularly, known as the 
" heel.'' 

It is hardly necessary to point out that the measurement in inches 
should be divided by the length in inches to obtain these figures, 
and that consequently these decimals have merely to be multiplied by 
■ the length to obtain the actual dimensions. If, for instance, a Lesser 
Whitethroat should be found only 5 inches long, the figures in the list 
should be multiplied by five, and its wing should be 2'6 in. ; its tail 
2'3 in. ; its body 2'4 in. ; its beak 3 in. ; and its tarsus '8 in. ; which 
are in the same proportion as if the bird had been of the average size 
of 5j inches. 

Proportions. 





.5 

c 


c 


-! 


-a 


i 


1 






:i 


^ 


15 



a 


n 


t3 




Aa. 


3i 


•61 


•41 


■5 


.09 


•2 


Gold- crested Wren, 


Ab. 


3l 


•5 


•33 


•57 


•I 


•15 


Wren. 


Ac. 


3f 


•6 


•41 


•49 


•I 


"21 


Fire-crested Wren. 


Ad. 


4 


•56 


•46 


■45 


•09 


•17 


Yellow-browed Warbler. 


Ae. 


4i 


•58 


•47 


•46 


•07 


•'? 


Continental Coal Tit. 



132 DIMENSIONS. 

Proportions. 



4J l^ "3 o u « 

J ? fH n » H 

Af. 4j 'sS '47 -46 -07 ■J5 British Coal Tit. 

Ag. 4^ -5 -43 "5 -07 -15 Crested Tit. 

Ah. 45 -53 -43 -48 -09 -18 Aquatic Warbler. 

Ai. 4s '55 '47 '47 '06 -14 Blue Tit. 

Aj. 4i -55 -5 -43 '07 -12 Marsh Tit 

Ak. 4i -57 -46 -47 -07 -I Lesser Redpoll. 

Al. 44 '6 "3 "63 '07 '11 Wild Canary. 

Am. 4I -61 -39 '54 -07 •!! Serin. 

An. 4i 62 -42 '49 '09 •!! Siskin. 

Ac. 4I ■; "4 '54 "06 '12 Chiffchaff. 

Ap. 4| '53 "4 '52 'oS 17 Sedge Warbler. 

Aq. 4f -56 -46 -47 -07 -15 Little Bunting. 

Ar. 4j '6 '44 '49 "07 '14 Red-breasted Flycatchei. 

As. 5 '4 '54 '39 '07 '15 Dartford Warbler. 

At. 5 "54 "4 '53 07 '16 Willow Wren. 

Ba. 5 "55 '33 6 -07 "13 Tree Sparrow. 

Bb. 5 '6 "4 '52 "08 17 Whinchat. 

Be. 5 "6 '44 '49 '07 '14 Pied Flycatcher. 

Bd. 5 -6 -46 -48 06 -I Mealy Redpoll. 

Be. 5 '62 '45 '45 •! '16 Icterine Warbler. 

Bf. 5 '64 '4 '51 "09 '12 Goldfinch. 

^S- 5 '^5 '45 '5' '°4 ' Sand Martin. 

Bh. 5j '52 '46 '48 '06 •16 Lesser Whitethroat. 

Bi. 5^ '53 '41 '5 '09 '17 Stonechat. 

Bj. 5j '6 '4 '54 '06 '14 Wood Wren. 

Bk. 5j '62 '46 "48 '06 'I Greenland Redpoll. 

Bl. 5t '63 '46 '44 'I ■! Spotted Flycatcher. 

Bm. 5I -42 -43 '53 -04 ■! Great Tit. 

Bn. si '42 '5^ '3^ '°4 ' British Long-tailed Tit. 

Bo. si '42 '58 "38 04 •! White-headed Long-t;iilcd Til 

Bp. si '45 '36 '53 •' ''6 Reed Warbler. 

Bq. 5^ '47 '5 '39 "II "17 Marsh Warbler. 

Br. 5i "5 "41 "52 '07 '14 Hedge Sparrow. 

Bs. 5I "5 '44 '5 '06 '14 Whitethroat. 

Bt. Sj '5 "45 '45 'I '16 Savi's Warbler. 

Ca. 55 '5 '5 '44 "06 "14 Garden Warbler. 

Cb. Si '5 '51 '36 '13 'I Tree Creeper. 

Cc. si '53 '4 54 06 "19 Red-spotted Bluethroat. 

Cd. 53 "53 '4 '54 '06 '19 White-spotted Bluethroat. 

Ce. 53 "54 -44 'SI '05 -12 Twite. 

Cf. 55 '58 "44 "5 '06 '14 Rustic Bunting. 

Cg. Si '58 '46 '46 -08 '17 Redstart. 

Ch. si -6 '3 -58 -12 -13 Nuthatch. 

Ci. si '6 '44 '49 'o? '13 Scarlet Grosbeak. 

Cj. si '6 '45 '44 'II '16 Black-throated Whealear. 

Ck. si '62 ■2S '64 'ii 'Ji Little Stint. 

CI. Si '^3 '41 '52 '07 '14 Short-toed Lark. 

Cm. si '8 "47 -48 -OS 'i Martin. 

Cn. si '84 '4 -51 '09 '14 Stormy Petrel. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Proportions. 



JJ1 



Co. sf -44 "4 "54 -06 -13 

Cp. 5j '5 -4 "54 -06 -16 

Cq. 5 J -51 -41 -52 -07 -15 

Ci'- 5i '53 "46 -48 '06 '12 

Cs. sf -56 -42 -49 -09 -15 

Ct. 5f '57 -45 -47 '08 -12 

Da. 5| -58 -38 -53 -09 '13 

Db. 5f -6 '42 -52 -06 -11 

Dc. 5f -65 -4 -5 -I -09 

Dd. 5f -68 -34 -54 -12 -13 

De. 6 -37 -54 -41 -05 -11 

Df. 6 '5 -4 ■51 '09 Ti 

Dg. 6 -5 -43 -48 -09 -15 

Dh. 6 '52 -47 '47 -06 '12 

Di. 6 -53 -4 -55 -05 -11 

Dj. 6 -54 -5 -43 -07 ■J4 

Dk. 6 "57 "43 •48 '09 'i^ 

Dl. 6 -58 -39 -51 -I -16 

Dm. 6 '58 '42 '49 '09 '14 

Dn. 6 '6 '31 '59 'i 'i 

Do. 6 '6 '44 '45 'ii "i 

Dp. 6 '61 '4 '51 '09 'ii 

Dq. 6 '66 '41 -51 '08 "14 

Dr. 6 7 "26 '53 '21 '13 

Ds. 6 75 -37 -56 -07 -15 

Dt. 6J^ -47 -46 -47 -07 -14 

Ea. 6J '51 '41 '53 '06 "16 

Eb. 6 J '55 '44 '48 -08 '15 

Ec. 6^ '55 '46 '48 -06 '12 

Ed. 6i -58 -43 -5 -07 -12 

Ee. 6i -58 -44 "47 "09 '15 

Ef. 6i -6 '41 -5 09 -16 

Eg. 6i -67 -43 -45 -12 -11 

Eh. 6i -47 -36 -58 -06 -11 

Ei. 6| '5 '46 '46 "08 '14 

Ej. 6i "52 -46 '48 '06 'ii 

Ek. 6i -55 -45 -47 '08 "iS 

El. 6i -56 -4 -53 -07 -13 

Em. 6i 6 '34 '46 '2 '14 

En. 6i "62 '43 '46 'ii 'i 

Eo. 6^ '66 '29 -6 'I I ■21 

Ep. 6f -52 -44 -47 -09 -16 

Eq. 6| -55 -46 -47 '07 -12 

Er. 6| "65 "42 '47 'ii 'i 

Es. 6| -8 -6 "35 -05 -07 

Et. 7 '43 '21 '59 "2 -06 

Fa. 7 -5 -3 -62 -08 '14 

Fb. 7 -5 -31 -6 -09 -14 

Fc. 7 -5 -31 -6 -09 -14 



Grasshopper Warbler. 

Robin. 

Blackcap. 

Reed Bunting. 

Black Redstart. 

Chaffinch. 

Meadow Pipit. 

Linnet. 

Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 

Temminck's Stint. 

Bearded Tit. 

House Sparrow. 

Orphean Warbler. 

Cirl Bunting. 

Bullfinch. 

Blue-headed Wagtail. 

Tree Pipit. 

Desert Wheatear. 

Greenfinch. 

American Stirtt. 

Two-barred Crossbill. 

Brambling. 

Wood Lark. 

Broad-billed Sandpiper. 

Little Ringed Plover. 

Grey-headed Yellow Wagtail 

Nightingale. 

Barred Warbler. 

Ortolan Bunting. 

Lapland Bunting. 

Rock Pipit. 

Wheatear. 

Crossbill. 

Wryneck. 

Yellow Wagtail. 

Yellow Bunting. 

Water Pipit. 

Alpine Accentor. 

Wall Creeper. 

White-winged Crossbill. 

Kentish Plover. 

Rufous Warbler. 

Black-headed Bunting, 

Downy Woodpecker. 

Purple Martin. 

Kingfisher. 

Baillon's Crake. 

Dipper. 

Black-bellied Dipper. 



'34 










DIMENSIONS. 




1 




Proportions. 








§■ 
? 


■^ 


•g 

P3 


1 


1 




Fd. 


7 


•53 


•4 


•53 


•07 


•13 


Corn Bunting. 


Fe. 


7 


"54 


•32 


■58 


•I 


•II 


Hawfinch. 


Ff. 


7 


"54 


•46 


•46 


•08 


•13 


Tawny Pipit. 


Fg. 


7 


'57 


•46 


•47 


•07 


•'5 


Woodchat. 


Fh. 


7 


•6 


•3 


■59 


•II 


•I 


Red-necked Phalarope. 


Fi. 


7 


•6 


■35 


•54 


•II 


•14 


Crested Lark. 


Fj- 


7 


•6 


■4 


•47 


•'3 


•II 


Parrot Crossbill. 


Fk. 


7 


•6 1 


•4 


■54 


•06 


•II 


Shore Lark. 


Fl. 


7 


■64 


•21 


■72 


■07 


•14 


Quail. 


Fm. 


7 


•65 


•38 


•56 


■06 


■12 


Snow Bunting. 


Fn. 


7 


■71 


■34 


•58 


•08 


■14 


Ringed Plover. 


Fo. 


7 


•85 


•48 


•43 


■09 


■13 


Fork-tailed Petrel. 


Fp. 


7 


•97 


•45 


■s 


•05 


07 


Swift. 


Fq. 


7i 


■45 


■5 


■43 


•07 


12 


White Wagtail. 


Fr. 


7i 


•6 


•24 


•58 


•18 


•14 


Curlew Sandpiper. 


Fs. 


7i 


•6 


•29 


•57 


■14 


■13 


Common Sandpiper. 


Ft. 


7t 


•61 


•43 


•51 


•06 


•13 


Sky Lark. 


Ga. 


7i 


•48 


•5 


•44 


•06 


•II 


Pied Wagtail. 


Gb. 


7i 


•49 


•43 


■49 


•08 


•12 


Red-backed Shrike. 


Gc. 


74 


•5 


■43 


•49 


•08 


•16 


Richard's Pipit. '• 


Gd. 


7i 


■51 


•22 


•58 


"2 


•I 


Jack Snipe. 


Ge. 


74 


■52 


•2 


•6 


•2 


■2 


Spotted Sandpiper. 


Gf. 


74 


■6 


•53 


•43 


•04 


•06 


Swallow. 


Gg. 


74 


•61 


•13 


•67 


•2 


•14 


Dunlin. 


Gh. 


74 


•61 


•34 


•6 


•06 


•I 


Waxwing. 


Gi. 


74 


•64 


•12 


•75 


•13 


•I 


Bonaparte's Sandpiper. 


Gj. 


74 


•66 


•4 


•54 


■06 


•13 


White-winged Lark. 


Gk. 


74 


76 


•37 


•54 


•09 


•14 


Scops Owl. 


GI. 


74 


•86 


■39 


■55 


■06 


•16 


Wilson's Petrel. 


Gm. 


8 


•4 


"5 


■44 


•06 


•I 


Grey Wagtail. 


Gn. 


8 


•43 


•4 


•5 


•I 


■15 


Great Reed Warbler. 


Go. 


8 


•46 


•21 


•74 


•OS 


■12 


Andalusian Hemipode. 


Gp. 


8 


•5 


■27 


•64 


•09 


•12 


Little Crake 


Gq. 


8 


•59 


■45 


•48 


•07 


■14 


Redwing. 


Gr. 


8 


•6 


•25 


■63 


•12 


•II 


Sanderling. 


Gs. 


8 


•6 


•34 


•57 


■09 


■14 


Rock Thrush. 


Gt. 


8 


•62 


•32 


■58 


•I 


•09 


Grey Phalarope. 


Ha. 


8 


•64 


•23 


■62 


•15 


•19 


Wood Sandpiper. 


Hb. 


8 


•64 


•34 


•54 


•12 


•14 


Starling. 


He. 


8 


•7 


■14 


•76 


•I 


■12 


Buff-breasted Sandpiper 


Hd. 


8 


•75 


•4 


•53 


•07 


■15 


Little Owl. 


He. 


8 


!•! 


■47 


■48 


■05 


•07 


Alpine Swift. 


Hf. 


8i 


■6 


•12 


•75 


•13 


•II 


Pectoral Sandpiper. 


Hg. 


84 


•5 


•42 


•52 


•06 


•I 


Pine Grosbeak. 


Hh. 


84 


■56 


■45 


•47 


•08 


•12 


Lesser Grey Shrike. 


Hi. 


84 


•55 


•4 


•53 


•07 


•14 


Thrush 


Hj. 


84 


•58 


•12 


•73 


•15 


11 


Purple Sandpiper. 


Hk. 


84 


•59 


•32 


■58 


I 


■14 


Rose-coloured Starling. 


HI. 


84 


■6 


•0 


•93 


•07 


•I 


Little Auk. 













DIMENSIONS. 




■i 




Proportions. 








u 




>. 


^ 


"7 






^ 




e3 




i 


H 




Hm. 


H 


•64 


•26 


■59 


■15 


■IS 


Green Sandpiper. 


Hn. 


8f 


•64 


■41 


■49 


•I 


.09 


Hairy Woodpecker. 


Ho. 


8f 


I'l 


■25 


7 


■05 


•oS 


Needle-tailed Swift 


Hp. 


9 


•44 


■0 


■91 


•09 


■15 


Little Grebe. 


Hq. 


9 


■5 


•38 


■52 


■I 


■13 


Siberian Thrush. 


H?. 


9 


•52 


■22 


•69 


•09 


•14 


Spotted Crake. 


Hs. 


9 


■65 


■24 


■59 


■17 


■17 


Solitary Sandpiper. 


Ht. 


9 


•65 


•27 


•64 


•09 


•II 


Turnstone. 


la. 


9 


•66 


•33 


■54 


•13 


■IS 


Red-winged Starling. 


lb. 


9 


•66 


■39 


•5 


•II 


•09 


Golden Oriole. 


Ic. 


9 


7 


•3 


•6 


•I 


•16 


Eastern Golden Plover. 


Id. 


9 


7 


•5 


■39 


•II 


•II 


Tengmalm's Owl. 


le. 


9 


74 


•3 


•64 


•06 


•15 


Dotterel. 


If. 


9 


77 


■33 


■54 


■13 


■07 


Little Tern. 


Ig- 


9i 


•s 


■53 


■39 


•08 


•I 


Great Grey Shrike. 


Ih. 


9i 


■57 


•46 


•46 


•08 


■14 


Black-throated Thrush. 


li. 


9^ 


•6 


■43 


■45 


•12 


•I 


Great Spotted Woodpeckei 


Ij- 


9l 


•66 


•27 


■6 


■13 


•12 


Knot. 


Ik. 


9i 


75 


•47 


■48 


■05 


■12 


Pratincole. 


11. 


9^ 


•86 


■32 


■59 


•09 


•09 


White-winged Black Terc. 


Im. 


lO 


•47 


■4 


■51 


•09 


■13 


Blackbird. 


In. 


lO 


■5 


■24 


■49 


•27 


■12 


Snipe. 


lo. 


lO 


■53 


■45 


•48 


•07 


■IS 


American Robin. 


I p. 


lO 


•6 


•26 


•64 


•I 


'2 


Cream-coloured Coursijr 


Iq. 


lO 


•62 


•26 


•62 


•12 


•17 


Killdeer Plover. 


I?. 


lO 


•7 


■3 


•6 


•I 


•16 


Golden Plover. 


Is. 


lO 


76 


•2 


73 


■07 


•I 


Bulwer's Petrel. 


It. 


lO 


■76 


•53 


■44 


■03 


•07 


Nightjar. 


Ja. 


lO 


•8 


■5 


■44 


•06 


■12 


Merlin. 


'b. 


lO 


•85 


■32 


■56 


■12 


•06 


Black Tern. 


'.c. 


loi 


■57 


•4 


■S3 


•07 


■12 


Fieldfare. 


d. 


loi 


■47 


•2 


■65 


■'5 


■15 


Water Rail. 


e. 


loi 


•5 


•2 


•6 


•2 


■15 


Red-breasted Snipe. 


■f- 


loi 


■56 


■25 


■59 


•16 


■16 


Redshank. 


.g- 


loi 


•57 


■35 


■51 


•14 


•04 


Bee-eater. 


1. 


lOj 


•58 


•2 


•7 


•I 


'2 


Corn Crake. 


;i- 


lof 


■59 


•2 


•67 


■13 


•2 


Yellowshank. 


.j- 


II 


■55 


■4 


■53 


•07 


•I I 


Missel Thrush. 


k. 


II 


■55 


•44 


■49 


•07 


•12 


Ring Ouzel. 


^1. 


II 


•64 


■24 


•63 


•13 


•09 


Ruff. 


/m. 


II 


7 


•27 


■62 


•II 


•16 


Grey Plover. 


.n. 


II 


7 


•47 


•5 


•°3 


•06 


Egyptian Nightjir. 


o. 


II 


77 


•18 


7 


•12 


■14 


Dusky Shearwater. 


:p- 


II 


•8 


■4 


■54 


•06 


•09 


Rock Dove. 


.q- 


II 


•88 


•36 


•55 


•09 


•09 


Little Gull. 


r. 


II 


•9 


■45 


■49 


•06 


•09 


Red-footed Falcon. 


's. 


Ilf 


'% 


•2 


•6 


•2 


•13 


Great Snipe. 


i. 


Hi 


■6 


'37 


'57 


•06 


•07 


Turtle Dove. 


Ka. 


Ilj 


•8 


■3 


•57 


•■3 


•08 


Whiskered Tern. 



135 



136 










DIMENSIONS. 




a, 




Proportions. 








bb 

c 


.■= 




i 


in 

I 






:i 


? 


^ 



CO 


V 

pa 


e2 




Kb. 


\2 


'43 


•0 


■93 


•07 


■IS 


Eared Grebe. 


Kc. 


12 


■48 


•33 


•48 


■19 


•06 


Hoopoe. 


Kd. 


2 


•5 


•0 


•86 


■14 


•II 


Puffin. 


Ke. 


12 


■52 


•21 


•6 


•19 


•18 


Spotted Redshank. 


Kf. 


[2 


•56 


•19 


•69 


•12 


•2 


Bartram's Sandpiper. 


Kg. 


2 


•6 


•58 


•28 


■14 


■04 


Blue-tailed Bee-eater. 


Kh. 


[2 


•66 


•5 


■39 


•II 


■17 


Sparrow Hawk. 


Ki. 


r2 


•8 


■5 


■45 


■OS 


•09 


Lesser Kestrel. 


Kj. 


2* 


•44 


•28 


•68 


•04 


■13 


Partridge. 


Kk. 


2i 


■54 


■38 


■52 


•I 


•II 


"White's Thrush. 


Kl. 


'3 


•43 


•0 


■93 


•07 


•IS 


Sclavonian Grebe. 


Km. 


'3 


■49 


•17 


•66 


•17 


•14 


Little Bittern. 


Kn. 


'3 


■5 


•0 


■9 


•I 


•09 


Black Guillemot. 


Ko. 


>3 


•s 


•23 


•67 


•I 


■15 


Moorhen. 


Kp. 


3 


'5 


61 


■33 


•06 


■08 


Black-billed Cuckoo. 


Kq. 


3 


•5 


•62 


■31 


•07 


•08 


Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 


Kr. 


3 


•6 


•3 


•6s 


•OS 


•07 


Stock Dove. 


Ks. 


3 


•6 


■4 


■5 


•I 


•06 


Roller. 


Kt. 


'3 


•6 


■41 


"57 


•02 


•07 


Red-necked Nightjar. 


La. 


3 


•6 


•44 


■39 


•17 


■IS 


Nutcracker. 


Lb. 


3 


7 


•36 


•55 


•09 


■14 


Lapwing. 


Lc. 


'3 


73 


■23 


■57 


•2 


■34 


Black-winged Stilt. 


Ld. 


'3 


75 


•25 


■51 


■24 


■04 


Belted Kingfisher. 


Le. 


3 


■85 


■37 


■S3 


•I 


•2 


Barn Owl. 


Lf. 


'3 


I 


■5 


■43 


•07 


•I 


Black-winged Kite. 


Lg. 


3 


I 


■5 


■44 


•06 


•II 


Hobby. 


Lh. 


r3i 


•46 


•28 


•67 


■05 


■13 


Red-legged Partridge. 


Li. 


3i 


■53 


■35 


■S3 


•12 


•08 


Green Woodpecker. 


Lj. 


3i 


■55 


•22 


•62 


•16 


■17 


Greenshank. 


Lk. 


3i 


77 


■33 


•58 


•09 


■17 


Sabine's Gull. 


LI. 


>3i 


77 


■4 


•s 


•I 


■OS 


Tern. 


Lm. 


4 


•45 


•19 


•71 


•I 


•07 


American Blue-winged Teal 


Ln. 1 


4 


■52 


■19 


■7 


•II 


•07 


Teal. 


Lo. J 


4 


•52 


■41 


'S 


■09 


■1 1 


Jay- 


Lp. 


4 


•54 


■24 


•58 


•18 


•I 


Woodcock. 


Lq. 


4 


•58 


•2 


•64 


•16 


•14 


P2skimo Curlew. 


Lr. 


4 


•6 


■53 


■41 


•06 


•06 


Hawk Owl. 


Ls. 


'4 


•62 


■5 


■4S 


■OS 


•I I 


Kestrel. 


I.t. 


4 


•67 


•37 


■53 


•I 


•I 


Lesser Sooty Tern 


Ma. 


4 


•66 


■23 


■67 


•I 


•12 


Manx Shearwater. 


Mb. 


4 


7 


■3 


■59 


•II 


•OS 


Noddy. 


Mc. 


'4 


7 


•42 


■48 


•I 


•12 


Jackdaw. 


Md. 


'4 


7 


■54 


•4 


•06 


•06 


Cuckoo. 


Me. ] 


4 


72 


■4 


■S' 


•09 


•17 


"Wedge-tailed Gull. 


Mf. 


'4 


•82 


•41 


■S2 


•07 


•08 


Long-eared Owl. 


Mg. 


4i 


•87 


■33 


■57 


•I 


•08 


Gull-billed Tern. 


Mh. 


'5 


■45 


■14 


■79 


•07 


•08 


Buffel-headed Duck. 


Mi. 


5 


•5 


•2 


■7 


•I 


•09 


Garganey. 


Mj, ; 


5 


■5 


•28 


•67 


•OS 


•og 


Ptarmigan. 



DIMENSIONS. 13? 

Proportions. 



Mk. 

Ml. 

Mm. 

Mn. 

Mo. 

Mp. 

Mq. 

Mr. 

Ms. 

Mt. 

Na. 

Nb. 

Nc. 

Nd. 

Ne. 

Nf. 

Ng. 

Nh. 

Ni. 

Nj. 

Nk. 

Nl. 

Nm. 

Nn. 

No. 

Np. 

Nq. 

Nr. 

Ns. 

Nt. 

Oa. 

Ob. 

Oc. 

Od. 

Oe. 

Of. 

Og. 

Oh. 

Oi. 

Oj. 

Ok. 

01. 

Om. 

On. 

Oo. 

Op. 

Oq. 

Or. 

Os. 



1 ? H a pa H 

S '55 '17 "67 '16 "15 Coot. 

5 '66 '39 '54 "07 'ii Alpine Chough. 

5 7 '3 '61 "09 '18 Bonaparte's Gull. 

5 7 "32 -58 "I '2 Stone Curlew. 

5 74 '28 '64 '08 '03 Arctic Tern; 

5 78 '34 '57 "09 '08 Kittiwake. 

5 -8 "38 '55 -07 -13 Short-eared Owl. 
5^ '52 '17 '64 "19 13 Bar-tailed Godwit. 
5I 7 '45 '42 '13 '07 Sandwich Tern. 

6 '41 'o '91 "09 '12 Red-necked Grebe. 
6 "44 '14 76 •! '06 White-eyed Duck. 

6 "5 "6 '34 '06 '08 Great Spotted Cuckoo. 

6 '51 '27 .69 '04 '11 Red Grouse. 

6 '55 '45 "E' '04 '°5 Passenger Pigeon. 

6 '59 '28 '07 '05 "14 Little Bustard. 

6 '6 •25 -58 '17 'ii Oystercatcher. 

6 '6 "4 "55 "05 "08 Ring Dove. 

6 '66 "5 "47 'o^ '07 Pallas's San'' Grouse, 

6 7 "34 '55 "11 ''3 Chough. 

6 7 '4 '51 '09 •! Sooty Tern. 

6 75 •31 '64 '05 'li Black-headed Gull. 

6 76 "18 77 "05 "09 Capped Petrel. 
5J -58 •56 "34 •! '05 Roseate Tern. 

7 '41 '09 '83 '08 '07 Razorbill. 
7 "44 '22 71 "07 '07 Smew. 

7 "45 "25 "69 "06 '07 Harlequin Duck. 

7 '48 "14 77 '09 '07 Tufted Duck. 

7 7 "3 •61 '09 'ii Mediterranean Blk.-heaJ. Gull 

7 78 "35 "57 '08 '08 Ivory Gull. 

7 "8 '43 "48 "09 "14 Peregrine Falcon. 

7 '8 '54 '4 '06 '14 Montagu's Harrier. 
7^ '44 'o '9 "I "08 Guillemot 

8 '44 7 "22 "oS "12 Magpie. 
8 '47 "15 73 •12 "oS Pochard. 
8 '47 '16 74 "I '17 Avocet. 

8 "5 'o "92 "08 '09 Briinnich's GuillemoL 

8 "S "13 '69 'iS '13 Whimbrel. 

8 '5 "ig '67 '14 "12 Squacco Heron. 

8 "5 "21 '67 "12 "08 Goldeneye. 

8 "51 "23 7 '07 "07 Wigeon. 

•5 "4 "47 '13 '07 Great Black Woodpecker. 

8 '6 '21 71 '08 'I I Sooty Shearwater. 

8 "66 '44 '44 '12 "13 Carrion Crow. 

8 7 A "53 '°7 '12 Tawny Owl. 

8 7S "5 '44 "06 'IS Hen Harrier. 

8 -8 -31 -61 -08 -11 Gull. 

9 "4 '2 72 "08 "05 Hooded Merganser. 
9 "43 'iS '62 '2 '14 Black-tailed Godwit. 
9 "55 "22 "65 '13 '13 American Wigeon. 

K 



138 










DIMENSIONS. 




J3 




Proportions. 










t 


>t 


s 

n 


1 




Ot. 


19 


•6 


■IS 


•76 


•09 


■I 


Fulmar. 


Pa. 


19 


•66 


•25 


•66 


•09 


•12 


Great Shearwater. 


Pb. 


19 


•67 


•4 


•48 


■12 


•12 


Hooded Crow. 


Pc. 


20 


■42 


•12 


■79 


•09 


•07 


Scaup. 


Pd. 


20 


■45 


•17 


■7S 


•08 


■07 


Steller's Eider. 


Pe. 


20 


■47 


•19 


•69 


•12 


•16 


BufF-backed Heron. 


Pf. 


20 


■47 


■2 


"7 


•I 


■08 


Scoter. 


Pg- 


20 


•48 


■14 


■73 


•13 


•06 


Shoveller. 


Ph. 


20 


■55 


■21 


"7 


•09 


■07 


Gad wall. 


Pi. 


20 


■63 


■32 


■58 


•I 


■I 


Rook. 


Pj- 


20 


■68 


■44 


■49 


•07 


■08 


Richardson's Skua. 


Pk. 


20 


■77 


■25 


•68 


•07 


•12 


Lesser White-fronted Goose, 


PI. 


20 


•82 


•3 


•56 


•14 


•07 


Caspian Tern. 


Pm. 


21 


■48 


•17 


■76 


•07 


■08 


Surf Scoter. 


Pn. 


21 


■5 


■IS 


■74 


■II 


■07 


Red-crested Pochard. 


Po. 


21 


•62 


•4 


■54 


•06 


"I 


Gyr Falcon. 


Pp. 


21 


•7 


■41 


■52 


•07 


■I 


Pomatorhine Skua. 


Pq. 


21 


■75 


•28 


■63 


■09 


•II 


Lesser Black-backed Gull. 


Pr. 


22 


■34 


■0 


■91 


•09 


•I 


Great Crested Grebe. 


Ps. 


22 


■48 


•16 


•78 


•06 


•08 


Velvet Scoter. 


Pt. 


22 


•48 


■34 


■61 


■OS 


•08 


Black Grouse. 


Qa. 


22 


■49 


•21 


•55 


•24 


•18 


Glossy Ibis. 


Qb. 


22 


■5 


•21 


•64 


■15 


•2 


Little Egret. 


Qc. 


22 


•54 


•6 


•35 


•05 


•07 


Long-tailed Skua, 


Qd. 


22 


•6 


■s 


■44 


•06 


•12 


American Gos Hawk. 


Qe. 


22 


•6 


■39 


■54 


•07 


•12 


Greenland Falcon. 


Qf. 


22 


•7 


■3 


■65 


■°5 


•I 


Red-breasted Goose. 


Qg- 


22 


•73 


•46 


■48 


•06 


•15 


Marsh Harrier. 


Qh. 


22 


78 


■35 


■54 


•II 


•II 


Iceland Gull. 


Qi. 


23 


•6 


•19 


■74 


•07 


•09 


Brent Goose. 


Qj. 


23 


■67 


•48 


•46 


•06 


•13 


Gos Hawk. 


Qk. 


23 


•69 


■4 


■54 


•06 


•I I 


Iceland Falcon. 


8'- 


23 


•7 


■4 


■54 


•06 


■13 


Buzzard. 


Qm. 


23 


•75 


■29 


■61 


•I 


•II 


Herring Gull. 


Qn. 


23 


•8 


•37 


■56 


•07 


•09 


Osprey. 


Qo. 


23 


■8 


•46 


•48 


•06 


■07 


Black Kite. 


Qp. 


24 


■44 


■IS 


■76 


•09 


•08 


Mallard. 


Qq. 


24 


■48 


■14 


•76 


•I 


■09 


Red-breasted Merganser 


Q>-- 


24 


•48 


•2 


•68 


•12 


■13 


Night Heron. 


Qs. 


24 


■s 


•I 


•81 


•09 


■12 


Red-throated Diver. 


Qt. 


24 


■5 


•18 


■77 


■05 


•07 


King Eider. 


Ra. 


24 


■55 


•16 


■61 


■23 


■IS 


Curlew. 


Rb. 


2.i 


■56 


•21 


•72 


•07 


■09 


Ruddy Sheld Duck, 


Re. 


24 


•69 


■41 


•47 


•12 


•I 


Raven. 


Rd. 


24 


■7 


■3 


•62 


•08 


•II 


Great Skua. 


Re. 


24 


•7 


■4S 


•49 


•06 


•07 


Honey Buzzard. 


Rf. 


24 


■8 


■48 


•46 


•06 


•II 


Snowy Owl. 


Ret. 


25 


■46 


•16 


■75 


•09 


•07 


Eider Duck. 


Rh. 


25 


•63 


■23 


■7 


•07 


■13 


Barnacle Goose. 



DIMENSIONS. 139 

Proportions. 



Ri. 25 76 '4 -48 '12 '13 Egyptian Vulture. 

Rj. 25 '8 '48 '46 '06 '05 Swallow-tailed Kite. 

Rk. 26 '4 "19 72 -09 '07 Goosander. 

Rl. 26 "4 '5 "44 '06 '06 Long-tailed Duck. 

Rm. 26 "44 "05 '85 "I 'I I Black-throated Diver. 

Rn. 26 '45 '31 "61 "oS "06 Pintail. 

Rn, 26 '5 '19 74 '07 '08 Sheld Duck. 

Rp, 26 63 '44 '5 '06 "12 Eagle Owl 

Rq, 26 77 '47 "44 '09 "17 Spotted Eagle. 

Rr, 26 '8 '45 '49 '06 '12 Rough-legged Buzzard. 

Rg, 26 '8 -56 '37 '07 -09 Kite. 

Rt, 27 '4 '21 '69 ■! -09 Shag. 

Sn, 27 "42 '15 73 "12 '17 American Bittern. 

Sb, 27 7 '24 '63 '13 "I Great Black-headed Gull. 

Sc, 28 '59 '21 71 "08 '09 White-fronted Goose. 

Scl, 28 '67 '3 "61 '09 'I Great Black-backed Gull, 

Se. 29 '6 "2 74 "06 "09 Pink-footed Goose. 

Sf. 29 "6 '33 '6 "07 "15 Macqueen's Bustard. 

Sff- 30 '5 '17 72 'I I 'IS Bittern. 

Sh 30 -58 '19 73 '08 •! Grey Lag Goose. 

Si. 30 '6 '2 72 "08 "I Snow Goose. 

Sj. 31 "63 '27 '57 '16 '09 Gannet. 

Sk. 32 '23 ■! 78 '12 '07 Great Auk. 

SI. 32 '6 -27 '65 -08 -09 Glaucous Gull. 

Sm. 33 '41 T '81 -09 ■!! Great Northern Diver. 

Sn. 33 '48 •17 '66 '17 'IS Purple Heron. 

So. 34 '26 '66 "31 '03 '06 Pheasant. 

Sp. 34 '5 '16 '62 '22 -15 Spoonbill. 

Sq. 34 "6 '18 75 -07 '09 Bean Goose. 

Sr. 34 -86 -38 '5 •12 '14 Sea Eagle. 

Ss. 36 '41 "I '81 '09 '11 Yellow-billed Diver. 

St. 36 '4 "2 7 •! "08 Cormorant. 

Ta 36 '4 '31 •6r '08 '09 Capercaillie. 

Tb. 36 -5 -19 -67 -14 -15 Heron. 

Tc. 36 '57 -25 7 'OS '14 Great Bustard. 

Td. 36 "6 '18 75 '07 "19 Demoiselle Crane. 

Te. 36 -65 -38 -54 -08 -11 Golden Eagle. 

Tf. 39 -5 -24 -58 -18 -18 Black Stork. 

Tg. 41 "46 "3 '64 '06 '09 Canada Goose. 

Th. 42 "4 "iS 72 "12 'iS Great White Heron. 

Ti. 42 -6 -22 -6 -18 -22 White Stork. , 

Tj. 42 '65 '36 '57 '07 •! Griffon Vulture. 

Tk. 48 '53 'iS 72 ■! '22 Crane. 

Tl. 50 "4 '14 79 "07 '07 Bewick's Swan. 

Tm. 55 '44 "12 '81 "07 '09 American Swan. 

Tn. 56 '36 '16 71 "13 '27 Flamingo. 

To. 60 "38 'ii -83 '06 '06 Polish .Swan. 

Tp. 60 '4 '14 "8 '66 '07 Trumpeter Swan. 

Tq. 60 '41 'IS 79 '06 '07 Hooper Swan. 

Tr. 60 "45 '16 78 '06 -07 Mute Swan. 

K 2 



CHAPTER XIII. 
EGGS. 



' I ■'HE Eggs are given in this chapter by themselves, owing to their 
-*- taking up less space in this way than they would do if sorted 
out among the species. 

The list may also serve as a rough guide to identification, for 
although eggs vary much, even when laid by the same hen, they yet 
vary within certain limits, and the system of average is not so very 
far out as far as size is concerned. But with regard to colour and 
grain the difficulties are greater. At the outset, it is almost impossible 
to describe colour accurately, even if the colour of eggs were 
invariable, which it is not, and even if it were, we should have the 
four stages that puzzle the collector still to deal with : the first, the 
colour of the eggs in the nest; the second, the colour after they are 
blown; the third, the colour after they have faded in a collection; and 
the fourth, their colour as rendered by the chromo-lithographer ; 
which are four very different things. And with grain the difficulties 
are almost as great. At the same time, though we may not attain 
accuracy, we may approach it sufficiently near to enable us to 
distinguish one egg from another ; and to aid in this the eggs have 
^ere been classified into types. 

We have thus three clues to guide us, all three of which mjy be 
of little value separately, but which will rarely fail us when used 
together. It must be clearly borne in mind that the sizes given are 
average sizes ; they have not been taken from any one book, but 
have been worked out from actual measurement and many authorities, 
and dealing as they do with hundredths of an inch, it is unlikely that 
the order given will be found to apply to any one collection. But 
where the size does not exactly fit in with a specimen, the colour and 
type lend their aid towards a correct determination ; where the type 
fails us, and it will often be found doubtful as to which type an egg 
should be assigned to, the size and rolour will help ; when the colour 
fails the size and type will save us from error. 

And with regard to colour it should be remembered that an »,gg is 
of a plain tint to begin with, and that the pigment spots are applied 
afterwards. These are normally circular, and as the egg is extruded 
they are rubbed and blotched against the walls of the duct. They 
are nearly always more numerous on the larger end of the egg, 
which is the first to be extruded and the first to harden. The 



EGGS. 



141 



pigments are of a similar nature to the 
colouring matter of the blood and bile, 
and are richer in the case of birds in 
their prime and in robust health. They 
are generally richer in colour on the 
first eggs of the clutch ; for instance, 
in the cases in which two eggs are 
laid, one spotted and one unspotted, 
the spotted egg is laid first. 

The eggs of all the birds on our 
opening list are given, except the 
thirteen which it is believed are still 
unknown. Some of them have been 
described from the only specimen that 
exists ; many of them have not been 
laid in this country, but that is no 
reason why they should not be found 
in a collection. By including them 
we make our book complete, and it 
is in that spirit we have ended it 
by giving a last chance to the Great 
Auk. 

Our six types we give in the margin. 
The U type is the usual one ; the V 
type is the longer variety, with the 
sharper point ; the W type is the in- 
tensified form of the V, such as we 
have in the eggs of the Raven ; the 
X type has both axes nearly equal ; 
the Y is the pyriform type so common 
among the Plovers ; and the Z is the 
flattened oval, such as we get among 
the Grebes. For the purposes of 
reference, the letters to the left of the 
page have been adopted instead of 
figures, in order that only one system 
of numbers may run through the book. 
The measurements are in inches, the 
first giving the length, the next the 
greatest breadth. 

To take an example, let us say that 
we have an egg three quarters of ai 
inch long— that is, 7J of an incfr/-— 



r42 



EGGS. 



and let it be a little over half an inch wide. Looking^ down the list 
we find that there are several eggs about this measurement, all of 
which are of the U type, but only one of which is of the pale 
greenish blue colour of our specimen, which is thus discovered to 
be the egg of the Redstart. 



Aa. 
Ab. 


•56; 
•56; 


■4, 

■45 


u. 
u. 


Ac. 


■57; 


•44 


X. 


Ad. 
Ae. 
Af. 


•6; 
"6; 
■6; 


•45; 

■45 

■45; 


TT. 
U. 
U. 


AG. 


■6; 


•45 ; 


u. 


Ah. 
Ai. 


■6; 
•6; 


•46; 
•5; 


u. 
u. 


Aj. 
Ak. 


■6; 

•62; 


■5 
■45; 


u. 

V. 


Al. 
Am. 


•63; 
■65; 


■46, 

•45; 


V. 
V. 


An. 


•65; 


•5; 


u. 


Ao. 


•65; 


•5; 


u. 


Ap. 
Aq. 


•65; 
•65; 


•5; 
•5; 


u. 

X. 


Ar. 


•65; 


■51; 


u. 


As. 


•65; 


■52; 


u. 


At. 


•65; 


■55; 


u. 


Ba. 
Bb. 
Be. 
Bd. 


•65; 
7; 
7; 
7 ; 


•55; 
•47; 
•48; 

•5; 


X. 
X. 
X. 

u. 


Be. 


7; 


•s; 


u. 


Bf. 


7; 


■5; 


u. 


Bg. 


7; 


■5; 


u. 


Bh. 
Bl. 


7; 
7; 


•5; 
■5; 


u. 



White, mottled with red. Gold-crested Wren. 

Greyish white, dotted reddish brown. Fire- 
crested Wren. 

White, freckled pale pink. British Long- 
tailed Tit. 

Cream, spotted purplish brown. Chiffchaff. 

Greyish, freckled light brown. Blue Tit. 

Pearly white, lightly spotted with red. White- 
headed Long-tailed Tit. 

White, spotted reddish brown. Yellow-browC'i 
Warbler. 

White, marbled light red. Willow Wren. 

Brownish white, blotched or streaked slaty 
blue. Lesser Whitethroat. 

Greyish white, freckled brown. Marsh Tit. 

Greenish, spotted light and dark brown. Mealy 
Redpoll. 

Greenish, spotted light brown. Lesser Redpoll. 

Greenish, spotted and streaked with brown. 
Greenland Redpoll. 

Greenish grey, freckled with brown. Red- 
breasted Flycatcher. 

Greenish grey, capped and spotted brown. 
Serin. 

Greenish grey, spotted reddish brown. 

Greyish white, blotched light brown. 
Tit. 

Pearl grey, spotted light and dark brown. 
Goldfinch. 

White, freckled light and dark brown. 
Creeper. 

Greyish, thickly spotted with browns. 
Wren. 

Light brown, speckled red. Sedge Warbler. 

Greyish, freckled brown. British Coal Tit. 

Greyish, freckled brown. Continental Coal Tit. 

Greenish, blotched olive and dark brown. 
Reed Warbler. 

Greenish, marbled brown and olive. Dartford 
Warbler. 

Greenish blue, streaked and spotted brown. 
Twite. 

Yellowish white, speckled red. Aquatic 
Warbler. 

White. Sand Martin. 

White, spotted light brown. Wrci). 



Siskin. 
Crested 



Tree 
Wood 



EGGS. 



143 



Bj. 

Bk. 

Bl. 
Bm. 

Bn. 

Ho. 

Bp. 
Bq. 
Br. 

Bs. 
Bt. 

Ca. 

Cb. 

Cc. 

CD. 

Ce. 

Cf. 

Cg. 
Ch. 
Ci. 

Cj. 
Ck. 
Cl. 

Cm. 

CN. 

Co. 
Cp. 

CQ. 

Cr. 

Cs. 

Ct. 
Da. 
Db. 

Da 



7; 
7; 


•S; 
5; 


7; 
7; 


55; 
55; 


7; 


55; 


73; 


55; 


75; 
75; 
75; 


52; 
55; 
55; 


75; 
75; 


55; 
55; 


75; 


55; 


75; 


56; 


75; 
75; 


56; 
56; 


75; 


56; 


75; 


56; 


75; 
75; 
75; 


•6; 
•6; 
61; 


77; 
78; 

•8; 


55; 
55; 
55; 


•8; 


55; 


•8; 


55; 


•8; 
■8; 
•8; 
■8; 


55; 
55; 
55; 
56; 


•8; 


•56; 


•8; 
■8; 
•8; 


•57; 
•6; 
•6; 


■8; 


•6; 



V. Greyish, spotted lightly with brown. Linnet. 

X. Yellowish white, blotched light brown. Great 
Tit. 

TJ. Cream, freckled greyish brown. Bearded Tit. 

U. Greenish blue, marbled with brown. Blue- 
throat. 

U. Pale grey, with dark curving spots and 
blotches. Little Bunting. 

U. White, frecfcled evenly with pink. Grass- 
hopper Warbler. 

W. White. Martin. 

U. Bluish green, spotted light brown. Whinchat. 

U. Greenish, with brownish purple spots. Desert 
Wheatear. 

IT. Pale greenish blue. Redstart. 

U. Pale olive, spotted yellowish brown. Spotted 
Flycatcher. 

U. Whitish grey, marbled purplish brown. 
Marsh Warbler. 

U. Cream, streaked and spotted purplish brown 
Reed Bunting. 

U. Pale blue. Pied Flycatcher. 

U. Rose pink, blotched purplish brown. Icterine 
Warbler. 

U. Greenish white, spotted green and brown. 
Whitethroat. 

Z. Greyish, marbled yellowish brown. Grey 
Wagtail. 

U. Greenish blue, clouded brown. Chaffinch. 

U. Greyish green, freckled brown. Stonechat. 

U. Grey, marbled yellowish brown. Yellow Wag- 
tails. 

U. White, freckled brown. Wall Creeper. 

X. White. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 

U. Bluish green, speckled reddish brown. Wild 
Canary. 

U. Dark green, spotted brown. White-spotted 
Bluethroat. 

U. Greyish, marbled yellowish brown. Blu" 
headed Wagtail. 

U. White, spotted brown. Nuthatch. 

W. White, spotted yellowish brown. Swallow. 

X. Buff, freckled ashy brown. Savi's Warbler. 

U. Bluish green, spotted ashy brown. Two-barred 
Crossbill. 

U. Bluish green, spotted ashy brown. White- 
winged Crossbill. 

U. Bluish green, dotted brown. Brambling. 

U. Pale greenish blue. Hedge Sparrow. 

U. Greenish blue, blotched and streaked brown. 
Bullfinch. 

U. Greenish blue, spotted dark brown. Scarlet 
Grosbeak. 



144 



EGGS. 



Dd. 
De. 


•8; 
•8; 


•6 
•6 


u. 


Df. 

DG. 

Dh. 


•8; 
•8; 
•8; 


•6 

■6; 

■61, 


u. 
u. 
u. 


Di. 
Dj. 


•8; 
■8; 


■62; 
■62; 


u. 
u. 


Dk. 
Dl. 


•8; 
•8; 


■62; 
•63; 


u. 
u. 


Dm. 
Dn. 


•8; 
•8; 


•63; 
•63; 


u. 
u. 


Do. 
Dp. 


•8; 
•8; 


■63; 
•65; 


u. 

u. 


Dq. 
Dr. 


•82; 
•83; 


75; 

■6; 


X. 

V. 


Ds. 


•84; 


■6; 


u. 


Dt. 
Ea. 


•8s; 

•8s; 


•55; 
•6; 


u. 
u. 


Eb. 


•85; 


•6; 


u. 


EC. 
Ed. 
Ee. 
Ef. 

Eg. 


•85; 
•85; 

•8s; 
■85; 


•61 ; 

•65; 
•65; 

■66; 
■67; 


u. 

u. 
u. 
u. 

X. 


Eh. 


•85; 


•7; 


X. 


11. 


•85; 


•72; 


V. 


RJ. 


•9; 


•6; 


u. 


Ek. 

El. 


■9; 
■9; 


■61 ; 
■61 ; 


u. 

V. 


Em. 
En. 


•9; 
■9; 


■65; 

•65; 


u. 

u. 


Eo. 


•9; 


•66; 


u. 


Ep, 


•9; 


■66; 


u. 


EQ 


'9! 


•6(j; 


V, 



Greyish white, spotted brown. Pied Wagtail. 
Greyish white, blotched brown at large end. 

Orphean Warbler. 
Greyish white, spotted brown. Greenfinch. 
Yellowish white, spotted brown. Robin. 
Greyish white, spotted light and dark brown. 

White Wagtail. 
Greyish white. Black Redstart. 
Light brown, spotted brown and blue. Black- 
cap. 
Pale greenish blue. Wheatear. 
Pale green, spotted brownish red. Black- 
throated Wheatear. 
Pale purple, mottled brown. Meadow Pipit. 
Reddish white, spotted pale brown. Garden 

Warbleir. 
White. Wryneck. 
White, spotted browns and greys. Lapland 

Bunting. 
Pinkish white. Kingfisher. 
Pale blue, streaked and blotched brown. 

Ortolan. 
Cream, streaked and spotted brown. Rustic 

Bunting. 
White, mottled with grey. Short-toed Lark. 
Grey, mottled with greenish brown. Tree 

Sparrow. 
Greyish purple, mottled with brown. Tree 

Pipit. 
Olive. Nightingale. 

Buff, spotted brown and grey. Wood Lark. 
Purplish green, mottled brown. Water Pipit. 
Greyish, freckled brown. Rock Pipit. 
Greenish white, blotched dark brown. Cirl 

Bunting. 
Light brown, mottled with browns. Richard's 

Pipit. 
Greenish blue, spotted brown, often with 

letters on it. Blackheaded Bunting. 
Pale blue, blotched brown and lilac. House 

Sparrow. 
Buff, spotted light grey. Barred Warbler. 
Greenish blue, spotted dark brown. Parrot 

Crossbill. 
Greenish blue, spotted dark brown. Crossbill. 
Greenish white, mottled dark brown. Tawny 

Pipit. 
Cream, spotted light brown. Red-backed 

Shrike. 
Pale green, blotched greens and browns. 

Great Reed Warbler. 
White, streaked and spotted purplish brown. 

Yellow Bunting. 



EGGS. 



14! 



Er. 



■66: X. 



Es. 


■9; 


•66; 


Z. 


Et. 


•9; 


7; 


u. 


Fa. 


•9; 


71; 


u. 


Fb. 


■9; 


•72; 


X. 


Fc. 


•95; 


■62; 


u. 


Fd. 


•95; 


■64; 


u. 


Fe. 


■95; 


•65; 


w. 


Ff. 


■95; 


•65; 


z. 


Fg. 


■95; 


•65; 


z. 


Fh. 


■95; 


75 ; 


u. 


Fi. 


•95, 


75 ; 


u. 


Fj. 


•98; 


75; 


u. 


Fk. 


i; 


•65; 


w. 


Fl. 


I ; 


7; 


u. 


Fm. 


I ; 


71; 


u. 


FN. 


i; 


7t ; 


u. 


Fo. 


i; 


71; 


u. 


Fp. 


I ; 


71 ; 


u. 


FQ. 


i; 


71 . 


V. 


Fr. 


i; 


75; 


X. 


Fs. 


I ; 


75 


X. 


Ft. 


1 ; 


75; 


X. 


Ga. 


I ; 


•8, 


X. 


Gb. 


I ; 


•85, 


X. 


Gc. 


i; 


■9 


X. 


Gd. 


11; 


7 


V. 


Ge. 


11; 


•8; 


u. 


Gf. 


i-i ; 


•8; 


u. 


Go. 


ri; 


•8; 


u. 


Gh. 


VI ; 


•8; 


u. 


Gi. 


VI ; 


•8; 


Y. 


Gj. 


VI ; 


•8; 


Y. 


Gk. 


VI ; 


■8, 


z. 


Gl. 


VI ; 


•85; 


u. 


Gm. 


VI ; 


•8s; 


u. 


Gn. 


VI ; 


•85; 


X. 



Pale green, speckled brown and slate. Rufous 

Warbler. 
White, spotted olive brown. Skylark. 
Cream, blotched with browns. Woodchat. 
Various colours, spotted and unspotted. 

Cuckoo. 
Greenish blue, streaked olive brown. Hawfinch. 
White, spotted and streaked brown. Snow 

Bunting. 
Pale grey, spotted with greys. White-winged 

Lark. 
Pale green. Alpine Accentor. 
Pale green, spotted grey. Shore Lark. 
White, thickly spotted grey. Crested Lark. 
Grey, blotched with dark brown. Redwinged 

Starling. 
White. Purple Martin. 
Pale green, spotted and streaked reddish 

brown. Redwing. 
White. Swift. 

Pale olive, spotted brown. Waxwing. 
Greenish, clouded with brown. Lesser Grey 

Shrike. 
Pale slate, blotched purplish brown. 

Bunting. 
White, coarse-grained shell. Dipper. 
White. Black-bellied Dipper. 
Greenish blue, spotted dark brown. 

Grosbeak. 
White. Great Spotted Woodpecker. 
White. Hairy Woodpecker. 
White. Downy Woodpecker. 
Pale green. Rock Thrush. 
Buff, spotted brown and grey. Andalusian 

Hemipode or Bush Quail. 
White. Bee-eater. 
Bluish green. Hoopoe. 
Buff, blotched with browns. Quail. 
Pale grey. Rose-coloured Starling. 
Greenish blue, spotted dark brown. 

Thrush. 
Greenish grey, blotched with browns. 

Grey Shrike. 
Greenish grey, spotted reddish brown. 
American Stint. 
Greenish grey, spotted grey and brown. Little 

Stint. 
Buff, spotted brown. Baillon's Crake. 
Greenish grey, freckled light brown. Black- 
bird. 
Pale green. Black-billed Cuckoo. 
White, with a ring of red specks. 

Petrel. 



Corn 



Pine 



Song 
Great 



Stormy 



146 



Go. 


1.15; 


■85; 


u. 


Gp. 


1-15; 


■85, 


Y. 


Gq. 


riS; 


•86; 


Y. 


Gr. 


ri7; 


■9; 


X. 


Gs. 


12 ; 


•8; 


LT. 


Gt. 


1-2; 


■S5; 


U. 


Ha. 


1-2 ; 


■9; 


U. 


Hb. 


12 : 


■9; 


u. 


He. 


1-2; 


■9; 


w. 


Hd. 


1-2; 


•9; 


Y. 


He. 


12 ; 


■9; 


Y. 


Hf. 


.■2; 


■9; 


Y. 


Hg. 


1-2; 


■91 ; 


V. 


Hh. 


I '2 ; 


I ; 


X. 


Hi. 


I '2 ; 


1 ; 


X. 


Hj. 


1-25; 


•9; 


u. 


Hk. 


1-25; 


•92; 


u. 


Hl. 


1-25; 


I ; 


u. 


Hm. 


1-25; 


I ; 


z. 


Hn. 


I's; 


■8; 


V. 


Ho. 


i'3; 


•8; 


z. 


Hp. 


13; 


■9; 


u. 


HQ. 


1-3; 


■9; 


u. 


Hr. 


1-3; 


9; 


Y. 


H.S. 


i'3; 


•9; 


Y. 


Hr. 


13; 


■9; 


Z. 


I A. 


i"3; 


■95; 


u. 


IB. 


1-3; 


■95; 


u. 


[c. 


i'3: 


■95 


w. 


[D. 


i'3; 


■95 


Y. 


IE. 


1-3; 


■97; 


U. 


If. 


i'3; 


I, 


U. 


IG. 


i"3; 


I 


w. 


IH. 


1-3; 


i; 


X. 



Rough-grained, greenish blue. Starling. 
Greenish, spotted red, brown, and grey. 

Temminck's Stint. 
Olive, spotted red and brovv Red-necked 

Phalarope. 
White. Turtle Dove. 

Greyish green, freckled light jrown. Black- 
throated Thrush. 
Greenish, blotched reddish brown. Ring OuzeL 
White. Green Woodpecker. 
Whitish green, spotted reddish brown. 

White's Thrush. 
White, lightly spotted with purplish brown. 

Golden Oriole. 
Pale brown, speckled brown, red, and grey. 

Little Ringed Plover. 
Pale olive, spotted and streaked grey and 

brown. Kentish Plover. 
Pale olive, blotched and marbled with greys 

and browns. Grey Phalarope. 
Buffish olive, blotched with greys and browns. 

Spotted Sandpiper. 
White. Scops Owl. 

Buff, with purplish brown markings. Pratin- 
cole. 
Greyish, lightly spotted brown and purple. 

Missel Thrush. 
Greenish blue, speckled olive. Jay. 
Buff, marked brown and grey. Little Tern. 
Buffish brown. Little Crake. 
Greenish, mottled reddish brown. Fieldfare. 
White. Alpine Swift. 
Pea green. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 
White. Wilson's Petrel. 
Chocolate brown, with grey and brown 

freckles. Broad-billed Sandpiper. 
Chocolate brown, with grey and brown 

blotches. White-winged Black Tern. 
White, marbled and clouded greys and browns. 

Nightjars. 
Bluish green, spotted with browns. Great 

Spotted Cuckoo. 
White, ringed with fine red spots. Forktailed 

Petrel. 
Buff, spotted grey, brown, and lilac. Spotted 

Crake. 
Greenish buff, marked with browns. Dunlin. 
White. Great Black Woodpecker. 
Buff, spotted reddish brown and lilac. Water 

Rail. 
White. Little Bittern. 

Pale olive, speckled brown and grey. Cream- 
coloured Courser. 



EGf.S. 



147 



II. 

Ij. 
Ik. 

IL. 

IM. 

In. 

lo. 

I p. 

IQ. 

IR. 

Is. 
It. 

JA. 

JB. 
JC. 
JD. 
JE. 

JF. 
JG. 

JH. 

Jl- 

JJ- 
JK. 
jL. 

Jm. 

JN. 
JO. 

Jp. 

JQ- 

Jr. 
Js. 

JT. 

Ka. 

Kb. 
Kc. 



'■3; 

1-35 
I '35 


■95; 
■95; 


1-35; 
1-4 

i'4; 


1-05; 
•95; 
•95; 


i'4; 


i; 


i"4; 


I ; 


i'4; 


I ; 


i'4; 


I ; 


i'4; 
i'4; 
1-4; 


I ; 
ri ; 
ri ; 


i'4; 

1-4; 
I "44; 
1-45; 


IT ; 
1-15; 
1-15; 


1-45; 

1-45; 

i'5; 


1-15; 

1T5; 

I ; 


'■5; 


i; 


1-5 ; 
'■5; 
i'5; 


I ; 

IT ; 

IT ; 


i-s; 


IT ; 


'■5; 
i'5; 

1-55; 


I '2 ; 
13; 
1-3; 


1-55; 
I'ss; 


1-05; 

its; 


i-ss; 


1-2; 


I-S5; 


1-2; 


1-6; 
1-6; 
1-6; 


i-i; 

IT ; 
IT ; 



Magpie. 
Bonaparte's 



Sanderling. 
and brown. 

browns and 



Common 



X. White. Tengmalm's Owl. 

1 1. Greenish, freckled light brown. 

Y. Buff, freckled red and grey. 
Sandpiper. 

X. White. Belted Kingfisher. 

Y. Olive, spotted brown and red. 

Z. Bluish white, freckled grey 
Nutcracker. 

U. Greyish brown, blotched with 
greys. Black Tern. 

Y. Buff, spotted with greys and browns. 
Sandpiper. 

Y. Greenish buff, spotted with browns and lilac. 
Killdeer Plover. 

Y. Olive, clouded with reds, browns, and greys. 
Ringed Plover. 

Z. Pale green. Little Grebe. 

U. Yellowish brown. Partridge. 

W. Greyish, spotted with browns and lilac. Corn 
Crake. 

X. White. Little Owl. 

X. White. Roller. 

X. White. Rock Dove. 

V. Pale olive, spotted brown and grey. Buff- 
breasted Sandpiper. 

X. Pale red, with darker spots. Lesser Kestrel. 

X. White. Stock Dove. 

V. Buff, spotted light and dark brown. Purple 
Sandpiper. 

V. Whitish green, with darker green spots 

Jackdaw. 
W. White. Passenger Pigeon. 

V. Olive, spotted reddish brown. Jack Snipe. 

Y. Buffish green, spotted browns and greys. 
Green Sandpiper. 

Y. Olive, blotched red and brown. Wood Sand- 
piper. 

X. Reddish brown, finely freckled. Merlin. 

U. Greenish blue. Squacco Heron. 

X. White. Short-eared Owl. 

Y. Greenish grey, marbled with browns. Pectoral 
Sandpiper. 

v. Light brown, spotted brown. Alpine Chough. 

X. Pale red, finely freckled and blotched. Red- 
footed Falcon. 

X. Pearl grey, blotched reddish brown. Sparrow 
Hawk. 

U. Buffish brown, with light brown spots. Red- 
legged Partridge. 

V. Buff, spotted brown and olive. Turnstone. 

V. Greenish grey, spotted reddish brown. Snipe. 

V. Light brown, clouded with darker bfown?. 

Arctic Tern- 



Ke. 


1-6; 


11; 


V. 


Kf. 


1-6; 


ri; 


Y. 


Kg. 


16; 


riS; 


V. 


Kh. 


1-6; 


riS; 


u. 


Ki. 


1-6; 


1-2 ; 


u. 


Kj. 


1-6; 


r2; 


u. 


Kk. 


v6; 


1-2; 


X. 


Kl. 


1-6; 


1-2; 


X. 


Km. 


1-6; 


I "25; 


X. 


Kn. 


1-6; 


1.25 ; 


X. 


Ko. 


1-6; 


i'3; 


X. 


Kp. 


1-6; 


i'3; 


X. 


KQ. 


1-6; 


i'3; 


X. 


Kr. 


1-65; 


1-2; 


w. 


Ks. 


17; 


VI ; 


Y. 


Kt. 


17; 


ri ; 


Y. 


La. 


17; 


1-15; 


U. 



148 EGGS. . 

Malachite green, with darker spots. Rook. 

Greenish grey, mottled with browns. 
Whiskered Tern. 

Brownish green, clouded brown. Hooded 
Crow. 

Creamy white, lightly spotted. Chough. 

Buff, spotted with browns. Little Gull. 

White. Bulwer's Petrel. 

Grey, freckled and spotted reddish browa 
Kestrel. 

White. Hawk Owl. 

Greenish white. Montagu's Harrier. 

White. Ring Dove. 

Cream coloured. American Blue-winged Teal 

White. Long-eared Owl. 

White, thickly freckled reddish brown. Hobby. 

Greenish, spotted with browns. Carrion Crow. 

Light brown, spotted reddish brown. Yellow- 
shank. 

Olive, marbled browns and greys. Dotterel. 

Pale olive, spotted with brown. Pallas's Sand 
Grouse. 

Lb. 17; I '15; Y. Buff, lightly speckled brown and grey. Red- 
breasted Snipe. 
Lc. 17; i'2; U. Buff, blotched and clouded brown and grey. 
Roseate Tern. 

White. Barn Owl. 

Greenish blue. Little Egret. 

Buff. Teal. 

Greenish white. Sclavonian Grebe. 

Olive, blotched purplish brown and grey. Tern. 

Buff, blotched with chocolate. Ptarmigan. 

Light brown, spotted light red. Moorhen. 

Olive, spotted red and brown. Ruff. 

Olive, blotched and clouded with brown. 
Great Snipe. 

Green, darker when held up to light. Buff- 
backed Heron. 

Buff, speckled grey and brown. Bartram's 
Sandpiper. 

Buff, spotted purplish brown. Red Grouse. 

Buff, spotted light red and pale brown. Wood- 
cock. 

Whitish blue, green when held up to light 
Hen Harrier. 

Light brown, with grey spots. Sabine's Gull. 

Buff, marked brown and grey. Black-winged 
Stilt. 

Buff, spotted and blotched rich dark brown. 
Redshank. 

Buff. Garganey. 

Olive, thickly blotched dark brown and grey. 
Lapwing. 



Ld. 


17; 


1-25; 


u. 


Le. 


17; 


i"3; 


u. 


Lf. 


17; 


i'3; 


V. 


Lg. 


175; 


1-15; 


z. 


Lh. 


175 ; 


1-2 ; 


V. 


Li. 


«75; 


1-2 ; 


V. 


X'J- 


175; 


I '2 ; 


X. 


Lk. 


ns; 


1-2; 


Y. 


Ll. 


i7s; 


1-25; 


Y. 


Lm. 


175; 


i'3; 


U. 


Ln. 


I7S ; 


i'3; 


V. 


Lo. 


175; 


i'32; 


U. 


LP. 


175; 


I '35; 


u. 


Lq. 


1 75; 


1-45; 


u. 


Lr. 


1-8; 


1-2; 


V. 


Ls. 


1-8; 


1-2; 


w. 


Lt. 


1-8; 


1-25; 


Y. 


Ma. 


1-8; 


i'3; 


X. 


Mb. 


X-&; 


1-3; 


Y. 



EGGS. 



149 



Mc. 


1-8; 


i'4; 


u. 


Md. 


1-8; 


i'4; 


u. 


Me. 


1-8; 


i'5; 


X. 


Mf. 


1-85; 


1-25, 


u. 


Mg. 


i'9; 


ri 


z. 


Mh. 


1-9; 


1-3; 


w. 


Mi. 


1-9; 


1-3; 


Y. 


Mj. 


1-9; 


i'3; 


Y. 


Mk. 


1-9; 


1-4 


U. 


Ml. 


1-95; 


1-5 


X. 


M.M. 


2 ; 


i'3. 


w. 


Mn. 


2 ; 


i'3; 


z. 


Mo. 


2 ; 


I-35; 


Y. 


Mp. 


2 ; 


1-4; 


u. 


Mq. 


2 ; 


i"4, 


u. 


Mr. 


2 ; 


f4; 


u. 


Ms. 


2 ; 


i"4; 


u. 


Mt. 


2 ; 


i'4; 


u. 


Na. 


2 ' 


i'4; 


V. 


Ne. 


2; 


1-4; 


Y. 


Nc. 


2 ; 


1-45; 


U. 


Nd. 


2 ; 


I '45; 


U. 


Ne. 


2 ' 


i'5; 


U. 


Nf. 


2 ; 


I'S; 


u. 


Ng. 


2 ; 


I'S; 


w. 


Nh. 


2 ; 


i'5; 


X. 


Ni. 


2 ; 


I'Si . 


X. 


Nj. 


2; 


1-6; 


X. 


Nk. 


2 ; 


17; 


X. 


Nl. 


2-05; 


I'S; 


u. 


Nm. 


2-1 ; 


i'4; 


u. 


Nn. 


2'l ; 


i'4; 


u. 


No. 


2"l ; 


f4; 


u. 


NF, 


2-1 ; 


i'4; 


w. 


Nq. 


2'l ; 


i'4; 


Y. 


Nr. 


2"i ; 


1-4; 


Y. 


Ns. 


21 ; 


I'S; 


u. 



Greenish blue. Night Heron. 

OUve green. Pheasant. 

White. Tawny Owl. 

Greenish blue. Little Auk. 

Green. Eared Grebe. 

Pale buff, blotched brown and grey. Lesser 
Sooty Tern. 

Buff, blotched with reddish brown. Lesser 
Golden Plover. 

Greenish, spotted sepia and lilac. Spotted 
Redshank. 

Buff, spotted brown and grey. Mediterranean 
Black-headed Gull. 

Pale blue, spotted reddish brown. Swallow- 
tailed Kite. 

Greenish, lightly spotted olive brown. Raven. 

Pale green. Red-necked Grebe. 

Light brown, spotted browns and greys. 
Greenshank. 

Buff, spotted with reddish brown. Black 
Grouse. 

Buff, marked with reddish and grey. Gull- 
billed Tern. 

Greenish grey. Buffel-headed Duck. 

Light brown, spotted brown, red, and grey. 
Bonaparte's Gull. 

Olive green, blotched brown and grey. Black- 
headed Gull. 

Buff, blotched purplish brown and grey. 
Avocet. 

Greenish grey, spotted purplish brown. Grey 
Plover. 

Buff Wigeon. 

Cream, spotted with browns. Sooty Tern. 

Sandy brown. Bittern. 

Pale olive. American Bittern. 

Buff. White-eyed Duck. 

Greenish buff. Shoveller. 

Creamy buff. Smew. 

Cream, spotted and capped reddish brown. 
Honey Buzzard. 

White. Hooded Merganser. 

Greenish white. Marsh Harrier. 

Buff, spotted dark brown. Coot. 

Huffish white, marked with browns. Sandwich 
Tern. 

Greenish blue. Glossy Ibis. 

Cream, spotted lightly with brown. Noddy. 

Buff, spotted with browns and grey. Eskimo 
Curlew. 

Light brown, spotted with purples and greys. 
Golden Plover. 

Greenish buff. Pintail. 



ISO 

NT. 

Oa. 

Ob. 
Oc. 
Od. 

Oe. 

Of. 

Og. 

Oh. 

Oi. 
Oj. 
Ok. 

Ol. 
Cm. 

On. 
Oo. 
Op. 

Oq. 

Or. 

OS. 

Ot. 

Pa. 
Pb. 
Pc. 
Pd. 
Pe. 

Pf. 
Pg. 
Ph. 

Pi. 
PJ. 

Pk. 
Pl. 
Pm. 

Ps. 



2-1 


1-5; 


2'I , 


1-5; 


2-1 
2'I 
2'I ; 


1-5; 
i'5; 


2'I 


1-55; 


2'1 


17; 


2-15 


1-6; 


2-15 


r65; 


2'2 ; 

2-2 , 

2-2; 


i'4; 

1-4; 

1-45; 


22 ; 
2'2 ; 


1-5; 


2-2 ; 
2'2 ; 
2'2 ; 


i'5; 

1-6; 
1-6; 


2'2 ; 


1-6; 


2-2; 


17; 


2-2 ; 


175; 


2-25; 


1-8; 


2-3; 

2-3; 
2-3; 
2-3; 
2-3; 


i'5; 

1-6; 
1-6; 
1-6; 
1-6; 


2-3; 
2-3; 
2-3; 


1-6; 

1-65; 

17; 


2-3; 
2-3; 


17; 
17; 


2-3; 
2-3; 

2-4; 


175: 
I '8 ; 
1-6; 


2'4 ; 


17; 



EGGS. 

U. Olive, clouded with browns. Long-tailed 

Skua. 
v. Pale buff; spotted and streaked brown and 

grey. Stone Curlew. 
W. Pale olive. Long-tailed Duck. 
W. Light brown. Gadwall. 
Y. Olive, spotted brown and grey. Black-tailed 

Godwit. 
U. Brownish red, freckled darker red. Peregrine 

Falcon. 
X. Grey, clouded with brown, green when held to 

light. Buzzard. 
U. Light brown, spotted reddish brown. Caper- 

caillie. 
U. Pale buff, freckled and spotted with browns. 

Black Kite. 
Z. Green. Great Crested Grebe. 
Z. White. Dusky Shearwater. 
Y. Olive, lightly spotted with brown and grey. 

Bar-tailed Godwit. 
U. Pale buff; American Wigeon. 
U. Buff, streaked with purplish brown. Oyster- 
catcher. 
W. Greenish blue. Puiple Heron. 
U. Buff. Harlequin Duck. 
U. Greenish brown, spotted red, brown, and 

black. Kittiwake. 
U. Olive green, mottled and speckled brown and 

grey. Little Bustard. 
V. Olive brown, spotted dark brown and grey. 

Gull. 
U. Greyish, clouded with brown. Rough legged 

Buzzard. 
U. Light red, spotted dark red. Gyr, Iceland and 

Greenland Falcons. 
W. Pale grey. Steller's Eider. 
U. Buff". Mallard. 

U. Brownish green. Red-crested Pochard. 
TJ. Pale green. Goldeneye. 
U. Greenish, clouded and spotted brown. Black 

Guillemot. 
W. Pale buff". Tufted Duck. 
V. Ohve, spotted dark brown. Pomatorhine Skua. 
U. Pale green, with faint red spots. American 

Gos Hawk. 
W. Greenish buff. Pochard. 
Y. Olive green, spotted reddish brown and grey. 

Whimbrel. 
U. Greenish white, blotched with browns. Kite. 
Z. White. Snowy Owl. 
Y. Olive, spotted brown and grey. Richardson's 

Skua. 
U. Buff, spotted grey and brown. PiifTin. 



EGGS. 



'51 



Po. 


2-4; 


17 


V. 


Pp. 


2'4; 


1-8, 


u. 


PQ. 


2-45; 


17; 


u. 


PR. 


2.45; 


1-8, 


u. 


Ps. 


2-5; 


I'S; 


w. 


Pt. 


2"5; 


1-6; 


w. 


Qa. 


2-5; 


17 


u. 


Qb. 


2-5; 


17 


u. 


Qc. 


2-5; 


17 


V. 


Qd. 


2-5 ; 


17 


w. 


Qe. 


2-5; 


175 


V. 


Qf. 


2"5 ; 


v8 


V. 


Qc. 


2-5; 


1-85 


u. 


QH. 


2-5; 


2'I 


X. 


Qi. 


2-55; 


1-85 


u. 


QJ- 


2-55; 


2 


X. 


QK. 


2-6; 


17; 


u. 


Ql. 


2-6; 


17 


u. 


Qm. 


2-6; 


17, 


vv. 


QN. 


2-6; 


1-8; 


u. 


QO. 


2-6; 


r8 


u. 


Qp. 


2-6; 


19 


u. 


Qq. 


2-6; 


1-9 


IJ. 


Qr. 


2-6 ; 


2 


V. 


Qs. 


27; 


17 


w. 


Qt. 


27; 


1-8, 


u. 


Ra. 


27; 


1-85, 


X. 


Rb. 


27; 


19 , 


u. 


Re. 


27s; 


1-8; 


u. 


Rd. 


2-8; 


1-8; 


w. 


Re. 


2-8; 


1-9 


u. 


Rf. 


2-8; 


1-9; 


V. 


Rg. 


2-8; 


2 ■ 


u. 


Rh. 


2-8; 


2; 


V. 


Ri. 


2-8; 


2-2; 


u. 


RJ. 


2-9; 


2; 


u. 


Kk. 


2-9; 


2; 


u. 


Rl. 


2-9; 


2; 


u. 


Rm. 


2-9; 


2 ; 


V. 


Rn. 


2-9; 


2 ; 


w. 


Ro. 


3; 


1-8; 


w. 



Rp. 



2; V. 



White. Manx Shearwater. 

Greenish white. Gos Hawk. 

Buff, spotted with browns. Ivory Gull. 

White, blotched with browns and greys. 

Osprey. 
White, emerald green when held to light. Shag. 
Greenish blue. Heron. 
Pale buff. Scaup. 

White, spotted reddish brown. Spoonbill. 
Buff. Surf Scoter. 
Greenish blue. Great White Heron. 
Buff, spotted brown and grey. Caspian Tern. 
Pale greenish yellow. King Eider. 
White. Eagle OwL 
Greyish, streaked and spotted reddish brown. 

Lesser Spotted Eagle. 
Pale buff, spotted browns and greys. Mac- 
queen's Bustard. 
Cream and brownish red. Egyptian Vulture. 
Sandy buff. Scoter. 
White. Sooty Shearwater. 
Pale buff. Red-breasted Merganser. 
Greenish, blotched brown and grey. Lesser 

Black-backed Gull. 
Pale olive, blotched light brown and grey. 

Curlew. 
Pale buff. Sheld Duck. 

White, green when held to light. Black Stork. 
Pale buff. Ruddy Sheld Duck. 
White, green when held to light. Cormorant. 
Greenish white. Red-breasted Goose. 
White. Goosander. 
White. Brent Goose. 
Coffee brown, blotched purplish brown 

Iceland Gull. 
Buff, marbled and spotted purplish brown 

Razorbill. 
White. Great Shearwater. 
Pale buff. Velvet Scoter. 
Olive green, spotted grey and blown. Herring 

Gull. 
Olive brown, spotted brown and grey. Great 

Skua. 
White, green when held to hght. Sea Eagle. 
Chalky white. Fulmar. 
Creamy white. White-fronted Goose. 
White. Barnacle Goose. 
White. Lesser White-fronted Goose. 
White, yellow when held to light. White Stoilt 
Olive, spotted green and brown. Red-throated 

Diver. 
Buff, spotted light and dark brown. Great 

Black-backed Gull. 



152 



EGGS. 



Rq. 
Rr. 

Rs. 

RT. 

Sa. 

Sb. 
Sc. 
Sd. 

Se. 

Sf. 
So 

Sh. 

Si. 
Sj. 
Sk. 

Sl. 

oM. 

Sn. 
.So. 

Sp. 
Sq. 
Sr. 
Ss. 



3; 
3; 


2; 

2-1 ; 


3; 


2-3; 


3; 


2-s; 


3'i; 


2; 


3'i; 

3-1 i 

3-1; 
3'2; 


2; 
2-1 ; 
2-1 ; 

2; 


3'2; 

3'3; 


21 ; 
2; 


3"3; 


2-1 ; 


3-5; 
3-5; 
rs; 


2-4; 
24; 

2's; 


3-6; 
3-6; 


2'2 ; 
2-3; 


37; 
3-8; 


2-5; 
2-9; 


4; 
4-5; 
4-5; 

4-9! 


2-6; 

2-8; 

2-9; 

3i 



Z. Pale bluish green. Gannet. 

U. Buff, streaked purple and brown. Great Black- 
headed Gull. 

V. Olive, clouded with light brown. Great Bus- 
tard. 

X. White, or white freckled reddish brown, green 
when held to light. Golden Eagle. 

v. Cream, spotted brown and grey. Glaucous 
Gull. 

V. Greenish buff. Eider Duck. 

V. Creamy white. Pink-footed Goose. 

V. Chalky white. Snow Goose. 

W. Green or buff, plain or blotched with browns. 
Guillemot. 

W. Creamy white. Bean Goose. 

W. Chocolate, with blackish spots. Black-throated 
Divet 

W. Buff, mottled with greys and light browns. 
Demoiselle Crane. 

W. Chalky white. Grey Lag Goose. 

W. Pinkish white. Canada Goose. 

W. Olive brown, spotted brown. Yellow-billed 
Diver. 

W. White. Flamingo. 

W. Olive, spotted dark brown. Great Northern 
Diver. 

W. Buff, mottled grey and light brown. Crane. 
U. White, spotted brown at one end. Griffon 
Vulture. 

W. Creamy white. Bewick's Swan. 

W. Creamy white, Hooper Swan. 

W. Pale green. Mute Swan. 

W. White or buff, blotched and clouded brown. 
Great Auk. 



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