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^txo lark 

Hntt Qlallege of Agriculture 

^t (Horncll InHieraltH 
3t^ara. 2f. 1- 


Cornell University Library 
QK 306. J66 1908 

Flowers of the field. 

3 1924 000 605 935 


Traveller's Joy 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



REV. C. A. JOHNS, B.A., F.L.S. 







'These to his memory since he lield them dear.' 

I dedicate the coloured illustrations in this work 
to the loving and reverent memory Of my father, 


for many years a member of the Brighton Natural 

History Society, once its President?, and for some 

years its Honorary Librarian. 

E.N. G. 


In preparing the present edition of Johns'" Flowers of the Field, it 
has been found necessary to make a good many additions and 
alterations ; most of them, however, are of an unobtrusive nature. 

To have made a thoroughly scientific work of it was deemed 
undesirable, for it would have meant so much pulling to pieces and 
putting together again, that the charming classic, the simple book 
in which for so many years keen unscientific amateurs have been 
wont to burrow, and find quite successfully the names of the plants 
which they collected, would no longer have remained. 

' Johns,' though founded on a scientific basis, is not a scientific 
book, and it has been the aim of the editor to exclude from the 
present edition all those bewildering technical terms which terrify 
the uninitiated, and to retain that unscientific simplicity which 
for so long has made ' Johns ' the book of all others beloved of 

Some plants not included in the older editions have been added, 
and the descriptions of many individual species have been somewhat 
elaborated, but the rearrangement of Orders and Genuses has been 
comparatively slight. The greatest change will be found in the 
illustrations. The majority of the old familiar cuts which give 
so well what may best be called the ' expression ' of the plants they 
represent are reproduced in the present edition, but in addition to 
these some 268 other species are illustrated in the coloured plates, 
which are reproduced from a collection of water-colour drawings 
by Miss Gwatkin. These speak for themselves. Though ad- 
vanced botanists are' apt to think lightly of illustrations, the cry of 
amateurs is always, ' Give us plates,' and undoubtedly plates are a 
great help to the beginner — if they are good: 

The Introduction to British Botany is given practically as it stands 
in the older editions, and by a careful study of this the beginner may 
easily gather sufficient knowledge to enable him to make the best 
use of the text of the book. The chapter of the Introduction de- 
scribing the Linnsean system of classification has been omitted as 
unnecessary, and even likely to confuse the beginner, who would 
be apt to laboriously study it, only to find that it is not the system 
used in the text of the book. 

The Index, which has been prepared by another hand, is quite 
exhaustive, and will doubtless appeal to the uninitiated, whilst the 
Glossary of Terms will explain any words unfamiliar to beginners. 

Clarence Elliott 



Though the highest claim of this volume is to introduce the lover 
6f Nature to an acquaintance with the common British plants, the 
author has given to his first chapter the somewhat presuming title 
of an " Introduction to British Botany," lest those into whose 
hands the work may fall should pass over the earlier part of it as 
a treatise or summary of contents so little connected with what 
follows, that the perusal of it may be omitted or deferred with 
safety. So far is this from being the case, that the reader who is 
unacquainted with the elements of botany will find the body of 
the work of little use, unless he carefully peruses the earlier pages, 
and makes himself thoroughly acquainted with the general plan. 

The limits of a work of this kind will not allow any account of 
the internal structure of plants, or of the functions of their various 
organs. Nor, indeed, is such description necessary in a work 
which professes merely to teach the unscientific how to find out 
the names of the flowers they may happen to fall in with in the 
course of their country rambles. Such a knowledge of plants as 
this, it may be said, and said with truth, is not Botany ; never- 
theless, it is a step towards Botany : for there can be no doubt 
that scientific treatises on this subject would often be studied with 
pleasure, if the reader were familiar with simply the outward appear- 
ance of the examples quoted : just as we take greater interest in 
accounts of astronomical discoveries, if we have seen and handled 
a telescope, than if we had merely had one described to us, no 
matter with what accuracy and minuteness. The reader, then, or, 
inasmuch as even the elementary knowledge of a science can only 
be attained by study, the student who wishes to make this volume 
practically useful in enabling him to find out the names of our 
common wild flowers, is recommended to re"ad with care and atten- 
tion the following pages, into which the author has introduced 
nothing but what is essential to the proper understanding of the 
body of the work, and so to the attainment of his object. 

Before a novice can commence the study of any science he must 
make himself acquainted with the terms employed by writers on 
that science ; he must not be frightened if things new to him 
should have strange names. Unmeaning and hard to be remem- 
bered they must appear to him at first, but this will be only as long 


as they remain mere sounds. When he has gained a knowledge of 
the things for which they stand, they will lose their formidable 
appearance, and, hard as they may still be to pronounce, they will 
very soon become familiar to the mind, if not to the tongue. In 
a scientific treatise on Botany, taken in its widest sense, these 
terms must of necessity be very numerous. Not so, however, with 
a popular description of the plants growing wild in a single country 
of limited extent ; the author, therefore, has endeavoured to keep 
technical terms as much as possible out of sight, in the hope that 
the lover of Nature may be beguiled into forming an acquaintance 
with the outward appearance of the plants of his neighbourhood, 
and eventually be induced to study their characters, or to extend 
his researches beyond the limits of his own country. He has, 
consequently, avoided the use of Latin words wherever English 
ones would do as well, and has often preferred to express by several 
words what might have been defined by on%, because that one was 
probably strange to the reader. With respect to the organs of 
plants, he has not noticed the existence of any but those with which 
it is necessary that the student should be familiar before he refers 
to the body of the work for a description of any plant which he 
may have found ; these, with their principal peculiarities, may be 
described at once. They are, Root, Steji, Leaf, Stipules, Bracts, 
Flower, Calyx, Corolla, Stamens, Pistils, Fruit, Seed, Re- 
ceptacle, and Nect.vry. 

The Root. — The most frequent form of the root is a tuft of 
fibres, each of which ends in a porous substance serving to absorb 
moisture from the soil. In many instances, however, the nourish- 
ment thus obtained, instead of being transmitted at once ta that 
part of the plant which rises above the ground, is lodged in another 
organ, which, though partaking in some measure the properties of 
root and stem, is distinct from both. This, too, with the fibres 
attached to it, is called a root, the fibres themselves being named 
rootlets. The principal forms of the root are : — 

The Creeping Root, familiar examples of which are afforded by 
Couch-grass and Great Bindweed. 

The Spindle-shaped Root ; examples, Carrot and Parsnep. 

A spindle-shaped root which ends abruptly is termed prcmorse 
(bitten off), as in Premorse Scabious, p. 146. 

The Tuberous Root consists of one or more roundish solid ma.sses, 
having the power of producing rootlets and buds from several parts 
of its surface, as the Potato. 

The Bnlboits Rool is a solid roundish mass, producing rootlets at 
the lower extremity, and a bud at the other ; it consists either of 
fleshy scales, as in the White Lily ; concentric circles, as in the 
Onion ; or is of one uniform substance throughout, as in the Crocus. 
This last is sometimes called a conn. 


The Stem. — The stem is said to be simple when it bears leaves, 
or leaves and flowers only without branches, as in Grass of Par- 
nassus, Plate 33. 

A compound stem is repeatedly and irregularly branched, as in 
Flax-seed, p. 49. 

The term erect, when applied to the stem, has the same meaning 
as perpendicular. 

An ascending stem is one which is horizoiital when first it leaves 
the root, and then becomes erect. When several stems grow from 
one root, the central one is often erect, the rest ascending, as in the 
common Mallow. 

A prostrate stem trails along the ground without ever becoming 

A creeping stem differs from the last by sending out roots from 
its joints. Some plants have erect stems with creeping scions, or 
shoots from the base, as the Creeping Buttercup, p. 6. 

The Axil. — This name is given to the angle formed by a leaf 
where it leaves the stem. A bud or flower which springs from this 
angle is termed axillary. 

The Leaf. — Leaves which spring directly from the root are called 
radical ; those which grow on the stem are 
either alternate, as in Balsam, p. 60 ; op- 
posite, as in the Pink, p. 39 ; or whorled : 
the leaves of Bedstraw, Plate 37, grow in 

Leaves which have no stalks are termed 
sessile (sitting), as in Eryngo, Plate 35. 
A leaf which consists of but one piece is said to be simple, as in 
Marsh Marigold, Plate 3 ; a ternate leaf consists of three leaflets on 
a common stalk, as in Medick, p. 67 : a quinate, of five, as in Marsh 
Cinquefoil, Plate 27. Other forms of the compound leaf are the 
pinnate (from penna, a feather), where a number of leaflets are 
ranged along the opposite sides of a common stalk, as in Saint-foin, 

P- 77- 

A simple leaf is sometimes wavy at the edge, as in the Oak, 

Plate 82 ; 3-, 5-, or j-lohed, as in the Mallows, Plate 13 ; and these 

lobes are often deeply cut, as in Geranium, Plates 15 and 16. A leaf 

of five or more narrow lobes united near the main stalk is termed 

palmate (from palma, the palm of the hand), as in HeUebore, p. 8. 

The pedate leaf differs from the palmate, in having the two side 

lobes divided a second time at the edge nearest the stalk. A leaf 

which is lobed after the manner of a pinnate leaf is termed pinnatifid 

(from penna, a feather, and findo, to cleave). 

If a stalk is attached to a leaf at or near its centre, such a leaf is 

termed peltate (from pelta, a buckler), as in Cotyledon, Plate 32. 

shaped, oval, 


A leaf through which a stalk passes is termed perfoliate (from per, 
through, and folium, a leaf), as in Hare's-ear, p. 122. 

Two leaves united by their Imses, and allowmg the stem to pass 
through them, are termed connate (from con, together, and nascor, 
to grow), as in Chlora, Plate 59. ^ -ni 4- 

The margin of the leaf is cither entire, as m Soapwort, Plate 10 ; 
crenate, as in Marsh Pennywort, Plate 34 ; serrate (saw-edged), as 
in Rose, Plate 29 ; toothed, as in Enchanter's Nightshade, Plate 30 ; 
or fringed, as in' Rock-rose, Plate 8. 

With respect to form, the varieties of leaves are very numerous, 
and the terms employed to define them not less so. Those which 
occur in this volume are : — 

Hair-like, or capillary, as in Fennel, p. 124. 

Linear, as in the Grasses and Pink, p. 39. 

Strap-shaped, as in Corrigiola, p. 103. 

Oblong, as in Rock-rose, Plate 8. 

Elliptical, oval, with both ends alike, as in the leaflets of Rose, 

Plate 2q. 

with the base broader than the extremity, as 

in Pear, p. go. 

Inveraely egg-shaped, oval, with the base 
narrower than the extremity, as in Brook weed, 
p. 239. 

Rounded, as in Pyrola, p. 186. 

Heart-shaped, as in Violet, Plate 9. 

Inverselv heart-shaped, as in the leaflets of 
Medick, p. 67. 

Kidney-shaped, as in Ground Ivy, Plate 71. 

Arrow-shaped, as in Tower Mustard, p. 25. 

Halberi-shaped, arrow-shaped, but with the 
barbs turned outwards. 

Angular, as in Danish Scurvy-Grass. 

Sword-shaped, as in Iris, Plate 68. 

Stipules. — The base of the leaf-stalk is not unfrcqucntly fur- 
nished with two sheathins; wings ; these are called 
stipules. The leaf of the Rose has oblong stipules at 
its base. 

Bracts. — Beneath the flower are frequently situ- 
ated small leaves called bracts. Sometimes they are 
mere scales, as in the Broom-rape, Plate 67 ; but 
more frequently they are only to be distinguished 
from true leaves by their smaller size, as in Evening Primrose, 
p. 94. 

In the Umbelliferous Tribe, p. iii, they often grow, several in a 
whorl, at the base of the general and partial umbels ; and in Com- 
pound Flowers, p. 146, they are yet more numerous a( the base 



of the heads of flowers. When they grow in this form they are 
termed an involucre (from involvo, to wrap up, because they enclose 
the flowers before expansion). 

The Flower. — This, as it is the most ornamental, so it is the 
most important part of the plant, being rarely produced until the 
juices fit for its nourishment have been selected by the roots and 
matured by the leaves, and containing all the apparatus necessary 
for perfecting seeds. In flowering plants, besides the parts which 
are indispensable to the ripening of seeds, there are others which 
evidently serve as a protection, and others, again, the use of which 
is not known. The flower, however, generally being essential to 
the continuance of the species, has been selected as the part on 
which to found every arrangement of plants which can lay claim 
to accuracy or utility. A thorough knowledge of its structure is 
therefore necessary, before the student can proceed to discover the 
names of the commonest plants which are: flung with so bountiful 
a hand over our hills and fields. 

The Calyx. — This name is given to that 'part of the flower which 
in the bud stage is outside all the rest, and which when the flower 
is expandecl encircles the more delicate parts. It is usually green, 
and consists of several leaves, termed sepals ; but these sepals are 
often united at the base and form a cup, (hence the name calyx, 
a cup). 

It is unnecessary here to describe the various forms of the calyx, 
which are very numerous. It may be remarked, however, that 
when the calyx is divided into two distinct lobes, one of which over- 
hangs the other, it is termed gaping ; in- the Mallow Tribe it is 
double ; and in Compound Flowers, the Valerian and Teazel Tribes, 
it is at first a mere ring, but afterwards becomes a chaffy or feathery 
appendage to the seed, termed a pappus. 

The Corolla. — Within the calyx is the corolla (little crown), a 
ring of delicate leaves called petals, usually coloured — that is, not 

g;reen — and often fragrant. The petals are either distinct, as in 
the Rose, in which the expanded part is termed the limb, the lower 
the claw ; or*united below, when the expanded part is termed the 
border, the lower the tube. The corolla more frequently has as 
many petals or divisions as there are sepals ; and if these are all 
of the same size and shape, the corolla is said to be regular. 


The most, common forms of the regular corolla of one petal are ; — 

Salver-shaped, as in Primrose, Plate 74. 

Funnel-shaped, as in Cowslip, Plate 74. 

Wheel-shaped, when the tube is no longer in proportion than the 
axle of a wheel, as in Speedwell, Plate 69. 

Bell-shaped, as in Campanula, p. 384. 

Trumpet-shaped, as in Convolvulus, Plate 57. 

When the irregular corolla of one petal is divided into two lobes, 
one of which overhangs the other, it is termed labiate, or lipped, as 
in the Natural Family Lahiatce ; if the lips are open, it is said to be 
gaping, as in Yellow Dead Nettle ; if closed, personate, (from 
persona, a mask), as in Toadflax. In the Compound Flowers, 
p. 146, there are frequently two kinds of florets in one flower ; 
those of the disk, or centre, being tubular, without an evident 
border ; those of the ray, or margin, strap-shaped, as in the Daisy. 

Among regular flowers of many petals, the only form which it 
will be necessary to mention here is the cruciform, consisting of four 
petals placed cross-wise, as in the Cruciferous Tribe, p. 16. 

The most remarkable among the irregular is the papilionaceous, 
(from papilio, a butterfly), consisting of five petals, of which the 
upper one, called the standard, is usually the largest ; the two side 
ones are termed wings, and the two lower ones, which are often 
combined, form the keel, p. 62. 

Both calyx and corolla are not always found in the same flower, 
and when one only is present, it is sometimes difficult to decide by 
what name it should be called. In this case the term perianth 
(from the Greek peri, around, and anthos, a flower) is a convenient 
one. Some flowers have neither calyx nor corolla, as Water Star- 
wort. When the perianth is said' to be double, it is to be understood 
that calyx and corolla are both present. 

The Stamens.— Within the perianth, and frequently attached to 
it, is a row of delicate organs called stamens, of which the lower part 
is termed the filament, the upper the anther. When 
the filament is slender throughout, it is said to be 
thread-like ; but if it be thick at the base, and taper 
to a point, it is said to be aid-shaped. The anther 
varies in shape, but is most frequently oblong, and 
composed of two lobes and as many cells, which are 
filled with a fine dust, called pollen. If there be no filament, 
the anther is said to be sessile. In a majority of flowers the 
number of stamens equals that of the petals ; a few plants have 
but one stamen : very often the number of stamens is some mul- 
tiple of the petals— that is, there are twice or thrice, etc., as many 
and not a few flowers have from twenty to several hundred. Some- 
times the filaments are united at the base into one or more sets 
as in Hypericum, p. 52 ; sometimes they form a hollow tube, the 


anthers being distinct, or jyee, as in Mallow, p. 49 ; and sometimes 
the filaments are free, and the anthers are united into a ring, as in 
the Compound Flowers, p. 146. 

The Pistil. — This is the central part of the flower, and 
I in its commonest form is a delicate column composed of 
fl three parts — the ovary, the style, and the stigma. 
' The ovary, (from ovum, an egg), sometimes called the 

germen, contains the rudiments of the future seed. 

The style, (from stylos, a column), is to the pistil what the shaft 
is to a pillar, connecting the ovary with — 

The stigma, which is sometimes a mere viscid point, but more 
frequently an enlargement of the summit of the style, and is vari- 
ously shaped, being globular, flat, lobed, etc. If there be no style, 
the stigma is said to be sessile. 

In the majority of flowers there is but one pistil ; but very often 
there is a single ovary, which bears several styles and stigmas. In 
this case the ovary usually consists of several cells, each of which, 
with its style and stigma, is termed a carpel ; and the same name 
is given to each of the ovaries in such flowers as Marsh Marigold, 
p. 7, where they are distinct ; and in Blackberry, p. 86, where they 
are united. 

Both calyx and corolla, it has been said above, may be absent. 
Not so with respect to stamens and pistils ; for, unless they are 
present, no seed can be perfected. It is not, however, essential 
that they should botfi be found in the same flower. Sometimes on 
the same plant flowers are to be found, some of which bear stamens 
only, others pistils only ; and not unfrequently these organs grow, 
not only in separate flowers, but on different plants. In either 
case, those flowers alone which contain pistils produce seeds, and 
are therefore termed fertile ; while those containing stamens only, 
are called barren. The external structure of barren and fertfle 
flowers is often very dissimilar, as in Willow, p. 264, and Oak, 
p. 266. When the ovary is inserted above the base of the perianth, 
it is said to be superior, as in Crowfoot, p. 6 ; when below, inferior, 
as in Rose, p. 88. In like manner the perianth is said to be superior 
or inferior, according as it is inserted above or below the ovary. 

The Fruit. — As the flower withers, the ovary enlarges and be- 
comes the fruit, that is, the seed, with its case or covering, also 
called a pericarp, (from peri, around, and carpos, fruit). Among the 
various forms of fruit, the principal are— 

The capsule (from capsula, a little box), a dry case, either opening 
by valves, as in Pink, p. 39 ; by teeth, as in Lychnis, p. 42 ; by 
pores, as in Poppy, p. 13 ; or by splitting all round, as in Pimpernel, 

p. 237. 

The silique and silicle, described at p. 16, 

The pod, or legume, a long seed-vessel, differing from the silique 


in having no partition, and bearing the seeds in a single row, as in 
the Pea and Bean Tribe, p. 63. 

Tlie berry, a juicy or mealy fruit, bearing the seeds immersed in 
pulp, as in Elder, Currant, etc. 

The mtt, a dry fruit, composed of a hard shell, containing a seed, 
as in Hazel, p. 267 ; and Gromwell, p. 206. 

The drupe, a nut enclosed in pulp, as the Plum and Cherry. 

The cone, a collection of imbricated or overlapping scales, each of 
which covers two seeds. 

The Seed. — A seed is said to be dicotyledonous when it is com- 
posed of two lobes, or cotyledons, which enclose the 
plumule, or embryo of the future plant. As the 
seed germinates, the cotyledons either rise above 
the ground, as in Mustard, or remain buried, as in 
the garden Pea. Plants bearing seeds of this 
structure compose the first Natural Class, Dico- 
tyledonous Plants, or Exogens, p. i. When the seed is not 
separable into two parts, it is termed monocoiyledonoiis ; and plants 
bearing such seeds compose the Second Natural Class, Monocoty- 
LEDONOus Plants, or Endogens, p. 269. 

l^ECEPTACLE.— This name is given to that part of the flower on 
which all the others rest. It is most conspicuous in the Compound 
Flowers, p. 146, where it is sometimes conical, as in Daisy, p. 173 ; 
chaffy, as in Cat's-ear, p. 156; bristly, as in Thistle, p. 161; or 
dotted, as in Dandelion, p. 160. 

Nectary. — Any distinct organ in a flower which contains honey ; 
for instance, the scale at the base of the petals in Crowfoot, p. 5 ; 
the spurs of the Columbmc, p. 8, etc. 

Inflorescence. — This term is used to denote the arrangement 
of flowers on the stem. 

A flower-stalk springing directly from the root, and bearing no 
leaves, is termed a scape, as in Primrose, Plate 74. 

When it is inserted in the angle between the main stem and a 
leaf, it is termed axillary, as in Balsam, p. 60. 

When it is at the extremity of the main stem, having no leaves 
beyond it, it is said to be terminal, as in Grass of Parnassus, p. in. 

A flower-stalk which bears but one flower, is said to be' simple, 
as in Grass of Parnassus. 

A stalk bearing a number of sessile flowers, arranged one above 
another, is termed a spike, as in Plantain, p. 241. 

When, instead of being sessile, the flowers' are supported on 
simple stalks, the inflorescence is a cluster, as m Mclilot, p. 68. 

A panicle diftcrs from a cluster in being branched, as 'in Snurrev 
P- 45- ' • ' 

A corytnb differs from a cluster in bearing the lower flowers on 


]ong stalks, while the upper are sessile, or nearly so, as in Wall- 
flower, p. 28. 

In a cyme the stalks are irregularly branched, but the flowers 
are nearly level, as in Elder, p. 135. 

The unihel is a mode of inflorescence in which the flower-stalks 
spring from a common centre, and bear each a single flower, as in 
Ivy, p. 131. When the stalks bear, instead of a single flower, a 
second umbel, the inflorescence is a compound umbel, the primary 
division being termed a general umbel, tiie secondary a partial. 
This mode of inflorescence is common in the Umbelliferous Tribe, 
p. no. 

A head resembles a simple umbel, except that the flowers are all 
sessile, as in Scabious, p. 146. 

A catkin resembles a spike, except that the flowers are enclosed 
each within a scale-like bract, as in Hazel, Plate 81. 

Other terms which are employed in the body of the work will be 
explained as they occur, or in the description which precedes the 
sumniary of each Natural Order. A glossary will also be found at 
the end of the volume, containing definitions of most of the common 
terms in use. 

It is not necessary to give an account of the Linneean system of 
classification, nor of the various others which have been proposed. 
Suffice it to say, the one generally adopted in Britain is a modifica- 
tion of those of Jussieu and De CandoUe. Here the whole Vegetable 
Kingdom is divided into three great Classjes. 


In this Class are placed such plants as produce seeds divisible 
into two lobes, or cotyledons. It is subdivided into four Sub-classes, 


Sitb-class I. Thalamiflor.e. 

Flowers furnished with calyx and corolla ; petals distinct, in- 
serted into the receptacle, or thalamus ; stamens springing from 
the base of the ovary. 

Sub-class II. Calyciflor^. 

Flowers furnished with calyx and corolla ; sepals distinct, or 
united ; petals distinct ; stamens inserted in the calyx, or close to 
its base. 


Flowers furnished with calyx and corolla ; petals united, bearing 
the stamens. 


Sub-class IV. MONOCHLAMYDE^.* 

Perianth single, or none. 

Seeds with a single cotyledon. It is subdivided into two Sub- 
classes, Petaloide.e and Glumace.e. 

Sub-class I. Petaloide^. 
Flowers with petals. 

Sub-class II. GLUMACE.E. 

Flowers formed of chaffy scales, or glumes. This Sub-class con- 
tains the Grasses and Sedges. 


Flowerless plants. Here arc placed the Ecrns, Mosses, Liver- 
worts, Lichens, Sea-weeds, and Fungi, not included in the present 

Each of the Natural Orders, or Tribes, alluded to above, consists 
of a number of plants which are more or less like one another in 
various respects, especially in the organs of fructificalion. The 
plants comprised in each Tribe are again distributed into genera, 
or families, each genus including all plants which resemble one 
another yet more closely in the essential characters of fructifica- 
tion. A species, or ki?ui, is an assemblage of individual plants 
agreeing with each other in all essential points ; and individuals 
which differ one from another in minor points, such as an irregular 
formation of leaves or mode of growth, unusual colour of flowers, 
extraordinary number of petals, etc., are termed varieties. These 
words are frequently used loosely in common conversation, but 
the habit cannot be too carefully avoided in botanical descriptions, 
as calculated to produce great confusion. Throughout these pages 
they will be employed exclusively with the meanings above assigned, 
which wiU be rendered clearer by the following examples : The 
wild sweet-scented Violet is called by botanists Viola odorata ; the 
former name, Viola, indicating that it belongs to the genus so called, 
and being, therefore, termed its generic name. Besides the scented 
Violet, we have in England the Dog- Violet, the Marsh- Violet, the 
Pansy, and several others, all belongmg to the same genus, and, 
therefore, described under the name Viola. But the Dog-Violet 
difters from the Sweet-scented in having acute sepals, and leafy 
stems, whereas the latter has blunt sepals, and the leaves sprin^^ 

* From the Greek nionos, one, and clilamys, a mantle or covering- the 
plants of this Snb-cla5s never having botli calyx and corolla. ° ' 


directly from the roots. Tlie Dog-Violel is therefore a distinct 
species, Viola eanina. Tire Marsh-Violet and Pansy differ also in 
important characters ; they are, therefore,, also considered distinct 
species, the fact being indicated by the addition of the specific or 
trivial names, paliistris and tricolor, to the generic name Viola. The 
flowers of the scented Violet are sometimes white and sometimes 
blue ; garden specimens are often tinged with pink, and still more 
frequently, double. These characters being either unimportant or 
inconstant — for blue flowers generally have a great tendency to 
sport to white, and double flowers are not perpetuated by seed — 
the blue, white, pink, and double sweet Violets are not considered 
distinct species, but mere varieties. Now there are many plants 
which bear a close resemblance to a Violet in the structure of their 
flowers and seeds, but yet differ so far that they cannot be reduced 
under the same genus ; they are therefore placed with it in the 
same Tribe, called Violace.e, all the genera in which, differ in essen- 
tial points from the genera wliich compose other Trilies, but agree 
with a vast number m having two-lohed see,ds and leaves with netted 
veins, two of the characters of Dicotylhuonous Plants. In this 
Class it is arranged with plants furnished with both calyx and 
corolla, and having their petals distinct and inserted with the 
stamens into the receptacle. 

The plant of which we have been speaking belongs, then, to the 


Sub-Class I. Thalajiiflor.e. 

Order or Tribe IX. Violace/E. 

Genus i, Viola. 

Species 2, odorata. 

Variety, blue, ivhite, or double. 



L Traveller's Joy . . . Frontispiece 


II. Lesser Celandine, Water Crowfoot, Creeping Butter^ 
cup, Bulbous Buttercup, Wood Anemone, 
Celery-leaved Buttercup .... 

III. Columbine, Marsh Marigold, Globe Flower . 
IV. Common Red Poppy, Opium Poppy, Pale Poppy . 
V. Greater Celandine, Welsh Poppy, Yellow Horned 
Poppy ...... 

VI. Yellow Corydalis, Ramping Fumitory, Corydalis 

Solida, Common Fumitory 
VII. Common Watercress, Garlic Mustard, Cuckoo Flower, 
Charlock (Wild Mustard) 
VIII. Wild Mignonette, Common Rock Rose 
IX. Heartsease, Heartsease (Variety), White Sweet Violet, 

Dog Violet, Sweet Violet 
X. Round-leaved Sundew, Common Soapwort, Long- 
leaved Sundew, Sea Campion 
XI. Ragged Robin, Bladder Campion 
XIT. Greater Stitchwort, duckweed, Campion, Evening 
Campion, Corn Cockle .... 

XIII. Dwarf Mallow, Musk Mallow, Common Mallow 

XIV. Marsh St. John's Wort, Perforated St. John's Wort, 

Large- flowered St. John's Wort, Hairy St. John's 
Wort, Trailing St. John's Wort . 
XV. Bloody Crane's-bill, Meadow Crane's-bill, Dove's- 
foot Crane's-bill, Dusky Crane's-bill 
XVI. Herb Robert, Mountain Crane's-bill, Jagged-leaved 
Crane's-biU ..... 

XVII. Long-stalked Crane's-bill, Musk Stork's-bill, Hemlock 
Stork's-bill, Wood Sorrel, Shining Crane's-bill . 
XVIII. Spindle-tree, Furze ..... 
XIX. Broom, Dyer's Greenweed, Black Medick . 































Common Yellow Melilot, Common Rest Har- 
row, Common Bird's-foot Trefoil . 68 
Alsike Clover, Common Bird's-foot, Subter- 
ranean Trefoil, Hare's-foot Clover . 70 
Bush Vetch, Slender Vetch, Spring Vetch . 7/ 
Meadow Vetchling, Tufted Vetch . . 74 
Grass Vetchling, Tuberous Bitter Vetch . 76 
Blackberry, Stone Bramble, Water Avens, 

Dewberry . . . .83 

Silverweed, Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil, Wild 

Strawberry, Shrubby Cinquefoil . . 84 

Marsh Cinquefoil, Creeping Cinquefoil . . 86 

Common Agrimony, Common Lady's Mantle . 88 
Dog Rose, Common May . . .90 

Great Hairy Willow-Herb, Purple Loosestrife, 
Hoary Willow-Herb, Common Enchan- 
ter's Nightsliade, Rose Bay . . 94 
White Bryony ..... 100 
Rock Stonecrop, Wall Pennywort, Claytonia, 

Orpine or Live-long . . . 104 

Rue-leaved Saxifrage, Grass of Parnassus, 

White Meadow Saxifrage . . . 106 

Wood Sanicle, Marsh Pennywort . .116 

Sea Holly, Wild Carrot, Hedge Parsley, Pig 

Nut ..... 128 

Moschatcl, Honeysuckle . . . 130 

Crosswort, Lady's Bedstraw, Water Bedstraw ij8 
Red Spur Valerian, Small Valerian . . 142 

Small Scabious Field Scabious Sheep's Sca- 
bious ..... 146 
Hemp Agrimony . , _ . IS4 
Sea Aster, Flea-bane, Flea-bane Erigeron, 
Golden-rod . 

Corn Feverfew 
Corn Marigold, 

Butter-bur, Corn Tansy 







XLV. Common Ragwort, Marsh Rdgwort . 

XLVI. Musk Thistle .... 

XLVII. Spear Thistle 

XL VII I. Creeping Thistle .... 

. XLIX. Common Carline, Meadow Thistle 

L. Greater Centam-ea, Knapweed . 

LI. Star-thistle, Mouse-ear Hawkweed 

LII. Yellow Goat 's-beard . . . . 

LI II. Dandelion. Wall Lettuce 

LIV. Chicory. Corn Sow Thistle 

LV. Clustered Campanula, Nettle-ieaved Campa- 
nula, Water Lobelia, Rampion 

LVL Greater Campanula, Spreading Campanula 

LVII, Hairbell, Hairbell (Variety) . 

LVIII. Lesser Periwinkle, Bell Heather, Common 
Ling, Cross-leaved Heath . 

LIX. Field Gentian, Yellow-wort, Common Cen- 
taury, Buck-bean .... 

LX. Great Bindweed, Sea Bindweed 
LXI. Lesser Bindweed, Lesser Dodder 
LXII. Hound's Tongue, Viper's Bugloss, Common 
Comfrey, Water Forget-me-not 
LXIII. Thorn Apple ..... 
LXIV. Henbane . . . . . 

LXV. Woody Nightshade, Black Nightshade 
LXVI. Deadly Nightshade .... 
LXVII. Dark MuUem, White Mullein, Toothworl, 
Blue Broom-rape .... 
LXVIII. Lesser Snapdragon, Ivy-leaved Linaria, Toad- 
flax, Pale Linaria, Figwort 
LXIX. Foxglove, Brooklime, Common Speedwell, 
Yellow Mimulus, Germander Speedwell . 
LXX. Red Bartsia, Red and White Lousewort, Penny- 
royal, Yellow Rattle, Common Yellow Co^\■- 
wheat ..... 

LXXI. Ground Ivy, Water Mint, Common Marjoram, 
WHd Basil, Greater Skull-cap 
































Marsh Woundwort, Hedge Woundwort, Red 
Hemp-nettle, Betony, Black Horehound . 
White Dead-nettle, Red Dead-nettle, Common 
Bugle, Wood Sage, Archangel 

Common Verbena, Primrose, Common Butter- 
wort, Bird's-eye Primrose, Cowslip 

Thrift, Loosestrife, Money-wort, Yellow Pim- 
pernel . . . . . 

Good King Henry, Buck Wheat, Snake Weed 

Sheep's Sorrel, Spotted Persicaria 

Spurge Laurel, Wood Spurge 

Hop, Pehitory of the Wall, Stinging Nettle, 
Lesser Stinging Nettle 

Silver Birch, Elm, Common Alder, Sweet Gale 

Hazel, Beech, Spanish Chestnut 

Scotch Fir, Oak, Sallow 

Early Purple Orchis, Broad-leaved Helle- 
borine. White Helleborine, Marsh Helle- 
borine .... 

Common Twayblade, Lady's Tresses, Spotted 
Orchis .... 

Man Orchis, Fly Orchis, Bee Orchis, Butterfly 
Orchis .... 

Yellow Flag . . 

Snowdrop, Daffodil, Summer -Snowtlake 

Wild Hyacinth, Black Bryony . 

Lily of the Valley, Round-headed Garlick 
Herb-Paris, Bog Asphodel, Fritillary 

Flowering Rush 

Great Water Plantain . 

Lords and Ladies ... 










Class I 


'T'HE characteristics by which plants belonging to this class 
-L may be distinguished from members of the less extensive 
class, Monocotyledons, are mainly as follows : — 

The seeds are composed of two lobes or cotyledons, which enclose 
the plumule, or embryo of the future plant. As germination com- 
mences, the plumule lengthens downwards into a root, called in its 
early stage a radicle. At the same time the upper extremity 
lengthens into a stem, which is composed of bark, woody fibre, 
spiral vessels, cellular tissue, and a central column of pith. 
The stem increases in diameter by deposits beneath the bark, but 
outside the existing fibre. Hence the plants belonging to this 
class are called Exogenous (increasing by additions on the out- 
side). In all trees and shrubs of this class the wood is arranged in 
concentric layers, the hardest part being nearest the pith. The 
leaves are netted-veined, as opposed to the parallel-veined leaves 
of Monocotyledons. (Compare the leaves of a common primrose 
with those of a lily of the valley.) 

The parts of the flowers are usually arranged in fours, fives, or 
some multiple of those numbers. 

With a little observation the student will quickly come to be able 
to recognize the essential characteristics of Dicotyledons and Mono- 
cotyledons, whose general aspects are really very distinct. 

Sub-Class I 


Flowers furnished with calyx and corolla ; petals distinct, inserted 
into the receptacle or thalamus ; stamens inferior, i.e. springing from 
below the base of the ovary. 


Natural Order I 
RANUNCULACEiE.— The Ranunculus Trice 

Sepals distinct, generally 5 ; petals distinct, generally 5, some- 
times irregular in " form, minute, or wanting; ovaries generally 
numerous ; fruit consisting of several one- or many-seeded carpels, 
but in Actaea a berry. An extensive tribe of plants, inhabiting tor 
the most part the temperate regions of the globe. All the British 
species are herbaceous, with the exception, of clematis, which is a 
woody chmbcr. The leaves are generally much divided, the flowers 
showy, including as they do many garden favourites. Sepals 
and petals often graduating into one another, sometimes extended 
into spurs. Most of them possess acrid and poisonous properties 
if taken into the stomach, and not a few produce wounds if ap- 
plied to the skin. Some species were formerly used in medicine, 
and the extract of monk's-hood is still employed to relieve pain 
in affections of the nerves. The Hellebore was held in high 
repute among the ancients as a specific for madness ; the beau- 
tiful garden Christmas Rose belongs to this family. The Celery- 
leaved Crowfoot, Ranv.nculus scdjr.itiis, is one of the most widely 
diffused plants, being as common in America, and on the banks 
of the Ganges, as in our own marshes. 

Carpels one-seeded 

1. Clematis (Traveller's Joy). — Sepals 4-6, resembling petals ; 
petals wanting ; carpels surmounted by a long feathery tail. 
(Name from the Greek, clenia, a vine-shoot.) 

2. Thalictrum (Meadow Rue). — Sepals 4-5, resembling petals ; 
petals wanting ; carpels wilhont (ails. (Name irom the Greek, 
t hallo, to flourish.) 

3. Anemone (Wincl-flower), — Sepals 5-15, resembling petals ; 
petals wanting ; involucre of 3 leaves distinct from the flower. 
(Name from the Greek, anemos, the wind, from the exposed 
place of growth.) 

4. Adonis (Pheasant's Eye). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5-10, usually 
red, without a nectary at the base ; carpels without tails. (Name 
from Adonis, a youth who was killed by a wild boar, and whose 
blood is fabled to have stained flowers.) 

5. Ranunculus (Crowfoot, Buttercup, Lesser Celandine, etc.).— 
Sepals 5 (rarely 3) ; petals 5 (rarely nunjerous), with a nectary 
at the base. (Name from the Latin, rana, a frog, an animal 
which frequents the kind of places where these plants grow.) 

6. Myosurus (Mouse-tail). — Sepals 5, spurred ; petah 5, 


mimite ; carpels numerous, forming a lengtliened spike. (Name, 
Greek for a mouse's tail.) 

Cur pels man v-seedea 

7. Troi.lius (Globe-flower). — Sepals about 15, resembling 
petals ; petals 5 or more, .small, narrow, flat. (Name said to be 
derived from an old German word, signifying a globe.) 

8. Caltha (Marsh Marigold). — Sepals 5, resembling petals ; 
no true petals. (Name from the Greek, cakithiis, a cup.) 

g. Hei.leborus (Hellebore). — Sepals 5, petal-like, persistent ; 
petals small, tubular ; carpels 3-10. (Name from the Greek, 
helein, to injure, and hora, food.) 

10. AouiLEGTA (Columbine.) — Sepals 5, petal-like, soon falling 
off ; petals 5, with curved, tubular spur. (Name from the Latin, 
aqitila, an eagle, to the claws of which its nectaries bear a fancied 

11. Delphinium (Larkspur). — Sepals 5, petal-like, soon falling 
off ; the upper one helmet-shaped, with a long spur at the base ; 
petals 2, concealed within the spur of the sepal ; carpels I-5. 
(Name from delphin, a dolphin, to which animal the upper sepal 
bears a fancied resemblance.) 

12. AcoNiTUM (Monk's-hood). — Sepals |, petal-like, the upper 
one helmet-shaped, but not spurred ; petals 2, forming a spur 
which is concealed beneath the helmet-shaped sepal ; carpels 
3-5. (Name of uncertain origin.) 

13. AcT.EA (Bane-berry). — Sepals 4, petal-like, soon fahing 
off ; petals 4 ; fruit a many-seeded berry. (Name from the 
Greek, acte, the elder, from the similarity of the leaves of the two 

14. P.EONIA (Peony). — Sepals 5, not falling off ; petals 5-10 ; 
carpels 2-5. (Name from PcBon, a Greek physician, who is said 
to have cured wounds with it.) 

I. Clematis 

I. C. vitalba (Traveller's Joy). — The only British species. A 
hedge shrub, common where limestone or chalk enters largely 
into the compiosition of the soil ; climbing other shrubs by the 
help of its twisting leaf-stalks, its stout woody stem and young 
branches often carrying it to a height of several yards. Well 
distinguished in summer by its loose panicles of greenish white, 
fragrant flowers, and in winter by its tufts of feathery seed- 
ve.ssels, popularly known by the name of " Old Man's Beard." 
It received its name from " decking and adorning waies and 
hedges where people travel." — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 



(Alpine MeadoivRue) 

Thalictrum {Meadow Rue) 

1. T. Alpinum (Alpine Meadow Rue). 
Stem unbranched; flowers in a simple ter- 
minal cluster, drooping when fully expanded. 
A graceful little alpine plant, 4-6 inches 
high, common on the mountains of Scot- 
land ; occasionally in the north of England 
and North Wales.-^Fl. June, July. Per- 

2. T. minus (Lesser Meadow Rue). — Stem 
zigzag, branched ; leaves thrice pinnate 
leaflets three-cleft, glaucous ; flowers in loose 
panicle, drooping, pale greenish yellow 
sepals tinged with pink ; stamens con 
spicuously yellow. A very variable species 
usually found in limestone and chalky pas 
tures, where it grows from 1-2 feet high 
on richer soils it grows more luxuriantly and 
the foliage loses its glaucous appearance. 

Great Britain and Ireland ; uncommon. — Fl. June, July. Perennial, 
3. T. flaviim (Yellow Meadow Rue). — Stem erect, branched, 
3-4 feet high ; flowers crowded, not drooping, yellow ; leaves 
twice pinnate. Not uncommon about the banks of ditches 
and streams in England, Ireland, and the south of Scotland. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. Anemone {Wood Anemone) 

1. A. nemorosa { Wood Anemone, Wind-flower). — Rootstoek 
creeping beneath the surface of the soil ; flower drooping ; sepals 
6 ; carpels without tails. Plant from 3-6 inches high. This 
is one of cjur most beautiful spring flowers, adorning our wood- 
lands at the season when primroses and violets are in perfection. 
The sepals are generally white, but not imfrequently tinged with 
pink externafly ; more rarely they are of a delicate sky-blue, 
both within and without. — Fl. March to May. Perennial. 

2. A. Pulsatilla (Pasque-flower). — Flower slightly drooping; 
sepals 6 ; carpels with feathery tails. The whole plant is clothed 
with silky hairs. The large, solitary flowers are of a dull violet 
hue, and are thickly covered with sUky hairs on the outside. 
High chalky pastures. Rare. — Fl. about Easter {Pdqucs), hence 
the name. Perennial. 

Two other species are described by Brilish botanists — A. 
apennina, with blue flowers of 12 or more sepals, and A. raniin- 
culoides, which has yellow flowers. They are not natives, but 
have apparently become thoroughly established in many places. 


Lesser Celandine 

Water Crowfoot 
Creeping Buttercup 

Bulbous Buttercup 
Wood Anemone 

Celery-leaved Buttercup 


4. Adonts {Pheasant's Eye) 

I. A. autumnaUs. — The only 
British species. A jiretty herl)a- 
ceous ))lant, 8-12 inches high ; 
leaves finely cut ; flowers resem- 
bling buttercups in shape ; sepals 
5 ; petals 5-8, bright scarlet, dark 
at the base. It occurs as a weed 
in corntrelds, but is not very com- 
mon, nor is it a real native of 
Britain. — Fl. September to October. 

5. Ranunculus (Buttci'cup, etc.) 
Flowers white 

1. R. aquatilis (Water Crow- 
foot). — Stem submerged; lower 
leaves deeply cleft into hairlike 
seginents ; dipper ones floating, 
three-lobed, variously cut ; flowers 
large, white, conspicuous, borne 
singly on axillary flower stalks. 
A very variable plant. When 
growing in swiftly running water 
the plant is wholly composed of 
hairlike leaves ; but when growing 
in stagnant water it produces flat- 
tened leaves as well. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

2. R. hederaceus (Ivy-leaved Crowfoot). — Leaves all rounded 
and lobed ; petals scarcely longer than the calyx ; stamens 5-10. 
Smaller than the last, growing either in water or close to the 
water's edge. — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

Adonis (Pheasant' s Eye.) 

Flowers yellow ; leaves undivided 

3. R. lingua (Great Spear-wort). — Leaves narrow, tapering to 
a point, sessile ; stem erect, 2-3 feet high ; flowers bright yellow, 
more than an inch in diameter. The largest species, 
a handsome plant, but not common ; found in watery places. 
— Fl. summer. Perennial. 

4. R. flammula (Lesser Spear-wort). — Leaves narrow, tapering 
to a point, slightly stalked ; stem creeping at the base. Sides of 
watery places ; much smaller than the last ; flowers about i inch 
in diameter ; leaves sometimes clothed with silky hairs. 

5. R. ficaria (Lesser Celandine). — Leaves heart- or kidney- 


shaped, angular ; sepals 3 ; petals about 9. One of our brightest 
and earhest spring flowei\s, studding every bank with its glossy- 
yellow, starlike flowers. — Fl. March to May. Perennial. 

Flowers vellow ; leaves divided ; carpels smooth 

6. R. auricomus (Wood Crowfoot, or Goldilocks). — Radicle 
leaves kidney-shaped, lobed, on longish stalks ; stem leaves 
deeply divided, without stalks. Whole plant about a foot higii. 
Flowers mostly irregular, owing I0 some of the petals being im- 
perfectly developed. Common in woods. — Fl. April, May. 

7. R. sceleratus (Celery-leaved Crowfoot). — Leaves smooth, cut 
into oblong segments ; stem hollow, Juicy, erect, branched ; 
carpels collected into an oblong head. A highly acrid species, 
from 6 inches to 2 feet high, growing in watery places in most 
parts of the world. Leaves glossy ; petals small, pale yellow. 
— Fl. June to August. Annual. 

8. R. hiilbosus (Bulbous Buttercup). — Calyx reiie.xed ; flower- 
stalks channelled ; root bulbous ; whole plant about a foot high. 
A common British meadow plant. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

g. R. repens (Creeping Buttercup). Calyx spreading ; flower- 
stalks channelled ; root creeping. A common and most trouble- 
some weed, increasing by creepmg shoots, or scions, which take 
root wherever a leaf is produced. — June to August. Perennial. 

10. R. acris (Meadow Crowfoot). — Calyx spreading ; flower- 
stalks cylindrical, not furrowed ; plant from 2-3 feet high ; root 
composed of long fibres. Meadows — very common throughout 
Britain. Well distinguished from the preceding by the above 
characters, as well as by its slender stem and by the narrower 
segments of ils upper leaves. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

A double variety is common in gardens, under the name of 
Bachelor's Buttons. 

Flowers yellow ; leaves divided ; carpels not smooth 

11. R. hirsutus (Pale Hairy Buttercup). — Calyx reflexed 
root fibrous ; carpels margined, and rough with small tubercles 
plant 6 inches to i foot high ; flowers pale yellow. Meadows 
and waste giound. — Fl. June to October. Annual. 

12. R. arvensis (Corn Crowfoot). — Calyx spreading ; carpels 
large and prickly ; leaves deeply divided ; flowers pale yellow ; 
plant about 18 inches high, nearly glabrous. One of the most 
poisonous of the genus, yet its seeds are said to be a favourite 
food of partridges. A common weed m cornfields, especially in 
the south of England. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 


13. 7v. /hti'vifloyiis (Small-flowered Crowfoot). — Stem prostrate, 
hairy ; seeds covered with small hooked prickles. Well distin- 
guished by its hairiness, jirostrate mode of 
growth, and inconsincuous flowers which grOw 
opposite tlie leaves. Fields and waste jilacrs 
— not common. — Fl. May to August. Annual. 

Most of the plants of this genus are acrid, 
and are said to be injurious to cattle if mixed 
largely with their food. 7?. flammula and 
sceleratus are used m the Hebrides to raise 
blisters ; these are, however, of objectionable 
use, being likely to produce sores difficult to 
heal. R. aquatilis is by some liotanists sepa- 
rated into several species. Another species, 
R. alpesfris, which grows on the Clova moun- 
tains, has divided leaves and white floweis. 

6. Myosurus (]\Ionsc-iaiI) 

I. M. niiniiniis (Common Mouse-lail).^A 
small annual plant, 3 -6 inches high : petals 
yellow ; leiivrs narrow, fleshy ; easily dis- 
tinguished from every other British plant 
by the arrangement of its ripe carpels into 
the appearance of a mouse's tail. Found in 
gravelly or chalky cornfields, chiefly in the 
south of England. — Fl. May. Annual. 

Myosurus (iMuuse-lail) 

7. Trollius {Glohe Flower) 

I. T. Eiii'Opceiis (Globe Flower). — A large and handsome plant, 
common in gardens, and growing wild in upland woods and 
pastures in Scotland, Wales, and the north of England ; rare in 
Ireland. The flowers are composed of about fifteen pale yellow 
sepals, which converge into the form of -a globe, enclosing the 
petals and stamens. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

8. Caltha (Marsh Marigold) 

I. C. paliistris (Marsh Marigold, King Cup). — A large showy 
plant, resembling a gigantic buttercup ; leaves kidney-shaped, 
large and glossy ; flowers golden-yellow, often nearly four inches 
across. Abundant in marshes or by the sides of streams. A 
double variety is common in gardens. — Fl. Spring. Perennial. 


9. Helleborus {Hellebore) 

I. K. viridis (Green Helle- 
bore, Bear's - foot). — Leaves 
digitate ; sepals spreading ; 
petals tubular, shorter than 
the calyx, containing honey 
which is said to be poisonous. 
A coarse, herbaceous plant, re- 
markable for the light green 
hue of its flowers. Height 
12-18 inches. — Fl. March, April. 

2. H. fcetidus (Stinking Helle- 
bore, Setter-wort). — -Leaves pe- 
date ; sepals converging. Best 
distinguished from the preced- 
ing by its evergreen leaves, 
which arc not divided to a com- 
mon centre, and by the purple 
hue of its sepals. Fl. — March, 
April. Perennial. 

These two species may possi- 
bly be natives of one or two of 
the soiithern counties of Eng- 
Helleborus Viridis land ; but they are generally 

{Green Hellebore) considered naturalized garden 

escapes. Both are found on cal- 
careous soils, and both are remarkable for their large green sepals 
and for the large tubular petals, in whose honey small flies may 
sometimes be found caught. Closely allied with this genus is 
the common garden flower, Eranthis hyemalis (Winter Aconite), 
a pretty little plant, with yellow flowers and glossy leaves, appear- 
ing very early in spring. 

10. Aquilegia (Columbine) 

I. A. vulgaris (Common Columbine). — The only British species, 
common in gardens, to which it is in spring very ornamental, 
with its delicate folded leaves, and no less so in summer, with its 
gracefully borne flowers, of curious shape and many delicate 
shades of colour. When growing wild its flowers are blue, white, 
or duU purple. It may be distinguished from all other British 
flowers by having each of its five petals terminated in an in- 
curved hornlike spur. It derives its English name. Columbine, 
from the fancied resemblance of its flowers to a nest of doves, 
columha being the Latin for a dove. Open woods. — Fl, June, 
July. Perennial. 

'^ \ 



Marsh Marigold 

Globe Flower 


II. Delphinium {Larkspur) 
I. D. ajiicis (Common Larkspur). — Flowers blue, pink, or white, 
in racemes, easily distinguished from other flowers by their spurred 
calyx. A not uncommon weed in cornfields, but not a nati\ e. 
Height i-ij feet. Many very beautiful species are cultivated in 
gardens. — Fl. June to August. 

Delphinium (Larkspur) 

Acon'itum (Monk's-hood) 

AcoNiTUM (Monk's-hood) 
A. napellus (Common Monk's-hood, Wolf's-bane). — A com- 
mon garden plant, 1-2 feet high, with handsome 
dark blue flowers. The whole plant, especially 
the root, is very poisonous, and derives its name, 
Woolf's-bane, from being used to poison the 
meat used as bait in wolf-traps. A doubtful 
native in parts of England and Wales. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

13. AcTrP.A (Bane-berry) 
I. A.spicata (Bane-berr}?, Herb Chiistopher). 

A ,r. J, \ — The only British species. 5i'ew triangular, 1-2 

AcT/EA (Bane-berry) . . ,■ ,^ „ u-^ j -t 1 4- ui 1 

feet high ; flowers white ; frmt almost black. 

Poisonous. A rare plant, found only in a few 

limestone locahties in the north of England. 

Fl. May. Perennial. 

14. PvEONiA [Peony) 
I. P. corallina (Entire-leaved Peony). — A 
handsome, herbaceous plant, 1-2 feet high. 
Flowers deep red ; seed-vessels downy. Not a 
native of Britain, but naturalized on the slopes 
of the Steep Holmes, an island in the Severn. 
Many beautiful species and varieties are culti- 
vated in gardens.~Fl. May, June. Perennial. p^^^^^ ^p^^^^j 


Natural Order IT 
BERBERIDE.E.— THii Barberry Family 

Sepals 3, 4, or 6, in a double row, often coloured, soon falling 
off, surrounded by petal-like scales ; petals cither equal in number 
to the sepals, or opposite to them, or twice as many, often with 
c! gland at the base ; stamens equal in number to the petals, 
raid opposite to them ; anthers opening by a valve from the base 
upwards ; ovary solitary, i-celled, i- to 3-seeded, generally turning 
to a berr}'. Shrubs, growing principally in mounlvinous parts 
of the temperate zones, especially in the north of India. Several 
species have thorny stems and astringent bark, and furnish a 
yellow dye ; the berries are acid — those of our species. Berheris 
Asiatica, are dried in the sun like raisins. Several handsome 
species arc culti^•ated in gardens under the name of Malwnia. 

I. Berberis (Barberry). — Sepals 6 ; petals 6, with 2 glands at 
the base of each ; jruit, a berry with 1-3 seeds. (Name said to 
be of Arabic origin.) 

2. Epimedium (Barrenwort). — Sepals 4; petals 4, 
with a scale at the base of each ; pod many-seeded. 
(Name of uncertain origin.) 

I. Berderis (Barberry) 

I. B. vulgaris (Common Barberry). — A pretty 
shrub, not uncommon in woods and hedges, remark- 
able for the light colour of its bark, which is 
yellow within, and for its 3-forked spines. The 
flowers are yellow, and grow in drooping clusters ; 
the filaments are elastic and irritable, so that 
when touched ever so lightly by the legs of an 
insect they spring forward and close on the pistil, 
scattering the pollen from, the anthers as they do 
so ; after some time they recover their original posi- 
tion. The berries are oblong, red when ripe and 
gratefully acid, and may be made into an agreeable 
preserve. Probably not a true native. — Fl. June. 

2. EpisrEDiUM [Barrenwort) 

I. E. Alpinum (Alpine Barrenwort). — The only 
species found in Britain, occarrmg here and there in 
mountainous woods in some parts of Scotland and 
the north of England, but not really indigenous. 
Never growing more than a foot high ; each stem 
bears a single leaf, which is composed of 3 delicate 
heart-shaped leaflets. — Fl. May. Perennial. 



Alpinum (Alpint' 



Natural Order III 

NYMPH^AC^.— Water Lily Tride 

Sepals 3-6, gradually passing into petals, and these into 
stamens, all being inserted on a ileshy disk, which surrounds the 
ovary ; stigma sessile, rayed ; fruit many-celled, many-seeded. 
Herbaceous, aquatic plants, with 
peltate, floating leaves, and large, 
often fragrant flowers. The roots 
of some species are roasted and 
eaten ; the seeds contain a con- 
siderable quantity of starch, and 
in seasons of scarcity arc used as 
food. The East Indian Nelum- 
biimi speciosmn is said to have 
been the sacred bean of Pytha- 
goras. Its curious seed-vessels, 
filled with vegetating seeds, are 
thought to have originated the 

Nympii.e.!! .\lb.\ (WhitB Water Lily) 

form of the cornucopia of the ancients. One plant of this order, 
Victoria regia, the largest and most beautiful of aquatic plants, pro- 
duces blossoms 15 inches, and leaves more than (S feet in diameter. 
The seeds are eatable, and are called in South America, Water Mai/,e. 

1. Nymph.ea (Water Lily). — Sepals green on the outside ; 
petals white, inserted on a fleshy disk. (Name from its growing 
in places which nymphs were supposed to haunt.) 

2. Nuphar (Yellow Water Lily). — Sepals yellow ; petals small, 
yellow, inserted on the receptacle. (Name pf Greek origin.) 

I. NYMPH.EA (Water Lily) 

I. N. alba (White Water Lily). — Leaves 6-8 inches in diameter, 
cordate, floating on the surface of the water ; flowers about 5 
inches in diameter and without scent. The only British .species, 
and perhaps the most magnificent of our native flowers, inhabit- 
ing clear pools and slow rivers. The flowers rise above the 
water under the influence of light, and expand only during sun- 
shine, in the middle of the day. Towards= evening they close and 
sink beneath the surface. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. NuPHAR [Yellow Water Lily) 

I. N. lutea (Common Yellow Water Lily). — Stigma with 14-20 
rays, which do not extend to the margin. Rivers and ditches, fre- 
quent. Much smaller than the last in all its parts. Flower yellow, 


and nearly globose, raised some 
three inches out of the water, 
smelling like brandy, whence, in 
Norfolk and other parts of England, 
it is called Brandy-bottle. The 
Turks prepare a coolmg drink from 
the flowers, which they call Pu/er, 
a corruption of the ancient name 
Nouphar. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. TV. puinila (Least Yellow Water 
Lily). — Stigma of 8-10 rays, which 
extend beyond the margin. Much 
smaller than the preceding, from 
which it differs principally in the 
toothed edge of the stigma. It 
grows in several of the smaller 
Highland lakes. — Fl. July, August. 


{Common Yellow Water Lily) 

Natural Order IV 
PAPAVERACE^.—The Poppy Tribe 

Sepals 2, soon falling off ; petals 4 ; stigma rayed, or lobed ; 
capsule i-celled, many-seeded ; seeds inserted on incomplete 
partitions, which radiate from the sides of the capsule, but do 
not meet at the centre. Herbaceous plants, and, under the 
names of Opium, Laudanum, and Morphia, ranks among the 
most valuable of medicines. That produced from Papaver 
somniferum is alone used. The seeds of all contain a considerable 
quantity of oil, which is mild and wholesome. 

1. Papaver (Poppy). — Stigma sessile, rayed ; capsule opening by 
pores beneath the stigma. " Named, because it is administered 
with pap (papa in Celtic) to induce sleep."— Sir W. J. Hooker. 

2. Meconopsis (Welsh Poppy). — Style short ; stigma of few 
rays ; capsule opening by pores beneath the top. (Name in 
Greek signifying, bearing resemblance to a poppy.) 

3. Glaucium (Horned Poppy). — Stigma 2-lobed; capsule pod-hke, 
2-celled, 2-valved. (Name from the glaucous hue of the foliage.) 

4. Chelidonium (Celandine). — Stigma 2-lobed; capsule, pod- 
like, i-ceUed, 2-valved ; seeds crested. (Named from chelidon, 
a swaUow, because, Pliny tells us, that bird discovered that its 
juice was efficacious in restoring sight to its young when blinded.) 

5. RoEMERiA (Roemeria). — Stigma sessile, rayed ; capsule 3-4 
valves ; flowers violet. 


Common Ked Poppy 

Opinm Poi>py 

Pale Poppy 


I. Papavee (Poppy) 
Capsules bristly 

I. P. Ar gem one (Long Rough-headed Poppy, Pale Poppy). — 
Capsule club-shaped ; bristles erect ; leaves twice pinnatifid. 
A small species, with light scarlet petals, black at the base, 
occurring sparingly in cornfields. (The name Argemone, from 
argos, slothful, was formerly given to Poppies, from their narcotic 
effects.) — Fl. June, July, Annual. 

3. P. hybridum (Round Rough-headed Poppy). — Capsule 
nearly globular ; bristles spreading ; haves twice pinnatifid. 
Sandy or chalky cornfields — uncommon. Flowers deep scarlet. 
— Fl. June, July. Annual. 

Capsules smooth 

3. P. dubium (Long Smooth- headed Poppy). — Capsule oblong, 
often twice as long as broad ; bristles on the flower-stalks close 
pressed ; leaves twice pinnatifid ; flowers scarlet. — Fl. June, 
July. Annual. 

4. P. rhcBas (Common Red Poppy), — Capsules nearly globular ; 
bristles spreading ; leaves pinnatifid, cut ; flowers large, rich 
scarlet, often black at the base. The common poppy of corn- 
fields. From this species the well-known garden Shirley Poppies 
were raised, ranging through many beautiful and delicate shades 
of crimson, pink, and white. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

5. F. somniferum (Opium Poppy). — Capsule globular, smooth; 
uhole plant glaucous, and smooth, with the exception of a few 
hairs on the flower-stalk, about 2 feet- high. Flowers usually 
white with a purple stain at the base of the petals ; but the 
colours of the garden varieties are endless. Common in gardens, 
and sometimes found apparently wild in waste ground, but its 
native coimfry is unknown. Opium is procured by puncturing 
the un_^pe capsules of this plant, and collecting the juice which 
exudes and hardens. The seeds are destitute of narcotic proper- 
ties, and afford a wholesome oil, which is said to be used in 
adulterating olive oil. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

2. Meconopsis (Welsh Poppy) 

I. M. Cambrica (Yellow Welsh Poppy). — The only British 
species, easily distinguished from any of the foregoing by its 
golden-yellow flowers, and juice of the same colour ; and from 
the Horned Poppy by its slender growth, and green, not glaucous 
foliage. Rocky places in Wales, Devonshire, and Westmoreland, 
etc. — Fl. June, Jul}'. Perennial. A piretty \'ariety with orange- 
coloured double flowers has recently been introduced into 


3. Glaucium (Horned Poppy) 
I. G. Inteum (Yellow Horned Poppy).— Po<f rougliish ; leaves 
embracing the stem, wavy, very rough and glaucous. A hand- 
some plant, conspicuous on the sandy seashore, with its hoary 
foliage and large yellow flowers. The pods are cylindrical, 
6-10 inches long^ and might at first sight he mistaken for fiower- 
stems bare of leaves ; juice yellow. — Fl. June to August. Bi- 

4. Chelidonium (Celandine) 

I. C. majus (Common or Greater Celandine). — The only 
British species ; not uncommon in waste places and among ruins, 
bearing its yellow flowers, which are much smaller than those 
of any others of the Poppy tribe, in stalked umbels ; the leaves 
are irregularly pinnate, slightly hairy, and abound, as well as 
the rest of the plant, m an orange-coloured juice, which is a violent 
acrid poison. It is a popular remedy for warts, and has been 
employed successfully in removing films from the cornea of the 
eye — a property which, Pliny tells us, was discovered by swal- 
lows ; and hence it derived its name from chelidon, a swallow. 
According to the same author it comes into flower at the time 
when those birds arrive, and fades at their departure. — Per- 
ennial. The Lesser Celandine is a species of Ranunculus, and 
bears little resemblance, either in appearance or properties, to 
the present plant. 

5. Rgemeria (Violet Horned Poppy) 

1. R. hybrida (Common Rcemeria, Violet Horned Poppy). — 
Distinguished by its purple-red floivers, and its capsules, which 
are 3-valved and 2-3 inches long, with a few hairs. Not indi- 
genous, but naturalized in cornfields m Norfolk and Cambridge- 
shire. — Annual. 

Natural Order V 
FUMARIACEiE.— The Fumitory Tribe 

Sepals 2, deciduous, minute ; petals 4, irregular, the outer two 
more or less united, and swollen or spurred at the base, the inner 
two smaller and crested ; stamens 6, in two sets ; ovary i-celled ; 
style threadlike ; stigma lobed ; sced-vessds i or 2-seeded ; seeds 
shining, crested. Herbaceous plants, with brittle stems, and 
watery juice, growing mostly in temperate climates. Closely 
alhed to the Poppies, from which they may well be distinguished 
by their irregular coroUas. and watery (not milky) juice. 

I. CoRYDALis (Fumitory). -Pf/,i/s 4, of which one is spurred 

Welsh Poppy 


Yelluw Horued Poppy 



at the base ; seed-vessel a many-seeded pod. (Name from the 
Greek name of Ftimitory.) 

2. Fu.MARiA (Fumitory). — Petals 4, of which one is swollen at 
the base ; seed-vessel i-seeded. (Name from fiimiis, smoke ; the 
smoke of this plant being said by the ancient exorcists to have the 
power of expelling evil spirits.) 

I. CoRYDALis {Fumitory) 

I. C. claviculata (Climbing Corydalis). 
— Stem climbing ; leaves pinnate, ending 
in branched tendrils. Bushy places, in 
many parts of Great Britain. A long 
and slender plant, with delicate green 
stems and foliage, rising (o the height of 
several feet by the help of the bushes 
among which it grows. Flowers in small 
clusters, yellowish white. — Fl. June to 
August. Annual. 

Two other species are naturalized n. 
Britain — C. solida, distinguished by ils 
unbranclied stem and jimple flowers, 
and C. Intea (Yellow Corydalis), not 
uncommon on old walls ; it is, like the 
last, destitute of tendrils, and bears 
bright vellow flowers. 

2. FuMAKiA (Ftmiitory) 

1. F. capreolata (Ramping Ywmiiory).— f Sepals as broad as the 
corolla and half as long ; fruit globose, notched ; plant generally 
climbing by the help of its twisted leaf-stalks ; foliage of a clelicate 
green ; flowers pale pink, or cream-coloured, tipped with purple. 
Hedges and cornfields, common. — FL Ma}' to August. Annual. 

2. F. officinalis (Common Fumitory), — Sepals narrower than the 
corolla; /r;/?V nearly globose, terminating abruptly. Distinguished 
from the last by its smaller sepals and petals, which arc rose- 
coloured, tipped with purple ; it generally grows erect. In fields 
and waste places, common. — Fl. nearly all the 5/ear round. Annual. 

Several smaller varieties of Fumitory are not unfrequently met 
with, which some botanists consider distinct species, and name as 
such. In these the fruit is more or less pointed, and there are 
other minute differences which cannot be detected without accurate 
examination. Fhey are described b}' Hooker and Arnott, under 
the names of F. parviflora, vaillantii, and micranthu. 


Natural Order VI 
CRUCIFERZE.— The Cruciferous Tribe 

A very large and important Order, well described by the name cruci- 
ferous, or cruciform, there being invariably 4 petals, which are placed 
cross-wise ; stamens 6, of which two opposite ones are 
shorter than the rest ; seed-vessel either a long pod, 
^ a silique, composed of two valves and a central par- 
^ tition, or a shorter pod called silicle, or pouch, which 
is for the most part, but not alwaj's, similarly con- 
structed. At the base of the stamens are generally 
two green glands, which secrete honey. Most of the 
plants of this Order possess, in their wild state, 
stimulant properties, and ari acrid flavour, though 
none of them are poisonous ; in medicine they afford 
a valuable remedy for scurvy. Under cultivation 
many of them assume a succulent habit of growth, 
and hold the first rank among esculent vegetables. The various 
kinds of cabbage, kale, broccoli, turnip, radish, and cress are the 
most remarkable examples. They contain a great deal of nitrogen 
gas, to the presence of which is to be attributed their unpleasant 
odour when rotting. Some contain a large portion of sulphur. 
Oil is contained in the seeds of many, in such quantities as to be 
a valuable article of commerce. There are some twelve hundred 
species, distributed chiefly over the northern hemisphere, par- 
ticularly in the cold and temperate regions. Upward of two hundred 
grow in the frigid zone, where they form a large proportion of the 
vegetation. In the tropics they are uncommon, and in certain 
districts the Order is quite unrepresented. This Order contains all 
the plants which were placed by Linnseus in the class Tetradynamia, 
that is, all such as are distinguished by having 6 stamens, 4 long and 
2 short. Modern botanists found the main distinctions of the 
genera on the position of the radicle or embryo root, with relation 
to the cotyledons, or seed-lobes ; but as this arrangement presents 
difficulties to the young student in botany, it is not considered 
advisable to adopt it here. 

Seed-vessel, a pouch (silicle) or short pod. Pouch 2-valved, 
ivith a central vertical partition. 

1. Thlaspi (Penny Cress).— Po/rA rounded, flat, notched ; 
valves boat-shaped, winged at the back ; seeds nmnerous. (Name 
from the Greek, thlao, to flatten.) 

2. Capsella (Shepherd's Purse).— P»//(7;. inversely heart-shaped, 
flat ; valves boat-shaped, keeled, but not wmged ; seeds numerous- 
(Name, a little capsa, or seed case.) 


Yellow Corydalis 
Kampiug Fumitory 

Corydalis Soli da 
Common Fumitory 


3. HuTCHiNSiA. — Pouch elliptical, entire ; valves boat-shaped, 
keeled, not winged ; cells 2-seeded. (Named in honour of Miss 
Hutchins, of Bantry, an eminent botanist.) 

4. Teesdalia. — Pouch rounded, notched ; valves boat-shaped, 
keeled ; cells 2-seeded ; stamens having a little scale at the base of 
each, within. (Named in honour of Mr. Teesdale, a Yorkshire 

5. Iberis (Candytuft). — Two outer -peial's larger than the inner 
two ; pod oval, notched ; valves boat-shaped, with winged keel ; 
two i-seeded cells. (Name from Iberia, Spain, where this genus 
is largely represented.) 

6. Lepidium (Pepper-wort). — Pouch roundish ; valves keeled ; 
cells i-seeded ; petals equal. (Name from the Greek, lepis, a scale, 
from the shape of the pouches.) 

7. CocHLEARiA (Scurvy Grass). — Pouch globose, or nearly so ; 
seeds in 2 rows- (Name from cochlear, a spoon, from the shape of 
the leaves.) 

8. SuBULARiA (Awl-wort). — Pouch oval ; valves flattened, boat- 
shaped ; seeds numerous ; leaves awl-shaped. (Name from suhula, 
an awl, from the shape of the leaves.) 

9. Alyssum (Alyssum). — Pod oval, flattened ; seeds few. 

10. Draba (Whitlow Grass). — Pod oval or oblong ; valves 
slightly convex ; seeds manj^, in two rows. (Name from the Greek, 
drahe, acrid.) 

Pod without a central partition 

11. Cakile (Sea Rocket). — Pouch angular, with a horizontal 
joint ; lower division containing a pendant seed, the upper one an 
erect seed, and soon falling off. (Name of Arabic origin.) 

12. Crambe (Sea Kale). — -Pouch 2-jointed ; tipper cell containing 
one pendant seed, lower joint seedless. (Name from the Greek, 
crambe, cabbage.) 

13. Senebiera (Wart Cress). — Pouch 2-lobed, rough, not burst- 
ing ; cells I-seeded. (Name in honour of M. Senebier, an eminent 
Gehevese naturalist.) 

Seed vessel, a silique or long pod. Pod opening by two valves. 

14. Cardamine (Bitter Cress). — Pod nai-row ; valves flat, nerve- 
less, separating with an elastic spring ; seeds in a single row. (Name 
from the Greek, cardia, the heart, and damao, to fortify, from its 
supposed strengthening properties.) 

15. Arabis (Rock Cress). — Pod linear ; valves flat, with one 
nerve or several veins. (Name from being originally an Ai abian 



i6. Barbarea (Winter Cress).— Poi linear, 4-angled ; valves 
with prominent nerve ; seeds in a single row ; calyx erect. (Name 
from St. Barbara, to whom it was anciently dedicated.) 

17. Nasturtium (Cress).— Poi nearly cylindrical, short ; valves 
convex, nerveless ; seeds irregularly placed in two rows ; calyx 
spreading. (Name from nasiis tortus, a distorted nose, on account 
of the pungent properties of the plant.) 

18. Sisymbrium (Hedge Mustard).— Pof? rounded or angular ; 
valves convex, with 3 (or rarely i) nerves ; stigma entire ; seeds in 
a single row ; seed-stalks .slender. (Name, the Greek name of the 

19. Ai.liaria (Garlic IMustard). — Pod long, linear, rounded ; 
valves .slightly 3-nerved ; seeds striated ; seed-stalks flat. (Name 
from the Latm, allium, garlic.) 

20. ErysiiMUJI (Treacle Mustard). — Pod 4-sided ; valves keeled ; 
stigma obtuse, entire or notched ; seeds iii a single row, smooth, 
not margined. (Name from the Greek, eriio, to cure, on account 
of the supposed virtues of the plant.) 

21. Cheiranthus (Wall-flower). — Pod flattened; valves with a 
prominent nerve ; stigma of two spreading lobes. (Name of 
Arabic origin.) 

22. Matthiola (Stock). — Pod nearly cylindrical, or flattened ; 
stigma of two erect parallel lobes ; seeds generally with a mem 

branous border, 

(Named in honour of Dr. Matthiohis, an Italian 

23. Brassica (Cabbage). — Pod nearly cylin- 
drical, beaked ; seeds gloliose. (Name from the 
Celtic, hresic a cabbage.) 

Pod wit/ioiit valves 

24, Raph.anus (Radish), 
b perfectly jointed, taperi 

spreading. (Name in Gi(,;;ek, 
pearance or quick growth.) 

— Pods swollen, im- 

secds globular ; calvx 

denoting early ap- 

Thi.aspi Arvense 
{Penny Cress) 

1. Thlaspi {Penny Cress) 

I. T. arvense (Mithridate Mustard, or Penny 
Cress). — Pouch round, flat, with very broad wings 
and a deep notch ; leaves oblong, arrow-shaped 
at the base, toothed, smooth. Height about a 
foot. In cultivated or waste ground, but not 
common. Penny Cress derives its name from the 
resemblance which its seed-vessels in size and 
shape bear to silver pennies ; its longer name is 



received from having been " formerly used in the Mithridate confpc- 
tion, an elaborate hodge-podge now laid aside." — Sir E. J. Smith. 
The flowers are white, and very small in comparison with tiie 
pouches. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

2. T. perjvUatuin (Pcrioliatc Fcimy Cress). — Pouch inversely 
heart-shaped, not so large as in the last, and with smaller wings ; 
style shorter than the notch of the pouch ; seeds 3-4 in a cell, 
smooth ; stem-leaves oblong, heart-shaped at the base, clasping 
the stem ; height up to 6 inches. Limestone pastures in Oxford- 
shire and Gloucestershire, but rare. Flower 
wliite. — Fl. April, May. Annual. 

3. T. alpestre (Alpine Penny Cress). — Pouch 
inversely heart-shaped ; style longer than the 
broad notch of the pouch ; seeds numerous ; 
stem-leaves narrow and clasping the stem ; str/rri 
simple, about 6 inches high ; fowiers white, 
rather larger than in the two foregoing. Moun- 
tainous limestone pastures in the north of Eng- 
land, raie. — Fl. June, J^l5^ Perennial. 

2. Capsell.4 (Shepherd's Purse) 

Capsell.\ Burs,\ I. C. bursa Pastoris (Common Shepherd's 

Pastokis {Common Purse).— The only species. A common weed. 

Shepherd's Purse) ^^ ,,g f^^^^^j -^ ^^|^^,^^^(. ^^.^^^ p,^,.^ ^f ^j^^ ^^,^j_j^, 

varying considerably in luxuriance, according 
to soil and situation. In stony ground it 
grows only a few inches high, but in rich soil 
as much as 2 feet. The whole plant is rnore 
or less rough with hairs ; the root-leaves are 
pinnatifid, those on the stem oblong, toothed, 
and arrow-shaped at the base, — Fl. nearly the 
whole year round. Annual. 


I. H. fetreea (Rock Hutchinsia). — The only 
British species. A pretty little plant, 2-3 
inches high, growing on limestone rocks in 
several parts of England and Wales. The 
leaves are pinnate ; flowers minute, petals 
white, scarcely longer than the calyx ; the 
seeds 2 in each cell. — Fl. March, April. Annual. 

Hutchinsia Petr.ea 
{Rock Hutchinsia) 






4. Teesdalia 
I. T. nudkatilis (Naked-stalked Teesdalia).— The 
only British species. A minute and not inelegant 
plant, bearing several stems, which terminate in 
small racemes of white flowers, the central stem 
being alwaj's bare of leaves. The leaves are pin- 
nate^ about half an inch long, and lie closely 
pressed to the ground. Though widely spread 
oxer England, it is not a common plant. Dry 
banks. — Fl. May. Annual* 

5. Iberis {Candytuft) 

I. /. amara (Bitter Candytuft). — Plant 6 or 
8 inches high, bearing its white or pink flowers 
in a fiat head or corymb. Petals unequal, the 
two outer larger than the two inner. An 
occasional cornfield weed on calcareous soils. 
— Fl. July. Annual. (Candytuft is a common 
garden plant, and is piarticularly effective in 
the rock garden.) 

6. Lepidium (Pepper-wort) 

1. L. latifolium (Broad-leaved Pepper-wort, 
Dittander). — The largest British species, re- 
markable for its dull glaucous hue ; plant 
2-4 feet high ; leaves egg-shaped, pointed, 
simple, smooth ; pouch oval, entire ; flowers 
numerous, small, white, in leafy clusters. 
In salt marshes and on the sea-coast ; rare. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. L. ruderale (Narrow-leaved Pepper- 
wort). — Smaller than the preceding, 6-12 

inches high ; leaves smooth, lower ones pinnatifid, 
toothed, upper ones linear, entire ; petals wanting ; 
stamens 2. Waste places near the sea. — Fl. June. 

3. L. campestre (Field Pepper-wort). — Stem erect, 
branched above, about a foot high ; leaves downy, 
upper ones arrow-shaped at the base ; pod rough 
with minute scales ; style scarcely longer than the 
notch in the pod ; flowers very small ; anthers 
yellow. Common. — Fl. July, August. Annual or 

Lepidium Cam- ,„.,.. 

PESTRE (FifW 4- -f-- ^mitlin (Hairy Pepper-wort). — Leaves 
PeppL'r-woit) downy, upper ones arrow-shaped at the base ; 

Lepidium Latifolium 
{Broad'teaved Pepper- 



pouch not scaly ; style much longer than the notch ; anthers violet. 
(These last two are common hedge plants, of erect growth and 
downy habit, made more conspicuous by their hoary foliage and 
numerous pouches than by their minute flowers. L. campestre is 
an annual, and sends up a single stem. L. Smithii is perennial, 
and sends up several stems, which are 
woody near the base. The latter is the less 

common of the two.)- 

-Fl. June to August. 

7. CocHLEARiA {Sciii'vv Gniss) 

1. C. officinalis (Common Scurvy Grass). — 
Pouch nearly globose ; root-leaves heart- 
shaped or kidney-shaped, stalked ; stem- 
leaves oblong, sessile, slightly lobed, toothed 
at the base, all fleshy and glabrous ; stem 
often much branched ; flowers in rather 
large corymbs, white. On the muddy sea- 
shore, common. — Fl. May. Annual. 

2. C. An^lica (English Scurvy Grass). ^ 
Pouch eUiptical, inflated ; root-leaves oblong, 
entire, stalked, not heart-shaped ; stem- 
leaves oblong, toothed at the base, sessile. 
Leaves more entire and pouches and flowers 
larger than in the last. Seashores, common. Cocht.earta Officinalts 

T-, '-,, , A i A 1 (Common bcurvv Grass) 

Fl. May to August. Annual. ^ - ' 

. 3. C. Danica (Danish Scurvy Grass). 

>,».^^ ^W^, — Smaller than either of the preceding ; 

€"1 ^ leaves all stalked, lobed, and nearly 

r^ W Ag-ts triangular. Cliffs and hedges near the 

/^.^S'^""^^'^^, sea, very common. — Fl. March to June. 

Two other forms are — C. Alpina, not 
so large as C. officinalis, pods narrowing 
at the ends ; and C. Granlandica. 
Mountains, Northern Scotland. 
4. C. armoracia (Horse-radish). — Root- 
leaves stalked, toothed, often a foot long. Stem as much as 3 feet 
high, stem-leaves almost stalkless ; flowers yellow, small. Remark- 
able for its long, stringy roots, which have a pungent taste and are 
used in cooking. Really a garden plant, but has become established 
in some places. Waste ground. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

The plants of this genus derive their English name from the relief 
they afford to persons suffering from scurvy, a disease to which 
sailors are particularly liable, in consequence of their being debarred 


{Danish Scurvy Grass) 



Aquatica {Water 
A wl-wort) 


from the use of fresh vegetables. Many other 
plants of the same tribe possess antiscorbutic pro- 
perties to an equal degree, but these are particu- 
larly available from always growmg near the sea. 
The use of lime-juice in the navy and merchant 
service has rendered the attacks of this disease less 
frequent than they used to lie. 

8. SuBULARiA {Awl-wort) 

aqitatica (Water Awl-wort). — The only 

The roots are composed of long white 

the leaves all grow from the roofs, and 

are awl-shaped ; the flowers are small and few ; 

petals white. The plant often grows entirely 

mider water ; common on the banks of Alpine 

lakes. — Fl. July. Annual. 

I. S. 

fibres ; 

g. Alyssum {Alyssiim) 

1. A. calyciniiin (Small Alyssum). — A small annual, 3-6 inches 
high. Flowers pale yellow ; sepals persistent, or remaining on the 
pods. Waste places, rare. — Fl. A])ril to June. 

2. A. maritinwm (Sweet Alyssum). — A pretty garden plant, with 
trailing ascending stems and white, sweet-scented flowers; sepals 
falling off. In many places it has become established as a garden 
escape. — Fl. all summer. Annual or perennial. 

10. Draba {Whitlow Grass) 

1. D. aizoides (Yellow Alpine Whitlow Grass). — Flower-stalk 
leafless, smooth ; petals notched, twice as long as the calyx ; style 
much longer than the stamens ; leaves narrow, pointed, rigid, 
glossy, keeled, and fringed. On rocks and walls at Pannard Castle, 
near Swansea, where it forms dense tufts, conspicuous with bright 
yellow flowers. — Fl. March, April. Perennial. 

2. D. rtipestris (Rock Whitlow Grass).. — A very rare species 
growing in the crevices of the rocks and among moss, on the summits 
of some of the Highland mountains. It seldom ex'ceeds 2 inches 
in height ; the flower-stems are usually leafless, several growing 
from the same root ; the leaves grow in tufts and are slightly 
hairy. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

3. D. incana (Twisted Whitlow Grass). — Stems 4-12 inches high, 
bearing small white flowers ; stem-leaves narrow, toothed, hoary ; 
petals entire ; pouch twisted. Remarkable for the down on its 
leaves, which is forked in a starlike manner. Mountains and 
sand dunes on the coast, scarce. — Fl. June, July. Biennial. 



4. D, miiralis (Speedwell-leaved Whitlow Gras.^). — 
Slei'ii leafy, branched ; leaves rough, egg-shaped, blunt, 
toothed, embracing the stem ; pedicles s{)reading hori- 
zontall}' ; stem 6-12 inches high ; flowers white. Lime- 
stone mountains, rare. — Fl. May. Annual. 

5. D. verna (Vernal Whitlow 
lealless ; petals deeply cleft ; leaves all radicle, forming 
a rosette, somewhat toothed, hairy. Common on walls 
and dry banks. — Fl. February to May. Annual. 

This species is classed by some botanists as a distinct 
genus — Erophila ; the following forms occur : E. vul- 
garis, pods twice as long as broad, common form ; 

E. brachycarpa, pods rounded, not 
common ; E. iiiflata, pods inflated, 
<^/!-l in found on Ben Lewers, in Scotland. 

II. Cakile (Sea Rocket) 

I. C. nianlima (Purple Sea Rocket). 
— The only British spiecies. Common on 
the sandy seashore, where it grows in 
a bushy manner, with zigzag branched 
stems ; bearing fleshy, variously cut, 
glaucous leaves ; and corymbs of lilac 
flowers. The seed-vessels are of very 
curious construction, each containing 
2 .seeds, of which the lower is erect, 
the upper pendant. — Fl. June to Sep- 
tember. Anr\,ual. 

Cakile Maritima 
{Purple Sea Rocttet) 

12. Crajibe {Sea Kale) 

I. C. maritima (Sea Kale). — Plant about 
2 feet high ; glabrous, glaucous ; leaves 
thick, waved and toothed ; root hard, 
almost woody. This is the plant which 
is so well known in gardens as an esculent 
vegetable. The part which is eaten is 
the leaf-stalk, blanched by being kept 
from the action of the light. It is found 
on various parts of the sea-coast, and 
differs in no respect from garden speci- 
mens, as they appear when the forcing is 
over. — Fl. June. Perennial. 

Cramee Maritima 
(Sea Kale) 


{Wall Cress) 


13. Senebikra (Wart Cress) 

1. ,5. coronopiis (Wart Cress or Swine Cress). 
—Pouch undivided, rough, with little sharp 
points ; style prominent. A common roadside 
weed, with trailing leafy stems, and clusters of 
very small whitish flowers. — Fl. all the summer. 

2. 5. didynia (Lesser Wart Cress). — Pouch 
notched, of two wrinkled lobes ; style very 
short. A common roadside weed in the south 
and west of England. It differs from the last 
in having a more slender stem, and more finely 
cut leaves. It emits a very powerful smell, like 
that of Pepper-cress, especially when trodden 
on, or in hot weather, and is particularly nauseous 
to the taste. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

14. Cardamink (Bitter Cress) 

1. C. aniara (Large-flowered Bitter Cress). — Leaves pinnate, 
without stipules ; root-leaflets roundish, those of the stem toothed 
and angular ; stem ascending, about a fo"ot high ; style oblique. 
By the banks of rivers and canals, not common. The flowers are 
large and handsome, white, with purple anthers. — Fl. April, May. 

2. C. pratensis (Cuckoo-flower or Lady's Smock). 
— Leaves pinnate, without stipules ; root-leaves 
roundish, slightly angular, those of the stem "entire ; 
style straight. A common and very pretty meadow 
plant, with large lilac flowers. A double variety 
is sometimes found wild, which is remarkably pro- 
liferous, the leaflets producing new plants when 
they come in contact with the ground, and the 
flowers as they wither sending up a stalked flower- 
bud from their centres. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

3. C. impatiens (Narrow-leaved Bitter Cress). — 
Stem erect, leafy, about 18 inches high ; leaves 
pinnate ; auricles fringed. Moist rocks in some 
parts of Scotland and the north of England, rare. 
■ — Fl. May, June. Annual. 

4. C. hirsuta (Hairy Bitter Cress). — Leaves pin- 
nate, without stipules ; leaflets stalked, toothed ; 
pods erect. A common weed everywhere, varying 
in size according to soil and situation, from 6-18 
inches in height. In dry localities it ripens its 


seed in March or April, and withers away ; but in (Hairy Bittey Cress) 

Common Watercress 
Garlic Mustard 


Cuckoo Flower 
(Charlock (Wild Mustard) 


damper places continues in flower al] the 
summer. The leaves and young flower- 
stems afford an agreeable salad. The 
flowers are white, very small, and often 
imperfect, and are soon overtopped by the 
lengthening pods, the valves of which, 
when ripe, curl up with an elai;tic spring 
if touched, and fly off, scattering the seeds 
to a considerable distance. — Fl. all the„ 
summer. Annual. 

5. C. hiilbifera (Bulbiferous Bitter Cress, 
Coral-root). — Stem erect, about 18 inches 
high, unbranched. Well distinguished from 
any other British plant in the order, by it.s 
purple flowers, its whitish toothed roots, 
and dark purple, scaly bulbs, which grow 
in the axils of the upper leaves, and fallmg 
off when mature produce new plants. 
Seeds are seldom produced, the plant 
depending for propagation upon the axil- 
lary bulbils. 


Cardamine Bulbifer.i 

{Bulbiferous Bitter Cress, 



15. Arabis {Ro€k Cress) 

1. A. perfoliata (Glabrous Rock Cress, 
Tower Mustard). — Stem erect, about 
2 feet high j stem-leaves glabrous ; 
clasping the stem ; root-leaves .slightly 
hairy ; floivers pale yellow, small. It 
grows on banks and open places, widely 
distributed in England, but never very 

2. A. turrita (Tower Cress). — Stem 
about I foot high ; plant rough with 
forked hairs ; stem-leaves clasping the 
stem ; flmvers whitish yellow ; fods 
curved downwards as they ripen. 
Naturalized on, old walls at Oxford and 
Cambridge, but not a true native of 
Britain. — Fl. May to July. Biennial. 

3. A. hirsiita (Hairy Rock Cress). — A 
.^ stiff, erect plant, about a foot high. 

^j-' wv 7^\ 'f^^^^ Leaves rough with hairs, those of the 

'^fh'^^ stem numerous, clasping the stem; 

ARTS Perfoliata flowers small, white. Frequent in many 

parts of Great Britain on walls and 

banks. — Fl. June, July. Biennial, 

us Rock Cress 





(Thale Rock 



4. A. alpina (Alpine Rock Cr <tss).— Flowers larger 
than in tlie last ; stem-haves toothed, downy. A rare 
species only found in ilie Isle of Skye. — Perennial. 

5. .4. ciliata (Fringed Rock Cress). — Stem about 
6 inches high, smooth ; leaves smooth on both sides, 
fringed with hairs at the edges ; flowers white. Con- 
fined to a few localities in South Wales and the west 
of Ireland. — Perennial. 

6. A. thaliana (Thale Ro"ck Cress). — Stem 6-12 
inches high ; stem-leaves few ; root-leaves spreading, 
oblong, toothed ; plant covered with short hairs ; 
flowers small, white ; seed-pqds twice as long as the 
stalks which bear them. Walls and banks, common. 
— Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

7. A. stricta (Bristol Kocjc Cress). — Plant about 
6 inches high ; stem-leaves few ; root-leaves forming 
a tuft, hairy, pinnate ; flowers yellowish white. 
Limestone rocks near Bristol.j — Fl. spring. Perennial. 

' S. A. petraa (Northern Rock Cress). — Stems about 
6 inches, branched below ; root-leaves usually smooth, 
pinnate ; flowers white with a purplish tinge. Moun- 
tains in Scotland and Wales.--Fl. summer. Perennial. 


16. Barbarea {Winter Cress 

1. B. vulgaris (Common Winter Cress). — 
Lower leaves lyrate, the terminal lobe 
roundish ; upper obovate, toothed. Common 
in moist waste ground, where it may be 
readily detected by its smooth, shining, 
dark green leaves, and its erect angulair 
stem, bearing numerous bright yellow flowers. 
A variety with double flowers is freriuent in 
gardens under the name of Yellow Rocket. 
— Fl. May to August. Perennial. 

2. B. prcEcox (American Cress). — Distin- 
guished by its slender habit and naiT0\y ^..-,, 
leaves, but it is only an escape from gardens, '"^2/^ 
and is used for salad. — Biennial. 

Botanists have distinguished several forms p ^^^ .^^j. ,^ yulg \ris 
of B. vulgaris; some of them are of rare (Common Winter Ciss) 
occurrence, and the differences by which 

they are distinguished are so slight that it is unnecessary to give 
them here. 


17. Nasturtium (Cress) 

1. A^. officinale (Common Water-cress).- Leaves pmnate ; leaflets 
roundish or oblong, toothed ; flowers white. Abundant in rivulets 
and ponds, and extensively cultivated as a salad. The only plant 
for which it can be mistaken by water-cress gatherers is the Procum- 
bent apium, which may be distinguished by its hollow leaf-stalks 
and serrated leaflets, which water-cress has not. — Fl. June to 
August. Perennial. 

2. N. sylvestre (Creeping Yellow Cress). — Leaves pinnate ; root 
creeping ; stems ascending ; flowers small, yellow ; petals longer 
than sepals. Watery places, not common. — Fl. June to Sep- 
tember. Perennial. 

3. A'', palustre (Marsh Yellow Cress). — Not so large as the last, 
and petals smaller. Found in similar places, but more frequent. 
— Fl. June to November. 

4. A^. amphibiitm. Larger than any of the foregoing. Flowers 
yellow ; petals longer than the sepals. Banks of streams and wet 
places, not common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

18. Sisymbrium [Hedge Mustard) 

1. 5. officinale (Common Hedge Mustard). — 
T?ods downy, close pressed to the stem ; leaves 
hairy, deeply lobed, with the points turned 
backward, the terminal lobe large ; stem rough, 
with erect branches, 1-2 feet high ; flowers 
small, yellow. Common in waste places and by 
roadsides, where it seems to have a peculiar 
aptitude for collecting and retaining dust. 
— Fl. June, July. Annual. 

2. 5. Lrio (London Rocket).— Leaves pinnately OFrraNlLE 
lobed, with the points turned backward, toothed, {Common Hedge 
smooth ; stem also smooth, erect, branched, about Mustard) 

2 feet high ; flowers small, yellow. A local plant, 
growing in waste ground, chiefly about London, where, in the 
spring following the Great Fire of 1666, it -sprang up very plenti- 
fully among the ruins, whence its English name. 

3. 5. Sophia (Flixweed). — Leaves twice pinnatifid, downy ; 
petals shorter than the calyx. More slender than either of the pre- 
ceding, with an erect branched stem about i foot high ; and small 
greenish yellow petals, which are almost hidden by the calyx ; and 
numerous erect pods, which when ripe have the appearance of being 
bearded, from the numerous projecting seeds. Waste places and 
roadsides, not uncommon. — Fl. summer. Annual. It was called 
by the old herbalists Sophia chiriirgoriim, " the Wisdom of Sur- 
geons," from its supposed virtue in curing wounds. 



19. Alliaria (Garlic Mustard) 

I. A. ofwinalis (Garlic Mustard, Jack-by-the-Hedge, or Sauce- 
alone). — Leaves broadly heart-shaped, stalked, heavily veined. 
An early flowering hedge-plant, 1-3 feet high, with delicate green 
leaves and snow-white flowers. The whole plant emits when 
bruised a nauseous scent of garlic, from which it derives its Latin 
and English names. — Fl. April to June. Annual or biennial. 

20. Erysimum [Treacle Mustard) 

1. E. cheiranthoides (Treacle Mustard, Worm Seed). — Leaves 
narrow, slightly toothed, roughish with three-forked bristles, duU 
green ; fods erect on spreading stalks ; stem branched, 1-3 feet 
high ; flowers small, yellow, with whitish sepals. Fields, gardens, 
and waste places, not common. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

2. E. orientale (Hare's-ear Treacle Mustard). — With smooth 
entire leaves clasping the sletn, which is about i foot high ; flowers 
cream-coloured. Grows on some parts of the coast of Essex, 
Suffolk, and Sussex, but is an escape. — Early summer. Annual. 

Cheiranthus Ciieiri 
{W all-flower) 

21. Cheiranthus [Wall- flower) 

I. C. Cheiri (Wall-flower). — The only British 
species, flourishing best on the walls of old 
buildings, and producing its sweet-scented 
yellow flowers nearly all the summer, although 
scantily supplied with water. Not a true native, 
but has become thoroughly established in many 
situations of the kind described above. Many 
some with 

varieties are cultivated in gardens, 
blood-red flowers, some double. 

22. Matthiola [Stock) 

I. M. incana (Hoary Shrubby Stock, Gilli- 
flower). — Stem shrubby, 1-2 feet high ; leaves 
hoary with down, entire ; flowers large, light 
purple. The origin of the garden Stock. On 
the southern seashore of the Isle of Wight. 
— Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

2. ^L sinnata (Great Sea Stock). — Stem herbaceous, spreading; 
leaves oblong, downy, the lower ones imperfectly lobed ; pods 
rough with prickles ; flowers dull purple, very fragrant by night. 
— Fl. August. Biennial. Sandy sea-coasts=of Wales and Cornwall. 



23. Brassica (Cabbage) 

1. B. tenuifolia (Wall Rocket). — Stem erect, slender, smooth, 
leafy ; leaves narrow, smooth, deeply divided into narrow segments ; 
pods lined, slightly heaked, erect. A slender, branched plant, 
from 1-2 feet high, with a tough stem, woody below, scattered 
foliage, and large light }?el]ow flowers ; it grows on old walls, 
quarries, and waste places, principally in the neighbourhood ol 
large towns. — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

2. B. niuyalis (Sand Rocket). — An annual, with a bristly stem, 
is very like the last, but smaller, and grows in barren places near 
the sea, but is not considered indigenous. 

3. B. Monensis (Isle of Man Cabbage). — Leaves glaucous, pinna- 
tifid ; stem nearly leafless, and 6-12 inches high ; pods 4-angled ; 
flowers bright lemon-coloured, veined with purple. Sandy sea- 
shores on the western coast of Britain, rare. — Fl. summer. Per- 

4. B. oleracea (Sea Cabbage). — Root stem-like, fleshy; stem 
branched, T-2 feet liigh ; leaves perfectly smooth, glaucous, waved, 
lobed ; stem-leaves oblong, obtuse ; flm&ers lemon-coloured and 
large. The original of all the varieties of garden cabbage 
growing on several parts of the sea-coast. — Fl. May to August. 

5. B. campestris (Common Wild Navew). — Root-leaves pinnate, 
with rounded terminal lobe, toothed, rouglnsh ; 
stem-leaves smooth, heart-shaped, tapering 
to a point ; all somewhat glaucous ; stem 
about 2 feet high, usually unbranchcd. 
Borders of fields, common. Often con- 
founded with Charlock, from which, how- 
ever, it may readily be distinguished by 
the smoothness and glaucous hue of its 
upper leaves. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

B. rapa, Rape or Colza ; B. rutabaga, 
the Swedish turnip, commonly known as 
Swede ; and B. napits, the Turnip, are all 
varieties in cultivation. 

6. B. alba (White Mustard).— Po(^s bristly, 
rugged, spreading, shorter than the flat two- 
edged beak ; leaves pinnatifid ; flowers rather 
large, yellow. The young leaves of this 
I)lant are used as salad. Waste ground.— beassica Campestris 
FL June, July. Annual. {Common Wild Navew] 



7. B. sinapis (Charlock, Wild Mustard).— Porfs with many angles, 
rugged, longer than the awl-shaped beak, spreading ; leaves rough, 
toothed ; plant 1-2 feet high ; flowers bright yellow. A common 
and most pernicious weed in cornfields, sometimes springing up 
profusely from ground which has recently been disturbed, though 
unknown there before. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

8. B. nigra (Black Mustard), — Pole's quadrangular, smooth, 
slightly beaked, close pressed to the stalk ; lower leaves pinnate, 
with rounded terminal lobe ; upper leaves narrow, pointed, un- 
divided, smooth. Taller than either of the preceding, but bearing 
smaller flowers. The seeds yield the well-known table condiment. 
— Fl. June, July. Annual. 

9. B. adpressa. — Resembling the last, but the foliage is hoary, 
the pods short, beaked. Found in the Channel Islands. — Biennial. 

24. RaphAnus [Radish) 

I. R. Raphanisirtim (Wild Radish). — 
A bristly or almost prickly plant : leaves 
horizontal, pinnate, with rounded ter- 
minal lobe ; flowers rather large, straw- 
coloured, veined with purple ; well dis- 
tinguished when in seed by its jointed 
i-celledpods. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

A variety named R. maritinius, which 
grows on sea-chffS, has its leaves com- 
posed of large an(;l small leaflets arranged 
alternately. In both varieties the flowers 
are sometimes almost white. 

An interesting cruciferous plant, rare 
in England and not indigenous, is Isatis 
tinctoria : erect, smooth, glaucous, 1-3 
feet high. It was witli I his plant — Woad — that the Ancient Britons 
stained their bodies blue, and it is still in use as a dye. 

Raphanus Raphan:strum 
{Wild Radish) 

Natural Order VII 

RESEDACE^.— The Mignonette Tribe 

Sepals 4-6, narrow ; petals unequal, ragged, or fringed at the 
back ; stamens 10-24, inserted as well as the petals on an irregular 
disc, which is placed on one side of the flower ; stigmas 3, sessile ; 
ovary 3-lobed, i-celled, many-seeded, open at the summit ; seeds 
in 3 rows. Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, with alter- 
nate leaves and minute stipules, having their flowers in racemes or 



spikes. Most of the plants of this Order inhabit Europe and the 
neighbouring parts of Africa and Asia. Reseda odorala, mignon- 
ette, is a native of Egypt, and on account ;of the dehcious perfume 
of its flowers is a uni\'ersal garden favourite. 

I. Reseda (]\fignonette). — Calyx many-parted ; petals entire, 
or variously cut, unequal ; stamens numerous ; capsule i-celled, 
opening at the top. (Name from the Latin, rescdo, to calm, from 
the supposed sedative qualities of some species.) 

I. Resed.\ {Mignoiielte) 

1. 7?. hiteola (Dyer's Rocket, Yellow-weed, or Weld). — Leaves 
narrow, undivided ; calyx 4-parted. An erect herbaceous plant, 
1-2 feet high, with long blunt shining leaves, and terminal .spikes 
of yellowish flowers, with conspicuous stamens, and short flattened 
capsules. It was used to dye wool yellow, or, with indigo, green ; 
the whole j)lant when in flower being boilerl for that purpose. 
Waste places, especially on chalk or limestone soils. — Fl. summer. 
Annual or biennial. 

2. R. liitea (Wild Mignonette). — Leaves 3-cleft, lower ones pinna- 
tifid ; calyx 6-parted ; petals 6, very unequal. More bushy tlian the 
last, and not so tall, and may be distinguished by the above charac- 
ters, as well as by the shorter and broader flower spikes. On chalky 
hills and waste places. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

3. R. alba (White Mignonette or Shrubby Rocket). — Leaves 
pinnate, glaucous ; sepals usually 5 ; petals the same ; flowers 
whitish. A garden plant, sometimes found as an escape in waste 
places. — Fl. summer. Biennial. 

Natural Order VIII 
CISTACEiE. — The Rock-Rose Tribe 

Sepals either 3 equal, or 5 with 2 smaller than the rest twisted 
in the bud ; petals 5, twisted when in bud in a direction contrary 
to the sepals, soon falling off ; stamens numerous ; ovary single ; 
style and stigma simple ; capsule 3-5, or, rarely, TO-valved ; seeds 
numerous. Mostly shrubby, but sometimes herbaceous plants, 
often with sticky branches ; leaves entire ; flowers white, red, or 
yellow, lasting a very short time. The plants of this Order are 
almost confined to the south of Europe and north of America ; 
the only species which possesses any remarkable properties is Cistus 
Creticus, which affords the balsam called Gum Ladanum. 

I. Helianthemum (Rock-Rose). — Sepals 5, the two outer either 
smaller or wanting ; petals 5 ; stamens numerous ; capsule 3- 
valved. (Name from the Greek, helios, the sun, and anfhos, a 
flower, because the flowers expand when t],ie sun shines.) 


I. Heliantiiemiim (Rock-Rose) 

1. H. vnlgme (Common Rock-Rose). — S'teni shrubby, prostrate ; 
leaves with fringed stipules, oblong, green above, hoary beneath ; 
calyx of 5 sepals, the two outer very small, fringed. A beautiful 
little branehing shrub, with loose racemes of large bright yellow 
flowers, frequent in hilly pastures on a chalky or gravelly soil, 
where its flowers only expand during sunshine ; the stamens if 
lightly touched spread out and lie down on the petals. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

2. H. camim (Hoary Rock-Rose). — Grows on Alpine rocks in 
Wales and the north of England ; the whole plant is smaller than 
the above. The leaves are without stipules and very hoary beneath ; 
flowers small, yellow. Rare. 

3. H. guttalum (Spotted Rock- Rose), -i A herbaceous species, 
the flowers of which are yellow, with a blood-red spot at the base 
of each petal. Rare — Channel Islands, Cork in Ireland, and in 
Anglesea. — Annual. 

4. H. polijoliiim (White Rock-Rose). — A small shrubby species 
with white flowers, and leaves downy on both sides. Grows on 
Brent Downs in Somersetshire, and on a few parts of the Devon- 
shire coast. 

Natural Order IX- 
VIOLACE.E.— The Violet Tribe 

Sepals 5 ; petals 5, sometimes unequal ; stamens 5 ; anthers 
lengthened into a flat membrane ; style with a swollen stigma ; 
ovary i-celled ; seeds numerous, in 3 rows, A beautiful and im- 
portant Order of herbaceous ]ilants or shrubs, strongly marked by 
the above characters, inhabiting nrost regions of the world, except 
those parts of Asia which are within the tropics. Those which 
grow in temperate regions are mostly herbaceous ; but in South 
America, where they are abundant, most of the species are shrubs. 
The roots of some species are highly valuable in medicine, furnish- 
ing Ipecacuanha, well known for its sudorific and emetic properties. 
The British species also possess medicinal properties, though they 
are rarely used. 

I. Viola (Violet). — Sepals 5, extended at the base ; petals 5, 
unequal, the lower one forming a spur ; anthers united into a tube, 
two lower ones furnished with spurs, which are enclosed within 
the spur of the corolla ; capsule with 3 valves. {Viola was the 
Latin name of some fragrant flower.) 

The handsome flowers of the different British species appear to 
be for ornament rather than use, for th^y seldom produce any 
seeds. In the autumn, however, very small flowers are produced, 

Heartsease (variety) 


Whltp Sweet Violet 
Dog Violet 
bweet Violet 


almost without petals, and borne on short stalks. These iasignifi- 
cant flowers are prolific seed bearers. The Heartsease is an excep- 
tion to this phenomenon. 

I. Viola [Violet) 

1. V. hirta (Hairy Violet). — Leaves heart-shaped, rough, as well 
as their stalks, with hairs ; bracts below the middle of the flower- 
stalks ; sepals obtuse ; lateral peials with a hairy central line. 
FloK'ers various shades of blue, rarely white, scentless. Best dis- 
tinguished from the sweet violet (to which it is nearly allied) by its 
very hairy leaves and capsules, by the position of the bracts, and 
by the absence of creeping scions. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

2. V. odorata (Sweet Violet). — Leaves heart-shaped, slightly 
downy, especially beneath ; bracts above tlie middle of the flower 
stalk ; sepals obtuse ; lateral petals with a hairy central line ; 
scions creeping. One of the most highly prized of all our wild 
flowers, unrivalled in fragrance, and doubly welcome from its ap- 
pearing so early in spring. The flowers are deep purple, lilac, 
pale rose-coloured, or white, and all these tints may sometimes be 
discovered on the same bank. The roots possess the medicinal 
properties of Ipecacuanha, and the flowers are used as a laxative 
for children. An infusion of the petals is employed as a chemical 
test, being changed to red by acids, and by "alkalies to green. The 
flowers are said to communicate their flavour to vinegar in which 
they have been steeped, and it is also said that they are used in 
the preparation of the Grand Seignor's sherbets. — Fl. March, 
April. Perennial. 

3. V. paliistris (Marsh Violet). — Leaves heart- or kidney-shaped, 
quite smooth ; sepals obtuse, spur very short ; root creeping ; 
scions none. Bogs and marshy ground ; common, more particularly 
in the north. Flowers delicate lilac, with darker veins ; leaves 
light green, often purplish beneath. — Fl. April to June. Perennial. 

4. V. canina (Dog Violet). — Stem channelled, leafy, ascending; 
leaves heart-shaped, acute ; stipules long, toothed, fringed ; bracts 
awl-shaped, entire ; sepals acute. Hedges, heaths, and rocky 
ground ; the most common species. Flowers light blue, purple, 
or white ; more abundant and lasting longer than any of the pre- 
ceding, but less beautiful and scentless. This species appears to 
have received its specific name as a reproach for its want of per- 
fume. There are several varieties classed by some as distinct 
species ; of these the more important are, V. pumila, which is 
small, not more than 3 inches high; V. stagnina — taller than the 
type, with very pale blue flowers. 

5. V. tricolor (Pansy or Heartsease). — Stem angular, branched ; 
leaves oblong, crenate ; stipules deeply cut, terminal lobe broad, 
?renate. Cultivated fields. Very different in habit from any of 


the preceding, and varying considerably in ihe size and colour of 
its flowers, which are, however, most frequently light yellow, either 
pure or tinged with purple. The cultivated varieties are countless. 
■ — Fl. all the summer. Generally annual. 

6. V. Iiitea (Yellow Mountain Violet or Mountain Pansy). — Stem 
angular, branched principally at the base ; leaves oblong, crenate ; 
stijiidcs deeply cut, terminal lobe narrow, entire. Mountain 
pastures, north of England, and Scotland. Nearly allied to the 
preceding, and as variable in the size and colour of its flowers. 
— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

Natural Order X 
DROSERACE^.— Sundews 

Sepals 5, equal ; petals 5 ; stamens distinct 5 ; ovary single ; 
styles 3-4, often 2-cleft or branched ; capsule i-cclled with 3 or 4 
valves, which bear the seeds at the middle or at the base. 

DROSERE^ii (Sundew). — Styles elongated ; leaves clothed with 
glandular hairs. Delicate, herbaceous marsh plants, often covered 
with glands ; leaves alternate, rolled in at the edges before expan- 
sion ; flower-stalks curled when in bud. The leaves of the Droseras 
are covered with irritable hairs, from the ends of which exudes a 
sticky acid substance which takes the form of minute drops, and 
which in the sunshine has the appearance of dew. These glandular 
hairs are longer towards the edges of the leaves than at the centres. 
Any small insect which settles on a leaf at once becomes caught by 
the sticky drops, and in a sliort time the longer outer hairs bend 
inward and on to the captive. The juices of the insect are actually 
absorbed by, and go to nourish the plan.t. The incurved hairs 
resume their former position. The leaves of Dionwa (Venus' Fly- 
trap) are furnished with a two-lobed appendage, each half of which 
is armed with three sharp spines in the rniddle and a fringe of 
bristles at the edge. When touched by an insect these two lobes 
instantaneously close on the ill-fated intruder and crush it to death. 
After a short time they open again, in readiness for another victim. 
In this case also the bodies of the trapped insects go to nourish the 

I. Drosera [Sundew).— Sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; stamens 5 ; styles 
3-3, deeply cleft ; capsule i-celled, 3-5-valved. (Name from the 
Greek, drosys, dew, the leaves being covered with red hairs, which 
exude drops of viscid fluid, especially when the sun is shining, and 
appear as if tipped with dew.) 

I. Drosera {Sundew) 
I. D. rotundijolia (Rounddeaved Sundew). — Leaves all from the 
root, spreading horizontahy, round ; leaf-stalks hairy ; secd^ 

Eound-leaTert Sundew 
Common Soapwort 


Long-leaved Sundew 
Sea Campion 


chaffy. An exceodingl)' curious little plant, s-fi inches high, 
growuig in bogs. The root is small and fibrous, and takes a very 
shght hold on the ground; the lei\-es are densely covered with 
red hairs, each of which is tip;je 1 witli a drop of viscid fluid; from 
the centre of the tuft of leaves rises a wiry leafless stalk, bearing 
several small whilish flowers, which only expand in sunny weather ; 
the flowers are all on the same side of the stalk, which in its early 
stage is curled up, and gradually uncoils itsclt as the flowers sever- 
ally expand. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. D. longifolia (Longdeaved SimAew). -^Leaves all from the root, 
erect, elongated, broad at the extremity, and tapering towards the 
l)ase ; leaf-stalks smooth ; seeds with a rough, not chaffy coat. 
Smaller than the last, and, like it, growii^.g in boggy places, but 
not so frequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. D. Aiiglica (Great Sundew). — Leaves ah from the roots, erect, 
long and narrow, on very long smooth stalks ; seeds with a loose 
chaffy coat. Much like the last, and growing in similar situations, 
but is stonier and taller and has longer lea\-es. Rare. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

Natural Order XI 
POLYGALACEiE.— The jMii.kwokt Tribe 

Sepals 5, the two inner larger, generally petaldike ; petals 3-5, 
unequal, more or less combined with the filaments ; stamens 8, 
in two equal sets ; anthers i-cellcd, opening by pores at the summit ; 
pistil I ; capsule i~3-celled ; seeds pendulous. An extensive tribe 
of herbaceous or shrubby plants, with clustered, often showy flowers. 
Many are bitter, and their roots are milk\'. Medicinally they are 
said to be useful m affections of the lungs, and to excite perspiration. 
The most celebrated is a North American herb, Polvgala senega 
(Snake-root), to which extraordinary virtues are ascribed. Several 
species are said to cure snake bites. Krameria (Rhatan3f-root) is 
astringent, and furnishes a red infusion, used to adulterate port 
wine. Some of the above properties, but in a less degree, reside 
in the only British genus, Polygula. 

I. POLYGAI.A (Milkwort). — Sepals 5, the I wo inner coloured, 
wing-shaped ; petals combined with the filaments, the lower one 
keeled ; capsule flattened, 2-celled, 2-valved ; seeds downy, crested 
at the base. (Name from the Greek, signifying nnich milk, the juice 
of the root being milky ; or perhaps from the belief that it increased 
the milk-yield of cows which ate it.) 

I. POLYGALA {Milkwort) 
I. P. vulgaris (Common Mflkwort). — Lower petal crested in a 
starlike manner ; calyx-wings about equal in length to the corolla ; 



hrads 3, at the base of each flower ; stems 
ascending, herbaceous ; leaves narrow. 
Common on heaths and dry pastures, 
where it is highly ornamental during the 
later summer months, with its starlike, 
blue, pink, or white flowers. — Fl. June to 
August. Perennial. 

Besides the common form, P. vulgaris, 
several more or less distinct varieties 
have been distinguished, and classed as 
species. Of thesfe the more important 
are as follows : P. nxypkra, with narrow 
'^sS^ leaves ; flowers small, far apart ; inner 
sepals narrow ; local. P. depressa — inner 
sepals broader than in the t^'pe ; common. 
P. calcarea — lotaer leaves tufted ; calyx- 
wings blunt, with the veins scarcely netted ; has ceased to flower 
almost before the common milkwort has commenced. P. amara — 
plant small ; inngs narrow ; flowers pink ; confined to Cronkley 
Fell, Yorkshire. P. Austriaca — flowers larger, blue ; confinecl to 

PoLYG.\LA Vulgaris 
[Conunon Milkwort) 

Natural Order XII 


Sepals 4-6, united into a furrowed tube, not falling off ; petals 
equal in number to the sepals, furnished with long claws, and 
usually having scales at the junction of 
the claw and limb ; stamens equal in 
number to the petals ; ovary i ; style 
threadlike, 2, 3, or 4-cleft ; capsule 
i-celled, 2, 3, or 4-valved ; seeds very 
minute, attached to the edges of the 
valves. Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby 
plants, with branched stems, opposite 
leaves without stipules, but a membranous 
sheathing base, and numerous small sessile 
flowers in the axils of the upper leaves. 
An Order of only one genus, the species of 
which are pretty widelydistributedover the 
temperate and warm sea-coasts of the worl cl. 

I. Fkankenia (Sea Heath). — Style cleft 
into 3 lobes, with the stigma on the inner 
side ; capsule 3 to 4-valved. (Name from 
John Franken, a Swedish botanist.) Frankenia (Sea Heath) 



I. Frankenia {Sea Heath) 

I. F. lavis (Smooth Sea Heath). — Leaves narrow, rolled back at 
the edges, smooth, fringed at the base ; flowers terminal, or from 
the forks of the stem. A small procumbent plant, with wiry stems, 
crowded leaves, and pale rose-coloured flowers, growing in muddy 
salt marshes on the south-eastern coasts of England. — Fl. July. 

Another species, F. pulveritlenta (Powdery Sea Heath), formeily 
grew on the sea-coast of Sussex, but is now extinct. 

Natural Order XIII 

ELATINACEiE.— Water- WORT Tribe 

Sepals 3-5, distinct, or growing together at the base ; petals 
equal in number to the sepals ; stamens equalling or twice as many 
as the petals ; ovary 3-5-celled, and with as many styles and globu- 
lar stigmas ; capsule with 3-5 cells and valves ; seeds wrinkled, 
springing from the centre of the capsule. Minute, annual, aqualic 
herbs, with rooting stems and opposite teaves. Found in most 
parts of the world. 

I. Elatine (Water-wort). — Sepals 3-4, growing together at 
the. base ; petals 3-4 ; stamens 3-4 or 6-8 ; seeds cylindrical, 
furrowed, and transversely striated. (Name of doubtful origin.) 

I. Elatine {Water-wort) 

I. E. hexandra (Six-stamened Water- 
wort). — Flowers stalked ; petals 3 ; sta- 
mens 6 ; capsule 3-celled ; seeds straight. 
A minute plant, forming matted, turfy 
beds on the margin of lakes, or growing 
entirely submersed. When left by the 
subsiding water it assumes a bright red 
hue, but the pink flowers are at all times 
inconspicuous. Rare. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Annual. 

Elatine Hexand 
(Six-stamened Water 



2. E. Hydropiper (Eight-stamened Water 'Wort). — Flowers sessile; 
petals 4 ; stamens 8 ; capsule 4-celled ; seeds curved. Yet rarer 
than the preceding, and growing in similar situations. — Fl. July 
to September. Annual. 


Natural Order XIV 


Sepals 5 or 4, distinct, or connected into a tube ; petals equal in 
number to the sepals ; stamens usually twice as many as, sometimes 
equalling, the petals, and like them inserted on the stalk or ring of 
the ovary ; ovary i, raised on a short stalk, or inserted in a ring ; 
styles 2-5, each with a stigma running along-its inner side ; capsule 
I or imperfectly 2-5-celled, opening by as many or twice as many 
teeth, or valves, as there are stj'les ; seeds inserted on a central 
column. An extensive and well-marked order of herbaceous 
plants, habitating the temperate and frigid regions of the globe, 
particularly the northern hemisphere. The stems are swollen at 
the ioints ; the leaves always opposite and undivided, and fre- 
quently of a glaucous hue. Among garden flowers, the Pink, 
Carnation, Sweet William, and Scarlet Lychnis, all belonging to 
this order, are well known ; and our hedges are much indebted 
for their showy appearance in spring to the great White Stitcliwort, 
and in summer to the Red and White Robin. Botanists have 
distributed the plants of this Order into two groups or sub-orders. 

Suh-ordcr I. Silene.e. — Piiik Tribe 
Sepals connected into a tube. 

1. DiANTHUS (Pink). — Calyx with 2 or more opposite scales at 
the base outside ; styles 2 ; capsule i-celled, opening at the top 
with 4 valves ; seeds flattened. (Name in Greek signifying 
the flower oj Jitpilcr, from its beauty and fragrance.) 

2. Saponaria (Soapwort). — Calyx witlrout scales at the l)ase ; 
styles 2 ; capsule i-celled, opening, at the top with 4 \'alves ; seeds 
rounded. (Name from sapo, soap, the plant abounding in soapy 

3. Sii.ENE (Catchfly). — Petals generally crowned at the top of 
the claw ; styles 3 ; capsule imperfectly 3-Celled, opening at the 
top with 6 valves. (Name of doubtful origin. The English name 
was given in consequence of flies being often caught in the viscid 
fluid which, in some species, surrounds parts of the stem, a pro- 
vision against insects crawling up to the flowers for the honey, 
without effecting the cross fertilization whipli is essential for the 
formation of secd.s. The pollen is carried by a winged insect.) 

4. Lychnis (Camjiion). — Styles 5, occasionally 4 ; capsule 
i-cellcd, imperfectly divided into 5 cells, opening at the top with 
5 or 10 teeth. (Name from the Greek, lycJinos, a lamp ; " the 
thick cottony substance on the leaves of some species, or some 
similar plant, having been employed as wicks to lamps." — Hooker.) 



Siih-oi'dcr II. Ai.siNE.E. — Chickwecd Tribe 
Sepals distinct or very nearly so. 

5. Sagina (Pearl- wort). —5i?/>rt/s 4-5 ; petals 4-5, minute or 
sometimes wanting ; stamens 4-10 ; styles 4-5 ; capsule 4- 
5-valved ; seeds numerous. (The name in Latin signifies fattening 
meat, but is totally inapplicable to the minute plants of this genus.) 

6. McENCHIA. — Sepals 4, erect ; petals 4 ; stamens 4 or 8 ; styles 
4 ; capsule opening at the top with 8 teeth. (Name in honour of 
Conrad Mcench, Professor of Botany at Hesse-Cassel.) 

7. HoLOSTEUM (Jagged duckweed). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5, toothed 
at the margin ; stamens 3-5 ; styles 3 ; capsule opening at the top 
with 6 teeth. (The name signifies in Greek all hone, but why it 

8. Stellaeia (Stitch wort). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5, deeply 2-cleft ; 
stamens 10 or sometimes 5 ; styles 3 or 5 ; capsule opening with 
6 calves, or teeth. (Name from stella, a star, which the expanded 
flowers resemble in shape.) 

g. SpergulArta (Sand Spurrey). — Sepals 5, flat ; petals 5, 
ovate, entire, as large as the sepals ; stamens 10, sometimes less ; 
styles usually 3. (Name from the resemblance to the next genus.) 

10. Spergula (Spurrej^). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5, ovate, entire, as 
large as the sepals, styles 5, alternate with the sepals. (Name 
from the Latin, sparge, to scatter, the genus being 

widely diffused.) 

11. Polycarpon (All Seed). — Sepals 5, keeled at the 
back ; petals 5, small, notched ; stamens 3-5 ; stigmas 3, 
on very short styles ; Iriiit i-celled, 3-valved. (Name 
from the Greek, polys, many, and carpos, fruit.) 

12. Arenaria (Sandwort). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5, en- 
tire ; stamens 10 ; styles 3, occasionally 4 ; capsule open- 
ing with 3 or 6 valves. (Name from the Latin, arena, 
sand, many species growing in sandy ground.) 

13. Cerastium (Mouse-ear Chickweed). — Sepals 5, 
occasionally 4 ; petals 5, 2-clcft, occasionally very small, 
or absent ; stamens 10 or 5 ; styles 5, seldom less ; cap- 
sule tubular, opening at the end with usualhy 10 small 
teeth. (Name from the Greek, keras, a horn, from the 
shape of the capsule in some species.) 

I. DiANTHUS [Pink) 
I. D. armeria (Deptford Pink). — Stem from 1-2 feet 
high ; leaves downy ; fl.owers in close tufts, rose-coloured, 
dotted with white, and scentless ; calyx-scales very ^'*^^^;^^ 
narrow, downy, as long as the tube. Waste places, (Deptford 
rare.— n, July, August. Annual. Pmti) 



2. D. prolifer (Proliferous Pink). — Stem smooth; leaves roughish 
at the edge ; flowers in heads ; calyx-scales membranous, pellucid. 
An erect wiry plant, 6-12 inches high, with harrow leaves ; readily 
distinguished by its heads of rose-coloured flowers, only one of 
which opens at a time, and by the brown dry scales in which the 
heads of flowers are enclosed. Gravelly pastures, rare, but not a 
native. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 

3. D. ccesius (Cheddar Pink). — Flowers mostly solitary; calyx- 
scales 4, blunt, one-fourth as long as the ;caly-x ; petals jagged; 
leaves linear, glaucous, with rough edges ; flowers rose-coloured, 
fragrant. Limestone cliffs at Cheddar, Sornersetshire. — Fl. July. 

4. D. delioides (Maiden Pink). 
— Flowers solitary, or 2 on a 
stalk ; calyx-scales 2-4, tapering 
to a point, half as long as the 
calyx ; petals notched ; stem 
and leaves roughish. A much 
branched plant, with ascending 
stems 6-12 inches high, and rose- 
coloured flowers with white spots, 
and a dark ring in the centre, 
scentless. Gravelly banks and 
pastures, but not common. — Fl. 
July, August. Perennial. A white 
variety sometimes found. 

2. Saponaria (Soapwort) 

I. 5. officinalis (Common Soap- 
wort).— A robust plant, 2-4 feet 
high, with broad, pointed, smooth 
leaves, and corymbs or heads 
of large handsome pink flowers 
which arc often double, sometimes 
white. It is generally found in 

the neighbourhood of cultivated ground, and is not considered a 

native. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

Saponaria Officinalis {Common 

3. SiLENE (Catchfly) 

I. S. acaiilis (Moss Campion). — Stem much branched, tufted ; 
leaves narrow, fringed at the base ; petals crowned, slightly notched. 
Confined to the loftiest British mountains, where it forms a densely 
matted turf, copiously decorated with bright purple flowers. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 


Raeeerl Eubiu BlaiMer Campion 



2. 5. inflata (Bladder Campion). — Stetn ascending or erect ; 
leaves oblong, tapering ; flowers in loose panicles, white ; calyx 
inflated, bladder-like, with a network of veins ; petals deeply 
cloven, rarely crowned. A common weed in cornfields and pas- 
tures, growing 1-2 feet high, and well marked by its numerous 
white flowers and veined calyces, 
often tinged with purple. The 
fohage and stem are glaucous, 
and generally smooth ; but a 
variety which is downy all over 
is occasionally found. — Fl. June 
to August. Perennial. Also called _C 
5. Cucubalus. >^ 

3. S. maritima (Sea Campion). 
— Stems numerous from the same 
root, spreading ; leaves oblong, 
tapering ; flowers few on each 
stem, or solitary ; fetals slightly 
cloven, crowned. Resembling the 
last, but of humbler stature, 
though bearing larger flowers. 
Common near the seashore, oc- 
casionally by the sides of moun- 
tain streams. — Fl. all the summer. 

4. S. Otites (Spanish Catchfly). — Stems erect, with opposite, 
tufted branches ; stamens and pistils on separate plants ; petals 
narrow, not cloven, nor crowned. The stems are about a foot high, 
viscid at the middle ; flowers small, yellowish. Sandy fields in the 
east of England. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

5. S. Anglica (English Catchfly). — Whole plant hairy and viscid ; 
leaves narrow ; flowers lateral, alternate, erect, the lower ones 
when in fruit reflexed ; petals crowned, slightly cloven. From 
6-12 inches high or more, according to soil. The flowers are in- 
conspicuous and of a pinkish white hue. Not uncommon in many 
parts of England. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

6. S. nutans (Nottingham Catchfly). — Flowers all drooping one 
way ; branches opposite, 3-forked ; calyx swollen ; petals deeply 
cloven, crowned. Flowers large, white or pink, expanding in the 
evening, when they are fragrant ; height 1-2 feet. On limestone 
and chalk rocks, not common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

7. 5. conica (Striated Corn Catchfly). — Stem erect, forked ; leaves 
narrow, downy ; petals cloven, crowned ; calyx conical, with 30 
furrows ; height 6-12 inches ; flowers small, pinkish. In sandy 
fields, very rare. — Fl. July. Annual. 

SiLENE Maritima {Sea Campion) 


8. 5. Hoctiflora (Night-flowering CatcliflyV. — Stem erect, i-2 feet 
high, repeatedly forked ; calyx with long teeth, oblong when in 
friiit, lo-ribbed ; plant hairy, viscid. The. flowers are larger than 
the last, pale pink, and expand about sunslt ; they close early in 
the morning, and are very fragrant during the night. Sandy, 
gravelly fields, not common. — Fl. July. Ajinual. 

4. Lychnis {Campion) 

1. L. Flos-Cuculi (Ragged Robin). — Petals deeply 4-cleft, the 
two centre lobes of each longer than the oiiter, crowned ; capsule 
5-toothed ; leaves narrow ; flowers in a loose panicle. A pretty 
and well-known plant, with a purplish green, angular stem, the lower 
part of which is roughish with short bristly hairs, the upper parts 
slightly viscid ; flowers rose-coloured, with deeply-cut, narrow seg- 
ments. Common in moist meadows and marsh}' places. — Fl. when 
the cuckoo is in full song, hence its Latin name, Flos-Cuciili. 

2. L. vespertina (Evening Campion). Height 1-2 feet ; stems 
branched ; plant slightly hairy and viscid ; leaves oblong, tapering ; 
stamens and pistils on different plants ; petals 2-cleft half-way 
down, crowned ; capsule conical, lo-toothed, the teeth erect ; 
flowers large, white, or sometimes pink, loosely panicled, opening 
in the evening, when they are fragrant. Waste places, common. 
— Fl. all the summei. Perennial. 

3. L. diurna (Red Robin or Campion). — Stamens and pistils on 
different j)!ants ; petals 2-cleff half-way down, crowned ; capsule 
nearly globose, lo-toothed, the teeth spreading or recurved ; leaves 
oblong, ta])eririg, downy, as well as the stem. An ornamental 
hedge plant, 2-3 feet high, with rose-coloured flowers. Common. 
• — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

4. L. Grtliago or Agrostemma Githago (Corn Cockle). — Calvx much 
longer than the corolla ; sepals undivided, destitute of a crown. A 
common cornfield weed, with an upright downy stem, and large, 
handsome, purple-red flowers; secr/s large, and therefore troublesome 
when they become mixed with the corn during threshing. — Fl. June, 
July. Annual. 

5. L. Viscaria (Red German Catchfly). — Stems 6-12 inches high, 
glabrous, viscid above ; flowers in compact heads, red ; petals 
slightly notched ; capsules s-celled. Very rare, confined to a few 
]ilaces in Scotland and North Wales. — Fl. summer. Perennial. 

6. L. Alpina (Red Alpine Campion). — A much smaller species, 
stems not more than 6 inches high, not viscid ; flowers red. Confined 
to a few mountain summits in Scotland and the north of England. 
— Fl. summer. 

Greater Stitchwort 




Eveniug Campion 
Corn Cockle 



5. SA(";IN'A (I'l-iirl-iaiirl) 
Si'/^ii!s, sldiiiciis, (iiiil slvlrs 4 

I. S. procii:iihciis (Procumlicnt Pcaii-wort). — Stems proslrate, 
smooth ; leaves awl-shapccl ; peleils much shrji'tcr than the sepals ; 
Ciipsiiles curved downwanls liefore ripening. 
Well known to gardeners as a troublesome \Vec(l 
infesting the paths, and so prolific as to require 
repeated eradication. The flowers are at all 
times inconspicuous ; the stems are from 1-3 % 
inches high. — Fl. all fh(=; suirmier. Annual or *'~C|^::^C/s, ;««k>\ 
perennial. '^^^^Im 

Three other British species occur, which arc so sagina Procumhens 
nearlj' allied to the above as to be considered (I'lvcumhcui Pearl- 
by some botanists mere varieties : .S. npetala is wort) 

small and slight, not branched, or only slightly 
so ; the pclah very small or entirely wanting. ,S. ciliata is doumy, 
the sepals lyuig close to the capsule. S. marilima (Sea Pearl-wort) 
has blunt fleshy lea\'es, and flowers destitute of ]ietals. 

Stamens 10 ; sepals, petals, and styles 5 

2. S. nodosa (Knotted Pearl- wort). — Lcai^es opposite, growing to- 
gether at the base, upper ones very short, growing in knots : flower- 
stalks always erect ; petals longer than the calyx. A pretty little 
plant 2-4 inches high, with conspicuous white flowers 2 or 3 together, 
and tufted leaves. Wet sandy places, not. uncommon. — Fl. sum- 
mer. Perennial. 

3. S. LinneBi (Alpine Pearl-wort). — In habit very nearly allied to 
S. procumhens, but it is perennial, and the corolla more conspicuous. 
Three forms occur : — 

S. saxatalis, which is the common type, s'tenis prostrate, frnitiniJ,- 
stems erect. A native of the Scotch mountains. 

S. nivalis. A tufted variety with erect flmcr- 
stalks. Very rare ; found only on some moun lam- 
tops in Scotland. 

S. subulata (Awl-shaped Pearl-wort). Common 
in gravelly pastures. 


I. M. erecla (Uprieht Jkcnchia). — A small up- 
right plant 2-6 inches high, with narrow, rigid 
glaucous leaves, and white flowers, which are large 
in pro]:)ortion to the rest of the plant ; the sepals 
aie sharp-pointed, with a membranous edge ; the 

McENCHiA Erecta /'^''"''^ e.Kpand only in the sunshine.~Fl. May and 

(Uprisht Manchia) June. Annual. 



7. HoLOSTEUM {Jagged Chickweed) 

I. H. umhellatmn (Umbellifeious Jagged Chick- 
weed). — A singular little^ plant, 4-5 inches high, 
with leafy stems, which are smooth below and 
hairy and viscid between the joints above. The 
flowers grow in terminal umbrels about 5 together, 
and are bent back after flowering, rising again 
when the capsule ripens. Petals white. Very 
rare ; found only on old walls, etc., in Norfolk 
and Suffolk. — Fl. Aprii. Annual. 

8. Stellaria (Stitchwort) 

1. S. aqualica (Water Stellaria or Water Mouse- 
ear Chickweed). — Lower leaves stalked ; upper 
sessile, heart-shaped, tapering to a point, all 
hairy at the margin ; capsule opening with 5 
2 -cleft teeth. A much -branched, straggling 
plant, with white flowers in the angles of the 
stems, and in habit approaching Stellaria 
nemormn. Wet places, but"not general. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial, 

2. 5. nemormn (Wood Starwort). — Stems as- 
cending, 6-12 inches high ; leaves heart-shaped. 

Flowers white, in loose cymes ; petals deeply cloven. Dain}) 
woods, chiefly in the north. — Fl. summer. Perennial. 

3. S. media (Chickweed). — Leaves egg-shaped, with a short point ; 
stems with a hairy line alternating from side to side ; petals deeply 
2-clett, not longer than the sepals ; stamens usually 10, sometimes 5. 
Leaves succulent ; flowers small, white. Well distinguished by a 
hairy line which runs up one side of the stem, and when it reaches 
a pair of leaves is continued on the opposite side. Abundant as a 
garden weed, in waste places and by roadsides. — Fl. all the year 
round. Annual. 

4. S. uliginosa (Bog Stitchwort). — Stems spreading, angular ; 
leaves broadly lanceolate, with a stiff tip, smooth ; flowers panicled ; 
petals deeply 2-cleft, shorter than the 3-nerved sepals, which are 
united at the base. A slender plant 6-12 inches long, with very 
small white flowers. — Fl. May, June. Annual. 

5. S. graminea (Lesser Stitchwort). — Stem nearly erect, angular, 
smooth ; leaves very narrow, acute, smooth-edged ; flowers in forked 
panicles ; petals very deeply cleft, scarcely longer than the 3-nerved 
sepals. Much smaller than the preceding in all its parts, and dis- 
tinguished at once by the very deeply divided petals, which are 
white but not so showy. Dry heathy places, roadsides, etc., com- 
mon. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 



( Umbellifevoiis 

Jagged Chickweed) 



6. S. paliistrts (Glaucous Marsh Stitchwort). — S/em nearly erect, 
angular, smooth ; leaves narrow, tapering, entire, glaucous ; flowers 
solitary, on long axillary stalks ; petals very deeply 2-cleft, much 
longer than the 3-nerved sepals. Resembling the preceding in 
habit, 6-12 inches high, but with larger flowers. Marshy places. 
— Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

7. S. Holostea (Greater Stitchwort, Satin-flower, or Adder's Meat). 
— Stem nearly erect, angular, rough-edged ; leaves narrow, tapermg 
to a long point, minutely fringed ; petals deeply 2-cleft, twice as 
long as the sepals. Among the most ornamental of our early sum- 
mer flowers, scarcely less conspicuous with its delicate green leaves 
than with its snow-white petals. The stems do not die down to 
the ground in winter, as is (he case with ..most other herbaceous 
perennials ; but though dead to all appearance, they send out deh- 
cate green tufts very early in the year, so that the flowering stems, 
especially in bushy ])laces, seem to have made unusually rapid 
growth. — Fl. April to June. Perennial. 

9. Spergulakia {Sand Spiirrey) 

I. S. rubra (Common Spurrey). — Leaves linear, somewhat fleshy, 
pointed with a minute bristle ; stipules 
chaffy ; stems prostrate, branching, 3-6 in- 
ches. A small branching annual or biennial, 
with purple or sometimes almost white 
flowers, which vary much in sir.e. Common 
in .=an ly fields. — Fl. June to August. 

A variety called ,S. viaritima occurs with 
fleshy semi-cylindrical leaves without points ; 
stipules chaffy ; stems prostrate. A stouter, 
larger plant, with larger flowers. Common 
on the seashore. — Fl. June to August. 

10. Spergula {Spurrey) 

I. S. arvensis (Corn Spurrey). — Leaves 
cylindrical, in whorls, with minute chaffy 
stipules at the base ; flowers panicled, bent 
down when in fruit. A common weed in 
gravelly cornfields, 6-12 inches high, flowers Spergula Arvensis 
white. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. (Corn Spurrey) 

II. PoLYCARPO^J {All Seed) 
I. P. tetraphyllum (Four-leaved All Seed).— A small plant, with 
prostrate, branched stems, 3-4 inches long, and many minute 
greenish white flowers with 3 stamens. The ovate leaves are oppo- 



site, but the pairs are placed so close logelhar as to give the appear- 
ance of 4-leaved whorls. Channel Isles and the south-west coast 
of Endand, but far from common. — Fl. i\Iay to August. Annual. 

Arenari.s. Cherleri 

12. ArenaSia {Sandwort) 

3W{f'^. I- ^. C/!«7m (Cyphel). — A mountain plant 

$f W'l^ '^'^''^^^ ■'■^'''S roots and numerous densely tufted 

^"' '1^0^,^.. stems, which scarcely rise above the ground, 

■'■''""^ bearing crowded narrow leaves and solitary 

greenish flowers, which are generally without 

petals. Highland mountains. — Fl. June to 

August. Perennial. 

2. A. verna (Vernal Sandwort). — A small 
tufted plant with awl-shaped leaves ; stems 
2-4 inches high, bearing four or five com- 
paratively large white flowers in loose c^'mes. Found in Scotland, 
the north of England, and in Cornwall, but uncommon. — Fl. early 
summer. Perennial. 

3. .4. itUginosa (Bog Sandwort). — A -s-ery rare form, resembling 
.4. verna, but rather taller and with the leaves farther apart and 
thici;er. Found only in a single locality in E)urham. — Fl. summer. 

4. A. tenuifolia (Fine-leaved Sandwort). ^^A slenrler plant 3-4 
inches high, with smooth, mncli-l'orkcd stems and finely awl-shapecl 
leaves. Petals half the length or less of the calyx. Found in sandy 
fields in Eastern England. — El. summer. Annual. 

5. A. peploides (Sea Purslane). — Leaves sessile, egg- 
shaped, acute, fleshy, smooth ; sepals obtuse. A 
low, succulent, marine plant, with creeping roots 
and forked stems. The flowers are small and white, 
and grow from the forks of the stem. The plant -s^^:, 
forms tangled masses on the seashore, and ap- 
proaches in habit the Sea ^lilkwort. Not un- 
common. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

6. A. serpylli/oliii (Thyiiie-leaved Sandwort). — 
Leaves broadly egg-shaped, pointed, roughish, 
sessile ; stem repeatedly forked, downy ; sepals 
tapering, hairy. A small shrublike herb 2-6 inches 
high, with inconspicuous white flowers, common on 
dry banks and \\'alls. Varies much accordnig to 
locality. Growing near the sea, the stems are less 
branched, and the leaves somewhat larger and 
more decidedly fringed. — El. June to August. Annual. 

J'. .1. eiliata (Fringed Sandwort). — A small species 2-3 inches 



{Sea Piirsldue) 



high. The ovate leaves are (ringed and slightly stalked ; floivers 
larger and with more conspicuous feials than ii: A. serpylUfolia. 
Rare, limestone district of Sligo, Ireland.— ^Fl. July. Perennial. 

8. A. trinervis (Three-nerved Sandwort). — Leaves egg-shaped, 
acute, the lower ones stalked, 3-5 nerved, Iringed ; flowers solitary 
from the forks of the stf-m and axils ; sepals vncrved, the central 
nerve rough. A weak, strangling jilant, al)out a foot long, a]i- 
proaching the chickweed (Stellana metha) in haliit, from which, 
however, it may at once be distinguished by its undivided petals. 
— Fl. May, June. Annual. 

13. Cerastium [Mouse-ear Chickweed) 

1. C. viilgaiiim (Mouse-ear Chickweed). — A com- 
mon annual weed, downy and geneially viscid, 
with straggling branched stems 1-2 feet long, and 
inconspicuous flowers, of which the petah are 
usually shorter than the calvx. or occasionally 
wanting. The seed-vessels when ripening lengthen 
beyond the calyx and become curved. An in- 
definite number of very confusing varieties occur, 
which it is unnecessary to describe here. — Fl, all 
the summer. 

2. C. arvense (Field Mouse-ear Chickweed). — 
An uncommon species, smaller than the fore- 
going, less downy and viscid ; leaves narrower, and 
with conspicuous white flowers, with petals twice 
as long as the sepals. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. C. Alpiniim (Alj)ine Mouse-ear Chickweed). — A short plant 
wiih ascending stems ; leaves broader than in the foregoing, and 
white with silky down ; flowers large and white. More or less 
frequent in the Highlands of Scotland, and occasional in the north 
of England. — Fl. summer. Perennial. 

4. C. tris,yniim (Starwort Mouse-ear Chickweed). — A rare form 
found on the Breadalbane and other mountains in Scotland. Stems 
slender, ascending, about 6 inches long, with a line of hairs on 
alternate sides between each pair of leaves ; otherwise the plant is 
usually glabrous ; leaves narrow ; teeth of the seed-vessel twice as 
many as the styles ; styles usually 3, occasionaUy 4-6. — Fl. July, 



{TJousL'-cai Chick- 

Natural Order XV 

LTNACE.E.— The Flax Tribe 

Sepals 3-5, overlapping when in bud, persistent ; petals equal in 
Iiumber to the sepals, twisted when in bud, falling off very soon 



after expansion ; stamens equal in number to the petals, and alter- 
nate with them, united at the base into a ring with small teeth 
between them ; ovary of about as many cells as there are sepals, 
and as many styles ; capsule approaching a globular form, tipped 
with the hardened base of the styles, each cell incompletely divided 
by a partition extending from the back inwards ; seeds one in each 
imperfect cell, pendulous. Herbaceous, rarely shrubby, plants, 
with undivided leaves and remarkably fugacious petals, principally, 
but not exclusively, confined to Europe and the north of Africa. 
The flowers are in many cases highly ornamental ; but the most 
striking feature of the Flax tribe is the toughness of the fibre con- 
tained in their stems, and the mucilaginous qualities of their seeds, 
which also yield considerable quantities of oil. One species, Linum 
usilatissirmim, has for ages supplied the valuable article of clothing 
which takes its name " Linen " from the plant which produces it ; 
linseed oil is obtained from the seeds of the same plant, and the 
meal of the plant is valuable for poultices. 

I Linum (Flax). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; capsule lo-valved and 
lo-seeded. (Name from the Celtic, Lin, a thread.) 

2. Radiola (Flax Seed). — Sepals 4, connected below, 3-cleft ; 
petals 4 ; capsule S-valved, 8-celled. (" Named from radius, a ray, 
I presume, in consequence of the raylike segments of the calyx." — 
Sir W. J. Hooker.) 

I. Linum {Flax) 
Leaves alternate 

I. L. perenne (Perennial Flax). — Leaves very narrow, tapering to 
a point ; sepals inversely heart-shajied, obtuse, obscurely 5-ribbed. 
A slender plant with wiry stems, which are 
often procumbent ; very narrow sessile 
leaves, and very elegant sky-blue flowers, 
which are so fugacious as scarcely to bear 
being gathered. The plant varies greatly 
in different localities. Chalky fields. — • 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

L. angustifoUum (Narrow-leaved Flax. 

Pale F.). — Leaves very narrow, tapering to 
a point ; sepals elliptical, pointed, 3-ribbed. 
Like the last, but distinctly marked by its 
sharp-pointed sepals and smaller, lighter 
blue flowers. Sandy pastures in the 
southern and western counties, common. — 
Fl. June, July. Annual or Perennial. 

3. L. usitatissinmm (Common Flax).— 
This is the flax of commerce, and, though 
a native plant, is not unfrequently found in cultivated ground. 

Linum Angustifoltum 
{Narrow-leaved Flax) 



is distinguished from the preceding by its somewhat broader and 
more distant leaves, by its stems being mostly sohtary, instead of 
several from the same root, by its notched petals, and by its larger 
size, — Fl. Summer. Annual. 

Leaves opposite 
4. L. Catharlicum (Cathartic Flax). — Leaves oblong, lower ones 
broader ; sepals pointed. Very different in habit and size from 
any of the preceding ; stems slender, usually erect, rarely exceeding 
6 inches in height, and bearing numerous small white flowers, which 
grow in loose panicles and droop before expansion. Dry pastures, 
abundant. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

2. Radiola {Flax Seed) 

I. R. niillegrana (All Seed, Thyme- 
leaved Flax Seed).— Pe/rt/s 4, same 
length as sepals ; leaves minute, oppo- . 
site. The only British species. One of ^ 
the most minute of British flowering 
plants, never exceeding 3 inches in 
height. Stems repeatedly forked, and 
bearing a large number of small white 
flowers, which, as the plants generally 

grow many together, often prevent its Kadiola Millegrana 
being overlooked. Damp heaths, not (All Seed, Thyme-leaved 
uncommon. — Fl. July, August. Annual. ^^"''' ^^'^'^^ 

Natural Order XVI 
MALVACE.F;.— The Mallow Tribe 

Sepals 5, more or less united at the base, valvate in bud, often 
enclosed in an involucre of tracts which have the appearance of an 
outer calyx ; petals equalling in number the sepals, twisted when 
in bud ; stamens numerous, united by their filaments into a tube ; 
ovary formed of several carpels united in a radiate manner ; styles 
equal in number to the carpels, either distinct or united ; capsules 
(in all the British .species) one-seeded, arranged in a whorl round the 
styles. A large and important family of herbaceous plants, shrubs, 
and frees, with divided alternate leaves, which are furnished with 
stipules and axillary flowers. They arc most abundant in the tro- 
pical regions, where they form a large proportion of the vegetation, 
and gradually decrease towards the poles. According to Lindley, 
the number of species hitherto discovered amounts to about a thou- 
sand, all of which agree in containing a large quantity of mucilage, 
and being totally destitute of unwholesome qualities. In some 


species this mucilage, extracted by boiling the plant, especially the 
root, is employed medicinally in allaying irritation, both external 
and internal. Some few are used as food„. The bark of others 
affords an excellent substitute for hemp. The cotton of commerce 
is obtained from the appendage of the seeds of several species of 
Gossypium, a family belonging to this Order. As ornamental gar- 
den flowers, Malope, several species of Hibiscus, and the Hollyhock 
are well known. The number of stove species in cultivation is very 

1. Malva (Mallow). — Styles numerous ; bracts of involucre en- 
closing calyx 3; the true calyx 5-cleft. (Name from the Greek, 
malacJu, soft, from the emollient properties of the mucilage which 
it contains.) 

2. Lavatera (Tree Mallow). — S/y/es numerous ; bracts ot involucre 
3, joined at the base ; the true calyx 5-cleft. (Named in honour of 
the two Lavaiers, friends of Tournefort.) 

3. Alth.ea (Marsh Mallow). — Styles numerous : involucre with 
6-9 brads. (Name from the Greek, altho, to cure, from its healing 

I. Malva (Mallow) 

1. M. rotundifolia (Dwarf Mallow). — Stem prostrate ; leaves 
roundish, heart-shaped, with 5 shallow lobes ; fruit-stalks bent 
down ; fruit downy ; distinguished by its prostrate stems and 
clusters of small, pale lilac axillary flowers. Waste places, not 
uncommon. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 

2. M. sylvestris (Common Mallow). — Stem ascending or erect ; 
root-leaves kidney-sha]ied with 7 acute lobes ; fruit-stalks erect ; 
fruit not downy, wrinkled. A robust herbaceous plant 1-3 feet high, 
with large downy, lobed, but not deeply divided leaves, branched 
stems, and clusters of showy purple axillary flowers. When the 
flowers first expand the plant is handsome, but as the season ad- 
vances the leaves lose their deep green hue and the stems put on a 
ragged appearance. Roadsides and waste ground, common. — 
Fl. June to August. Biennial. 

3. M. moschata (Musk Mallow). — Stem erect, 12-18 inches high ; 
root-leaves kidney-shaped, deeply 5 or 7-lobcd, and cut ; stem-leaves 
deeply 5-lobed, and variously cut into numerous narrow segments ; 
bracts of the involucre very narrow ; fruit hairy. Whole plant 
hairy, light green, with large handsome rose-coloured flowers, which 
are crowded towards the summit of the stem; the foliage emits a 
faint musky odour, especially in hot weather ; a vv'hite variety is 
not uncommon in gardens. Hedges and borders of fields, not very 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

Musk ^rallow 


Dwarf Mallow 

C'nniiMon Mallow 



Lavatera Arborea (Tree Mallow) 

2. Lavatera (Tree Mallow) 

1. L. arhorea (Tree Mallow). — A 
tall, handsome plant 2 or 3-12 feet 
high, with a thick, almost woody 
stem ; soft, downj^ angular leaves, 
and abundance of purple flowers, 
resembling those of the Common 
Mallow, but somewhat smaller and 
of a deeper colour towards the 
centre. C3n sea-cliffs and msulated 
rocks on several })arts of the south 
and west coast. — Fl. July to Octo- 
ber. Biennial. 

3. Ai.TH.EA {Marsh Mallow) 

I. A. officinalis (Common Marsh 

Mallow). — Le:ires 3-5-lobed, soft 

and downy on both sides. Readily 

distinguished from any others of 

the Mallow Tribe growing in Britain 

by the numerous narrow bracts of the in- 
volucre, by the hoary down which thickly 
clothes the stems and foliage, and by the 
munerous, somewhat small, bluish-coloured 
flowers. Marshes, especially near the sea. 
— Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

\ 2. A. hirsiita (Hispid Marsh Mallow). — A 
S^ \ rare species found near Cobham, Kent, and 
r ; one or two other pla:ces, but not considered 
/ a native. Stems erect, slender, about a fool 
high, covered, like the leaves, with long 
hairs ; the mauve-pink flowers solitary, in 
the axils of the ui)pcr leaves. — Fl. summer. 
Alth-9iA Officinalis 
(Common Marsh Mallow) 

Natural Order XVI 1 
TILIACEifs. — The Lime Tribe 

Sepals 4 or 5, valvate when in bud ; petals equalling the sepals 
in number, often with a little pit at the base, sometimes wanting ; 
stamens numerous ; ovary of 2-10 united, rarely distinct carpels ; 
style I, with as many stigmas as carpels ; capsule with one or more 
seeds in each cell. 

The plants belonging to this Natural Order are mostly trees or 


shrubs. They all have a mucilaginous, wholesome juice, and many 
of them are remarkable for the toughness of the fibres of the inner 
bark. The East Indian genus Corchorus supplies jute ; whilst the 
Lime or Linden tree furnishes the material of which, in Russia, 
bast mats are made. 

I. TiLiA (Lime). — Sepals 5, soon falling off ; petals 5, with or 
without a scale at the base outside ; ovary 5-celled ; style i ; capsule 
i-celled, not opening by valves, 2-seeded. {Name of uncertain 

I. TiLlA {The Lime or Linden tree) 

I. T. Europaa (Common Lime). — Leaves obliquely heart-shaped, 
smooth except for small tufts of downy hair beneath ; peduncles 
springing from a leafy bract ; flowers very fragrant, of a grayish 

white colour ; capsules smooth. 
This is the common Lime of avenues 
and parks, and is a doubtful 
native. A more probable native 
is 7". parvifolia (Small-leaved Lime), 
whose small leaves are glaucous on 
' the under side, and the fruit 
downy and slightly ribbed. Another 
variety much planted, though pro- 
bably not indigenous, is T. grandi- 
folia (Large-leaved Lime). The 
leaves, which are much larger than 
in either of the foregoing, are downy 
beneath ; the 3'oung twigs are 
hairy, and the fruit downy and 
prominently ribbed. 

TiLiA PARViFOLi.'i (Small-leavcd 

Natur.\l Order XVIIl 

HYPERICACEjE.— The St. John's Wort Tribe 

Sepals 4 or 5, not falling off, unequal ; petals of the same number 
as the sepals, unequal-sided, twisted when in bud ; stamens numer- 
ous, united at the base into 3 or 5 sets ; ovary single ; styles 3-5 ; 
fruit a capsule or berry, of 3 or 5 valves and cells, the valves curved 
inwards ; seeds minute, numerous. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with 
opposite leaves, generally marked with pellucid dots, and yellow 
flowers, inhabiting most parts of the world. Most of the species 
are aromatic and resinous, and some contain a yellow juice, which 
has been medicinally used for its astringent and tonic qualities. 
The only British genus is that which gives the Order its name — 

I. Hypericum (St. John's Wort). — Sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; stamens 

' , / 

-^ ' 


Marsh St John's Wort 

T, , i , „i T , Large-flowerfJ St John'-i Wort 

Perforate,! St .7ohn'« Wort Trailing St John's Wort 

Hairy St John's Wort 


numerous ; filaments united into 3 or 5 sets ; styles 3 or rarely 5 ; 
capsule 3 or 5-celled. (Name from the Greek, hypericon, the name 
of the plant.) 

I. Hypekicum (St. John's^ Wort) 

1. H. calyciniim (Large-ifowered St. John's Wort). — A low shrub 
about a foot high, with oblong, blunt leaves, and handsome yellow 
flowers 3-4 inches across ; stamens in 5 sets and very numerous ; 
stems usually not branched, but sometimes once branched low 
down. Common in gardens and shrubberies, and naturalized in 
several places. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

2. H. (indrosiemiim (Common Tutsan). — Stem shrubby, two- 
edged ; leaves egg-shaped, sessile ; sepals brbad, unequal ; styles 3 ; 
capsule berry-like. A handsome shrubby plant, 2-3 feet high, 
conspicuous with clusters of largish yellow flowers, and afterwards 
with glossy, berry-like capsules. The leaves have a strong resinous 
smell, which they retain for some time after clrying. Woods and 
hedges in the south and west of Great Britain, but not very common. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

3. H. perforatum (Perforated St. John's Wort). — Stem herba- 
ceous, erect, 2-edged, about 18 inches high ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 
copiously perforated with pellucid dots ; sepals erect, lanceolate, 
acute, with glandular dots ; petals marked with black dots ; styles 
3. The yellow flowers in a terminal corymb. Woods and hedges, 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

4. H. dubmm (Imperforate St. John's Wort). — Stem herbaceous, 
erect, 4-sided, with rounded angles ; leaves destitute of dots ; sepals 
reflexed, elliptical, blunt. Mountainous places ; very like the last, 
but not so common, and well distinguished by the above charac- 
ters. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

5. H. quadrangulum (Square-stalked St. John's Wort). — Best 
distinguished from the last two, which it much resembles, by the 
prominently 4-angled stems. Leaves oblong, egg-shaped, with 
pellucid dots ; sepals erect, lanceolate ; stem 1-2 feet high, erect, 
lierbaceous, with flat panicles of pale yellow flowers. Wet places, 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

:6. H. humifusum (Trailing St. John's Wort). — Stems prostrate ; 
leaves oblong, obtuse, perforated with pellucid dots ; flowers some- 
what cymose, small, pale yellow ; .stamens not numerous ; petals 
and sepals with a few black dots ; stems 3-9 inches long. Walls 
and gravelly banks, common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

7. H. linarifolium (Flax-leaved St. John's Wort). — A rare species, 
with slender erect stems g or 10 inches high ; very narrow leaves, 
marked with a few black dots beneath ; and corymbs of bright 
yellow flowers, larger than in H. humi/usmii ; stamens about 30. 


Found only on the coasts of Devon and Cornwall. — Fl. summer. 

8. H. pnlchrum (Slender St. John's Wort). — Stem erect, round 
smooth, slender, 1-2 feet high ; leaves heart-shaped, embracing 
the stem, marked with pellucid dots ; sepals obtuse, fringed with 
black sessile glands. A slender plant, with scanty foliage, and 
golden yellow flowers, which, when in bud, are stained externally 
with red. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

9. H. hirS'Utum (Hairy St. John's Wort). — Stent erect, nearly 
round, downy ; leaves shortly stalked and downy beneath ; flowers 
like H. pulchrtrnt, but a lighter yellow, and the plant rather 
taller. Woods, especially in chalky or limestone soil, common. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

ID. H. montanimi (Mountain St. John's Wort). — Stem erect, 
round, smooth ; leaves oblong, sessile, smooth, with black dots 
near the margin on the under side ; sepals acute, fringed with 
shortly-stalked glands ; growing about 2 feet high, and at once 
distinguished from any of the preceding species by the black 
fringe of its sepals. Limestone hills, not common. — Fl. July. 

II. H. Elodes (Marsh St. John's Wort);. — Stem creeping, 6-12 
inches long ; branches erect ; leaves roundish, and, like the stems 
which they clasp, densely clothed with, shaggy down ; flowers few, 
pale yellow, remaining open but a short time. Spongy bogs ; 
not uncommon in Western England. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

Natural Order XIX 
ACERACEyE.— The Maple Tribe 

Really a tribe of the Natural Order, Sapindaceee, in another 
tribe of which occur the Horse-chestnut [HippocastanecB] and the 
Litchi. The Acers are trees with opposite, stalked leaves, which 
are veined in a palmate manner. Calyx divided into 5 parts 
(occasionally 4-9) ; petals of the same number ; stamens about 8, 
inserted on a flattened ring beneath the ovary ; ovary 2-lobed ; style 
i; stigmas 2; fruit 2-lobed, 2-celled, not bursting; loles winged 
on the outside ; cells 1-2-seeded. Found only in the temperate 
regions of the northern liemisphere ; several species abound in 
a sweet juice, which in North America is manufactured into maple 

I. Acer (Maple). — Calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; capsules 2, each 
furnished with a long wing. (Name from the Celtic, ac, a point, 
on account of the hardness of the wood, which was used for making 
spears and other shariD-pointed instruments.) 



I. Acj:r {Maple) 

1. A. campeslre (Common Maple). — Leaves 
5-lobed ; lobes lilunlish, scarcely cut ; f7;(s- 
ters of flowers erect. Woods and hedges ; 
a small tree, with very rugged corky bark, 
full of deep cracks.— Fl. May, June, Tree. 

2. A. pseiiiln-plalanii.s (Greater Maple or 
Sycamore). -Leaves 5dobed ; lobes unequally 
serrated ; cluslers of flowers drooping. A 
large and handsome tree, introduced into 
England belore the fourli'enth century, and 
now completely naturalized. Thv'; name Syca- 
more was given to it by the older botanists, 
who erroneously believed it to be identical 
with the Sycamore or Mulbeirv-fig of Palestine, 
which it somewhat resembles in the size and 
form of its leaves. — Fl. May. Tree. 

Acer Campestre 
[Common Maph) 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus {Great Maple 
or Sycamore) 

^onium belong the innumerable 

N.\TURAL Order XX 


Flowers regular in all the 
British genera except Impatiens ; 
sepals 5' overlapping when in 
bud ; petals 5, twisted when 
in bud ; stamens 5-10, generally 
united by their filaments ; ovary 
of 5 carpels placed round a long 
awl-shaped beak ; sHgmas ^ ; fyiiit 
beaked, tapering into 5 capsules, 
each of which is i or more 
seeded, and terminates in the 
hardened style, which finally 
separates at the base and curls 
up, carrying the capsule with it. 
For characteristics of the irregular 
flowers, see Impatiens. An ex- 
tensive Order of annual or per- 
ennial herbs and shrubs, in which 
some botanists have included the 
nearly allied Balsams, Oxalis, and 
Trop(Tolums. To the genus Pelar- 
varietie.^ of handsome flowering 

plants, which, under the name of Geraniums, are so ornamental a.s 
greenhouse or window flowers. These greenhouse Geraniums were 


chiefly derived from South Africa, but have mostly been cultivated 
out of all recognition of the original forms. There are very many 
species of the Oxalis tribe in South Africa, which are chiefly notice- 
able for the great beauty of their flowers and the oxahc acid con- 
tained in their leaves. A few of them are cultivated as greenhouse 
and window plants, the most popular being that known as the 
Bermuda Buttercup, which has yellow flowers. The tubers of some 
of them are edible. 

1. Geranium [Q,r&ne's-h\\\). —Stamens lo, 5 of which are alter- 
nately larger, and have glands at the base ; fruit beaked, separat- 
ing into 5 carpels, each with a long awn, which is naked (not bearded 
on the inside). (Name from the Greek, geranos, a crane, to the 
beak of which bird the fruit bears a fancied resemblance.) 

2. Erodium (Stork's-bill). — Stamens 10, 5 of which are imper- 
fect ; glands 5, at the base of the perfect stamens ; jruit beaked, 
separating into 5 carpels, each with a long spiral awn, which is 
bearded on the inside. (Name from the Greek, erodion, a heron, 
to the beak of which bird the fruit bears a fancied resemblance.) 

3. Oxalis (Wood Sorrel). — Sepals 5, united below; petals 5, 
often united below ; stamens united by the base of their filaments ; 
styles 5 ; capsules 5-celled, angular. (Name from the Greek, oxys, 
sharp or acid, from the acidity of the leaves.) 

4. Impatiens (Balsam). — The flowers of this genus are so irregu- 
lar that it is almost impossible to define the characters without 
employing terms which would be out of place in a work which pro- 
fesses to give merely a popular description of British wild flowers. 
The following description, however, of the only species really indi- 
genous to Britain will serve to identify any others which are likely 
to fall in the reader's way. An annual succulent plant, much 
swollen at the joints, with a solitary branched stein, and egg-shaped, 
deeply serrated leaves. From the axil of each of the upper leaves 
proceeds a flower-stalk, taking a horizontal direction, and hiding 
itself beneath the leaf. Each flower-stalk bears about four droop- 
ing flowers, which expand one at a time, and last a very little while. 
The calyx consists of two coloured, nearly round, concave sepals, 
with an oblique point ; within these, on the side of the flower 
nearest the stem, is inserted a horn-like petal or sepal — for botanists 
are undecided which to call it — wide at the mouth, and curved down- 
wards at the extremity ; on each side of this is a large wavy petal, 
unequally lobed, the largest lobe next the spur, the smaller being 
easily separable, and having the appearance of a distinct petal. 
Opposite the stem is a very broad, wavy petal, and at its base are 
five stamens with short filaments united just beneath the anthers 
into a ring, and enclosing a 5-celled ovary. The sepals and petals 
soon fall off, when the ovary enlarges to a 5-celled, 5-valved capsule, 
externally resembling a cylindrical, strongly ribbed pod. As the 


Bloody Crane's-bill 
Meadow Crane's-bill 

Dove's. foot Crane's-bill 

Dusky Crane's-liill 


seeds approach maturity the valves of the capsule acquire an 
extraordinary elastic power, and if touched, instantaneously curl 
into a spiral form, and spring with considerable force many feet 
from the jilant, dropping the seeds by the way. 

I. Geranium (Crane' s-hill) 

1. G. sanguineitm (Bloody Crane's-bill). — Rool-leaves nearly 
round, with 7 deeply cut lobes, each of which is 3-cleft; stem- 
leaves 5 or 3-lobed. An exceedingly handsome plant, with hairy 
stems about a foot high, abundant foliage, and large bright purple 
flowers, borne singly on slender peduncles. Limestone and mag- 
nesian rocks, not common. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

2. G. phceum (Dusky Crane's-bill). — Stem erect ; flowers panicled ; 
sepals slightly pointed ; petals not notched as they are in the fore- 
going species, very spreading ; capsules keeled, hairy below, 
wrinkled above. In woods and thickets, rare, and said to be only 
really wild in Yorkshire and Westmoreland, but not an uncommon 
garden plant; remarkable for the dingy, almost black hue of its 
flowers. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

3. G. sylvaticum (Wood Crane's-bill). — Stem^ erect, 1-2 feet or 
more high, forked, with a corymbose panicle of purple flowers ; 
2 flowers on each peduncle ; leaves palmate, 7-lobed ; lohes cut and 
serrated ; stamens awl-shaped, fringed ; fruit-stalks erect. Woods 
and pastures, chiefly in the north, rare.— -Fl. June, July. Per- 

4. G. pratense (Meadow Crane's-bill). — Stem erect ; leaves pal- 
mate, 7-lobed ; lohes cut and serrated ; stamens smooth, tapering 
from a broad base ; capsules hairy all over ; fruit-stalks bent down. 
The largest British species, growing in moist pastures ; about 
2 feet high, with large and handsome purplish blue flowers. — ■ 
Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

5. G. pyrenaicum (Mountain Crane's-bill). — Stem spreading, 
downy ; root-leaves kidney-shaped, 5 to 7-lobed ; lohes oblong, 
obtuse, 3-cleft, and toothed at the end ; petals notched, twice as 
long as the pointed sepals ; 2-3 feet high. Well distinguished by 
the thick down on its stems and leaves, and by its numerous, rather 
small, purple flowers, with cleft petals. Roadsides and meadows, 
not common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

6. G. Robertianum (Herb-Robert). — Stem, spreading, 6-12 inches 
high ; leaves ternate or quinate ; leaflets deeply cut, the segments 
with minute points ; sepals angular, hairy, pointed ; capsules 
wrinkled and hairy. One of the most generally diffused and best 
known species, well distinguished by its red, liairy, succulent stems, 
and leaves which towards autumn acquire the same hue, and by 
its small, elegantly veined, bright reddish purple flowers. The scent 


of the whole plant is strong and unpleasant. Road-sides and hedges, 
very common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

7. G. Lucidum (Shining Crane's-bill). ^Smooth and glossy. 
Leaves nearly round, 5-lobed ; sepals angular and wrinkled. A 
beautiful little species, a few inches high, with small rose-coloured 
flowers, and shining stems and leaves which are generally tinged 
with bright red. Old walls and stony places, common. — Fl. all 
the summer. Annual. 

8. G. molle (Dove's-foot Crane's-bill). — Downy with soft hair. 
Leaves roundish, lobed, and cut ; petals notched, little longer than 
the obtuse sepals ; flowers 2 on each peduncle ; capsules wrinkled ; 
seeds smooth ; ste>ns spreading, and seldom a foot long. Easily 
distinguished from any of the preceding by its prostrate habit, 
downy herbage, and small light purple flowers. Fields and waste 
places, common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

9. G. pusillum (Small-flowered Crane's-bill). — Downy with soft 
hair. Leaves roundish, lobed, but not so deeply as in G. molle, the 
lobes cut ; petals notched ; stamens 10, 5 of which are usually 
without anthers ; capsules keeled, downy, not wrinkled ; seeds 
smooth. Resembling G. molle in habit, but smaller. Waste ground, 
common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

10. G. rotundifoliuni (Round-leaved Crane's-bill). — Downy with 
soft hair. Leaves roundish, lobed, but not so deeply as in G. molle, 
and cut ; petals entire ; capsules hairy, not wrinkled ; seeds dotted. 
Fields and waste places, not common, but perhaps often confounded 
with the last, which it much resembles in size and habit. — Fl. June 
to August. Annual. 

11. G. dissectum (Jagged-leaved Crane's-.bill). — Stems spreading, 
hairy ; leaves roundish, more or less hairy ; variously divided into 
numerous jagged, narrow segments ; sepals with long points ; 
petals notched ; capsules scarcely wrinkled, hairy ; seeds dotted ; 
flowers purple. Distinguished by its deeply cut, hairy, not downy 
leaves, and the exceedingly short pedicles. Fields and waste 
ground. — Fl. aU the summer. Annual. 

12. G. columhinum (Long-stalked Crane's-bill). — Stems decum- 
bent, roughish, with short hairs ; leaves deeply 5-lobed, the lobes 
cut into many long, narrow, acute segments ; flower-stalks very 
long ; sepals with long points ; capsules smooth. Distinguished 
from the last by its larger bluish rose-coloured flowers, which grow 
on very long and slender stalks, and by its smooth capsules. Waste 
ground, not so common as the last. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

N.B. — Particular care should be taken when comparing specimens 
with the above descriptions to examine the roo/-leaves ; for the 
s)!eOT-leaves vary, even on the same plant, to such a degree as to 
defy description. 

Mountain Crane's-biU 

Herb Eobert 

JaRged-leaveil Orane's-liill 


2. Erodium {Stork' s-bill) 

1. E. cicutarium (Hemlock Stork's-bill). — Stems prostrate, 
hair}' ; stalks manj'-flowered ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets sessile, 
pinnatifid, cut. A straggling plant, willi.much the habit of the 
preceding genus, but distinguished at first sight by its pinnate 
leaves and umheh of lilac (sometimes white) flowers, the petals 
of which soon fall off. Waste places, especially near the sea ; 
common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual, though occasionally 

2. E. moschatum (Musk Stork's-bill). — Stems prostrate, hairy ; 
stalks many flowered ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets nearly sessile, un- 
equally cut ; perfect stamens, toothed at the ba,se. The whole 
plant much shorter than the last, of a deeper green, somewhat 
clammy to the touch, and emitting, when handled, a strong scent 
of musk. Flowers bright magenta. Waste places, especially near 
the sea. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

3. E. maritimum (Sea Stork's-bill). — Steins prostrate, hairy ; 
stalks I to 3-floweied ; leaves oblong, heart-shaped, variously 
lobed and notched ; petals minute or wanting. Whole plant 
roughish with minute hairs, and sending out several leafy stems, 
which lie remarkably close to the ground ; the leaves are not pinnate 
as in the other British species, and the flowers are rarely found with 
petals. Warm places near the sea, not uncommon in the west of 
England. Like many other seaside plants it is not unfrequently 
met with in inland mountainous districts, occurring plentifully on 
Dartmoor, in Devonshire, many miles from the sea. — Fl. all the 
summer. Perennial. 

The beaks attached to the capsules of the stork's-bills become 
spirally twisted when ripe, often springing tb a considerable distance 
from the parent plant. They are furnished on the inner side with 
long elastic brisiles, and, l)eing hygromelric, uncurl when moist- 
ened. The combmed action of the beak ajid bristles thus gives to 
the seed the power of locomotion at every change in the moisture 
of the atmosphere. A twisted capsule, if moistened and laid on 
a sheet of paper, will, in its effort to straighten itself, soon crawl an 
inch or more away from the spot on which it was laid, 

3. OxALis {M'ood Sorrel) 

I. 0. Acetosella (Common Wood Sorrel). — Leaves radicle, ternate, 
hairy ; scape with two bracts about the middle, single flowered ; 
root creeping, scaly. An elegant little plant, with delicate drooping 
clover-like leaves, and white or lilac- veined floieers, growing abun- 
dantly in woods and shady places. The leaves, though not so 
sensitive as some foreign species, fold together at night. This 
plant is supposed by many to be the true shamrock which was used 



by St. Patrick to illustrate familiarly the doctrine of the Trinity, 
though at the present day Trijolium repens is generally used for 
that purpose. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

2. 0. corniculata (Yellow Wood Sorrel). — Stem prostrate ; flowers 
yellow, smaller than 0. Acetosella, and borne in an umbel of 2-5 
on a slender axillary peduncle. Perhaps truly wild in some parts of 

the south of England, and not un- 

frequent as a garden escape elsewhere. 

■ •,^^, ■ — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

4. Impatiens {Balsam) 

I. /. noli-me-tangere (Yellow Balsam, 
Touch-me-not). s — Characters described 
above. The name, signifying impa- 
tient, was given from the sudden curling 
of the valves of the capsule when 
touched. It is an elegant plant, 1-2 
feet high, with large flowers of a delicate 
yellow, beautifully spotted with orange 
colour. It grows in moist, shady woods, 
and on the stony banks of rivers in 
Yorkshire and Westmoreland. — Fl. July, 
August. AnruiaJ. 

A variety with orange-coloured 
flowers, spotted with red-brown, has 
been called I. fnlva. 

Impatiens Noli-me-Tangere 
( Yellow Balsam, Touch-me-not) 

Sub-Class II 


Sepals distinct or united ; petals distinct ; stamens inserted on 
the calyx, or close to its base. 

Natural Order XXI 


Sepals 4-5, imbricated when in bud, inserted on a fleshy disk ; 
petals and stamens equal in number to the sepals ; stamens alternate 
with the petals ; ovary sunk in the disk, 2-5-cclled ; frtiii either a 
capsule of 2-5 cells opening with valves, or berry-like ; seeds often 
wrapped in a covering distmct from the capsule (called an arillus.) 
A rather large number of plants are included in this Order, but 
not many of great interest. They are natives of the warmer parts 
of Europe, North America, and Asia, and a great number inhabit 


Long -stalked Craue's-bill 
Mwyk Stork's-bill Hemlock Stork s-bill 

Wood Sorrel 
Shiuiiig Craue's-biU. 



the Cape of Good Hope. A few also occur in Chili, Peru, and New 
Holland. Many of them possess an acrid, stimulant principle. The 
green leaves of one species are said to be eaten by the Arabs to 
produce watchfulness, and a sprig of it is believed to be, to the per- 
son who carries it, a protection from the plague. The only British 
species, the Spindle Tree, is most remarkable for its pink-lobed 
seed-vessels, which in autumn render the tree a conspicuous object. 
The English name, Spindle Tree, is derived from the use made of its 
very compact wood. 

I. EuoNYMUS (Spindle Tree). — Capsule 
3-5-angled, with 3-5 cells and valves; seeds 
solitary in each cell, coated with a fleshy 
arilliis. (Name from Fiiouyme, the mother 
of the Furies, in allusion to the injurious 

I. EuoNYMUS {Spindle Tree) 
I. E. EuropcBHS (Common Spindle Tree). — 
Petals usually 4, oblong, acute ; stamens 
usually 4 ; branches angular, smooth ; leaved 
broadly lanceolate, minutely serrated. A 
hedge and wood shrub, well marked bv its 
clusters of small greenish flowers, glossy 
leaves, green bark, and above all by its deeply 
lobed seed-vessels, which when ripe are rose- 
coloured, and on opening disclose the seeds 
curiously wrapped in the scarlet arillus. The 
wood, like that of the wild cornel and guel- 
der rose, is much used for making skewers. 
— Fl. Mav. Shrub. 


(Common Spindle Tree) 

Natural Order XXII 
RHAMNACE^.— Buckthorn Tribe 

Calyx 4-5-cleft, valvate when in bud ; petals minute, inserted into 
the tliroat of the calyx ; stamens 4-5, opposite the petals ; ovary 
superior, or half superior, 2 to 4-ceiled, surrounded by a fleshy disk ; 
fruit either fleshy and not bursting, or dry, and separating into 3 
divisions ; seeds several. Trees or shrubs, with simple alternate 
leaves, minute stipules, and small greenish floK'ers. Some species of 
Zizyphus produce the jujube, well known in this country as a sweet- 
meat. Z. lotus is famous for being the plant which afforded food 
to the ancient Lotophagi, or Lotus-eaters. Homer states that it 
was so delicious, that whatever stranger once tasted it immediately 
forgot his friends and native country and desired only to dwell 
within reach of it. 



Only two plants of this tribe are indigenous to Britain, and 
belong to the genus Rhamnus ; their berries are medicinal, but 

too violent in their effects to be used 
with safety. 

I. Rhamnus (Buckthorn). — Calyx 
vase-Hke, 4 to 5-cleft ; petals 4-5 (some- 
times wanting) ; stamens 4-5, inserted 
with the petals into the throat of Ihe 
calyx ; berry 2 t® 4-celled. (Name from 
the Greek, rhamnos, a branch.) 


I. Rhamnus (Bnckthorn) 

. catharticiis (Common Buck- 

thorn). — Branches terminating in thorns; 
flowers 4-cleft, dioecious (stamens and 
pistils on separcite plants) ; leaves egg- 
shaped, sharply serrated ; berry 4- 
seeded. A spreading shrub with dense 
clusters of small green flowers in the 
axils of the leaves. Berries black. 
These are powerfully cathartic. If 
gathered before lliey are ripe they yield 
a yellow dye ; when ripe they form, if 

mixed with gum arable and lime-water, the 

green colour known under the name of 

Bladder-green. Woods and thickets, not 

uncommon. — Fl. May. Shrub. 

2. R. Fraitgiila (Alder Buckthorn). — 
Branches without thorns ; flmeers 5-cleft ; 
stamens and pistils on the same flower ;= 
leaves entire, smooth ; berry 2-seeded. A 
rather slender shrub, 6-10 feet high, with 
s nooth, blackish branches, deep green leaves, 
a:id small greenish flowers, which are not 
so densely tufted as in the last. Woods 
and thickets, commoner than the last. 
— Fl. May. Shrub. 

Rhamnus Catharticus 
(Common Buckthorn) 

Rhamnus Frangula [Alder 

Natural Order XXIII 
LEGUMINOS/E.— Pea and Bean Tribe 

Calyx 5-cleft, with the odd lobe in front ; petals 5, the upper one 
called the standard enclosing the other four when in bud ; the two 
side ones called the wings enclose the two lowest ones of all, which 
are joined along their lower margin, and form what is called the 





keel ; stamens lo, tlieir filaments either united into a tube or form- 
ing two sets of 9 and i ; ovary, style, and stigma single ; seed-vessel 
a 2-valved, sometimes imperfectly jointed pod, or legume ; seeds 
on the upper seam of the pod-valves. A highly interesting order 
of plants, containing as many as 6500 species, which vary in size 
from minute herbs to vast trees with trunks upwards of 80 feet 
in circumference. In structure, properties, colour of flowers, and 
range of growth they vary scarcely less than in dimensions ; they 
are found in all parts of the known world, except St. Helena and 
another remote island. Many species, under the general name of 
pulse, afford most nutritious food — for exarnple. Peas, Beans, and 
Lentils ; others supply valuable fodder for cattle, as Clover, Vetches, 
and Lucerne ; Rosewood, Logwood, and Acacia offer examples of 
timber ; Gum Arabic, Catechu, Senna, Kino, Liquorice, Balsam of 
Tolu, and Tamarmds are the products of 'other species ; Tonka, 
Bean, and Balsam of Peru are well-known perfumes ; several 
species of Indigofera afford the valuable article of commerce Indigo ; 
and in Persia and Bokhara a tree called Camel's Thorn produces 
abundance of Manna, which in those countries is an important 
article of food. Other species possess medicinal properties of 
various kinds ; not a few are poisonous ; and it is worthy of re- 
mark that some, the seeds of which are eminently nutritious, have 
properties of an opposite nature residing in other parts of the plant. 
The roots of the Kidney Bean, for instance, are dangerously nar- 
cotic. Many plants belonging to the Mimosa group display peculiar 
irritability in their pinnate leaves. This is particularly the case 
with M. sensitiva and M. fiidica, which are commonly called sen- 
sitive plants. Almost all the plants of the Order which have com- 
pound leaves fold them together at night. In some foreign species 
of Leguminosje the legume loses its characteristic form and assumes 
the appearance of a drupe, the papilionaceous form of the flower re- 
maining ; in others the petals lose the papilionaceous arrangement, 
but the seed-vessel retains the form of a legume. AU the British 
species, however, arc decidedly papilionaceous, and the principal 
varieties of form in the pod are those of the Bird's-foot and others, 
where it is imperfectly jointed ; and in Medick, where it is often 
spirally twisted, so as to resemble a snail-shell. The number of 
British species amounts to nearly seventy, of which two species of 
Furze, three of Genista, and one of Broom are shrubs ; the rest 
are herbaceous. 

1. Ulex (Furze). — Calyx of 2 sepals, with 2 minute bracts at the 
base ; legume swollen, few-seeded, scarcely longer than the calyx. 
(Name from the Celtic, ec or ac, a prickle.) 

2. Genista (Green- weed). — Calyx 2-hpped, the upper lip 
2-cleft, the lower with 3 teeth ; standard oblong ; style awl- 
shaped ; legume swollen or flat. (Name from the Celtic, gen, a 


shrub ; Planta Genista originated the distinctive name of the 
Plantagenet family.} 

3. Sarothamnus (Broom). — Calyx 2-lipped, the upper hp with 2, 
the lower with 3 teeth ; standard broadly ovate ; style thickened 
upwards ; legume flat, many-seeded. (Name, the Greek name of 
the plant.) 

4. Ononis (Rest-harrow). — Calyx 5-cleft, its segments very 
narrow ; keel beaked ; style threadlike ; legume swollen, few- 
seeded. (Name from the Greek, onos, an ass, by which animal the 
plant is eaten.) 

5. Medicago (Medick). — Legume sickle-shaped, or spirally 
twisted. (Name of Greek origin, and denoting that some plant of 
the family was introduced from Media.) 

6. Melilotus (Melilot). — Calyx with 5 nearly equal teeth ; 
petals distinct, soon falhng off ; legume of few seeds longer than the 
calyx. (Name from Mel, honey, and lotus, the plant so called.) 

7. Trigonella (Fenugreek). — Calyx with 5 nearly equal teeth ; 
-petals distinct ; keel ol)tuse ; legume straight or nearly so, many- 
seeded. (Name in Greek denoting three-angled, from the form of 
the corolla.) 

8. Trifolium (Trefoil).— Ca/y.r with 5 unequal teeth ; petals 
combined by their claws, and persistent ; legume of few seeds, con- 
cealed in the calyx. (Name from tria, three, and folium, a leaf, 
each leaf being composed of 3 leaflets.) 

9. Lotus (Bird's-foot Trefoil). — Calyx with 5 nearly eq .al teeth ; 
keel beaked ; legume cylindrical, many-seeded, and imperfectly 
many-celled. (Name from the Greek, lotos.) 

10. Anthyt.i.ts (Tady's Fingers). — Stamens all united by their 
filaments ; calyx inflated, 5-toothed ; legume enclosed in the calyx. 
(Name from the Greek, ardhos, a flower, and ioulos, down, from the 
downy calyx.) 

11. OxYTROPiS. — Stamens in two sets, 9 and i ; keel of the corolla 
pointed ; legume more or less perfectly 2-celled. (Name from the 
Greek, oxys, sharp, and tropis, a keel.) 

12. Astragalus (Milk Vetch). — Stamens in 2 sets, 9 and i ; keel 
of the corolla blunt ; legume more or less perfectly 2-celled. (Name 
from the Greek, astragalos, a pastern bone, from the knotted form 
ol the root of the plant to which the name was originaUy given.) 

13. ViciA (Vetch). — Calyx 5-cleft ; style thread-like, or angular, 
with a small ring of down near the extremity, or a tuft on the 
under side, or glabrous. 

14. Lathyrus (Vetchling). — Calyx 5-cleft ; style flattened on the 
upper side, downy beneath the stigma. ^Name from the Greek, 
lathyros, a plant so called.) 


15. Ornithopus (Biid's-foot). — Legume curved, divided into 
many equal-sided joints, each of which contains a seed ; keel small, 
obtuse. (Name from the Greek, ornis, a bird, and fious, a foot, to 
which the tufts of seed-vessels bear a singular resemblance.) 

16. HiPPOCREPTS (Horse-shoe Vetch). — Legume composed of nu- 
merous crescent-shaped joints, so that each legume has many deep 
notches on one side ; keel narrowed into a beak. (Name from the 
Greek, hippos, a horse, and crepis, a shoe, from the form of the 
joints of the seed-vessels.) 

17. Onobrychis (Saint-loin). — Legume straight, i-celled, i- 
seeded, not opening, the lower edge fringed or winged. (Name 
from the Greek, onos, an ass, and brycho, to bray, it being supposed 
that the smell excites braying.) 

I. Ulex {Furze) 

1. U. Eui'opans (Common Furze, Gorse, or Whin). — Bracts ovate, 
not adhering closely to the calyx ; branches copiously beset with 
branched thorns. A much- branched, spreading shrub, almost leaf- 
less, except in its seedling state, when the leaves are composed of 
3 narrow, soft leaflets. It attains maturity in about four years, 
but in sheltered places continues to grow Until it reaches a height 
of from 13 to 18 feet. Its natural habit is, however, to grow on 
dry, exposed commons, which, in its flowering season, it covers with 
a gorgeous sheet of golden blossoms, entirely concealing its some- 
what unsightly branches. Perhaps no plant is so broadly charac- 
teristic of English scenery and the English climate as " Yellow 
Whin." It does not thrive in hot coimtries, and if removed to a 
much colder climate pines and dies ; it is rare even in the Highlands 
of Scotland. The seed-vessels burst elastically in hot weather with 
a crackling noise, scattering the seeds on alLsides. The calyx- teeth 
of this species are so closely united as to be scarcely visible. — ■ 
Fl. February to June. Shrub. 

A variety has been found in Ireland which does not flower freely, 
and also differs from the common form in having a soft and succu- 
lent instead of a rigid habit. This variety has been cultivated with 
success as fodder for sheep and oxen. A double-flowered variety is 
common in gardens. 

2. U. nanus (Dwarf Furze). — Calyx-teeth spreading ; bracts very 
minute, closely pressed to the calyx. A very distinct species from 
the last, with which, however, it is sometimes confounded. It may 
readily be distinguished by the above characters, by its being 
.smaller in all its parts, by the spreading wings of its orange-golden 
flowers, which, moreover, usually appear at the same season with 
the heath, a plant with which it loves to intertwine its branches. 
— Fl. August to November. Shrub. 


2. Genista (Green-we'ed) 

1. G. Anglica (Needle Green-weed, or Petty Whin). — Slcins 
thorny and leafless below ; leaves narrow, smooth ; legumes smooth, 
inflated. A low shrub, about a foot high, with reclining tough 
stems, which are armed at intervals with groups of slender, very 
sharp thorns. The upper branches are destitute of thorns, and 
produce leafy clusters of yellow flowers, which are remarkable for 
turning green in drying. — Fl. May, June. Shrub. 

2. G. tindoria (Dyer's Green-weed, Woad-waxen). — Thornless ; 
leaves narrow, acute, nearly smooth ; flowers forming short racemes, 
each springing from the axil of a bract ; legumes flattened, smooth. 
A low shrub about a foot high, with tough stems, bright green 
foliage, and yellow flowers on short stalks. It grows in heathy 
places and fields, varying considerably in luxuriance according to 
situation, and is used to dye yarn a yellow colour. — Fl. July, August. 

3. G. pilosa (Hairy Green-weed). — Thornless ; leaves narrow, ob- 
tuse, the lower ones often inversely heart-shaped, silky beneath ; 
flowers axillary, on short stalks ; legumes downy. A low shrub, 
with prostrate stems, which arc gnarled and much branched, and 
small yellow flowers. Heathy places, rare. — Fl. May, and again in 
the autumn. Shrub. 

3. Sarothamnus (Broom) 

I. S. scopariits (Common Broom). — The only British species, well 
distinguished by its slender, erect, angled branches, with small, 
scattered leaves, the lower ones stalked and occurring in threes, the 
upper ones sessUe and usually single. Flowers large, yellow, i or 2 
together in the leaf axils. Legumes when ripe nearly black, and 
hairy at the margin. — Fl. June. Shrub. Also known as Cytisus 

4. Ononis [Rest-harrow) 

I. 0. arvensis (Common Rest-harrow). — Stem shrubby, hairy ; 
leaflets oblong ; flowers axillary ; calyx much shorter than the 
corolla. A very variable plant, sometimes spreading on the ground 
and rooting at the joints ; at other times forming a small leafy bush. 
The roots are tough and very long, hence the English name. The 
branches often terminate in thorns ; the leaves are viscid ; the 
flowers of a bright rose-colour, and handsome. Barren, sandy 
places, common, especially near the sea. — FL all the summer. 

Several more or less distinct forms occur which have been vari- 
ously, classed as species and varieties, but they scarcely come 
within the scope of the present work. 


Dyer's Greeuwced Black Medluk 



2. 0. reditiata (Small Spreading Rest-harrow). — A small herba- 
ceous species, with pendulous, pale pink flowers, found only on the 
coast of Devonshire, near Tarbert, Galloway, and on the south-west 
coast of Scotland. — Fl. early summer. Annual. 

5. Medicago {Medick) 

1. M. jalcata (Sickle Medick). — A rare species found only in the 
eastern counties of England. Stem prostrate, 1-2 feet long ; 
leaflets oblong and tootlfed ; flowers large, yellow ; legumes sickle- 
shaped. — Fl. June, July. 

2. M. sativa (Lucerne). — Like the above, but more upright ; 
flowers usually blue or violet ; legumes spirally twisted. Largely 
cultivated as a fodder plant, and frequently found as an escape. 
— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. M. lupulina (Black Medick, or Nonsuch). — Leaflets inversely 
egg-shaped, finely toothed ; stipules scarcely notched ; flowers 
small, yellow, in dense oblong heads ; legumes rugged, i-seeded, 
kidney-shaped. A herbaceous plant with branching stems 12-18 
inches long, sparsely covered with soft hairs ; resembling in habit 
some of the smaller clovers, but distinguished from them by its 
legumes not being enclosed within the calyx. Legumes black, not 
spirally curved. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

4. M. denticulata (Toothed Medick). — Stems spreading ; leaflets 
inversely heart-shaped, smooth ; stipules jagged ; flowers small, 
yellow, 2-5 in a head ; legumes loosely 
spiral, edged with hooked prickles. Very 
rare. — Fl. April to June. Annual. 

5. M. maculata (Spotted Medick). — • 
Much like the last ; leaflets inversely heart- 
shaped, with a purple spot in the centre 
of each ; stipules toothed ; flowers small, 
yellow, 2-4 together ; legumes with hooked 
prickles, and twisted spirally into a ball. 
In Cornwall this plant, under the name of 
Spotted Clover, is considered very injurious 
to pasturage. — Fl. June to September. 
Annual. Medicago Maculata 

(Spotted Medick) 

6. M. minima (Little Bur-Medick). — 
Leaflets inversely heart-shaped, downy ; 

stipules scarcely toothed ; flowers 2-4 together ; legumes spirally 
twisted into a prickly ball ; prickles hooked. Sandy places, rare. 
— Fl. June, July. Annual. 


6. Melilotus (Melilot) 

T. M. officinalis (Common Yellow Melilot). — Stem erect ; leaflets 
narrow, egg-shaped, serrated ; flowers in one-sided clusters ; petals 
equal in length ; legumes 3-seeded, wrinkled. A branched herba- 
ceous plant, 2-3 feet high, with light green foliage and small yellow 
flowers ; not uncommon in waste places. — Fl. June to August. 
Annual or biennial. 

2. M. alba (White Melilot). — A much less common plant than the 
last, probably not truly indigenous, and differs from the last in 
being usually taller and having white flowers, in which the standard 
is longer than the wings and keel. 

7. Trtgonella {Fenugreek) 

I. T. ornithopodioides (Bird's-foot Fenugreek). — A small plant 
with spreading, prostrate branches 2 or 3 inches long and small 
flowers of a whitish colour, growing 1-3 together in the axils of 
the leaves ; legumes 6 to 8-seeded, curved, glabrous, twice as long 
as the calyx. Dry sandy places, not common. — Fl. June to August. 

8. Trifolium (Trefoil) 

1. T. incarnatum (Crimson Clover). — Erect, 1-2 feet high, downy ; 
flower-heads oblong or cylindrical, crimson ; stipules membranous ; 
leaves composed of three obovate or inversely heart-shaped leaflets ; 
calyx with soft hairs, toothed. iNIuch cultivated for fodder, and 
occurs as an escape. There is also a variety with pale yellow 
flowers. Fl. early summer. Aiiruial. 

2. T. nrvense (Hare's-foot Clover). — Flowers in terminal oblong 
heads, which arc soft with downy hair ; calyx-teeth hairy, much 
longer than the corolla ; stem branched, erect. A very distinct 
species, common in sandy places, especially near the sea. The 
peculiarly soft heads, which are nearly cylindrical, and in which 
the jiale pink flowers are nearly concealed, at once distinguish 
this from any other British species. — Fl. July to September. 

3. T. stcllatuiii (Starry Clover). — A low, softly hairy form, 
with globular heads of pale yellow flowers. It occurs only on the 
coast near Shorehain, in Sussex, and is pn)brd)ly only a chance 
introduction. It is distinguished by the remarkably large calyx 
of the fruit, which spreads in a star-like manner. — Fl. early summer. 

4. T. ochrolcucuni (Sulphur-coloured Trefoil). — Flowers in dense, 
stalked, terminal heads, which are at first hemispherical, afterwards 
egg-shaped ; calyx-teeth awl-shaped, the lower one much the longest ; 
lower leaflets heart-shaped, upper oblong. The whole plant is 




Common Yellow Melilot 
Common Rest Harrow Common Bird's-foot Trefoil 


downy ; the flowers are cream-coloured, turning brown as they 
fade. Found only in some of the eastern counties of England ; 
rare, dry pastures. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

5. T. pratense (Purple Clover). — Stem decumbent or erect, 1-2 
feet high ; flowers in dense, roundish oblong heads, purplish red, 
sweet scented ; calyx hairy, its bristle-like divisions half as long as 
the corolla ; stipules broad, terminating abruptly in a bristle 
point ; leaflets broad, obovate, or inversely heart-shaped, notclied 
or entire. The common Clover of meadows, where it forms a valu- 
able part of the hay crop. The long tubes of the corolla abound in 
honey, on which account they are often called by children Honey- 
suckles. — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

6. T. medium (Zigzag Clover). — Not unlike the last, but dis- 
tinguished by its slenderer and more erect habit, the zigzag growth 
of its stems, and especially by its narrower leaflets, and tapering, 
not abrupt stipules. Dry pastures and bushy places, common. 
It thrives better than the preceding in dry soils. — Fl. July, August. 

7. T. marittmum (Teazel-headed Trefoil). — Stem spreading, 
slender, pubescent ; flowers in terminal roundish heads ; calyx-teeth 
broad, poinfed, and rigid, shorter than the corolla, finally becoming 
enlarged and spreading ; stipules awl-shaped, very long ; flowers 
small, pink. Salt marshes, not common. — Fl. June, July. 

8. T. striatum (Soft Knotted Treloil). — Stems spreading ; the 
whole plant covered more or less with silky hairs ; flowers light 
purple, in downy, terminal heads ; calyx rigid, furrowed with straight, 
unequal, awl-shaped teeth, and swollen when in fruit. Barren 
places, especially near the sea. — Fl. June, Jiuly. Annual. 

9. T. Bocconi (Boccone's Clover). — A small, erect species, 2-6 
inches high, with roundish heads of small pale pink flowers, the 
heads usually growing in pairs. Found only near the Lizard in 
Cornwall ; dry places. — Fl. July. Annual. 

10. T. scabrmn (Rigid Trefoil). — Flowers in dense prickly heads, 
which are both terminal and axillary ; calyx-teeth unequal, very 
rigid, finally spreading ; stems prostrate. A small plant, with in- 
conspicuous whitish flowers, and remarkable only for its prickly 
calyces, especially when in fruit. Barren places, especially near 
the sea. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

11. T. strictnm (Upright Clover). — Stems upright, about 6 inches 
high ; flower-heads globular, 1-3 on a stem ; flowers small, whitish ; 
leaflets narrow, toothed ; legume 1 or 2-seeded, bulged near the 
summit, longer than the calyx. Found only in the Channel Islands 
and at the Lizard in Cornwall. — Fl. May and June. Annual. 

12. T. glomeratum (Smooth Round-headed Trefoil). — Flowers in 


round prickly heads, which are both terminal and axillary ; calyx- 
teeth broad, very acute, reflexed ; corollas small, bright pink ; stems 
prostrate. Gravelly places near the sea, in the south and east 
of England ; not common. — Fl. June. Annual. 

13. T. siiffocatum (Suffocated Clover). — A minute, procumbent 
plant, with tiny ovid heads of whitish flowers, which are sessile. 
Leaves stalked ; leaflets obovate, glabrous ; calyx-teeth narrow 
and recurved. Sandy places near the sea ; rare. — Fl. June, July. 

14. T. resiipinaliim (Reversed Clover) — Stems branched, leafy 
below, about a foot long ; flower-heads srnall, axillary, on short 
stalks ; the corollas are small and pink, with the standards curving 
outwards instead of inwards. Not a native, :but is sometimes found 
in the south of England. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

15. T. suhterraneum (Subterranean Trefoil). — Flowers 3-5 to- 
gether, in axillary heads, at first erect, in fruit abruptly bent 
down, and sending out branched fibres, which penetrate into the 
ground. A curious little plant, a few inches long, with prostrate, 
branched stems and white or pink flowers, which are remarkable 
for the above-named character of bending down and, by the help 
of the altered calyx, burying the seed in the ground while yet 
attached to the plant. Dry banks ; not uncommon. — Fl. May, 
June. Annual. 

16. T. fragijeriim (Strawberry-headed Trefoil). — Stem creeping ; 
flower-heads globose, on long stalks ; calyx, after flowering, mem- 
branaceous and remarkably inflated. This plant has somewhat 
of the habit of T. repeiis, but the flowers are light purple, and the 
heads of inflated calyces, which are often tinged with pink, are 
not unlike the fruit from which the plant receives its name. Dry 
meadows and pastures, not uncommon.' — Fl. July, August. 

17. T. repens (White or Dutch Clover). -^5fe«i creeping, taking 
root at the nodes ; flowers in roundish heads, stalked, finally bent 
back ; legumes 2 to 4-seeded ; the flowers are white, sometimes 
tinged with pink, and fragrant ; leaflets toothed, frequently having 
a mark in the centre. Abundant in meadows, where it forms 
excellent pasture. — Fl. through the summer. Perennial. 

In a variety commonly cultivated in gardens under the name 
of Shamrock, nearly the whole of the centre of each leaflet is tinged 
with dark purple. The real Shamrock is this species, and, perhaps, 
any other " 3-leaved grass " which grows in similar situations. 
Much discussion about the identity of Shamrock might have been 
saved by recollecting that St. Patrick's day falls at a season (17 March) 
when the botanical characters of the trefoils are scarcely developed 
and that the devotees of that saint can hardly be expected 


\ ^- 


Aleike Clover 
Comrnou Bird'a-foot Ha,re'a-foot Clover 

Subterranean trefoil. 


to have possessed much botanical knowledge. Some antiquarians 
contend that, as Ireland was a well-wooded country in St. Patrick's 
time, the saint very probably selected a leaf of Wood Sorrel (Oxalis 
acetosella) to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity. 

18. T. hyhridiim (Alsike Clover). — Much like T. repens ; stems 
usually ascending, 1-2 feet high, never rooting at the nodes ; 
flowers like T. repens, and bending back with age in the same 
manner, but the corollas are of a decided pink colour. Established 
as a cultivated pasture plant, bid not a native. — Fl. summer. 

19. T. procitmhens (Hop Clover). — Stems slender, procumbent, 
6-12 inches long ; flower-stalks rather long, axillary, bearing globular 
heads of small yellow flowers ; leaves stalked ; legume i-seeded. 
Not unlike Medicago htpulina in habit, but at once distinguished 
when in fruit by the hopdike heads of withered flowers. Specimens 
occur near the sea, with scanty foliage and comparatively large 
flowers. — Fl, June, July. Annual. 

20. T. minus (Lesser Clover). — A small vaiiety of T. procum- 
hens ; stems more procumbent ; flowers smaller, 4-20 on a head, 
pale yellow. Both this and T. procumhcns are common in dry 
pastures. — Fl. summer. Annual. 

21. T. filiforma (Slender Clover). — Smaller than T. minus ; 
stems slender, prostrate ; flowers yellow, very small, 2-6 or 7 in 
a head. Rare. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

9. LoTtis [Bird's-fool Trefoil) 

I. L. corniculatus (Bird's-foot Trefoil). — Stems prostrate or 
ascending; flowers in umbels, 4 or 5-12 toge'thet ; calyx-teeth ?,txde\i^\\i 
in the bud. A pretty flower, known among children hy the name 
of " Shoes-and-Stockings." The foliage is usually smooth, with 
a few scattered hairs, or more rarely covered with long soft hairs. 
The flowers on the same plant, and even in Ihe same umbel, vary 
from bright yellow to deep brownish orange. — Fl. July, August. 
Perennial. A most variable species, some of its forms are so 
distinct and constant that they have been classed as species, and 
of these the most important are- — 

(i) L. uliginosus (Greater Bird's-foot Trefoil). — Flowers 5-12 in 
an umbel, rich yellow ; calyx-teeth while in bud spreading like a 
star ; stems nearly erect, tubular, 1-3 feet high, weak, and usually 
supported by the plants among which it grows ; whole j)lant more 
or less covered with soft hair. In damp bushy places ; common. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

(ii) L. crassifolius. — A low-growing form with large flowers, 
4-6 in an umbel, and glabrous, sometimes glaucous, leaves. Dry 



(ill) L. villo$m. — A form resembling the common type, but 
covered with spreading hairs and confined to Kent and Devon- 

(iv) L. tenuis. — Distinguished by its very slender, branched 
stems, narrow leaflets, and smaller flowers. Rare. 

2. L. angusiissinius (Slender Bird's-foof Trefoil). — Stems .slender 
and branched ; leaflets small ; whole plant clothed with soft hairs ; 
flowers small, i or 2 or occasionally 3 or 4 in an umbel ; calyx- 
teeth very long ; legume about an inch long. South coast of Eng- 
land ; rare. — /Annual. 

10. Anthyllis {Lady's Fingers) 

I. A. vulneraria (Common Lady's 
Fingers, or Kidney Vetch). — The 
only British .species. A handsome, 
herbaceous plant, with pinnate 
leaves clothed with silky hairs (the 
terminal leaflet largest) and yellow 
^; flowers, with pale inflated calyces. 
The dense heads of flowers grow 
two together at the end of each 
stalk. Varieties with crimson, 
purple, cream-coloured, and white 
flowers occur. — Fl. June to August. 


I. 0. Uralensis (Purple or Hairy 
Mountain Oxytropis). — Leaves and 
flowers rising directly from the 
roots ; flower-stalks longer than the 
leaves, silky like the rest of the 
plant ; legume 2-celled ; flowers in 
heads, bright jiurple. Dry moun- 
tain pastures in Scotland. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. 0. campestris (Yellow Oxytropis). — Leaves and floicer-stalks 
about equal in length ; flowers yellowish, tinged with purple ; 
legume imperfectly 2-cclled. Found only among the Clova hills 
in Scotland. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria 
{Common Lady's Fingers) 

12. Astragalus {Milk Vetch) 

I. A. glycyphyllus (Sweet Milk Vetch).— Sfe«; prostrate, 2-3 feet 
long ; legumes erect, curved, smooth, 2-celled ; flowers dull yellow, 
in short dense racemes ; leaves consisting of 5 or 6 pairs of leaflets. 


Bush Vetcli 

SIcuder Vetch 

Spring Vetch 


Thickets, or on gravelly or chalky soil; uncommon. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

2. A. daniciis (Purple Milk Vetch). — Stem prostrate, only a few 
inches long ; flower-stalks longer than the leaves ; legumes erect, 
hairy ; flowers purplish (sometimes white), in short spikes. Chalky 
and gravelly places.^Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. A. Alpinits^ (Alpine Milk Vetch).— Sfcws branching, prostrate ; 
leaflets S-12 pairs, with a terminal odd one ; flowers drooping, 
bluish or white, tipped with purple ; legumes pendulous, clothed 
with black hairs. Mountainous pastures, Perthshire, Bracmar, 
and Clova in Scotland ; rare. — Fl. July. Ferennial. 

13. ViciA (Vetch) 

1. T'. hirsida (Hairy Vetch, or Tare). — 
A slender, much-branched plant, forming 
tangled masses of stems and leaves ; 
leaves consisting of 6-8 pairs of leaflets ; 
flowers about 6 together, minute and 
bluish white ; legumes hairy, 2-seeded. 
This, though a mischievous weed, is not 
the Tare of the Holy Scriptures, which is 
supposed to be the Darnel [Lolium temu- Vicia hirsuta (Hairy 
lentiim). Fields and hedges ; very com- Vetch, or Tare) 
mon. — Fl. all summer. Annual. 

2. V. lelrasperma (Slender Vetch). — Floi&ers 1-7 together, on a 
slender stalk, light purple ; legumes smooth, usually 4-seeded ; 
whole plant much slenderer and less branched than the last. Found 
in similar situations, but less common. — Fl. all summer. Annual. 

3. V. gracilis (Slender Vetch), is by some botanists considered a 
distinct species, others make it a variety of the last. The flowers 
grow 1-4 together, and are larger than in T'. tetrasperma ; legumes 
6-8-seeded, Found in the south of England. — Fl. all summer. 

4. V. cracca (Tufted Vetch). — Leaflets in about lo pairs, narrow, 
pointed, silky, with tendrils ; stipides half arrow-shaped, scarcely 
toothed ; flowers crowded in one-sided spikes. One of the most 
ornamental of British plants, climbing along the tops of hedges, 
and adorning them with its slender spikes of^blue and purple flowers. 
Bushy places ; frequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

5. V. sylvatica (Wood Vetch). — Leaflets in about 8 pairs, ellip- 
tical, abrupt, with a short point ; stipules crescent-shaped, deeply 
toothed at the base ; legume an inch long, smooth, 4-6-seeded. 
A large and beautiful species, with a long stem 3-6 feet high, 
climbing by means of its branched tendrils. Flowers numerous, in 


drooping racemes, cream-coloured, with bluish veins. Moun- 
tainous woods ; not common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

6. V. orohus (Wood-bitter Vetch). — Leaflets in 7-10 pairs, oblong, 
acute, without tendrils ; stipules half arrow-shaped, slightly toothed. 
A branched, herbaceous plant, with many prostrate stems and 
one-sided racemes of large purplish white flowers. Rocky woods 
in the north. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

7. V. sepimn (Bush Vetch). — Flowers in axillary clusters of from 
4-6 ; legumes smooth ; leaflets egg-shaped, obtuse, in 4-6 pairs, 
gradually decreasing in size towards the end of the leaf-stalk. 
Very common in woods and shady hedges, and distinguished by 
its clusters of bluish purple flowers, which grow on short stalks in 
the axils of leaves. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

8. V. lutea (Yellow Vetch). — Stems prostrate or ascending, 
about 2 feet long ; flowers solitary, sessile, rather large, pale yellow ; 
legumes hairy. Sea coast ; rare. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

g. V. sativa (Common Vetch). — Flowers solitary or in pairs, 
with very sliort stalks ; leaflets from obcordate to narrow in 5-7 
pairs ; stipules half arrow-shaped, toothed at the base, marked with 
a dark sj)ot ; tendrils usually branched. This species being ex- 
tensively cultivated for fodder for cattle varies considerably in 
luxuriance according to soil. It usually grows about 2 feet high, 
and bears blue and purple or red flowers. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

A small variety, V. angusfi folia (Narrow-leaved Vetch). — By 
some botanists considered a distinct species, has very narrow 
leaves and crimson flowers. 

10. V. lathyroides (Spring Vetch). — Nearly allied to the last, 
but very much smaller ; stems low and spreading, rarely exceeding 
6 inches ; flowers solitary, sessile, rich purple ; legumes smooth ; 
leaflets in 2-3 pairs ; stipules entire, not marked with a dark spot ; 
seeds nearly cubical, roughish. Dry places, but not very common. 
— Fl. April, May. Annual. 

11. V. Bilhynica (Bithynian Vetch). — Stems angular, 1-2 feet 
long ; leaflets 2 or 4 together with branched tendrils ; flowers 
rather large, purpile, with whitish wings, i or 2 together on a stalk. 
Bushy places on a gravelly soil near the sea ; not common. 
— Fl. May to August. Annual. 

14. Lathyrus (Vetchling) 

1. L. nissolia (Crimson Vetchling). — Leaves simple, very narrow, 
destitute of tendrils ; flower-stalks long, bearing i or 2 small bright 
crimson flowers ; whole plant about i foot high. Grassy places ; 
rare. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

2. L. aphaca (Yellow Vetchling) —A pretty little plant with 




Meadow Vetchling 

Tuftert ^'etch 


small yellow flowers, i or 2 on a stalk, and remarkable for being 
entirely destitute of leaves, the place of which is supplied by a pair 
of stipules at the base of each tendril ; stipules large, leaflike, 
half arrow-shaped ; plant smooth, branching, about a foot long. 
A rare cornfield weed. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

3. L. hirsiitus (Rough-podded Vetchling). — Stems weak, branched, 
about a foot long ; flowers borne singly or in pairs on long stalks, 
the standards crimson, the rest pale blue ; legumes hairy. A rare 
species, found in Yorkshire, Essex, Kent, Surrey, and Somerset- 
shire. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

4. L. pratensis (Meadow Pea). — A weak climbing plant 2-3 feet 
long ; leaf of 2 narrow leaflets ; stipules arrow-shaped, as large 
as the leaflets ; flowers yellow, all turning one way. Grassy places ; 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

5. L. tuberosus (Earth-nut Pea). — Root tuberous ; stems weak, 
angled, branched ; leaf-tendrils branched ; leaflets ovate ; stipules 
half arrow-shaped ; flower-stalks 3-6 inches in length, bearing 
a number of red flowers. Very rare ; found only as a cornfield 
weed at Fyfield in Essex. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

6. /.. sylveslris (Everlasting Pea). — The stems climb to the height 
of 3-6 feet, winged ; leaf of two long sword-shaped leaflets ; flowers 
large, greenish yellow, tinged with purple, but not so handsome as 
those of the gai'den species. Woods arid thickets ; not very 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

7. L, palustris (Blue Marsh Vetchling). — A climbing plant, 
smaller than the last ; leaf of 2-4 pairs of very narrow acute leaf- 
lets ; tendrils generall}' branched ; stems winged ; flowers bluish 
purple, 2-8 together. Boggy meadows ; rare. — Fl. July, August. 

8. L. maritimus (Sea Pea). — Stems prostrate, 6-12 inches long, 
angled ; leaves of 3-8 pairs of egg-shaped leaflets ; flower-stalks 
shorter than the leaves, 6-8 flowered ; flowers purple, variegated 
with crimson and blue. Pebbly seashores ; rare. — Fl. July, August. 

9. L. macrorrhiziis (Tuberous Bitter Vetch). — Leaves of 2-4 
pairs of oblong leaflets, which are glaucous beneath ; stipules half 
arrow-shaped ; stem simple, winged, 6-12 inches high. A pretty 
spring Vetch, with clusters of blue and purple flowers in the angles 
of the leaves, growing in similar situations with the Wood Anemone, 
but appearing somewhat later. It may at once be distinguished 
from any of the true Vetches by its being, destitute of tendrils, in 
place of which there are soft bristledike points. The roots are 
tuberous, and are " eaten by Highlanders, under the name of Cor- 
meille," a very small quantity being said to aUay and prevent 



hunger." — Sir W. J. Hooker. Woods; not uncommon, especially 
in the west of England. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

10. L. Niger (Black Bitter Vetch). — Stem branched, erect, 1-2 
feet high, angular, but not winged ; stipules very narrow ; root 
not tuberous ; flowers 6-8 together ; the plant turns black in dying. 
A very rare Scottish species. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

15. Ornithopus [Bird' s-foot) 

1. 0. pcrpusilliis (Common Bird's-foot). — A 
minute and very beautiful plant, with spreading, 
prostrate stem ; downy leaves of 6-12 pairs of 
leaflets and an odd one ; heads of 2 or 3 exceed- 
ingly small cream-coloured flowers, veined with 
crimson, with a leaf at the base of each head ; 
and jointed legumes, which become curved as 
they ripen, and bear a resemblance to a bird's 
foot. Sandy heaths ; common. — Fl. July, 
.August. Perennial. 

2. 0. ehradealus (Sand Bird's-foot). — In many 
resjjects similar to the last ; the flowers are 
larger, the plant smooth and glaucous, and there 
is no leaf below the flower-head. Found in the 
Channel and Scilly Islands. — Fl. June to August. 

Ornithopus Pjir- 

pusiLLus (Common 


16. HippocRKPis (Horse-shoe Vetch) 

I. H. comosa (Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch). — 
The only British species. A low, tufted plant, 
with much-branched stems, which arc woody 
at the base, and elegant leaves, composed of 
6-12 narrow leaflets. The umbels of yellow 
fl.owers might be mistaken for those of Lotus 
corniculatus, but for the curious structure of 
the seed-vessels, which are shaped like a series 
of horse-shoes, united by their extremities. 
The plant may also be distinguished by its 
pinnate leaves. Common on chalky banks. 
— Fl. May to August. Perennial. 

17. Onobrychis (Saml-foin) 

I. 0. saliva (Common Saint-foin). — The only 
British .species. A handsome plant, often culti- 
vated as fodder in dry, chalky, and graveliy 
soils. The stems are ascending, 1-2 feet long ; 
the leaves are composed of 8-12 pairs of oblong 

HippoCREPis Comosa 
(Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch) 


Grass Vetchlin^ 


Tuberous Bitter Vetrli 


leaflets, with an odd one ; and the flowers which 
grow in dusters, or rather spikes, are crimson, 
variegated with pink and white. Chalky and 
hmestone hills. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 


Natural Order XXIV 

ROSACE^.— The Rose Tribe 

Calyx most frequently 5-lobed, sometimes 4, 8, 
or lo-lobed ; petals 5, inserted on the caly.\, 
regular ; stamens indefinite, generally more than 
12, inserted on the calyx curved inwards liefore 
the expansion of the petals ; carpels many or 
solitary, either distinct, or combined with each 
other and with the calyx ; styles distinct, often 
lateral ; fruit either a drupe (cherry or plum) — 
an assemblage of erect capsules opening at one 
side— a number of nut-hke seeds inserted into a Onobrychts Sativa 
fleshy receptacle (Strawberry, Blackberry)^— en- (Common Saint-foin) 
closed in the fleshy tube of the calyx (hip of the 
Rose) — or a pome (apple). A large and important Order, con- 
taining about a thousand species, many of which, either in a wild 
or cultivated state, pi'oduce excellent fruit — Cherries, Plums, 
Almonds, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Strawberries, Raspberries, 
Blackberries, Apples, Pears, and Quinces, all belong to this Order. 
It is to be noted, however, that valuable as these fruits are, the 
leaves, bark, flowers, and seeds of many abound in a deadly poison, 
called hydrocyanic or prussic acid. The variety of form displayed 
by the fruit of the Rose Tribe has afforded a facility for sub- 
dividing the Order into several Sub-orders, or Groups, the characters 
of which are subjoined. 

Siih-order I. — Amygdat.e.e. — The Almond Group 

In plants belonging to this division the pistil is solitary, and the 
fruit when ripe is a drupe, that is, a single seed enclosed in a hard 
case, which is itself surrounded b}' a fleshy or juicy pulp, with an 
external rind or cuticle ; the bark often yields gum, and prussic acid 
is generally abundant in the leaves and seeds. They are shrubs or 
trees, and inhabit the cold and temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere. Examples of the deadly properties residing in these 
plants are afforded by the leaves of the common Laurel, Prumis 
Laitro-cernsus, even the vapour of which is destructive to insect life. 
The oil of Bitter Almonds is extremely poisonous, and many in- 
stances are recorded of its fatal effects. But notwithstanding the 
presence of this destructive principle in the leaves and other parts 



of the trees belonging to this division, the fruit is, with the 
exception of the Laurel, harmless, or even a nourishing food. 

Amygdalus communis, the Almond Tree, 
grows naturally in Barbary and in 
Asia, from Syria to Afghanistan, and 
is extensively cultivated in the south 
of Europe. There are two varieties 
of the tree, one yielding the sweet, the 
other the bitter Almond. Jordan Al- 
monds, which are considered the best 
are brought frorn Malaga ; bitter Al 
monds are imported from Mogadore 
The varieties of Amvgdahis Persica pro 
duce the Peach, Nectarine, and Apricot 
Prunus domestica and its varieties afford 
Plums of many kinds. P. Lusilanica 
is well known by the name of Portugal 
Amygdat,e;e I-aurel. 

(The Almond Group) ^ Pkunus (Plum and Cherry).— 7\/«/ 

of the drupe smooth, or slightly seamed. 
(Name from the Greek, proline, a plum. Cerastts, a name some- 
times given to one division of this genus, is derived from Cerasus, 
a city of Pontus, whence the Roman general Lucullus introduced 
a superior kind, b.c. 67.) 

Suh-order II. — Spireid;e. — Meadow-sweet Group 

This division contains a limited number of herbaceous or shrubby 
plants, which bear their seeds in dry, erect capsules, opening at the 
side, termed follicles. Several species of spiraa are ornamental 
shrubs, and are commonly cultivated in gardens. 

2. Spiraea (Meadow-sweet, Dropwort). — Calyx 5-cleft ; stamens 
numerous ; follicles 3-12. bearing few seeds. (Name of Greek 

Sub-order III. — Potentilud.e. — The Strawberry Group 

In this division the form of the fruit varies much more than in 
either of the preceding : but in every case the calyx is permanent 
and contains a number of nut-Uke seeds, with or without tails, 
placed on a pulpy, spongy, or dry receptacle ; in the Bramble, each 
seed is enveloped in pulp, the fruit being an assemblage of sinall 
drupes ; in Agrimony alone there are but two seeds, which are 
enclosed in a bristly, hardened calyx. The plants of this division 
are mostly herbaceous, but some few are shrubs. None of them are 
injurious ; the roots and leaves of some are astringent or tonic. 


The fruit of the Strawberrj', Raspberry, a,nd Bramble is too well 
known to need any description, 

3. Dryas (Mountain Avcns). — Calyx in 8-10 equal divisions, 
which are all in one row ; petals (S-io ; styles finally becoming 
feathery tails, not hooked at the extremity. (Name from the Greek, 
drys, an Oak, from a fancied resemblance between the leaves.) 

4. Geum (Avens). — Calyx lo-cleft, in two rows, the outer division 
smaller ; petals 5 ; styles finally becoming jointed, awns hooked at 
the extremity. (Name from the Greek, geyo, to taste.) 

5. PoTENTiLLA (Cinquefoil). — Calyx 8 or lo-cleft, in two rows ; 
petals 4 or 5 : seeds without awns. (Name from the Latin, potens, 
powerful, from the powerful properties supposed to reside in some 

6. Fragaria (Strawberry). — Calyx lo-cleft, in 2 rows ; the outer 
divisions smaller ; petals 5 ; seeds without awns, on an enlarged, 
fleshy receptacle. (Name from the Latin, fragmn, a strawberry, and 
that from fragrans, fragrant.) 

7. RuBus (Bramble). — Calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; fruit an assem- 
blage of small drupes, arranged on and round a spongy receptacle. 
(Name from the Latin, ruber, red.) 

8. Agrimonia (Agrimony). — Calyx 5-cleft, top-shaped, covered 
with hooked bristles ; petals 5 ; stamens about 15 ; seeds 2, enclosed 
in the tube of the hardened calyx. (Name of Greek origin.) 

Sub-order IV. — Sanguisorbid.e. — The Burnet Group 

The plants of this group would seem at first sight to be scarcely 
connected with those already described. It will, however, be found, 
on close examination, that in many important respects they agree 
with the characters given in the description of the Order RosACEie, 
though in others scarcely less important they appear to differ ; 
these are the absence of petals, and the hardened calyx of the fruit 
containing i or 2 nut-like seeds. The calyx is 3 to 8-cleft, and the 
stamens are usually few in number. The plants are either herba- 
ceous or shrubby, and, like those of the last group, their properties 
are astringent or tonic. In some species the flowers grow in round 
or oblong heads. 

9. Alchemilla (Lady's Mantle). — Calyx 8-cleft, in 2 rows, the 
outer divisions smaller ; petals o ; stamens 1-4, opposite the smaller 
divisions of the calyx ; seeds I or 2, enclosed in the hardened calyx. 
(Name from its pretended value in Alchemy.) 

10. Sanguisorba (Burnet). — Calyx 4-cleft, coloured (not green), 
with 2-4 scale-like bracts at the base ; petals ; stamens 4 ; seeds 


I or 2, enclosed in the tube of the hardened calyx. (Name from the 
Latin, sanguis, blood, and sorbeo, to staunch, from the supposed 
virtues of the plant.) 

11. PoTERiUM (Burnet Saxifrage). — Stamens and pistils in separate 
flowers ; flowers in heads ; calyx 4-cleft, coloured, with 3 scale-like 
bracts at the base ; fetals ; stamens numerous ; stigma tufted. 
(Name from the Greek, foterion, a drinking-cup, the plant being 
used in the preparation of Cool-tankard.) 

Sub-order V. — Rosid.e. — The Rose Group 

This division contains the genus from which both the Order and 
Sub-order take their names. Here also the fruit furnishes the 
main characteristic ; it consists of a number of nut-like, hairy seeds, 
enclosed within the fleshy tube of the calyx, which is contracted at 
the top. The Roses are shrubs more or less prickly (not thorny), 
with pinnate leaves. The number of .species is very great, of varie- 
ties incalculable, the beauty and fragrance of the flowers having 
rendered them favourite objects of cultivation from a very early 
period. From the petals of R. centi/olia and R. Damascena are 
made Rose-water and Attar of Roses. It is stated that 100,000 
Roses, the produce of 10,000 bushels, yield only nine drams of Attar. 
From the pulp of the fruit, called a hip, is made a conserve, which 
is used in the preparation of various medicines. 

12. Rosa (Rose). — Calyx urn-shaped, contracted at the mouth, 
and tcrminatmg in 5, often leaf-like, divisions ; petals 5 ; stamens 
numerous ; seeds numerous. (Name from the Latin, rasa, and that 
from the Greek, rhodon, its ancient names.) 

Sub-order VL — Pome.e. — The Apple Group 

In the plants of this di\'ision the fruit is what is called a pome ; 
that is, the tube of the calyx enlarges and becomes a fleshy or 
mealy fruit, enclosing 1-5 cells, which are either horny, as in the 
Apple, or bony, as in the Medlar. The Apple Group contains well- 
known fruit trees, namely, the Apple, Pear, Quince, Medlar, Service, 
Mountain Ash, and Hawthorn. The seeds, and occasionally the 
flower and bark of some, yield prussic acid. All the cultivated 
varieties of Apple are derived from the Wild Apple, or Crab, Pynis 
Malus ; the garden Pears from a thorny tree, with hard astringent 
fruit, Pyrus communis. The wood of the Pear is very close-grained, 
and is sometimes used by wood-engravers. The fruit of the Moun- 
tain Ash and some other .species yields malic acid, and the leaves 
prussic acid, in as great abundance as the Laurel. All the plants 
of this division are either trees or shrubs. 

13. Pyrus (Pear, Apple, Service, and Mountain Ash). — Calyx 



5-cleft ; petals 5 ; styles 2-5 ; fruit fleshy or juicy, with 5 horny, 
2-seeded cells. (Name from the Latin, pyrm, a pear.) 

14. Mespilus (Medlar). — Calyx 5-cleft, divisions leafiike ; petals 
5 ; styles 2-5 ; frtiit fleshy, top-shaped, terminating abruptly, with 
the ends of the bony cells exposed. (Name from the Greek, mespile, 
a medlar.) 

15. Crat.'IiGUS (Hawthorn). — Calyx 5-cleft, divisions acute ; 
petals 5 ; styles 1-5 ; fruit oval or round, concealing the ends of the 
i)ony cells. (Name from the Greek, cratos, strength, in allusion to 
the hardness of the wood.) 

16. CoTONE ASTER (Cotoneaster). — Small trees or shrubs with 
small and usually entire leaves ; flowers small and generally solitary ; 
sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; stamens indefinite ; carpels 2-5, not joined to 
each other, but inserted by their Ijacks on the calyx tube ; fruit 
2 to 5-chambered. (Name of classical origin.) 

I. Prunus {Plum and Cherry) 
Fruit covered, with bloom ; young leaf wiih halves rolled together 

I. P. spinosa (Sloe, Blackthorn). — 
Branches very thorny ; leaves narrow, 
elliptical, smooth above, slightly downy 
near the midrib below ; flowers mostly 
solitary. A well-known thorny bush, 
which probably derived its name Black- 
thorn from the hue of its bark, which 
is much darker than that of the Haw- 
thorn. The flowers appear in March 
and April, and usually before the 
leaves have begun to expand. The 
latter are used to adulterate tea. The 
fruit is small, nearly round, and so 
austere that a single drop placed on the 
tongue will produce a roughness on the 
throat and palate which is perceptible 
for a long time. It enters largely into 
the composition of spurious port wine, and sloe gin is a most 
comforting beverage. Woods and hedges ; abundant. — Fl. March 
to May. Shrub. 

2. P. insititia (Bullace). — Branches ending in a thorn ; leaves 
elliptical, downy beneath ; flowers in pairs. Larger than the last, 
and producing a larger and more palatable black or yellow fruit. 
The leaves and flowers expand about the same time. This is by 
some botanists considered merely a variety of the preceding. 
P. domestica (Wild Plum) appears to be as closely connected with 
the Bullace as that is with the Sloe ; the branches are thornless and 

Prunus Spinosa 
(Sloe or Blackthorn) 



the fruit oblong. From one or other of these three all the cultivated 
varieties of Plum are supposed to have originated.— Fl. April, May. 
Small tree. 

Fruit without bloom ; young leaf with the halves folded together 

3. P. Pad us (Bird-Cherry). — Flowers in 
pendulous racemes ; leaves narrow, egg- 
shaped ; fruit ovid, black, bitter ; stone 
lugged. A handsome shrub, or small tree, 
not uncommon in the north of England in 
a wild state, and common in gardens and 
shrubberies elsewhere. The racemes of 
flowers and drupes are not unlike those of 

i the Portugal Laurel, to which the plant is 
nearly allied, but the leaves are not ever- 
green. — Fl. white, May. Small tree. 

4. P. avium (Wild Cherry). — Flowers in 
umbels ; leaves drooping, suddenly pointed, 
downy beneath ; calyx - tube contracted 
above ; fruit heart-shaped, small, bitter, 
black or red, and is greedily devoured by 

Prunus Padus (Bird-Chnry) birds as sooD as„ ripe. A highly orna- 
mental tree, not only on account of its 
elegant white flowers in spring, but even 
more so in autumn, when its leaves assume 
a bright crimson hue. — Fl. May. A lofty 
tree without suckers. 

5. P. cerasus (Red Cherry). — Flowers in 
umbels ; leaves not drooping, smooth on 
both sides ; calyx-tube not contracted ; 
fruit round, juicy, acid, always red. This 
species is distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by the characters given above and 
by its lower stature, which is said not to 
exceed 8 feet, while the other attains a 
height of 30-40 feet ; it also sends up ^.^ 
numerous suckers from the roots. Some "^^^ 
botanists, however, consider them mere 
varieties of the same tree. From one or 
other all the cultivated kinds of cherry 
are derived. Woods and hedges ; not so 
common. — Fl. May. Shrub. /S^jJP^^^S? 

2. SPIR.EA (Meadow-sweet) 

I. S. ulmaria (Meadow-sweet, Oueen of .^^'^J^a' Ulmaria (fcadow; 
iu iv/r J \ A u J 1 "1 Sweet, Queen of the Meadows) 

the Meadows). — A handsome herbaceous 





Water Aveus 

Stone Bramble 




plant 2-4 feet high ; leaves pinnate, the alternate leaflets smaller, 
downy beneath, the lerniinal leaflet large and 3dobed ; flowers 
yellowish white, crowded into compound erect cymes, very fragrant. 
Moist meadows ; common. — Fl. Jul}', August. Perennial. 

2. S. Filipendula (Dropwort). — An erect herbaceous plant 1-2 
feet high ; haves pinnate, with the alternate leaflets smaller, all 
deeply cut into narrow, serrated segments ; flowers in a panicled 
cyme, less crowded than in the last, the petals pink externally before 
they expand, and when open white and scentless ; the rootlets have 
swollen nodes or tubers. Dry pastures, especially on limestone soil. 
A variety with double flowers is common in 
gardens. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

3. S. salicifolia (Willowdeaved Spirea). — A 
shrubby species 4-5 feet high, with spike-like 
clusters of rose-coloured flowers and simple (not 
pinnated) leaves. It is occasionally found in 
damp situations in the north, but is not indi- 
genous. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. | 

3. Dryas (Mountain Avens) 

I. D. odopetala (Mountain Avens). — The only 
British species. Stems hard and thick, creeping ; 
leaves oblong, deeply cut, white with woolly down 
beneath ; flowers white, large, and handsome, 
borne singly on erect simple stalks 2-3 jnches 
high ; petals usually 8. Not uncommon in the 
mountainous parts of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and easily distinguished by its handsome 
white flowers, which are an inch or more in dia- 
meter. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

Dryas Octopetala 
[Mountain Avens) 

4. Geum {Avens) 

1. G. tirhanum (Common Avens, Herb Ben- 
net). — An erect, somewhat slender, little 
branched plant, 1-2 feet high ; root-leaves pin- 
nate, with smaller leaflets at the base ; stem- 
leaves ternate ; flowers erect, yellow ; awns 
rigid, hooked at the end ; stipules large, 
rounded, and cut. Hedges and thickets ; com- 
mon. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. G. rivale (Water Avens). — Not so tall as 
the last, and stouter, the fl.owers drooping, not 
so spreading ; root-leaves pinnate, with the 

Geum Urbanum (Com- alternate leaflets and those at the base smaller ; 
mon Avens, Herb Bennet) stem-leaves ternate ; the calyx is deeply tmged 



with a dull purplish hue with darker veins ; the pelals are of a 
purplish pink colour tinged with an orange shade. — Fl. June, July. 

A variety {G. intermedium) is sometimes found which partakes of 
the characters of both the above species. It is probably a natural 
hybrid between the two. 

5. PoTENTiLLA (Cinqu.e.foil) 

1. P. Fragariastrum (Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil). — Stem pros- 
trate ; leaves 3 on a stalk ; leaflets inversely egg-shaped, cut, silky 
on both sides ; petals equalling or sometimes" longer than the calyx. 
One of the earliest spring flowers, often confounded by young 
botanists with the Wild Strawberry {Fraaaria vesca). It may, how- 
ever, be always distinguished by its prostrate mode of growth and 
short, notched petals ; the flower-stalks of the Strawberry being 
erect, and the petals entire. Banks and hedges ; abundant. — • 
Fl. January to May. Perennial. 

2. P. reptans (Creej)ing Cincpiefoil). — Stem creeping, rooting at 
the joints ; leaves stalked ; leaflets inversely egg-shaped, tapering 
at the base, serrated ; flower-stalks solitary ; flowers handsome, 
yellow, on long stalks. Meadows and waysides ; common. — 
Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. P. Tormentilla (Toxmentil). — Leaves of 3 
leaflets, ternate, sessile ; rool-leaves of 5 leaflets 
(pmnate), stnlked ; leaflets narrow, acute, cut ; 
stem ascendmg ; petals generally 3. A small 
plant, with bright yellow flowers and very woody 
roots. Banks and woods ; common. Specimens 
are not uncommon in which the stem is prostrate 
and the flowers rather larger ; this by some 
botanists is considered a distinct species, and is 
called Tormentilla reptans (Creeping Tormentil), 
or P. procinnbeiis. — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

4. P. argeniea (Hoary Ginquefoil). — Stem pros- 
trate ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets mversely egg- 
shaped, cut, white and downy beneath, their 
edges rolled back ; flowers yellow, small, several 
together at the ends of the stems. Pastures 
and roadsides, on gra\'elly soil ; not common. 
— Fl. June. Perennial. 

P. verna (Spring Cinquefoil), — Stem prostrate ; leaflets some- 
times 7 on the root ; leaves inversely egg-shaped, serrated 
towards the end, hairy on the edge and ribs beneath, not 
downy. A small woody plant, about 5 inches long, with yeUow 





Strawberry leaved (Jinqucloii 

Wild Strawberry 

abrubb) Ciiiqucfoil 



flowers 2-3 together at the ends of the stems. Dry pastures in 
various parts of England, but not common. — Fl. April to June. 

6. P. alpestris (Alpine Cinquefoil). — Closely allied to the last ; the 
stem is more upright and the flowers larger and sometimes spotted. 
Rocky places in the noiih ; rare. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

7. P. Sibbcildi (Sibbaldia).— A small 
prostrate plant, with ternate, hairy 
leaves, and small flowers ; calyx green ; 
petals minute or wanting ; the number 
of stamens and pistils is verj- variable ; 
leaflets wedge-shaped, ending in three 
points. Found only on some of the 
Highland mountains, but sometimes 
very abundant there. — Fl. June, July. 

8. P. fruticosa (Shrubby Cinquefoil). 
— Leaves pinnate ; a bushy species 2-3 
feet high, with hairy leaves and large 
yellow flowers, which last grow several 
together at the end of the stems. 
Bushy places m the north of Eng- 
land and west of Ireland ; rare.— Potentilla Sibealdi (SihbakUa^ 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

9. — P. anserina (Silver-weed, Goose-grass). — Leaves pinnate, the 
alternate leaflets smaller ; leaflets sharply cut, silky on both sides, 
especially beneath ; flower-stalks solitary, axillary. Well marked 
by its creeping stem, which roots at the joints, its elegantly cut silky 
foliage, and showy yellow flowers. Waste ground ; common. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

10. P. rupestris (Rock Cinquefoil). — A shrubby species with a 
woody perennial stem and annual, herbaceous, flowering stems, 
which bear loose corymbs of large white flowers. Found only 
on the Breidden Hill, Montgomeryshire. — Fl. May, June. Per- 

IT. P. paliislris (Marsh Cinquefoil).— A herljaceous bog-])lant, 
growmg about a foot high. The lower leaves are usually of 
7 long, cut leaflets, the upper of 5 or 3 ; and each stem bears 

several leaves and a number 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

of large dingy purple flowers. 

6. Fkagakia {Strawberry) 

I. F. vesca (Wood Strawberry).— Ca/ia of the fruit bent back ; 
hairs on the general flower-stalk widely spreading, on the partial 


flower-stalks close pressed, silky. A well-known plant, with bright 
green hairy leaves, rooting stems, and erect flower-stalks. By these 
last two characters, as well as by the drooping fruit, this plant may 
be distinguished from Potentilla Fragariasirum (Strawberry-leaved 
Cinquefoil), which is often mistaken for it by young botanists. The 
Strawberry probably derives its name from the custom of laying 
straw between the rows of plants in gardens. Woods and thickets ; 
common. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

A variety, F. elatior (the Hautboy Strawberry), which is taller, 
more hairy, produces less runners, and being often unisexual, pro- 
duces no fruit, is not really wild, though it often occurs as a garden 

7. RuBUS {Bramble) 

1. 7?. Idceus (Raspberry). — Root-stock creeping ; stem nearly erect, 
round, downy, and prickly ; leaves pinnate, of 3-5 leaflets, which 
are white and very downy beneath ; flowers drooping ; fruit hoary, 
scarlet, or yellow in some cultivated varieties, and of an agreeable 
flavour. The origin of all the garden varieties, from which it differs 
in little but the size of the fruit. Rocky woods ; not uncommon. 
— Fl. May, June. Shrub. 

2. R. fruticosiis (Coininou Bramble, or Blackberry). — Root-stock 
not sending out suckers ; stem arched, angular, prickly, often root- 
ing at the extreinities, which arch down and touch the ground, in 
this way producing fresh plants ; leaves of 3-5 leaflets ; leaflets 
ovate, toothed, the midribs and leaflets often thorny ; flowers white 
or pink, erect, in compound panicles ; calyx of the fruit spreading 
or bent back ; fruit black or sometimes reddish. This description 
includes a large number of species and varieties to which names have 
been severally given ; but it is not here thought necessary to de- 
scribe the characters at length, the genus being confessedly a difficult 
one, and likely to be of interest to a specialist onl}'. Common every- 
where. Most of the species flower from July to August, and ripen 
their fruit in September and October. Shrub. 

3. 7?. erffSjMS (Dewberry). — Stem prostrate, nearly round, prickly 
below, bristly above ; leaves of 3-5 leaflets ; panicle simple ; calyx 
clasping the fruit. In this species the fruit, which consists of a few 
large drupes, is half enclosed in the calyx, and is covered with a grey 
bloom. Thickets and borders of fields ; not uncommon. — Fl. June 
to August. Shrub. 

4. R. saxitilis (Stone Bramble). — Stem herbaceous, about I foot 
high, rooting ; -prickles few or none ; leaves of 3 leaflets ; flmuers 
few together, greenish yellow ; fruit scarlet, consisting of 1-4 large 
drupes. Sfony, mountainous places, e.specially in the north. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 


Marsh Ciuquefoil Creeping Cinijuetoil. 


5- R. Chamannonts (Cloudberry). — Root-stock a creeping rhizome ; 
stem herbaceous, about 6 inches high, without prickles ; leaves 
simple, 5-7-lobed ; flowers solitary, large, white, and with the 
stamens and pistils on different plants. The fruit is orange-red and 
of a pleasant flavour. A very distinct specie.s, growing in peaty 
mountainous situations in the north of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Known in Scotland as avrons, and in Norway as moltebeere. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

8. Agrimonia [Agrimony) 

I. A. Eupatoria (Common Agrimony). — The only British species. 
A slender herbaceous plant 1-2 feet high, very different in habit 
from any of the preceding. The leaves are pinnate, with the alter- 
nate leaflets smaller, and all are deeply cut. The flowers are yellow, 
and grow in long tapering spikes. The whole plant is covered with 
soft hairs, and when bruised emits a slightly aromatic scent. Its 
properties are said to be tonic, and on this account it is often col- 
lected by village herbalists and made into tea. Common in waste 
ground. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

9. AtCHEriiiLLA (Lady's Mantle) 

1. A. vulgaris (Common Lady's\e).— Leaves kidney-shaped, 
7-9-lobed ; lobes blunt, serrated ; flowers in loose panicles. A 
herbaceous plant about 6 inches high, with large and handsome soft 
leaves and numerous small yellowish green flowers. Hilly pas- 
tures ; not uncommon. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. A. Alpina (Alpine Lady's Mantle). — Leaf of 
5-7 oblong, blunt leaflets, serrated at the end, white 
and satiny beneath. A very beautiful plant, re- 
markable for the lustrous, almost metallic hue of 
the underside of its leaves. Mountains in Scotland 
and the north of England. — Fl. July, August. 

3. A. arvensis (Field Lady's Mantle, or Parsley \V2* 
Piert). — L^eavcs 3-cleft, wedge-shaped, downy ; lol^es 
deeply cut ; flowers tufted, sessile in the axils of the 
leaves. A small inconspicuous weed, 3-6 inches 
long, with minute greenish flowers, which are 
almost concealed by the leaves and their large alciiemilla 
stipules. Common everyv.'here.— Fl. May to.August. Arvensis (Field 
Annual. ^«'^>''^ ^^''""^^ 


10. Sanguisorba (Burnet) 

I. S. officinalis (Great Burnet).— The only British species. A 
tall, elegant plant, with pinnate leaves ; stems 2-3 feet high, 
sparely clothed with leaves below, branched into 3 or 4 terminal 
flower-stalks, each bearing an oblong head of small, crowded, 
purple-brown flowers. Moist pastures ; not uncommon. — Fl. June 
to September. Perennial. 

Sanguisorba Officinalis 
(Great Burnci) 

PoTERiUM Sanguisorba 
(Salad Burnet) 

II. POTERIUM (Salad Burnet) 

I. P. sanguisorba (Salad Burnet). — The only British species. 
Not unlike the last, but smaller, about i foot high, and the flower- 
heads more globular. The leaves are pinnate, with serrate leaflets, 
and have the ta,ste and smell of cucumber, The flowers grow in 
small round heads, and are greenish, sometimes tinged with purple. 
The upper flowers in each head bear crimson tufted pistils, the 
lower ones 30-40 stamens, with very long drooping filamc7its. 
Common in dry pastures, especially on chalk and limestone. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

12. Rosa (Rose) 

I. R. spinosissima (Burnet, or Scotch Rose). — Leaflets small, 
simply serrated, smooth ; calyx simple ; fruit nearly round. A 
thick, very prickly bush 2-4 feet high, the prickles nearly straight 


Comm.m Agrimony Oouimou Lady's Mantle 



and intermixed with bristles. The foli- 
age is small, leaves with 7-9 leaflets ; 
flowers solitary, white, very fragrant ; 
fruit dark purple. Waste places, espe- 
cially near the sea. The origin of the 
garden varieties of Scotch Rose. — 
Fl. May, June, Shrub, 

2. R. tomcntosa (Downy-leaved Rose). 
— Leaflets doubly serrated, and glandu- 
lar ; calyx pinnate. Distinguished by 
its stout, long shoots, downy, almost 
hoary leaves, large white or pale pink 0'1 
flowers, 1-3 together, and oblong fruit, 
covered more or less with small prickles 
and usually crowned with the cop- 
iously pinnate calyx-leaves. Hedges Rosa Spinosissuh [Burnet- 
and thickets, particularly in the north ; leaved Ross) 
common. — Fl. Jrme, July. Shrub. 

3. 7?. riihij^inosa (Sweet Brier). — Leaflet doubly serrated, hairy, 
glandular beneath, mostly rounded at the base ; calyx pinnate, re- 
maining" attached to the ripe fruit ; fruit pear-shaped when young, 
and becoming globose, red, and usually smooth ; larger prickles 
hooked, the smaller ones straight, mixed with bristles. The Eglan- 
tine of the poets, but not of Milton, whose " twisted Eglantine" is 
the Woodbine or Honeysuclde. A favourite garden plant, deser- 
vedly cultivated for the sake of its deliciously fragrant foliage. 
Bushy places, especially on chalk. — Fl. June, July. Shrub. 

4. R. canina (Dog Rose). — Leaves smooth, or slightly hairy ; 
calyx pinnate, not remaining attached to the fruit ; styles distinct ; 
prickles hooked ; flowering stems usuafly smooth, and bearing soli- 
tary flowers or 3 or 4 together. This is the Common Hedge Rose, 
a flower belonging exclusively to summer, and welcomed at its first 
appearance scarcely less warmly than the early Primrose of sj)ring. 
The colour of the flower varies from white to a deep blush, and the 
leaves also dift'er considerably ; but the above characters will be 
found to include all the principal vai'ieties. Hedges and bushy 
places ; abundant. — Fl. June, Jul}?. Shrub. 

5. R. arvensis (Trailing Dog Rose). — Prickles small, hooked; 
leaves smooth ; calyx slightly pinnate, not remaining attached to 
the fruit ; styles united ; stigmas forming a round head. Distin- 
guished from all other British species of Rose by its slender, trailing 
stems. The flowers are white and scentless, and there are fewer 
prickles than in most other species. Woods and hedges ; common 
in the south of England. — Fl. June to August. Shrub. Botanists 
describe no less than nineteen species of native Roses, l^ut, as many 



of these are rare and the characters of 
others are difficult to discriminate, it 
has been thought best to describe here 
only tliose which are of common occur- 
rence, or otherwise remarkable. 

13. Pyrus (Pear, Apple, Service, and 
Mountain Ash) 

I. P. communis (Wild Pear). — Leaves 
simple, egg-shaped, serrated ; flowers 
white, in bunches on spurs of the pre- 
vious year's formation ; fruit tapering 
at the base. A small upright tree, often 
bearing thorns at the extremities of its 
branches. The seed-vessel, in a wild 
state, is woody^ austere, and worthless, 

yet is the origin of the countless luscious 

varieties of our gardens and orchards. 

Woods and hedges. — Fl. April, May. 


2. P. mains (Crab Apple). — Leaves 
simple, egg-shaped, serrated ; flowers in 
a sessile umbel ; styles combined below ; 
fruit hollow beneath. A small, spreading 
tree, with thornless branches, umbels of 
white flowers delicately shaded with pink, 
and nearly round fruit, which is intensely 
acid. It was formerly much used in 
making verjuice and ui the preparation of 
pomatum, so called from pomum, an 
apple. Woods and hedges. — Fl. May. 

Pyrus Communis {Wild Pear) 

Pyrus Torminalis (Wild Service Tree) 

Pyrus Malus {Ci-ab Apple) 

3. P. torminalis (Wild Ser- 
vice Tree). — Leaves egg- 
shaped, with several deep, 
sharp lobes ; flowers in 
corymbs. A small tree, with 
leaves shaped somewhat like 
those of the Hawthorn, but 
larger, and wilh white flowers, 
which arc succeeded by brown- 
ish, spotted, lierry-like fruit. 
Woods and hedges in the south 
Fl. May. Tree. 

of F.ngland, 


Dog Kose 

C'onimou May 



4. P. aucuparia (Fowler's Service, Mountain Ash, Quicken, or 
Rowan Tree). — Leaves, pinnate, serrated ; flowers in corymbs ; jniit 
nearly round. One of the most elegant of British trees, conspicuous 
in the flowering season by its delicate green foliage and large corymbs 
of small white flowers, and in autumn by its clusters of berrydike 
pomes, which are greedily eaten by birds, and often used as a lure 
by the bird-catcher or fowler — aticeps. Mountainous woods. — 
Fl. May. Tree. 

Pyrus Aria (White Beam Tree) 

Pyrus Aucuparia (Fowler's Service Trei) 

5. P. Aria (White Pieam Tree). — 
Leaves egg-shaped, deeply and irregu- 
larly serrated, white below ; flowers 
in corymbs ; fruit nearly round. A 
small tree, well distinguished by its 
very large leaves, which are remark- 
ably white and silky beneath, es- 
pecially when beginning to expand. 
Woods, especially in chalky or lime- 
stone soils. — Fl. June. Tree. 

14. Mespilus {Medlar) 
I. M. Gcrmanica (Common Med- 
lar). — A tree well known in a culti- 
vated state, and although found 
apparently wild in the south of 
England, it is probably not a true 

Mespilus Germanica 
(Common Medlar) 


native. The flowers are white and very large, and the fruit is re- 
markably flattened at the top, exposing the upper ends of the 
long seed-cells. — Fl. May. Tree. 

15. Crat.egus (Hawthorn) 
I. C. oxyacantlia (Hawthorn, White-thorn, or May). — A branching, 
thorny shrub or small tree, which, though it varies considerably in 
its mode of growth, shape of its leaves, and colour of its flowers and 
fruit, is so well known as to need no description. The leaves are 
wedge-shaped, divided into 3-5-toothed lobes, and expand before 
the flowers ; the floipers white or pink, and fragrant ; fruit red, con- 
taining 1-3 hard carpels. The name Hawthorn is supposed to be 
a corruption of the Dutch hag, or hedge ; although, therefore, the 
fruit is generally called a haw, that name is derived from the tree 
which produces it, and the tree does not, as is frequently supposed, 
take its name from the fruit which it bears. — Fl. May, and in the 
mountains till late in June. Tree. 

16. CoTONEASTER (Cotoneastef) 
I. C. vulgaris (Common Cotoneaster). — A small shrub with entire, 
ovate leaves, glabrous above and cottony on the under side ; flowers 
small, pinkish, solitary or several together ; fruit a small reddish 
berry. In Britain found only in one station, viz. the limestone 
chffs of Great Orme's Head, Caernarvonshire. — Fl. May, June. 

Natural Order XXV 

ONAGRACE.E.— The Willow Herb Tribe 

Caivx of 4, sometimes 2 lobes, which in bud are attached to each 
other by their edges ; the calyx-tube more or less united to the ovary ; 
petals as many as the lobes of the calyx, twisted while in bud ; 
stamens 4 or 8, rarely 2, springing from the mouth of the calyx ; 
ovary of 2 or 4 cells, often crowned by a disk ; stigma knobbed, or 
4-lobed ; fruit a berry, or 4-celled capsule. Herbaceous plants or 
shrubs, principally inhabiting the temperate parts of the globe, 
especially America and Europe. In this Order we find the elegant 
American genus Fuchsia, with its coloured 4-cleft calyx and often 
edible fruit. Many species of (Enothera axe cultivated as garden 
plants, some bearing flowers 3 or 4 inches in diameter ; those with 
yellow or white flowers, which open only in the evening, are called 
Evening Primroses. The projjerties of the plants which compose 
this Order are unimportant. The wood of the Fuchsia is said to be 
used as a dj'e, and the roots of (Enothera biennis, the Common 


Evening Primrose, are eatable. In all, the number 4 predominates 
in the arrangement of the parts. 

1. Epilobium (Willow Herb). — Calyx 4-parted, the lobes not 
combined after expansion ; fclah 4 ; slamens 8 ; capsule long, 
4-sided, 4-celled, 4-valved ; seeds numerous, tufted with down. 
(Name from the Greek, epi, upon, and lobos, a pod, the flowers being 
placed on the top of the pod-like seed-vessel.) 

2. CEnothera (Evening Primrose). — Calyx 4-parted, the lobes 
more or less combined after expansion, and bent back ; stamens 8 ; 
capsule 4-celled, 4-valved ; seeds numerous, not bearded. (Name 
in Greek signifying catching the flavottr of the wine.) 

3. IsNARDiA. — Calyx 4-parted ; petals 4 or none ; stamens 4 ; 
capsule inversely egg-shaped, 4-angled, 4-cclled, 4-valved, crowned 
with the caly.x. (Named after a French botanist of the eighteenth 
century, Antoine d'Isnard.) 

4. CiRC.EA (Enchanter's Nightshade). — Calyx 2-parted ; petals 2 ; 
stamens 2 ; capsule 2-celled, each cell containing a seed. (Name 
from Circe, the enchantress so celebrated in Greek Mythology.) 

I. Epilobium (Willow Herb) 

1. E. angustifolium (Rose Bay, or Flowering Willow). — Leaves 
narrow pointed, smooth, or hoary. A tall, handsome species 2-4 
feet high, not often met with in a wild state, but common in gardens, 
where it is cultivated for the sake of its long racemes of handsome 
rose-coloured flowers. Caution should be^ used in introducing it 
into a small garden, as its roots creep ex^tensively, and are very 
difficult to eradicate. Damp woods ; rare, except as an escape. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. E. hirsidum (Great Hairy Willow Herb, Codlins-and-cream). — 
A handsome species 4-6 feet high, with large rose-coloured flowers ; 
petals all equal ; stamens erect ; stigma 4-cleft ; whole plant woolly ; 
leaves clasping the stem, narrow oblong, serrated ; stem much 
branched ; root creeping. Well marked by its very downy stems 
and leaves and creeping roots. Wet places by streams and ditches ; 
common. — Fl. Julj', August. Perennial. 

3. E. parviflorum (Small-flowered Hairy Willow herb). — Downy; 
leaves sessile, narrow, toothed ; stem 1-2 feet high, nearly simple ; 
root fibrous ; flowers pink. Distinguished from the last by its 
smaller size, unbranched mode of growth, and fibrous roots. Wet 
places ; common. — Fl. July, August. ' Perennial. 

4. E. montanum (Broad Smooth-leaved Willow Herb). — A small 
species about a foot high. Leaves egg-shaped, acute, smooth, 
toothed, the lower ones shortly stalked ; stem round, slightly downy; 



flowers rose-coloured, the buds usually drooping. It may often be 
detected when in seed by its capsules, the valves of which open 
lengthwise, and disclose the numerous seeds bearded with cottony 
down. Dry places ; common.-- Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

5. E. roseiim (Pale Smoothdeaved Willow Herb). — Stem erect, 
branched, 1-2 feet high, imperfectly 4-angled, and bearing a panicle 
of small rose-coloured flowers ; leaves ovate, smooth, toothed, on 
longish stalks. Damp places, mostly in the south. 

6. E. tetragonum (Square-stalked Willow Herb). — S/i3;m branched, 
4-angled, nearly smooth, 1-2 feet high ; leaves narrow, sessile, 
toothed ; flowers small, pink ; buds erect. Wet pilaces ; common. 
^Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

7. E. palustre (Narrow-leaved Marsh Willow Herb). — Leaves 
narrow, wedge-shaped at the base, slightly toothed, sessile ; stem 
round, nearly smooth. From 1-2 feet high, with very narrow, 
nearly entire leaves, small flowers, which droop while in bud, and a 
round stem, which often has 2 downy lines on opposite sides. Wet 
places ; not common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

8. E. alsinijoliiim (Chickwccd-leavcd Willow Herb). — A moun- 
tainous species about 6 inches high and branched ; leaves very 
thin, egg-shaped, pointed, toothed, shortly stalked ; flowers pink, 

rather large. Moist mountainous 
places in the north. — Fl. July, August. 

g. E. Alpinum (Alpine Willow Herb). 
— Also a mountain species, with a 
branched stem 3 or 4 inches high, bear- 
ing I or 2 pink flowers, drooping while 
in bud. Leaves ohiv&e, shortly stalked. 
Moist mountainous places in the north. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. (Enothera (Evening Primrose) 

I. CE. biennis (Common Evening 
Primrose). — A stout herbaceous plant 
2-3 feet high, with lanceolate, hght 
green, smooth leaves, and spikes of 
large, pale yellow, fragrant flowers, 
which open in the evening and wither 
towards the middle of the next day. It 
is common in gardens, and in a few 
places appears to he naturalized, — 
Fl. July to September. Biennial. 

CEnothera Biennis 
(Common Evening Primrose) 


Great Hairy Willow-Hprh Commou Enchanter'a Nichtaliade 

Purple Loosestrife Hoary Willow-Herb Rose Pay 



I. 7. palustris (Marsh Isnardia). — The only British species. A 
small, herbaceous plant, 6-8 inches long, with prostrate rooting 
stems ; leaves ovate, smooth, stalked, and opposite ; and small 
axillary sessile fioiecrs, which are destitute of petals. Very rare. 
Has been found only at Buxstead in Sussex, and in the New Forest. 
— Fl. July. Annual. 

4. CiRC.EA [Enchanter's Nightshade) 

1. C lutetiana (Common Enchanter's Nightshade). — A slender, 
herbaceous plant 1-2 feet high, with a branched, downy stem ; egg- 
shaped leaves, toothed and pointed, and hairy calyx. The roots are 
creeping, the flowers small, white, with pink stamens, and are borne 
in graceful branched racemes, and are succeeded by 2-lobed, hairy 
seed-vessels. Damp shady places ; common ; often a troublesome 
weed in damp gardens. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. C. Alpina (Alpine Enchanter's Nightshade). — Stem nearly 
smooth ; leaves heart-shaped, toothed, shining. Closely resembling 
the last, but smaller and less branched ; 5-R inches high ; the frttit 
is not so bristly, and is usually i-seeded. The leaves are remark- 
able for their delicate textiue, and when dried are nearly frans- 
parent. Mountainous woods in the north. — IT. July, August. 

Natural Order XXVI 

HATORAGACE^.— The Mare's-tail Tribe 

Calyx adhering to the ovary, and either expanding into 3 or 4 
minute lobes, or reduced to a mere rim ; -petals either minute and 
placed on the mouth of the calyx, or wanting ; stamens either 
equalling the petals in number, twice as many, or, when petals are 
absent, I or 2 ; ovary with one or more cells ; stigmas equal in 
number to the cells of the ovary ; capsule not opening ; seeds 
solitary, pendulous. An unimportant Order, comprising about 
eighty .species of plants, scattered over most jiarts of the globe, 
none of which have any economic use. Th^y are for the most part 
herbaceous aquatics, with inconspicuous flowers often destitute of 
petals, and in one genus, Hippuris (Mare's-tail), composed of a 
minute calyx, a solitary stamen, and a single seed. In several 
species the stamens and pistils are in separate flowers. 

I. Hippuris (Mare's-tail). — Calyx forming a minute, indistinctly 
2-lobed rim for the ovary ; petals ; stamen i ; style i ; seed i ; 



nut-like. From the Greek words, hippos and oura, meaning a 
horse's tail.) 

2. Myriophyllum (Water Milfoil). — Stamens and 
pistils in separate flowers, but on the same plant 
(monoecious) ; calyx 4-parted ; petals 4 ; stamens usually 
8 ; styles 4 ; fruit of 4 nut-like seeds. (Name from the 
Greek, mnrios, countless, and phyllon, a leaf, from its 
numerous leaves.) 

I. HippuRis {Mare's-tail) 

I. H. vulgaris (Common Mare's-tail). — The only 
British species, not uncommon in stagnant water. A 
.singular plant, with erect, jointed stems, which are un- 
branched, except at the base, and taper to a point, 
bearing whorls of 8-12 very narrow leaves with hard 
tips. The inconspicuous flowers are sessile in the axils 
of the upper leaves, and are often without stamens. 
Not to be confounded with the genus, Equisetum 
(Horse-tail), a plant allied to the ferns, which has a 
jointed stem and rigid leaves, but bears its fructifica- 
tion in terminal heads. — Fl. June, Julj'. Perennial. 





2. Myriophyij.tjm {Water Milfoil) 

1. M. spicalitni (Spiked Water Mil- 
foil). — An aquatic plant, rooting in 
the mud of stagnant waters, and form- 
ing a tangled mass of slender, much 
branched stems ; leaves 4 in a whorl, 
finely divided into numerous hair-like 
segments, the whole plant being sub- 
merged, except the leafless, slender 
spikes of inconspicuous greenish flowers, 
arranged in whorls, which rise a few 
inches above the surface. Common. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. M. verticillatitm (Whoiied Water 
Milfoil). — Differs from the preceding in 
having the flowers in whorls at the base 
of the leaves. M. allerniflorimi (Alter- 
nate Flowered Water Milfoil) has barren flowers, alternately 
arranged in a short, leafless spike, with the fertile flowers, 
about 3 together, in the axils of the leave's at its base. The last 
two are rare. 

Myrtophyllum Spic.\tum 
{St'i'ltcd Water Mil/oil) 



Natural Order XXVII 

CERATOPHYLLACE^.— The Horn-wort Tribe 

Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but on the same plant 
(monoecious) ; calyx many-parted ; corolla none ; stamens 10-20, 
without filaments ; anthers 2-pointed ; ovary i-celled ; style 
curved ; seed-vessel nut-like, i-secded, not opening. In the present 
volume the original arrangement of the earlier editions of the book 
has been kej)t, viz. Ceralopliyllacecii conlains but one genus, the 
Horn-worts, and follows the Mare's-tail Tribe. Some botanists 
place the Horn-worts and Water Spear-worts, as two genera forming 
one Order, after the Spurges ; others place Water Star-wort among 
the Mare's-tail Tribe, and Horn-wort as an Order by itself, following 
the Spurges. The Horn-worts are an unim- 
portant family of aquatic plants, very distinct 
in structure from any other known plants, 
with rigid whorled leaves, which are repeatedly 
forked, and inconspicuous flowers. (Name in 
Greek, signifying horn-leaved.) 

I. C. demersuni (Common Horn-wort). — • 
Fruit armed with 2 thorns near the base, and 
tei'minated by the curved style. An aquatic 
plant growing entirely under water, with long, 
slender stems; whorled, bristle - like lemws, 
which are 2-4 times forked, and often in- 
flated and jointed ; the flowers also are whorled, 
and grow in the axils of the leaves. Slow 
streams and ditches; frequent. — Fl. July. 

C. submersHm scarcely differs from the pre- 
ceding, except in having fruit without thorns ; 
and the plant is a paler green. 


Demersum {Common 


Natural Order XXVIII 

LYTHRACE^. — Loosestrife Tribe 

Calyx tubular, many-parted, often with intermediate teeth : 
petals inserted between the outer divisions of the calyx, soon 
falling off ; stamens springing from the tube of the calyx, within 
the petals, and either equalling them in number, or twice, thrice, 
or four times as many ; ovary 2 to 4-celled ; style single ; capside 
many-seeded, covered by the calyx, but not united to it. A large 
Order containing both herbaceous and shrubby species, and repre- 
sented in most parts of the Old and New World. Known by the 



above characteristics and tlieir mostly having opposite, entire 
leaves without stipules, and four-cornered stems. Many of the 
plants of this tribe possess astringent properties, and some are used 
for dyeing. Lawsonia inermis is a plant from which the Henna of 
Egypt is obtained. It is used by the women of that country to 
stain their nails an orange colour, and is also employed for dyeing 
morocco leather reddish-yellow. 

1. I-YTHRUM (Purple Loosestrife). — Calyx cylindrical, with 12 
divisions, alternately smaller ; -petals 6 ; stamens 6 or 12 ; style 
long. (Name from the Greek, Ivthron, blood, from the colour of 
the flowers.) 

2. Peplis (Water Purslane). — Calyx bell-shaped, with 12 divi- 
sions, alternately smaller ; petals 6, minute, soon falling off, or 
absent ; stamens 6 ; style very short. (Name from the Greek, 
peplion, purslane, anciently the name of another genus.) 

I. Lytheum [Purple Loosestrife) 

1. L. salicaria (Purple Loosestrife or Willowstrife). — Leaves 
opposite, long, and narrow, heart-shaped at the base ; f.owcrs 
whorled, in leafy spikes ; stamens 12. An exceedingly handsome 
plant, 2-4 feet high, generally growing on river banks, among 
sedges and rushes, and sending up tall tapering spikes of purple 
flowers, which, seen from a distance, might be mistaken for Fox- 
gloves. The stamens are arranged in two whorls, those of each 
whorl of a different length to the style ; the style in some instances 
being longer than the stamens, in others shorter, and in others of 
a length between that of the stamens of the two whorls. Watery 
places ; abundant. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. /.. hvssopifolia (Hyssop-leaved Purple Loosestrife). — A much 
smaller plant, 4-8 inches high ; lower leaves opposite, upper alter- 
nate ; flowers small, purple, solitary, sessile in 
the upper leaf axils ; stamens 6, It grows in 

^3!«^ moist places in the south of England, but is 
far from common. 

2. Peplis {Water Purslane) 

I. P. Portula (Watef- Purslane). — A humble, 
creeping, aquatic plant, with opposite, smooth 
leaves, 4 - angled stems, and inconspicuous 
axillary flowers. The stems are usually more 
or less tinged with red ; and when the plant 
grows in places from' which the water has 
dried up the leaves acquire the same hue. 
Common. — Fl. July, August. Annual, 

Peplis Portula 
[Water Purslane) 



Natural Order XXIX 

TAMARICACEiE.— The Tamarisk Tribe 

Calyx 4-5 parted, overlapping when in bud, remaining after the 
petals have withered ; petals 4-5, from the base of the calyx ; 
stamens equal in number to the petals or twice as many, distmct, 
or united by their filaments ; ovary not combined with the calyx ; 
styles 3 ; capsule 3-valved, i-celled, containing many seeds, which 
are tufted with down at the extremity. Mostly shrubs with rod- 
like branches, and minute leaves which resemble scales. They 
are, with the exception of one Mexican genus, confined to the 
eastern half of the northern hemisphere, and are most numerous 
on the shores of the Mediterranean ; but though preferring the 
seaside, they are not infrequently found on the banks of rivers, 
and occur in the desert, especially where the soil is impregnated 
with salt, as in the neighbourhood of Mount Sinai, where a species 
of Tamarisk, very like the common one, produces a sugary substance 
called by the Arabs Manna. The bark is: astringent, and several 
species are remarkable for the large quantity of 
sulphate of soda contained in their ashes, and / 

for the galls which they bear on their branches. /, 

These are highly astringent, and are used both 
in medicine and dyeing. 

I. Tamarix (Tamarisk). — Calyx 5-parted ; 
petals 5 ; stamens 5 or 10 ; stomas feathery. 
(Named from the Tamaris, a river in Spain, 
now called the Tambra, where the Tamarisk 

I. Tamarix [Tamarisk] 

T. T. Gallica (Common Tamarisk). — A hand- 
some shrub or small tree, with long flexible 
branches and minute scale-like leaves, which are 
closely pressed to the twigs, and give the tfee a 
light, feathery appearance. The flowers, which 
are rose-coloured, grow in spiked panicles. The 
plant is not a native, but has been largely 
planted on the south coast, where it appears to 
be well established. — Fl. July. Shrub. 

Tam.^rix Gallica 
(Common Tamarislt) 


Natural Order XXX 

CUCURBITACEiE.— The Gourd Tribe 

Stamens and ftstils m separate flowers, either on the same plant 
(moncecious) or on different plants (dicecious) ; calyx 5-toothed, 
united with the corolla ; corolla often scarcely to be distinguished 
from the calyx ; stamens 5, more or less united ; anthers twisted ; 
ovary imperfectly 3-celled ; style short ; stigmas short, thick, lobed, 
velvety ; fruit more or less juicy ; seeds flat, wrapped in a skin. A 
large and important Order, containing herbaceous plants, with juicy 
stems, and climbing by means of tendrils,, which spring from the 
base of the leaf-stalks. The leaves are usually lobed and rough ; 
the flowers often large, white, red, or yellow ; the fruit juicy or 
fleshy. They inhabit principally the hot regions of the globe, but 
a few are found in temperate climates ; and a great number are 
cultivated in Europe, either for ornament oi use. Their properties 
are in many instances exceedmgly violent, of which the common 
drug Colocynth affords an example ; the Bottle Gourd is another, 
it being recorded that some sailors were poisoned by drinking beer 
that had been standing in a flask made of one of these gourds. The 
poisonous plant mentioned in 2 Kings iv, 35-40 is supposed to be a 
plant of this tribe, the Wild, or Ass Cucumber, which bears an oval 
fruit of a very bitter taste, and grows in sandy desert places. As 
this cucumber has very much the same appearance as that which 
is cultivated in gardens, but only somewhat smaller, and as even its 
leaves and tendrils are similar, it might easily happen that a man 
sent out by the disciples of the prophets took wild cucumbers for a 
harmless fruit and prepared a meal of them. But the bitterness of 
the boiled cucumber made those who tasted it fear that it was 
poisonous, the opinion being general with the Hebrews that a bitter 
taste indicated the presence of poison (see Rev. viii. to, 11). The 
only plant belonging to this tribe, which is a native of Britain, 
Bryonia dioica (White Bryony), partakes of the properties of Colo- 
cynth, and the root is said to be a valuable medicine. The Spirting 
Cucumber, so called from the force with which it expels the poison- 
ous juice, together with the seeds, when ripe, is a very dangerous 
drug, a few grams of Elatcrium, a prepared form of this juice, having 
been known to bring on symptoms of poisoning. A case is even re- 
corded where a person was taken dangerously iU from ha\'ing 
merely carried a specimen in his hat. Many species, however, pro- 
duce edible fruit ; for instance, the numerous varieties of Melon 
and Cucumber, the Water Melon, so highly esteemed for the cool, 
refreshing juice of its ripe fruit, and one of our finest table xege- 
tables, the Vegetable Marrow. It is said that the tender shoots of 
the White Bryony may be used with safety, having been boiled, 
and that they resemble Asparagus in flavour ; but it is highly pro- 

White Bryony 


bable that shoots of Black Bryony (Tamiis comnmnh), a plant be- 
longing to a different Order, may have l)een used instead ; in either 
case the experiment is a dangerous one. 

I. Bryonia (Bryony). — Stamens 5, in 3 sets ; style 3-cleft ; jruit 
a globose berry. (Name from the Greek, hryo, to shoot or bud, the 
rapid growth of the Gourd Tribe being proverbial.) 

I. Bryoni.\ (Bryony) 

I. B. dioica (White Bryony). — The only British species. An ele- 
gant climbing plant, with large light green, rough leaves, palmately 
divided into 5 lobes, having undivided tendrils at the base, and 
bunches of whitish flowers, with green veins. The fertile fl.owers may 
be distmguished at once from the barren by the presence of an ovary 
below the calyx. These develop into globular scarlet berries, which 
hang about the bushes after the stems and leaves have withered. 
The berries of Black Bryony [Tamils communis) are larger and ellip- 
tical in shape ; both should be avoided as injhrious, if not poisonous. 
Frequent in England, except in the extreme western counties.— Fl. 
May to August. Perennial. 

Natural Order XXXI 

PORT ULACE^.— The Purslane Tribe 

Sepals 2, united at the base ; -petals usually 5 ; stamens 3 or more ; 
ovary i-celled, opening transversely or by 3 valves ; seeds usually 
more than i. Herbs or shrul)s, with juicy stems and leaves, and 
irregular flowers, which open only during sunshine. The most re- 
markable plant in this Order is the Common Purslane, which has 
been used from the earliest times as a pot-herb. Many species have 
large, showy flowers, but the few British representatives are insig- 
nificant plants with small white flowers. 

1. Claytonia. — Petals free ; stamens 5, springing from the base 
of the petals ; stigmas 3 ; capstde 3-valved and 3-seeded. (Name 
after John Clayton, a Virginian botanist.) 

2. Montia (Water Blinks). — Calyx of 2 sepals ; corolla of 5 petals, 
3 smaller than the others, and all united at the base ; tube of corolla 
split to the base ; capsule 3-valved, 3-seeded. (Named after /. de 
Monti, the Italian botanist.) 

I. Claytonia [Claytouia) 

I. C. perjoliata (Perfoliate Claytonia). — A smooth, rather fleshy 
plant 4-12 inches high. Root-leaves roundish, borne singly on stalks, 
flowers small, white, in several small racemes, just below which is a 
roundish leaf, through the centre of which the stalk passes. Of 



North American origin, but has become a plentiful and well- 
established weed in several parts of England, — Fl. April to July. 

2. C. Siliirica, of the same origin as the above, has ovate root- 
leaves, tapering to a point ; roundish sessile ste t- 
leaves : and is about as common. 

2. MoNTiA (Water Blinks) 

I. M. fontana (Water Blinks). — The only 
species. An unpretending little plant, with op- 
posite or nearly opposite leaves and minute 
flowers, in solitary or in few-flowered, drooping, 
axillary racemes ; calyx 2-cleft ; corolla irregu- 
lar, white, the corolla-tube split in front. Whole 
plant smooth and rather succulent. Common in 
wet places. — Fl. May to August. Annual. 

MoNTiA Fontana 
(Water Blinks) 

Natural Order XXXII 

PARONYCHIACE.S;.— The Knot-Grass Tribe 

Sepals 5 ; petals 5, minute, inserted between the lobes of the calyx, 
sometimes wanting ; stamens varying in number, opposite the petals, 
if equalling them in number ; ovary not combined with the calj'x ; 
pistils 2-5 ; fruit i-celled, opening with =3 x-alves or not at ah. 
Small, branching, herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby plants, with 
sessile, undivided leaves and minute flowers, principally confined to 
the south of Europe and north of Africa, where they grow in the 
most barren jilaces, covering with a thick vegetation soil which is 
incapable of bearing anything else. A few only are found a.s far 
north as Great Britain, and nearly all of these are confined to the 
southern shores. 

1. Corrigiola (Strapwort). — Sepals 5 ; 
calyx ; stamens 5 j stigmas 3, sessile, 
strap, from the shape of the leaves.) 

2. Herniaria (Rupture-wort). — Sepals 
barren filaments ; stamens 5, inserted on 
nearly sessile. (Name from the disease 
formerly supposed to be a remedy.) 

3. Illecebrum (Knot-grass). — Sepals 5, 
ing in an awl-shaped point ; petals o or 5 ; 
the Latin, illecebra, an attraction.) 

petals 5, as long as the 
(Name from corrigia, a 

5 ; petals 5, resembling 
a fleshy ring ; stigmas 2, 
for which the plant was 

coloured, thickened, end- 
siigmas 2. (Name from 




1. C. littoralis (Sand Strap- 
wort). — A small but pretty plant, 
with slender, sjircading stems, 
which lie quite prostrate, very 
narrow, strap-shaped, glaucous 
leaves and tufts of small white 
flowers. It grows in two or three 
places on the seashore of Devon, 
and is very abundant on the 
banks of the Loe Pool, near 
Helston, Cornwall. Very rare. — ■ 
Fl. August to October. Annual. 


CoTiRiGiOLA Littoralis 
{Sayid Strap-wort) 

2. Herniaria {Rupture-wort) 

I. H. glabra (Smooth Rupture-wort). — A small, prostrate plant, 
with much of the habit of Wild Thyme ; abundant in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Lizard Point, Cornwall, but very rare elsewhere. 
Though called smooth, the leaves are always more or less fringed at 
the edges. The ffowers are green, and grow in sessile tufts in the 
axils of the leaves, or not unfrequently crowded into leafy spikes. 
A form with narrow, hairy leaves (//. hirsuta) is found at Christ- 
church, in Hampshire. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 


UM Verticillatum 
rlcd Knot-grass) 

3. Il.LECEBRUM (KllOf-gfass) 

»V/ I. /. verticillatum (Whorled Knot- 

grass). — A pretty plant with slender, 
tangled stems of a red tint, glaucous, 
sessile leaves, and axillary whorls of 
white flowers, which are remarkable 
lor their thickened calyx-leaves, termi- 
nating in a soft point. In boggy 
ground and standing water, among 
other aquatic plants ; only in Cornwall, 
Devonshire, and the Channel Islands. — 
Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

Natural Order XXXIII 

CRASSULACETE. — The Stonecrop Tribe 

Sepals 3-20, more or less united at the base ; petals equal in 
number to the sepals, inserted in the bottom of the calyx ; stamens 
the same or twice as many, in which latter case those opposite the 


petals are shorter than the others ; ovaries as many as the petals, 
i-celled, tapering into stigmas, often with a gland at the base of 
each ; fruit consisting of several erect seed-vessels, which open 
lengthwise ; seeds in a double row. Herbs or shrubs, remarkable 
for their thick, fleshy leaves and star-hke flowers, inhabiting most 
parts of the world, especially the south of Africa, and growing in 
the driest situations, where not a blade of grass nor a particle of 
moss can live ; on naked rocks, old walls, on sandy, hot plains, alter- 
nately exposed to the heaviest dews of night and the fiercest rays 
of the noonday sun, having the power of laying in during the rainy 
season a large store of moisture, which they obstinately retain, and 
requiring no further nourishment, save what they derive from the 
atmosphere. A common British spedies, Sediim telephimn 
(Orpine, Live-long), will grow for months, if suspended by a string 
from the ceiling of a room, without once being supplied with water. 
An African species, Bryophyllum calycinmn, will not only grow if 
similarly treated, but if its leaves be gathered and laid on the ground 
they will send out from the notches on their margin young shoots, 
in all respects resembling the parent plant. The properties of the 
tribe are in general acrid ; some few contain malic or tartaric acid, 
and one or two are sometimes used in medicine for their astringent 

1. TilLjEA. — Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels 3-5 each, the 
latter 2-seeded. (Named after Michael Angela Tilli, an Italian 

2. Cotyledon (Pennywort). — Sepals 5 ; corolla tubular, 5-cleft ; 
carpels 5, with a scale at the base of each. (Name from the Greek, 
cotyle, a dish, from the shape of the leaves.)' 

3. Sempervivum (House-leek). — Sepals, petals, and carpels 6-20 ; 
stamens 12-40. (Name from the Latin, semper, always, and vivo, 
to live.) 

4. Sedum (Slonecrop). — Sepals, petals, and carpels 4-6 ; stamens 
8-12. (Name from the Latin, sedeo, to sit, from the humble growth 
of the plants.) 


I. T. muscosa (Mossy Tillfea). — A minute plant, with small, oppo- 
site, blunt leaves and greenish white flowers tipped with red. It has 
somewhat of the habit of a Sagina, from which, however, it is very 
distinct. In sandy, waste places in the south and east of England. 
— Fl. June, July. Annual. 

2. Cotyledon {Pennywort) 

1. C. umhilicus (Wall Pennywort). — A remarkably succulent 
plant, with circular, notched leaves, which are depressed above and 




Eock S ton ©crop 
Wall Pennywort 

Orpine or Live-long 



arc supported on their stalks by their centres, or peltate. The 
flowers are pendulous and grow in racemes ; 6-12 inches high, of a 
greenish yellow colour. The leaves are weU known to children by 
the name " penny pies." Rocks and old 
walls in the south and west of England. — 
Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. Sempervivum {House-leek) 

I. S. tectoritm (Common House-leek). — 
A common but scarcely indigenous plant 
growing on the roofs of cottages. The 
leaves are thick and juicy, fringed at the 
edges, and grow in compact, rose-like tufts. 
Each of the purple flowers contains 12 per- 
fect and 12 imperfect stamens ; the latter, 
which are arranged alternately with the 
petals, frequently bearing anthers contain- 
ing embryo seeds (ovules) like those found 
in the carpels, but they never attain ma- 
turity. The leaves contain malic acid, 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

Sempervivum Tectorum 
{Common House-leek) 

4. Sedum (Stonecrop) 

1. S. Rhodiola (Rose-root). — Stamens and pistils on 
separate plants, the pollen bearers having 8 stamens, 
the seed bearers 4 carpels. A succulent, broad-leafed 
plant, with the habit of S. telephium, but stouter. The 
flowers are greenish yellow, arid grow in compact ter- 
minal cymes on simple stems 6-12 inches high ; roots 
thick and knotted, having the perfume of rose-water, 
whence its English name. Abundant on mountains in 
Scotland, Ireland, and the north of England, and 
found also on sea clifts. — Fl. June. Perennial, 

2. S. Telephium (Orpine, or Live-long). — Leaves 
oblong, egg-shaped, serrated ; stems erect, 1-2 feet 
high. The largest British species, and well distin-. 
guislied, not only by its corymbs of purple flowers, 
but its large, broad leaves. A common cottage- 
garden plant, frequently occurring as an escape. 

3. 5. Anglicum (English Stonecrop). — Leaves egg- 
shaped, fleshy, spurred at the base beneath, sessile ; 

cymes 2-cleft ; petals very sharp. A small plant 3-4 inches high, 
with stems which are at first prostrate and rooting, afterwards 
erect ; the leaves are mostly alternate, often tinged with red, small, 



and very thick ; the flowers conspicuous for their star-like form, 
their white petals spotted with red, and bright purple anthers. 
Rocky and sandy places, especially near the sea. — Fl. June, July. 

4. 5. dasyphyllum (Thick-leaved Stonecrop). — Very like the last ; 
smaller, slightly viscid ; leaves mostly opposite, globular, and fleshy ; 
fl^owei's white, tinged pink. Old walls in the south ; an escape. 

5. 5. album (White Stonecrop). — Rather taller than 5. Anglicum, 
and more slender. Flowering- stems 4-6 inches high ; also barren, 
prostrate stems ; leaves oblong, cylindrical, blunt, spreading, about 
half an inch long ; cyme much branched, drooping when in bud. 
Rocks and old walls. Supposed to be indigenous in the Malvern 
Hills, and not uncommon as an escape. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

6. S. villosmn (Hairy Stonecrop). — A small species, with hairy, 
viscid stems and leaves and pinkish white flowers. Frequent in 
Scotland and the north of England. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

7. 5. acre (Biting Stonecrop). — Leaves 
egg-shaped, fleshy, spurred at the base, 
sessile ; cymes 3-cleft. Very like S. Angli- 
cum in habit, but with yellow flowers, and 
growing in similar situations ; it may, how- 
ever, be distinguished, when not in flower, 
by its thicker and more crowded leaves, 
which are very acrid, and have gained 
for the plant the name of Wall-pepper. 
Walls, rocks, and sandy ground ; frequent. 
— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

8. S. sexangitlare (Tasteless Stonecrop). 
Seddm Acre —Distinguished from the last by its longer 

(Biting Stonecrop) and more slender leaves, 6 in a whorl. Old 

walls. Found in the Isle of Sheppey and 
elsewhere in the eastern counties, but not indigenous. — Fl. July. 

9. S. riipestre (Rock Stonecrop). — A species allied to S. reflexttm., 
with slightly flattened leaves, which arc spurred below, and ter- 
minal ; of large yellow flowers. Found on St. Vincent's 
Rocks and other limestone cliffs ; rare. — Fl.= June, July. Perennial. 

10. 5. reflexum (Recurved Yellow Stonecrop). — Leaves awl- 
shaped, spurred at the base, nearly cylindrical, the lowermost 
curved back. Easily distinguished from any of the preceding by 
its slender but tough stems, 6-10 inches high, clothed with spreading 
or reflexed leaves, which are cylindrical aid pointed. Walls and 
dry banks ; not imconnnon, but probably not indigenous. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

u ■» 


Kue-leaved Saxifrage 
Grass of Parnassus White Meadow Saxifrage 


Natural Order XXXIV 

GR0SSULARIACE7E. — The Gooseberry and Currant Tribe 

Calyx growing from the summit of tfie ovary, 4-5 cleft ; petals 4-5, 
small, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube, and alternating with 
the stamens ; ovary i-celled, with the ovules arranged in 2 opposite 
rows ; style 2 to 4-cleft ; berry crowned with the withered flower, 
pulpy, containing many stalked seeds. Shrubs with or without 
thorns and having alternate lobed leaves, which are plaited when 
in bud. The flowers grow in clusters in the axils of the leaves, 
each flower with a bract at its base, and are succeeded by pulpv 
berries, which in several species are highly prized for their agreeable 
flavour. In other species the taste is mawkish or exti-emely acid. 
The plants of this tribe grow only in the temperate parts of the 
world, especially in North America and on themountains of northern 
India. In Africa they are unknown. 

I. RiBES (Currant and Gooseberry). — Calyx 5-cleft ; pjtals 5, in- 
serted at the mouth of the calyx-tube ; stamens 5 ; berry many- 
seeded, crowned by the withered flower. (Name anciently given to 
a species of Rhubarb.) 

I. Ribes {Currant and Gooseberry) 
Flowers 1-3 together ; branches thorny 

1. R. Grossularia (Gooseberry). — The common Gooseberry of gar- 
dens. Frequently met with in hedges and thickets and in wild 
rocky places in the north, but probably an escape. It is well dis- 
tinguished by its sharp thorns, which grow either sin^y or 2-3 
together, below the leaf-buds. — Fl. April, May. Shrub. 

Flowers in clusters ; branches without thorns 

2. R. riibrum (Red Currant). — Flowers in drooping racemes ; 
bracts at the base of each flower-stalk very small ; calyx smooth ; 
leaves bluntly 5-lobed. The Red and 
White Currant of gardens ; not un- 
common in hedges near houses ; and 
in Scotland and the north of England 
supposed to be wild. — Fl. April, May. 

3. R. nigrum (Black Currant). — Flower- 
clusters loose, drooping, with a single 
stalked flower at the base of each ; ca.lyx 
downy ; leaves sharply 3- to 5-lobed, 
dotted with glands beneath. The Black 
Currant of gardens ; occasionally wild in Riees Nigrum (SfacACz/n-aMi) 


damp woods. Easily distinguished, at all seasons, by the strong 
perfume of its buds and leaves. — Fl. April, May. Shrubs, 

4. R. Alpinum (Tasteless Mountain Currant). — The stamens and 
pistils on separate plants ; the flowers grow in erect clusters, with 
very long brads at the base of each. It grows in mountainous 
places ; is perhaps truly wild in the north of England, and is found 
also in Scotland ; rare. — Fl. April, May. Shrub. 

Natural Order XXXV 

SAXIFRAGACE^. — The Saxifrage Tribe 

Sepals 5 or rarely 4, more or less united at the base ; petals 
equalling the sepals in number, inserted between the sepals, rarely o ; 
stamens equalling the petals or twice as many ; ovary 2 or 4-celled 
or i-celled ; styles equalling in number or twice as many as the cells ; 
seeds numerous. This Order, though it contains some such shrubs 
as the Hydrangeas and Deutzias, is principally composed of herba- 
ceous mountainous plants, with tufted foliage and glandular stems. 
They abound in temperate and cold climates, but are not found in 
tropical countries. The genus Saxifraga is an extensive one, and 
contributes greatly to the beauty of the vegetation high up in the 
mountains ; but some species grow on old walls, by the sides of 
rivulets, and in moist meadows. Chrysospleniuni (Golden Saxi- 
frage) has no petals. Few of the plants belonging to this tribe are 
applied to any use. Most of them have slight astringent properties, 
and some few are bitter and tonic. 

1. Saxifraga (Saxifrage). — Calyx in 5 divisions ; petals 5 ; 
stamens 10 ; styles 2 ; capsule 2-celled, 2-beaked, opening between 
the beaks ; seeds numerous. (Name in Latin signifying rock- 
breaker, many of the species growing in the crevices of rocks.) 

2. Chrysosplenium (Golden Saxifrage).-^CaZyA' in 4 divisions ; 
petals o\ s;!a««e»s 8 on arely 10 ; styles 2 \ cB/jiM/g 2-beaked. (Name 
from the Greek, chrysos, gold, and splen, the spleen, from some 
imaginary virtues of the plant.) 

3. Parnassia (Grass of Parnassus). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; petals 
5 ; stam-ens 5, with 5 fringed scales interposed ; stigmas 4 ; capsule 
i-celled, with 4 valves. (Name from Mount Parnassus, but on what 
account is micerlain.) 

I. Saxifraga (Saxifrage) 

I. S. oppositijolia (Purple Mountain Saxifrage). — Stems prostrate, 
branched, perennial, forming tuft.s ; leaves egg-shaped, opposite. 
A pretty plant, forming low tufts, seldom above an inch in height, 
and bearing in the early summer large, handsome, magenta-purple 


flowers, which are often so crowded as to completely hide the stems 
and foliage. It grows on the mountains of Scotland, Wales, and 
Northern England. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

2. S. aizoides (Yellow Mountain Saxifrage). — Leaves very narrow, 
fleshy, fringed ; flowers in a leafy panicle. A handsome species 
about 6 inches high, with large bright yellow flowers spotted with 
scarlet. Damp situations by mountain streams, etc., in the north 
of England, Scotland, and in Ireland. — Fl. June to September. 

3. S. Hircidits (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage). — A rare mountain 
species, with narrow, undivided, alternate leaves and rather large 
yellow flowers, borne singly on 6-inch stems. Wet situations in the 
north. — Fl. August. Perennial. 

4. 5. hypnoides (Cut-leaved or Mossy Saxifrage). — Root-leaves 3 
to 5-cleft ; those on the creeping shoots 3^cleft or entire ; lohes of 
the leaves all very narrow, acute, bristle-pointed, and fringed. Dis- 
tinguished by its dense tufts of finely divided leaves and loose 
panicles of 1-8 rather large white flowers. Mountainous places, 
especially in the north ; very frequent in gardens. — Fl. May to July. 

5. 5. ccEspitosa (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage,). — Closely allied to tlie 
preceding, but distinguished by broader leaves, which are more 
obtuse and more cut ; the calyces also are blunter. The flowers are 
smaller, and are borne singly or in twos on rather downy stems 2 or 
3 inches high. High mountains in the north ; very rare. — Fl. May 
to August. Perennial. 

6. S. granidata (Meadow Saxifrage). — Root-leaves kidney-shaped 
with rounded lobes ; stem-leaves nearly sessile, sharply lobed ; 
flowers panicled ; roots granulated. A pretty plant, with slender, 
leafy stems, 6-12 inches high, and rather large, pure white flowers. 
The roots are remarkable for producing numerous downy, bulb-like 
tubers. A double variety is common in gardens. Gravelly mea- 
dows ; not uncommon. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

7. S. cerniia (Droop)ing Saxifrage). — Somewhat like the last ; 
stems erect, slender, imbranched ; leaves kidney-shaped, lobed, the 
upper ones with bulbs in the axils ; fl.owers 1-3, somewhat drooping, 
and in Britain often absent. Found only at the summit of Ben 
Lawers. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

8. S. rivularis (Alpine Brook Saxifrage). — A small glabrous 
species, with stalked, deeply divided root-leaves; and very small 
white flowers, borne 2 or 3 together on weak, almost leafless stems. 
Very rare ; only found on the summits of one or two Highland 
mountains. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

9. S. tridadylites (Rue-leaved Saxifrage). — Whole plant viscid, 


with glandular hairs ; leaves wedge-shaped, 3 to 5-cleft ; stem much 
branched ; flowers terminal, on separate pedicles. A small species, 
rarely more than 3 inches high, with very hairy and viscid stems 
and small white flowers. The whole plant has usually a red tinge. 
On the tops of walls and roofs of cottages ; common. — Fl. May, June. 

10. 5. nivalis (Alpine Saxifrage). — Leaves all from the root, in- 
versely egg-shaped, sharply crenate ; calyx half inferior ; flowers m 
a crowded head. An Alpine plant 3-6 inches high, with rather 
large white flowers, which grow in a compact head. Mountains in 
the north ; rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

11. 5. stellaris (Starry Saxifrage). — A mountain plant 3-5 inches 
high, with oblong, wedge-shaped, coarsely toothed, scarcely stalked 
leaves ; and panicles of rather large white flowers, with two yellow 
spots at the base of each petal. Wet rocks and the sides of moun- 
tain rivulets in Scotland, Ireland, and the north of England. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

12. S. nmbrosa (London Pride, or Ct. Patrick's Cabbage). — A well- 
known plant, with roselike tufts of roundish, egg-shaped, fleshy 
leaves with white notches, tapering at the base into flat stalks, and 
panicles of small white flowers dotted with pink. It grows wild in 
the south and west of Ireland, is naturalized in many parts of 
England, and is very common in gardens. Though growing natu- 
rally on mountains, there is scarcely any situation where it will not 
make itself at home, even in the smoky gardens of London. Hence 
it varies considerably in form, and has been subdivided by some 
botanists into several species. — Fl. June. Perennial. 

13. S. Geiim (Kidney-shaped Saxifrage). ^Very near 5. nmbrosa, 
and only distinguished by its kidney-shaped leaves, borne on long 
stalks, which arc usually more hairy and less flattened than in that 

species. A form intermediate between the 
two has been called 5. hirsuta. Both S. Geiim 
and S. hirsuta are very rare, only occurring 
in Ireland. 

2. Chrysospleniom {Golden Saxifrage) 

I. G. oppositijoliiim (Common Golden Saxi- 
frage). — Leaves opposite, roundish heart- 
shaped. A small aquatic plant about 6 inches 
high, with abundance of bright green, tender 
foliage and terminal flat clusters of yeUowish 
green flowers. Sides of shady rivulets and wet 
woods; common. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. 
2. C. alternifoliiim (Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage). — Leaves 
tilternate, lower ones kidney-shaped, on long stalks. Very like the 



(Common Golden 


last, and growing in similar situations, but rare. The flowers in this 
species are of a deeper yellow ; in both the number of stamens is 
usually 8. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

3. Parnassia {Grass of Parnassus) 

I. P. palusfris (Common Grass of Parnassus). — The only British 
species. An exceedingly elegant plant (S-io inches high, with soli- 
tary cream-coloured floraers, beautifully veined. The nectaries are 
fan-like scales, fringed with white hairs, and terminating in yellow 
wax-like glands. Bogs ; principally in the north. — Fl, August to 
October. Perennial. 

Natural Order XXXVI 

UMBELLIFER7E. — The Umbelliferous Tribe 

Calyx superior, 5-toothed, often reduced to a mere margin ; petals 
5, usually ending in a point, which is bent inwards ; stamens 5, 
alternate with the petals, curved inwards when in bud ; ovary in- 
ferior, 2-celled, crowned by a fleshy disk, which bears the petals 
and stamens ; styles 2 ; stigmas small ; frmt composed of 2 carpels, 
which adhere by their faces to a central stalk, from which, as they 
ripen, they separate below, and finally are attached to the upper 
extremity only ; each carpel is marked by "5 vertical ridges, with 4 
intermediate ones ; these ridges are separated by channels, in which 
are often found, imbedded in the substance of the fruit, narrow cells 
(called vittfe) containing a coloured, oily rpatter ; seeds 1 in each 
carpel, attached by their upper extremity, and containing a large 
horny albumen ; the flowers are usually small and situated on the 
extremities of little stalks, which are united at the base and form 
an umbel. When several of these smaller umbels proceed in like 
manner from a common stalk the umbel is said to be compound ; 
the larger being called a general umbel, the smaller partial. The 
small leaves which commonly accompany the flowers of this tribe 
are called general or partial Israels, according to their position ; each 
collection of bracts is sometimes termed an involucre. All the 
British plants belonging to this Order are herbaceous, with tubular, 
or solid, jointed stems. With two exceptions, Eryngium and Hydro- 
cotyle, they have compound umbels. By far the larger number 
have also divided leaves, more or less sheathing at the base, and 
white flowers. Though it is easy at a glance to decide to what 
Order they are to be assigned, no such facility exists in distinguish- 
ing the families of the Umbelliferte. Indeed, were it not for the 
large number of species (about 1500) which are known to exist, it 
is probable that they would have been brought together by 
botanists, so as to forrn but a few genera, whereas they have been 


divided into some 152 ; and as all these agree in the more im- 
portant parts of fructification, the distinction of the genera are 
necessarily founded on differences so minute that, in the case of 
other plants, they would perhaps be considered sufficient to do no 
more than distinguish species. To the young botanist, therefore, 
the study of the Umbelliferje is unusually difficult ; all the more 
important distinctions being founded on the ripe fruit— namely, the 
number, position, and shape of the ridges, the presence or absence 
of vif.ta:, and the form of the albumen. As it would be absurd in a 
work professing to be a popular description of British Wild Flowers 
to attend solely, or even in any great degree, to these characters, 
it has been thought desirable to limit the number of species de- 
scribed to those which are of most common occurrence, and to notice 
any peculiarity in growth, which, though not strictly admissible 
into a systematic description, may assist the student in discovering 
the names of the plants he may meet with. 

Among the large number of species of which this tribe is con- 
stituted one would naturally expect to find plants varying greatly 
in their properties. And such is the case to a certain extent ; the 
roots, leaves, and seeds are variously employed — some as food and 
condiments, others as medicine ; while others are highly poisonous. 
Yet when considered with reference to their properties they may 
be conveniently arranged into four groups, all members of each 
group being remarkably similar. The first comprises plants which 
abound in an acrid, watery juice, which is more or less narcotic in 
its effects on the animal frame, and which, therefore, when properly 
administered in minute doses, is a valuable medicine. Among these 
the most important is Coninm (Hemlock) ; every part of this plant, 
especially the fresh leaves and green fruit, contain a volatile, oily 
alkali, called Conia, which is so poisonous that a few drops soon 
prove fatal to a small animal. It acts on the nervous system, and 
is a valuable medicine in cancerous and nervous diseases. Several 
other British species are poisonous, especially (Enanthe, Cicuta, and 
Aithusa, described below. The second group comprises those which 
abound in a resinous gum, of a fetid odour, which is supposed to be 
owing to the presence of sulphur in combiftation with the peculiar 
essential oil. Among these the first place is held by Asafcctida, the 
hardened milky juice of various species of Ferula, inhabiting Persia 
and the neighbouring countries. This drug was held in high repute 
among the ancients for its medical virtues i it was supposed to be 
an antidote to poison, to restore sight to the blind, and youth to 
the aged ; and was besides considered a certain specific against 
various diseases. Gum Galbanum is the produce of other umbelli- 
ferous plants, natives of the East. The third group comprises 
plants the seeds of which abound in a wholesome aromatic oil. The 
principal of these are well known, under the names of Caraway, 
Coriander, Dill, Anise, and Cumin. The fourth group comprises 


plants which contain some of the above properties in a very slight 
degree, or so modified as to form wholesome, esculent vegetables. 
Among these Carrots and Parsnips occupy the first place ; Celery 
and Alexanders, in their wild state, are too acrid to be used as food, 
but when blanched by artificial means become mild and agreeable ; 
Parsley, Fennel, and Chervil, the last now nearly out of use, are well- 
known pot-herbs ; Samphire affords the best of pickles ; the root 
of Eryngo is sweet, aromatic, and tonic, and is commonly sold in 
a candied state ; the root of Angelica {Angelica Archangelica) is 
fragrant and sweet when first used, but leaves a glowing heat in 
the mouth, and is commended by the I,aplanders both as food and 
medicine : the candied stems form a favourite sweetmeat. Several 
species produce underground tubers, which, under the name of pig- 
nuts, or earth-nuts, are eaten by children and pigs ; and others, 
common in the East, afford valuable pasturage for cattle. Of all 
the British umbelliferous plants, the most dangerous are the Water 
Dropworts (CEnanthe), the large tuberous roots of which, resembling 
Dahlia roots, are often exposed by the action of running water, near 
which they grow, and are thus easily got at by children and cattle. 
The following table contains a description of all the common British 
species ; a list of the rarer ones and introduced species will be found 
at the end of the Order. 

Umbels simple or irregular 

1. Hydrocotyle (White-rot). — Flowers in simple umbels ; jruit 
of two flattened, roundish lobes, united by the narrow edge ; leaves 
round, peltate. (Name from the Greek, hydor, water, and cotyle, 
a platter, from the shape of the leaves and place of growth.) 

2. Sanicula (Sanicle). — Flowers in panicled tufts, the outer with- 
out stamens, the inner without pistils ; fruit egg-shaped, covered 
with hooked prickles. (Name from the I^atin, sano, to heal, the 
plant being formerly supposed to have remarkable healing qualities.) 

3. Eryngium (Eryngo). — Flowers in a dense pricldy head ; fruit 
egg-shaped, covered with chaffy scales. 

Umbels compoutid ; fruit of two flattened lobes, which are united by 
the narrow edge, not prickly, nor beaked 

4. CoNiUM (Hemlock). — Fruit egg-shaped, each carpel with wavy 
ridges ; general bracts few ; partial 3, all oh the outside. (Name 
from the Greek for the plant.) 

5. Smyrnium (Alexanders). — Fruit of 2 kidney-shaped carpels, 
each having 3 prominent ridges ; bracts 0. (Name from the Greek, 
Smyrna, myrrh, from the scent of some of the species.) 

6. CicuTA (Water Hemlock). — Fruit of 2 aknost globose carpels, 
with 5 broad, flattened ridges ; general bracts I or 2, very narrow, 


often o ; partial several, unequal. (Name from the Latin, cicuta, 
a Hemlock stalk.) 

7. Apium (Celery). — Fruit roundish egg-shaped, of 2 almost dis- 
tinct carpels, each with 5 slender ridges ; bracts 0. (Name, the 
Latin of this or some allied plant.) 

8. Petroselinum (Parsley). — Fruit egg-shaped ; carpels each 
with 5 slender ridges ; general bracts few ; partial many. (Name 
from the Greek, petros, a rock, and selinon, parsley.) 

g. Helosciadium (Marsh-wort). — Fruit egg-shaped or oblong; 
carpels each with 5 slender, prominent ridges ; general bracts ; 
partial several. (Name from the Greek, helos, a marsh, and skiadion, 
an umbel.) 

10. SisoN (Stone Parsley). — Fruit egg-shaped ; carpels with 5 
slender ridges ; petals broad, deeply notched, with an inflexed 
point ; bracts both general and partial, several. (Name, the Greek 
for some allied plant.) 

11. ^GOPODiUM (Gout-weed). — Fruit oblong ; carpels with 5 
slender ridges ; bracts 0. (Name in Greek signifying goafs-foot, 
from some fancied resemblance of the leaves.) 

12. Caeum (Caraway). — Fruit oblong ; carpels with 5 slender 
ridges ; general bracts o, or rarely i ; partial 0. (Name from Caria, 
a country of Asia Minor.) 

13. CoNOPODiuM (Earth-nut). — Fruit oblong, crowned with the 
conical base of the erect styles ; carpels with 5 slender, blunt ridges ; 
general bracts o ; partial few. (Name from the Greek, konos, a cone, 
and pous, a foot.) 

14. PiMPiNELLA (Burnet Saxifrage). — Fruit oblong, crowned with 
the swollen base of the reflexed styles ; carpels with 5 slender ridges, 
and furrows between ; general bracts 0, or rarely i ; partial 0. (Name 
of doubtful origin.) 

15. SiUM (Water Parsnip). — Fruit nearly globose ; carpels with 
5 slender, blunt ridges ; bracts, general and partial, several. (' ' Name, 
according to Theis, from the Celtic word siw, water." — Sir W. J. 

16. BuPLEURUM (Hare's-ear). — Fruit oblong ; carpels with 5 pro- 
minent ridges, crowned at the flat base of the styles ; partial bracts 
very large. (Name from the Greek, bous, an ox, and pleuron, a rib, 
from the ribbed leaves of some species.) 

Umbels compound ; fruit not flattened, not prickly, nor beaked 

17. CEnanthe (Water Dropwort). — Fruit egg-shaped, cylindrical, 
crowned with the long straight styles ; carpels with 5 blunt, corky 


ridges ; flowers somewhat rayed, those of the centre only being 
fertile. (Name from the Greek, oinos, wine, and anthos, a flower, 
from the wine-like smell of the flowers.) 

18. ^THUSA (Fool's Parsley). — Fruit nearly globose ; carpels 
with 5 sharply-keeled ridges, crowned with the reflexed styles ; 
partial bracts 3, all on one side, drooping. (Name from the Greek, 
aitho, to burn, from its acrid properties.) 

19. FcENicuLUM (Fennel). — FruU elliptical ; carpels with 5 
bluntly-keeled ridges ; bracts 0. (Name from the Latin, fcenuni, 
hay, to which it has been compared in smell.) 

20. LiGUSTicuM (Lovage). — Fnnt elliptical ; carpels with 5 sharp, 
somewhat winged ridges ; bracts, both general and partial, several. 
(Name from Liguria, where the cultivated species abounds.) 

21. SiLAus (Pepper Saxifrage). — Fruit egg-shaped ; carpels with 
5 sharp, somewhat winged ridges ; petals scarcely notched (yellow) ; 
general bracts i or 2 ; partial several. (Name given by the Romans 
to some probably allied plant.) 

22. Meum (Spignel). — Fruit elliptical ; carpels with 5 sharp, 
winged ridges ; petals tapering at both ends ; general bracts few ; 
partial numerous. (Name, the Greek for this or some allied plant.) 

23. Crithmum (Samphire). — Fruit elliptical ; carpels spongy, 
with 5 sharp, winged ridges ; bracts, both general and partial, 
numerous. (Name from the Greek, crithe, barley, to which grain 
the fruit bears a fancied resemblance.) 

Umbels compound ; fruit of two flattened carpels, which are united 
by their faces, not prickly, nor beaked 

24. Angelica. — Fruit with three sharp ridges at the back of each 
carpel, and two at the sides, the latter expanding into an even 
border ; general bracts few, or ; partial numerous. (Named 
angelic, from its medicinal properties). 

25. Pastinaca (Parsnip). — Fruit very flat, with a broad border; 
carpels with 3 slender ridges on the back and 2 near the outer edge 
of the margin ; general and partial bracts rarely more than i ; 
flowers yellow. (Name from the Latin, pastus, pasture.) 

26. Heracleum (Cow Parsnip). — Fruit nearly the same as in 
Pastinaca ; flowers rayed ; general bracts several, soon falling off ; 
partial numerous. (Name from Hercules, who is said to have 
brought this, or some allied plant, into use.) 


Umbels compound ; fruit prickly, not beaked 

27. Daucus (Carrot). — Frn/i! slightly flattened : carpels Mnittdhy 
tlicir faces, oblong ; ridges bristly, with a row of prickles between ; 
general bracts very long, often pinnatifid. (Name, the Greek name 
of the plant.) 

28. Caucalis (Bur-parsley). — Fruit slightly flattened ; carpels 
united by thin narrow edges ; ridges bristly, with 1-3 rows 
of hooked prickles between. (Name, the Greek name of the 

29. ToRiLis (Hedge Parsley). — Fruit shghtly contracted at the 
sides ; ridges of the carpels bristly, with numerous prickles between ; 
partial bracts numerous. (Name of doubtful origin.) 

Umbels compound ; fruit more or less beaked 

30. ScANDix (Shepherd's Needle). — Fruit contracted at the sides, 
with a very long beak ; carpels with 5 blunt ridges ; general bracts ; 
partial several, longer than the flowers. (Name, the Greek name of 
the plant.) 

31. Anthriscus (Beaked Parsley). — Fruit with a short beak ; 
carpels without ridges ; general bracts o ; partial several. (Name, 
the Greek name of this or some allied plant.) 

32. Ch^erophyllum (Chervil). — Fruit contracted at the sides, 
with a short beak ; carpels with 5 blunt ridges ; partial bracts 
several. (Name in Greek signifying pleasant leaf, from the agree- 
able perfume of some species.) 

33. Myrrhis (Cicely). — Fruit contracted at the sides, with a deep 
furrow between the carpels ; carpels with 5 sharply-keeled ridges ; 
general bracts ; partial several. (Name from the Greek, myrrha, 
myrrh, from the fragrance of the leaves.) 

I. Hydrocotyle (White-rot) 

I. H. vulgaris (Common White-rot, Marsh Pennywort). — A small 
creeping plant, very unlike the rest of the Umbelliferous Tribe, with 
round, smooth, crenale leaves, i-i J inches across, and inconspicuous 
heads of about 5 minute reddish-white flowers, which never rise 
above the leaves, and require a close search to be detected at all. 
Each leaf is attached by its centre to the stalk, and resembles a 
little platter. The only British species ; common in marshes and 
bogs. — Fl. May June. Perennial. 





Wood Sanicle 

(larsh Pcnnywofi 



2. Sanicula [Sanicle) 

1. S. Etiropcea (Wood Sanicle). — A slender, smooth plant about 
i-J feet high, with glossy leaves, which are 3 to 5"l'-'l)ed and cut. 
The flowers are dull white, and grow in panicled heads rather than 
umbels, and are succeeded by roundish seeds, which are covered 
with hooked prickles. The only British species ; common in woods. 
— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. Eryngium {Eryngo) 

1. E. maritinmm (Sea Eryngo, Sea Holly). — A stout, prickly 
plant, with more of the habit of a Thistle than one of the Umbelli- 
ferous Tribe. The whole plant is remarkably rigid and glaucous. 
The flowers are blue, and grow in dense heads. The roots are large, 
fleshy, and brittle, and extend for a distance of many feet into the 
sand. When candied they form a weh-known sweetmeat, which, 
however, is less popular than formerly. Sandy sea-coasts ; frequent. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. E. campesfre (Field Eryngo). — A taher, more slender, more 
branched, and less glaucous species. Very rare, occurring only in 
one or two localities, and probably not indigenous. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

V 1* 'J > 

4. CoNiUM (Hemlock) 

I. C. manilatum (Common Hem- 
lock). — A tall, much branched, and 
gracefully growing plant, with ele- 
gantly cut foliage and white flowers. 
Country people are in the habit of call- 
ing by the name of Hemlock many 
species of umbelliferous plants. The 
real Hemlock may, however, be accu- 
rately distinguished by its slender 
growth, perfectly smooth stem, which is 
spotted with red, by its finely divided 
leaves, which are also smooth, and by 
the bracts at the base of the partial 
umbels, which only go half-way round. 
It usually grows from 2-4 feet high, 
but in sheltered situations it sometimes 
attains more than double that height. 
— Fl. June, July. Biennial. 

CoNiUM Macdlatum [Common 



Smyrnium Olusatrum (Common 

5. Smyrnium (Alexanders) 

I. S. Olusatrum (Common 
Alexanders). — A tall and stout 
plant, growing in waste ground, 
especially near the sea. Well dis- 
tinguished from any other plant 
of the tribe by its broad, bright 
green, glossy leaves, which grow 
in threes, and by its numerous 
large umbels of greenish yellow 
flowers. The stem is smooth, 3-4 
feet high, furrowed, and hollow. 
The seeds are nearly black when 
ripe. The young shoots are 
sometimes boiled and eaten. 
— Fl. May, June. Biennial. 

6. CicuTA (Cowbane) 
I. C. virnsa (Cowbane, Water Hemlock). — A poisonous, aquatic 
species 3-4 feet high ; distinguished by its very stout, hollow stem, 
pinnate and long-stalked lower leaves, twice ternate upper leaves, 
and stalked umbels of white flowers. The name Water Hemlock is 
often applied to several species of 
Qinanthe, which are also very poison- 
ous. Ponds and ditches ; rare. — Fl. 
July, August. Perennial. 

7. Apium [Celery) 
J. A. graveolens (Celery, Smallage). 
— -The origin of the garden Celery, and 
unmistakably distinguished by its 
strong flavour and odour, which in no 
respect differ from those of the garden 
plant. The stem is usually 1-2 feet 
high, branched, and leafy, but some- 
times nearly prostrate. The flowers 
are small and white, and grow either in 
terminal or axillary umbels, which are 
often sessile and unequal. In its wild 
state the plant is not eatable, but 
when it has been cultivated on rich 
soil, and the leaf-stalks have been 
blanched by being " earthed up," and 

so deprived of light, it is a wholesome vegetable. Found mostly 
in moist places near the sea, but it also occurs as a probable escape 
in some inland districts. — Fl. June to September. Biennial. 

Apium Graveolens (Celery, 



8. Petroselinum (Parsley) 

1. P. aegelum (Corn Parsley). — Well 
distinguished by its slender, branched 
stem, which is remarkably tough and 
wiry, by its small pinnated leaves and 
umbels of small whitish flowers, and by 
the rays of the umbel being few and 
very unequal in length. The root- 
leaves wither early, and the few which 
grow on the stem are small and incon- 
spicuous. Corn fields and waste places ; 
not uncommon. — Fl. August, Septem- 
ber. Biennial. 

2. P. sativum. — Is the common 
Parsley of gardens, which, though often 
found seemingly wild, is not really 

Petroselinum Segetum 
(Corn Parsley) 

g. Helosciadium (Marsh-wort) 

Helosciadium Nodiflorum 
{Procumbent Marsh-wort) 

I. H. nodiflorum (Procumbent 
Marsh- wort). . — Stem prostrate and 
rooting ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets egg- 
shaped, serrated ; umbels on very 
short stalks, opposite the leaves. A 
plant with somewhat of the habit of 
Water- cresses', in company with which 
it often grows, and for which it is 
sometimes mistaken. It may be dis- 
tinguished when out of flower by its 
serrated and somewhat pointed leaves 
and by its hollow stems. The flowers 
are small and white. In ditches 
and rivulets ; abundant. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. H. repens is a 
smaller plant and has narrowed leaves, 
but is scarcely a distinct species. 

2. H. inundatum (Least Marsh-wort) has the lower leaves finely 
divided into numerous hair-like segments. The umbels usually 
only 2 rays of small white flowers, and, with the upper leaves, 
are the only parts of the plant which "rise out of the water. 
Ponds ; a common plant often overlooked. — Fl. June, July. Per- 


10. SisoN (Stone Parsley) 

I. S. amomiim (Hedge Stone Paisley). — A slender plant 2-3 feet 
high, with a wiry, branched stem and pinnatb, cut leaves, the leaflets 
of the upper ones being very narrow. The general umliels consist 
of about 4 rays, with 2-4 hrads at the base ; the partial 
umbels are small, and have 4 bracts at the base of each; the 
flowers are cream-coloured and very 
small. The whole plant has a nauseous 
smell. The only British species. Damp, 
chalky places ; common in the south of 
England, becoming rarer farther north. 
— Fl. August. Biennial. 

II. iEGOPODiuM {Gout-weed) 

I. JE. podagraria (Common Gout- 
weed). — -A common and very trouble- 
some garden weed, with a creepmg root, 
large, thrice ternate leaves, and white 
flowers. The stems grow about a foot 
high. The leaves are sometimes boiled 
and eaten, but have a strong and very 
disagreeable flavour. — Fl. May, June. 


jEgopodium Podagraria 
{Common Gout-weed) 

Carum (Caraway) 

1. C. carui (Common Caraway). — Root spindle-shaped ; stem 
much branched, about 2 feet high ; the leaves twice pinnate, with 
leaflets cut into very narrow segments ; the flowers are white, and 
grow in rather large umbels, with rarely more than i bract, and 
that at the base of the general umbel. Occurs in many places as 
an escape from cultivation. Produces the well-known caraway 
seeds. — Fl. June. Biennial. 

2. C. verticillatitm (Whorled Caraway). — Smaller than the last, 
with pinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are divided to the base 
into very numerous hair-like segments, and are so crowded as to 
appear whorled. Very rare, except in the west of Scotland.^ 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. C. bulbocastanum (Bulbous Caraway). — Root tuberous ; stem 
1-3 feet high ; leaves twice or thrice pinnate ; bracts of the partial 
and general umbel numerous ; flowers white. A local plant, so 
abundant in the chalk district near Baldock, in Hertfordshire, that 
" the farmers turn their pigs upon the fallows to feed upon the 
roots." — Hooker and Arnott. Found in chalky fields in one or 
two other districts, but very local. — Fl. Juije, July. Perennial. 



13. CoNOPODiUM {Earlh-nnt) 

I. C. denudatiim (Earth-nut, Pig-nut).^A slender plant, about 
a foot high, bearing a few finely divided leaves, and terminal umbels 
of white flowers. The root, which is a roundish tuber and is covered 
with a thin skin easily removed, is eatable, but only fit for the food 
of the animal after which it is named. A much commoner plant 
than the last. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

14. PiMPiNELLA (Burnet 

1. P. saxifraga (Common Burnet Saxi- 
frage). — A slender plant 1-2 feet high, 
with a thick though not tuberous root. 
The lower leaves, which are pinnate, 
with sharply cut leaflets, grow on long 
stalks ; the upper ones are twice pin- 
nate, and deeply cut into very narrow, 
sharp segments. Common in dry pas- 
tures. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. P. magna (Greater Burnet Saxi- 
frage). — Stouter and larger than the 
last, and has all the leaves pinnate, the 
terminal leaflet on each being 3-lobed ; 
the flowers are white, or often pink. It 
grows in shady places, but is far from 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 



(Common Biiriict Saxifrage) 

SiUM Angustifoliom 
(Nairow-Uaved Water Parsnip) 

15. SiUM [Water Parsnip) 

1. S. latifoliuni (Broad - leaved 
Water Parsnip). — Leaves pinnate ; 
leaflets narrow, oblong, pointed, 
equally serrated ; iimlels terminal ; 
bracts, both general and partial, 
pointed and narrow. A stout plant, 
with a creeping root-stock, an erect, 
furrowed stem 3-5 feet high, and 
pinnated leaves of 5-13 large and 
distinct leaflets, and long, flat um- 
bels of white flowers. Watery 
places; not imcommon. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

2. S. aiigttstijolium (Narrow-leaved 
Water Parsnip). — Leaves pinnate; 
leaflets unequally cut, egg-sha])ed, 
the upper ones narrower ; umbels 
opposite the leaves, stalked. Smaller 


than the last, and resembhng Helosciadium nodifloruM, from which 
it may be distinguished by its stalked mnhels, and by its having 
general and partial bracts, which are refiexed and often cut. 
Watery places ; not uncommon. — Fl. August. Perennial. 


FOLiuM (Common 
Thorom-max, Hare's-ear) 

i6. BupLEURUM {Thorow-wax) 

1. B. rotundifolium (Common Thorow-wax, 
or Hare's-ear). — Sfem branched above; leaves 
roundish, egg-shaped, undivided, perfoliate ; 
general bracts wanting; partial ones large, 
bristle-pointed, thrice as long as the flowers. 
A singular plant, well distinguished by its 
perfoliate leaves, which have a glaucous hue, 
and its large, greenish-yellow, partial bracts, 
which are far more conspicuous than the 
minute yellow flowers. Cornfields, on chalky 
soil. — Fl. July. Annual. 

2. B . ieninssitmim {Slender Hare's-ear). — 
Remarkable for its slender, wiry stem, about 
a foot high and usually ascending; and its 
very narrow, undivided leaves, and small 
umbels of very few riinute yellowish flowers. 
It grows in salt marshes on the south and 
east coasts of England. — Fl. August, Sep- 
tember. Annual. 

3. B. aristatiim (Narrow-leaved Hare's-ear). — ^A small plant 
3-6 inches high, with pale, rigid leaves, „ inconspicuous greenish 
flowers, and large, sharp-pointed bracts. Found nowhere in Great 
Britain but atTorcjuay and Eastbourne, and in the Channel Islands. 
Sandy, waste places. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

4. B. falcatum (Sickle-leaved Hare's-ear). — A slender, erect 
species 1-3 feet high, with slightly branched, hollow stems, and 
narrow, entire leaves, pointed and curved, ribbed on the under side ; 
flowers yellow, minute. Found near Ongar, in Essex, and in Hert- 
fordshire. Probably not indigenous. — Fl. August, September. 

17. CEnanthe {Water Drgpwort) 

I. CE. fistulosa (Tubular Water Dropwort). — Root sending out 
runners ; stem-leaves pinnate, shorter than their tubular stalks. 
An erect, slightly branched plant 2-3 feet high, well marked by its 
tubular stems, leaves, and leaflets. The lower leaves are entirely 
submerged, and of these the leaflets are flat, but all the rest of the 
plant consists of a series of tubes. The wnbels are of very few rays, 
which, when in fruit, arc nearly globular. Watery places ; not un- 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 



2. (7i. crocata (Hemlock Water 
Dropwort). — Leaves thrice pinnate; 
leaflets wedge - shaped, variously 
cut. A large, stout plant 3-5 feet 
high, with clustered, tuberous 
roots, somewhat like those of the 
Dahlia, spreading, glossy leaves, 
and large umbels of white flowers. 
The plant is popularly known by 
the name of Water Hemlock, and 
being very poisonous should not be 
allowed to grow in places where 
cattle are kept, as instances are 
numerous in which cows have been 
poisoned by eating the roots. 
Watery places ; common. — Fl. July 

OiNANTHE Crocata 
{Hemlock Watey Dropwort) 

3; CE. phellandrium (Fine-leaved Water Dropwort, Horsebane). — 
Stems 2-3 feet high, very stout at the base ; roots fil)rous ; leaves 
divided into very fine segments, the lower ones submerged ; umbels 
smaller than in the last, on short stalks, springing either from the 
forks of the branches or from opposite the leaves. Ditches and the 
sides of ponds ; common. — Fl. July to September. Biennial. 

4. (E. pimpinelloides (Parsley Water Dropwort). — Roots fibrous, 
often swollen into tubers ; stems 1-3 feet high, furrowed ; lower 
leaves bipinnate, segments broader than in the more finely divided 
upper leaves, which have long, narrow segments ; iimbels compact, 
flat-topped; rays rather short, and with usually an involucre of 
narrow bracts at the base. A variable plant. Found 
in meadows and in both salt and fresh marshes in 
the south; not uncommon. — Fl. June to August, 

5. Qi. Lachenalii. — Root- fibres fleshy ; lobes of lower 
leaves blunt, upper leaves with narrow pointed seg- 
ments ; flowers white, in lax umbels. Nearly allied 
to the last. Common in salt marshes, — Fl. July to 
September. Perennial. 

18. jEthusa (Fool's Parsley) 

I. jE. cynapiuni (Fool's Parsley). — A slender 
plant about a foot high, with dark green, doubly 
pinnate leaves, and terminal umbels of white flowers. 
" It is a common garden weed, and in its young state 

Cynapil™ somewhat resembles parsley ; but when in flower 
(Fool's Parsley) may readily be distinguished from that and all other 



British umbelliferous plants by having no general bracts, but at the 
base of each partial umbel three very long and narrow bracts, which 

are all on the outer side, and point 
downwards. The plant is poisonous, 
and has a disagreeable smell when 
bruised. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

19. FcENicuLUM {Fennel) 
I. F. vulgare (Common Fennel). — A 
well-known plant, with an erect rod- 
like stem 2-3 or ftiore feet high, numer- 
ous leaves, which are deeply divided 
into soft, hair -like segments, and 
large terminal umbels of yellow flowers. 
The whole plant is aromatic, and 
the chopped leaves are often u.sed 
as an ingredient in sauce for fish. 
Waste places, f specially near the sea ; 
common. — Fl. July, August. Per- 

FcENicui^UM Vulgare 
{Common Fennel) 

20. LiGUSTicuM (Lavage) 

I. L. Scoticum (Scottish Lovage). — From 1-2 feet high; stem 
slightly branched, tinged with red ; leaves twice ternate, with large, 
broad, serrated leaflets ; umbels with general and partial bracts ; 
flowers reddish-white. Rocky seashore in Scotland and North- 
umberland. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

21. SiLAUS (Pepper Saxifrage) 
I. S. pratensis (Meadow Pepper Saxifrage). — From 1-3 feet high ; 
leaves thrice pinnate, with narrow opposite leaflets, and teiminal 
umbels of dull, yellowish white flowers ; general bracts 1-3 ; partial 
numerous. " The whole plant, being fetid when bruised, is supposed 
in some parts of Norfolk to give a bad flavolir to milk and butter ; 
but cattle do not eat it, except accidentally or in small quantities, 
though sufficient perhaps to have the cifcct in question." — Sir J. E. 
Smith. Meadows ; not very general. — Fl. July to September. 

22. Meum (Spignel) 

I. M. athamanticum (Spignel, Meu, or Bald-money). — Well dis- 
tinguished by its twice pinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are 
divided into numerous thread-like segments. The whole plant, 



and especially the root, which is eaten by the Highlanders, is highly 
aromatic, with a flavour like Melilot, which it communicates to 

milk and butter from the cows feeding 
on its herbage in spring. " Bald, or 
Bald-money, is a corruption of Balder, 
the Apollo of the northern nations, to 
whom this plant was dedicated." — Sir 
W. J. Hooker. Dry mountainous pas- 
tures in the north. — Fl. June, July. 

Meum Athamanticum 
(Spigiiel, A'leu, or Bald-money) 

Crit-hmum Maritimum 
{Sea Samphire) 

23. Crithmum {Samphire) 
I. C. maritimum (Sea Samphire). — Well distinguished by its 
long, glaucous, fleshy leaflets and yellow flowers. The whole plant 
is aromatic, and has a powerful scent. The young leaves, if 
gathered in May, sprinkled with salt, and preserved in vinegar, 
make one of the best of pickles. 
Rocks by the sea-coast ; abundant. 
On those parts of the coast where 
Samphire does not abound, other 
plants, which resemble it in having 
fleshy leaves, are sometimes sold 
under the same name, but they are . 
very inferior. — Fl. July, August. 

24. Angelica 

I. A. sylvestris (Wild Angelica). 
— A stout and tall plant 2-4 feet 
high ; the stem is furrowed, tinged 
with purple, and slightly downy, 
especially in its upper part; the A^GBjACASYLVESTRisiWild Angelica) 



leaves are twice pinnate ; the laflets egg-shaped and serrated ; the 
umbels are large and furnished with both general and partial brads ; 
the flowers are white, tinged with pink. Wet places ; common. — 
Fl. July, Perennial. 

A, Archangelica is a larger species, 
commonly cultivated for the sake of 
its aromatic stems, which when candied 
form a favourite sweetmeat. It is not 

25. Pastinaca {Parsnip) 

I. P. saliva (Common Parsnip). — 
Well known in gardens as an agreeable 
and nutritive vegetable. In its wild 
state the plant, which is not uncommon 
in limestone and chalky pastures, closely 
resembles the cultivated variety, but 
has smaller roots and more downy 
leaves. The flowers are yellow, and 
grow in terminal umbels. — Fl. July, 
August. Biennial. 

Pastinaca Sativa 
(Common Parsnip) 

26. Heracleum (Cow-parsnip) 

I. H. sphondylium (Common Cow- 
parsnip, Hog-weed). — A very tall and 
stout plant, with a channelled, hairy 
stem, 4-6 feet high, large, irregularly 
cut, rough leaves, and spreading umhels 
of conspicuous white flowers. In spring 
the plant is remarkable for the large 
oval tufts formed by the sheathing base 
of the stem-leaves, which contain the d3 
flower-buds. This, with many other \' 
umbelliferous plants, is often con- 
founded by farmers with Hemlock, and 
great pains are taken to eradicate it ; 
but cattle eat it with impunity, and it 
is probably a wholesome and nutritive 
food. It is often very abundant in 
meadows. — Fl. July. Biennial. 

Heracleum Sphondylium 
(Common Cow-Parsnip, Hog-weed) 



27. Daucus (Carrot) 

I. D. carota (Wild Carrot). — A tough-stemmed, bristly plant 1-3 
feet high, with a tap-root, much-cut leaves, and large itinbels of dull 
white flowers. Weil distinguished by having the central flower, or 
partial umbel of flowers, bright red or deep purple. In flavour and 
scent it resembles the garden Carrot. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

A variety (D. mantiinus) abundant on many parts of the sea- 
coast differs from the preceding in having somewhat fleshy leaves, 
and in being destitute of the central purple flower or umbel. 

28. Caucalis [Bur -parsley) 

I C, daucoides (Small Bur-parsley). — Leaves repeatedly divided ; 
umhels of about 3 rays, without bracts ; partial umbels of few 
flowers, with about 3 bracts. A somewhat bushy plant, nearly 
smooth, with a stem which is deeply furrowed, and hairy at the 
joints. The flowers, which are pinkish white, grow in lateral and 
terminal umbels, and are succeeded by large- prickly seeds. Chalky 
fields ; not common. — Fl. June. Annual. 

2. C. latifolia (Great Bur-parsley). — Stem 1-2 feet high ; leaves 
pinnate ; the leaflets lanceolate and serrate ; general umhels 2 to 
4-rayed ; ^bfl^'^^'a^ 4 to 6-rayed. DistinguisheTl from the above, and 
from all other British plants of 
the tribe, by its handsome large 
rose-coloured flowers. Occurs oc- 
casionally as a cornfield weed on 
calcareous soils, but is very rare, 
and is not indigenous. — Fl. July. 
Annual. .^s^v 


2,9. ToRiLis [Hedge Parsley) 

1. T. anthriscus (Upright Hedge 
Parsley). — Leaves twice pinnate ; 
leaflets narrow, sharply cut ; um- 
hels stalked ; general and partial 
brads several. A tall, slender 
plant 2-3 feet high, with a solid 
rough stem, hairy leaves, and 
many-rayed umbels of small white 
or pinkish flowers. The fruit is 
thickly covered with incurved, 
rigid bristles. Hedges ; abun- 
dant. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

2. T. infesta (Spreading Hedge Parsley). — Leaves twice pinnate; 
leaflets oblong, sharply cut ; umhels stalked ; general bracts i or ; 

ToRiLis Anthriscus 
(Upright Hedge Parsley) 



■parUal several. Smaller than Ihe last, 6-18 inches high, with more 
branched stems and more rigid leaves. The fruit is covered with 
spreading hooked bristles. Hedges; common. — Fl. July, August. 

3. T. nodosa (Knotted Hedge Parsley). — Stem prostrate ; umbels 
simple, lateral, nearly sessile. Well dis- 
tinguished from all other British umbelli- 
ferous plants by its prostrate mode of 
growth, its very small, almost globular 
umbels of whitish flowers, and by the 
outer carpels in each umbel being covered 
with hooked prickles, while the inner are 
warty. Hedges and waste places ; com- 
mon. — Fl. May to July. Annual. 

30. ScANDix (Shepherd's Needle) 

I. S. pecten (Shepherd's Needle, Venus' 
Comb). — A small plant 3-9 inches high, 
with finely cut, bright green leaves and 
few-rayed umbels of small white flowers, 
which are succeeded by long, beaked seed- 
vessels. Common in cultivated ground. 
— Fl. June to September. Annual. 

CANmxx Pecten {Shepherd's 
Needle, Vemis' Comb) 

31. Anthriscus (Beaked Parsley) 

1. A. vulgaris (Common Beaked Parsley). — Stem smooth ; leaves 
twice pinnate, with blunt segments ; 

umbels lateral on rather short stalks ; 
fruit bristly. Remarkable for its smooth, 
polished stem and delicate green leaves, 
which are slightly hairy beneath. The 
stem is 2-3 feet high, slightly swollen 
under each joint. The flowers are white, 
and grow in umbels opposite the leaves ; 
partial bracts 5 or 6, with fringed edges. 
Waste ground, chiefly near towns. — 
Fl. May. Annual. 

2. A. sylvestris (Wild Beaked Parsley). 
— Stem slightly downy below, smooth 
above ; leaves thrice pinnate, the seg- 
ments rough-edged ; umbels terminal on 
long stalks, drooping when young ; fruit 
smooth. One of our early spring flowers, 

distinguished when in bud by the droop- Anthrtscus Sylvestris 
ing partial umbels, each of which has {Wild Beaked Pars/ey) 


Sea Holly 

Wild Carrot 

Hstige Parsley 

Pig NiU 



about 5 reflexed bracts, and afterwards by its smooth, shortly 
beaked fruit. Hedges ; common. — Fl. April to June. Perennial. 

A. cerefolium (Garden Chervil) is not a 
native plant, though sometimes found in the 
neighbourhood of houses. It may be distin- 
guished from the preceding by having only 3 
partial frrac^.s, lateral 'iiml)els,-Aw\ smooth frii-it. 

32. Ch.ekophyllum (Chervil) 
I. C. tcmulentuin (Rough Chervil). — Th-e 
only British species ; very common in woods 
and hedges. The stem is slender, 2-3 feet 
high, rough with short hairs, spotted with 
purple, and swollen beneath the joints ; the 
leaves are twice pinnate, deeply lobed and 
cut, hairy, often making the plant conspicu- 
ous in autumn by their rich purple hue ; the 
flowers are white, and grow in terminal um- 
bels, which droop when in bud ; general 
bracts either absent or very few ; partial 
brads several, fringed and defle.xed.^^ 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

Ch^rofhyllum Temu- 
i.ENTUM {Rough Chervil) 

33. Myrrhis {Cicely) 
I. M. odorata (Sweet Cicely). — Remarkable for its sweet and 
highly aromatic flavour. The stem is 2-3 feet high, furrowed and 

hollow ; the leaves large, thrice pinnate, 
cut, and slightly downy. The flowers are 
white, and grow in termmal downy 
umbels ; bracts partial only, whitish, and 
finely fringed. The fruit is remarkably 
large, dark brown, with very sharp ribs, 
and po.ssesses the flavour of the rest of 
the plant in a high degree. Mountainous 
pastures in the north. — Fl. May, June, 

The foregoing descriptions contain only 
those umbelliferous plants which are most 
•-iC^^'<\ commonly to hk met with. There are 
besides these a few others, which are 
either of unusual occurrence or have 
escaped from cultivation ; these are ; — 

Physospermim Cornubiense (Cornish 
Bladder-seed). —An erect, smooth plant 
Physosperncm Cornu- about 2 jeet high, with thrice ternate 
m7.fiSR {Cornish Bladder-seal) leaves and white flowers, which are fur- 


nished with both general and partial hrads-. The fruit when ripe 
is remarkably inflated and nearly globose, whence its name. It is 
found only near Bodmin, Cornwall, and Tavistock, Devon. 

Trmia glaberrima (Honewort) grows on limestone rocks in 
Somersetshire and at Barry Head, Devon. It may be distinguished 
from all other Brilish umbelliferous plants by bearing its stamens 
and pistils in separate flowers and on different plants. 

Seseli Libanotis (Mountain Meadow Saxifrage) is of rare occur- 
rence ; in Cambridgeshire and Sussex. It may be distinguished by 
its hemispherical umbels and hairy fruit, crowned by the rcflcxed 

Peucedanum officinale (Sea Hog's Fennel). — A rare plant, remark- 
able for its large umbels of yellow flowers. It occurs in salt marshes 
on the eastern coast of England. 

P. palustre (Marsh Hog's Fennel). — Also a rare species, growing 
in marshes in Yorkshire and Lancashire, etc. The stem grows 4-5 
feet high, and abounds in a milky juice, which dries to a brown 

Coriandrum sativum (Common Coriander). — Occasionally found 
in the neighbourhood of towns, but cannot be deemed a native 
plant. It is well marked by its globose, pleasantly aromatic fruit. 

Natural Order XXXVII 

ARALIACE.^.— The Ivy Tribe 

Calyx attached to the ovary, 4-5-cleft; petals 4, 5, or 10, 
occasionally wanting ; stamens equalling the petals in number or 
twice as many, inserted on the ovary ; ovary with more than 3 cells ; 
styles as many as the cells ; fruit fleshy or dry, of several i-seeded 
cells. Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, not confined to any 
particular climate, closely resembling the Umbelliferous Tribe in 
the structure of their flowers, but not partaking of their dangerous 
properties. Only two species are natives qf Britain; but one of 
these, Ivy, is so universally difiused as to be familiar to every one ; 
the other, Moschatell, is a humble plant, with solitary heads of 
green flowers and delicate leaves strongly scintcd with musk. Mos- 
chatell has lately been classed by some botanists among Capri- 
foliacea, but the genus having certain affinities to that and to 
Araliacece, it has been retained in its present place for the con- 
venience of amateurs who have become used to the arrangement 
of the earlier editions of this book. 

Ginseng, the favourite medicine of the Chinese, is the root of 
Panax Ginseng, a plant belonging to thik tribe. A remarkable 















plant belonging to this Order is Gutiitera scabra, found by Darwin 
growing on the sandstone cUffs of Chiloe. Both this and Gunnera 
Manicata bear a number of leaves resembling Ehubarb on a gigantic 
scale, single leaves often measuring 8 feet across. The plants form 
handsome garden specimens if grown by the waterside. 

1. Hedera (Ivy). — Calyx of 5 teeth, inserted in the ovary ; 
■petals 5-10 ; stamens 5-10 ; styles 5-10, often combined into i ; 
berry 5-celled and 5-seeded, crowned by the calyx. (Name, the 
Latin of the plant.) 

2. Adoxa (Moschatell). — Calyx 3-cleft, inserted above the base 
of the ovary ; corolla 4 or 5-cleft, inserted on the ovary ; stamens 
8 or 10, in pairs ; anthers i-celled ; berry 4 or 5-celled. (Name in 
Greek signifying inconspiciions, from its humble growth.) 

I. Hedera 

I. H. Helix (Common Ivy). — The 
only British species. An ever- 
green, woody climber or trailer. 
Tlie main stem often attains 8 
or 10 inches in diameter, and the 
plant will climb by means of small 
adventitious roots to a great height 
over rocks, trees, or buildings. The 
leaves are leathery and shining, the 
lower ones usually more or less 
deeply lobed, the upper ones more 
rounded. The flowers are greenish 
yellow, and are borne in globular 
umbels on bushy branches spring- 
ing from the climbing stem. The 
berries are black. Common all over 
Britain. — Fl. October, November. 


Hedera Helix [Common Ivy) 

2. Adoxa (Moschatel) 
I. A. moschatellina (Common Moschatel). — The only species. A 
small herbaceous plant 4-6 inches high. Each plant bears several 
dehcate root-leaves and two smaller leaves half-way up the stem. 
The flowers grow in terminal heads of 5 each, the upper flower with 
4 petals and 8 stamens, the four side flowers having 5 petals and 
10 stamens each. The latter are remarkable for being inserted in 
pairs, and for liearing i-celled anthers ; or the filaments may be con- 
sidered to be forked, each fork bearing the lobe of an anther. The 
whole plant diffuses a musk-like scent, which, how'ever, is not per- 
ceptible if the plant be bruised. Damp woods and hedge banks ; 
not uncommon, though local. — Fl. April, May. Perennial, 



Natural Order XXXVIII 
CORNER. — The Cornel Tribe 

Sepals 4, attached to the ovary ; petals 4, oblong, broad at the 
base, inserted into the top of the calyx ; stamens 4, inserted with 
the petals ; ovary 2-celled ; stvle thread-like ; stigma simple ; fruit 
a berry-like drupe, with a 2-celled nut ; seeds solitary. Mostly trees 
or shrubs, with opposite leaves and flowqrs growing in heads or 
umbels. A small Order, containing few plants of interest, which 
inhabit the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and America. In 
the United States several species are found, the bark of which is a 
powerful tonic, and has been used in place of quinine. Benihatnia 
fragifera, a handsome shrub from the mountains of Nepal, was in- 
troduced into England in 1825. In Cornwall, where it was first 
raised from seed, it flowers and bears fruit freely, and forms a 
pleasing addition to the slirubbery. Two species of cornus are in- 
digenous to Britain. The cornus of the ancients was the present 
Cornelian Cherry {Cornus mascula), whose little clusters of yellow 
starry flowers are among the earliest heralds of spring. Its fruit is 
like a small plum, with a very austere flesh, but after keeping, it 
becomes pleasantly acid. The Turks still use it in the manufacture 
of sherbet. A similar sjjecies is commonly cultivated in Japan for 
the sake of its fruit, which is a constant ingredient in flie acid 
drinks of that country. The shrub now common in this country 
under the name of Spotted Laurel {^4 ucuhu Japonica) belongs to 
this Order. 

I. Cornus (Cornel). — Characters described above. (Name from 
the shrul) so called l)y the Lai ins, from the horn-like nature of the 

I. Cornus {Cornel) 

I. C. sanguinea (Wild Cornel, 
Dog- wood). — A bushy shrub 5-6 
feet high, with opposite, egg - 
shaped, pointed leaves and ter- 
minal cymes of creamy white 
flouiers ; the berries are small and 
dark purple. The Spindle Tree 
{Enonymiis Europcea) and the 
Guelder Rose {Viburnum Lan- 
iana) have wood of a similar 
nature, and the three were for- 
merly much used for skewers, and 
are frequently confused under the 
common name Dog-wood. In 

autumn the leaves assume very 

Cornus Sanguinea 
(Wild Cornel, Dog-wood) 


beautiful red and purple tints. Hedges 
and thickets, especially on a chalk or lime- 
stone soil. — Fl. June. Shrub. 

2. C. sitccica (Dwarf Cornel). — Very 
different in habit from the last ; root 
woody, creeping, and sending up annual 
flowering stems, which arc about six inches 
high and bear each a terminal ^tmbel of 
minute dark purple flowers with yellow 
stamens. At the base of each umbel are 
four egg-shaped yellow bmcts tinged witii 
purple. The fruit, a red berry, is said by 
the Highlanders to create appetite, and 
hence is called Lus-a-chraois, plant of 
gluttony. Alpine pastures in Scotland and 
the north of England ; rare. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 


Young shoot of the Wild 

Sub-Class III 


Petals unitecl, bearing the stamens. 

Natural Order XXXIX 

LORANTHACE^.— Mistletoe Tribe 

Stamens and pistils usually on different plants ; calyx attached 
to the ovary, with 2 bracts at the base, sometimes almost wanting ; 
petals 4-8, united at the base, expanding in a valveAike manner ; 
stamens equalling the petals in number and opposite to them ; ovary 
i-celled, i-seeded ; style i or o ; stigma simple ; fruit succulent, 
i-ccUcd, I-Eccdcd ; seed germinating only when attached to some 
growing plant of a different species. Shrubby plants of singular 
structure and habit, growing only (with rare exceptions) on the 
branches of other trees, and therefore true parasites. The leaves 
are usually in pairs and fleshy, the flowers incon.spicuous ; but this 
is not always the case, for one species, Npytsia floribunda, which 
grows in the neighbourhood of King George's Sound, bears an 
abundance of bright orange-coloured flowers, producing an appear- 
ance which the colonists compare to a tree on fire, and hence they 
call it the Fire-tree. This species is not a parasite, but the greater 
part of the tribe refuse to grow except on living vegetables. The 
seed of most species is coated with a viscid substance, by which it 
adheres to the bark, and which in a few days becomes a transparent 
glue. Soon a thread-like radicle is sent forth, which, from whatever 


part of the seed it proceeds, curves towards the supportmg tree, 
and becomej flattened at the extremity Uke the proboscis of a fly. 
Finally it pierces the bark and roots itself in the growing wood, 
having the power of selecting and appropriating to its own use such 
juices as are fitted for its sustenance. Great virtues were attributed 
to the Mistletoe by the Di uids, but at present its medicinal properties 
are in no repute, though at Christmas time the plant is gathered 
and sold in enormous quantities, and is at that season the symbol 
of a strange spirit of superstitious frivolity too well known to need 
description. Much of the Mistletoe sold in England at Christmas 
comes from the Continent. 

The Mistletoe may readily be propagated by attaching the fresh 
seeds to the smooth bark of an Apple or other tree. This should 
not be done at Christmas, for though seeds are easily obtainable at 
that season they usually do not ripen until later. It should also 
be remembered that birds are likely to eat the planted berries unless 
they are protected by some means ; and also that though Mistletoe 
is a picturesque object in an orchard, much of it is apt to be detri- 
mental to the health of the trees. 

I. ViscuM (Mistletoe). — Stamens and pistils on separate plants. 
Barren flower, calyx o ; petals 4, fleshy, united at the base, each 
bearing an anther. Fertile flower, calyx a mere rim ; petals 4, very 
small ; stigma sessile ; berry l-seeded, crowned by the calyx. (Name, 
the Latin name of the plant, from the stickiness of the berries.) 

ViscuM Album [Cunniton Mistletoe) 

I. ViscuM {Mistletoe) 
I. V. album (Common Mistletoe). — The only British species. 
Growing on a great variety of trees, especially the Apple, exceed- 
ingly rare on the Oak. The stem is green and smooth, separating 
ea.sily when dead into bone-like joints ; the leaves are thick and 
leathery, of a yellow hue, the whole plant being most conspicuous in 
winter, when its white berries ripen. — Fl. March to May. Perennial. 



Natural Order XL 

CAPRIFOLIACE^.— The Woodbine Tribe 

Calyx attached to the ovary, usually with bracts at the base ; 
corolla regular or irregular, 4 to 5-cleft ; stamem equal in number 
to the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them ; ovary 3 to 
5-celled ; stigmas 1-3 ; fruit usually fleshy, crowned by the calyx. 
This tribe comprises shrubs and herbaceous plants of very different 
habits, and is interesting from containing the fragrant Honeysuckle 
or Woodbine, and the elegant little plant which Linnaeus fixed on 
to commemorate his name. They are principally confined to the 
northern hemisphere, and several are natives of Britain. The 
Common Elder was formerly held in high repute for its medicinal 
properties ; and preparations of the leaves, flowers, and fruit are 
still used as medicine in rural districts, whilst a pleasant wine is 
often made from the fruit. 

1. Sambucus (Elder). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla wheel-shaped, 5- 
lobed ; stamens 5 ; stigmas 3, sessile ; herry 3 to 5-seeded. (Name 
from the Greek, sambuktf, a musical wind-instrument, in making 
which the wood is said to have been used.) 

2. Viburnum (Guelder Rose). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla funnel- 
shaped, 5-lobcd ; stamens 5 ; stigmas 3, sessile ; berry i-seeded. 
(Name, the Latin of the plant.) 

3. Lonicera (Honeysuckle). — Calyx small, 5-toothed ; corolla 
tubular, irregularly 5-cleft ; stamens 5 ; style thread-like ; stigma 
knobbed ; berry i to 3-celled, with several seeds. (Named in 
honour of Adam Lonicer, a German 

4. Linn^a. — Calyx s-c\tii\ corolla 
bell-shaped, 5-cleft, regular ; stamens 
4, 2 longer ; fruit dry, 3-celled, i cell 
only containing a single seed. 

I. Sambucus {Elder) 

I. 5. niger (Common Elder). — A 
small tree, remarkable for the large 
quantity of pith contained in its 
young branches and for the elasticity 
of its wood. The leaves are pinnate, 
of a strong, unpleasant odour ; the 
flowers, which are borne in cymes 
with 5 principal branches, are 
creamy white and of a sickly smell ; 
the fruit globose, shining, dark pur- Sambucus Niger (Common Elder) 



pie, or rarely white. Evelyn, speaking in its praise, says : " If the 
medicinal properties of the leaves, bark, berries, etc., were thoroughly 
known, I cannot tell what our countryman could ail for which he 
could not find a remedy from every hedge, either for sickness or 
wound." Hedges, etc.; common. — Fl. June. Tree. There are several 
garden varieties with variegated, golden, and finely cut foliage. 

2. 5. ehuhts (Dwarf Elder, Banewort). — A herbaceous species 2-4 
feet high, with leaves divided into 7-1 1 narrow segments, and 2 
stipule-like, ovate, serrate leaves at the base of each leaf-stalk 
on the main stem. Corymb somewhat irregular, with 3 main 

branches ; flowers white, pink - tipped, 
and sweet-scented ; fruit black. Found 
in waste, bushy places in many parts 
of Britain, and said to have been 
introduced by the Danes. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

2. Viburnum {Guelder Rose) 

1. V. lanlana (Wayfaring Tree, 
Mealy Guelder Rose). — A large shrub, 
with white, nearly flexible branches, 
and large elliptical leaves, heart-shaped 
at the base, serrated, and very downy 
beneath. The flowers, which are white 
and all perfect, grow in terminal 
cymes ; the berries are scarlet, turning 
black when fully ripe. It is most 
frequently met with in chalky or lime- 
stone soil. — Fl. May, June. Shrub. 

.^1 """"■' 

Viburnum Lantana {Way- 
faring Tree, Mealy Giieldev 

2. V. opulus (Guelder 
Water Elder). — A small tree or 
.shrub, with smooth leave.^, lobed 
and cut, which assume a rich 
purple hue before falling, when 
they are very ornamental ; leaf- 
stalks with glands at the upper 
extremity. The flowers, which 
grow in flat-topjied cymes, are .- 
white, the outer ones barren, and Ci 
with broad corollas. The berries 
are bright coral-red, and are said 
to be sometimes fermented and 
eaten, a statement which will 
seem scarcely credible to any one 
who has chanced to smell them. 
The bark is very acrid. In the 

Viburnum OruLus 
(Guelder Rose, Water Elder) 



wild plant the cyme is flat, the outer flowers being large and showy, 
but destitute o( stamens and pistils ; in the garden variety, called 
the Snowball Tree, the cyme is composed entirely of barren flowers, 
collected into a globular form. Moist woods and hedges ; not un- 
common. — Fl. June, July. Small tree or shrub. 

3. LoNiCERA {Honeysuckle) 

I. L. Periclymenum (Honeysuckle, Woodbine).— Leaiifs ovate 
or oblong, sometimes lobed, and all distinct (not united at the base) ; 
flowers in terminal heads, gaping, red without, yellow within, 
fragrant ; berries crimson. A common and favourite twining shrub, 
the first to expand its leaves in spring, or rather winter, and almost 
the last to blossom in autumn. Though highly ornamental to our 
woods, it is decidedly injurious to young trees, clasping them so 
tightly as to mark the rind with a spiral line, and finally becoming 
embedded in the wood. Handsome twisted walking-sticks are 
thus formed, but the growth of the tree is greatly checked. — Fl. 
July and again in October. Shrub. 

Two other species of Woodbine are also occasionally found, but 
are not considered natives of Britain. 

L. perfoliatum (Pale Perfoliate Honeysuckle), which is distin- 
guished by having the uppermost pair of le/ives connate, or united 
by their bases ; and L. Xylosteuni (Upright Fly Honeysuckle), an 
erect shrub, with downy leaves, and pale yellow, scentless flowers, 
which grow in pairs. 

4. LlNN^A 

I. L. horealis (Linnsea). — The only 
species ; plant almost glabrous ; the 
stem trails along the ground, and 
bears at intervals pairs of opposite, 
broadly ovate, slightly crenate 
leaves. The flowering stalks are 
erect, and bear each two pendulous 
bell-shaped flmeers, which are fra- 
grant, and of a delicate pink colour. 
Deservedly regarded with pecuhar 
interest as being the " little northern 
plant, long overlooked, depressed, 
abject, flowering early," which Lin- 
nffius himself selected as therefore 
most appropriate to transmit his 
name to posterity. It grows in 
woods, especially Fir, in Scotland 

and in one English station, namely, a plantation of Scotch Firs in the 
parish of Hartburn, Northumberland.— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 



Natural Order XLI 
RUBIACE7E.— The Madder Tribe 

Calyx 4 to 6-lobed, or wanting ; corolla 4 to 6-lobed, wheel- 
shaped or tubular, regular ; stamens equal- in number to the lobes 
of the corolla and alternate with them ; ovary 2-celled ; style 
2-cleft ; stigmas 2 ; pericarp 2-ccUcd, 2-seeded. This Order, 
taken in its widest extension, is one of the largest with which we 
are acquainted, containing more than 280a species, of which some 
are of the highest utility to man, both as food and medicine. Among 
the former, Coffea Arabica and C. liberica hold the first place. The 
seeds of these trees furnish the coffee of commerce. Several 
species of Cinchona, a South American family, furnish Peruvian 
Bark and Quinine ; and drugs of similar properties are obtained 
from other plants of the same tribe. 

Ipecacuanha is prepared from the root of a small plant, Cephaelis 
Ipecacuanha, which grows in the damp, shady forests of Brazil. 
The wood of another plant of this tribe, Evosmia corymbosa, is so 
poisonous that Indians have been poisoned by eating meat roasted 
on spits made of it. Not a few, moreover, are noted for the fra- 
grance and beauty of their flowers. All the above-mentioned are 
natives of hot climates ; the British species are very different, 
both in habit and properties. They are herbaceous plants, with 
slender, angular stems, leaves which with intermediate stipules of 
equal size form star-like whorls, and small flowers ; possessing no 
remarkable properties, except that of containing a colouring matter 
in their roots, which is used as a dye. This group has been sepa- 
rated by botanists, and made to constitute a distinct order, under 
the name of Stellat.e, a name particularly appropriate to them, 
from the star-like arrangement of their leaves and leaf-like stipules. 
The most important of all of these is Rnbia tinctoria, the roots of 
which afford Madder, a valuable dye, and possess the singular 
property of imparting a red colour to the bones of animals which 
feed on them. Another species of Rubia, R. cor di folia, a native 
of India, affords the valuable red dye, Manjit, of that country. 
No British species are of any great value, though it is said that the 
seeds of Galium, when roasted, are a good substitute for coffee, and 
the flowers of Galium vernum (Lady's Bedstraw) have been used 
as rennet to curdle milk. The most attractive British species is 
Woodruff, well known for the fragrance of its leaves when dry. 

1. Rubia (Madder). — Corolla wheel-shaped or bell-shaped ; 
stamens 4 ; fruit a 2-lobed berry. (Name from the Latin, ruber, 
red, from the dye of that colour afforded by some species.) 

2. Galium (Bedstraw). — Corolla wheel-shaped ; stamens 4 ; 
fruit dry, 2-lobed, 2-seeded, not crowned by the calyx. (Name 





Water Eedstraw 



from the Greek, gala, milk, for curdling which some species are 

3. AsPERULA (Woodruff). — Corolla funnel-shaped ; stamens 4 ; 
fruit dry, 2-lobed, 2-seeded, not crowned by the calyx. (Name 
from the Latin, aspcr, rough, from the roughness of the leaves of 
some species.) 

4. Sherardia (Field Madder). — Corolla funnel-shaped ; stamens 
4 ; fruit dry, 2-lobed, 2-seeded, crowned by the calyx. (Named in 
honour of James Sherard, an eminent English botanist.) 

I. RuBiA {Madder) 

I. R. peregrina (Wild Madder). — The only 
British species. A long stragghng plarit, 
many feet in length, with recurved prickles 
on the edges of its 4- angled stems, and on 
the edges of its rough leaves, which grow 
in whorls of 4-6, are glossy above, and**? 
recurved at the margin. The flowers ate 
greenish yellow, with 5-cleft corollas, and 
grow in panicles ; the berries remain attached 
to the plant until late in winter ; they are 
black, 2-lobed, and about as big as currants. 
Rocky, bushy places in the south and west 
of England ; uncommon. — Fl. June to August. 

2. Galium [Bedstraw] 

1. G. cruciata (Crosswort, Maywort). — Stems scarcely branched, 
prostrate or ascending ; leaves in whorls of 4, ovate, downy on 
both sides ; flowers yellow, fragrant, growing in cymes of 6-8 in 
the axils of the leaves, the upper ones having pistils only, the lower 
stamens only ; fruit smooth. Bushy hedges ; common. — Fl. May, 
June. Perennial. 

2. G. verum (Yellow Bedslraw, Lady's Bedstraw). — Leaves 
about 8 in a whorl, very narrow (almost thread-like), grooved, and 
often downy below ; flowers small, yellow, in a conspicuous panicle. 
The Highlanders use the roots in conjunction with alum to dye 
red, and the rest of the plant as rennet to curdle milk. Dry banks ; 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. G. palustre (Water Bedstraw). — Leaves 4-6 in a whorl, oblong, 
blunt, tapering at the base ; stem weak, straggling, more or less 
rough ; flowers small, white, in loose spreading panicles. Variable 
in size and roughness, likely to be confounded with the following, 
from which it differs in its superior size and blunt leaves, which are 
frequently unequal in length, especially in the upper whorls. Watery 
places ; common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

RuBiA Peregkina 
(Wild Madder) 



4. G. uliginosmn (Rough Marsh Bedstraw). — Smaller than the 
last ; leaves 6-8 in a whorl, narrow, tapering at both ends, bristle- 
pointed, their edges as well as the angles =of the stem rough with 
recurved prickles. The slender, brittle steins rarely exceed a foot 
in length. Cymes of a few white flowers. 

5. G. saxitile (Heath Bedstraw). — A small species, with numerous 
dense panicles of white flowers ; leaves about 6 in a whorl, inversely 
egg-shaped, pointed, the edges sometimes fringed with a few 
prickles, which point forwards ; stem much branched, smooth, 
prostrate below. Heathy places ; abundant. — Fl. June to August. 

6. G. Mollngo (Hedge Bedstraw). — Stem straggling, square, 
sometimes swollen at the nodes ; leaves usually 8 in a whorl, oblong, 
tapering at each end, with a bristly point, roughish at the edge 
with weak pricldes, which point forwards ; flowers white, in a loose 
spreading panicle. Common in England, found in the south of 
Scotland, rare in Ireland. — Fl. Jul}', August. Perennial. 

7. G. Anglicum (Wall Bedstraw). — Somewhat resembles the last ; 
stems about 6 inches in length, their edges rough with backward 
pointing bristles ; leaves narrow, about 6 in a whorl, and edged 
with forward pointing bristles ; flowers very small, whitish, the 
lobes of the corolla blunt. Old walls, etc., on the south coast of 
England; rare. — Fl. June, July. Annual." 

8. G. boreale (Cross-leaved or Northern Bedstraw). — Leaves 4 in 
a whorl, 3-nerved, smooth ; stem erect, 6-18 inches in length ; 
flowers white, in terminal panicles ; fruit rough, with hooked 
prickles. Well distinguished by its crucifdrm, smooth leaves and 

prickly fruit. Damp, rocky places in the north. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

g. P. aparine (Goose Grass, Cleavers). — 
Leaves 6-8 in a whorl, very rough, with recurved 
prickles ; flowers z-3 together, greenish-white, 
axihary ; fruit rough, with hooked prickles. 
Well distinguished by its rough stems and 
leaves, which cling to the fingers when touched. 
The globular seed-vessels are also very tenacious, 
and disperse themselves by clinging to the coat 
of any animal which touches them ; hence they 
derive their popular name of cleavers. The 
whole plant is greedily devoured by geese. The 
seeds, it is said, have been used as a substitute 
for coffee. Hedges ; exceedingly common, and 
Galium Aparine ^^ objectionable weed in gardens. — Fl. June to 
(Goose Grais) August. Annual. 



10. G. income (Corn Bedstraw).— Not un- 
like the last, but smaller ; the stems are about 
a foot long and rough, as well as the leaves, 
with reflexed prickles ; the flowers grow in 
ones, twos, or threes, and the p'liit is reflexed 
and granulated, not prickly. A cornfield 
weed ; not uncommon in England. — Fl. June 
to October. Annual. 

3. AsPERULA {Woodruff) 

1. A. odurtilii (Sweet Woodruff). — Root- 
stocks creeping ; stems 6-12 inches high, erect ; 
leaves usually 8 in a whorl, slightly rough at 
their margins, with forward pointing prickles ; 
flowers in stalked, terminal panicles ; fruit 
rough with prickles. A deservedly popular 
plant, on account of its fresh green foliage and 
pretty snow-white flowers, and also for its 
agreeable perfume when dry, which resembles 
new-mown hay. 

2. A. Cynanchica (Squinancy- wort). — Leaves 4 in a whorl, 
linear, uppermost very unequal. A small plant 
with very narrow leaves, and tufts of lilac or 
whitish flowers. It derives its English name from 
having been formerly used as a remedy for the 
squinancy, or quinsy. Dry pastures, especially on 
calcarious soil ; local. — Fl. June, July. Pereiuiial. 

4. Sherardia {Field Madder) 

I. S. arvensis (Field Madder). — A small plant, 
with branched, spreading stems, narrow, pointed 
leaves, in whorls of about 6 each, and minute lilac 
flowers, which form a small umbel in the terminal 
whorl of leaves. Abundant in cultivated land. — 
Fl. June to August. Annual. 


{Sweet Woodruff) 


{Field Madder) Order XLIT 

VALERIANACE^.— The Valerian Tribe 

Calyx superior, finally becoming a border, or pappus, to the fruit ; 
in the British genera the corolla is irregular, 5-lobed, pouched or 
.spurred at the base ; stamens 1-5, inserted into the tube of the 
corolla ; ovary with I -3 cells ; fruit dry, crowned with the calyx, 


not bursting, i-seeded, 2 of the cells being empty. Herbaceous 
plants, with opposite leaves, no stipules, often strong-scented or 
aromatic, inhabiting temperate countries, especially the north of 
India, Europe, and South America. Many of the plants of this 
Order possess properties worthy of notice ; but by far the most re- 
markable is Nardoslachys jakimansi, the Spikenard of Scripture, and 
the Nardus of the ancient classical authors. It grows on the hills 
of Butan, in India, where it is called Dshatamansi. The root-leaves, 
shooting up from the ground and surrounding the young stem, are 
torn up along with part of the root, and having been dried in the 
sun, or by artificial heat, are sold as a drug. Two merchants of 
Butan, of whom Sir W. Jones caused inquiries to be made, related 
that the plant shoots up straight from the earth, and that it is then, 
as to colour, like a green ear of wheat ; that its fragrance is pleasant 
even while it is green, but that its odorous quality is much strength- 
ened by merely drying the plant ; that it grows in Butan on the 
hills, and even on plains in many places ; ajul that in that country 
it is gathered and prepared for medicinal purposes. In ancient 
times this drug was conveyed by way of Arabia to Southern Asia, 
and thus it reached the Hebrews. Judas valued the box of oint- 
ment with which Mary anointed our Lord's feet at two hundred 
Denarii (£6. gs. 2d.). By the Romans it was considered so precious 
that the poet Horace promises to Virgil a whole cadiis, or about 
three dozen modern bottles of wine, for a small onyx-box full of 
spikenard. It was a Roman custom in festive banquets, not only 
to crown the guests with flowers, but also to anoint them with 
spikenard. Eastern nations procure from the mountains of Austria 
the Valeriana Celtica and V ■ Saliunca to perfume their baths. Their 
roots are grubbed up with danger and difficulty by the peasants of 
Styria and Carinthia from rocks on the bdrders of eternal snow ; 
they are then tied in bundles and sold at a very low price to mer- 
chants, who sci.d them by way of Trieste to Turkey and Egy]:)t, 
where they are retailed at a great profit, and passed onwards to the 
nations of India and Ethiopia. The seeds of Centranthus 
(Red Valerian) were used in former times in the process of embalm- 
ing the dead ; and some thus employed in the twelfth century, on 
being removed from the cere-cloth in the present century and 
planted, have vegetated. The roots of our common Valerian 
(F. officinalis) are still used in medicine ; their effect on cats is very 
remarkable, producing a kind of intoxication. The young leaves of 
Fedia olitoria (Lamb's Lettuce) are eaten as salad, and those of 
Centranthus ruber (Red Valerian) are in Sicily eaten in the 
same way. 

I. Centranthus (Spur Valerian). — Corolla 5-cleft, spurred at the 
base ; stamen I ; fruit crowned with a feathery pappus. (Name in 
Greek denoting spur-flower.) 

fl'. '-^^. 


Ked SpiLT Valeriaa 

Smali Valeriau 


2. Valeriana (Valerian). — Corolla 5-cleft, bulged at the base ; 
stamens 3 ; jniU crowned with a feathery papjius. (Name from 
the Latin, valeo, to be powerful, on account of its medicinal pro- 

3. Fedia (Corn Salad). — Corolla 5-cleft, bulged at the : 
stamens 3 ; /ntil crowned with the calyx. (Name of rmcertain 

I. Centranthus (Spur Valerian) 

I. C. ruber (Red Spur Valerian). — Corolla spurred at the base ; 
stamen i ; leaves egg-shaped, pointed, entire or slightly toothed. 
The stems are i-- 2 feet high ; the leaves large, smooth, and glaucous ; 
the flowers, which grow in terminal bunches, vary from crimson to 
pink and white. Not a native plant, but not uncommon in lime- 
stone quarries and chalk-pits, on railway banks and old walls. An 
exceedingly handsome garden plant. — Fl. June to September. 

2. Valeriana (Valerian) 

1. V, dioica (Small Marsh Valerian). — Growing about a foot high, 
quite erect and unbranched, with runners ; stamens and pistils on 
different plants ; corolla bulged at tlie base=; stamens 3 ; root-leaves 
egg-shaped, stalked ; stem-leaves pinnatifid, with a large terminal 
lobe ; fl,oieiers pink, in a terminal corymb. The flowers which 
bear stamens are the largest. Not uncommon on marshy ground. — 
Fl. May. Perennial. 

2. V. officinalis (Great Wild Valerian). — Much taller and stouter 
than the last, often attaining 3 or 4 feet, but resembling it in habit, 
as well as in the colour and smell of the flowers. Corolla bulged 
at the base ; stamens 3 ; leaves all pinnate, their sections 
lanceolate, toothed, slightly hairy on the under side. This is 
the species of which the roots are used in medicine, and of 
which cats are so fond, as also, it is said, are rats. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

Besides the above the two following also occur . V sambuci/olia, 
a variety of V. officinalis, distinguished by the fewer and broader 
segments of its leaves ; and V pyrenaica, a Pyrenean species, which 
has become estabhshed in shrubberies, etc., in several places. It 
much resembles V .offi.cinalis, but is taller, coarser, with large-stalked, 
heart-shaped leaves. 


3. Fedia {Corn Salad) 

1. F. olitoria (Common Corn Salad, Lamb's 
Lettuce). — A small plant 4-8 inches high, with 
tender bright green leaves ; stems repeatedly 
2-forked, and terminal leafy heads of very 
minute flowers, which resemble white glass ; 
leaves long and narrow, wider towards the end, 
a little toothed near the base ; capsule inflated, 
crowned by the 3 calyx teeth. It is sometimes 
cultivated as a salad. Cultivated ground, such 
as cornfields, etc. ; common. — Fl. May, June. 

2. F. deiitala (Toothed Corn Salad). — Leaves 
Fedia o'litoria I'^^i? ^^'^ narrow, much toothed towards the 

(Common Corn Salad, base ; flowers in corymbs, with a solitary sessile 

Lamb's Lettuce) one in the forks of the stem ; capsule not 

inflated, crowned by the 4-toothed calyx. 

Taller than the last and more rigid habit. Cornfields, etc. ; not 

uncommon. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

Two or three other species of Fedia occur, but as they are neither 
frequent nor of special interest, and are chiefly distinguished by 
minute differences in the fruit, they are omitted from the present 

Natiirai, Order XLTTT 

DISPACEyE.— The Teazel Tribe 

Calyx attached to the ovary, surrounded by several more or less 
rigid, calyxdike bracts ; corolla tubular, with 4-5 unequal lobes ; 
stamens 4, the anthers not united ; style I ; stigma not cleft ; fruit 
dry, T-seeded, crowned by the pappusdike calyx ; flowers crowded 
together in heads like the Compositas, but differing in the rigid 
bractioles which surround each ; the leaves are usually opposite and 
without stipules. A small Order of herbaceous plants inhabiting 
temperate regions, and possessing no remarkable properties. Dis- 
paciis FulloHum is the Clothiers' Teazle, a plant with large heads of 
flowers, which are embedded in stiff, hooked bracts. These heads 
are set in frames and used in the dressing of broadcloth, the hooks 
catching up and removing all loose particles of wool, but giving way 
when held fast by the substance of the cloth. This is almost the 
only process in the manufacture of cloth which it has been found 
impossible to execute by machinery, for although various substi- 
tutes have been proposed, none has proved on trial exactly to answer 
the purpose intended. 



1. DiPSACUS (Teazle). — Stems erect, angular, opposite ; leaves 
usually joined round the stem ; flower-heads usually elongated with 
an involucre of stiff, spreading bracts, and the bracts between the 
flouts prominent, rigid awns. (Name from the Greek, dipsao, I 
thirst, the leaves being united at their base, so as to form round the 
stem a hollow in which water collects. This little moat round the 
stem is a provision of Nature, to prevent insects crawling up to the 
flowers to rob them of the honey which attracts flying insects who, 
in a round of visits, unconsciously distribute the pollen from flower 
to flower and effect cross fertilization.) 

2. SCABIOSA (Scabious). — Plants not prickly ; flower-heads hemi- 
spherical or flattened, with an involucre of bracts beneath ; corolla 
4 or 5-lobed ; ovary with a cup-shaped border, with 4-10 bristles. 
(Name from the Latin, scabies, the leprosy, for which disease some 
of the species were supposed to be a remedy.) 

r. DiPSACUS {Teazle) 

1. D. sylveslris (Wild Teazle). — Leaves 
opposite, united at the base and forming 
a cup ; bristles of the receptacle not 
hooked. A stout herbaceous plant 3-6 
feet high, with an erect prickly stem, 
large bright green leaves, which are 
prickly underneath and united at the 
base, and often contain water. The 
flowers grow in large conical, bristly 
heads, the terminal bristles being gene- 
rally the longest. The flowers them- 
selves are light purple, and expand in 
irregular patches on the head. Waste ; 
places ; common. — Fl. July. Biennial. 

2. D. Fullonum (FuUer's Teazle). — 
Differs from the above in having the 
bristles of the receptacle hooked ; it is 
probably a variety of D. sylveslris, and 
is not considered a British plant, though 
occasionally found wild in the neighbour- 
hood of the cloth districts. 

3. D. pilosus (Small Teazle). — Leaves 

stalked, with a small leaflet at the base on each side. Smaller 
than D. sylveslris in all its parts, and having more the habit of a 
Scabious than of a Teazel. The flowers are white and grow in 
smaU, nearly globose bristly heads ; the whole plant is rough with 
bristles. Moist, shady places ; not common. — Fl. August, Septem- 
ber. Biennial. 

DiPSACUS Sylvesiris 
(Wild Teazle) 


2. ScABiosA (Scabious) 

1. S. succisa (Premorse or Devil's-bit Scabious). — Corolla 4-cleft, 
nearly regular ; heads nearly globose. A slender, little-branched 
plant, with a hairy stem, few oblong, mostly entire leaves, and 
terminal heads of purjilish blue flowers. The root is solid and 
abrupt, as if bitten off (premorse), which gave rise to the fable 
alluded to by John Parkinson in his " Theatrum Botanicum " 
(1640). He says " that the Devile, envying the good that this 
herbe might do to mankinde, bit away parte of the roote, and 
thereof came the name Succisa, Devil's-bit." Heaths and pastures ; 
common. — Fl. July to October. Perennial. 

2. S. Columbaria (Small Scabious). — Corolla 5-cleft, the outer 
flowers longest ; heads nearly globose ; root-leaves oblong, variously 
cut ; upper pinnatifid. Well distinguished from the last by its 
radiate flowers and cut leaves. The foliage is of a much lighter hue, 
and the flowers lilac rather than purple. Pastures on chalky soil ; 
not uncommon. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. S. arvensis (Field Scabious). — A tall bristly plant 2-3 feet high, 
not much branched, beaiing several large, handsome, convex heads 
of lilac flowers, the inner flowers with 4-lobed, nearly regular corollas ; 
the outer are larger and usually labiate. The root-leaves are simple, 
the upper leaves pinnatifid. Cornfields and waysides ; common. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

Natural Order XLIV 

COMPOSITE. — Compound -Flowers 

This extensive and well-marked Order derives its name from 
having its flowers compounded, as it were, of numerous smaller ones, 
called florets, which are enclosed within a calyx-like assemblage of 
bracts, termed an hivolucre. These bracts, usually called scales, 
often overlap one another like the tiles of a house (Latin, imbrex, 
a tile) ; hence they are said to be imbricated. The flowers vary 
greatly in shape, but the following description will be found to in- 
clude all the British species. Calyx rising from the top of the ovary 
and becoming a pappus, that is, either a chaffy margin of the fruit, 
or a tuft or ring of bristles, hairs, or feathery down ; corolla of i 
petal, either tubular or strap-shaped ; stamens 5, united by their 
anthers (syngenesious) ; ovary inferior, i to each style, i-celled ; 
style simple, with a simple or 2-cleft stigma, sheathed by the tube 
of anthers ; fruit a solitary erect seed, crowned by the pappus, 
which is sometimes merely a chaffy margin, but more frequently 
an assemblage of simple, or serrated, or feathery hairs, sometimes 
elevated on a stalk. For convenience of reference this Order is 
divided into several Groups. 

Shee|) d Scabious 


Field ScabiQti- 

Stiiall Scabious 


I. Chicorace.e (Chicory Group). -In this all the florets are strap- 
shaped and perfect ; that is, each contains 5 stamens and a pistil. 
The prevailing colour of British species is yellow, as the Dandelion ; 
but Salsafy {Trtigopogon porrifoliits) and Alpine Sow-thistle (Son- 
chus Alpimis) have purple flowers ; Chicory, blue. 

In II, Cynakockphal,]-; (Thistle Group), -the florets form a convex 
head, and are all tubular and perfect exc-cpt in Ccntaurea, where 
the outer florets, which are larger than the inner, arc destitute both 
of stamens and pistils ; the stigma is jointed on the style. The 
flowers are purple, with a tendency to vary into white ; but in 
Carline Thistle [Carlina) they are brownish yellow ; in Cornflower 
{Centaurea Cyanus) bright blue. 

In III, TuBiFLOR.'E (Tansy Group), all the florets are tubular and 
perfect, and form a flat head ; the style passes into the stigma 
without a joint ; the flowers are mostly yellow ; but Hemp- 
agrimony (Eupatoriitm cannabinum) has lilac flowers ; Butter- bur 
(Pefasites vulgaris) pale flesh-coloured ; and in most species of 
Artemisia, Gnaphaliiim, and Filago the colour is determined rather 
by the involucre than the florets. 

In IV, Radiat.e (Daisy Group), the florets arc of two kinds ; 
those of the centre, or disk, being tubular and perfect, those of the 
margin, or ray, strap-shaped and having pistils only. The prevail- 
ing colour of the disk is yellow. Yarrow {Achillea) being the only 
exception, in which all the florets are white ; the ray is either of 
the same colour, as in Coltsfoot (Tussilago),- Golden-rod (Solidago), 
Rag-wort and Flea-wort (Senecio), Leo])ard's-bane (Doroniciim), 
Elecampane {Inula), Flea-banc {Fnlicaria), Corn-marigold {Chry- 
santhemum segetiim), and Ox-eye Chamomile {Anthemis tinctoria) ; 
white, as in Daisy {Bellis), Fever-few and May-weed {Matricaria), 
O.x-eye {Chrysanthemum Lencanthemmn), and several species of 
Chamomile {Anthemis) ; or purple, as in Star-wort {Aster), and 
Erigeron. In Groundsel {Senecio vulgaris) the ray is never per- 
fected. The limits of the Order Composit/E are exactly the same 
as those of the Linnasan Class Syngenesia ; but the number of 
plants belonging to it exceeds the amount .of all the plants known 
to Linnjeus, so extensive have been the researches in Botany since 
his time. The number of genera alone amounts to some 800, of 
species nearly 10,000, or about one-tenth of all the known flowering 
plants ; whilst the total number of species known to Linneeus was 
but 8500. The properties of the Order vary considerably in various 
parts of the world, but not according to any fixed rule, the Chicory 
Group are, however, most abundant in cold regions, the Daisy Group 
in hot climates. Again, it may be remarked that in cold and tem- 
perate regions the Compositje are mostly herbaceous ; but as we 
approach the equator they become shrubs, or even trees. The 
variety of properties which they possess is not proportionate to the 


immense number of species. Bitterness, in a greater or less degree, 
is a characteristic of nearly all, to which is sometimes added astrin- 
gency ; and many possess tonic or narcotic properties. Chicory, or 
Succory, is cultivated as a salad, but more frequently for the sake 
of its roots, which are roasted and mixed with coffee. The flavour 
is agreeable, but it is to be feared that less palatable and perhaps 
IciS wholesome roots, procurable at a less cost, are often substi- 
tuted for it. From the leaves a blue dye may be obtained. Endive 
is another species of Chichory {Chichorium endivia), the bleached 
leaves of which afford a common winter salad. The common Dan- 
delion (a corruption of the French Dent-de-lion, Lion's tooth) 
supplies an extract which is said to have valuable medicinal pro- 
perties ; its roots are also used to adulterate coffee. Lettuces 
afford a wholesome salad as well as an extract, the properties of 
which resemble those of opium. The rOots of Scorzonera and 
Tragopogon porrifoHus (Cardoons) are esculent, but little gi'own. 
These all belong to the Chicory Group. 

Among the Thistle Group we have the Ariichoke (Cynara Scoly- 
mus), the young involucres and receptacles of which are edible ; the 
Bur-dock {Arctium), the root of which is said to be useful in rheuma- 
tism ; and the Carline Thistle, which was anciently used in magical 
incantations. In the third Group, Wormwood (Artemisia) is remark- 
able for its intense bitterness. One species (A. Abrotanttm) is the 
Southernwood of gardens, a fragrant shrub, used on the Continent 
in making beer ; A. Dracunculus, the Tarragon of gardeners, is used 
for giving a disagreeable flavour to vinegar. Some species of Eiipa- 
torium have the reputed power of healing the bites of numerous 
animals ; and E. glutinosum is said to be the plant which, under 
the name of Matico, is extensively used as a styptic. It is a shrubby 
plant inhabiting the Andes, and derived its name from a soldier 
named " Matico " (Little Matthew), who, having been wounded in 
battle, accidentally applied the leaves of this plant to his wound, 
which had the immediate effect of stopping the bleeding. 

To the Radiate belong the gorgeous Dahlia, so called from Dr. 
Dahl, who introduced it ; and the " wee " Daisy, or Day's-eye, 
which opens only in sunny weather, and peeps up through the grass 
as it it were an eye indeed. The genus Helianthus contains the 
Sunflower {H. annnus) and Jerusalem Artichoke {H. tuberosus), 
" Jerusalem " being a corruption of the Italian word girasole, of 
the same meaning as Sunflower, the name Artichoke being given 
to mark the similarity of flavour in its roofs with that of the true 
Artichoke mentioned above. It rarely flowers in England, but pro- 
duces abundance of tubers, which hold a high rank among esculent 
vegetables. It is valuable not only for its= productiveness, but for 
the freedom with which it grows in any soil. Its roots are made 
into a dish which, by an absurd piece of pedantry, is called " Pales- 


tine soup." Chamomile and Fever-few possess valuable medicinal 
properties, especially the former. Coltsfoot and Elecampane are 
useful in pectoral complaints ; the flowers of Marigold are used to 
adulterate saffron ; the Ox-eye daisy is said to be destructive to 
fleas ; the yellow Ox-eye affords a yellow dye, and the petals of 
the Dahlia a beautiful carmine. 

I. Chicorace^. — Chicory Group 
All the florets strap-shaped, having stamens and pistils 

II. Cynarocephal^. — Thistle Group 
All the florets iuhilar, 5-cle/t, having stamens and pistils (except in 
Centaurea, in which the outer florets are larger, and destitute 
of stamens and pislils), and forming a convex head ; style jointed 
below the stigma 

III, TuBiFLORJJ. — Tansy Group 

All the florets tubular, ^-cleft, having stamens and pistils, and forming 
a flat head ; style not jointed below the stigma 

IV. Radiatjj. — Daisy Group 

Central florets tubular, ^-cleft, having stamens and pistils ; outer florets 
strap-shaped, forming a ray, and furnished with pistils only 
{Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel, has no 1 ays) 

I. CHicoRACEiE. — Chicory Group 

1. Tragopogon (Goat's beard), — Involucre simple, of 8-10 long 
scales, united below ; receptacle dotted ; fruit with longitudinal 
ridges, tapering into a long beak ; pappus feathery, with the down 
interwoven. (Name from the Greek, tragos, a goat, and pogon, a 

2. Helminthia (Ox-tongue). — Involucre of about 8 equal scales, 
surrounded by 3-5 leaf-like, loose bracts ; receptacle dotted ; fruit 
rough, with transverse wrinkles, rounded at the end and beaked ; 
pappus feathery. (Name from the Greek, helmins, helminthos, a 
worm, from the form of the fruit.) 

3. PiCRis, — Involucre of I row of equal upright scales, with 
several small spreading ones at the base ; receptacle lightly dotted ; 
fruit rough, with transverse ridges, not beaked ; pappus of 2 rows, 
the inner only feathery. (Name from the Greek, picros, bitter.) 

4. Apargia (Hawk-bit). — Involucre unequally imbricated, with 
the outer scales smaller, black, and hairy, in several rows ; recep- 
tacle slightly dotted ; fruit tapering to a point ; pappus of i row, 
feathery. (Name of uncertain origin.) 


5. Thrincia. — Involucre of i row, with a few scales at the base ; 
receptacle Hghtly dotted ; fruit of the outer florets scarcely beaked ; 
pappus a chaffy, fringed crown ; fruit of the inner florets beaked ; 
pappus feathery. (Name from the Greek, tkrincos, a battlement, 
from the form of the seed-crown of the marginal florets.) 

6. Hypoch.-eris (Cat's-ear). — Involucre oblong, imbricated ; re- 
ceptacle chaffy ; fruit rough, often beaked ; pappus feathery, often 
with a row of short bristles outside. (Name in Greek denoting its 
fitness for hogs.) 

7. Lactuca (Lettuce). — Involucre oblong, imbricated, its scales 
membranous at the margin, containing but few flowers ; receptacle 
naked ; frudt flattened, beaked : pappus hairy. (Name from lac, 
milk, which the juice resembles in colour.) 

8. SoNCHUS (Sow-thistle). — Involucre imbricated, with 2 or 3 
rows of unequal scales, swollen at the base ; receptacle naked ; 
fruit flattened, transversely wrinkled, not beaked ; pappus hairy. 
(Name in Greek bearing allusion to the soft nature of the stems.) 

9. Crepis (Hawk's-beard). — Involucre double, inner of i row, 
outer of short, loose scales ; receptacle naked ; fruit not flattened, 
furrowed, tapering upwards ; pappus a tuft of soft white down. 
(Name in Greek signifying a slipper, but why given to this plant is 
not known.) 

10. HiERACiUM (Hawk-weed). — Involucre imbricated, with niuner- 
ous oblong scales ; receptacle dotted ; fruit angular, furrowed, 
abrupt, with a toothed margin at the top ; pappus bristly, sessile, 
not white. (Name from the Greek, hierax, a hawk, because that 
bird was supposed to use the plant to strengthen its sight.) 

11. Leontodon (Dandelion). — Involucre imbricated with numer- 
ous scales, the outermost of which are loose, and often reflexed ; 
receptacle dotted ; fruit slightly flattened, rough, bearing a long 
and very slender beak ; pappus hairy. (Name from the Greek, 
Icon, a lion, and odons, odontos, a tooth, from the tooth-like lobes 
of the leaves.) 

12. Lapsana (Nipple-wort). — Involucre a .single row of erect 
scales, with 4-5 small ones at the base, containing but few flowers ; 
receptacle naked ; fruit flattened, furrowed ; pappus o. (Name of 
classical origin.) 

13. Chicorium (Chicory). — Involucre in 2 rows, inner of 8 
scales, which bend back after flowering ; outer of 5 smaller, loose 
scales ; receptacle naked, or slightly hairy ; fruit thick above, 
tapering downwards ; pappus a double row of small chaffy scales. 
(Name of Arabic origin.) 


II, Cynarocephal^. — Thistle Group 

14. Arctium (Bur-dock). — Involucre globose, scales ending in 
hooked points ; receplade chaffy ; jruit oblong, 4-side,d ; pappus 
short. (Name from the Greek, arcios, a bear, from the roughness 
of the heads of flowers.) 

15. Serratula (Saw-wort). — Stamens and pistils on different 
plants ; involucre imbricated, scales not prickly ; receptacle chaffy 
or bristly ; fruit flattened, not beaked ; pappus hairy. (Name 
from the Latin, serrula, a little saw, the leaves being finely serrated.) 

16. Saussurea. — Involucre imbricated, scales not prickly; 
anthers bristly at the base ; receptacle chaffy ; pappus double, 
outer bristly, iimer longer, feathery. (Named in honour of the two 
Saussures, eminent botanists.) 

17. Carduus (Thistle). — Involucre swollen below, imbricated 
with thorn-like scales ; receptacle bristly ; pappus hairy, united 
by a ring at the base, and soon falling off. (The Latin name of 
the plant.) 

18. Cnicus (Plume-thistle). — Resembling Carduus, except that 
the pappus is feathery. (Name from the Greek, cnizo, to prick.) __ 

19. Onopordium (Cotton- thistle). — Receptacle honeycombed; 
frtiit 4-angled ; pappus hairy, rough ; in other respects resembling 
Carduus. (Name of Greek origin.) 

zo. Caki.ina (Carline- thistle). — Resembling Cnicus, except that 
the inner scales of the involucre arc chaffy and coloured, and spread 
like a ray. (Name, the same as Carolina, from a tradition that the 
root of one species, C. acaidis, was shown by an angel to Charle- 
magne as a remedy for the plague which prevailed in his arm}'.) 

21. Centaurea (Knap-weed, Bluebottle, etc). — Involucre imbri- 
cated ; receptacle bristly ; pappus hairy, or ; outer florets large, 
irregular, destitute of stamens and pistils. (Name from the Centaur i 
Chiron, who is fabled to have healed wounds with it.) 

III. TubifloRjE. — Tansy Group 

22. BiDENS (Bur-marigold). — Fruit crowned with 2 or 3 erect, 
rigid bristles, which are rough, with minute teeth pointing down- 
wards. (Name from the Latin, his, double, and dens, a tooth, from 
the structure of the fruit.) 

23. Eupatorium (Hemp-agrimony). — Heads few-flowered; in- 
volucre imbricated, oblong ; recefdacle naked ; styles rrmch longer 
than the florets. (Name from Mithridates Eitpator, who is said to 
have brought the plant into use.) , 


24. Chrysocoma (Goldylocks). — Involucre a single row of loosely 
spreading scales ; receptacle honeycombed ; fruit flattened, silky ; 
pappus hairy, rough. (Name from the Greek, chrysos, gold, and 
come, hair.) 

25. DiOTis (Cotton-weed). — Pappus ; corolla with two ears at 
the base, which remain and crown tlie fruit. (Name from the Greek, 
Ms, double, and ous, otos, an ear, from the structure of the fruit.) 

26. Tanacetum (Tansy). — Involucre cup-shaped, imbricated ; re- 
ceptacle naked ; fruit crowned with a chaffy border. (Name altered 
from the Greek, athanafon, everlasting). 

' 27. Artemisia (Wormwood). — Pappus ; involucre roundish, 
imbricated, containing but few flowers. (Named after Artemis, 
the Diana of the Greeks.) 

28. Antennaria (Everlasting). — Stamens and pistils on separate 
plants ; pappus hairy, that of the barren flowers thickened or 
feathery upwards ; involucre coloured, rigid. (Name from the 
antenncB of an insect, which the pappus of the barren flower re- 

29. Gnaphalium (Cudweed). — Involucre roundish, dry, imbri- 
cated, often coloured ; receptacle naked ; pappus hairy. (Name 
from the Greek, gnaphalion, soft down, with which the leaves are 

30. Filago. — Invohwre tapering upwards, imbricated, of a few 
long, pointed scales ; receptacle chaffy in the circumference ; pappus 
hairy ; florets tew, the outer ones bearing pistils only. (Name from 
the Latin, filum, a thread, the whole plant being clothed with white, 
thread-like hairs or down.) 

31. Petasites (Butter-bur). — Invohwre a single row of narrow 
scales ; receptacle naked ; stamens and pistils, for the most part, 
on different plants. (Name from the Greek, petasos, a covering for 
the head, from the large size of the leaves.) 

IV. Radiatj?. — Daisy Group 

32. Tussilago (Colt's-foot). — Involucre a single row of narrow 
scales ; receptacle naked ; florets of the ray narrow, in several rows ; 
of the disk few, all yellow. (Name from the Latin, tussis, a cough, 
from the use to which it is applied.) 

33. Erigeron (Flea-bane). — Involucre imbricated with narrow 
scales ; receptacle naked ; florets of the ray in many rows, very 
narrow, different in colour from those of the disk. (Name in Greek, 
signifying growing old at an early season, from the early appearance 
of the grey seed- down.) 


34. Aster (Star-wort). — Involucre imbricated, a few scales on the 
flower-stalk ; receptacle naked, honeycombed ; florets of the ray in 
I row, purple ; of the disk, yellow ; pappus hairy, in many rows. 
(Name from the Greek, aster, a star.) 

35. SoLiDAGO (Golden-rod). — Involucre and receptacle as in Aster ; 
florets all yellow ; pappus hairy, in i row. (Name from the Latin, 
solidare, to unite, on account of its supposed qualities of healing 

36. Senecio (Rag-wort, Groundsel, and Flea-bane). — Involucre 
imbricated, oblong or conical, a few smaller scales at the base ; 
receptacle naked ; florets all yellow, the outer in S. vulgaris wanting. 
(Name from the Latin, senex, an old man, from the grey seed-down.) 

37. DoRONicuM (Leopard's-bane). — Involucre cup-shaped, scales 
equal, in 2 rows ; florets all yeUow ; pappiis hairy, wanting in the 
florets of the ray. (Name of uncertain et5miology.) 

38. Inula (Elecampane). — Involucre imbricated, in many rows ; 
receptacle naked ; florets all yellow ; anthers with two bristles at 
the base ; pappus hairy, in i row. (Name probably a corruption 
of Helenula, Little Helen.) 

39. PuLiCARiA (Flea-bane). — Involucre loosely imbricated, in few 
rows ; pappus in 2 rows, outer one short, cup-shaped, toothed ; 
inner hairy, in other respects like Inula. (Name from the Latin, 
pulex, a flea, which is supposed to be driven away by its powerful 

40. Bellis (Daisy). — Involucre of 2 rows of equal blunt scales ; 
receptacle conical ; outer florets white, inner yellow ; pappus o. 
(Name from the Latin, hellus, pretty.) 

41. Chrysanthemum (Ox-eye). — Involucre nearly flat, the scales 
membranaceous at the margin ; receptacle naked ; pappus 0. (Name 
from the Greek, chrysos, gold, and anthos, a flower.) 

42. Matricaria (Wfld Chamomile). — Involucre cup-shaped, or 
nearly flat ; the scales imbricated ; receptacle conical, naked ; 
florets of the ray white, of the disk yellow ; pappus 0. (Name from 
some supposed medicinal virtues.) 

43. Anthemis (Chamomile). — Involucre cup-shaped, or nearly flat, 
the scales membranaceous at the margin ; receptacle convex, chaffy ; 
pappus 0, or a narrow, chaffy border. (rName from the Greek, 
anthos, a flower, from the value of its blossoms as a medicine.) 

44. Achillea (Yarrow). — Involucre egg-shaped or oblong, imbri- 
cated ; receptacle flat, chaffy ; florets all of one colour, those of the 
ray 5-10, broad; pappus o. (Named after Achilles.) 



I. Chicorace^. — Chicory Group 
I. Tragopogon (Goaf s-heard) 

1. T. praiensis (Yellow Goat's-beard). — Involucre about as long 
as, or longer than the corolla ; leaves broad at the base,, very long, 
tapering, channelled, undivided; flower-stalks slightly thickened 
above. An erect glaucous plant about 2 feet high, with long grass- 
like leaves and large bright yellow flowers, which always close early 
in the day, and have hence gained for the plant the name of John- 
go-to-bed-at-noon. The pappus is very beautiful, the feathery 
down being raised on a long stalk, and interlaced so as to form a 
kind of shallow cup. Meadows; not uncommon. — Fl. June, July. 

2. T. porrifolius (Salsafy). — Though not a British species, is occa- 
sionally found in moist meadows. In 
habit it resembles the last, but has 
purple flowers. It was formerly much 
cultivated for the sake of its fleshy tap 
roots, which were boiled or stewed and 
eaten. Though still advertised in seeds- 
men's catalogues, its place is now largely 
supplied by Scorzonera Hispanica. 


Helmintiiia Eciiioides 
(Bristly Ox-tongue) 

2. Helminthia {Ox-tongue) 

I. H. echioides (Bristly Ox-tongue). — A 
stout and much-branched herb 2-3 feet 
high, well distinguished by its numerous 
prickles, each of wlrich springs from 
a raised white spot, and by the large 
heart-shaped bracts at the base of the 
yellow flowers. Waste places ; not un- 
common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. PiCRis (Picris) 

I. P.hieracioides (Hawk- weed Picris). 
— A rather slender plant 2-3 feet high, 
branched principally above ; the stems 
are rough, with hooked bristles ; the 
leaves narrow, rough, and toothed ; the 
flowers are numerous, yellow, with 
bracts on the peduncles. Waste places ; 
common. — Fl. July to September. Bi- 


[Hawk-weed Picris) 


Hemp Agrimony 



4. Apargia {Hawk-bit) 

1. A. hnpida (Rough Hawk-bit).- Leaves all from the root, 
pinnatifid, with the lobes pointing backwaTils, rough, with forked 
hairs ; stalk single-flowered ; flowers yellow, drooping when in bud. 
Meadows and waste places ; frequent. — Fl. June to September. 

2. A. autiimnalis (Autumnal Hawk-bit). — A tall plant 2-3 feet 
high, with a downy involucre ; leaves all from the root, narrow, 
slightly hairy on the ribs beneath ; stalk many flowered, swollen 
beneath tlie flowers ; flowers large, deep yellow, erect when 
in bud. Meadows and cornfields ; frequent. — Fl. August. Per- 

Apargia Autumnalis 
(Autumnal Hawk-bit) 

Thrincia Hirta 
[Hairy Thrincia) 

5. Thrincia 

I. T. hirta (Hairy Thrincia, Hairy Hawk-bit).— A smafl plant 
4-6 inches high, with spreading, more or less lobed, leaves, which 
are rough, with forked or simple hairs, and leafless, somewhat 
hairy stalks often of a purplish hue, each of which bears a yeflow 
flower ; flower-buds drooping. Heaths and downs ; common. — 
Fl. July to September. Perennial. 



6. HvpocHiERis (Cat's-ear) 

1. H. radicata (Long-rooted Cat's-ear). — 
^ Leaves all from the root, pinnatifid, with the 

lobes pointing backwards, bristly ; stalks 
branched, smooth, with a few scales below 
the flowers. Well distinguished by its long, 
branched flower-stalks, which are quite 
smooth throughout, and slightly swollen be- 
neath the large yellow flowers, where there 
are also a few small scales. Hedges and 
waste places ; common. — Fl. July, August. 

2. H. glabra (Smooth Cat's-ear). — Much 
resembling the above, but smaller, 3-10 in- 
ches high ; leaves srnooth, oblong ; flower- 
heads small, yellow ; florets scarcely longer 
than the involucre. Gravelly places ; not 
common. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

3. H. maculata (Spotted Cat's-ear). — Leaves 
obovate, not lobed, spreading, rough, spotted 
above ; stems about a foot high, bearing 

usually I (rarely more) large deep yellow flxjwer. Limestone and 
magnesian hills ; rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

Hypoch.'eris Radicata 
{Long-rooted Cat's-ear) 

7. Lactuca {Lettuce) 

I. L. muralis (Ivy-leaved Lettuce). — 
Florets 5 ; leaves pinnatifid, variously cut, 
with the terminal lobe largest. A slender 
plant, leafy below, 1-2 feet high, with 
small yellow heads, each of which con- 
tains 5 similar florets, and thus resembles 
a simple flower of 5 petals. The panicle 
has a singularly angular growth ; the fruit 
is black. Woods and old walls ; not 
uncommon. — Fl. July to September. 

' 2. L. scoriola (Prickly Lettuce). — 
Erect, stiff, 2-4 feet high ; leaves usually 
perpendicular, the lower leaves toothed 
or deeply pinnatifid ; upper leaves narrow, 
entire, clasping the stem, leaves with 
bristles on the under side of midrib ; 
florets 6-12, pale yellow. Waste places; 
rare. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

Lactuca Mukalis 
{Ivy-leaved Lettuce) 


Sea Aster 


Flea-bane Erigeroii 






3. L. saligna (Willow Lettuce). — More slender than the last, 
leaves narrower, and perpendicular against the stem ; variable and 

, likely to be confounded with L. scoriola. Rare ; confined in 
Britain to chalky situations, in the south-east, near the coast. — Fl. 
July, August. Biennial. 

4. L. Alpina (Alpine Lettuce, or Blue Sow-thistle). — A handsome 
erect, unbranched plant 2-3 feet high, with a panicle of large blue 
flower-heads. It grows on the Clova Mountains, but is rare. Per- 
ennial. Known also as Sonchus Alphms. The Garden Lettuce 
(L. sativa) belongs to this genus, but is not a native plant. 

8. Sonchus {Sow-thistle) 

1. S. oleraceus (Common Sow-thistle, 
Milk-thistle). — Erect, branched, 1-4 
feet high ; stems hollow ; leaves oblong, 
more or less pinnatifid or entire, 
toothed, often prickly, the upper ones 
often clasping the stem with spreading, 
arrow-shaped auricles ; heads some- 
what umbellate ; involucres smooth. 
Waste places, and as a garden weed ; 
common. This plant makes light and 
salutary meals for rabbits. — Fl. June to 
September. Annual. 

2. S. arvensis (Corn Sow-thistle). — 
Stem simple, 2-4 feet high, tubular, 
angular ; leaves oblong, pinnatifid or 
wavy, toothed and spinous. The lower 
ones stalked and heart-shaped at the 
base; upper clasping the stem withiConpiion Sow-thistle, Milk-ihistle) 
auricles ; loose corymbs of large yellow 

flower-heads ; involucre and flower-stalks with dark glandular 
hairs. In similar situations with the last, from which it may be 
readily distinguished by its simple stem and much larger flowers. 
^Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

3. S. palustris (Marsh Sow-thistle).— Much resembhng the last, 
but taller ; stem 6-8 feet high, unbranched ; leaves long, narrow, 
clasping the stem with pointed auricles ; flower-heads large, pale 
yellow ; involucres with glandular hairs. " Marshes in the south- 
east of England ; very rare. 

A variety of S. oleraceus, frequently found growing with it, is 
S.rts/)e>-(RoughSow-thistle).— The ;gat)^sare;morespinously toothed, 
with rounded auricles, and darker in colour, whilst the longi- 
tudinal ribs of the achenes are not transversely wrinkled. 

SoNCHOs Oleraceus 



g. Crepis (Hawk's-heard) 

1. C. taraxacifolia. — Plant hairy, 1-2 feet high ; stem furrowed, 
. reddish, branched above ; leaves pinnatifid, with a large terminal 

lobe, mostlj' radicle ; flower-heads yellow, the outer florets reddish 
beneath, erect in l)nd, borne in a flat corymb ; fritils with beaks 
of their own length. Calcareous soils ; rare. — Fl. June, July. 

2. C. fcetida (Foetid Hawk's-beard). — Plant about a foot high, 
hairy ; - stem branched ; root-leaves pinnatifid ; stem-leaves narrow ; 
flower-heads bright yellow, on long stalks, drooping when in bud ; 
fruits beaked, the centre ones much longer than the outer. Cal- 
careous soils in south-eastern England ; rare. — Fl. June, July. 

3. C. virens (Smooth Hawk's-beard). — ■ 
Leaves smooth, pinnatifid, with the lobes 

I. pointing backwards, the upper ones narrow, 
arrow-shaped at the base, and clasping the 
stem ; the lower ones stalked ; varying in 
height from 6 inches to 2 feet, and producing 
abundance of small yellow flowers. Waste 
ground, and on roofs of cottages ; common. 
— Fl. July to September. Annual. 

4. C. biennis (Rough Hawk's-beard). — A 
tall stout plant, resembling C. taraxacifolia, 
but the stem is not red ; 1-4 feet high, not 
much branched below ; flower-heads rather 
large, yellow, borne in a corymb ; leaves 
hairy ; achenes often of varying lengths 
on the same head. Chalky soils ; rare. — 
Fl. June, July. Biennial. 

Crepis Virens 
(Smooth Hawk's-beard) 5. C. hieracioides (Blunt-leaved Hawk's- 
beard). — An erect slender plant, 1-2 feet 
high ; radicle leaves oblong, blunt, stalked ; stem-leaves narrow, 
clasping the stem ; flower-heads few ; achenes not beaked, many- 
ribbed. Found in a few localities in the north ; rare. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

6. C. paludosa (Marsh Hawk's-beard). — Stem about 2 feet high, 
angular, unbranched ; leaves smooth, the lower ones pinnatifid, 
with the lobes pointing backwards, tapering into a stalk ; the upiper 
ones narrow, heart-shaped at the base, and clasping the stem ; 
flower-heads few, corymbose, yellow, the buds yellow ; involucre 
with black hairs. Damp woods, chiefly irr Scotland and Northern 
England. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 


Corn Feverfew 


10. HiERAciuM (Hawk-weed) 

1. //. Pilosella (Mouse-ear Hawk-weed), — Stem single-flowered, 
leafless, 2~io inches high ; leaves radicle, small, oblong or lanceo- 
late, entire, a few long hairs above, hoary beneath with stellate 
down ; floiver-heads borne singly, bright lemon colour, often red- 
dish on the under side. Well distinguished from all other British 
plants of the Order by its creeping scions, by its hairy undivided 
leaves, which are hoary imdcrneath, ancL by its bright lemon- 
coloured flowers. Banks and dry pastures ; common. — Fl. May 
to July. Perennial. 

2. H. niuro-ntm- (Wall Hawk-weed). — A very variable plant, 
1-3 feet high ; the stem bears usually one, sometimes more, leaves ; 
is branched above, and bears usually 3 or 4, sometimes more, yellow 
flower-heads ; the root-leaves are stalked, hairy, ovate or oblong, 
sometimes toothed, very variable. Walls and rocks ; common. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. H. sylvaticum (Wood Hawk-weed). — Stem many flowered, 
with a few leaves ; leaves narrow, egg-shaped, toothed, with the 
teeth pointing upwards ; involucre hoary with down. A very 
variable plant, both in size and habit. The leaves are sometimes 
very slightly toothed, at other times deeply so, and often spotted 
with purple ; the flowers are large and yellow. There are many 
varieties intermediate between H. sylvaticum and H. nmrorum. 
Woods and banks ; common. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

4. H. Sabaudum (Shrubby Hawk-weed). — Stem rigid, many- 
flowered, leafy ; lower leaves tapering into a short stalk ; upper 
sessile, rounded at the base. As variable a plant as the last. 
Woods and banks ; frequent. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

5. H. mnbellatum (Narrow-leaved Hawk- weed). — Stem rigid, 
many flowered, leafy ; leaves narrow, slightly toothed ; flowers in 
a terminal corymb ; scales of the involucre reflexed at the point. 
A tall plant, 2-3 feet high, with a remarkably erect growth, un- 
branched, and terminating in an almost umbellate tuft of large, 
yellow flowers. Woods ; not unfrequent.— Fl. August, September. 

6. H. aiirantiacum (Orange Hawk-weed). ^This is a garden escape, 
and grows about a foot high, bearing dense corymbs of deep orange 
flower-heads, with a fragrance not unlike that of the garden Helio- 

This is an exceedingly difficult genus ; even the six species here 
given, though comparatively distinct, are most variable. Over 
a hundred have been classified as distinct species, but it is a moot 
point whether many of these should not be considered mere varieties. 
• In any case it is not thought necessary to give even the names 



II. Leontodon (Dandelion) 

I. L. Taraxacum (Common Dandelion). — Dandelion, (from the 
French Dent-de-lion, lion's tooth) is the popular name of many of 
the larger yellow flowers belonging to this Sub-order. The true 
Dandelion may, however, be readily known by the following 
characters. The leaves all spring from the root, and are deeply 
cut, with the sharp lobes pointing backwards ; the flower-stalks are 
hollow, smooth, and leafless, and bear a single flower ; the outer 
scales of the involucre are reflexed ; the pappus is stalked and 
white ; the heads when in fruit are of a globular form ; and the 
receptacle, after the fruit has been blown away, is convex and dotted. 
The dandelion has valuable medicinal properties, and is some- 
times used as a salad. — Fl. nearly all the year round. Perennial. 

12. Lapsana [Nipple-wort) 

I. L. communis (Common Nipple-wort). 
— Leaves stalked, toothed, heart-shaped at 
the base ; stem branched ; fl.owers numer- 
ous. A leafy plant, 2-3 feet high, with 
numerous small j'eUow flowers ; the lower 
leaves often have several small lobes 
running along the opposite sides of the 
stalks. Hedges and waste ground ; com- 
mon. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

13. CmcHORiUM {Chicory) 

I. C. Intyhus (Wild Chicory, or Suc- 
cory). — Well distinguished by its tough, 
angled, hispid, alternately-branched stems, 
clasping leaves, and large blue sessile 
flower-heads, of which each floret is 
5-toothed. Not uncommon on chalky 
soils. — Fl. July to October. Perennial. 

Lapsana Communis 
{Common Nipple-wort) 

II. Cynarocephal^. — Thistle Group 

14. Arctium (Bur-dock) 

I. A. Lappa (Common -Bur-dock). — A large stout herbaceous 
plant, 3-5 feet high, with very large handsome lower leaves, and 
a terminal panicle of large heads of purplish florets, enclosed in a 
globular invohicre of hooked scales, which, becoming attached to 
the coats of passing animals, the seeds are conveyed to a distance. 
The scales are often interwoven with a white cottony down. Some 


Corn Marigold 

Cora Tansy 



artists love to introduce this plant into the foregrounds of their 
pictures, thereby obtaining a somewhat obvious effect of picturesque- 
ness. Waste places ; common. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

Some other varieties have been described, of which the most 
distinct are A . majits, A . minus, and A . tomentosum. Their charac- 
teristics, however, are not very definite. 

Arctium Lappa 
{Common Bur-dock) 

Serratula Tinctoria 
(Commoti Saw-wort) 

15. Serratula (Saw-wort) 
I. S. tinctoria (Common Saw-wort). — The only British species. 
A slender plant, 1-2 feet high, with a stiff, erect, angular stem, 
slightly branched above, deeply cut and serrated leaves ; and small 
terminal heads of purple flowers in a corymb ; the outer scales of 
the invohicre are smooth and close pressed, the inner tinged with 
purple. Pastures ; frequent. — Fl. August. Perennial. 

16. Saussurea 
I. .S. Alpina (Alpine Saussurea). — The only British species. The 
stem is from 8-12 inches high ; the leaves cottony beneath ; flower- 
heads of light purple florets, in a dense terminal corymb, fragrant. 
Mountains in the north ; rare. — Fl. August. Perennial, 

17. Carduus (Thistle) 
I. C. nutans (Musk Thistle). — Heads solitary, drooping ; scales 
of the involucre tapering to a rigid point, cottony, the outer ones 


1 62 


bent back ; stem winged by the thorny leaves. A very handsome 
plant, about 2 feet high, with a furrowed cottony stem, deeply 
lobed thorny leaves, which are downy on the veins beneath, and 
large deep purple flowers, to which the radiated involucre is a very 
ornamental appendage. This is sometimes called the Scotch 
Thistle, but incorrectly. The upper part of the flower-stalk is 
nearly bare of leaves, and the flower itself has a powerful odour. 
Waste places ; common. — Fl. June to August. Biennial. 

2. C. acanthoides (Welted Thistle). — Heads clustered, round ; 
scales of the invohicre lined, thorny, spreading, or erect ; stem 
winged by the thorny leaves. A branched, very thorny plant, 
3-4 feet high, with small heads, of deep purple or sometimes white, 
flowers. Waste places ; common. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

3. C. tenuiflorus (Slender-flowered Thistle). — Heads clustered, 
cylindrical ; scales of the invohicre thorny, erect ; stem winged by 
the thorny leaves, which are cottony beneath. Well distinguished 
by the small heads of pink flowers, and the very long erect scales 
of the involucre. The stems are 2-4 feet high, and bear all the 
flowers at the summit. Waste places, especially near the sea. — • 
Fl. June to August. Biennial. 

4. C. Marianus (Milk Thistle) is a stouter plant than either of 
the preceding, and is distinguished at once T)y the white veins on 
its leaves, from which it derives its popular name. It grows in 
waste places, is not indigenous, neither is it common. — Fl. June, 
July. Biennial 

18. Cnicus {Plume-thistle) 
I. C. lanceolatus (Spear Plume-thistle).^/fert(fe mostly solitary, 
sometimes 2 or 3 together, stalked, egg-shkped ; scales of the in- 
volucre thorny, spreading, woolly ; stem 
winged by the thorny leaves, the lobes of 
which are 2-cleft. This is more like the 
Cotton - thistle {Onopordimn) than any 
other species of this genus. It grows 
3~5 feet high ; the leaves are downy 
beneath, and the heads of flowers, though 
not so large as those of the Cotton-thistle, 
have the same dull purple hue. Waste 
places and hedges ; common. — Fl. July 
to September. Biennial. 

2. C. palustris (Marsh Plume-thistle). — 
Heads clustered, egg-shaped ; scales of 
the involucre closely pressed, pointed ; 
stem winged by the thorny leaves. The 
tallest of the British Thistles, 4-10 feet 
high, consistmg of a single, stout, hoflow 
stem, which is branched near the summit, 

Cnicus Palustris 
[Marsh Plum-thtstle) 


-OoMim-^r. -K« w.imii.*;._ 

Marsh Ragwort 


Musk Thistle 



and bears numerous clusters of rather small, deep purple (sometimes 
white) flowers. The leaves are thicldy armed with short thorns, 
which are often of a brownish hue. Moist meadows and borders 
of fields ; very common. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

3. C. arvensis (Creeping Plume-thistle). — Heads of flowers 
numerous, stalked ; the scales of the involucre closely pressed, 
pointed, but scarcely thorny ; stem not winged ; root creeping. 
A handsome weed, about 2 feet high ; the flowers, which grow in 
a corymbose manner, are of a light purple colour, and smell like 
those of the Miisk Thistle. The staminate and pistillate flower- 
heads grow on separate plants, the former being roundish, and the 
latter egg-shaped. Borders of fields ; very common. — Fl. July. 

4. C. fraiensis (Meadow Plume-thistle). — Heads of flowers mostly 
solitary ; stem-leaves few, soft, wavy. A small plant, 12-18 inches 
high, with a cottony stem, bearing a few leaves, and rarely more 
than one small purple flower. Moist meadows ; not general. — 
Fl. July. Perennial. 

5. C. acaulis (Dwarf Plume-thistle). — Heads of flowers solitary, 
and stemless or nearly so. A low plant, consisting of a few thorny 
leaves, and a single, almost stemless, purple flower, liy which cha- 
racter it is readily distinguished from all the rest of the Thistle 
Tribe. Dry gravelly or chalky pastures ; not general, but in some 
places very abundant, and a pernicious weed. — Fl. July, August. 

Less common species of Cnicus are C. eriphorus (Woolly-headed 
Plume-Thistle), distinguished b}' the thick white wool which clothes 
the scales of the very large flowers ; C. tuherosus (Tuberous Plume- 
Thistle), which grows only in Wiltshire, a'n 
erect single-stemmed plant, with a single 
large, purple flower ; C. heterophyllus (Melan- 
choly Plume-Thistle), a mountain plant, with 
an erect, cottony stem, and a single, hand- 
some, purple flower. 

ig. Onopordium {Cotton-thistle) 
I. 0. Acanlhiuni (Scotch Thistle). — The 
involucre is globose, with the scales spreading 
in all directions ; the stem is winged, witli 
rough cottony leaves, and attains a height of 
4-6 feet ; the flowers are large, of a dull purple 
hue, and mostly solitary, or but sUghtly clus- 
tered at the ends of the branches. This 
species is the true Scotch Thistle, the national 
emblem. Waste ground and roadsides chiefly Onopordium Ac.\nthium 
in the south.— FL July, August. Biennial." (''^'^'"^'' ^'""^'^ 

1 64 


20. Carlina {Carline-thistle) 
I. C. vulgaris (Common Carline-thistle). — The only British 
species, readily distinguished from every other British Thistle by 
the long inner scales of the involucre, which are straw-coloured and 
glossy, and spread in a radiate manner so as to resemble petals. 
In dry weather they lie flat, but when the atmosphere is moist, 
they rise and form, as it were, a pent-house over the florets. Their 
texture is like that of the garden Everlasting Flowers, hence they 
scarcely alter their appearance when dead, and as the whole plant 
is remarkably durable, they often retain their form and position 
till the succeeding spring. On the Continent the large white flower 
of one species, C. acaulis, is often nailed upon cottage doors by way 
of a hygrometer, as it closes before rain. Dry heaths. — Fl. June 
to September. Biennial. 

21. Centaurea {Knapweed, Biue-bottle) 

1. C. nigra (Black Knap-weed). — The outer scales of the involucre 
egg-shaped, fringed with spreading bristles ; lower leaves toothed, 
often with a few small lobes at the base, upper narrow, tapering ; 
flowers with or without a ray ; pappus very short, tufted. A 
tough-stemmed plant, i-2 feet high, with heads of dull purple 
flowers, which are remarkable for the brown, or almost black, hue 
of the scales of the involucre. This plant is popularly known by 
the name of Hard-head. Meadows ; common. — Fl. June to August. 

2. C. scahiosa (Greater Centaurea, Greater Knap-weed), Outer 
scales of the involucre egg-shaped, somewhat downy, fringed ; leaves 
pinnatifid, roughish, segments tapering to a point. Meadows and 
cornfields; common. Larger and stouter 
than the last, from which it is distin- 
guished by the brighter hue of its hand- 
some radiate flowers, and the light- 
coloured fringe on the scales of the 
involucre. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3- C. cyanus (Corn Blue -bottle). — 
Outer scales of the involucre deeply 
toothed ; leaves very narrow, slightly 
toothed, cottony. One of the prettiest 
of flowers, and well meriting the dis- 
tinctive name, often given to it, of 
Corn-flower. The flowers are bright 
blue, with dark anthers. The juice of 
the flowers, expressed and mixed with 
cold alum-water, may be used in water- 
colour drawing. Rose-coloured, white, ?c^J,^m^.Tl?-^Tr^''-'^^ 

, , , 9 ... ' , ' [L-oyn Bluc-botlle and Common 

and dark purple varieties are commonly Star-Thistle) 




to be met with in gardens, and are occasionally to be found as 
escapes. — Fl. July, August ; and, in turnip fields, again in October 
and November. Annual or ISicnnial. 

4. C. aspera (Jersey Centaurea). — Stems much branched and 
prostrate ; leaves narrow ; [lower-heads solitary ; the florets purple, 
and each of the outer bracts of the involucre with 3-5 prickles. 
Channel Islands. — Biennial. 

5. C. calcitrapa (Common Star-Thistle). — Scales of the involucre 
ending each in a long stiff thorn. Well marked by its purplish 
flowers, which are armed below with spreading thorns, and resemble 
in figure the cruel iron instrument, named a caltrops, which was 
used in war to lame horses, being thrown on the ground when it 
was expected that cavalry would pass. The instrument is so con- 
structed that, in whatever position it lies, one point sticks upwards. 
Gravelly and sandy places in the south of England ; rare. — Fl. July, 
August. Annual. 

6. C. solstitialis (Yellow Star-Thistle). — Stems 1-2 feet high, 
winged ; leaves hoary ; flower-heads solitary, terminal, furnished 
with spines ; florets yellow. Occasionally in cornfields, etc. — 
Fl. July, September. Annual. 

III. TuBiFLOR^. — Tansy Group 

22. BiDENS {Bur-Marigold) 

1. B. cernua (Nodding Bur-Marigold). — Heads of flowers droop- 
ing ; leaves serrated, undivided ; bristles of the fruit 3-4. A some- 
what succulent jilant, 1-2 feet high, with narrow, serrated, smooth 
leaves, and button-like, drooping heads of brownish yellow flowers, 
at the base of which are several leafy bracts. 
The fruit is oblong, and terminates in several 
stiff bristles, each of which is thickly set 
with minute points, which are turned back 
like the barbs of an arrow, so as to take a 
firm hold on the coat of any animal which 
comes in contact with them. Watery places ; 
frequent. — Fl. July to September. Annual. 

2. B. tripartita (Trifid Bur - Marigold) .— 
Heads of flowers nearly erect ; leaves 3-parted. 
Distinguished from the last by its somewhat 
smaller heads of flowers, which frequently 
have ray florets {B. cernua being usually 
without), 3-parted leaves, and by having 3-5 
bristles on the fruit. Watery places ; com- bidens Tripartita 
mon. — Fl. July to September. Annual. {Trifid Bur-marigold) 

1 66 


23. EuPATORiUM {Hemp-agrimony) 
T. E. cannabinniH (Common Hemp-agrimony). — The only British 
species. A tall downy plant, 3-6 feet high, with a reddish stem ; 
leaves palmately divided into 3-5 lanceolate serrate leaflets, and 
terminal corymbs of small crowded heads of dull lilac flowers, 
which are remarkable for their very long, deeply cloven styles. 
Moist shady places ; common. — Fl. July, Atigust. Perennial. 

24. Chrysocoma (Goldylocks) 
I. C. Linosvris (Flax-leaved Goldylocks). — A herbaceous plant, 
12-18 inches bigl), with erect, simple stems, which are thickly set 
with smooth, linear leaves, and bear a few" heads of yellow flowers 
at the extremity. Limestone cliffs ; very rare. — Fl. August, 
September. Perennial. 

25. DiOTis (Cotton-weed) 

I. D. mariiima (Seaside Cotton-weed). — The only species. The 
roots run deejily into the sand ; the stems, which are about a foot 
high, are thickly set with oblong, blunt leaves, which, as well as the 
rest of the plant, are covered with thick white cotton, and almost 
hide the small terminal heads of yellow flowers. Sandy sea-shores ; 
rare. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

26. T.4NACETUM {Tansy) 

I. T. vulgare (Common Tansy). — Stems 2-3 feet high, angular. 
Well distinguished by its deeply twice- 
pinnate, cut leaves and terminal corymbs 
of bright yellow, button-hke flowers. The 
whole plant is bitter and aromatic, and 
is not only used in medicine, but forms the 
principal ingredient in the nauseous dish 
called Tansy pudding. Hedges and waste 
ground; common. — Fl. August. Perennial. 

27. Artemisia {Wormwood, Miigwort) 
1. A. absinthium (Common Worm- 
wood). — Leaves with bluntish segments, 
twice pinnatifld, .silky on both sides ; 
heads hemispherical, drooping. A bushy 
plant, with silky stems and leaves, and 
panicles of numerous small heads of dull 
yellow flowers. The whole plant is bitter 
and aromatic, and is much used in rural 
districts, where it abounds, as a tonic. 
Waste ground ; common. — Fl. July to 
September. Perennial. 

Artemisia Absinthium 
{Common Wormwood) 


Creeping Thistle 




Corniiiun Oarline 

Meadow I'histle 



2. A. vulgaris (Mug-wort). — Leaves pinriatifid, with acute seg- 
ments ; white with down beneath ; heath oblong, reddish. Taller 
and more slender than the last ; well distijiguished by the leaves 
being green above and white below, and by "the absence of aromatic 
odour. Hedges and waste places ; common. A tea made from 
this plant is used in country districts as a remedy for rheumatism. 
— Fl. July to September. Perennial, 

3. A. maritima (Sea Wormwood). — Leaves twice pinnatifid, 
downy on both sides ; heads in racemes, oblong. Somewhat 
resembling A. ahsmthinm, but smaller, and well distinguished by 
the above characters. The clusters ot reddish flower-heads are 
sometimes drooping, sometimes erect. Salt marshes ; frequent. — 
Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

4. A. campestris (Field Wormwood). — A rare species, growing 
on sandy heaths in Norfolk and Suffolk. In this species the seg- 
ments of the leaves are narrow, terminating in points ; and the 
stems, until flowering, are prostrate. 

aS. Antennaria (Everlasting) 

1. A. dioica (Mountain Cudweed). -The 
only British species. A pretty little plant, 
3-6 inches high, with oblong leaves, which 
are broadest towards the end, green above, 
cottony below ; the heads of flowers grow 4-6 
together, and are rendered conspicuous by 
the white or rose-coloured involucre, which 
is of the texture commonly termed everlast- 
ing. Mountain heaths ; frequent. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

2. A. margaritacea (the White Everlasting 
of gardens) is 2-5 feet high, with cottony 
narrow leaves, and flat corymbs of small 
yellowish flower-heads with white involucres. 
It is not indigenous, but is found naturalized 
in South Wales, the Channel Isles, and Scotland. 

Antennaria Dioica 
(Mountain Cudweed) 

-Fl. July, .\ugust. 

29. Gnaphalium [Cudweed) 
I. G. uliginosum (Marsh Cudweed). — Stems much branched, 
woolly ; leaves very narrow, downy, over-topping the clustered 
terminal heads. A small plant, 3-6 inches high, rendered con- 
spicuous by its tufted white stems and leaves, and by the glossy, 
yeflowish brown scales of its small clustered flowers. Wet sandy 
places, especially where water has stood during winter ; common. 
— Fl. August, September. Annual. 



2. G. sylvaticum (Wood Cudweed). — A cottony plant, with a 
simple stem, 6-12 inches high ; narrow leaves ; and bearing its 
heads of yellow florets in a leafy spike. Woods and gravelly pas- 
tures ; common. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

3. G. supinum (Dwarf Cudweed). — 2-3 inches high, with tufted 
leaves, and flowering stems almost bare of leaves. Confined to the 
summits of Highland mountains. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

4. G. Luteo album (Jersey Cudweed). — About 6 or 8 inches high, 
cottony ; leaves narrow ; flower-heads in dense corymbs, with the 
involucral bracts yellowish, and reddish florets. Channel Isles and 
some of the eastern counties of England. — Fl. July, August. 

Gnaphalium leontopodium is the famous " Edelweiss 
Swiss Alps. 

of the 

30. FiLAGO 
I. F. Germanica (Common FUago). — Stem 
cottony, erect, terminating in a globular assem- 
blage of heads, from the base of which rise two 
or more flower-stalks, which are proliferous in 
like manner. A singular little plant, 6-8 inches 
high, well distinguished by the above character. 
From this curious mode of growth the plant was 
called by the old botanists Herha impia, (the 
undutiful herb), as if the young shoots were 
guilty of disrespect by overtopping the parent. 
Dry gravelly places ; common. — Fl. June, July. 

FiLAGo Germanica 2. F. minima (Least Filago).— Stem erect, re- 
(Common Filago) peatedly forked ; leaves very narrow, cottony, 
pressed to the stem ; heads conical, in lateral 
and terminal clusters, shorter than the leaves. Yet smaller than 
the last, growing 4-6 inches high, with cottony stem and leaves, 
and brownish yellow leaves. Dry gravelly places ; common. — 
Fl. July, August. Annual. 

3. F. Gallica (Narrow-leaved Filago). — Like the last, but more 
branched ; leaves narrow, long, and pointed ; those surrounding 
the small flower-heads longer than the involucres. Local, chiefly 
Channel Isles and South-eastern England.^Fl. July to September. 

Two other forms are described : F. apicalnta, taller than F. 
Germanica, with blunt leaves, purple bracts, and smeUing of Tansy ; 
and F. spathulaia, short ; with spathulate leaves and yellow- tipped 
bracts. Both are annuals, growing in sandy places in the south- 
east of England. 


31. Petasites {Butter-hur) 

I. P. vulgaris (Common Butter-bur). — The only British species. 
The largest, and where it abounds, the most pernicious of all the 
weeds which this country produces. The flowers, which are of a 
dull lilac colour, and are borne in a raceme on a thick stem 6-12 
inches high, appear early in the spring, and are succeeded by 
downy, kidney-shaped leaves, 1-5 feet in diameter, which, by 
shading the ground, check the growth of all other plants. " The 
early blossoming of this rank weed induces the Swedish farmers to 
plant it near their bee-hives. Thus we see in our gardens the bee 
assembled on its affinities. P. alba and P. fragrans, at a season when 
scarcely any other flowers are expanded " (Hooker and Arnott). 
These two last species are common in shrubberies, almost hiding 
the ground with their broad leaves, thrivmg beneath the shade of 
trees and shrubs, but overpowering all herbaceous plants, and 
eventually, it is said, even the shrubs themselves. Damp meadows, 
etc. ; common. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

IV. Radiate. — Daisy Group 

32. TussiLACo (Colt's-joot) 

I. T. Farfara (Colt's-foot), — The only species. The floiaer- 
stalks, which spring directly from the roots, are covered with scale- 
like bracts, and bear each a single yellow flower-head, with numerous 
yellow rays ; the leaves, which do not appear until the flowers have 
withered, are roundish, heart-shaped, and angular, with dark teeth, 
and are covered with cottony down beneath, cobwebby above. 
The heads of flowers droop before expansion, and the stalks after 
flowering lengthen considerably. The goldfinch frequently lines 
its nest with the pappus of this plant. The cotton of the leaves 
was formerly used as tinder, and the leaves themselves are rolled 
into cigars and smoked as a remedy for asthma. A pernicious 
weed, abounding in clayey fields. — Fl. March, April. Perennial. 

33. Erigeron (Flea-bane) 

1. E. acris (Blue Flea-bane). — Branches erect, rough, alternate, 
bearing single heads ; leaves narrow, entire, blunt. A much 
branched plant, 6-18 inches high, with smaU heads of inconspicuous 
fl-owers, of which the inner florets are yellowish, the outer duU blue. 
The pappus is very long and tawny. Dry places and walls ; not 
common. — Fl. August. Biennial. 

2. E. Alpimis (Alpine Flea-bane). — Leaves mostly radicle, hairy, 
lanceolate ; stems 2-8 inches high, hairy, each bearing a solitary 
flower-head about half an inch in diameter, the ray florets of which 



are light purple. Found only on some of the mountains of the 
eastern Highlands ; rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3, E. Canadensis (Canadian Flea-bane). — An erect plant, some- 
what resembling Groundsel ; 1-2 feet high, with a few spreading 
hairs ; lanceolate leaves ; and dingy yellow flowers with whitish 
ray florets, borne in a narrow panicle. Grows as a weed in waste 
places ; local. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

34. Aster (Star-wort) 
I. A. Tripoliiim (Sea Star-wort). — A stout succulent plant, 
2-3 feet high, with long, smooth, fleshy leaves, and cor3'mbs of large 
handsome flowers, the inner florets of which are yellow, the outer 
purple. In salt marshes the whole plants is often covered with 
mud, which gives it an imsightly appearance, but when growing 
on sea-cliffs it is a highly ornamental plant. Salt marshes ; fre- 
quent. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

35. SoLiDAGO {Golden-rod) 

I. S. Virgaurea (Golden-rod). — The only British species. An 
erect, scarcely branched plant, 2 -3 feet high, with roughish, angular 
stems, simple, serrated leaves, which gradually become narrower 
the higher they are on the stem ; and conspicuous, terminal clusters 
of small bright yellow flowers. Dry woods ; common. — Fl. July 
to September. Perennial. 

On mountainous heaths a variety (Cambrica) occurs, with very 
short stems, and large leaves and flowers. 

Senecio Vulgaris 
[Common Groundsel) 

36. Senecio {Groundsel, Rag-wort) 

1. S. vulgaris (Common Ground- 
sel). — Flowers without rays, in 
crowded clusters ; leaves half em- 
bracing the stem, deeply lobed and 
toothed. A common weed in culti- 
vated ground ; a favourite food of 
many small birds. — Fl, all the year 
round. Annual. 

2. 5. sylvaticus (Mountain Ground- 
sel). — Distinguished from the last 
by its larger size ~i-2 feet high ; 
and its conical, rather than cylin- 
drical, heads of dull yellow flowers, 
with a few rays which are rolled 
back and inconspicuous, or often 
wanting ; the leaves are pinnatifid, 
with narrow lobes, toothed ; the 


Star-thisUe Mouse-ear Hawkweed 

m::'r- \ 


Yellow (ioal s-beurd 


slems are branched. Gravelly places ; common. — Fl. July to 
September. Annual. 

3. S. viscosiis (Viscid Groundsel). — Near S. sylvaticus in habit, 
but clothed with viscid down ; the flower-lM'ads arc less numerous, 
with the outer hrads of the involucre about half as long as the inner. 
Similar situations, bat more local than 5. sylvaticus. — Fl. July to 
September. Annual. 

4. .S. Jacohaia (Common Rag-wort). — Stem erect, 2-3 feet high ; 
flower-heads large, bright yellow, with spreadmg rays, corymbose ; 
leaves pinnatiiid, with smaller lobes at the base. Meadows and 
wet places ; common. — Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

5. 5. aqiiaticus (Marsh Rag-wort). — Much resembling the last, 
but more spreading ; the flower-heads larger, in a looser corymb ; 
lower leaves undivided, toothed ; upper with a few oblong lobes 
near the base. Wet places ; common. — Fl. July to September. 

6. 5. tenuifoliiis (Hoary Rag-wort). — Flowers with spreading rays ; 
leaves pinnatifid, with very narrow segments, downy beneath. 
Much like S. Jacobcea, but distinguished by its sending up numerous 
cottony stems from the same root, and by its regularly divided 
leaves, the segments of which are slightly rolled back at the edges. 
Dry banks in a limestone or chalky soil ; not common. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

7. 5. palustris ( Flea-wort). — Shaggy ; a stout plant, 
2-3 feet high, with a hollow, much branched stem ; and numerous 
lanceolate, sessile leaves, which are wavy at the edges and toothed, 
flowers yellow, in a corymb. Found only in the Fen districts of 
Eastern England ; rare. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

8. 5. campestris (Field Flea-wort). — A small plant, 6-8 inches 
high, shaggy ; stem unbranched ; root-leaves oblong, nearly entire ; 
stem-leaves narrow, tapering ; flower-heads of a few yellow flowers 
in a terminal corymb, which is almost an umbel. Chalky downs ; 
rare. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

9. S. squalidus (Inelegant Rag-wort). — Grows about a foot high, 
with large bright yellow flowers; the leaves are glabrous, somewhat 
thick, and are deeply pinnatifid. The naming is inapt, for it is 
quite the prettiest British species. Old walls about Oxford, and 
Bideford, Devon. Not indigenous. — Fl. June to October. Annual 
or biennial. 

10. S. paludosus (Great Fen Rag-wort). — A large aquatic plant, 
2-6 feet high ; stem hollow, unbranched ; leaves lanceolate, toothed, 
cottony beneath ; flower-heads large, many-rayed, in a loose corymb. 
Confined to the Fen districts of Eastern England ; rare. — Fl. May 
to July. Perennial, 



II. S. saracenicus (Broad-leaved Rag-wort). — Somewhat resem- 
bling the last, but not so tall ; glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, toothed ; 
flower-heads smaller, more numerous, and borne in a more compact 
corymb than in the last, and they also have fewer rays. Not 
indigenous ; local. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

37. DoRONicuM (Leopard' s-hane) 

1. D. Pardalianches (Great Leopard's-bane). — Stem 2-3 feet high, 
erect, solitary, hollow, hairy ; leaves soft ; lower leaves heart- 
shaped, toothed, on long stalks, tipper with two ears at the base 
embracing the stem ; heads of flowers yellow, the earlier ones over- 
topped by the later. Damp hilly woods ; rare, not a native. — 
Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

2. D. plantagineum (Plantain-leaved Leopard's-bane). — Differs 
from the last in having egg-shaped leaves and solitary heads of 
flowers. It is rare, and is not indigenous. 

38. Inula (Elecampane, Ploughman' s Spikenard) 

,.-v-, I. I. Helenium (Elecampane). — 

Leaves oblong or egg-shaped, wrinkled, 
downy beneatbi, toothed, upper ones 
embracing the stem ; scales of the 
involucre egg-shaped, downy. A stout 
plant, 3-5 feet high, with very large 
leaves and a few terminal very large 
heads of bright yellow flowers. The 
root contains a white starchy powder, 
named Inuline, a volatile oil, a soft 
acrid resin, and a bitter extract ; it 
is used in diseases of the chest and 
lungs, and furnishes the Vin d'Aulnee 
of the French:. Moist pastures ; not 
common. — Fl. July, August. Per- 

2. /. Conyza (Ploughman's Spike- 
InvLA Htllsnium (Elecampane) nard). — Leaves narrow, egg-shaped, 

downy, toothed ; heads of flowers 
panicled ; scales of the involucre rolled back. Distinguished by its 
dull, green foliage, numerous heads of dingy yellow flowers, the 
rays of which are inconspicuous, and by the leaf-like scales of the 
involucre, which are rolled back. Hedges, principally on a lime- 
stone or chalky soU; uncommon. — Fl. July to September. Per- 



Wall Lettuc 



3. /. Crithmoides (Golden Samphire).- -Leai^es very narrow, fleshy, 
smooth, bhmt, or 3-pointed. Well distinguished from every other 
British plant by its fleshy leaves and large yellow flowers, which 
grow singly at the extremity of the branches. Salt marshes 
and sea cliffs, rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial, 

4. /. salicina. — Erect, about 18 inches high, almost glabrous ; 
leaves lanceolate, toothed, clasping the stem; flower-heads large, 
usually solitary. Found only by Lough Derg, 

39. PuLicARiA (Flea-bane). 

I. r. dysenterica (Common Flca-bane).~-"Sfem 
woolly; leaves oblong, heart- or arrow-shaped 
at the base, embracing the stem ; scales of 
the involucre bristle-shaped. From -2 feet 
high, growing in masses, and well marked by 
its soft hairy foliage and large flat heads of 
bright yellow flowers, those of the ray being 
very numerous, narrow, and longer than the 
disk. Watery places ; common, rare in Scotland. 
— Fl. August. Perennial. 



(Common Flea-bane) 

2, P. vulgaris (Small Flea-banc). — Stem hairy ; leaves narrow, 
tapering, hairy. Resembling the last, but not above half the size, 
nor by any means so hoary. Sandy heaths, where water has 
stood ; not common. Not found in Scotland or Ireland. — 
Fl. September. Annual. 

40. Bellis (Daisy) 
I. B. ferennis (Common Daisy).- 


only British species, too well known and 
admired to need any description or com- 
ment. — Fl. nearly all the year round. 

41. Chrysanthemum (Ox-eye) 

I. C. Leucanthemum (White Ox-eye). — • 
Florets of the ray white ; lower leaves 
stalked, iipper sessile, pinnatifid at the 
base. Almost as well known as the 
common daisy. A great favourite with children, who string the 
flowers on a stout grass-straw, or bit of wire, and make a very 

Bellis Ferennis 
(Common Daisy) 


Chrysanthemum Leucan- 
THEMUM {While Ox-eye) and 
Chrysanthemum Segetum 

(Yellow Ox-eye) 


fair imitation of the feather formerly 
worn by soldiers. It is said to be de- 
structive to fleas. Meadows ; abun- 
dant. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. C. segetum ,(Yellow Ox-eye, Corn 
Marigold). — Florets of the ray yellow ; 
leaves clasping the stem, oblong, acute, 
toothed, glabrous, glaucous. The whole 
plant is remarkably smooth and glau- 
cous ; the flowers arc large, of a brilliant 
yellow, and contrast beautifully with 
Poppies and Bluebottles. Cornfields ; 
abundant, but local. — Fl. June, July ; 
and, in summer, ploughed fields ; again 
in October and November. Annual. 

42. Matricaria {Wild Chamomile, Feverfew) 

1. M. Parthenium (Common Feverfew).— 1-2 feet high. Leaves 
stalked, pinnate; leaflets pinnatifid and deeply cut; stem erect; 
flowers corymbose. Well marked by its repeatedly cut, curled, 
delicate green leaves and its numerous small heads of flowers, of 
which the ray florets are white. The leaves are conspicuous in 
mid winter, and the whole plant has a powerful and not unpleasant 
odour, which is said to be particularly offensive to bees. The 
English name is a corruption of Febrifuge, from its tonic properties. 
Hedges and waste ground; common. — Fl. July, August. Per- 

2. M. inodora (Corn Feverfew, Scentless May-weed). — Leaves 
sessile, repeatedly cut into numerous hair-like segments ; stem 
branched, spreading, 12-18 inches high ; flowers solitary. Of a 
very different habit from the last, but resembling it in the colour 
of the flowers, which are, however, much larger, and remarkable 
for their very convex disk. Cornfields ; common. — Fl. July to 
October. Annual. 

A seaside form, perennial, with fleshy leaves, is by some con- 
sidered a species, under the name M. maritima (Sea Feverfew). 

3. M. Chamomilla (Wild Chamomile). — Flower-heads about 
\ inch across ; disk yellow ; ray florets white. Oflen confused with 
M- inodora and Anthemis Cotula, but may be distinguished by the 
scales of the involucre being not chaffy at the margin, and by the 
receptacle of the florets being hollow. Not uncommon in corn- 
fields. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 


Cliicory Corn Sow Thistle 



43. Anthhmis (Chamomile) 

1. A. nohilis (Common Chamomile).^ 
Stems prostrate ; leaves repeatedly cut into 
hair-like segments, slightly downy. Well 
distinguished by its solitary heads of flowers, 
which droop before expansion, and by its 
pleasant aromatic smell, which resembles 
that of fresh apples, whence it derived its 
name of Chamomile, signifying in Greek 
ground-apple. The whole plant is very 
bitter, and is valuable in medicine for its 
tonic properties. Heaths ; abundant. — 
Fl. August. Perennial. 

2. A. Cotula (Stinking Chamomile). — Stem ^^ 
erect, branched ; leaves repeatedly cut into 
hair-like segments, smooth and with glandular " 
dots. Distinguished from the last by its 
strong disagreeable odour and upright stems. 
The heads of flowers are solitary, coloured 
as in the last, but larger. The juice is very 
acrid, and is said to blister the hands of 
those who gather it. — Waste places ; com- 
mon. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

Less common species of Chamomile are ; — 

A. maritima, or more correctly A. Anglica (Sea Chamomile), 
which has repeatedly-cut fleshy leaves, which are somewhat hairy. 
On the sea-coast ; very rare. 

A. arvensis (Corn Chamomile), the deeply-cut leaves of which are 
white with down. 

These two have white flowers with a yellow disk. 

And A. tinctoria (Ox-eye Chamomile), which has downy, much 
divided leaves, and large bright yellow flowers, resembling those of 
Chrysanthemiim segetum. 


Anthemis Noeilis 
(Common Chamomile) 

44. Achillea (Yarrow) 

I. A. millefolium (Common Yellow Milfoil). — Leaves twice 
pinnatifid, woolly, or slightly hairy ; leaflets cut into hair-like 
segments ; flowers in dense terminal corymbs. A common road- 
side plant, with very tough, angular stems, about a foot high, and 
corymbs of small, white, pink, or purplish flowers, which to an 
unpractised eye might be supposed to belong to an umbelliferous 
plant. It has a strong and slightly aromatic odour, and is said to 
have the property of healing wounds. Waste ground ; frequent. — 
Fl. June to September. Perennial. 


Achillea Ptaemica 



2. A. Ptarmica (Sneeze-wort).— Leaves un- 
divided, very narrow, and tapering to a sharp 
point, serrated. Somewhat taller and slenderer 
than 'the last, from which it may be at once 
distinguished by its midivided leaves and larger 
heads of flowers, of which both the disc and ray 
are white. The pounded leaves have been used 
as snuff, hence its name. Meadows and waste 
ground ; not uncommon. — Fl. July, August. 

Natural Order XLV 

CAMPANULACE^.— The Bell-flower 

Calyx growing from the ovary, 5-lobed, re- 
maining till the fruit ripens ; corolla rising 
from the mouth of the calyx, 5-lobed, regular 
or irregular, withering on the fruit ; stuuiens equalling in number 
the lobes of the corolla, and alternate with them ; anthers distinct, 
except in Jasione and Phytemna, when they are united ; ovary 
inferior, of two, or more, many-seeded cells ; style i, covered with 
hairs ; stigma simple or lobed ; fr^nt dry, crowned by the withered 
calyx and corolla, splitting, or opening by valves at the side or 
top ; seeds numerous, fixed to a central column. Herbaceous or 
slightly shrubby plants, with a milky, bitter juice, mostly alternate 
leaves without stipules, and showy blue or white flowers, inhabiting 
principally the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. 
Many species are highly ornamental, but very few are valuable 
either as food or medicine. The roots of Campanula Rapitncidus, 
under the name of Rampion or Ramps, were formerly cultivated 
in this country for the table, but are now scarcely known. Lobelia 
inflata (Indian Tobacco) of North America is used in small doses 
for Asthma, but in over doses is dangerously emetic and narcotic. 
L. cardinalis (Scarlet Cardinal), one of our most brilliantly coloured 
garden flowers, is also very acrid ; and the rare British species, 
L. urens (Acrid Lobelia), derives its name from the blistering pro- 
perties of its juice. Some species contain a considerable quantity 
of caoutchouc. 

1. Campanula (Bell-flower).— Coto//(7 bell -shaped (rarely wheel- 
shaped), with 5 broad and shallow lobes ; filaments broad at the 
base ; stigma 2 to 5 cleft ; capsule 2 to 5 -celled, opening the pores 
at the side, rarely near the top. (Name from the Latin, caiiipana, 
a bell.) 

2. Phyteuma (Rampion). — Corolla wheel-shaped, with 5 deep 
lobes ; filaments broad at the base ; stigma 2 to 3-cleft ; capsule 



ClQBtered Campanula 
Nettle-leaved Campauula 

Water Lobelii 


2 to 3-celled, bursting at the side. (Name irom tlie Greek, pJiytcn, 
a plant.) 

3. Jasione (Sheep's Scabious). — Corolla wheel-shaped, with 
5 long narrow segments ; anthers united at the base ; stigma 
2-cleft ; capsule 2-ccllcd, opening at the top ; flowers in heads. 
(Name of uncertain origin.) 

4. LoBELL\. — Corolla 2-lipped, the upper part split to the base 
of the tube. (Name from Matthias Label, a Flemish botanist.) 

I. Campanula (Bell-flower) 

1. C. rotundifolia (Hair-bell). — Smooth-; root-leaves roundish 
kidney-shaped, notched, stalked, very soon withering ; stem-leaves 
very narrow, tapering ; flowers light blue or rarely white. The 
name Hair-bell is frequently, though not correctly, given to the 
Wild Hyacinth or Blue-Bell [Scilla festalis), a plant with a thick 
juicy flower-stalk ; but when applied to this Campanula is most 
appropriate, its stalks being exceedingly slender and wiry. The 
specific name, rotundifolia (round-leaved), is far from being descrip- 
tive of the leaves which accompany the flower, as they are long 
and narrow, but is peculiarly applicable tO: the root-leaves, as they 
appear in winter or early spring, at which season Linnaeus is said 
to have first observed them on the steps of the university at Upsula. 
Heaths and dry meadows ; abundant. — Fl. July to September. 

2. C. trachelium (Nettled-leaved Bell-flower). — Lower leaves 
stalked, heart-shaped ; upper nearly sessile, tapering to a point, 
all strongly serrated and bristly ; flowers in axillary clusters of 
2-3. A remarkably rough plant, 2-3 feet high, with leaves very 
like those of the nettle, and large, deep blue, bell-shaped flowers, 
the stalks of which are recurved when in fruit. Woods and hedges ; 
not unfrequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. C. glomerata (Clustered Bell-flower). — Stem simple, roughish ; 
leaves oblong, tapering, crenate, rough — the lower stalked and 
heart-shaped at the base, the upper sessile, embracing the stem ; 
flowers sessile, in heads. A stiff, erect plant, 3-18 inches high, 
with terminal and (in large specimens) axillary heads of deep blue, 
funnel-shaped, erect flowers, which have a few clasping, taper- 
pointed bracts at the base. Dry pastures ; not unfrequent. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

4. C. hederacea (Ivy-leaved Bell-flower).— 5/t'OT straggling, thread- 
like ; leaves stalked, roundish heart-shaped, angular and toothed ; 
flowers solitary, on long stalks. An exquisite little plant, generally 
growing with Bog Pimpernel and the Cornish Money-wort, plants 
certainly of a different habit, but scarcely less elegant than itself. 



The leaves are of a remarkably fine 
texture, and delicate green hue ; the 
flowers of a pale blue, sometimes 
slightly drooping, and supported on 
long stalks scarcely thicker than a 
hair. Its usual height is 4-6 inches, 
but when it grows among grass or 
rushes, it climbs by their help to a 
height of 12 inches or more. Wet 
heaths, and by the side of streams in 
the south ani west ; very abundant 
in Cornwall. — Fl. July to September. 

Campanula Hederacea 5. C. latifolia (Giant Bell-flower). — 

(Ivy-leaved Bell-ilower) A stout species, 3-4 feet high ; leaves 

ovate lanceolate, toothed, the lower 

ones stalked ; flowers large, blue or white; hairy within. Woody 

glens ; not uncommon in .Scotland and Nortliern England, becoming 

more rare towards the south. 

6. C. Rapimculoides (Creeping Bell-flower). — Slems about 1-2 
feet high ; lower-leaves heart-shaped, stalked ; upper ones ovate 
lanceolate ; flowers pale blue, axillary, drooping all on one side. 
Very rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

7. C. Rapunculns (Rampion Bell-flower, Ramps). — A tall species, 
2-3 feet high, with clustered panicles of rather small, erect, pale 
blue flowers, the calyx of which is divided into 5 awl-shaped seg- 
ments. Not* common ; local. Formerly cultivated in gardens 
for the sake of its tuberous roots. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

8. C. hybrida (Corn Campanula), — A small plant, 4-12 inches 
high, with a rough wiry stem, oblong, rough, wavy leaves, and a 
few small terminal purple flowers, the caly.x; of which is much 
longer than the corolla ; corolla wheel-shaped ; capsule triangular, 
elongated. Cornfields ; not common. By some botanists this is 
called Specularia hybrida. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 

2. Phyteuma (Rampion) 

1. P. orbiculare (Round-headed Rampion). — Flowers in a round 
terminal head ; lower leaves notched, heart-shaped, stalked ; upper 
narrow, sessile. A singular plant, consisting of a solitary erect 
leafy stalk, 6-18 inches high, surmounted by "a round head of blue 
flowers. The head when in fruit becomes oval. Chalky downs in 
the south ; rare. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. P. spicatum (Spiked Rampion).— Much taUcr than the last, 
and bears its fiowers, which are cream-coloured, in a terminal 


Great Campauula Spreading Campanula 



oblong head, which lengthens with maturity. Found only in Sussex 
— Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

3. Jasione (Sheep's Scabious) 

I, /, montana (Sheep's Scabious, Sheep's-bit).— 
The only British species. Growing about a foot 
high, a.nd having a strong resemblance to a Scabious, 
or one of the Composita;, from the former of which, 
however, it may be distinguished by its united 
anthers ; from the latter by its having a 2-cclled 
capsule. The leaves are oblong, blunt, and hairy ; 
the flowers, which are blue, grow in terminal heads, 
with a leafy involucre at the base. The whole plant 
when bruised has a strong and disagreeable smell. 
Dry heathy places ; common. — Fl. July, August. 

4. Lobelia {Lobelia) 

1. L. Dortmanna (Water Lobelia). — An aquatic 
plant, often forming a matted bed at the bottom of 
the water, and sending above the surface slender, 
almost leafless stems, having a terminal raceme of 
distant, hght blue, drooping flowers. Not uncommon 
in lakes in Scotland and Western England. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. L. urens (Acrid Lobelia). — Erect, 12-18 inches high, with a 
roughish, leafy stem, which contains a milky, acrid juice, and bears 
a bracteate raceme of erect purple fl.owers. ' Very rare ; Axminster, 
Devon. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 





Sheep' s-bit) 

Natural Order XL VI 
VACCINIACE/E. — The Cranberry Tribe 

Calyx growing from the ovary, of 4-6 lobes, which are sometimes 
so shallow as to be scarcely perceptible ; corolla of one petal, with 
as many lobes as the calyx ; stamens not imited, twice as many as 
the lobes of the corolla, inserted into the disk of the ovary ; anthers 
opening by 2 pores, and often furnished with 2 bristles ; ovary 
with a flat disk, 4 to lo-celled ; cells 1 or many-seeded ; style 
and stigma simjile ; fruit a berry crowned by tlie remains of the 
calyx, juicy, containing many small seeds. Small shrubby plants, 
with undivided, alternate leaves, inhabiting temperate regions, 
especially mountainous and marshy districts. By some botanists 
they are placed in the same order as the Heaths, from which they 
differ chiefly in having the ovary beneath the calyx. The leaves 



and bark are astringent, the berries slightly acrid and agreeable 
to the taste. Under the name of Cranberries the fruit of Schollera 
Occycoccus and S. macrocarpus are imported from Russia and 
North America respectively, and are used for making tarts. Many 
species are cultivated in gardens, more, however, for their pretty 
flowers than for the sake of their fruit. 

I. Vaccinium (Whortleberry, Cranberry, etc.). — Calyx 4 to 
5-lobed, sometimes with the lolies so shallow as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible ; corolla bcU-shaped, or wheel-shaped, 4 to 5-cleft ; sia- 
mens 8-10 ; herry globose, 4 to 5-celled, many-seeded. (Naine 
of doubtful etymology.) 

I. V.4CCINIUM (Whortleberry, Cranberry, etc.) 
Leaves not evergreen ; anthers with two bristles at the hack 

1. V. myrtillus (Whortleberry, Bilberry, 
Whinberry). — A small branched shrub, 
with acutely-angled stems, 6-18 inches 

?|N high ; leaves egg-shaped, serrated ; flowers 
^yf solitary, drooping, nearly globular, flesh- 
coloured, wax-like ; berries black, covered 
with grey bloom. They are agreeable to 
the taste, and are often made into tarts ; 
but when thus used are rather mawkish 
unless mixed with some more acid fruit. 
They are popularly known by the name 
of whorls. Heathy and mountainous 
places ; abundant. — Fl. May. Shrub. 

2. V. tiliginosum (Bog Whortleberry, or 
Great Bilberry). — Ston not angular; leaves 
inversely egg-shaped, entire, glaucous, and 
veined beneath. Distinguished from the 
last by its more woody, rounded stem, and 
by its strongly veined, glaucous leaves, 
which are broader towards the extremity. 
The flowers are smaller and grow nearer 
together. Mountainous bogs m Scotland 

and the north of England. — Fl. May.— Shrub. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus 
{Whortleberry, Whinberry) 

Leaves evergreen ; anthers leithout bristles 
3. V. vitis idcsa (Red Whortleberry, Cowberry).— A low, 


glmg shrub, with inversely egg-shaped leaves resembling those of 
the box ; dotted beneath, and the margins rolled back ; the flowers 
are pink with 4 deep lobes, and are borne in terminal drooping 
clusters ; the berries red. Mountainous heaths in the north.— 
Fl. May, June. Shrub. 



flarebell (variety) 


4. V, oxycoccos (Marsh Whortleberry, Cranberry).- — Stem very 
slender, prostrate, rooting ; leaves egg-shaped, glaucous beneath, 
the margins rolled back ; corolla wheel-shaped, with 4 deep, rctiexcd 
segments. A very low plant, with straggling, wiry stems, and 
solitary terminal, bright red flowers, the segments of which are 
bent back in a very singular manner. (" The fruit is highly agree- 
able, making the best of tarts ; at Langtown, on the borders of 
Cumberland, it forms no inconsiderable article of trade." — Sir 
W. T. Hooker.)^ — Fl. June. Shrub. 

Natural Order XLVII 

ERICACEili. — The Heath Tribe 

Calyx 4 to 5-cleft, nearly equal, inferior, remaining till the fruit 
ripens ; corolla of one petal 4 to 5-cleft, often withering and re- 
maining attached to the plant ; stamens equal in number to the 
segments of the corolla, or twice as many, inserted with the corolla, 
or only slightly attached to its base ; anthers hard and dry, the 
cells separating at one extremity, where they are furnished with 
bristles or some other appendage, opening by pores ; ovary not 
adhering to the calyx, surrounded at the base by a disk or by 
scales, many-seeded ; style 1, straight ; stigma i ; fruit a berry or 
dry capsule, many-seeded. Shrubs or small bushy trees with 
evergreen, often rigid, opposite or whorled leaves. This well- 
known and highly prized Order contains a large number of beautiful 
plants, many of which are remarkable for their social nature ; 
extensive tracts of country being often found entirely covered with 
a few species, so as to give name (heaths) to the kinds of places on 
which they grow. They are very abundant in South Africa, whence 
they are often called by gardeners " Cape plants." They are 
common also in Europe, in North and South America, both within 
and without the tropics, and in the mountainous parts of Asia. 
The extensive genus Erica (Heath) contains no plant possessing 
I'iSeful properties, save Erica arborea, fronl which briar-root pipes 
are made ; briar is a corruption of its French name bruyerc. Cal- 
luna vulgaris (Ling, or Heather) is astringent, and is sometimes 
used for dyeing ; its tough branches are a common material foi 
brooms ; its flowers are a favourite resort of bees, and its seeds 
and young tender shoots enter largely into the food of moor-fowl. 
Of the plants belonging to this Order which produce juicy berries, 
the fruit is in some instances edible. Arbutus Unedo bears an 
abundance of handsome berries, which, when thoroughly ripe, 
are not unpalatable, and which, from the resemblance they out- 
wardly bear to strawberries, give the plant its English name. 
Strawberry-tree. Some species, especially Kalmia and Rhododen 


drnn, possess dangerous naTcotic properties, which extend to the 
flesh of animals that have fed on them. It is stated that the honey 
which poisoned Xenophon's Grecian troops during the famous 
lictreat of the Ten Thousand, had been collected by bees from the 
flowers of some plant of this Order, probably Azalea pontica, which 
possesses this property, and is still found on the shores of the 
Euxine, or Black Sea. The berries of some species are, neverthe- 
less, used in medicine with good effect. 

1. Erica (Heath). — Calyx deeply 4-cleft ; corolla bell-shaped or 
egg-shaped, 4-cleft ; stamens 8 ; capsule 4-celled. (Name from 
the Greek, erico, to break, from some fancied medicinal properties.) 

2. Calluna (Ling, Heather). — Calyx of 4 coloured sepals, which 
are longer than the corolla, having at the base outside 4 green 
hracts ; corolla bell-shaped ; stamens 8 ; capsule 4-celled. (Name 
from the Greek, calliino, to cleanse, from the frequent use to which 
its twigs are applied of being made into brooms.) 

3. Menziesia. — Calyx deeply 4 to 5-cleft ; corolla inflated ; 
stamens 8-10 ; capsule 4 to 5-ccllcd. (Named in honour of Archi- 
bald Mcnzies, an eminent Scotch botanist.) 

4. Azalea. — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla bell-shaped, 5-cIeft ; 
stamens 5 ; anthers bursting lengthways ; capsule 2 to 3-celled, 
and valved. (Name from the Greek, azaleos, parched, from the 
nature of the places in which it grows.) 

5. Andromeda. — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla egg-shaped, with 
a 5-cleft reflexed border ; stamens 10 ; anthers with two bristles 
at the back ; capsule dry, 5-celled, and 5-valved. (Named in 
aUusion to the fable of Andromeda, who was chained to a rock, and 
exposed to the attack of a sea-monster. So does this tribe of beau- 
tiful plants grow in dreary northern wastes, feigned to be the abode 
of preternatural monsters." — Sir W. J. Hooker.) 

6. Arbutus (Strawberry-tree). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla 
egg-shaped, with a 5-cleft reflexed border ; stamens 10 ; fruit fleshy, 
rough, 5-celled ; cells many-seeded. (Name, the Latin name of 
the plant.) 

7. Arctostaphylos (Bear-berry). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla 
egg-shaped, with a 5-cleft reflexed border ;' stamens 10 ; fruit fleshy, 
smooth, 5-celled ; cells i-seeded. (Name in Greek denoting Bear's 

I. Ekica {Heath) 
I. E. tetralix (Cross-leaved Heath).— Well distinguished from all 
other English species by its leaves being placed crosswise in whorles 
of four, and by its terminal heads of drooping, rose-coloured flowers, 
which are all turned to one side, and are of a larger size than the 
other common species E. cinerca. The part of the flower nearest 
the stem is of a lighter colour than that which is exposed, where it 

N 1.^ 


Lesser Periwinkle 
Bell Heather 

Oommou Ling 
Cross-luaved Heaih 



deepens to a delicate blush ; the whole flower appearing as if it had 
been modelled in wax. It is sometimes found of a pure white. 
Peaty moors, abundant. — Fl. July, August, with occasional blooms 
throughout the autumn. Shrub. 

2. E. cinerea (Fine-leaved Heath, Beh Heather). — Leaves in threes, 
narrow, smooth ; /lowers egg-shaped, in irregular, whorled, leafy 
clusters. This and No. r arc the only Heaths which can be called 
common. It is a bushy plant, with tough, wiry stems, exceedingly 
narrow leaves, and numerous oblong purple flowers, which form 
broken, leafy clusters, not confined to one side of the stem. The 
flowers are .sometimes white. Heaths, abundant. — Fl. July, 
August. Shrub. 

3. E. vagans (Cornish Heath). — Steins much 
branched, and, in the upper parts, very leafy, 
2-4 feet high ; leaves 3-5 in a whorl, crowded, 
very narrow, smooth ; flowers bell-shaped, shorter 
than the stamens, forming a leafy, irregular, taper- 
ing cluster, light purple, rose-coloured, or white. 
In the purple variety the anthers are dark purple ; in 
the white, bright red ; and in all cases they form a 
ring outside the corolla until they have shed their 
pollen, when they droop to the sides. Abundant on 
various heaths in Cornwall ; and on the GoonhiUey 
Downs, in Cornwall, all three varieties of this Heath 
grow together in the greatest profusion, covering 
many thousands of acres, and almost excluding the 
two species so common elsewhere. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Shrub. 

Erica Vagans 

4. E. Mediterranea (Mediterranean Heath). — Dis- (Comish Heath) 
tinguished by its coloured calyx and flesh-pink corolla ; 

the leaves are four in a whorl ; anthers only slightly 

protruding from mouth of corolla. Cultivated in Great Britain, 

and found wild in Connemara. — Fl. April, May. Shrub. 

5. E. ciliaris (Ciliated Heath). — By far the most beautiful of all 
the British species ; the leaves are four in a whorl ; and the flowers, 
which are bright purple and half an inch long, grow in terminal, 
interrupted, spike-like clusters. Sandy heaths ; of local occurrence 
in Dorset and Cornwall, though where found often very abundant. — 
Fl. June to September. 

A variety of E. Tetralix, known as E. Mackaiana, is found in 
Connemara. It differs in being more bii.shy, with broader leaves 
and more numerous heads of smaller flowers. 


2. Calluna {Ling, Hecdher) 

I. C. vulgaris (Ling, or Heather). — The only species. A strag- 
gling, branched shrub 1-3 feet high. The leaves are very small, 
more or less downy (sometimes even hoary), and arranged m four 
rows on opposite sides of the stem. The corolla is very small and 
bell-shaped, and is concealed by the rose-coloured calyx, at the base 
of which are four small green bracts, which have the appearance of 
a second calyx. The flowers remain attached to the plant long after 
the seed is ripe ; indeed, it is not at all unusual to find plants in full 
bloom with the withered flowers of the preceding year still adhering 
to the lower part of the stem. A beautiful variety has been found 
in Cornwall, with double flowers ; and white specimens, which are 
not unfrequent, are supposed to bring the finder good luck. Heaths 
and moors ; abundant. — Fl. July, August. Shrub. 

3. Menziesia 

1. M. ccBrulea (Scotch Menziesia). — Leaves numerous, linear, 
minutely toothed ; flower-stalks covered with glandular hairs ; 
flowers in terminal tufts ; corolla 5 -cleft ; stamens 10. A small, 
shrubby plant, naked below, very leafy and hairy above, with large, 
pale purplish blue flowers. Very rare ; found on the " Sow of 
Athol," in Perthshire, but " nearly, if not quite, extirpated by an 
Edinburgh nurseryman " (Babington). — Fl. Jime, July. Shrub. 

2. M. polifolia (Irish Menziesia, or St. Dabeoc's Heath). — Leaves 
egg-shaped, with the margins rolled back, white, and downy be- 
neath ; corolla 4-cleft ; stamens 8. A smaU shrub, with large 
purple, sometimes white, flowers, which grow in terminal, leafy, 
i-sided clusters. Mountainous heaths in Ireland ; rare. — Fl, June, 
July. Shrub. 

4. Azalea 

I. A. procumhens (Trailing Azalea). — A Jow trailing shrub, of a 
very different habit from most of the garden plants cultivated under 
the name of Azaleas. The stems are prostrate and tangled ; the 
leaves small, smooth, and rigid, with the margins remarkably rolled 
back ; the flowers are flesh-coloured, and grow in short terminal 
clusters or tufts. Highland mountains. — Fl. May, June. Slii'ub. 

5. Andromeda 

I. A. polifolia (Marsh Andromeda). — The only British species, 
growing in peat bogs in the north. A small leafy, evergreen shrub, 
with slender stems, narrow, pomtcd leaves, and terminal tufts of 
flesh-coloured, drooping flmvers. — Fl. June to August. Shrub. 



Arbutus Unedo 

6. Arbutus (Strawherry^-tree) 
I. A. unedo (Strawberry-tree). — Leaves elliptical, tapering, ser- 
rated, smooth ; flowers in drooping panicles ; jruit rough. A beau- 
tiful evergreen tree, with a rough, 
reddish hark, large deep green leaves, 
and numerous terminal clusters of 
greenish white flowers. The berries, 
which ripen in the following autumn, 
are nearly globular, orange-scarlet, 
and rough, with minute, hard grains. 
They are eatable, but so much less 
attractive to the taste than to the 
eye as to have originated the name 
" Unedo " (" One-I-eat "), as if no 
one would choose to try a second. 
The flowers are in full perfection at 
the time when the fruit, formed 
in the preceding year, is ripening ; and then, of course, the tree 
presents its most beautiful appearance. About the lakes of Kil- 
larney in a wild state, and very common in English gardens. — 
Fl. September, October. Tree. 

7. Arctostaphylos (Bear-berry) 

1. A. uva-ursi (Red Bear-berry). — Stems prostrate ; leaves in- 
versely egg-shaped, entire, evergreen ; flowers in terminal clusters. 
A small shrub, distinguished by its long trailing stems, blunt leaves, 
which turn red in autumn, rose-coloured flowers, and small red 
berries, which are a favourite food of moor-fowl. The leaves are 
used in medicine as an astringent. Mountainous heaths in the 
north ; abundant. — Fl. May. Shrub. 

2. A. Alfina (Black Bear-berry). — Resembles the last in its mode 
of growth, but the leaves are wrinkled and serrated, and not ever- 
green ; the flowers are white, with a purplish tinge ; the berries 
black. It is most common on mountains in the north of Scotland. 

Natural Order XL VIII 

MONOTROPACE^.— The Bird"s-nest Tribe 

Sepals 4-5, not falling off ; corolla regular, deeply divided into as 
many lobes or petals as there are sepals ; stamens twice as many as 
the lobes of the corolla ; anthers opening by pores ; ovary 4 to 5-celled, 
sometimes imperfectly so ; style i, often bent ; stigma generally 
lobed ; fruit a dry capsule ; seeds covered with a loose skin. A 
small, unimportant Order, containing but two British genera — 
Pyrola, a family of plants with somewhat shrubby, unbranched 

1 86 


stems, sim])lo, smooth, veiny evergreen leaves, and large, often fra- 
graul, flowers, which grow either singly or in a stalked terminal 
chister ; and Monotropa, a leafless parasitic plant, with the habit 
of an Ornhanche (Broom-rape), growing on the roots of firs and 
other trees. 

1. Pyrola (Winter-green). — Sepals 5 ; corolla of 5 deep lobes or 
petals ; skiimns 10 ; anthers 2-celled ; stigma 5-lobed. (Name 
signifying a little pear, from a fancied resemblance between its leaves 
and those of that tree.) 

2. Monotropa (Bird's-nest). — Sepals 4-5 ; petals 4-5, swollen at 
the base ; stam.ens 8-10 ; anthers i-celled ; stigma flat, not lobed. 
(Name from the Greek, monos, one, and Irepo, to turn, the flowers 
being turned all one way.) 

I. Pyrola (Winter-green) 

1. P. nniflora (Single-flowered Winter-green). — A remarkably 
pretty plant, bearing several roundish egg-shaped, smooth, and 
veiny leaves, and running up into a single flower-stalk, which bears 
one large elegant white drooping, highly fragrant flower. Moun- 
tainous woods in Scotland ; rare. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. P. rotundifolia (Round-leaved winter-green). — Flowers numer- 
ous, white ; distinguished by its long style bent down, and at 

the extremity curved upwards. Damp 
woods, Kent, Norfolk, and Suffolk, or 
as far north as Inverness ; very rare. 
■ — ^Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

3. P. media (Intermediate Winter-green). 
— Resembling both P. rotundifolia and 
P. minor, but the style is erect, nearly 
straight, and much longer than the sta- 
mens. Found chiefly in Northern Britain. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

4. P. minor (Common Winter-green). — 
Flowers on short stalks, tinged with pink, 
enclosing the rather large stigma. Found 
chiefly in the north. — Fl. July, August. 

5. P. sccimda (One-sided Winter-green). 
— Flowers numerous, greenish, all turned 
to one side ; style long and straight, 
protruding from the incurved petals. 
Found in York.shire and Scotland. — 
Fl. July. Pereimial. 

Pyrola Media ^^''' Pyrolas are all of very local occur- 

(Intermediate Wiiitey- green) rence in Britain. 



2. MoNOTKOPA (Birds' -nes-t) 

I. M. hypopitys (Pine Bird's-nest, Fir-rape). — The 
only British species, occurring sparingly in dry woods 
of Fir and Beech, on the roots of which trees it is said 
by some to be parasitical. The whole plant consists 
of a single juicy stalk, without leaves, but clothed 
throughout with scaly bracts, and terminating in a 
drooping cluster of brownish yellow flowers, which 
eventually turn almost black. This must not be con- 
founded with plants of the genus Orobancke, which all 
have a ringent corolla of i petal, and 4 .stamens, 
two of which are shorter than the others. The 
flowers of Monotropa have 8 stamens, with the excep- 
tion of the terminal one, which has 10. Local in 
England and Southern Scotland. — Fl. June to August. 

Natural Order XLIX 
ILICINEyE.— The Holly Tribe 

(Pine Bird's- 
nest, Fir-rape) 

Sepals 4-6, imbricated when in bud ; corolla 
4 to 6-lobed, imbricated when in bud.; stamens 
inserted into the corolla, equalling its lobes in number, 
and alternate with them ; filaments erect ; anthers 
2-ceIled, opening lengthwise ; ovary fleshy, abrupt, 2 to 6-celled ; 
stigma nearly sessile, lobed ; fruit a fleshy berry, not bursting, con- 
taining 2-6 bony seeds. Evergreen trees or shrubs, with tough 
leaves and small axillary, white or greenish flowers, occurring in 
various parts of the world, the only European species being the 
common Holly, Nearly all the plants of this tribe possess astringent 
and tonic properties. The leaves of Holly, for instance, are said to 
be equal to Peruvian bark in the cure of intermittent fever. The 
berries are, undoubtedly, poisonous. The bark furnishes bird-lime, 
and the wood, which is white and remarkably close-grained, is much 
used by cabinet-makers in inlaying ; whilst its green twigs, as well 
as those of Hazel and Willow, are employed by water-finders, or 
water-diviners, in their remarkable and obscure art of " dowsing." 

/. Paraguayensis furnishes mate, or Paraguay Tea, which is so 
extensively used in Brazil and other parts of South America. 

I. Ilex (Holly). — Calyx 4 to 5-cleft ; corolla wheel-shaped, 4 to 
5-cleft ; stamens 4-5 ; stigmas 4-5 ; berry round, containing 4-5 
bony seeds. (Name applied by the Latms to some tree, though not 
our Holly.) 



Ilbx Aquifolium (Holly) 

I Ilex {Holly) 
I. /. aquifolium (Holly). — The 
only British species. A shrub or 
small tree, with glossy evergreen, 
spinous leaves, the upper ones of 
which have often only one spine, and 
that at the extremity. The berries 
are red or yellow. The name Aqui- 
folium means needle-leaved. Holly is 
probably a corruption of the word 
" holy," from the use to which its 
boughs are applied in ornamenting 
churches at Christmas. The berries 
are Poisonous. Many varieties are 
grown in gardens, with variously 
shaped and variegated leaves. — 
Fl. May, June. Tree. 

Natural Okder L 
OLEACEiE.— The Olive Tribe 

Calyx divided, not falling off ; corolla of I petal, 4 to 8-cleft, 
sometimes wanting ; stamens 2, alternate with the lobes of the 
corolla ; ovary 2-celled ; cells 2-seeded ; style i ; fruit a berry, 
drupe, or capsule, of 2 cells, each cell often perfecting only a single 
seed. Trees or shrubs, the branches of which often end in con- 
spicuous buds ; the leaves are opposite, either simple or pinnate ; 
the flowers grow in clusters, or panicles. The plants of this Order 
inhabit the temperate regions of many parts of the world. By far 
the most important among them is the plant from which the Order 
takes its name, Olea, the Olive, among the earliest of plants culti- 
vated by man. The bark of the Olive is bitter and astringent, the 
wood remarkably close-grained and durable. The fruit is a drupe, 
or hard bony seed, enclosed in a fleshy, closely-fitting case. From 
this outer coat, and not from the seed itself, oil is obtained by pres- 
sure. Several kinds of Ash {Fraximts and Ornus) produce manna, 
and are valued for the strength and elasticity of their timber. 

1. LiGUSTRUM (Privet). — Corolla funnel-shaped, 4-cleft ; calyx 
with 4 small teeth ; fruit a 2-celled berry. (Name from the Latin 
name of the plant, and that from ligo, to bind, from the use made 
of its twigs.) 

2. Fraxinus (Ash). — Calyx 4-cleft, or ; corolla o ; fruit a 
winged 2-celled capsule, (Name, the Latin name of the tree, de- 
noting the ease with which it may be split.) 



I. LiGUSTRUM (Privet) 

T. L. vulgare (Privet). — The only British species. A common 
hedge bush, with opposite, narrow-elHptical, evergreen leaves, dense 
panicles of white, sickly smelling flowers, and black, shining berries, 
about the size of currants. It is much used for hedges, especially 
in conjunction with White-thorn, over which it has the advantage 
of being a rapid grower. It is particularly useful as a hedge- 
plant in towns, not being liable to injury by smoke. — Fl. May, June. 

LiGUSTRUM Vulgare {Privet) 

Fraxinus Excelsior {Ash) 

2. Fraxinus (Ash) 

I. F. excelsior (Ash). — Calyx and corolla both wanting ; leaves 
pinnate, with an odd leaflet. A noble tree, characterized by the 
light, ash-coloured, smooth bark of its younger branches, of which 
the lower ones droop and curve upwards again at the extremities ; 
by its large, black, terminal buds, the twigs supporting which are 
flattened at the end, and by its gracefully feathered foliage. The 
tufts of seed-vessels, popularly called " keys," remain attached to 
the tree until the succeeding spring. A variety is occasionally 
found with undivided leaves, but it is not so handsome as the 
common form of the tree. Woods and hedges ; common. — 
Fl. April, May, forming at first fruit-like, terminal heads, and finally 
loose panicles. Tree. 


Natural Order LI 
APOCYNACE/E. — Periwinkle Tribe 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, not falling off ; corolla regular, 5-lobed, the 
lobes twisted when in bud, and when expanded having the sides of 
the margin unequally curved ; slamens 5, inserted in the tube of 
the coroUa ; anthers distinctly 2-celled ; pollen large ; ovary 2- 
celled, or double ; -pistil resembling the shaft of a pillar, with a 
double capital ; fruit various. Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, 
with showy flowers, remarkable for the twisted lobes of the corolla 
when in bud, and yet more so for the symmetrical pistil. Many of 
them abound in a milky juice, and a large portion are poisonous. 
Tanghinia venenifera is one of the most deadly of known vegetable 
poisons, a single seed, though not larger than an almond, being 
sufficient to destroy twenty people. (For an account of the horrible 
use to which it was formerly applied in Madagascar, see Wonders of 
the Vegetable Kingdom.) The beautiful Oleander (Nerium Oleander), 
a common greenhouse shrub, is also a formidable poison, the pow- 
dered wood of which is used to destroy rats. In i8og, when the 
French troops were lying before Madrid, some of the soldiers went 
out marauding, every one bringing back such provisions as could 
be found. One soldier formed the unfortunate idea of cutting the 
branches of the Oleander for spits and skewers for the meat when 
roasting. This tree, it may be observed, is very common in Spain, 
where it attains consideraJDle dimensions. The wood having been 
stripped of its bark, and brought in contact with the meat, was pro- 
ductive of most direful consequences ; for of twelve soldiers who 
ate of the roast seven died, and the other five were dangerously ill. 
Some species, in which the characteristic properties are moderated, 
are, however, used as medicines. Several species furnish caout- 
chouc, or India-rubber, of good quality. The only genus repre- 
sented among British plants is Vinca, which has astringent and 
acrid properties. 

I. Vinca (Periwinkle). — Corolla salver-shaped, with 5 angles at 
the mouth of the tube, 5-lobed, the lobes oblique ; fruit consisting 
of 2 erect, horn-like capsules, which do not burst. (Name from the 
Latin, vincio, to bind, from the cord-like stems.) 

Vinca {Periwinkle) 

I. V. major (Greater Periwinkle). — Stem nearly erect ; leaves 
egg-shaped, with the margins minutely fringed. A handsome 
plant, with large deep green leaves, which are smooth, except at 
the margins, and large purplish blue floweVs, the mouth of which 
is angular, and the tube closed with hairs and the curiously curved 


anthers. The pistil of this flower, as well as of the following species, 
is a singularly beautiful object. A doubtful native, being found 
only in the neighbourhood of dwelling-houses. — Fl. May, June. 

2. V. minor (I,esser Periwinkle). — Stem trailing, sending up short, 
erect, leafy shoots, which bear the flowers ; margins of the leaves 
not fringed. Woods, especially in the West of England, where it 
often entirely covers the ground with its evergreen leaves. Tl is 
smaller than the last. A white variety occurs in Devonshire, and 
in gardens it is often met with bearing variegated leaves and double 
purple, blue, or white flowers. — Fl. March to June. Perennial. 

Natural Order LII 
GENTIANACE^.— The Gentian Tribe 

Calyx usually 5, sometimes 4 to 8-cleft, not falling off ; corolla 
of I petal, its lobes equalling in number those of the calyx, not 
falling off, twisted when in bud, often fringed about the mouth of 
the tube ; stamens equalling in number the lobes of the corolla, and 
alternate with them ; ova?'y of 2 carpels, i or imperfectly 2-celled ; 
style I ; stigmas 2 ; fruit a many-seeded capsule. Mostly herba- 
ceous plants, with opposite, generally sessile leaves, and often large, 
brilliantly coloured flowers. This is an extensive Order, containing 
between four and five hundred species, which are distributed 
throughout all climates, from regions of perpetual snow to the hot- 
test regions of South America and India. Though able to bear the 
most intense cold, they are very rare both in the Arctic and Antarctic 
regions. Under the equator, the lowest elevation at which they 
have been found is 7850 feet. On the Himalaya and Rocky Moun- 
tain ranges species have been found at a height of 16,000 feet ; 
inother in Ceylon at 8000 feet ; in Southern Europe one species, 
Gentiana prostrata, flourishes at between 6000 and 9000 feet ; and 
in the Straits of Magellan and Behring's Straits just above the level 
of the sea. In South America and New Zealand the prevailing 
colour of the flower is red ; in Europe, blue ; yellow and white 
being of rare occurrence. All the known species are remarkable for 
the intensely bitter properties residing in every part of the herbage, 
hence they are valuable tonic medicines. That most commonly 
used in Europe is G. lutea (Yellow Gentian) ; but there is little 
doubt that other species might be employed with equally good 

. I. Gentiana (Gentian). — Calyx 4 to 5-cleft ; corolla funnel- 01 
salver-shaped ; stamens 5, rarely 4 ; stigmas 2. (Name from Gen- 
tius, an ancient King of Illyria, who discovered its medicinal value.) 


2. Erythflea (Centaury). — Calyx ^-cleii; coro/Za funnel-shaped, 
5-cleft, not falling off ; stamens 5 ; anthers becoming spirally 

3. CiCENDiA (Gentianella). — Calyx 4-cleft, tubular ; corolla 
funnel-shaped, 4-cleft ; stamens 4 ; anthers not twisted ; stigma 
undivided. (Name, according to Hooker and Arnott, from the 
Greek, cicinnus, curled hair ; but, if so, pa"rticularly inappropriate 
to the only British species, which is singularly rigid.) 

4. Chlora (Yellow- wort). — Calyx deeply 8-cleft ; corolla with a 
very short tube, 8-cleft ; stamens 8 ; stigma 2 to 4-cleft. (Name 
from the Greek, chloros, yellow, from the colour of the flowers.) 

5. Menyanthes (Buck-bean). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla 
funnel-shaped, with 5 lobes, fringed all over the inner surface ; 
stamens 5 ; stigma 2-lobed. (Name of doubtful origin.) 

6. ViLLARSiA. — Calyx deeply 5-cleft : corolla wheel-shaped, with 
5 lobes, which are fringed only at the base ; stamens 5 ; stigma with 
2 toothed lobes. (Name in honour of M. de Villars, a French 

I. Gentian A {Gentian) 

1. G. pneumonanthe (Marsh Gentian). — Stem erect, 6-12 inches 
high, few-flowered ; calyx 5-cleft ; corolla between bell and funnel- 
shaped, 5-cleft, not fringed. WeU distinguished by its large, bell- 
shaped, deep blue flowers, with 5 green stripes. There are rarely 
more than i or 2 flowers on the same stalk. Boggy heaths, princi- 
pally in Northern England. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

2. G. verna (Spring Gentian). — A very rare species. Stems 
simple, and often extremely short, each bearing a solitary large 
intensely blue flower which is 5-cleft, and has between the lobes 
5 smaUer 2-cleft segments. Found only in one or two places in 
Northern England and in Ireland. — Fl. April to June. Perennial. 

3. G. nivalis (Small Gentian). — Taller than the last and usually 
branched, each branch bearing a flower resembling G. verna in shape 
and colour, but smaller. Very rare ; only found on the summits of 
some of the Highland mountains. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

4. G. amarella (Autumnal Gentian). — Stem erect, branched, 
many-flowered ; calyx 5-cleft ; corolla salver-shaped, fringed in the 
throat. A remarkably erect plant, with a square, leafy, purplish 
stem, 6-12 inches high, and numerous, rather large purplish flowers, 
which only expand in bright sunshine. Dry chalky pastures, not 
common. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

5. G. campesiris (Field Gentian). — Stem erect, branched, many- 
flowered ; calyx 4-cleft, the two outer lobes much larger ; corolla 
salver-shaped, 4-cleft, fringed in the throat. Resembling the last 


Field Gentian Common Centaarea 

Yellow- wort 




in habit, but at once distinguished by its 4-cleft ilowers, which are 
of a dull purplish colour. Dry pastures, common. — Fl. August, 
September. Annual. 

2. Erythr^a (Centaury) 

I. E. centatirium (Common Centaury). — A pretty herbaceous 
plant 2-18 inches high, with square, erect stems, which are much 
branched above, and terminate in variously divided flat tufts of 
small rose-coloured flowers ; the leaves are oblong, with strong 
parallel ribs, and remarkably smooth ; the flowers only expand in 
fine weather. This is the common form of the plant as it occurs 
in dry fields and waste places. In other situations it varies so 
greatly that some botanists enumerate several supposed species, 
which, however, run into one another so closely that they 
may be taken to be varieties. The following are the more 
distinct forms : — 

E. fulchella (Dwarf Centaury), — A minute plant 2-8 inches high, 
with an exceedingly slender stem and a few stalked flowers (often 
only one) ; this is found on the sandy sea-shore, especially in the 
west of England. 

E. littoralis (Dwarf Tufted Centaury). — A stunted plant, with 
broad leaves, and all the flowers crowded into a kind of head. This 
occurs on turfy sea-cliffs. 

E. laiijolia. (Broad-leaved Centaury). — Has even broader leaves 
than the last, and bears its flowers in forked tufts, the main stem 
being divided into three branches. There are other minute differ- 
ences, for which the student may consult more scientific works. 
The genus was formerly called Chironia, from the Centaur, Chiron, 
who was famous in Greek mythology for his skill in medicinal herbs. 
The English name. Centaury, has the same origin. — 
Fl. July, August. Annual. 

3. CiCENDiA [Gentianella) 

1. C. filiforniis (Slender Gentianella). — A minute slender 
plant, in habit resembling Erythrcsa fulchella, and growing 
to about the same size, 2-4 inches ; the pairs of opposite 
leaves are very narrow and soon wither ; the flowers are 
yellow, and expand only in bright sunshine. It grows in 
sandy heaths where water has stood during the winter. 
South-west of England. — Fl. July. Annual. 

2. C. pusilla (Least Gentianella). — A smaller plant than 
the last, found in the Channel Isles ; it is more branched 
than C. filiformis ; the flowers white, pink. Or yellow, with 
the calyx deeply divided. — Fl. July. Annual. 






4. Chlora {Y ellow-wbrt) 

I. C. perfoliata (Perfoliate Yellow-wort). — The only British 
species. An erect plant 2-12 inches high, remarkaljle for its glau- 
cous hue and for its pairs of leaves, which are rather distant, being 
united at the base (connate), with the stem passing through them ; 
hence its name, Perfoliate. The flowers, which are large and hand- 
some, are of a pale yellow, and expand only during sunshine. Chalk 
and limestone pastures ; not uncommon. — Fl. June to September. 

5. Menyanthes {Buck-bean) 

I. M. trifoUata (Buck-bean, Marsh Trefoil). — The only species. 
The only British plant belonging to the Order which has divided 
leaves. The stem scarcely rises above the soil or water in which it 
grows, but is overtopped by the large ternate (composed of 3 leaflets) 
leaves, which in shape and colour I'esemble those of the Windsor 
Bean ; each leaf-stalk has a sheathing base, opposite to one of 
which rises a compound cluster of exceedingly beautiful flowers, 

which when in bud are of a bright rose 
colour, and when fully expanded have 
the inner surface of the corolla thickly 
covered with a white fringe. The root, 
which is intensely bitter, is said to be 
the most valuable of known tonics. 
Spongy bogs and stagnant water. — 
Fl. June, July. Perennial. 


I. V. nympJueoides (Water Villarsia). 
— ^The only British species. A rare 
floating aquatic, found in some of the 
still ditches communicating with the 
Thames, and in a few other places. x\s 
its specific name implies, it has the 
habit of a Water-lily. The leaves are 
nearly round ; the flowers large, yellow, 
and fringed. — Fl. July, August. Per- 


{Water Villunia) 



Natural Order LIII 

POLEMONIACE^.— Jacob's Ladder Tribe 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, not falling off ; corolla 
regular, 5-lobed : stamens 5, from the middle 
of the tube of the corolla ; ova)'y 3-celled ; 
style single ; stigma 3-cleft ; capsule 3-celled, 
3-valved. Herbaceous plants, often with showy 
flowers, which are remarkable for the blue 
colour of their pollen. They are most com- 
mon in the temperate parts of America, but 
within the tropics are unknown. None of the 
species possess remarkable properties, but 
several are favourite garden flowers, as Phlox, 
Gilia, Polemonium, and Cohcea. 

I. Polemonium (Jacob's Ladder). — Corolla 
wheel-shaped, with erect lobes; stamens bearded 
at the base ; cells of the capsule many-seeded. 
(Name, the Greek name of the plant.) 



(Blue. Jacob's Ladder) 

I. Polemonium [Greek Valerian) 
I. P. cceruleum (Greek Valerian, Blue Jacob's Ladder). — The only 
British species. A tall, erect plant 1-2 feet high, with an angular 
stem ; pinnate, smooth leaves ; and numerous terminal large blue 
or white flowers. Occasionally found in woods in the north, but 
very rare ; a common garden flower, not easily rooted out when it 
has once estabhshed itself. — FL June, July. Perennial. 

Natural Order LTV 

CONVOLVULACE^.— The Bindweed Tribe 

Calyx in five divisions, imbricated, often very unequal, not falling 
off ; corolla of i petal, regular, plaited when in bud ; stamens 5, 
from the base of the corolla ; ovary 2 to 4-celled, few-seeded, sur- 
rounded below by a fleshy ring ; style i ; stigmas 2 ; capsule i to 
4-celled. An extensive and highly valuable tribe of plants, most 
of which are herbaceous climbers, with large and very beautiful 
flowers. They are most abundant within the tropics, where they 
arc among the most ornamental of chmbing plants. As medicines, 
also, they occupy an important station. The roots of Convolvulus 
Scammonia, a Syrian species, furnishes scammony ; jalap is pre- 
pared from a resin which abounds in the roots of several kinds of 
Exogonium, a beautiful climber, with long crimson flowers ; and 


C. Batatas is no less valuable in tropical connliies, supplying 
the sweet potato, the roots of which abound in starch and sugar, 
and are a nourishing food. Cusctita (Dodder) is a j arasitic genus, 
with branched, climbing, cord-like stems, no leaves, and globular 
heads of small wax-like flowers. The seeds germinate in the 
ground, and the young plants climb the stems of the adjoining 
plants ; and when they have taken root in them Icse their connec- 
tion with the ground. One British species is very abundant on the 
Furze ; another on Flax, with the seeds of which it is supposed to 
be introduced ; and a third grows on Thistles and Nettles. 

1. Convolvulus (Bindweed). — Cordla trumpet-shaped, with 5 
plaits and 5 very small lobes ; calyx without bracts ; style i ; 
stigmas 2 ; capsule 2-celled, 2-vajved. (Name from the Latin, 
convolvo, to entwine, from the twisting habit of many species.) 

2. Calystegia (Bindweed). — Corolla as in Convolvulus ; calyx 
enclosed within 2 bracts ; style i ; stigmas 2 ; capstde i-celled, 
2-valved. (Name in Greek, denoting a beautiful covering.) 

3. CuscuTA (Dodder). — Calyx 4 to 5-claft ; corolla bell-shaped, 
4 to 5-cleft, with 4-5 scales at the base within. (Name said to be 
derived from the Arabic, Kechout.) 

I. Convolvulus (Bindweed) 

I. C. arvensis (Field Bindweed). — Stem climbing ; leaves arrow- 
shaped, with acute lobes ; flowers 1-3 together ; bracts minute, dis- 
tant from the flower. A common weed in light soil, either trailing 
along the ground among short grass, or climbing wherever it finds 
a support. The flowers are rose-coloured with dark plaits, hand- 
some and fragrant, opening only in sunny weather. — Fl. June, July. 

2. Calystegia [Bindweed) 

1. C. sepitim (Great Bindweed). — Stem climbing ; leaves anow- 
shaped, with abrupt lobes ; flowers solitary on square stalks ; 
bracts large, heart-shaped, close to the flower. The flowers are 
among the largest which this country produces ; while in bud they 
arc entirely enclosed in the large bracts, and when expanded are 
pure white and very handsome. The fruit is not often perfected. 
In bushy places, common ; and a most mischievous weed in gar- 
dens, not only exhausting the soil with its roots, but strangling with 
its twining stems the plants which grow near. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Perennial. 

2. C. Soldanella (Sea Bindweed). — Stem not climbing ; leaves 
fleshy, roundish, or kidney-shaped ; flowers solitary, on 4-sided, 
winged stalks ; bracts large, egg-shaped, close to the flower. A very 


Great Bindweed Sea Biodweed 

id i 


Lesser Bindweed Leaser Dodder 


beautiful species, growing only on the sandy sea-coast, and decora- 
ting the sloping sides of sandhills with its large, pale rose-coloured 
flowers striped with red. The stems are frequently almost entirely 
bulled beneath the sand, and the flowers and leaves merely rise 
above the surface. The flowers, which are nearly as large as those 
of the preceding species, expand in the morning, and in bright 
weather close before night. By some botanists these two plants 
are placed in the genus Convolvulus. — Fl. June to August. Per- 

3. CuscuTA (Dodder) 

1. C. Epithymum (Lesser Dodder). — Stems parasitical, thread-like, 
branched ; flowers in dense, sessile heads ; tube of the corolla longer 
than the calyx ; style longer than the corolla. Parasitic on Heath, 
Thyme, Milk Vetch, Potentilla, and other small plants ; but most 
abundant on Furze, which it often entirely conceals with tangled 
masses of red thread-like stems. The flowers are small, light flesh- 
coloured, and wax-like. Soon after flowering the stems turn dark 
brown, and in winter disappear. — Fl. August, September. Annual, 

2. C. Europaa (Greater Dodder). — Flower-heads ses.sile ; calyx of 
blunt sepals ; corolla longer than the calyx, yellowish, enclosing the 
stamens and styles. Whole plant greenish yellow, or sometimes 
reddish. Parasitic on Thistles, Nettles, etc. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Annual. 

3. C. Epilinum (Flax Dodder). — Reserhbles the last ; flowers 
somewhat larger and less numerous, and, white. Parasitical on 
Flax, to crops of which it is sometimes very destructive. — Fl. July, 
August. Annual. 

4. C. Trifolii (Clover Dodder). — A variety with reddish stems and 
white flowers. Parasitical on Clover, with the seeds of which it is 
supposed to have been introduced. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

Natural Order LV 
BORAGINACE.E.— The Borage Tribe 

Calyx in 5, rarely 4, deep divisions, not falling off ; corolla of 
I petal, 5- or rarely 4-cleft, frequently having valves or teeth at the 
mouth of the corolla tube ; stamens 5, inserted into the coroUa and 
alternate with its lobes ; ovary 4-parted, 4-seeded ; style i, rising 
from the base of the divided ovary ; fruit consisting of 4, rarely 2, 
nut-like, distinct seeds, each enclosed in a pericarp. Herbs, or 
rarely shrubs, with alternate leaves, which are usually covered with 
hairs or bristles rising from a swollen base. This character was 
considered by Linnaeus sufficiently constant to give to the Order 


the name of Asperifolice, or Rough-leaved plants ; but the present 
name of the Order is now preferred as being more comprehensive, 
a few plants in it having perfectly smooth leaves. The Borage 
Tribe are natives principally of the temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere, especially of the warmer parts, and are more 
numerous in the Old than the New World. Most of them bear 
their flowers in spikes or racemes, which are rolled up round the 
terminal flowers as a centre, and expand a few at a time. The pre- 
vailing colour is blue or purple, but many, when first opening, are 
of a reddish hue, which subsequently deepens, so that it is not un- 
usual to see flowers of different tints on the same spike. They 
possess no remarkable properties, but abound in a soft mucilaginous 
juice, which gives a coolness to beverages in which they are steeped, 
on which account Borage is a constant ingredient in the various 
forms of drink known as " cup." The roots of Alkanet and some 
others contain a red substance which is used as a dye. Comfrey 
(Symphytum officinale) is sometimes grown as an esculent vegetable, 
but is little valued except as food for hors'es. The plants of the 
genus Myosotis are popularly known by the n-ame " Forget-me-not." 
The true Forget-me-not is M. Palustris. The fragrant Heliotrope, 
or Cherry-pie, of our gardens belongs to a genus of this Order. 

1. EcHiuM (Viper's Bugloss). — Corolla irregular, with an open 
mouth ; stamens unequal in length. (Name from the Greek, echio, 
a viper, against the bite of which it was formerly considered an 

2. PuLMONARiA (Lungwort). — Calyx tubular, 5-cleft ; corolla 
funnel-shaped, its throat naked ; stamens enclosed within the cor- 
olla. (Name from the Latin, Piilmo, the lungs, which the spotted 
leaves were supposed to resemble.) 

3. LiTHOSPERMUM (Gromwell). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla 
funnel-shaped, its throat naked, or with 5 minute scales ; filaments 
short ; seeds stony. (Name from the Greek, lithos, a stone, and 
sperma, seed, from the hardness of the seeds.) 

4. Mertensia (Smooth GromweU). — C^/y* deeply 5-cleft ; corolla 
funnel-shaped ; filaments long ; seeds somewhat fleshy. (Name in 
honour of M. Mertens, a German botanist.) 

5. SYMrHYTUM (Comfrey). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla bell- 
shaped, closed with 5 awl-shaped scales. |Name from the Greek, 
symphyo, to unite, from its imagined healing qualities.) 

6. BoRAGO (Borage). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla wheel- 
shaped, its throat closed with 5 short, erect, notched scales ; stamens 
forked. (Name, a corruption of corago, from cor, the heart, and ago, 
to bring, from its use in stimulating drinks.) 

7. Lycopsis (Bugloss). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla funnel- 


Hoiind's Tongue 
Viper's Buglosa 

Common Comfrey 
Water Forget-me-not. 


shaped, with a bent tube, its throat closed by prominent blunt 
scales. (Name in Greek signifying a wolf's face, from some fancied 
resemblance between the flower and a wolf's head.) 

8. Anchusa (Alkanet). — Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; corolla funnel- or 
salver-shaped, with a straight tube, its throat closed by prominent 
blunt scales. (Name from the Greek, anchousa, paint, from the use 
of its roots as a dye.) 

9. Myosotis (Scorpion Grass, Forget-me-not). — Calyx 5-cleft ; 
corolla salver-shaped, its lobes blunt, twisted when in bud, and its 
throat nearly closed by blunt scales. (Name in Greek signifying a 
mouse's ear, from the shape of the leaves.) 

10. AsPERUGO (Madwort). — Calyx 5-cleft, with alternate smaller 
teeth ; corolla funnel-shaped, with rounded scales in the throat. 
(Name from the Latin, asper, rough, from the excessive roughness 
of the leaves.) 

11. Cynoglossum (Hound's-tongue). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla fun- 
nel-shaped, with a short tube, its mouth closed by prominent blunt 
scales ; mds flattened, prickly. (Name in Greek, signifying a dog's 
tongue, from the shajie and size of the leaves.) 

I. EcHiUM (Viper's Bugloss) 

I. E. vulgare (Common Viper's Bugloss). — A handsome plant 
1-2 feet high, remarkable for its bristly or almost prickly stems 
and leaves, and numerous curved spikes of flowers, which on their 
first opening are bright reddish colour, turning with age to a 
brilliant blue ; the leaves are narrow, tapering, the root-leaves 
usually withering early. The roots are very long, and descend 
perpendicularly into the loose soil in which the plant usuaUy grows, 
A variety with white flowers is occasionally found. The name 
Bugloss, which is of Greek origin, signifies an ox's tongue, from the 
roughness and shape of the leaves. Walls, old quarries, and gravel 
pits ; not uncommon in the south, but rarer-in the north of England. 
— Fl. June to August. Biennial. 

3. E. plantagineum (Purple Echium). — A more spreading plant 
than E. vulgare, with larger flowers, and the root-leaves not withering 
so early. Found in Jersey and Cornwall. — Fl. June to September. 

2. PUI.MONARIA (LuilgWort) 

I. P. angustifolia (Narrow-leaved Lungwort). — Plant about a 
foot high, with narrow leaves, sometimes faintly spotted ; flowers 
pink, changing to blue. It occurs in Hampshire, Dorsetshire, and 
the Isle of Wight.— Fl. February to June. ~ Perennial. 


2. P. officinalis (Common Lungwort). — Leaves 
broader than in the last, and curiously spotted 
with white ; root-leaves stalked ; stem-haves sessile ; 
flowers purple. Woods and thickets, rare. Often 
an escape from gardens, but said to be only truly 
wild in Hampshire and Dorsetshire. — Fl. April, 
May. Perennial. 

3. LiTHOSPERMuM (Gromwell) 

1. L. officinale (Common Gromwell, or Grey Millet). 
— Distinguished by its erect stems, 2-3 feet high, 
much branched towards the summit, which gener- 
ally grow 5 or 6 from the same root ; oblong leaves 
tapering to a point, bristly above, hairy beneath ; 
by its small yellowish white flowers ; and, above 
all, by its hard, white, highly polished seeds. Dry, 
stony, and bushy places, not unfrequent. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

2. L. arvense (Corn Gromwell). — Stejn branched ; 
leaves narrow, tapering, hairy ; nuts wrinkled ; 
stem about a foot high, branched from the lower 
part, and having rather small whiteflowers, the calyx 

of which lengthens when in fruit, and contains 3 or 4 brown wrinkled 
seeds. Cornfields, common. — Fl. May to J=uly. Annual. 

3. L. purpuro-cceruleum (Purple Gromwell). — A rare species, dis- 
tinguished by its prostrate barren stems, from wlrich arise erect 
flowering stems, bearing rather large purple- 
blue flowers. Shady places on chalky or .iS!^, 
limestone soils, in Wales and the south of 
England. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

4. Mertensia {Smooth Gromwell) 

I. M. maritima (Seaside Smooth Grom- 
well). — The only species. A singular plant, 
the leaves of which are fleshy and covered 
with a glaucous bloom ; they are destitute 
of bristles, but are sprinkled with hard dots, 
which are very evident in dried specimens ; 
the flowers are purplish l)hie, and the plant 
when fresh is said to have the flavour of 
oysters. Sea-shores of North Wales, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. — Fl. May, June. Per- 






Officinale (Common 


5. Symphytum {Comjrey) 

1. S. officinale (Common Comfrey). — A large and handsome plant, 
2-3 feet high, with branched leafy stems, the stem winged in the 
upper part ; the leaves elliptical, pointed, tapering towards the base, 
and running down the stem ; the flowers white, pink, or purple, 
drooping in 2-forked clusters. Often introduced into gardens, from 
which it is very difficult to eradicate it when it has once established 
itself, owing to the brittleness of its fleshy roots, the least bit of 
which will grow. Watery places and banks of rivers, common. — 
Fl. May to August. Perennial. 

2. 5. tuberosum (Tuberous Com- 
frey). — A more slender plant than 
the preceding ; the stem is scarcely 
branched, and but slightly winged ; 
the root is tuberous. North of 
England, very rare, and slightly 
more frequent in Southern Scot- 
land. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

6. BoRAGO {Borage) 

I. B. officinalis (Common Borage). 

— The only British species. The 

stems are 1-2 feet high, and, as well 

as the leaves, are covered with thick 

whitish bristles ; the flowers, which 

are large, deep blue, and very hand- Borago Officinalis 

some, grow in terminal drooping (Common Borage) 

clusters, and may readily be distinguished 
from any other plant in the Order by their 
prominent black anthers. The juice has 
the smell and flavour of cucumber, and is 
an ingredient in claret, cider, and other 
" cups." A variety sometimes occurs with 
white flowers. Not uncommonly naturalized 
in waste ground. — Fl. June to September. 

7. Lycopsis (Bugloss) 

T. L. arvensis (Small Bugloss). — The only 
British species. A branched, prickly plant 
6-18 inches high, with oblong wavy leaves, 
the lower ones stalked, the upper ones sessile 
Lycopsis Arvjinsis or sometimes clasping the stem. The 
{Small Bugloss) flowers, borne in forked clusters, are minute, 



blue, and the tube of the corolla is bent, which distinguishes it 
horn any other British plant of the Order. Waste ground, 
common. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

8. Anchusa (Alkanet) 

1. A. sempervirens (Evergreen Alkanet.) — 
A stout bristly plant, with deep green, egg- 
shaped leaves and short spikes of rather large 
salver-shaped flowers, which are of an intense 
azure-blue. It is not a native, but in Devon- 
shire it is not an uncommon hedge plant. — 
Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. A. officinalts (Common Alkanet).— i^/onycrs 
purple, funnel-shaped, growing in one-sided 
spikes, the segments of the calyx being longer 
than the corolla. It is frequent in gardens, 
from which it is a not uncommon escape, but 
it is extremely rare in a wild state. — Fl. June, 
July. Biennial. 



(Evergreen Alkanet) 

g. Myosotis {Mouse-ear, Scorpion-grass, Forget-me-not) 

I. M. palustris (Forget-me-not). — Calyx covei'ed with straight, 
closely-pressed bristles, open when in fruit ; root creeping. — Watery 
places, common. Few flowers have been more written about than 
the Forget-me-not, yet there is great disagreement among writers 
as to the plant to which the name properly belongs. Some appear 
to have had the Alkanet in view; others, the Speedwell; and 
others, again, some of the smaller species of Myosotis, which last, 
though very like the true Forget-me-not, are inferior in size and 
brilliancy of colour. The real Forget-me-not is an aquatic plant, 
with a long rooting stem, bright-green, roughish leaves, and 
terminal, leafless, one-sided clusters of bright blue flowers, with a 
yellow eye, and a small white ray at the base of each lobe of the 
corolla. The species which is most like it is M. repens (Creeping 
Water Scorpion-grass), which, as its narne implies, has also a 
creeping root ; the hairs of the calyx are closely pressed, as in 
M. palustris, but the calyx is closed when in fruit, and the 
clusters of flowers usually have a few leaves on the stalk. 
M. ccBspitosa (Tufted Water Scorpion-grass) resembles the above, 
but has a fibrous root, and the flowers of both the last are smaller 
than those of M. palustris. All three grow in watery places, 
M. palustris being most common, and flowering from June to 
October ; M. repens least so, and, as well as M. ccBspitosa, not 
flowering so late in the year. Five other and yet smaller species 



are common, but these do not grow in watery places, and are of a 
different habit. 

2. M. arvensis (Field Scorpion-grass).— Calyx covered with 
spreading, hooked bristles, closed when in fruit, divided deeply 
into five narrow segments ; stalks of the fruit spreading. The whole 
plant roughish with spreading bristles ; the stems are from 6-18 
inches high or more ; the flowers blue, small, but very beautiful. 
In cultivated ground, hedges, etc. This is the commonest species 
of all. — Fl. June to August. Annual. 

3. M. collina (Early Field Scorpion-grass). — Calyx covered with 
spreading, hooked bristles, open when in fruit ; cluster with a soli- 
tary flower in the axil of the uppermost leaf. The whole plant 
rarely exceeds 3 inches in length ; the stems usually spread near 
the ground, and terminate in clusters of very minute bright blue 
flowers (never pink or yellow). On its first appearance, in April, 
the flowers are buried among the leaves, but the stems finally 
lengthen into clusters, and as the season advances the whole plant 
dries up and disappears. Dry banks, not uncommon, but fre- 
quently overlooked in consequence of its =minute size. — Fl. Aprfl, 
May. Annual. 

4. M. versicolor (Parti- 
coloured Scorpion-grass), — 
Calyx covered with spread- 
ing, hooked bristles, closed 
when in fruit ; cluster on a 
long, leafless stalk; stalk of 
the fruit erect. A very dis- 
tinct species, 3-6 inches 
high ; the stem is leafy be- 
low, naked above, and ends 
in a cluster of flowers, which 
are singularly coiled up 
when in bud, and when they 
first expand are yellow, 
changing to blue as they 
fade. Fields and banks ; 
common. — Fl. April to Jdne. 









5 . M. sylvatica (Wood For- 
get-me-not). — Hairs of the 
calyx spreading and hooked; calyx deeply cleft into narrow seg- 
ments ; corolla bright blue, and as large as the Water Forget- 
me-not. A rare species, growing in woods in Scotland and the north 
of England. An Alpine form known as M. Alpestris, of dwarf 


stature, and having larger flowers than the last, is found on the 
mountains of Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and Perthshire ; it is ex- 
tremely rare. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

10. AsPERUGO (Madwort) 

I. A. frocumhens (German Madwort). — The only species, occur- 
ring very sparingly in Scotland and the north of England. The 
dsms are prostrate, angular, and thickly set with rigid, curved 
bristles ; the flowers are small, blue, 1-3 in the axils of the upper 
leaves. — Fl. June, July. Annual. 

II. Cynoglossum {Hound' s-tongue) 

1. C. officinale (Common Hound's-tongue). — A stout, herbaceous 
plant 1-2 feet high, with large downy leaves, lurid purple flowers, 
and large flattened seeds, which are covered with barbed prickles, 
and stick to the wool of animals or the clothes of passengers as 
closely as burs. The whole plant has a strong disagreeable smell, 
like that of mice. Waste ground, not uncommon. — Fl. June to 
August. Biennial. 

2. C. montanum (Green Hound's-tongue). — A more slender plant 
than the last, the leaves greener, with a few stiff scattered hairs ; 
the flowers smaller than in C. officinale, reddish, changing to blue. 
Shady places ; of local occurrence in the south and Midlands. — 
Fl. May, June. Biennial. 

Natural Order LVI 

SOLANACEiE.— Nightshade Tribe 

Calyx deeply 5- rarely 4-cleft, inferior ; corolla^- or rarely 4-cleft, 
regular, plaited when in bud ; stamens equalling in number the 
divisions of the corolla and alternate with them ; anthers bursting 
lengthwise, or opening by pores ; ovary 2-celled ; style I ; stigma 
simple ; fruit a 2 or partially 4-celled capsule or berry ; seeds 
numerous. A large and highly important order, containing about 
a thousand species of herbaceous plants or shrubs, which inhabit 
most parts of the world except the coldest, and are most abundant 
within the tropics. The prevailing property of plants belonging 
to the Nightshade Tribe is narcotic, and many are, in consequence, 
highly poisonous ; in others, certain parts of the plant have poison- 
ous properties, the rest being harmless, and some even contain a 
large quantity of nutritious matter. The genus Solanum is a very 
extensive one, comprising as many as six hundred species. First 
among these in importance stands the Potato (5. tuberosum), a 
native of Chili, which was introduced into Spain about 1580, and 


Thoru Apple 




into Ireland by the colonists sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
brought it from Virginia in 1586. It was first planted on Sir Walter 
Raleigh's estate at Youghall. near Cork, and was cultivated for food 
in that country long before its value was known in England. Its 
leaves and berries are narcotic, but its tubers contain no noxious 
matter, abounding in an almost tasteless starch, on which account 
it is less liable to cloy on the palate than any other vegetable food 
except bread. 5. melongena (the Egg-plant), a common greenhouse 
plant, is remarkable for bearing a large berry of the size and colour 
of a pullet's egg. S. ihtlcamara (Nightshade, or Bittersweet), a 
common English plant, with purple and yellow flowers, has narcotic 
leaves and scarlet berries, which possess the same property. S. nigra 
a smaller species, a common weed in England and most other coun- 
tries except the coldest, has white flowers and black berries. It is 
narcotic to a dangerous degree. Atrofa belladonna, a stout herba- 
ceous plant, with dingy, purple, bell-shaped flowers, is the Deadly 
Nightshade, so called from the poisonous nature of every part of 
the plant, especially the berries, which are large, black, and shining, 
and of a very attractive appearance. Its juice possesses the singular 
property of dilating the pupil of the eye, on which account it is 
extensively used by oculists when operations are to be performed, 
and by some ladies, who pei-suade themselves that it adds to their 
beauty, from which latter use it has received its specific name. 
The Mandrake {Mandragora officinalis) was anciently thought to 
possess miraculous properties. It was said to shriek when taken 
from the ground, and to cause the instant death of any one who 
heard its cries. The person who gathered it, therefore, always 
stopped his ears with cotton, or harnessed a dog to the root, who 
in his efforts to escape uprooted tlie plant and instantly fell dead. 
The forked root was then trimmed so as to resemble the human 
form, a berry being left to represent the head. The fruit is eatable. 
Tobacco is the foliage of several species of Nicotiana, a violent poison 
when received into the stomach, though commonly employed in 
other ways without apparent ill effects. Hyoscyamus niger, or Hen- 
bane, is a stout herbaceous plant, with sticky, foetid leaves and 
cream-coloured flowers veined with purple ; it is a powerful narcotic, 
and in skilful hands is scarcely less valuable than opium. Datura 
Stramonium (Thorn-apple) bears large white trumpet-shaped 
flowers and prickly seed-vessels ; it is also a dangerous poison, 
though employed with good effect in several nervous and other 
disorders, especially astlima. Physalis Alkckengi is the Winter 
Cherry, remarkable for beaiing an orange-coloured berry in the 
enlarged calyx of the same hue. An improved form, P. Franchetti, 
is largely grown for the sake of its sprays of large orange calyces, 
which resemble miniature Japanese lanthorns, and are extremely 
decorative. Another species of Physalis, known as the Cape Goose- 
berry, is extensively grown in South Africa for the sake of its fruit, 


which is made into a most luscious jam. The genus CapSiicwn affords 
Cayenne pepper, which is prepared by grinding the dried seed- 
vessels with their contents ; and Tomatoes belong to the genus 

1. SoLANUM (Nightshade).— Co^-oZ/a wheel-shaped, 5-cleft, the 
segments spreading or reflexed ; anthers opening l3y 2 pores at the 
summit ; berry roundish, with 2 or more cells. (Name of doubtful 

2. Atropa (Deadly Nightshade).— CoroiZa bell-shaped, with 5 
equal lobes ; stamens distant ; berry of 2 cells. (Name from 
Atropos, one of the Fates, who was supposed to cut the thread of 
human destiny.) 

3. Hyoscyamus (Henbane). — Corolla funnel-shaped, with 5 un- 
equal lobes ; capsule 2-celled, closed by a lid. (Name in Greek, 
signifying Hog's-bean.) 

I. SoLANUM (Nightshade) 

1. 5. dulcamara (Woody Nightshade, Bittersweet). — Stem 
shrubby, climbing ; leaves heart-shaped, the upper ones eared at 
the base ; flowers drooping. This plant, which is frequently 
though incorrectly called Deadly Nightshade, is well marked by its 
straggling woody stem, which climbs among bushes to the length of 
8 or 10 feet, and by its purple flowers, the yellow anthers of which 
unite in the form of a cone. At the base of each lobe of the corolla 
are two green spots. The flowers grow in drooping, loose tufts, and 
are succeeded by shining scarlet berries, the length of which slightly 
exceeds the breadth. Damp hedges and thickets ; common. — 
n. June, July. Perennial. 

2. 5. nigrum (Black Nightshade).— S/£;m branching, herbaceous, 
a foot or less high ; leaves egg-shaped, wavy at the edge, and 
bluntly toothed ; flowers white, with yellow anthers, in drooping 
umbels ; berries globular, black, or occasionally yellow or dull red. 
Waste ground ; common. — Fl. July to September. Annual or 

2. Atropa (Deadly Nightshade) 

I. A. belladonna (Deadly Nightshade, Dwale). — A stout herba- 
ceous plant 3-4 feet high, with large egg-shaped leaves and solitary, 
drooping, bell-shaped flowers, which grow in the axils of the upper 
leaves, and are of a lurid purple hue. Thaierries are black and as 
large as cherries, which they somewhat resemble in appearance, but 
may be readily distinguished by the calyx at the base. This noxious 
plant, which is the most dangerous growing in Britain, on account 
of its active poisonous properties and the attractive appearance of 
its berries, is fortunately of rare occurrence, growing principally in 

Woody Ni^htbhade 


Black Nightshade 


DeaAly NiKhtshade 


old quarries and among ruins. It is said that rabbits can eat the 
leaves of this plant with impunity to themselves, though they render 
their flesh dangerously poisonous for human food by the indulgence. 
It is said that in a case of poisoning from this plant the best " first 
aids " to administer arc a powerful emetic, a dose of magnesia, and 
the prevention of dozing. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. Hyoscyamus (Henbane) 

I. H. nigev (Common Henbane). — The only British species. An 
erect, brancVied, herbaceous plant 2-3 feet high, with large viscid, 
hairy leaves, and numerous funnel-shaped, cream-coloured flowers 
with purple veins and a dark eye. The flowers are arranged in 
rows along one side of the stem, and are succeeded by 2-celled cap- 
sules, which are enclosed by the calyx and covered by a lid which 
falls off when the seeds are ripe. The whole plant has a disagree- 
able smell, and is dangerously narcotic, especially at the time when 
the seeds are ripening. An extract is used in medicine, and is often 
of great service, producing the effect of opium without the un- 
pleasant symptoms which frequently follow tlie administration of 
that drug. The capsules and seeds of Henbane, smoked like 
tobacco, are a rustic remedy for toothache ; but convulsions and 
temporary insanity are said to be somctmies the consequences of 
their use. Common in waste places, especially near the sea. — 
Fl. Jtme,*July. Annual or biennial. 

Two other genuses are represented in Britain, though neither is 
indigenous if even truly naturalized. They are : — 

Datura Stramonium (Thorn-apple). — A stout, rather handsome 
weed 1-2 feet high, with large leaves angularly lobed and large white 
flowers, standing erect on short stalks in the angles of the stems, 
followed by ovate, spinous capsules. The plant has an offensive 
smell when bruised. Waste ground ; rare.^Fl. June, July. Annual. 

L. barbarum (the Duke of Argyll's Tea-tree). — A straggling shrub 
with smooth, rather fleshy leaves, purple flowers, and small scarlet 
fruits. Cottage gardens, hedges, and waste places, chiefly in the 
eastern counties near the sea, — Fl. June to August. Shrub. 

Natural Order LVII 
OKOBANCHACEtE.— Broom-rape Tribe 

Calyx variously divided, not falling off ; forolla irregular, usually 
2-lipped, imbricated in the bud ; stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short ; 
anthers often pointed or bearded at the base "; ovary in a fleshy disk, 
many-seeded ; style i ; stigma 2-lol)ed ; capsule 2-valved ; seeds 
small, numerous, attached to the valves of the capsule in 2-4 rows. 

A tribe of herbaceous plants, distinguished by a stout succulent 



stem, which is of a pecuhar dingy red hue, bearing no leaves, but 
more or less clothed with taper-pointed scales, which are most 
abundant about the swollen base of the stem. The flowers are large 
for the size of the plant, and in all British species are of nearly the 
same hue as the stem, and arranged in a spike not unlike a head of 
asparagus, with one or more scale-like bracts at the base of each 
flower. All the species are parasitical on the roots of other plants. 
The seeds, it is said, will lie buried for some years in the ground 
without vegetating, until they come in contact with the young roots 
of some plant adapted to their wants, when they immediately 
sprout and seize on the points of the roots, which swell and serve as 
a base to the parasite. There are but two British genera belonging 
to this Order, Orobanche and Latkrcea, of which some attach them- 
selves to particular species ; others infest particular tribes ; and 
others, again, have a wider range of subjects. Several of those be- 
longing to the genus Orobanche are very difficult of discrimination ; 
botanists, indeed, are not agreed as to the number of species, some 
uniting under a common name specimens found growing on various 
plants, others considering a slight variation in structure, joined to 
a difference of situation, enough to constitute a specific distinction. 

I. Orobanche (Broom-rape). — Calyx of 2 lateral sepals, which 
are usually 2-cleft, and often combined in front, with 1-3 bracts at 
the base ; corolla gaping, 4-5 cleft, not falling 
off. (Name from the Greek, orobos,'' a. vetch, 
and ancho, to strangle, from the injurious 
effects produced in the plants to which they 
attach themselves.) 

2. Lathr.ea (Tooth - wort). — Calyx bell- 
shaped, 4-cleft ; corolla gaping, 2-lipped, the 
upper lip arched, entire, not falling off. (Name 
in Greek signifying concealed, from the humble 
growth of the plants among dead leaves.) 

I. Orobanche (Broom-rape) 

Bracts one to each flower 

I. 0. major (Great Broom-rape), — Corolla tu- 
bular, the lower lip in 3 lobes, of which the 
middle one is blunt and longer than the others ; 
stamens smooth below, downy above ; style 
downy. A stout, leafless, club-like plant, much 
swollen at the base, of a reddish-brown hue, 
viscid, and clothed with tapering scales, which 
pass into bracts as they ascend the stem. The 
flowers are of a i)inkish-brown hue, and are 
crowded into a dense spike. The juice is bitter 

Orob.^nche Major 
(Great Broom-rape) 

White Mullein 


Darli Mullein 

Blue Broom-rape 


and astringent, and lias been used medicinally. On the roots of 
F'lrze, Broom, and other plants of the Order LegnminoxcB, frequent. 
— Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. 0. minor (Lesser Broom-rape). — Stamens hairy below, smooth 
above ; style nearly smooth. Under this description are included 
several species, or varieties, which are parasitical severally on 
Clover, Ivy, and Sea Carrot. They all resemble the last in habit, 
but are of smaller size. 

To this group belong 0. caryophyllacea (Clo\-e-scented Broom- 
rape), a species with hairy stamens and a dark purple stigma ; grow- 
ing in Kent, on the roots of Galium Mollugo ; 0. elatior, a rare 
species, parasitical on Centaiirea scabiosa ; and 0. rubra, abundant 
on basaltic rock in Scotland and the north of Ireland, and on mag- 
nesiaii rock at the Lizard Point, Cornwall. This species appears to 
be parasitical on the roots of Wild Thyme. 

Bracts three under each flower 

3. 0. ratnosa (Branched Broom-rape). — Distinguished from the 
preceding by its lighter colour and branched stem. On the roots of 
Hemp, very rare. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

0. ccerulea (Blue Broom-rape). — Distinguished by its 3 bracts and 
its bluish purple hue. A very rare species, found in Norfolk, Hert- 
fordshire, and the Isle of Wight. 

2. Lathr.^ja (Tooth-wort) 

1. L. squamaria (Tooth-wort). — The only British species. The 
stem is branched below the surface of the ground or withered leaves 
among which it grows ; it is of a lightish hue, and thickly clothed 
with tooth-hke scales ; each branch bears a one-sided cluster of 
drooping purplish flowers, with rather broad bracts at the base of 
each. Grows in woods and thickets on the roots of Hazel. — 
Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

Natural Order LVIII 

SCROPHULAR'fACE^.— Fig-wort Tribe 

Calvx 4 to 5-lobed, not lalhng off ; corolla irregular, often 2- 
lipped ; stamens usuaUy 4, 2 long and 2 short (didynamous), some- 
times 2 or 5 ; ovary 2-celled ; style i ; stigma 2-lobed ; capsule 
2-celled, 2 to 4-valved, or opening by pores. A large and important 
Order, containing nearly two thousand species, of which some are 
shrubs, but the greater number are herbaceous, inhabiting aU parts 
of the world, from the arctic regions to the tropics. The general 
character of the species is acrid and bitterish, and some have power- 


ful medicinal properties. The powdered leaves of Foxglove {Digi- 
talis -purpurea) lower the pulse, and, if taken in large doses, are 
poisonous. Euphrasia (Eye-bright), the " Euphrasy " of Milton, 
makes a useful eye-water. Among foreign species, Gratiola is said 
to be the active ingredient in the famous gout medicine, " Eau 
medicinale." Fox-glove, Snapdragon, Mullein, and Toad-flax have 
showy and ornamental flowers ; and several kinds of Speedwell 
(Veronica) are deservedly admired for their small but elegant blue 

Stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short 

1. Digitalis (Foxglove). — Calyx in 5 deep, unequal segments ; 
corolla irregularly bell-shaped, with 4-5 shallow lobes ; capsule egg- 
shaped. (Name from the Latin digitale, the finger of a glove, which 
its flowers resemble.) 

2. Antirrhinum (Snapdragon). — CflZy*- 5-parted ; coraZ/a person- 
ate, swollen at the base (not spurred), its mouth closed by a palate ; 
capsule oblique, opening by pores at the top. (Name in Greek 
signifying opposite the nose, from the mask-like appearance of the 

3. LiNARiA (Toad-flax). — Like Antirrhinum, except that the 
corolla is spurred at the base. (Name from Linum, Flax, which the 
leaves of some species resemble.) 

4. ScROPHULARiA (Fig-wort). — Calyx 5-lobed ; corolla nearly 
globose, with two short lips, the upper 2-lobed, with a small scale 
within, the lower 3-lobed ; capsule opening with 2 valves, the edges 
of which are turned in. (Name from the disease for which the plant 
was formerly thought a specific.) 

5. LiMOSELLA (Mud- wort). — Calyx 5 -cleft ; corolla bell-shaped, 
5-cleft, equal ; capsule globose, 2-valved. (Name from the Latin, 
linius, mud, from the character of the places in which the plant 

6. Melampyrum (Cow-wheat). — Calyx tubvilar, with 4 narrow 
teeth ; corolla gaping, tipper lip flattened vertically, turned back at 
the margin ; lower lip 3-cleft ; capstde oblong, obliquely pointed, 
flattened ; seeds i or 2 in each cell. (Name in Greek signifying 
black wheat, the seeds, when ground and mixed with flour, being 
said to make it black.) 

7. Pedicularis (Red-rattle). — Calyx inflated, its segments some- 
what leafy ; corolla gaping ; upper lip arched, flattened vertically ; 
/ower lip plane, 3-lobed ; capsule flattened, oblique ; seeds angular. 
(Name in allusion to the disease produced in sheep which feed in 
places where it grows.) 

8. Rhinantiius (Yellow-rattle). — Calyx iriflated, 4-toothcd ; cor- 
olla gaping ; upper lip flattened vertically ; lower lip plane, 3- 


Lesser Snapdragon 
Ivy-leaved Liiaaria 


Pale Linaria 

Fig wort 


lobed ; capsule flattened, blunt ; seeds numerous, flat, and bor- 
dered. (Name in Greek signifjdng nose-flower, from its peculiar 

9. Bartsia. — Calyx tubular, 4-cleft ; corolla gaping, with a con- 
tracted throat ; upper lip arched, entire ; lower lip 3-lobed, lobes 
bent back ; capsule flattened, pointed ; seeds numerous, angular. 
(Name in honour of John Bartsch, a Prussian botanist.) 

10. Euphrasia (Eye-bright). — Calyx tubular, 4-cleft ; corolla 
gaping ; upper lip divided ; lower lip in 3 nearly equal lobes ; 
anthers spurred at the base ; capsule flattened, blunt, or notched ; 
seeds numerous, ribbed. (Name from the Greek, Euphrosyne, glad- 
ness, from the valuable properties attributed to it.) 

11. Sibthorpia (Cornish Money-wort). — Calyx in 5 deep, spread- 
ing segments ; corolla wheel-shaped, 5-cleft, nearly regular ; capsule 
nearly round, flattened at the top. (Name in honour of Dr. 
Sibthorp, formerly professor of botany at Oxford.) 

12. MiMULUS (Monkey-flower). — Calyx S-\ohed; corolla 2-lrpped, 
gaping ; seeds numerous. (Name from the Greek, miino, an ape, 
from a supposed resemblance which the flower bears to that fan- 
tastic quadruped.) 

Stamens 2 

13. Veronica (Speedwell). — Corolla wheel-shaped, unequally 4- 
cleft, lower segment the narrowest. {Verotiica is the naiue of a 
saint in the Romish Church, but why given to this plant is unknown.) 

Stamens 5 

14. Verbascum (Mullein). — Calyx 5 -parted ; corolla wheel- 
shaped, 5-cleft, irregular ; stamens hairy. (Name from the Latin, 
barba, a beard, from the shaggy leaves of some species.) 

I. Digitalis {Foxglove) 
I. D. purpurea (Purple Foxglove). — The only British species. A 
stately plant 2-6 feet high, with large wrinkled, somewhat downy 
leaves and a tall stem, bearing a long raceme of numerous purple 
bell-shaped flowers, which droop after expansion. On the inside the 
flowers are beautifully spotted, and occasionally an elegant white 
variety is found. The name Foxglove is a corruption of folk' s-glove ; 
that is, Fairies' gloves. The powdered leaf, though poisonous in 
large doses, is a valuable medicine in cases where it is desired to 
lower the pulse. Common in dry, hilly places and in woods, but 
never on limestone. — Fl. June, July. Biennial. 

2. Anthirrhinum {Snapdragon) 

I. A. majus (Great Snapdragon). — Leaves narrow, tapering; 
spikes many-flowered ; sepals egg-shaped, Wunt, much shorter than 


the corolla. A handsome plant, with numerous leafy stems, each 
of which bears a spike of large, erect, personate flowers of a purple 
hue, sporting to rose colour or white. The garden varieties are in- 
numerable, and range through splendid shades of crimson, pink, 
white, and yellow, not to mention the curiously veined and colour- 
flecked forms. Children derive much aniusement from pinching 
the flowers between the finger and thumb, when the palate opens, 
as if in imitation of the fabulous monster from which it derives its 
name. This plant, though not indigenous, is not uncommonly 
found naturalized in limestone quarries, chalk-pits, and on old walls. 
— Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. A. orontium (Lesser Snapdragon).^ ieatJes very narrow, 
tapering ; spikes few-flowered ; sepals much longer than the corolla. 
Smaller and more slender than the last, seldom above a foot high, 
and at once distinguished by its small flowers which grow in the 
axils of the upper leaves, the petals of which are pink, and the sepals 
long and narrow. Cornfields chiefly in the south ; not uncommon. 
— Fl. July to September. Annual. 

3. LiNARiA (Toad-flax) 

1. L. vulgaris (Yellow Toad-flax). — An erect herbaceous plant 
1-2 feet high, with numerous grass-like leaves of a glaucous hue, 
and dense spikes or clusters of yellow flowers which are shaped like 
those of the Snapdragon, but spurred at the base. A variety is 
sometimes found with a regular, 5-spurred corolla, but it is rare. 
Hedges ; common. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

2. L. elatine (Sharp- pointed Fluellen). — A small prostrate plant, 
with downy stem and downy halbert-shaped leaves ; flowers small, 
solitary, axillary, the upper lip deep purple, the lower yellow, and 
the spur straight. Cornfields ; frequent. — -Fl. July to September. 

3. L. spuria (Round-leaved Toad-flax). ^Resembling the last so 
closely that it might be mistaken for a luxuriant specimen. The 
flowers are the same colour, but larger, and with the spur recurved ; 
and the leaves are always rounded at the base, not halbert-shaped. 
Similar .situations with the last, but less frequent. — Fl. July to 
September. Annual. 

4. L. cymbalaria (Ivy-leaved Toad-flax). — Leaves kidney-shaped, 
5-lobed, smooth ; stem creeping. Not a native species, but quite 
naturahzed, growing freely from seed, and extending widely by help 
of its long, rooting stems. The flowers are small, solitary, and pale 
lilac ; the leaves somewhat fleshy, and of a purple hue on the under 
side. So rapidly does it increase in some places that it has been 
given the name of "Mother of Thousands."' On old garden walls ; 
common. — Fl. nearly all the year round. Perennial. 



Common Speedwell 

Yellow Mimulus 


Geriiiauder Speedwell 



5. L. repens (Pale blue Toad-flax). — A slender, erect plant 1-2 
feet high, with glaucous, very narrow leaves and veined, purplish 
blue flowers growing in spiked clusters. Stony calcareous places, 
rare. — Fl. July to September Perennial. 

6. L. minor (Least Toad-flax). — A small, erect, much-branched 
plant, with narrow viscid, downy leaves and solitary, small lilac 
flowers, with a blunt spur. A cornfield weed, not uncommon. — 
Fl. May to October Annual. 

Several other species occur as weeds in gardens and growing on 
ballast near the sea, but they have no claim to be considered natives. 


1. .9. nodosa (Knotted Fig-wort). — A tall herbaceous plant 3-4 
feet high ; stem square, with the angles blunt ; leaves smooth, heart- 
shaped, tapering to a point ; flowers in repeatedly forked, loose 
panicles, dingy greenish-purple. The plant has a strong, unpleasant 
smell. Damp bushy j^ilaces ; common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. S. aquatica (Water Fig-wort). — Stem 
square, with the angles winged ; leaves 
smooth, heart-shaped, oblong, blunt ; 
flowers in close panicles. Resembling the 
last, but at once distinguished by the 
winged angles of its stems, which, though 
hollow and succulent, are rigid when dead, 
and prove very troublesome to anglers, 
owing to their lines becoming entangled in 
the withered capsules. Sides of streams 
and ditches; common. — Fl. July, August. 

3. S.Scorodonia (Balm-leavedFig-wort). 
— Very like the last, but distinguished by 
its downy, wrinkled leaves ; the stems also 
are not winged. Found only in Corn- 
wall, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 


{Water Fig-wort) 

4. 5. vernalis (Yellow Fig-wort). — Well distinguished by its re- 
markably bright green foliage and yellow flowers. It appears early 
in spring, and is the only species found in Britain which can be 
called ornamental. It is of local occurrence, but not indigenous. 
— Fl. April to June. Perennial. 




{Common Mud-Wort) 

5. LiMOSELLA (Mud-wort) 

I. L. aquatica (Common Mud-wort). — 
The only British species. A small plant, 
throwing up from the roots a number 
of smooth leaves on long stalks, and 
several jniniite, pale rose-coloured or 
white flowers, which are overtopped by 
the leaves. Watery places ; not com- 
mon. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

6. Melampyrum [Cow-wheat) 

1. M. pralense (Common Yellow Cow- 
wheat). — A common plant 6-12 inches high, 
with opposite pairs of straggling branches 
below ; leaves in distant pairs, narrow, 
tapering, smooth ; and long-tubed axillary 
yellow flowers in pairs, all turning one way ; 
corolla four times as long as the calyx ; lower 
lip longer than the upper. Cows are said to 
be fond of it, and according to Linnaeus, the 
best and yellowest butter is made where 
it abounds. The name pratense (growing 
in meadows) is misleachng, as it is practi- 
cally never found in such situations. Woods, 
common. — Fl. June to August. Annual, 

2. M. sylvatic'Uin (Small Cow-wheat). — 
Very like the last, but smaller ; the flowers 
are deeper yellow, the corolla only twice as 
long as the calyx, and the lips are equal. 
Mountainous woods in Scotland and the 
north of England. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

Melampyrum Pratense 
{Common Yellow Cow- 

3. M. arvense (Purple Cow-wheat). — Flowers in oblong spikes; 
corolla-tube pink, throat yellow, and lips red ; flowers almost buried 
among the long bracts, which are of a rosy pink, and very much 
cut and toothed. Cornfields in Norfolk, and a few places in South- 
Eastern England ; rare. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

4. M. cristatum (Crested Cow-wheat). — Plant about a foot high; 
leaves narrow ; flowers in 4-sided spikes ; corolla yellow and purple, 
the floral bracts broad and toothed and of a beautiful pink. Woods 
and thickets in the eastern counties ; rare. — Fl. August, September. 


Red Bartaia 
Eed and White Loueewort 



rellow liattle 

Common Yellow Cow-wheat 



7. Pedicularis (Red-rattle) 

1. P. paliistris (Marsh Red-rattle).— 
An herbaceous plant 12-18 inches high ; 
stem solitary, erect, branched through- 
out, of a purple tinge ; leaves deeply 
cut ; calyx downy, with 2 deeply-cut 
lobes ; floieers large, crimson. It is a 
conspicuous plant in marshes and bogs, 
where it often overtops the surrounding 
herbage with its somewhat handsome 
flowers. Common. — Fl. June to Sep- 
tember. Perennial. 

2. P. sylvatica (Dwarf Red-rattle, 
Louse-wort). — Stems several from the 
same root, prostrate, unbranched ; calyx 
smooth, with 5 unequal, leaf-like lobes. 
Distinguished from the last by its hum- 
bler growth and rose-coloured fiowers 
with smooth calyces. A white variety 
is occasionally found. Damp meadows 
and heathy places ; common. — Fl. June 
to August. Perennial. 

Pedicularis Palustris 
[Marsh Red-rattle) 

8. Rhinanthus [Yellow-rattle) 

I. R. Crista-galli (Cock's-comb, Yellow-rattle). — An erect, some- 
what rigid plant 12-18 inches high, composed of a single stem and 
terminating in a loose spike of yellow flowers. Leaves narrow, 
oblong, tapering to a point, serrated ; flower -bracts egg-shaped, 
deeply serrated ; calyces inflated. " When the fruit is ripe the 
seeds rattle in the husky capsule, and indicate to the Swedish 
peasantry the season for gathering in their hay. In England, Mr. 
Curtis well observes, haymaking begins when the plant is in full 
flower" (Sir W. J. Hooker). In cultivated land; common. — 
Fl. June. Annual. 

A variety, R. major (Large bushy Yellow-rattle), which is of local 
occurrence, bears the flowers in crowded spikes ; it is a larger and 
more branching plant, and at the base of each flower is a yellowish 
bract ending in a fine point. 

9. Bartsia 

I. B. viscosa (Yellow Viscid Bartsia). — An erect plant, from a few 
inches to a foot or rather more high. Leaves narrow, tapering, 
deeply serrated, lower opposite, upper alternate. Somewhat re- 
sembling Yellow-rattle, but at once distinguished by its sohtary 



axillary, not spiked yellow floivers, and by being covered with 
clammy down. Marshes and wet places in the south and south- 
west. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 

2. B. odontites (Red Bartsia). — A muc-h-branched herbaceous 
plant 6-12 inches high, with narrow, tapering, serrated leaves of a 
dingy purplish-green, and numerous one-sided spikes of small pink 
flowers. While flowering the spikes usually drop towards the ends. 
Cornfields ; abundant. — Fl. July to September. Annual. 

3. 73. Alpina (Alpine Bartsia). — An erect plant, approaching 
B. viscosa in habit, 6-8 inches high. Leaves all opposite, ovate, 
crenate ; flowers dull purple in a leafy spike. High mountains in 
Scotland and the north of England ; rare. — Fl. July, August. 

Euphrasia Officinalis 
(Common Eye-bright) 

10. Euphrasia [Eye-hright) 

I. E. officinalis (Common Eye-bright). 
— The only British species. An elegant 
little plant 2-6 inches high, with deeply 
cut leaves and loose, leafy spikes of numer- 
ous white or purplish flowers, variegated 
with yellow. On the mountains and near 
the sea the stem is scarcely branched, 
and the leaves are fleshy ; but in rich soil it 
assumes the habit of a minute shrub. The 
roots are said to be parasitic on grasses. An 
infusion of this plant makes a useful eye- 
water. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

II. SiBTHORPiA {Cornish Money-wort) 

I. 5. Europi^a (Cornish Money-wort). 
An elegant little plant, with slender, 
thread-like stems, which creep along 
the ground in tangled masses ; and 
small, delicate green, downy, orbicu- 
lar, notched leaves on slender stems. 
The flowers very small, pink and 
yellow, on axillary stalks. It is 
found clothing the banks of springs 
and rivulets in most parts of Corn- 
wall, and occasionally met with in 
some of the other southern counties. 
— Fl. June to September. Perennial. 


{Cornish Money-Wort) 


12. MiMULUs (Monkey -flow w) 

I. M. lutcus (Yellow Monkey-flower). — Stems hollow, about a foot 
high, shortly creeping ; leaves ovate, toothed, smooth ; flowers 
large, yellow, often marked inside with reddish spots. A pretty 
plant, with showy yellow flowers. Native £>f North America, and 
not uncommonly found naturalized by streams and in marshy 
meadows. The cultivated garden varieties are often very hand- 
somely spotted and blotched with red-brown. — Fl. June to Sep- 
tember. Perennial. 

13. Veronica [Speedwell) 

1. V. spicata (Spiked Speedwell). — Stems erect, about 6 inches 
high, woody below ; leaves roundish, downy ; flowers in a dense 
spike, bright blue or pale pink ; petals narrow. Chalk downs in 
Suffolk and Cambridge ; rare. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

2. V. saxatilis (Rock Speedwell). — Steins 4-5 inches high, slender, 
woody ; leaves entire, oblong, .small, and tough ; flowers large, 
Ijrilliant blue, in a short panicle ; capsules egg-shaped. Almost the 
entire plant is glabrous. A rare species, found only on one or two 
mountains in Scotland. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

V. fruticulosa (Flesh-coloured Speedwell) is a variety of V. saxa- 
tilis, with small pink flowers, and is extremely rare. 

3. V. Alpina (Alpine Veronica). — A slightly hairy little plant, 
with simple, ascending stems, 2-5 inches high (not woody), bearing 
leaves a little larger than in V. serpyllifolia, and a crowded raceme of 
4 or 5 deep blue flowers with very short styles. A rare species, 
foimd only near the summits of the Highland mountains. — Fl, July, 
August. Perennial. 

4. V. serpyllifolia (Thyme-leaved Veronica). — A small plant, 
with branched, prostrate, or slightly ascending stems ; smooth, egg- 
shaped, or elliptical, slightly notched leaves, nearly sessile, and less 
than half an inch in length. The flowers, which grow in somewhat 
crowded spikes, are small, very light blue, and striped with dark 
blue veins. Capsules inversely heart-shaped, with a long style. 
Waste ground ; common. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

A somewhat downy variety, with rather larger flowers, is found 
high up in the Scotch mountains, and is apt to be taken for a dis- 
tinct species. 

5. V. officinalis (Common Speedwell). — A hairy plant v/ith pros- 
trate stems, rooting at the nodes, varying from 2-6 inches in length ; 
leaves oblong, serrated, astringent, sometimes made into tea ; 
flowers rather small, pale blue, in hairy, axillary spikes or racemes. 
Heaths and dry pastures ; common. — Fl. Maj? to August. Perennial. 


6. V. anagallis (Water Speedwell). ^A smooth, erect plant, 6-18 
inches high, sometimes rather fleshy ; leaves narrow, tapering, ser- 
rated, sessile ; flowers small, pale blue or flesh-coloured, in opposite 
axillary racemes. Streams and ditches, common. — Fl. June to 
August. Perennial. 

7. V. beccabiinga (Brooklime). — A succulent plant about a foot 
high, with elliptical, blunt, slightly seird^tedJeaves, and short axil- 
lary, opposite clusters of small bright blue flowers ; stems rooting 
at the base. Whole plant smooth. Brooks and ditches ; common. 
— Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

8. V. scutellata (Marsh Speedwell). — Smooth, or sometimes 
slightly downy ; leaves linear, slightly toothed ; clusters short, 
alternate ; fruit-stalks bent back ; capsules flat, deeply notched. A 
weak, straggling plant, well distinguished by its very narrow leaves 
and large flat capsules. Flowers pale pink. Marshes ; not un- 
common.^Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

g. V. montana (Mountain Speedwell). — Stem hairy all round ; 
leaves stalked ; clusters few-flowered ; capsule flat, much longer 
than the calyx. Approaching the last in habit, but well distin- 
guished by the above characters and by its smaller light blue 
flowers. Woods ; common. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

TO. V . chamcedrys (Germander Speedwell). — Stems with two 
hairy, opposite lines ; leaves very shortly stalked, deeply serrated, 
hairy ; clusters very long, axillary ; capsule shorter than the 4-cleft 
calyx. A well-known plant, which under the popular names of 
Blue Speedwell and Bird's-eye is a favourite with everyone. No 
one can have walked in the country in sprihg without admiring its 
cheerful bright blue flowers, but few perhaps have remarked the 
singular pair of hairy lines which traverse the whole length of the 
stem, shifting from side to side whenever they arrive at a fresh pair 
of leaves. Hedge banks ; abundant. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

11. V. hederifolia (Ivy-leaved Speedwell). — A common weed, 
with stalked 5 to 7-lobed leaves, and bearing in the axil of each leaf 
a pale blue flower, the stalk of which is bent back when in fruit ; 

, sepals heart-shaped, fringed. The capsule is composed of 2 much- 
swollen lobes, each of which contains 2 large black seeds. Waste 
places ; common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

12. V. agrestis (Field SpeedweU). — A common weed, with several 
branched, prostrate stems and stalked, heart-shaped, deeply serrated 
leaves, the lower ones of which are opposite, the upper alternate, 
and in the axils of each of these is a smalLblue flower on a slender 
pedicle nearly as long as the leaf. The capsule is composed of 2 
swollen, keeled lobes, and each cell contains about 6 seeds. Waste 
places ; very common. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 



V. agrestis varies considerably, especially in the shape of the 
sepals and size and colour of the corolla, and two of the more dis- 
tinct forms have been named. V. polita. — Rounded sepals ; 
corolla large and blue ; leaves small. V. opaca. — Sepals spoon- 
shaped ; seeds few. 

13. V. Buxhaumii (Buxbaum's Speedwell). — Not unlike the last, 
but a stouter plant, with large blue flowers on pedicles longer than 
the leaves ; capsules sharply keeled, twice as broad as long. Culti- 
vated ground ; common. Probably introduced with agricultural 
seeds at some time. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

14. V. arvensis (Wall Speedwell). — A smiall plant, with incon- 
spicuous light blue flowers, which are almost concealed among the 
upper leaves or iracts ; loxoer leaves egg-shaped, heart-shaped at the 
base, crenate, stalked ; upper leaves sessile, longer than the flowers. 
The whole plant is downy, and a great collector of dust. Walls and 
fields ; common. — Fl. April to September. Annual. 

15. V. verna (Vernal Speedwell). — A small plant, 2-3 inches 
high, much resembling the last, but distinguished 

by its leaves being cut into 3-7 pinnatifid lobes. 
Sandy fields in Norfolk and Suffolk. — Fk May to 
July. Annual. 

16. V. triphyllos (Finger - leaved Speedwell). — A 
rare species, distinguished by its 3-7 fingered leaves 
and loose racemes of a few dark blue flowers. Sandy 
places in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Yorkshire. — Fl. April 
to July. Annual. 

14. Verbascum {Mtillein) 

1. V. Thapsus (Great Mullein). — A stout herba- 
ceous plant with a simple or branched stem, 2-5 
feet high, remarkable for its large flannel-like leaves, 
woolly on both sides, running down the stem. The 
flowers are yellow, and borne in dense club-shaped 
spikes. Two of the 5 stamens are longer than the 
rest, and hairy ; the remaining 3 are smooth. This 
plant, together with Foxgloves, is a picturesque 
object if planted broadly in the wilder parts of a 
garden. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

2. V. Blattaria (Moth Mullein). — A tall, some- 
what slender plant, simple or branched, smooth or 
nearly so, with shining, crenate leaves, the lower ones (Great Mullein) 
stalked, often lobed at the base, those half-way up 

the stem sessile, and the upper ones clasping or running down the 
stem ; flowers large and handsome, yellow or sometimes white, in 


loose tufts on a long, interrupted spike. The stamens are covered 
with purple hairs. Banks ; rare, except in the south-west of England, 
where it is not unfrequent. — Fl. July, August. Biennial. 

3. V. virgatum (Primrose-leaved Mullein). — Allied to the pre- 
ceding ; but the lower leaves are downy, and the flowers are on 
shorter stalks. Banks, rare. — Fl. August, -September. Biennial. 

4. V nigrum (Dark Mullein). — A handsome plant 2-3 feet high. 
Leaves slightly downy on both sides, especially below ; lower ones 
oblong, heart-shaped, stalked ; upper ones small and sessile. The 
flowers, in dense tufts on a long, crowed spike, are bright yellow, 
and the stamens are covered with purple hairs. Hedges and road- 
sides, but of local occurrence. — Fl. July to September. Biennial. 

5 V Lychnitis (White Mullein). — Stems 2-3 feet high ; leaves 
smooth above, under sides of leaves and stems covered with powdery 
down ; flowers small, cream-coloured or white ; filaments covered 
with white hairs. Chiefly on chalky soil ; fare. — Fl. July, August. 

6. V . piilverulentimi (Hoary Mullein). — -Stem 2-3 feet high ; 
panicle of smallish yellow flowers, branched ; filaments covered with 
white hairs. Remarkable for the mealy down which clothes both 
sides of the leaves. Found in Norfolk and Suffolk. — Fl. July. 

Natural Order LIX 

LABIATE.— Labiate Tribe 

Calyx tubular, regular, or 2-lipped ; corolla irregular, mostly 
2 lipped {labiate), the lower lip largest and 3-lobed ; stamens 4, 
2 longer than the others, or sometimes wanting ; ovary deeply 
4-lobed ; style i ; stigma 2-cleft ; fruit of 4 seeds, each of which 
is enclosed within a distinct shell or rind. A large and strongly- 
marked Natural Order, comprising some 2500 species of herbs and 
shrubs, which all agree in having square stems, opposite leaves, 
labiate, or 2-lipped flowers, and a 4-lobed ovary with a single style 
arising from the base of the lobes. They are most abundant in 
temperate climates, and are remarkable for not possessing injurious 
properties in any single instance. Many are fragrant and aromatic. 
Patchouli is a favourite perfume, both in its natural state and when 
distilled. Lavender contains a fragrant volatile oil, which is valued 
both for its fragrance, and as a medicine for its stimulant proper- 
ties. Several kinds of mint, as Peppermint and Penny-royal, arc 
much used in medicine. Spear-mint, Basil, Thyme, Marjoram, 
Savory, and Sage, are commonly used as pat-herbs, furnishing both 
agreeable and wholesome condiments. Horehound, Ground-Ivy, 
and Balm are in rural districts popular remedies for chest com- 


plaints. Rosemary is remarkable for its undoubted power of 
encouraging the growth ot the hair, and curing baldness, and is 
the active ingredient in most good pomatums ; an infusion of it 
prevents the hair from uncurling in damp weather ; and it is one 
of the plants used in the preparation of Hungary water and eau de 
Cologne. The admired flavour of Narbonne honey is ascribed to 
the bees feeding on the flowers of this plant, as that of the honey 
of Hymettus is indebted for its flavour to Wild Thyme. Several 
species of Sage (Salvia) are also cultivated for the beauty of their 
flowers. The Japanese plant, Stachys Luherifcra, is grown for the 
sake of its tubers, which are known as Chinese Artichokes, and 
are a most delicate vegetable. 

Stamens 2 

1. Lycopus (Gipsy-wort). — Calyx 5-toothed ; corolla 4-cleft, 
nearly regular. (Name in Greek signifying a Wolf's-foot, from a 
fancied resemblance in the leaves.) 

2. Salvia (Sage). — Calyx 2-lipped ; corolla gaping ; filaments 
forked. (Name in the Latin, salveo, to be well, from the healing 
properties of the genus.) 

Stamens 4 
Corolla nearly regular, its tube scarcely longer than the calyx. 

3. Mentha (Mint). — Calyx equal, 5-toothed ; corolla 4-cleft, 
with a very short tube. (Name, the Latin name of the plant.) 

Corolla 2-lipped, lips nearly equal in length 

4. Thymus (Thyme). — Calyx 2-lipped, 10- to 13-ribbed, the throat 
hairy : corolla with the upper lip notched, the lower 3-cleft ; flowers 
in heads or whorls. (Name, the Latin name of the plant.) 

5. Origanum (Marjoram). — Calyx 5-toothed, 10- to 13-ribbed, 
the throat hairy ; flowers in spikes, which are imbricated with 
bracts. (Name from the Greek, oros, a mountain, and ganos, joy, 
from the favourite station of the family.) 

Corolla with the upper lip very short, or wanting 

6. AjUGA (Bugle). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla with a long tube, the 
upper lip very short, lower 3-cleft. (Name said to be corrupted 
from the Latin, abiga, an allied plant.) 

7. Teucrium (Germander). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla with the 
upper lip deeply 2-cleft, lower 3-cleft. (Name from Teucer, who 
is said to have been the first to use it in medicine.) 


Corolla 2,-lipped, lips unequal ; calyx ^-toothed ; stamens 
longer than the tuie of the corolla 

8. Ballota (Black Horehound). — Calyx funnel-shaped, with 
5 sharp equal teeth ; corolla with the upper lip erect, concave ; 
lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest, heart-shaped ; two front 
stamens the longest. (Name in Greek signifying rejected, from the 
offensive smell of the plant.) 

9. Leonurus (Motherwort). — Calyx with 5 prickly teeth ; corolla 
with the upper lip nearly flat, very hairy above ; anthers sprinkled 
with hard, shining dots ; two front stamens the longest. (Name 
in Greek signifying a Lion's tail, from some fancied resemblance in 
the plant.) 

10. Galeopsis (Hemp Nettle). — Calyx bell-shaped, with 5 prickly 
teeth ; corolla with an inflated throat ; upper lip arched, lower 
3-lobed, with 2 teeth on its upper side ; two front stamens the 
longest. (Name in Greek denoting that the flower bears some 
resemblance to a weasel.) 

11. Lamium (Dead-nettle). — Calyx bell-s"haped or tubular, with 
5 teeth ; corolla with an arched upper lip, and 3-lobed lower lip ; 
two front stamens the longest. (Name from the Greek, laimos, 
a throat, from the shape of the corolla tube.) 

12. Stachys (Woundwort). — Calyx with 5 or 10 ribs, and 5 equal 
teeth ; tube of the corolla as long or longer than the calyx ; upper 
lip arched, lower 3-lobed, the side lobes bent back before withering ; 
two front stamens the longest. (Name in Greek signifying a hunch, 
from the mode of flowering.) 

13. Nepeta (Cat-mint). — Calyx tubular, oblique, 5-toothed ; 
tube of the corolla longer than the calyx ; upper lip flat, notched, 
lower 3-lobed, two front stamens the shortest. (Name of doubtful 

Corolla 2-lipped, lips unequal ; calyx 5 to 10-toothed ; 
stamens shorter than the tube of the corolla 

14. Marrubium (White Horehound). — Calyx with 5 or 10 teeth, 
the throat hairy ; tube of the corolla longer than the calyx ; upper 
lip straight, very narrow, deeply 2-cleft, lower 3-lobed. (Name of 
doubtful origin.) 

Corolla 2-lipped, the lips unequal • calyx 2-lipped 

15. Calamintha (Calamint, Wild Basil, Basil Thyme). — Calyx 
13-nerved, tubular, swollen underneath ; upper lip 3-cleft ; lower 
2-cleft, throat mostly hairy ; tube of the corolla straight ; upper 
hp nearly plane, lower spreading, 3-cleft. (Name, the Greek name 
of some allied plant.) 


16. Melittis (Wild Balm). — Calyx bell-shaped, much wider than 
the tube of the corolla, variously lobed ; upper lip of the corolla 
nearly flat, entire, lower with 3 rounded, nearly equal lobes. (Name 
from the Greek, melitta, a bee, from the quantity of honey contained 
in the tube.) 

17. Prunella (Self-heal). — Calyx flattened, and closed when 
in fruit ; filaments 2-forked. (Name from a German word for the 
quinsy, for which complaint it was considered a specific.) 

18. Scutellaria (Skull-cap). — Upper lip of the calyx bulged 
outward about the middle, and finally closing down like a lid over 
the fruit ; tube of the corolla much larger than the calyx. (Name 
from the Latin, scutella, a little cup, which the calyx somewhat 

I. Lycopus (Gipsy-wort) 

I. L. EuropcBus (Common Gipsy-wort). — An aquatic plant, with 
erect, scarcely branched stems, 2 feet high, deeply cut lanceolate 
leaves, and small, pale flesh-coloured flowers, growing in crowded 
whorls in the axils of the upper leaves. The only British species. 
On the banks of rivers and ditches ; frequent. — Fl. July, August. 

L. EuROP.«us 
{Common Gipsy-wori) 

Salvia Verbenaca 
[Wild Sage) 

2. Salvia (Sage) 

I. 5. verbenaca (Clary, or Wild Sage). — An aromatic, herbaceous 
plant, 1-2 feet high, with oblong, blunt leaves, heart-shaped at the 



base, wavy at the edge and crcnate ; it is rendered conspicuous by 
its long spikes of purple-blue floivers, the calyces of which are much 
larger than the corolla. At the base of each flower are 2 heart- 
shaped, fringed, acute brads. Dry pastures, especially near the 
sea, or on a chalky soil. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. 5. pratensis (Meadow Clary). — This is not considered a native, 
but occurs in Kent, Cornwall, and Oxford. It is distinguished by 
its handsome spikes of blue flowers ; the corolla twice as long as 
the calyx. Dry pastures ; rare. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. Mentha (Mint) 

1. M. sylvestris (Horse Mint). — A strong-scented plant, usually 
growing in masses 1-2 feet high, with egg-shaped leaves tapering to 
a point, serrated, downy, and very white with down beneath ; and 
dense, rather slender spikes of lilac flowers, which are often inter- 
rupted below ; bracts awl-shaped. A doubtful native ; damp 
waste ground, more frequent in the south than the north of Eng- 
land. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 

2. M. rotundifoUa (Round-leaved Mint). — Leaves sessile, broadly 
elliptical, blunt, much wrinkled, nearly smooth above, shaggy 
beneath ; flowers, pale lilac or white, in dense cylindrical spikes. 
The spikes of this species are more slender than in the last, the 
stem is somewhat woody, and the leaves are much wrinkled and 
remarkably blunt ; the scent is strong and aromatic, but scarcely 
agreeable. Waste ground ; not common. — Fl. August, September. 


3. M.hirsuta (Hairy Mint). — The com- 
monest of the mints, 1-4 feet high, grow- 
ing in extensive masses in wet places, and 
well - distinguished by its stalked egg- 
shaped, serrated leaves, which are downy 
on both sides, and whorls of lilac flowers, 
which, towards the summit of the stem, 
are crowded into heads ; hairy ; the 
scent is strong and unpleasant. A very 
variable plant. Banks of rivers and 
marshes ; abundant. — Fl. August, Sep- 
tember. Perennial, 

4. M. arvensis (Corn Mint). — A branched 
downy plant, 6-12 inches high, with 
stalked, egg-shaped, serrated, hairy leaves, 
and distant whorls of small lilac 'flowers ; 
calyx bell-shaped., The plant has a strong 

Mentha Hiksuta unpleasant smell. Cornfields ; common. 

{Hairy Mint) — Fl. August,September. Perennial. 

Ground Ivy 
Water Miut 


(Joinmon Marjoram 

Wild Basil 
Greater Skull-cap 



5. M. palcgium (Penny-royal). — Stem prostrate ; leaves egg- 
shaped, nearly smooth ; flowers in distant whorls ; calyx downy, 
its mouth closed with hairs. The smallest of the family, and very 
different in habit from any of the others ; the stems are prostrate, 
the flowers purple, and the whole plant of an agreeable perfume 
and flavour. It is commonly cultivated in cottage gardens for 
the sake of being made into tea, which is a favourite remedy for 
colds. Wet, heathy places ; not comrhon. — Fl. July, August. 

Several other species and varieties of Mint are described by 
botanists, some of which are scarcely distinct from the preceding ; 
others, such as Pepper-Mint, Spear-Mint, and Bergamot-Mint, are 
not really wild, but have escaped from cultivation. 

^^^■'■*^>^ 4. Thymus {Thyme) 

I. T. serpyUnm (Wild Thyme). — The 
only British species. A well known and 
favourite little plant, with much-branched, 
almost woody stems, small fringed leaves, 
and numerous heads of purple [lowers. The 
whole plant diffuses a fragrant, aromatic 
perfume, which, especially in hot weather, 
is perceptible at some distance. Dry, 
heathy places ; common. Besides the com- 
mon type, which has terminal heads of 
flowers borne on stems ascending from 
the prostrate ones, a very distinct form is 
found, known as T. chamcedrys, having 
axillary flower hea:ds, and ascending stems 
springing from the root. — Fl. June to 
August. Perennial. 

Thymus Serpyllum 
(Wild Thyme) 

5. Origanum (Marjoram) 

I. 0. vulgare (Common Marjoram), — The only British species. 
Growing 1-2 feet high, and distinguished by its egg-shaped, downy 
leaves, and heads of purple flowers, which are crowded mto the form 
of a cyme. The bracts are longer than the flowers, and tinged with 
the same colour, both being, while the plant is in bud, of a deep 
red hue. The whole plant is fragrant and aromatic, and is fre- 
quently cultivated as a pot-herb. Dry bushy places, especially on 
Chalk or limestone ; frequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

6. AjUGA [Bugle) 

I. A. reptans (Common Bugle). — Stem erect, with creeping scions 
at the base ; lower leaves stalked, upper sessile ; flowers whorled, 



crowded into a spike. Well marked by its solitary tapering flower- 
stalk, 4-9 inches high, and creeping scions. The flowers are blue, 
and the upper bract-like leaves tinged with the same colour. White 
and flesh-coloured varieties are occasionally found. Moist meadows 
and woods ; conuuon. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

2. A. chamcepitys (Yellow Bugle, Ground Pine). — A tufted, 
much-branched plant, 4-6 inches high, with reddish-purple, viscid 
stems, and hairy leaves, divided into three narrow lobes, the outer 
ones sometimes again divided. The flowers are yellow, spotted with 
red, in axillary pairs. Its habit is very different from that of the 
preceding. Sandy fields in Kent, Essex, and Surrey. — Fl. May, 
June. — Perennial. 

3. A. pyramidalis (Pyramidal Bugle). — A rare Highland species, 
distinguished from Common Bugle by being without scions, and 
by bearing its whorls of flowers crowded= into 4-sided spikes. — 
Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

7. Teucrium {Germander) 

1. T. scorodonia (Wood-Germander, Wood-sage). — Root-stock 
creeping ; stem erect ; leaves heart-shaped, oblong, stalked, wrinkled ; 
flowers in i-sided, spike-like clusters. A common woodland plant, 
2 feet high, with sage-like leaves, and several one-sided clusters of 
srnall greenish-yellow flowers. The whole plant is very bitter, and 
has been used as a substitute for hops. Woods and hedges ; 
common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. T. scordiwn (Water Germander). — A rare species, growing in 
marshy ])laces. It is only a few inches high, has creeping scions, 
and bears its flowers, which are purplish red, in distant whorls. 
This plant was formerly employed in medicine as a tonic and a 
protection against infectious diseases ; now, however, it is scarcely 
used, except by rustic practitioners. Wet, marshy places ; rare. 
• — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. T. chamcedrys (WaU Germander). — Another rare species; 
stem scarcely branched, woody below, 6-8 inches high ; flowers 
purple, with dark lines, large and handsome, growing in whorls of 
2-6 ; leaves ovate, toothed, hairy. Found in a few places as a 
garden escape on old walls. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

4. T. hotrys (Cut-leaved Germander). — A rare species, with stems 
4-9 inches high ; with stalked leaves, ovate in outline, deeply 
divided into narrow lobes, and downy ; floiccrs j)ink, in axillary 
whorls of 4-6. Found in Surrey ; very rare. — Fl. August. Annual, 

Marsli Woundwort 
Hedge Woundwort 


Red Hemp nettle 

Black Hure>)«iuiid 



S. Ballota [Black Horehoiind) 

I, B. Nigra (Black Horehound). — The only British species. A 
coarse, bushy plant, 2-3 feet high, erect and branching, with ovate 
or heart-shaped, downy, wrinkled, and crenate leaves, and numerous 
one-sided clusters or whorls of purple flowers. The odour of the 
whole plant is peculiarly strong and 
offensive. Waste ground ; common. 
— Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

9. Leonurus (Motherwort) 

I. L. cardiaca (Common Motherwort) 
— The only British species. Distin- 
guished from all other British plants of 
the Order by its leaves, which are deeply 
cut into 5 or 3 narrow, pointed segments, 
and by the prickly calyx-teeth of its 
flowers, which grow in whorls. When 
not in flower it resembles Mugwort 
(Artemisia vulgaris) in habit. The 
stems are 2-3 feet high, branched, prin- 
cipally below ; the upper leaves are 
very narrow and entire ; the flowers 
light purple. Hedges and waste places ; 
not common, and perhaps not indigen- 
ous. — Fl. August. Perennial. 

Leonurus Cardiaca 
[Common Motherwort) 

Galeopsis Tetrahit 
[Common Hemp-nettle) 

10. Galeopsis [Hemp-nettle) 

1. G. tetrahit (Common Hemp-nettle), — 
An erect, slender plant, 2 feet high, with a 
bristly stem, swollen below the joints, 
opposite, spreading branches, and bristly, 
serrated leaves. The flowers, which are 
variegated with light purple and yellow, or 
sometimes white, grow in whorls in the 
axils of the upper leaves, and are rendered 
conspicuous by the long sharp calyx-teeth. 
Cornfields ; common. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Annual. 

G. versicolor is a variety of G. tetrahit, 
which it resembles in general character ; 
the flowers are large, yellow, with usually 
a broad purple sp'ot upon the lower lip. 
In both the variety and the type the size 
of the flowers varies a good deal. 


2. G. ladanum (Red Hemp-nettle). — Stem and leaves downy 
with soft hair ; stem not swollen below the joints. Resembling 
the last, but only about 8 or 9 inches high. The flowers are purple, 
mottled with crimson. Gravelly and sandy fields ; not uncommon. 
— Fl. August, September. Annual. 

3. G. ochroleuca (Downy Hemp-nettle). — Resembles G. Ladanum, 
but more downy. The flowers are larger and pale yellow. Culti- 
vated fields ; rare. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

II. Lamium (Dead-nettle) 

I. L. album (White Dead-nettle). — Leaves heart-shaped, taper- 
ing to a point, serrated, stalked. A common, but not inelegant 
weed, well marked by its large pure white flowers and black stamens. 
So closely does the foliage of this plant resemble that of the Stinging 
Nettle that many persons are afraid to handle it, supposing it to 
be a Nettle in flower. The flowers of the latter, however, are green, 
and so small that they would be passed unnoticed but for their 
growing in spiked panicles near the summit of the stem. The 
square stem of the Dead-nettle is enough to distinguish it at any 
stage of its growth. Hedges and waste ground ; abundant. — 
Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 

2. L. purpureum (Red Dead-nettle). — Leaves 
heart- or kidney-shaped, blunt, crenate, the lower 
ones on long, the upper on short stalks. A com- 
mon weed of spreading habit, distinguished by 
the purple tinge of its foliage, crowded upper 
leaves, and small purple flowers. A variety with 
deeply cut leaves is occasionally found, and is 
known as L. incisum (Cut-leaved Dead-nettle). 
Cultivated ground and by waysides ; common. 
■ — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

Lamium PuruREUM 3- ^- maculatum (Spotted Dead-nettle). — Very 

(Purple Dead-nettle) nearly allied to L. Album-, but distinguished by 

its leaves each having a white blotch, and by 

its large purple flowers. A somewhat uncommon garden escape. 

— Fl. summer. Perennial. 

4. L. amplexicaule (Henbit-nettle). — From a few inches to a foot 
high, and of low, branching habit. Leaves round and deeply cut, 
lower ones on long stalks, floral ones sessile. The flowers, which are 
of a purplish red, are borne in from 1-3 whorls. A common weed. 
— Fl. almost all the year round. Perennial. 

5. L. Galeobdolon (Yellow Dead-nettle, Archangel, Weasel-snout). 
— Resembling in habit the common White Dead-nettle, but rather 
taUer ; the leaves are narrow and more pointed, and the flowers, 



White dead-nettle Wood Sage 

Bed dead-nettle Common Bugle Archangel 



which grow in close whorls and are large and handsome, are yellow 
blotched with red. Damp woods and hedges ; not uncommon. — 
Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

Stachvs Betonica 
(Wood Betony) 

12. Stachys [Wound-woyt) 

1. S. Betonica (Wood Betony). — A common 
and very pretty woodland plant, about 2 feet 
high, bearing an interrupted head or spike of light 
purple flowers, on a long and slender stem. There 
are always 2 or 3 pairs of oblong crenate sessile 
leaves beneath the divisions of the spike ; tlie 
lower leaves are all stalked. Whole plant softly 
hairy. Woods and hedges ; common. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

2. S. sylvatica (Hedge Wound -wort). — A 
branched, hairy plant, 2-4 feet high, with spikes 
of dull purple flowers arranged in whorls of 6-10. 
Stem erect ; leaves heart-shaped, crenate, stalked. 
When in seed the calyx-teeth are rigid. The plant 
has a strong, unpleasant smell. Woods and 
hedges; common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. S. palustris (Marsh Wound-wort). ^Much hke the leist, but 
distinguished by its taller and stouter stem, softer hairs, narrower 
tapering leaves, heart-shaped at the base, and more crowded spikes 
of light purple flowers, 6-8 in a whorl. The smell is less offensive. 
Marshes ; common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. The form 
5. amhigua, which is distinguished by having broader leaves, on 
longer stalks, is said to be a hybrid. It is of local occurrence. 

4. S. aywwMS (Corn Wound- wort). — FZowijys 2-6 in a whorl ; stem 
spreading ; leaves heart-shaped, obtuse ; corolla scarcely longer 
than the calyx. A small plant, 6-8 inches high, occurring abun- 
dantly as a weed in cultivated land ; distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by its smaller size, and from the other labiate flowers which 
grow in similar situations, by its whorls of light purple flower. 
Common as a weed of cultivation. — Fl. July to September. Annual. 

5. S. Germanica (Downy Wound-wort). — Stem erect, branching, 
1-3 feet high ; leaves tapering, heart-shaped at the base, short- 
stalked ; whole plant remarkable for being covered with soft, silky 
hairs ; flowers in spikes of crowded whorls. It is found on chalky 
soil in Oxfordshire, Bedfordshire, and Berkshire, but is a doubtful 
native. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 




13. Nepeta (Cat-mini) 

1. A^. catana (Cat-mint). — Stem erect, 
branched, 2-3 feet high, white with mealy 
down ; leaves whitish beneath ; the flowers, 
which are small and whitish or bluish, dotted 
with crimson, grow in dense whorls, which to- 
wards the summit of the stem are so close as 
almost to form a spike. The whole plant has 
a strong aromatic odour, resembling Penny- 
royal, and peculiarly grateful to cats, whence 
it derives its name. Hedges and waste ground ; 
not common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. A', glechoma (Ground Ivy). — Stem trail- 
ing ; flowers 3 or 4 together, axillary. A 
favourite spring flower, with creeping stems, 
kidney-shaped, crenate, roughish leaves, and 
bright purple-blue flowers, which mostly grow 
in threes in the axils of the leaves. The whole 
plant has a strong aromatic odour, which, 
though scarcely fragrant, is far from being 
disagreeable. In rural districts the leaves 
are often dried and made into tea. Described 
by some botanists under the name of Glechoma 
hederacea. Hedges and waste ground ; abun- 

Fl. April to June. Perennial. 

Nepeta Catarta 

14. Marrubtum {White Horehound) 

I. M. vulgar e (White Horehound). — The 
only British species. Well distinguished by 
its bushy stems, 1-2 feet high, which are 
covered with woolly down, by its wrinkled 
leaves, and its dense whorls of small white 
flowers, of which the calyx-teeth are sharp and 
hooked. The whole plant is aromatic and 
bitter, and is a common remedy for coughs. 
Waste ground ; not common. — Fl. August. 

15. Calamintha 

(Calamint, Basil Thyme, Wild Basil) 

I. C. vulgaris (Basil Thyme). — Stem as- 
cending, branched ; leaves oblong, on short 
stalks, serrated, acute. A small bushy herb, Marrubium Vulgare 
6-8 inches Irigh, with hairy, egg-shaped leaves (White Horehound) 







and purple flowers, which grow in whorls ^as well as 
at the summit of the stem. The calyx is distinctly 
2-lipped, the lower lip bulged at the base. Dry 
gravelly places ; not common. — Fl. July, August. 

2. C. officinalis (Common Calamint). — Leaves 
stalked, egg-shaped, slightly serrated ; flowers stalked, 
in forked axillary cymes. An erect, bushy plant, with 
downy stems and foliage, and numerous light purple 
flowers, which have small pointed l)racts in the forks 
of their stalks. The whole plant has a sweet aro- 
matic flavour, and makes a pleasant tea. Waysides 
and hedges ; not uncommon. — Fl. July, August. 

3. C. clinopodimn (Wild Basil). — Calyx scarcely 
bulged at the base ; leaves egg - shaped, stalked ; 
flowers in crowded compound whorls. A straggling, 
hairy plant, 1-3 feet high, with egg-shaped leaves, several bristly 
whorls of stalked purple flowers, and numerous long, pointed bracts. 

Aromatic and fragrant. Bushy places ; 
frequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

16. Melittis {Wild Balm) 

I. M. melissophyUmn (Wild Balm). — 

^f^^/ The only British species. A very hand- 

/ — ''^^^^^M^K^^P^ some plant, 12-18 inches high, with 

^j^^^^'Smu^^^ large heart-shaped, hairy, serrated leaves 

and conspicuous white flowers blotched 
with bright rose-colour. The foliage 
while fresh has ah offensive smell, but in 
drying acquires the flavour of new hay 
or Woodruff. Woods in the south and 
west of England. — Fl. June, July. 
Melittis Mf-lissophyllum Perennial. 
(Wild Balm) 

17. Prunella {Self-heal) 

I. P. vulgaris (Self-heal). — The only 
British species. Well distinguished by its 
flattened calyx and whorls of purplish blue 
flowers, which are collected into a head, 
having a pair of leaves at the base and two 
taper-pointed bracts beneath each whorl. 
The stems are creeping, and the erect flower- 
ing stems from 3-9 inches high. Pastures 
and dry ground ; very common. — Fl. July, 



Prunella Vulgaris 


i8. Scutellaria (Skull-cap) 

1. S. galericidata (Greater Skull-cap). — Leaves oblong, tapering, 
heart-shaped at the base, notched; fivwers in pairs, axillary. 
A handsome plant, 12-18 inches high, with rather large 
bright blue flowers, the tube of which is much longer 
than the calyx. Soon after the corolla has fallen off, 
the upper lip of the calyx closes on the lower, and gives 
it the appearance of a capsule with a lid ; when the 
seed is ripe it opens again. Banks of rivers and ponds ; 
frequent. — Fl. July to September, Perennial, 

2. S. minor (Lesser Skull-cap). — A small bushy herb, 

4-6 inches high, with egg-shaped leaves, of which the lower 

ones are often toothed at the base ; the flowers are small, 

of a dull purple colour ; the calyx is the same as in the last. 

It grows in bogs, but is not common, except in the west of Scutellaria 

neland. ,, 

o {Lesser 

Natural Order LX Shuii-cap) 

VERBENACE^,— Vervain Tribe 

Calyx tubular, not falling off ; corolla irregular, with a long tube ; 
stamens 4 ; 2 longer than the others, rarely 2 only ; ovary 2- or 4- 
celled ; style i ; stigma 2-cleft ; seeds 2 or 4, adhering to one 
another. A tribe of plants closely allied to the Labiatm, com- 
prising trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, having opposite leaves 
and irregular flowers, which usually grow in spikes or heads. Many 
are aromatic and fragrant, and some few are employed as medi- 
cines, but are not highly valued. Great virtues were, in ancient 
times, attributed to the common Vervain, insomuch that it was 
accounted an holy plant, and was used to sweep the tables and 
altars of the gods. It is now little thought of. Aloysia citriodura, 
formerly called Verbena triphylla, is the Lemon-plant, or Lemon 
Verbena of gardens, well known for the delicious fragrance of its 
rough, narrow leaves. Many varieties of Verbena are also culti- 
vated for the sake of their ornamental flowers, which for brilliancy 
of colouring are scarcely surpassed. But by far the most remark- 
able plant of this Order is the Teak- tree (tectoria grandis), which 
inhabits the mountainous parts of Eastern Asia. The trunk of this 
tree sometimes attains the height of two hundred feet, and its 
leaves are twenty inches long by sixteen broad. The timber some- 
what resembles mahogany in colour, but is lighter and stronger. 
For ship-building it rivals Oak. 

I, Verbena (Vervain). — Calyx 5-cleft ; corolla unequally 5-cleft ; 
stamens shorter than the tube of the corolla. (Name, the Latin name 
of the plant.) 


I. Verbena {Vervain) 

I. V. officinalis (Common Vervain). — The only British species. 
A slender plant 1-2 feet liigh, with l)ut= few leaves, which are 
roughish, 3-cleft, or simply cut. The flowers, whicli are very small, 
are lilac, and grow in terminal, very slender spikes. Waste ground ; 
common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXI 

LENTIBULARIACE^.— ButtiIrwort Tribe 

Calyx divided, not falling off ; corolla irregular, 2-lipped ; slamens 
2, sometimes 4, 2 long and 2 short ; ovary i-celled ; style I, very 
short ; stigma 2dii)ped, the lower lip smallest ; capsule i-celled, 
2-valved, many-seeded. Herbaceous aquatic plants, bearing either 
undivided leaves, which spring directly from the root, or compound 
root-like leaves, with numerous small bladders or air-vessels. There 
are but four genera in the Order, two of which contain British 
examples — Butterwort (Pingiiicula), small plants with handsome 
purple flowers and concave leaves, of a texture which resembles 
greasy parchment; and Bladderwort (Ufrictdaria), submersed 
plants with finely divided leaves,, bearing minute bladders and 
yellow flowers, which rise above the surface of the water to open. 
Both Butterwort and Bladderwort are carnivorous, in that small 
insects become caught by sticking to the greasy leaves of the former, 
and minute water insects, entering the bladders of Utricularia by 
trap) doors, with which they are furnished, likewise become prisoners. 

" Pinguicula vulgaris (Common Butterwort) has the property of 
giving consistence to milk, and of preventing its separating into 
either whey or cream. Linnaeus says that the solid milk of the Lap- 
landers is prepared by pouring it, warm from the cow, over a 
strainer on which fresh leaves of Pinguicula have been laid. The 
milk, after passing among them, is left for a day or two to stand, 
until it begins to turn sour ; it throws up no cream, but becomes 
compact and tenacious, and most delicious in taste. It is not 
necessary that fresh leaves should be used after the milk is once 
turned ; on the contrarj', a small portion of this solid milk will act 
upon that which is fresh, in the manner of 37east " (Lindley). 

1. Pinguicula (Butterwort), — Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 3-cleft, 
lower 2-cleft ; corolla gaping, spurred. (Name from the Latin, 
pinguis, fat, the leaves Iseing greasy to the touch.) 

2. Utricularia (Bladderwort). — Calyx of 2 equal sepals ; corolla 
personate, spurred. (Name from the Latin, Utriculus, a little 
bladder, from the little air-bladders which grow among the leaves.) 



I. PiNGUicuLA (Butterwort) 

I. P. vulgaris (Common Butterwort).— S/)«f tapering ; segments 

of the corolla very unequal, entire. A singular and very beautiful 

plant. The leaves, which spring all from the roots, have the edges 

rolled in ; they are of a peculiar yellowish-green hue, and have a 

\r. frosted appearance. The flowers are large, purple, 
(w very handsome, and grow in a nodding manner, each 
' on the summit of a delicate stem, 3-4 inches high, 
which springs directly from the root. The root is 
fibrous, and has a very loose hold on the soft ground 
in which it grows. Bogs and heaths, principally in 
the north. — Fl. June. Perennial. A variety known 
as P. grandiflora has larger flowers, and is distinguished 
by having the middle segment and spitr of the corolla 
notched. It is found in the counties of Cork and 
Kerry in Ireland. 

2. P. Ltisiianica (Pale Butterwort). — Spur cylin- 
drical, obtuse, curved downwards ; segments of the 
corolla nearly equal ; leaves and flower-stalks covered 
with short hairs. Of the same habit as P. vulgaris, but 
much smaller. The leaves arc greenish-white and 
PiNuuicuLA veined; the flowers of a pale lilac, with a yellow throat. 
LusiTANicA Bogs in the western parts of England, in the west of 
(Pale Scotland, and in Ireland. — Fl. July to September. 
Butterwort) Perennial. 

3. P.Alpma{Alpme Butterwort). — Smaller 
than the last ; the flower-stalks are smooth, 
and the flowers small and yellowish. Very 
rare, and found only in bogs in Ross-shire 
and Skye. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

2. Utricularia (Bladderwort) 
I. U. vulgaris (Common Bladderwort). — 
Submersed. Leaves divided into numerous 
hair-like segments, and bearing small air- 
bladders ; lips of the corolla about equal in 
length ; spur conical. Before flowering, the 
stem and leaves float in the water by help of 
the minute bladders, which are then filled 
with air ; the flowers, which grow in clusters 
of 6-8 together, are large and bright yellow, 
and are raised several inches out of the 
water. After flowering, the bladders be- 
come filled with water, and the whole plant 
sinks to the bottom. Ditches and deep 

pools ; not very common. — Fl. June, July. Utriculari.4 Vut.gakis 
Perennial. iCcmmon Bladdetwart) 

. ~-^ 

Common Verbeua 


Common Butterwort 


2. U. minor (Lesser Bladderwort). — Smaller than the last in all 
its parts ; flowers small, yellow, with a short blunt spur. Similar 
situations to the last ; rare. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. U. intermedia (Intermediate Bladderwort). — Distinguished 
from U. vulgaris by having the upper lip of the corolla much longer 
than the lower, and by bearing its air-bladders on branched stalks 
distinct from the leaves. Rare. — Fl. Ju'ly to September. Per- 

Natural Order T.XII 

PRIMULACEiE.— Primrose Tribe 

Calyx 5-cleft, rarely 4-cleft (in Trientalis 7-cleft), regular, not 
falling off ; corolla of as many lobes as the calyx (in Glaux wanting) ; 
stamens equalling in numlx;r the lobes of the corolla, and opposite 
to them ; ovary i-celled ; style i ; stigma capitate ; capsule i- 
celled, opening with valves ; seeds numerous, attached to a central 
column. Herbaceous plants, mostly of hufiible growth, inhabiting, 
principally, the colder regions of the northern hemisphere, and in 
lower latitudes ascending to the confines of perpetual snow. In 
this Order are found several of our favourite British plants. 
The Primrose, as its name indicates (prima rosa, the first rose), is 
the most welcome harbinger of spring ; the Cowslip is hardly less 
prized for its pastoral associations than for its elegance and fra- 
grance ; Pimpernel, or " Poor man's weather-glass," is as trusty a 
herald of summer weather as the Primrose of spring. Nor is it only 
as Flowers of the Field that the plants of this tribe are valued. The 
Polyanthus and Auricula equally grace the cottager's garden, and 
the collections of the florist ; and several 'species of Cyclamen are 
commonly found in conservatories. Some species possess active 
medicinal properties ; the flowers of Cowslip are made into a plea- 
sant soporiflc wine ; and the leaves of the Auricula {Primula 
auricttla) are used in the Alps as a remedy for coughs. The flowers 
of Pimpernel and roots of Cyclamen are acrid. 

1. Primula (Primrose). — Ca/yA- tubular, 5-cleft ; coroZ/a salver- or 
funnel-shaped, with a long cylindrical tube ; stamens 5, enclosed 
within the tube of the corolla ; capsule 5-valved, with 10 teeth. 
(Name from the Latin, prinuis, first, from the early appearance of 
the flowers.) 

2. HoTTONiA (Water Violet). — CaZya; 5-cleft almost to the base; 
corolla salver-shaped, with a short tube ; stamens 5 ; capsule opening 
with 5 teeth. (Named after Professor Hotton, of Leyden.) 

3. Cyclamen (Sow-bread). — Calyx bell-shaped, cleft half-way 
down into 5 segments ; corolla wheel-shaped, the lobes rcfle.xed ; 
stamens 5 ; capsule opening with 5 teeth. (Name in the Greek, 
cyclos, a circle, either from the reflexed lobes of the corolla, or from 
the spiral form of the fruit-stalks.) 


4. Anagallis (Pimpernel). — Calyx 5-cleft to the base ; corolla 
wheel-shaped ; stamens 5, hairy ; capsule splitting all round. (Name 
in Greek, denoting that the plant excites pleasure.) 

5. Lysimachia (Loosestrife). — Calyx 5-cleft to the base; corolla 
wheel-shaped ; stamens 5, not hairy ; capsule opening by valves. 
(Name in Greek, having the same meaning as the English name.) 

6. Centunculus (Chaffweed). — Calyx 5-cleft to the base ; corolla 
with an inflated tube ; stamens 4 ; capsule splitting all round. (Name 
of doubtful etymology.) 

7. Trientalis (Chickweed Winter-green). — Calyx 7-cleft to the 
base : corolla wheel-shaped ; stamens 7 ; capsule opening with 
valves. (Name of doubtful etymology.) 

8. Glaux (Sea-mil kwort). — Calyx u; corolla bell-shaped, 5-lobed ; 
stamens 5 ; capsule 5-valved, with 5-10 seeds. (Name in Greek, 
denoting the sea-green colour of the foliage.) 

9. Samolus (Brookweed). — Calyx 5-cleft, adhering to the lower 
half of the capsule, not falling off ; corolla salver-shaped, with 5 
scales at the mouth of the tube ; stamens 5 ; capsule opening with 
5 reflexed teeth. (" Named, some say, from the Island of Samos, 
where Valerandus, a botanist of the i6th century, gathered our 
Samolus Valerandi." — Sir W. J. Hooker.) 

I. Pkimula {Primrose) 

I. P. vulgaris (Primrose). — Flowers each on a separate stalk ; 
leaves oblong, egg-shaped. Among the most welcome of spring 
flowers, and too well known to need any description. The colour of 
the flower is so peculiar as to have a name of its own ; artists main- 
tain that primrose-colour is a delicate green ; white, purple, and 
lilac varieties are not uncommon. Banks and woods ; abundant. 
— Fl. March to May. Perennial. 

z. P. elatior (Oxlip). — Flowers in a stalked umbel, salver-shaped ; 
calyx tubular ; leaves egg-shaped, contracted below the middle. 
Distinguished from the Primrose by its umbellate yellow flowers 
and by its leaves, which become suddenly broader above the middle, 
and from the Cowslip by its tubular, not bell-shaped calyx, and flat, 
not concave, corolla. Woods and pastures ; not common. — 
Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

3. P. veris (Cowslip, Paigle). — Flowers in a stalked umbel, droop- 
ing, funnel-shaped ; calyx bell-shaped ; leaves egg-shaped, con- 
tracted below the middle. Among the many pleasing purposes to 
which these favourite flowers are applied by children none is prettier 
than that of making Cowslip Balls. The method, which may not 
be known to all, is as follows : The umbels are picked off as close 
as possible to the top of the main stalk, and from fifty to sixty are 



made to hang across a string stretched between the backs of two 
chairs. The flowers are then carefully pressed together and the 
string is tied tightly, so as to collect them into a ball. Care should 
be taken to choose such heads or umbels only as have all the flowers 
open, or the surface of the ball will be uneven. Pastures; common. 
— Fl. April, May. Perennial. 

4. P. farinosa (Bird's-eye Primrose). — A very beautiful little 
plant, with a rosette of small leaves covered on the under side with 
a white powdery meal, as also are the slender stalks and calvces. 
The flowers, which grow in a compact umbel, are of a delicate lilac- 
pink with a yellow eye. Mountainous pastures ; not uncommon in 
the north of England and south of Scotland. — ^Fl. June, July. 
Perennial. A white variety is sometimes found, but is extremely 
rare and beautiful. Another smaller form, with broader leaves and 
flowers of a deeper shade of colour, known as P. scolica, is found in 
the Orkneys and a few places in the north of Scotland. 

2. HoTTONiA (Water Violet) 

I. H. Palustris (Water Violet). — The only 
British species. An aquatic plant, with finely 
divided, submersed leaves ; flowers large, 
handsome, pinkish, with a yellow eye, ar- 
ranged in whorls around a leafless stalk, 
which rises several inches out of the water. 
Ponds and ditches ; not very common.^- 
Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

3. Cyclamen (Sow-bread) 

I. C. hedercBjolium (Ivy - leaved Sow- 
bread). — The only species found in Britain, 
and probably not a native. Remarkable 
for its globular brown root and nodding pink 
or white flowers, the lobes of which are bent 
upwards. As the fruit ripens the flower-stalk 
curls spirally and buries it in the earth. The root is intensely 
acrid. Found established in woods in Kent, Sussex, and Surrey. — 
Fl. autumn. 

4. Anagallis [Pimpernel) 

I. A. arvensis (Scarlet Pimpernel). — Leaves egg-shaped, dotted 
beneath, sessile ; petals crenate. A pretty little prostrate plant, 
with bright scarlet flowers, which expand only in line weather, and 
have consequently gained for the plant the name of Poor man's 
weather-glass. The colour of the flowers occasionally varies to flesh- 
colour or white, with a red eye. A bright bkie variety, which some 
botanists consider a distinct species, is more unfrequent. Cultivated 
ground ; abundant. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 


{Water Violet) 


2. A. tcnella (Bog Pimpernel). — Stem creeping ; leaves roundish, 
stalked, shorter than tlie flower-stalks. A beautiful little prostrate 
plant, with slender stems 4-6 inches long, small leaves which are 
arranged in opposite pairs, and erect rose-coloured flowers, larger 
than those of the Scarlet Pimpernel. Boggy ground and sides of 
rivulets ; common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

5. Lysimachia {Loosestrife) 

1. L. nuinmiilaria (Money-wort, Herb-twopence, Creeping 
Jenny). — Stem creeping ; leaves roundish, .slightly stalked ; flowers 
solitary, axillary. A very pretty plant, well marked by its opposite, 
shining leaves and large yellow flowers. The stems grow from 1-2 
feet in length, and hang from the banks of fivers in a very graceful 
way. This plant is much used to ornament rock gardens. Banks 
of rivers and damp meadows; common. ^FI. June, July. Per- 

2. L. nemormn (Wood Loosestrife, Yellow Pimpernel). — Stem 
spreading ; leaves egg-shaped, acute, on short stalks ; flowers soli- 
tary, axillary. Approaching the Scarlet Pimpernel in habit, but 
somewhat larger ; the flowers are bright yellow and very pretty. 
Woods ; common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

3. L. vulgaris (Great Yellow Loosestrife). — Stem erect, branched, 
downy ; leaves tapering to a point, opposite, or 3-4 in a whorl ; 
flowers in terminal panicles. Very different in habit from either of 
the preceding, growing quite erect, 2-3 feet high, with terminal 
panicles of rather large yellow flowers. Banks of rivers ; common. 
— Fl. July. Perennial. 

4. L. thyrsiflora (Tufted Loosestrife). — Resembles L. vulgaris in 
habit, but bears its flowers, which are small and yellow, in numerous 
dense dusters. It grows in the north of England and parts of 
Scotland, but is rare. — Fl. June, July. 

6. Centunculus {Chaffweed) 

I. C. minimus (Chaffweed). — The only British 

species. One of the smallest among British plants, 

rarely exceeding an inch in height, and often much 

less. It is nearly allied to the Pimpernel, and at 

the first glance might be taken for a stunted spiecimen 

of the common species. The leaves are egg-shaped, 

acute ; the flowers sessile, axillary. It is sometimes 

branched, but very frequently consists of a single 

stem, 6 or 8 leaves, and as many inconspicuous 

Centunculus flowers. It grows in damp gravelly places, especi- 

MiNiMus ^jjy where water has stood during the winter, — 

{Chaffweed) ^l June to August. Annual. 



Yellow Pimperue] 


7. {Chickweed, Winter-green) 

I. T. Europcva (European Chickweed, Winter-green). — The only 
British species. A pretty jilant with afi unbranched stem 4-6 
inclres liigli, heaiiiig a few lanceolate leaves near its sninmit, from 
which rise one or more slender flower-stalks, each bearing a delicate 
white floiver. The number of stamens varies from 7-9. Abundant 
in many parts of the Highlands of Scotland, and occasionally found 
in the north of England. — Fl. June. Perennial. 

8. Glaux (Sea-Milkwort\ 

I. G. maritima (Sea-Milkwort). — The ordy 
species. A fleshy marine plant 3-6 inches 
high, growing in thick patches, with numerous 
egg-shaped, glaucous leaves, and axillary pink 
flowers. In habit it resembles Honckenya 
peploides. Sea -shore and sail marshes; 
common. -Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

g. Samolus (Brookweed) 
I. 5. Valerandi (Brookweed). — A smooth, 
pale green, herbaceous plant, with blunt, 
fleshy leaves, and one or more clusters of 

very small white flowers, 

which in their early stage 

are crowded, Ijut finally 

become distant, resembling ''^ 

in this respect the habit Glau.'c Maritima 

of the Cruciform Tribe. (Sea Milh-wort) 

Watery places, common, 

and, like many other aquatic plants, widely 

diffused over the world. — Fl. July to September. 



Natural Order LXIII 
PLUMB AGIN ACE J2.— Thrift Tribe 

Calyx tubular, plaitecl, chaffy, not falling off, 
often coloured ; corolla 5-cleft, nearly to the base ; 
stamens 5, opposite the petals ; ovary of 5 carpels, 
i-celled ; styles 5 ; fruit i-sccdcd. Herbaceous 
or shrubby plants, with undivided, fleshy leaves, 
and flowers of a thin textui"e, approaching that 
usually called everlasting, collected into heads or 
growing in panicles. They inhabit salt marshes 
Samolus Valerandi and the seashore of temperate regions, and 
(Brookweed) some are also found in mounlainous districts, 


Their properties are various — some are tonic, some intensely acrid, 
and many contain iodine. The root of Statice Caroliniana is one 
of the most powerful astringents known ; several species of 
Plumbago are so acrid that the fresh root is used to raise blisters. 
Thrift [Armeria) and several kinds of Sea-Lavender [Statice] grow 
on the seashores of Britain, and are very pretty plants. Other 
species are cultivated in gardens and conservatories, to which 
they are highly ornamental. It has been remarked that plants 
of this Order, like many other marine plants, when growing at a 
distance from the sea, lose the peculiar salts which they contain 
in their natural localities. Thrift, for example, as a marine plant 
contains iodine and soda, but as a mountain or garden plant 
exchanges these two salts for potash. Some species of Plumbago 
are grown as garden plants on account of their great beauty, and 
the British genera, Armeria and Statice, give us exquisite subjects 
for our hardy herbaceous borders. 

1. Armeria (Thrift). — Flowers in heads ; styles hairy. (Name 
from the French, armoircs, wardrobes, though in what connection 
is uncertain.) 

2. Statice (Sea Lavender). — Flowers panicled ; styles smooth. 
(Name from the Greek, statizo, to stop, from its astringent medi- 
cinal properties.) 

I. Armeria [Thrift] 

1. A. maritima (Thrift). — Leaves linear ,_ fleshy, forming dense 
tufts or balls ; flower-stalks springing directly from the roots, leaf- 
less, downy, 3-6 inches high, and bearing each a roundish head of 
rose-coloured flowers ; the summit of the flower-stalk is cased in 
a brown membranous sheath, and the flowers are intermixed with 
chaffy bracts, or scales ; the fruit is almost winged by the dry, 
chaffy calyx. Sea-shores and the tops of mountains ; common. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. A. plantaginea (Plantain Thrift). — Much like the last, but 
larger, and with broader leaves, marked with 3 or 5 veins. Found 
in Jersey. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. Statice [Sea Lavender) 

1. S. Limonium (Sea Lavender). — Leaves oblong, i-ribbed, 
tipped with a point ; floiver-stalk from the root, leafless, 6-18 
inches high, branched near the summit into many spreading, 
spike-like clusters of thin lavender-blue, scentless flowers. Muddy 
sea-coast ; not unfrequent. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. 5. spathiilafa (Spathulate Sea-Lavender). — In some respects 
resembling the last, but distinguished by its leaves being smaller, 
oblong near the base, and wider above {spathulate), and by its 


■flower-stalks being branched below the middle into several erect 
tufts of blue flowers. Not uncommon on the rocky sea-coast. 
— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

3. 5. reticulata (Matted Sea-Lavender). ^Smaller than either of 
the last ; the flower-stalks are divided almost from the base into 
numerous zigzag branches, of which the lower ones are barren. 
Salt marshes in Norfolk, Lincoln, Suffolk, and Cambridge. — Fl. 
July, August. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXIV 

PLANTAGINACE^.— Plantain Tribe 

Calyx 4-parted ; corolla 4-parted, chaffy, not falling off ; stamens 
4, alternate with the segments of the corolla, and having very long, 
thread-like filaments, and lightly attached anthers ; ovary 2-, rarely 
4-celled ; style 1 ; stigma hairy ; capsule splitting transversely ; 
seeds i, 2, or many in each cell. Herbaceous plants of humble 
growth, with many ribbed or fleshy leaves spreading horizontally 
from the root. The flowers, which are made conspicuous by their 
long stamens, grow in spikes. Several species are common in 
Great Britain as wayside, meadow, and marine plants, and as 
troublesome lawn weeds. The Order is distributed over most 
parts of the world. The leaves are slightly bitter and astringent ; 
the seeds abound in a tasteless mucilage, which is used in medicine as 
a substitute for Linseed, and is said to be employed in France to 
stiffen muslin. 

1. Plantago (Plantain). — Calyx 4-cleft, the segments bent back ; 
corolla tubular, with 4 spreading lobes ; stamens very long ; capsule 
splitting all round, 2- to 4-celled. (Name t)f doubtful origin.) 

2. Littorella (Shore- weed). — Stamens and pistils in different 
flowers ; barren flower, stalked ; stamens very long ; fertile flower 
sessile ; bracts 3 ; corolla tubular, contracted at both ends ; style 
very long ; capsule i-seeded. (Name in Latin having the same 
meaning as the English name.) 

I. Plantago {Plantain) 

1. P. major (Greater Plantain). — Leaves broadly egg-shaped on 
long, channeUed stalks ; flowers in spikes, 2-6 inches long, the stem 
of which is cylindrical ; cells of the capsule many-seeded. Well 
known for its spikes of green flowers, the seeds of which are a 
favourite food of canary birds. Borders of fields and waysides ; 
abundant. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. P. media (Hoary Plantain). — Leaves broadly elliptical on short, 
flat stalks ; flowers in a close cylindrical spike, 1-2 inches long, the 
stalk of which is also cylindrical ; cells of the capsule i-seeded. 



The leaves spread horizontally from the crown of the root, and lie 
so close to the ground as to destroy all vegetation beneath, or to 
leave the impression of their ribs on the gromid ; the spike, which 
is shorter than in P. major, grows on a longer stalk, and the flowers, 
which are fragrant, are rendered conspicuous by their light purple 

anthers. Meadows; common. — Fl. June, 

July. Perennial. 

3. P. /awcfc'o/rtte (Ribwort Plantain). — Leaves 
narrow, tapering ; flowers in a short spike, 
the stalk of which is angular ; cells of the 
capsule i-seeded. Under the name of Cocks 
and Hens this plant is well known to chil- 
dren, who amuse themselves by striking the 
heads one against another until the stalk 
breaks. The flowers are dark brown. 

Meadows ; abundant. — Fl. June, July. 

4. P. war;7w;!a (Sea plantain). — Easily dis- 
tmguished from the rest of the genus by its 
long, linear, fleshy leaves, which are grooved 
and woolly at the base. Seashores, and in 
the north on the tops of mountains. — Fl. 
June to September. Perennial. 

Pr.ANTAP.O Lanceol.^ta 
(Ribwort riuutain) 

5. P. coronopus (Buck's-horn Plantain 
capsule imperfectly 4-celled, 4-seeded. 
The only British species which has 
divided leaves ; these are more or less 
downy, and usuaUy prostrate. Waste 
ground; common. — Fl. June, July. 

2. LiTTORELLA (Shore-weed) 

1. L. lacustris (Shore-weed). — The 
only species. Not unlike Plaiitago 
maritima in habit, but at once distin- 
guished by its solitary barren flowers, 
raised each on a stalk 2-4 inches high ; 
the fertile flowers are sessile among the 
leaves. Marshes and banks of lakes. — 
Fl. June to September. Perennial. 

■Leaves pinnatifid ; 


{Shun- weed) 


Sub-class IV 


Flowers having a calyx or corolla, or neither — never both. In 
this Sub-class it is often doubtful whether the leaves which enclose 
the stamens and pistils of a flower should be called a calyx or 
corolla ; the term perianth (from the Greek, peri, around, and 
anthos, a flower) is therefore used to denote this organ, and must 
be taken to mean all the leaves, whether resembling sepals or 
petals, which enclose the other parts of fructification. Used in 
this sense, and applied to the preceding Sub-classes, the caly.x and 
corolla would be correctly called a double perianth. 

Natural Order LXV 


Perianth 5-lobed, not falling ofl' ; stamens 5, rarely i or 2, from 
the base of the perianth and opposite its lobes ; ovary 1, suj)erior 
or adhering to the tube of the perianth ; style 2- or 4-cleft, rarely 
simple ; stigma undivided ; fritit i-seeded, enclosed in the perianth, 
which often becomes enlarged or fleshy. Herbaceous or somewhat 
shrubby plants, with leaves which are more or less inclined to be 
fleshy ; the flowers are small and inconspicuous, the perianth 
decidedly partaking of the characters of a calyx, which sometimes, 
as in Atriplex, has a tendency to become "enlarged when in fruit. 
Some plants have flowers bearing pistils only, others stamens only, 
and others again both pistils and stamens. They aie common 
weeds in many temperate climates, and are most abundant in salt 
marshes and on the sea-shore. Many of the plants of this tribe 
are used as esculent vegetables — as Spinach, Beet, and Orache. 
Beet is cultivated extensively in France for making sugar, and a 
variety of it affords valuable food for cattle under the name of 
Mangold Wurzel. In Peru the leaves of Chenopodiiim Quinoa, a 
plant growing at a great elevation, are a common article of food. 
Many of those kinds which grow in salt marshes and on the sea- 
shore afford an inmiense quantity of soda. According to some 
naturalists, Salvadora Persica, belonging to this Order, is the 
Mustard Tree of Scripture. It bears a juicy fruit, having the 
flavour of cress, and its seeds are very small. The Mangold Wurzel, 
the White Sugar Beet of France, and the red garden Beetroot, are 
aU said to have originated from the wild Beta marititna of sea- 
shores. Popular garden flowers belonging to this Order are Love- 
lies-bleeding, Prince's- feather, and Cock's-cotiib. 

I. Chenopodium (Goose-foot). — Perianth deeply 5-cleft, re- 
maining unaltered, and finally closing over the single seed ; stamens 


5 ; stigmas 2 ; leaves flat. (Name in Greek having the same mean- 
ing as the Enghsh name.) 

2. Su^DA (Sea Elite). — Perianth deeply 5-cleft, often fleshy; 
stamens 5 ; stigmas 2-3 ; leaves semi-cylindrical. (Name from 
sucBd, soda, in which the plants abound.) 

3. Atriplex (Orache). — Stamens and pistils for the most part 
in separate flowers, someliines united ; barren flower, perianth 
deeply 5-clcft ; stamens 5 ; fertile flower, perianth of 2 valves ; 
stigmas 2 ; fruit i-seeded, covered by the enlarged perianth ; 
leaves flat. (Name from the Greek, a, not, and trephein, to nourish.) 

4. Beta (Beet). — Perianth deeply 5-cleft ; stamens 5 ; stigmas 
2 ; fruit i-seeded, adhering to the tube of the fleshy perianth ; 
leaves flat, (Name, the Latin name of the plant.) 

5. Salsola (Saltwort). — Perianth deeply 5-cleft ; stamens 5 ; 
stigmas 2 ; fruit i-seeded, crowned by the shrivelled lobes of the 
perianth ; leaves cylindrical. (Name from the Latin, sal, salt, 
from the soda in which it abounds.) 

6. Salicornia (Gla.sswort). — Perianth top-shaped, fleshy, un- 
divided ; stamens 1-2 ; style very short ; stigma 2-cIeft ; fruit 
enclosed in the dry perianth ; stem jointed ; leaves none. (Name 
from the Latin, sal, salt, and cornu, a horn, from the soda in which 
it abounds, and the horn-shaped branches.) 

I. Chenopodium [Goose-foot) 
Leaves undivided 

1. C. olidum (Stinking Goose-foot). — Stem spreading ; leaves 
egg-shaped, with a triangular base, fleshy, mealy ; flowers in dense 
clustered spikes. Distinguished by its fi.sliy smell, which is dis- 
gusting in the extreme. Waste places, especially near the sea ; 
not common. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

2. C. polyspermum (Many-seeded Goose-grass). — Stem spreading, 
branched ; leaves egg-shaped, sessile ; flowers in branched, some- 
what leafy, slender spikes ; seeds flattened horizontally, shining, 
minutely dotted. Varying in size from 4-12 inches in height ; 
the stems and leaves usually have a red tinge, and the plant, 
when in flower, has a not inelegant appearance from the number 
of shining, brown fruits, which are not concealed by the perianth. 
Waste ground ; not common. — Fl. August =to October. Annual. 

Leaves toothed, angled, or lohed 

3. C. Bonus Henricus (Good King Henry). — Leaves triangular, 
arrow-shaped ; flowers in compound, leafless spikes. A dark green, 
succulent plant, about a foot high, with large, thickish leaves, 
which are used as Spinach. Waste places near villages ; common. 
— Fl. May to August. Perennial. 

Buck Whear, 


Good Kiijg Heury 

Snake Weed 


4. C. album (White Goose-foot). — Leaves egg-shaped, with tri- 
angular base, bhintly toothed, upper ones narrow, entu'e ; flowers 
in dense clustering spikes. The whole plant succulent ; leaves 
more or less fleshy, and covered with a whitish, mealy powder. 
This is perhaps the commonest species ; it grows 1-3 feet high. 
Waste places and cultivated ground ; common. — Fl. July to Sep- 
tember. Annual. 

There are several other British species of this uninteresting family, 
some of which have nothing but their rarity to recommend them, 
and others are remarkable only for the tendency of their leaves 
to assume a triangular outline, the margin being variously lobed 
and toothed. The characters of most are difficult of discrimina- 
tion, ,so that botanists are agreed neither as to the number of species 
nor names. 

2. Su.EDA {Sea Elite) 

1. 5. niaritima (Annual Seaside Goose-grass). — Styles 2 ; stem 
herbaceous. A low, straggling plant, 2 or 3-12 inches high, with 
short, fleshy, semi-cylindrical leaves, and small, inconspicuous, 
green flowers. Muddy sea-shores ; common. — Fl. July, August. 

2. S. jruticosa (Shrubby Sea Elite). — Styles 3 ; stem shrubby. 
Larger than the last, 2-3 feet high, with a shrubby stem, and 
having 3 styles in each flower. Rarer than the last, and local on 
the southern and eastern coast of England. — Fl. September, 
October. Perennial. * 

3. Atriplex. (Orache) 

1. A. patula (Common Orache). — Stem spreading, often with the 
central branch erect ; leaves triangular, with 2 spreading lobes at 
the lower angles, toothed, the tipper leaves narrow, entire ; flowers 
in tufted spikes ; perianth of the fruit warty and black. A common 
weed, with straggling, furrowed stems, often tinged with red ; 
distinguished from the Goose-foot family by the solitary seed 
being shut in between two triangular, leaf -like valves. The main 
stem is usually erect, the rest are prostrate, appearing as if they 
had been bent down by force. Cultivated and waste ground, and 
on the seashore ; abundant. — Fl. July to October. Annual. 

2. A. laciniata (Frosted Sea Orache). — Stems spreading; leaves 
with three angles, wavy at the edge, and toothed, mealy beneath. 
Distinguished from the preceding by its mealy leaves, and the 
whitish hue of the whole plant. Sea-shore, not uncommon. — 
Fl. July, October. Annual. 

Several other species are described by botanists, but the remark 
annexed to the preceding family applies equally well to this. 



4. Beta {Beet) 

I. B. maritima (Sea-Beet).— The only British species. A tall, 

succulent plant, about 2 feet high, 
with large, fleshy, glossy, lower leaves, 
and narrower: tipper leaves ; angular 
stems, and numerous leafy spikes of 
green flowers, "which are arranged i or 
2 together, with a small leaf at the 
base of each. The root-leaves when 
boiled arc quite as good as Spinach. 
Sea-.shore ; common. — FI. June to 
October. Perennial. 

5. Salsola (Saltwort) 

I. S. kali (Prickly Saltwort).— 
The only British species. A small 
plant, hairy and glaucous, with pros- 
trate, angular, branched stems, 6-12 
inches high, and succulent awl-shapied 
leaves, each of which terminates with 
a sharp prickle ; the flowers are soli- 
tary, and have 3 hrads at the base of 
each. The whole plant abounds in 
alkali salt, whence its name. Sandy 
Beta Maritima sea-shore ; common. — Fl. July. 

(Sea-Beet) Annual. 

6. Salicornia (Glasswort) 

1. 5. herhacea (Jointed Glasswort). — Stem herbaceous, jointed ; 
leaves 0. A singular plant, 4-8 inches high, consisting of a number 
of fleshy joints, each of which is fitted into the one below, entirely 
destitute of leaves, and bearing between every two joints of the 
terminal branches 3 inconspicuous green lowers. Salt marshes ; 
abundant. — Fl. August, September. Annual. 

2. S. radicans (Rooting Glasswort). — Stems prostrate, rooting, 
woody, and usually of a browner hue. Both species, on account 
of the soda which they contain, were at one time used in the 
manufacture of glass — hence the name Glasswort. 5. herhacea is 
also made into a jjickle. Sea-coasts; uncommon. — Fl. August, 
September. Perennial. 


Natural Order LXVI 

SCLERANTHACE^.— The Knawel Tribe 

Perianth tubular, 4- or 5-cleft ; stamens 5--10, inserted into the 
mouth of the tube ; ovary i, superior, i-cehej ; styles 2 or I, 
notched at the summit ; fynit enclosed within the hardened tube 
of the perianth. Only one British genus belongs to this Order, 
containing but two species, which are small, inconspicuous weeds, 
with wiry, much-branched stems, scanly foliage, and small, greenish 
flowers, remarkable only for the chaffy edge of the perianth. 

I. ScLERANTHus (Knawel). — Calyx 5-cleft, contracted at the 
mouth of the tube ; petals o ; stamens 10, rarely 5 ; styles 2 ; fruit 
i-seeded, covered by the hardened caly.x. (Name from the Greek, 
scleras, hard, and anthos, a flower, from the hardness of the calyx.) 

1. ScLERANTHUs (Knait'el) 

1. S. annua (Annual Knawel). — Calyx, when in 
fruit, spreading, acute, with a narrow, whitish 
margin ; root annual. A small plant, 2-4 Indies 
high, with numerous tangled stems, awl - shaped 
leaves, and green flowers, which grow either in 
the forks of the stems or in terminal tufts. 
Cornfields, especially on gravelly soil ; common. 
— Fl. July to November. Annual. 

2. 5. perennis (Perennial Knawel). — Stems pros- 
trate ; calyx-leaves blunt, with a broad margin. 
Dry, sandy fields in the south and east of Eng- 
land ; very rare. Perennial. 


{Annual Knawel} 

Natural Order TXVII 

POLYGONACEyE.— Thk Persicarl\ Tribe 

Flowers often bearing stamens only, or pistils only. Perianth 
deeply 3-6 parted, often in two rows ; stamens 5-8, from the base 
of the perianth ; ovary i, not attached to the perianth ; styles 3 
or 3 ; fruit, a flattened or triangular nut. Herbaceous plants, 
distinguished liy fhe above characters and by bearing alternate 
leaves, furnished at the base with membranous stipules, which 
encircle the stalk. The perianth is often coloured ; and as the 
flowers, though not large, are numerous, and grow in spikes or 
panicles, many of them are handsome plants. Others, as the 
Dock, are unsightly weeds ; they are found in all parts of the 
world, from the Tropics to the Poles, and at all altitudes. The 
j)roperties residing in the leaves and roots are very different, the 
former being acid and astringent, and sometimes of an agreeable 


flavour, the latter nauseous and purgative. The powdered root 
of several species of Rheum affords the valuable medicine, Rhubarb, 
and the leaf-stalks of the same plants are much used for making 
tarts ; the sharp taste is attributed to the presence of oxalic, nitric, 
and malic acids. Two native kinds of Sorrel, and several of Dock, 
belong to the genus, Rumex. Sorrel [R. acetosa) is sometimes used 
in the same way as Rhubarb-stalks, but the species mostly em- 
ployed in cookery is R. sctUala. To the genus Polygonum belongs 
P. fagopyrum, Buck-wheat. In some countries the flour derived 
from its seeds is made into bread, but in England it is not much 
cultivated, except as food for pheasants, which are very partial 
to it. P. tinctorum is extensively cultivated in France and Flanders 
for the sake of the blue dye aiforded by its herbage, and several 
other species are used in medicine. Triplaris Americana attains 
the dimensions of a tree, and is remarkable for being infested by 
ants, which excavate dwellings for themselves in the trunk and 

1. Polygonum (Persicaria). — Perianth deeply 5-cleft, not falling 
off ; stamens 5-8 ; styles 2 or 3 ; fruit, a triangular or flattened 
nut. (Name in Greek signifying having many knees, or joints, 
from the numerous joints of the stem.) 

2. Rumex (Dock). — Perianth deeply 6-cleft, in two rows, the 
interior segments large ; stamens 6 ; styles 3 ; fruit, a triangular 
nut, covered by an enlarged inner perianth. (Name, the Latin 
name of the plant.) 

3. OxYKiA (Mountain Sorrel). — Perianth deeply 4-cleft, in two 
rows, the interior segments large ; stamens 6 ; styles 2 ; fruit, a 
flattened nut with a membranous wing. (Name from the Greek, 
oxys, sharp, from the acid flavour of the stem and leaves.) 

I. Polygonum {Persicaria) 

1. P. aviculare (Common Knot-grass). — Stem branched, 1-2 feet 
long, prostrate, or, when growing with tall plants, erect ; leaves 
narrow, elliptical, small ; floit'ers in axillary clusters of 2-5 ; styles 
3 ; fruit triangular. A common weed, with leaves which are 
furnished with white chaft'y stipules, and with minute flesh-coloured 
or flowers. Varies greatly in size. Waste ground 
and roadsides ; abundant. — Fl. all the summer. Annual. 

2. P. maritimum (Sea Knot-grass). — A variable plant, distin- 
guished by its large-nerved stipules and long shining fruits, which 
project from the perianth ; stems shrubby, thicker than in the last ; 
leaves usually thicker, and glaucous ; and floicers also larger. 
South coast. — Fl. August, September. Perennial. 



Polygonum Convolvulus 
(Climbing Persicaria) 

3. P. convolvulus (Climbing Persicaria). 
— Stem twining ; leaves, heart - arrow - 
shaped ; segments of the perianth bluntly 
keeled ; fruit triangular, roughish. A mis- 
chievous weed, with the habit of the 
Field Convolvuhis, twining round tlie stems 
of corn and other plants, and bearing 
them down by its weight. The flowers 
arc greenish - white, and grow in loose 
axillary clusters about 4 together. Culti- 
vated ground ; abundant. — Fl, July, 
August. Annual. 

4. P. dumetorum (Copse Buck -wheat). 
— Distinguished from the last by its more 
luxuriant growth, its winged perianth, and 
shining fruit. By some botanists classed 
as a variety of the last. It grows in 
bushy places in the south of England. 
— Fl. August, September. Annual. 

5. P. viviparimi (Viviparous Bistort). — Stem simple, erect, bearing 
a single, loose spike, which has in tlie lower part small bulbs in 
place of flowers ; perfect flowers with 3 styles, and producing tri- 
angular frxdts ; leaves very narrow, their margins rolled back. 
A slender plant, 6-8 inches high, remarkable for its tendency to 
propagate itself by small, red bulbs, which supply the place of 
flowers in the lower part of the spike ; the flowers are light flesh- 
coloured. Mountain pastures in the highlands of Scotland, and 
the north of England. — Fl. June, July. Perennial, 

6. P. bistorta (Bistort Snake-root). — A rather handsome plant, 
with a large twisted root, and several simple, erect stems, 12-18 
inches high, each of which bears a cylindrical spike of flesh-coloured 
flowers ; leaves egg-shaped, the radicle ones on long stalks, and 
sometimes as much as 6 inches long. Moist meadows, chiefly in 
the north ; not common. — Fl. June. Perennial. 

7. P. amphibium (Amphibious Persicaria). — Stem erect, or sup- 
ported in the water by the floating leaves ; flowers in oblong spikes ; 
stamens 5 ; styles 2 ; fruit flattened ; leaves oblong, heart-shaped 
at the base. So different are the forms assumed by this plant when 
growing in water and on land that the varieties might well be taken 
for two distinct species. In the water the s-tems are 2-3 feet long, 
being supported by long-stalked, floating, smooth leaves ; on land 
the stems are about a foot high, and the leaves narrow and rough. 

In both forms of the plant the spikes of flowers are rose-coloured 
and handsome. Ditches and banks of pools ; frequent. — Fl. July 
to September. Perennial. 


8. P. Persicaria (Spotted Pcrsicaria). — Stem erect, branched ; 
leaves narrow, tapering, often spotted ; flowers in spikes ; stamens 
6 ; styles forked ; stipules fringed. A common weed, 1-2 feet 
high, distinguished by its rather large leaves, stained with a purple 
blotch, and numerous oblong spikes of greenish- or pinkish-white 
flowers. Waste and damp ground ; abundant. — Fl. July, August. 

9. P. lapaHlhi/nlinm (Pale-flowered Persicaria). — Closely re- 
sembles the last, and by some considered only a variety. Dis- 
tinguished by having 3 distinct, instead of forked styles, and by 
not having the stipules fringed ; in both species the leaves are 
sometimes white with silky down. Waste and damp ground ; 
not uncommon. — Fl. July to September. Annual. 

10. P. hydropiper (Water-Pepper). — Stem erect ; leaves narrow, 
tapering ; flowers in loose, drooping spikes ; stamens 6. Well 
distinguished by its slender drooping spikes of greenish flowers. 
The fresh juice is acrid, but not of an unpleasant flavour, and is 
said to cure pimples on the tongue. Ditches and places where 
water has stood during winter ; abundant. — Fl. August, September. 

11. P. minus (Slender Persicaria). — By some classed as a variety 
of the last. Distinguished by its smaller size, close, slender, up- 
right spikes, narrower leaves, nearly undivided styles, and lack of 
acrid taste. Not common. — Fl. July to September. Annual. 

2. RuMEX (Dock Sorrel) 

Flowers having both stamens and pistils ; herbage not acid 

I. R. hydrolapathmn (Great Water-Dock). — Leaves narrow, 
elliptical, tapering at both ends, the lower ones heart-shaped at 
the base ; enlarged segments of the perianth bluntly triangular, 
tubercled. A picturesque plant, 4-6 feet high, with exceedingly 
large leaves, and several stems, which bear. numerous green flowers 
in almost leafless whorls. River banks; frequent. Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

There are about ten other species of Dock, some of which are 
rarely to be met with, others far too common. The most abundant 
kind is R. oUusifolins (Broad-leaved Dock),_too well known to need 
any description. R. crispus (Curled Dock) has acute curled leaves, 
and is also common. R. sanguineus (Bloody-veined Dock) has 
the veins of its leaves tinged of a beautiful crimson. The other 
species are less frequent, and unlikely to interest beginners. 


Sheep's Sorrol, Spotted Persicari 



Stamens and pistils on different plants ; herbage acid 

2. R. acetosa (Common Sorrel). — Leaves 
oblong, slightly arrow-shaped at the base. 
A slender plant, about 2 feet high, with 
juicy stems and leaves, and whorled spikes 
of reddish-green flowers. Well known for 
the grateful acidity of its herbage. Mea- 
dows ; abundant. — Fl. June, July. Per- 

3. 7?. rtce/os«//a (Sheep's Sorrel). — Leaves 
tapering to a point, produced at the base 
into long, arrow-shaped barbs. Much 
smaller than the last, and often tinged, 
especially towards the end of summer, 
with a deep red hue. Dry, gravelly places ; 
abundant. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

Ru»rEX Acetosa 
(Common Sorrel) 

3. OxYRiA {Mountain Sorrel) 

I. 0. reniformis (Mountain Sorrel). — 
The only species. Approaching the Comnion Sorrel in habit, but 
shorter and sfouler. The leaves are all from the root, and kidney- 
shaped ; the flowers are green, and grow in clustered spikes ; the 
herbage has a grateful acid flavour. Damp places, near the summit 
of high mountains ; frequent. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

Natural Ordek LXXVIII 
EL^AGNACE.E.— Oleaster Tribe 

Stamens and pistils on separate j)lants : barren flowers in cat- 
kins ; perianth tubular ; stamens 3-8, sessile on the throat of the 
perianth ; fertile flowers solitary, tubular, not falling off ; ovary 
i-celled ; style short ; stigma awl-,shaped ; jrait, a single nut, 
enclosed within the fleshy perianth. Trees and shrubs, with 
leaves which tiave no stipules, but are covered with scurfy scales. 
They are found in all parts of the Northern Hemisphere. The 
fruit of several species of Elseagnus is eaten in the East, and the 
flowers are highly fragrant and abound in honey, which, in some 
parts of Europe, is considered a remedy for -malignant fevers. The 
only British species is the Sea Buckthorn {Hippophae Rhamnoides). 

I. HiPPOPHAii (Sea Buckthorn). — Stamens and pistils on separate 
plants ; barren flowers in small catkins ; perianth of 2 valves ; 
stamens 4, with very short filaments ; fertile flowers solitary ; peri 
anth tubular, cloven at the summit ; style short ; stigma awl 
shaped ; fruit, a i-seeded nut, enclosed in the fleshy perianth 
(Name of iloubtful etymology.) 


I. HiPPOPHAE [Sea buckthorn) 

I. FI. rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn, Sallow-Thorn). — The only 
species. A thorny shrub, 4-5 feet high, with very narrow, silvery 
leaves, small greenish flowers, which appear with the leaves in May, 
and numerous orange- coloured berries, which are of an acid flavour 
and very juicy. The stems, roots, and foliage, are said to impart 
a yellow dye. SandhiUs and cliffs on the eastern coast of England. 
— Fl. May. Shrub. 

Natural Order LXIX 

THYMELACE^.— Daphne Tribe 

Calyx tubular, coloured, 4- rarely 5-cleft, occasionally having 
scales in its mouth ; stamens 8, 4, or 2, inserted in the tube of the 
perianth ; ovary i-celled ; style I ; stigma undivided ; fruit, a 
i-seeded nut or drupe. Shrubs with undivided laurel-like leaves, 
remarkable for their tough bark, which is of a highly acrid nature, 
causing excessive pain if chewed, and raising a blister if applied to 
the skin. Both bark and root of Mezereon (Daphne Mezereon) are 
used in medicine ; they are of a very violent effect, whether taken 
inwardly or applied externally. The berries of Spurge-Laurel are 
poisonous to all animals except birds. In the East the bark of 
several species is manufactured into ropes and paper. The inner 
bark of Lagetta lintearia, when macerated and cut into thin pieces, 
assumes a beautiful net-like appearance, whence it has received 
the name of Lace-bark. In the south of Europe two plants belong- 
ing to this tribe are used to dye wood yellow. The seeds of Ino- 
carpus edulis are eaten when roasted, and have the taste of Chest- 
nuts. Daphne Japonica, or Indica, with its varieties, is commonly 
cultivated in conservatories and gardens for the sake of the deli- 
cious fragrance of its flowers. The only British genus belonging 
to this Tribe is — 

I. Daphne (Spurge-Laurel). — Characters given above. (Name, 
the Greek for a Laurel, which it resembles, in the character of its 

I. Daphne (Spurge-laurel) 

I. D. laureola (Spurge-Laurel). — Flowers in drooping, axillary 
clusters ; leaves evergreen. A low shrub, about 2 feet high, very 
little branched, and remarkable for its smooth, erect stems, which 
are bare of leaves, except at the summit. The leaves are smooth, 
shining, and evergreen ; the flowers are green, and in mild weather 
fragrant ; the berries, which are egg-shaped and nearly black, are, 
as has been noted above, poisonous. From the tendency of this 
plant to bear its proportionally large leaves only on the summit of 
the stem, it has some resemblance to a group of Palms. It is used 


Spurge Laurel Wood Spurge 


by nurserymen as a stock upon which to graft the dehcious D. Indica 
of greenhouses. Woods ; not unfrequent. — Fl. March. Shrub. 

2. D. Mezereiim is occasionally found in situations where it is 
apparently wild ; but it is not considered a native ; its purple, 
fragrant flowers appear before the leaves, and are sessile on the 
branches ; the leaves are not evergreen ; berries red. 

Natural Order LXX 

SANTALACE^. — Sandat.-wood Trtbe 

Perianth attached to the ovary, 4- or 5-cleft, valvate when in 
bud ; stamens as many as the lobes of the perianth, and opposite 
to them ; ovary i-celled ; style i ; stigma often lobed ; fruit, a 
hard, dry drupe. The plants of this group are found in Europe 
and North America, in the form of obscure weeds ; in New Holland, 
the East Indies, and the South Sea Islands, as large shrubs, or small 
trees. Some are astringent, others yield fragrant wood. Sandal- 
wood is the produce of Santalmn album, an East Indian tree, and 
is used both medicinally and as a perfumer. In New Holland and 
Peru the seeds of some species are eaten. The only British plant 
belonging to this tribe is — 

I. Thesium (Bastard Toad-flax). — Characters given above. 
(Name of doubtful origin.) 

I. Thesium {Bastard Toad-flax) 

1. T. linophylhim (Bastard Toad-flax). — The only British species. 
A rather small plant, with a woody root ; nearly prostrate stems, 
6-12 inches high ; very nairow, pointed leaves, and leafy clusters 
of whitish flowers. Chalky hills in the south of England ; not 
common. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXI 


Perianth attached to the ovary below, tubular above, with a 
wide mouth ; stamens 6-12, inserted on the ovary ; ovary 3 to 
6-celled ; style i ; stigmas rayed, as many as the cells of the ovary ; 
fruit 3- to 6-celled, many-seeded. Herbs or shrubs, often climbing, 
with simple leaves, and solitary, axillary flowers, very abundant in 
the warmer parts of South America, but rare elsewhere. The 
plants of this Order are generally bitter, tonic, and stimulant. 
The dried and powdered leaves of Asarabacca (Asarum Ettropaiim) 
are used in the preparation of cephalic snuffs, exciting sneezing, 
and giving relief to headache and weak eyes. Virginian Snake- 
root [Aristolochia serpentaria) and other allied species are used as 


antidotes to snake bites. The juice extrabted from the root of a 
South American species is said to have the power of stupefying 
serpents if placed in their mouths. Other African species are said 
to be used by the Egyptian jugglers to stupefy the snakes with 
which they play tricks during the exhibition of their art. The 
wood of Aristolochia is remarkable for not being arranged in con- 
centric layers, but in wedges. A thin slice is a beautiful object for 
examination under a microscope of low power. 

T. Aristolochia (Birth-wort). — PeriaHtbtixhnlar, curved, swoUen 
at the base, the mouth dilated on one side ;_ anthers 6, inserted on 
the style ; stigma 6-lobed ; capsule 6-celled. (Name in Greek 
denoting the supposed medicinal virtues of the plant.) 

2. AsARUM (Asarabacca). — Perianth bell-shaped, 3-cleft ; stamens 
12, inserted at the base of the style ; stigma 6-lobed ; capsule 
6-celled. (Name from the Greek, a, not, and seira, a wreath, 
denoting that the plant was by the ancients excluded from gar- 

I. Aristolochia (Birlh-wort) 

I. A. clematitis (Birth-wort). — The only species found growing 
in wild situations in Britain. A singular plant, with creeping 
roots, slender, unbranched, erect stems, and large heart-shaped 
leaves ; the flowers, which grow several together, are of a dull 
yellow colour, swollen at the base, contracted above, and expanding 
into an oblong lip with a short point. Woods, and among ruins 
in the east and south of England ; rare. — El. July, August. Per- 

2. AsARUM (Asarabacca) 

I. A. EuropcFum (Asarabacca). — The only species found in 
Britain, and a doubtful native. A curious plant, consisting of a 
very short stem, bearing two large, shining, kidney-shaped leaves, 
and a solitary dingy, brown-green floieer. Woods in the north ; 
rare. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXII 

EMPETRACE^.— Crow-berry Tribe 

Stamens and pistils on separate plants ; perianth of several 
scales arranged in 2 rows, the inner resembling petals ; stamens 
equal in number to the inner scales, and alternate with them ; 
ovary of 3, 6, or 9 cells, on a ileshy disk ; style I ; stigma rayed ; 
fruit fleshy, with long cells ; seeds i in each cell. Small heath-like 
evergreen shrubs, with minute axillary flowers, chiefly inhabiting 
Europe and North America. The leaves and fruit slightly acid. 
The berries of the Crow-berry [Empetrum nigrum), though of an 


unpleasant flavour, are eaten in Arctic regions, and are considered 
as a preventive of scurvy. 

I. Empetrum (Crovv-bcrry). — Perianth of 3 outer and 3 inner 
scales. (Name in Greek signifying growing on a rock.) 

I. Empetrum (Crow-berry) 

I. E. nigrum (Black Crow-berry, Crake-berry). — The only British 
species. A small, prostrate shrub, with the habit of a Heath. 
The stems are much branched ; the leaves are oblong, very narrow, 
and have their margins so much recurved as to meet at the back ; 
the flowers are small and pnirplish, growing in the axils of ihe upper 
leaves. The berries, which arc black, arc much eaten by moor-fowl. 
Abundant on mountainous heaths in the north. — Fl. May. Per- 

Natural Order LXXIII 
EUPHORBIACE^.— Spurge Tribe 

Stamens and pistils in separate flowers ; perianth lobed, with 
various scales or petal-like appendages ; stamens varying in number 
and arrangement ; ovary mostly 3-celled, with as many styles and 
stigmas ; fruit generally 3-celled and 3-seeded. A large Order, 
very difficult to be defined, even by the experienced botanist, and, 
therefore, very likely to puzzle the beginner, who must not be dis- 
heartened if he is a long while in reducing to their place in the 
system those plants belonging to it which he first meets with. 
The Order contains nearly 200 genera, and it is necessary to ex- 
amine many of these before the relation can be traced between 
those families which most difler. The nunrber of species is thought 
to be not less than 2500, which are distributed over most of the 
tropical and temperate regions of the globe, especially the warmer 
parts of America. They are either trees, shrubs, or herbs, and 
some kinds have the external habit of the cactus tribe. Among so 
numerous an assemblage of plants -''e should expect to find a great 
dissimilarity of properties, which, indeed, exists to a certain extent, 
yet nearly all agree in being furnished with a juice, often milky, 
which is highly acrid, narcotic, or corrosive, the intensity of flic 
poisonous property being usuaUy proportionate to the abundance 
of the juice. Of the genus Euphorbia, Spurge, which gives its 
name to the Order, ten or twelve species arc natives of Britam. 
The British Spurges are all herbaceous, and remarkable for the 
singular structure of their green flowers and their acrid milky 
juice, which exudes plentifully when either the stems or leaves are 
wounded. The roots of several of the coriimon kinds enter into 
the composition of some of the quack fever medicines, but they 
are too violent in their action to be used with safety. The Irish 


Spurge is extensively used by the peasants of Kerry for poisoning, 
or rather stupefying fisli. So powerful are its effects that a small 
creel, or basket, filled with the bruised plant, suffices to poison the 
fish for several miles down a river. Euphorbia Lathyris is some- 
times, though erroneously, called in England the Caper-plant. Its 
unripe seeds are pickled, and form a dangerous substitute for the 
genuine capers, which are the unexpanded flower-buds of Caparis 
epinosa, a shrub indigenous to the most southern countries of 
Europe. Among the foreign Spurges, some species furnish both 
the African and American savages with a deadly poison for their 
arrows. Another, called in India Tirucalli, furnishes an acrid 
juice, which is used in its fresh state for raising blisters. Other 
kinds are used in various parts of the world as medicines, but 
require to be administered with caution. The gum resin, Euphor- 
bium, of chemists, is procured from the species growing in Africa 
and the Canaries, by wounding the stems and collecting in leathern 
bags, the sap which exudes. It is an acrid poison, and liighly in- 
flammable, and so violent in its effects as to produce severe in- 
flammation of the nostrils if those who are employed in powdering 
it do not guard themselves from its dust. Pliny relates that the 
plant was discovered by King Juba, and named by him after his 
chief physician, Euphorbus. The Manchinecl tree (Hippomane 
Mancinella) is said to be so poisonous that persons have died from 
merely sleeping beneath its shade. Its juice is pure white, and 
a single drop of it falling upon the skin burns like fire, forming an 
ulcer, often difficult to heal. The fruit, which is beautiful and 
looks like an apple, contains a similar fluid, but in a milder form ; 
the burning it causes in the lips of those "who bite it guards the 
careless from the danger of eating it. Jatropha Manihot, or Manioc, 
is a shrub about six feet high, indigenous to the West Indies and 
South America, abounding in a milky juice of so poisonous a nature 
that it has been known to occasion death in a few minutes. The 
poisonous principle, however, may be dissipi^ed by heat, after 
which process the root may be converted into Wn most nourishing 
food. It is grated into a pulp and subjected to heavy pressure, 
until the juice is drained off. The residue, called cassava, requires 
no further preparation, being simply baked in the form of thin 
cakes on a hot iron hearth. This bread is so palatable to those 
who are accustomed to it as to be preferred to that made from 
wheaten flour, and Creole families, who have changed their resi- 
dence to Europe, frequently supply themselves with it at some 
trouble and expense. The fresh juice is highly poisoi.ous, but if 
boiled with meat and seasoned, it makes an excellent soup, which 
is wholesome and nutritious. The heat of the sun even is suffi- 
cient to dissipate the noxious properties, for if it be sliced and ex- 
posed for some hours to the direct rays of the sun, cattle may eat 
it with perfect safety. The roots are sometimes eaten by the 


Indians, simply roasted, without being previously submitted to 
the process of grating and repressing the juice. They also use 
the juice for poisoning their arrows, and were acquainted with the 
art of converting it into an intoxicating liquid before they were 
visited by Europeans. By washing the pulp in water and suffering 
the latter to stand, a sediment of starch is produced, which, under 
the name of tapioca, is extensively imported into Europe, where it 
is used for all the purposes to which arrowroot and sago are applied. 
Caoutchouc, or India-rubber, is a well-known elastic gum, furnished 
in greater or less abundance by many plants of this Order, but 
especially by a South American tree, SipJionia or Hevea elastica. 

The fragrant aromatic bark called cascarilla is produced by a 
shrub belonging to this Order, Croion Eletitheria, a native of the 
Bahamas, and by other species of Croton indigenous to the West 
Indies and South America. Croton oil is the product of Croion 
Tiglium, and is so violent a medicine as to be rarely administered 
until all other remedies have failed. Castor oil is expressed from 
the seeds of Ricinus comimmis, an African tree, frequently grown 
in English gardens as an annual, on account of its handsome leaves. 
Poinsetia, some of the Crotons, and EupJiorbias are a good deal 
grown in greenhouses. The Box is the only British tree belonging 
to this Order, of the poisonous properties of which it partakes, 
though to a limited extent. In some parts of Persia it is very 
abundant, and in these districts it is found impossible to keep 
camels, as the animals are very found of browsing on the leaves, 
which kill them. The Dog-mercury [Mercurialis perennis) is 
an herbaceous plant, common in our woods, and an active poison. 
Another species, M. annua, is less frequently met with, and, though 
poisonous, is not so virulent as the other species. 

1. Euphorbia (Spurge). — Perianth or involucre bell-shaped, con- 
taining 12 or more barren flowers or slamens, and I jerlile flower or 
pistil ; ovary 3-lobed ; styles 3 ; stigmas 2-cleft ; capsule 3-celled, 
3-seeded. (Name from Euphorhus, physician to Juba, an ancient 
king of Mauritania, who first employed the plant as medicine.) 

2. Mercurialis (Mercury). — Stamens and pistils on different 
plants. Perianth 3-cleft to the base ; barren flower ; stamens 9, 
or more ; fertile flower, styles 2 ; ovary 2-lobed ; capsule 2-celled, 
2-seeded. (Name in honour of the heathen god, Mercury.) 

3. Buxus (Box). — Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but 
on the same plant. Perianth 4-cleft to fhe base ; barren flower 
with I bract ; stamens 4 ; fertile flower with 3 bracts ; styles 3 ; 
capsule with 3 horns, 3-celled; cells 2-sccdcd. (Name, the Latin 
name of the tree.) 


I. Euphorbia (Spurge) 

1. E. peplis (Purple Spurge).— Grows quite flat to the ground, 
sending out several branches at right angles to the root, in a circular 
manner, about 6 inches across. Smooth and glaucous, and of a 
beautiful glaucous hue ; flower-heads small. Peculiar to the 
sandy sea-shore in South Wales and south of England. — Fl. August, 
September. Annual. 

2. E. helioscopia (Sun Spurge). — Umbel, of 5 rays, which are 
often repeatedly forked ; leaves oblong, tapering towards the base, 
serrated above ; capsule smooth. Varying in size from 6-12 
inches in height, but easily distmguished by the golden-green hue 
of its spreading umbel, which is large in proportion lo the size of 
the plant, and has several serrated leaves at its base. Cultivated 
ground ; abundant. — Fl. July, August. Annual. 

3. E. peplus (Petty Spurge). — A very common garden weed, 
3-9 inches high, distinguished by its pale hue, its 3-rayed and forked 
umbel of numerous flowers, the involucres of which are crescent- 
shaped, with long horns. — Fl. summer. Cultivated ground. 

4. /:'. exigua (Dwarf Spurge). — A slender species, from i or 
2-8 inches high, with ascending stems and narrow, glaucous leaves. 
Cultivated land ; common. — Fl. June to September. Annual. 

5. E. Lalhyris (Caper Spurge). — A tall, herbaceous species, 2-4 
feet high, remarkable for the glaucous hue of its foliage, its heart- 
shaped, taper-pointed brads, and very large capsules, which abound 
to a great degree, as well as the rest of the plant, m the milky, acrid 
fluid found throughout the family. The leaves also, unlike those 
of other Euphorbias, are all opposite. Common in cottage gardens ; 
not unfreqnent as an escape, and perhaps trifly wild in one or two 
localities. — Fl. June, July. Biennial. 

6. E. paralias (Sea Spurge). — A stout, shrubby plant, 6-12 feet 
high ; stems leafless below, and with numerous glaucous, leathery, 
imbricated leaves above. Sandy sea-shores; uncommon. — Fl. August 
to October. Perennial. 

7. E. segetalis (Portland Spurge). — Distinguished from the last 
by its less robust habit and the red fringe of its stems and leaves, 
and by its leaves being thinner. South and west coasts ; un- 
common. — Fl. June to September. Perennial. 

8. E. amygdaloides (Wood Spurge.) — Stem branched above in 
an umbellate manner into about 5 rays ; r,jys 2-forked ; bracts 
perfoliate ; leaves narrow, egg-shaped, hairy beneath ; glands of 
the involucre crescent-shaped. A common plant, with somewhat 
shrubby stems, 1-2 feet high, conspicuous in .spring and summer 



with its golden-green leaves and flowers, and in autumn with the 
red tinge of its stems and leaves. Woods ; abundant. — Fl. March, 
April. Perennial. 

9. E. platyphyllos (Broaddeaved Spurge). — An erect, slender, 
slightly-branched plant, 6-18 inches high,- smooth or hairy, witli 
the upper leaves broad and heart-shaped, and 3-5 rayed umbels, 
which are again forked. Capsules small and warted. Cultivated 
ground in the south ; rare. — Fl. July to .September. Annual or 

10. E. Hiherna (Irish Spurge). — A smooth, or sometimes downy 
species, 12-18 inches high, with oblong leaves, 2-4 inches in length ; 
umbel 5-rayed ; capsules large and warted. In Ireland and in 
Devonshire. — Fl. May. June. Perennial. 

Two other species are found in Britain, viz. E. pilosa (Hairy 
Spurge). — A tall, leafy, slightly hairy perennial, with glandular 
capsules. Found established in woods near Bath and one or fwo 
other places, but probably not uidigenous ; very rare. And — 

E. esitla (Leafy Spurge). — A very rare species, found only in 
Scotland, and not indigenous. It grows 12-18 inches high, and 
is best distinguished by its many-rayed umbel. 

2. Mercurialis (Mercury) 

1. M.perennis (Dog's Mercury). — A com- 
mon woodland, herbaceous plant, sending 
up from its creeping roots numerous 
simple stems, 6-12 inches high. Each 
stem bears in the upper part several pairs 
of stalked, rather laige, roughish leaves, 
ovate-lanceolate and serrated, and among 
the uppermost of these grow the small 
green flowers, the barren on long stalks, 
the fertile sessile. Woods and shady 
places ; abundant. — Fl. April, May. Per- 

2. M. annua (Annual Mercury). — Taller 
than the last, and distinguished by its 
branched stems, and smaller, smooth, leaves, 
which are of a light green hue. Barren and fertile flswers are some- 
times found on the same plant. Waste places ; not common. — 
Fl. August. Annual. Two forms are found, one with stalked 
leaves, the other with sessile. 

Mercurialis Perknnis 
(Dog's Mercury) 



3. Buxus (Box) 

I. B. sempervirens (Common Box- tree). —A 
small, well-known tree, growing in great abun- 
dance, and apparently wild, on Box-hill in Surrey, 
where it ripens its seeds. In a natural state it 
attains a height of 8 or 10 feet ; in gardens it is 
often clipped into various shapes, and a dwarf 
variety is commonly used^ as an edging to beds. — 
Fl. April. Small tree. 

Natural Order I.XXIV 

CALLITRICHACE.E.— Water Star- wort Tribe 

Flowers in different parts of the same plant, 
axillary, solitary, very minute, imperfect, with 
two white brads at the base ; calyx and corolla 
absent ; barren flower, with one stamen, or very 
rarely two ; filament thread-like, bearing a i-celled 
anther, which opens at the summit by two trans- 
verse valves ; fertile flower, ovary 4-angled, 4-celled ; 
s/)V«s 2, awl-shaped ; s^i'gw a simple ; /r«iY 4-celled, 
4-lobed, 4-seeded, flattened laterally, not opening. 
Small aquatic, herbaceous plants, with long, weak, 
tangled stems, which are usually submerged, opposite simple entire 
leaves, of which the upper alone float on the surface of the water, 
and long, thread-like silvery roots, which proceed from the joints 
of the stem, and are either attached to the soil below or are 
suspended in the water. 

I. Callitriche (Water Star-wort). — Characters given above. 


(Common Box-tree) 

I. Callitriche (Water Star-wort) 

I. C. verna (Vernal Water Star- ^ 
wort). — Leaves in pairs, united at the ^s=g 
base ; flowers in the axils of the leaves ; -^^ 
carpels bluntly keeled at the back. An 
aquatic plant, with long slender stems, 
which send out shining roots from the 
joints ; either growing in running 
water, when the leaves are usually very 
narrow, or in slagnanl wafer, when 
the upper leaves are broader, and float 
on the surface, crowded into a starry 
form, the stamens being the only parts of the plant actually raised 
above it. Streams and stagnant water ; everywhere. — Fl. May to 
July. Annual. 

Callitriche Verna 
{Vernal Water Star-wort) 


2. C. autumnalis (Autumnal Water Star-wort). — Carpels winged 
at the back. Resembling the last, and growing in similar situa- 
tions, but rare. In this species the whole plant is submerged ; all 
the leaves are narrow and abrupt, and of a deeper green. — Fl. June 
to October. Annual. 

Four other British forms of CalUtriche are described by botanists, 
which vary in a sUght degree from the preceding ; but they are not 
of common occurrence, and are on other accounts scarcely deserving 
of a separate notice in a volume of the present scope. 

Natural Order LXXV 

URTICACEiE.— Nettle "Tribe 

Stamens and pistils generally in separate flowers, and often on 
different plants ; perianth divided, not falling off, sometimes want- 
ing ; stamens equal in number to the lobes of the perianth, and 
opposite to them ; anthers curved inwards in the bud, and often 
bursting with elasticity ; ovary i, simple ; fruit, a hard and dry 
i-seeded capsule. A difficult Order, the limits of which are vari- 
ously assigned by different botanists. In its widest extent it 
contains some 1500 species, among which are a number of valuable 
fruits, as the famous Bread-fruit and Jack-fruit (Artocarptis incisi- 
folia and A. integri folia), the Fig, Mulberry, and Sycamore of the 
Scriptures. The Upas-tree of Java and Palo-de-vaca, or Cow-tree 
of Demerara, are arranged in the same Order, with many others. 
In its more limited extent the Nettle Tribe contains 23 families, 
comprising, almost entirely, rough-leaved plants, which, though 
they occasionally acquire the stature of trees, have, nevertheless, 
little more than an herbaceous texture, their wood being remark- 
able for its lightness and sponginess. They are found in most parts 
of the world, occurring as weeds in the temperate and colder 
regions, and attaining a larger size in hot climates. The British 
species of Nettle ( Urtica) are well known for the burning properties 
of the juice contained in the stings (formic, acid), with which their 
foliage is plentifully armed. But, painful as are the consequences of 
touching one of our common nettles, they are not to be compared 
with the effects of incautiously handling some of the East Indian 
species. A slight sensation of pricking is followed by a burning 
heat, such as would be caused by rubbing the part with a hot 
iron ; soon the pam extends, and continues for many hours, or 
even days, being attended by symptoms such as accompany lock- 
jaw or influenza. A Java species produces effects which last for 
a whole year, and are even said to cause death. In some species 
the fibre is so strong that cordage is manufactured from it. The 
burning property of the juice is dissipated by heat, the young 
shoots of the common nettle being often boiled and eaten as a 


vegetable. Besides the use to which Hops are put in the manu- 
facture of beer, the young shoots may also be boiled, when they 
form a delicious vegetable. 

1. Urtica (Nettie). — Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, on 
the same or different plants ; barren flower, perianth of 4 leaves, 
stamens 4 ; fertile flower, perianth of 2 leaves, i-seeded. (Name 
from the Latin, tiro, to burn, from its stinging properties.) 

2. Parietaria (Pellitory). — Stamens and pistils in the same 
flower ; perianth 4-cleft ; stamens 4 ; filaments at first curved in- 
wards, finally spreading with an elastic .spring ; fruit i-seeded. 
(Name from the Latin, paries, a wall, wh"ere these plants often 

3. HuMULUS (Hop). — Stamens and pistils on different plants ; 
barren flower, perianth of 5 leaves ; stamens 5 ; fertile flower, a 
catkin composed of large concave scales, each of which has at its 
base two styles and i seed. (Name from the Latin, humus, rich 
soil, in which the plant flourishes.) 

I. Urtica (Nettle) 

1. U. dioica (Great Nettle). — Roots creeping; stems 2-3 feet 
high ; lower leaves heart-shaped at the base, tapering to a point ; 
zipper leaves narrower ; flowers in long, branched clusters. A 
common weed, too well known to need further description. — 
Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. [/. wens (Small Nettle). — Leaves elliptical ; flowers in short, 
nearly simple clusters. Smaller than the last, but closely resem- 
bling it in habit and properties. Waste places ; abundant. — 
Fl. July to October. Annual. 

3. U. pilulifera (Roman Nettle), — Taller than the last, about 
2 feet high, with ovate, heart-shaped leaves, and globular heads of 
flowers. Local and not indigenous. — Fl. July to October. Annual. 

2. Parietaria (Pellttory-of-the-wall) 

I. P. officinalis (Common Pellitory-of-the-waU). — The only 
British species. A umcli-branched, bushy, herbaceous plant, with 
narrow, hairy leaves, reddish, brittle steins, and small, hairy flowers, 
which grow in clusters in the axils of the leaves. The filaments are 
curiously jointed and elastic, so that if touched before the exjiansion 
of the flower, they suddenly spring from Iheir incurved position 
and shed their pollen. In rural districts an 111 fusion of this plant 
is a favourite medicine. — Fl. all the summer. Perennial. 



Pellitory ol the Wall 

Stinging Nettle 
Lesser Stinging Nettle 


3. HUMULUS {Hop)- 

I. H. lupulus (Common Hop). — A beautiful climbing plant, 
commonly cultivated for the sake of its catkms, which are'used to 
give a bitter flavour to beer, and naturalized in many places. — 
Fl. July. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXVI 

ULMACE^.— Elm Tribe 

Stamens and pistils in the same 01- different flowers ; perianth 
bell-shaped, often irregular ; stamens equalling in number, and 
opposite to, the lobes of the perianth ; ovary not attached to the 
perianth, 2-celled ; stytes and stigmas 2 ; fruit i- or 3-celled, not 
bursting, drupedike, or furnished with a leafy border. Trees or 
.shrubs with rough leaves and clustered flowers (never in catkins) 
inhabiting temperate climates, and often forming valuable timber 

1. Ulmus (Elm). — Perianth bell-shaped, 4- to 5-cleft, persistent; 
stamens 5 ; styles 2 ; capsule thin and leafdike, containing a single 
seed. (Name, the Latin name of the tree.) 

I. Ulmus (Elm) 

r. U. montana (Scotch or Wych Elm). — -A tall tree, with almost 
stalkless leaves, which are obliquely ovate and edged with double 
teeth ; fruit ovate, green, .slightly notched at the top, and with the 
seed about the centre ; no suckers from the roots. Chiefly found 
in the north. — Fl. March. Tree. 

2. U. campestris (Common Elm). — A tall tree, very near the 
last. Fruit deeply notched, and seed in the upper half, near Ihe 
notch. Growth usually more upright that in TJ . montana. A 
variety with somewhat pendulous branches fs sometimes erroneously 
called Wych Elm. A variety is not unfrequcnt in hedges with 
rough, corky bark on stems and twigs. Hedges, parks, etc. ; 
common. — Fl. March. Tree. 

Natural Order LXXVH 

AMENTACE.E. — Catkix-bearing Tribe 

Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, and often on different 
plants ; barren flowers in heads or catkins, composed of scales ; 
stamens 1-20, inserted on the scales ; fertile flower, clustered, 
solitary, or in catkins ; ovary usually simple ; stigmas i or more. 
An extensive Order, containing a large number of trees which are 
highly valued for their fruit, timber, bark, and other minor pro- 
ductions. They are most abundant in temperate climates, com- 


prising a large proportion of our English forest trees. They have 
been subdivided by botanists into several Sub-orders, or groups, 
four of which contain British specimens. The first Sub-order, 
Salicine^e (the Willow group), is distinguished by bearing all its 
flowers in catkins, the fruit being a 2-valved capsule, containing 
numerous seeds tufted with down. In the Sub-order, Myricejj 
(Sweet-Gale group), the flowers are all in catkins, and the ripe fruit 
assumes a drupe-like apipearance, from Ijeing invested by the 
fleshy scales of the catkin. In Betuline^ (Birch group) the 
flowers are all in catkins, and the fruit is thin and flattened, con- 
taining I or 2 seeds, which are not tufted with down. In CuPULi- 
FBRJE the fertile flowers grow in spikes or tufts, the barren flowers 
in catkins, and the fruit is either wholly or partially invested with 
a tough case, termed a cupula. By some modern botanists these 
groups are severally treated as distinct Orders, under the names of 
Salicace.e, MvRicACE.iE, Betulace.e, and Cupulifeile ; but it 
has been thought expedient to retain the few examples described 
in this volume under the comprehensive Order Amentace^. 

Suh-order I, Salicine^. — Willow Group 

1. Salix (Willow). — Stamens and pistils on different plants 
(dioecious) ; scales of the catkin imbricated, entire ; stamens 1-5 ; 
stigmas 2 ; capsule of 2 valves, i-celled ; seeds numerous, tufted 
with cottony down. (Name, the Latin name of the plant.) 

A very large genus, widely distributed from the tropics to the 
Arctic regions, and found both in low-lying lands and at great alti- 
tudes. This is perhaps the most puzzling famfly with which the 
student will meet. Not only do many confusing natural hybrid 
forms occur, but botanists often find it difficult to " pair " the male 
and female forms of the same species. As many as thirty British 
species have been described, but the truly distinct forms are pro- 
bably about half that number. For a detailed description of the 
species the student is referred to Bentham and Hooker's " British 
Flora," or John's " Forest Trees of Britain." 

2. PoPULUS (Poplar). — Stamens and pistils on different plants ; 
scales of the catkin jagged ; stamens 8-30 ; stigmas .4 or 8 ; capsule 
of 2 valves, obscurely 2 - celled ; seeds numerous, tufted with 
cottony down. (Name from the Latin, populus, and signifying 
ths tree of the people, which it was considered to be at Rome and in 
France during the revolutions.) 

The three principal British species are — 

P. alba (White Poplar, Abele), — A tall growing tree, with smooth 
ash-grey bark ; ovate-cordate, lobed leaves, white, with cottony 
down on the under side ; buds downy ; the roots send up many 
suckers. Perhaps indigenous and much planted. 

Silver Birch 


Common Alder 


P. tremula (Aspen). — Smaller than the last ; leaves smaller, 
orbicular, toothed, not cottony beneath, borne on slender stems, 
and therefore agitated by the least breath of air ; suckers from 
the root. 

POPULUS (Poplar) 

P. nigra (Black Poplar). — A tall tree of pyramidal growth. 
Leaves rhomboid, serrated, not cottony beneath ; buds sticky ; 
no suckers from the root. Not indigenous, but common by streams 
and rivers. 

The Lombardy Poplar is not indigenous, having been introduced 
from the East. 

Suh-order II. Myrice.e. — Sweet-Gale Tribe 

3. Myrica (Sweet-Gale). — Stamens and pistils on difterent plants ; 
scales of the catkin concave ; stamens 4-8 ; stigmas 2 ; fruit drupe- 
like, i-seeded. (Name, the Greek name ot the Tamarisk.) The 
only British species is M. Gale (Sweet-Gale). — A low shrub, about 
3 feet high, which has a sweet resinous smell when bruised. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, toothed towards the upper end. The catkins 
appear before the leaves in the spring. Found in bogs in Scotland 
and the north of England, and occasionally in the south. 

Siib-order III. Betuline^.. — Birch Group 

4. Betula (Birch). — Stamens and pistils in separate flowers 
(monoecious) ; scales of the barren catkins in threes ; stamens 
10-13 ; scales of the fertile catkin 3-Iobed, ^-flowered ; stigmas 2 ; 
fruit flattened, i-seeded, winged. (Name, the Latin name of the 
tree.) There are two British species, viz. — 

B. alba (Common, White, or Silver Birch). — A very graceful 
tree, with silvery-white bark, which peels= from the trunk in a 
curious manner. The branches are slender and somewhat pendu- 
lous, and the leaves, borne on long stalks, are broadly ovate, 
pointed, and serrate. A common forest tree. 


B. nana (Dwarf Birch). — A mountain shrub or smaU tree, with 
wiry branches, and numerous rounded, notched leaves, which are 
beautifully veined. Scotland and the north of England. 

5. Alnus (Alder). — Stamens and -pistils in separate flowers ; 
scales of the barren catkin 3-lobed, 3-flowered ; stamens 4 ; scales 
of the fertile catkin 2-flowered, permanent, becoming hard and 
dry ; stigmas 2 ; fruit flattened, not winged. (Name, the Latin 
name of the tree.) A. glutinosa (Common Alder) is the only 
British species belonging to this famfly. It is a smallish tree, with 
dingy bark, and short-stalked leaves, broadly ovate, wavy at the 
edge, and toothed ; catkins two or thee together, barren ones long ; 
fertile ones roundish, hard, woody, hanging for a long time on the 
tree. A widely diffused tree, growing in swampy ground in most 
of the temperate regions of the globe. 

Suh-order IV. Cupulifer^e. — Mast-bearing Group 
Stamens and pistils in separate flowers (Monoecious) 

6. Fagus (Beech). — Barren ^oz^'fifs in a globose catkin ; stamens 
5-15 ; fertile flowers 2 together, within a 4-lobed, prickly involucre ; 
stigmas 3 ; nuts 3-cornered, enclosed in the enlarged involucre. 
(Name in Greek, phegos, a species of Oak ; in Latin, fagus, a Beech.) 

F. sylvatica (Common Beech). — The -only British species. 
A large, handsome tree, with smooth, greyish bark, and short- 
stalked, ovate leaves, silky when young, and rather thin, smooth 
texture when fully expanded. The three-cornered masts or nuts 
are much appreciated by squirrels and children. Indigenous, and 
a largely planted forest tree. 

7. Castanea (Chestnut). — Barren flowers in a very long, spike- 
like catkin ; stamens 10-20 ; fertile flowers 3 together, within a 
4-lobed, very prickly involucre ; stigmas 6 ; nuts not distinctly 
3-cornered, enclosed in the enlarged involucre. (Latin, the name 
of the tree.) C. sativa (Sweet, or Spanish Chestnut). — A handsome 
tree, with perpendicularly furrowed bark, and smooth, narrow, 
sharply serrated leaves. The male catkins are 4 or 5 inches long, 
and have a heavy sickly smell. The nuts,, though frequently pro- 
duced in England, are usuaUy small ; but in some parts of Southern 
Europe they form the chief article of food of the inhabitants. Not 
indigenous, but frequently planted. 

8. QuERCUS (Oak). — Barren flowers in a long, drooping catkin; 
stamens 5-10; fertile flowers with a cup-shaped, scaly involucre; 
stigmas 3 ; fruit, an acorn. (Name, the Latin name of the tree.) 
Q. Robiir (British Oak). — One of our mosi splendid forest trees, 
too well known to need much description. The leaves, which often 
hang on the trees tiU very late into the winter, are very variable 

I- If 

$" t ; 
,* ' f 






Spanish Chestnut 



in general outline, with usually sinuate, bluntly-lobed edges, 
sometimes almost pinnately lobed. The (Excellence of the timber 
has become almost proverbial ; the bark is used for tanning ; the 
galls, which form from the attacks of certain insects, have been used 
in the manufacture of ink ; and the acorns are relished by swine. — 
Fl. in spring, when the leaves are expanding. 

9. CoRYLUS (Hazel). — Barren flowers in"a long, droopmg, cyhn- 
drical catkin ; scales 3-cleft ; stamens 8 ; fertile flowers, several, 
enclosed in a bud-like involucre ; stigmas 2 ; nut enclosed in the 
enlarged, jagged involucre. (Name, the Latin name of the tree.) 

C. avellana (Common Hazel). — A shrub or small tree, with coarse, 
rounded, serrated leaves. The barren catkins, which form in the 
autumn, expand early in spring before the leaves appear ; the 
fertile flowers may be recognized by their crimson stigmas ; nuts 

10. Carpinus (Hornbeam). 
— Barren flowers in a long 
cylindrical catkin ; scales 
roundish ; fertile flowers in 
a loose catkin ; scales large 
and leaf-like, 3-lobed ; stig- 
mas 2 ; nut strongly ribbed. 
(Name, the Latin name of 
the tree.) A small tree, 
with ovate, doubly serrate 
leaves, somewhat downy be- 
neath. The tough wood is 
used for making cog-wheels. 
Indigenous to the south of 
England and Wales. — Fl. 

when the leaves are expand- Carpinus Betulus 

ing in spring. (Common Hornbeam) 

Natural Order LXXVIH 
CONIFER^.— Fir Tribe 

Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, and often on different 
trees. Stamens collected in sets around a common stalk : fertile 
flowers in cones, destitute of styles and stigmas ; fruit, a cone, com- 
posed of hardened scales or bracts, bearing, at the base of each, 
naked seeds, which are often winged. A large Order of trees, 
represented in all parts of the globe. They vary from mere stunted 
bushes to the gigantic Redwood trees of California. Only three 
species are natives of Britain, but a large number are planted both 
as forest trees and as ornamental garden trees and bushes. 



I. PiNus (Fir). — Barren flowers, in clustered, scaly catkins, the 
upper scales bearing sessile anthers ; fertile flowers in an egg-shaped 
catkin, which finally becomes a woody cone ; seeds winged. (Name, 
the Latin name of the tree.) 

P. syhestris (Scotch Fir). — A tall, picturesque tree, with reddish 
bark, and a dense, tufted head. Leaves in pairs, about 2 inches 
long, surrounded by scales, evergreen. The cones are smaU, sessile, 
and grow 1-3 together. Wings of the 
seeds 2 or 3 times as long as the seeds. 
Indigenous in the Highlands of Scotland, 
and largely planted elsewhere. 

2. JuNiPERUS (JcUniper). — Barren flowers 
in scaly catkins ; anthers attached to the 
base of the scales" ; fertile flowers in cat- 
kins of a few united scales, which finally 
become a fleshy herry, containing 3 seeds. 
(Name, the Latin name of the tree.) 

/. communis (Common Juniper) is a 
native of aU the northern parts of Europe, 
and in Great Britain is generaUy found 
on hiUs and heathy downs, especiaUy in 
the north, and where the soil is chalky. 
The berries are much used to flavour 
hoUands or geneva, a spirit distilled from 

JuNiPERUs Communis 
(Common Juniper) 

3. Taxus (Yew). — Barren flowers 
in oval catkins, which are scaly 
below ; stamens numerous ; fertile 
flowers solitary, scaly below ; frtiit, 
a naked seed, surrounded at the 
base by the enlarged pulpy scales. 
(Name, the Latin name of the tree.) 

T. haccata (Common Yew). — The 
only British yew, is an evergreen 
tree, remarkable for its longevity. 
The foliage is poisonous, but the red 
pulp of the berries is said to be in- 
nocuous, being often eaten by chil- 
dren without ill effect. The hard 
stone, however, should not be swal- 
lowed. The variety called Irish 
Yew has erect, mstead of spreaduig 

Taxus Baccata 
(Common Yew) 



Scotch Fii- 

S allow 


Class II 


In the plants belonging to this class the embryo of the seed is 
accompanied by a single cntyledon. The stem consists of woody 
fibre, cellular tissue, and spiral vessels ; bnt there is no true bark 
nor pith, nor is the wood arranged in concentric layers. The stem 
increases in density (scarcely at all in diameter) by deposits at or 
near the centre ; hence plants of this class are called Endogenous 
(increasing by additions on the inside). As new substance is 
deposited, the old layers of wood are pressed outwards, and thus 
the hardest part is near the circumference. The growth of the 
stem is usually produced by a single terminal hud, without the aid 
of bnds in the axils of the leaves ; there are, however, exceptions 
to this rule, and the stem is often hollow. The principal veins of 
the leaves are parallel, not forming a complicated network. The 
flowers are furnished with stamens and pistils, 3, or some multiple 
of 3, being the predominating number of the parts of fructification. 
A large number are destitute of petals, the place of which is supplied 
by scales or chaff (glumes). 

Sub-Class I 

Flowers furnished with petals, arranged in a circular order, or 
without petals.* 

Natural Order LXXIX 

HYDROCHARIDACEiE.— Frog-bit Tribe 

Flower-buds enclosed in a sheath ; sepals 3, green ; petals 3 ; 
stamens 3, 9, 12, or more ; ovary inferior, i or many-ceUed ; style i ; 
stipnas 3-9 ; fruit dry or juicy, not bursting, i or many-celled. 
A tribe of aquatic plants, often floating, among which the most 
remarkable is Valisneria spiralis, the flower of which grows at the 
extremity of a long, spiral stalk. As the bud expands the spire 
partially uncoils, allowing the flower to fl®at on the surface for a 
few hours, and then contract again, drawing thf seed-vessel beneath 
the surface, there to ripen its seeds. The number of species is 

* Sub -Class II, Glumace.'e, contains plant? which have, instead of 
petals, chaffy scales, or glumes, which are not arranged in a circular order, 
as is the case with PetaloidecB, but are imbricated, such as the Grasses 
or Sedges. 



small, and only two arc natives ot Britain. A species of com- 
paratively recent introduction is Anacharis Alsinastrum, a sub- 
merged aquatic, having much the habit of Potamogeton densiis, 
from which it may be at once distinguished by bearing its leaves 
three and sometimes four in a whorl. It increases so rapidly that 
in some places it has seriously impeded canal navigation, and it is 
a troublesome pond weed. It is a native of North America, but 
how it was introduced into this country is unknown. 

An.\charis Alsinastrum 



1. Hydrochaeis (Frog-bit). — Stamens and pistils on different 
plants ; stamens 9-12 ; ovary 6-cellcd ; stigmas 6. (Name from 
the Greek, hydor, water, and charis, elegance, the plants being 
showy aquatics.) 

2. Stratiotes (Water-soldier). — Stamens and pistils on different 
])lants ; stamens about 12, surrounded by many imperfect ones ; 
ovary 6-celIed ; stigmas 6. (Name, the Greek for a soldier, from 
its rigid, prickly, sword-shaped leaves.) 

I. Hydrocharis (Frog-bit) 

I. H. Morstis-rancB (Frog-bit).— The only British species. A 
floating aquatic, with creeping stems, roundish stalked leaves, and 
delicate white flowers, which grow 2 or 3 together from a pellucid 
2-leaved sheath. Ponds and ditches ; not general. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial, 


Broad-leaved Helleboriue 


Early Purple OrcMs 
■White Hclleborine 

Marsh Heilet'-ijrini? 



I. Stratiotes (Water-soldier) 
I. S. iildiiles (Waler-soldier). — The only 

British speciei- 

east of England. 

growing in ditches in the 
The roots extend to 
some distance into the mud, and throw 
out numerous rigid, prickly leaves, like 
those of an Aloe ; the flower-stalk is about 
6 inches high, and bears at its summit a 
2-leaved sheath, containing several delicate 
white flowers, bearing stamens, or one 
flower only, bearing pistils. It rises to the 
surface before flowering, and then sinks to 
the bottom. — Fl. Jul}'. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXX 
ORCHIDACE^.— Orchideous Tribe 
Sepals 3, often coloured ; petals 3, the 



lowest unlike the rest, and frequently 
spurred ; stamens and style united into a 
central column ; pollen powdery or viscid, sometimes raised in masses 
on minute stalks ; ovary i-celled ; stigma a viscid hollow in front 
of the column ; /ruit, a 3-valved capsule, with 3 rows of seeds. A 
very extensive tribe of perennial herbaceous plants, with fibrous or 
tuberous roots, fleshy or leathery leaves, all the veins of which are 
parallel, and flowers so variable in form as to defy general descrip- 
tion, yet so peculiar that very slight expcsrience will enable the 
student to refer them to their proper tribe. British species have 
for the most part two or more glossy sheathing leaves, and bear 
their flowers in simple spikes or clusters. The colour of the flowers 
is purple, mottled with various other tints — flesh-coloured, white, 
or greenish. The structure of the lower lip of the corolla is in 
many cases most singular, sometimes resembling in form, size, and 
colour, insects which naturally frequent the places where the flowers 
grow : such are the Bee, Fly, and Spider Orchis (Opkrvs apifera, 
0. muscifera, and 0. aranifera). In other instances the same organ 
presents a fantastic caricature of some more important subject of 
the animal kingdom : such are the Man, and Monkey Orchis (Aceras 
anthropophora and Orchis macra). The same mimicking extends 
to foreign species. " So various are they in form," says Dr. Lindley, 
" that there is scarcely a common reptile or insect to which some 
of them have not been likened." Occasionally the structure is 
more complex : in Caleana nigrita the column is a boat-shaped 
box, resembling a lower lip ; the lip itself forms a lid that exactly 
fits it, and is hinged on a claw, which reaches the middle of the 
column ; when the flower opens the lip turns round within the 


column and falls back, so that the flower being inverted, it stands 
fairly over the latter. The moment a small insect touches its 
point, the lip makes a sudden revolution, brings the point to the 
bottom of the column, and makes prisoner any insect which the 
box will hold. When it catches an insect, it remains shut as long 
as its prey continues to move about ; but if no capture is made, 
the lid soon recovers its position. The many strange forms found 
among the orchid tribe mostly hinge on the question of cross 
poUenization, and the ingenious devices which ensure this end are 
truly marvellous. Orchideous plants are to be found in all climates 
except the very coldest and driest ; they are most abundant in the 
hot, damp regions of the tropics, where they exist in the greatest 
profusion ; not, as in temperate countries, deriving their nourish- 
ment from the earth, but supported by the moisture that floats 
around them. Clinging to the trunks and branches of trees, to the 
stems of ferns, and even to the bare rock, they seem to adopt the 
habits of animals as well as to imitate their forms. In many cases 
the flowers only are conspicuous, the plant itself consisting of 
creeping, claw-like roots, and tufts of elliptical bulbs, from the 
summit of which spring a few tough leaves and wiry, jointed stems, 
which seem incapable of producing the curiously-shaped and finely 
coloured flowers they are shortly to bear. Of late years, great 
attention has been paid to the cultivation of exotic Orchideous 
plants, and by imitating as far as possible their natural condition 
great success may be obtained ; and if an orchid house be well 
managed, some one or other of these curious air plants, as they 
have been called, may be seen in bloom at all seasons of the year, 
some clinging to broken potsherds, some to logs of wood, some to 
cocoanut fibre, or simply suspended by wires from the roof of the 
house. It is somewhat remarkable that endless as are the varieties 
of form which the flowers of this tribe assume, their properties 
vary but little. They furnish few, if any, medicines of importance ; 
to the useful arts they contribute only a kind of cement or glue, 
which is recommended by no particular excellence ; a nutritious 
substance called Salep is prepared from the roots of Orchis mascula 
and other species, but this is not extensively used ; and though 
the flowers of many species are very fragrant, no perfume is ever 
extracted from them. With the exception of Vanilla aromatica, 
which is much used in flavouring chocolate and other sweetmeats, 
no plant in the Order can be said to be extensively used, either 
in the arts or sciences. On the other hand. Orchids may be almost 
called the precious stones of the plant world. So enthusiastic do 
cultivators become that they will often pay hundreds of pounds 
for a single specimen of a new or rare sort, and the adventures of 
Orchid-hunters in the tropics and the romance of the Orchid sale- 
rooms in London are an astounding testimony to the fascination 
of these strange plants. 

Lady's Treftpe.s 

Oommou Tvvayblade 

Spotted O to bis 


The characters by which the famUies of this Order are (hs- 
tinguished are, owing to the curious structure of the flowers com- 
prised in it, so peculiar, that they require to be attentively studied 
by reference to fresh sjiecimens before any description of them can 
be understood. It has been thought necessary, therefore, in the 
case of the Orchideous Tribe, to depart from the method pursued 
in other parts of this work, and, instead of perplexing the student 
with a systematic detail of generic characters, to describe such 
species as are of common occurrence, attention being paid only 
to their more obvious characters. The student will thus be enabled 
to ascertain the names of most, if not all, of the species which are 
likely to excite his attention. He may then examine them with 
accuracy, and when he has made himself acquainted with their 
structure and peculiarities, he will be in a position to compare 
whatever new species may fall in his way with the descriptions 
given in works of higher pretention. 

Orchis mascula (Early Purple Orchis). — A succulent plant, 
about a foot high, flowering in May and June, and abounding in 
woods and pastures wherever the Wild Hyacinth flourishes. The 
root consists of two roundish solid tubers ; the leaves are of a 
liliaceous texture, stained with dark putple spots, oblong, and 
clasping the stem ; the stem is solitary, and bears an erect cluster 
of purple flowers, mottled with lighter arid darker shades ; each 
flower rises from a somewhat twisted ovary, and has a long spur, 
which turns upwards. The colour of tlie"flower, associated as it 
often is with Cowslips and Wild Hyacinths, is rich and beautiful, 
but the odour is strong and offensive, especially in the evening. 

0. Morio (Green- winged Meadow Orchis). — Comes into flower 
about the same time with the last, and resembles it in habit. It 
is, however, a shorter plant, and bears fewer flowers in a cluster ; 
it is best distinguished by the two lateral sepals, which are strongly 
marked with parallel green veins, and benf upwards, so as to form 
a kind of hood over the column. It grows in meadows, and is 
often very abundant. 

Orchis pyramidalis (Pyramidal Orchis). — Grows about a foot 
high, has narrow, pointed leaves, and bears at the sunmiit of its 
somewhat slender stem a dense cluster, broad at the base and taper- 
ing to a point, of small, deep rose-coloured flowers, which are re- 
markable for the length and slenderness of the spur. It usually 
grows on chalk or limestone, and flowers in July. 

Orchis maculata (Spotted Orchis) may be distinguished from 
either of the preceding by its root, which consists of two flattened 
tubers, divided at the extremity into several finger-like lobes. Its 
leaves are spotted like those of 0. masctda, and its flowers are light 
purple, curiously marked with dark lines and spots. It grows 
abundantly on heaths and commons, flowering in June and July. 


Orchis latifoUa (Marsh Orchis) is a taller plant than the last, but 
has, like it, palmated roots ; the leaves are remarkably erect ; 
flowers rose-coloured or purple, and the brails, which taper to a fine 
point, are longer than the flowers. It grows abundantly in marshes 
and wet pastures, and blossoms in June arid July. All the above 
species, especially 0. Mario, occasionally bear white flowers. 

0. mililaris (Military Orchis) is a rather tall f^i'owing species, 
with purple, short-spurred flowers, found only in some of the south- 
eastern counties bordering the Thames. 

0. ustidata (Dwarf Orchis). — A dwarf species, bearing dense 
spikes of purple flowers, which are small and very short-spurred ; 
the unexpanded floiiiers are of a remarkably dark purple. Chalky 
hills ; not common. 

0. laxiflora (Loose Orchis). — Not unlike 0. mascnla, but the 
leaves are narrow and unspotted ; flowers red, in a loose spike ; 
bracts broad and veined. Found only in the Channel Isles. 

0. hircina (Lizard Orchis). — A very rare species, found only in 
Kent and Suffolk. It grows 1-4 feet high, and is remarkable for its 
loose spike of greenish flowers, spotted with red, lip very long, and 
for its objectionable smell of goat. 

Gymnadenia conopsea (Sweet-scented Orchis) somewhat resembles 
Orchis maculata ; the flowers are rose-purple, but not spotted, and 
very fragrant ; the spur is very slender, and twice as long as the 
ovary. It grows in dry, hilly, or mountainous pastures, and 
flowers in June and July. 

Habenaria bifolia (Butterfly Orchis) is a singular plant, but not 
appropriately named, for the resemblance which its flowers bear 
to a butterfly is very slight. It bears two broad leaves immediately 
above the root ; the stem is slender and angular, about a foot high, 
and bears a loose cluster of greenish-while flowers, which are re- 
markable for the length of the spur and for the strap-shaped lower 
lip of the corolla. It grows on heaths and the borders of woods, 
blooming in June. The flowers are fragrant in the evening. 

H. viridis (Green Ilabenaria or Frog Orchis) and H. albida (Small 
White Habenaria) are smafl plants, from 6-8 inches high, the former 
with green, very short spurred flowers ; the latter with flowers 
which are white and fragrant. Neither is very common. 

H. intacta is a small species with often spotted leaves, and pink 
or purple, sometimes white, short spurred flowers. Found only 
in the west of Ireland. 

Listera ovata (Twayblade) grows from 12-18 inches high, and is 
well marked by its bearing, about half-way up its cylindrical stem, 
two opposite, egg-shaped leaves ; the flowers are small and green. 
It is not uncommon in woods and orchards, and flowers in June. 


Man Orchis 
Ply Orchis 

Bee Orchia 
Butterfly Orchis 


Listera cordafa (Heart-leaved Twayblade) is a much smaller 
plant, with two heart-shaped leaves. It occurs in mountainous 
districts, chiefly in the north, and flowers from June to August. 

Neottia nidus-avis (Bird's nest) is a pale, reddish-brown plant, 
about a foot high, entirely destitute of leaves, the place of which is 
supplied by numerous sheathing, brown scales. The root consists 
of many short fleshy fibres, for the extremities of wliich the young 
plants are produced. It is found sparingly in shady woods, 
flowering in June. 

Spiranthus antiimnalis (Autumn Lady's tresses). — A curious little 
plant, from 4-6 inches high, with tuberous roots and a spike of 
small white flowers, which are arranged in a single row, and in a 
spiral manner, in some specimens from left to right, in others from 
right to left, round the upper portion of the stalk. The flowers are 
fragrant in the evening. The leaves form a tuft just above the 
crown of the r%ot, and wither before the flowers begin to expand. 
These are succeeded by a tuft of new lea\'es, which rise from the 
base of the old stems. Not uncommon in dry pastures, flowering 
in September and October. Two other species of Spiranthes occur, 
both exceedingly rare ; they are S. cestivalis (Summer Lady's 
tresses) and 5. Romazoviana (Drooping Lady's tresses). The 
former is taller, and has larger flowers than 5. autumnalis, and is 
found only in Hampshire and Worcestershire ; the latter is only 
found at Bantry Bay, in Ireland. 

Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchis). — The distinctive character of the 
flower of this curious plant is given in its name, and the same may 
be said of 0. miiscifera (Fly Orchis) ; both species occur in con- 
siderable abundance in many of the limestone and chalk districts. 
No one who has heard that plants exist bearing these names can 
doubt their identity, should they fall in his way. The former of 
these flowers in June and July, the latter in May and June. 

The Spider Orchis (Ophrys aranifera) is erf rare occurrence. 

Goodyera repens (Creeping Goodyera) is a small plant with creep- 
ing roots, and one-sided spikes of small, greenish white flowers, not 
unlike Spiranthes, but the spike not spiral. Rare and local ; found 
in Cumberland and in Scotland. Fir woods. — Fl. late summer. 

Corallorhiza innata (Coral-root). — Well marked by its curiously- 
toothed roots, which in figure resemble branched coral ; the stem 
which bears scales in place of leaves, is some 9 inches high, and of 
a yellowish-green colour. Flowers small, greenish yellow. Con- 
fined to the east of Scotland ; damp woods. 

Acer as anthropophora (Man Orchis) bears a long loose spike of 
greenish-yellow flowers, which bear a fancied resemblance to a 
man — the two upper side lobes of the lip„ representing the arms, 
the elongated, deeply-cleft, middle lobe the legs and body. Dry 
chalky places in Eastern England. 


Malaxis paludosa (Bog Orchis). — The smallest British Orchideous 
plant, 2-4 inches high, and bears a spike of minute green flowers. 
Found in spongy bogs in many parts of Britain, but never common. 

Liparis Loeselii (Two-leaved Liparis) is confined to the eastern 
counties, where it is rarely found in spongy bogs. It bears a spike 
of 6-12 yellowish flowers on a triangular stalk. 

Cyprifediwn calceolits (Lady's Slipper). — Distinguished by its 
large inflated lip, occurs but rarely in the woods of the north of 
England, and is pronounced by Sir W. J. Hooker " one of the most 
beautiful and interesting of our native plants." 

Natural Order LXXXI 

IRIDACE/E.— Iris Tribe 

Perianth 6-cleft ; stamens 3, rising from the base of the sepals ; 
ovary inferior, 3-celled ; style I ; stigmas 3, often petal-like ; capsule 
3-valved ; seeds numerous. Principally herbaceous plants, with 
tuberous or fibrous roots, long, and often sword-shaped, sheathing 
leaves, and showy flowers, which seldom last a long time. Chiefly 
natives of warm and temperate regions, and most abundant at 
the Cape of Good Hope, where, at the time of its discovery by the 
Portuguese, the natives mainly supported themselves on the roots 
of the plants of this tribe, together with such shell-fish as were left 
on the shore by the receding tide. Iris, Crocus, Ixia, and Gladiolus 
are favourite garden flowers. Iris Pseiid-acorus (Yellow Iris or 
Flag) is one of our most showy marsh plants. Few species are 
used in the arts or sciences ; the roots of Iris Florentma afford 
Orrisroot, which, when dried, has a perfume resembling that of 
violets, and is used as an ingredient in tooth-powder. Saffron, 
the dried stigmas of Crocus sativiis, was anciently much prized as 
a dye, and is still employed for the same purpose, as well as in 
medicine and cookery ; and the roots of a few species are used by 
barbarous nations as an occasional article of food. 

1. Iris. — Perianth with the 3 outer divisions longer, and refle.xed ; 
stigmas 3, petal-like, covering the stamens. (Name from Iris, the 
rainbow, from the beautiful colouring of the flowers.) 

2. RoMULEA (Romulea). — Perianth in 6 equal, spreading divi- 
sions ; tube shorter than the limb ; stigma deeply 3-cleft, its loles 
2-cleft, slender. (Name from Romulus, who founded Rome.) 

3. Crocus. — Perianth in 6 equal, nearly erect divisions ; tube 
very long ; stigma 3-cleft, its lohes inversely wedge-shaped, (Name 
from the Greek, crocos, saffron, and that from croce, a thread.) 

4. Gladiolus. — Perianth in 6 nearly equal divisions, forming 
as it were two lips ; 3 segments in the upper, 2 in the lower ; style 
slender ; lohes of the stigma inversely wedge-shaped. (Name from 
the Latin, gladius, a sword, in reference to the shape of the leaves.) 


Yellow Flftg 



5- SisYRiNCHiUM. — Flowers several, in an umbel or head ; tube 
of the perianth short ; stigmas entire. 

1. Iris {Floit'er-de-luce) 

1. /. fseud-acorus (Yellow Iris, Flag). — Leaves sword-shaped ; 
perianth not fringed, its inner divisions smaller than the stigmas. 
A stout aquatic plant, with creeping, acrid roots, sword-shaped 
leaves 2-3 feet long, and large, handsome yellow flowers. The 
root yields a black dye, and the roasted seeds, it is said, may be 
used as a substitute for coffee. ]\Iarshes and banks of rivers ; 
common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

2. /. fcetidissima (Stinking Iris). — Leaves sword-shaped ; perianth 
not fringed, inner divisions about as large as the stigmas ; stem 
slightly flattened. Resembling the last in habit, but smaller. 
The flowers are of a dull leaden hue, and the leaves so acrid as to 
leave a burning taste in the mouth, or even to I )()sen the teeth. 
The whole plant when bruised emits a disagreeable odour. The 
berry-like seeds, which are of a beautiful orange-scarlet colour, 
remain attached to the plant all through the winter, and a bunch 
of the pods, if cut with long stalks and hung inverted until quite 
dry, and then arranged in some quaint jar or vase (without water), 
remain a pleasing and decorative object throughout the winter. 
Woods and hedges in the west and south-west of England ; not 
uncommon. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. RoMULEA (Ronmlea) 

I. R. columncB (Common Romulea). — The only British species. 
A small, bulbous plant, 3-4 inches high, 
with very narrow leaves, and solitary, 
purplish flowers, tinged with yellow, par- 
taking the characters of the Lris and 
Crocus. It grows only on a sandy pasture 
called the Warren, at Dawlish, Devon. — 
Fl. March, April. Perennial. 

3. Crocus 

I. C. salivas (Saffron Crocus). Leaves 
appearing after the flowers, linear ; flower- 
stalks enveloped with a double sheath ; 
sttgma long and drooping. Said to be 
naturalized at Saffron- Walden, in Essex, 
where it is largely cultivated for the sake 
of the saffron afforded by the dried 
stigmas, the only part of the plant which 
is used. The flowers are purple. — 

Fl. September. Perennial. Crocus Sat ivuo 

(Safjron Crooiis) 


4. Gladiolus {Gladiolus) 
I. G. communis (Common Gladiolus). — The only British species. 
Stem 1-2 feet high, with narrow, glaucous- leaves, and bearing a 
one-sided spike of 4-8 red flowers, each with two narrow bracts at 
its base. Found only in the New Forest -and the Isle of Wight ; 
rare. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

5. SiSYRiNCHiUM {Blue-eyed Grass) 

I. 5. angustifolium (Blue-eyed Grass). — Stems 6-iz inches high, 
2-edged and winged, and with sheathing, narrow leaves ; at the 
summit of the stalk is a head of 1-6 blue flowers. Bogs near Kerry 
and Galway in Ireland, and supposed to bfe indigenous. — Fl. July, 
August. Perennial. 

A species, S. californicum, with yellow flowers, was found in 1896 
at Rosslare, Co. Wexford. 

Natural Order LXXXII 
AMARYLLIDACE^.— Amaryllis Tribe 

Perianth of 3 coloured sepals and 3 coloured petals ; stamens 6, 
arising from the sepals and petals, sometimes united by the base 
of their filaments ; ovary inferior, 3-celled ; style i ; stigma 3-lobed ; 
jriiit, a many-seeded capsule or a i- to 3-seeded berry. Ati extensive 
tribe, principally composed of herbaceous pla:nts with bulbous roots, 
sword-shaped leaves, and showy flowers, which are distinguished 
from the true Lilies by their inferior ovary ; that organ in the 
Lily tribe being superior, and enclosed within the corolla. Large 
and beautiful species belonging to this Order are found in abun- 
dance in Brazil, the East and West Indies, and especially the Cape 
of Good Hope. In the temperate regions they are less common, 
and by no means so showy. In Great Britain it is doubtful whether 
a single species is indigenous, though the number of varieties 
cultivated in gardens, both in conservatories and in the open air, 
is very great. The bulbous roots of many plants belonging to the 
Amaryllis tribe are poisonous ; some, it is said, to such a degree 
that deleterious properties are connnunicated to weapons dipped 
in their juice. The roots of the Snowdrop and Daffodil are emetic, 
and the flowers of the last {Narcissus pseudo-narcissus) are a 
dangerous poison. The roots of some species, however, are nutri- 
tious, affording a kind of arrowroot. 

From the juice of a kind of Agave {A. Americana) a fermented 
liquor is made, which, under the name of " pulque," is in Mexico 
a common beverage. This plant, called by the Mexicans " maguey," 
is cultivated over an extent of country embracing 50,000 square 
miles. In the city of Mexico alone the consumption of pulque 

f M 


I :|-f»- 



Summer Snowflake 


amoimts to the enormous quantity of eleven millions of gallons, 
and a considerable revenue is derived from its sale by Government. 
The plant attains maturity in a period varying from eight to four- 
teen years, when it flowers, and it is during the stage of flowering 
alone that the juice is extracted. The central stem, which encloses 
the flower-bud, is then cut off near the bottom, and a cavity or 
basin is discovered, over which the leaves are drawn close and 
tied. Into this reservoir the juice distils, which otherwise would 
have risen to nourish and support the flower. It is removed three 
or four times during the twenty-four hours, yielding a quantity of 
liquor, varying from a quart to a gallon and a half. The juice is 
extracted by means of a syphon, made of a species of gourd, and 
deposited in bowls. It is then placed in earthen jars, and a little 
old pulque is added, when it soon ferments, and is immediately 
ready for use. The fermentation occupies two or three days, and 
when it ceases it is in fine order. Old pulque has an unpleasant 
odour, which has been compared to that of putrid meat ; but 
when fresh it is brisk and sparkling. In time even Europeans 
prefer it to any other liquor. This Agave is popularly known in 
England by the name of American Aloe. It grows but slowly in 
this climate, and, as it rarely attains perfection, it is believed by 
many people to flower once in a hundred years. The roots and 
leaves of the species of Agave contain woody fibre {pita thread), 
useful for various purposes ; this is prepared by bruising and 
steeping in water, and afterwards beating. The Mexicans also 
make their paper of the fibres of Agave leaves, laid in layers. The 
expressed juice of the leaves is also stated to be useful as a substi- 
tute for soap. 

1. Narcissus (Daffodil). — Perianth tubular at the base, ter- 
minating in a bell-shaped cromi or nectary, which has 6 equal sepals 
and petals at its base. (Named after Narcissus, a fabulous youth, 
said to have been changed into a flower.) 

2. Galanthus (Snowdrop). — Perianth bell-shaped; sepals 3 
(white), spreading ; petals 3, erect, notclied. (Name in Greek 
signifying " milk-flower.") 

3. Leucojum (Snow-flake). — Perianth bell-shaped, of 6 equal 
sepals and petals., which are thickened at the point. (Name in 
Greek signifying " a white violet.") 

I. Narctssus {Daffodil) 

I. N. pseudo-narcissus (Common Daffodil, Lent Lily). — Flower- 
stalk hollow, 2-edged, bearing near its s"ummit a membranous 
sheath and a single flower ; nectary notched and curled at the margin, 
as long as the sepals and petals. One of our most beautiful .spring 


flowers, in many places almost carpeting the woodlands with its 
splendid yellow trumpet-shaped flowers. The smell, unfortimately, 
is not pleasant, and the plant has poisonous properties. Woods 
and orchards ; common. — Fl. March and April. Perennial. 

Several other species of Narcissus are occasionally found near 
houses, but they are invariably the outcast of gardens. 

2. Gai.anthus (Snowdrop) 

I. G. nivalis (Snowdrop). — Too well known to need any descrip- 
tion. The Snowdrop, G. plicatus, which was introduced from the 
Crimea, differs mainly from the common species in having broader, 
plaited leaves, and somewhat larger flowers. — Fl. January to 
March. Perennial. 

3. Leucojum (Snowflake) 

I. L. cestivum (Summer Snowflake). — A doubtful native, found 
occasionaUy in moist meadows in many parts of England. A 
bulbous plant, about 2 feet high, with narrow, keeled haves, and 
2-edged flower-stalks bearing an umbel of rather large white flowers, 
the sepals and petals of which are tipped with green. It is a common 
garden plant. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXXIII 


Stamens and pistils on different plants (dicecious) ; perianth 
6-cleft ; stamens 6, arising from the base of the perianth ; ovary 
inferior, 3-celled ; style deeply 3-cleft ; fntit, a dry, flat capsule, 
or (in Tamils, the only British species) a berry. Twining shrubs or 
herbs, approaching in habit some of the T3icot3'ledonous Orders, 
the leaves being decidedly stalked, and having netted veins ; the 
flowers are small, with 1-3 bracts each, and grow in spikes. The 
Order is a small one, and is, with the exception of Tamils (Black 
Bryony), confined to tropical regions. Dioscorea, the plant from 
which the Order takes its name, has large tuberous roots, which, 
under the name of " Yams," forms as important an article of food 
in tropical countries as the Potato in temperate climates. When 
growing it requires a support, like the Hop. There are several 
species, D. saliva and D. alata being natives of India. The Chinese 
D. Batatas is largely growar in France and Alg^eria, and may be grown 
in this country in the open, though it seldom is. 

I. Tamus (Black Bryony). — Characters described above. (Name, 
the Latin name of the plant.) 


Wilfi Hyacintti tilack Bryony 


r. Tamus {Black Bryony) 
I. T. communis (Black Bryony).— The only British species. 
Root a large, solid tuber, black externally=; stem slender, twining 
among bushes to the length of many feet, and clothed with numerous 
shining, heart-shaped leaves, and clusters of small green flowers, 
which are succeeded by elliptical scarlet berries. The leaves are 
reticulated with veins, somewhat like those of Dicotyledonous 
plants, but they are not jointed to the stem. Late in autumn they 
turn dark purple or bright yellow, when, assisted by the scarlet 
berries, they make a very showy appearance. In winter the stems 
die down to the ground. — Fl. May to July. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXXIV 

TRILLIACE^.— Herb-Paris Tribe 

Sepals and petals 6-8, coloured or green ; stamens 6-10 ; anthers 
very long, their cells, one on each side of the filament ; ovary 
superior, with 3-5 cells, and as many styles ; fruit, a 3- to 5-celled 
berry ; seeds numerous. A small Order, containing about thirty 
herbaceous plants with tuberous roots, whorled, netted leaves, 
and large, solitary, terminal flowers. They grow in the woods of 
the temperate climates, and, like the plants of the last Order, bear 
some resemblance to Dicotyledonous plants. The structure of the 
seed, however, and the fact that the leaves are not jointed to the 
stem, fix them in the class Endogenous or Monocotyledonous plants. 
Their properties are acrid and narcotic. 

I. Paris (Herb-Paris). — Sepals and petals 8, very narrow ; 
stamens 8-10. (Name from the Latin, par, paris, equal, on account 
of the unvarying number of the leaves.) 

I. Paris (Herb-Paris) 

I. P. quadrifolia (Four-leaved Herb-Paris, True Love- Knot). — 
The only British sjjecies. A singular plant, with a stem about a 
foot high, bearing near its summit four large pointed leaves, from 
the centre of which rises a solitary large green flower. Damp woods ; 
local. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXXV 

LILIACE^.— Lily Tribe 

Perianth of 6 petal-like divisions, distinct or united into a tube ; 
stamens 6 ; ovary superior, not united with the perianth, 3-celled, 
many-seeded ; style i ; stigma simple or 3-iobed ; - capsule 3-cclled, 
3-valved. The parts of the flower are very rarely in fours or eights. 
An extensive family of plants, of some 2500 species, of which the 
majority are herbaceous, with bulbous roots and showy flowers ; 
some, however, attain the dimensions of shrubs, or even trees, in 


which case they resemble the Palms rather than exogenous trees, 
the trunk being destitute of true bark and pith, and the leaves 
benig never jointed at the stem. Butcher's Broom {Ruscus) is the 
only British species which assumes a shrubby character ; Asparagus 
is a branching, herbaceous plant, with creeping roots, scaly stems, 
and bristle-like leaves ; Convallaria (Lily of the Valley) has also 
creeping roots. These three produce a berry-like fruit. Plants 
of the Lily tribe are most abundant in temperate climates, but 
attain their greatest magnitude in the tropics. A specimen of 
DraccBua draco (Dragon's Blood) in Teneriffe, which was blown 
down in 1867, and was known to have been an ancient tree in 
1406, measured 70 feet high and some 48 feet in circumference. 
The leaves of many species contain a tough fibre, which is used as 
a substitute for hemp or flax. Among these the most remarkable 
is Phormium tenax (New Zealand Flax). The genus Allium (Onion, 
Garlic, and Leek) supplied food to the early inhabitants of 
Egypt, and had divine honours paid to it. Li Kamtschatka, 
Tartary, and the Sandwich Islands, various species are cultivated 
for the same purpose. The bud and tender part of the stem of the 
Grass-tree, a native of Tasmania, is said to be nutritious, and of 
an agreeable flavour, and in our own country the young shoots of 
Asparagus rank among the most delicate of our esculent vegetables. 
In medicine many species are of great value, among which aloes, 
the condensed juice of Aloe vulgaris, etc., and squills, an extract 
of Scilla maritima, are well known. Colchicum (Meadow Saffron) 
is used as a specific for the gout, but it is considered a dangerous 
medicine. As ornamental plants the beauty of the Lily tribe has 
been for ages proverbial ; Liliuin Chalcedonicum, the scarlet 
Turk's-cap Lily, which covers the plains of Syria with its brilliant 
flowers, is said to have been the plant which was mentioned in the 
Sermon on the Mount under the title of " the lilies of the field." 
The innumerable varieties of Hyacinth are derived from an eastern 
plant, Hyacintlms Orientalis ; and the Tulip (Ttdipa) was long 
the most highly prized among florist's flowers, and furnished in 
Holland a subject for the most absurd speculation, 

1. Asparagus.— CoroWa deeply 6-cleft, bell-shaped; stamens 6, 
distinct ; stigmas 3, bent back. (Name, the Greek name of the 

2. Ruscus (Butcher's Broom). — Corolla deeply 6-cleft ; stamens 
and pistils on different plants {dioecious) ; stamens connected at 
the base ; style surrounded by a nectary. (Name " anciently 
bruscus, from hruskelen ; in Celtic, box-hoUy," — Sir W. J. Hooker.) 

3. Convallaria (Lily of the Valley). — Corolla 6-cleft, bell- 
shaped, soon falling off, not jointed with the pedicle ; stamens 6, 
distinct ; stigma i. (Name from the Latin, convallis, a valley, 
the usual locality of this family.) 


4. PoLYGONATUM (Solomon's Seal). — Corolla 6-cleft, elongated, 
persistent, jointed with the pedicle ; stamens 6, distinct ; stigma i. 
(Name in Greek denoting " many angled," from the character of 
the stem.) 

5. Maianthemum (May I-ily). — Stem erect, with a few alternate 
leaves ; flowers in a simple terminal raceme ; perianth spreading, 
divided in four. 

6. SciLLA. — Flowers blue, white, or pink ; perianth 6-cleft, 
falling off, (Name, the Latki name of the plant.) 

7. Ornithogalum (Star of Bethlehem), — Like Scilla, except 
that the perianth is white, and does not fall off. (Name from the 
Greek, ornis, a bird, and gala, milk. This plant is supposed by 
Linnaeus to be the " dove's dung " mentioned in 2 Kings vi. 25.) 

8. Allium (Garlic). — Corolla of 6 spreading petals ; flowers in 
an umbel, at the base of which is a sheath of i or 2 leaves. (Name, 
the Latin name of the plant.) 

9. SiMETHis. — Roots not bulbous ; fl.owers panicled ; perianth 
divided into 6 segments. 

10. Muscari. — Perianth globular, with 6 minute, tooth-like, 
indications of division. (Name from its musky smell.) 

11. Fritillaria (Fritillary). — Flowers solitary ; petals 6, with 
a nectary at the base of each ; anthers attached above their bases ; 
style 3-cleft at the summit. (Name from the Latin, fritillus, a dice- 
box, the common accompaniment of a chequer-hoard, which the 
marking of the flower resembles.) 

12. Tulipa (Tulip). — Flowers soUtary, rarely 2 on a stem ; petals 
and anthers as in Gagea ; style 0. (Name from tolihan, the Persian 
name for a turban.) 

13. Gage.a. — Flowers in an umbel or corymb ; petals 6, without 
a nectary; anthers erect, attached to the filaments by their bases; 
style conspicuous. (Named in honour of Sir Thomas Gage.) 

14. Lloydia. — Flowers mostly solitary, small ; perianth 6-parted, 
spreading, not falling off. (Named after Ed. Lloyd, who discovered 

15. COLCHICUM (Meadow Saffron). — Perianth with a very long 
tube, rising from a sheath. (Name from Colchis, a country famous 
for medicinal herbs.) 

16. Tofieldia (Scottish Asphodel). — Perianth 6-parted ; flowers 
each from a small 3-lobed sheath, greenish yellow ; styles 3. (Name 
in honour of Mr. To field, an English botanist.) 

17. Narthecium. — Flowers bright yellow ; perianth 6-parted ; 
style I. (Name from the Greek, narthex, a rod.) 



I. Asparagus 

I. A. officinalis (Common Aparagus). — The only British species, 
occurring sparingly on several parts of the sea-coast, especially near 
the Lizard Point, Cornwall ; it differs only in size from the culti- 
vated plant. — Fl. July, August. Perennial.- 

AsPARAGUS Officinalis 
{Common Asparagus) 

Ruscus Aculeatus 
(Butcher's Broom) 

2. Ruscus {Butcher's Broom) 

I. R. aculeatus (Butcher's Broom, Knee Holly). — The only 
British species, and the only British shrub, of Endogenous growth. 
A low shrub, 3-4 feet high, with erect green stems, which are 
branched and plentifully furnished with very rigid leaves, terminat- 
ing each in a sharp spine. The flowers are minute, greenish white, 
and grow singly from the centres of the leaves ; the berries are 
two or three times as large as Holly berries, round, and of a brilliant 
scarlet colour. Waste and bushy places ; not uncommon, especi- 
ally in the south of England. — Fl. April, May. Shrub. 

3. CoNVALLARiA (Lily of the Valley) 

I. C. majalis (Lily of the Valley). — Leaves all from the root ; 
flowers drooping in a long, one-sided cluster. A common and 
universally admired garden plant, equally prized for its globular, 
pure white flowers, and for its delicious perfume. Berries scarlet. 
Woods, in a light soil ; not common. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

Lily of the Valley 
Round-headed Garlic 



Bog Asphodel 




{Solomon's Seal) 



I. P. umltifloruni (Com- 
mon Solomon's Seal). — A 
singular plant, 1-2 feet high, 
with roundish stems, which 
are rather arching than erect, 
and bearing numerous alter- 
nate, elliptical leaves, all 
turned one way, and opposite 
them' are small clusters of 
whitish drooping flowers. 

tipped with green, which are all turned the other way ; filaments 
hairy. Woods in several parts of England and Scotland, but not 
indigenous in the latter country, and not frequent. — Fl. June. 

2. P. officinale (Angular Solomon's Seal) differs from the last 
species in having an angular stem of lower stature, mostly solitary 
flowers, and smooth filaments. Rare. 

3. P. verticillatum (Whorled Solomon's Seal). — Grows about 
2 feet high, and bears its leaves in whorls of 3-5, from the axils of 
which hang several white, green-tipped fl.owers. Rare. 

5. Maianthemum (May Lily) 
I. M. convallaria (May Lily). — A pretty plant with a creeping 
root stock, and an erect stem 4-9 inches high. 
Leaves 2, alternate, acute, heart-shaped, 
stalked ; flowers small and white, in a 
terminal raceme ; perianth 4-cleft. A very 
rare plant, said to be truly wild not far 
from Scarborough, and planted elsewhere.— 
Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

6. SciLLA [Squill) 
I. S. verna (Vernal Squill). — Flowers in 
a corymb ; bracts narrow ; leaves lined, 
appearing with the flowers. A lovely little 
plant, 3-6 inches high, with corymbs, or 
flat clusters of blue, star-like flowers. The 
turfy slopes of the sea-coast of Cornwall are 
in many places as thickly studded with 
these pretty flowers as inland meadows are 
with Daisies. In a few weeks after flower- 
ing no part of the plant is visible but the 

SciLLA Verna 
(Vernal Squill) 



dry capsules, containing black, shining seeds. Sea-coast in the 
west and north of England. — Fl. May. Perennial. 

S. mitumnalis (Autumnal Squill). Flowers in an erect cluster; 
bracts o ; leaves appearing after the flowers. Biilh somewhat larger 
than in the last, and stems rather taller ; flowers of a purplish blue 
and less beautiful than in the last. Dry pastures, especially near 
the sea, in the south, — Fl, August to October. Perennial. 

3. 5. nutans (Wild Hyacinth, Blue-bell). — Too abundant and 
well known to need any description. The name Hyacinthus was 
originally given to some species of Lily into which the youth 
Hyacinthus was fabled to have been changed by Apollo. The 
petals are marked with dark spots, arranged so as to resemble the 
Greek word AI — alas ! The present species, however, having no 
such characters on its petals, was named by Linnaeus non-scriptus 
— not written. It is sometimes, though incorrectly, called Hair- 
bell, the true Hair-bell being Campanula rotimdifolia, or Blue-bell 
of Scotland. Woods and hedges. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 



(Spiked Star of 


7. Ornithogalum {Star of Bethlehem) 

1. 0. Pyrenaicum (Spiked Star of Bethlehem). 
— A bulbous plant, with long, narrow leaves, 
which wither very early in the season, and a 
leafless stalk, about 2 feet high, bearing a long, 
erect, spiked cluster of small, greenish-white 
flowers. Woods in the south ; rare, but very 
abundant in the neighbourhood of Bath, where 
the spikes of unexpanded flowers are often 
exposed for sale as a pot-herb under the name 
of " French Asparagus." 

2. 0. umbellatum (Common Star of Bethlehem). 
— Grows about a foot Mgh, with narrow limp 
leaves, and large, pure white flowers, which are 
green externally, and are borne in flattened 
racemes, or rather corymbs, opening only in 
sunny weather. A common garden plant, natural- 
ized in occasional waste places. — Fl. April, May. 

3. 0. nutans (Drooping Star of Bethlehem). — 
About a foot high, with a raceme of 5 or 6 large, 
drooping flowers, white, and partially green out- 
side. Not indigenous, but rarely found naturalized. — Fl. Aprfl, 
May. Perennial. 



Allium Ursinum 
(Broad-leaved Garlic) 

8. Allium {Garlic) 

I. A. ursinum (Broad-leaved Garlic, Ram- 
sons). — Leaves broad and flat ; flower-stalk 
triangular ; flowers in a flat umbel. The 
leaves of this plant are scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from those of the Lily of the 
Valley ; the flowers are white and pretty, ^ 
but the stench of the whole plant is intoler- "^^^ ■ 
able. Woods and thickets ; common.r^ 
Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

Seven other species of Garlic are described 
by British botanists, but none of them are 
so common as the last, and many are difficult 
to distinguish. The student specially desir- 
ous of studying them should refer to a work 
of greater scope than the present. 

A. Schcenoprasum (Chives) is a pretty plant, with dense heads of 
purplish flowers. In a wild state its foliage is scanty, but under 
cultivation becomes very abundant, in which state it is a favourite 
cottage pot-herb. Several other species are remarkable for bearing 
small bulbs among the flowers. 

9. SiMETHIS (Simethis) 

I. 5. bicolor (Variegated Simethis). — A pretty plant, with narrow, 
radicle, grass-like leaves, and a slender stem about a foot high, 
bearing a terminal panicle of white, star-hke flowers, tinged with 
purple on the outside. Very rare ; found in Kerry and in fir woods 
at Branksome, near Bournemouth, where it was probably accident- 
ally introduced. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

10. MuscARi (Grape Hyacinth) 

I. M. racemosum (Grape Hyacinth). — Leaves narrow, 6-18 inches 
long, prostrate ; stem shorter, bearing a compact, cylindric head 
of small, deep blue, ovid flowers, bearing a faint resemblance to a 
bunch of grapes — the upper ones rudimentary. Eastern counties ; 
rare. — Fl. April, May. Perennial. Several very pretty species 
with pale blue and white flowers are grown in gardens. 

II. Fritillaria {Fritillary) 

I. F. meleagris (Fritillary, Snake's Head). — The only British 
species. A bulbous plant, about a foot high, with very narrow 
leaves and a solitary drooping flower, shaped like a Tulip, and curi- 
ously chequered with pink and dull purple. Meadows and pastures 



in the east and south of England : 
A white form is not uncommon. 

rare. — Fl. April. Perennial. 

Several species are cultivated in garden flower borders, perhaps 
the handsomest being the well-known Crown Imperial. 

12. TULIPA (Tulip) 

I. T. sylvestris (Wild Tulip). — ^The only British species. A 
bulbous plant, with very narrow leaves ; stem about a foot high ; 
flower solitary, yellow, fragrant, drooping in bud, becoming more 
erect with expansion. South and east ; rare. — Fl. April, May. 

13. Gagea 

I. G. /«;<;« (Yellow Gagea) . — The only British species. A bulbous 
plant, 6-8 inches high, with I or 2 long, narrow leaves, and umbels 
of yellow flowers. Woods and pastures ; fare. — Fl. March to May. 

14. Lloydia {Lloydici) 

T. L. serolma (Mountain Lloydia). — A pretty plant, with several 
very slender leaves, and a slender stem, 2-6 inches high, bearing a 
solitary white flower, veined with red. Snowdon ; rare. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

15. CoLCHicuM [Meadow Saffron) 

I. C. autumnale (Meadow Saffron). — The 
only British species. A not unfrequent 
garden plant, with large broad leaves, 
which wither away in summer, and are 
succeeded by several light purple, or some- 
times white flowers, resembling Crocuses in 
all respects except that they have 6 instead 
of 3 stamens. At the time of flowering the 
seed-vessels are concealed beneath the ground, 
where they remain until the following spring, 
when they rise above the surface and are 
ripened. Meadows ; not general. — Fl. Sep- 
tember, October. Perennial. 

CoLCHicuM Autumnale 
{Meadow Saffron) 

16. ToFiELDiA {Scottish Asphodel) 

I. T. paliistris (Mountain Scottish Aspho- 
del). — The only British species. A small 
plant, 4-6 inches high, with tufts of narrow, sword-shaped leaves, 
and egg-shaped, almost stalkless spikes of small, yellowish flowers. 
Boggy gi-ound in the north.— Fl. July, August. Perennial. 


17. Narthecium {Bog Asphodel) 

I. N. ossifragum (Bog Asphodel). — The only British species. 
An elegant little plant, 6-8 inches high, with tufts of narrow, sword- 
shaped leaves, like those of the Iris, and a tapering spike of star-like 
bright yellow flowers. The name ossifragum, bone-breaking, was 
given to this plant fioni ils being supposed to soften the bones of 
cattle that fed on it. Other plants have had the same properties 
assigned to them, but there is little doubt that in every case the 
diseases in question are to be traced to the noxious exhalations 
from the bogs in which the plants grow, rather than to the plants 
themselves. Common in bogs. — Fl. July to September. Per- 

Natural Order LXXXVI 
JUNCACE^.— Rush Tribe 

Calyx and corolla alike, of 6 usually chaffy pieces ; stamens 6, 
inserted mto the base of the petals and sepals, or sometimes 3, 
inserted into the sepals ; anthers turned inwards ; ovary superior ; 
style I ; stigmas 3 ; capsule 3-valved, usually many-seeded. A 
tribe of marsh or bog plants, with cylindrical or flat leaves, some- 
times filled with pith ; the flowers are usually small, and of a 
brownish- green hue. Scientifically they are near the Lily Tribe, 
but they bear a strong superficial resemblance to the Sedges and 
Grasses. This tribe, which is spread over all parts of the globe, is 
not a large one. The true rushes are fqf the most part social 
plants, and are often of considerable use in fixing the soil of marshes 
and bogs. The stems of the common species are used for making 
mats and the wicks of candles. The tall aquatic plant usually 
called the Bulrush, belongs to the Sedge Tribe, the Club-rush to 
the Order Typhace.e, and the Flowering Rush to the Order Buto- 


1. J UNCUS (Rush). — Perianth chaffy ; filaments smooth ; stigmas 
3 ; capsule 3-celled, 3-valved ; seeds numerous. (Name, the Latin 
name of the plant, and that from jungo, to join, the stems having 
been woven into cordage.) 

2. LuzuLA (Wood-rush). — Like Juncus, except that the capsule 
is i-celled and only 3-seeded. (Name supposed to have been 
altered from the Italian lucciola, a glow-worm, from the sparkling 
appearance of the heads of flowers when wet with rain or dew.) 



I. J UNCUS (Rush) 
Stems cylindrical, tapering to a point ; leaves none. 

1. /. effusus (Soft Rush). — Stems not furrowed; 
panicle below the summit of the stem, branched 
and spreading ; capsule blunt. This and the 
following species are well known as the rushes 
of which mats and the wibks of candles are made. 
Marshy ground ; common. — Fl._ July. Per- 

2. /. conglomeratus (Common Rush). — Stems 
not furrowed ; panicle below the summit of the 
stem, crowded ; capsule ending in a point. Only 
distinguished from the last by its dense panicle 
of flowers, and pointed capsule. Marshy places ; 
common. — Fl. July. Perennial. 

juNcus Effusus ^^ j gi^^^om (Hard Rush).— Stews deeply 
{Soft Rush) furrowed, rigid ; panicle below the summit of 
the stem, branched and spreading. Very distinct from the last 
two, from which it may be distinguished by its more slender, 
furrowed, glaucous stems, and its very loose panicle of slender 
flowers. Marshy places and road.sides ; common. — Fl. July. 

Several other species Vjelong to this group, but none are common, 
except /. maritimus (Lesser Sea-Rush), which differs from those 
already described in having the portion of the stem which rises 
above the panicle dilated at the base, so as to resemble a bract ; 
it grows in salt marshes. /. acutus (Great Sea-Rush), the largest 
British species, grows on the sandy sea-shore in great abundance in 
a few places ; it is weU marked by its stout, rigid habit, and by its 
large, polished capsules. 

Stems leafless ; leaves all from_ the root. 
4. /. squarrosus (Heath Rush).— Lertj;es rigid, grooved; panicle 
terminal. Well marked by its rigid stems and leaves, of which 
the latter have mostly one direction. The stems are about i foot 
high ; the flowers larger than in the marsh species, and variegated 
with glossy brown and yellowish white. Moors and heaths ; abun- 
dant. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

Stems leafy ; leaves cylindrical, or hut slightly flattened, 
jointed internally. 
The most common species in this group are — ■ 
/. acidifiorus (Sharp-flowered, jointed Rush). — A slender plant, 
1-2 feet high, with shghtly flattened stems and leaves, and terminal 
panicles of brown, sharp-pointed flowers. 




/. lampocarpus (Shining-fruited jointed Rush) 
the last, but distinguished by its large brown, 
glossy capsule. 

J . obtMsiflorus (Blunt-flowered jointed Rush). 
— Rather smaller than /. acutifiorus, and well 
distinguished by its blunt flowers. 

J. uliginosiis (Lesser Bog jointed Rush). — A 
small and very variable pilant, 3-8 inches* high, 
bearing a few clusters rather than panicles of 
flowers. All these are common in boggy ground. 

Stems leafy ; leaves not cylindrical nor jointed. 

In this group there arc but two common 
species: /. compressus (Round - fruited Rush), 
a slender plant, about a foot high ; the leaves 
are linear and grooved above ; the stem is slightly 
flattened, and terminates in a panicle of greenish- 
brown flowers ; the capsule is nearly round, with 
a point : and /. hufonius (Toad Rush), a very 
small species, 4-6 inches high, with repeatedly forked stems, and 
solitary green flowers, which grow mostly on one side of the stem. 
The above are the species of this dull tribe most likely to be met 
with by the beginner ; for the few others, which are chiefly notable 
for their rarity, reference may be made to some such work as 
Bentham and Hooker's " British Flora." 

JuNCUs Uliginosus 

{Lesser Bogjointcd 


(Field Wood-rush) 

2. LUZULA {Wood-Rush) 

1, L. sylvatica (Great Wood-Rush). — Leaves 
hairy ; panicle spreading, much branched ; 
flowers in clusters of about 3. A common 
woodland plant, with more the habit of a 
Grass than a Rush. The leaves are flat, and 
clothed with long, "scattered, white hairs ; 
the stalk rises to a height of about 3 feet, 
and bears a terminal loose cluster of brownish 
flowers, with large yellow anthers. Woods ; 
abundant. — Fl. May, June. Perennial. 

2. L. pilosa (Hairy Wood Rush). — Leaves 
hairy ; panicle little branched ; flowers soli- 
tary. Smaller than the last, and well dis- 
tinguished by its solitary flowers, the stalks 
of which are bent back when in fruit. 
Woods; not unfrcqucnt. — Fl. May, June. 


3- L. campestris (Field Wood-Rush). — Leaves hairy ; panicle of 
3 or 4 dense, many-flowered clusters. Much smaller than either 
of the preceding. This is one of the first grass-like plants to show 
flower in spring, when it may be distinguished from all other meadow 
herbs, by its close clusters or spikes of brownish- green flowers, each 
of which contains 6 large, light yellow anthers. Pastures ; com- 
mon. — Fl. March to May. Perennial. 

Other Brilish species of Wood-Rush are /,. Forsteri (Forster's 
Wood- Rush), the panicle of which is slightly branched, and bears 
its flmeers solitary ; each capsule contains 3 seeds, having a straight 
tail at their summits ; it resembles L. pilosa in habit, but is much 
smaller ; the seeds of the latter plant are furnished with a long 
hooked tail : L. spicata (Spiked Mountain Wood-Rush) is about 
the same size as L. campestris ; it has narrow leaves, bears its 
flowers in a compound, drooping spike, and grows only on high 
mountains : L. arcuata (Curved Mountain Wood-Rush) is a small 
and very rare species, found only on the summit of the Scottish 
mountains ; it bears its flowers in panicles, 3-5 together, on droop- 
ing stalks. 

Natural Order LXXXVII 


Sepals 3, green ; petals 3, coloured ; stamens varying in number ; 
ovaries superior, 3, 6, or more, distinct, or united into a mass ; 
carpels many-seeded. A small tribe of aquatic plants, with sword- 
shapcd leaves and conspicuous flowers. The only British example 
is the Flowering Rush, described below. 

I. BuTOJius (Flowering Rush-. — Stamens g ; carpels 6. (Name 
from the Greek, hous, an ox, and temno, to cut, because cattle 
feeding on the leaves are liable to cut their mouths.) 

I. BuTOMUS (Flowering Rush) 

I. B. umhellatus (Flowering Rush). — The only British species. 
A tall aquatic plant, growing in stagnant water and slow rivers ; 
not uncommon. The leaves are sword-shaped, 2-4 feet long, and 
spring all from the root ; the flowers are large, rose-coloured, and 
handsome, and grow in a simple umbel at the top of a round stalk, 
which rises several feet above the surface of the water. — Fl. June, 
July. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXXVIII 

ALTSMACE.E.— Water Plantain Tribe 

Sepals 3, green ; petals 3, coloured ; stamens varying in number ; 
ovaries superior, numerous ; carpels numerous, i or 2-seeded. A 
small tribe of aquatic plants, often floating, with long-stalked 


Flowering Bush 


leaves, and flowers which m some respects resemble the Crowfoot 
Tribe. Like the Crowfoots, too, they contain an acrid juice, 
though the roots of some species, deprived of their acridity by dry- 
ing, are said to be used as food. 

1. Alisma (Water- Plantain). — Flowers containing both stamens 
and pistils ; stamens 6 ; carpels numerous, i-seeded. (Name, the 
Greek name of the plant, and that said to be derived from the 
Celtic, alts, water.) 

2. AcTiNOCARPUS (Star-fruit). — Like Alisma, except that the 
carpels are 2-seeded, and spread in a radiate manner. (Name in 
Greek having the same meaning as the English name.) 

3. Sagittaria (Arrow-head). — Stamens and pistils in separate 
flowers (m-onoecious) ; stamens numerous ; carpels numerous, 
i-seeded. (Name from the Latin, sagitta, an arrow, from the shape 
of the leaves.) 

I. Alisma (Water-Plantain) 

1. A. plantago (Great Water-Plantain). — Leaves all from the root, 
broad below, and tapering to a point ; flowers in a compound, 
whorled patticle. A stout, herbaceous plant, 2-3 feet high, with 
large, stalked leaves, ribbed like those of a Plantain, and a leaf- 
less whorled panicle of lilac flowers, the petals of which are very 
delicate and soon fall off. Margins of rivers, lakes, and ponds ; 
common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. A. ranunculoides (Lesser Water- Plantain). — Leaves narrow, 
and tapering at both ends ; flowers in umbels. Much smaller than 
the last, and well marked by the above characters, as well as by 
its larger flowers. Peaty bogs ; not uncommon. 

3. A. natans (Floating Water-Plantain). — Stents leafy and float- 
ing ; flowers solitary, white, with a yellow spot. Found only in 
mountain lakes. 

2. AcTiNOCARPUs {Star- fruit) 

I. A. Damasoniutn (Common Star-fruit). — The only British 
species. An aquatic plant, with the habits of a Water-Plantain. 
The leaves grow on long stalks and float on the surface of the 
water ; the flowers, which grow in whorls, are white, with a yellow 
spot at the base of each petal ; the fruit is composed of six pointed 
carpels, which are arranged in the form of a star. Ditches in the 
midland counties ; not common. — Fl. June, July. Perennial. 

3. Sagittaria {Arrow-!: 

I. S. sagittifolia (Common Arrow-head). — The only British 
species. A pretty plant, well distinguished by its large arrow- 



{Common Arrow- 

shaped leaves, and whorled panicles of delicate, 
flesh - coloured flowers, both of which rise 6-8 
inches out of the water. Rivers and ditches ; not 
uncommon.— Fl. July to September. Perennial. 

Natural Order LXXXIX 
JUNCAGINACE^.— Arrow-Grass Tribe 

Flowers perfect ; sepals and petals alike, green 
and small ; stamens 6 ; ovaries 3-6, superior, united 
or distinct ; carpels 3-6, i to 2-secdcd. A small 
Order of marsh plants, with linear leaves, all pro- 
ceeding from the root, and spike-like clusters of 
inconspicuous flowers. Found in many parts of 
the world, and possessing no remarkable properties. 
I. Triglochin (Arrow-grass). — Flowers in a spike; 
sepals and petals 6 ; stamens 6. (Name from the 
Greek, treis, three, and glochis, a point, from the three points of 
the capsule.) 

I. Triglochin (Arrow-grass) 

1. T. palustre (Marsh Arrow-grass). — Fruit 
linear, of 3 combined carpels. A plant with 
something the habit of Plantago maritima, 
from which it may easily be distinguished by 
its fewer flowers and slenderer spike, as well as 
by the different structure of the flowers. The 
leaves are linear and fleshy. Marshy places ; 
frequent. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

2. T. maritimum (Sea Arrow-grass). — Fruit 
egg-shaped, of six combined carpels. Like the 
last, but well marked by its rounded, not 
linear capsule. Salt marshes ; common. — 
Fl, May to September. Perennial. 

Scheuchzeria palustris, which belongs to this 
Order, is a very rare plant, found only in the 
north. It has a few sem-icylindrical, blunt 
leaves, and a leafless stalk about a foot high, 
terminating in a cluster of a few small green 

Natural Order XC 
TYPHACEiE.— Reed-mace Tribe 

Stamens and pistils separate, but on the same plant (moncecious) ; 
flowers in dense spikes or heads, not enclosed in a sheath ; perianth 
composed of 3 scales or a tuft of hairs : stamens 3-6, distinct, or 
united by their filaments ; anthers long and wedge-shaped ; ovary 

Triglochin Palusire 
{Marsh Arrow-grass) 

Cireat Water Plantain, 



single, superior, i-celled ; style short ; stigma linear, lateral ; fruit 
i-celled, i-seeded, not opening, angular by mutual pressure. Her- 
baceous plants, growing in marshes and ditches, with jointless 
stems, sword-shaped leaves, and small flowers, which are only 
conspicuous from their compact mode of growth. The Order 
contains only two families, examples of both of which are of common 
occurrence in Great Britain. 

1. Typha (Reed-mace). — Flowers in spikes. (Name from the 
Greek, typhos, a marsh, where these plants grow.) 

2. Sparganium (Bur-reed). — Flowers in globular heads. (Name 
in Greek denoting a little hand, from the ribbon-like 

I. Typha {Reed-mace) 

1. T. latifolia (Great Reed-mace, or Cat's Tail). — 
Leaves nearly flat ; barren and fertile spikes continuous. 
Our largest herbaceous aquatic, often growing 6-8 
feet high, with linear leaves," and stout, cylindrical 
stems, surmounted by a fertile club-like spike, the 
lower part of which contains fertile flowers only, the 
upper barren. It is often, but incorrectly, called 
Bulrush, the true Bulrush teing Scirpus pahistris, 
a plant which has more the habit of a gigantic rush. 
Ponds ; common. — Fl. July, August. Perennial. 

2. T. angustifolia (Lesser Reed-mace, or Cat's 
Tail). — Leaves grooved below; barren and fertile 
spikes slightly interrupted. Ponds ; less frequent 
than the last, from which it differs by the above 
characters and by its smaller size. — Fl. July, August. 

[Great Reed- 

Mace, or 
Cat's Tail) 

2. Sparganium {Bur-reed) 

1. S. ranwsmn (Branched Bur-reed). — 
Leaves triangular at the base, with concave 
sides ; stem branched. A large aquatic, 
which at a distance might be mistaken for 
a Flag {Iris pseiid-acorus). The leaves are 
sword-shaped, and the flowers are collected 
into globular heads, of which the lower con- 
tain fertile flowers only, the vipper barren. 
Ditches; common. — Fl. July, August. Peren- 

2. 5. simplex (Unbranched upright Bur- 
reed). — Leaves triangular at the base, with 
flat sides ; stem unbranched. Smaller than 

Sparcanium Ramosum 
[Byaiiclied Bur-yeed\ 


tlie last, and at once distinguislied by the above characters. 
Ditches ; common. 

3. S. natans (Floating Bur-reed) is found only in the north. It 
has very long, pellucid, floating leaves, and flowers resembling those 
of the preceding species, except that the barren head is usually 

Natural Order XCI 
ARACEiE. — The Cuckoo-pint Family 

Stamens and pistils separate, but on the same plant (moncecious) ; 
/lowers arranged on a spadix, or central column, and endorsed in a 
sheath ; perianth ; stamens numerous, sessile on the spadix ; 
ovaries the same, below the stamens ; stigma sessile ; fruit a berry. 
A curious tribe of plants, all more or less resembling the British 
species. Arum maculatum, abounding in tropical countries, and 
possessing acrid, or even poisonous qualities, which, however, may 
be dissipated by heat. The most remarkable plant of the Order 
is the Dunih-Cane of the West Indies, a species growing as high 
as a man, and having the property, when chewed, of swelling the 
tongue and destroying the power of speech. The effects continue 
for several days, and are accompanied with much pain. Other 
species, which are scarcely less noxious in their fresh state, are 
extensively cultivated in tropical countries, and produce tuberous 
roots, which, when cooked, are important articles of food. Even 
the British example of this Order {Arum maculatum), though its 
juice is so intensely acrid that a single drop will cause a burning 
taste in the mouth and throat, which continues for hours, has roots 
which, when properly prepared, are wholesome and nutritious. 
This plant was formerly cultivated in the Isle of Portland, and the 
starch procured from its roots, under the name of Portland Sago, 
was used as a substitute for arrow-root. Several species have 
been observed to evolve a considerable quantity of heat from the 
spadix, at the time of the expansion of the sheath. 

I. Arum (Cuckoo-pint).— i^/owe^-s on a club-shaped spadix, 
which is naked above and enclosed in a convolute sheath. (Name, 
the Greek name of the plant.) 

I. Arum {Cuckoo-pint) 

I. A. maculatum (Cuckoo-pint, Wake-Rabin, Lords-and-Ladies). 
— The only .si)ec,ies. A succulent, herbaceous plant, with 
large, glossy, arrow-shaped leaves, which are often spotted with 
dark purple. The upper part of the spadix is club-shaped, and of 
a Ught pink, duU purple, or rich crimson colour, which is easily 
rubbed off ; about the middle of the spadix is a ring of glands, 
terminating in short threads, and below this is a ring of sessile 



^->1~ «» J 1 


anthers ; and yet lower down, another ring of sessile ovaries. The 
upper part of the spadix soon falls off, leaving the ovaries, which 
finally become a cylindrical mass of scarlet berries, which are con- 
spicuous objects when all the rest of the plant has withered and 
disappeared. The spadix with its sheath may be discerned 
wrapped up in the young leaf-stalks, even before the leaves have 
risen above the surface of the ground. Hedges and woods ; common 
in most parts of England. — Fl, May, June. Perennial. 

Natural Order XCII 
ORONTIACE^.— Sweet Sedge Tribe 

Flowers perfect, arranged on a central column or spadix, at first 
enclosed in a sheath ; perianth of 4-8 scales ; stamens equalling the 
scales in number ; ovary superior ; fruit-, a berry. A tribe of 
plants nearly allied to the Aracee, and resembling them in pro- 
perties. Calla JEthiopica, the White Arum Lily so frequently seen 
in greenhouses, grows so plentifully in parts of Cape Colony 
that pigs are often turned into the swamps where it abounds, 
to fatten on its roots, whence it is commonly called " Pig Lily " 
in that country. Acorus calamus, or Sweet Sedge, supplied the 
" rushes " with which, before the use of carpels had been intro- 
duced into England, it was customary to strew the floors of the 
great. As it did not grow in the neighbourhood of London, but 
had to be fetched at considerable expense from Norfolk and Suffolk, 
one of the charges of extravagance brought against Cardinal 
Wolsey was that he caused his floors to be strewed with rushes too 

I. Acorus (Sweet Sedge). — S/zea^/e leaf-like, not 
convolute, overlapping the spadix. (Name in 
Greek denoting that the plant has the power of 
curing diseases of the eye.) 

I. Acorus {Sweet Sedge) 

I. A. calamus (Sweet Sedge). — The only 
British species. An aquatic plant, with some- 
what of the habit of a sedge or large grass. It 
is easily distinguished from all other British 
plants by its peculiar spadix, and the fragrance 
of its roots, stems, and leaves. Watery places Acorus Calamus 
in Norfolk and Suffolk. — Fl. June. Perennial. (Sweet Sedge) 


Natural Order XCIII 
PISTIACEiE.— Duck-weed Tribe 

Minute floating plants, composed of simple or lobed leaves, and 
fibrous roots, wliicli are not attached to the soil, propagating them- 
selves principally by off-sets, but sometimes producing on the edge 
of the leaves 1-2 stamens and i- to 4-seeded ovaries, enclosed in 
small sheaths. Lenma (Duck-weed) is the only British example, 
and the number of foreign species is but smaU. 

I. Lemna [Duck-weed) 

I. L. minor (Lesser Duck-weed). — A minute plant, but often so 
abundant as to cover the surface of stag- 
nant water, where, with the insects which 
it harbours, it is greedily devoured by 
ducks. In this species the leaves are 
egg-shaped, and bear each a single root. 
Four other species have been found in 
Britain, for a description of which the 
Lemna Minor student is referred to Bentham and 

(Lesser Duck-weed) Hooker's " British Flora." 

Natural Order XCIV 

NAIADACE/E.— Pond-weed Tribe 

Suljmersed or floating aquatics, with very cellular stems and 
peculiar leaves, which are sometimes almost leathery, but more 
frequently thin and pellucid. The flowers- are small, olive-green, 
resembling in structure the Arrow-grasses ; sometimes solitary, 
but more frequently arranged in spikes. They inhabit ponds and 
slow streams, or rarely salt marshes. Our British species, Zostera 
marina, grows in the sea. 

1. PoTAMOGETON (Pond-wecd). Flowers in a spike ; stamens 
and pistils in the same flower ; perianth of 4 sepals ; stamens 4, 
sessile. (Name from the Greek, potamos, a river, and geitoii, a 

2. RUPPIA. — Flowers about 2 on a stalk ; stamens and pistils 
in the same flower ; perianth ; stamens 4 ; carpels 4, at first 
sessile, afterwards raised each on a long stalk. (Named in honour 
of H. B. Ruppius, a botanist of the eighteenth century.) 

3. Zannichellia (Horned Pond -weed). — Flowers axillary; 
stamens and pistils separate (moncecious) ; stamen i ; carpels 4. 
(Named in honour of /. /. Zannichelli, a Venetian botanist.) 



4. ZosTERA (Grass-wrack). — Flowers composed of stamens and 
pistils alternately arranged in 2 rows in a long leaf-like sheath. 
(Name from the Greek, zoster, a girdle, which the leaves resemble 
in form.) 


{floating Pond-weed) 

I. PoTAMOGETON (Pond-weed) 

1. P. natans (Floating Pond-weed). — Upper leaves elliptical, 
ribbed, and cellular ; lower, submersed, linear. An aquatic 
plant, with cord -like stems, propor- 
tioned to the depth of the water m 
which it grows ; smooth, floating leaver 
on long stalks ; and cylindrical spikes nt 
small green flowers, which rise above the 
surface of the water. The upper, 01 
floating leaves, are 2-3 inches in length 
the lower, which are not always present 
are very narrow, and a foot long or more. 
Ponds and ditches ; common. — Fl. June 
to August. Perennial. 

2. P. perfoliatiis (Perfoliate Pond-weed). — Leaves alternate, all 
submersed, egg-shaped, embracing the stem, pellucid, 7-nerved. 
Remarkable for its brown, almost transparent leaves, 2-3 inches 
long, which when dry have the appearance of gold-beater's skin, 
and are so sensitive of moisture that they will curl when laid on 
the palm of the hand. Ponds and lakes ; common. — Fl. June to 
August. Perennial. 

3. P. densus (Opposite-leaved Pond- weed). 
— Leaves opposite, all submersed, embracing 
the stem, pellucid. Like the last in habit, 
but smaller. Ponds and rivers ; common. 
— Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

4. P. fusillus (Small Pond- weed). — Leaves 
linear, very narrow ; flowers in a long-stalked, 
loose spike. A tangled mass of thread-like 
stems, and dull, olive-green leaves, with 
numerous spikes of brownish flowers, which 
are either submersed, or partially rise above 
the surface of the water. Ponds and lakes ; 
common. — Fl. June to August. Perennial. 

From eighteen to twenty species of Pond- 
weed are described as natives of Britain ; 
they all, more or less, resemble the above 
in habit, and as they are by no means an 
PoTAMor.ETON Densus interesting family of plants, easy to obtain, 
(Opposite^leaved Pond-weed) q,- pleasant to examine, it is not thought 


RuppiA Maritima 
(Sea Ruppia) 


necessary to describe their characters 
in an elementary work like this. 

2. Ruppia 

I. R. maritima (Sea Ruppia). — The 
only species, growing in salt-water 
ditches ; distinguished from Potamo- 
geton pusillus by its spiral flower-stalks 
and long-stalked fruit. — Fl. July, Au- 

3. Zannichellia {Horned Pond-weed) 

I. Z. falustris (Horned Pond- weed). 
• — The only British species. A sub- 
mersed aquatic, with the habit of 
Potamogeton -pusillus, from which it 
may be well distinguished by its small, 
almost sessile, axillary flowers, the 
stigmas of which are unevenly cup- 
shaped. — Fl. August, September. Peren- 

4. ZosTERA (Grass-wrack) 

I. Z. marina (Grass - wrack). — A 
submersed marine aquatic, with long, 
cord - like stems, and bright green, 
grass-like leaves, some of which serve 
as sheaths to the bead -like rows of 
small, simple flowers. The dried leaves 
and stems are iised as beds, and are 
also employed in packing glass. — Fl. 
July, August. Perennial. 

ZcsTRRA Marina 



Abrupt, blunt, as if broken off. 
Acuminate, tapering to a sharp 

Acute, sharp pointed. 
Mstivation, the state of flowers in 

Alternate, the arrangement of 

leaves on a stem when they 

alternate from side to side. 
Angular, leaves or steins when 

Annual, lasting one year. 
Anther, the top of a stamen which 

contains the pollen. 
Apetalous, without petals. 
Aquatic, growing in water. 
Arillus, a dry covering of some 

seeds, as Mace. 
A scending, applied to stems which 

first lie prostrate on the ground 

and then rise perpendicularly. 
Awn, a. stiff bristle, as in barley. 
Axil, the angle between a leaf and 

the stem. 
Axillary, growing in an axil. 

Barren, bearing stamens, but no 

Biennial, lasting two years. 

Bifid, two-cleft. 

Bipinnate, twice pinnate. 

Bipinnatifid, twice cut in a pin- 
nate manner. 

Border, the expanded part of the 

Bracts, small leaves at the base of 
a flower-stalk. 

Caducous, falling off very early, as 
the sepals of the Poppy. 

Calyx, the outer case or sepals of 
a flower. 

Capillary, hair-like. 

Capitate, round like a head. 

Capsule, a dry seed-vessel. 
Carpels, ovaries with their styles 

and stigmas. 
Cell, a vesicle, or little bladder, 

the simplest form of vegetable 

Cellular, composed of cells, 
Cernuous, nodding. 
Ciliated, fringed. 
Circinate, curled, like the young 

frond of a fern. 
Claw, the base of a petal. 
Club-shaped, cylindrical, but be- 
coming larger from the base 

Colottred, not green. 
Column, a name given to the 

united pistil and stamens in the 

Orchis Tribe. 
Cone, the fruit of the Fir Tribe. 
Conical, cone-shaped. 
Connate, growing together. 
Convolute, rolled together. 
Corculum, the same as embryo. 
Cordate, heart-shaped. 
Corm, a sohd bulbous root, as 

Corolla, the inner leaves or petals 

of a flower. 
Cotyledon, a seed-lobe. 
Crenate, scolloped at the edge. 
Crucijorrti, placed crosswise. 
Cryptogainous, or Cryptogamic ; 

plants are so called which are 

reproduced without the aid of 

stamens or pistils. 
Culm, the stalk of grasses. 
Cuticle, the thin outer skin of a 


Deciduous, soon faUing off. 
Decurrent, running down the stem. 
Dichlamydeous, having a double 




Dicotyledonous , composed of two 

Didynamous, having four stamens, 
two long and two sliorL. 

Dicecioiis plants, are those which 
have the stamens and pistils in 
separate flowers and on dif- 
ferent plants. 

Disk, the central part of a com- 
pound flower ; a flat space sur- 
rounding the ovary. 

Drupe, a nut enclosed in pulp. 

Duct, an imperfectly spiral vessel. 

Egg-shaped, oval, with the base 

broader than the extremity. 
Elliptical, egg-shaped, with both 

ends alike. 
Emarginate, notched. 
Embryo, the bud contained in a 

En s ijorm , sword-shaped. 
Entire, not cut at the edge. 
Epidermis, the cuticle or skin of a 

Erect, growing perpendicularly. 
Exserted, protruded beyond the 

other parts. 

Farinaceous, abounding in flour. 

Fascicled, growing in a dense tuft. 

Fertile, bearing pistils and pro- 
ducing seeds. 

Floret, one of the small flowers 
composing a composite flower. 
Natural Order, Compositas, 

Free, not united. 

Frond, the leaf of a fern. 

Fructification, the parts composing 
the fruit. 

Fruit, the seed with its covering. 

Furcate, forked. 

Fusijorm, spindle-shaped. 

Gaping, having an open mouth. 
Germen, or ovarj^, the lowest part 

of the pistil. 
Gibbous, swollen at the base, as in 

the flowers of Snapdragon. 
Glabrous, perfectly smooth. 
Gland, a cell containing some 


Glaucous, covered with a pale 

green bloom. 
Glume, the chaff of the grasses. 

Habitat, the locality in which a 

plant grows. 
H albert-sJiaped , arrow-shapcd,with 

the barbs turned outwards. 
Hastate, halbert-shaped. 
Herbaceous, having a succulent 

Hispid, bristly. 
Hybrid, intermediate between two 

distinct species, and partaking 

the characters of both. 

Imbricated, overlapping, hke the 
tiles of a house. 

Indehiscent, not opening with 

Indigenous, native, or growing 

Inflorescence, mode of flowering. 

Interruptedly pinnate, \>iriria.te, 
smaller 'leaflets between. 

Inversely'egg-shaped or heart-shaped 
oval or heart-shaped, with the 
base narrower than the ex- 

Involucre, a whorl. 

Irregular, unequally divided. 

Labiate, lipped. 

Laciniated, jagged. 

Lamina, a plate, the broad part of 
a leaf. 

Leaflet, a single portion of a com- 
pound leaf. 

Legume, a long pod without a 

Ligulate, strap-shaped. 

Limb, Vac expanded part of a petal. 

Linear, very narrow, with the 
edges parallel. 

Lyrate leaf, a pinnatilid leaf with 
a rounded terminal lobe, and 
smaller divisions near the base. 

Marcescent, withering. 

f\lembranous, membranaceous , hav- 
ing the texture of a membrane, 
or parchment. 



Midrib, the principal vein of a leaf. 

Moniliform, having the appear- 
ance of a necklace. 

Monochlamydeous , having a single 

MoHoscious plants, are those which 
have the stamens and pistils in 
separate flowers, but on the 
same plant. 

Nectary, any distinct organ in a 
flower containing honey. 

Nut, a seed contained in a hard, 
dry shell. 

Obcordate, inversely heart-shaped. 
Obovaie, inversely egg-shaped. 
Orbicular, round. 

Ovary, or gerrnen, the lower part 
of the pistil containing ovules. 
Ovule, the embryo seed. 

Paleaceous , chaffy. 

Palmate, divided into five or more 

narrow lobes. 
Papilionaceous , butterfly -shaped. 
Pappus, a feathery appendage of 

the seed. 
Parasitic, growing on another 

living vegetable. 
Parenchyma, cellular tissue. 
Parted, deeply divided. 
Patent, spreading. 
Pectinate, divided like the teeth of 

a comb. 
Pedate, palmate, with the outer 

lobes divided. 
Pedicle, the stalk of a flower in a 

compound inflorescence. 
Peduncle, a flower-stalk. 
Peltate, circular, with the stalk in 

the middle ; applied to leaves. 
Perennial, lasting many years. 
Perfoliate, having a stem passing 

through a pair of leaves. 
Perianth, a name sometimes given 

to the calyx or corolla. 
Pericarp, or fntit, the seed with 

its covering. 
Persistent, not falling off ; op- 
posed to caducous. 
Petaloid, petal-like. 

Petals, the inner leaves of a flower. 

Petiole, a leaf -stalk. 

Petiolate, having a leaf-stalk. 

Ph(^nogainous, furnished with evi- 
dent stamens and pistils. 

Pinnate, divided like a feather. 

Pinnatifid, lobed in a pinnate 

Pistil, fertile organs of a flower. 

Pistili/erous, bearing pistils. 

Plumule, the bud contained in a 

Pollen, the fertilizing powder con- 
tained in the anthers. 

Poly, many, as polypetalous, etc. 

Pome, an a.pple. 

Pore, a sriiall iiole. 

Pouch, ix small pod with a partition. 

Premorse, bitten off. 

Prickle, a sharp point, not having 
a woody centre. 

Pseudo, false. 

Pubescent, downy. 

Quinate, growing in fives. 

Radiate, a term applied to those 
compound (lowers the outer 
florets of which are larger than 
those of the disk. 

Radical, springing from the root. 

Radicle, the embryo root. 

Ray, the outer florets of a com- 
pound flower. 

Refleved, bent back. 

Regular, equally divided. 

Ringent, gaping. 

Rostrate, -. beaked. 

Rotate, the same as wheel-shaped. 

Runcinate, pinnatifid, with the 
lobes pointing backwards. 

Sagittate, arrow-shaped. 

Saline, abounding in salt. 

Samara, the winged seed of the 
Ash, Sycamore, etc. 

Scabrous, rough to the touch. 

Scandenl, climbing. 

Scape, a flower-stalk springing 
direct from the root and bear- 
ing no leaves. 

Scion, a creeping shoot, 



Secund, all arranged on one side. 

Seminal, relating to the seed. 

Sepals, calyx-leaves. 

Serrate, saw-edged. 

Sessile, sitting, destitute of a stalk. 

Setaceous, bristly. 

Silicle, a short pod with a par- 

Silique, a long pod with a par- 

Sinuous, wavy, like the edge of an 
oak leaf. 

Spathulate, oblong, but widening 
towards the end. 

Spindle-shaped, cylindrical, but 
tapering to a point like a 

Spores, the seeds of ferns, mosses, 

Spur, a sharp horn-shaped swelling 

Squarrose, at right angles with the 

Stamen, one of the male organs of 
a flower which produce the 

Stellate, star-like. 

Sterile, barren, having stamens, 
but no pistils. 

Stigma, the summit of the pistil. 

Stipitate, stalked. 

Stipules, wings at the base of a 

Stolon, a rooting scion. 

Style, the middle part of the pistil. 

Subulate, awl-shaped. 

Suture, a seam or joint. 

Syngenesious , united with the an- 

Tap-root, the main verticle root. 

Tendril, a twisted stalk, bearing 
neither leaf nor flower. 

Terete, long and cylindrical. 

Ternate, growing in threes. 

Testa, the outer shell of a seed. 

Tetradynamous , having six sta- 
mens, four long and two short. 

Thalamus, the receptacle. 

Thorn, a sharp point having a 
woody centre. 

Throat, the upper part of a tube. 

Tormentose, covered with thick 

Trifid, three-cleft. 

Truncate, ending abruptly, as if 
cut off. 

Uncinate, hooked. 
Unilateral, one-sided. 
Urceolate, pitcher-shaped. 
Valvals, opening with valves. 
Vascular, containing vessels. 
Vermicular, worm-like. 
Vernation, the state of leaves in 

Verrucose, warty. 
Veriicillate, whorled. 
Vesicle, a bladder. 
Villous, shaggy. 
Viscous, clammy. 
Viviparous, producing young 
plants instead of seeds. 

Whorl, three or more leaves 
springing from the same point 
on a stem. 

Whorled, growing in a whorl. 

Wings, the name often given to 
any leaf-like expansion. 


Abele, 264 
Acrid Lobelia, 179 
Adder's Meat, 45 
Adonis, 2 
,/Egopodiuin, 120 
Agrimony, 79 ; Com- 
mon, 87 
Alder, 266 
Alder Buckthorn, 62 
Alexanders, 113; Com- 
mon ,118 
Alkanet, 199 ; Common, 
202 ; Evergreen, 202 
Allseed, 39, 49 ; Four- 
leaved, 45 
Alpine Bartsia, 2j6 
Alpine Brook Saxifrage, 

Alpine Butterwort, 234 
Alpine Campion, Red, 42 
Alpine Cinquefoil, 85 
Alpine Enchanter's 

Nightshade. 95 
Alpine Flea-bane, 169 
Alpine Lady's Mantle, 87 
Alpine Lettuce, 157 
Alpine Meadow Rue, 4 
Alpine Mdk Vetch, 73 
Alpine Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed, 47 
Alpine Pearl-wort, 43 
Alpine Penny Cress, 19 
Alpine Rock Cress, 26 
Alpine Saussurea, 161 
Alpine Saxifrage, no; 

Tufted, 109 
Alpine Veronica, 217 
Alpine Whitlow-grass, 

Yellow, 22 
Alpine Willow-herb, 94 
Alsike Clover, 71 
Alternate-leaved Golden 

Saxifrage, no 
Alysum, 17 ; Small, 22 ; 

Sweet, 22 
American Cress, 26 

Amphibious Persicaria, 

Andromeda, 182; Marsh, 

Anemone, Wood, 4 
Angelica, 1 1 5 ; Wild, 

Angular Solomon's Seal, 

Annual Mercury, 259 
Annual Seaside Goosc; 

grass, 245 
Apple, 80 ; Crab-, 90 
Archangel, 228 
Arrow-grass, Marsh, 294; 

Sea, 294 
Arrow-head, Common-, 

' 293 

Asarabacca, 254 

Ash, 188, 189; Moun- 
tain, 80, 90, 91 

Asparagus, 282 ; Com- 
mon, 284. 

Aspen, 265 

Asphodel, Bog, 283, 289; 
Mountain Scottish, 
288 ; Scottish, 283 

Aster, Sea, 170 

Autumnal Gentian, 192 

Autumnal Hawkbit, 155 

Autumn Lady's Tresses,^ 


Autumnal Squill, 286 

Autumnal Water Star- 
wort, 261 

Avens, 79 ; Common, 
83 ; Mountain, 79, 
83 ; Water, 83 

Awl-shaped Pearl-wort, 

Awl-wort, 17; Water, 22 
Azalea, 182 ; Trailing, 


Bald-money, 124 
Balm, Wdd, 223, 231 


Balm-leaved Fig-wort, 

Balsam, 56 ; Yellow, 60 

Bane-berry, 3, 9 

Barberry, Common, 10 

Barrenwort, Alpine, 10 

Bartsia, 211 ; Alpine, 
216 ; Red, 216 ; Yel- 
low Viscid, 215 

Basil Thyme, 222, 230 

Basil, Wild, 222, 231 

Bastard Toad-flax, 253 

Bay, Rose, 93 

Beaked Parsley, 116; 
Common, 128 ; Wild, 

Beam Tree, White, 91 

Bear-berry, 1S2 ; Black, 
185 ; Red, 185 

Bear's-foot, 8 

Bed -straw, 138; Corn, 
141 ; Cross - leaved, 
140 ; Heath, 140 ; 
Hedge, 140 ; Lady's, 
139; Northern, 140; 
Rough Marsh, 140 ; 
Wall, 140 ; Water, 
1 39 ; Yellow, 1 39 

Beech, Common, 266 

Bee Orchis, 275 

Beet, 244 

Bell Heather, 183 

Bell-flower, 176 ; Clus- 
tered, 177 ; Creeping, 
T78 ; Giant, 1 78 ; Ivy- 
leaved, 177 ; Nettle- 
leaved, 177 ; Ram- 
pion, 178 

Bennet, Herb, 83 

Bethlehem, Common 

Star of, 286 ; Droop- 

. ing Star of, 2S6 ; 

Spiked Star of, 286 ; 

Star of, 283 

Betony, Wood, 229 

Bilberry, 180; Great, 180 


Bindweed, Field, 196 ; 
Great, 196 ; Sea, 196 
Birch, 265 ; Common, 
265 ; Dwarf, 266 ; 
Silver, 265 ; White, 
Bird-cherry, 82 
Bird's-eye Primrose, 237 
Bird's-foot, 65 ; Com- 
mon, 76 ; Sand, 76 
Bird's-foot Fenugreek, 

Bird's-foot Trefoil, 64, 
71 ; Greater, 71 ; 
Slender, 72 
Bird's Nest, 275 
Bird's-nest, 186 ; Pine, 

Birth-wort, 254 
Bistort Snake-root, 249 
Bistort, Viviparous, 249 
Bithynian Vetch, 74 
Biting Stonecrop, 106 
Bitter Candytuft, 20 
Bitter-cress, 17 ; Bulbi- 
ferous, 25 ; Hair^^, 24; 
Large - flowered, 24 ; 
Narrow-leaved, 24 
Bittersweet, 206 
Bitter-vetch, Black, 76 ; 

Tuberous, 75 
Black Bear-berry, 185 
Black Bilter-vetch, 76 
Black Bryony, 280, 281 
Black Crow-berry, 255 
Black Currant, 107 
Black Horehound, 222, 

Black Knap-weed, 164 
Black Medick, 67 
Black Mustard, 30 
Black Nightshade, 206 
Black Poplar, 265 
Blackberry, 86 
Blackthorn, 81 
Bladder Campion, 41 
Bladderwort, 233 ; Com- 
mon, 234 ; Interme- 
diate, 235 ; Lesser, 

Bladder-seed, Cornish, 

Blinks, Water, loi, 102 
Blite, Sea, 244; Shrubby 

Sea, 245 
Bloody Crane's-bill, 57 
Bloody-veined Dock, 250 
Blue Broom-rape, 209 


Blue Flea-bane, 169 
Blue Jacob's Ladder, 195 
Blue Marsh Vetchling, 7 5 
Blue Sow-thistle, 157 
Blue Toad-flax, Pale,2i3 
Blue-bell, 286 
Blue-bottle, 151 ; Corn, 

Blue-eyed Grass, 277,2/8 
Blunt-flowered Jointed 

Rush, 291 
Blunt-leaved Hawk's-- 

beard, 158 
Boccone's Clover, 69 
Bog Asphodel, 283, 289 
Bog Orchis, 276 
Bog Pimpernel, 238 
Bog Sandwort, 46 
Bog Stitchwort, 44 
Bog Whortleberry, 180 
Bog - jointed Rush, 

Lesser, 291 [201 

Borage, 19S ; Common, 
Box, 257 

Box-tree, Common, 260 
Bramble, 79 ; Common, 

86 ; Stone, 86 
Branched Broom-rape, 

Branched Bur-reed, 295 
Brier, Sweet, 89 
Bristly Ox-tongue, 154 
Bristol Rock Cress, 26 
Broad Smooth - leaved 

Willow Herb, 93 
Broad-leaved Centaury', 

Broad-leaved Dock, 250 
Broad-leaved Garlic, 2S7 
Broad - leaved Pepper - 

wort, 20 
Broad-leaved Rag-wort, 

Broad - leaved Spurge, 

Broad - leaved Water 

Parsnip, 121 
Brooklime, 218 
Brookweed, 236, 239 
Broom, 64 ; Butcher's, 

282,284; Common, 66 
Broom-rape, 208 ; Blue, 

209 ; Branched, 209 ; 

Clove-scented, 209 ; 

Great, 208 ; Lesser, 

Bryony, Black, 280, 281; 

White, 10 1 

Buck-bean, 191, 194 
Buck-wheat, Copse, 249 
Buck's -horn Plaintain, 

Buckthorn, Alder, 62 ; 

Common, 62 ; Sea, 

251, 352 
Bugle, 221 ; Common, 

225, 226 ; Pyramidal, 

Bugloss, 19S ; Common 

Viper's, 199 ; Small, 

201 ; Viper's, 198 
Bulbiferous Bitter Cress, 


Bulbous Buttercup, 6 

Bulbous Caraway, 120 

BuUace, 81 

Bur-dock, 151; Com- 
mon, 160 

Bur-marigold, 151; Nod- 
ding, 165 ; Trifid, 165 

Bur-Medick, Little, 67 

Burnet, 79, 88 ; Great, 
88 ; Salad, 88 

Burnet Saxifrage, So, 
114 ; Greater, 121 

Bur-parsley, 116 ; Great, 

Bur-reed, Branched, 295; 
Floating, 296 ; Un- 
branched Upright, 295 

Bush ^'etcll, 74 

Bushy Yellow-rattle,2i5 

Butcher's Broom, 282, 

Butter-bur, 152 ; Com- 
mon. 169 

Buttercup, 2. 5 ; Bul- 
bous, 6 ; Creeping, 6 ; 
Pale Hairy, 6 

Butterfly Orchis, 274 

Butterwort, Alpine, 234; 
Common, 233, 234; 
Pale, 234 

Buxbaum's Speedwell, 

Cabbage, 18 ; Isle of 
Man, 29 ; St. Pa- 
trick's, no ; Sea, 29 

Calamint, 222 ; Com- 
mon, 231 

Campanula, Corn, 178 

Campion, 38 ; Bladder, 

41 ; Evening, 42 ; 
Moss, 40 ; Red Alpine, 

42 ; Sea, 41 

Canadian Flea-bane, 170 

Candytuft, 17 ; Bitter, 

Caper Spurge, 258 

Caraway, 114; Bul- 
bous, 120 ; Common, 
120 ; Whorled, 120 

Carline - thistle, 151 ; 
Common, 164 

Carrot, 116; Wild, 127 

Catehfly, 38 ; English, 
41 ; Nottingham, 41 ; 
Red German, 42 ; 
Spanish, 41 ; Striated 
Corn, 41 

Cathartic Flax, 49 

Cat-mint, 222, 230 

Cat's-ear, 150; Long 
Rooted, 156; Smooth, 
156 ; Spotted, 156 

Cat's Tail, 29; 

Celandine, 12 ; Com- 
mon, 14 ; Greater, 14; 
Lesser, 2, 5, 14 

Celery, 114, 118 

Celery-leaved Crowfoot, 

Centaurea, Jersey, 165 

Centaury, 192 ; Broad- 
leaved, 193 ; Common, 
193 ; Dwarf, 193 ; 
Dwarf Tufted, 193 

Chaffweed, 236, 238 

Chamomile, 153 ; Com- 
mon, 175 ; Corn, 175 ; 
Ox-eye, 175 ; Sea, 
175 ; Stinking, 175 ; 
Wild, 153, 174 

Charlock, 30 

Cheddar Pink, 40 

Cherry, Plum and, 78 ; 
Red, 82 ; Wild, 82 

Chervil, 116; Garden, 
129 ; Rough, 129 

Chestnut, 266 

Chickweed, 44 ; Alpine 
Mouse-ear, 47 ; Euro- 
pean, 239 ; Field 
Mouse-ear, 47 ; Jag- 
ged, 39 ; Mouse-ear, 
39, 47 ; Starwort 
Mouse-ear, 47 ; Um- 
belliferous Jagged, 44; 
Water Mouse-ear, 44 

Chickweed Winter-green, 

Chickweed-leaved Wil- 
low-herb, 94 


Chicory, 150 ; Wild, 160 

Chives, 287 

Chlora, 194 

Christopher, Herb, 9 

Cicely, 1 16 

Cicely, Sweet, 129 

Ciciita, 1 1-3 

Ciliated Heath, 183 

Cinquefoil, 79 ; Alpine, 
85 ; Creeping, 84 ; 
Hoary, 84 ; Marsh, 
85; Rock, 85; Shrub- 
by, 85 ; Spring, 84 ; 
Strawberry-leaved, 84, 

Clary, 223 ; Meadow, 

Claytonia, Perfoliate, loi 

Cleavers, 140 

Climbing Corydalis, 15 

Climbing Persicaria, 249 

Cloudberry, 87 

Clove-scented Broom- 
rape, 209 

Clover, Alsike, 71 ; Boc- 
cone's, 69 ; Crimson, 
68; Dutch, 70; Hare's- 
foot, 68 ; Hop, 71 ; 
Lesser, 71 ; Purple, 

69 ; Reversed, 70 ; 
Slender, 71 ; Starry, 
68 ; Suffocated, 70 ; 
Upright, 69 ; White, 

70 ; Zigzag, 69 
Clover Dodder, :97 
Clustered Bell-flower, 

Cockle, Corn, 42 
Cock's-comb, 215 
Codliiis-and-cream, 93 
Colt's-foot, 152, 169 
Columbine, 3; Common, 8 
Colza, 29 

Comb, Venus', 128 
Comfrey, 198 ; Com- 
mon, 201 ; Tuberous, 
Common Agrimony, 87 
Common Alexanders, 1 1.8 
Common Alkanet, 202 
Common Arrow - head, 

Common Asparagus, 284. 
Common Avens, 83 
Common Barberry, 10 

Common Beech, 266 


Common Birch, 260 
Common Bird's-foot, 76 
Common Bladderwort, 

Common Borage, 201 
Common Box-tree, 260 
Common Bramble, 86 
Coiiiiiion Buckthorn, 62 
Common Bugle. 225 
Common Bur-dock, 160 
Common Butter-bur, 169 
Common Butterwort, 

233. 234 
Common Calamint, 231 
Common Caraway, 120 
Common Carline-thistle, 

Common Celandine, 14 
Common Centaury, 193 
Common Chamomile, 175 
Common Columbine, 8 
Common Comfrey, 201 
Common Coriander, 130 
Conrmon Corn Salad, 144 
Common Cottoneaster, 
92 [126 

Common Cow-parsnip, 
Common Daffodil, 279 
Common Daisy, 173 
Common Dandelion, 160 
Common Elder, 135 
Common Elm, 263 
Common Enchanter's 

Nightshade, 95 
Common Evening Prim- 
rose, 94 
Common Eye-bright , 2 1 6 
Common Fennel, 26 
Common Feverfevf, 174 
Common Filago, 168 
Common Flax, 48 
Common Flea-bane, 173 
Common Fumitory, 15 
Common Furze, 65 
Common Gipsy - wort, 

Common Gladiolus, 218 
Common Golden Saxi- 
frage, 110 
Common Gout-weed. 120 
Common Grass of Par- 
nassus, III 
Common Gromwell, 200 
Common Groundsel, 170 
Common Hazel, 267 
Common Hedge Mus- 
tard, 27 
Common Hemlock, 117 


Common Hemp - agri- 
mony, 1 66 
Common Hemp-nettle, 

Common Henbane, 207 
Common Hop, 263 
Common Horn-wort, 97 
Common Ilound's- 

tongue, 204 
Common House-leek, 105 
Common Ivy, 131 
Common Juniper, 268 
Common Knot-grass, 248 
Common Lady's Fin- 
gers, T2 
Common Lady's Mantle, 

Common Larkspur, g 
Common Lime, 5z 
Common Lungwort, 200 
Common Mallow, 50 
Common Maple, 55 
Corn Marigold, 174 
Common Marjoram, 225 
Common Marsh Mallow, 

Common Medlar, 91 
Common Milkwort, 35 
Common Mistletoe, 134 
Common Monk's Hood, 9 
Common Moschatell,i3i 
Common Motherwort, 

Common Jlouse-tail, 7 
Common Mud-wort, 214 
Common Nipple - wort, 

Common Orache, 245 
Common Parsnip, 126 
Common Pellitory - of - 

the-wall, 262 
Common Rag-wort, 171 
Comnron Red Poppy, 1 3 
Common Rest-harrow, 

Common Rock-Rose, 32 
Common Rccmeria, 14 
Conrmon Romulea, 277 
Common Rush, 290 
Common Saint-foin, yd 
Common Saw-wort, 161 
Common Scurvy Grass, 

Common Shepherd' s 

Purse, 19 
Common Soap-wort, 40 
Commc nSolomon's Seal, 



Sorrel, 251 
Sow - thistl?. 

Speedwell, 217 
Spindle Tree, 

Spurrey, 45 
Star of Bethle- 

Star-fruit, 293 
Star - thistle. 

Tamarisk, 99 
Tansy, 166 




hem, 2: 


Common Tutsan, 53 
Common Vervain, 233 
Common Vetch, 74 
Common Viper's Bu- 

gloss, 199 . 
Common Water-cress, 27 
Common White-rot, 1 16 
Common Wild Navew, 

Common Winter Cress, 

Common Winter-green, 

Common Wood Sorrel, 


Common Wormwood, 

Common Yellow Cow- 
wheat, 214 

Common Yellow Melilot, 

Common Yellow Milfoil, 

Common Yellow Water 

Lily, 1 1 
Common Yew, 26S 
Compound Flowers, 146- 

Copse Buckwheat, 249 
Coral -root, 25, 275 
Coriander, Common, 130 
Corn Bcdstraw, 141 
Corn Blue-bottle, 164 
Corn Campanula, 178 
Corn Catchfly, Striated, 

Corn Chamomile, 175 
Corn Cockle, 42 
Corn Crowfoot, 6 
Corn Feverfew, 174 
Corn Gromwell, 200 
Corn Mint, 224 

Corn Parsley, 1 19 

Corn Salad, 143 ; Com- 
mon, 144 ; Toothed, 

Corn Wound-wort, 229 

Cornel, 132 ; Dwarf, 
133 ; Wild, 132 

Cornish Bladder - seed,. 

Cornish Heath, 183 

Cornish Money-wort, 
211, 216 

Corydalis, Climbing, 15; 
Yellow, 15 

Cotton-thistle, 151, 163 

Cotton-weed, 152; Sea- 
side, 166 

Cotoneaster, 81 ; Com- 
mon, 92 

Cow Parsnip, 115, 126 

Cowbane, 118 

Cowberry, 1 80 

Cowslip, 236 

Cow -wheat, 210: Com- 
mon Yellow, 214 ; 
Crested, 214; SmalL 

Crab Apple, 90 

Crake-berry, 255 

Crambe, 23 

Cranberry, 180, 181 

Crane's-bill, 56; Bloodv,. 
57 ; Dove's-foot, 58^ 7 
Dusky, 57 ; Jagged- 
leaved, 58 ; Long- 
stalked, 58 ; Meadow, 
57 ; Mountain, 57 ; 
Round -leaved, 58 ;. 
Shining, 58 ; Small- 
flowered, 58 ; Wood, 

Creeping Bell-flower, 1 78 

Creeping Buttercup, 6 

Creeping Cinquefoil, 84 

Creeping Goodyera, 275 

Creeping Jenny, 238 

Creeping Plume-thistle, 

Creeping Water Scor- 
pion-grass, 202 

Creeping Yellow Cress,, 

Cress, 18 ; Alpine Penny, 
19 ; Alpine Rock, 26 ; 
American, 26 ; Bitter,. 
17, 24 ; Bristol Rock, 
26 ; Bnlbifcrons Bit- 
ter; 25; Common Win^ 


' 309 

ter, 26 ; Creeping 
Yellow, 27 ; Fringed 
"Rock, 26 ; Glabrous 
Rock, 25 ; Hairy Bit- 
ter, 24 ; Hairy Rock, 
25; Large - flowered 
Bitter, 24 ; Lesser 
Wart, 24 ; Marsh Yel- 
low, 27 ; Narrow - 
leaved Bitter, 24 ; 
Northern Rock, 26 ; 
Penny, 16, 18 ; Per- 
foliate Penny, 19 ; 
Rock, 17 ; Swine, 24 ; 
Thalo Rock, 26 ; 
Tower, 25 ; Wart, 17, 
24 ; Winter, 18. 
"Crested Cow-wheat, 214 
Crimson Clover, 68 
Crimson Vetchling, 74 
■Crocus, 276 ; Saffron, 


Cross-leaved Bedstraw, 

Cross-leaved Heath, 182 

Crosswort, 139 

Crow-berry, Black, 255 

Crowfoot, 2 ; Celery- 
leaved. 6 ; Corn, 6 ; 
Ivy-leaved, 5 ; Mea- 
dow, 6 ; Small-flow- 
ered, 7 ; Water, 5 ; 
Wood. 6 

'Cuckoo-flower, 24 

Cuckoo-pint, 296 

■Cudweed, 152 ; Dwarf, 
168 ; Jersey, 16S ; 
Marsh, 167 ; Moun- 
tain, 167 ; Narrow- 
leaved, 168 ; Wood, 

<;up. King, 7 

Curled Dock, 250 

Currant, Black. 107 ; 
Red, 107 ; Tasteless 
Mountain, 108 

■Cut-leaved Germander, 

Cut-leaved Saxifrage, 

Cyphel, 46 

Dabeoc's Heath, St., 184 
Daffodil, Common, 279 
Daisy, J53 ; Common, 

Dandelion, 150; Com- 
mon, 160 

Danewort, 1 36 
Danish Scurvy Grass, 21 
Dark Mullein, 220 
Dead-nettle, 222 ; Red, 
228 ; Spotted, 22S ; 
White, 228 ; Yellow, 
Deadly Nightshade, 20^6 
Deptford Pink, 39 
Devil's-bit Scabious, 146 
Dewberry, 86 
Dittander, 20 
Dock, 248 ; Bloody:- 
veined, 250 ; Broad- 
leaved, 250 ; Curled, 
Dodder, 196 ; Cloven, 
197 ; Flax, 197 ; 
Greater, 197 ; Lesser, 
Dog Rose, Trailing, 89 
Dog Violet, 33 
Dog's Mercury, 259 
Dog-wood, 132 
Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, 

Downy Hemp-nettle, 228 
Downy Wound-wort, 229 
Downy-leaved Rose, 89 
Drooping Saxifrage. 109 
Drooping Star of Beth- 
lehem, 286 
Dropwort, 78. 83 ; Fine- 
leaved Water, 123 ; 
Hemlock Water, 123 ; 
Tubular Water, 122 ; 
Water. 114 
Duck-weed, Lesser, 29S 
Duke of Argyll's Tea- 
tree, 207. 
Dusky Crane's-bill, 57 
Dutch Clover, 70 
Dwale, 206 
Dwarf Birch, 266 
Dwarf Centaury, 193 
Dwarf Cornel, 133 
Dwarf Cudweed, 168 
Dwarf Elder, 136 
Dwarf Furze, 65 
Dwarf Mallow, 50 
Dwarf Orchis, 274 
Dwarf Plume-thistle, 1 63 
Dwarf Red-rattle, 214 
Dwarf Spurge, 258 
Dwarf Tufted Centaury, 

Dyer's Green-weed, 66 
Dyer's Rocket, 31 

Early Field Scorpion- 
grass, 203 
Early Purple Orchis, 2ji 
Earth-nut, 114, 121 
Earth-nut Pea, 75 
Echium, Purple, 199 
Eight-stamened Water- 
wort, 37 
Elder, Common, 135 ; 
Dwarf, 136 ; Water, 

Elecampane, 153, 172 
Elm, Common, 263 ; 

Scotch, 263 ; Wych. 


93 ; Alpine, 95 ; Com- 

nron, 95 
Enghsh Catchflv, 41 
English Scurvy Grass, 21 
English Stonecrop, 105 
Entire-leaved Peony, 9 
Eryngo,ii3; Field, 117; 

Sea, 117 
European Chickweed, 

Evening Campion, 42 
Evening Primrose, 93 ; 

Common. 94 
Evergreen Alkanet, 202 
Everlasting, 152 ; White 

Everla.sting Pea, 75 
Exogenous Plants, i- 

Eye, Pheasant's, 2, 5 
Eye-bright, 211; Com- 
mon, 216 

Fen l^ag-wort. Great, 


Fennel, 115 ; Common, 

124 ; ftfarsh Hog's, 

130 ; Sea Hog's, 130 

Fenugreek, 64 ; Bird's- 

foot, 68 
Feverfew, Common, 174; 

Corn, 174 ; Sea, 174 
Field Bindweed, 196 
Field Eryngo, 1 17 
Field Flea-wort, 171 
Field Gentian, 192 
Field Lady's Mantle, 87 
Field Madder, 139, 141 
Field Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed, 47 
Field Pepper-wort, 20 


Field Scabious, 146 
Field Scorpion - grass, 

203 ; Early, 203 
Field Speedwell, 218 
Field Wood-liush, 292 
Field Wormwood, 167 
Fig-wort, 210 ; Balm- 
leaved, 213 ; Knotted 
213 ; Water, 213 ; 
Yellow, 213 
Filago, 152 ; Common, 

168 ; Least, 168 
Fine-leaved Heath, 183 
Fine-leavedWater Drop- 
wort, 123 

Finger - leaved Spced- 
w^ell, 219 

Fingers, CommonLady's, 
72 ; Lad3''s, 64 

Fir, Scotch, 268 

Fir-rape, 187 

Flag, 277 

Flax, Cathartic, 49 ; 
Common, 48 ; Nar- 
row-leaved, 48 ; Per- 
ennial, 48 

Flax Dodder, 197 

Flax Seed, 48 ; Thyme- 
leaved, 49 

Flax-leaved Goldylocks, 
J 66 

Flax-leaved St, John's 
Wort, 53 

Flea-bane, 15J, 153; 
Alpine, 169 ; Blue, 

169 ; Canadian, 170 ; 
Common, 173; Erigon, 
169; Small, 173 ; Field, 
171 ; Marsh, 171 

Flesh - coloured Speed- 
well, 217 
Flixweed, 27 
Floating Bur-reed, 296 
Floating Pond-weed, 299 
Floating Water - Plan - 

tain, 293 
Flowering Rush, 292 
Flowering Willow, 93 
Fluellen, Sharp-pointed, 

Fool's Parsley, 115, 123 
Forget-me-not, 199, 202; 

Wood, 203 
Forster's Wood - Rush, 

Four-leaved All Seed, 45 


Four-leaved Herb-Paris, 

Fowler's Service, 91 
Foxglove, 210 ; Purple, 

Frog Orchis, 274 
Frog-bit, 270 
Frosted Sea Orache, 245 
FYinged Rock Cress, 26 
Fringed Sandwort, 46 
Fritillary, 283, 287 
Fuller's Teazle, 145 
Fumitory, 14; Common, 

15, 65 ; Dwarf, 65 ; 

Furze, 63 ; Ramping, 


Gagea, 283 ; Yellow, 288 
Garden Chervil, 129 
Garlic, 283 ; Broad- 
leaved, 287 
Garhc Mustard, 18, 28 
Gentian, 191 ; Autum- 
nal, 192 ; Field, 192 ; 
Marsh, 192 ; Small, 

192 ; Spring, 192 
Gentianella, 192 ; Least, 

193 ; Slender, 193 
German Madwort, 204 
Germander, 221 ; Cut- 
leaved, 226 ; Wall, 
226 ; Water, 226 ; 
Wood, 226 [218 

Germander Speedwell; 

Giant Bell-flower, 178 

Gilliflower, 28 

Gipsy-wort, 221 ; Com- 
mon, 223 

Glabrous Rock Cress, 25 

Gladiolus, 276 ; Com- 
mon, 278. 

Glasswort, 244 ; Jointed, 
246 ; Rooting, 246 

Glaucous Marsh Stitclr- 
wort, 4; 

Globe Flower, 3 , 7 

Goat's-beard, 149; Yel- 
low, 154 

Golden Samphire, 173 

Golden Saxifrage, loS ; 
Alternate-leaved, i icx; 
Common, no 

Golden-rod, 153, 170 

Goldilocks, 6 

Goldylocks, 152 ; Flax- 
leaved, 166 

Good King Henry, 244 
Goodyera, Creeping, 275 
Gooseberry, 107 
Goose-foot, 243 ; Stink- 
ing, 244 ; White, 245 
Goose-grass, 85, 140; 
Annual Seaside, 245 ; 
Many-seeded, 244 
Gorse, 65 

Gout-weed, 114; Com- 
mon, 120 [287 
Grape Hyacinth, 283, 
Grass, Common Scurvy,. 
21 ; Danish Scurvj'. 
21 ; Knglish Scurvy,. 
21 ; Goose, 140; Rock 
Whitlow, 22 ; Scor- 
pion, 199 ; Scurvy, 
17 ; Speedwell -leaved 
Whitlow, 23 ; Twisted 
Whitlow, 22 ; Vernal 
Whitlow, 23 ; Whit- 
low, 17, 22; Yellow 
Alpine Whitlow, 22 
Grass of Parnassus, 108; 

Common, in 
Grass Vetchling, se& 

Crimson Vetchling. 
Grass-wrack, 299, 300 
Great Bilberry, 180 
Great Bindweed, 196 
Great Broom-rape, 20& 
Great Bar-parsley, 127 
Great Burnet, 88 
Great Fen Rag-wort, 17P 
Great Hairy Willow 
Herb, 93 [172 

Great Leopard's-bane, 
Great Mullein, 219 
Great Nettle, 262 
Great Reed-mace, 29 J 
Great Sea-Rush, 290 
Great Sea Stock, 28 
Great Snapdragon, 21 j 
Great Spear-wort, 5 
Great Sundew, 35 
Great Water-Dock, 2 5c» 
Great Water-Plantain, 

Great Wild Valerian, 14J 
Great Wood-Rush, 291 
Great Yellow Loose - 

strife, 238 
Greater Bird's-foot Tre- 
foil, 71 
Greater Burnet SaxU 

frage, 121 
Greater Celandine, 14 

Greater Dodder, 197 
Greater Knap-weed, 164 
Greater Maple, 55 
Greater Periwinkle, 190 
Greater Plantain, 241 
Greater Skull-cap, 232 
Greater Stitchwort, 45 
Greek Valerian, 195 
Crreen Habenaria, 274 
Green Hellebore, 8 
Green Hound's-tongue, 

Green-weed, 63 ; Dyer's, 
66 ; Hairy, 66 ; Nee- 
dle, 66 
Green-winged Meadow 

Orchis, 273 
Grey Millet, 200 
Gromwell, 198 ; Com- 
mon, 200 ; Purple, 
200 ; Seaside Smooth, 
200 ; Smooth, 198 
Ground Ivy, 230 
Ground Pine, 226 
Groundsel, 153 ; Com- 
mon, 170 ; Mountain, 
170 ; Viscid, 171 
Guelder Rose, 132, 135, 
136 ; Mealy, 136 

Habenaria, Green, 274 
Hair-bell, 177 
Hairy Bitter Cress, 24 
Hairy Buttercup, Pale, 6 
Hairy Green-weed, 66 
Hairy Hawk-bit, 155 
Hairy Mint, 224 
Hairy Mountain Oxy 

tropis, 72 
Hairy Pepper -wort, 20 
Hairy Rock Cress, 25 
Hairy St. John's Wort, 


Hairy Spurge, 259 

Hairy Stonecrop, 106 

Hairy Thrincia, 155 

Hairy Vetch, 73 

Hairy Violet, 33 

Hairy Willow Plerb, 
Great, 93 ; Small- 
flowered, 93 

Hairy Wood-Rush, 291 

Hard Rush, 290 

Hare's-ear, 114, 122; 
Narrow-leaved, 122 ; 
Sickle - leaved, 122 ; 
Slender, 122 


Hare's-foot Clover, 68 
Hautboy Strawberry, 86 
Hawk-bit, 149 ; Au- 
tumnal, 155 ; Hairy, 
155 ; Rough, 155 
Hawk-weed, 1 50; Mouse- 
ear, 159 ; Narrow- 
leaved, 159 ; Orange, 
159 ; Shrubby, 159 ; 
Wall, 159 ; Wood, I 59 
Hawk-weed Picric, 154 
Hawk's - beard, 150; 
Blunt -leaved, 158 ; 
Foetid, 158 ; Marsh, 
158 ; Rough, 158 ; 
Smooth, 158 
Hawthorn, 81, 92 
Hazel, Common, 267 
Head, Snake's, 287 
Heart-leaved Tway- 

blade, 275 
Heartsease, 33 
Heath, 1S2 ; Cihated 
183 ; Cornish, 183 
Cross - leaved, i82_ 
Fine - leaved, 183 
Mediterranean, 183 
Powdery Sea, 37 ; St 
Dabeoc's, 184 ; Sea 
36 ; Smooth Sea, 37 
Heath Bcdstraw, 140 
Heath Rush, 290 
Heather, 182, 184; Eeli, 


Hedge Bedstraw, 140 

Hedge Mustard, 18 ; 
Common, 27 

Hedge Parsley, 116; 
Knotted, 128; Spread- 
ing, 127 ; Upright, 127 

Hedge Stone Parsley, 

Hedge Wound-wort, 229- 

Hellebore, 3 ; Green, 8 ; 
Stinking, 8 

Hemlock, 113; Com- 
mon, 117 ; Water, 
113, 118 

Hemlock Stork's-bill, S9 

Hemlock Water Drop- 
wort, 123 

Hemp-agrimony, 151; 
Common, 166 

Hemp-nettle, 222 ; Corn- 
mon, 227 ; Downy, 
228 ; Red, 22S 

Henbane, 206 ; Com- 
mon, 207 


Henbit-nettle, 228 
Henry, Good King, 244 
Herb, Alpine Willow, 94; 
Broad Smooth-leaved 
Willow, 93 ; Chick- 
weed-leaved Willow, 
94 ; Great Hairy Wil- 
low, 93 ; Narrow - 
leaved Marsh Willow, 
94 ; Pale Smooth- 
leaved Willow, 94 ; 
Small-flowered Hairy 
Willow, 93 ; Square- 
stalked Willow, 94 ; 
Willow, 93 
Herb Rennet, 83 
Herb Christopher, 9 
Herb-Paris, Four-leaved , 
Herb-Robert, 57 [281 
Herb-twopence, 238 
Hieracium, 150 
Hippocrepis, •]& 
Hispid Marsh Mallow, 5 1 
Hoary Cinquefoil, 84 
Hoary Mullein, 220 
Hoary Plantain, 241 
Hoary Rag-wort, 171 
Hoary Rock-Rose, 32 
Hoary Shrubby Stock, 28 
Hog's Fennel, Marsh, 

130 ; Sea, 130 
Hog-weed, 126 
Holly, 187, 188 ; Knee, 

284 ; Sea, 1 17 
Honewort, 130 
Honeysuckle, 135, 137; 

Pale Perfoliate, 137 
Hop, 263 ; Common, 263 
Hop Clover, 7 1 
Horehound, Black, 222, 
227 ; White, 222, 230 
Horn-wort, Common, 97 
Horned Pond-weed, 289, 

Horned Poppy, 12 ; Vio- 
let, 14 ; Yellow, 14 
Hornbeam, 267 
Horse Mint, 224 
Horse-radish, 21 
Horse-Shoe Vetch, 65 ; 

Tufted, 76 
Hound's-tongue, 199 ; 
Common, 204 ; Green 
House-leek, 104 ; Com- 
mon, 105 
Hutchinsia, 17 ; Rock, 


Hyacinth, Grape, 283, 

287 ; Wild, 286 
Hyssop-leaved Purple 

Loosestrife, 98 

Imperforate St. John's 
Wort, 53 

Inelegant Rag-wort, 171 

Intermediate Bladder- 
wort, 235 

Intermediate Winter - 
green, 186 

Iris, 276 ; Stinking, 277; 
Yellow, 277 

Irish Menziesia, 184 

Irish Spurge, 259 

Isle of Man Cabbage, 29 

Isnardia, 93 ; Marsh, 95 

Ivy, Common, 131 ; 
Ground, 230 

Ivy-leaved I3ell-flower, 

Ivy-leaved Crowfoot, 5 
Ivy-leaved Lettuce, 156 
Ivy-leaved Sow-bread, 

237 [218 

Ivy-leaved Speedwell, 
Ivy-leaved Toad - flax, 


Jack-by-the-Hedge, 28 
Jacob's Ladder, Blue, 

Jagged Chickweed, 39 ; 

Umbelliferous, 44 
Jagged-leaved Crane's- 
bill, 5S 
Jenny, Creeping, 238 
Jersey Centaurea, 165 
lersey Cudweed, 168 
jointed Glasswort. 246 
Jointed Rush, Blunt- 
flowered, 29: ; Lesser 
Bo,g, 291 ; Shining- 
fruited, 291 
Joy, Traveller's. 2, 3 
Tuniper, Common, 268 

^lale. Sea, 17, 23 

Kidney - shaped Saxi - 
frage, 1 10 

Kidney Vetch, 72 

King Cup, 7 

King Henry, Good, 244 

Knap-weed, 151 ; Black, 
164 ; Greater, 164 

Knawel, 247 ; Peren- 
nial, 247 


Knee Holly, 284 
Knot-grass, 102, 103 ; 
Common, 248 ; Sea, 
248 ; Whorled, 103 
Knotted Tig-wort, 213 
Knotted Hedge Parsley, 

Knotted Pearl-wort, 43 
Knotted Trefoil, Soft, 69 

Ladder, Blue Jacob's, 195 
Lady's Bedstraw, 139 
Lady's Fingers, 64 ; 

Common, 72 
Lady's Mantle, 79 ; Al- 
pine, 87 ; Common, 
87 ; Field, 87 
Lady's Slipper, 276 
Lady's Smock, 24 [275 
Lady's Tresses, Autumn, 
Lamb's Lettuce, 144 
Large Bushy Yellovi'- 

rattle, 215 
Large-flowered Bitter 

Cress, 24 
Large - flowered St. 

John's Wort, 53 
Larkspur, 3 ; Common, 9 
Lavender, Sea, 240 
Leafy Spurge, 259 
Least Filago, 168 
Least Gentianella, 193 
Least Marsh-wort, 119 
Least Toad-flax, 213 
Least Yellow Water Lil)', 

Lent Lily, 279 
Leopard's - bane, 153; 
Great, 172 ; Plantain- 
leaved, 172 
Lesser Bindweed, see 

Field Bindweed 
Lesser Bladderwort, 235, 
Lesser Bog Jointed Rush, 

Lesser Broom-rape, 209 
Lesser Celandine, 2, 5,14 
Lesser Clover, 71 
Lesser Dodder, 197 
Lesser Duck-weed, 29S 
Lesser Meadow Rue, 4 
Lesser Periwinkle, 191 
Lesser Reed-mace, 295 
Lesser Sea-Rush, 290 
Lesser Skull-cap, 232 
Lesser Snapdragon, 212 
Lesser Spear-wort, 5 
Lesser Stitchwort, 44 

Lesser Wart Cress, 24 
Lesser Water-Plantain, 


Lettuce, 150 ; Alpine, 
157 ; Ivy -leaved, 156; 
Lamb's, 144 ; Prickly, 
156 ; Willow, 157 

Lily, Common Y'ellow 
Water, 1 1 ; Least Yel- 
low Water, 12 ; Lent, 
279 ; May, 28 <; ; 
Water, 11 ; Whits 
Water. 1 1 ; Yellov.' 
Water, 11 

Lily of the Valley, 282, 

Lime, Common, 52 

Linden Tree, 52 

Ling, 182, 184 

Linna;a, 135, 137 

Liparis, Two-leaved, 276 

Little Bur-Medick, 67 

Live-long, 104, 105 

Lizard Orchis, 274 

Lloydia, 283 ; Moun- 
tain, 288 

Lobeha, 177 ; Acrid, 
1 79 ; Water, 1 79 

London Pride, 1 10 

London Rocket, 27 

Long Rough-headed 
Poppy, T 3 

Long Smooth-headed 
Poppy. 13 

Long-leaved Sundew, 35 

Long-rooted Cat's-ear, 

Long -stalked Crane's- 
bill, 5 8 

Loose Orchis, 274 

Loosestrife. 98, 236 ; 
Great Yellow, 238 ; 
Hyssop - leaved Pur- 
ple, 98 ; Purple, 98 ; 
Tufted, 23S ; Wood, 

Lords-and-Ladles, 296 

Louse-wort, 2 1 5 

Lovage, 115; Scottish, 

Love-Knot, True, 281 

Lucerne, 6y 

Lungwort, 19S ; Com- 
mon, 200 ; Narrow- 
leave J, 199 

Madder, 13? ; Field, 
139. 141 

Madwort, 199 ; Ger- 
man, 204 
Maiden Pink, 40 
Mallow, 50 ; Common, 

50 ; Common Marsh, 

51 ; Dwarf, 50 ; His- 
- pid Marsh, 5 i ; Marsh 

SO ; Musk, 50 ; Tree, 
50. 51 
Man Orchis, 275 
Mantle, Alpine Lady's, 
87 ; Common Lady's, 
87 ; Field Lady's, 87 ; 
Lady's, 79 
Many - seeded Goose - 

grass, 244 
Maple, 54 ; Common, 

55 ; Greater, 55 
Mare's-tail, 95 
Marigold, Corn, 174 
Marjoram, 221 ; Com- 
mon, 225 
Marsh Andromeda, 184 
Marsh Arrow-grass, 294 
Marsh Bedstraw,Rough, 

Marsh Cinquefoil, 85 
Marsh Cudweed, 167 
Marsh Flea-wort, 171 
Marsh Gentian, 192 
MarshHawk's-beard, 158 
Marsh Hog's Fennel, 1 30 
Marsh Isnardia, 95 
Marsh Mallow, 50; Com- 
mon, 51 ; Hispid, 51 
Marsh Marigold, 3, 7 
Marsh Orchis, 274 
Marsh Pennywort, 1 16 
Marsh Plume-thistle, 162 
Marsh Rag-wort, 171 
Marsh Red-rattle, 2 1 5 
Marsh St. John's Wort, 

Marsh Saxifrage,Yellow, 

Marsh Sow-thistle, 157 
Marsh Speedwell, 218 
Marsh Slitchwort, Glau- 
cous, 45 
Marsh Trefoil, 194 
Marsh Valerian, Small, 

Marsh Vetchling, Blue, 

Marsh Violet, 33 
Marsh Whortleberry, 18 1 
iJarsh Willow Herb, 

Narrow-leaved, 94 
X 2 


Marsh Wound-wort, 229 

Marsh Yellow Cress, 2-7 

Marsh-wort, 114 ; Least, 
119; Procumbent, 1 19 

Matted Sea - Lavender, 

May, 92 

May Lily, 285 

May-weed, Scentless, 174 

Maywort, 139 

Meadow Clary, 224 

Meadow Crane's-bill, 57 

Meadow Crowfoot, 6 

Meadow Orchis, Green- 
winged, 273 

Meadow Pea, 75 

Meadow Pepper Saxi- 
frage, 124 

Meadow Plume-thistle, 

Meadow Rue, 2 ; Al- 
pine, 4 ; Lesser, 4 ; 
Yellow, 4 

Meadow Saffron, 283, 

Meadow Saxifrage, 109 ; 
Mountain, 130 

Meadows, Queen of the, 

Meadow-Sweet, 78, 82 

Mealy Guelder Rose, 1 36 

Meat, Adder's, 45 

Medicago, 6j 

Medick, 64 ; Black, 67.; 
Sickle, 67 ; Spotted, 
67 ; Toothed, 67 

Mediterranean Heath, 

Medlar, 81 ; Common,. 

Melilot, 64 ; Common 

Yellow, 68 ; White, 68 
Menziesia, 182 ; Irish, 

184 ; Scotch, 184 
Mercury, 257 ; Annual, 

259 ; Dog's, 259 
Meu, 124 
Mignonette, 3 1 ; White, 

31 ; Wild, 31 
Milfoil, Common Yellow, 

175 ; Spiked Water, 

96 ; Whorled Water, 

Military Orchis, 274 
Milk Vetch, 64, 72 ; 

Alpine, 73 ; Purple, 

73 ; Sweet, ^2 
Milkwort, Common, 35 


Milk Thistle, 157, I0i 
Millet, Grey, 200 
Mint, 221 ; Corn, 224; 
Hairy, 224 ; Horse, 
224 ; Roimd-leaved, 
Mistletoe, Common, 134 
Mithridate Mustard, 18 
Moenchia, 39 ; Upright, 


Money-wort, 238 ; Corn- 
ish, 211, 216 

Monkey - flower, 211; 
Yellow, 217 

Monk's-hood, 3 ; Com- 
mon, 9 

Moschatell, Common, 

Moss Campion, 40 
Mossy Saxifrage, 109 
Mossy Tillaja, 104 
Moth Mullein, 219 
Motherwort, 222 ; Com- 
mon, 227 
Mountain Ash, So, 91 
Mountain Avens, 79, 83 
Mountain Crane's-bill, 57 
Mountain Cudweed, 1C7 
Mountain Currant, 

Tasteless, 108 
Mountain Groundsel, 1 70 
Mountain Lloydia, 288 
Mountain Meadow Saxi- 
frage, 130 
Mountain Oxytropis, 
Hairy, 72 ; Purple, 72 
JNIountain l^ansy, 34 
Mountain St. John's 

Wort, 54 
Mountain Saxifrage, 

Purple, 108 ; Yellow, 
Mountain Scottish As- 
phodel, 288 
Mountain Sorrel, 248, 

Mountain Speedwell, 218 
Mountain Violet, Yellow, 

Mouse-ear, 202 
Mouse-ear Chickweed, 

39, 47 ; Alpine, 47 ; 

Field, 47 ; Starwort, 

47 ; Water, 44 
Mouse-ear Hawk-weed, 

Mouse-tail, 2 ; Common 



Mud-wort, 210 ; Com- 
mon, 214 

Mug-wort, 167 

Mullein, 211; Dark, 220; 
Great, 219 ; Hoary, 
220 ; Moth, 219 ; 
Primrose-leaved, 220 ; 
White, 220 

Musk Mallow, 50 

Musk Stork's-biU, 59 

Musk Thistle, 161 

Mustard, Black, 30 ; 
Common Hedge, 27 ; 
Garlic, 18, 28; Hedge, 
18; Mithridate, 18; 
Tower, 2^ ; Treacle, 
18, 28 ; White, 29 ; 
Wild, 30 

Naked - stalked Tecs- 
dalia, 20 

Narrow-leaved Bitter 
Cress, 24 

Narrow - leaved Cud - 
weed, 168 

Narrow-leaved Flax, 48 

Narrow-leaved Hare's- 
ear, 122 

Narrow-leaved Hawk - 
weed, 159 

Narrow - leaved Lung - 
wort, 199 

Narrow-leaved Marsh 
Willow Herb, 94 

Narrow-leaved Pepper- 
wort, 20 

Narrow-leaved Vetch, 74 

Narrow-leaved Water 
Parsnip, 1 2 1 

Navew, Common Wild ,29 

Needle Green-weed, 66 

Needle, Shepherd's, 116, 

Nest, Bird's, 27=; 

Nettle, 262 ; Great, 262 ; 
Hemp, 222 ; Roman, 
262 ; Small, 262 

Nettled - leaved Bell - 
flower, 177 

Nightshade, 206 ; Al- 
pine Enchanter's, 95 ; 
Black, 206 ; Common 
Enchanter's, 95 ; 

Deadly, 206 ; En- 
chanter's, g}, 95 ; 
Woody, 206 

Nipple-wort, 150 ; Com- 
mon, 160 


Nodding Bur-Marigold, 

Nonsuch, 67 
Northern Bedstraw, 140 
Northern Rock Cress, 26 
Nottingham Caichfly, 41 

Oak, 266 

Oleaster, 25 1-2 

Olive, 188 

One-sided Winter-green, 

Opium Poppy, 13 

Opposite leaved Pond- 
weed, 299 

Orache, 244 ; Common, 
245 ; Frosted Sea, 245 

Orange Hawk-weed, 159 

Orchis, Bee, 275 ; Bog, 
276 ; Butterfly, 274 ; 
Dwarf, 274 ; Early 
Purple, 273 ; Frog, 
274 ; Green - winged 
Meadow, 273 ; Lizard, 
274 ; Loose, 274 ; 
Man, 275 ; Marsh, 
274 ; Military, 274 ; 
Pyramidal, 273; Spot- 
ted, 273 ; Sweet "-- 
scented, 274 

Orpine, 104. 105 

Ox-eye, 153; White, 
173 ; Yellow, 174 

Ox-eye Chamomile, 175 

Oxlip, 236 

Ox-tongue, 149 ; Bristly, 

Oxytropis. 64 ; Hairy 
Mountain, 72 ; Purple, 
Mountain, 72 ; Yel- 
low, 72 

Pajonia, sec Peony 

Paigle, 236 

Pale blue Toad-flax, 2 1 3 

Palo Butterwort, 234 

Palo Hairy Buttercup, 6 

Pale Perfoliate Honey,- 
suckle, 137 

Pale Poppy, 13 

Pale Smooth-leaved Wil- 
low Herb, 94 

Pale-flowered Persicarla, 

Pausy, 33; Mountain, 34 

Paruassia, 1 1 1 

Parnassus, Grass of, 108; 
Common Grass of, 1 1 j 

Parsley, 114; Beaked, 
1 16; Common Beaked, 
128 ; Corn, 119 ; 
Fool's, 115; Hedge, 
116; Hedge Stone, 
120 ; Knotted Hedge, 
T28; Spreading Hedge, 
127; Stone. T 74; Up- 
right Hedge, 127 ; 
Wild Beaked, 128 

Parsley Piert, 87 

Parsnip, 115; Broad- 
leaved Water, 121 ; 
Common, 126 ; Cow, 

115 ; Narrow-leaved 
Water, 121; Water, 1 14 

Parti-coloured Scorpion- 
grass, 203 

Pasque-flower, 4 

Pea, Earth-nut, 75 ; 
Everlasting, 75 ; Mea- 
dow, 75 ; Sea, 7^ 

Pear, 80 ;' Wild, 90 

Pearl-w^ort, 39 ; Alpine, 
43 ; Awl-shaped, 43 ; 
Knotted, 43 ; Pro- 
cumbent, 43 

Pellitory - of - the - Wall, 
Common, 262 

Penny Cress, 16, tS ; 
Alpine, 19 ; Perfo- 
liate, 19 

Penny-royal, 223 

Pennywort, 104 ; Marsh, 

1 16 ; Wall, 104 
Peony, 3 ; Entire - 

leaved, 9 
Pepper Saxifrage, 115; 

Meadow, 1 24 
Pepper-wort, 17 ; Broad- 
leaved, 20 ; Field, 20; 
Hairy, 20 ; Narrow- 
leaved, 20 
Perennial Flax, 48 
Perennial Knawel, 247 
Perfoliate Claytonia, loi 
Perfoliate Honeysuckle, 

Pale, 137 
Perfoliate Penny Cress, 

Perfoliate Pond - weed, 

Perfoliate Yellow-wort, 

Perforated St. John's 

Wort. 53 
Periwinkle, 1 90; G reater, 

1 90 ; Lesser, 191 

Persicaria, 248 ; Am- 
phibious, 249 ; Climb- 
ing, 249 ; Pale-flow- 
ered, 250 ; Slender, 
250 ; Spotted, 250 
Petty Spurge, 25S 
Petty Whin, 66 
Pheasant's Eye, 2, 5 
Picris, 149 ; Ilawk- 

weed, 154 
Piert, Parsley, 87 
Pig-nut, 121 

Pimpernel. 236 ; Bog, 
238 ; Scarlet, 237 ; 
Yellow, 238 
Pine, Ground, 226 
Pine Bird's-nest, 187 
Pink, 38 ; Cheddar, 40 ; 
Deptford. 39; Maiden, 
40 ; Proliferous, 40 
Plantain, 241 ; Buck's- 
horn, 242 ; Greater, 
241 ; Hoary, 241 ; 
Ribwort, 342 ; Sea, 
Plantain Thrift, 240 
Plantain - leaved Lco- 

pard's-bane, 172 
Ploughman's Spikenard, 

Plum and Cherry, 78 
Plume - thistle, 151; 
Creeping, 163 ; Dwarf, 
163 ; Marsh. 162 ; 
Meadow, 163 ; Spear, 
Poplar, Black, 265 ; 

White, 264 
Poppy, 13 ; Common 
Red, 13 ; Horned, 12; 
Long Rough-headed, 
13 ; Long Smooth- 
headed, 13 ; Opium, 
13 ; Pale, 13 ; Round 
Rough-headed, 13; 
Violet Horned. 14 ; 
Welsh, 13 ; Yellow 
Horned, 14 ; Yellow 
Welsh, 13 
Pond-weed, 398 ; Float- 
ing, 299 ; Horned, 
298, 300 ; Opposite- 
leaved, 299 ; Perfo- 
liate, 299 ; Small, 299 
Portland Spurge, 258 
Powdery Sea Heath, 37 
Premorse Scabious. 146 
Prickly Lettuce, 156 


Prickly Saltwort, 246 

Pride, London, no 

Primrose, 235, 236 ; 
Bird's-eye, 239 ; Com- 
mon Evening, 94 ; 
Evening, 93 

Primrose - leaved Mul- 
lein, 220 

Privet, 188, 189 

Procumbent Marsh-wort 

Procumbent Pearl-wort, 

Proliferous Pink, 40 
Purple Clover, 69 
Purple Cow-wheat, 314 
Purple Echium. 199 
Purple Foxglove, 211 
Purple Gromwell, 200 
Purple Loosestrife. 98 ; 

Hyssop-leaved, 98 
Purple Milk Vetch, T^ 
Purple Mountain Oxy- 

tropis, ■/! 
Purple Mountain Saxi- 
frage, 108 
Purple Orchis. Early, 

Purple Sea Rocket, 23 
Purple Spurge, 258 
Purse, Common Shep- 
herd's, 19 ; Shep- 
herd's, 16 
Purslane, Sea, 46 ; 

Water, 98 
Pyramidal Bugle, 226 
Pyra.midal Orchis, 273 

Queen of the RIeadows, 
" 82 
Quicken, 91 

Radish, 18 ; \\'ild. 30 
Rag-wort, 153 ; Broacl- 
leaved, 172 ; Com- 
mon, 171 ; Great Fen, 
171 ; Hoary, 171 ; 
Inelegant, 171 ; Marsh, 
Ragged Robin. 42 
Ramping Fumitory, 15 
Rampion, 176 ; Round- 
headed, 178 ; Spiked, 
Rampion Bell - flowei', 

Ramps, 178 
Ramsons, 287 


Rape, 29 
Raspberry, 86 
Recurved Yellow Stone- 
crop. 106 
Red Alpine Campion, 42 
Red Bartsia. 216 
Red Bear-berry, 185 
Red Cherry, 82 
Red Currant. 107 
Red Dead-nettle, 22S 
Red GermanCatchfly,43 
Red Hemp-nettle, 22S 
Red Poppy, Common, 1 3 
Red Robin, 43 
Red Spur Valerian, 143 
Red Whortleberry, 180 
Red-rattle, 210 ; Dwarf, 

215 ; Marsh, 215 
Reed-mace, Lesser, 295 ; 

Great, 29; 
Rest-harrow, 64 ; Com- 
mon, 66 ; Small 
Spreading, 67 
Reversed Clover, 70 
Ribwort Plantain, 242 
Rigid Trefoil, 69 [42 
Robin. Ragged. 43 ; Red, 
Rock Cinquefoil, 85 
Rock Cress, 17 ; Alpine, 
26 ; Bristol, 26 ; 
Fringed, 26 ; Gla- 
brous, 25 ; Hairy. 25 ; 
Northern, 26 ; Thale, 
Rock Hutchinsia, 19 
Rock Speedwell, 217 
Rock Stonecrop, 106 
Rock Whitlow Grass, 22 
Rock-Rose, 31 ; Com- 
mon, 32 ; Hoary. 32 
Spotted, 32; White, 33 
Rocket, Dyer's. 31 
London, 27 ; Purple 
Sea, 23 ; Sand, 29 
Sea, 17 ; Shrubby 
31 ; Wall, 29 
Roemeria, 12; Common, 

Roman Nettle, 262 
Romulea, 276 ; Com- 
mon, 277 
Rooting Glasswort, 246 
Rose. 80 ; Dog. 89 ; 
Downy - leaved, 89 ; 
Guelder, 133, 135, 136 
Mealy Guelder, 1 36 ; 
Scotch, 88 ; TraiUng 
Dog, 89 


Rose Bay, 93 
Rose-root, 105 
Rough Chervil, 129 
Rough Hawk's -beard, 

Rough Hawk-bit, 155 
Rough Marsh Bedstraw, 

Rough Sow-tliislle, 157 
Rough - lieaded Poppy, 

Long, 13 ; Round, 13 
Rough - podded Vetcli- 

ling, 75 
Round Rough-headed 

Poppy, 13 
Round-fruited Rush, 291 

Round-headed Trefoil, 

Smooth, 69 
Round-leaved Crane's- 
bill, 58 
Round-leaved Mint, 224 
Round-leaved Sundew, 


Round-leaved Toad-flax 

Round-leaved Winter- 
green, 186 

Rowan Tree, 91 

Rue, Alpine Meadow, 4 ; 
Lesser Meadow, 4 ; 
Meadow, 2 ; Yellow 
Meadow, 4 

Rue - leaved Saxifrage, 

Ruppia, Sea, 298, 300 

Rupture Wort, 102 ; 
Smooth, 103 

Rush, 289 ; Blunt-flow- 
crcd Jointed, 291 ; 
Common, 290 ; Flow- 
ering, 292; Hard, 290; 
Heath, 290 ; Lesser 
Bog - jointed, 291 ; 
Round-fruited, 291 ; 
Shining-fruited Joint- 
ed, 291 ; Soft, 290 ; 
Toad, 291 

Saffron, Meadow, 283, 

Saffron Crocus, 277 
Sage, 221 ; Wild, 223 
St. Dabeoc's Heath, 184 
St. John's Wort, 52 ; 

Flax - leaved, 53 ; 

Hairy, 54 ; Imper- 


f orate, 53 ; Largo- 
flowered, 53 ; Marsh, 
54 ; Mountain, 54 ; 
i?erf orated, 53 ; Slen- 
der, 54 ; Square - 
stalked, 53 ; Trailing, 


St. Patrick's Cabbage, 

Saint-foin, 65 ; Com- 
mon, 76 

Salad, Common Corn, 
144 ; Corn, 143 ; 
Toothed Corn, 144 

Salad Burnet, 88 

Sallow, see Willow 

Salsafy, 154 [246 

Saltwort, 244 ; Prickly, 

Samphire, 115 ; Golden, 
173 ; Sea, 125 

Sand Bird's-foot, 76 

Sand Rocket, 29 

Sand Spurrey, 39, 45 

Sand Strap-wort, 103 

Sandal- wood, 253 

Sandwort, 39 ; Bog, 46 ; 
Fine - leaved, 46 ; 

Fringed, 46; Three - 
nerved, 47 ; Thyme- 
leaved, 46 ; Vernal, 46 

Sanicle, 113; Wood, 117 

Sapouaria, 40 

Satin-flower, 45 

Sauce-alone, 28 

Sausurea, 151 ; Alpine, 

Saw-wort, 151 ; Com- 
mon, 160 

Saxifrage, Alpine, no; 
Alpine Brook, 109 ; 
Burnet, So, 114, 121 ; 
Common Golden, no; 
Cut - leaved, 109; 

Drooping, 109 ; Gold- 
en, loS ; Golden - 
leaved Alternate, no; 
Greater Burnet, 121 ; 
Kidney-shaped, no; 
Meadow, 109; Meadow 
Pepper, 124 ; Mossy, 
109 ; Mountain Mea- 
dow, 130 ; Pepper, 
115; Purple Moun- 
tain,io8; Rue-leaved, 
109 ; Starry, no ; 
Tufted Alpine, 109.; 
Yellow Marsh, 109 ; 
Yellow Mountain, 109 

Scabious, 145 ; Devil's- 
bit, 146 ; Field, 146 ; 
Premorse,i46; Sheep's 
177, 179 ; Small, 146 
Scarlet Pimpernel, 237 
Scentless May-weed, 174 
Scorpion - Grass, 199 ; 
Creeping Water, 202 ; 
Early Field, 203 ; 
Field, 203 ; Parti- 
coloured, 203 ; Tufted 
Water, 202 
Scotch Elm, 2C3 
Scotch Menziesia, 184 
Scotch Rose, 88 
Scotch Thistle, 163 
Scottish Asphodel, 283 ; 

Mountain, 288 
Scottish Lovage, 124 
Scurvy Grass, 17 ; Com- 
mon, 21 ; Danish, 21; 
English, 21 
Sea Arrow-grass, 294 
Sea Aster, 170 
Sea Bindweed, 196 
Sea Blite, 244; Shrubby, 

Sea Buckthorn, 251, 252 
Sea Cabbage, 29 
Sea Campion, 41 
Sea Chamomile, 175 
Sea Eryngo, 117 
Sea Feverfew, 174 
Sea Heath, 36 ; Pow- 
dery, 37 ; Smooth, 37 
Sea Hog's Fennel, 130 
Sea Holly, 117 
Sea Kale, 17, 23 
Sea Knot-grass, 248 
Sea Orache, Frosted, 245 
Sea Pea, 75 
Sea Plantain, 242 
Sea Purslune, 46 [23 
Sea Rocket, 17 ; Purple, 
Sea Ruppia, 29S, 300 
Sea Samphire, 125 
Sea Spurge, 2 58 
Sea Star-wort, 170 
Sea Stock, Great, 28 
Sea Stork' s-bill, 59 
Sea Wormwood, 167 
Sea-beet, 246 
Sea - Lavender, 240 ; 
Matted, 241; Spathu- 
late, 240 
Sea-Milkwort, 236, 239 
Sea-Rush, Great, 290 ; 
Lesser, 290 



Seal, Angular Solomon's, 
285 ; Common Solo- 
mon's, i8s; Solomon's, 
283 ; 'Whorled Solo- 
mon's, 285 

Seaside Cotton -weed , 1 66 

Seaside Goose-grass, An- 
nuil, 245 

Seaside Smooth Grom- 
well, 200 

Sedge, Sweet, 297 

Seed, All, 39, 49 ; Flax, 
48 ; Four-leaved All, 
45 ; Thyme - leaved 
Flax, 49 ; Worm, 28 

Self-heal, 223, 231 

Service, 80 ; Fowler's, 

Service Tree, Wild, 90 
Setter-wort, 8 
Sharp-pointed Fluellen, 

Sheep's Scabious, 177, 

Sheep's Sorrel, 351 
Sheep' 5-bit, 179 
Shepherd's Needle, 116, 

Shepherd's Purse, t6 ; 

Common. 19 
Shining Crane's-bill, 58 
Shining-fruited Jointed 

Rush, 291 
Shore-weed, 241, 242 
Shrubby Cinquefoil, 85 
Shrubbv Hawk - weed, 


Shrubby Rocket, 31 

Shrubby Sea Elite, 245 

Shrubby Stock, Hoary, 

Sibbaldia, 85 

Sickle Medick, 6y 

Sickle-leaved Hare's- 
Ear, 122 

Silene, 40 

Silver Birch, 265 

Silver-weed, 85 

Simethis, 2S3 ; Varie- 
gated, 287 

Single-flowered Winter 
green, 186 

Six - stamened Water - 
wort, 37 

Skull-cap, 223 ; Greater, 
232 ; Lesser, 232 

Slender Bird's-foot Tre- 
foil, 72 

Slender Clover, 71 
Slender Gentianella, 193 
Slender Hare's-car, 122 
Slender Persicaria, 250 
Slender St. John's Wert, 

Slender Vetch, 73 

Slipper, Lady's, 276 
Sloe, 81 

Small Alyssum, 22 
Small Bugloss, 201 
Small Bur-parsley, 127 
Small Cow-wheat, 214 
Small Flea-bane, 173 
Small Gentian, 192 
Small Marsh Valerian, 

Small Nettle, 262 
Small Pond-weed, 299 
Small Scabious, 146 
Small Spreading Rest- 
harrow, (>'j 
Small Teazle, 145 
Small-flowered Crane's- 
bill, 58 
Small - flowered Crow- 
foot, 7 
Small - flowered Hairy 

Willow Herb, 93 
Smallage, 118 
Smock, Lady's, 24 
Smooth Cat's-ear, 156 
Smooth Gromwell, 198 ; 
Seaside, 200 [158 

Smooth Hawk's-beard, 
Smooth Round - headed 
Trefoil, 69 [1O3 

Smooth Rupture-wort, 
Smooth Sea Heath, 37 
Smooth-headed Poppy, 

Long, 13 
Smooth-leaved Willow 
Herb, Broad, 93 ; 
Pale, 94 
Snake Weed, v. Snake- 
Snake's Head, 287 
Snake-root, Bistort, 249 
Snapdragon, 210 ; Great 

211 ; Lesser, 212 
Sneeze-wort, 176 
Snowdrop, 279, 280 
Snow-flake, 279 ; Sum- 
mer, 280 
Soap-wort, 38 ; Com- 
mon, 40 

Soft Knotted Trefoil, 69 

Soft Rush, 290 

Solomon's Seal, 28 3 ; 
Angular, 285 ; Com- 
mon, 2S5 ; Whorled, 

Sorrel, Common, 251 ; 
Common Wood, 59 ; 
Dock, 250 ; Moun- 
tain, 24S, 25 1 ; Sheep's, 
251; Wood, 56; Yellow 
Wood, 60 

Sow-bread, 235 ; Ivy- 
leaved, 237 

Sow-thistle, 150 ; Blue, 
1^7; Common, 157 ; 
Corn, 157 ; Marsh, 
157 ; Rough, 157 

Spanish Catchfly, 41 

Spathulate Sea-Laven- 
der, 240 

Spear Plume-thistle. 162 

Spear-wort, Great, 5 ; 
Lesser, 5 

Speedwell, 211; Bux- 
baum's, 219 ; Com- 
mon, 217 ; Field, 2t8; 
F'inger - leaved, 219 ; 
Flesh-coloured, 217 ; 
Germander, 21S ; Ivy 
leaved, 21S ; Marsh, 
218 ; Mountain, 218 ; 
Rock, 217 ; Spiked, 
217 ; A'ernal, 219 ; 
Wall, 219; Water, 

Speechvell-leaved Whit- 
low Grass, 23 

Spignel, 115, 124 

Spiked Rampion, 178 

Spiked SpccclwcU, 217 

Spiked Star of Bethle- 
hem, 286 

Spiked Water Jlilfoil. 96 

Spikenard, Ploughman's, 

Spindle Tree, 132 ; Com- 
mon, 61 

Spirea, Willow-leaved, 

Spotted Cat's-ear, 156 
Spotted Dead-nettle, 2 28 
Spotted Medick, 67 
Spotted Orchis, 273 
Spotted Persicaria, 250 
Spotted Rock-Rose, 32 
Spreading Hedge Par- 
sley, 127 


Spreading Rest-harrow, 

Small, 67 
Spring Cinquefoil, 84 
Spring Gentian, 192 
Spring Vetch, 74 
Spur Valerian, 142; Red, 

Spurge, 257 i Broad- 
leaved, 2^9 ; Caper 

258 ; Dwarf, 258 
Hairy, 259 ; Irish 

259 ; Leafv. 259 
Petty, 2sS ; Portland 
258 ; Purple, 258 
Sea, 258 ; Sun, 258 
Wood, 2 58 

Spurge-Laurel, 252 

Spurrey, 39 ; Common, 
45 ; Sand, 39. 45 

Square-stalkedSt. John's 
Wort, 53 

Square-stalked Willow 
Herb, 94 

S(]uill, 2S3 ; Autumnal, 
286 ; Vernal, 285 

Squinancy-wort, 141 

Star of Bethlehem, 283 ; 
Common, 286; Droop- 
ing, 286 ; Spiked, 286 

Star-fruit, Common, 293 

Star - thistle. Common, 
165 ; Yellow, 165 

Star-wort, 153; Au- 
tumnal Water, 261 ; 
Sea, 1 70; \'ernalWater, 

260 ; Water, 260 ; 
Wood, 44 

Starry Clover, 68 
Starry Saxifrage, no 
Starwort Mouse - car 

Chickwecd, 47 
Stellaria, Water, 44 
Stinking Chamomile, 175 
Stinking Goose-foot, 244 
Stinking Hellebore, 8 
Stinking Iris, 277 
Stitchwort, 39 ; Bog, 
44; Lesser, 44; Glau- 
cous Marsh, 45 ; 
Greater, 45 
Stock, 18 ; Great Sea, 
28 ; Hoary Shrubby, 
Stone Bramble, 86 
Stone Parsley, 114; 

Hedge, 120 
Stonecrop, T04 ; Biting, 
106 ; EngUsh, 105 ; 


Hairy,io6; Recurved 
Yellow, 106 ; Rock,' 
106 ; Tasteless, 106 ; 
Thick - leaved, 106 ; 
White, 106 

Stork's-bill, 56 

Stork's - bill, Hemlock, 
59 ; Musk, 59 ; Sea, 


Strap-wort, 102 ; Sand, 

Strawberry, 79 ; Haut- 
boy, 86 ; Wood, 85 

Strawberry-leaved Cin- 
quefoil, 84, 86 

Strawberry-headed Tre- 
foil, 70 

Strawberry-tree, 182, 

Striated Corn Catchfly, 


Subterranean Trefoil, 70 

Subularia, 17 

Succory, 160 

Suffocated Clover, 70 

Sulphur-coloured Tre- 
foil, 68 

Summer Snowflake, 280 

Sun Spurge, 258 

Sundew, 34 ; Great, 35 ; 
Long - leaved, 35 ; 
Round-leaved, 34 

Sweet Alyssum, 22 

Sweet Brier, 89 

Sweet Cicely, 129 

Swine Cress, 24 

Sweet Milk Vetch, 72 

Sweet Sedge, 297 

Sweet Violet, 33 

Sweet Woodruff, 141 

Sweet-Gale, 265 

Sweet-scented Orchis, 

Sycamore, 55 

Tail, Cat's, 295 

Tamarisk, Common, 99 

Tansy, i';2; Common, 

Tare, 73 

Tasteless Mountain Cur- 
rant, 108 

Tasteless Stonecrop, 106 

Tea-tree, Duke of Ar- 
gyll's, 207 

Teazel, Fuller's, 145 ; 
Small, 145 ; Wild, 145 

Teazel-headed Trefoil,69 

Teesdalia, Naked- 

stalked, 20 

Thale Rock Cress, 26 

Thick-leaved Stonecrop, 

Thistle, 151; Milk, 162; 
Musk, 161 ; Scotch, 
163; Slender-flowered, 
162 ; Welted, 162 

Thorn-apple, 207 

Thorow-wax, Common. 

Three-nerved Sandwort. 

Thrift, 240 ; Plantain. 

Thrincia, 150; Hair v. 


Thyme, 221 ; Basil, 222. 
230 ; Wild, 225 

Thyme - leaved Flax 
Seed, 49 


Thyme-leaved Veronica, 

Tillsa, Mossy, 104 

Toad Rush, 291 

Toad-flax, 210 ; Bas- 
tard, 253; Ivy-leaved, 
212 ; Least, 213 ; 
Pale Blue, 213; Round 
leaved, 212 ; Yellow, 

Toothed Corn Salad, 144 

Toothed Medick, 67 

Tooth-wort, 208, 209 

Tormentil, 84 

Touch-me-not, 60 

Tower Cress, 25 

Tower Mustard, 25 

Trailing Azalea, 184 

Trailing Dog Rose, 89 

Trailing St. John's Wort, 

5 3 
Traveller's Joy, 2, 3 
Treacle Mustard, 18, 28 
Tree, Common Spindle, 
61; Rowan, 91; Spin- 
dle, 61, 132 ; Way- 
faring, 136 ; White 
Beam, 91 ; Wild Ser- 
vice, 90 
Tree Mallow, 50, 51 
Trefoil, 64 ; Bird's-foot, 
64, 71 ; Great Bird's- 
foot, 71 ; Marsh, 194 ; 
Rigid, 69 ; Slender 

Bird's - foot, 72 ; 

Smooth Round - 

headed, 69 ; Soit 
knotted, 69 ; Straw- 
berry - headed, 70 ; 
Subterranean, 70; Sul- 
phur - coloured, 68 ; 
Teazel-headed, 6^ 
Tresses,Autumn Lady's, 

Trifid Bur-Marigold, 165 
True Love-Knot, 281 
Tuberous Bitter Vetch, 


Tuberous Comfrey, 201 

Tubular Water Drop- 
wort, 123 

Tufted Alpine Saxifrage, 

Tufted Horse - shoe 

Vetch, 76 

Tufted Loosestrife, 238 

Tufted Vetch, 73 

Tufted Water Scorpion- 
grass, 202 

Tulip, 283 ; Wild, 288 

Tutsan, Common, 53 

Twayblade, 274 ; Heart- 
leaved, 275 

Twisted Whitlow Grass, 

Two-leaved Liparis, 276 

Umbelliferous Jagged 
Chickweed, 44 

Unbranched upright 
Bur-weed, 295 

Upright Bur-weed, Un- 
branched, 295 

Upright Clover, 69 

Upright Hedge Parsley, 

Valerian, Great Wild, 
143; Greek, 195; Red 
Spur, 743 ; Small 
Marsh, 143 ; Spur, 142 

Valley, Lily of the, 282, 

Variegated Simethis,287 

Venus' Comb, 128 

Verbena, see Vervain 

Vernal Sandwort, 46 

Vernal Speedwell, 219 

Vernal Squill, 28 5 

Vernal Water Star-wort, 
260 [23 

Vernal Whitlow Grass, 


Veronica, Alpine, 217 ; 

Thyme-leaved, 217 
Vervain, 232 ; Common, 

Vetch, 64 ; Alpine Milk, 

73 ; Bithynian, 74 ; 
Black Bitter, 76 ; 
Bush, 74 ; Common, 

74 ; Hairy, 73 ; Horse 
shoe, 65 ; Kidney, 72;: 
Milk, 64, 72 ; Narrow- 
leaved, 74 ; Purple 
Milk, 73 ; Slender, 73; 
Spring, 74 ; Sweet 
Milk, 72 ; Tuberous 
Bitter, 75 ; Tufted, 

73 ; Tufted Horse- 
shoe, 76 ; Wood, 73 ; 
Wood - bitter, 74 ; 
Yellow, 74 

Vetchling, 64 ; Blue 
Marsh, 75 ; Crimson, 

74 ; Rough-podded, 

75 ; Yellow, 74 [194 
Villarsia, 192 ; Water, 
Violet, 32 ; Dog, 33 ; 

Hairy, 33 ; Marsh, 

33 ; Sweet, 33 ; Water 

237 ; Yellow Mouh- 

tam, 34 

Violet Horned Poppy, 14 

Viper's Bugloss, 198 ; 

Common, 199 [215 

Viscid Bartsia, Yellow, 

Viscid Groundsel, 171 

Viviparous Bistort, 249 

Wake-Robin, 296 
Wall Bedstraw, 140 
Wall Germander, 226 
Wall Hawk-weed, 159 
Wall Lettuce, Siv ivy- 
leaved Lettuce 
Wall Pennywort, 104 
Wall Rocket, 29 
Wall Speedwell, 219 
Wall-flower, 18, 28 
Wart Cress, 17, 24; 

Lesser, 24 
Water Avens, 83 
Water Awl- wort, 22 
Water Bedstraw, 139 
Water Blinks, loi, 102 
Water Crowfoot, 5 
Water Dropwort, 114; 
Fine - leaved, 123 ; 
Hemlock, 123 ; Tubu- 
lar, 122 


Water Elder, 136 
Water Fig-wort, 213 
Water Germander, 226 
Water Hemlock, 113,118 
Water Lily, 1 1 ; Com- 
mon Yellow,! I ; Least 
Yellow, 12 ; White, 
1 1 ; Yellow, 1 1 
Water Lobelia, 179 
Water Milfoil, Spiked, 

96 ; Whorled, 96 
Water Mint, see Hairy 

Water Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed, 44 
Water Parsnip, 114; 
Broad - leaved, 121 ; 
Narrow-leaved, 121 
Water Purslane, 98 
Water Scorpion - grass. 
Creeping, 202; Tufted, 
Water Speedwell, 21S 
Water Star-wort, Au- 
tumnal, 261 ; Vernal, 
Water Stellaria, 44 
Water Villarsia, 194 
Water Violet, 235, 237 
Water-cress, Common, 27 
Water-Dock, Great, 250 
Water-Pepper, 250 
Water-Plantain, Float- 
ing, 293 ; Great, 293 ; 
Lesser, 293 
Water-Soldier, 270, 271 
Water-wort, Eight-sta- 
mened, 37 ; Six-sta- 
mened, 37 
Wayfaring Tree, 136 
Weasel-snout, 228 
Weld, 31 [low, 13 

Welsh Poppy, 12 ; Yel- 
Welted Thistle, 162 
Whin, 65 ; Petty, 66 
Whinberry, 180 
White Beam Tree, 91 
White Birch, 265 
White Bryony, lOI 
White Clover, 70 
White Dead-Nettie, 228 
White Everlasting, 167 
White Goose-foot, 245 
White Horehound, 222, 

White Melilot, 68 
White Mignonette, 31 
^Vhite Mullein, 220 


White Mustard, 29 
White Ox-eye, 173 
White Poplar, 264 
White Rock-Rose, 32 
White Stonecrop, 186 
White Water Lily, 1 1 
White-rot, 113; Com- 
mon, 116 
White-thorn, 92 
Whitlow Grass, 17 ; 
Rock, 22 ; Speedwell- 
leaved, 23 ; Twisted, 
22 ; Vernal, 23 ; Yel- 
low Alpine, 22 
Whorled Caraway, 1 20 
Whorled Knot-grass, 103 
Whorled Solomon's Seal, 

Whorl ed WaterMilf oil , 96 
Whortleberry, 180 ; Bog, 
180 ; Marsh, 181 ; 
Red, 180 
Wild Angelica, 125 
Wild Balm, 223, 231 
Wild Basil, 222, 231 
Wild Beaked Parsley, 

Wild Carrot, 127 
Wild Chamomile, 153, 
Wild Cherry, 82 [174 
Wild Chicory, 160 
Wild Cornel, 132 
Wild Hyacinth, 286 
Wild Mignonette, 31 
Wild Mustard, 30 
WildNavew, Common, 29 
Wild Pear, 90 
Wild Radish, 30 
Wild Sage, 223 
Wild Service Tree, go 
Wild Teazle, 145 
Wild Thyme, 225 
Wild Tuhp, 288 
Wild Valerian, Groat, 143 
Willow, 264 
Willow, Flowering, 93 
Willow Herb, Alpine, 94; 
Broad Smooth-leaved, 
93; Chickweed-leaved, 
94 ; Great Hairy, 93 ; 
Narrow-leaved Marsh, 
94 ; Pale Smooth- 
leaved, 94 ; Small* 
flowered Hairy, 93 ; 
Square-stalked, 94 
Willow Lettuce, 157 
Willow-leaved Spirea, 83 
Willow-strife, 98 


Wind-flower, 2, 4 
Winter Cress, 18 ; Com- 
mon, 26 
Winter - green, 239 ; 
Chickweed, 236 ; Corn 
mon, 186 ; Interme- 
diate, 186; One-sided, 
186; Round - leaved, 
186 ; Single-flowered, 
Woad-waxen, 66 [186 
Wolf's-bane, 9 
Wood Anemone, 4 
Wood Betony, 229 
Wood Crane's-bill, 57 
Wood Crowfoot, 6 
Wood Cudweed, 168 
WoodForget-me-not, 203 
Wood Germander, 226 
Wood Hawk- weed , 159 
Wood Loosestrife, 238 
Wood Sanicle, 117 
Wood Sorrel, 56 ; Com- 
mon, 59 ; Yellow, 60 
Wood Spurge, 258 
Wood Starwort, 44 
Wood Strawberry, 85 
Wood Vetch, 73 
Wood-bitter Vetch, 74 
Wood-Rush, 289 ; Field. 
292 ; Forster's, 292 ; 
Great, 291 ; Hairy, 
Wood-sage, 226 [291 
Woodbine, 137 [141 

Woodrulf, 139 ; Sweet, 
Woody Nightshade, 206 
Worm Seed, 28 
Wormwood, 152 ; Com- 
mon, 166 ; Field, 167; 
Sea, 167 
Wort, Flax-leaved St. 
John's, 53 ; Hairy St. 
John's, 54 ; Imper- 
forate St John's, 53 ; 
Large - flowered St. 
John' 3,-5 3 ; Marsh St. 
John's, 54; Mountain 
St. John's 54 ; Per- 
forated St. John's, 53; 
St. John's, 52; Slen- 
der St. John's, 54 ; 
Square - stalked St. 
John's, 53 ; Trailing 
St, John's, 53 
Woundwort, 222 ; Corn!, 
229 ; Downy, 229 ; 
Hedge, 229 ; Marsh., 
Wych Elm, 263 

Yarrow, 153, 175 
Yellow Alpine Whitlow 

Gr ss, 22 
Yellow Balsam. 60 
Yellow Bedstraw, 139 
Yellow Bugle, 226 
Yellow Corydalis, 1 5 
Yellow Cow-wheat, Com- 
mon, 214 
Yellow Cress, Creepin;^', 

27 ; Marsh, 27 
Yellow Dead-nettle, 228 
Yellow Fig-wort, 213 
Yellow Gagea, 288 
Yellow Goat's-bcard, 1 54 
Yellow Horned Poppy, 

Yellow Iris, 277 
Yellow Loosestrife, 

Great, 238 
Yellow Marsh Saxifrage, 

Yellow Meadow Rue, 4 
Yellow Melilot, Com- 
mon. 68 
Yellow Milfoil, Common, 


Yellow iNlonkey-flower, 

Yellow Mountain Saxi- 
frage, 109 

Yellow Mountain Violet, 

Yellow Ox-eye, 174 
Yellow Oxvtropis, 72 
Yellow Pimpernel, 238 
Yellow-rattle, 210, 215 ; 

Large Bushy, 215 
Yellow Star-tiiistle, 165 
Yellow Stonecrop, Re- 
curved, 106 
Yellow Toad-flax, 212 
Yellow ^'etch, 74 
Yellow \'etchling, 74 
Yellow Viscid IJartsia, 

Yellow Water Lily, 1 1 ; 
Common, ii; Least, 
Yellow-weed, 31 
Yellow Welsh Poppy, i 3 
Yellow Wood Sorrel, 60 
Vellow-wort. 192 ; Per- 
foliate. 194 
Yew, Common, 268 

Zigzag Clover, 69 


Acer, 54, 55 
Aceracea?. 54 
Aceras, 275 
Achillea, 153, 175 
Acoiiitum, 3, 9 
Acoius, 297 
Acteca, 3, 9 
Actinocarpus, 293 
Adonis, 2, 5 
Adoxa, 131 
,(Egopodiiim, 114, 120 
j^^.thiisa, 115. 123 
Agrimonia. 79, Sy 
Ajuga, 221, 225 
Alcherailla, 79, 87 
Alisma, 293 
AlismaceEC, 292 
AUiaria, 18, 28 
Allium, 283, 287 
Alnus, 266 
AlsineLu, 39 
Althaea, 50, 51 
Alyssum, 17, 22 
Amaryllidaccae, 278 
Amcntaccai-, 26^ 
Amygdalea-, 77 
Anagallis, 236, 237 
Anchusa, 199, 202 
Andromeda, 182, 184 
Anemone, 2, 4 
Angelica, 115, 125 
Antennaria, 152, 167 
Antherais, 153, 175 
Anthriscus, 1 16, 128 
Anthyllis, 64, 72 
Antirrhinum, 2 to, 2tt 
Apargia, 149, 155 
Apium, 114, iiS 
Apocynacete, 190 
Aquilegia, 3, 8 
Arabis, 17, 25 
Araceae, 296 
Arahaces, 1 30 
Arbutus, 182, 185 
Arctium, 151, 160 
Arctostaphylos, 182, 185 

Arenaria, 39, 46 
Aristolochia, 254 
Aristolochiacea:, 253 
Armeria, 240 
Artemisia, T52, 166 
Arum, 296 
Asarum, 254 
Asparagus, 282, 284 
Asperugo, 199, 204 
Aspenila, 139, 141 
Aster, 153, 170 
Astragalus, 64, 72 
Atriplex, 244, 245 
Atropa, 206 
Azalea, 182, 184 

Ballota, 222, 227 
-Barbarea, 18, 26 
Bartsia, 2:1, 215 
Bellis, 153, 173 
Berberidea?, 10 
Berberis, 10 
Beta, 244, 246 
Betula, 265 
Betulinea;, 265 
Bidens, 151, 165 
Boraginacea?, 197 
Borago, 198, 201 
Brassica, 18, 29' 
Bryonia, lOI 
Bupleurum, 114, 122 
Butomaceje, 292 
Butomus. 292 
Buxus, 257, 260 

Cakile, 17, 23 
Calamintha, 222, 230 
Callitrichacea2, 260 
Callitriche, 260 
Calluna, 182, 184 
Caltha, 3, 7 
Calycitlors, 60-133 
Calystegia, 196 
Campanula, 176, 177 
Campanulacea?, 176 
Caprifoliacece, 135 


Capsella, 16, 19 
Cardamine, 17, 24 
Carduus, 151, 161 
Carlina, 151, 164 
Carpinus, 267 
Carum, 114, 120 
Caryophyllaceie, 38 
Castanea, 266 
Caucalis, 116, 127 
Celastracea', 60 
Centaurea, 151, 164 
Centranthns, 142, T43 
Centunculus, 236, 23S 
Cerastium, 39, 47 
Ceratophyllacea'. 97 
Chjerophyllum, Ii6, 129 
Cheiranthus, 18, 28 
Chelidonium, 12, 14 
Chenopodiacex, 243 
Chenopodium, 243. 244 
Chicoracea;, 147, 149, 

Chicorium, 150, 160 
Chlora, 192, 194 
Chrysanthemum, 153, 

Chrysocoma, 152, 166 
Chrysosplenium, loS, 

1 10 
Cicendia, 192, 193 
Cicuta, 113, I iS 
Circeea, 93, 95 
Cistace^e. 31 
Claytonia, loi 
Clematis, 2, 3 
Cnicns, 151, 162 
Cochlearia, 17, 21 
Colchicum, 283, 288 
CompositEe, 146 
Conifera2, 267 
Conium, 113, 117 
Conopodium, 114, 121 
Convallaria, 282, 284 
ConvolvulaceK, 195 
Convolvulus, 196 
Corallorhiza, 275 


Coriandrum, 130 
■Conies, 132 
Coriius, 132 
■CorolUflora2, 133-242 
Corrigiola, 102, 103 
Corydalis. 14, 15 
Corylus, 267 
Cotoneaster, 81, 92 
Cotyledon, 104 
Crambe, 17, 23 
CrassulacecE, 103 
Crataegus, 81, 92 
■Crepis, 150, 158 
Crithmum, 115, 125 
-Crocus, 276, 277 
Crucifera?, 16 
Cryptipedium, 276 
■Cucurbitacea?, 100 
CupuliferEe, 266 
Cuscuta, 196, 197 
Cyclamen, 235, 237 
Cynarocephal^e, 147,149 

151, 1 60 
'Cynoglossum, 199, 204 
Daphne, 252 
Daucus, 116, 127 
Delphinium, 3, 9 
Dianthus, 38, 39 
Dicotyledons, 1-268 
Digitalis, 210, 211 
Dioscoreacece, 280 
Diotis, 152, 166 
Dipsacea;, 144 
Dipsacus, 145 
Doronicum, 153, 172 
Draba. 17, 22 
Drosera, 34 
Droseraccae, 34 
Dryas, 79, 83 

;Echium, 198, 199 
Eljeagnaceae, 251 
-Elatinaceae, 37 
Elatine, 37 
Empetracefe, 254 
Empetrium, 255 
Epilobium, 83, 93 
Epimediuni, lO 
-Erica, 182 
EricaccEE, 181 
Erigero, 152, 169 
-Erodium, 56, 59 
Eryngium, 113, 117 
Erysimum, 18, 28 
Erythra?,a, 192, 793 
Euonymus, 61 
Eupatorium, 151, 166 
Euphorbia, 257, 258 


Euphorbiaceae, 255 
Euphrasia, 211, 216 

Fagus, 266 
Fedia, 143, 144 
Filago, 152, 168 
Fceniculum, 115, 124 
Fragaria, 79, 85 
Frankeuia, $6, 37 
Frankeniaceae, ^6 
Fraxinus, 188, 189 
FritiUaria, 283, 287 
Fumaria, 15 
Fumariaceae, 14 

Gagea, 283, 288 
Galanthus, 279, 280 
Galeopsis, 222, 227 
Galium, 138, T39 
Genista, 63, 66 
Gentiana, 191, 192 
Gentianaceae, 191 
Geraniaceae, 55 
Geranium, 56, 57 
Geum, 79, 83 
Gladiolus, 276, 278 
Glaucium, 12, 14 
Glaux, 236, 239 
Glumaciae, 289-300 
Gnaphaliuni, 152, 167 
Goodyera, 275 
Grossulariaceae, 107 
Gymnadenia, 274 

Habenaria, 274 
HaloragaceaE, 95 
Hedera, 131 
Helianthemum, 31 
HcUcborus, 3, 8 
Helminthia, 149, 154 
Helosciadium, 114, 119 
Heracleum, 115, 126 
Herniaria, 102, 103 
Hieracium, 150, 159 
Ilippocrepis, 65, 76 
Hippophae, 251, 252 
Hippuris, 95, 96 
Holosteum, 39, 44 
Hottonia, 235, 237 
Humulus, 262, 263 
Hutchinsia, 17, 19 
Hydrocharidaceae, 269 
[ Hydrocharis, 270 
[ Hydrocotyle, 113, 116 
\ Hyocyamus, 206, 207 
Hypericaceae, 52 
Hypericum, 52, 53 
Hypocha^ris, 150, 156 

Iberis, 17, 20 
Ilex, 187, 188 
Ilicineae, 187 
lUecebrum, 102, 103 
Impatiens, 56, 60 
Inula, 153, 172 
Iridacea;, 276 
Iris, 276, 277 
Isatis, 30 
Isnardia, 93, 95 

Jasione, 177, 179 
Juncaceae, 289 
Juncaginacea;, 294 
Juncus, 289, 290 
Juniperus, 268 

Labiatae, 220 
Lactuca, 150, 156 
Lamium, 222, 22S, 150, 160 
Lathraea, 20S, 209 
Lathyrus, 64, 74 
Lavatera, 50, 51 
Leguminosae, 62 
Lemna, 298 
Lentibulariaceae, 233 
Leontodon, 150, 160 
Leonurus, 222, 227 
Lepidum, 17, 20 
Leucojum, 279, 280 
Ligusticum, 115, 124 
Ligustrum, 188, 189 
Liliacea?, 281 
Limosella, 210, 214 
Linaceae, 47 
Linaria, 210, 212 
Linna:a, 135, 137 
Linum, 48 
Listcra, 274 

Lithospermum, 198, 200 
Littorella, 241, 242 
Lloydia, 283, 288 
Lobelia, 177, 179 
Loniscera, 135, 137 
Loranthaceae, 133 
Lotus, 64, 71 
Luzula, 289, 291 
Lychnis, ^'^, 42 
Lycopsis, 198, 201 
Lycopus, 221, 223 
Lysimachia, 236, 238 
LythraceaE, 97 
Lythrum, 98 

Maianthemum, 2S3, 285 
Malixis, 276 
Walva, 50 

Malvaceae, 49 
Marrubium, 222, 230 
Matricaria, 153, 174 
Matthiola, 18, 28 
Meconopsis, 12, 13 
Medicago, 64, 67 
Melampyrum, 210, 214 
Melilotus, 64, 68 
Melittis, 223, 231 
Mentha, 221, 224 
Menyanthes, 192, 194 
Menzicsia, 182, 184 
Mercurialis, 257, 259 
Mertensia, 198, 200 
Mespilus, 81, 91 
Meum, 115, 124 
Mimulus, 211, 217 
Mcenchia, 39, 43 
Monochlainydea;, 243- 

Monocotyledons, 269- 

Monotropa, t86, 187 
Monotropacese, 185 
Montia, loi, 102 
Muscari, 283, 287 
Myosotis, 109, 212 
Myosurus, 2, 7 
Myrica, 265 
Myricese, 265 
Myriophyllum, 96 
Myrrhis, 116, 129 

Naiadaceae, 298 
Narcissus, 279 
Narthecium, 283, 289 
Nasturtium, 18, 27 
Neottia, 275 
Ncpeta, 222, 230 
Nuphar, 1 1 
Nymphaea, 1 1 
Nymphaeaceae, n 

CEnanthe, 114, 122 
OEnothera, 93, 94 
Oleacea;, 188 
Onagraceae, 92 
Onobrychis, 65, 76 
Ononis, 64, 66 
Onopordium, 151, 163 
Ophrys, 275 
Orchidaceae, 271 
Orchis, 273 
Origanum, 221, 225 
Ornithogalum, 283, 286 
Ornithopus, 65, 76 
Orobanchacese, 207 
Orobanche, 208 


Orontiaceae, 297 
Oxalis, 56, 59 
Oxyria, 248, 251 
Oxytropis, 64, 72 

Pasonia, 3, 9 
Papaver, 12, 13 
Papaveracea;, 12 
Parietaria, 262 
Paris, 281 
Parnassia, 108, 11 1 
Paronychiacese, 102 
Pastinaca, 115, 126 
Pedicularis, 210, 215 
Peplis, 98 

Petaloideae, 269-300 
Petasites, 152, 169 
Petroselinum, 114, 119 
Peucedanum, 130 
Physospernum, 129 
Phyteuma, 176, 178 
Picris, 149, 154 
Pimpinella, 114, 121 
Pinguicula, 233, 234 
Pinus, 268 
Pistiaceae, 298 
Plantaginaceje, 241 
Plantago, 241 
Plumbaginaceae, 239 
Polemoniaceae, 195 
Polycarpon, 39, 45 
Poly gala, 35 
Polygalacea;, 35 
Polygonaceae, 247 
Polygonatum, 283, 285 
Polygonum, 248 
Polymonium, 195 
Pomeae, 80 
Populus, 264 
Portulaceae, loi 
Potanogeton, 29S, 299 
Potentilla, 79, 84 
Potentillida;, 78 
Poterium, 80, 88 
Primula, 235, 236 
PrimulaceEE, 235 
Prunella, 223, 231 
Prunus, 78, 81 
Pulicaria, 153, 173 
Pulmonaria, 198, 199 
Pyrola, 1S6 
Pyrus, 80, 90 

Quercus, 266 

Radiatae, 147, 149, 152, 

Radiola, 48, 49 


Ranunculacea?, 2 
Ra,nuncnlus, 2, 5 
Raphanus, iS, 30 
Reseda, 31 
Resedacea?, 30 
Rhamnaceae, 61 
Rhamnus, 62 
Rhinanthus, 210, 215 
Ribes, 107 
Rcemeria, 12, 14 
Romulea, 276, 277 
Rosa, 80, 88 
Rosaccae, "jj 
Rosidas, 80 
Rubia, 138, 139 
Rubiaceae, 138 
Rubus, 79, 86 
Rumex, 248, 250 
Ruppia, 298, 300 
Ruscus, 2S2, 284 

Sagina, 39, 43 
Sagittaria, 293 
SaliciniEP, 264 
Salicornia, 244, 246 
Salix, 264 
Salsola, 244, 246 
Salvia, 221, 223 
Sambucus, 735 
Samolus, 236, 239 
Sanguisorbia, 79, 88 
Sanguisorbida?, 79 
Sanicula, 113, 117 
Santalacea;, 253 
Saponaria, 38, 40 
Sarothamnus, 64, 66 
Saussurea, 151, 161 
Saxifraga, 108 
Saxifragacea;, 108 
Scabiosa, 145, 146 
Scandix, 116, 128 
Scilla, 283, 285 
Scleranlhacece, 247 
Sclerantlius, 247 
Scrophularia, 210, 213 
Scrophulariaceae, 209 
Scutellaria, 223, 232 
Sedum, 104, 105 
Sempervivum, 104, 105 
Senebiera, 17, 24 
Senecio, 153, 170 
Serratula, 151, 161 
Seseli, 130 
Sherardia, 139, 141 
Sibthorpia, 211, 216 
Silaus, 115, 124 
Silene, 38, 40 
Sileneae, jS 



Simethis, 2S3, 287 
Sison, 114, 120 
Sisymbrium, 18, 27 
Sisyrinchium, 277, 27S 
Slum, 114, 121 
SmjTnium, 113, 118 
Solanacea?, 204 
Solanum, 206 
Solidago, 153, 170 
Sonchus, 150, 157 
Sparganium, 295 
Spergula, 39, 45 
Spergularia, 39, 45 
Spira:a, yS, 82 
Spirantlius, 275 
Spireidae, 78 
Stachys, 222, 229 
Statice, 240 
Stellaria, 39, 44 
Stratiotes, 270, 271 
Sua;da, 244, 24; 
Subularia, 17, 22 
Symphytum, 198, 201 

Tamaricaea?, 99 
Tamarix, 99 
Tamus. 280, 281 
Tanacetum, 152, 166 

Taxus, 268 
Teesdalia, 17, 20 
Teucrium, 221, 226 
Thalamiflorae, 1-60 
Thalictrum, 2, 4 
Thesium, 253 
Thlaspi, 16, 18 
Thrincia, 150, 155 
Thymelaceas, 252 
Thymus, 221, 225 
Tilia, 52 
Tiliacea;, 51 
Tillaea, 104 
Tofleldia, 283, 288 
Torihs, 1 16, 127 
Tragopogon, 149, 154 
TrientaUs, 236, 239 
Trifolium, 64, 68 
Triglochin, 294 
Trigonella, 64, 68 
TriUiacea;, 28 1 
Trinia, 130 
Trollius. 3, 7 
Tubiflorjp, 147, 149, 151, 

Tulipa, 283, 288 
Tussilago, 152, 169 
Typha, 295 

Typhacea", 294 - - ' 

Ulex, 63, 65 
Ulmacese, 263 
Ulmus, 263 
Umbelliferae, 1 1 1 
Urtica, 262 
UrticaceK, 261 
Utricularia, 233, 234 

Vacciniaces, 179 
Vaccinium, 180 
Valeriana, 143 
Valerianaccae, 141 
Verbascum, 211, 219 
Verbena, 232, 233 
Verbenaces, 232 
Veronica, 211, 217 
Viburnum, 135, 136 
Vicia, 64, 73 
Villarsia, 192, 194 
Vinca, 190 
Viola. 32, 33 
Violacea;, 32 
Viscum, 134 

Zannichellia, 29S, 300 
Zostera, 299, 300 


ii.iNTEKs, rE\'MourH