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Full text of "A guide to modern cookery"

LIBRARY OF THE 
NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE 
OF HOME ECONOMICS 



CORNELL 
ITHACA, 



UNIVERSITf 
NEW YORK 




GIFT OF 

YVONNE DE TREVILLE 



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LIBRARY OF THE 
NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE 
OF HOME ECONOMICS 



CORNELL 
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UNIVERSlTf 
NEW YORK 




GIFT OF 



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Cornell University 
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The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



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A GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 



BOOKS FOR THE, HOUSEHOLD. 



Practical Cooking and Serving. 

By J. M. Hill, ^ith many Coloured and Half-tone Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, price lOs. net. 

" We think the book the best and most helpful of the many published of late 
years." — Daily Chronicle, 

The Pleasures of the Table. 

By E. H. Ellwanger. 12s. net. 

" Charmingly written, well illustrated and appeals to the epicure in epigrams as 
well as entries, to the connoisseur of wit as well as wine." — Lady's Pictorial. 



The Complete Indian Housekeeper and 

Cook. By Flora Annie Steel and Grace Gardiner. In 
one Volume. 6s. 
"It will be invaluable to the English housekeeper in India." — P nil Mall Gazette. 

The Cook's Decameron. 

By Mrs, W. G. Waters. With over 200 Italian recipes. 
Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

" One of the most novel and really useful works on Cookery it has been my lot to 
read." — Ladys Pictorial. 

The American Salad Book. 

By M. De Loup. 2s. 6d. 

"Should be in every English Household." — Daily Graphic. 



Practical Lessons in Cookery for Small 

Households. By Georgette Bendall. Is. net. 

" A most useful little book, to be recommended on account ot the economical 
nature of the recipes." — Glasgow Herald. 

Modern Housecraft. 

By Lucy H. Yates. Fcap. 8vo, price 2s. 6d. net. 

"A valuable little handbook, full of advice. . . . The advice is sound, the 
discussions are eminently practical, and the book should be something of a boon." — 
The Evening Standard. 

London : WILLIAM HEINEMANN. 




i'jr,.M,,.7 



A GUIDE TO 
MODERN COOKERY 



BY 



A. ESCOFFIER 



OF THE CAHI-TON HOTEL 




LONDON 
WILLIAM HEINEMANN 

190; 

in 



Copyright 1907 hy William Heinemann 



PREFACE 



If the art of Cookery in all its branches were not under- 
going a process of evolution, and if its canons could be once 
and for ever fixed, as are those of certain scientific operations 
and mathematical procedures, the present work would have no 
raison d'etre; inasmuch as there already exist several excellent 
culinary text-books in the English language. But everything 
is so unstable in these times of progress at any cost, and social 
customs and methods of life alter so rapidly, that a few years 
now suffice to change completely the face of usages which at 
their inception bade fair to outlive the age — so enthusiastically 
were they welcomed by the public. 

In regard to the traditions of the festal board, it is but 
twenty years ago since the ancestral English customs began to 
make way before the newer methods, and we must look to the 
great impetus given to travelling by steam traction and naviga- 
tion, in order to account for the gradual but unquestionable 
revolution. 

In the wake of the demand came the supply. Palatial hotels 
were built, sumptuous restaurants were opened, both of which 
offered their customers luxuries undreamt of theretofore in such 
establishments. 

Modern society contracted the habit of partaking of light 
suppers in these places, after the theatres of the Metropolis 
had closed; and the well-to-do began to flock to them on 
Sundays, in order to give their servants the required weekly 
rest. And, since restaurants allow of observing and of being 
observed, since they are eminently adapted to the exhibiting of 
magnificent dresses, it was not long before they entered into 
the life of Fortune's favourites. 

But these new-fangled habits had to be met by novel methods 
of Cookery — ^better adapted to the particular environment in 
which they were to be practised. The admirable productions 
popularised by the old Masters of the Culinary Art of the pre- 



vi PREFACE 

ceding Century did not become the light and more frivolous 
atmosphere of restaurants ; were, in fact, ill-suited to the brisk 
waiters, and their customers who only had eyes for one another. 

The pompous splendour of those bygone dinners, served in 
the majestic dining-halls of Manors and Palaces, by liveried 
footmen, was part and parcel of the etiquette of Courts and 
lordly mansions. 

It is eminently suited to State dinners, which are in sooth 
veritable ceremonies, possessing their ritual, traditions, and — 
one might even say — their high priests ; but it is a mere hin- 
drance to the modern, rapid service. The complicated and 
sometimes heavy menus would be unwelcome to the hyper- 
critical appetites so common nowadays; hence the need of a 
radical change not only in the culinary preparations themselves, 
but in the arrangements of the menus, and the service. 

Circumstances ordained that I should be one of the movers 
in this revolution, and that I should manage the kitchens of 
two establishments which have done most to bring it about. 
I therefore venture to suppose that a book containing a record 
of all the changes which have come into being in kitchen work — 
changes whereof I am in a great part author^may have some 
chance of a good reception at the hands of the public, i.e., at 
the hands of those very members of it who have profited by 
the changes I refer to. 

For it was only with the view of meeting the many and 
persistent demands for such a record that the present volume 
was written. 

I had at first contemplated the possibility of including only 
new recipes in this formulary. But it should be borne in mind 
that the changes that have transformed kitchen procedure during 
the last twenty-five years could not all be classed under the head 
of new recipes ; for, apart from the fundamental principles of 
the science, which we owe to Careme, and which will last as 
long as Cooking itself, scarcely one old-fashioned method has 
escaped the necessary new moulding required by modern 
demands. For fear of giving my work an incomplete appear- 
ance, therefore, I had to refer to these old-fashioned practices 
and to include among my new recipes those of the former 
which most deserved to survive. But it should not be forgotten 
that in a few years, judging from the rate at which things are 
going, the publication of a fresh selection of recipes may become 
necessary ; I hope to live long enough to see this accomplished, 
in order that I may follow the evolution, started in my time, 
and add a few more original creations to those I have already 



PREFACE vii 

had the pleasure of seeing adopted; despite the fact that the 
discovery of new dishes grows daily more difficult. 

But novelty is the universal cry — novelty by hook or by 
crook ! It is an exceedingly common mania among people of 
inordinate wealth to exact incessantly new or so-called new 
dishes. Sometimes the demand comes from a host whose luxu- 
rious table has exhausted all the resources of the modern cook's 
repertory, and who, having partaken of every delicacy, and 
often had too much of good things, anxiously seeks new sensa- 
tions for his blase palate. Anon, we have a hostess, anxious to 
outshine friends with whom she has been invited to dine, and 
whom she afterwards invites to dine with her. 

Novelty ! It is the prevailing cry ; it is imperiously demanded 
by everyone. 

For all that, the number of alimentary substances is com- 
paratively small, the number of their combinations is not 
infinite, and the amount of raw material placed either by art or 
by nature at the disposal of a cook does not grow in propor- 
tion to the whims of the public. 

What feats of ingenuity have we not been forced to perform, 
at times, in order to meet our customers' wishes ? Those only 
who have had charge of a large, modern kitchen can tell the 
tale. Personally, I have ceased counting the nights spent in 
the attempt to discover new combinations, when, completely 
broken with the fatigue of a heavy day, my body ought to have 
been at rest. 

Yet, the Chef who has had the felicity to succeed in turning 
out an original and skilful preparation approved by his public 
and producing a vogue, cannot, even for a time, claim the 
monopoly of his secret discovery, or derive any profit therefrom. 
The painter, sculptor, writer and musician are protected by 
law. So are inventors. But the chef has absolutely no redress 
for plagiarism on his work ; on the contrary, the more the latter 
is liked and appreciated, the more will people clamour for his 
recipes. Many hours of hard work perhaps underlie his latest 
creation, if it have reached the desired degree of perfection. 

He may have forfeited his recreation and even his night's 
rest, and have laboured without a break over his combination; 
and, as a reward, he finds himself compelled, morally at least, 
to convey the result of his study to the first person who asks, 
and who, very often, subsequently claims the invention of the 
recipe — to the detriment of the real author's chances and reputa- 
tion. 

This frantic love of novelty is also responsible for many of 



VIU 



PREFACE 



the difficulties attending the arrangement of menus ; for very 
few people know what an arduous task the composing of a 
perfect menu represents. 

The majority — even of those who are accustomed to recep- 
tions and the giving of dinners — suppose that a certain routine 
alone is necessary, together with some culinary practice, in order 
to write a menu ; and few imagine that a good deal more is 
needed than the mere inscription of Courses upon a slip of 
pasteboard. 

In reality the planning of these alimentary programmes is 
among the most difficult problems of our art, and it is in 
this very matter that perfection is so rarely reached. In the 
course of more than forty yearo' experience as a chef, I have 
been responsible for thousands of menus, some of which have 
since become classical and have ranked among the finest served 
in modern times; and I can safely say, that in spite of the 
familiarity such a period of time ought to give one with the 
work, the setting-up of a presentable menu is rarely accom- 
plished without lengthy labour and much thought, and for all 
that the result is not always to my satisfaction. From this it 
may be seen how slender are the claims of those who, without 
any knowledge of our art, and quite unaware of the various 
properties belonging to the substances we use, pretend to 
arrange a proper menu. 

However difficult the elaboration of a menu may be, it is 
but the first and by no means the only difficulty which results 
from the rapidity with which meals are served nowadays. The 
number of dishes set before the diners being considerably 
reduced, and the dishes themselves having been deprived of all 
the advantages which their sumptuous decorations formerly lent 
them, they must recover, by means of perfection and delicacy, 
sufficient in the way of quality to compensate for their dimin- 
ished bulk and reduced splendour. They must be faultless in 
regard to quality; they must be savoury and light. The choice 
of the raw material, therefore, is a matter demanding vast 
experience on the part of the chef; for the old French adage 
which says that " La sauce fait passer le poisson " has long since 
ceased to be true, and if one do not wish to court disapproba- 
tion — often well earned — the fish should not be in the slightest 
degree inferior to its accompanying sauce. 

While on the subject of raw material, I should like, en 
passant, to call attention to a misguided policy which seems 
to be spreading in private houses and even in some commercial 
establishments; I refer to the custom which, arising as it doubt- 



PREFACE ix 

less does from a mistaken idea of economy, consists of entrusting 
the choice of kitchen provisions to people unacquainted with 
the profession, and who, never having used the goods which' 
they have to buy, are able to judge only very superficially of 
their quality or real value, and cannot form any estimate of 
their probable worth after the cooking process. 

If economy were verily the result of such a policy none 
would object to it. But the case is exactly the reverse; for, in 
the matter of provisions, as in all commercial matters, the 
cheapest is the dearest in the end. To obtain good results, 
good material in a sufficient quantity must be used, and, in 
order to obtain good material, the latter should be selected by 
the person who is going to use it, and who knows its qualities 
and properties. Amphitryons who set aside these essential prin- 
ciples may hope in vain to found a reputation for their tables. 

It will be seen that the greater part of the titles in this 
work have been left in French. I introduced, or rather promul- 
gated this system, because, since it is growing every day more 
customary to write menus in French, it will allow those who are 
unacquainted with the language to accomplish the task with 
greater ease. Moreover, many of the titles — especially those of 
recent creations — are quite untranslatable. As the index, how- 
ever, is in English, and in every case the order number of each 
recipe accompanies the number of the page where it is to be 
found, no confusion can possibly arise. I have also allowed 
certain French technical terms, for which there exist no English 
equivalents, to remain in their original form, and these will be 
found explained in a glossary at the end of the book. 

I preferred to do this rather than strain the meaning of 
certain English words, in order to fit them to a slightly unusual 
application ; and in so doing I only followed a precedent which 
has been established on a more or less large scale by such 
authors of English books on French cooking as Francatelli, 
Gouff^, Ranhoffer, etc. 

But the example for such verbal adoptions was set long ago 
in France, where sporting and other terms, for which no suitable 
native words could be found, were borrowed wholesale from the 
English language, and gallicised. It is therefore not unreason- 
able to apply the principle to terms in cookery which, though 
plentiful and varied in France, are scarce in this country. 

To facilitate the reading of the recipes, all words which are 
not in common use, and of which the explanation will be found 
in the Glossary, are italicised in the text. 

In concluding this preface, which, I fear, has already over- 



PREFACE 



reached the bounds I intended for it, I should like to thank 
those of my lady clients as well as many English epicures whose 
kind appreciation has been conducive to the writing of this work. 
I trust they will favour the latter with the generous considera- 
tion of which they have so frequently given the author valuable 
proofs, and for which he is glad of an opportunity of expressing 
his deep gratitude. 



CONTENTS 

PART I 

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS 
CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

FONDS DE CUISINE ........ I 

CHAPTER II 
THE LEADING WARM SAUCES ..... • '5 

CHAPTER III 

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES ... . . 24 

CHAPTER IV 

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS ..... 48 

CHAPTER V 

SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS . ...... 59 

CHAPTER VI 
THE COURT-BOUILLONS AND THE MARINADES . . . -64 

CHAPTER VII 
\J/: ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS ..... 70 

CHAPTER VIII 
THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS . . . . 87 

CHAPTER IX 
GARNISHING PREPARATIONS FOR RELEVis AND ENTR]£eS . . 92 

CHAPTER X 

U^DING CULINARY OPERATIONS . .... 97 



xii CONTENTS 

PART II 

RECIPES AND MODES OF PROCEDURE 

CHAPTER XI 

PAGE 

HORS-D'CEUVRES . . . . . . . , .137 

CHAPTER XII 

EGGS ....... . . 164 

CHAPTER XIII 
SOUPS .......... 197 

CHAPTER XIV 

FISH .......... 260 

CHAPTER XV 
RELEVilS AND ENTRIES OF BUTCHER'S MEAT .... 352 

CHAPTER XVI 
RELEVES AND ENTRIES OF POULTRY AND GAME .... 473 

CHAPTER XVII 
ROASTS AND SALADS ........ 605 

CHAPTER XVIII 
VEGETABLES AND FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS .... 624 

CHAPTER XIX 
SAVORIES .......... 678 

CHAPTER XX 
ENTREMETS. (SWEETS) . . ..... 687 

CHAPTER XXI 

ICES AND SHERBETS ..... 788 

CHAPTER XXII 

DRINKS AND REFRESHMENTS . . . . . . .816 

CHAPTER XXIII 
FRUIT-STEWS AND JAMS ,.,,... 820 



GLOSSARY 



Abats, stands for such butcher's supplies as heads, hearts, livers, kidneys, 
feet, &c. 

Aiguillettes, see No. 1755. 

Ailerons, see No. 1583. 

Amourettes, see No. 1288. 

Anglaise, to treat k I'Anglaise, see No. 174. 

Anglaise, to cook k I'Anglaise, means to cook plainly in water. 

Anglaise, a preparation of beaten eggs, oil and seasoning. 

Attereaux, see No. 12 19. 

Baba-moulds, a kind of small deep cylindrical mould, slightly wider at the 
top than at the bottom. 

Bain-Marie, a hot-water bath in which utensils containing various culinary 
preparations are immersed to keep warm, or for the purpose of poach- 
ing or cooking. 

Barquettes, see No. 314. 

Biscottes, a kind of rusks. 

Blanch, Blanched, see No. 273. 

Brandade, see No. 127. 

Brunoise-fashion, see Cut below. 

Canapis, see No. 316. 

Caramel Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 

Casserole (En), see No. 250. 

Cassolette, a kind of hot hors-d'oeuvre, moulded to the shape of a small 
drum. 

apes, a kind of mushroom (Boletus edulis). 

Chartreuse-fashion, see No. 1220. 

Chiffonade, see No. 215. 

Chinois, a very small green candied orange. 

Chipolata, a kind of small sausages. 

Choux, a kind of cake made from Pate k Choux, q.v. 

Cisel, Ciseled, to cut a vegetable after the manner of a chaff-cutting 
machine. 

Clothe, Clothed, Clothing {of moulds), see No. 916. 

Coeotte {En), see No. 250. 

Concass, Concassed, to chop roughly. 



xiv GLOSSARY 

Contise, to incise a piepe of meat at stated intervals, and to insert slices of 
truffle, or other substance, into each incision. 

Crepinettes, see No. 14 lo. 

Croustade, see No. 2393. 

Croutons, pieces of bread of various shapes and sizes, fried in butter. In 
the case of aspic jelly, croutons stand for variously shaped pieces used 
in bordering dishes. 

Cut, Brunoise-fashion = to cut a product into small dice. 

Cut, Julienne-fashion = to cut a product into match-shaped rods. 

Cut, Paysanne-fashion = to cut a product into triangles. 

Dariok-moulds, small Baba-moulds, q.v. 

Darne, see No. 184. 

Daubilre, an earthenware utensil used in the cooking of Daubes. 

icarlate (A P), salted meat is said to be k I'^carlate when it is swathed in 
a coat of scarlet jelly. 

Escarole, Batavia chicory. 

Feuilletis, a kind of puffs made from puff-paste. 

Flute (French, soup), a long crisp roll of bread. 

Fondue, (i) a cheese preparation; (2) a pulpy state to which such vege- 
tables as tomatoes, sorrel, &c., are reduced by cooking. 

Fumet, a kind of essence extracted from fish, game, &c. 

Galette, a large quoit, made from puff-paste or short-paste, &c. 

Gaufrette, a special wafer. 

Ginoise, see No. 2376. 

Gild, Gilding, Gilded (i) to cover an object with beaten eggs, by means of a 
brush j (2) to give a golden sheen to objects by means of heat. 

Gratin, Gratined, see No. 268 to 272 inclusive. 

Hatelet, an ornamental skewer ; the word sometimes stands for Attereaux. 

Julienne, Julienne-fashion, see Cut. 

Langoustine, a small variety of the Spiny Lobster. 

Large-Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 

Large-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 

Large-Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 

Maddoine, a mixture of early-season vegetables or fruit. 

Madeleine-mould, a mould in the shape of a narrow scallop-shell. 

Manied (said of butter), see No. r5i. 

Marinade, see No. i68. 

Meringue, see No. 2382. Meringued =C02X&&. with meringue. 

Mirepoix, see No. 228. 

Mise-en-place, a general name given to those elementary preparations 
which are constantly resorted to during the various stages of most 
culinary operations. 

Morue, Newfoundland or Iceland salt-cod. 

Mousses, a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish, meat, poultry, 
game, etc., and sweets, moulded in large moulds in sufficient quan- 
tities for several people. 



GLOSSARY XV 

Mousselines, same as above, but moulded in small quantities at a time, 

enough for one person. 
Mousserons, a kind of mushroom. 
Nappe Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 
Orgeat, a beverage made from syrup and almonds. 
Oxalis, a Mexican vegetable, aUied to sorrel, of which the roots principally 

are eaten. 
Paillettes au Parmesan, see No. 2322. 

Palmettes, palm-shaped pieces of puif-paste, used in decorating. 
PanSs i PAnglaise, treated k I'Anglaise, see Anglaise. 
Pannequets, see No. 2403. 
Papillate, see No. 1259. 
P&te i Choux, see No. 2373. 
Paupiette, a strip of chicken, of fish fillet, or other meat, garnished with 

forcemeat, rolled to resemble a scroll and cooked. 
Paysanne-fashion, see Cut. 
Pluches, the shreds of chervil, used for soups. 
Po'ele, Peeling, see No. 250. 
Peek (A Id), see No. 395. 
Pralin, see No. 2352. 

Pralined, having been treated with Pralin, q.v. 
Printanier (Eng. Vernal), a name given to a garnish of early-season 

vegetables, cut to various shapes. 
Profiterolles, see No. 218. 
R&ble, the back of a hare. 
Ravioli, see No. 2296. 
Ribbon Stage, see No. 2376. 
Rissole, to fry brown. 
Salpicon, a compound of various products, cut into dice, and, generally, 

cohered with sauce or forcemeat. 
Sautt, Sauttd, a process of cooking described under No. 251. 
Saute, a qualifying term applied to dishes treated in the way described 

under No. 251. 
Savarin-mould, an even, crown-shaped mould. 
Small- Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 
Small-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 
Small- Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. 
Souffli, name given to a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish, 

meat, poultry, game, etc., and sweets, to which the whites of eggs are 

usually added if the preparation is served hot, and to which whisked 

cream is added if the preparation is served cold. 
Soup-Flute, see Flute. 
Stages in the Cooking of Sugar : — 

Small-Thread'j . 

Large-Thread J-See No. 2344. 

Small-Ball J 



xvi GLOSSARY 

Stages in the Cooking of Sugar {continued) : — 

Large-Ball ^ 

Small-Crack L, .^ 

Large-Crack f^^ ^°- ^344- 

Caramel J 

Nappe, see No. 2955. 
Subrics, see No. 2137. 
Suprtme, a name given to the fillet of the breast of a fowl. The term has 

been extended to certain of the best parts of fish, game, etc. 
Terrine, a patty. 

Terrine a P&te, a special utensil in which patties are cooked. 
Tomatid. Preparations are said to be tomatdd when they are mixed 

with enough tomato purde for the shade and flavour of the latter to 

be distinctly perceptible in them. 
Vesiga, the dried spine-marrow of the sturgeon. 
Zest, the outermost, coloured, glossy film of the rind of an orange or 

lemon. 



PART I 

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF 
COOKING 

CHAPTER I 

FONDS DE CUISINE 

Before undertaking the description of the different kinds of 
dishes whose recipes I purpose giving in this work, it will be 
necessary to reveal the groundwork whereon these recipes are 
built. And, although this has already been done again and 
again, and is wearisome in the extreme, a text-book on cooking 
that did not include it would be not only incomplete, but in 
many cases incomprehensible. 

Notwithstanding the fact that it is the usual procedure, in 
matters culinary, to insist upon the importance of the part 
played by stock, I feel compelled to refer to it at the outset 
of this work, and to lay even further stress upon what has 
already been written on the subject. 

Indeed, stock is everything in cooking, at least in French 
cooking. Without it, nothing can be done. If one's stock is 
good, what remains of the work is easy ; if, on the other hand, 
it is bad or merely mediocre, it is quite hopeless to expect any- 
thing approaching a satisfactory result. 

The workman mindful of success, therefore, will naturally 
direct his attention to the faultless preparation of his stock, and, 
in order to achieve this result, he will find it necessary not 
merely to make use of the freshest and finest goods, but also 
to exercise the most scrupulous care in their preparation, for, 
in cooking, care is half the battle. Unfortunately, no theories, 
no formulae, and no recipes, however well written, can take the 
place of practical experience in the acquisition of a full know- 
ledge concerning this part of the work — the most important, 
the most essential, and certainly the most difficult part. 

In the matter of stock it is, above all, necessary to have a 
sufficient quantity of the finest materials at one's disposal. 
The master or mistress of a house who stints in this respect 
thereby deliberately forfeits his or her right to make any remark 

B 



2 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

whatsoever to the chef concerning his work, for, let the talent 
or merits of the latter be what they may, they are crippled by 
insufficient or inferior material. It is just as absurd to exact 
excellent cooking from a chef whom one provides with defective 
or scanty goods, as to hope to obtain wine from a bottled 
decoction of logwood. 

The Principal Kinds of Fonds de Cuisine (Foundation 
Sauces and Stocks) 

The principal kinds of fonds de cuisine are :■ — 

1. Ordinary and clarified consommes. 

2. The brown stock or " estouffade," game stocks, the bases 
of thickened gravies and of brown sauces. 

3. White stock, basis of white sauces. 

4. Fish stock. 

5. The various essences of poultry, game, fish, &c., the 
complements of small sauces. 

6. The various glazes : for meat, game, and poultry. 

7. The basic sauces : Espagnole,- Veloute, Bechamel, 
Tomato, and Hollandaise. 

8. The savoury jellies or aspics of old-fashioned cooking. 
To these kinds of stock, which, in short, represent the 

buttresses of the culinary edifice, must now be added the follow- 
ing preparations, which are, in a measure, the auxiliaries of 
the above : — 

1. The roux, the cohering element in sauces. 

2. The " Mirepoix " and " Matignon " aromatic and 
flavouring elements. 

3. The " Court-Bouillon " and the " Blancs." 

4. The various stuffings. 

5. The marinades. 

6. The various garnishes for soups, for relev^s, for entries, 
&c. ("Duxelle," " Duchesse," " Dauphine," Pate a choux, 
frying batters, various Salpicons, Profiteroles, Royales CEufs 
fil6s, Diablotins, Pastes, &c.). 

I— ORDINARY OR WHITE CONSOMME 

Quantities for making Four Quarts. 

3 lbs. of shin of beef. | lb. of leeks and i stick of celery. 
3 lbs. of lean beef. | lb. of parsnips. 

1 1 lbs. of fowls' carcases. i medium-sized onion with a 

I lb. of carrots. clove stuck in it. 

I lb. of turnips. 



FONDS DE CUISINE 3 

Preparation. — Put the meat into a stock-pot of suitable 
dimensions, after having previously strung it together; add 
the poultry carcase, five quarts of water, and one-half oz. of 
grey salt. Place the stock-pot on a moderate fire in such a 
manner that it may not boil too quickly, and remember to 
stir the meat from time to time. Under the influence of the 
heat, the water gradually reaches the interior of the meat, 
where, after having dissolved the liquid portions, it duly com- 
bines with them. These liquid portions contain a large pro- 
portion of albumen, and as the temperature of the water rises 
this substance has a tendency to coagulate. It also increases 
in volume, and, by virtue of its lightness, escapes from the 
water and accumulates on the surface in the form of scum. 
Carefully remove this scum as it forms, and occasionally add 
a little cold water before the boil is reached in order that, the 
latter being retarded, a complete expulsion of the scum may 
be effected. The clearness of the consomm^ largely depends 
upon the manner in which this skimming has been carried 
out. Then the vegetable garnishing is added. The scum from 
these is removed as in the previous case, and the edge of the 
stock-pot should be carefully wiped to the level of the fluid, so 
as to free it from the deposit which has been formed there. 
The stock-pot is then moved to a corner of the fire where it 
may continue cooking slowly for four or five hours. At the 
end of this time it should be taken right away from the fire, 
and, after half a pint of cold water has been added to its con- 
tents, it should be left to rest a few minutes with a view to 
allowing the grease to accumulate on the surface of the liquid, 
whence it must be carefully removed before the consomm^ is 
strained. This last operation is effected by means of a very 
fine strainer, placed on the top of a white tureen (clean and 
wide), which should then be placed in a draught to hasten the 
cooling of the consomm6. The tureen should not on any 
account be covered, and this more particularly in summer, 
when rapid cooling is a precautionary measure against fer- 
mentation. 

Remarks upon the Different Causes which Combine to 
Influence the Quality of a Consomme 

It will be seen that I have not made any mention in the 
above formula of the meat and the vegetables which have 
helped to make the consomm^, my reason being that it is 
preferable to remove them from the stock-pot only after the 

B 2 



4 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

broth has been strained, so as not to run the risk of disturbing 
the latter. 

The quality of the meat goes a long way . towards settling 
the quality of the consomme. In order that the latter be perfect, 
it is essential that the meat used should be- that of comparatively 
old animals whose flesh is well set and rich in flavour. This 
is a sine qua non, and the lack of meat coming from old animals 
in England accounts for the difficulty attaching to the making 
of a good consomm^ and savoury sauces in this country. Cattle 
in England are killed at an age varying from three to four years 
at the most; the meat thus obtained has no equal for the 
purpose of roasts and grills, and anything approaching it is 
rarely met with on the Continent. But when this same meat 
is used for boiling or braising, it does not contain enough juice 
or flavour to yield a satisfactory result. 

This shortcoming is furthermore aggravated by a fault that 
many commit who are employed in the making of consommes 
and stock. The fault in question consists in cooking the bones 
simultaneously with the meat. Now to extract that gelatinous 
element from bone which produces the mellowness character- 
istic of all good consommes, it is necessary that the gelatigenous 
bodies should be cooked for twelve hours at least, and even 
after that time has elapsed they are still not entirely spent. 
On the Continent the quality of the meat easily compensates 
for this technical error, but such is certainly not the case in 
England, where five hours' stewing only results in a flat and 
insipid consomm^. 

I therefore believe that, in the case of either consomme or 
stock, the formulas of which I shall give later, it would be ad- 
visable for the bones to stew at least twelve hours, and this only 
after they have been well broken up, while the quantity of water 
used should be so calculated as to suffice exactly for the im- 
mersion of the meat that must follow. The contents of this 
first stock-pot should include half of the vegetables mentioned, 
and the consomm6 thus obtained, after having been strained and 
cooled, will take the place of the water in the recipe, in accord- 
ance with the directions I have given above. 

The Uses of White Consomme 

., White consomme is used in the preparation of clarified con- 
sommes, in which case it undergoes a process of clarifying, the 
directions for which will be given later. It also serves as the 
liquor for thick soups, poached fowls, &c. It must be limpid. 



FONDS DE CUISINE 5 

as colourless as possible, and very slightly salted, for, what- 
ever the use may be for which it is intended, it has to undergo 
a process of concentration. 

2— THE PREPARATION OF CLARIFIED 
CONSOMME FOR CLEAR SOUPS 

Qwantities for making four quarts. — Five quarts of ordinary 
consomm^, one and one-half lbs. of very lean beef, the white 
of an egg, one fowl's carcase (roasted if possible). First, 
mince the beef and pound it in a mortar with the fowl's carcase 
and the white of egg, adding a little cold white consomm^. 
Put the whole into a tall, narrow, and thick-bottomed stewpan ; 
then gradually add the cold, white broth, from which all grease 
has been removed, that the whole may be well mixed. 
Then the stewpan may be put on the fire, and its contents 
thoroughly stirred, for fear of their burning at the bottom. 
When boiling-point is reached, move the stewpan to a corner 
of the fire, so that the soup may only simmer, for anything 
approaching the boil would disturb the contents. A good hour 
should be enough to properly finish the consomm^, and any 
longer time on the fire would be rather prejudicial than the 
reverse, as it would probably impair the flavour of the prepara- 
tion. Now carefully remove what little grease may have col- 
lected on the surface of the consomm^, and strain the latter 
through muslin into another clean stewpan. It is now ready 
for the addition of the garnishes that are to form part of it, 
which I shall enumerate in due course. 



Remarks upon Clarifications 

For clarified consommes, even more than for the ordinary 
kind, it is eminently advisable that the meat should be that 
of old animals. Indeed, it is safe to say that one lb. of meat 
coming from an animal of eight years will yield much better 
consomm^ than two lbs. would, coming from a fattened 
animal of about three or four years. The consomm^ will be 
stronger, mellower, and certainly more tasty, as the flesh of 
young animals has absolutely no richness of flavour. 

It will be seen that I do not refer to any vegetable for the 
clarification. If the white consomm^ has been well carried out, 
it should be able to dispense with all supplementary flavouring, 
and, the customary error of cooks being rather to overdo the 
quantity of vegetables — even to the extent of disguising the 
natural aroma of the consomm^ — I preferred to entirely abandon 



6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

the idea of vegetable garnishes in clarifications, and thus avoid 
a common stumbling-block. 

3— CHICKEN CONSOMME 

White chicken consomm6 is prepared in exactly the sam.e 
way as ordinary white consomm^. There need only be added 
to the meat, the quantity of which may be lessened, an old hen 
or a cock, slightly coloured on the spit or in the oven. 

For the clarification, the quantity of roast fowl-carcases 
used may be increased, provided the latter be not too fat. The 
process, however, is the same as in the clarification of ordinary 
consommds. 

The colour of chicken consomm6 should be lighter than that 
of the ordinary kind — namely, a light, amber yellow, limpid 
and warm. ^ 

4— FISH CONSOMME 

These consommes are rarely used, for Lenten soups with a 
fish basis are generally thick soups, for the preparation of 
which the fish fumet whereof I shall give the formula later 
(Formula No. ii) should avail. Whenever there is no definite 
reason for the use of an absolutely Lenten consomm^, it would 
be advisable to resort to one of the ordinary kind, and to finish 
off the same by means of a good fish essence extracted from 
the bones of a sole or whiting. An excellent consomm6 is thus 
obtained, more palatable and less flat than the plain fish con- 
somm^. 

If, however, one were obliged to make a plain fish con- 
somm^, the following procedure should be adopted : — 

Clarification of Fish Consomme 

Quantities for making Four Quarts. — Four and one-half 
quarts of ordinary fish fumet having a decided taste; one-half 
lb. of good fresh caviare, or pressed caviare. 

Mode of Procedure. — Pound the caviare and mix the result- 
ing pulp with the cold fish fumet. Put the whole into a sauce- 
pan, place it on the open fire, and stir with a spatula until the 
contents reach the boil. Then move the saucepan to a corner 
of the fire, and let the consomm^ simmer gently for twenty 
minutes, after which strain it through muslin with great caution, 
and keep it well covered and in the warmth, so as to prevent 
the formation of a gelatinous film on the surface. 

Fish consommi^s are greatly improved by the addition of 



PONDS DE CUISINE 1 

such ftfothatics as saffron or curry, both of which considerably 
add to their quahty. 

' 5— GAME CONSOMME 

The necks, breasts, and shoulders of venison and of hare, 
old wild rabbits, old pheasants, and old partridges may be used 
in the production of game consommes. An ordinary consomm^ 
may likewise be made, in which half the beef can be replaced 
by veal, and to which may be added, while clarifying, a suc- 
culent game essence. This last method is even preferable when 
dealing with feathered game, but in either case it is essential 
that the meat used should be half-roasted beforehand, in order 
to strengthen the fumet. 

The formula that I give below must therefore only be looked 
upon as a model, necessarily alterable according to the resources 
at one's disposal, the circumstances, and the end in view. 

Quantities for making Four Quarts of Plain Game Consomme. 

3 lbs. of neck, shoulder, or breast i medium-sized leek and 2 sticks 

of venison. of celery. 

I J lbs. of hare-trimmings. i bunch of herbs with extra 
I old pheasant or 2 partridges. thyme and bay leaves. 

4 oz. of sliced carrots, browned in i onion, oven-browned, with 2 

butter. cloves stuck into it. 

J lb. of mushrooms, likewise 
browned in butter. 

Liquor. — Five and one-half quarts of water. 

Seasoning. — One oz. of salt and a few peppercorns, these 
to be added ten minutes previous to straining the consomm^. 

Time allowed for cooking. — Three hours. 

Mode of Procedure. — Proceed in exactly the same way as for 
* ordinary consommes, taking care only to half-roast the meat, 
as I pointed out above, before putting it in the stewpan. 

The Clarification of Game Consommes 

The constituents of the clarification of game consommes 
vary according to the kind of consomm^ desired. If it is to 
have a partridge flavour, one partridge should be allowed for 
each quart of the consomm^, whereas if its flavour is to be 
that of the pheasant, half an old pheasant will be required per 
each quart of the liquid. Lastly, in the case of plain game 
consommes, one lb. of lean venison, hare, or wild rabbit should 
be allowed for each quart of the required consomm6. 

Mode of Procedure. — Whatever be the kind of game used, 
the latter must be thoroughly boned and the meat well pounded, 
together with the white of an egg per four quarts of consomm^. 



8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

About two oz. per quart of dried mushrooms should now be 
added if they can be procured, while the bones and the remains 
or carcases of game should be browned in the oven and com- 
pletely drained of all grease. The whole can now be mixed 
with the cold game consomm^. The clarification is then put 
over an open fire (stirring incessantly the while), and as soon 
as the boil is reached the saucepan must be moved to a corner 
of the fire, where its contents niay gently boil for three-quarters 
of an hour. The fat should then be removed, and the con- 
somm^ strained through muslin, after which cover up until 
wanted. 

6— SPECIAL CONSOMMES FOR SUPPERS 

The consommes whose formulae I have just given are in- 
tended more particularly for dinners. They are always finished 
off by some kind of garnish, which, besides lending them an 
additional touch of flavour, gives them their special and definite 
character when they are served up in the diner's plate. 

But the case is otherwise with the consommes served for 
suppers. These, being only served in cups, either hot or cold, 
do not allow of any garnishing, since they are to be drunk at 
table. They must therefore be perfect in themselves, delicate, 
and quite clear. 

These special consommes are made in a similar manner to 
the others, though it is needful to slightly increase the quantity 
of meat used for the clarification, and to add to that clarification 
the particular flavour mentioned on th.e menu — to wit, a few 
stalks of celery, if the consomm^ is a celery one; a small 
quantity of curry, if the consomm6 is given as " ^ ITndienne " ; 
or a few old roast partridges if it is to be termed " Consomm^ 
au fumet de perdreau " ; and so on. 

The means by which one may vary the aroma of con- 
sommes are legion, but it is highly important, what aroma 
soever be used, that the latter be not too pronounced. It ought 
only to lend a distinctive and, at the same time, subtle finish 
to the consomm6, which, besides sharpening the latter, should 
increase its succulence. 

When the consomm^ is served cold it ought to have the 
qualities of an extremely light and easily-melting jelly, barely 
firm; but when it is too liquid, it rarely gives that sensation of 
perfection and succulence to the palate of the consumer which 
the latter expects. When too firm and too gelatinous it is 
positively disagreeable; therefore, if it is to be relished, it 
should be just right in respect of consistency. 



FONDS DE CUISINE 9 

7— BROWN STOCK OR "ESTOUFFADE" 

Quantities for making Four Quarts. 

4 lbs. of shin of beef (flesh and | lb. of minced carrots, browned 

bone). in butter. 

4 lbs. of shin of veal (flesh and | lb. of minced onions, browned 

bone). in butter. 

i lb. of lean, raw ham. i faggot, containing a little pars- 

I lb. of fresh pork rind, rinsed ley, a stick of celery, a small 

in tepid water. sprig of thyme, and a bay 

leaf. 

Preparation. — Bone and string the meat, and keep it in 
readiness for the morrow. Break the bones as finely as pos- 
sible, and, after having besprinkled them with a little stock-fat, 
brown them in an oven ; also stir them repeatedly. When they 
are slightly browned, put them in a conveniently large sauce- 
pan with the carrots, the onions, and the faggot. Add five 
quarts of cold water, and put the saucepan on an open fire 
to boil. As soon as the boil is reached skim carefully; wipe 
the edge of the saucepan ; put the lid half on, and allow the 
stock to cook gently for twelve hours; then roughly remove 
the fat; pass the liquid through a sieve, and let it cool. 

This being done, put the meat in a saucepan just large 
enough to hold it. Brown it a little in some stock-fat, and 
clear it entirely of the latter. Add half a pint of the prepared 
stock, cover the saucepan, and let the meat simmer on the side 
of the fire until the stock is almost entirely reduced. Mean- 
while the meat should have been repeatedly turned, that it may 
be equally affected throughout. Now pour the remainder of 
the stock, prepared from bones, into the saucepan, bring the 
whole to the boil, and then move the saucepan to a corner of 
the fire for the boiling to continue very slowly and regularly 
with the lid off. As soon as the meat is well cooked the fat 
should be removed from the stock, and the latter should be 
strained or rubbed through a sieve, after which it should be 
put aside to be used when required. 

Remarks Relative to the Making of Brown Stock. — Instead 
of stringing the meat after having boned it, if time presses, 
it may be cut into large cubes before browning. In this case 
one hour and a half would suffice to cook it and to extract all 
its juice. 

Whether brown or white, stock should never be salted, 
because it is never served in its original state. It is either 
reduced in order to make glazes or sauces — in which case the 
concentration answers the purpose of seasoning — or else it is 



lo GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

used to cook meat which miist be salted before being cooked, 
and which, therefore, imparts the necessary salt to its sur- 
rounding liquor. 

Brown stock ought to be the colour of fine burnt amber, 
and it must be transparent. It is used in making meat-glazes 
after reduction, also to moisten meat for braising and to prepare 
brown sauces. 



8— BROWN GAME STOCK 

There is no difference between the game consommes and 
game stock, or, otherwise stated, ordinary game consomme 
and brown game stock are one and the same thing. The dis- 
tinction lies in the ultimate use of this preparation ; it is clari- 
fied, as we have shown (Formula 5), if it be intended for a clear 
soup, and it is used in its original state if it is to be used for 
a thick game soup, for a sauce, or for reducing. 

9— BROWN VEAL STOCK 

Brown veal stock requires the same quantities of shin and 
trimmings of veal as white veal stock (Formula 10). The time 
allowed for cooking is, however, a little shorter, and this opera- 
tion may be completed within eight hours. This stock is mostly 
used as the liquor for poultry and poeled game, while it may 
also serve in the preparation of thickened veal stock. Being 
quite neutral in taste, it lends itself to all purposes, and readily 
takes up the aroma of the meat with which it may happen to 
be combined. It is admirably suited to the poaching of quails, 
and nothing can supplant it in this particular. 

,0— WHITE STOCK, VEAL AND POULTRY STOCK 

Quantities for -making Four Quarts. 

8 lbs. of shin of veal, or lean and 5J quarts of cold water. 

fresh veal trimmings. 4 oz. of leeks strung with a stick 

I or 2 fowls' carcases, raw if they of celery. 

are handy. i faggot, including i oz. of 

12 oz. of carrots. parsley, i bay leaf, and a 

6 oz. of onions stuck with a clove. of parsley, i bay leaf, and a 

Preparation. — Bone the shins, string the meat, break up the 
bones as small as possible, and put them in a stewpan with the 
water. Place on an open fire, allow to boil, skim carefully, 
and then move to a side of the fire to cook very gently for 



FONDS DE CUISINE ii 

five hours. At the end of this time put the stock into another 
stewpan, add the meat and the vegetables, add water, if neces- 
sary, to keep the quantity of liquid at five quarts, let it boil, 
and allow it to cook slowly for another three hours, after which 
remove all grease from the stock, pass the latter through a fine 
strainer or a colander, and put it aside until wanted. 

Remarks upon White Stock. — One should contrive to make 
this stock as gelatinous as possible. It is therefore an indis- 
pensable measure that the bones be well broken up and cooked 
for at least eight hours. Veal never yields such clear stock 
as beef; nevertheless, the consomm^ obtained from veal should 
not be turbid. It must, on the contrary, be kept as clear and 
as white as possible. 

Poultry Stock is made by adding two old fowls to the above 
veal stock, and these should be put into the liquor with the meat. 



Fish Stock 

u— WHITE FISH STOCK 

Quantities for making Four Quarts. 

4 lbs. of trimmings and bones of 2 oz. of parsley, root or stalks. 

sole or whiting. J bottle of white wine. 

I lb. of sliced, blanched onions. 

Preparation. — Butter the bottom of a thick, tall stewpan, 
put in the blanched onions and the parsley-stalks, and upon 
these aromatics lay the fish remains. Add the juice of a lemon, 
cover the stewpan, put it on the fire, and allow the fish to 
exude its essence, jerking the pan at intervals. Moisten, in 
the first place, with the white wine ; then, with the lid off, reduce 
the liquid to about half. Now add four quarts of cold water, 
bring to the boil, skim, and. then leave to cook for twenty 
minutes, only, on a moderate fire. The time allowed is ample 
for the purpose of extracting the aromatic and gelatinous 
properties contained in the bones, and a more protracted stew- 
ing would only impair the savour of the stock. 

Remarks upon White Fish Stock. — The formula which I 
give above diverges considerably from that commonly used, 
for, as a rule, fish stock is diluted far too much, and is stewed 
for much too long a time. I have observed that fish stock may 
be greatly improved by rapid cooking, and it was this considera- 
tion that led me to dilute it scantily, so as to avoid prolonged 
reduction. 



12 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

It is likewise necessary to remember that in order to make 
perfect fish stock, only the sole or whiting should be used. In 
a case of emergency, however, i.e., if the supply of the latter 
were to run short, a quarter of their weight of brill bones might 
be added to them. But all other kinds of fish should be avoided 
in the preparation. 

12— FISH STOCK WITH RED WINE "" 

This stock is comparatively rarely used, because, in practice, 
it is naturally obtained in the cooking of the fish itself, as, for 
instance, in the case of the " Matelotes." Be this as it may, 
with the recent incursion of a custom which seems to demand, 
ever more and more, the serving of fish without bones, the 
following formula will be worthy of interest, as it is likely that 
its need will henceforth be felt with increasing urgency. 

Fish fumet with red wine may be prepared from all fresh- 
water fish, as well as from the remains of sole, whiting, chicken- 
turbot, and brill. It is generally better, however, to have re- 
course to the bones and remains of that fish which happens to 
be constituting the dish — that is to say, the bones and trimmings 
of sole in a stock for fillet of sole, the bones and trimmings of 
a chicken-turbot in a fumet for a chicken-turbot, and so on. The 
preparatory formula remains the same, whatever the kind of 
fish used may be. 

Quantities for making Four Quarts of Fumet with Red 
Wine. — Four lbs. of bones, heads, and trimmings of the fish 
to be served; three-quarters lb. of minced white onions; three 
oz. of parsley stalks, two bay leaves, four small sprigs of thyme, 
and four cloves of garlic ; two bottles of red wine and five pints 
of water. 

Mode of Procedure. — Put all the above-mentioned in- 
gredients in a thick and tall stewpan, boil, skim carefully, and 
allow to cook twenty to thirty minutes on a moderate fire ; then 
strain the stock through a colander into a tureen, to be used 
when required. 

Remarks upon Fish Stock with Red Wine. — This stock 
stands reduction far better than white fish stock. Nevertheless, 
I urge the advisability of trying to obtain the required quantity 
without reduction. In its preparation, one may use some mush- 
room parings, as in the case of white stock, if these are handy, 
and they will be found to lend an agreeable flavour to the fish 
fumet. 



FONDS DE CUISINE 13 

13— VARIOUS ESSENCES 

As their name implies, essences are stock which hold a large 
proportion of a substance's aroma in a concentrated form. They 
are, in fact, ordinary stock, only less diluted, with the idea 
of intensifying the flavour of the treated ingredients r hence 
their utility is nil if the stock which they are intended to finish 
has been reasonably and judiciously treated. It is infinitely 
simpler ta make savoury and succulent stock in the first place 
than to produce a mediocre stock, and finally complete it by a 
specially prepared essence. The result in the first instance is 
better, and there is economy of time and material. 

The most one can do is to recommend, in certain circum- 
stances, the use of essences extracted from particularly well- 
flavoured products, as, for instance, mushrooms, truffles, morels, 
and celery. But it would be well to remember that, nine times 
out of ten, it is preferable to add the product itself to the stock 
during the preparation of the same than to prepare essences. 

For this reason I do not think it necessary to dilate upon 
the subject of essences, the need of which should not be felt 
in good cooking. 

14— VARIOUS GLAZES 

The various glazes of meat, fowl, game, and fish are merely 
stock reduced to the point of viscosity. Their uses are legion. 
Occasionally they serve in decking dishes with a brilliant and 
unctuous coating which makes them sightly; at other times 
they may help to strengthen the consistence of a sauce or other 
culinary preparation, while again they may be used as sauces 
proper after they have been correctly creamed or buttered. 

Glazes are distinguished from essences by the fact that the 
latter are only prepared with the object of extracting all the 
flavour of the product under treatment, whereas the former are, 
on the contrary, constituted by the whole base of the substance 
itself. They therefore have not only its savour, but also 
its succulence and mellowness, whereby they are superior to 
the essences, and cooking can but be improved by substituting 
them for the latter. Nevertheless, many chefs of the old school 
do not permit the use of glazes in culinary preparations, or, 
rather, they are of opinion that each cooking operation should 
produce them on its own account, and thus be sufficient unto 
itself. Certainly, the theory is correct when neither time nor 
cost is limited. But nowadays the establishments are scarce 
where these theories may be applied, and, indeed, if one does 



14 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

not make an abuse of glazes, and if they be prepared with care, 
their use gives excellent results, while they lend themselves 
admirably to the very complex demands of modern customs. 

15— MEAT OLAZE 

Meat glaze is made by reducing brown stock (Formula 7) 
in a large stewpan upon an open fire. As often as the stock 
is appreciably reduced, during ebullition, it may be transferred 
to smaller stewpans, taking care to strain it through muslin at 
each change of stewpan. The glaze may be considered suffi- 
ciently reduced when it evenly veneers a withdrawn spoon. The 
fire used for reducing should gradually wane as the concentra- 
tion progresses, and the last phase must be effected slowly and 
on a moderate fire. 

When it is necessary to obtain a lighter and clearer glaze, 
the brown veal stock (Formula No. 9) should be reduced instead 
of the " Estouffade." 

16— POULTRY QLAZE 

Reduce the poultry base indicated in Formula 10, and 
proceed in exactly the same way as for meat glaze (Formula 15). 

17— GAME QLAZE 

Use the game base (Formula 8), and proceed as for meat 
glaze (Formula 9). 

18— FISH QLAZE 

This glaze is used less often than the preceding ones. As 
it is only used to intensify the savour of sauces, it is sufficient 
for this purpose to prepare a white fish stock (Formula 11), 
which may be diluted with the stock already prepared, and 
which may be reduced according to the requirements. The 
name of fish fumet or fish essence is given to this preparation ; 
its flavour is more delicate than that of fish glaze, which it 
replaces with advantage. 



CHAPTER II 

THE LEADING WARM SAUCES 

Warm sauces are of two kinds : the leading sauces, also 
called " mother sauces," and the small sauces, which are usually 
derived from the first-named, and are generally only modified 
forms thereof. Cooking stock only includes the leading sauces, 
but I shall refer to the small hot sauces and the cold sauces at 
the end of the auxiliary stock. 

Experience, which plays such an important part in culinary 
work, is nowhere so necessary as in the preparation of sauces, 
for not only must the latter flatter the palate, but they must also 
vary in savour, consistence and viscosity, in accordance with 
the dishes they accompany. By this means, in a well-ordered 
dinner, each dish differs from the preceding ones and from those 
that follow. 

Furthermore, sauces must, through the perfection of their 
preparation, obey the general laws of a rational hygiene, where- 
fore they should be served and combined in such wise as to 
allow of easy digestion by the frequently disordered stomachs 
of their consumers. 

Car^me was quite justified in pluming himself upon the fact 
that during his stay at the English Court his master — the Prince 
Regent — had assured him that he (Careme) was the only one 
among those who had served his Highness whose cooking had 
been at all easy of digestion. Carlme had grasped the essential 
truth that the richer the cooking is, the more speedily do the 
stomach and palate tire of it. And, indeed, it is a great mistake 
to suppose that, in order to do good cooking, it is necessary 
to be prodigal in one's use of all things. In reality, practice 
dictates fixed and regular quantities, and from these one cannot 
diverge without upsetting the hygienic and sapid equilibrium 
on which the value of a sauce depends. The requisite quan- 
tities of each ingredient must, of course, be used, but neither 
more nor less, as there are objections to either extreme. 

Any sauce whatsoever should be smooth, light (without 



1 6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

being liquid), glossy to the eye, and decided in taste. When 
these conditions are fulfilled it is always easy to digest even 
for tired stomachs. 

An essential point in the making of sauces is the seasoning, 
and it would be impossible for me to lay sufficient stress on the 
importance of not indulging in any excess in this respect. It 
too often happens that the insipidness of a badly-made sauce is 
corrected by excessive seasoning; this is an absolutely deplor- 
able practice. 

Seasoning should be so calculated as to be merely a com- 
plementary factor, which, though it must throw the savour of 
dishes into relief, may not form a recognisable part of them. 
If it be excessive, it modifies and even destroys the taste peculiar 
to every dish — to the great detriment of the latter and of the 
consumer's health. 

It is therefore desirable that each sauce should possess its 
own special flavour, well defined, the result of the combined 
flavours of all its ingredients. ^ 

If, in the making of sauces, one allowed oneself to be guided 
by those principles which are the very foundation of good 
cookery, the general denunciation of sauces by the medical 
faculty would be averted ; and this denunciation no sauce de- 
serves if it be carefully prepared, conformably with the laws pre- 
scribed by practice and its resulting experience. 



The Roux 

The roux being the cohering element of leading sauces, it 
is necessary to reveal its preparation and constituents before 
giving one's attention to the latter. 

Three kinds of roux are used — namely, brown roux, for 
brown sauces; pale roux, for velout^s, or cream sauces; and 
white roux, for white sauces and Bdchamel. 

19— BROWN ROUX 

Quantities for making about One lb. — Eight oz. of clarified 
butter, nine oz. of best-quality flour. 

Preparation. — Mix the flour and butter in a very thick stew- 
pan, and put it on the side of the fire or in a moderate oven. 
Stir the mixture repeatedly so that the heat may be evenly 
distributed throughout the whole of its volume. 

The time allowed for the cooking of brown roux cannot be 
precisely determined, as it depends upon the degree of heat 



LEADING SAUCES 17 

employed. The more intense the latter, the speedier will 
be the cooking, while the stirring will of necessity be more 
rapid. Brown roux is known to be cooked when it has acquired 
a fine, light brown colour, and when it exudes a scent re- 
sembling tha;t of the hazel-nut, characteristic of baked flour. 

It is very important that brown roux should not be cooked 
too rapidly. As a matter of fact, among the various constituent 
elements of flour, the starch alone acts as the cohering prin- 
ciple. This starch is contained in little cells, which tightly 
constrain it, but which are sufficiently porous to permit the 
percolation of liquid and fatty substances. Under the influence 
of moderate heat and the infiltered butter, the cells burst 
through the swelling of the starch, and the latter thereupon 
completely combines with the butter to form a mass capable of 
absorbing six times its own weight of liquid when cooked. 

When the cooking takes place with a very high initial heat 
the starch gets burned within its shrivelled cells, and swelling is 
then possible only in those parts which have been least burned. 

The cohering principle is thus destroyed, and double or 
treble the quantity of roux becomes necessary in order to obtain 
the required consistency. But this excess of roux in the sauce 
chokes it up without binding it, and prevents it from despumat- 
ing or becoming clear. At the same time, the cellulose and 
the burnt starch lend a bitterness to the sauce of which no 
subsequent treatment can rid it. 

From the above it follows that, starch being the only one 
from among the different constituents of flour which really 
effects the coherence of sauces, there would be considerable 
advantage in preparing roux either from a pure form of it, or 
from substances with kindred properties, such as fecula, arrow- 
root, &c. It is only habit that causes flour to be still used as 
the cohering element of roux, and, indeed, the hour is not so 
far distant when the advantages of the changes I propose will 
be better understood — changes which have been already recom- 
mended by Favre in his dictionary. 

With a roux well made from the purest starch — in which 
case the volume of starch and butter would equal about half that 
of the flour and butter of the old method — and with strong and 
succulent brown stock, a Spanish sauce or Espagnole may be 
made in one hour. And this sauce will be clearer, more brilliant, 
and better than that of the old processes, which needed three 
days at least to despumate. 



1 8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

20— PALE ROUX 

The quantities are the same as for brown roux, but cooking 
must cease as soon as the colour of the roux begins to change, 
and before the appearance of any colouring whatsoever. 

The observations I made relative to brown roux, concerning 
the cohering element, apply also to pale roux. 

21— WHITE ROUX 

Same quantities as for brown and pale roux, but the time 
of cooking is limited to a few minutes, as it is only needful, in 
this case, to do away with the disagreeable taste of raw flour 
which is typical of those sauces whose roux has not been suffi- 
ciently cooked. 

22— BROWN SAUCE OR ESPAQNOLE 

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. — One lb. of brown 
roux dissolved in a tall, thick saucepan with six quarts of brown 
stock or estouffade. Put the saucepan on an open fire, and stir 
the sauce with a spatula or a whisk, and do not leave it until it 
begins to boil. Then remove the spatula, and put the sauce- 
pan on a corner of the fire, letting it lean slightly to one side 
with the help of a wedge, so that boiling may only take place 
at one point, and that the inert principles thrown out by the 
sauce during despumation may accumulate high up in the sauce- 
pan, whence they can be easily removed as they collect. 

It is advisable during despumation to change saucepans twice 
or even three times, straining every time, and adding a quart 
of brown stock to replace what has evaporated. At length, 
when the sauce begins to get lighter, and about two 
hours before finally straining it, two lbs. of fresh tomatoes, 
roughly cut up, should be added, or an equivalent quantity of 
tomato pur^e, and about one lb. of Mirepoix, prepared accord- 
ing to Formula No. 228. The sauce is then reduced so as to 
measure four quarts when strained, after which it is poured 
into a wide tureen, and must be kept in motion until quite cool 
lest a skin should form on its surface. 

The time required for the despumation of an Espagnole 
varies according to the quality of the stock and roux. We saw 
above that one hour sufficed for a concentrated stock and starch 
roux, in which case the Mirepoix and the tomato are inserted 
from the first. But much more time is required if one is deal- 
ing with a roux whose base is flour. In the latter case six hours 



LEADING SAUCES 19 

should be allowed, provided one have excellent stock and well- 
made roux. More often than not this work is done in two 
stages, thus : after having despumated the Espagnole for six 
or eight hours the first day, it is put on the fire the next day 
with half its volume of stock, and it is left to despumate a few 
hours more before it is finally strained. 

Summing up my opinion on this subject, I can only give 
my colleagues the following advice, based upon long experi- 
ence : — 

1. Only use strong, clear stock with a decided taste. 

2. Be scrupulously careful of the roux, however it may be 
made. By following these two rules, a clear, brilliant, and 
consistent Espagnole will always be obtained in a fairly short 
time. 

23— HALF GLAZE 

This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of per- 
fection by final despumation. It is obtained by reducing one 
quart of Espagnole and one quart of first-class brown stock 
until its volume is reduced to nine-tenths of a quart. It is then 
put through a strainer into a bain-marie of convenient dimen- 
sions, and it is finished, away from the fire, with one-tenth of 
a quart of excellent sherry. Cover the bain-marie, or slightly 
butter the top to avoid the formation of a skin. This sauce 
is the base of all the smaller brown sauces. 

24— LENTEN ESPAGNOLE 

Practical men are not agreed as to the need of Lenten 
Espagnole. The ordinary Espagnole being really a neutral 
sauce in flavour, it is quite simple to give it the necessary flavour 
by the addition of the required quantity of fish fumet. It is 
only, therefore, when one wishes to conform with the demands 
of a genuine Lent sauce that a fish Espagnole is needed. And, 
certainly in this case, nothing can take its place. 

The preparation of this Espagnole does not differ from thai 
of the ordinary kind, except that the bacon is replaced by mush- 
room parings in the Mirepoix, and that the sauce must be de- 
spumated for only one hour. 

This sauce takes the place of the ordinary Espagnole, for 
Lenten preparations, in every case where the latter is generally 
used, in Gratins, in the Genevoise sauce, &c. 



c 3 



20 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

25-ORDINARY VELOUTE SAUCE 

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. — One lb. of pale roux 
(Formula 20), five quarts of white veal stock (Formula 10). 

Dissolve the roux in the cold white veal stock and put the 
saucepan containing this mixture on an open fire, stirring the 
sauce with a spatula or whisk, so as to avoid its burning at 
the bottom. Add one oz. of table-salt, a pinch of nutmeg and 
white powdered pepper, together with one-quarter lb. of nice 
white mushroom parings, if these are handy. Now boil and 
move to a corner of the fire to despumate slowly for one and a 
half hours, at the same time observing the precautions advised 
for ordinary Espagnole (Formula 22). Strain through muslin 
into a smaller saucepan, add one pint of white stock, and de- 
spumate for another half hour. Strain it again through a tammy 
or a sieve into a wide tureen, and keep moving it with a spatula 
until it is quite cold. 

I am not partial to garnishing Velout^ Sauce with carrots, 
an onion with a clove stuck into it, and a faggot, as 
many do. The stock should be sufficiently fragrant of itself, 
without requiring the addition of anything beyond the usual 
condiments. The only exception I should make would be for 
mushroom parings, even though it is preferable, when possible, 
to replace these by mushroom liquor. But this is always scarce 
in kitchens where it is used for other purposes ; wherefore it is 
often imperative to have recourse to parings in its stead. The 
latter may not, however, be added to the stock itself, as they 
would blacken it ; hence I advise their addition to the Veloute 
during its preparation. 

26— VELOUTE DE VOLAILLE 

This is identical with ordinary Velout^, except that instead 
of having white veal stock for its liquor, it is diluted with white 
poultry stock. The mode of procedure and the time allowed for 
cooking are the same. 

26a— FISH VELOUTE 

Velout^ is the base of various fish sauces whose recipes will 
be given in Part II. 

Prepare it in precisely the same way as poultry velout^, 
but instead of using poultry stock, use very clear fish 
fumet, and let it despumate for twenty minutes only. (See fish 
fumet No. n.) 



LEADING SAUCES it 

27— ALLEMANDE SAUCE OR THICKENED VELOUTE 

Allemande Sauce is not, strictly speaking, a basic sauce. 
However, it is so often resorted to in the preparation of other 
sauces that I think it necessary to give it after the Velout^s, 
from which it is derived. 

Quantities Required for One Quart. 

The yolks of 5 eggs. ^ the juice of a lemon. 

I pint of cold white stock. | pint of mushroom liquor. 

I quart of Velout^, well despu- 
mated. 

Mode of Procedure. — Put the various ingredients in a thick- 
bottomed saut^-pan and mix them carefully. Then put the pan 
on an open fire, and stir the sauce with a metal spatula, lest 
it burn at the bottom. When the sauce has been reduced to 
about one quart, add one-third pint of fresh cream to it, and 
reduce further for a few minutes. It should then be passed 
through a fine strainer into a tureen and kept moving until 
quite cold. 

Prepared thus, the Allemande Sauce is ready for the prepara- 
tion of the smaller sauces. Butter must only be added at the 
very last moment, for if it were buttered any earlier it would 
most surely turn. The same injunction holds good with this 
sauce when it is to be served in its original state ; it should then 
receive a small addition of cream, and be buttered so that it 
may attain its required delicacy ; but this addition of butter and 
cream ought only to be made at the last moment, and away from 
the fire. When a thick sauce has any fat substance added to it, 
it cannot be exposed to a higher temperature than 140 degrees 
Fahrenheit without risking decomposition. 

28— BECHAMEL SAUCE 

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. 

I lb. of white roux. § oz. of salt, i pinch of mignon- 

4J quarts of boiling milk. ette, and grated nutmeg, and 

j lb. of lean veal. i small sprig of thyme. 

I minced onion. 

Preparation. — Pour the boiling milk on the roux, which 
should be almost cold, and whisk it well so as to avoid lumps. 
Let it boil, then cook on the side of the fire. Meanwhile the 
lean veal should have been cut into small cubes, and fried 
with butter in a saucepan, together with the minced onion. 
When the veal has stiffened without becoming coloured, it is 
added to the Bechamel, together with salt and the other aro- 
matics. Let the sauce stew for about one hour in all, and then 



22 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

pass it through a tammy into a tureen; butter the top, lest a 
crust should form. 

When Bechamel is intended for Lenten preparations, the 
veal must be omitted. 

There is another way of making the sauce. After having 
boiled the milk, the seasoning and aromatics should be added; 
the saucepan is then covered and placed on a corner of the 
stove, so as to ensure a thorough infusion. The boiling milk 
must now be poured on to the roux which has been separately 
prepared, and the sauce should then cook for one quarter of an 
hour only. 

29— TOMATO SAUCE 

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. 

5 oz. of salted breast of pork, 2 oz. of butter, ^ oz. of salt, i 

rather fat. oz. of sugar, a pinch of 

6 oz. of carrots cut into cubes. pepper. 

6 oz. of onions cut into cubes. 10 lbs. of raw tomatoes or 4 
I bay leaf and i small sprig of quarts of same, mashed. 

thyme. 2 quarts of white stock. 
5 oz. of flour. 

Preparation. — Fry the pork with the butter in a tall, thick- 
bottomed saucepan. When the pork is nearly melted, add the 
carrots, onions, and aromatics. Cook and stir the vegetables, 
then add the flour, which should be allowed to cook until it 
begins to brown. Now put in the tomatoes and white stock, 
mix the whole well, and set to boil on an open fire. At this 
point add the seasoning and a crushed clove of garlic, cover 
the saucepan, and place in a moderate oven, where it may cook 
for one and one-half hours. At the end of this time the sauce 
should be passed through a sieve or tammy, and it should boil 
while being stirred. Finally, pour it into a tureen, and butter 
its surface to avoid the formation of a skin. 

Remarks. — A pur^e of tomatoes is also used in cookery; it 
is prepared in precisely the same fashion, except that the flour 
is omitted and only one pint of white stock is added. 

30— HOLLANDAISE SAUCE 

Quantities Required for One Quart. — One and one-half lbs. 
of butter, the yolks of six eggs, one pinch of mignonette pepper 
and one-quarter oz. of salt, three tablespoonfuls of good vinegar. 

Preparation. — Put the salt, the mignonette, the vinegar, and 
as much water in a small saucepan, and reduce by three-quarters 
on the fire. Move the saucepan to a corner of the fire or into 



LEADING SAUCES 23 

a bain-marie, and add a spoonful of fresh water and the yolks. 
Work the whole with a whisk until the yolks thicken and have 
the consistence of cream. Then remove the saucepan to a tepid 
place and gradually pour the butter on the yolks while briskly 
stirring the sauce. When the butter is absorbed, the sauce 
ought to be thick and firm. It is brought to the correct con- 
sistence with a little water, which also lightens it slightly, but 
the addition of water is optional. The sauce is completed by 
a drop of lemon juice, and it is rubbed through a tammy. 

Remarks. — The consistence of sauces whose processes are 
identical with those of the Hollandaise may be varied at will ; 
for instance, the number of yolks may be increased if a very 
thick sauce is desired, and it may be lessened in the reverse 
case. Also similar results may be obtained by cooking the eggs 
either more or less. As a rule, if a thick sauce be required, the 
yolks ought to be well cooked and the sauce kept almost cold 
in the making. Experience alone — the fruit of long practice — 
can teach the various devices which enable the skilled worker 
to obtain different results from the same kind and quality of 
material. 



CHAPTER III 

The Small Compound Sauces 

Remarks. — In order that the classification of the small 
sauces should be clear and methodical, I divide them into three 
parts. 

The first part includes the small brown sauces; the second 
deals with the small white sauces and those suited to this part 
of the classification ; while the third is concerned with the 
English sauces. 



The Small Brown Sauces 

31— SAUCE BIQARRADE 

This sauce is principally used to accompany braised and 
poeled ducklings. In the first case, the duckling's braising 
stock, being thickened, constitutes a sauce. In the second case, 
the stock is clear, and the procedure in both cases is as 
follows : — 

1 . After having strained the braising stock, completely remove 
its grease, and reduce until it is very dense. Strain it once 
more through muslin, twisting the latter ; then, in order to bring 
the sauce to its normal consistence, add the juice of six oranges 
and one lemon per quart of sauce. Finish with a small piece 
of lemon and orange rind cut regularly and finely. Julienne- 
fashion, and scalded for five minutes. 

2. Strain the poeling stock, for duck or ducks, through linen; 
entirely remove the grease, and add four pieces of caramel sugar 
dissolved in one tablespoonful of vinegar per one-half pint of 
stock, the juice of the oranges and the lemon and the Julienne 
of rinds, as for the braised-ducklings sauce indicated above. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 25 

32— SAUCE BORDELAISE 

Put into a vegetable-pan two oz. of very finely minced 
shallots, one-half pint of good red wine, a pinch of mignonette 
pepper, and bits of thyme and bay. Reduce the wine by 
three-quarters, and add one-half pint of half-glaze. Keep the 
sauce simmering for half an hour; despumate it from time to 
time, and strain it through linen or a sieve. When dishing it 
up, finish it with two tablespoonfuls of dissolved meat glaze, a 
few drops of lemon-juice, and four oz. of beef-marrow, cut into 
slices or cubes and poached in slightly salted boiling water. 
This sauce may be buttered to the extent of about three oz. per 
pint, which makes it smoother, but less clear. It is especially 
suitable for grilled butcher's meat. 

33- CHASSEUR SAUCE (Escoffier's Method) 

Peel and mince six medium-sized mushrooms. Heat one- 
half oz. of butter and as much olive oil in a vegetable-pan; put 
in the mushrooms, and fry the latter quickly until they are 
slightly browned. Now add a coffeespoonful of minced 
shallots, and immediately remove half the butter ; pour one-half 
pint of white wine and one glass of liqueur brandy into the 
stewpan ; reduce this liquid to half, and finish the sauce with : 
one-half pint of half-glaze, one-quarter pint of tomato sauce, and 
one tablespoonful of meat-glaze. Set to boil for five minutes 
more, and complete with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 

34— BROWN CHAUD=FROID SAUCE 

Put one quart of half-glaze into a saut^-pan with one-fifth 
pint of truffle essence. Put the pan on an open fire, and reduce 
its contents ; while making same absorb one and one-half pints 
of jelly — the latter being added to the sauce in small quantities. 

The degree of reduction in this sauce is a good third, but, 
to be quite certain, a test of its consistence may be made by 
allowing it to cool a little. After the reduction, carefully taste, 
and rectify the seasoning if necessary; mix a little Madeira or 
Port with the sauce, away from the fire, and strain through 
muslin or, preferably, through a Venetian-hair sieve. Stir the 
sauce now and then while it cools, until it is sufficiently liquid, 
and at the same time consistent enough to coat immersed solids 
evenly with a film of sauce. Its use will be explained among 
the formulae of the different kinds of Chaud-froids. 



26 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

35— VARIETIES OF THE CHAUD-FROID SAUCE 

For Ducks. — Prepare the sauce as above, adding to it (for 
the prescribed quantity) one-half pint of duck jumet obtained 
from the carcases and remains of roast duckling, and finish it, 
away from the fire, with the juice of four oranges and a heaped 
tablespoonful of orange rind, cut finely. Julienne-fashion, and 
scalded for five minutes. 

For Feathered Game. — Treat the Chaud-Froid sauce as in- 
dicated in No. 34, adding one-half pint of the fumet of the 
game constituting the dish in order to lend it that game's 
characteristic taste. Observe the same precaution for the cool- 
ing. 

For Fish. — Proceed as in No. 34, but (i) substitute the 
Espagnole of fish for the half glaze; (2) intensify the first Es- 
pagnole with one-half pint of very clear fish essence; (3) use 
Lenten jelly instead of meat jelly. 

Remarks upon the Use of Chaud-Froid Sauces. — The chaud- 
froid sauce may be prepared beforehand, and when it is wanted 
it need only be gently melted without heating it in the least. 
It ought simply to be made sufficiently liquid to give a good 
coating to substances immersed in it. 

36 -DEVILLED SAUCE 

Put in a vegetable pan two oz. of sliced shallots and one- 
third pint of white wine. Reduce the latter to two-thirds, add 
one-half pint of half-glaze, reduce to two-thirds, season strongly 
with cayenne pepper, and strain through muslin. This sauce 
may be served with grilled fowls or pigeons. It also forms an 
excellent accompaniment to re-dished meat which needs a spicy 
sauce. 

37-"ESCOFFIER" DEVILLED SAUCE 

This sauce, which may be bought ready-made, is admirably 
fitted to accompany grilled fish and grills in general. In order 
to make it ready, all that is needed is to add its own volume 
of fresh butter to it, the latter being previously well softened 
so as to ensure its perfect mixture with the sauce. 

38— QENEVOISE SAUCE 

Heat two oz. of butter in a stewpan; insert one lb. of Mire- 
poix (No. 228) without bacon. Slightly brown, add two lbs. of 
head of salmon and remains or bones of fish, and stew with 
lid on for twenty minutes. Let the stewpan lean slightly to 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 27 

one side, so that the butter may be drained; moisten with one 
bottle of excellent red wine; reduce the latter by half; add one 
pint of Lenten Espagnole, and allow to cook gently for half an 
hour. 

Rub the sauce through a sieve, pressing it so as to extract 
all the essence. Let it rest awhile; carefully remove the fat 
which has risen to the surface, and add one liqueur-glass of 
burnt brandy, one-half pint of red wine, and as much fish 
fumet. Boil again, then move stewpan to the side of 
fire to despumate for one and one-half hours. Frequently re- 
move what the ebullition causes to rise to the surface, this 
second period of cooking being only to ensure the purification 
of the sauce. If the ebullition has been well effected, the sauce 
should reach the proper degree of reduction and despumation 
at the same moment of time. It is then strained through muslin 
or tammy, and it is finished at the last minute with a few drops 
of anchovy essence and four oz. of butter per quart of sauce. 

N.B. — The Genevoise Sauce, like all red-wine sauces, may 
be served without being buttered. It is thus clearer and more 
sightly in colour, but the addition of butter in small quantities 
makes it mellower and more palatable. 

38a— REMARKS ON RED=WINE SAUCES 

In the general repertory of cooking we also have, in the 
way of red-wine sauces, the " Bourguignonne," "Matelote," 
and " Red- Wine " sauces, which are closely allied to the 
" Genevoise," and only differ from it in details of procedure. 

The " Bourguignonne " Sauce is composed of red-wine 
accompanied by aromatics, and reduced by half. In accord- 
ance with ordinary principles, it is thickened by means of 
three oz. of manied butter per quart of reduced wine. This 
sauce is buttered with four oz. of butter per quart, and is espe- 
cially regarded as a domestic preparation for poached, moulded, 
and hard-boiled eggs. 

"Matelote" Sauce is made from Court-bouillon, with red 
wine which has been used for cooking fish. This Court- 
bouillon, with the mushroom parings added, is reduced by 
two-thirds, and is thickened with one pint of Lenten Espagnole 
per pint of the reduced Court-bouillon. 

This sauce should be reduced by a third, strained through 
a tammy, and finished by means of two oz. of butter and a 
little cayenne per pint of sauce. 

The Red-Wine Sauce resembles the two preceding ones in 
so far as it contains mirepoix browned in butter and diluted 



28 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

with red wine. The wine is reduced by half, thickened by a 
pint of Lenten Espagnole per pint of the reduction, and the 
sauce is despumated for about twenty minutes. It is strained 
through a tammy, and finished, when ready, by a few drops 
of anchovy essence, a Httle cayenne, and two oz. of butter per 
pint of sauce. 

39— QRAND-VENEUR SAUCE 

Take one pint of Poivrade Sauce (No. 49) and boil it, adding 
one pint of game stock to keep it light; reduce the sauce by a 
good third ; remove it from the fire, and add four tablespoonfuls 
of red-currant jelly. When the latter is well dissolved, com- 
plete the sauce by one-quarter pint of cream per pint of sauce. 

This sauce is the proper accompaniment for joints of 
venison. 

40— ITALIAN SAUCE 

Ordinary Italian Sauce. — Put into a stewpan six tablespoon- 
fuls of Duxelles (see No. 223), two oz. of very lean, cooked 
ham, cut very finely, brunoise-fashion, and one pint of half- 
glaze tomat^e. Boil for ten minutes, and complete, at the 
moment of dishing up, with one teaspoonful of parsley, chervil, 
and tarragon, minced and mixed. 

Lenten Italian Sauce. — Same preparation, only (i) omit the 
ham, and (2) substitute Lent Espagnole (combined with fish 
fumet made from the fish for which the sauce is intended) for 
half glaze with tomatoes. 

41— THICKENED GRAVY 

Boil one pint of poultry or veal stock (according to the 
nature of the dish the gravy is intended for). Thicken this 
sauce by means of three-quarters oz. of fecula, diluted cold, 
with a little water or gravy, and pour this leason into the 
boiling gravy, being careful to stir briskly. 

The thickened gravy with the veal-stock base is used for 
choicest pieces of butcher's meat; that with a poultry-stock 
base is for fillets of poultry. 

42— VEAL GRAVY TOMATE 

Add to one pint of veal stock two oz. of pur6e and one- 
quarter pint of tomato juice, and reduce by a fifth. Strain the 
gravy through linen. This gravy is for butcher's meat. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 29 

43— LYONNAISE SAUCE 

Finely mince two oz. of onions and brown them slightly in 
two oz. of butter. Moisten with one-quarter pint of white wine 
and as much vinegar; almost entirely reduce the liquid; add 
one and one-half pints of clear half-glaze, and set to cook slowly 
for half an hour. Rub the sauce through a tammy. 

N.B. — The onion may be left in the sauce or not, according 
to the preparation for which it is intended and the taste of the 
consumer. 

44— MADEIRA SAUCE 

Put one and one-half pints of half-glaze into a saut^-pan, and 
reduce it on a brisk fire to a stiff consistence. When it reaches 
this point, take it off the fire and add one-fifth pint of Madeira 
to it, which brings it back to its normal consistence. Rub 
through a tammy, and keep it warm without allowing it to 
boil. 

45— MARROW SAUCE 

Follow the proportions as indicated under " Sauce Borde- 
laise " (No. 32) for the necessary quantity of this sauce, the 
Marrow Sauce being only a variety of the Bordelaise. Finish 
it with six oz. per quart of beef marrow, cut into cubes, poached 
and well drained, and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 
scalded for a second. If the sauce is to accompany vegetables, 
finish it, away from the fire, with three oz. of butter, and then 
add the cubes of marrow and the parsley. 

46— PIQNONS SAUCE 

Take the necessary amount of Poivrade Sauce prepared 
according to Formula No. 49, and let it boil. Now, for one 
pint of sauce, prepare an infusion of juniper berries, with one- 
quarter pint of water and two oz. of concassed berries; one oz. 
of grilled fir-apple kernels, and one oz. of raisins, stoned and 
washed, and left to soak in tepid water for about an hour. 
Finish the sauce, when dishing up, by adding the infusion 
of juniper berries strained through linen, the grilled kernels, 
the soaked raisins, and one-eighth pint of Madeira wine. 

This sauce is specially suited to joints of venison. 

47— PERIQUEUX SAUCE 

Prepare a " Sauce Mad^re " as explained in No. 44, and add 
to the half-glaze, to be reduced, half its volume of very strong 
veal stock, and keep it a little denser than usual. Finish this 



30 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

sauce by adding one-sixth pint of truffle essence and tliree oz. 
of chopped truffles per quart of Madeira Sauce. It is used for 
numerous small entries, timbales, hot pit^s, &c. 

48— PIQUANTE SAUCE 

Put into a vegetable pan two oz. of minced shallots, one- 
quarter pint of vinegar, and as much white wine. Reduce the 
liquid by a good half, and add one pint of half-glaze; set the 
sauce to boil, and despumate it for half an hour. At the last 
moment finish it, away from the fire, with two oz. of gherkins, 
one oz. of capers, and a teaspoonful of chervil, parsley, and 
tarragon, mixed; all the ingredients to be finely chopped. This 
sauce generally accompanies grilled or boiled pork, and cold 
meat re-dished and minced which needs spicy flavouring. 

49— ORDINARY POIVRADE SAUCE 

1. Heat two oz. of butter in a ste'wpan, and insert one lb. of 
raw Mirepoix (No. 228). Fry the vegetables until they are well 
browned; moisten with one-quarter pint of vinegar and one-half 
pint of Marinade (Formula 169); reduce to two-thirds; add one 
pint of Espagnole Sauce, and cook for three-quarters of an 
hour. Ten minutes before straining the sauce, put in a few 
crushed peppercorns. If the pepper were put in the sauce 
earlier, it might make it bitter. 

2. Pass the sauce through a strainer, pressing the aromatics ; 
add a further one-half pint of Marinade, and despumate for 
one-quarter of an hour, keeping it simmering the while. Strain 
again through tammy, and finish the sauce, when ready for 
dishing, with two oz. of butter. 

This sauce is suitable for joints marinaded or not. 

50— POIVRADE SAUCE FOR VENISON 

Fry, with two oz. of butter and two oz. of oil, one lb. of 
raw Mirepoix (No. 228) to which are added four lbs. of well- 
broken bones and ground-game trimmings. When the whole 
is well browned, drain the grease away, and dilute with one 
pint of vinegar and one pint of white wine. Reduce this liquid 
by three-quarters, then add three quarts of game stock and a 
quart of Espagnole Sauce. Boil, cover the saucepan, and put 
into a moderate oven, where it should stay for at least three 
hours. At the end of this time take out the saucepan and pour 
its contents into a fine sieve placed over a tureen ; press the 
remains so as to expel all the sauce they hold, and pour the 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 31 

sauce into a tall, thick saucepan. Add enough game stock and 
Marinade, mixed in equal parts, to produce three quarts in all 
of sauce, and gently reduce the latter while despumating it. 
As it diminishes in volume, it should be passed through muslin 
into smaller saucepans, and the reduction should be stopped 
when only a quart of sauce remains. 

N.B. — This sauce, like red-wine sauces, may be served as it 
stands. It is brilliant, clear, and perhaps more sightly thus, 
but the addition of a certain quantity of butter (four oz. per 
quart) makes it perfectly mellow, and admirably completes its 
fragrance. 

51— PROVEN9ALE SAUCE 

Peel, remove the seeds, press and concass twelve medium 
tomatoes. Heat in a sautd-pan one-fifth pint of oil, until it 
begins to smoke a little; insert the tomatoes seasoned with 
pepper and salt ; add a crushed garlic clove, a pinch of powdered 
sugar, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and allow to melt 
gently for half an hour. In reality, true Proven9ale is nothing 
but a fine fondue of tomatoes with garlic. 

52— ROBERT SAUCE 

Finely mince a large onion and put it into a stewpan with 
butter. Fry the onion gently and without letting it acquire any 
colour. Dilute with one-third pint of white wine, reduce the 
latter by one-third, add one pint of half-glaze, and leave to 
simmer for twenty minutes. When dishing up, finish the sauce 
with one tablespoonful of meat glaze, one teaspoonful of 
mustard, and one pinch of powdered sugar. If, when finished, 
the sauce has to wait, it should be kept warm in a bain-marie, as 
it must not boil again. This sauce — of a spicy flavour — is best 
suited to grilled and boiled pork. It may also be used for a 
mince of the same meat. 

53— ESCOFFIER ROBERTS SAUCE 

This sauce may be bought ready-made. It is used either hot 
or cold. It is especially suitable for pork, veal, poultry, and 
even fish, and is generally used hot with grills after the equi- 
valent of its volume of excellent brown stock has been added 
to it. It may also be served cold to accompany cold meat. 

54— ROUENNAISE SAUCE 

Prepare a " Bordelaise " sauce according to Formula No. 
32. The diluent of this sauce must be an excellent red wine. 
Fqr one pint of sauce, pass four raw ducks' livers through a 



32 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

sieve; add the resulting pur^e to the Bordelaise, and heat the 
latter for a few minutes in order to poach the liver. Be careful, 
however, not to heat the sauce too much nor too long, lest the 
liver be cooked. Serve this sauce with duckling h la Rouen- 
naise. 

55— SALMIS SAUCE 

The base of this sauce, which rather resembles the cullis, is 
unchangeable. Its diluent only changes according to the kind 
of birds or game to be treated, and whether this game is to be 
considered ordinary or Lenten. 

Cut and gently brown in butter five oz. of Mirepoix (Formula 
228). Add the shin detached from the limbs and the chopped 
carcase of the bird under treatment, and moisten with one pint 
of white wine. Reduce the latter to two-thirds, add one-half 
pint of half glaze, and boil gently for three-quarters of an hour. 
Pass through a strainer, while pressing upon the carcase and 
the aromatics, with the view of extracting their quintessence, 
and thin the cullis thus obtained by means of one-half pint of 
game stock or mushroom liquor, if the game be Lenten. Now 
despumate for about one hour, finally reduce the sauce, bring 
it to its proper consistency with a little mushroom liquor and 
truffle essence, rub it through tammy, and butter it slightly at 
the last moment. 

56— TORTUE SAUCE 

Boil one-half pint of veal stock, adding a small sprig of sage, 
sweet marjoram, rosemary, basil, thyme, and as much bay, 
two oz. of mushroom parings, and one oz. of parsley. Cover 
and allow to infuse for half an hour. Two minutes before strain- 
ing the infusion, add four concassed peppercorns. 

After straining through fine linen, add one-half pint of half- 
glaze and as much tomato sauce (away from the fire) with four 
tablespoonfuls of sherry, a litde truffle essence, and a good pinch 
of cayenne. 

N.B. — As this sauce must be spicy, the use of cayenne sug- 
gests itself, but great caution should be observed, as there must 
be no excess of this condiment. 

57_VENISON SAUCE 

Prepare a Poivrade sauce for game, as explained in No. 50. 
Finish this sauce with two tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly, 
previously dissolved, and mixed with five tablespoonfuls of 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 33 

fresh cream per pint of sauce. This addition of cream and red- 
currants must be made away from the fire. 
Serve this sauce with big ground-game. 



Small White and Compound Sauces. 

58— AMERICAN SAUCE 

This sauce consists of lobster prepared "k I'Am^ricaine " 
(see No. 939). As it generally accompanies a fish, the meat of 
the lobster or lobsters which have served in its preparation is 
sliced and used as the garnish of the fish. 

59— ANCHOVY SAUCE 

Put into a small stewpan one pint of unbuttered " Normande 
Sauce " (No. 99), and finish it, away from the fire, with three 
oz. of anchovy butter, and one oz. of anchovy fillets, washed, 
well sponged, and cut into small pieces. 

60— AURORE SAUCE 

Into one-half pint of boiling velout^ put the same quantity 
of very red tomato pur^e (No. 29), and mix the two. Let the 
sauce boil a little, pass it through a tammy, and finish, away 
from the fire, with three oz. of butter. 

61— LENTEN AURORE SAUCE 

This sauce is made like the preceding one, i.e., with the 
same quantities of velout6 and tomato puree, replacing ordinary 
velout^ by fish velout6. 

63— BEARNAISE SAUCE 

Put into a small stewpan one teaspoonful of chopped shallots, 
two oz. of chopped tarragon stalks, three oz. of chervil, some 
mignonette pepper, a pinch of salt, and four tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar. Reduce the vinegar by two-thirds, take off the fire, 
let the stewpan cool a little, and add to this reduction the yolks 
of five eggs. Now put the stewpan on a low fire and gradually 
combine with the yolks six oz. of melted butter. Whisk the 
sauce briskly, so ^s to ensure the cooking of the yolks, which 
alone, by gradual cooking, effect the leason of the sauce. 

When the butter is combined with the sauce, rub the latter 
through tammy, and finish it with a teaspoonful of chervil 
parings and chopped tarragon leaves. Complete the seasoning 
with a suspicion of cayenne. This sauce should not be served 
yery hot, as it is really a mayonnaise with butter. It need tjnly 

D 



34 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

be tepid, for it would probably turn if it were over-heated. 
Serve it with grilled, butcher's meat and poultry. 

63— BEARNAISE SAUCE WITH MEAT GLAZE, 
OTHERWISE VALOIS SAUCE OR FOYOT SAUCE 

Prepare a B^arnaise sauce as explained in No. 62. Complete 
it with three tablespoonfuls of dissolved pale meat glaze, which 
may be added in small quantities at a time. Serve it with 
butcher's meat. 

64— BEARNAISE TOMATEE SAUCE OR CHORON SAUCE 

Proceed in exactly the same way as for B^arnaise No. 62. 
When the sauce is made and rubbed through tammy, finish it 
with one-third pint of very red tomato pur^e. In this case the 
final addition of chervil and tarragon should not be made. 

This is proper to " Tournedos Choron," but it may accom- 
pany grilled poultry and white, butcher's meat. 

6s— BERCY SAUCE 

Heat two oz. of chopped shallots. Moisten with one-half 
pint of white wine and as much fish fumet, or, when possible, 
the same quantity of fish liquor, the latter being, of course, 
that of a fish similar to the one the sauce is to accompany. 
Reduce to a good third, add one-third pint of velout^, let the 
sauce boil some time, and finish it, away from the fire, with 
four oz. of butter (added by degrees), a few drops of fish glaze, 
half the juice of a lemon, and one oz. of chopped parsley. 

Serve with medium-sized poached fish. 

66— BUTTER SAUCE 

Mix two oz. of sifted flour with two oz. of melted butter. 
Dilute with one quart of boiling water, salted to the extent of 
one-quarter oz. per quart. Stir briskly to ensure a perfect 
leason, and do not allow to boil. Add immediately the yolks 
of six eggs mixed with one-quarter pint of cream and the juice 
of half a lemon. Rub through a tammy, and finish the sauce 
with five oz. of best fresh butter. 

Be careful that the sauce does not boil after it has been 
thickened. 

67— BONNEFOY SAUCE, OR WHITE BORDELAISE SAUCE 

Put in a stewpan two oz. of minced shallots and one-half 
pint of Graves, Sauterne, or any other excellent white Bor- 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 35 

deaux. Reduce the wine almost entirely, add one-quarter pint 
of velout^, let it simmer twenty minutes, and rub it through a 
tammy. Finish it, away from the fire, with six oz. of butter 
and a little chopped tarragon. 

Serve it with grilled fish and grilled white meat. 

68— CAPER SAUCE 

This is a derivative of the Butter Sauce described under No. 
66, and there need only be added two tablespoonfuls of capers 
per pint of sauce. It frequently accompanies boiled fish of all 
kinds. 

69-CARDINAL SAUCE 

Boil one pint of Bechamel, to which add one-half pint of fish 
fumet and a little truffle essence, and reduce by a quarter. 
Finish the sauce, when dishing up, with three tablespoonfuls of 
cream and three oz. of very red lobster butter (No. 149). 

This sauce is poured over the fish. 

70— MUSHROOM SAUCE 

If this be intended for poultry, add one-fifth pint of mush- 
room liquor and eight oz. of button-mushroom heads turned 
or channelled and cooked, to one pint of very stiff Allemande 
Sauce. 

If it be intended for fish, take one pint of fish velout^, 
thickened wfth the yolks of four eggs, and finish it with mush- 
room liquor, as above. 

The sauce that I suggest for poultry may also be used foi 
fish, after adding the necessary quantity of fish fumet. 

71— CHATEAUBRIAND SAUCE 

Put one oz. of chopped shallots, a sprig of thyme and a bit 
of bay, one oz. of mushroom parings, and one-quarter pint of 
white wine into a stewpan. Reduce the wine almost entirely, 
add one-half pint of veal gravy, and reduce again until the 
liquid only measures one-quarter pint. Strain through muslin, 
and finish the sauce away from the fire with four oz. of butter 
" Mattre d'Hotel " (No. 150), to which may be added a little 
chopped tarragon. Serve with grilled fillet of beef, otherwise 
" Chdteaubriand." 

72— WHITE CHAUD-FROID SAUCE 

Boil one pint of velout^ in a stewpan, and add three-quarters 
pint of melted white poultry jelly. Put the stewpan on an open 

D 2 



36 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

fire, reduce the sauce by a third, stirring constantly the while, 
and gradually add one-half pint of very fresh cream. When 
the sauce has reached the desired degree of consistency rub it 
through a tammy, and stir it frequently while it cools, for fear 
of a skin forming on its surface, for if this happened it would 
have to be strained again. When dishing up, this sauce should 
be cold, so that it may properly coat immersed solids and yet 
be liquid enough to admit of the latter being easily steeped 
into it. 

73— ORDINARY CHAUD=FROID SAUCE 

Proceed exactly as above, substituting Allemande Sauce for 
the velout6, and reducing the quantity of cream to one-quarter 
pint. Observe the sam.e precautions while cooling. 

74— CHAUD = FROID SAUCE, A L'AURORE 

Prepare a white Chaud-Froid (No. 72). The same may be 
coloured by the addition of fine red tomato pur^e — more or 
less to match the desired shade — or by an infusion of paprika, 
according to the use for which it is intended. This last pro- 
duct is preferable when not too deep a shade is required. 

75— CHAUD = FROID SAUCE, AU VERT=PR6 

Add to the velout^ of the white Chaud-Froid sauce, at the 
same time as the jelly, an infusion prepared thus : — Boil one- 
quarter pint of white wine, and add to it one pinch of chervil 
stalks, a similar quantity of tarragon leaves, chives, and parsley 
leaves. Cover, allow infusion to proceed away from the fire 
for ten minutes, and strain through linen. 

Treat the sauce as explained, and finish with spinach-green 
(No. 143). The shade of the sauce must not be too pronounced, 
but must remain a pale green. The colouring principle must 
therefore be added with caution and in small quantities, until 
the correct shade is obtained. Use this sauce for Chaud-froids 
of fowl, particularly that kind distinguished as " Printanier ." 

76— LENT CHAUD=FROID SAUCE 

Proceed as for white Chaud-Froid, using the same quantities, 
and taking note of the following modifications : — 

1. Substitute fish velout^ for ordinary velout^. 

2. Substitute white fish jelly for poultry jelly. 

Remarks. — I have adopted the use of this ordinary Chaud- 
Froid sauce for the glazing of fillets and escalopes of fish and 
shell-fish, instead of cleared Mayonnaise, formerly used, which 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 27 

had certain inconveniences — not the least being the oozing away 
of the oil under the shrinkage of the gelatine. This difficulty 
does not obtain in the ordinary Chaud-Froid, the definite and 
pronounced flavour of which is better than that of tlie cleared 
Mayonnaise. 

77— "ESCOFFIER" CHERRY SAUCE 

This sauce may be bought ready-made. Like the Roberts 
Sauce, it can be served hot or cold. It is an excellent adjunct 
to venison, and even to small ground-game. Saddle of venison 
with this sauce constitutes one of the greatest dainties that an 
epicure could desire. 

78— CH5VRY SAUCE 

In one-half pint of boiling poultry stock put a large pinch of 
chervil pluches, tarragon and parsley leaves, a head of young 
pimpernel (the qualification here is very important, for this 
aromatic plant grows bitter as it matures), and a good pinch of 
chives. Cover up, and let infusion proceed for ten to twelve 
minutes; then add the liquid (strained through linen) to one pint 
of velout6. Boil, reduce by a quarter, and complete it with 
two oz. of Green Butter (No. 143). Chivry Sauce is admirably 
suited to boiled or poached poultry. 

79-CREAM SAUCE 

Boil one pint of Bechamel Sauce, and add one-quarter pint of 
cream to it. Reduce on an open fire until the sauce has become 
very thick; then pass through tammy. Bring to its normal 
degree of consistency by gradually adding, away from the fire, 
one-quarter pint of very fresh cream and a few drops of lemon- 
juice. Serve this sauce with boiled fish, poultry, eggs, and 
various vegetables. 

80— SHRIRIP SAUCE 

Boil one pint of fish veloute or, failing this, Bechamel sauce, 
and add to it one-quarter pint of cream and one-quarter pint 
of very clear fish fumet. Reduce to one pint, and finish 
the sauce, away from the fire, with two oz. of Shrimp Butter 
(No. 145) and two oz. of shelled shrimps' tails. 

81— CURRY SAUCE 

Slightly brown the following vegetables in butter: — Twelve 
oz. of minced onions, one oz. of parsley roots, four oz. of minced 
celery, a small sprig of thyme, a bit of bay, and a little mace. 
Sprinkle with two oz. of flour and a teaspoonful of curry pepper. 



38 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Cook the flour for some minutes without letting it acquire any 
colour, and dilute with one and one-half pints of white stock. 
Boil, cook gently for three-quarters of an hour, and rub through 
a tammy. Now heat the sauce, remove its grease, and keep it 
in the bain-viarie. Serve this sauce with fish, shell-fish, poultry, 
and various egg-preparations. 

N.B. — This sauce is sometimes flavoured with cocoa-nut milk 
in the proportion of one-quarter of the diluent. 

82— DIPLOMATE SAUCE 

Take one pint of Normande Sauce, prepared according to 
No. 99, and finish it with two oz. of lobster butter and three 
tablespoonfuls of lobster meat, and truffles cut into small, regular 
tubes. 

83— HERB SAUCE 

Prepare one pint of white-wine sauce (No. in). Finish it 
away from the fire with three oz. of shallot butter, a tablespoon- 
ful of parsley, chervil, tarragon, and chives, chopped and mixed. 
Serve this sauce with boiled or poached fish. 

84— GOOSEBERRY SAUCE 

Prepare one pint of butter sauce. Formula No. 66. Mean- 
while put one lb. of green gooseberries into a small copper 
saucepan containing boiling water. Boil for five minutes, then 
drain the gooseberries, and put them in a little stewpan with 
one-half pint of white wine and three oz. of powdered sugar. 
Gently cook the gooseberries, rub them through a tammy, and 
add the resulting pulp to the butter sauce. This sauce is excel- 
lent with grilled mackerel and the poached fillets of that fish. 

85-HUNQARIAN SAUCE 

Gently fry in butter, without colouring, two tablespoonfuls 
of chopped onions seasoned with table-salt and half a teaspoon- 
ful of paprika. Moisten with one-quarter pint of white wine, 
add a small faggot, reduce the wine by two-thirds, and remove 
the herbs. 

Finish with one pint of ordinary or Lenten Velout^, accord- 
ing to the use for which the sauce is intended, and boil moder- 
ately for five minutes. Then rub the sauce through a tammy, 
and complete it with two oz. of butter. Remember this sauce 
should be of a tender, pink shade, which it must owe to the 
paprika alone. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 39 

It forms an ideal accompaniment to choice morsels of lamb 
and veal, eggs, poultry, and fish. 

86— OYSTER SAUCE 

Take one pint of Normande Sauce, finish it as directed in 
that recipe, and complete it with one-quarter pint of reduced 
oyster liquor, strained through linen, and twelve poached and 
trimmed oysters. 

87— IVORY SAUCE, OR ALBUFERA SAUCE 

Take the necessary quantity of Supreme Sauce, prepared 
as explained in No. 105a. Add to this four tablespoonfuls of 
dissolved, pale, meat glaze per quart of sauce, in order to lend 
the latter that ivory-white tint which characterises it. Serve 
this sauce chiefly with poultry and poached sweet-bread. 

88— JOINVILLE SAUCE 

Prepare one pint of Normande Sauce (No. 99), as given in 
the first part of its formula, and complete it with two oz. of 
shrimp butter and two oz. of crayfish butter. If this sauce is 
to accompany a fish k la Joinville, which includes a special 
garnish, it is served as it stands. If it is served with a large, 
boiled, ungarnished fish, one oz. of very black truffles cut 
Julienne-fashion should be added. As may be seen, Joinville 
Sauce differs from similar preparations in the final operation 
where crayfish and shrimp butter are combined. 

89— MALTESE SAUCE 

To the Hollandaise Sauce, given under No. 30, add, when, 
dishing up, the juice of two blood oranges (these late-season 
oranges being especially suitable for this sauce) and half a 
coffeespoonful of grated orange-rind. 

Maltese Sauce is the finest for asparagus. 

90— MARINIERE SAUCE 

Take the necessary quantity of Bercy Sauce (No. 65), and 
add, per pint of sauce, one-quarter pint of mussel liquor and a 
leason composed of the yolks of three eggs. 

Serve this with small poached fish and more particularly with 
mussels. 

91— MORN AY SAUCE 

Boil one pint of Bdchamel Sauce with one-quarter pint of 
the fumet of that fish which is to constitute the dish. Reduce 



40 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

by a good quarter, and add two oz. of Gruy^re and two oz. of 
grated Parmesan. 

Put the sauce on the fire again for a few minutes, and ensure 
the melting of the cheese by stirring with a small whisk. Finish 
the sauce away from the fire with two oz. of butter added by 
degrees. 

92— MOUSSELINE SAUCE 

To a Hollandaise Sauce, prepared as explained (No. 30), add, 
just before dishing up, one-half pint of stiffly-whipped cream 
per pint of sauce. 

93— MOUSSEUSE SAUCE 

Scald and wipe a small vegetable-pan, and put into it one- 
half lb. of stifHy-mamed butter, properly softened. Season this 
butter with table-salt and a few drops of lemon-juice, and whisk 
it while gradually adding one-third pint of cold water. Finish 
with two tablespoonfuls of very firm, whipped cream. This pre- 
paration, though classified as a sauce, is really a compound 
butter, which is served with boiled fish. The heat of the fish 
alone suffices to melt it, and its appearance is infinitely more 
agreeable than that of plain, melted butter. 

94— MUSTARD SAUCE 

Take the necessary quantity of butter sauce and complete it, 
away from the fire, with one tablespoonful of mustard per pint 
of sauce. 

N.B. — If the sauce has to wait, it must be kept in a bain- 
marie, for it should not on any account boil. It is served with 
certain smafl grilled fish, especially fresh herrings. 

95— NANTUA SAUCE 

Boil one pint of Bechamel Sauce, add one-half pint of cream, 
and reduce by a third. Rub it through^a tammy, and finish it 
with a further addition of two tablespoonfuls of cream, three oz. 
of very fine crayfish butter, and one tablespoonful of small, 
shelled crayfishes' tails. 

96— NEWBURQ SAUCE 

First Method {with Raw Lobsters). — Divide a two lb. lobster 
into four parts. Remove its creamy parts, pound them finelv 
with two oz. of butter, and put them aside. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 41 

Heat in a saut^pan one and one-half oz. of butter and as 
much oil, and insert the pieces of lobster, well seasoned with 
salt and cayenne. Fry until the pieces assume a fine, red colour ; 
entirely drain away the butter, and add two tablespoonfuls of 
burnt brandy and one-third pint of Marsala or old Sherry. 

Reduce the wine by two-thirds, and wet the lobster with one- 
third pint of cream and one-half pint of fish fumet. Now add 
a faggot, cover the saut^pan, and gently cook for twenty- 
five minutes. Then drain the lobster on a sieve, remove 
the meat and cut it into cubes, and finish the sauce by adding 
the creamy portions put aside from the first. Boil so as to 
ensure the cooking of these latter portions; add the meat, cut 
into cubes, and verify the seasoning. 

N.B. — The addition of the meat to the sauce is optional; 
instead of cutting it into cubes it may be stewed and displayed 
on the fish constituting the dish. 

97— SECOND METHOD (WITH COOKED LOBSTER) 

The lobster having been cooked in a Court-bouillon, shell 
the tail and slice it up. Arrange these slices in a saut^pan liber- 
ally buttered at the bottom ; season them strongly with salt and 
cayenne, and heat them on both sides so as to effect the red- 
dening of the skin. Immerse, so as to cover, in a good Sherry, 
and almost entirely reduce same. 

When dishing up, pour on to the slices a leason composed 
of one-third pint of fresh cream and the yolks of two eggs. 
Gently stir, away from the fire, and roll the saucepan about until 
the leason is completed. 

Originally, these two sauces, like the American, were ex- 
clusively composed of, and served with, lobster. They were 
one with the two very excellent preparations of lobster which 
bear their name. In its two forms lobster may only be served 
at lunch, many people with delicate stomachs being unable to 
digest it at night. To obviate this serious difficulty, I have 
made it a practice to serve lobster sauce with fillets or Mous- 
selines of sole, adding the lobster as a garnish only. And this 
innovation proved most welcome to the public. 

By using such condiments as curry and paprika, excellent 
varieties of this sauce may be obtained, which are particularly 
suited to sole and other white Lenten fish. In either of these 
cases it is well to add a little rice " k I'lndienne " to the fish. 



42 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

98— NOISETTE SAUCE 

Prepare a Hollandaise Sauce according to the recipe under 
No. 30. Add two oz. of hazel-nut butter at the last moment. 
Serve this with salmon, trout, and all boiled fish in general. 

99— NORMANDE SAUCE 

Put in a saut^pan one pint of fish veloute, three tablespoon- 
fuls of mushroom liquor, as much oyster liquor, and twice as 
much sole fumet, the yolks of three eggs, a few drops of lemon- 
juice, and one-quarter pint of cream. Reduce by a good third 
on an open fire, season with a little cayenne, rub through a 
tammy, and finish with two oz. of butter and four tablespoonfuls 
of good cream. 

This sauce is proper to fillet of sole " k la Normande," but 
it is also frequently used as the base of other small sauces. 

100— ORIENTAL SAUCE 

Take one pint of American sauce, season with curry, and 
reduce to a third. Then add, away from the fire, one-quarter 
pint of cream per pint of sauce. 

Serve this sauce in the same way as American Sauce. 

loi— POULETTE SAUCE 

Boil for a few minutes one pint of Sauce Allemande, and 
add six tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor. Finish, away from 
the fire, with two oz. of butter, a few drops of lemon-juice, and 
one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Use this sauce with 
certain vegetables, but more generally with sheep's trotters. 

102-RAVIQOTTE SAUCE 

Reduce by half, one-quarter pint of white wine with half 
as much vinegar. Add one pint of ordinary velout^, boil gently 
for a few minutes, and finish with one and one-half oz. of shallot 
butter and one teaspoonful of chervil, tarragon, and chopped 
chives. This sauce accompanies boiled poultry and certain 
white " abats." 

103— REGENCY SAUCE 

If this sauce is to garnish poultry, boil one pint of Alle- 
mande Sauce with six tablespoonfuls of mushroom essence and 
two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence. Finish with four table- 
spoonfuls of poultry glaze. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 43 

If it is to garnish fish, substitute for the Allemande Sauce 
some fish velout^ thickened with egg-yolks and the essences of 
mushroom and truffle as above. Complete with some fish 
essence. 

104— SOUBISE SAUCE 

Stew in butter two lbs. of finely-minced onions, scalded for 
three minutes and well dried. This stewing of the onions in 
butter increases their flavour. Now add one-half pint of thick- 
ened Bechamel ; season with salt and a teaspoonful of powdered 
sugar. Cook gently for half an hour, rub through a tammy. 
and complete the sauce with some tablespoonfuls of cream and 
two oz. of butter. 

105— SOUBISE SAUCE WITH RICE 

The same quantity as above of minced onions, scalded and 
well drained. Garnish the bottom and the sides of a tall, 
medium stewpan with some thin rashers of fat bacon. Insert 
the onions, together with one-quarter lb. of Carolina rice, one 
pint of white consomm^, a large pinch of powdered sugar, and 
the necessary salt. Cook gently in the front of the oven for 
three-quarters of an hour. Then pound the onions and rice in 
a mortar, rub the resulting pur^e through a tammy, and finish 
with cream and butter as in the preceding case. 

N.B. — This sauce, being more consistent than the former, is 
used as a garnish just as often as a sauce. 

106— SOUBISE SAUCE TOMATEE 

Prepare a soubise in accordance with the first of the two 
above formulae, and add to it one-third of its volume of very 
red tomato pur^e. 

Remarks. 

1. The Soubise is rather a cullis than a sauce; i.e., its con- 
sistence must be greater than that of a sauce. 

2. The admixture of B6chamel in Soubise is preferable to 
that of rice, seeing that it makes it smoother. If, in certain 
cases, rice is used as a cohering element, it is in order to give 
the Soubise more stiffness. 

3. In accordance with the uses to which it may be put, the 
Soubise Tomatde may be finally seasoned either with curry or 
paprika. 



44 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

io6a-SUPREME SAUCE 

The salient characteristics of Supreme Sauce are its perfect 
whiteness and consummate delicacy. It is generally prepared 
in small quantities only. 

Preparation. — Put one and one-half pints of very clear 
poultry stock and one-quarter pint of mushroom cooking liquor 
into a saut^pan. Reduce to two-thirds; add one pint of 
"poultry velout^ " ; reduce on an open fire, stirring with the 
spatula the while, and combine one-half pint of excellent cream 
with the sauce, this last ingredient being added little by little. 

When the sauce has reached the desired consistence, strain 
it through a sieve, and add another one-quarter pint of cream 
and two oz. of best butter. Stir with a spoon, from time to 
time, or keep the pan well covered. 

107-VENETIAN SAUCE 

Put into a stewpan one tablespoonful of chopped shallots, 
one tablespoonful of chervil, and one-quarter pint of white wine 
and tarragon vinegar, mixed in equal quantities. Reduce the 
vinegar by two-thirds; add one pint of white wine sauce (No. 
Ill); boil for a few minutes; rub through a tammy, and finish 
the sauce with a sufficient quantity of Herb Juice (No. 183) and 
one teaspoonful of chopped chervil and tarragon. This sauce 
accompanies various fish. 

I08-VILLER0Y SAUCE 

Put into a sautepan one pint of Allemande Sauce to which 
have been added two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence and as 
much ham essence. 

Reduce on an open fire and constantly stir until the sauce is 
sufficiently stiff to coat immersed solids thickly. 

109— V5LLEROY SOUBISEE SAUCE 

Put into a sautepan two-thirds pint of Allemande Sauce and 
one-third pint of Soubise pur^e (Formula 105). Reduce as 
in the preceding case, as the uses to which this is put are the 
same. Now, according to the circumstances and the nature 
of the SQlid it is intended for, a few teaspoonfuls of very 
black, chopped truffles may be added to this sauce. 

no— VILLEROY TOMATEE SAUCE 

Prepare the sauce as explained under No. 108, and add to 
it the third of its volume of very fine tomato puree. Reduce in 
the same way. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 45 

Remarks. — i. Villeroy sauce, of whatsoever kind, is solely 

used for the coating of preparations said to be " ^ la Villeroy." 

2. The Villeroy Tomat^e may be finally seasoned with curry 

or paprika, according to the preparation for which it is intended. 

Ill— WHITE WINE SAUCE 

The three following methods are employed in making it : — 

1 . Add one-quarter pint of fish fumet to one pint of thickened 
Velout^, and reduce by half. Finish the sauce, away from the 
fire, with four oz. of butter. Thus prepared, this white wine 
sauce is suitable for glazed fish. 

2. Almost entirely reduce one-quarter pint of fish /wmei. To 
this reduction add the yolks of four eggs, mixing them well in 
it, and follow with one lb. of butter, added by degrees, paying 
heed to the precautions indicated under sauce Hollandaise No. 
30. 

3. Put the yolks of five eggs into a small stewpan and mix 
them with one tablespoonful of cold fish-stock. Put the stew- 
pan in a bain-marie and finish the sauce with one lb. of butter, 
meanwhile adding from time to time, and in small quantities, 
six tablespoonfuls of excellent fish fumet. The procedure in this 
sauce is, in short, exactly that of the Hollandaise, with this 
distinction, that here fish fumet takes the place of the water. 

Hot English Sauces 

1 12- APPLE SAUCE 

Quarter, peel, core, and chop two lbs. of medium-sized 
apples; place these in a stewpan with one tablespoonful of 
powdered sugar, a bit of cinnamon, and a few tablespoonfuls 
of water. Cook the whole gently with lid on, and smooth the 
pur^e with a whisk when dishing up. 

Serve this sauce lukewarm with duck, goose, roast hare, &c. 

113— BREAD SAUCE 

Boil one pint of milk, and add three oz. of fresh, white 
bread-crumb, a little salt, a small onion with a clove stuck in 
it, and one oz. of butter. Cook gently for about a quarter of 
an hour, remove the onion, smooth the sauce with a whisk, and 
finish it with a few tablespoonfuls of cream. 

This sauce is served with roast fowl and roast feathered 
game. 



46 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

114— CELERY SAUCE 

Clean six stalks of celery (only use the hearts), put them in 
a sautepan, wholly immerse in consomm6, add a faggot 
and one onion with a clove stuck in it, and cook gently. Drain 
the celery, pound it in a mortar, then rub it through a tammy 
and put the pur^e in a stewpan. Now thin the purde with an 
equal quantity of cream sauce and a little reduced celery liquor. 
Heat it moderately, and, if it has to wait, put it in a bain-marie. 

This sauce is suited to boiled or braised poultry. It is 
excellent, and has been adopted in French cookery. 

115— CRANBERRY SAUCE 

Cook one pint of cranberries with one quart of water in a 
stewpan, and cover the stewpan. When the berries are cooked 
drain them in a fine sieve through which they are strained. To 
the puree thus obtained add the necessary quantity of their 
cooking liquor, so as to make a somewhat thick sauce. Sugar 
should be added according to the taste of the consumer. 

This sauce is mostly served with roast turkey. It is to be 
bought ready-made, and, if this kind be used, it need only be 
heated with a little water. 

116— FENNEL SAUCE 

Take one pint of butter sauce (No. 66) and finish it with two 
tablespoonfuls of chopped fennel, scalded for a few seconds. 
This is principally used with mackerel. 

117— EGG SAUCE WITH MELTED BUTTER 

Dissolve one-quarter pound of butter, and add to it the 
necessary salt, a little pepper, half the juice of a lemon, and 
three hard-boiled eggs (hot and cut into large cubes); also a 
teaspoonful of chopped and scalded parsley. 

118— SCOTCH EGG SAUCE 

Make a white roux with one and one-half oz. of butter and 
one oz. of flour. Mix in one pint of boiling milk, season with 
salt, white pepper, and nutmeg, and boil gently for ten minutes. 
Then add three hot hard-boiled eggs, cut into cubes (the whites 
and the yolks). 

This sauce usually accompanies boiled fish, especially fresh 
haddocks and fresh and salted cod. 



THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 47 

119— HORSE-RADISH OR ALBERT SAUCE 

Rasp five oz. of horse-radish and place them in a stewpan 
with one-quarter pint of white consomm^. Boil gently for 
twenty minutes and add a good one-half pint of butter sauce, 
as much cream, and one-half oz, of bread-crumb ; thicken by 
reducing on a brisk fire and rub through tammy. Then thicken 
with the yolks of two eggs, and complete the seasoning with a 
pinch of salt and pepper, and a teaspoonful of mustard dis- 
solved in a tablespoonful of vinegar. 

Serve this sauce with braised or roast beef — especially fillets. 

119a— PARSLEY SAUCE 

This is the Butter Sauce (No. 66), to which is added, per pint, 
a heaped tablespoonful of freshly-chopped parsley. 

120— REFORM SAUCE 

Put into a small stewpan and boil one pint of half-glaze 
sauce and one-half pint of ordinary Poivrade sauce. Complete 
with a garnish composed of one-half oz. of gherkins, one-half 
oz. of the hard-boiled white of an egg, one oz. of salted tongue, 
one oz. of truffles, and one oz. of mushrooms. All these to be 
cut Julienne-fashion and short. 

This sauce is for mutton cutlets when these are " k la 
Reform." 



CHAPTER IV 

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 

121— AIOLI SAUCE, OR PROVENCE BUTTER 

Pound one oz. of garlic cloves as finely as possible in a 
mortar, and add the yolk of one raw egg, a pinch of salt, and 
one-half pint of oil, letting the latter gradually fall in a thread 
and wielding the pestle meanwhile, so as to effect a complete 
amalgamation. Add a few drops of lemon juice and cold water 
to the sauce as it thickens, these being to avoid its turning. 

Should it decompose while in the process of making or when 
made, the only thing to be done is to begin it again with the 
yolk of an egg. 

I22~ANDAL0USE SAUCE 

Take the required quantity of Mayonnaise sauce (No. 126) 
and add to it the quarter of its volume of very red and con- 
centrated tomato pur6e, and finally add two oz. of capsicum cut 
finely. Julienne-fashion, per pint of sauce. 

123— BOHEMIAN SAUCE 

Put in a bowl one-quarter pint of cold Bechamel, the yolks 
of four eggs, a little table salt and white pepper. Add a quart 
of oil and three tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, proceeding 
as for the Mayonnaise. 

Finish the sauce with a tablespoonful of mustard. 

i24~QEN0A SAUCE 

Pound in a mortar, and make into a smooth, fine paste, one 
oz. of pistachios and one oz. of fir-apple kernels, or, if these are 
not available, one oz. of sweet almonds; add one-half table- 
spoonful of cold Bechamel. Put this paste into a bowl, add 
the yolks of six eggs, a little salt and pepper, and finish the 
sauce with one quart of oil, the juice of two lemons, and proceed 
as for the Mayonnaise. 



COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 49 

Complete with three tablespoonfuls of pur^e of herbs, pre- 
pared with equal quantities of chervil, parsley, tarragon, and 
fresh pimpernel, scalded for one minute. Cool quickly, press 
so as to expel the water, and pass through a fine sieve. 

Serve this sauce with cold fish. 

125 -QRIBICHE SAUCE 

Crush in a basin the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, and 
work them into a smooth paste, together with a large tablespoon- 
ful of French mustard, the necessary salt, a little pepper, and 
make up the sauce with one pint of oil. Complete with one 
dessertspoonful of parsley, chervil, and tarragon (chopped and 
mixed), as many capers and gherkins, evenly mixed, and the 
hard-boiled whites of three eggs, cut short, Julienne-fashion. 

This sauce is chiefly used with cold fish. 

126-- MAYONNAISE SAUCE 

Put in a basin the yolks of six raw eggs, after having 
removed the cores. Season them with one-half oz. of table- 
salt and a little cayenne pepper. Gradually pour one-fifth 
pint of vinegar on the yolks while whisking them briskly. 
When the vinegar is absorbed add one quart of oil, letting the 
latter trickle down in a thread, constantly stirring the sauce 
meanwhile. The sauce is finished by the addition of the juice 
of a lemon and three tablespoonfuls of boiling water — the 
purpose of the latter being to ensure the coherence of the 
sauce and to prevent its turning. 

Mayonnaise prepared in this way is rather liquid, but it 
need only be left to rest a few hours in order to thicken con- 
siderably. Unless it be exposed to too low a temperature, the 
Mayonnaise, prepared as above, never turns, and may be kept 
for several days without the fear of anything happening to it. 
Merely cover it to keep the dust away. 

Remarks. — In the matter of sauces there exist endless preju- 
dices, which I must attempt to refute : — 

1. If the sauce forms badly, or not at all, the reason is that 
the oil has been added too rapidly at first, before the addition 
of the vinegar, and that its assimilation by the yolks has not 
operated normally. 

2. It is quite an error to suppose that it is necessary to 
work over ice or in a cold room. Cold is rather deleterious to 
the Mayonnaise, and is invariably the cause of this sauce turn- 
ing in winter. In the cold season the oil should be slightly 

E 



50 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

warmed, or, at least, kept at the temperature of the kitchen, 
though it is best to make it in a moderately warm place. 

3. It is a further error to suppose that the seasoning inter- 
feres with the making of the sauce, for salt, in solution, rather 
provokes the cohering force of the yolks. 

Causes of the Disintegration of the Mayonnaise : — 

1. The too rapid addition of the oil at the start. 

2. The use of congealed, or too cold, an oil. 

3. Excess of oil in proportion to the number of yolks, the 
assimilating power of an egg being limited to two and one-half 
oz. of oil (if the sauce be made some time in advance), and three 
oz. if it is to be used immediately. 

Means of Bringing Turned Mayonnaise Back to its Normal 
State. — Put the yolk of an egg into a basin with a few drops 
of vinegar, and mix the turned Mayonnaise in it, little by 
little. If it be a matter of only a small quantity of Mayonnaise, 
one-half a coffeespoonful of mustard can take the place of the 
egg-yolk. Finally, with regard to acid seasoning, a whiter 
sauce is obtained by the use of lemon juice instead of vinegar. 

127— CLEARED MAYONNAISE SAUCE 

Take the necessary quantity of Mayonnaise and gradually 
add to it, per one and one-half pints of the sauce, one-half pint 
of cold and rather firm melting aspic jelly — Lenten or ordinary, 
according to the nature of the products for which the sauce is 
intended. 

Remarks. — It is this very Mayonnaise, formerly used almost 
exclusively for coating entries and cold relevees of fish, filleted 
fish, escalopes of common and spiny-lobster, &c., which I 
have allowed the Lenten Chaud-froid (see remarks No. 76) to 
supersede. 

138— WHISKED MAYONNAISE 

Put into a copper basin or other bowl three-quarters pint of 
melted jelly, two-thirds pint of Mayonnaise, one tablespoonful 
of tarragon vinegar, and as much rasped and finely-chopped 
horse-radish. Mix up the whole, place the utensil on ice, and 
whisk gently until the contents get very frothy. Stop whisking 
as soon as the sauce begins to solidify, for it must remain almost 
fluid so as to enable it to mix with the products for which it 
is intended. 

This sauce is used principally for vegetable salads. 



COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 51 

129— RAVIQOTE SAUCE, OR VINAIGRETTE 

Put into a bowl one pint of oil, one-third pint of vinegar, 
a little salt and pepper, two oz. of small capers, three table- 
spoonfuls of fine herbs, comprising soine very finely chopped 
onion, as much parsley, and half as much chervil, tarragon, and 
chives. Mix thoroughly. The Ravigote accompanies calf's 
head or foot, sheep's trotters, &c. 

Two or three tablespoonfuls of the liquor with which its 
accompanying solids have been cooked, i.e., calf's head or 
sheep's trotters liquor, &c., are often added to this sauce when 
dishing up. 

130— REMOULADE SAUCE 

To one pint of Mayonnaise add one large tablespoonful of 
mustard, another of gherkins, and yet another of chopped and 
pressed capers, one tablespoonful of fine herbs, parsley, chervil, 
and tarragon, all chopped and mixed, and a coffeespoonful of 
anchovy essence. 

This sauce accompanies cold meat and poultry, and, more 
particularly, common and spiny lobster. 

131— GREEN SAUCE 

Take the necessary quantity of thick Mayonnaise and spicy 
seasoning, and add to these, per pint of sauce, one-third pint 
of herb juice, prepared as indicated hereafter (No. 132). 

This is suitable for cold fish and shell fish. 

132— VINCENT SAUCE 

Prepare and carefully wash the following herbs : — One oz. 
each of parsley, chervil, tarragon, chives, sorrel-leaves, and 
fresh pimpernel, two oz. of water-cress and two oz. of spinach. 
Put all these herbs into a copper bowl containing salted, boiling 
water. Boil for two minutes only; then drain the herbs in 
a sieve and immerse them in a basin of fresh water. When 
they are cold they are once more drained until quite dry ; then 
they must be finely pounded with the yolks of eight hard-boiled 
eggs. Rub the pur^e thus obtained through a sieve first, then 
through tammy, add one pint of very stiff Mayonnaise to it, 
and finish the sauce with a dessertspoonful of Worcestershire 
sauce. 



52 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Cold English Sauces 

133— CAMBRIDGE SAUCE 

Pound together the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, the washed 
and dried fillets of four anchovies, a teaspoonful of capers, a 
dessertspoonful of chervil, tarragon, and chives, mixed. When 
the whole forms a fine paste, add one tablespoonful of mustard, 
one-fifth pint of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar, and proceed 
as for a Mayonnaise. Season with a little cayenne ; rub 
through tammy, applying pressure with a spoon, and put 
the sauce in a bowl. Stir it awhile with a whisk to smooth it, 
and finish with one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 

It is suited to cold meats in general ; in fact, it is an 
Anglicised version of Vincent Sauce. 

134— CUMBERLAND SAUCE 

Dissolve four tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly, to which 
are added one-fifth pint of port wine, one teaspoonful of 
finely-chopped shallots, scalded for a few seconds and pressed, 
one teaspoonful of small pieces of orange rind and as much 
lemon rind (cut finely. Julienne-fashion, scalded for two 
minutes, well-drained, and cooled), the juice of an orange and 
that of half a lemon, one teaspoonful of mustard, a little 
cayenne pepper, and as much powdered ginger. Mix the whole 
well. 

Serve this sauce with cold venison. 

135-QLOUCESTER SAUCE 

Take one pint of very thick Mayonnaise and complete it 
with one-fifth pint of sour cream with the juice of a lemon 
added, and combine with the Mayonnaise by degrees ; one tea- 
spoonful of chopped fennel and as much Worcester sauce. 

Serve this with all cold meats. 

136— MINT SAUCE 

Cut finely. Julienne-fashion, or chop, two oz. of mint leaves. 
Put these in a bowl with a little less than one oz. of white 
cassonade or castor sugar, one-quarter pint of fresh vinegar, 
and four tablespoonfuls of water. 

Special sauce for hot or cold Iamb. 



COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 53 

137— OXFORD SAUCE 

Make a Cumberland sauce according to No. 134, with this 
difference : that the Julienne of orange and lemon rinds should 
be replaced by rasped or finely-chopped rinds, and that the 
quantities of same should be less, i.e., two-thirds of a tea- 
spoonful of each. 

138— HORSE-RADISH SAUCE 

Dilute one tablespoonful of mustard with two tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar in a basin, and add one lb. of finely-rasped horse- 
radish, two oz. of powdered sugar, a little salt, one pint of 
cream, and one lb. of bread-crumb steeped in milk and pressed. 
Serve this sauce very cold. 

It accompanies boiled and roast joints of beef. 

Compound Butters for Grills and for the Completion of 

Sauces 

With the exception of those of the shell-fish order, the butters, 
whose formuL-E I am about to give, are not greatly used in 
kitchens. Nevertheless, in some cases, as, for instance, in accen- 
tuating the savour of sauces, they answer a real and useful pur- 
pose, and I therefore recommend them, since they enable one to 
give a flavour to the derivatives of the Velout6 and Bechamel 
sauces which these could not acquire by any other means. 

With regard to shell-fish butters, and particularly those of the 
common and spiny lobster and the crayfish, experience has 
shown that when they are prepared with heat (that is to say, by 
melting in a bain-marie a quantity of butter which has been 
previously pounded with shell-fish remains and afterwards 
strained through muslin into a basin of iced-water where it has 
solidified) they are of a finer colour than the other kind and 
quite free from shell particles. Biit the heat, besides dissipat- 
ing a large proportion of their delicacy, involves consider- 
able risk, for the slightest neglect gives the above preparation 
quite a disagreeable taste. To obviate these difficulties I have 
adopted a system of two distinct butters, one which is exclusively 
colorific and prepared with heat, and the other which is prepared 
with all the creamy parts, the trimmings and the remains of com- 
mon and spiny lobsters, without the shells, pounded with the re- 
quired quantity of fresh butter and passed through a sieve. The 
latter is used to complete sauces, particularly those with a 
Bechamel base to which it lends a perfect savour. 

I follow the same procedure with shrimp and crayfish butters, 



54 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

sometimes substituting for the butter good cream, which, I find, 
absorbs the aromatic principles perhaps better than the former. 
With the above method it is advisable to pass the butter or the 
cream through a very fine sieve first and afterwards through 
tammy, so as to avoid small particles of the pounded shell being 
present in the sauce. 

139— BERCY BUTTER 

Put into a small stewpan one-quarter pint of white wine and 
one oz. of finely-chopped shallots, scalded a moment. Reduce 
the wine by one-half, and add one-half lb. of butter softened into 
a cream; one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, two oz. of beef 
marrow cut into cubes, poached in slightly salted water and well 
drained, the necessary table-salt, and, when dishing up, a little 
ground pepper and a few drops of lemon-juice. 

This butter must not be completely melted, and it is prin- 
cipally served with grilled beef. 

140— CHIVRY OR RAVIQOTE BUTTER 

Put into a small saucepan of salted, boiling water six oz. of 
chervil, parsley, tarragon, fresh pimpernel, and chives, in equal 
quantities, and two oz. of chopped shallots. Boil quickly for 
two minutes, drain, cool in cold water, press in a towel to com- 
pletely remove the water, and pound in a mortar. Now add 
one-half lb. of half-melted butter, mix well with the pur^e of 
herbs, and pass through tammy. 

This butter is used to complete Chivry sauce and other sauces 
that contain herb juices, such as the Venetian, &c. 

140a— CHATEAUBRIAND BUTTER 

Reduce by two-thirds four-fifths pint of white wine contain- 
ing four chopped shallots, fragments of thyme and bay, and four 
oz. of mushroom parings. Add four-fifths pint of veal gravy, 
reduce the whole to half, rub it through tammy, and finish it 
away from the fire with eight oz. of Maitre d' Hotel butter (No. 
150) and half a tablespoonful of chopped tarragon. 

141— COLBERT BUTTER 

Take one lb. of Maitre d'Hotel butter (No. 150) and add six 
tablespoonfuls of dissolved, pale meat glaze and one teaspoonful 
of chopped tarragon. 

Serve this sauce with fish prepared a la Colbert. 



COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 55 

142— RED COLOURING BUTTER 

Put on to a dish any available remains of shell-fish after 
having thoroughly emptied and well dried them in the oven. 
Pound them until they form a fine powder, and add their weight 
of butter. 

Put the whole into a saucepan and melt in a bain-marie, stir- 
ring frequently the while. When the butter is quite clarified 
strain it through muslin, twisting the laFter over a tureen of iced- 
water in which the strained butter solidifies. Put the congealed 
butter in a towel, press it heavily so as to expel the water, and 
keep cool in a small bowl. 

Remarks. — A very fine and decided red colour is obtained by 
using paprika as a condiment for sauces intended for poultry and 
certain butcher's meats, in accordance with the procedure I re- 
commend for the Hongroise. But only the very best quality 
should be used — that which is mild and at the same time pro- 
duces a nice pink colour without entailing any excess of the 
condiment. Among the various kinds of paprika on the market 
I can highly recommend that of Messrs. Kotangi, which I have 
invariably found satisfactory. 



143— GREEN COLOURING BUTTER 

Peel, wash, -and thoroughly shake (so as to get rid of every 
drop of water) two lbs. of spinach. Pound it raw and then press 
it in a strong towel, twisting the latter so as to extract all the 
vegetable juice. Pour this juice into a saut^pan, let it coagu- 
late in a bain-marie, and pour it on to a serviette stretched over 
a bowl in order to drain away the water. Collect the remains 
of the colouring substance on the serviette, making use of a 
palette-knife for the purpose, and put these into a mortar ; mix 
with half their weight of butter, strain through a sieve or tammy, 
and put aside to cool. This green butter should in all cases take 
the place of the liquid green found on the market. 



144- VARIOUS CULLISES 

Finely pound shrimp and crayfish shells, and combine with 
these the available creamy parts and spawn of the common and 
spiny lobsters; add one-quarter pint of rich cream per lb. of the 
above remains, and strain, first through a fine sieve and then 
through tammy. This cullis is prepared just in time for dishing 
up, and serves as a refining principle in certain fish sauces. 



56 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

145— SHRIMP BUTTER 

Finely pound any available shrimp remains, add to these 
their weight of butter, and strain through tammy. Place in a 
bowl and put aside in the cool. 

146— SHALLOT BUTTER 

Put eight oz. of roughly minced shallots in the corner of a 
clean towel, and wash them quickly in boiling water. Cool, and 
press them heavily. Then pound them finely with their own 
weight of fresh butter and strain through tammy. 

This butter accentuates the savour of certain sauces, such as 
Bercy, Ravigote, &c. 

147— CRAYFISH BUTTER 

Pound, very finely, the remains and shells of crayfish cooked 
in Mirepoix. Add their weight of butter, and strain through a 
fine sieve, and again through tammy, so as to avoid the presence 
of any shell particles. This latter precaution applies to all shell- 
fish butters. 

148 -TARRAGON BUTTER 

Quickly scald and cool eight oz. of fresh tarragon, drain, 
press in a towel, pound in a mortar, and add to them one lb. of 
butter. Strain through tammy, and put aside in the cool if it is 
not to be used immediately. 

149— LOBSTER BUTTER 

Reduce to a paste in the mortar the spawn, shell, and creamy 
parts of lobster. Add their equal in weight of butter and strain 
through tarnmy. 

150— BUTTER A LA MAiTRE D'HOTEL 

First manie and then soften into a cream one-half lb. of butter. 
Add a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a little salt and pepper, 
and a few drops of lemon-juice. 

Serve this v-ith grills in general. 

151— MANIED BUTTER 

Mix, until perfectly combined, four oz. of butter and three oz. 
of sifted flour. This butter is made immediately before the time 
of dishing up, and is used for quick leasons like the Mat^ 
lotes, &c. 



COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 57 

The sauce to which manied butter has been added should not 
boil if this can possibly be avoided, as it would thereby acquire a 
very disagreeajjle taste of raw flour. 

iSia-MELTED BUTTER 

This preparation, which is used principally as a fish sauce, 
should consist of butter, only just melted, and combined with 
a little table-salt and a few drops of lemon-juice. It should 
therefore be prepared only at the last minute; for, should it wait 
and be allowed to clarify, besides losing its flavour it will be 
found to disagree with certain people. 



152— BUTTER A LA MEUNIERE 

Put into a frying-pan the necessary quantity of butter, and 
cook it gently until it has acquired a golden tint and exudes a 
slight smell of nut. Add a few drops of lemon-juice, and pour 
on the fish under treatment, which should have been previously 
sprinkled with concussed parsley. 

This butter is proper to fish " kla Meuni^re " and is always 
served on the fish. 



IS3— MONTPELLIER BUTTER 

Put into a saucepan containing boiling water equal quantities 
of watercress leaves, parsley, chervil, chives, and tarragon (six 
oz. in all), one and one-half oz. of chopped shallots, and one- 
half oz. of spinach leaves. Boil for two minutes, then drain, 
cool, press in a towel to expel water, and pound in a mortar with 
one tablespoonful of pressed capers, four oz. of gherkins, a garlic 
clove, and the fillets of four anchovies well washed. 

Mix this paste with one and one-half lbs. of butter; then add 
the yolks of three boiled eggs and two raw eggs, and finally 
pour in, by degrees, two-fifths pint of oil. Strain through a fine 
sieve or through tammy, put the butter into a basin, and stir 
it well with a wooden spoon so as to make it smooth. Season 
with table-salt and a little cayenne. 

Use this butter to deck large fish, such as salmon and trout ; 
but it is also used for smaller pieces and slices of fish. 

Remarks. — When this butter is specially prepared to form 
a. coat on fish, the oil and the egg yolks are omitted and only 
butter is used. 



58 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

154— BLACK BUTTER 

Put into a frying-pan the necessary amount of butter, and 
cook it until it has assumed a brown colour and begins to smoke. 
At this moment add a large pinch of concussed parsley leaves 
and spread it immediately over the object to be treated. 

15s— HAZEL-NUT BUTTER 

Put eight oz. of shelled hazel-nuts, for a moment, in the front 
of the oven, in order to slightly grill their skins and make them 
easily removable. Now crush the nuts in a mortar until they 
form a paste, and add a few drops of cold water with a view to 
preventing their producing any oil. Add their equivalent in 
weight of butter and rub through tammy. 

156— PISTACHIO BUTTER 

Put into boiling water eight oz. of pistachios, and keep them 
on the side of the fire until the peel may be easily removed. 
Drain, cool in cold water, clean the pistachios, and finely pound 
while moistening them with a few drops of water. 
Add two oz. of butter and pass through tammy. 

157— PRINTANIER BUTTER 

These butters are made from all early-season vegetables, such 
as carrots, French beans, peas, and asparagus heads. 

When dealing with green vegetables cook quickly in boiling, 
salted water, drain, dry, pound with their weight of butter, 
and rub through tammy. 

With carrots : Mince and cook with consomme, sugar, and 
butter until the diluent is quite reduced. After cooling they 
are pounded with their own weight of butter and rubbed through 
tammy. 



CHAPTER V 

Savoury Jellies or Aspics 

Jellies are to cold cookery what consommes and stock are to 
hot. If anything, the former are perhaps more important, for 
a cold entree — however perfect it may be in itself — is nothing 
without its accompanying jelly. 

In the recipes which I give hereafter I have made a point of 
showing how melting jellies may be obtained, i.e., served in a 
sauce-boat simultaneously with the cold comestible, or actually 
poured over it when the latter lies in a deep dish — a common 
custom nowadays. 

This method of serving cold entries, which I inaugurated at 
the Savoy Hotel with the " Supreme de Volaille Jeannette," is 
the only one which allows of serving a jelly in a state of absolute 
perfection. 

Nevertheless, if a more solid jelly were required, either for the 
decking of cold dishes or for a moulded entree, there need only 
be added to the following formulse a few gelatine leaves — more 
or less — according to the required firmness of the jelly. 

But it should not be forgotten that the greater the viscosity 
of the jelly the less value will the same possess. 

The various uses of jellies are dealt with in Part II. of this 
work, where the formulas of their divers accompanying dishes 
will also appear. 

158— ORDINARY ASPICS 

Stock for Ordinary Aspic. — Quantities for making Four Quart';. 

4 lbs. of strung knuckle of veal. 3 calf's feet, boned and blanched. 

3 lbs. of strung knuckle of beef. | lb. of fresh pork rind, well 

3 lbs. of veal bones, well broken blanched and with fat re- 

up. moved. 

Mode of Procedure. — Put the meats in a very clean and well- 
tinned stockpot or stewpan. Add eight quarts of cold water, 
boil, and skim after the manner indicated under No. i. Having 
well skimmed the stock add one oz. of salt, put it on the side of 



6o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

the fire, and let it boil gently for four hours. Then remove the 
meat, talcing care not to disturb the stock. Carefully remove 
the fat, and garnish with one-half lb. of carrots, six oz. of 
onions, two oz. of leeks, a stick of celery, and a large faggot. 
Put the whole back on to the fire and cook gently for a further 
two hours. Strain through a sieve into a very clean basin and 
leave to cool. 

Clarification of Aspic. — When the stock, prepared according 
to the above directions, has cooled, the grease that has formed on 
its surface should be removed. Then pour off gently into a stew- 
pan of convenient size in such a way as to prevent the deposit at 
the bottom of the basin from mixing with the clear liquor. Test 
the consistence of the aspic, when it should be found that the 
quantities given above have proved sufficient to form a fairly 
firm jelly. If, however, this be not the case, a few leaves of 
gelatine steeped in cold water should be added, being careful not 
to overdo the quantity. Now add to the stock two lbs. of lean 
beef (first minced and then pounded together with the white of 
an egg), a little chervil and tarragon, and a few drops of lemon- 
juice. Place the saucepan on an open fire, stir its contents with a 
spatula until the liquid begins to boil, remove it from the fire, 
and place it on the side of the stove, where it may boil gently for 
half an hour. 

At the end of this time take the saucepan off the fire and 
remove what little grease has formed on the aspic while cooking. 
Strain through a serviette stretched and fastened across the legs 
of an overturned stool, and let the aspic fall into a basin placed 
between the legs. Ascertain whether the liquid is quite 
clear, and if, as frequently happens, this be not the case, what 
has already been strained should once more be passed through 
the serviette, renewing the operation until the aspic becomes 
quite transparent. 

Flavouring the Aspic. — The aspic obtained as above is limpid, 
has an agreeable savour, and is the colour of fine amber. It now 
only requires flavouring according to the tastes of the consumer 
and the purpose for which it is intended. For this operation it 
should be allowed to become quite tepid, and the following quan- 
tities of choice wine are added to it, viz. : — 

If the wine is of a liqueur kind, such as Sherry, Marsala, 
Madeira, &c., one-fifth pint per quart. 

If it is another kind of wine, for example, champagne, hock, 
&c., one-fourth pint per quart. 

The wine used should be very clear, free from any deposit, 
and as perfect as possible in taste. 



SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS 6i 

159— CHICKEN ASPIC 

The quantities of meat are the same as for ordinary aspic; 
there need only be added to it either two oven-browned hens, or 
their equivalent in weight of roasted fowl carcases, and poultry 
giblets if these are handy. It is always better, however, to pre- 
pare the stock with the hens and giblets and to keep the carcases 
for the clarification. This clarification follows the same rules 
as that of the ordinary aspic, except that a few roasted-fowl car- 
cases, previously well freed from fat, are added to it. 

In the case of this particularly delicate aspic, it is more than 
ever necessary not to overdo the amount of gelatine. It should 
be easily soluble to the palate in order to be perfect. 

160— GAME ASPIC 

Prepare this aspic stock in exactly the same way as that of 
ordinary aspic, only substitute game, such as deer, roebuck, doe, 
or hare, or wild rabbit (previously browned in the oven), for the 
beef. When possible also add to this stock a few old specimens 
of feathered game, such as partridges or pheasants that are too 
tough for other purposes and which suit admirably here. 

The clarification changes according to the different flavours 
which are to be given to the aspic. If it is not necessary to give 
it a special characteristic, it should be prepared with the meat of 
that ground game which happens to be most available at the 
time, adding to the quantity used roast carcases of feathered 
game, the respective amounts of both ingredients being the same 
as for ordinary aspic. If, on the other hand, the aspic is to have 
a well-defined flavour, the meat used for the clarification should 
naturally be that producing the flavour in question, i.e., either 
partridge or pheasant, or hazel-hen, &c. 

Some aspics are greatly improved by being flavoured with a 
small quantity of old brandy. Rather than use an inferior kind 
of this ingredient, however, I should advise its total omission 
from the aspic. 

Without aromatisation the aspic, though imperfect, is pas- 
sable; but aromatised with bad brandy it is invariably spoilt. 

LENTEN ASPICS 

161— FISH ASPIC WITH WHITE WINE 

The stock for this aspic is prepared in precisely the same 
manner as fish stock, No. i . The stewpan need not, however, be 
buttered previous to the insertion of the onions, parsley-stalks. 



62 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

and fish-bones. If the aspic is not required to be quite white, a 
little saffron may be added to it, as the aroma of this condiment 
blends so perfectly with that of fish. 

When the stock is prepared its consistence should be tested, 
and rectified, if necessary, by means of gelatine. The quantity 
of this substance should on no account exceed eight leaves per 
quart of aspic, and, at the risk of repeating myself, I remind the 
reader that the less gelatine is used the better the aspic will be. 

The clarification should be made with fresh caviare if pos- 
sible, but pressed caviare is also admirably suited to this purpose. 
The quantities are the same as for the clarification of fish con- 
somm6. No. 4. 

In flavouring white fish aspics either dry champagne or a 
good Bordeaux or Burgundy may be used. Take care, how- 
ever — 

1. That the wine used be of an unquestionably good quality. 

2. That it be only added to the aspic when the latter is 
already cold and on the point of coagulating, as this is the 
only means of preserving all the aroma of the wine. 

Finally, in certain cases, a special flavour may be obtained 
by the use of crayfish, which are cooked, as for bisque, then 
pounded, and added to the fish stock No. 11 ten minutes before 
straining it. A proportion of four little crayfish k bisque per 
quart of aspic is sufficient to secure an excellent aroma. 

162— FISH ASPIC WITH RED WINE 

This aspic stock is the Court-bouillon with red wine No. 
165, which has served in cooking the fish for which the aspic 
is intended ; this fish is generally either trout or salmon ; some- 
times also, but less commonly, a carp or a pike. 

This stock must first of all have its grease thoroughly re- 
moved; it should then be poured carefully away, reduced if 
necessary, and the required quantity of gelatine added. This 
cannot be easily determined, as all gelatines are not alike, and 
the stock may have contracted a certain consistence from its 
contact with the fish. One can, therefore, only be guided by 
testing small quantities cooled in ice, but care should be taken 
that the aspic be not too firm. 

The clarification of this aspic is generally made with white 
of egg in the proportion of one white per quart. The white, 
half-whisked, is added to the cold stock, and the latter is 
put over an open fire and stirred with a spatula. As soon 
as it boils the aspic is poured through a serviette fixed on to 



SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS 63 

the legs of an overturned stool. The first drippings of the fluid 
are put back on to the serviette if they do not seem clear, and 
this operation is repeated until the required clearness is obtained. 

It almost invariably happens that, either during the cook- 
ing of the fish or during the clarification, the wine loses its 
colour through the precipitation of the colouring elements de- 
rived from the tannin. 

The only way of overcoming this difficulty is to add a few 
drops of liquid carmine or vegetable red ; but, in any case, it is 
well to remember that the colour of red-wine aspic must never 
be deeper than a sombre pink. 



CHAPTER VI 

The Court-bouillons and the Marinades 

163— COURT= BOUILLON WITH VINEGAR 

Quantities Required for Five Quarts. 

5 quarts of water. f lb. of carrots. 

\ pint of vinegar. i lb. of onions. 

2 oz. of gray salt. A little thyme and bay. 
\ oz. of peppercorn.^. 2 oz. of parsley stalics. 

Preparation. — Put into a saucepan the water, salt, and 
vinegar, the minced carrots and onions, and the parsley, thyme, 
and bay, gathered into a bunch. Boil, allow to simmer for 
one hour, rub through tammy, and put aside until wanted. 

Remariis. — Put the peppercorns into the court-bo^iillon 
only twelve minutes before straining the latter. If the pepper 
were in for too long a time it would give a bitterness to the 
preparation. This rule also applies to the formula; that follow, 
in which the use of peppercorns is also required. 

This court-bouillon is principally used for cooking trout 
and salmon, as well as for various shell-fish. 

164— COURT=BOUiLLON WITH WHITE WINE 

Quantities Required for Two Qtiarts. 

I quart of white wine. i large faggot. 

I quart of water. | oz. of gray salt. 

3 oz. of minced onions. A few peppercorns. 

Preparation. — This is the same as for the court-bouillon with 
vinegar, except that it is boiled for half an hour and is strained 
through tammy. 

Remarks. — If the court-bouillon has to be reduced the 
quantity of salt should be proportionately less. This prepara- 
tion is principally used for poaching fresh-water fish. 

i65-COURT=BOUILLON WITH RED WINE 

Use the same quantities as for court-bouillon with white 
wine, taking care — 

I. To replace white wine by excellent red wine. 



COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 65 

2. To add four oz. of minced carrots. 

3. To apportion the wine and water in the ratio of two- 
thirds to one-third. 

Preparation. — The same as that of the former, with the same 
time for boiling. 

Remarks. — If the court-bouillon is to be reduced, the salt 
should be less accordingly. When the court-bouillon with red 
wine is to constitute an aspic stock, fish fumet with enough 
gelatine takes the place of the water. 

The uses of court-bouillon with red wine are similar to 
those of the white-wine kind. 

166— PLAIN COURT- BOUILLON 

The quantity of court-bouillon is determined by the size of 
the piece which it is to cover. It is composed of cold, salt 
water (the salt amounting to a little less than one-half oz. per 
quart of water), one-quarter pint of milk per quart of water, 
and one thin slice of peeled lemon in the same proportion. 
The fish is immersed while the liquor is cold; the latter is very 
slowly brought to the boil, and as soon as this is reached, the 
receptacle is moved to the side of the fire, where the cooking 
of the fish is completed. 

This court-bouillon, which is used with large pieces of turbot 
and brill, is never prepared beforehand. 

167— SPECIAL COURT- BOUILLON, OR BLANC 

This preparation is a genuine court-bouillon, though it is 
not used in cooking fish. 

The Quantities Required for Five Quarts of this 
Court-bouillon are : — 

A little less than 2 oz. of flour. The juice of 3 lemons or ^ pint of 

ij oz. of grey salt. good vinegar. 

5 quarts of cold water. 

Gradually mix the flour and the water; add the salt and 
the lemon juice, and pass through a strainer. Set to boil, and 
stir the mixture the while, in order to prevent the flour from 
precipitating ; as soon as the boil is reached, immerse the objects 
to be treated. These are usually calf's head or foot, previously 
blanched; sheep's trotters, cocks' kidneys or combs, or such 
vegetables as salsify, cardoon, &c. 

Remarks upon the Use of Court-bouillon. 

I. Court-bouillon must always be prepared in advance for 
all fish, the time for poaching which is less than half an hour, 
except turbots and brills. 

F 



66 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

2. When a fish is of such a size as to need more than half 
an hour's poaching, proceed as follows: — Place under the 
drainer of the fish-kettle the minced carrots and onions and 
the faggot; put the fish on the drainer, and cover it with 
water and vinegar, or white wine, in accordance with the 
kind of court-bouillon wanted and the quantity required. Add 
the salt, boil, and keep the court-bouillon gently simmering for 
a period of time fixed by the weight of the fish. The time 
allowed for poaching the latter will be given in their respective 
formulae. 

3. Fish, when whole, should be immersed in cold court- 
bouillon; when sliced, in the same liquor, boiling. The ex- 
ceptions to this rule are small trout " au bleu " and shell-fish. 

4. If fish be cooked in short liquor the aromatics are put 
under the drainer and the liquid elements of the selected court- 
bouillon (as, for example, that with red or white wine) are so 
calculated as to cover only one-third of the solid body. Fish 
cooked in this way should be frequently basted. 

5. Court-bouillon for ordinary and spiny lobsters should 
always be at full boiling pitch when these are immersed. The 
case is the same for small or medium fish " au bleu." 

6. Fish which is to be served cold, also shell-fish, should 
cool in the court-bouillon itself; the cooking period is conse- 
quently curtailed. 

Marinades and Brines. 

Marinades play but a small part in English cookery, venison 
or other ground-game being generally preferred fresh. How- 
ever, in the event of its being necessary to resort to these 
methods of preparation, I shall give two formulae for venison 
and two for mutton. 

The use of the marinade for venison is very much debated. 
Certainly it is often desirable that the fibre of those meats that 
come from old specimens of the deer and boar species be 
softened, but there is no doubt that what the meat gains in 
tenderness it loses in flavour. On the whole, therefore, it would 
be best to use only those joints which come from young beasts. 

In the case of the latter, the marinade may well be dispensed 
with. It would add nothing to the savour of a haunch of 
venison, such as may be got in England, while it would be 
equally ineffectual in the case of the roebuck or hare. A sum- 
mary treatment of these two, with raw marinade, may well 
be adopted, as also for deer. 



COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 67 

As for cooked marinade, its real and only use lies in the 
fact that during stormy summer weather it enables one to pre. 
serve meat which would otherwise have to be wasted. It may, 
moreover, be used for braised venison, but this treatment of 
game is very uncommon nowadays. 

168— COOKED MARINADE FOR VENISON 

Quantities Required for Five Quarts. 

^ lb. of minced carrots. i faggot, including i oz. of pars- 

J lb. of minced onions. ley stalks, 2 sprigs of rose- 

2 oz. of minced shallots. mary, as much thyme, and 

I crushed garlic clove. 2 bay leaves. 

Preparation. — Heat one-half pint of oil in a stewpan, add 
the carrots and onions, and fry them while stirring frequently. 
When they begin to brown add the shallots, the garlic, and 
the faggot, then one pint of vinegar, two bottles of white 
wine, and three quarts of water. Cook this marinade for 
twenty minutes, and add a further two oz. of salt, one-half oz. 
of peppercorns, and four oz. of brown sugar. Ten minutes 
afterwards pass it through a strainer and let it cool before in- 
serting the meats. 

N.B. — In summer the marinade very often decomposes, 
because of the blood contained by the meat under treatment in 
it. The only means of averting this is to boil the marinade 
every two or three days at least. 

169— RAW MARINADE FOR BUTCHER'S MEAT OR VENISON 

This marinade is prepared immediately before using. The 
meat to be treated is first salted and peppered on all sides, 
then it is put in a receptacle just large enough to hold 
it, and laid therein on a litter of aromatics, including minced 
carrots and onions, a few chopped shallots, parsley stalks, 
thyme, and bay in proportion to the rest. Now sprinkle the 
meat copiously with oil and half as much vinegar; cover the 
dish with oil-paper, and put it somewhere in the cool. 
Remember to turn the meat over three or four times a day, 
covering it each time with a layer of vegetables. 

This marinade is very active, and is admirably suited to 
all butcher's meat and venison, provided these be not allowed 
to remain in it for too long a time. It is very difficult to say 
how long the meat must stay in these marinades ; the time varies 
according to the size and quality of the joints, and the taste 
of the consumer, &c. All that can be said is that three hours 
should be sufiScient to marinade a cutlet or escalope of roebuck, 

F 2 



68 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

and that for big joints such as saddle or leg the time should 
not exceed four days. 

170— MARINADE FOR MUTTON, ROEBUCK-STYLE 

This is exactly the same as cooked marinade, No. 168. 
There need only be added one oz. of juniper berries, a few 
sprigs of rosemary, wild thyme, and basil, two extra garlic 
cloves, and one quart less of water. 

171— MARINADE WITH RED WINE FOR MUTTON 

By substituting red wine for white in the preceding formula 
— the quantity of the liquid equalling that of the water — and by 
slightly increasing the quantity of aromatics, an excellent 
marinade for mutton is obtained, which in summer enables one 
to preserve meat, otherwise perishable, for some days. 

172— BRINE 

Quantities Required for Fifty Quarts. 

56 lbs. of gray salt. 6 lbs. of saltpetre. 

50 quarts of water. 3I lbs. of brown sugar. 

Mode of Procedure. — Put the salt and the water in a tinned 
copper pan, and put it on an open fire. When the water boils, 
throw in a peeled potato, and, if the latter float, add water until 
it begins to sink. If, on the contrary, the potato should sink 
immediately, reduce the liquid until it is able to buoy the 
tuber up. At this stage the sugar and saltpetre are added; 
let them dissolve, and the brine is then removed from the 
fire and is allowed to cool. It is then poured into the re- 
ceptacle intended for it, which must be either of slate, stone, 
cement, or well-jointed tiles. It is well to place in the bottom 
of this reservoir a wooden lattice, whereon the meats to be 
salted may be laid, for, were the immersed objects to lie directly 
on the bottom of the receptacle, the under parts would be 
entirely shielded from the brine. 

If the meats to be salted are of an appreciable size, they should 
be inoculated with brine by means of a special syringe. With- 
out this measure it would be impossible to salt regularly, as 
the sides would already be over-saturated before the centre had 
even been properly reached. 

Eight days should be allowed for salting a piece of beef 
of what size soever, above eight or ten lb., since the process 
of inoculation equalises the salting. 

Ox-tongue intended for salting, besides having to be as 



COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 69 

fresh as possible, must be trimmed of almost all the cartilage 
of the throat, and carefully beaten either with a beater or 
roller. Then it must be pricked on all sides with a string- 
needle, and immersed in the liquid, where it should be slightly 
weighted by some means or other in order to prevent its rising 
to the surface. A medium-sized tongue would need about seven 
days' immersion in the brine. 

Though brine does not turn as easily as the cooked 
marinades, it would be well, especially in stormy weather, to 
watch it and occasionally to boil it. But, as the process of 
boiling invariably concentrates the brine, a little water 
should be added to it every time it is so treated, and the test 
of the potato, described above, should always be resorted to. 



CHAPTER VII 

I. Elementary Preparations 

Before broaching the question of the numerous prepara- 
tions which constitute the various soup, relev6, and entree gar- 
nishes, it will be necessary to give the formulae of the elementary 
preparations, or what are technically called the mise en 
place. If the various operations which go to make the mise 
en place were not, at least summarily, discussed here, I should 
be compelled to repeat them in each formula for which they 
are required — that is to say, in almost every formula. I should 
thus resemble those bad operators who, having neglected their 
mise en place, are obliged to make it in the course of other 
work, and thereby not only run the risk of making it badly, 
but also of losing valuable time which might be used to better 
advantage. 

Elementary preparations consist of those things whereof 
one is constantly in need, which may be prepared in advance, 
and which are kept available for use at a moment's notice. 

173— ANCHOVIES (FILLETS OF) 

Whether they be for hors d'oeuvres or for culinary use, it 
is always best to have these handy. 

After having washed and well wiped them, in order to re- 
move the white powder resulting from the little scales with 
which they are covered, they should be neatly trimmed to the 
shape of extended oblongs. Then detach the fillets from the 
bones by gentle pulling, divide each fillet lengthwise into three 
or four smaller fillets, put the latter into a small narrow dish 
or a little bowl, and cover them with oil. The fillets may 
also be kept whole with a view to rolling them into rings. 

174— ANQLAISE (FOR EQO=AND-BREAD-CRUMBINQ) 

It is well to have this always ready for those dishes which 
are to be panes a I'anglaise, or as many of the recipes direct : 
treated a I'anglaise. 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 71 

It is made of well-whisked eggs, salt, pepper, and one 
dessertspoonful of oil per couple of eggs. 

Its Uses. — The solids to be panes a I'anglaise are dipped 
into the preparation described above, taking care that the latter 
coats them thoroughly; whereupon, according to the require- 
ments, they arerolled either in bread-crumbs or in fine raspings. 
From this combination of egg with bread-crumbs or raspings 
there results a kind of coat which, at the moment of contact with 
the hot fat, is immediately converted into a resisting crust. In 
croquettes this crust checks the escape, into the fat, of the sub- 
stances it encloses, and this is more especially the case when 
the croquettes contain some reduced sauce, or are composed 
of raw meats or fish whose juices are thereby entirely retained. 
A solid prepared a I'anglaise and cooked in fat should 
always be put into the latter when this is very hot, so as to 
ensure the instantaneous solidification of the egg and bread- 
crumbs. 

N.B. — Objects to be treated a I'anglaise are generally 
rolled in flour before being immersed in the anglaise, for the 
flour helps the foregoing to adhere to the object. 

The crust formed over the solid thus acquires a density which 
is indispensable. 

174a— AROMATICS 

Aromatics play a very prominent part in cookery, and their 
combination with the condiments constitutes, as Grinod de la 
Reyni^re said, "the hidden soul of cooking." Their real 
object, in fact, is to throw the savour of dishes into relief, to 
intensify that savour, and to give each culinary preparation its 
particular stamp. 

They are all derived from the vegetable kingdom ; but, while 
some are used dry, others are used fresh. 

The first-named should belong to the permanent kitchen 
stock ; they are : sage, basil, rosemary, sweet marjoram, thyme, 
and bay. 

Also to be included in the permanent stock are : cinnamon, 
ginger, juniper-berries, nutmeg, cloves, mace, and vanilla. 

The last-named comprise those aromatic herbs used fresh, 
such as : parsley, chervil, tarragon, pimpernel, and common 
savory ; while, under this head, there may also be included : 
bits of common- and Seville-orange rind and zests of lemon 
rind. 

174b— SEASONING AND CONDIMENTS 

Seasonings are divided into several classes, which com. 
prise : — 



72 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1. Saline seasonings. — Salt, spiced salt, saltpetre. 

2. Acid seasonings. — Plain vinegar, or the same aromatised 
with tarragon ; verjuice, lemon juice, and common- or Seville- 
orange juices. 

3. Hot seasonings. — Peppercorns, ground or concassed 
pepper, or mignonette; paprika, curry, cayenne, and com- 
pound spices. 

4. Saccharine seasonings. — Sugar and honey. 
Condiments are likewise subdivided, the three classes 

being : — 

(i) The pungents. — Onions, shallots, garlic, chives, and 
horseradish. 

2. Hot condiments. — Mustard, gherkins, capers, English 
sauces, such as Worcester, Harvey, Ketchup, Escoffier's sauces, 
&c.; the wines used in reductions and braisings; the finishing 
elements of sauces and soups. 

3. Fatty substances. — Most animal fats, butter, vegetable 
greases (edible oils and cocoanut butter). 

Remarks. — In cookery it should be borne in mind that both 
excellence and eatableness depend entirely upon a judicious use 
and a rational blending of the aromatics, seasonings, and con- 
diments. And, according as the latter have been used and 
apportioned, their action will be either beneficial or injurious 
to the health of the consumer. 

In the matter of seasoning there can be no question of 
approximation or half measures; the quantities must be exact, 
allowing only of slight elasticity in respect of the various tastes 
to be satisfied. 

175— CLARIFIED BUTTER 

A certain quantity of clarified butter should always be kept 
ready and handy. 

To prepare this butter, put one lb. to melt in a saucepan 
large enough to hold twice that amount. Place the saucepan 
on the side of the fire, over moderate heat ; remove all the scum 
which rises to the surface, and, when the butter looks quite 
clear and all foreign substances have dropped to the bottom, 
put the liquid carefully away and strain it through muslin. 

176— FAQQOTS (BOUQUETS QARNIS) 

The name "faggot" is given to those little bunches of 
aromatics which, when the contrary is not stated, are generally 
composed (in order to weigh one ounce) of eight-tenths oz. of 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 73 

parsley stalks and roots, one-tenth oz. of bay leaves, and one- 
tenth oz. of thyme. These various aromatics are put neatly 
together so that no sprig of the one sticks out beyond the 
others, and they are properly strung together. 

177— CHERVIL 

Chopped Chervil. — Clean the chervil and remove the stalks ; 
wash, dry it well while tossing it, then chop it finely and put 
it aside on a plate in the cool, if it is not for immediate use. 

Concussed Chervil. — Proceed as above, except that, instead 
of chopping it, compress it between the fingers and slice it after 
the manner of a chaff-cutter. Concussed and chopped chervil 
are, if possible, only prepared at the last moment. 

Chervil Pinches. — The pluches are greatly used in the 
finishing off of soups. They are, practically, the serrated por- 
tions only of the leaves, which are torn away in such a manner 
as to show no trace of the veinings. They are immersed in 
water, and at the last moment withdrawn, so as to be added, 
raw, to either soups or boiling consommes. 

178— RASPINGS 

Golden raspings are obtained by pounding and passing 
through a fine sieve bread-crusts which have been previously 
well dried in the oven. 

White ruspings are similarly prepared, except that very dry, 
white crumb is used. 

179— PEELED, CHANNELLED, AND ZESTED LEMONS 

Lemons are greatly used in cookery, as dish and comestible 
garnish. When a whole lemon is used for marinades of fish, 
for the " bluncs," &c., it is well to peel it to the pulp, i.e., to 
remove the peel and the whole of the underlying white. The 
lemon is then cut into more or less large slices, according to 
the use for which it is intended. 

The rind of a lemon thus peeled may be cut into bits and 
used in this form as the necessity arises. When cutting it up, 
flatten the rind inside uppermost on the table, and, with a very 
sharp and flexible knife, remove all the white; then slice the 
remaining peel (which constitutes what is called zest) into strips 
about one inch wide, and cut these laterally in fine julienne- 
fashion. 

Scald the resulting bits for five minutes, cool them, drain 
them carefully, and put them aside until wanted. Sometimes, 
instead of cutting julienne-fashion, the zest may be finely 
chopped, but the rest of the process remains the same. 



74 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Lemons are channelled by means of a little knife, or a special 
instrument for the purpose, which excises parallel ribbons from 
the surface of the rind and lays the white bare. A lemon 
channelled in this way is cut in two, lengthwise with the core ; 
its two extremities are removed, and the two halves are cut 
laterally into thin, regular slices to look like serrated half-discs. 

The lemon may also be cut at right angles to the core. 

Fried fish, oysters, and certain game are generally garnished 
with lemon slices fashioned according to the taste of the cook ; 
but the simplest, and perhaps the best, way is to cut the lemon 
through the centre, after having trimmed the two ends quite 
straight, and then to remove the rind roughly from the edge. 

For whatever purpose the lemon be intended, it should be, 
as far as possible, only prepared at the last moment. If it must 
be prepared beforehand, it would be well to keep it in a bowl 
of fresh water. 

1 80— SHALLOTS 

Chopped Shallots. — Clean the shallots, and, by means of a 
very sharp knife, cut them lengthwise into thin slices ; let these 
cling together by not allowing the knife to cut quite through 
them, and, this done, turn them half round and proceed in the 
same way at right angles to the other cuts. 

Finally, cut them laterally, and this will be found to produce 
very fine and regular, small cubes. 

Ciseled Shallots. — The name " ciseled shallots" is often 
erroneously given to those shallots resulting from the above 
process. 

But ciseled shallots are merely laterally sliced, the result ot 
which operation is a series of thin, regular discs. Ciseled or 
chopped shallots should, when possible, only be prepared when 
required; if, however, they must be treated in advance, they 
should be kept somewhere in the cool until wanted. 

181-SPICES 

Strictly speaking, spices include cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, 
mace ; and the many varieties of peppers and pimenta, cayenne, 
paprika, &c. 

These various condiments are found ready-made on the 
market, and they need only be kept dry in air-tight boxes in 
order to prevent the escape of their aroma. 

But there is another kind of preparation, in cookery, to 
which the name of spice or all-spice is more especially given. 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 75 

Nowadays several market varieties of this preparation exist, and 
vie with each other for custom, though in most cases they 
deserve it equally well. 

Formerly this was not so, and every chef had his own 
formula. 

The following is a recipe for the spice in question, which 
would be found useful if it had to be prepared at a moment's 
notice : — 

Obtain the following, very dry. 

5 oz. of bay leaves. 4 oz. of cloves. 

3 oz. of thyme (half of it wild, if 3 oz. of ginger-root, 

possible). 3 oz. of mace. 

3 oz. of coriander. 10 oz. of mixed pepper (half black 

4 oz. of cinnamon. and half white). 

6 oz. of nutmeg. i oz. of cayenne. 

Put all these ingredients into a mortar and pound them until 
they are all able to pass through a very fine sieve. Put the 
resulting powder into an air-tight box, which must be kept dry. 

Before being used, this spice is generally mixed with salt 
(No. 188). 

182— FLOUR 

For whatever use the flour is intended, it is always best to 
sift it. This is more particularly necessary in the case of flour 
used for coating objects to be fried; for the latter, being first 
dipped into milk, must of necessity let a few drops of that 
liquid fall into the flour they are rolled in. Lumps would 
therefore form, which might adhere to the objects to be fried 
if the flour were not sifted. 

183— HERB JUICE 

This is to finish or intensify certain preparations. 

To prepare it, throw into a small saucepan of boiling water 
some parsley, chervil, and tarragon and chive leaves, in equal 
quantities, according to the amount of juice required. 

Set to boil for two minutes, drain, cool, press the herbs in 
a towel, twisting the latter; pound very finely, and extract the 
juice from the resulting paste by twisting a strong towel 
round it. 

Keep this juice in the cool. 

1 84— BREAD - CRUMBS 

Thoroughly rub, in a closed towel, some stale bread-crumb 
previously well broken up. Pass it through a fine sieve or 
colander, according as to whether it is required very fine o^ not, 
and put it aside in a convenient receptacle. 



76 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

i8s— CHOPPED ONION 

Cut the onion finely, like the shallots, but if it is to be 
minced with a view to making it even finer, it should be freed 
of its pungent juice, which would cause it to blacken with 
exposure to the air. 

To accomplish this, put the onion in the corner of a towel, 
pour plenty of cold water over it, and twist the towel in order 
to express the water. By this means the onion remains quite 
white. 

i86— TURNED OR STONED OLIVES 

There are special instruments for stoning olives, but, failing 
these, cut the fruit spirally from the stone with the point of a 
small knife. 

Keep the olives in slightly salted water. 

187— PARSLEY 

Chopped Parsley. — If parsley be properly chopped, no juice 
should be produced. If, on the contrary, the operation be per- 
formed badly, it amounts to a process of pounding which, per- 
force, expresses the juice. 

In the latter case the particles cohere, and they are sprinkled 
with difficulty over an object. To remedy this shortcoming, 
wash the choppings in fresh water, as in the case of the onion, 
pressing in a similar manner so as to expel the water. 

Concussed Parsley is that kind which is roughly chopped. 
When a culinary preparation is dressed with concussed parsley, 
the latter should be added to it a few moments before serving, 
in order to undergo a slight cooking process; whereas chopped 
parsley may be strewn over a dish at the last moment. 

It should be remembered that parsley, when quite fresh and 
used in moderation, is an excellent thing; but, should it have 
remained too long in the heat, it becomes quite insufferable. 

I cannot, therefore, too strongly urge the advisability of 
using it in the freshest possible state, and it would even be 
wiser to discard it entirely than to be forced to ignore this 
condition. 

Parsley Sprays. — These are chiefly used in garnishing 
dishes, and it is well for the purpose to make as much use as 
possible of the curled-leaf kind, after having removed the long 
stalks. Keep the sprays in fresh water until required. 

Fried Parsley. — This consists of the sprays, well drained of 
watei»after washing, and immersed for an instant in very hot 
fat. The moment it is fried carefully drain it, salt it, and place 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 77 

it in a clean towel, where it may get rid of any superfluous 
grease. It is used to dress fried viands. 

188— SALT 

Two kinds of salt are used in cooking, viz., grey, or sea-salt, 
and rock-salt. Grey-salt is used more especially for Brines 
and in the preparation of ices, as its grey colour does not 
allow of its being used indiscriminately. 

Be this as it may, many prefer it to rock-salt for the salting 
of stock-pots, roasts, and grills. For the last two purposes it 
is crushed with a roller, without being pounded, and the result 
should be such that every grain is distinctly perceptible to the 
touch. 

This salt, in melting over a roast or a grill, certainly imparts 
a supplementary flavour to the latter which could not be got with 
the use of rock-salt. 

Rock-salt. — This is found on the market in the forms of 
cooking and table-salt. If the kitchen is only supplied with 
cooking salt, the quantity required for several days should be 
dried, pounded in the mortar, and passed through a fine sieve; 
and then put aside in a dry place for use when wanted. Even 
table-salt, as it reaches one from the purveyor, sometimes needs 
drying and passing through a sieve before being used. 

Spiced Salt. — This condiment, which serves an important 
purpose in the preparation of pies and galantines, is obtained 
from a mixture of one lb. of table salt with three and one-half oz. 
of spices (No. 181). 

This kind of salt should be carefully kept in a very dry place. 



2. The Various Kinds of Garnishes for Soups, Releves, 
AND Entrees, Hot or Cold 

stuffings AND FORCEMEATS 

189— VARIOUS PANADAS FOR STUFFINGS 

Panadas are those preparations which go to make the leason 
of forcemeats and which ensure their proper consistence when 
they are cooked. They are not necessary to every forcemeat; for 
the mousseline kind, which are the finest and lightest, do not 
require them. Nevertheless, they are useful for varying the taste 
and the uses of forcemeats, and I thought it advisable to intro- 
duce them here. The reader will thus be able to use either 
forcemeats with a panada base or mousseline forcemeats ; in 
accordance with the requirements and his resources. 



78 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

190— A. BREAD PANADA 

Put one-half lb. of the crumb of bread and one-half oz, of 
salt into one-half pint of boiling milk. When the crumb has 
absorbed all the milk, place the saucepan over a brisk fire and 
stir with a spatula until the paste has become so thick as not to 
cling any longer to the end of the spatula. Turn the contents of 
the saucepan into a buttered platter, and lightly butter the sur- 
face of the panada in order to avoid its drying while it cools. 

191— B. FLOUR PANADA 

Put into a small saucepan one-half pint of water, a little salt, 
and two oz. of butter. When the liquid boils add five oz. of sifted 
flour thereto, stirring the while over a brisk fire until it reaches 
the consistence described in the case of bread panada. Use the 
same precautions with regard to cooling. 

192— C. FRANQIPAN PANADA 

Put into a stewpan four oz. of sifted flour, the yolks of four 
eggs, a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Now add by degrees 
three oz. of melted butter and dilute with one-half pint of boiled 
milk. Pass through a strainer, stir over the lire until the boil is 
reached; set to cook for five minutes while gently wielding the 
whisk, and cool as in the preceding cases. 

193— CHICKEN FORCEMEAT WITH 
PANADA AND BUTTER 

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of 
chicken-meat. Pound, and add one-third oz. of salt, a little 
pepper and nutmeg. When the meat is well pounded remove it 
from the mortar, and place in its stead one-half lb. of very cold 
panada (see No. 190). Finely pound this panada, and then add 
one-half lb. of butter thereto, taking care that the two ingredients 
mix thoroughly. Now put in the chicken-meat, and wield the 
pestle vigorously until the whole mass is completely mixed. 
Finally, add consecutively two whole eggs and the yolks of four, 
stirring incessantly the while and seeing that each egg is only 
inserted when the one preceding it has become perfectly incor- 
porated with the mass. Rub through a sieve, put the forcemeat 
into a basin, and smooth it with a wooden spoon. 

Test the forcemeat by poaching a small portion of it in salted, 
boiling water. This test, which is indispensable, allows of recti- 
fying the seasoning and the consistence if necessary. If it be 
found that the forcemeat is too light, a little white of egg could 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 79 

bft mingled with it ; if, on the ether hand, it should be too stiff 
add a little softened buttef. 

N.B. — By substituting for chicken veal, game, or fish, &c., 
any kind of forcemeat may be made; for the quantities of the 
other ingredients remain the same whatever the basic meat may 
be. 

194— CHICKEN FORCEMEAT WITH 
PANADA AND CREAM 

(For Fine Quenelles.) 

Finely pound one lb. of chicken-meat after having removed 
the tendons, and seasoned with one-quarter oz. of salt, a little 
pepper and nutmeg. 

When the meat has been reduced to a fine paste, add, very 
gradually, two oz. of white of egg. Finish with seven oz. of 
Frangipan panada (No. 192), and work vigorously with the pestle 
until the whole is amalgamated. Strain through a fine sieve, 
put the forcemeat into a vegetable-pan sufficiently large to allow 
of ultimately working it with ease, and place it on dee for a good 
hour. 

This done, stir the forcemeat (still on the ice) for a few 
seconds with a wooden spoon, then add, in small quantities at a 
time, one pint of raw cream. At this stage complete the prepara- 
tion by adding thereto one-half pint of whipped cream. It 
should then be found to be very white, smooth, and mellow. 
Test as directed in the preceding recipe, and add a little white 
of egg if it be too light, and a little cream if it be too stiff. 

N.B. — This forcemeat may be prepared from all butcher's 
meats, game, or fish. 

195— FINE CHICKEN FORCEMEAT OR " MOUSSELINE " 

Remove the tendons from, trim, and cut into cubes, one lb. 
of chicken-meat. Season with one oz. of salt, a little pepper and 
nutmeg. 

Finely pound, and, when it is reduced to a paste, gradually 
add the whites of two eggs, vigorously working with the pestle 
meanwhile. 

Strain through a fine sieve, put the forcemeat into a vege- 
table-pan, stir it once more with the wooden spoon for a moment 
or two, and combine with it, gradually, one pint of thick, fresh 
cream, working with great caution and keeping the receptacle 
on ice. 

Remarks Relative to Mousseline Forcemeat. — This, like the 
preceding forcemeats, may be prepared from any kind of meat. 



8o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

The addition of the white of egg is not essential if the meats 
used already possess a certain quantity of albumen ; but without 
the white of egg the forcemeat absorbs much less cream. 

This forcemeat is particularly suited to preparations with a 
shell-fish base. Incomparably delicate results are obtained by 
the process, while it also furnishes ideal quenelles for the pur- 
pose of garnishing soup. In a word, it may be said of mousse- 
line forcemeat that, whereas it can replace all other kinds, none 
of these can replace it. 

N.B. — Mousseline forcemeats of all kinds, with meat, 
poultry, game, fish, or shell-fish, may be made according to the 
principles and quantities given above. 

196— PORK FORCEMEAT FOR DIVERS USES 

Remove the tendons of, and cut into large cubes, two lbs. of 
fillet of pork, and the same weight of fresh, fat bacon. Season 
with one and three-quarter oz. of spiced salt (No. 188), chop the 
fillet and bacon up, together or separately, pound them finely in 
the mortar, and finish with two eggs and two tablespoonfuls of 
brandy. 

This forcemeat is used for ordinary pies and terrines. Strictly 
speaking, it is " sausage-meat." The inclusion of eggs in this 
forcemeat really only obtains when it is used to stuff joints that 
are to be braised, such as stuffed breast of veal ; or in the case of 
pies and terrines. The addition of the egg in these cases pre- 
vents the grease from melting too quickly, and thus averts the 
drying of the forcemeat. 

197— FORCEMEAT FOR QALANTiNES, PIES AND TERRINES 

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of fillet 
of veal and as much fillet of pork ; add to these two lbs. of fresh, 
fat bacon, also cut into cubes. Season with three oz. of spiced 
salt, chop the three ingredients together or apart, and then finely 
pound them. Finish with three eggs and three tablespoonfuls 
of burnt brandy, strain through a sieve, and place in a basin. 

When about to serve this stuffing, add to it a little fumat 
corresponding with the meat that is to constitute the dish. For 
terrines, pies, and galantines of game, one-quarter or one-fifth of 
the forcemeat's weight of gratin stuffing (proper to the game 
under treatment) is added. 

198— VEAL FORCEMEAT WITH FAT OR GODIVEAU 

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of fillet 
of veal ; also pare, i.e., detach skin and filaments from, two lbs. 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 8i 

of the very dry fat of kidneys of beef. First, chop these up 
separately, then combine and pound them in the mortar. Season 
with one-half oz. of salt, a little pepper, some nutmeg, and pound 
afresh until the veal and fat become a homogeneous mass. Now 
add four eggs, consecutively, and at intervals of a few minutes, 
without ceasing to pound, and taking care only to insert each egg 
after the preceding one has been properly mixed with the mass. 
Spread the forcemeat thus prepared on a dish, and put the latter 
on ice until the next day. 

The next day pound once more, and add little by little four- 
teen oz. of very clean ice (in small pieces) ; or, instead, an equal 
weight of iced water, adding this also very gradually. 

When the godiveau is properly moistened, poach a small por- 
tion of it in boiling water in order to test its consistence. If it 
be too firm, add some more ice to it; if, on the other hand, it 
seem too flimsy, add a little of the white of an egg. For the 
uses of godiveau and quenelles see No. 205. 

199— VEAL FORCEMEAT WITH FAT AND CREAM 

Chop finely and apart one lb. of very white fillet of veal, with 
tendons removed, cut into cubes, and one lb. of the fat of pared 
kidney of beef. 

Combine the veal and the fat in the mortar, and pound until 
the two ingredients form a fine and even paste. Season with one- 
half oz. of salt, a little pepper, and some nutmeg, and add con- 
secutively two eggs and two yolks, after the manner of the pre- 
ceding recipe and without ceasing to pound. Strain through a 
sieve, spread the forcemeat on a dish, and keep it on ice until the 
next day. 

Next day pound the forcemeat again for a few minutes, and 
add to it, little by little, one and one-half pints of cream. 

Test as before, and rectify if necessary, either by adding 
cream or by thickening with the white of an egg. 

200-CHICKEN FORCEMEAT FOR GALAN- 
TINES, PIES AND TERRINES 

The exact weight of chicken-meat used as the base of this 
forcemeat determines the quantities of its other ingredients. 
Thus the weight of meat afforded by a fowl weighing four lbs. is 
estimated at twenty oz. after deducting the fillets which are 
always reserved. Hence the quantities for the forcemeat are 
regulated thus : — 

Chicken-meat, twenty oz. ; lean pork, eight oz. ; fillet of veal, 

G 



82 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

eight oz.; fresh, fat bacon, thirty oz.; whole eggs, five; spiced 
salt, two oz. ; brandy, one-fifth pint. 

Chop up, either together or apart, the chiclien-meat, the veal, 
the pork, and the bacon. Put all these into the mortar, pound 
them very finely with the seasoning, add the eggs consecutively, 
and, last of all, pour in the brandy. 

Remarks 

1 . The quantity of spiced salt varies, a few grammes either 
way, according as to whether the atmosphere be dry or damp, 

2. According to the purpose of the forcemeat, and with a 
view to giving it a finer flavour, one may, subject to the resources 
at one's disposal, add a little raw trimmings of foie gras to it ; but 
the latter must not, in any case, exceed one-fifth of the forcemeat 
in weight, 

3. As a rule, forcemeat should always be rubbed through 
a sieve so as to ensure its being fine and even. 

4. Whether the foie gras be added or not, chicken forcemeat 
may always be completed with two or three oz. of chopped truffles 
per lb. of its volume. 

201— GAME FORCEMEAT FOR PIES AND TERRINES 

This follows the same principles as the chicken forcemeat, 
i.e., the weight of the game-meat determines the quantities of the 
other ingredients. The proportions are precisely the same as 
above as regards the veal, the pork, the bacon, and the season- 
ing. The procedure is also the same, while the appended re- 
marks likewise apply. 

202— QRATIN FORCEMEAT FOR 
ORDINARY HOT, RAISED PIES 

Put into a saut^pan containing one oz. of very hot butter, one- 
half lb. of fresh, fat bacon, cut into large cubes, brown quickly, 
and drain on a dish. 

Quickly brown in the same butter one-half lb. of fillet of veal 
cut like the bacon and drain in the same way. 

Now rapidly brown one-half lb. of pale, calf's liver, also cut 
into large cubes. Put the veal and the bacon back into the saute- 
pan with the liver, add the necessary quantity of salt and pepper, 
two oz. of mushroom parings, one oz. of truffle parings (raw if 
possible), chopped shallots, a sprig of thyme, and a fragment of 
bay. Put the whole on the fire for two minutes, drain the bacon, 
the veal, and the liver, and put the gravy aside. Swill the saut6- 
pan with one-quarter pint of Madeira, 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 83 

Pound the bacon, veal, and liver quickly and finely, while 
adding consecutively six oz. of butter, the yolks of six eggs, the 
gravy that has been put aside, one-third pint of cold, reduced 
Espagnole, and the Madeira used for swilling. 

Strain through a sieve, place in a tureen, and smooth with 
the wooden spoon. 

N.B. — To make a gratin forcemeat with game, substitute 
for the veal that game-meat which may happen to be required. 

203-PIKE FORCEMEAT FOR QUENELLES A LA LYONNAISE 

Forcemeats prepared with the flesh of the pike are extremely 
delicate. Subject to circumstances, they may be prepared 
according to any one of the three formulae (Nos. 193, 194, 195). 
There is another excellent method of preparing this forcemeat 
which I shall submit here, as it is specially used for the prepara- 
tion of pike forcemeat k la Lyonnaise. 

Pound in a mortar one lb. of the meat of a pike, without the 
skin or bones; combine with this one-half lb. of stiff frangi- 
pan, season with salt and nutmeg, pass through a sieve, and put 
back into the mortar. 

Vigorously work the forcemeat in order to make it cohere, 
and gradually add to it one-half lb. of melted beef-fat. The 
whole half-pound, however, need not necessarily be beef-fat; 
beef-marrow or butter may form part of it in the proportion of 
half the weight of the beef-fat. 

When the forcemeat is very fine and smooth, withdraw it from 
the mortar and place it in a bowl surrounded with ice until 
wanted. 

204— SPECIAL STUFFINGS FOR FISH 

These preparations diverge slightly from the forcemeats 
given above, and they are of two kinds. They are used to 
stuff such fish as mackerel, herring, shad, &c., to which they 
lend a condimentary touch that makes these fish more agree- 
able to the taste, and certainly more digestible. 

First Method. — Put into a bowl four oz. of raw, chopped milt, 
two oz. of bread-crumb, steeped in milk and well pressed, and 
one and one-half oz. of the following fine herbs, mixed in equal 
quantities and finely chopped: — Chives, parsley, chervil, shal- 
lots, sweet basil, half a garlic clove (crushed), then two whole 
eggs, salt, pepper, and nutmeg. 

Chop up all these ingredients together so as to mix them 
thoroughly. 

Second Method. — Put into a bowl four oz. of bread-crumb 

Q 3 



84 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

steeped in milk and well pressed ; one-half oz. of onion and one- 
half oz. of chopped shallots, slightly cooked in butter, and cold; 
one oz. of raw mushrooms, chopped and well pressed in a towel ; 
a tablespoonful of chopped parsley ; a piece of garlic the size of a 
pea, crushed ; salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and two eggs. 
Mix it as above, 

205— FORCEMEAT BALLS OR QUENELLES 

Divers ways of Moulding and Poaching them. — Whatever 
be the required size or shape of quenelles there are four ways of 
making them : — (i) By rolling them ; (2) by moulding them with 
a spoon ; (3) by forming them with a piping-bag ; (4) by mould- 
ing them by hand into the shape of a kidney. 

1. To roll quenelles it is necessary to keep the forcemeat 
somewhat stiff, and therefore this process could not well apply to 
the mousseline forcemeats. Place one-quarter lb. of forcemeat, 
when ready, on a floured board, and, with hands covered in flour, 
roll the preparation until it has lengthened itself into the form of 
a sausage, the thickness of which depends upon the required size 
of the intended quenelles. 

Cut up the sausage of forcemeat laterally with a floured 
knife, and roll each section with the finger-ends until the 
length it assumes is thrice that of its diameter. The balls 
should be put aside on a floured tray as soon as they are made. 

The Poaching of Rolled Quenelles. — When all the force- 
meat has been used up, the balls are gently tilted into a sauce- 
pan containing boiling, salted water, so calculated in quan- 
tity as to allow of their not being too tightly squeezed. The 
saucepan is covered and kept on the side of the fire until all 
the balls have risen to the surface and are almost out of the 
water. They are then removed with a skimmer and placed in 
a bowl of cold water. 

At last, when they have properly cooled, they are carefully 
drained on a cloth and put aside on a dish until required. 

When the quenelles are needed for immediate use it would 
be better not to cool them. 

2. To Mould Quenelles with a Spoon. — This method may 
be applied to all forcemeats, and allows of the balls being 
much softer, as the forcemeat need not be so stiff. First, butter 
the sautepan or the tray, whereon the balls are to be laid, by 
means of a brush, and let the butter cool. 

Put the sautepan on the table in front and a little to the 
right of one; on the left, place the sautepan or bowl contain- 
ing the forcemeat, and on the further side of the buttered saut^- 



ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 85 

pan there should be a receptacle containing hot water, into 
which the spoon used for moulding is inserted. For ordinary 
quenelles two coffee-spoons are used, one of which is kept in 
the hot water as stated above. Now, with the other held in 
the left hand, take up a little of the forcemeat (just enough to 
fill the spoon) ; withdraw the second spoon from the hot water 
and place it, with its convex side uppermost, on the other spoon . 

This smoothens the upper surface of the forcemeat. Now, 
with the help of the second spoon, remove the whole of the 
contents of the first spoon, and overturn the second spoon on the 
spot in the tray or saut^pan which the ball is intended to 
occupy. The second spoon, being at once moist and hot, 
allows the forcemeat to leave it quite easily in the shape of a 
large olive. Renew this operation until the whole of the force- 
meat has been used. 

The Poaching of Spoon-moulded Quenelles. — When all the 
balls have been moulded, place the tray on the side of the 
stove and pour enough boiling, salted water over them to 
moisten them abundantly. Leave them to poach, and from 
time to time move the tray ; then, when they have swollen suffi- 
ciently and seem soft and firm to the touch, drain them. If 
they are to be used at once they should be placed directly in the 
sauce. If they have been prepared in advance, it would be 
well to cool them as directed under rolled quenelles. 

3. To Form Quenelles with a Piping-bag. — This process 
is especially recommended for small, fine, and light forcemeat 
balls intended for soup garnish. For, besides being extremely 
quick, it allows of making them in any desirable size or shape. 

Butter a tray or a saut^pan, and leave to cool. Put the 
forcemeat into a bag fitted with a pipe at its narrowest end. 
The pipe may be grooved or smooth, and its size must be in 
accordance with that intended for the proposed balls. Now 
squeeze out the latter, proceeding in the usual way and laying 
them very closely. 

The Poaching of Quenelles m,ade by the above Process, 
with ordinary or Mousseline Forcemeat. — These quenelles are 
poached in exactly the same way as the spoon-moulded ones. 

The Poaching of Godiveau Quenelles made with a 
Piping-bag. — These quenelles or balls are laid on a piece of 
fine, buttered paper, which in its turn is placed upon a buttered 
tray. The godiveau must not be too stiff, and the balls are 
laid by means of the piping-bag side by side and slightly 
touching one another. When the tray is covered push it into 
a very moderate oven for a few minutes. The balls are poached 



86 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

when a thin dew of grease may be seen to glisten on their 
surfaces. On the appearance of this dew withdraw them from 
the oven and overturn the tray, carefully, upon a marble slab, 
taking care that the tray does not press at all upon the balls, 
lest it crush them. When the latter are nearly cold the paper 
which covers them is taken off with caution, and all that 
remains to be done is to put them carefully away on a dish 
until they are wanted. 

4. To Mould Forcemeat with the Fingers. — This excellent 
process is as expedient as that of the bag, and it produces 
beautifully shaped balls. Place on the edge of a table, in front 
of one, a saucepan three-quarters full of boiling, salted water, 
the handle of the receptacle being turned to the far side. Now 
take a piece of string one yard in length, double it over, and 
tie the free ends to a weight of two lbs., letting the two strands 
twist round each other. 

This done, there should be a loop at the top of the string. 
Put this loop round the handle of the saucepan, and draw 
the string diametrically across the latter, letting the weight pull 
the string tightly down on the side opposite to the handle. 
When this has been effected the operator, with his left hand, 
takes some of the forcemeat, smoothening it with a spoon, 
and, placing the spoon near the string with his right, first 
finger, he removes from its extremity a portion of the prepara- 
tion about equal to the intended size of the balls. This portion 
of the forcemeat remaining suspended on his first finger, the 
operator now scrapes the latter across the string, and the ball 
falls beneath into the saucepan containing the water. When 
all the stuffing has been moulded in this way the saucepan is 
placed on the fire to complete the poaching of the balls, and 
the precautions indicated in the preceding processes are ob- 
served. 



CHAPTER VIII 

The Various Garnishes for Soups. 

ROYALES. 

206— ORDINARY ROYALE 

Put one oz. of chervil into one pint of boiling consomm6, 
cover the saucepan, and let infusion proceed away from the 
fire for twenty minutes. Now pour this infusion over two 
eggs and six yolks, beaten briskly in a basin, and mix with 
the whisk. Strain through muslin, and carefully remove there- 
from the froth that has formed. Pour into buttered moulds; 
poach in a bain-marie, as in the case of cream, and take great 
care that the water in the bain-marie does not boil. 

According to the way in which the royale is to be divided, 
it may be poached either in large or small "Charlotte" 
moulds; but the latter, large and small alike, must be well 
buttered. 

If the preparation be put into large moulds, thirty-five or 
forty minutes should be allowed for poaching ; if, on the other 
hand, the moulds are small, about fifteen minutes would suffice. 

Always let the royale cool in the moulds. 

207— DESLIQNAC OR CREAM ROYALE 

Boil one pint of thin cream, and pour it, little by little, 
over one egg and six yolks, well whisked in a basin. Season 
with a little salt and nutmeg, strain through muslin, and, for 
the poaching, follow the directions given above. 

208— CHICKEN ROYALE 

Finely pound three oz. of cooked white chicken-meat, and 
add thereto three tablespoonfuls of cold Bechamel. Put this 
paste in a bowl, season with a little salt and a dash of nutmeg, 
dilute with one-fifth pint of cream, and strain through tammy. 

Thicken this preparation with one egg and the yolks of three, 



88 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

and poach in small or large moulds, in accordance with the 
procedure already described. 

209— GAME ROYALE 

Finely pound three oz. of the cooked meat of that game 
which gives its name to the preparation, and add three table- 
spoonfuls of cold Espagnole Sauce and one-fifth pint of rich 
cream, in small quantities at a time. Warm the seasoning with 
a very little cayenne, strain through tammy, thicken with one 
egg and three yolks, and poach as before. 

210— FISH ROYALE 

Stew in butter four oz. of fillet of sole cut into cubes, or 
the same quantity of any other fish suited to the nature of 
the intended soup. Cool, pound finely, and add, little by 
little, two tablespoonfuls of cold Bechamel and one-quarter pint 
of cream. Season with salt and a pinch of nutmeg, and strain 
through tammy. Thicken by means of the yolks of five eggs, 
and poach in large or small moulds. 

211— CARROT OR CRECY ROYALE 

Stew gently in butter five oz. of the red part only of carrots. 
Cool, crush in a mortar, and gradually add two tablespoonfuls 
of Bechamel and one-fifth pint of rich cream. Season with 
table-salt and a pinch of castor sugar, and deepen the tint of 
the royale with a few drops of vegetable red. Strain through 
tammy, thicken with one egg and four yolks, put into moulds, 
and poach. 

212— FRESH PEAS OR ST. GERMAIN ROYALE 

Cook one-half lb. of fresh, small peas in boiling water with 
a bunch of chervil and a few leaves of fresh mint. Pass 
through a sieve, and dilute the resulting' pur^e (in a saucepan) 
with two-fifths of its volume of the liquor it has been cooked 
in and one-fifth of cream. Add a little sugar, the necessary 
salt, one egg, and two yolks. Pass through a fine strainer, 
and poach in well-buttered moulds. 

213— VARIOUS ROY ALES 

Royales may also be made with leeks, celery, &c., the 
procedure being as follows :■ — 

Finely mince six or seven oz. of the chosen vegetable; stew 



THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS 89 

the same gently and thoroughly in butter, and strain through 
tammy. Add to the resulting pur^e three tablespoonfuls of 
Bechamel, one-fifth pint of cream, two eggs, and four yolks. 
Put into large or small moulds, and poach. 

Remarks. — In order that these royales may have the re- 
quired delicacy, I should urge the reader not to exceed the 
prescribed quantities of eggs and yolks, these being so calcu- 
lated as to exactly produce the density required. 

214— THE DIVIDINQ-UP OF ROYALES 

When the poaching is done take the mould or moulds out 
of water, and leave the royale to cool in them. Do not turn out 
the moulds whilst the preparation is hot, as it would surely 
scatter. It only assumes the necessary solidity for being 
divided up by means of the aggregation and contraction of its 
various constituents during the cooling process. 

If the royale has been poached in small moulds, slightly trim 
the cylinders of royale, divide them up laterally into discs, 
and stamp them uniformly with a plain or indented fancy 
cutter. 

// the royale has been poached in large moulds, withdraw it 
from these, and place it on a serviette; trim the tops, cut into 
half-inch slices, and stamp with small, fancy cutters of different 
shapes. These little divisions of royale must always be stamped 
very neatly and quite regularly. 

215— CHIFFONADE 

The name " Chiffonade ^' is given to a mince of sorrel or 
lettuce, intended as a complement for such soups as " Potage 
de sant^," " le Germiny," &c., or various clear consommes like 
"Julienne." 

To prepare Chiffonade, first carefully shred the sorrel or 
lettuce, and remove therefrom all the leaf-ribs. Carefully wash 
the leaves, and squeeze the latter tightly between the fingers 
of the left hand and the table. Now cut them into fine strips 
with a sharp knife. 

If the chiffonade be intended for a consomm^, add it to the 
latter half an hour before dishing up ; it is thus actually cooked 
in the soup itself. If, as is most often the case, it be intended 
for a thick soup, it is better to let it melt well in butter, to 
moisten it with a little consomm^, and to let it boil for ten 
minutes before adding it to the soup. 

Whatever the purpose be for which it is made, chiffonade 
should always be prepared with very tender sorrel or lettuce. 



90 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

216— DIRECTIONS FOR SOUP WITH PASTES 

Vermicelli and the various Italian pastes should measure 
about three oz. per quart of consomm^. They should first 
be thrown into boiling, salted water, where they are left to 
poach for three minutes, whereupon they are drained, cooled, 
and their cooking is completed in the consomm^. 

The parboiling of these pastes is necessary in order to get 
rid of the little agglomerations of flour which adhere to them, 
and which would otherwise make the consomm^ cloudy. 

Tapioca, sago, salep, &c., should also be apportioned at 
about three oz. per quart. But this is only an average, for the 
quality of this kind of products varies greatly, and it is best 
to choose the goods of an excellent maker, and, in order to 
avoid surprises, to abide by that choice. 

These products need no parboiling; they are merely 
sprinkled into the boiling consomm^ while stirring the latter, 
and they are left to cook until the soup is quite clear. The 
boiling should be gentle, and the scum should be removed as 
often as it forms. 

The time allowed for cooking naturally varies in accord- 
ance with the quality of the goods, but the absolute trans- 
parency of the consomm^ is an infallible sign of its having 
been completed. 

Brazilian, Japanese, and other pearls are used in the same 
quantities, but they should poach for thirty minutes if required 
to be very transparent. 

217— THREADED EGGS 

Beat up three eggs in a bowl, season with salt and pepper, 
and strain through a sieve. Now pour the eggs into a fine 
strainer, hold same over a saut^pan containing some boiling 
consomm^, and shift it about in such wise as to let the egg 
fall in threads into the boiling liquid beneath, and thus imme- 
diately coagulate. Drain the egg-threads very carefully lest 
they break. 

218— PROFITEROLLES FOR SOUPS 

These consist of little choux about the size of a large hazel- 
nut, stuffed with some kinds of pur^e, such as that of foie gras 
with cream, or of chicken, or of vegetables, &c. Four fro- 
fiterolles should be allowed for each person. 

To make profiterolles, put a few tablespoonfuls of "pate 
a choux " without sugar (No. 2374) into a piping-bag fitted with 



THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS 91 

a smooth pipe, whose orifice should be about one-quarter inch 
in diameter. Squeeze out portions of the preparation on to a 
tray, so as to form balls about the size of a small hazel-nut; 
gild by means of beaten egg applied with a fine brush, and 
cook in a moderate oven. 

Do not take the profiterolles from the oven until they are 
quite dry. 



CHAPTER IX 
Garnishing Preparations for Releves and Entr]&es. 

219— POTATO CROQUETTES 

Cook quickly in salted water two lb. of peeled and quartered 
potatoes. As soon, as they seem soft to the finger, drain them, 
place them in the front of the oven for a few minutes in order 
to dry them, and then tilt them into a sieve lying on a cloth, 
and press them through the former without rubbing. 

Place the pur^e in a saut^pan ; season with salt, pepper, 
and nutmeg; add one oz. of butter, and dry; i.e., stir over a 
brisk fire until the pur^e becomes a consistent paste. 

Take off the fire, complete with the yolks of three eggs, 
well mixed with the rest, and turn the paste out on to a buttered 
dish, taking care to spread it in a rather thin layer, so as to 
precipitate its cooling. Butter the surface to prevent the pre- 
paration's drying. 

To make croquettes, equal portions of this paste, i.e., por- 
tions weighing about one and one-half oz. of it, are rolled on 
a flour-dusted board into the shape of a cork, a ball, or a 
quoit. These are now dipped into an Anglaise (No. 174) and 
rolled in bread-crumbs or raspings, the latter being well patted 
on to the surface of the croquettes, lest they should fall into 
the frying fat. Let the patting also avail for finishing off the 
selected shape of the objects. These are then plunged into 
hot fat, where they should remain until they have acquired a 
fine, golden colour. 

220— DAUPHINE POTATOES 

Prepare as above the required quantity of paste, and add 
thereto per lb. six oz. of pate k choux without sugar (No. 2374). 

Mix the two constituents thoroughly. 

Dauphine potatoes are moulded in the shape of small 
cylinders, and they are treated a I' Anglaise, like the croquettes. 



GARNISHING FOR RELEVJiS AND ENTRIES 93 

221— DUCHESSE POTATOES 

These are the same as the croquettes, though they are 
differently treated. They are made on a floured board in the 
shape of diminutive cottage-loaves, little shuttle-shaped loaves, 
small quoits, and lozenges or rectangles. They are gilded with 
beaten egg, and when their shape is that of quoits, rectangles, 
or lozenges, they are streaked by means of a small knife. 

After this operation, which is to prevent the gilding from 
blistering, they are baked in the oven for a few minutes previous 
to being used in dressing the dishes they accompany. 

222— MARQUISE POTATOES 

Take one lb. of croquette paste and add thereto six oz. of 
very red, reduced tomato-pur^e. Pour this mixture into a bag 
fitted with a large, grooved pipe, and squeeze it out upon a 
baking-tray in shapes resembling large meringues. 

Slightly gild their surfaces with beaten egg, and put them 
into the oven for a few minutes before using them to dress the 
dish. 

223— ORDINARY OR DRY DUXELLE 

The uses of Duxelle are legion, and it is prepared thus: — 
Slightly fry one teaspoonful of onions in one tablespoonful of 
butter and oil mixed. Add to this four tablespoonfuls of mush- 
room stalks and parings, chopped and well pressed in a towel 
with the view of expelling their vegetable moisture. Stir over 
a brisk fire until the latter has completely evaporated; season 
with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and one coffeespoonful of well- 
chopped parsley, mixing the whole thoroughly. 

Transfer to a bowl, cover with a piece of white, buttered 
paper, and put aside until wanted. 

224— DUXELLE FOR STUFFED VEGETABLES 
(Tomatoes, Mushrooms, &c.) 

Put six tablespoonfuls of dry duxelle into a small stewpan, 
and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of half-glaze sauce con- 
taining plenty of tomato, crushed garlic the size of a pea, and 
two tablespoonfuls of white wine. Set to simmer until the 
required degree of consistence is reached. 

]Sj_B. — A tablespoonful of fine, fresh bread-crumbs may be 
added to the duxelle in order to thicken it. 



94 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

225— DUXELLE FOR GARNISHING SMALL PIES, 
ONIONS, CUCUMBERS, ETC. 

To four tablespoonfuls of dry duxelle add four tablespoon- 
fuls of ordinary pork forcemeat (No. 196). 

226 — MAINTENON (preparation used in stuffing 
preparations k la Maintenon) 

Put one pint of Bechamel into a vegetable-pan with one- 
half pint of Soubise (No. 104), and reduce to half while stirring 
over a brisk fire. Thicken, away from the fire, by means of the 
yolks of five eggs, and add four tablespoonfuls of minced mush- 
rooms, either cooked in the ordinary way or stewed in butter. 

227— MATIQNON 

This preparation serves chiefly for covering certain large 
joints of butcher's meat, or fowl, to which it imparts an appro- 
priate flavour. It is made as follows : — Finely mince two 
medium carrots (the red part only), two onions, and two sticks 
of celery taken from the heart. Add one tablespoonful of raw 
lean ham, cut paysanne-fashion, a sprig of thyme, and half 
a leaf of bay, crushed. 

Stew in butter, and finally swill the saucepan with two 
tablespoonfuls of Madeira. 

228— MIREPOIX 

The purpose of Mirepoix in culinary preparations is the 
same as that of Matignon, but its mode of use is different. 

Its constituents are the same as those of the Matignon, but 
instead of being minced they are cut up into more or less fine 
dice, in accordance with the use for which the preparation is 
intended. 

Instead of the ham, fresh and slightly-salted breast of pork 
may be used, while both the ham and the bacon may be ex- 
cluded under certain circumstances. 

229— FINE OR BORDELAISE MIREPOIX 

Coarse Mirepoix, which are added to certain preparations 
in order to lend these the proper flavour, are generally made 
immediately before being used, but this is not so in the case 
of the finer Mirepoix, which chiefly serves as an adjunct to 
crayfish and lobsters, This is made in advance, and as 
follows : — 



GARNISHING FOR RELEVES AND ENTREES 95 

Cut into dice four oz. of the red part only of carrots, the 
same quantity of onion, and one oz. of parsley stalks. In 
order that the Mirepoix may be still finer, these ingredients 
may now be chopped, but in this case it is advisable to tho- 
roughly press them in a corner of a towel, so as to squeeze out 
their vegetable moisture, the mere process of stewing not being 
sufficient for this purpose. 

Should this water be allowed to remain in the Mirepoix, 
more particularly if the latter must be kept some time, it would 
probably give rise to mustiness or fermentation. 

Put the ingredients into a small stewpan with one and one- 
half oz. of butter and a little powdered thyme and bay, and 
stew until all are well cooked. This done, turn the preparation 
out into a small bowl, heap it together with the back of a 
fork, cover it with a piece of white, buttered paper, and put 
aside until wanted. 

230— VARIOUS SALPICONS 

This term stands for a certain preparatory method applied to 
a series of preparations. 

Salpicons are simple or compound. Simple if they only con- 
tain one product, such as the meat of a fowl, or of game, 
butcher's meat, foie gras, various fish, ham or tongue, mush- 
rooms, truffles, &c. Compound if they consist of two or more of 
the above-mentioned ingredients which may happen to combine 
suitably. 

The preparatory method consists in cutting the various in- 
gredients into dice. 

The series of preparations arises from the many possible com- 
binations of the products, each particular combination bearing 
its own name. 

Thus Salpicons may be Royal, Financier, Chasseur, Parisien, 
Montglas, &c. ; of whichever kind, however, Salpicons are 
always incorporated with a vehicular sauce which is in accord- 
ance with their constituents. 

231— BATTER FOR VARIOUS FRITTERS 

Put into a bowl one lb. of sifted flour, one-quarter oz. of salt, 
one tablespoonful of oil or melted butter, and the necessary 
quantity of barely lukewarm water. If the batter is to be used at 
once mix the ingredients by turning them over and over with- 
out stirring with the spoon, for this would give the preparation an 
elasticity which would prevent its adhering to immersed solids. 
Should the batter be prepared beforehand, however, it may be 



96 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

stirred, since it loses its elasticity when left to stand any length 
of time. 

Before using it add the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth. 

232— BATTER FOR VEGETABLES (Salsify, Celery, &c.) 

Put one lb. of sifted flour into a bowl with one-quarter oz. of 
salt and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter. Dilute with 
one egg and the necessary quantity of cold water. Keep this 
batter somewhat thin, do not stir it, and let it rest for a few 
hours before using. 

333— BATTER FOR FRUIT AND FLOWER FRITTERS 

Put one lb. of flour into a bowl with one-quarter oz. of salt 
and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter. Dilute gradually 
with one-quarter pint of beer and a little tepid water. 

When about to use the batter mix therewith the whites of two 
eggs whisked to a froth. 

N.B. — Keep this batter thin, if anything, and above all do 
not stir overmuch. 

234— BATTER FOR OVEN-GLAZED FRUIT FRITTERS 

Mix one lb. of flour with two tablespoonfuls of oil, a grain of 
salt, two eggs (added one after the other), the necessary quantity 
of water, and one oz. of sugar. Keep this preparation in a luke- 
warm place to let it ferment, and stir it with a wooden spoon be- 
fore using it to immerse the solids. 

Remarks. — Batter for fruit fritters may contain a few table- 
spoonfuls of brandy, in which case an equal quantity of the water 
must be suppressed. 

235— PROVEN^ALE (preparation for stuffing 
cutlets a la Provencale) 

Put one pint of Bechamel into a vegetable-pan and reduce it 
until it has become quite dense. Thicken it with the yolks of 
four eggs, and finish it away from the fire with a crushed piece of 
garlic as large as a pea, and one-quarter lb. of grated cheese. 



CHAPTER X 
Leading Culinary Operations 

236— THE PREPARATION OF SOUPS 

The nutritious liquids known under the name of Soups are of 
comparatively recent origin. Indeed, as they are now served, 
they do not date any further back than the early years of the 
nineteenth century. 

The soups of old cookery were, really, complete dishes, 
wherein the meats and vegetables used in their preparation were 
assembled. They, moreover, suffered from the effects of the 
general confusion which reigned in the menus of those days. 
These menus seem to have depended in no wise, for their items, 
upon the progressive satisfaction of the consumers' appetites, 
and a long procession of dishes was far more characteristic of the 
meal tlian their judicious order and diversity. 

In this respect, as in so many others, Careme was the re- 
former, and, if he were not, strictly speaking, the actual initiator 
of the changes which ushered in our present methods, he cer- 
tainly had a large share in the establishment of the new theories. 

Nevertheless, it took his followers almost a century to bring 
soups to the perfection of to-day, for modern cookery has replaced 
those stodgy dishes of yore by comparatively simple and savoury 
preparations which are veritable wonders of delicacy and taste. 
Now, my attention has been called to the desirability of drawing 
up some sort of classification of soups, if only with the view of 
obviating the absurdity of placing such preparations as are in- 
discriminately called Bisque, Pur^e, CuUis, or Cream under the 
same head. Logically, each preparation should have its own 
special formula, and it is impossible to admit that one and the 
same can apply to all. 

It is generally admitted that the terms Veloutes and 
Creams, whose introduction into the vocabulary of cookery 
is comparatively recent, are peculiarly well suited to sup- 
plant those of Bisque and Cullis, which are steadily becoming 
obsolete, as well as that too vulgar term Puree. Considerations 

H 



98 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

of this kind naturally led me to a new classification of soups, and 
this I shall disclose later. 

I shall not make any lengthy attempt here to refute the argu- 
ments of certain autocrats of the dinner-table who, not so many 
years ago, urged the total abolition of soups. I shall only 
submit to their notice the following quotation from Grimod de la 
Regni^re, one of our most illustrious gastronomists : " Soup is 
to a dinner what the porch or gateway is to a building," that is to 
say, it must not only form the first portion thereof, but it must be 
so devised as to convey some idea of the whole to which it be- 
longs ; or, after the manner of an overture in a light opera, it 
should divulge what is to be the dominant phrase of the melody 
throughout. 

I am at one with Grimod in this, and believe that soups have 
come to stay. Of all the items on a menu, soup is that which 
exacts the most delicate perfection and the strictest attention, for 
upon the first impression it gives to the diner the success of the 
latter part of the meal largely depends. 

Soups should be served as hot as possible in very wkrm plates, 
especially in the case of consommes when these have been pre- 
ceded by cold hors-d'oeuvres. 

Hors-d'oeuvres are pointless in a dinner, and even when 
oysters stand as such they should only be allowed at meals which 
include no soup. 

Those hors-d'oeuvres which consist of various fish, smoked 
or in oil, and strongly seasoned salads, leave a disagreeable taste 
on the consumer's palate and make the soup which follows seem 
flat and insipid if the latter be not served boiling hot. 



Classification of Soups 

This includes (i) clear soups, (2) thick soups, (3) special soups 
of various kinds, (4) classical vegetable soups, including some 
local preparations. 

237— CLEAR SOUPS 

Clear soups, of whatever nature the base thereof may be, 
whether butcher's meat, poultry, game, fish, shell-fish, or 
turtle, &c., are made according to one method only. They are 
always clear consommes to which has been added a slight gar- 
nish in keeping with the nature of the consomm^. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 99 

238— THICK SOUPS 

These are divided into three leacling classes as follows : — (i) 
The Purees, Cullises, or Bisques. (2) Various Veloutt^s. (3) 
Various Creams. 

Remarks. — Though the three preparations of the first class 
are practically the same, and, generally speaking, the Cul- 
lises and the Bisques may be considered as purees of fowl, game, 
or shell-fish, it is advisable to distinguish one from another by 
giving each a special name of its own. 

Thus the word Puree is most suitably applied to any pre- 
paration with a vegetable base. The term Cullis is best fitted to 
preparations having either poultry, game, or fish for base, 
while bisque, in spite of the fact that in former days it was 
applied indiscriminately to purees of shell-fish, poultry, pigeons, 
&€., distinctly denotes a pur^e of shell-fish (either lobster, cray- 
fish, or shrimp, &c.). 

In short, it is imperative to avoid all ambiguities and to give 
everything its proper name, or, at least, that name which identi- 
fies it most correctly. 

239— PUREES 

Farinaceous vegetables, such as haricot-beans and lentils, 
and the floury ones, such as the potato, need no additional 
thickening ingredient, since the flour or fecula which they con- 
tain amply suffices for the leason of their purees. 

On the other hand, aqueous vegetables like carrots, pump- 
kins, turnips, celery, and herbs cannot dispense with a thicken- 
ing ingredient, as their purees of themselves do not cohere in 
the least. 

Cohering or Thickening Elements; their Quantities, — In 
order to effect the coherence of vegetable purees, either rice, 
potato, or bread-crumb cut into dice and fried in butter may be 
used. 

The proportion of these per pound of vegetables should be 
respectively three oz., ten oz., and ten oz. Bread-crumb dice, 
prepared as described above, were greatly used in old cookery, 
and they lend a mellowness to a puree which is quite peculiar to 
them. 

The Dilution of Purees. — Generally this is done by means of 
ordinary white consomm6, though in certain cases, as, for in- 
stance, if the soup is a Lenten one, milk is used. 

The Finishing.— When the purees have been strained and 
brought to the required consistence they should be boiled and 
stirred. Then they are placed on the side of the fire to simmer 

H 2 



loo GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

for twenty-five or thirty minutes. It is at this stage that they are 
purified by means of the careful removal of all the scum that 
forms on their surface. 

When dishing up complete them, away from the fire, with 
three oz. of butter per quart of soup, and pass them once more 
i^hrough a strainer. 

Puree Garnishes. — These are usually either small fried crusts, 
small dice of potato fried in butter, a chiffonade, some kind of 
little brunoise, or, more generally, chervil pluches. 

240— CULLISES 

Cullises have for their base either poultry, game, or fish. 

The thickening ingredients used are : — 

For fowl, two or three oz. of rice, or three-quarters pint of 
poultry velout6 per lb. of fowl. 

For game, three or four oz. of lentils, or three-quarters pint 
of game Espagnole per lb. of game. 

For fish, a clear panada made up of French bread soaked 
in boiling salted milk. Use five oz. of bread and one good pint 
of milk per lb. of fish. Having strained and made up the 
Cullises, boil them while stirring (except in the case of fish 
cullises, which must not boil, and must be served as soon as they 
are made), then place them in a bain-marie and butter their 
surfaces lest a skin should form. 

At the last moment complete them with two or three oz. 
of butter per quart. 

The garnish of poultry or game cullises consists of either 
small dice of game or fowl-fillets, which should be kept aside 
for the purpose; a fine julienne of these fillets, or small quen- 
elles made from the latter, raw. 

The garnish of fish cuUis is generally fish-fillets poached in 
butter and cut up into small dice or in julienne-fashion. 

241— BISQUES 

The invariable base of Bisques is shell-fish cooked in mire- 
poix. 

Their thickening ingredients are, or may be, rice, fish 
velout^, or crusts of bread fried in butter, the proportion being 
three oz. of rice, ten oz. of bread-crusts, or three-quarters pint 
of fish velout^ per lb. of shell-fish cooked in mirepoix (No. 228). 

When the soup is strained, treat it in precisely the same 
way as the cullises. 

The garnish consists of small dice of the meat from the 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS loi 

shell-fish used. These pieces should have been put aside from 
the first. 

242— THE VELOUTES 

These differ from the purees, cullises, and bisques in that 
their invariable thickening element is a velout^ whose prepara- 
tion is in harmony with the nature of the ingredients of the soup, 
these being either vegetables, poultry, game, fish, or shell-fish. 

The Preparation of the Veloute. — Allow three and one-half 
oz. of white roux per quart of the diluent. This diluent should 
be ordinary consomm^ for a velout^ of vegetables or herbs, 
chicken consomm^ for a poultry veloutd, or very clear fish fumet 
for a fish or shell-fish velout^. The procedure is exactly the 
same as that described under No. 26 of the leading sauces. 

The apportionment of the Ingredients. — In general, the 
quantities of each constituent are in the following proportion : — 
Velout^, one-half ; the pur^e of the substance which character- 
ises the soup, one-quarter; the consomm^ used to bring the 
soup to its proper consistence, one-quarter. In respect of finish- 
ing ingredients, use, for thickening, the yolks of three eggs and 
one-fifth pint of cream per quart of soup. 

Thus for four quarts of poultry velout^ we arrive at the 
following quantities : — 

Poultry velout^, three pints; puree of fowl obtained from a 
cleaned and drawn hen weighing about three lbs., one quart ; 
consomm^ for regulating consistence, one quart; leason, twelve 
yolks and four-fifths pint of cream. 

Rules Relative to the Preparation. — If the velout^ is to be 
of lettuce, chicory, celery, or mixed herbs, these ingredients 
are scalded for five minutes, drained, gently stewed in butter, 
and added to the prepared veloute in which their cooking is 
completed. 

If carrots, turnips, onions, &c., are to be treated, finely mince 
them, stew them in butter without allowing them to acquire any 
colour, and add them to the veloute. 

If fowl be the base, cook it in the velout^. This done, with- 
draw it, remove the meat, finely pound same, and add it to 
the veloute, which is then rubbed through tammy. 

In the case of fish the procedure is the same as for fowl. 
For game, roast or saute the selected piece, bone it, finely pound 
the meat, and combine the latter with the velout^, which should 
then be rubbed through tammy. 

For shell-fish, cook these in a mirepoix, finely pound them 
together with the latter, add to the veloute, and pass the whole 
through tammy, 



102 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

The Completing of Veloute. — Having passed the soup 
through tammy, bring it to its proper degree of consistence 
with the necessary quantity of consomm^, boil while stirring, 
and place in a bain-marie. 

At the last moment finish the soup with the leason and two 
oz. of butter per quart of liquid. 

Garnish for Veloute. — In the case of vegetables : Chiffonade, 
fine printaniers, or brunoise. 

For fowl and game : The fillets of one or the other, poached 
and cut into small dice or in julienne-fashion; little quenelles 
made with the raw fillets, or either fowl or game royales. 

For fish : Small dice or fine julienne of fish fillets poached 
in butter. 

For shell-fish : Small dice of cooked shell-fish meat put aside 
for the purpose. 

Remarks. — In certain circumstances these garnishes are in- 
creased by means of three tablespoonfuls of poached rice per 
quart of the soup. 

243— THE CREAMS 

Practically speaking, the preparation of the creams is the 
same as that of the veloutes, but for the following exceptions : — 

1. In all circumstances, i.e., whatever be the nature of the 
soup, velout^ is substituted for clear Bechamel. 

2. The correct consistence of the soup is got by means of 
milk instead of consomm^. 

3. Creams do not require egg-yolk leasons. 

4. They are not buttered, but they are finished with one-fifth 
or two-fifths pint of fresh cream per quart. 

Creams allow of the same garnishes as the veloutes. 

244- SPECIAL SOUPS AND THICKENED CONSOMMES 

These are of different kinds, though their preparation 
remains the same, and they do not lend themselves to the re- 
quirements of veloutes or creams. I should quote as types of 
this class the Ambassador, a I'Americaine, Darblay, Faubonne, 
&c. 

The same holds good with thickened consommes, such as 
" Germiny," " Coquelin," &c. 

245— VEGETABLE SOUPS 

These soups, of which the " Paysanne " is the radical type, 
do not demand very great precision in the apportionment of 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 103 

the vegetables of which they are composed ; but they need great 
care and attention, notwithstanding. 

The vegetables, in the majority of cases, must undergo a 
long stewing in butter, an operation the object of which is to 
expel their vegetable moisture and to saturate them with butter. 

In respect of others which have a local character, the vege- 
tables should be cooked with the diluent, without a preparatory 
stewing. 

246— FOREIGN SOUPS 

In the course of Part II. of this work I shall allude to certain 
soups which have a foreign origin, and whose use, although it 
may not be general, is yet sufficiently common. If only for the 
sake of novelty or variety, it is occasionally permissible to poach 
upon the preserves of foreign nations; but apart from this 
there exist among the recipes of foreigners many which can but 
enrich their adopter, besides being generally appreciated. 



I04 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 



2. Braising, Poaching, Sautes, and Poeling. 

Except for the roasts, grills, and fryings, which will be dis- 
cussed later, all culinary operations dealing with meat are re- 
lated to one of the four following methods : Braising, poeling, 
poaching, and sautes. 

These four methods of cooking belong, however, to the 
sauces, and this explains how it is that the latter hold such a 
pre-eminent position in French cookery. 

Before devoting any attention to particular formulae, which 
will be given in the second part of this work, it seemed desirable 
to me to recapitulate in a general way the theory of each of these 
cooking methods. These theories are of paramount importance, 
since it is only with a complete knowledge of them that good 
results may be obtained by the culinary operator. 

247— ORDINARY BRAISINQS 

Of all the various culinary operations, braisings are the most 
expensive and the most difficult. Long and assiduous practice 
alone can teach the many difficulties that this mode of procedure 
entails, for it is one which demands extraordinary care and 
the most constant attention. Over and above the question of 
care and that of the quality of meat used, which latter considera- 
tion is neither more nor less important here than in any other 
cooking operation, there are also these conditions to be fulfilled 
in order that a good braising may be obtained, namely, that 
excellent stock should be used in moistening, and that the 
braising base be well prepared. 

Meats that are Braised. — Mutton and beef are braised in the 
ordinary way, but veal, lamb, and poultry are braised in a 
manner which I shall treat of later. 

Meat intended for braising need not, as in the case of roasts, 
be that of young beasts. The best for the purpose is that 
derived from an animal of three to six years of age in the case 
of beef, and one to two years in the case of mutton. Good meat 
is rarely procured from animals more advanced than these in 
years, and, even so, should it be used, it would not only be 
necessary to protract the time of cooking inordinately, but the 
resulting food would probably be fibrous and dry. 

Properly speaking, meat derived from old or ill-nourished 
beasts only answers two purposes in cookery, viz., the prepara- 
tion of consommes and that of various kinds of stock. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 105 

The Larding of Meats for Braising. — When the meat to be 
braised is ribs or fillet of beef, it is always interlarded, and con- 
sequently never dry if of decent quality. But this is not the 
case with the meat of the rumps, or with leg of mutton. These 
meats are not sufficiently fat of themselves to allow of prolonged 
cooking without their becoming dry. For this reason they are 
larded with square strips of bacon fat, which should be as long 
as the meat under treatment, and about half an inch thick. 
These strips of fat are first seasoned with pepper, nutmeg, and 
spices, besprinkled with chopped parsley, and then marinaded 
for two hours in a little brandy. They should be inserted into 
the meat equidistantly by means of special larding needles. 
The proportion of fat to the meat should be about three oz. 
per lb. 

To Marinade Braisings. — Larded or not, the meats intended 
for braising gain considerably from being marinaded for a few 
hours in the wines which are to supply their moistening and 
the aromatics constituting the base of their liquor. Before doing 
this season them with salt, pepper, and spices, rolling them 
over and over in these in order that they may absorb the season- 
ing thoroughly. Then place them in a receptacle just large 
enough to contain them, between two litters of aromatics, which 
will be detailed hereafter; cover them with the wine which forms 
part of their braising-liquor, and which is generally a white or 
red " vin ordinaire," in the proportion of one-quarter pint per 
lb. of meat, and leave them to marinade for about six hours, 
taking care to turn them over three or four times during that 
period. 

The Aromatics or Base of the Braising. — These are thickly 
sliced and fried carrots and onions, in the proportion of one oz. 
per lb. of meat, one faggot, including one garlic clove and one 
and one-half oz. of fresh, blanched bacon-rind. 

To Fry, Prepare, and Cook Braised Meat. — Having suf- 
ficiently marinaded the meat, drain it on a sieve for half an hour, 
and wipe it dry with a clean piece of linen. Heat some clarified 
fat of white consomm^ in a thick saucepan of convenient size, or 
a braising-pan, and when it is sufficiently hot put the meat in 
the saucepan and let it acquire colour on all sides. The object 
of this operation is to cause a contraction of the pores of the 
meat, thereby surrounding the latter with a species of cuirass, 
which prevents the inner juices from escaping too soon and 
converting the braising into a boiling process. The frying 
should, therefore, be a short or lengthy process according as to 
whether the amount of meat to be braised be small or large, 



io6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Having properly fried the meat, withdraw it from the 
braising-pan, cover it with slices of larding-bacon if it be lean, 
and string it. In the case of fillets and ribs of beef, this treat- 
ment may be dispensed with, as they are sufficiently well 
supplied with their own fat. 

Now pour the marinade prepared for the meat into the 
braising-pan, and place the meat on a litter composed of the 
vegetables the marinade contained. Cover the pan and rapidly 
reduce the wine therein. When this has assumed the consist- 
ency of syrup add sufficient brown stock to cover the meat (it 
being understood that the latter only just conveniently fills the 
pan), cover the braising-pan, set to boil, and then put it in a 
moderate oven. Let the meat cook until it may be deeply pricked 
with a braiding needle without any blood being drawn. At 
this stage the first phase of braising, whereof the theory shall be 
given hereafter, comes to an end, and the meat is transferred 
to another clean utensil just large enough to hold it. 

With respect to the cooking liquor, either of the two fol- 
lowing modes of procedure may now be adopted : — 

1. If the liquor is required to be clear it need only be 
strained, over the meat, through muslin, while the braising-pan 
should be placed in the oven, where the cooking may go on 
until completed, interrupting it only from time to time in order 
to baste the meat. This done, thicken the liquor with arrow- 
root, after the manner of an ordinary thickened gravy (No. 41). 

2. If, on the contrary, a sauce be required, the liquor should 
be reduced to half before being put back on the meat, and it 
is restored to its former volume by means of two-thirds of its 
quantity of Espagnole sauce and one-third of tomato pur^e, or 
an equivalent quantity of fresh tomatoes. 

The cooking of the meat is completed in this sauce, and 
the basting should be carried on as before. When it is cooked 
— that is to say, when the point of a knife may easily be thrust 
into it without meeting with any resistance whatsoever — it 
should be carefully withdrawn from the sauce ; the latter should 
be again strained through muslin and then left to rest, with a 
view to letting the grease settle on the surface. 

Carefully remove this grease, and rectify the sauce with a 
little excellent stock if it is too thick, or by reduction if it is 
too thin. 

The Glazing of Braised Meat. — Braised meat is glazed in 
order to make it more sightly, but this operation is by no means 
essential, and it is quite useless when the meat is cut up previous 
to being served. 



I.EADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 107 

To glaze meat place it as soon as cooked in the front of the 
oven, sprinkle it slightly with its cooking liquor (gravy or 
sauce), and push it into the oven so that this liquor may dry. 
Being very gelatinous, the latter adheres to the meat, while its 
superfluous water evaporates, and thus coats the solid with a 
thin film of meat-glaze. This operation is renewed eight or 
ten times, whereupon the meat is withdrawn from the oven, 
placed on a dish, and covered until it is served. 

Various Remarks relative to Braising. — When a braised 
meat is to be accompanied by vegetables, as in the case of beef 
a la mode, these vegetables may either be cooked with the meat 
during the second braising phase, after they have been duly 
coloured in butter with a little salt and sugar, or they may be 
cooked separately with a portion of the braising-liquor. The 
first procedure is the better, but it lends itself less to a correct 
final dressing. It is, therefore, the operator's business to decide 
according to circumstances which is the more suitable of the 
two. 

I pointed out above that the cooking of braised meat con- 
sists of two phases, and I shall now proceed to discuss each 
of these, so that the reader may thoroughly understand their 
processes. 

It has been seen that meat, to be braised, must in the first 
place be fried all over, and this more particularly when it is 
very thick. The object of this operation is to hold in the meat's 
juices, which would otherwise escape from the cut surfaces. 
Now, this frying produces a kind of cuirass around the flesh, 
which gradually thickens during the cooking process until it 
reaches the centre. Under the influence of the heat of the sur- 
rounding liquor the meat fibres contract, and steadily drive the 
contained juices towards the centre. Soon the heat reaches the 
centre, where, after having effected a decomposition of the juices 
therein collected, the latter release the superfluous water they 
contain. This water quickly vaporises, and by so doing dis- 
tends and separates the tissues surrounding it. Thus, during 
this first phase, a concentration of juices takes place in the 
centre of the meat. It will now be seen that they undergo an 
absolutely different process in the second. 

As shown, the disaggregation of the muscular tissue begins 
in the centre of the meat as soon as the temperature which 
reaches there is sufficiently intense to vaporise the collected 
juices. The tension of the vapour given off by the latter per- 
force increases by dint of finding no issue; it therefore exerts 
considerable pressure upon the tissues, though now its direction 



io8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

is the reverse of what it was in the first place, i.e., from the 
centre to the periphery. 

Gradually the tissues relax under the pressure and the effects 
of cooking, and, the work of disaggregation having gradually 
reached the fried surface, the latter also relaxes in its turn and 
allows the constrained juices to escape and to mix with the 
sauce. At the same time, however, the latter begins to filter 
through the meat, and this it does in accordance with a well- 
known physical law, namely, capillarit}'^. This stage of the 
braising demands the most attentive care. The braising-liquor 
is found to be considerably reduced and no longer covers the 
meat, for the operation is nearing its end. The bared meat 
would, therefore, dry very quickly, if care were not taken to 
baste it constantly and to turn it over and over, so that the 
whole of the muscular tissue is moistened and thoroughly 
saturated with the sauce. By this means the meat acquires that 
mellowness which is typical of braisings and distinguishes them 
from other preparations. 

I should be loth to dismiss this subject before pointing out 
two practices in the cooking of braisings which are as common 
as they are absolutelv wrong. The first of these is the 
" pinca^e " of the braising base. Instead of laying the fried 
meat on a litter of aromatics, likewise fried beforehand, many 
operators place the meat, which they often omit to fry, on raw 
aromatics at the bottom of the braising-pan. The whole is 
sprinkled with a little melted fat, and the aromatics are left to 
fry, on one side only, until they begin to burn on the bottom 
of the receptacle. 

If this operation were properlv conducted it might be 
tolerated, even though aromatics which are only fried on one 
side cannot exude the same savour as those which are fried all 
over. But nine times out of ten the frying is too lengthy a 
process ; from neglect or absent-mindedness the aromatics are 
left to burn on the bottom of the pan, and there results a 
bitterness which pervades and spoils the whole sauce. 

As a matter of fact, this process of " pingage " is an absurd 
caricature of a method of preparing braisings which was very 
common in old cookery, the custom of which was not to prepare 
the braising-liquor in advance, but to cook it and its ingredients 
simultaneously with the meat to be braised. This method, 
though excellent, was very expensive, the meats forming the 
base of the braising-liquor consisting of thick slices of raw 
ham or veal. The observance of economy, therefore, long ago 
compelled cooks to abandon this procedure. But routine has 



LEADING^CULINARY OPERATIONS 109 

perpetuated the form of the latter without insisting upon the 
use of its constituents, wliich were undoubtedly its essential 
part. Routine has even, in certain cases, aggravated the first 
error by instituting a habit consisting of substituting bones for 
the meats formerly employed — an obviously ridiculous practice. 

In the production of ordinary consomme (No. i) we saw that 
bones, even when taken from veal, as is customary in the case 
of braising-liquor, require, at the very least, ten to twelve hours 
of cooking before they can yield all their soluble properties. 
As a proof of this it is interesting to note that, if bones undergo 
only five or six hours of cooking, and are moistened afresh and 
cooked for a further six hours, the liquor of the second cooking 
yields more meat-glaze than that of the first ; though it must be 
admitted that, while the latter is more gelatinous, it has less 
savour. But this gelatinous property of bones is no less useful 
to braisings than is their savour, since it is the former that 
supplies the mellowness, which nothing can replace and without 
which the sauce can have no quality. 

Since, therefore, the longest time that a braising can cook 
is from four to five hours, it follows that^ if bones be added 
thereto, their properties will scarcely have begun disaggregating 
when the meat is cooked. They will, in fact, have yielded but 
an infinitesimal portion of these properties; wherefore their 
addition to the braising is, to say the least, quite useless. 

It now remains to be proved that the above method is bad 
from another point of view. 

I suppose I need not fear contradiction when I assert that, 
in order that a braising may be good, its sauce should be short 
and correspondingly substantial; also that the sauce obtained 
from a piece of meat moistened with a quart of liquid cannot 
be so good as that resulting from the moistening of a pint only. 

It is more particularly on this account that I advise a braising 
utensil which can only just hold the meat, for since, in the firfat 
stage, the meat is only moistened with the braising-liquor, the 
smaller the receptacle may be the less liquor will it require, 
and the latter will in consequence be the tastier. Hence, if 
bones be added to the braising, the utensil must necessarily be 
larger, and a greater quantity of braising-liquor must be used. 
But this liquor will not be nearly so savoury as that obtained 
from the process I recommend; in fact, it will be but a rather 
strong broth, quite unfit for the impregnation of the meat, 
and the final result will be a tasteless lump of fibre instead of a 
succulent braising. 

I must apologise to the reader for my insistence with regard 



I lo GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

to these questions, but their importance is such that success is 
beyond reach in the matter of brown sauces and braisings unless 
the above details have been thoroughly grasped. Moreover, the 
explanations given will afford considerable help in the under- 
standing of operations which I shall give later; therefore it is 
to be hoped that the examination of the theories involved, 
however long this has been, will prove of use and assistance. 

248— BRAISING OF WHITE MEATS 

The braising of white meats as it is now effected in modern 
cookery is, strictly speaking, not braising at all, inasmuch as 
the cooking is stopped at the close of the first of the two phases 
which I mentioned when discussing brown braisings. True, 
old cookery did not understand braising in the way that the 
modern school does, and under the ancient regime large pieces, 
especially of veal, were frequently cooked until they could 
almost be scooped with a spoon. This practice has been gene- 
rally, though mistakenly, eschewed, but its name-survives. 

White braisings are made with the neck, the saddle, the loin, 
the fillets, the fricandeaus, and the sweet-bread of veal, young 
turkeys and fat pullets, and sometimes, though less frequently, 
relev^s of lamb, hindquarters or saddle. The procedure is the 
same for all these meats; the time of cooking alone varies in 
accordance with their size. The aromatics are the same as 
those of the brown braisings, but the frying of them is optional. 

The moistening liquor is brown veal stock (No. 9). 

Mode of Procedure. — Except for the veal sweet-bread, which 
is always blanched before being braised, the meats or poultry 
to be treated may always be slightly stiffened and browned in 
butter, on all sides. This is not essential in all cases, but I 
think that when they do undergo something of the kind they 
dry less quickly. Now place them in a utensil just large enough 
to hold them and deep enough to keep the lid from touching 
them. Place the aromatics under them and moisten with a little 
veal stock; set to boil on a moderate fire, and reduce the veal 
stock with the lid on. When this stock has assumed the con- 
sistence of a glaze, add a further similar quantity of fresh stock, 
and reduce as before. The third time moisten the veal until it 
is half covered, and push the pan into a moderate oven. 

The meat needs constant basting while it cooks, in order 
to avoid its drying; and, as the stock is very gelatinous, it 
forms a coating on the surface which resists the evaporation of 
the contained juices; for these, being insufficiently constrained 
by the slight frying the meat has undergone, tend to vaporise 
under the influence of the heat. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS iii 

It is for this reason that the stock must be reduced to a 
glaze before finally moistening. If the moistening were all 
done at once, the liquor would not be sufficiently dense to 
form the coating mentioned above, and the meat would con- 
sequently dry on being set to cook. 

Braised white meat is known to be cooked when, after having 
deeply pricked it with a braiding needle, it exudes an absolutely 
colourless liquid. This liquid denotes that the piece is cooked 
to the centre, and as a result thereof the blood has decom- 
posed. 

There lies the great difference between brown braisings and 
white-meat braisings. The latter are practically roasts, and 
they should not be made with any but young poultry or meats, 
very fat and tender, for they cannot go beyond their correct 
time of cooking, which equals that of roasts, without imme- 
diately losing all their quality. A quarter of an hour too much in 
the cooking of a kernel of veal weighing about six lbs. is enough 
to make the meat dry and unpalatable, and to thoroughly spoil 
it, whereas a brown braising cannot be over-cooked, provided 
it do not burn. 

White braised meats are generally glazed, and this process 
is especially recommended for larded pieces, which, though less 
common nowadays than formerly, can still claim many 
votaries. 

249— POACHINQS 

However nonsensical it may sound, the best possible de- 
finition of a poaching is a boiling that does not boil. The 
term -poach is extended to all slow processes of cooking which 
involve the use of a liquor, however small. Thus the term 
poach applies to the cooking in court-botiillon of large pieces 
of turbot and salmon, as well as to fillets of sole cooked with 
a little fish fumet, to hot mousselines and mousses, cooked in 
moulds, to quenelles which are cooked in salted water, to eggs 
announced as "poached," to creams, various royales, &c. It 
will readily be seen that among so many different products, the 
time allowed for the cooking in each case must differ some- 
times widely from the rest. The treatment of them all, how- 
ever, is subject to this unalterable principle, namely, that the 
poaching liquor must not boil, though it should reach a degree 
of heat as approximate as possible to boiling-point. Another 
principle is that large pieces of fish or poultry be set to boll 
in cold liquor, after which the latter is brought to the required 
temperature as rapidly as possible. The case may be the 
same with fillets of sole, or poultry, which are poached almost 



ti2 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

dry ; but all other preparations whose mode of cooking is 
poaching gain by being immersed in liquor which has reached 
the required temperature beforehand. 

Having regard to the multitudinous forms and kinds of pro^ 
ducts that are poached, it would be somewhat difficult to state 
here the details and peculiarities proper to each iti the matter 
of poaching; I think, therefore, I should do better to leave 
these details to the respective recipes of each product, though it 
will now be necessary to disclose the way of poaching poultry, 
if only with a view to thoroughly acquainting the reader with 
the theory propounded above. 

Properly prepare the piece of poultry to be poached, and 
truss it with its feet folded back alongside of the breast. 

If it is to be stuffed, this should be done before trussing. 

If it is to be larded or studded, either with truffles, ham, 
or tongue, rub it when trussed on the fillets and legs with half 
a lemon, and dip the same portions of its body (namely, those 
to be larded or studded) for a few moments in boiling white 
stock. The object of this operation is to slightly stiffen the 
skin, thus facilitating the larding or studding. 

The Cooking of the Piece of Poultry. — Having stuffed, 
larded, or studded it, if necessary, and having, in any case, 
trussed it, place it in a receptacle just large enough to hold it, 
and moisten with some excellent white stock previously pre- 
pared. 

Set to boil, skim, put the lid on, and continue the cooking 
at a low simmer. It is useless to work too quickly, as the 
operation would not be shortened a second by so doing. The 
only results would be : — 

1. Too violent evaporation, which would reduce the liquor 
and disturb its limpidness. 

2. The running of a considerable risk of bursting the piece 
of poultry, especially when the latter is stuffed. 

The fowl, or whatever it may be, is known to be cooked 
when, after pricking the thick of the leg close to the "drum- 
stick," the issuing liquid is white. 

Remarks. — (a) The need of poaching poultry in a receptacle 
just large enough to hold the piece is accounted for as follows : 
(i) The piece must be wholly immersed in the stock during the 
cooking process. (2) As the liquor used is afterwards served 
as an accompanying sauce to the dish, the less there is of it 
the more saturated does it become with the juices of the meat, 
and, consequently, the better it is. 

(b) (i) The white stock used in poaching should be pre- 
pared beforehand, and be very clear. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 113 

(2) If the piece of poultry were set to cook with the products 
constituting the stock, even if these were more than liberally 
apportioned, the result would be bad, for inasmuch as a fowl, 
for example, can only take one and one-half hours, at the most, 
to cook, and the time required for extracting the nutritious and 
aromatic principles from the constituents of the stock would 
be at least six hours, it follows that the fowl would be cooking 
in little more than hot water, and the resulting sauce would 
be quite devoid of savour. 

250— POELINQS 

Poelings are, practically speaking, roasts, for the cooking 
periods of each are the same, except that the former are cooked 
entirely or almost entirely with butter. They represent a sim- 
plified process of old cookery, which consisted in enveloping 
the object to be treated, after frying it, in a thick coating of 
Matignon. It was then wrapped with thin slices of pork fat, 
covered with buttered paper, placed in the oven or on a spit, 
and basted with melted butter while it cooked. This done, its 
grease was drained away, a;nd the vegetables of the matignon 
were inserted in the braising-pan wherein the piece had cooked, 
or in a saucepan, and were moistened with excellent Madeira or 
highly seasoned stock. Then, when the liquor had thoroughly 
absorbed the aroma of the vegetables, it was strained, and its 
grease was removed just before dishing up. This excellent 
method is worthy of continued use in the case of large pieces 
of poultry. 

Preparation of Peeled Meats. — Pl&ce in the bottom of a deep 
and thick receptacle, just large enough to hold the piece to be 
poeled, a layer of raw matignon (No. 227). The meat or piece 
of poultry is placed on the vegetables after it has been well 
seasoned, and is copiously sprinkled with melted butter; cover 
the utensil, and push it into an oven whose heat is not too 
fierce. Set it to cook gently in this way, after the manner of a 
stew, and frequently sprinkle with melted butter. 

When the meats or the pieces of poultry are cooked, the 
utensil is uncovered so that the former may acquire a fine colour ; 
then they are transferred to a dish which should be kept 
covered until taken to the table. Now add to the vegetables 
(which must not be burned) a sufficient quantity of brown 
veal stock (No. 9), transparent and highly seasoned; set the 
whole to boil gently for ten minutes, strain through a serviette, 
carefully remove all grease from the poeling stock and send 
it to the table in a sauceboat at the same time as the meat 
or poultry, which, by the bye, is generally garnished. 



114 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Remarks on Poelings. — It is of paramount importance that 
these be not moistened during the process of cooking, for in 
that case their savour would be the same as that of braised 
white meats. 

Nevertheless, an exception may be made in the case of such 
feathered game as pheasants, partridges, and quails, to which 
is added, when nearly cooked, a small quantity of burnt brandy. 

It is also very important that the vegetables should not have 
their grease removed before their moistening stock is added to 
them. The butter used in the cooking absorbs a large propor- 
tion of the savour of both the vegetables and the meat under 
treatment, and, to make good this loss, it is essential that the 
moistening stock remain at least ten minutes in contact with 
the butter. At the end of this time it may be removed without 
in the least impairing the aroma of the stock. 

Special Poelings known as "En Casserole," or "En 
Cocotle." — The preparations of butcher's meats, of poultry, or 
game, known as "en casserole " or "en cocotte," are actual 
poelings cooked in special earthenware utensils and served in 
the same. Generally, preparations known as " en casserole " 
are simply cooked in butter, without the addition of vegetables. 

When the cooking is done, the piece under treatment is 
withdrawn for a moment, and some excellent brown veal stock 
(No. 9) is poured into the utensil. This is left to simmer for 
a few minutes; the superfluous butter is then removed; the 
piece is returned to the earthenware utensil, and it is kept hot, 
without being allowed to boil, until it is dished up. 

For preparations termed "en cocotte," the procedure is the 
same, except that the piece is garnished with such vegetables 
as mushrooms, the bottoms of artichokes, small onions, carrots, 
turnips, &c., which are either turned or regularly pared, and 
half cooked in butter before being used. 

One should endeavour to use only fresh vegetables, and 
these should be added to the piece constituting the dish in such 
wise as to complete their cooking with it. 

The earthenware utensils used for this purpose improve with 
use, provided they be cleaned with clean, fresh water, without 
any soda or soap. If new utensils have to be used, these 
should be filled with water, which is set to boil, and they should 
then undergo at least twelve hours' soaking. For the pre- 
scribed time this water should be kept gently boiling, and then 
the utensil should be well wiped and soaked anew, in fresh 
water, before being used. 



LeadinC culinary operations 1 15 

251— THE SAUTES 

What characterises the process we call " saut^ " is that the 
object treated is cooked dry — that is to say, solely by means of 
a fatty substance such as butter, oil, or grease. 

Sautes are made with cut-up fowl or game, or with butcher's 
meat suitably divided up for the purpose. 

All products treated in this way must be frizzled — that is 
to say, they must be put into the fat when it is very hot in order 
that a hardened coating may form around them which will 
keep their juices within. This is more particularly desirable 
for red meats such as beef and mutton. 

The cooking of fowl sautes must, after the meats have been 
frizzled, be completed on the stove or, with lid off, in the oven, 
where they should be basted with butter after the manner of a 
roast. 

The pieces are withdrawn from the utensil with a view to 
swilling the latter, after which, if they be put back into the sauce 
or accompanying garnish, they should only remain therein a 
few moments or just sufficiently long to become properly warm. 

The procedure is the same for game sautes. 

Sautes of butcher's meats (red meats), such as tournedos, 
kernels, cutlets, fillets, and noisettes, are always effected on the 
stove; the meats are frizzled and cooked with a small quantity 
of clarified butter. 

The thinner and smaller they are, the more rapidly should 
the frizzling process be effected. 

When blood appears on the surface of their raw side, they 
should be turned over; when drops of blood begin to bedew 
their other side, they are known to be cooked. 

The swilling of the utensil obtains in all sautes. After 
having withdrawn the treated product from the saucepan, re- 
move the grease and pour the condimentary liquid (a wine), that 
forms part of the accompanying sauce, into the saucepan. 

Set to boil, so that the solidified gravy lying on the bottom 
may dissolve, and add the sauce; or simply add the swilling 
liquid to the prepared sauce or accompanying garnish of the 
saut^. The utensil used must always be just large enough to 
hold the objects to be treated. If it be too large, the parts left 
uncovered by the treated meats burn, and swilling is then im- 
possible, whence there results a loss of the solidified gravy, 
which is an important constituent in the sauce. 

Sautes of white, butcher's meats, such as veal and lamb, must 
also be frizzled in hot fat, but their cooking must be completed 
gently on the side of the fire, and in many cases v>'ith lid on. 



n6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Preparations of a mixed nature, which partly resemble 
sautes and partly braisings, are also called sautes. Stews, how- 
ever, is their most suitable name. 

These dishes are made from beef, veal, lamb, game, &c., 
and they are to be found in Part II. under the headings Es- 
touffade; Goulah; Sautt^s : Chasseur, Marengo, Bourgeoise; 
Navarin ; Civet; &c. 

In the first stage of their preparation, the meats are cut up 
small and fried like those of the sautes; in the second, slow 
cooking with sauce or garnish makes them akin to braised 
meats. 

3. Roasts, Grills, Fryings. 
Roasts. 

Of the two usual methods of roasting, the spit will always 
be used in preference to the oven, if only on account of the 
conditions under which the operation is effected, and whatever 
be the kind of fuel used — wood, coal, or gas. 

The reason of this preference is clear if it be remembered 
that, in spite of every possible precaution during the progress 
of an oven roast, it is impossible to avoid an accumulation of 
vapour around the cooking object in a closed oven. And this 
steam is more particularly objectionable inasmuch as it is ex- 
cessive in the case of delicately flavoured meats, which latter 
are almost if not entirely impaired thereby. 

The spitted roast, on the contrary, cooks in the open in a 
dry atmosphere, and by this means retains its own peculiar 
flavour. Hence the unquestionable superiority of spitted roasts 
over the oven kind, especially in respect of small feathered 
game. 

In certain circumstances and places there is no choice of 
means, and, nolens volens, the oven has to be used; but, in 
this case at least, all possible precautions should be observed 
in order to counteract the effects of the steam above mentioned. 

252— LARDING BACON FOR ROASTS 

Poultry and game to be roasted ought generally to be partly 
covered with a large thin slice of larding bacon, except those 
pieces of game which in special cases are larded. 

The object and use of these slices are not only to shield the 
fillets of fowl and game from the severe heat of the fire, but also 
to prevent these from drying while the legs, which the heat 
takes much longer to penetrate than the other parts, are cook- 
ing. The slices of bacon should therefore completely cover the 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 117 

breasts of fowl and game, and they should be tied on to the 
latter by means of string. 

In some cases roasts of butcher's meat are covered with 
layers of veal- or beef-fat, the object of which is similar to 
that of the bacon prescribed above. 

253— SPITTED ROASTS 

The whole theory of roasts on the spit might be condensed 
as follows : — 

In the case of butcher's meat, calculate the intensity of the 
heat used according to the piece to be roasted, the latter's size 
and quality, and the time it has hung. Experience, however, is 
the best guide, for any theory, whatever be its exactness, can 
only give the leading principles and general rules, and cannot 
pretend to supply the place of the practised eye and the accuracy 
which are the result of experience alone. 

Nevertheless, I do not say with Brillat Savarin that a roaster 
is born and not made; I merely state that one may become a 
good roaster with application, observation, care, and a little 
aptitude. 

The three following rules will be found to cover all the 
necessary directions for spitted roasts : — 

1 . All red meats containing a large quantity of juice should 
be properly set, and then, according to their size, made to 
undergo the action of a fire capable of radiating a very penetrat- 
ing heat with little or no flame. 

2. In the case of white meats, whose cooking should be 
thorough, the fire ought to be so regulated as to allow the 
roast to cook and colour simultaneously. 

3. With small game the fuel should be wood, but whatever 
fuel be used the fire ought to be made up in suchwise as to 
produce more flame than glowing embers. 

254— OVEN ROASTS 

The degree of heat used for each roast must be regulated 
according to the nature and size of the latter after the manner 
of spitted roasts. 

An oven roast, in the first place, should always be placed 
on a meatstand, and this should be of such a height that at no 
given moment during the cooking process the meat may come 
in contact with the juices and fat which have drained from it 
into the utensil beneath. Failing a proper stand, a spit resting 
upon the edges of the utensil may be used. 

No liquid of any kind, gravy or water, need be put in the 
baking-pan. The addition of any liquid is rather prejudicial 



ii8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

than otherwise, since by producing vapour which hangs over 
the roast it transforms the latter into a stew. 

Remarks. — Whether spitted or in the oven, a roast must 
always be frequently basted with a fatty substance, but never 
with any other liquid. 

255— THE GRAVY OF ROASTS 

The real and most natural gravy for roasts is made from 
the swilling of the baking- or dripping-pan, even if water 
be used as the diluent, since the contents of these utensils 
represent a portion of the essential principles of the roast 
fallen from it in the process of cooking. But to obtain 
this result neither the utensils nor the gravy ought to have 
burned; the latter should merely have solidified, and for this 
reason a roast cooked in a very fierce oven ought to be laid 
on a pan only just large enough to hold it, so that the fat may 
not burn. 

The swilling can in any case only produce a very small quan- 
tity of gravy, consequently, when it happens that a greater 
quantity is required, the need is met beforehand by preparing 
a stock madte from bones and trimmings of a similar nature to 
the roast for which the gravy is required. The procedure for 
this is as follows : — 

Place the bones and trimmings in a pan with a little fat and 
literally roast them. Then transfer them to a saucepan, moisten 
so as to cover with tepid, slightly-salted water, and add thereto 
the swillings of the pan wherein they were roasted. Boil, skim, 
and set to cook gently for three or four hours, according to the 
nature of the products used. This done, almost entirely remove 
the grease, strain through muslin, and put aside for the purpose 
of swilling the dripping- or baking-pan of the roast. 

Swilling. — Having removed the roast from the spit or oven, 
take off a portion of the grease from the baking- or dripping- 
pan, and pour into it the required quantity of prepared 
gravy. Reduce the whole by half, strain through muslin, and 
almost entirely remove grease. 

It is a mistake to remove all the grease from, and to clarify, 
the gravy of roasts. Treated thus they are certainly clearer and 
more sightly, but a large proportion of their savour is lost, and 
it should be borne in mind that the gravy of a roast is not a 
consomm^. 

In the matter of roast feathered game, the accompanying 
gravy is supplied by the swilling of the utensil, either with water 
or a small quantity of brandy. This is a certain means of 
obtaining a gravy whose savour is precisely that of the game ; 
but occasionally veal gravy is used, as its flavour is neutral. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 119 

and it therefore cannot impair the particular flavour of the 
reduced game gravy lying on the bottom of the utensil. The 
use of stock prepared from the bones and trimmings of game 
similar to that constituting the dish is also common. 

256— THE DRESSING AND ACCOMPANIMENTS OF ROASTS 

As a rule, a roast ought not to wait. It ought only to leave 
the spit or oven in order to be served. All roasts should be 
placed on very hot dishes, slightly besprinkled with fresh 
butter, and surrounded by bunches of watercress (this is op- 
tional). The gravy is invariably served separately. 

Roasts of butcher's meat and poultry are dished up as simply 
as possible. 

Small roasted game may be dished up on fried slices of bread- 
crumb masked with gratin stuffing (No. 202). 

When lemons accompany a roast, they should be served 
separately. Pieces of lemon that have once served to garnish 
a dish must not be used, for they have mostly been tainted by 
grease. 

The mediaeval custom of dishing game with the plumage 
has been abandoned. 

Roast feathered game a I'anglaise is dished up with or 
without potato chips, and the three adjuncts are gravy, bread- 
crumbs, and bread-sauce. 

In northern countries game roasts are always accompanied 
either by slightly sugared stewed apples, or by cherry or apricot 
jam. 

257— GRILLS 

Those culinary preparations effected by means of grilling 
belong to the order called cooking by concentration. And, 
indeed, in almost all cases, the great object of these operations, 
I might even say the greatest object, is the concentration, in 
the centre, of the juices and essences which represent, most 
essentially, the nutritive principles of the products cooked. 

A grill, which is, in short, but a roast on an open fire, stands, 
in my opinion, as the remote starting-point, the very genesis 
of our art. 

It was the primeval notion of our forefathers' infantile 
brains ; it was progress born of an instinctive desire to eat with 
greater pleasure; and it was the first culinary method ever 
employed. 

A little later, and following naturally, as it were, upon this 
first attempt, the spit was born of the grill ; gradually, intelli- 
gence supplanted rude instinct; reason began to deduce effects 
from supposed causes; and thus cooking was launched forth 



I20 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

upon that highroad along which it has not yet ceased steadily to 
advance. 

Fuel for Grills. — That mostly used, and certainly the best 
for the purpose, is live coal or small pieces of charcoal. What- 
ever fuel be used, however, it is essential that it produce no 
smoke, even though the grill fire be ventilated by powerful 
blowers which draw the smoke off. More especially is this 
necessary, though I admit the contingency is rare, when artificial 
ventilation has to be effected owing to the fire's burning in the 
open without the usual help of systematic draughts ; for if smoke 
occasioned by foreign substances or by the falling of the fat 
itself on to the glowing embers were not immediately carried 
away, either artificially or by a convenient draught, the grills 
would most surely acquire a very disagreeable taste therefrom. 

The Bed of Charcoal. — The arrangement of the bed of char- 
coal under the grill is of some importance, and it must not only 
be regulated according to the size and kind of the products to 
be grilled, but also in such wise as to allow of the production 
of more or less heat under given circumstances. 

The bed should therefore be set in equal layers in the 
centre, but varying in thickness according as to whether the 
fire has to be more or less fierce; it should also be slightly 
raised on those sides which are in contact with the air, in 
order that the whole burning surface may radiate equal degrees 
of heat. 

The grill must always be placed over the glowing fuel in 
advance, and it should be very hot when the objects to be 
grilled are placed upon it, otherwise they would stick to the 
bars, and would probably be spoiled when turned. 

Grills Classified. 

Grills may be divided into four classes, of which each 
demands particular care. They are : (i) Red-meat grills 
(beef and mutton); (2) White-meat grills (veal, lamb, poultry); 
(3) Fish; (4) Grills coated with butter and bread-crumbs. 

258— RED MEAT GRILLS 

I submit as a principle that the golden rule in grills is to 
strictly observe the correct degree of heat which is proper to 
each treated object, never forgetting that the larger and richer 
in nutrition the piece of meat, the quicker and more thorough 
must be its initial setting. 

I have already explained, under braisings, the part played 
by, and the use of, rissoling or setting; but it is necessary to 
revert to this question and its bearing upon grills. 

If large pieces of meat (beef or mutton) are in question, the 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 121 

better their quality and the richer they are in juices, the 
more resisting must be the rissoled coating they receive. The 
pressure of the contained juices upon the rissoled coating of 
this meat will be proportionately great or small according 
to whether the latter be rich or poor, and this pressure will 
gradually increase with the waxing heat. 

If the grill fire be so regulated as to ensure the progressive 
penetration of heat into the cooking object, this is what 
happens : — 

The heat, striking that surface of the meat which is in 
direct communication with the fire, penetrates the tissues, and 
spreads stratiformly through the body, driving the latter's 
juices in front of it. When these reach the opposite, rissoled, 
or set side of the meat, they are checked, and thereupon, absorb- 
ing the incoming heat, effect the cooking of the inner parts. 

Of course, if the piece of meat under treatment is very 
thick, the fierceness of the fire should be proportionately abated 
the moment the initial process of rissoling or setting of the 
meat's surface has been effected, the object being to allow the 
heat to penetrate the cooking body more regularly. If the 
fierceness of the fire were maintained, the rissoled coating on 
the meat would probably char, and the resulting thickness of 
carbon would so successfully resist the passage of any heat 
into the interior that, in the end, while the meat would probably 
be found to be completely burnt on the outside, the inside 
would be quite raw. 

If somewhat thinner pieces are in question, a quick rissol- 
ing of their surfaces over a fierce fire, and a few minutes of 
subsequent cooking, will be all they need. No alteration in 
the intensity of the fire need be sought in this case. 

Examples. — A rumpsteak or Chateaubriand, in order to be 
properly cooked, should first have its outsides rissoled on a 
very fierce fi.re with a view to preserving its juices, after which 
cooking may proceed over a moderate fire so as to allow of 
the gradual penetration of the heat into the centre of the body. 

Small pieces such as tournedos, small fillets, noisettes, 
chops, may, after the preliminary process of outside rissoling, 
be cooked over the same degree of heat as effected the latter, 
because the thickness of meat to be penetrated is less. 

The Care of Grills while Cooking. — Before placing the 
meats on the grill, baste them slightly with clarified butter, 
and repeat this operation frequently during the cooking process, 
so as to avoid the possible drying of the rissoled surfaces. 

Grilled red meat should always be turned by means of 
special tongs, and great care should be observed that its surface 



122 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

be not torn or pierced, lest the object of the preliminary pre- 
cautions be defeated, and the contained juices escape. 

Time of Cooking. — This, in the case of red meats, is arrived 
at by the following test : if, on touching the meat with one's 
finger, the former resist any pressure, it is sufficiently cooked : 
if it give, it is clear that in the centre, at least, the 
reverse is the case. The most certain sign, however, that 
cooking has been completed is the appearance of little beads 
of blood upon the rissoled surface of the meat. 

259— WHITE-MEAT GRILLS 

That superficial rissoling which is so necessary in the case 
of red meats is not at all so in the case of white, for in the latter 
there can be no question of the concentration of juices, since 
these are only present in the form of albumen — that is to say, 
in the form of juices " in the making," so to speak, which is 
peculiar to veal and lamb. 

For this kind of grills keep a moderate fire, so that the 
cooking and colouring of the meat may take place simul- 
taneously. 

White-meat grills should be fairly often basted by means 
of a brush, with clarified butter, while cooking, lest their out- 
sides dry. 

They are known to be cooked when the juice issuing from 
them is quite white. 

360— FISH QRILLS 

Use a moderate fire with these, and only grill after having 
copiously sprinkled them with clarified butter or oil. Sprinkle 
them similarly while cooking. 

A grilled lish is cooked when the bones are easily separated 
from the meat. Except for the fatty kind, such as mackerel, 
red mullet, or herrings, always roll fish to be grilled in flour 
before sprinkling them with melted butter. The object of so 
doing is to give them a golden external crust, which, besides 
making them more sightly, keeps them from drying. 

261— THE GRILLING OF PRODUCTS COATED 
WITH BUTTER AND BREAD-CRUMBS 

These grills generally consist of only small objects; they 
must be effected on a very moderate fire, with the view of 
enabling them to cook and acquire colour simultaneously. 
They should also be frequently besorinkled with clarified butter, 
and turned with care, so as not to break their coating, the object 
of which is to withhold their contained juices. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 123 

262— FRYINGS 

Frying is one of the principal cooking processes, for the 
number of preparations that are accomplished by its means 
is very considerable. Its procedure is governed by stringent 
laws and rules which it is best not to break, lest the double 
danger of failure and impairment of material be incurred. 

The former is easily averted if one is familiar with the 
process, and paj's proper attention to it, while the latter is 
obviated by precautions which have every raison d'etre, and the 
neglect of which only leads to trouble. 

The question of the kind of utensil to employ is not so 
immaterial as some would think, for very often accidents result 
from the mere disregard of the importance of this matter. 

Very often imprudence and bluster on the part of the 
operator may be the cause of imperfections, the greatest care 
being needed in the handling of utensils containing overheated 
fat. 

Utensils used in frying should be made of copper, or other 
resisting metal ; they should be in one piece, oval or round in 
shape, and sufficiently large and deep to allow, while only half- 
filled with fat, of the objects being properly affected by the 
latter. The necessity of this condition is obvious, seeing that 
if the utensil contain too much fat the slightest jerking of it 
on the stove would spill some of the liquid, and the operator 
would probably be badly burnt. 

Finally, utensils with vertical sides are preferable to those 
with the slanting kind; more especially is this so in large 
kitchens where, the work involving much frying, capacious re- 
ceptacles are required. 

263— FRYING FAT— ITS PREPARATION 

Any animal or vegetable grease is suitable for frying, pro- 
vided it be quite pure and possess a resisting force allowing 
it to reach a very high temperature without burning. But 
for frying on a large scale, the use of cooked and clarified 
fats, such as the fat of " pot-au-feu " and roasts, should be 
avoided. 

A frying medium is only perfect when it is able to meet 
the demands of a protracted operation, and consists of fresh or 
raw fats, chosen with care and thoroughly purified by cooking. 

Under no circumstances may butter be used for frying on 
a large scale, seeing that, even when thoroughly purified, it 
can only reach a comparatively low degree of heat. It may be 
used only for small, occasional fryings. 

The fat of kidney of beef generally forms the base of the 
grease intended for frying on a large scale. It is preferable 



124 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

to all others on account of its cheapness and the great length 
of time it can be worked, provided it receives the proper care. 

Veal-fat yields a finer frying medium, but its resistance is 
small, and it must, moreover, always be strengthened with the 
fat of beef. 

Mutton-fat should be deliberately discarded, for, if it happen 
to be that of an old beast, it smells of tallow, and, if it be that 
of a young one, it causes the hot grease to foam and to overflow 
down the sides of the utensil, this leading to serious accidents. 

Pork-fat is also used for frying, either alone, or combined 
with some other kind. 

In brief, the fat of kidney of beef is that which is best 
suited to fryings on a large scale. Ordinary household frying, 
which does not demand a very resisting grease, may well be 
effected by means of the above, combined with an equal quantity 
of veal-fat, or a mixture composed of the fat of kidney of beef, 
veal, and pork in the proportions of one-half, one-quarter, and 
one-quarter respectively. 

The grease used for frying ought not only to be melted 
down, but also thoroughly cooked, so that it may be quite 
pure. If insufficiently cooked, it foams on first being used, 
and so demands all kinds of extra precautions, which only 
cease to be necessary when constant heating at last rectifies it. 
Moreover, if it be not quite pure, it easily penetrates immersed 
solids and makes them indigestible. 

All grease used in frying should first be cut into pieces and 
then put into the saucepan with one pint of water per every 
ten lbs. 

The object of the water is to assist in the melting, and this 
it does by filtering into the grease, vaporising, and thereby 
causing the latter to swell. So long as the water has not com- 
pletely evaporated, the grease only undergoes the action of 
liquefaction, i.e., the dissolution of its molecules; but its 
thorough cooking process, ending with its purification, only 
begins when all the water is gone. 

The grease is cooked when (i) the membranes which en- 
veloped it alone remain intact and are converted into greaves; 
(2) it gives off smoke which has a distinct smell. 

At this stage it has reached such a high temperature that 
it is best to remove it from the fire for about ten minutes, so 
that it may cool; then it must be strained through a sieve, or 
a coarse towel, which must be tightly twisted. 

264— THE VARIOUS DEGREES OF HEAT REACHED BY 
THE FRYING MEDIUM, AND THEIR APPLICATION 

The temperature reached by a frying medium depends upon 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 125 

the latter's constituents and its purity. The various degrees 
may be classified as moderately hot, hot, very hot. 

The expression " boiling hot " is unsuitable, seeing that fat 
never boils. Butter (an occasional frying medium) cannot over- 
reach 248° F. without burning, whereas if it be thoroughly 
purified it can attain from 269° to 275° F. — a temperature which 
is clearly below what would be needed for work on a large 
scale. 

Animal greases used in ordinary frying reach from 275° to 
284° F. when moderately hot, 320° F. when hot, and 356° F. 
when very hot; in the last case they smoke slightly. 

Pork-fat (lard), when used alone, reaches 392° F. without 
burning. Very pure goose dripping withstands 428° F. ; and, 
finally, vegetable fats may reach, without burning, 482° F. in 
the case of cocoa-nut butter, 518° F. with ordinary oils, and 
554° in the case of olive oil. 

The temperature of ordinary frying fat may be tested thus : 
it is moderately hot when, after throwing a sprig of parsley 
or a crust of bread into it, it begins to bubble immediately; it 
is hot if it crackles when a slightly moist object is thrust into 
it; it is very hot when it gives off a thin white smoke per- 
ceptible to the smell. 

The first temperature, " moderately hot," is used (i) for all 
products containing vegetable water the complete evaporation 
of which is necessary; (2) for fish whose volume exacts a cook- 
ing process by means of penetration, previous to that with con- 
centration. 

In the first degree of heat with which it is used the frying 
fat therefore only effects a kind of preparatory operation. 

The second temperature, " hot," is used for all products 
wihich have previously undergone an initial cooking process 
in the first temperature, either for evaporation or penetration, 
and its object is either to finish them or to cover them with a 
crimped coating. 

It is also applicable to those products upon which the frying 
fat must act immediately by concentration — that is to say, by 
forming a set coating around them which prevents the escape 
of the contained substances. 

Objects treated with this temperature are : all those panes a 
I'anglaise or covered with batter, such as various croquettes, 
cromesquis, cutlets, and collops k la Villeroy, fritters of all 
kinds, fried creams, &c. 

In this case the frying medium acts by setting, which in 
certain cases is exceedingly necessary. 

I. If the objects in question are panes a I'anglaise, i.e., 



126 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

dipped in beaten eggs and rolled in bread-crumbs, the sudden 
contact of the hot grease converts this coating of egg and bread- 
crumbs into a resisting crust, which prevents the escape of the 
substances and the liquefied sauce contained within. 

If these objects were plunged in a fat that was not suffi- 
ciently hot, the coating of egg and bread-crumbs would not 
only imbibe the frying medium, but it would run the risk of 
breaking, thereby allowing the escape of the very substances it 
was intended to withhold. 

2. The same holds with objects treated with batter. Hence 
the absolute necessity of ensuring that setting which means 
that the covering of batter solidifies immediately. As the sub- 
stances constituting these various dishes are cooked in advance, 
it follows that their second heating and the colouring of the 
coating {egg and bread-crumbs or batter) take place at the same 
time and in a few minutes. 

The third temperature, " very hot," is used (i) for all objects 
that need a sharp and firm setting ; (2) for all small objects the 
setting of ^^hich is of supreme importance, and whose cooking 
is effected in a few minutes, as in the case of whitebait. 

265— FRYING MEDIUM FOR FISH 

Every frying medium, used for work on a large scale, which 
has acquired a too decided colouring through repeated use, 
may serve in the preparation of fish even until its whole strength 
is exhausted. 

Oil is best suited to the frying of fish, especially the very 
small kind, owing to the tremendous heat it can withstand with- 
out burning, for this heat guarantees that setting which is so 
indispensable. 

Except in this case, however, the temperature of the frying 
medium should be regulated strictly in accordance with the 
size of the fish to be fried, in order that its cooking and colour- 
ing may be effected simultaneously. 

Except Nonats and whitebait, which are simply rolled in 
flour, fish to be fried are previously steeped in slightly salted 
milk and then rolled in flour. From this combination of milk 
and flour there results a crisp coating which withholds those 
particular principles that the fish exude while cooking. 

When finished, fried fish are drained, dried, slightly salted, 
and dished on a serviette or on paper, with a garnish of fried 
parsley-sprays and sections of channelled lemon. 

266— THE QUANTITY OF THE FRYING MEDIUM 

This should always be in proportion to the quantity or size 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 127 

of the objects to be fried, bearing in mind that these must 
always be entirely submerged. 

Without necessarily exaggerating, the quantity should in- 
variably be rather in excess of the requirements, and for this 
reason, viz., the greater the amount of fat, the higher will 
be the temperature reached, and the less need one fear a sudden 
cooling of the fat when the objects to be treated are immersed. 
This sudden cooling is often the cause of great trouble, unless 
one be working over a fire of such fierceness that the fat can 
return in a few seconds to the temperature it was at before the 
objects were immersed. 

267— THE CARE OF THE FRYING MEDIUM 

Every time a frying fat is used it should, after having been 
melted, be strained through a towel, for the majority of objects 
which it has served to cook must have left some particles behind 
them which might prove prejudicial to the objects that are to 
follow. 

Objects that are " panes " always leave some raspings, for 
instance, which in time assume the form of black powder, while 
those that have been treated with flour likewise drop some of 
their coating, which, in accumulating, produces a muddy pre- 
cipitate on the bottom of the utensil. 

Not only do these foreign substances disturb the clearness 
of the fat and render it liable to burn, but they are exceedingly 
detrimental to the objects that are treated later. 

Therefore, always strain the fat whenever it is used — in the 
first place because the proper treatment of the objects demands 
it, and, secondly, because its very existence as a serviceable 
medium depends upon this measure. 

268— GRATINS 

This culinary operation plays a sufficiently important part 
in the work to warrant my detailing at least its leading points. 

The various kinds of the order " Gratins " are (i) the Com- 
plete Gratin; (2) the Rapid Gratin; (3) the Light Gratin; 
(4) Glazing, which is a form of Rapid Gratin. 

269— COMPLETE GRATIN 

This is the first example of the series ; it is that whose pre- 
paration is longest and most tiresome; for its principal con- 
stituent, whatever this is, must be completely cooked. Its 
cooking must moreover be coincident with the reduction of the 
sauce, which is the base of the gratin, and with the formation 
of the gratin proper, i.e., the crimped crust which forms on 
the surface and is the result of the combination of the sauce 



128 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

with the raspings and the butter, under the direct influence of 
the heat. 

In the preparation of complete gratin, two things must be 
taken into account : — (i) The nature and size of the object to 
be treated, and (2) the degree of heat which must be used in 
order that the coolcing of the object, the reduction of the sauce, 
and the formation of the gratin may be effected simultaneously. 

The base of complete gratin is almost invariably ordinary 
or Lenten duxelle sauce (No. 223), in accordance with the re- 
quirements. 

The object to be treated with the gratin is laid on a buttered 
dish, surrounded with slices of raw mushrooms and chopped 
shallots, and covered with duxelle sauce. The. surface is then 
sprinkled with raspings, and copiously moistened with melted 
butter. Should the piece be large, the amount of sauce used 
will be proportionately greater, and the reverse, of course, 
applies to medium or smaller sizes. 

Take note of the following remarks in the making of complete 
gratins : — 

1. If too much sauce were used in proportion to the size 
of the object, the latter would cook and the gratin form before 
the sauce could reach the correct degree of consistence by means 
of reduction. Hence it would be necessary to reduce the sauce 
still further on the stove, and thereby give rise to steam which 
would soften the coating of the gratin. 

2. If the sauce used were insufficient, it would be reduced 
before the cooking of the object had been effected, and, more 
sauce having to be added, the resulting gratin would be uneven. 

3. The larger the piece, and consequently the longer it 
takes to cook, the more moderate should be the heat used. 
Conversely, the smaller it is, the fiercer should the fire be. 

When withdrawing the gratin from the oven squeeze a 
few drops of lemon-juice over it, and besprinkle it with 
chopped parsley. 

270— RAPID QRATIN 

Proceed as above, with duxelle sauce, but the products 
treated with it, viz., meats, fish, or vegetables, are always 
cooked and warmed in advance. All that is required, there- 
fore, is to effect the formation of the gratin as quickly as 
possible. 

To do this, cover the object under treatment with the neces- 
sary quantity of salt, besprinkle with raspings and butter, and 
set the gratin to form in a fierce oven. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 129 

271— LIGHT QRATIN 

This is proper to farinaceous products, such as macaroni, 
lazagnes, noodles, gnocchi, &c., and consists of a combina- 
tion of grated cheese, raspings, and butter. In this case, again, 
the only end in view is the formation of the gratin coating, which 
must be evenly coloured, and is the result of the cheese melting. 
A moderate heat is all that is wanted for this kind of gratin. 

Also considered as light gratins are those which serve as 
the complement of stuffed vegetables such as tomatoes, mush- 
rooms, egg-plant, and cucumber. With these the gratin is 
composed of raspings sprinkled with butter or oil, and it is 
placed in a more or less fierce heat according to whether the 
vegetables have already been cooked or partially cooked, or are 
quite raw. 

272— GLAZINGS 

These are of two kinds — they either consist of a heavily 
buttered sauce, or they form from a sprinkling of cheese upon 
the sauce with which the object to be glazed is covered. 

In the first case, after having poured sauce over the object 
to be treated, place the dish on another dish containing a little 
water. This is to prevent the sauce decomposing and boiling. 
The greater the quantity of butter used, the more intense will 
be the heat required, in Order that a slight golden film may form 
almost instantaneously. 

In the second case, the sauce used is always a Mornay (No. 
gi). Cover the object under treatment with the sauce, be- 
sprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter, and place in 
fairly intense heat, so that a slight golden crust may form 
almost immediately, this crust being the result of the combined 
cheese and butter. 

273— BLANCHINGS 

The essentially unsuitable term blanchings is applied in the 
culinary technology of France to three classes of operations 
which entirely differ one from the other in the end they have 
in view. 

1. The blanching of meats. 

2. The blanching, or, better, the parboiling of certain 
vegetables. 

3. The blanching of certain other vegetables, which in reality 
amounts to a process of cooking. 

The blanching of meats obtains mostly in the case of calf's 
head and foot and the sweet-bread of veal, sheep's and lambs' 

K 



I30 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

trotters, and lamb's sweet-bread. These meats are first set to 
soak in cold, running water until they have quite got rid of 
the blood with which they are naturally saturated. They are 
then placed on the fire in a saucepan containing enough cold 
water to abundantly cover them, and the water is gradually 
brought to the boil. 

For calf's head or feet, boiling may last for fifteen or twenty 
minutes; veal sweet-bread must not boil for more than ten or 
twelve minutes; while lamb sweet-bread is withdrawn the 
moment the boil is reached. 

As soon as blanched, the meats are cooled in plenty of fresh 
water before undergoing their final treatment. 

The blanching of cocks' combs is exceptional in this, 
namely, that after the combs have been cleansed of blood — that 
is to say, soaked in cold water, they are placed on the fire in 
cold water, the temperature of which must be carefully kept 
below 113° F. When this degree is approached, take the 
saucepan off the fire and rub each comb with a cloth, dusted 
with table-salt, in order to remove the skins; then cool the 
combs with fresh water before cooking them. 

Many people use the blanching process with meats intended 
for " blanquette " or "fricassee." I regard this procedure as 
quite erroneous, as also the preliminary soaking in cold water. 

If the meats or pieces of poultry intended for the above- 
mentioned preparations be of a good quality (and no others 
should be used), they need only be set to cook in cold water, 
or cold stock, and gradually brought to the boil, being stirred 
repeatedly the while. The scum formed should be carefully 
removed, and, in this way, perfectly white meats and stock, 
with all their savour, are obtained. 

As to meats or pieces of poultry of an inferior quality, no 
soaking and no blanching can make good their defects. Which- 
ever way they are treated they remain dry, gray, and savourless. 
It is therefore simpler and better to use only the finest quality 
goods. 

An excellent proof of the futility of soaking and blanching 
meats intended for "fricassees" and " blanquettes " lies in 
the fact that these very meats, if of good quality, are always 
perfectly white when they are braised, poeled, or roasted, not- 
withstanding the fact that these three operations are less calcu- 
lated to preserve their whiteness than the kind of treatment 
they are subjected to in the case of "blanquettes" and 
" fricassees." 

Mere routine alone can account for this practice of soaking 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 131 

and blanching meats — a practice that is absolutely condemned 
by common sense. 

The term "blanching" is wrongly applied to the cooking 
of green vegetables, such as French beans, green peas, Brussels 
sprouts, spinach, &c. The cooking of these, which is effected 
by means of boiling salted water, ought really to be termed 
" a I'anglaise." All the details of the procedure, however, will 
be given when I deal with the vegetables to which the latter 
apply. 

Lastly, under the name of " blanching," there exists another 
operation which consists in partly cooking certain vegetables 
in plenty of water, in order to rid them of any bitter or pungent 
flavour they may possess. The time allowed for this blanching 
varies according to the age of the vegetables, but when the 
latter are young and in season, it amounts to little more than 
a mere scalding. 

Blanching is chiefly resorted to for lettuce, chicory, endives, 
celery, artichokes, cabbages, and the green vegetables; carrots, 
turnips, and small onions when they are out of season. In 
respect of vegetable-marrows, cucumbers, and chow-chow, 
blanching is often left to the definite cooking process, which 
should then come under the head of the "k I'anglaise" 
cooking. 

After the process of blanching, the vegetables I have just 
enumerated are always cooled — that is to say, steeped in cold 
water until they are barely lukewarm. They are then left to 
drain on a sieve, previous to undergoing the final cooking 
process to which they are best suited, this generally being 
braising. 



K 2 



132 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

6. Vegetables and Garnishes 
Various Preparations. 

274— THE TREATMENT OF DRY VEGETABLES 

It is wrong to soak dry vegetables. If they are of good 
quality, and the produce of the year, they need only be put 
into a saucepan with enough cold water to completely cover 
them, and with one oz. of salt per five quarts of water. 

Set to boil gently, skim, add the aromatic garnish, quartered 
carrots, onions, with or without garlic cloves, and a faggot, 
and set to cook gently with lid on. 

Remarks. — If the vegetables used are old or inferior in 
quality, they might be put to soak in soft water; but this only 
long enough to swell them slightly, i.e., about one and one-half 
hours. 

A prolonged soaking of dry vegetables may give rise to 
incipient germination, and this, by impairing the principles of 
the vegetables, depreciates the value of the food, and may 
even cause some harm to the consumer. 

27s— BRAISED VEGETABLES 

Vegetables to be braised must be first blanched, cooled, 
pared, and strung. 

Garnish the bottom of a saucepan with blanched pork-rind, 
sliced carrots and onions, and a faggot, and cover the sides 
of the utensil with thin slices of bacon. Lay the vegetables 
upon the prepared litter, and leave them to sweat in the oven 
for about ten minutes with lid on. The object of this oven- 
sweating is to expel the water. Now moisten enough to cover 
with white stock, and set to cook gently. 

This done, drain, remove string, and cut to the shape re- 
quired. Lay them in a saut^pan, and, if they are to be served 
soon, cover them with their reduced stock from which the grease 
has been removed. 

If they are prepared in advance, simply put them aside in 
suitable basins, cover them with their cooking-liquor, which 
should be strained over them, boiling, and without its grease 
removed, and cover with buttered paper. 

Adjuncts to Braised Vegetables 

According to the case, the adjunct is either the braising- 
liquor, reduced and with all grease removed, or the same com- 
pleted by means of an addition of meat-glaze. 



LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 133 

Occasionally, it may be the braising-liquor slightly thick- 
ened with half-glaze and finished with butter and the juice of a 
lemon. 

276— LEASON OF GREEN VEGETABLES WITH BUTTER 

First thoroughly drain the vegetables and toss them over 
the fire for a few minutes, in order to completely rid them of 
their moisture. Season according to the kind of vegetable ; add 
the butter away from the fire, and slightly toss, rolling the 
saucepan meanwhile on the stove with the view of effecting the 
leason by means of the mixing of the butter with the treated 
vegetables. 

377— LEASON OF VEGETABLES WITH CREAM 

Vegetables to be treated in this way must be kept some- 
what firm. After having thoroughly drained them, put them 
into a saucepan with enough boiling fresh cream to well moisten 
without covering them. 

Finish their cooking process in the cream, stirring occasion- 
ally the while. 

When the cream is almost entirely reduced, finish, away from 
the fire, with a little butter. 

The leason may be slightly stiffened, if necessary, by means 
of a few tablespoonfuls of cream sauce. 

278— VEGETABLE CREAMS AND PUREES 

Purees of dry and farinaceous vegetables may be obtained 
by rubbing the latter through a sieve. 

Put the purde into a sautdpan, and dry it over a brisk fire, 
adding one and one-half oz. of butter per pint of purde; then 
add milk or cream in small quantities at a time, until the purde 
has reached the required degree of consistence. 

For purees of aqueous vegetables, such as French beans, 
cauliflowers, celery, &c., a quarter of their volume of mashed 
potatoes should be added to them in order to effect their leason. 

In the case of vegetable creams, substitute for the thickening 
of mashed potatoes an equivalent quantity of succulent and 
stiff Bechamel sauce. 

279— GARNISHES 

In cookery, although garnishes only play a minor part, 
they are, nevertheless, very important, for, besides being the 
principal accompaniments to dishes, they are very often the 



134 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

adornment thereof, while it frequently happens that their har- 
monious arrangement considerably helps to throw the beauty 
of a fine joint or bird into relief. 

A garnish may consist of one or more products. Be this 
as it may, its name, as a rule, distinctly denotes, in a word, 
what it is and how it is made. 

In any case, it should always bear some relation to the piece 
it accompanies, either in the constituents of its preparation or 
with regard to the size of the piece constituting the dish. 

I merely add that, since the constituents of garnishes are 
strictly denoted by the name the latter bear, any addition of 
products foreign to their nature would be a grave mistake. Like- 
wise, the omission of any constituent is to be avoided, as the 
garnish would thereby be out of keeping with its specified 
character. 

Only in very exceptional circumstances should any change 
of this kind be allowed to take place. 

The constituents of garnishes are supplied by vegetables, 
farinaceous products, quenelles of all kinds, cocks' combs and 
kidneys, truffles and mushrooms, plain or stuffed olives, mol- 
luscs (mussels or oysters), shell-fish (crayfish, shrimps, lobster, 
&c.), butcher's supplies, such as lamb's sweet-bread, calf's 
brains, and calf's spine-marrow. 

As a rule, garnishes are independent of the dish itself — 
that is to say, they are prepared entirely apart. At other times 
they are mixed with it, playing the double part of garnish and 
condimentary principle, as in the case of Matelotes, Compotes, 
Civets, &c. 

Vegetables for garnishing are fashioned and treated in ac- 
cordance with the use and shape implied by the name of the 
dish, which should always be the operator's guide in this 
respect. 

The farinaceous ones, the molluscs and shell-fish, undergo 
the customary preparation. 

I have already described (Chapter X.) the preparation of 
quenelles and forcemeats for garnishing. Other recipes which 
have the same purpose will be treated in their respective order. 



PART II 
RECIPES AND MODES OF PROCEDURE 

In Part I. of this work I treated of the general principles 
on which the science of cookery is founded, and the leading 
operations constituting the basis of the work. 

In Part II. I shall proceed from the general to the particular 
— in other words, I shall set forth the recipes of every dish I 
touch upon, its method of preparation, and its constituent 
parts. 

With the view of making reference as easy as possible, with- 
out departing from a certain logical order, I have adopted the 
method of classifying these recipes in accordance with the 
position the dishes they represent hold in the ordinary menu, 
and thus, starting with the hors-d'oeuvres, I go straight on 
_to the dessert. I was compelled, however, to alter my plan 
in the case of eggs, which never appear on the menu of a dinner 
save in Lent. 

These I have therefore placed immediately after the hors- 
d'oeuvres, which, like eggs, should only be served at luncheons, 
for reasons I shall explain later. 

It will be seen that I have placed the Savouries before the 
Entremets, instead of after the Ices, as is customary in 
England. My reason for this apparent anomaly is that I con- 
sider it a positive gastronomical heresy to eat fish, meats, fowl- 
remains, &c., after delicate Entremets and Ices, the subtle 
flavour of the latter, which form such an agreeable item in a 
dinner, being quite destroyed by the violent seasoning of the 
former. 

Moreover, the very pretext brought forward in support of 
this practice, so erroneous from the gastronomical standpoint, 
namely, " that after a good dinner it is necessary to serve 
something strange and highly seasoned, in order to whet the 
diner's thirst," is its own condemnation. 

For, if appetite is satiated and thirst is quenched, it follows 



136 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

that the consumer has taken all that is necessary. Therefore, 
anything more that he may be stimulated to take will only 
amount to excess, and excess in gastronomy, as in everything 
else, is a fault that can find no excuse. 

At all events, I could agree to no more than the placing of 
the Savouries before mild Entremets, and, even so, the former 
would have to consist of light, dry preparations, very mode- 
rately seasoned, such as Paillettes with Parmesan, various 
kinds of dry biscuits, and small tartlets garnished with cheese 
souffle. 

In short, if I expressed my plain opinion on the matter, I 
should advise the total suppression of Savouries in a dinner. 



CHAPTER XI 

hors-d'ceuvres 
General Remarks 

The preparations described hereafter all belong to the order 
of cold hors-d'oeuvres. I did not deem it necessary to touch 
upon the hot kind, for, apart from the fact that these are very 
seldom served in England, at least under the head of hors- 
d'oeuvres, they are mostly to be found either among the hot 
Entries or the Savouries proper. 

Generally speaking, hors-d'oeuvres should only form part 
of a meal that does not comprise soup, while the rule of serving 
them at luncheons only ought to be looked upon as absolute. 

It is true that restaurants k la carte deliberately deviate from 
this rule, but it should be remembered, in their case, that, in 
addition to the fact that " hors-d'oeuvres de luxe," such as 
caviare, oysters, plovers' and lapwings' eggs, &c., are mostly 
in question, they also find the use of hors-d'oeuvres expedient 
if only as a means of whiling away the customers' time during 
the preparation of the various dishes that may have been 
ordered. 

Moreover, the hors-d'oeuvres enumerated are not subject 
to the same objection as those composed of fish, salads, and 
marinaded vegetables. The use of cold hors-d'oeuvres in these 
special cases is thus, to a certain extent, justified, but it is 
nevertheless to be regretted that an exception of this kind should 
degenerate into a habit, and that it should be made to prevail 
under circumstances which, in themselves, are insufficient 
warrant for the abuse. 

In Russia it is customary to have a sideboard in a room 
adjoining the dining-room, dressed with all kinds of special 
pastries, smoked fish, and other products, and these the diners 
partake of, standing, together with strong liqueurs, before taking 
their seats at the table. The general name given to the items 
on the sideboard is " Zakouski." Caterers and hotel-keepers in 
different parts of the world, more zealous than judicious, intro- 
duced the custom of the zakouski without allowing for the 



138 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

differences of race, which are due, to some extent, to the in- 
fluence of climate ; and at first, probably owing to everybody's 
enthusiasm for things Russian, the innovation enjoyed a 
certain vogue, in spite of the fact that, in many cases, the dishes 
served resembled the Zakouski in name alone, and consisted of 
cold and very ordinary hors-d'ceuvres, served at the dining-table 
itself. 

At length the absurdity of investing such common things 
as hors-d'oeuvres with an exotic title began to be perceived, 
and nowadays the occasions are rare when the Russian term 
is to be found on a menu ; nevertheless, the custom unfor- 
tunately survives. 

For my own part, I regard cold hors-d'oeuvres as quite 
unnecessary in a dinner; I even consider them counter to the 
dictates of common sense, and they are certainly prejudicial to 
the flavour of the soup that follows. 

At the most, caviare might be tolerated, the nutty taste of 
which, when it is quite fresh, can but favourably impress the 
consumer's palate, as also certain fine oysters, provided they 
be served with very dry Rhine wine or white Bordeaux. But 
I repeat that hors-d'oeuvres consisting of any kind of fish, 
salad, marinaded vegetables, &c., should be strictly proscribed 
from the items of a dinner. 

The custom of serving cold hors-d'oeuvres at lunch is, on 
the contrary, not only traditional, but indispensable, and their 
varied combinations, thrown into relief by tasteful and proper 
arrangement, besides lending a cheerful aspect to the table, be- 
guile the consumer's attention and fancy from the very moment 
of his entering the dining-room. It has been said, with reason, 
that soups should foretell the dominant note of the whole 
dinner, and cold hors-d'ceuvres should in the same way reveal 
that of a luncheon. 

Possibly it was with a sense of the importance of hors- 
d'oeuvres, from this standpoint, that their preparation was 
transferred from the office (the exclusive concern whereof used, 
formerly, to be the hors-d'oeuvres) to the kitchen. 

The results of this change manifested themselves imme- 
diately in prodigious variations and transformations of the 
hors-d'oeuvres, both in respect of their preparation and dishing- 
up, so much so, indeed, that perhaps in no other department 
of culinary art has there been such progress of recent years. 

Their variety is infinite, and it would be impossible to 
compute, even approximately, the number of combinations an 
ingenious artist could effect in their preparation, seeing that 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 139 

the latter embraces almost every possible use of every conceiv- 
able esculent product. 

Well may it be said that a good hors-d'oeuvrier is a man 
to be prized in any kitchen, for, although his duties do not 
by any means rank first in importance, they nevertheless 
demand in him who performs them the possession of such 
qualities as are rarely found united in one person, viz., reliable 
and experienced taste, originality, keen artistic sense, and pro- 
fessional knowledge. 

The hors-d'oeuvrier should be able to produce something 
sightly and good out of very little, and the beauty and attractive- 
ness of a hors-d'oeuvre should depend to a much greater degree 
upon his work and the judicious treatment of his material than 
upon the nature of the latter. 

Preparation for Hors-d'CEuvres 

280— BUTTERS AND CREAMS 

The seasoning of butters for hors-d'oeuvres is effected when 
dishing them up. When prepared in advance, they ought to 
be placed in a bowl and put aside somewhere in the cool, 
covered with a piece of clean paper. 

281— ANCHOVY BUTTER 

Wash twelve or fifteen anchovies in cold water, and dry them 
thoroughly. Remove the fillets from the bones, pound them 
smoothly with four oz. of butter, rub the whole through a fine 
sieve, smooth it with a spoon, and put it aside. 

282— CAVIARE BUTTER 

Pound three oz. of pressed caviare with four oz. of butter, 
and rub through a fine sieve. 

283— SHRIMP BUTTER 

Pound four oz. of shrimps with four oz. of butter; rub 
through a fine sieve first, then through muslin, after having 
softened the preparation. 

This may also be made from the shelled tails of shrimps, 
which process, though it is easier, does not yield a butter of 
such delicate taste as the former. 

284— CURRY BUTTER 

Soften four oz. of butter in a bowl, and add thereto suffi- 
cient curry-powder to ensure a decided taste. The exact 
quantity of curry cannot be prescribed, since the quality of the 
latter entirely governs its apportionment. 



HO GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

285— CRAYFISH BUTTER 

Cook the crayfish with mirepoix, as for Bisque. Finely 
pound the shells after having removed the tails, and add thereto 
four oz. of butter per two oz.; rub through a fine sieve first, 
then through muslin. 

N.B. — The whole crayfish may be pounded, but the tails 
are usually laid aside with a view to supplying the garnish 
of the toasts for which the butter is intended. 

286- RED -HERRING BUTTER 

Take the fillets of three red-herrings; remove the skins, and 
pound finely with three oz. of butter. Rub through a fine 
sieve. 

287— LOBSTER BUTTER 

Pound four oz. of lobster trimmings and spawn, and a little 
of the coral with four oz. of butter. Rub through a fine sieve. 

288— MILT BUTTER 

Poach four oz. of milt in a covered and buttered saut^-pan, 
with the juice of half a lemon ; pound in the mortar, and add 
to the preparation its weight of butter and a teaspoonful of 
mustard. Rub through a fine sieve. 

289— MONTPELIER BUTTER (GREEN BUTTER) 

See Compound Butter for Sauces (No. 153). 

290— HORSE-RADISH BUTTER 

Grate two oz. of horse-radish and pound with four oz. of 
butter. Rub through a fine sieve. 

291— SMOKED SALMON BUTTER 

Finely pound four oz. of smoked salmon with as much 
butter, and rub through a fine sieve. 

292— PAPRIKA BUTTER 

Soften four oz. of butter in a bowl, and mix therewith a 
small teaspoonful of paprika infused in a few drops of white 
wine or consomm^, with a view to strengthening the colour of 
the paprika. 



HORS-D'GEUVRES 141 

293— PIMENTO BUTTER 

Pound four oz. of preserved or freshly-cooked capsicum ; 
add as much butter thereto, and rub through a fine sieve. 

294— CAVIARE CREAM 

Pound four oz. of preserved caviare and add thereto, little 
by little, two tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of 
softened butter. Rub through a fine sieve, and finish the pre- 
paration by an addition of three tablespoonfuls of whisked 
cream . 

N.B. — This cream and those that follow often take the 
place of the butters in the preparation of hors-d'oeuvres. The 
addition of previously well-softened butter to these creams is 
necessary in order to make them sufficiently consistent when 
they cool. 

295— LOBSTER CREAM 

Pound four oz. of lobster trimmings, spawn, and coral, and 
add thereto three tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. 
of softened butter. 

Rub through a sieve, and complete the preparation with 
whisked cream, as above. 

296— GAME CREAM 

Pound four oz. of cold, cooked game-meat with three table- 
spoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter. Rub 
through a sieve, and finish the preparation with three table- 
spoonfuls of whisked cream. 

297— SMOKED SALMON CREAM 

Finely pound four oz. of smoked salmon, and add thereto, 
little by little, three tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. 
of softened butter. Rub the whole through a sieve, and finish 
with an addition of three tablespoonfuls of whisked cream. 

298— TUNNY CREAM 

Finely pound four oz. of tunny in oil, and finish the cream 
similarly to that of the Smoked Salmon. 

299— CHICKEN CREAM 

Finely pound four oz. of cold fowl (white parts only) and 
add thereto two tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of 
softened butter. Rub through a sieve, and finish with three 
tablespoonfuls of whisked cream. 

N.B. — This cream ought to be made and seasoned with 
salt immediately before being served. 



142 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

299a— MUSTARD SAUCE WITH CREAM 

Put three tablespoonfuls of mustard in a bowl with a little 
salt, pepper, and a few drops of lemon-juice. Mix the whole 
and add, little by little, the necessary quantity of very fresh 
cream. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 

300— ANCHOVY ALLUMETTES 

Roll some puff-paste trimmings into rectangular strips two 
and one-half inches wide and one-eighth inch thick. Spread 
thereon a thin coating of fish stuffing, finished with anchovy 
butter ; lay the anchovy fillets, prepared beforehand, lengthwise 
on this stuffing, and cut into pieces about one inch wide. Place 
the pieces on a baking-tray, and set to bake in the oven for 
twelve minutes. 

301— ANCHOVY FILLETS 

Cut each halved anchovy, which should have been previously 
■marinaded in oil, into two or three little fillets. Place them 
across each other in a hors-d'oeuvre dish^^ after the manner of 
a lattice ; garnish with chopped parsley and the chopped white 
and yolk of a hard-boiled egg, alternating the colours. Put 
a few capers on the fillets, and besprinkle moderately with oil. 
Anchovy fillets may also be served on a salad of ciseled 
lettuce, for the sake of variety. 

302— FRESH MARINADED ANCHOVIES 

Take a few live anchovies, cleanse them, and put them in 
salt for two hours. This done, plunge them in smoking oil, 
where they may remain only just long enough to stiffen. 
Drain, place them in a moderately acid marinade, and serve 
on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with a little marinade. 

303— ROLLED ANCHOVIES 

Turn some fine olives and stuff them with anchovy butter; 
when quite cold, encircle them with a ring of anchovy fillet, 
kept whole. 

304— ANCHOVY MEDALLIONS 

Cut into discs, about the size of half-a-crown, potatoes boiled 
in water or baked beetroot. Cover their edges with fine 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 143 

anchovy fillets marinaded in oil, and garnish their centres either 
with caviare, chopped hard-boiled egg, or milt pur^e, &c. 

305— ANCHOVY PAUPIETTES 

Prepare some thick slices of blanched and marinaded 
cucumber, about the size of half-crowns, and hollow their 
centres slightly. Place rings composed of the fillets of 
anchovies in oil upon these slices, and fill up their centres with 
tunny cream or the cream of any fish or shell-fish. 

306— ANCHOVY WITH PIMENTOS 

Prepare some anchovy fillets in oil, and place them across 
each other in a lattice, using fillets of pimento alternately with 
those of the anchovies. Garnish in the same way as for anchovy 
fillets, i.e., with the chopped white and yolk of a hard-boiled 
egg, and chopped parsley. 

307— NORWEGIAN ANCHOVIES OR KILKIS 

These are found ready-prepared on the market. Place them 
on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with some of their liquor, and without 
any garnish. 

308— SMOKED EEL 

Serve it plain, cut into fillets. 

309— EEL WITH WHITE WINE AND PAPRIKA 

Divide the eel into lengths of three and one-half inches; 
poach these in exactly the same way as for matelote, but with 
white wine and paprika seasoning. Let them cool in their 
cooking-liquor ; cut the pieces lengthwise into large fillets, and 
cover them with the liquor after all grease has been removed 
therefrom and it has been clarified and cleared. 

310— EEL AU VERT 

Stew in butter two oz. of sorrel, one-quarter oz. of parsley, 
as much chervil, a few tarragon leaves, a little fresh pimpernel, 
two oz. of tender nettle, one-quarter oz. of savory, a sprig of 
green thyme, and a few sage-leaves, all of which must be 
ciseled. Remove the skins from two lbs. of small eels, sup- 
press the heads, and cut into pieces two inches long. Put 
these pieces with the herbs, stiffen them well, and add one pint 
of white wine and a little salt and pepper. Set to cook for ten 
minutes, thicken with the yolks of four eggs and a few drops 
of lemon-juice, and leave to cool in a bowl. This preparatigij 
pf eel is served very cold. 



144 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

311— EEL AU VERT A LA FLAMANDE 

Remove the skin from, and cut into small pieces, two lbs. 
of small eels. Stiffen the pieces in butter, moisten with one 
pint of beer, season, and set to cook for ten minutes. Add the 
herbs enumerated above, raw and roughly chopped. Once 
more set to cook for seven or eight minutes, thicken with 
fecula if the sauce is too thin, and transfer the whole to a bowl 
to cool. Serve very cold. 

312— ARTICHOKES A LA QRECQUE 

Take some very small and tender artichokes. Pare them, 
cut the leaves short, and plunge them into a large saucepan 
of acidulated water. Set to parboil for eight or ten minutes, 
drain, cool in fresh water, and drain once more in a sieve. 

For twenty artichokes prepare the following liquor : — one 
pint of water, one-quarter pint of oil, a little salt, the juice of 
three lemons, a few fennel and coriander seeds^ some pepper- 
corns, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf. Set to boil, add the 
parboiled artichokes, and leave to cook for twenty minutes. 
Transfer to a bowl. 

Serve these artichokes very cold upon a hors-d'oeuvre 
dish, accompanied by a few tablespoonfuls of their cooking- 
liquor. 

3i3~SMALL ARTICHOKE -BOTTOMS 

Remove the leaves and the hearts of some little artichokes; 
trim their remaining bases, and plunge each as soon as trimmed 
into acidulated water lest they blacken. Cook them " au 
blanc " (No. 167), and leave them to cool in their liquor. 

Drain them well, dry them, place them in a pan, and 
marinade them for twenty minutes in oil and lemon-juice. This 
done, garnish them, either with a salpicon thickened with 
mayonnaise, a milt or other pur^e, a small viacedoine, or a 
vegetable salad, &c. Place on a hors-d'ceuvre dish with a 
garnish of parsley sprays. 

314— BARQUETTES 

These are a kind of small Croustades with indented edges, 
made in very small, boat-shaped moulds, and they may be 
garnished in any conceivable way. 

As their preparation is the same as that of Tartlets, see the 
latter (No. 387); also refer to " Frivolities " (No. 350). 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 145 

31S— SMOKED HAMBURG BEEF 

Cut it into very thin slices; divide these up into triangles, 
and roll the latter into the shape of cones. The slices may also 
be served flat. 

Dish up at the last moment, and serve very cold. 

316— CANAPES AND TOAST 

In the matter of hors-d'oeuvres, the two above names have 
the same meaning. The preparation consists of small slices 
of the crumb of bread, about one-quarter inch thick, slightly 
toasted and with a garnish on one of their sides. The garnish 
is subject to the taste of the consumer, the resources at the 
disposal of the cook, or the latter's fancy, which may here be 
fully indulged. 

But the garnish, par excellence, for Canapes or Toast, is 
fresh butter combined with a fine mince of white roast chicken- 
meat, the meat of shell-fish or fish, or cheese, &c., as I pointed 
out above under the butters for hors-d'oeuvres. 

Whatever be the garnish of Canapes or Toast, and even 
when it would be unreasonable to let butter form a part of it, 
as, for example, in the case of marinaded fish, anchovies, 
filleted herring, &c., it is always best to put plenty of butter 
on the pieces of toast while they are still hot, with the view 
of keeping them soft. 

When the garnish consists of a pur^e, i.e., a compound 
butter, I should advise the use of a piping-bag fitted with a 
grooved pipe, for laying the preparation upon the toast. This 
method is both clean and expeditious, and lends itself to any 
fanciful arrangement which the varying shape of the toast may 
suggest. 

The principal shapes given to the toast are as follows : 
round, square, rectangular, oval, triangular, crescented, star- 
like, crossed, &c. 

They should never exceed one and one-half inches in 
diameter, and a corresponding size in the other shapes. 

I shall only indicate here a few kinds of specially gar- 
nished toast, and leave the thousand and one other kinds for 
the operator himself to discover. 

317— ANCHOVY TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast oval. Cover with anchovy butter, 
and place thereon, lattice-wise, some fillets of anchovy cut to 
the length of the toast. Garnish the pieces of toast all round 

L 



146 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

with the separately chopped whites and yolks of hard-boiled 
eggs, alternating the colours. 

318— CAVIARE TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast round; cover with caviare butter; 
garnish the edges with a thread of softened butter, laid on by 
means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe. Put fresh 
caviare in the centre. 

319— SHRIMP TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast round; cover with shrimp butter, 
and garnish by means of a border composed of shelled shrimps' 
tails with a caper in the centre. 

320— CITY TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast round, and cover with a thick 
coating of the following preparation, viz. : — Four oz. of fresh 
butter, softened; two oz, of fresh Gruy^re and two oz. of 
Parmesan, both grated ; a dessertspoonful of cream, and a little 
salt and cayenne. Cover this preparation with two half-discs, 
which when juxtaposed are equal in circumference to the round 
of the toast. The half-discs should be cut respectively from 
a Lyons sausage and a Gruy^re cheese; both should be thin, 
and equal in thickness. 

321— DANISH TOAST 

Prepare some slices of brown bread, equal in thickness to 
the toast ; but only heat, do not grill them. Spread some horse- 
radish butter over them, and cover with alternate strips of 
smoked salmon, caviare, and filleted herrings marinaded in 
white wine. Now stamp the garnished slices with a sharp 
fancy-cutter, the shape of which is optional. 

322— CRAYFISH TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast crescented; cover with crayfish 
butter, deck the edges with a string of softened butter, and 
garnish with a crayfish's tail, cut into two lengthwise The 
two halves of the tail should be placed in the middle of each 
crescent, close together and with their thickest side innermost. 

323— TONGUE TOAST 

Prepare some slices of crumb of bread, equal in thickness, 
and toast them. Now garnish with a coating, half as thick 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 147 

as the slices themselves, of mustard butter. Cover the butter 
with thin slices of very red, salted tongue, and let the butter 
harden. 

Stamp out the pieces of toast with a star-shaped fancy-cutter, 
which should be dipped from time to time in boiling water in 
order to facilitate the operation. Finally, make a rosette of 
mustard butter in the middle of each piece of toast. 

324— LUCILE TOAST 

Make the pieces of toast oval, cover with mustard butter, 
and border their edges with a line of finely chopped and very 
red tongue. Garnish the middle of each with chopped white 
chicken-meat, and in the centre drop a pinch of chopped truffle. 

335— VARIOUS CAROLINES 

These are very small 6clairs of pate a choux without sugar. 
When quite cold, garnish them inside with a pur^e, either of 
tongue, fowl, game, or foie gras, &c., then coat them 
thinly with a chaud-froid sauce in keeping with the pur^e form- 
ing the inside garnish. 

When the sauce has cooled, glaze it, by means of a brush, 
with a little cold melted jelly, with a view to making it glossy. 

N.B. ^Carolines are also used as a garnish for certain cold 
preparations, aspics, &c. 

336— CAVIARE AND BLINIS 

Caviare is undoubtedly the richest and most delicate of 
hors-d'oeuvres, granted, of course, that it be of good quality 
and consist of large, light-coloured, and transparent particles. 
Its price is always high, owing to the difficulty attending its 
importation. It is served very simply, either in a silver tim- 
bale or in its original receptacle, surrounded with ice, and 
accompanied by a dish of Blinis, whereof the preparation is as 
follows : — 

Make a thin paste with one oz. of yeast and one lb. of 
sifted flour diluted with one pint of lukewarm milk. Leave 
this paste to ferment for two hours in a lukewarm atmosphere, 
and then add thereto one-half lb. of flour, the yolks of four 
eggs, a pinch of salt, one-half pint of tepid milk; mix the 
whole without letting it acquire any body, and finally add the 
whites of four eggs, whisked. Let the preparation ferment 
for half an hour, and, when about to serve, cook the Blinis 
quickly, after the manner of pancakes, in special little omelet- 
pans. Dish them up very hot on a napkin. 

L 2 



148 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Failing fresh caviare, the pressed and salted kind may also 
be used for hors-d'oeuvres. Some cooks serve finely-chopped 
onions with fresh caviare, but a worse practice could not be 
imagined. Fresh caviare, the flavour of which is perfect, does 
not need any supplementary condiment. 

337— CELERY "A LA BONNE-FEMME" 

Take equal quantities of very tender celery sticks and peeled, 
quartered and cored russet apples. Finely mince the celery and 
apples, season with a mustard-and-cream sauce, and place on 
a hors-d'oeuvre dish. 

328— CELERY A LA QRECQUE 

Select a few hearts of celery, very equal; trim, wash, and 
parboil them in acidulated water, as directed under "arti- 
chokes a la Grecque." Prepare the cooking-liquor from the 
same ingredients, using the same quantities thereof, and cook 
similarly. 

Serve very cold on a crystal hors-d'oeuvre dish with a por- 
tion of the cooking-liquor. 

329— CELERIAC 

Quarter, peel, and cut the vegetable in julienne fashion. 
Prepare the seasoning with mustard, salt, pepper, and vinegar ; 
add the julienne of Celeriac and mix thoroughly. When the 
roots are quite soft, a seasoning consisting of mustard-and- 
cream sauce is preferable. 

329a— MARINADED CEPES 

Select some very small and fresh cepes. Parboil them for 
eight minutes, drain and cool them, put them into a basin, 
and cover them with the boiling marinade after having passed 
the latter through a strainer. 

Marinade for Two lbs. of Cepes. — Put into a saucepan one 
pint of vinegar, one-third pint of oil, a crushed clove of garlic, 
a fragment of bay, and a little thyme, six peppercorns, a pinch 
of coriander, a few fennel leaves, and a small root of parsley. 
Set to boil for five minutes. Leave the mushrooms to marinade 
for five or six hours before using them. 

329b— CHERRIES A L'ALLEMANDE 

Take five lbs. of Morella cherries, put them into a bottle, as 
in the case of cherry brandy, and add thereto three cloves, a 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 149 

fragment of cinnamon, some grated nutmeg, and a sprig of 
tarragon. Pour over the cherries two quarts of vinegar, boiled 
with one-half lb. of brown sugar and properly cooled. Cork 
the bottle, and leave the fruit to macerate for a fortnight. 

329c— BRAINS A LA ROBERT 

Cook well-cleansed sheep's or lamb's brains in court- 
bouillon, and cool. Divide them up into thin and regular slices, 
and place them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish. Rub the brain re- 
mains through a fine sieve, combine the resulting pur^e with 
a mustard-and-cream sauce, and add thereto a fine julienne of 
the white part only of celery. 

Cover the slices of brain with the sauce. 

329d— CUCUMBER A LA DANOISE 

Cut the cucumber to the shape of small cassolettes or bar- 
quettes, blanch and marinade them. 

Garnish with a preparation composed of a purde of salmon 
mixed with fillets of herring and chopped, hard-boiled eggs in 
equal quantities. 

Sprinkle a little chopped horse-radish over the garnish. 

330— STUFFED CUCUMBERS 

Prepare them as above, in the shape of small barquettes or 
cassolettes. Cook them, at the same time keeping them firm; 
marinade them for twenty minutes, when they are quite cold, in 
oil and vinegar, and garnish them, by means of a piping-bag, 
either with a thick purde, some mince-meat thickened with 
mayonnaise, or a small vegetable macedoine, &c. 

331— CUCUMBER SALAD 

Carefully peel the cucumbers, cut them into two lengthwise, 
remove their seeds, and mince finely. Place them in a bowl, 
sprinkle with table-salt, and leave them to exude their vegetable 
moisture for twenty-five minutes. This done, drain them, press 
them in a towel, season with pepper, oil, and vinegar, and add 
some chopped chervil. 

332— CUCUMBER AND PIMENTO SALAD 

Select some very fresh, medium-sized cucumbers, peel them, 
and cut them into pieces two inches in length. Cut these pieces 
spirally, beginning at their peripheries and working towards 
their centres ; then cut them diametrally, so as to produce curved 



I50 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

strips of the vegetable. Add an equal quantity of pimentos cut 
into strips, and season as in the case of cucumber salad. 

333— YORK CONES 

Cut slices from a York ham as thinly as possible, and trim 
them to the shape of triangles. Roll the triangles into cones, 
and garnish their insides (by means of a piping-bag fitted with 
a grooved pipe) with any butter or cream. (See Nos. 280 to 
299.) 

334— TONGUE CONES 

Proceed as for York Cones. 

335— MOULDED CREAMS 

Prepare a hors-d'oeuvre cream in accordance with any one 
of the recipes (Nos. 294 to 299). Put this cream into very 
small, slightly-oiled, and ornamented moulds, and leave it to 
set in the cool or on ice. Empty the moulds, at the moment 
of dishing up, either directly upon a dish, on tartlets garnished 
with a pur^e in keeping with the cream, or on toast. With 
these moulded creams, endless varieties of delicate and recom- 
mendable little hors-d'oeuvres may be prepared, while in their 
preparation the moulds used in pastry for " petits fours " may 
serve a useful purpose. 

336— SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS 

Get these very fresh and serve them on boat-shaped hors- 
d'oeuvre dishes, arranging them so that they overlap one 
another. Either garnish the middle of the dishes with curled- 
leaf parsley, or lay the crustaceans directly upon parsley. 

337— DUCHESSES 

This hors-d'oeuvre is almost equivalent to the Carolines 
(No. 325), except that the shape of the Duchesses is that of 
little choux, about the size of a pigeon's egg, and that, as a 
rule, they are merely glazed with some melted jelly, and not 
covered with a chaud-froid sauce. Sprinkle them with chopped 
pistachios, and serve them very cold on ornamented dish-papers. 

338— NANTUA DUCHESSES 

Stuff the little choux, referred to above, with crayfish pur^e, 
and sprinkle them, again and again, with cold, melted jelly, 
in order to cover them with a transparent film. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 151 

339— DUCHESSES A LA REINE 

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of fowl with cream. Glaze 
with jelly, as above, and sprinkle some very black, finely- 
chopped truffles over the jelly. 

340— DUCHESSES A LA SULTANE 

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of fowl, completed with 
pistachio butter. Glaze with jelly, and sprinkle a little chopped 
pistachio upon each little chou. 

341— CAVIARE DUCHES5ES 

Stuff with fresh caviare or caviare cream. Glaze with jelly 
and serve iced. 

343- SMOKED-SALMON DUCHESSES 

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of smoked salmon and 
butter, and glaze them with a maigre jelly. 

343— NORWEGIAN DUCHESSES 

Stuff the choux with a pur^e of Kilkis and butter, and 
glaze with jelly. 

344— KAROLY ECLAIRS 

These are little Eclairs stuffed with a pur^e made from the 
entrails of woodcock with champagne. The pur^e is buttered 
and slightly seasoned. Cover the Eclairs with a brown chaud- 
froid sauce, mask them with game jelly, and serve them, iced, on 
ornamented dish-papers. 

345— CRAYFISH EN BUISSON 

Prepare them in accordance with the recipes " k la nage " 
or "k la marini^re," and serve them very cold. 

346— MARINADED SMELTS 

Fry some well-dried and floured smelts in oil ; as soon 
as this is done, put them in a deep dish or a bowl. Add to 
the oil, per pint (which quantity should be allowed for every 
two lbs. of the fish), eight unpeeled garlic-cloves, an onion, 
and a carrot cut into thin, round slices, all of which vegetables 
should be slightly fried. Drain off the oil, moisten with one- 
quarter pint of vinegar and as much water, and season with a 
little salt, two small pimentos, a small bay-leaf, a sprig of 
thyme, and a few parsley stalks. Dip the smelts for twelve 



152 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

minutes in this marinade, and transfer them to the dish, where 
they may be left to marinade for twenty-four hours. 
Serve very cold with a portion of the marinade. 

347— FENNEL A LA QRECQUE 

Same process as for artichokes and celery k la Grecque. 

348— FRESH FIGS 

Place them on a layer of very green leaves, and surround 
them with broken ice. 

349— FOIE QRAS 

If in the form of a sausage, cut it into thin slices. If potted, 
shape it into little shells, after the manner in which butter is 
sometimes served, only a little smaller. In all cases serve it 
iced, and as soon as it is ready. 

350— FRIVOLITIES 

I adopted the above term for those small, light, and elegant 

little preparations, the radical types whereof are barquettes and 
tartlets, which often take the place of hors-d'oeuvres on a menu. 
The term seems plain, clear, and explicit, and no other could 
denote more happily this series of trifles which constitute mere 
gewgaws of the dining-table. 

3Si_FROQS OR NYMPHS A L'AURORE 

For various reasons, I thought it best, in the past, to sub- 
stitute the mythological name " Nymphs " for the more vulgar 
term " Frogs " on menus, and the former has been universally 
adopted, more particularly in reference to the following 
" Chaud-froid k I'Aurore " :— 

Poach the frogs' legs in an excellent white-wine court- 
bouillon. When cooled, trim them properly, dry them tho- 
roughly in a piece of fine linen, and steep them, one after 
the other, in a chaud-froid sauce of fish with paprika, the tint 
of which should be golden. This done, arrange the treated 
legs on a layer of champagne jelly, which should have set 
beforehand on the bottom of a square, silver dish or crystal 
bowl. Now lay some chervil pluches and tarragon leaves between 
the legs in imitation of water-grasses, and cover the whole 
with champagne jelly to counterfeit the effect of water. 

Send the dish to the table, set in a block of ice, fashioned 
as fancy may suggest. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 153 

352— SALAD OF FILLETED SALTED HERRINGS 

Remove the fillets whole; take off the skins; set to soak and 
then trim them. Dish, and cover them with the following 
sauce : — Add the pur^e of eight soft roes, moistened with two 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, to four tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise. 
Season with onion, parsley, chervil, chives, and tarragon, all 
finely chopped; flavour moderately with cayenne. 

353— FRESH HERRINGS MARINADED IN WHITE WINE 

For twelve herrings, put one pint of white wine into a sauce- 
pan, with one-quarter pint of vinegar, an onion cut into thin 
slices, half a carrot cut into grooved roundels, a faggot, 
the necessary salt, and a few peppercorns. Set to boil gently 
for twenty minutes. 

Place the cleaned herrings in a saut6-pan, pour the boiling 
marinade upon them, and let them poach for fifteen minutes. 

Serve them very cold with the marinade, the roundels of 
carrot, and thin strips of onion. 

354— LUCAS HERRINGS 

Raise the fillets from fine salted herrings, soak them first in 
cold water, and then in milk for an hour. 

Prepare a sauce as follows : — Beat up the yolks of two eggs 
in a bowl with salt and pepper and one tablespoonful of 
mustard; add five tablespoonfuls of oil and two of vinegar, 
proceeding as in the case of mayonnaise, and complete with 
shallots and one dessertspoonful of chopped chervil and 
gherkins. Season with cayenne, immerse the drained and dried 
fillets of herrings in this sauce, and send them to the table on 
a hors-d'oeuvre dish. 

355— HERRINGS A LA LIVONIENNE 

Take some fine salted herrings' fillets, clean them, and cut 
them into dice. Place these in a bowl, and add thereto, in 
equal quantities, some cold, boiled potatoes and russet apples 
cut into dice, parsley, chervil, and chopped fennel and tarragon. 
Season with oil and vinegar, salt and pepper; make the pre- 
paration into shapes resembling herrings, and place the heads 
and tails, which should have been put aside for the purpose, at 
each extremity of every supposed herring. 

356— HERRINGS A LA RUSSE 

Cut some fine, cleaned fillets of salted herrings into thin 
slices. Dish up, and alternate the rows of sliced fillets with 



154 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

rows of sliced, cold, boiled potatoes. Season with oil and 
vinegar, and finish up with chopped chervil, fennel, tarragon, 
and shallots. 

357— HERRINGS WITH FRENCH BEANS 

These hors-d'oeuvres can only be served at their best in 
the months of September and October, when the first shoals 
of herrings begin to appear. Dutch fishermen know of a means 
of salting and marinading this fish, which greatly increases 
its value, and it is not unusual to pay as much as two or three 
shillings for one in the early part of the season. They can only 
be kept a few days, but they form an excellent dish, and their 
flavour Is exquisite. Before serving them, it is only needful 
to skin them, whereupon they may be dished up with a little 
chopped parsley. Send a bowl of French beans to the table 
with them, the vegetables having been freshly cooked, kept 
somewhat firm, buttered, and not cooled. Some cooks serve 
the beans cold, in the form of a salad, but as a rule they are 
preferred hot with butter, while the herrings should be very 
cold. 

358— OYSTERS 

The best oysters to be had are those of Whitstable, Col- 
chester, Burnham, and Zeeland. The green, French Marennes, 
which might equal the above, are not favoured by everyone on 
account of their colour. Ostend oysters are also excellent, but 
they are neither as delicate nor as fleshy as the English ones. 

Oysters are the dish par excellence; their delicacy satisfies 
the most fastidious of epicures, and they are so easily digested 
that the most delicate invalid can partake of them freely. With 
the exception of caviare, they are the only hors-d'oeuvres which 
should ever appear on the menu of a well-ordered dinner. 

Oysters ought to be served very cold; hence the prevailing 
custom of dishing them on ice. In England they are served 
plain on the flat half of the shell, whereas in France and else- 
where they are left in the hollow half, which is better calculated 
to retain the natural liquor of the oyster, held in high esteem 
by many. Send some slices of brown bread and butter to the 
table with the oysters. 

The various methods of treating oysters will be given here- 
after in the chapter dealing with fish. I have given them 
merely because consumers and caterers alike may wish to have 
them ; but the real and be§t way of serving oysters is to send 
them to the table raw. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 155 

359— ARDENNES HAM 

This is served like smoked breast of goose, cut, raw, into 
thin and even slices. 

360— CANTALOUP MELON 

Melon makes an excellent hors-d'oeuvre for summer 
luncheons. It should be just ripe, and have a nice perfume. 
Serve it as fresh as possible. 

361— ENGLISH MELONS 

The English variety of melons is inferior in quality to the 
French. 

Their shape is oval, their peel is yellow, thin, and smooth, 
and their pulp, which is white, more nearly resembles the 
water-melon than the melon in flavour. 

362— MELON WITH PORT, MARSALA, OR SHERRY, &c. 

Select a Cantaloup or other melon of the same kind as the 
former, and let it be just ripe. Make a round incision about 
the stalk, three inches in diameter; withdraw the plug thus 
cut, and through the resulting hole thoroughly remove all the 
pips by means of a silver spoon. 

Now pour one-half pint of best Port, Marsala, or Sherry 
into the melon, replace the plug, and keep the melon for two 
or three hours in a cooler surrounded by broken ice. Do not 
cut the melon into slices when serving it. It should be taken 
to the table, whole, and then the piece containing the stalk 
is withdrawn and the fruit is cut into shell-like slices with a 
silver spoon, and served with a little of the accompanying wine 
upon iced plates. 

363— VARIOUS MELONS 

France produces a large variety of melons, of which the 
principal kinds are the Sucrins of Tours, the St. Laud melon, 
the black melons of the Carmes, &c. They are all excellent, 
and are served like the Cantaloups. 

364— NATIVES WITH CAVIARE 

This is a typically luxurious hors-d'oeuvre. Cook some 
little tartlet crusts for hors-d'oeuvre (No. 314). When about 
to dish up, garnish these with a tablespoonful of fine, fresh 
caviare; make a hollow in the latter and place therein a fine 
Whitstable oyster (cleared of its beard), seasoned with a little 
powdered pepper and a drop of lemon-juice. 



156 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

365— SMOKED BREAST OF GOOSE 

Cut it into the thinnest possible slices, and garnish with 
very green parsley. 

366— PLAIN OLIVES 

Olives of all kinds are suitable for hors-d'oeuvres, and they 
are served plain. Three or four varieties are known, all of 
which are excellent, provided they be fleshy, firm, very green, 
and moderately salted. 

367— STUFFED OLIVES 

For this purpose, select large Spanish olives and stone them, 
either by cutting them spirally, or by means of a special 
machine. In the place of the stone, put one of the butters or 
creams for hors-d'oeuvres (Nos. 280 to 299). Before serving 
these olives, it is well to let them rest awhile in a moderately 
warm atmosphere. For, since stuffed olives are generally kept 
in the cool, immersed in oil with which they become thoroughly 
saturated, it follows that the moment they are put into contact 
with a slightly higher temperature they will exude that oil. 
Wherefore, if the above precaution were not observed, by the 
time the olives reached the table they would, more often than 
not, be swimming in oil, when they would be neither nice nor 
appetising. 

368— PLAIN LAPWINGS' AND PLOVERS' EGGS 

Though the lapwing and the plover are different in respect 
of their plumage, they are, nevertheless, birds of similar 
habits and haunts, and their eggs are remarkably alike. The 
latter, which are a little larger than pigeons' eggs, have a light- 
green shell covered with black spots. 

When cooked, the albuminous portions acquire a milky 
colour, and never assume the solidity of the whites of other 
eggs. 

When served as a hors-d'oeuvre, these eggs are always 
boiled hard. Put them in a saucepan of cold water, and leave 
them to cook for eight minutes after the boil is reached. Cool 
them, shell their pointed ends, and serve them in a nest com- 
posed of watercress or curled-leaf parsley. 

N.B. — Test the freshness of the eggs before boiling them 
by plunging them in a bowl of cold water. If they float, their 
freshness is doubtful, and they should be discarded. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 157 

369— LAPWINGS' EGGS IN ASPIC 

Decorate a border-mould according to taste, and let a 
thin coating of very clear aspic jelly set on the bottom of the 
utensil. Besprinkle the articles used in decorating with a few 
drops of melted jelly, in order to keep them from shifting; 
then cover them with a few tablespoonfuls of jelly, and let it 
set. On this coating of jelly arrange the shelled, hard-boiled 
lapwings' eggs with their points downwards, so that they 
may appear upright when the aspic is withdrawn from the 
mould. Fill up the mould by means of successive layers of 
melted jelly. 

When about to serve, dip the mould into hot water ; quickly 
wipe it, and then turn the aspic out on to a folded napkin lying 
on a dish. 

370— LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA MODERNE 

Boil the eggs soft ; mould them in dariole-moulds, coated 
with jelly, and garnished in Chartreuse fashion. Heap a 
vegetable-salad, thickened with mayonnaise, in the middle of 
the dish, and place the eggs removed from their moulds all 
round. 

371— LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA CHRISTIANA 

Cook the eggs as above ; shell them ; slice a piece off their 
thicker ends to make them stand, and arrange them on a dish, 
placing them upon little tartlet-crusts, garnished with a foie- 
gras purde. 

For twelve eggs put two tablespoonfuls of foie-gras purde 
in a small saucepan ; add thereto one tablespoonful of chopped 
truffles and as much melted jelly, the latter with a view to 
making the preparation more liquid. Take some of this pre- 
paration in a tablespoon and pour it over the eggs, taking 
care that each of these gets well covered with it. Let the 
coating set in the cool, and dish up the tartlets on a napkin, 
arranging them in the form of a circle with curled-leaf parsley 
as a centre-garnish. 

372— LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA MOSCOVITE 

Boil the eggs hard; cool and shell them. Prepare as many 
tartlet-crusts as there are eggs. When dishing up, garnish 
the tartlets with a coffeespoonful of caviare, and place one 
egg in the middle of each. 



158 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

373— VARIOUS HARD-BOILED EGGS 

With hard-boiled eggs for base, a large number of hors- 
d'oeuvres may be made. I shall limit myself to a few only, 
which, by means of a small change in their form, garnish, or 
ornamentation, may be varied at will: — 

Egg Discs. — Cut the eggs laterally into roundels one-third 
inch in thickness, and discard the two end-pieces of each egg, 
in order that the shapes may be almost uniform, and that the 
yolks may appear about the same size throughout. In the 
centre of each roundel make a little rosette of butter, by means 
of a small, grooved pipe. Different butters, such as the 
Shrimp, Montpellier, Caviare, and other kinds, may be used 
with the view of varying the colours. 

Halved, Stuffed Eggs. — Take some very small, hard-boiled 
eggs; cut them into two, lengthwise; remove the yolk's, and 
trim the oval hollow of each of the remaining whites to the 
shape of an oblong, the edges of which may then be indented. 

Garnish, either with a pur^e of tunny, salmon, milt, &c., 
or a hash or salpicon of lobster, shrimp, &c., thickened by 
means of a mayonnaise with jelly, or a fine viacedoine of vege- 
tables with mayonnaise, or a pur^e composed of the withdrawn 
yolks combined with a little butter, some cold Bechamel sauce, 
and herbs. 

Quartered, Stuffed Eggs. — The simplest way of doing this 
is to proceed as above, to stuff the halved white with a buttered 
pur^e, or a pur^e mixed with jelly, to leave the stuffing to set, 
and then to cut the halves in two. 

Salad of Eggs. — With alternate rows of sliced eggs and 
either tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, or beetroot, and a salad- 
seasoning composed of oil and vinegar or cream, a dozen 
different salads may be prepared, each of which constitutes an 
excellent hors-d'oeuvre. 

374— LARK PATE 

For this hors-d'oeuvre use the ready-made pate, which is 
obtained either in pots or crusts. Thoroughly set it by means 
of ice; turn it out of its receptacle, cut it into very small and 
thin slices, and arrange them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with a 
little broken jelly in the middle. 

375— MILD, GRILLED CAPSICUM 

Grill the capsicum on a moderate fire until the skins are 
so scorched as to be easily removed. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES 159 

Now cut them up julienne-fashion, and season with oil and 
vinegar. 

376— RADISHES 

In the preparation of hors-d'oeuvres by the Icitchen, radishes 
are used chiefly as a garnish. When they constitute a hors- 
d'oeuvre of themselves, their preparation is relegated to the 
pantry. 

They are used especially in imitating the pendulous flowers 
of the fuchsia; sometimes, too, they are sliced and placed on 
cut cucumber to form a dish-border; but their uses in garnish- 
ing are as numerous as they are various. 

377— AMERICAN RELISHES 

These consist of divers kinds of fruit and of small onions 
and gherkins, prepared with vinegar, seasoned with sugar and 
cinnamon, and flavoured with cayenne. 

They resemble what the Italians call " Aceto-dolce." This 
hors-d'oeuvre is accompanied by special cinnamon biscuits, 
and remains on the table throughout the meal. 

378— RILLETTES AND RILLONS 

Both these preparations, which belong to the province of 
the pork-butcher, may be found on the market. 

The rillettes are served in their pots, and are always sent 
to the table very cold. 

379— RED MULLET A L'ORIENTALE 

Select small ones, as far as possible. Place them in an 
oiled pan, and add peeled and concussed tomatoes, parsley- 
root, fennel, thyme, bay, a little garlic, peppercorns, coriander, 
and saffron, the latter being the dominating ingredient. 

Cover the whole with white wine; salt moderately, set to 
boil, and then leave to poach on the side of the fire for twelve 
or eighteen minutes, in accordance with the size of the mullet. 

Leave the fish to cool in their cooking-liquor, and serve 
them with a little of the latter and a few slices of peeled lemon. 

380— SARDINES 

The various kinds of sardines for hors-d'oeuvres may be 
found on the market. 

381— SALADS 

Salads for hors-d'oeuvres may consist of an endless diversity 
of products, and their preparation varies so that it would be 



i6o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

impossible to prescribe fixed rules for the latter. I shall there- 
fore restrict myself to saying merely that they should be made 
as light and as sightly as possible, in order that they may be 
in keeping with the general idea and purpose of hors-d'oeuvre. 

382— QOTHA AND MILAN SALAMI 

Cut these into very thin slices, and place them, one on top 
of the other, on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, in the form of a crown, 
with a sprig of curled-leaf parsley in the middle. They may 
also be laid flat upon a litter of parsley. 

383— ARLES, BOLOQNE OR LARGE LYONS SAUSAGES 

Cut these up and arrange them like the Salami. 

384— FOIE-GRAS SAUSAGES 

Cut into thin roundels and dish up with chopped aspic jelly 
as a centre-garnish. 

385— SMOKED SALMON 

Cut into triangular, thin slices; roll these into cones, and 
arrange in the form of a crown with curled-leaf parsley in the 
middle. 

386— SPRATS 

These are smoked sardines. Select the very fleshy ones, 
for there exist many kinds, a few of which are dry and quite 
flavourless. 

In order to prepare them, suppress the heads and remove 
or leave on the skins, in accordance with the consumer's taste. 
Put them on a dish with some finely-chopped shallots, chopped 
parsley, and oil and vinegar, using a very little of each in- 
gredient. Leave them to marinade for five or six hours, taking 
care to turn them over from time to time so as to thoroughly 
saturate them with the marinade. 

387— TARTLETS AND BARQUETTES 

These articles play an important part in the service of hors- 
d'oeuvres, and represent the class I designated under the name 
of Frivolities. 

The garnishes suitable for tartlets are likewise used with 
barquettes, the latter only differing from the former in their 
shape. The directions which follow below, and which should 
be carefully noted, apply equally to both. 



HORS-D'CEUVRES i6i 

Special Paste jor Tartlets and Barquettes. — Sift one lb. of 
flour on to a mixing-board; make a hole in the centre, into 
which put one-eighth oz. of salt, one-half lb. of cold, melted 
butter, one egg, the yolks of two, and a few drops of water. 
Mix the whole into a paste, handling it as little as possible; 
roll it into a ball, and put it aside in the cool for two hours. 

The Preparation of Tartlet- and Barquette-crusts. — Roll out 
the paste to the thickness of one-eighth inch, and stamp it with 
an indented fancy-cutter into pieces of the same size as the 
tartlet-moulds to be used, which in this case are the same as for 
" petits fours," and, therefore, very small. 

The fancy-cutter should be round for tartlets, and oval for 
barquettes. Lay the paste in the moulds, prick the parts lying 
on the bottom, lest they should blister, garnish the insides with 
pieces of kitchen-paper to protect the paste, and fill them with 
rice or flour. Bake in a moderate oven; remove the rice or 
flour, the sole object of which was to preserve the shape of the 
tartlets or barquettes ; turn the latter out of their moulds, and 
set them to cool. 

The Garnishes of Tartlets and Barquettes. — These may be 
divided into two classes, viz., (i) those with a compound butter 
for base, (2) those with an aspic jelly base. 

The first class comprises all the garnishes I gave for Canapes 
and Toast, as also all those which the operator's fancy, taste, 
and inventiveness may devise. 

The second class generally consists of a layer, on the bottom, 
of some kind of mousse, upon which a whole piece of a different 
colour from the mousse is placed, and which is then coated 
with a very clear jelly. 

Example. — Garnish the bottom of a tartlet or barquette with 
a coating of pink, shrimp, crayfish or lobster mousse. Upon 
this lay a very white poached oyster, or a slice of hard-boiled 
egg, stamped with an indented fancy-cutter. In the centre of 
the yolk put a little lobster coral, and coat the whole with jelly 
to the level of the tartlet edges. 

The explanations given above warrant my refraining from 
a more detailed discussion of these delicate preparations. Suffi- 
cient has been said to allow of any operator, with a little taste 
and inventiveness, easily making an endless variety of com- 
binations. 

388— TUNNY IN OIL 

This is found on the market, and it may be served as it 
stands. It is very greatly used as a garnish for hors-d'oeuvres. 

M 



1 62 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

389— TUNNY WITH TOMATOES 

Lay alternate slices of tunny and tomato upon a hors- 
d'oeuvre dish, and between each slice lay a thin round of onion. 
Garnish the edge of the dish with a border composed of sliced 
potato, and sprinkle the whole with an ordinary salad 
seasoning. 

390— MOCK TOMATOES 

Select some about the size of a walnut, and peel them care- 
fully. Press them in a piece of linen, and set them to marinade 
for half an hour in oil and vinegar. Then stick a small piece 
of parsley stalk into each tomato, in imitation of the stalk, and 
surround it with little leaves made from green butter by means 
of a small piping-bag. 

391— TOMATOES A L'AMERICAINE 

Select some firm, medium-sized tomatoes, and cut them into 
thin slices. Put them into a dish with salt, pepper, oil, and 
a few drops of vinegar, and leave them to marinade for twenty 
minutes. Then arrange them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, gar- 
nishing the border with fine rings of onion. 

392— TOMATOES A LA MONEQASQUE 

Select some small tomatoes about the size of walnuts, and 
cut a slice from each in the region of the stalk. Squeeze out 
all their water and seeds, and viarinade them, inside, for 
twenty minutes. Prepare a mince of tunny with oil, and add 
thereto, per two oz. of the fish, half a tablespoonful of finely- 
chopped onion, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, chervil, and 
tarragon, and a small, hard-boiled egg, also chopped. 

Thicken the whole with a tablespoonful of thick mayon- 
naise; put it into a bag fitted with a smooth, medium-sized 
pipe, and garnish the tomatoes with the preparation, using 
enough of the latter to form a kind of dome upon each tomato. 

393_QUARTERED TOMATOES 

Use medium-sized tomatoes, somewhat firm and with very 
smooth skins. Peel them and empty them, and then fill them, 
either with a fish puree cleared with jelly, or with a macedoine 
of vegetables thickened by means of a mayonnaise with jelly. 
Place on ice for half an hour, and cut the tomatoes into 
regular quarters. The tomatoes may also be cut into four, 
previous to stuffing them, whereupon they may, with the help 



HORS-D*CElJVRES 163 

of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, be filled with one 
of the compound butters. 

394— MARINADED TROUT 

Select some very small trout, clean and dress them, and 
poach them in a white-wine court-bouillon (No. 164) to which 
vinegar has been added in the proportion of one-third of its 
volume. 

Leave the fish to cool in the liquor, and dish up with a few 
tablespoonfuls of the latter, placing some thin, grooved slices 
of lemon upon the fish. 



M 2 



CHAPTER XII 

EGGS 

Of all the products put into requisition by the art of cookery, 
not one is so fruitful of variety, so universally liked, and so 
complete in itself as the egg. There are very few culinary 
recipes that do not include eggs, either as a principal con- 
stituent or as an ingredient. 

The many and various egg-preparations constitute chiefly 
breakfast or luncheon dishes; nevertheless, at a Lenten dinner 
they rriay be served as entries with advantage, for, at a time 
when fish, shell-fish, and water-game are the only resources 
in this respect, eggs form a pleasant and welcome change. 

395— EQQS ON THE DISH 

Eggs cooked in this way derive all their quality from the 
way in which the cooking process is conducted. They must 
be evenly cooked, on top and underneath, and should remain 
soft. An important condition of the process is that the eggs 
should be exceedingly fresh. After having heated sufficient 
butter in the dish to cover the whole of the bottom, break two 
eggs into it, baste the yolks with a little very hot butter, salt 
them slightly, and push them into the oven. As soon as the 
white of the eggs assumes a milky-white colour, they are cooked 
and should be withdrawn from the oven to be served imme- 
diately. 

Great attention should be bestowed upon the cooking pro- 
cess, a few seconds more or less than the required time being 
sufficient to spoil the eggs. Special care ought to be taken 
that they do not cook either too much or too quickly, for it 
should be remembered that, even were the cooking checked 
before the proper time, the heat of the dish does, to a certain 
extent, make good the deficiency. 

Eggs a la poele, which, in England, are called "fried 
eggs," are a variety of eggs on the dish, very often served on 
toast, or accompanied by sausages or fried bacon. They are 



EGGS 165 

cooked in an omelet-pan, trimmed neatly witli a fancy-cutter, 
and placed, by means of a spatula, upon the prepared toast. 

About one-half oz. of butter should be allowed for every 
two eggs, which number constitutes the working-base of the 
following recipes. 

396— BERCY EQQS 

Put half of the butter to be used in a dish; let it melt, break 
the eggs, taking care not to burst the yolks; baste the latter 
with the rest of the butter, and season. Cook as directed — 
that is to say, until the whites are quite done and the yolks are 
glossy. Garnish with a small, grilled sausage, placed between 
the yolks, and surround with a thread of tomato sauce. 

397— EQQS WITH BROWN BUTTER 

There are two methods : (i) Cook the eggs in a dish as 
usual, and then cover them with one-quarter oz. of brown butter 
and a few drops of vinegar, which should be added after the 
butter. 

(2) Put one-half oz. of butter into a small omelet-pan, 
and cook it until it is almost black. Break the eggs into it, 
season, cook, tilt them gently on to a dish, and besprinkle with 
a few drops of vinegar, with which the omelet-pan has been 
rinsed. 

398— EQQS CHASSEUR 

Cook the eggs as per No. 395. This done, garnish on 
either side with a tablespoonful of sliced chicken's liver, rapidly 
sauted and cohered with a little Chasseur sauce. 

399— DEVILLED EQQS 

Cook the eggs in the omelet-pan ; turn them, after the 
manner of pancakes, taking care lest they break. Slide them 
gently into a dish, and besprinkle them with brown butter and 
a few drops of vinegar with which the omelet-pan has been 
rinsed. 

400— EQQS A LA FLORENTINE 

Garnish the bottom of a dish with spinach-leaves stewed 
in butter ; sprinkle thereon two pinches of grated cheese ; break 
the eggs upon this garnish, and cover them with two table- 
spoonfuls of Mornay sauce. Place in a fierce oven, so that 
the cooking and glazing of the eggs may be effected simul- 
taneously. 



1 66 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

401— EQQS AU QRATIN 

Put a tablespoonful of very hot Mornay sauce into a dish. 
Break the eggs into it, cover them with Mornay sauce, 
sprinkle with grated cheese mixed with fine raspings, and cook 
in a fierce oven, in order that the eggs and the gratin may be 
done at the same time. 

402— ISOLINE EGGS 

Cook the eggs according to No. 395. Place between them, 
and all round the dish, some small, halved tomatoes k la Pro- 
ven9ale. Put in the centre of each halved tomato a fine 
chicken's liver sauted with Madeira. 

403— JOCKEY CLUB EGGS 

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan ; tilt them gently on to a 
dish, and trim them with a round fancy-cutter. Place each 
egg upon a round, thin piece of toast, and then cover them 
with foie-gras pur6e. Arrange them in the form of a crown, 
on a dish, and pour into the middle a garnish of calf's kidneys 
cut into dice and sauted, and truflBes similarly cut, the latter 
being cohered by means of some dense half-glaze. 

404— LULLY EQQS 

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan, and cut them with a round 
fancy-cutter. Place each egg on a slice of raw ham, cut to 
the same shape as the former, and fried in butter. Then place 
the egg and ham on toast similarly shaped and of the same 
size. Arrange the eggs in a circle round the dish, and garnish 
the middle of it with macaroni combined with concassed to- 
matoes stewed in butter. 

405— MEYERBEER EQQS 

Cook the eggs as in No. '395. Place a small, grilled sheep's 
or lamb's kidney between each yolk, and surround with a thread 
of P^rigueux sauce. 

406— MIRABEAU EGGS 

Substitute for ordinary butter, anchovy" butter. Break the 
eggs and cook them. Surround each yolk with anchovy fillets, 
and garnish each of these with a spray of parboiled tarragon 
leaves. Place a large olive stuffed with tarragon butter on 
either side of the yolks. 



EGGS 167 

407— OMER- PACHA EQQS 

Garnish a dish with a large tablespoonful of minced onions 
cooked in butter and unbrowned. Break the eggs over the 
garnish, sprinkle them with a small tablespoonful of dry, grated 
Parrhesan cheese, and cook in a sufficiently fierce oven for a 
slight gratin to form as soon as the eggs are done. 

408— PARMENTIER EGOS 

Bake some fine Dutch potatoes in the oven. Open them, 
from above, with an oval fancy-cutter; remove the pulp from 
the inside, rub it through a sieve, and make a smooth pur^e 
of it. Half-fill the potato-shells with this pur^e, break an egg 
into each, besprinkle with cream, and cook in the oven. Re- 
place the part of the baked shell removed in the first instance, 
and dish up on a napkin. 

409— EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE 

Put a tablespoonful of tomato fondue into a dish. Break 
the eggs upon this, season, and cook. Between the eggs and 
at each end of the dish put a little heap of tomato fondue, and 
on each of the heaps drop a pinch of chopped parsley. 

410— EQQS A LA REINE 

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan, and trim them with a round 
fancy-cutter. Put each egg upon a small disc of Duchesse 
potatoes, of the same size as the egg, previously browned in 
the oven. Arrange the eggs in a circle round the dish; in 
the middle put a chicken mincemeat, and surround with a 
border of Supreme sauce. 

Poached and Soft-boiled Eggs 

All the recipes given hereafter apply equally to poached and 
soft-boiled eggs, wherefore I shall only mention ' ' poached ' ' 
in the titles, leaving soft-boiled to be understood. 

411— PROCEDURE FOR POACHED EQQS 

The one and only essential condition in this case is the 
use of perfectly fresh eggs, for it is quite impossible to expect 
an even poaching if this condition is not fulfilled. 

(i) Have ready a saut^-pan containing boiling salted water 
(one-third oz. of salt per quart of water), slightly acidulated with 
vinegar. Break the eggs over that part of the water which is 
actually boiling. 



1 68 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

(2) In order that the eggs may poach freely, do not put more 
than eight or ten at a time into the same saut(^-pan ; better even 
poach them six at a time, for then the poaching will be effected 
more equally. 

(3) As soon as the eggs are in the water, let the latter 
simmer. The egg is poached when the white has enveloped 
the yolk, reassuming, as it were, the form of a raw egg, and 
when it may be touched without breaking. The usual time 
allowed for poaching is three minutes. 

(4) Withdraw the eggs by means of a slice; dip them into 
cold water, trim their whites, and put them back into moderately 
warm water until ready to serve. 

412— THE COOKING OF SOFT-BOILED EGQS 

These ought to be very fresh, as in the case of poached 
eggs. With a view to equalising their cooking, it is a good 
plan to put them in a colander perforated with large holes, 
whereby they may be plunged into and withdrawn from the 
water together. Keep the water boiling ; plunge the eggs 
therein as directed; leave them to cook for six minutes from 
the time the water has regained the boiling-point; drain, steep 
for a moment in a bowl of cold water, and shell the eggs care- 
fully. Keep them in moderately-salted hot water until ready 
to serve. 

413— THE DISHING OF POACHED AND SOFT-BOILED EGQS 

There are many ways of doing this, viz. : — 
(i) On rusks of bread-crumb, slightly hollowed, ornamented 
according to taste (i.e., indented by means of the point of a 
small knife) and fried in clarified butter. Their shape is oval 
for poached eggs, and round for soft-boiled eggs, the latter 
being generally dished upright. 

(2) On little, oval feuilletes for poached eggs, on feuilletes 
in the shape of indented crowns, or in small patties for soft- 
boiled eggs. 

(3) In borders of forcemeat or other preparations, the kind of 
which is indicated by the name of the particular egg-prepara- 
tion. These borders are laid on the dish by means of a piping- 
bag or by hand; they are either oval or round, plain or in- 
dented, poached or oven-browned, according to the nature of 
the preparation used. 

(4) On tartlet-crusts which are garnished so as to be in keep- 
ing with the method of dressing the eggs. 



EGGS 169 

Remarks. — (i) Poached or soft-boiled eggs, when dished 
upon fried rusks, feuilletes, or tartlets, should, before being 
placed on the latter, be covered with sauce. Also before being 
treated with sauce they should be well drained. 

(2) Having given the general outlines of the procedure, I 
shall now pass on to the particular recipes, stating them briefly, 
and reminding the reader that all of them apply equally to 
poached and soft-boiled eggs. Thus " Poached Eggs Mireille " 
stands for " Poached or Soft-boiled Eggs Mireille." 

414— POACHED EQQS ARQENTEUIL 

Garnish the bottom of some tartlet-crusts with asparagus 
cut into pieces and cooked, and six green asparagus-heads, 
about one and one-half inches in length, arranged like a star. 
Place an egg, coated with cream sauce mixed with half its 
volume of asparagus pur^e, upon each tartlet. 

415— POACHED EGGS A L'AURORE 

Coat the eggs with Aurora sauce, and dish them on oval 
feuilletes if poached, or upright on feuilletes in the shape of 
rings if soft-boiled. 

416— POACHED EQQS EN BERCEAU 

Bake some fine Dutch potatoes in the oven. Cut each potato 
in half, lengthwise, with the point of a small knife, and remove 
the pulp. Emptied in this way, the halved potatoes resemble 
little cradles. Coat the interior of each cradle with a fine 
chicken mincemeat mixed with cream, and place an egg coated 
with Aurora sauce in each. 

417— POACHED EQQS A LA BOHEMIENNE 

Garnish the bottom of some tartlet-crusts with a salpicon 
of foie-gras and truffles cohered with a few tablespoonfuls of 
the following sauce : — For six eggs, dissolve one teaspoonful 
of white-meat glaze; add thereto half a teaspoonful of truffle 
essence, and finish with a lump of butter about the size of a 
pigeon's egg. Take enough of this sauce to effect the cohering 
of the salpicon ; coat the eggs with Hungarian sauce, and place 
one upon each garnished tartlet. 

418— POACHED EQQS BOIELDIEU 

Garnish the tartlets with a white-chicken-meat, foie-gras, 
and truffle salpicon cohered with poultry velout^. Coat the 
eggs with a reduced and thickened poultry gravy. 



I70 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

419— POACHED EGGS A LA BRUXELLOISE 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with braised, minced endives 
thicliened with cream. Place an egg, coated with cream sauce, 
upon each ; sprinkle moderately with biscotte raspings, and 
set to glaze quickly in a fierce oven. 

420— POACHED EGGS A LA CLAMART 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with small, green peas, cooked 
a la fran9aise (No. 2193), and mixed with finely ciseled lettuce 
which should have cooked with them. Place an egg, coated 
with cream sauce which has been finished with fresh-pea butter, 
upon each. 

421— POACHED EGGS COLBERT 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a macedoine cohered with 
Bechamel. Place a plainly-poached egg upon each, and send 
Colbert butter, separately, to the table with the tartlets. 

422— POACHED EGGS A LA COMTESSE 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with white asparagus pur^e. 
Place an egg coated with AUemande sauce upon each, and 
sprinkle with very black chopped truffles. 

423— POACHED EGGS GRAND DUC 

There are two modes of procedure : — (a) Place the eggs on 
fried rusks, with a nice slice of truffle on each ; arrange them 
in a circle round the dish, coat with Mornay sauce, and set to 
glaze in a fierce oven. On withdrawing the dish from the 
oven, put in the centre a garnish composed of asparagus-heads 
and a small faggot of the latter, very green and cooked. 
(b) Prepare a croustade, moulded in a flawn ring, the size of 
which must be in proportion to the number of eggs to be 
served. Arrange the eggs in a circle in the croustade, coat 
them with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze in a fierce oven. 
On withdrawing the croustade from the oven, garnish its centre 
with asparagus-heads and a small faggot as above. 

424— POACHED EGGS MAINTENON 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a Soubise k la Bechamel, 
slightly thickened by reduction. Coat the eggs with Mornay 
sauce, besprinkle with grated cheese, and place them in the 
crusts by means of a slice. 

Set to glaze in a fierce oven, and, on withdrawing the dish 



EGGS 171 

from the oven, surround the crusts with a thread of melted 
meat-glaze. 

435— POACHED EQQS MASS^NA 

Heat some medium-sized artichoke-bottoms in butter. 
Slightly hollow them, if necessary, and garnish each with a 
tablespoonful of B^arnaise sauce. Place an egg, coated with 
tomato sauce, upon each artichoke-bottom ; then place a slice 
of poached marrow upon each egg, and a little chopped parsley 
upon each slice of marrow. 

426— POACHED EGGS MIREILLE 

Slightly press some saffroned pilaff rice in buttered tartlet 
moulds. 

Prepare as many pieces of toast of the same size as the 
tartlets, and fry them in oil. Place an egg, coated with cream 
sauce, finished with saffron, upon each. Turn the rice-tartlets 
out of the moulds, and arrange them in a circle on a dish, 
alternating them with the eggs on toast; put a cofifeespoonful 
of concussed tomatoes, stewed in butter and kept rather thick, 
upon each rice-tartlet. 

427— POACHED EGGS MORNAY 

Coat the eggs with Mornay sauce, and besprinkle with 
grated Gruy^re and Parmesan cheese mixed with fine raspings. 
Then, by means of a slice, carefully transfer the eggs to pieces 
of toast fried in oil. Arrange them in a circle on a dish, sprinkle 
each egg with a few drops of melted butter, and set to glaze 
quickly in a fierce oven. 

428— POACHED EGGS D'ORSAY 

Place the eggs upon toast fried in butter. Arrange them 
in a circle on a dish, and coat them with Chateaubriand sauce. 

429— POACHED EGGS ROSSINI 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts, each with a slice of foie gras 
(raw if possible) seasoned, dredged with flour, and fried in 
butter. Place an egg, coated with thickened veal gravy with 
Madeira, on each tartlet, and complete by means of a large slice 
of very black truffle on each egg. 

430-^POACHED EGGS S^VIQNlfe 

Prepare some thin rusks; fry them in clarified butter, and 
stuff them with a mince of braised lettuce. Place an egg on 



172 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

each stuffed rusk ; coat with velout6 mixed with poultry essence ; 
arrange in a circle on a dish, and complete by means of a ring 
of very black truffle on each egg. 

431— POACHED EGGS VICTORIA 

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a salpicon made from three 
oz. of spiny-lobster meat and one-half oz. of truffles, cohered 
with three tablespoonfuls of Diplomate sauce. Place an egg, 
coated with Diplomate sauce, on each tartlet. Dish, and set 
to glaze in a fierce oven. 

432— POACHED EGGS WITH RED WINE 

These eggs may either be poached with red wine, or in the 
ordinary way. 

In the first case, the wine used for poaching may serve to 
prepare the red wine or Bordelaise sauce (No. 32). In either 
case, the eggs are dished on oval rusks, slightly hollowed and 
fried in butter; they are coated with the sauce, after having 
been dished, and they are quickly glazed. 

433— HARD-BOILED EGGS 

Boiling eggs hard may seem an insignificant matter, but, 
like the other modes of procedure, it is, in reality, of some 
importance, and should be effected in a given period of time. 
If, for a special purpose, they have to be just done, it is point- 
less and even harmful to boil them beyond a certain time-limit, 
seeing that any excess in the boiling only makes them tough, 
and the whites particularly so, owing to their albuminous nature. 
In order to boil eggs uniformly, they should be put into a 
colander with large holes, whereby they may be plunged at 
the same moment of time into the boiling water. From the 
time the water regains the boiling point, eight minutes should 
be allowed in the case of medium-sized eggs, and ten minutes 
in the case of larger ones; but these times should never be 
exceeded. As soon as they are done drain the eggs and dip 
them in cold water, and then shell them carefully. 

434— HARD-BOILED EGGS CAREME 

Have ready beforehand a timbale crust (No. 2395), some- 
what shallow. 

For six hard-boiled eggs, slice four artichoke-bottoms of 
medium size, and stew them in butter; cut some truffles into 
slices, allowing four slices to each egg, and cut up the eggs 



EGGS 173 

into discs about one-half inch thick. Prepare also in advance 
one-half pint of Nantua sauce. 

Garnish the crust with alternate layers of sliced artichoke- 
bottoms, egg-discs, and sliced truffles. Finish with a coating 
of sauce and a ring of sliced truffles. 

Dish up the crust on a napkin. 

435— HARD-BOILED EGOS CHIMAY 

Cut the eggs, lengthwise, in two. Remove the yolks, pound 
them into a paste, and add thereto an equal quantity of dry 
Duxelle (No. '223). Fill the empty whites with the preparation; 
place them on a buttered ^raiin-dish ; cover them with Mornay 
sauce; besprinkle with grated cheese; pour a few drops of 
melted butter upon the sauce, and set to glaze in a fierce oven. 

436— HARD-BOILED EGOS IN CROQUETTES 

Cut the eggs into small dice (white and yolks). Per six 
eggs add five oz. of cooked mushrooms and one oz. of truffles, 
cut into dice. 

Thicken the whole with one-quarter pint of reduced 
Bechamel, and spread on a plate to cool. 

When cold, divide the preparation into portions weighing 
about two oz. ; roll these portions into balls on a floured mixing- 
board, and then shape them like eggs. Dip them into an 
anglaise (No. 174), taking care to cover them well with it, 
and then roll them in fine and fresh bread-crumbs, letting this 
operation avail for finishing off the shape. Put them into hot 
fat seven or eight minutes before dishing up ; drain, salt 
moderately, place on a napkin, with a centre garnish of very 
green, fried parsley, and send a cream sauce to the table with 
them. 

437— HARD-BOILED EGGS IN RISSOLES 

Make a preparation of eggs, as for the croquettes, using a 
little more sauce. Roll some puff-paste trimmings to a thick- 
ness of one-quarter inch, and stamp it with a round indented 
cutter two and one-half inches in diameter. 

Place a small tablespoonful of the preparation in the middle 
of each piece of paste; moisten slightly all round, and make 
the rissoles by folding the outside edges of the paste over one 
another to look like a closed purse, taking care to press them 
well together so as to join them, thus completely enclosing the 
preparation. Treat them a I' anglaise; put them into hot fat 



174 ■ GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

eight minutes before serving, and dish up on a napkin, with 
a centre garnish of parsley. 

438— EQQS A LA TRIPE 

For six eggs, finely mince two onions, and stew them in 
butter, without letting them acquire any colour. Add thereto 
one-half pint of Bechamel sauce, and set to cook gently for 
ten minutes. A few minutes before serving add the eggs, cut 
into large slices, to the sauce. 

Dish up in a timbale. 

439— EQQS A LA TRIPE, BOURQEOISE 

For six eggs chop up two large onions and stew them in 
butter without colouration. Sprinkle them with one-half oz. of 
flour, moisten with one pint of boiling milk, and season with 
salt, pepper, and nutmeg. 

Set to cook, gently, for twenty minutes; rub through a 
fine sieve or through tammy, and transfer the preparation to a 
saucepan, and heat it well. Dish up the eggs, which should 
be quartered, in a timbale, and cover them with the preparation 
of onions, very hot. 

440— EQQS EN COCOTTE 

The poaching of eggs en cocotte is done in the bain-marie. 

Cocottes for eggs, which may be replaced by little china or 
plaited cases, are a kind of small saucepan in earthenware, in 
porcelain, or in silver, provided with a little handle. The time 
generally allowed for the cooking or poaching of eggs in this 
way is ten minutes, but this time is subject to variations either 
way. In order to accelerate the process I should advise the 
warming of the cocottes before the insertion of the eggs. 

Mode of Procedure. — Having garnished the cocottes and 
broken the eggs into them, as directed in the recipes given 
hereafter, set them in a saut^-pan and pour therein enough 
boiling water to reach within one-half inch of the brims of the 
cocottes. Place in the oven and cover, just leaving sufficient 
opening for the steam to escape. 

The eggs are done when the whites are almost set and the 
yolks are glossy. After having properly wiped the cocottes, 
dish them on a napkin or on a fancy dish-paper. 

441— EQQS IN COCOTTE AU CHAMBERTIN 

Prepare a red-wine sauce au Chambertin. Fill the cocottes, 
one-third full, with this sauce. Set to boil on a corner of the 



EGGS 175 

stove; break the eggs into the boiling sauce, season with a 
grain of salt, and put the cocottes, one by one, into a saute-pan 
containing the necessary quantity of boiling water. 

Poach as directed, and set to glaze quickly at the last 
moment. 

442— EQGS EN COCOTTE WITH CREAM 

This preparation constitutes the radical type of this series 
of eggs, and, for a long time, was the only one in use. Heat 
the cocottes beforehand; pour a tablespoonful of boiling cream 
into each, followed by an egg, broken ; season, and add two 
little lumps of butter, the size of peas. Place the cocottes in 
a bain-marie, and poach as before. 

443— EaaS EN COCOTTE A LA JEANNETTE 

Garnish the bottom and the sides of the cocottes with a 
thickness of one-third inch of chicken-forcemeat with cream, 
mixed with a fifth of its volume of foie gras. Break the egg 
over the middle, season, and poach in the usual way. When 
about to serve, surround the eggs with a thread of poultry 
velout^. 

444— EQGS EN COCOTTE WITH GRAVY 

Break the eggs into buttered cocottes. Season, poach, and, 
when about to serve, surround the yolks with a thread of 
reduced veal gravy. 

445— EGGS EN COCOTTE A LA LORRAINE 

Put a teaspoonful of breast of pork, cut into dice and fried, 
into each cocotte, also three thin slices of Gruy^re cheese and 
one tablespoonful of boiling cream. Break the eggs, season, 
and poach in the usual way. 

446— EQGS EN COCOTTE A LA MARAICHERE 

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with cooked 
spinach, chopped and pressed, and sorrel and lettuce leaves, 
both of which should be stewed in butter. Break the eggs, 
season, poach in the usual way, and, when about to send the 
eggs to the table, drop a fine chervil -pluche on each yolk. 

447— EGGS EN COCOTTE WITH MORELS 

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with minced 
morels fried in butter and thickened with a little reduced half- 
glaze. Break the eggs, season, poach, and surround the yolks 
with a thread of half-glaze when dishing up. 



176 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

448— EQQS EN COCOTTE A LA SOUBISE 

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with a coating 
of thick Soubise purde. Break the eggs, season, and poach. 
When dishing up, surround the yolks with a thread of melted 
meat-glaze. 

449— MOULDED EGGS 

These form a very ornamental dish, but the time required 
to prepare them being comparatively long, poached, soft-boiled, 
and other kinds of eggs are generally preferred in their stead. 
They are made in variously shaped moulds, ornamented accord- 
ing to the nature of the preparation, and the eggs are broken 
into them direct, or they may be inserted in the form of 
scrambled eggs, together with raw eggs poached in a hain- 
marie. 

Whatever be the mode of preparation, the moulds should 
always be liberally buttered. The usual time allowed for the 
poaching of the eggs in moulds is from ten to twelve minutes, 
but when withdrawn from the bain-marie it is well to let the 
moulds stand awhile with the view of promoting a settling of 
their contents, which action facilitates the ultimate turning out 
of the latter. 

Empty the moulds on small pieces of toast or tartlets, and 
arrange these in a circle round the dish. 

450— MOULDED EGGS A LA CARIGNAN 

Butter some Madeleine-moulds, shaped like elongated shells, 
and garnish them with a thin coating of chicken-stuffing or 
crayfish butter. Break the eggs in the middle of the forcemeat; 
season, place carefully in a bain-marie, and poach, with cover 
on, in the oven, leaving a small opening for the escape of the 
generated vapour. Empty the moulds on toast cut to the same 
shape as the moulds and fried in butter; arrange them on the 
dish, and coat with a Chateaubriand sauce. 

451— MOULDED EGGS A LA DUCHESSE 

Butter some baba-moulds; garnish the bottom of each with 
a large slice of trufHe; break an egg into each, and poach in 
the bain-marie. Turn out the moulds on to little fluted galettes 
made from Duchesse potatoes and coloured in the oven after 
having been gilded. 

Dish up in the form of a crown, and coat with a thickened 
veal gravy. 



EGGS t77 

452— QALLI-MAR16, MOULDED EQQS 

For four people: (i) Prepare five scrambled eggs, keeping 
them very soft ; add thereto three raw, beaten eggs and one tea- 
spoonful of capsicum, cut into dice. Mould this preparation in 
four little shallow cassolettes, well buttered, and poach in the 
bain-marie. 

(2) Have ready and hot as many cooked artichoke-bottoms 
as there are cassolettes ; the former should have had their edges 
fluted. Have also ready a " Rice k la Grecque " (No. 2253). 

(3) Garnish the artichoke-bottoms with the rice; turn out 
the cassolettes upon the latter; arrange on a dish, and cover 
with highly-seasoned and buttered Bechamel sauce. Put the 
dish in a fierce oven, so as to glaze quickly, and serve imme- 
diately. 

453— MOULDED EQQS A LA MORTEMART 

Scramble five eggs, keeping them soft, and add thereto three 
raw, beaten eggs. Butter some shallow, timbale moulds; 
garnish their bottoms with a fine slice of truffle, and fill them 
with the preparation of eggs. Poach in a bain-marie. 

Turn out each mould on a tartlet-crust, garnished with 
mushroom pur6e k la cr6me (No. 2079), and arrange in a circle 
on a round dish. Send a sauceboat containing some melted 
and buttered meat-glaze to the table with the eggs. 

454— NEAPOLITAN MOULDED EQQS 

Make a preparation consisting of scrambled eggs and 
Parmesan cheese, keeping it very soft; add thereto, per five 
scrambled eggs, two raw eggs. Fill some little, well-buttered 
brioche-moulds with this preparation, and poach in the bain- 
marie. As soon as their contents are properly set, turn out 
the moulds on to a buttered gratin dish, besprinkle with grated 
Parmesan cheese, and coat the eggs with reduced and buttered 
half-glaze, well saturated with tomato. 

455— MOULDED EQQS PALERMITAINE 

Butter some baba-moulds ; garnish the bottoms with a slice 
of truffle, and besprinkle the sides with very red, chopped 
tongue. Put the moulds in ice for a while, in order that the 
tongue may set in the butter. Break an egg into each mould, 
season, and poach in the bain-marie. Turn out the moulds on 
tartlet-crusts garnished with macaroni with cream. 

N 



178 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

456— POLIQNAC MOULDED EQQS 

Butter some baba-moulds, and garnish the bottoms with 
a slice of truffle. Break an egg into each; season, and poach in 
a bain-mane. 

Turn out the moulds upon little round pieces of toast; 
arrange them in a circle on a dish, and coat the eggs with 
Maitre-d' Hotel butter, the latter being dissolved and mixed with 
three tablespoonf uls of melted meat-glaze per every one-quarter 
lb. of its weight. 

457— PRINCESS MOULDED EQQS 

Butter some narrow and deep dariole-moulds ; garnish their 
bottoms with a slice of very black truffle, and their sides with 
a very thin coating of chicken forcemeat. 

Make a preparation of scrambled eggs, asparagus-heads, 
and truffles cut into dice, keeping them very soft, and add there- 
to raw, beaten eggs in the proportion of one raw egg to every 
four scrambled. 

Fill the moulds, two-thirds full, with this preparation ; cover 
the eggs with a coating of forcemeat, and poach in a bain-marie 
for twelve minutes. 

Turn out the moulds upon little, round pieces of toast; set 
these in a circle on a dish, and surround them with a thread 
of clear poultry velout6. Or the velout^ may be sent to the 
table separately, in a sauceboat. 

458— PRINTANIER MOULDED EQQS 

Butter some hexagonal moulds, and garnish them. Chart- 
reuse-fashion, with cut-up, cooked vegetables, varying the 
shades. Break an egg into each mould; season, and poach 
in a bain-marie. Turn out the moulds upon little, round pieces 
of toast; arrange these in a circle on a dish, and pour in 
their midst a cream sauce finished by means of a Printanier 
butter with herbs, in the proportion of one oz. of butter to 
one-quarter pint of sauce. 

459— SCRAMBLED EQQS 

This dish is undoubtedly the finest of all egg-preparations, 
provided the eggs be not over-cooked, and they be kept soft 
and creamy. 

Scrambled eggs are mostly served in silver timbales, but, in 
certain cases, they may also be dished in special little croustades, 
in little receptacles made from hollowed brioches, or in tartlet- 



EGGS 179 

crusts. Formerly, it was customary to garnish scrambled eggs 
served in a silver timbale with small, variously-shaped pieces 
of toast, or with small scraps of puff-paste, cooked without 
colouration, and shaped like crescents, lozenges, rings, palm- 
ettes, &c. This method has something to recommend it, and 
may always be adopted. In old cookery, scrambled eggs were 
sanctioned only when cooked in a bain-marie. This measure 
certainly ensured their being properly cooked, but it consider- 
ably lengthened the procedure. The latter may therefore be 
shortened by cooking the eggs in the usual way, i.e., in a 
utensil in direct contact with the fire; but in this case the heat 
must be moderate, in order that, the process of cooking being 
progressive and gradual, perfect homogeneity of the particles 
of the eggs (effecting the smoothness of the preparation) may 
result. 

460— METHOD OF SCRAMBLING EQQS 

For six eggs, slightly heat one oz. of butter in a thick- 
bottomed saut6-pan. Add the six eggs, beaten moderately, 
together with a large pinch of salt and a little pepper ; place the 
pan on a moderate fire, and stir constantly with a wooden 
spoon, taking care to avoid anything in the way of sudden, 
fierce heat, which, by instantaneously solidifying the egg- 
molecules, would cause lumps to form in the mass — a thing 
which, above all, should be guarded against. 

When, by cooking, the eggs have acquired the proper con- 
sistence, and are still smooth and creamy, take the saut6-pan 
off the fire, and finish the preparation by means of one and 
one-half oz. of butter (divided into small quantities) and three 
tablespoonfuls of cream. Only whisk the eggs to be scrambled 
when absolutely necessary. 

N.B. — Having given the mode of procedure, which is un- 
alterable for scrambled eggs, I shall now pass on, in the follow- 
ing recipes, to the various garnishes suited to this kind of dish. 
The quantities I give are those required for six scrambled eggs. 

461— SCRAMBLED EQGS A LA BOHEMIENNE 

Take one cottage brioche for every two eggs. Remove the 
tops of the brioches, and the crumb from the remaining portions, 
so as to form cases of these. Add one-half oz. of foie gras to 
the scrambled eggs, and half as much truffles, cut into dice, 
for every two eggs. Fill the emptied brioches with this pre- 
paration, and place a slice of trufifle coated with meat-glaze 
upon each. 

N 2 



i8o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

462— SCRAMBLED EQQS WITH MUSHROOMS 

Add to the scrambled eggs one oz. of cooked mushrooms 
cut into dice, or raw mushrooms, minced and sauted in butter, 
for every two eggs. 

Dish in a timbale; put a fine, cooked, and grooved mush- 
room in the middle, and surround with a crown of sliced mush- 
rooms, also cooked. 



463— SCRAMBLED EGGS, CHASSEUR 

Dish the scrambled eggs in a timbale. Hollow out the 
middle, and place therein a garnish of one fine chicken's liver, 
sauted, per every two eggs. Sprinkle a pinch of chervil and 
tarragon on the garnish, and surround with a thread of chas- 
seur sauce (No. 33). 



464— SCRAMBLED EGGS, CHATILLON 

Dish the eggs in a timbale, and place a garnish of mush- 
rooms in the centre. The mushrooms should first be minced 
raw, and then sauted in butter. Sprinkle a pinch of chopped 
parsley on the garnish, and surround with a thread of melted 
meat-glaze. Border the whole, close to the sides of the timbale, 
with small crescents of puff-paste, baked pale. 

465— SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH SHRIMPS 

Dish the scrambled eggs in a silver timbale. Place a little 
heap of shrimps' tails bound with a few tablespoonfuls of 
shrimp sauce in the middle, and surround with a thread of the 
same sauce. 



466— SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH HERBS 

Add to the scrambled eggs a tablespoonful of parsley, 
chervil pluches, chives, and tarragon leaves in equal quantities 
and chopped. 



467— SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH CHEESE 

Break the eggs, beat them, season, and add thereto, for 
every two eggs, one-half oz. of fresh grated Gruy^re cheese, and 
as much grated Parmesan. Cook the eggs in the usual way on 
a very moderate fire, in order to keep them creamy. 



EGGS i8i 

468— SCRAMBLED EGOS GRAND=MERE 

Add to the scrambled eggs a tablespoonful of little crusts, 
cut into dice, fried in clarified butter, and prepared in time to 
be inserted into the eggs very hot. Dish in a timbale with a 
pinch of chopped parsley in the middle. 

469— SCRAMBLED EGGS, GEORGETTE 

Bake three fine Dutch potatoes, or six smaller ones, in the 
oven. Open them by means of an incision on their tops; with- 
draw the pulp from the interior with the handle of a spoon, and 
keep the remaining shells hot. Prepare the scrambled eggs in 
the usual way, and finish them away from the fire with one and 
one-half oz. of crayfish butter, and eight or ten shelled crayfish 
tails. Garnish the potato shells with this preparation, and 
dish up on a napkin. 

470— SCRAMBLED EGGS FOR HOT LUNCHEON 

HORS=D'(EUVRE 

I only give one recipe of this kind, but the series may be 
extended at will without involving much deep research, since 
all that is needed for the purpose of variety is the modification 
of the garnish and a change in the souffle preparation. The 
mode of procedure remains unalterable. Prepare the scrambled 
eggs, and garnish them as fancy may suggest. Also make a 
" Souffl6 with Parmesan Cheese " (No. 2295a). 

Put the scrambled eggs into a large tartlet-crust, cook 
without colouration, filling them only two-thirds full. Cover 
with the souffle preparation, taking care to make it project in 
a mound above the tartlets ; place these on a tray, poach quickly 
in a hot oven, and glaze at the same time. 

471— SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH MORELS 

Add to the scrambled eggs some minced morels, sauted in 
butter and seasoned. Dish in timbales, and place a fine, cooked 
morel in the centre of each. 

472— SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH MOUSSERONS 

Proceed as for No. 471. 

473— SCRAMBLED EGGS, ORLOFF 

Break the eggs, beat them, and add thereto a little fresh, 
thick cream. Cook them in the usual way, and add three cray- 



1 82 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

fishes' tails per every two eggs. Dish in little porcelain cases, 
place a fine slice of truffle in each of the cases, and arrange 
these upon a napkin lying on a dish. 

474— SCRAMBLED EQQS A LA PIISmONTAISE 

Add to the scrambled eggs, per every two of the latter, one- 
half oz. of grated Parmesan cheese and a coffeespoonful of raw, 
grated. Piedmont truffles. Dish in a timbale, and garnish with 
a fine crown of sliced truffles of the same kind as the above. 

475_SCRAMBLED EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE 

Dish the eggs in a timbale, and place, in the middle, some 
fine, concassed tomatoes, seasoned and sauted in butter. 
Sprinkle a pinch of concassed parsley on the tomatoes, and 
surround with a thread of meat-glaze. 

476— SCRAMBLED EQQS, PRINCESS MARY 

Prepare some small timbales in dariole-moulds from puff- 
paste scraps, and bake them without colouration ; also some 
little covers of puff-paste, stamped out with an indented fancy- 
cutter, two inches in diameter. Set the covers on a tray, gild 
them slightly, place on each a scrap of indented paste, and 
leave this uncoloured. Bake the timbales and the covers in a 
moderate oven. 

Make a preparation of scrambled eggs and Parmesan cheese ; 
add to this, away from the fire, two tablespoonfuls of reduced 
veloutd with truffle essence and truffles cut into dice. 

Garnish the timbales, put a cover on each, and dish up on a 
napkin. 

477— SCRAMBLED EQQS, RACHEL 

Add some truffles, cut into dice, and some asparagus-heads 
to the scrambled eggs. Dish on a timbale; put a fine little 
faggot of asparagus-heads in the middle, and surround with a 
crown of sliced truffles. 

478— SCRAMBLED EQQS, REINE MARQOT 

Prepare the scrambled eggs in the usual way, and finish 
them with the necessary quantity of almond butter. Place this 
preparation in small tartlet-crusts, baked without colouration, 
and surround the tartlets with a thread of Bechamel sauce, 
finished with pistachio butter, the thread of sauce being close 
up to the edge of the tartlets. 



EGGS 183 

480— SCRAMBLED EQQS, ROTHSCHILD 

Finely pound the remains of six crayfish (cooked in Mire- 
poix) the tails of which have been put aside, and add thereto, 
little by little, two tablespoonfuls of thick cream. Rub through 
tammy. 

Add this crayfish cream to the six beaten eggs; season, and 
cook on a moderate fire with the object of obtaining a smooth, 
soft, and creamy preparation. Serve in a timbale and garnish, 
firstly with a small faggot of asparagus-heads placed in the 
middle of the eggs, secondly with crayfish tails arranged in a 
circle round the asparagus, and thirdly with large slices of very 
black truffles arranged in a crown around the crayfish tails. 

481— SCRAMBLED EQQS WITH TRUFFLES 

Add one tablespoonful of truffles, cooked in Madeira and 
cut into dice, to the scrambled eggs. Place these in a timbale, 
and garnish with a crown of sliced truffles. 

Or place the preparation in tartlet-crusts, made from trim- 
mings of puff-paste and baked without colouration, with a large 
slice of truffle on the eggs, in each tartlet. 

482— FRIED EQQS 

In the long series of egg-preparations, fried eggs are those 
which hold the least important place, for the fried eggs which 
are so commonly served at breakfasts in England and America 
are really eggs a la poele. The real fried egg is almost un- 
known in England and America. As a rule, the garnish given 
to this kind of eggs is served apart, while the latter are dished, 
either on a napkin or on pieces of toast, with a little fried parsley 
laid in the middle of the dish. 

483— THE PREPARATION OF FRIED EQQS 

Any fat, provided it be well purified, may be used for these 
eggs, but oil is the more customary frying medium. To do 
these eggs properly, only one should be dealt with at a time. 

Heat some oil in an omelet-pan until it begins to smoke 
slightly ; break the egg on a plate ; season it, and let it slide into 
the pan. Then, with a wooden spoon, quickly cover up the 
yolk with the solidified portions of the white, in order to keep 
the former soft. 

Drain the egg on a piece of stretched linen, and proceed 
in the same way with the other eggs until the required quantity 
has been treated. 



1 84 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

484— FRIED EQQS A LA BORDELAISE 

Prepare as many halved tomatoes k la Provenfale (see 
tomatoes) as there are eggs, adding a pinch of chopped shallots 
to each halved tomato. When cooked, garnish them with cepes, 
finely minced and sauted k la Bordelaise; place a fried egg on 
each garnished half-tomato, and arrange them in a circle on 
a dish, with fried parsley in the middle. 

485— HARVESTERS' FRIED EGGS 

Fry as many blanched rashers of breast of bacon as there 
are eggs. Arrange in a circle on a dish, alternating the rasher 
with the eggs. Garnish the centre with large peas, cooked 
with ciseled lettuce and finely-sliced potatoes. 

486— FRIED POACHED EQQS 

This kind is recommended, because it may be served with 
various garnishes— either vegetables of the same nature, a 
macedoine, vegetable purees, or divers cullises, sauces in keep- 
ing with the eggs, artichoke-bottoms, mushrooms, morels, &c. 
(sliced and sauted in butter), or tomato-fondue, &c. 

After having properly drained and dried the poached eggs, 
which should have been prepared beforehand, dip them care- 
fully in a Villeroy sauce (No. 108), and arrange them, one by 
one, on a dish. When the sauce has set, pass the point of a 
small knife round the eggs to remove any excess of sauce; 
take them off the dish to treat them with an anglaise (No. 174), 
and then roll them in very fine, fresh bread-crumbs. 

Plunge them into very hot fat three or four minutes before 
serving ; drain them on a piece of linen ; salt slightly, arrange 
in a circle on a dish, and set the selected garnish in the middle. 

487— FRIED EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE 

Place each of the fried eggs upon a half-tomato k la Por- 
tugaise, i.e., stuffed with rice after having been previously 
half-baked in the oven. Arrange in a circle on a dish, and 
garnish the centre with concussed tomatoes sauted in butter. 

488— FRIED EQQS A LA PROVEN9ALE 

Put each fried egg on a half-tomato on a large, thick slice 
of egg-plant, seasoned, rolled in flour, and fried in oil. 
Set in a circle on a dish, with fried parsley in the centre. 



EGGS 185 

489— FRIED EGGS A LA ROMAINE 

Place the eggs, fried in oil, on little, oval subrics of spinach. 
The preparation of spinach should have anchovy fillets, cut 
into dice, added to it. 

490— FRIED EGGS A LA VERDI 

Cut six hard-boiled eggs lengthwise. Remove the yolks, 
pound them with two oz. of butter, and add thereto two table- 
spoonfuls of thick, cold Bechamel, two tablespoonfuls of cooked 
herbs, and one tablespoonful of lean ham, cooked and chopped. 
Garnish each half-white of egg with a good tablespoonful of 
this preparation, and smooth it with the blade of a small knife, 
shaping it in such wise as to represent the other half of the 
egg. Dip each whole egg, thus formed, into an anglaise, and 
roll in fine, fresh bread-crumbs. Plunge in hot fat six minutes 
before serving, and dish on a napkin, with fried parsley in the 
centre. Send, separately, to the table a garnish composed of 
asparagus-heads . 

491— FRIED POACHED EGGS A LA VILLEROY 

Prepare the eggs, poached beforehand, as explained under 
No. 486. Fry them similarly, and dish them on a napkin, with 
a garnish of fried parsley in the centre. 



Omelets 

The procedure for omelets is at once very simple and very 
difficult, for tastes differ considerably in respect of their pre- 
paration. Some like them well done, others insist upon their 
being just done, while there are yet others who only enjoy them 
when they are almost liquid. 

Nevertheless, the following conditions apply to all — namely, 
that there should be homogeneity of the egg-molecules; that 
the whole mass should be smooth and soft; and that it should 
be borne in mind that an omelet is in reality scrambled eggs 
enclosed in a coat composed of coagulated egg. 

I take as my standard an omelet consisting of three eggs, 
the seasoning of which comprises a small pinch of table-salt and 
a little pepper, and which requires one-half oz. of butter for its 
preparation. The quantities of garnishing ingredients given 
below, therefore, are based upon this standard. 



i86 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

492— THE PREPARATION OF OMELETS 

Heat the butter in the omelet-pan, until it exhales the char- 
acteristic nutty smell. This will not only lend an exquisite 
taste to the omelet, but the degree of heat reached in order to 
produce the aroma will be found to ensure the perfect setting 
of the eggs. 

Pour in the beaten and seasoned eggs, and stir briskly with 
a fork, in order to heat the whole mass evenly. If the omelet 
is to be garnished inside, this ought to be done at the present 
stage, and then the omelet should be speedily rolled up and 
transferred to a dish, to be finished in accordance with the nature 
of its designation. 

When the omelet is on the dish, a piece of butter may be 
quickly drawn across its surface, to make it glossy. 

493— AONES SOREL OMELET 

Stuff the omelet with one tablespoonful of mushrooms, 
minced and sauted in butter. Roll it up, and transfer it to a 
dish. 

Then lay eight small slices of very red tongue upon it, let- 
ting their edges overlap ; surround with a thread of veal gravy. 

494— OMELET A LA BRUXELLOISE 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of braised endives, 
ciseled and thickened with cream. Surround with a thread of 
cream sauce. 

495— OMELET WITH CfePES 

Finely mince two oz. of cepes ; toss them in butter in an 
omelet-pan until they have acquired a brown colour; add thereto 
a pinch of chopped shallots, and toss them again for a moment. 

Pour the eggs into the omelet-pan; make the omelet; dish 
up, and surround with a thread of half-glaze. 

496— OMELET WITH MUSHROOMS 

Mince two oz. of raw mushrooms; toss them in butter in an 
omelet-pan ; add the eggs thereto, and make the omelet. Trans- 
fer it to a dish, lay three little cooked and grooved mushrooms 
upon it, and surround with a thread of half-glaze. 



EGGS 187 

497— OMELET A LA CHOISY 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of braised lettuce ; 
the latter should have been ciseled and cohered by means of 
cream sauce. 

Roll and dish the omelet, and surround it with a thread of 
cream sauce. 

498— OMELET A LA CLAMART 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of fresh peas, bound 
by means of butter and combined with a portion of the lettuce 
used in cooking them, finely ciseled. Roll and dish the omelet, 
make an opening lengthwise in the centre, and fill the inter- 
space with a tablespoonful of fresh peas. 

499— OMELET WITH CRUSTS 

Combine with the beaten and seasoned eggs two tablespoon- 
fuls of small crusts, cut into dice, fried in clarified butter, and 
very hot. 

Make the omelet very quickly. 

500— OMELET WITH SPINACH 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of spinach with 
cream, and surround with a thread of cream sauce. 

501— OMELET A LA FERMIERE 

Add to the beaten and seasoned eggs one tablespoonful of 
very lean, cooked ham cut into dice. Pour the eggs into the 
omelet-pan, and cook them quickly, taking care to keep them 
very soft. Let the outside harden slightly; tilt into the dish 
after the manner of a pancake, and besprinkle the surface with 
a pinch of chopped parsley. 

502— OMELET AUX FINES HERBES 

Add to the eggs one tablespoonful of parsley, chervil, chive, 
and tarragon leaves, all to be finely chopped and almost equally 
apportioned. 

Make the omelet in the usual way. 

503— OMELET WITH VEGETABLE MARROW FLOWERS 

Add to the eggs one and one-half oz. of the calices of 
freshly-plucked and young vegetable-marrow flowers; cisel and 



1 88 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

stew them, and add thereto a pinch of chopped parsley. Sur- 
round the omelet with a thread of tomato sauce. 

N.B. — This omelet may be made with oil, as well as with 
butter. 

504— OMELET WITH CHICKEN'S LIVER 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of chicken's liver, 
which should be cut into dice or finely sliced, seasoned, quickly 
sauted in butter, and cohered with half-glaze. Dish the omelet, 
make an opening lengthwise in the centre, and place one table- 
spoonful of chicken's liver, prepared as above, in the interspaces. 
Besprinkle with chopped parsley, and surround the omelet with 
a thread of half-glaze. 

S05— OMELET WITH ARTICHOKE = BOTTOMS 

Finely mince two small artichoke-bottoms (raw if possible), 
season them, and slightly colour them in butter. Add the 
beaten and seasoned eggs, and make the omelet in the usual 
way. 

506— OMELET WITH YOUNG SHOOTS OF HOPS 

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of young shoots 
of hops, cohered with cream, and finish it in the usual way. 
Open it slightly along the top, and garnish with a few young 
shoots of hops put aside for the purpose. 

The omelet may be surrounded with a thread of cream sauce, 
but this is optional. 

507— OMELET A LA LYONNAISE 

Finely mince half an onion, and cook it with butter in an 
omelet-pan, letting it brown slightly. Add the eggs, with 
which a large pinch of chopped parsley has been mixed, and 
make the omelet in the usual way. 

508— OMELET MAXIM 

Make the omelet in the usual way. Lay upon it alternate 
rows of crayfish tails and slices of truffle. Surround the omelet 
with a fine border of frogs' legs " sauted k la Meuni^re," i.e., 
seasoned raw, rolled in flour, and sauted in butter until quite 
cooked and well gilded. 



EGGS 189 

509— OMELET WITH MORELS 

Mince and toss in butter two oz. of very firm morels. Two 
should be put aside, which, after having been cut in two, length- 
wise, and sauted with the others, should be placed on a dish 
when the omelet is about to be made. Having dished the latter, 
place the four sauted and reserved pieces of morels upon it, and 
surround it with a thread of half-glaze. 

510— OMELET MOUSSELINE 

Beat the yolks of three eggs in a bowl with a small pinch 
of salt and a tablespoonful of very thick cream. Add thereto 
the three whites, whisked to a stiff froth, and pour this pre- 
paration into a wide omelet-pan containing one oz. of very hot 
butter. Saute the omelet, tossing it very quickly, and taking 
care to turn the outside edges of the preparation constantly 
towards the centre; when the whole mass seems uniformly set, 
roll the omelet up quickly, and dish it. This omelet should 
be sent to the table immediately. 

510a— OMELET WITH MOUSSERONS 

Mince two oz. of very fresh mousserons ; toss them in butter 
in the omelet-pan ; add thereto the eggs mixed with a pinch of 
chopped parsley; make the omelet, dish it, and surround it with 
a thread of half-glaze. 

SI I— OMELET A LA NANTUA 

Add to the omelet six little crayfishes' tails, each of which 
must be cut into three, and the whole mixed with a little 
Nantua sauce. Put two fine crayfishes' tails on the omelet, 
making them touch at their thicker ends, and surround with 
a thread of Nantua sauce. 

512— OMELET PARMENTIER 

Add a pinch of chopped parsley to the eggs, and, when 
about to pour the latter into the omelet-pan, add two table- 
spoonfuls of potato cut into dice, seasoned, sauted in butter, 
and very hot. Make the omelet in the usual way. 

513— OMELET A LA PAYS ANNE 

Frizzle with butter, in the omelet-pan, two oz. of breast of 
bacon cut into dice. Add to the eggs one tablespoonful of 
finely-sliced potatoes sauted in butter, one-half tablespoonful of 
ciseled sorrel stewed in butter, and a pinch of concussed chervil. 

Pour the whole over the bacon-dice; cook the eggs quickly, 



I90 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

keeping them soft; turn the omelet after the manner of a pan- 
cake, and tilt it immediately on to a round dish. 

514— OMELET WITH ASPARAGUS=TOPS 

Add one and one-half tablespoonfuls of blanched asparagus- 
tops, stewed in butter, to the omelet. Having dished the omelet, 
open it along the middle, and lay a nice little faggot of 
asparagus-tops in the interspace. 

S15— OMELET A LA PROVEN9ALE 

Rub the bottom of the omelet-pan lightly with a clove of 
garlic; put two tablespoonfuls of oil into the utensil, and heat 
it until it smokes. 

Throw into the oil a fine, peeled, pressed, and pipped 
tomato, cut into dice and besprinkled with a pinch of concussed 
parsley. Cook it quickly, tossing it the while, and add it to 
the beaten and seasoned eggs. Make the omelet in the usual 
way. 

N.B. — The nature of this preparation demands the use of 
oil in treating the tomato, but, failing oil, clarified butter may 
be used. 

516— OMELET WITH KIDNEYS 

Add to the omelet a tablespoonful of calf's or sheep's kidney, 
cut into dice, seasoned with salt and pepper, sauted quickly in 
butter, and cohered by means of half-glaze. Having dished the 
omelet, divide it down the middle, lay some reserved kidney- 
dice in the interspace, and surround with a thread of half-glaze. 

517— OMELET A LA ROSSINI 

Add to the beaten and seasoned eggs one dessertspoonful 
of cooked foie gras and as much truffle, cut into small dice. 
Having dished the omelet, place in the middle thereof a small 
rectangular piece of heated foie gras, and two slices of truffle 
on either side of the latter. Surround it with a thread of half- 
glaze flavoured with truffle essence. 

518— OMELET WITH TRUFFLES 

Add to the omelet one tablespoonful of truffles, cut into dice. 
Make the omelet, dish it, and lay a row of fine slices of truffles 
upon it. Surround it with a thread of melted meat-glaze. 



EGGS 191 

519— HOT LAPWINGS' AND PLOVERS' EGGS 

Note. — In the chapter on hors-d'oeuvres, where recipes were 
given which deal with lapwings' eggs, I made a few remarks 
relative to their freshness, and indicated the procedure for boil- 
ing them soft and hard. 

520— SCRAMBLED LAPWINGS' EGGS 

Proceed as for ordinary scrambled eggs, all the recipes given 
for the latter being perfectly applicable to lapwings' eggs. They 
require, however, very great care in their preparation, and it 
should be borne in mind that one ordinary hen's egg is equal 
to about three lapwings' eggs. 

521— LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA DANOISE 

Poach the eggs as directed in the recipe dealing with the 
process, and dish them up in tartlet-crusts garnished with a 
pur^e of smoked salmon. 

522— OMELET OF LAPWINGS' EGGS 

Proceed as for other omelets, but one ordinary hen's egg is 
generally added to every six lapwings' eggs in order to give 
more body to the preparation. All the omelet recipes already 
given may be applied to lapwings' eggs. 

523— LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA ROYALE 

Garnish' as many small tartlet moulds as there are eggs with 
chicken-forcemeat. Poach, turn out the moulds, and hollow 
out the centres of the tartlets in such wise as to be able to set 
an egg upright in each. 

Place a soft- or hard-boiled egg on each forcemeat tartlet, 
coat the eggs with a light pur^e of mushrooms, besprinkle with 
chopped truffles, and arrange in a circle on a dish. 

524— LAPWINGS' EGGS AU TROUBADOUR 

Select as many large morels as there are eggs. Remove the 
stalks, and widen the openings of the morels ; season them, and 
stew them in butter. Boil the lapwings' eggs soft. 

Garnish each stewed morel with an egg; set them on little 
tartlet-crusts garnished with a light, foie-gras pur^e, and 
arrange them in a circle on a dish. 



192 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Cold Eggs 

The preparation of cold eggs is not limited by classical 
rules; it rests with the skill and artistic imagination of the 
operator, and, since fancifulness and originality are always 
closely allied to artistic imagination, it follows that the varieties 
evolved may be infinite. 

Indeed, so various and numerous are the recipes dealing with 
this kind of egg-preparations that I must limit myself to a 
selection only of the more customary ones, culled as far as 
possible from my own repertory. 

525— COLD EQQS ALEXANDRA 

Take some cold, well-trimmed, poached eggs ; dry them and 
cover them with a white chaud-froid sauce. Place a fine in- 
dented slice of truffle in the centre of each, and sprinkle with a 
cold, white, melted aspic jelly until they are thinly coated there- 
with. Slip the point of a small knife round each egg with the 
view of moving them more easily, and transfer them to oval 
tartlet-crusts made from puff-paste trimmings, baked without 
colouration. 

Lay a border of caviare round the eggs; dish them in the 
form of a crown, and put some chopped jelly in the centre. 

526— COLD EGGS A L'ANDALOUSE 

Cover some cold, well-dried, poached eggs with a tomato 
pur^e combined with a full third of its volume of Soubise pur^e 
and one-half pint of melted aspic jelly per pint of sauce. Cut 
some pimentos, marinaded in oil, into very thin strips, and lay 
these, after the manner of a lattice, upon each egg. 

Now garnish as many oiled, oval tartlet-moulds as there 
are eggs with tomato pur^e, thickened with jelly, and let the 
garnish set on ice. Turn out the moulds, and put an egg upon 
each of the tomato tartlets; arrange the latter in a circle on a 
dish surrounded with a chain composed of linked rings of onion, 
and garnish the centre with chopped, white jelly. 

527— COLD EQQS ARGENTEUIL 

Coat some well-dried, soft-boiled eggs, slightly cut at their 
base to make them stand, with a white chaud-froid sauce com- 
bined with a good third of its volume of asparagus-tops pur^e. 
Sprinkle repeatedly with cold, melted, white jelly, until a glossy 
coating is obtained. 



ECGS 19 j 

Garnish the centra 6f a dish with a salad of asparagus-tops ; 
surround this with fine slices of cold potato, cooked in water and 
cut up with an even fancy-cutter, one inch in diameter, and 
arrange the eggs all round. 

528— COLD EGGS CAPUCINE 

Carefully dry some cold, poached eggs, and half-coat them 
lengthwise with a white chaud-froid sauce ; complete the coating 
on the other side with a smooth pur^e of truffles, thickened with 
jelly. Leave these two coats to set, placing the eggs in the 
cool or on ice for that purpose. 

Garnish the centre of a round dish with a small pyramid of 
cold, truffled Brandade of morue, and set the eggs round the 
latter. 

529— COLD EQQS CARfeME 

Cook the eggs on the dish, leave them to cool, and trim 
them with an even fancy-cutter, oval in shape. Place each 
egg on an oval tartlet-crust, garnished with dice of cooked 
salmon, cohered with mayonnaise. 

Surround with a thread of caviare, and lay a thin slice of 
very black truffle on each egg. 

530— COLD EGGS COLBERT 

Garnish some small, oval moulds in Chartreuse fashion, i.e., 
like a draught-board. Put a small, cold, poached egg into each 
mould, fill up with melted, white jelly, and leave to set. Garnish 
the centre of a dish with a heaped vegetable salad ; arrange the 
eggs taken from their moulds around this, and surround with 
a little chopped jelly. 

531— COLD EGGS COLINETTE 

Let a thin coat of white jelly set upon the bottom and sides 
of some small, oval moulds. Garnish the latter with some small 
dice, consisting of white of &gg and truffles, placing them so 
as to simulate a draught-board ; now insert a very small, cold, 
poached egg into each mould, and fill up with a melted jelly. 

Garnish the centre of a dish with a " Rachel " salad, en- 
circled by a ring of sliced, cold potatoes, cooked in water, and 
place the eggs, removed from their moulds, all round. Border 
the dish with indented crescents of white jelly. 

532— COLD EGGS WITH TARRAGON 

Mould these in baba-moulds, or in porcelain cocottes ; some 
times they may simply be dished up on small tartlet-crusts. 

O 



194 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

The preparation consists of poached or soft-boiled eggs, 
garnished with blanched tarragon leaves, or coated or moulded 
with a very fine tarragon jelly. 



533— COLD EGGS, FROU-FROU 

Select soine very small poached eggs of equal size, cover 
them with a white chaud-froid sauce combined with about a 
third of its volume of a pur^e of hard-boiled egg-yolks. 

Garnish the top of each egg with an indented ring of very 
black truffle, and surround the base of the eggs with a narrow 
ribbon composed of chopped truffles. Glaze with jelly, and 
leave to set on ice. 

Prepare a salad of green vegetables (peas, French beans cut 
into dice or lozenges, asparagus-tops) ; thicken it with a very 
little mayonnaise mixed with melted jelly. Pour this prepara- 
tion into an oiled mould, and leave it to set. For dishing, 
turn out the salad in the middle of a dish ; surround the base 
with a line of chopped jelly; encircle the whole with the eggs, 
letting them rest on the jelly, and garnish the dish with a 
border of dice cut in very clear, white jelly. 

534— COLD EGGS MOSCOVITE 

Slightly level both ends of some shelled, hard-boiled eggs. 
Surround the tops and the bases with three little anchovy fillets, 
and place a bit of truffle just half-way along each egg. Eggs 
prepared in this way resemble little barrels, whereof the anchovy 
fillets imitate the iron hoops, and the bits of truffle the bungs. 
By means of a tubular cutter empty the eggs with care ; garnish 
them with caviare, and shape the latter to a point, outside the 
edges of the egg. 

Lay each egg in an artichoke-bottom, cooked white, and gar- 
nished with finely-chopped jelly, and arrange them in a circle on 
a dish with chopped jelly in the centre. 

535— COLD EGGS A LA NANTUA 

Prepare some hard-boiled eggs to resemble little barrels, 
after the manner described above. For every six eggs keep 
ready and cold eighteen crayfish cooked k la Bordelaise. Shell 
the tails, put two aside for each egg, and cut the remainder into 
dice; finely pound the bodies and remains, add thereto three 



EGGS 195 

tablespoonfuls of thick cream, and rub through tammy. Add 
to this cullis one tablespoonful of thick mayonnaise. 

Bind the crayfish tails, cut into dice, with a few tablespoon- 
fuls of this sauce, and garnish the eggs, emptied by the method 
indicated above, with the preparation of dice, making it stand 
out of the eggs in the shape of a small dome. Garnish each 
dome with a rosette composed of four halved crayfish tails and 
four truffle lozenges. 

Glaze well with jelly; set the eggs upon artichoke-bottoms 
garnished with a mayonnaise with crayfish cullis, and arrange 
in a circle on a dish. 

536— COLD EQQS POLIQNAC 

Prepare some eggs a la Polignac, as explained under 
" Moulded Eggs," and leave them to cool. Select some moulds 
a little larger than those used in the cooking of the eggs ; pour 
into each half a tablespoonful of melted, white jelly, and leave 
to set. Then put an egg into each mould, and fill up the space 
around the eggs with melted, white jelly. 

Leave to set, turn out the moulds, arrange the mouldings 
on a dish, and surround them with dice of faintly coloured 
jelly. 

537— COLD EQQS A LA REINE 

Prepare some soft-boiled eggs, and leave them to cool. Take 
as many cottage brioches as there are eggs; trim them to the 
level of the fluting, and remove the crumb from the inside, so 
as to form little croustades of them. Garnish the bottom and 
the sides of these croustades with a fine mince of white chicken- 
meat, thickened with mayonnaise, and season moderately with 
cayenne. Place a shelled, soft-boiled egg in each croustade ; 
coat thinly with mayonnaise slightly thickened by means of a 
jelly; lay a fine piece of truffle on each egg, and, when the 
sauce has set, glaze with jelly, using a fine brush for the 
purpose. 

Dish up on a napkin. 

538— COLD EQQS, RUBENS 

Season some cooked young shoots of hops with salt and 
freshly-ground pepper; add thereto some chopped parsley and 
chervil, and a pur^e of plainly-cooked tomatoes combined with 
just sufficient jelly to ensure the cohesion of the hops. Mould 
in oiled tartlet-moulds. 

o 2 



196 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Coat some well-dried, cold, poached eggs with white chaud- 
froid sauce; garnish with pieces of tarragon leaves, and glaze 
with jelly. 

Turn out the tartlet-moulds; set an egg on each of the 
mouldings, and arrange them in a circle on a dish, placing 
between each egg a piece of very clear jelly, cut to the shape 
of a cock's comb. 

Garnish the centre of the dish with chopped jelly. 



CHAPTER XIII 



SOUPS 



Soups are divided into two leading classes, viz. : — 

1. Clear soups, which include plain and garnished con- 
sommes. 

2. Thick soups, which comprise the Purees, Velout^s, and 
Creams. 

A third class, which is independent of either of the above, 
inasmuch as it forms part of plain, household cookery, em- 
braces vegetable soups and Garbures or gratincd soups. But 
in important dinners — by this I mean rich dinners — only the 
first two classes are recognised. 

When a menu contains two soups, one must be clear and 
the other thick. If only one is to be served, it may be either 
clear or thick, in which case the two kinds are represented 
alternately at different meals. 

In Part I. of this work I indicated the general mode of pro- 
cedure for consommes and thick soups; I explained how the 
latter might be converted from plain purees into veloutds or 
creams, or from velout^s into creams ; and all that now remains 
is to reveal the recipes proper to each of those soups. 

Remarks.— In the course of the recipes for consommes, given 
hereafter, the use of Royales (Nos. 206 to 213) and of Quenelles, 
variously prepared (Nos. 193 to 195), will often be enjoined. 
For the preparation of these garnishes, therefore, the reader will 
have to refer to the numbers indicated. 

The quantities for the clear soups that follow are all calcu- 
lated to be sufficient for a standard number of six people, and 
the quantity of Royales is always given in so many dariole- 
moulds, which contain about one-eighth pint, or baba-moidds, 
which hold about one-fifth pint. 

Of course, it will be understood that the poaching need not 
necessarily have been effected in these moulds, for very small 
"Charlotte" moulds would do quite as well. But I had re- 
course to the particular utensils mentioned above, in order that 



198 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

there might be no sort of doubt as to the exact quantity of royale 
it would be necessary to prepare for any one of the soups. 



Clear Soups and Garnished Consommes 

539— CONSOMM6 ALEXANDRA 

Have a quart of excellent chicken consomm6 ready; add 
thereto, in order to thicken it slightly, three tablespoonfuls of 
poached tapioca, strained through muslin, and very clear. 

Put the folloM?ing garnish into the soup-tureen : One table- 
spoonful of white chicken-meat cut in fine julienne-fashion, one 
tablespoonful of small chicken quenelles, grooved and long in 
shape, and one tablespoonful of lettuce chiffonade. 

Pour the boiling consomme upon this garnish, and send to 
the table immediately. 

540— C0NS0MMI6 AMBASSADRICE 

Have one quart of chicken consomm^ ready ; also there 
should have been prepared beforehand, with the view of using 
them quite cold, three different kinds of royales, consisting 
respectively of truffle pur^e, tomato purde, and pur^e of peas, 
each of which should have been poached in a dariole-mould. 

Cut these royales up into regular dice, and put them in 
the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of chicken fillet and 
an equal quantity of small, freshly-cooked mushrooms, finely 
minced. Pour the boiling consommd over these garnishes, and 
serve at once. 

541— CONSOMM^ ANDALOUSE 

Prepare a baba-mould of royale made from tomato pur^e. 
When quite cold, cut it into dice, and put these in the soup- 
tureen with one small tablespoonful of cooked ham cut in 
julienne-fashion, one tablespoonful of boiled rice, with every 
grain distinct and separate, and two tablespoonfuls of threaded 
eggs (No. 217). 

When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear chicken 
consomm^ over the garnish. 

543— CONSOMME D'ARENBERG 

With a small spoon-cutter, pick out a spoonful of carrot 
pellets and the same quantity of turnip pellets. Cook these 
vegetables by boiling them in consomm^, taking care that the 
latter be reduced to a glaze when the vegetables are cooked. 



SOUPS 199 

With the same spoon take the same quantity as above of very 
black truffle ; also prepare a dariole-mould of royale made from 
asparagus heads, and a dozen small chicken-forcemeat quen- 
elles, which should be moulded to the shape of large pearls. 

Poach the quenelles, cut the royales up into slices, which 
must be stamped with an indented fancy-cutter, and put the 
whole into the soup-tureen with the carrots, turnips, and truffle 
pellets, and one tablespoonful of very green peas. 

Pour a quart of chicken consomm^ over the garnish, and 
send to the table at once. 

543— CONSOMME A LA BOHJ&MIENNE 

Prepare three dariole-moulds of foie-gras pur^e, and twelve 
■profiterolles (No. 218) of the size of hazel-nuts, the latter being 
made very crisp. 

When the royale is cold, cut it into little, regular squares, 
and put these into the soup-tureen. 

When about to serve, pour over this garnish a quart of 
chicken consomm^, thickened by means of three tablespoonfuls 
of tapioca, poached and strained through linen. 

Send the profiterolles to the table separately, and very hot. 

544— CONSOMMlfe BOiELDIEU 

Prepare eighteen chicken-forcemeat quenelles, moulded by 
means of a small teaspoon ; some should be stuffed with foie- 
gras pur^e, moistened with a little veIout6 ; others with chicken 
pur^e; and yet others with truffle pur^e — in short, six of each 
kind. 

Place these, one by one, on a buttered saut6-pan ; poach 
them, drain them, and put them in the soup-tureen with a 
tablespoonful of white chicken-meat, cut into dice. 

When about to serve, pour one quart of chicken consomm^, 
thickened as above with tapioca, over the garnish. 

545— CONSOMME BOUQUETlfeRE 

Prepare a garnish of carrots and turnips, cut with the 
tubular cutter or with the spoon ; French beans cut into lozenges, 
asparagus-heads, and green peas, all of which vegetables should 
be fresh and young. Cook each vegetable according to its 
nature, and put the whole into the soup-tureen. 

When about to serve, pour over the garnish one quart of 
chicken consomm6 thickened with two tablespoonfuls of 
tapioca, poached and strained through fine linen. 



200 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

546— CONSOMMI6 BOURDALOUE 

Prepare a dariole-mould of each of the four following 
royales : — 

1. Of a pur^e of haricot-beans with a slight addition of 
tomato. 

2. Of a chicken pur^e moistened with velout6. 

3. Of a puree of asparagus-tops combined with a few cooked 
spinach leaves, to deepen the colour. 

4. Of a carrot pur^e (Pur^e Crecy). 

Having poached and cooled the royales, cut them as 
follows : — 

(i) Into dice, (2) into lozenges, (3) into little leaves, and 
(4) into stars. 

Place them all in the ^oup-tureen, and, when about to 
serve, pour one quart of boiling and very clear chicken con- 
somme over them. 

547— POTAQE BORTSCH 

Cut in julienne-fashion the heads of two leeks, one carrot, 
half of an onion, four oz. of the white of cabbage leaves, half 
a root of parsley, the white part of a stick of celery, and four oz. 
of beetroot ; set the whole to stew gently in butter. 

Moisten with one quart of white consommd and two or three 
tablespoonfuls of the juice of grated beetroot; add a small 
bunch of fennel and sweet marjoram, two lbs. of moderately 
fat breast of beef, and the half of a semi-roasted duck ; set to 
cook gently for four hours. 

When about to serve, cut the breast of beef into large dice, 
and cut the duck into small slices; finish the soup with one- 
quarter pint of beetroot juice, extracted from grated beetroot 
pressed in linen, and a little blanched and chopped fennel and 
parsley. Put the beef dice and sliced duck into the soup, with 
twelve grilled and despumated chipolatas. 

Serve, separately, a sauceboat of sour cream. 

N.B. — The chipolatas may be replaced by very small patties 
with duck forcemeat, which should be served separately. 

548— CONSOMME BRUNOISE 

Cut into small dice the red part only of two small carrots, 
one small turnip, the heads of two leeks, a small stick of celery, 
and the third of an onion of medium size. 

Season the vegetables moderately with salt and a pinch of 
sugar, and stew them in butter. Moisten with one-half pint 



SOUPS 20 1 

of consomm6, and complete the cooking of the Brunoise gently. 
Five minutes before serving, finish with one quart of boiling, 
ordinary consomm^, a moderate tablespoonful of peas, and the 
same quantity of French beans, cut into dice and kept very 
green. 

Pour into the soup-tureen, and add a pinch of fine chervil 
pluches. 

549— CONSOMME CARMEN 

Prepare one quart of consomm^, to which add, while clarify- 
ing, one-quarter pint of raw tomato pur^e, in order to give it 
a faint, pink tinge. 

Also peel and press a small and rather firm tomato ; cut into 
dice, and poach the latter in some of the consomm^ ; put them 
in the soup-tureen with a small tablespoonful of mild capsicum, 
cut in fine julienne-fashion, and one tablespoonful of plain- 
boiled rice. 

When about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the 
garnish, and add a small pinch of chervil pluches. 

550— CONSOMME CASTELLANE 

Prepare (i) one quart of game consomm6, flavoured with a 
fumct of woodcock; (2) two baba-moulds of royale, two-thirds 
of which consists of a pur^e of woodcock and one-third of 
lentils, with half the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, chopped and 
thickened with the usual leason. 

Cut this royale into slices, about the size of a florin, one- 
half inch thick. Put these into the soup-tureen, together with 
one tablespoonful of a julienne of roast woodcock fillets, and 
pour thereon the boiling game consomm^. 

551— CONSOMME CELESTINE 

Prepare one quart of chicken consomme, and add thereto 
three small tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through 
fine linen. 

For the garnish make three pannequets (No. 2476) without 
sugar, and spread over each a thin coating of chicken force- 
meat with cream. Place one on top of the other, sprinkle the 
layer of forcemeat on the uppermost one with finely-chopped, 
very black truffles, and place in the front of the oven for a few 
minutes, in order to poach the forcemeat. 

Stamp the panncqtiets out with an even fancy-cutter about 
one inch in diameter. Put the pieces into a soup-tureen, and, 
\yhgn about to serve, pour in the boiling consornfp<J, 



202 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

552— CONSOMMl^ CHARTREUSE 

Prepare (i) eighteen small ravioles (No. 2296) — six from 
spinach purde, six from foie-gras purde, and the remaining six 
from chopped mushrooms; (2) two small tablespoonfuls of 
tomato dice. Ten minutes before serving, poach the ravioles 
in boiling, salted water, and the tomato dice in some of the 
consomm^. 

Put the ravioles and the tomato dice (well drained) into the 
soup-tureen, and pour over them one quart of consomm^ with 
a moderate addition of tapioca. Add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

553— C0NS0MM6 AUX CHEVEUX D'ANGE 

About two minutes before serving, plunge three oz. of very 
fine vermicelli, known as Angel's Hair (Cheveux d'Ange) into 
one quart of excellent, boiling consomm^. 

An instant only is needed to poach the vermicelli, and the 
latter does not require to be blanched. 

This soup, like those containing pastes, should be accom- 
panied by freshly-grated Parmesan cheese. 

554— CONSOMME COLBERT 

Have ready one quart of excellent Printanier chicken con- 
somm6 (No. 601). Also poach six small eggs in slightly salted 
and acidulated water. The eggs should be as small and as 
fresh as possible, both of which conditions are absolutely neces- 
sary for a proper poaching (see poached eggs. No. 411). Set 
these eggs in a small timbale with a little consomm^, and send 
them to the table with the Printanier. Having poured the 
latter into the plates, put one of the eggs into each of these. 

555_CONSOMME COLOMBINE 

Prepare a good tablespoonful of carrot pearls, and as many 
turnip pearls, keeping the latter very white. Cook them in 
the customary way, and put them in the soup-tureen with one 
tablespoonful of very green peas, one tablespoonful of a julienne 
of roast-pigeon fillets, and six poached pigeons' eggs, which 
latter should be sent to the table in a timbale at the same time 
as the consomm^. 

Pour over the other garnish one quart of very clear, boiling, 
chicken consomm6, and serve immediately. 

This soup can only appear on summer and spring menus, 
when the pigeons' eggs are in season. 



SOUPS 203 

556— croOte au pot 

Prepare a freshly-cooked vegetable garnish for a stock- 
pot : — Carrots and turnips cut into small sticks and trimmed; 
a few heads of leeks, and cabbage, parboiled, minced, and 
cooked in very fat oonsomm^. 

Put these vegetables in a somewhat greasy broth for ten 
minutes. 

Also prepare seven or eight crusts of French soup " flutes " ; 
besprinkle them with stock grease, and dry them in the oven. 
Put the vegetable garnish into the soup-tureen ; pour thereon 
one quart of consomm^ of the Petite Marmite (No. 589), and 
add to the dried crusts. 

557— CONSOMM^ CYRANO 

Prepare (i) one quart of consomm^ with a fumet of duck; 
(2) twelve small quenelles of duck forcemeat, which should be 
made flat and oval. Having poached the quenelles, drain 
them, and set them in a small, shallow earthen pan or timbale ; 
sprinkle with a little grated Parmesan cheese and a few drops 
of chicken glaze, and set to glaze in the oven. 

The quenelles are served separately in the pan in which 
they have been glazed, and the consomm^ is sent to the table 
in a soup-tureen. 

558— CONSOMMjg DEMIDOFF 

With the small spoon-cutter, pick out a good tablespoonful 
of carrot, and the same quantity of turnip pearls. Cook these 
vegetables in the customary way, and put them in the soup- 
tureen with one tablespoonful of truffle pearls, the same quan- 
tity of peas, and small, poached, chicken-forcemeat quenelles 
with herbs. Pour one quart of boiling chicken consomm^ over 
this garnish, and add a pinch of chervil pluches. 



559— CONSOMME DESLIQNAC 

Prepare (i) two small, stuffed lettuces, rolled into sausage 
form and poached; (2) two baba-moulds of royale with cream. 
Cut the royale into small, regular dice; trim the lettuce, and 
cut it into slices; put this garnish into the soup-tureen, and 
pour thereon one quart of boiling chicken consomm^, thick- 
ened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained 
through linen. Add a pinch of chervil pluches. 



204 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

560— CONSOMMjg AUX DIABLOTINS 

Cut a French soup " flute " into twelve slices one-quarter 
inch thick. Reduce about one-quarter pint of Bechamel to a 
thick consistence; add thereto, away from the fire, two heaped 
tablespoonfuls of grated Gruy^re cheese, and season with a little 
cayenne. 

Garnish the slices of soup " flute " with this preparation, 
arranged in the form of a dome, upon a tray, and set it to 
glaze a few minutes before serving. 

Pour one quart of chicken consomm^ into the soup-tureen, 
and add the diablotins. 

561— CONSOMME DIPLOMATE 

Roll into small sausage-form three oz. of chicken forcemeat, 
finished with crayfish butter. Poach the sausages, cut them 
into thin roundels, and put them into the soup-tureen with one 
dessertspoonful of very black truffle, cut in julienne-fashion. 

Pour over this garnish one quart of boiling chicken con- 
somme, thickened with two tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, 
strained through linen. 

562— CONSOMME DIVETTE 

Prepare two baba-inoulds of royale made from crayfish 
velout^, eighteen small quenelles of smelt forcemeat, moulded 
to the shape of pearls, and one tablespoonful of small pearls 
of very black truffle. 

Cut the royale into oval slices, and put these into the soup 
with the poached quenelles and the truffle pearls. 

Pour one quart of very clear, boiling consommd over the 
garnish. 

563— CONSOMME DORIA 

Prepare the following garnish : — Thirty pellets of cucumber 
in the shape of large pearls ; eighteen small quenelles of chicken 
forcemeat, long in shape and grooved; six little pellets, about 
the size of a large pea, of pate a choux, combined with grated 
cheese, rolled by hand; and one and one-half tablespoonfuls of 
Japanese pearls, poached in some of the consomm^. 

Put the cucumber pellets, cooked in consomme, into the 
soup-tureen ; add the poached quenelles and the Japanese pearls. 

Four minutes before serving, plunge the pellets of fate a 
chotix into hot fat, keeping them crisp. 



SOUPS 



16^ 



When about to serve, pour over the garnish one quart of 
boiling chicken consommd; complete with a pinch of chervil 
pluches, and serve the little, fried pellets separately. 

S64--CONSOMME DOUGLAS 

With an even cutter, the size of a penny, cut up some braised 
and cooled sweetbread into twelve roundels one-third inch thick ; 
with the same cutter cut out twelve more roundels from some 
cooked artichoke-bottoms, and put the whole into the soup- 
tureen with two tablespoonfuls of very green asparagus-heads. 

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling, highly 
seasoned, ordinary consomm^ upon the garnish. 

565— C0NS0MM6 A L'ECOSSAISE 

Prepare a special mutton broth, and, at the same time, cook 
a fine piece of breast of mutton for the garnish. 

Per two quarts of broth, put into the soup-tureen four 
tablespoonfuls of pearl-barley, cooked very gently beforehand; 
two tablespoonfuls of French beans, cut into lozenges, and the 
breast of mutton cut into regular dice of one-half inch side, in 
the proportion of one tablespoonful for each person. 

Pour the boiling mutton broth over this garnish, after 
having removed all the grease and strained it through linen. 

566— CONSOMME FAVORITE 

With a spoon-cutter, pick from out some violet potatoes 
eighteen pellets the size of small hazel-nuts, and cook them in 
salted water in good time for them to be ready for the dishing 
up of the soup. Put them in the soup-tureen with two table- 
spoonfuls of a julienne of artichoke-bottoms and the same 
quantity of cooked mushrooms, also cut in julienne-fashion. 

Pour over the garnish one quart of chicken consomm^, 
thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained 
through linen. Add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

566a— CONSOMME A LA FERMIERE 

Mince, somewhat finely, one small carrot, one small turnip, 
the heads of two leeks, and the half of an onion . Slightly stew 
these vegetables in one and one-half oz. of butter; moisten with 
one and one-half pints of white consomm^; add two oz. of 
parboiled cabbage, cut roughly into a julienne, and complete 



2o6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

the cooking gently, taking care to remove all grease, with the 
view of obtaining a very clear consomm^. 

Pour into the soup-tureen, and add a few thin slices of French 
soup " flute," slightly dried. 

567— CONSOMME FLORENTINE 

With fine chicken forcemeat make twenty-four small quen- 
elles on a buttered tray, their shape being that of small Mecca 
loaves. To the forcemeat of six of these quenelles add some 
very finely chopped tongue; add white chicken-meat to that 
of another six; and to that of the remaining twelve add some 
very reduced spinach pur^e. The quenelles with spinach should 
number twice those with the other two ingredients, in order 
that the preparation may be in keeping with its designation 
" ^ la Florentine." 

Poach the quenelles; put them in the soup-tureen with two 
tablespoonfuls of very green, cooked peas. 

When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear, boiling 
chicken consomm^ over this garnish, and add a pinch of chervil 
pluches. 

568— CONSOMME QAULOISE 

Prepare two dariole-moulds of ham royale, and poach the 
latter in a small, well-buttered Charlotte mould. When quite 
cold, cut it into large lozenges, and put these into the soup- 
tureen with six small cocks' combs and six small cocks' kidneys 
(these latter as small as possible). 

When about to serve, pour over this garnish one quart of 
chicken consomm^, thickened slightly with two tablespoonfuls 
of poached tapioca, strained through linen. 

569— C0NS0MM6 QEORQE SAND 

Have ready one quart of consomm^ flavoured with very clear 
fish fumet. Also prepare twelve small quenelles of whiting 
forcemeat, finished with crayfish butter; stew twelve morels, 
which should be left whole if very small, and cut into two if 
they are of medium size; twelve small slices of poached carps' 
milt, and twelve little roundels of French soup "flutes." 

Put the poached quenelles and the stewed morels into the 
soup-tureen ; pour therein the boiling, fish consomm^, and 
send the slices of carps' milt set on the roundels of French 
soup " flute " separately to the table. 



SOUPS 207 

570— CONSOMM^ GERMAINE 

Prepare two dariole-moulds of royale made from a pur6e 
of very green peas, combined with a tablespoonful of Mire- 
poix stewed in butter, and a strong pinch of small, chervil 
pluches; eighteen small quenelles of chicken forcemeat with 
cream, moulded to the form of pastils. 

When the royale is cold, cut it into regular roundels, and 
put these into the soup-tureen with the poached quenelles. 

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling chicken 
consomm^ over the garnish. 

571— C0NS0MM6 QIRONDINE 

Prepare (i) one quart of highly-seasoned beef consomm^; 
(2) two baha-moulds of ordinary royale made with whole eggs 
and combined with two tablespoonfuls of cooked and finely- 
chopped lean ham ; (3) three tablespoonfuls of a julienne of 
carrots (the red part only) stewed in butter, the cooking of 
which should be completed in the consomm6. 

Put the royale, cut into large, regular lozenges, and the 
julienne of carrots into the soup-tureen, and pour in the boiling 
beef consomm^. 

572— CONSOMM^ QRIMALDI 

Have ready one quart of excellent ordinary consomm6, to 
which have been added, while clarifying, four tablespoonfuls 
of raw tomato pur^e, strained through fine linen. 

Also prepare two dariole-moulds of ordinary royale, and 
three tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of the white of celery, 
stewed in butter, finally cooked in the consomm^, and with all 
grease removed. 

Put the royale, cut into large dice, and the julienne of 
celery into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the boiling con- 
somm^ with tomatoes. 

573— CONSOMM^ IMP^RIALE 

Prepare three dariole-moulds of mousseline forcemeat of 
fowl (No. 195), and put it to poach in a small Charlotte mould. 

When quite cold, cut it, by means of a cutter, into roundels 
the size of a penny, and put these in the soup-tureen with six 
small blanched cocks' combs and three sliced cocks' kidneys, 
and two tablespoonfuls of very green peas. 

Pour over this garnish one quart of chicken consomm^, 
thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained 
through linen. 



io8 GUIDE to MODERN COOKERY 

574— CONSOMME A L'INDIENNE 

Have ready one quart of ordinary consomm^ seasoned with 
curry. Also prepare three baba-moulds of royale made from 
cocoanut milk, and, when quite cold, cut into small dice. 

Put this royale into the soup-tureen; pour on it the boil- 
ing consomm^ with curry, and send to the table, separately, 
four tablespoon fuls of Rice k I'lndienne (No. 2254). 

575— CONSOMM6 A L'INFANTE 

With some pate a choux (No. 2374) prepare eighteen fro- 
fiterolles of the size of hazel-nuts. Cook them, taking care to 
keep them very crisp, and stuff them when cold with pur^e 
de foie gras moistened with velout^. 

Put two tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of mild capsicum 
into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon one quart of boiling 
chicken consomm^, moderately thickened with poached tapioca 
strained through linen. 

Serve the proflteroUes of foie gras separately, after having 
heated them in the front of the oven. 

N.B. — The garnish of Consomm^ k I'lnfante may consist 
only of the profiterolles, and the julienne of capsicum may be 
suppressed ; this is a matter of taste. 

576— CONSOMME JACQUELINE 

With a small spoon-cutter, pick from out some carrots 
twenty-four little oval pellets, which should be cooked in the 
consomme. Prepare two baba-moulds of royale with cream. 

Put into the soup-tureen the pellets of carrots and the royale 
cut to the shape of pastils, one tablespoonful of peas, the same 
quantity of very green asparagus-heads, and one tablespoonful 
of rice. 

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling chicken 
consomme over this garnish. 

576a— CONSOMME JULIENNE 

Cut into fillets, two inches in length, the red part only of 
two medium-sized carrots, one medium-sized turnip, one leek, 
half a stick of celery, some cabbage leaves, and half an onion. 
Season these vegetables with a pinch of salt and as much castor 
sugar; stew them in one oz. of butter; moisten with one and 
one-half pints of white consomm^^ and then add two oz. of small 
parboiled cabbages, cut after the manner of the other vegetables. 

Finish the cooking gently, removing the grease the while, 



SOUPS 209 

and complete with one small tablespoonful of very green, cooked 
peas, one tablespoonful of sorrel and lettuce chiffonade, and one 
pinch of chervil pluches. 

577— C0NS0MM1& LORETTE 

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^. Also prepare 
two tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of celery stewed in butter 
and cooked in the consomm^; twelve small " pommes k la 
lorette " (No. 2226), the size of hazel-nuts, and shaped like small 
crescents. These potatoes should be fried in hot fat four minutes 
before serving. 

Put into the soup-tureen the julienne of celery, twelve small, 
freshly-poached cocks' kidneys, and one tablespoonful of a 
julienne of pimentos; pour the boiling consomm^ over this 
garnish ; add a pinch of chervil pluches, and send the lorette 
potatoes to the table separately. 

578— C0NS0MM6 MACDONALD 

Prepare (i) one quart of highly seasoned beef consomm^; 
(2) two dariole-moulds of brain-pur^e royale; (3) two table- 
spoonfuls of cucumbers cut into small dice and cooked in con- 
somm6 until the latter is reduced to a glaze; (4) five little 
ravioles garnished with chicken forcemeat combined with a 
third of its volume of spinach. Put these ravioles to poach in 
salted boiling water twelve minutes before serving. 

Put into the soup-tureen the royale of brains cut into 
roundels one-third inch thick, the dice of cucumber, and the 
ravioles poached and well drained. 

Pour the boiling beef consomm^ over this garnish just before 
serving. 

579— CONSOMME MARGUERITE 

Take two tablespoonfuls of chicken forcemeat with cream, 
and roll it into sausage-form on the floured mixing-board. Put 
the sausage to poach. Rub the yolk of an egg through a fine 
sieve, and cohere it with half a teaspoonful of raw forcemeat. 

Having poached and cooled the chicken sausage, cut it into 
thin roundels, and stamp each roundel with a fancy-cutter to 
the shape of a marguerite. Arrange the marguerites on a dish, 
and lay in the middle of each a bit of the egg and forcemeat, in 
imitation of the flower-centre. 

Put these marguerites into the soup-tureen with one table- 
spoonful of small, green asparagus cut into lengths of one inch. 
When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear, boiling 
chicken consomm^ over this garnish. 

P 



2 to GUTDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

580— CONSOMME MARQUISE 

Prepare one quart of good, ordinary consomm^, to which 
three sticks of celery have been added, while clarifying, in 
order that the taste of the celery may be very decided. 

Make thirty small quenelles of chicken forcemeat combined 
with finely-chopped filberts, giving them the shape of pastils. 

Poach these quenelles ten minutes before serving. Also 
poach in court-bouillon two calf's piths, and cut them into thin 
roundels. 

Put the poached quenelles and the roundels of calf's piths 
into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the boiling consommt^. 

581— C0NS0MM6 MERC^DfiS 

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm^ with pimentos, com- 
bined, at the last minute, away from the fire, with one-half pint 
of sherry. 

Put into the soup-tureen two tablespoonfuls of capsicum, 
cut in fine julienne-fashion and short, and some small, freshly- 
cooked cocks' combs. 

When about to serve, pour the consomm6 over this garnish. 

582— CONSOMM6 MESSALINE 

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm^, and add thereto, 
while clarifying, one-quarter pint of tomato essence, obtained by 
reducing the moisture contained by the tomato to a syrup. 

Put into the soup-tureen twelve small, freshly-poached cocks' 
ccmbs, two tablespoonfuls of Spanish capsicum cut into a 
julienne and poached in the consomm^ if fresh (this should have 
been previously grilled, with the view of removing the skins), 
and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice, every grain of which 
should be distinct. 

Pour the boiling consomm^ over this garnish. 

583— CONSOMME METTERNICH 

Prepare one quart of game consomm^ with pheasant fumet. 
Also poach two dariole-moulds of royale, made from a purde 
of artichokes combined with some tablespoonfuls of the reduced 
game Espagnole. Cut this royale into dice; put these into a 
soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of a julienne of pheasant 
fillets, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^. 

584— CONSOMME A LA MILANAISE 

Cook in slightly salted boiling water two oz. of moderately 
thick macaroni. As soon as it is cooked, drain it, lay it on a 
piece of linen, and cut it into small rings. Also prepare one- 



SOUPS III 

quarter pint of Bechamel, thickened with the yolk of one egg 
combined with one oz. of grated cheese, and l^eep it very dense. 

Mix the rings of macaroni with this sauce ; spread the whole 
on a dish, and leave to cool. Now divide up the preparation 
into portions the size of walnuts ; roll these into balls, and then 
flatten them out to form quoits about the size of shillings. Treat 
these quoits with an anglaise, and very fine bread-crumbs, and 
plunge into hot fat four minutes before serving. Drain them 
when they have acquired a fine golden colour. 

Pour one quart of boiling chicken consomme into the soup- 
tureen, and send to the table, separately, (i) the fried macaroni 
quoits; (2) one and one-half oz. of Gruy^re and Parmesan 
cheese, in equal quantities, grated and mixed. 

585— CONSOMMjfe MIREILLE 

Add one tablespoonful of very concentrated tomato pur^e to 
three oz. of chicken forcemeat; roll this preparation into the 
form of a somewhat large sausage, and poach it. When cold, 
cut it into roundels, one-quarter inch thick, and stamp each 
roundel with an oval fancy-cutter in the shape of a medallion. 
Put these medallions in the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls 
of saffroned pilaff rice (No. 2255), and, when about to serve, 
pour thereon one quart of very clear, boiling chicken consomm^. 

586— CONSOMME MIRETTE 

Make eighteen quenelles of chicken forcemeat in the shape 
of large pearls, and poach them. Prepare two tablespoonfuls 
of lettuce chiffonade (the heart of one lettuce cut julienne-fashion 
and stewed in butter) ; make eighteen paillettes with Parmesan 
(No. 2322), and put them in a very hot oven eight or ten minutes 
before serving. 

Put the poached quenelles and the lettuce chiffonade into 
the soup-tureen ; pour thereon one quart of boiling consomm^ 
of the Petite Marmite, and one pinch of chervil pluches. 

Send the paillettes au Parmesan to the table separately, and 
have them very hot. 

587— C0NS0MM6 MONTE CARLO 

Make and poach thirty small quenelles of chicken force- 
meat ; cisel and stew in butter the heart of one lettuce ; prepare 
twelve little profiterolles of pate a choux, the size of hazel-nuts, 
and cook them, taking care to keep them crisp. 

Put the quenelles and the lettuce chiffonade into the soup- 
tureen ; pour thereon one quart of very clear, boiling, chicken 
consomm^, and add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

Serve the profiterolles separately and very hot. 



212 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

588— CONSOMME MONTMORENCY 

Have ready one quart of chicken consommt^ thickened with 
three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through linen. 

Prepare eighteen small grooved quenelles of chicken force- 
meat. Poach, drain, and put them into the soup-tureen with 
two tablespoonfuls of very green asparagus-heads and two 
tablespoonfuls of poached rice, every grain of which should be 
distinct and separate. 

589— CONSOMME A LA MOSCOVITE 

Prepare one quart of sterlet or sturgeon consomm^, and add 
thereto some cucumber essence, obtained by pounding a cored 
and peeled cucumber, and straining the resulting pur^e through 
linen. 

Put into the soup-tureen two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of 
salted mushrooms, one oz. of soaked vesiga cut into dice and 
cooked in broth, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^. 

N.B. — Vesiga or the spine-marrow of the sturgeon ought to 
be soaked in cold water for a few hours in order to soften and 
swell it, after which it should be cut into dice and cooked in 
broth. For every four tablespoonfuls of cooked vesiga, one oz. 
of dry vesiga should be allowed. 

590— CONSOMM6 NESSELRODE 

Have ready one quart of game consomm6, prepared with 
hazel-hen fumet. Poach two baba-moulds of royale made from 
chestnut puree with two small tablespoonfuls of game salmis 
sauce added thereto; cut it into roundels half-inch thick, and 
trim these with a grooved fancy-cutter. 

Put them into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of a 
julienne of hazel-hen fillets, the same quantity of a julienne of 
mushrooms, and pour thereon the boiling game consomm^. 

591— CONSOMME AUX NIDS D'HIRONDELLES 

The nests used for this soup are those of the esculent swal- 
low, and their shape somewhat resembles that of the rind of a 
quartered, dry orange. 

In the first place, prepare a chicken consomme containing a 
large proportion of nutritious principles. Set three nests to 
soak in cold water for twenty-four hours, the object being to 
swell the mucilaginous elements of which they are composed 
and to make them transparent. 

When they have soaked sufficiently remove any pieces of 
feather which may have remained in them, using for this pur- 



SOUPS 213 

pose the point of a needle, and, when the nests are quite clean, 
drain them and put them into the consomm^. At this stage 
set the consomm^ to boil, gently, for thirty or thirty-five 
minutes without interruption. During this time the gummy 
portions of the nests will melt into the consomm^, giving the 
latter its characteristic viscidity, and there will only remain 
visible those portions which, in the natural state, constitute the 
framework of the nests; that is to say, little threads not unlike 
superfine transparent vermicelli. 

592— CONSOMME AUX CEUFS DE FAUVETTE 

I introduced this consomm^ in honour of the illustrious 
singer, Adelina Patti. 

It consists of a chicken consomm^, which should be made as 
perfect as possible, and a garnish composed of the poached eggs 
of small birds. 

593— CONSOMME OLQA 

Prepare one quart of excellent ordinary consomm6, and add 
thereto, when about to serve and away from the fire, one-quarter 
pint of port wine. 

Also cut into a fine julienne the quarter of a small celeriac, 
the white of a leek, and the red part only of a small carrot. 
Stew this julienne in butter and complete its cooking in con- 
somm^, reducing the latter to a glaze. 

When about to serve put this julienne in a soup tureen, add 
a few tablespoonfuls of a julienne of salted gherkins, and pour 
thereon the consomm^ with port. 

594— CONSOMME D'ORLlfeANS 

Lay on a buttered tray ten small quenelles of ordinary 
chicken forcemeat, ten others of chicken forcemeat combined 
with a very red tomato pur^e, and ten more of the same force- 
meat, combined with a pur^e of spinach, all the quenelles being 
grooved. 

Ten minutes before serving poach these quenelles, drain 

them, put them in the soup-tureen, and pour therein one quart 

of chicken consomm^ thickened with three tablespoonfuls of 

poached tapioca strained through linen. Add a pinch of chervil 

pluches. 

595— CONSOMME D'ORSAY 

Prepare one quart of very clear chicken consomm^, also 
make fifteen small quenelles of pigeon forcemeat moulded to 
the shape of eggs by means of a very small spoon, and poach 
the yolks of ten eggs, taking care to keep them very soft. 



214 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Put the quenelles and the poached yolks into the soup-tureen 
with a julienne of three fillets of pigeon and a tablespoonful of 
asparagus-heads, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^. 
Serve at once. 

596— OX=TAIL SOUP 

For Ten People. — Garnish the bottom of a small stock-pot 
or stewpan with one fine carrot and two medium-sized onions 
cut into roundels and browned in butter, and one faggot. Add 
two small ox-tails, or one of medium size weighing about four 
lbs. (The tails should be cut into sections, each of which 
should contain one of the caudal vertebras, and they should 
then be browned in the oven.) Also add two lbs. of gelatinous 
bones, broken very small and likewise browned in the oven. 

Now proceed exactly as for brown veal stock (No. 9), taking 
note that the whole moistening must consist of no more than 
two and one-half quarts of ordinary broth and one quart of 
water. 

Set to boil very gently for four and one-half or five hours. 
This done, strain the broth, which should be reduced to two and 
one-half quarts, and completely remove its grease. Transfer 
the largest sections of the tails, by means of a braiding-needle, 
one by one to another saucepan. Cover them with broth, and 
keep them warm for the garnish. 

Finely chop one lb. of very lean beef; put this mince into a 
saucepan with the white of a leek cut into dice and half the 
white of an egg, and mix thoroughly. Add the broth, the 
grease of which has been removed, set to boil, stirring con- 
stantly the while, and then leave to simmer for one hour, which 
is the time required for the beef to exude all its juices and for 
the clarification of the broth. 

While the clarification is in progress cut a small carrot in 
brunoise fashion, or turn it by means of a very small spoon. 
Cook this garnish in.a little water with butter, salt, and sugar. 

A few minutes before serving strain the ox-tail broth 
through a napkin, put the sections of ox-tail and brunoise into 
the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the prepared broth. This 
soup may be flavoured with port or sherry, but this is optional. 
N.B. — If a thickened ox-tail soup be required add to the 
broth per every quart of it one-third of an oz. of arrowroot 
diluted with a little of the broth or some cold water. 

597— CONSOMME PARISIENNE 

Have one quart of chicken consomme ready. 

For the garnish prepare two dariole-moulds of royale made 



SOUPS 215 

from a pur^e of ordinary julienne, a small macedoine of vege- 
tables, comprising one heaped tablespoonful each of carrots and 
turnips divided up by means of a small grooved spoon and 
cooked in the usual way, one tablespoonful of small peas, the 
same quantity of fine French beans cut into lozenges, and one 
tablespoonful of asparagus-heads. 

Cut the royale into regular roundels; put these in the soup- 
tureen with the macedoine of vegetables, and, when about to 
serve, pour thereon the boiling chicken consomm^. Add a 
pinch of fine chervil pluches. 

598— LA PETITE MARMITE 

For Ten People. — Prepare a consomm^ in a special earthen- 
ware stock-pot in accordance with the procedure indicated in 
recipe No. i, but with the following quantities, viz., two lbs. 
of lean beef and as much breast of beef, one marrow-bone 
tied in a muslin-bag, and the necks, the pinions, and the giz- 
zards of six large fowls, these giblets being inserted in the 
stewpan one hour before dishing up. 

Moisten with three and one-half quarts of water and add 
three-quarters of an oz. of salt. Set to boil, skim as indicated, 
and cook gently with the view of obtaining a very clear broth. 
One hour before serving add six oz. of carrots and the same 
quantity of turnips, both cut to the shape of large olives, five oz. 
of the white of leeks, and a heart of celery. 

Cook a quarter of a very white, properly blanched cabbage, 
separately, in a saucepan with a little consomm^ and some stock 
grease. 

When about to serve test the seasoning of the consomm6, 
which latter should be very clear; thoroughly clean the stewpan, 
which may even be covered with a clean napkin; withdraw the 
marrow-bone; take it out of its muslin-bag, and send it and 
the cabbage to the table separately, accompanied by a plate of 
small pieces of hot toast for the marrow. 

599— THE POT=AU=FEU 

Prepare this exactly like the Petite Marmite. 

600— POULE AU POT, or Poule au Pot Henri IV 

This is a variation of the Petite Marmite, in which a tender 
and very fleshy hen is substituted for the giblets of fowl. 

Strictly observe the rule of never using a new earthenware 
stock-pot before having boiled water in it for at least twelve 
hours. Also bear in mind that earthenware stock-pots should 
be washed in hot water only, without any soda or soap. 



2i6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

6oi— CONSOMM^ PRINTANIER 

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^, also cut one 
carrot and one turnip into roundels one-half inch thick. With a 
tubular cutter one-eighth inch in diameter, cut these roundels 
into little rods, making a sufficient number to fill one table- 
spoonful with each vegetable. Cook these little rods in con- 
somm6, and reduce the latter to a glaze. 

Put the carrot and turnip rods into the soup-tureen with one 
tablespoonful of small peas, the same quantity of small French 
beans and asparagus-heads, the former cut into lozenges, ten 
roundels of sorrel leaves, and as many of lettuce leaves, the latter 
being poached in some consomm^. When about to serve pour 
the boiling consomm^ over these garnishes and add a large 
pinch of small chervil pluches. 

602— CONSOMM6 PRINTANIER AUX QUENELLES 

Prepare the printanier exactly as directed above, but slightly 
lessen the quantities of the vegetables constituting the garnish. 

Make eighteen small quenelles of chicken forcemeat in the 
shape of little grooved meringues, and poach them ten minutes 
before dishing up. 

Drain them, put them into the soup-tureen with the other 
garnishes, and pour thereon the boiling consomme. 

603— CONSOMME AUX PROFITEROLLES 

Prepare forty very dry frofiterolles (No. 28), and add an ex- 
cellent chicken consomme to them at the last moment. 

The frofiterolles may also be made to the size of walnuts, in 
which case they may be stuffed with a pur^e of chicken, foie 
gras, &c. 

604— CONSOMME RACHEL 

Prepare one quart of chicken consomme, and thicken it with 
three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through linen. 
With a round, even cutter stamp out twelve roundels of crumb 
of bread the size of pennies and one-half inch thick. Poach in 
consomm6 as many slices of very fresh beef-marrow as there 
are roundels of bread. 

Six minutes before serving fry the roundels of bread in clari- 
fied butter, hollow out their centres, and place on each a slice of 
poached beef-marrow suitably trimmed. 

Put three tablespoonfuls of a julienne of cooked artichoke 
bottoms into the soup-tureen, pour thereon the thickened con- 
somm^, and add the roundels of bread garnished with marrow. 



SOUPS 217 

605— CONSOMMI6 R^JANE 

Prepare one quart of excellent white consomm^, set it to boil, 
and add a julienne of the white of half a fowl and the heads of 
two leeks cut similarly to the fowl. Set to cook gently for ten 
minutes, taking care to disturb the consomm^ as little as pos- 
sible, add three oz. of potatoes cut into a julienne, complete 
the cooking, and serve immediately. 

606— C0NS0MM6 RENAISSANCE 

Prepare one quart of clear chicken consomm^. 

For the garnish make two dariole-moulds of royale with a 
pur^e of early-season herbs thickened with veloute and whole 
eggs ; with a small grooved spoon-cutter pick out one tablespoon- 
ful of pellets from a turnip and the red part only of a carrot. 
Cook these vegetables in the usual way. Cut the royale with a 
grooved fancy-cutter into pieces of the shape of small leaves. 
Put the leaves of royale into the soup-tureen with the carrot and 
turnip pellets, one tablespoonful of very green peas, the same 
quantity of French beans cut into lozenges, one tablespoonful 
of asparagus-heads, and twelve very small particles of very 
white cauliflower. Pour the boiling consomm^ over these gar- 
nishes, and add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

607— CONSOMME RICHELIEU 

Have ready one quart of highly-seasoned beef consommd. 
Also (i) prepare twelve quenelles of chicken forcemeat moulded 
by means of a small coffee-spoon, proceeding as follows : — Line 
the spoon with a thin coating of the forcemeat, and in the 
middle lay some chopped, reduced, cold chicken aspic. Cover 
the jelly with a layer of forcemeat, shaping it like a dome ; insert 
another spoon (first dipped in hot waterj under the quenelle, 
and place the latter upon a buttered saut^pan. Repeat the 
operation until the required number of quenelles have been 
moulded. Treated in this way, the quenelles, when poached, 
contain, so to speak, a liquid core. Five minutes before dishing 
up, poach the quenelles. 

2. Cut six rectangles out of lettuce leaves; spread a thin 
layer of forcemeat over each ; roll into paupiettes, and poach in 
some of the consomm^. 

3. Prepare two tablespoonfuls of a coarse julienne of carrots 
and turnips, stew them in butter, and complete their cooking 
in the consomm^, which should be thoroughly cleared of grease. 

Put the julienne, the paupiettes, and the stuffed quenelles 



21 8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

into the soup-tureen ; pour therein the boiling beef consomm^, 
and add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

608— CONiSOMME ROSSINI 

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm6, slightly thickened 
with two tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through 
linen. 

Make eighteen profiterolles, from pate a choux without sugar 
(No. 2374), to the size of hazel-nuts. Bake them in a moderate 
oven, keeping them very crisp, and garnish them, inside, with 
a foie-gras and truffle pur^e. 

When about to serve, pour the consomm^ into the soup- 
tureen, and dish the profiterolles separately, after having placed 
them in good time in the front of the oven, so that they may 
reach the table very hot. 

609— C0NS0MM6 ROTHSCHILD 

Have ready one quart of game consomm^, prepared with 
pheasant fumet. Add thereto, when about to serve, one-quarter 
pint of reduced Sauterne. Make two dariole-moulds of royale 
from a preparation consisting of one-third of the whole of pur^e 
of pheasant, one-third of chestnut pur^e, and one-third of 
pheasant salmis sauce. Poach the royale; cut it into grooved 
roundels, and place these in the soup-tureen with one table- 
spoonful of a julienne of fillets of pheasant. 

When about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the 
garnish. 

610— C0NS0MM6 SAINT HUBERT 

Take one quart of game consomm^, prepared with venison 
fumet. Finish the consomm^, at the time of serving, with one- 
quarter pint of Marsala. 

Make three dariole-moulds of royale from a preparation con- 
sisting of one-third of the whole of venison pur^e, one-third 
of lentil pur^e, and one-third of reduced game Espagnole. 
Poach the royale in a small Charlotte mould, and, when it has 
cooled, cut it up. with a fancy-cutter of the shape of a cross. 
Put the crosses of royale into the soup-tureen with two table- 
spoonfuls of a julienne consisting of fillets of hare, and pour 
thereon the boiling consomme. 

611— POT AGE SARAH BERNHARDT 

Sprinkle three tablespoonfuls of tapioca into one quart of 
boiling chicken consomm6, and leave to poach gently for fifteen 
or eighteen minutes. 



SOUPS 219 

Make twenty small quenelles from chicken forcemeat, 
finished by means of crayfish butter, and mould them to the 
shape of small, grooved meringues. Poach these quenelles. 
Cut twelve roundels, the size of a penny, from a piece of beef- 
marrow, and poach them in the consomm6. 

Put the drained quenelles and the poached roundels of 
marrow into the soup-tureen ; add one tablespoonful of a julienne 
of very black truffles, and the same quantity of asparagus-heads. 
Pour the boiling consomm^, with tapioca, over this garnish. 

612— CONSOMME s6VIQN6 

Keep one quart of very clear chicken consomm^ very warm. 

Prepare ten quenelles of chicken forcemeat, moulded by 
means of a small coffee-spoon, and poach them ; also have 
ready four braised lettuces. 

Put the quenelles, the lettuce cut into small sections and 
properly trimmed, and one tablespoonful of peas into the soup- 
tureen ; pour therein the boiling consomm6 and a pinch of 
chervil pluches. 

613— CONSOMM6 SOUVERAINE 

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^. 

Make ten large quenelles from chicken forcemeat, and stuff 
them with a very fine brunoise, proceeding as follows : — Line 
a dessertspodh with a thin coat of forcemeat, and garnish the 
centre with the brunoise, previously cooked in consomm^, and 
cold. Cover the brunoise with a layer of forcemeat, shaping 
it like a dome; insert another dessertspoon dipped into hot 
water under the quenelle, and transfer the latter to a buttered 
saut6pan. Repeat the operation until the required number of 
quenelles have been moulded. 

Allow eight minutes for the poaching of these quenelles; 
put them into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of peas; 
pour thereon the boiling consomm^, and add a pinch of chervil 
pluches. 

614— TURTLE SOUP 

With the exception of a few leading London restaurants, 
where a large quantity of this preparation is constantly in 
demand, turtle soup is very rarely prepared in the kitchens of 
catering establishments. It is more generally obtained ready- 
made, either fresh or preserved, and as a rule of exceptional 
quality, from firms whose speciality it is to make it, and who 
deliver it in excellent condition. 

From among the London firms who have deservedly earned. 



220 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

a reputation for this soup, " P6criaux " may be quoted as one 
whose produce is quite irreproachable. 

When a comparatively small quantity of this soup is re- 
quired, it is best to buy it ready-made; in the event of its 
being desirable to prepare it oneself, the following recipe will 
be found the simplest and most practical for the purpose. 

Particulars of the Operation 

The Slaughtering of the Turtle. — For soup, take a turtle 
weighing from 120 to 180 lbs., and let it be very fleshy and full 
of life. 

To slaughter it, lay it on its back on a table, with its head 
hanging over the side. By means of a double butcher's hook, 
one spike of which is thrust into the turtle's lower jaw, -while 
the other suspends an adequately heavy weight, make the animal 
hold its head back ; then, with all possible dispatch, sever the 
head from the body. 

Now immediately hang the body over a receptacle, that the 
blood may be collected, and leave it thus for one and one-half 
or two hours. 

Then follows the dismemberment : — To begin with, thrust 
a strong knife between the carapace or upper shell and the 
plastron or lower shell, exactly where the two meet, and separate 
the one from the other. The turtle being on its back, cut all the 
adhering flesh from the plastron, and put the latter aside. 
Now cut off the flippers; remove the intestines, which throw 
away, and carefully collect all the green fat. Whereupon cut 
away the flesh adhering to the carapace; once more remove all 
fat, and keep both in reserve. 

The Treatment of the Carapace, the Plastron, and the 
Flippers. — The carapace and plastron, which are the outside 
bony framework of the turtle, constitute the only portions where- 
from the gelatinous flesh, used as the garnish of the soup, are 
obtained. 

Saw the carapace into six or eight pieces, and the plastron 
into four. 

Put these pieces with the flippers into boiling water or into 
steam, to blanch. Withdraw the flippers as soon as they are 
sufficiently stiff for their skin to be removed, and leave the 
pieces of carapace and plastron to blanch for five minutes, in 
order that they may admit of being scraped. Now cool the 
pieces of carapace and plastron and the flippers, and put them 
into a stewpan containing enough water to abundantly cover 



SOUPS 221 

them. Set to boil; garnish with vegetables, as in the case of 
an ordinary broth, and add a small quantity of turtle herbs. 

Five or six hours should be allowed for the cooking of the 
carapace and the plastron, but the flippers, which are put to 
further uses in other culinary preparations, should be withdrawn 
at the end of five hours. 

When the pieces are taken from the cooking-liquor, remove 
all the flesh from the bones, and cool the former; then trim it 
carefully, and cut it into little squares of one and one-half 
inches side. It is these squares together with the green fat 
(poached in salted water and sliced) which constitute the garnish 
of the soup. 

The Preparation of Turtle Soup. — There are two modes of 
procedure, though their respective results are almost identical. 

1. Make a broth of the flesh of turtle alone, and then add a 
very gelatinous beef consomm^ to it, in pursuance of the 
method employed when the turtle soup is bought ready-made. 

This procedure is practically the best, more particularly if 
the soup has to be kept some time. 

2. Make an ordinary broth of shin of beef, using the same 
quantity of the latter as of turtle. Also include half a calf's 
foot and one-half lb. of calf's shin per 3 lbs. of the beef. Add 
the flesh of the turtle, or, in the event of its being thought 
necessary to clarify, which operation I do not in the least advise, 
reserve it for that purpose. 

The condiments and aromatics being the same for both 
methods, I shall now describe the procedure for method No. i. 

The Ingredients of the Soup. — Put into a stewpan of con- 
venient size the flesh of the turtle and its head and bones. 
Moisten partly with the cooking-liquor of the carapace, and 
complete the moistening, in the case of a turtle weighing 
120 lbs., with enough water to bring the whole to 50 quarts. 
By this means a soup of about thirty to thirty-five quarts will 
be obtained at the end of the operation. Add salt in the 
proportion of one oz. per every five quarts; set to boil; skim, 
and garnish with twelve carrots, a bunch of leeks (about ten 
bound with a head of celery), one lb. of parsley stalks, eight 
onions with ten cloves stuck into them, two lbs. of shallots, and 
one head of garlic. Set to boil gently for eight hours. An 
hour before straining the soup, add to the garnish four strips 
of lemon-peel, a bunch of herbs for turtle, comprising sweet 
basil, sweet marjoram, sage, rosemary, savory, and thyme, and 
a bag containing four oz. of coriander and two oz. of pepper- 
corns. 



222 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Finally, strain the soup through a napkin; add the pieces 
of flesh from the carapace and plastron which were put aside 
for the garnish, and keep it until wanted in specially-made 
sandstone jars. 

The Serving of the Soup. — When about to serve this soup, 
heat it; test and rectify its seasoning, and finish it off by means 
of a port wine glass of very old Madeira to every quart. 

Very often a milk punch is served wkh turtle soup, the 
recipe being : — 

Milk Punch. — Prepare a syrup from one-half pint of water 
and three and one-half oz. of sugar, the consistence at the 
boil being 17° (Baum^'s Hydrometer). Set to infuse in this 
syrup two orange and two lemon zests. Strain at the end of 
ten minutes, and add one-half pint of rum, one-fifth pint of 
kirsch, two-thirds pint of milk, and the juice of three oranges 
and three lemons. Mix thoroughly. Let it stand for three 
hours; filter, and serve cold. 



6 15- CONSOMME TOSCA 

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm6 thickened with 
three tablespoon fu Is of poached tapioca strained through linen. 

Also prepare two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of carrots 
stewed in butter, the cooking of which is completed in the con- 
somm^ ; ten small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, combined, in 
the proportion of one-third, with foie gras and chopped truffles ; 
ten small, very crisp profiterolles, stuffed with a pur^e of chicken 
with pistachio kernels. 

Put the quenelles and the julienne into the soup-tureen, 
pour therein the boiling consomm^, and send the profiterolles 
to the table separately, and very hot. 



6i6— CONSOMME VERT PRE 

Sprinkle two tablespoonfuls of tapioca into one quart of 
boiling corisomm^, and set to cook gently for a quarter of an 
hour. 

Put into the soup-tureen one tablespoonful of asparagus- 
heads, the same quantity of peas and of French beans cut into 
lozenges, a few roundels of sorrel leaves, and as many roundels 
of poached lettuce leaves. 

Pour the boiling consomm^, with tapioca, over this garnish, 
and add a large pinch of chervil pluches. 



SOUPS 223 

617— C0NS0MM6 VILLENEUVE 

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^. 

Prepare the following garnish : — Two small blanched 
lettuces, stuffed with chicken forcemeat combined with braised 
and chopped salted tongue; two dariole-moulds of ordinary 
royale, and two pancakes coated with a layer of chicken force- 
meat, which should be placed in the front of the oven for a 
few moments with the view of poaching the forcemeat. 

Put the cut-up lettuces, the pancakes cut into small, narrow 
lozenges, and the royale cut into pastils, into the soup-tureen ; 
and, when about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the 
whole. 

Special Cold Consomm6 for Suppers 

Remarks Relative to the Consommes. — I gave the recipes 
of these consommes in Part I. of this work (No. 6), and shall 
now, therefore, limit myself to the following remarks, which are 
of paramount importance : — 

1. These consommes must be perfect in limpidness and 
quality. 

2. The flavour which typifies them should be at once decided 
and yet not too pronounced. 

3. When the flavour is imparted by a wine, the latter should 
be of the best possible quality. Rather than make use of in- 
ferior wines, the presence of which in the soup would tend to 
depreciate its quality, completely discard wine flavourings. 

4. Supper consommes never contain any garnish. 

618— CONSOMME A L'ESSENCE DE CAILLES 

Use roast quails in the proportion of two for each pint of 
consomm^; the fillets may be reserved for a cold entree. 

619— CONSOMME A L'ESSENCE DE CJ^LERl 

It is impossible to state exactly how much celery should be 
used, the quantity being entirely subject to the more or less 
decided flavour of the vegetables at one's disposal. 

Experience alone can guide the operator in this matter. 

620— CONSOMM^ A L'ESSENCE DE MORILLES 

Allow five oz. of small fresh morels, or three oz. of dry 
ones per quart of the consomm^. Pound them and mix them 
with the clarification. 



224 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

621— CONSOMME A LESSENCE DE TRUFFLE 

Use fresh truffles only in this case. Allow two oz. of peel- 
ings and trimmings per quart of the consomm^ ; pound them 
and mix them with the clarification. 

622-CONSOMM6 AU FUMET DE PERDREAU 

Proceed as in No. 618; allow one partridge for each quart 
of the consomm6. 

623— CONSOMM6 AUX PAILLETTES D OR 

Take a very superior chicken consomm^; add thereto, per 
quart, a glass of excellent liqueur brandy, and, in the same 
proportion, one gold-leaf cut into small spangles. 

624— CONSOMME AUX PIMENTS DOUX 

Add one-half oz. of fresh or preserved capsicum to every 
quart of the consomm^. The product should be pounded and 
mixed with the clarification. 

625— CONSOMMlS A LA MADRILENE 

Add four oz. of raw tomato and one oz. of capsicum to the 
consomm6 per every quart of the latter. Mix these ingredients 
with the clarification, and serve as cold as possible. 

626— CONSOMME A LA PORTUQAISE 

Add to the consomm^ for every quart one-third pint of raw 
tomato pur^e and one-sixth pint of tomato juice. Cook with 
lid on for twenty minutes, taking care not to let it reach the boil ; 
strain through muslin, pressing lightly the while, and season 
moderately with cayenne. Set to cool, and serve very cold. 

627— CONSOMMES AUX VINS 

By adding a port wine glass full of the chosen wine to one 
pint of excellent cold chicken consomm^, the following series 
of consommes may be made : — 

Consomm6 au vin de Chypre. 

Consomm^ au vin de Mad^re. 

Consommd au vin de Malvoisie. 

Consomme au vin de Marsala. 

Consomm^ au vin de Porto dor^. 

Consomm^ au vin de Porto rose. 

Consomm^ au vin de Samos. 

Consomme au vin de Zucco. 



SOUPS 225 

628— qel6e AUX POMMES D'AMOUR 

Proceed as for the " Consomm^ Portugaise," and use that 
variety of small tomatoes which, in Provence, are called 
" Pommes d'amour." 

629— QELEE DE VOLAILLE A LA NAPOLITAINE 

Proceed as for the " Consomm^ Portugaise," but finish it 
with one port wine-glassful of port or old Marsala per quart. 

THICK SOUPS 

In Part I., Chapter I., of this work I pointed out what thick 
soups consist of. I likewise touched upon the general rules 
which should be observed in the preparation of each class of 
these soups, and showed how most of them could, if necessary, 
be converted into and served as cullises, purees, bisques, 
velout^s, or creams. The principles governing these altera- 
tions are very simple, and after a moment's reflection the 
operator will thoroughly grasp their import. Be this as it 
may, the reader will find the necessary directions at the end 
of each recipe that admits of various methods of preparation. 

With regard to those recipes which are not followed by any 
directions of the sort referred to, and which I simply class 
under the name of Potages, these are unalterable preparations 
which may only be served in accordance with the directions 
given. This being clear, the reader will understand that I 
have refrained from repeating the quantities of butter, cream, 
thickening ingredients, &c., in each recipe. These particulars 
having been given in Part I., it will be necessary to refer to 
that part of the book for them. 

630— PUR^E DE GAROTTES, otherwise CR^CY 

Cut one lb. of the red part only of carrots into fine slices; 
chop one onion, and put the whole into a stewpan with a 
sprig of thyme and two oz. of butter. Stew gently for twenty 
minutes, and season with a pinch of salt and sugar. Add the 
thickening ingredient, i.e., either two oz. of rice or five and 
one-half oz. of bread dice fried in butter; also add one and one- 
half pints of white consomm^, and set to cook very gently. 

Rub through tammy, test the consistence, despumate, and 
add butter when dishing up. 

Ordinary garnish : small bread dice fried in butter. 

Occasional garnish : poached Japanese pearls in tKe pro- 
portion of two tablespoonfuls per quart of the soup. 

Q 



226 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream or a veloutd 
k la Nivernaise (see No. 674). 

631— pur6e de carottes au tapioca, 

otherwise VELOURS 

Make one pint of carrot pur^e as above, and poach two 
tablespoonfuls of tapioca in a pint of white consomm^. 

When about to serve, and after having buttered the pur^e 
of carrots, mix therewith the prepared tapioca. 

632— PUREE DE CI^LERNRAVE 

Finely mince one lb. of celeriac; blanch it; thoroughly drain 
it, and stew it gently in one oz. of butter. Moisten with one 
quart of white consomm^ ; add two medium-sized potatoes, 
minced, and set to cook gently. Rub through tammy; de- 
spumate the pur^e gently for half an hour, and add butter when 
dishing up. 

Garnish : small bread dice fried in butter. 

633— PUREE DE CHOUX DE BRUXELLES, 
otherwise FLAMANDE 

Parboil and drain one lb. of very fresh Brussels sprouts. 
Set them to stew gently in three oz. of butter; moisten with one 
pint of white consommd; for the leason add two medium-sized 
quartered potatoes, and complete the cooking. 

Rub the whole through tammy, finish the pur^e with milk, 
despumate it in the usual way, and add butter when dishing up. 
Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter. 

634— PUREE DE CHOUX-FLEURS, 
otherwise DUBARRY 

Parboil one lb. of cauliflower divided into bunches. 

Drain them and put them in a saucepan with one pint of 
boiled milk and two medium-sized minced potatoes for the 
thickening. Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, finish 
with boiled milk, despumate, and add butter. 

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream 
with small pieces of cauliflower as garnish. 

635_PUREE DE CROSNES, otherwise JAPONAISE 

Parboil and drain one lb. of well-cleaned stachys. Stew 
them in one oz. of butter; moisten with one pint of boiled 



SOUPS 227 

milk or white consomm^, according as to whether the pur6e is 
to be a Lenten one or not; add two medium-sized minced 
potatoes, and complete the cooiting gently. 

Rub through tammy, test the consistence, and add, if neces- 
sary, either a little boiled milk or some consomm^ ; despumate, 
and add butter. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached 
in consomm^ or milk. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

636— PUREE DE FLAGEOLETS, otherwise MUSARD 

Cook together with the ordinary aromatic garnish three- 
quarters pint of dry flageolets, or, if they are in season, use 
twice that quantity of fresh ones. 

Drain, pound, and moisten the pur^e with a little of the 
cooking-liquor of the flageolets, rub through tammy, and 
rectify the consistence with some white consomm6 and the 
necessary quantity of boiled milk. Despumate, and butter it 
when about to dish up. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of small bread dice fried in 
butter. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream, but 
for either of the latter it is preferable to use fresh flageolets, the 
garnish for both consisting of very small flageolets and chervil 
pluches. 

637 -PURINE DE HARICOTS BLANCS, 
otherwise SOISSONNAISE 

Cook in the usual way, that is" to say, with carrots, a faggot, 
and one onion stuck with a clove, a good half-pint of dry 
haricot beans. 

Crush all these, moisten with a few tablespoonfuls of their 
cooking-liquor, and rub through tammy. 

Rectify the consistence of the purde with the necessary 
quantity of white consomm^ and milk, despumate, add butter 
when about to dish up, and garnish with small bread dice. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

638— PUREE DE HARICOTS VERTS, 
otherwise CORMEILLES 

Parboil one and one-half lbs. of French beans and keep 
them very green. After having well drained them, stew them 
for ten or twelve minutes in one oz. of butter, moisten with one 
pint of white consomm^, and add two medium-sized minced 
potatoes for the thickening. 

Q 2 



228 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, rectify the con- 
sistence of the pur^e with a little boiled milk, despumate, and 
add butter when dishing up. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of cooked French beans 
cut into narrow lozenges. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

639— PUREE DE HARICOTS ROUGES, 
otherwise CONDE 

Put a heaped pint of red beans into cold water, set to boil 
slowly, skim, add three oz. of carrots, one small faggot, one 
onion stuck with a clove, and a bottleful of boiling red wine. 
Set to cook gently. 

Drain the beans and crush them in a mortar. Moisten the 
pur^e with a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of the 
beans, rub through tammy, rectify the consistence of the purte 
with some white consomm^, follow the procedure of afl purees, 
and add butter when about to serve. 

Garnish with bread dice fried in butter. 

640— PUREE DE LENTILLES, otherwise CONTI 

Soak three-quarters of a pint of lentils in lukewarm water for 
two hours. Put them in a stewpan with two oz. of very lean 
breast of bacon, blanched, cooled, and cut into dice, and one 
quart of white consomm^. Set to boil, skim, add three oz. of 
carrots, one onion, and one faggot, and cook very gently. 

Drain the lentils, pound them together with the bacon, 
moisten the pur^e with a few tablespoonfuls of cooking-liquor, 
and rub through tammy. Rectify the consistence with some 
reserved cooking-liquor, then treat the pur^e in the usual way 
and add butter when about to serve. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of bread dice fried in butter 
and a pinch of chervil pluches. 

N.B. — It should be borne in mind that the aromatic garnish 
used in cooking dry vegetables of what kind soever should be 
withdrawn before pounding the latter, that they may be rubbed 
through tammy. 

641— PUR^E DE NAVETS, otherwise FRENEUSE 

Finely mince one lb. of very firm turnips, parboil, driain, 
and stew them in one and one-half oz. of butter, the necessary 
salt, and one-half oz. of sugar, until they are almost completely 
cooked. Moisten with one-half pint of white consomm^, and 



SOUPS 229 

complete the cooking. Meantime, cook two medium-sized, 
peeled and quartered potatoes in some consomm^. 

Now put the turnips and the potato into the same stewpan ; 
crush them, and rub them through tammy. Bring the purde 
to the proper consistence by means of boiled milk, and finish it 
in the usual way. 

Garnish with some small bread dice fried in butter. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

642— PUR^E D'OSEILLE ET DE VERMICELLE 

A LA CREME 

Sprinkle three oz. of well-separated vermicelli into one pint 
o£ boiling milk or white consomm6 (according as to whether 
the preparation be a Lenten one or not). Let the vermicelli 
poach gently "for twenty-five minutes, and then add four table- 
spoonfuls, of sorrel cooked in butter. 

Rub the whole through tammy; finish the pur^e with suffi- 
cient milk or thin cream ; heat until the boil is reached, and, 
when about to serve, complete by means of a leason composed 
of the yolks of two eggs and one-quarter pint of very 
fresh cream. 

For the garnish, refer to the remarks under No. 646. 

643— PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE SAQOU A LA CREME 

Proceed exactly as directed in the preceding recipe; but 
instead of vermicelli use three oz. of sago. Allow the usual 
time for cooking, and add the same quantity of sorrel cooked in 
butter. 

Use the same quantities of milk or consommd in order to 
bring the pur^e to the proper consistence, and make use of a 
precisely similar leason. 

644— PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE SEMOULE A LA CR6ME 

The same as the above, but use three oz. of semolina. All 
other particulars remain the same. 

645_PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE TAPIOCA A LA CREME 

Procedure like that of No. 642, using instead of the 
vermicelli three oz. of tapioca. 

646— REMARKS RELATIVE TO THE POSSIBLE 
VARIATIONS OF THE FOUR PRECEDING RECIPES 

A large variety of this kind of soups may be prepared by 
using the quantity prescribed of salep, buckwheat, oatmeal, 
barley-meal, &c. 



230 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

These soups derive a particular and agreeable flavour from 
their cohering element. 

The chief point to be remembered in their preparation is 
their consistence, which should be that of a thin cream. 

When too thick, these soups are pasty and disagreeable; 
when too thin, they are insipid ; hence the desirability of aiming 
at a happy medium. 

Their garnish is exceedingly variable, the more preferable 
forms being small bread dice fried in clarified butter, pressed; 
peeled tomatoes cut into dice and tossed in butter; small prin- 
taniers, brunoises, juliennes, faysannes, or well-poached rice. 

Thus, from the typical recipe of these soups, a whole series 
may be prepared, which need not be gone into separately here. 

647— PURINE DE POIS AUX CROUTONS 

Wash three-quarters of a pint of split peas in cold water and 
put them into a stewpan with one quart of cold water, a little 
salt, and one-half lb. of raw ham. Set to boil, skim, and add 
two oz. of mirepoix, the minced green leaves of three leeks, a 
fragment of thyme and bay, salt, and one-half oz. of sugar. Set 
to cook very gently. 

Rub through tammy, bring the pur^e to the proper con- 
sistence by means of white consomm^, despumate it sufficiently, 
and add butter to it when dishing up. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of small bread dice fried 
in butter. 

648— PUREE DE POIS FRAIS, otherwise 
SAINT-GERMAIN 

The two following methods may be employed, viz. : — 

(i) Cook quickly one and one-quarter pints of fresh peas, 
just shelled, in boiling, salted water. Drain them, pound them 
in a mortar, moisten the pur^e with one pint of white con- 
somm^, and rub it through tammy. Bring it to the proper 
degree of heat, and add butter when about to serve. Prepared 
in this way, the puree should be of a perfect shade. 

(2) Stew one and one-quarter pints of fresh peas in one and 
one-half oz. of butter, a little lettuce chiffonade, one and 
one-half oz. of the green part of leeks, a pinch of chervil, a 
little salt and sugar, and one-seventh pint of water. 

Pound the peas as soon as they are cooked, moisten the 
pur^e with one pint of white consomm6, and rub through 
tammy. Bring the preparation to the proper degree of heat, 
and add butter at the last moment. 



SOUPS 231 

Treated thus, the iiur^e will be of a fainter shade than the 
preceding one, but i^s flavour will be more delicate. 

Garnish, in both cases, with one and one-half tablespoonfuls 
of very green, fine peas, and some chervil fluches. This soup 
may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream, 

649— PUREE DE POIS FRAIS A LA MENTHE 

Make the pur^e according to one of the above-mentioned 
methods, and add to the peas, while cooking, a faggot consist- 
ing of three little sprigs of fresh mint. Finish with con- 
somm^, and add butter in the usual way. 

Garnish with nice peas, as above, and some very tender 
mint-leaves, chopped, instead of the chervil fluches. 

Remarks Relative to those Soups which have a Puree of 
Peas for Base. — A large number of soups may be made from 
purees of fresh peas ; among others I may mention the follow- 
ing, with brief directions as to their constituents and garnish, 
viz. : — 

650— POTAQE AMBASSADEURS 

Pur^e of fresh peas, quite ready for soup ; finish with a small 
tablespoonful of sorrel and lettuce chiffonade, and two table- 
spoonfuls of poached rice per quart of pur6e. 

651— POTAQE CAMlfeLIA 

Prepare this after the recipe of potage Lamballe ; finish with 
one tablespoonful of. a julienne of the white of a leek and one 
tablespoonful of white chicken meat, cut julienne-fashion, per 
quart of the soup. 

652— POTAQE FONTANQES 

Puree of fresh peas ready for soup ; add two tablespoonfuls 
of a chiffonade of sorrel and a pinch of chervil fluches per 
quart of the pur6e, and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice. 

653— POTAQE LAMBALLE 

Half of this consists of a finished pur^e of peas, and the 
other half of tapioca poached in consomm^ as for the ordinary 
" potage au tapioca." 

654— POTAQE LONQCHAMPS 

This is the " potage Fontange," kept somewhat clear, and 
with a garnish composed of one and one-half oz. of vermicelli, 
poached in consomm^, and a pinch of chervil fluches per quart 
of the soup. 



232 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

655— POTAQE MARIQNY 

Proceed as for " potage Fontange," and add a garnish of 
one tablespoonful of peas and one tablespoonful of fine French 
beans cut into lozenges. 

656— POTAGE MARCILLY 

Half of this consists of a pur^e of peas and the other half 
of^a pur^e of chicken. Prepare these purees in the usual way 
and mix them together when about to serve. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached 
in consomm6 and twelve small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, 
in the shape of pearls, per quart of the soup. 

657— POTAGE SAINT-MARCEAU 

This is an ordinary puree of peas with butter, combined with 
two tablespoonfuls of a julienne consisting of the white of a 
leek and some chervil pluches per quart of the purde. 
This list could be considerably lengthened, but what there is 
of it amply suffices to show the great number of soups that 
may be obtained from the combination of other suitable pro- 
ducts with the pur6e of peas and the modification of the garnish 
in each case. 

658— PUREE DE POMMES DE TERRE, 
otherwise PARMENTIER 

Finely mince the white of two medium-sized leeks, and fry 
them without colouration in one oz. of butter. Add three 
medium-sized peeled and quartered potatoes, one pint of white 
consomme, and cook quickly. The moment the potatoes seem 
soft to the touch crush them and rub them through tammy. 

Finish the pur^e with some boiled milk or thin cream, heat 
until the boil is reached, and add butter when dishing up. 

Garnish with two tablesponfuls of small bread dice fried in 
butter and some chervil pluches. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

659— PUR^E DE TOMATES, otherwise PORTUQAISE 

Fry in one oz. of butter a somewhat finely-cut mirepoix 
consisting of one oz. of breast of bacon cut into dice, one-third 
of a carrot, half an onion, a fragment of thyme and bay. Add 
to this fried mirepoix eight medium-sized tomatoes, pressed and 
cut into pieces the size of a clove of garlic, a pinch of sugar, 
two and one-half oz. of rice, and one pint of white consomme. 



SOUPS 233 

Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, and finish with the 
necessary quantity of consomm6. 

When about to serve complete the pur^e by adding thereto, 
away from the fire, two oz. of butter. 

Garnish with two tablesponfuls of poached rice, each grain 
being separate, and the same quantity of peeled tomatoes cut 
into dice and briskly tossed in butter. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

660— PUREE DE TOMATES AU TAPIOCA, 
otherwise WALDfeZE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of tapioca in white con- 
somme, and keep it a little lighter than ordinary tapioca. Also 
press, peel, and cut into dice the pulp of three medium-sized, 
very red tomatoes; poach these dice in some consomm^ and mix 
them with the tapioca. 

Or, failing fresh tomatoes, add to the tapioca two table- 
spoonfuls of concentrated tomato pur6e diluted in a bowl with 
some white consomm^. 

Send two oz. of grated cheese to the table separately. 

661— PUR^E DE TOPINAMEOUR, 
otherwise PALESTINE 

Finely mince two lbs. of Jerusalem artichokes and stew them 
in one oz. of butter. Add five torrefied and crushed filberts, 
moistened with one pint of white consomm^, and set to cook 
gently. Rub through tammy; finish the purde with one-quarter 
pint of milk;, in which one tablespoonful of fecula has been 
diluted, cold. Set to boil and add butter when dishing up. 

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 

662— BISQUE D'ECREVISSES 

(i) Cut into very small dice one oz. of carrot, one oz. of 
onion, and two parsley stalks. Add a fragment of thyme and 
bay; brown this mirepoix with butter, in a saut^pan; throw in 
fifteen crayfish for " Bisque " (their average weight being about 
one and one-third oz.), and toss them in the mirepoix until they 
acquire a very red colour. Sprinkle with two tablespoonfuls 
of burnt brandy and one-quarter pint of white wine, season with 
a large pinch of salt and a pinch of ground pepper, and set to 
reduce. 

This done, moisten with one-quarter pint of white consomm^ 
and leave to cook for ten minutes. 



234 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Also cook three oz. of rice in one and one-half pints of 
white consomm^. 

(2) Shell the crayfishes' tails and put them aside; also re- 
-serve eight carapaces. Drain the crayfishes of all their cooking- 
liquor; finely pound them and their remains and the mirepoix. 
Add the rice, properly cooked, and the cooking-liquor of the 
crayfish, and rub through a sieve, first, and then through 
tammy. . 

Add to the resulting purde one-half pint of white consomm^, 
set to boil, wielding a whisk the while, pass through a strainer, 
and then keep the preparation in a bain-marie, taking care to 
place a few lumps of butter on its surface lest a skin should 
form while the bisque is waiting to be served. 

Finish the preparation when dishing up with two and one- 
half oz. of butter, three tablespoonfuls of excellent thick cream, 
and a very little cayenne. 

Garnish with the crayfish tails cut into dice, and the eight 
carapaces stuffed with a fish forcemeat with cream and poached 
seven or eight minutes previously. 

This soup may also be prepared as a veloute or a cream. 

663— BISQUE DE HOMARD 

After substituting for the crayfish a raw lobster weighing 
three lbs., cut into small sections, the procedure is the same as 
that of No. 662. It is only necessary, therefore, to refer to that 
recipe for all particulars relating to preparation and quantities. 

Garnish with the meat taken from the tail ; this should have 
been kept aside and cut into small dice. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6 or a cream. 

664— BISQUE DE CREVETTES 

The mode of procedure for this bisque, the mirepoix, the 
thickening ingredients, the moistening, and the finishing of 
the soup are identical with those of No. 662. 

All that is needed, therefore, is to substitute for the crayfish 
two lbs. of raw shrimps. 

Instead of using ordinary butter in finishing this bisque, use 
three oz. of shrimp butter. Garnish with twenty-five reserved 
tails, these being shelled and trimmed. 

This soup may also be prepared as a veloutd or a cream. 

665— COULIS DE QIBIER, otherwise AU CHASSEUR 

Prepare six oz. of the meat of a wild rabbit, six oz. of that 
of a partridge, and six oz. of that of a pheasant. These meats 
should be roasted and their roast-cases swilled with a liqueur- 



SOUPS 235 

glass of burnt brandy. The resulting gravy should be added 
to the soup. 

Now finely pound these meats together with one-half pint of 
cooked and drained lentils. When the whole has become a 
smooth purde add the cooking-liquor of the lentils and the 
swillings referred to above and rub through tammy. 

Finish the cullis with the necessary quantity of consomm6, 
heat it, and pass it through a strainer. Add butter at the last 
moment and season moderately. 

Garnish with three tablesponfuls of small, very fresh mush- 
rooms; these to be finely minced and tossed in butter. 

666— COULIS DE QRIVES AU PAIN NOIR, 
otherwise A L'ARDENNAISE 

Fry four fine thrushes in butter and complete their cooking 
in one pint of feathered game consomm6 containing five oz. of 
rye-bread dice fried in butter. These dice constitute in this 
case the thickening element of the soup. Remove and put aside 
the thrushes' fillets, finely pound the carcasses together with two 
juniper-berries, add the leason of bread dice, and rub through 
tammy. 

Add to the resulting pur^e one-quarter pint of feathered- 
game consomm^, set to boil, and pass through a strainer. 
Finish the cullis with two and one-half oz. of butter and four 
tablespoonfuls of cream. 

Garnish with the reserved fillets cut into thin slices or into 
a julienne. 

667— COULIS DE GROUSE OU DE QELINOTTE 

A L'ANCIENNE 

Proceed as in No. 666 in so far as the preparatory details 
and the quantities are concerned, but take note of the following 
changes in other directions : — 

(i) Substitute for the thrushes two grouse or two hazel-hens, 
taking care to discard the legs and the carcasses. 

(2) Use ordinary bread dice instead of those of rye-bread. 

668— COULIS DE LAPEREAU AU CURRIE 

Cut the legs of a young wild rabbit into small pieces, stiffen 
these in butter, and put them into the stewpan with a few 
roundels of carrot and onion, one small faggot of parsley and 
celery, and one quart of white consomm^. Set to cook gently. 

Also lightly brown in butter two tablesponfuls of chopped 
onion, besprinkle with one-half tablespoonful of fecula and a 



236 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

sufficient quantity of curry, moisten with the strained cooking- 
liquor of the pieces of rabbit, bring to the boil, and set to simmer 
for seven or eight minutes. Rub through tammy and then 
despumate for twenty minutes, adding from time to time one or 
two tablespoonfuls of consomm^ with the view of promoting the 
clarification of the cullis. When about to serve finish the latter 
with three or four tablespoonfuls of cream. 

Garnish with eighteen very small slices taken from the pieces 
of rabbit and two oz. of rice a I'lndienne, serving the latter 
separately. 

669— COULIS DE PERDREAU A LA PUREE DE 
MARRONS, otherwise A LA MANCELLE 

Split the shells of fifteen fine chestnuts, put them in a stew- 
pan with water, boil them for five minutes, and shell and peel 
them quickly while they are still very hot. Then cook them 
gently in one-half pint of white consomm^ with one-third of a 
stick of celery, minced, and one piece of loaf-sugar. 

Poele a partridge, remove the fillets for the purpose of gar- 
nish, bone the rest, and pound it finely together with the car- 
cass and the poeling liquor. Add the chestnuts, pound the 
whole, and add some consomm6 to the resulting pur^e with 
the object of facilitating the rubbing through tammy. This 
done, add to the preparation about one-quarter pint of very 
clear game stock, bring the whole to the boil, pass it through a 
strainer, and finish the cullis, when dishing up, with a very 
little cayenne and one and one-half oz. of butter. 

Garnish with the fillets of partridge cut into a small 
julienne. 

670— COULIS DE VOLAILLE, otherwise A LA REINE 

Poach in one quart of white consomm^ a cleaned fowl weigh- 
ing about three lbs. and two oz. of rice previously blanched. 
Having cooked the fowl, withdraw it, raise its fillets, and put 
them aside. Bone the remainder and finely pound the meat. 
When the latter is a smooth paste mix therewith the rice, which 
should be very well cooked, add the necessary amount of white 
consomm6 to the pur^e, and rub through tammy. Bring the 
cullis to the boil and pass it through a fine strainer. 

Finish the preparation, when dishing up, with a leason com- 
posed of the yolks of three eggs, one-sixth pint of cream, and 
three oz. of butter. 

Garnish with the reserved fillets cut into small, regular dice. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream. 



SOUPS 237 

671— VELOUTI^ AQNfeS SOREL 

(i) Prepare one and one-half pints of poultry velout^, keep- 
ing it somewhat thin, 

(2) Clean, wash, peel, and quickly pound eight oz. of very 
fresh mushrooms, newly gathered if possible. 

Rub through a fine sieve, and add the resulting pur6e of 
raw mushrooms to the velout^. Bring the whole to the boil once 
or twice, and this done rub through tammy immediately. 
Finish with the leason and add butter when dishing up. 

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a julienne of raw mush- 
rooms tossed in butter, one tablespoonful of chicken fillets, and 
as much salted tongue, both of which should also be cut in 
julienne-fashion . 

N.B. — With regard to velout^s I remind the reader that the 
velout^ of ordinary consistence represents one-half of the soup, 
the pur^e typifying the latter represents one-quarter, while the 
consomm^ required to bring the soup to the correct degree of 
consistence should be in the proportion of the remaining 
quarter. 

The leason, per quart of the soup, should consist of the yolks 
of three eggs and one-sixth pint of cream, while the average 
quantity of butter should measure about two and one-half oz. 
(see No. 242). 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

672— VELOUTE DE BLANCHAILLE AU CURRIE 

Bear in mind that this soup ought to be made and served 
within the space of twenty minutes, for if it be left to stand for 
however short a time, it will most probably turn, in spite of 
every possible precaution. 

Cook three oz. of finely chopped onion in butter without 
colouration, besprinkle with one-half coffeespoonful of curry, 
moisten with one and one-half pints of boiling water, add 
a faggot, a pinch of salt, a few sprigs of saffron (or a little of 
it powdered), and two pz. of Viennese bread. 

Set to boil for ten minutes; this done add three-quarters lb. 
of very fresh Blanchailles, and cook over a brisk fire. 

Rub through a hair-sieve, finish by means of a leason con- 
sisting of the yolks of three eggs and one-fifth pint of cream, 
and pour the whole into the soup-tureen over some dried slices 
of bread (buttered), over rice, or over some previously poached 
vermicelli. Serve at once. 



238 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

673— VELOUTE CARMELITE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of fish velout^, stew four oz. 
of fillets of sole and the same quantity of fillets of whiting in 
one and one-half oz. of butter and lemon juice. Pound the fish, 
add it to the velout^, and rub through tammy. 

Add the necessary quantity of consomm^, heat the velout^, 
and finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter. 

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a julienne of poached 
fillets of sole and twelve small quenelles of smelt forcemeat. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

674— VELOUTE AUX CAROTTES, otherwise 
NIVERNAISE 

Cut into thin slices one lb. of the red part only of carrots, 
season with a pinch of table-salt and twice that amount of 
castor-sugar, and stew in one oz. of butter. 

Add one pint of ordinary thin velout6 and let the cooking of 
the carrots be completed therein. Rub through tammy, finish 
with one-half pint of white consomm^, set to boil, and complete 
the preparation, when dishing up, with the leason and butter. 

Garnish with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of a fine 
brunoise of the red part of carrots. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

675_VELOUT]6 COMTESSE 

Prepare one pint of ordinary velout6, parboil one and one- 
half lbs. of white asparagus, and put them into the velout6. 
Complete the cooking gently. Rub through tammy, add one- 
half pint of white consomm^, heat, and finish the preparation, 
when dishing up, with the leason and butter. 

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a lettuce chiffonade and 
twelve small white asparagus-heads wherefrom all leaves have 
been removed. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

676— VELOUTE AU CONCOMBRES, otherwise 
DANOISE 

Peel, remove the seeds from, mince, and stew in butter one 
lb. of parboiled cucumber. Add this to one pint of ordinary 
veloutd, which should have been prepared at the same time, and 
complete the cooking quickly. Rub through tammy, add the 
necessary quantity of white consomm^, heat, and finish the 
preparation, when dishing up, with a leason and butter in the 
usual quantities. 



SOUPS 239 

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter. 
This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

677— VELOUTE CRESSONIERE 

After having slightly parboiled them, stew one lb", of very 
fresh watercress leaves in one and one-half oz. of butter, add 
them to one pint of ordinary velout^. Set to simmer for seven 
or eight minutes, rub through tammy, add one and one-half 
pints of ordinary white consomm6, heat, and finish the prepara- 
tion, when dishing up, with a leason and butter. 

Garnish with one oz. of watercress leaves parboiled for three 
minutes. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

678— VELOUTE DAME = BLANCHE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of clear poultry velout^. 
Also finely pound ten or twelve well-washed sweet almonds, 
moisten them, little by little, with one-sixth pint of fresh water, 
and rub through a strong towel, twisting the latter to assist the 
process. 

Add this almond milk to the velout^, and finish the latter, 
when dishing up, with the leason and butter. 

Garnish with one tablespoonful of the white of a chicken 
cut into small dice, and twelve small quenelles of chicken force- 
meat (in the shape of pearls) poached just before dishing up. 

679— VELOUTE D'ARTOIS 

Prepare one pint of ordinary velout6, and mix therewith one- 
half pint of a pur^e of haricot beans. Rub through tammy; 
add one-half pint of white consomm^; heat, and finish the 
whole, when dishing up, with the leason and butter. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of an ordinary julienne and 
a pinch of chervil pluches. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

680— VELOUTE D'EPERLANS 

Prepare a thin panada with one pint of boiled milk and two 
and one-half oz. of crumbled bread. Season with a pinch of 
salt and a very small quantity of mignonette. Also stew 
gently, in one oz. of butter, two tablespoonfuls of chopped 
onion, two and one-half oz. of fillets of smelt, one-half lb. of 
fillets of sole, or the meat of a dory, and the juice of the quarter 
of a lemon. 



240 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Add the fish, stewed in butter and pounded, to the panada, 
together with one-half pint of ordinary thin veloutd. 

Rub through tammy ; heat ; season with a very little cayenne, 
and finish the whole, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason 
and one and one-half oz. of butter. 

N.B. — I. In view of the decided flavour of the smelt, and 
the really disagreeable taste it imparts to a preparation which 
contains overmuch of it, its flesh should never exceed the pro- 
portion of one-third of the required quantity of fish. The re- 
maining two-thirds should be supplied by a fish of neutral 
flavour, such as the sole or dory, both of which are admirably 
suited to this purpose. 

2. The velout^ d'^perlans should, like almost all fish 
velout^s, be prepared as quickly as possible, and at the last 
moment. The process should not last longer than thirty 
minutes, for, if there be any delay, the preparation will turn 
and lose its flavour. 

3. For this soup I elected to use a panada as the thickening 
element, instead of a fish velout^, the reason being that, were 
the latter used, the taste of fish would in the end be too pro- 
nounced. 

681— VELOUTE D'^PERLANS JOINVILLE 

Proceed in the matter of the base of the soup as in No. 680. 

Finish the velout6 with an ordinary leason and one and one- 
half oz. of shrimp butter. 

Garnish with six crayfish tails, cut into four pieces, and one 
tablespoonful of a short julienne of truffles and mushrooms. 

682— VEL0UT6 D'EPERLANS PRINCESSE 

The same as above, with twelve small quenelles of smelt 
forcemeat with crayfish butter, and one tablespoonful of very 
green asparagus-heads per quart of veloutd. 

683— VEL0UT6 AUX QRENOUILLES, otherwise 
SICILIENNE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of delicate and rather thin 
fish velout^. 

Trim fifteen or twenty frogs' legs ; toss them in butter with- 
out letting them acquire any colour, and set them to poach for 
ten minutes in two tablespoonfuls of white wine and the juice 
of a lemon. Pound them in a mortar; add the resulting pur^e 
to the velout^ ; set to simmer for seven or eight minutes, and 
rub through tammy. 



SOUPS 241 

Heat the velout^, and finish it, when dishing up, with the 
ordinary leason %nd three and one-half oz. of best butter. 
Do not garnish this velout^. 
This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

684- VELOUTE DE HOMARD, otherwise CARDINAL 

Prepare one and three-quarter pints of bisque de homard 
(No. 663), but substitute velout^ for the thickening with rice. 
Rub through tammy; heat, and complete, when dishing up, 
with two and one-half oz. of lobster butter and three-quarters 
oz. of red butter. 

Garnish with two baba-moulds of a royale of lobster, cut by 
means of a fancy-cutter in the shape of a cross. 

Shell-fish velout^s do not admit of an egg-yolk leason. 

685— VELOUTE DE HOMARD A CLEVELAND 

Break up two small live lobsters or one medium-sized one, 
and prepare it k I'Am^ricaine (see " Lobster k I'Amdricaine "). 
Reserve a few slices of the meat for garnishing purposes. 
Finely pound the rest with the shell ; combine the pur^e with 
one quart of ordinary veloutd prepared beforehand, and add 
the lobster sauce. Rub through a sieve, first, then through 
tammy ; heat without allowing to boil ; add the required quantity 
of consomm^, and once more pass the whole through a strainer. 

Complete, when dishing up, with three oz. of best butter. 

Garnish with one-half tablespoonful of peeled tomato pulp, 
cut into dice and half-melted in butter, and the reserved slices 
of lobster cut into dice. 

686 -VELOUTE DE HOMARD A L'INDIENNE 

Prepare the lobster k I'Am^ricaine as above, and flavour it 
with curry. Preserve a sufficient quantity of meat from the 
tail to afford an abundant garnish. 

For the rest of the process proceed exactly as the preceding 
recipe directs. 

Garnish with the reserved meat cut into dice, and four table- 
spoonfuls of rice k I'lndienne; send the latter to the table 
separately. 

687— VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD A L'ORIENTALE 

Prepare a medium-sized lobster after the manner directed 
in " Homard k la Newburg with raw lobster" (see No. 948), 
and season with curry. 

Reserve a few slices of the meat of the tail for the garnish ; 

R 



242 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

finely pound the remaining portions and the shell ; add the 
lobster sauce, and combine the whole with one quart of ordinary 
velout^, kept somewhat light. 

Rub through a sieve, first, then through tammy; heat the 
velout6 without letting it boil; add the necessary quantity of 
consomm^, and finish the preparation, when about to serve, 
with three oz. of butter. 

Garnish with the reserved meat cut into dice, and two table- 
spoonfuls of rice k I'lndienne, each grain of which should be 
kept distinct and separate. 

688— VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD AU PAPRIKA 

Prepare a medium-sized lobster k I'Am^ricaine, and, in 
addition to the usual ingredients of the preparation, include 
two concassed tomatoes and two roughly chopped onions. 
Season with paprika. 

For the rest of the operation, proceed exactly as directed 
under " Velout6 k la Cleveland." 

Garnish with lobster meat cut into dice, two tablespoonfuls 
of rice, and one tablespoonful of pimentos cut into dice. 

689— VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD A LA PERSANE 

Proceed exactly as for " Velout^ de Homard k I'Orientale." 

Garnish with lobster meat in dice, one tablespoonful of 
pimentos in dice, and two tablespoonfuls of pilaff rice, to which 
add a very little saffron. 

Remarks relating to the Variation of these Veloutes. — By 
merely substituting an equivalent quantity of crayfish, shrimps, 
or crabs, for the lobster, the recipes dealing with veloutes of 
lobster, given above, may be applied to Veloutes of Crayfish, 
Shrimps, or Crabs. 

It would therefore be pointless to repeat them, since all that 
is needed is to read crayfish, shrimps, or crabs wherever the 
word lobster appears. 

Thus I shall only point out that the number of these 
veloutes may be increased at will, the only requisites being the 
change of the basic ingredient and the modification of the 
garnish, 

690— VELOUTE AUX HUITRES 

Prepare one quart of very delicate fish velout6, and bear in 
mind that the preparation must be made as speedily as pos- 
sible. (See the remarks dealing with this question which follow 
upon the model recipe of the velout^ d'^perlans.) 



SOUPS 243 

Add to the velout^ the carefully collected liquor of the 
twenty-four oysters constituting the garnish, and complete, 
when about to serve^ with a leason and butter. 

Garnish with four poached oysters (cleared of their beards) 
per each person. 

691— VELOUT^ ISOLINE 

Prepare one quart of poultry velout^. Complete it, when 
dishing up, with an ordinary leason and three oz. of crayfish 
butter. 

Garnish with three tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached 
in white consomm^. 

692— VEL0UT1& MARIE LOUISE 

Prepare one pint of poultry velout6 ; mix therewith one-half 
pint of barley cream (No. 712), and rub through tammy. Add 
one-half pint of white consomm^, and heat the velout^ without 
letting it boil. 

Finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter. 
Garnish with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of best macaroni, 
poached and cut into dice. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

693— VELOUTE MARIE STUART 

Prepare a poultry velout^ with barley cream, as above. 
Finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of a brunoise, and the 
same quantity of fine pearl barley cooked in white consomm^. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

694— VELOUTE AU POURPIER 

Proceed exactly as directed under " Velout6 Cressoni^re " 
(No. 677), but substitute purslain for the watercress. 

695— VEL0UT6 A LA SULTANE 

Prepare one quart of poultry velout^. Finish it, when 
dishing up, with a leason composed of the yolks of three eggs 
diluted with one-fifth pint of sweet-almond milk (made by 
pounding eighteen sweet almonds, mixing therewith one-fifth 
pint of water, and straining the whole through a twisted towel), 
and three oz. of pistachio butter. The velout^ should be of a 
pale green shade. 

Garnish with small crescents of chicken forcemeat prepared 
with crayfish butter, kept of a pink shade. These crescents 

R 2 



244 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

should be laid, by means of a piping-bag, upon thin roundels 
of truffle, and poached in consomm^. 

This soup may also be prepared as a cream. 

695a— COLD CHICKEN VELOUXfi FOR SUPPERS 

The preparation of these veloutds requires the utmost care, 
but, as a rule, they are very much liked. 

Prepare a white roux from one oz. of butter and one and 
one-sixth oz. of flour per quart of the moistening. Dilute with 
some very strong clear consomm^, thoroughly cleared of 
grease ; boil, and despumate for one and one-half hours, adding 
meanwhile half as much consomm^ as served in the moistening 
of the velout6. 

When the velout^ is thoroughly despumated and entirely 
cleared of grease, strain it through a silk sieve, and add, per 
quart, one-quarter pint of very fresh thin cream. Cool, stirring 
incessantly the while; once more strain the velout^ through the 
sieve when it is cold, and, if necessary, add some of the 
consomm^ already used, in order to give the velout^ the con- 
sistence of a thickened consomme. Serve it in cups, and see 
that it be sufficiently thin to not impaste the mouth of the 
consumer. 

This velout^ is usually served as it stands, but it allows of 
various condimentary adjuncts. Such are : — Tomato and cap- 
sicum essences; crayfish, shrimp, or game creams. These 
creams or essences should be of consummate delicacy, and 
ought to lend only a very delicate flavour to the velout^. 

696— CREME D'ARTICHAUTS AU BEURRE DE NOISETTE 

Have ready one and one-half pints of Bechamel. Parboil, 
finely mince, and stew in butter four large artichoke-bottoms. 
Pound the latter; put them in the Bechamel, and rub the whole 
through tammy. 

Add the necessary quantity of white consomm^ or milk, and 
set to heat without allowing to boil. Finish the preparation, 
when dishing up, with one-quarter pint of cream and one oz. 
of hazel-nut butter (No. 155). 

Remarks relative to Creams. — I remind the reader here 
that (i) the thickening element of creams is a Bechamel prepared 
in the usual way (see No. 28) ; (2) in the preparation of a cream, 
of what kind soever, the Bechamel should constitute half of 
the whole, the basic ingredient a quarter, and the white con- 
somm^ or milk the remaining quarter. 



SOUPS 245 

As a rule, they comprise no butter, but are finished by means 
of one-third pint of very fresh cream per quart. Be this as it 
may, if it be desirable to butter them, one may do so, but in 
very small quantities, and taking care to use the very best 
butter. 

This class of soups is more particularly suited to Lenten 
menus. 

697— CREME D'ASPERQES, otherwise ARQENTEUIL 

Parboil for five or six minutes one and one-half lbs. of 
Argenteuil asparagus, broken off at the spot where the hard 
part of the stalk begins. Drain them, and set them to complete 
their cooking gently in one and one-quarter pints of previously 
prepared Bechamel. 

Rub through tammy; add the necessary quantity of white 
consomm6, and heat without allowing to boil. 

Finish with cream when dishing up. 

Garnish with two tablespponfuls of white asparagus-heads 
and a pinch of chervil pluches. 

698— CRfiME D'ASPERQES VERTES 

Proceed exactly as for " Cr^me Argenteuil," but substitute 
green asparagus for Argenteuil asparagus. 

699— CREME AU BL6 VERT, otherwise CI^RES 

Put one lb. of dry, green wheat to soak in cold water for 
four hours. Then cook it slowly in one-half pint of water and 
as much white consomm^. Mix therewith one and one-quarter 
pints of Bechamel and rub through tammy. 

Add the necessary amount of white consomm^ to the pur^e ; 
heat the whole without boiling, and finish it with cream when 
dishing up. 

Garnish with a pinch of chervil pluches. 

This soup may also be prepared as a pur6e or a velout^. 

700— CRfiME DE CELERI 

Mince one lb. of the white of celery; parboil for seven or 
eight minutes; drain, and stew in one oz. of butter. Mix one 
and one-quarter pints of Bechamel with it ; complete the cooking 
slowly, and rub through tanlmy. 

Add one-half pint of white consommd ; heat without allowing 
to boil, and finish the preparation with cream when about to 
serve. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of a brunoise of celery. 

This soup may also be prepared as a purde or a veloutd. 



246 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

701— CRfeME DE CERFEUIL BULBEUX, 
otherwise CHEVREUSE 

Mince and stew in butter one lb. of bulbous chervil, and 
mix therewith one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel. Com- 
plete the cooking slowly; rub through tammy; add sufficient 
white consomme ; heat, and finish with cream when dishing 
up. Garnish with one tablespoonful of a fine julienne of 
chicken fillets and the same quantity of a julienne of truffles. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^. 

702— CREME DE CHICOREE DE BRUXELLES, 
otherwise BRUXELLOISE 

Take one lb. of very fresh chicory, and stew it for a good 
half-hour in one and one-half oz. of butter and the juice of one 
lemon. 

Now mix one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel with it, 
and finish the cooking very slowly. Rub through tammy; add 
the necessary quantity of white consommd ; heat, and complete 
with cream when serving. 

Garnish with a julienne of Belgian chicory, stewed and well 
drained. 

703— CREME D'EPINARDS, otherwise FLORENTINE 

Quickly parboil one lb. of shredded and well-washed spinach 
to which a little sorrel may be added; drain, press, and add 
thereto one and one-half pints of somewhat thin Bechamel. 
Complete the cooking; rub the whole through tammy, and 
finish it with the necessary amount of fresh cream. 

Garnish with a julienne of spinach, quickly parboiled and 
stewed in butter. 

704— CRfiME DE FEVES NOUVELLES 

Skin two-thirds lb. of new broad beans, freshly gathered, if 
possible. Cook them for ten minutes in boiling salted water 
containing a sprig of savory, and then add one and one-quarter 
pints of Bechamel. Complete the cooking of the broad beans 
in the Bechamel; rub through tammy; add one-half pint of 
white consomm^ or milk ; heat without allowing to boil, and 
finish the preparation with cream when dishing up. 

Garnish with very small skinned broad beans, split in two 
and parboiled with a sprig of savory. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6. 



SOUPS 247 

70s— CREME D'IQNAMES, otherwise BRESILIENNE 

Bake the yams in the oven, without peeling them. As soon 
as this is done, cut them in two, remove their pulp, and quickly 
rub the latter through a sieve while it is still hot. Dilute the 
pur^e with boiling milk or thin Bechamel in the proportion of 
one pint of the former and one-half pint of the latter per lb. 
of the pur6e. (This Bechamel should be made from one and 
one-half oz. of butter and one oz. of flour per quart of milk.) 

Rub the whole through tammy, and finish the preparation 
in the usual way. Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese 
pearls, poached in consomm6. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6. 

706— CREME DE LAITUES, otherwise JUDIC 

Parboil and stew in butter two medium-sized ciseled lettuces, 
the greenest leaves of which should have been discarded. Add 
these to one and one-half pints of Bechamel. 

Rub through tammy ; add one pint of white consomm^ ; heat, 
and finish as usual with cream. 

Garnish with roundels of lettuce leaves, lightly coated with 
chicken forcemeat, a bit of truffle laid in their centre, and the 
whole poached at the last minute. / 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^. 

707— CREME DE MAIS, otherwise WASHINGTON 

Cook some fresh maize in salted water (or use the preserved 
kind if the fresh is out of season), and combine therewith an 
equal quantity of thin Bechamel. Rub through tammy; heat, 
and finish with cream when dishing up. 

Garnish with grains of maize cooked in salted water. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ by substituting 
for the Bechamel an excellent poultry velo'ute. 

708— CRfeME D'OSEILLE A L'AVOINE 

Pour one-quarter lb. of oatmeal diluted with one-half pint 
of cold milk into one quart of slightly salted boiling milk. Stir 
over the fire until the boil is reached; move the stewpan to the 
side of the fire, and simmer for two hours. 

This done, add six tablespoonfuls of a fondue of sorrel and 
butter; set to simmer again for one-quarter hour, and rub the 
whole through tammy. 

Complete the operation after the manner common to all 
cieams. 



248 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

yop-CRfiME D'OSEILLE A L'ORQE 

Proceed exactly as for No. 708, using the same quantities, 
but substituting barley-meal for oatmeal. 

Remarks upon the Two above Creams. — They may also be 
prepared as velout^s. Their garnish may be greatly varied, 
and may consist of chiffonade of lettuce and sorrel ; pressed 
peeled tomatoes, cut into dice and cooked in butter; poached 
rice or pastes {i.e., vermicelli, &c.); fine well-cooked pearl 
barley ; brunoise ; small printaniers, &c. 

They belong, in fact, to the same order of soups as the 
purees of sorrel with pastes, the recipes of which were given 
earlier in the chapter. 

710— CREME D'OXALIS 

Peel and slice the oxalis roots, and half-cook them in salted 
water. Drain, add it to one and one-half pints of Bechamel, 
and complete its cooking gently in the sauce. 

Rub through tammy ; add one-half pint of white consomme, 
and finish after the manner of other creams. Garnish with 
chervil pluches. 

This soup may also be prepared as a pur6e or a velout6. 

711— CRBME DE RIZ 

Wash one-half lb. of rice in cold water; blanch it; cool it, 
and cook it very gently in one quart of white consomm^. 
Crush in the mortar; rub through tammy, and dilute the rice 
pur^e with one pint of white consomm^. Heat and finish the 
preparation, when dishing up, with the necessary quantity of 
cream. 

Or pour four tablespoonfuls of rice cream, diluted with one- 
half pint of cold milk, into three pints of boiling milk; set to 
boil, stirring the while, and leave to cook very gently for 
twenty-five minutes. Rub through tammy, and finish the pre- 
paration, when dishing up, with the required quantity of cream. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^. 

712— crEme D'ORQE 

Wash three-quarters lb. of coarse pearl barley in lukewarm 
water, and cook it gently for about two and one-half hours in 
one pint of white consomm6 containing one piece of the white 
part of a stick of celery. 

Crush in a mortar; rub through tammy; dilute the pur^e of 
barley with one pint of white consomm^; heat, and finish the 



SOUPS 249 

preparation, when dishing up, with the necessary quantity of 
cream. 

This soup may also be prepared with barley-meal, the pro- 
cedure in that case being the same as that of the " Cr^me de 
Riz " above. 

Garnish with very fine, well-cooked pearl barley. 

This soup may also be prepared as a veloutd. 

713— CRfeME DE VOLAILLE PRINCESSE 

Mix one and one-half pints of thin Bechamel with one-half 
pint of chicken pur6e. Rub through tammy; add one-half 
pint of white consomm^ to the preparation, or the same quantity 
of boiled milk; heat without allowing to boil, and finish with 
cream when dishing up. 

Garnish with twenty very small slices of chicken fillets, white 
asparagus-heads, and chervil pluches. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^. 

714— crBme reine-marqot 

Mix one-half pint of chicken pur^e with one pint of thin 
Bdchamel. Rub through tammy; add one and one-half pints 
of white consomm6 and one-quarter pint of almond milk (No. 
678). Heat without allowing to boil, and finish with cream. 

Garnish with very small grooved quenelles of chicken force- 
meat combined with one oz. of pistachio pur^e per three oz. of 
forcemeat. 

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^. 

715— POTAGE A L'AURORE 

Wash one-quarter lb. of fine pearl barley in plenty of water. 
Put it into a stewpan with one quart of consomm^, as much 
water, a faggot comprising parsley, celery, and chervil, and set 
to cook very gently for five hours. While the cooking pro- 
gresses, take care to remove all the skin which forms on the 
surface, in order that the cooking-liquor may remain very clear. 

When the barley is well cooked, transfer it to another stew- 
pan, and add to it four tablespoonfuls. of a thick and very red 
tomato pur^e, strained through muslin, and two tablespoonfuls 
of celery, minced in paysanne-fashion, stewed in butter, and 
finally cooked in consomm^. 

This excellent soup should not be made too thick. 

716— POTAQE baqration qras 

Cut two-thirds lb. of very white fillet of veal into large dice, 
and stiffen these in butter without letting them acquire any 



250 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

colour. Add one and one-quarter pints of thin velout^ with a 
veal base, and set to cook very gently. 

Finely pound the veal; dilute the pur^e with velout^, and 
rub through tammy. Add one pint of white consommd; heat 
without boiling, and complete the preparation, when dishing 
up, with a leason of the yolks of three eggs diluted with four 
tablespoonfuls of cream and two oz. of butter. 

Garnish with thin macaroni cut into short lengths, and send 
some grated cheese to the table separately. 

717— POTAQE BAQRATION MAIQRE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of fresh velout^, and mix 
therewith one-quarter pint of mushroom velout^. (For making 
this, see " Velout6 Agn^s Sorel," No. 671.) 

Heat without boiling; pass through a strainer, and finish, 
when about to serve, with the same leason as for ordinary 
velout^, and two and one-half oz. of butter. Garnish with one 
fillet of sole, poached very white, and cut into a julienne ; 
twelve small quenelles of sole or whiting forcemeat finished 
with crayfish butter, and six crayfishes' tails cut into small 
pieces. 

718— POTAQE CHOISEUL 

Prepare a " pur^e Conti " (No. 640) with an excellent fumet 
of game. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of sorrel, ciseled and cooked 
in butter, and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice. 

719— POTAQE COMPlfiQNE 

Prepare a light " Pur^e Soissonaise " ; butter it well, and 
add thereto as garnish three tablespoonfuls of ciseled sorrel 
cooked in butter, and chervil pluches. 

720— POTAQE DERBY 

Add one-half pint of Soubis6 pur^e (No. 104) to one pint of 
" Cr^me de Riz " (No. 711) flavoured with a very little curry. 
Rub the whole through tammy. 

Add one-half pint of white consommd, and heat without 
boiling. Complete, when about to serve, with an ordinary 
leason and three oz. of butter. 

Garnish with twelve small quenelles of chicken forcemeat 
combined with one-third of its volume of foie-gras purde, one 
tablespooriful of little truffle pearls, and an equal quantity of 
poached rice, each grain of which must be kept distinct and 
separate. 



SOUPS 251 

721— POTAQE A LA DIANE 

Cook one-half lb. of lentils with the usual garnish. Roast 
two medium-sized partridges, keeping them slightly underdone, 
and remove their fillets. Complete the cooking of the partridges 
with the lentils, drained of their cooking-liquor, in one pint of 
game consomm^. 

Prepare a royale (No. 209) with the reserved fillets. 

When the birds are cooked, bone them ; pound their meat, 
and add thereto the lentils and the cooking-liquor ; rub through 
tammy. 

Finish the pur^e with one and one-half pints of excellent 
thin game stock, and complete the soup, when dishing up, with 
two oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of reduced Madeira. 

Garnish with the royale, cut into small regular crescents, 
and twelve small crescents of very black truffle. 

722— POTAQE ELISA 

Prepare one and one-half pints of poultry velout^, and rub 
it through tammy. Complete with one-half pint of white con- 
somm^ ; heat without boiling, and finish, when dishing up, with 
an ordinary leason, two and one-half oz. of butter, and two 
tablespoonfuls of a fondue of sorrel. 

733— POTAQE FAVORI 

Prepare one pint of a velout6 of green asparagus; one-half 
pint of a velout^ of lettuce, and one-half pint of poultry 
velout^. Put all three into a stewpan; add thereto the neces- 
sary quantity of white consomm^ to bring the soup to the 
correct degree of consistence; heat without boiling, and pass 
through a strainer. 

Finish the soup, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason 
and two oz. of butter. Garnish with one tablespoonful of a 
chiffonade of sorrel, and one tablespoonful of green asparagus- 
heads. 

724— POTAQE QERMINY 

Cisel and melt in butter three oz. of shredded sorrel, and 
add thereto one and one-half pints of white consomm^. A few 
minutes before serving, pour into the consomm^ a leason com- 
posed of the yolks of six eggs diluted with one-quarter pint 
of cream ; set on the fire and stir, after the manner of an 
English custard, i.e., until the preparation begins to show 
signs of boiling. 

Finish, away from the fire, with two and one-half oz. of 
butter, and add a pinch of chervil pluches. 



252 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Remarks concerning the Possible Variation of this Soup, — 
The mode of procedure adopted in the case of the Germiny 
could, if necessary, be appUed to all thick soups, and it would 
then constitute a class to which the term " Cream " would be 
better suited than it is at present to the soups thus designated. 

Instead of the ordinary white consomm^, which is used in 
its preparation, a consomm6 may be used in which such vege- 
tables as carrots, turnips, peas, &c., are cooked, the latter 
being reserved for the garnish, while the cooking-liquor is 
thickened with egg-yolks and cream in accordance with the 
quantities and directions given in the above recipe. 

A carrot cream, a cream of fresh peas, or of asparagus-heads, 
prepared in this way, would be much more delicate than those 
prepared after the ordinary recipes. 

The essential point in this series of soups is the leason ; this 
should consist of enough egg-yolks to render the preparations 
sufficiently thick and creamy. 

725— POTAQE AUX HERBES 

Cut two oz. of sorrel leaves into a julienne, and stew them 
in butter with one oz. of watercress leaves, one oz. of chervi l 
^ju£h^s, and young pi mpernel . Ad d one anHj a'ne-halt pints of 
water;, the necessary salt^ three medium-sized, pe'eled, and 
quartere d potatoes, an J'cook gently. 

Drain and reserve the cooking-liquor; crush the potatoes; 
dilute the pur^e with the cooking-liquor, and rub through 
tammy. Set to boil, and finish, when dishing up, with three 
oz. of Printanier b utter with herbs, combined with a f ew leave s 
of swe et basil. — — — 

Add a pinch of chervil pluches. 

726— POTAQE JUBILEE, otherwise BALVET 

Prepare, according to the directions given (No. 648), one 
and one-half pints of a purde of fresh peas, and add thereto one- 
half pint of consommd of "La Petite Marmite." Set to boil, 
and finish with two oz. of butter. 

Garnish with the vegetables from the Marmite, prepared as 
for Croute au Pot. 

727— POTAQE LONQCHAMPS 

Refer to the derivative soups of the " Pur^e de Pois " 
(No. 654). 
738— POTAQE LAVALLIfiRE 

Prepare one and one-half pints of " Cr^me de Volaille " 
(No. 713), finished with a leason of egg-yolks and cream; also 



SOUPS 253 

two-thirds pint of " Cr^me de C^leri," similarly finished, and 
combine the two creams. 

Garnish, with twelve small profiterolles, stuffed with chicken 
forcemeat, and a royale of celery in dice. 

729— POTAQE MADELEINE 

Prepare and combine the following purees : — One-third pint 
of artichoke pur6e, one-fifth pint of haricot-bean pur^e, one- 
seventh pint of Soubise pur^e. Add one pint of white con- 
somm^ ; set to boil ; pass through a strainer, and finish, when 
dishing up, with two oz. of butter. 

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of sago poached in one- 
half pint of white consomm^. 

730— POTAQE MISS BETSY 

Proceed exactly as for " Potage h I'Aurore " (No. 715), but 
(i) flavour potage Miss Betsy with curry; (2) substitute for the 
celery peeled, cored apples cut into dice and cooked in butter, 

N.B. — Both these soups (Aurore and Miss Betsy) are subject 
to much variation. All that is needed is to alter the flavouring 
element and the garnish. Thus the quantity of tomato may be 
reduced by half, and combined with one-quarter lb. of peas and 
their cooking-liquor (the peas in this case being cooked in one 
pint of water with a little salt and sugar) ; or with the same 
quantity of French beans, asparagus-heads, or sorrel cooked in 
butter, &c. 

731— POTAQE MONTESPAN 

Add one-half pint of somewhat thick tapioca to one and one- 
half pints of " Cr^me d'Asperges " (No. 697), prepared as 
directed. Garnish with very fine peas cooked in the English 
fashion. 

732— POTAQE n6LUSK0 

Mix one and one-half pints of rather liquid poultry velout^ 
with one-half pint of chicken purde. When serving, add an 
ordinary leason, and finish with two and one-half oz. of hazel- 
nut butter. 

Garnish with very small quenelles of chicken forcemeat com- 
bined with one tablespoonful of hazel-nut powder per three oz. 
of the forcemeat. 

733— POTAQE PETIT DUC 

Take a fine woodcock; raise and reserve one of its fillets, 
and roast it, taking care to keep it very underdone. Then 
remove the other fillet, and with it prepare two dariole-moulds 



254 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

of royale (No. 209). Finely pound what remains of the wood- 
cock, and combine with the resulting pur^e one and one-half 
pints of game velout6 prepared with essence of woodcock. 
Cover the stewpan and place it in the bain-marie for thirty- 
five minutes. Now rub the whole through tammy; heat without 
boiling, and finish, when dishing up, with one and one-half 
oz. of butter, one and one-half oz. of cooked foie-gras pur^e, 
diluted with a few tablespoonfuls of the soup, one and one-half 
tablespoonfuls of cream, and one and one-half tablespoonfuls of 
burnt liqueur brandy. 

Garnish with the royale cut into dice, and the reserved fillet 
of woodcock, stiffened in butter at the last moment, and cut into 
thin slices. 

734— POTAQE REQENCE 

Prepare one quart of barley cream in accordance with the 
directions under No. 712. Finish it, when dishing up, with an 
ordinary leason and one and one-half oz. of crayfish butter. 

Garnish with twelve small, grooved quenelles of chicken 
forcemeat finished with crayfish butter; one tablespoonful of 
small pearl barley, well cooked; and six small cocks' combs, 
freshly poached and very white. 

735— POTAQE ROSSOLNIK 

Prepare (i) one quart of light, poultry velout^ combined 
with cucumber juice ; (2) ten pieces of parsley root and the same 
quantity of celery root, turned to the shape of small, new 
carrots, and split crosswise at their base; (3) twenty small 
lozenges of salted cucumber. 

Parboil the roots and the cucumber lozenges for fifteen 
minutes, and add them to the velout^ when about to cook the 
latter. Cook the whole gently for forty minutes, despumating 
the velout^ the while. Finish with one and one-half tablespoon- 
fuls of cucumber juice, and an ordinary leason. 

Garnish with small chicken-forcemeat quenelles. 

736_P0TAGE DE SANTE 

Cook quickly, in salted water, three medium-sized, peeled, 
and quartered potatoes. When their pulps seem soft to the 
touch, drain them; rub them through a fine sieve, and dilute 
the resulting pur^e with one and one-half pints of white con- 
somm^. Add two tablespoonfuls of sorrel melted in butter, 
and finish the preparation with an ordinary leason and one oz. 
of butter. 



SOUPS 255 

Garnish with very thin roundels of French soup-flute and 
chervil pluches. 

737— POTAQE SIQURD 

Prepafe one pint of " Velout^ Parmentier " and one pint of 
tomato velout^. Combine the two; heat, and finish, when dish- 
ing up, with two and one-half oz. of butter. 

Garnish with twenty small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, 
combined with one coffeespoonful of chopped capsicum, or 
capsicum in dice, per three oz, of the forcemeat. 

738— POTAQE SOLFERINO 

Mince tlie white of two leeks, the third of a medium-sized 
carrot, and half an onion, and stew the whole in one and one- 
half oz. of butter. Add one-half lb. of pressed tomatoes cut 
into pieces, two medium-sized, peeled potatoes, minced ; moisten 
with two-thirds pint of white consomm^, and cook gently. 
Crush the vegetables ; rub them through tammy ; complete the 
pur^e with the necessary quantity of white consomm^; set to 
boil, and finish, when dishing up, with two and one-half oz. of 
butter. 

Garnish with twelve little balls of potato, raised by means 
of the spoon-cutter, and cooked in salted water ; two tablespoon- 
fuls of French beans cut into lozenges; and some chervil 
pluches, 

739— POTAQE VIVIANE 

Prepare one quart of " Cr^me de Volaille " (No. 713), and 
finish it with the usual leason. Garnish with one tablespoonful 
of artichoke-bottom, cut into dice, the same quantity of carrot 
dice, both gently cooked in butter, and one tablespoonful of 
trufifle dice. 

740— POTAQE WINDSOR 

Blanch and cool one small, boned calf's foot, and cook it 
gently in a good white-wine mirepoix. Prepare one and one- 
half pints of " Cr^me de Riz " (No. 711), and add thereto the 
cooking-liquor of the calf's foot, strained through muslin. 

Finish this cream, when about to serve, with an ordinary 
leason, one and one-half tablespoonfuls of a slight infusion of 
turtle-soup herbs, and one and one-half oz. of butter. 

Garnish with a julienne. oi half of the calf's foot and twenty 
small quenelles consisting of a pur^e of hard-boiled egg-yolks 
and chicken forcemeat, these two preparations being in the pro- 
portion of two-thirds and one-third respectively. 



256 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

741— SOUPE AUX ABATIS DE VOLAILLE A L'ANGLAISE 

Cut the necks into three, the gizzards into four, and the 
pinions into two. Brown one-half lb. of these giblets in a 
thick-bottomed stewpan with one oz. of butter. Sprinkle with 
one tablespoonful of flour ; slightly colour the latter, and moisten 
with one quart of white consomm6 and one pint of water. Add 
a faggot containing one stick of celery, and set to cook gently 
for three hours. 

When the pieces of giblets are cooked, drain them, trim 
them, and put them into a stewpan with one dessertspoonful of 
parboiled rice and a heaped tablespoonful of the white of celery, 
minced and fried in butter. Strain the cooking-liquor of the 
giblets, through a strainer, over the enumerated garnishes; 
set to cook gently for another quarter of an hour; season 
strongly with pepper, and serve. 

742— SOUPE AUX CERISES 

Stone two-thirds lb. of small, fleshy cherries, and put twenty 
aside for garnishing purposes. Put the others into a sugar- 
boiler with two-thirds pint of hot water, a small strip of lemon 
rind, and a fragment of cinnamon, and set to boil quickly for 
eight minutes. 

Also boil in another sugar-boiler one-half pint of Port or 
Bordeaux wine. Crush half of the cherry-stones in the mortar; 
put them into the boiled wine, and let them infuse, away from 
the fire. 

Rub the cooked cherries through a fine sieve; dilute the 
pur6e with the juice thickened by means of one tablespoonful 
of fecula moistened with cold water; add the cherries put aside 
for the garnish, and one-half tablespoonful of castor sugar, and 
again set to boil for four minutes. 

Complete the preparation with the infusion strained through 
muslin ; pour it into the soup-tureen, and add a few biscottes. 

For the sake of variety, lady's-finger biscuits may be sub- 
stituted for the biscottes. 

743— COCKY- LEEKI SOUP 

Set half a fowl to cook very gently in one and one-half pints 
of light and clear veal stock with a few aromatics. 

Also prepare a julienne of the white of three leeks; stew 
this in butter without colouration, and complete the cooking 
thereof in the cooking-liquor of the fowl, strained and poured 
carefully away. 



SOUPS 257 

Pour the preparation into the soup-tureen, and add the meat 
of the fowl, cut into a julienne. 

Serve some stewed prunes separately, but this is optional. 

744---SOUPE AUX FOIES DE VOLAILLE 

Make a roux from one and one-half oz. of butter and as much 
flour. When it has acquired a nice, light-brown colour, moisten 
it with one quart of white consomm^ or brown stock, and set 
to boil, stirring the while. 

Add one-half lb. of raw chickens' livers rubbed through e 
sieve, and set to cook for fifteen minutes. Rub the whole 
through tammy ; season strongly with pepper ; heat, and com- 
plete the preparation, at the last moment, with one-quarter lb. 
of sliced chickens' livers, tossed in butter, and one wineglass of 
good Madeira. 

745— SOUPE JULIENNE DARBLAY 

Cook quickly in salted water two small, peeled, and quartered 
potatoes. Drain them, rub them through a fine sieve, and dilute 
the pur^e with one and one-half pints of white consomm^. Add 
three tablespoonfuls of a julienne made in accordance with the 
above recipe; heat, and finish the preparation with an ordinary 
leason and one and one-half oz. of butter. 

746— MINESTRONE 

Brown the minced white of two small leeks and one-third 
of an onion, also minced, in one oz. of chopped, fresh breast 
of bacon, and one-half oz. of grated, fat bacon. Moisten with 
one and one-half pints of white consomm^, and add one-third 
of a carrot, one-third of a turnip, half a stick of celery, two 
oz. of small cabbage, and one small potato, or one-half of a 
medium-sized one, all of which vegetables must be finely 
minced. 

About twenty-five minutes after the soup has started cook- 
ing, complete it with two tablespoonfuls of peas, a few French 
beans cut into lozenges, and one and one-half oz. of rice, or 
the same quantity of very thin macaroni broken into very small 
pieces. 

This done, set to cook again for thirty minutes. A few 
minutes tJefore serving, add to the soup one small, crushed 
clove of garlic, three leaves of sweet basil, and a small pinch 
of chopped chervil pluches ; mix the whole with one-half table- 
spoonful of grated bacon. 

Send to the table, separately, at the same time as the soup 
some freshly grated Gruy^re. 

S 



258 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

747— MILLE-FANTI 

First make the following preparation : — Beat two small eggs 
to a stiff froth, and mix therewith one and one-half oz. of the 
crumb of very good white bread, one oz. of grated Parmesan, 
and a little nutmeg. Boil one and two-thirds pints of white 
consomm^, and pour the above preparation therein, little by 
little, stirring briskly the while with the whisk. Then move 
the stewpan to the side of the fire, put the lid on, and set to 
cook gently for seven or eight minutes. 

When about to serve, stir the soup with a whisk, and pour 
it into the soup-tureen. 

748— MULLIGATAWNY SOUP 

Cut a small fowl, or half a medium-sized one, into little 
pieces, and put these in a stewpan with a few roundels of carrot 
and onion, a small bunch of parsley and celery, one-half oz. of 
mushroom parings and one quart of white consomm^. Set to 
boil, and then let cook gently. 

Also lightly brown in butter half a medium-sized onion, 
chopped; besprinkle it with one dessertspoonful of fecula and 
one coffeespoonful of curry ; moisten with the cooking-liquor of 
the fowl, strained through a sieve; boil, and set to cook 
gently for seven or eight minutes. Now rub the whole through 
tammy, and leave it to despumate for twenty minutes, adding 
one tablespoonful of consomm^, from time to time, with the 
view of promoting the despumation, i.e., the purification of the 
soup. 

When about to serve, finish the preparation with three or 
four tablespoonfuls of cream. Pour the whole into the soup- 
tureen ; add a portion of the meat of the fowl, cut into thin 
slices, and serve separately two oz. of rice k I'lndienne. 

749— SOUPE AUX QOMBOS OU OKRA 

This soup is held in high esteem by Americans. It is 
served either with garnish, as I direct below, or as a consomm^, 
hot or cold, or in cups, after it has been strained. 

Fry one medium-sized chopped onion in two oz. of butter, 
without letting it acquire any colour. Add one-quarter lb. of 
fresh lean bacon, or raw ham cut into medium-sized dice; fry 
for a few minutes, and add about one lb. of boned chicken- 
meat cut into large dice (the white parts of the chicken are 
used in preference) ; let these ingredients stiffen well ; take care 
to stir fairly often, and moisten with two quarts of white chicken 
consomm^. Boil, and set to cook gently for twenty or twenty- 
five minutes with lid on. 



SOUPS 259 

Now add about one-half lb. of peeled gombo, cut in coarse 
paysanne-fashion, and three or four medium-sized tomatoes, 
peeled, concussed, and with their seeds withdrawn. 

When the gombos are well cooked, carefully remove all 
grease from the preparation; test the seasoning, and, if neces- 
sary, add a few drops of Worcestershire sauce. 

Garnish the soup with two or three tablespoonfuls of plainly- 
cooked rice. 

N.B. — This soup is excellent if it be finished with one-quarter 
pint of cream per quart. A cream of gombos may also be pre- 
pared, which may be garnished with the dice of chicken meat. 
In the latter case, the garnish of rice is optional. 

750— SOUPE A LA PAYSANNE 

Finely mince one small carrot, one small turnip, one leek, 
one-third of a stick of celery, one-third of an onion, and some 
cabbage leaves. Stew the vegetables in one oz. of butter; 
moisten with one and one-half pints of white consomm^, and set 
to boil. A few minutes having elapsed, add two small potatoes 
minced like the other vegetables, and complete the cooking 
gently. Send separately some roundels of soup-flutes. 

751— SOUPE AUX POIREAUX ET POMMES DE TERRE, 

otherwise A LA BONNE FEMME 

Finely mince the white of four medium-sized leeks. Put 
this into a stewpan with one oz. of butter, and stew gently 
for a quarter of an hour. Then add three medium-sized 
quartered potatoes, cut into roundels the thickness of pennies. 
Moisten with one pint of white consomm6; add the necessary 
quantity of salt, and set to cook gently. When about to serve, 
finish the soup with one pint of boiled milk and one and one- 
half oz. of butter; pour it into the soup-tureen, and add twelve 
roundels of French soup-flutes, cut as thinly as possible. 

752— SOUPE AUX ROQNONS 

Proceed exactly as for ' ' Soupe aux Foies de Volaille, ' ' but 
substitute for the garnish of sliced livers one of calf's or sheep's 
kidney cut into large dice, or sliced, and briskly tossed in butter 
just before dishing up. 

Finish the soup similarly to the preceding one, i.e., with 
Madeira. 



S 2 



CHAPTER XIV 



FISH 



In matters culinary, fish comprise not only the vertebrates 
of the sea and river, but also the esculent Crustacea, mollusca, 
and chelonia, and one batrachian. Of course, the animals 
representing these various classes differ enormously in respect 
of their importance as articles of diet. Fresh-water fish, for in- 
stance, with the exception of salmon and some kinds of trout, 
are scarcely ever eaten in England; and the same applies to 
the frog. As regards salt-water fish, although certain species, 
such as the sole and the turbot, are in great demand, many 
other and excellent ones which are looked upon as inferior are 
seldom put into requisition by first-class cookery. Thus, Brill, 
Fed Mull&t, and Bass are not nearly so popular as they de- 
serve to be, and never appear on a menu of any importance. 
No doubt. Fashion — ever illogical and wayward — exercises her 
tyrannical sway here, as in other matters of opinion ; for it will 
be found, even when the distinctions among fish are once 
established, that there exist a host of incongruities in the un- 
written law. Fresh cod is a case in point; should this fish 
appear on the menu of a grand dinner given by Royalty, the 
guests would not think it at all out of place; but if the chef 
of a large modern hotel ventured to include it among the items 
of a plain table-d'hote dinner he would most probably incur 
the scorn and indignation of his clientele. 

This example, than which none could be better suited to our 
case, successfully shows that the culinary value of the fish has 
far less to do with the vogue the latter enjoys than the very often 
freakish whims of the public. 

One can but deplore the arbitrary proscription which so 
materially reduces the resources at the disposal of a cook, 
more particularly at a time when the universally imperious cry 
is for novelty and variety in dishes and menus respectively; 
and one can only hope that reason and good sense may, at no 
remote period, intervene to check the purposeless demands of 
both entertainers and their guests in this respect. 



FISH 261 

Having regard to these considerations, I have omitted from 
this work, which is really a thesaurus of selected recipes and 
not a complete formulary, all those fish enumerated below, 
which are very rarely eaten in England, and the recipes for 
which could therefore serve no purpose : — 

753 — SHADJchiefly served grilled. 

754 — FRESH ANCHOVIES, extremely rare, and may be grilled 
or fried. 

755 — EELS, considered as common, and principally used in the 
preparation of a pie held in high esteem by the frequenters of 
coffee-shops along the banks of the Thames. Small eels are also 
fried. ^But the many ways of dressing them which are common 
on the Continent are seldom practised in England. 

756 — PIKE, plentiful and of excellent quality ; only used in the 
preparation of forcemeat and quenelles ; the directions for the 
latter will be given later. Albeit they are sometimes served 
crimped, or cooked whole in a court-bouillon au bleu, accompanied 
by parsley or caper sauce, &c. Small pike are generally prepared 
" a la Meuniere," or fried. 

757 — CARP, in still less demand than the pike, and only prized 
for its milt. It must, however, be admitted that in England, more 
than anywhere else, I believe, this fish is too often spoilt by the 
taint of mud. 

758 — DORADO, served boiled with any of the English fish 
sauces ; but, in my opinion, it is best grilled, after the manner 
generally adopted in the South of France. 

759 — STURGEON, very rare ; it is braised, like veal. 
j5o — FERA, very scarce on the market ; comes from the Swiss 
or Savoy lakes, and is only served 4 la Meuniere. 

761 — GUDGEON, very abundant in all rivers, but never eaten. 
762 — FROGS, the pet abomination of all classes of the popula- 
tion, with but few exceptions ; nevertheless " Nymphes k I'Aurore," 
the recipe of which I gave among the hors-d'oeuvres, are generally 
appreciated. 

763— FRESH HERRINGS, abundant and of excellent quality ; 
seldom used in first-class cookery, except, perhaps, for their milt. 
Bloaters and kippered herrings are, with reason, preferred ; of 
these I shall speak later. 

764 — LAMPREYS, chiefly used in preparing pies similar to those 
referred to in No. 755. 

765— FRESH -WATER HERRINGS, like the F^ra, come from 
Switzerland or Savoy, and are very scarce on the English market 
Prepared especially a la Meuriiere, 



262 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

766 — LOTE, very scarce on the English market ; only prized 
for its liver. 

767 — MOSTELE, only caught in the region of Monaco ; cannot 
bear transport ; especially served k la Meuniere or a I'Anglaise. 

768 — MUSSELS, only used as garnish. 

769 — NONAT, replaced in England by whitebait, which it 
greatly resembles. 

770 — PERCH, very moderately appreciated ; chiefly served 
fried, when small, and boiled with some fish sauce when large. 

771 — SKATE, generally served boiled, with caper sauce ; 
occasionally with brown butter. The smaller specimens are better 
fried. Often offered for sale, crimped. 

773 — SARDINES, generally of inferior quality ; used in the 
preparation of sprats. 

773^STERLET, almost unknown in England. 

774 — TURTLE, with the exception of those firms which make 
this their speciality, is almost exclusively used in preparing Turtle 
Soup. The flippers are sometimes served braised au Mad^re. 

I do not think it at all necessary to lay any further stress 
upon the series of preparations bearing the names of Cro- 
quettes, Cromesquis, Cotelettes (cotelettes here only mean 
those prepared from cooked fish, and which are really but a 
form of croquettes), Coquilles, Bouchees, Palets, &c., which 
may be made from any kind of cooked fish. These prepara- 
tions are so well known that it would be almost superfluous to 
repeat their recipes. 

775— DIVERS WAYS OF COOKING FISH 

The divers ways of cooking fish are all derived from one or 
another of the following methods : — 

(i) Boiling in salted water, which may be applied equally 
well to large pieces and slices of fish. 

(2) Frying, particularly suited to small specimens and thin 
slices of larger ones. 

(3) Cooking in butter, otherwise " h. la Meuniere," best 
suited to the same pieces as No. 2. 

(4) Poaching, with short moistening, especially suited to 
fillets or small specimens. 

(5) Braising, used particularly for large pieces. 

(6) Grilling, for small specimens and coUops. 

(7) Cooking au Gratin, same as grilling. 

776— THE BOILING OF FISH IN SALTED WATER 

The procedure changes according as to whether the fish is 
to be cooked whole or in slices. If whole, after having pro- 



FISH 263 

perly cleaned, washed, and trimmed it, lay it on the drainer of 
the utensil best suited to its shape; i.e., a fish-kettle. Cover it 
with water, salt it in the proportion of one-quarter oz. of salt 
per quart of water, cover the utensil, and bring the liquid to 
the boil. As soon as this is done skim and move the kettle to 
the side of the fire, where the cooking of the fish may be com- 
pleted without boiling. 

If the fish is cut into slices, plunge these, which should 
never be cut too thin, into boiling salted water, and move the 
fish-kettle containing them to the side of the fire; complete 
their cooking slowly without allowing the water to boil. 

The object of this process is to concentrate, inside the fish, 
all the juices contained in its flesh, whereof a large portion 
escapes when the cut fish is plunged in cold water gradually 
brought to the boil. If this method is not applied to large 
fish, cooked whole, the reason is that the sudden immersion of 
these in boiling water would cause such a shrinking of their 
flesh that they would burst and thereby be spoiled. 

In the case of certain kinds of fish, such as Turbot and 
Brill, milk is added to the water in the proportion of one-eighth 
of the latter, the object being to increase the whiteness of the 
fish.. 

For the various kinds of Salmon and Trout, the court- 
bouillon (No. 163) is used in the place of salted water, but the 
general working process remains the same. 

The boiled fish is dished on a napkin and drainer; it is 
garnished with fresh parsley; and the sauce announced on the 
menu, together with some plain-boiled and floury potatoes, is 
sent to the table separately. 

777-THE FRYING OF FISH 

In Part I. of this work I explained the general theory of 
frying (Chapter X., No. 26a) ; I shall now, therefore, only con- 
cern myself with the details of the operation in its relation to 
fish. 

As a rule, frying should never be resorted to for very large 
fish or very thick slices of the latter, for, owing to the very high 
temperature that the operation enjoins, the outside of the fish 
would be dried up before the inside had even become affected. 

If the fish to be fried is somewhat thick, it is best to cut 
several gashes in it, lengthwise and across, these being deeper 
and closer together the thicker the fish may be. The object 
of this measure is to facilitate the cooking, but the measure 
itself is quite unnecessary when dealing with small fish. In 



264 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

the case of flat-fish, partly detach the two underlying fillets on 
either side of the back-bone instead of gashing them. 

All fish intended for frying (except Blanchailles and White- 
bait) should first be steeped in salted milk, then rolled in flour 
before being plunged into the hot fat. If they be " panes a 
I'anglaise," however, as they generally are in England, the 
milk may be dispensed with, in which case, after they have 
been lightly coated with flour, they are completely dipped in 
an anglaise (No. 174) and afterwards rolled in white bread- 
crumbs. They should then be patted with the blade of a knife 
so as to ensure the cohesion of the whole coating, and, finally, 
the latter should be criss-crossed with the back of a knife with 
the view of improving the appearance when fried. 

Fried fish are served either on a napkin, on a drainer, or on 
special dish-papers. They are garnished with fried parsley and 
properly trimmed half-lemons. 

778— THE COOKING OF FISH A LA MEUNI6RE 

This excellent mode of procedure is only suited to small 
fish or the slices of larger ones. Nevertheless, it may be re- 
sorted to for chicken-turbots, provided their weight do not 
exceed four lbs. 

The operation consists in cooking the fish (or slices or fillets 
of fish) in the frying-pan with very hot butter, after having 
seasoned them and sprinkled them with flour. If the fish 
are very small, ordinary butter is used; if, on the other hand, 
they are large, the procedure demands clarified butter. When 
the fish is sufficiently coloured on one side, it is turned over for 
the completion of the operation. This done, it is transferred, 
by means of a spatula, to a hot dish, whereon, after having 
been salted, it is sent to the table. 

It may be served as it is with a garnish of trimmed half- 
lemons. 

Fish prepared in this way are termed " dor^s " (gilded), 
"Soles dords," " Turbotins dor^s," &c., in order to distin- 
guish them from those prepared a la Meuni^re. 

If the fish is announced "a la Meuni^re," a few drops of 
lemon should be sprinkled upon it ; it should be seasoned with 
salt and pepper, and garnished with concussed, scalded pars- 
ley. At the last moment a piece of butter, in proportion to the 
size of the fish, is put in the frying-pan, and is heated until it 
begins to brown slightly. This is poured over the fish imme- 
diately, and the latter is sent to the table at once while still 



FISH 265 

covered by the froth resulting from the contact of the butter 
with the parsley. 

779— THE POACHING OF FISH 

This method is best suited to sole, chicken-turbots, and brill, 
as well as to the fillets of various fish. 

Having laid the fish to be poached in a baking-tray or a 
sautepan, either of which should have been previously but- 
tered, season it moderately with salt and moisten with a little 
very white fish or mushroom fumet; very often the two latter 
are mixed. Cover the utensil, push it into a moderate oven, 
and baste from time to time, especially when a large fish is 
cooking. When the fish is done, drain it carefully, place it on 
a dish, and, as a rule, reduce the poaching-liquor and add it to 
the sauce. Poached fish are always served sauced; i.e., 
covered with the sauce which properly forms their accompani- 
ment. More often than not they are garnished after the 
manner which will be described later. 

I most emphatically urge : (i) the use of very little fish fumet 
for the poaching, but this fumet should be perfect and should, 
above all, not be cooked for longer than the required time; 
(2) that the fish be not covered with buttered paper as is often 
done, for nowadays a suitable paper is very rarely found. All 
papers found on the market are, owing to the chemical products 
used in their manufacture, liable to impart a more or less pun- 
gent smell to the objects they enclose, which in either degree 
would prove seriously prejudicial to the preparation. 

These remarks not only apply to fish, but to all those 
objects with which paper was formerly used at some stage in 
their cooking process. 

780— THE BRAISING OF FISH 

This method is generally applied to whole or sliced salmon, 
to trout, and to chicken-turbot. Sometimes the fish treated in 
this way is larded on one side with strips of bacon-fat, truffles, 
gherkins, or carrots. The mode of procedure is exactly the 
same as that described under the " Braising of White Meats " 
(No. 248). Moisten these braisings in the proportion of one- 
half with white wine or red wine (according as to how the fish 
is to be served), and for the other half use a light fish fumet. 
Place the fish on the drainer of a fish-kettle just large enough 
to hold the former, and moisten in such wise that the cooking- 
liquor at the beginning of the operation does not cover more 
than three-quarters of the depth of the fish. Unless it be for 



266 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

a Lenten dish, the fish may be covered with slices of bacon 
while cooking. In any case, baste it often. Talie care not to 
close the lid down too tightly, in order that the liquor may be 
reduced simultaneously with the cooking of the fish. 

When the operation is almost completed, take the lid off the 
fish-kettle with the view of glazing the fish ; then take the 
former off the fire. Now withdraw the drainer with the fish 
upon it, and lay it athwart the top of the fish-kettle, and let it 
drain ; tilt the fish on to a dish, and cover the latter pending 
its despatch to the table. Strain the stock remaining in the 
fish-kettle through a strainer; let it stand for ten minutes, re- 
move all the grease that has formed on its surface, and use it to 
complete the sauce as I directed above. 

Braised fish are generally accompanied by a garnish, the 
constituents of which I shall give in the particular recipes 
relating to braising. 

781— THE GRILLING OF FISH 

This method is best suited to' small fish, to medium-sized 
chicken-turbots, and to large-sectioned fish. 

Unless they are very small, it is best to gash both sides of 
fish intended for grilling; the reasons given above for this 
measure likewise apply here. 

All white and naturally dry fish should be rolled in flour 
and besprinkled with butter or very good oil before being 
placed on the grill to be exposed to the heat of the fire. The 
flour forms a crust around the fish, which keeps it from drying 
and gives it that golden colour quite peculiar to objects thus 
treated. 

Salmon, trout, red mullet, mackerel, and herrings, the flesh 
whereof is fatty, need not be floured, but only besprinkled with 
melted butter. 

Owing to the somewhat fragile texture of most fish, a special 
double gridiron is used, by means of which they may be turned 
without fear of damage. This gridiron is placed upon the 
ordinary grill. I have already given in Part I. of this work 
the radical principles of grilling (No. 257); to this, therefore, 
the reader is begged to refer. 

Grilled fish are served on a very hot dish, without paper or 
a napkin; they are garnished with fresh parsley and grooved 
slices of lemon. 

Butter k la Maitre d'Hotel, anchovy butter, devilled sauce, 
Roberts' sauce Escoffier, and butter k la Ravigote constitute 
the best adjuncts to grilled fish. 



FISH 267 

782— THE COOKING OF FISH AU QRATIN 

I described all the details of this method under Complete 
Gratin (No. 269), to which I must ask the reader to refer. This 
process is best suited to small fish, such as sole, whiting, red 
mullet, chicken-turbot, &c. 

783— THE CRIMPING OF FISH 

Crimped fish is quite an English speciality. This method 
of preparation is applied more particularly to salmon, fresh 
cod, haddock, and skate. The first three of these fish may be 
prepared whole or in slices, while skate is always cut into more 
or less large pieces after it has been skinned on both sides. 

In order to crimp a whole fish, it should be taken as it leaves 
the water. Lay it on something flat, and make deep lateral 
gashes on both its sides from head to tail. Allow a space of 
about one and one-half inches to two inches between each gash. 
This done, put the fish to soak in very cold water for an hour or 
so. When the fish is to be cooked sliced, divide it up as soon 
as it is caught, and put the slices to soak in very cold water, as 
in the case of the whole fish. 

But does this barbarous method, which stiffens and contracts 
the flesh of the fish, affect its quality so materially as con- 
noisseurs would have us believe ? 

It is very difficult to say, and opinions on the matter are 
divided. This, however, is certain, that fish prepared in the 
way above described is greatly relished by many. 

Whether whole or sliced, crimped fish is always boiled in 
salted water. Its cooking presents a real difficulty, in that it 
must be stopped at the precise moment when it is completed, 
any delay in this respect proving prejudicial to the quality of 
the dish. 

Crimped fish is served like the boiled kind, and all the 
sauces suited to the latter likewise obtain with the former. 
Besides the selected sauce, send a sauceboat to the table con- 
taining some of the cooking-liquor of the fish. 

SALMON (SAUMON) 

Salmon caught on the Rhine, or Dutch salmon, is generally 
considered the most delicate that may be had, though, in my 
opinion, ihat obtained from certain English rivers, such, for 
instance, as the Severn, is by no means inferior to the fore- 
going. Here in England this excellent fish is held in the high 
esteem it deserves, and the quantity consumed in this country 
is considerable. It is served as plainly as possible, either 



268 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

boiled, cold or hot, grilled, or k la Meuni^re; but whatever be 
the method of preparation, it is always accompanied by cucum- 
ber salad. 

The slices of salmon, however, thick or thin, large or small, 
take the name of " Darnes." 

784— BOILED SALMON 

Boiled salmon, whether whole or sliced, should be cooked 
in court-bouillon in accordance with directions given at the be- 
ginning of the chapter (No. 776). All fish sauces are suited 
to it, but more especially the following, viz. : — Hollandaise 
sauce, Mousseline sauce, Melted butter. Shrimp sauce, Nantua 
sauce. Cardinal sauce, &c. 

Crimped salmon admits of precisely the same sauces. 

78s— BROILED SALMON 

Cut the salmon to be grilled in slices from one inch to one 
and one-half inches thick. Season with table-salt, sprinkle 
with melted butter or oil, and grill it for the first part on a 
rather brisk fire, taking care to moderate the latter towards the 
close of the operation. Allow about twenty-five minutes for 
the grilling of a slice of salmon one and one-half inches thick. 
Butter a la Maitre d'Hotel, anchovy butter, and devilled sauce 
Escoffier are the most usual adjuncts to grilled salmon. 

786— SAUMON A LA MEUNI6RE 

Having cut the salmon into moderately thick slices, season 
these, dredge them slightly, and cook them in the frying-pan 
with very hot clarified butter. 

It is important that the salmon be set and that the cooking 
be rapid. 

Serve it in either of the two ways indicated above (No. 778). 

Various Ways of Preparing Salmon 

In addition to the three methods of serving salmon described 
above, and those cold preparations with which I shall deal 
later, the fish in question lends itself to a whole host of dress- 
ings which are of the greatest utility in the varying of menus. 
The principles of these dressings I shall now give. 

787— CADQEREE OF SALMON 

Prepare one lb. of cooked salmon, cleared of bones and 
§kin, and cut into small pieces; four hard-boiled eggs cut into 



FISH 269 

dice; one lb. of well-cooked pilaff rice; and three-quarters pint 
of Bechamel flavoured with curry. 

Dish in a hot timbale, alternating the various products, and 
finish with a coating of sauce. 

788-COTELETTES DE SAUMON 

Prepare some mousseline forcemeat for salmon, the quantity 
whereof will be in accordance with the number of cutlets to 
be made, and rub it through a coarse sieve. Line the bottom 
and sides of some buttered tin moulds, shaped like cutlets, with 
a coating one-half inch thick of the prepared forcemeat. 

Fill the moulds to within one-third inch of their brims with 
a cold salpicon of mushrooms and truffles, thickened by means 
of reduced Allemande sauce, and cover this with the stuffing. 

Set the cutlets to poach, turn out the moulds; treat the 
cutlets a I'anglaise, and cook them with clarified butter. 

Arrange in a circle round a dish, put a frill on a piece of 
fried bread counterfeiting the bone of the cutlet, garnish with 
fried parsley, and send to the table, separately, a " Dieppoise " 
sauce. Shrimp sauce, or a pur^e of fresh vegetables, such as 
peas, carrots, &c. In the latter case, serve at the same time 
a sauce in keeping with the garnish. 

789— COULIBIAC DE SAUMON 

Preparation. — Have ready two lbs. of ordinary brioche paste 
without sugar (No. 2368). Stiffen in butter one and one-half 
lbs. of small salmon collops, and prepare one-sixth lb. of mush- 
rooms and one chopped onion (both of which should be fried 
in butter), one-half lb. of semolina kache (No. 2292) or the 
same weight of rice cooked in consomm^; two hard-boiled eggs, 
chopped; and one lb. of vesiga, roughly chopped and cooked 
in consomm^. 

For this weight of cooked vesiga about two and one-half oz. 
of dried vesiga will be needed, which should be soaked for at 
least four hours in cold water, and then cooked for three and 
one-half hours in white consomm^. It may also be cooked in 
water. 

Roll the brioche paste into rectangles twelve inches long 
by eight inches wide, and spread thereon in successive layers 
the kache or the rice, the collops of salmon, the chopped 
vesiga, the eggs, the mushrooms, and the onion, and finish with 
a layer of kache or rice. Moisten the edges of the paste and 
draw the longest ends of it towards each other over the enu- 



270 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

merated layers of garnish, and join them so as to properly en- 
close the latter. 

Now fold the two remaining ends over to the centre in a 
similar way. Place the coulibiac thus formed on a baking- 
tray, and take care to turn it over in order that the joining 
parts of the paste lie underneath. 

Set the paste to rise for twenty-five minutes, sprinkle some 
melted butter over the coulibiac, sprinkle with some very fine 
raspings, make a slit in the top for the escape of vapour, and 
bake in a moderate oven for forty-five or fifty minutes. Fill 
the coulibiac with freshly-melted butter when withdrawing it 
from the oven. 

Darnes de Saumon 

The few recipes dealing with " Darnes de Saumon," which 
I give below, may also be adapted to whole salmon after the 
size of the fish has been taken into account in measuring the 
time allowed for cooking. 

790— DARNE DE SAUMON A CHAMBORD 

As already explained, the term " darne " stands for a piece 
of salmon cut from the middle of that fish, and the size of a 
darne is in proportion to the number of people it is intended 
for. 

Proceed after the manner directed under " The Braising of 
Fish " (No. 780); moisten in the proportion of two-thirds with 
excellent red wine and one-third with fish stock, calculating the 
quantity in such wise that it may cover no more than two-thirds 
of the depth of the darne. Bring to the boil, then set to braise 
gently, and glaze the darne at the last moment. 

Garnish and Sauce. — Garnish with quenelles of truffled 
mousseline forcemeat for fish, moulded by means of a spoon ; 
two large ornamented quenelles; truffles fashioned like olives; 
pieces of milt dipped in Villeroy sauce, treated a I'anglaise and 
fried when about to dish up; small gudgeon or smelts treated 
similarly to the milt, and trussed crayfish cooked in court- 
bouillon. 

The sauce is a Genevoise, made from the reduced cooking- 
liquor of the darne. 

Dishing Up. — Surround the darne by the garnishes enu- 
merated, arranging them tastefully, and pierce it with two 
hatelets, each garnished with a small truffle, an ornamented 
quenelle, and a crayfish. 

Send the sauce to the table separately. 



FISH 271 

791— DARNE DE SAUMON A DAUMONT 

Poach the dame in a court-bouillon prepared beforehand. 

Dishing Up and Garnish. — Surround the darne by medium- 
sized mushrooms stewed in butter and garnished with small 
crayfish tails cohered by means of a few tablespoonfuls of 
Nantua sauce; small round quenelles of mousseline forcemeat 
for fish, decorated with truffles, and some slices of milt treated 
a I'anglaise, and fried when about to dish up. 

Serve the Nantua sauce separately. 

792— DARNE DE SAUMON A LUCULLUS 

Skin one side of the darne, lard it with truffles, and braise 
it in champagne. 

The Garnish Round the Darne. — Very small garnished 
patties of crayfish tails ; small cassolettes of milt ; small mousse- 
lines of oysters, poached in dariole-moulds . 

Sauce. — The braising-liquor of the darne finished by means 
of ordinary and crayfish butter in equal quantities. Send it to 
the table separately. 

793— DARNE DE SAUMON A NESSELRODE 

Remove the spine and all other internal bones. Stuff the 
darne with raw lobster mousse stiffened by means of a little 
pike forcemeat. 

Line a well-buttered, round and even raised-pie mould with 
a thin layer of hot-water, raised-pie paste (this is made from one 
lb. of flour, four oz. of lard, one egg, and a little lukewarm 
water), which should be prepared in advance and made some- 
what stiff. Now garnish the inside of the pie with thin slices 
of bacon and place the darne upright in it. (To simplify the 
operation the darne may be stuffed at this stage.) Cover the pie 
with a' layer of the same paste, pinch its edges with those of the 
original lining, make a slit in the top for the steam to escape, 
and cook in a good oven. 

When the pie is almost baked, prod it repeatedly with a 
larding-needle ; when the latter is withdrawn clear of all stuffing 
the pie should be taken from the oven. This done, turn it up- 
side down in order to drain away the melted bacon and other 
liquids inside it, but do not let it drop from the mould. Then 
tilt it on to a dish and take off the mould. Do not break the 
crust except at the dining-table. 

5aMce .-^Serve an American sauce with the pie, the former 
being prepared from the remains of the lobsters used in making 
the mousse, finished with cream, and garnished with very fine 
oysters (cleared of their beards), poached when about to dish up. 



in GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

794— DARNE DE SAUMON R^QfiNCE 

Braise the dame in white wine in accordance with the? 
directions given in No. 780. 

Garnish. — Surround the darne by spoon-moulded quenelles 
of whiting forcemeat prepared with crayfish butter, oysters 
cleared of their beards and poached, small, very white mush- 
rooms, and poached slices of milt. 

Normande sauce finished with truffle essence, 

795— DARNE DE SAUMON A ROYALE 

Braise the darne in Sauterne wine. 

Garnish. — Bunches of crayfishes' tails, small quenelles of 
mousseline forcemeat for fish, small mushrooms, slices of truffle, 
and little balls of potato raised by means of the large, round 
spoon-cutter, and cooked a I'anglaise. 

Send a Normande sauce separately. 

796— DARNE DE SAUMON A VALOIS 

Poach the darne in a white wine court-bouillon. 

Garnish. — Potato balls raised with the spoon-cutter or turned 
to the shape of olives, and cooked in salted water, poached 
slices of milt, and trussed crayfish cooked in court-bouillon. 

Send a Valois sauce separately. 

797— MOUSSELINE DE SAUMON 

In Part I. I dealt with the preparation of mousseline force- 
meat (No. 195), and also the method of poaching spoon-moulded 
quenelles (No. 205). Now mousselines are only large quenelles 
which derive their name from the very light forcemeat of which 
they are composed. These mousseline quenelles are always 
moulded with the ordinary tablespoon, they are garnished on 
top with a fine, raw slice of the fish under treatment, and 
poached after the manner already described. 

798— MOUSSELINE ALEXANDRA 

Having made the salmon mousseline forcemeat, mould tha 
quenelles and place them, one by one, in a buttered saut^pan. 
Place a small, round and very thin slice of salmon on each, and 
poach them in a very moderate oven with lid on the utensil con- 
taining them. 

Drain on a piece of linen, arrange them in a circle on a dish, 
place a slice of truffle upon each slice of salmon, coat with 
Mornay sauce, and glaze. 

Garnish the centre of the dish with very small peas or 
asparagus-heads cohered with butter just before dishing up. 



FISH 273 

799— MOUSSELINE DE SAUMON A LA TOSCA 

Combine one and one-half oz. of crayfish cream-cullis with 
each pound of the salmon mousseline forcemeat. Mould and 
poach as above, drain, and arrange in a circle on a dish. 

Garnish each mousseline with a thin slice of milt cooked in 
lightly-browned butter, four crayfish tails cut lengthwise into 
two, and a slice of truffle at each end. Coat with a light Mor- 
nay sauce, finished with crayfish butter, and glaze quickly. 

N.B. — In addition to these two recipes, all the garnishes 
suitable for fillets of sole may be applied to mousselines. 
Garnishes of early-season vegetable purees also suit them admir- 
ably, and therein lies an almost inexhaustible source of variety. 

800-COLD SALMON 

When salmon is to be served cold it should, as far as pos- 
sible, be cooked, either whole or in large pieces, in the court- 
bouillon given under No. 163 and cooled in the latter. Pieces 
cooked separately may seem better or may be more easily made 
to look sightly, but their meat is drier than that of the salmon 
cooked whole. And what is lost in appearance with the very 
large pieces is more than compensated for by their extra 
quality. 

In dishing cold salmon the skin may be removed and the 
fillets bared, so that the fish may be more easily decorated, but 
the real gourmet will always prefer the salmon served in its 
natural silver vestment. 

In decorating cold salmon use pieces of cucumber, anchovy 
fillets, capers, slices of tomato, curled-leaf parsley, &c. 

I am not partial to the decorating of salmon with softened 
butter, coloured or not, laid on by means of the piping-bag. 
Apart from the fact that this method of decoration is rarely 
artistic, the butter used combines badly with the cold sauces 
and the meat of the salmon on the diner's plate. Very green 
tarragon leaves, chervil, lobster coral, &c., afford a more 
natural and more delicate means of ornamentation. The only 
butter fit to be served with cold salmon is Montpellier butter 
(No. 153), though this, in fact, is but a cold sauce often re- 
sorted to for the coating of the cold fish in question. 

Among the garnishes which suit cold salmon, I might men- 
tion small peeled, and emptied tomatoes garnished with some 
kind of salad; hard-boiled eggs, either wholly stuffed, or stuffed 
in halves or in quarters, barquettes, tartlets and cassolettes 
made from cucumber or beetroot, parboiled until almost com- 
pletely cooked and garnished with a pur^e of tunny, of sar- 

T 



274 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

dines, of anchovies, &c. ; small aspics of shrimps or of cray- 
fishes' tails; small slices of lobster, &c. 

Almost all the cold sauces may accompany cold salmon. 

8oi— SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID 
A LA ROYALE 

Having drained and dried the salmon or the darne, remove 
the skin from one of its sides, and coat the bared fillets with 
a layer of a preparation of mousse de saumon, letting it lie 
rather more thickly over the middle than the sides. Coat the 
layer of mousse with mayonnaise sauce thickened by means of 
fish jelly, and leave to set. 

Now let some clear fish jelly set on the bottom of the dish to 
be sent to the table ; place the salmon or the darne on this jelly, 
and surround the piece with a border consisting of Montpellier 
butter, using for the purpose a piping-bag fitted with a grooved 
pipe. 

Decorate the centre of the piece by means of a fine fleur-de- 
lys made from trufHes, and encircle it with two royale crowns 
made from anchovy fillets. 

802— SAUMON FROID OU DARNE DE SAUMON 
A LA PARISIENNE 

Remove the skin in suchwise as to leave the bared portion 
in the shape of a regular rectangle, equidistant from the tail and 
the head; or, in the case of a darne, occupying two-thirds of 
its surface. 

Cover the bared portion with mayonnaise sauce thickened 
with fish jelly and leave it to set. 

Now stand the piece on a small cushion of rice or semolina, 
shaping the latter like the piece itself ; trim the sauced rectangle 
with a border of Montpellier butter, laid on by means of a 
piping-bag fitted with a small grooved pipe. Garnish the centre 
of the rectangle with pieces of lobster coral, the chopped, hard- 
boiled white and yolk of an egg, chervil leaves, &c. 

Encircle the piece with a border of small artichoke-bottoms, 
garnished, in the form of a dome, with a small macedoine of 
vegetables cohered with cleared mayonnaise. 

Send a mayonnaise sauce to the table separatel}'^. 

803— SAUMON FROID OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID 
A LA RIGA 

Prepare a salmon or a darne as in the preceding recipe, and 
dish it on a cushion in order that it may be slightly raised. 



FISH 275 

Surround it with grooved sections of cucumber hollowed to 
represent small timbales, well parboiled, marinaded with a few- 
drops of oil and lemon-juice and filled with a vegetable salad 
thickened with mayonnaise; indented, halved eggs filled with 
caviare; and tartlets of vegetable salad cohered with mayon- 
naise, and garnished, each with a crayfish-shell stuffed with 
crayfish mousse; alternate these various garnishes, and encircle 
with a border of jelly dice. 

804— SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID 

EN BELLE-VUE 

Skin the salmon or the darne, set the piece upright upon 
the belly side, and decorate the fillets with pieces of truffles, 
poached white of egg, chervil leaves, and tarragon, &c. 

Coat the garnish with a little melted fish aspic so as to fix it. 

This done, sprinkle the piece, again and again, with the 
same melted aspic jelly in order to cover it with a kind of trans- 
parent veil. 

Place the piece thus prepared in a crystal receptacle 
similarly shaped to the fish, and fill the former to the brim with 
very clear, melted jelly. 

When dishing up, incrust the receptable containing the fish 
in a block of clean ice which, in its turn, is laid on the dish to 
be sent to the table. Another way is to place the crystal utensil 
direct upon the dish and to surround the former with broken 
ice. 

80s— SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID 

AU CHAMBERTIN 

Poach the salmon or the darne in a court-bouillon consist- 
ing of very clear fish fumet and Chambertin wine, in equal 
quantities, and leave to cool. Prepare an aspic jelly from the 
court-bouillon. 

Skin and decorate the salmon or the darne and glaze it with 
white aspic jelly, exactly as directed above, in the case of the 
Belle- vue. 

Dish in the same way, in a crystal receptacle, and fill the 
latter with the prepared aspic jelly. Serve on a block of ice, or 
with broken ice around the utensil. 

806-SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID 

A LA NORVEQIENNE 

Skin and decorate the salmon or the darne, and glaze it with 
white aspic jelly precisely as in No. 804. 

Let a coating of very clear jelly set on the bottom of the 

T 2 



276 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

dish to be sent to the table. Upon this aspic jelly lay a cushion 
the same shape as the fish, of semolina, or of carved rice. 

Set the piece (salmon or darne), decorated and glazed, upon 
this cushion, and lay thereon a row of fine prawns, cleared of 
their abdominal shell. 

Surround with a garnish of small cucumber timbales, well 
parboiled, marinaded, and garnished dome-fashion, with a 
pur^e of smoked salmon ; halved, hard-boiled eggs, glazed with 
aspic ; very small tomatoes, or halved medium-sized ones, 
peeled, pressed in the corner of a towel to return them to their 
original shape, stuck with a bit of parsley-stalk, and decorated 
with leaves of green butter moulded by means of the piping- 
bag; and small barquettes of cooked and marinaded beetroot, 
garnished with shrimps' tails cohered with mayonnaise. 

Send a Russe sauce separately. 

807— COTELETTES FROIDES DE SAUMON 

Liberally butter some tin cutlet-shaped moulds. Line their 
bottoms and sides with a very red slice of salmon, as thin as a 
piece of cardboard. This slice should be long enough to project 
outside the brim of the mould to the extent of one-half inch. 

Garnish the insides of the moulds with well-seasoned salmon 
meat, and draw the projecting lengths of salmon across this 
meat so as to enclose the latter and finish off the cutlets. 

Arrange the moulds on a baking-tray; poach the cutlets, 
dry, in a moderate oven ; turn them out of their moulds on to 
another tray as soon as they are poached, and let them cool. 
Then coat them with a half-melted aspic, and decorate them 
according to fancy, either with very green peas or a leaf of 
chervil with a bit of lobster coral in its centre — in a word, some- 
thing simple and neat. 

These cutlets, which are generally served at ball-suppers, 
may be dished on a tazza, on a cushion of rice, semolina, corn- 
flour, or stearine, and laid almost vertically against a pyramid 
of vegetable salad cohered by means of mayonnaise with 
aspic. In this case the dish is finished ofif with a hatelet stuck 
into the middle of the pyramid. 

The cutlets may also be arranged in a circle on a flat, shal- 
low, silver or crystal dish, and covered with a delicate cold 
melted jelly. 

Whatever be the selected method of dishing, always send 
to the table with the cutlet a sauceboat of cold sauce. 
808— M^DAILLONS DE SAUMON 

These medallions have the same purpose as the cutlets 
already described, and are prepared thus: — 



FISH 277 

Cut some small slices, one-third inch thick, from a fillet of 
salmon. 

Arrange them on a buttered tray; poach them, dry, in a 
moderate oven, and cool them under a light weight. 

Now trim them neatly, with an even cutter, oval or round, 
in accordance with the shape they are intended to have. 

Coat them, according to their purpose, either with mayon- 
naise sauce or one of its derivatives, thickened with jelly, or a 
white, pink, or green chaud-froid sauce. Decorate it in any 
way that may be fancied, and glaze them with cold melted aspic 
jelly. 

Dish after the manner described under " Cotelettes " (see 

above). 

809— MAYONNAISE DE SAUMON 

Garnish the bottom of a salad-bowl with moderately 
seasoned, ciseled lettuce. Cover with cold, cooked and flaked 
salmon, thoroughly cleared of all skin and bones. 

Coat with mayonnaise sauce, and decorate with anchovy 
fillets, capers, stoned olives, small slices or roundels or quarters 
of hard-boiled eggs, small hearts of lettuce, a border of little 
roundels of radish, &c. 

810— SALADE DE SAUMON 

This preparation comprises the same ingredients as the 
above, with the exception of the mayonnaise sauce. The de- 
corating garnish is placed directly upon the salmon, and the 
whole is seasoned in precisely the same way as an ordinary 
salad. 

TROUT. 

From the culinary standpoint, trout are divided into two 
quite distinct classes, viz., large trout, whereof the typical 
specimen is Salmon-trout, and small or fresh-water trout. 

811— TRUITE SAUMONEE (Salmon Trout) 

In its many preparations, salmon-trout may be replaced 
by salmon, and all the recipes relating to the former may be 
adapted to the latter. 

In any case, however, as its size is less than that of salmon, 
it is very rarely cut into darnes, being more generally served 
whole. 

The few recipes that follow are proper to salmon-trout. 

812— TRUITE A LA CAMBAC^RES 

Select a male trout in preference; clean it, and remove its 
gills without opening it in th? region of the belly. 



278 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Skin it on one side, starting at a distance of one inch from 
the head and finishing within two and one-half inches of the 
root of the tail. 

Lard the bared portions with trufHes and the red part only 
of carrots cut into rods. 

This done, spread out a napkin, lay the trout thereon, belly 
under, and, with a sharp knife, separate the two fillets from 
the bones, beginning in the region of the head and proceeding 
straight down to where the body converges towards the 
tail. 

The spine being thus liberated, sever it at both ends; i.e., 
from the tail and the head, and withdraw it, together with all 
the adhering ventral bones. The intestines are then removed, the 
inside of the fish is well cleaned, the fillets are seasoned on their 
insides, and the trout is stuffed with a mousseline forcemeat of 
raw crayfish. The two fillets are drawn together, and the trout, 
thus reconstructed, is covered with thin slices of bacon and laid 
on the drainer of the fish-kettle and braised in Sauterne wine. 

When the fish is done, remove the slices of bacon, glaze it, 
and dish it up. Surround it with alternate heaps of morels 
tossed in butter and milt k la Meuni^re. 

Send to the table, separately, a fine Bechamel sauce, com- 
bined with the braising-liquor of the trout, strained and re- 
duced, and finished with crayfish butter. 

813— TRUITES SAUMONEES FROIDES 

We are now concerned with a whole series of unpublished 
" Trout " preparations, which are at once of superfine delicacy 
and agreeable aspect, and which admit of clean and easy 
dishing. 

Cook a trout weighing from two to three lbs. in court- 
bouillon, and let it cool in the latter. Then drain it; sever 
the head and tail from the body, and put them aside. Com- 
pletely skin the whole fish, and carefully separate the two fillets 
from the bones. 

Deck each fillet with tarragon and chervil leaves, lobster 
coral, poached white of eggs, &c., and set them, back to back, 
upon a mousse of tomatoes lying in a special, long white or 
coloured porcelain dish about one and one-half to two inches 
deep. 

Replace the head and tail, and cover the whole with a coat- 
ing of half-melted, succulent fish aspic, somewhat clear. Let 
the aspic set, and incrust the dish containing the trout in a 
block of ice, or surround it with the latter broken. 



FISH 279 

814— PREPARATION DE LA MOUSSE DE TOM AXES 

This mousse, like those which I shall give later, is really a 
bavarois without sugar. Its recipe is exactly the same as that 
of the " bavarois of fruit," except with regard to the question 
of sugar. 

Cook one-half lb. of tomato pulp (cleared of skin and seeds, 
and roughly chopped) in one oz. of butter. When the pulp 
has thoroughly mingled with the butter, add thereto two table- 
spoonfuls of velout^ thickened by means of eight leaves of 
gelatine per quart of the sauce. 

Rub through tammy, and add to the preparation, when 
almost cold, half of its volume of barely-whipped cream. Taste 
the mousse ; season with a few drops of lemon juice, and if it 
still seems flat, add the necessary salt and a very little cayenne. 

N.B. — It will be seen that I prescribe cream only half- 
whipped. This precaution, however, does not apply to 
"Mousse de Tomates " alone, but to all mousses. Well- 
whipped cream imparts a dry and woolly taste to them, whereas, 
when it is only half-whipped, it renders them unctuous and 
fresh to the palate. 

From the point of view of delicacy, the respective results of 
the two methods do not bear comparison. 

815— OTHER PREPARATIONS OF TROUT 
after the same recipe 

By proceeding exactly as directed in the foregoing recipe, 
and by substituting one of the following m,ousses for the 
"Mousse de Tomates," it will be found that considerable 
variety may be introduced into menus : — 

1. Crayfish Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with crayfish 
tails and tarragon leaves. 

2. Lobster Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with slices of 
lobster, coral, and chervil. 

3. Shrimp Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with crayfish 
tails and capers. 

4. Capsicum Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with strips 
of grilled capsicum. 

5. Physalia Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with chervil, 
tarragon, and bunches of physalia around the fillets. 

6. Green Pimentos Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with 
strips of green pimentos. 

7. Early-season Herb Mousse with fillets of trout, decked 
with chopped, hard-boiled eggs, and chopped parsley. 

8. Volnay Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with anchovy 
fillets, capers, and olives. 



28o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

9. Chambertin Mousse with fillets of trout decked like No. 8. 

N.B. — In the making of "Mousse au Vol nay " and " au 
Chambertin " the base of the preparations is supplied by cleared 
velout6, to which is added the reduced cooking-liquor of the 
trout. 

All these recipes are equally suitable for sole or chicken- 
turbot. 

815a— ONDINES AUX CREVETTES ROSES 

Prepare a very delicate trout mousse, mould it in egg-moulds, 
and garnish the centre with trimmed prawns' tails. Let the 
mousse set; then speedily turn the undines out of their moulds, 
and lay them in a deep entree-dish. Between each of them lay 
a few prawns, the tails of which should be shelled. Cover 
the whole, little by little, with some excellent, half-melted jelly ; 
here and there add a few sprigs of chervil, and then fill up 
the dish with jelly, so as to completely cover the mousses. 

816— FRESH-WATER TROUT 

The best are those procured in mountainous districts, where 
the clear water they inhabit is constantly refreshed by strong 
currents. 

The two leading methods of preparing them are called, re- 
spectively, " Au bleu " and " k la Meuni^re." Having already 
described the latter, I shall now give my attention to " Truite 
au bleu." 

This preparation is held in very high esteem in Switzerland 
and Germany, where fresh-water trout are not only plentiful, but 
of excellent quality. 

817— TRUITES AU BLEU 

The essential condition for this dish consists in having live 
trout. Prepare a court-bouillon with plenty of vinegar (No. 
163), and keep it boiling in a rather shallow basin. 

About ten minutes before dishing them, take the trout out 
of water; stun them by a blow on the head; empty and clean 
them very quickly, and plunge them into the boiling liquid, 
where they will immediately shrivel, while their skin will break 
in all directions. 

A few minutes will suffice to cook trout the average weight 
of which is one-third lb. 

Drain them and dish them immediately upon a napkin, with 
curled-leaf parsley all round. Serve them with a HoUandaise 
sauce or melted butter. 



FISH 281 

N.B. — Fresh-water trout may also be served fried or grilled, 
but neither of these methods of preparation suits them so well 
as " ^ la Meuni^re " or " au bleu," which I have given. 

SOLES. 

Sole may be served whole or filleted, and a large number 
of the recipes given for the whole fish may be adapted to its 
fillets. 

As a rule, the fillets are made to appear on the menu of a 
dinner owing to the fact that they dish more elegantly and are 
more easily served than the whole fish, the latter being generally 
served at luncheons. 

Nevertheless, in cases where great ceremony is not observed 
at a dinner, soles may well be served whole, inasmuch as no 
hard-and-fast rule has ever obtained in this matter. 

818— SOLE ALICE 

This sole is prepared, or rather its preparation is com- 
pleted, at tlie table. 

Have an excellent fish fumet (No. 11), short and very white. 
Trim the sole ; put it into a special, deep earthenware dish, the 
bottom of which should be buttered ; pour the fumet over it and 
poach gently. 

Now send it to the table with a plate containing separate 
heaps of one finely-chopped onion, a little powdered thyme, and 
three finely-crushed biscottes. 

In the dining-room the waiter places the dish on a chafer, 
and, taking off the sole, he raises the fillets therefrom, and 
places them between two hot plates. He then adds to the 
cooking-liquor of the sole the chopped onion, which he leaves 
to cook for a few moments, the powdered thyme and a sufficient 
quantity of the biscotte raspings to allow of thickening the 
whole. 

At the last minute he adds six raw oysters and one oz. of 
butter divided into small pieces. 

As soon as the oysters are stiff, he returns the fillets of sole 
to the dish, besprinkles them copiously with the sauce, and then 
serves them very hot. 

N.B. — In order to promote the poaching of the soles, more 
particularly when they are large, the fillets on the upper side 
of the fish should be slightly separated from the bones. By this 
means the heat is able to reach the inside of the fish very 
quickly, and the operation is accelerated. 



2 82 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

The sole is always laid on the dish with its opened side 
undermost — that is to say, on its back. 

8 1 9— SOLE MORN AY 

Lay the sole on a buttered dish ; sprinkle a little fish fumet 
over it, and add one-half oz. of butter divided into small pieces. 
Poach gently. 

Coat the bottom of the dish on which the sole is to be served 
with Mornay sauce ; drain the fish, lay it on the prepared dish ; 
cover it with the same sauce; sprinkle with grated Gruy^re 
and Parmesan, and glaze at a Salamander. 

820— SOLE MORNAY DES PROVEN9AUX 

This sole, which used to be served at the famous restaurant 
of the " Fr^res Proven9aux," was prepared, and always may be 
prepared, as follows : — 

Poach the sole in fish fumet and butter, as directed in the 
preceding recipe ; drain it, and place it on a dish ; cover it with 
white-wine sauce; sprinkle liberally with grated cheese, and 
glaze quickly. 

831— SOLE AU CHAMPAGNE 

Poach the sole in a buttered dish with one-half pint of 
champagne. Dish it; reduce its cooking-liquor to half; add 
thereto one-sixth pint of veloutd, and complete with one and 
one-half oz. of best butter. 

Cover the sole with this sauce; glaze, and garnish each side 
of the dish with a little heap of a julienne of filleted sole, 
seasoned, dredged, and tossed in clarified butter at the last 
moment in order to have it very crisp. 

N.B. — By substituting a good white wine for the champagne, 
a variety of dishes may be made, among which may be men- 
tioned : Sofes au Chablis, Soles au Sauterne, Sole au Samos, 
Sole au Chateau Yquem, &c., &c. 

822— SOLE COLBERT 

On the upper side of the fish separate the fillets from the 
spine, and break the latter in several places. Dip the sole in 
milk ; roll it in flour ; treat it a I'anglaise, and roll the separated 
fillets back a little, so that they may be quite free from the 
bones. 

Fry ; drain on a piece of linen ; remove the bones, and fill 
the resulting space with butter a la Maitre d'H&tel. 

Serve the sole on a very hot dish. 



FISH 283 

823— SOLE A LA DAUMONT 

Bone the sole; i.e., sever the spine near the tail and the 
head; remove it, and leave those portions of the fillets which 
He on the remaining extremities of it intact. Garnish the inside 
with whiting forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, and re- 
arrange the fillets in such wise as to give a natural and un- 
touched appearance to the fish. Poach it on a buttered dish 
with one-sixth pint of white wine, the same quantity of the 
cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and one oz. of butter cut into 
small lumps. 

Drain and dish the sole, and cover it with Nantua sauce. 
Place around it four mushrooms stewed in butter and garnished 
with crayfish tails in Nantua sauce; four small, round quenelles 
of whiting forcemeat with cream, decked with truflBes ; and four 
slices of milt treated d I'anglaise and fried at the last moment. 

824— SOLE DOREE 

As I explained under " Fish k la Meuni^re " (No. 778), 
" Sole Dor^e " is a sole fried in clarified butter, dished dry, and 
garnished with slices of carefully peeled lemon. 

825— SOLE DUQL^RE 

All fish treated after this recipe, with the exception of soles, 
should be divided up. 

Put the sole in a buttered dish with one and one-half oz. of 
chopped onion, one-half lb. of peeled and concussed tomatoes, 
a little roughly-chopped parsley, a pinch of table salt, a very 
little pepper, and one-eighth pint of white wine. Set to poach 
gently, and then dish the sole. 

Reduce the cooking-liquor; thicken it with two tablespoon- 
fuls of fish velout^ ; complete with one oz. of butter and a few 
drops of lemon juice, and cover the fish with this sauce. 

826— SOLE GRILLEE 

Season the sole ; sprinkle oil thereon, and grill the fish very 
gently. Send it, garnished with slices of lemon, on a very hot 
dish. 

827— SOLE QRILLEE, AUX HUITRES A L'AM^RICAINE 

This sole may be either grilled or poached, almost dry, in 
butter and lemon juice. With the procedure remaining the 
same, it may also be prepared in fillets. Whatever be the 
mode of procedure, serve it on a very hot dish, and surround 



284 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

it at the last moment with six oysters poached in a little boiling 
Worcestershire sauce. 

Cover the sole immediately with very hot fried bread-crumbs, 
and add thereto a pinch of chopped parsley. 

828— SOLE A LA FERMlfeRE 

Put the sole, seasoned, on a buttered dish with a few aro- 
matics. Add one-third pint of excellent red wine, and poach 
gently with lid on. 

Dish up; strain the cooking-liquor, and reduce it to half; 
thicken it with a lump of manied butter the size of a hazel-nut, 
and finish the sauce with one oz. of butter. 

Encircle the sole with a border of mushrooms sliced raw 
and tossed in butter. Pour the prepared sauce over the sole, 
and set to glaze quickly. 

829— SOLE A LA HOLLANDAISE 

Break the spine of the sole by folding it over in several 
places. Put the fish in a deep dish ; cover it with slightly salted 
water; set to boil, and then poach gently for ten minutes with 
lid on. 

Drain and dish on a napkin with very green parsley all 
round. Serve at the same time some plainly boiled potatoes, 
freshly done, and two oz. of melted butter. 

830— SOLE SAINT-QERMAIN 

Season the sole ; dip it in melted butter, and cover it with 
fresh bread-crumbs, taking care to pat the latter with the flat of 
a knife, in order that they may combine with the butter to form 
a kind of crust. Sprinkle with some more melted butter, 
and grill the fish gently so that its coating of bread-crumbs may 
acquire a nice golden colour. Dish the sole, and surround it 
with potatoes turned to the shape of olives, and cooked in butter. 

Send a Bearnaise sauce to the table separately. 

831— SOLE FLORENTINE 

Poach the sole in a fish fumet and butter. Spread a layer 
of shredded spinach, stewed in butter, on the bottom of a dish ; 
place the sole thereon ; cover it with Mornay sauce ; sprinkle 
with a little grated cheese, and set to glaze quickly in the oven 
or at a salamander. 

833— SOLE MONTREUIL 

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet, one-sixth pint 
of white wine, and one-half oz. of butter. 



FISH 285 

Drain as Soon as poached, and surround with potato-balls 
the size of walnuts, cooked in salted water, and kept whole. 
Cover the sole with white-wine sauce, and lay a thread of shrimp 
sauce over the garnish. 

833— SOLE AU GRATIN 

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side 
of the fish, and slip a lump of butter, the size of a walnut, under 
each. 

This done, place the sole on a well-buttered gratin dish, on the 
bottom of which a pinch of chopped shallots and parsley has 
been sprinkled, together with one or two tablespoonfuls of 
Gratin sauce. 

Lay four cooked mushrooms along the sole, and surround it 
with one oz. of raw mushrooms, cut into rather thin slices. 

Add two tablespoonfuls of white wine; cover the sole with 
Gratin sauce; sprinkle with fine raspings followed by melted 
butter, and set the gratin to form in pursuance of the directions 
given under complete Gratin (No. 269). 

When taking the sole from the oven, sprinkle a few drops 
of lemon juice and a pinch of chopped parsley upon it, and 
serve at once. 

834— SOLE AU CHAMBERTIN 

Season the sole and poach it on a buttered dish with one- 
third pint of Chambertin wine. 

As soon as it is poached, drain it, dish it, and keep it hot. 
Reduce the cooking-liquor to half, add thereto a little freshly- 
ground pepper and two or three drops of lemon-juice, thicken 
with a lump of manied butter the size of a walnut, and finish 
the sauce with one and one-half oz. of butter. 

Cover the sole with the sauce, set to glaze quickly, and gar- 
nish both sides of the dish with a little heap of julienne of 
filleted sole, seasoned, dredged, and tossed in clarified butter 
at the last moment so that it may be very crisp. 

835— Remarks concerning "SOLES AUX GRANDS VINS " 

Taking recipe No. 834 as a model, and putting into requi- 
sition all the good wines of Burgundy and Bordeaux, the fol- 
lowing varieties are obtained, viz. : — Soles au Volnay, au 
Pommard, au Romanee, au Clos-Vougeot, or soles au Saint- 
Estfephe, au Chateau-Larose, au Saint-Emilion, &c., &c. 

836— SOLE MONTGOLFIER 

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of white wine and as much 
of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Drain, dish, and cover it 



286 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

with a white wine sauce combined with the reduced cooking- 
liquor of the sole and one tablespoonful of a fine pilienne of 
spiny lobster's tail, mushrooms, and very black truffles. Sur- 
round the sole with a border of little palmettes made from pufT- 
paste and cooked without colouration. 

837— SOLE SUR LE PLAT 

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side 
of the fish, and slip a piece of butter the size of a walnut under 
each. 

Lay the sole on a liberally buttered dish, moisten with one- 
fifth pint of the cooking-liquor of fish, and add a few drops of 
lemon-juice. 

Cook in the oven, basting often the while, until the cooking- 
liquor has by reduction acquired the consistence of a syrup and 
covers the sole with a translucent and glossy coat. 

N.B. — By substituting for the mushroom cooking-liquor a 
good white or red wine, to which a little melted pale meat-glaze 
has been added, the following series of dishes may be prepared, 
viz. : — Sole sur le plat au Chambertin. Sole sur le plat au vin 
rouge, Sole sur le plat au Champagne. Sole sur le plat au 
Chablis, &c., &c. 

838— SOLE REQENCE 

Poach the sole in a little white wine and two-thirds oz. of 
butter cut into small pieces. 

Drain the sole, dish it, and surround it with six quenelles 
of whiting forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, moulded by 
means of a small spoon ; four poached oysters (cleared of their 
beards); four small cooked and very white mushrooms; four 
small truffles, turned to the shape of olives; and four small 
poached slices of milt. Cover the sole and the garnish with a 
Normande sauce finished with a little truffle essence. 

839— SOLE PORTUQAISE 

Poach the sole in white wine and the cooking-liquor of fish. 
Drain, dish, and surround with a garnish consisting of two 
medium-sized tomatoes, peeled, pressed, minced, cooked in 
butter, and combined with minced and cooked mushrooms, and 
a large pinch of chopped chives. 

Coat the sole with white wine sauce, plentifully buttered, 
and take care that none of the sauce touches the garnish. 

Set to glaze quickly, sprinkle the garnish with a pinch of 
chopped parsley when taking the sole from the oven, and serve 
immediately. 



FISH 287 

840— SOLE CUBAT 

Poach the sole in one-fifth pint of the cboking-hquor of 
mushrooms and one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces. 

Coat the bottom of the dish intended for the sole with a 
pur^e of mushrooms, place the drained sole on this pur^e, lay 
six fine slices of truffle along the fish, coat with Mornay sauce, 
sprinkle with cheese, and glaze quickly. 

841— SOLE AUX HUtTRES 

Open and poach six oysters. Poach the sole in the liquor 
of the oysters, drain it, dish it, and surround it with the oysters 
(cleared of their beards). 

Coat with a white wine sauce combined with the reduced 
cooking-liquor of the sole, and glaze quickly. 

842— SOLE A LA MEUNIBRE 

Proceed for this dish as directed under " Fish k la 
Meuni^re" (No. 778). 

843— SOLE MEUNIERE AUX CONCOMBRES, 

otherwise DORIA 

Prepare a sole k la Meuni^re. Garnish it at both ends with 
little heaps of cucumber, turned and cooked in butter with a 
little salt and a pinch of sugar. 

844— SOLE MEUNIERE AUX AUBERGINES 

Prepare a sole k la Meuni^re in the usual way. Surround 
it with a fine border of egg-plant rundles one-third inch thick, 
seasoned, dredged, and fried in clarified butter, just in time to 
be arranged round the sole when it is ready. The question of 
time is important, for if the fried rundles be allowed to wait at 
all they very quickly lose their crispness. 

845— SOLE MEUNIBRE AUX CfiPES 

Prepare the sole k la Meuni^re in the usual way and sur- 
round it with a border of sliced cepes frizzled in butter just be- 
fore dishing up. 

846— SOLE MEUNI6RE AUX MORILLES 

Surround the sole with very fresh morels cooked in salted 
water and then tossed in butter just before dishing up. 
Sprinkle a pinch of chopped parsley over the morels. 



288 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

847— SOLE MEUNIBRE AUX RAISINS 

The sole being ready, encircle it with fresh skinned Mus- 
cadel grapes prepared in advance. 

848-SOLE MEUNIERE A L'ORANQE 

When the sole is cooked and dished, lay thereon a row of 
orange slices, peeled to the pulp and thoroughly pipped, or 
some sections of oranges, likewise peeled to the pulp and care- 
fully pipped. This done, cover the sole and the garnish with 
lightly-browned butter and serve instantly. 

849— SOLE LUTECE 

Line the bottom of the dish intended for the sole with a 
coating of shredded spinach tossed in lightly-browned butter. 
Place the sole, prepared k la Meuni^re, upon this spinach ; lay 
a few rundles of onion and slices of artichoke-bottom tossed in 
butter upon the fish ; and on either side of the sole lay a border 
of potato-slices, freshly cooked in salted water and well 
browned in butter. 

At the last moment cover the whole with lightly-browned 
butter. 

850— SOLE MURAT 

Toss in butter, separately (i) one medium-sized potato cut 
into dice; (2) two small raw artichoke-bottoms, likewise cut 
into dice. Prepare the sole k la Meuni^re, dish it, and surround 
it with the tossed potato and artichoke-bottom, mixed when 
cooked. Lay on the sole five slices of tomato, one-half inch 
thick, seasoned, dredged, and tossed in very hot oil ; sprinkle 
a few drops of pale melted meat-glaze, a little lemon-juice, and 
a pinch of concussed parsley over the sole, and cover the whole 
with slightly-browned butter. Serve instantly. 

851— SOLE A LA PROVEN9ALE 

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet, two table- 
spoonfuls of oil and a piece, the size of a pea, of garlic, well 
crushed. Drain and dish the sole. Coat it with Provengale 
sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor, and sprinkle 
a little concussed parsley over it. 

Surround the sole with four little tomatoes and four 
medium-sized mushrooms stuffed with duxelles flavoured with 
a mite of garlic; these latter should be put in the oven just in 
time for them to be ready at the dishing up of the fish. 



FISH 289 

852— SOLE ARLESIENNE 

Poach the sole in a little fish fumet. Dish it, reduce the 
fumet, and add thereto the following garnish : — Cook a little 
chopped onion in butter, add two medium-sized, peeled, 
emptied, and concussed tomatoes, a bit of garlic, and some con- 
cassed parsley. Cook with lid on, add the reduced fumet and 
twelve pieces of vegetable-marrow, turned to the shape of olives 
and cooked in butter. 

Cover the sole with this garnish and set a little heap of 
fried onion at each end of the dish. 

853— SOLE A LA ROYALE 

Poach the sole in a few tablespoonfuls of fish fumet and two- 
thirds oz. of butter cut into small lumps. Dish the sole and 
set upon it four small cooked mushrooms, four small quenelles 
of fish forcemeat, four crayfishes' tails, and four slices of 
trufHe. 

Surround the sole with potato-balls, raised by means of the 
round spoon-cutter and cooked a I'anglaise, and coat the sole 
and garnish with Normande sauce. 

854— SOLE A LA RUSSE 

Prepare twelve grooved and very thin roundels of carrots, 
cut a small onion into fine slices. Put these vegetables into 
and cut a small onion into fine slices. Put these vegetables into 
one-seventh pint of white wine, and one-third pint of fish fum,et. 
Cook and, in the process, reduce the moistening by half, and 
pour this preparation into a deep dish. 

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side 
of the sole, slip a piece of bvitter, the size of a walnut, under 
each fillet, and put the fish into a deep dish containing the 
preparation. Poach and baste frequently the while. 

As soon as it is poached, dish the sole, also the vegetables 
used in cooking, and keep the whole hot. 

Reduce the cooking-liquor to one-eighth pint, add a few 
drops of lemon juice, and finish it away from the fire with one 
and one-half oz. of butter. Coat the sole and the garnish with 
this sauce. 

855— SOLE RICHELIEU 

Prepare the sole exactly as directed under " Sole k la Col- 
bert " (No. 822). When it is fried, remove the bones and dish 
it. Garnish the inside with butter k la maitre-d'h6tel, and lay 
thereon a row of sliced truffles. 

U 



290 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

856— SOLE NORMANDE 

Poach the sole on a buttered dish with one-sixth pint of fish 
fumet, and the same quantity of the cooking-liquor of mush- 
rooms. Drain and dish the sole, and surround it with mussels, 
poached oysters (cleared of their beards), shrimps' tails, and 
small cooked mushrooms. Put the sole in the oven for a few 
minutes, tilt the dish in order to get rid of all liquid, and coat 
the sole and the garnish with Normande sauce. Make a little 
garland of pale meat-glaze on the sauce, and finish the gar- 
nish with the following articles : — Six fine slices of truffle set 
in a row upon the sole; six small crusts in the shape of 
lozenges, fried in clarified butter and arranged round the 
truffles ; four gudgeons treated a I'anglaise and fried at the last 
moment; and four medium-sized trussed crayfish cooked in 
court-bouillon. 

Set the gudgeons and the crayfish round the dish. 

857— SOLE MARQUERY 

Poach the sole in white wine and fish fumet in the propor- 
tions already given. 

Drain and dish the sole, and surround it with a border of 
mussels and shrimps' tails. Coat the sole and the garnish with 
white wine sauce, well finished with butter, and set to glaze 
quickly. 

858— SOLE MARINI6RE 

Liberally butter a dish, sprinkle a coffeespoonful of chopped 
shallots on the bottom, lay the sole thereon, and poach the 
latter with one-sixth pint of white wine and the same quantity 
of the very clear cooking-liquor of mussels. Drain and dish 
the sole, surround it with mussels (cleared of their beards), and 
keep it hot. 

Reduce the cooking-liquor to half; thicken with a table- 
spoonful of velout^, and the yolks of two eggs, and finish it, 
away from the fire, with two and one-half oz. of butter and a 
pinch of chopped parsley. 

Tilt the dish so as to rid it of the liquid accumulated on the 
bottom, coat the sole and the garnish with the prepared sauce, 
and glaze quickly. 

859— SOLE AU VIN BLANC 

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side 
of the sole, and slip a piece of butter, as large as a walnut, 
under each fillet. Lay the sole in a dish, the bottom of which 



FISH 291 

should be buttered and garnished with a small onion, chopped. 
Moisten with one-quarter pint of ordinary white wine, as much 
fish fumet, and a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of 
mushrooms. Poach gently with lid on. 

Drain and dish the sole, and coat it with a white wine sauce, 
prepared in accordance with one of the methods given in the 
chapter on Sauces (No. in). Glaze quickly, or serve without 
glazing. 

N.B. — " Sole au Vin Blanc " may be prepared after the 
above recipe, but ordinary white wine may be replaced by 
one of the Rhine wines or Moselle, by some Johannisberg, or 
by a good white Burgundy or Bordeaux wine, such as Chablis- 
Moutonne, Savigny, Montrachet, Barsac, Sauternes, and even 
Chateau-Yquem or Ch^teau-Latour. 

In any of these cases the name of the wine may be men- 
tioned, and on the menu may be written Sole au Barsac, Sole 
au Chateau-Yquem, &c. 

860— SOLE DIEPPOISE 

Poach the sole with one-sixth pint of fish fumet and a few 
tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mussels. 

Drain and dish the sole, surround it with poached mussels 
(shelled and cleared of their beards) and shrimps' tails, and 
coat the fish and the garnish with a white wine sauce combined 
with the reduced cooking-liquor. 

861— SOLE DIPLOMATE 

Poach the sole in very clear fish fumet. 
Drain it, dish it, and coat it with Diplomate sauce. 
Set upon it a row of six fine slices of black truffle; these 
should have been previously glazed with pale meat-glaze. 

862— SOLE BONNE FEMME 

Butter the bottom of the dish intended for the sole, and 
besprinkle it with two chopped shallots, one pinch of parsley, 
and one and one-half oz. of raw minced mushrooms. Lay the 
sole upon this garnish, moisten with one-quarter pint of white 
wine and as much fish fumet, and poach gently, taking care to 
baste from time to time. 

When the sole is poached, drain off the cooking-liquor into 
a vegetable-pan, and reduce it quickly to half ; effect the leason 
with two tablespoonfuls of fish velout^, and finish the sauce 
with two oz. of butter. Coat the sole with this sauce and set 
it to glaze in a fierce oven or at a salamander. 

U 2 



292 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

863— SOLE PARISIENNE 

Poach the sole in white wine, the cooking-liquor of mush- 
rooms, and some butter. Drain it thoroughly, dish it, and 
coat it with white wine sauce combined with the reduced cook- 
ing-liquor of the sole. Garnish with a row of six slices of 
truffle and six fine roundels of cooked mushrooms kept very 
white, and finish with four medium-sized trussed crayfish. 

864— SOLE NANTUA 

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet and a few 
tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. 

Drain and dish the sole, surround it with twelve shelled 
crayfishes' tails, and coat it with Nantua sauce. 

Lay a row of very black truffle slices along the middle of the 
fish. 

FILLETS OF SOLE 

Subject to the kind of dish required, fillets of sole are either 
kept in their natural state, they are stuffed and folded over, or 
they are simply folded over without being stuffed, each of which 
methods of preparation will be specially referred to in the 
recipes. 

Whatever be the method adopted, always skin the fillets 
thoroughly; i.e., remove the thin membrane which lies beneath 
the skin, the tendency of which, during the cooking process, is 
to shrink and thereby disfigure the fillet. 

This done, flatten out the fillets with the broad side of a wet 
knife, and trim them slightly if necessary. The poaching of 
fillets of sole must be effected without allowing the cooking- 
liquor to boil, the object being to prevent the pieces losing their 
shape. Fillets should also be kept very white. 

In cases where the exact amount of the poaching-liquor is 
not given, allow one-quarter pint to every four fillets, i.e., to 
every sole. 

865— FILETS DE SOLES AM^RICAINE 

Arrange the folded fillets in a deep, buttered dish, and poach 
them in fish fumet. 

Drain, and dish them in the form of an oval, letting them 
overlap one another with their tail-ends hidden. Garnish the 
centre of the dish with slices of lobster prepared h I'am^ricaine 
(No. 939), and coat the whole with the lobster's sauce. 

866— FILETS DE SOLES ANQLAISE 

Treat the fillets a I'anglaise with fresh and fine bread-crumbs. 
Pat the bread-crumbs over the egg with the flat of a knife, that 



FISH 293 

the two may be well combined; and, with the back of a knife, 
criss-cross the coating of the fillets. 

Cook them gently in clarified butter. Serve on a hot dish, 
and sprinkle the fillets with half-melted butter k la maitre- 
d'hotel. 

867— FILETS DE SOLES ANDALOUSE 

Coat the upper sides of the fillets with fish forcemeat com- 
bined, per pound, with three oz. of chopped capsicum. Roll 
them up, after the manner of a scroll (see No. 914), and 
smooth the forcemeat on the top. Poach the fillets in butter 
and fish fumet. 

The following should have been prepared beforehand : — 
(i) As many small half-tomatoes, stewed in butter and gar- 
nished by means of rizotto with capsicums, as there are fillets 
of sole ; (2) the same number of roundels of egg-plant, seasoned, 
dredged, and fried in oil. 

When dishing, arrange the roundels of egg-plant round the 
dish ; place a stuffed tomato on each roundel of egg-plant, and 
a poached fillet of sole upon each tomato. Sprinkle with 
lightly-browned butter, and serve at once. 

868— FILETS DE SOLES CAPRICE 

Dip the fillets in melted, seasoned butter, and then roll them 
in fresh and fine bread-crumbs. Pat the bread-crumbs with 
the flat of the knife, and with the back of the same instrument 
criss-cross the surface of the fillets. Sprinkle with melted 
butter, and set to grill gently, taking care that the coating of 
bread-crumbs acquires a nice, light-brown colour. 

Lay each grilled fillet on the half of a peeled banana, cooked 
in butter, arid send to the table, separately, a Roberts sauce 
Escoffier, finished with butter. 

869— FILETS DE SOLES CATALANE 

Poach, in the oven, as many emptied and seasoned half- 
tomatoes as there are fillets of sole. Cook some very finely- 
minced onion in oil, without letting it acquire any colour, and 
allow one tablespoonful of the onion to each half-tomato. 

Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in fish fumet just a 
few minutes before dishing them. Garnish the half-tomatoes 
with onion ; arrange them in a circle on a dish, and place a 
fillet of sole upon each. Quickly reduce the cooking-liquor of 
the fillets, and finish it with butter in the proportion of one oz. 
per one-eighth pint of reduced fumet. 

^QHt the fillets and set to glaze quickly. 



294 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

870— FILETS DE SOLES CLARENCE 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. 

They may be dished after the two following methods: — 

1. Put a preparation of Duchesse potatoes in a piping-bay 
fitted with a large, grooved pipe, and describe therewith an 
ornamental design containing as many divisions as there are 
fillets of sole. Lightly gild and brown in the oven. This 
design, consisting of scroll-work, should be prepared before 
poaching the fillets. Lay a fillet in each division of the design, 
and coat with AmericaR j" .uce, prepared with curry and com- 
bined with the meat of the lobster (cut into small dice) which 
has served in the preparation of the sauce. Take care that no 
sauce touches the scroll-work, which should remain well-defined. 

2. Bake some large potatoes in the oven. Open them; re- 
move their pulp, and put into each baked shell a tablespoonful 
of American sauce au currie referred to above. Add a poached 
fillet of sole ; coat with American sauce ; dish these garnished 
potatoes on a napkin, and serve very hot. 

871— FILETS DE SOLES AUX CHAMPIGNONS 

Stew two oz. of small mushrooms in butter. Fold the fillets, 
and poach them in one-sixth pint of the cooking-liquor of mush- 
rooms, and a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Arrange the 
fillets in an oval, and garnish the centre of the dish with the 
stewed mushrooms. 

Reduce the cooking-liquor of the fillets to one-third ; add 
thereto two tablespoonfuls of velout^ ; finish the sauce with one 
oz. of butter, and coat the fillets and the garnish. 

873— FILETS DE SOLES AUX CREVETTES 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. 

Dish them in an oval ; garnish the middle with one oz. of 
shelled shrimps' tails, kept very hot, and coat the fillets and 
the garnish with shrimp sauce. 

873— FILETS DE SOLES CHAUCHAT 

Poach the fillets of sole, folded, in butter and lemon juice. 

Coat the bottom of a dish with Mornay sauce, and set the 
fillets of sole thereon in the form of an oval. Surround the fish 
with roundels of cooked potatoes turned to the shape of corks. 

Cover the fillets and the garnish with Mornay sauce, and 
glaze quickly in a fierce oven or at the salamander. 

874— FILETS DE SOLES BERCY 

Butter the bottom of the dish intended for the soles, and 
■<prinkle it with two finely-chopped shallots. Lay the fillets 



FISH 295 

lengthwise upon the dish, side by side; moisten with three 
tablespoonfuls of white wine and as much fish fumet, and add 
one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces. 

Cook in the oven, basting frequently the while, and glaze 
at the last minute. Besprinkle with a few drops of lemon 
juice, and when about to serve drop a pinch of chopped parsley 
upon each fillet. 

Or, poach the fillets with chopped shallots, and increase the 
moistening. As soon as the fillets are ready, drain off their 
cooking-liquor into a vegetable-pan ; reduce it speedily to one- 
third, and add a few drops of meat-glaze, a little lemon juice, 
one-half oz. of butter, and one pinch of chopped parsley. 

Coat the fillets, and set to glaze quickly. 

N.B. — Sole k la Bercy may be prepared after either of the 
two methods. 

875— FILETS DE SOLES DEJAZET 

Treat the fillets of sole d I'anglaise and grill them as 
explained under No. 860. 

Dish them, cover them thinly with half-melted tarragon 
butter, and deck each fillet with five or six parboiled, tarragon 

876— FILETS DE SOLES GRAND DUC 

Fold the fillets of soles over, and poach them in fish fumet 
and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Arrange them in an 
oval on a dish, with their tails pointing inwards; place a fine 
slice of truffle in the middle of each fillet, and between each of 
the latter three shelled crayfishes' tails. 

Coat with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly. 

When taking the dish from the oven, set in its centre a 
fine heap of very green asparagus-heads, cohered with butter 
at the moment of dishing. 

877— FILETS DE SOLES JOINVILLE 

Select some fine fillets of soles; fold them, and poach them 
in the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and butter, taking care 
to keep them very white. Arrange them in an oval, with their 
tails pointing upwards and the carapace of a crayfish fixed on 
each fillet; and garnish the middle of the dish with a salpicon 
or a short julienne, consisting of one and one-half oz. of cooked 
mushrooms, one-half oz. of truffle, and one and one-half oz. of 
shrimps' tails cohered by means of a few tablespoonfuls of 
Joinville sauce. Coat the fillets and the garnish with the same 
sauce, and deck each fillet with a fine slice of truffle coated with 
meat-glaze. 



296 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

They may also be served after the old-fashioned way, as 
follows : — 

Set the garnish in the middle of the dish, shaping it like a 
dome ; coat it with Joinville sauce, and surround it with the 
fillets of sole, which should slightly overlap one another and 
have their tails uppermost. Fix a carapace of crayfish on the 
tail of each fillet, and deck each with a slice of very black 
truffle. 

With this method of dishing, the garnish alone is coated 
with sauce, the fillets thus forming a white, encircling border. 

878— FILETS DE SOLES JUDIC 

Fold, and poach the fillets in butter and lemon juice. 

Arrange them in an oval round a dish, laying each upon a 
nice little braised and trimmed half lettuce, and place upon each 
fillet a quenelle of sole mousseline-foTcemeat in the shape of a 
flattened oval, poached at the time of dishing up. 

Coat with Mornay sauce and glaze quickly. When taking 
the dish out of the oven, encircle the fillets of sole with a thread 
of buttered meat-glaze. 

879— FILETS DE SOLES A LA HONQROISE 

Fry in butter, without colouration, one small tablespoonful 
of chopped onion seasoned with a very little paprika; moisten 
with three tablespoonfuls of white wine and one-sixth pint of 
fish fumet ; add two small peeled, pressed, and roughly-chopped 
tomatoes, and set to cook for seven or eight minutes. 

Fold the fillets of sole ; lay them on a buttered dish ; pour 
the above preparation thereon, and poach them. Arrange them 
in a circle on a dish ; reduce their cooking-liquor to a stiff 
consistence ; add a few tablespoonfuls of cream and a few drops 
of lemon juice, and coat the fillets with this sauce. 

880— FILETS DE SOLES LADY EGMONT 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in a few tablespoonfuls of 
excellent fish fumet. 

Also for every four fillets (i.e., per sole) finely minee one oz. 
of well-cleaned mushrooms, and cook them quickly in butter, 
lemon juice, a little salt, and pepper. This done, add the 
cooking-liquor to the fish fumet, and keep the cooked minced 
mushrooms hot. 

Reduce the combined cooking-liquor and fish fumet to half ; 
add thereto one oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of cream ; 
and to the resulting sauce add the reserved minced mushrooms 
and two tablespoonfuls of freshlyTCOoked and wplj-drained as- 
paragus-headsj uncoolpd. 



FISH 297 

Serve the fillets of sole on an earthenware dish, coat them 
with the above garnish, and set to glaze quickly in a fierce 
oven or at the salamander. 

881— FILETS DE SOLES MARINETTE 

Poach a sole in fish fumet and the cooking-liquor of mush- 
rooms, and drain it on a napkin. When it is still lukewarm, 
carefully raise its fillets and trim them. 

Break an egg into a bowl; beat it well, and add enough 
grated Gruy^re and Parmesan to it (mixed in equal quantities) 
to produce a dense paste. Mix a dessertspoonful of cold 
Bechamel sauce with this paste; add salt and cayenne pepper; 
spread an even thickness of one inch of it over two of the fillets 
of sole; lay thereon the two remaining fillets, and put aside in 
the cool. 

When the egg and cheese paste is very stiff, dip the fillets 
in a Villeroy sauce, and leave the latter to cool. Then treat the 
stuffed and sauced fillets a I'anglaise, and fry them, just before 
serving, in very hot fat. 

Dish on a napkin with very green parsley all round. 

882— FILETS DE SOLES MARIE STUART 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. Arrange 
them in an oval on a dish ; coat them with the sauce given 
under " Filets de soles k la New-burg" (No. 890), and place 
on each fillet a quenelle of fish forcemeat in the shape of a quoit 
and decked with a slice of truffle. These quenelles should, if 
possible, be poached just before dishing up, and well drained 
before being laid on the fillets of sole. 

883— FILETS DE SOLES MIGNONETTE 

Cook the fillets in butter, and set them in a hot timbale. 

Surround them with potato-balls the size of peas, raised by 
means of the round spoon-cutter, and cooked beforehand in 
butter. 

Lay upon the fillets eight or ten slices of fresh truffle heated 
in one-sixth pint of very light meat-glaze. 

Finish the glaze in which the slices of truffle have been 

heated with two-thirds oz. of butter and a few drops of lemon 

juice, and pour it over the fillets and their garnish. Serve very 

hot. 

884— FILETS DE SOLES MIMI 

Divide a live lobster into two, lengthwise, and prepare it 

k I'am^ricaine, taking care to keep the sauce short. 

Wl^en the lobster is cooked, take the me^t from the tail ; put 



298 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

it into as many slices as there are fillets of sole, and keep them 
hot. 

Remove all the meat from the claws, and that remaining in 
the carcass; pound all of it smoothly, add two tablespoonfuls 
of cream, and rub through a fine sieve. Prepare a garnish of 
spaghetti with cream, and add thereto the puree of lobster. 

Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in Chablis wine and 
butter. All this being done, lay the two emptied halves of the 
lobster on a napkin lying on a dish, setting them back to back. 
Fill these lobster shells to the brim with the prepared garnish 
of spaghetti. Upon this garnish lay the poached fillets of sole, 
sandwiching a slice of lobster between every two ; besprinkle the 
whole with a short and fine julienne of very black truffle. 

Send the lobster sauce, finished with a few tablespoonfuls of 
cream, to the table separately. Proceed as quickly as possible 
with the dishing up, in order that the dish may reach the table 
very hot. 

885— FILETS DE SOLES MEXICAINE 

Coat the fillets with fish forcemeat, and roll them to resemble 
scrolls (see No. 914). Poach them in fish fumet as directed for 
the faupiettes. Lay each rolled fillet in a grilled mushroom 
garnished with one-half tablespoonful of peeled, pressed, and 
concussed tomato cooked in butter, and arrange them in an 
oval on a dish. 

Coat them with Bechamel sauce combined with a pur^e of 
tomatoes and capsicums cut into small dice, in the proportion 
of two tablespoonfuls of the puree and two-thirds oz. of the 
capsicums per pint of the sauce. 

886— FILETS DE SOLES MIRABEAU 

Poach the fillets, left in their natural state, in fish fumet. 

Dish them and coat with white wine and Gen^voise sauces, 
alternating the two, white and brown. Lay a thin strip of 
anchovy fillet between each of the fillets of sole; deck those of 
the latter coated with white sauce with a slice of truffle, and those 
coated with brown sauce with a star of blanched tarragon 
leaves. 

887— FILETS DE SOLES MIRAMAR 

Divide each of the fillets into slices; season them and cook 
them in butter. Cut fifteen roundels (one-third inch thick) of 
egg-plant; season, dredge, and toss them in butter, taking care 
to keep them very crisp. 

Take a timbale of suitable size, and line its sides with a 
layer (three-quarters inch thick) of pilaff rice. 



FISH 299 

Put the roundels of egg-plant and the sliced fillets of sole 
(mixed and tossed together for a moment) in the middle of the 
dish. 

Just before serving, sprinkle with one oz. of lightly-browned 
butter. 

888— FILETS DE SOLES AUX HUITRES 

Open and poach twelve oysters. Poach the fillets of sole, 
folded, in the oyster liquor strained through linen, and a piece 
of butter as large as a walnut. 

Arrange in an oval on a dish ; garnish the centre with the 
poached oysters (cleared of their beards), and coat the fillets 
of sole and the oysters with Normande sauce combined with 
the reduced cooking-liquor of the fillets. 

889— FILETS DE SOLES NELSON 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. 

Arrange them in a circle on a dish ; coat them with white- 
wine sauce, and glaze quickly. 

Garnish the centre of the dish with a pyramid of potato- 
balls cooked in butter and of a light-brown colour. Surround 
the fillets with poached milt. 

890— FILETS DE SOLES NEW-BURG 

Prepare a lobster a la New-burg, in accordance with one of 
the recipes given (No. 948 and 949). Cut the tail into as many 
slices as there are fillets of sole, and keep them hot. 

Cut the remainder of the lobster meat into dice, and add these 
to the sauce. Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in fish 
fumet. Arrange them in an oval on a dish ; lay a slice of lobster 
upon each fillet, and coat with the lobster-sauce combined with 
the dice, prepared as directed above. 

891— FILETS DE SOLES ORIENTALE 

Prepare the fillets exactly as those a la New-burg, but season 
the sauce with curry. 

Having dished and sauced the fillets, set a pyramid of rice 
a rindienne in the middle of the dish, or send the rice to the 
table separately, in a timbale; either way will be found to 
answer. 

892— FILETS DE SOLES PERSANE 

Prepare the fillets as in the case of those k la New-burg, but 
season the sauce with Paprika, and add thereto one oz. of cap- 
sicums cut into large dice. Send some pilaff rice with saffron 
to the table separately. 



300 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

893— FILETS DE SOLES ORLY 

Season the fillets; dip them into batter and, a few minutes 
before serving, put them into very hot fat. Drain them; dish 
them on a napkin with fried parsley, and serve a tomato sauce 
separately. 

N.B. — There are several ways of preparing these fillets of 
sole. Thus they may be simply dipped in milk, dredged, and 
impaled on a hatelet. They may also be marinaded, treated 
a I'anglaise, and twisted into cork-screw shape. 

Always, however, dish them on a napkin with fried parsley 
and, in every case, send a tomato sauce to the table separately. 

This last accompaniment is essential. 

894— FILETS DE SOLES OLQA, otherwise " OTERO " 

Bake beforehand, in the oven, as many fine, well-washed 
potatoes as there are fillets of sole. As soon as they are done, 
remove a piece of the baked shell, and withdraw the pulp in 
such wise as to leave nothing but the long, parched shells. Fold 
the fillets, and poach them with a little excellent fish fumet. 
Garnish the bottom of each prepared shell with a tablespoonful 
of shelled shrimps' tails, cohered with a white-wine sauce. 

Put a poached fillet of sole upon this garnish ; cover with 
sufficient Mornay sauce to completely fill the shell ; sprinkle 
with grated cheese, and glaze quickly. Dish on a napkin the 
moment the fillets have been taken from the oven, and serve 
immediately. 

89s— FILETS DE SOLES POLIQNAC 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in one-quarter pint of white 
wine, a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, 
and a piece of butter about the size of a walnut. 

Dish the fillets in an oval. Reduce the cooking-liquor to 
half; thicken it by means of two tablespoonfuls, bare, of fish 
velout6; finish the sauce with one oz. of butter, and add thereto 
three small, cooked, finely-minced mushrooms, and one table- 
spoonful of a julienne of truffles. 

Coat the fillets with sauce, and set to glaze. 

896— FILETS DE SOLES PAYSANNE 

For the fillets of soles, cut two small carrots, two new onions, 
a stick of celery, and the white of one leek in paysanne fashion. 
Season these vegetables with a very little table-salt and a pinch 
of sugar ; stew them in butter ; moisten sufficiently to cover them 
with lukewarm water; and add a few pieces of broccoli, a table- 
spoonful of peas, and the same quantity of French beans cyt 
into lozenges. 



FISH 301 

Complete the cooking of the vegetables while reducing the 
cooking-liquor. Season the fillets of sole, and lay them on a 
buttered earthenware dish. Pour thereon the garnish of vege- 
tables; put the cover on the dish, and gently poach the fillets. 

When they are cooked, tilt the dish so as to pour all the 
liquor away into a vegetable-pan; this done, reduce the liquor 
to one-fifth pint, and add to it three oz. of butter. 

Pour this sauce into the dish containing the fillets and the 
vegetable garnish, and serve immediately. 

897— FILETS DE SOLES EN PILAW A LA LEVANTINE 

Cut the fillets into collops, and toss these in butter. Prepare 
some pilaff rice after the usual recipe (No. 2255), and add 
thereto one oz. of capsicum cut into dice. 

Also toss in butter one and one-half oz. of egg-plant, cut 
into dice and seasoned, and put these with the fillets of sole. 
Mould the rice into a border round the dish ; put the fillets and 
the egg-plant in the middle, and coat the two with curry sauce 
without letting the latter touch the rice. 

N.B. — In the case of pilaff rice with fillets of sole, the rice 
should border the dish, and the fillets of sole, tossed in butter, 
should be laid in the middle and coated with brown butter. 

898— FILETS DE SOLES POMPADOUR 

Treat the fillets with butter and bread-crumbs, and grill 
them. Garnish them all round with a thread of very firm 
b^arnaise tomat^e. Dish and surround them with a border of 
Chateau potatoes (No. 2208). 

Lay a fine slice of truffle, moistened with melted meat-glaze, 
on each fillet. 

899 -FILETS DE SOLES RACHEL 

Coat the fillets with some delicate fish forcemeat; put four 
slices of truffle on the forcemeat of each of the fillets ; fold the 
latter, and poach them in one-sixth pint of the cooking-liquor 
of mushrooms, and a piece of butter the size of a walnut, cut 
into small pieces. 

Arrange the fillets in an oval on a dish, and coat them with 
white-wine sauce combined with one tablespoonful of freshly- 
cooked and uncooled asparagus-heads, and one tablespoonful 
of truffle in dice per every one-half pint of the sauce. 

900— FILETS DE SOLES VENITIENNE 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. 
Arrange them in a circle on a dish, alternating them with 
thin crusts, in the shape of hearts, fried in butter. Coat with 



302 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Venetian sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor of 

the fillets. 

901— FILETS DE SOLES VERDI 

Prepare a garnish of macaroni cut into dice ; cohere this 
with cream and grated Gruy^re and Parmesan, and add three 
oz. of lobster meat and one and one-half oz. of truffles in dice 
per every one-half lb. of the macaroni. 

Poach the fillets of sole in fish fumet, keeping the fillets in 
their natural state. Lay the macaroni very evenly on the dish ; 
set the poached fillets of sole upon it ; coat with Mornay sauce, 
and set to glaze quickly. 

902— FILETS DE SOLES VICTORIA 

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fuvtet. 

Arrange them in an oval on a dish, and garnish the centre 
with three oz. of the meat from the tail of the spiny lobster, 
and one oz. of truffle in dice per every four fillets. 

Coat the fillets and the garnish with Victoria sauce, and set 
to glaze quickly. 

903— FILETS DE SOLES VERONIQUE 

Raise the fillets of a fine sole ; beat them slightly ; fold and 
season them, and put them in a special earthenware, buttered 
dish. 

With the bones, some of the trimmings of the fish, a little 
minced onion, some parsley stalks, a few drops of lemon juice, 
and white wine and water, prepare two spoonfuls of fumet. 

This done, strain it over the fillets, and poach them gently. 

Drain them carefully; reduce the fumet to the consistence 
of a syrup, and finish it with one and one-half oz. of butter. 
Arrange the fillets in an oval on the dish whereon they have 
been poached; cover them with the buttered fumet, and set to 
glaze quickly. When about to serve, set a pyramid of skinned 
and very cold muscadel grapes in the middle of the dish. 

Put a cover on the dish, and serve immediately. 

904— FILETS DE SOLES WALEV^SKA 

Poach the fillets in fish fumet, keeping them in their natural 
state. 

Dish, and surround them with three langoustines' tails cut 
into two lengthwise, and stewed in butter (with lid on) with six 
fine slices of raw truffle. 

Coat with a delicate Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly. 

N.B. — The Mornay sauce may, according to circumstances, 
be combined with one and one-half oz. of langoustine butter 
per pint. 



FISH 303 

90s— FILETS DE SOLES WILHELMINE 

Prepare some potato shells as directed under " Filets de soles 
Olga " (No. 894). Garnish them with a tablespoonful of 
cucumber with cream ; put a fillet of sole into each garnished 
shell, a fine Zeeland oyster on each fillet, and cover with 
Mornay sauce. 

Set to glaze quickly, and dish on a napkin. 

Various Preparations of Soles and Fillets of Sole 

906— MOUSSELINES DE SOLES 

The directions given under " Mousselines de Saumon " (No. 
797) apply in all circumstances to Mousselines of Sole. I shall 
therefore refrain from repeating the recipe, since, the quantities 
remaining the same, all that is needed is the substitution of the 
meat of sole for that of salmon. Thus, I shall only state 
here, by way of reminding the reader, that these excellent pre- 
parations admit of all the fish sauces and garnishes, and that 
they may also be accompanied by all purees of fresh vegetables. 

907— TURBAN DE FILETS DE SOLES A LA VILLARET 

Raise the fillets of three soles; flatten them slightly with a 
moistened beater, and trim them very straight on either side. 

Liberally butter a medium-sized savarin-mould. Lay the 
fillets aslant in this mould, with their tail-ends over-reaching 
its inner edge and their other ends projecting over its outer 
edge; slip a fine slice of truffle between each, and let them 
slightly overlap one another. 

When the mould is completely lined with the fillets of sole, 
fill it up with lobster mousseline forcemeat. Gently tap the 
mould on a folded napkin lying on the table, with the object 
of settling the forcemeat, and then draw the overhanging ends 
of the fillets across the latter. 

Set to poach in a bain-marie in a moderate oven. 

This done, take the mould out of the bain-marie ; let it stand 
for a few minutes, and then turn it upside-down upon the dish. 
Leave it to drain ; soak up the liquid that has leaked out on to 
the dish; take off the mould, and moisten the surface of the 
fillets by means of a small brush dipped in melted butter. The 
object of this last measure is to glaze the fish and to remove 
therefrom the froth resulting from its poached albumen. 

Now garnish the centre of the moulding with shrimps' 
tails, mushrooms, poached milt, and slices of truffle, the whole 
cohered by means of Bechamel sauce finished with lobster 
butter. 



304 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Send a sauceboat of Bechamel sauce, finished with lobster 
butter, to the table at the same time as the fish. 

908— TURBAN DE FILETS DE SOLES ET SAUMON 
VILLARET 

Proceed as in the preceding recipe, but alternate the fillets 
of sole with very red slices of salmon of the same size as the 
fillets. 

The combination yields an excellent result, and the varying 
strips of white and orange which constitute the body of the 
moulded crown lend sightliness to the dish. 

N.B. — The designation " k la Villaret," relating to the crown 
alone, in no wise affects the constituents of the garnish; these 
may either remain the same as those of the preceding recipe, or 
may be replaced by something similar. The sauce alone 
remains unalterable, and this should be a good Bdchamel 
finished with lobster butter. 

909— TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CARDINAL 

For ten people, prepare a timbale crust (No. 2395) the 
diameter of which should be greater than the height; line it 
with fine, short paste, and decorate it with noodle paste. 

Raise the fillets of three medium-sized soles, flatten them 
slightly ; coat them with whiting forcemeat prepared with cray- 
fish butter, and roll them into scroll-form. Also prepare ten 
small slices of the meat of a medium-sized ordinary or spiny 
lobster's tail, ten small grooved and cooked mushrooms, fifteen 
slices of truffle, and three-quarters pint of Cardinal sauce 
finished with a lobster butter. 

When about to serve, lay the poached, rolled fillets of sole 
(well drained) in a circle round the bottom of the timbale; put 
the slices of lobster and the mushrooms in the centre, and 
cover the whole with Cardinal sauce. 

Set upon the sauce, just over the centre of the timbale, a 
large, grooved mushroom (cooked and kept very white), and 
encircle the latter with fifteen slices of truffle. 

Place the timbale, thus garnished, on a folded napkin lying 
on a dish, and serve at once. 

910— TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CARMELITE 

Prepare (i) a timbale crust as above; (2) a lobster k la 
New-burg made from raw lobster (No. 948); (3) twelve rolled 
fillets of sole stuffed with fish forcemeat finished with lobster 
butter; (4) three oz. of sliced truffles. 

Poach the rolled fillets in fish fumet; slice the meat of the 
lobster's tail, and put the poached fillets, the slices of lobster, 



arid the slices of truffle into the lobster sauce. Heat the whole 
well, without boiling; pour the saiice and garnish into the 
tiihbale crust, and deck the top with twelve fine slices of 
truffle. 

Dish the timbale on a folded napkin, and serve instantly. 

911— TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES QRIMALDI 

Prepare: — (i) A rather deep timbale crust, and decorate 
it with noodle paste. (2) Cook, as for bisqufe, twenty-four small 
langotistines ; wrench off their tails; cut them into two length- 
wise, and keep them hot in butter. (3) Finely pound the lan- 
goustines' carapaces, and add thereto one-third pint of fine 
Bechamel. Rub through a fine sieve first, and thert through 
tammy. Put the resulting culHs into a saucepan, and heat 
without boiling it; intensify the seasoning; add a few table- 
spoonfuls of cream, little by little ; put the prepared tails in the 
cullis, and keep the latter in the bain-marie. (4) Cut four oz. 
of blanched and somewhat stiff macaroni into pieces, and add 
thereto one-sixth pint of cream and three oz. of sliced truffle. 
Heat until the macaroni has completely absorbed the cream ; 
thicken with one-sixth pint of Bechamel sauce finished with fish 
fumet; add one and one-half oz. of butter cut into small lumps, 
and keep hot. (5) Coat sixteen fillets of sole with truffled fish 
forcemeat; roll the fillets into scroll-form, and, at the last 
minute, poach them in fish fumet. 

To garnish the timbale, spread a layer of macaroni on the 
bottom thereof, lay half of the rolled fillets upon the macaroni, 
and cover these with half of the langoustines' tails in the cullis. 

Repeat the procedure, in the same order, with what is left 
of the garnishes, and finish the timbale with a layer of the 
langoustines' tails. 

Set the timbale on a folded napkin lying on a dish, and serve 
immediately. 

913— TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CAR^ME 

Flatten the fillets of three medium-sized soles, and trim them 
neatly. 

Liberally butter a pound-cake mould, and line it with the 
fillets, placing them side by side with their tails lying round 
the centre of the bottom of the mould, and their opposite ends 
projecting above the brim. Press them well, that they may take 
the shape of the mould. 

Completely coat the fillets with a layer, one-half inch thick, 
of fish forcemeat. 

Put the "mould in the front of the oven for a few minutes 

X 



3o6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

in order to poach the forcemeat, which, in adhering to the fillets, 
gives the required firmness to the timbale. 

When the forcemeat has been poached and is stiff, with- 
draw the timbale from the oven, and cut off the pieces of fillet 
that project above the edges of the mould. Fill the timbale 
to within one-third inch of its brim with a garnish of shrimps 
and poached oysters and mussels, small button-mushrooms, and 
slices of truffle, all of which should be cohered with a thick 
and highly-seasoned B6chamel sauce. Cover this garnish with 
the projecting pieces of fillets, already cut off, and close the 
timbale by means of a thin layer of that forcemeat which served 
in coating the fillets. Poach for thirty minutes in a bain-marie 
and in a moderate oven. After taking the timbale out of the 
bain-marie, let it stand for a few minutes; overturn it on a round 
dish ; take off the mould ; deck it on top with a garland con- 
sisting of six little paupiettes of salmon, each stuffed with a cray- 
fish tail, and surmounted by an encrusted crayfish carapace. 

Serve a Nantua sauce separately. 

913— TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES MARQUISE 

For a timbale large enough for ten people, prepare : — 

1. An even or fluted timbale crust. 

2. A garnish consisting of twelve rolled or folded fillets of 
sole poached in fish fumet, twelve poached oysters (cleared of 
their beards), twenty-four small quenelles of salmon, and twenty 
slices of truffle. 

Heat this garnish after having added a few drops of fish 
fumet to it, and then thicken it with one-half pint of white-wine 
sauce prepared with paprika. 

Put the above garnish into the timbale, which should be 
very hot; set the latter on a folded napkin, and serve at once. 

914— The Preparation of PAUPIETTES OF FILLETS 
OF SOLE SALMON, &c. 

The paupiettes (or fillets rolled after the manner of a scroll) 
are served either as entries like fillets of sole, of which they are 
but a special kind, or as a garnish. For the second purpose, 
not only should they be smaller than for the first, but very 
small fillets are generally selected for the preparation of the 
paupiettes. 

In order to make paupiettes, first remove the horny film from 
the outside surfaces of the fillets, and then slightly flatten the 
latter with the blade of a large knife ; trim them on both sides, 
and coat them on their flayed side with a thin layer of fish force- 
meat, truffled or not, in accordance with the requirements. 



t?ISH 307 

Now roll them into scroll-form ; smooth the forcemeat that 
projects from the top end, and the paupieltes are done. 

Stand them upright in a buttered saut^pan to poach, and 
take care to place them snugly together lest they lose their 
shape while the operation is in progress. Moisten them with 
sufficient fish fumet (No. 11) to cover them; poach them in a 
moderate oven, and remember, as in the case of fillets of sole, 
not to let the poaching-liquor boil. 

All the garnishes and sauces suited to fillets of sole likewise 
obtain with paupiettes, provided the difference in their shape be 
taken into account when dishing up. 

For salmon paupiettes, cut slices two-thirds inch wide, one- 
half inch thick, and the length of a fillet of sole, from a skinned 
fillet of salmon. In view of the unusual fragility of salmon's 
flesh, the slices of fillets should be carefully flattened in order 
to give them the width and thickness of a fillet of sole. This 
done, spread forcemeat on them, and roll them as explained 
above. 

Soles and Fillets of Sole (Cold) 

915— ASPIC DE FILETS DE SOLES 

An essential point in the making of an aspic is the clearness 
of the fish jelly. For a sole aspic, take some white fish aspic, 
which is at once succulent, limpid, and just sufficiently viscous 
to allow of its being turned out of a mould without breaking. 

For the purpose under consideration, moulds with plain 
or decorated borders are generally used, and there are two 
modes of procedure : — 

I. For a mould capable of holding one quart, fold twelve 
small fillets of sole and poach them in butter and lemon juice, 
taking care to keep them very white. This done, set them to 
cool under a light weight. 

Pour a few tablespoonfuls of melted fish jelly into the mould, 
which should be lying amidst broken ice. As soon as the jelly 
begins to set, decorate it tastefully with pieces (lozenges, cres- 
cents, &c.) of very black truffle and the poached white of an 
egg. Capers, tarragon leaves, thin roundels of small radishes, 
&c., may also be used for the purpose of decoration. 

When this part of the procedure has been satisfactorily 
effected, sprinkle a few drops of the same jelly over the decorat- 
ing particles, in order to fix them and prevent their shifting 
during the subsequent stages of the process. Now add enough 
melted jelly to cover the bottom of the mould with a layer one 
inch thick, and leave this to set. 

X 2 



3d8 guide to modern COOKERY 

On this set jelly, arrange the six fillets of sole ; let their tail- 
ends overlap, and cover them with jelly. Continue adding 
coat upon coat of jelly until the thickness covering the fillets 
measures about one-half inch. 

Now arrange the remaining fillets in the reverse order, and 
fill up the mould with cold, melted jelly. Leave to cool for 
one hour. 

When about to serve, quickly dip the mould in a saucepan 
of hot water; wipe it, and turn out the aspic upon a folded 
napkin lying on a dish. 

916— Another Method of Preparing ASPICS 
DE FILETS DE SOLES 

Coat ten fine fillets of sole with a thin layer of truffled 
fish forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, and roll them round 
a little rod of truffle, twice as thick as an ordinary penholder. 
Tie these faupiettes, once or twice round, with cotton ; poach 
them very gently in fish fumet and cool them on ice. Take 
a border-mould, even if possible; pour therein a few table- 
spoonfuls of melted fish jelly, and then rock it about on broken 
ice, with the object of evenly coating it with a thin layer of 
the jelly. 

This operation is technically called " clothing the mould." 

Decorate the bottom of the mould as explained above; fix 
the decorating particles, and cover them with a layer one-half 
inch thick of fish jelly. 

After having properly trimmed the ends of the paufiettes, 
cut them into roundels one-half inch thick; set these upright 
against the sides of the mould, keeping them close together; 
add a few drops of melted jelly to fix the roundels, and as soon 
as this has set, add a further quantity, sufficient to completely 
cover them. 

As soon as this jelly sets, repeat the operation with the 
paupiette roundels and the jelly, and do so again and again until 
the mould is filled. For turning out the aspic, proceed as 
directed above. 

917— BORDURE DE FILETS DE SOLES A L'lTALIENNE 

Line a border-mould with jelly; i.e., coat its bottom and 
sides with a thin layer of fish jelly, rocking it upon ice as 
already explained. 

Now fill it, two-thirds full, with a garnish consisting of a 
julienne of cold, poached fillets of sole, a julienne of truffles 
(two oz. per two filleted soles), and a julienne of capsicum (one 
and one-half oz. per two filleted soles). Fill up the mould with 
melted fish jelly, and leave the latter to set. 



FISH 309 

When about to serve, turn out the mould upon a little, low 
cushion of rice, lying on a dish, and set an Italian salad in the 
centre. 

Serve a Mayonnaise sauce with this dish. 

918— FILETS DE SOLES CALYPSO 

Flatten the fillets, and roll them into ■paupiettes around 
little rods of wood two-thirds inch thick. Lay the paupiettes 
in a buttered saut^pan, with their joined sides undermost, and 
poach them in very clear fish fumet and lemon juice, taking care 
to keep them very white. 

Let them cool, and remove the pieces of wood, whereupon 
they will have the appearance of rings. 

Take as many small tomatoes as there are paupiettes ; cut 
them in two at a point two-thirds of their height below their 
stem-end; empty, and peel them. Set a paupiette, upright, in 
each tomato ; fill the centre with crayfish mousse combined with 
crayfishes' tails in dice ; lay a round piece of milt (stamped out 
with a cutter, poached, and cold) on each, and, finally, the 
shelled tail of a crayfish on each roundel of milt. 

Arrange the tomatoes in a circle round a dish; surround 
them with little triangles of white fish jelly, and garnish the 
centre of the dish with the same fish jelly, chopped. 

919— FILETS DE SOLES CHARLOTTE 

Fold the fillets; poach them in fish fumet, and let them 
cool. 

Trim them ; coat them with pink chaud-froid sauce ; de- 
corate each fillet by means of a rosette of chervil leaves, in the 
centre of which rests a bit of lobster coral, and glaze them with 
fish jelly. 

Set them, tail end uppermost, against a m,ousse of milt 
with horse-radish, moulded in a narrow dome-mould, which 
should have been coated with fish jelly and besprinkled with 
chopped coral. 

Surround with a border of regularly-cut jelly dice. 

920— FILETS DE SOLES A LA MOSCOVITE 

Prepare (i) some paupiettes of filleted sole, in rings, as ex- 
plained under " Filets de Soles a la Calypso " (No, 918); (2) as 
many round, fluted cases made from hollowed cucumber as there 
are paupiettes. The cucumber cases should be well blanched 
and m,annaded inside. Set each paupiette in a cucumber case ; 
garnish their centre with caviare, and arrange them in a circle 
on a dish. 

Send a sauce Russe to the table, separately, at the same 
time as the dish. 



3IO GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

921— DOMINOS DE FILETS DE SOLES 

Select some fine, fleshy fillets ; slightly flatten them ; poach 
them in a little of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, some 
lemon juice and butter, and set them to cool under a light 
weight. When the fillets are cold, trim them and cut them 
into regular rectangles the size of dominoes. 

Coat the rectangles with a maigre, white, chaud-f roid sauce ; 
decorate them in imitation of dominoes, with little spots of 
truffle; glaze them with cold, melted fish jelly, and put them 
aside. 

Pound the trimmings of the fish together with their weight 
of caviare, and rub the whole through a fine sieve. Add to 
this preparation half its weight of highly-coloured jelly, and 
leave it to set in a somewhat deep and moderately-oiled tray, 
the thickness of the preparation on the tray being not greater 
than that of a fillet of sole. 

When the jelly is set, cut it into rectangles exactly the same 
size as the prepared dominoes, and then, by means of a little 
melted, cold jelly, fix the diminoes of sole to the rectangles 
just prepared. 

Put some chopped jelly in the centre of the dish, and on 
this lay the dominoes in a muddled heap. 

922— FILETS DE SOLES FROIDS DRESSES SUR MOUSSES 

What I pointed out above, I repeat here for the reader's 
guidance — namely, that fillets of sole may be prepared after 
all the recipes given for trout (No. 813). 

As the fillets of sole in this dish remain very conspicuous, 
it is advisable to keep them very white in the poaching. Set 
them to cool under a light weight, and decorate them in a 
way that will be in keeping with the mousse on which they are 
dished. This mousse is set on a special dish, as already 
explained, and the decorated fillets are laid upon it and covered 
with melted jelly. 

For the variation of mousses, see the table given under 
No. 814. 

923— TURBOT 

Turbot is generally served boiled, accompanied by freshly- 
cooked, floury potatoes, and the cases are exceptional when, 
cooked in this way, it is dished with any other garnish. 

All fish sauces may be served with turbot. When, for the 
sake of variety, or in pursuance of the consumer's wishes, turbot 
has to be braised or garnished, it is best to select a medium- 



FISH 311 

sized fish, i.e., one weighing from eight to twelve lbs., thick, 
very fleshy, and white. 

Unless expressly ordered, it is best to avoid surrounding the 
piece with its garnish. Preferably, send the latter to the table 
in a separate dish, as also the sauce. By this means the 
service is expedited, and, more important still, the fish is 
quite hot when it reaches the table. It is granted that the 
sight of a dish containing a fine, richly garnished and taste- 
fully arranged piece is flattering to the host, but it would be 
a pity that the quality of the fish should thereby sufifer, more 
particularly as the gourmet is not satisfied with sightliness 
alone. 

I explained at the beginning of this chapter, under " Boiled 
Fish " (No. 776 and 779), the details relating to this method 
of cooking, especially with regard to its application to turbot. 
For the braising and garnishing of turbot, the reader is begged 
to refer to the recipes concerned with chicken-turbot. These 
recipes may be applied to turbot, provided the difference in 
the size of the fish be taken into account in reference to the 
time allowed for braising and the quantities of the garnishing 
ingredients. 

934— COLD TURBOT 

Whether whole or sliced, cold turbot makes an excellent 
dish, if the fish have not been cooked too long beforehand. It 
will be found that turbot, especially when sliced, tends to 
harden, crumple, and lose its flavour while cooling. It is there- 
fore of the greatest importance that the fish should have just 
cooled after cooking, and that the cooking-liquor should have 
barely time to set; otherwise the evil effects of cooling, men- 
tioned above, will surely ensue. When served, just cooled, with 
one of the cold sauces suited to fish, turbot can vie in delicacy 
even with such fish as salmon or trout, which are usually served 

cold. 

925— TURBOTINS (CHICKEN=TURBOTS) 

Turbotins (chicken-turbots) may rank among the most deli- 
cate and nicest of fish. Their varying sizes allow of their being 
served either for three, four, or ten, or twelve people ; they are, 
moreover, tender and white, and they lend themselves to quite 
a vast nurhber of culinary preparations. 

They may be served boiled, like the turbot; grilled; k la 
Meuni^re; fried; au gratin, like the soles; or braised, like the 
salmon and the trout. They are most often served whole, 
garnished and with sauce ; but, in order to simplify the process, 
they may be filleted, the fillets being poached and dished with 
a garnish and the selected sauce. 



312 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Whatever be the method of preparing the chicken-turbot, 
whether it be boiled, poached, or braised, the spine should 
always be cut in one or two places. The gash should be 
just in the middle of the back where the flesh is thickest, and 
the fillets on either side of the gash should be partly separated 
from the bone. The object of this measure is to prevent de- 
formation during the cooking process and, also, to precipitate 
the latter. 

926— TURBOTIN A L'AMIRAL 

Gash the back of the fish, and partly separate the under 
fillets from the bones. Lay it on a grill, and moisten, suffi- 
ciently to cover it, with previously-cooked court-bouillon with 
Sauterne wine. As soon as the court-bouillon boils, allow the 
fish to cook ten or twelve minutes for every two lbs. of its 
weight. 

This done, drain it; dish it, and coat it twice with melted, 
red butter. 

Now surround it with the following garnish, which should 
be in proportion to the size of the fish, viz., little heaps of 
large mussels and oysters, prepared k la Villeroy, and fried 
at the time of dishing; small patties of crayfish tails; large 
mushroom-heads grooved and cooked, and slices of truffle. 

Serve, separately, (i) a timbale of potatoes a I'anglaise; 
(2) Normande sauce, combined with one-sixth pint of reduced 
court-bouillon per quart of sauce, finished with crayfish butter 
and seasoned with cayenne. 

927— TURBOTIN A L'ANDALOUSE 

Cut it in the region of the back ; season it, and lay it in 
a deep earthenware dish of convenient size, liberally buttered. 
In the case of a chicken-turbot weighing two and one-half lbs., 
moisten with one-third pint of white wine and one-quarter pint 
of fish fumet. 

Finely mince two medium-sized onions, and toss them in 
butter until they have acquired a yellow colour. 

Peel, press and mince three tomatoes, and add thereto three 
large, raw, sliced mushrooms. Cut two mild capsicums into 
strips. 

Spread the onion on the chicken-turbot; put the tomatoes 
and the sliced mushrooms on top, and upon these arrange the 
grilled strips of mild capsicum. Besprinkle moderately with rasp- 
ings; lay one oz. of butter, cut into small pieces, on the top, 
and set to cook gently in the oven. 



FISH 313 

Allow thirty minutes for the cooking. By reducing the 
moistening-liquor, which has perforce absorbed some of the 
gelatinous properties of the fish, the leason forms of itself. 

928— TURBOTIN BONNE FEMME 

For a chicken-turbot weighing from two to two and one-half 
lbs. sprinkle on the bottom of a buttered tray one dessertspoon- 
ful of chopped shallots, one pinch of concussed parsley, and 
three oz. of minced mushrooms* 

Cut the chicken-turbot in the back, and partly separate the 
fillets from the boile ; lay it on a tray, and moisten with one-third 
pint of white wine and one-third pint of fish fumet. Cook 
gently in the oven, and baste frequently the while. 

When the chicken-turbot is cooked, dish it and keep it hot. 
Pour the cooking-liquor into a saut^pan ; reduce it to half, and 
add three tablespoonfuls of fish velout6 and three oz. of butter. 

Cover the fish with this sauce and the garnish, and glaze 
quickly. 

939— TURBOTIN COMMODORE 

Poach the chicken-turbot in salted water. 

Prepare the following garnish per one person : — Three large, 
potatoes cut to the shape of hazel-nuts and cooked a I'anglaise ; 
one medium-sized, trussed crayfish ; one quenelle of fish ; one 
small lobster croquette; and one oyster prepared k la Villeroy. 

All these products should be treated according to their 
nature, and just in time to be ready for the dishing up. A 
few moments before serving, drain the turbot ; dish it, and sur- 
round it with the garnish detailed above, arranged in alternate 
heaps. 

Serve a Normande sauce, finished with anchovy butter, 

separately. 

930— TURBOTIN DAUMONT 

Proceed exactly as directed under " Sole Daumorit " (No. 
823), taking into account the size of the fish, and increasing 
the sauce and the garnishing ingredients accordingly. 

931— TURBOTIN FERMlfiRE 

Sprinkle on the bottom of a buttered tray two minced 
shallots, a few roundels of carrot and onion, some parsley stalks, 
thyme, and bay. 

Lay the chicken-turbot on these aromatics, and season 
moderately. For a fish weighing two lbs. moisten with two- 
thirds pint of excellent red wine; add one-half oz. of butter, cut 
into small pieces, and poach gently, taking care to baste fre- 
quently. 



314 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Meantime toss three oz. of minced mushrooms in three oz. 
of butter. When the turbot is ready, drain it; dish it; sur- 
round it with the tossed mushrooms, and keep it hot. 

Strain the cooking-Hquor into a vegetable-pan, and reduce 
it to half. Thicken it with a piece of manied butter the size of 
a walnut; add three oz. of butter; pour this sauce over the 
chicken-turbot and its garnish, and set to glaze quickly. 

933— TURBOTIN A LA MODE DE HOLLANDE 

Poach the chicken-turbot in salted water. Drain it, dish it, 
and upon it lay a lobster cooked in court-bouillon. The shell 
of the lobster should have been opened along the top of the 
tail, and the meat of the tail should have been quickly sliced and 
returned to its place. 

Send to the table at the same time (i) a timbale of floury 
potatoes, freshly cooked a I'anglaise; (2) a sauceboat containing 
egg sauce with melted butter (No. 117). 

933— TURBOTIN MIRABEAU 

Poach the fish in court-bouillon with Sauterne wine, as 
directed under " Turbotin k I'Amiral " (No. 926). 

Drain it; dish it, and coat it in alternate bands with white 
wine and Gen^voise sauces. Along the lines formed by the 
meeting of the sauces lay thin strips of anchovy fillets placed 
end to end. Decorate the bands of white sauce with slices of 
truffle, and the bands of brown sauce with blanched tarragon 
leaves. 

934— TURBOTIN PARISIENNE 

Poach the fish in court-bouillon with Sauterne wine. Drain 
it, dish it, and round it arrange a border composed of alternate 
slices of truffles and mushrooms. Coat the fish with white-wine 
sauce, and surround it with trussed crayfish cooked in court- 
bouillon. 

N.B.— For fish k la Parisienne, the garnish of sliced truffles 
and mushrooms may be set on the dish, either conspicuously 
or the reverse; i.e., it may be laid round the fish and covered by 
the sauce, or arranged in the form of an oval on the fish after 
the latter has been sauced. In either case the slices of truffles 
and mushrooms should be laid alternately. 

935— TURBOTIN REQENCE 

Poach the chicken-turbot in a sufficient quantity of pre- 
viously-prepared court-bouillon with Chablis wine. 

For a fish weighing three lbs. (enough for ten people), pre- 
pare the following garnish : — Twenty small spoon-moulded 



FISH 315 

quenelles of whiting forcemeat with crayfish butter; ten poached 
oysters (cleared of their beards) ; ten small mushroom-heads 
(very white); ten truffles in the shape of olives, and ten poached 
slices of milt. 

Drain the chicken-turbot just before dishing it, and slip it on 
to a dish. Surround it with the garnish detailed above, 
arranged in alternate heaps, and serve a Normande sauce, fin- 
ished with two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence per pint, 
separately. 

936— TURBOTIN S0UFFL6 A LA REYNIERE 

Lay the chicken-turbot on its belly, and make two gashes 
in its back, on either side of the spine, from the head to the 
tail. Completely separate the fillets from the bones; cut the 
spine at both ends ; carefully raise it from the underlying, ventral 
fillets, and entirely remove it. 

Season the inside of the fish, and garnish it with enough 
fish motisseline forcemeat to give it a rounded appearance. 
Close in the forcemeat by drawing the two separated fillets over 
it ; turn the piece over, and lay it on a well-buttered, deep, oval 
dish, the size of which should be in proportion to that of the 
chicken-turbot. 

Poach it gently, almost dry, with lid on, in fish fumet and 
the cooking-liquor of mushrooms mixed, i.e., two-thirds pint of 
the one and one-third pint of the other. This done, dish it 
carefully, and lay a row of grooved and white mushroom-heads 
down the centre of it. On either side put some very white, 
poached milt, alternating the latter with whole anchovy fillets, 
in such wise as to form an oval enframing the row of mush- 
rooms. 

Send to the table, separately, a sauce composed of Soubise 
cullis and white-wine sauce, in the proportion of one-third and 
two-thirds respectively, combined with the reduced cooking- 
liquor of the chicken-turbot. 

937— TURBOTIN FEUILLANTINE 

Stuff the chicken-turbot after the method described in the 
preceding recipe, but substitute lobster mousseline forcemeat 
for that mentioned above. 

Poach as directed above, and dish. 

Coat the fish with lobster butter, made as red as possible, 
from the carcass of the lobster whose meat has been used for 
the forcemeat. 

From head to tail and down the centre of the fish lay a row 
of fine slices of truffle, letting them overlap each other slightly. 



3i6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Frame the row of truffle with two lines of very white, poached 
oysters, so placed as to form a regular oval. 

Send to the table, separately, a fine Bechamel sauce seasoned 
with cayenne. 

938— COLD CHICKEN-TURBOT 

My remarks relative to cold turbot apply here with even 
greater force, for chicken-turbots are particularly well suited to 
cold dishing. 

The chicken-turbots to be served cold should not be too 
small ; the best for the purpose would be those weighing four 
lbs. or more. 

In dismissing the subject I can but recommend cold chicken- 
turbot as a dish admitting of the most tasteful arrangement and 
decoration . 

LOBSTER (HOMARD) 

Whereas the ordinary lobster is a very favourite dish with 
English gourmets, the spiny kind has scarcely any vogue. This 
is no doubt accounted for by the fact that the former is not 
only very plentiful, but also of excellent quality, while the 
latter is comparatively scarce. 

939— HOMARD A L'AM6RICAINE 

The first essential condition is that the lobster should be 
a lijve. Sever and slightly crush the claws, with the view of 
withdrawing their meat after cooking ; cut the tail into sections ; 
split the carapace in two lengthwise, and remove th e queen_(a 
little bag jiear the head containing some graY filL„ Put aside, on 
a plate, ihe intestines and the coral, wEich will be used in the 
finishing of the sauce, and seasori the pieces of lobster with 
salt and pepper. 

Put these pieces into a sautdpan containing one-sixth pint 
of oil an d one oz. of Jautter, both very hot. Fry them over 
an open fireunnl the meat has stiffened well and the carapace is 
of a fine red colour. 

Then remove all grease by tilting the saut^pan on its side 
with its lid on ; sprinkle the pieces of lobster with two chopped 
shallots and one crushed clove of garlic ; add one-third pint of 
wJiite wine, one-quarter pint of fi_gh fume t, a small glassful of 
burnt bran dy, one tablespoonful of rnetted m eat-glaze, three 
"^small, fresRf pressed, and chopped tomatoes (or, failing fresh 
tomatoes, two tablespoonfuls of tomato puree), a pinch of con- 
cassedjy arsleY , and a very little cayenne. Cover the saut^pan, 
and set to cook in the oven for eighteen "or twenty minutes. 



FISH 317 

This done, transfer the pieces of lobster to a dish; withdraw 
the meat from the section of the tail and the claws, and put 
them in a timbale; set upright thereon the two halves of the 
carapace, and let them lie against each other. Keep the whole 
hot. 

Now reduce the cooking-sauce of the lobster to one-third 
pint ; add tKereto the intestines and the chopped coral, together 
with a piece of butter the size of a walnut; set to cook for a 
moment, and pass through a strainer. 

Put this cullis into a vegetable-pan; heat it without letting 
it boil, and add, away from the fire, three oz. of butter cut into 
small pieces. 

Pour this sauce over the pieces of lobster which have been 
kept hot, and sprinkle the whole with a pinch of concasse d and 
scalded parsley . 
r^'" "- 940— HOMARD A LA BORDELAISE 

Section the live lobster as directed above. 

Stiffen the meat and colour the carapace in a saut^pan with 
two oz. of clarified butter. When the meat is quite stiff and 
the carapace is red, pour away two-thirds of the butter. Then 
add two tablespoonfuls of chopped shallots, a crushed piece 
of garlic the size of a pea, one-sixth pint of white wine, three 
tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy, and reduce the whole to half. 
Complete with one-half pint of fish fumet, one-third pint of 
maigre Espagnole, one-quarter pint of tomato sauce, one small 
faggot, one pinch of salt, and a very little cayenne. 

Put the lid on, and set to cook for one-quarter hour. 

Take the meat from the sections of the tail and the claws, as 
in the case of the preparation k I'amdricaine ; put these into 
a small saut^pan, and keep them hot. Add the intestines and 
the chopped coral, reduce the sauce to one-third pint; pass it 
through a strainer, and pour it over the pieces of lobster. 

Heat the whole without boiling; add a few drops of lemon 
juice, two and one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces, and 
one-half tablespoonful of chopped chervil and tarragon, and 
stir over the stove with the view of thoroughly mixing the 
whole. 

Dish as directed in the preceding recipe. 

941— HOMARD BOUILLI A LA HOLLANDAISE 

Cook the lobster in a court-bouillon (No. 163), allowing 
twenty minutes for a specimen weighing two lbs. 

As soon as the lobster is cooked, drain it; split it in two 
lengthwise without completely severing the two halves; lay it 



31 8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

on a long dish covered with a napkin, and surround it with 
very green, curled-leaf parsley. 

Serve with it, at the same time, a timbale of floury potatoes 
freshly cooked a I'anglaise, and a sauceboat of melted butter. 

942— HOMARD A LA BROCHE 

Select a lobster that seems full of life, and, after killing it, 
fix it on the spit. Put into the dripping-pan six oz. of butter, 
one-half bottle of champagne, salt, and peppercorns. In order 
to cook it to perfection, frequently baste it with this mixture, and 
allow one hour before a red fire for a specimen weighing three 
lbs. It may be dished with two accompaniments :■ — 

1. A hot ravigote sauce combined with the gravy of the 
lobster, from which all grease has been removed. 

2. Strain the contents of the dripping-pan (cleared of all 
grease) through a fine sieve ; reduce it by a quarter over a brisk 
fire ; add three tablespoonfuls of meat-glaze, two tablespoonfuls 
of Worcestershire sauce, and a little chopped parsley, and finish 
this sauce with three oz. of butter and a few drops of lemon 
juice. 

943— HOMARD CARDINAL 

Plunge the live lobster into boiling court-bouillon, and cook 
it after the manner directed under " Homard k la Hollandaise " 
(No. 941). 

The moment it is cooked, cut it in two lengthwise ; withdraw 
the meat from the tail, slice it, and keep it hot in a little Cardinal 
sauce. Disconnect the claws; open them sideways, and with- 
draw all their meat without breaking them. Cut the withdrawn 
meat into dice, as also the creamy parts from the carapace, and 
add thereto their weight of cooked mushrooms and half that 
quantity of truffles — both of which products should also be in 
dice. Thicken this salpicon with a few tablespoonfuls of lobster 
sauce, and spread it in even layers on the bottom of each half- 
carapace. 

Reserve, however, two tablespoonfuls of it for garnishing 
the emptied claws. 

Upon the salpicon lay the slices of lobster, kept hot, alter- 
nating these with fine slices of truffles. Set the two half- 
carapaces, thus garnished, on a dish, and wedge them upright 
by means of the two claws. 

Coat the slices and the claws with Cardinal sauce; sprinkle 
with grated cheese and melted butter; set to glaze quickly in a 
fierce oven or at the salamander, and serve instantly. 



FISH 319 

944— HOMARD CLARENCE 

Cook the lobster in court-houillon, and drain it as soon as 
it is done. 

When it is only lukewarm, split it open lengthwise ; take 
the meat from the tail ; slice it, and keep it hot in a vegetable- 
pan with a few drops of fish fumet or the cooking-liquor of 
mushrooms. 

Remove the remains of meat and the creamy parts from the 
carapace; pound the two former together with two tablespoon- 
fuls of cream ; strain through a fine sieve, and add to the re- 
sulting cullis one-half pint of Bechamel sauce with curry. 

Garnish the two half-carapaces, two-thirds full, with rice 
a rindienne; set the slices of lobster on this rice, intercalating 
them with slices of truffle; coat thinly with the prepared 
Bechamel sauce, and set the two garnished and sauced half- 
carapaces on a long, hot dish. 

Send to the table, at the same time, a sauceboat containing 
Bdchamel with curry. 

945— HOMARD A LA CRfeME 

Proceed as for " Homard h la New-burg k cru " (No. 948), 
but swill with brandy ouIy; and add, immediately, four oz. of 
fresh, peeled truffles c ut into slices. 

Moisten, almost sufficiently to cover, with very fresh, thin 
creani; season with salt and ca yenn e, and cook the lobster. 
Then take the meat from the carapaces, and put it into a 
timbale ; reduce the cream to one-third pint, and mix therewith 
three tabl^spoonfuls of melted, white meat -glaze and a few drops 
of lem on juice. 

' btram tills sauce through muslin, and pour it over the 
pieces of lobster. 

946— HOMARD QRILL^ 

For this purpose, the lobster may be taken raw, but it is 
better, first, to have it three-parts cooked in court-bouillon. 

Now split it into two lengthwise; sprinkle it with melted 
butter, and set it on the grill for its cooking to be completed. 

Treated thus, the meat of the lobster does not harden as 
when it is grilled raw. Dish the grilled lobster on a napkin 
or on a drainer, after having broken the shell of the claws in 
order to facilitate the withdrawal of the meat, and surround with 
curled-leaf parsley. 

Serve a " Devilled sauce Escoffier," or any other sauce 
suited to grilled fish, with the lobster, but remember that the 
first-named sauce is the fittest that could be found for this 
particular dish. 



320 GUIDE TO Modern cookerV 

947— HOMARD A LA MORNAY, otherwise AU QRATIN 

Proceed in all points as directed under " Homard Cardinal " 
(No. 943), but substitute Mornay sauce for Cardinal. 

Homard A la New-burg 

This dish may be prepared in two ways — with raw lobster 
and with the latter cooked some time beforehand. The second 
way is the more correct, but the first, which is less troublesome 
to prepare, is more suited to the work of large establishments. 

948— HOMARD A LA NEW-BURG (with raw lobster) 

Cut up the live lobster, and fry it in oil and butter as ex- 
plained under " Homard k I'Am^ricaine." When the pieces 
of lobster are stiffened and coloured, clear them of all grease; 
swill the saut^pan with one tablespoonful of burnt brandy and 
one-half pint of Marsala. 

Reduce by a third ; season, and add two-thirds pint of cream 
and one-sixth pint of fish fumet. Cover and set to cook for 
fifteen minutes. 

Take out the pieces of lobster; withdraw the meat there- 
from, and keep it hot in a covered timbale. Thicken the sauce 
with the reserved intestines and coral of the lobster, which 
should be chopped in combination with one oz. of butter. 

Set to boil a second time ; rub the sauce through tammy, and 
pour it over the pieces of lobster. 

949— HOMARD A LA NEW-BURQ (with the lobster cooked) 

Cook the lobster in court-bouillon. Remove the shell from 
the tail ; take the meat therefrom, and cut it into regular slices. 
Lay these slices in a liberally-buttered saut^pan, season 
strongly, and heat the slices on both sides until the outside 
membrane acquires a fine red colour. 

Moisten with enough Madeira to almost cover the slices, and 
reduce the moistening almost entirely. When dishing up, pour 
a leason, composed of one and one-quarter pints of cream and 
two egg-yolks, over the slices. Stir gently on the side of the 
fire until the thickening has been effected by the cooking of the 
egg-yolks, and serve in a lukewarm timbale. 

950— HOMARD A LA PALESTINE 

Cut up the live lobster and toss it in butter with a mirepoix 

prepared in advance, as for crayfish intended for potage bisque. 

Moisten with two-thirds pint of white wine, one pint of 



Pish 321 

fish fumet, and three tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy. Cover 
and cook for fifteen minutes. 

Now detach the sections of the tail and the claws; withdraw 
the meat from them, and keep them hot in a small covered 
saucepan with a little butter. Pound the carapace and remains 
of the lobster in a mortar; fry them in four tablespoonfifls of 
very hot oil, and add thereto an ordinary mirepoix, cut very 
fine. Moisten with the cooking-liquor of the lobster, and set 
to cook for one-quarter hour. Strain through muslin ; leave 
to stand for five minutes, that the oil may rise to the surface, 
and then completely remove it. Reduce this liquid to one- 
quarter pint; thicken it with the reserved creamy parts of the 
lobster, rubbed through tammy, and two tablespoonfuls of 
fish velout^, and finish this sauce with two and one-half oz. 
of curry butter. 

Arrange a border of pilaff rice (No. 2255) on the dish 
intended for the lobster; set the pieces of lobster, kept hot, in 
the centre, and coat these with a few tablespoonfuls of curry 
sauce. 

Serve the remainder of the sauce separately. 

951— M0USSELINE5 DE HOMARD 

In the matter of crustaceans, the term mouss e stands, as a 
rule, for a cold preparation , whereas the term mousseline is 
only applied to warm dishes . The special mousselines or 
quenelles of lobster are made with a mousseline forcemeat, the 
recipe for which I gave under No. 195. This forcemeat is pre- 
pared with the raw meat of the lobster. 

As with the other crustaceans, their meat produces forcemeat 
which is somewhat too flimsy to be spoon-moulded, and it is 
preferable to goach it in special well-buttered quenelle- or 
dariole-m,oulds . 
y^ Mousselines are poached under cover in a moderate oven.^" — 

All the garnishes and sauces given in respect of salmon 
m,ousselines may be applied here. The reader will therefore 
refer to : — 

Mousselines de Saumon Alexandra (No. 798). 

Mousselines de Saumon k la Tosca (No. 799). 

952— SOUFFLES DE HOMARD 

For lobster souffles the same forcemeat is used as for the 
mousselines; but, unlike the latter, it is poached in the half- 
carapaces of the lobster, the meat of which has served in its 
preparation. The procedure is as follows: — First cook the 
two half-carapaces carefully, that they may not lose their 
shape in the process. 

Y 



322 GUIDE TO MODEilN COOKERY 

After having drained and dried tiiem, fill them with mousse- 
line forcemeat and surround them with strong, buttered paper, 
which should be tied on with string, and should overreach the 
edges of the carapaces by one inch. 

The object of this measure is to prevent the forcemeat from 
spilling during the poaching. 

Lay the two garnished carapaces on a tray containing just 
enough boiling water to moisten its whole surface. Put the 
tray in a moderate oven or in a steamer, and allow from fifteen 
to twenty minutes for the souffle to poach. 

This done, carefully drain the two carapaces; remove the 
paper holding in the forcemeat; dish them on a napkin, and 
surround them with bunches of very green, curled-leaf parsley. 
Serve separately a sauce in keeping with the preparation ; i.e., a 
Normande, a White-wine, a Diplomate, or a Bechamel finished 
with lobster butter, &c. 

N.B. — The above constitutes the model-recipe of lobster 
souffle, and I need scarcely point out that the latter may be 
varied almost indefinitely in accordance with the fancy of the 
cook and the taste of the consumer. 

Thus the forcemeat may be garnished with truffles in dice, 
slices of lobster, milt, or poached oysters, &c., which garnishes 
may also be laid on the souffle when it is finished. I therefore 
leave to the operator, who should now see his way quite 
clearly, the task of imagining the various possible combinations, 
a description of which would but unnecessarily delay the pro- 
gress of this work. 

953— COLD LOBSTER WITH VARIOUS SAUCES 

Cook the lobster in court-bouillon, and let it cool in the 
latter. Drain it, sever the claws, and break them open in order 
to withdraw their meat. Split the lobster into two lengthwise, 
remove the intestines and the queen, and dish it on a napkin. 
Lay the claws on either side of it, and surround it either with 
curled-leaf parsley or with a few hearts of lettuce. 

Send to the table separately one of the derivative sauces of 
the Mayonnaise (Nos. 123 to 132). 

954— ASPIC DE HOMARD 

Under " Aspic de filets de soles " (No. 915), I pointed out 
the preparatory principles of an aspic; in this case, therefore, 
I shall only refer to the various details very cursorily. 

Let a thin coating of white fish jelly set on the bottom of 
an aspic-mould incrusted in ice. The reader is reminded of 
the great care that must be observed in the preparation of an 



FISH 323 

aspic jelly, that the latter be limpid, succulent, and just suffi- 
ciently firm hot to break when withdrawn from the mould. 
Decorate the bottom of the mould with bits of truffle, poached 
white of egg, lobster coral, capers, and tarragon leaves. 

The decorative design cannot be described; it must be left 
to the taste and fancy of the operator.; all I can urge is that 
it be as regular and symmetrical as possible. 

Fix the decoration iSy means of a few drops of jelly; then 
cover the whole with a thickness of one inch of the same jelly, 
and leave the latter to set. Upon this layer of jelly arrange 
rows of thin slices of lobster meat and slices of truffles placed 
alternately and slightly overlapping. Now add enough jelly 
to cover these slices, and continue filling up the mould with 
varying layers consisting respectively of jelly (one inch thick) 
and the slices above described. 

When about to serve, dip the mould in hot water; dry it, 
and turn out the aspic upon a dish covered with a napkin. 

955— CbTELETTES DE HOMARD ARKANQEL 

Prepare a salpicon of lobster meat in dice combined with 
its weight of caviare, the whole quantity being in proportion 
to the number of cotelettes required. 

Thicken the salpicon with an equal quantity of lobster 
mousse (No. 956), and at once garnish some moderately oiled 
cutlet-moulds with the preparation. As soon as the latter has 
set, turn out the cutlets; coat them with a fish chaud-froid 
sauce, finished with lobster butter; and deck each with a fine, 
grooved slice of truffle. Glaze them with cold melted jelly, 
and keep them in the cool until required to be served. 

Arrange them in a circle on a round dish ; garnish the centre 
with chopped white jelly, and serve a Russian salad separately. 

956— MOUSSE DE HOMARD 

Cook the lobster in a few tablespoonfuls of previously- 
prepared fine mirepoix, one half-bottle of white wine, and a 
small glass of burnt brandy. Leave to cool in the cooking- 
liquor. Now split the lobster in two, with the view of with- 
drawing its meat. Finely pound the latter while adding thereto, 
little by little, one-third pint of cold fish velout6 per lb. of 
meat. Rub through a sieve; put the resulting pur^e in a 
vegetable-pan lying on ice, and stir for a few minutes. This 
done, add a little good fish jelly, melted and cold, and one- 
third pint of barely-whipped cream. Taste; rectify the season- 
ing, and warm it slightly with cayenne. 

Y 2 



324 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

957— MOUSSE DE HOMARD MOULEE 

When the mousse is intended for moulding, it is well to 
decorate and " clothe " the mould with fish jelly some time in 
advance. I have already explained that to " clothe " a mould 
with jelly, all that is needed is to pour therein a few table- 
spoonfuls of melted jelly, and then to rock the utensil on 
ice. By this means a thin even coating sets on the bottom 
and sides of the mould, which, when the moulding is turned 
out, swathes the latter in a transparent film. 

This " clothing " of jelly may be made more or less thick, 
according to the requirements, by simply using more or less 
jelly, and by proportionately lengthening or shortening the 
time for rocking the mould. 

When the mould is clothed, decorate the sides with large 
slices of very black truffle dipped in melted jelly, that they 
may stick. 

This done, fill the receptacle with the prepared mousse (see 
the preceding recipe), and leave to set in the cool. 

For the turning out of the mould and the dishing of the 
moulding, proceed as for the aspic. 

9S8— PETITES MOUSSES DE HOMARD 

For these small mousses, use little cassolettes or silver tim- 
bales. First let a thin layer of jelly (one or two tablespoonfuls, 
according to their size) set on the bottom of each utensil, 
and then surround the latter with bands of white paper, the ends 
of which should be stuck together, and should reach one inch 
above the brims of the cassolettes. The preparation of mousse 
may now be placed in the cassolettes in a sufficient quantity 
to overflow the brims, so that, when the paper is removed, 
their appearance is that of small souffles. 

When the cassolettes have been garnished, put them aside 
on ice or in a refrigerator until they are served. 

959— HOMARD A LA QRAMMONT 

Split the lobster open lengthwise down the middle. With- 
draw the meat from the tail ; trim it, and cut it into regular 
collops. Coat the latter again and again with aspic jelly, that 
they may be well covered with it; decorate each with a slice of 
truffle, and glaze it with the same aspic. 

Also coat with jelly as many very white poached and dried 
oysters as there are collops. 

Now take the creamy parts and the meat of the claws, and 
pound them finely with one tablespoonful of cold Bechamel 



FISH 325 

sauce; rub through a sieve, and, with the resulting pur^e com- 
bined with melted fish jelly and cream (see lobster mousse No. 
956), prepare a mousse " au paprika " of a decided pink colour. 

Fill the two half-carapaces to their edges with this mousse, 
and leave it to set on ice. 

When about to serve, lay the collops, glazed with jelly, upon 
this m,ousse, and place an oyster between each pair. Dish the 
two garnished half-carapaces, back to back, upon a napkin, 
and put the heart of a lettuce in the middle, and a bunch of 
curled-leaf parsley at either end. 

Serve a mayonnaise or other cold sauce separately. 

960— HOMARD A LA PARISIENNE 

Tie a lobster to a little board; stretch out its tail to the 
fullest extent; cook it in court-bouillon, and leave it to cool in 
the latter. 

When it is quite cold, with the help of scissors, carefully 
cut a strip of the shell from the back of the head to the tail. 
The aperture left by the removed strip of shell ought to be 
sufficiently wide to allow of the meat of the tail being removed 
without breaking it. Having emptied the tail, refill it with 
salad leaves, and return the strip of shell (upside down) to its 
place. Cut the meat of the tail into even collops, and lay on 
each a roundel of truffle stamped out with the fancy-cutter, and 
dipped in half-melted jelly. Then coat these slices, which 
should be on a dish, again and again, with cold melted jelly 
until they are well covered with it. 

Now break the claws and remove their meat, as also that 
remaining in the carapace, and cut both meats into dice. Take 
the creamy parts, and rub them through a sieve. 

Prepare a small vegetable salad; add thereto the meat dice, 
and cohere the two with a mayonnaise sauce combined with 
melted jelly and the creamy parts rubbed through a sieve. 
When the salad begins to set, owing to the jelly contained in 
the mayonnaise, garnish twelve small artichoke-bottoms with 
it, arranging the salad in them in pyramid form. Set a bit of 
truffle on each pyramid, and sprinkle the salad with melted 
fish jelly in order to make it glossy. 

Dishing. — Dish the lobster on a cushion of buttered bread 
on which a julienne of lettuce has been stuck, or on one of 
carved rice. The cushion should have the shape of a wedge, 
in order that the lobster may lie at an angle of about 45", with 
its head raised, when laid upon it. Arrange the slices (slightly 
overlapping one another) along the back of the lobster, be- 



326 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

ginning at its head with the smallest of them, and progressing 
down towards the tail, gradually increasing their size. 

Surround the lobster alternately with artichoke-bottoms gar- 
nished with salad, and quartered hard-boiled eggs, or halved 
hard-boiled eggs (set upright with their yolks facing outwards). 

Border the dish with very clear jelly in large cubes or 
triangles, etc. 
961— HOMARD A LA RUSSE 

Proceed exactly as above with regard to the cooking of the 
lobster, the extraction of the meat, and the cutting of it into 
slices. Coat the slices with mayonnaise sauce combined with 
melted jelly; or, better still, with a white fish chaud-froid 
sauce combined with the lobster's creamy parts rubbed through 
a sieve. 

Decorate each slice with a bit of coral and two little chervil 
leaves ; coat them again and again with cold melted aspic, and 
put them aside in the cool. " Clothe " ten dariole-moulds, and 
decorate the bottom of each with a slice of truffle. Also prepare 
ten hard-boiled eggs. 

Prepare a Salade Russe (without meat) ; add to this the 
remains of the lobster meat cut into dice, and thicken with 
mayonnaise and melted aspic, mixed. With this thickened salad 
fill the dariole-moulds, and leave to set in the cool. 

Dishing. — Set the lobster on a cushion, after the manner of 
the preceding recipe. Trim the slices, and lay them, as before, 
on the lobster's back, taking care to graduate their sizes. Sur- 
round the lobster with the small moulded salads, and alternate 
these with the hard-boiled eggs. The latter should be cut in 
two at a point one-third of their height above their base; their 
yolks should be removed, the space filled with caviare moulded 
to the form of a pyramid, and, this done, the eggs should be 
set upright. 

Border the dish with roundels of very clear fish jelly, stamped 
out by a fancy-cutter, and lay a bit of truffle upon each. 

N.B. — (i) The moulds of salad must, of course, be dipped 
in hot water before being turned out. 

(2) The lobster may also be served " k la N6va," " k la 
Moscovite, " " kla Sib6rienne," &c., but these preparations are 
only minor forms of " Homard h la Russe" under different 
names. 

Changes may be effected in the preparation by altering the 
constituents of the salad and its dishing. It may, for instance, 
be made in small cucumber or beetroot barquettes, while the 
caviare, instead of being laid in hard-boiled eggs, may be served 
in little pleated cases. 



FISH 327 

As these preparations, however, are based neither on fixed 
principles nor on classical rules, I shall refrain from giving 
them. 

962— MAYONNAISE DE HOMARD 

Proceed as for Mayonnaise de Saumon — that is to say, gar- 
nish the bottom of a salad-bowl with ciseled lettuce leaves, and 
season them moderately. 

Upon this salad lay the remains of the lobster, and upon 
the latter place the thin slices of the tail. Cover with mayon- 
naise sauce, and decorate with strips of anchovy fillets, capers, 
olives, hard-boiled eggs, roundels of pink radishes, the hearts of 
lettuce, &c. 

N.B. — I have already pointed out the futility of prescribing 
a decorative design. As a rule, the matter is so intimately con- 
nected with the taste and fancy of the individual, and the 
products used for the purpose lend themselves to such inde- 
finite variation, that I prefer merely to enumerate these products, 
and to leave the question of their arrangement to the artistic 
ingenuity of the operator. 

963— SALADE DE HOMARD 

See " Salade de Saumon" (No. 810). As the preparation 
and seasoning of the latter are identical with those of the dish 
under consideration, all that is needed is to replace the salmon 
of recipe No. 810 by the collops of lobster. 

Spiny Lobsters. CL angouste.') 

All culinary preparations dealing with lobsters may be 
adapted to spiny lobsters. There is, therefore, no need to 
repeat them here. Of the cold recipes, two are much better 
suited to the spiny than to the ordinary kind, though, as they 
are used for both specimens, I gave them earlier in the book. 
The two recipes referred to are : — 

964— LANQOUSTE A LA PARISIENNE; see LOBSTER, 

recipe 960. 
965— LANQOUSTE A LA RUSSE ; see LOBSTER, recipe 961. 

Crayfish. (Ecrevisses.) 

When crayfish are prepared after one of the recipes most 
commonly used on the Continent, i.e., whole, they are not much 
relished in England. This is doubtless accounted for by the 
fact that ladies, dining in evening dress, find them somewhat 
difficult to manage. 

They are therefore only served in the form of an aspic, a 



328 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

mousse, mousselines, timbales, &c., or as the garnish of some 
other fish ; for in all these cases they are shelled. 

Be all this as it may, I give below the various recipes re- 
lating to them, and from among these it ought to be possible to 
choose one which will meet the requirements of any particular 
case. 

966 ECREVISSES A LA BORDELAISE 

N.B. — Whatever be their _mode of preparation, crayfish 
should always be thoroughly cleansed and cleared of their in- 
testines, the extreme end of which is to be found under the 
middle of the tail. In order to remove the intestines, take the 
telson or tail-segment between the point of a small knife and 
the thumb, and pull gently. If this were not done, the in- 
testines, especially in the breeding season, might render the 
crayfish disagreeably bitter. 

As soon as their intestines have been removed, the crayfish 
should be set to cook, otherwise, i.e., if they be left to wait, 
their juices escape through the anal wound, and they empty. 

For twelve crayfish, after having cleaned and eviscerated 
them, put them into a vegetable-pan with one tablespoonful 
of very fine mirepoix, completely cooked beforehand, and two- 
thirds oz. of butter. Toss them over an open fire until the 
shells have acquired a fine, red colour. Moisten with three 
tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy and one-quarter pint of white 
wine; reduce by a third, and complete with one tablespoonful 
of Espagnole, two tablespoonfuls of fish fumet, the same quan- 
tity of tomato pur^e, and one spoonful of special mirepoix 
(No. 229). 

Put the lid on, and set to cook for ten minutes. 

Dish the crayfish in a timbale ; reduce the sauce by a quarter, 
and finish it with a few drops of meat glaze, one oz. of butter, 
a very little cayenne, chopped chervil, and tarragon. Pour 
this over the crayfish, and serve instantly. 

967— 6CREVISSES A LA MARINIERE 

In the case of twelve crayfish, toss them in two-thirds oz. of 
butter over an open fire, until the shells are of a fine red. Season 
with salt and pepper; add two finely chopped shallots, a bit 
of thyme and a bit of bay; moisten with one-third pint of 
white wine; cover; cook for ten minutes, and dish in a timbale. 

Reduce the cooking-liquor to half; thicken with two table- 
spoonfuls of fish velout^ ; finish the sauce with one oz. of butter, 
and pour it over the crayfish. 



FISH 329 

Sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley, and serve at 
once. 

968— ECREVISSES A LA NAQE 

For twelve crayfish, ten minutes beforehand prepare a court- 
bouillon of one-half pint of white wine, one-quarter pint of 
fish jumet, a few roundels of carrot and onion, one stalk 
of parsley cut into dice, a small pinch of powdered thyme and 
bay, and a very little salt and cayenne pepper. 

Put the crayfish into the boiling court-bouillon ; cover, and 
leave to cook for ten minutes, taking care to toss the crayfish 
from time to time. 

When about to serve, pour the crayfish with the court- 
bouillon and the aromatics into a timbale. 

969— 6CREVISSES A LA LIEQEOISE 

Cook the crayfish in court-bouillon as eJcplained in the pre- 
ceding recipe. Dish them in a timbale, and keep them hot. 
Strain the court-bouillon; reduce it by a quarter; add one oz. 
of butter, and pour it over the crayfish. 

Sprinkle with a pinch of concussed parsley. 

970— MOUSSELINES D'ECREVISSES 

What I said with reference to " Mousseline de Homard " 
(No. 951) applies perfectly here, and my remarks relative to the 
variation of the garnishing ingredients, which are the same as 
those in No. 951, also hold good. 

971— TIMBALE DE QUEUES D'ECREVISSES A LA NANTUA 

For ten people prepare (i) a shallow timbale crust, and a 
cover decorated with a design of leaves or some other orna- 
mental treatment ; (2) toss sixty crayfish in butter with two 
tablespoonfuls of very fine mirepoix cooked in butter before- 
hand. When the crayfish are of a distinct red, moisten with 
one glass of white wine and three tablespoonfuls of burned 
brandy ; season with salt and cayenne pepper ; cover them, and 
keep them on the side of the fire for ten minutes, taking care to 
toss them again from time to time; (3) shell the tails and put 
them into a small saucepan with twenty small quenelles 
of whiting forcemeat, finished with crayfish butter; fifteen 
small, grooved mushrooms, cooked and very white, and three 
oz. of truffles in slices. Add a few drops of the mushroom cook- 
ing-liquor to this garnish, and keep it hot; (4) pound the 
remains and carcasses of the crayfish very finely ; add two-thirds 
pint of cream sauce to the resulting pur6e; rub it through 
tammy, and add it to the garnish ; (5) when about to serve, pour 



330 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

this garnish into the timbale crust, which should be very hot, 
and deck the top with a crown of fine slices of very black 
truffle. Close the timbale with its cover, and dish it on a 
napkin. 

972— SOUFFLE D'lSCREVISSES A LA FLORENTINE 

Make a preparation of Souffle au Parmesan (No. 2295A) 
combined with two tablespoonfuls of crayfish cream per pint. 
The cream is prepared after the manner of lobster cream (No. 
295). 

Put this preparation in a buttered timbale in alternate layers 
separated by litters of sliced truffle and crayfish tails. Cook 
the souffle after the manner of an ordinary one. 

973— SOUFFLE D'ECREVISSES LEOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD 

Prepare a souffle as above, and add thereto a bare tablespoon- 
ful of freshly-cooked asparagus and slices of truffle, and cray- 
fish tails placed between the layers of the souffle preparation. 
Cook as above. 

974— S0UFFL6 D'jgCREVISSES A LA PI^MONTAISE 

This is identical with No. 972, except that the ordinary 
truffles are replaced by shavings of Piedmont truffles. 

975— ASPIC DE QUEUES D'ECREVISSES A LA MODERNE 

Cook twelve fine crayfish in accordance with the directions 
under No. 996, but substitute champagne for the white wine. 

Shell the tails; trim them evenly; cut them in two length- 
wise, and keep them in the cool until they are wanted. Remove 
the creamy parts from the carapaces of the crayfish ; add the 
trimmings of the tails, the meat from the claws, and the 
mirepoix in which the crayfish have cooked. 

Pound the whole very finely in a mortar, and rub it through 
a sieve. Put the resulting pur^e in a receptacle; add thereto 
one-quarter pint of very cold, melted aspic, and three table- 
spoonfuls of barely beaten cream. Leave this preparation to 
settle. 

Trim the crayfish carapaces; fill them with a little prepared 
mousse, and decorate each carapace with a small roundel of 
truffle. 

Put the remainder of the mousse in the middle of a little 
crystal bowl, and mould it to the shape of a cone, narrow to- 
wards the base, and as high as possible. 

Arrange the garnished crayfish carapaces on their backs in 
the bowl around the cone of mousse, and set some crayfish 
tails in superposed rings up the cone. The crayfish tails should 



FISH 331 

be dipped in half-melted jelly, that they may stick fast to the 
cone. Lay a small, very round truffle on the top of the cone 
to complete the decoration. This done, coat the whole again 
and again by means of a spoon with half-melted, succulent, 
clear fish jelly, and incrust the timbale in a block of ice, or set 
it amidst the latter broken up. 

976— MOUSSE D'ECREVISSES 

For ten people cook thirty crayfish as for potage Bisque. 
This done, remove the tails, and reserve a dozen fine carapaces. 
Finely pound the remainder, together with the mirepoix in 
which the crayfish have cooked, and add thereto one-half oz. 
of butter, one oz. of red butter (No. 142), one-quarter pint of 
cold fish velout^, and six tablespoonfuls of melted fish jelly. 
Rub through tammy, and put the resulting pur^e in a sauce- 
pan ; stir it over ice for two or three minutes ; add three-quarters 
pint of half-beaten cream, and the crayfish tails cut into dice 
or finely sliced. 

Before beginning to prepare the mousse, line the bottom and 
side of a Charlotte-mould with paper, that the mousse may be 
moulded as soon as ready. 

Pour the preparation into the mould, taking care to' reserve 
enough for the twelve carapaces already put aside, and put the 
mousse on ice or in a refrigerator until dishing it. Fill the 
twelve trimmed carapaces with the reserved mousse, and decorate 
each with a round slice of truffle. When about to serve, turn 
out the mousse on a small, round cushion of semolina or rice, 
one-half inch thick, lying on a dish. Remove all the paper, 
and decorate the top of the mousse with a crown of fine slices 
of truffle dipped in melted jelly, that they may be glossy. 

Surround the semolina or rice cushion with a border of 
chopped jelly, and arrange the garnished carapaces upon this 
jelly, setting them almost upright. 

N.B. — (i) Instead of being served on a cushion, the crayfish 
mousse may be sent to the table in a deep silver dish with a 
border of chopped jelly, and surrounded by the garnished 
carapaces. The utensil is then laid on a flat dish in a bed of 
broken ice, or it is incrusted direct in a block of carved ice. 

(2) For the moulding of crayfish mousse, the mould may be 
"clothed" with fish jelly and decorated with slices of truffle, 
as directed under " Mousse de Homard moul^e " (No. 957). 

A mousse prepared in this way may be either dished on a 
semolina or rice cushion, or in a deep silver entree dish, as 
described above. 



332 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

976a— SUPRfeMES D'ECREVISSES AU CHAMPAGNE 

Select forty medium-sized crayfish that seem full of life; 
cooli them quickly in a highly-seasoned mirepoix, moistened 
with one half-bottle of dry champagne. This done, shell them ; 
trim their tails, and keep them in the cool in a small bowl. 
Pound their shells as finely as possible with one-quarter lb. 
of fresh butter, and put the resulting pur^e in a saucepan, 
together with one-half pint of boiling velout^ containing four 
or five leaves of gelatine, and the cooking-liquor of the cray- 
fish passed through a fine strainer. 

Set to boil for a few minutes, that the remains may exude 
all their flavour; rub through tammy over a basin lying on 
ice, and whisk the preparation in order to accelerate its cool- 
ing. As soon as it begins to thicken, add one pint of half- 
whipped cream to it. Then pour the whole into a silver or 
porcelain timbale, taking care that the utensil be not more 
than three-quarters full. 

When the mousse has set, decorate the surface with the 
reserved crayfish tails, to which are added, as a finish, bits 
of truffle and chervil leaves. Cover the decoration with a thin 
coating of easily-melting and amber-coloured fish jelly, and 
put the timbale on ice. When about to serve, incrust it in a 
block of carved ice, or place it on a silver dish with broken ice 
all round. 

977— MOUSSE D'ECREVISSES CARDINAL 

For ten people cook the crayfish as explained in No. 976, but 
take forty instead of thirty. Shell the tails; trim them and cut 
them into dice. Prepare the mousse in the same way, but use 
twice as much red butter. Garnish twelve carapaces after the 
same manner, and decorate each with a slice of truffle. 

Clothe a dome- or Charlotte-mould somewhat thickly with 
jelly; garnish its bottom and sides with crayfish tails, pre- 
viously dipped in half-melted jelly, and arranged in superposed 
rows; and place the crayfish so that the tails of the first row 
lie to the left, those of the second row to the right, and 
so on. As often as possible, do this work before preparing 
the mousse, in order that the latter may be put into the mould 
as soon as ready. 

When about to fill the mould, add twenty fine slices of 
truffle to the mousse. Dish after one of the two methods 
directed in the appended note to No. 970, and take care to dip 
the mould quickly into hot water before attempting to turn out 
its contents. 



FISH 333 

978— PETITS SOUFFLES FROIDS D'^CREVISSES 

Prepare the crayfish mousse as directed under No. 976, and 
replace the fish velout^ by cold Bechamel. The addition of 
sauce is even unnecessary in this case, and the preparation may 
be all the more delicate for consisting only of the crayfish cullis 
and two tablespoonfuls of fish jelly. 

For the moulding of these small souffles I can only repeat 
what I said under " Petites Mousses de Homard " (No. 958). 
Let a thin coating of jelly set on the bottom of the small 
cassolettes or timbales used; garnish their insides with a band 
of white paper, reaching one, inch above their brims ; stick the 
end of this band with a little batter. 

Now garnish the timbales with mousse, letting it project 
above their edges to the extent of two-thirds of an inch, and leave 
it to set in the cool. When about to serve, remove the band of 
paper, holding in the projecting mousse, and the appearance 
of the garnished timbales is exactly that of small, hot souffles. 
Allow one souffle for each person. 

979— SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS (Crevettes Qrises 

et Crevettes Roses) 

Prawns are chiefly used for hors-d'oeuvres, but they may, 
nevertheless, be prepared in Aspics; Mousses; small cold 
Souffles, &c. 

As regards shrimps, their use is entirely limited to gar- 
nishes, hors-d'ceuvres, and to the preparation of soups, shrimp 
butters, and creams. 

OYSTERS. (HUlTRES.) 

Though oysters are nicer raw, there are so many culinary 
preparations of which they form the leading constituent, and 
such a number of garnishing uses to which they may be put, 
that I feel compelled to mention some of these. 

980— HUiTRES A LA FAVORITE 

Poach the oysters (cleared of their beards) in their own 
liquor, which should have been carefully collected when open- 
ing them. Clean their hollow shells, and place them on a 
tray covered with a layer of salt one-half inch thick. Garnish 
them with Bechamel; upon the latter, in each shell, lay an 
oyster decked with a slice of truffle; cover with the same 
sauce ; besprinkle with grated Parmesan and melted butter, and 
set to glaze quickly. Serve immediately. 



334 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

981— HUITRES AU QRATIN 

Open the oysters ; cut them free, and lay them in the hollow 
halves of their shells, which should be incrusted in a layer of 
salt covering a tray. On each oyster put a drop of lemon juice, 
a pinch of fried bread-crumbs, a little melted butter, and a piece 
of fresh butter the size of a pea. 

Set the gratin to form in a fierce oven or at the salamander, 
and serve immediately. 

982— HUITRES A LA MORNAY 

Poach the oysters, and allow two per shell. 

Set the hollow shells, thoroughly cleansed, on a tray covered 
with salt. Cover the bottom of the shells with Mornay sauce; 
put two poached oysters into each ; cover with the same sauce ; 
sprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter, and set to glaze 
quickly. Serve instantly. 

983— HUITRES SOUFFLEES 

Make a preparation of SoufH6 au Parmesan (No. 2295A). 
Slightly poach the oysters, clean their hollow shells, and set 
these on a tray covered with kitchen salt. Spread a layer of the 
preparation on each shell ; put an oyster thereon, and cover the 
latter with the soufE16 au Parmesan. 

Heat the base of the tray on the stove, and, when the souffle 
begins to rise, put the tray in the oven, that the souffle may 
cook and colour at the same time. Serve at once. 

984— HuITRES A LA FLORENTINE 

Poach the oysters. Set their hollow shells on a tray as 
above; garnish the bottom of each of these with shredded 
spinach stewed in butter; lay an oyster on the spinach in each 
shell ; cover with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly. Serve 
immediately. 

985— HUiTRES QRILLEES 

Open the oysters, and leave them in their hollow shells ; lay 
them (very straight) on a tray covered with salt, incrusting 
them in the latter; besprinkle with a drop of lemon juice and 
a little mignonette pepper and put them in a fierce oven, that 
their top surfaces may be speedily poached. 

Dish them on a napkin; pour a coffeespoonful of "Sauce 
Diable Escoffier " over each,^ and serve directly. 

986— QUENELLES D'HUITRES A LA REINE 

With four oz. of chicken fillets and six raw oysters, prepare 
a mousseline forcemeat in accordance with the directions given 



FISH 335 

under No, 195. Mould this forcemeat, by means of a table- 
spoon, into large quenelles, in the centre of which lay two 
cold poached oysters. 

Poach these quenelles after the manner of ordinary mous- 
selines. This done, drain them on a piece of linen; arrange 
them in a circle on a round dish, and cover them with highly- 
seasoned Supreme sauce. Decorate each quenelle with a fine 
slice of truffle, and garnish the middle of the dish with some 
asparagus-tops, cohered with butter. 

987— BASS (Bar) 

This excellent fish is very little knownj and, consequently, 
rarely sought after in England. 

The large specimens are served, boiled, with the same kind 
of sauce as for turbot. The smaller ones are chiefly served k la 
Meuni^re or fried. 

988— BRILL (Barbue) 

Served whole, brill may be looked upon as the understudy, 
as it were, of the chicken-turbot, and all the preparations given 
for the latter may be adapted to the former. 

If it be preferred filleted, it may be treated after the recipes 
given for fillets of sole. Hence for brill cooked whole refer 
to chicken-turbot and the recipes Nos. 925 to 938, and for filleted 
brill see recipes Nos. 865 to 922. 

989— BLOATERS 

Bloaters, or herrings partially dried in smoke, form one of 
the nicest breakfast dishes. As a rule, they are simply grilled 
over a moderate fire. It should be borne in mind that, as these 
fish are only partially salted and smoked, they will not keep 
very long. 

COD. (CABILLAUD.) 

If cod were less common, it would be held in as high esteem 
as salmon ; for, when it is really fresh and of good quality, the 
delicacy and delicious flavour of its flesh admit of its ranking 
among the finest of fish. 

990— CABILLAUD BOUILLI 

Fresh cod is mostly served boiled, either whole, in sections, 
or in dames, and the directions given under "The Boiling of 
Fish " (No. 766) apply particularly to this fish. 

Boiled fresh cod is always accompanied by its liver, poached 
in salted water, and very floury potatoes, boiled at the last 
minute, must always be sent to the table with it. 

Served thus with an oyster sauce, a Hollandaise sauce, or 



336 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

melted butter, fresh cod constitutes a Relev^ which would satisfy 
the most exacting of gourmets. 

991— CABILLAUD QRILL6 

Cut the fish into slices one inch or two inches thick. Season 
these slices ; dredge them ; sprinkle them copiously with 
melted butter, and set them to grill, remembering to baste 
them frequently the while with melted butter. 

Serve them on a hot dish ; garnish them with slices of lemon, 
and surround with bunches of parsley. 

Send a Maitre-d' Hotel or Anchovy butter, or a grilled-fish 
sauce to the table with the dish. 

992— CABILLAUD FRIT 

Cut some slices of fresh cod, from one inch to one and one- 
half inches thick. Season them, treat them a I'anglaise, and 
fry them sufficiently to allow of their being well cooked all 
through. Dish them on a napkin with fried parsley and lemon, 
and send a butter sauce (No. 66), a tartare sauce, or a tomato 
sauce to the table at the same time as the fish. 

993-CABILLAUD CREME QRATIN 

For ten people take two lbs. of boiled fresh cod divided 
into small pieces; clear these of all bones and skin, and keep 
them hot in a little of their cooking-liquor. 

Now, with the necessary quantity of Duchesse potatoes (No. 
221), and by means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, 
lay a border, one and one-half inches high, round a dish, shap- 
ing it in such wise that it is thickest at its base. The dish may 
be either round or oval. Carefully gild this border with egg- 
yolks. 

This done, pour a few tablespoonfuls of Mornay sauce on 
the dish ; lay thereon the drained pieces of cod, and cover the 
latter with enough Mornay sauce to reach within one-third of an 
inch of the brim of the border. If more sauce were used, it 
would flow over the border during the process of glazing. 

Sprinkle with grated Parmesan and melted butter; set to 
glaze, and see that the border gets evenly coloured. 

Serve the moment the dish is withdrawn from the oven. 

N.B. — This mode of preparation is not restricted to fresh 
cod. It may be applied to all other boiled fish — turbot, chicken- 
turbot, brill, bass, salmon, &c. 

994— CABILLAUD A LA FLAMANDE 

Cut the fresh cod into slices one inch thick ; season them with 
salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and put them in a saut^pan or a 



PISH 337 

deep, liberally-buttered tray. Moisten with white wine to the 
height of the slices; add chopped shallots and " fines herbes," 
and garnish the fish with roundels of pipped lemon, peeled to 
the pulp. 

Set to boil, and then poach in the oven for twelve minutes. 
Place the slices on a dish; thicken their cooking-liquor with 
crushed biscotte; cook it for five minutes; pour it over the 
slices, and serve. 

995— CABILLAUD A LA PORTUQAISE 

For ten people, cut five slices of fresh cod, each weighing 
one-half lb., and season them with salt and pepper. Put these 
slices into a saut^pan containing the following garnish, Into 
which they should be pressed : — Three oz. of butter and one- 
sixth pint of oil ; one large onion, chopped and lightly coloured 
in butter ; a bit of crushed garlic the size of a pea ; one faggot ; 
two pinches of concassed parsley; eight medium-sized, peeled, 
pressed, and minced tomatoes, and one-third pint of white wine. 

Cover the saut^pan, and set to boil on an open fire for five 
minutes. 

Now take the lid off the saucepan, and leave it to cook for 
twelve minutes on the side of the fire, in order that the liquid 
may be reduced and the fish cooked at the same moment of 
time. 

Set the slices on a long dish ; withdraw the faggot, and pour 
the garnish and the cooking-liquor over the fish. 

996— LAITANCES DE CARPE (Carp's Milt) 

The milt of a carp makes a very delicate dish. It is served 
either as a second fish at a dinner; as a garnish to large fish 
Relev^s, after having been poached in salted water; or cut 
while raw into slices which are generally treated a la Meuniere. 

997— LAITANCES A LA MEUNIERE 

Prepare them whole or in collops, in pursuance of the direc- 
tions given under "The Cooking of Fish k la Meuniere" 

(No. 778). 

998— BARQUETTES DE LAITANCES A LA FLORENTINE 

Poach the milts in salted water; cut them into small, long 
slices, and set them in barquette crusts prepared in advance. 

Cover the sliced milts with a souffle au Parmesan (No. 
2295a), and shape the latter slightly after the manner of a dome. 

Arrange the barquettes on a dish, and put them in a moderate 
oven, that they may cook and the souffle be glazed at the same 

z 



338 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

time. When taking them out of the oven, dish them on a 
napkin and serve immediately. 

999— CAISSES DE LAITANCES A LA NANTUA 

Poach the milts in salted water. Drain them, and cut them 
into small slices thicker than their length. 

Place these slices in small pleated porcelain cases with 
two crayfish tails in each. Fill up the cases with Nantua sauce, 
and lay a fine slice of truffle over the centre of each case. 

looo— JOHN DORY (St. Pierre) 

This fish, which is in the highest degree unsightly, is pos- 
sessed of flesh whose firmness, whiteness, and delicacy are 
of the rarest excellence; and, when quite fresh, its fillets are 
certainly equal in quality to those of the chicken-turbot and 
the sole. 

Albeit the dory is not as popular as it deserves to be, and 
this is owing either to its unsightliness, which may prejudice 
the opinion of gourmets against it, to people's indifference with 
regard to it, or to a mere trick of fashion. 

While I admit its unpopularity, however, I should strongly 
recommend all lovers of fish to give it a trial. Let them prepare 
the dory's fillets after the recipes given under Fillets of Sole and 
Chicken-turbot, and, provided the directions be properly carried 
out, I venture to believe that the prevailing aversion to dory will 
very soon be found to have no warrant in fact. 

looi— FRESH HADDOCK (Eglefin) 

This fish is chiefly eaten smoked, under the name of haddock. 

When it is fresh, it may be prepared after the recipes given 
for cod, to which it is quite equal in the matter of delicacy. 

I002— SMELT (^perlans) 

Owing to their small size, smelts only lend themselves to a 
very limited number of preparations. They are usually served 
either on little skewers or dished in a heap on a napkin, with 
fried parsley and grooved half-lemons; those on skewers are 
dished flat with the same garnish. 

Large smelts may be treated after the recipes immediately 
following. 

1003— 6PERLANS A L'ANQLAISE 

Open the smelts down the back and carefully bone, without 
disfiguring them. Treat them a I'anglaise with fine bread- 
crumbs, and pat them lightly with the flat of a knife, that the 
bread-crumbs may adhere well. 



FISH 339 

Cook them in clarified butter; set them on a long hot dish, 
and besprinkle them with half-melted butter h la Maltre-d'H6tel 
(No. 150). 

1004— EPERLANS AU QRATIN 

Proceed as for " Merlans au Gratin " (No. 1018), but allow- 
ing for the difference between the sizes of the two fish, put the 
smelts in a fiercer oven than the whiting, in order that they may 
be cooked simultaneously with the formation of the gratin. 

1005— EPERLANS QRILLI6S 

Open them down the back, and remove the bulk of their 
spine, leaving a small piece only in the region of the tail, and 
another small piece at the head. Season, dredge, and 
sprinkle them with melted butter, and grill them quickly. 

Set them on a long, hot dish ; surround them with slices of 
lemon and bunches of fried parsley, and serve separately either 
some half-melted butter k la Maitre-d'H6tel, or a sauce suited 
to grilled fish. 

1006— MOUSSELINES D'^PERLANS 

Proceed exactly as for Mousselines de Saumon (No. 797). 
To prepare the forcemeat, follow the directions under No. 195 ; 
but note the following changes : — Of the whole quantity of the 
meat of fish, that of the smelt should only measure one-third; 
the other two-thirds should be supplied by the sole, dory, or 
whiting. 

The object of this disproportion has already been explained 
under " Velout^ d'Eperlans " (No. 680). The flesh of the smelt 
is of a much too decided flavour to be used alone, and when 
this flavour dominates, it becomes positively disagreeable ; hence 
the need of a fish whose flesh is almost neutral in so far as 
taste is concerned. But this addition of a fish foreign to the 
base of the preparation fulfils a double purpose; for, while it 
effectually weakens the pungency of the smelt's flesh, it also 
enables the whole preparation to absorb a much larger quantity 
of cream, and this last circumstance can only allow of the 
mousselines being lighter and mellower. 

1007— MOUSSE CHAUDE D'EPERLANS A LA ROYALE 

Take a Charlotte-mould, of a size in proportion to the 
number of people to be served, and butter its bottom and sides. 
Cover the bottom of the mould with a round piece of buttered 
kitchen paper, and do the same on the sides. 

Prepare the required quantity of smelts' fillets; slightly 
flatten them in order to break their fibres, and trim them all to 
the same length and width. 

z 2 



340 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Then garnish the bottom of the mould with tlie fillets of 
smelt, placing them so that their skin-sides are against the 
mould. Between each of the fillets set a small strip of truffle, 
one quarter of the width of the former. 

Garnish the sides in the same way, putting a strip of truffle 
between each; but take care to place the fillets aslant instead 
of upright. Having thus lined the mould with fillets of smelt 
and truffle, cover the whole with a layer of mousseline force- 
meat, one-half inch thick. 

Now fill the mould in the following way : — On the layer of 
forcemeat covering the fillets at the bottom of the mould set 
as many slices of truffle as will cover it; spread another layer 
of forcemeat on the truffle, and over that lay, alternately, a 
sufficient quantity of fillets of smelt and anchovy. Follow with 
a fresh layer of forcemeat, slices of truffle, &c., until the mould 
is full, and finish with a layer of forcemeat. 

Poach the motisse (covered) in a moderate oven, and allow 
fifty minutes for one prepared in a quart-mould. It is very 
easy, however, to tell when the mousse is done, by simply 
thrusting a small knife into it; if the blade of the knife with- 
draws quite clean, the mousse is cooked. 

As soon as it is ready, turn the mould upside-down on a 
dish, and raise it a little in order to allow the liquid, which 
always accumulates in more or less large quantities, to drain 
away. Soak up this liquid; gently draw off the mould; take 
oft" the paper, and remove the froth which may have formed on 
the fillets by means of a wet brush. 

Lay a fine, grooved mushroom on the top of the mousse ; 
surround it with mousseline sauce (No. 92), finished with 
crayfish butter, and send a sauceboat of the same mousseline 
sauce to the table with the dish. 

N.B. — This m,ousse may also be prepared with fillets of sole, 
of salmon, or of trout, &c. 
1008— HADDOCK 

Sometimes the fish is grilled, but, after having boned it and 
removed its fins and the greater part of its belly, it is more 
often cooked in water or milk, either of which moistening is 
usually short. 

It is plunged in slightly salted boiling water, and then it 
is moved to the side of the fire to poach, with lid on. Allow 
about fifteen minutes for a fish weighing one and one-half lbs. 

Dish it with a few tablespoonfuls of its cooking-liquor, and, 
subject to the consumer's taste, serve some fresh or melted 
butter separately. 



FISH 341 

When haddock is served at lunch, send to the table with 
it an egg-sauce and a timbale of potatoes, freshly cooked a 
I'anglaise. 

Mackerel (Maquereau) 
1009— MAQUEREAU BOUILLI, SAUCE AUX QROSEILLES 

Cut the mackerels into three, crosswise, and poach them in 
court-bouillon with vinegar (No. 163), seasoned with a pinch 
of fennel per pint. Drain them on a napkin ; skin them, and 
dish them with curled-leaf parsley all round. 

With the mackerels serve a gooseberry sauce prepared as 
follows : — 

Green Gooseberry Sauce proper to Mackerel. — Cook one lb. 
of green gooseberries in a copper sugar boiler with three oz. of 
sugar and enough water to cover them, and then rub them 
through tammy. 

loio— MAQUEREAU GRILLE 

Cut off the extremity of the mackerels' mouths; open them 
down the back, without dividing them into two. 

Season them ; sprinkle them with melted butter, and grill 
them gently, taking care to baste them by means of a brush 
with melted butter while they are cooking. 

Set them on a round, hot dish, and sprinkle them with 
half-melted butter a la Maitre-d' Hotel, after having drawn their 
halves together, that they may seem natural and untouched. 

Or surround them with grooved slices of lemon, and send 
a " Sauce Diable Escoffier " to the table separately. This sauce 
constitutes an excellent adjunct to grilled mackerel. 

ion— FILETS DE MAQUEREAU AUX FINES HERBES 

Raise some mackerels' fillets in such wise as to leave the 
bones quite clean. Arrange the fillets on a buttered dish, and 
poach them in white wine and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms 
in equal quantities. Take care to cover them while they are 
being poached. 

This done, drain them; skin them; set them on a long 
dish, and cover them with a herb sauce (No. 83), combined 
with their cooking-liquor strained through linen and reduced. 

1012— FILETS DE MAQUEREAU AU PERSIL 

Raise the fillets as before, and poach them in a white-wine 
court-bouillon with one-half oz. of parsley leaves per pint. 
Drain them ; skin them ; set them on a long dish, and cover 



342 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

them with a parsley sauce. This latter is an English butter 
sauce (No. 113a) to which some freshly-chopped parsley is 
added at the last moment. 

1013— FILETS DE MAQUEREAU A LA V^NITIENNE 

Poach the fillets in a court-bouillon with white wine. Drain 
them ; skin them ; set them on a long dish, and cover them 
with a Venetian sauce (No. 107). 

Whiting (Merlan) 

1014— MERLAN A L'ANQLAISE 

Open the whitings down the back; loosen the spine, and 
completely remove it. Season them inside, and treat them 
a I'anglaise with very fresh and fine bread-crumbs. 

Cook the whitings very quickly in clarified butter; set them 
on a long dish, and sprinkle them with half-melted butter 
k la Maitre-d'Hotel. 

N.B. — Whitings a I'anglaise may also be grilled, but it is 
preferable to cook them in clarified butter. 

lo 15— MERLAN A LA BERCY 

Slightly open the whitings down the back, with the view 
of promoting their cooking process. Lay them on a buttered 
dish sprinkled with finely-chopped shallots, and moisten 
them with white wine and fish fumet. Add one-half oz. of 
butter per whiting, and cook in the oven, basting often the 
while. The moment when the whitings are quite done should 
be coincident with the almost complete reduction of their 
cooking-liquor. 

Set to glaze at the last moment. 

When taking the whitings out of the oven, sprinkle them 
with a few drops of lemon juice and a little chopped parsley. 

1016— MERLAN A LA COLBERT 

Open the whitings down the back, and bone them. Season 
them; dip them in milk; roll them in flour; and treat them 
a I'anglaise. Fry them ; drain them ; set them on a long dish ; 
garnish the openings in their backs with butter k la Maitre- 
d'Hotel, and border the dish with grooved slices of lemon. 

1017— MOUSSELINES DE MERLAN 

For the preparation of the mousseline forcemeat, refer to 
No. 195. The moulding and poaching of these mousselines 



FISH 343 

are the same as for salmon mousselines, and the preparations 
suited to the latter may likewise be applied to mousselines de 
merlans. (See Mousselines de Saumon, Nos. 797 to 799.) 

ioi8— FILETS DE MERLAN AU QRATIN 

Raise the fillets from some whitings, and leave the bones 
quite clean. Lay them on a buttered dish besprinkled with 
chopped shallots, the bottom of which should have been covered 
with a few tablespoonfuls of gratin sauce. Surround the fillets 
with slices of raw mushrooms; set two small, cooked mushrooms 
upon each fillet; pour a few tablespoonfuls of white wine into 
the dish, and cover the whole with gratin sauce. 

Sprinkle with fine raspings and melted butter, and put the 
dish in a sufficiently fierce oven to (i) reduce the sauce; (2) allow 
the gratin to form ; and (3) cook the fillets at the same moment 
of time. In respect of this operation, refer to Complete Gratin, 
No. 269. 

When taking the dish from the oven, sprinkle a little 
chopped parsley and a few drops of lemon juice over it. 

N.B. — If the whiting be treated whole, the procedure 
remains the same. 

1019— PAUPIETTES DE MERLAN AU QRATIN 

Raise some fillets of whiting; coat them with a fish force- 
meat combined with fine herbs, and roll them into scrolls. Set 
these rolled fillets on a round, buttered gratin dish sprinkled with 
chopped shallots, the bottom of which should have been covered 
with gratin sauce. 

Surround them with a border of sliced, raw mushrooms; 
place a small, cooked mushroom on each fillet, and proceed for 
the rest of the operation exactly as explained under " Filets de 
Merlan au Gratin." 

1020— MERLAN EN LORGNETTE AU QRATIN 

Separate the fillets from the bones, proceeding from the tail 
to the head, and completely remove the spine near the head. 
Cover the fillets with fish forcemeat " aux fines herbes," and 
roll them into scrolls with their tail-ends inside. 

Set them on a round dish sprinkled with chopped shallots 
and covered with gratin sauce, placing them side by side, all 
round the dish, with the whitings' heads in the centre; and 
proceed for the rest of the operation as explained under No. 
1018. 

N.B. — Whitings prepared in this way may be treated with 
white wine, Dieppoise, Bercy, fried, ^C, 



344 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1021— FILETS DE MERLAN ORLY 

Raise the fillets and proceed as for " Filets de Soles 
Olga," No. 893. 

I023— MERLAN SUR LE PLAT 

Proceed as for " Sole sur le Plat," No. 837. 

1023-MERLAN A LA RICHELIEU 

Prepare six " Merlans k I'anglaise," No. 1014. Lay thereon 
a few slices of truffle. Or dish them simply on their sides; 
garnish their top surfaces with the butter prescribed above, and 
put a row of truffle slices on the butter. 

1024— MORUE AND SALTED COD (Morue et Cabillaud Sal6) 

Salted cod bought in England has generally been fished 
somewhere along the English coast, and is, as a rule, of 
recent salting. It has not the peculiar flavour of the Icelandic 
morue, or that of the Newfoundland specimens, and it does not 
lend itself to such a large variety of preparations as these two. 

At the end of each of the following recipes, I indicate the 
kind of cod to which the procedure may be applied. 

Morue, especially the Newfoundland kind, should be set 
to soak at least twelve hours before being used, and the water 
during that time should be frequently changed. 

When about to cook it, suppress its fins, and cut it up in 
a way befitting the selected mode of preparation. 

Allow four oz. gross of the fish for each person. 

1024a— SALTED COD AND MORUE A L'ANQLAISE 

Put the fish into cold water ; set to boil, and as soon as this 
point is reached, leave the fish to poach on the side of the fire 
for fifteen minutes. 

Drain, skin, dish on a napkin, and serve, separately, a 
timbale of parsnips and an egg-sauce a I'Ecossaise. 

Both kinds of cod may be used for this dish. 

1025— MORUE A LA BENEDICTINE 

Poach one and one-half lbs. of morue as above; drain it 
and cut into small pieces, cleared of all skin and bone. Pound 
it quickly while it is still hot, and add to it half its weight of 
potatoes cooked as for a puree, drained, and dried in the oven 
for a few minutes. When the whole has been reduced to a 
fine paste, add one-sixth pint of oil, and one-quarter pint 
of boiled milk. The oil and the milk should be added 
little by little, and the paste should be more mellow than stiff. 



FISH 345 

Serve in a buttered gratin dish ; arrange ttie preparation in 
tlie form of a dome ; sprinkle with melted butter, and set 
to colour in the oven. 

Icelandic and Newfoundland morue. 

1026— MORUE AU BEURRE NOIR 
OU AU BEURRE NOISETTE 

Cut the morue into squares or rectangles; roll these into 
paupiettes or scrolls, and bind these with a piece of string. 
Poach them in the usual way; drain them; scrape their skins, 
and dish them. Sprinkle with concussed parsley; add lemon 
juice, and cover with brown or lightly-browned butter. Either 
kind of cod may be used. 

1027— BRANDADE DE MORUE 

Cut one lb. of morue into pieces, and poach these for eight 
minutes. The eight minutes should be counted from the time 
the water begins to boil. 

Drain on a sieve, and clear the pieces of all skin and bones. 
Heat in a sautepan one-sixth pint of oil until the latter 
smokes; throw the cleaned pieces of morue into the oil; add a 
piece of crushed garlic the size of a haricot-bean, and stir over 
a brisk fire with a wooden spoon until the morue is reduced to 
shreds. 

Then take the saucepan off the fire, and, without ceasing to 
stir the paste, add thereto, little by little, as for a mayonnaise, 
about one-half pint of oil. When the paste begins to stiffen 
through the addition of the oil, now and again add a table- 
spoonful of milk. For the amount of morue used, one-quarter 
pint of boiling milk should thus be added by degrees. 

When the Brandade is finished, it should have the consist- 
ence of an ordinary potato purde. When about to serve, taste 
the preparation, and rectify its seasoning. 

Dish the Brandade in a hot timbale, building it up in the 
shape of a pyramid, and set thereon a crown of bread-crumb 
triangles fried in butter just before dishing up. 

N.B. — The triangles of fried bread may, with advantage, be 
replaced by lozenges made from puff-paste, which are baked 
without colouration. For the Brandade use only well-soaked 
Icelandic or Newfoundland morue, 

1028— BRANDADE DE MORUE A LA CREME 

Follow the directions given above, but instead of oil and 
milk, use two-thirds pint of cream, which should be added to 
the morue paste by spoonfuls. 



346 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

I029— MORUE A LA CREOLE 

Finely mince an onion, and cook it gently in butter until 
it is of a nice golden colour. Spread it on the bottom of a 
little oval earthenware dish, and set three tomatoes prepared 
h. la Proven9ale (No. 2268) upon it. 

Poach one lb of morue ; drain it as soon as ready, and flake 
it while clearing it of all skin and bones. Lay this flaked 
morue on the slices of tomato; cover it with three mild cap- 
sicums, split and broiled; sprinkle the whole with a few drops 
of lemon juice and one oz. of lightly-browned butter, and put 
the dish in the oven for a few minutes. Serve very hot. 

Icelandic or Newfoundland morue may be used. 

1030— CABILLAUD SALE, OR MORUE A LA HOLLANDAISE 

Proceed exactly as for " Sole h. la Hollandaise" (No. 829). 
Both kinds suit this preparation. 

103 1— CABILLAUD SALE, OR MORUE A L'INDIENNE 

Poach one lb. of salted cod or morue, and flake it while 
clearing it of all skin and bones. Mix this flaked fish with 
two-thirds pint of Indienne sauce, and dish it in a hot timbale. 

Serve some rice k I'lndienne separately. 

Both kinds of fish are suited to this dish. 

1032— MORUE A LA LYONNAISE 

Poach one lb. of morue, and flake it as explained above. 
Finely mince a medium-sized onion, and toss it in butter. Also 
toss three medium-sized potatoes cut into roundels. Heat one 
oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of oil in a frying-pan ; put 
therein the flaked morue and the potatoes, and toss the whole 
over a brisk fire for a few minutes. 

When about to dish up, add a few drops of vinegar. 

Dish in a hot timbale, and sprinkle the morue with a 
pinch of chopped parsley. Use either the Icelandic or the 
Newfoundland fish for this preparation. 

1033— SOUFFLE DE MORUE 

Finely pound one-quarter lb. of freshly poached and flaked 
morue, and add thereto, little by little, two tablespoonfuls of 
hot and very thick B6chamel sauce. When the paste is very 
smooth, season it; put into a saucepan, heat it, and add the 
yolks of three eggs, and four whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

Put the whole' into a buttered souffle-saucepan, and cook 
after the manner of an ordinary souffle. Take either Icelandic 
or Newfoundland morue for this dish. 



FISH 347 

1034— CHAR (Ombre-Chevalier) 

The char is a fish of the salmon family, which is 
culinarily treated in exactly the same way as the trout. When 
it is large, the recipes given for salmon trout may be adapted 
to it, but it is mostly used small — that is to say, from five 
inches to ten inches long. The fishing of char is restricted 
chiefly to lake countries, such as Scotland and Switzerland, and 
it is only in season during two months of the year. More- 
over, as this fish loses much of its quality in transit, its scarcity 
on the market will be easily understood. The lake of Zug, in 
Switzerland, supplies the most famous specimens, which are 
called Rothel by the people of the locality. The delicacy of 
the fish is remarkable, and in this it may vie even with the 
best river trout. 

The char of the Scotch lakes may be treated after the same 

recipes as the Swiss specimens, but they are more often used 

in the preparation of potted char, the recipe for which is as 

follows : — 

1035— POTTED CHAR 

Cook the chars in a fine mirepoix with white wine, exactly 
after the manner of trout. When the fish are cooked, leave 
them to cool completely in their cooking-liquor. Drain them ; 
skin them; separate their fillets, and thoroughly bone them. 
Set the fillets in a special earthenware pot; entirely cover them 
with clarified butter, and put them in a moderate oven for one 
quarter of an hour. 

Leave them to cool until the next day, and add sufficient 
clarified butter to cover them with a layer one-third inch thick. 

If Potted Char be left in the cool, it will keep for some 
considerable time. 

RED MULLETS (ROUGETS) 

Red mullet, especially the Mediterranean rock kind, is one 
of the greatest fish delicacies known ; and the surname ' ' Sea 
Woodcock," which gourmets sometimes give it, is quite justi- 
fied, not only by its quality, but by the fact that, except for its 
gills, it is generally left whole, and not even emptied. 

It is best grilled. 

io3Sa— GRILLED RED MULLET 

Carefully wipe the mullet; cisel it on either side to a depth 
in proportion to the thickness of its flesh and at closer intervals 
the thicker the latter is, in order to facilitate the cooking ; season 
it with salt and pepper ; sprinkle it with a little oil and a few 
drops of lemon juice; spread a few slices of lemon and a few 



348 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

parsley stalks upon and beneath it; and let it marinade for an 
hour or two, turning it over frequently the while. 

Twenty minutes before serving, set the red mullet on a 
double fish grill, and cook it over a rather fierce fire, 
sprinkling it often the while with its marinade. Dish and serve 
it as soon as it is ready, and serve a little half-melted maitre- 
d'hotel butter separately. 

1035b— ROUQET A LA BORDELAISE 

Grill or saute the red mullet. At the same time serve a 
sauce Bordelaise Bonnefoy (No. 67). 

1035c— ROUQET AU FENOUIL 

Cisel and marinade the red mullet as directed under No. 
1035a, and add a certain quantity of chopped fennel to the 
aromatics. Twenty minutes before serving, add two oz. of 
roughly-chopped raw pork fat and a little parsley to the 
marinade ; wrap the red mullets in strong, oiled paper, together 
with its marinade, grill it gently, and serve it as it stands. 

io35d-ROUQET A LA NICOISE 

Grill it as directed above, and serve it with the garnish 
given under " Sole a la Niyoise." 

10356— ROUQET EN PAPILLOTE 

Grill and wrap it in strong, oiled paper between two layers 
of somewhat thick Duxelle sauce. When about to serve, put 
the papillote for five minutes in the oven, that it may be 
souffled. 

1036— WHITEBAIT 

Thames whitebait, which has many points in common with 
the " Nonat " of the Mediterranean, is one of the riddles of 
ichthyology; for, while it is generally admitted that it is the 
fry of one of the many species of fish, its real parentage is 
quite unknown. 

At dinners in London it usually stands as a second fish- 
course, and, fried after the customary manner, it constitutes a 
dish the delicacy of which is incomparable. Whitebait, like 
the nonat, are extremely fragile, and ought to be cooked as 
soon as they are caught. They are always served fried, and 
the frying-medium used in their preparation should be fresh, 
abundant, and just smoking when the fish are plunged into it. 
Previous to this operation, however, the whitebait ought to 
be thoroughly dredged with flour and placed in a special sieve 



FISH 349 

or frying basket, either of which should be well shaken, in 
order to rid the fish of any superfluous flour. 

They are then plunged into the smoking frying-medium, 
in small quantities at a time, and one minute's stay therein 
suffices to render them sufficiently crisp. 

Draining is the next operation, effected upon a spread piece 
of linen, that the fish may be easily seasoned with table-salt 
and cayenne, mixed. This done, the whitebait are dished upon 
a napkin and sent to the table with very green, fried parsley. 



VARIOUS PREPARATIONS OF FISH 

1037— JWATELOTE AU VIN ROUQE 

The fish used for the Matelote are eel, carp, tench, bream, 
perch, &c. 

It may be prepared from one or many kinds of fish. 

Put the fish, cut into sections, into a sautdpan. For two lbs. 
of it, add one minced onion, one faggot, two cloves of garlic, 
one pint of red wine, a pinch of salt, and another of pepper or 
four peppercorns. 

Set to boil ; add three tablespoonfuls of heated and burnt 
brandy; cover the saut^pan, and complete the cooking of the 
fish. 

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan; strain 
the cooking-liquor, reduce it by a third, and thicken it with 
manied butter (consisting of one and one-half oz. of butter and 
one tablespoonful of flour), cut into small pieces. 

When the leason has been properly effected, pour the 
resulting sauce over the pieces of fish; heat, and dish in a 
timbale. 

1038— MATELOTE AU VIN BLANC 

Prepare the fish as above, but use red wine instead of 
white, and burn the brandy as before. When the pieces of fish 
are cooked, transfer them to another saucepan with small 
onions, previously cooked in butter, and small, cooked mush- 
rooms. Strain the cooking-liquor, reduce it to a little less than 
half, thicken it with fish velout^, and finish with one oz. of 
butter. 

Pour this sauce over the fish and the garnish ; dish the whole 
in a timbale or a deep dish, and surround with crayfish, cooked 
in court-botiillon, and little crusts in the shape of hearts, fried 
in butter. 



350 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1039— BOUILLABAISSE A LA MARSEILLAISE 

The fish for Bouillabaisse are rascasse, chapon, dory, 
whiting, fielas, boudreuil, spiny lobster, red mullet, gurnet, 
&c. 

Cut the larger fish into slices ; leave the smaller ones whole, 
and with the exception of the whiting and the red mullet, which 
cook more speedily than the others, put them all into a saucepan. 

For two lbs. of fish, add one small onion, the chopped white 
of one leek, one small, peeled, pressed and chopped tomato, 
two crushed cloves of garlic, a large pinch of concussed parsley, 
a pinch of powdered saffron, a bit of bay, a little savory and 
fennel, and two tablespoonfuls of oil. 

Moisten the fish with just enough cold water to cover it, 
and season with one-third oz. of salt and a pinch of pepper 
per quart of water. 

Set to boil, and cook over a brisk fire. At the end of eight 
minutes add the pieces of whiting and red mullet, and leave to 
cook for a further seven minutes. 

Pour the liquor of the bouillabaisse over some slices of 
household bread lying on the bottom of a deep dish ; set the 
fish on another dish with the sections of spiny lobster all round, 
and serve. 

1040— QUENELLES DE BROCKET A LA LYONNAISE 

Pound separately one lb. of the meat of pike, cleared of 
all skin and bones, and one lb. of the fat of kidney of beef, 
very dry, cleaned, and cut into small pieces. If desired, half 
of the weight of the fat of kidney of beef may be replaced by 
one-half lb. of beef marrow. 

Put the pounded meat of the pike and the kidney fat on 
separate plates. Now pound one lb. of frangipane Panada 
(No. 192) and add thereto, little by little, the white of four 
little eggs. Put the pike meat and the fat back into the mortar, 
and finely pound the whole until a fine, smooth paste is 
obtained. Rub the latter through a sieve; put the resulting 
pur6e into a basin, and work it well with a wooden spoon in 
order to smooth it. 

With this forcemeat mould some quenelles with a spoon, 
and poach them in salted water. 

If these quenelles are to be served with an ordinary fish 
sauce, put them into it as soon as they are poached and drained, 
and simmer them in it for ten minutes that they may swell. 

If the sauce intended for them is to be thickened with egg- 
yolks, and buttered at the last moment, put them into a sauce- 



FISH 351 

pan with a few tablespoonfuls of fumet, and simmer them as 
directed in the case of an ordinary fish sauce, taking care to 
keep the saucepan well covered that the concentrated steam 
may assist the swelling of the quenelles. In this case they are 
added to the sauce at the last moment. 

N.B. — Slices of truffle may always be added to the sauce. 
The quenelles are dished either in a silver timbale, in a shallow 
timbale-crust, or in a fine vol-au-vent crust, in accordance with 
the arrangement of the menu. 

1041— FISH CAKES 

Fish cakes or balls, which are greatly appreciated in both 
England and America, are made from any boiled fish. Salted 
cod, however, is best suited to their preparation, and is therefore 
used much more often than other kinds of fish. 

Flake one lb. of cooked cod, and clear it of all skin and 
bones; pound it with one-half lb. of freshly-cooked, floury 
potatoes, two tablespoonfuls of reduced Bdchamel sauce, and 
two whole eggs. Season with salt and pepper. When the 
paste has been well beaten and is smooth, take it out of the 
mortarand divide it into portions weighing about two oz. Roll 
these portions into balls upon a flour-dusted mixing-board, 
flatten them out to the shape of thick quoits, and treat them 
a I'anglaise. 

Fry them at the last moment in very hot fat, and dish them 
on a napkin with fried parsley all round. 

1042— WATERZOI 

In order to prepare Waterzoi, it is best, when possible, to 
have live fish at one's disposal, not only because these are 
better able to resist the cooking process, but also owing to the 
fact that they are richer in gelatine in the live state. 

The fish more generally used are the eel, the perch, the 
tench, the carp, the pike, &c. 

After having scaled and emptied them, trim them and cut 
off their heads and tails. Cut the fish into sections; moisten 
these with just enough cold water to cover them; add a piece 
of butter, sufficient parsley roots or stalks to produce a decided 
taste, a few peppercorns, and some salt. 

Set to cook on a brisk fire, and take care that the cooking- 
liquor be reduced and sufficiently thickened when the fish are 
cooked. 

Serve in a timbale or on a dish, and send some slices of 
bread and butter to the table at the same time. 



CHAPTER XV 
RELEVES AND ENTREES 

The difference between Relev^s and Entries needs only to 
be examined very superficially in order for it to be seen how 
entirely the classification hangs on the question of bulk. 
Indeed, with very few exceptions, the same alimentary pro- 
ducts — butcher's meat, fish, poultry, and game — may be used 
with perfect propriety in the preparation of either Releves or 
Entries. And if the mode of preparation and the nature of 
the garnishing ingredients are sometimes dissimilar, it is owing 
to that difference in bulk referred to above, on account of which 
the Releves, being more voluminous, are usually braised, 
poeled, poached, or roasted; while the Entries, consisting of 
smaller pieces, are chiefly sauted, poached, or grilled. 

In the menus of old-fashioned dinners k la Fran9aise, the 
line of demarcation between Releves and Entries was far more 
clearly defined, the latter being generally twice, if not thrice, 
as numerous as the former. The first service of a dinner for 
twenty people, for instance, comprised eight or twelve Entries 
and four soups, all of which were set on the dining-table before 
the admission of- the diners. As soon as the soups were served, 
the Releves, to the number of four, two of which consisted of 
fish, took the place of the soups on the table; they relieved 
the soups; hence their name, which now, of course, is quite 
meaningless. 

The Russian method of serving greatly simplified the prac- 
tice just described. Nowadays a dinner rarely consists of more 
than two soups, two Relevds (one of which is fish), and two 
or three Entries for the first service. Very often the fish 
Relev6, instead of being a large piece of fish, only consists 
of fillets of sole, of chicken-turbots, &c., or timbales, which are 
real entries; while the Releves (consisting of large pieces of 
butcher's meat or game), instead of being served as common 
sense would dictate, i.e., after the fish Relev^, when the diner's 
appetite is still keen, are placed, according to English custom, 
after the Entries. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 253 

Thus, as the two above examples show, the parts played 
by the Releves and Entries respectively are very far from 
being clearly defined ; and I therefore resolved to treat of them 
both in the same chapter, and to append a few grills (usually 
accompanied by various sauces and garnishes), which are really 
only luncheon-roasts. The indications given concerning the 
class to which the recipes belong will suffice to avoid confusion, 

RELEVES AND ENTREES OF BUTCHER'S MEAT 

BEEF 

1043-PILLET OF BEEF (Relev6) 

Fillet of beef for a Relev^ may consist either of the whole 
piece, trimmed, studded, or larded, or a more or less large 
piece cut from the whole, and treated after one of the methods 
suited to the whole fillet. The fillet may be braised, poeled, 
or roasted; but the last two modes of preparation suft it best, 
as it is generally preferred underdone and somewhat red 
towards the centre. 

The garnishes for a Relev6 of fillet of beef are as numerous 
as they are varied; and, as they are applicable not only to 
fillet of beef but to all Releves of butcher's meat, I give them 
here in preference, since fillet of beef may be considered the 
choicest of Releves. 

1044— FILETS DE B(EUF ANDALOUSE 

Having removed all the connective tissue from the fillet, lard 
it with thin strips of bacon, and poele or roast it. Glaze it at 
the last moment; set it on a long dish, and surround it with : — 
(i) Some grilled half-capsicums, filled with rice a la grecque 
(No. 2253) ; (2) roundels of egg-plant, two inches in diameter 
and one inch thick, hollowed out to form cases, fried in oil, 
and garnished with concassed tomatoes tossed in oil. Arrange 
the half-capsicums and the egg-plant alternately round the 
fillet, and place a grilled chifolata sausage between each. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — The gravy taken from the 
poeling-stock, strained, cleared of all grease, and thickened. 

I045— FILET DE B(EUF BOUQUETIERE 

Having larded the fillet and poeled or roasted it, set it on 
a long dish and surround it with : — (i) Small heaps of carrots 
and turnips, turned by means of a small grooved spoon, and 
cooked in consommd; (2) small heaps of little potatoes turned 
to the shape of olives and cooked in butter; (3) small heaps of 

A A 



354 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

peas and of French beans, cut into lozenges and cohered with 
butter; (4) five bunches of cauliflower. 

Arrange these different products in such wise as to vary 
their colours and throw them into relief. 

Serve the gravy of the fillet separately, after having cleared 
it of all grease and strained it. 

1046— FILET DE BCEUF CAMARQO 

Trim the fillet; suppress the long muscle lying on its thicker 
side (Fr. chaine), and open the meat lengthwise from the same 
side. Withdraw the meat from the inside of the fillet so as to 
leave a wall of meat only one-half inch thick all round. Finely 
chop the withdrawn meat and combine with it, per lb., little 
by little, from four to five tablespoonfuls of cream and four oz. 
of fresh foie gras. Season with salt and pepper, rectify the 
consistence of the paste, and add thereto, per lb., two oz. of 
chopped truffles. 

Fill the hollow fillet with this forcemeat, thereby returning 
it to its original shape, and stud its top surface with pointed 
pieces of truffle one inch long by one-quarter inch wide, stuck 
into the meat aslant. In order to facilitate this operation, bore 
the meat, before the insertion of the pieces of truffles, by means 
of a small knife. 

Now cover the fillet with slices of bacon and string it 
laterally, leaving a space of one inch between each strand. 

Poele the meat carefully, and take care that the forcemeat 
inside be well, but not over-done. This may be ascertained by 
thrusting a braiding needle into the thickest part of the fillet, 
as soon as the meat seems resisting and elastic to the touch. 
If the needle withdraws clean, the fillet is ready. 

Now glaze it, after having cut away the string and removed 
the slices of bacon ; dish it, and surround it with the following 
garnish : — Small tartlet-crusts garnished by means of noodles 
with cream ; a slice of foie gras stamped out with a round cutter 
and tossed in butter, upon the noodles ; and a fine slice of truffle 
on the foie gras. 

Sauce to be sent to the table separately. — The reduced 
^oeZm^-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease, and added 
to a P^rigueux sauce. 

1047— FILET DE B(EUF CHATELAINE 

Lard the fillet, poele it, and glaze it just before dishing up. 
Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following 
garnish : — (i) Medium-sized artichoke-bottoms garnished with 
thick Soubise ; (2) fine, peeled chestnuts cooked in the 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 355 

poeling-liquor ; (3) small heaps of lightly browned potatoes, 
cooked in butter at the last moment. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — The reduced poeling-liquor 
of the fillet, cleared of all grease and added to a Madeira sauce. 

1048— FILET DE B(EUF CLAMART 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish and surround it with : — (i) Little 
tartlet-crusts garnished with peas, prepared h la Frangaise (No. 
2193), combined with the ciseled lettuce used in their cooking- 
process, and cohered with butter; (2) small quoits of " Pommes 
Macaire " (No. 2228). Arrange the tartlet-crusts and the quoits 
alternately. 

Sauce to be sent separately .—The gravy slightly thickened. 

1049— FILET DE BCEUF DAUPHINE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and 
surround it with a garnish of potato croquettes a la Dauphine, 
moulded to the shape of corks, and fried just before dishing up. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — Pale half-glaze with Madeira. 

1050— FILET DE BCEUF DUBARRY 

Lard the fillet with bacon, and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with small heaps of 
cauliflower moulded to the shape of balls, coated with Mornay 
sauce, besprinkled with grated cheese, and put in the oven 
for the gratin to form just in time for the dishing up. 

Send a thickened gravy to the table separately. 

1051— FILET DE BOEUF DUCHESSE 

Either roast or poele the larded fillet. If it be poeled, 
glaze it at the last moment. 

Set it on a long dish and surround it with potatoes k la 
Duchesse (the shape of which may be varied according to 
fancy), lightly browned and coloured in the oven for a few 
minutes before the dishing. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — Half-glaze with Madeira. 

1052— FILET DE BOEUF FINANCIERE 

Poele the larded fillet. 

Glaze it at the last moment and set it on a long dish. 

Surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) quenelles of 
ordinary forcemeat; (2) grooved and cooked button-mushroom 
heads; (3) cocks' combs and kidneys; (4) turned and blanched 
olives. Each garnish should be placed on the dish in distinct 
heaps. 

A A 2 



356 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Cover the garnish with a little financiere sauce, and send 
the same sauce separately. 

> 053— FILET DE BCEUF GASTRONOME 

Insert truffles, cut to the shape of ordinary larding-bacon, 
into the fillet, and set the latter to marinade for four or five 
hours in one-quarter pint of Madeira. 

This done, thoroughly wipe it; cover it with slices of bacon, 
and braise it in Madeira. When about to serve it, remove the 
slices of bacon ; glaze it slightly, and set it on a long dish. 

Surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) large and thick 
slices of truffle, cooked in a fine mirepoix with champagne ; 
(2) fine chestnuts cooked in consomm6 and glazed ; (3) fine 
cocks' kidneys, rolled in pale, thin meat-glaze; (4) noodles 
tossed in butter. These different garnishes should be arranged 
in alternate heaps, and connected by means of medium-sized 
truffles cooked in Madeira. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — Half-glaze combined with the 
cooking-liquor of the truffles, strained through linen and 
reduced to two-thirds. 

1054— FILET DE BCEUF QODARD 

Lard the fillet with alternate strips of bacon and salted 
tongue, and poele it. Glaze it a few minutes before serving; 
set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish con- 
sisting of (i) quenelles of ordinary forcemeat with chopped 
mushrooms and truffles added thereto, moulded by means of 
a coffee-spoon, and poached just before dishing up ; (2) turned 
and cooked button-mushroom heads; (3) glazed lamb sweet- 
breads; (4) cocks' combs and kidneys; (5) truffles fashioned 
like olives. 

Slightly coat these garnishes, which should be arranged in 
heaps, with sauce ; finish the dish with four oval quenelles 
decked with tongue and truffle, and place one of these at either 
end and side of the dish. 

Sauce to be sent separately. — A Godard sauce combined 
with the cooking-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease and 
reduced. 

,055— FILET DE BCEUF HONQROISE 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish and surround it with a garnish con- 
sisting of medium-sized onions, cooked in white consomm^, 
and glazed in butter at the last minute. 

Sauce to be sent separately . — Thin Soubise with paprika. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 357 

1056— FILET DE BCEUF JAPONAISE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it just before dishing; set it on a long dish, and sur- 
round it with a garnish consisting of (i) small croustades 
cooked in grooved brioche-moulds and garnished with Japanese 
artichokes cohered by means of velout6; (2) potato croquettes 
moulded to the shape of eggs and fried just before dishing up. 
Arrange the croustades and the croquettes alternately. 

Send the gravy of the fillet, strained and cleared of all 
grease, to the table separately. 

I057— FILET DE BCEUF JARDINIERE 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish and surround it with the following 
garnishes, which should be arranged in distinct heaps in such 
wise as to alternate their colours : — Carrots and turnips, raised 
by means of a grooved spoon-cutter and cooked separately in 
consomm6; peas, French beans in lozenge-form and small 
flageolets, each of which vegetables should be cooked in a 
manner in keeping with its nature, and separately cohered with 
butter; portions of freshly-cooked cauliflower, kept very white 
and of tight growth. 

Send some Hollandaise sauce for the cauliflower, and some 
clear gravy, to the table, separately. 

1058— FILET DE BCEUF LORETTE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it at the last moment ; set it on a long dish, and sur- 
round it with a garnish as follows: — (i) A small pyramid of 
Lorette potatoes (No. 2226) at either end of the fillet; (2) fine 
heaps of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, on either side. 

Send some tomated half-glaze separately. 

1059— FILET DE BCEUF MACEDOINE 

Prepare the fillet as directed under "Filet de Boeuf 
Jardinilre." Set it on a long dish and surround it with a 
Macedoine garnish. The latter comprises the same ingredients 
as the "Jardiniere" ; but, instead of their being heaped 
separately, they are mixed together and cohered by means of 
butter. 

1060— FILET DE BCEUF AU MADBRE 
ET AUX CHAMPIGNONS 

Lard and poele the fillet. 

Glaze it; dish it as before, and surround it with fine mush- 
room-heads, turned and grooved. 



358 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Send to the table, separately, a Madeira sauce finished with 
the poeling-liquoT, cleared of all grease and reduced. 

io6i— FILET DE BCEUF MODERNE 

Lard the fillet alternately with bacon and tongue, and 
poele it. 

Glaze it just before dishing; set it on a long dish, and sur- 
round it with garnish as follows : — On either side of the fillet 
lay a row of small "chartreuses," made in small, hexagonal 
moulds. 

To make these "chartreuses," butter the moulds and deck 
the bottom of each with a slice of truffle, big enough to almost 
entirely cover it. Now line the sides of the moulds with various 
vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, peas, and French beans; 
each of which vegetables should be cooked as its nature 
requires. 

Arrange them in such wise as to vary their colours, and 
spread over the whole a thin layer of rather flimsy forcemeat. 

Fill up the moulds with braised cabbage, which should be 
well pressed with the view of ridding it of all its moisture, and 
put the chartreuses in a bain-marie ten minutes before dishing 
the fillet. 

At either end of the fillet set some braised half-lettuces, 
arranging them so that they frame the ends of the fillet in 
half-circles. 

Between the lettuce and the chartreuses set four round 
quenelles, decorated with salted tongue and poached in time 
to be ready for the dishing of the meat. 

Send to the table, separately, the poeling-liquor of the fillet, 
cleared of all grease, strained, and slightly thickened with 
arrowroot. 

1062— FILET DE BCEUF MONTMORENCY 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it just before dishing up, and set it on a long dish. 

Send to the table, separately, a Madeira sauce finished with 
the ^oe7mg--liquor of the fillet, to which add (per pint of the 
sauce) three tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly ; two tablespoon- 
fuls of finely-grated horse-radish, or the latter finely grated first, 
and then chopped; thirty moderately-sweetened cherries, set to 
soak in tepid water seven or eight minutes beforehand, and 
drained just before being added to the sauce. 

1063— FILET DE BOEUF NIVERNAISE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and sur- 



RELEVES AND ENTRIES 359 

round it with garnish as follows: — (i) Heaps of small carrots, 
shaped like elongated olives, cooked in white consomm^ and a 
little butter and sugar, and rolled in their cooking-liquor (re- 
duced to the consistence of syrup), with the view of glazing 
them. 

Send the poeling-liquov (cleared of all grease and strained) 
to the table separately. 

1064— FILET DE B(EUF ORIENTALE 

Roast the fillet " plain," i.e., without previously larding it. 

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following 
garnish, taking care to alternate the ingredients, viz., (i) tim- 
bales of rice k la grecque (No. 2253) moulded in buttered dariole- 
moulds, each timbale being placed on a medium-sized half- 
tomato, seasoned and tossed in butter; (2) croquettes of sweet 
potatoes, moulded to the shape of corks, and fried just before 
dishing up. 

Send to the table, separately, a highly seasoned tomato 
sauce. 

1065— FILET -DE BCEUF P^RIQOURDINE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it just before dishing up; set it on a long dish, and 
surround it with medium-sized truffles, freshly cooked in 
Madeira and fine mire'poix, and glazed. Send a P^rigueux 
sauce separately. 

1066— FILET DE BGEUF PETIT DUG 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it in good time; set it on a long dish, and surround 
it with the following garnish : — (i) crisp, small patties of 
puff paste garnished with asparagus-heads cohered by means 
of cream sauce; (2) medium-sized artichoke-bottoms, prepared 
in the usual way, and garnished with slices of truffle. 

Send, separately, a light, meat glaze, combined with four 
oz. of butter per one-half pint. 

1067— FILET DE BCEUF PORTUQAISE 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish, and garnish it as follows : — 

1. A row of medium-sized, stuffed tomatoes on either side. 

2. At either end a nice heap of potatoes, shaped like long 
olives, and cooked in butter just before dishing up. 

Send a light, Portugaise sauce separately. 

1068— FILET DE BCEUF PROVEN9ALE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it at the last minute; set it on a long dish, and sur- 



36o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

round it with the following, alternated: — Tomatoes and mush- 
rooms stuffed a la Provengale (Nos. 2266 and 2075). 
Send a tomated half-glaze sauce, separately. 

1069— FILET DE BCEUF R^QENCE 

Marinade the fillet in Rhine wine two or three hours in 
advance; cover it with a Matignon (No. 227); envelop the fillet 
and the Matignon in slices of bacon, and set the whole to braise 
with its marinade. 

A few minutes before dishing up, remove the slices of bacon 
and the Matignon, and glaze the fillet. 

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following 
garnish, which, except for the decorated quenelles, which are 
left plain, should be arranged in distinct heaps, and slightly 
coated with sauce : — (i) quenelles of ordinary forcemeat, com- 
bined with chopped tongue, moulded by means of a coffee- 
spoon, and poached at the last minute; (2) collops of foie gras 
tossed in butter; (3) fine cocks' combs; (4) very white, cooked 
mushroom-heads, and truffles shaped like large olives. 

Send, separately, the braising-liquor of the fillet, cleared of 
all grease, strained with pressure, reduced, and added to a half- 
glaze sauce. 

1070— FILET DE B(EUF RENAISSANCE 

Lard the fillet and poele it. 

Glaze it at the last minute ; set it on a long dish, and sur- 
round it with a garnish of early-season vegetables, comprising 
carrots and turnips, raised by means of a large, round, grooved 
spoon-cutter, cooked in consomm6 and glazed; very green peas; 
small French beans ; small faggots of asparagus-heads ; portions 
of cauliflowers, and small potatoes cooked in butter. 

Renaissance garnish is, however, subject to no fixed rules, 
and it may consist of all the available early-season vegetables, 
small artichoke-bottoms included. 

Send a clear gravy separately. 

1071— FILET DE BCEUF RICHELIEU 

Lard the fillet, and either poele or roast it. 

If it be poeled, glaze it in good time; set it on a long dish, 
and surround it with the following garnish, which should be 
arranged in distinct heaps and in such wise as to contrast its 
colouring :— (i) Small tomatoes and medium-sized mushrooms, 
stuffed; (2) small or half-lettuces, braised and well trimmed; 
(3) potatoes, the size of pigeons' eggs, cooked in butter and 
prepared just in time for the dishing up. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 361 

Send the cooking-liquor, cleared of all grease, and slightly 
thickened, separately. 

1072— FILET DE BCEUF SAINT=FLORENTIN 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following 
garnish : — (i) At either end, a heap of ce-pes, prepared k la 
Bordelaise at the last minute ; (2) croquettes of potatoes k la 
Saint-Florentin, on either side. These croquettes are prepared 
from the same potato-paste as " Pommes Duchesse," but in this 
case the paste receives a copious addition of chopped tongue. 
Mould them to the shape of lozenges, and treat them a 
I'anglaise, using for the purpose very fine vermicelli instead of 
bread-crumbs. 

Fry the croquettes just before dishing up. 

Send, separately, a Bordelaise sauce with white wine, kept 
somewhat light. 

1073— FILET DE BCEUF SAINT-GERMAIN 

Lard the fillet and roast it. 

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following 
garnish : — (i) At either end of the fillet a nice heap of glazed 
carrots, cut to the shape of olives; (2) a heap of very small 
potatoes, cooked in butter, on either side of the carrots; (3) a 
row of small timbales of very green peas pur^e (No. 2196) on 
either side of the fillet. 

1074— FILET DE BCEUF TALLEYRAND 

Cut up the necessary number of raw truffles for the garnish- 
ing of the fillet. The pieces of truffle should be one inch long 
and one-quarter inch wide, and so pointed as to enable them 
to be easily stuck into the meat. 

To stick them in, make small incisions in the fillet, and 
in these set the bits of truffle. Marinade the fillet for three 
hours in Madeira ; wrap it in slices of bacon ; string it, and 
set it to braise with its marinade. 

This done, remove the slices of bacon ; glaze it, and set it 
on a long dish. Send the following garnish separately : — 
Poached macaroni, cut into pieces one and one-half inches 
long, and combined per lb. with three oz. of grated Gruy^re 
and Parmesan, one and one-half oz. of butter, three oz. of a 
julienne of truffles, and three oz. of cooked foie gras, cut into 
large dice. 

As an adjunct, send a P^rigueux sauce with a fine julienne 
of truffles instead of the latter chopped. 



362 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1075— FILET DE iBCEUF FROID (Releve) 

Fillet of beef, when properly dished, makes an excellent cold 
Relev^. 

For this purpose lard it, roast it (keeping it somewhat under- 
done towards the centre), and, when it is quite cold, trim, and 
coat it with half-melted jelly. 

Then set it either directly upon a dish or upon a cushion 
of bread or carved rice, which makes the dish more sightly 
when the garnish is added. 

Before setting the fillet on the dish or on the cushion of rice, 
it is well to cut a slice one-fifth inch thick from the whole of its 
base; leave this slice under the fillet when dishing; by this 
means, when the carving is proceeded with, each slice will be 
found to be neatly trimmed. 

Cold fillet of beef allows of every possible cold vegetable 
garnish. 

The vegetables should be cooked with the greatest care and 
be left to cool naturally. 

When they are quite cold, either cohere them by means of 
jelly, or set them round the fillet in neat heaps, taking care to 
alternate their shades, and coat them with almost melted aspic. 

Finally, between each heap of vegetables lay a little chopped 
and very clear aspic, and, round the whole, arrange a border 
consisting of bits of aspic (round, oval, square, lozenge-shaped, 
&c.) very regularly cut. 

I see no reason for devoting any further space to this subject. 
What has been said should, I think, suffice to show how varied 
and numerous are the possible ways of dishing cold fillet of beef, 
the minute details of which may, with advantage, be left to the 
ingenuity of the operator. 

FILLET OF BEEF FOR ENTREES 
1076— CHATEAUBRIAND, FILLET STEAK, TOURNEDOS 

By fillet steaks are understood those pieces of meat cut 
laterally from the thickest part of the fillet of beef. 

They ought to be about one and one-half inches thick, and 
weigh from six to seven oz. Tournedos are half-fillets in re- 
spect of their weight, and might well be called the "kernels " 
of the fillet of beef. The usual thickness of a tournedos is 
about one and one-quarter inches, and they should be cut to a 
nice, round shape. With the object of preserving their shape, 
they may be tied round with string. 

Chateaubriand is also procured from the centre of fillet of 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 363 

beef, and its weight is often twice, thrice, and sometimes more 
than thrice as much as that of the ordinary fillet steaks. 

As a rule, especially when grilled, it constitutes a special 
roast for luncheons; when it is cooked in the saucepan, i.e., 
sauted, it is more often served as a Relev6. 

The same garnishes suit fillet, Chateaubriands, and 
tournedos, the only necessary modifications being in respect 
of size and arrangement, which should be subject to the size of 
the piece of meat. 

The garnishes detailed hereafter are for the tournedos, which 
supply the greatest number of the dishes prepared from the 
three different cuts of fillet. If a fillet steak be prepared after 
one of the following recipes, the garnish should be made a little 
stronger, and its constituents modified in the dishing, neither 
of which changes need in any way alter the formula. 

The same holds with regard to a Chateaubriand. Thus, for 
example, if it be required to prepare a fillet steak or a Chateau- 
briand, after the recipe "Tournedos k I'Alg^rienne," the 
number of croquettes and tomatoes should be half as much 
again, and they should be arranged alternately round the meat, 
instead of the latter being placed on the croquettes, as in the 
case of the tournedos. 

If the fillets are to be treated "k I'Alsacienne," after the 
recipe for tournedos, the sauerkraut should be dished in a tim- 
bale instead of in tartlet-crusts, &c. 

All that is needed, therefore, is a change in the method of 
arrangement, and this can be decided upon at a glance, without 
necessarily interfering with the principle of the recipe. 

It should be borne in mind that nearly all the garnishes 
given under fillet of beef, served whole, may be applied to 
Chateaubriands, fillet steak, and tournedos, provided they 
be made in proportion to the size of the different pieces. I 
see no need, therefore, to repeat these vegetable recipes in so 
far as they relate to the various cuts of fillet of beef. 

It is only necessary to add that for the fillet of beef, as well 
as for tournedos, noisettes, &c., a large number of plain 
vegetable garnishes may be used, the details of which I prefer 
to omit for fear of unduly lengthening this work. 

Whole fillets, fillet steak, and tournedos may thus be served 
with garnishes of braised celery, tuberous fennel, cardoons with 
gravy, chow-chow and endives, braised lettuce, various purees, 
&c., and, generally, with all the vegetable preparations given 
in Chapter XVII. 



364 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 



Important Remarks relative to the Sauces suited to 
Entries of Butcher's Meat, Garnished with Vegetables 

The derivative sauces of the Espagnole are not, as a rule, 
suited to entrees garnished with vegetables. Thickened gravy 
is better. 

The finest adjunct, however, is meat-glaze, which should 
receive an addition of four oz. of butter per pint, and should 
be slightly acidulated by means of a few drops of lemon juice. 
This glaze ought to be so light as not to impaste the vegetables. 

Such vegetables as asparagus-heads, peas, French beans, 
macedoines, &c., have a disintegrating action upon the sauces, 
and this is owing either to their natural moisture or to their 
leason. As a result of this action the preparation has an un- 
sightly appearance when served upon the diner's plate. 

With Chateaubriand sauce (No. 71) or buttered meat-glaze 
this objection does not obtain, seeing that this sauce does not 
decompose, but combines admirably with the garnish, and lends 
the latter a certain noticeable mellowness. 

I therefore emphasise this point, viz., that the derivative 
sauces of the Espagnole and tomato sauces should be exclusively 
used with such preparations garnished with truffles, cock's 
combs and kidneys, quenelles and mushrooms, as "la 
Financi^re," "la Godard," &c. 



TOURNEDOS 

I077— TOURNEDOS ALQERIENNE 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter. 

Arrange them in the form of a crown on a round dish, and 
set a croquette of sweet potato, moulded to a round shape, upon 
each. 

Around the whole lay some small, emptied, and seasoned 
half-tomatoes, stewed in oil. 

1078— TOURNEDOS ALSACIENNE 

Season and grill the tournedos. 

There should have been prepared in advance as many small 
tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos. 

Garnish these tartlets with well-drained, braised sauerkraut, 
and set on each a roundel of the lean of ham, stamped out with 
an even cutter. Arrange them in the form of a crown on a 
dish, and set a tournedos upon each tartlet. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 365 

,079— TOURNEDOS ARL^SIENNE 

Fry the tournedos in butter and oil. 

When about to serve, set the tournedos on a dish, and sur- 
round them with fried roundels of egg-plant and tossed tomatoes, 
alternating the two garnishes, and placing roundels of fried 
onions on the tournedos. 

1080— TOURNEDOS BALTIMORE 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter. 

Set them in the form of a crown on small tartlets garnished 
by means of maize with cream. 

Upon each tournedos set a roundel of tomato, seasoned and 
tossed in butter, and a smaller slice of green capsicum, also 
tossed in butter, on each roundel of tomato. 

Accompanying sauce: a Chateaubriand (No. 71). 

108 1— TOURNEDOS BEARNAISE 

Season the tournedos, and grill them. 

Set them on round crusts, half an inch thick, fried in 
clarified butter; slightly coat the surface of the tournedos with 
meat-glaze, and surround them with a thread of B^arnaise 
sauce (No. 62). 

In the centre arrange a heap of small potatoes cooked in 
butter and kept very soft, and sprinkle thereon a pinch of 
chopped parsley. 

N.B. — The tournedos may be simply coated with glaze and 
the Bearnaise sauce served separately. 

1082— TOURNEDOS BELLE-HEL6nE 

Prepare as many small croquettes of asparagus-tops, shaped 
like quoits, as there are tournedos, and fry them while the latter 
are being cooked. Season the tournedos, and fry them in 
clarified butter. 

Arrange them, in the form of a crown, on a dish ; place a 
croquette on each tournedos, and a large, glazed slice of truffle 
on each croquette. 

1083— TOURNEDOS BERCY 

Grill the tournedos, and coat them lightly with pale meat- 
glaze. 

Dish them in the form of a crown, and serve a half-melted 
" Beurre k la Bercy " (No. 139) separately. 

1084— TOURNEDOS BORDELAISE 

Grill the tournedos, and dish them in the form of a crown. 
Set a large slice of poached marrow on each, and serve a 
Bordelaise sauce (No. 32) separately. 



366 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1085— TOURNEDOS BRABAN^ONNE 

Prepare as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos 
Garnish them with very small parboiled Brussels sprouts, 

stewed in butter; cover these with Mornay sauce, and set to 

glaze a few moments before dishing. 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter; set them on 

the prepared tartlets of sprouts, and surround with a border 

of small " pommes de terre fondantes " (No. 2214). 

1086— TOURNEDOS CASTILLANE 

Prepare (i) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; 
(2) peeled, pressed, and seasoned tomatoes, cooked in butter; 
these should be in the proportion of one tablespoonful per tart- 
let; (3) rings of onion, fried in oil as for " Tournedos k I'Arl^- 
sienne " ; (4) a garnish of one tablespoonful of small French 
beans, cohered with butter, per tartlet. 

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in 
the form of a crown on fried crusts. 

Place a tartlet, garnished with a fondue of tomatoes, on each 
tournedos; all round arrange a border of the fried roundels of 
onion, and serve the French beans, either in the middle of the 
dish or separately in a timbale. 

1087— TOURNEDOS CENDRILLON 

Prepare (i) as many fine artichoke-bottoms as there are 
tournedos ; (2) a Soubise pur^e, combined with chopped truffles, 
and well buttered. 

A few moments before the tournedos are ready, garnish the 
artichoke-bottoms with the Soubise, and set them to glaze in a 
fierce oven. 

Season the tournedos; fry them in clarified butter, and set 
them on the artichoke-bottoms, which should be arranged in a 
circle round the dish. 

1088— TOURNEDOS AUX CHAMPIGNONS 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Dish them in the form of a crown ; drain the butter from 
the sautepan ; swill the latter with some mushroom cooking- 
liquor, and add thereto a proportional quantity of mushroom 
sauce. Set to boil for a few minutes, and pour the sauce, with 
the mushrooms, in the midst of the circle of tournedos. 

1089— TOURNEDOS CHASSEUR 

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in 
the form of a crown. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 367 

Drain the butter away ; swill the saut^pan with white wine, 
and add to this a quantit}'^ of Chasseur sauce, which should be 
in proportion to the number of tournedos. 

Set to boil for a moment or two, and pour the sauce over 
the tournedos. 

1090— TOURNEDOS CHORON 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Set them on crusts fried in butter ; round the top of each lay 
a thread of Choron sauce (No. 64), and in the middle of each 
set a medium-sized artichoke-bottom garnished with peas or 
asparagus-heads cohered with butter. 

All round, arrange a border of potatoes, lightly browned in 
butter, or heap them in the middle of the crown of tournedos. 

N.B. — The sauce may be served separately. 

109 1— TOURNEDOS COLIQNY 

1. With a preparation of sweet potatoes, made after the 
manner of " Duchesse potatoes" (No. 221), make as many 
small galettes as there are tournedos, and of the same size as 
the latter. 

Place them on a tray; gild them, and set them to brown in 
the oven a few minutes before the tournedos are ready. 

2. Cut some chow-chows in thick, paysanne fashion; par- 
boil them ; stew them in butter, and add thereto an equal 
quantity of Proven^ale sauce. 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter ; dish them in 
the form of a crown, on the galettes of potato, and cover them 
with the paysanne of chow-chow. 

1092— TOURNEDOS A L'ESTRAGON 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Dish them in the form of a crown, and on each set either a 
spray of parboiled tarragon leaves or a lattice composed of the 
latter. Send separately a thickened gravy with tarragon (No. 
41). 

1093— TOURNEDOS FAVORITE 

Season the tournedos ; fry them in clarified butter, and dish 
them, in the form of a crown, on crusts stamped out with an 
indented cutter and fried in butter. 

On each tournedos place a round collop of foie gras, a little 
smaller than the piece of meat; the collop should be seasoned, 
dredged, and tossed in butter. On each collop of foie gras put 
a fine, glazed slice of indented truffle. Garnish the centre of 
the dish with a fine heap of asparagus-tops cohered with butter, 
or merely set these in small heaps round the tournedos. 



368 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Serve separately a timbale of potatoes (of the size of hazel- 
nuts) cooked in butter, rolled in pale meat-glaze, and slightly 
sprinkled with chopped parsley. 

1094— TOURNEDOS A LA FLORENTINE 

Prepare (i) as many subrics of shredded spinach as there 
are tournedos; make them of the same size as the latter, and 
cook them at the same time as the tournedos; (2) small, round 
croquettes of semolina the size of walnuts; these should be 
fried a few minutes before the tournedos are ready. 

Grill the tournedos, and dish them, in the form of a crown, 
on the spinach subrics. The croquettes of semolina may be 
arranged either in the middle or all round. 

1095— TOURNEDOS FORESTIERE 

Season the tournedos, and saute them. Set them on crusts 
fried in butter. Surround them with alternate heaps of noodles 
and potatoes cut into large dice and tossed in butter. 

The potatoes may also be placed in the midst of the tournedos 
with the noodles all round, or vice vers^. 

1096— TOURNEDOS GABRIELLE 

Make a preparation from the white meat of a chicken and 
truffles — both cut into dice and cohered with the necessary quan- 
tity of somewhat light " Duchesse-potatoes " paste. 

With this preparation make as many small quoit-shaped 
croquettes as there are tournedos, and fry them while the latter 
are being cooked. 

Season the tournedos, and fry them with oil and butter 
in equal quantities. Dish them, in the form of a crown, 
on the prepared croquettes, and on each tournedos set a fine 
roundel of poached marrow and one slice of truffle. 

Around the tournedos arrange some very small, braised, and 
well-trimmed lettuces. 

1097— TOURNEDOS HENRI IV 

Grill the tournedos, and set them on crusts fried in butter. 

Round the edge of each tournedos lay a thread of Bearnaise 
sauce, and on top of each an artichoke-bottom garnished with 
very small potatoes (of the size of hazel-nuts) cooked in butter. 

N.B. — Instead of putting the sauce on the edge of the tour- 
nedos, it may be served separately. 

1098— TOURNEDOS JUDIC 

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in 
the form of a crown on crusts fried in butter. On each tour- 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 369 

nedos set a crown of truffle slices, with a cock's kidney in the 

centre, and surround with braised, trimmed, and quartered 

lettuces* 

1099— TOURNEDOS LACKM^ 

Prepare (i) as many small tartlet-crusts as there are tour- 
nedos; (2) the same number of grilled, medium-sized mush- 
rooms; (3) a garnish of one tablespoonful of broad beans with 
cream per tartlet. 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter. 

Dish them in the form of a crown, each on a tartlet garnished 
with broad beans, and set a grilled mushroom on each tour- 
nedos. 

1 100— TOURNEDOS LESDIQUI6RES 

Select onions sufficiently large to admit of placing the tour- 
nedos upon them, and let their number equal that of the tour- 
nedos. 

Trim their tops, and parboil them almost long enough to 
cook them. 

Then, by means of a small knife, cut out their insides so 
that they may form little cases. Fill the latter, two-thirds 
full, with spinach prepared with cream, cover the spinach with 
Mornay sauce, and set them to glaze in a fierce oven a few 
moments before the tournedos are ready. 

Grill the tournedos; dish them in the form of a crown, each 

on an onion. 

I loi— TOURNEDOS LILI 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Dish them, in the form of a crown, each on a crust of 
" Pommes de terre Anna" (No. 2203), stamped out with a 
round, even cutter of the same size as the tournedos. 

On each tournedos set an artichoke-bottom garnished with 
a roundel of foie gras tossed in butter, and on the foie gras place 
a slice of truffle. Send, separately, a reduced and well-buttered 
P^rigueux sauce. 

1 102— TOURNEDOS LUCULLUS 

Season the tournedos ; fry them in clarified butter, and dish 
them, in the form of a crown, on fried crusts. Surround them 
with a garnish consisting of quenelles of chicken forcemeat, 
cocks' combs, truffles, and blanched olives, and coat the whole 
with half-glaze sauce prepared with truffle essence. 

1 103— TOURNEDOS MADELEINE 

For ten tournedos prepare (i) ten timbales of a puree of 
haricot beans. For these timbales the purde of haricot beans 

B B 



370 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

must be cohered per lb. with one egg and three yolks, finished 
with two oz. of butter, put into well-buttered dariole-moulds, 
and set these to poach fifteen minutes in advance. 

(2) Ten small artichoke-bottoms garnished with reduced 
Soubise. 

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter; dish them, and 
surround them with the timbales and the artichoke-bottoms, 
alternating the two garnishes. 

1 104— TOURNEDOS MARECHALE 

Season the tournedos ; fry them in butter, and dish them 
upon fried crusts. On each of the tournedos set a large, glazed 
slice of truffle, and surround them with little heaps of asparagus- 
heads cohered with butter. 

1 1 05— TOURNEDOS MARIE-LOUISE 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Dish them, in the form of a crown, upon crusts one-third 
inch thick, fried in butter. On each tournedos set a small 
aitichoke-bottom, stewed in butter, garnished in the shape of 
a dome, by means of a piping-bag, with a pur^e of mushrooms 
combined with a quart of very reduced Soubise. 

I io6— TOURNEDOS MASCOTTE 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter. 

Have a garnish ready consisting of raw, quartered artichoke- 
bottoms fried in butter ; small, olive-shaped potatoes, also cooked 
in butter ; and olive-shaped truffles. 

When about to serve, dish the tournedos in a cocotte with 
the garnish above described. 

Swill the saut^-pan with white wine ; add thereto a little 
gravy ; reduce the whole, strain it into the cocotte, and put the 
latter in the front of the oven for a minute or two. 

1 107— TOURNEDOS MASSENA 

Season the tournedos and fry them in butter; dish them on 
fried crusts of the same size, and, in the middle of each tour- 
nedos, set a large slice of poached marrow. 

Surround with a row of small artichoke-bottoms, garnished 
with very stiff B^arnaise sauce. 

1 108— TOURNEDOS A LA MENAQgRE 

Put into an earthenware cocotte the following vegetables, 
which should be in proportion to the number of tournedos : — 
Haricot butter or " Princesse " cut into small pieces, minced 
new carrots, very small new onions, and very fresh peas. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 371 

All these vegetables should be equally apportioned. 

Add salt, butter, and a very little water, for the cooking of 
the vegetables should be effected mainly by the concentration 
of steam inside the cocotte, which, for the purpose, should 
therefore be well closed. 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon the vege- 
tables in the cocotte at the last moment. 

1 109— TOURNEDOS A LA MEXICAINE 

Prepare (i) a fondue of peeled and pressed tomatoes, cooked 
in butter, well reduced, and in the proportion of one table- 
spoonful per mushroom ; (2) as many large grilled mushrooms 
as there are tournedos, while the latter are being fried ; (3) some 
grilled or fried capsicums in the proportion of half a one per 
tournedos. 

Season the tournedos, and fry them in oil and butter in equal 
quantities. Dish them each on a mushroom garnished with 
the fondue of tomatoes, and cover them with the grilled or 
fried capsicums. 

mo— TOURNEDOS MIKADO 

Select some fine, rather firm tomatoes — " Mikados;" as they 
are called — and cut them in two laterally. Squeeze them with 
the object of expressing all their juice and seeds ; season them 
inside, and grill them so that they may be ready at the same 
time as the tournedos. 

Season the latter and fry them in butter. 

Dish them in the form of a crown, each on a grilled half- 
tomato, and garnish the centre of the dish with Japanese 
artichokes tossed in butter. 

1 1 1 1— TOURNEDOS MIRABEAU 

Grill the tournedos. 

Lay eight fine strips of anchovy fillets upon each, crossing 
the former after the manner of a lattice. Cover the edges with 
a crown of blanched tarragon leaves, and set a large stoned olive 
in the middle of each tournedos. 

Send some half-melted anchovy butter separately, and allow 
two-thirds oz. of it for each tournedos. 

1 1 12— TOURNEDOS MIREILLE 

For ten tournedos, prepare in advance, (i) five croustades 
from the preparation used for " pommes Duchesse." To make 
these croustades, fill some buttered dariole-moulds with the 
preparation referred to, taking care to press it snugly into them. 
Dip the moulds into tepid water, turn out, treat the mouldings 

B B 2 



372 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

a Vanglaisc, fry them, hollow out their centres, and keep them 
hot. 

(2) A fondue of tomatoes in the proportion of one heaped 
tablespoon ful per croustade. 

(3) Five timbales of pilaff rice, made after the same manner 
as the croustades, and kept hot until required for dishing. 

Season the tournedos, fry them in butter, and dish them as 
soon as they are ready. 

Surround them with timbales of rice, and the croustades 
garnished with the fondue, the two garnishes to be alternated. 

1 1 13— TOURNEDOS MIRETTE 

Prepare as many small timbales of " pommes Mirette " 
(No. 2234) as there are tournedos. 

Turn them out on a dish, sprinkle with grated Parmesan 
and a few drops of melted butter, and set them to glaze a few 
minutes before the tournedos are ready. Grill the tournedos, 
dish them in the form of a crown, and set a timbale of pommes 
Mirette upon each. 

Swill the saute-pan with white wine; add thereto a little 
meat-glaze, finish with butter, and pour the resulting sauce 
over the tournedos. 

n 14— TOURNEDOS A LA MOELLE 

Grill the tournedos and dish them in the form of a crown. 

Lay on each of them a large slice of poached marrow, and 
either surround them with Bordelaise sauce or send the latter 
to the table separately. 

1 1 15— TOURNEDOS MONTGOMERY 

Season the tournedos and fry them in butter. 

Dish them upon a pancake of spinach (No. 2138), cooked 
in a tartlet-mould. Deck each tournedos with a rosette of 
reduced Soubise, made by means of a piping-bag fitted with a 
grooved pipe, and put a fine slice of truffle in the centre of 
the rosette. 

1 1 16— TOURNEDOS MONTPENSIER 

Prepare (i) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; 
(2) a garnish of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, in the 
proportion of one heaped tablespoonful per tartlet. 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon fried 
crusts. 

On each of them set a tartlet garnished with asparagus- 
heads, with a slice of truffle in the middle. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 373 

1117— TOURNEDOS AUX MORILLES 

Grill the tournedos or fry them in butter. 

Dish them in the form of a crown ; in the centre arrange a 
heap of morels tossed in butter, and besprinkle them moderately 
with chopped parsley. 

1 1 18— TOURNEDOS A LA NI9OISE 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a 
crown. 

In the centre of each tournedos set a small heap, consisting 
of one half-tablespoonful of peeled, pressed, and concassed 
tomatoes, tossed in butter, together with a little crushed garlic 
and chopped tarragon. 

Surround with small heaps of French beans cohered with 
butter, and other heaps of small potatoes, cooked in butter, 
alternating the two garnishes. 

1 1 19— TOURNEDOS NINON 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon crusts of 
" pommes Anna," stamped out with a round fancy-cutter of 
the same size as the tournedos. On each of the latter set a 
small patty, garnished with asparagus-heads, cohered with 
butter and combined with a fine and short julienne of truffles. 

1 120— TOURNEDOS PARMENTIER 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of 
a crown. 

In the middle of the dish or round it set a fine heap of 
potatoes, cut into regular cubes of two-thirds inch side, or raised 
by means of an oval, grooved spoon-cutter. The potatoes 
should be cooked in butter and kept very soft. 

Slightly sprinkle the potatoes with chopped parsley. 

1 12 1— TOURNEDOS PERSANE 

Prepare as many green capsicums, stuffed with rice moulded 
to the shape of balls and braised, and as many grilled half- 
tomatoes as there are tournedos. Also have some fried slices 
of banana ready, and allow three for each tournedos. 

Fry the tournedos in butter and dish them, in the form of a 
crown, on the grilled half-tomatoes. On each tournedos set a 
stuffed and braised capsicum. 

In the centre of the dish arrange the fried slices of banana 
in a nice heap. Send separately to the table a Chateaubriand 
sauce, combined with the reduced braising-liquor of the 
capsicums. 



374 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

II22— TOURNEDOS P^RUVIENNE 

Prepare, after the manner described below, as many oxalis 
roots as there are tournedos. 

Peel the oxalis roots; cut a slice from underneath them, in 
order to make them stand upright, and hollow them out to 
form little cases. 

Chop up the pulp extracted from them in the last operation, 
and add it to a preparation of duxelles, made as for stuffed 
mushrooms. 

Fill the oxalis cases with this preparation, shaping it above 
their edges after the manner of a dome ; besprinkle with raspings 
and oil, and put them in the oven in good time for them to be 
ready at the same time as the tournedos. 

Grill the tournedos, dish them in the form of a crown, and 
surround them with the oxalis cases. 

1 123— TOURNEDOS PIEMONTAISE 

Butter as many tartlet-moulds as there are tournedos; fill 
them with Rizotto k la Pidmontaise, combined with white 
truffles cut into dice, and keep them hot. 

Fry the tournedos in clarified butter ; dish them, in the form 
of a crown, on the rizotto tartlets, turned out at the last minute. 

1 124— TOURNENOS PROVENCALE 

For ten tournedos, prepare (i) ten medium-sized mush- 
rooms, stuffed with duxelles, slightly flavoured with garlic, and 
put in the oven in good time; (2) ten half-tomatoes k la Pro- 
ven9ale (No. 2266), 

Fry the tournedos in equal quantities of butter and oil ; 
dish them, in the form of a crown, on fried crusts, with a half- 
tomato upon each, and around them set the stuffed mushrooms. 

1 125— TOURNEDOS RACHEL 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of 
a crown, on fried crusts one-third inch thick. 

On each tournedos set a small artichoke-bottom, garnished 
with a large slice of poached marrow. 

Send a Bordelaise sauce separately. 

1 126— TOURNEDOS ROSSINI 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of 
a crown, upon fried crusts. 

On each tournedos set a round slice of foie gras, just a little 
smaller than the former ; the slices should be seasoned, dredged, 
and fried in butter. 

On each slice of foie-gras, set a fine slice of truffle. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 375 

1127— TOURNEDOS ROUMANILLp 

Cut the tournedos a little smaller than usual. Season them ; 
fry them in butter, and dish them in a circle on grilled half- 
tomatoes. 

Coat the tournedos with Mornay sauce, and set them to 
glaze quickly. 

In the middle of each tournedos set a large stuffed and 
poached olive, encircled by a ring consisting of an anchovy 
fillet. 

In the centre of the dish arrange a fine heap of egg-plant 
roundels, seasoned with salt and pepper, dredged, fried in oil, 
and kept very crisp. 

H28-TOURNEDOS SAINT MAND16 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of 
a circle, each on a little cushion of " pommes de terre Macaire," 
moulded in ordinary tartlet-moulds. 

In the centre of the dish set a garnish consisting of peas 
cohered with butter. 

1 129— TOURNEDOS A LA SARDE 

Prepare a garnish of (i) hollowed, parboiled, and braised 
sections of cucumber, stuffed with duxelles, and gratined ; (2) 
small tomatoes, similarly treated; (3) small round croquettes 
of rice flavoured with saffron, thickened with egg-yolks, treated 
a I'anglaise, and fried. 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of 
a crown. 

Set a croquette of rice upon each tournedos, and frame 
the whole with the stuffed cucumber cases and the stuffed 
tomatoes, laid alternately. 

1 130— TOURNEDOS SOUBISE 

Grill the tournedos and dish them in the form of a crown. 
Serve a light Soubise purde separately. 

1 13 1— TOURNEDOS TIVOLI 

For ten tournedos, prepare ten small grilled mushrooms, 
and allow one half-tomato tossed in butter for each mushroom. 

Fry the tournedos in butter and dish them, in the form of a 
crown, upon fried crusts. On each tournedos set a grilled 
mushroom, garnished with a tossed half-tomato, and all round 
set some fine "pommes souffldes " made in ribbon-form, of a 
round shape, and in the proportion of one potato to each 
tournedos. 

Send a B6arnaise sauce separately. 



376 GUliDE TO MODERN COOkERY 

1 132— TOURNEDOS TYROLIENNE 

For ten tournedos, prepare the following sauce : ^Gently 
cook one chopped onion in butter ; add two peeled, pressed, and 
roughly-chopped tomatoes, salt, pepper, chopped parsley, and 
a little crushed garlic. 

When the tomatoes are sufficiently cooked, add thereto a 
few tablespoonfuls of poivrade sauce, and set to boil for five 
minutes. 

Fry the tournedos in butter; dish them in the form of a 
crown, and cover them with the prepared sauce. 

1 133— TOURNEDOS VALENCAY 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a 
crown, each on a small, round, and flat croquette of noodles and 
ham, fried just before dishing up. 

Send a Chateaubriand sauce separately. 

1 134— TOURNEDOS VALENTINO 

Prepare as many pieces of turnips, of the same diameter as 
the tournedos and one and one-half inch thick, as there are 
tournedos. Cut them neatly round, stamp them with an even 
and round cutter, and parboil them until they are almost com- 
pletely cooked. Hollow them out, by means of a spoon, inside 
the mark left by the fancy-cutter, and stuff them with a pre- 
paration of semolina with Parmesan. 

Put these stuffed pieces of turnip in a saut^pan ; add a little 
water, butter, and sugar, and glaze them while finishing their 
cooking-process. 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in a circle, each 
on a stuffed case of turnip. 

"35— TOURNEDOS VERT=PR^ 

Grill the tournedos, and dish them simply with half-melted 
butter a la Maitre-d' Hotel upon them. 

Surround them with alternate heaps of water-cress and 
freshly-fried straw potatoes. 

1 136— TOURNEDOS VICTORIA 

Fry the tournedos in butter. 

Dish them in a circle, each on a little round and flat 
croquette of chicken-meat. On each tournedos set a half-tomato 
tossed in butter. 

H37— TOURNEDOS VILLARET 

Prepare (r) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; 
(2) a sufficient quantity of very smooth flageolet puree to garnish 
the tartlets; (3) a fine grilled tomato per each tournedos. 



RfiLEVES AND ENTREES 377 

Grill the tournedos, and dish them on the garnished tartlets. 
On each tournedos set a grilled mushroom, the hollow of which 
should have been filled with Chateaubriand sauce. 

1 1 38— TOURNEDOS VILLENEUVE 

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in a circle on 
little quoit-shaped croquettes of chicken-meat, fried at the last 
moment. 

On each tournedos set a crown of small roundels of tongue 
and truffle, laid alternately, and a small grooved mushroom in 
the middle. 

Send a Chateaubriand sauce separately. 

1 139— TOURNEDOS VILLEMER 

Grill the tournedos, and dish them in a circle, each on a 
fried, hollowed-out crust, garnished with truffled Soubise. 

On each tournedos set a large slice of truffle coated with 
meat-glaze. 

1 140— FILETS EN CHEVREUIL 

For the " en chevreuil " treatment, the meat used is gener- 
ally cut from the narrowest end of the fillet of beef. The weight 
of the pieces cut should average about three oz. each. 

After having slightly flattened and trimmed them, lard them 
with very thin strips of bacon, and marinade them for a few 
hours in the raw marinade given under No. 169. When about 
to cook them, dry them thoroughly, and fry them quickly in hot 
oil, taking care that the latter be smoking, and therefore hot 
enough to set the meat and to cause its external moisture to 
evaporate. 

The fillets may be accompanied by all vegetable purees and 
highly-seasoned sauces, the most suitable of the latter being 
the Poivrade and the Chasseur. 

1 141— SIRLOIN OF BEEF (Releve) 
Sirloin of beef is that part of the bullock's back reaching 
from the haunch to the floating ribs, which is equivalent to the 
saddle in veal and mutton. This piece, however, cannot pro- 
perly be called "sirloin," except when it comprises the fillet 
or undercut, and the upper fillet (Fr. : contrefilet), so-called to 
distinguish it from the undercut. If this joint be treated 
whole, it need only be shortened by suppressing the flank, and 
by sectioning the ligament lying alongside of the chine on the 
upper fillet, in different places. 

A little fat is left on the undercut, but none whatever must 
be removed from the upper fillet. As a rule, when sirloin of 
beef is braised, it is cut laterally into pieces weighing from 



378 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

six to seven lbs. If it is to be roasted, it is best to keep it 
whole. 

When served as a relev^, it is braised or roasted, and is 
kept underdone if so desired. Unless it be of excellent quality, 
however, braised sirloin generally turns out to be dry. 

All garnishes given for "Filet de Boeuf " may be served 
with sirloin; but, as a rule, the bulkiest, such as the " Riche- 
lieu," the " Proven9ale," the " Godard," &c., are selected. 

The accompanying sauce is that indicated for the above 
garnishes. 

1 142— PORTERHOUSE-STEAK (Grill) 

Porterhouse-steak is a slice from the sirloin of beef, which 
may be more or less thick. It is cleared of the flank and of 
the bones of the chine, and it is always grilled. 

It may be served with any of the various garnishes and 
sauces suited to grills; but it is more often served plain. 

1 143— UPPER FILLET AND RIBS OF BEEF (Relev^) 

The upper fillet is that part of beef which lies between the 
top of the haunch and the floating ribs, alongside of the chine. 
It may be treated like the fillet, and all the garnishes suited 
to the latter may also be applied here. 

If the piece is to be braised, it should be completely boned ; 
if intended for roasting, it is best to retain the bones. In the 
latter case, the large ligament should be cut at various points 
with the view of preventing distortion, while the bones con- 
stituting the spinous process should be broken close to the point 
where they join the body of the vertebrae, that they may be 
easily removed when the meat is being carved. 

The upper fillet, especially when it is of good quality, is 
best roasted. 

Ribs of beef may likewise be braised or roasted. 

In either case, the meat should be properly trimmed and 
cleared of all the bones of the spinous process. 

This piece should only be used after having been well hung, 
in order that it may be as tender as possible. 

1 144— GRILLED SIRLOIN STEAKS AND RIBS OF BEEF 

The sirloin steak may be cut either from the upper fillet or 
the ribs of beef, i.e., between two rib-bones. In order that its 
cooking may be regular, it should not weigh more than from 
two to three lbs. 

Ribs of beef may also be grilled, provided they be sufficiently 
tender. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 379 

They may be braised, too, and in this case they are served 
with any of the various garnishes given under Fillet of Beef. 

1 145— PIECE DE BCEUF BRAIS^E (Releve) 
The piece of beef called rump is the one preferred for boiling 
and braiding. Whatever be the use for which the meat is in- 
tended, the weight of the pieces should not be more than six 
or eight lbs. at the most, and they should be cut in the length 
rather than in the thickness, that the cooking process may be 
facilitated. 

All the garnishes of braised sirloin of beef are suited to 
braised pieces of beef. 

Boiled beef is generally accompanied by the vegetables used 
in its cooking-process, by purees, green or dry vegetables, 
pastes, macaroni, &c., &c. 

1146— PIECE DE B(EUF A LA BOURQUIGNONNE 

Lard the piece of beef, and marinade it for three hours in 
brandy and red wine. Braise it after the manner described 
under No. 247 ; moisten first with the wine of the marinade, 
and, when the latter is reduced, with some veal gravy and one- 
half pint of Espagnole sauce per quart of liquid, taking care 
that the whole moistening reaches the top of the piece of meat. 
Add a faggot and some mushroom parings; set to boil, and 
cook gently in the oven. 

When the meat is two-thirds cooked, transfer it to another 
saucepan, and surround it with mushrooms cut into two or four, 
according to their size, and tossed in butter; breast of bacon, 
cut into dice, blanched and tossed in butter, and some small 
onions half-glazed with butter. 

Strain the sauce through a sieve over the piece of beef and 
its garnish, and complete the cooking gently. 

A few minutes before serving, put the meat on a dish and 
glaze it in the oven. Transfer the meat to the dish intended 
for the table; quickly reduce the sauce if necessary, and pour 
it over the piece of beef and the garnish. 

1 147— PifiCE DE B(EUF A LA CUILLER 

Select a very square or oval piece of beef, and bear in mind, 
in selecting it, that it will have to be fashioned to the shape of 
a case when it has been cooked. 

String it, and braise it after the manner described under 
No. 247, almost entirely covering it with moistening liquor. 

Set it to cook gently; withdraw the piece when the meat is 
still somewhat firm, and let it cool under slight pressure. 



38o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

This done, cut out the meat from the inside; leave a thick- 
ness of about half-inch round the sides and on the bottom, and 
the piece thus emptied should constitute a square or oval case, 
in accordance with the shape originally adopted. 

Coat the outside of the whole piece with a mixture of beaten 
eggs and fine bread-crumbs, combined with Parmesan ; sprinkle 
melted butter over it with a brush, and put the case into a 
sufficiently hot oven to allow of a crust forming round it. 

Meanwhile chop up the meat extracted from the inside of 
the piece ; add thereto a little salted tongue, some braised slices 
of sweet-bread, and mushrooms ; put the whole into a saut^pan 
with an Italian or a half-glaze sauce, according to the require- 
ments, and heat this garnish. 

N.B. — This preparation was quite common in old-fashioned 
cookery, but though it is still served occasionally, it is now 
looked upon more as a curiosity than anything else. As a 
curiosity, therefore, I chose to include it among these recipes; 
but it does not follow from this that I in any way recommend it. 

1 148— PIECE DE B(EUF A LA FLAMANDE 

Lard the piece of beef, and braise it as explained under 
No. 247. 

Meanwhile prepare the following garnish : — (i) Cut a nice 
firm cabbage into four, remove the heart, and parboil it for 
seven or eight minutes. Drain it; cool it; divide up the 
quarters, leaf by leaf, so as to remove the hard ribs, and season 
with salt and pepper. 

Mould them to the shape of balls by pressing them in the 
corner of a towel into balls weighing about three oz. each, or 
simply put them into a saucepan with a quartered carrot, an 
onion stuck with a clove, a faggot, six oz. of blanched breast 
of pork, and a little raw sausage with garlic, which latter must 
be withdrawn after cooking has gone on for one and one-half 
hours. 

Moisten the cabbage with just sufficient consomm^ to cover 
it; add a few tablespoonfuls of good stock-fat; set to boil, and 
cook gently in the oven for one and one-half hours. 

(2) Cut the required quantity of carrots and turnips to the 
shape of olives ; cook them in consomm^, and reduce the latter 
for the purpose of glazing. 

(3) Prepare some potatoes d I'anglaise. 

Set the piece of beef on a dish large enough to allow of the 
former being surrounded with the moulded or plainly-heaped 
cabbages, the glazed carrots arid turnips, and the potatoes d 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 381 

I'anglaise. The last two vegetables should be set in alternate 
heaps with the cabbages and the bacon (cut into small rectangles) 
and the sausage (cut into roundels) should be distributed all 
round. 

Serve separately the gravy of the piece of beef, cleared of all 
grease, reduced to a half-glaze and strained. 

1 149— PIECE DE BCEUF A LA MODE CHAUDE 

Lard the piece of beef, which should not, if possible, weigh 
more than from four to five lbs. The strips of bacon used for 
larding ought to have been prepared fifteen or twenty minutes 
in advance, marinaded in a few tablespoonfuls of brandy, and 
sprinkled with parsley just before being used. 

Rub the piece with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and put it into 
a basin with one bottle of red wine and one-fifth pint of brandy, 
and set it to marinade for four or five hours, taking care to 
turn it over from time to time. 

Then set it to braise after the manner described under No. 
247 ; add its marinade to the moistening, and surround it with 
three small, boned, blanched, and strung calf's feet. 

When the cooking is three-quarters done, transfer the piece 
of beef to another saucepan, and surround it with the following 
garnish : — 

1. About one-quarter lb. of carrots turned to the shape of 
elongated olives, and already two-thirds cooked. 

2. Small onions coloured in two-thirds lb. of butter, 

3. The calf's feet cut into small, square, or rectangular 
pieces. 

Strain the braising-Iiquor over the whole, and complete the 
cooking gently. When about to serve, either glaze the piece 
of beef, or dish it plain ; coat it lightly with sauce, and send 
what remains of the latter, with the garnish, in a timbale. 

I ISO— PIECE DE BCEUF A LA MODE FROIDE 

Boeuf k la mode is very rarely prepared specially for cold 
dishing, the remains of a fine piece being generally used for 
that purpose. The piece of meat must first be well trimmed. 
If the quantity of sauce do not seem enough, or if the sauce 
itself seem too stiff, add a third of its volume of aspic jelly 
to it. 

For moulding, take a terrine a pate, a mould, or other utensil 
capable of holding the piece of meat, its garnish, and its sauce. 
Deck the bottom of the utensil in any suitable way with the 
carrots and the onions, and surround the piece with what 
remains of the latter and the dice of calf's foot, 



382 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Add the sauce, combined with the jelly, after having passed 
it through a strainer, and put the whole in the cool for a few 
hours. Turn out just before serving, and surround with very 
light, chopped jelly. 

1 151— PIECE DE BCEUF A LA NOAILLES 

Lard the piece of beef, and marinade it in brandy and red 
wine. 

This done, dry it thoroughly, and brown it evenly in butter 
all over ; moisten it with its marinade and an equal quantity of 
veal gravy, and set to cook gently. 

When the meat is half-cooked, surround it with two lbs. of 
minced onions, tossed in butter, and three oz. of rice. Complete 
the cooking of the piece with onions and rice. 

Now withdraw the piece of beef, and quickly rub the onions 
and the rice through tammy. Reduce this Soubise with rice for 
a few moments. 

Neatly trim the piece of beef; cut it into even slices; recon- 
struct it on a dish, and between each slice pour a tablespoonful 
of Soubise puree. 

Cover the reconstructed piece of beef with the remainder of 
the Soubise; sprinkle the surface with two tablespoonfuls of 
bread-crumbs fried in butter, and some melted butter, and put 
the whole in the oven, that the gratin may form speedily. 

1152— THE RUMP 

RUMPSTEAK AND BEEFSTEAK. 

The rump is that portion of the sirloin of beef which touches 
the top of the haunch. 

It may be braised, but it is more often grilled in slices from 
one inch to one and one-half inches thick, which are called 
" rumpsteaks." 

With reference to this subject, it is as well to point out that 
the term " Beefsteak," so hackneyed in France, is scarcely used 
in England, owing to its want of precision. 

In France, beefsteak is either a cut from the fillet, the upper- 
fillet, or the rump, according to the standing of the catering- 
house which supplies it. But the nature of the piece cannot 
very well be mistaken, inasmuch as the term beefsteak, which 
designates it, is generally followed by other French words which 
reveal its origin, whereas in England the term "Beefsteak" 
does not convey any particular meaning. 

Rumpsteak is either grilled or sauted, but whatever be the 
method of cooking it, it is generally served plain. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 383 

All garnishes suited to fillets, however, may be served with 
it, as also the various butters and sauces generally used with 
grills. 

IIS3— LANGUE DE BCEUF 

Ox tongue is served fresh or salted, but, even when it is to 
be served fresh, it is all the better for having been put in salt 
a few days previously. In order to salt it, put it into a special 
brine, as explained under No. 174. When salted^ it is cooked 
in boiling water; when fresh, it is braised exactly after the 
manner of any other piece of meat. 

Ox tongue may be served with almost all the garnishes suited 
to relev^s of fillet of beef, but more particularly with the fol- 
lowing : — Bourgeoise; Flamande; Milanaise; Noodles or 
Macaroni with cream, cheese or tomatoes; and all vegetable 
purees. 

The most suitable sauces are : — Madeira sauce, Piquante 
sauce, Tomato sauce, or their derivatives. 

II54— LANQUE DE BCEUFCHOUCROUTE 

Braise the tongue as described under No. 247, and glaze it 
at the last moment. Dish it, and send to the table separately 
(i) a timbale of well-braised sauerkraut; (2) a timbale of potato 
pur^e; (3) a Madeira sauce, combined with the braising-liquor 
of the tongue, cleared of all grease, and reduced. 

,,S5_LANQUE DE BOEUF BOURGEOISE 

Braise the tongue in the usual way. 

When it is two-thirds cooked, surround it with carrots 
fashioned to the shape of olives and already two-thirds cooked, 
and small onions browned in butter. 

Complete the cooking gently, and for the rest of the opera- 
tion, proceed as for " Piece de Boeuf k la Mode chaude." 

1156— LANGUE DE BCEUF AUX FEVES 

Tongue intended for this preparation should be put in salt 
a few days in advance. 

Boil it in the usual way and very gently; glaze it when 
about to serve, and dish it. Send to the table separately (i) a 
timbale of very fresh, skinned, broad beans, cooked in salted 
water with a spray of savory, and cohered with butter at the 
last moment. 

(2) A Madeira sauce. 

1 157— LANGUE DE BCEUF FLAMANDE 

Braise the tongue, and glaze it at the last moment. Sur- 
round it with the garnish " k la Flamande " given under the beef 



384 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

recipe of that name, i.e., braised cabbages, glazed carrots and 
turnips, potatoes a I'anglaise, rectangles of lean bacon, and 
roundels of sausage. 

1158— LANQUES DE BCEUF FROIDES 

Ox tongues intended for cold dishing should be kept in 
brine (No. 172) for eight or ten days. When about to use them, 
put them to soak in cold water for a few hours, and then cook 
them plainly in water for three hours. 

This done, withdraw them from their cooking-liquor; skin 
them; cover them with buttered paper, and let them cool. The 
object of the paper is to keep off the air, the tendency of which 
is to blacken the surface of the meat. 

When quite cool, coat the tongues with a glaze composed of 
one-half lb. of gelatine dissolved in one pint of water; the latter 
is given a scarlet tint by means of carmine and caramel. 

Cold ox tongues are dished amidst aspic jelly dice and curled- 
leaf parsley. 

N.B. — The gelatine glaze described above will be found a 
great improvement upon the coating of reddened gold-beaters' 
skin. 

OX TAILS. 

Ox tails, sectioned or unsectioned, are usually braised, and 
only the thicker half of the caudal appendage is ever used. 

1159-QUEUE DE BCEUF A L'AUVERQNATE 

Section the tail, and braise it in white wine, after recipe 
No. 247. 

Prepare a garnish of rectangles of lean bacon, large chestnuts 
cooked in consomme and glazed, and small onions cooked in 
butter. 

Put the sections of the tail in an earthenware cocotte with 
the garnish. 

1 160— QUEUE DE BCEUF A LA CAVOUR 

Section the tail, and braise it in a moistening two-thirds of 
which is brown stock and one-third white wine. It is well for 
the moistening to be somewhat abundant. Set to cook very 
gently, until the meat falls from the bones, i.e., for a matter of 
about four and one-half or five hours. 

This done, dish the sections of the tail in a cocotte ; add 
some small, cooked mushrooms; clear the cooking-liquor of 
grease; reduce it, and thicken it slightly with fecula. Strain 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 385 

this thickened cooking-liquor over the sections of the tail and 
the mushrooms, and set to boil very gently for ten minutes. 

Serve thus in the cocotte set on a dish, and send a timbale 
of chestnut pur^e to the table at the same time. 

ii6i— QUEUE DE BCEUF FARCIE 

Choose a large ox tail, and bone it carefully without burst- 
ing it. 

Lay it on a napkin, and stuff it with a forcemeat consisting 
of the following ingredients : — Three-quarters lb. of very lean 
beef and one-half lb. of chopped fat bacon, the two mixed with 
four oz. of bread-crumbs soaked in milk and pressed; two whole 
eggs; three oz. of truffle peel; one-half oz. of salt, a pinch of 
pepper, and a very little spice. 

Sew up the tail, cover it with a piece of linen after the 
manner of a galantine, and cook it gently for three hours in a 
very light stock with vegetables as for boiled beef. 

At the end of the three hours take it out of the linen ; put it 
into a saut^pan, the bottom of which should be garnished as 
for a braising ; add a little of the cooking-liquor of the tail, and 
complete the cooking, basting often the while. Take care to 
baste more frequently towards the close of the operation with the 
view of properly glazing the meat. 

When about to serve, dish it, after having removed all 
string, and lightly coat the bottom of the dish with a sauce 
consisting of the cooking-liquor, reduced and thickened with 
arrow-root. Send what remains of the cooking-liquor in a 
sauceboat. 

Serve separately either a pur^e, a garnish of braised vege- 
tables, or one of the sauces suited to pieces of beef. 

1 162— QUEUE DE BCEUF QRILLEE 

Cut the tail into sections twice the usual length, and cook 
these in a stewpan for five hours with salted water and aromatics. 

Drain the sections; dry them well; dip them in melted 
butter, and roll them in very fine bread-crumbs. Sprinkle with 
melted butter, and set to grill gently. 

Grilled ox tail may be served with any vegetable pur6e. An 
ordinary Soubise, or one prepared " k la Noailles," as ex- 
plained under the piece of beef of that name, also suits very 
well. 

In any case, the Soubise should be sufficiently thick. 

Such sauces as k la Diable, Hach6e, Piquante, Robert, 
Tomato, Italienne, &c., are also suited to grilled ox tail. 

N.B. — When* the adjunct to grilled ox tail is a highly- 

C C 



386 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

seasoned sauce, the sections should first be covered with a coat 
of mustard, then dipped in melted butter, and finally rolled in 
bread-crumbs. 

1 163— QUEUE DE BCEUF EN HOCHEPOT 

Cut the tail into sections, and put these into a stewpan of 
convenient size, with two pig's trotters, each of which must 
be cut into four or five pieces, and one pig's ear. Cover the 
whole with cold water; add salt to the extent of one-third oz, 
per quart of the liquid ; set to boil ; skim, and leave to cook 
gently for two hours. 

This done, add one small cabbage, cut into quarters, par- 
boiled and cooled; ten small onions; five oz. of carrots, and the 
same weight of turnips, cut to the shape of large, garlic cloves. 

Set the whole to cook for a further two hours at least. 

When about to serve, dish the sections of tail in a circle; 
put the vegetable garnish in the centre, and surround the latter 
with the pig's ear cut into small, narrow strips, and ten grilled 
chipolata sausages. 

Serve, separately, a timbale of potatoes cooked a I'anglaise. 

Various Preparations of Beef. 
1164— STEWED STEAKS AND ONIONS 

Select some steaks one and one-third inches thick ; fry them 
in butter on both sides, and set them to braise in short moisten- 
ing, with a sufficient quantity of quartered and browned onions 
to constitute an abundant garnish. 

Leave the whole to cook gently for three hours. 

Dish the steak, and surround it with the onions and the 
braising-liquor cleared of all grease and reduced. 

H65— SALT BEEF 

The pieces of beef chiefly selected for salting are brisket, 
silver side, and round of beef, and these are always boiled for 
a more or less lengthy period, according to their size. 

To the cooking-liquor is added a copious garnish of carrots 
and turnips. These are served with the meat, together with a 
sauceboat of cooking-liquor and a suet dumpling, prepared as 
follows : — 

1 166— SUET DUMPLING 

Finely chop up some suet; add to it an equal quantity of 

flour and about one-quarter oz. of salt per lb. of suet and flour. 

Moisten with just enough water to make a thick paste of 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 387 

about the same consistence as brioche-paste. Cut this paste 
into portions weighing about one oz., and roll them into small 
balls. Put the latter in a saut^pan containing some boiling 
beef cooking-liquor, which need not have been cleared of grease, 
and let them poach for one and one-half hours. 

Now drain the dumplings, and arrange them around the 
meat with the garnish of carrots and turnips, as explained above. 

1 167— COLD SALT BEEF 

Salt beef, served cold, constitutes an excellent sideboard dish 
for luncheons. 

It need only be neatly trimmed all round, care being taken 
to preserve all the fat so highly esteemed by some. Indeed, a 
piece of cold salt fat is sometimes added to that already existing 
around and in the meat, in which case the extra quantity is 
fixed to the beef by means of a hatelet. 

1 168— PRESSED BEEF 

Salt beef also serves in the preparation of " Pressed Beef," 
but, for this purpose, the breast is generally used. 

After having thoroughly cooked the salted breast of beef in 
accordance with the procedure indicated for salt beef, cut it into 
large pieces of the same size as the moulds into which the meat 
is going to be pressed. Lay the pieces of beef one on top of 
another in a square or rectangular mould, and cover with a 
thick board, cut flush with the inside edge of the mould. Now 
apply pressure, either by means of a strong press or heavy 
weight, and leave the beef to cool under the applied pressure. 

When the meat is quite cold, turn it out; trim it carefully 
on all sides, and glaze it, i.e., cover it entirely with a coating 
of rather firm, clarified gelatine, brought by means of carmine 
and caramel to a nice red-brown colour. 

1 1 69— STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING 

Cut three lbs. of very lean beef into slices one-third inch 
thick. 

Season these slices with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and add 
a little chopped onion and parsley. Take a pudding-basin ; 
line it with a firm layer of suet-dough (No. 1166), and garnish 
the bottom and sides of the basin with the slices of beef. 

In the middle put one lb. of kidney of beef, of veal, or of 
mutton, cut up as for tossing, and seasoned like the steaks. 
Moisten with just sufficient water to cover. 

Now close up the basin with a layer of the same paste as 
that used in lining, pinching it with the latter, all round, that 
it may adhere thoroughly. In order to effect this with greater 

c c 2 



388 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

certainty, the respective edges of the two layers of paste may 
be moistened. 

This done, cover the basin with a buttered and dredged 
napkin, fastened on by means of string tied round just beneath 
the Hp of the utensil. Cook for five hours, either in boiling 
water or in steam, and, after having removed the napkin, serve 
the pudding as it stands. 

1 1 70— STEAK PUDDING 

Make some rather stiff paste with two lbs. of flour, one and 
one-quarter lbs. of the chopped fat of kidney of beef, a pinch 
of salt, and one-quarter pint of water. 

With the rolling-pin, roll out this paste to a round layer 
one-quarter inch thick, and put it into a buttered dome-mould 
or pudding-basin. 

Cut the lean beef into pieces, and season them, exactly as 
for steak and kidney pudding. Fill up the basin with the 
pieces arranged in layers; moisten with just enough water to 
cover, and close up the basin with a layer of the same paste 
as that used for its lining. 

Carefully join the edges of the two layers of paste, assisting 
the operation with a little moisture applied by means of a brush ; 
swathe the basin in a buttered pudding-cloth, and fasten the 
latter firmly with string. 

Put the pudding in a saucepan of boiling water or a steamer, 
and leave it to cook for three hours if the beef has been cut 
from the fillet, and for four hours if cut from any other piece. 

At the end of the required time take the pudding out of the 
saucepan and remove the cloth. 

Dish on a folded napkin. 

1 171— STEAK AND OYSTER PUDDING 

Proceed exactly as for steak and kidney pudding, but take 
only two lbs. of beef, and replace the odd pound by forty fine 
oysters. 

1172— DAUBE CHAUDE A LA PROVEN^ALE 

Cut four lbs. of shoulder or cushion of beef into cubes 
weighing about four oz. each. Lard each piece of meat with 
a strip of bacon two inches long by one-half inch wide, and 
put the cubes or pieces into a bowl with salt, pepper, a very 
little spice, five or six tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and a glass 
of red wine. Leave to marinade for two or three hours, and 
toss the pieces, from time to time, in the marinading liquor, in 
order that each may be well saturated with it. Heat six oz. of 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 389 

grated bacon in an earthenware stewpan, and brown therein 
twelve small onions, fifteen carrots in the shape of olives, two 
sticks of celery cut into pieces of the same size as the carrots, 
and four cloves of garlic. Add the marinaded pieces of meat, 
which should have been properly dried; fry the whole, meat 
and vegetables, for a further seven or eight minutes, and 
moisten with the marinade and two glasses more of red wine. 

Complete with one-half lb. of fresh bacon rind, blanched and 
cut into square pieces of two-thirds inch side; a faggot made 
up of parsley stalks, thyme, bay, and, in the centre, a small 
piece of dry lemon rind. Set to boil, completely close the stew- 
pan, and leave to cook in a moderate oven for six or seven hours. 

When about to serve, remove the faggot, clear all grease 
from the gravy, and dish in a hot timbale, or serve the " daube " 
in the stewpan itself. 

1 173— DAUBE A LA PROVENCALE FROIDE 

A daube is rarely prepared specially for cold dishing ; gene- 
rally the remains of one already served hot are used. 

Take the pieces, one by one, with a fork, and place them in 
a terrine a pate with the carrots, onions, and squares of bacon 
rind, which have remained almost untouched. 

Strain the gravy over them through an ordinary strainer, 
pressing lightly the while, and leave to cool. 

When about to serve, turn out the daube on a cold dish, and 
surround with chopped aspic jelly. 

1174— CARBONNADES A LA FLAMANDE 

Cut three lbs. of lean shoulder or cushion of beef into thin, 
short slices. Season the latter with salt and pepper, and brown 
them quickly on both sides in stock fat. At the same time toss 
one and one-quarter lbs. of minced onions in butter, until they 
are well browned. 

Put the slices of beef and the onions in alternate layers into 
a saucepan, and in their midst place a faggot. 

Drain the grease from the sautdpan in which the slices were 
fried; swill with one and one-half pints of beer (old Lambic in 
preference) ; add the same quantity of brown stock, thicken with 
four oz. of brown roux; finish the seasoning with one and one- 
half oz. of powdered sugar; set to boil, stirring the while, and 
strain this sauce over the slices of beef and the onions. 

Cover and cook gently in the oven for from two and one-half 
to three hours. 

N.B. — Carbonades are served thus, mingled with the 
onions; but they may also be dished in a timbale and covered 



390 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

with a Soubise consisting of the onion and the sauce rubbed 
through tammy. 

1175— EMINC6 DE B(EUF 

Cold roast or boiled meats may be warmed up in many 
different ways. 

In their preparation, however, the reader should follow one 
rule, the non-observance of which invariably leads to failure. 

Whatever the meat be, it should first be cut into the thinnest 
possible slices ; set on a dish, and covered with a boiling sauce 
or garnish, which should effect its warming up. If the meat 
boil in the sauce or garnish, it toughens, and this, above all, 
should be avoided when roast meat is used. 

Sauces suited to Eminces are the Bordelaise, the Piquante, 
the Italienne, the Chasseur, the Poivrade, the P^rigueux, and 
the Tomato. 

1176— EM1NC6 DE BffiUF EN MIROTON 

For one lb. of beef mince two fine onions somewhat finely, 
and toss them in butter until they are evenly and well gilded. 

Sprinkle with one-half tablespoonful of flour; set to cook 
for a moment, and then moisten with one-half glassful of white 
wine and one-half pint of consomm6 ; season with a pinch of 
pepper; boil, and leave to cook gently for seven or eight minutes. 

The flour may be dispensed with, but, in this case, the white 
wine is reduced to two-thirds, one-half pint of half-glaze is 
added, and the whole is cooked for seven or eight minutes. 

Cut the beef into very thin slices, and set these on a dish. 

A minute before serving, add a few drops of vinegar to the 
onions; cover the meat with the onions and the sauce; stand 
the dish for a moment on the hob, and sprinkle it slightly 
with chopped parsley. 

N.B. — When the miroton is prepared with boiled beef, the 
slices should be cut somewhat more thickly, and left to simmer 
gently in the sauce for as long as possble — an hour or more if 
necessary. 

The miroton is then dished with some minced gherkins, 
sprinkled with raspings, and placed in the oven at the last 
moment for the gratin to form. 

1177— QOULASH DE BCEUF A LA HONGROISE 

Cut three lbs. of ribs or shoulder of beef into squares weigh- 
ing about three oz. each. Fry these pieces on a moderate lire 
in four oz. of lard, together with one-half lb. of onions cut into 
large dice, until the latter acquire a nice, even, golden colour. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 391 

Season with one-third oz. of salt and the necessary quantity of 
paprika; add one and one-quarter lbs. of peeled, pressed, and 
quartered tomatoes, and one-sixth pint of water. 

Cover and cook in the oven for one and one-half hours. 

This done, add one-third pint of water and one and one- 
quarter lbs. of quartered potatoes to the Goulash. 

Continue the cooking in the oven, basting often the while, 
and do not stop the operation until the moistening-liquor is 
entirely reduced. When about to serve, dish the Goulash in 
a timbale. 

1178— HACHIS DE BCEUF A L'AMERICAINE 

Cut the meat into small cubes. 

Also cut into dice the same weight of potatoes as of meat. 

Season these potatoes and toss them in butter. 

This done, put half their quantity into a saucepan with the 
meat dice, and cohere the whole with a few tablespoonfuls of 
tomato sauce and reduced veal gravy. Heat without allowing 
to boil; dish in a hot timbale; distribute the remainder of the 
potatoes, which should be crisply fried, over the hash, and 
sprinkle with a pinch of freshly-chopped parsley. 

1 179— HACHIS DE BCEUF A PARMENTIER 

Bake some fine potatoes in the oven. 

The moment they are done, slice off a piece of their baked 
shell, and remove the pulp from their insides by means of a 
spoon handle. 

Crush this pulp with a fork, and toss it in butter as for 
" pommes de terre Macaire." Then add to it as much beef 
in dice as there is pulp; two tablespoonfuls of chopped onion 
cooked in butter per lb. of the preparation; a pinch of chopped 
parsley, and a few drops of vinegar. Now toss the whole 
together for a few minutes, and then fill the empty potato shells 
with the preparation. 

Sprinkle with Lyonnaise sauce rubbed through tammy, and 
add as much of it as the hash will absorb. 

Replace the portion of shell cut off at the first, that the 
potatoes may seem untouched ; arrange them on a dish, and put 
the latter in the oven for ten minutes. When about to serve, 
dish the stuffed potatoes on a napkin. 

1 180— TRIPES A LA MODE DE CAEN 

In the preparation of this culinary speciality of Normandy, 
a very common mistake is often made; to wit, that of using 
calves' feet instead of those of the ox, an innovation to which 
there are many objections. 



392 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

In the first place, the gravy of the tripe cannot absorb so 
much gelatine, and is indifferently thickened in consequence; 
secondly, since calves' feet are much more tender than those 
of the ox, the former get boiled to shreds before the cooking of 
the tripe has been properly effected. This supposed improve- 
ment on the old method is thus seen to actually run counter to 
the end in view; but means there are, nevertheless, whereby 
those who insist upon the use of calves' feet may be satisfied. 
It is only necessary to braise a number of calves' feet before- 
hand, the number being in proportion to the quantity of tripe, 
and to add these to the latter a quarter of an hour before 
serving. 

Another mistake which obtains somewhat widely in respect 
of this dish is the serving of it in a silver utensil — a method 
quite as unreasonable as that of serving a Chaudfroid in an 
earthenware dish. 

By virtue of its simplicity, tripe should be served in either 
sandstone or special earthenware stewpans, wherein heat is best 
retained ; and the operator should rather direct his attention to 
the serving of tripe as hot as possible, than to this or that 
fanciful method of dishing, which really has no raison d'etre 
in this case. 

The Preparation of Trife. — Under the head of " beef tripe " 
are understood : (i) The feet; (2) tripe proper, which comprises 
the Paunch, the Honey-comb Bag, the Manyplies, and the 
Reed. 

First soak the tripe in cold water for some considerable 
time ; then cut it into squares of two inches side. 

For the seasoning and flavouring of tripe, complete in all 
its parts, take : (Seasoning) one-quarter oz. of salt and a pinch 
of pepper per lb.; (flavouring) four lbs. of onions stuck with 
four cloves; three lbs. of carrots; one faggot, comprising two 
lbs. of leeks, one-third lb. of parsley stalks, a sprig of thyme, 
and a bay leaf. 

Moisten with two quarts of good cider (not likely to turn 
black while cooking, otherwise use water) ; one-half pint of 
brandy or liqueur-cider. 

The quantity of the moistening-liquor largely depends upon 
the shape of the utensil ; a little less will be needed in the case 
of a narrow one, and a little more in the case of a wide one. 

In any case, however, the tripe should be just covered. 

Treatment and Cooking-process. — Take a stewpan or brais- 
ing-pan, just large enough to hold the tripe and the garnish. 

On the bottom of this lay carrots, onions, seasoning, and 
the four ox feet, boned and cut into fair-sized pieces. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 393 

Add the tripe, placing the faggot in its midst; upon the 
tripe lay the bones of the feet, broken lengthwise ; some slices 
of beef-fat, well soaked in cold water; and, finally, the 
moistening. 

Cover the whole with a kind of galette of paste, consisting 
of flour mixed with hot water and kept somewhat stiff, and fix 
the paste well on to the edges of the utensil. 

Place in the oven, and, when about two hours have elapsed 
and the paste is well baked, close the utensil with its own cover. 

In a regular and moderate oven, allow about ten hours for 
the cooking. 

The Dishing and Serving. — After taking the tripe out of 
the oven, remove the cover of paste, the bones, the fat, the 
carrots, the onions, and the faggot, and by means of a slice 
withdraw the pieces of tripe and set them in the special earthen- 
ware bowls, taking care to distribute the pieces, coming from 
different portions of tripe, in such wise as to meet the demands 
or fancies of the various consumers. 

When the tripe has been transferred to the bowls, clear the 
gravy of ail grease, and dole it out evenly among the number 
of receptacles. It is best, now, to put the latter in a bain- 
marie, for they must only be served quite hot, on chafers or 
otherwise. 

N.B. — (i) To make the dish to perfection, the tripe should 
be put into special earthenware pots (wherein the heat is more 
effectively concentrated), and cooked in a baker's or pastry- 
cook's oven. 

I dealt with the alternative of cooking tripe in a stewpan 
in order to make provision for those who can avail themselves 
of neither special pots nor a baker's oven. 

(2) The measures I prescribe, namely, those of first laying 
the slices of beef-fat upon the tripe, and then covering the 
whole with a lid of paste, are intended to stop a too rapid 
evaporation of the liquid — a contingency that must be guarded 
against, more particularly in a kitchen oven — and to preserve 
the whiteness of the tripe. 

The cover of paste would be quite useless if a baker's oven 
were available, for the latter not only ensures perfectly regular 
heat, but also wanes regularly. 



394 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 



2. VEAL. 

With the exception of veal sweetbreads, it cannot be denied 
that this meat is considerably less popular in England than 
abroad, nor does it ever seem to appear on important menus in 
this country. 

Of course, and the fact must not be lost sight of, English 
veal is admittedly inferior in quality — badly fattened, and 
mostly red, soft, and dry. Probably, therefore, its unpopularity 
may be the indirect cause of its poor quality; for it is incon- 
ceivable that a country so famous for cattle-rearing as England 
undoubtedly is could not produce veal equal in quality to its 
beef, mutton, and pork, if rearers thought it worth their while 
to perfect that special branch of their business. Be this as it 
may, almost all the best veal consumed in England comes from 
the Continent, principally from France, Belgium, and Holland; 
and, in this respect, I not only refer to the larger joints, but 
to those odd parts such as the head, the liver, the sweetbreads, 
&c., the continental quality of which is likewise very superior 
to that of the English produce. 

1181— SELLE DE VEAU (Relev6) 

Saddle of veal is the only Relev^ of this meat which is 
sometimes allowed to appear on an important menu, and it is, 
in fact, a splendid and succulent joint. 

It may be roasted, but I should urge the adoption of the 
braising treatment, not only as a precaution against dryness, 
but because of the fine stock yielded by the operation. 

Whatever be the method of cooking, trim the saddle on one 
side, flush with the bones of the pelvis, and up to the first 
ribs on the other side. Then cut out the kidneys, leaving a 
thick layer of fat on the under fillets or "filets mignons " ; 
pare the flank on either side, in such wise that what is left of 
it, when drawn under the saddle on either side, may just cover 
the fillets above referred to. This flank should only be drawn 
over the fillets after the inside of the joint has been salted; 
then cover the top surface of the joint with slices of bacon, 
and tie round with string, five or six times, that the bacon 
and the flank may not shift. 

When the saddle is intended for only a small number of 
people, half of it may be used at a time; that is to say, one 
fillet, in which case the joint may be cut in two, lengthwise. 

The procedure for braising this piece is in pursuance of the 
directions given under " The Braising of White Meats " (No. 
248). 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 395 

The process of braising, whether it be in respect of the 
saddle or other veal Relev6s, such as the cushion, the loin, the 
neck, &c., demands particular care, must be accompanied by 
frequent basting, and should always be carried on with short 
moistening. 

1182— SELLE DE VEAU A LA CHARTREUSE 

Braise the saddle, and glaze it at the last moment, after 
having removed the slices of bacon. Set it on a long dish, 
and, at each end of the latter, place a chartreuse of vegetables. 

Round the joint put a few tablespoonfuls of the braising- 
liquor, cleared of all grease, reduced, and well-strained; and 
serve what remains in a sauceboat. 

Chartreuses of Vegetables. — Take two dome- or Charlotte- 
moulds, capable of holding two-thirds of a quart. Butter them 
liberally ; line them with buttered paper, and on the latter, over 
the bottom and sides of the utensil, lay carrots, turnips, peas, 
and French beans; each of which vegetables should be cooked 
in a way suited to its nature. This operation, which is some- 
what finicking, may either be effected on the plan of a draught- 
board, or the different vegetables may be superposed in alter- 
nate rows of varying colours. 

When the moulds are garnished in this way, spread thereon, 
over the vegetables, a layer of forcemeat softened with beaten 
white of egg; the object of this measure is to keep the vegetable 
decoration in position, and this is effected by the poaching of 
the forcemeat before the chartreuse is filled with its garnish. 

This done, fill the moulds to within one-third inch of their 
brims with a Mac^doine of vegetables cohered by means of 
stiff Bdchamel and cream, and cover with a layer of forcemeat. 

Set these chartreuses to poach thirty-five minutes before 
serving, and take care to let them rest for five minutes before 
unmoulding them on either side of the saddle. 

1 183— SELLE DE VEAU A LA METTERNICH 

Braise the saddle, and, when it is ready, put it on a dish. 
Now draw a line within one-half inch of its extreme edge on 
either side and end, pressing the point of a small knife along 
the meat in so doing. 

Proceed in the same way on either side of the chine, and 
remove the fillets from the joint, severing them from the bone 
with care. 

Cut the fillets into regular collops, keeping the knife some- 
what at a slant. 

In the double cavity left by the fillets spread a few table- 
spoonfuls of Bechamel with paprika; return the colloped fillets 



396 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

to their respective places in the joint, reconstructing them in 
such wise as to malie them appear untouched; and between 
the collops pour one-half tablespoonful of B6chamel and lay 
two slices of truffle. 

This done, cover the whole surface of the joint with 
Bechamel sauce with paprika, and set to glaze quickly at the 
salamander. Now, with a large slice, carefully transfer the 
saddle to a dish. 

Serve separately (i) the braising-liquor of the saddle, cleared 
of all grease and reduced ; (2) a timbale of pilaff rice. 

H84— SELLE DE VEAU A LA NELSON 

Braise the saddle. When it is ready, remove the fillets, 
proceeding exactly as described under " Selle k la Metternich," 
and cut the fillets in a similar manner. 

In the cavities left by the fillets spread a few tablespoonfuls 
of Soubise; return the colloped fillets to their place, and, 
between the collops, place a thin slice of ham, of the same size 
and shape as the adjacent piece of meat, and a little Soubise 
sauce. 

Having reconstructed the joint, cover its surface with a 
layer, about one inch thick, of " Souffle au Parmesan," com- 
bined with one quart of truffle pur^e. 

Bind the joint with a strong band of buttered paper, for the 
purpose of holding in the souffle, and set it to cook in a 
moderate oven for fifteen minutes. After having taken the 
saddle out of the oven, remove the paper band, and send it to 
the table without changing the dish. 

Send the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease, reduced and 
strained, to the table separately. 

1 185— SELLE DE VEAU A L'ORIENTALE 

Braise the saddle; remove the fillets, and cut them into 
collops as for " Selle k la Metternich." Garnish the cavities 
with Soubise sauce " au currie " ; reconstruct the fillets, putting 
a little of the same sauce between the collops, and coat the 
surface of the piece with the sauce already referred to. 

Surround the joint with braised celery, and serve its cooking 
liquor and a timbale of pilaff rice separately. 

1186— SELLE DE VEAU A LA PIEMONTAISE 

Braise the saddle, and cut the fillets into collops as before. 
When reconstructing the fillets, between the collops put a little 
Bechamel sauce, combined with three and one-half oz. of grated 
Parmesan and chree and one-half oz. of grated white truffles 
per quart of the sauce. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 397 

Coat the surface of the joint with the same sauce, and set 
to glaze quickly. 

Serve the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease and strained, 
separately; as also a timbale of rizotto k la Pi6montaise (No. 
2258). 

1187— SELLE DE VEAU PRINCE ORLOFF 

Braise the saddle and proceed as above, placing between 
the collops of fillet a little Soubise sauce and a fine slice of 
truffle. 

Coat the surface of the joint with Mornay sauce, combined 
with one quart of highly-seasoned Soubise, and set to glaze 
quickly. 

N.B. — This saddle may be accompanied either by a garnish 
of asparagus-heads or by cucumbers with cream. 

1 188— SELLE DE VEAU A LA ROMANOFF 

Braise the saddle; remove the fillets, and cut the latter into 
collops as for " Selle k la Metternich." Reconstruct the fillets, 
placing a small quantity of minced mushrooms, cohered by 
means of a few tablespoonfuls of cream, between the collops, 
and coat the surface of the joint with highly-seasoned Bechamel 
sauce, finished with four oz. of crayfish butter per quart. 

Surround the piece with a border of braised half-fennels. 
Serve the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease, reduced and 
strained, separately. 

1 1 89— SELLE DE VEAU A LA TOSCA 

Braise the saddle, and then prepare it as for No. 1183. 
Almost completely fill the cavities left by the fillets with a 
garnish of macaroni, cut into short lengths, cohered with cream, 
and combined with a julienne of truffles. 

Reconstruct the fillets upon this garnish and coat the collops 
with Mornay sauce, placing a slice of truffle between the collops. 
The reconstructed fillets thus appear raised on either side of the 
chine. 

Coat the surface of the joint with the same sauce as that 
already used, and set to glaze quickly. Send the braising- 
liquor, cleared of all grease and strained, to the table separately. 

1 190— SELLE DE VEAU A LA RENAISSANCE 

Braise the saddle, and glaze it at the last moment. Dish it 
and surround it with a large heap of cauliflower at either end ; 
on either side, nice heaps of carrots and turnips, raised by 
means of an" oval, grooved spoon-cutter, cooked in consomm^ 
and glazed; peas; French beans in lozenge-form; asparagus- 



398 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

heads cohered with butter; and some small potatoes cooked in 
butter. 

Send the braising-liquor of the joint, cleared of grease and 
strained, separately. 

1191— SELLE DE VEAU A LA TALLEYRAND 

Prepare twenty studs of truffle, about one inch long and 
one-third oz. in weight. Stick them upright and symmetrically 
into the meat of the joint, making way for them by means of 
little incisions cut with a small knife. Now envelop the joint 
in slices of larding bacon, string it, braise it, and glaze it at 
the last moment. 

Dish it with some of its braising-liquor, cleared of all grease 
and reduced. 

Serve separately (i) what remains of the braising-liquor; 
(2) a garnish of macaroni, cut into half-inch lengths, cohered 
with one and one-half oz. of butter, three oz. of grated Gruy^re 
and Parmesan, combined with three oz. of foie gras, cut into 
large dice, and three oz. of a julienne of truffles, per lb. of 
macaroni. 

1 192— SELLE DE VEAU FROIDE 

Cold saddle of veal makes an excellent sideboard dish which 
admits of all cold-dish garnishes, such as Mac^doines of vege- 
tables cohered with jelly or mayonnaise sauce; artichoke- 
bottoms and tomatoes, variously garnished; small, moulded 
vegetable salads, &c. 

Decorate it with fine, regular, jelly dice ; but its usual and 
essential adjunct is its own braising-liquor, cooked, cleared of 
grease poured carefully away, and served in a sauceboat without 
having been either clarified or cleared. 

All the pieces of veal given as relev6s, the cushion, the loin, 
the fillet, and the fricahdeau, may be served cold like the saddle, 
and are generally much appreciated, more particularly in 
summer. 

1 193— LOIN OF VEAL 
ii94~NECK OF VEAL 
1 195— SHORT LOIN OF VEAL 
1 196— CHUMP OF VEAL OR QUASI 
1 197— CUSHION OF VEAL (Relev^s) 

I have grouped these various Relev^s together owing to 
the identicalness of their garnishes. 

The directions I give below for cushion of veal are, with a 
very few exceptions which I shall point out, applicable to all 
other large veal joints. In the circumstances, therefore, it 
would be quite unnecessary to repeat the recipe in each case. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 399 

Loin of Veal is that piece which corresponds with the sirloin 
in beef. It extends from the floating ribs to the extreme end 
of the haunch, the latter being cut flush with the pelvic bone 
at its junction with the femur, and following the direction of 
the former bone. The loin thus consists of two distinct parts : — 
(i) the caudal region (called the chump end; Fr. quasi), which 
comprises the bones of the pelvis and the haunch, up to the 
level of the latter, and is one of the best pieces of veal for 
braising; and (2) the region extending from the haunch to the 
floating ribs, comprising the fillet and the upper fillet. This 
last portion also constitutes a choice joint, to which the kidneys 
are generally left attached, after all their superfluous fat has 
been removed. 

Neck or Best End of Veal consists of the first eight or nine 
ribs, cut two inches above the kernel of meat. The ends of the 
rib-bones are cleared of meat to a height of about two-thirds 
inch, and the naked bone is then called the " handle " of the 
cutlet, which ultimately holds the ornamental frill of paper. 

The vertebrae are then suppressed, so that the bones of the 
ribs alone remain ; the yellow ligament is cut away ; and the 
bared parts are covered with slices of bacon, tied on by means 
of string. 

Cushion of Veal consists of an enormous muscle, which 
represents almost half of the haunch and all the inside part of 
it, from the pelvis to its junction with the tibia. A certain 
quantity of white fat will always be found to lie over the cushion, 
and it should be carefully reserved. 

If the cushion is to be larded, a procedure which I do not 
advise, it should be done on the bared part adjoining the fat- 
covered region. 

The various pieces of veal enumerated above may be roasted, 
but, as in the case of the saddle, I prefer braising, owing to 
the greater succulence of the dish resulting from this process, 
and its accompanying gravy, which has an incomparable 
flavour. (See Braising of White Meats, No. 248.) 

1 198— ADJUNCTS TO CUSHION OF VEAL 

Cushion of veal, like the other large pieces of veal, admits 
of an almost unlimited number of vegetable garnishes, simple 
or compound, as also garnishes of various pastes. 

From among these garnishes the following may be quoted, 
viz. : — Bouqueti^re, Bourgeoise, Chartreuse, Choisy, Chicor^e, 
Cardoons, Clamart, Braised Celery, Japanese Artichokes, 
Chow-chow, Endives, Spinach, Braised Lettuce, k la Vichy, 
k la Nemours, &c. ; Jardiniere, Mac^doine, Renaissance, &c. 



400 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Among the paste garnishes : — Noodles, Macaroni, Spa- 
ghetti, variously prepared ; various Gnocchi, &c. 

And, in addition to all these, the garnishes already given 
under Beef Releves, which need not be repeated here. 

I shall, therefore, give only three recipes which are proper 
to cushion of veal ; though even these should be regarded as 
mere curiosities, seeing that, far from recommending them, I 
consider them rather as gastronomical mistakes. But some 
provision must be made for outlandish tastes, and, for this 
reason alone, I include the following recipes. 

II99— NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE 

Braise the cushion of veal, keeping it somewhat firm. This 
done, set it on a dish, and let it almost cool. 

Then cut a slice from it laterally, at a point one-third inch 
of its height from the top ; and, within one-half inch of its 
edges, make a circular incision, pressing the point of a sharp 
knife into the meat, and withdraw the centre of the cushion. 
Take care to leave the same thickness of meat on the sides as 
on the bottom, that is to say, about one-half inch. The cushion 
of veal, thus emptied, should have the appearance of a round 
or oval case. 

If the meat withdraAvn from the centre of the cushion is to 
serve for the garnish, or is to be used sliced to surround the 
case, cut it from out the whole in the largest possible pieces, in 
order that slices may easily be cut therefrom. 

The inside of the emptied cushion of veal is then garnished 
according to fancy; the top of the piece that was cut off at the 
start is returned to its place, with the view of giving the piece 
an untouched appearance, and the whole is put in the oven for 
a few minutes that it may be hot for serving. 

The braising-liquor, cleared of grease and strained, should 
be sent to the table separately. 

I200— NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE A LA MACEDOINE 

Braise the cushion of veal, and hollow it out as explained 
above. 

Meanwhile (i) prepare a Macedoine garnish, or mixed Jar- 
diniere (cohered with butter or cream), the quantity of which 
should be in proportion to the size of the case; (2) cut the 
meat, withdrawn from the centre of the cushion, into thin 
rectangles. 

Garnish the bottom of the case with a layer of Macedoine, 
and set thereon a litter consisting of the rectangles of meat. 
Cover with Macedoine; set thereon another litter of the pieces 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 401 

of meat, and renew the operation until the case is filled. Finish 
up with a layer of MacSdoine. 

Replace the slice cut from the cushion at the start ; put the 
case in the oven for a few minutes ; serve, and send the braising- 
liquor separately. 

I20I- NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE A LA PITHIVIERS 

Braise the cushion of veal, and prepare the case as directed 
above. 

Stuff fifteen larks without boning them; that is to say, put 
a lump of stuffing about the size of a hazel-nut into each. Fry 
them in butter with one-half lb. of mushrooms and three oz. 
of truffles, each of which vegetables should be raw and minced. 
Cohere the whole with the necessary quantity of half-glaze sauce, 
flavoured with game essence; put this garnish in the case; 
return the sliced piece to its place; seal the cover to the case 
by means of a thread of almost liquid forcemeat, and set in the 
oven for seven or eight minutes. 

When taking the case out of the oven, surround with the 
withdrawn meat, which should have been cut into thin slices 
and kept warm until required for the dressing. 

The larks may be replaced by quails or thrushes, or other 
small birds, but the name of the particular bird used must be 
referred to in the title of the dish. 

1202— NOIX DE VEAU A LA TOULOUSAINE 

Braise the cushion and cut it to the shape of a case as 
explained above. Pour therein a garnish consisting of quenelles 
of chicken forcemeat; lamb sweetbreads, or collops of veal 
sweetbreads, braised without colouration ; cocks' combs ; small 
mushrooms, cooked and very white; and slices of truffle; the 
whole to be cohered by means of an Allemande sauce, flavoured 
with mushroom essence. 

Return the piece sliced off at the start to its place, and sur- 
round with slices of the meat withdrawn from the inside of 
the cushion. 

N.B, — All the garnishes suited to Vol-au-vent and timbales 
may be served with cushion-of-veal case, which latter thus 
stands in the stead of the Vol-au-vent and Timbale crusts. 

Finally, I must ask the reader to bear in mind that methods 
like those described above have no place in really good cookery, 
the ruling principle of which should, always be simplicity. 

1203— NOIX DE VEAU FROIDE A LA CAUCASIENNE 

Cut a cold cushion of veal into slices two inches long by 
one-half inch wide by one-sixth inch thick, 

D D 



402 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

On each slice spread a little butter seasoned with salt and 
pepper, combined with finely-chopped chives and anchovy fillets 
cut into dice. 

Couple the slices together as for sandwiches ; round off their 
angles and put them under slight pressure. Prepare a pur^e 
of tomatoes with jelly; mould it in a dome- or Bombe-mould, 
and let it set on ice. 

When this moulding of tomatoes is quite firm, turn it out 
in the middle of a round, cold dish ; arrange the meat slices all 
round, and border the dish with cubes of very clear veal jelly. 

1204— NOIX DE VEAU FROIDE A LA SUEDOISE 

(i) From the widest part of a cold cushion of veal, cut a 
lateral slice one and one-third inch thick, and trim it nicely 
round. 

(2) Let a coating of aspic jelly set on the bottom of a round 
dish, and upon this jelly, when it is quite firm, lay the slice 
of veal. 

(3) Cut what remains of the piece of veal into slices two 
inches long, by one and one-half inch broad, by one-eighth inch 
thick. Prepare the same number of rectangles of salted tongue, 
of the same size, though slightly thinner than those of veal. 

(4) Cohere a nice vegetable salad with cleared mayonnaise; 
mould it in an oiled, Bombe-shaped or narrow pyramid mould, 
and put it on ice to set. 

Coat the rectangles of veal with horse-radish butter; place 
a rectangle of tongue on each, and finish off these sandwiches 
by rounding their corners. 

For Dishing. — By means of a piping-bag fitted with a 
grooved pipe, garnish the edges of the slice of veal with a 
thread of previously softened butter. 

Turn out the vegetable salad in the centre of the piece of 
meat ; set on it the heart of a small lettuce (nicely opened), and 
arrange the veal and tongue sandwiches all round. 

Serve a cold sauce, derived from the mayonnaise, separately. 

120S— LONQES, CARRES ET NOIX DE VEAU FROIDS 

What was said in respect of cold saddle of veal likewise 
applies to the different pieces mentioned in the above title. 
They may be coated with aspic jelly and dished with Mace- 
doines of vegetables, cohered with jelly; small salads, cohered 
with cleared mayonnaise; garnished artichoke-bottoms, &c. 

The dishes should always be bordered with cubes of very 
clear jelly. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 403 

1206— FRICANDEAU (Relev6) 

Fricandeau is a lateral cut from the cushion of veal ; that is 
to say, a piece cut with the grain of the meat. It should not be 
thicker than one and one-half inches. 

After beating it with a beater or the flat of a chopper, to 
break the fibres of the meat, finely lard the piece of meat on the 
cut side with strips of bacon, somewhat smaller than those used 
for fillet of beef. Only when the piece is larded may it be 
called " Fricandeau "; for, when not treated thus, it is nothing 
else than an ordinary piece of veal. Fricandeau is invariably 
braised ; but it differs from other braisings of white meat in this, 
namely, that it must be so cooked as to be easily cut with a 
spoon. Connoisseurs maintain that Fricandeau should never 
be touched with a knife. 

It is glazed at the last moment, like other braisings, and, 
in view of its prolonged cooking, should be dished with great 
care. 

All the garnishes enumerated for cushion of veal may be 
adapted to Fricandeau. 

1207— FRICANDEAU FROID 

Cold fricandeau constitutes an excellent luncheon dish. It 
is dished and surrounded with its braising-liquor, cleared of 
grease and strained. This braising-liquor sets to a jelly, and 
is the finest adjunct to fricandeau that could be found. 

The piece may be glazed with half-melted jelly, smeared 
over it by means of a brush. 

1208— POITRINE DE VEAU FARCIE 

This is really a family dish, admirably suited for a luncheon 
relev^. It is accompanied chiefly by vegetable purees, but all 
the vegetable and other garnishes given under Cushion of Veal 
may be served with it. 

Breast of veal is prepared thus : — After having boned the 
piece, open it where it is thickest, without touching the ends. 
A kind of pocket is thus obtained, into which put the previously- 
prepared stuffing, taking care to spread it very evenly. 

Now, with coarse cotton, sew up the opening, and remember 
to withdraw the cotton when the piece is cooked. 

Stuffing for Breast of Veal. — For a piece weighing four 
lbs., add to one lb. of very fine sausage-meat (No. 196), two 
oz. of dry duxelles, two oz. of butter, a pinch of chopped 
parsley, tarragon and chives, a small beaten egg, and a little 
salt and pepper. 

Cooking. — Breast of veal is usually braised ; the moistening 

D D 2 



404 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

should be short and the cooking process gentle. For a piece 
weighing four lbs. when stuffed, allow three hours in a moderate 
and regular oven. Glaze breast of veal at the last moment, as 
in the case of other braised meats. 

1209— T^TE DE VEAU (Relev6 and Entree) 

Nowadays, calf's head is rarely served whole, as was the 
custom formerly. Still more rarely, however, is it served at 
a dinner of any importance ; and it has now, by almost general 
consent, been relegated to luncheon menus where, indeed, it 
has found its proper place. 

After having boned the head, soak it or hold it under a 
running tap, for a sufficiently long time to allow of its being 
entirely cleared of blood. Then, blanch it for a good half-hour; 
cool it in cold water ; drain it, and rub it with a piece of lemon 
to avoid its blackening. 

If it is to be cooked whole, as sometimes happens, wrap it in 
a napkin, that it maybe easily handled ; if not, cut it into pieces. 
In either case, plunge it immediately into a boiling blanc (No. 
167). 

With a view of keeping the calf's head from contact with 
the air, which would blacken it, cover it with a napkin, or 
cover the liquid with chopped suet. A layer of chopped suet 
is the best possible means of keeping the air from the calf's 
head. 

Whatever be the method of serving calf's head, it is the 
rule to send slices of tongue and collops of brain to the table 
with it. 

The tongue may be cooked simultaneously with the head, and 
the brain is poached as described under No. 1289. 

1210— TfeTE DE VEAU A L'ANGLAISE 

Calf's head d I'anglaise is cooked in a blanc, as explained 
above; but in halves and unboned. 

Dish it on a napkin with sprays of very green parsley and 
a piece of boiled bacon. 

Send a sauceboat of parsley sauce (No. 119a) to the table at 
the same time. 

1211— TETE DE VEAU A LA FINANClfeRE 

Cook the calf's head in a blanc as already directed. Sup- 
press portions of the meat, where the latter is thick, in such wise 
as to leave only a very little on the skin. 

Cut the pieces into squares of one, two or three in. side; 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 405 

put them in a timbale, and cover them with a financi^re garnish ; 
adding a few small slices of tongue and brain. 

1212— TETE DE VEAU A LA POULETTE 

Cook the calf's head in a blanc. 

Cut the pieces of the head into small slices, somewhat aslant, 
and toss them into a previously-prepared poulette sauce (No. 

lOl). 

Dish in a timbale, and spriniile with a pinch of chopped 
parsley. 

12 13— TETE DE VEAU EN TORTUE 

With a round cutter one, two, or three in. in diameter, cut 
up the pieces of calf's head, the meat of which must be entirely 
suppressed. For this preparation, only the skin of the head 
should be used. 

Put the pieces of head in a timbale or on a dish, and cover 
them with a Tortue garnish. 

Tortue garnish consists of : Small quenelles of veal force- 
meat with butter ; cock's combs and kidneys ; small mushrooms ; 
stoned, stuffed and poached olives; slices of truffle; gherkins 
cut to the shape of olives (these should only be put into the 
sauce at the last moment); and Tortue sauce. 

This garnish comprises, besides, among unsauced ingre- 
dients : Slices of tongue and calf's brain ; small, trussed cray- 
fish, cooked in court-bouillon ; fried eggs, the half of whose raw 
whites should be suppressed; and small croutons of bread- 
crumb, fried in butter at the last moment. 

1214— T6TE DE VEAU A LA VINAIGRETTE OU A L'HUILE 

Set the boiling pieces of calf's head on a napkin, lying on 
a dish. Surround them with slices of tongue, collops of brain, 
and sprigs of very green, curled-leaf parsley. 

Serve separately, on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, without mixing 
them, capers, chopped onion and parsley. 

Send to the table at the same time a sauceboat of vinai- 
grette or sauce k I'huile, prepared by mixing one part of 
vinegar, two parts of oil, and one part of the calf's-head 
cooking-liquor, together with the necessary salt and pepper. 

12 15— ESCALOPES DE VEAU 

Collops of veal may be cut from either the fillet or the 
saddle; but they are more often cut from the cushion. Their 
weight varies from three to four oz., and they should always 
be cleared of all connective tissue. They may be fashioned 
to the shape of ovals, or curve-based triangles, and they should 



4o6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

be more or less flattened, according to their use. Thus, when 
they are to be plainly tossed, to be afterwards served with a 
sauced garnish or with a sauce, they are simply beaten in order 
to break the fibres of the meat, without flattening the latter 
too much; but if, on the contrary, they are to be treated d 
I'anglaise, they should be beaten very thin with the moistened 
beater. 

In either case, they should be cooked somewhat quickly in 
clarified butter; for, if their cooking lag at all, their meat 
hardens. 

All the garnishes of veal cutlets, and a large number of 
those of the cushion, may be served with the collops. These 
garnishes may be set on the same dish with the collops when 
the latter are plainly tossed ; but, in the case of collops treated 
a I'anglaise, the garnish or sauce which accompanies them 
should be served separately, lest its moisture soften the crisp 
coating of the collops. 

1216— QRENADINS 

Grenadins are veal collops larded with rows of very thin 
bacon strips, and cut somewhat thicker than ordinary collops. 
They are really small fricandeaux, the braising of which is a 
comparatively lengthy operation ; for their cooking must be the 
same as that of the fricandeaux, and needs quite as much atten- 
tion. In order that the grenadins be not too dry, they should 
be frequently basted with their braising-liquor. 

When they are cooked, glaze them rapidly, and dish them 
with one of the garnishes given for the cushion of veal. 

12 17— QRENADINS FROIDS EN BELLEVUE 

This dish may be prepared in several more or less compli- 
cated ways ; here is a simple way : — 

Take as many shell-shaped hors-d'oeuvre dishes as there are 
grenadins. Let a thin coat of jelly set on the bottom of each, 
and set thereon a slight decoration composed of bits of carrot, 
turnip, peas, French beans in lozenge-form, &c. Put a gren- 
adin, larded side undermost (i.e., upside down) into each hors- 
d'oeuvre dish ; add enough melted aspic jelly to reach half-way 
up the thickness of the grenadin. 

When this jelly has set, lay on it, all round the grenadin, 
a border consisting of carrots, turnips, French beans and peas. 
Sprinkle these vegetables with a few drops of jelly, so as to 
fix them, and keep them from floating, and then fill up the 
hors-d'ceuvre dishes with jelly. 

When about to serve, dip the hors-d'oeuvre dishes into hot 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 407 

water; turn out the grenadins on a very cold dish, and arrange 
them on it to form a crown. 

Surround with a border of very clear, chopped aspic jelly. 

1218— RIS DE VEAU (Sweetbreads) 

Veal sweetbreads may be looked upon as one of the greatest 
delicacies in butchers' meats, and may be served at any dinner, 
however sumptuous. Select them very white, entirely free of 
blood stains, and leave them to soak in fresh water, which 
should be frequently changed, for as long as possible ; or, better 
still, place them under a running tap. 

To blanch them (an operation the purpose of which is to 
harden the surface) put them in a saucepan with enough cold 
water to cover them completely, and bring to the boil gently. 
Let them boil for ten minutes ; withdraw them and plunge them 
into a basin of fresh water. 

When the sweetbreads are cold, trim them ; that is to say, 
cut away all cartilaginous and connective tissue; lay them 
between two pieces of linen, and put them under a light weight 
for two hours. 

Now lard them with fine bacon, tongue or truffle, subject to 
the way in which they are to be served. They may also be 
studded with either tongue or truffles, or they may be left 
unlarded and unstudded, and plainly braised, just as they are. 

Certain it is, that neither studding nor larding enhances in 
any way whatsoever their quality or sightliness. 

Veal sweetbread consists of two parts, as unequal in quality 
as in shape. They are: the "kernel" or heart sweetbread, 
which is the round and most delicate part, and the " throat," 
or throat sweetbread, which is the elongated part, and not of 
such fine quality as the former. 

In a well-ordered dinner, heart sweetbreads only should be 
used, as far as possible. 

There are three ways of cooking sweetbreads, viz. : — Braising 
(No. 248), poaching (No. 249), and grilling (No. 259). In the 
following recipes, therefore, the reader will kindly refer to the 
directions given under one of the numbers just mentioned, 
according as to whether the dish is to be a braising, a poaching, 
or a grill. 

1219— ATTEREAUX DE RIS DE VEAU A LA VILLEROY 

Cut some veal sweetbreads (preferably the throat kind) into 
roundels one and one-third in. in diameter and one-third in. 
thick. Prepare an equal number of mushrooms and truffle 
roundels, somewhat thinner than those of sweetbread. 



4o8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Impale these roundels on little wooden skewers, the size of 
matches, and about four in. long; alternating the different 
products in so doing. Dip these skewers into a Villeroy sauce, 
and set them on a dish. When the sauce is quite cold, remove 
the attereaux; clear them of any superfluous sauce that may 
have fallen on to the dish; dip them in an anglaise (No. 174); 
roll them in very fine and fresh bread-crumbs, and turn them 
with the fingers, so as to shape them like small cylinders. 
Plunge them into plenty of hot fat eight minutes before serving; 
drain them on a piece of linen ; carefully withdraw the wooden 
skewers and put little silver ones in their place. Dish the 
attereaux on a folded napkin, with fried parsley in the centre; 
or set them upright in a circle, on a rice or semolina cushion 
lying on a dish, and put some very green, fried parsley in the 
middle. 

Serve a P^rigueux sauce separately. 

1320— CHARTREUSE DE RIS DE VEAU 

Prepare (i) one and one-quarter lbs. of fine forcemeat with 
cream (No. 194); (2) two poached, veal throat sweetbreads, cut 
into slices; (3) one-half lb. of cooked mushrooms, cut into 
large slices, and three oz. of sliced truffles; (4) a garnish of 
carrots and turnips, raised by means of a tube- or spoon-cutter, 
or cut into grooved roundels two-thirds inch in diameter; and 
peas and French beans. Each of these vegetables should be 
cooked in a way befitting its nature, and kept somewhat firm. 

Liberally butter a quart Charlotte-mould. Line its bottom 
and sides with the vegetables, arranged in alternate and vari- 
coloured rows, and spread thereon a layer of forcemeat, one- 
half inch thick. 

This done, set upon the layer of forcemeat just spread, 
another of slices of sweetbread, mushrooms, and truffles ; cover 
the whole with a coat of forcemeat; start the operation again 
with a litter of sweetbread, mushroom, and truffle slices, and 
proceed as before until the mould is filled. Finish with a layer 
of forcemeat. Cover with a round piece of buttered paper, and 
set to poach in a bain-marie and in the oven, for from forty-five 
to fifty minutes. 

When taking the chartreuse out of the bain-marie, let it 
stand for seven or eight minutes, that the ingredients inside 
may settle a little, and then turn it out in the middle of a 
round dish; place a large, cooked, grooved, and very white 
mushroom on the top of it, and encircle its base with a crown 
of small braised and well-trimmed half-lettuces. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 409 

Send to the table, separately, a sauceboat of Velout^ 
flavoured with mushroom essence. 

I22I— RIS DE VEAU BONNE MAMAN 

Cut the vegetables intended for the braising stock into a 
short and coarse julienne, and add thereto an equal quantity 
of similarly-cut celery. 

Braise the veal sweetbreads with this julienne, after the 
manner described under No. 248, and moisten with excellent 
veal stock. Take particular care of the vegetables, that they 
do not burn. 

When the sweetbreads are ready, glaze them and dish them 
in a shallow, round cocotte with the julienne of vegetables and 
the braising-liquor all round. 

Cover the cocotte, and serve it on a folded napkin. 

1222— CR^PINETTE DE RIS DE VEAU 

For this dish take either some white throat sweetbreads, 
or some remains of the latter, from which slices have already 
been cut. 

Chop up the throat sweetbreads or the remains, together 
with their weight of raw calf's udder. 

Season with one-half oz. of salt and a pinch of pepper; add 
five oz. of chopped truffles and two whole eggs per lb. of the 
mince-meat. Mix the whole well ; divide it up into portions 
weighing three oz., and wrap each portion in a piece of very 
soft pig's caul. 

Sprinkle with melted butter and bread-crumbs, and grill 
gently. 

Dish in the form of a crown, and serve a P^rigueux sauce 
at the same time. 

1223— RIS DE VEAU A LA CEVENOLE 

Braise the veal sweetbreads and glaze them at the last 
moment. 

Dish them with a heap of small glazed onions at either end, 
and serve, at the same time, a pur^e of chestnuts and a sauce- 
boat of thickened gravy. 

1224— RIS DE VEAU DEMIDOFF 

Lard the sweetbreads with bacon and truffles; braise them 
brown, and only half-cook them. Then place them in a shallow 
cocotte, and surround them with the following garnish : — Two 
oz. of carrots and the same weight of turnips, both cut into 
grooved crescents; an equal quantity of small onions, cut into 
large roundels, and some celery cut ^ay^anne-fashion. All 
these vegetables should be first stewed in butter. 



41 o GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Add the braising-liquor of the sweetbreads, and one oz. of 
minced truffles, and complete the cooking of the former. Clear 
of all grease and serve in the cocotte. 

1225— ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU B^RENQERE 

Braise the veal sweetbreads and cut each piece into four 
medium-sized slices. Trim each slice with an even, oval fancy- 
cutter ; and, by means of a piping-bag fitted with an even pipe, 
one-sixth inch in diameter, garnish the edge of each slice with 
a thick border of mousseline forcemeat, combined with chopped 
salted tongue. Set the slices on a tray, and put them in a 
moderate oven to poach the forcemeat. 

Now, by means of another piping-bag fitted with a grooved 
pipe, garnish the centre of the slices with a nice rosette of fine 
and very white Soubise pur^e; and, in the middle of each 
rosette, place a little ball of very black truffle. 

Set each slice on a thin, oval crouton of the same size as the 
former and fried in butter. Serve at the same time, in a sauce- 
boat, the braising-liquor of the sweetbreads, cleared of all 
grease, and a timbale of fresh peas. 

1226— ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU A LA FAVORITE 

Blanch the veal sweetbreads ; cool them under pressure, and 
cut them into slices. Season the latter and toss them in 
clarified butter. 

At the same time, toss an equal number of slices of foie gras 
of the same size as those of the sweetbread, after having 
seasoned and dredged them. 

Dish in a circle, alternating the foie gras and the sweet- 
bread slices ; put a crown of sliced truffle on the circle already 
arranged ; and, in the centre, pour a garnish of asparagus-heads 
cohered with butter. 

Send, separately, a Madeira sauce flavoured with truffle 
essence. 

1327— ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU GRAND DUC 

Blanch and cool the sweetbreads, and cut them into slices. 
Season the latter and cook them in butter without colouration. 
Dish them in the form of a crown, placing a large slice of 
truffle between each; coat with Mornay sauce, and glaze 
quickly. 

When taking the dish out of the oven, arrange a heap of 
asparagus-heads cohered with butter, in the middle of the dish, 
and serve instantly. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 411 

1228— ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU JUDIC 

Blanch and cool the sweetbreads, and cut them into slices. 

Prepare and poach a roll of chicken forcemeat, large enough 
to allow of slices being cut therefrom of the same size as those 
of the sweetbreads. 

Season, dredge, and toss the slices of sweetbread in butter, 
and dish them in the form of a crown, each on a roundel of the 
poached chicken forcemeat. 

On each slice place a very small, braised, and well-trimmed 
lettuce, a slice of truffle, and a cock's kidney. 

Send a sauceboat of thickened gravy separately. 

1229— ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU A LA MAR^CHALE 

Braise the veal sweetbreads, keeping them somewhat firm, 
and cut them into slices. 

Treat the latter a I'anglaise ; brown them in clarified butter, 
and dish them in a circle, placing a fine slice of truffle between 
each. 

In the middle of the dish arrange a fine heap of asparagus- 
heads cohered with butter. 

1230— RIS DE VEAU GRILLES 

After having blanched, cooked, and trimmed the sweet- 
breads, set them to get quite cold under pressure. Then cut 
them in two, laterally, at their thickest point; dip each piece 
into melted butter, and grill gently, basting frequently the while 
with melted butter. 

The sweetbreads may also be grilled whole, but the process 
is perforce a more lengthy one. 

123 1— RIS DE VEAU GRILLES CARMAQO 

Cook a brioche, without sugar, in a fluted mould, the aper- 
ture of which is a little larger than the veal sweetbreads. Care- 
fully remove the top of the brioche, following the direction of 
the fluting, and withdraw all the crumb from the inside. 

Fill this kind of croustade, two-thirds full, with a garnish 
consisting of peas, prepared " ^ la fran9aise," and carrots "k 
la Vichy," in equal quantities. 

Set the grilled veal sweetbreads on this garnish, and cover 
it with slices of grilled bacon. 

Dish on a napkin and serve at once. 

1232— RIS DE VEAU GRILLE QISMONDA 

Prepare a shallow croustade, without colouration, in an oval 
flawn ring of the same length as the veal sweetbread. Grill the 
veal sw^eetbread after the manner already described. 



412 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Garnish the bottom of the croustade with equal quantities of 
articholce-bottoms and mushrooms, minced raw, tossed in butter, 
and cohered with cream sauce. 

Set the grilled sweetbread on the garnish, and place the 
croustade on a folded napkin. 

Serve, separately, a slightly buttered meat-glaze. 

1233— RIS DE VEAU GRILLE JOCELYNE 

Cut some potatoes into roundels one and one-half inch thick 
and of the same size as the veal sweetbread. Stamp the roundels, 
close up to their edges, with a round, even cutter, and cook them 
in butter. Grill the sweetbread at the same time. 

When the potatoes are cooked, withdraw all their inside in 
such wise as to give them the appearance of cases, and fill them 
with Soubise prepared with curry. 

Dish them and set the grilled sweetbread upon them. On 
the sweetbread lay a small half-tomato and a green half- 
capsicum, both grilled. 

1234— RIS DE VEAU GRILLES SAINT=GERMAIN 

Blanch, prepare, and grill the veal sweetbreads as already 
explained. Set them on a long dish, and surround them with 
alternate heaps of small potatoes cooked in butter and of a 
nice golden colour, and carrots cut to the shape of elongated 
olives, cooked in consomm^ and glazed. 

Serve a B^arnaise sauce and a pur^e of fresh peas, separately. 

1235— RIS DE VEAU DES GOURMETS 

Braise the veal sweetbreads, and, as soon as they are ready, 
set them in a round, flat cocotte, just large enough to hold them. 
Cover them with raw truffles, cut into thick slices; strain the 
braising-liquor over the whole ; cover the cocotte, and seal the 
cover to the edges of the utensil by means of a thread of soft 
paste, made simply from a mixture of flour and water. 

The object of this last precaution is to prevent any escape 
whatsoever of steam, and to hold the aroma of the truffles 
within. 

Put the cocotte into a very hot oven for ten minutes ; set it 
on a dish, and serve it as it stands. The cover should be re- 
moved only when the dish reaches the table. 

1236— RIS DE VEAU AUX QUEUES D'^CREVISSES 

Stud the sweetbreads with truffle and braise them without 
colouration. Dish them, and, on either side, set a heap of cray- 
fishes' tails (in the proportion of four to each person), cohered 
with cream. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 413 

At either end place some crayfishes' carapaces (in the pro- 
portion of two to each sweetbread), garnished with chicken 
forcemeat combined with crayfish butter, and poached. 

Serve, separately, an Allemande sauce prepared with cray- 
fish butter. 

1237-RIS DE VEAU A LA R^QENCE 

Stud the sweetbreads with truffles, and braise them without 
colouration. 

Dish them ; pour their reduced braising-liquor round the 
dish, and surround them with a R^gence garnish, arranged in 
alternate heaps representing the constituents of the former, 
which are: quenelles of fine truffled chicken forcemeat; small 
grooved mushrooms; curled cocks' combs, and truffles cut to 
the shape of olives. Serve separately an Allemande sauce, 
flavoured with truffle essence. 

1238— RIS DE VEAU SOUS LA CENDRE 

Stud the veal sweetbreads with truffles and tongue, and 
three-parts braise them. 

Cut some slices of salted tongue of the same size as the 
sweetbreads, garnish them with slices of truffle, and set a sweet- 
bread on each. 

Cover each sweetbread with a layer of short paste (No. 
2358) ; set them on a tray ; gild ; flute ; make a small incision 
on the top of the paste to allow the escape of steam, and bake 
in a hot oven for thirty minutes. 

When withdrawing them from the oven, pour in some half- 
glaze sauce with Madeira, and dish them on a napkin. 

1239— RIS DE VEAU A LA TOULOUSAINE 

Stud the sweetbreads with truffles and braise them without 
colouration. 

Dish them with the Toulousaine garnish, arranged in heaps 
all round, and surround the latter with a thread of meat-glaze. 

Toulousaine garnish comprises small chicken-forcemeat 
quenelles ; cocks' combs and kidneys ; very white button-mush- 
room heads, and slices of truffle. 

Serve, separately, an Allemande flavoured with mushroom 
essence. 

1240— CROUSTADE DE RIS DE VEAU A LA FINANCIERE 

Prepare (i) the required number of small, fluted croustades, 
baked without colouration in rather large tartlet moulds. (2) 
The same number of slices of braised veal sweetbread as there 
are croustades, and of the same size. (3) A financi^re garnish, 
consisting of very small chicken-forcemeat quenelles; grooved 



414 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

button-mushrooms, and sliced cocks' combs and kidneys. The 
whole covered by half-glaze with Madeira, in the proportion of 
one tablespoonful per croustade. (5) As many fine slices of 
truffle as there are croustades. 

Put a tablespoonful of the garnish into each croustade; set 
thereon a slice of sweetbread; put a slice of truffle upon that, 
and dish the croustades on a folded napkin. 

1241— PATE CHAUD DE RIS DE VEAU 

Butter an ordinary round hot raised pie, or a Charlotte- 
niould. Take about one and one-half lbs. of short paste and 
roll it into gaieties, one-third inch thick; fold the paste over 
after having dredged it slightly; draw the two ends gently 
towards the centre, to form a kind of skullcap, which, when 
placed in the mould, immediately lines the latter. Avoid making 
folds in the paste while preparing the skullcap, for they would 
spoil the look of the patty when turned out. 

Press the paste on the bottom and sides of the mould, that 
the latter may impart its shape to its lining, and cut the pro- 
jecting paste to within half inch of the brim. Now coat the 
bottom and sides of the mould with a layer of chicken force- 
meat, of an even thickness of two-thirds of an inch. 

Pour into the centre of the mould a garnish composed of 
slices of poached veal sweetbread; sliced and cooked mush- 
rooms and sliced truffles; the whole covered with reduced and 
somewhat stiff Allemande sauce, flavoured with mushroom 
essence. 

Cover the garnish with a coating of forcemeat, and close 
the patty with a layer of paste, the edges of which should be 
moistened and sealed down all round the brim of the mould. 
Pinch the rim of paste inside and outside, and finish off with 
leaves of paste stamped out with a fancy-cutter, ribbed by means 
of the back of a knife, and laid upon the paste cover. Gild with 
beaten egg ; make a central slit for the escape of steam, and set 
to bake in a hot oven, for from forty-five to fifty minutes. 

When taking the patty out of the oven, turn it out and dish 
it on a napkin. 

1342— TIMBALE DE RIS DE VEAU 

Butter a timbale mould and decorate its sides with thin pieces 
of noodle paste, in the shape of lozenges, crescents, indented 
rings, discs and imitation-leaves. Excellent ornamental 
arrangements may be effected thus ; but the reader should bear 
in mind that the simplest are the best. 

Prepare a skullcap of paste as explained under No. 1241 ; 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 415 

slightly moisten the ornamental work in the mould, that it may- 
cling to the paste of the timbale, and line the latter with paste 
which should be well pressed in all directions, that it may take 
the shape of the mould. 

Then pierce the paste on the bottom, to prevent its blistering 
during the baking process; line the bottom and sides with 
buttered paper, and fill the timbale, three-quarters full, with 
split peas or lentils. 

Cover the latter with a round piece of paper, and close the 
timbale by means of a round layer of paste, which should be 
sealed down round the edges. Make and trim the crest of the 
timbale ; pinch it inside and out, and finish the cover, by means 
of applied imitation-leaves of paste, superposed to form a kind 
of dome. 

Set in a moderate oven, and when the timbale is baked, 
remove its cover with the view of withdrawing the lentils or 
peas and the paper, the sole object of which was to provide 
a support for the cover. Besmear the inside of the timbale with 
a brush dipped in the beaten white of an egg; keep it for a 
minute or two in front of the oven, with the view of drying 
it inside; turn it out, and spread upon its bottom and sides a 
very thin coat of chicken or ordinary forcemeat, the purpose 
of which is to shield the crust from the softening effects of the 
juices of the garnish. 

Put the timbale in the front of the oven for a moment or 
two, that this coating of forcemeat may poach. 

Garnish. — Veal sweetbreads, braised without colouration 
and cut into collops; small mushrooms; cocks' combs and 
kidneys; small quenelles of chicken, mousseline forcemeat, or 
roundels of chicken forcemeat rolls one-third inch thick, trimmed 
with the fancy-cutter ; and slices of truffles, half of which should 
be kept for the purposes of decoration. 

Cover this garnish with Allemande sauce, prepared with 
mushroom essence. Pour it into the timbale, just before 
serving ; upon it set the reserved slices of truffle, in the form of 
a crown; replace the cover; dish upon a folded napkin, and 
serve. 

N.B. (i) As already stated the garnish of the timbale may be 
cohered with a half-glaze sauce, flavoured with Madeira or 
truffle essence. 

(2) In this garnish, whether it be cohered by means of a 
white or brown sauce, the slices of veal sweetbreads are always 
the principal ingredient ; but, subject to the circumstances, the 
other details may be altered or modified. 



41 6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1243— VOL AU VENT DE RIS DE VEAU 

Vol au vent, which formerly held the place of honour on 
bourgeois menus, has now fallen somewhat into the back- 
ground ; nevertheless, I wished it to appear among the recipes 
in this work. 

The preparation of the paste : Make the vol au vent crust 
as explained under No. 2390. 

Garnish. — Prepare it exactly as explained under " Timbale 
de ris de Veau." This garnish may also be cohered with a 
brown sauce, and its minor ingredients may be modified; but 
the slices of veal sweetbread must always stand as the domin- 
ating element. 

Whatever be the selected kind of garnish, vol au vent should 
always be accompanied by medium-sized, trussed crayfish, 
cooked in court-bouillon. 

Dishing. — Set the vol au vent crust upon a dish covered with 
a napkin; pour the garnish into it; decorate with slices of 
truffle; arrange the crayfish round the edge, and lay the cover 
upon the crayfish. 

1244— RIS DE VEAU A LA RICHELIEU 

Braise the veal sweetbreads exactly as described under " Ris 
de Veau Bonne Maman," taking care to keep the braising- 
liquor sufficiently plentiful to well cover the sweetbreads in the 
cocotte. 

When the sweetbreads are in the cocotte, together with the 
julienne of vegetables and a julienne of truffles, strain the 
braising-liquor over the whole; leave to cool well, and, when 
the liquid has turned to a jelly, remove the grease that has 
risen to the surface. 

Dish the cocotte on a napkin. 

1245— RIS DE VEAU A LA SUEDOISE 

Poach the veal sweetbreads without colouration, and, when 
they are quite cold, cut them into thin and regular collops. 
Spread some horse-radish butter over the latter, and cover with 
a slice of tongue of the same size as the underlying collop. 

Bake a crust without colouration in a flawn ring, of a size 
in proportion to the number of slices, and garnish it with a 
vegetable salad cohered with mayonnaise. This crust must 
necessarily be made in advance. 

Upon the salad now set the collops, either in the form of a 
crown or in that of a small turban ; in the middle place a fineT 
lettuce heart, the leaves of which should be slightly opened out. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 417 

1246— PALETS DE RIS DE VEAU A L'ECARLATE 

Poach the sweetbreads; when they are cold, cut them into 
collops half-an-inch thick, and trim them with a round, even 
cutter. Stamp out some roundels of salted tongue with the 
same cutter, but let them be only one-eighth inch thick, and 
twice as many as the collops of veal sweetbread. 

Coat the latter, on either side, with butter prepared with 
mustard ; and cover with a roundel of tongue. 

Set the prepared collops on a tray; let the butter harden, 
coat with jelly, and deck the middle of each quoit with a fine 
slice of truffle. 

Arrange the quoits in a circle on a round dish ; put some 
chopped jelly in the centre, and border the dish with very 
regularly-cut jelly dice. 

Serve a horse-radish sauce and an Italian salad separately. 

Calf's Liver. 

Calf's liver is served chiefly as a breakfast or luncheon 
entree. 

Nevertheless, in ordinary menus, it is sometimes served as 
a relev^, braised and whole. 

1247— FOIE DE VEAU BRAISE A LA BOURQEOISE 

Lard the piece with large, seasoned strips of bacon, as for 
" Boeuf k la Mode." Brown it slightly in the oven, and then 
put it into a saucepan garnished for braising. (No. 247.) 

Moisten with one pint of white wine, and reduce it com- 
pletely. This done, moisten again with brown stock, adding 
one pint of Espagnole sauce per quart of the moistening. 

It is sufficient if the moistening and the sauce reach a little 
above the middle of the piece of liver. 

When the cooking is two-thirds completed, transfer the liver 
to another saucepan ; surround it with carrots, shaped like elon- 
gated olives and half-cooked in consomme; and some small 
onions, half-cooked in butter. 

The amount of this garnish of carrots and onions should 
naturally be in proportion to the size of the piece of liver. 

Strain the sauce over the whole, and complete the cooking 
gently in the oven. Dish the liver with the carrots and onions 
all round; reduce the sauce if necessary, and pour it over the 
garnish. 

N.B. The latter need not be arranged symmetrically. 

On the contrary simplicity should be made a feature of these 

bourgeois dishes. 

E E 



41 8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1248— FOIE DE VEAU A L'ANQLAISE 

Cut the calf's liver into fairly thin slices, from two-and-a-half 
oz. to three oz. in weight. Season them with salt and pepper; 
dredge them, and toss them in butter. Grill an equal number 
of rashers of bacon. 

Dish the slices of liver and the rashers of bacon alternately, 
and sprinkle them with the butter in which the liver was cooked, 
or with a brown butter. 

1249— BROCHETTES DE FOIE DE VEAU 

Select a pale piece of calf's liver and cut it into square pieces 
two-thirds of an inch thick. Season with salt and pepper, and 
toss the pieces in butter, just to stiffen them. 

Put them into a basin with an equal quantity of blanched 
salted breast of pork, cut into squares, and of slices of cooked 
mushrooms. Add a few tablespoonfuls of stiff Duxelles sauce, 
and toss the whole together, that each particle of the various in- 
gredients may become coated with Duxelles. 

This done, impale the squares of liver and pork and the 
slices of mushrooms upon a ringed skewer, alternating them 
in so doing; sprinkle copiously with fine raspings and melted 
butter, and set to grill gently. 

These brochettes are served, either on a maitre-d'hotel butter, 
or on a Duxelles, Fines Herbes, an Italian or other sauce. 

1250— FOIE DE VEAU A L'ESPAQNOLE 

Cut the calf's liver into slices weighing three and a half oz. ; 
season these with salt and pepper ; dredge them ; sprinkle them 
with oil, and grill them gently. 

Meanwhile, prepare: — (i) As many grilled half-tomatoes as 
there are pieces of liver ; (2) onions cut into thin roundels, sea- 
soned, dredged, and fried in oil ; (3) a proportionate quantity 
of fried parsley. 

Arrange the grilled slices of liver along the centre of an 
oval dish ; place a half-tomato upon each ; and, on one side, 
set the fried onions, on the other, the fried parsley. 

125 1 -FOIE DE VEAU SAUT6 AUX FINES HERBES 

Cut the calf's liver into slices, as above ; season these with 
salt and pepper; dredge them, and toss them in butter. 

Arrange the slices in a circle on a round dish ; and either 
pour the herb sauce over the slices, or serve it separately. 

1252— PAIN DE FOIE DE VEAU 

For a calf's liver loaf made in a quart mould : Cut one lb. of 
calf's liver into dice, and finely pound these together with one- 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 419 

third oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper, and a little nutmeg. Add, 
little by little, five oz. of very cold frangipane panada, and two 
eggs. 

Rub through a sieve; put the forcemeat in a bowl; work 
it over ice, and finish it with two tablespoonfuls of chopped 
onions, cooked in butter, without colouration ; the yolks of two 
eggs, and quarter pint of thick cream, added by degrees. 

Pour this forcemeat into a well-buttered quart Charlotte- 
mould; knock the latter gently on a folded serviette, with the 
view of settling its contents, and put it to poach in the oven 
in a bain-marie, for about forty-live minutes. 

When taking the loaf out of the oven, let it stand for five 
minutes, that the forcemeat inside may thoroughly settle; 
turn it out on a round dish, and cover it with a Duxelles, 
Italienne, Bordelaise, brown caper, or other sauce. 

1253— COTES DE VEAU 

Veal cutlets may either be grilled or sauted, but the second 
method of cooking them is, in most cases, preferable. 

When they are sauted, the cutlets should be cooked in clari- 
fied butter, over a somewhat fierce fire and in a utensil large 
enough to hold them without crowding. 

This done, dish them ; pour away the butter in which they 
have been cooked; swill the saucepan, i.e., dissolve the concen- 
trated gravy adhering to the sides and bottom of it with a liquid 
in keeping with the garnish ; either mushroom cooking-liquor, 
white or red wine, or Madeira, etc. ; and add this swilling- 
liquor, reduced, to the accompanying sauce. The latter is 
generally a buttered half-glaze, but the best adjunct to veal 
cutlets is a pale meat glaze, moderately buttered. 

All vegetable and paste garnishes, given under Cushion of 
Veal, suit veal cutlets. I must therefore beg the reader to 
refer to those recipes, as circumstances may dictate ; and restrict 
myself to a few formulae which, in my opinion, are suited more 
particularly to veal cutlets. 

1254— COTE DE VEAU A LA BONNE FEMME 

Put the veal cutlet into an earthenware saucepan, with one 
and one-half oz. of butter, and brown it well on both sides. Add 
six small onions cooked in butter, three oz. of potatoes cut 
into roundels; and complete the cooking gently in the oven, 
keeping the saucepan covered. 

Serve the preparation in the saucepan as it stands. 

E E 2 



420 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1255— COTE DE VEAU EN CASSEROLE 

Heat one oz. of butter in an earthenware saucepan; insert 
the veal cutlet, seasoned, and cook it gently, taking care to turn 
it over from time to time. 

At the last moment, add a tablespoonful of excellent veal 
gravy, and serve in the saucepan. 
1256— COTE DE VEAU EN COCOTTE A LA PAYSANNE 

Toss the veal cutlet in butter, in the cocotte, with two small 
slices of blanched salted breast of pork. Add four small onions, 
and two small, long potatoes, cut ^ay^anne-fashion ; and com- 
plete the cooking of the cutlets and the garnish very gently in 
the oven. 

Send the preparation to the table in the cocotte. 

1357— COTE DE VEAU A LA DREUX 

Stud the kernel of the veal cutlet with tongue, ham and 
truffle, and cook it gently in butter. This done, trim it to the 
quick on both sides, that the studding may be clean and neat ; 
dish it with a frill on the bare bone, and, beside it, arrange a 
small garnish of quenelles, mushrooms, cocks' combs and 
kidneys, and turned and blanched olives. 

Pour a little half-glaze sauce, flavoured with truffle essence, 
over the garnish. 
1258— c6TE DEiVEAU MILANAISE 

With a moistened butcher's beater, flatten the meat in such- 
wise as to reduce it to half its normal thickness. Dip the veal 
cutlet into beaten egg ; roll it in bread-crumbs, mixed with half 
as much grated Parmesan, and cook it in clarified butter, or 
butter and oil in equal quantities. 

Dish it with a frill on the bare bone, and the garnish beside 
it. 

Milanaise garnish consists of cooked macaroni, seasoned 
with salt, pepper and nutmeg, and cohered with butter, grated 
Gruy^re and Parmesan cheeses, and very red tomato pur^e ; and 
combined with a julienne of very lean cooked ham, salted 
tongue, mushrooms and truffles, heated in Madeira. 
1259— COTE DE VEAU PAPILLOTE 

Toss the veal cutlet in butter, and prepare, meanwhile : — 

(i) Two tablespoonfuls of Duxelles sauce, combined with 
a cooked and sliced mushroom. 

(2) Two heart-shaped slices of ham, of about the same size 
as the cutlet. 

(3) A doubled sheet of strong paper, cut to the shape of 
a heart and well-oiled. 



RELEVES AND ENTRIES 421 

Spread out the sheet of paper, and, in the middle thereof, 
lay a sHce of ham ; spread a tablespoonful of Duxelles on the 
latter ; put the cutlet on the sauce ; cover it with the remainder 
of the Duxelles, and finish with the other slice of ham. 

Fold the sheet of paper so as to enclose the whole; pleat 
the edges nicely; put the cutlet on a tray, and blow out the 
papillote in a fairly hot oven. When taking it out of the oven, 
transfer it to a dish, and serve instantly. 

1360— c6te de veau pojarski 

Completely separate the meat of the veal cutlet from the 
bone ; clear it of all skin and gristle, and chop it up with half its 
weight of butter, salt and pepper. Mass this mince-meat close 
up to the bone, shaping it like a cutlet, and cook the whole in 
clarified butter, turning it over very carefully in the process. 

Dish with a suitable garnish. 

1261— COTE DE VEAU ZINQARA 

Cook the veal cutlet in butter ; at the same time prepare a slice 
of raw ham, cut to the shape of the cutlet, and likewise tossed 
in butter. 

Dish the cutlet; set the slice of ham upon it, and surround 
with a few tablespoonfuls of Zingara sauce. 

Zingara sauce is prepared thus : Reduce a few tablespoonfuls 
of white wine and mushroom cooking-liquor to half. Add 
one-fifth pint of half-glaze, two tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, 
one tablespoonful of veal stock, one oz. of a julienne of tongue, 
mushrooms and truffles; and set to boil for a few seconds. 

1262— COTE DE VEAU FROIDE EN BELLE VUE 

Let a little jelly set in a utensil somewhat resembling a cutlet 
in shape. Trim the veal cutlet; decorate it with various little 
vegetables, and sprinkle the latter with half-melted jelly, so as 
to fix them. 

Put the cutlet on the layer of set jelly, inside the utensil, 
and let it lie with its decorated side undermost. 

Add enough jelly to cover the cutlet, and let the former 
set. 

This done, pass the blade of a small knife (dipped in hot 
water) round the cutlet; set the utensil for a moment upon a 
napkin dipped in hot water, turn out the cutlet with care, and. 
set it on a cold dish, with a border of chopped aspic, and a 
frill on the bone. 



422 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1263— COTE DE VEAU FROIDE RUBENS 

Trim the veal cutlet ; coat it with half-melted aspic, and cover 
it with young hop shoots, cohered with tomato sauce cleared by 
means of aspic. 

Let the sauce thoroughly set, and then put the cutlet between 
two layers of aspic as explained above. 

N.B. Cold veal cutlets may also be served Belle-vue 
fashion, after the very simple manner described under " Gren- 
adinsen Belle-vue " (No. 1217). 

1264— ROQNON DE VEAU 

When sauted after the usual manner, veal kidney admits of 
all the preparations given for sheep's kidney. (See the chapter 
on Mutton.) 

I shall now, therefore, only give those recipes which are 
proper to veal kidney. 

1265— ROQNON DE VEAU EN CASSEROLE 

Trim the veal kidney and only leave a very slight layer of 
fat all round it. 

Heat one oz. of butter in a small, earthenware saucepan, also 
called " cocotte "; put the seasoned kidney into the latter, and 
cook it gently for about thirty minutes, taking care to turn it 
often the while. 

At the last minute sprinkle it with a tablespoonful of good 
veal gravy. Serve it in the cocotte as it stands. 

1266— ROQNON DE VEAU EN COCOTTE 

Prepare the veal kidney and fry it in butter, as in the case of 
the "en casserole" dish. Surround it with one and one-half 
oz. of small pieces of blanched bacon, tossed in butter; one and 
one-half oz. of raw, quartered mushrooms, also tossed, and 
one and one-half oz. of small blanched potatoes, of the size 
and shape of garlic cloves, and the same quantity of small, 
glazed onions. Complete the cooking of the whole gently. 

At the last minute, add a tablespoonful of good, veal gravy, 
and serve the cocotte as it stands. 

1267— ROQNON DE VEAU QRILL^ 

Trim the veal kidney, and leave a slight layer of fat all round 
it. Cut it in half lengthwise, without completely separating the 
two halves, and impale it on a small skewer, with the view 
of keeping it in shape. 

Season with salt and pepper, and grill it gently ; basting it 
often the while with melted butter. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 423 

Send separately, either a Maitre-d'h6tel, a Bercy, or other 
butter suited to grills. 

1268-ROQNON DE VEAU A LA LIEGEOISE 

Prepare the veal kidney as for " en casserole." One minute 
before serving, add one small wineglassful of burned gin, two 
crushed juniper berries, and one tablespoonful of good veal 
gravy. Serve in the cooking-utensil. 

1269— ROQNON DE VEAU A LA MONTPENSIER 

Trim the veal kidney, leaving a slight coating of fat all round 
it, and cut into five or six slices. Season the latter, toss them 
in butter over a brisk fire, and transfer them to a plate. 

Swill the saucepan with one tablespoonful of Madeira, and 
add thereto three tablespoonfuls of melted meat glaze, a few 
drops of lemon juice, one and one-half oz. of butter, and a pinch 
of chopped parsley. 

Dish the pieces of kidney, or set them in a timbale; 
sprinkle them with the sauce, and in their midst set a heap 
of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, and one and one-half 
oz. of truffle slices. 

1270— ROQNON DE VEAU PORTUQAISE 

Cut up the veal kidney, and toss it in butter, after the manner 
described under No. 1269. 

Dish the pieces in a circle on a dish ; set a very small, stuffed 
half-tomato upon each, and garnish the centre of the dish with 
a very reduced tomato fondue. Surround the kidney with a 
sauce prepared as directed above. 

1271— ROQNON DE VEAU A LA ROBERT 

Heat one oz. of butter in a small cocotte; put the seasoned 
veal kidney therein ; fry it over a brisk fire, and set it to cook 
in the oven for about fifteen minutes. Serve the kidney as it 
leaves the oven, and complete the procedure, at the table, in 
the following manner : — 

Transfer the kidney to a hot plate. Place the cocotte on a 
spirit lamp; pou;r into the former one glassful of excellent 
liqueur brandy, and reduce to half. Meanwhile, quickly cut 
the kidney into extremely thin slices, and cover these with an 
overturned plate. 

Add to the reduced liqueur brandy one coffeespoonful of 
mustard, one oz. of butter cut into small pieces, the juice of a 
quarter of a lemon, and a pinch of chopped parsley; and work 
the whole well with a fork, with the view of effecting the leason. 

Put the sliced kidney into this sauce, together with the 



424 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

gravy that has drained from it; heat the whole well, without 
boiling, and serve on very hot plates. 

1272— TENDRONS DE VEAU 

The tendrons are cut from breast of veal. They are, in fact, 
the extreme ends of the ribs, including the cartilage of the 
sternum. 

If the tendrons are braised, treat them after the manner 
described under " The Braising of White Meats " (No. 248) ; or, 
simply stew them in butter; moisten them with excellent veal 
stock, and baste them frequently while cooking them. They 
may also be treated like an ordinary veal saute, from which they 
only differ in shape, and the various preparations of which may 
be adapted to them. 

The garnishes best suited to them are those of early-season 
vegetables, and, as a matter of fact, the latter, together with 
such pastes as noodles, macaroni, spaghetti, etc., are the gar- 
nishes most often served with them. 

1273— BLANQUETTE DE VEAU A L'ANCIENNE 

Cut the veal tendrons into pieces weighing about three oz. 
Then, slightly blanch them ; cool them, and put them into a 
saucepan with enough white stock to cover; add a very little 
salt; set to boil, and skim. 

For two lbs. of tendrons, add one small carrot; one fair- 
sized onion, stuck with a clove; a faggot, consisting of one 
leek, parsley stalks, and a fragment of thyme and bay ; and set 
to cook gently for one and one-half hours. 

Prepare a white roux from one and one-half oz. of butter 
and one and one-half oz. of flour; moisten with one pint of 
veal cooking-liquor; add one oz. of mushroom parings, and 
cook for a quarter of an hour, despumating the sauce the while. 

Transfer the pieces of tendron, one by one, to a saut^pan with 
twelve small onions cooked in consomm^, and fifteen small, 
cooked and very white mushrooms. Finish the sauce with a 
leason of two egg-yolks, mixed with three tablespoonfuls of 
cream and a few drops of lemon juice; strain it over the veal 
and its garnish ; heat without boiling ; dish in a timbale, and 
sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley. 

N.B. This blanquette may also be prepared with noodles 
or cepes, instead of with ordinary mushrooms. 

1274— BLANQUETTE DE VEAU AUX CI&LERIS, 
CARD0N5, ETC. 

Prepare the blanquette exactly as explained above, and set it 
to cook with the veal and the vegetable selected for the garnish, 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 425 

i.e., either small heads of celery cut into two or four, or car- 
doons, cut into pieces and well blanched. The endives are not 
blanched; they need only be well washed and put with the veal. 
When cooked, drain the vegetables, trim them, and dish 
them in a timbale with the veal and the sauce ; the latter pre- 
pared as directed and strained over the meat. 

1275— BLANQUETTE DE VEAU AUX NOUILLES 

Proceed as for " Blanquette k I'ancienne," but suppress the 
garnish of onions and mushrooms. 

When the blanquette is dished, set thereon heaps of noodles, 
parboiled and cohered with butter, and cover these with raw 
noodles tossed quickly in butter; allow three oz. of tossed 
noodles per lb. of those cohered. 

1276— FRICASSEE DE VEAU 

Fricassee differs from blanquette in this, namely, that the 
pieces of veal in the former are stiffened in butter without colour- 
ation. 

When the meat has been well stiffened, besprinkle it with 
about one oz. of flour per lb. ; cook this flour with the meat for 
a few minutes; then moisten the fricassee with white stock; 
season, and set to boil, stirring the while. All the garnishes 
of mushrooms and vegetables given for blanquette may be 
served with fricassee ; but in the case of the latter, both the meat 
and the garnish are cooked in the sauce, the leason of which 
is effected by means of egg-yolks and cream, as for blanquette. 

1277— FRICADELLES 

Fricadelles are a kind of meat balls, somewhat like those 
commonly prepared in private households. They are made 
from raw or cooked meat, in the following manner : — 

Fricadelles -with Raw Meat. — For ten fricadelles, each 
weighing three and one-half oz., chop up one lb. of very lean 
veal, cleared of all fat and gristle, together with two-thirds of a 
lb. of butter. Put the whole into a bowl, and add thereto 
five oz. of soaked and well-pressed crumb of bread, two eggs, 
half an oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper and a little nutmeg, and 
two oz. of chopped onion cooked in butter without colouration. 

Mix the whole well, and divide it up into portions weighing 
three and one-half oz. 

Fashion these portions to the shape of quoits, by first rolling 
them into balls on a flour-dusted board, and afterwards flattening 
them out with the flat of a knife. 

Heat some butter or very pure fat in a saut^pan ; put the 



426 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

fricadelles therein ; brown them on both sides, and then com- 
plete their cooking in the oven. 

This done, set them on a round dish, and serve them, either 
with a vegetable purte, a Piquante or a Robert sauce. 

Fricadelles with Cooked Meat. — For ten fricadelles, each 
weighing two and one-half oz., chop one lb. of cooked veal, 
fat and lean, somewhat finely. 

Put it into a bowl with a large pinch of salt, another of 
pepper, and a little nutmeg. Add the pulp of three fair-sized 
potatoes, baked in the oven ; three oz. of chopped onions, cooked 
in butter without colouration ; one large egg, and one table- 
spoonful of chopped parsley. Mix well ; divide up into portions 
of the weight already given, and shape and cook them as in 
the previous case. 

These fricadelles are served with vegetable pur(^es and the 
sauces suited to those prepared from raw meat. 

1278— PAUPIETTES DE VEAU 

Paupiettes or scrolls are made from extremely thin slices of 
veal, four in. long by two in. wide. After having seasoned them, 
cover them with forcemeat or very fine mincemeat; roll them, 
with their forcemeat-coat inside, into scrolls, and tie them 
round, once or twice, with string, that they may keep their 
shape while cooking. They are sometimes covered with thin 
rashers of bacon. Paupiettes are always braised, gently and 
protractedly. 

They are generally garnished with vegetable purees; but 
they may be served just as well with all vegetable garnishes. 

By making them half the usual size, they may, after having 
been braised, serve as the garnish for a timbale, together with 
noodles, gniokis, spaghetti, or with Financifere, Milanaise or 
Napolitaine garnish, etc. 

1279— SAUTES DE VEAU 

The pieces best suited to veal sautes are : the breast and the 
shoulder, as also those parts of the haunch other than the 
cushion and undercushion. 

1280— SAUTE DE VEAU A LA MARENGO 

Heat one pint of oil in a saut^pan, until it smokes. Put 
therein two lbs. of veal, cut into pieces, each weighing two oz., 
and fry until the latter are well set. Add a chopped half onion 
and a crushed half-clove of garlic, and fry again for a few 
moments. 

Drain away the oil, tilting the saut^pan with its lid on, for 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 427 

the purpose; moisten with a quarter of a pint of white wine; 
reduce, and add two-thirds of a quart of thin Espagnole sauce, 
one and one-half lbs. of tomatoes, pressed and cut into pieces 
(or one pint of tomato sauce), and a faggot. 

Set to boil, and cook in the oven gently for one and one-half 
hours. 

At the end of that time, transfer the pieces of veal, one by 
one, to another saucepan with fifteen small glazed onions, and 
five oz. of mushrooms. Reduce the sauce; strain it over the 
veal and its garnish, add two large pinches of concussed parsley, 
and cook for a further quarter of an hour. 

When about to serve, clear of all grease, dish in a timbale, 
and surround with small heart-shaped croutons of bread-crumb, 
fried in oil. 

1281— SAUT6 DE VEAU CHASSEUR 

Cut the veal into pieces as above, and fry these well in 
butter or oil. 

Drain away the grease; moisten with one quart of brown 
stock, add two tablespoonfuls of tomato pur^e, and a faggot; 
set to boil, and cook in the oven gently for one and one-half 
hours. 

Transfer the pieces to another saucepan ; strain ; reduce their 
cooking-liquor by a quarter, and add it to one-quarter of a pint 
of Chasseur sauce (No. 3;^). 

Pour this sauce over the pieces of veal, and cook again 
for a quarter of an hour. Dish in a timbale, and sprinkle with 
chopped parsley. 

1282— SAUT6 DE VEAU PRINTANIER 

Fry the pieces of veal in butter. Moisten with two-thirds of 
a quart of brown stock and one-fifth of a pint of half-glaze ; add 
a faggot; boil, and cook in the oven gently for one hour. 

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan ; add 
thereto a garnish of carrots, new turnips, and small, new pota- 
toes ; strain the sauce over the veal and the garnish, and cook 
for a further three-quarters of an hour. 

Dish in a timbale and distribute over the saute a few table- 
spoonfuls of peas and French beans in lozenge-form, both 
cooked a I'anglaise. 

1283— SAUTjg DE VEAU A LA CATALANE 

Cut up, saute, and cook the veal gently for one and one-half 
hours, as for No. 1280. 

Transfer the pieces of veal to another saucepan, and add 



428 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

to them three small peeled and pressed tomatoes, quartered 
and tossed in butter; ten small onions cooked in butter; six oz. 
of raw, quartered mushrooms ; ten chestnuts, three-parts cooked 
in consomm6, and eight Chipolata sausages. 

Reduce the sauce to one-third of a pint; strain it over the 
veal and its garnish; cook for a further quarter of an hour, 
and dish in a timbale. 

1284— SAUTES DE VEAU DIVERS 

Veal saute may also be prepared with mushrooms, fines 
herbes, egg-plant, tomatoes, or " Currie k I'lndienne," etc. 

1285— PAIN DE VEAU 

Prepare " Pain de Veau " exactly as directed under No. 
1252 ; but substitute for the liver some very white veal. 

Pain de veau is generally accompanied by a white sauce, 
such as velout^ prepared with mushroom essence, Allemande 
sauce prepared with mushrooms, Supreme sauce, etc. 

1286— CALF'S FEET 

Calf's feet serve chiefly in supplying the gelatinous element 
of aspics, and the body of braising stock. They are rarely 
used in the preparation of a special dish ; but, should they be 
so used, they may be cooked and served after the manner 
directed in the recipes treating of calf's head. 

1287— CALVES' TONGUES 

Provided the difference of size be allowed for, calf's tongue 
may be prepared like ox tongue, and served with the same 
garnishes. (See Ox Tongue, Nos. 1153 to 1158 inclusive.) 

1288— CALF'S BRAINS AND AMOURETTES 

Calf's brains form the most wholesome and reparative diet 
for all those who are debilitated by excessive head-work ; and 
the same remark applies to the brains of the ox and the sheep. 

The amourettes mentioned here, which almost always 
accompany ox brains, are only the spinal marrow of the ox or 
the calf. This may be used in the preparation of a few special 
dishes ; but all the recipes dealing with brains may be applied 
to it. 

1289— THE COOKINQ OF BRAINS 

Carefully remove the membrane enveloping the brains or the 
amourettes, and put them to soak in fresh water, until they are 
quite white. Put the brains in a saucepan with enough boiling 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 429 

court-bouillon (No. 163) to cover them well ; skim and then set 
to cook gently. 

Brains have this peculiarity, namely, that prolonged 
cooking only stiffens them; thus, calf's brains only take half 
an hour to cook; but they may cook for two hours more without 
harm, seeing that the process only tends to make them firmer. 

1290— CERVELLE A LA BEAUMONT 

Cut the brains into slices; on each slice put a layer of gratin 
force-meat (No. 202) prepared from foie gras and softened by 
means of a little cold, brown sauce, and a slice of truffle. Re- 
construct the brains by putting the coated slices together again. 

Roll some puff-paste remains into a galette one-fifth of an 
inch thick, the diameter of which should be in proportion to 
the size of the brains under treatment. Put the brains in the 
middle of the galette, and cover them with the same forcemeat 
as that laid on the slices ; sprinkle with chopped truffles ; moisten 
the edges of the paste, and draw these over the brains so as to 
enclose the latter completely. 

Gild; make a slit in the top for the escape of steam, and 
bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. After taking the 
pie out of the oven, pour a few tablespoonfuls of P^rigueux 
sauce into the former, and dish on a napkin. 

1 29 1— CERVELLE AU BEURRE NOIR 

Slice the brains; set the slices on a dish, and season them 
with salt and pepper. 

Cook two oz. of butter in the frying-pan until it is slightly 
blackened; throw therein a pinch of parsley pluches, and 
sprinkle the brains with this butter. Pour a few drops of 
vinegar into the burning frying-pan, and add it to the brains. 

1292— CERVELLE AU BEURRE NOISETTE 

Slice and season the brains as above. Cook the butter until 
it has acquired a golden colour and exhales a nutty smell ; pour 
it over the brains, and finish with a few drops of lemon juice 
and a pinch of chopped parsley. 

1293— CERVELLE A LA MARECHALE 

Cut the brains into regular slices, one-third of an inch thick ; 
treat them a I'anglaise with very fine bread-crumbs, and brown 
them in clarified butter. 

Dish them in the form of a circle, with a slice of truffle on 
each, and garnish the centre of the dish with a fine heap of 
asparagus-heads cohered with butter. 



430 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1294— CERVELLE A LA POULETTE 

Prepare half a pint of poulette sauce (No. loi), combined 
with three oz. of small, cooked, and very white mushrooms. 

Add the brains, cut into slices ; toss them gently in the sauce, 
taking care lest they break; dish them in a timbale, and 
sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley. 

1295— CERVELLE A LA VILLEROY 

Cut the raw brains into slices; season them, and poach them 
in butter. 

Dip the slices into an almost cold Villeroy sauce, in suchwise 
as to cover them with a thick coating of it. Leave to cool, and 
treat them a I'anglaise. Set to cook for a few minutes before 
serving, and dish on a napkin with fried parsley. 

Serve a light Pdrigueux sauce separately. 

1296— VOL AU VENT DE CERVELLE 

Prepare a vol-au-vent crust, as explained under No. 2390. 
Slice the brains, and put the slices into half-a-pint of Allemande 
sauce, with twelve quenelles of ordinary forcemeat, poached just 
before dishing up ; four oz. of small, cooked mushrooms, and 
one oz. of truffle slices, five or six of which should be reserved. 

Pour the garnish into the vol au vent ; set upon the latter the 
reserved slices of truffle, and dish on a folded napkin. 

1297— AMOURETTES A LA TOSCA 

Poach one lb. of aviourettes, as explained above, and cut 
them into lengths of one in. 

Prepare a garnish of macaroni cohered with butter and grated 
Parmesan, and add thereto four tablespoonfuls of a crayfish 
cullis per four oz. of macaroni; three crayfishes' tails for each 
person, and two-thirds of the pieces of amourettes. Toss well, 
in order to thoroughly mix the whole; dish in a timbale; cover 
the macaroni with what remains of the pieces of amourettes, and 
cover them slightly with crayfish cullis. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 431 



MUTTON, GRASS LAMB AND HOUSE LAMB 

Releves and Entrees. 

From the culinary standpoint, the ovine species supplies 
three kinds of meat, viz : — 

Mutton — properly so-called when the meat is derived from 
the adult animal. 

Lamb — the young, weaned sheep, not yet fully grown, the 
meat of which is the more highly esteemed the younger the 
animal is. 

House Lamb — the sheep's unweaned young that has not yet 
grazed. 

The " Pauillac " Iamb, which is imported from France, is 
the most excellent example of the last kind. Good house lambs 
are also killed in England ; they are quite equal to Pauillac 
lamb, but their season is short. As regards ordinary English 
mutton and lamb, however, the delicacy and quality of these 
meats are unrivalled. 

But for its greater delicacy and tenderness, grass lamb, 
which corresponds v.'ith what the French call " agneau de pr6- 
sal^ " is scarcely distinguishable from mutton. The recipes 
suited to it are the same as those given for mutton ; and all that 
is necessary is to allow for differences of quality in calculating 
the time of cooking. 

House lamb, the white flesh of which is quite different, 
admits of some of the mutton recipes; but it is generally pre- 
pared after special formulfe, the details of which I shall give 
hereafter. 

When served roasted, hot or cold, mutton and grass and 
house lamb are always accompanied by mint sauce, the recipe 
for which I gave under No. 136. 

In view of the similarity of their preparations, and in order 
to avoid finicking repetitions, I have refrained from giving sepa- 
rate recipes for lamb and mutton respectively. The reader will 
therefore bear in mind that the formute relating to mutton also 
apply to grass lamb. 



432 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1298— SADDLE OF MUTTON 

1299— BARON OR PAIR OF HIND=QUARTERS OF MUTTON 

1300— DOUBLE OR PAIR OF LEGS OF MUTTON 

130 1— FILLETS OF MUTTON 

1302— NECK OF MUTTON (Relev6s) 

Saddle of mutton is that part of the sheep which reaches from 
the bone of the haunch to the floating ribs. 

Baron of mutton comprises the saddle and the two legs, i.e., 
a pair of hind-quarters. 

Double consists of the two unseparated legs, minus the 
saddle. 

The Baron and the Double are almost always cuts of lamb. 

The fillet is one half of the saddle, when the latter is cut 
into two, lengthwise ; that is to say, divided down the middle in 
suchwise as to bisect the spinal column. These fillets are some- 
times boned, rolled over with the kernel of meat in the centre, 
and strung, in which case the skin should be removed before 
rolling. Saddle of mutton, before being roasted, should be 
cleared of all its superfluous underlying fat; and the flanks 
should be so shortened as to just meet when drawn over the 
fillets. The overlying skin should be removed, and the saddle 
should be strung in five or six places to keep it in shape. 

In the case of a saddle of lamb, the skin need not be com- 
pletely removed, but slit in various places. As to neck of 
mutton, this should be shortened as for the cutting of ordinary 
cutlets ; the skin and the bones of the chine should be removed, 
as also the meat at the end of the rib-bones^ down to two-thirds 
in. from the extremity of each. The cushion is then covered 
with slices of bacon, tied on with string. 

When the piece is roasted and dished, a frill should be 
placed on the end of each bared bone. Neck of mutton ought 
never to comprise more than nine to ten ribs, counting from the 
floating ones; it should consist of rather less if anything. 

Mutton Relev^s allow more particularly of vegetable and rice 
garnishes. 

Garnishes with sauces do not suit them so well, even when 
the pieces are braised. As for paste garnishes, such as 
macaroni, noodles, gniokis; they are seldom used. 

Garnishes for mutton relev^s should therefore be chosen, in 
preference, from among the following, the details of which I 
gave under " Filet de Boeuf " (Nos. 1044 to 1074) a"d which I 
recall hereafter: — 

Andalouse, Bouquetiere, Chatelaine, Clamart, Dauphine, 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 433 

Dubarry, Duchesse, Japonaise, Jardiniere, Lorette, MacddoinCf 
Montmorency, Moderne, Nivernaise, Orientale, Petit-Due, 
Provengale, Renaissance, Richelieu, St. Germain. 

Apart from these compound garnishes, the following simple 
garnishes also suit admirably, either alone, or separated by 
some kind of potato preparation : — 

Braised Lettuce, stuffed with ordinary forcemeat or rice. 

Cabbages, moulded to the shape of small balls, braised and 
stuffed with fine mince-meat or rice. 

Haricot-beans, Peas and Broad-beans, cohered with butter. 

Asparagus-heads, white or green, cooked and cohered with 
butter. 

Celery, Endives, and Chicory, all braised. Brussels 
Sprouts, Cauliflowers, Brocoli, etc. 

Finally, the garnishes and modes of preparation termed : 
d I'Anglaise, a la Boulangere, Braises, Marine en Chevreuil, 
which I give below for the leg and the shoulder, may be applied 
perfectly well to other large pieces of mutton. 

1303— LARGE COLD JOINTS OF MUTTON 

Refer to Cold Beef; in all cases keep the dishing simple. 
The garnishing is optional. 

1304— LEG AND SHOULDER OF MUTTON 

Legs of mutton or lamb ought never to appear on any but 
an ordinary luncheon menu. Although, strictly speaking, they 
should always be served after one of the ways described here- 
after, all the garnishes given above may be applied to them. 

Shoulders may be roasted whole; but they may also be 
boned, seasoned inside, rolled up, and firmly strung. They 
may be treated like the legs, and the same garnishes are suited 
to them. 

1305— QIQOT BOUILLI A L'ANGLAISE 

Trim the leg, shorten it in the region of the tibia bone, and 
plunge it into a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the propor- 
tion of one-third oz. of salt per quart of water. 

For an ordinary leg, add : three medium-sized carrots, two 
onions, each stuck with a clove, a faggot, and two cloves of 
garlic. 

Let the leg cook for a quarter of an hour for each two lbs. of 
its weight. 

Dish with vegetables all round, and serve at the same time 
a butter sauce with capers. 

N.B. — Leg of mutton d I'anglaise may be accompanied by 

F F 



434 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

purees of turnips, celery, etc., and these vegetables should cook 
with the meat. A pur^e of potatoes or of haricot beans may be 
sent to the table with the meat ; but, in this case, of course, the 
vegetables would be served separately. 

1306— BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON 

Suppress the pelvic bone, shorten the end bone and brown 
the leg in the oven. 

Now, put it in an oval utensil, garnished for braising ; add 
just enough white stock to barely cover the joint, and cook 
gently, allowing forty minutes per lb. of meat. 

Transfer the leg to a tray; strain the braising-liquor ; clear 
it of all grease, and reduce it to half. Sprinkle the meat with 
a few tablespoonfuls of this reduced gravy, and set it to glaze 
in the oven. 

Serve at the same time : — 

(i) Either a pur^e of potatoes, of turnips, of haricot-beans, of 
cauliflower, etc., or 

(2) The reduced braising-liquor. 

1307— GiaOT A LA BOULANQERE 

The leg may either be boned, seasoned inside and strung ; or 
the end-bone may simply be shortened and that of the pelvis 
removed. 

In either case, put it in an earthenware dish, and brown it 
well in the oven, on both sides; then complete its cooking, all 
but a third. 

This done, set round the joint four large, sliced onions, just 
tossed in butter, that they may acquire some colour, and eight 
large, peeled potatoes cut into roundels one half in. thick. 
Sprinkle this garnish with the grease of the joint, and then com- 
plete the cooking of the leg and its garnish. 

Serve in the dish in which the joint has cooked. 

1308— QIQOT MARINE EN CHEVREUIL 

Shorten the end-bone; remove the bone of the pelvis, and 
skin the top of the leg, leaving the meat in that region quite 
bare. Lard with very small strips of bacon, and put the meat 
into a marinade prepared after the manner described under No. 
170. The length of its stay in the marinade should be based 
upon the tenderness of the meat and atmospheric conditions. 
In winter the time averages about three or four days, and in 
summer two days. 

To Roast the Joint. — Withdraw it from the marinade and 
dry it thoroughly ; set it on a stand in the baking-tray ; and put 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 435 

it into a very fierce oven, that the meat may set immediately. 
The object of the very fierce oven is to prevent the juices 
absorbed from the marinade escaping in steam and thereby 
hardening the meat. 

Towards the close of the operation, rissole the larding bacon 
well. 

Set on a long dish ; fix a frill to the bone, and serve a Chev- 
reuil sauce separately. 

ChevreuU Sauce a la Frangaise. — With the marinade of the 
joint and a Mirepoix with ham, prepare a sufficient quantity of 
Poivrade sauce (No. 49) to obtain two-thirds of a pint of it after 
it has been strained through a colander — an operation which 
should be effected with the application of great pressure to the 
aromatics. 

Despumate this sauce for thirty minutes, and add, little by 
little, half a wine-glassful of excellent red wine. Finish the sea- 
soning with a little cayenne and a pinch of powdered sugar, 
and once more rub the whole through tammy or a fine strainer. 

1309— GIQOT A LA SOUBISE 

Braise the leg of mutton as shown under No. 247. When it 
is two-thirds done, transfer it to another utensil ; strain the 
braising-liquor over it, and add thereto three lbs. of sliced onions 
and two-third lb. of rice. 

Gently complete the cooking of the joint, together with the 
onions and the rice. This done: — (i) put it on a baking-tray 
and glaze it in the oven ; (2) quickly rub the onions and the rice 
through a fine sieve or tammy. 

Set the leg of mutton on a long dish; put a frill on the 
bone, and serve, separately, the well-heated Soubise, finished 
with one oz. of butter. 

N.B. — This Soubise may be prepared separately; but in this 
case it has much less flavour than when it is made from the 
onions and the rice which have cooked in the braising-liquor. 
I therefore urge the adoption of the recipe as it starids. 

13 10— COLD LEG OF MUTTON 

Dish it very simply, like other cold large joints of mutton. 

131 1— CUTLETS 

Mutton and lamb cutlets are sometimes sauted; but_ grilling 
is the most suitable method of cooking them. When the nature 
of their preparation requires that they should be treated a 
I'anglaise, fry them in clarified butter. All the garnishes, given 



436 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

under " Tournedos," except those served with sauces, may be 
applied to cutlets. 

The latter also allow of a few special garnishes, and these I 
give in the following recipes. 

1312— c6TELETTES a la CHAMPVALLON (10 Cutlets) 

Take some cutlets from the region underlying the shoulder ; 
that is to say, those uncovered by the removal of this joint. 
And do not clear the bone-ends of their meat, as when frills are 
to be fixed to them. 

Season them with salt and pepper, and brown them in butter 
on both sides. This done, put them in an earthenware dish with 
half lb. of sliced onions, tossed in butter without colouration; 
moisten with enough white stock to almost cover the cutlets and 
the onions ; add the quarter of a clove of garlic, crushed, and a 
faggot; boil, and set in the oven. At the end of twenty 
minutes, add one and one-half lbs. of potatoes, fashioned to 
the shape of corks, and cut into thin roundels; season, and 
complete the cooking, basting often the while. 

When the cutlets are cooked, the moistening should be almost 
entirely reduced. 

1313— C6TELETTES LAURA 

Grill the cutlets, and, meanwhile, prepare a garnish (the 
quantity of which should be such as to allow two and one-half 
oz. of it per cutlet) of parboiled macaroni, cut into half-inch 
lengths, cohered with cream, and combined, per lb., with three 
and one-half oz. of peeled, pressed, and concussed tomatoes, 
tossed in butter. 

Or, when white truffles are in season, prepare some macaroni 
with cream, as above, combined with the peelings of raw, white 
truffles. 

Cut some very soft pig's caul into triangles, proportionate in 
size to the cutlets; spread a little macaroni on each triangle; on 
the latter set a cutlet ; cover the cutlets with some more macaroni, 
and enclose the whole in the caul. Lay the cutlets on a dish. 

Sprinkle with fine raspings and melted butter, and set to 
grill at the salamander, or in a fierce oven, for seven or eight 
minutes. 

Dish the cutlets in the form of a crown, and surround them 
with a thread of clear half-glaze sauce, combined with tomatoes. 

1314— C6TELETTES A LA MAINTENON 

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. This done, put 
a hgaped t^blespoonfyl of a Maint^non preparation (No. 92^) 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 437 

on each ; shape it like a dome, by means of the blade of a small 
knife dipped in tepid water, and put the cutlets, one by one, 
on a tray. The Maintenon preparation should be laid on the 
cooked side of each cutlet and sprinkled with fine raspings and 
melted butter. Now put the cutlets in a rather hot oven for 
seven or eight minutes in order to : — 

(i) Allow a gratin to form over the surface of the garnish. 

(2) Finish the cooking of the cutlets. 

Dish the latter in the form of a crown, and serve, separately, 
a sauceboat of meat glaze finished with butter. 

1315— COTELETTES A LA MURILLO 

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only; and garnish the 
cooked side, dome-fashion, with a fine hash of mushrooms, 
cohered with a little very reduced Bechamel sauce. 

Set them on a tray; sprinkle with grated Parmesan and a 
few drops of melted butter, and glaze in a fierce oven. Dish 
the cutlets in the form of a crown ; fix a frill to each, and sur- 
round them with mild capsicums and tomatoes, both of which 
should be sliced, tossed in butter, and mixed. 

1316— c6telettes a la proven^ale 

For ten cutlets : — (i) Reduce one-half pint of Bechamel sauce 
to a third, and add thereto the third of a garlic clove, crushed, 
and the yolks of three eggs; (2) prepare at the same time as 
the cutlets, ten grilled mushrooms ; and ten stoned, stuffed and 
poached olives, girded by a strip of anchovy fillet. 

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. Cover the 
cooked side of each with the preparation described above; set 
them on a tray ; sprinkle them with a few drops of melted butter, 
and put them in the oven, that their garnish may be glazed 
and that their cooking may be completed. 

Dish in the form of a circle; place a grilled mushroom 
(convex side uppermost) in the middle of each cutlet, and, 
on each mushroom, a stuffed olive. 

1316a— C6TELETTES DE MOUTON A LA REFORME 

Trim six mutton cutlets; season them; dip them in melted 
butter, and roll them in bread-crumbs^ combined with finely- 
chopped ham in the proportion of a third of the weight of the 
bread-crumbs. Now cook them gently in clarified butter. 

Dish them in a circle on a hot dish, and send the following 
sauce to the table with them : — 

Take a small saucepan, and mix therein three tablespoon- 
fuls of half-glaze sauce, the same quantity of Poivrade sauce, 



43S GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

and one coffeespoonful of red-currant jelly; add one coffee- 
spoonful of each of the following short julienne garnishes to 
the sauce; viz.: hard-boiled white of egg; very red, salted 
tongue; gherkins; mushrooms, and trufflest 

1317— C6TELETTES A LA SlgVIQNE 

Have ready a preparation of mushroom and artichoke- 
bottom croquettes, in the proportion of one heaped tablespoonful 
for each cutlet. 

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. Garnish the 
fried side of each, dome-fashion, with the above preparation ; 
treat them a I'anglaise, and sprinkle them with melted butter. 

Put them in the oven to complete their cooking, and, at 
the same time, to colour their coating of egg and bread-crumbs. 

Dish in the form of a crown. 

1318— COTELETTES A LA SUEDOISE 

Place the cutlets on a dish, and drop thereon some minced 
onions and shallots, bits of parsley stalks, thyme and bay. 
Sprinkle them with the juice of a lemon and a few drops of 
oil, and leave them to marinade for thirty minutes, turning 
them over the while, from time to time. 

This done, dry them ; dip them in melted butter, sprinkle 
them with bread-crumbs, and grill them. 

Dish them in the form of a crown, and garnish the centre 
of the dish with the following, which may also be sent separ- 
ately : one-half lb. of peeled and finely-sliced apples, quickly 
stewed to a pur^e with the third of a wineglassful of white 
wine. When about to serve, add to this pur^e two and one- 
half oz. of finely-grated horse-radish, or the latter grated and 
afterwards finely chopped. 

1319— c6telettes en belle vue 

Proceed after one of the recipes given for veal cutlets and 
grenadins "en Belle Vue." 

1320— cotelettes en chaudfroid 

Cut some very regular cutlets from a neck of mutton or 
lamb, which should have been trimmed as explained, braised, 
and left to cook in its braising-liquor. Clear all grease from 
the latter; strain it; reduce it, and add to it a brown chaud- 
froid sauce (No. 34). 

Dip the cutlets in the sauce when it is almost cold; set 
them on a tray ; deck the kernel of meat in each with a fine slice 



RELEVts AND ENTRIES 439 

of truffle, and sprinkle with cold, melted aspic. When the 
sauce has set well, pass the point of a small knife round the 
cutlets, with the view of removing the superfluous sauce; and 
either dish them round a vegetable salad, cohered and moulded, 
or simply dish them in the form of a circle and place a pyramid 
of cohered, vegetable salad in their midst. 

132 1— NOISETTES DE MOUTON 

Mutton noisettes, and especially those of lamb, may be 
classed among the choicest of entries. They are cut from either 
the fillet or the neck ; but, in the latter case, only the first six 
or seven ribs are used. 

Noisettes are grilled or sauted, and all the recipes given for 
Tournedos (Nos. 1077 to 1139) and for cutlets, may be applied 
to them. 

1322— MINION FILLETS 

The minion fillets of mutton or lamb consist of the two 
muscles which lie under the saddle. Their mode of preparation 
changes according to their size. Thus, if they are small, they 
are served whole, after having been trimmed, sometimes larded; 
and sauted. 

If they are large, they are divided into two or three parts, 
cut laterally and aslant ; they are flattened, trimmed to the shape 
of ellipses, seasoned, dipped in melted butter, sprinkled with 
fine bread-crumbs, and finally, gently grilled. 

Minion fillets of beef, obtained from the narrow extremity 
or head of the fillet, are also used occasionally ; and these are 
generally flattened, dipped in butter and fine bread-crumbs, and 
grilled. 

These fillets are served chiefly with vegetable purees or with 
macedoines of fresh vegetables. 

The sauces best suited to them are the B^arnaise and the 
Robert Escoffier. 

1323— SHEEP'S TONGUES 

Salted or fresh sheep's tongues make an excellent luncheon 
entree. 

They are cooked after the manner of ox and calf's tongues, 
due allowance being made for the difference of size. 

The various garnishes given for ox and calf's tongues may 
also be used in this case. 

1324— SHEEP'S TROTTERS 

Sheep's trotters, as they reach us from the purveyor, should 
first be well singed over spirits of wine, and then rubbed with 
a clean piece of linen. The little tuft of hair in the cleft of 



440 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

the hoof is next removed, the hoof itself is suppressed, and 
the trotters are split open lengthwise and boned. Sheep's 
trotters are cooked like calf's feet, in the special court-bouillon 
or blanc, given under No. 167. 

132s— FRITOT OF SHEEP'S TROTTERS 

Fifteen minutes before frying them, put the sheep's trotters 
into a receptacle with lemon juice, a few drops of oil and some 
chopped parsley; keeping the quantity of these ingredients in 
proportion to the number of trotters. Be careful to toss the 
latter from time to time in the marinade. 

A few moments before serving, dip the half-trotters into 
batter (No. 232) and plunge them into an abundant and hot 
frying-medium. 

Drain them when the batter is nicely dry and golden ; and 
dish on a napkin with a border of very green fried parsley. 

Serve a tomato sauce separately. 

1326— PIEDS DE MOUTON POULETTE 

For this dish the trotters should, as far as possible, be 
freshly cooked. For twenty trotters prepare two-thirds of a pint 
of poulette sauce; add the trotters thereto, well drained; toss 
them in the sauce, and dish them in a timbale with a sprinkling 
of chopped parsley. 

1327— PIEDS DE MOUTON ROUENNAISE 

Instead of cooking the sheep's trotters in a blanc, braise 
them ; add a little Madeira to their braising-liquor, and cook 
them thoroughly. 

Prepare a forcemeat, consisting of one and one-half lbs. of 
very fine sausage-meat; three oz. of chopped onions, cooked in 
butter without colouration, and a large pinch of parsley. 

When the trotters are cooked, transfer them to a dish; 
almost entirely reduce their braising-liquor; add to this two 
liqueur-glassfuls of burnt brandy, for each ten trotters, and add 
this reduced braising-liquor to the forcemeat. Cut ten rect- 
angles six inches long by four inches wide out of pig's caul. 

Spread a tablespoonf ul of forcemeat over each ; set two 
trotters on the forcemeat of each rectangle ; cover up with force- 
meat, and draw the ends of the caul together in suchwise as 
to enclose the whole. 

Sprinkle with bread-crumbs and melted butter ; grill gently, 
and serve. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 441 

1328— PIEDS DE MOUTON TYROLIENNE 

Cook a fair-sized chopped onion in butter, together with 
three peeled, pressed, and roughly-chopped tomatoes. Season 
with salt and pepper; add a pinch of chopped parsley, a little 
crushed garlic, one-sixth of a pint of Poivrade sauce, and twenty 
freshly-cooked and well-drained sheep's trotters. 

Simmer for ten minutes and dish in a timbale. 

1329— MUTTON KIDNEYS 

Mutton kidneys are either grilled or sauted. When they are 
to be grilled, first remove the fine skin enveloping them, cut 
them in halves, without completely severing them on their con- 
cave side, and impale them on a small skewer, with the view 
of keeping them open during the grilling operation. Before 
grilling they may or may not be dipped in melted butter and 
rolled in bread-crumb. 

When they are to be sauted, clear the kidneys, as before, 
of the thin skin which envelops them ; cut them into halves, 
and then into slices one-quarter in. thick. 

Kidneys, of what kind soever, should be cooked very quickly, 
otherwise they harden. After having seasoned them, put them 
into very hot butter, and toss them over a fierce fire in order 
to stiffen them. This done, drain them; and let them stand 
for a few minutes, that they may exude the blood they contain, 
which sometimes has a distinct ammoniacal smell. 

Meanwhile, swill the utensil in which they have been sauted, 
and finish the sauce, to which they are added when dishing 
up. Never let the kidneys boil in the sauce, for they would 
immediately harden. 

1330— ROQNONS SAUTI&S BERCY 

Slice, season, and quickly toss the mutton kidneys in butter, 
and drain them. 

For six kidneys put one tablespoonful of finely-chopped 
shallots into the saucepan, and just heat it. Moisten with one- 
sixth of a pint of white wine; reduce to half; add two table- 
spoonfuls of melted meat glaze, and a few drops of lemon- 
juice, and put the kidneys in this sauce. Add two and one- 
half oz. of butter, cut into small pieces; melt this on the corner 
of the stove, tossing and rolling the pan the while; dish in a 
timbale, and sprinkle a pinch of chopped parsley over the 
kidneys. 

«33 1— ROQNONS SAUTES BORDELAISE 

Fry the mutton kidneys, and drain them as above. 

Put into the saucepan one-third of a pint of Bordelaise sauce 



442 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

combined with poached dice of marrow, a pinch of chopped 
parsley, and three oz. of sliced c^pes, tossed in butter and oil 
and well drained. 

Return the kidneys to the saucepan ; toss them in the sauce, 
and dish in a timbale. 
1332— ROQNONS SAUTES CARVALHO 

Fry the skinned, halved and seasoned mutton kidneys in 
butter, and dish them, each on a small crouton of bread-crumb, 
cut to the shape of a cock's comb and fried in butter. On each 
half-kidney, set a small cooked mushroom and a slice of truffle. 

Swill the saucepan with Madeira ; add a little half-glaze ; put 
in a small quantity of butter, away from the fire, and pour this 
sauce over the kidneys. 

1333— ROQNONS SAUTES AU CHAMPAGNE 

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys; cut them 
in two lengthwise ; season them ; fry them quickly in butter, and 
dish in a timbale. 

Swill the saucepan with one-half pint of champagne per six 
kidneys; reduce almost entirely; add two tablespoonfuls of 
melted meat glaze; add a small quantity of butter, and pour 
this sauce over the kidneys^. 

N.B. — The preparation of kidneys sauted with wine always 
follows the same principle ; that is to say, the saucepan in which 
the kidneys have cooked is always swilled with a quantity of 
wine, in proportion to the number of kidneys; a proportionate 
amount of meat glaze is then added, and after the sauce has been 
slightly buttered, the kidneys are tossed in it. 

,334_ROaNONS SAUTES HONQROISE 

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys ; cut them 
into halves; slice and season them; fry them in butter, and 
drain them. 

In the saucepan that has served in the cooking of the 
kidneys, fry a chopped onion with butter, and add thereto a 
pinch of paprika. 

Moisten with a tablespoonful of cream, and reduce; add 
one-sixth of a pint of velout6, boil for a moment, and rub 
through tammy. 

Heat this sauce; put the kidneys into it, toss them for a 
minute, so as to heat without boiling them, and dish in a 
timbale. 
1335— ROQNONS SAUTES CHASSEUR 

Quickly fry the sliced mutton kidneys in butter and drain 
them. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 443 

Swill the saucepan with white wine and almost entirely 
reduce; add one-third of a pint of Chausseur sauce for each six 
kidneys ; put the kidneys in this sauce, toss them for an instant ; 
dish them in a timbale, and sprinkle with a pinch of chopped 
parsley. 

1336— ROQNONS 5AUTES A L'INDIENNE 

For six mutton kidneys : fry a chopped onion in butter and 
add a large pinch of curry thereto. Moisten with one-sixth pint 
of velout^; cook for a few minutes, and rub through tammy. 

Clear the kidneys of their outer skin; slice and season them, 
and fry them quickly in butter. Put them into the sauce ; dish 
them in a timbale, and serve some rice " k I'lndienne " sepa- 
rately. 

« 337— ROQNONS SAUTES A LA TURBIQO 

Clear the mutton kidneys of their outer skin and cut them in 
halves ; season them ; fry them quickly in butter, and dish them 
in a circle in a timbale. 

In their midst set a garnish of small, cooked mushrooms, and 
grilled chipolata sausages ; and pour thereon a highly-seasoned, 
tomat^d half-glaze sauce. 

1338— CROUTE AUX ROQNONS 

Cut some crusts two and one-half in. in diameter and one 
and one-third in. thick, from a tin-loaf, and allow one for each 
person. Remove the crumb from their inside, leaving only a 
slight thickness at the bottom ; butter them, and dry them in 
the oven. 

Garnish these crusts with mutton kidneys sauted with mush- 
rooms, and combined with small, ordinary forcemeat quenelles, 
and slices of truffle. 

Dish on a napkin, and serve very hot. 

1339— TURBAN DE ROQNONS A LA PIEMONTAISE 

Garnish a border or a Savarin-mould with " rizotto k la 
Pi^montaise, ' ' press the latter lightly into the utensil, and keep 
the mould hot. 

Clear the mutton kidneys of their outer skin ; cut them into 
halves; season them, and fry them quickly in butter. 

Turn out on a round dish, set the half-kidneys in a circle 
on the " Turban," alternating them with fine slices of truffle, 
and pour a tomat^d half-glaze sauce, flavoured with truffle 
essence, in the middle. 

1340— ROQNONS A LA BROCHETTE 

Cut the mutton kidneys into halves, as explained, without 
dividing them ; impale them two or four at a time, on a skewer ; 



444 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

season them, and grill them in a somewhat fierce oven. Set 
them, with the skewers withdrawn, upon a hot dish, and put into 
the cavity of each a piece of softened, Maitre-d'hotel butter, the 
size of a hazel nut. 

1341— ROQNONS BROCHETTE A L'ESPAQNOLE 

Prepare the mutton kidneys as above. 

Grill the same quantity of small, pressed and seasoned half- 
tomatoes. Garnish these tomatoes with a piece, the size of 
a walnut, of Maitre-d'hotel butter, combined with two-thirds oz. 
of chopped capsicum per three oz. of butter. Dish these toma- 
toes in a circle ; set a kidney on each, and surround with a border 
consisting of rings of onion, seasoned, dredged and crisply fried 
in oil. 

1342— ROQNONS BROCHETTE AU VERT PRE 

Prepare the mutton kidneys exactly as explained under the 
first of this kind of recipes, and surround them with small 
heaps of straw potatoes and bunches of very green parsley. 

1343— BROCHETTES DE ROQNONS 

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys, and cut 
them into roundels one-third in. thick. Season these roundels 
and stiffen them in butter over a very fierce fire. Impale them 
on skewers, alternating them with squares of blanched lean 
bacon and slices of sauted mushrooms. Sprinkle with melted 
butter and raspings, and grill. 

These brochettes are generally served as they stand. 

Various Preparations of Mutton. 
1344— CASSOULET 

(i) Set one quart of haricot beans to cook with two quarts 
of water, one-third oz. of salt, one carrot, one onion stuck with 
a clove, one faggot, six garlic cloves, and two-thirds lb. of fresh 
pork rind, blanched and strung together. Boil; skim; cover, 
and cook gently for one hour. At the end of this time, add 
two-thirds lb. of breast of pork, and a sausage with garlic, of 
the same weight as the pork. Salt the beans very moderately, 
allowing for the reduction which they have ultimately to 
undergo. 

Complete the cooking of the whole gently. 

(2) Fry gently in lard one lb. of shoulder, and the same 
weight of breast, of mutton ; both cut into pieces one and one- 
half oz. in weight. 

This done, drain away half the grease; add two chopped 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 445 

onions and two crushed cloves of garlic, and fry again until 
the onions have acquired a slight colour. Now pour in one- 
sixth pint of good tomato purde ; moisten the meat, enough to 
cover, with the cooking-liquor of haricot beans, and cook gently 
in the oven for one and one-half hours at least. 

(3) Garnish the bottom and sides of some cocottes or deep 
dishes with bacon rind; fill these with alternate layers of the 
pieces of mutton, the beans, the bacon cut into dice, and the 
sausage cut into roundels. 

Sprinkle the surface with raspings, and set the gratin to 
form in a moderate oven for one hour; taking care to baste 
from time to time with some reserved haricot-beans cooking- 
liquor. 

1345— CURRIE A L'INDIENNE 

Cut two lbs. of lean mutton into cubes of one and one-third 
in. side, and fry these in three oz. of lard, with one chopped 
onion, salt, and a pinch of powdered curry. When the meat 
is frizzled and the onions begin to colour, sprinkle with one 
and one-third oz. of flour; cook the latter a while; moisten 
with one and one-third pints of water or stock ; boil, stirring 
the while, so as to dissolve the roux, and then cook gently in 
the oven for one and one-half hours. When about to serve, clear 
of all grease and dish in a timbale. 

Send a timbale of rice k I'indienne separately. 

1346— DAUBE A L'AVIQNONNAISE 

Bone a medium-sized leg of mutton, and cut the meat into 
squares, three oz. in weight. Lard each square with a large, 
seasoned strip of bacon, inserted with the grain of the meat. 
Put the pieces into a daubiere with a sliced half-carrot and 
onion, three cloves of garlic, a little thyme, bay, and parsley 
stalks. Moisten with one and one-third pints of good, red wine 
and four tablespoonfuls of oil, and marinade in the cool for two 
hours. 

Prepare: — (i) Three chopped onions mixed with two 
crushed garlic cloves; (2) one-half lb. of lean bacon, cut into 
dice and blanched; (3) one-half lb. of fresh, bacon rind, 
blanched and cut into squares of one in. side; (4) a large bunch 
of parsley, containing a small piece of dry, orange peel. Gar- 
nish the bottom and sides of a daubiere with thin slices of 
bacon; set the pieces of mutton in layers inside, and alternate 
them with layers of onion, bacon and bacon rind; sprinkle a 
pinch of powdered thyme and bay on each layer of meat, Put 
the faggot in the middle. 



446 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Moisten with the marinade, strained through a sieve, and 
one-fifth pint of brown stock ; cover with slices of bacon ; close 
the daubiere, and seal down the lid by means of a thread 
of soft paste, in order that the steam may be concentrated inside. 

Boil on the side of the stove ; put the daubiere in an oven 
of regular heat (a baker's oven if possible) that the cooking 
process may be gentle and steady, and cook for five hours. 

When about to serve, uncover the daubihe; remove the 
overlying slices of bacon ; clear of grease ; remove the faggot, 
and dish the daubiere on a napkin. 

N.B. — According to the household method, the " Daube " 
is served in the daubiere itself; but, subject to the demands of 
the service and in order that the preparation may keep its 
bucolic character, it may be served in small earthenware 
utensils. 

1347— DAUBE FROIDE 

Cold Daube constitutes an excellent luncheon dish. All 
that is needed is to put what is left into a small daubiere, where, 
as a result of the binding properties of the pork rinds, it will 
set in a mass. 

When about to serve, turn out on a round dish ; surround 
with very light, chopped jelly; and carve into very thin slices. 

1348— EMINCES ET HACHIS 

An unalterable principle governs the preparation of emincds 
and hashes, which is that the meats constituting these dishes 
should never boil if it be desired that they be not hard. 

They should, therefore, only be heated in their accom- 
panying garnish or sauce, and in the case of eminc^s, cut as 
finely as possible. 

For the various recipes under this head, see the Chapter on 
Beef. (Nos. 1175, 1178 and 1179.) 

1349— HARICOT DE MOUTON 

Heat three oz. of lard in a sautepan. Put therein one-half 
lb. of lean bacon, cut into dice and blanched, and twenty small 
onions. When the bacon is frizzled and the onions have 
acquired a good colour, drain both on a dish. In the same fat, 
fry three lbs. of breast, neck and shoulder of mutton, all three 
being cut into pieces weighing about three oz. Keep the meat 
in the fat until each piece of it has acquired a frizzled coat. 

Drain away half of the grease ; add three crushed cloves of 
garlic ; dust with two tablespoonf uls of flour, and cook the latter, 
stirring the while. 

Moisten with one quart of water; season with one-third oz. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 447 

of salt and a pinch of pepper ; boil and stir ; add a faggot, and 
cook in the oven for thirty minutes. 

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan ; add the 
bacon and the onions and a quart of half-cooked haricot beans ; 
strain the sauce over the whole, and complete the cooking in the 
oven for one hour. 

Dish in a timbale or in small cocottes. 

1350— IRISH STEW 

Cut two lbs. of boned breast and shoulder of mutton into 
pieces, as above. 

Slice two lbs. of potatoes and chop four medium-sized 
onions. 

Take a saucepan just large enough to hold these ingredients 
and the moistening; line the bottom of the utensil with a layer 
of the pieces of meat, and season the latter with salt and pepper. 
Upon the meat spread a litter of sliced potatoes and chopped 
onions; repeat the operation, again and again, until all the 
ingredients are used up, and remember to place a faggot in the 
middle. 

Moisten with one and one-third pint of water, and cook 
gently in the oven for one and one-half hours. The potatoes 
in this preparation answer the double purpose of garnish and 
leason. 

Dish in a timbale and serve boiling. 

1351— MOUSSAKA 

(i) Cut six fine egg-plants into halves, lengthwise ; cisel the 
pulp somewhat deeply with the point of a small knife, and fry 
them until their pulp may be easily removed. Do this with a 
spoon, and put the pulp aside with the skins of the egg-plants. 

(2) Peel two fair-sized egg-plants; cut them into roundels 
one-third in. thick; season them, dredge them; fry them in 
oil, and put them aside. 

(3) Chop up the pulp withdrawn from the egg-plants, and 
put it into a basin with one and one-half lbs. of very lean, 
cooked mutton, chopped or cut into very small dice; two table- 
spoonfuls of very finely-chopped onion, fried in butter ; a pinch 
of parsley ; a piece of crushed garlic as large as a pea ; three 
oz. of roughly-chopped raw mushrooms, fried in butter; two 
eggs ; two tablespoonfuls of cold Espagnole sauce ; one table- 
spoonful of tomato pur^e; a pinch of salt, and another of 
pepper. Mix the whole well. 

(4) Butter a low-bordered quart Charlotte mould ; line it all 
over with the egg-plant skins, and lay these black side upper- 



448 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

most. Garnish the bottom of the mould with a layer of mince- 
meat, one in, thick; on this layer place a few fried roundels of 
egg-plant, and continue thus with alternate layers of mince and 
egg-plant. Cover the last layer of mince-meat with the remains 
of the egg-plant skins, and cook in a bain-marie for one hour. 

When taking the mould out of the oven, let it stand for five 
minutes in order that the ingredients may settle ; turn out on 
a round dish, and besprinkle the surface of the Moussaka with 
chopped parsley. 

1352— MUTTON PUDDING 

Follow the directions given under beefsteak pudding (No. 
1 1 70) exactly. The preparation is just the same, but for the 
substitution of mutton for the beef. 

•353— NAVARIN PRINTANIER 

Heat four oz. of clarified fat in a saut^pan, and put into it 
four lbs. of breast, neck and shoulder of mutton ; all three cut 
into pieces weighing two and one-half oz. Fry over a very 
brisk fire; season with one-third oz. of salt, a pinch of ground 
pepper, and another of sugar. 

The sugar settles slowly on the bottom of the saut^pan, 
where it turns to caramel ; it is then dissolved by the moistening, 
and thus gives the sauce the required colour. 

When the meat is well fried, remove almost all the fat; 
sprinkle with one and one-half oz. of flour; cook the latter 
for a few minutes, and moisten with one and one-half quarts of 
water or stock. 

Boil, stirring the while, and add two-thirds lb. of fresh 
concassed tomatoes or one-fifth pint of tomato pur^e; one 
crushed clove of garlic, and a large faggot. Cover and cook 
in the oven for one hour. 

This done, transfer the pieces of mutton, one by one, to 
another saucepan with twenty small, new onions; twenty 
pieces of new trimmed carrots; twenty pieces of new turnips, 
cut to the shape of long olives and tossed with butter in a 
frying-pan ; twenty small, new potatoes, cut into two, and 
trimmed, or whole; one-sixth pint of fresh peas, and an equal 
quantity of raw French beans, cut into lozenges. Strain the 
sauce over the whole; set to boil, and continue cooking slowly 
in the oven for one hour; taking care from time to time to baste 
the overlying vegetables with sauce. 

Dish in a timbale and serve very hot. 

N.B. — When put into the sauce, the vegetables cook much 
less quickly than in boiling water. In the Navarin, moreover, 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 449 

they are cooked by means of gradual penetration; thus, by 
slackening the cooking speed of the Navarin, they are cooked 
to the required extent. 

1354— PILAW DE MOUTON A LA TURQUE 

Mutton Pilaff is, in fact, nothing but a Navarin in which 
the tomatoes dominate the other ingredients ; it is flavoured with 
ginger or saffron, according to circumstances, and the usual 
vegetables are replaced by rice. Prepared in this way, it does 
not lend itself very well to the exigencies of a restaurant service. 

More often, therefore, it is treated like curried mutton ; but, 
instead of serving it with rice a I'lndienne, it is dished in the 
midst of a pilaff-rice border. Sometimes, too, the rice is served 
separately, after the manner of a curry dish. 



HOUSE LAMB. 

I3S5— BARON (OR PAIR OF HIND-QUARTERS) OF LAMB 

•356— DOUBLE (OR PAIR OF LEGS) OF LAMB 

■357— QUARTER OF LAMB 

1358— FILLET OF LAMB 

I3S9— SADDLE AND NECK OF LAMB 

Large joints of lamb for Relevds are cut like those of mutton. 

One joint, however, should be added, which is " The 
Haunch"; and this consists of one leg and half the loin 
attached. 

Large joints of house lamb should be poeled or roasted. 
Their most suitable adjunct is either their own stock, or a 
thickened, highly seasoned and clear gravy. 

House Lamb Relev^s are chiefly garnished with early-season 
or new vegetables ; but all the garnishes given under Mutton 
Relev^s may also be served with them, provided the difference 
in size be taken into account. In addition to these garnishes, 
saddle of lamb admits of all the preparations given under saddle 
of veal (Nos. 1181 to 1191). 

1360— SELLE D'AQNEAU DE LAIT EDOUARD VII. 

Completely bone the saddle from underneath, in suchwise as 
to leave the skin intact ; season it inside, and place in the middle 
a fine foie gras, studded with truflfles and marinaded in Marsala. 

Reconstruct the saddle, and wrap it tightly in a piece of 
muslin ; put it in a saucepan just large enough to hold it, on a 
litter of pieces of bacon rind, cleared of all fat and blanched, 

G G 



450 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

Moisten, enough to cover, with the braising-Hquor of a cushion 
of veal ; add thereto the Marsala used in marinading the foie 
gras, and poach for about forty-five minutes. 

Before withdrawing the saddle, make sure that the foie gras 
is sufficiently cooked. Remove the muslin, and put the saddle 
in an oval terrine a pdte just large enough to hold it. Strain 
the cooking-liquor over it, without clearing the former of grease, 
and set it to cool. 

When the saddle is quite cold, carefully clear away the grease 
that lies upon it, first by means of a spoon and then by means 
of boiling water. Serve it very cold, in the terrine as it stands. 

1361— CARRE D'AGNEAU BEAUCAIRE 

Having trimmed the neck of lamb, as explained, brown it 
in butter; surround it with eight small, Provence half-artichokes, 
and cook gently in the oven. The artichokes in question have 
no chokes and are very tender. 

Meanwhile, peel, press, concass and season four or five toma- 
toes, and fry them in butter. When they are ready, add a large 
pinch of chopped tarragon to them. 

Dish the tomatoes; set the neck upon them, and surround 
it with the stewed half-artichokes. 

1362— CARRE D'AGNEAU EN COCOTTE 
A LA BONNE FEMME 

Fry a shortened and well-trimmed neck of lamb, in butter. 

This done, transfer it to an oval cocotte with ten small onions 
browned in butter, and two medium-sized potatoes, cut into large 
dice, shaped like garlic cloves, and blanched. Sprinkle the 
whole with melted butter and cook gently in the oven. 

Serve the preparation as it stands, in the cocotte, placing the 
latter on a folded napkin. 

•363— CARRE D'AGNEAU A LA BOULANGERE 

Fry the neck of lamb with butter, in an earthenware dish, 
and surround it with sliced onions, tossed in butter, and sliced 
potatoes; both of which vegetables should be in quantities in 
proportion to the size of the piece of meat. The " k la Boul- 
ang^re " procedure is always the same, and was explained under 
No. 1307, but allowances should always be made for the par- 
ticular size and tenderness of the piece. 

1364— CARRE D'AGNEAU GRILLE 

Having shortened and well trimmed the neck, season it; 
sprinkle it with melted butter, and grill it gently. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 451 

When it is almost cooked, sprinkle it again with melted 
butter and bread-crumbs, and let it acquire a golden colour 
while completely cooking it. 

Serve very hot with mint sauce and a suitable garnish. 

1365— CARRE D'AQNEAU MIREILLE 

Prepare some Anna potatoes (No. 2203) in an oval earthen- 
ware dish, and add a third of the quantity of potatoes of raw, 
minced artichoke-bottoms. 

When the potatoes are three-parts cooked, stiffen the neck 
in butter; place it on the potatoes, and complete the cooking of 
the two, basting often the while with melted butter. 

Send the preparation to the table on the dish that has 
served in the cooking process. 

1366— CARRE D'AQNEAU PRINTANIER 

Prepare the following garnish : eight small onions, half- 
cooked in butter; ten carrots of the size and shape of garlic 
cloves, cooked in consomm^ and glazed; and ten turnips of 
the same shape and size, similarly treated. 

Put these vegetables into a cocotte with three tablespoonfuls 
of fresh peas; the same quantity of raw, French beans, cut into 
lozenge form ; two or three tablespoonfuls of good and very 
clear stock, and complete the cooking of the whole. 

Meanwhile, poele the neck of lamb, which should have been 
shortened and trimmed in the usual way. Dish the neck of 
lamb and serve the vegetables in the cocotte. 

1367— CARRE D'AQNEAU SOUBISE 

Having shortened and trimmed the neck of lamb, stiffen it 
in butter; surround it with one-half lb. of finely-minced and 
well-blanched onions, and complete the cooking of both by 
stewing. 

This done, transfer the neck to a dish and keep it hot. Add 
one-quarter pint of boiling Bechamel sauce to the onions, and 
rub them quickly through tammy or a fine sieve. Heat this 
Soubise; finish it with one and one-half oz. of butter, and pour 
it over the neck. 

Border the dish with a thread of rather light meat glaze, 
and serve. 

1368— CARR6 D'AQNEAU A LA T05CANE 

Shorten the neck of lamb ; suppress the cartilaginous portions 
and stiffen it in butter. Garnish the bottom of an oval earthen- 
ware dish, of the same size as the neck, with a layer of Anna 
potatoes (No. 2203). Set the neck on this layer, and cover it 

G G 2 



452 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

over with a second layer of the same potato preparation. 
Sprinkle with grated Parmesan ; cook in the oven as for Anna 
potatoes, and take care that the top be so well set as to prevent 
any of the juices of the joint from exuding and depositing on 
the bottom of the dish. 

Serve the dish as it stands. 

1369— LEG AND SHOULDER OF LAMB 

All the recipes given under Haunch and Double (pair of 
legs), may be applied to the legs and shoulders of house lamb. 

The shoulders are often grilled, the operation being effected 
over a moderate lire after the joints have been incised lattice- 
fashion, and the same applies to the breast. The " k la 
Boulangere " treatment (No. 1307) admirably suits the legs and 
shoulders of house lamb. 

1370— CUTLETS 

According to custom, lamb cutlets are usually served like 
" Noisettes," i.e., two are allowed for each person. 

As a rule, when they are to be grilled, they are previously 
dipped in melted butter and sprinkled with fine bread-crumbs. 

When they are to be sauted they are treated a I'anglaise (egg 
and bread-crumbs) except when, subject to their mode of pre- 
paration, they have to be served plain, or stuffed. 

1371— c6telettes d'aqneau de lait a la buloz 

Prepare : — (i) a rizotto (No. 2238) with truffles, in propor- 
tion to the number of cutlets ; (2) some very reduced Bechamel 
sauce, combined with one-half oz. of grated Parmesan per one- 
fifth pint of the sauce, and allowing one small tablespoonful of it 
for each cutlet. 

Half-grill the cutlets; dry them, and cover them, on both 
sides, with the reduced sauce. As soon as the cutlets have 
received their coat of sauce, dip them, one by one, into beaten 
egg (anglaise) ; roll them in very fine bread-crumbs mixed with 
grated Parmesan. Thoroughly press this coating of bread- 
crumbs with the flat of a knife, that it may adhere well to the 
egg and produce a crust at the close of the operation. This 
done, set the cutlets in a saut^pan of very hot, clarified butter, 
and brown them on both sides. 

Dish the rizotto in a very even layer; set the cutlets in a 
circle on the rice, and fix a frill to the bone of each. 

1372— COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT 
MAR^CHALE 

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, and cook them in clarified 
butter. 

Dish them in a circle, with a fine slice of truffle upon each ; 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 453 

and, in their midst, set a nice iieap of asparagus-heads cohered 
with butter. 

•373— COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT 

MILANAISE 

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, but add to the bread-crumbs 
the quarter of their weight of grated Parmesan. 

Cook the cutlets in clarified butter. Dish them in a circle, 
and, in their midst, arrange a garnish "k la milanaise " (see 
C6te de Vau k la Milanaise," No. 1258.) 

1374— COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT 

MORLAND 

Slightly flatten the cutlets, dip them in beaten egg, and roll 
them in finely-chopped truffle, which in this case answers the 
purpose of bread-crumbs. Press the truffle with the flat of a 
knife, that it may thoroughly combine with the egg, and cook 
the cutlets in clarified butter. Dish them in a circle; garnish 
the centre of the dish with a mushroom pur^e (No. 2059), ^"d 
surround the cutlets with a thread of buttered meat glaze. 

1375— COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT 

NAVARRAISE 

For twelve cutlets, make a preparation consisting of four 
oz. of ham, four oz. of cooked mushrooms, and one-half oz. of 
chopped, red capsicums ; the whole being cohered by means of 
a very reduced Bechamel sauce, flavoured with truffle essence. 

Grill the cutlets on one side only, and garnish them on their 
grilled side with a tablespoonful of the above preparation, which 
should be shaped like a dome upon them. 

Set the cutlets upon a tray as soon as they are garnished; 
sprinkle the surface of the preparation, covering them with 
grated cheese and melted butter, and place them in the oven, 
that their cooking may be completed and the gratin formed. 
Meanwhile, toss twelve seasoned half-tomatoes in oil. Dish 
these tomatoes in a circle; set a cutlet upon each, and border 
with a thread of tomato sauce. 

1376— COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT 

NELSON 

Grill the cutlets, and, at the same time, prepare as many 
bread-crumb croutons as there a,re cutlets, and of exactly the 
same shape as the latter. Fry the croutons in butter, and coat 
them with foie-gras purde. 

Place a grilled cutlet on each coated crouton, and a slice 
of truffle on the kernel of each cutlet. Now, by means of a 



454 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

piping-bag, fitted with an even pipe, cover the cutlets with some 
souffld au Parmesan (No. 2295A) ; dish them in a circle, and 
put them in the oven for five minutes, that the souffle may 
poach. 

After withdrawing them from the oven, garnish the centre 
of the dish with a heap of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter. 

1377— COTE LETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT FARCIES 
A LA PERIQUEUX 

Cook the cutlets in butter on one side only, and cool them 
under slight pressure. 

Garnish the cooked side of each with a tablespoonful of 
forcemeat with butter (No. 193), which should have received a 
copious addition of chopped truffles. Shape this forcemeat 
dome-fashion, by means of the flat of a small knife, dipped in 
tepid water, and set the cutlets, one by one, on a tray. Now 
put them in the front of the oven for seven or eight minutes 
that the forcemeat may be poached. 

Dish them in a circle, and pour a P^rigueux sauce in their 
midst. 

1378— EPIC RAMMES D'AQNEAU 

A lamb "epigram" consists of a cutlet, and a piece of 
braised breast, cooled under slight pressure and cut to the shape 
of a heart of the same size as the cutlets. The cutlets and the 
pieces of breast must be treated a I'anglaise, and sauted or 
grilled according to circumstance. 

Epigrams should be dished in a circle, the cutlets and the 
pieces being alternated. 

They are usually garnished with braised chicory, or niace- 
doines of early-season vegetables. 

1379— RIS D'AQNEAU 

Lamb sweetbreads are, according to circumstances, either 
used as the principal constituent of various preparations, or they 
answer the purpose of a garnish. 

Due allowance having been made for their particular size, 
they may be treated after the same manner as veal sweetbreads ; 
that is to say, once they have been cleared of blood, they are 
blanched and braised according to the nature of the selected 
mode of preparation. 

If they are to form part of a large garnish, cohered by means 
of a brown sauce, they are braised brown and glazed. If they 
stand as an adjunct to poached fowl, they may be either studded 
or left plain, and braised white. 

Apart from their two uses as principal and garnishing con- 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 455 

stituents, the undermentioned methods of preparation, explained 
in the various preceding series, may be applied to them ; viz. : — 
Attereaux, Brochettes, Croustades, Pate chaud, Vol au vent, 
&c. 

1380— SAUTE D'AQNEAU PRINTANIER 

Prepare the following garnish : — Twenty new carrots, cut to 
the shape of large olives, cooked in consomm6 and glazed; 
twenty pieces of turnip, similarly treated; fifteen small, new 
onions, cooked in butter; twenty very small new potatoes, 
cooked in butter (or a I'anglaise if desired) ; three tablespoonfuls 
of peas; the same quantity of French beans cut into lozenge- 
form, and an equal quantity of small flageolet beans. The 
three last vegetables should be cooked d I'anglaise, and kept 
rather firm. 

Cut two lbs. of shoulder and breast of lamb into pieces 
weighing two oz., and completely cook them in butter without 
any moistening. 

This done, transfer them to a dish. Swill the saucepan with 
three tablespoonfuls of water; add five tablespoonfuls of pale 
meat glaze; heat without boiling, and finish with two and one- 
half oz. of butter. 

Put the pieces of lamb and the vegetables into this sauce, 
and gently rock the saucepan, that all the ingredients may par- 
take of the sauce. 

Serve in a hot timbale. 

1381— PILAW D'AQNEAU 

Proceed exactly as explained under " Pilaw de Mouton " 
(No. 1354), only bear in mind that the time allowed for cooking 
should be proportionately shortened in view of the greater ten- 
derness of lamb's meat. 

1382— CURRIE D'AQNEAU 

Proceed as for "Currie de Mouton," after duly allowing, 
as above, for the greater tenderness of the meat. 



456 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

PORK 

Releves and Entrees. 

1383— FRESH LEG OF PORK 
1384— FRESH PORK FILLETS 
1385— FRESH NECK OF PORK 

Relev^s of fresh pork are only served at family and bourgeois 
meals. They are always roasts and allow of all the dry or fresh 
vegetable garnishes, as well as the various vegetable purees, and 
the pastes, such as macaroni, noodles, polenta, gnochi, &c. I 
shall, therefore, give only a few recipes, and shall select Fresh 
Neck of Pork as the typical joint. 

1386— FRESH NECK OF PORK A LA CHOUCROCJTE 

Roast the neck of pork and withdraw it from the oven a few 
minutes before it is done. 

Keep it in the stove for an hour, that its cooking may be 
completed gently; but remember, that if a stove is not avail- 
able, the cooking of the piece should be well finished in the 
oven ; for pork is indigestible when it is not thoroughly well 
cooked. 

Meanwhile, prepare a garnish of sauerkraut (No. 2097), and, 
during the last hour of its cooking, sprinkle it frequently with 
the fat of the neck. 

Dish the neck ; clear the sauerkraut of any superfluous fat, 
and set it round the piece of meat in spoonfuls ; slightly pressing 
it in so doing. 

I387^FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH BRUSSELS SPROUTS 

Roast the neck of pork. Three-parts cook the Brussels 
sprouts; completely drain them, and put them round the piece 
of meat, that they may complete their cooking in its gravy and 
fat, being frequently basted the while. 

For this preparation it is well to roast the neck in an earthen- 
ware dish, in which it may be served with its garnish — a much 
better plan than that of transferring it to another dish. 

1388— FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH RED CABBAGE 
A LA FLAMANDE 

Roast the neck of pork ; dish it and surround it with a 
garnish of red cabbages, prepared a la Flamande (No. 2097). 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 457 

Sprinkle the garnish of vegetables with the gravy of the 
joint, three-parts cleared of grease. 

1389— FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH STEWED APPLES 

Roast the neck of pork and see that it is well done. 

Meanwhile, peel and mince one lb. of apples; put them in 
a saucepan with one oz. of sugar and a few tablespoonfuls of 
water; seal the lid of the saucepan well down, so as to con- 
centrate the steam inside, and cook quickly. When about to 
serve, thoroughly work the apple pur6e with a wire whisk, in 
order to smooth it. Dish the neck with its gravy, three-parts 
cleared of grease, and serve the apple pur6e separately in a 
timbale. 

i39o^FRESH NECK OF PORK A LA SOISSONNAISE 

Roast the neck on a dish that may be sent to the table. 

When it is three-parts done, set one quart of cooked and 
well-drained haricot beans round it, and complete the cooking 
gently. Serve the dish as it stands. 

1391— BOILED SALTED PORK A L'ANQLAISE 

Cook plainly in water three lbs. of shoulder, breast, or 
gammon of bacon, and add thereto a garnish of vegetables as 
for boiled beef, and six parsnips. 

Serve the vegetables round the piece of meat, and send a 
pease-pudding (prepared as directed below) separately. 

Pease-pudding : put one lb. of a pur^e of yellow or green, 
split peas into a basin, and mix therewith three oz. of melted 
or softened butter, three eggs, a pinch of salt, another of pepper, 
and a little nutmeg. Pour this puree into a pudding basin, and 
poach it in steam or in a bain-marie. 

This preparation may also be put into a buttered and flour- 
dusted napkin ; in which case, close the napkin up purse-fashion, 
tying it up securely with string, and cook the pudding in the 
same stewpan with the pork. This procedure is simpler than 
the first and quite as good. 

Very often a pur^e prepared from split, yellow or green peas, 
is used instead of the pudding given above. 

1392— PORK PIE 

Completely line the bottom and sides of a pie-dish with thin 
slices of raw ham, and prepare, for a medium-sized dish : — (i) 
one and one-half lbs. of fresh pork in collops, seasoned with salt 
and pepper, and sprinkle with two tablespoonfuls of dry 
Puxelles (No. 223), a pinch of parsley and another of chopped 



458 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

sage ; (2) one and one-half lbs. of raw, sliced potatoes, and one 
large, chopped onion. 

Garnish the bottom of the dish with a litter of collops ; cover 
with potatoes and onions; spread another litter of collops, and 
begin again in the same order. Add one-quarter pint of water; 
cover with a layer of fine paste or puff-paste trimmings, which 
should be well sealed down round the edges; gild with beaten 
egg ; streak the paste with the prongs of a fork ; make a slit in 
the centre of the covering of paste for the escape of steam, and 
bake in a moderate oven for about two hours. 

Fresh-pork Cutlets. 

1393— PRESH- PORK CUTLET5 A LA CHARCUTIERE 

Season the cutlets; dip them in melted butter, and sprinkle 
them with fine raspings. Grill them gently, and baste them 
from time to time. 

Dish them in a circle; pour a Charcuti^re sauce in their 
midst, and serve a timbale of potato puree separately. 

Charcutiere sauce for eight or ten cutlets : prepare one pint 
of Robert sauce (No. 52) and mix with it, just before dishing 
up, two oz. of gherkins, cut in short julienne fashion or minced. 

1394— FRESH = PORK CUTLETS A LA FLAMANDE 

Season the cutlets, and fry them on both sides in butter 
or fat. 

Meanwhile, peel and slice some eating apples, allowing three 
oz. of the latter for each cutlet, and put them in an earthenware 
dish. Set upon them the half-fried cutlets; sprinkle with fat, 
and complete their cooking, as well as that of the apples, in the 
oven. 

Serve the dish as it stands. 

1395— c6tes de porc frais a la milanaise 

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, but remember to add one quart 
of grated Parmesan to the bread-crumbs. Cook them gently in 
butter. 

Dish in a circle; set a milanaise garnish (No. 1258) in the 
centre, and serve a tomato sauce separately. 

1396— FRESH-PORK CUTLETS WITH PIQUANTE 
OR ROBERT SAUCE 

Season and grill or saute the cutlets. Dish them in a circle, 
with Piquante or Robert sauce in their midst. 

N.B. — (i) Cutlets accompanied by either of the two above- 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 459 

mentioned sauces, may be treated with melted butter and bread- 
crumbs and grilled or sauted; but, in this case, the sauce should 
be served separately. 

(2) For cutlets with Piquante sauce, border the dish on which 
they are served with gherkins, and send the sauce either separ- 
ately or on the dish. 

(3) All the garnishes given under fresh neck of pork may 
accompany grilled or sauted pork cutlets. 

1397— 5UCKINQ PIQ 

Stuffed or not stuffed, sucking pigs are always roasted whole, 
and the essential point of the procedure is that they should be 
just done when their skin is crisp and golden. 

While cooking, they should be frequently basted with oil; 
the latter being used in preference to any other fatty substance 
owing to the greater crispness it gives to the skin of the sucking 
pig- 

Serve a sauceboat of good gravy at the same time. 

1398— ROAST STUFFED SUCKING PIQ A L'ANQLAISE 

For a sucking pig of medium weight, prepare the following 
forcemeat : — Cook three lbs. of large onions with their skins, 
and let them cool. This done, peel and finely chop them, and 
put them in a basin with one lb. of the chopped fat of kidney 
of beef, one lb. of soaked and well-pressed bread-crumb, four 
oz. of parboiled and chopped sage, two eggs, one oz. of salt, 
a pinch of pepper and a little nutmeg. 

Mix the whole well, and put this stuffing inside the sucking 
pig. Sew up the latter's belly ; put it on the spit, and roast as 
directed above. 

Serve separately, either a timbale of apple puree or of mashed 
potatoes, combined with four oz. per lb. of selected raisins, 
washed and swelled in tepid water. 

1399— ZAMPINO DE MODfiNE 

Zampino, or stuffed leg of pork, is a product of Italian 
pork-butchery. 

It is cooked like a ham, after having been tied in a napkin 
lest its skin burst. 

Served hot, it is accompanied by a Madeira or tomato sauce, 
a garnish of boiled, braised, or gratined cabbages; of French 

beans, or of potato pur^e. 

1400— ZAMPINO FROID 

Zampino is served cold, alone or mixed with other meats; 
but it is used more particularly as a hors-d'oeuvre. For this 
purpose, cut it into the thinnest possible slices. 



460 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

1401— OREILLES A LA ROUENNAISE 

After having singed and well cleaned the inside of the pig's 
ears, cook them in water, salted to the extent of one-third oz. 
of salt per quart, together with a garnish of vegetables as for 
pot-au-feu. This done, cut them across in suchwise as to have 
the end where the flesh is thickest on one side, and the thinnest 
end on the other side of the strips. 

Chop up the thick portion ; cut the other into collops, and put 
the whole into a saucepan with one-quarter pint of half-glaze 
with Madeira. 

Cook gently for thirty minutes. This done, add to the 
minced ears, one and one-half lbs. of sausage meat and a pinch 
of chopped parsley. Divide up the whole into portions, weighing 
three oz ; wrap each portion in a piece of pig's caul, insert a 
collop of ear into the wrapping, and give the latter the shape of 
ordinary crepinettes. Grill gently, until the cooking is three- 
parts done ; sprinkle with butter and raspings, and complete the 
cooking of the crepinettes, colouring them in so doing. 

Dish in a circle, and serve a Madeira sauce at the same time. 

1402— OREILLES A LA SAINTE MENEHOULD 

Cook the ears as explained above, and let them cool. 

Cut them in two, lengthwise ; coat them with mustard ; 
sprinkle them with melted butter and raspings, and grill them 
gently. 

Ears are usually served plain, but they may be accompanied 
by apple sauce. 

1403— PIEDS DE PORC TRUFF16S 

Truffled pig's trotters may be bought already prepared ; all 
that remains to be done, therefore, is to grill them. 

Sprinkle them with melted butter; grill them very gently, 
basting them from time to time the while, and serve them with a 
P^rigueux sauce. 

1404— PIEDS DE PORC PAN^S 

Sprinkle the pig's trotters copiously with melted butter, and 
put them on the grill, which should be very hot. 

Grill them very gently, turning them with care; and serve 
them plain, or with a tomato puree separately. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 461 

BOUDINS. 

1405— BOUDIN BLANC ORDINAIRE 

Chop and afterwards pound one-half lb. of very lean fresh 
pork, and three-quarters lb. of fat fresh bacon. Add one and 
one-half oz. of foie gras, and rub through a fine sieve. 

Put this forcemeat into a basin, and finish it with two fresh 
eggs; one and one-half oz. of chopped onion, cooked in butter 
without colouration ; one-sixth pint of thick cream ; one-half oz. 
of salt, a pinch of white pepper, and a little nutmeg. 

Mix the whole well ; put it into the gut, without overfilling 
the latter, and tie round with string at regular intervals. Now 
set the boudins on a willow lattice, and plunge them into a 
receptacle full of boiling water. From this moment keep the 
water at 203° F., and let the boudins poach for twelve minutes. 
This done, withdraw them, and let them cool. 

Before serving them, grill them very gently, and, as a pre- 
cautionary measure, wrap them in buttered paper. Do not 
cisel them, but prick them with a pin. 

Serve a purc^e of potatoes with cream at the same time. 

1406— BOUDINS BLANCS DE VOLAILLE 

Pound separately one lb. of raw chicken fillets and three- 
quarters lb. of fresh fat bacon. 

Combine the two products in the mortar; pound again with 
the view of thoroughly mixing them, and add three oz. of 
chopped onion, cooked in butter without colouration, together 
with a little thyme and bay; one-half oz. of salt, a pinch of 
white pepper, and a little nutmeg. 

Mix the whole well, and add four more eggs, one by one, 
working the forcemeat vigorously the while with the pestle. 

Rub through a fine sieve ; return the forcemeat to the mortar, 
and add thereto, little by little, one pint of boiled and very 
cold milk. 

Put the forcemeat into the gut; poach it in the bain-marie, 
and set it to grill, observing the same precautions as in the 
preceding recipe. 

Serve a purde of potatoes with cream at the same time as the 
boudins. 

1407— BOUDINS NOIRS 

Make the following preparation, putting the various in- 
gredients into a basin : — One lb. of very fresh pork fat, cut into 
large dice, and half-melted; one sixth pint of thick cream; two 
eggs; six oz. of chopped onions, cooked in lard without coloura- 



462 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY 

tion ; two-thirds oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper, and a little spice; 
a pinch of wild-thyme leaves, and a leaf of bay, both chopped. 

Mix the whole well, and put it into the gut without over- 
filling it, for it should be borne in mind that the preparation 
swells in poaching. 

Set the boudins on willow lattices or baskets; plunge them 
into boiling water, and, from that time, keep the latter at 
203° F. 

Let them poach for twenty minutes, and remember to prick 
all those that, by rising to the surface, show they contain air, 
^\hich might burst their skins. When about to serve them, 
cisel them on both sides, and grill them very gently. 

They are generally accompanied by a potato purde with 
cream. 

1408— BOUDINS NOIRS A L'ANGLAISE 

Have ready the same preparation as for black boudins, given 
above, and add to it three-quarters lb. of rice, cooked in con- 
somm6 and kept somewhat firm. Poach as before, and leave to 
cool. Cisel the boudins, and grill them over a moderate fire. 

Serve very hot with an apple purde. 

1409— BOUDINS NOIRS A LA FLAMANDE 

Have ready the same preparation as for black boudins, and 
add to it three oz. of moist sugar, two oz. of raisins, and the 
same quantity of currants, washed and swelled in lukewarm 
water. 

Put the preparation into the gut, and poach in the usual 
way. 

When about to serve, grill these boudins gently, after the 
manner of black boudins, and send them to the table with a 
sugared apple sauce. 

Crepinettes and Sausages. 
1410— CREPINETTES TRUFFEES 

Add to two lbs. of very good sausage-meat, four oz. of 
chopped truffles, and two tablespoonfuls of truffles cooking- 
liquor. Mix the whole well ; divide into portions weighing two 
and one-half oz., and wrap each portion in a square of pig's 
caul. Shape the crepinettes thus formed rectangularly. 
Sprinkle with melted butter, and grill gently. 

Dish them in a circle ; pour a Perigueux sauce in their midst, 
and serve a potato purde with cream separately. 



RELEVES AND ENTREES 463 

1411— CR^PINETTES A LA CENDRILLON 

Prepare the crepinettes as above; wrap them in a double 
sheet of buttered paper ; over them set a heap of cinders covered 
with burning embers, and keep the latter alive for a space of 
twenty minutes, when the cooking operation should be com- 
pleted. 

F