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Full text of "German national cookery for American kitchens : a practical book of the art of cooking as performed in Germany"

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LIBRARY OF THE 
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OF HOME ECONOMICS 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY 
ITHACA, NEW YORK 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000722862 



GERMAN NATIONAL COOKERY 



FOR 



AMERICAN KITCHENS 

A PRACTICAL BOOK OF THE ART OF COOKING AS 
PERFORMED IN GERMANY * 

BY 

HENRIETTE DAVIDIS 



Compiled and adapted for the United States, according to the 

Thirty-fifth German Original, with Weights and Measures 

in American equivalents, and an Appendix of 

Selected Recipes of Peculiar American 

Dishes 

Embracing also a Topically arranged List of over 550 Char- 
acteristic German Dishes in German, with English trans- 
lation, giving page where these Recipes can be found ; 
also a Vocabulary of Culinary Terms in both 
languages, with full Table of Contents and 
Indices 



THIRD AMERICAN AUGMENTED AND ILLUSTRATED EDITION 



PUBLISHED BY 

C. N. CASPAR CO. BOOK EMPORIUM 

MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



Copyrighted 1904, by C. N. CASPAR COMPANY. 



Note— Copies of oar American edition in German of this Cook Book can also be 
had from your dealer, or from the Publishers, C. N. Caspar Co., Milwaukee, 
Wis. Price, in either language, $1.25, post-paid. 



Publishers' Note. 



"Henriette Davidis' Practical Cook Book" is recog- 
nized in Germany as being the standard authority in 
all matters pertaining to the culinary art. Its popular- 
ity and worth are evidenced by the fact that thirty-five 
editions have already been printed, and the demand for 
the book continues to be as great as. at any time since 
its first appearance, because it is universally acknowl- 
edged as being the best and most practical of all cook 
books which have appeared in that country. 

The original book of Mrs. Davidis has been con- 
stantly revised and kept up to date with each successive 
edition ; in the preface to the German publication Mrs. 
Louise"Holle, who, for a number of years past, has been 
in charge of this important work, says : _ 

"The progress made in science and industrial meth- 
ods during recent years has especially been the means 
of introducing manifold innovations in the culinary 
art, and I have endeavored to place all that has proved 
to be of real practical value in this direction at the dis- 
posal of the users of this Cook Book. ^ 

Furthermore, greater 'demands are to-day made 
upon the cook than formerly. Without any reference 
to luxury a greater variety of dishes is expected, owing 
to a general realization that this is conducive to a 
better nutrition of the body, and that such variety is 
often attainable with the simplest materials. — Food 
preparations for invalids have received proper atten- 
tion, and the receipts in this book for dishes for the sick 
room will prove invaluable. 



It may not be superfluous to say that none of the 
following receipts have been selected without a distinct 
knowledge of their value in each instance, many of 
them being of my own invention, and all having been 
tried in actual kitchen practice." 

Appreciating the fact that we have in America many 
thousands of families comprising not only German- 
Americans, but among them many native Americans 
who are fond of cooking according to the German 
methods, the publishers determined to bring theDavidis 
Cook Book within the reach of those not familiar with 
the German language, and to this end we have made a 
careful compilation and translation of the thirty-fifth 
edition of the book, which we now take pleasure in plac- 
ing upon the market. The German (metrical) weights 
and measures have been changed to conform to those 
in vogue and best understood in this country, and all 
designations of dishes and ingredients have been given 
in every-day English, avoiding the use of French appel- 
lations commonly found in other cook books. In an 
appendix are contained a number of receipts "for the 
preparation of a variety of dishes specifically American 
in their character. Out edition has also been augmented 
by the addition of an 1 English-German vocabulary of 
culinary terms. The typographical arrangement of this 
book conforms in its general character to the one pub- 
lished in Germany. 

We trust that our American "Davidis Cook Book" 
will be found to meet every requirement anticipated in 
a practical, common sense handbook for the kitchen, 
and that it will prove to be as popular and gain as 
many friends as its European predecessor. 

C. N. CASPAR COMPANY, 



CONTENTS. 



I. Publishers' Note 3 — 4 

II. Alphabetical Index ....... 8 — 43 

III. Introductory Directions 44 — 48 

A— Miscellaneous Receipts. 48 receipts. 1—12 

B— Soups. 

I. Meat Soups. 35 receipts .... 13 — 31 

II. Vegetable and Herb Soups. 19 \ 

receipts . , 32—40 

III. Wine and Beer Soups. 11 receipts . 40 — 43 

IV. Milk Soups and Water Soups. 20 

receipts 44—48 

V. Fruit Soups. 9 receipts 49 — 50 

VI. Cold Soups. 11 receipts . .' . : 50-52 

C. — Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

I. Vegetables. 88 receipts 53 — 86 

II. Potatoes. 19 receipts « 86—92 

D — Meats. General Directions .... 93— 96 

1. Beef. 61 receipts 96—116 

II. Veal. 39 receipts 117—129 

III. Mutton. 15 receipts 129—134 

IV. Tame Hare or Rabbits. 5 receipts 135—137 
V. Pork. 29 receipts 138—147 

VI. Game. 12 receipts 147—153 

VII. Tame and Wild Fowl. 53 receipts . 154—177 

E.^Meat and Game Pies. - 

I. Large Game Pies. 25 receipts . . 178—191 
II. Small Meat Pies or Patties. 15 

receipts • 192-196 

F.— Fish and Shell Fish. General Direc- 
tions ' 197-201 

I. Fresh Water Fish. 42 receipts . . 201—215 

II. Salt Water Fish. 43 receipts . . . 216—227 



vi Contents. 

G.— Kaee Dishes of Various Kinds. 20 

different Receipts . 228—234 

H— Hot Puddings. 43 receipts .... 235—249 

I.— Souffles and Various Dishes of Mac- 
aroni and JVoodles. 45 receipts . . 250—262 

K. — Crullers, Omelettes and Pancakes. 

39 receipts 263—272 

L.— Dishes Prepared with Eggs, MrLK, 

Rice or Cornmeal. 27 receipts . . 273—280 

M— Jellies and Ices. General Directions 281—284 

I. " Sour Jellies. 19 receipts 284—291 

II. Sweet Clear Jellies. 13 receipts . . 292—296 

III. Ices. 10 receipts 296-298 

N.— Various- Cold Sweet Dishes, such as 
Puddings, Blanc -Manges, Whipped 
Cream, Fruit Sauces, and Wine-, 
Milk- and Fruit. Ices. 62 receipts . 299 — 315 

0.— Dumplings. 

I. Dumplings for Soups and Fricasees. 

21 receipts 316—320 

II. Dumplings to be eaten with Sauce or 

Fruits. 25 receipts 321—326 

P.— Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 

General Directions 327—328 

I. Fresh Fruits. 40 receipts .... 328—336 

II. Dried Fruits. 6 receipts 336—337 

Q— Salads and Lettuces. 32 receipts . 338—349 

R.— Sauces. 

I. Hot and Cold Sauces for Fish. Meat, 
Vegetables and Potatoes, a. Hot 

Sauces. 54 receipts 350—361 

b. Cold Sauces and Gravies. 15 

receipts 362—365 

II. Wine-, Milk- and Fruit Sauces. 21 

receipts 365—369 



Contents. vii 

S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

I. Cakes. 92 receipts 370—400 

II. Tarts, Cookies,, etc. 38 receipts . . 400—410 
III. Cakes baked in Butter and Lard and 

Oil. 15 receipts 410-425 

T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits and 

Vegetables. Kules 416—418 

I. Fruits preserved in French Brandy. 

7 receipts 418-419 

ll. Preserved Fruits. 33 receipts . . 419 — 427 

III. Fruits preserved in Sugar and Vin- 

egar. 6 receipts 427 — 429 

IV. Pickled Vegetables 12 receipts '. . 429—433 

U. — Dried and Pickled Vegetables. 13 

receipts ' . 434—438 

V.— Beverages, Cordials, Etc. 

I. Beverages. 56 receipts 439—451 

II. Liquors and Cordials. 11 receipts . 452 — 453 

W.— Pressed and Smoked Meats, Meat 

Jellies, Etc. 13 receipts 454—458 

Z— Fruit Wine and Vinegar. 7 receipts . 459—462 

The American Kitchen. 

Soups. 10 receipts 463—465 

Vegetables. 12 receipts 465—470 

Meats. 20 receipts 470—476 

Fish. 13 receipts 476-480 

Shell Fish. 8 receipts 480—481 

Poultry. 8 receipts 481—483 

Bread, Fritters, Crullers, etc. 27 receipts . 483-489 

Cakes, Cookies, etc. 52 receipts 489—498 

Pies and Puddings. 20 receipts ...... 499—504 

Preserves, Jellies and Pickles. 30 receipts . 504—513 

Beverages, Candies, etc. 10 receipts . . . 513—516 

Table of Measures. Time Table for 

Cooking 517 

Vocabulary of Culinary Terms .... 518—520 



Alphabetical Index. 



Division A. — Miscellaneous Receipts. 



Page 



Almond Forcemeat . . . 
Almond Paste .... 
Anchovy Butter .... 
Anchovies, how to prepare 



Beef Forcemeat 
Brown Broth . 
Browned Butter 
Browned Flour 



Celery and Parsnips for Soups 
Chestnuts prepared for vari 

ous cooking purposes . 
Clarified or melted Butter 
Clarifying Sugar .... 
( leaning and scalding Rice 
Clear Broth for White Stews 
Coloring for Brown, Soups, Ra- 
gouts and Sauces . . 

Crab Butter 

Crabs with Dressing . , 
Crean^of Anchovies for Meat 

Patties or Toast . . 
Currants, how to wash . 

D 

Dill in Vinegar for pickling 
' purposes 



10 

2 
1 
2 
5 

6 

3 

10 



12 



11 



E 

Eggs in Soups, Gravies and 

Stews 

Epicurean Butter .... 



Page 



■+■ 



5 

T 
1 
1 



4 
1 



Fairy Butter 

Fat, to fry 

Fish Forcemeat ... 

Flour browned in Butter . 

Flour rubbed in Butter 

Forcemeat Dressing for Pig- 
eons or a Breast of Veai 

Fried Bread for Soups and 
Dumplings 

Frosting 

a 



Goose Oil 4 

/ K 
Kidney Suet, to prepare . . 5 



Lemons, how to keep . . .'13 
Liver Forcemeat ... 6 

M 

Mushrooms 9 

Mustard \\ 



Alphabetical Index. 

Page 



Onions, to scald 10 

Orange Peel, how to preserve 13 



Parsley Butter 3 

Parsnips and Celery for Soups 9 
Pepper , Cloves and Mace , 

when to prepare ... 11 

Pistachios ....... 10 

Poultry Forcemeat .... 7 

R 

Raisin Forcemeat .... 8 

Raisins, how to clean ... 12 

Rice, cleaning and scalding . , 3 



S 



Sago, to prepare . . . 
Spice Extract for Stews 
Sugar, to clarify . . . 



Page 



11 
1 



T 



Truffles 



Veal Forcemeat for Soups and 

Dumplings 7 

Veal Sweetbreads for Stews 

and Gravies 10 

W 

White £tew, Clear Broth for . g 



Division B.— -Soups. 



Page 
A 

Apple Soup 49 

Apple Soup with Currants . 49 

Apricot Cold Soup .... 51 

B 

Barley Soup for invalids . . 47 

Beef Broth Soup for invalids 31 
Beef Soup with Pearl Barley 

and Rice 18 

BeefTea 30 

Beer Cold Soup 52 

Beer Soup with Raisins . . 43 

Beer Soup with Milk ... 43 

Bread Soup for invalids . . 48 

Brown Flour Soup .... 47 
Brown Soug made from Bones 

of Hare, Game or Roasts 29 

Buttermilk Cold Soup ... 52 
Buttermilk with Pearl Barley, 

good for invalids ... 46 
Buttermilk with Prunes or 

Raisins 46 



Page 



Calf's Head Soup . . . 


22 


Cherry Cold Soup . . . 


51 


Cherry Soup 


49 


Chicken Soup 


23 


Chocolate Soup .... 


46 


Clear Brown Beef isoup 


18 


Clear White Beef Soup 


17 


Coarse Barley Groats Soup 


41 


Cornmeal Soup .... 


46 


Crab Soup 


26 


Dried Prunes Soup . . 


50 


Dumplings in Soups . . 
E 


. 16 


Early Vegetable Soup . . 


. 34 


Eel Soup. (Bremen style) 


. 36 


Eel Soup. ( Hamburg style) 


26 


Extract of Beef Soup . . 


. 17 



Alphabetical Index. 



f 

French (vegetable) Soup 
Fish Soup ..... 
Frothy Beer Soup . . 

a 

Game Soup with Tapioca 
German Soup . . . 
Gravy Soup .... 
Green Tea Soup . . . 
Grits Soup with Milk . 

H 

Hare Soup ..... 
Hasty Cracker Soup 
Hasty Beef Soup . . 
Hasty Beer Soup . . 
Herb Soup for invalids 
Hotch Potch or Scotch Soup 

J 

Jacobine Soup .... 



Page Page 

Old Pea S*oup 3S 

Onion Soup (South Germany 

style) 47 

Orange Cold Soup .... 51 

Ox-tail Soup 20 

Ox- tongue Soup 19 

Oyster Soup 25 



19 

27 
42 



Kaiser Soup of Wild Fowl and 
Rabbit or Hare .... 



Lentil Soup 

Lentil Soup with Partridges . 

M 

Mock Turtle Soup .... 

Mutton Broth 

Milk Soup served either warm 

*" or cold 

Mixed Fruit Soup for invalids 

Noodle Soup with Milk . . 
Nutritious Milk Soup . . . 



Oatmeal Soup for invalids 
Oatmeal Sou>" ^ith Milk . 
Oatmeal Soup with Potatoes 



31 
35 

21 
34 
45 

29 
41 
18 
42 
40 
39 

30 



25 

37 
37 



28 
23 

44 
50 



45 

44 



48 
46 
33 



Partridge Soup 30 

Pearl Barley and White Wine 

Soup 41 

Pearl Barley and Milk Soup 45 

Pigeon Soup for invalids . . 81 

Plum Soup 49 

Plum Soup with Milk ... 49 

Potato Soup 33 

Princess Soap ..... 22 

Prune Soup for invalids . . 50 

a 

Quantities and length of time 
for cooking Sago, Rice, 

Barley and Fancy Noodles 16 

Quick Beef Broth .... 16 

E 

Rice Soup with Milk ... 45 

Rice Soup with Raisins . . 42 

Russian Cabbage Soup . . 32 

S 

Sago or Rice Cold Soup ... 51 

Sago Soup with Claret . . 41 

Sago Soup with Milk ... 46 

Schweriner Soup .... 35 

Silesian Celery Soup ... 38 

Sorrel Soup 38 

Soup it l'aurore 39 

Soup, how to make stronger . 16 

Soup made with Pastry Dough 47 
Soup Stock, general directions 

for cooking .... 13 — 14 

Soups, to thicken .... 15 

Soup, Vegetables and Meat . 32 

Split Pea Soup 35 



Alphabetical, Index. 



XI 



Strawberry and Raspberry 

Cold Soup 

Strawberry Soup . . . . 
Sweet Barley Broth . . . 

T 

Thickening for Soups . . . 
Toast Soup for invalids . . 
Tomato Soup 



Page Page 

Vegetable Soups made with 

Extract of Beef ... 34 
Vegetables in Soups ... 15 



51 
49 

48 



V 



Veal Soilp .... 
Veal Soup for invalids 
Veal Sweetbread Soup 



15 
48 
18 



21 
31 
22 



W 



Westphalian Cold Soup 


. 52 


Whipped Cream . . . 


52 


Whipped Sour Cream . . 


52 


White Bean Soup' . . . 


36 


White Fibur Soup . . . 


47 


White Wine Soup . . . 


. 40 


Windsor Soup .... 


24 


Wine Soup, plain .... 


41 


Wine Soup for invalids . . 


43 


Wine Cold Soup .... 


50 



bivision C. — Vegetables. 



A 

Artichokes 

Artichokes for invalids . . 

Asparagus 

Asparagus, imperial (Kaiser) 
Asparagus in rusks . . . . ■ 
Asparagus, stewed .... 
Asparagus, with young Carrots 

B 

Beans, salad, pickled . . . 
Beans, sliced .... 
Beans, sliced, with Milk . . 

Beans, string 66- 

Beans, string, pickled . . . 

Beans, white 

Brussels Sprouts 

Butter Beans 

C 

Cabbage, filled 

Cabbage, red, (Kappes) . . 

Cabbage, stuffed 

Cabbage, white 



Page Page 
Cabbage, white,. with Mutton 

(Mecklenburgstyle) . . 73 
Cabbage, winter (Bremen 

85 style) 80 

60 Carrots and Peas .... 62 

61 Carrots, early 62 

61 Carrots, winter 78 

60 Cauliflower 68 

61 Cauliflower with Parmesan 
Cheese 69 

Celery, stewed ..... 75 

Celery, stuffed . . . . . 75 

Chestnuts, sweet 78 

Cleanliness 53 

Cucumbers, cooked .... 76 

Cucumbers, stewed .... 75 

Cucumbers, stuffed .... 76 



Dandelions 58 

Duck in Savoy Cabbage . . 71 

E 

Egg Plant 69 

Endives 59 



xn 



Alphabetical Index. 



G 

Greens for the family table . 

Greens from stems and stalks 

of turnips and beet tops . 

H 

Hints on cooking Vegetables 

How to cook preserved Beans 
and Cabbage tender rap- 
idly 

How to economize in using 
Butter and how to rapidly 
cook the Vegetables ten- 
der ......... 

Hunter's Cabbage (Jager-Kohl) 



Kohlrabi . . 
Kohlrabi, filled 



Leipzig Hotch Potch . . . 

Lentils 

Lentils in Mecklenburg style 
Lettuce, stewed 

M 

Mushrooms, fresh .... 
Mushrooms, fried .... 
Mushrooms, stuffed .... 

O 

Onions, stewed , 

Onions, stuffed 



Parsnips 

Peas, dried, or Pea Puree 
Peas, green 



Peas, green, boiled with Spring 

Chicken and Crabs . 
Peas, green, with Codfish . 

Peas, sweet 

Potato Balls (Rissoles) . . 
Potato Noodles .... 
.Potatoes and fresh Pears 



59 
59 

53 
55 

53 
73 

68 



61 

85 
85 
67 



77 
77 
77 

75 

75 

79 
84 



63 
64 
64 
91 
91 
90 



Page 

Potatoes, baked, with Cheese 90 

Potatoes, baked, with Sausages 89 

Potatoes, breaded .... 88 

Potatoes, curried .... 89 
Potatoes, roasted .... 88, 92 

Potatoes, sliced ( German style) 91 

Potatoes, stuffed 90 

Potatoes, Spareribs and sour 

Apples baked together . 89 

Potatoes with Apples ... 90 

Potatoes with Buttermilk . 88 

Potatoes with Herring . . 87 
Potatoes with Parsley and 

boiled Fish 87 

Potatoes with various kinds 

ofSauces 87 

Puree of White Beans for con- 
valescents' 85 

S 

Salsify or Oysterplant ... 56 

Savoy Cabbage 71 

Serving 55 

Shredded Cabbage (Westphal- 

ian style) 81 

Sorrel . 58 

Sourkrout 81 

Sourkrout with Pheasants and 

Ojsters 83 

Sourkrout with Pike ... 82 
Sourkrout with Oysters and 

Rhinewine 83 

Sour Potatoes with Bay Leaves 87 

Spinach 57 

57 
57 
58 



Spinach (French style) . . 
Spinach (Saxony style) . . 
Spinach, moulded .... 
Spinach Stalks cooked as a 

vegetable 

Spinach with Rice .... 

T 



58 
58 



To cook Beans salted for Win- 
ter use 83 

To preserve the fresh color of 
Vegetables 54 



Alphabetical. Index. 



xiii 



Page 

Tomatoes, Spanish 79 

Tomatoes, stuffed .... 79 

Truffles, filled 77 

Turnips 80 

Turnips, early 65 

Turnips, early, with Mutton . 65 
V 



Vegetables, mixed .... 
Vegetables, mixed, with Mut- 
ton (.English style) . . 



64 



1 Page 

Vegetables, Spanish mixed, or 

HotchPotch .... 66 
Vegetables with Barley Groats 67 

W 



Warmed-over dishes ... 55 
When Vegetables should be 

thickened 55 



Division D. — Meats. 



I. BEEP. 



Beefalamode 

Beef au Oratin 

Beef prepared like a Hare 

Boast 

Beef Boll 

Beefsteaks 

Beefsteak, chopped .... 

Beefsteak, raw 

Beef, pickled 

Beef, smoked ...... 

Beef, stewed 

Beef stewed in Beer . . . 

Breakfast Stew 

Breakfast Stew (Pinkelsteiner 

Fleisch) 

Brown Bagout of small Beef 

Dumplings 

C 

Crusted boiled Soup Meat . 

Charles X 

Cooking Meat 



Page 

98 
111 

101 
111 
103 
104 
104 
115 
116 
104 
102 
107 

106 

105 

112 
109 

94 



E 



Escallop* with Mustard Sauce 105 



Page 
F 

Filet of Beef 97 

Filet of Beef with Madeira 

Sauce 98 

Fried Chopped Beef ... 108 
Fried Meat Loaf made of fresh 

Meat 109 

Fried minced Scallops (Ger- 
man Panhas) .... 115 

Fried Sour Rolls 115 

Fried Tongue as a side dish . 108 

Fricco, Spanish 106 

G 



Gravy 
Goulash (an 


Hungarian 


dish) 


95 

105 


Hash N . 


H 


. J . 


113 



Hash made of Soup Meat or 
remnants of Boast . . 



113 



Irish Stew made of Meat rem- 
nants 112 



Kettle Boast 97 



XIV 



Alphabetical Index. 



Page 
Xj 

Larding 93 

M 

Meat Balls, hasty .... 110 
Meat Balls made of Eoast or 

Boiled Meat remnants . 110 

Meat Cream 114 

Meat Fritters ( Dominikarier- 

schnittej 114 

Meat Loaf 109 

Meat Loaf, stewed .... 110 

Meat Pudding a la Zurich . 1 15 
Meat, prepairing .... 93 

Meat remnants 96 

Milan Eoast 100 



Ox-tongue Brown Ragout . 107 

B 

Ribs of Beef for invalids . .116 

Roasting ' "" 9 1 

Roast Beef 96 



• Page 

Roast Beef with Dressing . 102 

Roast Beef, left over, to warm 101 

Rolled Roast 97 

Rosini Fillet 98 

Round of Beef 102 

S 



Salted Tongue for Sandwiches 


108 




108 


Small Forcemeat Balls . . 


110 




116 


Soup Meat Stewed with Ap- 




ples 


118 


Soup Meat with Onions . . 


118 


Soup with Raisin Sauce . . 


114 


Soup Meat Cutlets .... 


112 


Soup Meat Kagont .... 


114 


Soup Meat Salad .... 


113 


Sour Beef (Sauerbraten) . . 


99 


Soup Meat, stewed, served 




with the Potatoes after 






112 



White Fricassee of Tongue . 107 



II. VEAL. 



Breast of Veal, stewed 
Brest of Veal, stuffed 



Page 

118 
118 



Calf's Brain Ragout ... 123 

Calf's Head, baked . . . . 124 
Calf's Head, Boiled, with 

Gravy 124 

Calf's Head, Brown Ragout . 125 

Calf s Head Brawn .... 124 
Calf's Head, English, or Mock 

Turtle Ragout .... 123 

E 

Escallops 125 



Fricandeau of Veal . . . 
Fricandeau of Veal, Hunter's 
Fried Cold Veal Slices . , 



Leg or Loin of Veal, roast 

Liver, fried 

Liver Dumplings . . 
Liver, stewed . . . . 



119 

118 
127 



117- 
126 
127 
126 



M 

Meatballs made of Boiled Veal 127 
Minced Kidney with Roast 

Veal . . . ... . 118 



AWEASKtCAL Index. 



XV 



Page 
N 

Neck of Veal, roast . . . . 117 

P 
Paprican (Hungarian dish) . 122 

R 

Ribs of Veal, stewed .. . . 120 

Roast Veal Ragout .... 128 
Roast, Veal, warmed over, a 

la Gourmand .... 128 

Roast Veal, warmed over . 127 
S 

Sausages of small Meatballs 

made of Cold Veal Roast 127 

Sweetbreads 124 

Sweetbread Fritters ... 120 



Page 
V 

Veal Roll, stuffed .... 122 

Veal Cutlets 121 

Veal Forcemeat Sausage . . 126 

Veal Kettle Roast .... 118 

Veal Roast for invalids . . 128 

Veal Rolls 12.1 

Veal Stew or Fricassee . . 121 

Veal Sweetbreads for invalids 129 
Veal Sweetbread Pudding for 

invalids 129 

Veal Steak, Vienna (Wiener- 
Schnitzel) 121 

Veal Tongue for invalids . 129 

Veal Steak for invalids . . 128 

Veal Kidney Fritters ... 120 



III.— IV. nUTTON. HARES 

Page 



H 

Hare, Brown Ragout (Kanin- 

chenpfeffer) 137 

Hare Soup, English ... 135 

Hare , roasted 136 

Hare Fricassee (White Ra- 
gout) 137 

Hare, tame , roasted like 

Wild Hare 136 

L 

Lamb Fricassee with Capers 

and Anchovy .... 133 
Lamb Chops for invalids . . 134 

M 

Mutton Chops, broiled . . 132 
Mutton sliced, fried . . . 134 
Mutton Curry 134 





Page 


Mutton and Lamb Chops 


132 


Mutton Fricassee .... 


133 


Mutton, Leg of, stewed . . 


131 




133 


Mutton, remnants, with Pick- 


134 


Mutton, stewed with Claret . 


132 


B 




Ragout of Roast or Boiled 


134 1 




131 


Roast Leg of Mutton . . . 

S 
Saddle of Lamb Roasted like 


131 


132 


Saddle or Leg of Mutton pre- 
pared like Game . . . 


129 



XVI 



Alphabetical, Index. 



v.-pork. 

Page 



Page 



Frankfurth Sausages . . . 146 
French Loin of Pork with a 

Crust ( Mecklenburg style) 188 

H 

Harn, baked whole . . . 138 

Ham, boiled 140 

Ham Croquette 146 

Ham Remnants with Aspara- 
gus , . . 147 

Ham, prepared like "Wild 

Boar 139 

Ham with Burgundy Sauce . 141 

Ham with Madeira Sauce . 141 

P 

Pig, roast 142 

Pork Chops 143 

Pork Croquetts in South Ger- 
many style (Bueddeutsche 
Schnitzchen) . ; . . 144 



Pork Cutlets, chopped . . 143 

Pork Headcheese -. . . . 142 

Pork Sausage ...... 143 

Pork Steaks, chopped ... 144 

Pork, pickled 143 

Pork remnants, warmed over 146 

Pork Tenderloins .... 144 



B 



Roast Pork 

Roast Pork in packages . . 

S 

Sausages and Apples, fried • 
Sausages (fresh) "Mettwurst" 
Slices of Pickled Pork, fried 
Smoked Pigs Head, how to 
cook 



Smoked Pork Sausages 
Smoked Raw Ham Steaks 
Spare Ribs, stuffed . . . 
Sweet-sour Ragout of Pork 



139 
146 



145 
145 
146 

143 



145 
114 
142 
144 



VI.— VII. OAHE. 

c 

Capon Eemnants, baked . . 

Capon, roasted 

Capon, stewed with various 
kinds of Sauces . . . 

Chicken, baked in South Ger- 
many style (Backhaenel) 

Chickens, baked in gravy 

Chicken Fricassee in Rice with 
Crabs 

Chicken with Macaroni or 
Bice 

Chickens in Rice .... 

Chicken Souffle 

Chicken with Pearl Barley . 

Chickens with Tomatoes . . 

Curried Meats 



TAHE AND WILD FOWL. 



Page 



160 
160 

160 

162 
161 

163 

165 
165 
164 
165 
166 
175 



Page 
D 

Ducks a la Francaise . . . 168 

Duck, roasted 167 

Ducks, stewed in a Brown 

Gravy 168 

Ducks stewed with Onions . 167 

Ducks with Claret .... 167 

Ducks with Dumplings . . 168 

Ducks with new Turnips . . 169 

Ducks, jellied 169 



Fricassee of Capons, Young 
Spring Chickens or Pigeons 
with Crabs 162 

Fricassee or Ragout with a 
Rice Border 164 



Alphabetical Index. 



xvn 



Page 
G 

Game Hash 153 

Game Headcheese .... 153 
, General rules for the disposi- 
tion and preparation of 

Game 147 

Goose Giblets 171 

Goose Giblets in Westphalian 

style 170 

Goose in jelly 170 

Goose Liver, fried .... 170 

Goose Neck, stuffed ... 172 

Goose Ragout 172 

Goose, roasted 169 



Hare Ragout ( Hasenpfeffer) 150 

Hare, roast 149 

Hare , stewed and steamed . 150 

Hen-turkey in a Fricassee 

i Sauce 159 



Patridge Cutlets for invalids 176 
Partridges, Grouse or Prairie 

Chickens 173 

Partridges in Saxony style . 174 

Pheasants with Macaroni . 173 

Pheasants with Sourkraut . 173 

Pheasant, roasted .... 172 

Pigeons, roasted 166 



Page 
Pigeons with Asparagus Tips 166 
Poultry, remnants, minced for 

invalids ...... 177 

Prairie Chickens with Gravy,. 



cold 



174 



S 



Salmi of Snipe, Grouse and 




Wild Ducks 


175 




174 


Spring Chicken, roasted . . 


161 


Spring Chicken and Pigeon 






163 


Spring Chicken in Sauce . . 

T 
To Bone Poultry .... 


164 


157 




158 


Turkey with Forcemeat . . 


158 


Turkey in Vienna styl§ • • 


159 



Venison Chops, (Mailaender 

Rehrippchen) . . . .152 
Venison Ragout .' . . . . 152 
Venison, Roast Haunch of .151 
Venison, Roast Loin of . . 151 
Venison, stewed shoulder of 153 



W 



Wild Duck 
Wild Goose 



169 

172 



Division E. — Meat and Game Pies, etc. 



I. LARGE riEAT PIES. 

Page 



Crab Pie or Fricassee ... 188 

E 
Eel Pie 190 



r 



Page 



Fine Meat Pie ..... 188 
Forcemeat Pie ..... 187 
Fresh Fish Pie 188 



XVIII 



Alphabetical Index. 



G 

Game Pie, water crust .. . 
Goose Liver Patties . . . 

H 

Hare or Wild Fowl Pie with 

butter crust 

Hot Meat Pie 



M 

Macaroni Pie with Ham and 

Cheese 

Meat Pie^ English .... 
Mixed Meat Pies .... 
Mock Turtle Pie .... 



Page Page 

Pie of Whole Fishes ... 189 
Picnic Pie ....... 191 



183 
178 



184 
187 



188 
187 
185 
186 



S / 

Salmon Pie 190 

Salmon Pie, Russian . . . 190 

T 

Timbale with Ragout . . . 183 

Timbale of Grouse .... 180 
Timbale of Macaroni and Loin 

of Venison . . . . 182 

Timbale (turned Meat Pies) . 180 
V 

Veal Pie, cola 191 

Venison Pie 184 



II. SHALL MEAT PIES. 

Page 



Anchovy Patties .... 193 



Baking Small Meat Pies . .192 
Brown Gravy Patties . ■ . . 194 



Chicken Patties 192 

Chicken Patties, baked . . 196 
Chicken or Veal Patties with 

Cheese 192 

Crab Patties 194 

H 

Hasty Patties made from Meat 

remnants 195 

M 

Mushroom Patties .... 195 



Oyster Patties 



Page 
194 



Patties in Moulds .... 195 
Puff Paste Ornaments (Fleu- 

rons/ . 193 



Rice Patties 195 

S 
Sweetbread Patties .... 193 

T 
Talleyrand Patties .... 196 

V 

Veal Patties 193 



Alphabetical Index. 
Division F.— Fish and Shell Fish. 



XIX 



I. FRESH WATER FISH. 

Page 



Blue Pike with Butter and 
Horseradish 

Brook Trout, boiled with a 
blue color 

Burbot, fried 



Carp, baked whole . . 
Carp cooked blue . . 
Carp, cold with Sauce . 
Carp and Eel mixed 
Carp, Fillet of . . . 
Carp, Hungarian . . 
Carp in Mayonaise Sauce 
Carp, pickled .... 
Carp, stuffed ..... 
Carp with a Claret Sauce 
Carp with a Polish Sauce 



E 

Eels, boiled 

Eel in cases 

Eel, Fricasseeof, Bremen style 
Eel, fried ....... 

Eel, pickled 

Eel Pout or Burbot .... 

Eel, rolled 

Eel Stew (English style) . . 
Eel, stewed 



211 

206 

215 



209 

207 
210 
208 
209 
209 
210 
210 
208 
207 
207 



202 
2d5 
203 
204 
205 
215 
204 
205 
203 



a 



Page 



General directions for prepar- 
ing and cooking fish, to- 
gether with a table show- 
ing when they are in 
season 197- 



-201 



Perch Hollandaise .... 210 

Perch in a French Sauce . . 211 

Pike, baked 213 

Pike, baked with Sour Cream 214 

Pike, chopped and baked . 212 

Pike, Fricassee of . . . . 214 

Pike, larded 212 

Pike Salad 215 

Pike Steaks with Savory 

Herbs 215 

Pike, stewed 212 

Pike with Egg Sauce ... 214 
Pike with Parmesan Cheese 

and Onions 213 

S 

Salmon, boiled 201 

Salmon, pickled 202 

Salmqn with Savory Herbs . 202 

T 

Trout, baked 207 

Trout Steaks with varions 
kinds of Sauces and Vege- 
tables 206 



SALT WATER FISH. 

Page 



Anchovy Sandwiches 



Bloaters, broiled 



223 



225 



Caviar Sandwiches . . . 
Cod Fish, boiled . . . 
Cod Fish , fresh .... 
Cod Fish Roulades, stewed 
Crabs 1 227 



Page 

223 
217 
218 
218 



XX 



Fish Pudding 
Fish Rice . 



Alphabetical Index. 



Page Page 

Lobster Salad . with Caviar 

Sandwiches 227 

. . 228 



Haddock, boiled 

Haddock, stuffed .... 
Haddock with Savory Herbs 
Haddock in Hamburg style . 
Herring, broiled . . 
Herring Cream . . 
Herring for tea . . 
Herring, fresh, boiled 
Herring, fresh, fried 
Herring, pickled . . 
Herring Rolls . . 
Herring, salt, fried in 

lenburg style 
Herring with Remoulade 

Sauce . 



Lobster, boiled . . . ; . 

Lobster Fricassee with Fish 

Balls and Asparagus . . 



Meck- 



227 
223 



219 
219 
219 
220 
221 
225 
225 
224 
224 
224 
225 

224 

225 



225 
226 



Lobsters, American 
M 
Mackerel, boiled 



222 



Oysters, fried , 227 

Oyster Stew 227 

S 

Smelts, boiled 222 

Soles, baked .221 

Soles, boiled 221 

Soles, Fillet of . i. . . . 221 
Soles, Fillet of, baked with 

Sauce 222 

Soles, fried 221 

Soles, fried with Lemon Juice 222 

Soles, fried, Bremen style .. 221 

Sturgeon a la Epicure . . . 216 

Sturgeon, boiled 216 

Sturgeon Steaks 216 

0? 

Turbot, baked 220 

Turbot, boiled 220 

Turbot, crusted ..... 220 



Division Q. — Rare Dishes, 



B 

Badger, Ragout of .... 233 

Badger, roast ...... 233 

Bear, roast ....... 234 

Bears Paws 233 

Beaver Tails, roast .... 234 

C 

Coot 231 

F 

Frog Leg Pie ...... 231 

Frog Legs, Ragout of . . . 231 

a 

Guinea, Fowl ....... 231 



Page 
M 

Mountain Cock or Grouse . 232 

Mountain Cock Pies . . . 233 

P 

Peacock, roast. A Suabian 

receipt , 231 

Peacock Pie, Suabian . . . 232 

Ptarmigan or White Grouse 231 

S 

Snail Salad 231 

Snail Soup 230 

Snails in Sauce 230 

T 

Turtle Soup 228 

^Turtle Soup, canned . . . 229 



Alphabetical Index. 
Division H. — Hot Puddings, 



XXI 



Page 
243 

242 
214 

244 

241 



Berlin Pudding 

Biscuit Pudding served either 

Warm or Cold .... 
Bread (Zwieback) Pudding . 
Bread Puddings with Currants 

or Cherries 

Brown Sago Pudding . . . 

C 

Cabinet Pudding .... 239 

Chocolate Pudding .... 243 

Common Pudding with Yeast 245 

Crab Pudding 248 

Cream Pudding with Maca- 
roons 241 

Currant Pudding .... 240 

E 

English Apple Pudding . . 237 

English Chestnut Pudding . 238 

English Plum Pudding . . 236 

English Warm Meat Pudding 247 

F 

Farina Pudding 239 

Figaro Pudding 240 

Fine Pudding with Yeast . . 2i5 

Fish Pudding 248 

Flour and Bread Pudding with 
Fruit, particularly Pears 
or fresh Plums . . . . , 245 

Fruit Pudding 246 

' H 
How Puddings are cooked . 235 

I 
Indian Pudding 247 



Page 
L 

Liver Pudding 249 

M" 
Neckar Pudding 247 

P 

Plum Pudding with Wheat 

Bread 237 

Potato Pudding 244 

Potato Pudding with Yeast . 245 

Portuguese Pudding ... 241 

Prince Regent Pudding . . 245 
Pudding made of cold Veal 

Roast 248 

Pudding made of remnants of 

boiled Cod Fish ... 249 

B 

Rice Puddings with Macaroons 238 

Roll Pudding 246 

Rolled English Pudding . . 237 

S 

Suabian Pudding .... 242 
Suet Pudding 238 

U 
Uncle Tom's Pudding ... 243 

V 
Vermicelli Pudding . . . 242 

W 

Warm Vanilla Pudding . . 243 
White Sago Pudding ... 241 



XXII 



Alphabetical Index. 
Division I. — Souffles, etc. 



A 

Apple Souffle 

, B 
Bread and Walnut Souffle 
Brussels Rice Souffle with 
Frosting 

C 

Chestnut Souffle 

Cheese Souffle to be served 

after the Soup . . 
Chocolate Souffle . . . » 
Convent Souffle 

D 

Dauphin Souffle 

E 
Egg (omelette) Souffle . . 

P 

Flour Souffle 

Form of the Mould, etc. ; . . 

G 

Grits or Eice Flour Souffle 
H 

Ham Noodles .' 

Herring Souffle 

I 

Italian Souffle, for Poultry and 
Fish Kagout 

M 

Macaroni and Ham and Par- 
mesan Cheese in equal 

i parts 

Macaroni, Potatoes and Eoast 

Macaroni with Kettle Roast . 

Macaroni with Parmesan 

Cheese 



Page Page 
Macaroni with Sauce, (Ham- 
burg style) 261 

Macaroni Pie with Ham and 

Cheese 260 

Marmalade Souffle ..... 235 

Meat Souffle 258 

N 

Noodle Souffle 259 

O 



256 



253 



251 



257 

258 
252 
253 



253 

254 

252 
250 

252 

261 
258 

259 



261) 
261 
261 



Omelette, plain y . .. . . 254 
Omelette Souffle 254 



Pineapple Souffle for invalids 259 
Plain Souffle of Apples, or of 

any kind of Fruit ... 256 

Potato Souffle 253 

Punch Souffle , Leipzig . . 257 

Remnants of Ham baked with 

Noodle Dough .... 263 

Rice and Apple Souffls . . 257 

Rice Noodles 262 

Rice Souffle 251 

Rice Souffle with Pineapple . 252 

S 

Sago Souffle ....... 251 

Souffle of Bitter Macaroons . 250 
Souffle of Macaroni, Ham and 

Parmesan Cheese . . . 260 
Souffle of Rice, Sweetbreads 

and Crab Butter . . . 258. 

Souffle with Sour Cherries . 255 

Sour Cream Souffle .... 255 

Sponge Souffle 254 

Strawberry Souffle .... 259 

V 



201 Vienna (Wiener) Apple Souffle 255 



Alphabetical Index. xxiii 

Division K. — Crullers, Omelettes and Pancakes. 



Page 
A 

Anise and Caraway Omelettes 269 

Apple Cakes, small .... 268 

Apple Pancake 268 

B 

Baked Noodles 270 

Bouillon Omelette .... 266 

Buckwheat Cakes .... 271 

C 

Cherry Omelettes .... 269 

Common Omelettes . . . 267 

Common Wheat Cakes . . 271 

Cornstarch Omelettes . . . 267 

Cracknels 265 

Cream Omelette 266 

Currant Cake ...... 268 

P 

Four-colored Omelettes . . 267 

French Toast 271 

G 

•General directions .... 263 

German Wafers (Plinsen; . 264 

H 

Huckleberry Omelettes . . 269 

K 

Karthusian Dumplings . . 272 



Page 
M 

Macaroon Omelettes * . . . 269 

K" 
Noodle Omelette .... 270 

O 

Omelette 265 

Omelette of Wheat Bread . 266 

Omelettes, plain 267 

Omelette with Rice . . . 270 
Omelette with remnants of 

Meat 266 

P 

Pancakes, plain 267 

Potato Omelettes .... 270 

Pork Omelettes 266 

Prune Omelettes .... 268 

B * 

Rice Dumplings 272 

Roll or Bread Omelettes . . 269 

S 

Sour Cream Wafers . . . 264 
Spanish Bread Pudding . . 272 

W 

Wafers filled with various rem- 
nants such as cooked Fruit 
or Veal 264 

Wheat Cakes, small . . . 270 

I 



Division L.— Dishes prepared with Milk, Rice, or 
Corn meal. 



Page 



E 



Page 



Barley with Sour Cream 
Beaten Milk .... 



280 Eggs, boiling 273 

277 Egg Cheese 376 



XXIV 



Alphabetical Index. 



Eggs, filled 

Eggs, fried 

Eggs in Marinade . . . . 

Egg Jelly 

Egg Mound 

Eggs, poached 

Eggs, scrambled 

Eggs with Mustard Sauce 

N » 

Noodles ... . . 

R 

Raw Whites of Eggs for inva- 
lids 



275 
275 
276 
277 
276 
274 
273 
275 

280 



276 



Page 

Rice, Arabian .... * 278 

Rice for Ragout 278 

Rice with Apples . |. . • 278 

Rice with Claret for invalids 278 

Rice in a bag 219 

Rice with Tomatoes . . 280 

Rice Pudding 277 

Rice, Turin 279 

Rice with Raisins .... 278 



S 

Sago Compot . . 
Sour Milk Cheese , 



279 

277 



Division M. — Jellies and Ices. 



Page 
A 

Apple Jelly 295 

B 

Baked Ice 297 

Beef Royal 288 

• C 

Calves' Head Jelly .... 289 
Chicken Mayonnaise with 

Jelly . . . ; . . 290 

Coloring Jellies 283 

D 
Bucks *a Jelly ...... 290 

E 
Eel in Jelly 286 

P 

Filled Capon in Jelly, with 

sauce 289 

Filled Goose in Jelly ... 290 
French Liquor Jelly . . .295 



Frozen Westphalian Pudding 297 

Fruit Ice Pudding 297 

Fruit Jelly with Cherry-, Rasp- 
berry- or Currant Syrup, 
and Gelatine .... 298 

G 

General directions .... 296 

J 

Jelly in Moulds 283 

295 

285 



Jelly of all kinds of Fruit 
Jelly of Beef or Poultry . . 
Jelly of Salted Tongue with 
Extract of Beef . . . 
Jelly of Sardines or Caviar 
Jelly with Rabbit .... 



287 
286 
286 



Lemon Jelly 294 

N 
Nesselrode Ice Pudding . . 298 



Alphabetical Index 

Page 



XXV 

Page 



Orange Baskets filled with 

Jelly ....... 296 

Orange Ice 297 



Pork Ribs in Jelly .... 289 

Punch Ice 297 

Punch Jelly 295 

Q 

Quince Ice 296 

R 

Raspberry Ice 297 

Ribbon Jelly 294 

S 

Salmon in Jelly 285 

Sour Jelly for Fish and Meat 285 



Sour Jellies of Calves' Feet for 

Fish and Meat .... 284 

Spring Chicken in Jelly . . 290 

T 

The various stocks for Jellies 281 
Turkey in Jelly 290. 

V 

Vanilla Ice 296 

Veal in Jelly .... 288,291 

W 

Wine Jelly 293 

Wine Jelly of Gelatine in Jelly 

dishes 292 

Wine Jellies made with Calves' 

Feet 292 

Wine Jelly made with Gela- 
tine 292 

Wine Jelly with Eggs, or, 

"Egg in the Nest" ... 293 



A 

Ambrosia' 

Almond Cream . . . 
Apple Cream, cold . . 
Apple pudding, fine 
Arrac Cream .... 

B 
Baden-Baden Pudding 
Beer Pudding . • • 

C 
Charlotte Russe . . • 
Cherry Cream . • • 
Chocolate Cream. . . 
Chocolate Cream without Eggs 
Chocolate Pudding without 



—Cold Sweet Dishes. 




Page 


Page 






308 


315 
809 


Common Sour Milk Pudding 


305 
314 


312 
3!2 
314 


Cup Blanc-mange .... 

a 

General directions .... 


306 
29ft 




German Blanc-mange . ... 


311 


303 
305 


Gooseberry Cream .... 
Gooseberry Sauce . . . . 

H 


313 
313 


306 
312 
310 




307 


, L 




i 310 


Lemon Cream with Strawber- 
ries or Raspberries . . 


308 


302 




301 



XXVI 



Alphabetical Index. 



m 

Macaroon Cream with Al- 
monds 

Marbled Blanc-mange . . . 

O 

Orange Cream 

Orange Marmalade . . . N . 

Orange Sauce 

Ornamentation of Creams 



Pineapple Cream .... 

Pudding with whipped Cream 

and Macaroons .... 

K 

Raspberry and Currant Cream 

served in small dishes 
Raspberry Cream filled into 



310 

305 



308 
312 
306 
300 



307 



305 



Eed Cream Pudding 
Red Rice Flour Pudding 
Rice Flour Pudding 

Rice Jelly 

Rice Pudding .... 
Rice Pudding, cold . . 
Rice Pudding with Fruit 
Rum Pudding . . . 
Russian Cream . . . 



314 

314 
302 
302 
310 
304 
303 
304 
303 
301 
309 



S 



Page 



Sago and Currant Cream . . 314 

Sago Pudding 301 

Snowball 311 

Snowball with Vanilla Sauce 311 
Sour Cherries with whipped 

Cream 308 

Spanish Rice 304 

Strawberries and Oranges as 

Dessert ...... 312 

Strawberry Cream .... 313 

Strawberry Cream in glasses 314 
Strawberries with whipped 

Cream 315 

Sultan Cream 307 

Swiss Cream '307 



T 



Tutti-Frutti 



Vanilla Cream 

Victoria pudding .... 

W 

Whipped Cream .... 
Whipped Cream filled into 



Whipped Cream (sillabub) 

Wine Cream 

Wine or Lemon Pudding 



309 

309 
300 

306 

315 
315 
308 
301 



Division O. — Dumplings. 



Almond Dumplings 
Apple Dumplings 

B 



Page 

320 
323 



Baked Dumpling with Fruit 322 
Baked Middlings Dumplings 323 
Beef Dumplings 317 



\ Page 

Brain Dumplings .... 318 

Bread Dumplings .... 319 

Bread Dumplings with Fruit 324 
Browned Dumplings with 

• baked Fruit 325 

C 

Cherry Dumplings .... 323 



Common Soup Dumplings 

made of Flour .... 320 

Cornmeal Dumplings . . . 32^5 

Cracker Dumplings .... 319 

D 

Directions for preparing Dump- 
lings 316 

Dumplings for Crab or Eel 

Soups 317 

Dumplings for Brown Soups 317 

E 

Egg Dumplings 319 

Egg-froth Dumplings for 
Wine-. Beer-, and Milk 

Soups 820 

Egyptian Dumplings ... 321 

English Dumplings .... 324 

F 

Fish Dumplings 317 



Alphabetical Index. 

Page 



XXVII 



a 



325 



Giant Dumplings .... 
Green Dumplings (a Suabian 

receipt) . •- 318 

Groat Dumplings .... 319 



Hamburg Dumplings . . . 324 
Ham Dumplings with Sour 

Kraut 326 

Henneberg Dumplings . . 322 



321 



322 
326 



319 



320 



Karthusian Dumplings 

L 

Large Potato Dumplings 
Liver Dumplings . . 

BL 
Marrow Dumplings' . . 

O 
Ounce Dumplings . . 

P 

Pint Dumplings 325 

Poppy Seed Dumplings . . 324 
Potato Dumplings . . 820, 322 
Puff Noodles ( Dampfnudeln) 322 

S 

Soup Dumplings of left-over 
Roast or Boiled Meat 

South Germany Liver Dump- 
lings 

Sponge Dumplings .... 

Sweetbread Dumplings for 
Veal Fricassee or V eal Pie 

W 

Wheatbread Dumplings 

Y 
Yeast Dumplings . . 



318 

326 

318 

318 



321 



323 



Division P. — Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 



Page 
A 

Apple Marmalade .... 333 

Apple Salad 334 

Apple Sauce 334 

Apples with Anise Seed . . 334 

Apples with Rice .... 335 



Baked Compot of Apples 
Blackberry Compot 



Page 

333 

332 



Carrot Compot with a Roast . 835 



XXVIII 



Alphabetical Index. 



Cherry Compot 

Cooked Sweet Apples . . . 
Common Pear Stew . . . 
Compot of Plums, Pears and 

Appricots .....'. 
Compot of Prunes .... 
Compot of Quinces .... 
Compot -of Strawberries and 

Apples 

Compot of Ripe Gooseberries 
Compot of whole Apples . . 

Currant Compot 

Currants and other Fruits as 

Dessert 

D 

Dried Cherries . . . 
Dried Pears .... 
Dried Sour Apples . . 

E 
English Huckleberry Compot 3E0 

F 
Fig Compot for invalids . . 337 

a 

General directions .... 327 
Green Gooseberry Compot . 328 

H 

Half-frozen Peaches ... 330 



329 
334 
332 

332 
336 
335 

329 
329 
332 
330 

336 

337 
337 
337 



Page 

Halved Apples covered with 

„ Fruit Jelly 333 

Huckleberry Compot . . . 330 

M 

Melon Compot' 331 

Mixed Compot 335 

Mulberry Compot .... 330 



Peaches for Dessert . . . 336 

Peach and Apricot Compot . 330 

Pear Compot 331 

Pears Cooked Brown . . . 331 

Pears with Plums .... 331 

Pineapple Compot for tlie sick 336 

Plum Compot ...... 332 

Plum Marmalade .... 333 

Prune Marmalade .... 337 



B. 

Raspberry Compot . 
Rhubarb Compot 

S 

Sliced Apple Compot 
W 



330 

328 



334 



Wild Strawberries for Dessert 329 



Division Q. — Salads and Lettuces. 



Page 



Anchovy Salad 342 

Asparagus Salad 347 



Bean Salad 



348 



Page 
C 

Cauliflower Salad . ... . 347 

Celery Salad 349 

Chicken Salad ..... 339 

Cucumber Salad 347 



Alphabetical Index. 



xxix 



E 
Endive Salad 349 



Page Page 

Potato Salad 345 

Potato Salad with Bacon . . 346 



Fish Salad 

f ish and Vegetable Salad 

H 

Herring Salad with Bread and 
Butter 



Lettuce 

Lobster Salad with Caviar 

M 

Meat Salad 

Mixed Salad 

Mixed Winter Salad . . . 

Mushroom and Tomato Salad 

(Flanders Salad) . . . 



340 
342 



343 



347 
341 



343 
345 
348 

345 



Pike Salad 341 

Polish Salad 344 



R 



Red Salad 

Russian Salad with Beef . 

S 

Salad of Pickled Cucumbers 
Salad of Garden Cresses . 
Salad of Salted Salad Beans 
Shrimp Salad ..... 
Soup Meat Salad . . . 
Swiss Salad 



T 



Tomato Salad 
Truffle Salad 
Turkey Salad 



348 
349 



349 
346 
349 
342 

344 
849 



344 
344 
840 



W 



Water Cresses 346 

White Cabbage 348 



Division R. — Sauces. 



Page 
A 

A la Diable Sauce. Served 
with all kinds of cold 

meats 362 

Almond Sauce 367 

Asparagus Sauc9 360 

B 

Bacon Sauce for Salads . . 361 

Bearnease Sauce . ^ . . 852 

Bechamel Sauce 353 

Boiled Horse - radish Sauce 

for Soup Meat .... 357 

Boiled Mayonnaise. . . . 363 



Pagje 
Brown Onion Sauce with Ba- 
con for Potatoes . . . 361 

Brown Sauce '352 

Butter for Fish and Potatoes 356 
Butter Sauce for Boiled Salt 

Water Fish 356 

C 

Celery Sauce for Soup Meat . 358 • 
Cheptnut Sauce for Smoked 

Meats 358 

Chives Sauce for cold or warm 

boiled Beef 364 

Chocolate Sauce 367 

Claret Sauce 366 



XXX 



Alphabetical Index. 



Claret Sauce with Dried Cur- 
rants 

Claret Sauce with Raisins, for 
Stewing Beef Tongue, 
Sour Rolls and Beef . . 

Clear Meat Broth (Coulis) 

Cold Claret Sauce with Rum 

Cold Cream Sauce vyith. Jelly 
or Claret 

Cold Punch Sauce .... 

Crab Sauce 

Cream Sauce from Raspberry 
or Currant Juice . . .' 

Cucumber Sauce 

Cumberland Sauce for Pig's 
Head, etc 

Currant Juice Sauce . . . 

D 

Diplomat Sauce 

E 

English Butte* ^. uce for Vege- 
tables 



Page 
366 

358 
351 
367 

367 
366 
356 

368 
355 

363 
368 



English Crab Sauce for Cauli- 
flower 

English Sauce for Plum Pud- 
ding 



353 

359 
359 
366 



Fish Sauce 357 



H 



354, 



Herring Sauce . . 
Hollandaise Sauce .... 
Hollandaise Sauce with Wine 
Holstein Sauce for Salt Water 
Fish 



364 
355 
355 



356 



Light Onion Sauce with Bacon 
for Potatoes 

M 

Mayonnaise with all kinds of 
Cold Fish and Meat, and 
different Meat Salads . 



361 



Page 

Mustard Sauce for Fish . . 357 
Mustard Sauce for Fish and 

Potatoes 357 

Mustard Sauce for Soup Meat, 

etc 357 

O 

Olive Sauce 355 

Oyster Sauce 353 



Parisian Sauce for warm Pud- 
dings 363 

Pike Sauce with Sour Cream 353 

Poor Man's Sauce .... 361 
Prepared Mustard for various 

kinds of Meats .... 364 

Pure Sago Sauce . . . . . 367 

E 

Raisin Sauce 358 

Raspberry Sauce .... 368 
Raw Horse-radish Sauce . . 364 
Remoulade Sauce .... 362 
Recamier Sauce for Fish, par- 
ticularly Turbot . . . 354 

Red Cream Sauce .... 367 
Robert Sauce 352 

S 

Salad Sauce 365 

Sauce for Asparagus, Cauli- 
flower, etc 360 

Sauce for Cauliflower . . . 359 
Sauce for Cold Grouse and 

Pork in Jelly .... 363 
Sauce for Farina Pudding . 368 
Sauce for Head of Veal . . 358 , 
Sauce for Veal, Lamb or 

Chicken 359 

Sauce made of Fresh Currants 367 
Sauce made of Fresh or Dried 

Cherries ....... 368 

Sauce made-of Onions pickled 
in Tarragon and Dill, for 
stewing (Soup Meat or to 
pour over Potatoes . . 360 



Alphabetical Index. 



xxxi 



Page 
Sauce for Meat Jslly and Cold 

Meat 364 

Sauce for Meat Jelly ... 365 
Sauce with Boiled Fish, Sal- 
mon, etc 354 

Saxon Fish Sauce .... 356 
Shrimp Sauce for different 
kinds of Fish, particularly 
Soles and Turbot ... 356 
Sorrel Sauce for Fish and Soup 

Meat 357 

Sour Egg Sauce for Salad 

Beans, also for Potatoes 360 
Sour Milk Sauce for Bean 
Salads, Hot Potatoes and 

Endives 360 

Sour Mustard 364 

Spanish Sauce (Espagnole) . 355 
Strawberry Sauce .... 368 
Syrup Sauce for Salad or Meat 361 



T 



Truffle Sauce 852 



Vegetable Butter 



365 



W 



White Anchovy Sauce . . 354 

White Cream Sauce ... 366 

White Cream Sauce with Bum 366 

White Sauce 352 

White Sauce for- Stewing 

Tongue or Boiled Beef . 358 

White Wine Sauce .... 365 



Yellow Caper Sauce for Pike 

and Salmon 853 



Division S. — Pastry, Cakes, etc. 



Almond Cake . . 378, 393, 394 
Almond Cake with Wheat- 
bread 378 

Almond Marzipan .... 375 
Apple Cake ...'.. 386, 387 
Apple Cake with Almond 

Icing 396 



Batter for large Cakes 
Biscuit Boll . . . 
Bohemian Biscuits . 
Bread Cake . . . 
Bremen Butter Cake 
Brides Cake '. . 



O 

Cardamom Biscuit 
Carmelite Cake . 



373 
391 
391 
380 

898 
876 



390 
395 



Page 

Carrot Cake 380 

Cherry Pie 384 

Chocolate Cake . . . 379, 392 

Chocolate Biscuits .... 391 

Colored Sugar for decorating 375 
Cream for large fresh Prune 

Cakes 374 

Cream Cake ...... 381 

Crust for Pies and Pastry . 373 

Cup Cake 392 

Currant Cake ..... £84,392 
D 

Date Cake 388 

Dried Prune Cake .... 388 

E 

Elberfeld "Kiingle" ... 399 
English Crust for Tarts, Cook- 
ies, etc 873 

English Plum Cake ... 889 



XXXII 



Alphabetical Index. 



Page 

379 
380 



Farina Cake 

Filled Sand Cake .... 

Frosting for Tarts or small 

Cakes and for decorating 

Fruit Cake ....... 

G 

General directions . . 
Geneva Cake .... 
Gooseberry Cake . . . 
Grape Cake .... 
Grape Pie 

H 
Hasty Biscuits 391 



374 
398 



370 
377 
383 
392 
384 



Kings Cake 



394 

389 
385 
383 
384 
375 

395 

c82 
396 
376 



Layer Cake .... 
Lemon Cake with Icing 
Linzer Cake .... 

Love Cake 

Lubec Marzipan . . . 

M 
Macaroon Cake . . . 
Macaroon Cream Cake 
Mannheim Apple Cake 
Marseilles Tarts . . . 
Milan Apple Cake .... 396 

N 
Norway Gooseberry Pie . . 383 

O 

Orange Cake .... 378, 386 

P 

Parisian Cake 399 

Plain Apple Cake .... 387 

Plain Cake with Fruit Jelly . 382 



Page 

Plain Potato Cake .... 400 

Plum Cake 387 

Potato Cake ...... 379 

Portuguese»Cofree Cake . . 394 

PuffPaste 372 

Puff Paste Pie ..... 385 

Puff Paste with Lemon Cream 395 

Punch Layer Cake .... 377 

K 

Ribbon Cake 389 

Rice Cake 393 

Rice and Lemon Cake . . 385 

Roll Cake 400 

S 

Saarbruck Puff Paste ... 373 

Sand Cake 390 

Sextons Cake 394 

Silesiari Cheese Cake . . . 398 

Spice Cake 381 

Strawberry Cake with Vanilla 

Cream 383 

Suabian Cake , 382 

Sweet Cake (Rodon Kuchen) 399 

Swiss Cream Cake .... 381 

T 

To Color Icing . . . \. , 374 
t 
TJ 

UlrnCake .380 

V 
Vienna Cake 377 

W 

Westphalian Butter, Coffee or 

Sugar Cake 396 

Westphalian Cake .... 897 

Wellington Cake .... 382 
Yeast Batter for German Fruit 

Cake 374 



Alphabetical Index. 



xxxm 



TARTS, COOKIES, Etc. 

Page 



Almond Cakes 404 

Almond Drop Cakes s . . . . 403 

Almond Nuts 406 

Anise Cake 407 

Ap'ple Cake 401 

Apple Slices baked in Butter 

or Lard 414 



Baked Wheat Loaf . ; . . 413 

Basil HoneyCakes(Lebkucben) 407 

Basil Honey Jumbles . . . 407 

Berlin Pancakes 411 

Berlingoes 404 

Brunswick Rifle Nuts . . . 406 

Brunswick Cakes (Prillken) . 412 

Burnt Almonds 405 

Butter Kings 412 

C 

Cherry Bread 414 

Coffee Pretzels 408 

Cinnamon Stars 403 

Cinnamon Rolls or Waflles . 409 

D 

Doughnuts 412 

E 
English Pie Crust . . . .414 

F 

Filled Bread 413 

Fruit Tarts 401 

a 

German Waffles 410 

H 

Hohenzollern Cakes .... 404 

Holland Pretzels ..... 408 

Honey Cakes 408 



Kisses 



Page 



405 



M 



Marshall Tarts 401 

Milan Tarts ....... 402 

Muscadine Almonds .... 405 

N 

New Years Cake 409 

Nice Almond Cakes .... 409 

Nice Anise Cake 402 

R 

Rules for baking 410 

S 

Shavings 404 

Silesian Farina Cakes . . . 413 

Small Cracners (Zwieback) . 408 

Small Cream Cakes .... 408 

Snow Balls 412 

Speculati or Tea Tarts for the 

Christmas Tree .... 402 

Spiced Drop Cakes .... 403 

Spiced Macaroons .... 406 

Sugar Drop Cakes .... 403 

Sweet Macaroons 405 

Swiss Chocolate Bread ... 402 

Swiss Filled Cakes .... 401 

Swiss Rolls 413 



Vienna Crusts . , 404 

W 

White Rifle* Nuts (Pfeffer- 

nuesse) 406 

T 

Yeast Cake 401 



xxxiv Alphabetical Index. 

Division T. — Preserved and Dried Fruits and Vegetables. 



Apple Jelly 

Apple Marmalade . . . 
Apricot Peach Marmalade 
Apricots, preserved . . . 
Apricots, pickled . . . . 



Page Page 

Pears, pickled 429 

Pineapple Peel Juice . . . 423 
Prune Marmalade for Compote 
also for spreading or filling 
into Cakes or small Drop 
Cakes 424 



425 
424 
423 
423 
427 



Blackberries, preserved 
Black Currant' Jelly . . 
Black Currant Preserves 



Cherry Juice 

Cherries, preserved .... 
Cherries, for>the Sick . . . 
Cherries in Brandy .... 
Clarifying Sugar for Preserves 

Citron, preserved 

Crabapple Jelly . ... 
Cucumbers, sweet .... 

Currant Jelly 

Currant Jelly, French . . . 

F 

Fruit in Brandy, French 
method 

G 

Gooseberry Marmalade 

Grape Juice 

Green Beans, pickled . . . 
Green Beans in Mustard , small 

M 

Mixed Fruits in Brandy . . 



424 
422 
422 

423 

422 
422 
419 
417 
426 
426 
428 



Pears, preserved . 

Pears, preserved, 

method . . . 



French 



418 

420 
420 
428 
428 

418 

425 
425 



Quince Jelly . . 
Quinces in Cognac 
Quince Marmalade 

R 



426 
419 

427 



Raspberry Jelly 421 

Raspberry Marmalade ... 421 
Raspberry Preserves . . . 421 
Raspberry Vinegar .... 421 
Rules to be observed in pre- 
serving Fruits .... 416 



S 



Strawberry Juice for Invalids 420 
Strawberry Marmalade . . 420 
Strawberries, preserved in 

English style 419 

Strawberries, preserved with 

Currant Juice . . . . 419 
Sweet Black Cherries in Vin- 
egar and Sugar forCompot 
or Cherry Cake . . . . 427 



T 



To prevent Preserves from be- 
coming candied .... 418 



Walnuts, preserved 



421 



Alphabetical Index. xxxv 

Division U. — Dried and Pickled Vegetables. 



Beans, salted . . 
Beets, pickled 
Butter Beans, dried 



Page 

436 
430 
438 



Page 



Cucumbers pickled in Vinegar 

and Water 432 

Cucumbers, Russian . . . 432 

Cucumber Salad, preserved . 433 

E 

Endives, salted 438 

Eschalots and Onions, pickled 430 

a 

Green Peas, dried .'"... 435 

Green Peas, salted .... 435 

M 

Mushrooms, pickled . . . 431 

Mushrooms, preserved . . 430 

Mustard Pickles 433 



Onions, pickled 



Pickles, Russian boiled . . 432 

Pickling in kegs and stone jars 434 

K. 

Red Cabbage, pickled . . . 429 



S 



Salad Beans in Brine . . . 437 

Salad Beans, drieJ .... 438 

Salad Beans in Vinegar . . 437 

Samba .433 

Small Salad Beans, salted . 436 
Small Vinegar Pickles ... 431 
String Beans salted after par- 
boiling 436 

String Beans, salted ... 436 



White Cabbage ..... 437 



Division V. — Beverages, Cordials, Etc. 



Almond Milk for the sick 

Apple-Bowl cup 

Apple Beverage 

Arrow Root drink for the sick 



Barley Tea for invalids 
Barley Water for invalids 



Page Page 
Beverage in case of bowel com- 
plaint 450 

Beverage, of Coffee and Selters 

Water 451 

Beverage of preserved Pruit 

Juice for invalids . . . 451 

Bishop 444 

450 Bowl-cup 445 

450 Bread Water for invalids . . 450 



449 

447 
451 
450 



XXXVI 



Alphabetical Index. 



Cardinal Extract, Parisian 
Celestial drink . . 
Champagne Bowl-cup 
Cherry Sherbet . . 
Chocolate with Milk 
Chocolate with "Water 
Coffee, how to prepare 
Cordial, Black Currant 
Cordial,' Cherry . . 
Cordial, Cinnamon . 
Cordial, CloVe . . . 
Cordial, French, Strawberry 
Cordial, French, Walnut . 
Cordial, Quince .... 
Cordial, Raspberry . . . 
Cordial, Vanilla .... 
Cordial, Walnut .... 

Cream Beer 

Curacao 



Page 

445 
448 
446 
449 
440 
441 
439 
453 
453 
452 
452 
452 
452 
453 
453 
453 
452 
443 
453 



E 



Egg-Nogg for invalids 



Grog 



450 



447 



Lemonade for the sick . . 449 

M 
May Wine . 446 

N 

Nectar Sherbet with Cham- 
pagne 449 



Page 
O 

Oatmeal Gruel for the sick . 450 

Orange cup 446 

Orange Sherbet 449 



Peach Bowl-cup . 
Pineapple Cup . . 
Punch, American 
Punch, Cold Egg . 
Punch, Egg . . 
Punch,. Hot Egg . 
Punch, Holland . 
Punch Extract 
Punch, Imperial 
Punch, Ice . . . 
Punch, Jenny Lind 
Punch, Mecklenburg 
Punch, New Years Eve 
Punch, Polish Boyal 
Punch, Roman . . 
Punch, Strawberry . 
Punch, Wine . . . 



S 

Sherbet, Peach or Apricot 
Sherbet, Pineapple . . 
Strawberry Bowl-cup . , 



Tea 



446 
445 
443 
444 
444 
444 
442 
444 
441 
444 
443 
442 
443 
442 
443 
441 
442 



448 
448 
446 



440 



Violet Vinegar 451 

W 

Warm Cream Bowl-cup("Hop- 

pelpoppel") 447 

Whip 447 

Wine, mulled 444 



Alphabetical Index. xxxvii 

Division W Pressed and Smoked Meats. 



Page 



Page 



Bremen Pinkel Sausage . . 454 



Headcheese . . . 
Headeheese in Jelly- 

P 



454, 457 
. . 457 



Panbas 454 

Pork, jellied .... 455—456 
Pork Rolls in Jellv .... 455 



Bolls, Sour Beef 455 



S 



Smoked Breast of Goose . . 458 
Smoked Geese in Pommera- 

nian style 458 

Spare Ribs, jellied .... 457 



Division Z. — Fruit Wine and Vinegar. 



Page 



Currant Vinegar 462 

Currant Wine 460 



Fruit Vinegar 



a 



Gooseberry Wine . . 



461 



461 



Huckleberry Wine 

S 
Sugar Vinegar 

W 

Wine, Apple Cider 



Page 
. 461 



462 



459 



The American Kitchen. 



Soups. 



' Page 
C 

Canned Tomato Soup . . . 465 

Chicken Soup 464 

Clam Chowder . . . . . .463 

Corn Chowder .... . 464 

F 

Fish Soup 464 



Page 
Ij 

Lobster Chowder 463 

M 

Milk Soup 465 

Mixed Vegetable Soup . . . 465 

Mock Turtle Soup . ' . . . 464 

O 

Oyster Soup 463 



Vegetables. 



B 

Beans, baked 467 

Boiled Dinner.old fashioned 469-470 

C 

Cauliflower with white Sauce 466 
* E 

Egg-Plant, baked 469 

P 
Potato Croquettes 466 



Parsnip Fritters 
Potatoes, fried . 
Potato Puffs . 



Succotash, Summer 
Succotash, Winter 

T 



Tomatoes, baked . 
Tomatoes, stewed 



Page 

469 
466 
465 



467 
468 



468 



Meats. 



Page 



BeefCroquettes 474 

BeefHash 472 

Beef Liver, fried . ... 474 

Beefsteak Rolls 473 



Beef Rolls 
Beef 1 Roast 



Chickens, scalloped 



Page 

470 
474 

471 



Alphabetical Index. 



Chicken-pie Thanksgiving 
Corned Beef, how to boil . 



Page 

471 

472 



Kidneys, stewed 471 

P 

Pot Roast 478 

Potted Ham 475 

S 

Spare Ribs, roasted .... 476 



XXXIX 

Page 



Veal, braised . 
Veal Croquettes 
Veal Pot Pie . 
Veal Loaf . . 



476 
472 
473 

1475 



W 



Welsh Rare-bit ..... 475 



Yorkshire Pudding 



474 



Fish. 



Page 
C 

Codfish Balls 478 

Codfish, baked 478 

Codfish, stewed 478 

P 

Fish, baked 479 

Fish, potted 478 

H 

Halibut, baked 477 



Page 



s 

Salt Mackerel, baked . . 
Salt Mackerel, boiled . . 
Salt Mackerel, fried . . 
Stuffing for baked Fish 


. 476 


, 479 
. 477 

. 477 
. 478 
. 480 


W 




White Fish, baked . . . 


. 477 



Shell Fish. 



Page 
C 

Clam Fritters 481 

Crabs, deviled 480 

Crab Pie 480 



Lobster Croquettes 



480 



Oysters, Boston fried 
Oysters, fried . . . 
Oyster Fritters . . 
Oysters, Scalloped 



Page 

481 
480 
481 
481 



XL 



Alphabetical Index. 
Poultry. 



Page 
C 

Chicken Croquettes . . . 483 

Chicken Fatties 488 

Chicken Pot-Pie 483 

Chicken Fricassee .... 482 

D 

Dressing or stuffing for Fowls 481 



Page 

O 

Oyster dressing 48a 

T 

Turkey, boned 482 

Turkey Scallop 482 



Bread, Fritters, Crullers, etc. 



Page 



Apple Fritters 486 Johnny Cake 



Page 
488 



Biscuits, Soda . . . 
Boston Brown Bread 
Bread raised twice . 
Brown Bread . . . 
Buckwheat Cakes 
Buckwheat Griddle Takes 
Buns 



485 
489 
484 
481 
485 
486 
485 



Corn Dodgers 487 

Cornmeal Puffs 487 

Crullers 487 

Crumpets, English .... 487 

G 

Graham Bread . . . . . 485 

Graham Gems 488 

Graham Muffins 488 



Pancakes, French 

R 

Baw Potato Yeast 
Bolls, Vienna . . 



S 



Salt rising Bread . . 
Snow Flakes . . . 
Soda Biscuits . . . 
Sponge for Winter use 
Strawberry Shortcake 



484 
485 



484 

488 
485 
483. 
487 



Toast,'buttered 485 

W 
White Hominy or Grits . . 488 



Alphabetical Index. 
Cakes, Cookies, etc. 



Apple and Lemon Filling 
Angel Cake .... 



Page 

498 
492 



Black Cake 492 



Chocolate Cake . . 
Chocolate Jelly Cake 
Cinnamon Drop Cakes 
Cocoanut Cake 
Cocoanut Frosting 
Coffee Cake . . 
Cream for Filling 
Cream Sauce . . 



494 
492 
497 
493 
493 
495 
493 



D 

Delicate Cake 491 

Drop Cakes 495 

Drop Cookies 494 

E 

Cookies 497 



Fig Cake 491 

Fig Filling 491 

Frosting, boiled 497 

FruitCake 489 

Fruit Ginger Cakes .... 496 
Fruit Pound Cake . . .489 

a 

Ginger Snaps 497 

Ginger Nuts 496 

Gold Cake 491 

H 

Hickory-nut Cake .... 490 



Jelly for filling 
Jumbles . . 



XLI 



Page 

492 
495 



Lady Fingers 495 



Marble Cake . . . 
Molasses Drop Cakes 

O 

Orange Cream Cake . 
Orange Filling, cooked 



Potato Cake 



Rich Cookies . 
Roll Jelly Cake 



S 



Sauce for Pudding 
Silver Cake . . . 
Spice Ginger Cakes 
Soft Ginger Bread 
Strawberry Sauce 
Sugar Cookies . . 

V 



Vanilla Snaps 



W 



Wafers .... 
Walnut Filling . . 
Whipped Cream Cako 
White Fruit Cake . 
Wine Sauce . . . 



494 



493 
499 



495 



494 
492 



497 
491 
496 
494 
498 
497 



496 



496 
498 
490 
490 
498 



XLII 



Alphabetical Index. 
Pies and Puddings. 



Page 
A 

Apples baked whole ... 501 

Apple Dumplings .... 501 

Apple Dumplings, boiled . . 500 

Apple Pudding, baked . . 501 



Brown Betty 



502 



CocoanutPie ...... 500 

Cornmeal Pudding, boiled, . 500 

Cranberry Puffs 503 

F 

Fig Pudding 503 

Floating Island 503 

Fruit Dumplings 501 



Page 
L 

Lemon Pie 500,501 

M 
Mincemeat Pie 499 

P 
Peach Cobbler 503 



Squash Pie .... 
Suet Pudding, steamed 



Tapioca Pudding 



499 
500 



503 



Preserves, Jellies and Pickles. 



Page 



Page 



Apple Jelly 506 



511 



Blue Plums, canned, . . 
C 

Candied Orange and Lemon 

Peel 506 

Cauliflower, pickled, . . . 512 

Chow-chow 512 

Crabapples, preserved, . . 506 

Currant Jelly 504 

a 

Ginger Pears 509 

Grape Jelly 509, 511 

Grape Preserves 509 



Grape Sherbet 510 

Grapes, spiced, 510 

Green Gages, canned, . . . 510 

M 







o 


' 




. . 507 


p 




Peach Jelly . . . 
Pears, brandied . . 
Pears, canned, . . 
Pears, pickled, . . 
Pears, spiced, . . . 


. . 505 

-. . 508 

508 

. . 509 

. . 509 



Alphabetical Index. 



Paite 



Pieplant Butter 505 

Pineapple, preserved, . . . 507 

Pumpkin, canned 505 

Q, 

Quince and Citron Preserves, 505 

Quince Jelly 504 



XLI1I 

Page 



Tomato, Catsup 504 

Tomatoes, preserved, . . . 508 

W 

Walnutsor Butternuts, pickled 511 

Watermelon Preserves . 505 



Beverages, Candies, etc. , 



B 


Page 


Blackberry Cordial . . 
C 


. . 514 


Chocolate Caramels . . 
Chocolate Creams . . 


. . 515 
'. . 515 


G 






514 
. . 513 



Page 



Lemon Taffy . . . . . .515 

M 

Maple Cream 515 

Molasses Candy 514 



Introductory Directions. 



The prop er preparation of our food should never be 
'considered of secondar^Jniportance, even if regartled 
from a purely ttygiemcstand point only. Every young 
girl, no matter what her station in life may be, should 
attain sufficient proficiency in this necessary accom- 
plishment" to enable her either to take charge of her 
kitchen herself, or, where this may not be imperative, to 
exercise that control over her subordinates which is 
always a part of the duties of a thorough housewife, 
and so necessary to keep expenses within bounds and 
to have the table well served. 

The first essential rule to be observed in order to 
achieve the best results in cooking, is s crupulous cle an- 
liness. This consists in having the hands, the kitchen, 
all of the utensils and the table-ware perfectly clean, 
and also in being careful to rinse and freshen your 
vegetables thorough ly. ~ — — *" *~~— «— . — _ 

The second rule is : Economy. An extravagant use 
of sugar, butter, and spices does not make your dishes 
any more palatable, but on the contrary, it detracts 
from their perfection, is unwholesome, and often spoils 
much that would otherwise be excellent food. Economy 
consists further in utilizing all odds and ends which can 
be used for our nutrition, and finally in a practical 
disposal of remnants of dishes which have once appeared 
on the table and oftentimes make a pleasing addition 
to our bill of fare, when skillfully prepared in another 
form. 



Introductory Directions. xlv 

The third rule is : Care and deliberation. All cook- 
ing should be put on fh^^oveattHe pfopermoment— 
neither too early nor too late. The size of the kettles 
or other utensils should always be adapted to the quan- 
tity of whatever is to be cooked; this is particularly 
essential in cooking meats. — The fire must be carefully 
attended to, so that the cooking will proceed uniformly 
and the food neither be scorched nor served half-done. 

The fourth rule is, to have all ingredient s and 
materials necessary for the preparation of your dishes 
ready and handy before you commence cooking, s o that 
"nothing need be hurriedly done and you have abundant 
time to cook everything properly and can send it to the 
table nicely and orderly. Many excellent dishes are 
spoiled when improperly served. Plenty of hot water 
should always be ready while you are cooking in case 
any is needed for replenishing purposes ; it is also better 
to w arm platters, plates, etc., in hot water than to CIO" 
this on the stove or in the oven? because they are not 
so liable to discolor or crackle. 



In the following receipts the various quantities of 
each ingredient to be used have been given as accurately 
as possible, but the proportion of salt for each dish 
could not, in all cases, be definitely indicated ; it would" 
also be impossible to have scales and measures always 
at haud in order to minutely determine how much of 
this or the other article should be taken. Practice will 
soon enable the painstaking cook to judge correctly in 
regard to these particular matters of detail. Spices 
should, generally speaking, be used in accordance with 
the taste of those who are _to partake of the dishes, but, 
on the whole, the directions given in the receipts should 
be adhered to. Pepper should always be added with 
caution, because its overabundant use is deleterious t o 
health , especially for children. For the same reason, 
nu tmegs a n d cloves sh ould be used— ag_ spar ingly "as 
pogsTBte! Kvery dTsBT should of courseD§"'pToperly 
spiced, but too much spicing must always be avoided. 



xlvi, Introductory Directions. 

Supplies for the kitchen should always be purchased 
at the most seasonable times, because then they cau be 
obtained at the most advantageous prices. Always 
buy the best meats, poultry, vegetables, butter, flour, 
etc., because, while the best may cost a trifle more, yet 
it will be found in the end that, as in everything else, 
the best is here the cheapest also, and, beyond this, the 
most wholesome. 

Flour, must alway be stored in a dry, but airy place; 
w hen flour becomes damp, it sho uld be tur ned and sifted. 
frjgqa ififfiHyT "" Good wheaQ i'our is almost pure white in 
color, with a very aPglTfyeTiowiBh tinge : it possesses an 
agreeable sweetish taste, and whsa3c6SSUlg.Jfc m the 
hand it ballsv eryl^oseTyT Poc>r -nou ji'ia-gra v or reddish 
in hue anaroHelfa^rTil^pecliled, has a sour or musty 
odor, and when moistened feelsclammv in the han d. — 
All kinds of starch flours^sucn as potato, wheat, and 
cornstarch flour, mustjbe pure white in color and very 
smooth. — Caroli na rice. is the best; it must be clear 
white, hard , transparent, and the grains long, sle nder, 
and sharp-edged. *" ■——""" 

Pearl sago isjsuperior to all others ; inf erior sag Q_ 
dissolves in cooking into a pasty m ass. — Bufteris most 
frequently used where fats are "to Fe "added to dishes ; it 
possesses somewhat less nutritive qualities than other 
animal fats, but is more readily digested. Kidney suet 
(see A, 17,) is indispensable in cooking many fine dishes^ 
because when used with meats which must remain in 
the oven a long time it does not brown so easily as 
butter; goose-grease and lard (see A, 16 and 18) are 
also of great value. Fats already used for roasts should 
not be preserved for any lengthof time, and in no case 
should they again be used for that purpose. — As a sub- 
stitute for pure Olive oil, cotton-seed oil need not be 
despised — indeed the latter is more frequently sold as 
"Olive oil" than under its proper«designation. Genuine 
Olive oil is quite expensive. All oils, used in coo king 
must be odorless or but sli ghtly aromati c when frtiorJeB 
betsKeenthe hands ; a rancid condition of the oil is more 



readily d jgc^rmblePv; f ML me^an s thajkby the to ngue. 
It is almost superfluous io say thafeggs shoulanev 



eggs should never 



Introductory Directions. xlvii 

be .stale, but that the freshest obtainable must invari- 
ably be used. 



* * 



Eegarding the best cuts of meats and the proper 
handling thereof, explanations will be found in Division 
D, I, VI and VII, and Division F.— Concerning vegetables 
but little need be said, inasmuch as they can usually be 
obtained of good quality and in prime condition. 



The quantity of meat, etc., necessary to prepare a 
meal will depend of course, upon the. number of persons 
expected at the table.— For a large dinner pa rty tak e% 
pound of beef for e ach person ior a good soup or bou- 
illon ; veaTlT po und . For a smaller din ner party take 
onaJ ialf m ore. " Usui g but halFoTthe quantity of meat 
'and adding to each quart of soup y 6 to % ounce of 
extract of beef and the same amount of salt, will make 
_a plentifully strong bouillon at less expense. 

One chicken will make enough soup for 4 — 5 persons. 

Codfish— 1% pounds for 4 — 5 persons, if served with 
potatoes without any other meat-dish. 

• Rice boiled with milk, 3 ounces for each person. 
/ Roast s, no matter whether beef, veal, mutton or 
lamb, should be reckoned at 1 pound (including the 
bones) for each person . As it wouicrnot look well to 
cut up the last shred, it will be impracticable to take 
less, even when there are a number of other dishes, 
unless the roast consists of a large cut without bone. 

A good sized turkey, filled, will be sufficient for 
10 — 12 persons, and when another roast is served with 
it, it will be enough for 18 persons. 

Spring chickens, when quite small, one for each per- 
son ; when of medium size four will be sufficient for 6 
Eersons. If an additional roast is served, one-fourth 
ss of the chickens will answer. 

Pigeons — Six to eight for 4 persons; with a var- 
iety of dishes on the table a few less pigeons can be 
prepared. 



XLvra Introductory Directions. 

One goose is enough for 8 to 10 persons, and one 
duck for 3 to 4 persons. 

A' shoulder of venison will be enough for 10 to 12 
persons, and with an additional roast will suffice for 
18 to 20 persons. 

A leg of venison alone is enough for 8 to 10 persons, 
with another roast for 15 persons. 



A. — Miscellaneous Receipts. 

1. To clarify Sugar. Dip the sugar in cold water, 
put it in a medium sized kettle (preferably of brass or 
nickel), allowing it to d issolve over a slow fi re, skim- 
ming off the broth until it is clear. In order to clarify 

.it particularly quick and clear, add the be aten whit e of 
anegg^which will absorb the froth. """" """** — 

2. Frosting. To obtain very white frosting, which 
is essential for most puddings and cakes, the freshest 
whites of eggs are necessary. Beat in a large platter, in 
a cool place, until it is thick and stiff enough to turn, 
which will usually take from 5—10 minutes. A few 
dro ps of lemon juice a dded to the whites of the egg s will 
aid materially to st iffen the frosting, 'rne frosting 
should be used immediately when done7"otherwise it is 
apt to turn watery. 

^— 'Jf the frosting is to be made into little balls for milk 
or beer soups, or is to be used for ices or cakes, a small 
jgyuantity of pulverized sugar should be beaten with it. 

3. Flour rubbed in Butter. Cook a, piece of butter 
in an iron kettle, add a tablespoonful of flour and stir 
until it commences to curl and bubble. It must be well 
done, but onl y lightly yellowu utsolor ; if water, bouillon, 
or other liquid issHrredf'iip with it, these sho"uld be cold, 
because then, it will remain nice and smootTT If the 
floured butter is to be used in meat soups, stews, ra- 
gouts, etc., it can be added to the dish while cooking, 
after the latter has been skimmed, because it dissolves 
completely when cooked for any length of time. 

4. Browned Flour. Stir a good sized piece of but- 
ter in a kettle until it commences to brown, add flour, 
stirring constantly until it is nicely browned, being 



2 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

careful Hot to scorch. Flour can be browned without 
butter, and preserved for future use. Put it into a 
small kettle and place over a slow fire, and stir con- 
stantly until lightily browned. A better process is to 
put the flour into a baking pan, and to brown i n the 
oven. — — — — * — > — 

5". Cleaning and scalding Rice. Rice should be 
carefully picked over, rubbed between the hands in 
water, and then put on the fire in cold water, and, be- 
fore it commences to boil pour it into a sieve. This pro- 
cess is particularly essential if the rice is to be used in 
the sickroom, or for milk-dishes, because the acids 
sometimes contained in the rice, causing the milk to 
curdle, are thereby removed. 

6. To prepare Sago. Sago should also be carefully 
picked over, washed, placed on the fire in cold water, 
and after warming up, poured into a sieve. After 
repeating this once it is ready for use. 

7. Browned Butter. Put the butter into an iron 
kettle on a slow fire and stir until brown; it dissolves 
at first, and then slowly commences to brown. 

Whatever is intended to be browned, must be put 
into the butter after the latter is browned, otherwise 
the color will not be nice. Care must be taken, how- 
ever, to prevent even the slightest scorching. 

8. Clarified or Melted Butter, designed principally 
for Crullers, Doughnuts, Fritters, etc. Butter for this 
purpose must be clarified ; if not, it will bubble and run 
over when the crullers, etc., are put into it. Put it into 
a medium sized iron kettle over a slow fire until it is 
light and clear, which will take about two hours. The 
froth not dipped from the top, partly settles at the 
bottom. As soon as the cooking sound is no longer 
heard, the butter is heated to the required degree; re- 
move it from the fire, let it stand about ten minutes, 
take off the remaining froth and pour the clear butter 
into a perfectly clean stone jar, taking care to prevent 
any of the sediment being poured with it. After it is 
cool cover it with paper, put on this a layer of salt 
about one-half inch deep, and set it aside, uncovered, in 
a cool, airy place. 



A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 3 

Butter clarified, in the above manner is the very best 
for doughnuts and crullers, and for general cooking 
purposes it is unexcelled. 

9. Crab Butter. Take about 20 crabs and stir them 
in clear water with a small whisk until they are perfectly 
clean, put on the fire and cook for 5 minutes. Pick the 
meat from the shells, put all the shells with about 6 
tablespoonfuls of butter into a mortar and pound, but 
not too fine ; put on the fire, stirring occasionally until 
the mass turns tb a red color and commences to raise, 
then add one quart of water, boil and strain into a deep 
dish through a fine sieve; after cooling, the red butter 
is ready for use; the remaining liquor can be used for 
soups, particularly so if the crabs are boiled in beef 
broth, or extract of beef has been added to the water. 

The tails of the crabs can be utilized in the soup or 
in a stew. 

10. Anchovy Butter. Stir 1 pound of good butter 
to a froth, freshen 1 pound oJL &nchovies (see No. 31), 
let them remain i n fresh w1tt er""I0— 15 minutes, to 
sweeten ; chop thein iupTine7pr§ss the mass through a 
sieve, put into a small stone jar, cover, and keep in a 
cool place. 

Anchovy Butter is spread on toasted wheat bread, 
and used in g ravies, stews, e tc. When put to the latter 
use it should^Be added jus t before serving , because it 
mustnot^Qk, 

11. Parsley Butter. Bring a quantity of clarified 
butter to a boil, stir into it a good proportion of pars- 
ley and set aside for winter use. 

12. Epicurean Butter. This is used to spread on 
toast. ,4 boned anchovies, 4 small pickles, a trifle of 
chives and tarragon should be chopped very fine, pass 
the yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs through a sieve, mix 
with 4 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 teaspoonful of must 
ard, and then put the entire mass through a sieve. 

13. Fairy Butter. An English receipt. The yolks 
of 3 hard-boiled eggs, 2 spoonfuls of sugar, 1 table- 
spoonful of oraugeflower water a nd 4 tablespoonfuls of 
finest un salte d butter, well mixed and passed thrdugh a 



4 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

sieve. This butter ie used to spread on cakes. Instead 
of the sugar and orangeflower water % pound of crushed 
hazelnuts or grated almonds can be used, with the addi- 
tion of a small quantity of lemon juice. 

14. Fried Bread for Soups and Dumplings. (Crou- 
tons.) Put the butter on the fire, cut the bread into 
small pieces, or small figures if preferred, stir in the but- 
ter until it becomes yellow. Do not allow it to become 
hard. 

15. Eggs in Soups, Gravies and Stews. Eggs are 
not added to dishes of this kind until they are cooked 
and taken from the fire. It is done in the following 
•manner : The yolks, which must be fresh, are first stirred 
with a little cold water, then add some of the boiling 
soup or gravy, increasing gradually and continuing the 
stirring, then pour into thehot dish, constantly stirring, 
which will prevent the eggs from curdling. Whole eggs 
— the yolks and whites together — can be whipped up 
with a small quantity of water and some of the hot 
soup added, keeping up a continual stirring. A whole 
egg is equal to two yolks of eggs for the above purpose 
and more nutritious, but does not taste quite as well as 
the' clear yolks of eggs, and should, therefore, not be 
used for fine dishes. 

16. An excellent Goose Oil, which will remain 
sweet for a long time. The fat is first set aside for a 
day in a cool place in water and ' the latter changed 
three or four times. Then cut up the fat, add a small 
quantity of salt, put on the fire and slowly try it out, 
being careful to stir frequently. When the oil is quite 
clear and the remaining pieces of a light yellow color, 
the former is poured through a strainer into a stone jar 
and set aside for about a week. Then take the oil out 
Of the jar, leaving the sediment and jelly. Put the oil on 
the fire again, adding a few sour apples pared and 
quartered, cook until the apples are soft and commence 
to roast, then again pour the oil through a fine strainer 
into the jar and the next day cover with paper perfor- 
ated with, a needle. If it is desired that the oil be of a 
firmer consistency, add a small "quantity of tried leaf 
lard. 



A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 5 

17. An excellent Way to prepare Kidney Suet. The 

firmer the suet, the better and richer it is. Cut it up 
into medium sized pieces, put it into fresh water, and 
let it stand until the next day, changing the water once 
during that time. Then chop the suet up fine, and, take 
a small quantity of milk — about a small cupful to a 
pound of suet — cook it in an openkettle over a slowfire, 
straining frequently until the suet appears perfectly 
clear ; it then does not need straining, but can at once 
be filled into a stone jar. The suet may also be cut into 
small cubes, then, after being tried out, it can be passed' 
through a sieve; this method is preferable where the 
suet is to be used for fine dishes. If milk is added while 
trying the suet, it must not be stirred, and the kettle 
must not be placed directly on the fire. Should the suet 
be scorched it will be worthless, because it will thereby 
acquire a bitter taste. The cracklings, which at first 
should be loosened from the bottom of the kettle with 
an iron spoon, must not have a deeper color than light 
brown, and the clear suet, which has a sweet odor, like 
butter, is passed through a strainer. The cracklings 
when chopped with boiled beef, make excellent meat 
balls. 

18. To Try Fat. Although it may seem that an y 
directions how to try fat are unnecessary here, yet the 
fact is, it is too often very carelessly done. 

The thick and firm pieces are the best for the pur- 
pose. Cut the fat into small cubes, as nearly alike in 
size as possible. Put them into an iron kettle or similar 
utensil, set over a medium fire, stir frequently until the 
pieces are yellow and crisp. This will prevent the fat 
from evaporating or receiving a scorchy taste, which is 
unavoidable if you have a very hot fire. Ham fat is 
well adapted for trying out in this manner, but the 
smoked outer crust must be carefully cut away. 

19. Clear Broth for White Stew. To make a stew 
for 12 persons take 3 pounds of lean beef cut into small 
pieces, jcover with water and put on the fire, skim 
carefully and add at once % of a celery root, 1 carrot, 
1 parsley root, 2 onions, all cut into pieces, no salt, 
cover and cook for 2 hours. Pour through a sieve, set 
aside, and when it is to be used for the stew, take off 
the fat and pour carefully from the settlings. 



6 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

20. Brown Broth for Brown Ragout. For 12 per- 
sons take % pound of pork fat cut into slices, put it into 
an enameled kettle, add to this M pound of raw ham 
(remnants of ham can also be used) and 2 pounds of 
beef, both cut into slices, also 2 onions, 2 bay leaves, 1 
carrot, % of a celery root, 1 parsley root and whole 
spices. If you have any remnants of various kinds of 
raw meats they can be substituted for the beef. Put on 
a slow fire, cover and let it simmer for % hour. It will 
be of advantage if it turns brown without scorching. 
Then add a dash of boiling water and repeat this sev- 
eral- times if the meat should adhere to the kettle. 
When brown enough, add sufficient boiling water to 
make the required amount of ragout. Salt is not used 
but is put into the finished ragout If th^ meats are well 
cooked after the elapse of 1 or 2 hours, the broth is 
passed through a sieve and the fat and settlings re- 
moved. Instead of the beef, 2 teaspoonfuls of extract 
of beef can be used. 

y^ 21. To give Brown Soups, Ragouts and Sauces a 
good Color. Put 1 tablespoonf ul of sugar into a sauce- 
pan over the fire, and stir constantly until it has turned 
to a dark brown color. Immediately add 1 small cupful 
of water, take from the stove, stir, set it aside for color- 
ing purposes in a closed glass receptacle. 1 teaspoonful 
is sufficient to give a large cupful of broth a nice yellow 
color. 

An onion nicely browned in ashes, peeled, and then 
boiled with the soup after the latter has been skimmed, 
will give it a nice color. 

22. Liver Force Meats. To % pound of tender 
veal, cut into cubes, add a few tablespoonfuls of finely 
chopped mushrooms, some parsley, half of a bay leaf, 
some salt, a little pepper and nutmeg, and 2 heaping 
tablespoonfuls of butter; let it cook slowly about 20 
minutes. Take the livers of 10 or 12 fowls stiffened in 
beef broth or weak brine, put together in a mortar and 
pound until fine. 

Instead of mushrooms, truffles rubbed in butter 
can be used ; the j jyer of a goose or galf can be substi- 
tuted for fowl liverTlinchnnely chopped arichoviesTfo" 
suit the taste, may be added. If goose liver is taken 



A. — MISCELLANEOUS KECEIPTS. 7 

it can be used for making' goose liver patties, or for 
goose dressing. 

23. Beef Force Meat. % pound of lean beef and a 
little over 2 ounces of pork fat or kidney suet chopped 
fine, add salt, lemon peel, mace, a small piece of melted, 
yellow-browned butter, a trifle over 2 ounces of wheat 
bread soaked in cold water and then pressed, and 2 
eggs, the white beaten to a broth. Stir well together, 
and it will make good force meat. 

24. Veal Force Meat for Soup Dumplings. % pound 
of veal chopped with 1 ounce of marrow fat or kidney 
suet, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of butter, salt, 2 ounces 
of wheat bread without any crust, which have been 
soaked in cold water and well pressed, and 2 eggs, the 
whites of which have been beaten. Stir well together. 

25. Poultry Force Meat. After removing the skin 
from the breast of any kind of a fowl, it (the breast) 
should be pounded fine and passed through a sieve. 
Add 4 tablespoonfuls of unsalted butter to 1 pound of 
pounded meat and stir to a froth. Add the yolks of 
4 eggs, nutmeg, a tablespoonful of chopped anchovies, 
3 ounces of soaked wheat bread, which have been made 
into a paste on the fire, and salt; mixwell togetherwith 
the sifted meat. Instead of the creamery butter, crab 
butter (see No. 9), can be used, and the sifted meat need 
also be mixed only with the white of 1 egg and 1 large 
cupful of sweet cream, and all other ingredients be 
omitted. When prepared in this manner it makes good 
force meat for meat pies. 

26. Fish Force Meat. Take 1 pound of fish (the 
best are pickerel or carp), cleaned and boned, % pound 
of fresh pork fat, 2 stirred eggs, 1 small onion baked 
in butter, 1 anchovy, some finely chopped parsley, salt, 
ground white pepper and mace. After chopping this 
all up very finely, soak about 2 ounces of stale wheat 
bread in cold water, press it out well, stir into a dough 
on the fire with about 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of butter, 
then mix well with 1 or 2 raw eggs. 

27. Force Meat Dressing for about 12 Pigeons or a 
Breast of Veal. Stir about 2 heaping taiblespoonfuls of 



8 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

butter until soft, add the yolks of 3 eggs, some mace or 
lemon peel, salt, about 8 ounces of grated wheat bread, 1\ 
large cupful of milk or cream, and the whites of the eggs 
beaten to a froth. One-third of this quantity mixed 
with some finely chopped parsley, is sufficient dressing 
for four pigeons. If desired, the finely chopped heart 
and liver of the pigeons may be added; in this case, 
however, more milk or cream will be needed. 

28. Raisin Force Meat. Stir about 2 heaping table- 
spoonfuls of butter until soft and add the yolks of 
3 eggs, some mace or grated lemon peel, about % pound 
of stale grated wheat bread, 3 tablespoonfuls of either 
sour or sweet cream, salt, ]i pound of small raisins, 
about 2 teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar mixed with 
cinnamon. This is sufficient dressing for a turkey, 8 
pigeons or 6 spring chickens. 

29. Almond Force Meat. Take a coffeecupful of 
almonds and cover them with boiling water; as soon 
as the skins can be easily removed, take them out of 
the water, skin them, put in a mortar (a small quantity 
at a time k_add a trifle of water and pound until very 
fine. Mix the p^ouudedalmon"ds"with 3 tablespoonfuls 
of butter stirred until soft, the yolks of 3 eggs, mace 
and 2 coffeecupfuls of grated stale wheat bread. After 
stirring this all well together with a quantity of good 
cream, mix with the beaten whites of 2 eggs. This is 
sufficient dressing for a duck or 2 pigeons. 

30. Cream of Anchovy for Meat Patties or Toast. 

Fresh butter and some flour lightly browned together, 
add sweet cream, finely chopped onions and lemon juice ; 
cook thoroughly. Into this stir some finely chopped 
anchovies and the yolks of a few eggs, and then cook 
again. 

31. How Anchovies should be prepared. Rinse the 
anchovies in water two or three times to clear them of 
salt, then let ihem stand in fresh water 10 — 15 minutes 
longer. Anchovies of an inferior quality must remain 
in the water a longer time, perhaps several hours. If 
good anchovies are laid in milk and the latter is fre- 
quently changed, they acquire a most delicious taste. 



A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 9 

After the anchovies have been watered, pick off the 
fins from the back with the fingers, take them by the 
tail and pull them into halves, removing the spine a nd 
the rear fin. Then put the anchovies into a strainer 
and drain. "They can be served with a dressing of olive 
oil and wine vinegar, or finely chopped onions, vinegar, 
olive oil and pepper. The best method of serving ancho- 
vies is to put them on a small platter in the form of a 
star, filling the spaces with capers, small onions, finely 
chopped herbs, and the grated yolks of eggs. The flesh 
of poor! anchovies is white and liffht: those of i nferior 
quality are hard and dry and of a yellow ish red color? 



32. To prepare Celery and Parsnips for Soups, etc. 
Celery roots must be washed, peeled and cut into 4 — 8 
pieces, the young unopened leaves need not be removed- 
Parsley roots must be washed, scraped and cut into 
pieces about 2 inches long, and split if very thick. Both 
are used for beef soups, the latter for chicken and veal 
soups only. 

Parsley* heads must be rinsed, the large heads cut 
away, take them in a bunch and cut them on a chop- 
ping board as finely as possible with a sharp knife. A 
little practice will enable one to cut parsley as fine in 
this way, as though it were chopped . 

33. Truffles. Truffles must also be soaked from 
1 — 1% hours, they are then thoroughly cleaned, prefer- 
ably with a brush, then cooked in a rich beef broth or 
claret ; cut into pieces and serve in- gravies. 

34. Mushrooms. Remove thp nnt OT- flltj" from the 
upper part of the stalk of the mushroom, cutting away 
the small leaves clustering under the head. Then wash 
in cold water, cut them up, put them in butter and on 
the fire, cook them rapidly in their own liquor and put 
them into~thelitew as they come from the kettle. They 
b ecome hard if cooked too lonff. 

Dried mushrooms must be s oaked in water a bout 

'T hrmr^-sh ould they happen to be ot a brownisn hue, 
•r^gv (r>ns1v bnilinp- them will t ake out this c olor: Press 

.leTn—unti] dryland add them to the*Stew or" ragout 

when it is ready to serve. 



10 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

35. To prepare Veal Sweetbreads for Stews and 
Gravies. Put the sweetbreads on the fire in cold water ; 
as soon as hot pour off the water and renew, repeating 
several times until the sweetbreads are white. Then 
put them in cold water, take the skin from the 
longer pieces and cut off the fleshy parts from the 
others, cut the sweetbreads into cubes, and then cook 
in the stew for about 10 minutes. 

36. Pistachios. Put them on the fire in cold water, 
let them come to aboil, hull them, lay them into cold 
water and leave until wanted for use. When used in 
stews they must cook not less than 30 minutes. 

37. Crabs with Dressing. (Devilled Crabs.) Before 
cooking the crabs, stir th em in c lear water w ith a small 
whisk u ntil they are perfectly cleanT ^' rut them into 
boiling water with vin^ar ' and'aaffi and cook until they 
afe done. 'Break ofe ' ■Ji'ne iGai'fs'i"'picfi; out the shells, and 
then fill with force meats (see No. 23 or 27). The crab 
shells filled with dressing are then cooked or baked in 
the stew few about 15 minutes, and, with the tails, 
added to the stew when the latter is served. 

38. To scald Onions. Peel the onions, then pour 
boiling water over them and after standing for about 
8—10 minutes, dip in cold water and dry, with a cloth. 
Scalded onions should always be used in cooking, be- 
cause scalding them removes everything that is usually 
considered unpleasant in taste >abou,t this vegetable, 
and makes it very palatable. 

39. Chestnuts prepared for various cooking pur- 
poses. If chestnuts are to be used in a stew or as a 
dressing for poultry, put the kernels into boiling water • 
long enough to permit the removal of the hulls the 
same as with almonds, and then rinse them in cold 
water. Put them into an enameled kettle, with the 
addition of some water, butter and a small piece of 
sugar. Cover tightly and simmer ^lowly until done. 
In this way the chestnuts will be white, tender and not, 
crumby. 

Chestnuts as an addition to cabbage are prepared 
in the same manner. They can be either stirred into 
the cabbage before the latter is served, or be brought 
to the table in a separate dish. 



A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 11 

Chestnuts for dessert or tea with bread and butter 
have their shells split and are either roasted in a coffee 
roaster or an iron kettle— adding a small handful of 
salt to a pound of chestnuts — and are ro asted until soft 
and tender, wmch will take from %=-% qfan hour ; be 
careful to stir or shake them frequently. 

Before serving the chestnuts rub them in a coarse 
cloth; they should be quite hot when put on the table. 

40. Spice Extract for S.tews. Cover the kernels of 
60 sound walnuts with hot water for a few minutes, rub 
with a cloth to hull them, and when they are dry put 
them in layers into a stone jar with the following spices 
which have first been well ground together : % ounce of 
mace, some cloves (or, if preferred, garlic), ginger, 1 
ounce of mustard seed, a pinch of whole white pepper, a 
piece of grated horse-radish, a handful of salt, 6 or 8 
bay leaves, then add 1 quart of good wine vinegar well 
boiled. After the mixture has cooled, cover the jar, set 
it outside in the air, and after 2 or' 3 weeks the extract 
can be filled into bottles which must be well corked. 

The spices retain strength enough for anotherfilling 
of boiled vinegar which has been cooled . 2 teaspoonfuls 
of this extract are sufficient for a stew for 6 persons. 

41. Dill in Vinegar for pickling purposes. Dill is 
a favorite aromatic plant and is much used with pickles 
in vinegar. Dill is at its best im me diately after the 
blossoming timeV 'bllL very often when wanted for use, it 
is no longer green ; for this reason it would be well to 
jmt the dill wh en the heads are stillfresh andgreen, and 
^preserve tn'ern in a lar ge glass jar r c*overed*' with vinegar, 
until they are wanted for use.,. 

42. Pepper, Nutmeg, Cloves and Mace should be 
ground when needed and not before, because they other- 
wise lose a large percentage of their aromatic strength 
and flavor. 

43. Mustard. As a usual thing, prepared mustards 
are of a very inferior quality, and it is advisable, there- 
fore, to prepare them Onesself. Take blac k a n d yellow, 
mustard flour in equal parts, and to each % pounaadd 
I' heaping 1 teaspoonf ul of white sugar, a pinch of ground 
cloves, % teaspoonful of alfepice, and enough white wine 
vinegar and white wine in equal parts to make a moder- 



12 A.— Miscellaneous Receipts. 

ately stiff paste. When done fill into small wide-mouthed 
bottles, cork and let stand one week before using. 

44. Almond Paste. Shell the nuts, pour boiling 
water over them and let them ;stand a few minutes. 
Then remove the skins, which will slip off easily, pound 
the almonds to the finest paste, moistening them occa- 
sionally with either water, the whites of eggs or arrac, 
as the receipt may require. Pounded dry makes ;the 
almonds oily. A stone or porcelain mortar is the best. 

45. To wash Currants. After picking the currants 
over, put them into a sieve, place this in a deep pan 
containing lukewarm water, and rub hard between the 
hands. This loosens the small stems which will sink 
into the water; the latter must be renewed several 
times. Befor£L _Buiiting them i nto cakes, currants and 
raisins must be dri ef 

46. To clean an bTsTone Raisins. Remove the stems, 
pick them over carefully, rinse in lukewarm water, then 
dry and stone them. Large raisins may be cut into 
pieces before using. 

47. Points about Lemons and how to keep them. 
There being so many lemons with a bitter taste put on 
the market, it is better to test them before use, which is 
particularly necessary when lemons are to beputinto 
jellies, creams, blanc manges, or used for soups and 
beverages. Do not neglect to wash and dry the lem ons 
before using them, and to relnjQ^e ljEnle"'seedg ~a^d the 
white inner skiTi_w hicTi also inipartsa bittertaste. 

To keep lemons, they should be wrapped- in tiss ue 
paper and laid in acoolpjace where there isa^ raftl— ^ 
"TTo keep Tern on*peeT1resE, grate it on sugaYjT^akeoff 
the yellow sugar very carefully, and preserve this lemon 
sugar in a widemouthed bottle well corked. As a sub- 
stitute for the pure lemon juice, the extract of lemon 
can be used, which usually gives satisfaction. 

48. The Use and Preservation of Orange Peel. 

Orange peel can in many cases be substituted for lemon 
peel; it gives a very nice'flavor to most sauces. In 
prder to keep well for a long time, peel the orange 
fchinty with a sharp knife, chop the peel very fine, mix 
with 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar, keep in a 
well-corked bottle. 



B. — Soups. 



I. MEAT SOUPS. 

1. General Directions for cooking Soup Stock. The 

kettle in which the soup is cooked should be used for 
this purpose exclusively and be kept perfectly clean. 
The best are made of heavy tiu or enameled ware, and 
have a tightly fitting cover. 

Dried peas, etc., can be softened by adding % to 1 
teaspoonf ul ot b icarboimte-of and a, ( or saleratus) while 
they are cooking; it may be well to state, however, 
that this does not, improve their flavo r The meat for 
soup "slUUk lh list be fresh. The shinbone is generally 
used, but the joint and the neck or "sticking-piece," as 
the butchers call it, contains more of the substance that 
you wish to extract, and makes a stronger and more 
nutritious soup than any other part of the animal. 
However, nearly every kind of meat, such as mutton, 
veal, game or poultry, will make good soups of varying 
excellence. 

For invalids who may partake of easily digestible 
food only, soups made from poultry or veal are the 
best. The meat from young animals will not make so 
strong a soup as that from older. 

Where a strong soup is wanted without reference to 
the juiciness of the meat, as in case of a dinner party 
where the soup-meat is not brought to the table, take 
a piece of the joint without bone or fats, and although 
this may, apparently, after having been used for the 
soup, beoi little account, yet when chopped up with fat 
boiled ham or nice pork fat, it will make very palatable 
meat balls. If the meat is to be served after the soup, 



14 B.— Soups. 

however, or as a side-dish, it will be well to cut away all 
'ragged pieces and then cut it up into smaller pieces, 
place it, covered with cold water, on the back of the 
stove for about 1 hour, bring to a boil and then add 
it to the soup when the latter begins to boil; whatever 
a soup made in this manner lacks in strength, may be 
supplied by the addition of some extract of beef. 
N* Meats for soups should be washed very slightly and 
must not be laid in water, as this would tend to lessen 
their strength. Whenever possible, do not wash the - 
meat at all, in any event it must ndc De Kept in the" 
^vater too lotig. When the meat is put on the fire, good 
judgment should be exercised as'to the amount which 
will boil away and the quantity of water first put into 
the kettle gauged accordingly; adding water after the 
soup is done is very detrimental. Should it have boiled 
away ±o a much, however, then a little hot water may 
be added! Soups cooked over a charcoal or peat fire, 
are the best. Inasmuch as soups req uire long cooking 
and lose in quantity even in 'aVfcightly coveT : eia !; 1?eTflt?7" 
is easy to o yersalt, and this circumstance must be taken 
intxTSoffisiaeration when the" salt is first put in. It is 
always easy to add more salt if needed, but over-salting 
is an indication of either negligence or ignorance. 

If a good, clear, palatable soup is wanted, a thor- 
ough skimming must not be neglected. At present" 
many Recommend that soup snduld riot be skimmed, 
claiming that skimming weakens the soup. We cannot 
agree with this view, the albumen contained in the 
scum has but little nutritive value and a cloudy soup is 
not nearly so palatable (which should be the principal 
feature of a good soup) as one that is quite clear. But 
the skimming should natUa&djQt ie top soon— not before 
the meat has slowly simmerecTTtbr at' least % hour/] 
Throw in a tablespoonful of cold wa ter, which will 
br ing the^cjam to t^Burta^T when it should be iinmedU. 
lateT^Ea^Foffr" ** '" ~ 

Be careful in cooking the soup to keep the kettle 
closely covered, in order not to lose the flavor of the 
juices, and keep it simmering slowly, but without ceas- 
ing, until done, being careful to prevent boiling over. 
After cooking about 1 hour, take the precaution to 
pass the soup through a sieve, slightly rinse the meat 



Meat Soups. 15 

to take off any scum which may adhere to it, and then 
place all back into the kettle (which has been cleaned in 
the meantime) and put on the fire again, having added 
the desired vegetables, etc. 

Vegetables in Soups. A piece of celery root cooked 
in the soup gives it a pleasant flavor. If one wishes to 
add the celery plentifully, it is well to first coOk it in 
water before adding it to the soup, so that the flavor of 
the celery will not be stronger than the flavor of the 
meat; for the same reason too large a quantity of 
vegetables, particularly celery tops, should never be 
put into the soup; in a weak beef broth, pea soup or 
potato soup vegetables, however, may be added to 
advantage. A red onion will give the soup a yellowish 
color, and is an agreeable seasoning. 

Parsley and salsify s hould be added a bout an hour 
after 'tne soup ha s cleared. Parsley, leek and asparaT 
gus will becom^tOTder in about % hour, celery root in 
a short hour. The preparation of soup vegetables is 
explained under No. 32, A. 

To thicken Soups. If flour is to be used for thicken- 
ing meat- or potato soup, it should be browned to a 
light yellow color with a piece of butter in a kettle or 
pan over a slow fire. Instead of this, however, flour 
may be kneaded with some fresh butter, make a small 
dumpling and put it into the soup at once after the 
latter has been passed through a sieve. The dumpling 
will dissolve completely and thicken the soup' nicely. 
But the browned flour is preferable because it adds 
more strength to the soup. 

" When flour is used to thicken soups, it should never 
be put in raw, because this will impart an unpleasant 
flavor which will spoil even an ordinary potato soup. 
-Soups cooked for large dinner parties at which there 
are several courses, are usually served quite clear and 
without the addition of the usual soup vegetables. 
Small dumplings with a little fresh asparagus or cauli- 
flower may be added. For the family table, soups can 
be thickened with slightly browned flour, as above, and 
the addition of rice, pearl barley, noodles, or sago will 
make them more nutritious. Sago, noodles or vermicelli 
are u sually added to strong beef stock. 



16 B.— Soups. 

Quantities and Length of Time for cooking Pearl 
Barley, Rice, Sago and Fancy Noodles. 2 heaping table- 
spoonfuls of pearl barley or rice are sufficient in soup 
enough for 4 persons ; 1 heaping tablespoonf ul of sago 
or fancy noodles in clear bouillon. Pearl barley and pure 
sago should be cooked in the soup 2% — 3 hours, rice 
1 — 1% hours, potato sag o (which can be di stinguishe d 
by its s mall rou na gr ains) % — 1 hour, fancy noodles and 
vermicelli, % hour"T"^ 

^fe§?: buying noodles be caj^jfjdj not to take t hose 
'' ^lore^yeTTo^ a^d^wTiTch'bstensibly are made with eggs, 
for experience "proves that the " saffron" used for color- 
ing them is veryjiarmfulj 



Dumplings. When dumplings are wanted in the 
broth or soup,- take out the meat, lay it on a dish 
placed over boiling water, add 2 — 3 tablespoonf uls of 
soup fat and cover the dish at least until the soup is 
served. If the soup is to be entirely clear, it is better 
to cook the dumplings in slightly salted water to which 
a trifle of extract of beef has been added, and then take 
them out with a skimmer and put them into a tureen ; 
the remaining broth, after having been put through a 
sieve, can be used for other soups or for cooking vege- 
tables. 

To make Soup stronger. A weak meat soup can be 
made stronger and more palatable by the addition of 
good extract of beef, of which small quantities are 
needed, perhaps as much at a time as can be taken on 
the point of a table knife; further on, directions will 
be given how good, strong soups can be made without 
any meat by simply using beef extracts. 

All meat soups must be served as hot as possible.. 

2. Quick Beef Broth. Into a large cup put the 
yolk of a fresh egg, some salt, a very fimall quantity of 
mace or nutmeg, a piece of butter the size of half a 
hazelnut (the butter is not absolutely necessary) and 
% teaspoonful of extract of beef ; stir well and gradually 
fill the. cup with % pint of fresh boiling water. Instead 
of the butter a piece of beef marrow the size of half a 
hazelnut is much better; chop fine, cook for about 10 
minutes in the boiling water which is to be used for the 



Vegetables — CiCMUifC. 




i French Bean — Veitsbohne; 2 Green Tea — Grime Erbse; 3 String Bean — 
Welsche LJohne; 4 Kidney Bean — Schwertbohne; 5 Scarlet Bean — Scharlachfarbige 
Bohne; 6 Garlic— Knoblauch ; 7 Sea Cabbage— Meerkohl ; 8 Spinach— Spinat ; 9 
Endive — Endivie; 10 Sprouts — Sprossenkobl ; n Mustard and Cress— Senf und 
Kresse; 12 Truffle— Truffel ; 13 Savoy Cabbage— Savoyerkohl ; 14 Broccoli- 
Broccoli; 15 Horseradish— Meerrettig; 16 Kadish — Radieszchen; 17 Turnip— Weisze 
Rube; 18 Beet— Kothe Rube; 19 Radish— Rettig; 20 Asparagus— Schnittspargel ; 
21 Summer Cabbage— Schnittkohl ; 22 Mushrooms— T'ilze; 23 Onion— Zwiebel ; -'4 
Carrots— Carotte ; 25 Cabbage— Weiszkraut; 26 Cucumber— Gurke ; 27 Artichoke— 
Artischoke; 28 Green Artichoke— Griine Artichoke; 29 Red Cabbage— Rothkraut ; 
30 Tomato — Tomate; 3t Spanish Onion — Spanische Zwiebel; ^2 Lettuce— Lattich ; 
33 Head Cabbage — Kohlkopf; 34 Parsnip— 1'astinake ; 35 Celery— Sclleric ; 36 Potato 

Kartoffel; 37 Lima Bean— Weisze Bohne; 38 Leeks— Porre; 39 Mark Pea— Mark- 

rbse; 40 Cauliflower— Blumenkohl ; 41 Egg Plant— Eierpflanze. 



Meat Soup? . 17 

broth, and then pass through a sieve onto the beef 
extract. In case the entire yolk of the egg is not 
wanted, half of it stirred up in a tablespoonful of cold 
water will keep until the next day if put in a cool place. 
Or the cup can be filled with boiling water to begin with 
and the salt and extract of beef stirred up with it. 

3. A palatable Soup for 8 Persons made of Beef 
Extract. Figure on % pint of soup for every person ; a 
small quantity of water should be added for the boil- 
ing. In all, therefore, 3 quarts of water must be brought 
to a boil ; put in 1 pound of nicely washed beef without 
any bones, add a sufficiency of salt and skim carefully. 
Then add an onion cut up very fine, % of a large celery 
root— if it is small take %— and 4 tablespoonfuls of 
pearl barley , cover tightly and let the soup cook con- 
tinually for 2% hours over a moderate fire. 

Just before Kfirvi^jr put the yolk of an egg, nutmeg 
according fb taste, and a scant teaspoonful of beet 
extract into the tureen, then pour in the soup grad- 
ually, stirring*constautly to prevent t he egg from curd- 
ling. 

4. Clear White Beef Soup. For a large number of 
people take % pound of beef and for a smaller number 
take % pound for each person, to make a good, strong 
soup. The broth will greatly gain in strength if a 
chicken is cooked with the beef. In this case less of the 
latter will be required. If the meat is not to be brought 
to the table, cut it up and put it on the fire in water, 
% pint for every % pound of meat; after the meat has 
simmered, gently for about 30 minutes, skim carefully, 
immediately add- a celery root peeled and cut into pieces, 
the white end of a. leek or of an onion cut in pieces, a car. 
rot cut in half and the necessary quantity of salt, and 
cook until the meat is done. Then pass the broth 
through a sieve, and after it has settled pour it into the 
soup kettle again, being careful to keep back all the 
settlings, and cook once more, adding little dumplings, 
asparagus tips or small cauliflowers, drab ta jfe can be 

?ut into the tureen if desired; these must not be cooked^ 
ecause cooking makesJjheoiJto-UglL^ 

At the same time, rice, % tablespoonful to each 
person, may be scalded and cooked in clear broth; it 



18 B.— Soups. 

should be of a thick consistency, but the grain should 
remain whole. The rice is served with grated parmesan 
cheese as a side dish with the soup ; or the rice may be 
moulded in any pretty form, dusted with the grated 
cheese or dripped witlrcrab butter. A modern side dish 
served with the soup consists of cooked tomatoes. The 
tomatoes are cut up, cooked in beef broth and passed 
through a sieve and served in sauce dishes. 

Beef soup must be cooked from 2 — 3 hours, accord- 
ing to the age of the beef from which the meat is cut, 
sometimes even 4 hours, particularly the breast piece. 

5. Hasty Beef Soup. For 6 — 8 persons, 2 pounds 
of meat are cut into small cubes or thin slices. Take a 

Eiece of butter the size of half an egg and in this lightly 
rown 'a few tablespoonfuls of flour, put in the meat, a 
finely chopped onion, a carrot, together with a small 
celery root which has been cut into 8 pieces, stir for a 
short time and add as much boiling salted water as is 
wanted to make the desired quantity of soup, cover 
tightly, cook 1 hour, and pass through alieve. If rice 
is to be put into the soup it is cooked separately and 
added, with the celery, when the soup is served. Season 
with nutmeg according to taste. 

6. Clear Brown Beef Soup. Directions for the pre- 
paration of a brown broth will be found under No. 20, 
A. For a party of 12 people, take from 5 — 6 pounds of 
beef, and about 1 to 1% ounces of raw ham. Small 
dumplings can be cooked in this soup or brown sago if 
desired. 

7. Tomato Soup. Lightly brown a good sized piece 
of butterwith an onion, and in this stew 5 — 6 quartered 
tomatoes until soft, add 3 ounces of bits of toasted 
bread, a sufficiency of salt, and enough water to make 6 
plates of soup. Before serving, the soup is strained, 
and strengthened with beef extract. It must cook 1% — 2 
hours and be well bound. If the bread is not liked in 
the soup take flour which has been lightly browned in 
butter instead. 

Another way is to cook the tomatoes in meat broth 
until done, and pass through a sieve. 

8. Beef Soup with Pearl Barley and Rice. Follow 
the directions given under No. 1, but pass the stocfr 



Meat Soups. 19 

through a very fine sieve as soon as it has cooked % 
hour, then get a small piece of butter very hot in a 
small iron kettle and, for about 4 persons, stir with 
this about 1 heaping spoonful of flour until it is very 
lightly browned, and put the flour together with the 
broth (which must be poured from -the settlings very 
carefully) and the meat on the fire again. If it is to' be 
pearl barley soup the barley is to be added at once, 
also such soup vegetables as may be desired, but rice 
must be cooked only 1— % hours, as -observed in No. 1. 
An hour before serving a few button onions, asparagus 
tips or young kohlrabi can be cooked with the soup. 
Cauliflower makes a good addition to the soup, but 
must be cooked previously to putting it in, not so 
much, however, that it will fall to pieces ; asparagus for 
this kind of a soup needs no previous cooking. Shortly 
before serving, drop a few fresh, finely chopped celery 
leaves or a trifle of finely ground mace into the tureen-; 
dumplings can be added to the soup if desired. 

Remark. — Meat dumplings are preferable to all other kinds in weak soups, 
but the soup must not be made too thin, and it can easily be thickened by the 
addition of flour rubbed in butter, yet the latter should not be added sooner 
than 1 hour before serving. Those liking the flavor of celery can take 1 or 2 thick 
celery roots, clean them nicely, and cook them in the soup, then slice and serve 
with a dressing of olive oil, vinegar, pepper and salt as a salad. 

9. French (Vegetable) Soup. Take vegetables of 
various kinds in their season; in the Summer peas, 
asparagus, kohlrabi, smallcarrots ; in the Fall turnips, 
celery, savoy cabbage and kohlrabi. Cut up the vege- 
tables and let them simmer in fresh butter, cover with a 
good strong meat broth, cook until the vegetables are 
well done, season the soup with mace and chopped 
parsley and serve with the addition of small egg dump- 
lings or toasted bits of bread. 

10. Ox=Tongue Soup. When the tongue is nicely 
prepared, an ox-tongue soup is not less palatable than 
any made from other kinds of meat. In the first place 
cut away the yellow spongy meat close to the bone, dip 
the tongue in hot water, rub thoroughly with salt, 
wash carefully and rinse until clean, then cover the 
tongue with plenty of water, add salt (not too much), 
put on the fire and cook slowly without interruption 
from 3—3% hours. This broth can be used for potato 



20 B.— Sottps. 

soups according to Nos. 39 and 40. Any other soup 
can be made from a weak tongue broth by the addition 
of more or less beef extrac^, and will then be but little 
inferior to soups made from meats. 

For a small table, dishes of various kinds can be 
made from tongue. Taken hot from the soup, it is pal- 
atable with cabbage or savoy. Parts of the tongue can 
be divided, sliced, and when fried with salt, egg, and 
cracker crumbs it makes a good side dish with Brussels 
sprouts, asparagus, spinach, cauliflower, or other vege- 
tables ; the remainder can be made into a stew, but in 
this case the necessary broth is taken from the tongue 
after it is cooked, and put into a cool place. It is best 
to make the stew the following day; do not forget to 
add a few slices of lemon. 

The larger you can get the tongue, the more profit- 
able it will be. 

11. Ox-Tail Soup. Cut 2 ox-tails at the joints into 
pieces about 2 inches long, wash carefully, put on the 
fire in cold water, and leave until it begins to boil, then 
again rinse them in cold water. Clean the kettle care- 
fully, and put in some onions, carrots cut into small 
pieces, parsley root, leeks and celery, to which may be 
added a bay leaf and 6—8 peppercorns. Let it simmer 
with a piece of butter and a little salt for about 10 min- 
utes, then pour in 1% quarts of meat broth and a pint 
of white wine. Then the ox-tail and a few slices of pork 
fat, and remnants of raw ham are cookedin this until 
nearly done. Take the meat out of the broth, strain the 
latter through a fine strainer, take off the superfluous 
fat, add one more glass of Madeira and enough meat 
broth to furnish the desired quantity of soup,. say from 
2%— 3 quarts, and in this let the ox-tail cook until com- 
pletely done. 

Vegetables of T-arious kinds, such as peas, aspar- 
agus or carrota which have been cooked in a separate 
vessel in some meat broth, are now put into the tureen 
and the soup, which has been seasoned with a trifle of 
cayenne, is poured in as hot as possible. Frequently the 
meat is cut from the bones and served in the soup. 

According to the English method, the thick pieces 
are first fried with a few pieces of pork fat until they 
begin to color before . putting them into the boiling 



Meat Soups. 21 

broth, which has been made from the thinner pieces of 
the ox-tail, a piece of beef and a few pork kidneys. 

No vegetables are put into this soup, but only 1 
bay leaf, mace, and a piece of ginger for seasoning. 

' The soup is thickened with browned flour and 
butter, and receives an additional seasoning of Madeira 
and mushroom catsup. 

i2. Gravy Soup. Stew a thinly sliced onion with 
plenty of nice fresh butter, brown about 1 — 2 table- 
spoonfuls of flour in this and add enough boiling water 
to make the desired quantity of soup. After cooking 
rice and a sliced celery root in this until done add your 
gravy. Be careful in preparing soups from roast meat 
gravies that the latter have not become unpalatable or 
sour. 

i3. Veal Soup. Take the veal according to the 
number of persons as directed under No. 4; a somewhat 
larger quantity than there given is needed, however, 
because it does not yield so much broth as the beef. 
Wash, cook in water with a trifle of salt and skim care- 
fully ; after it has cooked for about 30 minutes pass 
through a strainer, rub some flour in butter, and onto 
this slowly pour the veal broth from the settlings, add 
a parsley root and, an hour before serving, some 
scalded rice. If in season, asparagus or cauliflower can 
be added; the latter should be previously cooked; 10 
minutes before serving, meat balls or other kinds of 
dumplings may be cooked in the broth. Some people 
like a few purslane leaves or a little sorrel in veal soups. 
If you wish to substitute groats for the rice then leave 
out the flour, and put in a small piece of butter after 
the broth has been strained a,s directed under No. 8. 
When serving this soup, stir with it a little nutmeg or 
finely chopped parsley; the yolk of an egg is a palatable 
addition to veal soup, but in this case the latter must 
not be thickened too much. If the meat is to be 
brought to the table after the soup, the directions 
given under No. 4 should be heeded; serve with the 
meat prepared grated horse radish, or else turn it in a 
beaten egg with salt and pepper and fry in butter. The 
cooking will take from 1&—2 hours. 



22 B— Soups. 

14. Calf's -Head Soup. Take the head of a well 
fattened calf, clean, cover with water and a little salt, 
boil until tender and pass the broth through a strainer. 
For 10 persons, 3 heaping tablespoonfuls of flour are 
lightly browned in butter, and then 5% quarts of the, 
broth are slowly poured over this; if the broth should 
have become reduced too much through the boiling, 
add some water. When the soup begins to cook, season 
with a, pinch of saffron which has been previously dried 
and powdered, and add a dash of vinegar which has 
been made milder with a little sugar. A small cupful of 
vinegar of medium strength would be about the right 
proportion. Before serving stir the yolks of 5 eggs into 
the soup and also, according to taste, add about 6 
ounces of bits of bread toasted in butter. In the mean- 
time the calf's head should be split open; the brain 
taken out and put into the tureen, the meat-taken from 
the bones and cut into pieces, fried in butter and served 
after the soup with boiled potatoes and pickles. 

The boiled brain can also be cut into slices, sprin- 
kled with salt and pepper, turned in eggs and bread 
crumbs and fried in butter to a light brown color. 

15. Veal Sweetbread Soup. Prepare the sweetbreads 
according to A, 35, cut into small cubes and lightly 
brown in butter and flour. Cook for a short time 
in veal broth, salt slightly and stir with some finely 
chopped parsley or mace, and the yolks of eggs. This 
soup is also good for invalids, but then the seasoning 
must be omitted and the flour rubbed in a little butter 
but not browned, and % of a teaspoonful of extract of 
beef added to a pint of the soup. 

16. Princess Soup. Prepare 3 veal sweetbreads 
according to A, 35, and cook them for 15 minutes in a 
mild broth made from the extract of beef. Chop 2 of 
the sweetbreads very fine, simmer for a few minutes in 
melted butter and stir with the yolks of 5 hard boiled 
eggs to a uniform mass. Cook 3 ounces of lightly 
toasted bread in about 3 quarts of mild meat broth, 
then put in the sweetbread mass and cook the soup 
% hour longer. 3 hard boiled eggs and the other sweet- 
bread are cut into cubes, placed in the tureen, and 
sprinkled with a small glassful of Madeira. Season the 



Meat Soups. 23 

soup with cayenne pepper, strengthen witn a teaspoon- 
ful of extract of beef if necessary, pour over the ingredi- 
ents already in the tureen and serve. 

17. Mutton Broth. After washing the meat put it 
on the fire in boiling water, add salt, but not too much, 
skim carefully, put in 1 small celery root, a small kohl- 
rabi, a finely sliced onion, flour browned according to 
No. 8, and some pearl barley or scalded rice, cover 
tightly and let it simmer slowly; clear off the fat as 
soon as it appears, for if it is cooked with the soup too 
long the latter will receive an unpleasant taste. If you 
desire to put groats into the soup, this should be done 
about 30 minutes before the soup is served, stirring 
thoroughly. Potato dumplings may be put into the 
soup or the yolk of an egg, mace or minced parsley 
stirred With it. The length of time for cooking this 
soup is about 3 hours. 

18. Good Chicken Soup. For 5 persons take a large 
fat fowl which has been killed the day before and care- 
fully pick it clean and wash thoroughly in cold water. 
As fowls occasionally impart a strong flavor to soups, 
it is well to keep them in cold water for 15 minutes or 
so. The feet of uhe fowl can be utilized, if desired, by 
scalding them in boiling water, then take off the. skin, 
chop off the points of the toes and put the latter in the 
soup with the heart and stomach of the fowl. The liver 
should be kept back until the last and cooked in the 
soup about 3 minutes before serving. All chicken or 
poultry soups gain strength if the breast piece is first 
cut out with the bone, the legs and wings are parted at 
the joints, and all other larger bones are cracked. 

Put the fowl on the fire in 3 quarts of water and 
should it be an old one the water must be cold ; add a 
little salt, skim and follow the directions given under 
No. 8 with reference to pouring off the broth and 
browning the flour; then add a piece of fresh butter the 
size of a large walnut and let the soup cook slowly but 
uninterruptedly for about 3 hours, keeping the kettle 
tightly covered all the time. Eice, pearl barley or fancy 
noodles can be cooked with the soup if wished, but of 
vegetables the only proper kinds are parsley roots, 
salsify or asparagus. Celery, leeks and onions are too 



24 B.— Soups. 

strong for the delicate flavor of the chicken soup.. Crab 
dumplings (see 0, No. 2) or crab butter (see A, No. 9) 
are excellent in a good chicken soup, but bread-, groat- 
or egg dumplings are also good ; a trifle of mace is an 
appropriate seasoning for chicken soup, or instead of 
this a little finely chopped parsley and the yolks of 1—2 
eggs can be stirred into the soup. 

Soup cooked according to the above directions, but 
without the addition of either noodles, rice, etc., leaving 
it entirely clear with all the fat taken off, and thickened 
simply with lightly browned flour, then adding 4 yolks 
of eggs whipped with 1 cupful of sweetcrea m or aglass- 
ful of Rmnewine an d furthermore "adding, the roast 
meat of the chicken, which has been chopped very finely 
and passed through a strainer, makes what is known in 
Germany as "Queen's Soup". 

Another Germ an method is to omit the beaten yolks 
of eggs, and instead to mix the grated volks of a few 
hard boiled eggs with the chopped" meat of thechicken 
and then to heat them both in the soup. In some 
kitchens a glass of champagne i s added before the soup 
is served. <■""*"' 

The fowl may be served with the chicken gravy 
described under division R of this book, or if the roast 
meat has been used in the soup, the remainder can be 
used for chicken croquettes. 

19. Windsor Soup. (A fine soup for a dinner party 
of 10 persons) . Take 1 pound of chopped beef, % pound 
of veal, about % pound of raw ham and lightly brown 
this in 6 tablespoonfuls of butter togetherwith 1 onion, 
1 carrot and % celery root, cover the meat with 3 — 4 
quarts of meat broth or broth made from the extract of 
beef, add a chicken from which the breast piece has been 
cut away and cook all together slowly for 3 hours. In 
the meantime take the meat from the breast of the 
chicken, chop very finely and then add 2 eggs, grated 
bread, salt, and a' trifle of parsley, and make up into 
little dumplings which should be cooked in salt water 
just before serving. Macaroni broken into pieces are 
also cooked in salt water, soaked in an even tablespoon- 
fill of butter with 2 teaspoonfuls of sherry, and put in 
'the soup which has been thickened with browned flour 
and butter and strained. The soup can be still further 



Meat Soups. 25 

seasoned according to taste with a few glassfuls of 
sherry, or instead of the macaroni a baked nee pudding 
can be served as a side-dish. 

20. Oyster Soup. For 12 persons make 6 quarts of 
good beef broth, taking for this purpose 6 pounds of 
beef with some soup herbs, skim off the fat, pour the 
broth from off the settlings, clean out the kettle and 
again cook the broth, then thicken with % pound of 
fresh butter in which 4 tablespoonfuls of flour have 
been rubbed; in the meantime make 24 fish balls, open 
48 oysters and take them out of the shells, cook the 
beards of the oysters in the liquor of the oysters, then 
pass through a sieve, add to the beef broth, and cook 
the dumplings in it for a few minutes, stir the yolks of 
4 eggs with a little mace in a glassful of Ehinewine to 
which gradually add, stirring constantly, some of the 
boiling broth, and afterwards pour this into the soup, 
keeping up the stirring so that it will not curdle. After 
the soup commences to boil, take the kettle from the 
fire and then throw in the oysters, because cooking 
hardens them. Then immediately serve the soup to- 
gether with buttered toast. 

21. "Kaiser" Soup, Meat-Puree Soup of Wild Fowl 
and Rabbit or Hare. These soups are particularly nutri- 
tious for elderly persons or those in delicate health. 
Make a good brown meat broth and in this cook until 
done, 1 pheasant, 2 partridges, 1 snipe, 1 hare, take 
out the meat and let it partly cool. All of the meat 
is then taken from the bones, which are broken up, and 
cooked for another hour in the broth. The latter is 
then passed through a very fine strainer ; the best parts 
of the meat, which must be free from skin and not 
stringy, are then pounded very fine in a stone mortar, 
pass through a strainer and mix with the broth, which, 
amounting to about 3 quarts or more, is salted accord- 
ing to taste, receives a piece of butter and should be 
frequently stirred with a wooden spoon, but heated 
only and not again boiled. To thicken the soup slightly 
soak about- 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of bread crumbs 
with the meat broth and pound with the meat. This 
easily digestible soup contains all the strength of the 
game without any of the bones and sinews, combined 
with the best essence of the beef. 



26 B— Soups. 

22. Crab Soup. Make a good beef broth according 
to No. 1 and for 12 persons take about 30 — 40 crabs, 
which have been cleaned and prepared according to 
directions already given, and cook them in boiling 
water for 15 minutes. Pick the meat out of the tails 
and claws, crush the shells in a mortar, but not too 
fine, and put them on the fire with % pound of butter 
and stir until it begins to turn red and raise, then put 
in 4 tablespoonfuls of flour to thicken the soup. Pour 
over this 6" quarts of the beef broth, and then pass 
the whole through a sieve covered with cheese cloth. 
Shortly before serving add crab dumplings — (see 0, 
No. 2) and sweetbreads (A, No. 35) into the soup 
which has been brought to a boil again. Asparagus 
tips and small cauliflowers are also favorite additions 
to crab soups. The tails of the crabs are put into the 
tureen, just before serving. When thickening be careful 
not to get it too thick, and, by the way, avoid this 
with all soups made for dinner parties, 

23. Eel Soup (Bremen Style). For 3 quarts of 
soup boil 2 tablespoonfuls of fine pearl barley in a 
small quantity of water, then pour over this the neces- 
sary quantity of beef broth, and add shelled green peas, 
parsley or celery roots, cauliflowers, asparagus and a 
few small potatoes — the latter three ingredients should 
first be cooked — some chopped lettuce, celery, leek, 
parsley, purslane, salt and ground white pepper, tak- 
ing proportionately smaller quantities of the stronger 
herbs, cook all together for 30 minutes and then put 
in nicely cleaned pieces of eel about 2 inches long, which 
have first been cooked in salted water, and cook until 
done. 

Then make dumplings of fish force meat, cook them 
for a few minntes in the soup and stir this with the 
yolks of a few eggs, sweet cream, chopped thyme and a 
few drops of lemon juice; serve immediately. 

24. Eel Soup (Hamburg Style). Two pounds or 
more of heavy eels are rubbed in salt— it is best to do 
tffls the day previous to cook-ing— then washed, cut jn to 
pieces of suitable size, the head and the point of the tail 
cut off, and cooked in white wine, a very little wine 
vinegar, salt, white and black peppercorns, and 1 — 2 



Meat Soups. 27 

bay leaves. Cook a number of pears the day before in 
white wine and cinnamon as for a sauce, but without 
sugar. The pears should be cooked whole so that they 
may receive the full flavor of the wine and vinegar. 
The eel and the pears should be set aside in a cool place. 

When ready to cook, boil 2, 3 or 4 pounds of good 
beef in 1 pint of water to each pound of meat. Skim 
carefully and after cooking 1 hour throw in a soupplate- 
ful of carrots cut into little pieces, half as much parsley 
root also cut into small pieces, and 1 celery root, whole. 
At the same time take a handful of celery leaves, a 
handful of parsley, a few slips of sweet majoram, also a 
bit of thyme, burnet, houseleek, a few sorrel and sage 
leaves and some green leek, chop fine and put into the 
soup, and after it has cookad a few hours throw in a 
soupplateful of shelled green peas, a handful of purslane 
and of cauliflower. • Shortly before serving rub a table- 
spoonful of flour in a good-sized piece of butter, and stir 
it into the soup with some pepper. When ready to 
serve pour as much of the soup as will be needed into 
the tureen and add as much of the eel and of the pears 
(which must first be warmed) as will be proportion- 
ately enough, bringing the remaining pieces of the eel 
and the rest of the pears to the table in separate dishes. 
Should it then happen thai more soup is wanted than 
was prepared, the eel and pears can be passed around 
and the plates filled with what is remaining of the 
soup. 

Dumplings made according to directions given 
under 0, No. 2, are also put into the soup. 

If the eel soup is wanted for the family table, pre- 
pare a simple strong meat broth and in this cook for 
an hour before serving a plateful of green peas, another 
plateful of quartered pears and celery roots until done. 
Then put in a few eels which have previously been 
skinned, "cut into pieces and cooked in saltwater until 
half done; put in such soup herbs as can be obtained, 
cook until done. Thicken the soup if necessary and 
put in sponge dumplings (see under 0). Serve with 
sliced lemon. 

25. Fish Soup. Pickerel, pike, carp or freshwater 
fish of every kind are cut into pieces, turned in flour and 
baked in butter together with some slices of bread until 



28 B — Soups. 

light brown, then pour in some meat broth which has 
been made with celery, parsley roots and onions, or else 
the strained broth of shelled green peas, let the soup 
cook a little longer, pass through a sieve, shortly before 
serving bring to a boil again and serve with finely 
chopped parsley. Buttered toast cut into «mall pieces 
is served in the soup. 

if the broth has been prepared beforehand, this kind 
of soup can be gotten ready in 1 hour. 

For an ordinary fish soup the water in which fresh- 
water fish have been cooked will answer. This soup is 
best thickened with dried peas, cooked and strained; 
strengthen with extract of beef. 

26. Mock Turtle Soup. For 24—30 persons make a 
strong beef broth, taking 8 — 10 pounds of beef with the 
requisite soup herbs, onions, bay leaves, ground cloves 
and 2 — 3 whole cloves. Put on the fire a large well 
cleaned calf's head, a pig's jowl and ears, a nice beef 
bone and a smoked beef tongue; cook all together 
until done, but it must not be too tender. After the 
meats are cold, cut them up in small oblong pieces and 
also the tongue of the calf, which of course must be well 
cleaned, put all in the broth with the addition of small 
sausages, a pinch of cayenne pepper, several sweet- 
breads (see A, No. 35), and enough of the calf's head 
broth to make a sufficent quantity of soup, which 
should be thickened with browned flour and butter; 

After everything has cooked for 15 minutes, cook a 
number of veal meat balls in some veal broth or salted 
water and add them to the soup, together with several 
hard boiled eggs cut into small pieces, and also the 
brain of the calf which must first be washed in water, 
scalded, the small veins taken out, then cooked in water 
with a little vinegar, afterwards cut it into slices, turn 
in egg and bread crumbs and bake in butter ; further- 
more, put into the soup some catsup and, if they can be 
obtained, % bottle of Madeira and some oysters; the 
latter two, however, must not be cooked as long as the 
rest. 
■ Then immediately serve the soup. 

To make a very elegant mock-turtle soup small 
dumplings in imitation of turtle eggs must be added. 
Take the yolks of 3 hard boiled eggs, grate them finely 



Meat Soups. 29 

and mix with a small teaspoonf ul of flour, the yolk of a 
fresh egg, 1% tablespoonfuls of butter, salt and a trifle 
of nutmeg, make little balls the size of a marble, cook 
for a few minutes in boiling water. 

The beef broth as well as the head of the calf can be 
cooked the day before without detriment to the soup. 

A simple mock-turtle soup can be made by cooking 
the head of the calf together with the soup herbs, car- 
rots and a beef jaw; thicken with browned flour and 
butter, strengthen with about % teaspoonf ul of extract 
of beef for each quart of broth and then add tarragon, 
the chopped meat of the calf's-head, 1 glassful of arrac 
and hard boiled eggs cut into cubes. 

27. Hare Soup. When cleaning the hare, catch the 
blood ; crack the bones and cut the meat, excepting the 
saddle, into pieces, cook together with several pounds 
of beef, some ham, spices and soup herbs slowly for 
3 hours ; in the meantime fry the saddle in butter, cut 
up into pieces and put into the tureen. Pass the soup 
through a strainer, thicken with browned flour and 
butter and then add the blood, being careful to stir 
vigorously, also 2 glassfuls of Portwine, some cayenne 
pepper and salt, cook thoroughly and serve. 

According to the English method, only the hare is 
used and the time devoted to cooking does not exceed 
2 hours. For this soup cut up the whole hare and after 
setting aside the best pieces of the saddle, fry the rest 
of the meat with carrots, sliced ham, soup herbs and 
seasoning in butter to a light brown ; on this pour clear 
beef broth and cook as above. The saddle pieces are 
also fried, but they are then pounded very fine, mixed 
with some soaked bread or roll and % pint of Portwine 
and cooked with the soup. 

Sometimes rice is cooked in the soup, but a rice 
pudding served with the soup is preferable. 

A medium-sized hare will make enough soup for 
6 — 7 persons. 

28. Brown Soup made from the Bones of Hares, 
Game or Roasts. First remove all of the meat which 
may still adhere to the bones, chop very fine and stir 
with soaked and pressed bread, some fresh butter, sev- 
eral eggs, salt, pepper, nutmegs ; this is to be made into 



30 B.— Soups. 

small dumplings to be cooked in the soup later on. It 
is well to first test the dumplings to see whether they 
are too hard or too soft; in the first case put in 
another egg or some cream, in the latter some bread 
or cracker crumbs. The bones, in the meantime, are 
broken or cracked into small pieces and fried lightly in 
butter with sliced lean ham, onions, carrots and a pars- 
ley root, brown a few tablespoonfuls of flour and pour 
over all as much boiling water together with such lots 
of perfectly gdod gravy as you have left over. , Cook 
the soup for 2 hours, pass through a very fine strainer 
in order to catch the chips of bones that may be in the 
soup, then pour the soup back into the kettle, being 
careful to keep back the settlings, cook the dumplings 
until done, strengthen the soup with extract of beef and 
season with Madeira, cayenne pepper and salt. Should 
there be no meat on the bones, thicken the soup with 
browned flour and butter, or else cook the dumplings 
or the hearts of cabbages in the soup. Ordinarily the 
frying of the bones can also be omitted and then they 
need simply receive a long and slow cooking in water 
with' salt, spices and plenty of soup vegetables, but 
when thus made an addition of extract of beef is desir- 
able. 

29. Partridge Soup. Partridge soup is made like 
hare soup ; instead of the dumplings, the meat from the 
breast can be sliced very fine and served in the soup. 

30. Jacobine Soup. Put poached eggs, (see under 
L) into the tureen together with bits of toasted bread, 
cover with strong, hot beef broth and add chopped 
pieces of poultry roast. 

31. Beef Tea. Take about 1 pound of lean beef 
free from sinews ; it is necessary to have a vessel that 
can be hermetically sealed, and a large piece of absorb- 
ent or blotting paper. Cut the beef into small pieces, 
put into the vessel, close it and put into a kettle with 
boiling water and let it cook slowly 4 hours. Then 
pour through a very fine strainer into a warm cup, 
take off the fat with the blotting -paper by absorption, 
season with salt and stir into it the yolk of an egg. 
The given quantity of meat will make a medium sized 
cupful of beef tea. The meat can be utilized for hash or 
for meat balls. 



Meat Soups. 31 

32. Pigeon Soup for Invalids. The broth is pre- 
pared as directed under No. 1, and scalded rice is added 
immediately after the broth is skimmed; a few fresh* 
carrots or green' peas, or % hour before serving some 
asparagus tips or a little cauliflower (the latter must 
first be cooked) may be^dded. The soup must cook 
not less than 2 hours, because only old pigeons are to 
be used ; it should be well bound but not too thick, and 
if the invalid is entirely free from fever, the half of the 
yolk of a fresh egg may be stirred into it. Instead of 
rice, pearl barley is frequently put into soups of this 
kind ; the barley must first be scalded, slightly browned 
in butter, cooked with a few spoonfuls of the broth and 
be allowed to draw on top of the stove until the 
pigeon soup has cooked for about an hour; then cook 
them in the soup until completely done, after which a 
few asparagus tips only are added. 

33. Veal Soup for Invalids. Take a good chunky 
-piece of veal, skim the broth through a strainer, put in 
a small piece of fresh butter and some scalded rice, and 
cook until done with asparagus and cauliflower which 
have first been separately cooked. The yolk of afresh 
egg or a trifle of nutmeg or finely chopped parsley may 
be stirred in the soup if it is not contrary to the physi- 
cian's directions. 

34. Beef Broth Soup (Puree) for Invalids. Make a 
good clear beef broth according to No. 1; in 1 large cup- 
ful cook 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of grated wheatbread 
and after passing it through a sieve stir into it the 
breast of a chicken very finely chopped, which has first 
been thoroughly mixed" with 2 tablespoonfuls of sweet 
cream. The soup must not be cooked again and the 
yolk of an egg can be stirred in if desired. 

35. Game Soup with Tapioca. Take a partridge 
and make a clear broth free from fat, stir 2 even table- 
spoonfuls of tapioca with 4 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 
cook for 10 minutes in the broth, and finally add a few 
asparagus tips or small cauliflowers, which have prev- 
iously been cooked in salted water until done. Any 
other kind of game can be used, but it must first be 
slightly roasted, covered with cracked veal bones, salt, 



32 B— Soups. 

soup vegetables and the necessary amount of water, 
and cook slowly for 3 hours before the broth is strained 
and other ingredients, as taste suggests, are added. 

Besides the last five of these soups, Nos. 2, 16, 17 
and 19 are well adapted for the sick room. 



II. VEGETABLE AND HERB SOUPS. 

36. Soup, Vegetables and Meat. This dish makes 
0, palatable, nutritious and cheap dinner, and can be 

' prepared either from fresh peas or such as have become 
slightly hard, (the latter must be straiued after cook- 
ing) as well as from young kohlrabi -, cauliflowers or 
even potatoes. Get a piece of butter or lard very hot, 
in this brown 2 heaping tablespoohfuls of fine flour, 
pour the necessary quantity of water over all, stirring 
it, and as soon as it commences to boil add the desired 
vegetables, either a heaping soupplateful of shelled 
green peas and soup vegetables cut into pieces, or 2 
sliced kohlrabi, some salt, and cook until tender and 
the soup becomes rather thick. If the soup is to be 
made with potatoes follow the directions given under 
No. 38 for a potato soup, cook with either a piece of 
leek or a celery root, then with a tablespoon cut from 
the boiled meat 16 dumplings (see 0, beef or veal 
dumplings) shaping them by turning them back and 
forth with the spoon; it is advisable, however, to try 
them to see that they are not too flabby or too hard ; 
then cook the dumplings for about 5 minutes, that is to 
say, until done, after which the soup should not cook 
any longer, then stir a small head of finely chopped 
parsley into it. If no potatoes are cooked in the soup, 
serve them boiled as a separate dish. 

37. Russian Cabbage Soup. (Borsch). {Original 
receipt.) Take about six pounds of beef for the stock. 
Clean 6 small red beets, cut into long thick slices, turn 
in flour, cover tightly and stew in butter for % hour. 
Besides this take a small head of cabbage, quarter it, 
cover with boiling water, put the "lid on the kettle and 
set aside for % hour. After the broth has cooked for 1% 



Vegetable and Herb Soups. 33 

hours, put in the beets and then % hour later the cab- 
bage; celery, root, small carrots, and green leek must 
not be forgotten. After all is thoroughly well cooked 
add % pint of sour cream into which a heaping table- 
spoonful of flour has been stirred, and when the cooking 
is done, stir the yolk of an egg into the soup and serve 
with small sausages. 

38. "Potato Soup. Put the bones of fresh or roast 
meats on the lire, together with meat remnants of fresh 
meat, adding the proper amount of salt, skim, put in 
onions, leek and a celery root, and cook slowly for 1% 
hours. In the meantime cook the potatoes in a separ- 
ate kettle until they are almost soft, add them to the 
soup and after the cooking is well done, strain. Stir a 
finely chopped bunch of parsley or else grated nutmeg 
into the soup, then serve with bits of toasted bread. 

Potato soup can also be made without meats, tising 
water only, but in this case it must have plenty of vege- 
tables, and also some flour browned in butter and a 
teaspoonful of extract of beef must be cooked with it. 

39. A very fine Potato Soup. Fry 2 platefuls of 
sliced raw potatoes with a chopped onion in 2 even 
tablespoonfuls of butter to a light brown color until 
nearly done, throw them without the butter into 3 
quarts of boiling water, in which some soup vegetables 
have been cooked for 15 minutes previously, add suffi- 
cient salt and cook the soup for % hour; then pass 
through a sieve, and in the fat which remains from 
frying the potatoes brown 1 tablespoonful of flour, add 
this to the soup, strengthen with a small teaspoonful of 
extract of beef and 2 tablespoonfuls of claret, let it 
come to a boil, and then serve with toasted bits of 
bread. 

40. Oatmeal Soup with Potatoes. Soak the oat- 
meal in water, about 1 heaping teaspoonful for each 
person, and. then cook in water with the addition of 
some good fat (broth from cooked smoked meats or 
ham mixed with water is excellently adapted for the 
purpose), kohlrabi, celery, parsley and green leek, or if 
these are not obtainable, take a few finely chopped 
onions, add nicely washed potatoes and the necessary 



34 B— Soups. 

salt; cook for about 2 hours until thoroughly done 
and of a medium thickness. A little extract of beef can 
be added to this soup advantageously. 

Instead of oatmeal coarse pearl barley (groats) can 
be taken. Cook with pork fat until white and do not 
fill up with the broth or the water until the groats are 
entirely soft. 

41. Early Vegetable Soup. Rub some flour in but- 
ter, add as much water as is wanted to make the de- 
sired quantity of soup, salt, and cook therein the fol- 
lowing early vegetables until done: celery and parsley 
roots, lettuce, spinach, sorrel, purslane and peas. Stir 
some cream into the soup and add wheat bread toasted 
in butter. 1% hours are sufficient to cook this soup. 

42. Green Pea Soup. Shell the peas, and, without 
washing them, let them simmer for a short time in a 
piece of melted butter and then, according to the quan- 
tity of soup desired, let 1 — 2 tablespoonfuls of flour 
draw in this, then pour on the requisite quantity of 
broth or boiling water and add a little extract of beef. 
When the peas are quite tender, put in salt and chopped 
parsley. Groat- or meat -dumplings may be cooked in 
the soup and served with small pale sippets of bread 
fried in butter. Time of cooking, 1 hour. 

43. Vegetable (Puree) Soups made from Extract of 

Beef, These easily digestible soups are made from par- 
rots, beets or turnips. The. kind of vegetable selected 
for the soup is nicely cleaned, cooked in water until 
tender, passed through a colander, stirred with some 
good beef broth and then cooked until quite thick with 
salt and bread crumbs, or, omitting the latter, stir 
constantly while cooking and then serve with a piece of 
butter and fried bits of bread placed in the tureen: In 
the spring of the year an asparagus puree soup made 
from chicken broth is very palatable. The asparagus, 
with the exception of the tips, is cooked in the broth 
until tender. The soup is passed through a strainer, 
thickened with browned flour and butter and then the 
tips of the asparagus are also cooked until tender. Stir 
into the soup a number of yolks of eggs whipped in 
sweet cream. 



Vegetable and Herb Soups. 35 

A soup can be made from the cauliflower, first 
cooking them until they are half done, then cook in 
butter until entirely done, pass through a strainer and 
make up with meat broth and stir an egg into it. 

44. German Soup. (Especially recommended for 
the months of August and September.) Carrots cut 
into cubes, sliced string beans and kohlrabi are stewed 
in butter for % hour ; then cook in enough boiling salt- 
water to make the necessary quantity of soup; the 
vegetables should be tender but not overdone. Shortly 
before serving add a few well-cooked new potatoes, 
young cauliflower, hearts of cabbages and particularly 
the pulp of 6 large tomatoes and 1 teaspoonful of ex- 
tract of beef; season with pepper and serve over small 
baked kidney slices. 

45. "Schweriner" Soup. Take 1 sliced cucumber, 
the center leaves of several heads of lettuce, a few early 
eschalots and a plateful of shelled green peas, and sim- 
mer in hot butter until nearly done; as seasoning add 
parsley, chervil and burnet all finely chopped together 
with salt, pepper and a pinch of ginger; fill in the boil- 
ing broth and cook the soup for an hour, thicken with 
lightly browned flour and butter, stir into it the yolks 
of a few eggs and serve with small marrow bits. 

46. Old Pea Soup.. Old peas can be utilized best in 
soups. Put them on the fire in boiling water with a 
piece of kidney suet, cook until tender and pass through 
a sieve; cook the broth once more, add salt, a piece of 
butter and lightly browned flour, and stir with chopped 
parsley and a little extract of beef. Meat balls make a 
very palatable addition to the soup. Time of cooking, 
2 hours. 

47. Split Pea Soup. Pick the peas over carefully, 
rub them between the hands in warm water and clean 
then nicely; put them on the fire in cold soft water and 
if the peas are very old, add a trifle of bicarbonate of 
soda (cooking soda, Bee No. 1) on the fire, and cook 
slowly for a short % hour, which will make them quite 
tender; after cooking- put them on a colander, pour 
water over them and cook slowly in boiling water until 



36 B.— Soups. 

done, with the addition of some fat, a piece of beef or a 
sausage, together with a celery root and green leek. 

If it is desired to cook a smoked pork sausage or a 
pickled pigshead in the soup (well liked by some), the 
sausage must first be washed and cooked, in order to 
take from it the smoky flavor which would injure the 
soup. If the sausage has been kept for some time and is 
consequently no longer juicy, it should be laid in warm 
water for a day and night; salt pork should be first 
cooked in water until done, and only as much of the 
salty broth put into the pea soup as can be done with- 
out making the latter too salty. Peas, beans and simi- 
lar vegetables do not require much salt. 

After the peas have become quite tender take out 
the meat and the celery root, put the latter into the 
tureen, pass the peas through a strainer and cook them 
with the meat until well done ; if necessary, thin with a 
little broth. If no onions were at first put into the 
peas they can be added later on, first chopping them 
up finely, then brown in butter and stir into the soup, 
Bits of bread fried in butter may also be added if wished. 

A mild flavor can be given to the pea soup by cook- 
ing 2 sliced carrots, 2 small bunches of fresh parsley 
and a little sugar in it; this gives it the flavor almost 
of a soup made of new peas. 

The soup must not be thick but it should be nicely 
bound. If its consistency is not just right, flour browned 
in butter can be used ; but this should only be done in 
case the peas have either not been cooked long enough 
or are too old, or if the soup has become too thin. The 
pure flavor of the peas is impaired by the addition of 
the flour. Ordinarily, a few small potatoes s can be 
cooked in the soup after the peas have been strained, 
but they must not be overdone, and if the soup should 
stiffen through cooking too long, it should be thinned 
somewhat. 

- The time of cooking depends upon the quality of 
the peas. If they are "good they will be tender in about 
2 hours, otherwise it will take from 3 — i hours. 

48. White Bean Soup. The very small white beans 
are the best because they taste nicer and need not be 
strained. • After washing the beans put them on the fire 
in cold water— 1 pound of beans for 6 persons— and let 



Vegetable and Herb Soups. 37 

them cook well for % hour ; pour them on the colander 
and immediately put them back into the kettle, which 
has been cleaned in the meantime, with fat or butter 
and enough boiling water to cover; the beans are 
cooked until they are tender, being careful to frequently 
add a dash of boiling water ; they must not be stirred 
very often so that they will remain whole and yetmake 
a good thick soup; they are afterwards salted and 
reduced with boiling water to make the soup, and once 
more cooked after a small quantity of meat broth or 
extract of beef is added. A smoked pork sausage which, 
has first been cooked, or a small piece of smoked nam, 
according to the opinion of some people, will improve 
the flavor of the soup, or 5 minutes before serving 
"Frankfurt" or "Wiener" sausages can be put into it 
and, if liked, a number of small potatoes which have 
first been separately cooked. In some German kitchens 
thyme or majoram are a favorite seasoning for bean 
soup. 

A few tart apples cooked in the soup give it a very 
pleasant flavor, which can be still further improved by 
adding a teaspoonful of crab butter before serving. 

49. Lentil Soup. Lentils should be cooked in an 
enameled vessel to prevent them from turning dark, and 
they will be much improved by pour ing off some of the 
water and r enewing it t wice alter cooking about 15 
minutes at each time, and'tneh let them cook slowl y in 
not too much water but with pjenty of f aL_ A*ftier "this 
thin to the proper consistency wrthiblie broth of pickled 
meat and cook until done with small potatoes, some 
leek or sliced onions browned in butter. If this kind of 
soup is made with water and fat only, a large lump of 
pork forcemeat should be cooked with it until done. 
Serve with cooked prunes. 

Lentil soup can also be cooked like a pea soup with 
"Frankfurt" or smoked pork sausages or a piece of 
pork, but the lentils should remain whole; flour should 
be browned with onions and some good fat, to thicken 
the soup if it should be too thin. Serve with vinegar. 

Time of cooking, 2—4 hours. 

50. Lentil Soup with Partridges. This is a meat 
puree soup and gains very much in nutritive qualities 
through the addition of the lentils. It is advantageous 



38 B— Soups. 

to take an already roasted chicken, the bones of part- 
ridges or old partridges. The best meat is stripped 
from the bones and the latter are then crushed in a 
mortar and cooked 1—2 hours with soup herbs and an 
onion, after which the soup is strained. In the mean-' 
time, cook X pound of lentils with a piece of butter in 
not too much water until thick, pass through a sieve 
and stir with the partridge broth. If you have the 
breast pieces of partridges, take out the sinews, clean 
off the skin and all gristle, cut into fine slices and put 
into the tureen at once, because cooking will harden 
the meat. Should there be any meat left, pound it as 
finely as possible, stir it into the soup, letting it cook 
M hour longer, then pass through a strainer once more 
and serve very hot, pouring it over the breasts of the 
partridges and slices of wheat bread nicely fried in but? 
ter. ' 

51. Sorrel Soup. Sorrel should be raised in every 
garden. It is very wholesome and in the Spring it 
makes a palatable and refreshing soup. Lightly brown 
plenty of flour in good butter, rub nicely washed tender 
leaves of the sorrel in this and cook in veal broth or 
water, after supplying.the necessary salt. Stir into the 
soup nutmeg, thick cream and the yolks of a few eggs 
and serve over fried wheat bread placed in the tureen. 
Instead of the bread small egg dumplings can be cooked 
in the soup. It should be nicely thickened, but must not 
be too stiff. A little extract of beef will prove a desir- 
able addition. 

Time of cooking, % — % hour. 

52. Silesian Celery Soup. Clean 2 thick celery roots, 
a piece of green leek and 1 parsley root, and boil tender 
in 2 quarts of water, adding the" necessary salt; then 
brown 2 tablespoonfuls of flour in 1 tablespoonful of 
good butter, stir the broth into this, add the herbs 
(leaving out the celery) and serve as hot as possible. A 
small addition of extract of beef improves the flavor of 
the soup. 

After the celery roots have been cooked until tender 
they can be sliced and made into a salad with olive oil 
and vinegar, and served as a side dish with the roast. 

The French way of making this soup is much simp- 
ler ; 4 celery roots are divided and cooked in water with 



VEGETABLE AND HERB SOUPS. 39 

double the quantity of potatoes cut into pieces, salt, 
pass through a strainer, add a small piece of butter and 
little extract of beef and season with a small bunch of a 
chopped celery. Both kinds of soup are served with 
toasted bread. , 

Time of cooking, 1% hours. 

53. Hotch Potch or Scotch Soup. This very whole- 
some, nutritious and palatable soup is a favorite Scotch 
dish for the ordinary table. "Although generally made 
from mutton and vegetables of all kinds, yet it is also 
very good when made with beef or veal, or fresh pickled 
pork. 

In the Summer take for about 8 persons, 2 pounds 
of mutton from the shoulder, the neck or the ribs, 2 
quarts of shelled green peas, not too young, 1 pint of 
large beans, 1 — 2 cauliflower-heads cut up fine, 1 quart 
of fresh kohlrabi cut into cubes, 1 quart of carrots also 
cut up, 1 head of cabbage, 1—2 heads of curled (savoy) 
cabbage cut into fine shreds, 1 dozen chopped white 
onions and a handful of purslane and celery leaves. 

Cook the meat 2 hours in 2 quarts of water, then 
gradually add the above-named vegetables, putting in 
the cauliflower last; salt, and let the soup cook 2 hours 
longer until everything is nice and tender. The meat 
can be separated from the bones and served in the 
soup, or it may be brought to the table after the soup 
with the potatoes, butter and parsley or a gravy. 

This soup can also be cooked as Scotch broth by 
making it thinner and chopping the vegetables as finely 
as possible and adding some salsify. If it is noj:to be 
the principal dish at dinner, cook the vegetable soup 
with a mild beef broth strengthened with a little ex- 
tract of beef, and omit the meat. In the Fall and in 
theWinter enough of this soup can be cooked to last for 
several days. 

In the Winter, take instead of the peas % pound of 
coarse gjoats, let them stand over night covered with 
water, and then cook with the meat and such vege- 
tables as are obtainable. 

54. Soup a l'aurore. Peel and scrape 3 carrots, 
3 potatoes and 3 onions, cut into thin slices, add a few 
small celery leaves and cook together in 2 quarts of 



40 B.— Soups. 

water until soft enough to pass through a sieve. After 
the latter is done, put the soup on the fire again with 
1 heaping tablespoonful of butter, 1 even teaspoonfiil 
of extract of beef and the same quantity of salt, stir 
slowly until thoroughly cooked and serve with bits of 
toasted bread. 



55. Herb Soups for Invalids. Take % pound of 
boneless beef and make 1 pint of clear broth with salt, 
but skim off all the fat, pass through a sieve and then 
cook in it for 10 minutes 1 ounce of bread- or cracker 
crumbs. Chop beforehand 1 ounce of sorrel and the 
same quantity of chervil, spinach and a piece of parsley 
root, simmer slowly in butter until tender and pass 
through a sieve, then mix with the yolks of 2 eggs and 
slowly pour the beef broth over this vegetable puree. 
The soup need not be cooked again— it is served imme- 
diately. When fats are forbidden the herbs are to be 
cooked in salt water until done. 

Soups Nos. 41, 42, 43 and 51 are also adapted for 
the sickroom. 



III. WINE AND BEER SOUPS. 

56. White Wine Soup. 2 tablespoonfuls of fine 
flour and the yolks of 6 very fresh eggs are stirred with 
1 bottle of white wine or cider, and 1 bottle of water 
sweetened with plenty of sugar. Put in a few lemon 
slices without the seeds, add a pinch of salt, and then 
cook over a hot fire in a clean kettle, stirring constantly 
with an egg beater, and pour into the tureen immedi- 
ately, first putting in some mace. The whites of the 
eggs, beaten to a froth, can be made into little balls, 
put on the soup, sprinkled with sugar, and when the 
tureen is covered they will be done in a few minutes. 

If the whole eggs are used instead of the yolks only 
and only % of the flour be taken, it makes a wine froth 
soup. 

Serve with these soups small crackers or toast, 
which can also be dusted with sugar. 



Wine and Beer Soups. 41 

57. Another Wine Soup. Lightly brown 2 ounces 
of flour in 2 even tablespoonfuls of butter, stir this 
smooth with 1 bottle of white wine a nd 1 pint of water, 
add 3 heaping teaspoonfuls" of sugar and a trifle of 
salt. This soup is seasoned variously with lemon or 
orange peel, peach or orangeflower water, or with fresh 
fruit, such as strawberries or raspberries, simply letting 
them boil-up once in the soup. The yolks of a few eggs 
may be stirred in the soup if desired. 

58. Sago Soup with Claret. Scald pure sago twice 
with water, then put On the stove with hot water, add a 
piece of cinnamon and cook until done,' which will take 
from 2—2% hours. Then add the same quantity of 
claret, sweeten the soup well with sugar, let it come to a 
boil, put in a few slices of lemon and serve with crackers 
or fresh toast. 

59. Hasty Cracker Soup. Water, crackers, some 
butter, a few pieces of cinnamon, lemon peel and salt in 
proportions according to the quantity of soup desired 
are put oh the fire and cooked until done; then pass 
through a sieve and stir into it the yolks of a few eggs, 
sweet cream, wine and sugar. 

60. Pearl Barley and White Wine Soup. Put the 

barley on the fire with a little boiling water, a small 
piece' of fresh butter, some cinnamon and lemon peel, 
and cook slowly in a scant broth (replenishing the hot 
water frequently) until done. After the soup has cooked 
for 2 hours, put in raisins that have first been washed, 
and let them cook until soft. When serving add wine, 
sugar and a trifle of salt, and stir into the soup the 
yolks of 1 or 2 eggs. 

61. A nice Soup made from Coarse Barley Groats. 

Put 1 pound of groats on the fire in a little boiling 
water with a small piece of butter, a few pieces of cinna- 
mon and a little salt, replenishing the boiling water 
from time to time and cook until quite soft. Then pass 
the whole through a sieve, during which operation some 
water should be poured over the barley in order to 
retain in the soup everything that will tend'to thicken 
t. After about % hour, cook about % pound' of well- 
cashed raisins in the soup until soft. The soup should 



42 B.— Soups. 

be well bound but not thick. When ready to serve, stir 
the yolks of 2 fresh eggs together with % pint of white 
wine in the tureen and pour in the boiling soup gradu- 
ally, stirring constantly, and sweeten with sugar. This 
will make enough soup for 8 — 10 persons Instead of 
the barley the soup can be made with very fine barley 
meal stirred in it, which is cooked about 10 minutes 
until done, first boiling the raisins in water with some 
butter. 

This soup can also be made from grits (fine midd- 
lings) ; in this case first cook the raisins, stir the grits 
with sugar, salt and the proper quantity of water, add 
sufficient boiling water to make as much soup as is 
wanted, and after the grits are thoroughly cooked,, stir 
the soup as above directed. In both soups cider or 
white currant wine can be used to excellent advantage. 

Time of cooking, 3 hours. 

62. Rice Soup with Raisins. Lightly brown a little 
butter in a spoonful of flour, take the necessary quan- 
tity of boiling water, scalded rice, cleaned and washed 
raisins and a small piece of cinnamon. Cook all until 
well done and stir the soup with salt, sugar, a litte wine, 
and the yolks of a few eggs. 

63. Frothy Beer Soup. 1 quart of beer (which must 
not be bitter), 1 quart of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of fine 
wheat flour, 4- eggs, sugar, 2 slices of lemon and cinna- 
mon according to taste are whipped with an egg beater 
over a hot fire until nearly cooked; pour into the tureen 
immediately. Serve with buttered toast or crackers. 

A palatable addition to this kind of soup consists 
of a bread pudding made from pieces of rye bread mixed 
with flue sugar, ground cinnamon and scalded currants. 
Fry the bread in butter until of a light brown color, 
press tightly into a large funnel or similar mold and, 
turn into the tureen. 

64. Hasty Beer Soup. Take % pint of beer for each 
person and the same quantity of water, cook, and add 
the necessary quantity of sugar and a pinch of salt. 
Then stir the yolk of 1 egg and 1 heaping teaspoonful 
of flour -together with some cold water and gradually 
pour the boiling beer over it, constantly stirring, and 



Wine and Beer Soups. 43 

fchen put back into the kettle. The stirring should be 
kept up continually, even after the kettle has been 
taken from the fire, to prevent curdling. 

If desired, the white of an egg can be beaten to a 
froth with some sugar, taken up with a spoon and put, 
on the soup, or else the froth may be beaten through 
the soup. 

65. Beer Soup with Raisins. Cook plenty of raisins 
with water and wheat bread until the raisins are quite 
soft, then add enough beer to give the soup good 
strength, sweeten with sugar and when it cooks put in 
according to the quantity of soup % — 1 tablespoonf ul of 
flour stirred in water, and then stir through the soup 
(which should not be too thin nor too stiff) the yolks of 
a few eggs and some cinnamon. When eggs are lacking 
the flour can be stirred up with good cream or milk. 

66. Bee'r Soups with Milk. For 3 — 4 persons take 
1 pint of milk with its cream, 1 pint of water, % pint of 
strong but not bitter beer, 2 ounces of currants, 1 table- 
spoonful of flour, 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of sugar, % 
teaspoonful of salt and the yolk of an egg. Put every- 
thing excepting the egg and the salt in a deep kettle on 
a hot fire and bring it to a boil, stirring constantly and 
briskly; take- the kettle from the fire immediately, keep 
up the stirring for a few minutes longer, otherwise it 
will curdle easily, add some salt and then stir into it the 
yolk of the egg and some ground cinnamon. Serve with 
biscuits or toast. 

If you have no time to devote to stirring the soup; 
and without which it will curdle, then the water, beer, 
currants and flour should be brought to a boil, cook 
the milk in a separate vessel, take both from the fire, 
pour together and stir the yolk of the egg into the 
soup. 



67. Wine Soup for Invalids. Good claret, Portwine 
or sherry are absolutely essential for these soups, which, 
by the way, should never be serv ed to invalids unless 
with the^consent of J^pjiJ^icTah. Take pure sago or 
tapioca, pound the sago and^soaK in cold water for 
3 hours. Then drain, and afterwards cook it with water 



44 B.— Soups. 

and a small piece of candied ginger (the latter is omitted 
when claret is used) until transparent, add the wine, 
some lemon juice and sugar and serve with crackers. 
Tapioca is simply cooked in the water until done with- 
out any previous soaking. When claret is used, the 
addition of a few teaspoonfuls of pineapple, raspberry 
or strawberry jelly will greatly improve the flavor of 
the soup. 

Nos. 57, 60 and 61 are also good soups for invalids. 



IV. MILK SOUPS AND WATER SOUPS. 

Note.— It is well to keep a paj^jejjlaE. Vfttitjg for 
cooking mjlk «""p^, because the milk scorches very 
easily and the flav or of food t hat has been previously 
cooked, in ,thfi_ kettle is reaicTily impartejjlaalth^mflk. 
Scorching maybe preventecTby 'first greasing the. bot^~ 
torn of the kettle 'with a piece of pork fat, or at least 
first rinsing the kettle with cold water. 

68. Fine Milk Soups served either warm or cold. 

For 3 persons take 1 quart of fresh milk, 1 tablespoon- 
ful of cornstarch, the yolks of 2 eggs, sugar, lemon peel 
or a little vanilla, or a few pounded bitter almonds. 
Stir over a hot fire constantly until cooked and then 
pour into the tureen. Make a stiff froth of the whites of 
eggs, and form into little balls as directed under No. 56, 
or else the froth can be mixed with sugar and stirred 
into the soup until the latter is frothy through and 
through. 

Remake. — During the hot season, this soup, served cold, makes an excellent 
and convenient dish for the supper table and for this purpose it can be cooked 
in the forenoon. 

69. A very nutritious Milk Soup. Bring 3 quarts 
of milk to a boil. Whip 1 — 2 eggs, stir up with fine flour 
and reduce the stiff dough with cold milk and pour into ' 
the boiling milk without stirring; pass a spoon over 
the bottom of the kettle several times to loosen the 
mass, and break it up into lumps, and then cook until 
these are done. Salt the soup moderately and pour 
into the tureen at once to prevent scorching. 



Milk Soups and Water Soups. 45 

70. Grits (Middlings) Soup with Milk. Put the 

grits into the boiling milk, constantly stirring, and 
cook with salt, sugar and some butter until nice and 
thick. It can consist of water to the amount of %. For 
1 person the right proportion would be % pint and 1 
tablespoonful of grits according to quality. 

71. Noodle Soup with Milk. This soup is cooked 
according to the directions given for the grits soup 
preceding. 

72. Rice Soup with Milk. Wash the rice and put 
on the fire in cold water, and after the water has become 
quite hot, pour it off, because some varieties of rice are 
somewhat acidulous, causing the milk to curdle; after 
this cook the rice on a hot fire until done. If fresh milk 
is used for the soup, it can be reduced one-half with 
water, and % pint of milk with an even tablespoonful of 
rice will be the right proportion for each person. 

Cook half of the milk with the water, put in a few 
pieces of cinnamon and the rice, and cook slowly until 
tender; then add the remainder of the milk and a little 
sugar and salt, and let the soup cook for a short time 
longer. If it is desired that the soup should be a little 
thicker, add at last some cornstarch stirred in water, 
but no flour because the latter spoils the flavor of the 
soup; the cornstarch should simply cook until done. 
As noted, flour impairs the flavor of the soup, but if it 
must be used then the soup should cook with the flour 
under constant stirring for 15 minutes. - 

73. Soup with Pearl Barley and Milk. Wash the 
barley, put on the fire with a small piece of butter and a 
little water and cook slowly with a scant broth until 
tender, replenishing the water as often as necessary, 
then add milk and a little salt, and cook the soup until 
thick; if not thick enough to suit, put in a little corn- 
starch which has first been stirred in water. It can be 
flavored with sugar and cinnamon or mace. 

In the same manner good soups can be made from 
pure sago or from coarse barley which must be soaked 
the night before in water. 

Time of cooking, 2 hours. The quantities and 
weights of ingredients are the same as given in the pre- 
ceding receipts. 



46 B— Soups. 

74. Pearl Sago Soup with Milk. Put the sago into 
the boiling milk which has been thinned somewhat with 
a little water, otherwise the sago will dissolve com- 
pletely. After the elapse of%—% hour the sago should be 
soft, then stir into it some cornstarch and salt, and 
add, according to taste, sugar and cinnamon ; the yolk 
of an egg can also be stirred into the soup if wished. 

Take a pint of milk and 1 ounce of sago for eacn 
person. 

75. Oatmeal Soup with Milk. Drain the oatmeal 
several times and then cook in water until tender and 
of a medium thickness, stirring occasionally because it 
adheres to the kettle easily and scorches. After strain- 
ing, put it on the stove again, add milk and some salt 
and let it cook 15 minutes more. 

Take 1 — 1% ounces of oatmeal and % pint of fresh 
or 1 pint of skimmed milk for each person ; the first 
is preferable. 

76. Cornmeal Soup. To cook this very nutritious 
and cheap soup, mix water and milk half and half and 
bring to a boil, stir in enough cornmeal until it has the 
proper consistency, and put in some salt. 

77. Chocolate Soup. Put % pound of chocolate on 
the fire in a cupful of water, and after it is soft stir until 
quite smooth, and then add 2 quarts of milk and sugar 
according to taste; as soon as it commences to cook, 
flavor the soup with vanilla or cinnamon and stir into 
it the yolks of 1 — 2 eggs. The whites of the eggs- may 
be beaten to a- froth and put on the soup in the form of 
little balls, sprinkled with sugar and cinnamon. This 
quantity of soup is calculated for 5 persons and is 
served over bits of bread toasted in butter placed in 
the tureen. 

78. Buttermilk with Fine Pearl Barley, also good 
for Invalids. Put the barley on the fire in water and 
cook until tender; then add the buttermilk, into which 
some flour has been stirred, with salt, sugar and cinna- 
mon according to taste. 

79. Buttermilk with Prunes or Raisins. After care- 
fully washing and rinsing them, cook until soft in water 
into which some anise seed can be put and, according to 



Milk Soups and Water Soups. 47 

taste, grated rye bread. Grate some wheat bread and 
put it into the soup with the buttermilk into which 
some flour should be stirred to prevent curdling, and 
boil under constant stirring. When serving, stir in 
salt, sugar and some cinnamon. 

80. Brown Flour Soup. Lightly brown the flour 
without any butter as directed under A, No. 3, boil the 
milk and stir into it enough of the browned flour and 
cold milk as is necessary to give the soup consistency, 
then stir through it sugar, cinnamon and the yolks of 
eggs, and serve over bits of bread toasted in butter 
which have been placed in the tureen. 

81. White Flour Soup. Heat a piece of butter the 
size of half an egg, put in 3 tablespoonfuls of flour and 
stir until it commences to curl and bubble; then pour 
in the required quantity of boiling water, stirring care- 
fully, so that the flour will remain smooth and not 
become lumpy. When done, stir the soup with salt, 
mace or lemon peel, a trifle of sugar and the yolk of an 
egg, or else serve without any spice or sugar, putting 
in salt, sour cream and finely chopped parsley. 

82. Onion Soup (South Germany Style). For 4 
persons, lightly brown 3 large onions, cut up into small 
cubes in 2% tablespoonfuls of butter, in this also brown 
lightly 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and then pour in 
enough meat broth to make the necessary quantity of 
soup, and cook thoroughly. Then pass through a 
sieve, cook once more, stir with 2 yolks of eggs, and 
serve over bits of bread toasted in butter, placed in the 
tureen. 

83. Soup made with Pastry Dough. Break the 
dough into pieces and put it on the fire in cold water; 
after it has been cooked to a pulp put in a piece of 
butter or good fat and gradually pour on boilingwater. 
Before serving, put in some finely .chopped parsley, beat 
up the yolk of an egg in a tureen, with some sour 
cream, and then pour in the soup, being careful to stir 
constantly. 

84. Barley Soup for Invalids. Fine pearl barley is 
cooked in a little boiling water with a small piece of 



48 B— Soups. 

fresh butter, frequently replenishing the water, until the 
barley is tender and of the proper" consistency. It will 
improve the barley if it is to be used in the sick-room to 
first scald it several times. After it is cooked, season 
with salt, finely chopped parsley or nutmeg; the latter 
is preferable when there is stomach trouble. 

Sweet Barley Broth is made by stirring into the 
broth through a fine sieve, the barley which has first 
been cooked until tender, add to the soup thus thick- 
ened salt and sugar, and stir into it the yolk of an egg. 
Barley broth made in this manner is excellent in cases 
of dysentery and diarrhoea. 

85. Oatmeal Soup for Invalids. Fresh oatmeal is 
rinsed in hot and cold water alternately until the water 
remains clear, then cook the oatmeal 1 hour with a 
pinch of salt and 2 tablespoonfuls of fresh almonds, 
either pounded finely or grated, together with the neces- 
sary quantity of water, pass through a sieve and put in 
some sugar and toast. 

86. Toast Soup for Invalids. Very finely pounded 
toast is cooked with water and the juice of 1 lemon, 
until it no longer sinks, add sugar and a trifle of salt, 
and if permitted by the physician, stir in the yolk of 
an egg. 

87. Bread Soup for Invalids. Take rye bread and 
wheat bread half and half, and thoroughly cook in 
water, stir through a fine sieve and cook again with 
some salt, sugar, lemon juice and "either currants or 
raisins until the latter are soft, and, if permitted by the 
physician, stir into it a little wine and the yolk of 
an egg. 

88. Another Bread Soup for Invalids is made by 
taking rye bread only; grating it and then browning in 
a frying pari without any fat until dry, pour on.enough 
water to make a thick pulp and let it stand for an hour 
on the back part of the stove, then stir the pulp with 
hot milk until it is smooth, add sugar and salt and the 
yolk of an egg. As a matter of precaution it will be well 
to stir this soup through a fine-sieve before serving. 



Fruit Soups. 49 

V. FRUIT SOUPS. 

89. Strawberry Soup. Cook some finely pounded 
toast in water until thick, add wine, sug ar and cinna- 
mon, and in case the soup is not of the proper consist- 
ency put in some cornstarch smoothed in water. Then 
take from the fire and stir into the soup according to 
ita quantity a number of saucerfuls of ripe strawberries 
which have been sugared 1 hour before. This soup is 
served with biscuits or toast. 

90. Cherry Soup. Take sour cherries and cook 
them with some toast and lemon peel or 2—3 cloves 
and the required quantity of water, until the cherries 
are pulpy. Strain, put on the stove and bring to a boil 
again and serve after adding sugar, a little salt, cinna- 
mon and claret, which must not cook. Sweet cakes can 
be put on the soup or it may be served with biscuits. 

In th e_ winter th is soup can_.be made with dxiecL 
fe rries whicfi a refirst cooked with some oatmeal and a 
few slices of lemon, before straining. Afterwards follow 
the above directions. 

91. Apple Soup. Cook* in water a soupplateful of 
sour apples (which have been cut into very small pieces), 
with a cupful of scalded rice until soft, pass through a 
sieve, add sugar, cinnamon, lemon peel and some salt, 
cook again and stir into it the yolk of an egg. 

92. Apple Soup with Currants. Cook some wheat 
bread with the apples, and after passing through a 
sieve add some grated rye bread which has first been 
fried in butter, then put in the currants and a very few 
cloves and some salt, cook for a short time and stir into 
the soup cinnamon and a spoonful of thick creair 

93. Plum Soup. Stone a soupplateful of plums 
and cook in water with wheat bread until soft, pass 
through a sieve, then cook with the addition of some 
sugar and cinnamon, and serve with buttered toast 
placed in the tureen. 

94. Plum Soup with Milk. This is a nice soup for 
the supper table and is made by taking a soupplateful 
of ripe plums, rub thoroughly to clean them, stir 2 



50 B.— Soups. 

heaping tablespoonfuls of flour in water until smooth, 
add 3 pints of milk and some salt, put on the fire with 
the plums and cook for a short time, stirring frequently 
until the flour is well cooked. The plums may burst 
but must not become pulpy. If they are entirely ripe no 
sugar need be added. The soup must be nicely bound, 
and is brought to the table when nearly cold. 



95. Prune Soup for Invalids. Wash the prunes, cut 
them up, put them on the fire (with about half the quan- 
tity of oatmeal added) in an earthenware vessel in 
water, with sugar, cinnamon, lemon peel and a pinch of 
salt and cook slowly until all is soft. Strain, bring to a 
boil once more and stir up with the yolks of 2 eggs 
which have been whipped in 1 glassful of wine. A few 
of the prunes can be cooked separately and put into the 
soup at last. 

96. Soup" made from Dried Prunes. Wash the prunes 
nicely, rubbing them between the hands. Scald thor- 
oughly, and then cook in water with lemon peel and a 
little wheat bread until soft, pass through a sieve stir- 
ring with sugar, cinnamon and, according to taste, a 
glassful of wine. S erve over toast placed in the tureen. 
For invalids omitthe wine, spices and toast. 

97. Mixed Fruit Soup for Invalids. Take huckle- 
berries, strawberries, raspberries and stoned cherries in 
equal proportions. After picking them over and wash- 
ing, mash them as finely as possible, pour on as much 
water as will make the required quantity of soup, boil 
slowly for % hour and strain; after bringing to a boil 
again, add sugar, extract of lemon, a pinch of salt and 
enough flour, which has been smoothed in cider, to. bring 
the soup to the proper consistency. Stir through the 
soup the whites of 2 eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 



COLD SOUPS. 



98. Wine Cold Soup. 1 hour before serving put 
into the tureen macaroons or small sweet crackers (if 



Cold Soups. 51 

large, break them into pieces) and add sliced lemon with- 
out the seeds, a few pieces of cinnamon, white wine and 
water half and half, sweetened with sugar. 

99. Orange Cold Soup. Take various fruit syrups, 
wine and water half and half, a few pieces of cinnamon, 
and oranges which are first peeled, divided into 8, parts 
and turned in sugar. The sweet crackers put into this 
soup are first slightly soaked in wine but they must not 
become mushy ; they are then covered with sugar, built 
up in little piles and passed as a side dish. 

100. Apricot Cold Soup. Skin and stone the apri- 
cots and then cook them in water, being careful not to 
get them too soft, together with some of the apricot 
stones, cinnamon' and plenty of sugar ; put one-half of 
this into the tureen and pass the remainder with the 
broth through a fine sieve, and when cool add as much 
wine as water was used in the soup, sweeten with 
plenty of sugar and pour over the apricots. Crackers 
or toast are passed with the soup. 

101. Cherry Cold Soup. Stone a soupplateful of 
sour cherries and cook them for 15 minutes in 1 quart 
of water together with 2—3 cloves and a few of the 
kernels of the cherry pits ; then strain through a fine 
sieve and after it is cold put in 1 pint of claret, plenty of 
sugar and some cinnamon. Sweet crackers can either 
be broken into or passed with the soup. A cream froth 
(see directions under Division N) can be put into the 
soup. 

102. Strawberry and Raspberry Cold Soup. The 
strawberries are first, if necessary, rinsed with water in 
a colander; this is not required with the raspberries. 
Put the berries into the tureen, add plenty of sugar, 
cover tightly and let it stand for 1 hour; then mix 
white, wj ufrand water half and half with sugar, the juice 
of a lemon and ground cinnamon; pour over the ber- 
ries. 

103. Sago or Rice Cold Soup. Scald % of a pound 
of fine sago or rice, and then cook in water without 
stirring until soft and thick ; the grains must remain 
whole; then pour into the tureen. Strew on it plenty 



52 - B— Soups. 

of sugar, cinnamon and grated lemon peel and add 
nicely washed currants; scald these and pour in the 
liquor. When cold, add 1 bottle of claret and the same 
quantity of water sweetened with sugar. • ' 

104. Beer Cold Soup. Stale grated rye bread, plenty 
of rinsed and scalded currants without the liquor, cinna- 
mon, a slice of lemon, beer (which must' not be bitter) 
and sugar according to taste. 

105. Westphalian Cold Soup. Take grated stale rye 
bread and whipped thick sour cream, and stir brown 
beer (which must not be bitter), sugar, cinnamon and- 
the grated bread into the whipped cream. 



\ 



106. Buttermilk Cold Soup. Grate rye bread and 
slightly brown it ; for each 4 spoonfuls of bread add 2 
spoonfuls of sugar, then again brown the whole lightly, 
stirring constantly. After this stir into the buttermilk 
some sweet cream or milk ; shortly before serving crum- 
ble into it crackers or wheat bread and finally strew 
over it the bread after it has cooled. This cold soup is 
very palatable and refreshing. 

107. Whipped Cream. Thick sweet cream is shaken 
to a froth in a shaker or whipped in any convenient 
vessel, but this should be done in the cellar or some 
other cool place. Then stir through it sugar and vanilla 
and serve with crackers and grated rye bread. 

The vanilla can be put into the cream a few hours 
beforehand to draw, or else pound fine with sugar, thus 
requiring less vanilla. 

108. Whipped Sour Cream. For this purpose the 
milk should be thick but its cream must be smooth. 
Whip as directed in the preceding receipt, and stir 
through it sugar and cinnamon. 



C. — Potatoes and other 
Vegetables. 



I. VEGETABLES. 

1. Hints on cooking Vegetables. It is of such fr&. 
quent occurrence that vegetables, which form so import- 
ant and nutritious articles of food, are neglected in 
their preparation and cooking, that a few hints in this 
direction may be found useful and not out of place. 

Cleanliness. Although before alluded to in the in- 
troduction to this book, the necessity of perfect clean- 
liness in respect to the utensils used for cooking and in 
cleaning the vegetables is again brought to your atten- 
tion. But caution should be exercised not to leave 
them lying in water ,t nn lo 11 ^ hppR " RP thereby tne valu- 
able salts t ney contain are extracted; particularly 
tuberous vegetables and celery roots, parsley, etc., 
j should never be soaked in wat er. 

How to economize in using Butter and how to 
rapidly cook Vegetables tender. To obtain a very 
palatable dish of vegetables and to have them done 
without cooking them too long a time, the following 
directions will be found serviceable. When the price of 
butter is unreasonably high, good kidney fat, prepared 
according to A, 17, will be found an excellent substitute 
for creamery butter when cooking most kinds of vege- 
tables, without impairing their flavor. Put thej«fc in 
the water bef or e putting in the vegetabfeB;tgi lTTw : nen~ 
these are taken Jfl'oin Lheiire, merely drop a tew pieces 
of butter over them, which will impart a nice butter 



54 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

flavor and the liquor will become much smoother, xi 
fat from roasts is used, this can also be put into the 
boiling water and some butter mixed through it at the 
last. Lard, go ose grease and mutton fat , , w hich can 
also be prontabiyused as already explained m the first 
part of this book roust, h owever, be put on t he fir e in 
cold water and be cooke d thoroughly b el oretne veere^" 
Tables are put in the "Kettle. ' *" ~~ 

In the meantime, the carefully cleaned and rinsed 
vegetables are put on a colander to drain; j ihe entire^- 
qu antity o f vegetables should not b e th rown into the 
kettle at on e time, b ut, on the contrary? put t hem in 
gr adually with ""tfie slrimmer, but the water must be 
brou gnt *T o"a bbff^acTT^time. In scalding Vegetables 
this meffiod should" als5*be observed, because they will 
then become tender much sooner t han if the cooking is 
delayed by putting in too large a quantity at a time. 
Salt should be added d uring the latter half of the t ime 
takelTfor cooking (except iiFthe case of peasTHSSansr 
etc.) ; strew it over the vegetables uniformly and cover 
tightly and let the cooking go on uninterruptedly. Ke^ 
pjenish ing the jyater should be a vojded- as much as 
possible,; careful attention will soon TJeach one the neces- 
sary quantity needed, but it is always better to take 
rather too little than too much. Always hav e enough 
boiling water handy for replenishing purposes. """ 

Many vegetables must first be scalded on account 
of their strong flavor or perhaps their acrid taste; of 
course, some of their nutritive properties are thereby 
lost in the water. Scalding should, therefore, not be 
resorted to unnecessarily but be minimized as much as 
possible. When scalding vegetables, which require a 
rather long time in cooking before they are tender, for 
instance in the case of vegetables preserved for Winter 
use, water must be used rather plentifully and boiling 
water for replenishing purposes should also be provided 
for, because cold water is not adapted for it. 

' To preserve the fresh color of Vegetables. Spinach, 

green peas, sorrel, Brussels sprouts, etc., should always 

be boiled unoov firflri over a hot fire so that they will 

^become tender rapidly and thus preserve their fresh 

green color. 



Vegetables. 55 

To cook preserved Beans and Cabbages tender rap- 
idly. Vegetables preserved for Winter use— beans and 
cabbage — should be cooked until quite tender and 
freshened in boiling soft water' as long as" is necessary. 
Vegetables in salt or brine become tender very rapidly 
after taking them out of the receptacle in which they 
are contained and cooked without being freshened in 
boiling water. Do not change the water until the vege- 
tables are almost done. 

When Vegetable Dishes should be thickened. Sev- 
eral kinds of vegetables should be thickened with flour 
or the yolks of eggs only when they are almost done. 

Particular care should be taken to cook all vege- 
tables until they are quite tender and juicy, but they 
should never be stirred enough to become pulpy and 
mushy. If Jat and salt are added at the time directed, no 
stirring 1 is necessar y because they are absorbed equally" 
well by the vegetables without stirring. How long a 
time is required for cooking each variety of vegetables 
cannot be designated with any degree of exactness, 
because this depends entirely upon their quantity and 
quality, and also upon the condition of the fire; never- 
theless, the cooking time has been given as approxi- 
mately correct as possible in each receipt. ^Vegetables 
^rown in dry seasons require a longer time on the fire 
f»nd this circumstance should, therefore, always be taken 
i^to account. 

Warmed over Dishes. All varieties of cabbages and 
turnips are also good when warmed over, but it will im- 
prove them to first bring water o r nieat b r , °ffi .'to a b°il 
ajid then putting m tfte vegetables. Do nob neglect to 
add some parsley, salt, T*iljpfln5r HSutter according to 
the variety of the vegetables. If the better kinds of 
vegetables, such as green peas, beans, oyster plant, etc., 
are to be warmed over, follow the above directions, and 
then put them into a double kettle until they are thor- 
oughly heated. 

Serving. Only spinach and similar vegetables are 
smoothed with a knife when they are served. All other 
vegetables should be arranged neatly in the dish in 



56 , U. — Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

which, they come to the table, without pressing them ; 
being careful to wipe off the edges, and have the dish 
warm. 

2. Salsify or Oysterplant. Scrape thoroughly, stir 
a spoonful of flour or some sweet milk in water and lay 
the salsify in this, which will prevent it from turning 
black. Put on the fire in an enameled kettle with meat 
broth and butter and, boil until tender, adding the 
necessary salt, but not too much. 15 minutes before 
serving add grated crackers or browned flour, and 
mace according to taste. Before bringing to the table 
meat dumplings are added to the dish, which is served 
either with boiled beef or without any side dish. 

The salsify can also be boiled in salted water with a 
little vinegar until tender; serve with either a thick 
asparagus or Hollandaise sauce, or else makd a sauce 
from browned flour and butter, meat broth, lemon juice, 
mace and parsley and stew the salsify in this. 

In England the salsify is boiled until tender in salted 
water and then shaken on the fire with butter, grated 
parmesan cheese and ground pepper until the butter 
and cheese are melted ; in South Germany it is usually 
cut into pieces, dipped in a batter and fried in hot lard. 

3. Brussels Sprouts. The sprouts or buds are 
picked when fresh and closed, and the dried leaves and 
hard knots cut from the stalk, being careful not to 
break up the small buds; scald them in boiling water 
with salt, using as little water as possible, take them 
out with a skimmer and put them on a colander to 
drain, covering tightly so that they will remain hot. 
Before serving put them. on a slow fire with a piece of 
butter, salt, nutmeg and a few bread crumbs, and as 
soon as hot turn them in the kettle several times. — 
Brussels sprouts may also be put into the dish, "which 
should of course be warm ; immediately after the water 
has been poured off, put pieces of butter between and 
over the sprouts. 

Time for cooking is a short 15 minutes. 

Smoked or roasted beef tongue, small sausages, cut 
lets, croquets, meat balls, or ham fritters can be served 
as side dishes. 



Vegetables. 67 

4. Spinach. Spinach must be carefully picked over 
and rinsed 3 or 4 times in a deep vessel in plenty of cold 
water. In order to retain its rich green color, scald it 
for about 5 mirm+pp in hniling- wa ter with some salt. 
leaving the kettle uncovered. Ib en put it into cold water _ 
a tpnce, pour it onto a colander, press well with a skim-"" 
mer and chop until very fine. Then melt some kidney 
suet or butter, stir a little flour or some bread crumbs 
with it, put in the spinach, adding nutmeg a nd some 
butter, and cook with frequent stirring until Hone, put- 
ting in as much salt as may be found necessary, and, 
perhaps a small quantity of meat broth or water. 

Some people consider the taste of spinach as being 
rather insipid ; for such it should be seasoned by adding 
a trifle of chives, or onions fried in butter. 

Spinach can be garnished in various wavs; the 
simplest is to take bits of toasted bread and medium 
soft boiled eggs, quartered. A richer method is to first 
put on a border of baked crullers which have been 
formed in a thick mass, bv means oi melted butter a nd 
_cheese ; then inside of the border cover with "plain iried 
eggT-P; each one surrounded by a ring of finely chopped 
cooked tongue. Serve small roasted potatoes as a side 
dish. 

Omelets, croquets, fricandeaus, small sausages, roast 
or smoked beef tongue, kidney slices, crullers With a 
ham forcemeat or fried liver are all good side dishes 
with spinach. 

5. Spinach, Saxony Style. Cook the spinach in salt 
water with an onion, chop it up with a boned anchovy 
very fine, brown some flour in melted butter, stir in as 
much meat broth as is necessary, then cook the spinach 
until well done and garnish with eggs. 

6. Spinach, French Style. Cook the spinach as 
above directed and chop very fine. Stir some butter to 
a froth, add the finely grated yolks of hard boiled eggs, 
some nutmeg and salt., a nd stir all of this with the 
spinach on th"e4r! ! e7untiUt begins to boil. 

Spinach prepared in this manner is greatly im- 
proved by the addition of a few spoonfuls of dark meat 
broth. F ried sliced sweetbreads are served as a side 
"oism 



58 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

7. Spinach with Rice. Scald about % pound of rice 
in water several times, then boil it in milk or weak meat 
broth until soft and stir into it 3 whipped eggs and a 
few spoonfuls of sour cream. Four quarts of spinach 
are cooked in the meantime according to the directions 
previously given, chopped very fine and allowed to sim- 
mer in melted butter ; then season with ground pepper 
audi grated cheese and mix with it a few spoonfuls of 
grated wheat bread. The rice and spinach are separ- 
ately pressed into a buttered mould, afterwards bake 
for 30 minutes, turn out of the cups, pour over it a 
dark meat broth and serve with roast spring chicken or 
veal cutlets. 

8. Moulded Spinach. Spinach left over from the 
table is mixed with the yolks of 2 eggs, several spoon- 
fuls of white gravy, grated wheat bread and a few finely 
chopped stewed mushrooms; mould the mass in small 
cups which have first been buttered, cook in a double 
kettle for % hour, turn out of the cups and serve with 
roast potatoes and baked ham. 

9. Spinach Stalks cooked as a Vegetable. After the 
spinach has run to seed and is no longer good for cook- 
ing purposes, the stalks should be stripped, cut up, cook 
them until soft, soak, press tightly and simmer slowly 
the same as cauliflower (see No. 38). 

Time of cooking, 1 hour. 

10. Dandelions. In the Spring of the year the dan- 
delion grows as a weed on many lawns and fields ; when 
young and tender it makes a very palatable dish, if 
cooked in the same manner as directed for spinach. 

11. Sorrel. Strip the large fresh leaves from the 
stems. Then rinse the leaves in plenty of water several 
times until perfectly free from sandy particles. Put on 
the stove in cold water and throw on a colander just 
before it begins to cook,- otherwise it is apt to become 
too soft. After the acid has been absorbed by the cold 
water and the sorrel has been well drained and pressed 
out with the skimmer on the colander, lightly brown 
butter and some flour and add a few cupfuls of sweet 
cream or milk into which the yolks of 1 — 2 eggs have 
been stirred, also salt and nutmeg, and cook the sorrel 



Vegetables. 59 

in this thoroughly. The broth should be scant and of a 
nice consistency and not watery. Garnish with bits of 
toasted bread. Time of cooking, % hour. 

Side-dishes: cutlets, tongue, smoked meats, boiled 
ham, liver, kidney slices, fish omelets, roast or stewed 
lamb. 

12. Endives. Bleached endive leaves are among 
the nicest winter vegetables. Cut away the stalks and 
green leaves and boil the inner yellow leaves in salted 
wa ter, cool in colcfft ajre rr press them out and chop"fEe~m~ 
fine! Then stew for ~% hour in a strong meat broth 
which has been thickened with lightly browned flour. 
Season with n utmeg, put in a little l emon juice* and if 
desired, the yolks of a" few eggs may bestirred info it. 

The endives can be stewed in a cream sauce instead 
of the meat broth, or else after having been prepared 
according to either one of the described methods, pass 
through a sieve, stir with butter and serve as a puree. 
Serve with cutlets of all kinds, fried liver, meat balls, 
sweetbreads or spring chicken. 

13. Greens from Stems and Stalks of Turnips and 
Beet Tops. Strip off the leaves (when quite young the 
stalks can be prepared unstripped) wash and cut the 
stems and cook in slightly salted water until tender. 
After draining cut the stalks very finely, brown some 
flour in butter very lightly, cook this either in milk or 
the broth of pickled meat, stew in it the greens until 
done and season with nutmeg. If the broth from pickled 
meat is used it should be first examined to see that it is 
not too salty. 

Serve with cutlets, scallops,. meat balls, boiled or 
raw ham and kidney slices. 

14. Greens as above for the Family Table. First 
boil a piece of smoked bacon or fat pork for an hour, 
put some potatoes in the broth and then add the meat 
and the greens which have been cooked until tender and 
are well drained, salt and cook thoroughly until done. 
Then take out the meat and stir into the greens, accord- 
ing to quantity, 1 to 3 grated raw potatoes; this thick- 
ens the dish nicely and gives it a bright appearance, 
but it must not be cooked long enough to become dry. 



60 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

Instead of cooking meat in the greens, sliced smoked 
bacon may be slightly fried on a slow fire, then take 
some of its fat and add to the greens^ and serve the 
bacon separately. This is not only economical, but is 
preferred by a great many. 

15. Asparagus. Scrape the coarse skin from each 
blade and cut from the bottom as much as is hard. A 
better way still is as follows : slit the outer skin from 
the bottom upwards and take it off at once; a^ little 
practice will enable one to do this rapidly. Then wash 
the asparagus, tie into bunches, making the tips even 
and cutting the lower ends all of one length. , . .Cook with 
a little'saJt in not too much water, which should, boil 
iao ^eraTeiy, o therwise ihe tips' wilt become too soft. " 
The~aa"ditTon-to the saltwater of a pinch of sugar a nd a 
.piece of b utter t he size of a hazelnut gives the asparagus 
a very delicious taste. As soon as the lower ends be- 
come tender (the usual time for tips is % of an hour and 
for the whole blade % hour) put the bunches on a heated, 
platter, cut the bands and serve. 

Serve with either an asparagus sauce (see under E) 
or pass with it melted butter ; frequently the grated 
yolks of hard boiled eggs accompany the butter. 

In South Germany cream sauces are preferred; in 
England the asparagus is placed on large pieces of 
toast, and melted butter, into which the yolks of 3 eggs 
have been stirred, is poured over it; sometimes parme- 
sau cheese is grated over it, and fried eggs laid on top. 
Appropriate side dishes are cutlets, roast poultry, meat 
balls, scrambled eggs, raw ham and smoked salmon. ' 

It should be noted that asparagus must never be 
permitted to lay in water. 

16. Stewed Asparagus. Scrape or peel the aspara- 
gus, cut into pieces, lay aside the tips and cook the rest 
until half done, because these pieces sometimes have a 
slightly bitter taste; then bring meat broth with a 
good sized piece of butter, a trifle of mace and some 
salt to a boil ; put into this all of the asparagus pieces 
and let it simmer slowly until soft. Shortly before serv- 
ing add some crushed toast and stir into the broth the 
yolks of a few eggs. Serve neatly, garnishing with 
bread dumplings and pour the thick broth over all. 



Vegetables. 61 

Side dishes the same as above, with the exception of 
scrambled eggs. 

a- . Tn ® as P ara gus tips prepared alone make a very nice 
dish. Cook them until soft in a scant meat broth with 
the addition of salt and some butter. In the meantime 
prepare a cream sauce and have it ready so that the 
broth m which the tips are being cooked need only be 
brought to a boil, when the tips are placed on a warm 
platter and set over a vessel containing hot water. 
Then immediately pour over the sauce; garnish with 
medium soft boiled whole eggs, and serve with pickled 
tongue. 

17. Asparagus with young Carrots. Take a quan- 
tity of young carrots, rub them in salt, wash and scrape 
them until clean and cut into 2 or 3 pieces; cook the 
carrots with the same quantity of asparagus according 
to the preceding receipt and serve in the same manner 
without the yolks of eggs. 

18. Imperial (Kaiser) Asparagus. Cook the aspara- 
gus until tender as directed in No. 15, then whip in 1 
pint of JjtfiinemnaJh£yolks of 8 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls 
of butter, a little salt and a pinch of sugar in a double 
kettle to a thick sauce, serve the asparagus on a hot 
platter with this sauce poured over it. 

19. Asparagus in Rusks, (an elegant Entree). Peel 
the asparagus, take the tips only, cook in halted water 
until done. Make a thick sauce from veal broth thick- 
ened with lightly browned flour and butter, adding 
some finely chopped parsley; the tips are heated in this 
and then stir them with the yolks of a few eggs beaten 
up with cream. \ Soak smajl rusks after removing the 
crust, hollow them out and fill with the asparagus, tie 
the crusts over them as a cover and toast in butter un- 
til nicely browned. The ends of the asparagus together 
with the broth and some extract of beef will make an 
excellent soup. 

20. Leipzig Hotch Potch. This dish is the most 
palatable during the asparagus season. Take the fol- 
lowing early vegetables in equal quantities and cook 
each kind separately until done: asparagus in water 
with some salt, small carrots in beef broth, shelled 



62 C. — Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

green peas in water with a small piece of butter, kohl- 
rabi in water with a little salt/and cauliflower the same 
as kohlrabi. As soon as everything is thoroughly 
cooked, put it all into the dish carefully, placing the 
cauliflower on top, and mix through all the claws and 
tails of crabs. The shells of the crabs are filled with 
force meat made from the meat of the crabs and pie- 
crust dough. While preparations for serving are going 
on, place the vegetables over a steaming vessel, and 
then drench with a butter* sauce made from cream and 
crab butter half and half, stirring into it the yolks of 
eggs. Garnish with the stuffed crab shells and little 
bread dumplings. 

21. Early Carrots, Early carrots are scraped very 
lightly, and if quite young simply rub with a coarse 
towel ; they are left whole and nicely rinsed but not laid 
into the water. Then cook them in boiling water with 
some sugar, butter and a very little salt (they can 
easily be oversalted) in a scant broth until done. Be- 
fore serving dredge over them X teaspoonful of flour 
and put in some finely chopped parsley leaves. 

The carrots can also first be stewed for about 10 
minutes in butter, shaking them, then add some sugar, 
a small bunch of parsley, salt and a little lightly 
browned flour and butter, simmer slowly until tender, 
and serve after taking out the parsley. Sometimes an 
onion is also • added, but this is objectionable to people 
with delicat'e palates. 

Time of cooking, 1 hour. Serve with cutlets of var- 
ious kinds, baked meat balls, fried pork sausages, 
smoked and salted tongue. 

22. Young Carrots and Peas. Put the carrots on 
the fire as above directed in boiling water with some 
butter. Then add the shelled peas, take half of each 
kind of vegetable and proceed as directed above. 
Shortly before serving a few bread dumplings may be 
added, but in this case more broth (which can be thick- 
ened with a little cornstarch) must be provided for. 

23. Green Peas. Put plenty of butter in water^and 
let it boil, throw in the shelled peas gradually, keeping 
the broth boiling. Peas must cook in plenty of broth 
rapidly ; cooking them too slowly or for too long time, 



VEGETABLES. 63 

or letting them stand too long when done greatly im- 
pairs their flavor. Shortly before serving add some 
salt but not too much, because they are easily over- 
salted, and, if they are not sweet enough, put in a small 
lump of sugar. Stir into them finely chopped parsley, 
and cornstarch or flour smoothed in water (a quarter 
of a teaspoonful at a time). Or instead of this, knead 
flour and butter into a small dumpling and put this 
with the peas as soon as they begin to boil ; it dissolves 
gradually, thickens the broth somewhat and imparts a 
pleasant flavor to the peas. If there is abundant broth, 
little sponge or bread dumplings can be cooked with it 
at the last. The preparation of dumplings is described 
under Division 0. 

Peas can also be cooked as directed in the second 
receipt for carrots, or, after boiling them in salt water, 
they may be stewed in a cream sauce or else drench in 
butter and scatter chopped parsley over them. — For a 
particularly fine dish the peas may be garnished with 
the tails of crabs or stuffed crab shells. 

Peas are served with roast spring chicken, veal cut- 
lets, croquettes, raw ham, hot or cold tongue, smoked 
salmon, fried eels and other crisply fried fish. 

Remark. — To retain the fine aromatic flavor of the peas they must be freshly 
picked, and in no case should they be shelled sooner than shortly before wanted 
for cooking. m ~ m -" " ~"~ — ' » .w ^ ii**"*-—- *— » **--~^...— w^ 1 ww IMW - WM ^^ , w — w w — 



24. Green Peas boiled with Spring Chicken and 
Crabs. Cook the chicken in salt water until all the scum 
has been taken off, then put in a piece of butter and 
cook slowly until tender. As soon as the broth is 
strong enough, put a large piece of butter into another 
kettle, put in the shelled peas, cover and let them sim- 
mer for a while, stirring them occasionally. Then fill 
up with part of the chicken broth, cook the peas until 
tender, stir through it some finely chopped parsley, and 
thicken the broth with a few egg yolks, whipped with a 
tablespoonful of water. Have ready some crabs with 
dressing and some crab butter, as directed under A, 
No. 37, and No. 9, also a lot of wheat bread dumplings. 
Carve the chicken nicely, plae&in the center Of the dish, 
surrounded by the peas, then put in the dumplings and 
filled crabs, put in between then) the claws and tails and 



64 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

pour over the whole the crab butter; Serve as an 
entree. 

Time of cooking is the same as given for preceding 
vegetables. 

25. Green Peas with Codfish (a favorite dish in 
Saxony). Cook the peas in a meat broth and butter 
until tender, then add some lightly browned flour and 
butter and sufficient salt; the codfish, together with 
some chopped parsley is then stirred through the broth, 
which must not be too plentiful, because the addition of 
the codfish in itself increases the quantity of broth. The 
codfish should be prepared in advance early enough as 
directed for cooking fish in another part of the book, 
take off the skin, bone and pick into small pieces, stir 
in plenty of melted butter, put on the stove, but do not 
allow it to stew or simmer, and then mix it through the 



26. Sweet Peas. The small variety is the best, 
those with long pods are not so nice. Sweet peas need 
not be shelled, simply spring them carefully and wash 
thoroughly, cook in boiling water with butter and salt 
and finally stir through them some chopped parsley 
and some cornstarch smoothed in water. Time of cook- 
ing, from 1 to 1% hours. 

. Smoked meats, fried sausages, fried liver, baked fish, 
etc., are served with the peas. 

27. Mixed Vegetables for a Dinner Party. Quarter 
pigeons or spring chickens, boil in salt water until free 
from scum, then add some butter, mace and some nicely 
browned flour and cook slowly. In the meantime care- 
fully peel plenty of asparagus and cauliflower and cut 
into pieces; both are then cooked in salt water until 
half done. Pour the vegetables on a sieve to drain and 
then put in with the pigeons and cook until completely 
done. Be careful to keep the pieces whole. After this 
cook a lot of crabs in boiling water for 15 minutes, pick 
the meat from the shells and prepare crab butter from 
the shells of the claws and the tails, according to A, 
No. 9. Lay the crab tails aside; the meat picked from 
the claws is chopped fine with butter, a small quantity 
of wheat bread crumbs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream ', 1 egg, 
some nutmeg and salt, and made into forcemeat ; stuff 
a few of the crab shells with the forcemeat and cook 



V JiliJUTACljJia. « 65 

them together with little meat or wheat bread dumplings 
in meat broth until done. Put the fowls with the vege- 
tables into the dish. Stir the yolks of a few eggs into 
the sauce, add a little lemon juice, the tails of the crabs 
and some dumplings, garnish with the stuffed, crab 
shells and put the crab butter over all. 

This dish is excellent without the crabs, which, while 
adding to its elegance, cause some trouble in its pre- 
paration. It will take fully two hours to prepare this 

28. Early Turnips. It is best to cut the turnips 
into either large cubes or into narrow slices; they are 
occasionally bitter, and should therefore be scalded in 
boiling water; then put them on the fire in boiling meat 
broth or, with fat, in water, observing 1 that this vege- 
table in itself contains a large percentage of water and 
consequently needs but a small addition of it, cook until 
tender, putting in the salt later on, then add J£ to % tea- 
spoonful of cornstarch smoothed in water or sprinkle 
some flour into the broth from the side and put a few 
pieces of butter on top ; if meat broth is not used put in 
)i of a teaspoonf ul of extract of beef. After the turnips 
are served, grate nutmeg over them and serve boiled 
potatoes as a side dish. 

The potatoes can also be cooked with the turnips 
and should be put into the kettle with the turnips when 
the latter are half done. 

Pork or mutton chops and fried sausages are served 
with the turnips. 

29. Early Turnips with flutton. The mutton is 
either cut into cubes as for a stew, or else washed off 
whole and boiled in not too much salted water until the 
scum ceases to rise. After cooking for an hour pass the 
broth through a sieve, clean the kettle and bring the 
broth with the meat to a boil again. Then the meat 
can be either cooked in the broth until entirely done 
and the turnips also without being scalded if quite 
sweet, but if bitter, scald them and then cook until done 
with some of the mutton broth, putting in a few small 
potatoes at once if desired, or the turnips maybe boiled 
together with the mutton. 

Tim&of cooking the mutton is from 1% to 2% hours. 



66 C— Potatoes ahs other vegetables. 

30. Mixed Vegetables with Mutton, English style. 

Take a tender breast of mutton and cut it in cubes as 
for a ragout, rinse thoroughly and boil, until scum no 
longer appears, in sufficient salt water to cook the vege- 
tables. In the meantime slice string beans into small 
pieces, cut up savoy cabbage into pieces the size of half 
an egg, and carrots into cubes after they have been well 
washed and cleaned. After again carefully rinsing the 
latter, they are put into the kettle with the mutton, the 
first two kinds of vegetables, however, are previously 
boiled for a short time and then also put in with the 
mutton; add what salt may still be needed and some 
pepper; cover the kettle and cook until all is tender, 
nicely bound and juicy, but the vegetables must not be 
cooked to a pulp. 

31. Spanish mixed Vegetables or Hotch Potch. Very 
palatable and nutritious. Cover a stewpan with slices 
of fat pork, cut equal parts of lamb and beef into cubes, 
kohlrabi into slices and separate the leaves of a savoy 
cabbage. Fill the kettle with the meat and vegetables in 
alternate layers, sprinkling salt and pepper on each 
layer. Put in some butter and pour a cupful of meat 
broth over all. Put on top a few small smoked sausages, 
cover the stewpan as tightly as possible and then let it 
cook slowly until done, which will take all of two hours. 
Serve neatly,' garnishing with peeled roast potatoes 
placed around the edge of the dish, and cuttingthe saus- 
ages into slices and laying them on top. 

32. String Beans. Take beans that are tender but 
not too young, and wash them nicely. Cook the beans 
in plenty of boiling water, putting in the beans gradu- 
ally as directed under No. 1 of this division; or else cook 
them over a quick fire in an uncovered kettle until quite 
tender in milk and water half and half, skimming care- 
fully. Salt is added when the beans are about half 
done but not before. After they are quite tender pour 
them into an earthenware colander (tinware will give 
the beans a bad color), pour boiling water over them 
and cover quickly; they thereby retain their natural 
color, but be careful that they remain nicely hot. Be- 
fore serving stir lightly with plenty of butter and pars- 
ley, or else pour hot melted butter with parsley over the 



Vegetables. 67 

dish when bringing it to the table. Time of cooking, 
1 hour. 

■Serve with either boiled ham, spare ribs or bacon. 

33. Another riethod. Cut some bacon into cubes, 
fry slowly, and lightly brown some flour in it. Then 
stir with boiling water, a small piece of butter and salt ; 
the beans which have first been boiled until tender and 
drained are then rapidly stewed until done, together 
with some chopped parsley or savory, care being taken 
that they do not become pulpy or stirred to pieces. 
Sliced pork can be lightly fried (see No. 14), stir the fat 
through the beans and lay the slices on the top. 

Or, cook a piece of lean pork, take off the fat, heat it 
in another vessel until boiling hot, lightly brown a little 
flour in it, stir into it some of the pork broth, cook the 
beans in this as above directed and serve with the 
pork. 

If the beans are old and have tough skins, they 
should first be cooked until half done, when they can be 
hulled ; afterwards cook them as above directed. 

34. Stewed Lettuce. Pick the heads over carefully 
and wash very thoroughly. Cook in plenty of boiling 
water, putting in a little cooking soda, pour on a col- 
ander then let it stand fo r about 1 hour in waterT xT 
extract any bitterness there may be inTnTTlettuce, press 
out and chop finely. Brown a little flour, grated toast 
or crackers in good fat, and add to this the lettuce, to- 
gether with some boiling water, a small piece of butter, 
salt and nutmeg and then stew until done. 

Another way is to take young lettuce and boil until 
tender, press it but, do not chop it but stew with milk 
and then proceed as directed in No. 14. Serve with veal 
meat balls, fried liver, cutlets, kidneys, baked fish, meat 
omelets, etc. 

35. Vegetables with Barley Groats for the Family 
Table. Cut up several kohlrabi, together with parsley, 
celery and other roots, string beans and sliced onions, 
put on the fire with some water and soup fat, salt, sea- 
son with spices and cook until half done. Then cook in 
this broth with the vegetables barley groats which have 
first been scalded and simmered until half done. When 
everything is thoroughly cooked stir through jt fried 



68 C— Potatoes and othejj Vegetables. 

pork cut into little cubes, and serve with poached eggs 
put on the dish, smoked bacon, spare ribs, beef roasted 
in a kettle. 

36. Kohlrabi. After washing and peeling, cut them 
into fine slices or pieces, being careful to remove every- 
thing that is tough or hard, and then cook in boiling 
water until tender. Brown some flour in kidney fat or 
butter, add either fresh milk or meat broth according 
to taste, and also nutmeg and salt as desired, in which 
the kohlrabi is to be stewed. If the kohlrabi is quite 
young and tender, the small inner leaves are chopped 
quite fine, cooked in a separate vessel, butter and meat 
broth stirred through them and then used to garnish a 
dish of kohlrabi that has been stewed like cauliflowers. 
If the leaves are not tender enough for this purpose, 
then sliced sweetbreads or little pork sausages can be 
used to garnish, or else serve with cutlets, meat balls or 
steak. 

Time of cooking, 1% hours. 

Remark.— The blue iohlrabi is preferable to the white because it is milder 
ana does not become tough so easily as the other kind. 

37. Filled Kohlrabi (as an Entremet). Peel the 
kohlrabi nice and round, and cook until partly done in 
weak salt water. Cut a slice from the end, hollow out 
the kohlrabi in cupform, fill with a good veal forcemeat, 
close by tieing on the slice that has been cut from the 
end, and then put them into a low kettle with the cov- 
ered ends to the top, adding boiling meat broth, agood 
sized piece of butter and salt if necessary; then cook 
until done. , 

When serving put them on the dish with care, cut- 
ting the threads with which the covers were tied, stir 
some cornstarch into the broth and pour it over the 
kohlrabi. About 2 hours time will be necessary for the 
preparation of this dish. 

38. Cauliflowers. Trim the stalk carefully, cut the 
smaller leaves away with a sharp-pointed knife, leaving, 
the flowers whole; then lay into salt water which will 
expel any insects that may lurk in the vegetable. Cook 
slowly in not too much boiling water with salt, a piece 
of butter, and lemon juice until tender — but not soft — 



Vegetables. 69 

and in order to prevent its not going to pieces lift it 
out with a clean napkin, put it carefully on a colander, 
drain well and cover immediately. Put it in -a round 
dish with the flower to the top. 

In Germany it is customary to pour over it a thick 
crab sauce ? a cream- or a tart egg sauce; the English 
style is to simply pour over it melted butter and cover 
it with grated bread crumbs with a little grated nut- 
meg. 

Serve with small sausages, beef tongue, raw ham, 
roast spring chicken, stuffed breast of veal, smoked sal- 
mon, forcemeat balls, meat fritters, kidney croquettes 
or pork sausages. 

Time of cooking, 1% hours. 

39. Cauliflowers with Parmesan Cheese. After 
cooking the cauliflowers set them into the proper dish, 
pour over them a thick cream sauce into which has 
been stirred a handful of Parmesan cheese, and after- 
wards cover it with grated Parmesan cheese. Pour 
over it melted butter and then bake in the same dish in 
a moderately hot oven until it receives a rich color. 

In some kitchens broccoli, wh ich is a species of cauli- 
llowjej^Jis quite frequently cooked in its stead; The pre- 
paration of the- flowers of this vegetable, which are 
separated into single pieces, is_ the same as with cauli- 
flowers. The stalk of the broccoli can be peeled, cut 
into pieces, and cooked like asparagus, and it tastes 
quite similar to the latter. 

40. Artichokes. Cut the stalks close, remove the 
hard leaves, and trim off the sharp points from the 
remaining leaves with a pair of scissors. After they 
have boiled for two or three hours in salted water, take 
out the fibres, cut off the bottom clear to the white of 
the artichoke and serve hot with Hollandaise sauce 
(Division E) . In the winter artichokes filled with sweet 
peas (canned) are a favorite dish for genteel dinner 
parties. 

Serve with the same dishes indicated for cauliflowers. 

41. Egg Plant. Of this vegetable those shaped like 
a cucumber and of a violet color, and the white kind s 
are considered the best, bu t both varieties must be 



70 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

thoroughly ripe, otherwise they are quite apt to have a 
bitter taste. 

To cook them first cut into halves the long way, 
make a few incisions into the pieces,turn them in bread 
crumbs, melted butter, pepper and salt, and then brown 
slightly in the frying pan. Or else cut into slices, sea- 
son with salt and a little pepper, brown lightly with 
butter in a frying pan and serve with tomato sauce. If 
the egg plants are pickled for a few hours in vinegar, 
salt and water, .they can be made into a very appetizing 
salad by the addition of either eggs, cresses, etc., with 
vinegar, olive oil, salt and pepper. 

42. Butter Beans. String carefully, wash and put 
them into boiling water gradually. Put in the salt 
when the beans are more than half done, then cook 
until quite tender and put them on an earthenware col- 
ander to drain. Serve with an egg- or butter sauce (see 
Division E) . Time of cooking, IJ4 to 1% hours. 

Fresh herring, raw or boiled ham, pork chops, escal- 
lops, sausages, fried meat balls are usually served with 
this vegetable. 

43. Another method of cooking Butter Beans. Clean 
and string the beans as usual, but instead of slicing 
them break into little pieces about 1 inch long. Then 
brown a little flour in hot kidney suet, stir with milk so 
that the beans can be cooked in it, add whatever salt is 
necessary and also some pepper. Cook the beans for a 
short time in this sauce and then take from the fire. 
Stir through the beans enough vinegar to give them a 
tart flavor, doing this carefully so that they will not 
mash, and serve with potatoes. Or when boiled the 
beans can be dressed simply with fresh butter and 
chopped parsley. 

44. Sliced Beans. As sliced beans receive no preli- 
minary scalding, they should be well washed after 
stringing; then cut them into thin long slices and cook 
in boiling water with a little butter, an onion, and a 
small piece of ham ; afterwards take out the ham and 
onion, stir in some browned flour and add a teaspoon- 
ful of pulverized sugar, finely chopped parsley and, if 
necessary, some salt. 

Time of cooking, about two hours. Serve with the 
same dishes indicated for butter beans. 



Vegetables. 71 

45. Sliced Beans with Milk. Prepare the beans as 
already directed, scald in boiling water, drain, add milk, 
salt and butter, and cook until tender ; before serving 
put in finely chopped parsley and peppergrass, also 
flour stirred in cream, 1 tablespoonful to a large cupful; 
stir through the beans and cook until done. 

46. Savoy Cabbage. Bemove the outer leaves, cut 
the head in two, take out the heart and the coarse ribs 
and cut the rest into small pieces, wash these nicJy, 
cook in plenty of boiling water with not too much salt 
on a hot fire until done ; put on a colander, drench with 
boiling water, press, and stew with meat broth, nutmeg 
and butter. 

Time of cooking, 1 hour. Serve with roast duck, 
roast beef, cutlets, pork sausages, kettle roast of beef, 
or, for the family table, a nice piece of soup meat. 

47. Duck in Savoy Cabbage. Cut the cabbage into 
2 or 4 pieces, according to the size of the heads ; remove 
the coarse ribs, taking care to leave the pieces whole; 
then wash and drain on a colander. In the meantime 
prepare a duck as directed under VII, Division D, salt 
.slightly, roast it in butter to a light brown, lay a few 
slices of fat pork under it, and put 2 cupfuls of water 
and the cabbage to the duck, being careful that the cab- 
bage pieces remain whole; put some salt between the 
layers, cover the kettle and let it simmer on a slow fire 
about 1%— 2 hours. 

In serving put the duck in the middle of the dish 
and place the cabbage around it. If it is not desired to 
cook the duck with the cabbage, the latter can be pre- 
pared with the gravy of the roast duck, which is served 
separately with it. 

48. Red Cabbage (Kappes). Red summer cabbage 
is preferable to winter oah bafe because the latterh as a 
stro nger Havpr and takes twice as much time in_co ok-„ 
TngrTirst cut the head in two ln^fh^TnltJmeTremove 
the coarse outer leaves and thickest ribs, and then cut 
the cabbage into fine shreds which should be as long as 
possible. The cabbage will be better if it i s fi r st scalded; 
after draining , put in e nough vinegar' so tEaTfrb will 
retainits natural b right "col or?' Then bring water to a 
■^oTTwWeTEBer ■goW^Ta r uckTat or lard, or else with 



72 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

butter and kidney suet half and half, and then add some 
sweet grapes, 2 sour apples cut into pieces, a number of 
small onions, a little sugar and salt, and in this cook 
the cabbage until tender. Shortly before serving, dredge 
a little flour over it, add a glassful of claret and accord- 
ing to taste, a few spoonfuls of currant juice, stew a few 
quartered apples on top of the cabbage until soft, garn- 
ish with these and serve. 

Cabbage prepared in this way does riot need the 
addition of any vinegar, it is tart enough without and 
more wholesome than if it had received a stronger.sea- 
soning with vinegar. Small roast potatoes are served 
with the cabbage, but boiled potatoes will also answer 
if the time is sho,rt. 

White cabbage can also be prepared in the same 
manner, but instead of the claret take white wine and 
leave out the apples ; some prefer a rather tart flavor 
to white cabbage which can be obtained by adding a 
little vinegar and lemon juice. Serve with filet of beef, 
roast beef, tongue, meat balls, fried sausages, roast 
pork, hare, goose or duck, sour beef, roast or stuffed 
spare ribs. 

49. White Cabbage. After removing the outer green 
leaves of the cabbage, cut it in two in the center. Take 
out the core and the coarse ribs and then cut up into 
large pieces; cook in plenty of boiling water on a hot 
fire for 10, but not more than 15 minutes, leaving the 
kettle uncovered, put on a colander to drain, bring 
salted water to a boil, add some kidney fat or fat from 
roast meats, put in the cabbage with a few pieces of 
butter, cover tightly and let it simmer until very tender. 
It does not need any stirring because the fat and salt 
are absorbed equally well by the cabbage, and after it 
is done it is taken out with the skimmer and placed in 
the dish. Cabbage cooked in this manner is very palat- 
able and looks nice. Potatoes can either be brought to 
the table separately or else be cooked with the cabbage; 
in the latter case put them on the cabbage after it has 
cooked about 15 minutes, and put a little salt and a 
few pieces of butter on the potatoes instead of the cab- 
bage. The meat intended to go with cabbage— beef, 
lamb or lean pork are the most appropriate — may be 



Vegetables. 73 

boiled in water for about 1 hour beforehand, lay the 
cabbage on the meat and then cook as above directed. 
Serve with stewed beef, soup meat, meat balls, spare 
ribs, fried sausages and the like. 

50. Hunter's Cabbage (Jaeger-Kohl). Shred white 
cabbage the same as red cabbage and make a thick 
tart bacon sauce (see Division K), season with pepper, 
taking for the sauce about 1 ounce of fat pork and a 
heaping teaspoonful of fine flour for each person. Put 
nicely washed potatoes on the fire in a medium sized 
kettle with some salt; they should not be entirely 
covered with water. After the potatoes begin to cook, 
put in the cabbage evenly, a little higher around the 
edges, add whatever salt may still be necessary, pour 
the sauce over the cabbage, cover tightly and cook until 
the potatoes are thought to be entirely done. Lift the 
cover and, if, after the potatoes are done there is too 
much broth, then uncover the kettle and boil away the 
broth over a hot fire. Finally a good stirring must be 
given the cabbage which should be of a nice consistency, 
quite juicy and taste pleasantly tart. 

Serve immediately with fried sausages. 

51 . White Cabbage with flutton (Hecklenburg Style). 

Cut the mutton into small squares, wash nicely, salt 
dad cook 1 — 1% hours. In the meantime remove the 
outer leaves and the stalk of the cabbage, quarter, boil 
about 15 minutes and drain. Cover the bottom of the 
kettle with thin slices of fat pork, put on a layer of cab- 
bage, then a few pieces of meat, sprinkle with salt and 
chopped onions, chervil, ground pepper and a few cloves, 
put on another layer of cabbage and meat and proceed 
in this manner, finishing with a layer of cabbage on top, 
pour in the mutton broth (which should be free from 
settlings) and cook for an hour to a rather thick con- 
sistency. When serving, turn out of the kettle and 
remove the slices of pork from the bottom before bring- 
ing to the table. 

52. Stuffed Cabbage. Take plenty of large cabbage 
or savoy leaves, boil them for about' 10 minutes, put 
a napkin into a colander and place in it the leaves (after 
removing th e co arse ribs) evenly and thick all around. 
Spread over theirf forcemeat No. 23, A, put on another 



74 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

layer of leaves and proceed in this manner until arather 
good sizedLhead has been formed. Then gather the ends 
of the napkin, tie with a string and cook until done in 
meat stock or slightly salted water with which it should 
be barely covered, keeping the" kettle tightly closed. 
When ready to serve, take the cabbage out of the nap- 
kin carefully and putit on a dish. Make a sauce of plenty 
of butter browned with flour stirred with some of the 
cabbage broth; season with extract of beef, mace and 
lemon peel and stir into it the yolks of a few eggs. Part 
of this sauce should be poured over the cabbage and 
the remainder passed at the table. This dish must 900J&. 
full y 2 hours an d is served with potatoes only, witEno 
oEtfer-side dish. 

53. Filled Cabbage in another Style. Take a few 
white cabbages, cut away the outer leaves, remove the 
coarse ribs and also the heart or core. "Wash the cab- 
bages and cook in slightly salted boiling water until 
almost done. Drain, and after it is cool put it length- 
wise into a pudding mould or perhaps into a narrow 
cooking vessel, in which case a cupful of beef broth 
should be poured over it, together with a pork force- 
meat which is made as described further on, and then 
cook slowly. When put into the pudding mould in lay- 
ers, the largest leaves should be placed on the bottom ; 
spread on them the forcemeat about % inch thick and 
continue in thisinanner until the desired quantity has 
been moulded. Finish with cabbage and a few pieces of 
butter on the top. Press- down a little, cover tightly, 
put into boiling water and cook uninterruptedly for 2 
hours. 

The forcemeat is made for a large cabbage by tak- 
ing about V/i pounds of finely chopped pork, about % 
pound of grated wheat bread, 3 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of sour cream, some finely chopped onion, pepper, salt 
and nutmeg. 

The sauce can be made in various ways. The simp- 
lest and most profitable is, to take gravy of roast beef 
or roast veal with some extract of beef, thicken with 
grated wheat bread and add to it previously stewed 
mushrooms. Or else lightly brown grated wheat bread 
in butter; again make a weak broth from cabbage 
leaves and remnants Of meat, use this to thin some 



Vegetables. 75 

flour browned in butter and season according to taste 
with capers, chopped anchovy or mushrooms, and 
strengthen with a trifle of extract of beef. 

54. Stewed Celery. After cleaning the roots, cut 
them into 4—8 pieces, boil until done, take them out 
and stew in a clear meat stock which gives the celery a 
good yellow color, together with butter, salt and nut- 
meg; finally -thicken the broth with some cornstarch. 

Time of cooking, 1% hours. Serve with stuffed 
breast of veal, stewed ribs of veal, beef tenderloin, rolled 
steak, fried sweetbreads, forcemeat balls, roasted beef 
tongue, fried sausages, meat fritters and cutlets of all 
kinds. 

55. Stuffed Celery is prepared in the same manner 
as directed for stuffed kohlrabi, omitting the crab 
butter. 

56. Stewed Onions. Take onions of medium size 
and peel them. Cook until done in an earthenware ves- 
sel in meat broth, with butter, mace, salt and rolled 
crackers. Time of cooking, 1 — 1% hours. Add some 
lemon juice according to taste. 

Serve with escallops, cutlets, roast tongue, fried 
liver and fried sausages. This dish can be served with 
soup meat or used as a garnish for a string bean salad. 

57. Stuffed Giant Onions. Spanish onions, which 
grow to the size of a saucer, are peeled, cut off o ne end 
to be used as a _cover, hollow out, fill w~Mi gboJTforce- 
meat, put on the cover and fasten with a little wooden 
peg or tie with a thread, fcitew the onions for 5 mffl- 
utes in melted butter, add beef broth, some salt, cloves, 
white pepper, 2 — 3 bay leaves, a little mace, some grated 
toast, a nd stew the onions covered tightly in thif lmtiT 
"fEey" aTe done and the forcemeat is thoroughly cooked, 
which will take from %—l hour. Remove the pegs or 
threads and serve the onions in their own sauce with 
lemon slices. 

58. Stewed Cucumbers. Pare, take out the seeds, 
cut the cucumbers into pieces and cook in water and 
vinegar half and half, with salt. A simpler way is to lay 
them in a pickle of water, vinegar and salt for an hour. 



76 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

Then stew them in a meat or beef extract broth with 
butter, nutmeg and rolled crackers. Three-fourths of an 
hour will be sumcent to prepare this dish. Serve with 
meat balls, cutlets, roast mutton, sausages and veal 
escallops. 

59. Stuffed Cucumbers. Take large green cucumb- 
ers and pare them the evening before they are to be 
used, cut them in two lengthwise and lay them in vine- 
gar after taking out the seeds. Towards the noon hour 
dry them and make a veal forcemeat, taking for this 
purpose a small piece of finely chopped veal, chopped 
mushrooms, a rusk which has been soaked in cold water 
and well pressed, a small piece of fresh butter, a whipped 
egg, nutmeg and salt. Mix well, stuff into the halved 
cucumbers, tie them together, put them on the fire in 
plenty of melted butter, brown them nicely all over and 
let them stew slowly until done. After the cucumbers 
have been taken from the fire, brown as much flour in 
the butter which remains in the vessel as is necessary to 
thicken the sauce ; also put in the broth to make the 
sauce, or instead of this, water with the addition of beef 
extract. Furthermore, a lemon slice without the seeds, 
some mace, salt, a pinch of white pepper and capers. 
Stew the cucumbers in this for a short time and after 
removing the threads serve in the sauce stirred with the 
yolk of an egg. 

60. Cooked Cucumbers. This makes a very easily 
digestible dish and while, perhaps, it may be considered 
as being a trifle insipid in taste, yet it is recommended 
because it can be prepared in 15 minutes. Pare the 
cucumbers, which should be of a good size, cut into long 
pieces the thickness of a finger, put into boiling salted 
water and cook for a few minutes ; in the meantime 
brown a teaspoonful of flour in a small piece of butter, 
stir with it some fresh milk, season with nutmeg and 
after draining the cucumbers stew them until done, sim- 
ilar to cauliflowers. 

After the cucumbers have come from the fire, a little 
vinegar can be added if desired. Serve with meat balls, 
roast spring chicken and all kinds of salted and smoked 
meats. 



VEGETABLES. 77 

61. Fresh Mushrooms. The mushrooms should be 
closed as much as possible; cut away the sandy end of 
the stalk, wash them with great care, drain and put 
them on the fire in an earthenware vessel with some 
meat broth and butter; cover tightly and cook slowly 
for 15 minutes. Finally add a teaspoonful of corn- 
starch or some rolled crackers, a little lemon juice, 
pepper and salt and, according to taste, some chopped 
parsley, and cook until the broth has a nice consist- 
ency ; stir the yolk of an egg through it. 

If the mushrooms are old and large they must be 
peeled and cut into pieces. If they are to be served with 
the roast or as a stew, let them simmer slowly in butter 
and their own juice until tender. 

Serve with smoked salmon, roast chicken, veal cut- 
lets or veal stew. 

62. Stuffed Mushrooms. Mushrooms to be stuffed 
must retain their stalks. Afte r carefully peeling the 
mushrooms and the stalks, washand let them d ry, then 
make a good veal forcemeat as described for stuffed 
cucumbers, omitting the mushrooms ; press 'some of the 
forcemeat on every stalk as far as the head so that it 
will adhere tightly. Then stew the mushrooms in plenty 
of melted butter until tender and serve with a sauce as 
described for stuffed cucumbers. 

63. Fried Mushrooms. First cut off the sandy end 
of the stalk, break it from the head and peel; take off 
the mushrooms, rinse them in water and drain on a col- 
ander, cut them into thin slices and have some butter 
ready in a frying pan in which the mushrooms are fried 
over a hot fire until done. 

They often yield cnpsiflemhle iuice and must, there- 



fore, be t uruedquite IrequentiyT ToHierwise they will 
become tougn. as soon as tne slices begin to fry they 
snould "trc-SH-rfced- plentifully ; add some ground pepper 
and serve with bread or potatoes. They may be fried 
in fat without onions, and can also be cooked rapidly 
with butter and a little beef broth. When mushrooms 
are fried or cooked for too long a time they become 
tough. 

64. Fresh Truffles. The truffles are not peJed 
but are clean ed with a brush in warm a nd then jn cold_ 



78 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

water. Put them on the Are in 1 trinfro f ( Burgundy o r 
other goodjed wine, all kinds of whole spices, a plUb^of- 
fresh butter,'"sait,"*aiid a few slices of lemon and cook 
until they are tender. Serve on a folded napkin with 
fresh butter. Or they can be served in a dish with sauce 
poured over them. 

65. Another method of cooking Truffles. Clean a,s 
directed just preceding. Put fat pork slices into a stew- 
pan with a bay leaf, some thyme, salt and coarse ground 
pepper, lay the truffles on these and cover them with 
slices of fat pork ; add 4 glassfuls- of strong white wine^ 
and a piece of nice butter, cook for a goodnall hour - " 
and serve very hot on a napkin. 

* This makes one of the finest dishes that can be 
/erved and is brought to the table as an ejjtrjajnanjadi- 
fee^aiterihe^gup^or else (garnished with escallops or 
'veal croquettes) in a middle course. 

66. Sweet Chestnuts. Shell and then blanch them. 
Put them in a stewpan, adding fresh butter, salt, some 
sugar and a strong beef broth, and simmer slowly until 
tender; the broth is nicely thickened with flour browned 
in butter. Serve very hot, garnishing with juicy cutlets, 
or else bring to the table with winter cabbage as a side 
dish. 

67. Winter Carrots, After washing and scraping 
the carrots, wash them again and take the lower ends 
in order to get as much as possible a dish similar to 
early carrots ; they should be cooked as directed for the 
latter, only sweetening with some sugar, and finally 
adding some chopped parsley. 

Serve with the same meats, etc., as directed for 
early carrots. 

Remark.— Washing vegetables of every description before and after cleaning 
them, has a great influence in' attaining good results in cooking, and this is 
particularly the case with all bulbs and roots, which should invariably be rubbed 
between the hands in water and then rinsed in fresh water several times, because 
the outer peel or skin usually imparts a strong flavor to the dish. Roots, however, 
should never be washed after they are cut, because some of their sweetness is 
thereby lost ; carrots as well as turnips should be cooked aB long as possible, for 
this increases their palatableness. 

68. Another method of cooking Winter Carrots. 

Clean the carrots and cut them into very fine shreds, 



Vegetables. 79 

put them on the fire in not too much boiling water with 
a few finely chopped onions and some kidney suet; cook 
quickly until tender; adding the salt towards the last. 
Then melt a few pieces of butter on the carrots, thicken 
the broth with cornstarch or flour and stir with chopped 
parsley. Shortly before serving, pared sour apples cut 
into halves may be put on the carrots ; let them simmer 
until cooked and lay the apples on top of the carrots 
when bringing them to the table. 

Or else put a layer of potatoes of uniform size on 
the carrots % hour before the latter are quite done, add 
the necessary salt and when the potatoes are cooked 
put on them small pieces of butter, stir with some finely 
chopped parsley before serving, and, according to taste, 
add a little vinegar. Time of cooking, 1—1% hours. 

Serve with smoked meats, fried sausages or head- 
cheese. 

69. Stuffed Tomatoes. Take nice, ripe tomatoes, 
scoop them out carefully, pass the pulp through a sieve 
and make a dressing of either chopped mushrooms, 
grated stale wheat bread, creamed butter, salt and pep- 
per, or else with finely chopped mutton, roast meat 
gravy, a few eggs, grated bread and fine herbs ; fill the 
tomatoes with the mixture. Bake the tomatoes in but- 
ter for about 15 minutes, sprinkle with lemon juice and 
serve with toast as an entree or as a garnish for more 
important dishes in middle courses. 

70. Spanish Tomatoes. Cut ripe tomatoes into 
slices, salt, cover and set aside for an hour. In the 
meantime boiled ham is finely chopped ; butter a drip- 
ping pan, fill it with ham and tomatoes in alternate 
layers, cover the surface with pieces of butter and grated 
wheat bread ; bake for 30 minutes. When done, turn 
out of the pan carefully, pour over it a brown sauce, 
garnish with small roasted potatoes xind serve. 

71. Parsnips. After washing the parsnips, scrape 
and then wash them again and cut them into short, 
thick pieces. Put butter into water, bring to a boil, 
put in the parsnips gradually, add salt and cook until 
tender, which will take about 1 hour. The broth should 
be plentiful and will be thick enough of itself without 



80 - C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

any addition; season with a little nutmeg. PLvsnips 
can also be cooked in a meat broth. with its own fat. 
Serve with cutlets of all kinds and fried sausages. 

72. Turnips. "Wash them, pare and wash them 
again, cut into narrow slices and parboil if necessary ; 
then cook until tender in not too much water with some 
good kidney suet and salt ; put in a few pieces of butter 
and stir through the dish 1 — 2 tablespoonfuls of sweet 
cream and a little cornstarch. When serving, grate 
a little nutmeg over the turnips. Potatoes can be 
served with the turnips, either cooked or roasted, or else 
they may be cooked with them. 

Serve with beef roasted like hare, warm or cold 
smoked meats, fried sausages and fried liver. 

73. Winter Cabbage, Bremen Style. Prrepn yinter 
cabbage has ^at»so strong a flavor as the brown va riet y 
and is "therefore T ^efara^Ie^'o liKeTa^Eer. iftEecabbage"' 
is frozen take the hearf only and the leaves nearest the 
heart, together with the stalk as far as tender, washing 
carefully. It is best to prepare the cabbage the evening 
previous, letting it freeze again over night. Where the 
cabbage has a strong flavor it is well to first parboil it 
in plenty of water for about 10' minutes. Then put 
some boiling water with plenty of goose-grease or lard 
and butter on the fire, put in the cabbage in layers, 
with plenty of small onions, adding salt sparingly be- 
cause cabbage is very easily oversalted, cover tightly 
and cook slowly. It must be thoroughly done but not 
soft and should not be stirred ; ordinarily 2 hours will 
be sufficent time for cooking. If it should lack sweet- 
ness put in a piece of sugar early in the cooking. When 
ready to serve, the broth, which should be rather scant, 
can be bound with a little flour or cornstarch. 

Garnish with stewed chestnuts (see A, 39,) which 
may, however, also be stirred through the cabbage or 
else be brought to the table in a separate dish. Serve 
as a side dish small potatoes, roasted raw to a nice 
brown color. Serve the cabbage with roast goose, 
stuffed spareribs, roast pork, roast beef, round of beef, 
fried pork sausages or pork chops. 

In Bremen this cabbage is usually cooked with 
"Pinkel" sausages (made of beef kidney suet and oat- 



Vegetables. 81 

meal); sometimes the cabbage is brought on the fire 
after being put in the kettle with oatmeal layers be- 
tween it alternately. 

74. Shredded Cabbage, Westphalian Style. Take 
the heart, together with all the green leaves of the cab- 
bage, wash, cut into shreds on a chopping board, and 
parboil for 10 minutes and then cook until tender in 
not too much water with goose-grease or else butter 
and lard half and half, adding a few small onions and 
some salt. A little sugar and a trifle of cornstarch are 
added' towards the last. Serve with stewed chestnuts 
and roast potatoes, but if a fat meat is served, roast 
goose for instance, then boiled potatoes are preferable. 

Time of cooking, about 2 hours. 

75. Sourkrout. Take it carefully out of the keg or 
other vessel in which it is contained, rejecting all that 
may not be of the proper color. Press it vigorously 
and if it should be too sour pour hot water over it, dry 
quickly; it should not be rinsedTTKidney suet, butter 
and lard in equal parts make an excellent fat for cook- 
ing sourkrout. Bring the fat to a boil in the necessary 
amount of water, put in the sourkrout with a few pep. 
percorns, cover tightly and cook with a quick fire, add. 
ing some salt if necessary. If liked a little bunch oi 
juniper berries and carraway tied in a cloth can be 
cooked with the krout. When ready to serve some corn- 
starch or flour, or still better grated potatoes, should 
be stirred through the dish. 

Serve with mashed potatoes or a puree of peas. 

If the cabbage has been cut very fine and put up 
without any salt, about % — 1 hour is necessary for 
cooking, otherwise it will take about 1% hours, and if 
made from winter cabbage it will take from 3 — i hours. 

The following method is preferable for cooking sour- 
krout because it thereby retains its bright appearance : 
Bring wine and water half and half to a boil, and then 
put in the sourkrout with some salt and a few pepper- 
corns and cook until tender. Shortly before serving 
pour off all the broth and stir plenty of butter through 
the sourkrout. 

Sourkrout is usually served with partridges, pheas- 
ants, goose liver patties, liver dumplings, fried liver, 



82 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

baked pike, headcheese, roast pig, roast pork, spare 
ribs, boiled ham, and particularly pickled pigs' feet. A 
puree of peas makes a very good side dish. 

. 76. Sourkrout for the Family Table. Prepare in the 
first place as described just above. Put water in suffi- 
cient quantity with lard on the fire, bring to a boil, put 
in the sourkrout and cook" until done. If one wishes to 
cook a piece of ham or bacon in the krout, it must not 
be too salty, and should be cooked until about half 
done before the krout is put into the kettle. Pat pork 
can also be used to advantage as described for the pre- 
paration of greens under No. 14 of this division; the 
melted fat can then be put to the sourkrout. It is 
better to cook the potatoes alone because the acid of 
the sourkrout is apt to make them a trifle hard; stir 
them into the dish at last. 1 — 2 raw potatoes grated 
and stirred through the dish after it is thoroughly 
cooked gives it a nice consistency and a good color. 
Dried white beans cooked until quite tender together 
with their own broth can also be stirred through the 
krout, shortly before serving. 

Time of cooking as above noted. 

77. Sourkrout with Pike. Prepare the krout as 
directed in the last preceding receipt, clean the fish, cut 
off the head and put the liver into the mouth. Put the 
fish on the fire in enough water to cover,. together 
with some butter, peppercorns, bay leaves,- cloves and 
salt;, when the head is half done take it out and lay it 
aside, cooking the rest until done and then boning it. 
Put the sourkrout with the fish into the dish in layers, 
rounding it in the middle, pour over it a few spoonfuls 
of good cream and 1 to 2 whipped eggs, sprinkle over it 
rolled crackers, put the head of the fish with the liver 
on the rounding in the middle of the dish, and then bake 
in the oven for about 30 minutes. To preserve the head 
cover it during the baking with a piece of buttered 
paper. 

Crabs can also be cooked with this style of sour- 
krout. Fill the shells with a crab forcemeat, cook in 
salt water or the fish broth and use them together with 
the crab tails to garnish the border of the dish. 



Vegetables. 83 

78. Sourkrout with Stewed Oysters and Rhinewine. 

Press the krout well and cook for 8 hours in boiling 
water adding 1 pound of unsalted butter for every 3 
pounds of krout ; then put in 1 bottle of Rhinewine and 
let it simmer slowly until little or no broth remains. 
Serve the krout placed in the dish around the edges, 
leaving the center open, which is filled with an oyster 
stew. Bring to the table hot. 

79. Sourkrout with Pheasants and Oysters. Pre- 
pare the pheasant as for a roast; then lightly press 
about 2 pounds of sourkrout (if it should be too sour 
freshen it), put it in a stewpan, pour over it white wine 
and water half and half, enough to cover the krout, put 
in a good-sized lump of lard and a chopped onion and 
let it cook slowly for an hour. Then put in the pheas- 
ant and let it cook slowly for another hour and after it 
is tender take it out and thicken the sourkrout slightly 
with a sauce made of % tablespoonful of fineflour rubbed 
in 1% tablespoonf uls of fresh butter, together with 2 
chopped onions, afterwards smoothed in a large cupful 
of clear stock and cook for % hour; then stir through it 
the same quantity of sweet cream, bring the sauce to a 
boil, thicken with the yolks of 2 eggs and pass through 
a fine sieve, season with salt and some lemon juice. 

Remove the beards from 40—50 oysters, dry them 
in a cloth, sprinkle each oyster with salt and pepper, 
turn in flour and dip in egg and breadcrumbs; have 
hot lard or butter ready and fry the oysters to a nice 
brown color shortly before they are to be served. Carve 
the pheasant, garnishing first with the sourkrout and 
with a border of the oysters. If one wishes to serve the 
oysters in another style, remove the beards, put the 
oysters on the stove and get them hot, but do not cook 
" them. Add the liquor of the oysters to the sourkrout, 
thicken the latter with a sauce made as above directed, 
adding a few drops of lemon juice. Serve with the oys- 
ters placed in the center of the dish encircled with the 
sourkrout and the pheasant as a border. 

80. To cook Beans salted for Winter use. Freshen 
the beans early in the morning, cover them with water, 
which should be renewed several times ; then cook them 
in an unglazed stone coo king vessel in the same manner 



84 Kj.— .Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

as fresh beans, but after they have cooked for a time 
put in ^leu^oXJaoilingjnnk^which preserve s their natu- 
ral colorTbeingcareful, however, to~coo1r+hem rapidly 
and*uirmterruptedly until tender. After this proceed 
with their preparation the same as with fresh beans, 
and the difference between the two cau be hardly not- 
iced. 

Time of cooking, and serve with the same dishes, as 
noted for fresh beans. 

81. Pickled String Beans. Cook them until tender 
and then rinse them repeatedly to extract the salt and 
pour them on a colander ; after this cook the beans in 
water with kidney suet and lard half and half with a 
scant broth, salting as much as is necessary. After- 
wards put in the white beans which have been cooked 
until quite tender, together with their broth and stir 
well together, or else the string beans are put into the 
dish along the edges and the white beans filled into the 
center. Instead of the white beans, a number of small 
potatoes parboiled can be cooked with the beans until 
done, and a grated raw potato stirred through them as 
directed for sourkrout. Time of cooking, 1 — 2 hours, 
according to the quality. 

Serve with smoked meat, boiled ham, fried sausages, 
pork chops, smoked tongue and freshened herring. 

82. Pickled Salad Beans are parboiled, then fresh- 
ened and stewed like fresh salad beans, or else the broth 
is poured off and a thick egg sauce is put over them. 

Serve with meats as directed in the preceding receipt. 

83. Dried Peas or Pea Puree. Prepare as directed 
for pea soup, and after pouring off the water cook them 
in a scant broth with the necessary fat until rather 
thick, add the salt, pass through a strainer, bring to a 
boil again, put into the dish, rounding them high in the 
center, smoothing the surface nicely, cover with onions 
browned in butter and put strips of toast around the 
edges. 

Time of cooking, 2 hours. Serve with salt pork of 
every kind or nicely freshened herring. 

84. White Beans. Cook them the same as peas 
until tender, but pour the water off twice and do not 



Vegetables. 85 

strain Tcnem. After bringing to a boil thje second time 
stir in good fat and before serving stir salt and a little 
vinegar through, the beans. The beans should not be 
too dry. , , 

Or else cook the beans without either fat or vinegar, 
pour off the broth and serve with pork or onion sauce, 
or else with butter and vinegar. 

White beans are excellent when stewed with crab 
sauce. Serve with boiled ham, roast beef or kettle 
roast, fried liver, fried sausages, calf's head jelly. 

85. Lentils. Prepare as directed for peas, parboil, 
drain and serve with an onion sauce poured over them. 

Or else, after parboiling, cook the lentils until tender 
with a small piece of pork and a few onions and then 
stir a little flour and vinegar into the broth, which 
should not be too scant. 

Time of cooking, the same as for peas and beans. 

86. Lentils in flecklenburg Style. After the lentils 
have been well picked over and washed they are cooked 
until tender. Then pour off all of the water and put in 
a meat broth with chopped green leek and celery, cook 
for quite a while longer and thicken with flour rubbed 
in plenty of fat. 

Or else, after cooking the lentils for an hour, pour 
off the water and then cook them in fresh water until 
quite tender. Then cut a piece of fat pork into slices 
and fry in butter with plenty of onions until it com- 
mences to froth, lightly brown in this according to 
quantity, 1, 2"or 3 spoonfuls of flour, stir with meat 
broth to make a thick sauce, add vinegar, salt and 
pepper, pour onto the lentils and cook them until done. 



87. Artichokes for Invalids. Prepare the artichokes, 
cut them into pieces and cook in salted water until 
tender, pass through a sieve and mix with fresh butter, 
grated wheat bread and a few yolks of eggs whipped 
with sweet cream. A puree of cauliflowers can be made 
in the same manner for invalids. 

88. Puree of white Beans for Convalescents. This 
should be served only when permitted by the physician. 



86 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

Soak the beans over night, cook them in water until 
quite tender and then strain. In the meantimechop the 
meat of a few boiled crabs quite fine, mix with the puree 
of the beans, add some crab butter and 1 cupful of beef 
broth and cook all together. Stir into the puree the 
yolks of several eggs whipped in cream, and serve with 
tender cutlets or roast chicken. 

Many of' the vegetable dishes in this division are fit 
for invalids, among them Nos. 2, 4, 15, 16, 17, 21, 36, 
38 and 60, but care should be taken to usually omit 
sharp spices or seasoning. 



II. POTATOES. 

S. How to cook Potatoes. Vs\r ton littlft rare is 
quite frequently exercised in cooking potatoes ana yet 
when well cooked they make very palatable Wishes, pre- 
ferred by many to other perhaps more elegant articles 
of food. Without question, muchdepends upon carefu l 
jaring^w ashing and cookiD^r ^Tota^>e^* , "shPuTcl be 
selected oTmedium and as nearly" as possible of uniform 
size; before paring wash them and throw them into 
fresh water as soon as pared,' rub them several times 
between the hands in the water, rinse and keep them 
covered in fresh water until wanted for use. Then drain 
them on a colander, pour Clearwater over them and put 
on the fire in a Settle which should not be too small and 
be used for this purpose only; have the water cover 
them and put in salt in the proportion of about % of a 
teaspoonful to a quart of Water. It should be noted 

a ^ H e T P°^ a;t:oes r ^.?^ re mor ? s . a ^ * Dan °Id- Skim- 
ming "snouTcTBe careTuTTyartended to and'they should > 
cook neither too rapidly nor too slowly until done. It 
is well to try them occasionally in order to determine 
whether they are done; if they can be easily pierced with 
a fork they may be considered done. They should not 
fall to pieces, neither must they be brought to the table 
half done. Pour the water off carefully — none must 
remain in the kettle — and put the kettle back on the 
fire for a few minutes longer, taking off the cover, shak- 
ing the potatoes so that all watery particles mayeva- 



Potatoes. 87 

pOrate, and then let them stand on the back of the 
stove. It is much better, however, to bring them to the 
table at once in a covered warm dish after they have 
been evaporated, because n othing loses in palatableuess 
so m uch through standingas potatoes. 

"The longer or sE!or^ra 1iration""oTtrhi e for cooking 
potatoes de pends upon thfrvanetyan dTTn* a measure, 
upon t he season ; nice Iresh potatoes need about 15 to 
20 minutes. Potatoes grown in light sandy soil are the 
best. 

2. Potatoes with various Kinds of Sauces. After 
cooking potatoes as directed above, cover them with a 
sauce made of either onions, fat and parsley, or else a 
slightly sour milk sauce, or a Bechamel, Maitre de Hotel 
or an anchovy sauce (see under R) and cover the dish 
tightly, or else the sauce may be served separately. 

3. Potatoes with Herring. Cook the potatoes in 
their jackets with salt, then peel and slice, keeping them 
as hot as possible. In the meantime lightly brown a 
few onions in plenty of butter, add some flour, after this 
some water, salt, ground pepper, a little vinegar and, if 
handy, a few bay leaves ; when this begins to cook put 
in the sliced potatoes and then the boned herrings cut 
into small pieces. After everything is thoroughly 
cooked and very hot, stir through it some cream. This 
dish should be very juicy and not stiff. 

4. Potatoes with Parsley and Boiled Fish. Peel 
small potatoes, cook them in salted water on a quick, 
fire until done, being careful that they remain whole. 
After pouring off the water carefully, shake the pota- 
toes on top of the stove with plenty of fresh butter and 
finely chopped parsley. Serve at once. 

5. Sour Potatoes with Bay Leaves. Slowly try out 
some pork fat or else get some other kind of good fat 
nicely hot, lightly brown in it finely chopped onions, 
stir with it water, salt and a little pepper, and boil the 

. potatoes in it with some bay leaves until done. Before 
serving take out the bay leaves and add a dash of vine- 
gar, and if they should not be of the proper consistency 
thicken with a little browned flour. Be careful to have 
the dish nice and juicy. 



88 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

6. Breaded Potatoes. Take potatoes of a — edium 
and uniform size and after washing, cook them in their 
jackets with some salt until done, but they must not be 
soft. Then peel them, cut into thick slices, dip into 
a whipped egg and turn in bread or cracker crumbs. 
Heat some good fat with plenty of good butter in a 
clean sauce pan, put in the sliced potatoes side by side 
and fry over a medium fire, lightly brown on both sides, 
keeping the pan uncovered ;~ serve at once. This makes 
a nice side dish for spinach, Brussels sprouts, red cab- 
bage and for various kinds of meats. 

7. Roast Potatoes. Peel quite small potatoes of 
uniform size, wash and cook in salted water until half 
done and then drain until dry. Then heat some butter 
and good fat in one or two saucepans on a medium 
fire, put in the steaming potatoes side by side, cover the 
pan tightly and when the lower sides of the potatoes are 
brown turn them and cover again until they are done, 
after which they should be roasted in the uncovered pan 
until browned, being careful not to scorch them. In 
order to preserve their nice appearance and smoothness 
they should not be touched with a fork while cooking; 
the best way to turn them is to use a pancake turner. 
PnBjfc ing sugar over the potatoes when they are roast- 
n^^n^TeBxnem^o'o"ir ^lossy_. i 

" Should the potatoes accidentally have been cooked 
too long, be careful to put only those remaining whole 
and none of the broken ones into the pan. If potatoes 
cooked in their jackets are to be roasted, which, by the 
way, are not near as nice as the other kind, they are 
cooked until done in salted water, peeled while hot, 
roasted in an open pan, turning frequently. 

Raw potatoes roasted are preferred by many to any 
other kind, Select small, round potatoes of a uniform 
size, wash them carefully and drain well, roast them in 
an open pan in hot butter until brown, sprinkle with 
fine salt, cover the pan or kettle and shake frequently 
until done. Serve immediately. 

8. Potatoes with Buttermilk. Boil the potatoes 
until soft, add buttermilk and let them cook for a while 
longer with pieces of browned pork fat cut into cubes. 
When they do not fall to pieces, a little flour stirred with 



Potatoes. 89 

buttermilk may be added. Or else the potatoes are 
cooked in their jackets until soft and then cut' into 
slices. Heat some fat, brown some flour in it, stir with 
buttermilk to a plentiful thick sauce, salt and then cook 
the potatoes until done. 

°. Curried Potatoes. Curry powder is composed of 
various strong spices and can be obtained in most drug 
stores or first-class groceries. 

Boil small potatoes and shake them several times 
with plenty of butter and 1 tablespoonful or more of 
curry powder, let the kettle stand for a short time on 
the top of the stove. Serve as soon as possible. 

Curried potatoes are appropriate side dishes for all 
kinds of cabbages and roast meats. 

10. Baked Potatoes with Sausages. Fry the saus- 
ages in butter with finely chopped onions, take them 
out of the pan, stir a spoonful of flour into the fat and 
afterwards some good meat broth, gravy fat from roast 
meats, salt and pepper. 

Cook the potatoes in their jackets, slice them while 
still hot, put them into the pan with the sausages and 
simmer for a short time. Put a layer of these pota- 
toes into a buttered dish dusted with bread or cracker 
crumbs, put on them the sausages cut into pieces 2 to 3 
inches long, on these put another layer of potatoes, 
coverwiih bread or cracker crumbs, pour over it melted 
butter, then bake in an oven for about % of an hour or 
until it is nicely crusted. Turn out of the pan and serve. 

11. Potatoes, Spareribs and Sour Apples baked to- 
gether. Put the spareribs on a medium fire, half cov- 
ered with salted water, in a rather shallow fryingpan, 
cover the pan tightly and let the meat cook moderately 
for 1 — 1% hours until of a light brown color. Then take 
them out of the pan and cover the latter with small, 
round potatoes, peeled, put on a little salt, lay the 
spareribs over them with the opening towards the top, 
and fill this with pared and quartered apples, add a 
cupful of water, cover and let the potatoes roast slowly 
until they are tender and brown, turning them once. 

Serve the spareribs with the apples in a deep dish, 
using the potatoes as a garnish. This dish is best 
cooked in an oven. 



90 C— Potatoes and other Vegetables. 

12. Baked Potatoes with Cheese. Cut boiled pota- 
toes into slices and put them in layers into a buttered 
pan. Cover every layer with a sauce made of sour 
cream, eggs and Parmesan cheese, continuing in this 
manner until the pan is filled. For 4 persons take 1 . 

Eint of cream, 4 eggs and. about 3 ounces of cheese, 
lake in an oven for about % hour and serve as a side 
dish with ham, beefsteak and other meats of a similar 
kind. 

13. Stuffed Potatoes (an original receipt). Peel 
large potatoes, cut off a slice, scoop them out and fill 
with a dressing made of roast meat remnants *of any 
kind, preferably pork ; chop the meat very fine and mix 
with a few eggs, chopped parsley, salt, pepper, nutmeg 
and grated bread; put a tablespoonful into every po- 
tato and tie on with a thread the slice that has been 
cut off. Bake slowly in plenty of fat until done ; they 
should be lightly brown in color. This makes an excel- 
lent side dish with greens and lettuce. 

14. Potatoes with Apples. This dish is prepared 
best by cooking potatoes until done in salted water and 
mashing them. Stir through them a piece of butter, 
then mix with them an applesauce, which should be 
rather thick but not too sweet, taking about % as many 
apples as you have potatoes. In case the dish should 
be too stiff, put in some boiling water and cook. When 
done, ' put into an appropriate dish and cover with 
browned bread crumbs, or else pass with it melted but- 
ter, sugar and browned cracker crumbs. 

To save time the apples can be cut into pieces and 
be put with the potatoes after the latter are fully half 
done, pouring off part of the water. Cook until done, 
stir butter through it and bring to the-table as already 
directed. 

Serve with roast hare, sour beef, cutlets, fried liver, 
sausage, ham and chopped meat balls. 

15. Potatoes and fresh Pears are best cooked with 
a piece of lean pork which has already been boiled until 
half done, otherwise with fat and butter ; the pears must 
be nearly done before the potatoes, which should first 
be boiled until done, are put with them. 



Before serving, stir through with some vinegar, but 
the potatoes must not become mashed. Instead of the 
vinegar a few sour apples may be added to the pears 
£fter putting in the potatoes. Like all other dishes 
made of potatoes this one should not be too stiff. 

Instead of pears, plums can also bestirred through 
the potatoes after the- latter have first been stirred 
through with butter, but in this case omit the pork and 
use any other kind of roast meat. Instead of the fresh 
fruit dried apples, pears or prunes can be taken, but 
they must then be stewed before putting them in with 
the potatoes, which should first be cooked until done 
and then mashed. Sometimes 2 eggs are whipped with 
2 spoonfuls of milk and stirred through the dried fruit, 
and then fat pork, smoked sausage or ham is served 
with the dish. 

16. Potato Balls (Rissoles). Cook the potatoes in 
salted water, drain entirely dry and mash. Mix them 
with a few eggs, a piece of butter, nutmeg according to 
taste, and a few spoonfuls of sour cream. Then roll into 
small balls, sprinkle them with rolled crackers and fry 
in butter. For the family table potatoes left over can 
be used, which are mashed, mixed with egg and fried as 
above. 

These potato balls make a nice adjunct to greens or 
lettuce. 

17. Potato Noodles. Take a deep plate full of peeled 
and grated potatoes cooked in their jackets the day 
previous in salted water, together with 4 eggs, 4 
spoonfuls of cream or milk, the same quantity of melted 
butter and add whatever salt may be necessary. Put 
the potatoes on a bread board, make a hollow in the 
center into which put some flour and the eggs, cream, 
butter and salt, knead this to a dough, adding a little 
flour from time to time until the dough can bestretched 
and is compact and does not show any holes when cut. 
Koll the dough into oblong pieces about the size of a 
potato, cook for 8—10 minutes in boiling salted water, 
put them on a colander and after they are drained, fry 
them all around in butter until lightly brown. 

18. Sliced Potatoes (German Style). Peel the pota- 
toes, wash carefully and cut into very thin slices. Put 



§2 C— Potatoes and other- Vegetables. 

plenty of lard and butter half and half into a pari or 
else brown some fat pork in it, put in the potatoes 
about an inch deep, sprinkle with salt, add a cupful of 
water and cover the pan tightly. After the potatoes 
have been browned over a medium fire until done, they 
may be sent to the table or else turned in the pan and 
browned on the other side. 

Instead of raw potatoes, cold potatoes that have 
been left over may be cut into slices and fried in butter 
or other good fat. About % the quantity of sliced sour 
apples can be laid on the potatoes and, covered tightly, 
fried in butter to a nice brown ; the potatoes can also 
be stirred with 2—3 eggs mixed with a little milk. 

19. Roast Potatoes. Take good potatoes of a me- 
dium size, wash them very carefully, put them in an 
iron kettle, cover with water, cook until half done, pour 
off the water, sprinkle with some salt, cover tightly, put 
them on a medium fire or better still into a medium hot 
oven and roast until they are quite tender and nicely 
crusted. Serve with fresh butter. 

Nos. 4, 16 and 17 are well adapted for invalids. 



D.— Meats. 



1. GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

. Preparing the fleat. 1tfp«.+p shnnlri nover be washed 
more than is absolutely necessary to clean them, and 
they should never lay in the water, because they thereby 
lose too much str ength. Roast beef, bee fsteaks and 
mutton roast -eti»m*lt8&Fhnxn v i ill If j" | BSfcUng, and 
this should be done im mediately before cooking. Put 
the meat on the chopping" board and pound on each 
side, whereby it more fully retains its juiciness, then 
rinse the meat, dry it with a towel and proceed with the 
cooking. 

Veal and poultry are best scalded before roasting 
or stewing, pouring off the water immediately after. 
The meat is thereby improved in appearance and is 
more easily larded. 

Larding. Larding makes roasts juicier and im- 
proves their appearance. Use salted water and smoked 
fat pork for larding, taking for this purpose a piece 
from the shoulder, cut obliquely into pieces 1&— 2 inches 
wide, divide them into thin slices and from thesecut the 
lardoons of the size required. 

The meat which is to be larded should be laid on a 
meat board, put a lardoon into the larding needle, 
draw the pin and part of the fat, of which the two ends 
should be of equal length, through the meat. Proceed 
thus until the entire piece is covered with lardoons 
placed at regular intervals and in as straight a line as 
is possible. The yrain of the meat should be taken into 
consideration w hen larding; it must run crosswise to 
the larding needle, tnen commence a new row. 



94 D.— Meats. 

In larding hares, put 2 rows of lardoons along each 
side of the back, making 4 rows in all; usually 2 are 
sufficient. Other kinds of game or poultry are larded 
in the same manner, but quite young and tender poul- 
try, sweetbreads, etc., should be hardened before larding 
by pouring hot water over them. 

Cooking Heat. All kinds of meat, including salted 
and smoked if it is freshened, should be put on the stove 
in boiling water, because it thus loses less of its juiciness 
and is done sooner. Regarding fresh meats for soups 
all necessary remarks have already been made in the 
chapter devoted to soups. The time necessary until the 
meat becomes tender, depends upon the age of the beef, 
and the size of the piece, but in general the following 
table can be depended upon : Fresh beef, up to 3 hours; 
smoked beef or a whole smoked ham, 3%— 4 hours; 
pickled meats, 3— 3% hours; veal, IK— 2 hours; mutton, 
2—2% hours; poultry, 3 hours; spring chickens, %—l 
hour; pigeons, % hour at the furthest; "a pig's or calf's 
head, 2 — 2% hours; game, according to its kind, from 
2—2% hours. 

If asoup is not to be made from the meat, allow it 
to simmer slowly because it thereby fully retains its 
juiciness. If cooked in vessels that can be tightly cov- 
ered the meat can be put on the fire without any water, 
simply with fat or butter, otherwise put on the stove 
and not in the oven, and in this case with boiling water, 
which should be replenished as it evaporates. As soon 
as this broth begins to cook move the vessel to the 
back part of the stove where the meat will finish cook-* 
ing slowly. / 

Roasting. Roasted meats are done quicker than 
when cooked in any other way. It is not advisable to 
roast meats on top of the stove ; the meat is far better 
when roasted in the oven. Small cuts only, like chops, 
etc., should be fried or roasted in the frying pan, unless 
one prefers broiling. 

In broiling, put the meat over glowing coals or on. 
a hot fire-place; as soon as heated, butter and then put 
the meat on the broiler; turn when necessary. In turn- 
ing, be careful not to pierce the meat with the fork, in 
fact this precaution is necessary with roasts of all kinds. 



Beef. 95 

When roasting meat in the oven it s hould be prop- 
erly h eated before the meat is put in, be cause this 
tends "to roast the meat uniformly all around and it 
loses little or none of its juiciness. Thereafter allow the 
heat in the oven to gradually diminish. 

Baste -the roast frequently with the added fat, or in 
case of a pork roast or roast goose, with their own fat. 
I* the top heat is too great it is well to cover the roast 
with a piece of buttered paper ; care should be taken to 
observe whether the heat radiating from the sides of 
the oven is of equal intensity or not, because it may be 
necessary to turn the roast with the pan — notinthe pan. 

For roasts that are to be well done an earthenware 
roasting pan is the best, and repeated basting with 
boiling water or meat broth is necessary. If, on the 
contrary, the roast is wanted rare the ordinary roast- 
ing pan can be used, the heat in the oven should be 
greater and the addition of water be avoided ; plenty of 
fat should be put with the roast from the start. As the 
clear fat easily absorbs great heat, the roast receives a 
nice crust, retains its juice and is more quickly done, 
consequently the inner part of the roast does not receive 
heat enough to thoroughly cook it. If the fat should 
begin to brown the roast it can be taken out of the 
oven and set for awhile on the stove without detriment. 
If the roast is really scorched, however, which may 
happen to the best cook under an unfortunate conjunc- 
tion of circumstances, it is still possible to save it by 
carefully cutting away the scorched parts and then 
cooking the remainder for several minutes in boiling 
water, which should be frequently renewed. The scorchy 
taste is thereby largely removed and the meat can then 
be roasted in fresh browned butter until done. 

Roasts should never be left in the oven. longer than 
necessary for them to become done ; meats roasted for 
too lon g a time aredr vanrl tasteless It is art visa hla~ 
however^ io leave tne roast in the pan and put it on the 
top of the stove for a short quarter of an hour before it 
is served; this prevents the juice from dripping away 
when carving. The gravy is made from the drippings 
in the pan. 

Gravy. Plenty of good rich gravy is essential with 
a roast. Nothing jgjbetter thjuij:xe^miQXJCPJLsts of all 



96 D.— Meats. 

kinds, because it makes the meat milder and the gravy 
more palatable. But cream is not always easily ob- 
tained, and therefore the cook must provide for a substi- 
tute by setting aside some milk early enough. After the 
roast has been taken out of the pan stir some fine flour 
into the latter (for 6 persons a ro,ast weighing. 6 — 7 
pounds will take "about a small tablespoonful) and stir 
constantly until brown. Then stir in the requisite quan- 
tity of water, loosening everything adhering to the pan. 
If it should happen that the p-mvv ip too flalty or to o 
dark in color, this can be mm^rljerl hy pouringi n some 
m ilk ? f which in itself is quite desirable when^cTelim "is" 
"Tacking. Good gravy must not be too salty, but of a 
nice consistency and lightly brown in color; scorched or 
watery gravies spoil the best meat dishes. If not other- 
wise directed, alljnearfe-e^ayles shnuliLhe.fifaained. 

Meat Remnants. As soon as meats are brought 
from the table, they should be taken out of the gravy 
or juice and immediately placed into a refrigerator or 
jto the cellar. 



I. BEEF. 



2. Roast Beef. The best cut of beef for roasting is 
the sirloin or English cut ; that most commonly used is 
the rib roast; the former has the tenderloin under the 
rib-bone. After removing the greater part of the fat, 
wash, dry it with a towel and pound as directed in No. 1. 
For a large roast put a pound of thick, solid kidney 
suet into water over night, cut it into small cubes (kid- 
ney suet and fat pork, half and half, can also be used) ; 
put it on the fire in a perfectly clean dripping pan and 
try it out slowly, then sprinkle the beef with fine salt 
and put it in the pan with the tenderloin to the top, 
drip half of the fat over it and then place it uncovered 
into a hot oven in order that it may roast rapidly, 
basting very frequently because both are necessary to 
prevent the juices from running out of the meat; after- 
wards . have a more moderate fire and finish roasting 
without turning the meat or piercing it with a fork. 



*te«ff— mutftt. mm® ^aubflcifdi* 




A Hind shank— Keule; B Round— Rundsttick; C Rump— Schwanzstiick ; D Sir- 
loin— Lende ; E Flank — Untere Flanke ; F Porterhouse — Mittelstiick ; G Ribroast — 
Vorderrippe ; H Chuckroast — Mittelrippe ; I Nablepiece — Dunne Flanke; K Breast 
— Bruststuck ; L Chuck — Rippenstiick; M Shoulder — Kamm ; N Neck— Oberer 
Kamm ; O Front shank — Schienbein; P Check— Backen ; Q Kidney suet — Nieren- 
fett; R Sweetbreads— Saum ; S Heart— Herz; T Milt— MHz; U Tongue— Zunge ; 
V Liver— I-eber ; \V Lungs— Lunge : X Brain — Gehrin; Y Kidney — Niere; Z Tail 
— Schwanz; 'A Paunch— Kaldaunen; "A Feet— Fiisze. 



Beef. 97 

The fat should remain clear and is poured out of the 
pan before making the gravy, which is prepared as 
already described. Mushrooms are much liked in roast 
beef gravies and are either stewed in butter previously 
to putting them into the gravy, or else let them simmer 
in meat broth until tender, using the broth instead of 
water to finish 1 he gravy. 

3. Kettle Roast of Beef . For kettle roasts, the meat 
need not necessarily be taken from young beef, but it 
should be well pounded. Put'a pound of kidney suet into 
water over night, cut it into small pieces (instead of the 
suet half as much pork fat can be used), put into a 
kettle and try it out, then put in the meat and roast it 
until it is nicely browned all around ; move it from side 
to side frequently, being careful not to pierce it with the 
fork. Then cover it with a part of the pieces of fat, 
pour in from the sidel — 2 cupfuls of boiling water, cover 
the kettle tightly, put it on the stove where it will roast 
uninterruptedly but not too vigorously. Eoast in this 
manner for 2 — 2% hours according to the size of the 
piece ; after roasting for about 1 hour turn the meat 
once with a skimmer and sprinkle with a little salt, 
always being careful not to pierce the meat. Make the 
gravy as previously directed ; axupful of sour cream is 
a favorite addition to gravy of this kind of roast. , 

4. Rolled Roast. Take a rib roast and have the 
ribs cut 'out, pound well and rub with salt, pepper and 
ground cloves, roll it tightly and tie it with a cord. 
Then roast for 3% hours as directed in No. 3, basting 
often; make a sauce as described in No. 1. 

Serve with compots, salads or with brown winter 
cabbage. The broth will make a good mushroom- or 
truffle sauce, in which the roast can be served with mac- 
aroni or roast potatoes in a middle course. 

5. Fillet of Beef. After larding, put it in the oven 
in an earthenware roasting pan with plenty of hot but- 
ter and roast rather gently for about % hour, basting 
frequently, and covering with thick cream. When serv- 
ing, stir a little water through the gravy ; the cream 
usually makes it thick enough. 

s^~~A. Bearnese sauce (see division R) is excellent with 
/ evervJsind-of-frllet of beef roast, which should be covered 



98 D.— Meats. 

with the sauce immediately before serving. These roasts 
may be varied by means of numerous different kinds of 
gravies, such as truffle-, mushroom-, Madeira- and Bur- 
gundy sauces, etc. A further variation is attainable by 
serving the fillet roasff with all kinds of vegetables (filet 
a la jardinere). The vegetables are taken according to 
season : in the Spring, peas, carrots, kohlrabi, aspara- 
gus and the hearts of lettuce; in the Summer, string 
beans, cauliflowers, mushrooms and small potatoes; in 
the Fall, small heads of isavoy cabbage, artichokes, 
cauliflowers, tomatoes and stewed onions; inthe Winter, 
salsify, savoy cabbage, sweet turnips and endives. All 
of the vegetables must be gotten ready neatly, remov- 
ing stalks and cores where necessary. 

6. Fillet of. Beef with Madeira Sauce. Brown some 
flour in butter, with it stir dark soup stock or other 
good meat broth, add a bay leaf, pepper, salt, some 
cayenne pepper and 2 glassfuls Of Madeira, stir well 
together and put into this sauce pieces of veal sweet- 
breads, little dumplings, mushrooms and a few sliced 
truffles. The meat is first roasted until half done, then 
put into the sauce, roast it slowly for another half hour 
and serve with all of the additions with which it has 
been cooked. Frequently macaroni a,re cooked in salted . 
water until half done and then finished in meat broth 
with Madeira; they are then placed around. the roast in 
the form of a wreath. Before serving with the roast 
shake the macaroni with butter and grated cheese. 

7. Rossini Fillet. Cut the meat into slices, salt and 
turn in egg and bread or cracker crumbs, and roast in 
melted butter until juicy and well done. At the same 
time slice a nice goose liver (in the Summer take the 
half of of a calf's liver) and also dip in bread and roast 
it. Serve the slices in layers arranged in the form of a 
pyramid, and pour the gravy over them; make the 
gravyfrom the drippings of the meat, some sour cream, 
meat broth, a glassful 6f Madeira, thickening with a 
little rice flour. 

8. Beef a la mode. Take about 8—10 pounds of 
the round, pound it, rub with salt, pepper, and ground 
cloves ; it can also be larded if wished. Put about 2% 
ounces of kidney suet, prepared- as directed in A, 17, 



Beef. 99 

into a kettle, heat it, put in the meat, dredge a table- 
spoonful of flour over it, and roast until brown all over, 
turning from time to time. Then pour in from the side 
enough boiling water or better still half claret and half 
water to partly cover it, then put on the lid tightly and 
cook slowly, turning it after the elapse of 1% hours, 
adding a cupful of pickles cut into cubes, together with 
1 spoonful of 'vinegar, 4 bay leaves or a few lemon slices, 
cover again and cook slowly until tender, which will 
usually take from 2— 2% hours. Then put the meat into 
thedish in which it is to be served, skimming most of the 
fat from the gravy ; if the latter should be too thick add 
water to it, and if too thin thicken with a little corn- 
starch, put some of this gravy over the meat and bring 
the remainder to the table in a gravy boat. If the meat 
is to be served as an entremet, truffles, mushrooms or 
chestnuts may be served with it. It is usually served 
with vegetables of various kinds but macaroni are par- 
ticularly recommended. Very often the meat receives 
no preliminary roasting, but is immediately put into 
the kettle, which is lined with sliced fat pork, carrots, 
etc.; cover with white wine and meat broth and season 
with spices of various kinds, according to taste. In 
France this kind of a roast is served with a tomato 
sauce; in Bavaria, with a mushroom sauce, using for 
this purpose the broth from the roast. 

9. Sour Beef (Sauerbraten) No. 1. For a sour 
roast take a good, fat piece from the round. In the 
Summer let it layin vinegar 3 — 4 days and in theWinter 
8 — 10 days. Then add bay leaves, cloves, allspice and 
perhaps a few juniper berries to the vinegar; put it on 
the stove and bring to a boil ; the meat should first be 
freshened, then pour over it the boiling vinegar, which 
prevents the juices from being lost from the meat. If 
the vinegar is very sharp mix with a, little water. As 
onions harden in vinegar they should not be added until 
ready to cook. In the Summer the meat should be kept 
uncovered in a refrigerator or other cool place, turning 
it frequently, being careful not to do this with the 
hands. . Before cooking, lard the roast as follows, there- 
by making it juicier: Cut fat pork into strips the length 
of a finger, turn them in a mixture of salt, pepper and 
ground cloves, puncture the meat all over with a sharp 



100 D.— Meats. 

knife- and put in the lardoons ; sprinkle some more salt 
over the meat, but not too much — oversalting makes 
the meat tough. Get plenty of good fat quite hot in an 
iron kettle, put in the meat and allow the broth which 
gathers to steam away rapidly, lightly browning the 
meat all around, being careful to often turn it in the 
fat. Then put a heaping tablespoonf ul of flour into the 
fat, also browning it, and immediately pour in from the 
side enough boiling water to cover the meat, covering 
the kettle at once so that none of the flavor may be 
lost. After a few minutes add for a piece of meat* weigh- 
ing from 5 to 6 pounds, 2 small carrots, 3 to 4" large 
onions and a piece of rye bread crust, and if necessary 
some of the spiced vinegar in which the meat has laid ; 
then cover the kettle tightly and cook slowly but unin- 
terruptedly for about 2 — 2% hours, turning the meat 
during this time and occasionally lifting it with a fovk 
without piercing; add a little 'boiling water if necessary. 
A cupful of sweet cream put in during the last half hour 
of cooking greatly improves the gravy. When ready to 
serve put the meat on a warm dish and set it in the 
oven while the gravy is being prepared. If the latter 
should have become too thick during the cooking it can 
be thinned with water; if not thick enough, put in a 
little flour ; if it should be too sour and the color brown 
enough, put in a cupful of milk, then pass it through a 
sieve and cook rapidly; part of the gravy is poured over 
the roast and the remainder served in a gravy boat. 

Instead of the carrots, onions and breadcrUst, a 
piece of honeycake is frequently taken to thicken the 
gravy, and where possible use a thin meat broth instead 
of the water. If one wishes to impart a gamey flavor 
to a sour roast, roast it in pork fat with a, few juniper 
berries with a medium Are until half done, add plenty of 
chopped onions and a pint of thick sour cream and then 
roast until done, basting often. Skim the fat off the 
gravy, stir into the latter a cupful of milk and b'ing to 
the table in a gravy boat. 

10. riilan Roast. Lay a piece of beef weighing 
about 6—7 pounds in wine and vinegar half and half 
for 2 days ; this liquor is afterwards poured boiling hot 
over the roast ; lard and salt the meat, line the roast- 
ing pan with slices of fat pork, ham, onions, turnips and 



Beef. 101 

veal ; lay the meat on these, pour over it 2% tablespoon- 
f uls of melted butter and roast for 1 hour in the oven. 
Then gradually add 1 glassful of Portwine, % glassful of 
the pickle and a large cupful of boiling meat broth; 
leave the roast in the oven until tender, which will take 
1% hours longer. A full half hour before serving cook 
about 10 tablespoonfuls of rice quite tender, but keep 
the grains whole, stir through it the whipped yolks' of 
2 eggs and about 1 dozen finely chopped steamed mush- 
rooms, and put where it will keep hot. When the roast 
is done cut it into slices, lay them in the form of a 
wreath in the dish on a layer of rice, put a border of rice 
around the meat and drip a little of the gravy on it. 
The gravy is made from the drippings of the roast, 
which are passed through a sieve, thickened with a little 
rice flour and seasoned with extract of beef and % tea- 
spoonful of mushroom extract. 

11. Beef prepared like a Hare Roast. The tender- 
loin is the best for the purpose, but a piece of the round 
weighing about 4 — 5 pounds, the same as is taken for 
steaks, can also be used. In the Summer let it lay from 
2 to 3 days, according to the temperature, in the Winter 
from 5 to 6 days ; wash and pound, as directed in No. 1, 
until quite tender, press it back to its original form and 
lard it (3 rows) like a hare. Then sprinkle witb-fine salt, 
let it brown all around in plenty of butter, add a cupful 
of fresh milk and repeat this as often as the gravy, which 
should be of a lignt brown color, thickens too much. 
Cover the meat tightly and let it roast slowly but unin- 
terruptedly, basting often, until tender, which will take 
about 2 hours. About 1 quart of milk will be necessary ; 
stir 1 teaspoonful of flour with the first cupful of milk 
to prevent curdling. 

12. To warm left=over Roast Beef. In order that a 
warmed-over roast should taste as good as when fresh 
the warming must be properly done. Heating the 
roast over an open fire or on the hot stove is decidedly 
objectionable; a warmed roast must never cook, be- 
cause that makes it tough ; always warm it in a double 
boiler.. Put the meat into the inset whole Or cut into 



sncggTcover it with the gravy , which can be eSBHyTIT 
creased if too scanfi' by Tiie i adaT?3on of some cornstarch 



102 . D.— Meats. 

and dissolved extract of beef with a piece of butter, and 
then let it remain on the stove for % — 1 hour according 
to the quantity of meat, keeping the kettle well co vered. 

13. Round of Beef. For a rib roast weighing about 
24 to 28 pounds from which the ribs have been removed, 
take 1 pound- of coarse salt, %, pound of brown sugar, % 
ounce of cloves, 1 ounce of ground cloves, 1 cupful of 
brown syrup and 1 tablespoonful of pulverized salt- 
petre, mix well together and rub the beef with it all 
over, then roll it very compactly, tieing it closely with a 
cord. Let it lay for -4 weeks in a large vessel, which 
should be preferably of wood; turn it daily, and pour 
over it the liquor which runs from it. When ready to 
cook put it on the Are, cover with boiling water and 
some of its own liquor, cover tightly and cook slowly 
and uninterruptedly for 4 hours, afterwards leaving it 
in the broth for % hour longer. In Bremen it is served 
with sourkrout, puree of peas covered with fried onions 
or brown cabbage and fried potatoes." 

Remark.— This kind of roast can be kept for a long time and is very nice 
When eaten cold and even the remnants can be made over into palatable dishes, 
such as round of beef omelets, round of beef puffs with potatoes, etc. 

14. Beef stewed in Beer. Take a piece of beef weigh- 
ing about 8 pounds and from 2 days to a week old, 
according to the season, pound it thoroughly and sprin- 
kle with salt. Line the kettle with a few slices of fatpork, 
2 onions, 1 carrot, bay leaves and whole spices, put on 
this the meat and pour in enough water and beer (which 
should not be bitter) half and half to cover it, add a 
cupful of vinegar, 1 spoonful of pear sauce or syrup, 
cover tightly and let it cook slowly for 3 hours. When 
ready to serve take off the fat, brown some flour in 
butter and add it to the gravy, strain and serve with 
the roast. 

15. Roast Beef with Dressing. Take the kernel of 
a beef joint and stew it until done, but not too tender, 
in meat broth and white wine half and half, adding 
some spices, a bay leaf and various soup herbs, let it 
cool and cut a slice from the top. Then carefully hollow- 
it out, leaving the walls of the meat about % of an inch 
thick. Heat it in the broth, chop the meat taken out 
of the hollow together with mushrooms very fine, mix 



Beef. 108 

with a batter of 6 eggs, finely chopped herbs and 2 
spoonfuls of broth, and fill this dressing into the beef. 
Cook the broth of the meat until thick, finishing it with 
flour browned in butter and strengthen it, if necessary, 
with extract of beef and Madeira ; pour a part of this 
gravy over the meat (which has been covered with the 
slice first cut from it) garnishing it with small boiled 
onions; serve the rest of the gravy separately with 
macaroni. 

16. Beefsteaks. The best steaks are prepared from 
a beef tenderloin which has been exposed to the air for 
a few days. Next to this in quality is the sirloin taken 
from a young animal ; be particular not to have the 
slices too thin, they should be at least % to 1 inch thick. 
Pound the meat slightly with a beefsteak pounder, trim 
nicely and dip in clear melted butter. When ready to 
cook, brown some butter in a pan, put in the'meat and 
set it on a rather strong fire, leaving the pan uncovered; 
sprinkle with salt and pepper and fry on both sides from 
1 to 2 minutes, according to the thickness of the slices. 
Pour melted butter over them and serve. 

Another and entirely different method of preparing 
beefsteak is as follows : The slices should be fully % of an 
inch thick ; they are pounded and brushed with water in 
which onions have been soaked for 1 hour, sprinkle with 
pepper and salt, lay the slices tightly one on the other 
and set aside for 2 hours in a cool place; get a frying- 
pan hot, put in the steaks side by side without any fat, 
and fry for 4 minutes, turning them constantly. After 
this put in the butter and during the time it is brown- 
ing each steak is covered with a plain fried egg and 
afterwards garnished with mushrooms stewed in butter. 
Serve with the browned butter in a gravy boat. This 
makes exceedingly tender and juicy steaks. 

In England the steaks are taken with as much fat 

minutes before serving, they are then set over a glowing 
coal fire, sprinkled with salt and pepper and broiled for 
a jew minutes longer, They should be rare. Put on the 
pfatter with a pat of nice fresh butter on each slice, and 
pour a little of the j uice over them . 

Beefsteak can be served in various ways — either 



104 D.— Meats. 

covered with plain fried eggs, sliced onions fried in but- 
ter or garnished with sliced pickles, fried potatoes, etc. 
It is very nice when covered with fried oysters. In Eng- 
land beefsteak is served without gravy but with mus- 
tard or mushroom catsup. . In France beefsteaks are 
garnished with olives or served with an olive gravy. 

17. Beefsteak chopped. If it is impossible to obtain 
good steak proceed as follows : Take a pound of clear 
lean beef and about 2% ounces of solid kidney suet which 
is cut into cubes, removing the skin and sinews, chop 
both together very fine, make up into 4—5 pats about 
% inch thick and sprinkle on both sides with pepper and 
salt. Brown a piece of butter, or butter and fat half 
and half, in a f ryingpan, put in the patties, brown them 
nicely, moving them about with a fork frequently with- 
out piercing them, turn them over and fry to a nice 
brown. They should fry for a few minutes only and be 
slightly rare. Serve at once, pouring a little water into 
the pan and stirring the gravy until it has thickened 
somewhat and then put it into a gravy boat. 

18. Raw Beefsteak. Chop good tender beefsteak 
very fine, mix with plenty of salt, finely "chopped onions, 
pepper and the yolks of raw eggs, or else chop with salt 
and onions and mix with coarse ground pepper. Or 
else mix 1 pound of finely chopped meat with 3 beaten 
eggs, some vinegar, olive oil, pepper and salt, form into 
little patties, cover them with chopped onions and serve 
with mustard. Some prefer chopped beefsteak with but 
little pepper and salt, nicely rounded, creased with a 
knife and with depressions in the center; into this 
depression carefully put the yolk of a raw egg and gar- 
nish the patties with dots of chopped onions, capers, 
sliced pickles and rolled anchovies, serving with vinegar, 
oil and mustard. 

19. Stewed Beef. Take a piece, weighing from 2 
pounds upwards, of not too fresh beef from the round. 
Pound it as directed in No. 1 until it is tender. Sprinkle 
with pepper and not too much salt, turn it in flour and 
let it simmer with plenty of hot butter or fresh hot kid- 
ney suet for % of an hour in a small iron kettle, keeping 
the kettle covered tightly. . 



Beep. 105 

Then add enough boiling water to not quite half 
cover the meat, immediately put on the cover again and 
then simmer for %—l hour longer. Serve the meat in 
its own gravy with "boiled potatoes. If the gravy should 
be too scant add a little water, and it can also be thick- 
ened with cornstarch if necessary. 

20. Escallops with Jlustard Sauce. Make the escal- 
lops the same as beefsteaks made from chopped meat. 
When they are served make a sauce of 1 spoonful of 
mustard, 1 spoonful of sour cream and a little cold 
water, and pour it over the escallops. Instead of the 
water it is better to take meat remnants and make a 
meat broth and use? it in preparing the sauce. 

21. Brown Ragout of small Beef Dumplings. Make 
dumplings as directed under 0, No. 5. At the same 
time get a piece of butter very hot, stew in the butter a 
number of chopped onions, lightly brown a proportion- 
ate quantity of flour in it and stir with bouillon or 
water to a thick gravy and strengthen this with roast ' 
meat, or other left-over dark gravy. Season with pep- 
per and dill according to taste. The dumplings should 
be nicely moulded with a tablespoon and cooked for 5 
minutes in meat broth or salted water (which can also 
be used for the gravy), until they are done; put them 
into the ragout and serve with boiled potatoes. 

22. Goulash (an Hungarian Dish). Cut a tender- 
loin of beef into slices and divide these into smaller 
pieces. For each 2 pounds of beef take % pound of fat 
pork and a few small onions, cutting both into cubes, 
and lightly brown them. Put the meat on a quick fire, 
together with the browned fat and onions, and stew 
until the juice has nearly all been cooked away, then 
add salt, coarse ground pepper and a little finely ground 
cayenne pepper; stir well together and serve very hot. 

Another way of preparing goulash is to take a piece 
of rib roast, carefully remove all sinews and cut the 
meat into cubes. Melt 2% ounces of beef marrow for. 
every 2 pounds of meat and get it hot. Put in the 
meat and the necessary salt, cover tightly and sim- 
mer for 20 minutes. Then add not quite a pint of boil- 
ing bouillon and stew until quite tender, cut 2 ounces 
of fat pork and 2 large onions into small cubes, try out 



106 D— Meats. 

the fat and stir with 3 spoonfuls of cold bouillon and 
some cracker crumbs and strain. As soon as the meat 
is done add the pork fat and onions, flavor with capsi- 
cum and serve very hot with salted potatoes. 

For that matter, goulash can be made from various 
kinds of meat and is then equally as palatable as when 
made from beef. 

23. Spanish Fricco. Take a tenderloin or other 
juicy piece of beef, pound it slowly until tender, cut 
it into cubes weighing about % ounce each and mix 
through them fine salt and cayenne pepper. In the 
meantime cook potatoes with salt until done, cut them 
into slices of medium thickness, keeping them hot. For . 
.each pound of meat take two pounds of potatoes. Line 
the bottom of a kettle having a tight cover with plenty 
of butter, then put in a layer of potatoes, some more 
butter, a layer of meat and a layer of finely chopped 
onions which have first been stewed— not roasted or 
fried — in butter; continue in this manner and then cover 
the kettle tightly and put it on a slow fire at first. As 
soon as the contents begin to roast stir very carefully 
and then have a stronger fire. In the meantime stir a 
spoonful of cornstarch with 1 large cupful of thick sour 
cream and a small cupful of claret and set aside; after 
stirring the meat carefully several times and it has 
turned to a grayish color, the sauce is poured over it. 
After the sauce has been well cooked with the rest, the 
fricco is brought to the table in' a well warmed dish 
without any extras. 

This dish is generally preferred highly seasoned, but 
this of course should be regulated according to the taste 
of your guests. 

24. Breakfast Stew ("Pickelsteiner Fleisch"). Take 
a large parsley root, a carrot of the same size, a celery 
root, a large green leek and 4 medium sized potatoes, 
wash them very carefully, scrape or peel them, rinse in 
cold water and cut into fine slices. Cut 1 pound of # beef 
tenderloin into very thin slices and mix everything well 
together, adding salt and ground pepper. Heat in an 
open pan % pound of fresh beef marrow or butter, put in 
the meat and vegetables and fry until of an amber 
color, turning often, cover the pan and let it simmer on 



Beef. 107 

top of the stove for 15 — 30 minutes or until done. 
Serve with, wheat bread . 

25. Breakfast Stew, No. 2. Take beef tenderloin 
and chop it very fine or cut into cubes. In the mean- 
time fry sliced onions in butter lightly, put in the meat 
with pepper and salt, stir it for a few minutes on the fire 
and serve. For each pound of tenderloin take 4 large 
onions. 

26. Ox Tongue Brown Ragout. As tongues easily 
become tainted they must be used when quite fresh. Cut 
away the bone and the yellow spongy meat, rub the 
tongue with salt and a little water, then wash until the 
water remains clear;, cook until tender in a small kettle 
with not too much water and a little salt, skimming 
carefully; this will take from 2 — 3% hours. The tongue 
is thoroughly done as soon as it can easily be pierced 
withafork. After the tongue is cooked, take off theskin, 

" cut it into slices about an inch wide, dividing the larger 
pieces in two again. For the rest proceed as directed 
under D, 183, or stew the tongue with a thick raisin 
sauce; it can also be prepared with plenty of onions, 
like "Hasenpfeffer" (ragout of hare). For 12 persons 1 
large ox tongue will suffice. 

27. White Fricassee of Tongue. After the tongue is 
cooked as directed above and cut into slices, melt plenty 
of butter, brown in it 1 large finely chopped onion and 
2 tablespoonfuls of flour, add to it some of the tongue 
broth and, according to taste, some mace; also fine 
ground pepper and if judged best % glassful of white 
wine ; put in the tongue when the broth' begins to boil. 
After it has cooked slowly for % of an hour (it should 
not become too soft) serve with small round meat 
dumplings which have been cooked in water or some of 
the tongue broth. Strain the gravy, which should not 
be too thick, stir the yolk of an egg through it over the 
tongue, and garnish with lemon slices. 

The fricassee can be given a flavor of anchovy or 
capers, or mushrooms can be cooked in it; the latter 
should then be prepared as directed in A, No. 34. 

Remark.— If one wishes to prepare this dish for a large dinner party, it may- 
be done the day previous, without hesitation. It is then necessary to put it in the 
oven for i'/£ hours in an old tureen with » cover. Or else heat it with boiling 
water in a double kettle ; it need not then be stirred, neither is the yolk of the egg 
added until the dish is sent to the table. 



108 D.— Meats. 

28. Fried Tongue as a side dish. After the tongue 
has been cooked until tender and peeled -as described 
under No. 26, it should be split in two. Then sprinkle 
with fine salt, and a very little fine ground cloves. Or else 
rub it with a mixture of chopped eschalots, tarragon, 
sage, salt, nutmeg and cloves, turn it in egg and cracker 
crumbs, and then fry it in butter to a light brown, being 
careful that it retains its full juiciness. Fried tongue 
can also be served with an anchovy-, caper-, Madeira- 
or tomato sauce. 

29. Sliced Tongue (a nice side dish). The "tongue 
should be cooked until very tender, peeled, cut into 
slices % inch thick, cutting the largest pieces in two once 
more. Then whip an egg with 2 — 3 tablespoonfuls of 
water to which a little lemon juice may be added with 
advantage, put in some nutmeg, fine salt if necessary, 
dip the tongue slices into this, turn them in stale bread 
crumbs and fry in melted butter in an open pan over a 
quick fire until light brown and crisp. 

30. Salted Tongue for Sandwiches or as a side dish. 

Clean a heavy beef tongue as directed under No. 26, and 
rub it with 4 ounces of salt after it has been rubbed all 
over with a little saltpetre. Sprinkle a little of the salt 
into a stone jar, put in the tongue, sprinkle the rest of 
the salt over it and let it stand in this pickle in a cool 
place for 6 to 8 days in the Summer, or a fortnight in 
the Winter, turning it daily. Before serving the tongue 
it should be cooked in boiling water a few days pre- 
viously; cook uninterruptedly until it is so tender that 
it can easily be pierced with a fork, which will take about 
3^hours. Then take off the skin and put thetpngueinto 
thecold broth, into which it should be returned every time 
after it is cut, thus retaining its juiciness to thelast slice. 
If the tongue is to be kept during the Winter for any 
length of time, the broth should be heated again after 
the elapse of about 1 week. 

31. Fried chopped Beef. To every 4 pounds of clear 
beef take 1 pound of kidney suet, add some salt, and 
chop together very fine, mould into round flat cakes, 
turn them in an egg mixed with cloves, ground black 
pepper or grated nutmeg, dredge with grated crackers 
and fry in melted butter similar to beefsteak. 



Beep. 109 

32. "Charles X." Pound a piece of lean but juicy 
beef, take off the skin, lard it, then put it into the oven 
with water and vinegar half and half, plenty of season- 
ing (particularly onions) and a little garlic, some butter 
and leave it in the oven partly roasting and partly 
cooking until it is done, basting often and being careful 
not to pierce it. Let the meat stand over night, chop 
plenty of eschalots very fine, mix them with pepper, salt 
and grated wheat bread ; cut the meat into slices, brush 
an egg over them, turn in the mixture and then fry in a 
pan like cutlets. 

33. Pried Meat Loaf made from fresh Meat. No. 1. 
This is very nice and palatable when made with beef, veal 
and medium fat pork in equal parts finely chopped 
together, and then taking 3 tablespoonfuls of butter to 
each 1% pounds of chopped meat. When these meats are 
not to be obtained take iy 2 pounds of beef from the 
joint and % pound of kidney suet or fresh pork fat and 
chop them together very fine, add 4 whole eggs, salt 
according to taste, nutmeg, 2 ounces of grated wheat- 
bread or cracker crumbs, and 1 cupful of cold water. 
Mix well together, mould with the hands into a smooth 
round or oblong loaf, dredge with rolled crackers and 
crease with a knife. Have some hot butter ready, put 
in the loaf and bake in the oven until light brown, 
basting often; when possible pour over-it from time to 
time a few spoonfuls of thick cream and then bake for 
% — 1 hour to a light brown color. If the oven should 
not be hot enough, the meat can first be fried on top of 
the stove for % hour, keeping the pan covered and then 
put it in the oven ; the meat should not be turned. 
Before serving, a few pulverized juniper berries can be 
sprinkled over the meat. 

34. Heat Loaf, No. 2. To 1% pounds of chopped 
lean beef free" from skin or sinews add % pound of 
chopped kidney suet, about 6 ounces of stale wheat 
bread without "the crust, which has been soaked in cold 
water and pressed dry in a napkin, 3 eggs (slightly 
frothing the whites) about % ounce of salt and % of a 
nutmeg. Mix well together, mould nicely round and 
smooth and turn in the toasted and grated crust of 
the bread. Then put a good-sized piece of butter into 
an earthenware vessel and melt it, adding about 12 to 



110 - D.— Meats. 

15 chopped iresh jumper berries, . put in the meat, cover 
tightly and after a little while put the vessel on the 
stove with a very .slow fire; turn and lift the meat fre- 
quently to prevent it from scorching. As soon as 
browned on the under side turn once, roasting in all 
about 1 hour. 

35. Hasty Meat Balls. From the quantity of meat 
directed in the preceding receipt, make 9 small balls; 
bread them, put into hot butter and fry on the stove all 
around for a few minutes, so that they do not become 
dry. Juniper berries can also be put into the butter if 
desired. 

36. Stewed fleat Loaf. Prepare as directed in both 
preceding receipts. After browning in plenty of butter, 
pour in enough boiling water to barely half «over the 
weat, add a few lemon slices, a parsley root, and 2 slips 
of mace to the gravy and then cook, tightly covered, 
for % hour. Then add a little browned flour to the 
gravy, cook thoroughly and stir the yolk of an egg 
through it. 

Instead of making 1 large loaf the meat can be 
rolled into balls the size of a hen's egg, and then pro- 
ceed as above, which will make a very nice- fricassee. 
The balls, however, must be on the fire no longer than 
about 10 minutes ; take them off as soon as they, are no 
longer rare in the center. 

Serve with potatoes. 

37. Meat Balls made from roast or boiled fleat Rem- 
nants. Chop the meat remnants with an onion or pars- 
ley very finely, stir with it a few eggs, salt, a trifle of 
cloves or nutmeg, grated bread browned in butter and 
such meat broth or gravy that happens to be left over, 
or instead of this sour cream and a little grated lemon 
peel.- Mould into balls the size of an egg, turn them in 
the toasted and grated crusts of the bread, and then fry 
in the butter. If you have any boiled ham handy, chop 
some of it with the meat and then take less butter. In 
place of the wheat bread cold boiled potatoes -can be 
used, first grating them. ' 

38. Small Forcemeat Balls. After chopping meat 
remnants of all kinds together with some ham very fine, 
mix with chopped onions stewed in butter, a few eggs, 



Beef. Ill 

salt, pepper, nutmeg and some grated bread. In the 
meantime make a few thin omelets, spread one side with 
the forcemeat, roll them up, cut them into oblique slices 
and fry in plenty of butter after spreading an egg over 
them and sprinkling with bread or cracker crumbs. If 
your meat should be scant mix what you have with the 
omelet batter and make up into balls. 

39. Beef au Gratia. A deep pan is buttered and 
lined with a mixture of grated bread, chopped mush- 
rooms, a few eschalots, parsley and spices. Dip sliced 
beef remnants into melted butter or pork. fat and put 
them into the pan. Sprinkle the remainder of the sea- 
soning on top, put on pats of butter and pour over all 
% cupful of salted beef extract bouillon into which 4 eggs 
have been beaten. Sprinkle according to taste with 
grated cheese and then bake for 30 minutes. Serve with 
potatoes. 

40. Beef Roll. Pound a piece of beef taken from 
the upper round, which should not be too fresh. Cut it 
into oblong slices which should again be pounded with 
a meat pounder (not with a knife), sprinkle sparingly 
with a mixture of fine salt, cloves and pepper, or else 
with a few ground juniper berries. Put on some thin 
pork slices and roll into small tight rolls tied with a 
thread. The rolls are much improved when spread with 
the following mixture : Pass a number of yolks of hard 
boiled eggs through a sieve, stir with the yolk of a raw 
egg, 2 spoonfuls of tomato pulp (or sour cream), a little 
chopped parsley and a grated eschalot with pepper and 
salt, and spread this on the rolls before putting on the 
pork slices. Melt plenty of butter in a medium sized 
saucepan, turn the rolls in flour, put them into the pan 
closely side by side, cover tightly and let them fry 
slowly in their own juice as long as possible. After the 
elapse of 5 minutes turn them. Then pour in from the 
side enough boiling water to fully half cover the rolls, 
and let them simmer slowly on top of the stove with a 
low fire for not longer than % of an hour at the most, 
because frying the rolls for too long a time with too hot 
a fire makes them dry. Then cut the threads and re- 
move them and serve the rolls with a good thick brown 
gravy. 



112 D.— Meats. 

41. A crusted piece of boiled Soup Meat. Take a 
good piece of beef and make a soup ; after the meat is 
done put it into a saucepan, add a few spoonfuls of soup 
fat, 2 onions and 3 bay leaves,, sprinkle the meat with 
salt, nutmeg and grated crackers and bake in a hot 
oven until of a golden brown. Or if any of the soup 
stock is left the meat can be covered with a few eggs and 
rice, seasoned with grated cheese and then proceed as 
above directed. Serve with an anchovy-, caper-, or 
mushroom sauce. 

42. Stewed Soup Meat served with Potatoes after 
the Soup. Put the soup meat on the fire a little earlier 
than usual and after it is tender cut it into small pieces, 
melt some butter and lightly brown this also, stirring 
constantly, and take some of the soup stock and make 
plenty of rich thick gravy, which is to be seasoned with 
a few cloves, some bay leaves and pepper; add the 
necessary salt and 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of thick sour 
or sweet cream. Let the meat simmer in the sauce for % 
hour over a slow fire and when serving put in a few 
drops of lemon juice. 

43. Soup Meat Cutlets. Cut the meat remnants into 
slices, lay them into vinegar over night, turn in egg, 
salt and nutmeg, dredge with rolled crackers and fry 
lightly in butter. 

44. Irish Stew made of Roast Heat Remnants. A 

rare piece is the best for this purpose and the sinews 
should be carefully removed from it; cut into small 
cubes and for each plateful of meat take 2 platef uls of 
sliced raw potatoes, % plateful of onions, pepper, salt, a 
little ground cloves, mix well together and cook in soup 
stock, shaking frequently until done. The kettle should 
be buttered and then make the broth from the bones of 
the roast with water and whatever gravy is left; cover 
the kettle tightly. 

45. Irish Stew No. 2. Turn the meat slices in soup 
fat mixed with a little stock and then turn them in a 
mixture of grated bread, finely chopped onions, parsley, 
pepper and salt. Th§n heat some good fat in a sauce- 

Ean, put in the slices with a dot of butter on each and 
ake in the oven to a light brown. In the meantime 
make a mustard sauce as directed in Division K. When 



Veal- 
Veal-tfrtlfr. 








A Hind Shank — Hinteres Knochenstuck ; B Leg of Veal— Filet; C Upper loin— 
Germgeres Lendenstiick; D Lower loin— Bestes Lendenstiick; E Breast— Brust; 
F Chops — Hals; G Shoulder— Schulter; H Front shank— Vorderes Knochenstuck; 
1 Feet— Fusze; K Kidneys — Nieren; L Lung — Lunge; M Liver— Leber; N Heart 
— Herz; O Brain— Gehirn ; P Legs — Beine; Q Head— Kopf; R Tongue— Zunge; 
S Sweetbreads— Broschen; T Net— Netz. 



Beef. 113 

serving and not before, put the sauce into the dish with 
the baked slices of meat and then serve after the soup. 

46. Soup Heat Salad. See Division Q. 

47. Hash. Cook a fat piece of beef until tender in 
salted water, skim well, take out all ihe bones and chop. 
At the same time boil for 1% pounds of meat % of a 
pound of rice and then cook it with the meat broth 
until thick and tender, lightly brown some butter and 
stir the meat, rice, ground cloves, nutmeg and the 
necessary salt with it. Let it simmer until done and 
serve hot. Instead of the rice, good fresh oatmeal 
soaked in water can be cooked in meat broth until 
thick. Stale grated wheat bread cooked in the broth is 
also good and especially recommended if the broth is to 
be used for a soup. This kind of hash tastes very good 
with apple sauce. 

48. Hash made from Soup Heat or Remnants of 
Roast. Chop the meat very flue and cook some rice, 
barley or oatmeal in water with a small piece of butter 
or good fat and salt until tender and thick ; then brown 
plenty of butter and kidney suet half and half, turn the 
meat in this or else in some left-over roast meat gravy 
and afterwards let it simmer until done in the rice with 
seasoning as above. 

49. Left=over Soup Meat with Onions. Cut the meat 
into thick slices with the fat; put the salt into the water, 
pour it over the meat and turn so that it will absorb 
the water. Heat some butter or fat in a saucepan,' add 
plenty of chopped onions and brown them lightly, put 
in the meat, cover and cook, turning it once. Put it 
into the dish, brown some flour in a pan, stir some 
water or meat broth to a scant, thick gravy and pour 
this over the meat. 

50. Left=over Soup Meat stewed with Apples. Cut 

the meat into thin slices, put the fat pieces in the bot- 
tom of a small kettle and the rest on top of them, 
sprinkle with salt and a few cloves, cover and simmer, 
reel some sour apples, take out the cores, slice, cover 
the meat with them, pour a few tablespoonfuls of water 
in from the side, cook the apples until done and serve 
without stirring. 



114 D— Meats. 

51. The same with a Raisin Sauce. Make a raisin 
sauce as described under Division R, cut the meat into 
small pieces and cook slowly in this sauce for % hour. 
The meat can also be prepared with caper-, mushroom-, 
anchovy-, pickle-, mustard- or onion sauce, which are all 
described in Division R. 

52. Soup Heat Ragout. Cut the meat into small 
pieces, melt roast meat fat or butter, lightly brown in 
it 1 — 2 chopped onions, and, according to the quantity, 
1 — 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, add bouillon or water with 
roast meat gravy, some pepper and cloves or else 
ground cloves, 2—4 bay leaves and some sliced pickles. 
Cook the latter until tender and let the meat simmer 
for a short time in the gravy, which should be of a good 
consistency. If liked better sweet, add a teaspoonful of 
syrup or pear sauce. 

53. Heat Fritters ("Dominikaner=Schnitte"). Besides 
the soup meat remnants a lighter-colored meat, as pork 
or veal, is necessary. Both kinds are cut into large 
slices of a uniform size; on each slice of beef spread 
some forcemeat made of 3 ounces of grated wheat bread, 
1% ounces of Parmesan cheese, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
chopped herbs, the same quantity of anchovy butter, 
3 eggs, lemon peel, salt and pepper, and lay the lighter 
colored meat on this. Put butter into a saucepan and 
lay in the fritters with alternately a light and a dark 
slice to the top, sprinkle over them hot melted butter 
and % glassful of Madeira, cover tightly and heat 
through and through. Serve neatly, garnishing the 
border of the dish with lemon slices and parsley, pour 
the sauce over the meat and bring to the table with 
potato salad or lettuce ; if with the latter, small potato 
dumplings should also be served. 

54. Meat Cream. Chop soup meat with a freshened 
herring (a few anchovies are better) and onions and 
some parsley. Let the meat simmer for a few minutes 
in melted fat, then stir with it a few spoonfuls of capers H 
2. eggs, 2 spoonfuls of sour cream, 1 spoonful of claret, 
salt, pepper and grated wheat bread to a jellylike con- 
sistency, stew in unsalted butter for 15 minutes and 
serve with mashed potatoes or boiled rice. 



Beef. 115 

55. Meat Pudding a la Zurich. (A good Dish made 
from Remnants for the Supper Table.) Mix with 1 

?ound of chopped meat 3 ounces of chopped pork fat, 
tablespoonful of fine herbs, 2 spoonfuls of capers, a 
chopped pickle, salt, pepper and four eggs, mould in a 
round pan or other vessel and cook for % hour in a 
double kettle. Leave itover nightand the next day turn 
it .out of the mould and serve with a brown or Remou- 
lade sauce. It can also be covered with meat jelly and 
is then served with olive oil, vinegar and mustard. 

56. Fried Sour Roll (see Division W). Cut the roll 
into slices % inch thick, and if they are wanted particu- 
larly nice, turn them in egg and cracker crumbs, then 
fry them in hot butter or hot kidney suet together with 
a few apple slices to a light brown color. 

Or else each .slice can be covered with a spoonful of 
griddlecake batter, and then fry the apple slices alone. 

The roll is very good when the slices are stewed for 
about 10 minutes in a claret sauce. 

57. Fried flinced Collops (German "Panhas"). This 
is a very economical and palatable dish for the family 
table, and can be prepared at any time (see Division W) 
taking beef as well as pork ; soup meat or tough roast 
will answer, but then plenty of fat pork should be 
chopped with it. When cooked long enough panhas 
can be keptin the Summer for a week when put in a cool 
place, and in the Winter for 2 weeks, and will then be 
very often found to come in handy when a dish is lack- 
ing for the table. After it is cooked it is fried as follows: 
Heat some butter or good fat in a frying pan, cut the 
loaf into slices about \ inch thick, put them into the 
frying pan close together and let them fry uncovered on 
both sides until crisp; they should not become dry. 
Serve with potato dishes of various kinds, especially 
with potatoes-and apples. 

58. How to cook Pickled Beef. If the meat has 
simply been pickled with salt freshen it over night or 
for a few hours, according to its saltiness; then put it 
on the stove covered with cold water, and cook slowly 
for 3 hours. If water is added while it is cooking it 
must be hot. Meat which has been pickled in brine with 



116 D.— Meats. 

spices and herbs is put on the fire in boiling water with 
the addition of a little salt, and then be careful that the 
cooking is not 'interrupted nor continued too long, 
otherwise the meat will receive an insipid taste. 

Remark.— The broth will make a nice barley soup with potatoes or a bean 
or pea soup and all Fall and Winter vegetables can be cooked with it nicely. 

59. How to cook Smoked Beef. It should be well 
washed the evening before cooking; this is done best 
with a clean whiskbroom and a handful of wheat bran ; 
then soak over night in water, rinse it again the follow- 
ing day, put it on the fire covered with boiling water 
and cbqk slowly for 2 — 4 hours. After it is done it can 
remain in its own broth for % hour longer, keeping the 
kettle covered ; this makes the meat more tender and 
juicier. 

Remark.— This broth can also be used for the same purposes as in the pre- 
ceding receipt. But to have the remainder of the meat retain its juiciness put it 
in an open tureen with the broth and set it.into a cool place ; it may be necessary 
to heat the broth again after a few days. 

60. Smoked Tongue. Soak the tongue for 24 hours, 
cook it the same as smoked beef, then put it under a 
little slab or something similar with a weight on it ; 
after it has cooled take off the skin and keep it until 
wanted in the broth in which it was cooked. Pressing 
the tongue gives it a better form. Serve in slices and 
garnish with parsley. It is very nice when served with 
fresh peas, kohlrabi, spinach, or for sandwiches. 



61. Ribs of Beef for Invalids. Take out the bones 
and remove the fat and sinews, pound the meat and 
then fry it in butter for 10 minutes,, turning frequently 
and sprinkle with salt and pepper; make a sauce, tak- 
ing for this purpose the bones and sinews for a broth 
and mix through it flour lightly browned in butter and 
a glassful of Madeira. 

Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 16, 17, 27, 28 and 29 may also 
be served to invalids. 



Veal. 11? 

II. VEAL. 

Note. — A good roa&t can only be expected if the 
meat is continually basted; adding water or meat 
broth must be absolutely avoided, neither must the. 
meat be pounded — veal is too tender for pounding and 
it only makes it stringy. A perfect roast should be fin- 
ished with sweet or sour cream, but this must be added 
not sooner than % hour before serving. 

62. Roast Leg or Loin of Veal. After preparing the 
veal for the stove, heat plenty of butter in the pan and 
if you have any nice fat pork handy, put in a few slices 
and on these the veal with the round part to the top. 
Put it into a hot oven and roast it for 1% hours with a 
strong fire at first, which should gradually decrease ; 
baste often but do not turn the roast. A small roast 
should not be kept in the oven longer than 1% hours, 
otherwise it will become soft and dry; to prevent the 
gravy from becoming dark or scorching, put in a piece 
of butter occasionally. 

The gravv w ill receive a nice a mber color and be im- 
proved in taste by the a ddition o f 1 — 2 cupfuls of cream ._ 
After the roast has been" taken "out of the pan pour in" 
the cream, let it turn to a rich yellow color, stir up 
everything remaining in the pan with boiling water and 
let it cook for a few minutes longer to a rather thin 
gravy; the cream will give it the proper consistency. 
Should you have no cream a half tablespoonful of flour 
may be browned with the roast and add some weak 
broth orwater to make the gravy, which should always 
be strained before it is served. 

If the gravy'is to be seasoned with mushrooms, 
they should be stewed in butter quickly and then added 
to the gravy. 

63. Roast Neck of Veal. Take the best end of the 
neck of a calf, cut off the ribs on both sides to half their 
length and take out the kidneys, peel off the skin and 
lard the meat like a hare; roast in the oven with a 
medium fire, with plenty of fat pork and butter, from 
1—1% hours until done. Salt is not sprinkled over the 
meat untjl it has been in the oven for % of an hour. 
When nearly done cover the roast with thick sour 
cream. 



118 I>.— Meats. 

The gravy is made as directed in the preceding re- 
ceipt. Serve the meat either with a salad or a compot, 
or else macaroni mixed with butter and Parmesan 
cheese are served with the meat. 

64. Veal Kettle Roast. Wash and dry the roast. 
Melt butter and fat in the kettle and add a few slices 
of fat pork if desired. Then put in the meat, and roast 
uncovered until partly done, moving it about in the 
kettle, being careful not to pierce it. Gradually pour in 
a few half cupfuls of cream, cover the kettle tightly and 
proceed as directed for veal roasted in the oven, basting 
frequently. The round side should lie to the top. 

65. flinced Kidneys with Roast Veal. Chop the 
roasted kidneys with their fat very fine, lightly brown a 
chopped onion in butter and cook the kidneys with salt, 
nutmeg, a tablespoonful of sour cream and % table- 
spoonful of mustard until done • serve to the roast with 
toast. 

66. Stuffed Breast of Veal. Take out the breast 
bone (it is best to let the butcher do this), wash and dry 
the meat, with a knife enlarge all round the opening left 
through the removal of the bone, being careful not to 
puncture the outer skin, and fill with the dressing A, No. 
27, or a dressing made of "wheat bread ; take a needle 
and thread and close the opening, rub the meat with a 
little salt, put it on a strong fire with plenty of butter, 
which can be mixed with good fat. Roast for 1% — 3 
hours, according to the size of the piece, basting fre-s 

Juently and gradually adding some strong bouillon. 
>o not neglect removing the threads when serving. 
Stir some cold water into the gravy and cook it until of 
the proper consistency. Breast of veal prepared in this 
manner is very nice when served cold for the supper 
table. 

After removing the threads brush the meat with the 
gravy which will, when cool, make a brown jelly. The 
cold roast should be brought to the table with a Ravi- 
gote Sauce (see Division R). 

67. Stewed Breast of Veal. For a middle course, 
stewed instead of stuffed breast of veal is often pre- 
ferred. After it has been stiffened in hot water it should 



Teal. 119 

be larded, slightly roasted in butter, then pour in some 
meat broth and add mushrooms and parsley root. 
Thicken the gravy with grated bread, flavor with lemon 
juice and pour it over the meat before serving. In first- 
class kitchens this breast of veal is surrounded with 
truffles and small baked chicken croquettes, finishing 
with a border of mashed potatoes. For the family 
table any suitable large piece from the breast can be 
stewed without the mushrooms. 

68. Fricandeau of Veal. Kaisfr the flesh of the finer 
part of the loin clear from i he bones, pound and lard it 
as for a hare. Sprinkle with lemon juice, dredge with 
flour, melt plenty of butter in a pan, put in the meat 
with the larded side to the top, together with an onion 
and parsley root. The oven must be hot enough to 
soon lightly color the lardoons. After this sprinkle 
with fine salt and then roast the fricandeau, basting 
often, for % — % of an hour until done. If the fricandeaus 
are intended for a dinner party, bring them to the 
table with a Madeira-, truffle- or herb sauce, surround 
them with a border of boiled rice, or serve with roasted 
potatoes. Fricandeaus sliced make an excellent garnish 
for a dish of fine vegetables. 

If the fricandeau is to be stewed, cook a brown 
broth from the rest of the meat together with soup 
herbs, and spices, pepper, ground cloves, onions and a 
bay leaf and strain. As soon as the fricandeaus are 
nearly done, pour in alarge cupful of the broth, close the 
oven and afterwards baste them once; serve with the 
gravy which has been bound with a little flour browned 
in the* pan with the broth. After straining the gravy, a 
few lemon slices may be added to it. Truffles cooked 
with this dish improve it very much. 

Time of cooking, 1%—1% hours. 

69. Hunter's Fricandeau of Veal. Take a piece from 
the loin, pound it well until it has the appearance of a 
beefsteak about 2 inches thick. Then make a batter of 
6 — 8 eggs whipped with 8 spoonfuls of sweet cream, salt 
and a little nutmeg, mix with 3 ounces of chopped ham 
and a few finely chopped mushrooms, spread this mix- 
ture over the meat, then roll it and tie pieces of fat pork 
around it. Bake the fricandeau in melted butter in the 



120 D.— Meats. 

oven for about % hour until done; make a sauce taking 
some meat broth, lemon juice, cornstarch and a spoon- 
ful of Portwine, and pour it over the meat, which is 
served with small round roasted potatoes. 

70. Veal Kidney Fritters. Chop a veal kidney with 
1 to 2 roasted sweetbreads or a small piece of veal very 
fine, adding grated lemon peel and nutmeg. Melt a 
piece of butter, add a little chopped onion and after- 
wards a trifle of rolled cracker, and when this has been 
well browned, with constant stirring, put in the roast 
veal jelly and also the juice of a lemon, and cook it to 
make a thick ragout gravy. When cool, mix into the 
gravy a few eggs, the chopped meat and the necessary 
salt; mould into small oblong fritters, turn in egg and 
cracker crumbs and fry in butter to a light brown color. 
The fritters can be garnished with minced parsley fried 
in butter, and served with various kinds of vegetables, 
such as carrots, peas, cauliflowers, asparagus or arti- 
chokes. 

71. Sweetbread Fritters (Entree). Scald veal sweet- 
breads and slice them thin; chop eschalots and ancho- 
vies very fine and stew the onions in butter. Then cook 
the sweetbread, anchovies, wine, salt and either mace or 
nutmeg, some grated wheat bread and, according to 
the amount of the dish, 2—4 eggs and a few tablespoon- 
fuls of roast beef gravy, meat jelly or milk, until of a 
fine consistency, stirring. constantly. Instead of the 
anchovies and eschalots, crab butter or crab tails can 
be used. Let the mass stand over night and mould it 
into oblong rolls the next morning. Turn these" twice 
in a beaten egg; sprinkle with cracker crumbs and fry 
over a quick fire in enough butter or fat to swim the 
fritters. Garnish the dish with fried or fresh minced 
parsley. 

72. Stewed Ribs of Veal. Take a very good piece 
of meat, trim out the ribs smoothly, pound thoroughly 
without separating them, so that they will be about 
% inch thick, and then cut them down to about half 
their length. Line a pan thickly with butter, put in the 
ribs, sprinkle with salt and nutmeg, and add butter, 
lemon slices, cracker crumbs, and to 3 pounds of meat 



Veal. 121 

about 1 large cupful of wipe and water half and half. 
Cover tightly, lay a damp cloth over the lid and stew 
for 15 minutes. 

73. Vienna Veal Steak ("Wiener=Schnitzel"). Cut 

pieces the size ofasmall beefsteak from the center of*ar 
loin of veal, flf^ffff 3 iB^jfflJlfbr ru b with line salt ana" 
pepper; turn them first Tn egg and flour, then in rolled 
crackers an d fry in' plenty o f butter u ntir tenter? When 
serving, sprinkle "the steaks with lemon juice, garnish 
with lemon slices and a few capers and serve with a 
lattice of anchovy slices and a plain fried egg. 

74. Veal Cutlets. Loosen the meat at the bone 
and then pound it slowly until tender,,chop off the bone 
to half its length and cut the meat round and smooth 
to the thickness of a finger; sprinkle with salt and 
pepper. Dip the cutlets in egg, turn them in bread or 
cracker crumbs (in South Germany the crumbs are 
mixed with grated Parmesan cheese), and then lay them 
in the pan in melted butter. Fry for about 6 minutes 
in the open pan, turning them once, frequently basting 
them with the butter. Fry until of a golden brown and 
tender. Serve with fresh vegetables, such as peas, aspar- 
agus and cauliflowers. In the Winter they are very 
nice when served with macaroni mixed with a few table- 
spoonfuls of tomato sauce. 

Cutlets can also be served as a middle course, but 
then they should be larded with pork lardoons, or else 
with lardoons of tongue, anchovy, truffles, or pickles; 
they can be pickled for a few hours in white wine spiced 
with fine herbs. They are then brought to the table 
with a fine sauce, for which the marinade is partly 
used. 

Veal cutlets can also be broiled like mutton chops. 
The scraps from the cutlets can be used for the sauce oi 
an ordinary ragout or for headcheese. 

75. Veal Stew or Fricassee. A breast of veal should 
be well pounded and cut into small squares, and in 
order that the meat may look very white it should be 
blanched by laying the pieces into nearly boiling water, 
then bring to a boil once, afterwards putting them' in 
the cold water and drying them. Then heat some 
butter in a kettle, put in the meat and let it simmer 



122 D.— Meats. 

slowly for 15 minutes, turning once, keeping the kettle 
covered but being careful thatthe meat does not brown. 
Pour in enough boiling water to make the requisite 
quantity of sauce, add salt, parsley root and some 
salsify, cut into 2-inch lengths and add mushrooms 
if desired; cover tightly and cook slowly until tender 
but not too soft; this will take about 1% hours. 15 
minutes before serving, the following can be added: 
Sweetbreads, parboiled asparagus tips, small sausages, 
a few lemon slices, mace, and to bind the sauce, rolled 
crackers. When serving stir the yolk of an egg through 
the sauce ; a glassful of white wine can also be cooked 
in it to advantage. Bring to the table with crab-, meat- 
or bread dumplings which have been cooked in salted 
water, and pour the sauce over them . This kind of veal 
stew can be varied in many ways; the sauce can be 
seasoned with anchovy butter, the sweetbreads may be 
omitted and instead of them, sweetbread dumplings (see 
DivisionO) can be substituted, or else it may be brought 
to the table with a border of boiled rice or puff paste. 
For the family table all the fancy ingredients may be 
omitted and only bread dumplings and cauliflower buds, 
in the Spring bits of asparagus, in the Winter salsify 
or chervil roots, and when all these are lacking, quart- 
ered celery roots may simply be put with it. 

76. Paprican (an Hungarian Dish) can be prepared 
from veal, as well as from pigeons or Spring chickens. 
Divide the meat into small pieces, if veal, about the size 
of a small walnut, Spring chickens into 10 parts, and 
pigeons into 4 parts. Heat plenty of fat with a finely 
chopped onion, put in the meat, sprinkle some salt over 
it and cover the kettle tightly. After the meat has 
browned on a slow fire, which should be the case after it 
has cooked an hour, stir through it, without turning 
the meat, a heaping tablespoonful of flour and add beef 
extract bouillon and some sour cream. When cooked 
the sauce must be of a good consistency. Serve in a hot 
dish with boiled or crusted potatoes. 

77. Stuffed Veal Roll. Cut from the loin aboul 
4 pounds of meat and divide it into medium-sized slices. 
Stew the scraps of the meat in butter chopped finely 
with lemon peel, season with ]i pound of anchovy and 



Veal. 123 

make up into a forcemeat by adding 3—4 eggs ? some 
wheat bread and a little cream or milk. Spread the 
forcemeat over the meat slices, roll them up, tie with a 
thread and fry slowly. For the gravy take the broth 
from the roast, about 1 ounce of mushrooms, a little 
cornstarch or rice flour and simmer the meat in this for 
a short time longer. These rolls can be pickled in vine- 
gar and spices for a time, they are then slightly fried in 
fat and afterwards stewed slowly until done. Cut them 
in two lengthwise and either surround a fine ragout — as 
for instance one made from veal sweetbreads and mush- 
rooms — with them, or use as a border for a dish of fine 
vegetables. 

78. Calf's=Brain Ragout. "Wash the brain, bring it 
to a boil in water with a few onions, cloves, pepper, 
vinegar and salt, then take off the fine skin and also 
remove the veins: Then brown a tablespoonful of flour 
in butter, stir in some broth and put in the brain, (which 
has been cut into pieces) together with a few lemon slices 
and some wine. Cook for -a little while and stir into the 
sauce the yolks of 1 or 2 eggs. 

79. English Calfs-Head or Mock Turtle Ragout, 
(enough for 20 Persons). Take a fresh calf's head, wash, 
singe and cook it, together with 2 beef palates, in 
salted water long enough to clear it from scum, and 
then cook with onions or eschalots, cloves, peppercorns, 
and a few bay leaves for 2 —2% hours until done. The 
beef palates should be cooked for at least 2 hours before- 
hand, so that they will be done simultaneously with the 
calf's head. Cut the meat into small'-pieces, add % pound 
of veal sweetbreads, (A, No. 35) meat dumplings, % 
pound of small sausages, which should be previously 
fried; if possible also add % of a roasted' hare. Then 
brown flour in butter, stir with it a good beef bouillon 

. cooked with a few vegetables and eschalots and put in 
the meat, togethtrwith mushrooms, capers, lemon slices, 
ground pepper, whole and ground cloves, a pinch of 
cayenne pepper and % bottle of Madeira, cooking until 
the sauce is of the proper consistency. 

When served with puff paste sippets this ragout is 
an excellent substitute for a meat pie ; in fact, if filled 
into a pie crust it will make a good meat pie. 



134 D— Meats. 

80. Veal Sweetbreads. Prepare them as directed 
in A, 35, divide into two pieces, lard and season with 
salt and nutmeg, then fry in hot butter to an amber 
color and serve with fine vegetables. Or else parboil 
the sweetbreads, slice them, turn in egg, nutmeg, a little 
salt and cracker crumbs, bake in butter and after 
sprinkling them with lemon juice, use as a garnish for 
fine vegetables. Or boil in broth for 15 minutes, cut 
them up and serve in gravies or stews. Sweetbreads, 
must always be thoroughly cooked or fried. 

81. Boiled Calf's-Head with Gravy. Clean a fresh 
large calf's head very carefully, cut off the upper ljp, 
ears, and take out the. eyes, break off the lower jaw, 
take out the tongue, because it will become tender 
sooner, then wash out the head, split it and'tie it 
together again. Cover with water, add salt, skin, and 
cook with whole spices, fresh herbs-, onions and bay" 
leaves until tender, which will take about 2 houi's. Leave 
in the broth until ready to serve, then put into the dish 
and cover the brain with bread crumbs browned in 
butter, split the tongue and lay if on both sides of the 
brain, make a Hollandaise sauce (see Divison R), put 
some of it over the meat and bring the rest to the table 
in a gravy boat. 

It is much nicer to cook this meat in white wine and 
thin meat broth half and half instead of water ; instead 
of serving the entire head the meat can be sliced and 
brought to the table with some fine broth or Hol- 
landaise sauce, laying around it the tongue slices and 
bits of the brain scooped with a teaspoon. The gravy 
is served separately. 

For the supper table this dish is served with a 
French sauce of mustard, olive oil, vinegar and savory 
herbs. 

82. Baked Calf's=Head. After cooking a fresh calf's- 
head as described in the preceding receipt, the meat is 
cut into fine slices and put into a buttered pan; then 
sprinkle with salt and pour over it a mixture of 1 large 
cupful of sour cream, the yolks of 4 eggs, nutmeg, salt 
and grated Parmesan cheese. Bake in the oven. 

83. Calf's-Head Brawn. The head, heart and foot 
of a well-fattened, freshly killed calf are washed clean, 



Veal. 125 

lay in fresh water for 1—2 hours to draw out all of the 
blood, put them into an enameled kettle and cover fully 
one-half with water and vinegar, add salt and skim 
carefully. For the rest proceed as directed for pork 
brawn in Division W. 

84. Brown Calf's-Head Ragout for the Family Table. 

Cook a calf's head, the heart and if liked the lungs until 
quite tender., and then cut up into small pieces. Brown 
2 chopped onions in butter, add 2 tablespoonfuls of 
flour and stir until it is also brown, put in some of the 
broth in which the head was cooked, add raisins or dried 
currants, pepper, cloves and Rait, 1 — 2 tablespoonfuls of 
pear sauce or syrup and some vinegar, and cook until 
the meat is thoroughly well done. The gravy rhust be 
smooth and have a tart, spicy flavor. 

85. Escallops for 6 persons. Take a pound of veal 
and if this is not obtainable, beef may be substituted, 
chop as finely as possible with % pound of pork fat or 
freshened kidney suet, then mix thoroughly with % pound 
of wheat bread (without the crust) soaked in cold water 
and pressed, the yolks of 2 eggs and a little salt and 
pepper, and then mould into flat escallops the size of a 
silver, dollar; fry in plenty of fat with a quick fire, 
taking them out as soon as they have turned yellow. 
Then brown a spoonful of flour in the fat, add chives, 
parsley, etc., about a handful in all, also bouillon and a 
little sour cream to make a rather thick sauce, which is 
poured boiling hot over the escallops. 

Escallops can also be made from rib roast, chopping 
the meat very finely and moulding the escallops without 
any other addition, add the necessary salt, then turn 
the escallops in an egg and grated cracker crumbs and 
bake. The sauce is cooked with sour cream only and 
the escallops served with fine vegetables. 

86. Veal Rolls. Chop 1 pound of veal very fine with 
3 — 4 ounces of beef marrow, mix with salt, pepper,,- 
nutmeg and a few eggs, rolling the mass between thin 
slices of fat pork, tieing them with a thread; put the 
rolls into a medium-sized vessel, pour meat broth over 
them, stew until done and before serving cover with a 
caper sauce. 



116 D.— Meat*. 

87. Veal Forcemeat Sausage. (A Swiss Dish.) 4 

parts of clear veal without sinews or veins are finely 
chopped with 1 part of pork fat or kidney suet; for 
each 2 pounds of this meat take 4 whole eggs, 4 table- 
spoonfuls of bread or cracker crumbs, 4 tablespoonfuls 
thick cream or wine, salt and nutmeg, mix well together 
and fill into a sausage stuffer or else roll into small 
sausages with the hand, afterwards turning them in 
cracker crumbs. Melt some butter in a flat pan, put in 
the mass in the form of a tightly rolled-up sausage, 
moisten with melted butter, sprinkle a little fine bread 
crumbs over it and bake in a hot oven. 

88. Stewed Liver. The liver must be very fresh, 
because even if only one day old during the hot season, 
it may become tainted and unwholesome 5 wash the 
liver, which is best done by putting it into cold water 
for 1 hour and changing the water frequently. Take 
off the skin, and lard as follows: A large number of 
short slips of, fart pork are turned in a mixture of salt, 
pepper and ground cloves, then take a sharp knife and 
gash the liver and insert the lardoons. Afterwards melt 
a good-sized piece of butter and let the liver simmer in 
ft for 15 minutes, keeping it covered tightly ; then half 
cover it with boiling water, add % plateful of finely 
chopped onions, 2 bay leaves, a little more salt, ground 
cloves, and a piece of butter, and when the liver is 
almosttenderput in bread crumbs, either a large spoon- 
ful of pear sauce, syrup or a piece of sugar, somevinegar 
and according to taste a glassful of claret. .There must 
be plenty of sauce of a nice consistency. 

Time of cooking, 15 minutes. Serve with boiled 
potatoes. 

Remark.— Liver is easily over-salted, which should be borne in mind when 
preparing the above dish and the succeeding ones. 

89. Fried Liver. Take a fresh liver, wash it, if 
possible let it lay for a few hours or half a day in sweet 
milk, remove the outer skin and all sinews," cut into 
slices about % inch thick, sprinkle with pepper according 
to taste, turn in flour and fry in an uncovered pan in 
heated butter and fat pork for 10 minutes until crisp, 
turning once. If the liver is fried too long it will be- 
uome dry. 



Veal. 127 

When blood no longer appears if the liver is pierced 
with a fork, it is done and must be taken from the Are. 
Immediately pour a cupful of water into the pan, stir 
until it is properly thick and pour it over the liver. 

A few fresh pounded juniper berries can be added to 
the hot btitter according to taste ; they impart a nice 
flavor to the liver. 

90. Liver Dumplings. Directions for making liver 
dumplings will be found under Division 0. 

91. Cold Veal Slices fried. Cut % inch thick slices 
from a cold veal roast, dip them in an egg with nutmeg, 
turn in grated crackers mixed with a little salt and then 
fry in plenty of hot butter over a quick Are on both 
sides to a light brown and serve at once. 

92. Sausages or small Heat balls made from Cold Veal 
Roast. Take cold roast veal, remove all sinews and 
chop the meat very fine. Heat a good-sized piece of 
butter, brown some cracker crumbs in it and mix with 
the meat a few eggs of which the whites have been 
slightly frothed, together with some nutmeg and salt. 
Then roll into the form of sausages, brush with egg, 
turn in cracker crumbs and fry in butter to a light 
brown. This makes a nice side dish for all kinds of fresh 
vegetables, particularly spinach. 

93. Meat Balls made from Boiled Veal and fried in 
Lard. Cut boiled veal into small cubes, brown flour in 
butter, add some bouillon and water, but not too much, 
because the sauce should be thick, together with salt 
and lemon peel, stir the yolk of an egg through it, then 
cook the meat in it thoroughly and put it into a dish to 
cool. Beat an egg with some salt and turn in it the 
meat balls which have been formed from the cold mass, 
then turn them in cracker crumbs and fry in hot lard to 
a light brown and send to the table. Garnish with 
slips of celery which have been fried in the hot lard. 

94. Warmed-over Roast Veal. Slice the roast, put 
it into a deep porcelaine dish, pour over it the gravy 
from the roast together with some fatand add some salt 
if necessary. Then cover tightly and put the dish into 



128 D.— Meats. 

a hot oven or oye r, boiling water^ It will take an hour 
or longer to finish/according vo the heat of the stove. 
The meat should be basted frequently with the sauce, 
but it should not cook. 

95. Warmed-over Roast Veal a la Gourmand. Cut 

the roast into slices, put them into a buttered pan, 
sprinkle with capers, chopped anchovy, chopped parsley 
and some lemon juice and dot with butter. Put the 
dish into a double kettle, cover and put live embers on 
the lid. After heating the roast thoroughly for % hour 
it should be garnished with a border of scrambled eggs 
and small roast potatoes. 

96. Roast Veal Ragout. A good-sized piece of butter 
or roast meat fat is browned with a few chopped onions, 
add a large spoonful of flour and stir until brown ; also 
add some bouillon made from the cracked bone of the 
roast with a little water, white vinegar, a few bay leaves, 
ground cloves, sliced pickles, sugar and salt, and finally 
the roast veal slices. 

Time of cooking, %— % hours. 



97. Veal Roast for Invalids. For this purpose take 
the broad thin upper part of the loin, pound it, take off 
the skin, lay it out flat and roast it with a very slow 
fire for not longer than 20 minutes, turning frequently. 
When serving, sprinkle with fine salt, cook some cream 
and brown gravy in the pan to a thick consistency, and 
serve with mashed potatoes and cauliflower puree. 

98. Veal Steak for Invalids. Take a piece from the 
loin the same as directed in the preceding receipt, cut 
it into slices of medium thickness, remove all of the skin, 
pound a little and lard nicely. Use the scraps together 
with some pieces of beef- to make a meat broth, melt 
butter and fry the steaks carefully ; pour off the butter 
and then cover the steaks with bouillon which has been 
thickened with cornstarch and seasoned with lemon juice 
and Madeira. 

Serve with mashed potatoes. 



Mutton — A>(imiltCl. 




A Chops— Hals; B Shoulder— Scliuller; C Breast— Rrust ; D Loin— Lende ■ DD 
Saddle— Rucken; E Leg— Keule; F Neck— Das Dunne Stuck am Ende des Halses; 
(j 'iongue— Zunge; H Eeet— Fiisze; I Chop— Lendenrippchen ; T Shoulder Chops— 
Kundes Kippenstuck; K Liver— Leber; L Heart— Here; M Kidney— Niere- N 
Head — Kopf; ED Hindquarter — Schenkel. ' 



MUTTON. 129 

99. Veal Sweetbreads for Invalids. Prepare the 
sweetbreads according to A, 35 ; all scraps are lightly 
fried with a slice of lean ham in butter, covered with a 
large cupful of water and thoroughly cooked. Cut the 
sweetbreads into slices and lard if wished, fry in butter, 

Sour over it the broth and stew slowly until done, 
.emove the fat from the sauce,, thicken "it with corn- 
starch and strengthen with extract of beef. 

100. Veal Sweetbread Pudding for Invalids. Pre- 
pare 2 veal sweetbreads according to A, 35, stew in 
butter until tender and cut into cubes. Soak some 
wheat bread in milk, press it Mel] and stir it into some 
frothed butter, add the yolks of 3 eggs, chopped parsley, 
pepper, salt and the sweetbread cubes, whip the whites 
of the eggs to a froth and stir through the mass. Cook 
the pudding in a small buttered mould for a good 
% hour, turn it out and add a brown sauce. 

101. Veal Tongue for Invalids. Boil a nice veal 
tongue in salted water until tender, let it lay for a 
moment in cold water and then take off the skin. The 
tongue broth is then strengthened with extract of beef 
and seasoned with lemon mice; stew the tongue in a 
little of this broth, replenishing from time to time; after 
% hour the tongue should be perfectly tender, then 
thicken the broth with a little cornstarch smoothed in 
Madeira, and sauce the tongue with it. 

Other veal dishes suitable for the sick-room are 
Noe. 62, 63, 64, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78 and 79: 



III. MUTTON. 



Note. — Inasmuch as mutton fat cools very rapidly,. 
all dishes in which mutton is to De served, and also the 
pla£fisJon the table, must be warmed. 

102. Saddle or Leg of Hutton prepared like Game. 

For a dinner party the saddle is usually taken; if the 
leg is chosen it is chopped off smoothly to about % its 
length and not cut in two at the point like a leg of veal. 



130 D.— Meats. 

r 

Wash the saddle and pound it thoroughly, put it into 
an appropriate vessel together with plenty of onions 
and eschalots, bay leaves, cloves and peppercorns, gar- 
den-rue, majorani, tarragon, 1 quart of vinegar, and, if 
you have any heavy claret, a bottleful, this giving the 
meat the brown color. 

Pour this liquor boiling hot over the meat and let 
it remain in it for 8 days, turning it daily. Instead of 
preparing the mutton as above it can be laid in sour 
milk only, on else a day before using and after it is 
skinned rub it with the following essence, which will 
impart an excellent gamey flavor to the meat: Put 2 
grated onions, purslane, chives, chopped thyme, ground 
spices and pounded juniper beriies into 2 glassfuls of 
claret and let it draw for a few days, strain through a 
sieve and brush the roast all over with it from time to 
time, until it is all used up. Then lard the roast like a 
hare, sprinkle with fine salt and put it into a pan in 
which plenty of fat pork and butter has previously been 
heated, and roast until light brown. Afterwards grad- 
ually pour either some of the vinegar in which the meat 
has lain, together with the herbs, over the roast, or else 
gradually some sour cream; and then roast until tender, 
basting often and keeping it covered, at least during 
the earlier part of the time it is in the oven ; according 
to the size of the roast and whether it is to be rare or 
well done, this will take from 1% to 2 hours. During 
the last hour gradually stir 2 cupfuls of thick cream 
into the gravy and let the roast finish, uncovered, to a 
golden brown, basting often. When serving rub % table- 
spoonful of flour in a pan for a few minutes until brown, 
add enough water to make the gravy and then strain it, 
The roast may be garnished with either small potato 
dumplings or with a border of stewed onions; mush- 
rooms are also very nice for this purpose. 

» For a middlecourse at a dinner party the piece from 
the saddle over the tenderloin is often taken only ; lard, 
stew in the oven with meat broth, parsley root, etc., or 
with claret, until tender, and when done drip off until 
dry and glaze with the broth which has been made in 
the oven. Then slice the meat and serve it as a garnish 
for a fine veal sweetbread ragout, or mushroom ragout, 
or even to good bouillon rice, which has been well shaken 



Mutton. 131 

with Parmesan cheese and butter, formed into a high 
cake and brushed with tomato sauce. 

103. Roast Leg of flutton. The meat should not be 
taken for use before the time noted and then pound it, 
without removing the fat, according to No. 1, wash and 
dry with a cloth, and put it into boiling fat (butter 
and pork fat) roast until of a light brown and add 
boiling water — if the meat is to have a slightly sour 
flavor, take 1 part of vinegar to 3 parts of water; 
season with eschalots or onions, some bay leaves, cloves 
and pepper and sprinkle with flue salt. If fresh cucum- 
bers are to be had cut % plateful into cubes and put 
them into the pan at once, which will greatly improve 
the flavor and appearance of the gravy. Roast for 3 
hours, basting often ; it is best to cover tightly. An 
hour before serving gradually add 2 cupfuls of either 
cream or milk to the gravy. If no vinegar has been 
used, a spoonful of mustard can be stirred into it at 
last. To prepare thesauce proceed generally as directed 
under No. 1. 

104. Stewed Leg of Hutton. The meat, which should 
not be too fresh, is well pounded and put on the Are 
with water and white ("Weiss") beer, which must not 
be bitter; skim and add cloves, peppercorns, 3 bay 
leaves, a few whole onions, and a bunch of green herbs, 
such as garden-rue, majoram, and sweet basil, let it- 
cook slowly for 2 hours, keeping it covered tightly. 
Then pour off the broth, sprinkle the meat with fine 
salt, dredge a spoonful of flour over it, put in some 
butter and brown the meat on both sides, moving it 
back and forth to prevent scorching. Take the fat from 
the broth, strain the latter and put it into the kettle, 
add lemon slices without the seeds, pickles sliced length- 
wise, or_ fresh cucumbers, a cupful of vinegar, a handful 
of button onions and a glassful of claret. Stew until 
done, which will take about 2% hours, serve with some 
of the gravy and bring the remainder with the onions 
and pickles to the table in a gravy boat. 

105. Roast Lamb. Take a leg of lamb, wash, dry it 
with a towel, rob well wit h grou nd cloves, p ut it into a 
pan eontainingTiot butter, afterwards Sprinkle fine salt 



132 , D.-Meats. 

over it, and roast like a loin of veal, not too tender; 
a short hour will be sufficient. 

I nstead o f the ground cloves a few juniper ber ries 
may be put into the butter. ' " ' 

Take the fat off the gravy and bind the latter with 
cornstarch, adding either % cupful of sour cream or % 
glassful of Madeira. If the lamb is a very small one, 
both legs can remain together; bend them inwards after 
they are larded, tying them with a cord. 

106. Saddle of Lamb rcasted like Venison. Take 
the saddle of a Spring lamb, remove the skin, and rub 
thoroughly all over with the following mixture: escha- 
lots, majoram, rosemary, and 2 to 3 bay leaves, all 
chopped very fine, pepper, cloves, and 4 to 5 fresh 
pounded juniper berries. Then add vinegar and claret 
half and half and let the meat lay in this for 3—4 days, 
turning it in the pickle frequently] It is then larded if 
wished and roasted in an earthenware or enamelled pan 
for 1 to 1% hours, sprinkling fine salt over it and bast- 
ing often. * 

107. Mutton and Lamb Chops are prepared like 
veal cutlets, taking off all of the fat. When serving, a 
bit of anchovy or vegetable butter can be put on each- 
chop. Lamb chops can also be served with tomato 
sauce and mixed with pickles. When served cold they 
should be covered like stuffed breast of veal, with a 
thick brown gravy. 

108. Broiled Mutton Chops. Trim the chops nicely, 
remove the fat, dip in melted butter, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper and with cracker crumbs, which are often 
mixed with Parmesan cheese. Broil them 5—8 minutes 
according as they should be rare or well done, 4 min- 
utes on each side. Serve hot. To broil them success- 
fu lly hav e a glowing coal fire, but no blaze. 

109. Stewed Mutton with Claret. Cut pieces % inch 
thick from the loin, pound and sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, put them into a kettle with melted butter, roast 
very slightly and pour in enough hot claret to half cover 
the meat. Season with 1 .bay leaf, 2 sliced onions, 6 
cloves and allspice, stew slowly until tender, thicken the 
gravy with browned flour, pour it over the meat and 
serve with mashed potatoes. 



Mutton. 138 

.110. Mutton Fricassee. Cut a breast of mutton 
into medium-sized pieces, put on the fire with water and 
salt, an hour afterwards add 2 or 3 onions, with a clove 
in each, to be removed before serving; if carraway is 
liked a little may be added. The flavor can also be 
improved by the addition of some mushrooms. Boil 
the fricassee slowly for two hours, but do not get it too 
soft, skim off the fat, lightly brown a spoonful of flour 
and stir it through the fricassee, cook slowly for 10 
minutes longer and serve. 

111. Fricassee of Lamb with Capers and Anchovy. 

Cut the meat into small squares, wash, and lay it in 
boiling butter together with a few cloves, mace, sweet 
basil and whole onions. Let it simmer in this for a 
while, then add a little boiling water, salt, cover and 
cook slowly. When nearly done, which will be after 
about 1 hour, add flour smoothed (not browned) in 
butter, lemon slices without the seeds, capers and some 
wine, stir finely chopped anchovy through the fricassee - 
just before serving, because cooking impairstheir flavor. 
The fricassee can also be prepared without the capers 
and anchovy, in fact this is preferred by many. 

1 12. riutton Ragout. Wash the meat, cut it into 
, small squares, put it on the fire in boiling water with 

salt and season with bay leaves, peppercorns, cloves, 
onions, and if agreeable, "a little dill ; for a large quan- 
tity a small bunch of the latter is sufficient. Cook the 
meat with this until quite half done, take off the fat 
from the broth, strain the latter and bring it to a boil 
with flour rubbed in butter, and then put in the meat 
with a few lemon slices without the seeds, button onions, 
pickles or fresh cucumbers (if the latter, add a little 
vinegar), and cook until done. The meat must be easily 
pierced with a fork, but it should not fall to pieces, 
and the sauce be neither too thin nor too thick. 

The ragout may also be prepared wholly like brown 
ragout of hare ("Hasenpfeffer"). 

It can also be improved by the addition of mush- 
rooms, stewed onions, veal sweetbreads, kidneys or fowl 
livers; the gravy can be spiced with claret and the 
ragout brought to the table in a puff paste or sur- 
rounded with bits of toast. A border of boiled rice is 
also suitable. 



184 D.— Meats. 

113. Ragout of Roast or Boiled riutton. Stew Sliced 
onions until tender in butter or good fat (not mutton 
fat), stir the flour in this until brown and gradually 
add a little boiling water, constantly stirring, season 
with sweet basil, pepper, cloves, 1 to 2 bay leaves, salt 
and a little vinegar ; if convenient put in % or an entire 
spoonful of thick sour cream, and pickles peeled and 
sliced. Cook the sauce slowly for a while, keeping it 
covered, stewing the boiled meat in it thoroughly ; the 
roast meat should become hot only. 

114. Fried sliced Mutton. Cut boiled mutton into 
slices, turn in egg, salt and ground cloves,-dredge with 
flour and fry in -butter or fat. 

115. Remnants of Mutton with Pickles. Cut the 

meat into oblong slices and 3 to 4 sweet-sour pickles 
into cubes, and mix well together. Then rub an ounce of 
flour in 1 neaping tablespoonful of butter, together with 
several sliced onions, add the left-over gravy, a trifle of 
extract of beef, a little ginger, cloves, pepper and salt, 
flavor the gravy with a little vinegar, a pinch of sugar, 
heat the meat and the pickles in this, and serve with 
boiled potatoes. 

116. flutton Curry. Cut the meat into cubes and 
heat it with small pieces of onions, salt, pepper and a 
little curry powder, add a large cupful of boiling meat 
broth, and let it simmer for % hour. In the meantime 
put about 6 ounces of rice into plenty of salted boiling 
water, boil rapidly until done, drench with cold-water 
so that the kernels will be firm and loose, and then 
surround with it the curry, which has been put into a 
deep dish. 

117. Lamb Chops for Invalids. Take fresh lamb 
chops, remove all fat and trim them nicely, pound 
lightly, lard neatly, dredge with flour and sprinkle with 
a little salt. Fry the chops to a light brown in melted 
butter, gradually add a small cupful of good boiling 
meat broth, and simmer until done, keeping them cov. 
ered; put them on a warm dish, thicken the gravy with 
a spoonful of cornstarch smoothed in Madeira,^strain, 
and if permitted mix with it a few spoonfuls of tomato 
pulp. 



Mutton. 135 

Nos. 100, 103, and 109; without the capers, are also 
suitable dishes for invalids. 



IV. TAflE HARES OR RABBITS. 

118. Note.— Although the value of tame hares or 
rabbits as articles of food has long been recognized, it is 
only of late years that particular attention has been 
paid to raising them. They are now so frequently to 
be found in -most kitchens, however, that a separate 
chapter of this book may be profitably devoted to a 
description of the various modes of preparing them for 
the table. 

- Killing the hare is accomplished in the easiest man- 
ner as follows: Insert a sharp knife into the neck, be- 
tween the forelegs, this will pierce the heart and kill the 
animal without any struggle. In order to have the flesh 
retain a light color, which is desirable in the preparation 
of so-called white dishes, and also in order that it may 
keep longer, let all blood drip away. Catch the blood 
in a dish containing a little vinegar and set it aside in a 
cool place; it is used for brown hare ragout ("Kanin- 
chenpfeffer"). After being killed the skin of the hare 
should be immediately taken off and it must also be 
emptied. Tame hares are skinned in the same manner 
as wild ones (see No. 156) and they are also cut up the 
same as these. 

119. English Hare Soup. Cut the meat into very 
small pieces, melt some butter and brown the meat 
in this lightly together with 6 onions with a«love in each, 
stirring carefully ; then add a heaping tablespoonful of 
flour and shortly afterwards meat broth or water, a 
small parsley root cut into pieces, 2~bay leaves, 1 table- 
spoonful of black peppercorns, and salt. The onions and 
spices are taken out before serving. After the meat is 
tender the broth is strained, brought on the fire again 
and then cook enough sago in it to bind the soup. 

A piece of finely chopped raw meat together with 
some wheat bread soaked in cold water, butter, egg 
and mace, prepared like beef dumplings, can also be 



136 D.— Meats. 

cooked in the soup for a few minutes. The liver of the 
hare is frequently cooked in the soup ; after it is done it 
is chopped fine, passed through a strainer and mixed 
with a small glassful of Portwine, salt and pepper and 
made up into little dumplings for the soup. Most other 
soup dumplings are also suitable for hare soup. 

120. Fresh Roasted Hare. For the various kinds 
of hare roasts the large kinds are the most suitable; 
the hare should be full grown but quite young ; when a 
little older they are better adapted for brown ragout of 
hare, and when old they should be used for soups. 

Cut off the head, neck, breast and forelegs, remove 
the skin, wash the saddle and lard, or else lay a few 
slices of fat pork on it. Sprinkle with fine salt, put the 
roast into a hot pan containing plenty of melted butter 
and a few slices of fresh bacon and addatablespoonful of 
mustard. Baste frequently and as soon as the meat 
begins to turn yellow it is best to add sour cream and 
continue the roasting with a slow fire, basting often. 
As soon as the roast can be readily pierced with a fork, 
and has a dark yellow color, which will be after half an 
hour or so, according to the age of the hare, it should 
be put on a hot dish, stir what is left in the pan with 
% tablespoonful of flour and cook with salt and water 
to a well bound gravy, pour part of this over the roast 
and bring the remainder to the table in a gravy dish. 

Apple sauce is the most suitable accompaniment. 

121. Roasted Tame Hare like Wild Hare. Lay the 

saddle of a large hare into an earthenware vessel =for 
3 days in a pickle made as follows: 1 large cupful of 
vinegar, 1 large cupful of claret, 4 medium-sized chopped 
onions, 1 heaping teaspoonful of fresh coarsely pounded 
juniper berries, 1 teaspoonful of pounded peppercorns, 
3 bay leaves and a little bunch of thyme. Drench the 
meat three times daily with this liquor and also turn it 
once a day. Lard the meat, salt, and roast with the 
addition of sour cream. 

This mode of preparing a hare can be well recom- 
mended, and it may be observed that every dish of hare 
will gain in flavor, if first pickled for a few hours. 

Pear sauce, com pot of apples and cranberries are 
suitable accompaniments. 



Tame Hares or Rabbits. 137 

122. Brown Ragout of Hare ("Kaninchenpfeffer"). 

When killing the hare catch the blood in a dish contain- 
ing some vinegar,' as already noted, and set it aside. 
Cut the meat into pieces and put with it the heart, lungs 
and liver, put it into a rather narrow vessel and cover 
it fully one-half with vinegar which has been boiled with 
a few bay leaves, plenty of peppercorns and cloves. In 
order that the meat may be thoroughly penetrated by 
this liquor, it should lay in it for 3 days at least and be 
turned once a day. Then melt a piece of butter (for the 
sake of economy pork fat cut into cubes can be taken) 
brown it in a handful of finely chopped onions, stirring 
constantly, then also stir through it a heaping table- 
spoonful of flour to a light brown, and add the liquor in 
which the meat was pickled, together with salt and 
enough water to make the necessary amount of gravy; 
should through this the gravy be too sour, however, do 
not put in all of the vinegar. Cook until the meat can 
be readily pierced with a fork, but not too tender, then 
stir in the blood of the hare without any further cook- 
ing; add a piece of sugar to give the gravy a sweet-sour 
taste. The gravy must have a nice consistency. Serve 
with hot boiled potatoes. 

123. Fricassee of Hare (White Ragout). Cut the 

hare into good-sized pieces, laying aside the head, neck 
lungs and liver. Wash the meat, lightly brown a heap- 
ing spoonful of flour with a piece of butter, put in the 
meat together with salt and 2 finely chopped onions, 
and simmer on both sides for a while. Then add as 
much boiling water as is wanted to make the gravy, 
put in some mushrooms if possible, and cook, until' 
tender. If the gravy should not be thick enough, this 
can be remedied by putting in a very finely rolled 
cracker; a little finely grated nutmeg will improve the 
flavor of the gravy. 

If dumplings are wanted in the fricassee, make them 
of the meat of the hare or from beef, or else from beef 
marrow, and in serving the fricassee mix them between 
and around it. , 



188 D.— Meats. 

V. PORK. 

Note. — Pork does not need to .hang: for any length 
of time to become tender, nor need it be pounded. The 
slightest taint renders it unfit for use. 

124. To bake a whole Ham. After cutting away 
the. bone and point from the ham of a young pig, rub 
with salt, put it into a small crock and pour over it hot 
vinegar in which have been boiled a handful of chopped 
eschalots or onions, a little tarragon, a spoonful of 
peppercorns, a teaspoonful of cloves and 3 bay leaves, 
let it lay in this for a week ; if it is only one-half covered 
it should be drenched and turned daily. If a small piece 
only is to be baked, the spices should be taken in pro- 
portion. If the ham is to be boiled, put it on the fire 
with half of the liquor and about 1 or 2 quarts of 
water, with the skin to the top, cover tightly and boil 
until almost tender. Then pour off all of the broth and 
strain it; put a piece of butter into the pan and either 
take a sharp knife and criss-cross the skin of the ham 
and insert a clove in the corner of each little square, 



or else take off the skin and thickly dredge the h am with 

lVit'h flntmeg, I 
ered"in"alfoT oven until quite tender and brown, gradu 



finely rolled crackers mixed Vit'h nutmeg, bake uncov- 



ally add the liquor, % cupful at a time. Baste the sides 
of the ham frequently but with care, so that the upper 
crust will become crisp. When serving, take part of the 
fat from the gravy, put into it a heaping spoonful of 
flour, stir for a few minutes, make up as much grayy as 
is wanted and put in a few lemon slices. 

The ham can be garnished as follows": Boil several 
celery roots in salted water until half done, slice length- 
wise and cook them not too tender in the ham broth 
before the latter is poured off. Set aside until ready to 
serve, and when the gravy is done, simmer the celery in 
this f6r a few moments, and use to garnish the dish. 

To cook a whole ham will take abo ut 3 hours. , 

125. Fresh Loin of Pork with a Crust (Mecklenburg 

Style). Take off the skin and rinse the meat withhold 
water, point with cloves at intervals of 3 inches, sprinkle 
with salt and put into the oven in a pan containing 
water ; the oven should not be too hot at first, other- 



U'Cilt. 




A Hind loin— Hintere Lende; B Foreloin— Vordere Lende; C Shoulder Butt — 
Kippenstiick; D Shoulder — Blatt; E Ham — Schinken; F Bacon— Bauchstiick; G 
Feet— Fiisze; H Heart— Herz; J Lung— Lunge; K Liver— Leber; L Kidney— 
Niere; M Head— Kopf; N Tongue— Zunge. 



Pork. 139 

wise the meat will be roasted on the outside while the 
inner part remains rare. Baste frequently and add 
boiling water as often as is necessary. When done, 
which can be ascertained by piercing the side of the 
meat with a fork, skim off the fat from the broth and 
then dredge the skinned side with a mixture of grated 
bread crust, sugar and some finely ground cloves; put 
the meat back into the oveu and leave it there without 
basting until the crust is crisp. 

Time of roasting, at least 3 hours. 

126. To prepare a Ham like Wild Boar. Take from 
a young pig a ham weighing about 8 to 10 pounds, 
remove the skin and rub the meat well with the follow- 
ing mixture: 1 pint of claret, 1 large cupful of vinegar, 
some sugar, 2 large grated onions, 6 bay leaves, ground 
pepper, whole and ground clOves, a teaspoonful of each, 
30 fresh juniper berries, the chopped peel of half a lemon 
and a little ginger. Then put the ham into this liquor 
and leave itinthe same for afewdays, drenching itdaily 
Sprinkle with salt, put it into a pan with butter and let 
it brown lightly, add a few cupfuls of boiling water and 
some of the liquor. Then roast until tender for 2—2% 
hours, basting frequently; an earthenware or enameled 
pan is the best. 1 hour before serving put 2 cupfuls of 
cream into the gravy, which is thickened with a little 
flour before serving, after taking off part of the fat as 
directed in No. 124. 

127. Roast Pork. A cut from the neck ha s the 
mildest meat and is the most profitable on" account of 
the small bones it containX**TfSTRe**Best when taken 
from a young pig and cut towards the middle in such a 
manner that it is covered with a thin layer of fat. 

The roasting can be done in a kettle as well as in 
the oven. The fat on the meat is usually sufficient to 
finish the roast, or some of it may be cut away if found 
necessary. > Put some water into the pan, sprinkle salt 
over the roast, and leave it in the oven covered tightly 
until* done, turning it once. The oven should have a 
medium heat only ; according to the size of the piece — 
say from 3 to 5 pounds,— it will take from 2 to 2% hours 
to finish the roast- Baste frequently with the sauce, 
which has been spiced with pepper and juniper berries, 



140 D.— Meats. 

occasionally adding a little "boiling water. When . the 
roast is served skim off the superfluous fat from the 
gravy and cook the latter with the addition of a tea- 
spoonful of flour and a little water and salt, if necessary 
stirring with it all that remains in the pan. 

128. Roast Pork, No. 2. After rubbing the meat the 
evening previously with salt, pepper and' mace, put the 
kettle 011 the fire with water and enough vinegar to 
impart to it. a decided sour taste; these ^hould be 
enough of this liquor to cover the meat about one- 
third; add plenty of finely sliced onions, peppercorns, 
a few cloves and bay leaves, bring the broth to a boil 
and put in the meat, cover tightly and let it cook slowly 
until it is quite half done, turning it once. If the broth 
should then ndt be wholly cooked away it will make no 
difference— it can be poured into a separate vessel; put 
the fat back with the roast, together with a little kidney 
suet if necessary, and then keep the roast on the fire 
until it is done and of a medium brown color, adding 
from time to time a little of the broth or instead of this 
a few tablespoonfuls of boiling water. 

The gravy, which has been thickened as directed in 
the previous receipts, should be strained before it is 
served. Add 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of milk to the gravy 
if it should be too sour, provided it is brown enough. 

According to the French method, a neck of pork, 
after being salted is put in the pan with some quartered 
apples, plenty of small onions and small potatoes, 
drench the meat with melted butter, roast for 15 
minutes and then pour in a large cupful of seething hot 
water with which it simmers until done. When serving 
put the roast into the center of the dish, and place a 
wreath of apples, onions and potatoes around it. 

129. Boiled Smoked Ham. Put the ham into water 
over night and the next morning wash it thoroughly 
with hot water a nd a handful of wheat bran. R inse it 
well and put it 'on the fire with the skin to the top, 
covered with water or else in a steamer. The ham must 
be brought to a boil rapidly, afterwards, however, it 
should jSQfl& jjilpwly b ut uninterruptedly for 3%Juiub8, 
and then let it lay in the broth for J£ hour longer. A 
whole ham will be particularly excellent if it is put od 



Pork. 141 

a hot stove without cooking it the day before it is to be 
used, and then finishing the cooking the day after in the 
same broth. This makes the meat extremely tender yet 
it does not drop to pieces in the least on the outside. 
If it is to be brought to the table whole put it into a 
dish, trim all around very nicely, make a. straight cut 
through the skin about 2 inches from the end, and in 
.such a manner that it will adhere to the inner side and 
form a border all around; roll up the skin from the 
point and fasten it, (the thin piece of bone can be taken 
from the leg), roll the end of the leg into a frill of paper, 
fastening it, put a wreath of parsley around the edge of 
the dish and garnish the top of the ham with chopped 
parsley. 

130. Ham with fladeira Sauce. Boil a smoked ham 
until tender as directed in the foregoing receipt, take off 
the skin, remove all fat excepting a single narrow strip, 
then cut the ham into thin slices and put them into a 
deep dish side by side, so that the fat edges lie to the 
top, and pour over them a hot sauce made as follows: 
Take a meat broth made according to A, No. 20, brown 
1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of flour in butter, stir some of the 
broth into it, season with salt, and cook with % bottle 
of Madeira until clear. Then add truffles or mush- 
roomSj which have been prepared accordingto A, 33 and 
34. After the ham has been served in this sauce sur- 
round it with a rice border made as follows: Scald 1 
pound of rice and then cook it in water until tender 
and thick with a piece of butter and a little salt ; the 
kernels, however must remain firm. Then mix with the 
meat broth 1 cupful of Madeira, 1 cupful of cream, the 
yolks of 2 eggs, and % pound of grated Parmesan cheese 
and stir this through the rice carefully. 

Serve as hot as possible. 

131. Ham with Burgundy Sauce. Wash a well 
smoked ham and lay it into water over night, wipe it 
off carefully, put it on the fire in cold water and bring 
to a boil, after which it should simmer for 2 to 3 hours, 
rather than boil, but it should not be soft. Then take 
it out of i he broth, remove the skin with part of the fat, 
bring about 1% to 1% quarts of strong beef broth to- 
gether with a bottle of Burgundy and 1 tablespoonful 



142 D.— Meats. 

of sugar to a boil, pour this over the ham and cook 
until nicely brown and tender, basting often. Before 
serving take the fat from the gravy and strain. If you 
have no broth use extract of beef. 

132. Stuffed Spare Ribs. Take the spare ribs con- 
nected in one piece, rub well with salt, cut off the small 
bloody end, crack the ribs in the middle without injur- 
ing the meat and then fill with quartered apples or 
stewed prunes, or both mixed, bend the edges together 
and sewthem. Put the meat into boiling butter, brown 
both sides, pour in some boiling water and roast for at 
least 2% hours, keeping it covered tightly and adding a 
little boiling water from time to time; spare ribs are 
best roasted "in the oven. The meat should at first be 
only half covered with water in the pan, and roasted 
from 1 to 3 hours according.to the age of the pig from 
which it is take,n; turn once only. At the end of the 
time mentioned the water must be cooked away and 
then baste the meat quite often with the fat in the pan, 
sprinkle with a little salt and roast for % hour longer 
until nicely brown. Thicken the gravy with a little 
browned flour and some of the liquor of the stewed 
prunes. The superfluous fat is best skimmed off after 
taking out the roast, and then prepare the gravy. 

Spare ribs are frequently filled with so urkrout, which 
has first been stewed for % of an hour in butter with a 
little sugar and a glassful of white wine, after which 
boiled chestnuts or small stewed mushrooms are stirred 
through it. The roast is otherwise prepared as above 
directed, but a little wine added to the water is an 
improvement. Do not neglect to remove the threads 
before serving. 

133. Pork Headcheese. See directions in Division W. 

134. Roast Pig. The pig should be well cleaned, 
skinned and washed; cut off the feet and take out the 
eyes, rub inside with salt, dry the outside and pierce it 
lengthwise with a wooden skewer; then put it into a 
pan containing a little water and brush thoroughly 
with olive oil or a piece of fat pork. Puncture with a 
larding needle to prevent blistering. Roast pig is not 
basted like other roasts and salt is not sprinkled over 



Pork. 148 

it until it is crusted to a light brown. It is then brushed 
againlvith pork fat and after roasting fori hour, served 
hot without any gravy, putting a lemon between its 
jaws. As a side dish serve the following: First boil the 
lungs and then chop them finely together with the liver 
and the* heart and simmer in butter until it is done. 
Stew some eschalots in butter in which a spoonful of 
flour has been lightly browned, stir with some meat 
broth to a thin pulp, add salt, nutmeg, ground cloves, 
lemon juice and some chopped lemon peel and cook all 
of this until done. 

135. How to cook a smoked Pig's Head. Cover it 
over night with water, wash it off the next morning 
with warm water and then cook slowly in boiling water 
for 3 hours with the meaty side to thebottom. Is most 
appropriate with sourkrout and salted beans. 

136. Pickled Pork is cooked in the same manner as 
directed for pickled beef (D, No. 58). 

' 137. Pork Sausages. Take some nice streaky pork 
and chop it very fine, add salt, nutmeg and lemon peel 
or chopped eschalots, a few eggs, some grated wheat 
bread and a little cream. Mix well together and then 
roll between the hands into little sausages or balls, 
dredge- with cracker crumbs and fry in butter. Serve 
with spinach and most varieties of cabbage. 

138. Pork Chops should be cut from a young pig. 
Prepare like veal cutlets, but they should_fxy.slQwer.and 
2 minutes longer. They are an agreeable accompani- 
ment to all kinds of cabbages. 

139. Chopped Pork Cutlets. To make 4 cutlets take 
1 pound from the neck of a young pig, .chop it fine 
together with some salt and pepper,'divide into 4 parts, 
mould into the form of cutlets and cross-hatch the 
surface somewhat, by means of which they can be easily 
breaded. Then beat up 1 egg with a tablespoonful of 
water which will be sufficient for 6 cutlets, have ready 
plenty of grated bread crust or stale grated wheat 
bread, heat butter or kidney suet as directed in A, 17, 
dip the cutlets in egg so that they will be covered all 
over, turn them in bread crumbs and fry quickly in an 



144 D— Meats. 

open pan on both sides for a few minutes until of a light 
brown color, moving them about in the pan frequently 
so that the fat will not scorch. When done through 
and through take them from the fire at once so that 
they will retain their full juiciness. These cutlets are 
appropriatewiththefinest kinds of vegetables or potato 
dishes. A gravy made of extract of beef with capers, 
anchovy, etc., can be made for the Cutlets, sprinkling a 
few drops of lemon juice over them, or else they may be 
garnished with large apple slices stewed in butter. 

140. Smoked Raw Ham Steaks. Cut the slices 
about % inch thick and lay them in milk over night, 
which is particularly essential when the ham is very 
salty or dry; pound the slices on both sides with the 
edge of a dull knife, dip into a beaten egg with a little 
pepper, turn in bread or cracker crumbs and fry in hot 
butter in an open pan on a very moderate fire — a hot 
fire will harden the meat-; turn them quite often until 
they are of a golden brown color. 

141. Chopped Pork Steaks are prepared like chopped 
beef steaks, (see No. 17). Fry them with browned 
onions or in melted butter. 

142. Pork Tenderloin. Pound the meat slightly, 
sprinkle with a little salt, put it into the pan with 
melted butter, fry until slightly browned and then keep 
them tightly covered on a slow fire for 15 minutes 
longer, turning once. Then add some cream and fry 15 
minutes longer, basting frequently, until they are tender 
enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Before serving 
add a little flour as usual, and a few minutes after 
enough bouillon or water to make the gravy, which is 
flavored with a few lemon slices. 

143. Sv^eet-sour Ragout of Pork. A piece from the 
neck or any cut from the breast can be taken. Divide 
the meat into pieces of appropriate size, and proceed 
precisely as directed for ragout of hare ("Hasenpfeffer"). 

144. Pork Croquettes in South Germany Style. 
(Sueddeutsche Schnitzchen.) These can be made from 
any kind of meat besides pork. Chop 1 pound of tender 
fat pork very finely together with a small onion or an 
eschalot steamed in butter. Then stir with 12 freshened, 



Game -ISSilftpvct. 




A Rabbit— Kaninchen ; B Hare — Hase; C Grouse — Haselhuhn; D Quail— Wach- 
lel ; J-; White grouse — Schneehulin ; F Goose — Gans ; G Teal — Kriechente ; 1 1 
Woodcock — Waldschnepfe : J Partridge— Rebhuhn ; T Grouse — Birkhuhn ; K Pheas- 
ant — Fasan ; L Mountain cock — Auerliahn; M White grouse — Schneehuhn ; N 
Widgeon— Pfeifente ; < ) Turkey — Truth aim : P Snipe— Becassine ; Q Lark — Lerche; 
K Duck — Ente; S Wild duck— Wilde Ente; T Pigeon — Taube. 



• Pork. 145 

boned and chopped anchovies, 1 tablespoonful of 
coarsely chopped capers, some ground pepper and nut- 
meg, 2 ounces of wheat bread grated without the crust, 
3 eggs and 3 tablespoonfuls of thick sour cream to a 
smooth forcemeat, make it up into cakes of a medium 
thickness about the size of a silver dollar, put into each 
a slip of parsley root to serve as a bone and fry them 
over a quick fire on both sides until brown. 

Served with the butter in which they are fried they 
are nice with fine vegetables, without the butter and -the 
parsley root they are good with bread and butter and 
tea. 

145. Fried Sausages and ApplesT Cut 6 pared apples ■ 
each into 8 pieces, sprinkle with sugar and a little cin- 
namon and let them stand' for a few hours. At the 
same time put some cleaned dried currants into luke- 
warm water and let them soak on top of the stove. 
Melt a good-sized piece of butter in the pan, put in 
% pound of sausages, lay the apples around and the 
currants and a little lemon peel over them, cover and 
fry slowly. As soon as the apples are soft underneath 
turn them, and take out those that are done to prevent 
them from dropping to pieces. As soon as the sausages 
are fried add a glassful of Rhinewine to the gravy and 
serve them garnished with the apples. 

146. To fry fresh Sausages (so-called "flettwurst"). 

If the sausage meat has been cut into cubes put it on 
the fire in a pan containing some water, cover and cook 
for % — 1 hour, then take off the cover so that any 
remaining water will steam away, put in a piece of 
butter and fry the sausages on both eides to a light 
yellow so that they will remain quite tender. Fresh 
sausages made from finely chopped meat are put into 
melted butter at once; fry for 15—20 minutes. After 
the sausage has been fried»on both sides in the melted 
butter to a light brown, beer (which- should not be 
bitter) can be added, in which the sausage is stewed 
until done. 

147. To cook smoked Pork Sausage. Smoked saus- 
age is cooked principally in browned cabbage or in pea-, 
bean-, lentil- and potato soups. . As long as it is juicy, 



146 D— Meats. 

wash it in warm water and put it on the fire in cold 
water and cook until done. If it is dry this' procedure 
will not be 'sufficient to make it tender; it must then be 
washed 2 days before cooking, covered with water and 
set aside in a cool place'. ' 

148. "Frankfurt" Sausages. These and "Wiener" 
sausages are covered with boiling water and' then set 
on top of the hot stove for 10 minutes. Serve with 
grated horse-radish. They are an a ppropriate_ ac.com- 
paniment to all cabbage dishes and to potato ~or bean 
salad. ' — — — ^ 

149. Ham Croquettes. .Take ham remnants and 
chop them very finely with some fat, and for a soup- 
plateful add 3 eggs, 2. ounces of grated wheat bread, 
3 tablespoonfuls. of cream and some pepper; mix thor- 
oughly. Soak slices of wheat, bread in milk and egg, 
cover smoothly with the meat, turn in bread and cracker 
crumbs. and fry in butter to a light brown. This is a 
very palatable dish after the soup and is also nice when 
served in a middle course, or with salads, greens or 
beansj 

, 150. Fried Slices of pickled Pork. Cut boiled pickled 
pork into slices, turn in egg and ground cloves, then in 
flour and fry in butter until of a light brown and crisp. 
Excellent with various kinds of coarser vegetables. 

151. Warmed=over Pork Remnants. 'Cut the rem- 
nants into slices. Slightly brown 2 handfuls of smalJ 

.onions in 'butter, also some flour, and cook with a 

glassful of claret, 1 cupful 6f meat broth, salt, pepper, 

bay leaves'ahd a little thyme to make a rather thick 

'sauce, in which the meat slices are thoroughly heated : 

serve with mashed potatoes. 

X 

152. Roast Pork in Packages. Cut the meat into 
slices, lay therti together two-by-two, spread top and 
bottom with butter, turn in bread crumbs and chopped 
herbs and then wrap them in strong white paper thickly 
covered with butter. Put these "packages", on the shelf 
in a hot oven for 10 minute's and then bring them to 
the table at once. Serve with potato salad and pickles 
in a separate dish. 



Game. 147 

153. Remnants of Ham with Asparagus. Entree. If 

the remnants should happen to be very dry, lay them 
in milk for a few hours, then out them into cubes and 
mix with the same quantity of asparagus pieces,. which 
have been cooked in salted water; make a thick sauce, 
taking 3 eggs, 2 teaspoonfuls of flour, 1 large cupful of 
the asparagus broth, a little lemon juice, a trifle of 
extract of beef, salt and nutmeg, mix the meat arid 
asparagus through the sauce, All into little < buttered 
cups, cover the tops with bread crumbs and bake in the 
oven to a golden brown. 

No. 138 is the bnly pork dish suitable for invalids. ■ 



VI. GAME. 



154. General Rules for the Disposition and Prepar- 
ation of Game. When purchasing game be careful to 
observe that the flesh has not been injured or torn 
through the killing. It should, furthermore, not be too 
old, that is to say, it should not have laid too long 
because the slightest "houtgout" will seriously impair 
the meat. . • • 

Game must never be freshened in water; the follow- 
ing rhethod, in vogue in France, has proven to be the 
most practical for cleaning game. Remove all bloody 
parts, dip -a cloth in lukgw arm wa ter and rn_h the meat 
with it aTFtrrerrT gGeat the^ rag^^yrrti^cnl d water and 
then lard or otherwise prepare the meat a*s" desired. 

The meat must be well cooked in order to bring' out 
perfectly its fine flavor. A roast must be well; horded 
(see D, II) : and the oven s hould not be overheated. 
Game is roasted in pfentrypf butter wrElrfafTp^ork and 
sour cream and frequent basting;, no water should be 
added. -—,-- -,»", — - - 

The head is the least valuable part of- all varieties 
of game, excepting the wild boar; and can only^be used 
in an ordinary ragout, like a pork ragout, and in this 
case the neck can also be used; the , tongue, . on the 
contrary, is very good. The breast, particularly if it 
has become bloody in, consequence of the , shooting, is 



148 D.—Meats. 

not an especially choice part and it is also then best for 
a ragout. Then follow the sides and joints, which, when 
from an older animal, are beststewed, and from younger 
ones are best for roasting, and . finally the buttock 
piece, which is best of all for roasts. 

155. To keep Game. A cleaned hare with its fur on 
will keep in cold weather for a week longer, but if neces- 
sary it can be put into vinegar for a few days more, 
yet this does not tend to improve it. Venison will keep 
well as follows: Divide the meat into roasts, sprinkle, 
moderately with salt, then roast very slightly all around 
in a pan. When the meat is quite cold pack it into a 
keg or a stone jar with a few onions, peppercorns, fresh 
juniper berries, a sliced lemon and some salt and pour 
enough fresh lard over the'meat to entirely surround it. 
It. will keep in good condition for a week, and can be 
either stewed or roasted and is then handled like fresh 
meat. 

156. To skin Hares. When purchasing the hare, v be 
careful to observe t ha t the saddle is not injured, other- 
wise it will Tedl'y and ofa poor quality. The forelegs 
of a young hare are easily broken and their ears can be 
readily torn, and up to their second year they have a 

Jighfc spot on the forehea d. For that matter, old hares 



are^lSo^goodwnen^F6^erly>ooked . The meat of an 
tare is more tender if it is fii 



old hare is more tender if it is firstl aid in buttermilk f or 
a few days. The skinning and preparing of a hare for a 
roast is somewhat troublesome and is done as follows : 
Usually the hare has been cleaned before it is sent 
to market, and only the liver, heart and lungs come 
with it. Lay it on a chopping board or hang it up by 
the hind legs, first on one leg and then on the other; 
the back or saddle is on the board or against the wall. 
Then with a sharp pointed knife cut the skin from the 
paws to the point where it has been opened for cleaning, 
and pull it over the stubby tail and both joints, assist- 
ing at the latter places with the knife so that none of 
ibhe meat adheres to the skin, which can now be easily 
drawn forward as far as the forelegs ; the aid of the 
knife will again be necessary when the body is reached, 
where the fat is found. Cut the paws from the forelegs, 
after which they can be easily drawn out of the skm, 



Game. 149 

which ij then pulled over the head, at the same time 
cutting off the ears. Then take the knife and remove 
the skin from around the eyes and the front part of the 
head. The bones of both hind legs are cut off at the 
pointwhere the openingwas made for cleaning the hare, 

• then slit the body as far as the breast, take out the 
liver, lungs and heart and catch the blood which has 
gathered in the cavity of the chest, in a dish containing 
a little vinegar. Cut the breast bone in two and divide 
the skin of the neck up to the head, pull out the wind- 
pipe and put the hare on the meat board to cut it up, 
separating the head from the body,at the point where it 
is joined to the saddle. Finally shorten the ribs on both 
sides of the hare enough to leave them about 1% inches 
long to protect the tender meat of the saddle when it is 
being roasted. After the hare has been washed in cold 
water several times, the inner skin should be removed 
and larding is next in order. 

Every bit of the rest of the meat together with the 
lungs and the heart must be washed very carefully, 
picking out any shot that may happen to remain in 
the flesh, but need not have the inner skin removed like 
the piece intended for the roast. If the ragout cannot 
be gotten ready at once, coyer the meat with vinegar 
so that it will keep for a while longer. The gall bag, 
which adheres to the liver and is scarcely to be distin- 
guished from it, must be removed very carefully ; fry the 
liver as fresh as possible (or after it has lain in sweet 

.milk for a few hours) in browned butter, a little flour, 
bread crumbs and, a few crushed juniper berries. It 
should not be fried for too long a time, otherwise it will 
lose its juiciness. 

157. Roast Hare. Take the entire saddle and the 
two hind legs, the remainder is used for brown ragout. 
Wash carefully, remove the inner skin from the saddle, 
and lard. Sprinkle the hare with salt and put it with 
its back to the top into an enameled pan with plenty of 
butter, cover the feet with paper and have a hot oven ; 
the heat from below should not be too intense, beeause 
otherwise the gravy will be apt to scorch. As soon as 
the roast is turned lightly brown, pour over it 1—2 cup- 
fuls of thick sour or sweet cream. Plenty of butter and 
cream and frequent basting will make the roast juicy, 



150 D.— Meats. 

so that the meat of the legs will be nearly as tender as 
that of the saddle. A young hare should not roast 
longer than % hour and older ones 1— 1% hours, and as 
soon as the meat can be easily pierced with a fori? take 
it out of the oven even if you are not quite ready to 
serve, because leaving it in the oven will make the meat 
dry. When the table is ready put the pan back into the 
oven again for about 10 minutes, bearing in mind to 
baste and- not neglecting to remove the paper when 
serving the hare. Prepare the gravy according to No. 1. 

Instead of using cream, an old hare may be pre- 
pared with good buttermilk ; after the meat has become 
lightly brown, gradually add a pint of buttermilk, and 
in this case the heat from below should be stronger so 
that the gravy will be brown. 

If it is desired that the roast hare should have a 
slightly sour taste, let it lay in vinegar for 12 hours 
previously to cooking. 

Remaek. — The preparation of a palatable soup from the remnants of a roast 
hare or its bones is described under B, No. 28. 

158. Stewed or Steamed Hare. This is the best 
method of cooking an old hare; it should first be larded, 
divided into pieces and very slightly roasted in browned 
butter, then pour the butter into a stone jar, put in the 
fat pork slices and spices,' on these the meat, sprinkle 
with salt -and pour over the whole a small cupful of 
sour cream, into which a teaspoonful of flour has been 
stirred. Then seal the cover of the jar with a strip of , 
paper thinly covered with flour smoothed in water, and 
simmer in the oven for 2 hours with a slow fire; the 
meat will become quite tender and juicy and should be 
served- in a hot dish. What remains in the jar should 
be strained, thinned with meat -broth and poured over 
the meat, which should be brought to the table with 
boiled potatoes. If the cover of the jar is perfectly 
tight, it need not be sealed as above directed. 

159. Ragout of Hare ("Hasenpfeffer"). Divide the 
forelegs and the lower part of the body into pieces, wash 
thoroughly, being careful to rinse off any hair that may 
adhere to the meat ; split the head and wash it together 
with the heart, liver and lungs. Jf the meat is to be 
preserved for a few days prior to cooking,, cover with 



Game. 151 

i 

vinegar and turn it daily. It should not be ke.pt so 
long, however, that it will have an unpleasant odor. 
When cooking, heat some pork fat* in order to econ- 
omize with your butter, brown some finely chopped 
onions in it, stirring frequently, and afterwards a heap- 
ing tablespoonful of flour, then stir in enough boiling 
water to make plenty of gravy, taking into consider- 
ation that some of it will evaporate, add salt, a few 
pounded cloves, a good-sized pinch of pepper, a few bay 
leaves, a large piece of butter and a sufficient quantity 
of the vinegar in which the meat was pickled. Cover 
tightly and cook until done, but the meat must not fall 
to pieces. Then stir in the gravy a piece of sugar, or, 
according to taste, a glassful of claret. The gravy 
should have a spicy, sweet-sour taste and be well bound 
but not too thick. Boiled potatoes are the most appro- 
priate accompaniment. 

A nicer method is to first scald the meat and to 
divide it into pieces of proper size after removing the 
bones, and then after heating the fat, very slightly 
roast the pieces together with chopped onions. Instead 
of the water use boiling meat broth and add claret to 
the gravy. ,- 

160. Roast Haunch of Venison. Pound the meat 
slightly, remove the skin and lard lengthwise in rows in 
such a manner that the larding needle is inserted be- 
tween the lardoons of each preceding row. In this man- 
ner the larding will be richer and add 'greatly to the 
juiciness of the venison, which is naturally lean and 
tender. Line the bottom of a pan with fat pork slices 
which are first roasted. Then put in the meat and roast 
until the lardoons are yellow, basting frequently with 
the pork fat ; after this cover the roast with pieces of 
butter or sour cream, salt and roast until done accord- 
ing to taste, a few finely pounded juniper berries can at 
last be sprinkled over the roast. 

Time, from 1—1%— 2 hours. 

161. Roast Loin of Venison. The loin is very sel- 
domly roasted in one whole piece; fricandeaus can be 
cut from it and larded and roasted like No. 160— orveal 
fricandeaus No. €8, not longer than 1 hour. If the 
roast should be a large one, take either the front or 



152 D— Meats. 

back part of the loin without any bones, pound it 
slightly, remove the skin, lard, and roastforlJ£— 2 hours 
according to the size of the piece and the age of the 
animal. The rest of the loin will make excellent steaks, 
or can be utilized for meat balls* etc., while the bones, 
after being split, will make a palatable brown bouillon. 
The meat taken from an animal chased to death is 
absolutely useless and unwholesome. 

Venison from older animals, especially pieces from 
the forejoints, can be pickled for a longer or shorter 
time in vinegar with onions and spices, after which it is 
larded; then stew and roast in an oven with a little 
water, or cook until almost tender and then roast in 
t^tie oven with butter or fat for % hour longer. The 
addition of sour cream always makes it more tender 
and more palatable. 

162. Ragout of Venison. The best for this purpose 
are the upper parts of the forejoints, the breast, neck 
and ribs. These pieces must be carefully examined and 
washed, especially if they are very bloody and badly 
torn through shooting. Cut the meat into pieces of 
proper size, turn them in flour, brown all round in pork 
fat and butter, pour in some salted boiling water, cover 
the kettle immediately and a few minutes later, after 
skimming, add a little lemon peel, some pepper, cloves, 
a few bay leaves, a few finely sliced onions, a few pickles 
sliced lengthwise and some vinegar. A glassful of claret 
is added later on and also a lump of partly browned 
sugar, but only enough to take off some of the acidity 
of the vinegar. The gravy must be abundant and of a 
nice consistency. Serve with roasted or boiled potatoes. 

163. Venison Chops ("Mailaender Rehrippchen"). Cut 
the chops from the saddle and prepare them like veal 
cutlets; lard on one side and salt. Slice some ripe 
tomatoes and boil to a thick pulp together with some 
chopped raw ham, finely chopped oniOns, salt, pepper 
and a piece of butter ; strain. It must be thick enough 
so that it can be served in pats ; cracker crumbs can be 
used to make it firmer if necessary. In the meantime 
boil some macaroni in salted water and mix on the fire 
with butter and Parmesan cheese; keep in a hot place 
until the cutlets are done. The cutlets are fried in 



GrAME. 158 

butter until brown, turn and put them on a hot dish, 
cook the gravy with flour browned in butter and some 
Madeira until it binds. The tomato pulp is put into 
the center of the dish, the macaroni around it in a 
wreath and on this the cutlets side by side. Serve the 
gravy in a boat. 

164. Stewed Shoulder of Venison. Cut off the shoul- 
der at the second joint of the leg, remove the skin care- 
fully, lard and put the meat into a kettle which has 
been lined with fat pork slices. Pour claret and meat 
broth over the venison and add some sweet herbs, a 
piece of ginger, some toasted bread crust, a bay leaf, 
and stew in the oven until tender. Then lay it on a hot 
dish and glaze by holding over it a ladle heated in the 
Are; surround it with a border of small potato balls 
and serve. The gravy should be strained and served in 
a boat. 

165. Game Hash. Chop very finely remnants of 
roast game ; grate a few onions, steam them in browned 
butter, add some flour, 1 spoonful of chopped parsley 
and whatever gravy is left over, taking, off the fat, and. 
cook this to a njce gravy. The chopped meat is thor- 
oughly heated but not cooked in this gravy, then add 
some lemon juice according to taste, some pepper and 
salt if necessary. Serve the hash with a border of small 
potato dumplings and cover it with button onions and 
egg slices. 

166. Game Headcheese. Take the juicy remnants 
of roast game and chop them finely, and for each 2% 
pounds of meat take 3 ounces of wheat bread soaked 
aDd pressed, 2 ounces of boned and chopped anchovy, 
a little over 2 ounces of grated eschalots browned in 
butter, a batter of 5 eggs, about 5 ounces of pork fat, 
4 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, salt, pepper and 
4 spoonfuls of roast meat gravy. Mix this very care- 
fully and then stir the whites of 3 eggs beaten to a froth 
through the mass, which is cooked for an hour in a 
buttered mould. When cold tip out of the mould and 
serve with a Remoulade sauce. 

All game dishes, with the exception of Nos. 158, 
159, 162, 165 and 166 are suitable for invalids. 



154 D.— Meats. 

VII. TAME AND WILD FOWL. 

167. Points of Difference between Old and Young 
Fowl and the best Season for purchasing. It is quite 
essential that every housekeeper be informed as to the 
points of difference between fowl that are good and 
those that are not. Of course the greatest safeguard 
against obtaining unwholesome poultry is to buy it 
when alive. Poultry in good health has clear shiny 
eyes, smooth .plumage, lively movements and bright 
red combs. When purchasing killed poultry, first exam- 
ine the place or wound where they were killed, which 
should open outwards; the skin should be white, the 
flesh firm and the bill retain its natural color.- If the 
skin has a bluish tinge or is slimy, and if the bill has 
changed color, the meat is unwholesome. 

The distinguishing points of young fowls are: A 
white, tender skin, an easily indented breast-bone, a 
hg&t-colored bill and skin of the legs , and a slender 
body. With the exception of the T urkey , which has a 
dark skin on the l egs when young, all old poultry KaS-a 
dOTKTEard, hornys^n™^BTflie-tegs. The windpipe of 
young turkeys and geese can be easily compressed and 
with pgefe a.n infallible indicatio n that they are young 
consisTs in the fact tnat Tne " head o f a pin can be 
inserted into th e skin, of the breast, wTnch c&nfi6t ''''b r e 
^one^nf^ajnSlW'gooseT' roung™wud fowls have soft 
bfflswrElTa yellowTiH'g"and light colored feet (partridges 
have yellow feet) ; the ends of the quills of the plumage 
of any young fowl are quite soft and filled with blood. 

Besides the age and wholesomeness of poultry, the 
time of the year has some influence regarding its adapt- 
ability for cooking. Young— so-called " Spring " chick- 
ens — are best from May to Novemb er, capons i n the 
Winter months and t urkeys i rom Sep tember to March, 
although the latter are the nicest in September, D&iUtu- 
ber and January. - Young pigeons are the plumpest in 
June and July. Fat-geese c an be obtained from Pel o- 
er to J anuTCTT aricl d ucks a"re in season at the beg inning 
of Novembe r. The game laws of the various States OT 
course govern the time when game can be obtained in 
the market. 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 155 

168. Preparation of Poultry. According to its kind, 
poultry should be killed one or more days before it is to 
be cooked, spring chickens and pigeons the previous 
evening, old chickens, capons, ducks and turkeys 2 days 
and geese 3—4 days beforehand. If it should be neces- 
sary, however, to cook the smaller varieties of poultry 
at once, they must be put on the fire immediately after 
being killed. Poultry intended for roast or brown 
ragout should be plucked immediately after killing and 
while the flesh is still warm, but it must be done care- 
fully so as not to injure the skin. After geese and ducks 
have been drawn and singed, they should be rubbed 
with warm bran water, or flour and water ; to singe the 
finer varieties of poultry use a spirit lamp; this does 
not discolor the skin, neither does it -impart a smoky 
taste. If geese are to be kept for a long time they 
should not be washed after being drawn, at any rate 
they must be carefully wiped inside and out with a clean 
cloth until dry. 

Fowl for soups or stews should be put into cold 
water for % hour immediately after killing and they will 
fully retain their natural white color. Then take by 
the legs, let the water drip off and hold in seething hot 
water for a few minutes ; if the feathers do not come 
out easily, repeat, but for young fowls the water must 
not be too hot, otherwise the entire skin will come off. 

Beforeturkeys or capons are drawn, crush the breast 
bone by laying the fowl on its back on a cloth, fold a 
cloth over its breaRt to prevent the skin from being 
injured and then carefully crush the breast with a meat 
pounder; it is better, however, to do this only when the 
breast bone projects so - prominently as to spoil the 
appearance of the roast, because crushing somewhat 
lacerates the meat. The breast bone of a tende r Spring 
chicken nan be quite easily pressea crown witTTEFelliumb; 
it can then be easily taken out, wh ich greatly improves 
the appearance of the roast; 

Then cut off the head and feet, clean inside and out, 
carefully dry it and wrap in a cloth ; it should be laid in 
a dish until wanted, otherwise the a ction of the air w ill 
injure the whiteness of the skin . "W hen ready T6 co'ok 
Wash slightly once more and truss according to its kind. 
The liver and stomach of small fowls are roasted in the 



156 D.— Meats. 

body if they are not intended to be used in the dressing; 
the filling should be attended to before the fowl is 
trussed. 

a. Turkeys are prepared as follows for a roast: 
Bend the wings toward the head so that Jthe tips will 
lay flat on the back, then turn the turkey on its back, 
draw the head under the left wing so that it will lie 
beside the breast, and fasten it with a thin wooden 
skewer, being careful not to injure the meat. Then 
press the legs upwards towards the head, thus pushing 
forward the breast, run a wooden skewer through the 
drumsticks to hold them up closely. Fat pork s lices 
are tied .o yer the bre ast of the turkey "bef ore"iFis put 
into the oven. *" "~ 

b. Chickens, capons, Spring chickens and pigeons 
are prepared in the same way; chickens and pigeons 
are not larded, capons and Spring chickens are stuffed 
and larded according -to taste. After stuffing, the legs 
are crossed and passed through the laps of the skin 
under the breast. 

c. The greatest caution is necessary in drawing 
geese, so that the valuable grease is not spoiled by 
coming in contact with the entrails; after making a 
large opening under the breast extending to the tail, 
loosen the skin from the leafy fat. Take this fat with 
the right hand and loosen it from under the breast 
bone, to which it adheres, loosen it to the right and left 
from the ribs and stomach and pull it out in one whole 
piece, putting it into a covered dish containing cold 
water. Then carefully take out the liver and separate 
the gall bag from it"; the latter is enclosed in a very 
thin skin which must not be ruptured. Then take out 
the stomaeh, together with the entrails and the crop, 
which has been loosened from the neck. The entrails 
must be separated from the fat with great caution, as 
they break open very easily and are almost always 
filled, and the fat surrounding them is necessary for the 
roasting; this, like the leaf fat, should be laid into cold 
water also, but use a separate dish ; the water for both 
should be renewed daily until the fat is to be used. Gut 
open the stomach, clean it very carefully and with a 
sharp knife remove the thick inside skin. Cut off the 
head and neck of the goose and its feet and wings about 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 157 

2 inches from the body, using this together with the 
heart and stomach for giblet soup. Wash the goose 
thoroughly, dry it inside and out with a clean cloth and 
hang it into the larder for a few days. The stuffing can 
be done when ready to roast (or the day previously if 
preferred) according to the directions already given. 
The liver is roasted separately. 

Geese should be killed and prepared in very cold 
weather at least 2 days previous to cooking ; they can 
hang in the air for 2 — 3 weeks, but they are the nicest 
when cooked a few days after they are killed. The 
blood, which is indispensable for black giblet dishes, will 
keep in cold weather for several days when mixed with 
plenty of vinegar and set uncovered in a cool place. 

d. Ducks are treated like geese; the skin of the 
neck is drawn backwards, then the neck is cut off and 
the skin is forced in the opening; they are sometimes 
stuffed according to previous directions. 

e. Pheasants, partridges and grouse. The feet are 
not cut off as in the case with other kinds of fowl, but 
they are . held for a time in boiling water, af ter which 
the skin i^tak eh~on ? *alTg*'i;Tfe" BpuTfl" WmovedT The tips 
of thewi'rig^ aTKTcut a way, the liver "alTd stomach are 
not used ; thewings are bent towards the head the same 
as with other poultry and the legs are turned from the 
second joint from below in such a manner that the feet 
point towards the head. Then pass a thin, small, 
wooden skewer through the drumsticks. 

f. Snipe are prepared in the' same manner with the 
exception that they are not d rawn; the bill is bent over 
and turned in the breast". '" 

169. To bone Poultry. After the fowl has been 
plucked, drawn, washed and singed, cuj^through the 
skin, down the cen ter of the back anaraise the flesh 
carefully on either side* with "the- point of a sharp knife 
untilthe sockets of thewings andthethighs are reached, 
being'careful not to damage the skin. O ccasionally the 



wings and le gs ar e also bjjagd. As a rule Donea poultry 
ilTfitlBTrwith forcemeat and this should be done with 
some care, so as to preserve as much as possible the 
original form of the bird. When securely trussed and 
sewed the bird may .be either boiled or stewed with 



158 D.— Meats. 

a rich gravy; serving it hot with mushrooms, capers, 
truffles or oysters; or it may be roasted after being 
boned and forced. 

'■ 170. Roast Turkey. If the turkey has been killed 
for a few days or a week before cooking and after it has 
been prepared as directed in No. 169, bend the joints 
upwards before cooking, lard if desired wherever there 
•are no fatty portions, or else omit the larding and fill 
with a forcemeat, (see A, Nos. 27, 28 or 29). Sprinkle* 
with fine salt, line the pan, which should be very clean, 
with thin fat pork slices and some of the same -should 
be laid on the breast ; put in plenty of butter and boil- 
ing water and then put the turkey on the fire, cover 
tightly, and let it cook in a scant broth, for 1% hours, 
or long enough until the meat is almost tender; the 
.cooking should proceed slowly but uninterruptedly, but 
the heat must not be too great. Pour, the broth into a 
separate vessel, lay a large piece^t butter on the breast 
of the turkey, and bring it into a hot oven, roast until 
. quite' tender, and of a yellow (not brown) color ; frequent 
basting is very essential and should be carefully at- 
tended to. The broth is added gradually; 1 the addition 
of cream will make the gravy much thicker. "When 
ready to. serve stir 2 tablespoonf uls of flour in the pan 
for a few minutes, adding enough cold water to bind 
the gravy, stirring in everything that, remains in the 
pah or adheres to. it. , Add whatever salt is necessary. 
Serye the turkey on a, hot platter, garnishing with a 
border of thin lemon slices. ., 

; ' A young turkey will require about 1% hours until it 
is tender; old birds from 3 hours and upwards. 

■!•!'. Remark, — The heart, Stomach, wings, etc., of a turkey, together with some 
vea^, may he cooked to make agood fricassee, to which dumplings, mushrooms, 
etc., caii Be added, or else, with a little real, they make a clear soup. 

171. Turkey with Forcemeat. Make a forcemeat of 
•Impound of chopped Veal, % pound of streaky pork, also 
finely chopped, % cupful of melted, butter, *3 eggs, the 
whites of 2 eggs beaten to a froth and stirred in at last. 
Further mbre, 4. ounces of stale' wheat bread soaked in 
cold wafer and pressed, % ounce of sliced mushrooms or, 
better still, truffles, the turkey liver finely chopped, 4 
veal sweetbreads cooked until half done and with the 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 159 

skin removed, salt, nutmeg, capers and finely chopped 
parsley. This forcemeat is filled into the craw and body 
of the turkey, after which it is roasted. 

A turkey can also be filled with a dressing. made of 
wheat bread, to which dried currants can be added 
according to taste. 

A very fine flavor or aroma can be imparted to the 
turkey by means of truffles. Get a freshly killed turkey 
ready for roasting and in the meantime steam about 
Impounds of truffles with some sweet herbs,, salty % 
pound of very thinly sliced pork fat, and % -glassful of 
claret for about 20 minutes. Let the truffles cool, fill 
the turkey and sew ; dress it, cover with fat pork slices 
(tied over the body) and let it hang for 6 days in a coqI 
place. The turkey is then roasted as usual, but instead 
of putting cream into the gravy it is flavored with 
Madeira. Turkey roasted in this manner is the nicest, 
but it is also very expensive. 

When filled in the above manner the turkey will 
suffice for quite a large party, and can be brought to 
the table either hot or cold. 

172. Turkey in Vienna Style. After the turkey 
has been prepared for roasting, fill it with the following 
dressing : Shell and blanch 1% pounds of chestnuts, sim- 
mer in meat broth until soft, let them dry and pound 
finely in a mortar together with some' salt, pepper and 
nutmeg. Stir % pound of butter to a froth, mix .with 
the yolks of 4 eggs, the chestnuts, 3 ounces of cracker 
crumbs, and also mix a few dozen chestnuts, with the 
forcemeat, which is then filled into the craw and body of 
the turkey, whereupon the latter is larded a,hd roasted. 

The gravy is prepared according to No. 170, but a 
glassful of Madeira is added at last. 

173. Hen=Turkey in a Fricassee Sauce. A hen-turkey 
is prepared as for a roast ; the legs can be inserted as 
directed in 168, b., then put it on the fire with.% pound 
of fresh butter and. a few eschalots, cover tightly and 
cook slowly until yellow. Add some boiling meat broth 
or water together with the yellow part only of a lemon 
peel, nutmeg, and half an hour later plenty of mush- 
rooms, coyer tightly and stew In scant broth until done. 
Have ready some strong meat broth and half an hpur 



160 D.— Meat&. 

before serving put in some flour browned in butter and, 
according to taste, some sweetbreads (see A, 35), aspar- 
agus or cauliflower, cook until tender, but it should not 
in the least be broken up. Take the fat from the turkey 
gravy and add to it the cooked gravy, which, like every 
other fricassee gravy, should be well bound, together 
with a few lemon slices without the seeds ; stir through 
it the yolks of 2 eggs and then serve the turkey in 
its own gravy with bread-, sponge- or veal dumplings, 
which have been broughtto a boil in salted water. Send 
to the table with croutons which are served instead of 
pastry. If the hen-turkey was not ayoung one it should 
be parboiled at least 1 to 3 hours before cooking it 
entirely done in the fricassee gravy as above described. 

174. Roast Capon. The capon is gotten ready like 
the turkey, well larded and covered with fat pork slices 
and slowly roasted in butter about labours, according 
to age. 

175. Stewed Capons with various kinds of Sauces. 

After the capon is ready for cooking line the bottom of 
a clean kettle with fat pork slices and put in celery 
slices, carrots, parsley root, parsnips, eschalots, lean 
raw ham, coarse spices and salt, then the capon; cover 
it with fat pork slices, add bouillon and stew slowly 
until done, but not too soft. Serve with either oyster-, 
mushroom- or crab sauce. For a small capon take from 
1—2 cupfuls of bouillon. 

Instead of serving the capon with a sauce, it may 
be brought to the table in a fine ragout if preferable ; or 
else it may be cut up. Pour over it a truffle sauce and 
put a border of boiled rice around the edge of the dish. 

176. Baked Puffs of Capon Remnants. Entree. Big- 
move skin and sinews from all the remnants and chop 
the latter very finely. Crack all the bones and boil 
them thoroughly, cooking with the broth flour lightly 
browned in butter, add a cupful of thick sweet cream 
and a trifle of extract of beef, salt and pepper, and cook 
the whole to a thick, smooth sauce. Mix the chopped 
meat with the sauce, add the yolks of 4 eggs, 2heaping 
tablespoonfuls of fresh butter, stir the frothed whites of 
the eggs through the mass, fill it into a mould and bake 
for 30 minutes. Send to the table without any sauce. ^ 



Pnnlt 

Poultry — (QcflUflCK 




A Turkey — Truthahn ; B Goose — Cans; C Duck — Ente ; D Hen — Huhn; E 
Guinea-hen — Perlhuhn; F Partridge — Rebhuhn ; G Mountain cock— Auerhahn ; H 
Pheasant— Fasan; I Teal— Kreichente; K Wild Pigeon— Wild Taube; L White 
grou.se— Schneehuhn ; M Prairie Chicken— Prairiehuhn ; N Land-rail— Wachtel- 
konig; (J Green Plover— Ciruner Brachvogel; P Gold Plover— Goldbrachvogel ; O 
Wheat Bird— VVeizenvogel; R Ortolan— Ortolan; S Quail — Wachtel ; T L.ark— 
Lerche; U Snipe— Landschnepfe; V Snipe — Becassine, 



Tame 'and Wild Fowl. 161 

177. Roast Spring Chicken. The best method of 
roasting young spring chickens is to lard them thickly 
the same as a hare, as is customary in Bremen and 
Hamburg; it makes them juicier and gives them a fine 
appearance on the table. They should be roasted in a 
kettle with a tight cover, and the kettle should be of 
fitting dimensions — not too large. If the cover is so 
arranged that embers can be placed upon it, so much 
the better, if not, the kettle must be put into a hot 
oven after the chickens have become tender so that 
they will rapidly become lightly brown on top. 

After the chickens have been prepared according to 
the directions in No. 168, b., sprinkle moderately with 
fine salt because some salt is contained in the butter, 
put a piece of butter together with the liver into the 
body of each chicken and then put them into the kettle 
closely side by side with a piece of butter; roast with 
the kettle uncovered at first on a slow fire until lightly 
brown, then put on the cover and roast until tender, 
which will take about IK hours. According to the 
requirements of a fine table, poultry must never be 
roasted too stronglybut should have abeautiful golden 
brown color, and to attain this end it must at first 
be covered with fat pork slices. 

"Spring chickens will retain their juiciness if covered 
on the back and sides with fat pork slices, a nd are then 
wrapped in gra pe leaves which nave nrst been carefullly 
washed andariedT - "*""" 

A good % hour after they are done, dredge with 
finely rolled cracker crumbs (especially if the chickens 
have not been.larded) which enhances their appearance 
and improves the quality of the gravy; in this case, 
however, the latter should be served without anything 
else being added. Instead of the cracker c rumbs, some 
thick s weet crea m "caTT be'added'^^^jaT^^Rrlng the 
la^TTra^TTiour^orcooIdDg. TheT^''sTioula r *then be 
stronger and ba sting m ore frequ ent. Care should be 
exercised that the gravy" does""nWfBe , eOnfe'*too brown. 

178. Baked Spring Chicken in Gravy. After the 
chickens have been prepared for cooking they are di- 
vided lengthwise and then roasted until tender and 
juicy as directed in the preceding receipt. Take them 
out of "iihe pan, brown some flour in the butter remain- 



162 D.— MpATS. 

ing in the pan, stir with it some strong beef broth, 
chopped mushrooms, a little mace, some lemon slices 
and, perhaps, a glassful of white wine ; cook every thing- 
together to a thick gravy. After stirring through it 
the yolks of a few eggs, fill each half of the chicken with 
the mass, heaping it somewhat in the center., sprinkle 
with grated Parmesan cheese, put into a pan side by 
side and bake in the oven for 15 minutes, after which 
serve without any additions. 

179. Baked Spring Chicken in South Germany Style, 
("Backhaenel"). The chickens should be about 6 or 8 
weeks old ; after plucking and washing, hold them in 
hot water for a minute, then in cold water, and with a 
sharp knife divide them lengthwise into two pfeces, take 
out the backbone and cut each half in two sideways, 
thus dividing the chicken into quarters. Sprinkle with 
fine salt and turn in flour, dip in eggs beaten with 
water, then turn in bread crumbs which can be used, if 
preferred, with Parmesan cheese, and immediately bake 
in plenty of lard which must not be too hot, to a light 
brown. 8 pieces can be put into the hot lard at a time, 
moving the pan gently to prevent scorching. Only 
about 4 minutes are necessary to bake the chickens 
nicely and give them a good color. 

Drain off the fat by laying the pieces on bread slices 
until all are done, and lightly brown a handful of fresh 
parsley, which has been washed and dried in a cloth, in 
some lard, but to prevent overheating the pan should 
first be taken from the fire. Then serve the chicken on 
a warmed platter and garnish with the parsley, which 
has been sprinkled with a little salt; lay* a little bunch 
of fresh parsley on the meat. 

,180. A dainty Fricassee of Capons, young Spring 
Chickens or Pigeons with Crabs. Divide the chicken into 
quarters and the pigeons lengthwise in two, so that the 
one kind can- be readily distinguished from the other, 
but this maybe done according to preference; capons 
are not cut up. Put on a medium. fire with some salt 
and plenty of butter, cover tightly and after atime turn 
them; in % hour add some boiling bouillon, a few lemon 
slices without any seeds, some mace and finely rolled 
cracker crumbs; cover and cook slowly until tender but 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 163 

the meat should not drop to pieces. During the last 
15 minutes of cooking add to the stew the following 
ingredients, prepared as described under A, 35 to 37: 
Veal sweetbreads, crabs with dressing, mushrooms, 
asparagus .tips, small sausages and when serving add 
wheat bread dumplings which have first been cooked in 
salted water or bouillon, oysters, crab tails and crab 
butter, stir the yolks of 1 or 2 eggs through the gravy. 
Send to the table with croutons, which will take the 
place of pastry. 

Remark. — A plain fricassee is cooked similarly, excepting that the finer 
ingredients are omitted and boiling water is taken instead of bouillon. 

181. Chicken Fricassee in Rice with Crabs. Cook 
30—40 crabs, pick the meat out of the tails and claws 
and pound the shells (not too fine) in a mortar, and 
stir them on a medium fire until the butter begins to 
raise and turn red. Pour'in some meat broth, boil for 
% hour and strain through a fine sieve covered with a 
clean cloth. Boil from %*-l pound of scalded rice in 
bouillon until quite thick, adding some salt. In the 
meantime cook a chicken fricassee, using for this pur- 
pose the crab . bouillon made as directed, putting in 
sweetbreads, small sausages, crab tails and crab dump- 
lings (see under Division 0). Put the rice into a deep 
dish; have a hollow in the center large enough to con- 
tain the fricassee without any gravy. Then close the 
opening with the rice and smooth the surface nicely, 
pour over it melted butter and brown in the oven to an 
amber color, basting it occasionally with some of the 
sauce. The rest of the sauce should be cooked in the 
meantime, stirring through it either lemonjuice or wine 
and the yolks of eggs or crab butter. When on the 
table an opening is made in the top of the rice, put 
in a few spoonfuls of the sauce and pass the, rest of the 
latter in a boat. 

182. A fine Ragout of young Spring Chickens and 
Pigeons. For 12 persons take 4 spring chickens or 8 

■ pigeons. Get them ready as directed in No. 180 and 
stew them in butter until done. Brown a piece of butter 
the size of a hen's egg, throw in some flour and also 
brown it, being careful notto scorch. The browned flour 
is stirred with the brtith in which the birds have been 



164 t D.— Meats. 

cooked, afterwards adding a brown meat broth (which 
can be made of extract of beef) together with ^, sliced 
lemon, some ground cloves, pepper and salt; as soon 
as this commences to boil add according to pleasure 
any of the following : A small handful of either fresh or 
canned mushrooms cut into small pieces, or 6 — 8 sliced 
truffles, % pound of veal sweetbreads, % pound of large 
sweet chestnuts, % cupful of capers and 1 teaspoonful of 
pistachios and besides these, dumplings made from % 
pound of finely chopped meat. The- preparation of the 
above ingredients and the length of time they should 
cook in the ragout is described in Division A; the dump- 
lings are boiled in meat broth or salted water, and put 
into the ragout at last when it«is sent to the table. The 
gravy should be rather thick and just slightly sour. 

183. Spring Chicken in Sauce. Put on the fire in 
a little boiling water with salt, a good-sized piece of 
butter and some parsley root, skim thoroughly and 
cook until not quite tender. Then use the chicken broth 
to make a caper-, mushroom-, anchovy- or crab sauce, 
which is put over the chickens when they are served. 

184. Fricassee or Ragout with a Rice Border. Put 

% pound of rice on the fire in cold water; as soon as it 
begins to boil pour off the water, renew with cold water 
and bring to a boil again. After the last water has 
been poured off, drench the rice' with cold water and 
cook with 1 pint of meat broth, 1% tablespoonfuls of 
fresh butter, salt, a few sliced onions and 12 white 
peppercorns and cook until tender and thick. Then 
butter a round mould, press the rice into it, put it into 
a hot oven for 10 minutes, and then turn it out on a hot 
dish ; however, the rice can be turned out of the mould 
without first being put into the oven. . A dainty ragout, 
fricassee or chicken hash is 'then filled into the rice ring; 
send to the table hot. 

, 185. Chicken Souffle. Cut the chicken very fine and 
mix it with several spoonfuls of white sauce (see receipt), 
a piece of butter stirred to a froth, salt, several spoon- 
fuls of grated Parmesan cheese, and the yolks of 2 or, 3 
eggs, frothing thewhites and stirring through the mass. 
Butter several small souffle cases and fill with the mass, 



. Tame and Wild Fowl. 165 

put, on a tin and bake them in a medium oven to a light 
brown. This dish must be eaten immediately. The 
souffle can be made from chicken remnants if desired. 

186. Chicken with Hacaroni or Rice. Cook 5 ounces 
of macaroni in salted water and cool in cold water, 
butter a smooth pudding mould, in the center of it 
arrange a star of mushrooms, winding the macaroni 
around and about the star, brush' with the yolks of 
eggs, cover thickly with forcemeat A, No. 24, and put 
diced remnants of chickens, veal sweetbreads, ox tongue, 
truffles, mushrooms, crab tails and small dumplings 
into the mould in layers; fill around the edge of the 
mould thickly with the macaroni, also brushed with 
egg, and then pour a very thick crab- or Bechamel 
sauce over the contents of the dish, put on another 
layer of the forcemeat, and finally cover the surface 
closely with the macaroni. Cook in a double kettle for 
an hour, turning out of the mould and serve with the 
remainder of the crab- or Bechamel sauce. Rice may be 
substituted for the macaroni, and various kinds of the 
finer varieties of vegetables can be used instead of the 
sweetbreads, etc. 

187. Chicken with Pearl Barley. Put a nicely pre- 
pared chicken on the fire in some salted water as for a 
soup, using less water, however, (see chicken soup, B, 
No. 18,) skim well, add a piece of butter and a little 
mace and cook slowly under a tight cover; often chick- 
ens are fat enough so that the butter is unnecessary. 
In the meantime cook 3 ounces of pearl barley with 
chicken broth until quite tender — it should at last be 
quite thin enough to be eaten with a spoon instead of a 
fork; the chicken broth is not put in at once, but is 
added gradually. The chicken is then placed whole, or, 
if preferred, divided into pieces, into the bottom of a 
round dish with the pearl barley surrounding the meat. 
Browned butter may be put over this dish, but it is not 
absolutely necessary. 

188. Chickens in Rice. Boil the chickens in salted 
water, skim and cook with a large piece of butter until 
done. Scald the rice, add the chicken broth gradually 
and cook slowly until the rice is quite tender but not 



166 D.— Meats. 

pulpy; % hour before it is tender add, according to 
taste, some nicely washed raisins to the rice and gradu- 
ally fill in the remaining broth to prevent the rice from 
becoming too thick. Cut up the chickens, keep them 
hot and put them into the middle of the dish, surround 
with the lice and garnish with small dumplings accord- 
ing to taste. 

189. Chickens with Tomatoes. Cut up two spring 
chickens before they are cooked, bone them and after 
smashing the bones fry them with the wings and drum- 
sticks in 4 spoonfuls of the best olive oil. Then add 
3 chopped onions, a bunch Of parsley and salt, pepper 
and the breast pieces, furthermore 10 sliced tomatoes 
and 1 small cupful of strong bouillon, and stew all 
together until tender. Arrange the meat with a rice 
border, strain the gravy, thicken if necessary and pour 
it over the meat. 

190. Roasted young Pigeons should be killed a day 
or two before cooking, plucked iand drawn, but must 
not be exposed to the air after being plucked. Fill with 
forcemeat A, No. 26, if desired, put on a medium fire in 
a vessel having a tight fitting cover, with plenty of 
good butter and a few grains of salt (they are easily 
oversalted) ; roast slowly but continuously until they 
are quite tender. Pigeons should roast to a yellow 
color only and the gravy must not in the least be too 
dark. 

Great care in preparing pigeons is particularly neces- 
sary when they are intended for the Sickroom. When 
ready to serve, a few fresh chopped juniper berries (not 
ground or pounded) may be put into the butter and 
a small spoonful of sweet cream be added during the 
roasting; however, both are matters of taste, the main 
point is that the color be light and the meat tender, 
especially if for invalids. 

191. Young Pigeons with Asparagus Tips. After „ 
preparing the pigeons scald them for a minute in seeth- 
ing hot water, cool in fresh water and salt them. Then 
fry in butter until yellow all over, add 1 onion, 1 carrot, 
parsley, and after dredging some flour over the pigeons, 
a cupful of meat broth; then stew the pigeons until, 
tender. Put them where they will remain not, strain 



Tame and Wild -Fowl. 167 

the gravy and thicken it, if necessary, with some bread 
crumbs, and stir the yolks of 4 eggs through it, add 
lemon juice, alittle pepper andflne sugar; have ready as- 
paragus tips cooked in salted water, mix them through 
the gravy, put into the center of a deep dish and ar- 
range over it the pigeons divided into halves. 

192. Roast Duck. Ducks can be roasted with or 
without filling. They are filled with currants and quart- 
ered apples, or else with the following dressing- which is 
preferable: Chop the heart, lungs, liver and stomach 
(which must have the skin removed) very finely, add a 
piece of butter the size of half an egg, 2 eggs, about 
5 ounces of wheat bread soaked in cold water and then 
well pressed, nutmeg and salt. 

In England a filling is made consisting of a mixture 
of onions stewed in butter, bread crumbs, sage and a 
little salt. The forcemeats used for filling turkeys are 
also well adapted for ducks. 

In Saxony a sprig of mugwort is simply placed in 
the duck; in Bavaria a filling consisting of potatoes 
and pork sausages is considered good. It is made of 
peeled and diced boiled potatoes and the sausages are 
fried and sliced; the diced potatoes are stewed until 
done with sliced onions, parsley, pepper and nutmeg, 
shaking frequently, then mixed with the sausage slices 
and filled into the duck. 

Rub the duck with some salt, put it on the fire with 
plenty of butter and a little water, cover tightly and 
roast slowly for 2 — 2% hours according to the age of 
the duck, if necessary occasionally adding a dash of 
boiling water along the side of the vessel. Basting must 
not be neglected. As soon as the duck is tender prepare 
the sauce'as directed for turkey. 

193. Ducks stewed with Onions. Boil the duck in 
salted water and skim ; add Y 2 soupplateful of sliced 
onions, some wheat bread and cloves, cook all together 
until tender. Strain the gravy, cook it with lemon 
slices and spread it over the duck. 

194. Ducks with Claret. The duck should be lightly 
roasted in butter with a few sliced onions, being careful 
not to get it too brown, otherwise the butter will be apt 



168 D.— Meats. 

to lose its flavor. Then add boiling water, some lemon 
peel, cloves, cardaitaon seeds and salt, afterwards some 
flour lightly rubbed in butter, dark meat broth, and 
when ready to serve, a large glassful of claret and a few 
lemon slices. The gravy must have a brownish color 
and be of a good consistency. Truffles cooked in the 
gravy improve the dish. 

195. Ducks a la Frangaise. Chop the liver with 
some pork fat and eschalots, and make up into a force- 
meat with some wheat bread soaked in water and 
pressed, 2 eggs, nutmeg and salt, fill into the duck and 
sew. Line the bottom Of the kettle with butter or fresh 
bacon and roast the duck in it to a yellow color. Add 
a handful of parsley, 3 or 4 whole onions and when the 
broth is all cooked away, some carrots. Pourin 1 pint 
of water or weak bouillon, and cook the duck in this 
until light brown in color and well done. Stir through 
the gravy a little browned flour, boiling water, a trifle 
of vinegar and, according to taste, a piece of sugar, and 
stew the duck in this for a few minutes longer. 

196. Ducks with Dumplings. Line a kettle with a 
number of pork fat slices, put in the duck, ,and add 
peppercorns, cloves, 2 — 3 bay leaves and a few onions. 
Cover the kettle tightly and stew the duck on a medium 
fire, turning it once. After half an hour, add some 
lemon peel in small pieces and enough meat broth so 
that the duck can cook in it until tender. Have ready 
% of the quantity of forcemeat A, No. 26, add to it some 
ground cloves and the finely chopped liver, heart and 
stomach of the duck; roll up into little dumplings. Then 
thicken the gravy with flour lightly browned in butter, 
add a few lemon slices and some wine, and stew the 
duck in this for a little while longer. During this time 
boil the dumplings in bouillon or salted water, gar- 
nish the duck with them when served, strain the gravy 
through afine sieve, adding to itthe mushrooms cooked 
until white; the gravy is poured over the duck. 

197. Stewed Duck in a Brown Gravy. For a full 
grown young duck take 1 pint of water, a piece of 
butter the size of an egg, 6 eschalots, the necessary salt, 
cover tightly and stew slowly until tender so that the 
gravy will not be too scant. When the duck is done, 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 169 

stir with it a spoonful of flour browned in butter, %— 1 
glassful of wine, 4—6 ground cloves, a little sugar, and 
stir the duck in this for a little while longer. 

198. Ducks with New Turnips. Prepare the ducks 
as directed in No. 196. Peel small new turnips, cut 
them into pieces of uniform size, boil in hot water, and 
after cooling them in fresh water, steam them with 
butter, a little meat broth, salt and some sugar until 
tender, but they should not become too soft. Keep the 
ducks in a hot place, take the fat from the gravy, 
thicken the latter with flour browned in butter, mix 
with a cupful of thick, sweet cream and then put part of 
the gravy with the turnips. Cut up the ducks, heat 
them in the gravy and serve them with the turnips 
arranged around the meat as a garnish. Bring to the 
table with roasted potatoes. 

199. Jellied Ducks. (See directions in Division M.) 

200. Wild Ducks are prepared for cooking the same 
as tame ducks, wrapped in slices of pork fat and roasted 
without filling in a pan with butter and pork fat slices 
until juicy and tender; thick cream may be added if 
desired. 

201. Wild Ducks. The best methods of cooking 
according to the age, etc., of the duck are the same as 
directed for a wild goose under No. 209. If intended for 
a roast, rub it with fine salt and pepper, wrap in fat 
pork slices and roast with butter for 1 hour in the oven, 
basting frequently; or else put on the fire with plenty 
of butter and nice kidney suet, 2 bay leaves, 2 lemon 
slices and 8 juniper berries ; cover tightly. As soon as 
the duck is yellow on both sides pour over it a very 
little boiling water and then roast slowly until tender 
and of a light brown color. The addition of thick 
cream will be found an improvement. S tir up the gravy 
with some cold water and cook it with a little extract 
of beef and a glassful of claret and serve. An old 
wild duck should be cooked like* brown ragout of hare 
("Hasenpfeffer"), using plenty of onions, but no sugar. 

202. Roast Goose. After the goose has been gotten 
ready as directed under D, VII, No. 168, c, fill the body 
with quartered apples, which can be mixed with raisins 



170 D— Meats. 

or dried currants, or else with diced toasted bread; 
sometimes the filling consists of boiled chestnuts or 
small potatoes and salt, after sewing the opening put 
the goose into the pan with salt, pour in a pint of water, 
cover tightly and then roast until tender; as soon as 
this point has been reached, take off the cover and 
proceed with the roasting and baste, adding boiling 
water from time to time. To make the crust nicely 
crisp quickly pour a few spoonfuls of cold water over 
the skin about half an hour before the roast is done. 
The goose as well as the gravy must have a light brown 
color. When serving, be sure to remove the thread and 
finish the gravy as directed for roast turkey. Very 
young geese are roasted without water but with plenty 
of butter because usually they have very little fat. 
Small-sized geese, if young, require about 1 hour for 
roasting, large-sized ones from 2 — 2% hours. 

. For a very fine roast the following filling is con- 
sidered very superior. Chop the l iver of the goose 
together with 9 ounces each of c alf s liver , veal_ and - 
.pork ye rv fine, strain, add about l^od'hces of sliredded 
pork' fat, a little thyme, sa lt, pepper, the yolks of 2jggS... 
and some soaked and presse d wheat bread, stirring all 
of this to a smooth dressing. ~ ■— ■ 

203. Qoose in Jelly. See Division M. 

204. Fried Goose Liver. Lay the liver into Water 
and . mjlk for a few hours ; dry it and cut into slices, or, 
if very small", TeaTJftirWlftJte, salt, turn in egg and bread 
crumbs, and then fry in butter— if sliced fry for 2 min- 
utes, and if whole for 10 minutes. Serve with a border 
of steamed apple slices, or cover it with a truffle or 
Madeira sauce ; in the latter case it need not be turned 
in the egg and bread crumbs. 

205. Qoose Giblets in.Westphalian Style. For this 
dish take everything that is not wanted for the roast: 
neck, wings, liver, heart, stomach and, perhaps, the 
legs ; the latter are laid in hot water and skinned. The 
neck as well as the rest is divided into several pieces. If 
the meat is not to be used at once, set it aside in some 
vinegar. When ready to cook put it on the. fire with 
not too much salted water, adding a few onions, 4 bay 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 171 

leaves, pepper and cloves and, according to taste, 2 
hahdfuls of scalded prunes; cook until done. Brown 
flour in butter, being careful not to scorch, stir it 
through some of the broth and add to the giblets, 
together with some vinegar and a piece of sugar to 
impart a sweet-sour taste to the gravy. In some parts 
of Germany it is customary to use grated honey cake 
instead of the browned flour, to bind the gravy. If any 
of the blood of the goose has been caught this is cooked 
with the giblets, greatly improving the color and flavor 
of the dish, but in such case very little flour must be 
used because the gravy is sufficiently thickened by the 
blood. The gravy should be plentiful, nicely thick and 
have a spicy apd tart flavor. Potatoes are a proper 
accompaniment. 

If the giblets should be insufficient in quantity, add 
a small piece of diced pork fat; peeled and sliced pears 
can be cooked with them and if there should not be 
enough blood to properly thicken the gravy, use some 
flour rubbed in butter. In Mecklenburg bread dump- 
lings previously cooked in salted water are added to 
the dish. 

Remabk. •— When killing the goose the blood may be caught and stirred 
with vinegar, and it will keep in the Winter from three days to a week if the 
weather is cold enough and it is set aside in a cool place ; without the vinegar, 
however, it would spoil very soon. 

206. Goose Giblets are cooked in a variety of ways 
in different parts of Europe. According to the Stettin 
receipt, the meat is put on the fire in salted water as 
directed in No. 205 and cooked in a rather scant broth 
until done. After this some butter is browned, a few 
finely chopped onions and also some flour are lightly 
browned in it, the whole stirred with some broth and 
added to the giblets, sharply seasoned with pepper and 
thyme and cooked for a few minutes longer in the 
gravy. 

In North Germany apples and dried currants are- 
preferred cooked with the giblets, omitting the blood; 
in Brandenburg finely sliced new turnips and potatoes 
are added; in Pommerania, kohlrabi, celery root, car- 
rots and parsley roots are cooked with the broth of the 
giblets, which are also seasoned with parsley ; and in 
Russia a mixture of the giblets with steamed dried fruit 



172 D.— Meats. 

of various kinds, such as pears, apples, plums anJ 
cherries is considered a delicacy. No blood is used in 
cooking giblets according to any of these modes. 

207. Stuffed Goose Neck. This makes an excellent 
dish for the supper table and is prepared as follows: 
Take the thick outer skin of the neck, rub it inside and 
out until very clean and fill it two-thirds full with the 
forcemeat A, No. 24, or else with a dressing made of the 
finely chopped liver, stomach and heart* of the goose, 
mushrooms, fresh bacon, pork, a little majoram, eggs 
and bread crumbs. Sew the neck at both ends, fry in 
goose oil until done, press it between two flat -weights 
and send to the table in slices. Instead of frying the 
neck it can also be cooked in meat broth mixed with 
some white wine. 

208. Brown and White Ragout of Goose. The whole 
goose is cut into pieces and cooked until tender in 
• salted, water with the heart, stomach, liver, a few onions, 

3 bay leaves, % of a sliced lemon — removing the seeds 
and white inner skin — and a pinch of fine pepper. If it 
is to be a brown ragout, add some ground cloves, flour 
browned in butter, vinegar, a small piece of sugar and 
at last, the blood of the, goose. If the ragout is to be 
white, omit the vinegar, blood, and sugar, and instead 
of these add lightly browned flour, a few lemon slices 
and ground nutmeg, and the yolk of an egg is stirred 
through the gravy. 

209. Wild Goose. An old wild goose is decidedly 
tougher than an old tame one, consequently young 
wild geese only are fit for roasting. Otherwise cut into 
small pieces as directed in D, VII, No. 168, c., f and let 
it stand for a week in a pickle of boiled vinegar, bay 
leaves and cloves, turning it daily. Proceed as with 
ragout of hare ("Hasenpfeffer"), omitting the sugar. 

For roasting*, the goose is rubbed inside and out 
with salt, pepper and ma,ce and roasted like a tame 
goose— without stuffing, however — in butter and kidney 
suet, until yellow and tender. % cupful of cream added 
duringthe last half hour of cooking improves the gravy. 

210. Roast Pheasant. The pheasant should be hung 
in its plumage for 2 or 3 days before cooking. After 
the pheasant is plucked, singe over burning spirits and 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 173 

prepare otherwise as usual with fowls, draw, and dry 
iuside carefully with a cloth, sprinkle with fine salt and 
tie a slice of pork fat over" the breast. Roast the pheas- 
ant in plenty of butter for 1 — 1% hours until juicy, 
tender and of a golden brown color. , 

Partially take up all of the fat that remains in the 
pan, then stir into the latter browned flour and cold 
bouillon, cook to a nice gravy which is served in a boat. 
The most fitting cornpot to serve with the pheasant is 
one of peaches or apricots; a celery salad or water 
cresses are also appropriate accompaniments. 

211. Pheasants with Sourkrout. Take for this dish 
older birds which are not so well adapted for roasting, 
prepare them as for a roast, wrap in pork slices and 
then roast in butter until about half done. In the 
meantime cook about as much sourkrout as is neces- 
sary (about a quart for 2 oheasants) in an enameled- 
stew pan, together with a cupful of onions lightly 
browned in butter, 2 cupfuls of strong meat broth and 
% bottle of white wine; put in both of the pheasants 
and let all stew together slowly until done; cut up the 
pheasants, cook a few spoonfuls of dark meat broth 
through the sourkrout; serve. 

212. Pheasants with Macaroni. This is an excellent 
dish for which the remnants of pheasants can be util- 
ized. All of the skin is removed from the meat and the 
latter cut into little pieces, crush the bones and boil 
them slowly for an hour with a pint of water; strain 
the broth and thicken it with flour browned in butter, 
season with %, teaspoonf ul of extract of beef, % teaspoon- 
ful of mushroom catsup, a glassful of sherry, pepper 
and salt. Heat, but do not cook, the meat in this thick 
gravy. In the meantime cook about 6 ounces of broken 
macaroni in salted water, mix butter, a little bouillon 
and grated Parmesan cheese through the macaroni. 
Serve immediately, filling the meat with the gravy into 
the center of the dish, placing the macaroni around it 
in a border. 

213. Partridges, Grouse or Prairie Chickens are pre- 
pared for roasting like other fowl and, sprinkled with 
fine salt. Tie a thin slice of pork fat over the breast 
of the bird and roast it either on the spit or else in the 



174 D— Meats. 

oven with plenty of butter and a little water. Cover 
tightly and roast for %— 1 hour with great care, basting 
frequently and towards the last occasionally adding a 
spoonful of sweet or sour cream. When ready to serve, 
all that remains in the pan is loosened and stirred up 
with some cold water, a teaspoonf ul of rice flour and a 
little extract of beef, so as to bind the gravy somewhat, 
which is then finished with perhaps the addition of a 
little salt. 

A very dainty accompaniment to a roast of this' 
kind'is made as follows: Mince the heart and liver of 
the bird very fine, mix with them a few crushed juniper 
berries and stew for a few minutes in butter shortly 
before the meat is done. Toast a number of neatly 
trimmed slices of bread, spread with the paste prepared 
as above directed and surround the roasted birds with 
them. These patties must be ready at the same mo- 
ment the meat is to be sent to the table. 

214. Partridges in Saxony Style. After preparing 
the partridges as directed in the preceding receipt, lard 
the breast, sprinkle with salt, lay a piece of pork fat 

■ over it and wrap two clean grape leaves around each 
bird; put the partridges into hot butter, cover and 
roast slowly, occasionally adding a little water. After 
about % hour put sour cream (a spoonful at a time) 
over them and also bread or cracker crumbs and at the 
very last some melted butter. The grape leaves and 
pork fat, which will drop off during the roasting, are 
served separately. 

215. Cold Prairie Chickens with Gravy. Quarter 
the chickens, arrange them neatly in a dish and cover 
with the following sauce: 3 — 4 tablespoonfuls of good 
olive oil, 2—3 tablespoonfuls of white calf's foot jelly, 
2 tablespoonfuls of best vinegar, very finely minced 
eschalots, a trifle of estragon, pepper and salt, stir 
together until bound to a thick sauce. 

216. Roast Snipe. After the snipe is prepared for 
roasting as directed in 168, f., cover the breast with" 
thin slices of pork fat and turn the head so that the bill 
will point upwards. Put on the fire in cold butter, 
cover and let tliem roast slowly for 1 — 1^ hours. Put: 
a number of thin slices of toasted wheat bread under; 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 175 

the snipe to catch everything dropping from the inside. 
This toast (''Schnepfenbrot") is served in a hot dish, 
laying the birds on it. The snipe can also be drawn 
before roasting; remove the stomach and then chop 
the trail very finely with some pork fat, an eschalot, a 
trifle of lemon peel, some wheat bread soaked in cold 
water and pressed, salt and* pepper. Mix with beaten 
egg and spread on>the toast, which is then fried in lard 
until crisp and juicy. Send the Bnipe to the table sur- 
rounded with the toast, cover with the gravy and lay a 
number of lemon pieces onto the dish. 

217. Salmi of Snipe, Grouse and Wild Duck. Line 
the bottom of a kettle with a few slices of raw ham; put 
the birds on them, add a little salt, a few carrots, a few 
sliced eschalots or onions, and butter; cover tightly 
and roast until yellow, pour in some meat broth and 
keep on the stove until quite tender. Then with a sharp 
knife divide the birds into small neat pieces; all that 
cannot be cut up is ground in a mortar, together with 
the livers and the ham. Boil in the broth in which the 
birds have been cooked, put on a strainer and pour 
over it a little of the meat brbth, but do not stir, 
in order to prevent any bone splinters from passing 
through the sieve. Add some chopped eschalots and a 
pinch of pepper and bring to a boil once with the meat. 
The gravy for a salmi should really receive its consist- 
ency from the strained meat only, but when necessary, 
browned flour or bouillon jelly can be added, or instead 
of both of these toast a piece of wheat bread, roll finely 
and add to the gravy. If the salmi is to be particularly 
dainty mix a little Madeira or claret through the gravy, 
adding truffles and mushrooms at the last. , 

218. Curried Meats. In the East Indies, curries are 
usually made of fowl or fish, but they are also very 
good when made from any other kind of meat. Roasted 
and boiled meats are quite well adapted for curries, 
indeed many prefer a curry made from a roast, or boiled 
meat remnants, instead of having them warmed over or 
made into meat balls. 

* It is undeniable that spices are under certain con- 
ditions beneficial, improve the appetite and aid diges- 
tion. They should never be used to excess, however, and 



176 D.— Meats. 

the consent of the physician should first be obtained 
before spicing the food of sick or debilitated .persons. 
In making curries fresh milk is used as a substitute for 
cocoanut milk. The meat for the curry, whether raw 
or already cooked, should always simmer very slowly 
so that it wilj become very tender. A curry must never 
be cooked on a quick fire and is always eaten with 
boiled rice, which renders the sharpness of. the spicing 
more agreeable to the palate. 

For a curry of fowls, divide Spring chickens or 
pigeons into small pieces as.for fricassee and turn them 
slightly in flour. Brown a piece of butter in a kettle, 
put in the meat and roast rapidly until light brown, 
frequently shaking the kettle ; take out the meat with a 
skimmer and brown a few sliced onions in the butter 
until done, stirring them frequently. Then put the meat 
back into the kettle with the onions, move the kettle 
from over the fire and add enough sweet milk or a good 
bouillon made of extract of beef to cover the meat; 
cover the kettle tightly and simmer very slowly for at 
least 1 hour, but during this time stirring should be 
frequently attended to. After the elapse of half an hour 
smooth 2 teaspoonfuls of curry-powderwith sweet milk: 
Mix it through the meat, salt and simmer for 15 min- 
utes longer. At the last, boil for 1 or 2 chickens about 
% pound of rice in weakly salted boiling water, and put 
it on the colander to drain. The rice should not be 
lumpy and the grains should remain whole. Put the 
rice around the sides of a warmed dish aud fill the curry 
into the opening in the center. Serve. 

A little flavoring of lemon juice can be added accord- 
ing to taste. The gravy for the curry should not be 
thm. 

219. Partridge Cutlets for Invalids. Take from the 
partridge all of the meat that is free from sinews, pound 
it finely and mix with it salt and a spoonful of sweet 
cream. Crush the bones and fry them slightly in butter, 
excepting the wings and drumsticks which are used for 
the cutlets, and cook them with celery or parsley root 
and salt. Mould the minced meat into the form of 
cutlets and put a bone into each one; each partridge 
will make 4 cutlets, which are turned in egg and bread 
crumbs and fried in butter until done. Stir what re- 



Tame and Wild Fowl. 177 

mains in the pan with flour browned in butter, some of 
the bone broth, Madeira and sweet herbs to a gravy for 
the cutlets. 

220. flinced Remnants of Poultry for Invalids. Take 
the best meat from the remnants of any kind of fowl or 
poultry, mince very fine, stew in butter for a few mo- 
ments with a .little flour, a trifle of extract of beef and 
3 spoonfuls of thick sweet cream until it is thoroughly 
hot; serve immediately. 

Besides the above, nearly all dishes of fowl or poul- 
try are nutritious and well adapted for invalids, with 
the exception of fat ducks or geese ; Nos. 172, 173, 175, 
176, 179, 183. 184, 187, 189 and 209 are especially 
recommended for the sick room. 



E.— ^Meat and Game Pies, etc. 



I. LAP.GE MEAT PIES. 

1 . General Directions. The dough must be adapted 
to the kind of pie that is to be made. Chicken-, pigeon-, 
lamb- or veal pies, for which the meat has been fricas- 
seed, are made with a fi a&jjuff paste or a good butter 
crust ; the latter should be used if the* meat is to be 
cooked until done" in the pie. The butter crust is used 
for hare or venison pies ; a water crum, which, of course, 
is not to be eaten, can also be made. 

Meat pies that are tint intended t,n be served at onc e 
after they are ready, m listen ot' be seaso n ed, with lenion 
iuice or vinegar, and m aioram m usL be - jlVLIL into nne 
dishes with, g reafrcautiori, "it at all. 

Always serVe a 1 good jelly "with cold meat pies 6f 
every description, excepting with goose liver patties. 

2. Goose Liver Patties ("Strassburger Gaenseleber- 
Pastete") No. 1. Divide 6 large goose livers into halves, 
cutting them in two where they are joined. Remove 
the yellow spot where the gall bag was attached and 
w ash the livers with sweet milk; w ater must not touch 
tfiem. J ^eel sotM t^ullles, 6111! litem into pieces about 

'the length of the little finger and lard eight of the pieces 
of liver with them. Slice the remaining livers and pound 
very finely, season with a tablespoonful of finely sliced 
eschalots stewed in butter, double this quantity of finely 
sliced truffles, fine salt, a little fine white pepper, nut- 
meg, and pound all this very fine. During the pounding, 
however, gradually add 2 pounds of fresh bacon which 
h»,s previously been boiled for an hour and sliced and 



Large Meat Pies. 179 

pounded after cooling; then pass the whole through a 
sieve. Line a goose liver tureen with thin pork fat 
slices, put in a layer of the forcemeat, then some of 
the whole pieces of liver sprinkled with salt and white 
pepper, another layer of forcemeat, some more of the 
liver and so on until the tureen is tilled ; a layer of the 
forcemeat must be on top. Cover the top with pork" 
fat slices and put the lid on the tureen ; if it does not 
close tightly seal it with strips of paper, using as a 
paste a little flour and Water, put into the oven and 
bake slowly for about 2 hours. For a smaller pie 1% 
hours will perhaps be sufficient. As it sometimes hap- 
pens that fat will drip from the tureen, it should at first 
beset on an old plate and afterwards on a low tripod. 

Goose liver patties can be made as large or as small 
as desired; a nice one can be made from 2 or 3 livers, 
which are then divided into smaller pieces. 

The two following receipts are also according to the 
Strassburg formula and many prefer them to the pre- 
ceding one, beca"use the patties are not so rich and 
consequently more wholesome. 

' 3. Goose Liver Patties, No. 2. Kemove every bit of 
skin from 3 pounds of veal and then chop the latter 
very finely with a handful of eschalots, the thin peel of 
a lemon (yellow part only), 10—12 freshened anchovies 
and a handful of chopped capers; add thereto ahand^ 
ful of whole capers, a handful of grated wheat bread, 
pounded spices the same as in the preceding receipt and 
enough whit$ wine to make a smooth dough. Take % of 
a pound of butter, 4 eggs, salt, water, and enough flour 
to make a stiff dough, knead it thoroughly; butter an 
appropriate.mould, sprinkle with grated bread, roll the 
dough, ^line the mould with it so that it will extend 
somewhat over the edges. 

Sprinkle the dough with grated wheat bread, put in 
a layer, of forcemeat, then a layer of the truffles cooked 
with spices in wine, a layer of sliced goose livers, another 
layer of forcemeat, truffles, goose livers, and so on until 
the mould is filled, the last layer must consist of force- 
meat. The contents are then entirely covered with pork 
fat slices and over these place strips of dough to bind 
the whole together; then make a cover of dough with 
a: knob in the center; the dough extending over the 



180 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

mould is turned inwards onto the cover and the edges 
then pressed together. ' Bake in the oven until light 
brown, which will take about 2 hours. When cold, turn 
out of the mould. Take 2 gbose livers for this patty. 

4. Goose Liver Patties, No. 3. The whiter and fatter 
the liver the better will be the patty. For a patty of 
medium size take 2 large goose livers that have lain in 
sweet milk for half a day, 1 pound of lean pork, 1 pound 
of leaf lard and 1 pound of truffles. Cut the livers into 
pieces, clean the truffles as already directed, sprinkle 
them with salt and white pepper and insert the truffles 
into the liver. Make a forcemeat of the pork, leaf lard, 
fragments of the liver all minced very finely and sea- 
soned with pepper and salt, pass through a sieve, salt 
the livers and then pack them into a pastry mould 
in layers, alternately with truffles and the forcemeat. 
Bake for 2— 2% hours in a medium hot oven; if one 
wishes to keep the patty for any length of time pour 
over it melted clear lard. 

Turned Heat Pies (Timbale). Note. — Timbales are 
a variety of hot meat pies now very frequently pre- 
pared. They are cooked in a cylindrical double bottom 
mould made of tin ; after the pie is done it is turned out 
of the mould and takes its name (timbale— drum) from 
its shape ; serve as a hot entree before the roast. 

Small timbales are made in the same manner iii 
little tin forms, but are then served after the soup (see 
No. 39). The filling for timbales is made in a variety 
of ways, but a good, firm chicken-, veal- or wild fowl 
forcemeat is always necessary, as well as a very fine 
ragout of veal sweetbreads, fowls, goose livers or fish 
with mushrooms, truffles or small dumplings; the ra- 
gout should be made with a strong, well cooked and 
thick brown or white gravy. The timbales will drop to 
pieces immediately if the forcemeat is too thin or if the 
ragout gravy is not well bound. 

Sometimes the outer wall or ring of a timbale con- 
sists of boiled rice; macaroni or a fine crusi!; it is occa- 
sionally sent to the table sweetened. 

5. 1 Timbale of Grouse. Pluck 3 grouse, singe over 
burning spirits, draw, and clean inside and out with 



Large Meat Pies. 181 

flour and water, Cut off the drumsticks, fry the breasts • 
Very juicy in butter, allow them to cool and then cover 
with buttered paper. 

Butter the timbale mould very carefully, and line 
the sides and. bottom with the breasts of the grouse, 
sliced cold, with truffles between. The slices will adhere 
to the buttered mould if pressed against it slightly. 
Spread over this lining (covering the bottom first and 
then the sides), three quarters of the forcemeat about 
% inch thick, taking care to fill all intervening spaces, 
and then put in the ragout, cover to the thickness of 
% — 1 inch with the rest of the forcemeat, with a sheet of 
buttered paper on top. An hour before serving the tim- 
bale is pat into the oven in boiling water, and shortly 
before sending it to the table turn it out onto a round 
dish. The mould is not taken off at once, but should 
remain about 1 minute longer after which it is cau- 
tiously lifted out; pour some of the gravy oyer the 
timbalej and serve the remainder in a boat. Frequently 
the forcemeat .contains all of the meat of the birds and 
the mould is lined with sliced truffles only, then with 
the forcemeat, with the ragout in the center of the 
dish. Or the roasted breasts of the grouse are slightly 
warmed and laid on the timbale after the latter is ready 
to send to the table: 

The forcemeat is made of two parts of meat, con- 
sisting of the flesh from the chicken's drumsticks, care- 
fully skinned, with the sinews taken out and mixed with 
veal, one part of fa ; t and one part of crust. The fat used 
for a fine forcemeat is taken from a fat calf, and is that 
part from which the udder finally develops; when not 
obtainable, substitute for it, veal kidney suet or good 
pork fat. 

To make the crust take 1 pint of water and 1 tea- 
spoonful of butter. As soon as this begins to boil, 
dredge in enough flour, constantly stirring, to make a 
thick dough, which is then taken out of the kettle. 
Partially dry it on a slow fire, put it on a plate, cover 
with buttered paper and let it cool. The meat and fat 
for the forcemeat is chopped very finely, each separately,' 
then pound together in a mortar, gradually stir into it 
the crust together, with 2 whole eggs and the yolks of 
2 eggs, season with salt and nutmeg and pass through 



182 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

a Sieve. This forcemeat is very nice and will keep for a 
longtime. 

The ragout is made of well prepared sweetbreads 
which have been eopked in bouillon. Brown 2 table- 
spoonfuls of flour in butter, make a sauce of water, 
extract of beef and 1 large glassful of Madeira and' cook 
in it the sweetbreads cut into slices, sliced truffles and 
mushrooms,.salt, and stir through itthe yolks of 2 eggs. 
Pound and crush the remnants and bones of the birds 
and cook with the scrapings of the roast in the pan, 
some water and extract of beef, 'take off the fat and 
then cook with Madeira and flour browned in butter to 
a thickish gravy; then salt and strain. When the tim- 
bale ,is on the dish pour over it a little of the sauce, 
and serve the remainder in a boat. Or else the timbale 
is sent to the table without any gravy and the extract 
from the bones used for the ragout sauce. 

6. Timbale of Macaroni and Loin of Venison. Take 
% pound of macaroni and break them up into small 
pieces of uniform size. Cook for % hour in salted water, 
drain, mix with 2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter and 
4 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, butter the 
timbale mould carefully and line it all over thickly with 
the macaroni. Make a veal forcemeat, taking, about 
% pound of clear veal without any sinews, 3 ounces of 
fresh bacon, 5 eggs, salt, pepper, grated : nutmeg and 
chopped herbs, using the crust described in the preced- 
ing receipt. Blanch a few veal sweetbreads, cut them 
up and fry slightly in butter, slice % of a pickled tongue, 
stew some mushrooms and neatly'lard a tenderloin of 
beef; the latter is then cut into slices J£ inch thick, and 
spread over them a mixture of about 3 heaping table- 
spoonfuls of butter stirred with a pinch of salt and 
cayenne pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley and 
the juice of a lemon, all passed through a sieve together; 
fry the meat on both sides in butter. Then cover the 
macaroni in the mould with the forcemeat, put in all of 
the other ingredients that have been prepared, cover 
with a layer of the forcemeat and finally put on a thick 
layer of the macaroni and then bake the timbale in the 
oven for 1% hours. Turn the timbale out of the mould, 
pour over it a thick Madeira sauce (see Division R) and 
serve the other gravy in a boat. 



Large Meat Pies. 183 

7. Timbale with Ragout. Butter a round timbale 
mould, dust it with finely grated wheat bread, beat 
4 eggs in lukewarm butter with salt and grated Par- 
mesan cheese to athickish but liquid mass, pour into 
the mould to cover all around and then sprinkle again 
with grated bread. Have ready a pound of rice that 
has been washed, scalded and then cooked in bouillon 
with a piece of butter, salt and some mace until tender 
and firm, and afterwards mixed with 2 tablespoonfuls 
of meat gravy, and 6 spoonfuls of grated Parmesan 
cheese. A ragout consisting of mushrooms, fowl livers, 
veal sweetbreads and slightly roasted pigeon breasts 
and a thick, strong Madeira sauce should also have 
been prepared in the meantime. Line the mould uni- 
formly with , the rice, fill in the ragout and cover it very 
evenly wjth rice. Bake, the pie for 1 hour, turn it out of 
of the mould, cover, with. Madeira sauce and serve the 
remainder of the sauce in a boat. 

8. Game Pie. In Water Crust. To make the crust 
for a medium-sized game pie, boil % pound of butter 
and M pound of kidney suet in % pint of water ; put 
3 pounds of flour on the moulding board, make a de- 
pression in the center and gradually stir the boiling 
water into the flour; this will make a strong dough 
which must be well kneaded and be very firm. The 
meat, whether hare or venison, should be previously 
washed and the skin and all sinews removed, cut into 
pieces of appropriate size and mixed with good-sized 
pieces of pork fat.. Then take eschalots or onions, 
sweet basil, majoram, cloves, pepper and ground cloves 
all chopped finely, and rub the meat with this season- 
ing. Line the bottom of a kettle with slices of pork fat, 
put in the meat with a few bay leaves and a small piece 
of butter, coyer tightly and cook until half done. The 
meat can also be pickled the day before in the following 
manner: Stir the herbs and spices named in wine or 
Vinegar, turn the meat in this liquor and put it into a 
flat dish, pour the liquor over it and cover. The next 
day it should also be cooked with pork fat until half 
done. Make, a forcemeat consisting of either 4 parts 
of meat from game,. free from skin or sinews, or else 
6 parts, of lean pork to 1 part of fresh pork fat chopped 
very finely, to which add lemon peel, eschalots stewed 



1S}4 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

in butter, a trifle of capers, all chopped very finely, some 
wheat bread soaked in cold water and then pressed; 
salt, the yolks of a few eggs, with the whites beaten to 
a froth, everything; mixed well together. Then roll a 
piece of the dough for the under crust about the thick- 
ness of a finger, put it into the buttered pan,roll a piece 
of the dough between the hands for the rim and flatten 
it with the rolling pin to the width of about 2 inches; 
cutting off both ends smoothly. The rim must be higher 
than the meat in the pan to leave room for the gravy, 
which is added later on. Now brush the lower crust 1 
with eggs* set around its edge the long strip of doUgh 
to make the side wall, put a few thin slices of pork fat 
on the lower crust and along the sides, spread the force- 
meat over it and then put in the meat a trifle higher 1 in 
the middle and: not too tightly packed, so that the pie 
will receive a: good form, fl there is plenty of forcemeat 
roll some of it into small dumplings and scatter them 
through the meat. After the contents of the pie have 
been covered with pork fat slices, brush its edge with 
the yolk'of an egg, roll sortie qf the dough for a cdver ? 
put it over the pie and press the edges together gently; 
trim the edges, indent them and ornament the top of 
the pie with little globes made Of pie crust, or leaves or 
other ornaments made from the same material. An 
opening about the size of a penny should be left in the 
center, with a little tube made of the pie crust to serve 
as a vent, otherwise the pie will burst. When sent to 
the table a round slice is cut out of the top, the pork 
slices removed and either the dark ineat gravy or a 
truffle sauce filled in. The rest of the gravy is served in 
a boatl 

9. Venison Pie, No. 2. Take a haunch of venison, 
pound it well, wash, remove the skin, cut into slices and 
lard. Pickle for 24 hours as in the preceding receipt; 
the forcemeat, however, is additionally seasoned with 
anchovies and the loosely filled in contents of the pie 
covered with a few spoonfuls of herb broth. 

10. A Hare or Wild Fowl Pie with Butter Crust. 

Clean the hare and after washing remove all sinews and 
skin ; cut the meat from the backbone, divide into pieces 
of fitting size and then lard it. The -wild fowl are also 



Lahge Meat Pies. 185 

cut into pieces. Both kinds of meat are pickled as 
directed in No. 8 and afterwards cooked slowly until 
nearly done. Line a pan thickly with butter, dust with 
cracker or bread crumbs and put in the meat; alter- 
nating with little dumplings made of the forcemeat 
described in No. 8, above, or No. 22, A, so that it will 
be heaping in the middle. Take some of the butter out 
of the pan, stir all adhering to the latter thoroughly 
with water and claret, add some of the herb broth and 
pour through a sieve over the meat. For a medium 
large meat pie take for the crusty pound of flour (see 
English pie crust, Division S), roll until it is about 
Jd inch thick, dust with a little flour and lap crosswise, 
because it then can be laid onto the pie easier; brush 
the edge of the pan with egg, put the crust cover on the 
meat, open it out flat and trim around the edge. From 
the remainder of the dough make a rim, brush the pie 
with egg, put on the rim and brush this also, but not i 
entirely all over, otherwise the crust will not rise. Then 
make 2 small incisions in the middle of the pie to serve 
as vents, and bake in the oven with 1 degree of heat 
(see Division S, No. 1) from 1% — 1% hours, according to 
the tenderness of the meat in the pie. Before sending 
to the table cut a round piece out of the top crust and 
pour a brown meat gravy into the pie, replace the piece 
of crust, cover the edge of the dish with a napkin or frill 
of paper and serve. 

-11. flixed Heat Pies. For these pies take any kind 
of tame or wild fowl, or hare or tenderloin roast, making 
the dough of 1% pounds of flour (English pie crust, 
Division S). Butter a deep pie mould and lay in it 
crosswise two pieces of muslin buttered on both sides, 
which will assist in taking the pie out of the mould 
more conveniently. Roll half of the dough moderately 
thick and line the mould with it as directed in No. 2, or 
else! roll into a large flap, line the mould with it and 
trim along the edge. The wild fowl must be previously 
rubbed with a mixture of chopped onions, salt, cloves, 
pepper, sweet basil and wine, put it on thin pork fat 
slices, cover tightly and let it simmer until almost done. 
With tame fowl omit the coarse spices and use nutmeg. 
Hares with the backbone removed and tenderloin (the 
latter pounded) are also divided into pieces, larded, 



186 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

pickled over night according to No. 8 and then sim- 
mered until nearly done. At the same time take 1% 
pounds of veal and pork, half and half, and make a 
forcemeat as directed in No. 8 of this Division. The 
livers and hearts of tame fowl are chopped and added 
to the forcemeat. Then with a knife make an opening 
clear through to the bottom ; roll a cover for the meat 
from some of the remaining dough, trim this cover 
smoothly all around, brush with egg, lay a border On it 
and also brush it, ornament the top of the pie with 
figures made from scraps of dough and then cut an 
opening in the center about the size of a penny. Accord- 
ing to the contents of the pie it must bake from 2J£— 3 
hours. If it should begin to color too soon, cover it 
with a piece of buttered paper. If the contents of the 
pie consist of wild fowl, add to it a brown meat gravy 
or truffle sauce poured into it from the Opening in the 
top. After the pork fat slices have been removed as , 
much as possible, the opening must again be closed. 
For tame fowl take an oyster-, anchovy-, caper- or 
mushroom sauce, in which the broth of the stewed meat 
can be utilized. This pie can also be served cold; in 
this case pour 1 — 2 cupfuls of strong bouillon into the 
opening through a funnel as soon as the pie ( is taken 
out of the oven ; when the pie is cold close the opening 
with a little wad of paper. » 

12. Mock Turtle Pie. Take 2 pounds of flour for a 
puff paste as described in Division S, cut it into 2 parts 
of unequal size, for the bottom roll the smallest piece 
about Vw of an inch thick, lay the dish in. which the 
pie is to be baked on the dough and cut the latter 
to the size of the dish ; this flap is then placed into the 
dish, which must first be buttered. Form a few sheets 
of paper into the shape of a ball and cover it smoothly 
with a few damp napkins and put the ball so formed on 
the bottom of the middle of the dish so that the inner 
space of the pie can be raised as desired, or else the 
space can also be filled with dried peas. The remainder 
of the dough is then also rolled to the thickness of the 
under crust, and large enough so that a rim about 
2 inches wide can be cut from around the edge of the 

Eie. The upper crust is put onto the dish over the 
all in the center; brush with egg and then put on the 



Large Meat Pies. 187 

rim which is also brushed on top but not on the sides. 
Bake for % hour, then cut out the cover nice and round, 
remove the contents carefully so that the crust will not 
be injured, fill in a ragout and cover with the top crust. 
The finished pie is theu immediately filled with the mock 
turtle ragout, D. No. 79, which should be rather thick. 
To simplify matters a puff paste cover need only be 
prepared, which is then used to cover a ragout filled 
into a deep dish. 

13. Forcemeat Pie. For this pie take 1% pounds of 
flour for a puff paste and make a forcemeat as follows: 
1 pound of beef, 1 pound of veal, 1 pound of pork and 
1 pound of bacon are finely chopped together with the 
requisite amount of salt, and then mix with it 8 eggs 
beaten to a froth, nutmeg, white pepper, a chopped 
onion stewed in butter, finely chopped sweet herbs, 
about % — % pound of cracker crumbs and afewcupfuls 
of wine or bouillon. Then line a meat pie mould to the 
top with crust and fill in the forcemeat, put on the rim 
and upper crust, finish it with an ornament and brush 
with an egg. Cut an opening in the top for a vent and 
serve with a caper-, oyster-, mushroom-, anchovy- or 
brown meat sauce. 

14. Hot Heat Pie of Spring Chickens, Pigeons or 

Veal. First make a hollow pie crust as described in 
No. 12, and a fine fricassee of chicken, doves or veal as 
described in Df No. 75, and fill it into the crust with 
some of the gravy, serving the remainder in a boat. 
Veal fricassee can be improved by the addition of sweet- 
bread dumplings (Division 0). 

15. English Meat Pie. For a pie sufficient for 8 
persons take % pound of flour, 3 heaping tablespoonfuls 
of butter, 1 egg and % cupful of cold water, make up 
into a well kneaded dough and then divide it into two 
unequal parts, roll the smallest piece and cut it into 
strips about 1% inches wide with which line a buttered 
pan. Then take cold roast meat, poultry or meat rem- 
nants of various kinds, cut up into sjnall pieces, put a 
few slices of pork fat into the bottom of the pan and 
the meat on these, adding salt, ground cloves and meat 
dumplings according to taste. Pour 1—2 cupfuls of 
strong bouillon over the meat, roll the other piece of 



188 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

dough to a round flap a little larger than the dish, and 
cover the meat with it; turnthe projecting edge of the 
flap inwards and press it against the edge with both 
fingers to form a rim. Brush the whole with egg, make 
two incisions into the top and then babe the pie for 
1 — V/4, hours. Send to the table in the dish in which it 
was baked. 

16. Fine Heat Pie. Not only mutton, but also beef 
tenderloin or the best cuts of any kind of meat can be 
used for this pie. Ordinarily it is .baked in the oven in 
a buttered porcelain dish and lined with puff paste. 

For a mutton pie use the chops near the neck. Cut 
away the fat and remove the skin, take out the. bones, 
pound the meat until tender, sprinkle with salt and 
pepper and add a few finely chopped onions. , 

Veal is treated in the same manner, omitting the 
onions, but some chopped bacon and. about 1 cupful to 
1 pint of meat broth are added. 

For a pigeon pie the pigeon should be cut. up and 
boned, seasoned with salt, finely chopped onions, and 
slices of lean ham; fill the mould with sour cream in- 
stead of water. .,.....;.: , ,... 

For all of the above pies make a puff paste, taking 
% pound of flour, according to 1 the, preceding directions, 
rolling part of it for a cover. ' Then butter the bottom 
of a mould, liijie it with a crust, fill to the top with the 
meat, alternately sprinkling in a laygr of fine bread 
crumbs and salt. Then pour in enough water with 
dissolved extract of beef to nearly cover the meat, turn 
back the projecting edges of the crust and put on the 
top crust, which should be large enough to closely cover 
the pie and then bake in the oven from 1—V4, hours. 

17. Mac* roni Pie with Ham and Cheese. See Divi- 
sion I. 

18. Crab Pie or Fricassee with Pie. See D, No. 181. 

1 

19. Fresh Fish Pie. Clean and bone the fish, wash 
and cut into pieces. Eemove the gall bag from the 
livers, set the fish aside in salt for a few hours and put 
them into a pickle as described in No. 8, until the next 
day, after which they are dried with a cloth, put into a 
frying pau. with a large piece of butter, leaving them 



Large Meat Pies. 189 

long enough to stiffen; they must not be soft. Have 
ready a puff or butter paste, taking 1&—2 pounds of 
flour and the following forcemeat: 3 pounds of fish 
cleaned and boned, salt, chop finely and then heat thor- 
oughly with the butter some chopped onions -or escha- 
lots. Add % pounds of wheat bread soaked in water 
and pressed, together with eggs and stir the mass over 
the fire until it no longer adheres to the kettle, after 
which let it cool. Then mix with it % pound of butter 
stirred to a cream, 3 more eggs, nutmeg and finely 
chopped parsley. If this forcemeat should be too solid, 
which can easily be tested by rolling a little of it into a 
ball and boiling it in hot water, add a little cream or 
cold water. Then roll the bottom crust as directed in 
No. 10, spread some of the forcemeat on it, cover this 
with pieces of the fish, put on another layer of force- 
meat and so on alternately. Towards the center the 
contents, like those of all other pies, must be raised 
somewhat, the last layer of forcemeat be covered with 
pork fat slices, and a round opening left in the middle of 
the contents of the pie. For the rest the pie is moulded 
and baked like No. 11 . Send to the table with a crab-, 
oyster-, or anchovj' sauce or else with a sauce made as 
follows and of which, as usual, a few cupfuls are put 
into the pie: Lightly brown some flour in butter and 
stir With it bouillon, salt, mace, lemon peel, or instead 
of the latter some of the pickle; when crab tails or 
pickerel livers are handy, chop and add thein to the 
gravy; they should not be cooked but stirred in at last. 
Some of the forcemeat can be reserved and colored red 
with the crab butter or else it may be colored green by 
tbe addition of spinach, which has been cooked and 
rubbed through a sieve. Then roll the forcemeat into 
little balls the size of marbles, but cook in meat broth 
or salted water and put them into the gravy ; into the 
latter stir some finely chopped parsley and the yolks of 
a few eggs. 

20. Pie of Whole Fishes. After cleaning the fish, 
bone them as follows : Slit them down the back with a 
sharp knife, clean 6ut the inside and wash carefully, 
remove all bones, cut off the head, taking care not to 
injure the skin under the body, then pickle according to 
No. 19, fill with the same forcemeat and arrange them 



190 E.— Meat and (jame Pies, Etc. 

oil a bottom crust covered with pork fat slices. For 
the rest proceed according to No, 11. ( 

21. Eel Pie is made according to the receipt No. 
19, the spine, however, is, not "taken out of the eel and 
a few minced sage /leaves are, added to the forcemeat. 
If you have no fish to make the forcemeat with, bread 
crumbs with pieces of butter under and oyer the eel 
may be substituted. The crust for this pie must not;be 
too rich; "Good crust for pie and pastry"., Division S, 
is" suitable. 

22. Salmon Pie: Clean the 'fish, cut it into slices, 
piokle for a few hours according to NO. 19 and get it 
hot in the broth. Prepare a forcemeat according to 
No. 19 and take % pound of flour for , a puff paste and 
roll it. Butter the mOuld, put in half of the forcemeat, 
spreading it evenly to the thickness of % inch, put oh 
the salmon slices and cover them with the rest of the 
forcemeat, then cover with the' puff paste, finish it with 
ar edge and other ornaments and make several incis- 
io is in the top. Bake the pie for 1%— 2 hours. 

• Send to the table With the same sauces described in 
No. 19; a good crab sauce, however, will probably be 
the nicest. 

23. Russian Salmon Pie. Take 2% pounds of salmon 
and remove the skin, bone and cut into thin slices. 
Spritikfe, the latter with salt, pepper and nutmeg and 
let them simmer in butter with sweet herbs until about 
half done. A large goose liver first laid in milk is Cut 
into "slices and stewed in butter; boil a dozen eggs hard, 
and cook % pound of rice in good bouillon with butter 
and salt until tender. When this is ready butter the 
mould, line it with a butter paste, spread the bottom 
and the sides with rice and then put in half of the 
salmon. Sprinkle over them the eggs grated, next put 
in some of the goose liver slices also sprinkled with egg 
and continue in this manner until everything is used. 
Then brush the butter in which the fish and goose liver 
was stewed over the top layer, cover with, rice, then 
cover the top with slices of pork fat and bake in the 
oven to a golden brown. 

Send to the table with a crab sauce. 



Large Meat Pies. 191 

24. Cold Veal Pie. Take a piece of veal weighing 
about 2—3 pounds, cut it into cubes and cook it with 
wine and salt until half done. Then add a few bay 
leaves, cloves, pepper, mushrooms, a celery root and an 
onion, cover and cook slowly for an hour. Get ready; a 
pig's liver, first soaking it in hot water and then chop 
it very fine, strain in order to remove all skin and then 
mix with 1, pound of chopped pork, salt, pepper, nut- 
meg, mace, pounded thyme, majOram, capers, and v 2 
whole eggs, and add the mushrooms which have been 
cooked with the veal- and then finely chopped, to this 
forcemeat, which must be well mixed. Then take the 
veal from the stove, put it on a sieve,, put the broth 
back on the fire, cover and cook thoroughly. The pie 
mould is lined with pork, then put in a layer of force- 
meat, then some of the veal arid continue in. this way 
with a layer of the forcemeat oh top. Pour some of the 
veal sauce between each layer and then bake with a 
good fire for 3 hours. After taking the pie out of the 
mould the pork slices are cut away all around; then 
with a sharp knife divide the pie into neat slices and 
serve with bread and butter. 

25. Picnic Pie. Prepare a hollow Crust as described 
in No. 12 arid in the meantime fry 12 small tenderloin 
beef steaks nicely brown in butter ; boil 1 eggs until 
hard and cut them into dices with about 6 ounces Of 
boiled ham and stew 20 small mushrooms in bouillon 
until tender. Take off the top crust and then fill in 
with beefsteaks, ham, eggs, and mushrooms in layers, 
cover eachlayerwith button onions and capers and drip 
over it a few spoonfuls of meat jelly. The jelly is made 
by cooking the meat bouillon and mushroom broth 
with 1 pint of water, % glassful of Portwine, 1 spoonful 
of estragon vinegar (the latter can be omitted if a sour 
flavor is deemed undesirable), and % teaspoonful of 
extract of beef. Stir % teaspoonful' of dissolved white 
gelatine through this mixture and use the jelly when 
half cool. Let the pie stand in a cool place for a day 
after putting on the cover before serving it. A Remou- 
lade sauce can be added according to taste. 



192 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

II. SMALL MEAT PIES OR PATTIES. 

26. Baking small Heat Pies. A puff paste is the 
best, but a butter crust may also be taken. Roll it out 
thin, arid with a tumbler cut as many tops and bottoms 
as there are to be patties ; put half of these flaps into a 
baking pan lined, with paper and then with a smaller 
glass cut out the centers, thus forming the rims. Before 
these are placed on the patties the edges of the lower 
crust should be brushed with cold wa,ter to make them 
adhere better. 

The patties are filled according to directions either 
before or after baking. 

Have a medium fire and after the elapse of about 
10 minutes break the upper crust of one of the patties 
to ascertain whether they are done or not. The force- 
meat should be thick but not stiff and be filled into the 
patties while hot; when the latter are made with puff 
paste they must previously be indented somewhat in 
the center. Send to the table hot.. 

27. Puff Paste Ornaments (Fleurons) are used to 
decorate a dish of ragout or are served separately with 
the latter. Roll puff paste to the thickness of about 
Vis of an inch, stamp out with a wineglass or other 
utensil, brush the pieces with diluted egg, turn them 
over in the shape of a half moon, brush the upper side 
of these also and bake to a light brown. 

28. Chicken Patties. Take % pound of roast chicken 
(weighed after being boned), 2 tablespoohfuls of capers, 
6 freshened and finely chopped anchovies, % pound of 
butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, % pound of wheat bread 
soaked in bouillon and pressed, afew spoonfuls of stroDg 
roast meat gravy, a little salt and the whites of 2 eggs 
beaten to a froth. 

Chop this to a smooth forcemeat and fill into patty 
moulds lined with butter paste; bake with a good fire 
for 15 minutes until done. 

29. Nice Chicken or Veal Patties with Cheese. Cook 
a strong, nicely prepared ragout in a scant broth and 
stir it up with the yolks of several eggs. Roll butter 
crust very thin and line with it the patty moulds; fill 



Small Meat Pies or Patties. 193 

the mould one-half with the meat cut into small pieces, 
adding some of the sauce and bake with a medium fire 
for fully % hour ; during this time stir a piece of melted 
butter about the size of a walnut, 2 whole eggs, some 
thick sour cream and grated Holland cheese to a thick 
sauce, fill 2 teaspoonfuls into each patty and bake for 
Y± hour longer. 

30. Sweetbread Patties. 1 veal sweetbread is suffi- 
cient for 4 — 5 persons. Set on the fire in cold water 
and as soon as it begins to boil take it out and put it 
into cold water again, remove the skin*, fry in butter 
with a few eschalots, chop finely and then mix together 
with wheatbread soaked in cold water and then pressed, 
3 eggs, of which half of the whites are beaten to a froth, 
lemons, a large piece of butter stirred to a cream, and, 
according to taste, a few freshened and chopped ancho- 
vies ; a number of oysters with their liquor can also be 
added. Fill the patties before they are baked, which.is 
done as directed in the first patty receipt. 

31. Veal Patties. Mince a piece of cold veal very 
finely, season with nutmeg and salt, put it on the fire 
and stir up with a good-sized piece of crab butter, or 
instead of this with fresh butter and some good meat 
gravy, bouillon or sour craam to a rather thick force- 
meat, and after taking from the fire, stir through it the 
yolk of an egg. If you have no crab butter stir through 
the forcemeat at last some chopped parsley, but omit 
the parsley if crab butter is used. A teaspoonful is filled 
as soon as possible into each patty. 

32. Anchovy Patties. Cut roast veal into small 
dice or chop it very fine, chopped eschalots are lightly 
browned in butter with a little flour, season the meat 
with salt, nutmeg and lemon juice, then add to the 
eschalots together with some good roast meat gravy 
or strong bouillon to make a smooth forcemeat ; after 
the latter has been stirred over the fire until thick, add 
the anchovy finely chopped with some fresh butter— they 
should not cook: hut only become thoroughly hot— and 
stir with the yolks of a few eggs and some white wine. 
Fill this forcemeat into the patties while very hot and 
send them hot to the table. 



194 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

33. Oyster Patties. Stir a large piece of crab butter 
or when this is lacking, a piece of fresh butter to a 
cream, addin proportiontheyoIUspf 2— 3 eggs, lemon 
juice, mace and salt, the liquor of the oysters (3 — 4 oys- 
ters for each person), furthermore chopped mushrooms, 
capers, rolled , crackers and finely chopped roast vea\ 
with good roast veal gravy. Half of the whites of the 
eggs are beaten to a froth and stirred through at last. 
H the forcemeat should be too stiff, add a Tittle sour 
cream or strong bouillon or white wine. Fill the patties 
before baking, and after they, have been in the oven, 
which should «be moderately hot, for 10 minutes, lay 
3— i oysters on top of each patty after brushing the 
latterwithegg yolk and lemon juice and sprinkling with 
very finely, rolled cracker crumbs; then. bake for 5 min- 
utes longer. . . . 

34. Crab ' Patties. Stew a few eschalots in butter 
and brown, in it a tablespqohful of fiour, add some 
strong boiling bouillon and coOk for a short time with 
the addition of 5— 6 carefully washed and finely chopped 
truffles or mushrooms. Cook % pound of veal sweet-' 
breads in bouillon until done, remove the skin and 
,'fleshy parts, cut the sweetbreads into small cubes and 
add to the bouillo'n. Cook all of this together until 
smooth, add 30 crab tails chopped into little cubes,.stir 
with the yolks of 2 eggs and fill into the baked patties. 

35. Brown Gravy Patties. Put a piece of butter 
into the kettle and add 1 pound of lean beef, 1 pound of 
veal and 1 pound of lean ham all cut into pieces, stew 
in the butter until lightbrown and then add the onions, 
2, carrots, part of a celery root, --(all sliced), together 
with some mace and 4 cloves, pour in some extract of 
beef bpoth, cover tightly and let it cook slowly until 
the meat is, tender and the gravy amounts to only 
.about 1 pint. Press the meat in a clean cloth until dry 
and let.the gravy stand until clear, after. whi.ch pour it 

, off carefully from the settlings. Then beat up 12 fresh 
eggs, gradually stir in the above mentioned quantity of 
r gravy and pass through a sieve. This gravy is filled 
into half the depth of small buttered tin moulds or cups 
'/■as, cylindrical and highin shape as possible, stand into 
boiling water reaching to half their height and cook 



Small Meat Pies ok Patties. 195 

until the contents are firm. Turn the patties onto an 
appropriate platter and Sprinkle them with lean ham 
and parsley chopped together very finely. 

These patties can be made from remnants of meat of 
most any kind, and the admixture of the meat of game, 
for instance of wild hare, will be found an improvement. 

36. Rice Patties. Thoroughly scalded rice is cooked 
with milk and salt until tender and firm; in the mean- 
time mix some finely chopped boiled ham. with sour 
cream, butter and dredge small moulds with cracker 
crumbs, fill them with the ham, rice and Parmesan 
cheese in alternate layers and bake. 

37. Hasty Patties made from fleat Remnants. Chop 
some remnants of veal roast or any other kind very 
finely together with some fat meat, such as ham, add 
nutmeg, ,salt, a piece of butter, a few eggs, parsley or 
some minced eschalots or onions and stir all on the fire 
to a smooth forcemeat. Cut the upper crust from rolls 
or rusks, take out the center, fill in the forcemeat, cover 
with the top crust and bake. 

38. Mushroom Patties. Grate off the brown outer 
crust from small rolls, cut them into halves, take out the 
center, soak them in milk in which an egg has been 
beaten and then turn in the crumbs. For each roll take 
1 — 2 large mushrooms; clean the latter very carefully 
and cut the heads into, pieces about % inch in size. 
Mince the other parts of the mushrooms with parsley, 
burnet a nd tarragon, rub a finely chopped eschalot in 
butter and then add the mince together with the salt, 
pepper, a little grated lemon peel, a little over K ounce 
of very finely chopped fresh bacon, several whole eggs, 
a few spoonfuls of roast meat gravy and ltablespoonful 
of Portwine, and mix all of this with the pieces of mush- 
rooms. Fill some of the forcemeat into the .rolls, dredge 
the surface with bread crumbs, put a piece of crab but- 
ter on each half roll, sprinkle Vith a few drops of lemon, 
juice and then bake the patties in the oven with a very 
moderate fire. 

39. Patties in floulds. Butter a lot of small tin 
moulds and fill them to three-fourths of their depth with 
the forcemeat described for the ragout pie under No. 7; 



196 E.— Meat and Game Pies, Etc. 

press the forcemeat towards the sides and bottom of 
the mould to form a hollow, into which fill a table- 
spoonful of the ragout prepared as directed in the re- 
ceipt mentioned (No. 7). Then spread enough of the 
forcemeat over the top to completely cover the ragout, 
cover each patty with a piece- of buttered paper and 
stand them in hot water, which should not come higher 
than half the depth of the mOuld, for % hour before 
serving. To cook the patties until they are done the 
water should not be more than boiling hot, and the 
vessel in which they stand must be covered./ After turn- 
ing them out of the moulds, put a round slice of truffles 
or beef tongue on each patty. Serve after the soup 
with or without a sauce. 

40. Baked Chicken Patties. Take the tenderest 
parts of 2 baked Spring chickens, chop finely and mix 
with 4 tablespoonfuls of thick Bechamel sauce and the 
yolks of 6 eggs; if the mass should be too thick add a 
littlecream, and if too thin, bread crumbs; fill into small 
buttered cups. Stand in a double kettle, leaving them 
there until done and firm, which will take about 20 min- 
utes, then turn them out, cover with a crab sauce and 
serve. 

41 . Talleyrand Patties. Butter a lot of small patty 
moulds and line with truffles cut in the shape of noodles, 
and beef tongue slices. Mince remnants of baked chick- 
ens together with a few stewed mushrooms, some bacon 
and a little boiled ham, mix this with a few eggs, salt, 
pepper, nutmeg, bread crumbs and spread the interior 

s of the moulds thickly with this forcemeat. Fill the 
center with a thick mushroom ragout which is prepared 
by stewing small mushrooms in butter and meat broth 
until done, cutting veal sweetbreads into cubes and 
heating both in brown meat gravy. Spread a layer of 
forcemeat over the ragout,' then cook the patties in a 
double boiler for % hour, turn them out of the moulds, 
cover with Madeira sa"uce and serve. 

Meat pies and patties are not adapted for the sick- 
room, because they are too rich and not easily digest- 
ible. 




i Grayling— Aesche; 2 Lobster— Hummer; 3 Sea-mullet — Meerasche; 4 Tench — 
Schleie; 5 Haberdine— KHppfisch ; 6 Perch — Barsch ; 7 Smelt— Stmt; 8 Shiner— 
Weiszling; 9 Plaice — Scholle ; 10 Groundling — Griindling; 11 Sardine— Sardine; 12 
Flounder— Flunder; 13 Herring — Haring; 14 Trout— Forelle ; 15 Mackerel— Makrele; 
16 Roach— Koche; 17 Lamprey — Lamprete; 18 Crab — Krabbe; 19 Codfish— Stock- 
fisch ; 20 Haddock — Schellfisch ; 21 Carp — Karpfen ; 22 Crawfish — Krebs ; 
23 Barbel — Rothbart; 24 Long-nose Skate— Glattroche; 25 Sprat— Sprote; 26 Pickerel 
— Hecht; 27 Halibut— Hellbutte; 28 Pearl— Brill; 29 Eef— Aal; 30 White Shrimp— 
Seeheuschrecke; 31 Whitefish — Weiszfisch ; 32 Peter's fish— Goldfisch, Petersfisch ; 
3? Tut-hot — Steinbutte: 34 Shrimp— Taschenkrebs, Garnele ; 35 Barbel — Barbe; 36 
^ ...-,•-.--:■:-—:::-■.•■ 39 Salmon— Salm ; 40 Solq 



R— Fish and Shell Fish. 



1. General Directions for Preparing and Cooking 
Fish, together with a Table showing when they are in 
Season: All fresh water and unsalted fish should be 
prepared while quite fresh; they become taiuted very 
rapidly and are then absolutely unpalatable and un- 
wholesome. A fish is best when placed on the market 
immediately after being caught and cleaned. Fish in- 
jured in catching are sometimes allowed to remain iii 
water to keep them alive; this is not only cruel, but 
when it dies slowly, it is detrimental to the quality of 
the fish. Fresh fish have t he following characteristics : 
The eyes_ajidlic3ilji^^ shining, 

the giflsof a lively r ed color a ndThe bod v must be firm. Jf 
the gillsh ave a ble ached ^ ^a ppearanc e-ttrerffeh is unhTfor 
use. Fish that KaTen^ncfSlfsTTorted long distances"' 
and received even a slightly unpleasant odor must be 
carefully washed at once; it is best to use for this pur- 
pose water containing chloride of soda. 

A p.npd fyirhofr i s thick, and full fleshed, and the 
mif|p.r airless of a, "pale cream color or yellowish white; 
wTfen tins, is of a bluish tin t, and the flgghjs thin and 
soft, it should b e re.iecle'd".'" The same observatTou^rapply 
eauallv. to soles. 

le bfest s fflffinn fl 'ifl codfish are kn own by their sm a 11 
head, very thick shoulders, and small tail;, th e scales 
of the former should be brigh t and its fle sh o f a fine red 
color; tobe eaten in perfe'cxion STsMuTanTe'aTe^eTllis'" 
soon as caught, before the curd (or white substance 
which lies between the flakes of flesh) has melted and 
rendered it oily^ In this state it is really crimp, but 



198 F.— Fish and Shell Fish. 

continues so only for a few hours; and it bears therefore 
a much higher price in the market then, than when 
mellowed by having been kept a day or two. 

The flesh of the codfish should be white and clear 
before it is hoiled^ whiter still after it "is boiled and 
firm though tender, sweet and mild in flavor, and separ- 
ated jea sil.y in flakes. Many persons consider it rather 
improved "than otherwise by having a little salt rubbed 
along the inside of the backbone and letting it lie from 
twenty-four to twenty-eight h^urs before it is dressed. 
It is sometimes served crimp like salmon, and must 
then be sliced as soon as dead, or within the shortest 
time possible afterwards. 

Herrjjjgs^jnackerel and whitings lose their fresh- 
ness so rapidly that unless newly caught they are quite 
uneatable. The herring may, it is said, be deprived of 
the strong smell which it emits when broiled or fried, by 
gri pp in g off th e skin, und er which lies the oil that 
"causes t hajEaagrjg g ^jj f i frnr... Thft whittfig is- a pecu- 
liarly pure flavored and delicate fish, and acceptable 
generally to invalids from being very light of digestion. 

Eels should be alive and brisk in movement when 
they are purchased; they are easily killed by piercing 
the spinal marrow close to the back part of the skull 
with a sharp pointed knife, or skewer. If this be done 
in the right place all motion will instantly cease. Boil- 
ing water will also immediatel y cause vitality to cease, 
and is perhaps tJne~most humane~and ready method of 
destroying the fish. 

Lobsters, prawns, and shrimps are very stiff whe n 
.. freshly b oiled , and the tajls.. turn strongly m wards l 
when These relax, and the"nsh are soft and watery,_t hey 
a7e~ jstale; and the smell will "detect "their Deing so 
instantly even if no other symptoms of it be remarked. 
If bought alive, lobsters should be chosen by their 
weight and "liveliness". The hen lobster is pre ferred 
for sauce and soups, on accou nt ot'th^ JaQral j but the 



flesh of the malejs generally considered of finer flav q 
fc>r..e ating. TTie vivacity of their leaps will'shoWwheii 
prawns and ''shrimps are fresh from the sea. v 

Oysters should close forcibly on the knife when they 
are opened; if the s hells are apart ever s o little they 
are losing their condifi6n~'"SHd when theyremain far 



Fish and Shell Fish. 199 

open th e oyster is d ead, and only fit to be thrown away. 
Small plump "vanetiea are always preferable to the 



larger ana coarser kinds. 

To clean Fish. Let this be done always with the 
most scrupulous nicety, for nothing can more effectu- 
ally destroy the appetite than fish sent to the table 
imperfectly cleaned. Handle it lightly, and never thr ow 
it roughly about, so as t o bruise it; wash Tt well, Tout 
do not leave it longer in the waUlr than is necessary, for 
fish, like meat, l oses it flavor from being soaked. W hen 
scales are to be removed, lay the fish flat upon its side, 
and hold it firmly with the left hand, while they are 
scraped off with the right; turn it, and when both sides 
are done, pour or pump sufficient water over it to float 
off all the loose scales ; then proceed to open and empty 
it. Be sure that not the slightest particle of offensive 
matter be left in t he his.ide f wash out the blood entirely. . 
and scrape or brush it away, if needful from the back- 
bone. This may be easily accomplished without open- 
ing the fish so much as to render it unsightly when it is 
sent to the table. The red mullet is dressed without 
being emptied, and smelts are drawn at the gills. When 
the scales are left on, the outside of the fish should be 
well washed and wiped with a coarse towel, drawn 
gently from the head to the tail. Eeja^to be whole- 
some, sh ould ha skinned, but they are sometimes 
dressed without; Doiling water should then be poured 
upon them,, and they should be left in it for five or ten 
minutes, before they are cut up. The da rk.skin of the 



solejnust be stripped off wh en it i s fried , but itmusTEe 
*Teib QU| lik e tTiat of the ""ttir ttoft wlienTthe fish is boiled, 
and it should be dished w ith the whit e s l i i de i up wardsT 
Whitings are skinned",' and dipped us^aTryiutoTegg "anTT 
brealTcrumbs when they are to be fried; but for boiling 
or broiling, the skin must be left on. 

To keep Fish. All the smaller kinds of fish keep best 
if emptied and cleaned as soon as they are brought in, 
then wiped gently as dry as they can be and hung sep- 
arately by the head on the hooks in the ceiling of a cool 
larder) or in the open air when the weather will allow. 
When there is danger of their being attacked by flies, a 
wire safe placed in a strong draught of air, is better 



200 F.— Fish and Shell Fish. 

adapted to the purpose. Soles in winter will Remain 
good a couple of days when thus prepared; and even 
whitings and mackerel may be kept so without losing 
any of their excellence. Salt may be rubbed slightly 
over codfish, and weft along the backbone, but it injures 
the flavor of salmon, the inside of which may be rubbed 
with vinegar, and peppered instead. When excessive 
sultriness renders all of these modes unavailing, the fish 
must at once be partially cooked to preserve it, but 
this should be avoided if possible, as it is very rarely sc 
good when this method is resorted to. 

To sweeten taintea Fish. The application of pyr- 
oligneous acid will effect this when the taint is but 
slight. A wineglassful, miked with two of water, may 
be poured over the fish, and rubbed upon the parts 
more particularly requiring it; it must then be left for 
some minutes untouched, and afterwards washed in 
several waters, and soaked until the smell of the acid is 
no longer perceptible. The chloride of soda, from its 
powerful antiputrescent properties, will have more effect 
when the fish is in a worse state. It should be applied 
in the same manner, and will not at all injure the flavor 
of the fish, which is not fit food when it cannot be per- 
fectly purified by either of these means. The chloride 
may be diluted more or less, as occasion may require. 

Salting and cooking Fish. Careful use of Bay Leaves. 

The proper application of salt — neither too much nor 
too little^ind the art of cooking fish until done with- 
out permitrang them to become too soft, is a test cf a 
good cooky'* Fish put on the fire in , boiling wate r must 
have plenty of salt , because they remain m contact with 
' ""bey are done.asj 



the brine but a snort time. 

the fin /* can ha pa,si1 ypulled out a nd the meat loosened 
from the bones, which is readily discernible when the 
fish is cut into pieces. Be careful to send the fish, with 
the potatoes and sauces, to the table as hot as possible. 
T^ay lea yps shjQu Id be added to fish as well as meat 
d ishesofeverv IcincJ. Ver y sparin gly , because their flavor , 
is quite strong. Fish'served witn olive oil and vinegar/ 
must not cool in the broth in which they are cooked;' 
they should be taken out, slightly pickled in good olive 
oil,Vinegar, pepper and salt and then set aside in a cool 
place. 



Fresh Water Fish. 201 

To bake or fry Fish Fish should always be baked 
in an open pan with plenty of butter ; the fire should 
not be too strong, so that they will bake through and 
through, and not scorch on the outside while the inside 
remains raw. Serve on a warm, uncovered dish. 

For fish in jelly, see Division M. 

Fish are in season as follows : Salmon from May to 
August; can be obtained earlier but are scarce. 

Eels are in season all the year,, but .not in prime con- 
dition in April and May. 

Pike and perch are in the best condition from Sep- 
tember to January. 

Garp are best from October to the end of March. 

Shad, April, May and early part of June. 

Trout, May to August. 

Red mullet through the Summer, but may be had 
all the year. 

Crab and lobster, April to October. 

Haddock — best season, October, November and 
December, but in the market to the end of April. 

Turbot in season all the year. ' 

Soles are the best from theend of April to September. 

It would be impracticable to give rules for cooking 
every kiud of fish ; they are too numerous. Suffice is to 
say that the directions for cooking one will apply to 
any other of the same size. 



I. FRESH WATER FISH. 

2. Boiled Salmon. Scale, empty and wash the fish 
with great care. Cut into slices about 1^—2 inches 
thick, put on the fire in boiling water with salt, pepper- 
corns, whole and ground cloves, a few bay leaves and 
lemon peel; cook for a few minutes, skimming thor- 
oughly. Let it stand on the back of the stove until the 
fins pull out easily, which will indicate that the fish is 
done. Send to the table with potatoes, melted butter, 
which should not bubble but. simply be hot, minced 
parsley and the grated yolks of hard boiled eggs. 



202 F— Fish and Shell Fish. 

Boiled salmon may also be served with a Bearnese-, 
yellow caper-, oyster- or Hollandaise sauce ; a few drops 
of lemon juice should be added to the melted butter. 

■ If the salmon is to be served cold with oil and ' 
vinegar, take the pieces out of the kettle, let them cool 
and immediately put them into a pickle of some of the 
cold fish broth, olive oil, vinegar, pepper and salt. Less 
salt is required for cooking salmon' than for any other 
fish. 

3. Salmon with Savory Herbs. , Clean the fish thor^ 
oughly and cut it into pieces, sprinkle with salt and let 
it stand for 1 hour. .Then mix the following herbs: 
Parsley, eschalots and capers, together with freshened 
and boned anchovy and ground pepper and put them 
into fresh melted butter with enough lemon juice to 
slightly acidulate it, put it on the fire and when warm 
add the fish and leave it for 2 hours, turning quite 
often; the butter should be melted but must not scorch. 
Heat some butter in another pan and fry the salmon in 
it for l0 minutes, brushing the minced herbs over both 
sides of the fish frequently. 

The sauce is made by boiling the rest of the mari- 
nade with 2 glassf uls of white wine with a few spoonfuls 
of good meat broth, and if it should not be tart enough 
add a, few drops of lemon juice and stir through it the 
yolks of a few eggs. 

4. Pickled Salmon. Take 2 pounds of. salmon and 
without washing or skinning it cut it into slices about 
1 inch thick, put into salt for about 1 hour, dry with a 
cloth, brush with the best olive oil and then fry them 
on a quick fire until done and of a light brown color; 
the slices are then placed into an earthenware jar. Boil 
1 pint of mild vinegar and 1 pint of white wine, % ounce 
oi salt,, 2 lemon slices, 2 bay leaves, tarragon, a pinch 
of white pepper and when this liquor is cool pour it over 
the fish ; cover the jar by tying a cloth over it and let 
it stand until wanted. 

5. Boiled Eels. After the eel has been killed it is not 
taken out of the skin, but the latter is rubbed down 
with salt; the eel is then emptied, cut into pieces and 
hot vinegar poured over it ; afterwards put it on the 
fire with a dash of vinegar, salt, a bay leaf, lemon slices, 



Fresh Water Fish. 203 

eschalots, peppercorns, cloves, a small piece of butter, 
some sage, thyme and tarragon ; cook slowly for 10 or 
15 minutes. Send to the table hot with potatoes, 
butter and mustard; garnish with lemon slices and 
parsley leaves, and serve with it vinegar and olive oil 
or else a horse radish-, caper- or lemon sauce; 

It is advisable to save the eel broth,' because what- 
ever is left over of the eel can be set aside in it. Less 
salt is required for cooking eels than for other fish. 

If the eel is to be kept for any length of time and to 
be served with a Remoulade or other similar sauce, it 
should be cooked in the same manner, only taking vine- 
gar and water half and half. After the eel is cooked 
take it out of the broth until it has cooled completely, 
then put it back again, cover and set aside until 
wanted. Garnish the dish in which the eel is served 
with meat jelly, sliced eggs, beets, capers, pickled 
walnuts, etc. 

6. Fricassee of Eel, Bremen style. Clean the eel as 
directed above, cut into pieces, cover with salt for an 
hour, washing it before cooking. Bring to a boil in a 
slightly salted strong bouillon of which there should be 
enough to nearly cover the eel, add a few mushroom 
slices, cook until the eel is done, take out of the broth 
and set it on the back of the stove. Roll fish forcemeat 
into oblong dumplings, cooking them in the ragout for 
not to exceed 5 minutes. Should there be say 2 pounds 
of the eel, rub some flour and butter, cook in the eel 
broth to a thick sauce, stir through it the yOlks of 2 
fresh eggs, season with lemon juice, a little mace and 
white pepper, stir until it begins to boil, put the eel with 
the dumplings into a warm dish in which they are mixed 
with the gravy. To improve this dish cook a glassful 
of Madeira with the sauce and in addition to the fish 
dumplings, get ready chicken force meat dumplings. 
Stew mushrooms and veal sweetbreads in bouillon untii 
tender, mixing all of these ingredients together with 
crab tails into the fricassee. This fricassee can be 
served in a rice crust, garnishing the top with puff paste 
slices (see under "Meat Pies", Division E.) 

7. Stewed Eel. Cook 2 calf's feet until the meat 
drops from the bones, strain thebroth and immediately 



204 F.— Fish and Shell Fish. 

pour it back into the eleaned kettle, put in the washed 
pieces of eel— they should not be entirely covered with 
the broth— add 2 tablespoonfulg of vinegar in which a 
trifle of extract of beef has been dissolved, together with 
a slip of mace, 2—3 small sliced onions, pepper, salt and 
a few lemon slices without seeds, cover tightly and stew 
slowly until done. Try the broth to determine whether 
it needs more vinegar or salt, then arrange the eel in a 
dish and pour over it the broth, which should be slightly 
cool. 

8. Fried Eel. Salt the pieces, turn in bread, and 
egg crumbs and fry in an open pan in melted butter 
with fresh sage leaves until done— golden brown and 
crisp. 

Or the eel may be covered with salt for a few hours, 
cover and set it aside, dry it with a cloth, wrap it into 
sage leaves, and then fry it in butter, pork fat or olive 
oil. 

Eel is most delicious, however, when baked in the 
oven ; it is then rolled into a coil fastened with thin 
wooden skewers. Put it into a buttered pan and cover 
with sliced onions, pour over it a marinade consisting 
of vinegar j white wine and savory herbs, enough to half 
cover the eel, and then bake in the oven. As soon as 
done lay the eel on a clean cloth which will draw out the 
fat, glaze it with meat jelly and serve with a tomato 
sauce. Eel prepared in this manner is the most whole- 
some, because the greater part of the fat is drawn from 
it. Serve with sliced lemons and mustard or lettuce; 
a Bemoulade sauce is also a fitting accompaniment. 
Eel is also nice when served with early green peas. 

If the eel is a large one the spine can be taken out 
immediately, while it is being prepared, and the pieces 
can then be filled with a .fish or veal forcemeat, after- 
wards tying them so that the forcemeat will not fall 
out ; then bake as directed above. 

9. Rolled Eel. After the eel has been eleaned, cut 
off the fins, slit along the back instead of underneath, 
empty, wash nicely and take out the entire spine. Then 
put the eel on, a chopping board, with the inner side 
turned out, flatten it, sprinkle with minced yolks of 
hard boiled eggs, onions and parsley, pepper and salt, 



. Feesh Wateh Fish. 205 

or instead of the latter cover with anchovy slices. Cut 
the head and tail from the eel and then roll it up, be- 
ginning 1 at the head, and wrap this roll into a piece of 
clean muslin, which should be closed at both ends. Put 
water and vinegar, half and half, into a small kettle, 
and cook the roll with onion slices, spices, 2 bay leaves 
and salt for % hour until done; the liquor should barely 
cover the roll. Afterwards take the roll out of the 
kettle, and draw the muslin, which loosens during the 
cooking, tight again. When cool press the roll slightly 
and unwrap the muslin; the roll should be sliced and 
neatly arranged on the dish, garnish with lemon slices 
and send to the table with meat jelly or a Retnoulade 
sauce. 

1.0. Eel Stew, English Style. Clean the eel, cut off 
the head and tail and the remainder into medium sized 
pieces, which are turned in flour, pepper and salf . Bake 
in butter to a light brOwn. After the eel is cold cook 
the head and tail with some good bouillon, several 
chopped anchovies, a few mushrooms, 1 glassful of wine 
vinegar, 1 glassful of sherry to a strong broth ; strain 
and thicken with flour rubbed in butter. Stew the 
baked eel in this sauce for 15 minutes, send to the table 
in the sauce. 

11. Eel in Cases. Clean a large eel, salt,, cut it into 
pieces and stew until tender in bouillon containing a 
little white wine, mixed spices and savory herbs. In 
the meantime boil about 6 ounces of rice in bouillon 
until tender, finely chop 1 dozen mushrooms, 3 escha- 
lots and some parsley, mix and stew for a few minutes 
in butter; brush the inside of a large paper case with 
olive oil, put a layer of rice on the bottom, then a layer 
of the eel sprinkled with the minced ingredients and 
continue in this manner until the case is filled. The 
last layer should be of rice, dot it with crab butter, 
cover with bread crumbs, and bake with a slow fire for 
\ hour. Serve immediately on a folded napkin. 

12. Pickled Eel. Skin the eel, wash, salt for 1 hour, 
cut into, pieces, dry it with a cloth, fry in a clean pan 
with olive oil, and lay on absorbent or blotting paper 
to cool. Then cook for % of an hour with eschalots, 
peppercorns, mace, a few bay leaves, lemon slices (with- 



206 F.— Fish and Shell, Fish. 

out the seeds) and enough vinegar to cover the eel, to- 
gether with- water and salt. When the liquoris cold 
pour it over the eel; set aside in a cool place Until, 
wanted. Another method is to put the eel in salt for a 
few hours ; then cook it for about 15 minutes until done 
in an enameled kettle in which water and vinegar, half 
and half, and the above mentioned spices, have flr^t 
been brought to a boil; arrange the eel in layers in a 
stone jar, remove the fat from the liquor, acidulate it 
with lemon juice, pour it into the jar and set it aside. 
The fish can be served without any further prepara- 
tion, or else the pieces can be mixed with medium hard 
boiled eggs quartered, small pickles, pickled button 
onions and beets; sprinkle with capers. 

13. To boil Brook Trout with a blue Color. Like all 
other kinds offish that are to have a blue co lor after 
cooking, trout should not be scraged7™s u iffipl"y empty 
them aricTtKTs is done best "By Tayingxheul on a wet 
chopping board and hjindiingjLhjjtii aslittlg^passiUe 
so that the glutenous substance enveloping the fish, 
and which produces the blue color,, will not be rubbed 
off. Afterwards rinse and lay them on a flat dish, pour; 
boiling vinegar over them, and let them stand for half 
an hour in a cool draft. Bring water to a boil with 
plenty of salt, put in thefish with the vinegar, cover the 
kettle and. let it stand on top of the stove for 6—12 
minutes, but the fish must not qook. Serve hot with 
fresh butter, or With melted butter as preferred. They 
can also be sent to the table with minced' parsley or a 
Hollandaise sauce, or they may be served cold, with 
olive oil, vinegar and pepper. Butter used with fish 
must never become hot enough to cook, because it 
thereby loses greatly in quality. 

Brook trout require more salt than most other 
kinds of fish. 

Remake. — Where brook trout are not to be cooked with a blue' color they 
are simply boiled in water according to directions. Brook trout will keep for n 
fgw hours only after being caught, and should therefore be cooked when quite 
fresh. . • 

14. Trout Steaks with various kinds of Sauces and 
Vegetables. Take trout of medium' size, empty, skin and 
bone them and divide into quarters. Put the steaks 
into a buttered pan, sprinkle with salt and minced sav- 



• Fresh Water Fish. 207 

ory herbs, and fry on both sides for 2 minutes. Then 
pour off the butter, add to the fish some pf the sauce 
with which they are to be served, let it come to a boil 
once, arrange the fish in a deep dish and send to the 
table with either a crab-, caper-, tqinato-, Bearnaise- or 
rich brown sauce. Instead of serving with a ■ gravy 
separately, the fish, fried in butter without the addition 
of any herbs, can be served with peas, asparagus or 
other fresh vegetables. 

15. Baked Trout. Select trout of the, smallest size, 
scrape off the scales nicely, empty, and wash. Cut a 
slit about Vie inch deep along each side, salt for % hour 
before baking. Then dry them with a cloth and turn 
them first in flour and then in egg and cracker crumbs, 
fry, serve on a napkin placed over a fish plate. Lettuce 
is a fitting accompaniment. 

16. Carp cooked blue. Empty the fish as directed 
in No. 1, wash, divide lengthwise into halves and cut 
each part into 2 — 3 pieces. Carp can be cooked blue 
the same as trout, and as it is a very fat fish, it should 
be boiled for a few minutes and served quite hot. Send 
to the table with hot melted butter and minced parsley, 
or with a plain horse radish sauce. The milt of carp is 
considered a delicacy. Carp require a great deal of salt. 

17. Carp with a Claret Sauce. When killing the 
carp catch its blood in a small cup half full of vinegar, 
scrape off the scales and proceed as directed in the pre- 
ceding receipt. After washing the pieces put them into 
a saucepan with salt, sliced onions, coarse ground pep- 
per and cloves, sliced lemons and bay leaves, add water 
and enough claret to just cover the fish. Take off the 
scum as carefully as possible, add a large piece of butter 
andfinelyrolled crackers and then cook slowly. Shortly 
before serving stir in the blood and a piece of sugar, put 
the fish into a dish and strain over it the sauce, which 
should be well bound. 

18. , Carp with a Polish Sauce. Kill the carp and 
catch the blood; in vinegar, scrape, divide in half and 
cut each part into pieces. For 8 pounds of fish take 
3 carrots, 1 parsnip, 2 parsley roots, 3 onions and 
y± celery root ; cut everything, into slices and put it into 



208 F.— Fish and Sheli., Fish. 

a saucepan with some ginger, a few cloves, peppercorns 
and about 2 bay leaves, add beer and water half and 
half and boil for % hour. Then put in the fish, add the 
necessary salt and 2 — 3 tablespoonfuls of butter, % of 
a lemon without the seeds, a Wineglassful of vinegar 
(including that mixed with the blood) cover tightly and 
cook for 15 minutes longer. As soon as the fish is 
tender take it out of the broth and set it on the back of 
the stove, add ginger bread ("Pfefferkuchen") or grated 
wheat bread and I glassful of claret to the sauce, strain 
the latter and put part of it on the fish and the remain- 
der into a sauce boat. Serve with potatoes. The beer 
should not be bitter and the sauce quite thick. . 

19. Stuffed Carp. Scrape the scales from the fish, 
empty it and carefully loosen the meat on one side 
between the head and tail, so that both parts remain 
attached to the skin and be careful not to injure the 
latter. After boning the meat that has been cut out, 
chop the latter, very finely, stir a piece of butter to a 
cream, add 2 eggs, some wheat bread soaked in water 
and then pressed, 1 — 2 eschalots,. lemon peel, salt, mace 
and finally the chopped meat of the fish. If this force- 
meat should be too soft add some grated bread and if 
too firm put in some water. Fill this forcemeat into 
the body of the fish so that it will regain its original 
shape, sprinkle with cracker crumbs, put it into.the pan 
with pork fat slices and some butter with the filled side 
to the top and bake in the oven, basting often, until 
brown and done. After the fish has been carefully laid 
on a fish plate cook the gravy in the pan with % table- 
spoonful of flour rubbed in butter, bouillon and salt. 
Season according to taste with chcoped anchovy, 
strain and add capers or lemon peel. If it is possible to 
put a cover containing live embers over tb^ pan, the 
fish will be greatly improved. 

20. Carp and Eel mixed. Take the same quantity 
of both fish (about 2% pounds Of each), scrape and skin 
the fish, cut them into pieces about 2 inches long, salt 
lightly and set aside for an hour. During this time 
cook some pickled pork until half done, cut it into 
pieces the same size as those of the fish and put it all in- 
to a vessel, mixed with small onions and mushrooms 



Fresh Water Fish. 209 

and with about 6 heaping teaspoonf uls of butter added. 
Season with 1 bay leaf, peppercorns and a few cloves, 
add 1 pint of bouillon and the same quantity of claret, 
and stew the whole slowly until done. Set the various * 
ingredients on top of the stove to keep them hot, strain 
the broth, thicken with flour browned in butter and 
pour it over the mixture. Garnish the edge of the dish 
with egg dumplings- and slips of toast and send to the 
table with boiled potatoes. 

21. To bake a whole Carp. Scrape the fish, slit 
down the back but not under the body, empty, salt and 
after an hour dry it with a cloth, sew the back, turn in 
egg and bread crumbs and then fry in a flat pan with 
hot butter or lard until of a golden brown color. Re- 
move the thread and serve. The pan must not be cov- 
ered when frying the fish, otherwise they will become 
soft and this will also be the case if they are not sent to 
the table at once; to draw out the fat, however, they 
should be laid on absorbent or blotting paper for a 
moment. Left-over carp or other fried fish can be uti- 
lized in fish soup (B, No. 25) or with sour cabbage and 
fish. 

22. Hungarian Carp. Prepare the carp and cut it 
into pieces, salt and set aside for 15 minutes, then cook 
them in boiling salted water containing a dash of vine- 
gar, as directed in No. 16, until done. Serve on a hot 
dish and pour over it the following sauce. Brown 2 
chopped onions and % ounce of flour in 2 tablespoonfuls 
of butter, and cook this with a large cupful of sweet 
cream, a small cupful of fish broth and 1 tablespoonful 
of bouillon to a well bound sauce. Season with cayenne 
pepper, being very careful not to take too much. After 
straining the sauce stir through it the yolks of 2 eggs 
and then a piece of fresh butter. 

23. Fillet of Carp. Raise the flesh from the bones of 
a medium-sized fish and chop it finely, mix With some 
shredded bacon, anchovy butter, 2 or 3 eggs, 2 to 8 
spoonfuls of sour cream, salt, pepper and enough grated 
bread to make a smooth but not crumby forcemeat, 
which is shaped into the form of a loaf. Lard along the 
top closely with small pork fat lardoons, sprinkle the 
surface with bread crumbs and bake in the oven in 



210 F.— Fish and Shell Fish. 

butter with frequent basting until done. % of an hour 
before serving add a cupful of sour cream. Thicken the 
sauce with cornstarch and send the fish to the table 
with boiled potatoes and lettuce. 

24. Cold Carp with a Sauce. After the fish has been 
cleaned and emptied, nicely rinsed and salted for an 
hour, put it into a frying pan with a large cupful of 
wine, spices, tarragon, parsley and 1% tablespoonfuls of 
butter, baste and cook slowly until done. After it is 
cool put a Remoulade sauce or sauce a la Diable, (Divi- 
sion K), into the dish with the fish and garnish around 
the sides with eggs and parsley. 

25. Carp in Mayonnaise Sauce. Take a fish weigh- 
ing 4 to 4% pounds, rub it with salt and stew it slowly 
until done with a large cupful of wine, salt, pepper, 
spices, onion, a small bunch of parsley and 1% table- 
spoonfuls of butter. Leave in the broth until cold, and 
make a good thick Mayonnaise sauce as directed under 
Division ; after the fish is taken out of the broth and 
dried, cover it evenly with the sauce. Garnish the dish 
with sliced eggs, capers, button onions, gherkins and 
parsley, and surround with a border of meat jelly. 
Serve for supper. 

26. Pickled Carp. Clean and empty the fish and 
cut the gall bag from* the liver. Wash, ruB on the in- 
and outside with salt and let it lay for a while. Put the 
roes back into the fish and dry it. It can also be divided 
in two and cut into pieces. Then brush.with olive oil. 
broil slowly until done and of a golden brown color ; if 
you have no broiler a sauce- or frying pan will answer 
the purpose,, but in this case it must be shaken fre- 
quently, so that the fish will not adhere to the pan. 
Let it cool, boil vinegar with lemon peel, eschalots or 
onions, whole spices, mace, some salt and a bay leaf, 
and after the liquor is cold pour it over the fish. After 
a few days, the carp can' be sent to the table; it will 
keep for several weeks if the liquor is boiled once more 
in the meantime. 

27. Perch Hollandaise. The fish is scraped under 
the body only and emptied, leaving the milt and liver 
in the fish, rinse carefully and boil for 5 minutes in a 



Fresh Water Fish. 211 

little salted water, in which a piece of butter, pepper- 
corns, and plenty of small parsley roots with a few 
sprigs of parsley have been previously cooked until 
done. When serving the fish the parsley roots should 
be interspersed between them ; send to the table hot in 
the broth in which they were cooked. If sent to the 
table without the broth, then serve with melted butter 
and chopped parsley, grated yolks of eggs, and mus- 
tard, or with a Hollandaise sauce, using some of the 
strained fish broth in making the sauce. 

28. Another method of boiling Perch. The perch 
are scraped all over; empty and put them on the fire in 
boiling salted water with onions, peppercorns and bay 
leaves and cook until done. Then mince 2 hard boiled 
eggs with parsley, stir in some nutmeg and rolled crack- 
ers, put the fish into a dish, dredge with the above 
mixture and send them to the table with hot melted 
butter with either a caper-, Maitre de Hotel- or a brown 

. herb sauce. 

29. Perch in a French Sauce. Take perch weighing 
about % pound apiece, scrape, empty and wash nicely, 
salt and put them into a saucepan with plenty of but- 
ter. As soon as they are heated on both sides dredge 
some flour over them, turn the fish in the flour and add 
enough white wine to cover. At the same time add 
finely ground cloves, minced parsley and eschalots, 
cover tightly and let the fish cook slowly until done, 
but they must not fall to pieces. • 

30. Blue Pike with Butter and Horse Radish. Se- 
lect fish of a small size, empty and bend them with 
their tails in their mouths. They should not be handled 
much, however, because otherwise the blue color cannot 
be given them. They are then cooked blue as directed 
in No. 13, but should remain on the fire longer than 
trout. Send to the table garnished with sprigs of pars- 
ley and a few apples ; in addition to melted butter serve 
grated horse radish prepared with vinegar, sugar and 
hard boiled eggs. The liver of the pike, which is con- 
sidered a great delicacy, must not be forgotten, being 
careful, of course, to first remove the gall bag. Salt the 
same as perch. 



212 F.— Fibh and Shell Fish. 

In England the fish is cut into pieces and is then 
cooked in boiling salted water with vinegar, butter and 
spices until tender, sprinkled with grated horse radish 
and covered with plenty of browned butter. 

Instead of being served with butter, pike may be 
sent to the table with a caper-, Hollandaise-, or sour 
egg sauce. 

31. Stewed Pike. With a sharp knife shave the 
scales close to the skin to leave the latter white, divide 
the fish in two and cut up each half to the size desired, 
wash nicely and cook in salted water for 5 minutes and 
put into another kettle. In the meantime boil some 
capers in white wine with some fish broth, lemon juice 
and lemon peel, a good-sized piece of butter and some 
grated wheat bread, pour over the fish and let it stew 
in this gently for 15 minutes.. The sauce can be slightly 
seasoned with anchovy if wished. Then stir with it the 
yolk of an egg and send to the table as hot as possible. 

32. Larded Pike. Take a fish of medium size, clean 
and skin it, lard on both sides closely with fine lardoons 
and sprinkle with fine salt. The fish is then baked as 
follows, either in its natural form or with the tail in- 
serted in its mouth : Melt plenty of butter in a frying 
pan, put in the fish, baste it thoroughly and bake until 
done and nicely brown ; have a slow fire, but the" cover 
of 1he pan should be so arranged as to hold live embers. 
The fish can, however, be as nicely baked in the oven in 
the open pan; it is then frequently dredged with grated 
wheat bread and basted with several spoonfuls of sour 
cream. In this case the juices in the pan are made into 
a gravy "with the addition of some extract of beef, a 
little Portwine, lemon juice and thickened with flour 
rubbed in butter and used instead of the browned caper 
sauce. 

Larded pike baked according to the directions first 
given should be served, with a brown caper sauce made 
with some anchovy and plenty of lemon juice; pour 
some of it into a hot dish and put in the fish. The rest 
of the gravy together with the browned gravy in the 
pan is sent to the table with it. 

33. Chopped Baked Pike. The spine is taken out of 
the fish in such a'manner that the head and tail remain 



Fresh Water Fish. 213 

attached to the body. Put the spine into an earthen- 
ware dish and lay the meat into boiling water for a few 
minutes, after which all the other bones can be easily 
removed. Then chop the meat very finely and make 
into a forcemeat with the addition of a large piece of 
butter, 2 eggs, grated wheat bread, mace and salt. 
Press this forcemeat onto the spine so that it wil ne 
moulded into the original form of the fish, sprinkle with 
cracker crumbs and bake in the oven. Baste frequently 
with butter, being careful not to wash away the cracker 
crumbs and season with lemon juice. If the fish comes 
to the table on a hot platter, serve it with a caper- or 
anchovy sauce. Other varieties of fish can be chopped 
and served in the same way. 

34. Baked Pike. After cleaning the fish nicely, split 
the larger ones, cut them into pieces, and leave the 
smaller ones whole, removing the heads and tails. Slit 
them closely, but only through the upper skin, and salt. 
After the elapse of }| hour dry them with a cloth, turn 
in egg and bread crumbs and then fry crisply to a 
golden brown in an open pan in which plenty of butter 
or lard has been heated. 

To prevent the fish from becoming soft again, it 
should not be fried until just before it goes to the table. 
It can be served with sourkroat or lettuce. 

35. Pike with Parmesan Cheese and Onions. A 

large fish is best adapted for this purpose. Scrape 
off the scales, remove the spine, cut into pieces about 
2 inches in size and sprinkle with salt. For about 5 
pounds of fish melt 2—3 tablespooufuls of butter in a 
saucepan, add a handful of finely chopped onions and 
in this stew the fish until done and take them out of 
the kettle, then rub a tablespoonful of flour in butter, 
add 1% pints of thick sour cream, constantly stirring; 
pour the sauce into a deep dish. Remove the bones out 
of the pieces of fish as carefully as possible, turn the 
latter in grated Parmesan cheese, put them in layers 
into the dish containing the sauce, and sprinkle with a 
handful of the cheese. The stewed pieces of fish, after 
having been turned in the cheese, can be covered with a 
sauce made of a cupful of sour cream, a cupful of meat 
broth and % teaspoonful of mushroom catsup, then 
sprinkle with capers and proceed as above directed. 



214 F.^-Fish ajnd Shell Fish. 

36. Pike with Egg Sauce. Put the tail of the fish 
into its mouth and set it on the fire with vinegar and 
water half and half in a medium-sized saucepan; there 
should not be too much broth, add some onions, 2 bay 
leaves, a few peppercorns, the half or the whole of a 
parsley root and the necessary salt. As soon as the 
fish is done place it carefully on a warm dish, and cover 
after pouring over it the following sauce: Rub 1 spoon- 
ful of flour in some hot butter, in the meantime stirring 
the yolks of 10 eggs in about 1 quart of bouillon (which 
can be made of extract of beef), add to the flour and 
bring to a boil under constaut stirring; then add prev- 
iously prepared mushrooms, crab tails, crab butter and 
lemon juice and serve the fish with the sauce over it. 

37. Baked Pike with Sour Cream. Cut the fish into 
pieces of proper size and put them into an earthenware 
baking pan. To 3 pounds offish add 2 bay leaves^ a 
few onion slices, salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 cup- 
ful of sour cream and then bake fn a hot oven for about 
20 minutes, basting the fish several times with this 
sauce and sprinkling it with grated crackers or Parme- 
san cheese. When serving stir through the sauce some 
bouillon, season with vinegar or lemon juice and pour 
it on the fish. Remove the bay leaves and onion slices 
before sending to the table. 

38. Baked Pike. After nicely cleaning the fish lard 
it on both sides, salt and bake it in butter, add finely 
sliced onions and when these are thoroughly heated 
pour in some water. After cooking for about 10 min- 
utes add a freshened thinly sliced herring, pounded 
crackers, some vinegar, ground pepper and nutmeg, 
and, if necessary, some more salt. The sauce must be 
well bound. 

39. Fricassee of Pike. Put a good-sized piece of 
butter into an earthenware dish with the fish nicely 
cleaned and cut into pieces ; add white wine, a few lemon 
slices without the seeds,- finely chopped anchovy and 
salt, dredge with finely grated crackers or grated wheat 
bread, and cover. After stewing the fish for about 
15 minutes until done, stir a few tablespoonfuls of thick 
sour cream through the sauce, pour it over the fish and 



Fresh Water Fpsh. 215 

serve. Put a border of ragout rice (see Division L) 
around the fricassee. 

40. Pike Steaks with Savory Herbs. Divide a me- 
dium-sized, cleaned and emptied pike in two lengthwise, 
remove the bones and skin from each part, cut into 
pieces about 2 inches in size, salt, sprinkle with pepper 
and stew in plenty of melted butter with several spoon- 
fuls of minced savory herbs for about 20 minutes in a 
medium hot oven until done. Send the steaks to the 
table arranged neatly around the sides of a dish of 
green peas, or a brown sweetbread ragout, using the 
juices in the pan for a Bechamel- or Madeira sauce, 
taking the first when the dish is served with green peas 
or the latter when served with the ragout. For the 
family table the steaks may be arranged in a spiral 

• form, then pour over them the greater part of the but- 
ter in which they were fried, put a border of mashed 
potatoes around the dish and serve with lettuce or a 
vegetable salad. 

41. Pike Salad. (See Division Q.) 

42. Eel Pout or Burbot. Empty the fish, leaving 
the liver but removing the gall bag, rinse thoroughly 
and then boil them for 15 minutes in water, salt and 
vinegar, let them lay in this broth for a little while 
and send to the table hot with a sour egg sauce or a 
tomato-, crab-, or fresh herb sauce (see Division K), 
together with boiled potatoes. Serve cold with vinegar, 
olive oil and pepper. The liver of the burbot is consid- 
ered a delicacy; it is boiled with the fish a few minutes 
before the latter is served. But little salt is required, 
the same as with eels. 

43. Fried Burbot. Burbot and other fresh water 
fish should be fried generally in the same manner as 
carp or pike; it will be well, however, to pickle them an 
hour beforehandTn olive oil and lemon juice with pars- 
ley and sliced onions. A fitting accompaniment to 
sourkrout and salads. 



216 F — Fish and Shell Fish. 

II. SALT WATER FISH. 

44. Boiled Sturgeon. After the fish is emptied wrap 
it into a cloth and let it lay on a stone slab in the cellar 
for 1 — 2 days, because its meat is tough when cooked 
fresh. Before boiling, rub it thoroughly with salt and 
water to remove all slime, then cut it into 5 — 10 pieces 
according to its size. Put it on the fire in cold water 
containing a handful of nettles, which assist in making 
the fish tender and in extracting the oil; let it draw 
slowly for % hour and take off the scum carefully. Then 
put the fish into fresh boiling water, add 6 — 10 onions, 
a few bay leaves, some cloves, peppercorns, a bunch 
of thyme, sage and majoram, and cook very slowly 
for another hour, taking off all of the fat with great 
care. Salt must not be added until the fish is quite 
tender, and then leave it in the broth a little while 
longer so that the salt may be absorbed. Take the fish 
out of the broth, remove all projecting gristle, cut into 
smaller pieces and send to the table with butter and a 
good mustard- or a parsley sauce (see Division R). 

The left-over pieces can be preserved for several days 
in the fish broth after adding a little vinegar; serve 
with olive oil, vinegar, pepper, finely chopped onions 
and mustard. 

45. Sturgeon Steaks. Take the left-over pieces out 
of the broth, cut them into slices about the thickness of 
a finger, dip them into eggs, pepper and minced escha- 
lots, turn in cracker crumbs and fry on both sides in 
hot butter over a quick fire to a light brown. Send to 
the table with young carrots or with onions browned in 
butter. 

46. Sturgeon a la Epicure. Cut a piece of sturgeon 
weighing about 4% pounds into slices and lard them. 
Line the bottom of a large saucepan with fresh bacon, 
ham, onions, carrots and parsley roots, all sliced; on 
these lay the fish slices, sprinkle with salt, pour over 
them a veal bouillon and then add 1% tablespoonfuls 
of butter, 1 bay leaf and a few peppercorns, cover the 
saucepan with a lid holding live embers, and let the 
fish simmer on a slow fire for a good half hour. Whet, 
done strain the broth, thicken with flour rubbed in 



Salt Water Fish. 217 

butter, add 1 glassful of white wine, and then pour 
the sauce so made over the fish slices which have been 
neatly arranged in the dish. 

47. Boiled Cod Fish. If the fish is to be cooked 
on a Friday it should be put into water for freshening 
not later than the Tuesday forenoon preceding. Before 
putting it into the vessel for freshening, cover the fish 
for half an hour with water and then pound it with 
a wooden mallet, gently at first and with gradually 
increasing force and long enough until the meat has 
lost its firmness; it should not, however, be pounded 
into shreds; then divide it into pieces of uniform size. 
To soften the meat use either potash or soda; the lat- 
ter is preferable because it is not so liable to leave an 
unpleasant taste. About 1 ounce of pulverized soda to 
each pound of fish is the proper proportion. Put the 
fish into a stone jar in layers sprinkled with the soda, 
cover with plenty of water and let it stand in a very 
cool place until the following Thursday morning, that 
is to say, for two days and two nights ; then press the 
fish until dry, scrape off the scales and otherwise clean 
very nicely, cut off the fins, rinse and lay into fresh 
water. The water should be changed at least three 
times and the pieces pressed dry each time. 

When preparing the fish lay the pieces on top of 
each other on a cloth ; three hours before they are to be 
used put them on the fire in a kettle with cold water 
with a plate in the bottom of the kettle. Wrapping the 
pieces in the cloth keeps them in better shape. Heat 
the cod fish slowly and then let it draw, but it should 
never boil even in the slightest degree. When serving 
put the drained fish on -a hot 'platter, sprinkle with fine 
salt, cover and send to the table with potatoes. About 
%— % ounce of salt is the right proportion for dried cod 
fish. If the fish is to be salted in the water add the 
required quantity of salt about 15 minutes before serv- 
ing, after taking out part of the fish broth. Most 
people prefer as a sauce simply plenty of good butter 
and mustard . Another sauce is made by boiling water, 
milk and fish broth, bind with cornstarch and then stir 
through it butter and mustard ; do not cook the latter. 

Remark.— If more cod fish has been prepared than is consumed during the 
meal, what is left over can be warmed with butter over boiling water, or a pie can 
be made from it as directed in E, 21. 



218 F.— Fish and Shell, Fish. 

48. Fresh Cod Fish. Scrape and empty the fish, 
cut off -the fins, remove the head and tail and divide the 
body into pieces 1 — 2 inches in width. The head, which 
many consider a delicacy, is divided in two if not too 
large, and scalded in sharply salted water for, about 
5 minutes beforehand, afterwards add the remaining 
pieces and boil for 10 — 15 minutes longer, carefully tak- 
ing off all the scum. As soon as the fish is done put it 
on a warm dish, garnish with parsley and add butter, 
mustard and boiled potatoes; other kinds of sauces are 
appropriate, for instance parsley-, sorrel-, or an oyster 
sauce. For large parties the fish is served with another 
sauce besides melted butter. If it is to be sent to the 
table whole, whereby it remains much juicier, cook it on 
a quick fire in salted water. The liver cannot be used 
on account of its pungent flavor. Cod fish and all other 
salt fish are the nicest when boiled in milk and water 
half and half; they thereby receive a milder flavor and 
the meat becomes flakey. 

In England cod fish is most generally served with 
the following sauce. Grate 8 hard-boiled eggs, mix with 
it 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of 
mustard, a little mace, salt and lemon juice, add a few 
spoonfuls of fish broth and % pound of fresh butter and 
stir the sauce on the stove until boiling hot. 

A Hollandaise-, o.yster- and Bechamel- or crab sauce 
can also be served with the cod fish. 

49. Stewed Fresh Cod Fish. Cut off the head and 
tail, wash, salt and lay them into an earthenware vessel, 
add plenty of butter, rolled crackers, nutmeg or mace, 
a sliced lemon without the seeds, a large cupful of wine, 
cover and stew on a slow fire until tender. The Ibody 
of the fish is cooked in the same way. 

50. Fresh Cod Fish Roulades. Take a number of 
small fresh cod fish after they are cleaned and emptied, 
divide in two lengthwise, remove the skin and take out 
the bones, and then cut each half into 2 or 3 pieces, 
according to the size of the fish. Make a forcemeat of 
the scraps of the fish with the addition of savory herbs, 
sour cream, eggs, salt, pepper and grated. bread, spread 
the forcemeat on the pieces of fish, roll them up and 
wrap in buttered paper, put them into a buttered pan 



Salt Water Fish. 219 

with white wine, bouillon, savory herbs and bake slowly 
for % hour. Then take off the paper, spread the rolls 
with a thick Remoulade sauce, sprinkle with grated 
bread, dot with crab butter and bake for a little while. 
Slice the rolls and serve with salsify. 

51. Boiled Haddock. Scale, empty and wash the 
haddock and divide according to size into 3 — 4 pieces 
and after rinsing these once again, put'them into boil- 
ing, rather strongly salted water, and take off the scum. 
After the fish has boiled for a few minutes leave it in - 
the broth for a while louger to absorb some of the salt 
and send to the table hot. 

Before transporting haddock they are frequently 
emptied and salted. In this case put them on the fire 
in cold water and exercise careful judgment in the appli- 
cation of salt. . Serve with hot boiled potatoes, melted 
butter and mustard, or else with a mustard sauce. 

52. Haddock with Savory Herbs. After cleaning 
the fish divide it into pieces and remove skin and bones 
carefully. Pickle these pieces for an hour in a glassful 
of white wine, the juice of a lemon, salt, pepper and 
minced herbs, then stew a dozen chopped mushrooms 
in butter with a handful of minced herbs and a few sliced 
eschalots. Simmer the fish in this for 10 minutes, add 
to it % of the marinade with a little more white wine, 
and stew the fish for 5 minutes longer. Strain the fish 
broth and stir through it flour rubbed in butter and 
extract of beef bouillon to a rather thick sauce, which 
is served with the fish. 

53. Stuffed Haddock. Take 2 fish of medium size 
and after they are cleaned wash them, dry and fill with 
veal forcemeat A, No. 24, sew them, sprinkle with salt 
and brush all over with anchovy butter. Then lay 
them in a well buttered pan, bake in the oven for % hour 
to a light brown color, and in the meantime prepare the 
sauce as follows: Finely chop a few gherkins, eschalots 
and capers and rub with a tablespoonful of flour in 
brown butter and then boil with 2 cupfuls of hot bou- 
illon. Strain the sauce and season, if necessary, with a 
little lemon juice and with pepper, salt- and a spoonful of 
chopped parsley. Put the fish on a hot platter, garnish 
with sprigs of parsley and serve with the sauce. 



220 F.— Fish and Shell, Fish. 

54. Haddock in Hamburg Style. Take off the head 
and cut into slices about % of an inch thick, salt and set 
aside for an hour, butter a pan and put in the pieces of 
the fish together with sliced raw potatoes alternately, 
sprinkle each layer with chopped onions heated in but- 
ter and with some pepper,, and pour over all a large 
cupful of sour cream whipped with 3 eggs. Bake in the 
oven for a good half hour and send to the table with 
lettuce or a bean salad. 

55. Boiled Turbot. In Germany turbot are consid- 
ered the finest of all fishes and many esteem the head 
and tail as being particular delicacies. After rubbing 
the fish with salt and emptying, being careful to remove 
the gall bag from the liver, wash the fish with salted 
water, trim the fins, cut off the tail fully a hand's length 
and also the head with at least % inch of the flesh with 
it. Then divide the middle piece smoothly intwo length- 
wise, and cut the two halves into pieces of proper size. 
Cqok in strongly salted water for about 10 minutes, 
skimming carefully; the fish is done when the fins can 
be easily pulled out. If the fish is to be boiled whole 
put it into a fish kettle, or when this is lacking wrap.it 
in a napkin and put it on the fire in salted water with a 
plate in the bottom of the kettle. As soon as done 
drain and put the fish with the white side to the top on 
a warm dish and garnish with parsley. When sorrel is 
in season and quite young make a good sorrel sauce, at 
any other time a crab-, shrimp- or butter sauce, and 
particularly a Bearnese sauce, (see Division R). Nice 
boiled potatoes with melted butter, lemon juice and 
mustard are also very good. 

56. Baked Turbot. The turbot is prepared the same 
as in the above receipt, divided into pieces, salted and 
baked the same as codfish. The same sauces are used 
as given for cooked turbot. 

57. Crusted Turbot. Use for this purpose remnants 
Of the fish. Remove all skin and bones and cut the 
meat into small pieces; stew, them for a few moments 
with butter and chopped eschalots, mushrooms and 
parsley, add salt and pepper and put into a baking pan 
with the pieces heaping towards the middle, pour over 
it a few tablespoonfuls of white sauce, sprinkle the sur- 



Salt Water Fish. '221 

face with bread crumbs and dot with butter. When this 
gratin is of a nice brown color send to the table at once 
with a dish of creamy mashed potatoes into. which the 
yolks of a few eggs have been stirred. 

58. Boiled Soles. Soles have a white and a gray 
side, the first is scraped, and skinned from the tail up- 
wards. Cut off the head, the point of the tail and the 
fins, empty the fish, wash several times with cold water 
and let it lay for an hour in salted water. Then cook 
in boiling salted water with onions and coarse spices 
for a few minutes until done. Garnish the dish with 
sprigs of parsley, sliced lemons and. serve with boiled 
potatoes and a crab- or butter sauce (see Division R), 
with mustard according to taste. 

59. Fried Soles. After the fish is cleaned, sprinkle 
with salt, let it stand for an hour or two, dry with a 
cloth, cut slits into the skin over the entire fish, brush 
with a beaten egg mixed with a little water, dredge with 
rolled crackers and fry on both sides in hot butter or 
lard in an open pan on a quick fire, to a crisp and light 
brown color. 

60. Fried Soles, Bremen Style. After the fish have 
been cleaned they should be cut into several pieces if 
they are large, otherwise leave them whole, salt and let 
them stand for an hour. Then dry them, turn in melted 
butter first and then in egg and bread crumbs and fry. 
In the meantime stir 6tabfespoonfuls of creamed butter 
with 2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy butter, the juice of 
2 lemons, salt, nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of mustard and 
1 tablespoonful of minced parsley to a cream. Put the 
fish into the pan in layers, and the cream between them, 
and serve with boiled potatoes and a dish of potato 
salad. 

61. Fillets of Soles. The fillets are cut the same as 
pike, salted an d laid in lemon juice for 1 hnn r. -Make a 
forceriTeat of remnants ol poultry, crab butter, eggs, 
salt, pepper and grated wheat bread and spread over 
the fillets. Melt some fresh butterylay the fillets in this 
with sliced truffles and over these some pork fat and 
then a buttered paper, and bake in the oven for 15 min- 
utes. In the meantime stew young mushrooms in but- 
ter, bouillon and lemon juice until done, fill into the 



222 F.— Fish and Shell, Fish. 

middle of the dish and surround them with the fillets 
which have been taken out of the paper and pork fat. 

62. Baked Fillets of Soles with Sauce. When baking 
or making a fricassee of the soles it is better to skin the 
fish on both sides. This is easily done by loosening the 
skin atthe end of the tail and rapidly pulling it off. Cut 
the sole into 4 pieces, take the flesh from the bones, 
pickle these 4 fillets in lemon juice, salt and parsley 
leaves. Shortly before serving take them out of the 
pickle, dip in egg and nutmeg, sprinkle with cracker 
crumbs and fry in browned butter, basting often, until 
crisp and of a dark yellow color. Garnish the same as 
given for boiled soles and serve with a Remoulade-, 
anchovy-, caper- or crab sauce, (see Division R), or serve 
as is usually done in Holland, with good fresh lettuce. 
Potato salad is often served with it in Bremen. 

63. Baked Soles with Lemon Juice. The soles are 
prepared as directed in the above receipt and laid for 
1—2 hours in lemon juice, salt, chopped eschalots and 
spices. Before baking dry the fillet, turn in flour and 
then in egg and bread crumbs and bake in plenty of 
lard to a light brown color. The soles are sent to the 
table hot on a napkin and -garnished with a bunch of 
parsley. Serve with a highly spiced sauce, or as a side 
dish Avith young peas, asparagus, etc. 

The fish can also be fried in butter and served with 
a flue ragout of oysters, crabs, and the like. 

64. Boiled flackerel. The mackerel is a nice, fat 
fish. Cut off the head and lay it in strongly salted 
w ater w ith ajittle vin egar for a n hour , 'in 'one large or" 
^number of smalTer pieces?'"' If i"FTs""l3&iled whole, lay it 
on a plate and pour not vinegar over it. In the mean- 
time, cook some onions, tarragon, thyme, sweet basil, 
pepper and cloves in salted water, put the mackerel into 
a fish kettle and cook for a few minutes, skim, add' 
some vinegar and serve with a Travemunder sauce, 
(see Bivision R) . 

The mackerel is also fried and left in a' pickle: of 
I mon juice and salt for a little while like other fish. . 

65. Boiled Smelts. Wash and clean the fish thor- 
oughly and boil in salted water for a few minutes, skim- 



Salt Water Fish. 223 

ming carefully. Then pour into it a little cold water ; 
serve the fish with hot potatoes, butter and mustard 
and a sour egg sauce, (see Division R). 

66. Baked Smelts are prepared the same as boiled 
smelts, nicely washed, put on a colander and sprinkled 
with fine salt, turned in flour and fried crisp in plenty of 
hot fat to a light yellow color. Potato salad is served 
with it. 

Remark. — The smelt is a dry fish, and plenty of fat must be used in frying. 

67. Fish Rice. % pound of rice is cooked in salted 
water with a little butter or in bouillon until thick and 
done, boil 3 — 4 eggs until hard, cut the whites into 
small pieces and grate the yolks. In the meantime 
bone about % pound of fish, taking out all the skin, and 
break the meat into pieces. Then mix the rice with 
the fish and the whites of the eggs, stir over the fire 
until hot with 2 spoonfuls of melted butter, a little 
salt, cayenne pepper and nutmeg, put the fish rice on a 
hot dish and sprinkle over it the grated yolks of the 
eggs. Using half cream and half crab butter mixed with 
stewed mushrooms and the whole stirred with a few 
whipped eggs, will make the dish much nicer. 

68. Caviar Sandwiches. Butter wheat bread toast, 
spread thickly with caviar and serve with lemon slices 
and finely chopped onions. 

69. Anchovy Sandwiches. Either toast wheat bread 
slices or brown them in butter, or else soak the bread in 
milk and egg and rapidly brown it in melted butter. 
Then spread the bread with a sauce as described further 
on and cover with anchovies prepared as directed under 
A, No. 31. Line the inside of a dish with these bread 
slices in such a manner that they overlap shingle-fash- 
ion. Put hard boiled eggs divided into halves into the 
middle of the dish with the square edges to the top and 
pour over them the following herb sauce: Grate the 
yolks of 4 hard boiled eggs and gradually stir with 
them minced herbs such as estragon, parsley and bur- 
net, also a email cupful of bouillon, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
olive oil, 1—2 tablespoonfuls ©f wine vinegar, capers, 
mustard and some pepper. 



224 F — Fish and Shell Fish. 

70. Fried Fresh Herring. After the fish are cleaned 
and emptied, wash, salt and dry them. Then pickle for 
an hour in lemon juice, a little salt and pepper/, turn in 
egg and then in cracker crumbs and mace. Fry in hot 
butter. Herring can be filled and fried and are then 
very delicious. Melt 3 heaping tables poonfulfe of butter, 
stir in as much rye bread as will absorb the butter, add 
2 eggs, 2 chopped eschalots, salt and pepper and fill 
into the fish. 

71 . Boiled Fre"sh Herring. After the fish have been 
cleaned and washed, sprinkle with salt, dip into vine- 
gar, turn the tail of the fish into its mouth and then 
cook in boiling salted water for about 10 minutes. 
Garnish the dish with sprigs of parsley or grated horse- 
radish and serve with a parsley or butter sauce. 

72. Fried Salt Herring in Mecklenburg Style. Re- 
move fins, bones, roes or milt, and put the herring into 
milk to freshen. Then dry them, turn in a sauce made 
of wine, the yolks of a few eggs and flour and fry in hot 
butter. Serve with sourkrout. 

73. Pickled Herring. After cleaning the herring 
take out the milt without opening the body. Wash 
carefully and lay them preferably into milk, or else into 
water, for two days to freshen them. Then for 12 her- 
rings take 1 nutmeg, 1 ounce of white mustard seeds, 8 
eschalots, and 12 white peppercorns, .pound finely and 
put part of the mixture into each herring. Put the fish 
into a jar in layers with small onions, peppergrass, tar- 
ragon, thyme, bay leaves; stir up the milt with vinegar 
and pour into, the jar. 

Herring can be pickled in a simpler way by omitting 
filling them with the above mixture, or else the vinegar 
may be stirred to a thick sauce with the strained milt ; 
the sauce is then poured over the fish. Before pickling, 
herring are frequently cut into thin slices. 

74. Broiled Herring. After the fish has been fresh- 
ened and dried, trim the head a little smaller on both 
sides, take out the eyes, and brown on a broiler, then 
lay them into a dish with lemon slices, bay leaves, 
coarse ground pepper and cloves and pour over them 
some beer, vinegar and salad oil. 

They are served for breakfast, also with pea soup. 



Salt "Water Fish. 225 

75. Herring for Tea. About 1% cupfuls of sour 
cream are well beaten, add 3 teaspoonfuls of mustard, 
2 tablespoonfuls of olive oil, the same quantity of vine- 
gar, % of a grated onion and a little pepper, and stir 
well together. To the above quantity take 6 freshened 
boned herrings, cut into long pieces and mix with the 
sauce. Serve with bread and butter for tea. 

76. Herring with Remoulade Sauce. After the her- 
ring have been freshened and skinned tear into halves 
down the middle, bone, cut into pieces and pour over 
them a good Remoulade sauce. Serve for breakfast or 
supper. 

77. Herring Cream. Freshen G herring for 24 hours 
and then cut them into pieces. Lay the pieces into a 
dish, take 1 cupful of not too strong vinegar, and beat 
into this the yolks of 6 eggs, % pound of butter, 2 large 
grated onions, 1 heaping teaspoonful of mustard and 
1 tablespoonful of sugar, stir on the fire to a cream, 
let it cool and pour over the herring pieces. Garnish 
with hard boiled eggs, mushrooms, gherkins or button 
onions. 

78. Herring Rolls. The herring are freshened, split 
down" the back and divided into two pieces. After they 
are carefully boned, spread the inner side with mustard 
and grated onions, then with capers, roll tight, tie with 
a white thread (which is taken off when the fish is sent 
to the table), and serve with a sauce as directed for 
pickled herring. A very nice and quickly made dish to 
serve with cold meat. 

79. Broiled Bloaters. If they are to be cooked on a 
broiler, split them down the back, empty, but leave in 
the milt, put a piece of butter on the fish, clap them 
together, wrap into buttered paper and cook until done. 
If you have no broiler, open the body of the bloaters 
instead of the back and after they have been emptied 
fry them nicely in butter. 

80. Boiled Lobster. The lobster is killed by putting 
it head first into seething hot water with plenty of salt. 
Carraway seed is often put into the water, also a bunch 
of parsley. The water must be kept boiling during the 
entire time the lobster is cooking. The lobster should 



226 F. — Fish and Shell Fish. 

boil according to size from 10—15 minutes, if very large 
15 — 20 minutes; leave it iu the water 15 minutes longer 
to cool, and after taking it out brush with a piece of 
pork fat or good olive oil, which will give it a 7 bright 
appearance. Before serving, split it-lengthwise into two 
pieces and cut it crosswise into smaller pieces, #reak the 
claws so that the meat can be easily taken out, put the 
pieces together so that it will have its original form, 
and garnish, with parsley leaves. 

Serve the lobster warm with butter, chopped parsley 
and a lemon cut into 8 pieces. When the lobster is 
brought to the table cold, serve it with olive oil, wine 
vinegar and parsley. 

81. American Lobster. After the lobster is cooked 
as given under No. 80, take off the meat, cut the -meat 
from the tail into slices and the meat from, the claws 
into .small pieces, and stew both for % hour in a sauce 
made as follows : Stew a few eschalots in butter, add 1 
cupful of white wine, take 6 tomatoes, stew and then 
pass them through a sieve and then stir through it 1 
cupful of brown sauce. Season the sauce with cayenne 
pepper, stew the meat and fill the dish in such a manner 
that the larger pieces of the lobster form a border 
around the smaller pieces heaped in -the center. c A 
border of rice around the whole is very delicious. 

, 82. Lobster Fricassee with Fish Balis and Asparagus. 

Take fat young spring chickens, clean and boil them in 
not too much salted water with a piece of butter arid 
mace, skimming carefully. About \ hour before they 
are done add some cleaned and parboiled asparagus. 
When the chickens are done, cut all the meatinto cubes, 
pour the broth with a little fat over this, put in the 
asparagus, cover, and set aside in a warm place. In 
the remaining broth cook some fish dumplings (see 
Division O) which are put with the asparagus. Then 
stir as much flour and butter as is needed to a fricassee 
sauce, let it cook, and pour the chicken broth to it; 
cook for % hour and strain through a fine sieve. This 
sauce is put into a rinsed dish with the meat of the 
chicken, asparagus anddumplings and cooked for afew 
minutes, add the lobster pieces, which must not boil 
again, take the dish from the stove, stir the sauce with 



Salt Water Fish. 227 

1 — 2 yolks of eggs, put the fricassee into a hot dish and 
serve with croutons. 

83. Lobster Salad with Caviar Sandwiches. This 
receipt will be found under Salads, (see Division Q). 

84. Crabs. The crabs are put into cold water and 
cleaned with a whisk broom. In the meantime heat a 
piece of butter in a kettle^pour in a little vinegar,~add a 
bunch of parsley, pepper and salt, and when the water 
boils put in the crabs and stir them a few times. After 
about 10 — 15 minutes they will receive a red color, take 
from the fire, put them on a napkin, pile in pyramid 
form and garnish with parsley. 

85. Fried Oysters. Sprinkle a f ew drops of lemon 
Juice on thn oysters, add a very little mace, turn in egg 

and mace, then in grated crackers and try in a pan in 
hot butter; frying the oysters too long makes them 
hard. They can also be baked in butter for a few 
moments. 

Another way is to dry the oysters with a cloth and 
sprinkle with wheat flour. Then fry 2 small onions in 
butter until light brown, fry the oysters in this for a 
few seconds, sprinkle with salt and pepper and drop 
over them a few drops of lemon juice. 

86. Oyster Stew. Open a few dozen oysters, cut off 
the beards, sprinkle with lemon juice, put the beards of 
the oysters together with the liquor and pepper, mace 
and lemon peel into a stew pan, let it boil for half an 
hour, thicken the broth with flour lightly browned, add 
1 cupful of thick sweet cream and stir the broth until 
thick. Heat the oysters in this and serve immediately. 

87. Fish Pudding. See Puddings, No. 41. 

. Boiled trout, pike-perch, pike and oysters are the 
only kinds of fish that should be served to invalids. 
With these fish serve only a butter sauce, which is 
stirred with a few yolks of eggs and seasoned with a 
little lemon juice, or fresh butter stirred to a cream; a 
Bechamel- or Hollandaise sauce can also be served. 



Q. — Rare Dishes of Various 
Kinds. 



1. Turtle Soup. Medium-sized turtles are better 
than the very large ones, because the meat of the latter 
is usually tough. The day before the turtle is cooked, 
hang it up by the hind legs and as soon as it puts out 
its head, cut it off; then let it bleed for about 4 hours, 
lay on a meat board, cut the under side all around 
from the shell and empty carefully, cut away the gall 
bag which is attached to the liver. The liver and heart, 
also the eggs if there are any, are laid in fresh water. 
After the turtle is emptied cut the forefeet with quite a 
piece of the flesh from each side, and smaller pieces from 
the hind feet. -The fins are cut off and the feet and the 
under side scalded in boiling water, so that the skin can 
he taken off. It is not advisable to cook the turtle 
whole, as it is very slimy and has quite a strong flavor. 

Wash the meat carefully, lay for a few hours in cold 
water, changing the water frequently, and then hang 
up the meat over night to let it air. The next day put 
the heart and meat with some thin beef bouillon on 
the stove to cook, (the bouillon can be made the day 
before), with the necessary salt, skim carefully and put 
into the broth a bunch of tarragon and thyme, finely 
chopped onions and a bottle of white wine, and let the 
meat cook in this until done. Then take the meat out 
of the broth, and after it is cold cut it into long, neat 
pieces. The liver is not cooked with it, but is stewed in 
butter until tender, then cut into pieces and laid i"to 
the tureen. 



G. — Rare Dishes of Various Kinds. 229 

The turtle soup is served clear, also thickened ; the 
latter kind is preferred. When it is to be thickened, 
brown some flour in butter, stir with it some of the 
broth and put into the soup. The turtle meat is cooked 
in the soup for % hour and seasoned with powdered 
ginger, cayenne pepper, cloves and mace; dumplings 
may also be added and are made of sqme of the raw 
turtle meat as follows : Chop the turtle meat with some 
beef marrow, pound it in a mortar, and then mix with 
some bread, eggs, salt, mace, grated lemon peel and 
white pepper and make small dumplings. Instead of 
these, veal dumplings can also be used. As dumplings 
when cooked in a thickened soup make the latter too 
thick, it is well to cook the dumplings in the soup before 
the browned flour is put in, and when the dumplings 
are done put them into a tureen with some of the bou- 
illon while thickening the soup. 

If it is desired to put turtle sausages into the soup, 
take the same forcemeat described as above for the 
dumplings. Mix with it a small glassful of brandy, 
some finely chopped eschalots rubbed in plenty of beef 
marrow, a little white pepper and some minced liver 
and fill this into very small sausage casings, boil the 
sausages until done, cut the'm into oblique pieces and 

Eut them into the tureen when the soup is served, 
hould there be any eggs in the turtle put them into 
the soup together with a bottle of Madeira. Serve the 
soup very hot over the liver and dumplings. 

A medium-sized turtle will take about 1^—2 hours 
in cooking, and an old one from 3 — 3% hours. 

2. Soup made of Canned Turtle. In cooking the 
soup the green fat, which has an oily flavor, should be 
removed as much as possible by means of hot water. 
Then cut the meat into small cubes, bring to a boil once 
in a strong Espagnole sauce with Madeira, and serve. 

The Espagnole sauce is made as follows : Line the 
bottom of a deep saucepan with fresh butter about % of 
an inch thick, put in a pound of sliced, lean, raw ham, 
then 3—4 large sliced Spanish onions, 1 pound of lean 
veal, 2 old partridges or 2 old pigeons, an old chicken 
and the remnants of uncooked or roasted poultry, pour 
in 2 bastingspoonfuls of bouillon and put the pan on a 
slow Are, allowing the whole to simmer slowly and to 



230 G— Rare Dishes of Various Kinds. 

draw until it is of a light brown, being very careful not 
to scorch. Then fill up with the bouillon, bring to a 
boil, skim off the fat very thoroughly, put in some 
carrots, green leek, parsnips and cook slowly. In the 
meantime lightly brown some flour in % pound of fresh 
butter for 1 hour over a slow fire, stir with bouillon 
until thin and smooth and cook- for 2 hours slowly and 
uninterruptedly, taking off "all the fat and scum fre- 
quently and carefully; then pass the broth through a 
fine sieve, add % bottle of Madeira and then cook until 
rather thick, constantly stirring, adding at the last the 
juice of a lemon. 

3. Snail Soup. The vineyard and the spiral species 
are the only kinds that can be used for this soup, and 
then only when they are closed. Boil for an hour in 
boiling salted water, pull them out of their shells with a 
fork, take off the little patch of skin from the top, cut 
away the ring which encircles the snail and remove the 
front point. Sprinkle with a handful of salt which will 
loosen the slime, Avash them 3 or 4 times in warmed 
water and press them dry. Boil about 50 snails in 
bouillon, take them out of the kettle, chop 2 — 3 of them 
very finely, stew in butter for a short time, add as much 
bouillon as is required to make the soup, put in a little 
mace and boil for a few minutes, stir in the yolks of a 
few eggs and serve the soup with wheat bread toast and 
the rest of the snails in the tureen. 

If the soup is cooked during Lent, boil all of the 
snails in water until tender, chop all of them finely with 
4 hard boiled eggs, 2 onions, minced parsley and a few 
rolls soaked in milk, stew this in butter for 15 minutes. 
Then pour in part of the snail broth, % bottle of light 
wine and a pint of pea broth, season with salt and 
pepper and stir through the soup the yolks of a few 
eggs. 

4. Snails in Sauce. Take a few washed and boned 
anchovies, and chop fine with a little parsley. Then 
knead a tablespoonful of stale grated wheat bread," a 
little flour and 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of butter, mix 
the chopped anchovy and parsley with this, stir with 
good bouillon, lay the snails into this with a little mace 
and pepper and cook for % hour. A very nice dish is 
made by serving the snails in their shells, which should 



G. — Rare Dishes op Various Kinds. 231 

be nicely cleaned and dried. Then take anchovies, pars- 
ley, the spices already mentioned, butter, wheat bread, 
flour, knead all together, fill some of it iuto a shell, lay 
a snail on this and cover with some of the mixture. 
After the shells have all been filled in this manner, put 
them into a saucepan with th"e openings to the top, add 
a bastiugspoonful of bouillon and serve after cooking 
for ]i hour. 

5. .Snail Salad. The snails are cleaned as directed 
in No. 4 and cut lengthwise into pieces, or else leave 
them whole and mix with salt, pepper, finely chopped 
onions ancTtwo parts of olive oil to one part of vinegai 

6. Ragout of Frog Legs. Put the frog legs into a 
deep dish with water, vinegar and salt and wash thor- 
oughly with a whisk. Then melt some butter, lay the 
frog legs with a few eschalots and a little salt into this, 
cover and simmer until" nearly done. Then sprinkle 
over it some flour, add some strong bouillon, made of 
extract of beef, mace and a few lemon slices, cook the 
frog legs until done and stir the sauce with a few yolks 
of eggs. Wheat bread or meat dumplings cooked in 
either salted water or bouillon can also be laid around 
the ragout. 

7. Frog Leg Pie. Make a ragout as directed in 
No. 6, with good meat dumplings and fill into the pie. 

8. Ptarmigan or White Grouse is cooked the same 
as prairie chicken, but the entire skin must be pulled off 
with the feathers. 

9. Coot. The skin of the ' coot has an oily taste 
and must be taken off; then tie. pork fat slices around 
the bird and roast it like wild duck. 

10. Guinea Fowl are only fit for use when quite 
young; roast like prairie chicken. 

11. Roast Peacock. A Suabian Receipt. The half- 
grown peacock is the best for a roast. It is killed 
about three days before wanted for use, plucked up to 
half of the neck, the head taken off, emptied and washed 
clean. Rub inside and out with salt and pepper, fill 
into it a bay leaf, some parsley and some sweet basil, 



282 G.— Rare Dishes of Yarjous Kind's. 

lay some pork fat on the breast, or lard the breast and 
legs with fine pork fat lafdoons and roast slowly. If it 
is to be roasted on a spit, tie over the breast some 
buttered paper. When serving, lay the head with the 
peacock, garnish the dish with water cresses and serve 
with an oyster- or brown sauce; season with lemon 
slices. 

If liked a well-seasoned veal forcemeat may be filled 
into the peacock. 

13. Suabian Peacock Pie. Kill a young half-grown 
peacock a few days before it is to be used ; cut off the 
head, pluck, empty, wash very thoroughly, rub inside 
and out with spices and salt. Put a piece of butter into 
a saucepan, let the meat simmer in this for a little 
while, mince the liver with a small piece of pork fat and 
an onion, brown a handful of bread crumbs in butter, 
simmer the mince in this, pour the butter out of the 
pan and substitute for it the minced liver, etc., together 
with % bottle of wine; boil an ounce of truffles in wine 
and put them in with the wine, a large spoonful of 
bouillon, a few lemon slices, a little sweet basil and a 
few bay leaves, cover the pan tightly and when the 
peacock has been cooked slowly until nearly done, let it 
cool in this sauce. Make a good butter crust, put in 
the bird with a piece of pork fat on its breast, close and 
brash the crust as usual and bake in an oven for % of 
an hour tb a light brown. The remaining sAuce is 
thinned with bouillon and a little lemon juice and kept 
hot. When the pie is taken out of the oven remove the 
upper crust and pour in the sauce, then put the head of 
the peacock on the cover, close the pie and send it to 
the table hot. 

Old birds can be used for small pies only, for in- 
stance, pies of various kinds of meat (see E, No. 11) ; it 
may- be well to lay the meat into a seasoned broth 
some time beforehand. 

14. Mountain Cock or Grouse. For roasting, young 
birds only should be taken as the older ones are almost 
invariably tough and fit for ragouts or fricassees only. 
Fill with the following forcemeat: Chop a piece of good 
veal with some raw ham and its fat very finely, then 
add a few yolks of eggs with a couple of ground cloves, 



G.— Rare Dishes of Various Kinds. 238 

some thick sweet cream, grated wheat bread, salt and 
the frothed whites of the eggs, mix well, fill into the 
bird and roast like turkey. 

15. Mountain Cock Pies. Cut the bird into small 
pieces, take out all of the bones, slightly roast the meat 
in butter and let it lay in wine vinegar with pepper, 
nutmeg and button onions for a few hours. In the 
meantime finely chop equal parts of veal, beef and fresh 
pork, add the yolk of an egg and the chopped yolks of 
several hard boiled eggs, some wheat bread and nut- 
meg. Line the bottom of the pie mould with pork fat 
and butter, put on a layer of the meat, then a-layer of 
the chopped meat and so on until the mould is filled. 
Put a few lemon slices on top, sprinkle with salt and 
pour in % bottle of wine. Cover the mould tightly and 
cook on a slow fire for 4—5 hours. If the pie should 
become too dry, add a little more wine. After the pie is 
done, remove the lemon slices, bind the gravy with egg 
yolks and send the dish to the table cold. 

16. Roast Badger. A young badger is quite palat- 
able and tender, similar to pork tenderloin. Let it lay 
in vinegar for 2—3 days, with onions, carrots, sage and 
all kinds of kitchen herbs, bay leaves, pepper, cloves and 
salt ; lard- and roast it like young hare, but for a shorter 
length of time. 

17. Ragout of Badger. All of the meat which is not 
used for the roast is cut into pieces and prepared like 
ragout of hare ("Hasenpfeffer )., If there should not 
be enough of the meat some pork may be added. 

18. Bear's Paws. Bear's paws are by many con- 
sidered to be a great delicacy, in fact the best part of 
the bear. Clean the forepaws very nicely, boil in salted 
water until tender, dip them in melted butter, egg, and 
then in bread crumbs, broil with frequent basting until 
lightly brown. Garnish with lemon slices and capers 
and send to the table with any kind of a spicy gravy. 
Sometimes the paws are pickled in vinegar and savory 
herbs for a day beforehand ; then boil in bouillon and 
part of the marinade instead of water before broiliag 
them. 



234 G. — Rare Dishes of Vatuous Kinds. 

19. Roast Bear. The hindquarters and the saddle 
of a young bear are the best for roasting. Meat from 
an old bear should be pickled in vinegar for a few days 
and then laid in milk for' another day before roasting. 
Put the roast into the oven with a little water, add salt, 
baste freqently and roast for 3—4 hours. Take the fat 
from the gravy, stir into it a little sour cream, and 
serve with the roast. 

20. Roast Beaver Tails. The flesh of the beaver is 
usually braised, but the tail, which is considered a deli- 
cacy, is roasted after it has lain in a marinade for a 
day. Scrape it carefully, boil in vinegar, water and 
some salt until tender and then turn it in whipped egg 
yolks and rolled crackers. Pour melted butter over it, 
roast on a broiler and serve with sliced lemon's. 



H. — Hot Puddings. 



1 . How Puddings are cooked. The pudding mould 
should never be used until it has been tested by pouring 
water into it to see if it is perfectly tight. The slightest 
leak in the mould will inevitably spoil the pudding. 

Before using the mould rub it thoroughly on the 
inside with a dry cloth and carefully and plentifully 
hntter it. and afterwards dredge with rolled cracker or 
finely grated wheat bread . s *tf^e^nTouIJ^'as"iib'f T3eeii"' 
carefully buttered the pudding will adhere to it and 
tear or crumble in taking out. When through using, it 
is important to a t puce clea n the mould and keep it in 
^jyir^j^plaee. -• 

A trifle of salt should be put into all puddings, puffs 
and other sweet dishes, otherwise they will be apt to 
have an insipid taste. 

The pudding dough must be vigorously stirred and 
the whites of the eggs used should be beaten until stiff, 
if possible by an assistant, so that it will not be neces- 
sary to interrupt stirring the pudding. As soon as the 
froth has been slightly stirred through the pudding, it 
should be put into the mould immediately, setting it 
into boiling water, except in case of yeast puddings. 

When making yeast puddings the mould should be 
filled only about one-half and put on the fire in luke- 
warm water, at other times it is usual to fill the mould 
about three-fourths. Then cover tightly and close the 
edge with a thick paste of flour and water; put the 
• mould into boiling water, but not too deep,- in order 
that the water in "boiling may not penetrate through 
the edge of the cover and thus spoil the pudding. To 
prevent the mould from lifting in the kettle, which some- 
times occurs, secure it by putting some weights on it or 



236 H.— Hot Puddings. 

tying it to the cover with a string. A false bottom in 
the kettle, either a piece of slate, an old plate, etc., 
will be advantageous and if through neglect the water 
should boil away, the- pudding will not then scorch. 
Puddings should cook continuously and uniformly, 
replenishing the boiling water whenever necessary, and 
also beiug cautious not to jar the mould, which is apt 
to make the pudding fall. 

When cooking puddings in a cloth the latter should 
be rinsed in hot water, then wring dry, brush with 
butter and dredge with flour as far as the pudding will 
cover the cloth. As soon as the pudding is filled into 
the cloth tie it tightly with a string, leaVing enough 
loose cloth for expansion; the water should boil vigor- 
ously and uninterruptedly", otherwise the pudding will 
become heavy and spoil. A mould is always preferable. 

Puddings should always be served in a hot dish 
during the cold season, or M the kitchen happens to be 
at some distance from the dining room, take the pud- 
ding out of the mould just before it is set on the table. 

All puddings will be best when cooked in a double 
kettle. 

2. English Plum Pudding, No. 1. For 12— 14 per- 
sons use 4 eggs, (the whites beaten to a froth), about 
1 pint of sweet cream, % pound of fine flour, % pound of 
kidney suet, % pound of nicely washed currants, % pound 
of stoned and finely chopped raisins, 2% tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, 1 ounce of citron, 1 ounce of orange peel, 
% grated nutmeg, % wineglassf ul of rum and a little salt. 

If not liked, the orange peel and citron may be 
omitted. Stir all well together, put into a mould and 
cook for 4 hours. When serving pour arrac or rum 
over the pudding, light and bring to the table flaming. 
A white cream sauce (see Division R), is very appro- 
priate. 

For the family table make a plain sauce of butter 
rubbed with flour, add boiling water with sugar, cinna- 
mon and a little salt, 1 glassful of wine and a dash of 
rum. 

Remark.— This pudding can be made the day previously, as warming over 
in the mould will not hurt it any. 

3. English Plum Pudding, No. 2. p^or 12 — 14 per- 
sons take % pound of raisins, % pound of currants, 



H.— Hot POddjngs. 237 

% pound of kidney suet, % pound of cracker crumbs, 
% pound of sugar, % pound of citron, 2 ounces of sweet 
pounded almonds, 2 ounces of orange peel, % grated 
nutmeg, 1 wineglassful of rum, a little salt and 4 whole 
eggs, of which the whites should not be frothed. 

A pudding which is to be cooked in a pudding cloth 
must be quite thick and the bread or cracker crumbs 
must be moistened with a little milk, so that it will stir 
nicely in the pudding. 

The dough is thoroughly stirred and then cooked in 
a pudding cloth for 6 hours. 

4. Plum Pudding with Wheat Bread. For 24 per- 
sons beat 6 whole and the yolks of 6 eggs, and stir to 
them alternately, so that "the flour will not become 
lumpy, % pound of flour, 3 cupfuls of milk, 1 pound of 
stale wheat bread crumbs, % pound of finely chopped 
kidney suet, % pound of stoned raisins, % pound of cur- 
rants and a little salt. 

Stir all well together, put it into a large mould or 
into a pudding cloth, first rubbing a little flour over 
the latter to prevent the pudding from adhering to it, 
and tie it, leaving room for the pudding to raise. Put 
the pudding into the kettle and cook for 3—4 hours. 

5. Rolled English Pudding. For 1G persons take 
1 pound of flour, % pound of kidney suet, 1 egg, 1 small 
cupful of cold water and 1 spoonful of sugar. Stir well 
together and then roll the dough into an oblong sheet, 
lay on this stoned cherries or plums and sprinkle well 
with sugar. Or take preserves of any kind, or a com- 
pot, roll, lay in a napkin, close at both ends and cook 
in boiling water fully 2 hours. 

This pudding is eaten with powdered sngar. It can 
be served cold as a cake but in this case butter instead 
of kidney suet is used. 

6. ' English Apple Pudding. 1 pound of flour, % 
pound of kidney suet, which has lain in water over 
night and then chopped fine, 1 teaspoonful of ginger 
and 1 teaspoonful of salt. Hub all well together and 
take water enough to make a dough, which is then 
kneaded like bread until it will not stick to the hands. 
Then roll out the dough, lay a napkin into a deep dish, 
dust a little flour over it, lay the dough over this, fill 



238 H.— Hot Puddings. 

with quartered pared apples, a few whole cloves, cover 
the dough over this, tie the napkin over the pan and 
cook in slightly salted water foi 2 hours. Serve with 
sugar without a sauce. 

This pudding can also be made by covering the 
apples with pieces of butter, 3 ounces of currants, 3 
ounces -of raisins, 1% ounces of orange peel, some sugar 
and a little rum before it is filled into the dough. 

7. English Chestnut Pudding. Take 1 pound of, 
chestnuts, slit the shell and roast until the kernel is 
easily freed from the shell and brown inner skin. Take 
half of the chestnuts, pound them with 3 ounces of 
butter, mix with 6 ounces of finely chopped kidney suet, 
4 tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little over % pound of rai- 
sins, 4 whole eggs and the yolks of 3 eggs, 1 cupful of 
cream, a little nutmeg, 3 ounces of rolled macaroons, 
the remainder of the chestnuts and 2 ounces of flour. 
Put into a pudding mould or a buttered napkin, steam 
the pudding for 2% hours and serve with a rum sauce. 

8. Suet Pudding. 1 pound of flour, % pound of 
minced veal suet, 1 pint of milk, 3 eggs, 3^-5 table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, a little salt, (if liked, a few finely 
pounded almonds and a little lemon peel), stirred well 
together, and put into a pudding mould which has been 
lined with fine bread crumbs; cook for 2 hours. The 
pudding is eaten with a compot made of fresh cherries, 
pears or plums, also dried plums and apple sauce. 

•9. Rice Pudding with Macaroons. For 12 — 14 per- 
• sons take % pound of rice, 1 quart of milk, a little cin- 
namon, some salt and lemon peel, % pound of butter, 
% pound of sugar, 10 eggs and % pound of bitter maca- 
roons. If wished, instead of the macaroons % pound of 
washed and dried raisins can be used and spiced with a 
few pounded bitter almonds. If the raisins are omitted 
add 6 ounces of pounded sweet and a few bitter al- 
monds. 

Scald the rice and. cook it in the milk, adding the 
cinnamon and lemon peel and cook until done ; the rice 
must be thick. After the rice has cooled stir the butter 
to a cream, add the sugar, lemon peel and yolks of eggs 
to the rice, and after mixing, lightly stir the beaten 
whites of th/ 1 eggs through the pudding. Put the pud : 



H.— Hot Puddings. 239 

ding into a buttered mould with the macaroons and 
jteam for 2% hours. A cream sauce is served with this 
pudding. 

10. Grits Pudding. For 12 — 14 persons take % 
pound of grits, nearly 1 quart of milk, % pound of but- 
ter, Yi pound of sugar, 12 eggs, the grated rind of a 
lemon, a little salt or 6 finely pounded bitter almonds. 

-Boil half of the milk and stir the grits with the rest and 
half of the butter until all is thick. Then stir the rest 
of the butter to a cream and add, continually stirring, 
the yolks of eggs, almonds, sugar, the grits after they 
have cooled somewhat, and gently stir through this the 
beaten whites of the eggs. Instead of using grits, rice 
flour can be substituted, although the rice flour must 
be dissolved with cold milk. A good way is to fill the 
form three-fourths full and then take macaroons that 
have been soaked in wine and put them over the top. 

Let the pudding steam for 2% — 3 hours and serve 
with cream, rum or claret sauce. 

11. Cabinet Pudding, No. 1. For 12 — 14 persons 
take % pound of flour, \ pound of sugar, 1 large cupful 
of milk, )i pound of butter, 10 fresh eggs, 1" ounce of 
lemon and 1 ounce of orange peel cut into small pieces, 
3 ounces of currants, 3 ounces of stoned raisins and 
2 heaping spoonfuls of pounded bitter almonds. The 
flour is stirred in one-half of the boiling^ milk, to which 
is added one-half of the butter and cooked until it leaves 
the sides of the kettle. Then stir the rest of the butter 
to a cream, stir the other ingredients together, add to 
the pudding and then stir in the beaten whites of the 
eggs. The pudding is cooked for 2% hours and w, served 
with a cream sauce. 

12. Cabinet Pudding, No. 2. Butter a pudding 
mould and line it with a buttered paper. Take 6 ounces 
of stoned raisins, 3 ounces of currants, a little sugar 
and a glassful of Marascino liquor, and cook until soft; 
put 6 ouncqp of canned cherries" on a colander to drain. 
Make a dough of 6 ounces of sugar, 12 eggs, 6 ounces 
of flour and a little lemon peel, then bake four layers a 
little smaller than the bottom of the pudding mould. 
Stir 2 whole eggs and the yolks of 6 eggs with 6 ounces 
di sugar, 1 pint of thick cream and 1 glassful of Maras- 



240 H.— Hot Puddings. 

cino and pass this through a sieve. When this is done 

frat a layer of raisins in the bottom of the mould, a 
ayer of the baked biscuits over this, then a few table- 
spoonfuls of the cream, one-fourth of the cherries and 
raisins and so on alternately, finishing with a biscuit 
layer on the top. Put over this a buttered paper, steam 
the pudding 1% hours and after taking out of the mould 
serve with a Marascino sauce. 

13. Figaro Pudding. For 15—18 persons take % 
pound of grits or rice flour, nearly 1 quart of milk and 
a little over % pound of butter, 14 eggs and 6 ounces of 
sugar. Cook the rice with the milk and one-half of the 
butter until done and thick, stir the remaining butter 
to a cream, add the yolks of eggs and some sugar to 
the boiled rice and divide this into four equal parts. 
To one part add chocolate (see Division S— "To color 
Frosting") and a little vanilla. The second part is 
colored with a little spinach juice and seasoned with 
orange peel. The third part is colored with a trifle of 
cochineal and to this part add a little grated lemon 
peel or cinnamon. The last part remains white and is 
seasoned with 1 ounce of finely pounded almonds mixed 
with a few bitter ones. Then beat the whites of 12 eggs 
to a stiff froth, divide this froth into four parts and stir 
lightly through the four different parts of the pudding 
mass which are put alternately into the pudding mould. 
The pudding is steamed for 2% hours; serve with a 
cream sauce. 

14. Currant Pudding. For 14—16 persons take 
X pound of butter, % pound of flour, ajittle over a pint ' 

of milk, 8 large eggs, 8 heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
the grated rind of a lemon or one-half of a nutmeg, 
% pound of washed currants, 6 ounces of grated wheat 
bread and a wineglassful of arrac or rum. 

A new way to make the dough for this pudding is 
to let the milk come to a boil and while this is being 
done take the flour and butter, knead it into little balls 
and then drop these balls one by one into the boiling 
milk, stirring constantly until they dissolve, and cook 
until the mass is thick and no longer adheres to the 
sides of the kettle. When this has cooled add the yolks 
of eggs, sugar, seasoning, currants and wheat bread, 



H.— Hot Puddings. 241 

then lightly stir through this the beaten whites of the 
eggs mixed with the rum ; fill into the buttered pudding 
mould, cover and steam for 2%—3 hours. Serve with a 
cream or fruit sauce. 

15. White Sago Pudding. 6 ounces of sago cooked 
in milk until done and thick, 10 eggs, % pound of sugar, 
% pound of butter, the rind of a lemon grated on the 
sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of grated wheat bread, 1 cup- 
ful of good, sweet cream. This pudding is cooked the 
same as rice pudding and served with the same sauces. 
Enough for 14 persons. 

16. Brown Sago Pudding. Wash ^ pound of sago 
in cold water, then in warmed water and cook with 
claret and water half and half until done; stir 3 heap- 
ing tablespoonfuls of butter to a cream, to this add the 
yolks of 6 eggs, 2 ounces of grated bread, % cupful of 
sweet cream, % pound of sugar, a little cinnamOn, lemon 
peel and the beaten whites of the eggs. Cook this pud- 
ding for 2 hours and serve with a cream sauce. For 12 
persons. 

17. Portuguese Pudding. For 16—18 persons take 
1% pounds of wheat bread, 2 ounces of butter, 2 ounces 
of beef marrow or instead of this % pound of butter, 
10 eggs, 3 ounces of sugar, 3 ounces of stoned raisins, 
3 ounces of cleaned currants, the grated rind and juice 
of 1 lemon, a little salt and a wineglassful of rum. Cut 
off the crust of the wheat bread and soak it in milk and 
press, stir on the stove with the butter or beef marrow 
untii it no longer adheres to the kettle. After it has 
cooled, gradually stir in the yolks of eggs, sugar, the 
juice and grated rind of a lemon, raisins and currants; 
then lightly stir in the beaten whites of eggs with the 
rum, andjfill into the buttered mould. 

This pudding must cook for 2 hours and is served 
with a cream sauce. 

18. Cream P'udding with Macaroons. For 12 per- 
sons take 5 ounces of butter, 5 ounces of flour, 10 eggs, 

"a little over % pound of sugar, the grated rind of a 
lemon, 1 pint of milk, a little salt and 10—12 bitter 
macaroons. 



242 H.— Hot Puddings. 

Bring the milk and butter to a boil, gradually add 
the flour, constantly, stirring, and coolcuritil it no 
longer adheres to the sides of the kettle. After, it has 
cooled, slowly stir in the yolks of eggs, sugar and lemon 
peel, beat and then lightly stir in the beaten whites of 
the eggs. Fill half of the pudding into the buttered 
mould, cover with grated crackers, lay on this the mac- 
aroons and then the rest of the dough. Cook for 2 
hours and serve with a cream sauce. 

19. Suabian Pudding. 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 
4 tablespoonfuls of finely pounded almonds, 4 table- 
spoonfuls of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 9 eggs, 
] large cupful of milk, a little salt and the, grated rind 
of a lemon. The pudding is gotten ready as directed in 
the following receipt. Cook for 2 hours and serve with 
any kind of sauce. 

20. Vermicelli Pudding. For 15—18 persons take 
% pint of milk, 3% heaping tablespoonfuls of butter, 
3 heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, % pOund of vermi- 
celli, the grated rind of half of a lemon, 2 heaping-table- 
spoonfuls of pounded almonds mixed with a few bitter 
ones, a pinch of ground mace, a little salt and 12 eggs. 

Bring the milk, sugar and half of the butter to a 
boil, crush the vermicelli and add to the milk, con- 
stantly stirring until it no longer adheres to the sides of 
the kettle. Then stir the remaining butter to a cream 
and add it to the pudding, together with the almonds, 
spices and yolks of eggs, and lightly stir through this 
the beaten whites of the eggs. 

Cook the pudding for 2% hours and serve with a 
warm sauce of sour cherry or currant juice or serve 
with a wine sauce. 

To give this pudding ja, pretty appearance, take 
some of the vermicelli out of the kettle before they are 
thoroughly cooked, drain and bake to a light brown. 
Then put the yellow and brown vermicelli into the 
mould and mix scalded and stoned raisins between each 
layer. 

21. Biscuit Pudding served either Warm or Cold. 

For 12 — 14 persons take % pound of biscuit (see "Bis- 
cuits" in Division S), cut into slices, also 10 eggs,l pint 
of milk or sweet,cream, a little salt, sugar and vanilla. 



H— Hot Puddings. 243 

Lay the biscuits in the buttered mould, beat the 
eggs aud add to these the vanilla and cream or milk 
and sugar and pour over the biscuits. This pudding is 
cooked for 2 hours, taken out of the mould and served 
with a cream sauce. If it is not to be eaten warm, 
leave in the mould until nearly cold. 

22. Uncle Tom's Pudding. (Cheap and good.) Stir 
together % pound of flour and % pound of syrup, and 
into this % pound of minced kidney suet mixed with a 
little flour, % pound of sugar and 1 teaspoonf ul of gin- 
ger, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon, cloves and mace, 1 tea- 
spoonful of soda and a little salt. Then takel cupful of 
buttermilk and beat in 2 eggs, stir through the dough 
and fill into the buttered pudding mould and steam for 
2 hours. A white cream sauce is served with it. 

23. Chocolate Pudding. For 12—1.5 persons take 
% pound of butter, % pound of sugar, 12 eggs, .% pound 
of crushed almonds, 6 ounces of grated chocolate, a 
little vanilla or cinnamon and some salt. 

Stir the butter to a cream, then slowly add sugar, 
yolks of eggs, almonds, chocolate and vanilla, beat for 
% hour, then lightly stir through it the beaten whites of 
eggs and bake the pudding for 1 hour in a moderate 
oven. If the" pudding is to be served cold, steam it for 
2 hours and serve with a vanilla sauce. 

24. Berlin Pudding. Bake 5 thin layers of a good 
cake dough. Then take 6 ounces of flour, 1 large cupful 
of cream, vanilla, salt and 3 ounces of butter and mix 
to a dough, boil and stir until it no longer adheres to 
the pan, then add slowly 4 whole and the yolks of 
4 eggs, and lightly stir through this the beaten whites 
of 4 eggs. Then butter a pudding mould, lay in the 
bottom a piece of buttered paper, put some fruit juice 
on this, then a quarter of the cream, a layer of the cake, 
and so on, having for the top a layer of the cake. 
This pudding is steamed for 1% hours, then take it out 
of the mould and serve with an apricot sauce. 

25. Warm Vanilla Pudding. For 12—15 persons 
take Vi pounds of stale wheat bread, cutting off the 
crust, about 1 quart of fresh cream or milk, % pound of 
butter, 5 spoonfuls of pounded almonds, 5 spoonfuls of 
sugar, some salt, 10 eggs and a ittlel vanilla. 



244 H.— Hot Puddings. 

The wheat bread is soaked in the milk and the but- 
ter stirred to a cream, then gradually add the-yolks of 
eggs, almonds, sugar and vanilla, stir for % hour and 
then lightly stir through it the beaten whites of the 
eggs. Steam for 2 — 2% hours and serve with a cream 
sauce. ' 

26. Bread ("Zwieback") Pudding. For 12—16 per- 
sons. Take % pound of bread spread with butter, 1 
quart of milk, 9—10 eggs, % pound of currants, % pound 
of stoned raisins, both washed and dried, % pound of 
crushed almonds, 2 heaping tablespoonfnls of sugar, 
and the thinly peeled and finely chopped rind of a lemon. 
Line a pudding mould with slices of the buttered bread. 
Then stir eggs, milk and sugar together, pour a little 
of this sauce over the bread, add some more bread and 
sauce and finish with bread. Then pour over this sauce 
a, cupful at a time, so that it will be evenly distributed 
over the pudding. Let the pudding bake for 2-— 2% 
hours and serve with a good cream-, claret-, or fruit 
sauce. The sauce of the latter should be thickened a 
little and there must be plenty of it. 

27. Bread Pudding with Currants or Cherries. The 

pudding is prepared the same as in the preceding re- 
ceipt, taking 8 eggs ; instead of raisins take J£ pound of 
currants and % pound of sugar and prepare the same as 
given in the above receipt. 

The pudding is served without a sauce and is of a 
fine flavor. This pudding is for 10 — 12 persons. 

28. Potato Pudding. For 15—18 persons. Take 
4 ounces of butter, 6 ounces of sugar, 1 ounce of sweet 
almonds mixed with a few bitter ones and pounded, 
lemon peel, cinnamon, a little salt, the yolks of 12 eggs, 

~\% pounds of grated potatoes and % pound of grated 
wheat bread. - 

The potatoes, which should be mealy, are cooked 
the day before in their jackets until they are almost 
done, then peeled and weighed. Stir the butter to a 
cream, then add, one by one, the yolks of eggs, almonds, 
lemon peel, cinnamon, also the potatoes. Stir for a few 
minutes, then add the wheat bread and at last the 
beaten whites of the eggs. 



H.— Hot Puddings. 245 

Let the pudding bake for 1% hours, or steam for 

2 hours and serve with a cream-, rum- or fruit sauce. 

The butter may be omitted, as the pudding is very 
good without it. 

29. A fine Pudding with Yeast. For 8—9 persons 
take 1% pounds of flour, 6 ounces of currants, 6 ounces 
of stoned raisins, 6 ounces of butter, yeast, 6 — 10 eggs, 

1 pint of lukewarm milk, % pound of sugar, the rind of 
a lemon and one-half of a nutmeg. After the butter is 
stirred until soft add, one by one, the whole eggs, flour 
and milk and the other ingredients, adding at last the 
yeast soaked in a little milk, then beat all together 
with a flat wooden spoon until it bubbles, put into the 
buttered mould, set into lukewarm water and steam for 
2% hours. If the whites of the eggs are beaten to a 
froth, the pudding will be much nicer. 

Serve with a rum sauce ; it can also be served with- 
out a sauce and eaten with roast meats or boiled fruits. 

30. A common Pudding with Yeast. For 12 — 15 

persons. Take 1% pounds of flour, some yeast, \ pound 
of melted butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of sugar, % pound of 
raisins and currants if liked, a little more than 1 pint of 
lukewarm milk, some salt and 2 eggs. 

Stir all well together, let it raise in the form before 
steaming or set the pudding into lukewarm water and 
slowly bring to a boil. 

Serve with fruit sauce or melted butter or cooked 
fruits with a good quantity of sauce. 

31. Flour and Bread Pudding with Fruit, partic- 
ularly Pears or Fresh Plums. A scant pint of milk, 

3 ounces of butter, not quite % pound of flour, 8 eggs, 
% teaspoonful of mace, 6 ounces of grated wheat bread, 

2 tablespoonfuls of sugar and % glassful of rum. 

Melt half of the butter, add the milk and flour to 
this and stir until it no longer adheres to the sides of 
the kettle. After it has cooled add the yolks of eggs, 
mace and sugar and beat, then add sugar, wheat bread, 
the beaten whites of the eggs and at last the rum. 
Steam for 2% hours and serve with cooked fruit. 

32. Prince Regent Pudding. For 15—18 persons 
take J£ pound of stoned raisins, % pound of currants, & 



246 H— Hot Puddings. 

pound of finely cut almonds, 14 eggs, 1 pint of milk, a 
little overl pound of stale wheat bread weighed without 
the crust, and % pound of sugar. 

Cut the bread into slices, fry in butter to a light 
yelloWj and then break into small pieces. 

Beat together the eggs, sugar and milk with the 
lemon peel. Pour over the bread and proceed the same 
as in Bread Pudding, No. 26. 

, Let the pudding steam for 2 or 2 l / 2 hours and serve 
with raspberry or currant sauce. 

331 Roll Pudding. One-half pound of butter stirred 
to a cream, the yolks of 12 eggs, X pound of sugar, % 
pound of stoned raisins, X pound of currants, X pound 
of pounded almonds, X pound of citron, half as much 
candied orange peel, 1 pound of finely grated wheat 
bread without the crust, 1 large cupful of milk or sweet 
cream, and 1 wineglassful of rum. 

After the butter, yolks of eggs and sugar have been 
well stirred together, stir in the wheat bread which has 
been soaked in milk, add the orange and citron, stir 
through this the beaten whites of the eggs and at the 
last a glassful of rum, and let the pudding steam in the 
buttered mould for 2 hours. After taking it out of the 
mould pour over it some rum and light it, serving with 
the following sauce: 4 whole eggs, 2 teaspoonfuls of 
flour, lemon peel and whole cinnamon, 2 large glassfuls 
of wine, 6 ounces of sugar, beat well on the stove until 
thick and done. 

34. Fruit Pudding. For 12— 15 persons: A little 
over 2 pounds of stale wheat bread, nearly 1 quart of 
milk, X pound of butter, 10 eggs and. according to the 
sweetness of the fruit 6 ounces to % pound of sugar, 
lemon peel and cinnamon, .and, if wished, X pound df 
currants. The wheat bread is cut into thin slices, then 
broken into small pieces and put on the stove with the 
milk and butter and cooked until it leaves the side of 
the kettle, then take from the fire and let it cool. Stir 
the other ingredients into this, adding the beaten whites 
of the eggs at last, then put into the form alternately 
with the dough, add sliced sour apples or cherries and 
cook for 2 hours. This pudding can be served without 
a sauce. 



H.— Hot P/uddjngs. 2i7 

35. Grape Pudding. Take % pound of butter, 8 
eggs, % pound of finely pounded almonds, % pound of 
sugar, cinnamon, and if liked, a little lemon peel, % 
pound of bread and a soupplateful of grapes. 

Stir the butter to a cream, add yolks of eggs, sugar, 
seasoning with bread and beat, then lightly stir through 
this the beaten whites of the eggs with the grapes. 

36. Neckar Pudding. For 12 persons take 1 celery 
root, 6 large carrots, 6 ounces of butter, the same 
amount of sugar, 12 eggs, % pound of currants, '% 
pound of wheat bread, 1 tablespoonful of pounded 
almonds, juice of a whole and rind of % of a lemon and a 
little salt. 

Clean and peel the celery and carrots and cook until 
nearly done and then grate them. Then stir the butter 
to a eream, add yolks of eggs, sugar, almonds, cur- 
rants, grated and soaked wheat bread, seasoning and 
salt, stir all together, then add the beaten whites of the 
%gsv Put the pudding into the form and cook for 
1% hours in a double boiler and serve with it rum or 
wine sauce. 

37. Indian Pudding. For 10 persons take a large 
«ocoanut and grate the meat, cook in 1 large cupful of 
milk and then let it cool. 

In the meantime stir 4 tablespoonfuls of butter to a 
cream, add % pound of sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, the 
meat of the cocoanut and 3 ounces of grated rolls, with 
a little ginger and salt. Fill into a pudding mould and 
if wanted extra nice line the mould with a puff or butter 
paste; cook for 1% hours or bake in the oven for not 
quite 1 hour. Take the pudding out/ of the pan and 
serve with a strong claret sauce. 

3&. English Warm Heat Pudding. Take 2 pounds 
of beef, f red- from sinews, and chop with 1 onion until 
very fine. Then stir % pound of butter to a cream, add, 
one by one, 8 whole eggs, a few spoonfuls of cream, 
lemon peel, a little pepper and cloves and one fresh, 
cleaned and finely chopped herring, 3 ounces of stale 
wheat .bread with the crust removed, afnd soaked in 
cold water and pressed, finely chopped mushrooms and 
a little salt. Stir well, together and fill into a well- 



248 H.— Hot Pudpings. 

buttered mould and cook for 2 hours. It is served with 
a crab- or a mushroom sauce. 

39. Pudding made of Cold Veal Roast. For 12—14 
persons take 1% pounds of cold roast veal, freed from 
sinews and chopped very finely, 8 eggs, 5 tablespoonfuls 
of butter, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of stale, grated 
wheat bread, % cupful of sweet cream, 6 finely chopped 
eschalots, salt and alittle nutmeg. Rub the eschalots 
with 1 ounce of the butter, then beat with 2 eggs, and 
2 tablespoonfuls of water and mix thoroughly. Stir 
the remaining butter to a cream and add, one by one, 
the yolks of 6 eggs, and beat for a few minutes, then 
add the minced eschalots, bread, cream, mace, veal, salt, 
and stir well together, adding at last the beaten whites 
of the eggs. The pudding is steamed in a well-buttered 
mould for 1% hours and is served with a mushroom-, 
crab-, or a good brown gravy. If served cold, a gravy 
made of the yolks of a few"hard-boiled eggs, grated, 
mixed with olive oil, vinegar, sugar, capers, mustard and 
pepper, stirred well together. 

40. Crab Pudding. For 14—16 persons. 1% pounds 
of stale grated wheat bread, 1 pint of fresh milk, 3 
ounces of crab butter, 10 eggs, M pound of sugar, % 
ounce of bitter macaroons or the rind of a lemon, a 
little salt, 7 ounces of finely chopped kidneysuet and 10 
crabtails cut into pieces. 

Remove the crusts of the wheat bread, soak it in 
milk, press it and then stir with it the crab butter. Add 
one by one the yolks of eggs, sugar and macaroons, 
kidney suet and crab tails, and at last stir in the whites 
of the eggs, and steam for 2% hours. A sauce is made 
of cream or milk to which add some crab butter and 
stir through it the yolks of a few eggs. 

41. Fish Pudding. To 1 pound of fish take a little 
over 3 ounces of grated rolls or wheat bread, % pound 
of butter, 4 eggs, 1 cupful of sour cream, a little nut- 
meg, mace, chopped parsley and salt to taste. The fish 
is cooked and finely chopped. 

Stir the butter to a cream, add yolks of eggs, the 
chopped fish,'grated bread and the other ingredients, 
mix well together, and then add the beaten whites of the 
eggs. If it should be too thick add a little Bweet milk. 



H:— Hot Puddings. 249 

This pudding is cooked for 2 hours. It is served 
with an oyster- or anchovy sauce. In case you have 
neither, use butter, because this kind of pudding is 
somewhat dry. 

42. Liver Pudding. For 10—12 persons, take a 
nice calf's liver, 4 tablespoonfuls of pork fat, 2 grated 
onions, 2 heaping.tablespoonfuls of soaked wheat bread, 
6 egg, 3 ounces of Parmesan cheese, salt and 4 chopped 
truffles. The calf's liver is skinned, chopped fine with 
the pork fat and then passed through a sieve. The 
grated onions and soaked wheat bread are mixed with 
the butter and then added to the liver, then mix with 
the yolks of eggs, cheese, salt and seasoning and mix 
well together. Then stir in the beaten whites of the 
eggs, and cook the pudding for 1% hours and serve 
immediately with caper-, truffle- or anchovy sauce. 

43. Pudding made of Remnants of boiled Cod Fish. 

For 12 — 15 persons take % pound of butter stirred to a 
cream, 10 eggs, a few finely chopped eschalots, nutmeg, 
salt, % pound of grated wheat bread, 2% pounds of finely 
chopped codfish, stir well together and fill into a well- 
buttered mould and cook for 1% hours. With this pud- 
ding the following sauce is served : A few finely chopped 
eschalots are stewed with some butter and thickened 
with a little flour, add some boiling bouillon, quickly 
gotten ready by using extract of beef, stir together, add 
nutmeg, lemon juice and salt, stirred with the yolks of 
2 eggs which have been mixed with a little sweet cream. 

Hot puddings should never be taken into the sick 
room, as they are not easily digested. 



I. — Souffles 

And Various Dishes Made of Macaroni 
and Noodles. 



I. SOUFFLES. 

1. Form of the flould, etc. The mould for souffles 
should be treated the same as the pudding form, but- 
tered and sprinkled with grated bread. It may either 
be of stoneware or poreelain. If you have no souffle 
mould, any kind of a china dish that will stand heating 
will answer. t ■ :..<:• 

In baking^ the heat should never be too low nor too 
intense, and if possible do not get the heat- as strong 
from below, as from above. , - -.. • ■> 

Alid that will hold live embers is admirably adapted 
to inerease the requisite heat from the top. Themould 
ia bes^ placed on a small griddle which will permit its 
turning withoutshaking the souffle. If the lattershould 
brown on top too soon it may be protected by covering 
it with paper, but the first sheet should be buttered to 
prevent its adhering to the souffle. 

Souffles are not turned out of the mould, but are 
served in the dish in which they are baked, putting 
them on a plate and enveloped in a napkin. 

2. Souffle of Bitter Macaroons. For 8 persons take 
1 pint of milk, % pound of bitter macaroons, % pound 
of grated rolls, 8 eggs, 3 — 1 ounces of sugar and fresh 
or canned fruit according to taste. Cook the milk, 
grated wheat bread and macaroons until thick. When 
this has cooled somewhat, stir in the yolks of the eggs 



SoyFFLES 251^ 

and sugar and at last the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Then add fruit seasoned with sugar and cinnamon, All 
into the buttered mould and bake for 1 hour. 

This souffle can also be made by taking instead of 
the milk half cream and half good rum or brandy, and 
1 ounce of butter stirred to a cream. The first may 
then be omitted. 

3. Sago Souffle. For 10 persons take % pound of 
sago, milk, 6 eggs, 3 ounces of butter, 3 ounces of sugar, 
lemon peel according to taste, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls 
of finely pounded almonds, mixed with 6 bitter ones. 

The sago is scalded, cooked in 1 quart of milk until 
done and thick. Stir the butter to a cream, and then 
one by one add the yolks of eggs, sugar; lemon peel, 
almonds and stir into the partially cooled sago and at 
last the beaten whites of the eggs. 

The lemon and almonds can be omitted and the 
souffle is then seasoned with vanilla. Let it bake for 1 
hour. 

4. Rice Souffle. For i0— 12 persons take % pound 
of rice, )i pound of butter, 8 eggs, % pound of sugar, 
lemon peel and cinnamon, a few sweet crackers, % pound 
of washed and stoned raisins and 1 quart of milk. 

Scald the rice and then stir the boiling milk with it. 
put it on the fire and cook until done and thick, but it 
must not be stirred, then cream the butter, stir into it 
the yolks of eggs, sugar, seasoning, and to the cooled 
rice: add the rolled crackers and raisins, lightly mix 
through it the beaten whites of the eggs and bake the 
souffle for 1 hour. 

■■ Kice souffles can be made in different ways. Instead 
of the lemon take pounded almonds or vanilla, or 
orangeflower water, also fresh or canned "mits can be 
filled into the mould and then baked. 

5. ' Brussels Rice Souffle with Frosting. Scald 2 
ounces of rice, boil it in 1 quart of milk, add sugar and 
lemon peel and cook until done and thick. Then stir 
through it the yolks of 4 eggs and the beaten whites of 
the eggs and fill into the mould with the frosting. The 
frosting is made in the following manner: Beat the 
whites of 5 eggs to a stiff froth, stir through it % pound 
of powdered sugar and spread a buttered mould with 



252 I.— Souffles, Etc. 

this frosting. Bake in a hotoven until of a light brown. 
Then fill in the rice, put the remaining frosting over the 
tbp and bake in a moderately hot oven until done. 
As soon as the souffle is done serve with jelly. 

6. Rice Souffle with Pineapple. Cook some rice as 
directed in the above receipt, stir into it sliced pineapple 
stewed in a sugar syrup until soft, or take canned'pine- 
apple. Then fill the rice into a buttered souffle mould 
which is lined with pounded bitter macaroons, and bake 
for about 1 hour. Turn the souffle out of the mould 
and pour over it the following sauce, which gives this 
souffle a very nice flavor: Cook 3 cooking apples of the 
best variety with 1 pint of sugar syrup and white wine 
(6 ounces of sugar, % glassful of water, 2 glassfuls of 
white wine) until done. Strain, mix with the juice of 
the pineapple, cook until like jelly and pour over the 
rice. 

7. Chocolate Souffle. For 8—10 persons take 2 
tablespoonfuls of butter and stir until soft, add 5 — 6 
yolks of eggs, 3 ounces of sugar, 2 ounces of grated 
chocolate, a little vanilla, 6 ounces of bread soaked in 
milk and pressed, stirred together and then mix with it 
the beaten whites of the eggs and bake the souffle for 
% of an hour. 

8. Grits or Rice Flour Souffle. For 10 — 12 persons 
take % pound of rice flour, a little over a pint of milk, 
% pound of butter, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of lard or 
6 ounces of butter, 7 eggs, 3 ounces of sugar, 6 — 8 
pounded bitter almonds and a little salt. 

Let the rice flour, milk and some of the butter boil 
until done and very thick, then stir the remaining 
butter to a cream, add the yolks of eggs, sugar, 
almonds, salt, the cooled rice flour, and, when this is all 
stirred together, add the beaten whites of the eggs. If 
the souffle is to be particularly nice, mix fruit jelly or 
marmalade through it when filling into the mould. "The 
souffle is baked for 1 hour; serve in the mould and 
sprinkle over it sugar and cinnamon. 

9. Flour Souffle. For 12 — 14 persons take the 
same ingredients as given in H, No. 18, for cream pud- 
ding and bake 1 hour. Put % pound of bitter maca- 



Souffles. 253. 

roons in layers into the form or before adding the 
whites of the eggs, stir through it 3 ounces of grated 
stale wheat bread. 

10. Convent Souffle. For 6—7 persons, take 6 
ounces of flour, % pound of sugar, % pound of butterj 2 
ounces of finely pounded almonds,. 4 eggs, nearly 1 pint 
of milk seasoned with vanilla or lemon peel, put all on 
the fire and stir until it is a thick cream. Then rub 1 
ounce of butter until soft, add the yolks of 5 eggs and 
mix all thoroughly and then lightly stir through this 
the beaten whites of the eggs, and bake in a mould for 
1 hour in a moderately hot oven. Serve with preserves 
or compots. 

11. Dauphin Souffle. For 12 persons stir 6 ounces 
of butter, the yolks of 12 eggs, % pound of sugar over a 
moderate hot fire until it is a thick cream, which is sea- 
soned with lemon peel and then stirthrough it the beaten 
whites of 8 eggs. Put this into a buttered souffle mould 
and bake for 1 hour, take it out of the mould and let it 
cool. Then cut the cake into thick slices and spread with 
afruit marmalade and then put the cake together again. 
Pour over it a frosting made of the whites of the re- 
maining 4 eggs, sugar, a dash of fine liquor and a little 
lemon juice. Bake the souffle in the oven until the 
frosting is of a golden brown color, and serve with a 
wine cream sauce. 

12. Bread and Walnut Souffle. For 8 — 10 persons 
take 30 fresh walnuts; if you cannot get them fresh, 
take half almonds and half walnuts, 6 ounces of wheat 
bread free from crust, %, pound of butter, % pound of 
sugar, 6 eggs, and % cupful of sweet cream. After the 
nuts have been finely pounded or grated, soak the 
bread in a little milk and press it, stir the butter to a 
cream, add the yolks of eggs one by one, also the sugar, 
wheat bread, cream and nuts, and then lightly stir 
through it the beaten whites of the eggs and stir thor- 
oughly. The souffle is baked in a buttered mould for 1 
hour and served hot with either a wine- or cream sauce. 

13. Potato Souffle. For 10 persons^ take % pound 
of butter stirred to a cream, the yolks of 8 eggs, % 
pound of sugar, % ounce of pounded almonds mixed. 



254 I.-^Sotjffles, Etc. 

with 6 bitter ones, and if liked, lemon peel or cinnamon; 
all is stirred well together for a few minutes. Then take 
nearly 1 pound of potatoes boiled in their jackets the 
day before, peel and grate them and mix with 3 ounces 
'of wheat bread and then the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Bake for 1 hour. 

14. Egg (Omelette) Souffle. No. 1. For 4 persons 
take 4 tablespoonfuls of sugar, salt, 4 eggs and a little 
grated lemon peel. 

Stir the sugar briskly with the yolks of the eggs and 
lemon peel for 10 minutes, then lightly stir through it 
the froth of the eggs and cook the whole in a buttered 
omelette pan over a moderate fire for not more than % 
hour. Serve immediately. 

15. Omelette Souffle. No. 2. For 6 persons take 6 
eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of fine, sugar, 1 tablespoonful of 
flour and 2 teaspoonfuls of butter. 

The yolks of the eggs are stirred with the sugar jor 
% hour, aucl the flour and beaten whites of the eggs are 
not added until.just before baking. Then melt unsalted 
butter in a pan over a slow fire, and pour the batter 
into the pan, evenly distribute it, often piercing with a. 
sharp knife so that the batter will not brown too 
quickly on the bottom and leave the top uncooked. 
As soon as the omelette is browned nicely and the top 
is set, put it oh a plate, fold and sprinkle over it sugar 
and vanilla. Sugar and the juice of a lemon may be 
sprinkled over the omelette, and rum can be poured 
over it and then lighted. 

16. Omelette, "plain". For 4 persons. A heaping 
tablespoonful of flour, a very small cupful of warm milk 
and 2 tablespoonfuls of water are stirred together. 
Then beat 4 fresh eggs and stir all together. Put 
plenty of fresh butter into a pan, or take butter and fat 
half and half, put the batter into this and, turning the 
pan frequently, bake it to a light brown color until it is 
set. The omelette is turned and baked to a light brown 
on the other side also, folded and put on a hot plate 
and sprinkled with sugar, or before folding spread over 
it some apple or cranberry sauce. 

17. Sponge Souffle. For 4—5 persons take 1 table- 
spoonful of thick sour cream, 6 eggs, sugar and vanilla. 



Souffles. 255 

Stir the cream, yolks of eggs, „ sugar and vanilla for 
some time, then mix with the beaten whites of the eggs 
and hake .in a quick oven. 

18. Sour Cream Souffle. For 6—8 persons take 
1 quart of thick sour cream, 8 eggs, 4 tablespobn- 
fuls of flouiv orl tablespoonful of cornstarch or 4 table-; 
spoonfuls ofgrated bread, sugar, cinnamon, vanilla or 
instead of this grated lemon peel. and a little salt. The 
cream is whipped and to this are added the yolks of 
eggs with the other ingredients, and then the beaten 
Whites of the eggs ; bake for % of an hour. The batter, can 
also be poured over cooked or fresh fruits and in this 
way a good cream souffle of fruit is made. 

19. Souffle with Sour Cherries. For 9 — 10 persons 
take % pound of stale wheat" bread without the crust 
and : soak it in milk and scald it. Then stir with the 
bread a piece of butter the size of an egg, add the yolks 
of 9 eggs, some pounded almoncis, a little lemon peek 
2—3 spoonfuls of sugar, the beaten whites of the eggs, 
1 pound of stoned , cherries stirred with a little sugar 
and bake for 1 hour. 

20. flarmalade Souffle. For 8— 10 persons, take % 
pound of peach, or apricot marmalade or else apple 
sauce, stir the juice" of a lemon through it together with 
the beaten whites of 12 eggs. Then fill into a buttered 
porcelain mould, have the top of the souffle smooth, 
sprinkle with finely chopped almonds mixed With sugar 
or coarsely pounded macaroons, take a knife and pierce 

-through ^he. souffle jto the bottom seyera.1 ,time& and 
bake in a hot o,ven. This so.uffl'eas bakeji.'for 10—15 
minutes only and must be, eaten injuiediately, otherwise 
it will falL , 

21. Vienna ("Wiener") Apple Souffle. Take 30 good 
cooking apples, % pound of sugar, 6 ounces of apricot 
marmalade, % pound Of fresh butter, and wheat bread. 
To the apples may be added 4 to 6 ounces of nice 
raisins, in which case 2 ouncfife less of sugar are required. 

Pare the apples* quarter them, take out the core 
and then cut them each into 6 pieces. These apple slices 
are put on a slow fire with the sugar, marmalade and 
butter until they are heated through, then, let ..them 



256 I.— Souffles, Etc. 

cool. In the meantime butter a round mould, cut ob- 
long slices from a loaf of not too stale bread, dip in 
melted butter and line the mould with these, placing 
the bread, one slice, on the other, around the sides. When 
the mould is lined, fill with the apples, cover with some 
more bread slices, sprinkle the top with butter and bake 
in the oven for % hour, in which time the bread will be 
of a golden brown and crisp, and the inside of the 
souffle heated through. This souffle is turned out of 
the mould and served hot. 

22. Apple Souffle. No. 2. "For 8— 10 persons take 
good cooking apples, some marmalade, % pound of but- 
ter, % pound of flour, % pound of sugar, 6 eggs, 1 large 
cupful of milk and % of a lemon peel. 

Pare the apples and core them, leaving the apples 
whole, fill with some of the marmalade and put them 
side by side into a buttered mould in which they can be 
baked. Then melt half of the butter in a pan, add the 
flour— which "was stirred with the milk — tp the butter 
and then put on the stove until it no longer adheres to 
the sides of the kettle. In the meantime stir the butter 
until soft, add the yolks of the eggs, sugar, lemon peel 
and the partly cooled batter, stir afl well together and 
lastly add the beaten whites of the eggs, and then put 
all overthe apples. The souffle is baked in a moderately 
hot oven for 1 hour. 

The apples can be quartered and instead of the 
marmalade take 2 ounces of washed and dried currants, 
mix with the apples and then cover this with the batter. 

23. Plain Souffle of Apples, but can be made of any 
kind of Fruit. For 10— 12 persons. Take % pound of 
flour, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of butter, nearly 1 pint 
of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 6 eggs, lemon peel or 
8 bitter almonds and 1% teaspoonfuls of salt. 

After these ingredients have been well stirred to- 
gether as directed in the above receipt, put one-quarter 
of it into a buttered mould, put 2 heaping soupplatefuls 
of quartered apples over«this, sprinkle with sugar and 
cinnamon, proceed in this manner and bake the souffle 
for 1J4 hours. c 

The same can be made with most any kind of fruit 
as well as stoned dried fruits, but before being stoned, 



Souffles. 257 

cook until done. When taking juicy fruits, such as 
sour cherries, huckleberries, currants, etc., grated wheat 
bread is mixed with the fruit, and according to their 
acidity add the required amount of sugar. 

24. Apple Souffle. Another style. Take 2 soup- 
platefuls of apple marmalade, % pound of butter, the 
yolks of 8 eggs, 1% pounds of grated wheat bread, 
sugar and cinnamon, stir the beaten whites of the eggs 
through the batter and bake in a buttered mould for 
1% hours. For 10 persons. 

25. Chestnut Souffle. Remove the shell from about 
2% pounds of chestnuts, put them into boiling water 
until they can be freed from their outer skin, cook in 1 
quart of milk until soft and then press them through a 
sieve. Stir 4 tablespoonfuls of butter to a cream, add 
the yolks of 10 eggs, the strained chestnuts, 5 ounces of 
sugar, 6 tablespoonfuls of Marascino, Curagao or other 
fine liquor, and then lightly stir through it the beaten 
whites of the eggs. Bake the souffle for % hour in the 
oven and serve immediately. 

26. Leipzig Punch Souffle. For 8 persons take 12 
eggs, 5 ounces of sugar, 1 lemon, a glassful of rum, stir 
theeggs and sugar to a cream, add the lemon juice, and 
if liked the grated rind of a lemon, rum, and then the 
froth of the eggs beaten lightly through it; bake the 
souffle in a hot oven for 10 minutes and serve. The 
souffle must be of a yellow color on all sides, the inside 
soft like cream. Omitting the rum and" taking the 
lemon peel and juice only, makes a very nice lemon 
souffle. 

27. Rice and Apple Souffle. For 18—20 persons 
take %—% pound of rice, milk, 4—6 ounces of sugar, 
3—5 ounces of butter, 4—6 eggs, 12—14 good cooking 
apples, wine, lemon and an orange. 

Boil the scalded rice in milk with a piece of butter 
until tender. Then cook the pared apples— cut into 
halves— in water, wine, sugar, lemon juice and peel of 
the lemon, until done, but they must remain whole, 
take them out of the juice, add to the juice enough 
sugar so that it will cook to a jelly, and then add the 
juice of anorangeto this. Stir the remaining butter 



258. I.— Souffles, Etc. 

with the yollis of eggSj sugar, and add to the. rice, and: 
then -lightly stir > through it the beaten whites of the; 
eggsV Put a layer of rice and' a layer of apples into q, 
well buttered mould and cover again with the rice; the 
apples mus.t not touch the sides of the mould, neither 
mtist they come through the rice on' the top. Then 
cover the rice, sprinkle some bread crumbs and a few 
small pieces of butter ori the top, let the souffle bake for 
about 1 hour, or until it receives a nice yellow color; 
turn 'out' of the mould and serve with the jellied juice of 
the apples. 

•.' A simpler way is to fill the souffle mould with rice 
and apple marmalade and strew overthis grated, bread 
and sugar andbake;for about. 1 hour. 

28. Herring Souffle. For 10 persons.; This is made 
the same, as pqtato souffle (see ,N6. 13),, omitting the 
almonds, sugar and the spices, and adding plenty of 
nutmeg and the meat of- 2 — 3 well; freshened and boned, 
herrings,. with a saucerful of onions fried, in butter and 
a little peppei and cloves. 

29. Cheese Souffle, to be served after the Soup. For 

(j persons take 5 tablespoonfuls of grated cheese (a 
good way to utilize dry cheese), mix with 1 large cupful 
of milk',- the yolks of 5 e<;gs, salt., pfepper and nearly 
^■Ouncie^of cornstarch,; stir through it the beaten whites 
of the eggs and bake the soufflefor 20 minutes.:; 

.-., 30. Meat Souffle is made, like cold roast veal, pud- 
ding (see H, No.. 39), . '>'.,, . , , . ,'.. '. 

31. Souffle of Rice, Sweetbreads and Crab Butter. 

(Served after the, soup =witfa -a > ragout; of- fish),T«Far 
12—15 /persons take % pound of.'yicq, bouillon, mace; 
crab butter, 1 glassful of Madeira, -and ■<% pound of veal 
sweetbreads. "The rice is scalded, and cqoked, with bou- 
illon* :some- mace, the necessary saltj and crab; butter 
until done-and thick, and at last stir through it 1 glass- 
ful of Madeira. ••,-'.,. , , ,-.--., ~\ L . 

-'■ In the meantime cook veal sweetbreads bar bouillon 
until done," chop fine, andtbeh fill intoahutteEedlmould 
some rice and then the sweetbreads and so oto and^bake 
for 1 hour. 



Souffles. 259 

32. Italian Rice Souffle for Poultry and Fish Ragout. 

For 15 — 18 persons take % pound of rice, bouillon, 
butter, % pound of boiled and jine-ly chopped ham and 
% pound of Parmesan cheese. Scald the rice and then 
cook with it good bouillon, salt and butter untildone 
and thick, but the rice kernels must remain whole. Then 

?ut the rice into the souffle mould, then the ham and 
armesan cheese, and so on and bake for 1% hours., 

'33. Noodle Souffle. For 4—6 persons. Make a 
noodle dough as described in No. 24, Division L, using 
2 eggs. Then cook the noodles in salted water, take 
them out and put them into cold water, stir for a min- 
ute and then take them out of the cold water and. put 
on a sieve to drain. After this is done take the yolks of 
6 eggs, 5 ounces of pounded sugar and H pound of clari- 
fied butter, stir for a few minutes, then add the noodles, 
% pound of washed and dried currants, 2% teaspoonfuls 
of pounded sweet almonds, the grated rind of half a 
lemon, a little grated bread and some cinnamon ; when 
this ias all been well stirred together, lightly stir the 
beaten whites. of the eggs through it and then bake in a 
mould for labours. . : .... 

34. Pineapple Souffle for Invalids. The dough is 
prepared like the receipt given for Leipzig Punch Souffle, 
but omit the rum and instead of this mix a cupful of 
finely sliced pineapple through the dough, line the r bot- 
tom of the mould, with buttered paper 'and cover this 
with pineapple slices. This souffle .is made in different 
ways; instead of the lemon juice take a few spoonfuls 
of apricot- or other fruit marmalade; other finely sliced 
preserved fruits can also be mixed through the dough. 

35. Strawberry Souffle. Take % pound of. fresh 
strawberries and put them through a colander, mix 
with % pound of sugar, a little lemon juice and the 
heaten whites of 3 eggs, fill this into a mould and bake 
for 10 — 15 minutes in a moderate oven. Instead of 
the strawberries, cooked apples can be used and any 
kind of fruit marmalade or about 5 tablespoonfuls of 
chocolate or cocoa. This souffle must be served imme- 
diately when taken out of the oven. 

There are but few souffles that are fit for the sick- 
room ; Nos. 7, 14* 15 and 18 can be given to invalids. 



26Q I.— Souffles, Etc. 

II. VARIOUS RECEIPTS FOR flACARONI 
AND NOODLES. 

Note. — Rice noodles and rice macaroni are of great 
value in the kitchen, and the "star" and "thread" 
noodles (vermicelli) are excellent in soups and puddings. 

36. Macaroni, Ham and Parmesan Cheese in equal 
parts. Cut % pound of macaroni into pieces 1 inch long, 
coolc in salted water until done, put on a colander and 
then pour boiling water over them . After cooling, stew 
some finely chopped eschalots in butter, add % pound 
of ham, then the macaroni, % pound of cheese and at 
lasta small cupful of sour cream and bake in a buttered 
mould for 3 — 4 hours. 

37. Souffle of Flacaroni, Ham and Parmesan Cheese. 

% pound of macaroni, 1 pound of boiled and finely 
chopped ham, 2 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, \ 
eggs, nutmeg, 2 ounces of butter and 1 pint of milk. 

The macaroni is cooked in salted water, but not to 
pieces, pour off the water and then 1111 into the .mould 
with ham, cheese and nutmeg and pour over it milk 
with melted butter and eggs. The souffle is baked in a 
hot oven for 1 hour. 

38. Macaroni Pie with Ham and Cheese. Make a 
puff paste of'l^ — 2 pounds of flour and % pound of 
macaroni cooked in bouillon or boiling salted water, 
pour into a colander and drain; then add a heaping 
soupplateful of boiled ham mixed with a little of the 
fat, % pound of butter, 2% heaping tablespoonfuls of 
Parmesan cheese and 6 eggs. 

The butter is stirred until soft, mixed with the 
cheese and the yolks of eggs and then added to the 
macaroni and mixed with the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Roll out the paste, on this a layer of ham, then the 
macaroni batter, then ham and so on until all is used, 
aft^r which cover with the puff paste. 

' This pie can also be made without the crust and 
baked in a form and instead of Parmesan cheese white 
Swiss cheese can be used. Vermicelli or vegetable^ noo- 
dles can also be substituted for the macaroni. \ 



Macaroni and Noodles. 261 

39. Macaroni with Parmesan Cheese. Take % pound 
of macaroni, 2 ounces of butter, 2 ounces of grated 
cheese, cook the macaroni in boiling water until done, 
pour on a colander, put the macaroni, butter and cheese 
into a mould in alternate layers, and bake in a hot 
oven to a golden brown color. Then turn onto a plate 
and serve with roasts, spare ribs, forcemeat balls, etc. 
Also served with sourkrout. 

40. flacaroni with Sauce, (Hamburg Style). Boil 
% pound of macaroni in salted water until done and 
then make the following sauce: Take nearly 1 quart of 
milk with 2 ounces of flour and 1 heaping tablespoonful 
of butter, put it on the stove and stir until it is thick, 
stir with it the yolks of 4 eggs, salt, pepper and 1 ounce 
of grated Parmesan cheese and mix the macaroDi well 
together with the sauce. Fill into a pan and bake for 
% hour. 

41. flacaroni, Potatoes and Roast. Take a fillet 
of beef for this dish. It can be roasted in different 
ways — either like a rabbit, or according to the English 
method, frying about 8 minutes with plenty of strong, 
rich gravy. In. the meantime boil macaroni in salted 
water, drain on a colander, pour boiling water over 
them and cook with some browned butter. Then fry 
some medium-sized potatoes until done and of a dark 
yellow color. Slice the meat, put it into the pan in its 
original shape with the macaroni around the meat, 
pour the sauce boiling hot over all and then put the 
potatoes around the dish in the form of a wreath. 
Serve hot. 

Instead of taking potatoes, fried eggs mixed with 
minced ham may be used as a garnish. 

42. Macaroni with Kettle Roast. The macaroni 
are boiled in salted water and mixed with 2 ounces of 
grated cheese, 4 tablespoonfuls of strong bouillon, 4 
tablespoonfuls of tomatoes, 2 truffles cut into small 
strips, 2 ounces of butter, salt and pepper. Heat the 
macaroni in this and serve. 

43. Ham Noodles. If you have no rice noodles, 
make a stiff dough of 2 whole and the yolks of 2 eggs, 
as directed in Divison L, No. 24, and roll very thin. As 



262 I.— Souffles, Etc. 

soon as each piece is dry, cut into strips the width ofa 
finger, cook in boiling salted water, put into a colander 
and pour boiling water over them. Then chop an onion 
with parsley and stew in butter, cut 1 pound of lean 
boiled ham into very small pieces, add 6 whole eggs and 
the yolks of 6 eggs with 1 pint of thick sour cream, 
% teaspoonf ul of mace and to this the stewed onion and 
■ parsley, and stir all together with the noodles. Then 
butter a mould, fill with the .mixed .noodles, sprinkle 
with grated bread and bake for % hour in. a hot oven. 

Serve with veal roast, kettle roast, or with-all kinds 
of cutlets and pork sausages. Rice macaroni prepared 
in the same way are very palatable; break them into 
pieces 1% inches long and cook in salted water. 

; 44. Remnants of Ham baked with Noodle Dough. 

A very nice dish served with sourkrout .and spinach. 
Use 1 egg in making the noodle dough as directed in 
Division L, No. 24, cut into, pieces about the size of a 
visiting card, cook in boiling water until done, and put 
into cold water and then on a colander to cool. In the 
meantime take the remnants of boiled ham, chop as 
finely as possible and mix with nutmeg, pepper and 
grated Swiss cheese. Butter the mould, line the bottom 
and sides with the noodles so that there is no space 
between them. Over this put a layer of ham,. then 
noodles, and so on for two or three layers, having 
noodles on top. Then beat up 4 eggs, add some milk 
and a. little salt in case the ham is not very salty, pour 
the milk and eggs over the dish and bake in a hot oven 
for 1 hour, turn out of the pan and serve. 

45. Rice Noodles. Rice noddles are cooked in salted 
water for % hour, put on a Colander and pour boiling 
water oyer them, which must not be forgotten. Then 
bring to a boil with some milk, butter and nutmeg and 
serve covered with grated cheese. 

Another way is to mix scalded noodles with melted 
butter and a broth prepared of extract of beef; if. liked, 
stir through it finely chopped ham. Then serve, covej> 
ing with some of the noodles browned in butter. 

The noodles can be prepared with bacon cut into 
cubes .and fried to a light brown color. 

Excepting the rice noodles, none are fit for invalids. 



K. — Crullers, Omelettes and 
Pancakes. 



... 



I. General Directions. The pan should preferably 
be. of steel, those of enameled ware are not so good; 
they should be used for pancakes and the like exclu^ 
sifely, and beefsteaks, onions, etc., should never be filed 
in them, as is so frequently done. The pan should be 
well wiped with soft paper after each time it is used, so 
that when again wanted it will only be necessary to 
simply nib it dry with a clean piece of absorbent papers 
If this is not done the. pan should first be put on the fire 
and cleaned with some salt. If the pan is washed 'the 
cakes will adhere to the bottom. Stir the batter with* 
warm instead of cold milk and beat it briskly before 
adding all the milk ; this method will improve the cakes 
very much. Whether it is, best to froth 1;he whites, of 
the eggs depends on, the taste. If this is done the cakes 
willbe nicely puffy and light, and it will take 1 egg less. 
Using the unbeaten eggs will permit of baking the cakes, 
nicely crisp externally. 

' ^A.tasredium. fire' is always bestfor baking pancakes ; 
a glowing coal fire will give the most satisfactdry re- 
sults. ' • . '■ : ! .< '-J'!-'.:: 

The: best fat to be used -consists of butter and sweet r 
lard, half and half, or else slowly, tried out pork fat ; see: - 
A, No. 18. In order to bake "the pancakes niee and » 
crisp put plenty of fat into the pan and let it meltj ■''■ 
being careful to prevent its getting brown or even too < 
hot, put in the dough uniformly thick over the bottom 
of the pan, pierce it with a knife occasionally, especially 
along the edges of the pan, until no. more of the liquid 
dough will appear on -the top. Turn the pan cautiously'' 



264 K.— Crullers, Omelettes, "Etc. 

bo that the cake will bake nicely brown all over. If it 
should adhere anywhere put a little butter under it. 
Finally turn with a pancake turner and bake on the 
other side in the same way. In a few receipts corn- 
starch is put down instead of flour; be careful to test 
this before using as it is apt to be sour. 

2. German Wafers, ("Plinsen"). No. 1 . (To be served 
alone or as a side dish with spinach.) 4 heaping table- 
spoonfuls of flour, 4 large or 5 small eggs, 1-Iarge cup- 
ful of milk mixed with cream or milk and water, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of melted butter, 2 ounces of washed and 
dried currants, grated lemon peel or mace and a little 
salt. When adding the eggs whip the dough as directed 
under No. 1, and bake four thin cakes. Then divide 
each cake in two," sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon 
and roll them out. 

These cakes are served for supper with tea and 
bread and butter. When served as a side dish send 
to the table with a white wine sauce or fruit jelly. If 
served with spinach leave out the sugar, lemon peel and 
currants, and stir through it some finely cut chives. 

3. Sour Craam Wafers. No. 2. 2 ounces of corn- 
starch, 4 eggs, 1 large cupful of thick sour cream, mace, 
cinnamon and a little salt. Smooth the cornstarch in 
2 tablespoonfuls of cold water, stir with it the yolks of 
eggs, cream and spiees, beat briskly and then lightly 
mix through it the beaten whites of the eggs, bake four 
large wafers and roll each one, sprinkle with sugar and 
cinnamon and bring to the table hot. When served 
with preserves they are very nice. 

4. Wafers filled with various Remnants such as 
Cooked Fruit or Veal. No. 3. Bake the wafers as directed 
in No. 1, spread with cooked apples, cherries, plum mar- 
malade or cranberries. Boil rice until thick, mix with 
sugar, cinnamon, and mace, spread over the wafer, roll 
it, and sprinkle with sugar. When using veal j-Oast, 
chop it very fine, brown a large piece of butter, stir a- 
little grated wheat bread and the meat in .this, add sour 
cream or bouillon, wine, mace or nutmeg and a little 
salt, and cook for a few minutes. Spread the wafer 
with this forcemeat, which is then baked, rolled and 
served on a hot dish. 



K.— Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 265 

When using remnants of ham, which are then served 
with spinach, soak the ham in milk over night, then 
chop it very fine and mix with thick sour cream. Spread 
this on wafers that have been baked, split them, turn 
in egg and grated bread and fry in lard to a golden 
brown. * 

5. Cracknels. 4 fresh eggs, 1 heaping tablespoon- 
ful of cornstarch, 1 small cupful of lukewarm milk mixed 
with a little water, a pinch oi mace or grated lemon 
peel, salt and some preserves. 

The whites of the eggs are separated from the yolks 
and whipped to a stiff froth, which is mixed with the 
dough just before baking. The heat must be moderate 
and the pan very smooth. Melt a little butter in the 
pan, put the frothed dough into this, a hot tin cover 
over it and bake" the cracknels on one side, turn the pan 
without shaking it, and let it stand uutil the dough is 
set and browned on the under side. Then spread this 
with preserves, either apple or currant compot, marma- 
lade or jelly, fold, put on a dish and sprinkle with sugar 
and cinnamon. 

The cracknels can be spread on top with sugar and 
cinnamon and served with a wine-, fruit- or rum sauce. 
A nice way is to serve a compot of currants, which can 
also be spread over it ; the sauce is then omitted. 

A little baking powder mixed with the egg batter 
will help it to raise. For a simple dish make two tarts 
instead of one. Sprinkle one with lemon juice, put the 
other on top of this, and on this put a little fruit of any 
kind, or sugar. 

6. Omelette, No. 1 . 8 fresh eggs, 1 heaping table- 
spoonful of fine flour or cornstarch, 1 large cupful of 
warm milk mixed with a little water, some mace and 
salt; all of this is mixed well together as directed under 
No. 1. Put butter into the pan and the batter into this 
and with a spoon lift it up so as to let the batter run 
evenly under the omelette. As soon as the omelette is 
set and no longer adheres to the pan— it must remain 
soft and is not turned— sprinkle with sugar and cinna- 
mon, put on a plate and fold. 

They are very nice when served with cranberries, 
also with Summer sausage^ smoked meat and smoked 



26\ K.— Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 

tongue. The batter must then be stirred with finely 
phopped chives; the sugar and cinnamon are omitted. 

7. Cream Omelette. No* 2. 6 eggs, 1 ounce of corn- 
starch, 1 large cupful of two-thirds milk and one-third 
boiling water, and, if liked, mace and a little salt., . , 

The eggs are beaten to a stiff froth, the other ingre- 
dients well mixed together and baked as in the preced- 
ing receipt. As soon as the omelette begins to set, pour 
over it the beaten whites of the eggs, cover with a hot 
lid until it is no longer soft, sprinkle with sugar, and 
.cinnamon and, if wished, fold it. 

8. Omelette with Remnants of fleat. Remnants 
of beef, smoked meat, cooked ham or soup meat are 

..'chopped fine. Stir up a good omelette- or panpake 
batter and stir the meat with it, season with nutmeg. or 
finely chop*ped chives. . The whole eggs can be put in at 
Once or else beat the whites to a froth and stir lightly 
through the batter. The batter can be dropped into 
.the pan a spoonful at a time and baked in little cakes. 

9. Bouillon Omelette. Make a batter of 8 eggs, 
3 tablespoonf uls of 'flour, 9 tablespoonfuls Of good bou- 
illon with chopped parsley and chives, salt and pepper 
and bake as directed in No. 8; spread' over these some 
capers and fold . In the meantime make a thick, strong 
; sauce of flour browned in butter, bouillon and a glass- 
ful of Madeira, pour over the omelette and serve. ' 

10. Omelette of Wheat Bread. Make an omelette 
batter, soak wheat bread slices in cold milk,' turn in 
the batter, bake on both sides, lay pieces of butter 
between them and put the omelette over them. By 
piercing with a sharp knife the batter will go to the 
bottom of the pan, bake on both sides and put the 
omelette on a plate as soon as it no longer adheres to 
the pan; sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. Canned 
cranberries are very good with these omelettes. 

11. Pork Omelettes. For every egg use 1 table- 
.spponful of milk, a little salt and beat thoroughly.. 
Then cut some lean pork into slices, fry on both sides' 
to a light'yellow color and pour the milk and eggs over 
them- After the omelette is setput it on a plate so that 



K.— Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 267' 

the eggs will remain soft. If liked, finely chopped chives 
may be mixed M'ith the egg batter. 

12. Plain Omelettes. For 3 omelettes take 6 fresh 
eggs, 6 small tablespooufuls of flour, 1 large cupful of 
milk, 1 pint of sour cream and a little salt. Flour, 
cream, the yolks of the eggs and salt are stirred well 
together, then add the milk and shortly before baking 
the beaten whites of the eggs. 

If the cakes are to be baked in butter, which is best 
for cakes made with cream, use less salt and proceed as 
directed under No. 1. 

13. Common Omelettes. Take the yolks of 5 eggs, 
1 heaping tablespoonful of flour, 1 cupful of fresh milk, 
salt and the beaten whites of the eggs and follow direc- 
tions in the preceding receipt. 

14. Four-colored Omelettes. (Served instead of a 
souffle). Make a good omelette batter as given under 
No. 12, but use one-third more. Divide this batter into 
four parts. The first, part is colored red with cochiueal, 
the second green with spinach juice, the third. brown 
with grated chocolate, while the fourth is not colored. 
Before baking make a thick vanilla cream filling fpr the 
red Omelette (2 yolks of eggs, 1 cupful of milk, 2 spoon- 
fuls of sugar, 1 spoonful of cornstarch, vanilla, salt) ; 
for the green omelette a chocolate cream (1 heaping 
tablespoonful of chocolate, 1 cupful of milk, % spoonful 
of cornstarch, a little sugar, salt and the whites of 
the eggs used in the vanilla cream). Cover the brown 
omelette with light colored apple jelly, and the yellow 
omelette with red currant prserves. Roll the omelettes 
after being spread with the different sauces, cut through 
the middle, sprinkle with sugar and drop over them 
some canned cherries before sending to the table. 

15. Cornstarch Omelette. 4 fresh eggs, 2 ounces of 
cornstarch, 1 large cupful of warmed milk, using one- 
third water and a little salt. The yolks of the eggs, 
cornstarch smoothed in milk, and salt are well beaten 
together and mixed with the beaten whites of the eggs 
and baked in clarified butter as directed under No. 1. 

16. Plain Pancake. 3 ounces of flour, 3 eggs, 1 
pint of milk and a little salt. If only 2 eggs are used, 
take less milk. 



268 K. -Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 

17. Currant Cake. T'or this use a good omeiette 
batter, taking a little sugar and salt, 1 small soupplate- 
ful of ripe currants, \ pound of sugar and }i pound of 
grated wheat bread. Heat the butter in the pan until 
quite hot, put in the batter, lay the currants on this, 
and before turning sprinkle over it a little finely grated 
bread. After the omelette is baked on both sides, put 
on a plate and strew a little sugar over it. 

18. Apple Pancake. No. 1. Take 2 soupplatefuls 
of finely sliced apples, cook them until done with sugar, 
lemon peel and enough wine until there is no more juice. 

Then beat the yolks of 6 eggs with a cupful of thick, 
sour cream, 2 "fcablespoonf uls of cornstarch, a little salt 
and cinnamon, mix the beaten whites through this and 
bake two cakes on one side to a light brown. After the 
second is baked, spread with apples, put the cakes one 
on the other and put them into the oven for a few 
minutes, sprinkle with sugar and serve. 

19. Apple Pancake. No. 2. Take 12 sour apples, 
% pound of butter, 12 crackers soaked in milk, 6 eggs, 
% pound of currants, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, lemon 
peel and cinnamon. Pare the apples, slice and cook 
with butter over a slow fire until done. Then pour over 
the crackers enough milk to soak them, beat 4 eggs to 
a froth; stir the ingredients with the crackers, adding 
at last the apples and the whites of the eggs ; 2 table- 
spoonfuls of rum may also be stirred with the apples. 
Bake the omelette on a slow fire. 

20. Small Apple Cakes. Pare large cooking apples, 
cut into slices the thickness of a finger and take out the 
core. Then let them heat through with a little arrac 
and sugar. Take 1 small cupful of milk, % pound of 
flour, the yolks of 4 eggs, a little salt and stir through 
the dough a little mace or cinnamon. Beat well to- 
gether and just before baking add the whites of the 
eggs. Mix the apples through the dough and bake with 
butter on a hot pan on both sides until dofle and of a 
golden brown color. 

21. Prune Omelette. Make a batter as directed in 
No. 16. Heat a pan with plenty of butter and put in 
about one-third of the batter after the omelette has set, 



K.— Cbullers, Omelettes, Etc. 269 

lay in the prunes side by side with the opening to the 
bottom and bake on both sides until done and of a 
golden brown color. Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon 
and serve hot. 

22. Huckleberry Omelettes. Are made the same as 
prune omelettes, or, after turning them, put a thick 
layer of huckleberries on the baked side, sprinkle with 
grated crackers, cover" until the under side is baked and 
by that time the berries will be baked through. The 
omelette is put on a plate and sprinkled with sugar. 

23. Cherry Omelettes. Are made the same as prune 
omelettes, taking stoned cherries. 

24. flacaroon Omelettes. Take % pound of maca- 
roons and mix with a few bitter ones, 2 tablespoonf uls 
of flour, 1 pint of water mixed with milk, 4 eggs, lemon 
peel and a little salt. Stir the flour and milk together, 
add the yolks of the eggs and lemon peel and beat thor- 
oughly, and then add the macaroons and whites of the 
eggs. Heat a pan with some butter, pour into it the 
batter and bake on both sides, sprinkle with sugar or 
else bake on one side only, lay on it some jelly or pre- 
serves, fold and sprinkle well with sugas. 

25. Roll or Bread Omelette. Takel% pound of stale 
wheat bread, 1 pint of milk to soak the bread, % pound 
of butter, % pound of sugar, % pound of currants, % 
pound of crushed almonds, 6 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of 
cinnamon or a little lemon peel. Cut the crust off the 
bread, toast and finely pound it, bceak the bread into 
pieces and soak in the milk. Stir the butter to a cream* 
add the yolks of the eggs one by one, the soaked bread, 
the washed currants, almonds and spices, and after stir- 
ring all together add the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Then butter a pan, sprinkle with one-half of the finely 
poiinded crust of the bread, on this put the batter, 
cover and bake to a golden brown, but it must not be 
moved. Strew over it the remaining bread, turn and 
bake this side to a light brown and sprinkle with sugar. 

26. Anise and Carraway Omelette. 2 ounces of 
grated bread, 2 ounces of rolled crackers, 1 heaping 
tablespoonf ul of flour, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1 table- 
spoonful of anise seed and a little salt. 



270 K.— Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 

Beat the whites of the eggs to a froth, stir the 
batter together and mix with the froth, heat some but- 
ter with a little lard in a pan, bake to a golden brown 
color and sprinkle with sugar. Instead of ^anise, carra- 
way "can be used and bake with fresh bacon. 

27. Omelette with Rice. % pound of rice boiled in 
milk with butter, a few pieces of, cinnamon or a little 
salt,; % pound of raisins; also 4 eggs, ,2— 3 tablespoon- 
Juls of sugar, a little grated wheat bread or crackers. 

The eggs, sugar and crackers are stirred with the rice 
and then mixed with the whites of the eggs. Heat, some 
butter in a pan on a brisk fire and. bake one large or 
several smaller cakes. Pounded crusts of. bread sprin- 
kled into the pan before putting in the batter, and over 
the batter before turning, give the omelette a better 
appearance and improve the taste. 
Sprinkle with sugar and serve. 

28. Noodle Omelettes. For 2 omelettes take a soup- 
plateful of noodles, 1 tablespoonful of flour, the yolks 
of 3 eggs, 1 cupful of milk, a little mace or nutmeg 
and salt, stir well together and add the beaten whites 
of the eggs. 

29. Baked Noodles. Heat some butter in a pan, 
spread, the noodles on this and bake to a golden brown 
on both sides. 

It is a very nice side dish with spinach and other, 
greens, and is also good with cooked fruits. 

30. Potato Omelettes. Heat some butter Or lard in 
a. pan until very hot, grate enough cold potatoes into 
the pan to cover it, and sprinkle with a little salt. In 
about 10 minutes make a common batter, beat the 
whites of the eggs to a froth, stir into the batter, cover 
the omelette arid bake to a dark brown and until crisp. 
Serve immediately. An omelette of this kind is very 
nice with any kind of salad, or with a compbt. 

. 31. Small Wheat Cakes. One quart of warm milk, 
2 ounces of melted butter, 3—4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of 
sugar, yeast, 1 pound of warmed flour, 4 — 6 ounces of 
currants, cinnamon or mace and a little salt. 
- Stir the milk with the flour, add the other ingre- 
dients, whip the batter well, mix With it the currants 



JL— Ckullers, Omelettes, Etc. 271 

(warmed) and put in a warm place- to raise. If after 
about 1J^ — 2 hours the dough is risen bake in an open 
pan in butter, or butter and lard mixed, in little cakes 
the size of a saucer, which are turned once, and then 
only when the dough is set. 

32. Common Wheat Cakes. No. 1. 1% pounds of 
flour, 1 quart of lukewarm milk, % cupful of melted 
butter or lard, 3 eggs, yeast and a little salt are made 
into a dough as in the above receipt and are then baked 
in butter, making 2 large cakes. 

33. Common Wheat Cakes. No. 2. Take 2 pounds 
of flour, yeast, 1 cupful of melted butter, ^ pound of 
currants., 3—5 eggs, if wished some lemon, peel, about 
1 pint of milk and bake in an oblong pan. Serve warm 
or cold with butter. 

34. Buckwheat Cakes. No. 1. To every cupful Of 
flour take a cupful of hot water, a large tablespOOnful 
of thick sour cream, or if you have no cream, take 
melted butter or lard, yeast and a little salt. Currants 
can also be added. After all is stirred together take a 
spoon and beat the dough well, set it aside to raise and 
make into small or large cakes like the above. 

35. Buckwheat Cakes. No, 2. Two cupfuls of 
buckwheat flour, 3 cupfuls of hot water, 1 cupful of 
thick sour cream and salt are stirred well together and 
baked immediately in hot butter to a golden brown 
color. 

The cream can be omitted and instead use 1 cupful 
of cold grated potatoes. Buttermilk can be substituted 
for the water if desired. 

36. French Toast. ("Arme Ritter".) Take rolls, 
large ones are preferable, split them and for 6 rolls 
weighing 1% pounds add not quite 1 quart of milk and 
6 eggs. Season the milk with a little salt, lemon juice 
or cinnamon (boiled milk is not so good, as it makes 
the toast sticky), arid'di vide with a spoon and lay the 
rolls on a dish.' Then beat the eggs, lay the rolls in this 
so that they will soak up the egg ; bake in butter to a 
light brown color. Sprinkle with sugar and serve with 
a compot. . 



272 K.— Crullers, Omelettes, Etc. 

37. Spanish Bread Pudding. Take 6 stale rolls, 
grate off the crust, cut the rolls into slices, lay them 
into a deep pan and cover with a thick wine sauce made 
of 1 pint of claret, % pound of sugar, the yolks of 6 
eggs, salt, lemon peel and 1 ounce of cornstarch ; let 
them lay in this for % hour, sprinkle through them the 
grated crust and bake in the oven as directed in the 
above receipt. Then let them cool, spread over them 
some good apple or other fruit marmalade, arrange in 
the form of a mound and pour over this the beaten 
whites of 6 eggs, sweetened to taste. Put into the oven 
for a few minutes until the frosting is of a nice yellow 
color and serve for dessert instead of a souffle. 

38. Karthusian Dumplings. Grate off the crust 
from milk rolls and then cut them in two. For 3 rolls 
take 3 cupfuls of milk, 2 eggs, 1 tablespooriful of sugar, 
a little lemon peel, mace or cinnamon, beat well to- 
gether, pour over the rolls and let them soak for 2—3 
hours. After they are well soaked, sprinkle over them 
the grated crust and bake in plenty of butter to a dark 
brown color. Serve with any kind of fruit preserves, or 
with a wine or fruit sauce. 

39. Rice Dumplings. Boil % pound of scalded rice 
in milk until thick, stir through it butter the size of an 
egg, sugar and grated lemon peel if liked. After the rice 
has cooled form into dumplings the size of a pear, roll 
in egg and cracker crumbs and bake in butter to a light 
brown." Serve with a vanilla-, wine- or fruit sauce. 

Veryfew of the cakes, etc., described in this division, 
can be served to invalids as they are not easily digested 
on account of the butter used in preparing them ; No. 6 
and 9 can occasionally be sent to the sickroom.. 



L.— Dishes prepared with Eggs, 
Milk, Rice or Cornmeal. 



1. Boiling Eggs. To boil eggs so that they will be 
just right, they should not be put into the water until it 
boils. Soft boiled eggs require about 3 minutes, and 
medium hard boiled eggs 4 minutes. Eggs for decora- 
tions, where the whites must be firm and the yolks some- 
what softer, require 5 minutes. When a number of eggs 
are to be boiled at a time they are best put into a wire 
basket, by which means they can be easily taken out of 
the water. 

When eggs are to be used for decorating vegetable 
dishes, put them into cold water, and as soon as cold 
take them out of thte shell and warm them in salted 
water. 

2. Scrambled Eggs. Take 1 tablespoonful of milk, 
a little salt and a piece of butter the size of half a wal- 
nut for each egg. Beat the eggs, milk and salt together, 
melt the butter (a small earthenware vessel is the best 
for this purpose), pour in the eggs, and stir over a very 
slow fire until thick. Stir only until thick and done, 
then serve. Using water and bacon instead of the milk 
and butter, will make the eggs more spicy and is pre- 
ferred by many. 

Scrambled eggs are served with asparagus, lettuce, 
smoked herring, Summer sausage, cold tongue and 
smoked meats. With the last three, some finely chopped 
chives should be mixed with the beaten eggs. 

Scrambled egg dishes can be varied in many ways 
by the admixture of stewed and sliced mushrooms, small 



274 L. — Egg, Mjlk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 

boiled asparagus tips, a few pieces of boned anchovy, 
minced salmon and a few spoonfuls of grated cheese of 
any kind. 

If this dish is to be served as an entree after the 
soup, it should first be filled into warmed sauce dishes, 
mix with it sliced truffles and diced sweet breads boiled 
in bouillon, and afterwards cover with strips of salmon. 
For the family table mix cheese with the eggs before 
they are beaten and after the cups are filled brush with 
puree of tomatoes or else cover with bits of bologna 
(cervelat) sausage and put a border of slips of toasted 
wheat bread on each cup. , 

In the Spring a nice dish of scrambled eggs can be 
prepared for the supper table as follows : 'Clean ' some 
young red and white radishes, leave a blade of green on 
the top, slit the peel towards the top with a sharp knife 
and loosen without removing them from the radish, 
then lay them into cold water for a few hours, which will 
cause the skin to curl nicely, after which let them drain. 
Out some round slices of wheat bread, hollow them out 
in the center, toast slightly and fill with a small bunch 
of cresses dressed with olive oil and a trifle of salt. Boil 
3 truffles until tender and slice them. 1 eggs are then 
scrambled, lay them into the center of a hot dish, cover 
with the toast and surround.with the sliced truffles and 
the radishes as a border. 

4. Poached Eggs. Bring some water to a boll with 
a little salt and vinegar. Break into it some fresh eggs 
rapidly, but they must be dropped in side by side. As 
soon as the whites are set (they must not become hard) 
take them out of the water, if desired they can be 
apr.JTi]/lori ™\f\\ a little vinegar, trim the edges smoothly 
all around, sprinkle with fine salt and serve either on a 
dish of spinach or with the latter as a side dish. r 

As an entree after the soup, poached eggs can be 
served for the family table with an anchovy-, herring-, 

/■sorrel- or Remoulade sauce over the eggs, ornamenting 
the dish with slips of toast. For a dinner party line a 
dish rather thickly with the following well bound sauce : 

. Lightly brown a few onions and slices of ham in butter, 
rub in this 2 spoonfuls of flour and add bouillon and 
cream half and half to make a well-bound sauce, which 
is then strained ; then put in about 2 ounces of grated 



L.— Egg, Milk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 275 

Parmesan cheese, stir through it' the whites of 2 eggs 
beaten to a froth and line the dish with half of this 
sauce. Arrange the poached eggs in the dish, pour over 
them the remainder of the sauce, sprinkle with bread 
crumbs and cheese and then bake to a light brown. 

5. Fried Eggs. Heat some butter in a very clean 
pan and break the eggs into it very carefully, keeping 
each egg whole; sprinkle over them a little fine salt, 
and when the whites are set put them on a dish without 
turning them, trim the edges and serve with spinach or 
other similar vegetables. 

Fried' eggs can be served with the following sauce 
and they then make an agreeable dish for the supper 
table: For 4 persons take about 2 eggs, 1 heaping tea- 
spoonful of flour or cornstarch, 1 large cupful of water, 
vinegar according to taste and enough sugar to make 
the vinegar mild. Stir all of this until it commences to 
boil, and stir through it a piece of butter the size of half 
an egg. Pour the sauce over the eggs while they are 
still hot, cover and set aside for a few minutes on top of 
the stove. If fried eggs are to be served as an entree 
after the soup, prepare them as follows : Cut a long loaf 
of wheat bread into slices, remove the center without 
breaking the crust and fry these rings in lard to a 
golden brown. Lay the rings on a flat dish lined with 
anchovy butter, brush them with thick sour cream, 
break an egg into each, salt, dot with some sour cream, 
cover with butterad paper and bake until the whites are 
set. A border of whole filled tomatoes is very pretty. 

6. Eggs with Mustard Sauce. Shell medium soft 
boiled eggs, divide them in two lengthwise,, put them 
into a dish with the yolks to the top, sprinkle lightly 
with salt and pour over them a mustard sauce (see 
Division R), or else melted butter stirred with mustard. 

7. Filled Eggs. Take hard boiled eggs and cut 
them in two, remove the yolks, mince and mix one-half 
of them with chopped anchovies, mushrooms, small 
pieces of tongue or ham and the yolk of one raw egg. 
Stir the remainder of the yolks to a thick sauce with 
mustard, olive oil, tarragon vinegar, salt and pepper, 
mix a part of this with the minee to make a smooth 
forcemeat, fill it into the hollowed whites of the eggs, 



276 L.— Egg, Milk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 

and pour over them the remainder of the sauce. Hot 
filled eggs make a nice entree after the soup. The filling 
can be prepared in various ways, taking either a fi-sti. 
forcemeat or else a finely minced veal sweetbread- or 
chicken ragout. A simpler method is to grate the yolks 
of the eggs and mix them to a forcemeat with savory 
herbs, grated bread, grated cheese and some bouillon. 
Part of the filling should always be used to line the 
bottom of the fiat dish ; arrange the filled eggs on this, 
dot with butter, sprinSle with bread crumbs and ba.ke 
to a golden brown. 

8. Egg Hound. Cut the whites of 6 hard boiled 
eggs into fine strips, stew them in a Bechamel sauce, 
(see Division R), and put them on a small hot dish in 
the shape of a mound. Rub the yolks with a piece of 
fresh butter and some salt and press through a sieve 
over the whites. Cover with bits of toast, and then get 
it nicely hot in the oven. 

9. Eggs in flarinade. Shell 18 hard boiled eggs 
and put them into a stOne jar. Boil 1 quart of vinegar, 
% ounce of pepper, % ounce of Jamaica pepper and % 
ounce of ginger for about 10 minutes; pour through a 
sieve over the eggs. After the vinegar is cold, tightly 
cover the jar by tieing over it a piece of paper. After 
3 — i weeks serve the eggs with bread and butter. 

10. Raw Whites of Eggs for Invalids. Beat the 
whites, to a stiff froth, slowly add 1 tablespoonful of 
thick sweet cream, 1 spoonful of brandy, 1 teaspoonful 
of fine sugar. Adminster to the patient at once, a 
spoonful at a time. 

11. Egg Cheese. 9—10 eggs are well beaten and 
then stirred over a slow fire with 1 quart of milk and a 
little salt until it curdles ; it should npt become too hot. 
Pour it into a mould rapidly so that the eggs may 
remain soft. A few currants previously scalded in boil- 
ing water can be scattered through the mass. If not 
wanted for immediate use the cheese will be milder if-the 
milk mixed with tne eggs is first poured into a stone 
jar and this put into a kettle containing boiling water, 
and then continuously boiling the milk until it curdles. 
Drop pieces of almonds over the cheese and serve with a 



L.— Egg, Milk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 277 

sauce made of sour cream beaten to a froth with sugar 
and cinnamon and mixed with arrac. A cold wine- or 
fruit sauce is also appropriate. 

12. Egg Jelly. 1 quart of milk, 4 beaten eggs and 
the yolks of 5 eggs, 1 grated lemon, sugar and cinna- 
mon are put into a deep vessel, cover and set over boil- 
ing water until thick. As soon as cold sprinkle with 
sugar and serve with a cranberry sauce or some other 
well flavored com pot. 

13. Beaten Milk. Beat thick milk and its cream 
with a beater briskly for 15 minutes. Stir through it 
sugar and cinnamon and serve with toast. A glassful 
of claret can also be beaten with it. 

14. Sour Milk Cheese. Set a pan of thick milk with- 
out the cream near the stove so that it will gradually 
separate from the watery parts. Pour into a muslin 
bag and afterwards press through a sieve. Mix with it 
fresh cream or milk and sugar and vanilla according to 
taste. Another method is to fill the cold sour milk into 
the bag and let it hang during the night to permit the 
watery parts to drip away. This makes the cheese 
smoother and mellower than if the milk is warmed, but 
it is mixed with sugar and cream or fresh milk in the 
same manner. After putting it into the dish and' 
smoothing the top, sprinkle with sugar and a little 
ginger, or else pour over it some sour cream beaten to 
a froth with sugar and cinnamon. If no cream is mixed 
with the cheese it must not be made too thick, and it 
should be taken into consideration that this cheese 
thickens naturally when done, similar to boiled . rice. 
Many like sour milk cheese with cranberries, grapes or 
cherry compot. 

15. Rice Pudding. Take about % pound of rice and 
2 quarts.of milk. Scald the rice as directed in A, No. 5, 
melt a piece of butter in the milk which will thereby 
be prevented from scorching, and bring it to a boil. 
Put in the rice together with a few pieces of cinnamon — 
those not liking the flavor of cinnamon may prefer 
vanilla — afterwards add a little sugar and a trifle of 
salt, put the rice into a dish and sprinkle with sugar; it 
is often dressed with melted butter. If the rice is to be 



278 L.— Egg, Milk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 

served cold, remember that it thickens materially when 
cooling. Before serving stir through it the yolks of a 
few eggs together with a dash of rum or cordial, other- 
wise the pudding will be apt to have an insipid taste. 

Remnants of rice pudding can be used for rice ome- 
lette, (K, No. 27), or to fill wafers (K, No. 4), or it 
may be made into small dumplings which are baked in 
melted butter and turned in grated chocolate while still 
hot. 

16. Rice with Claret for Invalids. Let 3 ounces of 
rice come to a boil in cold water, pour in 1 pint of claret, 

2 teaspoonfuls of lemon sugar and a little cinnamon; 
boil until done. Serve hot with sweetened cream stirred 
with the yolk of an egg. 

17. Rice with Apples. Scald the .rice, which should 
be of the very best quality ; then melt a piece of butter 
in a pan, put in the rice with boiling water, a piece of 
cinnamon and a little salt, and boil slowly. When the 
rice is almost tender put in the apples with a large piece 
of sugar, cook until done, but it must not be too thick ; 
stir carefully so that the kernels will remain whole. A 
glassful of white wine can also be stirred through the 
rice. Sprinkle the top with sugar and serve. 

For % pound of rice take 6 medium-sized apples, 
pare and cut into eight parts. This will be sufficient for 

3 persons. 

18. Rice with Raisins. (A nice dish for convales- 
cents.) After the rice is scalded, boil for % hour as 
directed in the above receipt, then add raisins and cook 
until both are tender, but they must not become mushy. 

19. Rice for Ragout. For 2 dishes take 1 pound of 
rice, scald and cook in bouillon untiltender, stir through 
it a glassful of Madeira, 1 cupful of cream, the yolks of 
2 eggs and X pound of Parmesan cheese, and surround 
with it a ragout of poultry or veal. 

20. Arabian Rice. Boil some scalded rice in salted 
water for 20 minutes, pour off the water and set it in a 
warm oven for 10 minutes, stirring often, before bring- 
ing to the table. Serve this rice with roasted or boiled 
meats. 



L.-^Egg, Mjlk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 279 

21. Turin Rice. % pound of rice is washed in cold 
water, dried with a cloth and Med in a pan with grated 
onion and 3 ounces of .butter to a light brown color. 
Then mix 1 glassful of white wine with a little lemon 
juice and.l small cupful of strong bouillon and boil the 
rice until tender; before sending to the table stir in salt 
and pepper. Serve with stewed meat. Substituting 
Madeira for the" whitf wine, and the addition of sliced 
and stewed truffles will add greatly to the excellence of 
this rice preparation. 

22. Rice in a Bag. 1% pounds of rice, or % pound of 
rice and % pound of barley, or % pound of prunes and % 
pound of raisins. Rice, raisins and prunes are washed, 
scalding the latter. Then take a very clean cloth, dip 
into boilingwater, wring it dry, put the ingredients into 
the cloth in layers with a little salt, tie^Jeaving room 
for the rice to expand, put this into a pan of boiling 
water, first putting a saucer into„the bottom to keep 
the cloth from scorching, and boil for 2 hours. Serve 
with browned butter and sugar, or with roast meat and 
gravy or raw ham. The following is a nice sauce, and 
smoked meats are a fitting accompaniment: For the 
above quantity take 1 tablespoonful of flour, milk, the 
yolk of an egg, a piece of butter, sugar and a little salt, 
put on the stove until it commences to boil. The sauce 
must not be too thick. To have this dish just right be 
careful not to leave too much room for the rice, as then 
it will become too thin, neither must the bag be drawn 
up too tightly, for then the rice will become too thick ; 
it is advisable to examine the bag during the cooking 
to ascertain whether it is too tight or not. 

23. Sago Compot. Cook ]i pound of pearl sago in 1 
cupful of water, 1 cupful of wine, 2 spoonfuls of rasp- 
berry juice, 2 ounces of sugar and a little pineapple 
extract. Then mix with the sago some preserved pears 
and cherries, put the compot into a pan, pour over it 
an icing made of 1 ounce of pounded almonds, 1 ounce 
of sugar, the yolks of 3 eggs, bake the compot for 
y± hour in a moderate oven and serve while still hot. 
For a plain dish take sugar, water, lemon peel and juice 
and at last a few spoonfuls of raisins or currants, or 
some quartered apples stewed in wine and sugar. 



280 L.— Egg, Milk, Rice and Cornmeal Dishes. 

~ 24. Noodles. For 8 — 10 persons. 4 whole eggs, 4 
tablespoonfuls of milk and as much flour as the eggs 
and milk will take. Put the flour into a. dish, make a 
depression in the center, put in eggs and milk, stir with 
a knife to a light dough and then mix with the hands 
until it is smooth. The .longer the dough is kneaded 
the better the noodles will be. Then cut into four parts, 
roll each part as thin as paper and set aside to dry. 
When the fourth piece is rolled, take the first, dust with 
flour, cut in two, roll each piece, cut it into narrow 
strips, and then let it dry; they can also be used imme- 
diately. Cook the noodles in plenty of boiling salted 
water' for about % hour, drain on a colander and then 
pour boiling water through them. 

Serve with browned butter. Or boil milk with a 
large piece of butter and a little salt, let the noodles 
boil in this, then serve, covering the noodles with rolled 
cracker browned in butter. Then, too, the noodles can 
be covered with crisp noodles, by frying some uncooked" 
noodles until crisp in butter; or the noodles can be cov- 
ered with grated brown bread. Roast veal or dried 
prunes area nice dish with noodles; apple marmarade 
is also a fitting accompaniment. 

25. Rice with Tomatoes. After frying some scalded 
rice for % hour in butter, cook it in bouillon until tender 
and thick, then stir in some finely cut onions stewed in 
butter, salt and pepper, some pieces of ham and some 
ripe stewed tomatoes. Serve the rice with beefsteaks 
and lambchops. Usewhatrice remains fortomato soup. 

26. Barley with Sour Cream. Scald the barley and 
fry it in butter for 10 — 15 minutes and then cook in 
milk until done. Add'the necessary salt, stir through 
it some sour cream whipped with a few eggs, put the 
barley into a mould and bake for half an hour to a 
light brown color. Serve with sweet cream for- supper. 

27. Boiled Flour Groats. Make a dough the same 
as noodle dough, roll very thin, divide into small pieces 
and cut them as fine as groats with a chopping knife. 
If the dough is very stiff it can be grated. This is very 
nice when used in milk soups. 

For Invalids Nos. 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23 
and 26 are adapted. 



M. — Jellies and Ices. 



1. The various Stocks for Jellies are prepared from 
isinglass, calves' and pigs' feet, and gelatine. Isinglass 
makes the finest, clearest and handsomest jellies. The 
leaf like variety, which when held to the light has a 
bluish tint, is the best. Break the isinglass into small 
pieces, put it into a very clean stone jar, cover with 
water, let it stand over night and the next- morning 
boil it for a quarter of an hour on a slow fire or, better 
still, on top of the stove, which should not be too hot, 
until dissolved. If the quality is good it will dissolve 
almost completely and have the appearance of clear 
water. Strain through muslin and use according to 
-directions. For 2 quarts of jelly take 1 tablespoonful 
of isinglass. 

Calves' feet jelly is more troublesome to make than 
when using isinglass, but it is much cheaper and at the 
same time very palatable. The stock can be prepared 
in the following manner: The calves' feet for jelly of 
every kind should be singed so that the skin will be per- 
fectly clean, then wash them thoroughly and let them 
lay in lukewarm water for a few hours to draw and 
bleach. Cut them into small pieces and put them on 
the fire in an enameled kettle containing cold water; as 
soon as the water has boiled and the scum has been 
carefully taken off, pour off the water, fill up again with 
fresh water and put onto the stove again with a quick 
fire. Then boil the calves' feet uninterruptedly for 3, 
4 or 5 hours with frequent stirring until they drop to 
pieces, take them out of the kettle, pour some water 
over them, and this water should then be added to the 
other broth, which must be well boiled down, and after 
taking off the fat pass through a fine sieve into a por- 



282 M.— Jellies and Ices., 

■> celain or earthenware jar and set aside until the follow- 
ing day. Before using the jelly the fatty outer skin and 
the settlings at the bottom should be removed. 

To prepare 2 quarts of jelly use 6 calves' feet in the 
Winter and 8 in the Summer, and the broth of these 
should be boiled down to about a pint. This kind of 
stock can be used for wine-, meat- or fish jellies. In 
making stock of pork rind or pigs' feet, be careful to 
have everything perfectly clean, cut into very small 
pieces and boil the same as calves' feet. Take 1 pound 
of rind for each quart of jelly, which is also very good. 

Gelatine is used very much the same as isinglass 
and although not quite so good as the latter, it is 
much cheaper and for this reason extensively used. It 
is obtainable in small cakes of a yellowish white, clear 
or even of a pretty red tint. The best gelatine comes 
in thin cakes and is very clear. 

Gelatine is used not only in the preparation of 
blanc-m angers, meat- or fish jellies, but also for clear 
, sweet jellies. It is dissolved in the following manner: 
Cut it into small pieces with the scissors, for each ounce 
. of gelatine put a cupful of cold water into a small vessel 
and set it on top of a hot stove; it will be fully dis- 
solved after % or 1 hour, and then take off the scum 
with great care. In case the gelatine is wanted for im- 
mediate use, put it on a medium fire with a little more 
water; keep it on the fire until it is dissolved and stir 
frequently so that it will not adhere to the sides of the 
vessel. For clear jellies the gelatine should be strained 
or otherwise clarified, but this is not necessary with the 
best kinds. For a quart of liquid jelly take a table- 
spoonful of gelatine in the Winter, and 1% tablespoon- 
fuls in the Summer, but the quantity depends alto- 
gether on the kinds of dishes for which it is to be used. 
% of a spoonful of gelatine is sufficient to transform a 
quart of milk into a jelly firm enough to turn onto a 
dish. Water, wine, bouillon, etc., require about 1% 
tablespoonfuls to a quart. If cold meats are to be slitfed 
and jellied, the jelly should be firmer and for every 
quart of fluid jelly take a good ounce of gelatine. It is 
advisable to make a test of the stock before preparing 
the jelly in order to ascertain beyond any doubt whether 
it possesses the required consistency;, at all events it is 



M.— Jellies and Ices. 288 

necessary to prepare the jelly the day before it is to be 
used, especially in the Summer. 

2. Jelly in rioulds, etc. Porcelain and enameled 
moulds a,re the best and easiest to keep clean. In order 
that jellies may drop out of the mould readily, the 
latter should be thinly brushed with almond or olive oil. 
Then put in a layer of sour jelly broth about \ inch 
thick for fish or meat. As soon as firm ornament it 
with a star or border, using for this purpose parsley, 
lemon, beets, hard boiled eggs, pickles or capers; cover 
the ornamentation with jelly broth and as soon as it is 
firm, nicely arrange the meat or fish on it and pour 
over the whole the remaining broth and let it stand 
until entirely firm ; if the mould can be placed on ice it 
will be done so much the quicker. To turn the jelly out 
of the mould put the dish in which it is to be served 
accurately onto the mould, then grasping them both 
tightly turn quickly, trim the edge neatly and garnish 
with parsley if it is a sour jelly, and with flower buds if 
it is a sweet one. 

If, after .the jelly is cool and firm, it will not drop 
out of the mould easily after all, soak a towel in hot 
water, wring it dry and wind it around the mould for a 
few moments, or eise hold the mould over boiling water 
for a short time ; the jelly will then drop out. 

3. . Coloring Jellies. Jellies may be colored in vari- 
ous tints if they are to be used in layers, or a clear jelly 
can be ornamented with some colored jelly. For red 
jelly dissolve some red gelatine^ b ut boil it thoroughly, 
w,hieh will improve the taste. 

To obtain a yellow tint put a small quantity of 
saffron into w ater to draw and use enough of the yellow 
'li'qiTicfTo give the jelly the desired color. Saffron should 
be 'Used with cauti on ^ as it is po^onous in undue 
a u an titles JT of t h at "matter , a trme*"3T*ty. uillon color 
~wffl fc produce~ar) eq ually nice yellow tinge. _^ -"* 

Sweet jellies carTfte colored brown wit h dissolved 
chocolate; spiced jellies are colored to "aT'd'ark yellow 
wtal\ladeTra,_aj}d brown with extract of beef.. 

"- "S pTnach'"]uic e "is used~7of ^ra^jelhes, and a few 
drops 1 OfWfflJjjeal with some lemon juice" produces a 
beautifuryelfo^golcjr^ .After the jelTy "broth has been 



284 M.— Jellies and Ice.s. 

colored put a thin layer of it into a prepared porcelain 
dish and let it stand until cool. 

If a number of jelly dishes are to be served at a 
large dinner party, prepare one of them in red and the 
others in light colors, and then ornament them with 
contrasting colors ; Jor instance make some triangular 
ornaments of red jelly and arrange them around the 
edge of a light jelly. Then cut a rose or other flower of 
red jelly and put it into the center of the dish. Red 
jellies can be very prettily decorated with white or yellow 
ornaments. 



I. SOUR JELLIES. 

4. Sour Jellies of Calves' Feet for Fish and Heat. 

Jellies can be quickly, and easily prepared by using 
extract of beef and gelatine, which will make a strong 
and clear thick jelly. When cooking the jelly an enam- 
eled kettle is the best. Iron is not well adapted for 
cooking jellies, as the acid in the jelly acts upon the iron 
and gives the jellies an unpleasant flavor. 

For a sour jelly 4 — 5 blanched calves' feet, as given 
under No. 1, and 2—4 pounds of beef, washed, a piece of 
veal, remnants of any kind of fresh meat or poultry can 
be used (but nothing from the head, through which the 
jelly will become dark), and some raw ham cut into 
small pieces. Cover with boiling water, add some salt, 
cook rapidly, skimming carefully, and add 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of white peppercorns, half as manycloves, 10 escha- 
lots or 4 large onions, 2 fresh bay leaves, 1 carrot, 
parsley root, half of a celery root, the juice a,nd the 
thinly peeled rind of 1 lemon, and enough vinegar to 
give the broth a pleasant flavor. Let the vegetables 
cook for an hour, boil the meat in this until tender and 
let the feet cook until the bones can be taken out. Then 
pour the broth (which will amount to about 2 quarts) 
through a sieve into a porcelain kettle; the next day 
take off the fat and settlings and mix % bottle of wine 
with the jelly and the juice of a lemon and' set on the 
stove; taste it to see if it is sour and salty enough. 
Then clear the jelly in the following manner: Beat up 
the whites of a few eggs with a little water, stir into the 



Sour Jellies. 285 

warm broth and set on the hot stove until the broth is 
quite clear, then strain through a flannel bag; if not 
perfectly clear it can be strained again, though once will 
usually suffice. 

5. Sour Jelly for Fish and Meat. Take a nice lean 
piece of beef, say about 2%— 3 pounds, put it into an 
enameled kettle and pour over it enough cold water 
with salt to make a strong bouillon, bring quickly to a 
boil, skimming carefully. After it has cooked for half 
an hour take out the meat, rinse off any scum that may 
adhere to it and set the broth aside to settle. After it 
has settled, pour off the top into a clean dish, add half 
of a celery root, a piece of parsley root, 4 white onions, 
the peel of a lemon with the juice, 2 fresh b*ay leaves, 
2 teaspoonfuls of white peppercorns. % teaspoonful of 
cloves and enough wine vinegar to give the jelly a sour 
taste; add a little salt if necessary. Cover the kettle 
and let the bouillon cook until the meat is tender. 
Then pour the broth, of which there should be about 
lJis quarts, through a muslin cloth, set aside in a warm 
place so that it will not cool too rapidly, and when it is 
cold take off the settlings. In the meantime dissolve 
1% ounces of gelatine in 1 pint of water, strain through 
muslin, bring to a boil with the bouillon and pour over 
the fish or poultry . 

6. Jelly of Beef or Poultry, etc. The meat should 
be nicely washed and freed from fat. Poultry, excepting 
geese, can be larded, turning the lardoons in salt and 
cutting the ends smooth; take the bones out of the 
turkey and the goose as given under D, No. 169. Put. 
the meat into an enameled kettle in water and enough 
white wine vinegar to give it a sour taste, put in the 
necessary salt, skim carefully, add the spices as given 
in the above receipt, cover, let it cook slowly and then 
take it out of the broth and set aside to cool. Put into 
one large or several small dishes; the small dishes are 
preferable. Pour through a sieve and the following day 
take off fat and settlings and for each quart of broth 
take 1 pint of stock made of 4 calves' feet, or for the 
same quantity take 1 ounce of dissolved gelatine. 

7. Salmon in Jelly. Boil some water and white 
pepper, lemon slices without seeds, onions, mace, a littlo 



286 M— Jellies and Ices. 

salt, 2 — 3 bay leaves and the necessary vinegar (it is 
better to use fruit wine, lemon juice and vinegar half 
and half) in an enameled kettle for a while, pour through 
a sieve, then add to this the salmon, first cut into pieces 
and salted for an hour. Boil until tender-, then take 
out the salmon and set aside to cool. For each 2 
pounds of salmon there should bel quart of jelly ; make 
the latter by using a strong, clear, white beef, veal or 
poultry bouillon. Cook this with 1 pint of white wine 
and 1 ounce of gelatine, salt and spice and season with 
a little lemon juice and pour this lukewarm over the 
salmon pieces. Decorate the edge with pickled crabtails. 

8. Eel in Jelly. This" makes a very pretty dish if 
the right mould is used. The eel is not skinned but is 
divided into pieces, first rubbing it with salt to take_off 
any slime, empty, take off the fins, pour warm vinegar 
over it and let it come to a boil in unsalted water. 
Then lay the pieces into a stew pan with bay leaves, 
lemon slices, eschalots, salt, peppercorns, sage leaves 
and parsley, with enough water and vinegar, half and 
half, to cover the eel. After it has boiled for % hour, 
take out the eel, skin off the fat and pour through a 
sieve; dissolve 1 ounce of gelatine for .each quart and 
add to the broth, bring to a boil again, salt, pour into 
a mould putting in the pieces of eel and sliced lemon. 
Then let the jelly cool and turn into a dish. Serve with 
a Remoulade- or a good Mayonnaise sauce. 

9. Jelly of Sardines or Caviar. Make a clear meat 
jelly as given under No. 4 or 5, let it cool until lukewarm, 
and pour into a round form to the thickness of about 
% inch. Bury in ice until frozen, then dry the sardines 

.between blotting paper, and arrange them in the mould 
in the form of a rosette, cover these also with the jelly 
and when this layer is frozen fill the empty space in the 
middle with caviar; close the mould with aspic and bury 
in ice until wanted. After the mould has been turned 
on a round dish cover it for a moment with a cloth 
dipped in hotwater and wrung dry; by this means the 
mould can be emptied more readily. 

10. Jelly with Rabbit. The hind legs and the back 
of a rabbit are washed, skinned, washed again bub not 
laid in the water, and boiled in an earthenware or enam- 



Sour Jellies. 287 

eled (not iron) kettle in water with enough vinegar to 
give it a sour taste ; skim carefully. Then add a sliced 
lemon, 8 eschalots or 4 onions, 2 teaspoonfuls of pepper- 
corns and 2 teaspoonfuls of cloves, let the meat cook 
slowly until tender, take it out and after the broth is 
_ strained set it in a cool place. In the meantime make a 
"strong bouillon and a jelly of 3—4 calves' feet as given 
in No. 1. After it is cold take off fat and settlings, 
and bring to a boil with the bouillon and the rabbit 
broth, freed from settlings. The jelly broth must have 
a strong sour taste. There should be about 1% quarts; 
should there be more than this quantity color it as 
given under No. 3, and use for decorating. Gelatine 
and extract of beef can be used instead of the calves' 
feet, saving time and trouble in preparing. 

Then make a liver forcemeat as follows: Wash a 
calves' liver, skin, wash, pound flnelyand press through 
a sieve. Cut % pound of bacon into small pieces, chop 
with % pound of pork and mix with a cupful of crackers 
or grated wheat bread, the yolks of 2 hard boiled eggs, 
1 cupful of butter melted and cleared from settlings, 
salt and pepper. The forcemeat is put into a buttered 
souffle mould and baked in the oven until clone. When 
cold cut into slices; the rabbit is also sliced. Then rub 
the jelly mould with oil, fill the bottom with jelly broth, 
and when cold lay the meat and forcemeat on this in 
layers, and over each layer put some jelly broth, let it 
cool and proceed in this manner until all the broth is 
used. 

This jelly will keep in the Winter for 10 to 14 days 
if the jelly is made quite thick, and set aside uncovered 
in an airy place. When serving, turn out of the pan, 
decorate prettily with a wreath of small parsley leaves 
and red beets cut into long slices. Serve with an a la 
Diable sauce (No. 55, R,) or a sauce for jellies. 

11. Jelly of Salted Tongue with Extract of Beef. 

After the tongue is salted and cooked until tender as 
given under Division D, No. 30, boil % pound of beef 
according to No. 5 of this Division with the ingredients 
there given together with 1% quarts of bouillon, pour 
off the settlings, dissolve 1 ounce of gelatine and bring 
to a boil with the broth which must not be more than 
1% quarts, try the sauce to see if salty and sour enough, 



288 M. — Jellies and Ices. 

fake from the fire and proceed as directed tinder No. 2. 
In the meantime cut the tongue into slices of even size 
and cut off the rind. If the broth when cold is suffi- 
ciently thick, stir through it enough hot extract of 
beef to give it a pleasant flavor. Then let a layer of the 
jelly cool in the mould, lay the tongue slices on this, 
and around the dish some button onions boiled until" 
tender in water with plenty of wine vinegar and a little 
salt, over this put the remaining broth and proceed as 
given under No. 2. 

12. Beef RoyaI<. A piece of nice beef, weighing from 
8 — 10 pounds is laid into vinegar for a week. Lard, 
cook slowly with 8 calves' feet, bay leaves, eschalots, a 
sliced lemon, white pepper, salt and 1% — 2 bottles of 
claret for 3 hours, covered tightly. Then take out the 
meat, add some browned sugar, and pour the broth- 
over the meat through a sieve, 

13. Veal in Jelly. No. 1. Cut a piece of veal into 
small square pieces, wash in hot 'water and bring" to a 
boil with 4 scalded calves' feet, and salt. After skim- 
ming add plenty of vinegar, peppercorns, onions, whole 
and ground cloves, a few bay leaves, lemon peel and a 
few blades of mace, cook the meat slowly; then take out 
the meat and if there is still too much broth, boil it 
down with the calves' feet until it will form jelly when 
cold ; then take out the calves' feet, stir through it the 
beaten whites of a few eggs, and let the broth stand on 
the back of the stove for an hour, it must not boil, then 
pour through a jelly bag. Take the meat from the 
bones, remove all unnecessary fat, put into a buttered 
pan a,nd pour the jelly broth over it. Instead of calves' 
feet gelatine can be used. 

Serve with an a la Diable sauce, (E, No. 55). To 
keep the jelly for any length of time it should be placed 
uncovered in a cool place. 

14. Veal in Jelly. No. 2. (Very nice in the Summer). 
Cut pieces of veal as for a fricassee, lay into a deep 
earthenware jar with sliced lemon and cloves between 
the slices, and when the jar is filled sprinkle with, the 
necessary salt; then pour over them a mixture of % 
vinegar and % water, cover the jar by tieing over it a 
piece of parchment or something similar. Then put it 



Sour Jellies, 289 

into an iron kettle filled with water and boil for* 3 
hours. 

A few bones are necessary to fill into the jar with 
the meat so as not to have the meat packed too tightly 
together, in order that the jelly will form. Serve an a la 
Diable sauce (R, No. 55), or mustard and sugar with 
the meat. 

15. Calves' Head Jelly will be found under veal, (D, 
. No. 83J\ 

16. Pork Ribs in Jelly. This will be found in Divi- 
sion W. 

17. Filled Capon in Jelly, with Sauce. Bone a capon 
and fill with the following forcemeat (which is enough 
for 2 capons): Grate % pound of bread and stir on the 
fire with % pound of butter, then take from the stove, 
add to it the finely chopped livers of-both capons, 2 — 3 
yolks of eggs, 1 pound of minced veal, % pound of 
minced pork fat, some thick cream, salt, mace, a little 
chopped lemon peel and juice with the beaten whites of 
the eggs. 

Stir well together and fill the capon with it, and tie 
around the capon some large thin pork fat slices, put it 
into some good bouillon, cover tightly and boil for 
2— 2% hours. Then take out of the broth, lay on a flat 
dish, let it cool for 1 hour, take off the slices of fat and 
puta weight on the capon to press it a little. The broth 
in which the capon was cooked is stirred with gelatine 
(about 1 ounce to a quart), add the necessary salt, and 
as much lemon juice as will give the broth a nice sour 
taste, bring to a boil again and then strain through a 
jelly bag. If it is clear, straining once will answer. 
Then- pour enough of the broth into the form to make a 
layer, let it cool, lay the capon into the pan with the 
breast to the bottom (it can also be cut into slices),. 
pour over it the remaining broth, the next day turn 
out on the dish on which it is to be served, and pour 
around it the following sauce ; One large spoonful of 
thick cream, or the yolks of 4 hard boiled eggs are 
stirred with 2 teaspoonfuls of mustard and the same 
quantity of sugar; then gradually stir with it 4 table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, some 
finely chopped tarragon, a little pepper and salt, and 



290 M.— Jellies and Ices.- 

some of the remaining jelly broth. Stir all of this well 
together, pour around the capon and decorate with 
capers. 

18. Spring Chicken in Jelly. When the chickens are 
prepared as directed for roasting, press in the breast 
bone and then take it out. Then rub with salt, and 
stew with butter and water — covering the pan tightly — 
until tender, take out of the dish and let it cool. In the 
meantime put a layer of jelly broth into the dish and let 
this cool also. The form must not be larger than the 
dish on which the jelly is to be -served. Then lay the 
cold meat on the cooled jelly, and cover this with the 
somewhat cooled jelly broth. The next day turn onto 
the dish and decorate as given under No. 2, or with 
chopped sour jelly. 

19. Chicken Mayonnaise with Jelly. After the chick- 
ens are cleaned, stew them in butter, bouillon and lemon 
juice until tender, set aside to cool, take out the bones 
and cut into pieces, lay into a porcelain dish, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, pour over it tarragon vinegar and 
salad oil, and leave in this marinade for a few hours. 

In the meantime brush a pan with olive oil, fill with 
sour jelly, and after it is cool, turn onto a flat dish. 
Then put the pieces of chicken into thecenter of the dish 
in the shape of a mound ; decorate with crabtails and 
hearts of lettuce after dipping them into the sauce. 

20. Turkey in Jelly. The turkey should be young 
and should be killed 2 — 3 days before using. It is filled 
with a dressing as directed for capon in jelly, No. 17, or 
in the above receipt. Prepare as above. 

21. Ducks in Jelly. The duck must be young and 
prepared the same as for capon in jelly, cut it into 
slices, lay around a long dish, put the jelly on this and 
serve with a Remoulade sauce (Division R, No. 56). 

22. Filled Goose in Jelly. Take a young but not 
too fat goose, which must be killed 2 — 3 days before 
using. After perfectly cleaning it cut off the legs, wings, 
head and negk, which are taken for giblets togetherwith 
the heart and stomach (see D, Nos. 205 — 206). Bone 
the goose and fill it the same as capon in jelly, using the 
liver, or as given for roasted turkey. Calves' feet stock, 



Sour Jellies. 291 

or else gelatine, 1 ounce for each quart, can be taken to 
make the jelly. When using calves' feet put them on the 
fire with the goose barely covered with water, with not 
too much salt, skim carefully, add the spices as given in 
No. 1, also some vinegar, take off all of the fat, cover 
tightly, and cook slowly until tender, which will take 
2%— 3 hours. Then take out of the broth, which should 
be boiled down to about 2%— 3 quarts, clear the broth 
and proceed as directed for capon in jelly. 

The goose can also be prepared without filling, the 
same as a capon ; lay the pieces into the form and pour 
the jelly over it. 

23. Veal in Jelly. Cut 2 pounds of veal into thin 
slices, spread with a nice forcemeat seasoned with 
chopped truffles or mushrooms stewed in butter, roll, 
tie with a strong thread and cook in a rich bouillon 
with 1 glassful of wine, a little salt, pepper and onions 
until tender, then take out of the broth. Take the fat 
off the broth, dissolve about % ounce of gelatine in 
water and % ounce of extract of beef for each 1 quart of 
broth, add the necessary salt, and bring to a boil with 
some lemon juice. Clear with the beaten whites of 2 — 3 
eggs, as given under No. 4, and pour through aeieve. 
After removing the thread from the roulades, lay them 
into a deep dish, pour the lukewarm jelly over them and 
when serving, turn them onto an appropriate dish. A 
large roll can be made of a boned calves' breast spread 
with forcemeat. It is improved by the addition of 
truffles, eggs, tongue, cucumbers and pork fat slices, 
also anchovies, pistachios, capers, etc., before rolling; 
then stew until tender. Press between two slabs over 
night, cut into slices, arrange in a mould in the form of 
a wreath, cover with jelly and when cold turn out of the 
mould. Put endives or lettuce dressed with a mayon- 
naise sauce into the center of the jelly border and serve 
the mayonnaise separately. 

Nos. 10, 13, 17, 18, 20 and 23 can be used for mak- 
ing sour jellies for invalids, but they should not be 
served with rich sauces. 



292 M.— Jellies and Ices. 

II: SWEET CLEAR JELLIES. 

Note. — It may be well to repeat here that when 
jellies cannot be placed upon ice in the Summer, they 
should be prepared the day before. Directions for color- 
ing and ornamenting jellies are given under No. 3 of 
this Division. 

24. Wine Jellies made with Calves' Feet. For 4 

quarts of stock take 12 large calves' feet and cook as 
directed in No. 1. Then put on the stove with 1% 
pounds of sugar, % ounce of stick cinnamon (if cinna- 
mon is not liked it can be omitted),, the juice of 12 and 
the peel of 3 lemons, add the whites of 6—8 eggs beaten 
on the stove until watery, and proceed as given under 
No. 1. Serve the jellies in glasses or in moulds, or turn 
them out of the mould, which has first been spread with 
almond oil. For 30— 36 persons. 

Remark.— For 1 bottle of wine take 4 calves' feet ; for Invalids use only 2, 
because the jelly must be milder. All sweet jellies must not" be made too thick,- 
the lighter the better; but they should be thick enough so that they will not 
break when turned out of the mould. __ 

25. Wine Jelly made with Gelatine. Take 1- quart 
of white wine, % pound of sugar, the juice of 2 lemons 
and the yellow rind of half a lemon, put into wine for a 
while to draw, and about an ounce of white or red 
gelatine. 

Soak the gelatine in 1 small cupful of water or wine, 
dissolve the sugar in thewineand put the juice of the 
lemons and the sugar into an enameled vessel with the 
dissolved gelatine, cover and let it come to a boil. 
Then strain it through muslin, put into a dish, s>nd set 
aside in a cool place. This jelly can be turned >ut of 
the dish if wished. 

26. Wine Jelly of Gelatine in Jelly Dishes. Take 
1 quart of white wine, % pound of sugar and the peeled 
rind of a lemon, which should be left in the wine for a 
while. In the Summer take about 1 ounce of gelatine, 
in the Winter a little less. The gelatine is dissolved in 
a cupful of water and strained through muslin into a 
jelly dish. 

Sometimes the wine jelly will not be quite clear and 
transparent, particularly if the gelatine was not quite 



Sweet Clear Jellies. 293 

perfect. In this case it will be best' to only put about 
an inch deep of the jelly into the jelly dish, put the rest 
Of the jelly into a large vessel, 'surround it with ice 
and beat until it is thick and bright. This frosting is 
then put onto the jelly and set aside in the chest until 
wanted. 

27. Wine Jelly. Cook a white wine jelly as directed 
in the above receipt and set aside to cool. Then boil 5 
ounces of washed rice in water until tender, add 1 small 
cupful of white wine, 2% ounces of sugar, a little salt, 
lemon peel and juice, also 2 cakes of dissolved gelatine, 
let the rice boil until the water has all boiled away, and 
then spread on a flat dish to cool. After the wine jelly 
and rice have cooled, put a layer of the jelly into the 
mould, then with a spoon make dumplings of the rice 
and put these on the jelly side by side. Fill these into 
the dish in layers, having-the last layer of wine jelly. 
Turn out of the mould and dot with candied orange 
peel. 

28. Fruit Jelly with Cherry=, Raspberry- or Currant 
Syrup and Gelatine. Dissolve some gelatine in not quite 
1 pint of water, strain through muslin and add enough 
white wine so that with the fruit syrup you will have 
nearly 1 quart. The color must be a pretty red. 2 
heaping tea spoonfuls of sugar will be found to be about 
right, but the sugar should be added according to the 
acidity of the juice; sometimes the sugar can be omit- 
ted. Heat the juice, then pour through muslin into a 
dry mould (~*ee No. 2), and before serving turn out of 
the mould. 

29. Wine Jelly with Eggs, or "Eggs in the Nest". 

% quart of milk; % ounce of gelatine (white), 2 ounces 
of grated sweet almonds, a few bitter ones, vanilla and 
sugar according to taste. 

The gelatine is dissolved in 1 small cupful of water, 
and cooked untildear, then strained through muslin 
and set in a warm place. When this is done, boil % of a 
quart of milk (cream is better) with the almonds, sugar, 
vanilla and pour into a large mould to cool. Then stir 
the eggs in the warm gelatine and pour into the egg 
shells. For this purpose the eggs must be opejiejLat^ 
thelaEge-ead. but the opening should be only large 



294 M.— Jellies and Ices. 

enough to permit emptying the shell without breaking 
it; put the pointed end of the egg into salt. The boiled 
blanc-manger, "WM'dr can be'divided" into three parts 
and colored red with cochineal, brown with chocolate 
and green with spinach juice, is poured into the egg 
shells through a funnel and set aside LU liopl. 

In the-Tirsantime make a jefly"of ITbottle of wine 
{% quart) with 1 ounce of gelatine dissolved in 1 small 
cupful of water, 6 ounces of sugar and the juice of 
2 lemons with the grated peel, pour into a jelly-ring and 
let it cool. When it is to be served turn the jelly into a 
round dish, peel the eggs and put them into the center 
of the ring. 

\ A prettier way is to make a nest of sugared strings,, 
Boil 1 pound of sugar with 1 cupful of water until the 
sugar when dropped into cold water will form into little 
balls. Then put. the sugar syrup into a dish of hot 
water to keep it warm, brush a round mould with 
almond oil and fill the syrup into the form with a fork, 
spinning it out in threads to cover the bottom and 
sides of the mould. When the sugar is cold it can be 
taken out of the form in the shape of a nest. 

Another way is to make a nest of chestnuts for the 
eggs. Boil 1 pound of scalded and peeled chestnuts 
until tender, with the addition of 1 cupful of cream and 
a little vanilla, and strain. Mix the almonds with a 
thick sugar syrup, butter a smooth mould, line it with 
fine paper and press in the chestnut mass evenly about 
% inch thick. After it is cold turn- out of the mould, 
take off the paper, let the nest cool and pour over all a 
chocolate icing. 

30. Ribbon Jelly. Prepare a blanc-manger as in 
the above receipt, also a fruit jelly as in No. 28. Fill 
into a form in layers, letting each layer cool before the 
other is put on. The best way is to put the mould on 
chopped ice and keep the jelly warm on the hearth. 

31. Lemon Jelly. This is made of 1 pint of calves' 
, feet s'tock as given under No. 1, 1 quart of white wine, 

10 ounces of sugar, a little cinnamon, a few cloves, the 
juice of 4 and the peel of 2 lemons, a little saffron about 
the size of a pea, and the whites of 4 eggs prepared as 
directed under No. 25. The jelly is decorated with can- 
died lemon slices. 



Sweet Clear Jellies. 295 

Instead of calves' feet stock, 1 ounce of gelatine can 
be used to prepare this the same as wine jelly. 

32. Punch Jelly. 1 ounce of gelatine is dissolved 
in 1 cupful of water (see No. 1), 1 pound of sugar is 
brought to a boil with the grated rind of a lemon, 
% quart of wine, the juice of 6 lemons and the beaten 
white of an egg, then take the dish from the stove, set 
where it is warm and as" soon as it is clear pour through 
flannel or muslin. Then stir through it 1 pint of rum 
and pour the jelly into a glass dish and set aside to 
cool, or put into any form desired if wanted to turn out 
of the dish. 

33. French Liquor Jelly. 1 ounce of gelatine, %' 
quart' of water, % peund of sugar, 1 lemon, 2—3 small 
glassfuls of arrac. 

Dissolve the gelatine as described under No. 1, mix 
with the water, beat the whites of 2 eggs with the crushed 
shells, pour in the cooled gelatine and beat. Then add 
the sugar and put the mass on the fire. When it begins 
to boil add the juice of a lemon, let it boil for a few 
moments, strain through muslin, then add the arrac, 
rum, or any desired liquor, fill into sauce dishes or 
glasses and set in a cold place. 

34. Jelly of all Kinds of Fruit. Make a wine or 
lemon jelly sweeter than usual, pour into a glass dish, 
and to this add fruit of various kinds: strawberries, 
currants, cherries, raspberries, etc., arrange neatly with- 
out the juice and let the jelly cool. Or sweeten the jelly 
as usual and sugar the fruit for a while before using. 

35. Apple Jelly. 1% pounds of sour apples are 
cooked until tender in 1 pint of water, stirred through 
a sieve, and while still warm mix through the pulp 
1 cupful of white wine in which 1% ounces of gelatine 
have been dissolved. Then put in the peel of half a 
lemon, the juice of 2 lemons, 1 pound of sifted sugar and 
a little arrac. Let the mass, of which there will be 
about 2 quarts, come to a boil, stir constantly and put 
into a form which has been spread with olive oil. The 
jelly is stirred often before it is put into the form, and 
before cold turn out of the form, and serve, if liked, with 
a vanilla sauce. 



296 M— Jellies and Ices. 

36. Orange Baskets filled with Jelly. Cut an orange 
in two smoothly in the center with a sharp knife, take 
out the pulp to the skin with a silver spoon. Then cut 
a strip along both sides of the hollow peel of the orange, 
leaving the strips fast at the ends, bend these strips 
upwards to make a handle like on a basket, and catch 
them in the middle with a dainty piece of ribbon tied in 
a bow. 

In the meantime make a wine jelly with the juice of 
the oranges, fill into the baskets and set aside in a cool 
place on a dish. As these baskets hold but little jelly, 
an extra dish of jelly should be handy so that if any of 
the guests wish for more their baskets can be refilled. 

All plain wine wine or fruit jellies are excellent for 
invalids ; Nos. 29, 32 and 33 are particularly nice. 



III. ICES. 



37. General Directions. The preparation of ices is 
not so difficult an affair as it was a number of years 
ago. A freezer of good construction and easy manipu- 
lation is now within the reach of all at a reasonable 
price. The ice should be broken into small pieces, using 
"plenty of salt, packing the ice and salt firmly around 
the freezer. Rock salt is the best for the purpose, but if 
it is not obtainable common salt will do. 

38. Vanilla Ice. The yolks of 16 fresh eggs, 2% 
quarts of fresh cream, % pound of sugar and vanilla, 
and keep on the stove, constantly stirring, until just 
before it commences to boil. Then pour into a deep 
dish, and stir until no longer warm, so that no crust 
will form.. After it is cold put into the freezer and finish. 

It is best" to bring the cream to a boil in a double 
boiler so as not to scorch it. 

39. Quince Ice. The quinces are peeled and cooked 
in water with a few pieces of cinnamon until tender, 
then pressed through a sieve, mix with sugar and then 
put into a freezer. To every pound Of strained quinces 
take % pound of sugar. 



Ices. 297 

40. Orange Ice. Dissolve % pound of sugar with 1 
cupful of water, the rind of an orange grated on some 
sugar, the juice of 8 oranges and 2 lemons, % bottle 
of Malaga, % ounce of gelatine and 1 cupful of wine. 

41. Punch Ice. 1 quart of water, 1 quart of wine,- 
1 pound of sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, the peel of a lemon 

f rated on sugar, the juice of 4 lemons, and the yolks of 
2 eggs. Stir this constantly until it commences to 
boil, then pour quickly into a deep dish. When it is 
freezing pour in gradually 4 cupfuls of arrac. 

42. Raspberry Ice. The juice of 2 pounds of rasp- 
berries, % pound of sugar dissolved in 1 pint of white 
wine, and a few pieces of cinnamon. Mix well together 
and let it freeze. 

43. Frozen Westphalian Pudding. Boil 1 pint of 
milk togetherwith 6 ounces of sugar, flavor with vanilla, 
and stir into it 8 whole or the yolks of 6 eggs with some 
cold milk and mix through the milk on the stove until 
thick. Let it cool, pour through a sieve and freeze.. 
Then gradually stir in % quart of whipped cream, sugar 
according to taste and 1 ounce of brown bread ("pum- 
pernickel"), 2 — 2% ounces of pounded macaroons with a 
few bitter ones, a little Marascino and stir until quite 
thick, fill into a pudding mould which can be covered 
tightly and bury in cracked ice with plenty of salt, and 
set aside in the cellar for 2 — 3 hours. When serving dip 
the mould into hot water, turn the pudding on a dish 
and surround with any kind of small cakes. 

44. Baked Ice. Whip the whites of 6 eggs to a stiff 
froth, mix with it 6 ounces of sugar, and spread half of 
this into a deep porcelain dish. Bake in a warm oven 
to a nice yellow color, and let it cool. Then make a 
vanilla ice as directed in one of the preceding receipts, 
fill into the mould and pour the remaining frosting on 
top of this, sprinkle thickly with powdered sugar, hold 
a hot shovel over the sugar so as to form a crust. 
Decorate the edge of the pudding with preserved fruits 
and serve. 

45. Fruit Ice Pudding. Make a vanilla ice as 
directed in No. 38, put into a round mould, when cool 
put in some fruit — without the juice — cherries, apricots, 



298 M.— Jellies and Ices. 

strawberries, etc., put the fruit inside of the pudding so 
that when it is turned out of the mould it cannot be 
seen, cover the mould "tightly and set in ice. Whipped 
cream with sugar and vanilly is also set in a cool place. 
When it is, to be served di|>the mould into hot water, 
turn out of the n ouki a;id pcu. the cream over it. 

46. Nesselrod Ice Pudding. Carefully peel 1 pound 
of chestnuts, cook in 1 pint of milk un^il tender, mash 
them, mix with % pound of sugar, a little vanilla, the 
yolks of 3 eggs, and 1% quarts of cream. Stir on a slow 
fire until thick, then strain through a hair sieve, whip 
until cold and fill into a freezer. Let the cream freeze 
and then mix in 1 glassful of Marascino, % pound of 
scalded raisins, % pound of currants, 2 ounces of finely 
cut citron, fill into a mould and bury in ice for 2 hours. 
When ready to serve turn out of the mould, and serve 
this pudding with whipped cream as directed for fruit 
pudding. % 

Ices should not be served to invalids unless with the 
physician's consent. 



N— Various Cold Sweet Dishes, 

SUCH AS 

Puddings, Blanc= manges, Whipped Cream, 

Fruit Sauces, and Wine=, Milk- 

and Fruit Ices. 



1. General Directions. Clean utensils are abso- 
lutely essential ; the best kinds are deep enameled or tin 
kettles. 

When finely grated almonds are required they should 
be prepared on an almond grater or pounded in a 
mortar. 

As creams are apt to curdle very easily the follow- 
ing hints should be regarded: They should be whipped 
at the start but as soon as they become warm the beat- 
ing should become more rapid and continue without 
interruption until just before they commence to boil, 
but they should not boil unless plenty of flour has been 
mixed with the eggs. Then put them into a tureen or 
deep porcelain dish and whip for a little while longer 
until cool. 

Before jellies, puddings, etc., are held in hot water 
to loosen them from the mould, press thefingers around 
the edges, by which means you can easily determine 
whether it is necessary to warm the mould. 

The jellies should never be dissolved in milk, but 
always.in water or wine, much less can they be boiled in 
milk without curdling. In order to prevent curdling 
the jellies should be added to the cooled mass, either 
beating or stirring them, the milk should not be boiled 



300 Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

with wine, the latter may be added cold at last and if 
the mass is not quite cool stir or beat it. If this pre- 
caution is not heeded the creams, etc., will be sure to 
curdle. 

For dishes where the egg yolks are added at last, 
these should be stirred with a little cold water-^a table- 
spoonful to each egg yolk — take the kettle from the Are, 
stir some of the boiling liquid to the egg yolks, grad- 
ually adding more, pour this to the cooked mass, stir- 
ring briskly and proceed as directed. 

To prevent a skin from forming over the cream, stir 
them occasionally until they are cool. Let them stand 
1 — 2 hours before using, then stir them once more and 
fill them into glasses or cream dishes as the case 
may be. 

Before turning creams, etc., out of the moulds, it is 
particularly necessary to let them cool. The mould 
should either be lined with almond oil, or else, when 
directed, rinse in cold water or leave them dry. 

As noted for the preparation of puddings or souffles, 
a pinch of salt should be taken when making creams. 

2. Ornamentation of Creams. Creams can be orna- 
mented with candied fruits cut into very thin slices, red 
or white "kisses", or with dots of cranberry- or black 
currant jelly, or with appropriate flower leaves. Thick 
sweet cream beaten to a stiff froth and mixed with the 
addition of sugar and a dash of arrac, then scooped 
with a teaspoon, makes a very pretty ornament for 
creams. Raspberry-, gooseberry- and other fruit jellies 
can also be user], stirring each heaping tablespoonful 
of the same with 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar 
and the white of 1 egg until it forms a stiff mass, which 
is then used to ornament the cream . 

3. Victoria Pudding. Into a very clean iron kettle 
put 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, put it on the fire, con- 
stantly stirring so that it will not scorch." Then stir 
1 pintof sweet milk with the yolks of 6 eggs, a little salt 
and % pound of sugar into the kettle and just before- 
boiling take from the stove without stopping tha twirl- 
ing, gradually pour into it 1 quart of sweet cream and 
at last 1 tablespoonful of red gelatine boiled in 1 cupful 
of water until clear. If it begins to thicken pour into it 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 301 

1 glassful of Marascino, quickly pour some of it into a 
dry mould, cover with some small crackers or maca- 
roons, pour over these some more of the batter and so 
on, until all is used. % pound of macaroons and half as 
many crackers are sufficient. This puddihg must be 
made quickly ©r else it will be too stiff. The'mould may 
be put into boiling water if necessary, before turning 
out the pudding. 

4. Wine or Lemon Pudding. 1 tablespoonful of 
gelatine is dissolved as described in Division M, No. 1. 
Then take the yolks of 12 eggs with 3 glassfuls of white 
wine and 5 tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little salt, put on 
the stove over a slow fire and whip until it is smooth 
(it must not boil), then take it from the fire, constantly 
whipping it. After it has cooled, stir into it with a 
spoon the juice of 2 lemons and a little grated lemon 
peel, the dissolved gelatine and then slowly add the 
beaten whites of 12 eggs. The pudding can be put into 
a glass pudding dish to cool. 

5. Lemon Pudding. Boil % pound of sugar with 
1 quart of water, leaving 1 cupful of the water to dis- 
solve 3 ounces of rice flour. After the flour has been 
smoothed in the water beat into it the yolks of 6 eggs, 
the grated peel of half a lemon, a little salt and the 
juice of 2 lemons, pour into the boiling Avater, let the 
batter boil until the flour is done, and at last beat in 
the whites of 6 eggs. After the pudding is brought to a 
boil again, put it into a porcelain mould to cool, and 
serve the pudding cold with raspberry juice or tutti- 
frutti, made from preserved fruits. 

6. Rum Pudding. Stir the yolks of 5 eggs to a thick 
froth with % pound of sugar, season with grated lemon 
peel, salt, and the juice of a lemon. Then stir % ounce 
of dissolved and boiled gelatine in a small cupful of 
water to the batter, with a small glassful of rum and 
1 pint of white wine, and at the last the beaten whites 
of five eggs. The batter will then begin to be smooth 
and is then poured into the mould to' set. It is served 
without a sauce. 

7. Sago Pudding. For 10 persons take 5 table- 
spoonfuls of sago, 6 large eggs, 3 ounces of sugar, a 



302 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dibhes. 

little salt, not quite % ounce of gelatine dissolved as 
directed in Division M, No. t, lemon peel and cinnamon. 
The sago is scalded and then cooked slowly with 1 quart 
of milk, lemon peel and pieces of cinnamon until done 
and thick. A\id the yolks of the eggs and a little-milk, 
constantly stirring into the sago, let it come to a boil, 
take from the fire, beat the gelatine into the sago then 
beat into it the beaten whites of the eggs an<' fill into a 
mould. 

After the pudding has cooled turn out of the mould 
and serve with a fruit- or claret sauce. 

8. Chocolate Pudding without Eggs. Boil 1 quart 
of water with a little vanilla, a little salt and 6 ounces 
of sugar with 3 ounces of rice flour dissolved in a little 
water, and 2 ounces of grated chocolate, then put into 
a dry mould to cool. After it has cooled it can be 
turned out -of the mould, and decorated with thick 
beaten cream and small red "kisses" alternately and 
with a ball of whipped cream in the center. 

9. Red Rice Flour Pudding. 1 pint of currant or 
raspberry juice, 1 pint of claret, % pound of rice flour or 
grits and sugar according to taste; wine, juice and 
sugar are boiled, stir into it the rice flour, boil until 
done, but it must not be either too thick nor too thin, 
fill into a mould that has been rinsed with cold water 
and when cooled turn onto a dish. 

A very palatable sauce to this as well as the follow- 
ing pudding is made of whipped cream with vanilla and 
sugar, or use a cold vanilla sauce, or thick cream with 
claret, sugar and a little rum whipped with it. 

Instead of currant or raspberry juices, fresh fruits 
can be used ; also fresh blackberries. Leave the berries 
on a dish so as to extract the juices. Then take the 
juice of 1 quart of berries, 1 pint of claret, 8 — 9 ounces 
of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of potato or rice flour or 
potato sago, and mix with 1 cupful of fresh berries that 
havebeen sugared for a few hours. Proceed as above 
and serve with the same sauce. 

10. Red Cream Pudding. Tor 10—14 persons take 
1 quart of claret, or currant- or cherry juices, mixed 
with water, sugar, 3 ounces of cornstarch, the whites of 
6 — 9 eggs and if liked a small piece of cinnamon. After 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 303 

the juices are brought to a boil, the dissolved corn- 
starch is stirred with it and boiled. Then take the dish 
from the fire, stir through it the beaten whites of the 
eggs, let it come to a boil and pour into a mould ; 
sprinkle with sugar. Turn the pudding out of the 
mould and serve with a vanilla sauce made of the yolks 
of the eggs. 

11. Rice Pudding. For 14 persons take % of a 
pound of rice, % of a pound of sugar, a little salt, 1 pint 
of wine and 4 lemons. 

The rice is scalded and boiled in water until done 
and thick but not stiff, the kernels must not be mushy. 
In the meantime grate the rind of a lemon on some 
sugar, peel the rind of 2 lemons very thinly so that you 
have only the thin yellow outer skin, boil the peel in 
water until soft and cut into thin strips. 

Then boil some sugar and water until clear, put 
the lemon peel slices into the syrup, stir often until they 
are candhd, then take them out and dry them. 

The lemon juice is boiled with the wine and sugar 
and then stirred through the rice, then carefully stir in- 
to it the candied peel, and fill into a dry mould. After 
it is cool turn onto a dish and decorate with preserved 
fruits. 

Serve with a cream or claret sauce, or with straw- 
berry juices. 

12. Rice Pudding with Fruit. For 12 persons take 
% pound of rice, milk, salt, sugar, pieces of cinnamon, 
almonds, wine, lemon, currants and sliced apples. 

Boil the scalded rice in milk, sugar and a few pieces 
of cinnamon until done but not thick. Then cook some 
almonds, cut lengthwise, in a little water until half 
done, add 2 cupfuls of wine, sugar, lemon peel and juice, 
currants and the apple slices, and cook until done, 
thickening the sauce with a little cornstarch. Fill into . 
a mould a layer of rice, then the apples and so on, fin- 
ishing with the rice on the top. 

After the pudding has cooled put it on a dish and 
serve with a wine- or vanilla sauce. 

13. Baden-Baden Pudding. For 10 persons take % 
pound of rice, l A pound of sugar, 1 quart of milk, vanilla. 



304 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

% ounce of gelatine and 1 large cupful of cream whipped 
to a froth. 

The rice is scalded and then boiled in milk, vanilla 
and sugar until thick; add the dissolved gelatine and 
after the rice has cooled add the whipped cream and if 
liked a glassful of Marascino," and fill into a mould 
which has first been rinsed in cold water ; then put the 
pudding on ice. 

14. CoJd Rice Pudding. For 24 persons. Take 1 
pound of rice, 1 pound of sugar, 6 lemons, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of rum or fruit jelly. 

Grate the rind of 2 lemons on the sugar and set 
aside. In the meantime scald 1 pound of rice, cover, 
and then boil it slowly for 1 hour with &% quarts of 
water and the sugar. Then stir into it the grated rind 
and juice of 6 lemons and the rum, pntthe partly cooled 
mass into a mould rinsed with water, in layers, alter- 
nating with a teaspoonful of the fruit jelly, and after it 
has cooled turn onto a dish. For a sauce take cream, 
whip it in a cool place and just before serving stir 
through the cream some vanilla. 

15. Spanish Rice. 1 bottle of white wine, % pound 
of best rice, % pound of sugar with the grated rind of a 
lemon, juice of 2 lemons and 1 large cupful of arrac. 

The rice is washed and scalded, boiled with water 
until done and thick ; the kernels must remain whole. 
When this is done, heat the wine, sugar and lemon juice, 
stir this through the rice, add the arrac and then let 
the rice cool. The rice will thicken while cooling, but it 
must not be stiff. Before serving stir it with a salad 
fork, fill into sauce dishes and garnish with jelly. Serve 
with a boiled cold claret sauce or fruit juice. 

16. Rice Jelly. For 14—16 persons take 1 pound 
of rice, 1 pound of powdered sugar on which has been 
grated the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 2 lemons and 
1 wineglassful of arrac. Scald the rice and boil it in 
4J£ quarts of water, cover and cook for 1% hours unin- 
terruptedly but slowly without stirring. 

In the meantime put the sugar into water, boil until 
clear, pour the rice water into this through a sieve and 
bring to a boil again with the juice of a lemon; then 
take from the fire and mix through the arrac. As this 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 305 

takes some time to cool, it should be prepared the day 
previously. A" good fruit- or claret sauce is served with 
it. A nice way is to serve a sauce of fresh raspberries or 
currant juices (as described in Division R, Nos. 85—86). 
Preserved fruit juices are also good. If the rice jelly is 
wanted with a nice red color mix with it some red fruit 
juice. 

17. Beer Pudding. 1 pint of beer (which must not 
be bitter) , the same quantity of water, 1 small cupful of 
white wine, % pound of sugar and a little lemon extract 
are brought to a boil with not quite 1 ounce of dissolved 
gelatine, and filled into moulds to cool. Serve with 
whipped sweet cream seasoned with vanilla. 

18. Common Sour Milk Pudding. 1 pint of thick, 
sour milk is stirred with 6 ounces of sugar, the juice of 
% and the rind of % lemon, % glassful of rum and about 
% ounce of dissolved gelatine, fill into a mould rinsed 
with water, and just before turning out the pudding 
hold the mould in a pan of hot water so that the pud- 
ding will come out easily. Serve with whipped cream or 
vanilla sauce; some prefer fruit juices. 

19. Pudding with Whipped Cream and flacaroons. 

1 pint of milk, % pound of sugar, 6 yolks of eggs, 
% pound of sweet macaroons, 2 ounces of bitter maca- 
roons, % ounce of gelatine, % pint of whipped sweet 
cream and a little vanilla. 

The milk, sugar "and vanilla are brought to a boil, 
then the yolks ot the eggs are added, and boil again 
until the eggs are done. As soon as it is smooth turn 
into another dish and stir until nearly cool. In the 
meantime dissolve and boil the gelatine until clear and 
stir into the batter until cold . Then stir through it the 
pieces of macaroons. At the last the cream is stirred 
through it. Then put it into a mould to set, after 
which it can easily be turned out. The pudding can be 
served with a tutti-frutti sauce or it can be sent to the 
table without a sauce. 

20. Marbled BIanc=mange. Make a nice blanc- 
mange with cream. Then, in an iron kettle heat some 
sugar until brown, not black, cook with it 3 tablespoon- 
fuls of sweet cream, stir with it % pound of chocolate 
and % of the blanc-mange. First put into the mould 



306 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

some of the white mass, then divide over it some of the, 
brown, then some of the white and so on, until all is 
used. This must be done while the blanc-mange is still 
hot. Let the blanc-mange cool in the mould and then 
turn out onto a dish. 

21. Cup Blanc=mange. For 12 persons take VA 
quart of milk, 2% ounces of grated almonds, 2% ounces 
of cornstarch, 8 ounces of sugar, the whites of 10 eggs, 
and the grated rind of a lemon. Boil the same as 
blanc-mange. Fill into 12 sauce dishes and serve with 
fruit juice. 

22. Whipped Cream. Take good, sweet cream, 
which, in the Summer, must not be more than 24 hours 
old, whip it without sugar and put on the ice. If the 
cream is wanted sweet add a little powdered sugar just 
before using. 

23. Charlotte Russe. For 8 — 10 persons. Take 
1 large cupful of sweet cream, % pound of sugar, the 
yolks of 10 eggs, some vanilla, a little salt, % ounce of 
gelatine and nearly 1 quart of thick sweet cream, which 
is whipped as directed in the above receipt. 

The vanilla is put into the cream and sugar and 
brought to a boil. Let it cool, stir the yolks of the eggs 
into it and then whip it on the stove until it is thick- 
it must not boil — take from the fire and pour into a 
mould. Then the gelatine is stirred into it and whipped 
again, and after it has cooled mix the whipped cream 
through it. Butter a mould, line it with "lady fingers", 
fill with the cream and then put on the ice. When cold 
turn out of the mould, which is best done the day fol- 
lowing. 

Instead of lining the mould with cake before putting 
in the cream, it may be done just before serving. If 
liked, the cake may be spread with apricot marmalade 
and then filled into the mould. 

24. Orange Sauce. For 6 persons take 3 oranges, 
1 lemon, Y± pound of sugar, a little salt, % ounce of 
gelatine and about 1 pint of thick whipped cream, as 
directed in No. 23. 

Grate the rind of an orange on the sugar, mix the 
juice of the 3 oranges, the lemon juice and the gelatine 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 307 

as directed in Division M, No. 1, and bring to a boil in 
a small enameled kettle, take it from the fire and stir 
until nearly cold. Then mix through it the cream, fill 
into a buttered mould and set aside. 

25. Sultan Cream. 1 pint of milk, 6 ounces of 
sugar, 8 eggs, the rind of 1% lemons grated on sugar, 
and a little stick cinnamon. Half of the sugar is put 
into a copper stewpan on a moderate fire, constantly 
stirring until of a chestnut brown, then add cinnamon 
and sugar, let it boil for a few minutes very slowly, 
pour through a sieve and let it cool. <fn the meantime 
grate the rind of a lemon on some sugar, add the yolks 
oftheeggs, also the milk, pour through a sieve again, 
put into a kettle of boiling water or a double kettle, 
and cover with a lid holding some live embers. As soon 
as the custard is set let it cool, beat the whites of the 
eggs to a stiff froth, add to it the sugar with the grated 
lemon, make a ring of the cream around the custard 
and a ball of it in the center, put into the oven a 
moment to color, the cream, or hold over it a hot 
shovel. 

The cream can be eaten warm or cold ; if cold omit 
the frosting and bake into "kisses". 

26. Holland Cream. 1 pint of whitewine (or cider), 

3 ounces of sugar, the yolks of 8 eggs, a little salt and 

the juice of a lemon with the grated rind are cooked 

-over a moderate fire until it is a thick cream, and mixed 

with % ounce of white and red gelatine, half and half, 
and then let them cool. When it begins to set stir 
through it the froth of 5 eggs and 1 pint of whipped 
cream and fill into a glass dish. 

27. Pineapple Cream. Dissolve in 1 small cupful of 
pineapple juice and 1 small cupful of white wine about % 
ounce of half red and half white gelatine, mix this with 
10 tablespoonfuls of finely cut pineapple slices and some 
vanilla, and put this on the ice until it commences to 
set. Then stir through it 1 pint of whipped cream and 
the beaten whites of 2 eggs and fill the cream into a 
buttered mould or a glass dish. Instead of pineapple 
you can take half strawberries and half apricots. 

28. Swiss Cream. A scant pint of milk, the yolks 
of 8 eggs, Yi pound pf sugar, bitter macaroons' and 



308 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

1 pint of thick whipped cream, vanilla, sugar and 3 
tablespoonfuls of rum are whipped as directed in No. 22 
of this division The yolks of the eggs are mixed into 
the milk with a teaspoonful of cornstarch or flour and 
sugar, put on the Are and stirred to a custard as di- 
rected in No. 1, poured quickly into a dish and stirred 
until nearly cold. Then line a dish with bitter maca- 
roons, which must not become soft, fill the custard into 
this and pour over it the whipped cream. 

One-quarter of the cream may be mixed through 
the custard when it is being prepared, and instead of 
taking vanilla, 5 ounces of apricot marmalade may be 
substituted. 

29. Coffee Cream. Whip nearly 1 quart of cream, 
add )i pound of sifted sugar and 1 cupful of coffee 
extract made of 2 ounces of coffee. This is stirred 
together just before wanted for use. 

30. Sour Cherries with Whipped Cream. (A Swiss 

dish.) Sour cherries are stoned and laid into a deep 
dish, cover them with the necessary sugar and put on 
this some whipped cream as directed under No. 22. 

31. Wine Cream. 1 bottle of white wine^ the rind 
of 1 lemon grated on % pound of sugar, 10 fresh eggs, 
the juice of 2 lemons, a neaping tablespoonful of corn- 
starch smoothed in cold water. 

Whip all together in a dish as directed under No. 1 
until just before it boils, then pour into a dish, whip for 
'a few minutes longer, fill the cream into small glass 
dishes and serve the same day that it is made. Serve 
with macaroons or other small cakes. 

32. Lemon Cream with Strawberries or Raspberries. 

Make a cream as directed under No. 31, but use- only 1 
lemon and fill into a glass dish in layers with straw- 
berries or raspberries, which have first been sugared. 
The top layer must be of cream. Decorate with large 
ripe strawberries and serve with biscuits. 

33. Orange Cream. 1 large cupful of white wine, 2 
oranges, 1 lemon, ]i pound of sugar, 6—8 eggs, a little 
salt. The rind of the oranges and lemon are grated on 
sugar, but do not use too much of the orange peel; 
press out the juices, and then beat all on the fire until 



J\.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 309 

it comes to a boil. Pour the cream into a dish, beat 
for a little while longer and then pour into a dish in 
which it is to be served. 

34. Russian Cream. Make a wine cream as directed 
under No. 31, taking 2 heaping tablespoonfuls more of 
sugar, 1 egg" and 1 teaspoonful" of cornstarch. As soon 
as taken from the stove pour into it 1 large cupful of 
arrac, constantly stirring. Then whip every once in a 
while until it is cold. 

35. Vanilla Cream. 1 quart of cream or sweet milk, 
a piece of butter., the yolks of 11 eggs, 1 tablespoonful 
of cornstarch, 3 ounces of sugar, a little vanilla and a 
little salt. 

After the cream and sugar have been.' heated, stir 
the yolks of the eggs, the vanilla and the dissolved corn- 
starch with the milk and whip until just before it boils ; 
pour into a dish, whip for a few minutes longer so that 
there will be no crust on top. 

36. Tutti=Frutti. Into a deep dish lay some pre- 
served cherries, currants, small pieces of pumpkin, apri- 
cots, etc., strew over it some finely cut citron, lay over 
it some sweet biscuits and macaroons soaked with the 
juices of the fruit or some wine. Then boil 1 pint of 
milk with 2 ounces of sugar, a pinch of salt, a little 
vanilla, smooth % ounce of cornstarch in a little milk, 
add to the cornstarch the yolks of 4 eggs, and pour this 
into the boiling milk, constantly stirring. Then beat in 
the whites of 4 eggs. The boiling custard is poured 
over the fruit, smooth the top and pour over it the 
froth of the eggs, smooth the top also, sprinkle ,over it 
a little sugar, then hold over it a hot shovel, to make a 
thin crust, but not so that it will turn yellow. A better 
way is to set the dish into a hot oven for a few minutes 
so that the froth will become done. 

37. Almond Cream. 1% quarts of fresh milk, % 
pound of grated almonds, 3 ounces of sugar, the yolks 
of 8—10 fresh eggs, vanilla or lemon peel, a little salt 
and 2 tablespoonfuls of cornstarch smoothed in milk. 

Let it come to a boil, stirring constantly, pour the 
cream into a mould, stir until it is almost cold and 
then serve. 



310 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. '"> 

38. Chocolate Cream. -% pound of chocolate, 1 
quart of milk, sugar to taste, the yolks of 10 eggs, 
vanilla and 1 tablespoonful of cornstarch, also a little 
salt. 

Let the chocolate melt on the fire in a little water 
and boil slowly with the milk and sugar for 5 minutes. 
Then stir the yolks of eggs and cornstarch with some of 
the milk, add this to the chocolate milk, constantly 
stirring, pour it into the boiling milk, take the pan 
from the fire, keeping up the stirring, and serve the 
cream when cold. 

39. Chocolate Cream without Eggs. 1 quart of milk, 
3 ounces of bitter chocolate and 6 ounces of sugar, or 4 
ounces of sweet chocolate and about 5 ounces of sugar, 
vanilla to taste and 1 tablespoonful of cornstarch. Let 
the chocolate dissolve on the stove in a little water and 
boil it with milk, sugar and vanilla. In the meantime 
dissolve the cornstarch in a little water, and before 
adding it to the boiling chocolate - milk stir until it 
comes to a boil, and serve after the cream is cold. This 
is a very nice cream when eggs are scarce. 

40. Macaroon Cream with Almonds. About 1 quart 
of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 8 grated macaroons, 3 
ounces of sugar, a little salt and 2 ounces of shelled and 
finely chopped almonds. 

The milk is slowly brought to a boil with 1 ounce of 
sugar, lemon peel and a piece of cinnamon, then take 
out the spices, stir in the grated macaroons .and boil 
for a few minutes. Add the yolks of the eggs after they 
have been stirred with a little, milk, let the cream come 
to a boil once more, constantly stirring, because if not 
stirred it will remain thin, and then take from the fire. 
After it has cooled, mix the almonds with the sugar, 
strew them on the top, and brown the top by holding 
over it a red-hot shovel. 

41. Rice Flour Pudding. 1 quart of. milk, % pound 
of ground rice, 2 ounces of sugar, 4 eggs, a little salt, 
about 1 ounce of grated almonds, a little piece of cinna- 
mon and lemon peel, or a few drops of orangeflower 
water. 

Milk, almonds, sugar and spices are put on the fire, 
and then stir the rice flour with some of the milk and a 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 311 

little salt, pour into the boiling milk, constantly stir- 
ring, and boil slowly for 10 minutes ; it must not be too 
soft. Then stir the yolks of the eggs with a little milk 
and add to the cooked rice. Let it boil until the eggs 
are done, stir through it the beaten whites of the eggs 
and pour this into a dish. 

A sauce can be served with it as with a blanc-mange. 
Another way is to put some milk and 2 ounces of cur- 
rants on the stove, omitting the almonds, and instead 
of the above mentioned spices boil a little cinnamon in 
the milk. If you wish to make this in a hurry, beat the 
whole eggs with 1 tablespoonful of water, and after tak- 
ing the kettle from the fire stir this into it. 

42. Snowball with Vanilla Sauce. No. 1. 1 quart 
of milk, 8—10 eggs, 3 ounces of sugar, 1 cupful of 
almonds, a little vanilla, a few pieces of cinnamon and 
a pinch of salt. 

The almonds are pounded or grated finely and 
brought slowly to a boil with milk, sugar and spices. 
Beat the whites of the eggs to a froth and mix with the 
sugar. Put on a flat dish and shape it into a mound, 
slide it onto the boiling milk and cover until the froth 
is done, which will take but a few minutes. Carefully ■ 
take out with a large flat spoon, put into a deep dish, 
stir the-yolks of the eggs with cold milk which must be 
stirred for a few minutes before it is filled around the 
snowball, being careful that the snowball remains white. 

43. Snowball. No. 2. After beating the whites to a 
stiff froth, take a spoon and make small balls, lay into 
the boiled milk as directed in the above receipt, let it 
come to a boil, keeping the kettle covered, then lay 
them into a dish and cook the remaining froth in the 
same manner until all are done. Make a sauce as di- 
rected in the above receipt, put a layer of the balls into 
a dish, pour some of the sauce over this, then put in 
some more balls, and so on until all are used and the 
balls have formed a moundlike pile, pouring the sauce 
over all. Sprinkle with pounded macaroons or sugar 
and cinnamon. 

44. German Blanomange. Boil 1% pints of milk 
with % pound of sugar, a little vanilla or lemon peel and 
a pinch of salt ; stir with it 3 ounces of cornstarch dis- 



312 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

solvecfin milk until it bubbles/ Stir the beaten whites 
of 10 eggs through it, fill the pudding into a mould 
which has been rinsed with a little milk, and let it cool. 
After the pudding has been turned out of the mould, 
pour over it a sauce made of the yolks of 10 eggs, 10 
tablespoonfuls of white wine and 10 tablespoonfuls of 
sugar syrup and a little salt, bring to a boil, stir for a 
few minutes and put where it will cool. 

45. Orange Marmalade. After the oranges are 
peeled, cut them into small pieces and lay them length- 
wise into a deep dish. Sprinkle with plenty of sugar, 
pour French white Avine over them and serve instead of 
a cream. 

Ripe strawberries laid around the edge make the 
dish look very pretty. 

46. Strawberries and Oranges as Dessert. Very 
ripe strawberries are laid into a deep dish and sprinkled 
with sugar, small pieces of oranges are put over, this 
and the edge decorated with orange slices. 

47. Cold Apple Cream. 10 large baked apples, % 
pound of sugar, the whites of 3 fresh eggs, juice and 
rind of a lemon, or vanilla, and if liked 2 tablespoonfuls 
of arrac. 

The apples are pared and the core taken out, put 
through a sieve, and whip for % of an hour with the 
beaten whites of the eggs, sugar, vanilla and lemon. All 
ingredients are put with this and whipped for % hour 
longer and then served. 

48. Fine Apple Pudding. Pare and thinly slice 20 
apples, slice % pound of citron into small pieces "and 
cook with % pound of sugar and 1 bottle of white wine 
until done, then stir a good % ounce of dissolved gela- 
tine through it and fill into a glass dish and let it cool. 
It is served without a sauce, but whipped cream 
seasoned with vanilla and sugar is passed with it. 

49. Cherry Cream. Take 3 pounds of nice ripe 
cherries, % — % pound of sugar, 6 eggs, lemon peel, cinna- 
mon and 4 cloves. 

The cherries are stoned, and % of the stones are 
pounded, and boiled for % — % hour with a little water, 
cloves and a few pieces of cinnamon, and then poured 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes, 313 

through a sieve. The strained juice is cooked with a 
glassful of white wine and the sugar on which the lemon 
.rind was grated, Add the cherries to this, cook until 
done, put through a sieve and then bring the marma- 
lade to a boil, being careful to stir. Then rub a table- 
spoonful of dissolved cornstarch into this, let it cook, 
take from the fire, stir through it the yolks of the eggs 
as directed under 1, also the beaten whites of the eggs. 
The cream is filled into a glass dish, sprinkle over 
the top some pounded bitter macaroons. 

50. Gooseberry Cream. 2 pounds of ripe goose- 
berries, 1 pound of sugar, 6 eggs, 1 glassful of wine and 
a little cinnamon. The gooseberries are cleaned,- and 
cooked in water until done and then stir them through 
a sieve. Then cook some sugar and wine, add to it the 
marmalade and a little cinnamon and proceed as given 
in the above receipt. 

51. Gooseberry Sauce. 1 quart of green goose- 
berries are cleaned and cooked in 1 quart of water, then 
pour off the water, pass the berries through a sieve and 
sweeten to taste. Then put the marmalade on the fire 
and add to it % pound of rice flour stirred with the 
juice of the gooseberries, boil for a few minutes, con- 
stantly stirring, and then pour the sauce into a mould 
which has first been rinsed with water. Serve cream 
with it. 

52. Strawberry Cream. 2 pounds of ripe straw- 
berries, % — % pound of sugar, the whites of 6 eggs and 
1 glassful of claret. 

The strawberries are put into a sieve, pour water 
over them, drain and press them through the sieve. 
Then cook the wine with the sugar, add to this the 
strawberries, bring to a boil, take them from the fire 
and add the beaten whites of the eggs.- 

After the cream is finished and just before serving, 
- decorate the cream with nice ripe strawberries. 

A prettier way is to add % ounce of red gelatine to 
the strawberries, add the sugar and stir all together 
until it commences to get thick. Then stir through it 
1 large cupful of thick whipped cream, fill the cream 
into a mould and decorate as directed in the forepart of 
this receipt. 



314 N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 

53. Sago and Currant Cream. Take % pound of 
currants freed from the stem, 2—3 pounds of sugar, 
2 ounces of sago, the whites of 6 eggs, and a few pieces 
of cinnamon. The currants are sprinkled with the 
sugar, cinnamon and sago in layers, cover and cook 
slowly for % hour, shaking the kettle once in a while. 
Then carefully mix through it the cream so as not to 
crush the berries, and serve the cream. 

54. Raspberry and Currant Cream served in small 
Dishes. 1 pint of raspberry- and currant juice, half and 
half, 10 eggs. Sweeten the juice according to its acidity; 
to fresh juices add %—% pound, to cooked juices add 
whatever sugar is necessary. Juice, sugar and yolks of 
eggs are beaten together on the stove until it conies to 
a boil/ take the kettle from the stove, whip for a little 
while longer and then mix through it the beaten whites 
of the eggs. 

If this pudding is to be filled into small glasses, put 
each glass on a small plate and serve with a few bitter 
macaroons or small biscuits. 

55. Raspberry Cream filled into Glasses. The whites 
of 5 eggs are whipped to a stiff froth, mix with 3 table- 
spoonfuls of raspberry jelly and 3 tablespoonfuls of 
sugar. Instead of the raspberries, 5 tablespoonfuls of 
preserved cranberries, which have first been stirred 
through a sieve can be taken ; when this is used the 
cream s has a tart flavor. Make a thick vanilla sauce of 
the yolks of the eggs and put a tablespoonful in each 
glass. 

56. Strawberry Cream in Glasses. 1 quart of ripe, 
wild strawberries, not quite 1 pint of thick sweet cream, 
% pound of sugar, a trifle of grated lemon peel or cin- 
namon. The berries are stirred with the cream, then 
passed through a sieve, seasoned with sugar and the 
spices, whipped and filled into the glasses. 

f 57. Arrac Cream. 1 quart of thick sour cream, % 
to a cupful of arrac or Madeira, sweeten to taste. Whip 
and fill into glasses. 

58. Cream of Roses. Take % ounce of red gelatine 
and dissolve it in a cupful of white wine, and mix with 
it 1 cupful of cherry juice, the rind of % and the juice of 



N.— Various Cold Sweet Dishes. 315 

* 

2 lemons, about 2 ounces of sugar and stir until it com- 
mences to thicken, then mix with it the beaten whites 
of 5 eggs and fill into glasses. 

59. Whipped Cream filled into Glasses. Take the 
whites of fresh eggs and whip with sugar to a stiff froth ; 
for each white take 1 tablespoonful of thick sweet cream 
beaten with sugar and vanilla or grated lemon peel. 
Whip each of these separately and then mix together. 

60. Whipped Cream (Sillabub) filled into Glasses. 

1 quart of thick sweet cream, % pound of sugar upon 
which is grated the rind of 1 lemon, add the juice of 2 
lemons and 3 glassfuls of French white wine. AH is 
mixed together and whipped in a cool place. As soon 
as it turns to a cream on the surface, fill into glasses 
and continue the whipping until all is creamed. All the 
ingredients can be mixed together and put on the ice 
some hours before whipping. 

61. Strawberries with Whipped Cream. Take nice 
ripe berries; those that are dirty are put into a. colander 
and fresh water is poured over them, clean them care- 
fully, lay them on a glass dish, sprinkle with powdered 
sugar and put over this some sweet whipped cream . In 
the summer this is a very refreshing dish. 

62. Ambrosia. Peel a small pineapple, cut it into 
slices, divide 3—4 oranges into pieces, sugar well and 
set the dish in a cool place. Then grate a large cocoa- 
nut, put the fruit into a glass dish in layers, sprinkle 
each piece with cocoanut and pour over all a glassful of 
Madeira. 

Sweet puddings should be served to invalids with 
caution, and then the simplest kinds only; when per- 
mitted Nos. 9, 16, 22, 26, 27, 31, 32, 46, 47, 52, 53, 
54, 55, 56, 59, 60 and 61 can be recommended. 



0. — Dumplings. 



I. DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS AND FRICASSEES. 



1. Directions for preparing Dumplings. The bread 
for dumplings must not be fresh nor soaked in warm 
water, because, in both cases, the bread will become 
sticky. Lay the bread into cold water for a few mo- 
ments, put it into a cloth, gently press out the water 
and then rub it. "Stale grated wheat bread and rolled 
crackers are also used in dumplings. 

For the finest kinds of dumplings, and also for fish 
dumplings, only the white part of the bread is used, the 
crust being cut off. 

Although in every receipt the quantity is given it is 
always best to try a small dumpling to see if £hey are 
right. If needed, a little bread, butter, egg or Water 
can be added. 

Meat dumplings to be served with fricassee and 
soup are either rolled with the hands, the hands being 
kept mjoist by dipping them into cold water, or, better 
still, they are moulded with a tea- or tablespoon, which 
is dipped into the boiling water after each dumpling is 
formed, put them into the boiling, soup and cook for 
10 — 15 minutes. If many dumplings are to be cooked 
it will be found better to mould and lay them on a dish 
so as to put them all into tho soup at once, otherwise 
those put in first will cook for too long atime. If the 
dumplings are made of flour, potatoes or bread, and 
they are dry on the inside after cooking, they are done. 
Meat dumplings are ready Avhen the meat is done. 
Dumplings for fricassees are not cooked in a thick gravy 



Dumplings for Soups and Fricassees. 317 

because this makes them solid, but instead cook them 
in bouillon or salted water. All dumplings must be 
served immediately. 

2. Dumplings for Crab= or Eel Soup. Stir 2 — 3 
tablespoonfuls of crabbutter until soft, add the yolks of 
2 eggs, 1 saucerful of finely chopped fish, or erabmeat 
taken out of the shell, the same quantity of soaked and 
pressed bread, mace, salt and the beaten whites of the 
eggs, stir all well together, form into small round 
dumplings, and boil in the soup for 5 minutes. When 
serving, the crab tails are laid into the tureen, as they 
must not cook. 

3. Fish Dumplings. Take 3 ounces of butter and 
simmer with 1 finely chopped eschalot, then add to it 
while on the stove 3 ounces of grated bread, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of cream, the yolks of 3 and 1 whole egg, stir 
well together and then pour into another pan to cool. 
In the meantime take % pound of raw fish, cleaned and 
boned and freed from skin, and 2 heaping tablespoon- 
fuls of marrow or fresh bacon with salt, chopped fine 
and rubbed in a mortar. Mace, white pepper and finely 
chopped parsley are then stirred with the mass and put 
into a flat pan. The dumplings are formed with a tea- 
spoon, put into the bouillon and cooked for 5 minutes. 

4. Dumplings for Brown Soups. % pound of lean 
pork and % pound of veal without sinews are chopped 
finely together; stir 2 ounces of butter to a cream, add 
the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 ounces of soaked wheat bread, 
salt, lemon peel and mace, then the chopped meat and 
at last the whites of the eggs. Make into small dump- 
lings and cook in the broth until done. They can also 
be rolled in cracker crumbs and lightly browned in 
butter. 

5. Beef Dumplings. Take % pound of beefsteak 
chopped finely, removing all the sinews, add 2 ounces of 
butter stirred to a cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 ounces 
of wheat bread, nutmeg, salt and at last the beaten 
whites of the eggs. The batter should be-soft but must 
be well bound. Form with a spoon and cook in the 
soup for 5 minutes. Instead of the beef, veal may be 
used ; in this case add a little parsley. 



318 0.— Dumplings. 

6. Sweetbread Dumplings for Veal Fricassee or Veal 
Pie. % pound of fresh firm kidney suet, and % pound of 
sweetbreads. Take out the skinny parts, slice and then 
pound together until they cannot b'e distinguished. 
Then add salt, a little pepper and 1 egg and pound 
again, then another egg. Then add, pounding con- 
stantly, as much water as half of an egg shell will hold, 
and as the mass absorbs the water repeat several times. 
Form the dumplings into balls the size of a walnut, 
cook in the broth and put them into the fricassee. 

7. Soup Dumplings of left-over roast or boiled Heat. 

Proceed with these dumplings the same as directed 
under No. 4, take out all of the sinews, chop as finely as 
possible, stir the soaked bread on the fire until it is 
lightly colored, put into a dish, add the ingredients men- 
tioned, using some mace or nutmeg or finely chopped 
parsley, roll into small dumplings and cook in the soup 
for a few minutes. 

8. Sponge Dumplings. Take the whites of 3 eggs 
and beat to a froth, stir the yolks lightly through it 
with a spoon, add 3 teaspoonfuls of fiour and a little 
salt. The batter is put into the boiling soup, cooked 
for a few minutes, turned with, a skimmer, then put into 
a tureen ; divide into small pieces with a knife. 

9. Brain Dumplings. Take 2 calves' brains and 
boil in salted water for a few moments, cool in cold 
water, take off skin and veins, and chop fine. Then 
mix with a finely chopped eschalot, 1 spoonful of 
chopped parsley, some soaked and pressed wheat bread, 
3 eggs, salt and mace to a firm batter, make small 
dumplings and cook in salted water and serve with any 
kind of soup. 

10. Green Dumplings (a Suabian Receipt). A hand- 
ful of parsley, the same quantity of spinach, half as 
much chervil and chives, chop all together and stew in 
butter for a few moments. Then mix with. 2 grated 
rolls, 2 eggs, salt and pepper, form into little balls and 
let them come just to a boil in the finished soup, orthey 
will fall to pieces. These dumplings are very nice in the 
Spring. 



Dumplings for Soups and Fricassees. 319 

11. Cracker Dumplings. Take butter the size of 
half of an ego; and stir to a cream, add 2 whole eggs 
and nutmeg, then add, constantly stirring, 4 heaping 
tablespoonfuls of finely grated crackers. The dumplings 
are cooked in boiling bouillon; let it come to a boil, 
take from the fire, put on the back of the stove for 5 
minutes, keeping the kettle tightly covered. Cooking 
the dumplings too long makes them heavy. 

12. Groat Dumplings. For 8 persons take 2 heap- 
ing tablespoonfuls of groats and 1 small cupful of water 
and milk half and half, and butter the size of a walnut; 
stir on the fire until it no longer adheres to the kettle. 
Then rub a piece of butter the size of a walnut until soft, 
add nutmeg, salt, the yolks of 3 eggs, the cooled groats 
and at last the whites of 2 eggs. Make into small 
dumplings with a teaspoon and cook in the boiling 
soup. 

13. Egg Dumplings. 1 large cupful of meat broth 
or milk is beaten with 4 eggs, adding parsley, nutmeg 
and salt and put into a buttered pan. Put it into 
boiling water until thick, but not hard, mould into 
dumplings and put them into the boiling soup. This 
can be prepared some time before wanted for the soup. 

14. Bread Dumplings. 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of 
butter are creamed, then add the yolks of 2 eggs, nut- 
meg, if wished some finely chopped parsley, % pound of 
soaked bread and the beaten whites of 2 eggs. Form 
into small dumplings with a spoon and cook slowly in 
the soup for 5 minutes. 

15. Marrow Dumplings. For 4—5 persons take 
marrow the size of % of a,n egg, slowly melt and stir 
it. After it has cooled add 5 ounces of grated bread, 1 
large egg, nutmeg, a little salt, stir together until well 
mixed, add enough cold water to make the dumplings 
smooth and light but not enough so that they will fall 
to pieces in cooking. When first making these dump- 
lings it is well to try one and if too firm add a little cold 

water, or if not firm enough a little of the bread. Form 
into small dumplings with a teaspoon, put into the 
boiling soup, cook until they are done and then take 
from the fire. 



320 O.— Dumplings. 

16. Another Marrow Dumpling. % pound or less of 
fresh marrow is cut into small pieces, stir grated wheat 
bread with 3 tablespoonfuls of sour cream and 3 whole 
eggs, add to the marrow with salt, pepper and nutmeg, 
make into a thick batter that can be formed into dump- 
lings with the hands and cook in boiling bouillon., 

17. Ounce Dumplings. 1 ounce of water, 1 ounce of 
flour, 1 ounce of butter are stirred together on the 
stove, cooled, then add the yolks of 2 eggs, the whites 
of 1 egg, some mace, form into balls with a teaspoon 
and cook for 10 minutes'. 

18. Almond Dumplings. 2 tablespoonfuls of butter 
are stirred to a cream, add 2 whole eggs, 2 ounces of 
finely grated sweet almonds, some sugar, and as much 
bread or cracker" crumbs as will make a dough thick 
enough to form dumplings. Sour cream can also be 
added. 

19. Common Soup Dumplings made of Flour. Take 
a piece of butter the size of an egg, stir it to a cream, 
add 1 whole and the yolk of an egg, nutmeg, chopped 
parsley, salt and 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of flour. Stir 
for 5 minutes, form into small dumplings with a tea- 
spoon and cook in the soup for 10 minutes. 

„ 20. Potato Dumplings. A piece of butter the size of 
an egg is stirred to a cream, thei. stir in the yolks of 2 
eggs, 1 saucerful of grated bread, the same quantity of 
cooked and grated potatoes, which must not bewatery, 
lemon peel, nutmeg and salt and at last the beaten 
whites of the eggs. Of this make small balls and cook 
in the soup for 10 minutes. A piece of butter the size of 
an egg,'l egg, some nutmeg, salt and 1 teaspoonful of 
sugar and grated potatoes stirred together also make 
nice dumplings in large quantities. 

21. Egg Froth Dumplings forWine=, Beer= and flilk 
Soups. Beat the whites of the eggs with sugar to a stiff 
froth, mould into dumplings with a spoon, lay them on 
the boiling hot soup, sprinklewith sugar and cinnamon, 
cover tightly and they will be done rapidly. 



Dumplings with Sauce or Fruits. 321 

II. DUMPLINGS TO BE EATEN WITH SAUCE 
OR FRUITS. 

22. Karthusian Dumplings. The receipt for this 
dumpling is given in K, No. 38, as a dumpling to be 
eaten with a fruit compot. 

23. Egyptian Dumpling. 9% ounces of butter rolls, 
M pound of butter, 8 eggs, 2 ounces of finely cut al- 
monds, 1 lemon, milk and 1 pound of prunes. 

Grate the crust of the rolls and soak the crumbs in 
milk. In the meantime rub butter to a cream, add, one 
by one, the eggs, then the almonds, lemon peel, the 
soaked crumbs and the 'grated crusts. After the elapse 
of % hour form into a dumpling and lay it on the 
prunes, which should be cooked % hour before. Let this 
boil for 1 hour in an open kettle and turn after cooking 
about % hour. The dumpling is served with the prunes.< 

24. Fine Wheat Bread Dumplings. No. 1. Melt a 
piece of butter the size of an egg 1 and stir with it the 
yolks of 4 eggs, salt, nutmeg, 2 small spoonfuls of flour, 
% pound of wheat bi*ead without the crust, soaked in 
water and pressed, and at last mix through it the 
beaten whites of the eggs. Put this mass, a spoonful at 
a time, on fruit which has been cooked with plenty of 
sauce until nearly done, cover the dumplings and let 
them cook for % hour or cook them in salted boiling 
water for X hour. 

25. Wheat Bread Dumplings. No. 2. Cut the crust 
from % pound of wheat bread into small pieces, or fry 
in butter or fat until yellow, pour enough' milk on the 
bread so that it will become soft, stir, add 4 spoonfuls 
of flour, 4 eggs, salt, nutmeg, 1 spoonful of melted but- 
ter and the Med crust, stir all together and cook the 
dumplings as directed in the above receipt. 

26. Nice Potato Dumplings. 2 soupplatefuls of 
grated potatoes boiled the day before in their jackets, 
4 bastingspoonfuls of flour, nutmeg, salt, 1 cupful of 

-melted butter or lard, 6 eggs, the whites beaten to a 
froth. Stir all well together and mould into dump- 
lings with a spoon, cook in boiling salted water fo" 
J£ hour. Serve with browned butter or currant juice. 



322 0.— Dumplings. 

27. Potato Dumplings. No. 2. 1 pound of grated 
potatoes, 1 pound of wheat bread, grated, )i pound of 
melted butter, 5 whole eggs, a little salt and nutmeg. 
Mix well together and form into dumplings, which are 
cooked in boiling salted water for % hour. Serve with 
browned butter or cooked fruit. 

28. Large Potato Dumplings. Peel potatoes which 
have been cooked in salted water until nearly done, and 
after they are cold, grate them. Then to 3 parts o! 
potatoes take 1 part of grated wheat bread and fry, 
with the crust cut into small cubes, in butter or fat 
until brown. To each soupplateful of the mixture take 
2 eggs, the whites beaten to a froth, 1 ounce of melted 
butter or good lard, nutmeg if liked, and mix well to- 
gether. Make dumplings the size of the closed hand, 
dust with flour and cook in boiling water until they 
are dry on the inside. Serve with browned butter and 
cooked fruit. 

29. Henneberg Dumplings. Peel and grate nicely 
washed potatoes and pour lukewarm water over them 
until the starch is all removed. Then press, pour over 
it enough boiling milk with a little salt to make a soft 
cjough, to which add the starch that was in the pota- 

. toes when the water was poured over them. Then grate 

.cold boiled potatoes and add somejried bread cut .nto 

cubes, make into large balls and cook in boiling water 

for % hour. Serve with fat roasts, such as goose or 

pork, with plenty of gravy. 

30. Baked Dumplings with Fruit. 2 pounds of flour, 
1 pint of lukewarm milk, 3 eggs, 1 cupful of melted 
butter, 1 ounce of yeast and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 
Stir half of the flour with the milk, salt, eggs and yeast 
and let it raise; then stir the remaining flour, butter 
and sugar to this, make into a dough, beat, and let it 
raise once again. Then form into small balls which is 
most easily done in the following manner: Eoll the 
dough, and with a very small glass make dumplings, 
which are again raised and then fried in melted butter 
for about 10 minutes. 

31. Puff Noodles. ("Dampfnudeln".) The dough 

is made as directed in the above receipt. After they 



. Dumplings with Sauce or Fruits. 323 

hare raised for the third time, put them into a deep 
pan with plenty of butter, pour over them 1 cupful of 
milk, lightly cover and lay a damp cloth over them. 
After about 10 minutes and when the' under side is 
brown, turn and take off the cover and brown the other 
side. They can also be cooked in salted water for % 
hour. Serve with browned butter and fruit. 

32. Yeast Dumplings. Take 1 pound of flour, 3 
ounces of butter (kidney suet can also be used when pre- 
pared as directed in A, No. 17), \ pound of raisins or 
currants, 1 cupful of lukewarm milk, 2—3 eggs, % ounce 
of yeast, and salt. Make into a dough which is beaten 
with a spoon, set it to raise in a warm place, form into 
dumplings with a spoon, and cook in boiling salted 
water. Cover the dumplings and cook for % hour and 
serve with browned butter and fruit. 

33. Baked Middlings Dumplings. 1 pint of milk, % 
pound of middlings, salt and a piece of butter the size of 
an egg are stirred on the stove until the mass no longer 
adheres to the dish. After it has cooled, add 5—6 eggs, 
lemon peel or mace, make into dumplings the size of an 
egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, fry in butter or kidney 
suet and serve with sugar and cinnamon. Can also be 
served alone with a wine- or fruit sauce, or serve with 
cooked fruits with or without a roast. 

34. Apple Dumplings. Take 3 soupplateful of finely 
sliced cooking apples, 2 cupfuls of milk, sugar, lemon 
peel and enough wheat bread to make a nice dough 
(about % pound) adding 5 — 6 eggs, the whites beaten 
to a froth, and a piece of butter the size of an egg. Mix 
all together, make into little dumplings and cook in 
salted water until done. Sprinkle with sugar and serve 
with a wine sauce. 

35. Cherry Dumplings. 1 pound of stoned juicy 
cherries are cooked slowly without water, but with 
sugar, lemon peel and 3 — 4 cloves. After it has cooled, 
stir into it a small piece of butter, 4 eggs and add as 
much grated wheat bread as will keep the dumplings 
compact when cooking. Cook for 5—10 minutes and 
serve with a cream sauce. 



324 0.— Dumplings. 

36. Poppy Seed Dumplings. (A Silesian receipt.) 
For 8 persons % pound of poppy seed is scalded and 
stirred ; the inferior seeds which rise to the surface must 
be carefully taken off, then pour off the water and dry 
the seeds by spreading them on paper or a napkin. 
Then pound very fine with % pound of sugar, put into 
1 quart of boiling milk, add 3 ounces of nicely washed 
currants, the grated rind of % lemon, 8 ounces of sweet 
almonds mixed with a few bitter ones, a little cinnamon 
or vanilla and boil, constantly stirring, for 5 minutes. 
Then put a layer of sliced stale wheat bread (boiled 
noodles can also be used) into a dish, pour the warm 
poppy seed milk over it, a few spoonfuls at a time, then 
bread and poppy seed milk and so on until all is used. 
Serve cold as a dessert. 

37. English Dumplings. Cut % pound of kidney suet 
into very small pieces, mix with % pound of flour, % 

Sound of currants, 1 teaspoonful of salt, a little ginger, 
eggs, a cupful of milk, beat all to a light dough and 
form into flat dumplings. Cook for % Of an hour in hot 
water, sprinkle with sugar and serve with a rum sauce. 

38. Hamburg Dumplings. Stir 3 ounces of butter to 
a cream, add 1 whole egg, also the yolks of 3 eggs, 4 
tablespoonfuls of flour, a little more than 1 ounce of 
finely cut and fried bread, 2 soaked and pressed rolls, 
mix together with salt, nutmeg and chopped parsley, 
and stir through it 3 ounces of chopped smoked pork, 
fillet: Make into large dumplings and cook for 10 
minutes, sprinkle with grated wheat bread and pour 
browned butter over them. 

39. Wheat Bread Dumplings. Take 1% pounds of 
flour, 1% pounds of wheat bread, 3 whole eggs, % pound 
of melted butter and 1% pints of milk mixed with a little 
water. The crust of the bread is cut into small pieces 
and fried in butter or kidney suet; soak the bread in 
the milk and stir with the eggs, butter and salt, then 
add the flour and at last the fried pieces of bread. 
Form into small dumplings with a spoon, cook in 
salted boiling water for % hour and serve with browned 
butter and fruit. 

40. Bread Dumplings with Fruit. The dough is 

made as in the above receipt, adding a little yeast. Let 



Dumplings with Sauce or Fruits. 325 

?.t raise for 1 hour, then pour over the fruit and let it 
cook for 1 hour longer. 



-"&"- 



41. "Pint" Dumplings. Take 1 pint of flour, 1 pint 
of grated wheat bread, 1 pint of whipped eggs, 1 pint of 
milk. Cut the crust of the bread into small pieces and 
fry in butfer, stir the remaining ingredients together, 
put into a kettle with 3—4 ounces of butter and cook 
until it no longer adheres to the sides of the kettle. 
When it has cooled make into dumplings with the 
hands, dust with flour and cook for 10 minutes, cover- 
ing the kettle. Serve with browned butter and fruit. 

42. Giant Dumpling. For 4 persons take 1 pound 
of flour, 2 — 4 eggs, 1 cupful of warmed milk, % ounce of 
yeast, a good sized piece of butter or lard, 1 heaping 
tablespoonful of sugar and a little salt. 

Make a depression in the center of the flour, first 
put in the milk and then the other ingredients, knead 
well together with the hands and put in a warm place 
to raise. After the dough is well risen, knead again, 
put it into a cloth which was first buttered and then 
sprinkled with flour, tie (leaving room for the dumpling 
to raise), put into a dish, let it raise for a while and 
then cook in salted boiling water for 2 hours. Serve 
with brown butter and fruit or with a milk sauce. 

43. Browned Dumplings with baked Fruit. To be 

served after a strong soup. For 3—4 persons. About 
1 pint of milk, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, % 
pound of flour, % pound of stale bread, 2 ounces of clear 
pork fat, 4 eggs and a little salt. 

The flour, milk and butter are stirred together, put 
on the fire and stir until the flour is done, and it no 
longer adheres to the sides of the kettle. Take from the 
fire, pour into a mould and let it cool. Then cut the 
crust of the bread into small pieces, grate the bread, cut 
the pork fat into small cubes, fry, take out the crack- 
lings, and fry the bread crusts in the fat until hard and 
dark brown, stirring a few times. Stir the yolks of the 
eggs through the browned flour, then the remaining 
ingredients and at" last the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Make small dumplings, cook 5 minutes in salted water, 
serve in a hot dish with any kind of fruit, and plenty 
of sauce. • The dumplings, slightly thickened, do not 
become heavy so easily as those made with raw flour. 



326 0. — Dumplings. 

44. Cornmeal Dumplings. Boil some cornmeal as 
for cornmeal soup only making it thicker, let it cool, 
stir with it a few eggs and some flour, make into dump- 
lings and bake in butter or good lard. Serve for tea. 

45. Liver Dumplings. To a calves' liver of moder- 
ate size, which is skinned, pounded and passed through 
a sieve, add a finely chopped piece of pork fat the size of 
an egg, 4 eggs whipped in % cupful of cold water, salt, 
nutmeg and a-little pepper, 3 ounces of finely cut bread 
fried in butter and kidney suet, and if liked a finely 
chopped onion and as much flour as is needed to keep 
the dumplings together. Form into dumplings with a 
spoon and cook in boiling salted water; wetting the 
spoon in the water, so that the dumplings will not stick 
to it. Boil for about 10 minutes, and serve on a hot 
dish with grated bread fried in either butter or kidney 
suet. For a sauce cook butter, salt and water, and 
thicken with a teaspoonful of cornstarch. 

The dumplings are served alone or with sourkrout. 

46. South Germany Liver Dumplings. , Take 1 
pound of calves' liver and prepare as in the above re- 
ceipt, together with about 6 ounces of wheat bread, 1 
handful of flour, 6 eggs, 2 onions fried in butter, parsley, 
majoram, nutmeg, pepper and salt. The finely cut 
bread is put into 1 pint of boiling milk, then the eggs 
are stirred through it with the seasoning, the pounded 
liver and then the flour is mixed through it thoroughly, 
after which proceed as above directed. 

47. Ham Dumplings with Sourkrout. Take the 
remnants of a ham and boil them after they have lain 
in milk for a day. On the following day, for 6 ounces of 
ham, soak 8 rolls, cut into pieces in some bouillon 
(made of extract of beef), cut the ham into very small 
pieces with half as much pork fat, fry the fat until 
brown with a few sliced Onions, mix fat, onions and 
ham with the pressed wheat bread, some eggs, salt, 
chopped parsley and 4 — 5 spoonfuls of flour, and let the 
dough stand for a few hours before making into large 
dumplings, which are turned in flour and boiled in 
salted water until nearly done. 

Dumplings cannot be served to invalids. 



P. — Compots of Fresh and 
Dried Fruits. 



1. General Directions. All kinds of fruits, fresh as 
well as dried, must be cooked in enameled ware, for 
when they are cooked in iron they receive an unpleasant 
taste. 

Dried fruits must be nicely washed. When wash- 
ing prunes, take warm water, change it a number of 
times, rub well between the hands and then rinse in cold 
water. Fresh plums are rubbed in a vtowel before cook- 
ing, apples and pears are peeled and then washed and 
rinsed. 

Another way is to wash dried fruit once, then leave 
it in water over night and the next day put on the stove 
in water and cook. The compot is much nicer when 
cooked in this way and can be prepared in half of the 
time. 

Fresh juicy fruit, such as raspberries7 currants, 
huckleberries or fresh stoned plums, need only a little 
water, just enough to wet the bottom of the kettle; 
they are cooked in their own juices until done; for dried 
fruits plenty of water must be added, cover, put on the 
stove and cook slowly until done. 

The sauce must be neither too thick nor too thin, 
With dried fruits a little cornstarch can be stirred 
through, them but it must not be any thicker than in 
preserved fruits. 

After cooking the fruit it should be placed on a flat 
dish, pour the juice into the boiling liquor, when serving 
form into a mound shape, leaving the edge of the dish 
untouched, put the best appearing fruit on top, being 



328 P. — Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 

careful never to pierce with a fork. The upper layer of 
fruit should be covered with some of the sauce, and add 
the remaining sauce when the dish is sent to the table. 

In cold seasons never send the fruit to the table icy 
cold, but if it has been cooked the day before, always 
slightly warm it. 

Compots intended for the family table can receive 
an addition of 1 — 2 tablespoonfuls of common sago, 
added when the compot is put on the fire. Pearl soup 
noodles can also be added. 

When compots need a flavoring, lemon- or orange 
peel may be used; prepare the latter as directed in 
A, No. 48. 



I. FRESH FRUIT. 

2. Rhubarb Compot. No. 1. Take off the skin, cut 
into small pieces, wash, put on the stove in cold water 
containing a pinch of bi-carbona,te of soda, tp lessen the 
acidity of the plant, and let it come to a boil; put on a 
sieve and then into the sugar, which can be seasoned 
with white wine and vanilla or with a little lemon peel, 
and cook quickly until done. Thicken the compot with 
a little finely grated bread or else after taking out the 
rhubarb cook the sauce with a little sugar, and then 
pour' it over the rhubarb on which bread toasted in 
butter can be placed. 

3. Rhubarb Compot. No. 2. Put the prepared rhu- 
barb on the fire with water and the necessary sugar, let 
it cook until done, and if necessary thicken the sauce 
with some dissolved cornstarch or finely grated bread ; 
serve cold. 

4. Green Gooseberry Compot. Take gooseberries 
when about half grown, pick and wash clean. Then 
bring some water to a boil with sugar and a few pieces 
of cinnamon or vanilla, put some of the berries into this 
and as soon as done take them out of the syrup with a 
skimmer, doing this carefully as they are easily mashed. 
Put in some more berries and continue until all have 



Fresh Fruit. 329 

been cooked. Then boil the syrup as much as is needed 
and pour over the compot. Another way is to put the 
berries on the fire in cold water, and when nearly boil- 
ing pour off the water and proceed as above; in this 
way a great deal of the acid is taken out of the berries. 
The gooseberries can also be used in sweet dishes by 
taking the juice and whipping it to a cream on the Are 
with 1 glassful of white wine and the yolks of 4 eggs, 
mixing through it the beaten whites of the eggs. Then 
carefully stir the berries into the cream, garnish the 
dish with preserved fruits and serve, if wished with cream 
seasoned with vanilla. 

5. Compot of ripe Gooseberries. After the gooseber- 
ries have been cleaned, put them into boiling water, and 
after a few minutes when they are done put them on 
a colander. Then stir them through the colander and 
put on the fire with sugar and cinnamon or vanilla., stir- 
ring frequently, bring to a boil, and thicken as wished 
with either grated bread or cornstarch, and when cold 
cover with whipped cream before serving. 

6. Compot of Strawberries and Apples. If good 
apples can be obtained during the strawberry season, 

firepare. them as usual, divide into 8 pieces and wash, 
n the meantime bring the water to a boil with sugar 
and wine or lemon juice, add the apples and cook until 
done. Then put in plenty of strawberries with a little 
more sugar, cook for a short time longer and after it 
has been stirred carefully, send the compot to the table. 

7. Wild Strawberries for Dessert. Rinse the berries 
in water 1 hour before wanted, sprinkle plentifully with 
powdered sugar, pour a little water over them, cover 
and set aside. 

8. Cherry Compot. Sour as well as sweet cherries 
may be used. Take off the stems, and stone them. Then 
pound 4—6 cherry pits, cook them for%— % hour in a 
little' water, or water and wine, whole cinnamon and a 
few cloves, pour on a sieve, put the strained juice on the 
fire with the sugar (5 ounces to sour cherries and 2% 
ounces to sweet cherries), and when it boils throw in the 
fruit. Tf the cherries are sweet cook slowly for % hour, 
if they are sour let them simmer a few minutes longer, 



330 P. — Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 

st ring occasionally. After they are done take them 
out of the juice with a skimmer, let the juice cook to a 
syrnp and serve with the cherries. 

9. Currant Compot. Take from the stems but do 
not wash them, sprinkle with sugar, in layers, and do 
not cook longer than until the berries are done, pour- 
ing the juice over the berries, then take them out with 
the skimmer. Cook the syrup for a little while and 
serve cold with the compot. 

10. Raspberry Compot. Pick over the berries and 
slowly and carefully cook them the same as currants, as 
they must be served neatly. 

11. Huckleberry Compot. The berries a re cleaned 
and washed and put on a colander, and after they are 
drained, cook with sugar and cinnamon until done, as 
they lose too much juice when cooked longer. Then 
either lay a roll into the bottom of the dish and pour 
the juice over this, or take the berries but of the dish, let 
the juice cook a little while longer and when serving stir 
through it a spoonful of thick cream or a little dis» 
solved cornstarch. 

12.- English Huckleberry Compot. After the berries 
are washed let them drain on a sieve, put into a stone 
jar, sprinkle in layers with plenty of sugar and cinna- 
mon, cover with a china plate and put the jar into boil- 
ing water and cook uninterruptedly until the berries are 
done. Send to the table without any further addition. 

13. Mulberry Compot. Take wine, sugar and a 
little grated lemon peel, put it on the stove, throw in 
the cleaned mulberries and proceed as in cooking cur- 
rants. 

14. Peach and Apricot Compot. The fruit is peeled, 
stoned, halved and cooked for 5 — 10 minutes with 
sugar, a little white wine and a few of the stones, but 
not too soft. Then lay them into a glass dish, the 
round side to the top,_cook the juice for a few minutes 
and proceed as given under No. 1. 

15. Ha!f=Frozen Peaches. Peel very ripe peaches, 
cut them into halves, sprinkle well with sugar and put 
into a freezer. Keep the freezer i n ice until the peaches 



Fresh Fruit. 331 

are half frozen, then place them on a glass dish in the 
form of a wreath, sprinkle again with sugar and fill 
some whipped cream, seasoned either with vanilla or 
Marascino, into the middle of the dish. 

16. Melon Compot. If the melon is hard and you 
do not wish to serve it in its natural state, a good com- 
pot can be made of it. Peel, cut into long pieces, and 
cook in water, wine, sugar and- plenty of lemon slices 
until done, and serve with the sauce, which must be 
well boiled down. 

17. Pear Compot. Peel the pears, cut off the blos- 
som end and half of the stem, wash, cook in plenty of 
water, a glassful of claret, sugar, cinnamon and a few 
cloves, or else make a sauce of preserved plums or cur- 
rant juice. Put into an enameled pan, cover and leave 
them until of a nice red color and done. Cook the juice 
for a while and pour over the pears, first straining it. 

18. Pears cooked Brown. Peel some good pears, 
cut them in halves, take out the core and lay the pears 
into water. Put a piece of fresh butter into a stewpan 
with some sugar and the pears with only the water that 
remains on the pears. Let them stew slowly. When 
they commence to brown sprinkle a little more sugar 
over them, stew a little while longer until they are done; 
they are nice served with any kind of roast game. 

* 19. Pears with Cranberries. See preserved fruits, 
Division T. 

20. Pears with Plums. Peel the pears, quarter, 
take out the core, wash and cook in an enameled kettle 
with not too much water until they can easily be pierced 
with a fork. Then take the same quantity of plums, 
clean and stone them, lay them on- the pears, let them 
cook until done, mix with the pears (being careful not 
to break the fruit), and serve the compot cold. There 
should not be too much sauce. The plums will give the 
sauce the proper thickness and will replace both sugar 
and seasoning. This compot is nice with dumplings or 
pancakes. Quartered apples can also be put onto the 
pears before the plums. 



332 P. — Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 

21. Common Pear Stew is made the same as apple 
sauce; a few sour, apples can also be cooked with the 
peafs until done. Serve with pancakes. 

» 

22. Plum Compot. Put the plums into a sieve and 
hold them in boiling water for a few moments, then 
take off the skin. After removing the stones put the 
plums on the fire with sugar and cinnamon, cook slowly 
for a little while, but not too soft and serve with the 
juice. The juice can also be mixed with 1 — 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of rum. 

23. Compot of Plums, Pears and Apricots. Take 
ripe plums, pears and apricots, skin and leave them 1 
hour in sugar before serving. This makes an excellent 
compot. 

24. Plum Marmalade. The plums are skinned and 
stoned. Add a few tablespoonfuls of water to them, 
cook, pass through a sieve, add grated bread roasted in 
butter, sugar, cinnamon, lemon or orange peel, bring 
to a boil again and serve. 

25. Blackberry Compot. Pick out all of the large 
berries, pressthe smaller ones and cook the large berries 
in the juice for a few minutes, after adding sugar, -a few 
cloves, cinnamon and lemon slices ; then take them out 
and after the juice has cooked for some time longer pour 
it over the fruit. 

26. Compot of whole Apples. Pare medium-sized 
apples, take out the core with an apple corer, slit length- 
wise and rinse. Then put wine sweetened with sugar 
into an enameled dish, together with a few pieces of cin- 
namon and lemon peel and let it boil. A little straw- 
berry juice makes the compot nicer. Lay in side by 
side as many apples as the dish will hold, and let them 
boil, turn with a spoon and cover, frequently pouring 
over them some of the juice; When the apples are done 
take them out, lay them on a flat dish and cook the 
remaining apples until all are done. Then pour the 
juice which drips off the apples back into the dish and 
boil for some time. In the meantime arrange the fruit 
as directed under No. 1, press half of the juice onto the 
fruit through a. sieve and put on each apple a little 



Fhesh Fictni 333 

apricot marmalade, apple- or currant jelly. Before 
serving the compot, pour over it the remaining cold 
juice of the apples. 

The apples can also be filled after they are cold with 
a mixture of stoned raisins, currants and finely sliced 
citron, and are cooked with sugar and white wine until 
done. A layer of whipped cream mixed with apple mar- 
malade can also be put into the dish, and a layer of the 
fruit over this, decorating with different colored fruit 
jellies. The juice of the apples is used in making fruit 
soup or sauce. 

27. Apple riarmalade. Cook 15 nice apples as for a 
sauce, spice with a, glassful of cherry cordial and a little 
vanilla, then mix through the hot sauce 4 preserved 
pears, 4 preserved apricots, 5 ounces of finely sliced 
candied fruits and 3 ounces of fresh grapes. Get a 
milk bread, hollow it and fill with the sauce. Pour over 
the bread a. chocolate icing, leave it in the oven for a 
few moments, put on the top a. spoonful of peach juice 
and serve. 

Instead of the bread bake a rice cake as directed in 
S, No. 64, cut off the top and hollow out the cake and 
fill as above directed. This cake is not covered with an 
icing, but is dotted with the fruit juices, sprinkled with 
sugar and set in the oven for 5 minutes. 

28. Halved Apples covered with Fruit Jelly. Peel 
the apples, cut them into halves, take out the core, 
wash and cook as directed in No. 26, putting the round 
side into the wine. Then let the apple jelly become fluid, 
cool it on a wet plate and just before serving pour the 
jelly over the apples, which have been put into a glass 
dish, and arrange some preserved fruit around the edge 
of the dish. 

Instead of cooking the apples in wine, they can be 
cooked in water with lemon juice and sugar, or in wine 
and fruit juices half and half (strawberry-, cherry- or 
raspberry juices) until done. 

29. Baked Compot of Apples. The apples are pared, 
cored and cooked in wine and sugar until done. Strain 
through a sieve, mix with apricot marmalade and put 
into a dish. Then beat' the whites of 2 eggs, mix with 
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar and some grated lemon peel, 



334 P.— Compots op Feesh and Dried Fruits. 

brush smoothly over the compot, which is sprinkled 
with sugar and baked to a light yellow color. Serve 
cold with a roast. 

This compot can also be iced with an almond icing 
before baking, by taking a handful of almond's, grate 
and then mix them with sugar, vanilla, lemon juice and 
2 — 3 eggs and spread over the compot. After it has 
cooled decorate it with different colored fruit jelly. 

30. Sliced Apple Compot. To a medium-sized pan- 
ful of apples take % bottle of white wine, 4 — 5 table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, some lemon peel and cinnamon and . 
cook the apples slowly in this in a covered dish until 
done. If wished preserved quince or strawberry juice 
may be added to the sauce. 

31. Apple Sauce. The nicer the apples the better 
the sauce will be. Pare and quarter the apples, take 
out the core, wash and cook until done in a little wine, 
or wine, water, sugar, cinnamon (vanilla can be used 
instead of cinnamon) and lemon peel. Then take out 
the spices and stir the apple sauce; the best way is 
to pass the sauce through a "sieve. Smooth the sauce 
nicely on top before serving and after it has cooled 
drop a little fruit jelly or grated chocolate over it. 

32. Apple Salad. (A nice compot of raw apples 
and oranges.) Take good apples, pare and core them, 
cut sweet oranges into thin slices, take out the seeds 
and lay the fruit into a dish alternately with sugar arid 
wine. There should not be any sauce; the last layer 
must be of oranges and sugar. The compot is made 
some hours before wanted for use and is served with 
a roast. 

33. Apples with Anise Seed. Take small apples, 
cut out the blossom, slit the peel from the blossom to 
-the end 3 — 4 times, wash and put them into a jar, with 
1 cupful of water or wine and a piece of butter, a little 
anise seed, cinnamon and lemon peel, cover and let 
them stew, shake a few times and at last put in some 
sugar. 

34. Cooked Sweet Apples. After the apples are 
peeled, quartered and cored, put them on the fire with 
water, anise 'seed, a little butter and % — 1 cupful of 



Fresh Fruit. 335 

vinegar (plenty of lemon juice is better) and cook until 
tender. The vinegar will cause the apples to become 
tender sooner. 

35. Apples with Rice. Take apples of medium size, 
pare and core them and put them into water which has 
been seasoned with a little lemon juice. Then boil the 
apples in 1 quart of water with 1 pound of sugar and 
the rind of a lemon; when done take out of the juice 
with a large spoon. Scald 1 pound of rice and boil it in 
water with 1 pint of white wine, lemon juice and lemon 
peel until thick, and tender, but the kernels must remain 
whole; mix the broth of the apples with a small glass- 
ful of arrac and the necessary sugar, and put into a 
dish. After the rice has cooled, put it into an appro- 
priate dish, heap the apples in the center, fill some pre- 
served fruits into the core, and pour over all the remain- 
ing juice of the apples. If you have no rice mould, form 
the rice wreath around the dish with a tablespoon. 

36. Carrot Compot with a Roast. Peel the cleaned 
carrots with a small knife, so .that they will curl (the 
hard core is removed), cook with the peel of 1 lemon 
until done, and pour on a sieve. Then for 1% pounds of 
carrots cook % pound of sugar, the juice of 2 lemons 
and a little vinegar, let the carrots boil for a few mo- 
ments and then take them out, cook the sauce for a 
little while and pour it over them. 

" 37. Compot of Quinces. Peel the fruit, halve, take 
out the core and cook the fruit in water with sugar and 
whole cinnamon until done: Then pour in 1 glassful 
of wine, put the quinces intd a dish, let the sauce cook 
for some time and pour it over the quinces through a 
strainer. 

The core will make the sauce thicker and the seeds 
will produce a nice red color. 

38. Mixed Compot. 10—12 apples are pared, halved 
and stewed until tender as directed in No. 28. Peel 
3 oranges, slice them, take out the seeds, and sugar for 
a few hours. Some time before this s\ew about 2 ounces 
of plums and let them cool. Arrange the cooked fruits 
neatly in a dish, mixing together orange slices, pre- 
served cherries, apricots and sweet-sour beans, and pour 



336 P.— Compots of Fresh and Dried Fruits. 

over the compot the apple juice which has been boiled 
down with a few spoonfuls of preserved fruit until thick. 

39. Currants and other Fruits as Dessert. Select 
nice grapes, currants, strawberries, cherries, dip each 
berry into whipped whites of eggs and then in powdered 
sugar and lay on a sieve to dry. When the fruit is dry 
it will have a frosted appearance, and look very pretty 
when mixed with fresh unsugared fruit. 

40. Peaches for Dessert. Peel ripe peaches and for 
15 peaches cook % pound of sugar and a little water to 
a thick sugar syrup and lay each peach into this syrup 
for 2 minutes. After all the fruit is sugared, which must 
be. done with a very moderate fire, put it into a glass 
dish, mix the syrup with 3 tablespoonfuls of Marascino 
and pour it over the fruit. Put the fruit on the ice for 
4 hours before serving and it will be found very 
delicious. ~- _ ._ 

41. Pineapple Compot for the Sick. Take a pine- 
apple, cut it into slices of uniform size, and boil the 
juice of the fruit with sugar and lemon peel until thick. 
Stew the pieces of pineapple in this for some minutes, 
lay into a dish, pour the syrup of the fruit over this and 
decorate with strawberries. 

All compots maybe given to the sick excepting Nos. 
18,21,33,34,36,38. 



II. DRIED FRUITS. 

42. Compot of Prunes. No. 1. Take good prunes, 
wash in hot water, rub between the hands and then put 
on the stove in cold water to boil; the water is subse- 
quently poured off, after this is done put the, prunes 
into a porcelain dish 2 — 3 days before wanted for use, 
covered with white wine and the necessary sugar, a piece, 
of cinnamon and lemon peel ; cover tightly, bring slowly 
to a boil, then set aside until wanted ; they must be 
stirred often before using. 

43. Compot of Prunes. No. 2. Prepare the prunes 
as directed in the above receipt, the evening before put 



Fruit — gfftdltc. 




i Barberry — Berberitze ; 2 Currant— Johannisbeere ; 3 Grape— Weinbeere ; 4 
Hazelnut— Haselnusz: 5 Nectrine — Nectarine; 6 Mango-fruit — Mangofrucht; 7 
Fistachio-nut — Pistazie; 8 Date — Dattel; 9 Plum — Pflaume; 10 Fig— Feige; 11 
Blackberry — Brombeere; 12 Apricot — Aprikose; 13 Mulberry — Maulbeere; 14 Cherry 
— Kirsche; 15 Prune— Zwetsche; 16 Damask-plum — Damascenerpflaume; 17 Quince — 
(Juitte; 18 Pineapple — Ananas; 19 Orange — Orange; 20 Raspberry — Himbeere; 21 
Almond — Mandel; 22 Raisin— Rosine; 23 Walnut — Wallnusz; 24 Chestnut — Kastanie; 
25 Pomegranate — Granatapfel ; 26 Citron— Limone; 27 Lemon— Citrone ; 28 Goose- 
berry — Stachelbeere; 29 Cranberry— Preisselbeere; 30 Strawberry— Erdbeere; 31 
Pear— Birne ; 32 Melon— Melone ; n Peaches— Pfirsiche ; 34 Medlar— Mispel ; 35 
Apple— Apfel. 
Apple— Apiei. 



Dried Fruits. 337 

them into a jar with plenty of water, cover and set 
them into the oven while it is still warm so that they 
will swell and become tender. The next day take them 
out of the broth, lay them into a dish, boil white wine, 
sugar, lemon peel and a few pieces of cinnamon with the 
prune juice, add a little currant juice and pour the hot 
juice over the prunes. 

44. Prune Harmalade. After the prunes are scalded, 
they are put into a porcelain dish and cooked with wine 
and water, half and half, until done. Then pass them 
through a sieve, cook again with grated bread roasted 
in butter, sugar, finely cut 'lemon peel and cinnamon 
and put into a dish. 

45. Dried Cherries. These are washed in hot water 
and then put on the fire with water, sugar and whole 
cinnamon ; boil down to a nice thick sauce. 

46. Dried Sour Apples. Wash them thoroughly in 
cold water, rubbing them between the hands, then put 
them into a porcelain dish, boil slowly with water, 
sugar, cinnamon and some preserved orange peel (see 
A, No. 48). When this is done take them out of the 
juice and if it is thin, boil until thick enough, or add a 
little dissolved cornstarch and strain the juice over the 
fruit. 

47. Dried Pears are cooked the same as (fried sour 
apples, but require a longer time. 

48. Fig Compot for Invalids. Cut % pound of dried 
figs into pieces and lay in water over night. Then cook 
them the following day in the same water until tender, 
pass through a sieve and cook like a jelly with lemon 
sugar and a glassful of Malaga. Serve either warm or 
cold. 

.All compots of dried fruits are given to invalids; 
some are very nourishing, as for instance the compot of 
dried prunes. 



Q. — Salads and Lettuces. 



1. In General. Lettuces of every description must 
be carefully examined before preparing, for slugs and 
insects are quite apt to be concealed in, the leaves, and 
all of the latter that are withered or otherwise unfit for 
use can, at the same time, be removed, but it is a mis- 
take to take away the ribs from closed bunches of let- 
tuce, because they are deemed the best part thereof. 
After removing the outer leaves divide the remainder of 
the bunch into about three parts and cut the closed 
Inside part into small pieces. When the lettuce is not Qf 
good quality, however, the stems or ribs must also be 
removed, because they are tough. In the opinion of 
many cooks, lettuce is improved by keeping it in the cel- 
lar for about 2 hours after taking it out of the garden. 

Lettuce should not lay in water unless it has become 
withered, Kinse in a deep pan in plenty of cold water 
before preparing; this will cause all sandy particles to 
drop to the bottom of the pan ; hold the bunches in the 
hand loosely and raise and lower them in the pan of 
water until clean. Then twirl in a sieve until all of the 
water has been removed. To press the lettuce with the 
' hands is apt to crush and bruise it, thereby impairing 
its fresh appearance. 

The addition to lettuce ofcertkin herbs, such as 
tarragon, onion tops, peppergrass or cresses, burnet, 
etc., imparts to it an agreeable flavor. When otaion 
tops are not in season, finely sliced onions are indis- 
pensable with some varieties of lettuce; inasmuch, how- 
ever, as the flavor of onions is disliked by some, they 
may be cut into fine slices- and served separately in 
vinegar. 

Salt should be added to lettuce with, great caution, 
because it is easily oversalted. Good olive oil should 



Q.*— Salads and Lettuces. <339 

always be used. Hints on keeping salad oils in good 
condition will be found under General Directions in the 
forepart of this book. For a salad sauce in which the 
yolks of hard boiled eggs are used, the yolks should 
first be rubbed as finely as possible, then stir in some 
vinegar and finally add the oil gradually; the sauce 
when prepared in this manner will bind more readily ; 
then mix it under constant stirring to the other ingred- 
ients. Good vinegar is essential for the preparation of 
a good salad, and care should always be observed not 
to obtain an adulterated article. 

An excellent substitute for the yolks of eggs for 
sauces for lettuce, endives, etc., consists of 2 boiled po- 
tatoes, rubbed while still warm until very smooth. 
Then stir to a well bound sauce with vinegar, milk, olive 
oil, salt and such lettuce herbs as desired- 

Many cooks add sugar to lettuce; as directions for 
the addition of sugar may be omitted in some of the 
following receipts, it may be well to say here that it can 
readily be added ; instead of using the cream directed 
to be added to many of the salads, a rather plentiful 
addition of olive oil is then in order. . 

The sauces should be added to lettuce shortly before 
serving, because the latter, Avhen in. the sauce for too 
long a time, becomes tough and loses its fresh appear- 
ance. To make the lettuce milder, first mix the oil 
through it gently, and then the sauce. Horn or wooden 
salad spoons or forks are the best for this purpose, and 
the mixing should be done rapidly and carefully, so as 
not to mash or bruise the lettuce. Meat-, fish- and 
herring salads gain in palatableness when mixed a few 
hours, if possible a whole day, before serving. Meat 
salads absorb a large quantity of juices, and neither 
vinegar nor water should be added to them plentifully ; 
the latter should be mixed with extract of beef, which 
will improve the flavor of the salad. 

2. Chicken Salad. For 24—30 persons. Boil 6 
young chickens with plenty of butter and salt' until 
done but not too tender. Cut up when cold ; the bones 
are taken out of the breast and legs, and the meat used 
,for the salad. The back, wings and neck are cooked 
with a small piece of veal, add a little browned' flour 
and, after cooking for % hour, strain the broth. Mix 



340 Q. — Salads and Lettuces. 

the yolks of 4 eggs with somn nutmeg, % glassful of 
white wine, salt and a little white pepper and stir in the 
boiling broth which is then poured over the meat. 
Take nice crisp lettuce and cut it into 4 pieces, or else 
take tender endives, and mix with the following sauce: 
The yolks of 6 hard boiled and 2 raw eggs are rubbed 
together, add a little vinegar, a few spoonfuls of salad 
oil, stir well together, also finely chopped tarragon or 
tarragon vinegar, or better still some extract, 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, 1 teaspoonful of mustard and the 
broth which was left from the chicken. This salad is 
put into the dish with the meat in the form of a star. 

If remnants of poultry are used, cut them into 
cubes, mix with finely cut hard boiled eggs, boiled white 
beans and small onions, mix with a mayonnaise sauce 
and garnish with the hearts of lettuce. 

3. Turkey Salad. If the whole turkey is to be used, 
follow the directions given in No. 2, and garnish with 
crabtails. In making a salad of remnants of turkey, 
cut the meat into little pieces. In the meantime boil a 
few celery roots until done, halve and then cut them 
into 3 — 4 pieces. Cut good Summer sausage into pieces, 
make a sauce as in the above receipt and into it care- 
fully mix the meat, celery, «ausage and sliced pickles; 
serve neatly. Slice some red beets and lay them around 
the salad in the shape of a wreath, cut some hard boiled 
eggs lengthwise into 8 pieces and lay them in with the 
beet slices with the rounded side to the top. 

4. Fish Salad. For a dinner with several courses 
the following salad is very nice. For 20 persons take 
1 pound of eel, 1 pound of pike, % pound of trout, 
% pound of turbot, % pound of soles, % pound of salmon 
and 5 lampreys. Boil the fish in salted water the day 
previous with peppercorns and the juice and rind of a 
lemon. The eel is cooked first because it requires less 
salt, then it is taken out of the broth and the pike is 

^cooked, which will need a little more salt, then the trout, 
soles, turbot ose after theother, with the necessary salt. 
The salmon is cooked in separate water with salt. After 
the broth, in which the other fish were cooked has be- 
come cold, keep the fish in it until the next day. Fish 
must not remain in the broth while it is cooling, as it 
gives them an unpleasant flavor. 



Q.— Salads and Lettuces. 341 

When making the salad, after boning the fish, cut it 
into small pieces, cut the lamprey crosswise into pieces 
about 1 inch in length, serve with % cupful of capers to 
which may be added 30—40 oysters and 20 crabtails, 
either whole'or cut into pieces. 

The following sauce is poured over the fish :. 3 hard 
boiled eggs and 1 raw egg are rubbed together with 1 
cupful of strong meat bouillon, about 4 tablespoonfuls 
of salad oil, 2 teaspoonf uls , of mustard, 1 teaspoonful 
of sugar, a little white pepper, 1 tablespoonful of thick 
cream, vinegar and a little salt, all stirred together. 

5. Pike Salad. Medium -sized pike are emptied, 
washed, cleaned and cOoked in salted water with plenty 
of onions until done. Take from the stove and leave 
them in the water for 10 minutes as the fish will be 
salted better in this way. Then put the pike on a dish 
to cool, take out the bones, skin and divide into pieces. 
In the meantime cook large crabs in salted water with 
a little vinegar. The vinegar will give the crabs a 
prettier red color. Then take the meat out of the crabs. 
In the meantime boil a few eggs until hard, rub the 
yolks and stir with vinegar, (the yolks will not bind as 
well in oil), mix with finely chopped eschalots and 
chopped anchovies, briskly stirring in vinegar, olive oil 
and a little pike broth, pass the sauce through a sieve 
and stir in a little mustard and chopped parsley. After 
the anchovies have been prepared as for bread and 
butter, cut some lemons into thin slices, lay the pike 
into a deep dish, mix with the meat of the crabs, pour 
over it the sauce, put over this the capers and garnish 
the dish as follows : Around the edge put the crabtails 
with the points turned to the outside of the d : .Ii, put 
the anchovies over the fish crosswise or in the form of 
a star, between these the lemon slices, put a*quartered 
lemon around the edge and at last the cut crab claws 
between the tails. 

6. Lobster Salad with Caviar. The lobster is boiled 
as directed in Division F, the meat taken out of the 
shells, cut into long pieces and laid into a salad bowl. 
Pdur over it a sauce made of the yolks of hard boiled 
eggs, pepper, salt, olive oil, vinegar, white wine, finely 
chopped tarragon, parsley and a few eschalots. The 
salad is garnished with anchovies, capers, hard boiled 



342 Q.— Salads and Lettuces. 

eggs, each egg cut into 8 pieces and the edge of the dish 
surrounded with bits of bread spread with caviar. Some 
prefer the lobster without the bread; others like it 
simply with pepper, oil and vinegar. Salt is usually not 
necessary. 

7. Anchovy Salad. The anchovies are freshened 
and torn through the middle, so that the bones may 
easily be taken out. Put them into a salad bowl with 
capers, small pickles, preserved sour plums, Summer 
sausage cut into slices, and pickled eel which is divided 
lengthwise and cut into pieces the thickness of a finger. 
The dish maybe garnished with lemon slices; pour over 
it a sauce as directed in the above receipt or else 
vinegar, oil, pepper, salt and the grated yolks of a few 
hard boiled eggs. Some prefer the salad with olives, 
roast veal, button onions, mustard, pickles and a few 
apples, all cut into small pieces, and put into a marin- 
ade of bouillon, sugar, vinegar, onions, pepper and salt 
for a few hours before mixing with the salad. 

8. Shrimp Salad. As soon as caught shrimps are 
boiled and shipped. They are taken out of their skins 
and eaten with bread and butter, or else served as a 
salad, putting the shrimps into the center of the dish, 
surrounded with the whites of hard boiled eggs, capers, 

*on this the grated yolks of eggs, then surrounded again 
with hearts of lettuce or water cresses dipped in a 
mayonnaise dressing and then with boiled beets, sliced 
and put into hot vinegar. An a la Diable or mayon- 
naise sauce is served with the salad. A simpler way 
is to serve it with vinegar, oil, pepper, grated, onions 
and hard boiled eggs ; vinegar must not be poured over 
the shrimps, as it will tend to harden them. 

Shrimps are also used to garnish fish dishes and for 
lunches. 

9. Fish and Vegetable Salad. All kinds of vege- 
tables in their season, such as asparagus, cauliflowers, 
cut into small pieces, small salad beans, savoy cabbage 
cut into pieces, young carrots, celery and parsley roots, 
etc., are boiled in salted water, and after they are cool 
put them into a dish with the fish, such as pike, eel, also 
crabtails, garnish with pickled beets cut lengthwise, and 
pour over them a sauce,made as directed under No. 4. 



Q. — Salads and Lettuces. 343 

10. Herring Salad. A dozen herring will make 
enough salad for 24 persons. The herring are emptied, 
washed and freshened in milk over night, and if very 
salty for a longer time. Then take on the skin, bone 
them and cut into small pieces, Take potatoes boiled 
iu their jackets, peel and cool them together with plenty 
of veal roast, pickles, beets, some sour apples, 8 — 12 
hard boiled eggs, leaving 4 to garnish the dish, a celery 
root cooked until tender, % pound of boiled ham,and a 
few onions, all cut into, very small pieces. Then mix 
this with a well-stirred, plentiful sauce made of olive oil, 
wine vinegar, claret, dissolved extract of beef, pepper 
and a trifle of mustard. The milts of 3—4 herrings can 
be used by mixing them with vinegar and passing them 
through a sieve. In case the salad is prepared the day 
before wanted for use, which will make it better, leave it 
over night in a porcelain dish, stir it before using and 
then garnish the dish in the following manner: Take 
pickles or parsley, beets, the yolks of 4 hard boiled eggs, 
and also the whites, each chopped separately. Smooth 
the top of the salad, make a figure with the back of a 
knife — a star for instance — and in the points put a tea- 
spoonful of the minced ingredients, a different color in 
each point, hold the knife in the left hand and place 
it over the line so as not to have the figure uneven. 
Around this make a wreath of any color; if white or 
yellow is chosen, leaves of curly parsley are very pretty; 
freshened, divided and rolled anchovies and capers can 
also be used for ornamenting the salad. As a great 
deal of time is taken in cutting the ingredients of the 
salad separately they may be chopped, but each must 
be chopped separately, and not too fine or the salad 
Will become pulpy. 

11. Herring Salad with Bread and Butter. All the 

ingredients as given in the above receipt, excepting the 
potatoes and beets, are chopped fine and mixed with 
oil, vinegar, pepper, and, if necessary, a little salt ; serve 
neatly, garnishing with capers. 

12. Meat Salad. For' 12 persons. 5—6 lampreys, 
% pound of anchovies, 3 — 4 freshened herring, celery, 
beets, mustard pickles, potatoes and veal roast, taking 
of each % soupplateful, and pf the veal roast 1 soup- 



b44 Q.— Salads and Lettxices. 

plateful, 8—10 preserved sour plums, all cut into long 
pieces and put into the dish in layers. For the sauce 
take 8 hard boiled eggs, pass them through a sieve, 
also 1 small cupful of oil, then 4 teaspoonfuls of must- 
ard, 2 — 3 teaspoonfuls of sugar, 2 — 3 grated onions 
and a little salt. Pour into this enough vinegar, or if 
wished, a little claret or bouillon, to make a thick sauce 
and spread it over the salad. 

13. Soup Meat Salad. About 1 hour before wanted 
cut the meat into pieces and' mix with a good horse- 
radish sauce (see Division E). Take the nicest pieces of 
the meat, dip into the sauce and put them on top of 
the salad. Cucumbers cut into slices are very nice with 
soup meat salad, als*> the finely cut whites of the eggs 
used for the sauce. This salad is served with lettuce or 
with potato dishes of all kinds, and is also nice for 
supper. 

14. Polish Salad. Cold roast of any kind can be 
used. Cut the meat into small pieces, adding some let- 
tuce or endives, and mix with it salad oil, vinegar, 
mustard, pepper, salt, finely cut onions and soft boiled 



Remark . — All lorers of salads wilfnnd this one to be very nice and refreshing. 

15. Truffle Salad. The fresh truffles are not peeled, 
but washed with a brush first in warm, then in cold 
water, then slice like cucumbers and instead of vinegar 
use lemon juice, oil, pepper, salt and mustard. 

Sometimes the truffles are mixed with potatoes. 
When using potatoes stew the truffles in bouillon and 
oil until tender, take them out of the broth and heat 
some boiled peeled potatoes in this broth, mix with 
salt and pepper and cover them. Then peel the truffles, 
cut them into slices and mix with the potatoes; pour 
over them some vinegar, lemon juice, white wine, a little 
dissolved extract of beef and let the salad stand for 
about 3 hours before serving. A dozen pickled oysters 
may also be added to this dish. 

16. Tomato Salad. Put 6—8 tomatoes where they 
will become cold so that they will harden and can more 
readily be cut into slices. Just before serving slice them, 
taking out as many of the seeds as possible. Then 
make a dressing of 4 spoonfuls of salad oil, salt, pepper, 



Q.— Salads and Lettuces. 345 

a little sugar, if liked a few teaspoonfuls of chopped 
onions, add 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, pour over the 
salad and serve. 

17. nixed Salad. Take beets, pickles, celery roots 
cooked until tender, and potatoes boiled in their 
jackets, in equal parts; slice and pour over them the 
following sauce : Hard boiled eggs stirred with vinegar, 
salt, mustard, a little sugar, oil, and thick sour cream, 
taking for each egg 1 tablespoonful of cream. As the 
beets and pickles are sour, be careful not to put in too 
much vinegar. 

18. Mushroom and Potato Salad (Flanders Salad). 

Nice potatoes are boiled in their jackets, peeled, cutinto 
slices, sprinkled with salt and pepper, and a few spoon- 
fuls of oil and bouillon poured over them. Slice medium 
soft boiled eggs and some mushrooms stewed in butter 
and bouillon, and mix with the potatoes. The whites 
of 2 eggs, an eschalot and a sour apple are chopped 
fine and the yolks of 2 hard boiled eggs put through a 
sieve; mix all with 4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 1 tea- 
spoonful of mustard, a little sugar and 4 spoonfuls of 
vinegar, stir to a thick sauce, and mix throtigh the 
sliced potatoes and mushrooms. Set the salad aside 
for a few hours, and then send to the table garnished 
with endives, dressed with oil, vinegar, salt and a little, 
sugar. 

19. Potato Salad. Boil potatoes of uniform size in 
their jackets in salted water until tender, peel, cut into 
slices and pour 1 cupful of boiling water over them, 
cover and set aside until the dressing is made. Slice a 
tender boiled celery root. For a dressing for 6 persons 
take 6 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, the same amount of 
claret or a bouillon made of extract of beef, 4—6 spoon- 
fuls of vinegar (if very strong dilute it), plenty of pepper 
and salt and if liked a little mustard and finely chopped 
onions. By putting into a dish a layer of potatoes 
then a spoonful of dressing, then potatoes and so on, 
the potato slices will remain whole. Dip potato slices 
of equal size into the dressing and put them over the 
top of the salad. 

Another way is to peel the potatoes, slice and pour 
over them the dressing of oil, salt, pepper, grated onion 



346 Q. — Salads and Lettuces. 

and a little sugar. Then mix some good vinegar with 
a few spoonfuls of boiling bouillon or hot claret, white 
wine or else only seething hot water, whichever is pre- 
ferred, and with this carefully stir the sliced potatoes. 
If liked a little tarragon or finely chopped chives can be 
added ; set the salad aside for a while before bringing it 
to the table. 

Excepting lettuce, any kind of greens can be served 
with potato salad. When mixed with the salad, the 
lettuce wilts too easily. Serve with veal or pork brawn, 
or veal in jelly and with warm and cold roast. 

20. Potato Salad. No. 2. Cut boiled potatoes into 
slices, keep them warm and mix through them the fol- 
lowing dressing : Stir together oil, vinegar, milk, pepper, 
salt and finely cut onions. Put the sliced potatoes into 
a dish, pour over them half of the sauce, put a dish on 
this and shake the salad; then pour over it the remain- 
ing sauce and shake again so that the potatoes will 
be juicy. Goose oil can also be used instead of the 
salad oil. 

21. Potato Salad with Bacon. Fry a saucerful of 
bacon cut into small pieces ; after it has fried take out 
the pieces and fry in the fat some finely cut onions to- 
gether with the necessary vinegar, salt and a little 
pepper, stir through it a few spoonfuls of sour cream or 
water, cut the potatoes into the warm broth, turn them 
in this and serve the salad. 

22. Water Cresses. Water cresses make a very 
healthful salad, and are used as long as their leaves are 
tender. Cut off the stems, wash thoroughly without 
crushing and rinse them on a colander. Then mix with 
olive oil, vinegar and salt, and send to the table imme- 
diately before they wilt. Serve with or without potato 
salad with roast meats, especially with roast pheasant. 

23. Salad of Garden Cresses. These cresses can be 
had all the year. Cut off all of the leaves that are 
tender, wash thoroughly and serve with oil, vinegar and 
a little salt 

A dressing of oil, vinegar, finely grated yolks oi 
eggs, mustard and sugar is also well liked. 



Q.— Salads and Lettuces. - 347 

24. Asparagus Salad. The asparagus is cleaned as 
directed under Vegetables (C, No. 16) ; tie into bunches 
and cook in boiling salted water until tender and then 
put it on a colander to drain. After it is cool cut the 
threads, lay the asparagus neatly into a salad dish and 
pour over it oil and vinegar in equal parts mixed with 
salt and pepper. The asparagus can also be cut into 
pieces and cooked in salted water until tender. 

25. Lettuce. Directions for cleaning, washing, rins- 
ing and mixing lettuce are given under No. 1. For a 
dressing according to the French method, for 6 persons 
take the yolks of 2 — 3 hard boiled eggs, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of salad oil, a little salt and vinegar and, if liked, a 
little mustard and pepper, also some finely chopped 
tarragon, a few young onions, etc.; to this can be added 
2 spoonfuls of thick sour cream, taking the yolk of an 
egg and 1 tablespoonful of salad oil less. 

In North Germany they take sour cream and sugar 
and mix them with the salad, or a little vinegar is 
mixed with the cream. The sauce can also be made in 
the following manner: 1 cupful of thick sour cream is 
stirred with 2 spoonfuls of vinegar, salt, sugar, chopped 
tarragon and the yolks of 3 raw eggs, pour this dress- 
ing over the lettuce just before serving, first moistening 
it with salad oil. 

A mixed salad of lettuce and sliced beans cooked 
until tender is also nice; % hour before serving, mix 
through it a dressing made according to one of the 
foregoing receipts. Finely sliced cucumbers can also be 
used, in which case take only oil, sugar, vinegar and 
salt. When served with ham for the supper table mix 
with sliced, hard boiled eggs. 

26. Cauliflower Salad. The cauliflowers are pre- 
pared the same as usual, and then cooked in salted 
water until tender. Drain on a colander and arrange 
in the dish so as to have the heads to the top, pour 
over them a dressing made of a few hard boiled eggs, 
vinegar, oil, pepper and salt. 

27. Cucumber Salad. When peeling cucumbers be 
careful to cut off all of the bitter end. Often they 
are bitter all the way through and then must not be 
used. Slice, pour a little salad oil over them and just 



348 Q.— Salads and Lettuces. 

before serving pour over the salad a dressing made as 
follows: Hard boiled eggs or thick sour cream are 
stirred together with vinegar, pepper, salt, chopped 
parsley and tarragon. Onions may also be added or 
can be served separately with vinegar. Some people 
prefer to wilt the cucumbers by first sprinkling salt over 
them and setting them aside for a short time and then 
pressing. This does not only take away their nice taste, 
but makes them tough and harder to digest. The 
salad can also be mixed with sliced potatoes with a 
dressing of oil, vinegar, sour cream, salt, pepper, tarra- 
gon and sliced onions. For persons with impaired 
digestion who cannot eat fresh cucumbers, peel the 
cucumbers, boil them for a few minutes in salted water 
,and then prepare the same as fresh cucumbers. 

28. Bean Salad. After the beans have been cleaned, 
cook in boiling salted water until tender, then mix with 
onions, oil, vinegar, pepper and salt. Bean salad can 
also be mixed with sliced cucumbers; when doing this it 
is well to first cook the cucumbers for a few moments. 
Lettuce can also be mixed with bean salad. 

29. Red Mixed Salad. Take potatoes boiled in their 
jackets, and to 1 part of potatoes take 1 part of sliced 
beets and a little more of finely sliced red cabbage than 
of beets. Carefully mix through it some oil, vinegar, 
the broth of the beets, pepper and salt, and serve with 
warm roast. 

i 30. Red Salad. Red early cabbage is finely shred- 
ded, pour over it plenty of oil, then mix with vinegar, 
salt and pepper. Serve with meat and hot potatoes. 

31. White Cabbage. Shred the cabbage very fine, 
scald and press it, mix with it oil, vinegar, salt, pepper, 
or a good cooked sour cream sauce, or else with a warm 
bacon sauce with pepper and salt and serve with warm 
potates. 

Remark.— This cabbage is good for salads only in the Fall, for later it 
becomes tough. Salad made of white and red cabbage put into the dish in layers 
is very attractive and nice. 

32. Mixed Winter Salad. 3 parts of potatoes boiled 
in their jackets, 1 part of sour apples, 1 part of red 
beets, 1 part of pickles, all sliced; mix carefully with 



Q.— Salads and Lettuces. 349 

a sauced made of plenty of oil and some sour cream, 
or a sauce of milk, vinegar, pepper and salt so that the 
slices will remain whole. Put around it a border of 
lettuce mixed with oil, vinegar and salt and garnished 
with eggs that are not boiled too hard, each egg cut 
into 8 pieces. Serve with warm roast or cold meat and 
herring. 

33. Endive Salad. When using the curled endives 
take only the yellow leaves and cut off the stems; the 
smooth endives are cut with the stem. The endives are 
washed shortly before making the salad, and mixed 
with oil, vinegar and salt, or, as directed in No. 1, with 
mashed potatoes, oil, vinegar, salt and pepper, or else 
serve it with a warm sour cream sauce and potatoes. 

34. Celery Salad. The celery roots are washed and 
cooked in salted water until tender ; peel, take out the 
hard parts and cut into slices and pour over them oil, 
vinegar, pepper and salt; the dish is garnished with 
celery leaves. Celery salad will keep for several days. 

35. Swiss Salad. 1 part of beets, 1 part of celery 
roots cooked in salted water until tender (both cut into 
slices), 1—2 parts of endives or garden cresses are mixed 
with a dressing of oil, vinegar, pepper and salt. 

36. Salad of Pickled Cucumbers. Salt or large- 
vinegar pickles are finely sliced ; put over them plenty 
of oil and if the pickles are not very sour add a little 
vinegar. This salad is very nice with soup meat or 
roast and also with potato salad. 

37. Salad of Salted Salad Beans. Pour boiling 
water over the beans, leave the beans in this for a little 
while and then pour over them a dressing of salad oil, 
pepper and salt. A bacon or warm cream sauce can 
also be served with it. 

38. Russian Salad with Beef. Good sourkrout 
made of Summer cabbage — krout made of Winter cab- 
bage is too tough — is taken out of the cask, put into a 
cloth, pressed and cut; then pour over it oil and pepper. 

Salads of all kinds must never be served to invalids. 



R. — Sauces. 

1. Hot and Cold Sauces for Fish, Meat, 
Vegetables and Pickles. 



A. HOT SAUCES. 

1. General Directions. Sauces should not be con- 
sidered as of secondary importance, on the contrary 
they should always receive particular attention. 

It is impossible to give exact directions regarding 
the right proportion or quantities of sauce to be pre- 
pared for the several dishes; good judgment must be 
your guide in this particular, but a few hints will be 
found useful. 

For the lighter colored strong sauces or gravies the 
flour should be, rubbed in hot butter until it curls, rises 
and turns yellow; for brown sauces it is stirred in the 
butter until it is* of a good brown color (see Division A, 
No. 4); bouillon or water must be hot when added and 
then let the flour cook as long as possible to make the 
gravy clear and remove the flour taste entirely. Jelly- 
like bouillon is well adapted for preparing sauces of all 
kinds. Gravies must always be smooth, never lumpy, 
and by no means resemble a porridge, and be seasoned 
exactly right, that is, neither too much nor too little 
salt and vinegar must.be used. 

All gravies should possess an agreeable flavor of 
salt, spices or herbs, but none of these should be too 
prominent. For this reason English (Worcestershire) 
sauce, which is used to give sauces and ragouts a spicy 
flavor, should be added, a "teaspoonful at a time only; 



Hot Sauces foe Fish, Meats, Etc. 351 

using too much will spoil the gravy, while when added 
in proper quantity it greatly improves it. When nut- 
meg or cloves are used in light sauces be careful to re- 
move the heads, which will discolor the sauce: Cloves 
should be added very sparingly anyway. 

Strength is 'the great desideratum in gravies, and 
when it is lacking or when a strong gravy must be made 
in haste, extract of beef is of inestimable value. It 
obviates the costly and time-consuming preparation of 
coulis, and the addition of %, or % teaspoonful of the 
extract to a finished gravy is all that is necessary to 
give it plenty of strength. 

Sauces made with butter will be smoother and 
milder if cold butter is stirred through the finished 
gravy. If the yolks of eggs are to be stirred into the 
gravy, then this should be done just before serving, 
otherwise, if done on the fire, they will curdle. To pre- 
vent curdling altogether stir a pinch of flour with a 
tablespoonful of water to each egg yolk, gradually add 
under constant stirring some of the gravy, and then 
pour this into the boiling sauce, stirring- it "thoroughly. 

Inasmuch as anchovies are frequently used in cook- 
ing, and a single stale anchovy will spoil the best dishes 
or gravies, it should be observed that anchovies of a 
yellow hue that have become dry and always have a 
rancid taste, must be rejected. They must furthermore 
be freshened until the water remains clear. After 
boning, again rinsing and chopping them, they must be 
cooked in the sauce for the shortest possible time to 
prove of value as a seasoning only. 

2. Clear fleat Broth (Coulis). This broth is used for 
a good brown gravy. Take about % pound of raw veal, 
a small piece of raw ham, a few eschalots, or 1 onion, 
1 celei-y root, 1 parsley root, 1 carrot, 1 bay leaf, cloves 
and peppercorns. The meat and ham are cut into small 
pieces, coarsely pound the spices and all of this is put 
on the firewith % pound of butter, stirring occasionally; 
it will be white for a time and then turn brown. When 
making a white broth put in some flour when the broth 
has turned yellow, let it turn yellow j then, at once pour 
in some boiling bouillon. 

When making a brown coulis brown the above in- 
gredients, then put in the. flour, stirring constantly • 



352 , E.— Sauces. 

until all has browned, add bouillon and brown broth or 
mushrooms, soup herbs, such as tarragon, sweet basil, 
etc., let it cook for at least 1 hour and then strain it. 
The broth must be very thick because it must be thinned 
when using. It will keep in the Winter for 2—3 weeks 
when left uncovered in a cool place and cooked once 
again in the meantime. 

3. Brown Sauce. Brown a finely chopped onion in 
some butter with flour, browning the butter before 
putting in the flour and onion, add 1 carrot, % of a 
parsley root, tarragon, peppercorns and 1 bay leaf; 
after it has stewed for a short time add some boiling 
water and cook for 1 hour, strain, bring to aboilagain, 
add as much extract of beef and a little salt as will 
make a strong sauce, and season with a little lemon 
juice. Capers, finely chopped anchovies or mushrooms 
can also be added. The last named must be very tender. 

4. White Sauce is made as directed in the above 
receipt, using white instead of browned flour. 

5. Truffle Sauce. Make a sauce as directed in 
receipt No. 4, adding nicely cleaned and cooked truffles 
cut into slices. A mushroom sauce can also be prepared 
according to receipt No. 3 or 4. 

6. Robert Sauce. Fry 2 finely chopped onions in 
butter until brown, cook with white "broth No. 2 or 
brown sauce No. 3, and make the necessary quantity of 
sauce, taking 1 pint of white wine, and just before serv- 
ing add 2 tablespoonfuls of mustard. If the sauce is to 
be served with fish, mix with it at last a piece of butter. 

7. Bearnease Sauce. Cook 1 tablespoonful of finely 
chopped eschalots or onions with 4 tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar, a few peppercorns, % bay leaf and a little estra- 
gon. When the vinegar is about half boiled away, pour 
it through a sieve, then stir the yolks of 4 eggs with 
1 small cupful of strong bouillon made of extract of 
beef, put this into a pan containing bojling water (or 
into a double kettle), add % pound of butter in small 
pieces, stirring constantly until the sauce is thick, and 
at last the vinegar and, if liked, some finely chopped 
tarragon. All rich sauces, where plenty of butter and 



Hot Sauces fob Fish, Meats, Etc. 353 

eggs are used, are apt to curdle when the sauce' is stirred 
too long or when allowed to stand for even a moment. 
If this happens it can be remedied by twirling through 
the sauce a small piece of ice or a few drops of cold 
water. 

8. Oyster Sauce. Take the beards from the oysters 
and cook the former in strong beef bouillon with a 
little pepper and a bay leaf. Then rub some butter and 
flour (see A, No. 3), stir this with the bouillon, nutmeg, 

1 glassful of wine, the juice of a lemon, and just before 
serving add the oysters with their liquor as they will 
become hard if cooked, also the necessary salt and then 
stir through the sauce the yolks of a few eggs. 30 oys- 
ters are enough for 6 — 8 persons. 

9. Bechamel Sauce. Take 8—10 onions and some 
lean ham, cut into small pieces and stew over a medium 
fire until tender ; add a spoonful of flour rubbed in but- 
ter and 1 quart of milk (it is better to use half cream 
and half bouillon), let it boil thoroughly, stir through 
a colander, add to it a little white pepper and salt and 
heat the broth. Instead of using so many onions take 
half the quantity of sliced carrots or kohlrabi. The 
addition of a few finely chopped mushrooms and using 
cream instead of milk will greatly improve the sauce. 

10. Diplomat's Sauce. Add to a Bechamel sauce 

2 spoonfuls of crab butter and 1 spoonful of anchovy 
butter. This will make a very nice sauce for poultry, 
stewed sweetbreads and fish. 

11. Yellow Caper Sauce for Pike and Salmon. Stir 
% spoonful of flour with a little water and add to this 
about 1% pints of bouillon, 3 lemon slices without the 
seeds, a little finely pounded mace, bring to a boil, stir- 
ring constantly, and stir the yolks of 3 eggs through it. 
Then add % cupful of capers, but do not cook the sauce 
again, and % pound of fresh butter, stirring in a little 
at a time. Serve hot over and with the fish. 

12. Pike Sauce with Sour Cream. Take a good- 
sized piece of butter, rub it in flour, add to this the 
yolks of 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of sour cream and as 
much bouillon with a little pike broth to make the 
sauce of the proper consistency; then season with a 



354 R.— Sauces.. 

little lemon juice or, if liked, a little nutmeg. Bring this 
sauce to a boil, stirring constantly. 

13. Sauce with Boiled Fish, Salmon, etc. On a 
slow fire stew in 2 ounces of butter 1 large onion, 6 
mushrooms, 1 carrot — all cut fine; add to this a little 
parsley and thyme, 3 cloves, 1 bay leaf and 1 blade of 
mace. When the onion is tender pour in % quart of 
bouillon, let it cook for 1 hour, pour the broth through 
a sieve and then cook until well bound and clear with a 
little browned flour, using 1 tablespoonml of butter, 
the same quantity of flour, 1 glassful of wine, a little 
pepper and salt and the juice of a lemon. 

Shortly before serving add to the sauce 8—10 finely 
chopped and cleaned anchovies and bring it to a boil 
once more. 

14. Recamier Sauce for Fish, particularly Turbot. 

Bring 1 large cupful of bouillon, the same quantity of 
white wine and 1 glassful of champagne almost to a boil, 
stir the yolks of 8 eggs into the broth so that it will be 
well bound and bright, and then mix throughit 3 ounces 
of the finest creamery butter. Season the sauce with 
lemon juice and serve immediately, as it loses its nice 
flavor if it stands for any length of time. 

15. White Anchovy Sauce. Cook the bones of the 
anchovies and add to them a little coarsely pounded 
pepper and ground cloves, 1 — 2 bay leaves, alittle lemon 
peel and some .strong bouillon which can be made of 
remnants of meat. Then rub a few finely chopped 
onions or eschalots in butter, lightly brown 1 — 2 spoon- 
fuls of flour in it, pour into this the boiling bouillon and 
then strain. Bring the well bound sauce to a boil, 
season with anchovy butter or a few anchovies chopped 
fine with butter (see Division A, No. 10), a little lemon 
juice, %— 1 glassful of white wine< a little finely pounded 
mace and stir into this sauce the yolks of 1 — 2 fresh 
eggs and a piece of fresh butter. ^ 

16. Herring Sauce. Freshen a herring in milk and 
chop it finely. Then rub a few finely chopped ohiojRS 
or eschalots in butter, lightly brown 1 — 2 spoonfuls, of 
flour in this and stir as much water into it as will make 
a well bound sauce. The sauce is cooked with the her- 



Hot Sauces for Fish, Meats, Etc. 355 

ring, a little pepper, 1 bay leaf, 2 — 3 lemon slices or a 
little vinegar; stir into it a little meat extract, the 
yolks of 1 — 2 eggs and a piece of butter. Serve with fish 
or meat. 

17. Spanish Sauce ("Espagnole"). Make a sauce as 
directed in No. 3 and cook with it 1 glassful of Madeira, 
skim and take off the fat and then add a little extract 
of beef. 

18. Olive Sauce. Peel the olives from the stones 
with a small sharp knife in such a manner that they 
will roll together again. Then take some flour browned 
in butter, meat gravy or extract of beef bouillon, lemon 
peel and juice, mace, pickles peeled and finely cut, some 
peppercorns and a few eschalots. When this has cooked 
for a while pass it through a sieve, put in the olives and 
capers and cook for a few minutes longer. 

19. Cucumber Sauce. Peel some cucumbers and 
divide them in two, take out the seeds and cut them 
into small pieces. They are cooked until tender in bou- 
illon with vinegar, eschalots, some flour browned in 
butter, salt and a bay leaf. 

Serve with veal and mutton. If you have onions 
pickled in dill and tarragon, add some of them with 
their vinegar and let the sauce cook until half done ; the 
eschalots and vinegar are then omitted. Th£ eschalots 
give the sauce an excellent flavor. 

20. Hollandaise Sauce with Wine. Stir the yolks 
of 3 eggs and 1 teaspoonful of flour with white wine 
and water half and half until smooth, add some mace, 
stir until it comes to a boil,> take from the fire and mix 
with the sauce % pound of butter and a few drops of 
lemon juice. Serve with artichokes, mushrooms, fish 
and also with tongue. 

21. Hollandaise Sauce. Stir the yolks of 3 eggs 
and 1 teaspoonful of flour in 1 pint of water and salt, 
mace or nutmeg, bring to a boil, stirring constantly, 
then quickly take from the fire. Then stir % pound of 
butter and a little vinegar through the sauce. To this 
sauce can be added oysters, chopped anchovies, capers 
and mustard. 



356 R.— Sauces. 

22. Shrimp Sauce for different kinds of Pish, par- 
ticularly Soles and Turbot. Rub % tablespoonful of flour 
in some fresh butter, stir to it 1 cupful of bouillon, 
lemon juice and a blade of mace, and when it boils add 
% pound of butter and plenty of scalded shrimps, then 
take the sauce from the fire and stir into it the yolks of 
2 eggs and a little salt. 

23. Crab Sauce. Make a sauce as directed in the 
above receipt, using crab butter. Instead of shrimps use 
crab tails. Both are cut into small pieces and must not 
cook in the sauce. 

24. Holstein Sauce for Salt Water Fish. For each 
person take 1 .ounce of butter and a trifle of flour. Let 
the flour- get hot in the butter, stir into it % parts of 
fish water. and % part of white wine, or enough boiling 
bouillon to make a well bound sauce, add some nutmeg 
and fine white pepper and if necessary a trifle of salt, 
stir the sauce until it commences to boil, take it from " 
the fire, stir through it a piece of butter and some 
lemon juice. If wished the yolks of a few eggs may be 
stirred through the sauce. 

25. Saxon Fish Sauce. Rub some flour and butter 
in a pan, add to this some finely chopped eschalots, 
fish broth — but not enough to make the sauce salty — 
a little white wine, lemon slices, plenty of mustard, 
vinegar, and if wished a little sugar. Cook the sauce 
slowly for a few minutes and before serving stir through 
it a good-sized piece of butter. 

26. Butter Sauce for boiled Salt Water Fish, as Soles 
or Turbot. Put some unsalted butter into a double 
kettle to melt, stir' until it commences to bubble, then 
put in slowly, constantly stirring, some fish water, also 
a little finely chopped parsley, stir the sauce some five 
minutes longer, but do not let it boil. 

27. Butter for Fish and Potatoes. Take half of the 
butter which is to be used and rub it in some flour. If 
the butter is but slightly salty put in some fish water, 
if quite salty use clear water and bring to a boil. The 
remaining butter is added to the sauce when it is taken 
from the fire and the yolk of an egg stirred through it. 



« Hot Sauces for Fish, Meats, Etc. 357 

28. flustard Sauce for Fish. Take a good-sized 
piece of- butter, several tablespoonfuls of mustard, fish 
broth and water, half and half, cook with 1—2 tea- 
spoonfuls of dissolved cornstarch and then stir the yolk 
of an egg and a piece of butter through it. 

29. Fish Sauce. 5 onions cut into small pieces and 
1 spoonful of flour are rubbed in some butter and 
cooked with the fish water ; afterwards stir in a small 
piece of sugar and a little vinegar and nutmeg. 

30. Mustard Sauce for Fish and Potatoes. (Also 
served with eggs.) Melt some kidney suet the size of 
an egg and prepared as directed under A, No. 17, and 
stir into it an even tablespoonful of flour and a little 
salt, and then pour in enough boiling water to make a 
well bound sauce. Let it cook for a few minutes, take 
from the fire and stir through it a piece of butter the 
size of an egg and a few tablespoonfuls of mustard. 

31. A flustard Sauce for Soup Heat, etc. Cream 
% pound of butter, stir into it the yolks of 6 eggs, a 
small cupful of mustard, a little flour, the juice ofnalf a 
lemon, sugar according to taste, 2 cupfuls of claret and 
enough bouillon (about 1 cupful) so that the sauce will 
be well bound. Put the sauce on the fire just before 
serving, and stir constantly until it comes to a boil. 
This quantity of sauce is sufficient for 10 persons. 

32. Sorrel Sauce for Fish and Soup Meat. Take a 
handful of sorrel leaves, wash and cut them finely. 
Then brown 1 heaping tablespoonful of flour, a piece of 
butter the size of an egg, add the sorrel, stir for a few 
minutes until tender and pour in as much bouillon as is 
necessary to bind the sauce, stirring constantly; add 
some nutmeg and salt and when it boils stir with it 
some butter and the yolks of 1—2 eggs, or instead of 
the eggs 1 — 2 spoonfuls of thick sour cream. 

33. Boiled Horse Radish Sauce for Soup Meat. The 

horse radish is grated and kept covered so that it will not 
lose its strength. In the meantime cook bouillon with 
plenty of fat, currants, a little vinegar and a piece of 
sugar, salt, butter and rolled crackers, and stir through 
the horse radish. The sauce must be quite thick- Serve 
with beef, veal or smoked meats. 



358 E.— Sauces. 

34. Parsley Sauce for Soup J*leat ; also served with 
Potatoes. Rub kidney suet in flour, add salt and water 
and after it has boiled stir through it a piece of butter, 
finely chopped parsley and extract of beef. 

35. Chestnut Sauce for Smoked Meats. Put the 

chestnuts on the fire in boiling water, cook until tender 
and then peel. Put them into a dish in which a half or 
a whole spoonful of sugar was lightly browned, and 
pour over them sauce No. 3, but without capers, ancho- 
vies and mushrooms. 

This sauce is served with smoked meats and brown 
or winter cabbage. 

36. Claret Sauce with Raisins, for stewing Beef 
Tongue, Sour Rolls and Beef. 2 tablespoonfuls of flour 
are browned in butter and stirred with tongue broth 
and water ; to this add 2 ounces of raisins cooked in 
water until tender, 1 cupful of claret, lemon juice or 
some vinegar, lemon peel, mace, a few pounded cloves, a 
littlesugar and salt. The tongue, either whole or cut 
into slices, is put into this sauce until it comes to a 
boil ; then add a little extract of beef, which gives the 
sauce a better taste and a nicer color. 

'37. Raisin Sauce. No. 2. Heat a piece of kidney 
suet 'the size of a walnut, brown in this a finely sliced 
onion and 1 — 2 spoonfuls of flour, stir with boiling 
water to a well bound sauce, add some ground and 
whole cloves, salt, plenty of raisins, and pickles cut into 
small slices, let the raisins cook until tender and stir 
together with a trifle of sugar or syrup with % of a tea- 
spoonful of extract of beef. Cut the meat into slices and 
stew slowly in the sauce for 10 — 15 minutes. 

38. White Sauce for stewing Tongue or Boiled 
Beef. Brown onions cut into small pieces in butter and 
flour, pour into this some of the broth in which the 
tongue was cooked, add 2—3 bay leaves, a little white 
pepper, nutmeg arid a glassful of white wine or some 
pickles peeled and cut into slices. Stew the tongue slices 
in this for- % hour and when serving strain the sauce and 
stir through it the yolk of an egg. 

39. Sauce for Head of Veal. Brown a few eschalots 7 
or 2 onions in butter, stir in 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 



Hot Sauces for Fish, Meats, Etc. 359 

some veal broth and boiling water to make a well 
bound sauce and let this boil for % hour with 2 carrots, 
parsley roots, 1 bay leaf, a little cayenne pepper and 
lemon peel. Then pass the sauce through a sieve, put 
in a few lemon slices, a little sugar and salt, let it cook 
and then stir in a small teaspoonful of extract of beef, a 
little butter and a glassful of Madeira or white wine. 

40. Sauce for Veal, Lamb or Chicken. For 6 per- 
sons take 2 teaspoonfuls of flour and rub it with a piece 
of butter, pour into this 1 cupful of strong chicken 
broth, nutmeg, lemon juice and salt, cook the sauce and 
stir with it the yolks of 3 eggs, and a piece of fresh 
butter. A little chopped parsley can be stirred with the 
yolks of the eggs, or else 1—1% tablespoonfuls of capers 
can be added. The sauce must be well bound. 

41. English Crab Sauce for Cauliflower. The yolks 
of 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of flour, nutmeg, salt, 1 cup- 
ful of crab butter. Add to this 1 pint of bouillon, con- 
stantly stirring, until just before it commences to boil, 
then take from the fire and stir for a short time longer. 
The sauce must be well bound. This sauce served with 
cauliflower makes a nice dish. 

42. English Butter Sauce for Vegetables. Eub % 

pound of butter with 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, add salt, 
pepper, some nutmeg and the necessary bouillon to 
make a well bound sauce; a double kettle is necessary 
for its preparation. This sauce is served with vege- 
tables cooked in salted water only. 

43. Sauce for Cauliflower. Hub % tablespoonful of 
flour in some fresh butter, pour in some fresh milk or 
bouillon, or what is better half bouillon and half cauli- 
flower water, nutmeg, salt, and stir until the sauce is 
quite thick ; stir through it at the last the yolks of 1 —2 
eggs and a piece of fresh butter. 

44. Asparagus Sauce. No. 1 . For 4 persons take the 
yolks of 2 eggs and a heaping tablespoonful of flour, 
stir into this 2 tablespoonfuls of sweet or sour cream 
and 1 cupful of asparagus broth or water, add nutmeg, 
and a little lemon juice or vinegar, and a piece of sugar 
the size of a hazelnut, beat the sauce over a quick fire 



360 E.— Sauces. 

with a beater ]ust before it boils, take from the fire, stir 
into it a piece of butter the size of an egg and pour into 
the sauce boat. If the sauce is not salty enough add a 
trifle. The sauce must be well bound . 

45. Asparagus Sauce. No. 2. For 4 persons take 
a large piece of butter, 3 — 4 tablespoonfuls of aspara- 
gus broth, or water, a little salt, and 1 spoonful of 
rolled crackers. Give the sauce a seasoning of lemon 
juice or vinegar and bring to a boil, constantly stirring. 

46. Sauce for Asparagus, Cauliflower, etc. 1 pint 
of Khinewine is stirred with the yolks of 8 eggs, 3 ounces 
of butter, 1 cupful of the vegetable broth, 1 cupful of 
bouillon, a little salt, pepper, a trifle of sugar and about 
lteaspoonful of cornmeal in a double kettle, and cooked 
until thick. Pour over the vegetables and serve. 

47. Sour Egg Sauce for Salad Beans, also for Pota- 
toes. Take 1 cupful of cold water and mix with it 
enough vinegar to give the sauce the required acidity. 
Stir into this the yolks of 3 eggs and 1 teaspoonfur of 
flour, a piece of butter, some nutmeg and if the butter 
is but slightly salty, add a very little salt. Beat the 
sauce constantly with a beater until just before it boils, 
take from the fire and stir for a few minutes so that it 
will not curdle, then stir into it another piece of butter,- 

48. Sour ililk Sauce for Bean Salads, Hot Potatoes 
and Endives. Take a piece of kidney suet, try it out as 
directed under A, No. 17, heat and stir into it % — 1 
tablespoonful of flour, pour into it enough milk to 
make a well bound sauce, season with pepper and salt, 
or if liked a little nutmeg, and bring to a boil quickly. 
Then take the sauce from the fire, stir into it a large 
piece of butter and a little vinegar; stir through the 
beans, put them on the stove until heated through, 
take from the Are, and serve them in the sauce with the 
potatoes. 

49. Sauce made of Onions pickled in Tarragon and 
Dill, for stewing Soup Heat or to pour over Potatoes. 

Take a piece of butter or kidney suet, heat it and brown 
in it 1 tablespoonful of flour, stir into it some good 
broth or some water Avith some dissolved extract of 
beef, salt, pepper, 1—2 bay leaves, some pickled onions 



Hot Sauces for Fish, Meats, Etc. 361 

and as much of the oniou vinegar as is necessary to 
pleasantly acidulate the sauce, and then cook. Stew 
the meat in this for about 10 minutes, or pour the 
sauce over the potatoes. 

50. Brown Onion Sauce with Bacon for Potatoes. 

Cut some bacon into little pieces, fry slowly until brown, 
turning* the pieces; then take plenty of onions, also cut 
into small pieces, add to the bacon, brown them, then 
add 1—2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir this all to- 
gether. Add vinegar, water and salt to' taste and let 
the sauce cook. 

51. Light Onion Sauce with Bacon for Potatoes. 

Cut some bacon into small pieces and try slowly, lightly 
brown some flour in this and pour in some boiling 
water. Then put in plenty of .onions cut into small 
pieces, cook until tender, and add a little salt, pepper 
and a little vinegar. 

52. Poor Han's Sauce. In 2 ounces of butter 
brown a tablespoonful of flour, add to this a table- 
spoonful of grated brown bread and a tablespoonful of 
grated roll, cook this for % of an hour with 2 cupf uls of 
water, a little extract of beef and a glassful of wine. 
Season the sauce with pepper and lemon peel and serve 
with boiled veal or lamb. 

53. Bacon Sauce for Salad. Cut the bacon into 
small pieces and fryto a light yellow color, stir with the 
yolks of 2 eggs, 1 spoonful of flour, 4 — 5 spoonfuls of 
vinegar, a little water and salt, and bring the sauce to 
a boil, constantly stirring until it is well bound. It 
must be cold before serving with the salad. 

54. Syrup Sauce for Salad or fleat. For this sauce 
take butter, fried out bacon or other good fat, lightly 
brown in this 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and if liked 1 — 2 
finely sliced onions, stir with boiling water to a smooth 
sauce and add as much vinegar, syrup, salt and pepper 
as will give the sauce a sweet-sour taste. If the meat is 
to be stewed in this, add 2 ounces of currants, 4 bay 
leaves and a few ground cloves. 



362 E.— Sauces. 

B. COLD SAUCES AND GRAVIES. 

55. A La Diable Sauce. Served with all Kinds of 
Cold Meats. Grate-the yolks of 4 hard boiled eggs, add 
6 tablespoonfuls of claret, 4 spoonfuls of salad oil, 2 
spoonfuls of mustard, juice of 2 juicy lemons, a little 
fine white pepper, salt, chopped eschalots, % of a finely 
sliced apple, a little sugar and if the sauce is not sour 
enough a little wine vinegar. Rub the yolks of 2 hard 
boiled eggs with a little vinegar until smooth, add the 
oil, a little at a time, then the other ingredients and stir 
the sauce until the oil no longer appears. 

56. Remoulade Sauce. 2 large grated onions, the 
finely grated yolks of 3 hard boiled eggs, 8 teaspoon- 
fuls of mustard, 4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 1 table- 
spoonful of sugar, 1 cupful of \Vine vinegar, white pepper 
and salt, and if liked 3—4 finely chopped anchovies. 
This is all stirred together, but not boiled, then stir 
briskly' through a sieve. Capers can also be added if 
wished. 

This sauce is appropriate with all cold fish, roas,ts 
and pickled meats. 

57. Mayonnaise with all Kinds of Cold Fish and 
Meat, and different J*leat Salads. No. I. Take the 
yolks of 3 hard boiled eggs and the yolk of 1 raw egg, 
rub smooth with 2 teaspoonfuls of mustard, 1 — 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, 1 teaspoonful of grated eschalots, 
salt, a very little white pepper and the juice of a lemon 
Or a little wine vinegar. Then add to it, constantly 
stirring, a very small cupful of salad oil, pouring in a 
very little at a time, and when this is all stirred to- 
gether, gradually add % cupful of strong bouillon and 
as much vinegar as is deemed necessary. The sauce 
must be well bound and smooth. The 'flavor of the 
mayonnaise can be changed by adding some anchovy 
butter, capers, finely sliced vinegar pickles, tarragon or 
parsley. 

. Some people prefer the mayonnaise made of the 
yolks of raw eggs only. Take the yolks of 5 eggs, rub 
them until fine, add a little pepper, salt and mustard 
and stir with the yolks_of._the eggs. 1 small cupful 
of salad oil is added to this drop by drop, stirring 



Cold Sauces and Gravies. 363 

constant^, finally adding a few drops of lemon juice. 
If the sauce is quite thick stir to it according to taste a 
little wine vinegar. 

For lobster- or fish mayonnaise the eggs of the 
lobster are stirred with the mayonnaise, which gives it 
a deep red color. 

For elaborate dinner parties the above mayonnaise 
.is often served with caviar to cold fish in jelly. " Put the 
caviar on a sieve, rinse in cold water until the roes are 
separated into single kernels and 'just before serving 
mix with the mayonnaise. For poultry or veal rolls in 
jelly, stir into the mayonnaise, according to the French 
style, about 3 spoonfuls of finely chopped boiled ham, 
first passing the ham through a sieve, then adding it to 
the mayonnaise. * 

58. Boiled Mayonnaise. Noi 2. (Very nice and 
easily digestible.) Stir 4 raw eggs, 3 spoonfuls of salad 
oil, 1 spoonful of vinegar, salt, pepper and 3 spoonfuls 
of bouillon in a double kettle until thick, whip the sauce 
until it has cooled somewhat and stir through it 4 
tablespoonfuls of thick sour cream. Another way is to 
take the yolks of 6 eggs, 2 spoonfuls of flour, 1 pint of 
sweet cream, 4 spoonfuls of oil, 4 spoonfuls of vinegar, 
salt and pepper, and stir until smooth, whip in a double 
kettle until thick and then pass through a sieve. Butter 
is often used instead of oil in this mayonnaise, but does 
not taste as well. Fine soup herbs, capers, cucumbers, 
etc., can also be used. 

59. Sauce for Cold Grouse and Pork Rolls in Jelly. 
2—3 tablespoonfuls of calves' foot jelly or gelatine, 3 — i 
tablespoonfuls of.olive oil, 3 tablespoonfuls of tarragon 
vinegar or sharp wine vinegar and tarragon, pepper- 
mint and eschalots, all finely chopped, white pepper and 
salt. Stir this all together until it is a thick sauce and 
well bound. 

60. Cumberland Sauce for Pig's Head, etc. Stir 
1 teaspoonful of mustard with 1 tablespoonful of olive 
oil, add % bottle of Burgundy, 1 large cupful of thick 
brown sauce No. 2 or 3, and 6 ounces of currant jelly; 
whip the sauce until all the ingredients are well mixed. 
Then add salt, pepper and lemon juice and put the 
sauce into a cool place until wanted. 



364 R.— Sauces. 

61. Prepared Mustard for various Kinds of Heats. 

Slice 4 onions, 4 pieces of garlic, and 8 bay leaves very 
fine and cook for 10 minutes in 1 quart of sharp wine 
vinegar, add some sifted mustard meal and rub with a 
wooden spoon until it is thick. Then add 6 ounces of 
fine sugar, a few cloves, some cinnamon and put into a 
covered glass. 

62. Sour Hustard. Cook some vinegar with finely 
cut onions, garlic, tarragon, bay leaves, dill, pepper- 
mint or wide leaved cresses, whole pepper, cloves and 
salt, pass through a sieve, and after it. is cold stir into 
it some mustard meal. 

Served with cold meats. Will keep for a loug time 
when bottled. 

63. Herring Sauce. Freshen a herring in milk, bone 
and then chop it together with 3 hard boiled eggs and 
a few onions. Stir to a sauce with pepper, oil and 
vinegar. Served with cold roasts. 

64. Raw Horseradish Sauce. Stir % cupful of vine- 
gar and 1 cupful of sweet cream or water with salt and 
sugar, and mix with sufficient horseradish, which must 
be grated just before wanted, to make a thick sauce. 
Serve with melted butter with boiled fish, especially 
carp. 

65. Raw Radish Sauce. Wash and peel black rad- 
ishes and grate them; mix with a little salt, vinegar 
and oil, and serve with soup meat. A good sauce can 
also be made by taking 4 spoonfuls of grated horse- 
radish, 2 grated apples, omitting the oil and adding 
a little sugar to the vinegar. Serve with bread anc 
butter. 



.li^Cll LU l JJ.t7 V 1 ll\Z,£L(. 



66. Chives Sauce for cold or warm boiled Beef. 

Take the yolks of a few hard boiled eggs, grate them, 
mix with thick sour cream, add a little vinegar and a 
few spoonfuls of oil, stirring constantly until well 
bound ; then add a little more vinegar, pepper and. salt. 
This sauce served with thinly sliced veal is a nice side 
dish for salads or potatoes. 

67. Sauce for Meat Jelly and Cold Heats. No. 1. 
Take the grated yolks of a few hard boiled eggs, also 



Cold Sauces and Gravies. 365 

some wine vinegar, oil, sugar, mustard, a little pepper 
and salt. Stir the yolks of the eggs with the vinegar 
and add the other ingredients, constantly stirring. 
The sauce must have a tart flavor, but not too sour, 
and it must not taste too strongly of mustard. If 
wished capers, finely chopped anchovies and- eschalots 
can be.mixed through the sauce. 

68. Sauce for Heat Jelly. No. 2. Grated sour apples 
with mustard, oil, vinegar, sugar and a very little salt 
stirred together. 

69. Vegetable Butter. Take 1 tablespoonful of 
finely chopped parsley, eschalots and chervil, mix with 
]i pound of clarified and creamed butter, add the juice 
of a lemon and a little salt, pepper and nutmeg. Especi- 
ally for beef steaks. 

70. A good Salad Sauce. 1 — 2 fresh hard boiled 
eggs, the fresh yolk of 1 raw egg, a little wine vinegar, 
4'spoonfuls of salad oil, 1 spoonful of mustard, a little 
salt, a very little white, pepper, 2 finely chopped escha- 
lots, 1 tablespoonful of claret, 2 teaspoonfuls of finely 
chopped tarragon. Rub the yolks of the eggs with the 
vinegar, then, constantly stirring, add mustard, pepper, 
eschalots, tarragon, a little salt (and if needed a little 
sugar), and by degrees the oil and wine. At last stir in 
as much vinegar as will give the sauce the required 
acidity; too much vinegar will spoil the salad. The 
sauce must be well stirred so that the oil will not be 
noticeable. By adding a little anchovy butter, the 
sauce will be much improved. 



2. Wine, Milk and Fruit Sauces. 

71. White Wine Sauce. Stir 1 heaping teaspoon- 
ful of flour with the yolks of 4 eggs and 1 pint of white 
wine ; take 3 tablespoonf uls of sugar, lemon peel and a 
little cinnamon, stir all together and let it come almost 
to a boil, stirring constantly, then pour into another 
vessel, stir so that it will not curdle and put into a 
sauce boat. 



366 K.— Sauces. 

72. White Cream Sauce. Take 4 fresh whipped 
eggs, 1 large cupful of wine, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 
heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, a few slices of lemon 
and some whole cinnamon (vanilla is better). This is 
whipped with an egg beater on the stove until it nearly 
boils, -then pour into another vessel and whip for 
another minute so that it will not curdle. 

73. White Cream Sauce with Rum. Take 1 large 
cupful of wine, 1 teaspoonful of fine flour, 2 eggs, the 
juice of 1 lemon, the thin peel of half of the lemon and 
3 tablespoonfuls of sugar; whip constantly until the 
cream is thick, then pour into another dish and whip a 
small glassful of rum through it. 

74. Cold Punch Sauce is made the same as the pre- 
ceding, taking instead of the whole eggs the yolks of 3 
large or 4 small eggs, stir the sauce until it uearlyboils, 
then take from the fire, let it cool, and add a glassful of 
arrac. This is a good sauce for cold puddings. 

75. Parisian Sauce for warm Puddings. Whip 1 
pint of sherry with 2% heaping teaspoonfuls of sugar, 
the yolks of 6 eggs and 3"spoonhils of apricot jelly until 
it nearly boils, then quickly stir into it 6 tablespoonfuls 
of thick sweet cream . Serve immediately. 

76. English Sauce for Plum Pudding. Stir 10 table- 
spoonfuls of apple jelly with 5 spoonfuls of brandy until 
it becomes watery, then add 2 cupfuls of thick sweet 
cream, whip on the stove until boiling hot and serve 
immediately. 

77. Claret Sauce. Take 1 pint of claret, % pound of 
sugar, a few pieces of cinnamon, the thin rind of half of 
a lemon and 2 tablespoonfuls of raspberry- or currant 
jelly, cover the dish and put it on the stove until it; is 
boiling hot, then smooth some cornstarch in cold water 
and add as much of it to the sauce as will give it the 
proper consistency. Serve in a sauce boat. 

78. Claret Sauce with dried Currants. Take 1—2 
ounces of dried currants, % of a lemon cut into thin 
slices (being careful to remove the seeds), and a few- 
pieces of cinnamon. Put this into 1 large cupful of 
water, cover and cook slowly for about a quarter of. an 



Wine, Milk and Fruit Sauces. 367 

hour, or until the currants have become softened. Then 
add 1 large cupful of wine and sugar and when it is boil- 
ing hot, add a little cornstarch smoothed in water, to 
bind the sauce. 

79. Cold Claret Sauce with Rum. This sauce is 
made the same as claret sauce, only adding more sugar. 
After taking it from the fire and it has cooled some- 
what, stir through it 1 small cupful of rum. 

80. Red Cream Sauce. Follow the directions given 
for white cream sauce, but use claret. Instead of taking 
lemon slices use fruit syrup or currant jelly if preferred. 

81. Pure Sago Sauce. For 6 persons take about 
2% ounces of sago, wash and cook slowly with a little 
water, whole cinnamon and lemon peel, then add some 
sugar, the juice of a lemon and some wine; boil until 
the sauce is of the proper thickness, let it come to a boil 
again and then strain. Pure sago must cook for at 
least 2 hours. Pearl sago can also be used and requires 
only % hour cooking. 

82. Chocolate Sauce. After dissolving 2% ounces of 
chocolate (see under V, Nos. 4 and 5), add 1 large cupful 
of sweet cream, 1 large cupful of milk flavored with a 
little vanilla, add sugar and stir the sauce with the 
yolks of 2 eggs. 

83. Almond Sauce. 1 ounce of pounded almonds 
(2 or 3 can be bitter), are cooked slowly with milk and 
a little vanilla for a quarter of an hour, strain, then 
add 1 pint of milk or cream, 2 teaspoonfuls of flour and 
sugar, cook again, then stirwith the yolks of 2 — 3 eggs. 

84. Cold Cream Sauce with Jelly or Claret. Appro- 
priate with milk dishes of all kinds. Take 1 cupful of 
dissolved raspberry or currant jelly — or the juice — whip 
with 1 large cupful of sweet cream until it is creamy. 
Or else whip half claret and half thick cream with sugar 
and cinnamon until it creams, and then stir through 
it a few spoonfuls of arrac. 

85. Sauce *nade of Fresh Currants. Served warm or 
cu/d. Take 1 pint of fresh currant juice, % pOund of 
sugar and a little cinnamon. Put the juice of the cur- 
rants on the stove with 1 large cupful of water together 



368 R.— Satjces. 

with sugar and cinnamon, remove any scum that may 
appear and thicken the sauce with a little cornstarch 
smoothed in water. 

86. Currant Juice Sauce. After the juice has been 
pressed from the currants as in making jelly, put it into 
a dish and stir with powdered sugar for a quarter of an 
hour before serving. To a pint of juice take % pound of 
sugar. This sauce, which has a pretty color and is very 
refreshing and delicious, is unexcelled for blanemangers 
and cold rice dishes. 

87. Raspberry Sauce. Cook raspberry sauce or jelly 
with water and white sour wine, cinnamon and sugar 
and thicken a little with cornstarch smoothed in water. 

88. Strawberry Sauce. Take fresh picked straw- 
berries (wild berries are the best), press them through a 
strainer, mix with % pound of sugar, the juice of 1 lemon 
and about 1 pint of Madeira, whip the sauce on the 
stove until it boils. This sauce is served warm with 
puddings. 

If you wish to serve this sauce cold, with cold pud- 
dings, do not boil it but stir with strawberry juice, 
sugar and vanilla and about 1 pint of thick sweet cream 
for about half an hour. Both kinds are very good 
sauces. 

89. Cream Sauce from Raspberry or Currant Juice. 

Whip 4 fresh eggs, 1 teaspoonful of flour and 1 pint of 
fresh raspberries or currant juice on the stove, sweeten 
with sugar and whip with an egg beater, but do not 
boil. When takingthe juice of preserved berries mix 
with one-third the quantity of wine or water. 

90. Sauce made of Fresh or Dried Cherries. Take 
dried sour cherries with a few stones, pound them in a 
mortar with the addition of a few lemon slices, and 
then strain through a large sieve. Then cook the sauce 
again, add sugar, ground cinnamon and a few cloves, 
thicken the sauce with cornstarch smoothed in water 
until it is of the proper consistency. If liked, a little 
arrac can also be added. 

91. Sauce for Farina Pudding. Cook 1 pint of white 
wine, 1 pint of water, the juice of a lemon and a little 



Wine, Milk and Fruit Sauces. 369 

of the peel with % pound of sugar and 1 tablespoonful 
of cornstarch smoothed in a little water for a few min- 
utes, then stir through it a cupful of preserved tutti- 
frutti, (see N, No. 36). I 

92. Sauce for Nos. 140, 141, 142 and 143, Division S. 

1 small cupful of milk and % pound of sifted flour, the 
yolks of 4 eggs, a little salt, then the beaten whites of 
the eggs with a tablespoonful of rum mixed through the 
sauce. Dip the bread or roll into this and bake in 
butter or lard. 



S. — Pastry, Cakes, etc. 



I. CAKES. 



1. General Directions. To be successful with cakes, 
pastry, etc., their ingredients should be put into a warm 
place for a few hours— in the Winter for a night— to get 
them to the proper temperature, and the stirring and 
working should also be done in a warm place where 
there is no draught. With pie crust and puff paste this 
is not necessary. When the whites of eggs are to be 
frothed, they should not be brought where it is warm 
before they are to be used. Directions for frosting see 
A, No. 2. 

The flour and cornstarch used must always be of 
the best quality. As soon as warm both the flour and 
sugar should be sifted ; for very fine cakes the addition 
of some rice flour is recommended. Flour and sugar 
are more or less moist and should then be sifted after 
warming and drying. 

The butter used should be of the best and unsalted. 
Cream the butter, put it on boiling water or on top of 
the stove until soft, but it must not melt, then with a 
wooden ladle rub it to a cream. 

The eggs must be perfectly fresh ; a single slightly 
stale egg will be sufficient to spoil the cake, and for this 
reason eggs should be broken into a separate dish. The 
extract of lemon can often be substituted for lemon peel 
and juice. Lemon peel used in too large a quantity will 
impart an unpleasant taste to any dish, and the same 
is the case with cardamom seeds, which are not liked 
bv everybody. Cakes* in which yeast is used can be 
nicely flavored with rose water. Before the dough is put 



Cakes. 371 

into the mould be sure that the latter has been prop- 
erly prepared, nicely cleaned, rubbed with butter and 
dredged "with rolled crackers or grated bread so that it 
will not be necessary to first get the mould ready while 
the dough is waiting for it. Many a cake is spoiled 
through this cause. Puff paste does not require a 
buttered mould. 

Puff paste must never be kneaded, because this will 
make it heavy. To have it light and flakey put the 
butter into the "middle of the flour, stir and work the- 
dough with a knife at first, then with the ball of the 
hand, turning the dough frequently and folding it from 
the sides to the center, often dusting with flour and con- 
tinue in this manner until flour and butter are thor- 
oughly mixed ; then set aside in a cool place for a few 
hours. 

The addition of baking powder in biscuits, bread 
and almond cakes and the like will tend to make them 
lighter. 

When using yeast be cautious to get it fresh and 
sweet. For baking with yeast the milk must be luke- 
Avarm and the flour, butter, sugar and the baking dish 
should also be slightly warm. When using baking pow- 
der all of the ingredients should be cold. After the 
dough has been well stirred, it will be greatly improved, 
smoother and finer if the mass is vigorously and unin- 
terruptedly beaten for a while. To beat a soft dough 
use the flat side of a ladle. Firm doughs are beaten on 
the moulding board; fold the dough and continue the 
beating and folding as long as indicated in the several 
receipts. Afterwards set the dough in a warm place 
where there is no draught, cover with a clean cloth and 
let it raise for 1% — 2 hours. Slow fermentation produces 
a mild dough, whereas if it raises too quickly the dough 
will be tough. 

The degree of heat in the oven can be tested by 
means of a piece of paper. If the paper soon turns to a 
yellow (not black) color in the oven, this indicates the 
first degree of heat and is sufficient for puff paste and 
yeast doughs ; if it turns yellow slowly it indicates the 
second degree of heat, fit for most kinds of baking; the 
third degree must be still lower for cakes, etc., that 
should drv more than bake. 



372 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

In the receipts for the cakes, the time for baking is 

fiveri as precisely as possible, but the length of time to 
nish the baking depends largely upon the heat of the 
oven; there are vario us tests for determining how near 
the cake is done, such as piercing it with a straw or 
something similar, whieh, if dry when drawn Out, indi- 
cates £hat the cake is done. Leaving the cake in the 
oven unnecessarily long is very detrimental to it, partic- 
ularly if it is a yeast cake. 

After the cake has been taken out of the oven let it 
stand in the mould for about 10 minutes where there is 
no draught. Then take it out of the mould but do not 
bring it into a cold room at once. Cake moulds made 
so that the outer rim is removable are the best, because 
then the cake can be taken out without shaking, which 
causes spongy cakes to fall. All kinds of cakes should 
be turned out of the mould onto a wire cake cooler, 
which will allow them to cool more readily. The mould 
should be cleaned with soft paper or a cloth immedi- 
ately after being used. 

Cakes will keep best in a tightly covered porcelain 
or glass dish. Tin cake boxes are also very good, but 
must be cleaned from time to time with hot water and 
frequently aired. Yeast or fruit cakes are the best when 
fresh, although they are good after a few days when 
placed in the oven for a few moments before serving. If 
it should happen that a fruit cake is not baked until 
done at first, it will not lose in taste if it is finished the 
next day in a hot oven. 

2. Puff Paste. J. pqund of dry flour, 1 pound of 
good butter, 1 — 1% cupfuls of cold water, 1 small glass- 
ful of rum or arrac and 1 whole egg. 

The evening before wanted, wash the butter so that 
it will become firm, spread on a plate to about the 
thickness of 1 inch and put into the cellar. The next 
day put the flour on the bread board, make a depres- 
sion in the center of the flour, put in the egg, water and 
rum, stir with a knife and work the dough with the 
hands as you would bread. It must not be too stiff, 
neither must it stick to the hands. Then roll out about 
% inch thick, put the butter on this, fold the dough and 
set aside in a cool place for a while. Then roll again, 
usirig but very little flour for dusting. Brush off any 



Cakes. 373 

flour that may be on the dough, fold again and set 
aside for a second time. Proceed in this manner until 
the dough has been set aside four times. Before rolling 
the dough for the fourth time, cut off a piece for the 
edge, roll *the larger piece uiitil quite thin, lay on this a 
plate of the desired size and cut the dough, dust a 
very little flour over this and fold it, because it can be 
handled better that way, and put it onto the plate, 
brush off any flour that may be on the dough, wet the 
edge all around with egg or a little water, lay an edge 
of the rolled dough on this and with a knife cut into the 
dough in various places so that it will not blister. Pro- 
ceed in this manner until all the dough is used and bake 
immediately, otherwise the puff paste will not be good. 
Bake to a golden brown. 

s 3. Saarbruck Puff Paste. % pound of butter pre- 
pared as directed under No. 2, % pound of flour, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of arrac and a large half cupful of cold water. 
Half of the flour is made into a dough with water 
and the arrac, then the butter and the remaining flour 
kneaded into the dough, each part rolled separately, 
then lay one on the other and roll out three times more. 

4. Good Crust for Pies and Pastry. To 1 pound 
of flour take % pound of good freshened butter, 1 whole 
and the yolk of 1 egg, and 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy 
or rum. The flour is pu+ intc a pan, the butter broken 
into small pieces and mixec 1 through the flour. Make a 
depression in the center o. the flour, beat the egg in 
% cupful of water, add to the flour with the brandy, Stir 
to a dough with a knife rolling it four times like puff 
paste. 

Remark.— This dough is especially nice In the Summer, because in warm 
weather a puff paste is hard to make tor those not accustomed to it. 

.5. English Crust for Tarts, Cookies, etc. 1 pound 
of flour, % pound of sifted sugar, % pound of pounded 
almonds, the yolk of 1 raw egg, the yolks of 9 hard 
boiled eggs chopped very fine, 10 ounces of freshened 
butter broken into small pieces and enough white wine 
to make an easily rolled dough. 

6. ' Oood Batter for large Cakes. To 1% pounds of 
flour take 1 pound of freshened butter, 2 ounces, of sugar 



374 S.— Pastby, Cakes, Etc. 

and % wineglassful of cold water. This is all worked 
together, but not kneaded. Then set the dough aside 
in a cool place, roll and bake in a moderately hot oven. 

7. Yeast Batter for German Fruit Cakes. 1 pound 
of warmed flour, % pound of freshened butter, 1 egg, the 
yolks of 2 eggs, 3 spoonfuls of sugar, 1. small cupful of 
lukewarm milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of dissolved yeast. 
Mix the yeastwith a very little sugar and a teaspoonful 
of salt, stir one-half of the flour with milk and one-half 
of the yeast, then add the remaining flour, the softened 
butter, yeast and salt, stir the dough as given under 
No. 1, roll or press it with the hands and set aside to 
raise in a warm place. 

8. A Cream for large fresh Prune Cake. 1 quart 
of thick sour cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 1 tea- 
spoonful of cinnamon, vanilla or a little grated lemon 
peel. Whip up the cream with*the whole eggs, and when 
the cake is almost done put it over the cake a spoonful 
at a time. After the cake is baked, strew some sugar 
thickly over it. 

9. Frosting for Tarts or small Cakes and for Dec- 
orating. % pound of powdered sugar, the white of an 
egg beaten to a froth, the juice of a large lemon or 
1 tablespoonful of rum or arrac. 

Stir the sugar and lemon peel together, then add 
the beaten white of the egg, a spoonful at a time, stir- 
ring constantly until as white as snow. This icing is 
poured over the cake after it has cooled, drying it in the 
sun or in the oven. The cake can be decorated with 

Eowdered sugar, but this must be done before the icing 
as cooled. 

10. To color Icing. A portion of the icing can be 
colored, leaving part of it white for decorating: Brown — 
by grating into it a little chocolate; red — by stirring 
into it a little currant- or raspberry juice ; dark red — by 
adding a trifle of cochineal ; (do not season the icing 
with lemon or it will have a yellowish red color ; a little 
dissolved red gelatine can also be used); blue — with 
kermes and a little lemon juice ; violet — with extract of 
violet ; yellow — lemon rind grated on sugar or saffron, 
dropping a little brandy on it ; green — with a little spin- 
ach juice. 



Cakes. 375 

11. Colored Sugar for Decorating. Put J£ pound of 
poppy seed into a dish, boil % pound of sugar dissolved 
in a little water, and after it has cooled somewhat put 
1 spoonful over the poppy seed and stir with the flat 
hand until it commences to get cold. Repeat 8 — 10 
times, when all of the sugar will be used. 

The coloring is done in the following manner ; Red — 
with a little cochineal ; yellow — saffron (using but very 
little), letting it draw in a few drops of brandy; some 
of the sugar remains white. Many colors are adulter- 
ated and none other than the above mentioned should 
be used. 

12. Lubec Marzapan. 1 pound of fresh, sweet al- 
monds, 1 pound of powdered sugar, orangeflower water 
and some sugar for dusting. 

Blanch the almonds and dry them in a cloth, grate 
and then put. them into a stewpan on a slow fire with 
orangeflower water and stir until they no longer adhere 
to the hands, but they must not be any dryer. Then 
put on a bread board dusted with sugar, roll, dusting 
enough sugar underneath and over the almond paste 
to prevent sticking, form into cakes with a nice edge or 
stamp out small figures and bake in a slow oven, not 
allowing the marzapan to become hard, but keeping it 
white and soft. 

13. Almond Marzapan. 1 pound of the best sweet 
and % ounce of bitter almonds, 1 pound of powdered 
sugar and rosewater. 

The almonds are prepared as in the above receipt. 
Then grate as fine as flour, mix with the sugar and 
rosewater to a stiff dough, which must not be too soft 
when rolling it out. Dust the bread board with sugar, 
divide the dough into round pieces, roll out to about 
the thickness of a table knife and cut into small round 
cakes or any other desired shape. In making the edge, 
roll the dough quite long, cut into narrow strips and 
brush with rosewater, and indent the edge with the 
thumb or with a knife. At this stage heat the cover of 
a tart pan with glowing coa)s, put the cakes on some 
paper, place the hot cover over them and bake to a 
light yellow. Let them cool on the paper and lay on a 
flat dish. In the meantime stir 1 pound of powdered 



376 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

sugar with rosewater for % hour, fill the marzapan to 
the edge with this and as soon as the sugar is hard lay 
over it some preserved fruits. 

14. Marseilles Tarts. 1 pound of flour, 6 ounces 
of sugar, the yolks of 4 and 2 whole eggs and 2 table- 
spoonfuls of butter are made into a dough, roll quite 
thick, cut into small cubes and bake in freshened butter 
to a light yellow color Then melt 1% pounds of sugar 
and a littlr rose or orangeflower water and after skim- 
ming the sugar add 3 ounces of finely sliced candied 
orange peel, the sliced peel of a fresh lemon, 2 ounces of 
sweet and 1 ounce of bitter almonds cut into pieces, 
jounce of cinnamon, % ounce of cloves, % ounce of car- 
damom seeds, all finely pounded and mixed with the 
dough. Then press the whole into a warm mould which 
has been brushed with wax, let it cool and turn onto 
a dish. 

15. Bride's Cake. 1 pound of fresh butter, 1 pound 
of fresh grated almonds, 1 pound of powdered sugar, 
1 pound of warmed flour, 12 eggs, the grated rind of a 
lemor and a teaspoonful of mace. For brushing the 
cakes use 1 the yolks of 4 eggs, % pound of powdered 
sugar, Yi pound of freshened butter and the juice of 
4 lemons, using the grated rind of one of them. 

Cream the butter (see No. 1) add sugar, spices, the 
yolks of eggs and almonds under constant stirring, 
and stir for % hour as directed under No. 1. Then 
slowly add the flour, also the beaten whites of the eggs, 
and bake four cakes of equal size with a moderate fire 
to a dark yellow, not brown, color. 

Cover the cakes with a lemon cream, letting the 
butter melt on a slow fire, stir sugar, lemon peel, yolks 
of eggs and lemon juice to the butter until it is thick, 
take from the fire, stir for a while longer, spread three 
cakes with this, pour over the top the frosting given 
under No. 9, and decorate the top. This cake is much 
nicer when it is a few days old, which is the case with all 
layer cakes. Being very rich this cake is cutjnto fine 
slices when sent to the table. Eemnants of the cake can 
be kept for some time by taking care of them as directed 
uider No. 1. 



Cakes. 377 

16. Vienna Cake. For the cake use^ pound of 
freshened butter, % pound of powdered sugar, % pound 
of sifted flour, 2 ounces of finely pounded almonds, the 
grated rind of a lemon and 10 eggs. For a cream to 
cover the cake take nice apples, the juice of a lemon, 
1 cupful of arrac, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, a 
piece of butter the size of 2 walnuts and the yolks of 
3 eggs. 

Stir butter, sugar and lemon peel together, gradually 
add, constantly stjrring, the yolks of the eggs and the 
almonds, and stir for % hour as given under No. 1. 
Then stir into it the flour and the beaten whites of the 
eggs; this will make 3 — 4 cakes. Grate some sour 
apples, take the juice and putit into an enameled kettle, 
add sugar and cook, stirring often, until it begins to 
thicken, add lemon juice, butter and the yolks of the 
eggs, take from the fire and mix through it the arrac. 
Spread this over the cake and proceed as given under 
No. 15. Instead of this cream different fruit jellies can 
be used. 

17. Geneva Cake. 1 pound of sifted fldur, 1 pound 
of melted butter, 1 pound of powdered sugar, }i pound 
of grated almonds, the grated peel of a lemon and 
26 eggs. 

12 of the eggs are boiled until hai;d, grate the yolks, 
and mix them with the almonds; after, the butter be- 
comes hard it is creamed and then gradually add 6 
whole eggs, constantly stirring, also the yolks of 8 
eggs, sugar, lemon peel, almonds and at last the flour. 
This dough wfll make 6 cakes; bake them to a dark 
yellow color, spread with jelly, marmalade or fruit or 
with lemon cream as given under No. 15, and lay one 
on the other. After trimming the edges pour a frosting 
over the top. 

18. Punch Layer Cake. % pound of butter, % pound 
of sugar, % pound of cornstarch, 9 eggs, 1 lemon, % 
cupful of arrac. The butter is freshened, creamed and 
stirred with the yolks of the eggs, sugar, lemon peel and 
lemon juice for % hour, as given under No. 1. Then add 
the starch, lighty stir through it the beaten whites of 
the eggs, and after the arrac is stirred through the cake 
it is baked the same as sand cakes, 

Cover the cakes with punch frosting. 



878 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. , 

19. Almond Cake. No. 1. 1 pound of fresh sweet 
and % ounce of bitter almonds, % pound of sifted sugar, 
12—15 eggs, 1 lemon, a slip of mace, 2 heaping spoon- 
fuls of finely grated and sifted potato flour, or better 
still rice Hour. 

The almonds are hulled, washed, dried and grated, 
the yolks of the eggs stirred with the sugar on which half 
of the lemon is grated, then add the juice, mace and the 
almonds, constantly stirring for % hour (see No. 1). Mix 
the whites of the eggs lightly through this, then the 
flour and baking powder, pour into a form, put into a 
moderately hot oven and bake iorl% hours. Do not jar 
the form; the heat mustnotbestrongerfrom the bottom 
than from the top. To make this cake look prettier 
pour over it a frosting as given under No. 9, and dot 
this with preserved or candied fruit sliced as thin as 
paper. 

20. Almond Cake with Wheat Bread. No. 2. Take 
10 ounces of sifted sugar, 8 ounces of fresh sweet and 
1 ounce of bitter almonds, grated, 12 — 14 eggs, 6 ounces 
of not too stale grated and sifted wheat bread, and 
1 lemon. 

Grate some of the lemon peel on the sugar, stir it 
with the juice and the yolks of the eggs for J^hour as 
directed under No. 1, add the almonds to this and stir 
for ){ hour longer. When this is done mix the wheat 
bread quickly through the mass and lightly stir through 
it the beatetf whites of the eggs. The cake is baked a'nd 
frosted the same as the above cake. It can also, be 
baked in layers and spread with jelly. A very pretty 
way is to color one part green, one part red and one 
part brown. 

21. Orange Cake. Make an almond dough of 6 
ounces of grated almonds, % pound of sifted sugar, 
12 eggs (the whites beaten to a froth), a little more 
than 2 ounces of flour, 2 tablespoohfuls of arrac, or else 
half of the puff paste as given under No. 3, and out of 
this bake two layers. Then on the stove beat to a thick 
cream 2 whole and the yolks of 4 eggs, % pound of sifted 
sugar, the juice of 4 oranges, the juice of 2 lemons and 
the rind of an orange grated on some sugar, spread 
over one layer, put the other layer on this and frost the 
latter with the following: The juice ofl orange is stirred 



Cases. 379 

with % pound of Bitted sugar and 1 tablespoonful of 
water; then follow the directions as given under No. 9. 
By taking 1 — 2 teaspoonfuls of raspberry juice the frost- 
ing will be of a pretty red color ; when using this omit 
the water so that the frosting will not be too thin. 
Decorate the top layer with candied orange slices. 

22. Chocolate Cake. Stir % pound of butter to a 
cream and add 6 ounces of sugar, the yolks of 8 eggs, 
6 ounces of dissolved chocolate, 1 spoonful of vanilla, 
1 spoonful of lemon sugar and % pound of flour, con- 
stantly stirring, and beat the dough for % hour. Then 
stir through it the beaten whites of 6 eggs, pour into a 
buttered mould and bake in a moderately hot oven for 
1 hour. Spread with an icing made of 2 ounces of choc- 
olate, 4 spoonfuls of water and 3 ounces of sugar, and 
before serving spread over all some whipped cream. 

23. Potato Cake. 1% pounds of grated potatoes, 
1 6 eggs, % pound of sifted sugar, 5 ounces of sweet and 
1 ounce of bitter almonds, 1 lemon, 2 heaping table- 
spoonfuls of sifted potato flour. i 

Boil the potatoes in their jackets the day before, 
but not too tender, peel when cold, grate and then 
weigh them. Of this take 1% pounds, spread on a flat 
dish and set aside until the next day. Then stir the 
yolks of the eggs, and the sugar with the lemon peel 
grated over it, with the juice and the almonds for half 
an hour, gradually add the potatoes and then lightly 
stir through the mass the beaten whites of the eggs and 
the potato flour. The cake is immediately filled into a 
buttered form, put into the oven and baked the same as 
almond cake, very mealy potatoes are necessary. 

24. Farina Cake. Farina biscuits are easy to make 
and are nice for the sick, but the finest farina is required. 
To % pound of farina take 8— 10 eggs, % pound of sugar, 
1 lemon and almonds if liked. Stir the yolks of the 
eggs to a cream with the sifted sugar, beat the whites 
of the eggs to a stiff froth, stir into the farina a little at 
a time, then season with lemon peel grated on sugar 
and the juice of 1 lemon. 

Bake the cake in a buttered mould dusted with 
grated wheat bread, for 1 hour in a moderately hot 
oven. 



380 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

25. Carrot Cake. 10 ounces of carrots,' 14 eggs, 11 
ounces of sifted sugar, 10 ounces of sweet and 2 ounces 
of bitter, grated, almonds, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of 
sifted potato flour or cornstarch. Wash the carrots, 
cook them in water until about half done a"nd theii 
grate them ; the heart is not used. Then stir the yolks 
of eggs with the sugar, the juice of a lemon and part of 
the grated rind of a lemon and the almonds, add the 
carrots, stir for ha,lf an hour as directed under No. 1, 
mix the beaten whites of 9 eggs with the potato flour 
and bake like almond cake for 1% hours. 

26. Ulm Cake. Mix % pound of creamed butter, 
the yolks of 6 eggs, % pound of sugar, lemon peel, 
6 ounces of cornmeal and the beaten whites of the eggs 
to a dough, divide into two parts and bake each part 
in a moderate oven. In the meantime stir 1 pint of 
sour cream, 6 eggs, 6 ounces of sugar, 3 ounces of grated 
almonds and a little vanilla on a slow fire to a thick 
cream, let it cool and spread one of the layers of the 
cake with this. Cover with the other layer, pour over 
the whole a lembn icing, and decorate with preserved 
fruits. 

27. Bread Cake.' 16 eggs, 1 pound of sifted sugar, 
1 pound of fresh grated almonds, 2 ounces of grated 
and sifted chocolate, 2 ounces of, finely cut candied cit- 
ron, % ounce of cloves, % ounce of cardamom, % ounce 
of cinnamon, the juice of a lemon, % pound of toasted, 
rolled and sifted brown bread and 1 cupful of arrac. 

The yolks of the eggs, and the sugar, almonds and 
spices are stirred for % hour, then stir through it the 
brown bread and the beaten whites of 12 eggs and at 
last the arrac. This is put into a well-buttered mould, 
sprinkled with wheat bread crumbs and baked for 1% 
hours, the same as almond cake. Pour over it an icing 
seasoned with lemon juice or chocolate. The bread cake 
can also be made without an icing; in this case use a 
little more chocolate. • 

28. Filled Sand Cake. A puff paste made of % 
pound of flour, also 6 ounces of sugar, 6 ounces of 
butter, % pound of powdered sugar, 12 eggs, and apri- 
cot marmalade for filling. Oream the butter and stir it 
for % hour with the yolks of the eggs and sugar, then 



Cakes. 381 

lightly mix through it the beaten whites of the eggs 
and the powdered sugar. This is made into; a thin 
round cake, baked and spread with the marmalade. 
The puff paste is perforated so that it will not blister, 
lay it oa the baked cake, spread with the beaten egg 
and bake. Puff paste must bake quickly. 

29. Spice Cake. This is made and baked the same 
as sand cake (No. 58), but stir the following spices into 
the batter with the yolks of the eggs.: % ounce of cinna- 
mon, 1 teaspoonful of ground cloves, % teaspoonful of 
cardamom seeds, the grated peel of a lemon. If liked 
add % ounce of chopped citron and % ounce of candied 
orange peel. Mix 1 teaspoonful of baking powder with 
the whites of the eggs (see No. 1). 

30. Swiss Cream Cake. For the dough take % pound 
of flour, % pound of freshened butter, a Tittle more than 
2 ounces of sifted sugar, 1 egg, % wineglassful of brandy 
and half as much cold water. Cover the top with 1 
heaping soupplateful of sour cherries, % pound of sugar, 
1 pint of thick sweet cream and a little vanilla. 

The butter is broken into pieces, mixed with the 
flour, make a depression in the center of the flour, put 
in the egg, sugar, brandy and water, and mix with a 
knife in a cool place to a dough which can be worked 
a little with the hands and then set aside for a short 
time. Then roll "out three-fourths of the dough, cut a 
round cake of the size desired, spread the outer edge 
with egg, cut the remaining dough into strips, lay on 
the edge and bake about % hour. In the meantime 
stone the cherries, sweeten, lay them on the cake with- 
out the juice and keep in the oven with 1 degree of heat, 
(see No. 1), until the cherries are tender. Then whip 
some cream as directed under N, No. 22, season with 
vanilla and spread over the cherries shortly before 
serving. f 

31. Cream Cake. No. 2. A cream or a good, puff 
paste, fruit jelly, the whites of 5 — 6 eggs, % pound of 
sifted sugar and a little vanilla. 

The under crust is baked like Swiss cream cake, then 
cover with fruit, or a marmalade which can be made of 
fresh plums. Beat the eggs to a froth, add sugar and 



382 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc.. 

vanilla, constantly beaming, spread the cake with this 
and set in the oven until the frosting is of a light brown 
color. 

$2. Macaroon Cream Cake. Bake a macaroon cake 
as directed under No. 72; marmalade, the whites of 
6 eggs, Mpound of sifted sugar and a little vanilla. 

After the cake has cooled it is spread with the pre- 
serves, the whites of eggs are beaten to a stiff froth, 
then mix them with the vanilla and spread over it the 
preserved fruit. Strew sugar over the frosting and set 
in the oven until dry. 

33. Plain Cake with Fruit Jelly. Cream % pound 
of butter, % pound of sugar and stir into it the yolks of 
6 eggs. Beat for % hour, then mix with the flour and 
the beaten whites of the eggs and bake to a light brown 
color. After it is cool pieces of jelly are laid over the 
cake. 

34. Suabian Cake. For this cake take a puff paste, 
cream- or tart crust No. 6, a rather thick compot made 
of green gooseberries, ripe currants, cherries, apples, 
or plums, and for the icing 6 eggs, % pound of finely 
pounded almonds, % pound of sifted sugar and the 
grated peel of half of a lemon, or some nutmeg. 

Make a puff paste crust with standing rim, strew 
over the bottom of the crust some flnelyrolled crackers, 
spread the compot over the crust-and over this the fol- 
lowing icing: Stir the yolks of the eggs with sugar, 
almonds and lemon peel for % hour as directed under 
No. 1, and mix with it the beaten whites of the eggs. 
Bake in a moderate oven. When the icing has turned 
yellow, lay a paper over the cake so that the icing will 
not become to dark. 

35. Wellington Cake. % pound of flour, \ pound of 
butter, % pound of grated almonds, % pound of sifted 
sugar, 2 eggs for the dough, also 6 ounces of sweet 
almouds and 6 bitter ones finely chopped, and the 
whites of 6 eggs. 

The dough is either rolled or else put into a form 
and pressed out. Bake until done, beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, mix with sugar and almonds, 
spread over the cake and set aside to dry. 



Cakes. 388 

36. Linzer Cake. % pound of grated almonds mixed 
with 1 ounce of bitter ones, % pound of flour, % pound 
of sugar, 6 ounces of butter, the yolks of 2 raw eggs 
and the finely grated yolks of 3 hard boiled eggs, the 
thin peel of 1 lemon, and 2 tablespdonfuls of arrac or 
rum, made into a dough and rolled out. Put a border 
of the crust around the edge and then bake. Spread 
with any kind of preserved fruit. 

37. Strawberry Cake with Vanilla Cream. For this 
make a puff paste,' take plenty of fresh, ripe, sweetened 
strawberriesj 6 ounces of sugar, 8 eggs, a little vanilla, 
% teaspoonful of cornstarch and a trifle of gelatine for 
the eream. 

Bake the puff paste; the cream is made as follows: 
Stir 1 cupful of the cream with the yolks of the eggs, 
add sugar and vanilla and whip on a medium fire until 
just before it boils. After taking it from the fire stir in 
the dissolved gelatine, (when using cornstarch it should 
be put into the cream before), and then stir the beaten 
Whites of 6 eggs through the cream until it begins to 
cool, but not until it is firmly set. Wash the berries 
carefully and sprinkle plentifully with sugar. When the 
cake is to be served stir the berries through the cream 
and pour them over the cake. 

38. Gooseberry Cake. Make either a puff- or a 
cream paste — the latter is preferable. 1% pounds of 
cleaned and washed green gooseberies, or the same 
quantity of ripe gooseberries, for which less sugar is 
necessary, about 1 pound of sifted sugar and a little 
cinnamon. 

Roll the dough evenly about % inch thick, spread to 
the thickness of about % inch with cooked gooseberry 
compot, putting strips of dough over the top, and bake 
for % — % hour. After the dough is rolled lay a round 
cover over it and trim with a knife. Then lay it on the 
cake dish, around the top put an edge of the crust of 
the remaining dough cutting into small strips and 
twisting them. Boll out the remainder of the dough 
quite thin, cut into strips _ about % inch wide and lay 
them on the fruit. , 

39. Norway Gooseberry Pie. Bring 3 pounds of 
/green gooseberries to a boil in water, drain and cook 



S84 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

with 1% pounds of sugar, lemon peel and 1 cupful oi 
wine until done, and lay them on a sieve. Cream M 
pound of butter, add the yolks of 10 eggs, % pound of 
sugar, 6 ounces of grated almonds and % pound of 
grated bread and then lightly stir through it the goose- 
berries and the beaten whites of 6 eggs. Bake in a 
buttered mould in a moderate oven and pour over it 
the icing No. 9. 

40. Grape Pie. Prepare the crust as directed under 
No. 6, and take grapes and sugar in equal quantities. 

Make the pie with an upper and lower crust if 
wished, or with only an under crust, put into a form 
and proceed as given in the receipt for plum pie. Then 
strew grated wheat bread quite thickly over the cake, 
lay the grapes on this, sprinkle with plenty of sugar, 
cover with the other crust if wished and bake in a mod- 
erate oven for 1 — Vi hours to a dark yellow. 

41. Currant Cake. A cream or puff paste, 1— % 
pounds of currants, 1 pound of sifted sugar and a few 
tablespoonfuls of grated wheat bread. Roll out the 
dough, strew over it plenty of grated bread and on thin 
lay the currants. In forming the edge and in baking 
proceed as directed for gooseberry cake. 

42. Cherry Pie. Make a cream dough and take a 
soupplateful of stoned sour cherries, %^-% pound of 
sugar, cinnamon, a few spoonfuls of grated bread. After 
rolling half of the dough for the under crust, and sprink- 
ling it with grated bread, put in the cherries without 
the juice, with sugar and cinnamon, and from the re- 
maining dough cut strips, lay them on the pie in lattice 
form and bake the pie in a moderate oven. 

Thicken the juice of the cherries and when the pie is 
served put a teaspoonful of the juice into each opening 
in the lattice. The lattice can be omitted, and then mix 
with the juice" 4 eggs, 1 cupful of thick sour cream, 2 
spoonfuls of cornstarch and 6 spoonfuls of sugar, also 
a little lemon peel and pour over the cake Avhen it is 
nearly done, and then set in the oven until entirely done. 

43. Love Cake. Take 1% pounds of flour for a puff 

Easte or cream paste, of this make 3 cakes, spread with 
utter, sugar, cinnamon and bake, to a golden brown. 



Cakes. 385 

After they are cold spread over the first cake a thick 
wine cream, over the second a raspberry or currant jelly, 
and then put one on the other, and on the following 
day trim the outer edge Smooth with a sharp knife, 
cover the cake with any icing desired, such as chocolate 
or sugar and lemon juice, and decorate with preserved 
fruits. 

44. Lemon Cake with Icing. Make a puff paste, 
take a few fresh lemons, sugar, biscuit and for the icing 
4 eggs, 1 pint of sweetened thick cream. 

Bake a cake, sprinkle sugat over it, cover, with 
lemon slices freed from peel and seeds, sweeten with 
plenty of sugar, lay biscuit slices over this and then 
pour over it the eggs ; cream and sugar whipped with a 
beater, and set in the oven until the icing is thick. 

45. Puff Paste Pie. Make a puff paste of % pound 
of flour ; take 4 fresh juicy lemons, % pound of grated 
almonds, % pound of sugar and 4 eggs. Peel the lemons 
very thin, boil the peel in water until tender, cut into 
long pieces, cook 2 heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar 
with 1 tablespoonful of wine or the water in which the 
peel was boiled, and cook the lemon peel in this to a 
thick syrup and until the peel is sugared. Press the 
juice out of the lemons and stirwiththe almonds, sugar, 
candied peel and eggs. Spread over the dough and 
bake quickly. 

46. Rice and Lemon Cake. For this take a puff 
paste as given under Nos. 4 or 6, % pound of best rice, % 
pound of sifted sugar and 4 fresh lemons. Wash and 
scald the rice the evening before and let it soak over 
night in plenty of water ; the next day put it on the fire 
in the same water, boil until tender and then pour on a 
sieve to drain. Grate a lemon on the sugar, cut the 
rind thinly from 3 lemons, cook the rind in water until 
tender, cut into strips and candy them the same as in 
the preceding receipt. Stir the juice of 4 lemons with 
the sugar and mix through the rice with a salad fork. 
In the meantime roll out the under crust and make an 
edge the width of a finger, brushing first \tfith a little 
water so that the edge will stick. After the cake is 
baked and is cool, put the rice over it, and over this the 



386 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

candied lemon peel. Instead of this preserved apricots 
can be used. 

The above quantities are for a large cake. This 
cake is very refreshing, and nice when fresh fruits cannot 
be had. 

47. Orange Cake. % pound of sugar, 6 ounces of 
grated almonds, 12 eggs, 2 ounces of flour and 2 table- 
spoonfuls of arrac. After stirring this together as 
directed in the receipt for almond cake, bake 2 cakes. 
Then take 2 whole and the yolks of 4 eggs, the juice of 
4 oranges, the grated rind of an orange, the juice of 2 
lemons and % pound of sugar, put on the fire and whip 
with a beater until it is_ quite thick. This cream is 
spread on one of the cakes, put the other on this, ,and 
pour the following icing over the top : Mix the juice of 
1 orange with % pound of sifted sugar and ltablespoon- 
ful of water for \ hour and spread smoothly. 

48. Apple Cake made of puff paste. Make a puff 
paste, take nice apples, 2 ounces of almonds neatly 
sliced, 1—2 lemons, sugar, cinnamon and a few spoon- 
fuls of grated bread . 

Eoll one-half of the dough for an under, crust and 
strew over it some grated bread and then put on the 
sliced and cored apples with the almonds, lemon slices, 
cinnamon and the necessary sugar ; over the top put a 
crust, or a lattice as given for gooseberry pie (No. 39). 
The cake is baked in a quick oven to a nice yellow color. 

49. A nice Apple Cake. Make a crust as given 
under No. 6, take some nice cooking apples of uniform 
size, 1 cupful of white wine, 1 lemon, plenty of sugar and 
some pounded almonds. 

Roll the dough or else put it into a round mould 
and press it as given under No. 52. In the meantime 
peel the apples, halve them, and on the round side hack 
them with a knife (but this must be done quickly so 
that they will not discolor), and dip them into a mixture 
made of the wine, grated lemon peel and their juice, 
almonds and sugar. Lay the cut side of the apple to 
the bottom of the cake and bake in a moderate oven 
for 1% hours. When wished the cake can be dotted with 
any kind of preserved fruits, and make an edge of 



Cakes. 387 

sugared orange slices. It can also be served without 
any further additions." 

50. Apple Cake. For the dough take % pound of 
flour, % pound of freshened butter, 3 ounces of sifted 
sugar, 1 egg, 2 spoonfuls of water, 2 spoonfuls of rum, 
good apples, wine, ^ugar, lemon peel and whole cinna- 
mon. 

Stir the butter to a cream, then add sugar, egg, 
rum, water and flour, stir all for a short time, put into 
a cake pan, and with a flat wooden ladle press out the 
dough, having it a little thicker on the sides so as to 
form an edge; sprinkle some grated bread over the 
bottom. In the meantime cook thickly sliced apples in 
wine, sugar, lemon peel and whole cinnamon until half 
done, and after they are cold lay them neatly on the 
cake and bake to a golden — not brown — color. Boil 
down the juice until quite thick, and when the cake is 
served pour it over the apples. 

51. Plain Apple Cake. Butter a pan, sprinkle over 
it some grated wheat bread and fill with alternate lay- 
ers of grated roll (or brown bread) and apple slices. 
Over each layer put sugar, pieces of butter and a little 
fruit jelly. Then bake the cake, having grated bread 
for the top layer, for 1 hour. Half an hour before the 
cake is done make a cream for it, using 1 cupful of sour 
cream, the yolks of 4 eggs, 3 ounces of sugar and 1% 
ounces of grated .almonds, pour this over the cake and 
then bake until done. 

52. Plum Cake. Make a dough as given under 
No. 6; take fresh plums, sifted sugar, cinnamon and 
grated bread. 

Lay the plums on a sieve and then put them into 
boiling water until the skin can be easily taken off with 
a knife and after this is done, stone and lay them into a 
dish. Then make the dough, which can be moulded 
immediately without being first sqf aside. To do this 
put it into" the mould in pieces and press it with the 
hands (which should be dusted with flour) uniformly all 
around, a little thicker at the sides, however, so as to 
make the edge about 1% inches high; all thin spots 
should be covered with pieces of dough. The projecting 
edge should be scolloped with the fingers and then bent 



388 , S.— Pastry, CakeSj Etc. 

upwards, all scollops pointing in the same direction. 
Dust the dough plentifully with rolled crackers, turn 
each plum in powdered sugar and arrange them in cir- 
cular form, beginning at the edge and working towards 
the center, putting them in closely together. Sprinkle 
with cinnamon and then bake the cake for 1J4 hours 
with 1 degree of heat (see No. 1) . The juice of the plums 
is put on a soupplate with some sugar, set on the back 
part of the stove until thick and pour it over the cake 
when the latter is to be served. 

The above given quantities are for a large cake. 
This is very nice when warm and also very good when a 
few days old, first putting it into a hot oven for % hour. 
When plums cannot be obtained use prune sauce and 
then bake for % hour. 

53. Dried Prune Cake. Make a dough as directed 
under No. 6, cut some of the dough into long strips, lay 
them over the fruit, or make the cake as given in the 
above receipt; then take 1 pound of prunes, % bottle of 
white wine, 7 ounces of sugar, % pound of currants, 
1 lemon and grated bread. The prunes are scalded (as 
directed for compots) and slowly boiled in a little water 
until the stones will come out. They are then put into 
an earthenware dish with the broth, wine, sugar, juice 
and half of the peel of a lemon ; cover the dish and boil 
slowly until tender., % hour before tender put in the 
washed currants and let them boil until there is but 
little broth. After this is cold spread it over the dough 
and bake the cake for 1% hours with one degree of heat 
to a dark yellow color. 

JA. Date Cake. (Arabian Receipt.) 6 ounces of 
flour, 3 ounces of creamed butter, 3 ounces of sugar, the 
yolks of 3 eggs, the beaten whites of the eggs and finely 
cut lemon peel are made into a light dough which is put 
into a dish and baked until about half done. In the 
meantime stir the ^hites of 8 eggs to a froth, add 10 
ounces of sugar, lOwunces of grated almonds, 10 ounces 
of nicely sliced dates and 1 glassful of Madeira, pour 
this over the cake and bake until done. At'last cover 
the cake with a three colored icing seasoned with plenty 
of lemon juice, so that it will have an acidulous taste, 
and lay over this dates and preserved fruits. 



Cakes. 389 

55. English Plum Cake. Melt 1 pound of nice but- 
ter, clarify and let it cool again, take 1 pound of sifted 
sugar, 1 pound of cornstarch, 1 pound of nicely washed 
and dried currants, 12 eggs, 2 ounces of finely cut 
citron, % ounce of cinnamon, % ounce of cloves, both 
ground, and a wineglassful of Madeira or arrac. 

Stir the butter to a cream, add, one by one, the 
yolks of the eggs, spices, sugar, currants and stir all 
for half an hour as directed under No. 1. Lightly stir 
through it the beaten whites of the eggs, then the starch 
and finally the Madeira, put the cake into a moderate 
oven and bake for 1 % hours. If baking powder is added 
to the flour it will greatly improve the cake. 

56. Layer Cake. A layer cake that will keep fresh 
for a long time is made of 8 eggs, the weight of the eggs 
in sugar, butter and flour. 

The butter is melted, poured from the settlings and 
then allowed to cool again, add the sugar by degrees, 
and stir until all is melted. Then gradually put m the 
eggs, and stir the whole for % hour as given under No. 1, 
mix the flour through this, and then bake three cakes 
to a dark yellow color, spread two with jelly and lay 
the third on this. The next day cut the edge smoothly 
and dust sugar over the top. Lemon peel and lemon 
juice can also be added to this cake making one cake 
and spreading it with jelly and then with the beaten 
whites of 3 eggs, seasoning with a little vanilla, and set 
it in the oven a few moments to dry. 

57. Ribbon Cake. 1 pound of freshened butter, 1 
pound of sifted sugar, 1 pound of warmed flour, 16 
eggs, 1 lemon, 1 teaspoonful of mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of 
cinnamon, 3 ounces of sweet and % ounce of bitter 
grated almonds. 

The butter is slowly melted, poured from the sett- 
lings and stirred with sugar. Add the yolks of the eggs, 
juice and grated rind of the lemon, mace, cinnamon and 
almonds, and this is stirred for % hour as given under 
No. 1. Then stir the beaten whites of the eggs, a 
spoonful at a time, with the flour to the cake. Spread 
on the pan to the thickness of about % inch, and bake 
to a yellow color, spread dough over this and bake 
again, and so on until 5 layers are baked, which must 



390 S.— Pastky, Cakes, Etc. 

be evenly divided. After the first layer is baked the heat 
should not be quite so strong from the bottom of the 
oveu, baking the cake principally from the top, but 
keeping up 2 degrees of heat (see No. 1). This mass 
can also be baked in one cake and then serve fruit jelly 
with it. 

58. Sand Cake. 1 pound of fresh butter, 1 pound 
of sifted sugar, % pound of fine flour, % pound of sifted 
cornstarch, 10 — 12 fresh eggs, the juice of a lemon and 
2 tabrespoonfuls of arrac. All of this, with the excep- 
tion of the eggs, must be set in a warm place for a few 
hours. 

The butter is melted and freed from settlings ; after 
it is cold rub to a cream, adding the sugar by degrees 
with a little lemon peel, stirring constantly. Then stir 
in one by one the yolks of the eggs, thg grated lemon 
peel and the flour, a spoonful at a time. After this has 
been stirred for % hour, stir through it the arrac' and 
lemon juice and the beaten whites of the eggs, together 
with a teaspoonful of baking powder. Put this into a 
prepared form and then into the oven and bake with 2 
degrees of heat for 1% hours, and ifthecakeis very thick, 
for 2 hours. During this time the form should not be 
moved. 

This cake can also be divided into three parts, one 
of which is colored with chocolate, the other with cochi- 
neal, leaving the last yellow, putting one layer on the 
other, covering the top with a three-colored frosting 
seasoned with Marascino. 

59. Cardamom Biscuits. Stir the yolks of 16 eggs 
with 1 pound of sugar, the peel of ]i and the juice of a 
whole lemon and % teaspoonful of fine cardamom seeds 
until thick and full of bubbles. Mix through it the 
beaten whites of 9 of the eggs, and at last stir in about 
1% pounds of cornstarch.- The mould is buttered 
thickly, then sprinkle with grated rolls, pour in the cake 
and bake slowly for 1 hour in a moderately but uni- 
formly hot oven. 

60. Biscuits No. 2. % pound of pulverized and sifted 
starch, 1 pound of sugar, grate the rind of a lemon on 
the sugar which is pulverized and sifted after the yellow 
is taken off, the whites of 10 and the yolks of 20 fresh 



Cakes. 391 

eggs, juice of a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, 
but the latter is not absolutely necessary. Starch and 
sugar are put into a warm place to dry and warm for 
%— 1 homv Whip the whites of the eggs to a froth stiff 
enough to cut, but it should not be whipped any longer 
than this or else it will become lumpy. Then whip the 
yolks of the eggs, juice and lemon sugar into the whites 
of the eggs and also by degrees the remaining sugar; 
whip briskly for about % hour. Put the dish into hot 
water or on hot coals and whip until lukewarm, then 
put in the starch and baking powder which must be 
stirred in as quickly as possible. When this is done put 
the mass into a moderately hot oven in a prepared 
mould. Bake for about 1 hour. To prevent the biscuit 
from getting yellow too soon put over the top a but- 
tered paper in such a manner that it will not prevent 
the biscuit from raising. 

61. Hasty Biscuit. 15 fresh eggs, 1 lemon, % pound 
of sifted sugar, % pound of cornstarch. 

Whip the whites of 13 eggs to a stiff froth, stir -the 
yolks of 15 eggs with the grated peel and juice of a 
lemon and let this run slowly into the beaten whites, 
whipping constantly. Put in the sifted sugar, then the 
starch and whip until all is mixed, but not longer. Then 
follow directions as given above. 

62. Bohemian Biscuits. For each egg, take % ounce 
of sugar and % ounce of grated stale bread without the 
crust. Whip the yolks of the eggs with sugar, cinna- 
mon, the juice and half of the rind of a lemon, theu put 
in the bread and stir the beaten whites of the eggs 
lightly through it. Bake in a buttered mould for 1 
hour.' If the bread is old take less. For 6 persons 8 eggs 
will be sufficient. 

63. Chocolate Biscuits. The whites and the yolks 
of 12 eggs, % pound of sifted sugar, 2 ounces of bitter 
grated and sifted chocolate, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, 
a little vanilla and 6 ounces of sifted cornstarch. Pre- 
pare as given in No. 61 and bake. 

64. Biscuit Roll. % pound of sugar, the yolks of 
6 eggs, a little salt and lemon peel are stirred to a 
frothy mass, then lightly stir through it the beaten 



392 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

whites of the eggs together with 3 ounces of flour, and 
spread on the pan to the thickness of Vs2 of an inch. 
Bake to a light yellow, take out of the pan 2 turn, and 
spread with any kind of fruit marmalade.* Koll, put 
into the oven for a few minutes, pour over it a sugar 
icing and cover with preserved fruits. ' This can also be 
used as a pudding, serving it cut into slices and cover 
with a wine sauce. 

65. Chocolate Cake. 14 eggs, % pound of sifted 
sugar, y 2 pound of grated almonds, 6 ounces of finely 
grated and sifted sweet chocolate, % ounce of cinnamon 
and a teaspoonful of baking powder. 

The yolks of 12 eggs and 2 whole eggs are whipped 
with sugar, almonds and chocolate for % hour, or 
stirred for % hour, then lightly stir through it the 
beaten whites Of the eggs, quickly stirring in the baking 
powder and bake the cakes for 1 hour as directed for 
almond cake. 

66. Currant Cake. 1 pound of melted butter, 
poured from the settlings, 1 pound of cornstarch, % — 1 
pound of sifted sugar, % pound of washed and dried cur- 
rants, the grated peel of a lemon, 1 grated nutmeg or a 
teaspoonful of mace, 12 eggs, % glassful of arracorrum. 

• Cream the butter and stir in the sugar and spices, 
yolks of eggs one by one; then stir briskly for % hour 
longer. Add the currants, after these the beaten whites 
of the eggs, then the cornstarch and at last the arrac. 

67* Grape Cake. Take 1 pound of flour, % pound of 
butter, 1 cupful of sugar, cinnamon, salt and the yolks 
of 5 eggs, and knead quickly. 

Koll out the dough, lay it into a buttered pan and 
sprinkle over it finely pounded almonds; then' beat the 
whites of 12 eggs, mix with 1% pounds of pounded sugar 
and 3 pounds of white grapes, fill into the pan and bake. 
This will make 2 medium-sized cakes. 

68. Cup Cake. 4 eggs, 1% cupfuls of butter, 2 cup- 
Ms of sifted sugar, 3 cupfuls of flour, 1 cupful of milk, 
3 cupfuls of raisins, currants, cloves and the grated 
peel of a lemon. 

Stir the butter to a cream, add spices and eggs, 
then milk and flour and at last raisins and currants. 



Cakes. 393 

To this cake take 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, mix- 
ing it with the flour. 

Bake the cake for 2 hours in a moderately hot oven. 

69. Rice Cake. % pound of rice, milk for boiling the 
rice, 6 ounces of butter, the yolks of 12 eggs, the whites 
of 10 eggs,<% pound of sweet and a few bitter almonds, 
jounce of cinnamon, % pound of sugared and the grated 
peel of a lemon or some candied orange peel (see Divi- 
sion A, No. 48.) 

The rice is scalded in water and boiled slowly in 
milk until tender and thick; the kernels must remain 
whole. Then cream the butter and add, constantly 
stirring, the sugar, the yolks of the eggs, almonds and 
spices and at last the beaten whites of the eggs. The 
whole is put into a buttered mould which has first been 
sprinkled with grated bread and sugar, and then baked 
in a moderately hot oven for 1% hours. 

If the rice when cooked should not be thick enough, 
stir through it some finely grated bread before putting 
in the whites of the eggs. Instead of the almonds }& 
pound of stoned raisins can be cooked with the rice for 
% hour. 

70. Nice Rice Cake. Boil }{ pound of rice in sweet 
cream with salt and 2 ounces of sugar, flavored with 
vanilla, until thick. By the addition of a variety of 
ingredients a number of different kinds of the rice cake 
can be prepared. After stirring through the rice the 
yolks of 6 eggs and 2 ounces of grated roll, stir in 
2 ounces of sliced citron or 3 ounces of scalded raisins 
or 3 ounces of any kind of scalded candied fruit, also 
almonds, spices or grated nuts. In the meantime bake 
a puff paste No. 3, two crusts of the same size, spread 
first with fruit marmalade or a thick wine v cream, then 
with the rice, put on the top crust and serve immedi- 
ately. 

71. Almond Cake. No. 1. % pound of flour, M pound 
of butter, % pound of sifted sugar, % pound of sweet and 
6 grated bitter almonds, and 2 fresh eggs. 

Melt the butter, then add the eggs one by one, 
sugar, almonds, and stir for % hour, stir through this 
the flour, put into the pan, press out quite thm and 
bake to a nice yellow color. 



394 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

Spread the cake with jelly ; if sugar is preferred cut 
the cake into pieces of the size required and sprinkle 
with sugar. 

72. Almond Cake. No. 2. Puff paste as given in 
No. 6, % pound of sifted sugar, % pound of pounded 
almonds, a few lemons, the whites of 2 eggs, 2 — 2% 
ounces of crushed rock candy. 

Put the sugar into water, let it dissolve, stir in the 
almonds and the finely cut peel of a lemon with its juice, 
and then set aside to cool. * 

Make a puff paste, divide it into 2. parts, rolling it 
into an upper and lower crust, making the lower 1 inch 
wider than the upper crust, spread on the lower crust 
the almond syrup, leaving about 1 inch for an edge, 
put the top on this and bake the cake not too slowly. 
As soon as taken from the oven, spread over it the 
beaten whites of the eggs, cut the lemon into small 
cubes, taking out the seeds, lay the cubes on the cake 
together with a few whole lemon slices, sprinkle over it 
the rock candy, set in the oven for a few moments 
to dry. 

73. Portuguese Coffee Cake. Eub % pound of butter 
to a cream, add the yolks of 6 eggs, % pound of sugar, 
1 glassful of Madeira, 1 spoonful of oraugeflower water, 
a little salt, % pound of cleaned raisins, 10 ounces of 
rice- or wheat flour, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, 
stir through it the beaten whites of the eggs, put into a 
buttered mould and bake for 1% hours. Spread over it 
any kind of an icing. 

74. King's Cake. % pound of butter stirred to a 
cream, gradually add the yolks of 10 eggs, % pound of 
sugar, a little salt, lemon extract, 2 ounces of sweet and 
% ounce of bitter almonds, and 1 spoonful of French 
brandy, stirring well together. Then mix % pound of 
flour, 3 ounces of currants, 3 ounces of chopped citron 
and 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, stir the whites of 
8 eggs through the dough, put into a mould and bake 
slowly for 2 hours. « 

75. Sexton's Cake. 1 pound of freshened butter, 1 
pound of flour, % pound of sifted sugar, % pound of 
grated almonds, 9 eggs and jelly. 



Cakes. 395 

Cream the butter, add sugar, eggs and almonds, 
and stir for % hour. Then mix through this the flour 
and put into a pan, so that it will only be about % inch 
thick and bake to a light brown color. After the cake 
is cold dot with jelly and sprinkle sugar over it. 

76. Carmelite Cake. 9 whole and the yolks of 2 
eggs, % pound of sifted sugar, % pound of almonds 
coarsely pounded with rosevvater, 8 tablespoonfuls of 
cherry cordial, the grated rind of a lemon, a little cinna- 
mon and 1 nutmeg. 

The whole eggs and the egg yolks are whipped 
together, adding the other ingredients. Then stir all 
together for % hour, % pound of "flour is added and the 
cake baked in a moderate oven. 

77. riacaroon Cake. % pound of sweet and a few 
bitter almonds are coarsely pounded with a little white 
of an egg, % pound of sifted sugar, (sugar and almoflds 
both warmed), the whites of 5 eggs, juice and part of 
the lemon peel or some orange peel grated on sugar. 

Mix the almonds with the sugar and the whites of 
the eggs, add the juice and peel of a lemon, spread this 
on the wafers laid together in the form of a cake. Bake 
the cake in a moderate oven and spread with jelly. 

78. Puff Paste with Lemon Cream. Make a puff 
paste of % pound of flour; for the cream take % pound 
of sifted sugar, 4 lemons, white wine or cider in propor- 
tion, the yolks of 20 fresh eggs, the whites of 5 eggs and 
% tablespoonful of cornstarch. Eoll out the dough, put 
it into the pan, having the edge not too thin and bake 
quickly. Then make the following cream : The yolks of 
the eggs are putinto a glass, add the juice of the lemous 
and enough white wine to equal the bulk of the yolks of 
eggs. Then mix with it the sugar, grated peel of 2 
lemons, the whites of the eggs and the dissolved starch ; 
gelatine can also be used instead of the cornstarch. Set 
on the stove and whip constantly; after it is thick take 
from the fire and whip until it is cool ; when using gela- 
tine be careful to pour the cream on the cake before it 
is cold. When the cake is to be brought to the table 
put the cream on the cake and ornament with small 



396 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

79. Apple Cake with Almond Icing. Take 18—20 
nice cooking apples of medium size and for the filling 
nicely washed currants, sugar, cinnamon, citron and a 
little butter. For icing, 6 fresh eggs, % pound of sugar, 
% pound of grated almonds and % teaspoonful of mace. 

(Pare the apples, take out the core and leave the 
apples whole, put them into a pan side by side and fill 
with currants, sugar, cinnamon, citron and a small 
piece of butter. Then take the yolks of the eggs, sugar, 
almonds and mace, stir together for % hour, mix with 
the beaten whites of the eggs, pour over the apples and 
bake for 1 — 1% hours. 

Serve this if possible when warm ; if made the day 
before set in the oven for % hour before serving. 

80. Mannheim Apple Cake. 3 ounces of creamed 
butter, 6 ounces of sugar, 5 whole eggs, the peel of % of 
a lemon and % pound of flour are stirred to a light 
dough, which is put into a buttered pan, sprinkled with 
grated roll, covered thickly with apple slices. Pour over 
this an icing made of 1 cupful of sour cream, 3 eggs, 
sugar and vanilla. Bake in a moderate oven. 

81 . nilan Apple Cake. Bake a cake as given under 
No. 36. In the meantime stew some nice cooking apples 
in wine with sugar and lemon peel until tender, but they 
must not fall to pieces. Also scald 6 ounces of rice and 
boil with cream, sugar and vanilla until tender and 
thick and stir until cold. The apples must be cold be- 
fore putting them on the cake, which must also be cold. 
Spread the cake with apricot marmalade, mix a glass- 
ful of Marascino through the rice and spread evenly on 
the cake, lay the apple slices on this, cover with thinned 
apple jelly and dot the cake with preserved cherries. , 

82. Westphalian Butter, Coffee or Sugar Cake. No. I. 

3 pounds of flour, yeast, 7 eggs, 1 lemon, 2 pounds of 
butter, 2 cupfuls of sifted sugar, 1 large cupful of milk, 
% pound of stoned raisins or currants. 

Put the flour into a pan, make a depression in the 
center, put in the eggs, sugar, raisins, the grated peel of 
a lemon, milk, and the dissolved yeast; and then by 
degrees the butter, and thoroughly whip the dough, 
which has been mixed in a warmed pan. Then butter a 
large cake pan with unsalted butter, put the dough into 



Cakes. 397 

this about J^inch thick and let it raise-in a warm place! 
When this is done, spread the cake with melted butter, 
strew thickly over it coarse or finely pounded sugar and 
bake quickly. 

83. Westphalian Cake. No. 2. All of the following 
cakes must* be pierced with a fork before putting them 
into the oven, so that they will not blister. For the 
dough: 2 pounds of flour warmed and sifted, % pound of 
freshened butter, 2 ounces of yeast, 2% ounces of finely 
sliced citron, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, 1 pint of 
warm milk. For on the cake : % pound of coarse sugar, 
% pound of butter, 2 ounces of finely pounded almonds, 
and for sprinkling the cake, % cupful of rosewater, or if 
this is not liked the same quantity of white wine or 
sugar water. 

The flour is put into a warmed dish and mixed 
thoroughly with the pieces of butter; make a depression 
in the center of the flour, add the dissolved yeast, milk, 
2 ounces of sugar, eggs and spices, and with awide knife 
mix the flour and ingredients together quickly, avoiding 
working the dough too much,; this is an essential point 
to be observed in making this cake. The dough thus 
made is put into a warmed pan and smoothed with the 
hand, which should be dusted with a little flour, until it 
is about % inch thick, put over it a warm cloth and set 
aside in a warm place 1 — 1% hours to raise. 

After the cake has raised pour over it a mixture of 
sugar, almonds, cinnamon, lay pieces of butter over 
this and bake the cake in a quick oven for 15—20 min- 
utes. The cake must be of a dark color, but not brown, 
nor should it dry in the oven, because it must be soft 
inside. When taking out sprinkle the cake with rose 
water, wine or sugar water. 

Remark.— These cakes are best when fresh. They can, if a day or so old,»be 
put into the oven for a few minutes. They arg cut into pieces 1 inch wide and 
three times as long. 

84. Westphalian Cake. No. 3. For the dough take 
2 pounds of warmed flour, % pound of washed and 
stoned raisins, % pound of butter and lard slowly 
melted together, fresh yeast, 1 pint of warm milk, and 
if you have it 2 tablespoonfuls of thick sour cream ; for 
the top, % pound of melted butter, % pound of sugar 
and a little cinnamon. 



398 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

The dough is stirred in a warm dish and then mixed 
on the bread board with the necessary flour ; proceed as 
noted under No. 1 of this Division, then roll out the 
dough, put it into the cake pan, and after it has raised, 
spread with butter, sprinkle sugar over it, put into a 
hot oven and bake quickly. a 

85. Bremen Butter Cake. -For the dough 3 pounds 
of sifted flour, 1 pound of washed and stoned raisins, 
% pound of sifted sugar, 1% pints of milk, 3 ounces of 
yeast, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 pound of freshened butter 
and spices according to taste. For filling take % pound 
of washed and warmed currants, % pound of sugar, 2 
ounces of cut almonds and 1 ounce of citron. 

Make the dough, warming all ingredients as given 
in No. 91, let it raise slowly for aboutl % hours, rollinto 
along narrow strip about 1 inch thick, press withthe 
rolling pin in^the center of this so as to have the sides 
thicker, fill with currants, citron, almonds, then fold the 
two sides together so as to have the cake shaped like a 
half moon, put into the pan, make a few incisions into 
the cake, let it raise, spread with egg, N and bake in a 
moderate oven for 1 hour. , 

86. Silesian Cheese Cake. A dough is made as 
given under No. 84. For the top take a soupplateful of 
curds stirred with fresh cream but not too thin, 1 cupful 
of melted butter, sugar, cinnamon to taste, 2 eggs, with 
% pound of currants stirred through it. 

Roll the dough quite thin, put on the pan, let it 
raise, warming the cheese a little and spread it on the 
cake and bake quickly. According to the size of the 
cake, the evening before wanted take 3 quarts of thick 
milk with the cream, put it into a cheese cloth bag and 
the next morning use for the cake. 

This cake is very nice and refreshing when not left 
in the oven too long so that it will become dry; it 
should be eaten when still quite fresh. 

87. Fruit Cake. 1 quart of milk, 2 pounds of fresh- 
ened butter, 1 pound of stoned raisins sprinkled with a 
little rum, 1 pound of cleaned currants, yeast, 3 ounces 
of sweet, and % ounce of bitter chopped almonds, 2 
ounces of finely sliced citron, the grated peel of a lemon, 



Cakes. 399 

a little mace, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 
and flour enough to make a thick dough. Take 1 large 
or 2 small forms, butter them and sprinkle with sweet 
almonds, put in the dough, and set aside in a warm 
place. When the dough is raised, put it into a medium 
hot oven, spread with butter, strew sugar and cinna- 
mon over it and bake. 

88. Parisian Cake. Dissolve some yeast in a cupful 
of milk. Then stir 1 pound of butter to a cream, add 
3 whole eggs, the yolks of 3 eggs, 5 ounces of sugar, 
% pound each of currants and raisins, % teaspoonful of 
salt, 2 ounces of citron, % ounce of grated bitter al- 
monds, 1 spoonful of vanilla, grated lemon peel, mace, 
3 spoonfuls of Qognac, the dissolved yeast, and at last 
add 1% pounds of sifted flour. Whip the dough hard 
until light, put it into a large buttered pan, set aside 
to raise and then bake in a moderate oven to a light 
brown color. Turn the cake out of the pan, sift over it 
some powdered sugar and then hold a red-hot shovel 
over it to glaze it. 

89. Elberfeld "Kringle." 2 pounds of flour, % 
pound of butter, % pound of sugar, 5 eggs, % pound of 
cinnamon (if cinnamon is not liked, vanilla or carda- 
mom seeds can be used), 1 cupful of milk, % pound of 
currants or 2 cupfuls of jelly and fresh yeast. 

Stir % of the flour with the warm milk, eggs, and 
yeast, let it raise and then take % pound of sugar and 
enough flour so that the dough can be kneaded. Work 
in the butter and the remaining flour. Then roll out 
the dough, not too thin, strew over it the remaining 
sugar, currants and cinnamon, or spread with jelly, roll 
and form in the shape of a wreath. Lay on a pan, and 
when raised spread with butter and bake for % hour in 
a hot oven. 

90. Sweet Cake ("Rodon Kuchen"). 1 pound of 
sifted flour, % pound of freshened butter, % pound of 
coarsely pounded almonds, % pound of sugar, 9 fresh 
eggs, 1 cupful of fresh warm milk, grated peel of a 
lemon, % teaspoonful of salt and yeast. Stir the butter 
to a cream, gradually add the eggs, almonds, milk, 
spices, sugar and the dissolved yeast, constantly stir- 
ring, and at last stir in the flour a spoonful at a time, 



400 . S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

and put luto a buttered pan sprinkled with grated roll 
and raise as given under No. 1, and bake. 

Remark.— Instead of taking yeast, baking powder can be used for all of 
these cakes. 

91. Roll Cake. For the dough take 1% pounds of 
flour, % pound of butter, according to taste 2 — 3 ounces 
of sugar, 3 eggs, yeast, 1 cupful of lukewarm milk; 1 
teaspoonful of salt; for on the dough % pound of cur- 
rants, % pound of sugar, 1 ounce of finely sliced citron 
or some candied orange peel (A, No. 48^, and % ounce of 
cinnamon. 

After all of the ingredients have been warmed and 
the yeast dissolved with some sugar and milk, put the 
melted butter into the center of the Hour, stir sugar, 
eggs, yeast, salt and milk together, first with a knife 
and then with the hand, beat the dough and set aside 
to raise. Then roll to a long strip 6 inches wide, 
sprinkle with currants washed and di-ied and then 
warmed in the oven, sugar the finely sliced citron and ' 
cinnamon, roll it out and lay the end of the roll into the 
pan and tken keep on rolling, until the cake is formed, 
but it must lay so that it will have rooiri to raise. Put 
into a warm place to raise and bake in a moderate oven 
fori— 1% hours. 

92. Plain Potato Cake. 2 pounds of flour, % pound 
of butter, % pound of raisins or pears sliced finely, 1 — 2 
eggs, about 1 pint of warm milk, yeast, 2—3 cold, 
partly boiled, grated potatoes, 1 teaspoonful of salt 
and, if liked, some mace: 

Whip the eggs, add yeast, potatoes, salt and milk 
and mix through the remaining ingredients. Beat the 
dough and put "it into a buttered mould, cover and set 
aside to raise. When it has raised for about 1% — 2 
hours, put it into the oven, cover and bake slowly. 



II. TARTS, COOKIES, ETC. 

Note.— To take cookies, etc., out of the pan without 
breaking them, dry the pan, warm it and then line it 
very slightly with white wax. After the cookies are 



Tarts, Cookies, Etc. 401 

baked, take them out while still hot with a long thin 
knife ; if the cakes are cold before you have taken them 
out of the pan, warm the pan again. 

93. Marshall Tarts. Puff paste, the whites of 2 
eggs, )i pound of sugar and 3 ounces ot grated almonds. 

Roll the puff paste quite thin ; stamp out the tarts 
with a wineglass and with a teaspoon spread on them 
the beaten white of an egg, with almonds and sugar. 
Bake in a moderate oven to a light yellow color, then 
spread with frosting and set in the oven to dry for a 
minute. They are eaten fresh. 

94. Fruit Tarts. Puff paste, egg, sugar and cinna- 
mon, fresh or preserved fruits as liked. 

Roll the dough quite thin, line a tart mould, spread 
with egg and bake quickly. Then fill with fruit without 
the juice, or with fresh sweet cherries cooked until thick. 

95. Swiss filled Cakes. ("Kropfli"). For the dough 
take % pound of flour, 6 ounces of butter, 2 ounces of 
sugar, 3 spoonfuls of French brandy, 1 tablespoonful of 
water ; for the filling take fruit or jelly. 

After rolling out the dough cut out disks with a 
large goblet, put some fruit on each disk, fold once, press 
the sides a little, spread with egg and bake quickly. 

96. Apple Cake. Any preferred dough, apples, rum 
or arrac, preserved currants or currant jelly, a few mac- 
aroons or almonds, dried currants, sugar, cinnamon, 
lemon peel and eggs. 

Pare and core the apples and a few hours before 
using pour over them the arrac and sprinkle with sugar 
and cinnamon. After the dough is rolled it is cut into 
square pieces; mix the apples with the preserves, to 
which a few pounded macaroons may be added. The 
apples can also be filled with finely cut almonds, sugar, 
currants and lemon peel. Put an apple on each square, 
fold the corners of the dough to the center, brush the 
top with beaten egg, turn in pounded almonds and 
sugar, and bake in a quick oven. 

97. Yeast Cakes. % pound of freshened butter, the 
yolks of 5 eggs, 1 ounce of sugar, lemon peel, 1 cupful of 
thick sour cream, yeast dissolved in milk and sugar, 
and % pound of warmed flour. 



402 S — Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

Stir the butter to a cream, add the other ingredi- 
ents, then make into balls the size of a walnut, put 
them on a buttered pan, let them raise, put on each 
cake a preserved cherry or a raisin. Spread them with 
the beaten white of the egg, sprinkle with sugar and 
bake in a quick oven for 10 minutes. 

98. Milan Tarts. % pound of flour, % pound of but- 
ter, 6 ounces of sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of thick sour 
cream or brandy aud 1 egg. 

Make into a dough, roll, cut into square p'ieces, if 
liked brush with egg, bake quickly and. after they are 
cold dot with jelly. 

99. Swiss Chocolate Bread. Stir the whites of 3 
eggs to a froth ; 6 ounces of sugar, 2 ounces of pounded 
almonds, 2 ounces of grated chocolate. Then spread 
this on wafers, cut them into long narrow pieces and 
bake in a slow oven. 

100. Speculaci or Tea Tarts for the Christmas Tree. 

1 pound of sifted flour, 1 pound of sifted sugar, % pound 
of freshened butter, 3 eggs, 2 ounces of cinnamon, the 
grated rind of 1 lemon, and a teaspoonful of baking 
powder. 

Break the butter into small pieces, mix with the 
flour and the other ingredients — excepting the baking 
powder — to a dough, which is then set aside for a few 
hours, or over night ; it will not hurt the dough to keep 
it for a few days in a cool place. Then flatten out the 
dough, sprinkle the baking powder over it, knead it 
and then roll the dough to the thickness of */32 of an 
inch. Cut out any shape or figure desired, put them on 
a buttered pan and bake in a moderate oven. 

101. Nice Anise Cake. (For the Christmas tree.) 
% pound of flour and cornstarch, half and half, % pound 
of sugar, both sifted, 12 fresh eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of 
anise seed. 

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, the yolks 
are stirred together and slowly added to the whites, 
beating uninterruptedly, then mix the anise seed with 
the sugar, and add to the eggs, a spoonful at a time, 
and then the flour. This mass is put into a waxed 
pan and baked in a moderate oven to asolden brown. 



Tarts; Cookies, Etc. 403 

102. Sugar Drop Cakes. % pound of cornstarch, 
% pound of sifted sugar, 4 fresh eggs, the grated peel of 
a lemon. 

The eggs are stirred with sugar and spices, and 
beaten for % hour; add the beaten whites of the eggs, 
and the cornstarch is then quickly stirred through it. 
This is put into a waxed pan, a spoonful at a time, and 
baked in a moderate oven . 

103. Almond Drop Cakes. % pound of sifted flour, 
% pound of sifted sugar, 2 ounces of butter, 2 ounces of 
grated almonds, 4 eggs, the grated peel of half a lemon. 

Cream the butter, stir in the eggs, sugar, spices and 
almonds, and beat for % hour, mix the flour into the 
mass and put into a buttered pan, a teaspoonful at a 
time, and bake in a moderate oven. 

104. Spiced Drop Cakes. 2 pounds of flour, 2 pounds 
of sugar, 12 large or 14 small eggs, the peels of 2 lemons, 
2 ounces of citron, a little ground cloves, cinnamon and 
pounded cardamom seeds. 

Eggs, sugar and spices are stirred for half an hour, 
and then gradually add the flour. The pan is waxed, 
the battel* dropped in with a teaspoon and baked to a 
golden brown. 

105. Cinnamon Stars. 1 pound of sifted sugar, 

1 pound of almonds, washed, dried and grated with the 
brown skin, the whites of 6 eggs, cinnamon and the 
finelv cut peel of a lemon. 

Stir sugar and lemon peel together, beat the whites 
of the eggs and add sugar, stir for % hour, add cinna- 
mon, set part of the mixture aside, roll out the dough 
and cut it into stars with a cutter of that design, brush 
with the white of the egg and sugar and bake slowly on 
a waxed pan. The cakes will keep for a long time. 

106. Coffee Pretzels. Make a dough of % pound of 
flour, 1 ounce of freshly roasted and finely ground coffee, 

2 whole eggs, the yolks of 2 eggs, 5 ounces of sugar, 

3 ounces of butter, vanilla, grated lemon peel, a pinch 
of salt and a teaspoonful of baking powder. Make into 
small pretzels and bake in a moderate oven to a light 
brown color. 



404 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

107. Hohenzollern Cakes. 1 pound of flour, 1 pound 
of sweet coarsely pounded almonds, 13 ounces of light 
brown sugar, 4 eggs, some vanilla, 2 ounces each of 
grated chocolate and finely sliced citron, a little nut- 
meg, baking powder; make into a dough that can be 
moulded without breaking, and roll it into long rolls 
the thickness of a thumb, press the top a little, indent 
the rolls every 4 inches, and w&en baked and still hot, 
break them apart at the places where they were in- 
dented. 

108. Almond Cakes. Freshened butter, sifted sugar, 
grated almonds and sifted flour of each % pound, 2 
eggs, grated peel of % lemon. Cream the butter, add the 
other ingredients, leaving half of the almonds and 
sugar for the top. Then roll the dough % inch thick, 
cut into long pieces, spread with beaten egg, almonds 
and sugar, and bake in a moderate oven to a light 
yellow color. 

109. Shavings. 1 pound of sifted flour, 1 pound of 
sifted sugar, % pound of melted butter, 6 eggs, the rind 
of a lemon. „ 

After this has been well stirred together, spread as 
thinly as possible on a buttered mould and bake for 
8 — 10 minutes to a light yellow color. While still hot 
cut the cake into strips 2 inches wide and quickly wind 
them over a round stick, so as to shape them like 
shavings. 

110. Berlingoes. (Excellent with wine and for 
Christmas). 1% pounds of flour, 1 pound of sugar, 9 
ounces of fresh butter, 5 eggs, grated peel of a lemon. 

Cream the butter, add the eggs one by one, sugar, 
and lemon peel, and at last the flour. Out of this dough 
form small wreaths which are put not too close together 
into a buttered pan, and dusted with a little flour. 
They must be baked to a light brown color. 

They can also be spread with the white of an eg^ 
coarsely pounded almonds, sugar and cinnamon, whic 
makes them very nice. 

111. Vienna Crusts. % pound of flour, % pound of 
sugar, 3 eggs, cinnamon, a trifle of cardamom seeds, 
cloves, grated peel of a lemon, 3 finely chopped pre- 
served walnuts. 



Tarts, Cookies, Etc. 40a 

After the flour and sugar have been sifted, stir all 
the ingredients together excepting the flour, for % hour ; 
then add the flour, a spoonful at a time. Take a tea- 
spoonful of the dough at a time, turn in sugar and form 
into long pieees,and bakeon awaxed pan in a moderate 
ovenT;o a light brown color. 

112. Burnt Almonds. 1 pound of almonds rubbed 
in a cloth, (but not peeled), 1 pound of sugar, and if 
liked a little cinnamon. 

The sugar is melted in a little water, and boiled in a 
copper stewpan until the sugar strings. Then add the 
almonds, which are stirred constantly until they are 
sugared. " Then take the pan from the stove and stir 
until the almonds are dry; then put the pan on the 
stove again until they are glazed. Pour onto a flat 
dish and while still hot mix through them the cinnamon 
aud then pick the almonds apart. 

1 13. riuscadine Almonds. % pound of almonds with 
the shells, % pound of sifted sugar, the whites of 8 eggs, 
cinnamon, cloves, and lemon peel. 

Clean the almonds in a cloth," grate and put them 
on the stove with the whites of the eggs, sugar and 
spices, and stir until they are no longer sticky when 
handled ; then cool, form into small almonds and bake 
in a slow oven. 

114. Kisses. For these cakes the finest powdered 
sugar only can be used. Take 1 pound of powdered 
sugar, a little vanilla, 4 — 6 fresh eggs -(the whites only). 
Beat the whites to a froth stiff enough to cut, add sugar 
and vanilla, whipping constantly. Drop the batter 
onto awaxed pan with a teaspoon, bake in a slow oven. 
Some people prefer the kisses filled with whipped cream. 
Form the dough into balls the size of an egg, bake, 
hollow them, form the bottom and just before serving, 
fill them with cream. 

115. Sweet flacaroons. 1% pounds of sifted sugar, 
1 pound of grated almonds, the whites of 4 eggs, the 
grated rind of a lemon. Stir the almonds with sugar, 
lemon peel and the beaten whites of the eggs for a time, 
form into long or round balls with a spoon, put into 
a hot waxed pan and bake in a slow oven until light 



406 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

yellow. If the macaroons are wanted bitter, use three 
parts of sweet and one part of bitter almonds. 

116. Spiced Macaroons. 1 pound of grated almonds, 
1% pounds of sifted sugar, the grated peel of a lemon, 
cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg or mace and the whites* of a 
few eggs. 

The ingredients are stirred with enough white of egg 
to bind the mass, beating the dough with a spoon, not 
stirring it. Bake as directed in the above receipt. 

117. Almond Nuts. % pound of flour, % pOund of 
sugar, % pound of pounded almonds, 2 ounces of butter, 
4 — 6 eggs, lemon- or orange peel. 

Cream the butter and stir with eggs, sugar, spices 
and almonds for % hour, stir in the flour, make into 
little balls and bake slowly until a light yellow. 

118. White Rifle Nuts (Pfeffernuesse). 1 pound of 
flour, 1 pound of sugar, both sifted, 4 large eggs, 3 
ounces of citron, the peel of a lemon, 1 nutmeg, 1 table- 
spoonful of cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful of ground cloves, 
baking powder and white pepper. 

Eggs, sugar and spices are stirred well together, 
mix the- baking powder with the flour, mix all together, 
form into little balls and bake slowly. 

119. Brunswick Rifle Nuts. 1 pound of flour, 1 
pound of honey, baking powder, 1% ounces of cinnamon, 
% ounce of ground cloves and the necessary flour. 

Put the honey on the fire until it comes to a boil, 
stir into a deep dish, rinse the dish in which the honey 
was boiled with 1 cupful of water, add this to the dough, 
and knead into the latter enough flour to make it very 
stiff. Cover the dough and set it aside for a few weeks 
or so in a cool place. When ready to bake put the 
dough on the board, add the spices and baking powder, 
knead the dough, roll it, fold it together, again, roll 
again until soft and elastic. Then roll a small piece of 
the dough to the thickness of a finger, cut into pieces 
% inch thick, put these side by side into a buttered pan. 
After the little cakes ai-eall made, take the rolling pin, 
lightly roll it over them to make them even and bake in 
a moderate oven until done, but not too dark nOr too 
hard. After taking from the oven let the cakes remain 



Tarts, Cookies, Etc. 407 

in the pan eo that they will harden like crackers, but 
they must not brown. The cakes are best when baked 
in this way, fcr if put into the oven to bake and dry at 
the same time they are apt to become too brown and 
are then bitter. To make them nicer sprinkle sliced 
almonds over the bottom of the pan before putting in 
the cakes. When put into a dry place they will keep for 
a long time. 

120. Anise Cakes. 1 pound of flour, 1 pound of 
sugar, both sifted, 4 whole eggs, a piece of butter the 
size of a walnut, baking powder and anise seed. 

Sugar, butter and eggs are stirred for % hour and 
mixed to a dough with the flour and baking powder, 
setting aside a little of the flour. Put the dough on a 
board, knead, roll out to the thickness of half a finger, 
dust with a little flour and with a cutter stamp out the 
desired figures. After this is done lay them on a board 
sprinkled with anise, and leave them over night in a dry 
place., The next day wax a pan, put the cakes on it and 
bake in a moderate oven to a light yellow color. 

121. Basil Honey Cakes ("Lebkuchen"). 1 pint of 
honey, which must be at least a year old, 2% pounds of 
floui*, 1% pounds of sugar, 7 ounces of almonds, the 
same quantity of orange peel and also citron, and the 
peel of 2 lemons all coarsely cut, furthermore about 
2 ounces of cinnamon, % ounce of cloves, 2 teaspoonfuls 
of mace, baking powder, 1 glassful of cherry cordial or 
arrac. 

Honey and sugar are put on the stove; when the 
mass begins to raise put in the almonds and roast them 
for some time. Then take the pan from the fire, add 
the spices and when cool the cherry cordial and at last 
the flour and baking powder. As long as the dough is 
warm roll it to the thickness/ of % of an inch, cut it into 
oblong pieces, lay close together on a pan dusted with 
flour and set aside over night. Then bake in a moder- 
ate oven ; they are cut with a knife while still hot and 
when cold broken apart. For an icing boil sugar until, 
it threads and then spread the cakes with it. 

122. Basil Honey Jumbles ("Leckerli"). 1 pound 
of honey, 1 pound of sifted sugar, 1 pound of almonds, 
cut lengthwise, 1 pound of flour, 2 ounces of citron, the 



408 S.— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

finely cut peril of a lemon, % of a nutmeg, cloves, and 
% wineglassful of rum or arrac. 

Melt the honey on the stove, into this pour the 
sugar and almonds, stir together, add the other ingre- 
dients and knead to a dough which is set .aside for a 
week. Then roll the dough about % inch thick, lay it on 
a waxed pan and bake in a hot oven. Cut the cake into 
pieces about 1 inch wide and 2 incheslong. 

123. Honey Cakes. 2 pounds of honey, 2 pounds of 
flour, % pound of butter, 6 ounces of almonds, the peel of 
a lemon, % ounce each of ground cloves and cardamom, 
and some baking powder. 

Cook honey and butter together, take the dish from 
the fire, stir in the flour, spices and the coarsely pounded 
almonds, and when thedough has cooled mix the baking 
powder through it and set aside over night. Koll the 
dough to the thickness of about % inch and make into 
small square cakes, put an almond on each, also a 
piece Ofcitron and bake to a nice yellow color. 

124. Holland Pretzels. For the dough take % pound 
of flour, % pound of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 table- 
spoonful of sour cream and 1 tablespoonful of- cori- 
ander. Roll pieces of it with the hands into the shape 
of little pretzels or wreaths, and bake. 

125. Holland Cakes. 1 pound of flour, 1 pound of 
sugar, 4 eggs, cloves and baking powder. Work the 
dough well, make into balls the size of a walnut, put an 
almond or a piece of orange-peel on each and bake. 

126. Small Cream Cakes. J£ pound of flour, 1 egg, 
6 ounces of butter, 2 ounces of sifted sugar, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of thick sour cream. 

Make into a dough, roll, cut with a wineglass or a 
round cutter, spread the cakes with lightly browned 
butter, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and bake to 
a light brown color. 

127. Small Crackers ("Zwieback"). 2% pounds of 
flour, % pound of sifted sugar, 6 ounces of butter, or 
half lard and half butter, a little more than 1 pint of 
milk, 2 ounces of fresh yeast, 3 eggs, a little mace and 
cloves. Warm the flour, stir in the warmed milk with 



Tarts, Cookies, Etc. 409 

eggs, spices and the dissolved yeast, work to a soft 
dough, cover and let it raise for about 1 hour. Then 
add the sugar and butter, mix with the remaining flour 
and kuead the dough as directed under No. 1» 

, Break small pieces from the dough, form round and 
smooth with the hands, put them on a buttered pan 
and let them raise again in a warm room. When this 
is done, bake them in a moderate oven for 10 — 15 
minutes, and let them cool in the pan. Then cut them 
in two with a sharp knife — not pressing the crackers — 
and lay the cut side to the top and bake again in the 
oven to a nice yellow color. 

To have the crackers crisp and fresh, after they are 
cut and baked warm them again in the oven. 

128. Nice Almond Cakes. For the dough, 1% pounds 
of flour, 1 pound of freshened butter, 2 ounces of yeast, 

1 cupful of warm milk and the yolks of 2 eggs; for on 
the cakes, 6 ounces of pounded almonds, the whites of 

2 eggsj sugar and cinnamon. Cut the butter into small 
pieces, mix with the flour, stirring in the milk, sugar 
and dissolved yeast, and work to a soft dough, but it 
must not stick to the hands. Take small pieces of the 
dough, roll them out long and pinch the ends together i 
spread with beaten whites of eggs, dip into a mixture of 
sugar, almonds and cinnamon and lay them into a pan 
not too closely together. After they have raised bake 
in a moderate oven to a dark yellow color. The above 
quantity will make 60 — 70 cakes. 

129. Cinnamon Rolls or Waffles. 1 pound of flour, 
1 pound of sugar, both sifted, % pound of clarified but- 
ter, 7-eggs, cinnamon and grated lemon peel. When the 
butter is cold cream it, add the eggs and sugar, stir for 
a short time, mix with spices and flour: Then heat the 
waffle iron, put a spoonful of the batter into the iron, 
close it and bake first on one side and then on the 
other. The iron need not be buttered. These and the 
following cakes are nicer when the dough is prepared 
the day previous. 

130. New Years' Cake. 1 pound of flour, % pound 
of pounded rock candy, 6 ounces of fresh butter, 1 egg, 
grated lemon peel, ground cinnamon, and if liked a 
tablespoonful of anise seed. 



410 S.— .Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

Dissolve the pounded sugar in a little more thai! - 
1 pint of boiling water, cool, add the melted butter., 
flour, spices, and egg, and stir for a while; it is best to 
bake it'the following day. Put a tablespoonful into the 
iron (lined with butter) at a time, or enough to nicely 
cover the bottom, bake for 2—3 minutes on both sides 
and when done, quickly roll them around a smooth 
round piece of wood. For baking them have a slow 
wood fire, a charcoal fire is the best if it can be had. 
To keep these cakes, put them into a covered tin or 
basket and set into a warm place, because dampness 
will soften them. 

131. German Waffles. % pound of flour, % pound 
of fresh butter, 1 pint of lukewarm milk, 7 fresh eggs, 
fresh yeast dissolved in milk, 1 teaspoonful of arrac.or 
rum, mace and lemon peel. 

Cream the butter, add to it eggs, flour, milk, yeast 
and spices, beat the dough thoroughly, add the rum, 
cover, set aside 3 — 4 hours to raise. Then bafce the 
cakes with a slow fire, and grease the iron With a piece 
of fresh pork fat. Then put a small spoonful of dough 
into the iron and bake both sides to a golden brown. 
Sprinkle sugar over the waffles. 



III. CAKES BAKED IN BUTTER, LARD AND OIL. 

132. Rules for Baking. Slow raising of" the dough 
will greatly improve it and make it smoother. For 
doughnuts and the like, the dough should not be too 
soft, at the same time it must not be compact, and for 
this reason a few eggs should be added to prevent 
absorption of the fat ; salt must not be forgotten. The 
moulding board must always be carefully dusted with 
flour so that the dough will not adhere to it, which, 
would also cause the fat to penetrate. 

Butter, of course, always makes the finest baking.. 
The method of preparing it for the various receipts in. 
this subdivision has been explained in Division A. No. 8.': 
Good lard is also well adapted for the various kinds of 
baking in this subdivision. 



Cakes baked in Bctter, Lard and Oil. 411 

A sufficient quantity of lard or butter should always 
be taken because when plenty of it is used the articles 
baked in it will not absorb so much and have a pleas- 
anter flavor; a pound or two will generally be sufficient. 
After being used once it can be used again with the 
addition of some fresh butter or fat, and whatever is 
then left can be utilized in cooking. Take it from the 
fire as soon as the baking is done, pour it into a dish 
and when cold take off the settlings, melt the fat and 
set aside. 

A medium fire is necessary for baking in fat. The 
kettle should be deep enough that boiling over need not 
be feared, and quite wide so that a quantity of the 
baking can be done at one and the same time. Before 
beginning to bake get the fat so hot that when a piece 
of the dough is dropped into it, it will at once rise to 
the top. The quicker the cakes brown in the fat, the 
less the latter can penetrate the dough and make it 
greasy. Should the fat become too hot, however, take 
the kettle from the fire a fewminutes before commencing 
to bake; it is advisable to always reserve about one- 
fourth of the fat and to add a small quantity of it when- 
ever the contents of the. kettle become too hot. 

When baking cakes in which yeast is used, for in- 
stance "Berlin pancakes", the upper side is put into the 
fat first. Shake the kettle occasionally and when brown 
from below turn the cakes with a fork, and when the top 
is brown also take them out, lay them on a piece of 
absorbent (blotting) paper'for awhile, turn in powdered 
sugar and dust some of this over the top. 

133. Berlin Pancakes ("Berliner Pfannkuchen"). 

For thedough take 1 cupful of milk, % pound of clarified 
butter,. 1 whole egg and the yolks of 5 eggs, scant 2 
ounces of yeast, 2 ounces of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt 
and flour. For filling, currants, cherries, jelly or mar- 
malade. 

Flour and butter are warmed. Then whip the eggs, 
stir the lukewarm milk with the eggs, yeast, butter, 
sugar, salt and flour into a dough which is beaten until 
it bubbles, and no longer sticks to the spoon. Then set 
it aside to raise. When this is done roll it out to about 
the thickness of one-half inch and put a teaspoonful of 
the fruit jelly or marmalade 2 inches apart on half of 



412 S— Pastry, Cakes, Etc. 

the dough and lay the other half over this, and then 
with a glass cut so as to have the dots of jelly in the 
center of the cakes, and let them raise again. Then heat 
the fat, put the cakes in side by side with the tops to 
the bottom, putting in just enough cakes to cover the 
fat. They must be of a dark yellow color, and when 
done turn in powdered sugar or sprinkle with sugar 
and cinnamon ; serve fresh. If wished they can also be 
frosted. 

134. Doughnuts. 1 pint of water is boiled with 
3 ounces of butter, then stir in 1 pound of flour and 
cook until it no longer adheres to the sides of the kettle. 
After it has cooled somewhat, beat in 10 eggs, make the 
dough into balls with a teaspoon, fry in fat and turn in 
sugar and cinnamon. 

, 135. Brunswick Cakes ("Prillken"). 1% pounds 
of warmed* flour, % pound of melted butter, 3 ounces of 
sugar, 1 cupful of lukewarm milk, 2 eggs v , yeast, the 
grated peel of a lemon and a little salt. Make into a 
dough and let it raise; when this is done, dip the hands 
in flour, form the dough into rings and put them on a 
bread board, let them raise; fry, in .fat to a light brown 
color and while hot, roll in sugar and cinnamon. 

136. Snow Balls. % pound of flour, 2 ounces of 
butter, 1 cupful of water, 8 — 9 eggs, a little salt. 

Water, butter and flour are stirred together as 
given in the above receipt; when, cool stir in the eggs, 
and whip the dough until it is smooth. Make into balls 
and bake the same as given for "Berlin pancakes" to a 
yellow color. "While still hot roll in 'sugar and cinna- 
mon. 

137. Butter Rings. 1 pound of warmed flour, 2 
ounces of butter, the same quantity of pounded almonds 
mixed with a few bitter ones, 1 cupful of milk, 1 whole 
and the yolks of 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of rosewater, 
1 tablespoonful of sugar, a little salt, yeast dissolved in 
a little milk. 

Warm the milk and the butter, stir in eggs, rose- 
water, almonds, spices, yeast and flour, beat the dough 
and lay it on a moulding board dusted with flour. Then 
take small pieces of the dough, form them into little 



• Cakes baked in Butter, Lard and Oil. 413 

rings and set aside to raise. Then bake in lard the 
same as "Berlin pancakes", beginning with those which 
were make first. They must be of a light yellow color. 
While hot roll in sugar and cinnamon. 

138. Silesian Farina Cakes. 1 quart of milk, 2 cup 7 
fuls of farina, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of 
sugar, a trifle of grated lemon peel, cinnamon, mace and 
salt, also a few eggs, sifted sugar and rolled crackers. 

Boil the milk, stirring in the farina, spices, sugar 
and salt. Then stir in the yolks of 2 eggs, put the 
dough, about 1 inch thick, into a dish dusted with flour, 
after it is cold cut into strips about. 1% inches wide and 
dust these with flour. Then beat a few eggs with sugar, 
turn the rolls in this, sprinkle with rolled crackers, and 
bake in lard to a dark brown color. 

139. Swiss Rolls. Small rolls or milk breads are cut 
in two in the center, soaked in milk so that they are soft 
all through, and then put on a dish to drain. They are 
then fried in hot lard to a yellow brown color, sprinkled 
with sugar and cinnamon or powdered sugar, and 
brought to the table hot. They are nice with tea, also 
for dessert with whipped cream or a wine sauce. 

140. Baked Wheat Loaf. 1 large fresh wheat loaf, 
1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, cinna- 
mon, mace and a cream sauce, seasoned with a little 
rum if desired. After cutting away the crust, let it soak 
in the above mixture, dip in the cream sauce, bake in 
butter as given under No, 132 to a yellowish brown 
color, and while hot sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. 

This is served as a dessert with a cream or fruit 
sauce. The bread can also be sprinkled with almonds 
and baked in a hot oven to a nice yellow color, basting 
often with butter. 

141. Pilled Bread. Cut the crust from a wheat loaf, 
then cut it in two and hollow each half a little. 

Prepare a nice apple sauce with lemon, sugar and 
wine, stir into it the yolks of a few eggs, and a few bread 
crumbs, pour on a dish, stir in some chopped almonds 
or pounded macaroons and fill into the bread. Lay the 
pieces of bread together, spread the outside all round 
with egg', dip the bread into a sauce and bake in butter 
as in the above receipt. 



414 (3— Pastey, Cakes, Etc. 

142. Cherry Bread. 1 pound of stoned sour cherries, 
pound a few stones and cook the cherries with 1 cupful 
of Portwine and 6 ounces of .sugar until thick, and rub 
them through a sieve. In the meantime soak small 
milk breads in milk, cutting off the crust, dip into a 
sauce and bake as given in No. 132. After the breads 
have dried set them side by side in the cherry sauce, 
sprinkled with sugar and if liked spread with whipped 
cream. Bake in a moderate oven for M hour. 

143. Apple Slices Baked in Butter or Lard. Peel 
large cooking apples and cut into slices % inch thick, 
take out the core. Soak in arrac and sugar for a short 
time, dip them into a sauce as given in K., No. 92, fry in 
butter and when done sprinkle with sugar seasoned with 
vanilla. Instead of apples, pears, peeled and sliced 
oranges, plums and apricots can be used. 

In order that the apples may absorb but little fat, 
do not put more into the fat than will swim on the top. 

144. English Pie Crust. 3 ounces of flour, 6 eggs, 
1 pint of water and milk, (1 part water and 2 parts 
milk), 1 cupful of thick sour cream, mace and a little 
salt. 

Flour, the yolks of the eggs, milk'and spices are 
beaten together, mixed with the whipped whites of the 
eggs, and slightly baked in the oven with butter. Cut 
into oblong pieces about the size of a'playing card, bake 
again in lard and butter half and half, sprinkle with 
sugar and vanilla. These cakes taste like waffles and 
are served with coffee or tea. 



IV. BREAD. 



145. Rolls or Hilk Bread. To 1 quart of fresh milk 
take 4 pounds of flour, yeast and a little salt. 

Set the flour in a warm place for a few hours, and 
have the milk lukewarm; add the dissolved yeast to the 
milk and stir enough flour to the milk to make a not 
too thin dough; then set aside. After this has raised, 
add the salt, and work in the remaining flour until the 
dough no longer sticks to the hands. The kneading 



Cakes baked in Butter, Lard and Oil. 415 

must be done with the flat hand. Then beat the dough 
as given under No. 1, form into loaves which must be 
smooth on the top, let them raise again, cut into the 
dough, spread with beaten egg, put into a hot oven and 
bake until done. 

Milk* breads can be greatly improved by adding to 
the above 4 eggs and % pound of butter. 

146. Sour Rye Bread. To 1 quart of water add 5 
pounds of -rye flour and some sour dough (leavening) 
the size of au apple. 

The evening before baking warm the water and mix 
the leavening with part of the flour into a thin dough, 
dust with flour and set aside to raise until the next 
morning. Then knead in the salt and the remaining 
flour, make into a long loaf, set to raise again and bake 
in a hot oven for 2 hours. 

If the dough should not have raised enough, work 
in a little yeast when kneading; if buttermilk is used 
instead of water, the bread will be nicer ; then use only 
half of the leavening. 

147. Rice= and Wheat Bread. Boil 1 pound of 
rice in milk until tender and while warm mix with it 
4 pounds of wheat flour, some dissolved yeast, 1 spoon- 
ful of salt and enough water to make a stiff dough, 
which is beaten, set aside to raise and then divided into 
2 loaves. Spread with beaten egg and bake in a hot 
oven. 



T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits 
and Vegetables. 



1. Rules to be observed in Preserving Fruits. Par- 
ticular care should be taken that all fruit which is to be 
preserved is well cleaned, and when possible always rub 
clean with a cloth. 

The kettle in which the fruits are cooked must 
not have been used for preparing fatty food. A new 
double kettle filled with cold water, put on the fire and 
brought to a boil, or an enameled kettle is the best, 
Spoons and skimmers must not be greasy, and when- 
ever possible the kitchen utensils used in making pre- 
serves should be devoted to this purpose only. 

The vinegar should always be of the very best 
quality obtainable. 

During the time the fruits are on the fire nothing 
else should becooked that will emit a strong or pungent 
odor, such as cabbage or other vegetables, fat, etc., 
because this will act deleteriously on the fruit. The fire 
should be well attended to at the beginning, and if you 
have a coal fire it should not be disturbed, because the 
gas thereby liberated is also harmful to the fruit. 

The fruit jars must be scrupulously clean and should 
be rinsed thoroughly a day or so before using, and dried 
in the sun or open air. When the jars are filled be care- 
ful to have the fruit covered wjth juice as much as pos- 
sible ; a teaspoonful of arrac or French brandy poured 
in at the top, or a circular piece of paper cut the size of 
the mouth of the jar, soaked iu these liquors and placed 
on top of the fruit; will be found of great advantage. . 



T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 417 

Cloves are used in numerous varieties of preserves, 
but are apt to produce bla«k spots on light colored 
vegetables or fruits, such as pumpkins, walnuts, etc. ; to 
prevent this the heads of the cloves must be removed. 

Fruits and vegetables such as pickles, prunes, cher- 
ries, etc., preserved in vinegar should be covered with an 
inverted saucer and weighted with a small stone, which 
must not be heavy enough to produce much pressure, 
but enough to keep the fruit or pickles under the juice 
or brine. Asmall muslin bagcontaining mustard seeds, 
the bag large enough to cover all of the pickles, is a 
good medium for preserving them. 

Pickles and preserves should always be set aside in 
a cool, airy, dry place. The cellar is not usually well 
adapted for this purpose on account of dampness, 
especially in the Winter. 

If a scum forms on the surface of the liquor con- 
taining the pickles, which is commonly caused through 
the inferior quality of the vinegar, wash the jar care- 
fully and dry it, rinse the pickles in cold water 4 , boil the 
vinegar and take off the scum, add some fresh vinegar, 
put part of the pickles into it for a few minutes, let 
them cool on a flat dish, then put them into the jar 
again and cover with the vinegar. Should the viuegar, 
however, have become flat without spoiling the pickles, 
it is of no further use and should be thrown away. 
Take fresh vinegar, put it on the fire with the rinsed 
pickles and the spices (which should be rinsed on a 
sieve) and as soon as the vinegar is hot take out the 
pickles, bring the vinegar to a boil, and as soon as it 
is cool pour it over the pickles. 

Directions for keeping dill in good condition will be 
found under A. No. 41. 

2. Clarifying Sugar for Preserves. The sugar should 
always be of good quality. It is clarified as follows : 
Put it on the fire in a very clean copper or enameled 
kettle in the proportion of 1 pound of sugar to % pint 
of water, and let it boil until clear, taking off any scum 
that may appear. 

If the sugar is to boil until it beads, have a slow fire, 
but then do not use an enameled kettle, because the. 
enamel will crack. 



418, T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 

3. To Prevent Preserves from becoming candied. 

Fruits candy because they*ere either too- dry or because 
the sugar was boiled down too much. The latter diffi- 
culty can be obviated by exercising due caution ; if it is 
impossible to obtain any other than dry fruits that are 
not juicy, add a trifle of citric acid diluted with a little 
water to the fruit juice, after it is poured from the fruits 
and brought to a boil. 



I. FRUITS PRESERVED IN FRENCH BRANDY. 

Semaek.— It is important to use the best, genuine French Brandy j if adulter- 
ated or inferior qualities are taken, the preserves will spoil. 

4. flixed Fruits in Brandy. 1 cupful of pure brandy 
and to every pound of fruit 1 pound of sugar. The fruit 
must not beover-ripe and should be carefully wiped with 
a cloth. Begin by putting in the strawberries first, then 
the raspberries, currants, cherries with the stems half, 
cut away, apricots, peaches, pears, peeled and sliced 
melon, grapes, and whatever other fruits are desired. . 

Pour the brandy into a clean dish which can be 
tightly covered. Put in 1 pound of strawberries and at 
the same time 1 pound of pulverized sugar ; set the dish 
aside in a very cool place. With every pound of the 
succeeding fruits put in 1 pound of sugar, stirring very 
carefully. If any considerable quantity of the fruit is to. 
follow it will be necessary to add another cupful of 
brandy. After the last lot of fruit has been stirred 
through, fill the preserves into- jars and follow general 
directions in No. 1 of this division. 

5. Fruit in Brandy (French method). For 1 quart 
of brandy, 1 pound of the best sugar. 

The fruit, which ought not be too ripe, must, be. 
wiped clean with a cloth and put into cans in layers; 
with the sugar, then pour in as much brandy as "will 
cover the fruit, cover the jar and proceed" as given 
under No. 1. Put into a boiler with cold water, between 
straw, and put on the fire. Let the fruit cook for'/{ 
hour and then cool in the water. 



Preserved Fruits. 419 

6. Cherries in Brandy. 3 pounds of sweet cherries, 
1% pounds of sugar, 1 pint of brandy, cinnamon and 
cloves. 

Put the-fruit into cans after having been cleaned 
and half of the stems taken off. Then clarify the sugar 
as directed under No. 2, let it cool, stir the brandy 
through it, put a few pieces of cloves and cinnamon into 
the syrup, pour it over the cherries and cover the cans. 

7. Quinces in Cognac. For each pound of quinces 
(weighed after cooking) take % pound of sugar, cognac, 
lemon peel and cinnamon. 

Peel the quinces, cut each one into eight parts, and 
after taking out the seeds put them into cold water. 
In the meantime bring some water to aboil and cook 
the quinces in this until they can easily be pierced with 
a fork, but they must not become soft. 

Then take them out with a skimmer, lay them on a 
colander to drain, put a fine slice of lemon peel and cin- 
namon on each piece of citron. Then clarify the sugar 
as given under No. 2, cook for a while with the citron 
water, pour hot over the quinces and after 48 hours 
boil the juice. Then stir in as much cognac as wanted, 
and pour over the citron. 



II. PRESERVED FRUITS. 

8. Preserved Strawberries with Currant Juice. For 

1 pound of strawberries takel pound of sugar, put one- 
half of the sugar over the berries and leave them over- 
night. The next day cook the sweetened berries with 
currant- or apple juice, which has been boiled until 
thick, that is, not the berries but the juice is to be 
boiled ; put the juice and berries on the fire together, 
and as soon as the berries are heated through take 
them out and cook the jelly for a few minutes longer. 
This is served with roasts, also with biscuits and sand 
cakes ; served also alone with sweet cream. 

9. Strawberries preserved in English Style. The 

fresh berries are put into glasses in layers with sugar 
(6 ounces of sugar with 1 pound of fruit), pour over the 



420 T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 

fruit some boiling hot Madeira or Malaga, and close 
the glasses tightly, wrap them in hay so that they will 
not touch one another, put them into a kettle, bring 
the water to a boil and cook the fruit until about one- 
fourth is boiled away ; then take the kettle from the fire 
and leave the glasses in it until quite cool. Take them 
out and set aside in a cool place. 

10. Strawberry Marmalade. 1 pound of straw- 
berries, 1% pounds of sugar ; cook the strawberries in 
the clarified sugar under constant stirring until they 
become pulpy and the juice is thick. Can as directed 
under No. 1. 

Or the heated berries may be passed through a 
sieve and stirred with sugar (to 1 pound of berries take 
2 pounds of sugar), fill the marmalade into glasses, 
which must be covered immediately, cook in a double 
boiler for ]i hour, leaving them in the boiler until cold. 

11. Strawberry Juice for Invalids. 1 quart of fresh 
ripe strawberries, 1 pound of sugar. Cook the sugar to 
a syrup, lay in the fruit, stir carefully through the 
syrup with a silver spoon without breaking the berries, 
let them heat through but they must not boil. Then 
spread over a dish a thin muslin cloth, which must first 
be rinsed in fresh boiling water, and pour the fruit into 
the muslin so that the juice will drip through. The 
berries must not be pressed nor crushed. Pour the 
juice from the settlings into small bottles. 3 quarts 
of berries will give % quart of juice, which is very nice 
for invalids. The berries will make a good compot. 
They can also be put into glasses until currants and 
raspberries are ripe, and then cooked to a marmalade 
with these fruits, taking for 3 pounds of fresh fruit 
2 pounds of sugar. 

12. Grape Juice. Mash white grapes, set aside for 
a few days and then press them. Boil the juice, taking 
% pound of sugar for each 1 pound of juice, skim care- 
fully, let it cool and pour through a muslin cloth. Put 
into bottles and cork tightly. 

13. Gooseberry Marmalade. 1 pound of ripe goose- 
berries, % pound of sugar, lemon peel or cinnamon. 
Fully ripe gooseberries are weighed, washed, drained 



Preserved Fruits. 421 

and then mashed with a silver spoon and pressed 
through a sieve. Then put them into the sugar and 
spices, which have been boiled to a syrup, stir con- 
stantly and cook to a thick marmalade. In case it 
should turn watery after about a week it mn-t be boiled 
again. 

• 14. Preserved Walnuts. 1 pound of walnuts, 1 
pound of sugar, cinnamon and cloves. The nuts must 
be spotless and they should be freed from the inner skin. 
They are perforated in a few places with a sharp bodkin 
or larding needle, and left in cold water, which must be 
renewed three times daily for about a fortnight. Then 
change the water, boil the walnuts until tender, let 
them lay over night in cold water and the next morn- 
ing put them on a sieve to drain. Instead of sticking 
cloves all over the walnuts, whereby they lose their 
nice appearance, cook the spices with sugar and the 
walnuts, which will give them a nice spicy flavor. Some 
people prefer them without spices. The juice of a lemon 
and citron peel for every pound of sugar will also give 
the walnuts a pleasant flavor. Clarify the sugar as 
given under No. 2, and let the walnuts boil for a few 
minutes. After 3 — 4 days cook the sugar syrup again . put 
the walnuts into a jar and pour the hot juice over them. 

15. Raspberries are preserved the same as currants, 
but they must not be washed. 

16. Raspberry Jelly. Prepare the same as currant 
jelly (No. 22), adding a little currant juice, because the 
jelly will become thicker. Berries for jellies should not 
be quite ripe. • 

17. Raspberry flarmalade is prepared the same as 
strawberry marmalade, No. 10. 

18. Good Raspberry Vinegar. 2 quarts of raspber- 
ries, 1 quart of vinegar, for each quart of juice 1% 
pounds of sugar. 

Mash the berries a little, pour the vinegar over the 
berries, set aside, for 24 hours and then press them. 
The next day pour the juice from the settlings, put on 
the fire with sugar, skim, set aside over night and then 
proceed as given under No. 1. All fruits must be kept 
in porcelain dishes. 



422 T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 

19. Currant Jelly. For each pound of juice take 
1 pound of sugar. Take the currants from the stems, 
mash them and then squeeze the juice through a cloth. 
After the juice is pressed out let it run through a coni- 
cal bag, set it aside until the next day and pour from 
the settlings. Put the juice on a slow fire, gradually 
adding the sugar, stirring constantly. When the sugar 
has all been put into the juice it must be ready to boil, 
then take from the fire, set aside for % hour, take off the 
skin and fill into glasses, and after 48 hours put over 
the top a paper dipped in brandy or arrac, and tie care- 
fully. 

20. French Currant Jelly. % pound of red and % 

gound of white currant juice, and 1 pound of sugar, 
.ut the currants on the fire_ until they are heated 
through, then pour on a new sieve, let the juice run 
through, pour it over the berries and let it run through 
the sieve again. Then boil sugar until it threads as 
given under No. 2, add the juice and skim carefully and 
cook for % hour. Proceed as given under No. 1. 

21. Black Currant Preserves. For every pound of 
fruit take % pound of sugar, clarify and boil the berries 
in this, stirring a few times. Pour into the glasses 
while still hot. 

22. Black Currant Jelly. Prepare the same as for 
currant jelly, taking only half the quantity of sugar. 

23. Preserved Cherries. 2 pounds of cherries freed 
from stems and stones, and 2 pounds of sugar. 

Boil the sugar with 1 cupful of water until clear, 
stirring often, put the cherries into the syrup and set 
aside in a porcelain dish until the next day. Then pour 
into a colander, cook the juice again and pour it boil- 
ing hot over the cherries. The third day bring the juice 
to a boil until it becomes a thin syrup, stir the berries 
into this and fill into glasses while still hot. 

24. Cherries, for the Sick. 2 pounds of sour and 
2 pounds of sweet cherries, 1 pound of sugar and a 
little cinnamon. 

Dissolve the sugar in water, boil and skim.; cook 
the sweet cherries witbfthe cinnamon in this until about 



Preserved Fruits. 423 

half done, then put in the sour cherries and cook until 
tender, take out the juice, pour some of the juice into 
fruit jars, let the remaining juice boil for a while and 
pour over the cherries. To the cherry juice add for each 
half jar apiece of cinnamon and 2—3 cloves, and pro- 
ceed as given under No. 1. 

25. Cherry Juice. For each pound of juice take 
6 ounces of sugar and 6 cherry pits. 

Stone sour cherries and set them aside until the 
next day. Then press through a scalded cloth, weigh- 
the juice, add the sugar, cook and skim for % hour, fill 
into small dry bottles, cork tightly and set in a cool 
place. 

26. Pineapple Peel Juice. Cut the peels of the pine- 
apples into small pieces, weigh, and take three times as 
much sugar as you have fruit, boil andskini; cook the 
peel in this for 10 minutes. Set the juice aside until the 
next day, then pour it through the cloth and fill into 
bottles. After carefully corking Hip bottles steam them 
in a double boiler for 10—15 minutes. Another way i: 1 
■Lo take the peel, cut itup, sprinkle thickly with sugar and 
fill into glasses ; cover tightly. The juice will keep for a 
long time. 

27. Preserved Apricots. For each pound of stoned 
apricots take 1 pound of sugar. The apricots are 
washed, peeled, halved and the stones taken out. They 
can also be left whole. Put the apricots into an enam- 
eled dish, the round side to the bottom, and sprinkle 
sugar over them. The next day put them on a slow 
fire until hot, but they must not become soft, pour 
them on a colander to drain, then put a few of the 
stories into a can, cook the juice a little while longer, 
then pour over the fruit and fill into glasses. After 
about a week cook the juice again and then pour cold 
over the fruit. 

28. Apricot and Peach flarmalade Marmalade? J 
should be cooked in very clean enameled kettles, stir- 
ring often, add the necessary sugar and as soon as 
done fill into fruit jars. The" fruit, which must not be 
too ripe, is scalded so that the peel will easily come off. 
Halve and stone them, take as much sugar as fruit, put 



424 T.— Preserved And Dried Fruits, Etc. 

into an enameled kettle with the thinly peeled rind of a 
lemon and a few pieces of ginger ; this will tend to keep 
the marmalade longer. Cook to a thick marmalade 
Until tender, stirring constantly with a new wooden 
spoon, as it is apt to scorch. Should it became watery 
after about a week, it will have to be cooked again. 

29. Cranberry Jelly. 1 pint of juice, 1 pound of 
sugar. Wash and clean the berries, put them into a 
moderately hot oven, stirring often until the juice is 
extracted. Squeeze through a muslin cloth, pour from 
the settlings, and for each pint of juice take 1 pound of 
sugar. Skim carefully and cook for about 15 minutes, 
take from the fire, and if any scum arises take it off.. 
Fill, the jelly into glasses. If cooked too long the jelly 
loses its nice red color ; it must be thick enough to cut, 
as it is very nice for decorating. Try a little of the jelly 
after it has cooked to ascertain if it is thick enough. 

30. Apple riarmalade. Pare and core the apples, 
and put them into a pan of fresh water acidulated with 
the juice of a lemon, so as to keep the fruit nice and 
white. For every pound of fruit take % pound of sugar, 
let it boil, skim carefully, add the thinly peeled rind of a 
lemon cut into small pieces, put in the apples, stirring 
constantly on a quick fire until thick. Take but little 
water, and the apples should be of a variety which will 
not become pulpy in cooking. 

31. Preserved Blackberries. 3 pounds of ripe blacky 
berries, 1 pound of sugar, cinnamon and a few cloves. 

Clarify the sugar, add the berries and spices and 
cook on a slow fire, stirring often, but carefully, so that 
the berries will remain whole. Then take them out, let 
the juice boil for a while longer, and pour over the ber- 
ries; Fill into cans and cover tightly. 

32. Prune Marmalade for Com pots, also for spread- 
ing over or filling into Cakes and small Drop Cakes. 

6 pounds of ripe prunes, stoned and skinned, 2 pounds 
of sugar, a few tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cinnamon, 
and cloves with the heads removed. Skin the prunes 
and stone them. Then boil sugarwith the vinegar until 
clear, add the prunes, spices and cook, stirring often, 
because this compofr is apt to scorch, for 2— 2% hours, 
or until the marmalade is thick. 



Preserved Fruits. 425 

33. Preserved Pears. For each pound of pears take 
1 pound of sugar and a piece of ginger the length of a 
finger. 

Take nice juicy pears, peel, core and wash them. In 
the meantime boil the sugar, put in the pears and gin- 
ger aud cook until clear ; they must not be too tender. 
Then lay them on a porcelain dish to cool, and let the 
juice boil, lay the fruit into the cans and pour over 
them the hot syrup. Cover tightly and set aside in a 
cool place. 

They can also be preserved in cranberry juice, tak- 
ing 1 quart of cranberry juice, 12 ounces of sugar and 
% ounce of cinnamon for each 1% pounds of fruit. 

34. Preserved Pears, French Method. Peel the pears 
according to size, leave them whole or halve them, and 
as soon as peeled put them into water acidulated with 
lemon juice. Cook the pears in this water until they 
ean easily be pierced with a fork, take them out with a 
skimmer, thi'ow into cold water and let them drain. 
For every 2% pounds of pears take not quite V/ 2 pounds 
of sugar. Pour the clarified sugar over the pears and 
let them stand for 6 — 8 hours, pour off the juice, cook it 
until thick and then pour it over the pears again, after 
which set aside until the next day. Then pour off the 
juice once more, put a piece of lemon peel and a vanilla 
bean into a little bag and cook with the juice, put the 
pears into this and set on the stove for % hour. Then 
put into cans and cover tightly. This is a very nice 
way of preserving pears ; they have a brilliant white 
color and taste deliriously. 

35. Apple Jelly. 3 pounds of juice, 3 pounds of 
sugar, % tumblerful of white wine and 1 lemon. 

Take nice, juicy, not quite ripe apples, wipe them 
with a cloth, take out the stems, quarter without paring 
them, and cook in water until tender. Set the apples 
aside for 24 hours and then pour them into a jelly bag 
and let the juice drip into an enameled kettle. Boil the 
juice with sugar and after a while add wine and ldmon 
juice and cook until the juice, when cold, is thick. Fill 
into small glasses and cover tightly as given under 
No.l. 



426 T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 

Instead of lemon peel, a vanilla bean tied in a little 
Lag can be used ; citron slices can also be taken so as 
to make the jelly thicken quicker, but when using this it 
will lose its clear color and taste stronger. 

36. Apple flarmalade. 2 pounds of apples, 1 pound 
of sugar and 1 lemon . 

Peel the apples, wash twice and weigh them. Then 
clarify the sugar, add the apples and the juice of a 
lemon with the peel, cook quickly in an enameled kettle 
until done. Then mash the apples and cook to a thick 
marmalade, stirring often from the bottom. If after a 
week the marmalade has become watery, boil again, 
skimming carefully. 

37. Crab Apple Jelly. 1 pound of juice, % pound 
of sugar. Wash the apples, put them into a copper or 
an enameled kettle, cover with cold water, cook until 
tender and then press them through a sieve with the 
juice. The next day pour from the settlings, weigh, put 
on the fire with the sugar, skimming carefully, and cook 
for 1 hour, whereby this jelly obtains a nice red color. 
Fill into glasses and proceed as given for currant jelly. 
This jelly can be nicely moulded, and is well adapted for 
decorating, and can be cut into any desired ornament. 

38. Preserved Citron. 1 pound of citrori, %—l 
pound of sugar, cinnamon and if liked a few pieces of 
preserved ginger. 

Wipe the citron, peel, cut in two once and cook in 
water .with the peel and core until nearly tender. The 
core will give the citron a nice yellowish-red color. Then 
let them drain, cooking the juice for an hour longer, 
strain, add sugar and skim. Let the citron cook in 
this until tender, lay into a glass with cinnamon and 
ginger, cook the juice until thick and pour over the 
citron while still hot. The juice must cover the fruit the 
same as with all preserves. If they are liked slightly 
sour, add to each pound of citron, while cooking, the 
juice of a lemon. 

39. Quince Jelly. No. 1. 14 quinces and 2 pounds 
of sugar. The quinces are quartered, put into an enam- 
eled kettle, nearly covered with water and cooked until 
tender. Then pour the juice through a cloth;. it will 



Fruits Preserved in Sugar and Vinegar. 427 

amount to about 1 quart. Clarify the sugar, pour the 
juice of the quinces,from the settlings, add to the sugar 
and cook for about % hour, skimming carefully. The 
juice will by that time have the required consistency. . 

40. 'Quince Jelly. No. 2. Clean 1 dozen quinces 
and grate them to the core with the peel, squeeze the 
juice through a cloth and set aside over night and pour 
from the settlings. , For each pint of juice take 1 pound 
of sugar, clarify and boil it until it threads and then 
pour in the juice; put the seeds of the quinces into a 
little bag and boil with the juice. The seeds give the 
jelly a nice color. Skim carefully and let the juice boil 
for"% hour. The fruit must not be too ripe, otherwise it 
will be difficult to have it jelly perfectly. This jelly is 
of a very pretty color and tastes nicely. 

41. Quince flarmalade. 1 pound of quinces, % pound 
of sugar and 1 lemon. 

Cook the quinces in water until tender, peel and 
grate them, clarify the sugar, add the quinces, the finely 
cut peel of half a lemon and the juice of a whole lemon, 
and stir on a moderate fire until thick. If it should 
become watery after about a week, boil again. 



III. FRUITS PRESERVED IN SUGAR AND VINEGAR. 

42. Sweet Black Cherries in Vinegar and Sugar for 
Compot or Cherry Cake. 6 pounds of stoned cherries, 
1 pound of sugar, % ounce of stick cinnamon, % ounce of 
cloves, 1 cupful of strong wine vinegar. Boil together, 
skimming carefully, until the cherries are tender. Put 
the cherries into a jar with a skimmer and cook the 
juice for a while longer. Then stir the juice through the 
cherries, cover the jar tightly and set aside in a cool 

-place. 

KemarA— This compot is very nice in the Winter for cherry cake. When 
used for this purpose, let the juice, which will make a nice sauce for almond 
jelly, drip off the~cherries and pour over the baked cream or puff paste. 

43. Pickled Apricots. 4 pounds of ripe apricots, 
1 cupful of wine vinegar, % ounce of cinnamon, some 
dried ginger, 2 pounds of sugar, cloves. 



428 T.— Preserved and, Dried Fruits, Etc. 

Boil and skim the vinegar and sugar, take from the 
fire, put the peeled and stoned apricots into this and 
heat them through. Let them drain, put them into a 
fruit jar with the apricot stones, cinnamon and cloves, 
the vinegar, sugar and ginger until thick, and pour hot 
over the apricots. After a few days the juice is cooked 
again, and this must be repeated a short time after. 
Cover the glasses tightly 

44. Pickled Green Beans. 1 pound of small beans, 
% pound of sugar, not quite 1 pint of vinegar and % 
ounce of cinnamon. String the beans and cook until 
about half done, and lay them on a cloth to drain. 
Then boil vinegar and sugar, skim, add cinnamon and 
the beans, cook for a while and fill into jars, boil the 

: vinegar for a few moments, pour it hot over the beans 
and close the jars tightly. 

45. Small Green Beans in Mustard. Small beans, 
good vinegar and to each quart of vinegar take % pound 
of sugar; mustard seeds, cinnamon, white pepper and 
hbrseradish according to taste. 

String the beans, cook in salted water until nearly 
tender, and fill into jars in layers with mustard seeds, 
white pepper and sliced horseradish. In the meantime 
boil sugar and vinegar together and pour boiling, hot 
over the beans. The beans must be covered with the 
liguid and then pressed down with a plate weighted 
with a stone. After a week boil the vinegar again and 
pour it over the beans, which must be repeated after 
another week. The third time let the vinegar boil for a 
while~and pour over the beans so that they will be just 
covered. 

46. Sweet Cucumbers. 3 pounds of cucumbers, 1 
pound of sugar, 1 pint of water, % ounce of stick cinua- 

- mon, a few pieces of ginger, % ounce of cloves (taking off 
the heads) . Take cucumbers which have become yellow, 
peel, quarter them and take out the seeds. Throw them 
into cold water so that they will remain white. Bring 
vinegar, sugar and spices to a boil and put in the 
cucumbers, which have lain in vinegar for a time, cook 
in this, but they must not be too tender. Then put 
into jars and cover. 



Pickled Vegetables. 429 

47. Pickled Pears. 9 pounds of fruit, 3 pouuds of 
sugar, 1% quarts of vinegar, % ounce of cinnamon and 
the peel of 1 lemon. 

Peel the pears, halve, take out the core, weigh, wash 
quickly in cold water so that they will keep their color. 
In the meantime boil sugar and vinegar, skim and put 
as many pears into this as can lay side by side, add the 
spices and cook on a quick fire until they can easily be 
pierced ; if cooked too long they lose their nice color 
and will become dark brown. After they are cooked lay 
them into a glass, the round side to the top— do not 
pierce them with a fork — and pour the thick juice over 
them. Set them aside for a few days, boil down the 
juice again, pour hot over the pears and shake the 
glass once in a while so that they will settle, and cover 
tightly. 

A number of the foregoing preserves can be served 
to invalids; Nos. 8, 9, 11, 1.6, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 34, 
35, 38, 39 and 40 are particularly nice. 



IV. PICKLED VEGETABLES. 

49. Pickled Red Cabbage. Take cabbages that are 
firm and have fine leaves; remove the loose and coarse 
outer leaves, then quarter the heads and put them into 
medium-6ized stone jars in layers, sprinkling pepper- 
corns, cloves, bay leaves and dill between the layers, 
cover with a weak brine, placing a bag containing mus- 
tard seeds on top. Put a weight over all and cover 
the jar tightly. 

When preparing for the table shred the cabbage 
very finely, pour over it 'a dressing made of olive oil, 
vinegar and pepper; if served with roasts omit the 
dressing. 

Red cabbage can be finely shredded the same as 
white cabbage and then pressed into a stone jar with a 
little -salt, covering with the above-named spices and 
some small pieces of ginger, or some sliced horseradish. 
Put a mustard seed bag on top and press down with 
a weight, after pouring a liquor of vinegar and water 
boiling hot over the whole. Cover tightly and set aside 



4:30 T.— Pkesehved axd Dkied Fruits, Etc. 

as directed above. When preparing for the table, take 
some of the cabbage, press it out and pour over it a 
dressing of salad oil and pepper. 

50. Pickled Onions. Small onions, whitd pepper, 
horseradish and tarragon. Wash the onions, and to 
take off the skin easily lay them into lukewarm water 
and let them cool in this, then with a knife take off the 
skin. If possible, a silver knife should be used for this 
purpose, because the onions will receive dark spots if a 
common knife is taken. After they are rinsed, boil the 
onions for a few moments in vinegar with white pepper, 
take them out and fill in layers into cans, with tar- 
ragon and horseradish, pour in the cooled vinegar and 
cover tightly. 

51. Pickled Eschalots and Onions. Select small 
onions. After they have been washed and peeled, strew 
salt over them, let them stand over night, the next day 
wash, heat the vinegar and put in the onions, stirring 
often ; let them boil until tender. Then fill into a jar in 
layers with dill, tarragon, horseradish and peppercorns, 
and pour in the vinegar after it has cooled ; press down 
with a plate and cover closely. 

52. Pickled Beets. Use only the dark red beet. 
Cut off the tops, but none of the root, because the juice 
will then run out; wash the beets very clean, bake in 
the oven or else cook them in plenty of boiling water 
for 3 — 4- hours until they are tender. Do not pierce 
them with a fork and always add boiling water to 
replenish that which has boiled away. Then take off 
the skin, cut the beets into thin slices, lay them into a 
very clean, jar with peppercorns, cloves, (see No. 1), 
horseradish, coriander or a few pieces of ginger, and a 
very little salt, and, if liked, a few bay leaves. Pour 
over them enough vinegar so that they will be covered, 
and close the jar tightly. Serve them with soup meats, 
roasts, potato- and endive salad, and also, chopped 
fine, in herring salad. 

53. Preserved Mushrooms. Cut off the stems from 
small closed mushrooms, wash the latter in cold water 
and lay on a cloth to dry. Then heat plenty of clarified 
butter (see Division A, No. 8), lay the mushrooms with 



Pickled Vegetables. 431 

white peppercorns into this and boil them, constantly 
stirring. When they-are hot enough so that the juice 
will run out, take from the fire, put them into glasses 
with the juice and cover them with melted butter about 
% inch thick. After the butter has cooled put a layer of 
salt % inch thick over this, cover the glasses and set 
aside in a cool, airy place. 

54. Pickled flushrooms. Take cloves, pepper, bay 
leaves, tarragon, dried ginger and wine vinegar. Take 
the heads off the cloves as directed under T, No. 1. 

Large or small mushrooms can be used; clean and 
then wash them quickly so that they will not absorb 
too much water, and dry on a cloth. In the meantime 
boil some vinegar with spices, let the mushrooms come 
to a boil in this, lay them into glasses, boil the vinegar 
for a while longer and pour over the mushrooms. After 
a fortnight boil the vinegar again for a while and pro- 
ceed as directed under No. 1. 

55. Small Vinegar Pickles. For a 5-quart jar of 
pickles take 6 ounces of salt, % pound of small onions 
(laying the onions in salt with the cucumbers), % pound 
of horseradish cut into smooth, uniform slices, 1 ounce 
of dried gfnger, % ounce of peppercorns— the white are 
best— % ounce of cloves, 12 bay leaves, 2 handfuls of 
dill and 1 handful of tarragon. A handful of pepper- 
grass or cresses will improve the pickles; some unripe 
grapes may also be added. In order that the dill may 
be nice and fresh, observe the directions for keeping it 
given in a preceding Division. 

Select the pickles carefully, rejecting all that are 
spotted or damaged, wash in fresh water with salt, and 
set aside for 12 hours. Clean the onions in the same 
manner as directed for pickling them. The heads of the 
dili are either braided in three parts down as far as the 
seed, or else cut off short and neatly arranged around 
the edge of the dish when serving. Then lay the cucum- 
bers on a cloth to dry and put them into jars in layers 
with the spices. The jars, which must be new, should 
be used only for pickles ; they should be scalded before 
using. Then pour over the pickles raw wine vinegar, 
whereby they will retain t heir green color. After about 
a fortnight pour off the vinegar, boil and skim it, pour 



432 T.— Preserved and Dried Fruits, Etc. 

. « 

i'ttover the pickles when cold a,nd then press them down 
with a plate weighted with a stone, tie a cloth over 
them and set aside in a cool, airy place. 

56. Cucumbers pickled in Vinegar and Water. For 

each 2 quarts of vinegar take 1 quart of fresh water, 
1 cupful of salt and the spices as given in the above 
receipt. 

Take nice, fresh cucumbers having small seedsj and 
leave them in fresh water for 12 hours. Then dry them 
in a cloth, put them into a stone jar with the spices, 
dissolve the salt in water, pour this, with the vinegar, 
over the pickles, which must be covered with plenty of 
the brine, put a mustard seed bag over them and cover 
as in the preceding receipt. 

Remark.— Cucumbers pickled in this way taste very nicely and keep for a 
long time. They are excellent for Cucumber Salad (Division Q). 

57. Russian Cucumbers. 30 large cucumbers with- 
out seeds, 1 pound of eschalots, 2 ounces of mustard 
seeds, 1 ounce of garlic, 1 handful of fine sweet basil, 
dill and tarragon, 1 red pepper, fresh if possible, other- 
wise use a dried pod. 

Wash the cucumbers, salt them thoroughly and let 
them stand for 48 hours. After they are washed and 
drained, dry and lay them side by side into a jar and 
cover with the above-named spices. Then boil as much 
vinegar as will cover the cucumbers and pour the boil- 
ing vinegar slowly over them. After about two weeks 
boil the vinegar and pour it cold over the pickles, 
which can be used after about six weeks. 

58. Boiled Russian Pickles. For 2 quarts of wine 
vinegar take % ounce of pepper and % ounce of cloves; 
for between the pickles, % pound of eschalots or small 
onions, % pound of sliced horseradish, % pound of must- 
ard seeds, 1 ounce of garlic, M ounce of bay leaves and 
a couple of handfuls of dill. 

-Take cucumbers of medium size, wash and then 
sprinkle plenty of salt over them and set aside for 24 
hours. After this rinse off in the brine and wipe dry. 
In the meantime boil as much wine vinegar as will cover 
the pickles and add the cloves and pepper. When the 
vinegar boils, pour in part of the cucumbers, let them 
cook through, take out with a skimmer, throw in the 



Pickled Vegetables. 433 

others and put into the jar in layers with the spices and 
pour the hot vinegar over them. If after a few days 
they are not wholly covered with the vinegar add cold 
vinegar. The cucumbers can also be peeled and pre- 
pared in this way ; both kinds will keep for a long tame. 

59. Mustard Pickles. For a 5-quart jar take % 
pound of salt, % pound of eschalots, M pound of horse- 
radish, % pound of mustard seeds, 1 ounce of ginger, 
% ounce of pepper, % ounce of cloves (taking off the 
heads), bay leaves and two handfuls of dill. 

Cucumbers which have turned yellow are the best, 
because they are not so apt to get soft. Peel, cut in 
two lengthwise, take out the seeds with a silver spoon, 
strew over them the salt and set aside over night. After 
they are drained, cut them into pieces two inches long 
and one inch wide, put into a jar and pour cold wine 
vinegar over them. After a week or a fortnight boil the 
vinegar and skim it, lay the cucumbers into the jar in 
layers with the spices and pour the cpld vinegar over 
them (the vinegar must cover the pickles), lay a must- 
ard bag over them, over this a plate weighted with ii 
stone, and tie a cloth over the top. 

60. Samba. Peel large cucumbers, finely slice them 
lengthwise (to the seeds), let them lay in saltfor 3^hours, 
then putthem into a scalded bag and hang up to drain. 
When they are dry put them into glasses in layers with 
mace, white peppercorns and some eschalots, and pour 
over them vinegar which was boiled and then cooled. 
A nice way to serve this is with small pickled onions, 
heaping them in the center of the dish and putting a 
wreath of the Samba around them. 

Excellent with beef or mixed with herring salad. 

61. Preserved Cucumber Salad. Half ripe peeled 
cucumbers are sliced as for salad, salted and then put 
on a sieve to drain, after which put them into a dish 
with wine vinegar to draw out the salt. Then lay a 
cloth into the sieve, pour the cucumbers into this, press 
out well, fill into a glass with onions and ground pep- 
per, pour cold vinegar over them and at last add some 
saiad oil. 



U. — Dried and Pickled 
Vegetables. 



1. Pickling in Kegs and Stone Jars. The kegs 
should be carefully cleaned with a whisk broom and 
then filled with cold water, which must be renewed a few 
times during the week. Then SGrub them thoroughly, 
scald with hot water, let them dry in the air and put 
them into the cellar, slightly raised from the floor. Be- 
fore putting in I he vegetables the kegs should be scalded 
again. Vegetables scalded beforethey are pickled should 
receive the scalding in a copper kettle, which will give 
them a nice green color, and this is not by any means 
deleterious, if the vegetables are not allowed to remain 
in the kettle after they are scalded, but are at once 
taken out and the water is changed. Should you, never- 
theless, feel any hesitancy about using a copper kettle, 
take "nickel or enameled ware, adding a little piece of 
alum to the water, which will also give the vegetables a 
fresh green color. After the vegetables are pickled, they 
should be covered with, a linen cloth, putting some 
horseradish leaves or grape leaves on top of this; at 
last put in a plate large enough to cover the entire 
upper surface and weight it down sufficiently to bring 
the vegetables under the liquor, but not enough to 
press them. , Clean the keg once a week, washing out 
the cloth every time. Be careful that there is always 
sufficient liquor to cover the vegetables, and if there 
should not be enough, pour in some (cooled) boiled 
water after each cleaning. 

If the vegetables \vere allowed to stand dry, care- 
fully remove all that may have spoiled before adding 
any water as above, running the fingers around the 



U.— Dried and Pickled Vegetables. 435 

edges, taking up all that may have become soft. Wipe 
the interior of the keg with a* clean cloth, rinse the cloth 
in fresh water and repeat this until the keg is entirely 
clean. Then pour the liquor into the center of the vege- 
tables, rinse the top cloth and put it on again together 
with some fresh leaves, and weight it down with the 
clean plate and stone. 

When taking out any of the vegetables, gather the 
cloth all around and lift it out carefully so that none of 
the scum which has gathered on it will drop into the 
keg. Press the vegetables, being cautious not to do 
this over the keg, rinse the top cloth, the plate and the 
stones, and put them back as before. In this manner 
the vegetables will remain sweet and wholesome. 

2. Salted Green Peas. Fill 3 parts of green peas 
and 1 part of salt into a small, clean, scalded linen bag; 
dry the bag after it is scalded. Tie the bag securely, 
put it into a stone jar and weight it with a wine bottle 
filled with water. 

To prepare the peas for the table take them out of 
the salt and cover with boiling water, which is poured 
off after the elapse of half an hour. Eepeat this three 
times, then put the peas into boiling water with small 
carrots cut into cubes, and a piece of butter. Cook 
until tender, which will take about 1% hours. When 
done, stir through it a finely rolled cracker, some sugar 
and finely chopped parsley. Send to the table at once, 
because the dish will lose its flavor if allowed to stand 
for any length of time. 

3. Dried Green Peas. ' For this purpose take early 
marrow-fat peas, shell them and scald in boiling water 
for 5 minutes, after which spread them out on cloths to 
dry. Then put them on frames covered with clean 
white paper and dry them slowly in a slightly heated 
oven. Fill them into paper bags and hang in a dry, 
airy place. When preparing them for the table, let 
them stand over night, and parboil them the next day. 
Then put a piece of butter and a little sugar into water 
and bring it to a boil, cook the peas in this until tender 
and serve after adding the necessary salt, parsley, some 
sugar and another piece of butter rubbed in flour. 



436 IT.— Dried and Pickled Vegetables. 

4. Salted Beans. Shell the beans and follow direc- 
tions for salted peas. When preparing for the table it 
is best to first rinse the beans thoroughly in lukewarm 
water, then bring to a boil in hot water after which let 
them stand in hot water for a while longer. Boil in 
bouillon until tender and finish in the same manner as 
fresh vegetables. 

5. String Beans Salted. For each 100 pounds of 
shredded beans take 7% pounds of salt, which is partly 
sprinkled and stirred through the beans. - Let the beans 
remain in the vessel over night and fill them into the 
keg without the liquor the next morning. Enough 
liquor will still appear to cover the tops of the beans. 
After three or four weeks take off the scum and, if neces- 
sary, pour in some boiled brine. Cover and weight the 
beans as directed in No. 1. 

Remark. — The evening before the beans are to be cooked put them on the 
fire in cold water, cook for 1 hour and let them remain over night in fresh, cold 
water. The next morning rinse them carefully and put them on the Are in water 
with a piece of butter, to simmer. They will be done in an hour and' taste very 
nicely. ' 

6. String Beans salted after parboiling. Wash the 
beans, shred them, bring to a boil in a copper or nickel 
kettle, leaving them in the kettle for a few minutes only, 
even if they do not become entirely tender. Pour into a 
basket or colander and drench with plenty of cold water 
until cold. Put a thin layer of salt into the bottom of 
the keg and press every lot of parboiled beans into the 
keg, using fresh water fqr parboiling each succeeding 
layer. When all of the beans have been packed into the 
keg, sprinkle some salt over s the top and cover with 
cold water; put a weight on them not any heavier than 
enough to hold them down. After a while a heavier 
weight may be used. After a fortnight pour off the 
liquor and replenish with cold water, repeating this 
from time to time, say about once in two weeks. 

Beans salted as above directed will have a very nice 
color, need no further salting, will cook tender in a 
short time, have no unpleasant odor and in flavor are 
almost equal to beans brought in from the garden. 

7. Salted Small Salad. Beans. Take 3 pounds of 
salt for each 30 pounds of beans, string the beans, wash 
them, throw on a sieve, sprinkle the salt through them 



U.— Dried and Pickled Vegetables. < 437 

and let them stand in a clean keg over night. The next 
day mix them thoroughly, press tightly into the keg 
and cover as directed in the preceding receipts. Kemove 
the scum with great care. Jf the beans should not be 
covered with liquor pour in some cold brine. 

8. Salad Beans in Brine. Boil the beans, either 
whole or broken in two, until nearly tender, and when 
cold press them into a keg; prepare a brine strong 
enough to bear an egg, taking about 3 pounds of salt 
to 6 quarts of water, and when cold pour it over the 
beans. This quantity will be sufficient to cover, about 
17 quarts. Cover the keg as directed in No. 1. 

9. Salad Beans in Vinegar. 2 quarts of wine vin- 
egar, 1 quart of fresh water, a handful of salt, plenty of 
horseradish, or else. some dry ginger, bay leaves, pepper, 
ground cloves. 

The beans, which can be of any size desired, are 

[carefully cleaned, string and throw part of them into 
a copper kettle containing boiling hot water; leave the 
beans in the water for ten minutes only, otherwise they 
will become soft and are apt to spoil. Spread them 
apart to dry, but this should not be done in the open 
air, otherwise they will lose their natural color. Press 
them in layers into a jar with the spices, dissolve the 
salt in water, and pour this over the beans with the 
vinegar. The beans should be fully covered, put on top 
a bag containing mustard seeds large enough to cover 
the entire surface of the beans, add the weight, close the 
jar tightly and set it aside in ah airy cool place. 

Remark.— The beans are served as a salad with oil and -vinegar, or after 
being parboiled,, or as a vegetable with an egg sauce, after they have simmered 
sufficiently. 

jb > 10. White Cabbage. For about 9 gallons, take 
about two dozen medium-sized firm heads ; if the cab- 
bage is to be shredded very finely 30—34 firm heads 
will be necessary. Winter cabbage should never be 
selected for pickling becauseit is tough and has a strong 
taste. The cabbage should be shredded as soon as pos- 
sible after being cut from the stalk because it is -then 
the juiciest ; cover the bottom of the keg with some salt 
and put in the cabbage ift thin layers without any salt, 
pressing it in quite compactly. Cleaning and covering 
the keg, etc., should be done as given in No. 1. 



438 TL— Dried and Pickled Vegetables. 

1 1 . Salted Endives. 'For this purpose take only the 
smooth yellowed Summer endives. After removing the 
yellow leaves from the stalks, wash and then cut them 
into rather short lengths. Wash again and set aside 
to drain. After this put them into a clean keg or stone 
jar with plenty of salt, and cover with a rather heavy 
weight. 

Remark.— For the table the endives are parboiled, drained, well pressed, 
then stewed with butter, salt, some rolled cracker and a little nutmeg ; if desired, 
stir the yolk of an egg through it. 

12. Dried Butter Beans. For this purpose take the 
large, so-called butter beans, fully grown and tender, 
cut them into pieces about 2 inches in length and par- 
boil them for a few minutes, and slightly dry them in a 
moderately hot oven. They must retain a light green 
color and remain tough, consequently should not break. 

13. Dried Salad Beans. Take small sized beans, 
not too early, at all events not before small beans have 
begun to form in the pods. Carefully string them, 
bring to a boil once and let them dry carefully, not too 
slowly, nor too quickly. The beans should be tough 
and not brittle. The stringing is most readily done 
after the beans are taken from the fire. To prepare 
them for the table, soak them over night in cold water 
and renew this the next morning. Put the beans on the 
fire in cold water and when tender, which will be after 
the elapse of 1 — 2 hours, they are finished in the same 
manner as fresh beans. 

Vegetables' permissible for invalids are noted in 
Division C. 



V. — Beverages, Cordials, etc. 



I. BEVERAGES. 

1. The Various Kinds of Coffee, Directions for Roast- 
ing, etc. Coffee to be good should be roasted at homo. 
It must be carefully browned, for when too brown, the 
coffee wil l be bitter, a nd if no t roast e dJ5foTi p1' r i * will - 
ha ve an insipid taste? The cylinder inwhich the coffee 
is roasted snouid oe only half filled, turn it slowly over 
a moderate fire until it emits a strong aroma. After 
this the turning should be done quicker, because the 
berries arethen heated through and they will bebrowned 
too much if slowly finished. vVhen the coffee has a uni- 
form light brown color, w hich can be ascertained by 
opening the slide Irftne cylinder, spread it quickly on a 
flat dish and cover with a cloth. When cold, put the 
coffee into canisters or bottles and close tightly, so that 
it will not lose its aroma ; for this reason it is best not 
to roast too large a quantity at a time. 

2. To Prepare Coffee. For a strong cup of coffee, 
take about % ounce for each person. Put boiling water 
into the pot and set it on the top of the hot stove before 
putting in the coffee, which should not be ground too 
soon beforehand. Then pour in the necessary quantity 
of boiling water, take a few cupfuls out of the pot and 
immediately pour them back. Then put the pot on the 
top of the hot stove again until the coffee bubbles. 
After the coffee has settled it can be poured into another 
pot if desired. Coffee should never, under any circum- 
stances, draw too long. The coffee can be improved if it 
is put into a perforated coffee funnel and then gradually 
pour boiling water over it. 



440 V.— Beverages, Cordials, Etc. 

It will be found advantageous to put a conical bag, 
so made that it will nicely fit on the inside of the funnel,' 
to hold the coffee. It will strain better and clearer. 

It is perhaps unnecessary to state that the milk 
served with the coffee should be of the very best. When 
cream can be obtained it is of course preferable to milk, 
and will make the coffee ever so much the better. 

3. Tea. Formerly green and black teas mixed were 
much in vogue, but' the black varieties are receiving 
greater favor at present, largely because the green teas 
are more injurious to health. . Tea should always ae 
kept in tightly closed canisters, and the latter will pre-^ 
serve the flavor of the tea ever so much better if they 
are first scalded with an inf usiqnjjf . tea, letting itcgoJL 

in the canister. _~*-^ — """*"* "*" """" 

^ Tne teapot' sHouTdnrst be rinsed with boiling waterj 
then put it on top of the hot stove, filled with boiling 
water. As soon as the pot is very hot, pour out the 
water and put in the tea — about 1 heaping teaspoonfifl 
for each person ; for, more people a proportionately less 
quantity can be taken. Add a small quantity of boiling 
water, let it draw for a while, fill the pot with boiling 
water, let it stand on the hot stove for a few minutes 
and then stir it with a teaspoon. 

Tea prepared in the manner here described will con^ 
tain considerable tannin and is nei ther well flavored 
nor p leasant to drink, but it is the usfiai rfietdod of pre- 
paring it and is therefore inserted in this place. The 
properway to prepare tea is to let it draw in the boiling 
water for not longer than % minute. The resulting 
golden, transparent, aromatic beverage contains the 
principal constituent part of tbetea— -thetheine— almost 
entirely in solution, and also the greater part of the 
ethereal oils, without the disagreeable tannic acid. 

4. Chocolate with flilk. As there are so many dif- 
ferent kinds of chocolate it will depend upon the quality 
how much to take. However, 2% ounces of sweet choc' 
olate to a quart, or % of an ounce to a cupful is the 
usual quantity. When using bitter chocolate take less. 
Put the chocolate on the fire, barely covered with water. 
After it is entirely dissolved, stir it until it is nicely 
smooth and then turn in the milk, which can be thinned, 



Beverages. *41 

taking about % part water. The chocolate will be more 
agreeable in taste and easier to digest than when made 
with pure milk. Then add the necessary sugar and boil 
for about 10 minute's, stirring constantly. 

5. Chocolate with Water. To 1 quart of water take 
]i pound of "chocolate, or % ounce for each cupful of 
water. Prepare the same as chocolate with milk, but it 
must (boil for 10 minutes on a good fire,' stirring, or, 
better still, twirling it, which will cause it to bind. 

6. Imperial Punch. 1 pineapple cut into very thin 
slices, 1 bottle of champagne, 1 bottle of Rhinewine, not 
quite 1 bottle of arrac, 1 quart of boiling water, about 
% pound of sugar with the peel of a lemon grated over 
it, if wished the fine peel of an orange, 4 oranges, the 
juice of 4 fresh lemons, a small teaspoonful of ground 
cinnamon and a little vanilla. Put the cinnamon into 
boiling water. to draw, pour through a fine sieve into 
the punch bowl, add sugar, lemon juice, the oranges 
peeled and divided, and the pineapple. When cold, pour 
in the Rhinewine, arrac and champagne and a dash of 
vanilla. 

7. Strawberry Punch. Mash 2 pounds of straw- 
berries in a stoneware- or glass vessel which can be 
tightly covered .ad d 1 battle of rum, and let the mixture 
stand' 2 — 3 days, stlrringit "occasion ally during this 
time. Then pour through a fine sieve into another 
vessel. The pujp of the strawberries is then also' rubbed 
through the sieve. This strawberry rum should be 
bottled, covering the corks with sealing wax, when it 
will keep for along time; the bottles must not stand, 
but lie on their sides. Should it jelly in the bottles, it 
can easily be shaken out and will readily dissolve when 
put into the boiling water. 

When making the punch take the juice of two good 
lemons without the seeds, according to taste 1 to 1% 
pounds of sugar, and nearly 3 quarts of water to a 
bottle of tbe strawberry rum. Put the sugar into the 
punch bowl, squeeze the lemon juice over it, pour in the 
rum, and finally the boiling water. When the punch is 
done, the bowl must be covered and set aside until cold ; 
it will taste better if made in the morning and served in 
the evening than when it is served immediately after it 



442 V.— Beverages, Cokdials, Etc. ' 

is made. The punch can also be filled into bottles, let 
them lay on their sides for a few days and it will then 
be much better. 

8. Holland Punch. 1 part of strained lemon juice, 
2 parts of pulverized sugar, 4 parts of arrac, all 
measured in a glass. Put this mixture into a small 
vessel, let it dissolve on the t fire and stir through it 
8 parts of boiliug water. 

9. Wine Punch. No. I. 6 bottles of wine are mixed 
with sugar, taking 3 to 4 ouuces to the bottle, heat 
until it nearly boils, then add % to % bottle of arrac or 
better still Jamaica rum, leaving it on the stove for a 
short time, but it must not boil. 

10. Wine Punch. No. 2. 1 bottle of Bordeaux, a 
little over 3 ounces of sugar, 2 bottles of water, % bottle 
of fine arrac and the juice of a lemon . Get the wine and 
sugar seething hot but do not let them boil. Add the 
boiling water and at last the arrac and the juice of a 

lemon. 

11. Wine Punch. No. 3. Heat 3 bottles of Bhine- 
wiue to the boiling point* then add 1 bottle of strong 
tea (using about % ounce of tea), also Vs pound of sugar 
on which grate the peel of a lemon, using the juice in 
the punch. After this mixture has been poured into the 
bowl, add about % — % quart of arrac, according to the 
strength desired . 

12. Polish Royal Punch. Grate % of a lemon and 
)i of an orange over a pound of sugar, cook this with 
% quart of water to a thin syrup, then add the juice of 
2 oranges and % of a lemon, 3 spoonfuls of pineapple 
syrup, y 2 bottfe of Chablis, the same quantity of Bhine- 
wine and Burgundy; let this all get very hot, but it 
must not boil. Then dip a piece of sugar into rum, 
lay it into a silver spoon, hold it over the punch and 
light it. As soon as the sugar burns, pour on more 
rum until % bottle has been poured into the punch' in 
this way: Then pour in % bottle of champagne and 
serve the punch. 

13. Mecklenburg Punch. For this punch take 1 
bottle of good tea, 4 bottles of good claret, 1 bottle of 



Beverages. 443 

Portwine, 1 bottle of cognac, % bottle of Madeira and 
2 pounds of sugar, grating the rind of 2 lemons on the 
sugar. 

14. American Punch. Cream the yolks of 6 eggs 
with % pound of sugar, add nearly 1 pint of arrac and 
stir lightly through this the beaten whites of the eg°:s. 
When all is stirred together, mix through it 1% quarts 
of whipped cream, and serve in punch glasses. 

15. Jenny Lind Punch. Grate the rind of % of an 
orange on % pound of s,ugar, then press out the juice of 
2 oranges aud melt the sugarwith the juice. Then po^r 
onto this 2 bottles of Rhinewine and heat the punch 
until it is at the boiling point. Then let it cool, add a 
little vanilla, and at last % bottle of Madeira; put the 
punch on ice until wanted to serve. 

16. New Year's Eve ("Sylvester") Punch. This 
punch is to be prepared the last morning in the year, so 
that it can be served cold, which adds greatly to its 
taste. Scald % ounce, of black tea for % minute in hot 
water, in a closely covered djsh. Melt 1% pounds of 
sugar in )i quart of water, add the peel of % of a lemon, 
some vanilla and % ounce of dried orange blossoms, add 
to the sugar and set it on the back part of the stove. 
Then strain through a sieve and add to the tea, also 
pour in 1 bottle of Rhinewine', 1 bottle of Bordeaux, 
% bottle of Madeira, x i bottle of arrac, the juice of 2 
oranges, 2 spoonfuls of raspberry juice, 1 spoonful of 
pineapple extract, all heated. As soon as the punch is 
good and cold add a glassful of Marascino. 

17. Roman Punch. Grate the peel of % orange and 
% lemon on 1 pound of sugar. Melt the sugar with 
% quart of water and the juice of 1 lemon and 2 oranges, 
pour in % bottle of Rhinewine, % cupful of arrac, % cup- 
ful of Marascino, and % bottle of champagne. Put this 
into a freezer and turn it constantly until it freezes. 
About % hour before serving, stir through it the beaten 
whites of 4 eggs, (i/ B pound of sugar seasoned with 
vanilla having first been stirred into the beaten whites 
of the eggs), let it freeze for % hour longer, and serve 
the punch, which must be as white and creamy as thick 
cream, in champagne glasses. 



444 V.— Beverages, Cordials, Etc. 

. 18. Egg Punch. 1% bottles of good French wine, 
% quart of boiling- water, % pound of sugar, grate the 
rind of 1 lemon on the sugar and use the juice of 2 
lemons, some tea, nutmeg and a few cloves, 8 fresh eggs, 
and some arrac. 

Let the spices draw in the boiling water, take them 
out, add the other ingredients and whip on the stove 
over a good fire until the cream rises, but it must not 
boil. Then take from the stove, whip for a while longer, 
and add a little arrac according to taste. 

19. Ice Punch. Grate the* rind of 1 lemon on 1 
pound of sugar, put on the stove with a little water, to 
which add the juice of 2 lemons, and when it boils, 
skim. After it has cooled, add the juice of 6 oranges. 
Put into a freezer; after it is frozen quite thick add 
1 bottle of champagne, 1 glassful of arrac and % glass- 
fp'. of Jamaica rum. 

20. Hulled Wine. For 4 bottles of claret, take 1 
pound of sugar, 1 ounce of cinnamon broken into pieces, 
also a few cloves ; if after the wine* is mulled it is not 
sweet enough, more sugar can be added. Put the mix- 
ture on the fire in a covered stone jar and pour it into 
a bowl while boiling hot. 

21. Hot Egg Punch. To each pint of white wine 
take 1 fresh egg and 1% ounces of sugar. Beat this 
on a quick fire until it is quite hot; it must not boil, 
otherwise it will curdle. 

22. Cold Egg Punch. A refreshing beverage. For 
1 pint of white wine or claret take the yolks of 2 very 
fresh eggs, beat with pulverized sugar and grated hut- 
meg and then gradually add the wine. 

23. Bishop. For 1 bottle of claret take the thinly 

peeled rind of an orange and 3 ounces of sugar. The 

peel must be removed in about 10 minutes. 

t: 

24. Punch Extract. 1% pounds of sugar, the juice 
of four fresh lemons, 1 bottle of arrac. Boil the sugar 
in 1% cupfuls of water, add the juice of the lemons, and 
after it has cooled, add the arrac. When using take 1 
pai"t of the extract to 2 parts of boiling water. 



Beverages. 445 

25. Parisian Cardinal Extract. 4 /s quart of arrac, the 
rind of 4 oranges, 2 ounces of cinnamon, and vanilla. 

Break the cinnamon into small pieces, peel the 
oranges thinly, cut into small pieces, mix with the arrac, 
add vanilla, put into a covered vessel and shake often. 
Filter through blotting paper, and then bottle. 

For every bottle of Rhinewine take about 2 table- 
spoonfuls of the extract, and sweeten with 3 to 4 ounces 
of sugar. 

26. Bowl=Cups. For the preparation of all kinds of 
bowl-cups it is desirable to add a bottle of the heavier 
varieties of Rhinewine to the light Moselle or Rhine- 
wines used. The beverage will not thereby become too 
strong,' but will gain very much in flavor. When using 
preserved fruits, only half of the quantity of sugar given 
in the various receipts should be used. The sugar easily 
dissolves in the water with which it is moistened before 
'the addition of the wine, but a. prepared sugar syrup is 
preferable. Sugar syrup can be prepared by bringing 
about 2% pounds of sugar to boil in 1 pint of water, let 
it boil for 5 minutes and strain through a scalded, 
rinsed and dried napkin into little bottles, where it 
will keep for a long time if well corked. When conven- 
ient, prepare the bowl several hours before it is sent 
to the table, cover tightly and set in a cold place, if 
possible on ice. 

The use of claret does not improve the flavor of the 
beverage but will give it a pretty color. Appolinaris 
or selters water is also not to be recommended on 
account of the salts it contains in solution ; if the bever- 
age is not to be strong, use carbonated water to dilute 
it. Bowl-cups that are to be entirely agreeable should 
never contain any rum, arrac, cognac and the like. If 
champagne or sparkling Rhinewine is to be added, it 
should be poured into the bowl just before it is brought 
to the table. 

27. Pineapple Cup. Thinly peel the pineapple and 
cut into fine slices, and according to the size of the fruit 
take 8—12 bottles of Rhine- or Moselle wine and 1 
bottle of claret, and sweeten according to taste; for 
1 bottle of wine take about 3 — 4 ounces of sugar. 



446 V.— Beverages, Cordials, Etc. , 

Sprinkle the sugar over the pineapple in layers, 
pour over it a glassful of Madeira or" water, and set 
aside for 24 hours. Then lay them into a bowl and 
add the wine aud the remaining sugar. "When using 
preserved pineapple, pour over it a bottle of wine 10— 12 
hours before serving. 

28. Orange Cup. Take 1—2 oranges, 6 bottles of 
Ehine- or Moselle wine, 1 bottle of Burgundy or claret, 
according to taste % bottle of carbonated water, and 
2 ounces or so of sugar to each bottlef ul of wine. 

Thinly pare the oranges with a thin knife, put the 
peel into a wineglass which was half filled with water, 
cover with paper and set aside for a few moments to 
draw. The given quantity of sugar syrup is put into 
a bowl, add the wine and the extract of the orange peel 
according to taste ; a bottle of Burgundy will improve 
the flavor of the bowl-cup. 

29. Peach Bowl-Cup. After skinning the peaches, 
cut them into thin slices, sprinkle with sugar, and if 
possible set aside in a covered dish for a few nours or a 
day to draw, and then proceed as given for strawberry 
bowl-cup. 

30. Strawberry Bowl-Cup. Take 1 heaping plate- 
ful of fresh strawberries — wild strawberries are prefer- 
able if they can be obtained — put them into a bowl, 
sprinkle % to 1 pound of sugar through them, add a 
trifle of water, and shake a little so that the sugar will 
mix through the berries. Set the bowl aside for 6 to 8 
hours, cover tightly and then pour in 6 to 8 bottles of 
Moselle wine. • 

31. Champagne Bowl-Cup. Dissolve 1 pound of 
sugar in 2 bottles of Moselle wine, 1 bottle of Burgundy 
and 2 bottles of champagne or sparkling Rhinewine, 
and set the bowl aside on ice until wanted. 

32. May Wine. Take fresh woodruf ("Waldmei- 
ster") before it blossoms (in April or May), pick it over 
carefully, remove the lower leaves a,nd lower parts of 
the stalks. Just before using rinse it quickly in water, 
put it into a bowl containing sugar previously dissolved 
— about 2 to 3 ounces of sugar for each bottle of wine. 
Pour in as much Rhine- or Moselle wine as desired. The 



Bevekages. 447 

herbs must be taken out of the bowl after a few minutes, 
otherwise they will flavor the beverage too strongly. 
Sliced oranges with the seeds removed are a pleasing 
addition to May wine. 

May wine when filled into bottles will keep for a few 
days, but great caution must be exercised, so that not 
the least bit of the herbs comes into the bottle: 

Or the " Waldmeister" can be covered with a bottle 
of wine, letting it draw for 10 to 15 minutes. This , 
extract can be filled into bottleaand then is used in the 
above beverage according to taste. 

In the months of July, August and September make 
a bowl-cup of mignonette-heads, taking about 15 heads 
for each bottle of wine with \ pound of sugar, letting 
the flowers draw in the wine somewhat longer than 
"Waldmeister." 

Remark.— The "Waldmeister" will gaim in flavor rery materially if It is not 
allowed to stand in water, but let it wilt in a cool place the day before using. 
The stalks of the herbs should not come into the wine j tie a bunch of the "Wald- 
meister" together wiih a cord and let only the heads of the bunch hang into 
the wine. 

33. Apple Bowl-Cup. Select good dessert apples, 
pare, core and slice them. Pour 2 glassfuls of sugar 
syrup over .the apple slices, cover and set aside for a 
day to draw. The next day add 2 bottles of Khinewine, 
1 glassful of Tokay and % bottle of Burgundy. Strain 
after a few hours. Can be sent to the table with the 
further addition of % bottleful of champagne. 

34. Whip. 2 bottles of white wine, about % pound 
of sugar with the peel of 1 — 2 lemons grated over it, a 
pinch of finely ground cinnamon, % dozen whipped fresh 
eggs. Beat briskly on a quick fire with an egg beater 
until it begins to boil. Pour into a warmed bowl, fill 
into glasses and serve while hot. 

35. Grog. To each part of arrac or rum and sugar, 
add according to taste 3 — 4 parts of boiling water. 

An excellent grog, which will also prove very palat- 
able in cold weather to ladies, is made of genuine old 
Jamaica rum with plenty of sugar and boiling -water, 
taking 4 — 5 times as much water as rum. 

36. Warm Cream Bowl-Cup ("Hoppelpoppel.") Take 
1 quart of sweet cream, the yolks of 4 eggs, % pint of 
arrac and sugar according to taste. 



448 V.— Beverages, Cordials, Etc. 

Bring the cream to a boil Avith the sugar, then take 
it from the fire, stir the yolks of the eggs with some 
milk, slowly add to the cream, constantly stirring, and 
then stir in the arrac. 

37. Celestial Drink. (For hot Summer days.) Set. 

2 quarts of milk