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Full text of "Poultry diseases, causes, symptoms and treatment, with notes on post-mortem examinations"

POULTRY 
DISEASES 



E.J. WORTLEY 



SF 



SEP 5 1958 



Cornell University Library 
SF 995.W93 



Poultry diseases, causes, symptoms and t 




3 1924 000 931 570 



LIBRARY 

NEW YORK STATE VETERINARY COLLEGE 

ITHACA, N. Y. 




This Volume is the Gift of 

William L. Leeney 

from the collection of 

Capt. Harold Leeney 



^^ — 


Date Due 






















































































































































Pi Cornell University 
B Library 



The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000931570 



Profit or loss 




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PROFIT OR LOSS 




VI 



POULTRY 
DISEASES 



Causes 

Symptoms 

and Treatment 

With Notes on 

Post-Mortem Examinations 



E. J. WORTLEY, F. G. S. 



Illustrated 

i'i V Vf)(;K CTA 
i 1 I MliARV 001 

NEW YORK I I- li /, Iv t 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 
1915 

LONDON 
KEGAN PAUL. TRENCH. TRUBNER & CO.. Limited 



Copyright, 1915, by 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

All Rights Reservtd 



Entered at Stationers' Hall 
LONDON, ENGLAND 






Printed in U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

Poultry farming as a means of profit can 
be made successful only by maintaining the 
most vigorous and sustained campaign 
against disease. The aim of the poultry 
rearer should be to stamp out disease by 
preventive measures. Practical experience 
proves the inefficiency of many so-called 
cures, and points to the urgency of poultry- 
men endeavoring to understand more thor- 
oughly the causes of the ailments to which 
domestic fowls are liable. 

My aim is to put a concise handbook into 
the hands of poultry rearers, who should 
thus be assisted in determining the various 
diseases and in taking the precautionary 
steps important in preventing the introduc- 
tion and spread of contagious diseases. No 
effort is made to elaborate the scientific side 
of the subject. Those desirous of obtain- 
ing full information about the types of 
organisms that have been proved to be the 
specific causes of, or to be invariably asso- 

V 



PREFACE 

ciated with, particular disorders, may do so 
with profit by obtaining fuller works on the 
subject. Many scientific workers are de- 
voting their time to the problem of combat- 
ing diseases among poultry, and assistance 
is willingly given by officers of the ex- 
periment stations to farmers who desire to 
identify any disease causing loss in their 
flocks. 

The practical poultryman will recognize 
the fact that measures for the control of 
disease cannot be limited to sanitation 
and the treatment of sick birds, but, in 
reality, include such important matters as 
the selection of healthy stock, intelligent 
feeding, proper housing, and other details 
essential to the successful management of 
poultry. 

I gratefully acknowledge my indebted- 
ness to the works of Dr. D. E. Salmon and 
John H. Robinson, editor of Farm Poultry, 
and to the recent publication on poultry dis- 
eases by Dr. Raymond Pearl, Frank M. 
Surface, and Maynie R. Curtis. My thanks 
are due to R. S. Martinez for the care taken 
vi 



PREFACE 

in making the photographs from which the 
drawings for the illustrations in the chapter 
on Post-Mortem Examinations were pre- 
pared. Much valuable information has 
also been obtained from bulletins issued by 
the experiment stations of the United States 
and by the Ontario Agricultural College of 
Canada. 

E. J. WORTLEY. 



vu 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

General Methods of Controlling Disease i 

I. Importance of controlling disease. 
^. Dangers of introducing disease. 

3. Control measures. 

4. Nursing sick birds. 

5. The use of drugs and medicines. 

6. Disinfection. 

CHAPTER H 

Summary of External Symptoms and 

Treatment 14 

1. Diseases affecting head and respiratory organs. 

2. Diseases affecting organs of digestion and repro- 

duction. 

3. Diseases affecting legs and feet. 

4. Parasites. 

5. Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER HI 

Diseases of Poultry Other Than Fowls . ig 

CHAPTER IV 

Diseases and Pests of Fowls . . . .22 

(In alphabetical order.) 

CHAPTER V 

Post-Mortem Examinations . . . -99 

1. Making the examination. 

2. The normal condition of the internal organs. 

3. Diagnosis of disease by post-mortem symptoms. 

ix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Profit or Loss 

2 Isolation ...... 

3 Desolation 

4 Poultryman's Medicine Shelves . 

5 How Disease Is Spread 

6 Aids to Thorough Disinfection . 

7 Head Showing Brain Exposed . 
o I Windpipe Cut Open 

1 A Fungus That Causes Aspergillosis 

9 Bumblefoot 

10 Chicken Pox 

11 Diphtheritic Roup .... 

J Chicken Ailected with Gapes 

I Gape Worms 

13 Looking for Lice .... 

14 Three Lice That Comrjionly Affect Fowl 

15 The Air-Sac Mite 

16 The Depluming Mite .... 

17 The Red Mite .... 

18 Organs of Reproduction of the Hen . 

19 Examining a Fowl with a Suspicious Cold 

20 A Roupy Eye ..... 

21 Scaly Leg 

22 The Mite That Causes Scaly Leg 

23 The Fowl Tick 

24 Organs Affected by Tuberculosis and Blackhea 

25 Chickens Affected with White Diarrhea 

26 Healthy Chickens 

27 Worms in Intestinal Tract of Fowl 

28 The Parts of a Fowl . 

29 Skeleton of a Fowl 

30 Post-Mortera Examination No. i 

31 Post- Mortem Examination No. 2 

32 Post-Mortem Examination No. 3 

33 Post-Mortem Examination No. 4 

34 Post-Mortem Examination No. 5 

xi 



PAGE 

Frontispiece 
5 



10 
12 
29 

30 
36 
38 
SO 

60 

67 
68 

74 

75 
78 
84 
87 
88 

89 
90 
91 
93 
93 
95 
96 

97 

ICO 

102 
104 
106 
no 



CHAPTER I 

General Methods of Controlling 

Disease 

/. Importance of Controlling Disease 

THE ravages of disease add considerably 
to the difficulties of raising poultry in 
all parts of the world. It is the experience 
of poultry rearers that an annual toll has to 
be paid in the lives of young birds and older 
stock. Sooner or later, in addition, an epi- 
demic may break out and result in heavy 
losses and much discouragement. 

It is most important, therefore, to be able 
to recognize the symptoms and to know the 
causes of the many diseases to which vari- 
ous kinds of poultry are subject. Every 
practical effort should be made to reduce 
avoidable mortality. An unexplained 
death should be regarded with concern. It 
may point to the presence of a serious dis- 
ease. When there is not sufficient external 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

evidence for determining the cause of death, 
a post-mortem examination should be made 
(see page 98). 

The poultryman must know above all 
w^hether he is dealing with an infectious dis- 
ease or not. The discovery that a sudden 
death among his fowls is due to apoplexy 
will set his mind at ease. On the other hand, 
if a case of cholera occurs, the body of the 
dead fowl should be burnt, and a vigorous 
campaign started to prevent the spread of 
the disease; birds showing mopishness and 
other suspicious symptoms should be 
isolated; the houses, the feed troughs, the 
water vessels, and the yard to which the dead 
fowl has had access, should all be thor- 
oughly disinfected. 

2. Dangers of Introducing Disease 

Perhaps more loss has been caused by in- 
troducing birds with disease into a healthy 
flock than by any other means. Readers 
will, doubtless, be able to recall occasions 
on which their own, or their neighbors', 

2 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 

flocks suffered. An instance was recently 
related to the writer. A poultryman was 
offered two fowls, which he at first refused, 
but owing to the vagrant seller's importu- 
nity, he eventually bought the birds and let 
them loose among the home flock. On the 
following day one died; but no effort was 
made to discover the cause, nor was the dead 
fowl's body burnt. In a few days, a fowl 
belonging to the original flock died and, in 
three to four weeks after the purchase, two- 
thirds of the stock had died. It afterwards 
transpired that the vendor had lost several 
of his fowls from cholera, and the fear of 
further mortalities had been his reason 
for being so anxious to dispose of the 
survivors. 

On every farm where poultry is kept, 
there should be a quarantine ward for new 
purchases. The most careful breeders will 
isolate their own birds that have returned 
from an exhibition, for fear they may have 
contracted some disease there or on the 
journey. 

3 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

J. Control Measures 

Practical experience and scientific in- 
vestigation have clearly proved that pre- 
ventive measures are more economical and 
effective than curative. Failing preven- 
tion, everything points to the importance of 
dealing promptly with the first cases, owing 
to the risk of infection of the rest of the 
stock. Control measures may be divided 
into three classes : 

1. Proper housing and feeding of fowls. 

2. General sanitation and disinfection. 

3. Administration of medicine to sick birds. 

The details to which special attention 
must be given are covered by the following 
axiomatic rules : 

1. Isolate birds recently purchased — ^for two or three weeks. 

2. Isolate every bird that shows any sign of ill health. 

3. Provide a fresh and pure supply of water in a shady 

position. 

4. Add Epsom salts (one teaspoonful to a quart) once a 

week to the drinking water. Give chickens daily a 
liberal supply of bran in addition to their other food. 

5. Feed birds on a varied diet, including green food. 

6. Arrange that birds have to scratch for some of their food. 

7. Construct houses, nest boxes, etc., so that they can be 

readily and thoroughly disinfected. Houses should 
be free from drafts. 

8. Disinfect contaminated soil by spraying, liming, and 

resting. 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 



9. Visit the roosts at night to detect cases of wheezing due 

to colds, and to search for mites and other pests. 
10. Keep on hand disinfectants, lice powders and medicines 
likely to be required. 

4- Nursing Sick Birds 

The small margin of profit on a single 
fowl makes dosing with medicines and nurs- 
ing an unprofitable occupation, except in 




Fic. 2.— ISOLATION 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



the case of valuable stock. If the treatment 
of a bird is undertaken, it should be borne 
in mind that more depends upon attention 
to the rules of good nursing than to the 
administration of drugs. Comfortable 
quarters, warm and free from drafts, clean 
straw, and invalid's diet of soft and easily 




Fig. 3.— desolation 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 

digested food will all turn the chances in 
favor of recovery. 

Too often isolation is in effect a death sen- 
tence. The bird is put into cramped quar- 
ters, exposed to cold winds and beating 
rains, and, being in an out-of-the-way cor- 
ner, is, perhaps, neglected instead of being 
specially cared for. 

Fowls that will not take food should be 
fed lightly, but frequently, with a spoon in 
order that their strength may be kept up. 
All stale food should be removed. 

5. The Use of Drugs and Medicines 

Drugs and medicines likelyto be required 
should always be kept in stock. The 
weekly use of Epsom salts, as a mild laxative 
for preventing intestinal disorders, is 
strongly recommended. Little faith should 
be put in drugs said to cure tuberculosis, 
cholera, etc. Below is given a list of the 
medicines generally required. The doses 
given in the table are for a medium-sized 
adult fowl; three-quarters as much should 
be given for a half-grown bird, and about 

7 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



one-fifth for a young chicken. Treatment 
should be repeated as necessary, and animals 
should be well nursed. 




Fig. 4.— POULTRYMAN'S MEDICINE SHELVES 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 



Medicine 



Stimulants— 
Brandy . 



Aperients — 
Calomel . , 
Castor oil. 



Epsom salts. 



Astringents — 

Chlorodyne 

Laudanum (relieves pain) 
Tonic and Febrifuge — 

Quinine 

Aconite 

For Worms — 

Turpentine 



Santonin 

Antiseptic Washes — 

(a) Carbolic acid .... 

(b) Hydrogen peroxide 

(c) Creolin 

(d) Permanganate of 

potash 

Dressing Flesh Wounds — 
% creolin and % sweet 

oil 

To Reduce Swellings — 

Iodine 

Embrocation : 

Turpentine 

Sweet oil 



Insecticides — 

Lice powders .... 

Kerosene 

Sulphur ointment: 

Sulphur 

Kerosene 

Lard 



Dose or 
Strength 



3-10 drops in 
warm milk 

1 grain 

1 teaspoonful 

20 grains to 50 
grains in 
food or 
warm water 

6-12 drops 
4-6 drops 

1 grain 
1 drop 

5 to 10 drops 
in 1 teaspoon- 
ful castor oil 

3 to 5 grains 

1-5% sol. 
50% 

2-5% sol. 
%-2% sol. 



Tincture 



10 drops 
1 ounce 



1 part 

1 part 

2 parts 



Diarrhea; liver disease. 
Diarrhea. 



r Constipation ; diarrhea; 
y liver disease. 



Diarrhea; dysentery. 
Diarrhea; dysentery. 

V Colds; fever; roup. 

] 

J" Worms (intestinal). 
J 



Colds; roup; diphtheria; 
cuts and injuries. 



Cuts and injuries. 



Cramp. 

Rheumatism. 



Lice, mites. 

Scaly legs. 

Lice, scaly legs, mites, ticks. 



Note. — By accepting that 1^ teaspoonfuls made up to a pint v"'h 
water gives approximately a 1% solution, any of the weak dilutions 
required by poultrymen can be easily prepared. 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

6. Disinfection 

The important part played by micro-or- 
ganisms in causing and spreading disease 
must be understood before the value of dis- 
infection can be fully appreciated. The 
poultryman must develop a sense of sight 
that sees lurking microbes at every turn, 
especially in unclean corners. Figure 5 
shows germs revealed by the microscope in 
the excrement of a bird suffering from 




Fio. 5.— HOW DISEASE IS SPREAD 

Germs of tuberculosis in the excrement of a fowl. (After Edwards.) 

10 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 

tuberculosis. The fact that this speck con- 
tained so many germs, although it was far 
too small to be seen with the naked eye, will 
give an idea of how epidemics may be 
caused by food, water, and soil contam- 
inated by excreta, nasal discharges, etc. 

Regular and thorough disinfection of 
woodwork, of feeding vessels, and of the 
drinking water should form part of the 
routine of poultry management, and a stock 
of disinfectants should always be kept on 
hand. It will be found convenient to have 
an iron drum with a tap for a diluted solu- 
tion, say 5%, of some standard disinfectant 
— e. g., creolih — that can be further diluted 
as required. 

Water. A stock solution of perman- 
ganate of potash, made by adding ten grains 
to one quart of water, should always be kept 
on hand for purposes of disinfection. When 
there is danger of infection, two tablespoon- 
fuls of this solution should be added to 
every gallon of drinking water. 

Feeding Vessels. Clean with boiling 
water. 

II 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



Houses and Fixtures. Spray with 2% 
to 5% creolin (or other disinfectant) and 
whitewash afterwards, or use whitewash to 
which 2% of creolin has been added. The 






Fig. 6.— aids TO THOROUGH DISINFECTION 

12 



GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROLLING DISEASE 

whitewash should be prepared with quick- 
lime. The house should first be cleaned 
out with an iron scraper and scrubbing 
brush, using a liberal supply of water (see 
Fig. 6). 

Soil. The most convenient of the follow- 
ing methods should be adopted : 

(i) Spray surface with 5% creolin. 

(2) Spread straw over ground and set 
fire to it. 

(3) Fork over and lime. This method 
is not sufficient if serious contamination is 
suspected. 



13 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



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fested straw. 


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POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




CHAPTER III 

Diseases of Poultry Other Than Fowls 

ALL classes of domestic poultry are to 
a great extent subject to the same dis- 
eases that afifect the common fowl. The 
symptoms of such diseases are for the most 
part similar to those noticed when fowls are 
affected, and treatment must be on the same 
lines. In the management of turkeys, 
ducks, geese, guinea fowls and pigeons, the 
strictest sanitary measures must be enforced, 
as in the rearing of fowls. 

Owing to its importance, blackhead of 
turkeys is dealt with separately. It is one 
of the most serious of poultry diseases and 
causes heavy losses to turkey rearers. Care- 
ful study should be made of the reports of 
the recent investigations at the Rhode Island 
Experiment Station. 

Severe epidemics of diarrhea or cholera 
occur among all classes of poultry. Geese 
are subject to a form of cholera that appears 

19 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

to be different from any kind that attacks 
fowls. Water fowl are not commonly in- 
fested with external parasites. Pigeons, on 
the other hand, are worried by fleas and 
ticks as well as mites. Smallpox of pigeons 
is similar to chicken pox of fowls, but pus- 
tular swellings may be found on the rump 
and the cloaca of the pigeon as well as on the 
head. The scaly leg mite attacks turkeys 
and the gape worm is sometimes a serious 
pest of poults. Below is given a list of 
some of the diseases of turkeys, ducks, geese, 
guinea fowls and pigeons : 





TURKEYS 


Blackhead 




Roup 


Diphtheria 




Tuberculosis 


Gapes 




Scaly leg 


Leg weakness 




White comb 


Lice 




Worms 


Mites 


DUCKS 




Aspergillosis 




Diphtheria 


Catarrh 




Lice 


Congestion of 


lungs 


Mites 


Cholera 


20 


Worms 



DISEASES OF POULTRY OTHER THAN FOWLS 

GEESE 

Aspergillosis Lice 

Cholera Mites 

Congestion of lungs Worms 
Diphtheria 



GUINEA FOWLS 


Aspergillosis 




Lice 


Cholera 




Mites 


Diphtheria 


PIGEONS 


Worms 


Aspergillosis 




Flea 


Canker 




Lice 


Chicken pox 


(smallpox) 


Mites 


Diphtheria 




Ticks 


Dovecot bug 




Worms 



21 



CHAPTER IV 

Diseases and Pests of Fowls 

Abscesses. 

Abnormal eggs (see Oviduct diseases). 
Air under skin (see Emphysema). 
Air sac mite (see Mites, air sac). 
Anaemia. 
Apoplexy. 
Aspergillosis. 

Atrophy of liver (see Liver diseases). 
Bacterial enteritis (see Diarrhea). 
Baldness (see Favus). 
Biliary repletion (see Jaundice). 
Blackhead of turkeys. 
Breakdovv'n. 

Broken limbs (see Fractures). 
Bronchitis. 
Brooder pneumonia. 
Bumblefoot. 

Cancer (see Liver diseases and Ovary disease?). 
Canker (see Diphtheria). 
Catarrh (see Cold). 
Catarrh, contagious (see Roup). 
Catarrh of crop. 

Catarrh of stomach (see Gastritis). 

22 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

Chicken pox. 

Cholera. 

Cloacitis. 

Coccidiosis of adult fowls. 

Coccidiosis of chickens (see Brooder pneumonia). 

Coccidiosis of turkeys (see Blackhead). 

Cold. 

Congestion of the liver (see Liver diseases). 

Congestion of the lungs (see Pneumonia). 

Conjunctivitis (see Roup). 

Constipation. 

Cramp. 

Crop-bound. 

Crop, soft (see Soft crop). 

Crop, Catarrh of. 

Depluming mite. 

Diarrhea, bacterial. 

Diarrhea, mycotic. 

Diarrhea, protozoan. 

Diarrhea, simple. 

Diarrhea, severe. 

Diarrhea, white. 

Diphtheria. 

Diphtheritic roup. 

Dislocations (see Fractures). 

Dropsy. 

Dysentery. 

Egg-bound. 

Egg-eating. 

23 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Emphysema. 

Enlargement of heart (see Heart, diseases of). 

Enlargement of liver (see Liver diseases). 

Enlargement of kidneys (see Kidney diseases). 

Enteritis (see Diarrhea). 

Entero-hepatitis (see Blackhead). 

Epilepsy. 

Fatty degeneration. 

Favus. 

Feather-eating. 

Fits (see Epilepsy). 

Fleas. 

Fowl typhoid. 

Fractures. 

Frost bite. 

Gangrenous Ovary (see Ovary diseases). 

Gapes. 

Gastritis. 

Going light (see Anaemia). 

Gout. 

Grippe (see Cold). 

Heart, diseases of. 

Heart, dropsy of. 

Heart, enlargement of. 

Heart, rupture. 

Hypertrophy of the liver (see Liver diseases). 

Impaction of the crop (see Crop-bound). 

Indigestion. 

Influenza (see Cold). 

24 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

Jaundice. 

Kidney diseases. 

Leg weakness. 

Leukemia (see Cholera). 

Lice. 

Limber-neck. 

Liver diseases. 

Lungs, congestion of (see Pneumonia). 

Maggots. 

Mites, air sac. 

Mites, depluming. 

Mites, red. 

Mites, scaly leg (see Scaly leg). 

Molting. 

Nodular taeniasis (see Worms). 

Ovary diseases. 

Oviduct diseases. 

Peritonitis. 

Pip. 

Pneumonia. 

Poisoning. 

Prolapse of oviduct (see Oviduct diseases). 

Puffed skin (see Emphysema). 

Pyaemia. 

Rheumatism. 

Roup. 

Scabies (see Mites, depluming). 

Scaly leg. 

25 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Soft crop. 

Sore head (see Chicken pox). 

Ticks. 

Tuberculosis. 

Vertigo (see Apoplexy). 

White comb (see Favus). 

White diarrhea of chickens. 

Worms. 

ABSCESSES 
Not a common poultry complaint 

Symptoms. The flesh becomes inflamed 
and swollen and forms a "head" containing 
pus. 

Cause. A scratch or a small injury fol- 
lowed by inflammation due to pus-forming 
organisms. 

Treatment. Lance the abscess when 
"ripe" with a clean, sharp knife, cutting low 
so that the sore may drain readily. Squeeze 
out the pus; wash with i% carbolic acid or 
creolin and dress with creolin and sweet oil 
(half and half) until healed. 

The most common abscess is that which 
forms on the pad of the foot and develops 
into bumblefoot. 

26 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 



AN/EMIA, OR GOING LIGHT 



A condition that should incite the poultryman to investigate 
the cause 



Symptoms. Birds lose weight, or "go 
light," without any apparent reason. 

Cause. A general lack of thriftiness in 
the flock may be due to insufficient or poor 
food, to lack of exercise, or to bad ventilation 
of houses ; lice or mites may be infesting the 
birds. On the other hand, birds may gradu- 
ally lose weight as the result of some such 
disease as tuberculosis (see page 90, as- 
pergillosis (see page 29), or worms (see 
page 94). 

Treatment. Make any changes in feed- 
ing or management that may appear desir- 
able. Search at night for mites or lice on 
the birds; in the daytime examine the 
straw in nest boxes, the roosts, and the 
cracks and crevices of the woodwork for 
parasites. Much time may often be saved 
in discovering what is wrong with the flock 
by killing one or more of the affected birds 

27 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

and making a post-mortem examination to 
discover if a specific disease is the cause. 

APOPLEXY 

Not a common trouble 

Symptoms. Staggering gait and bewil- 
dered appearance; bird generally drops 
dead suddenly. 

Cause. Attributed to high feeding or 
over-laying. 

Treatment. There is usually no time for 
treatment, but if the attack is mild, put the 
bird in a dark place and give no food for a 
few hours ; give a dose of Epsom salts and 
add green food to diet. Bleeding from 
under a wing is sometimes tried. 

Post-mortem examination shows clotted 
blood on the brain, the other organs being 
normal. 

The name vertigo is applied to congestion 
of the brain as distinct from apoplexy due 
to hemorrhage of the brain. The fowl has 
fits. It is difficult to distinguish this disease 
from epilepsy (see page 55). The cause 
is little understood. 

28 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 



ASPERGILLOSIS 



A disease that exists more commonly than is usually suspected, 
and is the cause of the death of large numbers of 
young chickens 

Symptoms. Fowls gradually lose weight, 
mope, and die without any pronounced ail- 
ment except difficulty in breathing. In 
adults the disease may be mistaken for 
tuberculosis and in chickens for white 
diarrhea. Aspergillosis of chickens is dealt 
with under brooder pneumonia. Post-mor- 
tem symptoms are whitish 
or yellowish growths on the 
windpipe, that can only be 
definitely diagnosed under 
the microscope. 

Cause. A fungoid growth 
in the windpipe and bron- 
chial tubes, sometimes ex- 
tending to the lungs and 
liver. Fig. 8 shows the 
spores and filaments of the 
species of aspergillosis 
most commonly responsible 




FiG.7. — Head Showing 
Brain Exposed 



29 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




Fig. 8.— aspergillosis 
On left — ^Windpipe cut open. On right — A fungus that causes aspergillosis 



for this disease. Infection may be due to 
musty grain or dirty straw. 

Treatment. No medicines are of any 
avail. Protection lies in not using musty 
grain or moldy litter. Burn dead birds. 



BLACKHEAD OF TURKEYS 

A very serious disease, making the successful rearing of 
turkeys difficult and in some cases imj^pssible 

Symptoms. Young turkeys, or poults, 

are most commonly attacked; there is loss 

of weight and loss of appetite; the bird 

appears listless and stands by itself with 

30 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

drooping wings and tail. Diarrhea is gen- 
erally one of the symptoms. The comb 
often turns a dark purple — a symptom that 
has given . rise to the name blackhead. 
Death generally follows an attack fairly 
rapidly, but in some cases the disease may 
take a chronic form, while it is believed 
that recovery is occasionally effected. 

Post-mortem symptoms. The caeca (see 
Fig. 32) are enlarged, are diseased in parts, 
and are more or less plugged with cheesy 
matter and pus. The liver is diseased^ 
being sometimes very much enlarged and 
covered with yellowish necrotic areas, gen- 
erally depressed in the centre (see Fig. 24^?) . 
In cases of an acute attack, especially in 
young birds, one of the caeca only may be 
affected and the liver may not be invaded. 
The extent of the necrotic areas and the 
degree of the enlargement of the infected 
organs may vary greatly in different cases. 

Cause. The cause of blackhead has been 
shown by Drs. Cole and Hadley to be a 
coccidium. A full account of their work 
is published in Bulletin 141 of the Rhode 

31 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Island Experiment Station. Coccidia enter 
the digestive tract of the healthy turkey by 
means of food or water infected by the 
excrement of a sick bird. The organisms 
pass along the alimentary canal until they 
reach the caeca, the lining of which they 
attack, giving rise to the conditions men- 
tioned under post-mortem symptoms. How 
the infection spreads from the caeca to the 
liver is not clear. 

It has been conclusively proved that 
fowls, as well as pigeons, sparrows, etc., act 
as hosts for these parasites. Although 
adult fowls have a great degree of resistance 
themselves, they are a means of carrying 
infection to turkeys. 

Eggs may be one of the means of spread- 
ing the disease, as they may become con- 
taminated in the oviduct or the cloaca of 
birds affected with blackhead. 

Treatment. No remedy or satisfactory 

method of prevention has been discovered: 

The difficulty of effecting a cure is obvious 

when the nature of the disease is con- 

32 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

sidered. Drs. Cole and Hadley summarize 
measures of prevention as follows: 

1. Protect the yards and flocks which may have the good 
fortune to be uninfected with the blackhead organism by a 
thorough examination of all new stock, whether turkeys, 
fowls, geese or other domestic birds. 

2. Keep the turkeys on grounds which are as fresh as 
can be obtained, and above all, keep them isolated from 
fowls and other domestic birds. 

3. Keep every turkey in the flock under close observa- 
tion in order to separate and at once isolate any bird which 
gives evidence of the disease. To facilitate such observa- 
tions it is helpful to leg-band each individual, and to record 
its weight from time to time. Such a course makes it pos- 
sible to learn whether any birds are losing weight, and if 
this is the case, these birds must be regarded with suspicion, 
and separated from the rest of the flock. 

4. If it is known that blackhead is present in any of the 
poultry, the yard should be kept free from English sparrows, 
and the poultry houses and grain boxes from rats and mice, 
which have been shown to carry the causative organism. 

5. When it is desired to fatten birds for the market, 
begin to increase the rations gradually. Never attempt to 
fatten birds which, in successive weighings, show a loss of 
weight. Overfeeding does not cause blackhead, but fre- 
quently causes the sudden death of birds in which blackhead 
is present. 

6. When birds have died of blackhead, their bodies 
should be promptly burned or buried in order to prevent the 
dissemination of the coccidia, either through the ravages of 
rats or skunks, or consequent to the natural processes of decay. 

BREAKDOWN 

Not often seen in the poultry yard 

Symptoms. The abdomen becomes en- 
33 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

larged, hangs down at the back, and some- 
times touches the ground. 

Cause. Old layers are generally affected. 
The cause may be the strain of heavy 
laying, or may in cases be due to too much 
internal fat. 

Treatment. No satisfactory treatment 
can be recommended and the bird had best 
be killed. Such birds should not be used 
for breeding purposes. 

BRONCHITIS (croup) 

Not 'very common 

Symptoms. Bronchitis may be distin- 
guished by the rattling in the throat of the 
bird affected and by the rapid breathing and 
cough. The rattling is due to mucus in 
the inflamed bronchial tubes. In bad cases, 
birds mope, refuse to eat, and soon die. 

Cause. Bronchitis may develop from an 
ordinary cold, or may be due to sudden 
changes of temperature, or to exposure to 
rain, cold, and damp. 

Treatment. Keep affected bird away 

34 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

from drafts and in a warm place; dose 
with Epsom salts (see page 9) and give 
soft food, e. g., bread, bran, and middlings, 
with milk. Wine of ipecacuanha has been 
recommended for cases in which breathing 
is very difficult owing to excessive inflam- 
mation. 

BROODER PNEUMONIA 
A very serious disease, causing the death of many chickens 

Symptoms. Chickens afifected stand by 
themselves with roughened plumage. 
There is a whitish diarrhea, and this disease 
can easily be mistaken for white diarrhea. 
(See page 92.) Post-mortem examination 
will show yellowish spots on the lungs, on 
the walls of the air sacs, and on the liver and 
other organs, due to infection by the asper- 
gillus fungus. (See page 29.) 

Cause. Infection by a species of the as- 
pergillus fungus, the spores of which are 
probably inhaled. This fungus is common. 
The spores may be in the straw used for 
nests or for litter, or in the food, ^specially 
if it is at all moldy. 

35 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Treatment. There is no cure for an af- 
fected chicken, and the poultryman must aim 
at prevention. Vigorous sanitary measures 
are imperative. Clean straw or excelsior 
should be used for nests ; eggs for hatching 
should be disinfected by wiping with 80% 
alcohol ; incubators and brooders should be 
thoroughly disinfected. 

BUMBLEFOOT 
Not serious if treated early 

Symptoms. Lameness with swelling on 
pad of foot. 

Cause. Injury to sole of foot, developing 




Fig. 9.— BUMBLEFOOT 
36 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

into an abscess. Heavy birds are more sub- 
ject than light ones to bumblefoot, especially 
if made to roost on perches that are too high. 
Treatment. Paint with iodine. Lance 
the abscess if it is sufficiently advanced. 
Lower perches. Birds under treatment 
should have their feet bandaged, and should 
be put on deep straw to prevent further in- 
jury while the wounds are healing. Not 
serious if taken in hand promptly. 

CATARRH OF THE CROP 

Not a common trouble 

Symptoms. Distention of crop with soft 
pasty matter of a more or less offensive 
character. 

Cause. Eating stale, putrifying food or 
some poisonous matter. 

Treatment. Empty the bird's crop by 
holding the head downwards and gently 
pressing the contents out through the mouth. 
Feed sparingly on soft food. 

37 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

CHICKEN POX OR SORE HEAD 

An infectious disease that causes considerable loss among 
chickens and young birds in warm climates 

Symptoms. Small, scabby, wart-like 
growths and eruptions on the head, espe- 
cially on the comb and the wattles and 
around the eyes — in bad cases extending to 
the lids and even the mouth. Chickens and 
young birds are most commonly attacked 
by this disease, which spreads rapidly. 




Fig. 10.— chicken POX 



Cause. The specific organism has not 
been definitely deterrnined. Chicken pox 
may be started by the introduction of an 
38 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

infected bird, and mosquitoes and other in- 
sects are suspected of being agents in its 
spread. 

Treatment. Prompt treatment may be 
very successful. Isolate affected birds. 
Apply tincture of iodine, first scraping off 
the scabs. Creolin 2%, or other disinfect- 
ants, may be used instead of iodine. Dirty 
coops are a contributing cause, and cleanli- 
ness of chicken runs and houses is important. 
Disinfect soil (see page 13) and wood- 
work (see page 12) regularly and with 
extra care when the first cases are noticed. 
When roupy lesions develop, as is sometimes 
the case, treat as for roup. (See page 83.) 

CHOLERA 

A serious and epidemic form of diarrhea for which no 
remedy is knoivn 

Symptoms. Fowls die suddenly with 
apparently little reason. There are symp- 
toms of diarrhea and examination shows 
that the feces are a bright yellow or green 
instead of the normal color. Before death, 
fowls have fever and may be seen moping 

39 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

and showing evidences of distress. For 
post-mortem symptoms see page 112. 

Cause. A contagious disease, due to 
bacteria, that, owing to infection of soil and 
drinking water by birds suffering from the 
disease, spreads rapidly through a flock. 
It is often introduced by the purchase of an 
infected bird that appears at the time of 
purchase to be well. 

Treatment. Prevention by strict sani- 
tary measures is what must be aimed at. It 
is believed that no cure is known for gen- 
uine cases of cholera. Isolate all new birds 
brought into the flock, especially when 
cases of cholera are reported in the neigh- 
borhood. The bodies of birds that have 
died of this disease are best burnt without 
delay. The germ of cholera appears to be 
both persistent and easily spread, and too 
much stress cannot be laid on the necessity 
of preventing its introduction, failing that, 
of quickly stamping it out. The sacrifice 
of a few birds to prevent the spread of the 
disease will be well repaid, for it has been 
necessary on occasions to kill a whole flock. 
40 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

In some cases it has been found best to move 
unaffected birds to new quarters. 

Fowl typhoid, or leukemia, is a disease 
of the blood that may be mistaken for 
cholera. The poultryman must treat it in 
the same way. 

CLOACITIS OR VENT-GLEET 
Not a common disease 

Symptoms. Frequent small discharges 
of excrement and unsuccessful efforts to 
discharge when the cloaca (Fig. 32) is 
empty, the mucous membrane of which be- 
comes hot and inflamed. These symptoms 
are soon followed by an offensive discharge. 

Cause. A specific disease transmitted 
from hen to hen by the agency of the cock. 

Treatment. Immediately isolate affected 
hens ; syringe out cloaca twice daily with 
2% creolin; give mild purgative and put 
on soft food. Males likely to be affected 
should be examined, and diseased birds 
killed. 

Caution. The hands should be carefully 

41 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

cleansed and disinfected, as a serious in- 
flammation will result if the eyes are rubbed 
with infected hands. This is a troublesome 
and risky disease to treat. 

COCCIDIOSIS OF ADULT FOWLS 

The germ of this disease does not usually affect adult fowls 
seriously, but causes severe losses among chickens and 
turkeys 

Symptoms. The external symptoms are 
not very pronounced ; there is loss of weight 
and in some cases diarrhea. The disease 
may last for a long time and birds may even 
recover. A post-mortem examination 
shows the walls of the caeca thickened and 
filled with a pasty mass, while character- 
istic whitish or yellowish spots (see Fig. 
24, d) are found in the liver. 

Cause. This disease is due to the same 
germ (a coccidium) that causes blackhead 
in turkeys. Adult fowls occasionally de- 
velop this disease, but appear to be able, as 
a rule, to act as a host for the germs without 
being themselves aflfected, although heavy 
42 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

losses occur among turkeys or chickens that 
get the germ from them. 

Treatment. Copperas in the drinking 
water (three grains to a quart) has been 
recommended, together with the occasional 
use of calomel in one-grain doses, or one or 
two teaspoonfuls of castor oil. Thorough 
disinfection (see page lo) of houses and 
runs, etc., where affected fowls have been, 
is important. Burn the bodies of birds that 
die of the disease. 

COLD (SIMPLE catarrh) 

Dangerous, because it may he confused with the early stages 
of roup 

Symptoms. Discharge from the nostrils 
and the eyes, with occasional fits of sneez- 
ing; loss of appetite, and moping. 

Cause. Cold and damp. Colds most 
frequently occur in wet weather and among 
poorly housed and poorly fed stock. 

Treatment. Warm housing and protec- 
tion from cold and wet. Give quinine — - 
one grain to an adult fowl. Many believe 
in dosing fowls suffering from colds with 

43 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

red pepper given in the food. When there 
are signs of stuffiness, the eyes and the nos- 
trils should be washed out once or twice 
daily. Carbolic acid 2%, or boric acid, 
about 3%, dissolved in water, is recom- 
mended for this purpose. Witch hazel has 
been found very effective. 

Caution. There is a risk of mistaking 
the early stages of roup for a simple cold. 
Further, birds are more likely to contract 
roup when suffering from a cold, and 
should, on this account, be isolated and 
regularly examined. 

Influenza. The term influenza, or 
grippe, is generally applied to a severe cold 
that has no symptoms of roup. 

CONSTIPATION 
Not common and seldom serious 

Symptoms. The bird suffering is dull 
and listless. Its efforts to evacuate are 
painful and unsuccessful. 

Cause. Internal blocking of the cloaca 
or the intestines, or, occasionally, of the 

44 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

vent by dirt accumulated on the outside. 
Want of exercise and lack of green food are 
held to be contributing causes. 

Treatment. If constipation is due to dirt 
on the outside, cleanse vent by swabbing 
with warm water. When stoppage is in- 
side and can be felt through the vent 
syringe with sweet oil. In other cases, give 
a purgative such as castor oil or Epsom 
salts. If worms are suspected as the cause, 
give santonin (see page 9), followed by a 
teaspoonful of castor oil. 

CRAMP 

Must not be conjused •with more serious complaints 

Symptoms. Difficulty in standing and 
lameness, due to inflammation of muscles 
and joints. 

Cause. Damp and cold. 

Treatment. Put legs of bird in warm 
water; rub joints with embrocation and put 
in dry quarters. 

Note — In cases of rheumatism, tick fever, 

45 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

and tuberculosis, birds may show the same 
difficulty in standing that they do in cramp. 

CROP-BOUND (impaction OF CROP) 
Not serious, as a rule 

Symptoms. The crop is hard and 
swollen. 

Cause. The blocking of the passage 
from the crop to the gizzard by a bit of 
stick or a stone, with' the result that the 
food cannot pass out of the crop. 

Treatment. — Pour sweet oil down fowl's 
throat; work the crop with the fingers, en- 
deavoring to remove the obstructing object. 
If unsuccessful, cut open the crop and re- 
move the contents, making sure that the 
opening into the gizzard is clear. Sew up 
the cut made, stitching separately first the 
inner skin and then the outer. 

DIARRHEA OR ENTERITIS 
May take a serious and epidemic form 

Diarrhea is a common complaint among 
fowls, and in some cases takes a severe and 
46 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

epidemic form. The latter form may be 
due to various causes, and it will be best, 
perhaps, to deal with diarrhea under the 
following heads : 

1. Mild diarrhea. 

2. Epidemic and severe diarrhea. 

3. Dysentery. (See page 52.) 

4. Cholera. (See page 39.) 

5. White diarrhea of chickens. (See 

page 92.) 

Mild Diarrhea 

Symptoms. Looseness of bowels and 
staining of feathers around the anus with 
excreta. 

Cause. Indigestion 'caused by food 
which may be too laxative; e. g., excess of 
bran, or, by food which may be partly de- 
composed or may contain an intestinal ir- 
ritant. Cold may also be a cause. 

Treatment. Give Epsom salts, or castor 
oil. (See page 9.) Change diet if food 
is suspected. Often no treatment is neces- 
sary, but it is not wise to neglect cases that 
are apparently mild diarrhea, for fear they 
47 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

may turn out to be an epidemic and con- 
tagious form. 

Diarrhea, Severe and Epidemic 

Symptoms. Excessive looseness of 
bowels, ruffling of feathers, depression, loss 
of appetite. A number of birds in the flock 
are attacked and death results. 

Cause. There are a variety of causes. 
Scientific investigation has led to the dis- 
covery of specific organisms responsible for 
various forms of diarrhea. It would be 
well for poultry rearers to study the results 
of such work, but, for the purposes of this 
book, it will be sufficient to state that the 
causal organism may be bacterial, mycotic, 
or protozoan. The owner of poultry will 
not usually be able himself to determine 
what type of diarrhea the fowls are suffer- 
ing from, but as a rule the treatment will 
have to be the same. Advice will have to' 
be sought from an expert when dangerous 
epidemics are feared. 

Treatment. The most energetic meas- 
48 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

ures of disinfection must be undertaken. 
(See page lo.) 

1. Isolate sick fowls. 

2. Disinfect soil of run thoroughly. 

3. Clean and disinfect coops. 

4. In bad cases, remove the rest of 

the flock from the infested run. 

5. Give sick iowh Epsom salts, or 

castor oil; feed fowls on soft 
food. 

6. If the diarrhea is not checked, 

give 6 to 12 drops of chloro- 
dyne. 

DIPHTHERIA OR DIPHTHERITIC ROUP 

A dangerous disease, and injected birds should be killed 
at once 

Symptoms. A cold, accompanied by 
whitish and yellowish patches on the back 
of the throat and in the mouth. These 
patches apparently form a false membrane 
and cannot be torn oflf without causing 
bleeding. The disease is sometimes known 
as canker. 

49 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Cause. This disease is often clearly a 
later stage of roup. It is difficult to say 
where one ends and the other begins. It 
has been claimed that the. organism is the 
same as that which causes diphtheria in 




■DIPHTHERITIC ROUP 



b, lower beak; i, tongue; m, false membrane. 
(After Harrison and Streit.) 



50 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

human beings, but the weight of evidence 
is against this conclusion. 

Treatment. Diphtheria is extremely in- 
fectious. It is best to kill the first cases at 
once. If the bird is of particular value, it 
may be isolated and the patches on the 
throat swabbed with 50% hydrogen per- 
oxide or 5% creolin, with a small bit of 
cotton wool wound around a stick. If 
great care is exercised, 20% carbolic acid 
or 20% creolin may be painted on the 
patches, but neither should be allowed to 
touch the normal skin. Burn the swabs. 
Treat accompanying roupy symptoms as 
recommended under roup. 

The term canker is also applied to cer- 
tain spots or growths that occur on the 
throat. These are not in any way associ- 
ated with diphtheritic roup, or any danger- 
ous, contagious disease, and are due to in- 
jury or to an unhealthy condition of the 
mucous membrane. 



51 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

DROPSY 
Not a common disease 

Symptoms. Distention of abdomen. 

Cause. Collection of liquid in abdom- 
inal cavity. 

Treatment. Treatment is seldom success- 
ful. It is best and most merciful to kill 
the afflicted bird. If it is desired to make 
an effort to save the bird, carefully punc- 
ture the lower portion of the abdomen w^ith 
a trocar and squeeze out the liquid. Give 
invalid diet. 

DYSENTERY 

Serious if in epidemic form 

Symptoms. Severe diarrhea w^ith blood 
in the discharges. 

Cause. Bacterial or other specific infec- 
tion of the intestines. Occasionally the eat- 
ing of some poisonous or irritating sub- 
stance w^ill give rise to blood in the excre- 
ment. 

Treatment. Isolate bird, and give six to 
eight drops of chlorodyne on a small piece 
52 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

of bread. Thorough disinfection (see 
page lo) of water, soil and house is neces- 
sary to prevent this disease spreading. 

EGG-BOUND 

An uncommon complaint 

Symptoms. The hen goes on and off 
the nest straining to lay. Generally the egg 
may be felt through the vent. After strain- 
ing for some time, she may succeed in lay- 
ing the egg, and treatment should not be 
undertaken until it is evident that the fowl 
needs assistance. 

Cause. Very young hens are more liable 
to this complaint, which arises from eggs of 
an abnormal size, from lack of muscular 
power, or from some other disorder of the 
oviduct. 

Treatment. It will be most merciful to 
kill fowls in much distress, as treatment is 
tedious and painful to the fowl. It has 
been recommended to hold the fowl's vent 
over steam from boiling water and then to 
pass an oiled finger up the vent. In bad 
53 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

cases, pierce the egg and withdraw the con- 
tents, then break the shell and remove all 
the pieces. Great care must be taken to 
leave no particle of the broken shell behind. 

EGG-EATING 

A bad habit that may be controlled 

Symptoms. If remains of eggs are seen 
in nests or runs, the poultryman should be- 
come suspicious and make observations to 
prove whether any of his flock are eating 
eggs. 

Cause. Broken eggs or soft-shelled eggs 
left about the yard may be the cause of hens 
acquiring this bad hrabit. 

Treatment. All signs of broken eggs 
should always be immediately removed. 
The culprit, when detected, should be re- 
moved to a different pen and nest. Dark 
nests have been recommended. A trap nest 
will prevent a hen from getting at her egg. 

EMPHYSEMA (AIR UNDER SKIN) 

Not a common disease of chickens 

Symptoms. In this disease of chickens 

54 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

the skin becomes puffed out in one or more 
places, generally on the neck. In rare cases 
the puffing spreads over nearly the whole 
of the body. 

Cause. This disease is evidently caused 
by some obstruction of the air passages that 
forces the air to escape under the skin. 

Treatment. Let out the air by punctur- 
ing the skin. Give soft and nourishing 
food. It will probably be wiser not to use 
birds that recover from this complaint for 
breeding stock. 

EPILEPSY 

An unusual complaint 

Symptoms. The bird staggers about and 
has a fit. It may recover. 

Cause. It is difficult to discover a cause ; 
intestinal worms are suspected in some 
cases. 

Treatment. If it is suspected that intes- 
tinal worms are responsible, try the treat- 
ment recommended for worms. (See 
page 95.) 

55 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

FATTY DEGENERATION 
Not contagious, but pointing to error in diet 

Symptoms. More or less sudden deaths 
of birds in good condition. Post-mortem 
examination shows an enlarged liver and 
masses of fat attached to the intestines. 

Cause. Something wrong with the diet; 
too much heat-giving food and want of ex- 
ercise. 

Treatment. Post-mortem proof of fatty 
degeneration in the flock should lead the 
poultry owner to change the diet, reducing 
the amount of heat-giving food, and giving 
more exercise. Some authors draw atten- 
tion to a fatty degeneration in which the 
liver is shrunken and shows fat globules 
under the microscope. 

FAVUS (WHITE COMB) 
Disfiguring, but easily controlled if treated early 

Symptoms. Whitish scabs or crusts on 
the comb, the head and down the neck. 
Cause. Due to a fungus that spreads, if 
' 56 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

not treated, and that probably starts where 
there is an abrasion of the skin. 

Treatment. Treat in early stages of the 
disease by dressing with sulphur ointment. 
(See page 9.) Isolate bird. If the case 
has been neglected and allowed to develop, 
the crusts must first be moistened with oil 
and the surface scraped off with a blunt 
instrument. Then apply tincture of iodine 
or nitrate of silver. 

FEATHER-EATING 
Not a very common habit 

Symptoms. The presence of bare patches 
and injured plumage on birds should lead 
the poultryman to watch for feather-eaters. 

Cause. Irritation from insects, some 
defect in diet, or natural cussedness. 

Treatment. Isolate the offender, and, if 
persistent and of no special value, kill, for 
fear the bad example may be followed by 
others. If several fowls develop this vice, 
try hanging up a bone for them to peck at 
and thus distract their attention. 

57 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

FLEAS 
An occasional parasite of poultry 

Symptoms. Fleas are found on the fowls 
or in the straw of their nests. 

Description. The flea that attacks fowls 
is known as the hen flea (Pulex gallince) . 
It is dark colored and has sharp mouth 
parts. Doubtless it causes the fowl it at- 
tacks much irritation in addition to loss of 
blood. 

Treatment. Keep poultry houses in a 
clean, sanitary condition. Dust the infested 
fowls with an insect powder or dip them in 
creolin, about i%. Burn infested straw. 

FRACTURES 

Broken bones of legs or wings can be 
mended by placing the bones back in their 
proper positions and binding with light 
splints. The splints may be removed in 
about four weeks. It will be found that 
shanks are easily set, but that broken wings 
give far more trouble. 

58 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

If a fowl dislocates its leg or its wing, 
the joint should be gently pushed back into 
place. 

FROST BITE 
A strain on the bird's system 

Symptoms. Combs and wattles are most 
liable to frost bite, particularly in breeds 
in which these parts are large. 

Cause. Exposure to very low tempera- 
tures, especially if birds are suddenly! 
turned out from warm quarters; dipping 
comb and wattles in water when the tem- 
perature is low. 

Treatment. Prevent by keeping birds as 
warm as possible during winter, and do not 
allow them to go out early in the mornings 
in very cold weather. Drinking water 
should be provided in a vessel from which 
birds can drink without wetting their 
wattles. In a case of frost bite, thaw the 
affected parts by gently rubbing with vase- 
line and afterwards treat with a mixture of 

59 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

two grains of salicylic acid to one ounce of 
vaseline or lard. 



GAPES 
Serious in badly infested yards 

Symptoms. Frequent gaping and cough- 
ing; young chicks attacked, as a rule. 




Fig. 12.— gapes 

On left: Chicken affected with gapes. On right: a, male and female 
gape worms; h, gape worms in windpipe. (From Salmon.) 

Notice if any worms are coughed up by the 
chicken ; if none can be found, but the gap- 
ing continues, put a stripped feather down 
the windpipe, as recommended under treat- 
ment, and see if any gape worms can be 
pulled up. 

60 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

Cause. Small worms, red in color when 
engorged, which attach themselves to the 
mucous membrane of the windpipe. Af- 
fected birds cough up worms or ova, which 
infect the yard and sometimes the water 
supply. Earthworms taken from infested 
yards have been found to contain portions 
of gape worms, and may be one means of 
infecting poultry. 

Treatment. Isolate attacked poultry and 
disinfect coops and yards. The worms may 
be extracted from the windpipe of a gaping 
chicken with a feather stripped nearly to 
the end, and moistened, but not dripping, 
with oil of turpentine. Hold the mouth 
open, push the feather down the windpipe, 
and give it a sudden twist, which will dis- 
lodge the worms and allow of their being 
drawn up. Fumigation by holding the 
bird's head over an irritant vapor, such as 
that of carbolic acid poured into boiling 
water, is risky, but sometimes successful. If 
not cautiously done, much suffering may be 
inflicted on the bird. 

Post-mortem. Cut open the windpipe 
6i 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

and look for the worms, which may be 
easily recognized by Fig. 12. Male and 
female specimens will be found attached to 
one another. 

GASTRITIS (CATARRH OF THE STOMACH) 
Not a common complaint 

Symptoms. This disease cannot be 
readily diagnosed while the fowl is living; 
it is generally associated with catarrh of the 
crop. (See page 37.) The symptoms are 
similar. Post-mortem examination will 
show the lining of the stomach in an in- 
flamed condition. 

Cause. The inflammation of the lining 
of the stomach is generally due to eating de- 
composing food or other poisonous matter. 

Treatment. Etnpty the crop as recom- 
mended under Catarrh of the crop. Give 
one or two tablespoonfuls of castor oil and 
feed on soft and easily digested food with 
milk or barley water. Be sure that poultry 
are not allowed to run under trees that have 
been sprayed with arsenical poisons. 
62 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

GOUT 
Not a common ailment 

Symptoms. The bird sometimes loses 
weight, and as the disease develops shows 
stiffness and an indisposition to stand. In 
some cases small nodules containing crys- 
tals of urate of soda occur on the underside 
of the toes. 

Cause. Failure of the kidneys to per- 
form their normal functions and consequent 
accumulation of urates in the bird's system 
in excessive quantities. Gout may be due 
to too concentrated feeding. 

Treatment. Medicines and treatment 
are of little avail. Endeavor to prevent by 
feeding a mixed diet. 

Post-mortem. In one form of this dis- 
ease, known as visceral gout, the liver and 
other abdominal organs are covered over 
with a powder-like deposit of the crystals of 
urate of soda. 

HEART DISEASES 
Not common, and cannot be treated 

The heart is an organ that is subject to 
63 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

several serious diseases, but these cannot be 
detected with any certainty while the bird 
is living, and treatment' cannot be recom- 
mended as likely to be successful. Post- 
mortem examination may show the follow- 
ing symptoms : 

1. The heart sac full of serous liquid, 

in the case of pericarditis, or 
dropsy of the heart sac. 

2. A reddening of the membrane lin- 

ing the heart, in the case of in- 
flammation (endocarditis). 

3. An enlarged heart, in the case of 

enlargement of the heart. 

4. Hemorrhage, in the case of rup- 

ture of the heart and of the 
blood vessels. 

INDIGESTION 
Disorder of the intestinal tract, that is not very serious 

Symptoms. The bird mopes and shows 
signs of a capricious appetite. Either diar- 
rhea or, less commonly, constipation, may 
be a symptom. 

64, 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

Cause. Disorders of the digestive tract, 
due to error in dieting — for example, over- 
feeding, or too little green food and not 
enough exercise. 

Treatment. Alter the feeding, see that 
the water is clean, and give a dose of Epsom 
salts. (See page 9.) 

JAUNDICE 

Not a common disease 

Symptoms. A yellow comb may indicate 
jaundice, but there are no definite external 
symptoms. Post-mortem examination 
shows distention of the gall bladder, due to 
an excessive secretion of bile. 

Cause. Said to be due to continued con- 
gestion of the liver, arising possibly from 
too much heat-giving food. 

Treatment. If the disease is suspected, 
give one grain of calomel as a purgative and 
feed on more green food. 

KIDNEY DISEASES 

With the exception of gout, kidney diseases cannot be 
detected by external symptoms 

Gout (see page 63) is the commonest dis- 
65 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

ease of the kidneys. In addition, there are 
some disorders of the kidneys (e. g., en- 
largement) that may be noticed on post- 
mortem examination. Little is known about 
these diseases; there are no symptoms that 
can be recognized before death, and no 
treatment can be recommended. 

LEG WEAKNESS 

Constitutional •weakness, to which the heavier breeds are 
more subject than are the lighter ones 

Symptoms. Fowls walk in an unsteady 
manner, without showing any specific cause 
for lameness. Young birds are more likely 
to be affected in this manner, particularly 
those of the heavier breeds. 

Cause. Too rapid growth, the bird out- 
growing the strength of its legs. 

Treatment. Reduce the quantity of fat- 
producing foods. Care in the selection of 
breeding stock is important. 

LICE 

Invariably present in small numbers, and likely to become a 
serious pest, if not persistently controlled 

Symptoms. Unthrifty look of fowl and 
66 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

signs of irritation; desertion of nest by 
setting hens ; and, of course, the detection 
of lice on the fowl : this may be done by 




Fig. 13.— looking FOR LICE 



quickly turning over the feathers on the 
body and looking for the lice. 

Cause. Introduction of an infested 
67 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 





Fig. 14. — Three Lice 

That Commonly 

Affect Fowls 

(From Salmon.) 

a. Lipeurus variabilis. 

b. Menopon pallidum. 

c. Goniodes dissimills. 



fowl; neglect to dust fowls 
regularly to keep down lice, 
and to clean out fowl houses 
and change the straw of nest 
boxes. At the season that 
lice are likely to be most 
prevalent the poultryman 
should take precautionary 
measures. 

Description of lice. Lice 
are small insects ranging in 
size from 1-25 to 1-8 of an 
inch. They breed rapidly, 
laying their eggs on the 
feathers. They are not 
blood-sucking insects, but 
cause much irritation to the 
birds they infest. 

Several species are found 
on fowls. Fig. 14 shows three 
of the common species. 

Treatment. Dust fowls 
with fresh insect powder 
(pyrethrum). Smear sul- 
phur ointment on head and 
68 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

under wings, especially in the case of 
chickens. Infested fowls may be dipped 
in 2% creolin. Dust setting hens with a 
lice powder before putting them on their 
nests. Infested straw should be burnt, and 
boxes, nests, fixtures, etc., should be thor- 
oughly sprayed with 2%. creolin. 



LIMBER-NECK 
An occasional complaint 

Symptoms. The muscles of the fowl's 
neck become so relaxed that they cannot 
support the head. 

- Cause. Limber-neck, due to partial or 
entire paralysis of the muscles of the neck, 
is believed to be associated with acute in- 
digestion or worms. 

Treatment. A strong purgative may be 
the means of efifecting a cure by cleaning 
out any intestinal poisons and thus correct- 
ing the cause. If the treatment recom- 
mended does not effect a cure in a few days, 
kill the bird. 

69 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

LIVER DISEASES 

The liver is affected by several diseases, 
and the poultryman, who finds a spotted 
liver on post-mortem examination, will be 
much aided in determining the cause, if he 
takes into consideration the symptoms 
noticed before the fowl died, as well as the 
changes in the other internal organs. The 
importance of the post-mortem examination 
is in distinguishing whether the death of the 
fowl is due to a contagious disease. 

The causes of diseased livers may be con- 
veniently divided into two classes: 

1. Diseased livers due to indigestion, 

e. g., enlargement. 

2. Diseased livers due to a specific 

disease, e. g., tuberculosis. 

Diseases Due to Indigestion 

In this class may be included degenera- 
tion, inflammation, congestion, enlargement, 
and atrophy of the liver. There are more 
or less distinct differences in these diseases, 
but the only possible methods of treatment 
70 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

known at present are very much the same. 

Symptoms. There are no definite ex- 
ternal symptoms. The poultryman's sus- 
picions should, however, be aroused if fowls 
apparently in good health die suddenly. A 
post-mortem examination will reveal a liver 
of abnormal size, or somewhat shrunken, 
and of unhealthy texture. 

Cause. The cause is generally something 
wrong in the feeding. Fowls may be eat- 
ing too large a proportion of heat-produc- 
ing foods and not enough green food. If 
an enlarged liver is associated with an ex- 
cessive layer of fat covering the internal 
org;ans, it points to too large quantities of 
carbohydrates. 

Treatment. Correct errors in feeding. 
Give more green food and let the fowls 
scratch for some of their grain. If errors 
in feeding and general management are not 
obvious, make experimental changes. 

Diseased Livers Due to Specific Diseases 

Tuberculosis, coccidiosis, gout and other 
specific diseases are responsible for spotted 

71 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

or diseased livers. (Fig. 24.) The sec- 
tion on diagnosis by post-mortem examina- 
tion gives further information on these sub- 
jects and shows how the principal diseases 
may be distinguished. 

The term cancer is sometimes applied to 
cases in which there are tumors on the liver. 

MAGGOTS 
Occasionally found in flesh wounds of poultry 

Symptoms. A flesh wound that instead 
of healing develops into a sore with a slight 
running. On examination, maggots will be 
found. 

Cause. Several species of flies are al- 
ways ready to lay their eggs in any available 
wound or sore; therefore wounds must be 
watched in the case of poultry, as with all 
other animals of the farmyard. The eggs 
laid by these flies hatch and develop into 
small footless grubs commonly known as 
maggots. 

Treatment. Wash the wound with i to 
2% creolin; remove as many of the maggots 
as possible with a pair of tweezers or a 
72 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

feather. If the maggots are deep-seated, 
stuff the wound with a cotton wad saturated 
with strong creolin or io% carbolic acid. 
Examine next day and remove dead mag- 
gots. Treat again in a similar manner if 
the maggots are not all killed. Fish oil, or 
iodoform made into a paste with vase- 
line, will prevent the flies depositing 
their eggs, if smeared on the surface of 
the wound. 

MITES (AIR-SAC) 
Not a common parasite 

Symptoms. There are no definite ex- 
ternal symptoms. If the bird is very badly 
affected, there may be evidences of suffoca- 
tion. This may end fatally. A post-mor- 
tem examination will show the mites in the 
air passages and bronchi as small yellowish 
and whitish particles, which on careful ob- 
servation may be seen to move. 

Cause. A small mite {Sarcoptes leevis) 
which infests the air sacs and bronchi. 
These mites, when present in large numbers, 

73 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



obstruct the air passages and cause suffoca- 
tion. A secretion from the mucous mem- 
brane affected, results from 
the presence of the miites 
and increases the obstruc- 
tion of the air passages. 
Treatment. The fumiga- 
tion method tried for gapes 
has been recommended, 
but there is little reason 
to expect success. 




Fig. 15 

The Air Sac Mite 
(From Salmon.) 



MITES, DEPLUMING (SCABIES) 



Symptoms. 
body due to 
feathers. The rump and 
the breast are most fre- 
quently attacked. 

Cause. A small mite 
{Sarcoptes leevis) found 
on the bird's body near the 
base of the fallen feathers. 

Treatment. Isolate af- 
fected birds; rub bare 
patches and neighboring 

74 



Bare patches on the bird's 
the loss of 




Fig. 16 

The Depluming Mite 

(From Salmon.) 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

portion of body with sulphur ointment (see 
page 9) or dip body of fowl in a solution 
of about 2% creolin. 

MITES (RED MITE) 
A serious pest 

Symptoms. Unthriftiness of birds. 

Cause. A small whitish mite, which ap- 
pears red when filled with blood. These 
mites suck the bird's blood at night and hide 
during the day in the sockets 
of the perches and in the 
crevices of the woodwork. 

Treatment. Examine the 
fowl house at night. Dust 
hens with an insect powder; 
thoroughly spray houses and the'rJ m.te 
perches with 5% creolin or 
other disinfectant, and squirt kerosene oil 
or turpentine into cracks and crevices. A 
specially constructed mite-proof perch, or 
one that can be easily removed, should 
be used. 

MOLTING 
Molting is not a disease, but may prove 

7S 




POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

trying to poultry not in the best condition 
to stand the strain of the process. Hens 
overtaxed with forced laying and cocks 
running with too large a number of hens are 
most likely to suffer. Molting occurs in 
healthy adult birds every twelve months. 
The process, which is a natural one, should 
be allowed to take its natural course unless 
the fowls appear weak and depressed dur- 
ing the period. In such cases specially 
nourishing and stimulating food should be 
given. Anyhow, it would be well to pay 
particular attention to the feeding of birds 
during the molting season. 

OVARY DISEASES 

Hens suffer from various diseases of the 
ovary, which may become shriveled and use- 
less or gangrenous. Tumorous growths, 
sometimes called cancers, are also found. 
As diseased conditions of this organ can be 
detected only by post-mortem examination, 
and as no remedies are known, the subject 
need not be dealt with more fully. 
76 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

OVIDUCT, DISEASES OF 

Abnormal eggs must be regarded as due 
to functional disorders of the oviduct. One 
cause of soft eggs is lack of shell-forming 
material; therefore a liberal supply of 
powdered oyster shells, or lime in some 
other form, should always be accessible to 
laying hens. Other abnormal eggs occur, 
such as those with double yolks, without 
any yolk, with blood clots, etc. No treat- 
ment can be suggested beyond feeding a 
varied diet and avoiding too stimulating or 
over-heating foods. 

Prolapse of the oviduct may occur. The 
protruding portion should be oiled or vase- 
lined and gently pressed back. 

PERITONITIS 
Not common and not contagious 

Symptoms. Loss of appetite, fever and 
evidence of discomfort and pain in the 
stomach, especially if the abdomen is 
pressed with the hand. Post-mortem ex- 

77 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




a. Undeveloped ovules in ovary. 

b. Partly developed ovule show- 

stigma. Here the follicle wall 
breaks and allows the ovule 
yolk to leave the ovary pre- 
paratory to laying. 

c. An empty follicle in which the 

stigma and the yolk passed 
out. 

d. Opening of oviduct. 

e. Portion of oviduct distended, 

allowing yolk to pass down. 

f. Walls of oviduct which secrete 

albumen forming the white of 
the egg. 

g. Membranous lining added. 

ft. Portion of oviduct that secretes 
shell-forming substance. 

I. Cloaca. 



Fig. 



18. — Organs of Reproducticm 
■ OF THE Hen 



(From S^lipQn.) 



78 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

amination shows inflamed appearance of 
membrane of the abdominal cavity. 

Cause. Serious inflammation of the 
wall of the abdominal cavity. 

Treatment. Put the bird in a quiet place. 
Aconite (see page 9) , to reduce the te^mpera- 
ture, and opium, or one drop of laudanum, 
to relieve pain, have been recommended, 
but as a rule it is best to kill the bird. 

PIP 

Generally the effect of some other disorder 

Symptoms. A hardened scale formed at 
tip of tongue. 

Cause. Generally due to cold or other 
disorder affecting the breathing of the bird. 

Treatment. Do not try to tear off the 
growth on the tongue by force, but moisten 
with vaseline or glycerin until it becomes 
loose. Give soft food. 

PNEUMONIA AND CONGESTION OF LUNGS 
Generally fatal 

Symptoms. Extreme depression and 
79 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

great difficulty in breathing. Difficult to 
distinguish in the living bird from a very 
bad cold. Post-mortem examination shows 
the affected lung filled with an exudate. 
The lung sinks if put in water. 

Cause. Following on a cold, the lung 
becomes congested with blood and a dark, 
viscous matter. Pneumonia may be con- 
sidered a further, and generally final, stage 
of congestion. 

Treatment. A cure is seldom effected, 
but in the case of a valuable bird the follow- 
ing treatment may be tried: Keep the bird 
in a dry, warm place; paint the skin above 
the lungs with tincture of iodine; give 
aconite. Feed on soft food and give a 
stimulant. 

POISONING 

Symptoms. As a rule the poisons that 
fowls eat are mineral. The most pro- 
nounced symptom is evidence of pain. In 
cases of arsenical poison there is diarrhea. 
A poison containing a copper compound 

80 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

acts partly as an emetic, causing the fowl 
to make an effort to vomit. In cases of 
mineral poisons, post-mortem examinations 
show inflammation of the «tomach and the 
digestive tract. 

Sources of poison. Poultry are likely to 
get poisoned from the following sources: 

Fertilizers (e. g., nitrate of soda) used 
on fields in which fowls scratch for food. 
Such ca.ses are rare. 

Insecticides and fungicides (e. g., Paris 
green [arsenic], lead arsenate, Bordeaux 
mixture) applied to plants under which 
fowls run. If sprays are mixed in correct 
proportions and used in normal quantities, 
there is little danger to poultry feeding on 
the grass below sprayed trees. Great care 
should, however, be taken in disposing of 
the sediment and the residue after spraying 
operations are completed. 

Rat poisons (e. g., phosphorus, strych- 
nine, baryta). These poisons are particu- 
larly dangerous when mixed with cornmeal 
or other bait attractive to fowls. The best 
way to set rat poison is to put it in a piece 
8i 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

of piping of such a diameter and length that 
fowls cannot reach it. 

Salt. Food mixed with salt for other 
domestic animals may be accidentally given 
to fowls. Chickens are the most likely to 
be poisoned by excess of salt. 

Treatment. If fowls have eaten poison- 
ous substances, the fact is not usually dis- 
covered until after death or until it is too 
late to administer an antidote. Most of the 
poisons fowls are likely to eat act as irri- 
tants of the digestive tract. Milk and 
white of egg should be given. It is advis- 
able to give a stimulant, such as half a tea- 
spoonful of brandy. 

PYEMIA 
Not contagious, and not common 

Symptoms. This disease cannot be diag- 
nosed except by post-mortem examination 
and microscopic identification of pus-form- 
ing organisms in the infected areas (whitish 
spots) of liver, spleen, etc. 

Cause. Pus-forming organisms believed 
82 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

to enter the blood through a wound in the 
skin. 

Treatment. As there are no external 
symptoms, treatment is not possible. 

RHEUMATISM 
Not a common trouble 

Symptoms. Lameness and stiffness of 
joints. 

Cause. May be due in some cases to too 
stimulating food and to dampness. 

Treatment. Put affected bird in dry 
quarters and vary food, adding more greens. 
Rub joints with embrocation, or turpentine 
and oil. 

ROUP (CONTAGIOUS CATARRH) 
One of the most serious contagious diseases 

Symptoms. The bird first has symptoms 
of an ordinary cold, such as running at the 
nostrils and sneezing. Definite evidence of 
roup is the offensive odor detected on open- 
ing the bird's mouth. The exudate is also 
offensive. The disease may attack the eyes, 

83 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

which then become inflamed and swollen; 
a tumor, containing offensive, yellowish, 
cheesy matter, sometimes develops. The 




Fig. 19.— examining A FOWL WITH A SUSPICIOUS COLD 



course of the disease may extend over sev- 
eral weeks or months and there may be cases 
of chronic roup. Some cases end fatally 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

in a comparatively short time. The form 
of the disease, in which yellowish patches 
develop on the throat, is dealt with under 
diphtheria or diphtheritic roup. 

Cause. Cases of roup occur when birds 
are subjected to draft and damp, but the 
cause must be infection with disease germs. 
It is believed that the almost constant pres- 
ence of the germs is due to lack of regular 
disinfection and to birds in the flock be- 
lieved to have recovered from a previous 
attack of the disease, but that, in reality, are 
suffering from chronic roup, and are able, 
whenever suitable conditions arise for an 
outbreak of this disease, to infect the rest of 
the flock through the drinking water and 
the soil. 

Treatment. The seriousness of this dis- 
ease makes it imperative for the poultry 
rearer to isolate immediately any birds 
showing any suspicious symptoms. If 
treatment of the infected bird is taken in 
hand early, and carried out faithfully, a 
cure can be effected, but it is often wiser to 
kill and burn infected stock. In treating 

85 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

birds, the mouth and nostrils should be 
washed out with 5% carbolic acid, or with 
50% hydrogen peroxide, or with 2% per- 
manganate of potash. It is important to 
clean out the passage of the nostrils, and 
this may be done by: 

1. Pressing against the roof of the 

bird's mouth froni inside and 
squeezing the nostrils from 
above downwards. 

2. Syringing out the nostrils. 

3. Dipping the fowl's head for a few 

seconds in a solution of the dis- 
infectant. Great care should be 
exercised in this method of 
treatment, which is only recom- 
mended when permanganate of 
potash is used.' 

It is well to keep birds isolated for some 
time after apparent recovery. When the 
eye is affected (see Fig. 20), the tumor 
should be carefully lanced and the cheesy 
matter removed, after which the cavity 
should be rinsed out with one of the dis- 
86 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

infectants recommended above; such treat- 
ment may have to be repeated time after 
time. 

As an after effect of a cold or of roup, 
conjunctivitis or sore eyes may develop. A 
discharge comes from the eyes and the eye- 




FiG. 20. — A RouPY Eye 



lids become stuck together. Bathe the eyes 
with hydrogen peroxide mixed with an 
equal quantity of water. 

If this condition follows an attack of 
roup, there is danger that the fowl has not 
entirely recovered, and may be a source of 
infection to the rest of the flock. 

87 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

SCALY LEG 

An unsightly affection that, although contagious, does not 
spread rapidly 

Symptoms. A rough and scaly growth 
on the legs of the bird. 

Cause. A small mite (Fig. 22), known 
as Sarcoptes mutans, burrows in the skin 



'^fHHHHHH 


jm 


^^^^W^lwHB 


K' 




'^Bf^^^is, /^fiyiwli 



Fig. 21.— scaly LEG 
A. Showing early stages of attack. 



and gives rise to the unsightly growth 
(Fig. 21) that gives this disease its name. 

Treatment. Soften the scaly growth by 
washing and soaking the legs with warm 
water and soap. Scrub the affected portion 
88 




DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 

of the legs with a brush and then treat as 
follows: Dip the legs in kerosene oil, 
holding them there for not 
longer than a few seconds. If 
the kerosene oil is mixed with 
sweet oil, or if the legs are wet 
first with water, there will be 
no risk of the kerosene prov- 
ing harsh, as sometimes hap- ^'ySlrllls'^"'' 

S, 1 . ^ ^ I Scaly Leg 

ulphur omtment (see 

page 9) may be used instead of the kero- 
sene oil treatment. 

SOFT CROP 

Not a serious complaint 

Symptoms. Distended crop, soft to the 
feel. 

Cause. Over-eating; or food turning 
sour in the crop. 

Treatment. Hold bird downwards and 
squeeze contents of crop through mouth, 
taking care not to suffocate the patient. 
Repeat treatment if necessary. Put on low 
diet for some time, feeding slowly and 
sparingly. 

89 




POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

TICKS 
A pest found in the Southern States and tropical countries 

Symptoms. The fowl has fever, appears 
depressed, and stands in a cramped position. 
Cause. The fowl tick {Argas minatus), 
which hides during the day in 
cracks and crevices, sucks the 
fowl's blood at night and in- 
troduces a fever-producing 
Fio. 23 parasite. 

Th e Fowl Tick . .^-, . . , 

a. Adult. Remedies. h/Xamine sick 

b. Larva. 

birds during the day, and visit 
the roosts at night, for proof of the presence 
of ticks; carefully search under perches, in 
nests, and in corners of woodwork, etc. 
Spray woodwork with 5% creolin; squirt 
kerosene oil, or turpentine, into cracks and 
crevices. 

TUBERCULOSIS 
A 'very serious poultry disease 

Symptoms. This disease may be present 
in a poultry yard for some time without 
being detected. Suspicion should be 
90 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 



aroused if birds gradually lose weight and 
die. If a bird that 
has gradually been 
getting thinner, goes 
lame, or loses the use 
of a wing, without ap- 
parent injury, the evi- 
dence that tuber- 
culosis is present is 
strong, but positive 
proof of its presence 
can be obtained only 
by post-mortem and 
microscopic examina- 
tion. This disease gen- 
erally attacks adult 
birds. 

Cause. The specific 
organism causing this 
disease, known as the 
Bacillus tuberculosis 
(Fig. 5), infects the 
liver (Fig. 24), the 
spleen (Fig. 24), and 
other organs, least f re- 

91 




Organs Affected by 
Tuberculosis and Blackhead 

a. Normal spleen. 

b. Tubercular spleen. 

c. Portion of tubercular liver. 

d. Blackhead liver of turkey for 

comparison with c. 
a and b after Edwards. 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

quently the lungs. The disease may be in- 
troduced into a flock by the purchase of an 
infected bird, and may be spread by unin- 
fected birds picking up the excrement of 
diseased birds with their food. 

Treatment. There is no known cure. 
The insidious manner in which this disease 
advances through a poultry yard makes it 
a very serious malady. Birds suffering 
from it should be killed and burnt. 
Thorough disinfection of coops, etc., should 
be made. Strict attention to sanitation will 
help in preventing and controlling this dis- 
ease. If many birds in a flock are believed 
to have tuberculosis, it would be well to 
destroy the whole flock and start again, 
preferably on fresh ground. 

WHITE DIARRHEA OF CHICKENS 
A very serious disease, causing the death of large numbers 

Symptoms. Chickens are generally at- 
tacked when lo to 15 days old. They ap- 
pear listless, their feathers become rough, 
and they stand about with drooping wings. 
A white diarrhea is soon noticed. Chicken 
92 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 




Fig. 25.— chickens AFFECTED WITH WHITE DIARRHEA 

Ten-day White Leghorn chickens snowing symptoms of bacillary white 

diarrhea. (After Rettger & Stoneburn.) 



after chicken shows similar symptoms and 
dies, resulting in much loss and discourage- 
ment to the poultry rearer. 

Cause. Various causes, such as im- 
proper or stale food, may upset the chick- 
en's digestive organs and give rise to a 
whitish diarrhea, but the term "white diar- 
rhea" is best restricted to a contagious form 
of diarrhea due to minute parasites in the 
intestinal tracts of chickens. A coccidium 




Fig. 26.— healthy CHICKENS 
Normal ten-day White Leghorn chickens. (After Rettger & Stoneburn.) 

93 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

and a bacillus have been proved by different 
investigators to cause very similar forms of 
white diarrhea. A distinct form of white 
diarrhea, known as brooder pneumonia, is 
described on page 35. 

Treatment. This disease is a very dif- 
ficult one to control. Incubators and 
brooders should be thoroughly disinfected. 
Special care should be taken in the feeding 
during the first few weeks. Chickens 
should not be overfed. The feeding of 
dry bran is recommended, as it tends to keep 
the bowels in a healthy, active condition. 
In the form of white diarrhea due to a 
bacillus, suspicion rests on the hen and the 
egg as sources of infection. When the dis- 
ease becomes serious, and general sanitation 
and proper care of chickens do not control 
it, the advisability of obtaining the eggs for 
hatching from a poultry farm free of white 
diarrhea should be considered. 

WORMS 
Intestinal parasites that occasionally become serious 

Symptoms. General debility; worms or 
94 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 



segments of worms, seen in the droppings. 
If there is doubt as to whether a flock is 
suffering from worms, give a suspected 
bird a strong purgative and keep it up so 
that the feces may be examined for worms. 
If doubt still 
exists, the sus- 
pected bird 
should be killed 
and a post-mor- 
tem examina- 
tion made. Cut 
the intestines 
open length- 
ways (see Fig. 
34) with a small 
pair of scissors 
and wash them out with water so as to de- 
tect the smaller worms, and the tapeworms 
attached to the lining of the intestines. 

Cause. Two classes of worms are com- 
monly parasitic on fowls — round worms 
(see Fig. 27) and tapeworms. There are 
generally a few specimens of worms in the 
intestines of fowls ; but only when the num- 

95 




Fig. 27. — Worms in Intestinal Tract 

OF Fo^)/L 

(After Bradshaw. From Pearl, Surface 

& Curtis.) 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



SICKIES 



MAIN TAIL 
FEAtHEHS 



BAR LOBE \ 

SADDLE "~""-^ 

BACK 



COMB 




HACKLE 



WINS 



BREAST 



THIGH 



Fig. 28.— the PARTS OF A FOWL 



96 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF FOWLS 




F.o. 29.-SKELETON OF A FOWL 



97 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

bers are large do worms affect the health 
of the fowl. 

Treatment. Every bird suspected of 
having worms may be tested with a purga- 
tive as suggested above. Or, if it is estab- 
lished that several birds in a flock are suf- 
fering from worms, all in poor condition, 
without any cause being apparent, should 
be dosed with santonin — three to five grains 
in the morning before any food has been 
picked up. After about two hours give a 
purgative of two teaspoonfuls of castor oil 
and soon after let the fowl have its morning 
food. As important as dosing the fowls, is 
disinfecting the feed troughs, the water ves- 
sels, and the soil of the runs in order to pre- 
vent re-infection. 

Nodular tceniasis. Small nodules on the 
intestines, resembling the nodules in tuber- 
culosis, are sometimes caused by tapeworms. 
The name "nodular taeniasis" has been given 
to this disease. 



98 



A 



CHAPTER V 

PosT-MoRTEM Examinations 

/. Making the Examination 

POST-MORTEM examination should 
always be undertaken if there is any 
doubt as to the cause of death. Poultry 
rearers who are not already familiar with 
the normal appearance of the internal or- 
gans of a fowl should take the first oppor- 
tunity of studying them. 

Post-mortem examinations should be 
done in a systematic manner; but, if de- 
sired, a very speedy examination may be 
made by rapidly removing,*or bending back, 
the breast bone of the unplucked bird. 

It will be more generally satisfactory, 
however, to devote time to the operation, 
and it is suggested that the work be carried 
out on the following lines : 

I. Nail the body of the dead fowl on 
a board in the position shown 

99 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




Fig. 30.— post-mortem EXAMINATION NO. 1 
Fowl nailed on board; lines A B, A C and B D show where to cut. 



lOO 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

in Fig. 30, having first partly 
or wholly plucked the bird. 

2. With a sharp knife cut along 

lines AC, BD (Fig. 30), and 
bend the breast bone back- 
wards, exposing the internal 
organs; (Fig. 31.) As the 
breast bone is raised it will be 
necessary to cut through the 
mesentery and other connecting 
tissues. Break it back at D, 
cutting through the flesh and 
the muscle with sharp scissors. 

3. Remove heart, liver, gall-bladder 

and spleen, making neat sever- 
ances and without injury to 
any of the other organs. If the 
heart or large blood vessels be 
injured in the operation, blood 
will flow out and interfere with 
the work. 

4. Cut through the CESophagus, be- 

low or above the crop, as most 
convenient, and also cut 
through the large intestine near 

lOI 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




Fig. 31.— post-mortem EXAMINATION NO. 2 
Breast bone removed; internal organs in situ. 



I 02 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

the cloaca. Without discon- 
necting the parts, lift out the 
gizzard, intestines, and other 
portions of the alimentary 
canal, carefully tearing away 
the membranous tissues of th? 
mesentery. 

5. Spread the organs out and ex- 

amine each one carefully and 
critically, making sections if 
necessary. (Fig. 32.) 

6. Cut open gullet, crop, stomach, 

gizzard, intestines, and caeca 
and examine the contents. 

7. Examine the lungs, cutting ofif a 

portion and throwing it into 
water, when it will float if 
healthy, but sink if congested. 

8. Cut through the skin of the neck. 

Sever the windpipe near the 
head, and also where the bron- 
chi enter the lungs. With 
scissors cut it open, and examine 
for molds or gapes or for ex- 
udates indicative of various 
103 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



V\ Oesophagus 


'^y^^^^^^ 


/^■^^|£^^ffl[__Crop 




^ Spleen 








Stomach 


)%i 






s^ij /\Du d c n u m 


l^^,/>r-KN^. 


\ '■'''•'''i.L/)) ' \^®«^ 


Gizzard/ M \i^ — ~ 


y) Small m^ 


IT In-fceatinea /r\ 


1« 


Por-tion of/ 


M< 


scniery 



4eart 



' Gall Bladder 



Large In+est ing 



Fic. 32.— POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION NO. 3 
Internal organs removed for examination. 



104 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

forms of cold or lung conges- 
tion. 
9. Examine the brain (Fig. 34) for 
blood clots. Some care will be 
necessary in cutting through 
the skull so as not to injure the 
brain tissue, which should be a 
milky white. A sharp and 
strong pair of scissors or a 
small, fine saw (e. g., tenon 
saw) will be useful for older 
birds. Remove the skin and 
cut from behind, raising the 
bones and exposing the brain. 

2. The Normal Condition of the 
Internal Organs 

(See Fig. 32.) 

The oesophagus carries the food from the 
mouth and passing down the neck beside 
the windpipe opens into— 

The crop, where the food is macerated. 
Thence it gradually passes into — 

The true stomach (or proventriculus), 
105 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 



which is lined with small gastric-secreting 
glands that may be seen with the naked eye. 
This organ is hidden by the liver, and opens 
directly into — 

The gizzard, situated on the left side of 
the abdomen. It rests on the coiled-up mass 

fndpipe 

Bronchi 
Le+H: Lung 
Tes-tes 




Fig. 33.— post-mortem EXAMINATION NO. 4 
Lungs, kidneys, etc., in situ. 

of intestines. It is dark red and is partly 
hidden by the left lobe of the liver. The 
walls are strong and muscular. Here the 
food is ground against small bits of stone, 
etc. The partially digested food passes out 
1 06 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

through an aperture near the entrance of the 
true stomach into — 

The duodenum or upper portion of the 
small intestine. It forms a loop that in- 
closes — 

The pancreas, a compact, flattened organ, 
pinkish in color, that discharges its secre- 
tion by three ducts into the intestines. 

The small intestine, after forming the 
loop (duodenum), continues its course. It 
first passes toward the left and is disposed 
in many folds connected by the mesentery; 
toward the end it passes up behind the true 
stomach. Connected to the intestines arc 
the blind bodies known as— 

The c£Eca, connected to the small in- 
testines for several inches and which, after 
becoming considerably smaller in diameter, 
enter the alimentary tract where — 

The large intestine (rectum) starts. This 
portion of the intestines is short and enters — ■ 

The cloaca, into which the urinary and 
leproductive ducts discharge. The exter- 
nal opening is known as the vent or anus. 

The brain, situated in the back of the 
107 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

head, is protected by the cranial bones. It 
is milky white except where the blood ves- 
sels may be seen. 

The windpipe connects the larynx at the 
throat with the lungs branching into the two 
bronchi. 

The lungs, situated in the upper portion 
of the thoracic abdominal cavity, are firmly 
attached to the ribs, in the interspaces be- 
tween which they fit. They are flattened 
and oval in shape, bright red in color, and 
loose and spongy in texture. 

The heart is cone-shaped. The lower 
portion rests between the lobes of the liver. 
The heart is red and is inclosed in a sac 
(the pericardium) that is easily removed. 

The liver, situated a little lower down 
tjian the heart, consists of two lobes. The 
right lobe is often larger than the left which 
may be cleft at the lower end. The left 
lobe covers the true stomach and part of the 
gizzard. If there is some delay in holding 
a post-mortem examination the edges of the 
lobes of the liver become discolored. Nor- 
mally the color is a purplish red. 
io8 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

The gall bladder fits into a shallow de- 
pression on the underside of the right lobe 
of the liver and appears green in color. A 
duct conveys the bile from the liver into the 
gall bladder, whence it passes by another 
duct into the intestine. 

The spleen, a nearly round, reddish body, 
with a purplish tinge, is attached by a liga- 
ment to the right side of the true stomach 
and is hidden by the liver. 

The kidneys extend along the sides of the 
spine from immediately below the lungs to 
near the termination of the abdominal 
cavity. The general color is a chocolate 
red, but a small portion at the upper end 
(known as the adrenal), is yellow. There 
is no urinary bladder. The urates are car- 
ried direct through the ureters to the cloaca.. 

The testes (of the male bird) are attached 
to the upper portion of the kidneys. They 
are white or very light-colored, and may be 
of diflferent sizes. 

The ovary (of the female bird), situated 
on the left side, covers the kidney on that 
side. It consists of numerous ova of vari- 
109 



rOULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 




Brain 
Exposed) 



Portion of 
Irrtes + fne 
(Cut open) 




Windpipe w,. 
(Cut open and ^ 

showing 
fungoid growth) 






Flc. 34.— POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION NO. 5 
Examination of brain and of portions of intestines and windpipe. 



IIO 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

ous sizes each of which may develop into 
an egg. As an ovum passes through the 
oviduct it is first coated with an albuminous 
covering (the white of egg) ; lower down 
it is coated with a calcareous deposit that 
forms the shell of the egg. (Fig. i8.) 

J. Diagnosis of Disease by Post-Mortem 
Symptoms 

For purposes of diagnosis each organ 
must be examined. Note in each case if it 
is enlarged, spotted, ruptured, inflamed or 
engorged with blood. Observe if it is an 
unusual color or if it possesses any other 
symptom of an abnorrnal character. 

A single symptom in a single organ, un- 
less very pronounced and characteristic, 
will not be sufficient evidence for forming 
an accurate opinion as to the cause of death. 
But if the condition of the other organs and 
the symptoms before and attending death 
are taken into consideration, there will sel- 
dom be any difficulty, from a practical 
standpoint, in deciding upon the nature of 
III 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

the disease. Many points can be decided 
only by a pathologist with the aid of a mi- 
croscope, such, for example, as the difference 
between coccidial and bacterial diarrhea, 
but it is quite enough for the poultryman to 
realize that one of his fowls has died of an 
attack of an acute form of diarrhea and that 
the rest of his birds may become infected. 

The following notes draw attention to the 
main diagnostic symptoms observable on 
post-mortem examination, arranged under 
the heading of the organs affected. Other 
symptoms are put in parentheses. 

Post- Mortem Symptoms 

BRAIN 
Apoplexy. — Shown by congestion of 
blood vessels of brain. (Staggering gait 
and sudden death.) 

HEART 

Cholera. — Punctiform hemorrhages are 
generally found in the heart in cases of 
cholera. (Yellow feces; diarrhea; sudden 

112 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

death of several or many fowls; inflamma- 
tion of upper portion of intestines.) 

LIVER 

Tuberculosis. — Yellowish-white spots on 
liver varying in size, somewhat raised and 
convex; the spots or nodules may be readily 
separated from the rest of the liver. The 
liver itself is often very much enlarged. 
(Fowl gradually loses weight and may go 
lame; mesentery and spleen affected with 
nodules.) 

Cholera. — Liver enlarged, dark green 
and softened, sometimes showing whitish 
spots. 

Coccidial diarrhea. — More or less circu- 
lar patches, depressed in the centre, associ- 
ated with plugged caeca, the linings of 
which have sores. 

Congested liver. — Much enlarged and en- 
gorged with blood, may be readily torn. 

Fatty degeneration or fatty liver. — In the 
first case the liver is rather shrunken and 
113 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

hardened, and in the latter excessive de- 
posits of fat may be noticed. 

Liver trouble. — (Indigestion.) An en- 
larged liver without any of the special 
symptoms noted among the other diseases 
of the liver. 

Gout. — Needle-like crystals (urate of 
soda) give the liver the appearance of hav- 
ing been covered with chalk. (Other or- 
gans in abdominal cavity covered with 
same powder-like crystals.) 

Aspergillosis. — Necrotic areas with 
mold. (Fowls go light and move about in 
a depressed manner, resting on their breast 
bones.) 

STOMACH 

Gastritis. — The mucous membrane lin- 
ing of the stomach is reddened and inflamed. 

INTESTINES 

Diarrhea. — Acute forms of intestinal 
troubles give rise to inflammation of the 
114 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

mucous membrane lining the walls of the 
intestines. 

Cholera. — The upper portion of the in- 
testines may be reddened and the contents 
show streaks or clots of blood. 

Worms. — Round or tape worms present 
in intestines. 

C^CA 

These blind ducts are of importance in 
showing the presence of coccidiosis in fowls 
or blackhead in turkeys. 

Coccidial diarrhea. — The caeca are en- 
larged and show ulcers developing from 
the inside. 

WINDPIPE 

The linings of this organ should be clean 
and free of obstruction or mucous exuda- 
tions. 

Gapes. — Small worms about three-quar- 
ters of an inch long are found attached to 
the trachea. 

115 



POULTRY DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Aspergillosis. — A whitish mold will be 
seen along the inside of the windpipe. 

Pneumonia. — The bronchial tubes con- 
tain a thick mucous exudate. 

Congestion of lungs. — Blood escaped 
from congested lungs is found in the bron- 
chi. 

LUNGS 

These should be a bright red and spongy 
in texture. 

Congestion. — One or both lungs are dis- 
tended with blood and dark in color. 

Pneumonia. — A condition that follows on 
congestion, the whole lung affected losing 
its spongy texture, the air spaces being filled 
with a semi-solid substance. 

Brooder pneumonia. — Spots due to an as- 
pergillus fungus on lungs. (Chickens at- 
tacked.) 

MESENTERY 

Cholera. — Congestion of blood vessels of 
mesentery often seen. 

ii6 



POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

Tuberculosis. — The mesentery may be 
studded with nodules. 

SPLEEN 

Tuberculosi s. — A greatly enlarged 
spleen. 

Enteritis. — (Bacterial.) Spleen en- 
larged but paler in color. 

URETERS 

Cholera. — Ureters distended with yellow 
urates. 



117 



INDEX 





PAGE 


Abscesses 


26 


Abnormal eggs (see Oviduct diseases) . 


77 


Aconite 


9 


Air under skin (see Emphysema) 


54 


Air sac mite (see Mites, air sac) . 


73 


Anaemia 


27 


Apoplexy ....... 


28 


Aspergillosis 


29 


Atrophy of liver (see Liver diseases) . 


70 


Bacterial enteritis (see Diarrhea) 


48 


Baldness (see Favus) 


. S6 


Biliary repletion (see Jaundice) . 


65 


Blackhead of turkeys ..... 


30 


Brandy ....... 


9 


Breakdown ...... 


33 


Broken limbs (see Fractures) 


58 


Bronchitis ...... 


34 


Brooder pneumonia 


35 


Bumblefoot 


36 


Calomel 


9 


Cancer (see Liver diseases and Ovary diseases) 7. 


2, 76 


Canker (see Diphtheria) .... 


49 


Carbolic acid 


9 


Castor oil 


9 


Catarrh (see Cold) 


43 


Catarrh, contagious (see Roup) . 


83 


Catarrh of crop 


37 


Catarrh of stomach (see Gastritis) 


62 


Chicken pox 


38 



119 



INDEX 









PAGE 


Chlorodyne . . . . " . 


. 9 


Cholera ....... 


• 39 


Cloacitis ....... 


41 


Coccidiosis of adult fowls .... 


42 


Coccidiosis of chickens (see Brooder pneumonia) 


35 


Coccidiosis of turkeys (see Blackhead) . 


• 30 


Cold . . . . ... 


43 


Congestion of the liver (see Liver diseases) . 


70 


Congestion of the Lungs (see Pneumonia) 


79 


Conjunctivitis (see Roup) .... 


83 


Constipation 






44 


Cramp .... 






45 


Creolin . . . ' . 






9 


Crop-bound 






46 


Crop, soft .... 






89 


Crop, catarrh of 






37 


Depluming mite 






74 


Diarrhea, bacterial 






48 


Diarrhea, rnycotic 






48 


Diarrhea, protozoan . 






48 


Diarrhea, mild .... 






47 


Diarrhea, severe 






48 


Diarrhea, white .... 






47 


Diphtheria 






49 


Diphtheritic roup 






49 


Disinfection 






10 


Dislocations (see Fractures) 






58 


Doses .... 






9 


Dropsy 






52 


Drugs 






9 


Ducks 






20 


Dysentery . 






52 


Egg-bound 






53 


Egg-eating .... 






54 



120 



INDEX 



Emphysema . . . . . . .54 

Enlargement of heart (see Heart, diseases of) .64 
Enlargement of liver (see Liver diseases) . . 70 
Enlargement of kidneys (see Kidney diesases) . 66 
Enteritis (see Diarrhea) . . . . .46 

Entero-hepatitis (see Blackhead) . . .30 

Epilepsy 55 

Epsom salts ....... 9 

Fatty degeneration . . . . . .56 

Favus ........ 56 

Feather-eating . . . . . . -57 

Fits (see Epilepsy) . . . . . -55 

Fleas 58 

Fowl typhoid ....... 41 

Fractures ........ 58 

Frost bite 59 

Gangrenous ovary (see Ovary diseases) . . 76 
Gapes ........ 60 

Gastritis 62 

Geese . . . . . . . .21 

Going light (see Anaemia) 27 

Gout 63 

Grippe (see Cold) . . . . . -43 
Guinea fowls . . . • • . .21 
Heart, diseases of ...... 63 

Heart, dropsy of 64 

Heart, enlargement of 64 

Heart, rupture 64 

Hydrogen peroxide ...... 9 

Hypertrophy of the liver (see Liver diseases) . 70 
Impaction of crop (see Crop-bound) . . .46 

Indigestion 64 

Influenza (see Cold) 43, 

Iodine 9, 

121 



INDEX 



Jaundice . 

Kidney diseases 

Leg weakness 

Leukemia (see Cholera) 

Lice . 

Limber-neck 

Liver diseases 

Lungs, congestion of (see Pneui 

Maggots . 

Medicines 

Mites, air sac 

Mites, depluming 

Mites, red . 

Mites, scaly leg (see Scaly leg) 

Molting . 

Nodular taeniasis (see Worms) 

Nursing fowls 

Ointment . 

Ovary diseases 

Oviduct diseases 

Peritonitis . 

Permanganate of potash 

Pigeons 

Pip . . 

Pneumonia 

Poisoning . 

Post-mortem examination 

Prolapse of oviduct (see Oviduct 

Puffed skin (see Emphysema) 

Pyaemia .... 

Quinine .... 

Rheumatism 

Roup .... 

Scabies (see Mites, depluming) 

Scaly leg 

122 



lia) 



diseases) 



INDEX 



Soft crop .... 


. , 






89 


Sore head (see Chicken pox) 






38 


Sulphur ointment 






9 


Ticks 








90 


Tuberculosis 








90 


Turkeys 








20 


Turpentine 








9 


Vertigo (see Apoplexy) 








28 


Water 








II 


White comb (see Favus) 








56 


White diarrhea of chickens 








92 


Worms 








• 94 



123 



STANDARD BOOKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 

Ashland Building People's Gas BuildinS 

315-321 Fourth Avenue ISO Michigan Avenue 



An^ of these books will be sent fcp- mail, postpaid, to 
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cation. 

First Principles of Soil Fertility 

By Alfred Vivian. There is no subject of more -"ital 
importance to the farmer than that of the best method 
of maintaining the fertility of the soil. The very evident 
decrease in the fertility of those soils which have been 
under cultivation for a number of years, combined with 
the increased competition and the advanced price of labor, 
have convinced the intelligent farmer that the agriculture 
of the future must be based upon more rational practices 
than those which have been followed in the past. We 
have felt for some time that there was a place for a 
brief, and at the same time comprehensive, treatise on 
this important subject of Soil Fertility. Professor Vivian's 
experience as a teacher in the short winter courses has 
admirably fitted him to present this matter in a popular 
style. In this little book he has given the gist of the 
subject in plain language, practically devoid of technical 
and scientific terms. It is pre-eminently a "First Book," 
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an introduction to the subject, and who intend to do subse- 
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The Study of Corn 

By Prof. V. M. Shoesmith. A most helpful book to all 
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100 pages. Cloth . , Net, |o.so 

(1) 



The New Egg Farm 

By H. H. Stoddard. A practical, reliable manual on 
producing eggs and poultry for market as a profitable business 
enterprise, either by itself or connected with other branches 
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Poultry Feeding and Fattening 

Compiled by G. B. Fiske. A handbook for poultry keep- 
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Poultry Architecture 

Compiled by G. B. Fiske. A treatise on poultry buildings 
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Poultry Appliances and Handicraft 

Compiled by G. B. Fiske. Illustrated description of a 
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Turkeys and How to Grow Them 

Edited by Herbert Myrick. A treatise on the natural 
history and origin of the name of turkeys ; the various breeds, 
the best methods to insure success in the business of turkey 
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illustrated. 154 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.00 

(18) 



Profitable Stock Raising 

By Clarence A. Shamel. This book covers fully the 
principles of breeding and feeding for both fat stock and 
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The Business of Dairying 

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Questions and Answers on Buttermaking 

By Chas a. Publow. This book is entirely different 
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Questions and Answers on Milk and Milk Testing 

By Chas. A. Publow, and Hugh C. Troy. A book that 
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inches. 100 pages. Cloth N«r $0.50 

(3) 



Soils 

By Ch^tti-ts VviLLiAM BuRKEiT, Director Kansas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. The most complete and 
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Illustrated. 303 pages. S^/^xS inches. Cloth. . Net, $1.25 

Weeds of the Farm Garden 

By L. H. Pammel. The enormous losses, amounting 
to several hundred million dollars annually in the United 
States, caused by weeds stimulate us to adopt a better 
system of agriculture. The weed question is, therefore 
a most important and vital one for American farmert 
This treatise will enable the farmer to treat his field tc 
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graphs and drawings made expressly for this work, and 
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dener and park superintendent. 5x7 inches. 300 pages. 
Cloth Net, $1.50 

Farm Machinery and Farm Motors 

By J. B. Davidson and L. W. Chase. Farm Machineiry 
and Farm Motors is the first American book published 
on the subject of Farm Machinery since that written by 
J. J. Thomas in 1867. This was before the development 
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general application of power to the work of the farm. 
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The Book of Wheat 

By P. T. DoNDUNGER. This book comprises a complete 
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■it) 



Bean Culture 

By Glenn C. Sevey, B.S. A practical treatise on the pro- 
duction and marketing of beans. It includes the manner ol 
growth, soils and fertilizers adapted, best varieties, seed selec- 
tion and breeding, planting, harvesting, insects and fungous 
pests, composition and feeding value; with a special chapter 
on markets by Albert W. Fulton. A practical book for the 
grower and student alike. Illustrated. 144 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $0.50 

Celery Culture 

By W. R. Beattie. A practical guide for beginners and a 
standard reference of great interest to persons already en- 
gaged in celery growing. It contains many illustrations giving 
a clear conception of the practical side of celery culture. The 
work is complete in every detail, from sowing a few seeds in 
a window-box in the house for early plants, to the handling 
and marketing of celery in carload lots. Fully illustrated. 
ISO pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Tomato Culture 

By Will W. Tracy. The author has rounded up in this 
book the most complete account of tomato culture in all its 
phases that has ever been gotten togetncr. It is no secom^- 
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world. No gardener or farmer can afford to be without the 
book. Whether grown for home use or commercial purposes, 
the reader has here suggestions and information nowhere else 
available. Illustrated. 150 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. $0.50 

The Potato 

By Samuel Frasee. This book is destined to rank as a 
standard work upon Potato Culture. While the practical side 
has been emphasized, the scientific part has not been neglected, 
and the information given is of value, both to the grower and 
to the student. Taken all in all, it is the most complete, reliable 
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ica. Illustrated. 200 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . . $0.75 

Dwarf Fruit Trees 

By F. A. Waugh. This interesting book describes in detail 
the several varieties of dwarf fruit trees, their propagation, 
planting, pruning, care and general management. Whei'e 
there is a limited amount of ground to be devoted to orchard 
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meet with a warm welcome. Illustrated. 112 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $0.50 

(6) 



Cabbage, Cauliflower and Allied Vegetables 

By C. L. Allen. A practical treatise on the various 
types and varieties of cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, kale, collards and kohl-rabi. An explanation is given 
of the requirements, conditions, cultivation ahd general man- 
agement pertaining to the entire cabbage group. After this 
each class is treated separately and in detail. The chapter 
on seed raising is probably the most authoritative treatise on 
this subject ever published. Insects and fungi attacking this 
class of vegetables are given due attention. Illustrated, 126 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . . - $0.50 



Asparagus 

By F. M. Hexamer. This is the first book published in 
America which is exclusively devoted to the raising of aspara- 
gus for home use as well as for market. It is a practice' 
and reliable treaties on the saving of the seed, raising of the 
plants, selection and preparation of the soil, planting, cultiva- 
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crop, illustrated. 174 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . $a£c 



The New Onion Culture 

By T. Grfiner. Rewritten, greatly enlarged and brought 
up to date. A new method of growing onions of largest size 
and yield, on less land, than can be, raised By the old plan. 
Thousands of farmers and gardeners and many experiment 
stations have given it practical trials which have proved a 
success. A complete guide in growing onions with the great- 
est profit, explaining the whys and wherefores. Illustrated 
5x7 inches. 140 pages. Cioth $0.50 



The New Rhubarb Culture 

A complete guide to dark forcing and field culture* Part 
I-_By J. E. Morse, the well-known Michigan truckev and 
originator of the now famous and extremely profitable new 
methods of dark forcing and field culture. Part II Com- 
piled by G. B. Ftske. Other methods practiced by the most 
experienced market gardeners, greenhouse men and experi- 
menters in all parts of America. Illustrated. ^30 pages. 
'5x7 inches. Clot'' So.i^q 

17) 



Alfalfa 

By F. D. CoBURN. Its growi-, uses, and feeding value. 
The fact that alfalfa thrives in almost any soil; that without 
reseeding, it goes on yielding two, three, four, and sometimes 
five cuttings annually for five, ten, or perhaps lOO years; and 
that either green or cured it is one of the most nutritious 
forage plants known, makes reliable information upon its pro- 
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given in this volume for every part of America, by the highest 
authority. Illustrated. 164 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. $0.50 

Ginseng, Its Cultivation, Harvesting, Marketing 
and Market Value 

By Maurice G. Kains, with a short account of its history 
and botany. It discusses in a practical way how to begin with 
either seeds or roots, soil, climate and location, preparation 
planting and maintenance of the beds, artificial propagation, 
manures, enemies, selection for market and for improvement, 
preparation for sale, and the profits that may be expected. 
This booklet is concisely written, well and profusely illus- 
trated, and should be in the hands of all who expect to grow 
this drug to supply the export trade, and to add a new and 
profitable industry to their farms and gardens, without inter- 
fering with the regular work. New edition. Revised and en- 
(arged. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Landscape Gardening 

By F. A. Waugh, professor of horticulture, university of 
Vermont. A treatise on the general principles governing 
outdoor art; with sundry suggestions for their application 
in the commoner problems of gardening. Every paragraph is 
short, terse and to the point, giving perfect clearness to the 
discussions at all points. In spite of the natural difficulty 
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entirely plain even to the inexperienced reader. Illustrated. 
152 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Hedges, Windbreaks, Shelters and Live Fences 

By E. P. Powell. A treatise on the planting, growth 
and management of hedge plants for country and suburban 
homes. It gives accurate directions concerning hedges; how 
to plant and how to treat them ; and especially concerning 
windbreaks and shelters. It includes the whole art of making 
a delightful home, giving directions for nooks and balconies, 
for bird culture and for human comfort. Illustrated. 140 
pages. 5x7 inches. Clotli $0.50 



Successful Fruit Culture 

By Samuel T. Maynard. A practical guide to the culti- 
vation and propagation of Fruits, written from the standpoint 
of the practical fruit grower who is striving to make his 
business profitable by growing the best fruit possible and at 
the least cost.- It is up-to-date in every particular, and covers 
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grower's immediate conditions and environments. Illustrated. 
26s pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $i.oc 

Plums and Plum Culture 

By F. A. Waugh. A complete manual for fruit growers, 
nurserymen, farmers and gardeners, on all known varieties 
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Fruit Harvesting, Storing, Marketing 

By F. A. Waugh. A practical guide to the picking, stor- 
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fruit trade, fruit package laws, commission dealers and deal- 
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232 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $i.ao 

Systematic Pomology 

By F. A. Waugh, professor of horticulture and landscape 
gardening in the Massachusetts agricultural college, formerly 
of the university of Vermont. This is the first book in the 
English language which has ever made the attempt at a com- 
plete and comprehensive treatment of systematic pomology. 
It presents clearly and in detail the whole method by which 
fruits are studied. The book is suitably illustrated. 288 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.00 

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