(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The game-birds & water-fowl of South Africa"

; /, • r I ' I 




',!j(/iMKjiM&yy^\ fflvi'A';^A';Hi^iyfiVii'^ 




rti:r..5g:4ya 



wi: 



m 



'm=!:^.Hijm.^^:;ss.&^ 



5 






\i 81 




New York 

State College of Agriculture 

At Cornell University 

Ithaca, N. Y. 



Library 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001576226 



THE 

GAME-BIRDS AND WATER-FOWL 

OF 

SOUTH AFRICA 



THE 

GAME-BIRDS & WATER-FOWL 

OF 

SOUTH AFRICA 



BY 

MAJOR BOYD gpRSBRUGH 

MEMBEB OF THE BEIUSH ORNITHOLOMSTS' UNION AND SOUTH ATBICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' 
UNION ; FELLOW OP THE ZOOLOOICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 



WITH COLOURED PLATES 

By Seboeant C. 6. DAVTES {Gape Moimted Riflemen), u.b.o.u., m.s.a.o.u. 



LONDON : 

WITHERBY & CO. 326 HIGH HOLBORN 

19] 2 



SK 

PBrNTBD BY WITHEBBY AND CO. 
AT THEIR PMSTING PRESS, 
MIDDLE ROW PLACE, LONDON. 



TO MY WIFE 



PREFACE. 



In this volume I have endeavoured to give descriptions of the 
Game-Birds and Water-Fowl found within South African hmits — ^that 
is to say, south of a Une drawn through the Zambesi River from east 
to west. 

I trust that in all cases the illustrations will be sufficient to enable 
the sportsman readily to identify any Game-Bird he may shoot. It 
must be remembered, however, that immature birds often differ very 
much from those in adult plumage ; I regret it was not possible to 
figure the birds in every stage. 

With regard to the habits of many species, I am greatly indebted 
to Serg. 0. G. Davies, Cape Mounted Riflemen, whose excellent 
field-work has been of the greatest help to me. All notes referring 
to Pondoland and Griqualand have been communicated to me 
by him. 

My thanks are also due to Dr. J. W. B. Gunning, Director of the 
Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, and to Mr. Peringuey, Director of the 
Cape Town Museum, for the loan of many skins otherwise almost 
unobtainable, which were used by Sergeant Davies to illustrate the 
work. 

Much valuable information has been obtained from the pages of 
the Journal of the South African Ornithologists' Union, whose energetic 
Editor (Mr. A. K. Haagner) has done so much to further the study 
of ornithology in South Africa. 

Without their ready assistance, so willingly given, the labour of 
briaging out this work would have been more than doubled. 



viii PREFACE. 

For the facts regarding general distribution of the birds and the 
colour and dimensions of their eggs, I am in most cases indebted to 
Mr. W. L. Sclater's valuable work on the Fauna of ScuUh Africa, but 
a certain amount of information was also obtained from Layard and 
Sharpe's Birds of South Africa. 

To Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant my thanks are also due for notes on 
various species, and for kindly looking over some of my proofs. 

I should also like to express my thanks to Mr. H. F. Witherby 
for his practical help on many occasions. 

B.R.H. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Kori Bustard (Otis kori) ---____- 1 

Ludwig's Paauw {Otis ludwigi) ------- 4 

Stanley Bustard or Veldt Paauw {Otis cafra) ----- 7 

Blue Knorhaan {Otis coerulescens) ------ 9 

Barrow's Knorhaan {Otis harrovii) ------ 14. 

Vaal Knorhaan {Otis vigorsi) _--____ ig 

Black-beUied Knorhaan {Otis meJanogaster) ----- 18 

Red-crested Knorhaan {Otis ruficristd) ------ 20 

Black Knorhaan {Otis afra) --------22 

White-quilled Knorhaan {Otis afroides) ------ 24 

Dikkop or Cape Thicknee {Oedicnemus capensis) - - - - 27 

Water Dikkop {Oedicnemus vermiculatus) - - - - 29 

Great Snipe {Gallinago media) -------31 

Ethiopian Snipe {Gallinago nigripennis) ----- 33 

Painted Snipe {Bostratvia capensis) ------ 35 

Shwimpi or Co qui Francolin {Francolinus coqui) - - - - 38 

Crested Yranoohn {FrancoUnus sephaena) ----- 41 

Kirk's Francolin {Francolinus hirki) ------ 43 

Grey-wing Francolin or Cape Partridge {Francolinus africanus) - 45 

Cape Red-winged Francolin {Francolinus levaillatdi) - - - 50 

Orange River Francolin {Francolinus gariepensis) - - - 52 

Biittikofer's Francolin {FrancoKnus jugularis) - - - - 54t 

Shelley's Francolin {Francolinus shdleyi) ----- 56 

Red-billed Francolin {Francolinus adspersus) - - - - 58 

Natal Francolin {Francolinus natalensis) ----- 60 

Cape Francolin or Cape Pheasant {Francolinus capensis) - - 62 

Humboldt's Francolin {Pternistes humholdti) ----- 64 

Southern Red-necked Francolin {Pternistes nudicollis) - - - 66 

Northern Red-necked Francolin {Pternistes nudicollis castaneiventer) 68 

Swainson's Francolin {Pternistes swainsoni) ----- 69 

Harlequin Quail {Goturnix delagorguei) - - - - - - 71 

Cape Quail {Goturnix capensis) -------73 



X CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Blue Quail (EaxcUfactoria adansoni) ------ 75 

Kurrichane Button-Quail (Turnix lepurana) ----- 77 

Natal Button-Quail {Turnix nana) - - - - - - 81 

Hottentot Button-Quail (Turnix hottentotta) ----- 83 

Common Guinea-Fowl (Numida coronata) _ - - - - 85 

East African Guinea-Fowl (Numida mitrata) .. _ - - 88 

Damaraland Guinea-Fowl (Numida papillosa) _ - - - 90 

Created Guinea-Fowl (Guttera edouardi) _ - _ - - 91 

Yellow-throated Sandgrouse (Pterocles gutturalis) - - - - 93 

Spotted Sandgrouse (Pterocles variegatus) _ - _ - - 97 

Double-banded Sandgrouse (Pterocles bicinctus) - - - - 99 

Namaqua Sandgrouse (Pteroclurus namaqva) ----- 101 

Speckled Pigeon (Columba phaeonota) ------ 103 

Olive-Pigeon (Golumba arquatrix) ------- 105 

Delalande's Green Pigeon ( Vinago delalandii) _ _ - _ 107 

Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis) ----- 109 

Black Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus niger) - - - - 112 

Knob-biUed Duck (Sarcidiomis melanonota) - - - - - 114 

Dwarf Goose (Nettopus auritus) - - - - - - -117 

White-faced Tree-Duck (Dendrocygna piduata) _ _ - _ 119 

Whistling Tree-Duck (Dendrocygna fulva) ----- 121 

Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) _ _ - _ _ 122 

South African Sheld-Drake (Casarca cana) ----- 125 

YeUow-billed Duck or Geelbec (Anas undulata) - - - _ 127 
Black Duck (Anas sparsa) - - - - - - - -130 

Cape Teal (Nettion capense) -------- 132 

Hottentot Teal (Nettion punctatum) ---___ 137 

Red-billed Pintail or Red-bill (Paecilonetta erythrorhyncha) - - 139 

European Shoveler (Spatula ch/peata) ------ 141 

Cape Shoveler (Spatula capensis) ------- 143 

South African Pochard (Nyroca erytJirophtkalma) - - _ _ 145 

White-backed Duck (Thdlassorms leuconota) - - _ _ _ 14.3 

Maccoa Duck (Erismatura maccoa) --____ 159 

Hadada Ibis (Hagedashia hagedash) - - - - - -152 

Index ----__-_-_- jg5 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate. 

Koii Bustard or Gom Paauw {Otis kori) - - - - - 1 

Ludwig's Bustard {Otis Ivdwigi) ----- - 2 

Stanley Bustard or Veldt Paauw {Otis cafra) ----- 3 

Blue Knorhaan {Otis coerulescens) _--___ 4 

Barrow's Knorhaan {Otis harrovii) ------ 5 

Vaal Knorhaan {Otis vigorsi) --_-_-_ q 

Black-bellied Knorhaan {Otis melanogaster) ----- 7 

Red-crested Knorhaan {Otis ruficrista) ------ 8 

Black Knorhaan {Otis afro) ___-__- 9 

White-quilled Kiiorhaan {Otis afroides) ------ 10 

Dikkop {Oedicnemtis capensis) - - - - - - - 11 

Water Dikkop {Oedicnemus vermiculatus) - - - - 12 

Great Snipe {Gallinago media) -------13 

Ethiopian Snipe {Gallinago nigripennis}- - - - - - 14 

Painted Snipe {Rostratula capensis) ------ 15 

Coqui Francolin or Shwimpi {Francolinus coqui) - - - - 16 

Crested Francolin {Francolinus sephaena) - - - - - 17 

Kirk's Francolin {FrancoUniis kirki) - - - - - - 18 

Grey- wing Francolin {Francolinus africanus) - - - - - 19 

Cape Red-winged Francolin {Francolinus levaillanti) - - - 20 

Orange River Francolin {Francolinus gariepensis) - - - - 21 

Biittikofer's Francolin {Francolinus jugularis) - _ _ _ 22 

Shelley's Francolin {Francolinus shelleyi) ----- 23 

Red-billed Francolin {Francolinus adspersus) ----- 24 

Natal Francolin {Francolinus natalensis) ----- 25 

Cape Francolin or Cape Pheasant {Francolinus capensis) - - 26 

Humboldt's Francolin {Ptemistes humholdti) ----- 27 

Southern Red-necked Francolin {Ptemistes nudicollis) - - - 28 

Northern Red-necked Francolin {Ptemistes nudicollis castaneiventer) 29 

Swainson's Francolin {Ptemistes swainsoni) ----- 30 

Harlequin Quail {Ooturnix delagorguei) - - - - - - 31 

Cape Quail {Coturnix capensis) -------32 



xii LIST OF PLATES 

Plate. 

Blue Quail {Excaljactoria adansoni) ___--- 33 

Kurrichane Button-Quail {Twnix lepurana) ----- 34 

Natal Button-Quail {Turnix nana) ------ 35 

Hottentot Button-Quail {Turnix hottentotta) ----- 36 

Common Guinea-Fowl {Numida coronata) _ - - - Fig. a. 37 

East African Guinea-Fowl {Numida mitrata) - - - - Fig. b. 37 

Damaraland Guinea-Fowl {Numida papillosa) _ - - Fig. c. 37 

Crested Guinea-Fowl {Guttera edouardi) ------ 38 

Yellow-throated Sandgrouse {Pterocles gutturalis) - - - - 39 

Spotted Sandgrouse {Pterocles variegatus) ----- 40 

Double-banded Sandgrouse {Pterocles bicinctus) - - - - 41 

Namaqua Sandgrouse {Pteroclurus namaqua) ----- 42 

Speckled Pigeon or Bush-Dove {GolvMiha phaeonota) - - - 43 

Olive Pigeon {Golumha arqualrix) -------44 

Delalande's Green Pigeon (FiMogro (icZato»trf«i)- - - - - 45 

Spur-winged Goose {Plectropterus gambensis) ----- 46a 

Spur-winged Gioose {Plectropterus gambensis) ----- 46b 

Spur-winged Goose {Plectropterus gambensis) ----- 46o 

Black Spur-wiaged Goose {Plectropterus niger) - - - - 47 

Knob-billed Duck {Sarcidiomis melanonota) ----- 48 

Dwarf Goose {Nettopus auritus) -------49 

White-faced Tree-Duck {Dendrocygna viduata) - - - - 50 

Whistling Tree-Duck {Dendrocygna fulva) ----- 51 

Egyptian Goose {Alopochen aegyptiacus) ----- 52 

South African Sheld-Drake {Casarca cana) ----- 53.54 

YeUow-biUed Duck or Geelbec {Anas undulata) - - - - 55 

Black Duck {Anas sparsa) --------56 

Cape Teal {Nettion capense) --------57 

Hottentot Teal {Nettion punctatum) ------ 58 

Red-biUed Pintail or Red-bill {Paecilonetta erythrorhyncha) - - 59 

European Shoveler {Spatula clypeaia) ------ 60 

Cape Shoveler {Spatula capensis) ------- Qi 

South African Pochard {Nyroca erythrophthalma) - - - - 62 

White-backed Duck {Thalassomis leuconoia) ----- 63 

Maccoa Duck {Erismatura maccoa) ------ (54 

Hadada Ibis {Hagedashia hagedash) ------ 65 



PLATE 







C. G. Davies del. 



Wlllierliy ,^ Co Inn 



KO 



KI BUSTARD OP GOM PAAUW (OTIS KORl) Female. 



THE 

aAME-BIRDS AND WATEE-FOWL 
OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

OTIS KORI. 

KORI BUSTAED. 

OB> Sl'NNT Bustard. 

(Plate 1.) 

Otis kori, Burchell, Trav. S. Afr., i, pp. 393-492 (1822) ; Sharpe's ed. 
Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 632 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & EgKngton, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 112 (1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 242 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds S. Afr., iv, p. 308 (1906). 

Ewpodotis kori, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxni, p. 324 (1894) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 178 (1899). 

Local Names. — " Gom-Paauw " (i.e. Gum Peacock, because it is said 
to feed on gum found on mimosa trees) ; " Isemi " of Kaffirs 
generally ; " Kori " of Bechuanas (Burchell). 

Desckiption. Length of a male 56 in. and of a female 44 in. They 
have been shot weighing up to 50 lb., but the heaviest I have 
ever weighed was 35 lb., and he was a huge bird. The sexes 
are aUke, except that there is an enormous discrepancy in size 
between them. The bird figured is a female. 

DiSTEiBTJTiON. Generally distributed all over South Africa in 
suitable localities. It is essentially a bird of the wide, open 
flats, where it can see far in every direction. 

Its range extends as far as Southern Angola on the west, and it 
is also found in Central Africa, and East Africa as far north as 
Somaliland. 

It is migratory, and much more plentiful in some years than 
in others. 

On the edge of the Kalahari Desert west of Vryburg, it is 
common at the beginning of the winter (May and June). 

The " Gom-Paauw " is not rare in suitable localities, and 
is generally to be found stalking about on open plains dotted 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

with mimosa trees. It is to my mind the finest of all game- 
birds, and it takes a great deal of hard work and accurate 
shooting to bring one to bag. 

The best way to circumvent this wily bird, is for two 
people to ride about together until a Paauw is seen ; the 
sportsmen should then ride, not directly at him, but so as 
to pass about 200 yards to one side, gradually edging in. 
A good deal of judgment must be used ia executing this 
manoeuvre. If the bird should stop, the riders must edge 
away until he regains confidence, and the ponies must be 
kept walking gently on all the time and must not be halted. 
Then, when you have approached as near as you dare, drop 
off behind a convenient bush while your companion leads 
your pony on : let him get weU away, as the Paauw wiU watch 
him and the ponies carefully aU the time. By making use 
of cover you may creep within range and with a telescope- 
sight on a small-bore rifle you may score a buU's-eye ; but 
as you are sure to have your eyes blinded with perspiration 
and your knees full of sharp thorns, you probably wiU not. 

I have tried driving this bird, but it is so tall and so 
wary, and has such magnificent eyesight, that I only suc- 
ceeded once in this, when I shot a bird weighing 32 lb., 
and, from the crack with which it hit the ground, it sounded 
like 32 stone. 

It is deKcious eating, but requires to be well hung. 

It has a tremendous gape : a tame bird that was owned 
by a friend of mine in Potchefstroom could easUy swallow 
whole an Army ration-biscuit, and was always quite ready 
to do so. This bird was exceedingly savage, and one day 
fell upon a tame Secretary-Bird that shared his enclosure, 
and killed it with a few tremendous drives of his bayonet- 
like beak, in spite of the vigorous kicks of his opponent. 

2 



KORI BUSTARD 

This Bustard is supposed to be very fond of the gum 
which exudes from the mimosa, but, although I have 
examined the stomachs of several and watched many more 
with powerful field-glasses, I have never seen anything to 
verify this statement. 

Like aU the South African Bustards, it lives chiefly 
on insects such as locusts, grasshoppers, etc., as well as on 
mice, lizards, and small snakes, with a certain quantity 
of the green leaves of succulent plants. 

Paauw breed on the bare ground, laying two eggs in 
a slight hollow. The eggs measure about 3J by 2J in., and 
are pale brown mottled with darker shades, but they vary 
much in the markings. 



OTIS LUDWIGI. 

LUDWIG'S PAAUW. 

(Plate 2.) 

Otis ludwigii, Riippell, Mus. Senckenb., n, p. 223, tab. xrv (1837) ; 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 636, 854 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 114 (1892) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 246 (1900-01); Sclater, Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., 
IV, p. 298 (1906). 

Neotis ludwigi, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxni, p. 299 (1894) 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 175 (1899). 

Local Name. — " Iseme " of Natal Zulus (Woodward). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male ; length about 
39 in. The female is similar, but much smaller, and has no 
white occipital patch, and the brown round the eye and on the 
chest is considerably mottled and freckled with white. An 
individual shot by Butler weighed 7| lb. 

Distribution. Ludwig's Paauw is generally distributed over Cape 
Colony, the Orange River Colony, southern Transvaal and upper 
Natal, but there seems to be much uncertainty as to its exact 
range, as it is usually confused with Otis cafra (the Stanley Bustard 
or Veld Paauw). 

Like the other big Bustards, Otis ludwigi is a partial migrant, 
and usually visits the south-western districts and the flats near 
Cape Town during the months of November, December and 
January only, and I have seen it near Bloemfontein in the months 
of July, August and the beginning of September. 

I have shot it on the Kenia flats in British East Africa, where 
it is by no means uncommon. 

AccoRDiNa to Mr. Wood this is the only Bustard which 
visits East London, and he states that it does not come 
every year. 



PLATE 2 




C. G. Davies del. 



Witherby S Co. imp. 



LUDWIG'S BUSTARD (OTIS LUUWICI) Male. 



LUDWIG'S PAAUW 

Ludwig's Paauw feed in the early morning and late evening 
on locusts, beetles, mice, lizards, and any living food. I have 
often been told that they lived on grain such as mealies or 
Kaffir-corn, but although I have offered grain to most species 
of tame Bustard and have examined the crops of many, 
I have never found grain in them. They will occasionally 
eat clover and young soft weeds and grass, and I do not 
think they would refuse the eggs of any small ground- 
breeding bird. 

In East Africa the males " show-off " at about ten 
o'clock in the morning or a little before, and sometimes 
about sunrise. Occasionally in the sunshine a bird would 
be seen in the distance revolving slowly round and round, 
his big, white neck gKstening and his tail-feathers and wing- 
coverts stuck up like a frill round him, while he accompanied 
this performance with his deep humming love-note. The 
hen bird in the meantime would stalk aimlessly about and 
apparently pay not the least attention to him. 

Like all big game-birds, Paauw fly fast, although they 
appear to go slowly. They rarely give a chance to the shot- 
gun, and are generally kiUed with the rifle, and as they are 
usually in grass long enough to conceal their bodies, they 
do not often present an easy target. 

Two of these birds are now living in the Zoological 
Society's Gardens at Regent's Park. 

Should a young bird be captured alive the best food for 
it would be locusts, grasshoppers, etc., until it could be got 
to eat cooked meat, porridge or any cereal, or boiled potatoes. 
It must be remembered that a captive bird likes plenty of 
choice in its food, and it must not be forgotten that the 
bones of all the Bustards are very brittle, so that these birds 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

are not capable of withstanding the least approach to rough 
handling. 

The eggs measure nearly 3 by about 2.18 in., and are 
pale oHve-green faintly streaked with purplish- and yellowish- 
brown. 



Plate 3 




C. G. D.-ivies dsl. Witherhy & Co. imp. 

STANLEY BUSTARD op VELDT PAAUW (07/5 CAFRA) Male. 



OTIS OAFRA. 

STANLEY BUSTAED or YELDT PAAUW. 

(Plate 3.) 

Otis cafra, Lichtenstein, Cat. Ver. Nat. Hamb., p. 36 (1793) ; Sharpe's 
ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 634 (1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 114 (1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 244 (1900-01) ; Solater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 301 (1906). 

Neotis cafra, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxni, p. 301 (1894) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 176 (1899). 

NrtTive NBMe " i-SenE" 

Description. Adult male, as in figure ; length about 43 in. ; weight, 
according to Ayres, 20 lb. 

The female is a good deal smaller than the male ; the centre 
of the crown is ashy- white, finely vermiculated with darker ; 
the bluish-slate of the sides of the face, neck and breast of thei 
male, is replaced by white, closely spotted and vermiculated with 
brown, in the female (Sclater). Length about 34 in., weight 
(Ayres) 9 lb. 

Distribution. The Stanley Bustard extends over the greater part 
of South Africa as far north as the high veldt of the Transvaal. 
Beyond South African limits it has been killed in southern Angola, 
the central parts of German East Africa up to Victoria Nyanza 
and on the IJbangi, a northern tributary of the Congo. 

I kiUed two, and saw many, on the big grassy flats near Mount 
Kenia in British East Africa. 

I HAVE met with this fine bird some few times in the 
Orange River Colony, but it is by no means common and 
is nearly always very wild, the old cocks especially so. 

In Pondoland it is found in the same localities as 
Ludwig's Paauw {Otis ludwigi), and, like that species, is 
usually a winter visitant, though a few stay all the year. 

7 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

It is said that they can at times be approached by the 
weU-known plan of riding round them, although my informant, 
Sergt, Davies, has had little luck in obtaining them either 
by this or any other method. A friend of his, who has shot 
a good many, states that the largest he shot was a cock 
weighing 17| lb. two days after being shot. A larger one 
killed near Lusikisiki, Pondoland, weighed 25 lb., and was 
very fat, 

I believe these birds feed mostly at night or late in the 
evening and early in the morning ; during the heat of the 
day they lie up in long grass. They feed on lizards, locusts, 
beetles, field-mice, and so forth. 

Mr. Sclater states that they are rather silent birds, but 
sometimes make a low, melodious, humming noise in the 
morning and evening, whUe during the breeding-season the 
cock gives vent to a loud, far-resounding " boom," something 
like that of a Bittern ; at this period also the cocks display 
themselves before the females, expanding their throats 
enormously and turning their feathers back ; they then strut 
about and utter their booming noise. 

Mr. Sclater further writes that Ayres found the eggs 
generally at the top of a hill and laid in a bare depression 
scratched out of the earth, though sometimes a wisp of grass 
was added. 

The eggs are two in number and resemble those of 
0. ludwigi ; those in the South African Museum are oval 
and pale brown, washed, rather than blotched, with a slightly 
darker shade of the same colour; they measure 2.90 by 2.10. 

The birds I shot in South Africa were particularly good- 
eating, but the same species in British East Africa was coarse 
and tough, with a sUght, but unpleasant, flavour. 

8 



Platf 4 







C. G. Davies del. 



Withcrl.y .K: Cu. imp. 



BLUE KNORHAAN [OTIS C.€RULE3CENS) Male. 



OTIS GOERULESGENS. 

ELUE KNORHAAN. 

(Plate 4.) 

Otis coerulescens, Vieillot, Enc. Meth., i, p. 334 (1820) ; Sharpe's ed. 
Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 638 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 118 (1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 251 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 305 (1906). 

Trachdotis coerulescens, Sharpe, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxrn, p. 308 
(1894) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 177 (1899). 

Local Names. " Blaauw-Kop Knorhaan " — " Dik-Kop Knorhaan " 
(pronounced Koraan, i.e. scolding cock). 

Dbsckiption. The bird figured is an adult male ; length about 23 in. 
The female is slightly smaller than the male, which she closely 
resembles, but has the ear-coverts, sides of the face and eyebrows 
pale rufous, and the crown is shghtly spotted with sandy. 

Distribution. The Blue Knorhaan is found in Cape Golony, the upper 
part of Natal, the Orange River Golony, and the southern 
Transvaal. 

Blue Knorhaan as a rule are found in coveys of four or five 
on wide sandy plains, and do not seem to care for the heavier 
grass to which their near relatives the White-quilled 
Knorhaans {0. afroides) are so partial. 

In April, 1905, I was lucky enough to obtain^ in the 
market at Bloemfontein, a pair of the Blue Knorhaan. 

Neither before nor since have I seen these birds for sale 
alive, nor have I seen any in captivity, so I conclude that 
it was an exceptionally lucky chance that brought this latter 
pair into my keeping. They were then perhaps six weeks 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

old, in very rough plumage, and about the size of Red-legged 
Partridges, only of course longer in the leg. 

From the moment that I took them out of the little 
crate in which they had been brought to market, they proved 
themselves to be most extraordinarily tame, following my 
wife and me about the garden from the very first, with a 
loud querulous cry like that of a young kitten. 

From the first they fed better from the hand than in 
any other way. Their appetite was deUcate, and I am con- 
vinced that if they had not constantly been coaxed into 
accepting their food they would not have Hved many 
months. 

The blue colour on both of these birds was very pale 
at this time, and their legs were of a greyish colour ; the 
female was slightly smaller than the male, and her face and 
eyebrows were distinctly browner than those of her mate. 
It was quite evident that they had been reared by some 
woman on a farm, and they had rather a fascinating trick 
of sitting down on the edge of a skirt whenever they got the 
chance. The hen was particularly fond of doing this, and 
always crooned a little song to herself when she was com- 
fortably settled. They loved sharpening their beaks on 
one's boots, and visitors had always to be warned not to 
tread on them, as they were always at one's feet, investigating 
boot-laces. 

We built a large run for them, with a nice house in the 
middle. This latter they inhabited at night, and it was 
no easy matter for the Kaffir to drive them in every evening. 
They defied him and mocked him in every way, spreading 
their wings and skipping about on their agile little legs until 
the distracted Kaffir— who was not allowed to touch them— 
had very often to call for assistance. 

10 



BLUE KNORHAAN 

When they were let out of their run into the garden— 
which only occurred when there was someone by them to 
be on the look-out for strange dogs— a favourite trick of 
theirs was to make a dash for the nearest flat stone bordering 
the flower beds and to wait beside it, stamping impatiently 
until it was turned over, when there was a rush for any 
grubs, beetles or stone cockroaches that lay beneath it ; 
then off to the next stone— over with that and down with 
a delectable little scorpion ! 

When the garden was still in the process of making, 
these two were a serious impediment to the gardener. They 
thought he was employed to turn over stones for their special 
benefit, and the unfortunate man could scarcely get his pick 
under a stone before their eager little beaks were under it too. 

Mr. Sclater states that it is rather a scarce bird, but 
although I have never seen many at a time I fancy it is pretty 
widely distributed over the Orange River Colony. On the 
majority of mornings when out on shooting trips the first 
soimd to reach my ears was the clear ringing cry of " Knock- 
me-down, Knock-me-down, -me-down-me-down ! " that the 
cock bird gives vent to at dawn. 

I have seen dead birds for sale at the game-market in 
Bloemfontein in some numbers. ^They have generally been 
killed with a bullet, and this hardly bears out Mr. MiUais's 
experience that the bird is tame and unsuspicious. Not 
that I would doubt Mr. MiUais's experience of them, but 
I found them — in the Orange River Colony at any rate- 
extremely wild and very well able to take care of themselves. 

You may see them and try to stalk them, but at two 
hundred yards the slim, graceful, blue neck stiffens, the 
banded chestnut-and-white wings open, and with a mocking 

11 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH APEICA 

shout of " Knock-me-down," he is ofif for ten miles or more. 

In May, 1905, the cock of my pair started his wild caU- 
note, to which he always treated us when first let out of 
his house in the morning. He was an excellent indicator 
of early or late rising on the part of the Kaffirs, whose first 
duty it was to let the Knorhaan out into their rim. 

In December of the same year both my birds had got 
their plumage in the most beautiful order and were masters 
of the companions we had added to their run, i.e. some 
Stanley Cranes and Spur-winged and Egyptian Geese, while 
a Buff-backed Heron that was flying at hack around the 
garden was always a great source of distraction to them, 
their object being to keep him on the wing. Like most 
buUies they were cowards at heart, and a hen with chickens 
sent them shouting off in very quick time. 

It was always an amusement to us to drive them across 
the garden to the pigeon-house and then to drive the pigeons 
out of it and straight at them. This invariably caused 
consternation mingled with horror. The little pair would 
stand rooted to the ground with wide-open beaks and out- 
spread wings— the hen would utter a loud squawk, the cock 
would hoarsely shout his " Knock-me-down,"— and then 
they would turn tail and run, with that mincing, pattering, 
and amazingly swift gait of theirs. 

In January, 1906, when the birds were just under a year 
old, I observed that their legs were changing to a yellowish 
colour, and I have no doubt that these birds take at least 
two years to become fuUy adult. 

In February I regret to say that the hen bird was 
murdered in the garden by a neighbour's dog. We rescued 
her just alive, poor thing, and sewed up the dreadful wound 

12 



BLUE KNORHAAN 

in her breast, but a few hours later she crept on to the edge 
of my wife's dress and contentedly sat down and died. 

I kept the male bird some eight months longer, but 
when I went on leave to England I left him in the Pretoria 
" Zoo," where he had for company a Barrow's Knorhaan 
{0. harrovii). Just before I returned he got badly mauled 
by a Common Heron that shared his big aviary, and I regret 
to say he lived but a little time after I got him back. 

I fed my birds on lean, cooked, chopped meat, lettuce, 
bread and milk, Quaker oats soaked in water, on locusts 
when they were about, on chopped lizards (the tails were 
found most acceptable) ; and once, when I was drowning 
some mice in the Knorhaan run, the cock bird ate three 
little ones in quick succession and seemed to appreciate them 
very much. In a wild state I am certain that these birds 
eat practically no grain at all, but live on locusts, grass- 
hoppers, etc., and any odd insects they come across. 

I am told Blue Knorhaan are good-eating, but having 
had the tame birds I could never reconcile myself to the idea 
of tasting the wild ones. 

Eggs have been found by my friend Major Sparrow both 
in December and in August in the Orange River Ck)lony. 
In each case there were two, pale brown in colour, with a 
greenish tinge and darker streaks on them. They measured 
about 2.4 by 1.6 in. 



13 



OTIS BARROVII. 

BARROW'S KNORHAAN. 

(Plate 5.) 

Otis barrovii, J. E. Gray in Griffiths An. Kingd. Birds, in, p. 304 
(1829) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 250 (1900-01) ; Sclater, 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 356 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of 
S. Afr., IV, p. 307 (1906). 

Otis senegalensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 639 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 119 (1892). 

Trachdotis barrotoii, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxttt, p. 311 
(1894). ... ^, , , , ■' , . 

Description. The birds figured are an adult male and female ; 
length about 21 in. 

Distribution. I have met with this Bustard near Potchefstroom, 
Transvaal, and am inclined to think it is commoner than is 
generally supposed ; it is quite common in upper Natal. 

To tlie casual observer and sportsman Barrow's Knorhaan 
and Otis coerulescens are generally classed together as " Blue 
Knorhaan " and doubtless many are thus overlooked. Once, 
near Potchefstroom, I stopped a Boer who was shooting 
game for the Johannesburg market and looked through the 
birds on his waggon. He had eleven of this species and told 
me he got a good many every week and that they were always 
sold as Blue Knorhaan. 

Those I shot acted and called in a manner exactly Uke 
the Blue Knorhaan. 

Apparently this species is as easy to tame as the Blue 
Knorhaan, as I saw a delightfully friendly old male in the 
Pretoria Zoological Gardens some years ago. 

14 



1- 
< 







E 



o 
a: 



o 



2 

< 
X 

o 
z 



o 

a: 
< 



d 
(J 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

They feed chiefly on insects, such as beetles, locusts 
and white ants (termites). 

I have not found them as wUd as Blue Knorhaan, except 
when feeding on burnt " lands " or very short grass, and 
then aU Elnorhaan are wild. Butler states that he found 
these birds wild and difficult to approach, and that when 
flushed they uttered a note like "Kuk-pa-wow," repeating the 
cry several times as they flew away. 

Ayres states that this species lays two eggs, hidden in 
the grass in open country, and that they vary considerably 
in colour and markings. 



15 



OTIS VIGORSI. 

YAAL KNORHAAN. 

(Plate 6.) 

Otis vigorsii. Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1830, p. 11 ; Eeichenow, Vogel 
Afrikas, I, p. 248 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 
(1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 296 (1906). 

Otis scolopacea, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 637 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 117 (1892). 

Heterotetrax vigorsi, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxni, p. 296 (1894) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 175 (1899). 

Local Name. " Dik-Kop Knorhaan " of the Dutch, also apphed 
to the Blue and Barrow's Knorhaan. 

Dbsckiption. The bird figured is a male. Although I consider the 
plate a very good one, I think it is almost impossible to convey 
in a picture any idea of the beautiful pink bloom that colours 
this bird in life. Unfortunately in the dried skins the colour 
quickly fades. Length about 24 in. 

Distribution. The Vaal Knorhaan is found in open, rolling grass 
veldt in the Cape Colony, in upper Natal, in the Orange River 
Colony, and in certain parts of the Transvaal. 

I have killed it near Bloemfontein and also near Potchefstroom. 
According to Mr. Bryden, it extends into Bechuanaland. 

Vaal Knorhaan are, I think, the noisiest of a very noisy 
family. It is impossible to stay in a district inhabited by 
them, and fail to be aware of their presence : the tremendous 
" Crack-crack, crack-crack-ka^oi« " added to other startling 
nasal noises, soon call the attention of the sportsman to 
them. I have usually found Vaal Knorhaan in coveys up 
to five or six in number. They seem to prefer the drier, 

16 



Plate 6 




C. G. Davies del. 



Witheiby & Co. imp. 



VAAL KNORHAAN {OTIS VICORSI) Male. 



VAAL KNORHAAN 

stonier ridges of rolling country, and are not so fond of 
old lands and flat grassy plains as their near relatives the 
White-quUled Knorhaans (0. afroides). They are not at all 
difficult birds to shoot, and wiU often allow a fairly close 
approach as long as the would-be shooter does not walk 
straight at them ; they are much more prone to squat than 
other Bustards as long as a direct approach is avoided. 

Once on the wing they fly powerfully and fast, and 
generally utter their resounding cry as they get up. Like 
other small Bustards this species feeds on insects, lizards, 
locusts and occasionally a little green vegetable matter. 

Two birds reached the London Zoological Gardens this 
year (1911), but I did not think they did very well, owing 
to want of space. All South African Bustards in the wild 
state take an immense amount of exercise, and the enclosure 
in which they are kept in captivity can hardly be too 
large. They also must have some place where they can 
avoid rain and damp, and if they are forced to sleep on 
damp and exposed grotmd their lives will be of short 
duration. They are worth while taking a good deal of 
trouble over, as they are most interesting and beautiful, 
and their habits in captivity have been very little studied. 

According to Mr. Sclater the eggs are nearly oval in 
shape, and the ground-colour varies from pale brown to 
olive-brown, blotched somewhat sparingly with dark brown 
of several shades. They measure 2.60 by 1.75 in. 



17 



OTIS MELANOGASTER. 

ELACK-BELLIED KNORHAAN. 

(Plate 7.) 

Otis mdanogaster, Riippell, Mus. Senckenb., n, p. 240 (1837) ; Sharpe's 
ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 641, 854 (1875-84) ; Nicolls and 
EgKngton, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 115 (1892) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 256 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr., Mus. 
m, p. 357 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 303 
(1906). 

Lissotis melanogaster, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxm, p. 806 (1894); 
Woodward, Natal Birds p. 117 (1899). 

DBSCEiPTioiir. Adult male and female as in figure. Length about 20 in. 

DiSTKiBtrTiON. This bird is widely distributed over the greater part 
of Africa, from Gambia in the west and Abyssinia and the "Wbite 
Nile in the east, southwards through German East Africa and 
Nyasaland to the Zambesi. 

In South Africa it has been once recorded from Cape Colony, 
and is not uncommon in Natal, Zululand, and Mashonaland, but 
does not apparently extend to the high plateau of the Orange 
River Colony and the Transvaal. 

I have not myself seen the Bladc-beUied Knorhaan in South 
Africa, but in East Africa it is by no means rare. 

I HAVE always found these birds singularly stupid and easy to 
kill, even in the most open country, so long as you do not 
walk straight at them. I have never seen more than a pair 
together. In East Africa they frequent open downs and 
flats as weU as country that is dotted with mimosa thorns, and 
are quite the most delicious of all the game-birds found there. 
Sergt. C. G. Davies writes me : " This is the only 
Knorhaan found in Pondoland, where it was not uncommon 
some years ago, but it is rapidly decreasing in numbers, 

18 



BLACK-BELLIED KNORHAAN 

owing to being continually persecuted both by natives and by 
whites, and to its own stupidity. 

" I have always found it a remarkably stupid bird, and 
have known one to stand calmly looking at me within 20 
yards while I hunted wildly through my pockets and haversack 
for a suitable cartridge. 

"Its favourite method of escape is to lie motionless in 
the long grass with outstretched neck ; it is then very 
difficult to see, and it will let you pass quite close without 
moving. It rises slowly, and being a soft feathered bird, is 
easily killed. 

" It feeds on locusts, beetles, berries, etc., and in winter 
gets extraordinarily fat." 

Sergt. Davies writes me further to say : " I would 
draw your attention to the long legs and proportionately 
long neck in this species, which at once distinguish it from 
all other South African Bustards. I have not seen this 
pointed out in any book. This is so noticeable in the live 
birds that they have often appeared to me to resemble tiny 
Ostriches. 

" Mr. Grant, in the Ihis, 1902, in describing Otis lovati, 
figures the wings of both this species and Otis lovati, and 
also both sexes of the latter. I should like to remark that 
all the adult males of Otis melanogaster I have seen have 
much more white on the wings than in Mr. Grant's figure, 
and, if the plate of Otis lovati is correctly drawn, that species 
differs from Otis melanogaster in shape, being much shorter 
on the leg and with a shorter neck." 

An egg found by the Woodwards in Natal was laid 
on the bare ground. It was cream-coloured, smeared and 
blotched with dark brown. 



19 



OTIS RUFICRISTA. 

EED-CRESTED KNOEHAAN. 

(Plate 8.) 

Otis ruficrista, Smith, Zool. S. Afr., m, pp. 639, 854 (1875-84) ; NicoUs 
and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 118 (1892) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 252 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 357 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 290 
(1906). 

Lophotis ruficrista, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxm, p. 291 (1894). 

Local Name.. " Bush Knorhaan " in Bechuanaland. 

Description. The birds figured are an adult male and female. This 
species measures about 20 in. 

In life the bases of this bird's body-feathers are suffused with 
a soft pinkish tinge, but this fades very quickly after death. 

Distribution. It extends from Bechuanaland northwards through the 
Transvaal to Benguela in the west, and to Rhodesia in the east. 

Most Bustards are dwellers in the open veldt, but the Bush 
Knorhaan is usually found in bush country ; it is partial 
to little, open glades where it can feed, but it also likes cover 
into which to run if alarmed. 

It flies in very similar fashion to our English Woodcock 
{Scolopax rusticola), dodging and diving through the trees 
at tremendous speed, and giving a most sporting shot. Like 
most Knorhaan it is a soft bird, and falls to a blow at which 
a Guinea-fowl would scarcely falter. 

Mr. Sclater says that its note is a melancholy " Goo-goo," 
but I have never heard it utter any sound. It is chiefly 
an insect-eater. 

20 



< 
-I 








a 
d 
d 



RED-CRESTED KNORHAAN 

Mr. MiUais, in his fine work, "A Breath from the Veldt," 
gives a beautiful representation of a singular habit he noticed 
in relation to this bird : Every evening towards sunset it 
rises from the earth, and mounting perpendicularly into 
the air to a height of from 100 to 200 feet it closes its wings 
and drops head first to the earth, only opening its wings 
to break its f aU when within a few feet of the ground. 
I am not sure whether this display is sexual or not, but it is 
most probably a warning or a challenge to other males in 
the neighbourhood. 

Mr. Sclater says that two eggs of this bird found by 
Ayres in November near Buluwayo were shaped like those 
of a Plover, being much pointed at one end. They were 
coloured greyish creamy-white, much spotted and blotched 
with dark umber. They measured 2.25 by 1.5 in. and 2.0 
by 1.5 in. respectively, but I do not think they were normally 
shaped, as Bustards' eggs are seldom so pointed. 



21 



OTIS APRA. 

BLACK KNORHAAJ^. 

(Plate 9.) 

Otis afra, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 724 (1788) ; Sharpe's ed. Layard 
Birds of S. Afr., p. 641 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington, Sportsman 
in S. Afr., p. 115 (1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 256 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 357 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 292 (1906). 

Compsotis afra, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxin, p. 293 (1894). 

Local Names. " Knorhaan " of the Colonists ; " Ikala Kalu " of 
the Amaxosa (Stanford). 

Desckiption. The bird figured is an adult male. The female is 
exactly like the female figured in the plate of Otis afroides, but 
without the white patch on the primaries. Length about 21 in. 

DiSTRiBtTTioiir. The Black Knorhaan is only found in the Cape 
Colony south of the Orange River. To the north of the Orange 
River it is replaced by its very near relative the White-quiUed 
Knorhaan (Otis afroides). It does not extend further eastwards 
than the division of Albany. 

In its general habits this bird much, resembles the White- 
quiUed Knorhaan. 

I have not shot much down country and consequently 
do not know this Knorhaan well. The cock birds when 
flushed get up with a great fluster and a startling harsh cry, 
exactly like that of the White-quiUed. They then usually 
fly roTuid in large circles and pitch, and if the grass is long 
they can be walked-up with the aid of a dog, but they rarely 
rise in the same place in which they pitched, as they nearly 
always run after settling ; on bare ground they may sometimes 

22 



PLATE 9 




C. G. Davies del. 



Witherby & Co. imp. 



BLACK KNORHAAN {OTIS AFRA) Male. 



BLACK KNORHAAN 

be seen skulking along at great speed with their heads carried 

low and taking advantage of every atom of cover. Hen 

birds are often difficult to flush and as a rule lie closely. On 

rising they only give a croak, but I consider they should 

be spared as much as possible, and, as the sexes are so 

different in colour, it is quite an easy matter to distinguish 

between them. Some Knorhaan I examined had their crops 

fiUed with tiny grasshoppers, and others with young locusts 

in the " voetganger " stage. Their food consists sometimes 

of young succulent leaves, such as clover and trefoUs, and 

soft grasses with the addition of any insects they can coUect, 

such as white ants (termites), beetles, etc. ; but although they 

are often shot in meahe and other grain fields, I have never 

heard of grain being found inside them, and I feel sure they 

are birds of great benefit to the farmer. 

The cock birds are very fond of getting up on to the 
tops of the small ant-heaps with which the veldt abounds, 
and they like to use these both as watch-towers and as places 
on which to sun themselves. 

Knorhaan are sometimes very good-eating, but as 
a rule are rather tough and strong in flavour. They require to 
be weU hung and very carefully cooked. The meat is dark 
and apt to be dry, but it makes a good addition to game- 
stew. They should always be skinned before cooking. 

Eggs sent to me from Cape Colony were indistinguish- 
able from those of 0. afroides. 



23 



OTIS AFROIDES. 

WHITE-QUILLED KNOEHAAN. 

(Plate 10.) 

Otis afroides, Smith, Zool. S. Afr., iii, p. 19 (1839) ; Sharpe's 
ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 642 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 117 (1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 254 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., ni, p. 357 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 294 (1906). 
/« 

Compsotis Kucoptera, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxm, p. 294 (1894). 

DESCRiPTioiir. The figures represent an adult male and female ; 
length about 21 in. 

Distribution. The White-quilled Knorhaan is the best known 
Knorhaan of the Transvaal, Bechuanaland, the Orange River 
Colony as far west as Damaraland and the northern part of the 
Karroo. In the Cape Colony its place is taken by the Black 
Knorhaan (Otis afra). 

This is the common Knorhaan of the Orange River Colony 
and the Transvaal, and from its conspicuous coloration and 
noisy habits is one of the best known. 

They are spoken of everywhere in the Transvaal and 
Orange River Colony as " Knorhaan," and when other species 
are meant the prefix "Blue" or " Vaal " or "Bush" is 
supplied. 

Knorhaan like, as a rule, wide, grassy flats, with grass 
sufficiently long to hide themselves in when their heads 
are lowered, but I have shot them among scattered thorn- 
bush at the edge of streams and rivers as well as along the 
bush patches of the Kalahari. 

I agree with Mr. H. A. Bryden in thinking that the 

24 



u 

I- 
< 

Cl 




u 



Q 
O 



z 

< 
I 

o 



Q 
UJ 



9 



WHITE-QUILLED KNOKHAAN 

African Veldt would be a dull place indeed if the noisy Knor- 
haan was non-existent, and I look upon this as one of the 
most interesting birds to be found there. 

A good pointer, or better still two, are absolutely 
essential to making a bag of Knorhaan. It requires a dog 
that thoroughly knows his business too, as I have often 
known Knorhaan to run half a mile or more before they 
rose. When a hen bird rises she sometimes gives a low 
croak, but when a cock bird gets up he makes the most 
extraordinary din, a terrific shout of " Crra-a-ak-de Wet- 
de Wet-de Wet-de Wet" and so on. 

I shall not forget the remark of a certain yeoman during 
the South African War, when we were trying to catch General 
De Wet by the usual night march. The yeoman's horse 
almost trod on a sleeping cock Knorhaan which fairly made 
the echoes ring with his uproar, and the rider said bitterly, 
" How can we catch these fellows when the very birds keep 
shouting out their names aU night ? " 

I cannot help thinking that the unfortunate Knorhaan 
is badly treated. They breed slowly, laying but two eggs, 
and have many enemies, not to mention veldt fires, storms, 
etc. Furthermore the Knorhaan is an exceedingly easy 
bird to shoot and falls to a blow that a Spur-winged Goose 
or other tough bird would not flinch at, so that I trust a 
little mercy will be extended and only cocks killed. 

They respond very quickly, however, to a little good 
treatment. I frequently shot on two huge farms which 
adjoined each other and we made a rule that hens were never 
kiUed. The difference at the end of two seasons between 
these and other farms in the same district was most marked. 
Of course what ruins all shooting in South Africa is the fact 
that game-birds are allowed to be sold for the market. 

25 E 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

African birds are not preserved in any way, and the constant 
drain by the market-hunter tends to extermination. The 
following Ust may give some idea of the quantity of game 
which finds its way into the markets of South Africa : In 
Kimberley market alone in the 1904 season, 12,975 head 
of game was disposed of, realizing £2,752 ; in the 1905 season 
29,119 head of game reaHzed £4,667, whilst in the 1906 season 
40,933 head reaUzed £4,829. 

Some interesting details of the different kinds of game 
which are included in the 40,933 head sold in 1906 are given, 
these were : — 

Springbuck, 4025; Dxuker, 174; Steinbok, 1415; Hares, 
5131 ; Knorhaan, 3565 ; Redwing (Francohn), 2957 ; Guinea- 
fowl, 818 ; Paauw (probably 0. ludwigi and 0. Tcori), 59 ; 
Wild-duck, 130; Geese, 33; smaU birds, 22,626. 

The item " smaU birds " would probably include the 
Coqui Francohn, as well as two species of Sand-grouse, which 
are, of course, extremely abundant in that neighbourhood. 

On land that has been burnt Knorhaan are always 
very wild, and generally get upon an ant-heap to keep a good 
look-out. They then give very good sport with a small- 
bore rifle, the white marks on the wings of the cock-birds 
making a clear target against the black background. 

I have frequently found the eggs, but invariably by 
accident. The hen-bird sUps off long before you reach the 
nest and hides in the long grass. 

The nest is merely a sHght hoUow in the ground, always 
in grass, and the two eggs are greenish-brown blotched with 
darker brown spots. They measure 2.05 by 1.65 in. 



26 



I- 
< 




u 



S 

u 

s 
a 

Q. 
O 

y. 
a 



Q 

d 
u 



OEDIONEMUS CAPENSIS. 

DIKKOP OE CAPE THICKNEE. 

(Plate 11.) 

Oedicnemus capensis, Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., p. 69 (1823) ; Sharpe's 
ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 645 (1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 120 (1892) ; Sharpe, Oat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., XXIV, p. 15 (1896) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 179 (1899) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 198 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 358 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., 
IV, p. 315 (1906). 

Local Names. "Dikkop" or "Thicknee" of colonists ; "Inquanqolo " 
of the Amaxosa (Stanford) ; " Khoho-a-dira," i.e. " Fowl of the 
enemv," of the Basutos (Murray). 

(»rtT«€ NAME. TaP-tftS. , ICMO<«0-^fl-^,rtA fs). 

Desckiption. The bird figured is a male. The sexes are alike. 
Length about 18 J in. 

Distribution. This species is distributed all over South Africa from 
Cape Town to the Zambesi. It also ranges beyond our Umits 
to Angola on the west and through Nyasaland and East Africa. 

The Dikkop is sometimes found on open stony country, 
but I have usually met with it among the scattered acacia 
bushes which fringe the course of most South African rivers, 
and aflEord excellent cover for many species of birds, both 
large and small.- Like its near relative the EngUsh Thicknee 
{Oe. crepitans), it is thoroughly nocturnal, and the curious 
triple squawking note may often be heard as the bird flies 
about in the dark, high overhead. 

As a rule it squats on the approach of danger, but it 
can run at great speed and has a powerful flight. Its dark 
flesh is exceedingly good-eating and is not so dry as that 

27 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

of most African game-birds. I have heard it said that the 
Dikkop is a foul feeder, and certainly it is sometimes found 
in fair numbers near the village rubbish-heaps, but I believe 
it is attracted there by the flies and beetles, etc. 

The Dikkop utters a curious shrill triUing note — 
sounding like " Tree-tree- tree " rapidly repeated. A tame 
bird in the Zoological Gardens at Pretoria would always 
start caUing when whistled to, and would at the same time 
fan out its tail, slightly droop its wings, and work itself into 
a perfect frenzy of excitement. 

The bird lays two eggs in a slight hoUow. They are 
pale stony-grey, blotched and splashed with deep brown 
and black. They measure about 2.2 by 1.6 in. 

The young are very pretty little things of an ash-grey 
colour with longitudinal black stripes, and as soon as they 
are hatched they follow the old bird. 



28 



UJ 

< 

Cl 










o 
Q 



O 
■X 



w 

< 






OEDICNEMUS VERMIOULATUS. 

WATEE DIKKOP. 

(Plate 12.) 

Oedicnemus vermiculatus, Cabanis, Journ. fiir Ornithol., 1868, p. 413 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiv, p. 11 (1896) ; Woodward, 
Natal Birds, p. 179 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, 
p. 200 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 358 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 318 (1906). 

Oedicnemus senegalensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 646 
(1875-84). 

Description. The bird figured is a male. The female is somewhat 
duUer in plumage, but otherwise resembles the male. Length 15 in. 

Distribution. This bird is found all over South and East Africa, 
as far north as Loango on the west, Victoria Nyanza in the centre 
and Mombasa on the east. Though widely distributed in South 
Africa, it appears to be always a rare bird, and is not found on the 
high veldt, or far away from large rivers or the sea. 

I HAVE not met with this bird, and it is said by Sclater 

to be nowhere very common and is nearly always found 

in pairs or in smaU parties about the mouths or along the 

banks of rivers, where it finds its food, which consists of 

smaU insects and Crustacea. Ayres noticed that it was only 

found about Durban Harbour in winter (June and July), 

and Mr. Shortridge states that he has only seen it on the 

St. Johns River, some distance from the mouth, in April, 

and that it is probably partially migratory. Like the Cape 

Thicknee, it is thoroughly nocturnal, but it can and does see 

perfectly well at any time of the day and in the brightest 

sunlight. 

An interesting account of the nest of this bird is 

29 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

given in the Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural 
History Society, No. 2 (1911), by Mr. R. Van Someren, who 
found it breeding within a few feet of the water of a lake, 
the nest being a small hoUow in the sand with practically 
no lining to it. 

Two eggs of this species in the South African Museum 
were obtained by Mr. Eriksson on the Cunene River ; they 
were laid on the bare ground within a couple of feet of the 
water. They are somewhat smooth and shiny, with a very 
pale sandy-brown ground colour, heavily blotched and spotted 
with a very much darker shade of brown. They are sUghtly 
pointed at one end and measure 1.90 by 1.35 in. 



30 



UJ 

h 

< 

0- 




5 



o 

u 






< 

LU 

a: 
o 



p 
d 
cj 



GALLINAGO MEDIA. 

GREAT SNIPE. 

(Plate 13.) 

Scolopax major, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 661 (1788). 

GalUnago major, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 678 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 130 (1892) ; Sharpe, 
Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiv, p. 626 (1896) ; Woodward, Natal 
Birds, p. 188 (1899). 

GalUnago m^dia, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 235 (1900-01) ; Sclater, 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 361 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of 
S. Afr., IV, p. 414 (1906). 
Double or Solitary Snipe of some authors. 

Description. The bird figured is a male. The sexes are alike. Young 
birds are more rufous than the adults. Length about 11 in. 
Weight 8 oz. (Ayres). 

DiSTREBTrTioN. Mr. Sclater writes that the Great Snipe nests in 
eastern and north-eastern Europe and northern Asia from Germany 
to the Yenesei, while it is only a casual visitor to the British 
Islands, and that it passes over south Europe and winters in 
Africa, where, however, it seems to be confined to the eastern 
and southern portions of the continent, and has not hitherto 
been met with in the western tropical districts. 

I HAVE seen the Great Snipe during nearly every month, of 
the year near Potchefstroom, Transvaal, but have rarely 
seen more than one or two birds during a day's walk. 

They are found on marshes and vleis in exactly the same 
localities as the Ethiopian Snipe, but they rise in quite a 
different manner. When the Ethiopian Snipe is flushed 
it gives vent to the weU-known " scape " of the English 
bird, but the Great Snipe gets up with a rush, attaining a 

31 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

terrific speed almost at once, and goes oflf in sUenee, Some- 
times they will give a quick twist or two on rising, more 
often they go off as straight as a quail, but they fly so fast 
that they are by no means easy to shoot, though a very 
shght wound suffices to bring one down. 

They feed chiefly on worms, and doubtless will eat such 
beetles and other insects as they may happen to come across. 

It is not necessary to describe their eggs, as they are 
never likely to be found in South Africa. 

They are delicious birds to eat. 



32 



1- 

< 




a. 

5 

o 



^ 
u 



UJ 

a. 



0. 

O 
X 
w 



GALLINAGO NIGRIPENNIS. 

ETHIOPIAN SNIPE. 

(Plate 14.) 

Gallinago nigripennis, Bonaparte, Icon. Faun. Ital., Ucc. PI., 43, p. 41 
(1832) ; Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 676 (1875-84); 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 130 (1892) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiv, p. 631 (1896) ; Woodward, Natal 
Birds, p. 188 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 236 (1900-01) ; 
Sclater.Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 361 (1905); Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 416 (1906). 

Local Names. " Black-quilled Snipe " of some authors ;• " Spook- 
vogel " of the Dutch ; " Kue-Kue Lemao " of the Basutos 
(Murray). 

DESCErPTioN. The bird figured is a male. The female resembles 
the male. Length about 11 in. 

This bird is frequently confused with the Great Snipe, but it 
can be easily recognised, as it has the outer tail-feathers white, 
with obsolete spots or bars on them, while the three outer tail- 
feathers of G. media are pure white without spots. 

DiSTREBTJTiON. The Ethiopian Snipe is confined to Africa and 
extends from Abyssinia through East and Central Africa and 
Nyasaland to the Cape Colony ; it has apparently not been met 
with in West Africa except in Angola. 

This is the common Snipe of South Africa and is by 
no means rare in suitable localities. Furthermore, once 
a marsh tenanted by Snipe is found, it is nearly always 
inhabited, for, as soon as the original tenants are killed, fresh 
birds make their appearance and fill up the vacant quarters. 
This bird is resident in South Africa, but like the ducks and 
other water-fowl it is a partial migrant if its haunts become 
affected by drought, and heavy rains will bring it to places 
where it was tinknown before. 

33 F 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

Ethiopian Snipe are much easier to shoot than English 
Snipe, and they very often rise and fly off with a heavy 
flapping flight like a Coot or Water-hen. 

In one small marsh near Potchefstroom, not far from 
my house, I frequently killed two couple— never more— 
although I made a careful search through the marsh with 
a keen spaniel. I made a practice of returning the following 
week and invariably found that four more birds had come in. 

During the breeding season these birds " drum " just 
as the EngUsh Snipe do, and may be seen weaving about 
high in the air, and every now and then rushing downwards, 
which act is accompanied by the curious vibrating drumming 
sound. This sound has been cleverly proved by Mr. P. H. 
Bahr to be produced by the vibration of the web of the outer 
tail-feathers as they are rapidly drawn through the air. 
The proof lay in fixing the two outer tail-feathers of a Snipe 
in a large cork and whirling the cork round at the end of a 
long string ; this action resulted in a sound which exactly 
resembled the " drumming " of a breeding Snipe. 

Ayxes found this bird breeding in the swamps near 
Potchefstroom in August, and on one occasion as late as April. 

The nests were placed and formed in a tussock of grass, 
the centre of which the bird trod well down, while the outer 
blades formed a shelter from the sun and cold winds. 

The eggs are of an olive-buff colour, spotted and blotched , 
chiefly at the obtuse end, with two or three shades of dark- 
brown ; they have a fair amount of gloss and measure about 
1.75 by 1.25 in. 

These Snipe are very good-eating and taste exactly 
like the European bird. 



34 



I- 



o 




p 



o 



a 

Z 
w 

D 

UJ 

1- 
z 

< 



ROSTRATULA OAPENSIS. 

PAINTED SNIPE. 

(Plate 16.) 

Scolopax capensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i, p. 246 (1766). 

Bhynchaea capensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard-Birds of S. Afr., pp. 679, 855 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 130 
(1892). 

Rostratula capensis, Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 683 (1896) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 189 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 361 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 418 
(1906). 

Rostratula bengalensis, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 237 (1900-1). 

Local Name. " Golden Snipe " of some authors (Sclater). 

Description. The Plate represents an adult pair — the female being 
the bird on the left with the chestnut breast. Length about 
9Jin. 

DiSTRiBTJTi03<ir. The Painted Snipe is found all over Africa, south of 
the Sahara, including Madagascar. It is also found in Egypt, 
southern Asia including India, as well as in China, Japan, the 
Philippines, Borneo, and Java, and is apparently a resident 
throughout its range. 

I HAVE shot this lovely little bird near Bloemfontein in the 
Orange River Colony, and also near Potchefstroom, Trans- 
vaal. It is a most unsporting httle bird and flies very slowly 
in a straight line, without any of the quick twists of the 
true Snipe. They always remind me more of Rails than Snipe. 

They are nowhere very common, but if a brace or so 
be shot on any particular marsh their places are generally 
filled by others within a week or so. 

35 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Sergt. C. G. Davies, writing from East Griqualaud in 
February, 1910, said that the range of this bird seems to be 
spreading. He stated that when he was stationed ia Griqua- 
land ten years previously he never saw or heard of one, 
but that now the birds were fairly common and that he 
had shot twelve of them during that year without special 
search for them. 

They apparently breed in Griqualand, as he shot four 
in February out of a small patch of marsh; two were adults, 
male and female, and the latter contained eggs almost ready 
for laying. The other two were a young male and female ; 
probably the yoimg of the above adults hatched in the spring, 
which looks as if they reared two broods in the year. 

Sergt. Davies writes me that a wounded bird tried to 
frighten him by spreading its wings and tail to their fullest 
extent, jumping at his hand every time he put it near, at 
the same time making a kind of hissing noise ; but it did 
not attempt to peck or scratch. 

It is generally beheved that the male undertakes the 
duty of incubation in the same manner as the male of the 
various species of Turnix does. I can find no definite state- 
ment about this however, as far as South African birds are 
concerned. 

Mr. Sclater states that the most interesting thing 
about the Painted Snipe is the relation of the sexes, which 
appears to be reversed from what ordinarily holds good 
among birds, the adult female being generally larger and 
more briUiantly coloured than the male, while the young 
female resembles him. 

He also states that the female has a croaking, guttural 
note, while that of the male is more shrill, this being due 

36 



PAINTED SNIPE 

to the construction of the trachea or windpipe, which in the 
female is convoluted and modified, while in the male it 
is straight and simple. 

Layard found this bird breeding in marshy ground close 
to Cape Town, and describes the eggs as being like those 
of the Ethiopian Snipe, but with yellower ground and with 
more defined, darker markings, aU of one shade. 

Anderson found it breeding near Ondonga, in Damara- 
land ; he states that it makes no nest, but that the eggs are 
laid near water. Gates gives the measurements as 1.5 to 
1.29 X 1.05 to 0.89 in. 



37 



FRANOOLmUS OOQUI. 

SHWIMPI OR COQUI FHANCOLIN. 

(Plate 16.) 

Perdix coqui, Smith, Rep. Exped. Centr. Afr., p. 55 (1836). 

Francolinus siibtorquatus, Sharpe's ed. Layard, Birds of S. Afr., p. 600 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 103 
(1892). 

Francolinus coqui, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 143 
(1893) ; id., Game-Birds, i, p. Ill (1895) ; Woodward, Natal 
Birds, p. 160 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Af rikas, i, p. 492 (1900-1) ; 
Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 197 (1906). 

Local Name. " Iswempe " of the Zulus. 

Desceiption. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 
Length about 11 in. 

DiSTEiBUTiON. The Coqui Francolin is found all over Rhodesia, the 
Transvaal, Bechuanaland and Natal. Its range extends as far 
up the coast as Damar aland on the west and nearly to the Equator 
on the east. 

I HAVE sliot many of these small Francolins in the Transvaal 
and consider them most sporting little birds. They are hardly 
ever found far from bush, and like to haunt fringes of mimosa 
along the flanks of the hiUs. I have occasionally been able 
to get them driven to the gun, when they come at a rare 
pace and require quick and accurate shooting as they dodge 
through the tops of the trees. 

They have the curious habit of going to ground when 
hard pressed. One day during the South African War 1 

38 



LlJ 
h- 
< 

CL 




SHWIMPI OR COQUI FRANCOLIN 

was riding with the front line of the advanced guard near 
Zeerust when a covey of Shwimpi were flushed three or four 
times. The last time, I saw them run along in front of the 
horses and three went down a meer-cat hole, out of which 
I promptly pulled them, and our mess of six officers had 
half a bird each on biscuit for dinner. This incident I 
remember well, as an extra guest turned up for the meal, 
and my Irish batman thrust his head into my tent and 
demanded : " Will I divide them three partridges into sivin 
halves ? " — which was rather a defeating question. 

They are excellent-eating. 

Mr. E. C. Chubb, writing in the "Ibis" (1909, p. 142), 
says that it is fairly common throughout the year at Buluwayo, 
South Rhodesia, and that it breeds there. He further states 
that it begins to pair at the end of October and lays from 
four to eight eggs in a slight hollow in the grass. 

The cry is a loud and penetrating call of " Kwee-kit," 
and for a long time I thought it was the note of some 
small bird, imtil I saw a Shwimpi calling quite close to me, 
as I sat under a tree waiting for a shot at a Steinbuck. 

This Francolin does well in captivity and soon becomes 
tame and friendly. 

It is very common near Zeerust, in the Magaliesberg 
Mountains, and fairly common round Potchefstroom wherever 
there are sufficient thorn trees. 

The eggs are pale greenish-white, and measure about 
.1.5 by 1.3 in. 

Mr. Millar writes : ' These birds are plentiful through- 
out Natal, although more partial to the coast lands ; they 
are resident aU the year round. Old mealie fields and Kaffir 
gardens are the favourite haunts, the coveys consisting of 
three or four brace ; they seldom settle in trees, although 

39 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

they occasionally run into cover. The cock-bird calls 
frequently during the day, uttering a loud, defiant note, and is 
said to be very pugnacious, its spurs being long and pointed. 
These birds nest in the open grass. The last clutch coming 
under my observation consisted of five eggs, creamy-white 
in colour and almost round in shape, and measuring 1.25 
by 1.0 in. They were shghtly incubated when found on 
March 10th. 



40 



PLATE 17 







C. G. Davies del. Witherby & Co. imp, 

CRESTED FRAN CO LIN [FRANCOLINUS SEPH,^r.\) Male. 



FRANGOLINUS SEPHAENA. 

CRESTED FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 17.) 

Perdix sephoena, Smith, Rep. Exp. Oentr. Afr., p. 55 (1836). 

Francolinus pileatus, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 593 
(1875-84) ; Nicolla & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 103 
(1892). 

Francolinus sephcena, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxii, p. 146 
(1893) ; id., Game-Birds, i, p. 113 (1895) ; Reichenow, Vogel 
Afrikas, i, p. 495 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Arm. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 354 
(1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 199 (1906). 

Local Name. " Inkwali " of the Zulus (Millar). 

Desokiption. The figure represents a male. The female is very 
similar in plumage but has the upper-parts covered with narrow 
wavy bars of bu£E and lines of black, and lacks spurs. Length 
about 12^ in. 

DiSTBiBtTTioN. " The Crested Francolin " is foimd throughout Bechu- 
analand, as far as the Zambesi and southern Angola in one 
direction, and in the other as far as Zululand and southern 
Mozambique. In East Africa it is replaced by other closely-aUied 
species. 

The Crested Francolin is nowhere a common bird. Its 
habits appear to resemble those of Pternistes swainsoni 
(Swainson's Francohn), and it has the same liking for the 
vicinity of water and thick cover. 

It feeds on the usual mixed diet of grain, insects, berries, 
seeds, etc. 

I have not shot this species, but have killed a few of 
the closely allied F. granti (Grant's Francolin) in British East 
Africa, and thought them most unsporting little birds. So 

41 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFEICA 

reluctant were they to rise at times, that I once ran three of 
them into a clump of bush and picked them up by hand. 
Their flesh is exceUent-eating and not so dry as that of most 
Francolins. 

Mr. Sclater writes that the Crested Francolin seems 
everywhere to be a somewhat scarce bird, and that it is shy 
and retiring, generally being found in the dense undergrowth 
rimning along the banks of rivers. It usually occurs in small 
coveys, and is difficult to flush; it takes refuge in trees, 
and there with crest erect and tail uplifted it gives vent to 
a harsh metaUic " Chiraka." 

Mr. Miliar met with these birds plentifully in Zululand 
on the White Umvolosi River, near its junction with the 
Block Umvolosi ; he found them shy, and so much addicted 
to close cover that they were difficult to procure. 

The nest and eggs have, apparently, not yet been 
described, but the latter will probably strongly resemble 
those laid by its near relation Kirk's Francohn {F. Jcirki). 



42 



Plate H 




C. G. Davies del. 



Widieiby i^ Cu. imp. 



KIRK'S FRANCOLIN (FRANCOLINUS KIRKI) Male 



FRANCOLINUS KIRKI. 

KIRK'S FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 18.) 

Francolinus IcirM, Hartlaub, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 827 ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 149 (1893) ; Shelley, Birds 
of Afr., I, p. 180 (1896) ; Sharpe, Hand-List of Birds, i, p. 23 
(1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 497 (1900-01). 

Local Name. " Kueri Kuechi." 

Description. This is one of the smallest of the African Francolins, 
and measures about 12 in. in length. Wing 6| in. 
The sexes are alike, the bird figured being a male. 

Distribution. The specimen from which the plate was drawn was 
collected by the late Mr. J. Marais in Rhodesia. Mr. F. J. Jackson 
records it as having been killed as far north as the Taru Desert in 
British East Africa. It is fairly common in some parts of Portu- 
guese East Africa. The Transvaal Museum contains two examples 
from Boror, Portuguese East Africa, collected by Messrs. Kirby 
and Roberts. 

I HAVE not met with Kirk's Francolin, but Mr. C. H. B. Grant 
writes that it is a woodland species. It lives mostly on the 
ground, and its habits resemble those of F. sephaena. In 
the early mornings it is to be found in the neighbourhood of 
native gardens and when disturbed it rarely attempts to fly, 
and almost always prefers to escape by running. 

If disturbed by a dog it generally flies up into the nearest 
tree, but sometimes it will rise and fly well, just like the 
Common Partridge. This species is nearly always met with 
in pairs. 

Mr. Koberts writes in the Journal of the South African 
Ornithologists^ Union for December, 1911, that it is fairly 

43 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFEICA 

common in the marshy parts of Portuguese East Africa, and 
was usually found there in coveys of five or six. He says 
that in its habits it resembles the Lemon-Dove {Haplopelia 
larvata) in its manner of running for a short distance when 
alarmed, and then rising with a startling " whirr " ; it is remark- 
ably quick in dodging through the trees when in flight and is 
then almost impossible to hit. 

Small coveys were observed on several occasions running 
along the horizontal branches of tall trees at dusk, and no 
doubt they always roost in trees to be safe from their numerous 
enemies. Two nests found by Mr. Vaughan Kirby in June 
and July while collecting with Mr. Roberts in Portuguese 
East Africa, were placed in patches of grass at the foot of 
small bushes. The eggs varied in colour from cream to 
salmon pink, and measured 40.4 to 43.8 by 31.9 to 32.3 mm. 



44 



Plate 19 




C. G. Davies del. 



\Vitlieih>' Ov Co. imp. 



GREYWING FRANCOLIN (FRANCOLINUS AFRICANUS) Male. 



FRANCOLmUS AFRIOANUS. 

GREY- WING FRANCOLIN or CAPE 
PARTRIDGE. 

(Plate 19.) 

Francolinusafricanus, Stephens in Shaw's Gen. Zool., xi, p. 323 (1819) ; 
Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 152 (1893) ; Wood- 
ward, Natal Birds, p. 162 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, 
p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 201 (1906). 

Francolinus afer, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 595, 854 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Air., p. 101 
(1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 485 (1900-01). 

Local Names. " Patrijs " or " Berg Patrijs " of the Dutch ; " In- 
tendele " or " Isakwatsha " of the Amaxosa (Stanford), also 
applied to the Redwing ; " Khuale " of the Basutos (Murray). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male. The female differs 
only in having no spurs, and being slightly smaller. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe writes in the Ibis (1904) of a series sent 
from Deelfontein, that young birds can be distinguished by their 
white throats and paler lower mandibles. The older the bird, 
the more spotted it is beneath, and the throat is always more 
closely barred by reason of the dusty margins of the feathers, 
those of the lower-throat being especially scale-hke. The pretty 
grey edging to the feathers of the fore-neck seems to become 
abraded during the breeding-season, and the orange and chestnut 
markings on the fore-neck and chest are very apparent. In young 
birds these colours are more subdued and the black cross-barring 
is continued to the lower-throat, coupled with very distinct white 
shaft-streaks. The plumage of the crown is blackish in young 
birds, with margins of sandy rufous imparting a scaled, rather 
than a streaked, appearance to the head. The progress from the 
barred-breasted young bird to the thickly pearl-spotted adult is 
gradually acquired, and apparently, to a great extent, by change 

45 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

of feather after the first moult, when different kinds of arrow- 
shaped black marks and bars are much in evidence beneath. The 
length is about 14 in. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. Generally distributed through Cape Colony and the 
upper and more elevated parts of Natal and locally through the 
Orange Eiver Colony and the southern Transvaal. 

Mr. Millar states that in Natal this bird is known as the 
Berg Grey-wing from the fact that it is found only in the 
vicinity of the Drakensberg. When flushed they are usually 
on the brow of the hill, and aU rising together with a shrill, 
squeaky alarm, dive quickly round the corner, and are 
out of sight before a shot can be fired ; if, however, they 
can be marked down, they will rise singly and then afford 
good sport. 

Sergt. C. G. Davies writes that Grey-wings are common 
in most of the higher districts of the Cape Colony, and that 
they are usually found in coveys of from five to fifteen or 
more, and frequent the hill-sides, especially when they have 
a terrace-hke formation. 

I have shot them in various parts of the Orange River 
Colony and have never found them far from kopjes. Owing 
to their strong flight and the nature of the ground in which 
they are found, they are most satisfactory birds to shoot and 
give sometimes extremely sporting shots, especially when 
they are flushed on a hill well above the sportsman, and come 
tearing over his head at aU sorts of angles, each bird screaming 
his loudest. They are far noisier when they rise than the 
Orange River Francolin, and are not nearly such powerful 
runners. Near Bloemfontein I have often noticed the cock- 
birds calling in the mornings and evenings from the tops 
of stone walls. 

They feed early and late on small bulbs, seeds and insects, 

46 



GAME-BIRDS|OF SOUTH AFRICA 

and occasionally come down into mealie and Kaffir-corn 
fields or " lands " as they are called in South Africa. In the 
hot part of the day they copy other Francolins and rest in 
sheltered places. 

Mr. D. F. Gilfillan writes in the Journal of the South African 
Ornithologists'' Union for April, 1908, as follows : — 

" I have found these birds in the Districts of Queenstown, 
Cradock, Stejoiberg, and Middelburg in the Cape Colony. 

" At one time they were very plentiful on the Stormberg, 
Queenstown, and also on the Zuurberg, Steynsberg District, 
it being not uncommon for a single gun to shoot forty brace 
over dogs in a day. The part of the country where I have 
found them most plentiful is in the grassveld in the Sneeuberg 
Mountains between Cradock and Graafi Reinet. In these parts 
they were generally found among low shrubs and in the red 
grass, but never by me in certain coarse grass growing thicker 
and longer than the red grass and known as ' Koper Draad ' 
[anghce, copper wire] by the Boers, which is plentiful there, 
and which to look at should form an ideal covert for the birds. 
In July last I counted over twenty birds in a covey, and I am 
of opinion that there were thirty at least in that covey ; they 
flew out of sight before I could complete the counting. When 
found amid the rugged mountainous surroundings where I 
was shooting them last July they ofEer very sporting shots, 
as they are often found close to the edge of a precipice 50 to 
500 feet deep, sheer down into a deep valley. The instant 
such coveys are flushed they would dive down over the edge, 
giving very difiicult shooting, with perhaps a walk of haK a 
mfle or more to recover any birds killed. These birds are 
very fond of frequenting cultivated lands to pick up grain, 
and I have been informed by several farmers, living in the parts 
where I was shooting, that in the mountains they will scratch 

47 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

out and eat potatoes. Their favourite food, however, is a 
smaU bulb forming portion of the root of a species of rush, 
some varieties of which are found wherever I have been in 
South Africa. These birds wiU also eat grubs, beetles, 
locusts and ants. When locusts are about in the wingless 
stage these birds become excessively fat, but I have not 
known their flesh to have a rank flavour from this food, as is 
the case with some of the Bustards. I presume that the 
vegetable diet corrects the tendency of this food to make 
the flesh rank. They nest in the spring, from September 
to December as a rule, but sometimes as late as March 
and April. The time of nesting very much depends upon 
the rains. 

" Grey- wing are noisy birds, having a clear ringing caU, 
generally to be heard at sunrise and sunset, particularly when 
there is a change of weather coming. 

" When flushed. Grey- wing generally rise with shrill 
squeaks from aU the members of the covey, which is a very 
distinctive feature of this species, quite sufficient to dis- 
tinguish it from the other species I know. 

" The feeding time of these birds is from sunrise to about 
10 a.m., and from 4 p.m. tiU dusk, during the winter months, 
and in summer they feed earlier in the morning and later in 
the afternoon. 

" The scratchings of this bird can generally be distinguished 
from those of Larks and small animals by the mark of the bill 
at the apex of the scratchings, where it was inserted to lever 
out the bulb or root that was being searched for. 

" The chief enemies of the Grey- wing, other than man, 
appear to be the numerous Hawks found in the Karroo and 
the Secretary Birds, but I have no doubt that wild cats, 
jackals, and red meercats do a fair share in the killing. I have 

48 



GAME-BIEDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

seen a Falcon, the South- African Lanner, stoop at Partridges 
I have flushed, but without success. They are monogamous, 
but I have no evidence on the subject as to whether they pair 
for life. The coveys nearly always consist of the two old 
birds and the season's chickens. The nests are cup-shaped, 
somewhat deep, carefuUy Uned with grass, placed under the 
shelter of a bush or tuft of grass, and containing from eight 
to fifteen eggs. The eggs are shghtly larger than those of 
tame Pigeons and spotted with minute brown spots on a 
duU-coloured background. The spots vary, and sometimes 
the eggs are blotched with bro\vn." 

If the covey is broken up and the shooter has good 
dogs they afEord excellent sport, as they wiU then lie 
Hke stones. 

They thrive well and have been known to breed in cap- 
tivity. I have never found the nest but have seen eggs 
which are dark brown minutely spotted with brown pin- 
points. They measure from 1.60 to 1.55 by 1.2 to 1.15 in. 
according to Mr. Sclater. 



40 

H 



FRANCOLmUS LEVAILLANTI. 

CAPE RED WINGED ERANCOLIN. 

(Plate 20.) 

Perdix levaiUantii, Valenciennes, Diet. So. Nat., xxxvin, p. 441 (1825). 

Francolinus levaillanti, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 596 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 100 
(1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 154 (1893) ; 
id., Game-Birds, i, p. 119 (1895) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 161 
(1899); Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 484 (1900-01); Sclater, 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater and Stark, Birds of 
S. Afr., rv, p. 203 (1906). 

Local Names. " Redwing ' of the Colonists ; " HiU Redwing " of 
Natal ; " Itendelo " of the Zulus (Millar). 

DESCRiPTioiir. Adult male as in figiure. Length 14 in. The adult 
female is like the male, but usually has no spurs. 

DiSTEiBUTioN. The Cape Redwing is not found north of the Limpopo, 
and seems to be most abundant in Cape Colony. Even there it is 
somewhat local, being chiefly confined to the southern districts, 
and it does not appear to reach the more western or north-western 
portions of the colony. 

In Natal Mr. MUlar states that the Redwing is found on the 
higher levels about ten miles from the coast. The coveys consist 
of two or three brace, and the birds sit very close until flushed 
when they fly to a considerable distance. 

Mr. Wood says that this Francolin is found in fair numbers 
about East London, though at times when the weather is very dry 
during the breeding-season, they become scarce. 

Sergt. C. G. Davies tells me that it is far from common in Pondo- 
land except in a few localities near the coast. 

The Cape Redwing is a somewhat locally distributed bird, 
being plentiful in some districts and entirely absent in others ; 
it is usually met with in small coveys of from five to eight 

50 



Plate 20 




C. G. Davies del. Wilherby & Co. imp. 

CAPE RED-WINGED FRANCOLIN (fRANCOUNUS LEVaILLANTI) 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

individuals, generally in secluded valleys where there are 
plenty of rushes and long grass; Layard particularly men- 
tions its preference for the thick palmiet (reed) beds, which 
are so often found along the rivers of the southern part of 
the Colony. 

Every one remarks that it lies very close and that a very 
good dog is required to flush it, and after this has been done 
once it is almost impossible to make the bird rise again, so 
much so that if carefully marked down it can almost be 
caught by hand. 

The call-note, heard morning and evening, is loud and 
harsh, and though resembling that of F. shelleyi, is not so 
distinct and can be readily distinguished. Its food consists 
of insects, seeds, and small bulbous roots ; it is particularly 
fond of Gladioli and Watsonia bulbs, and is generally to be 
found where these are growing in any numbers. 

The nest is usually well hidden in a depression in the ground 
among long grass, generally not far from water; the eggs, 
five to eight in number, vary somewhat, but are usually a 
dark tawny, spotted throughout with dark brown. 

Lieut. C. H. T. Whitehead {Ibis, 1903) states that he 
found fresh eggs on December 15th, and young ones only a 
few weeks old in June. 

I have observed the breeding-season varies in many South 
African game-birds, and believe that many of them breed 
quite regardless of the time of the year, so long as the supply 
of food is plentiful and sufficient shelter is available. 



61 



FRANCOLINUS GARIEPENSIS. 

ORANGE RIVER FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 21.) 

Francolinus gariepensis, Smith, Zool. S. Afr., iii, pp. 83 and 84 
(1849) ; Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 599 (187-584) 
(part) ; Nicolls and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 101 
(1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 165 (1893) ; 
id., Game-Birds, i, p. 120 (1895); Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, 
p. xii (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 354 (1905) ; 
Sclater and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 205 (1906). 

Local Name. " Redwing " of the Colonists applied to this species 
as weU as to Francolinus shelleyi and F. levaillanti. 

Desceiption. Adult male as in figure. Length about 13 in. The 
female differs from the male in being without spurs, though 
sometimes possessing a blunt knob in their place. 

DiSTBiBTTTioN. The Orange River Francolin was first obtained by 
Sir A. Smith at the head-waters of the Caledon River, in what is 
now Basutoland ; it has not been found south of the Orange River ; 
northwards it occurs through Griqualand West, Bechuanaland, 
the Orange River Colony and the Southern Transvaal, its place 
being taken by other closely allied species to the eastwards and 
westwards. 

Sergt. C. G. Davies informs me that he met with a few at Ahwal 
North during the early part of the war. 

On the kopjes which surround the Potchefstroom Commonage 
and round their bases, Orange River Francolins are quite 
common and I have shot numbers of them. It is useless to 
try and shoot them without the help of dogs, as they wiU squat 
or run, or rise out of range, or in some other way defeat the 
sportsman who goes out alone. 

The best plan is for two guns only to shoot, one going in 

52 



Plate 21 




C. G. Davies dd. Wilhcrby & Co. imp. 

ORANGE RIVER FRANCOLIN [FRANCOLINUS GARIEPENSIS) Male, 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

front of the dogs on the kopje and the others keeping behind, 
but both guns on a level lower than the dogs. When the 
birds are flushed they usually fly down hiU and by adopting 
this plan some really sporting shots can often be obtained, 
and one reaUy high " curly " bird is worth ten shot out of a 
meahe field. 

These Francohns are very common near Vryburg and right 
into the Kalahari Desert, and I have shot them in many places 
where they could hardly have had a drink for weeks, although 
doubtless juicy berries and roots were sufficient for their 
needs. 

They thrive weU in captivity and I have seen them come 
to feed with the poultry at a Boer's farm where they were 
protected and not shot at. 

Their cry, usually uttered at dawn and evening, is clear 
and ringing ; it is an unmistakeable call sounding like the 
two words "Killy-keeHe," " KiUy-keehe," " KiUy-kiUeelie ; " 
it is sometimes uttered when the covey gets scattered. 

The chief enemies of these Francolins are the various 
meercats, especially the red meercat {Cynictis penicillata), 
wild-cats of various sorts, jackals, hawks, and snakes. The 
Secretary-Bird is a terrible foe to the young broods. From 
the stomach of one which I shot, I removed no less than nine 
chicks of this species which must have been at least ten days 
old. It is often a matter of wonder to me how gam.e-birds 
in South Africa manage to rear their broods at aU. 

The eggs measure about 1.5 by 1.1 in., and are dark cafe- 
au-lait colour speckled with brown. They are of the usual 
peg-top shape common to most game-birds. 



53 



FRANCOLINUS JUGULARIS. 

BiJTTIKOFER'S FRAl^COLIN. 

(Plate 22.) 

FrancoUnus jvgvlans, Biittikofer, Notes Leyden Mus., xi, p. 76, PI. iv 
(1889) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 156 (1893) ; 
id., Game-Birds i, p. 121 (1895) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, 
p. 489 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 354 (1905) ; 
Sclater and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 207 (1906). 

FrancoUnus gariepensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 599 
(part) (1875-84). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male. The sexes are 
alike in plumage, but the female is without spurs. Length about 
13 in. 

DiSTRiBTJTiON. Biittikofer's Prancolin is the western representative 
of the Orange River Francohn [F. gariepensis), and is found all 
through German South-west Africa and southern Angola. 

Concerning its habits Anderson gives the following account : 
" I only met with this beautiful Francohn on the high table- 
lands of Damara and Great Namaqualand but there it is 
frequently very abundant in coveys usually of six or eight 
individuals, though sometimes as few as three birds, and at 
others as many as fourteen compose the covey. 

" These Francolins invariably frequent grassy slopes 
sprinkled with dwarf bush ; they lie very close, and after 
having been once or twice flushed are not easily found 
again, even with the assistance of dogs. They feed on 
bulbs, grass, berries and seeds, and their flesh is very good 
for the table." 

64 



Plate 22 







C. G. Davies del. Witlieiby ik. Co. imp, 

BUTTIKOFER'S FRANCOLiN [FRANCOLINUS JUGULARIS) Male. 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

I have not met with this bird, as I have never been in the 
localities which it inhabits ; nor do I know its eggs, which 
probably are extremely like those of it near relative the 
Orange River Francolin. 



55 



FRANOOLINUS SHELLEYI. 

SHELLEY'S FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 23.) 

Francolinus shelleyi, Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1890, p. 348 ; Nicolls and 
Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 105 (1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 157, PI. vi (1893) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 490 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 208 
(1906). 

Francolinus gariepensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 599, 
(part) (1875-84). 

Local Names. " Thorn Redwing " of Natal Colonists ; " Isendele " 
of the Zulus (Millar). 

DESCRiPTioiir. The bird figured is an adult male. The sexes are 
alike, but the female lacks spurs. Length about 13 in. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. This bird is the eastern representative of the 
Orange River Francolin (F. gariepensis), and in several places 
the two species overlap. 

Its range extends from British East Africa southwards through 
German East Africa and the region of the Zambesi. It is also 
found in Nyasaland and Natal, and from Natal to Mashonaland. 

I HAVE not met with this species ia South Africa but have 
frequently killed it in British East Africa. On the Guasia Gishu 
Plateau, at an elevation of 6,000 to 7,000 ft., it is very common 
and its clear ringing caUis one of the first sounds of early dawn. 
It is found there on grassy plateaus studded with acacia thorns, 
and is always a welcome addition to the larder. I once saw 
one being fairly flown by a Pallid Harrier, and when I inter- 
fered it was much exhausted and would doubtless have been 
taken very shortly. The hawk pursued it hke a Goshawk or 

56 



PLATE 23 




JJT/-- 



C, G. Davies del. Wklierby & Co. imp. 

SHELLEY'S FRANCOLIN [FRANCOLINUS SHELLEYl) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Sparrow-Hawk, and the Francolin flew perhaps a quarter of 
a mile at a time, screaming aU the way ; it would then pitch 
and dodge the Hawk in grass or rough bush, but immediately 
the Hawk settled the Francolin would take to flight again 
and the whole performance would be gone through again. 

SheUey's Francolin is generally distributed throughout 
Natal, frequenting the coast-lands as well as the " thorns " 
up-country ; like most other FrancoUns it calls at dawn and 
late at night with a clear and distinct whistle. 

Mr. J. ffolliott Darling writes that this Francolin is widely 
distributed in Mashonaland, and is found in every kind of 
country excepting near the " vleis " ; it is probably most 
abundant in lightly wooded country ; sometimes a covey will 
haunt a bare kopje without a bush on it and with scarcely 
a blade of grass ; there the birds hide between the stones and 
rocks, and he so close, even when a dog points to them, that 
it is often possible to catch them in the hand ; the Mashonas 
frequently foUow them and watching where they pitch, kiU 
them with sticks. 

They are fond of digging up roots of grass in the dry season 
and become very fat in consequence ; they also gorge them- 
selves on locusts. 

The nest is of the usual simple construction common to 
most Francolins, and eggs have been found in every month 
from June to November. 

The covey consists as a rule of two or three brace ; they 
nest in the grass or in the vicinity of some old field which 
they frequent ; Mr. Millar found a nest in August containing 
five eggs which were minutely spotted, and measured 1.5 
by 1.0 in. 



57 



FRANOOLINUS ADSPERSUS. 

HED-BILLED FHANCOLIN. 

(Plate 24.) 

FrancoUnus adspersiis, Waterhouse in Alexander's Exped., n, p. 267, 
PI. (1838) ; Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 590 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 104 (1892) ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 159, PL vn (1893) ; Reiche- 
now,V6gel Afrikas, i, p. 474 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, 
p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 209 (1906). 

Local Names. " Pheasant " of the English, " Fazant " of the Dutch 
Colonists in the Transvaal. Any Prancolin which habitually 
perches in trees is known as a pheasant, but if it roosts on the 
ground it is called a partridge. It is of course quite obvious 
that aU bush-haunting species of Prancolin must roost in trees, 
or they would be speedily wiped out of existence by vermin. 

Description. The bird figured is a male. The sexes are alike, except 
that the female lacks spurs. Young birds have the mantle 
similar to the rest of the upper-parts as figured, and some of the 
scapulars are blotched with black at the extremities, the under- 
parts brownish-white, finely vermiculated with black ; the bill 
is dark piuple and the legs are paler than in the adult. Length 
about 13 in. 

Distribution. The Red-billed Prancolin is found in German South- 
west Africa, the northern Kalahari, along the Vaal River and on 
the banks of the Marico and Limpopo Rivers in the north-west 
Transvaal. 

It is quite common along the banks of the Vaal River between 
Pourteen Streams and Schoeman's Drift, wherever there is a 
thick bush, but it is not a bird worth taking much trouble about. 

The Red-billed Francolin is the Transvaal representative 
of the Cape Pheasant {F. capensis) and in habits is very 
like that species and F. natalensis. It is found in coveys num- 
bering up to ten or twelve in the thickest bush and always 

68 



Plate 24 




"^wp^wcfr".'. 



C. G, Uavks del. Withcrl.y K Co. imp. 

RED-BILLED FRANCOLIN (FRANCOLINUS ADSPERSUS] Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

near water. When pursued the coveys break up at once, 
each bird either tearing away as fast almost as a rabbit, or 
else jumping quickly to a thick bush and there squatting. 
It is extremely difficult to flush, is an inveterate runner and 
skulks through the thickest and thorniest places at tremendous 
speed. 

If headed by the dogs it wiU often perch in a tree and stay 
there until the sportsman appears, when it dives out and has 
a marvellous knack of always being on the wrong side of the 
bush for a successful shot. 

I have found it very noisy indeed in the morning and 
evening and also often during the night, especially if there 
were a moon. 

The eggs are laid in the densest cover possible ; they are 
pale creamy- white and measure about 1.7 by 1.3 in. 

Layard states that they are peculiarly shaped, being 
truncated at both ends ; but I think those he found may have 
been abnormal, as all those I saw were shaped in the usual 
Partridge and Francolin peg-top fashion. 



59 



FRANCOLINUS NATALENSIS. 

NATAL FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 25.) 

FrancoUnus natalensis, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., ii, c. 48 (1833) ; 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 592 (1875-84) ; Nicolls. 
and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 105 (1892) ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 166 (1893) ; Woodward, 
Natal Birds, p. 162 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 475 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., ni, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 212 (1906). 

Local Names. " Coast Partridge " of Natal ; " Namaqua Pheasant " 
of the Transvaal Boers ; " Insekvehle " of Zulus ; " Lesogo " 
i.e. " Lesoho " of the Bechuanas. 

Description. The bird figured is a male, which measured about 
13 J in. The sexes are alike but the female is slightly smaller. 

DiSTEiBTTTiON. The Natal Francolin takes the place of the Cape 
Pheasant in the eastern portions of South Africa and is found 
in Natal, Swaziland, the Eastern Transvaal and in some parts of 
Bechuanaland ; it has also been recorded from the Zambesi by 
the late Captain Boyd Alexander. 

I HAVE no personal experience of this bird but Sergt. Davies 
writes me as follows : — 

" I have only met with this species in Pondoland, where 
it is found in most of the valleys, frequenting the thick scrub 
in coveys of five or six birds. They are great runners and 
without a dog almost impossible to put up, and owing to the 
bad ground they frequent, where walking is so difficult, I 
have seldom worried them much, 

" They have a loud, harsh, cackling call uttered mostly 
in the evening. They are easy to shoot when once on the 

60 



PLATE 25 




C. G. Uavie» dd. 



Witliaijy & Ci). imp. 



NATAL FRANCOLIN (FRANCOLINUS NATALENSIS) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

wing, if you can see them through the thick bush, and they 
generally perch in the branches of a tree on alighting. 

" The crops of those I have shot contained grain, bulbs 
and berries, with a few insects." 

The four species of bare-necked or red-throated Fran- 
cohns (Pternistes humholdti, P. nvdicollis, P. n. castaneiventer 
and P. swainsoni) as well as FrancoUnus capensis and Fran- 
colinus adspersus and this species, ail seem to have similar 
habits, and owing to these and the impenetrable nature of 
the bush in which they live they are not very sporting birds ; 
sometimes, however, they can be driven, when they give 
most excellent shooting. 

Two eggs sent by Mr. Arnot to Mr. Layard from Mahura's 
country, and now in the South African Museum, are pale brown 
without spots and measure 1.68 by 1.4 in. 



61 



FRANCOLINUS CAPENSIS. 

CAPE ERANCOLIN OR CAPE PHEASANT. 

(Pl-ATB 26.) 

Tetrao capensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 759 (1788). 

Francolinus clamator, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 591, 
854 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington. Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 105 
(1892). 

FrancoUmis capensis, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 165 
(1893) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 473 (1900-01) ; Sclater, 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of 
S. Afr., IV, p. 210 (1906). 

Local Names. " Pheasant " of the EngUsh. " Fazant " of the Dutch 
Colonists. 

Description. Length about 17 in. The bird figured is a male. The 
female is slightly smaller and the sexes are alike. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. This is the largest of the South African Erancolins 
and is only found within the Cape Colony, and chiefly in the 
southern and south-western portions of it. 

It is very abundant on Robben Island in Table Bay, where it 
was introduced many years ago. 

The Cape Pheasant is found chiefly in the coast districts ; and 
is especially abundant in bushy kloofs and along watercourses 
where there is a thick growth of rank vegetation and low under- 
wood. It is common in the immediate vicinity of Cape Town. 

A living specimen, which was presented to the Zoological 
Society of London in 1911, was captured by Capt. H. A. P. Little- 
dale as a small chick on Keimoes Island, which is situated in 
the Orange River. I am inclined to think that this bird was 
bred from parents turned down by one of the shooting syndicates 
that own property along the banks of that river. The custom 
of turning down birds is by no means uncommon among sports- 
men in South Africa, and this probably accounts for the presence 
of this bird so far north of its normal range. 

62 



PLATE 26 




C. G. IJavles del. Witlicrby & C.j. imp. 

CAPE FRANCOLIN or CAPE PHEASANT {FKANCOL/NUS CAPENSIS) Male 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

The Cape Francolin, like the Red-billed Francolin, is flushed 
with great difficulty, preferring to squat or run when pos- 
sible ; it resorts to the lower branches of thick trees, and 
there remains concealed just beyond the reach of the dogs ; 
like other Francolins it feeds early and late on tender shoots, 
especially of green fern, as weU as on grain and on insects. 
Its note is a loud and drawn-out chuckle, generally heard 
when the bird is disturbed and flying off to shelter. 

I have only shot this bird a few times — it is often found 
feeding on the edges of cultivation, especially if near water, 
and being large and not particularly quick on the wing I 
have always found it easy to shoot. 

The nest is placed on the ground, usually under a bush ; 
eight to fourteen eggs are laid and are of a greenish-brown 
or brownish-cream colour ; they measure 1.95 to 1.8 by 
1.5 to 1.4 in., according to Oates. 



63 



PTERNISTES HUMBOLDTI. 

HUMBOLDT'S FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 27.) 

Francolinus humboldtii, Peters, M.B. Akad. Wissensoh. Berlin, 1854, 
p. 134. 

Pternistes humboldti, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 589 (1875- 
84) ; OgUvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 176 (1893) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 462 ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, 
p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 216 (1906). 

Descbiption. The bird figured is a male. The female differs in 
having the sides of the neck white with a wide black band down 
the middle of the feathers. The breast- and abdomen-feathers 
have narrower white shaft-stripes. Length about 17 in., the 
female being about an inch shorter. 

The young bird has the cheeks and sides of the face white with 
black shaft-stripes, and there is more white on the breast and 
abdomen. 

DiSTRiBTJTioN. Mr. Sclater states in the Fauna of S. Africa, Vol. iv, 
that this species is spread over Mashonaland and Portuguese 
East Africa northward through Nyassaland and German and 
British East Africa as far as the River Tana. It is also to be 
found near SaUsbury. 

In British East Africa Mr. Jackson writes that it is apparently 
confined to the Coast region. It is found in Witu, on the out- 
skirts of the forest, and is plentiful in the bush-coimtry on the 
banks of the lower Tana. 

It is stated in the Fauna of S. Africa, Vol. rv., that Francis 
found this bird plentiful and common near Inhambane ; 
that it frequents thick scrubby and inaccessible spots during 
the day, but is always to be found in the Kaffir gardens early 
in the morning and late in the evening. On perceiving any 
one, it immediately runs off into the scrub or other thick 

64 



PLATE 27 




C. G. UHvie^ del. Willierby & Cf). imp. 

HUMBOLDT'S FRANCOLIN (PTE/iN/STES HUMBOLDT/} Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

stuff and generally rises behind trees or other obstructions, 
so that it is difficult to get a shot at it. Like other bush 
Francolins, on being suddenly flushed by a dog it generally 
takes refuge in the branches of the nearest tree. It is very 
fond of scratching up the ground-nuts in the Kaffir gardens, 
and also grubs up the roots of the manioc plant. It is a bird 
of strong flight and is generally found in pairs, although 
often in larger parties, but there are never more than five or 
six individuals together. 

Mr. ffoUiott Darling says that this species is plentiful along 
the banks of the rivers and in marshes near Mazoe in Mashona- 
land; the nest is well concealed and more pretentious than 
that of most Francolins. 

The eggs according to Reichenow, are smooth, yeUowish- 
white and covered somewhat sparsely with fine darker spots ; 
they measure 1.65 by 1.40 in ; but Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton, 
writing in the Journal of the South African Ornithologists' 
Union, found it breeding near Mount Chirinda, Southern 
Rhodesia, in December, and describes its nest and eggs as 
follows : — 

" The nest was a mere hoUow lined with grasses, in a 
small comparatively bare spot in the grass-jungle. The bird 
sat very close, almost allowing himself to be captured on the 
nest, which contained five fresh eggs measuring 44.5 by 34, 
44 by 34, and 43 by 35 mm. 

" The eggs were sharply pointed at the small end and 
rounded at the other ; and in colour, were palest brown, 
nearly white, the ' pores ' which were pitted densely over 
the egg, being actually white. There were no spots 
whatsoever." 



65 



PTERNISTES NUDIOOLLIS. 

SOUTHERN EEDNECKED ERANCOLIN. 

(Plate 28.) 

Tetrao nudicollis, Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. ii (1783). 

Pternistes nvdicollis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 589 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 104 
(1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 174 (1893) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 163 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 461 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 354 (1905) ; 
Sclater and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 214 (1906). 

Local Names. " Pheasant " at Knysna ; in other parts of the country 
generally known as the " Red-necked Pheasant " (Sclater). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male. Length about 15 
in. The female is smaller, measuring about 13 in. and the feathers 
on the nape and the sides of the neck are more strongly edged 
with white. She also lacks spurs. 

Distribution. The Southern Red-necked Francolin is a bird of very 
local distribution, and is only found in the thickly- wooded districts 
of Cape Colony along the south coast from Swellendam to Natal. 

This is another of the so-called bush-pheasants and a most 
unsporting bird. Mr. Millar, in his book on Natal Birds, a&js 
that in certain districts this Francolin takes the place of the 
Natal Francolin {F. natalensis), and like the latter bird alights 
in trees, and is called a pheasant. It is generally found on 
the outskirts of the woody kloofs, where its loud cackling call 
may be heard in the early morning and in the evening. When 
put up by dogs it usually flies to the nearest tree and conceals 
itself in the thickest part of it, from which position it is 
extremely hard to dislodge. It may at times even be caught 
by the legs by quietly climbing up the tree. 

66 



Plate 28 




C. G. Davies del. Witlieiby & Co. imp. 

SOUTHERN RED-NECKED FRANCOLIN (PTF.RNISTES NUDICOLLIS) 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

These birds apparently confine themselves to the upper 
Districts of Natal, where they associate in pairs or small 
coveys, frequenting the yellow-wood forests in the vicinity 
of Karkloof, Dargle, and elsewhere. 

Mr. Sclater writes that the nest is placed in long grass 
usually at the foot of a bush or tree, and that the eggs, which 
number from six to eight in a clutch, are reddish-buff minutely 
spotted with dark reddish-brown or purple, and measure 
1.55 by 1.15 in. 



67 



PTERNISTES NUDIOOLLIS CASTANEWENTER. 

NORTHERN REDNECKED FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 29.) 

Ptemistes castaneiventer, Gunning & Roberts, Ann. Transvaal Mus. in. 
(1911), No. 2, p. 110. 

Desceiption. The bird figured is an adult male. This subspecies 
is closely allied to P. nudicollis, from which it differs in having 
the breast chestnut-coloured in general effect as compared with 
the black breast of the latter bird, each feather having the outer 
part coloured chestnut. 

DiSTBiBtTTiON. It is, like its congener, a bird of a very restricted 
range, which is bounded on the south by the Sundays River valley, 
and as soon as the Sundays River is crossed its place is taken by 
P. nudicollis. 

I HAVE not seen the Northern Red-necked Francolin, and 
what information I have about it has been obtained from 
Sergt. Davies. 

This subspecies has in the past been regarded as representing 
the juvenile plumage of P. nudicollis, but in a recently made 
collection there are four adult male skins in which the spurs 
are fully developed, two on each leg, and it must therefore 
be regarded as at any rate subspecifically distinct. 

Nothing has yet been recorded of the habits or eggs of 
the Northern Red-necked Francolin, but doubtless it does 
not differ in these respects from the southern bird. 



68 



PLATE 29 




C. G. Da\'ies del. 



With<jiliy & Co. imp. 



NORTHERN RED-NECKED FRANCOLIN 
(PTERNISTES NUDICOLLIS CASTANEIVENTER) Male. 



Plate 30 







C. G. llavies del. Witherby S; Co. imp. 

SWAINSON'S FRANCOLIN (PTERN/srES SWA/nsoni) Male. 



PTERNISTES SWAINSONI. 

SWAINSON'S FRANCOLIN. 

(Plate 30.) 

Perdix swainsonii, Smith, Rep. Exped. Cent. Afr., p. 54 (1836). 

Ptemistes swainsoni, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 587 (1875- 
84) ; Mcolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 102 (1892) ; 
Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 179 (1893) ; Reiche- 
now, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 456 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. 
Mus., m, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, 
p. 217 (1906). 

LoCAi. Names. "Pheasant " of the EngHsh Colonists ; "Pazant" of the 
Dutch. 

Description. Length of a male about 1 3 in. The female is sKghtly 
smaller and resembles the male except that she is without the 
chestnut edgings to the feathers of the lower-breast and flanks, 
and has no spurs. The bird figured is an adult male. 

DiSTEiBTJTiON. Swainson's Francolin was first discovered by Smith 
along the rivers south of Kurichane ; these rivers rise on the 
northern slopes of the Magaliesberg. It is not found much south 
of this point, but is common enough to the north right up to the 
Zambesi. I have frequently shot it along the southern slopes of 
the Magahesberg, at Rustenburg, Zeerust, and on the Zeerust- 
Mafeking road ; it is quite common near the Victoria FaUs and 
it ranges into German South-West Africa. 

Swainson's Francolin is never found far from water. The sort 
of country it likes and in which it is most common is one 
which is well watered, with plenty of cultivation to provide it 
with food, and thick bush along the edge of the water where 
it can roost, breed and find shelter. 

It is easy to tell if Swainson's Francolin is present in any 
numbers should you be looking for them, as they utter their 

69 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

curious harsh note at dawn and dusk. I have often watched 
them drink in the evenings and roost and then call away for 
some time, just as cock pheasants do in England. 

When it can, it feeds on any grain obtainable from the 
ripened crops, but otherwise its food is the usual mixed diet 
of a gallinaceous bird, i.e. bulbs, seeds, berries and insects. 

The natives and colonists often find this species a nuisance 
to young crops, and are generally glad to have it killed ; never- 
theless it does some good by destroying locusts. 

It is a great runner, but sometimes gives good sport, 
especially if the guns can get near thick cover and then have 
the birds driven ; this can often be done about 7 or 8 o'clock 
in the morning when the birds are well out in the young crops 
feeding, and under these circumstances I have seen them 
come quite high and fairly fast. 

They are dry and indiflferent-eating, unless weU hung 
and cooked with great care. 

From a description of a nest found by Ayres, on the 
Shanghai River, we find that the eggs are a pinkish-cream 
colour, finely speckled with chalky-white and measure about 
IJ in. long, and are of the usual game-bird shape. 



70 



Plate 31 




C. G. Davies del. Witlierby & Co. imp. 

HARLEQUIN QUAIL (COTURNIX DELAGORGUEl) Male. 



COTURNIX DELAGORGUEI. 

HARLEQUIN QUAIL. 

(Plate 31.) 

Coturnix delagorgiiei, Delagorgue, Voy. Afr. Austr., n, p. 615 (1847) ; 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 605 (1875-84) ; Nicolls 
and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 106 (1892) ; Ogilvle-Grant, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 243 (1893) ; Reichenow, Vogel 
Afrikas, i, p. 507 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 355 
(1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 224 (1906). 

Local Name. " Lequatha " of the Matabele (Oates). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male. The female has the 
throat and chin white, the sides of the neck and cheeks buffish- 
white spotted with black, the rest of the lower surface duU chest- 
nut with black spots and mottlings on the upper-breast and along 
the flanks. Length about 6 in. Its weight varies but average 
specimens weigh about 3^ oz. 

DiSTRiBiTTioN. The Harlequin Quail is found over the greater part 
of Africa from the Nile to the Cape Colony. In South Africa it 
occurs in the eastern part of the Cape Colony and extends north- 
wards to Rhodesia and Ovampoland. In East and Central Africa 
it is common. 

The Harlequin Quail is one of the most interesting of the 
South African migrants. In Potchefstroom, where I first met 
with it, it appears in large numbers about Christmas. 

In good QuaU years it arrives in immense flocks. Shortly 
after arriving they start breeding and I think are double 
brooded, but it is almost impossible to verify this as it is 
difficult to keep so smaU a bird under prolonged observation. 
My experience is that young ones can be found from Christmas 
to April ; the eggs are practically indistinguishable from those 
of Coturnix capensis. 

71 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

These birds are perfectly easy to keep in captivity, and 
given a suitable aviary that is not overcrowded, they are 
easy to breed. 

Harlequins frequent exactly the same sort of land as Cape 
QuaU, and the bag after a shoot wUl usually contain a pro- 
portion of each species. I have shot a good many Cape Quail 
near Bloemfontein, but have never met with the Harlequin 
there. 

The males of this species vary much in bulk and size, and 
this is especially noticeable in living specimens. I had a dozen 
or more males brought to me in one consignment, and some 
of them apparently were almost a third larger than the others. 
This I think is partly due to age and partly due to the fact 
that some birds carry their feathers tightly pressed to their 
bodies, and others carry them loosely and consequently look 
larger. 



72 



Plate 32 




'W: 






-. J?' 



C. O. Diivles del. 



Witlicfl.y & Cu. imp. 



CAPE QUAIL [CUTURNiX CAHENSIS) Male 



COTURNIX CAPENSIS. 

CAPE QUAIL; 

(Plate 32.) 

Cotumix capensis, Lichtenstein, vide Gray, Hand-List of Birds, ii, 
p. 268 (1870) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 237 
(1893) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 164 (1899). 

Cotumix cotumix, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 603, 854 
(1875-84.) 

Cotumix communis, Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 106 
(1892) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 354 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., p. 35, iv, p. 221 (1906). 

Cotum,ix cotumix africana, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 506 (1900-01). 

Local Names. " Kwartel " of the Dutch ; " Isagwityi " of the 
Amaxosa (Stanford) ; " Kue-Kue " of the Basutos (Murray). 

DBSOEiPTiOBr. The bird figured is an adult male in breeding plumage. 
The females, young males, and adult males in non-breeding 
plumage, only differ from the bird figured in having no black 
throat-patch. Length about 6| in. 

This Quail only differs from the Eiu-opean species (C communis) 
in having the lores, sides of the head, chin and throat rufous instead 
of white, and in being shghtly smaller. The true European QuaU 
does not apparently extend its migrations as far south as the 
Zambesi. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. The Cape QuaU is found all over South Africa from 
Cape Town to the Zambesi, and it has been recorded from Nyassa- 
land, Madagascar, the Comoros, Cape Verde and Canary Islands, 
Madeira and the Azores, 

The Cape Quail was extremely common near Potchefstroom. 
The main body of Quail arrived about the end of November 
and started breeding the following month in exactly the 
same sort of places as those chosen by the Harlequin Quail 
which, as far as I can see, has precisely similar habits. 

73 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Quail are most plentiful on cultivated lands that have 
been allowed to become fallow and covered with weeds, but 
they are also common enough among mealies and other crops. 

About May the greater part of the Quail have bred and 
they then migrate, but there are always a few stragglers to 
be found in suitable cover. 

Quail feed chiefly on grass and weed seeds, the crops of 
those I examined at Potchefstroom being crammed with a 
small black seed about the size of No. 8 shot and a few termites 
and insects. Those I had in captivity were very fond of live 
termites and always met me at the aviary door when a bucket- 
full of ant-heap was brought to them. 

They fly swiftly and rise with the usual game-bird rush, 
uttering a cry like " Pree-pree-pree." Shooting them is 
rather monotonous if the cover be low and if the birds are 
plentiful, but they often give rather sporting shots when 
flushed in high meahes (maize), and a good spaniel with a 
tender mouth is then invaluable. 

QuaU when shot should not be hung, as they decompose 
quickly. An excellent recipe for cooking them is to place 
a green chUi inside the bird after drawing it, then to wrap a 
piece of fat bacon round it and a green vine leaf round the 
whole, and roast fairly quickly. So cooked they are 
appetizing to a degree. 

They lay from six to twelve eggs in a little grass-lined 
hoUow, sometimes in grass and sometimes under the shelter 
of a big weed or a small bush. The eggs are indistinguishable 
from those of the European QuaU (C communis), and are 
bright yellowish-brown, flecked and marked with dark brown 
spots and splashes, and are sometimes very handsome. 



74 



UJ 
H 
< 
-J 




as 

s 



o 

to 
Q 



o 

u 

w 



< 

a 
w 

D 
J 



EXCALFACTORIA ADANSONI. 

BLUE QUAIL. 

(Plate 33.) 

Coturnix adansonii, Verreaux, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1851, p. 515 ; 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 606 (1875-84) ; NiooUs 
and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 107 (1892). 

Excalfactoria adansoni, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, 
p. 255 (1893) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 164 (1899) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 509 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 
m, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 226 
(1906). 

Dbscseiiption. The birds figured are an adult male and female. Length 
about 5 in. 

Distribution. Mr. Sclater says " that this beautiful httle species has 
hitherto been found only in West Africa from the Gold Coast to 
Gaboon in Nyassaland, and within our limits in Natal and the 
eastern part of Cape Colony." 

Thebe are but three species of Excalfactoria, one of which 
occurs in India and Ceylon, where I have shot it, one in 
Australia {E. lineata), and the present one. 

I have killed a few of these tiny Blue Quail near Cape 
Coast Castle on the Gold Coast ; they were found on old land 
going out of cultivation, and they flew swiftly and well. 

Mr. Hutchinson states that it is pretty common in Natal 
though not appearing every season ; it frequents long grass 
and reeds, breeds in the country and migrates as soon as 
the young are old enough to travel. 

Dr. Reichenow found a nest in the Cameroons in West 

75 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Africa in November ; it was placed in a slight hollow in the 
ground, lined with grass-stalks and sheltered by a tussock. 
The eggs, eight in number, were light yellowish, blunt and not 
shiny ; they measured .80 by .70 in. 



76 



Plate 34 







C, G^ Davie, del. - Wilheiby S Cn. imp. 

KURRICHANE BUTTON-QUAIL {TURNIX LEPURANA) Female. 



KURRIOHANE BUTTON - QUAIL. 

TUENIX LEPURANA. 

(Plate 34.) 

Ortygis lepurana, Smith, Rep. Exped., App. p. 55 (1836). 

Tumix lepurana, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 608 (1875-84) ; 
NicoIIs & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 107 (1892) ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 639 (1893) ; Woodward, 
Natal Birds, p. 166 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 301 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 238 (1906). 

Description. The bird figured is a female, and is larger than the 
male ; the rusty patch on the chest is very much darker than that 
of the male. Length of the male about 5^ in., of the female 5|. 

The Kurrichane Button-Quail is regarded by Mr. OgUvie-Grant 
as a subspecies of Tumix sylvatica of southern Europe and 
northern Africa, from which it differs by being slightly smaller. 

Local Names. " Reit-Quartel " of the Dutch ; " Mabuaneng " of the 
Basutos (Murray). 

DiSTBiBimoN. This little Hemipode is quite a common summer 
resident in the Potchefstroom District, and I have found it all 
through the western Transvaal as far north as Mafeking. " It 
is widely distributed throughout the whole of South Africa, except 
perhaps in the western half of Cape Colony. Beyond our hmits 
[i.e., south of the Zambesi River] it extends northwards to the 
Gold Coast and to North-East Africa and Aden." 

This small bird has a great partiality for mealie fields, and 
there it runs like a swift rat through the weeds, but I rarely 
found it in the grassy " vleis " in which the two species of 
Coturnix {delagorguei and capensis) sometimes lie. 

When shooting Cape or Harlequin Quail the Kurrichane 
Button-Quail is often met with in old mealie-lands, but as a 
rule it is mistaken for a Quail chick and is not fired at. 

77 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

On the wing it is easily distinguished from a true Quail ; 
it looks much lighter in colour, and swerves very much more. 
It does not fly far, and after one flight it will sometimes sufier 
itself to be caught by a spaniel rather than get up a second 
time. On rising, the true Quail gives a sharp cry of " Elree- 
kree-kree," but the Button-Quail is quite sUent. 

Like so many other South African birds, its time of migra- 
tion depends on the abundance of its food and on the severity 
of the cold weather. 

In February, 1907, my brother bought four of these Uttle 
Quail from a Dutch boy in Pretoria and sent them to me in 
Potchefstroom ; they turned out to be three hens and one 
cock, and in my large aviary they lived a retired existence 
among some tall grass tiU the end of the following September, 
and fed on small seeds and termites which were supplied 
daily. 

About September I noticed that the cock and one of the 
hens were very friendly and never far apart, so I moved them 
into an aviary where there was more cover, and which was 
only inhabited by a pair of Cut-throat Larks or Cape Long- 
claws {Macronyx capensis). 

On the 3rd of October I noticed the pair of Button-Quail 
in a state of great excitement ; a nest had been made in a 
thick tuft of grass and the birds stood facing away from it, 
throwing bits of dried grass over their heads in its direction. 
The first egg was already in the nest. 

On the 5th of October the second egg was laid, and in 
exactly twelve days the two extraordinary little ones were 
hatched. Never have I seen anything clothed in down quite 
so small and yet capable of independent movement. They 
looked no bigger than a good-sized humble-bee, and practically 
from the day of hatching were as active as their parents, 

78 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

scuttling off into cover and hiding motionless at the least 
noise. In colouring they reminded me of that pecuhar cater- 
pillar found on hedges in spring ; I think it is the Gold-tail 
Moth, but am not quite sure. 

The cock bird did the whole of the sitting ; the hen never 
came near the nest, but went restlessly up and down the 
aviary " booming " for another mate, and for some weeks 
the whole garden resounded with the curious ventriloquial 
note which sounded like " Ooop." One chick was acci- 
dentally drowned, and the other was about haK grown on 
October 27th. 

I then went down to Cape Town and, to my great annoy- 
ance, when I returned ten days later I could find no trace 
of the young Turnix. The cock, however, had made a new 
nest close to the site of the old one, and was sitting on four 
eggs, two of which he hatched on November 19th, when he 
deserted the other two. 

I opened the latter and found them to contain dead 
young just ready to come out. 

The cock bird was wonderfully tame, and would allow 
himself to be picked up without struggling, and always brought 
his young up to my hand, out of which he took meal-worms 
and fed them. This simplified very much the rearing of these 
tiny things. In this species, after the young are a week or 
ten days old they are sometimes fed and brooded by the 
female ; this I frequently saw her do. 

The two young referred to above turned out to be both 
hens, and on December 17th their eyes had changed from 
black to the pearl colour of the adult bird, which they 
completely resembled in all respects. 

In the following March, 1908, I missed the cock Button- 
Quail and suspected he was sitting, but the cover in their 

79 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

aviary was so thick that I did not risk searching for him and 
perhaps disturbing him. On March 24th I found him waiting 
at the aviary door with a newly-hatched chick under him, 
which he fed on some huge meal-worms. The next morning, 
when I went to look at him, I found three chicks under him, 
so that he must have gone back to the nest and hatched 
these ofif during the night. On the 26th, to my great surprise, 
I found a fourth chick with him. He was the only male I 
possessed, so that there could have been no question of the 
young having been hatched by different males. Three of 
these chicks he brought up successfully. 

The nest is merely a small depression in a tuft of herbage, 
and is thickly lined with grass. Four eggs are the normal 
clutch. They measure about .89 by .69 in., and are abruptly 
pointed, of a dirty-green coloured ground, speckled with fine 
spots of dirty-purple, hght and dark brown. 



80 



Plate 35 




C.G. Davies del. WuI.e.by & Co. .n,p. 

NATAL BUTTON-QUAIL (TURNIX NANA) Female. 



TUENIX NANA. 

NATAL BUTTON-QUAIL. 

(Plate 35.) 

Hemifodius nanus, Sundevall, Oefvers. k. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., 1850, 
p. 110. 

Tumix hottentota, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 607 (part) 
(1875-84). 

Tumix nana, Ogilvie-Grant, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 541 (1893) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 303 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of Afr., 
IV, p. 240 (1906). 

Description. The specimen figured is a female. Length of the male 
about 6 in. in the flesh, the female is a little larger and slightly 
more brightly coloured. 

In the young bird the buff on the breast is not nearly so 
marked, and the transverse bars extend entirely across. 

DiSTBiBtrTiON. Mr. Sclater writes of it, " that it was first discovered 
in Natal by Wahlberg and was apparently lost sight of until 
recently, when Mr. OgUvie-Grant brought it into notice again ; 
outside South African limits it has been met with in Nyassaland." 
In Fondoland it is not common, but is found throughout that 
country on grassy flats. 

The habits of the Natal Button-Quail, from notes taken 
in Pondoland, appear to resemble those of other species. 
It flies straight and fast and runs hard as soon as it pitches, 
so that it is very difficult to find again. 

According to Mr. Sclater it nests in Natal in December, 
the nest being a smaU hollow about 3 in. across and about 
f-in. deep, lined with a few fine grass-stalks. The eggs 
which are now in the South African Museum, are three in 

81 

M 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

number, very pale greenish-white, very thickly covered with 
smaU spots and blotches of a yellowish and a darker 
shade of brown. In shape they are nearly even ovals ; 
they measure .95 to .90 by .76 to .75 in. 



82 



Plate 36 







,jr5.,» 



C. G. Uiivies del. WitI.erby & Co. imp. 

HOTTENTOT BUTTON-QUAIL (TURNIX UOTTENTOTTA) Female. 



TURNIX HOTTENTOTTA. 

HOTTENTOT BUTTON-QUAIL. 

(Plate 36.) 

Hemipodius hottentottus, Temminck, Pig. et Gall., in, pp. 636, 757 

(1815). 

Tumix hottentotta, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 607 (part) 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls and Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 107 
(1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 542 (1893) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 167(1899); Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 303 (1900-01) ; Solater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 237 
(1906) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 355 (1905). 

Local Names. " Sand-Quail " of the English ; " Reit-Quartel " of 
the Dutch. 

Dbsceiption. The specimen figured is a female. Length about 6 in. 
The female is slightly larger than the male. 

I was unable to obtain a skin of a male in South Africa, and 
give the following description of one by Mr. Sclater : General 
colour above, dark rufous ; most of the feathers barred with 
black and edged with white, giving a general mottled appearance ; 
scapulars conspicuously margined with golden-buff ; wing-quills 
blackish-brown, the outer primary strongly margined with white ; 
lores, space round the eye, and cheeks mottled buff and white, 
chin and throat white ; rest of the under-parts also white, covered 
with semi-circular black spots, most numerous on the chest ; 
a slight wash of pale buff on the chest ; tail elongated and 
pointed. 

Distribution. The Hottentot Button-Quail is apparently confined to 
the southern part of Cape Colony, where it is a resident and not 
a very common one. It has not been recorded from Natal nor 
has it been met with north of the Orange River. 

It is a curious fact that in the Button-Quail family the female 
bird is nearly always the larger and more brilKantly coloured. 

83 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

She does all the courting and looking after the smaller male, 
which in his turn is entirely responsible for the incubation 
of the eggs and bringing up of the young. As soon as the 
first clutch of eggs is laid the female leaves the male and 
pairs with another, until she has laid her full complement 
of eggs. 

In captivity there have never been enough males to provide 
sufficient mates for the hen of any one species, but I do not 
think it probable that a Button-Quail would lay more than 
a dozen eggs in one season. 

Sclater writes in the Fauna of South Africa that it is gener- 
ally solitary, although two may occasionally be seen together. 
It is found on grassy plains or among the reeds of dried-up 
" vleis" ; when flushed it flies a short distance, quickly settles 
down again and then makes off at a run ; it feeds on seeds 
and insects. The eggs in the South African Museum are very 
pointed at one end, of a yellowish-grey colour, very thickly 
speckled with spots and blotches of a yellowish and darker 
brown ; they measure .90 to .96 by .75 to .80 in. 



84 



Plate 37 




C, G. Davies del. 



Witherby & Co. 



A. COMMON GUINEA-FOWL (NUMIDA CORONATA) 

B. EAST AFRICAN GUINEA-FOWL (NUMIDA MITRATA) 

C. DAMARALAND CUINEA-FOWL [NUMIOA PAPILLOSA) 



NUMIDA CORONATA. 

COMMON GUINEA-FOWL. 

(Plate 37, Fig. a.) 

Numida coronata. Gray, List of Birds, PI. ni, Gall., p. 29 (1844) 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 581, 854 (part) (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 108 (1892) ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxii, p. 376 (1893) ; Woodward, 
Natal Birds, p. 165 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 441 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p 227 (1906). 

LocAii Names. " Tarantal " of the Dutch ; " Impangele " of the 
Amaxosa and Zulus (Woodward). 

Description. Length of the male about 24 in. The sexes are alike. 
Weight of a well-grown bird just over 3 lb. 

DiSTBiBTTTiON. The range of this bird extends all over the eastern 
half of Cape Colony and Natal and northwards to the Zambesi, 
where it merges into the East African N. mitrata ; to the west its 
range overlaps that of the closely allied iV^. papillosa. 

I have shot or seen this species in many parts of the Transvaal ; 
it is common near Potchefstroom and along the banks of the 
Modder River, and in fact in most suitable places in the Orange 
River Colony. I have also seen it in the Kalahari Desert in 
great numbers. 

GuiNBA-FowL are very gregarious, and are sometimes found 
in enormous flocks. I saw one near Zeerust which must have 
consisted of at least 500 birds. They range over a huge 
tract of country, and a flock may have its headquarters on 
one farm and work backwards and forwards some miles to 
another farm, where the food is suitable. 

In the Fauna of South Africa it is stated that although 
often kept tame on farms, it never breeds in captivity nor 

85 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

mates with the domestic species. This is contrary to my 
experience. I got some young birds which were on a Boer 
farm and had been hatched under a hen, and these when 
full grown not only bred inter se but also crossed freely with 
the domesticated bird, which is doubtless derived from a 
West African species {N. meleagris). The wild cocks were 
much more powerful and heavy than the tame birds, 
and during the mating-season they killed several of the 
latter by literally running them to death. A Guinea-Fowl's 
duel is a very long-winded and tedious affair, and consists 
in the weaker bird running about three yards in front of the 
stronger for an hour or so, when the assailant wiU stop to 
draw breath, as well he may. The weaker bird then attacks : 
there is a wild jump in the air, but as they have no spurs no 
harm is done — a feather or two is lost, the weaker bird loses 
heart, and the whole performance is gone through again. 
The hen bird meanwhile looks on and does nothing. This 
goes on ad nausea?n until the weaker bird is finally beaten 
off altogether, and the victor takes off the hen. 

I think they are monogamous — the tame ones I owned 
certainly were ; but when the young are hatched, several 
birds apparently "pool" their broods, and look after aU 
indiscriminately, even if the broods are of different ages. 

Guinea-Fowl are very difficult to shoot when found on 
river-banks, unless you can get a gun on each bank, as at 
the first shot they invariably cross to the further side ; but 
curiously enough they are often singularly stupid when 
surprised roosting. 

When found in open country they invariably start running, 
but if you can get ahead of them on a pony, the flock wiU 
often break up and squat, and provided you have a steady 
pointer, a good bag can then be made. These occasions 

86 



GAME-BIEDS OF SOUTH AFEICA 

however are few, and the scent of Guinea-Fowl is so strong 
that it drives most dogs wild with excitement. These birds 
do a certain amount of good, as they are largely insectivorous 
and feed freely on locusts and their eggs. 

Guinea-Fowl breed in the South African summer, laying 
from ten to twenty pale brown eggs specked with pin-point 
spots of darker brown. The shells are remarkably hard. 
The eggs measure about 1.8 by 1.45 to 1.5 in. 



87 



NUMIDA MITRATA. 

EAST AFRICAN GUINEA-FOWL. 

(Plate 37, Fig. b.) 

Numida mitrata, Pallas, Spic. Zool., i, facs. iv, p. 18, PI. rn (1767) ; 
Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 378 (1893) ; Shelley, 
Birds of Afr., i, p. 183 (1896) ; Sharpe, Hand-List of Birds, i, 
p. 44 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 438 (1900-01) ; 
Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., iii, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 232 (1906). 

LoCAii Names. " Ikanka " of the Zambesi natives (Capt. Boyd 
Alexander) ; " Kanga " of the Swaheli ; Mitred Guinea-Fowl of 
some authors. 

DBSOBEPTioiir. Length about 22 in. The sexes are alike. The figure 
in the Plate is copied from Sclater & Stark, Fauna of South 
Africa, Vol. iv. 

Distribution. East Africa, from the Zambesi to Mombasa, and 
quite common along the Uganda Railway. 

Within South African limits it has been obtained by the late 
Capt. Boyd Alexander along the banks of the Zambesi. 

In habits the East African Guinea-Powl exactly resembles 
the Common Guinea-Fowl {N. coronata). In East Africa it is 
exceedingly abundant, especiaUy along the banks of rivers 
and streams that are well fringed with bush, and its harsh 
and unmistakeable cry can generally be heard in the early 
mornings. 

I obtained some of these birds from a London bird-dealer 
in the winter of 1910, and turned them loose about the 
grounds of my house in Ireland in the beginning of the 
following spring. They showed no inclination to breed, 
but stayed close to the poultry -ho uses and fed with the 

88 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

chickens. They were not at all quarrelsome, and invariably 
fled when attacked by any other bird, their extraordinary 
speed and activity taking them out of the way hke a flash. 
In the summer I had some fiity or sixty young ones of the 
domestic Guinea-Fowl {N. meleagris) hatched out under 
hens, and as soon as they were a few weeks old the East 
Africans adopted them, and took them all to roost high up 
in a huge elm. I am quite sure they would breed if given 
freedom on a large farm, and they form a very handsome 
addition to the poultry-yard with their brilliant blue necks 
and very erect carriage. 

• I regret to say that the only hen bird I had of N. mitrata 
was weakly when bought, and finally died of decline ; but I 
feel sure that vigorous hens would breed freely if allowed 
to be at liberty. 

Since starting to write my experiences of N. mitrata, I found 
that the male birds paired with the domestic variety, and I 
have a number of hybrid chicks. 

Guinea-Fowl have a curious habit of shampooing or mas- 
saging one another's heads and necks. I have often watched 
a bird having his wattles and loose skin gently nibbled all 
over by a friend, while the recipient of these favours stood 
with half-closed eyes and an irresistibly comical look of intense 
enjoyment displayed in his attitude. 



89 



NUMIDA PAPILLOSA 

DAMARALAND GUINEA-FOWL. 

(Plate 37, Fig. c.) 

Numida papillosa, Reichenow, Orn. Monastb., 1894, p. 145; id., 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 444 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. 
Mu8., m, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, 
p. 231 (1906). 

Numida coronata, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 581 (part) 
(1875-84). 

Numida cornuta, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxii, p. 378 

(1893). 
Description. Length about 22 in. The sexes are ahke. The 

figure in the Plate is copied from Sclater & Stark, Fauna of 

South Africa, Vol. iv. 

Distribution. This is the western representative of N. coronata, 
and is found in German South-west Africa, and extends its range 
in some places into the Kalahari. 

I HAVE met, in various parts of Africa, with five different 
species of Guinea-Fowl, and all of them had exactly the 
same ways and habits. I have not personally met with this 
species, but it so nearly resembles the ordinary South African 
bird, that its habits are doubtless the same. 

In the Fauna of South Africa it is stated that " a nest of 
this bird was found in February containing sixteen eggs, 
the nest was in a hollow in the sand and the eggs were thick 
in the shell, creamy brown, without darker spots. Some of 
these were hatched out under a hen and the following year 
a pair of these young bred and produced nine young ones." 
This contradicts the prevalent idea that these birds will not 
breed in captivity. 

90 



PLATE 38 




C. G. Davles del. Witheihy 5; Co. imp. 

CRESTED GUINEA-FOWL (GUTTERA EDOUARDI) Male. 



GUTTERA EDOUARDI. 

CRESTED GUINEA-FOWL. 

(Plate 38.) 

Numida edouardi, Hartlaub., Journ. Ornith., 1867, p. 36. 

Numida verreauxi, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 585 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in Natal, p. 109 
(1892) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 165 (1899). 

Numida fucherani, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 586 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 109 
(1892). 

Guttera edouardi, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxii, p. 382 
(1893) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., iii, p. 355 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of Afr., iv, p. 233 (1906). 

Guttera cristata edouardi, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 451 (1900-01). 

LocAii Names. " Inkankatori " of the Zambesi natives (Capt. Boyd 
Alexander). 

Dbsoription. Length 20 in. The sexes are ahke. 

DiSTBiBTTTiON. The Crested Guinea-Fowl is found only in one or 
two districts in Natal, whence its range extends to the Zambesi 
and Nyassaland. A very similar species is found in Uganda. 

The late Capt. Boyd Alexander gives the following account 
of the Crested Guinea-Fowl : " By nature this bird is far more 
retiring than the Helmeted Guinea-Fowl {N. mitrata), and 
possesses even a greater aptitude for running, seldom making 
use of flight. 

" We were fortunate enough to obtain two specimens of 
this species near the river above Zumbo, while on another 
occasion, while pitching our tent for the night, we heard a 
flock close to the water, and not far off another one, but of 

91 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

the Helmeted species {N. mitrata), enabling us to observe to 
a nicety the diflference between the cries of the two species. 
The call of the former, otherwise the same as the latter, was 
varied now and then by a tremulous whistle towards nightfall 
and kept up long after night had set in. 

" The Zambesi natives look upon this bird with a certain 
amount of superstition. Nothing would induce them to eat 
it, and they told us that its flesh was poisonous." 

I obtained a pair of these birds, through the coxu-tesy of 
Dr. Gunning, from the Pretoria Zoo, and for some weeks 
kept them in a large wire enclosure at Bloemfontein. I put 
up some leafy branches, under which they ran and hid at the 
least alarm. I found them shy and very silent, but they 
throve well until I took them to England, when I gave them 
to the Zoological Gardens in Regent's Park. In captivity 
I fed them on all or any sort of grain and on broken up 
bread, and they were fond of ground nuts and broken 
biscuits. 



92 



UJ 
< 








o 


C3 



g 



u 
o 
ft; 



UJ 

i/> 
D 
O 
a: 
o 
Q 

< 
w 

Q 
UJ 

H 

< 
O 

cc 
I 

H 







d 



PTEROCLES GUTTURALIS. 

YELLOW-THROATED SANDGROUSE. 

(Plate 39.) 

Pter odes guttur alls. Smith, Rep. Exped. Cent. Afr., p. 56 (1836) ; Sharpe's 
ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 577 (1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 112 (1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 25 (1893); Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, 
p. 305 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ami. S. Afr. Mus., ra, p. 353 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 187 (1906). 

Local Name. " Nacht Patrijs " of the Dutch. 

DESOErPTiON. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 

The young birds are like the female, but the transverse bands 
on the mantle are smaller and finer. 
Length about 11 in. 

DiSTBiBiTTioiir. The Yellow-throated Sandgrouse was first discovered 
in the present Rustenburg District of the Transvaal. From the 
western Transvaal it extends to Bechuanaland and the northern 
Kalahari, while beyond our limits it is recorded from Nyassaland, 
Masailand, and the mountains of Abyssinia. It does not appear 
to be found in Damaraland. I have shot it on the road between 
Fort Hall and Nairobi in British East Africa, but have no expe- 
rience with this species within our limits ; on the wing it much 
reminded me of our Red Grouse. 

Mb. Sclater writes that the Yellow-throated Sandgrouse is 
usually found in companies of from three to twelve individuals, 
on bare ground not far from water, where it feeds on seeds 
and small bulbous roots. 

When crouched on the ground it is very difficult to detect ; 
when flushed it does not run, but rises at once with a 
" whirring " sound made by the wings. The note, only 
heard on the wing, is a short and somewhat harsh " Tweet." 

93 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Like other Sandgrouse, it resorts to water daily, but not 
at such regular hours as other species. 

These Sandgrouse are specially fond of the grain of Kaffir- 
corn, and often feed in large numbers in fields ready for 
reaping. In consequence perhaps of this, they are generally 
very good-eating, especially when split open and grilled with 
butter. 

Mr. H. A. Bryden writes to me as follows : — 

" In crossing the Kalahari Desert I found at the water- 
pits, where Sandgrouse abounded, that as a general rule the 
Double-banded species (P. bicinctus) came to drink chiefly in 
the evening, towards dusk. The Yellow-throated species 
(P. gutturalis), though sometimes seen at water about the mid- 
dle of the afternoon, drank mainly between 8 and 10 a.m., 
as did the Namaqua Sandgrouse. Generally speaking, the 
Variegated Sandgrouse (P. variegatus) came to water quite 
early in the morning, just after sunrise. Sometimes however, 
as at Maqua, these last birds diank later, and were to be seen 
from eight tiU nearly ten in the morning. At this desert pool 
of Maqua, a temporary water only, and at T'Klakane, a per- 
manent water-pit, both between Palachwe and the Botletli 
River, we saw Namaqua, Variegated, and Yellow-throated 
Sandgrouse in very large numbers at early morning. At 
T'Klakane and other waters large numbers oE the Double- 
banded species drank towards dusk. I saw all these Sand- 
grouse also in considerable numbers at the large pan at 
Markereng, South Kalahari, and they were plentiful on 
the Botletli River, NgamUand. 

" P. gutturalis is much the biggest and heaviest of the four 
species, and in the deep chocolate or red-brown colouring of 
the under-parts of the body and in its cry, resembles most 
nearly the family of the Red Grouse of Scotland. The rare 

94 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

and beautiful sulphur-green colouring of the neck and breast 
of the male, and the dark brown gorget-like band upon the 
breast, serve still to render this a notable bird. All the Sand- 
grouse have very tough skins, which afford real hard work 
to separate from the flesh ; this, at all events, was my 
experience in South Africa. The flesh of all Sandgrouse is 
tough, and compares poorly with that of many of the South 
African game-birds. 

" During day-time the YeUow-throated species spread over 
an immense extent of country — their magnificent powers of 
flight helping them largely to feed in pairs or families, perhaps 
even a couple of families, their food consisting chiefly of 
grass-seeds, which in the grassy wastes of the Kalahari they 
find plentiful enough. The cry of these birds, as they come to 
water is a hoarse ' Glock, glock.' My hunting friend W. Dove, 
who is a Lowland Scot, compared it, not inaptly, with 
the call of Grouse as they fly in among the corn-stooks in 
autumn. We shot 18 brace of the Variegated and Namaqua 
Sandgrouse at the pool of Maqua by fair shooting (not en 
masse), and could have easily killed fifty brace or more if we 
had been so minded. Butcherly gunners sometimes fire into 
a hugh flight of Sandgrouse as they get up in a cloud from 
the water, and kiU scores. Although we saw large numbers 
of Yellow-throated Sandgrouse at Maqua, as a rule they 
seem to me to be scarcer than the other species. For close 
on two hours, from 8 to 10 a.m., at this pool these three 
species of Sandgrouse streamed in from various parts of 
the compass, the Namaqua and Variegated uttering inces- 
santly their sharp shrill cries. The Yellow-throated, which 
were not so numerous as the others, were easUy picked out 
by their greater size, their dark under-parts, and their 
hoarse cry, uttered as they came up and swept round the 

95 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

water. The Namaqua and Variegated species mingled 
freely, as they came up and circled incessantly round 
about the pool at an immense rate of speed. Suddenly 
a combined band would swerve towards that end of the 
pool farthest from our waggons, and with one swoop of 
incredible swiftness descend upon the margin. The rustle 
of their wings as they enacted this manoeuvre, was most 
remarkable. If not disturbed, the leading birds drank 
quickly and flew off, when others took their places ; the 
watering process being gone through with perfect order and 
without overcrowdiag. If, however, my companion or I 
moved with our guns in that direction, the whole flight would 
rise with the loud whirr of hundreds of pairs of wiags, and 
circle in the air round the pool again, until a safer oppor- 
tunity presented itself for drinking. The Yellow-throated 
Sandgpouse held together in flocks of from a dozen to thirty 
or forty. They « stooped ' together at the water and drank 
frequently. From 8 o'clock till close on 10 this wonderful 
flight continued ; as birds drank and departed others were 
constantly arriving to take their places. I should judge that 
the average time spent by each bird at and around the water 
was from twenty minutes to half an hour." 

The eggs, usually three in number, are laid on the bare 
ground among the grass. They are dusky-tawny, marked 
with lines and blotches of umber, forming a zone toward 
the base, and measure about 1.7 by 1.09 in. 



96 



I- 

< 







U 



'^ 

^ 






t/1 

a 

o 

a; 

s 

a. 



UJ 
w 

O 

cc 
o 

Q 

z 

< 
m 

Q 

w 



o 

D- 



Q 

d 



PTEROCLES VARIEGATUS. 

SPOTTED SANDGROUSE. 

(Plate 40.) 
Tetrao (Pterocles) variegatus, Burchell, Trav. S. Afr., ii, p. 345 (1824), 

Pterocles variegatus, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 578 
(1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. in 
(1892) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxxii, p. 22 (1893) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 307 (1900-01). 

Pterocles variegatus, Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 353 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 186 (1906). 

Local Name. " Gheel Patrijs " of Dutch (Nicolls & Eglington). 

Description. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 
Length about 9^ in. 

Distribution. The Spotted Sangrouse is quite common in the 
Kalahari west of Vryburg ; it does not extend south of the 
Orange River, but is found in the western portions of our limits 
as far north as the Okavango River. 

This species has habits very similar to those of the Namaqua 
Sandgrouse. 

During the day-time it ranges over the veldt in small 
parties searching for food, which consists chiefly of grass-seeds 
and of such berries as it can find. It is often met with at 
great distances from any known water, but it drinks morning 
and evening, and nearly always at such regular times that 
one can almost set a watch by it. Its long wings and pow- 
erful breast-muscles send it whizzing through the air at 
a speed far exceeding that of the fastest driven partridge, 
and at one water-hole that I know of in the Kalahari, at 
7.45 a.m. precisely the air was filled with these Sandgrouse, 

97 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

and the place resounded with their clear, loud call of 
" Chock-ht, chock-lit, chock-lit." If scared when sitting 
they utter a confused " Gug-gug-gug " note, and when once 
fairly on the wing break into their " Chock-lit " note. 

All Sandgrouse give good driven shots if the gunner is 
content to lie well out in the veldt at least two hundred yards 
from their watering-places, as they have then not begun to 
slacken speed to pitch at the water. Shooting them near 
the water I consider mere poaching and butchery. 

Layard describes the eggs as pale dull greenish-brown 
spotted with light brown and indistinct purple, and further 
spotted with dark brown. 



9H 



w 

< 




u 

^6 



s 

C 
C3 



2 



3 
5 



-J 

o 

a; 



W 

D 
O 
tr 
o 
Q 

2 

< 
W 

Q 
UJ 
Q 
Z 

< 
CD 

UJ 

DQ 
D 
O 
Q 




d 



PTEROCLES BIOINCTUS. 

DOUBLE-BANDED SANDGROUSE. 

(Plate 41.) 

Pterocles bicinctus, Temminck, Pig. et Gall., in, pp. 247, 713 (1815) ; 
Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 575, 854 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. iii. (1892) ; Ogilvie- 
Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, p. 30 (1893) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 309 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 353 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 189 
(1906). 

Description. The birds figured are an adult male and female. Mr. 
OgUvie-Grant says that examples from Demaraland and Griqua- 
land West are so much paler and lighter in colour, that they might 
very well be distinguished under a subspecific name. Length 
about 9 in. 

Distribution. The chief haunt of the Double-banded Sandgrouse 
is Bechuanaland. It does not appear to be found south of the 
Orange River except in the httle Namaqualand, where it is com- 
mon. It is found as far north as the southern part of Angola and 
the Zambesi VaUey. I shot a few of what I am nearly sure were 
of this species on the Athi Plains in British East Africa. 

I HAVE no personal experience of this species in South Africa, 
but it appears much to resemble the other Sandgrouse in its 
habits, being generally found in flocks which split up during 
the breeding-season. Its flight is swift, and its note a curious 
shrill whistle. 

The following account of its habits in the Zambesi Valley 
was written by the late Capt. Boyd Alexander :■ — 

" These birds frequent open spots in the woods, where 
the soil is loose and stony and the slopes of the hilly banks 
are coated with dry grass. They are fond of basking in the 

99 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

sun, remaining in a sleepy condition during most of the day. 
When on the ground it is difficult to see them, and one almost 
treads upon them before they rise, startling one with their 
flare of wings and noisy ' Chuk, chuk ' notes, which are 
given out simultaneously and with great zest. 

" Out of the breeding season they go together in large 
batches, sometimes thirty or forty in one flock. 

" In habits they might almost be termed crepuscular. 
Every evening, as regular as clockwork and just as dusk is 
closing in, they wing their way to their watering-spots, 
while, should the night be moonlit, they feed in the vicinity 
of water." 

My friend Major Sparrow, found this bird breeding in June 
in Portuguese East Africa, and writes that it is very partial 
to red sou with which its eggs completely harmonise. 

Mr. Sclater described the eggs as being three or four in 
number, and laid on the bare ground among short grass. 
They are brownish-pink, spotted and blotched all over, 
especially at the thicker end, with a darker shade of the 
same colour. They measure about 1.37 by .93 in. 



100 



1- 

< 




u 



c 






^ 
o 
«« 
S 



2 



UJ 

m 

D 
O 

u 

Q 
2 

< 

< 

D 

< 

< 
z 



f,;*;^ 



PTEROCLURUS NAMAQUA. 

NAMAQUA SANDGROUSE. 

(Plate 42.) 

Tetrao namaqua, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 754 (1788). 

Pterocles namaqua, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 574, 854 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 109 
(1892). 

Pteroclurus namaqtui, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxn, 
p. 10 (1893) ; Solater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., iii, p. 354 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 192 (1906). 

Local Names. " Namaqua Patrijs " or " Kelkje Wijn " of the 
Dutch ; " Namaqua Partridge " of the EngUsh Colonists. 

Description. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 
Length about 11 in. 

Distribution. This bird is found in country which suits it, from the 
Karroo and Namaqualand to the Cunene River, but is not met 
•with in Natal, the eastern Transvaal, or Mashonaland. 

The Namaqua Sandgrouse is an inhabitant of dry and sandy 
countries. I have seldom seen it on rocky ground, except 
once when a pair bred on Naval Hill, Bloemfontein, a few 
hundred yards from my door. Naval Hill is a flat-topped 
kopje some 300 ft. above the town of Bloemfontein, and 
with the exception of this pair I never saw a Sandgrouse 
on it. 

Namaquas are winter migrants to the Orange River Colony, 
and it is but rarely that they breed there. 

Some years they come in the winter in huge flocks, and in 
other years are very scarce indeed or entirely absent. 

The stronghold of the Namaqua is the Kalahari region, 

101 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

and there it moves about in smaU and large parties, and acts 
precisely as does the Spotted Sandgrouse, with which it 
mingles at the morning and evening drinking-time. 

It can be distinguished on the wing from P. variegatus quite 
easily by its loud note of " Kelkie Vane," whence its Dutch 
name. 

Namaquas are very fast on the wing, but are easily shot 
owing to their punctual habits of drinking morning and 
evening at the same hours. 

They are rather tough and tasteless to eat, in my opinion, 
and are best boiled and served with white sauce. 

They lay two oblong eggs of a light cream-colour, which 
measure about 1.50 by 1.0 ia. The nest is a mere depression 
in the ground, with a few bits of dry grass in it. 



102 



Plate 43 




C. G. Uavies del. Wilheiby & Co. imp, 

SPECKLED PIGEON OR BUSH-DOVE (COLUMBA PHAEONOTA) Male 



COLUMBA PHAEONOTA. 

SPECKLED PIGEON. 

(Plate 43.) 

Coluwba phaeonotus, G. R. Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Columbae, 
p. 32 (1856). 

Coluwha phaeonota, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., pp. 559, 854 
(1875-84) ; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxi, p. 268 (1893) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 129 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 
I, p. 403 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 353 (1906) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 160 (1906). 

Local Names. " Bosch Duif " of the Boers ; " Ivukutu " of the 
Amaxosa (Stanford) ; " Leeba " of the Basutos (Murray). 

Dbsckiption. The bird figured is an adult male. Length 13| in. 
The sexes are alike, but in the hvlng or newly-shot bird the adult 
cocks can be distinguished from the hens by their more brightly 
burnished necks and slightly more powerful appearance. 

DiSTRiBUTioiT. This is a purely South African species, but a very near 
relation (C. guinea), which is much paler on the rump, is found 
in its stead in East, West, and Central Africa. 

This sporting bird is common all over the country in suitable 
localities. It has very much the same habits as our wild 
English Blue Rock (C livia), and nests in caves or cliffs for 
choice. However, it is not very particular, and I have found 
the nests in dry, steep banks along the Vaal and Modder 
Rivers, and frequently in the cavities formed by a dislodged 
brick in the side of a well, a very favourite breeding-place of 
the Barn-Owl. 

It hybridises quite freely with the domestic pigeon, and the 
progeny are fertile both with tame pigeons and inter se. 

103 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

During the late Boer war I saw a large colony of these 
pigeons breeding in the corner of a verandah belonging to 
some missionaries in the western Transvaal. They were at 
complete liberty, and I was curious to know how they were 
first established. I was informed that some domestic pigeons 
had been in the verandah-corner first, and their eggs 
replaced by Bush-Dove eggs, and that the young had not 
only bred freely in due course, but had brought wild birds 
back with them. 

I have found this bird breeding practically all the year 
round. This is also Sergt. Davies's experience, and he teUs 
me he has shot young birds at all times of the year. 

They feed on aU or any grain, and often do great damage 
when the crops are ripening. Very pretty shooting may be 
had by lying up at the edge of the crops when the birds are 
flighting in to feed, especially if a few live decoys be placed 
within gun-shot. For this purpose any ordinary pigeon 
will do. 

The " coo " is quite distinct — a hoarse, rough note utterly 
dififerent from that of the domestic pigeon, but the courting 
attitudes are very similar. 

The eggs are always two, and pure white. They measure 
1.4 by 1.0 in. 



104 



Plate 44 




C. G. l-lnvies del. 



Wilhciby & Co. imp. 



OLIVE PIGEON iCOLUMBA ARQUATRIX) Male. 



COLUMBA ARQUATRIX. 

OLIVE-PIGEON. 

(Plate 44.) 

Columba arquatrix, Temminck & Knip, Pig. et Gal. i, p. ii, PI. v. 
(1808-13) ; Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus, xxi, p. 276 (1893) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 130 (1899); Reichenow, Vogel 
Afrikas, i, p. 403 (1900-01); Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., ra, 
p. 353 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 163 
(1906). 

Palunibus arquatrix, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 561 
(1875-84). 

Local Names. " Rameron Pigeon " or " Black Pigeon " of the Natal 
Colonists ; " Oliven Duif " or " Bosch Duif " of the Dutch ; 
" Izuba " of the Amaxosa (Stanford). 

Dbsceiption. Length about 15\ in. The sexes are alike except that 
the female is slightly smaller and duller. The bird figured is a 
male. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. The Olive-Pigeon is found along the southern coast 
of Cape Colony from Knysna to Natal and Zululand. Beyond 
South African limits it extends through Nyassaland and East 
Africa to Shoa and Abyssinia. 

It is not uncommon in the Magaliesberg Mountains near 
Rustenburg. 

In British East Africa it is very plentiful on the wooded slopes 
of the Guasin Gishu Plateau, and in the heavy forests of the 
Nandi country and the Mau Escarpment, and gives excellent 
shooting. 

It is found all over Pondoland in wooded country, but is very 
irregular in its appearance, being common one year and rare 
another. 

This is the largest of the South African Pigeons, and has habits 
very much resembling those of the European Wood-Pigeon 

105 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

(C palumbus). It is a partial migrant, and as its food- 
supplies ripen, it moves from district to district. It feeds 
on wild- olives and wUd-figs. 

Olive-Pigeons are very strong on the wing, and carry a lot 
of shot. They are excellent-eating. 

They are often found in large flocks, and when shooting 
for the pot a good bag can at times be made by waiting under 
the trees in which they feed. 

They frequently make a great noise when feeding, and the 
heavy flapping of their wings as they balance themselves 
on some slender twig to reach the berries on the end, can be 
heard a considerable way off. 

I have never heard this Pigeon make any note except in 
the breeding-season, when the males utter a deep " Coo." 

When in good plumage and freshly shot, these birds have 
a beautiful plum-Uke bloom over all the feathers; but this 
comes off at once with handling, so that preserved skins 
appear much more red than freshly-killed birds. 

They are tree-breeders and not rock-breeders, making the 
usual type of Pigeon's nest of a few loose sticks, and laying 
two white eggs measuring about 1.5 by 1.15 in. 



106 



PLATE 45 




C. G. Uavies del. Willisrby & C.i. imp. 

DELALANDE'S GREEN PIGEON (VINACO DELALANDIl) Male. 



VINAGO DELALANDII. 

DELALANDE'S GEEEN PIGEON. 

(Plate 45.) 

Phalacrotreron deldktndii, Bonaparte, Oonsp. Av., ii, p. 6 (1864). 

Treron delalandii, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 558 (1875-84). 

Vinago ddalandei, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxi, p. 24 (1893) ; 
Eeichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 397 (1900-01). 

Vinago delalandii, Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 128 (1899) ; Solater, , 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; Solater & Stark, Birds of 
S. Afr., IV, p. 157 (1906). 

Local Name. " Ijubantoto " of Natal Zulus (Solater). 

Description. Length about 12 in. The sexes are aHke. 

Shalow's Green Pigeon (F. shalowi), another South African 
species, has been recorded from Matabeleland from the north of 
German South-west Africa, and also from the Zambesi River. 
It differs from F. delalandii only in the oMve-green of the head, 
the neck and under-parts being replaced by yellowish-green, 
and the bird is slightly smaller. 

DiSTRiBtTTiON. This species ranges all over East Africa, from British 
East Africa to the extreme east of Cape Colony. 

I have shot it in the Magahesbergen (Transvaal) and often in 
British East Africa, where it occurs in huge flocks. Sergt. Davies 
writes that it is fairly common in Pondoland, and is often found 
in large flocks. 

Geebn Pigeon, like Woodcock, are very irregular in their 
appearance in any particular district, their movements being 
governed entirely by their food-supply. I have usually found 
them feeding in thickly foliaged wild-figs, and have generally 
known they were in them by hearing small twigs or figs fall 
to the ground, the birds themselves harmonising so well 

107 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

with the leaves that it is a matter of great difficulty to see 
them. When the tree in which they are feeding is approached 
they generally sit quite still, trusting to their green colour 
to hide them effectually ; but if they do fly they whizz out 
Uke lightning, and give an exceedingly twisty and difficult 
shot. 

The note is a curious whistle ending in a sharp " Turr- 
turr-turr." 

According to Mr. Sclater {The Fauna of South Africa) Ayres 
found a nest of this species in the Magaliesbergen towards 
the end of November, 1882 ; it was composed of the usual 
layer of sticks, and was not more than 10 ft. from the ground ; 
it contained a young bird, and an addled white egg. 

This Pigeon is nearly invariably fat, and is tender and well 
flavoured. 



108 



Plate 46a 




C, G. Davie.-. il = l- Wilhciby * Co. Imp. 

SPUR-WINGED GOOSE [PLECTROPTERUS GAMBENSIS) Male. 



Plate 46b 



(/■r==3! 




C, G. Uavies del. Witlierby & Cu. imp. 

SPUR-WINCED GOOSE [PLECTROPTERUS GAMBENSIS) Male. 



Plate 46c 




C. G. Dtivios del. Willwrby X; Co, imp. 

SPUR-WINGED GOOSE (PLECTROPTERUS GAMBENS/S) Male, 



PLECTROPTERUS GAMBENSIS. 

SPUR-WINGED GOOSE. 

(Plates 46A, 46B, and 460.) 

Anas Gambensis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., i, p. 195 (1766). 

Plectropterus gambensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 746 
(1875-84); Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 121 
(1892) ; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvii, p. 48 (1895) ; 
Shelley, Birds of Afr., i, p. 170 (1896) ; Sharpe, Hand-List of 
Birds, I, p. 208 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, 1, p. 134 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 351 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 115 (1906). 

Local Names. " Wilde Macaauw " or " Makow " of the Dutch ; 
" Peele, Peele " of the Bechuanas (Nicolls & Eglington) ; " Esikwi " 
of the KafBrs (LaAvrence) ; " Letsikhir " of the Basutos 
(Murray). 

Description. Length about 40 in. ; wing 21| in. Weight about 
12 lb. ; has been obtained up to 15 lb. 

I have figured the three varieties of this species which I 
do not consider entitled to specific rank. Plate 46A represents 
the Northern form known as P. gambensis rueffelli. Plate 46B 
shows the intermediate form, which merges into the Northern 
form on the one hand and into the bird shown on Plate 460 
on the other. This latter is the most Southern form. I 
have found nearly every intermediate grade of coloration 
between them. 

The female is like the male, but is slightly smaller. Young 
birds have the face entirely feathered and no frontal knob. 
The young in down are pale yellowish, with the upper -parts 
pale brown, two yellowish spots on the back at the base of 

109 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

the wings, and two others on the sides of the rump ; sides 
of the head yellowish ; throat white. This species varies much 
individually in size, some birds being so small that they look 
almost like a different species. 

DisTEiBtrTioN. Extends from Gambia on the west and Kordofan on 
the White Nile throughout the whole of Africa southwards. 

It is common enough in the Orange River Colony and Transvaal, 
Bechuanaland, and along the Zambesi, and is not often found 
to the south of the Orange River. 

Spur- WING are residents of most of the large marshes and 
lakes, and are often to be found living on the rivers also. 
By day they stay on the pans, washing, sleeping and resting, 
but towards nightfall they flight out into the grassy fields 
and grain crops, and do an immense amount of damage, 
treading down the standing corn with their huge feet and 
wasting and spoiling much more than they eat. Sergt. 
Davies writes me that when the corn is in stocks they perch 
on them and greedily strip the grain from the top sheaves, 
and he teUs me he has seen many of the stooks completely 
ruined by these birds. 

These geese are easy to keep in captivity, but if the young 
birds are obtained whilst still in the downy stage, care should 
be taken not to let them swim in water or they are sure to 
get cramp ; they wiU feed readily on any grain which has 
been previously soaked in water, as well as on soft bread, 
and they should, if possible, have access to young grass, as 
like all true geese they get much of their food by grazing. 
When they are adult it is not safe to keep them with smaller 
and weaker birds, as they are very powerful and have rather 
an uncertain temper. 

110 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

They nest in long grass or in thick reed-beds, laying from 
six to ten eggs. Eggs now in the South African Museum 
are smooth, shining, and ivory-white, and measure about 
2.8 by 2.1 in. 



Ill 



PLECTROPTERUS NIGER. 

BLACK SPUR- WINGED GOOSE. 

(Plate 47.) 

Plectropterus niger, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 47, PI. vn; Sal- 
vador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 50 (1895) ; Shelley, 
Birds of Afr., i, p. 170 (1896) ; Sharpe, Hand-List of Birds, i, 
p. 208 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 351 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 118 (1906). 

Plectropterus ganibensis niger, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 136 
(1900-01). 

Local Names. As for P. gambensia. 

Descbiptign. The bird figured is an adult male. This drawing was 
made from a bird which I bought as a gosling in Potchefstroom 
five years ago, and which is still (1912) Uving in Norfolk, 
England. 

Length about 40 in. This species is just as variable in size 
as P. garnbensis, no two being exactly similar. 

Mr. W. L. Sclater suspects that P. niger and P. garnbensis are 
different forms of the same species, and that the differences are 
due to age, but the present bird is the common one of the Orange 
River Colony and the Transvaal, where I have seen them in flocks 
up to as many as a couple of hundred in number. Among these 
flocks there would perhaps be three or four birds apparently 
answering to the description of P. garnbensis, but if the age theory 
were correct there would surely be many more. 

Further, the bird flgured is at least five years old, and has not 
yet begun to change. 

I consider that P. niger is a good species, but that it grades 
into P. ganibensis the further north it is found, and probably 
interbreeds with it. 

These geese are among the most common water-fowl in 
South Africa. 

112 



Plate 47 




C. G. Davies del. Wilherby & Co. imp. 

BLACK SPUR-WINGED GOOSE (PLECTROPTERUS NIGER) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Their habits are exactly the same as those of P. garnbensis, 
a few of which may sometimes be found mingled in their 
flocks. 

Their flight is powerful but not very fast, and their note, 
which is usually uttered when they are on the wing, is a 
curiously weak sort of whistle which sounds like " Cow- whit, 
cow-whit," sometimes clear and sometimes rather harsh. 
They have none of the trumpet-like, loud clanging notes of 
our northern birds, but like them they can carry away an 
immense amount of shot. 

When flighting out to their feeding-grounds. Spur-wing 
nearly invariably reconnoitre the ground carefuUy, and on 
alighting stand on the alert and look round in every direction. 
When satisfied that no danger threatens, they post sentries 
in the same way that wild-geese do at home, and then start 
feeding. 

Young birds are not bad-eating, but the old birds are quite 
impossible, as they seem to remain hard and tough until 
they decompose. 

Eggs sent me from Vredefort Road, Orange River Colony, 
were not to be distinguished from eggs of P. gamhensis. 
These eggs were found in nests built of loose heaps of dry 
grass among the big stones at the foot of the kopje. The 
site was thickly studded with prickly-pear bushes, and was 
not far from water. 



113 



SARCIDIORNIS MELANONOTA. 

KNOB-BILLED DUCK. 

(Plate 48.) 

Anser melanotus, Pennant, Ind. Zool., p. 12, PI. xi (1769). 

Sarcidiornis africana, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 752 
(1875-84) ; NicoUs & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 123 
(1892). 

Sarcidiornis melanonata, Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 54 
(1895) ; Solater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., ra, p. 351 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 119 (1906). 

Sarkidiornis melanotus, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 129 (1900-01). 

Local Name. " Comb-duck " of some authors. 

Description. The plate represents a female and a male in full 
breeding-plumage, with the bunch of orange-yellow feathers on the 
side of the lower-abdomen that the male carries at that season, 
and the excrescence that he carries on the bill at its fuU develop- 
ment. The male bird figured was one shot by Sergt. Davies, 
and the excrescence was drawn to scale by him. At other times 
of the year the excrescence is inconspicuous. The young birds 
resemble the female, but have no metalUc gloss. 

Length about 31 in. 

Distribution. There are two species of Knob-billed Duck, both 
very similar, one of which is found all over South America, while 
the other, the subject of our drawing, is distributed throughout 
Africa and southern Asia. 

Besides being found in India, Burma, and Ceylon, the Knob- 
billed Duck is also found throughout Africa from Gambia and 
Khartoum southwards, as well as in Madagascar. 

I have shot it in British East Africa on the Uasin Gishu Plateau, 
but have not met with it in South Africa. A small flock was 
met with in Pondoland, out of which was shot the male bird 
now illustrated. 

114 



H 
< 

Q- 




5 



o 

O 



g 
5 



O 
D 
Q 

Q 

Ijj 

m 
m 
o 



R 
d 
d 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

I HAVE not met with this bird in South Africa, and there is 
not much of interest on record about it. It is usually met 
with in flocks where plentiful, flying in V-shaped formation, 
and it not infrequently perches on dead trees, at which times 
it is not difficult to approach ; it is said by sportsmen to be 
exceedingly good-eating, but those which I ate in British 
East Africa were not particularly so. 

Mr. C. H. Taylor writes in the Journal of the South 
African Ornithologists^ Union for 1907, that in the Amers- 
foort District (South-east Transvaal) they are resident, 
and breed regularly during the months of November and 
December, making a nest in the long grass, usually at 
the side of a "vlei" or near a pan. In one instance on 
the farm Rolfontein, they used to nest amongst the stones 
on a low-lying kopje, but of recent years have been too 
much disturbed in this locality, and apparently no longer 
breed there. 

They are very destructive to lands freshly sown with 
mealies or oats, rooting up the grain and doing much 
damage. A short while ago, in the Ermelo District, four of 
these ducks were caught in traps put into a patch of forage 
for this purpose. 

Mr. Taylor further writes that he has seen them in great 
numbers on the Que Que River in Matabeleland, where 
they are migratory, arriving in September and staying all 
through the rainy season. 

Like other duck and geese, they shed all their flight- 
feathers in the spring, and when in this state, being unable 
to fly, are easily caught. 

Mr. Sclater states that it apparently breeds in Bechuana- 
land, though no one has hitherto given any account of the 
matter. Eggs laid in captivity in Mr. Blaauw's aviaries in 

115 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Holland were yeUowish- white, and rather more pointed at 
one end than at the other. 

There are six eggs of this species in the British Museum 
obtained by Anderson at Ondonga, in Ovampoland, in Feb- 
ruary ; they are described as being smooth, rather glossy, 
and pale yellowish- white, and measure from 2.58 to 2.22 by 
1.78 to 1.65 in. 



116 



< 




a: 
5) 



tu 
% 



LiJ 
[/) 
O 
O 

o 



< 

D 



G 

d 



NETTOPUS AURITUS. 

DWARF GOOSE. 

(Plate 49.) 
Anas auritus, Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl, p. 48, n. 770, 1783. 

Nettapus auritus, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 750 (1875-84) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 127 (1900-01). 

Nettapus aurilius, Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 122 
(1892). 

Nettopus auritus Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 65 (1895) ; 
Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 351 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 122 (1906). 

Netfoppus auritus, Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 208 (1899). 

Descbiption. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 
Length about 12 J in. 

Distribution. This near relation of the Indian Cotton-Teal (N. coro- 
mandelianus) is found all over Africa, south of Gambia on the west, 
and Somaliland on the east. It is also a resident in Madagascar. 
Mr. Sclater states that it is a casual visitor to the Colony, and only 
met with along the coast and larger rivers, but it is more fre- 
quently to be seen in Natal and the Transvaal up to the Zambesi. 
He also says that it is not recorded from German South-west 
Africa, though fairly plentiful about Lake Ngami. 

Three specimens were shot on the Umtumvumu River, Pondo- 
land, during October and November, 1908. 

I DO not quite understand why this little bird is called a 
Goose at all. AU geese are naturally grazing birds, and 
do not dive unless wounded or pressed by a bird of prey, 
while the Dwarf Goose dives as easily as a Pochard, and gets 
most of its food from underneath the surface. On Lake 
Victoria Nyanza this bird may often be seen in flocks 

117 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFEICA 

numbering up to tMrty or forty, diving and playing about, 
and behaving very much like Pochards. They fly well and 
fast, and are very good-eating. They are not difficult to shoot, 
as they generally allow a canoe to be paddled within range 
before they begin to get uneasy. 

Apparently no observations have yet been made on the 
breeding-habits of this bird. 

Of the Indian species iV^. coromandelianus. Dr. Jerdon says : 
" It breeds generally in holes in old trees, often at some 
distance from the water, occasionally in ruined houses, 
temples, old chimneys, and the like, laying eight to ten 
(sometimes, it is stated, as many as fifteen) small white 
eggs." 



118 



Plate 50 




C. G. U»vi«s dd. With.,l,y & C... imp. 

WHITE-FACED TREE-DUCK [DENDROCYGNA VIDUATa) Male. 



DENDROCYGNA VIDUATA. 

WHITE-FACED TREE-DUCK. 

(Plate 50.) 

Anas viduata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., i, p. 205 (1766). 

Dendrocygna vidvata, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 751 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 126 
(1892) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 124 (1900-01) ; Woodward, 
Natal Birds, p. 209 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 351 
(1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv, p. 124 (1906). 

LocAii Names. " Idada " of the Matabele (Chubb) ; " Masked Duck " 
of some authors. 

Description. The bird figured is a female. The sexes are aUke, 
and measure about 19 in. 

DiSTEiBTTTiosr. Like the South African Pochard {N. erythropthalma), 
this bird has a most remarkable range, and is found through the 
greater part of South America, from the West Indies to the 
Argentines, and in Africa from the Gambia and Khartoum south- 
wards, as well as in Madagascar. 

Mr. Sclater states that this is a rare Duck in South Africa except 
in the lake regions and on the Zambesi, and that up to the date 
of his book (1906) it had not been met with within the limits of 
Cape Colony or in Great Namaqualand or Damaraland. 

The specimen illustrated was obtained in Griqualand by Sergt. 
C. G. Davies. 

This bird is a rare visitor to southern Africa, though common 
enough in the Zambesi and Lake Ngami regions. These 
are its strongholds, and it is to be found there in considerable 
flocks, and sometimes when the rains have been very heavy, 
in multitudes. 

It is said by the Woodwards not to perch on trees, but some 

119 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

birds I saw in captivity that had fuU use of their wings 
certainly did so, and Reichenow also states that they have 
this habit in the wild state. 

It has a clear whistling cry and is often kept in collections 
of ornamental water-fowl both in England and on the 
Continent. It is a peaceful Kttle bird in captivity, but 
often succumbs to hard frost, and reqiures protection ia 
severe weather. 

Mr. C. F. M. Swyimerton writes : " I have found these 
ducks exceedingly plentiful on the pools between Chibabava 
and Mangunde (Gazaland) in pairs or in parties of from a 
dozen upwards. They have two whistling notes, or more 
rarely three, frequently uttered by the whole flock together 
as it flies along, sometimes in more or less wedge-formation, 
sometimes not. They were easy to shoot, for when flushed 
they would circle backwards and forwards two or three times 
over the swamp, and seldom went more than a few hundred 
yards before again descending. One of the stomachs exa- 
mined contained a smaU larva and grit, and in both crop 
and stomach were large quantities of a small black seed." 

There is no record of eggs having been taken in Africa, but 
eggs from Madagascar in the British Museum are glossy and 
cream-coloured, and measure about 2.0 by 1.5 in. 



120 




Plate 51 



C. G, l-lKvies del. Withe.by i Co. iin 

WHISTLING TREE-DUCK (nENDROCYGNA FULVA) Male. 



DENDROCYGNA FULVA. 

WHISTLING TREE-DUCK. 

(Plate 61.) 

Anas fulva, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 530 (1788). 

Dendrocycna fulva, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 149 
(1895) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 351 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 125 (1906). 

Dendrocygna fulva, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 126 (1900-01). 

DESCEiPTioif. The plate represents an adult male. The sexes are 
ahke. Length about 20 in. 

DiSTBiBTTTioiir. The bird figured was killed in Griqualand. 

Mr. Sclater writes that this Duck has a very remarkable dis- 
connected range, extending over four continents ; it is to be 
found in the southern part of the United States and Mexico in 
North America, from Venezulea and Peru to the Argentine in 
South America, from Eordofan southwards along the Nile Valley 
through Nyassaland to Lake Ngami in Africa, in Madagascar, 
and finally in India, Burmah, and Ceylon. 

I HAVE not personally met with this bird in South Africa, 
but have often shot it in Ceylon. There they inhabit all 
the larger lakes, and have a curious whistling cry which is 
uttered often when in flight, producing a wild effect when a 
big flock is passing overhead. 

They perch freely on trees, and I believe make use of old 
nests of crows and other birds during their breeding-season. 
They fly fairly slowly and with much beatings of wings, 
and are therefore easy to shoot. They are of little use when 
shot, being rank and fishy in flavour. 



121 



ALOPOCHEN AEGYPTIACUS. 

EGYPTIAN GOOSE. 

(Plate 52.) 
Anas aegyptiaca, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., i, p. 197 (1766). 

Chanalopex aegyptiaca, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 747 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 122 
(1892). 

Chenalopex aegyptiacus, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 167 
(1895) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 209 (1899) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 131 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 128 
(1906). 

Local Names. " Berg Gans " of the Dutch ; " Nile Goose " of some 
authors ; " Esikwi " of Kaffirs (Lawrence), a name also applied 
to the Spur-winged Goose; " Lefalva " of Basutos (Murray). 

DesoEiPTiON. The Plate represents an adult male. The sexes are 
alike. Young birds have the legs and beak clay-coloured. 
Length about 27 in. 

DisTBiBTTTiON. The Egyptian Goose is found all over Africa south 
of the Sahara, and its range extends as far to the north-east as 
Palestine. 

In South Africa it is quite common, and is equally at home on 
the coasts and along the rivers, as on the lakes and marshes. 

This bird is well known to most people. It breeds very 
freely in captivity, and nearly every piece of ornamental 
water in public parks in the British Isles has a pair or so of 
them as inhabitants. In the tame state it hybridises freely 
with many and very different species. Mr. Sclater viTites 
that it has frequently hybridised with the Spur-winged 
Goose and even with the Mallard {Anas hoscas), while I have 

122 



PLATE 52 




C. G. Uavies ilcl. 



Witlierlty K; Co. imp. 



EGYPTIAN GOOSE (ALOPOCHEN .^CYPTIACUS) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

seen hybrids between it and the Ruddy Sheld-drake {Gasarca 
casarca) to which it is nearly akin, the Canada Goose (Bernicla 
canadensis), and some beautiful hybrids between it and the 
European Sheld-drake {Tadorna tadorna). 

When breeding in confinement these birds are very noisy, 
quarrelsome, and dangerous to other water-fowl, but are 
courageous to a degree and firm believers in the " bold 
offensive," for they wiU promptly attack anything which 
they even think might attack their goslings. Their strength 
and fury is so great, too, that they generally get the best 
of it. 

In the wild state in South Africa they are familiar residents 
on most large pans and marshes, but are shy and wild, and 
take a tremendous lot of shot. They generally go about in 
pairs, and when flying utter a loud cackling call which 
Anderson describes as a " barking quack." 

As a sporting bird they are not worth shooting, their flesh 
being tough and rank; even young ones are not very 
palatable. I once saw a bird picked up after a drive, and at 
some previous date it had been hit by a bullet at the base of 
the lower mandible, which, as weU as most of the tongue, 
had been carried almost entirely away. Nevertheless the 
wovmd had completely healed, and the bird was fat and in 
good condition. 

Egyptian Geese live nearly entirely on grass and herbage, 
and are most persistent grazers. 

At certain times of the year large numbers assemble at 
the big marshes and lakes, to breed and cast their flight- 
feathers. 

I have found the nests among thick rushes and water-weeds, 
but sometimes quite different nesting-places are chosen. 
They will nest in a hole or in a hollow tree. This, however, 

123 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

is not unnatural, as the Egyptian Goose is obviously a near 
relative of the Sheld-drakes, which are all hole-breeders. This 
relationship is clearly shown in voice and attitude, and in the 
first plumage of the downy chicks and the freedom with which 
they interbreed. 

Mr. Atmore relates that he found nests of the Egyptian 
Goose buUt on broad ledges of rock 200 feet above the banks 
of the Gouritz River in the Mossel Bay District, and that this 
site was amicably shared with numerous Vultures {Gyps 
kolbii). A Boer showed him an old Vulture's nest in an 
acacia tree some 30 ft. high on the banks of the Vaal River, 
which he assured him was occupied every year by a " Berg 
Gans." 

This Goose is somewhat scarce in Pondoland, and has only 
been found on the Umzimvubu River, where it breeds. The 
natives often catch the young ones and bring them in for 
sale. They get very tame, but are inclined to " bully " other 
poultry. 

The eggs are creamy-white and small for the size of the 
bird. They measure about 2.7 by 1.9 in. 



124 



Plate 53 




C. G. Davies del. Withei-by Ai Co. imp, 

SOUTH AFRICAN SH ELD-DRAKE (CASARCA CANA) Male. 



CASARCA CANA. 

SOUTH AFRICAN SHELDDRAKE. 

(Plates 53 [male] and 54 [female].) 

Anas cana, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 510 (1788). 

Casarca cana, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 753 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 129 (1892) ; Salva- 
dori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 182 (1895) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 137 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 131 
(1906). 

Local Name. " Berg-eend " of the Dutch. 

Description. Adult male, female, and chick as in figures. 
Length of male about 26 in. The female is shghtly smaller. 

Distribution. The South African Sheld-drake has a very restricted 
range, and so far has only been met with in Cape Colony, the 
Orange River Colony and the Transvaal, and has not been 
recorded from Natal, Rhodesia or German South-west Africa. 

Mb. Sclater states in tlie fourth volume of the Fauna of 
South Africa, that this species is considered to be a scarce 
bird, but Messrs. Grant and Seimund found it very common 
all the year round at Deelfontein in the centre of the Karroo. 
Near Bloemfontein it is by no means rare, and I have seen 
it the whole year round on dams of suitable size. Sheld-drake, 
except when actually breeding, are usually in small parties 
of five or six, presumably the last season's brood. I have 
invariably found them wild and suspicious, and they are 
always the first to leave when the shooting begins. 

Before I went to South Africa I had often heard that this 
species was frequently caught young and kept in captivity 
by the Boers. This rumour caused me many weary journeys, 

125 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

which nearly always ended in the disappoiatiag view of 
some young Egyptian Geese. Once, however, a young Boer 
came in and told me that he had a pair on his farm, I took 
him out and showed him a tame Egyptian Goose I had, asking 
him if it was the same as the birds he was talking about. 
After firm assurances that his were quite dififerent I rode 
some twenty miles to his farm, and after the customary cojEEee 
and handshaking all round and the usual volley of questions 
about my family, age, where I came from, etc., I went to see 
the Berg-eende. They were a lovely pair, but alas were 
full-winged, and by repeated efforts to catch them they 
had been made too shy for their timidity to be overcome. 
Try as we could I had to go home without them, and shortly 
afterwards they were accidentally shot. Their owner told 
me that he had surprised an old female Sheld-drake leading 
her youngsters across the veldt; that they were just 
hatched, and that he had caught two of them, the birds 
in question. 

The usual cry is a loud nasal " How," but they have many 
varied notes. When they flight from one dam to another, 
or when one bird is separated from its mate, the note generally 
used is the loud sonorous "How." The cry is very much 
lUie that of the Indian Ruddy Sheld-drake (C. rutila), and those 
who know this bird wiU be struck at once by the resemblance 
between the two species. 

Like all other Sheld-drake, the South African species breeds 
in holes. The nests have been found among rocks, but near 
Bloemfontein they usually breed in ant-bear holes. 

The eggs are creamy- white, and measure 2.5 to 2.0 by 1.8 in. 

Sheld-drake are most indifferent-eating, being both rank and 
tough ; but they are so wild and take such care of themselves, 
that they seldom get in position to appear on the table. 

126 



UJ 

I- 

< 
-J 
Q- 




o 



£ 

3 

u. 












< 

a 

6 

LU 



o 

S 

Ll 

< 

I 
H 
D 
O 
W 



Plate 55 




-SK*#^i«2;U"-*#*-X? 



C. G. Davies del. 



Widierhy & Co. ini, 



YELLOW-BILLED DUCK {ANAS UNDULATA) Male. 



ANAS UNDULATA. 

YELLOW- BILLED DUCK OR GEELBEC. 

(Plate 55.) 

Anas undulata, Dubois, Om. Gall., p. 119, pi. Lxxvn (1839) ; 
Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 212 (1895) ; Wood- 
ward, Natal Birds, 209 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, 
p. 113 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Air., rv, p. 134 (1906). 

Anas xanthorhyncha, Sharpe's ed. Layard's Birds of S. Afr., p. 755 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 127 
(1892). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult male. Length about 
22J in. The sexes in the Yellow-billed Duck resemble each 
other, but there is a marked difference : the males, besides 
being distinctly larger and more brightly coloured in the yellow 
of the beak, have all the pale edgings of the feathers whiter 
and the centres darker than the corresponding feathers of the 
female bird, so that their breasts and flanks have a scaled 
appearance, whereas in the females and young birds the whole 
colouring is dingier, the dark brown is lighter, and the centres 
to the feathers of the under- parts more longitudinal, giving them 
a more striped appearance. 

These differences are hard to describe, but easy to see if the 
birds are compared. 

DiSTRiBTTTiON. TMs is the common Wild Duck of South Africa, and 
is found everywhere except, perhaps, in German South-west 
Africa and the Natal sea-board. It only extends as far west 
as Angola, but in the east has been recorded from all over Africa 
as far north as Abyssinia. It is very common in British East 
Africa. 

Yellow-bill, like most South African duck, are partially 
raigratory, their movements depending on the amount of 
water there is in their haunts and on the rainfall. 

127 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

They are double-brooded, raising one brood in the spring 
and one in the autumn. Broods have been found in East 
Griqualand in April. It is easy to teU the birds that have 
young or eggs, as they have a way of drawing you away 
from the vicinity by pretending they are wounded and 
cannot fly, flapping along the surface of the water in a 
helpless manner untQ you are some distance from their 
treasures, when they rise and make swiftly off. 

They have very much the habits of the European Mallard, 
haunting marshes and lakes and avoiding running water. The 
voice of the female resembles that of the MaUard female ; 
the note of the male is also similar to that of the male 
MaUard, but rather deeper and louder in tone. 

They are often found in fairly large flocks except when 
breeding, when of course they are in pairs. When breeding 
three or four amorous males will often chase a female round 
and round high up in the air. 

They soon get tame when not much molested, but if 
frequently shot at they circle round once or twice, and 
then clear right out, and wiU probably not return for a 
day or so. 

When the grain crops are ripe, they flight out in the 
evening like Mallard, feed, and return in the morning to 
sleep, wash and rest. A little careful observation wiU soon 
show the lines of the flight, but it is very necessary that the 
gunner should be well hidden, and not move until the 
birds are well over and in shot. 

They require fairly heavy shot (No. 4 is best), and fly 
strongly and fast. They dive and hide so well, that a winged 
bird that has fallen in water is generally a lost one. 

I sent a pair of these birds home to the Zoological Society 
of London three years ago, and one of them is stiU alive 

128 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

and has hybridised this year with Anas mdleri from Mada- 
gascar, a closely related species, as there was no female of 
his own kind with which he could be mated. In confinement 
they quickly become tame, and are very easy to manage, 
feeding on any kind of grain, soaked in water for preference, 
bread and any green-stuff, such as lettuce or chopped 
cabbage. 

I found one or two nests near Potchefstroom. They were 
situated on the banks of a small stream which ran into a 
big irrigation dam, and in each case were well concealed in 
a clump of thick grass. 

The eggs are oval, of a greenish-cream colour. Seven of 
them averaged 2.29 by 1.78 in. 



129 



ANAS SPARSA. 

BLACK DUCK. 

(Plate 66.) 

Anas sparsa, Smith, Cat. S. Afr. Mus., p. 36 (1837) ; Sharpe's ed. 
Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 756 (1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, 
Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 124 (1894) ; Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xxvn, p. 213 (1896) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 210 (1899) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 115 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. 
Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1906) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, 
p. 136 (1906). 

Local Names. " Edada " of the Amaxosa and Zulus, a name which 
is also applied to other species. 

DESCEiPTioiir. The bird figured is a male. The sexes are aUke in 
plumage, but the female is a httle smaller. Old birds have a 
proininent knob on the bend of the wing. Length of a male 
23 in. Weight 2J lb. The yoimg may always be told by their 
whitish under-parts. 

The white patch on the neck varies from a nearly complete 
collar to a few white feathers, and is sometimes completely absent. 

DiSTRiBTJTioiir. The Black Duck extends from Abyssinia to Cape 
Colony through all the eastern parts of the country. In South 
Africa it is never abundant, but is widely distributed through 
Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal and Rhodesia. 

The Black Duck is hardly ever to be found on " vleis" or 
dams, and is essentially a haunter of rivers and streams. 

I have seen them as a rule in pairs and sometimes in small 
flocks numbering a dozen, which I suppose were the adult 
birds with their grown-up broods. They feed, hke European 
Mallard, chiefly at night, but in rainy weather often during 
the day as well. During the heat of the day they usually rest 
and sleep in some shady place under overhanging branches 

130 



PLATE 56 







C, G. Davieb del. 



Wilhciby & Co. imp. 



BLACK DUCK (ANAS SPARSA] Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

or amongst the reeds, and wiU then often allow themselves 
to be passed without taking to flight, trusting to escape 
observation by keeping still. 

Sergt. Davies writes me that they are easy to shoot as they 
rise, but have a most annoying habit of flying low over the 
surface of the water if the reeds are high, until well out of 
shot. 

They feed on seeds of water-plants and on insects, but when 
the native crops are ripe they are often shot with their crops 
full of grain, and at this season they get very fat. 

Near Potchefstroom they breed in August and September, 
but the broods are never big, owing no doubt to the number 
of monitor lizards, water-mongooses, and other vermin that 
frequent their breeding-haunts. 

The Black Duck is easily tamed and bears captivity well, 
but it was not until 1911 that the first bird reached Europe 
aUve, this example forming part of the King's South African 
collection. 

Mr. L. E. Taylor in the Journal of the S. African Ornith- 
ological Union for December, 1906, gives a photograph of a 
nest of this bird taken in July which contained eleven 
eggs, and was concealed in rushes and built on the ground 
about two feet above the water. They resembled those of 
Ana^ undulata, and measured about 2.5 by 1.75 in. 



131 



NETTION CAPENSE. 

CAPE TEAL. 

(Plate 57.) 

Anas capensis, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 527 (1788) ; Keichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 120 (1900-01). 

Querquedula capensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 758 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington. Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 127 
(1892). 

Nettion capense, Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 259 (1895) 
Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 138 (1906). 

Local Names. " Teal-eendje " of the Dutch (Sclater) ; " Cape 
Wigeon " of Sclater. 

Description. The bird figured is a male, and was shot by Sergt. 
Davies, and careful notes taken of the colours of the soft parts 
at once. The sexes are alike. Length about 19 in. The irides 
of these birds vary from hght hazel and yellow to deep orange 
(Littledale). 

DiSTBiBTTTioiir. The Cape Teal seems to be a rare bird everywhere. 
Its range extends from Cape Colony northwards through Nyassa- 
land and Uganda to Shoa, but in South Africa it has not been 
hitherto met with in the eastern portion of the Cape Colony, 
Natal, or Rhodesia. 

A few flocks have been observed in the Dordrecht District of 
Cape Colony, and a single bird was seen on the Utumvumu River 
in December, 1909. 

I should not be surprised if the Cape Teal were not so rare after 
all; it is probably often confused with the Red-bill, and is put 
into the bag as such. 

I HAVE never met with the Cape Teal, and very little was 
known of its nesting and other habits until Lieut. 
H. A. P. Littledale, Ist King's Own Yorkshire Light Lifantry, 

132 



Plate 57 




C. G. Davies del. 



Wiiherby & Cu. imp. 



CAPE TEAL {NETTION CAPENSE) Female. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFEICA 

published in the Journal of the 8. African Ornithological 
Union for April, 1908, the following notes: — 

" I have found the Cape Widgeon (Teal) to be compara- 
tively common at Van Wijk's Vlei, near Carnarvon, Cape 
Colony, and also I have seen a good number on most of the 
dams in the neighbourhood. 

" Van Wijk's Vlei is probably the largest permanent sheet 
of water in Cape Colony, and certainly the largest in Great 
Bushmanland. This year [1908] the dam is fairly fuU, but 
not so fuU as to cover the islands, of which there are several. 
The dam was built about 22 years ago, and in a couple of years 
1,700 acres were submerged, which is rather less than its 
present extent. In circuit it is about 10 miles round. The 
islands are about 50 to 150 yards in diameter. 

" I have found three nests of the identity of which I am 
certaia. There are others which contain similar eggs, but 
on which I have not seen the birds actually sitting. 

" The nests do not vary much. In two cases they were 
placed under very thin and scanty bushes which did not conceal 
them from view. The third was very well hidden under a 
very thick bush. The first two nests were merely round holes 
in the ground, obviously scraped by this or some other bird. 
The holes were 9 inches in diameter and 3 inches deep. 
The bottom was almost bare earth, the few feathers and scraps 
of down that there were below looking as if they had got there 
accidentally. When the bird is sitting the eggs are encircled 
with a ring of down about 1^ inches broad, which the bird 
overlaps, and thus keeps the eggs warm. 

" Before leaving the nest the bird pulls the ring of down 
over the eggs and makes a thick pad of it, thus leaving the 
eggs protected from cold and rather difficult to find. If the 
bird is put up off the nest she will leave the eggs uncovered ; 

133 

T 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

but in one instance I saw the bird fly round in a circle, and 
returning hover over the nest as if she wanted to secure them 
before leaving, although I was within 20 yards in a punt at 
the time. This idea seemed at first sight a little too 
' intelligent,' but the following will show that the above is 
quite probable: I had noticed a Widgeon [Teal] several 
times flying round a certain island, and both myself and my 
companion were sure that there was a nest there. We hunted 
everywhere, but found only one hkely egg, and that broken 
open and quite fresh. Days later I stumbled on the nest 
containing nine Widgeon's eggs and one old Berg Gans' egg 
{Alapochen aegyptiacus) under a very thick bush. I was 
watching a nest at the time belonging to some Gull, and used 
to come and have a look at it every now and then. Each 
time I landed on the island the Widgeon left her nest a few 
minutes after my arrival, and on each occasion the eggs were 
covered over carefully. Eventually I was watching her on 
her nest, and was within 10 feet of her. She was asleep or 
dozing, and did not mind me at aU. I opened my camera 
to take a photograph of her. This startled her and she 
left the nest. The eggs were uncovered, the ring of down 
being aU round them. This nest was on the site of an old 
Goose nest. The eggs were resting on the down and feathers, 
which had evidently been the old Goose nest, hence the old 
Goose egg which was included in her sitting. 

" The cock bird does not, I think, take any part in incuba- 
tion. The hens' breasts are picked quite bare of down, but 
the contour-feathers are not picked out. The cock bird's 
breasts show no signs of this. One meets single cock birds 
scattered about on the dam, and sometimes can get near 
enough to shoot one. I have never found a hen alone. Before 
I realized that they were breeding I shot several birds, and 

134 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

I noticed that they were in breeding condition, and also that 
the hens' breasts were bare of down. 

" These birds are sometimes very shy, at other times, 
particularly at dusk, they are quite tame. In the evening 
they sometimes 'flight,' but this habit is, at this season at 
least, of irregular occurrence, not taking place every night ; 
they also change their feeding-grounds during the day. There 
are some salt pans below the dam, and a pair of Widgeon 
often spent the middle of the day on them. When swimming 
about their caU is a rather high-pitched quack. I have never 
heard them quack when flying, but they sometimes make a 
sort of short, whistling note. This (July) is evidently the 
breeding season for these birds, but they are often to be found 
in threes and fours. 

" Clutch of seven eggs, July 6th, 1907. Slightly incubated. 
Average measurements of six eggs (one having been broken), 
length 1.91 inches; breadth 1.34 inches. 

" Colour pale cream, smooth (not glossy). Shape, slightly 
irregular ; the more pointed end is generally attenuated 
and then rounded abruptly at the end. 

" Clutch of eight eggs, July 6th, 1907. One was examined 
and found to be fresh. Average length 1.97 inches ; breadth 
1.5 inches. 

" Colour smooth cream, smooth (not glossy). Shape fairly 
regular ; slightly more pointed at one end than at the 
other. 

" Clutch of nine eggs, 8th July, 1907 ; two eggs examined 
and found fresh. Average length of nine eggs, 1.92 inches ; 
average breadth 1.46 inches. 

" Colour deep cream, smooth but not glossy. Shape rather 
variable, but all pointed more at one end than at the other ; 
in some this is rather more marked. 

135 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

"It will be seen that clutches vary in colour, size, 
and shape, but eggs of the clutch match each other fairly 
well. 

" The Cape Teal is good eating, but not to be compared 
with the Red-Bill." 



136 



PLATE 58 




C. G. Davies del. 



Withtrljy iSc Co. imp. 



HOTTENTOT TEAL (NETTION PUNCTATUM) Male. 



NETTION PUNCTATUM. 

HOTTENTOT TEAL. 

(Plate 58.) 

Anas punctata, Burchell, Travels, i, p. 283 (1822) ; Reichenow, Vogel 
Afrikas, i, p. 120 (1900-01). 

Qiierquedula hottentotta, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 757 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 128 
(1892). 

Nettion punctatum, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 265 
(1895). 

Nettion punctatus, Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., rn, p. 352 (1905) ; 
Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 139 (1906). 

Desckiption. The bird figured is an adult male. The sexes are 
alike, but the female is not quite so brightly coloured. Young 
birds have fawn-coloured breasts without spots or bars. Length 
about 14 in. 

DiSTErBTJTiON. This pretty httle Teal is found all through Uganda 
and British East Africa, and extends southward through Nyassa- 
land to Cape Colony. It is nowhere very common, but it pro- 
bably is not so rare as is thought, for owing to its small size and 
retiring habits it is frequently overlooked. 

I HAVE killed a good many Hottentot Teal both in the 
Transvaal and in the Orange River Colony, and consider it 
is one of the tamest and most sluggish little birds I have 
ever met with. 

The first pair I saw were on a tiny pond some twenty 
yards across, and they were so friendly that I took them for 
hand-reared birds, and naturally did not shoot them. Some 
days later, four or five of us surrounded a big pan that 
held a lot of ducks, and after firing some twenty or thirty 

137 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

shots at Yellow-bill, Red-bill, etc, we waded in to coUect 
the slain. Among the many Coots and Dabchicks that were 
swimming about in a startled fashion, I suddenly noticed 
some Hottentots, but it was not until I examined them with 
a pair of powerfid field-glasses that I could make them out. 
There were over a dozen of them, and not one had risen in 
spite of the shooting and general uproar. However, they 
rose quickly and easily enough when we began to pay special 
attention to them. Like all Teal they fly at great speed, 
with many of the curious twists and curls in their flight that 
make the Etiropean bird so difficult a target. You may 
kill with the first barrel, but at the report of the gun the 
remainder of the fiock shoots off at aU sorts of angles, and at 
a fine speed, and you soon reaUse that " the quickness of the 
bird deceives the eye." 

They would make most delightful pets, and would look 
very well in a collection of ornamental water-fowl, but up to 
the present I do not think they have been brought to Europe 
alive. 

Eggs in the British Museum, obtained by Anderson in 
Ovampoland are described as oval in shape, moderately 
glossy, and of a pale cream-colour. They measure 1.7 by 
1.3 in. 



138 



Plate 59 




C. G. Davies del. Witherby & Co. imp. 

RED-BILLED PINTAIL (PAECILONETTA ERYTHRORHYNCHA) Female. 



PAECILONETTA EEYTHRORHYNCHA. 

RED-BILLED PINTAIL or EEDBILL. 

(Plate 59.) 

Anas erythrorhyncha, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 517 (1788) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 118 (1900-01). 

PaeciloneMa erythrorhyncha, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., i, 
p. 754 (1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., 
p. 126 (1892) ; Salvador!, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 285 
(1895) ; Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 211 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., 
IV, p. 141 (1906). 

Local Names. " Smee Eendje " of the Dutch (the word "Smee" is 
sometimes used in East AngKa for the Wigeon) ; " Semto Letata " 
of Basutos (Miuray). 

Desckiption. The bird figmred is a female. The sexes are alike, 
except that the male has a shghtly brighter coloured beak. 
Length about 19 in. 

Distribution. The Red-bill is to be found all over South and East 
Africa from Abyssinia to Cape Colony, and up to southern Angola 
on the west ; it is also common in Madagascar. 

It is common at Matatiele and in most of the higher districts 
in Griqualand, on the various dams and lakes, but I have not 
heard of it in Pondoland. 

This beautiful little bird is generally found in small flocks 
on reedy pans and lakes ; it is not often seen on rivers, 
although when the water was low I have occasionally killed 
a few on quiet pools on the rivers Modder and Vaal. StiU, 
it is the exception to find it in such places. 

This is by no means a difficult bird to kill ; it falls to a 
fairly light blow, and is often very tame. It is excellent- 
eating. When shooting, I once wing-tipped a pair of these 

139 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

birds ; they happened to fall on dry land, and I caught them 
and had them tame for some time. They quickly lost their 
wildness, and fed with the ordinary domestic ducks around 
the house. 

The Red-biU has been imported into Europe, and has bred 
in the Zoological Gardens in London, but in the living state 
it is very expensive to buy, being to-day worth some five or 
six pounds per pair. 

It is a near relation of the Bahama Duck (P. hahamensis), 
which is found in the West Indian Islands, and which is 
a common bird in collections of ornamental water-fowl in 
Europe. 

The note of the Red-biU is a rather low, harsh quack, but 
it is seldom uttered. 

From what Sergt. Davies writes me, March appears to 
be the principal breeding-month in Griqualand, as during 
it he came across nests and broods of young of this species, 
as well as Yellow-bills, Pochards, and White-backed Ducks. 

Red-bill usually nest among thick herbage and grass 
growing on the borders of lakes and ponds. The nest is 
built of grass, reeds or sedges, and lined with down from 
the breast of the female. The eggs are from eight to ten 
in number, and are described by FitzSimmons as being of 
a light greenish-white colour ; examples in the South African 
Museum are creamy-brown and glossy ; fairly oval in shape, 
and measure 2.0 by 1.55 in. 



140 



UJ 
< 







-J 



Q. 



UJ 

J 

UJ 

> 

o 

X 



< 

UJ 
0. 

o 

HI 



a 
6 
u 



SPATULA CLYPEATA. 

EUROPEAN SHOYELER. 

(Plate 60.) 
Amis dypeata, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., i, p. 200 (1766). 

Spatula dypeata, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 306 (1895) ; 
Shelley, Birds of Afr., i, p. 173 (1896) ; Sharpe, Hand-List of 
Birds, I, p. 221 (1899) ; Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 110 
(1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Air. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater 
and Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 144 (1906). 

Description. The birds fig\u:ed are an adult drake in full breeding- 
plumage and a duck with young ones. The female of this species 
is very like the female of S. capensis, but can be distinguished 
by the tail-feathers, which are dark-brown with white edges 
and a pale-brown V-shaped mark on the centre of them, 
the tail of the V pointing away from the bird's body, while the 
tail-feathers of the female 8. capensis are dark brown with 
shghtly paler edges, and irregular rufescent bars. 

DiSTErBTJTiON. The Shoveler is a well-known winter visitor to the 
British Isles, and many also breed in suitable locaHties. Probably 
most of those that breed migrate in autumn southwards, while 
those that appear in winter come from further north. It 
is a circumpolar bird, breeding in the Arctic regions of both 
hemispheres about as far north as 68° north lat. throughout Europe, 
Asia, and North America. In the northern winter it migrates 
south to India, Africa, southern Asia and Central and northern 
South America, including the West Indies. 

It has only once been shot within South African limits, viz. 
a male in nearly full breeding-plumage in September, 1893, at 
Riet Vlei near Cape Town. This specimen is now preserved in 
the South African Museum. It is a regular visitor as far south 
as Abyssinia, so it is stated in the Fauna of South Africa, and I 
met with it in some numbers in British East Africa. 

This Shoveler is never likely to be found nesting within 
South African limits. In Europe it is a somewhat late 

14J 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

breeder. Eggs are seldom found in the British Isles before 
the middle of May, and in high latitudes not until the middle 
of June. 

Seebohm writes that the nest is generally found in the 
open, well concealed in long grass or heath, and is very 
skilfully made. The depression in which it is placed, if deep, 
is only slenderly lined with dead grass or sedge ; but if shallow, 
a considerable amount of material is collected to give the 
required depth. 

The eggs are pale buffish-white, with the faintest possible 
trace of olive. They vary in length from 2.2 to 1.8 in. 
and in breadth from 1.6 to 1.4. The nest-down Uke that 
of nearly all ducks, has pale centres, but it may be recog- 
nised by its very conspicuous white tips. 



U2 



UJ 




2: 



SPATULA CAPENSIS. 

CAPE SHOYELEE. 

(Plate 61.) 

Bhynchaspis capensis, Smith, Cat. S. Afr. Mus., p. 36 (1837). 

S-patvla capensis. Sharpens ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 759 (1875-84) ; 
NicoUs & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 128 (1892) ; Sal- 
vadori. Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 318 (1895) ; Reichenow, 
Vogel Afrikas, i, p. Ill (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
in, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 145 
(1906). 

Local Name. " Slop " of the Colonists. 

DESOBiPTioisr. The bird figured is an adult male. The female 
resembles that of the European Shoveler {8. clypeata), but has a 
very dark brown tail with irregular rufescent bars. Length 
about 20 in. 

DiSTBiBTTTiON. This is rather a rare duck in South Africa, but I 
think it is probably commoner than is generally supposed, as it 
is a bird of shy and wary habits. I have shot it near Bloem- 
fontein, and in other parts of the Orange River Colony. It is 
supposed to be confined to South Africa, but I shot a fine male 
in British East Africa in company with some European Shovelers. 
I have never met with it in the Transvaal, although there were 
plenty of places suitable for it. 

The few Cape Shoveler that I have seen in South Africa were 
in pairs, and in their manner of feeding they exactly resemble 
the European bird, and have a curious trick of swimming 
swiftly round each other in small circles in shallow water, 
while they sift through their curious beaks the mud and small 
insects stirred up by this action. 
They are very fast on the wing, and come through a flock 

143 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

of Yellow-bill or Pochard like race-horses, and neither Pochard 
nor Yellow-bill are by any means slow. 

Eggs, described in the British Museum Catalogue, measure 
2.16 by 1.5 in., and are delicate cream-colour tinged with 
green. 



U4 



PLATE 62 




C. G. Uavlcb del. Wilhelby & Co. imp. 

SOUTH AFRICAN POCHARD (NYROCA ERYTHROPHTHALMA) Male and Female. 



NYROOA ERYTHROPHTHALMA. 

SOUTH AFRICAN POCHARD. 

(Plate 62.) 

Anas erythrophthalma, Wied-Neuwied, Beitr, iv, p. 929 (1823). 

Ayfhia capensis, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Air., p. 760 (1875-84) ; 
Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 129 (1892). 

Nyroca brunnea, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 351 (1895) 
(see also Nyroca erythrophthalma, p. 353). 

Nyroca erythrophthalma. Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 211 (1899) ; 
Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., m, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, 
Birds of S. Afr., iv, p. 147 (1906). 

Nyroca capensis, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 108 (1900-01). 

Local Name. " Bruine-eend " of the Boers. 

Dbscbiption. The birds figured are an adult male and a female in 
the first adult plumage. Very old females have whiter faces. 
Length about 20 in. 

DiSTEiBXTTiON. This is the only true Pochard found in South African 
limits. Its range is from Abyssinia to the Gape Colony, extending 
west to Angola ; it is also found in South America, in southern 
Brazil and Peru. 

Mr. Sclater states that it is not very abundant in South Africa, 
but in 1906-7-8-9 I found flocks varying in numbers from a few 
individuals to many hundreds on various pans in the Orange 
River Colony and Transvaal, and as a rule the bigger the pan the 
larger I found the fiock to be. 

These Pochards, like the rest of their family, are excellent 
divers, and get their food, which consists chiefly of water- 
weeds, plants and insects, under the surface of the water. 
Sergt. Davies tells me that he met with a few of this species 
in Griqualand in 1898, and that they were remarkably swift 
on the wing, and while flying looked almost black, the white 

145 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

on the speculum showing up strongly. From my notes, 
however, I do not find that they are especially fast, and they 
take a considerable time getting under way, " squattering " 
along the surface of the water in true diving-duck fashion. 

Most dams in South Africa have a large retaining wall at 
one end, and if the guns take stand under this cover and the 
duck are driven over, some very sporting shots may be had. 
StiU the Pochard is a poor fowl to eat, tasting strongly of 
mud ; but as my office staff apparently thought them good, I 
usually shot these birds when possible. 

I saw many hundreds on some of the lakes in British East 
Africa, and one afternoon while watching some of them I had 
a most extraordinary number of different species of birds 
in view at the same time. I had binoculars, and was hidden ; 
and within one hundred yards of me swam a huge Pelican, 
and spread over the surface of the lake were parties of Yellow- 
biUed Duck, Red-billed Pintail, Red-knobbed Coots and 
Egyptian Geese, while some Spur-winged Geese and a pair 
of Saddle-billed Storks and a party of Stilts moved about 
on the banks near at hand. 

Sergt. Davies writes to me of the South African Pochard as 
follows : — 

" I formerly thought that these birds frequented only the 
deeper pans, but I have lately found them in all sorts of places, 
even in shallow little rain pools on the flats. They usually 
go in flocks, but when breeding they are in pairs. 

"Wounded birds dive weU, and are a fearful trouble to 
retrieve. 

" I found a nest on the 24th April containing nine eggs 
of a creamy-white colour, the nest was in a clump of grass 
about twenty yards from the water, and was neatly made of 
grass and a little down. 

146 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

"I did not take the eggs, so cannot give measurements. 
The Duck nearly let me catch her before she left the nest." 

The Pochard was found nesting on the Berg river in 
September by Mr. Layard, who states that the eggs were 
from five to eight in number. Three of these are still in the 
South African Museum ; they are broad, almost regular 
ovals, smooth and moderately glossy, of a pale creamy-colour, 
and measure 2.3 by 1.65 in. 

Sergt. Davies fiirther remarks that he noticed the eyes of 
a male bird he killed were red when he picked it up, but that 
they changed some time after death to yellow, which was the 
colour of the eyes in all the others he killed. My own 
experience, however, is that the eyes of some twenty 
males I kiUed were red, resembling exactly the colour of 
a ripe red currant. 



U7 



THALASSIOENIS LEUCONOTA. 

WHITE-BACKED DUCK. 

(Plate 63.) 

Clangula leuconotus. Smith, Cat. S. Afr. Mus., p. 37 (1837). 

Thalassiornis leuconota, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 761 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 124 
(1892) ; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 436 (1895) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 212 (1899) ; Sclater, Ann. S. Air. 
Mus., ni, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., rv 
p. 150 (1906). 

Thalassiornis leuconotus, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 106 (1900-01). 

DESCBiPTiosr. The bird figured is a male. The sexes are alike. The 
young birds are less ochraeeous, and more brown on the abdomen. 
Length about 17 in. 

DiSTEiBTJTiON. The White-backed Duck is confined to Africa and 
Madagascar. It is found in Abyssinia, East Africa, Nyassaland, 
to Cape Colony and as far west as Loango. 

Within South African limits it is fairly widely distributed where 
suitable conditions exist. Mr. Sclater states that it has not been 
found in Rhodesia or on the Zambesi, but that it has probably 
been overlooked. 

Seegt. Davies writes to me as follows : " These curious 
little birds are not uncommon on some of the pans here in 
Griqualand, and are usually to be found in small flocks of four 
or five individuals. They are wonderful divers, going under 
water without a ripple. They rise readily off the water, 
although they paddle along with their feet for a little way, 
and when once fairly on the wing fly at a great pace, their 
feet sticking out far beyond their tail, and all the time while 
flying they utter their curious whistling note. 

148 



Plate 63 




C. G. Davies del. Wilheiby & Co. imp, 

WHITE-BACKED DUCK (THALASSORNIS LEUCUNOTA) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

" They swim rather deep, the tail flush with the water. 

" I found a nest on April 3rd, 1910. It was in a clump of 
rushes in about 3 feet of water, and was made chiefly of 
rushes; it had a rather deep cup, without any down, and 
contained seven eggs of a warm, rufous colour. In measure- 
ments they agreed with those in the South African Museum, 
i.e. 2.7 by 1.6 in. The female dived like a Grebe on leaving 
the nest." 



149 



ERISMATURA MACCOA. 

MACCOA DUCK. 

(Plate 64.) 

Oxyura maccoa. Smith, Cat. S. Afr. Mus., p. 37 (1837). 

Erismatura maccoa, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Afr., p. 762 
(1875-84) ; Nicolls & Eglington, Sportsman in S. Afr., p. 125 
(1892) ; Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvn, p. 448 (1895) ; 
Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 105 (1900-01) ; Sclater, Ami. 
S. Afr. Mus., in, p. 352 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., 
IV, p. 153 (1906). 

DESCEiPTioiir. The birds figured are an adult male and female. 
There are several species of Erismatura, but this is the only 
South African representative. 

Maccoa differ from most duck in that they have very thick 
necks, and when skinning them the head and neck can be turned 
inside out quite easily . Length 1 8 J in . 

DiSTBiBTJTiON. This is one of the rarest, if not quite the rarest, of 
the South African ducks, but from its habits and the nature of 
its haunts it is quite possible that it is commoner than is supposed. 

Sergt. C. G. Davies writes me that he has seen and shot it on 
various " vleis " and waters in East Griqualand. It has been 
shot at Mafeteng in Basutoland, and it appears to be sparingty 
distributed in suitable places throughout Cape Colony. I have 
seen skins obtained from Lake Naivasha in British East Africa. 

Col. Sloggett's collectors, Messrs. Grant & Seimund, obtained 
it near Deelfontein. 

The Maccoa Duck is a splendid diver and most reluctant 
to fly ; but it by no means follows that it is unable to do so, 
as it whizzes along at a great pace once it is on the wing. 

It feeds chiefly on water-snails, water-beetles, etc. 

Sergt. C. G. Davies, writing from East Griqualand in March, 

150 



h 

< 



'(»> 



L. 







-a 



o 
u 



a; 
g 



a; 

■JO 



C 
d 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH AFRICA 

1910, says : " I have lately come across a pan in which 
there were quite a dozen Maccoa Duck. They refused to 
fly and only dived but were on the whole very tame and 
I shot a good pair. 

" The female contained an egg ready for laying and quite 
enormous for the size of the bird. It was of the usual duck 
shape, but the sheU somewhat rough in textxire, and of a 
bluish-white colour, the bluish colour most noticeable when 
wet. 

" Unfortunately I had no time to hunt for nests, and the 
egg got smashed on the way home. 

" Apparently this is the first time the egg of this bird has 
been properly identified." 

He writes further : — 

" I did not hear these duck utter any note, and when 
swimming about casually, they swim much as other duck, 
perhaps rather deeper, but when alarmed they look very 
curious, as they then sink the body very deep so that scarcely 
more than the head and lower back and tail are to be seen, 
the tail sticking straight up in the air at right angles to the 
water." 



15] 



HAGEDASHIA HAGEDASH. 

HADADA IBIS. 

(Plate 65.) 

Tantalus hagedash, Latham, Ind. Orn., n, p. 709 (1790). 

Hagedashia hagedash, Sharpe's ed. Layard Birds of S. Air., p. 739 
(1875-84) ; Sharpe. Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxvi, p. 19 (1898) ; 
Woodward, Natal Birds, p. 191 (]899); Sclater, Ann. S. Afr. 
Mus., m, p. 351 (1905) ; Sclater & Stark, Birds of S. Afr., iv, 
p. 100 (1906). 

Theristicus hagedash, Reichenow, Vogel Afrikas, i, p. 325 (1900-01). 

Local Name. " Ingagane " (i.e. Black Ibis) of the Amaxosa 
(Stamford). 

Description. The bird figured is an adult female. The sexes are 
alike, and measure about 30 in. 

Distribution. The Hadada is found throughout the whole of the 
Ethiopian region, from Senegal, Kordofan, and SomaUland 
southwards to Cape Colony. In South Africa the bird is appar- 
ently confined to the well-wooded and watered districts of the 
south and east coasts, and does not occur on the high plateau of 
the centre of the country, nor did Anderson come across it in 
German South-west Africa, although he met it in the Lake Ngami 
region. 

The Hadada is not really a Game-bird in the strict sense of 
the word, but it is most excellent-eating, and is always a 
welcome addition to the bag. 

Nearly all my time in South Africa was spent on the " High 
Veldt," so that I was not within the range of the Hadada, 

152 



PLATE 65 




C. G. Davies del. 



Witherby A. Co. imp. 



HADADA IBIS (HAGEDASIIIA IIAGE-DASIl) Male. 



GAME-BIRDS OP SOUTH AFRICA 

but I saw it quite often in British East Africa, where it is 
quite common. 

Sergt. Davies has made a careful study of this bird, and 
writes to me of its habits as follows : — 

" Hadada are usually found in fair sized flocks, but some- 
times in pairs or singly. They feed principally on beetles, 
locusts and worms which they dig up with their long beaks. 
They are partial to grassy flats that have been lately burnt, 
they also haunt cultivated lands and marshy places, and 
may frequently be foxind feeding in the bush. They go out 
to their feeding places at the first streak of dawn, but during 
the heat of the day generally resort to the bush or the shade 
of trees along the banks of rivers. They roost in trees, 
generally preferring those which overhang water, and are 
very conservative, returning every night to the same tree. 
When feeding in the open they are usually very wild, and 
the best way to shoot them is to wait at sunset under the 
trees in which they roost, and take them as they come in. 
Their flight is strong, and often at a great height, but they 
are not fast. Their sonorous call, from which they get 
their name, is uttered both when alarmed and while on 
the wing. They breed in August and September, but 
I once found a nest containing nearly fledged young at 
Christmas." 

Messrs. Anderson, Reid, and Ayres have described the 
nesting-habits of the Hadada, The nest is generally placed 
in a tree overhanging water, and is a slight structure built 
of sticks, lined with a httle dry grass, and rather flat on the 
top, so that it is surprising the eggs do not fall out. The 
usual clutch consists of three eggs ; these are very different 
from those of the other Ibises, being greenish or greyish-buff, 
densely covered with brownish splotches and streaks. The 

163 



GAME-BIRDS OF SOUTH APEICA 

example in the British Museum, obtained by Ayres and 
figured in the Catalogue of Birds' Eggs, is stated to be rather 
rough, and much pitted with pores, and to measure 2.43 
by 1.57 in. 



Finis. 



154 



INDEX. 



aegyptiaca. Anas, 122 
aegyptiacua, Alopochen, 122, 134 

, Ghenalopex, 122 

adansoni, Cotumix, 75 

, Excalfactoria, 75 

adapersiis, Francolinus, 58, 61 
afer, Francolinus, 45 
afra, Oompsotis, 22 

, Otis, 22, 24 

africana, Cotumix cotumix, 73 

, Sarcidiomia, 114 

africanus, Francolinus, 45 
afroides, Otis, 9, 17, 22, 23, 24 
Alopochen aegypliacus, 122, 134 
Anas aegyptiaca, 122 
auritus, 117 

6o«ca», 122 

cana, 125 

capensis, 132 

clypeata, 141, 143 

erythrophthalma, 145 

erythrorhyncha, 139 

fulva, 121 

gambensis, 109 

melleri, 129 

p«nctoto, 137 

sparsa, 130 

undulata, 127, 131 

viduata, 119 

a;an<Aor%jicAa, 127 

^nser metenotoa, 114 
arguatrix, Colutnha, 105 
aurilius, Netlapus, 117 
auritus. Anas, 117 

, Nettopus, 117 

Aythia capensis, 145 

6ofto»i«»i«i«, Paecilonetta, 140 
barrovU, Otis, 13, 14 

, Tracheloiis, 14 

Barrow's Knorhaan, 14 
bengalensis, Bostratula, 35 

Berg-eend (South African Sheld-drake), 125 
Gans (Egyptian Goose), 122 

Patrijs (Grey-wing Franoolin or Cape 

Partridge), 45 

jBemicJo caraarfensis, 123 

6icmc«M«, Pterocles, 94, 99 

Blaauw-Kop Knorhaan (Blue Knorhaan), 9 

Black-bellied Knorhaan, 18 

Duok, 130 

Knorhaan, 22 



Black Pigeon (Olive-Pigeon), 105 
quilled Snipe (Ethiopian Snipe), 33 

Spur-winged Goose, 112 

Blue Knorhaan, 9 

Quail, 75 

boscaa. Anas, 122 

Bosch Duif (Olive-Pigeon), 105 

(Speckled Pigeon), 103 

Bruine-eend (South African Pochard), 145 
brunnea, Nyroca, 145 

Bush Knorhaan (Red-crested Knorhaan), 20 
Bustard, Kori, 1 

, Stanley, or Veldt Paauw, 7 

Biittikofer's Franoolin, 54 

cafra, Neoiia, 7 

, Otia, 4, 7 

cana, Anaa, 125 

, Caaarca, 125 

canadensia, Bernicla, 123 

Cape Franoolin or Cape Pheasant, 62 

Partridge or Grey-wing Francolin, 45 

Pheasant or Cape Francolin, 62 

Quail, 73 

Red-winged Francolin, 50 

Shoveler, 143 

Teal, 132 

Thicknee or Dikkop, 27 

Wigeon (Cape Teal), 132 

capense, Nettion, 132 
capensis. Anas, 132 

, Aythia, 145 

, Cotumix, 71, 73, 77 

, Francolinus, 58, 61, 62 

, Nyroca, 145 

, Oedionemus, 27 

, Querguedula, 132 

, Rhynchaea, 35 

, Ehynchaspis, 143 

, Roatratula, 35 

, Scolopax, 35 

, Spatula, 141, 143 

, Tetrao, 62 

Caaarca cana, 125 

caaarca, 123 

rutUa, 126 

caataneiventer, Ptemiates, 68 

, Pterniatea nudicollia, 61, 68 

Ghenalopex aegyptiacua, 122 
clamator, Francolmua, 62 
Clangula leuconotua, 148 
clypeata, Anaa, 141, 143 



155 



INDEX — con tinned . 



elypeata, Spatula, 141 

Coast Partridge (Natal Franoolin), 60 

coerulescens, Otis, 9, 14 

, Trachelotis, 9 

Columba arquatrix, 105 

guinea, 103 

livia, 103 

palunibua, 106 

phaeonota, 103 

Comb-duck (Knob-billed Duck), 114 
Common Guinea-Fowl, 85 
communis, Cotumix, 73, 74 
Compsotis afra, 22 

cucoptera, 24 

Coqui Franoolin or Shwimpi, 38 
coqui, Francolinus, 38 

, Perdix, 38 

comuta, Numida, 90 
eoromandelianus, Nettopus, 117, 118 
coronata, Num/ida, 85, 88, 90 
Cotumix adanaonii, 75 

capensis, 71, 73, 77 

communis, 73, 74 

cotumix, 73 

africana, 73 

delagorguei, 71, 77 

crepitans, Oedicnemus, 27 
Crested Franoolin, 41 

Guinea-Fowl, 91 

cucoptera, Compsotis, 24 

Damaraland Guinea-Fowl, 90 
delagorguei, Cotumix, 71, 77 
Delalande's Green Pigeon, 107 
delalandii, Phalacrotreron, 107 

, Treron, 107 

, Vinago, 107 

Dendrocygna fulva, 121 

viduata, 119 

Dikkop or Cape Thicknee, 27 

Knorhaan (Blue Knorhaan), 9 

(Vaal Knorhaan), 16 

, Water, 29 

Double-banded Sandgrouse, 99 

or Solitary Snipe (Great Snipe), 31 

Duck, Black, 130 

, Knob-billed, 114 

, Maocoa, 150 

, Whistling Tree-, 121 

, White-backed, 148 

, faced Tree-, 119 

, Yellow-billed, or Geelbeo, 127 

Dwarf Goose, 117 

East African Guinea-Fowl, 88 
Edada (Black Duck), 130 
edouardi, Outtera, 91 

, cristata, 91 

, Numida, 91 

Egyptian Goose, 122 



Erismatura maccoa, 160 
erythrophthalma, Anas, 145 

, Nyroca, 119, 145 

erythrokyncha, Anas, 139 

, Paecilonetia, 139 

Esikwi (Egyptian Goose), 122 

(Spur-winged Goose), 109 

Ethiopian Snipe, 33 
JEupodotis hori, 1 

European Shoveler, 141 
Excalfactoria adansoni, 75 

Fazant (Cape Franoolin), 62 

(Red-biUed Franoolin), 58 

(Swainson's FrancoUn), 69 

Franoolin, Biittikofer's, 54 

, Cape, or Cape Pheasant, 62 

, Cape Red-winged, 50 

, Coqui, or Shwimpi, 38 

, Crested, 41 

, Grey-wing, or Cape Partridge, 45 

, Humboldt's, 64 

, Kirk's, 43 

, Natal, 60 

, Northern Red-necked, 68 

, Orange River, 53 

, Red-biUed, 58 

, Shelley's, 56 

, Southern Red-neoked, 66 

, Swainson's, 69 

Francolinus adspersua, 58, 61 
afer, 45 

africanus, 45 

capensis, 58, 61, 62 

clamator, 62 

coqui, 38 

gariepensis, 52, 54, 66 

granti, 41 

humboldtii, 64 

jugularis, 54 

kirki, 42, 43 

levaillanti, 50, 52 

natalensia, 58, 60, 66 

pileatus, 41 

sephaena, 41, 43 

shelleyi, 51, 52, 56 

auhtorguatus, 38 

fulva. Anas, 121 

, Dendrocygna, 121 

Oallinago major, 31 

media, 31, 33 

nigripennis, 33 

gamhensis. Anas, 109 

, Plectropterus, 109, 112, 113 

gariepensis, Francolinus, 53, 54, 66 
Geelbeo, or Yellow-billed Duck, 127 
Gheel Patrijs (Spotted Sandgrouse), 97 
Golden Snipe (Painted Snipe), 35 
Gom-Paauw (Kori Bustard), 1 



156 



INDEX — eontinued . 



Goose, Black Spur-winged, 112 

, Dwarf, 117 

, Bgjrptian, 122 

, Spur-winged, 109 

granti, Francolinus, 41 

Great Snipe, 31 

Grey-wing FranooUn or Cape Partridge, 45 

guinea, Columba, 103 

Guinea-Fowl, Common, 85 

, Crested, 91 

, Damaraland, 90 

, East African, 88 

Outtera criitata edouardi, 91 

edouardi, 91 

gutturaUs, Pteroclea, 93, 94 

Hadada Ibis, 152 
hagedash, Hagedaahia, 152 

, Tantalus, 152 

, Theriatieus, 152 

Hagedaahia hagedash, 152 
Haplopelia larvata, 44 
Harlequin Quail, 71 
HenUpodius hottentottua, 83 

namia, 81 

Heierotetrax vigorsi, 16 

Hill Redwing (Cape Red-winged Francolin), 

50 
Hottentot Button-Quail, 83 

Teal, 137 

hotlentotta, Querguedula, 137 

, Turnix, 81, 83 

hottentottua, Hemipodius, 83 
humboldH, Francolinus, 64 

, Ptemiates, 61, 64 

Humboldt's Francolin, 64 

Ibis, Hadada, 152 

Idada (White-faced Tree-Duck), 119 
Ijubantoto (Delalande's Green Pigeon), 107 
Ikala Kalu (Black Knorbaan), 22 
Ikanka (East African Guinea-Fowl), 88 
Impangele (Common Guinea-Fowl), 85 
Ingagane (Hadada Ibis), 152 
Inkankatori (Crested Guinea-Fowl), 91 
tnkwali (Crested Francolin), 41 
Inquanqolo (Dikkop or Cape Thicknee), 27 
Insekvehle (Natal Francolin), 60 
Intendele (Grey-wing Francolin or Cape 

Partridge), 45 
Isagwityi (Cape Quail), 73 
Isakwatsha (Grey-wing Francolin or Cape 

Partridge), 45 
Isemo (Ludwig's Paauw), 4 
Isemi, (Kori Bustard) 1 
Isendele (Shelley's Francolin), 56 
Iswempe (Shwimpi or Coqui Francolin), 38 
Itendele (Cape Red-winged Francolin), 50 
Ivukutu (Speckled Pigeon), 103 
Izuba (Olive Pigeon), 105 



jugularia, Francolinus, 54 

Kanga (East African Guinea-Fowl), 88 
Kelkje Wijn (Namaqua Sandgrouse, 101 
Khoko-a-dira (Dikkop or Cape Thicknee), 27 
Khuale (Grey-wing Francolin or Cape Part- 
ridge), 45 
kirlci, Francolimua, 42, 43 
Kirk's Francolin, 43 
Knob-biUed Duck, 114 
Knorhaan (Black Knorhaan), 22 

(White-quilled Knorhaan), 24 

, Barrow's, 14 

, Black, 22 

, bellied, 18 

, Blue, 9 

, Red-crested, 20 

, Vaal, 16 

, White-quilled, 24 

Kori Bustard, 1 
kori, Eu/podotia, 1 

, Otis, 1, 26 

Kue-Kue (Cape Quail), 73 

Lemao (Ethiopian Snipe), 33 

Kueri Kuechi (Kirk's Francolm), 43 
Kurrichane Button- Quail, 77 
Kwartel (Cape Quail), 73 

larvata, Haplopelia, 44 
Leeba (Speckled Pigeon), 103 
Lefalva (Egjrptian Goose), 122 
lepurana, Ortygia, 77 

, Turnix, 77 

Lequatha (Harlequin Quail), 71 
Lesoho (Natal FrancoUn), 60 
Letsilxhir (Spur-winged Goose), 109 
leuconota, Thalassorms, 148 
leuconotua, Clangula, 148 
levaillanti, Francolimts, 50, 52 

, Perdix, 50 

Liaaotia melanogaater, 18 
livia, Columba, 103 
LophoUa rufleriata, 20 
lovati, Otis, 19 
ludvdgi, Neotia, 4 

, Otia, 4, 7, 8, 26 

Ludwig's Paauw, 4 

Mabuaneng (Kmriohane Button-Quail), 77 
Maccoa Duck, 150 
maccoa, Eriamatura, 150 

, Oxyura, 150 

major, OalVmago, 31 

, Scolopax, 31 

Makow (Spur-winged Goose), 109 
Masked Duck (White-faced Tree-Duck), 119 
m^dia, Oallinago, 31, 33 
melanogaater, lAaaotia, 18 

, OUa, 18, 19 

melanonota,Sarcidiornis, 114 
melanotua, Anaer, 114 



157 



INDEX — eonHntied . 



melanotua, Sarkidiomia, 114 
meleagris, Ntbmida, 86, 89 
melleri. Anas, 129 
mitrata, Nvmida, 85, 88, 89, 91, 92 
Mitred Guinea-Fowl (East African Guinea- 
Fowl), 88 

Nacht Patrijs (Yellow-throated Sandgrouse), 

93 
Namaqua Partridge (Namaqua Sandgrouse), 

101 
Patrijs (Namaqua Sandgrouse), 101 

Pheasant (Natal Franoolin), 60 

Sandgrouse, 101 

namaqua, Pteroclea, 101 

, Pteroclurus, 101 

, Tetrao, 101 

nana, Turnix, 81 
na/nua, Hemipodiua, 81 
Natal Button-Quail, 81 

Franoolin, 60 

natalenais, Francolinua, 68, 60, 66 
Neoiis cafra, 7 

ludwigi, 4 

Nettapua aunliua, 117 
Nettion capenae, 132 

punctatum, 137 

Nettopua auritua, 117 

coromandelianua, 117, 118 

niger, Plectroptenie, 112 

, ganibensis, 112 

nigripemiia, Oallmago, 33 
Nile Goose (Egyptian Goose), 122 
Northern Red-necked Franoolin, 68 
nudicoUia, Pterniatea, 61, 66, 68 

, Tetrao, 66 

Numida comuta, 90 

coronata, 85, 88, 90 

edoiiardi, 91 

meleagris, 86, 89 

mitrata, 85, 88, 89, 91, 92 

papulosa, 85, 90 

pticherani, 91 

verreauxi, 91 

Nyroca hrunmea, 145 

capemsis, 145 

erythrophthalma, 119, 145 

Oedicnemus eapensis, 27 

crepitans, 27 

aenegalenaia, 29 

verrmculatiis, 29 

Olive-Pigeon, 105 

Oliven Duif (Olive Pigeon), 105 
Orange River Francolm, 53 
Ortygia lepurana, 77 
Otis afra, 22, 24 

afroides, 9, 17, 22, 23, 24 

harrovii, 13, 14 

cafra, 4, 7 

coerulescena, 9, 14 



Otis kori, 1, 26 

lovati, 19 

■ ludioigi, 4, 7, 8, 26 

melanogaater, 18, 19 

rufleriata, 20 

acolopacea, 16 

aenegalensis, 14 

vigorsi, 16 

Oxyura maccoa, 150 

Paauw, Ludwig's, 4 

, Veldt, or Stanley Bustard, 7 

Paecilonetta hahamenais, 140 

erythrorhyncha, 139 

Painted Snipe, 35 
Pahmibua arquatrix, 105 
palumbua, Columba, 106 
papulosa, Numida, 85, 90 

Partridge, Cape, or Grey-wing Franoolin, 45 
Patrijs (Grey-wing Franoolin or Cape Part- 
ridge), 45 
Peele Peele (Spur-winged Goose), 109 
Perdix coqui, 38 

levaillantii, 50 

sephcena, 41 

swainsonii, 69 

phaeonota, Oolumha, 103 
Phalacrotreron delalandii, 107 
Pheasant (Cape Franoolin), 62 

(Red-biUed Franoolin), 58 

• (Southern Red-necked Franoolin), 66 

• (Swainson's Franoolin), 69 

, Cape, or Cape Franoolin, 62 

Pigeon, Delalande's Green, 107 

, OUve-, 105 

, Speckled, 103 

pileatua, Francolinua, 41 

Pintail, Red-billed, or Red-bill, 139 

Plectropterus ganibensis, 109, 112, 113 

niger, 112 

meppelli, 109 

niger, 112 

Pochard, South African, 145 
Ptemistea caatanevuenter, 68 

humboldti, 61, 64 

nudicollis, 61, 66, 68 

castaneiventer, 61, 68 

swainsoni, 41, 61, 69 

Pterocles hicinctua, 94, 99 

gutturalia, 93, 94 

namaqua, 101 

variegatua, 94, 97, 102 

Pterodurua namaqua, 101 
pucherani, Numida, 91 
punctata, Anaa, 137 
punctatum, Nettion, 137 

Quail, Blue, 75 

, Cape, 73 

, Harlequin, 71 

■, Hottentot Button-, 83 



158 



INDEX — continued . 



Quail, Kurrichane Button-, 77 

, Natal Button-, 81 

Querquedula capenais, 132 
hotientotta, 137 

Bameron Pigeon (Olive-Pigeon), 105 
Eed-bill or Red-billed Pintail, 139 

billed Francolin, 58 

Pintail or Red-bill, 139 

crested Knorhaan, 20 

necked Pheasant (Southern Red- 
necked Francolin), 66 
Redwing (Cape Red-winged Francolin), 50 

(Orange River Francolin), 52 

Reit-Quartel (Hottentot Button-Quail), 83 

(Kunichane Button-Quail), 77 

Bhynckaea capensis, 35 

Bhynchaspis capensis, 143 
Bostratula hengalensis, 35 

capensis, 35 

rueppeUi, Plectropterus gambensia, 109 
ruficrista, Lophotis, 20 

, Otis, 20 

rusticola, Scolopax, 20 
ruHla, Casarca, 126 

Sandgrouse, Double-banded, 99 

, Namaqua, 101 

, Spotted, 97 

, YeUow-throated, 93 

Sand-Quail (Hottentot Button-Quail), 83 
Sarddiomis africana, 114 

melanonota, 114 

SarMdiomis melanotus, 114 
scolopacea, Otis, 16 
Scolopax capensis, 35 

major, 31 

rusticola, 20 

Semto Letata (Red-billed Pintail or Red- 
bill), 139 

senegalensis, Oedicnemus, 29 

, Otis, 14 

aephaena, Francoliniie, 41, 43 

, Perdix, 41 

shalowi, Vinago, 107 

Sheld-drake, South African, 125 

shelleyi, Francolimus, 51, 52, 56 

Shelley's Francolin, 56 

Shoveler, Cape, 143 

, European, 141 

Shwimpi or Coqui Francolin, 38 

Slop (Cape Shoveler), 143 

Smee Eendje (Red-billed Pintail or Red- 
bill), 139 

Snipe, Ethiopian, 33 

, Great, 31 

, Painted, 35 

Solitary or Double Snipe (Great Snipe), 31 

South African Pochard, 145 

Sheld-drake, 125 

Southern Red-necked Francolin, 66 



aparsa, Anaa, 130 
Spatula capensis, 141, 143 

clypeata, 141 

Speckled Pigeon, 103 
Spook-vogel (Ethiopian Snipe), 33 
Spotted Sandgrouse, 97 
Spur-winged Goose, 109 
Stanley Bustard or Veldt Paauw, 7 
auhtorquatus, Prancolvnus, 38 
awavnsoni, Perdix, 69 

, Ptemistes, 41, 61, 69 

Swainson's Francolin, 69 
sylvatica, Tumix, 77 

Tadoma tadoma, 123 

Tantalus hagedaeh, 152 

Tarantal (Common Guinea-Fowl), 85 

Teal, Cape, 132 

, Hottentot, 137 

eendje (Cape Teal), 132 

Tetrao capensis, 62 

namaqtia, 101 

nudicollis, 66 

(Pterocles) variegaius, 97 

Thalassornis leuconota, 148 
Theristicus hagedash, 152 
Thioknee, Cape, or Dikkop, 27 

Thorn Redwing (Shelley's Francolin), 56 
Trachelotia barrowii, 14 

cocruleacena, 9 

Treron ddalandii, 107 
Tumix hottentotta, 81, 83 

lepurana, 77 

nana, 81 

aylvatica, 77 

n 

undulata. Anas, 127, 131 
Vaal Knorhaan, 16 
variegatus, Pterocles, 94, 97, 102 

, Tetrao (Pterocles), 97 

Veldt Paauw or Stanley Bustard, 7 
vermiculatus, Oedicnemus, 29 
verreauxi, Numida, 91 
viduata. Anas, 119 

, Dendrocygna, 119 

vigorsi, Heterotetrax, 16 

, Otis, 16 

Vinago ddalandii, 107 

shalovn, 107 

Water Dikkop, 29 
Whistling Tree-Duck, 121 
White-backed Duck, 148 

faced Tree-Duck, 119 

quilled Knorhaan, 24 

Wilde Maoaauw (Spur-winged Goose), 109 

xanthorhyncha, Anas, 127 

Yellow-billed Duck or Geelbec, 127 
throated Sandgrouse, 93 



159 




er 



ill 



.m 



WMMmM 



Wkiimit 



I 



fmMMmm 



'mm 



''i!i:M 



mi;. 



W M'!'/ 



m 



mm 

mil 









mm