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Full text of "The snakes of the Philippine Islands"

ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 



New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 




AT 

Cornell University 



_, Cornell University Library 

QL 661.T35 



The snakes of the Philippine Islands, 




3 1924 001 803 299 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001803299 



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THE SNAKES OF THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



BY 



EDWARD H. TAYLOR 




MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1922 



Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
BuRBiAu OP Science 

Manila 
Publication No. 16 
(Actual date of publication February 11, 1922.) 
2 



PREFACE 

This monograph is the result of a careful study of about three 
thousand specimens of Philippine snakes, preserved for the most 
part in the collection of the Bureau of Science and in my own 
private collection. Through the courtesy of the directors of the 
Museo de Santo Tomas and El Ateneo de Manila, I was also 
able to make a study of numerous specimens contained in their 
important collections. A few specimens at Silliman Institute, 
Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, were examined, as well as a few in 
some of the private collections in Manila. 

In most cases the descriptions given in this work are of 
normal Philippine specimens ; where no specimen has been avail- 
able, I have taken a description given by another author. In 
the definition of genera, I have drawn very largely on Boulenger.* 

I have also drawn on various other authors and on my own 
.previous papers for illustrations, and in each case credit has 
been duly given. Most of the original drawings here published 
were made by Macario Ligaya. 

It has been impossible to examine all the literature treating 
of Philippine herpetology; but many works are included in the 
synonymies which I have been unable to examine. 

It is a matter for regret that I have not had access to European 
herpetological collections from the Philippines. For the most 
part, collections in European institutions were studied and re- 
ported on before the appearance of Boulenger's work, and in 
consequence the identifications are frequently incorrect or un- 
trustworthy. However, the necessity for an examination of the 
European collections has been largely obviated by Boulenger's 
admirable work.f I have examined various collections in 
America. 

As companion volumes to The Snakes of the Philippine Islands 
I have prepared The Lizards of the Philippine Islands and Am- 
phibians and Turtles of the Philippine Islands. It is expected 
that the three volumes will be published at about the same time. 

Edward H. Taylor. 

Manila, P. I., July k, 1919. 

* Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1-3 (1894-1896). 
fOp. cit. 



CONTENTS 

Page. 

Illustrations 9 

Introduction 15 

Historical 16 

Bibliography of Philippine Snakes 20 

Economic Consideration of Snakes 31 

Local Names for Philippine Snakes 34 

Faunal Relations and Distribution of Philippine Snakes.... 38 
Species of Snakes Erroneously Attributed to the Philippine 

Islands 43 

Classification of the Snakes 45 

Suborder Serpentes 47 

Nonpoisonous Snakes 47 

Family Typhlopid^ 47 

Genus Typlhops Oppel 48 

Typhlops braminus (Daudin) 50 

Typhlops luzonensis Taylor 52 

Typhlops jagorii Peters j 53 

Typhlops ruficauda (Gray) 54 

Typhlops ruber Boettger 55 

Typhlops canlaonensis Taylor 55 

Typhlops manilee Taylor 56 

Typhlops olivaceus (Gray) 58 

Typhlops rugosa Taylor 58 

Typhlops dendrophis sp. nov 60 

Typhlops suluensis Taylor 61 

Typhlops longicauda Taylor 63 

Typhlops mindanensis sp. nov 65 

Typhlops cumingii (Gray) 66 

Family Boid^ 67 

Subfamily Pythonin^ 68 

Genus Python Daudin 68 

Python reticulatus (Schneider) 68 

Family Xenopeltid^ 72 

Genus Xenopeltis Reinwardt 73 

Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt 73 

Family Natricid^ 76 

Subfamily Acrochordin^ 76 

Genus Chersydrus Cuvier 77 

Chersydrus granulatus (Schneider) 77 

Subfamily Natricin^ 78 

Genus Sibynophis Fitzinger 79 

Sibynophis bivittatus (Boulenger) 80 

5 



6 CONTENTS 

, Page. 

Genus Natrix Laurenti °" 

Natrix stolata (Linnaeus) ""^ 

Natrix spilogaster (Boie) .-- — °° 

Natrix chrysarga (Schlegel) ' "' 

Natrix auriculata (Glinther) ^^ 

Natrix crebripunctata (Wiegmann) 91 

Natrix lineata (Peters) -- "-^ 

Natrix dendrophiops Giinther _ 95 

Natrix dendrophiops dendrophiops (Giinther) 95 

Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis Taylor 97 

Genus Oxyrhabdium Boulenger .._ 99 

Oxyrhabdium modestum (Dumeril and Bibron) 100 

Oxyrhabdium leporinum (Giinther) 103 

Genus Cyclocorus Dumeril and Bibron 105 

Cyclocorus lineatuS (Reinhardt) 106 

Subfamily Homalopsin^ - 110 

Genus Hurria Daudin 110 

Hurria rynchops (Schneider) Ill 

Hurria microlepis (Boulenger) 114 

Genus Fordonia Gray 115 

Fordonia leucobalia (Schlegel) 115 

Subfamily Langahin^... 116 

Genus Hologerrhum Giinther 116 

Hologerrhum philippinum Giinther _ 116 

Subfamily CoeonelliN/E 117 

Genus Ophites Wagler 118 

Ophites aulicus (Linnseus) .--.. 120 

Ophites tessellatus (Jan) 124 

Ophites subcinctus (Boie) 124 

Genus Haplonodon Griffin -- -.- 126 

Haplonodon philippinensis Griffin _ 126 

Genus Stegonotus Dumeril and Bibron 129 

Stegonotus muelleri Dumeril and Bibron 129 

Stegonotus dumerilii Boulenger 130 

Genus Dryocalamus Giinther _ 131 

Dryocalamus philippinus Griffin 132 

Genus Zaocys Cope - _. 134 

Zaocys luzonensis Giinther _ 135 

Zaocys carinatus Giinther__ 136 

Genus Holarchus Cope 138 

Holarchus meyerinkii (Steindachner) 139 

Holarchus ancorus (Girard) _ __ 140 

Holarchus maculatus Taylor I43 

Holarchus burksi Taylor, I45 

Genus Oligodon Boie 14t5 

Oligodon modestus Giinther -- I47 

Oligodon notospilus Giinther 148 

Oligodon iwahigensis Griffin I49 

Oligodon schadenbergi Boettger I5I 

Genus Gonyosoma Wagler _ __ _ 150 

Gonyosoma oxycephalum (Boie) 152 



CONTENTS 7 

Page. 

Genus Elaphe Fitzinger 155 

Elaphe erythrura (Diimeril and Bibron) _ 156 

Elaphe philippina Griffin 159 

Genus Liopeltis Fitzinger 161 

Liopeltis tricolor (Schlegel) _ 162 

Liopeltis philippinus (Boettger) 164 

Genus Dendrophis Boie 165 

Dendrophis pictus (Gmelin) - 166 

Genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger 169 

Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (Gray) 169 

Dendrelaphis modestus Boulenger _ 172 

Dendrelaphis terrificus (Peters) 174 

Genus Pseudorhabdium Boulenger 177 

Pseudorhabdium longiceps (Cantor) .-. 178 

• Pseudorhabdium oxycephalum (Gunther) 179 

Pseudorhabdium mcnamarse Taylor _ 180 

Genus Typhlogeophis Giinther 182 

Typhlogeophis brevis Gunther 183 

Genus Calamaria Boie 183 

Calamaria grayi Giinther ..._ 184 

Calamaria bitorques Peters 185 

Calamaria gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron 186 

Calamaria gervaisii gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron 187 

Calamaria gervaisii iridescens Taylor , 188 

Calamaria suluensis sp. nov 189 

Calamaria mindorensis Boulenger 190 

Calamaria everetti Boulenger 191 

Calamaria mearnsi Stejneger 193 

Calamaria tropica sp. nov 194 

Slightly Poisonous Snakes 195 

Subfamily Boigin^ 195 

Genus Boiga Fitzinger 195 

Boiga dendrophila (Boie) 197 

Boiga dendrophila latifasciata (Boulenger) 198 

Boiga dendrophila multicincta (Boulenger) ..._ 200 

Boiga dendrophila divergens subsp. nov.... 201 

Boiga angulata (Peters) - 204 

Boiga philippina (Peters) _ _ 206 

Boiga cynodon (Boie) 206 

Genus Psammodynastes Giinther 209 

Psammodynastes pulverulentus (Boie) 209 

Genus Dryophiops Boulenger 213 

Dryophiops philippina Boulenger 213 

Genus Chrysopelea Boie _ 215 

Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw) --- 216 

Genus Dryophis Dalman 218 

Dryophis prasinus Boie ~ 219 

Dryophis griseus sp. nov 221 

Dryophis preocularis sp. nov 222 

Deadly Poisonous Snakes 224 



8 CONTENTS 

Page. 

Family Elapid^ 224 

Subfamily Hyhrin^— _ - 225 

Grenus Aipysurus Lacepede - 225 

Aipysurus eydouxii (Gray) - 226 

Genus Laticauda Laurenti - 227 

Laticauda laticaudata (LinnEeus) 228 

Laticauda colubrina (Schneider) 231 

Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt) 234 

Genus Disteira Lacepede — 236 

Disteira cincinnatii Van Denburgh and Thompson 239 

Disteira ornata (Gray) 241 

Disteira cyanocincta (Daudin)... 245 

Disteira cyanosoma Wall __ _ 248 

Genus Lapemis Gray _ 249 

Lapemis hardwickii Gray - 249 

Genus Pelamydrus Stejneger - 252 

Pelamydrus platurus (Linnaeus) 252 

Subfamily ElapinjB 254 

Genus Naja Laurenti ..j. 255 

Naja hannah (Cantor) 256 

Naja naja Linn^us 259 

Naja naja samarensis Peters 259 

Naja naja miolepis (Boulenger) -262 

Naja naja philippinensis subsp, nov 265 

Genus Hemibungarus Peters 268 

Hemibungarus collaris (Schlegel) 269 

Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann) 269 

Hemibungarus mcclungi sp. nov 272 

Genus Doliophis Girard 273 

Doliophis bilineatus (Peters) 274 

Doliophis philippinus (Giinther) 277 

Family Amblycephalid^ * 280 

Genus Haplopeltura Boulenger 280 

Haplopeltura boa (Boie) 280 

Family CeotamdjE 283 

Genus Trimeresurus Lacepede 283 

Trimeresurus mcgregori Taylor 284 

Trimeresurus halieus Griffin 286 

Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (Gray) 288 

Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw) 290 

Trimeresurus schultzei Griffin 092 

Trimeresurus philippensis Gray 295 

Trimeresurus wagleri (Boie) oqq 

Trimeresurus wagleri wagleri (Boie) 298 

Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis Taylor 299 

Trimeresurus wagleri subamuilatus (Gray) 300 

Index ; _ __ ; 353 



This family is nonpoisonous. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1 
Typhlops loiigicauda Taylor; a, head, lateral view; b, head, dorsal view; c, 
chin. Type, X 3. 

Plate 2 

Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt; from a photograph of a Palawan specimen. 

Plate 3 
Pig. 1. Chersydrus granulatus (Schneider) ; after Cuvier; young. 

2. Laticauda sejnifasciata (Reinwardt) ; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, 
anterior view. 

Plate 4 

Fig. 1. Natrix spilogaster (Boie) ; from a photograph of a preserved 

specimen (young) ; natural size. 
Figs. 2 to 4. Natrix auriculata (Giinther) ; after Boulenger. 
Pig. 5. Natrix chrysarga (Schlegel) ; from a photograph of a young 

specimen from Busuanga. 
Pigs. 6 and 7. Natrix Uneata (Peters) ; head; X 2. 

Plate 5 

Natrix Uneata (Peters) ; from a photograph of a preserved specimen from 
Mindanao. 

Plate 6 

Pigs. 1 to 3. Hurria microlepis (Boulenger) ; after Boulenger. 

4 to 6. Dryophiops philippina Boulenger; after Boulenger. 

Plate 7 

Fig. 1. Hologerrhum philippinum Giinther; after Giinther, a, lateral view 
of head. 
2. Oligodon notospilus Giinther; after Giinther. 

Plate 8 

Ophites subcinctus (Boie) ; from a photograph of a preserved specimen 
from Palawan. 

Plate 9 

Haplonodon philippinensis Griffin; from the type; X 1- 

Plate 10 

Pig. 1. Sibynophis bivittatus (Boulenger) ; from a photograph of a Bu- 
suanga specimen. 
2. Dryocalamus philipphms Griffin; from a photograph of the type. 



]_0 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 11 

Figs. 1 and 2. Dryocalanvus philippintts Griffin; head; Y 3. 
3 to 5. Liopehis tricolor (Schlegel); head; X 2. 
6 to 8. Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw); head; X 2. 

Plate 12 

Figs. 1 and 3. Zaocys luzonensis Gtinther; after Boulenger. 

2 and 4. Zaocys carmatus Gunther; after Boulenger. 

Plate 13 

Pigs. 1 and 2. Zaocys luzonensis Gunther; from photographs of the head 
of a Luzon specimen. 

3 to 5. Oligodon modestus Gunther; after Boulenger. 

6 and 7. Dendrelaphis modestus Boulenger; after Boulenger. 

Plate 14 
Holarchus meyerivkii (Steindachner) ; from a photograph of a specimen 
from Sulu Archipelago. 

Plate 15 
Holarchus maculatus Taylor; drawn from the type. 

Plate 16 
Holarchus burksi Taylor; drawn from the type. 

Plate 17 

Figs. 1 and 2. Holarchus ancorus (Girard) ; head. 
3 to 5. Oligodon notospUus Giinther; head. 
6 and 7. Holarchus meyerinkii (Steindachner) ; head. 

Plate 18 

Fig. 1. Oligodon notospUus Giinther; from a photograph of a Balabae 
specimen. 

2. Oligodon iwahigensis Griffin; from a photograph of the type. 

3. Holarchus ancorus (Girard) ; from a photograph of a living spec- 

imen from Manila. 

Plate 19 

Liopeltis tricolor (Schlegel) ; from a photograph of a preserved specimen. 

Plate 20 

Liopeltis philippinus (Boettger) ; from a photograph of a Palawan speci- 
men. 

Plate 21 

Dendrelaphis caudolineat^is (Gray) ; from a photograph of a preserved 
specimen from Palawan. 

Plate 22 

Dendrelaphis teri-ificris (Peters) ; from a photograph of a preserved speci- 
men. 



ILLUSTRATIONS H 

Plate 23 

Dendrelaphis terrificns (Peters) ; after Glinther's plate of Dendrelaphis 
philippinicus. 

Plate 24 

Figs. 1 to 4. Typhlogeophis brevis Giinther; after Boulenger. 
5 to 7. Calamaria everetti Boulenger; after Boulenger. 
8 and 9. Calamaria everetti Boulenger, young; after Boulenger. 

Plate 25 

Boiga dendrophila multicincta (Boulenger) ; from a photograph of a pre- 
served specimen from Palawan. 

Plate 26 

Figs. 1 to 3. Boiga angulata (Peters); head; X 2. (No. 789, Polillo.) 

4 to 6. Boiga dendrophila multicincta (Boulenger) ; head; x 1. (Pa- 
lawan.) 

Plate 27 

Boiga angulata (Peters) ; from a photograph of a preserved specimen. 
(No. 271.) 

Plate 28 

Dryophis preocularis sp. nov. ; from a photograph of the type. 

Plate 29 
Laticauda colubrina (Schneider); after Cuvier. 

Plate 30 
Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt) ; after Schlegel. 

Plate 31 

Pig. 1. Pelamydrus platurus (Linnaeus) ; after Cuvier. 

2. Naja hannah (Cantor) ; from a photograph of the head of a Luzon 

specimen. 

3. Naja hannah (Cantor) ; from the same specimen as fig. 2. 

Plate 32 

Naja naja miolepis (Boulenger) ; from a photograph of a young specimen 
from Palawan. 

Plate 33 

Pig. 1. Hemibunganis calligaster (Wiegmann) ; from a photograph of a 
preserved specimen. 

2. Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann) ; young. The specimen 

taken on the same plate with fig. 3 is much longer but much 
slenderer than H. incclungi. 

3. Hemibungarus mcclungi sp. nov. ; from a photograph of the type. 

Plate 34 

Pigs. 1 and 2. Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann) ; head; X 3. 

3 and 4. Hemibungarus mcclungi sp. nov.; head, drawn from the 

type; X 4. 
.5 and 6. Doliophis bilineatus (Peters) ; head. 
7 to 9. Haplopelfura boa ("Boie) ; head; X 8. 



12 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 35 
Fig. 1. Doliophis philippinus (Gunther) ; after Giinther; a, head, dorsal 
view. 

2. Doliophis philippinus (Gunther) ; from a photograph of a young 

specimen from Zamboanga. 

3. Doliophis biliveatus (Peters) ; from a photograph of a Palawan 

specimen. 

Plate 36 

Trimeresurus schidtzei Griffin; from a photograph of a Palawan specimen. 

Plate 37 
Fig. 1. Trimeresurus philipjpensis Gray; from a photograph of a speci- 
men in Santo Tomas Museum. 

2. Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis Taylor; from a photograph of 

the type. 

3. Trimeresunis ivagleri suhannulatus (Gray) ; from a photograph 

of the Mindanao specimen. 

4. Trimeresurus wagleri tvagleri (Boie) ; from a photograph of a 

Palawan specimen. 

TEXT FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Head shields of typical Typhlopidas, Typhlops suluensis Taylor; e, 
eye; /, frontal; ip, interparietal; ins, intei-nasal suture: lab, 
labials; n, nasal; nos, nostril; o, ocular; par, parietal; pf, pre- 
frontal; po, postocular; preo, preocular; ?•, rosti'al. 

2. Typhlops braminus (Daudin) ; after Stejneger; a, head, dorsal 

view; 6, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view; d, anal region 
and tail. 

3. Typhlops suluensis Taylor; from the type; a, head, lateral view; 

6, head, dorsal view; c. chin; x 3. 

4. Typhlops cumingii (Gray) ; after Boulenger; a, head, dorsal view; 

6, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

5. Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt; after Boulenger; o, head, dorsal 

view; b, head, lateral view. 

6. Typical Natricinse head; after Griffin; Dendrelaphis tei-yificus 

(Peters), from Griffin's figure of D. cxruleaUis; ch, chin shield; 
/, fronta^l; H, inferior labial; in, internasal; lb, superior labial; 
lo, loreal; m, mental, or symphysial; n, nasal; par, parietal; pf, 
prefrontal; po, preocular; pto, postocular; r, rostral; so, supra- 
ocular; ta, anterior temporal; tp, posterior temporal; v, ventral. 

7. Nati-ix auricidata (Gunther) ; after Bovilenger; a, head, dorsal view; 

b, head, lateral view. 

8. Matrix dendropliiops negrosensis Taylor; a, head, dorsal view; 6, 

head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

9. Oxijrhabdium, inodestum (Dumeril and Bibron) ; drawing of a Min- 

danao specimen; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; c, 
head, ventral view; X 2. 

10. Oxyrhabdiinn Icporinuni (Giinther); after Boulenger; o, head, 

dorsal view; b, head, lateral view. 

11. Ophites aulicus (Linnseus) ; after Boulenger; a, head, dorsal view; 

b, head, lateral view. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 13 

12. Ophites subcinctus (Boie) ; drawing of a Palawan specimen; a, 

head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; x 2. 

13. Haplonodon philippinensis GrifRn; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, 

ventral view. 

14. Pseudorhabdium oxycephalurn (Giinther) ; after Boulenger; a, 

head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

15. Pseudorhabdium mcnainarx Taylor; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, 

lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 
.16. Typhlogeophis brevis Giinther; after Boulenger; head, dorsal view. 

17. Calamaria everetti Boulenger; after Boulenger; head, lateral view. 

18. Psa-rnviodynastes pulverulentus (Boie) ; after Stejneger; a, head, 

dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

19. Dryophis preocularis sp. nov. ; drawing of a Polillo specimen; a, 

head, dorsal view; 6, head, lateral view. 

20. Aipysurus eydouxii (Gray) ; after Jan, copied from Wall; a, head, 

dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

21. Laticaiida laticaudata (Linnasus) ; after Wall; a, head, dorsal 

view; b, head, lateral view; c, chin. 

22. Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt) ; after Wall; a, head, dorsal 

view; 6, head, lateral view; c, chin. 

23. Disteira cincinnatii Van Denburgh and Thompson; after Van Den- 

burgh and Thompson; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; 
c, chin; d, anterior ventrals; e, anal region; /, ventrals. 

24. Disteira ornata (Gray) ; drawing of a specimen from Manila Bay; 

a, head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view; 
X 2. 

25. Disteira cyanocincta (Daudin) ; after Wall; a, head, dorsal view; 

b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

26. Disteira cyanocincta (Daudin) ; after Jan's D. westennanni; a, 

head, lateral view; 6, head, lateral view (variation). 

27. LapemAs hardwickii Gray; after Giinther; a, head, dorsal view; 

b, head, lateral view; c, chin. 

28. Pelamydnis platurus (Linnseus) ; after Stejneger; a, head, dorsal 

view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 

29. Naja Hannah (Cantor); after Boulenger; a, head, dorsal view; b, 

head, lateral view. 

30. Naja naja miolepis (Boulenger) ; a, head, dorsal view; 6, head, 

lateral view; c, chin; X 1. 

31. Trimeresurus mcgregori Taylor; from the type; a, head, dorsal 

view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, ventral view; X 1- 

32. Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (Gray); after Boulenger's Lachesis 

flavomaculatus ; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view. 



THE SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By Edward H. Taylor 

INTRODUCTION 

Since American occupation in 1898, a few notable herpeto- 
logical collections have been made in the Philippines, which have 
resulted in the discovery of several species new to science and 
of others heretofore unknown for the Islands. The collections 
in the Bureau of Science were enriched by the work of H. M. 
Weber and W. Schultze in Palawan, of C. Canonizado in 
Polillo, and of Lawrence E. Griffin in Mlndoro, Palawan, Ban- 
tayan, and Luzon. Since 1912 I have collected extensively in 
central eastern Mindanao, Negros, Mindoro, Palawan, Busuanga, 
Lubang, Sulu Archipelago, and Luzon. 

Dr. Lawrence E. Griffin during his stay in the Islands made 
a preliminary study of the collection in the Bureau of Science 
and later published four papers. One of these describes two new 
species of snakes from Negros, one gives a list of Palawan 
snakes, another gives a list of snakes from Polillo, and the fourth 
is a checklist and key to all known Philippine snakes. 

The results of my collecting in Negros and in Sulu are in- 
corporated in two short papers treating of the reptilian faunas 
of those localities. Another paper treats of the genus Holarchus 
and describes two new species. A fourth paper * includes de- 
scriptions of several new snakes from various Philippine local- 
ities. In the present monograph the following supposedly new 
species and subspecies are described : 

Typhlops dendrophis. Dryophis griseus. 

Typhlops mindanensis. Dryophis preocularis. 

Calamaria suluensis. HeTnihungams mcclungi. 

Calamaria tropica. Naja naja philippinensis. 
Boiga dendrophila divergens. 

In spite of a rather thorough exploration of some parts of the 
Islands herpetologically, large areas are comparatively unknown. 
Thus, I have not a single authentic record for Bohol or for 
Marinduque, and very few for Cebu, Masbate, Leyte, Panay, and 

* Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 105-125. 

15 



-|_g SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Catanduanes. The fauna of the interior of Mindoro is prac- 
tically unknown, as are also the faunas of high mountains 
everywhere in the Islands. Undoubtedly many new species and 
subspecies await discovery. . 

Species that occur in various islands may show variations 
which in many cases are small but constant. Thus it is fre- 
quently possible to state the locality from which a specimen comes 
by mere examination. Such variations may consist of a higher 
or a lower average of ventrals or subcaudals; a difference m 
marking or color; or in the proportions or the relations of the 
various head scales. Undoubtedly larger collections will permit 
the naming of numerous subspecies. Not infrequently we find 
that the variations in various species belonging to different 
genera, or even families and orders, may have the same trend; 
that is, there may be an increase or a reduction in the number 
of ventrals, or of the scale rows, or of loreals, or there may be 
curious anomalies in scale formation. 

This is of course to be expected, since the same environmental 
conditions of food, temperature, rainfall, elevation, nature of soil, 
etc., might easily bring about related changes in the fauna of a 
particular locality. Certainly a study of these interrelated va- 
riations on various islands would do much to solve, beyond 
question, the part environment plays in the bringing about of a 
new species, which in my own opinion is certainly no small one. 

HISTORICAL 

Some of the earliest writers on the Philippines have left rec- 
ords of snakes — records which are for the most part native 
stories or superstitions, but at all events interesting. 

Antonio de Morga * writes in 1609 : 

The forests and settlements have many serpents, of various colora, 
which are generally larger than those of Castilla. Some have been seen 
in the forests of unusual size, and wonderful to behold. The most harm- 
ful are certain slender snakes, of less than one vara in length, which dart 
down upon passersby from the trees (where they generally hang) , and 
sting them; their venom is so powerful that within twenty-four hours the 
person dies raving. 

The large snakes are doubtless Python reticulatus ; the slender 
snakes might refer to any or all of several species. 
Diego de Bobadilla t writes in about 1640 : 

* Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, by Antonio de Morga, Mexico, 1609. 
Translated by Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands 1493-1898. 
Cleveland, The Arthur H. Clark Co. 16 (1904) 93. 

-|- From Relation of the Filipinas Islands, by Diego de Bobadilla, S. J., 
1640; in Blair and Robertson, op. cit. 29 (1905) 301. 



HISTORICAL 17 

There are many snakes in those islands, which are very dangerous; 
some of them, when they have young, attack people."" The bite of those 
called omoclro is very dangerous, and those who are bitten by it do not live 
one-half day. It is from that effect that it derives its name, for odro 
signifies one-half day. There is another very large snake called saua. I 
have killed one of that species which was two and one-half brazas long. 
The skin of another, which measured thirty-two [Spanish] feet in length, 
was brought to our residence at Manila. The sauas hang to the branches 
of trees along the roads, whence they dart down upon people, or deer, or on 
any other prey. They wind themselves three or four times around the 
body, and after having broken the creature's bones devour it. But God 
has provided a number of herbs in those islands which are used as anti- 
dotes to all kinds of poisons. Roots and herbs are found in the mountains, 
which are so many specific remedies against snake-bites; the chief ones are 
manongal, manambo, logab, ,boroctongon, maglingab, ordag, balocas, bonas, 
bahay, igluhat, dalogdogan, mantala. 

John Francis Gemelli Careri writes : * 

There are Snakes of a prodigous Bigness. One sort of them call'd 
Ibitin which are very long, hang themselves by the Tail down from the 
Body of a Tree, expecting Deer, wild Boars, or Men to pass by, to draw 
them to them with their Breath, and swallow them whole; and then winds 
it self round a Tree to digest them. Some Spaniards told me, The only 
Defence against them was to break the Air between the Man and the Ser- 
pent; and this seems rational, for by that means, those Magnetick or at- 
tracting Particles spread in that distance are dispers'd. Another sort of 
Snake call'd Assagua eats nothing but Hens. That they call Olopong, is 
Venomous. The biggest are called Bobes, which sometimes are 20 or 30 
Spans long. 

Another sort of four footed Creature, which is also found in America, 
and devours Hens, is call'd Igiiana. It is like an Alligator, the Skin 
Purple, speckled with Yellow Spots, the Tongue Cloven, but the Feet close 
and with Claws. Tho' a Land Creature, it passes over Rivers swiftly. 
The Indians and some Spaniards eat it, and say it tasts like a Tortoise. 

Juan de Plascencia f writing in 1589 of the witch doctors says : 

The second they called mangagauay, or witches, who deceived by pre- 
tending to heal the sick. These priests even induced maladies by their 
charms, which in proportion to the strength and efficacy of the witchcraft, 

"' For a treatise on the snakes and poisonous animals of the Philip- 
pines, see Delgado's Historia, pp. 889-907. He describes the omodro as 
the odto (Hemibungarus collaris) — from the word meaning "half-day" or 
"noon," and given to it because the bite proves fatal if given at noon, 
but at no other time. It is of various colors and very furious at the hour 
of noon. The saua {Python reticidatus) is the largest snake of the is- 
lands and is often domesticated, and is not poisonous to man. [Footnote 
in Blair and Robertson.] 

* A voyage round the world ; in A Collection of Voyages. London 4 
a704) 454. 

t Customs of the Tagalogs (two relations by Juan de Plascencia, 0. S. 
F.) Manila, October 21, from Blair and Roberston, op. cit. 7 (190.3) 192. 

161465 2 



]^g SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

are capable of causing death. In this way, if they wished to kill at once 
they did so; or they could prolong: life for a year by binding to the waist 
a live serpent, which was believed to be the devil, or at least his substance. 
This office was general throughout the land. 

An Englishman writing in 1819-1822 '■■ says : 

Their serpents, however, attain an enormous size: the largest are those 
of the Boa species (Constrictor), and will devour a horse or a cow at a 
meal.'= Of this genus there is one variety very beautifully marked, which 
frequents the houses, and is called by the Spaniards (Culebra casera), 
the house snake,"" and by the Indians "Sawa." These are often seen from 
10 to 12 feet in length, but are very harmless. Few houses are without 
one or more of them in the cellars, stables, &c. but they are seldom dis- 
turbed, as they are said to devour rats and other noxious animals; though, 
when these fail them, they attack fowls, or even goats. They form a 
favourite article of food with the Chinese, who keep them in jars to fatten, 
and the Indians may be often seen carrying them through the streets for 
sale. 

Of other varieties they have great numbers; some of which, as the 
"dahun-palay" or leaf of rice, of a deep green and yellow, which frequents 
the rice fields, and the "mandadalag," or whip-snake, are excessively venom- 
ous: accidents from these animals are not, however, very frequent; from 
whence it may be concluded, that the superstition of the natives has greatly 
exaggerated the number of venomous ones : 

Aduarte f writing in 1690 says : 

When he (Fray Juan Naya) was living in the district of Ytabes, in 
a village of that province named Tuao, he was once burying a dead man 
in the cemetery when a venomous snake came out from the grass and, 
amid the noise and alarm of the people, entered between his leg and his 
breeches — which was an easy thing for the snake to do, since these gar- 
ments are worn loose in this province, and resemble polairuis."- Although 
the Indians, who knew how poisonous the snake was, cried out and gave 
him over for dead, father Fray Juan continued with the act which he 
was performing, because of his duty as a religious, until he had finished 
burying the Indian; and then, putting his hand in his breeches, he caught 
the snake by the neck and drew it out and threw it away, ^^^thout receiving 
any harm from it. 

* Remarks on the Philippine Islands and on their capital Manila, 1S19- 
1822. By an Englishman. From Blair and Robertson, op. cit. 51 (1907) 
142. 

" It is said by the Indians. [Footnote in Blair and Robertson.] 
"" Perhaps Boa hortulana? [Footnote in Blair and Robertson.] 
•f Historia de la Provincia del Santo Rosario de la Orden de Predica- 
dores, by Diego Aduarte, O. P. translated by Blair and Robertson, op. cit. 
32 (1905) 107, 108. 

'•' A sort of trousers, generally made of cloth, covering the legs as far 
as the knees, buttoned or hooked together on the outside. It has also a 
dust-guard, which extends to the shoe. It is mainly used by laborers, 
carriers, and the like. (Dominguez's Diccionario Nacional.) [Footnote 
in Blair and Robertson.] 



HISTORICAL 19 

Father Mastrili, * speaking of the capture of the Sultan's 
palace in Mindanao in 1636, says : 

What we saw when we came to take out this throne certainly surprised 
us; for, before we reached the fire, two most venomous serpents came out 
from the feet of the chair, terrifying the soldiers greatly. And truly, 
nothing other than serpents and poison ought to g-uard the chair of the 
great devil of Mindanao. 

Antonio Mozo f writes in 1763 : 

Among these [remedies] are the gall and fat of the python (called 
saua and biting, in various dialects) and another similar species of ser- 
pent, which reach an enormous size in the forests of the interior. The 
gall is used both internally and externally by the natives, to cure chills 
and pains in the stomach — to which they are especially liable from going 
barefooted, and more or less naked, through mud and rain at all times ; 
also for malignant fevers and any inflammation which causes them. 
* * * The fat of these serpents is equally efficient for swellings or 
pains in the muscles and sinews, especially those caused by chills and 
exposure to weather. 

I do not know who made the earliest herpetological collection 
in the Philippines, but as early as 1829 Eschscholtz in his Zoo- 
logical Atlas describes a sea turtle, Chelonia oUvacea, from Manila 
Bay, and a large lizard, Hydrosaurus pustulosiis, the species 
commonly known as ibid or balubid in the Philippines. 

In 1835 Wiegmann } described a new snake, Flaps ccdligaster, 
together with the lizards Peropus viutilatiis and Draco spilop- 
terus; and Varanus salvator is recorded as occurring in the 
Islands. This collection was made by F. J. F. Meyen. 

Schlegel H must have had some Philippine material at hand in 
1837 since he described in that year Hemibungarus collaris, a 
rare Philippine snake. 

Hugh Cuming began his collecting in the Philippine Islands 
in 1836 and continued until 1840. He obtained about thirty- 
seven species of snakes and about twenty-nine species of lizards. 
From that time down to 1898 a number of important collections 
were made by the following men or expeditions : Wilkes Explor- 
ing expedition (1838-1842) ; expedition of the Astrolobe and 
Zelee; Friederich Jagor (1859-1861); Karl Semper (1858- 
1866) ; Adolph B. Meyer (1870-1873) ; A. Everett, John White- 



* Letter from Father Marcelo Francisco Mastrili to Father -Juan de 
Zalazar, translated in Blair and Robertson, op. cit. 27 (1905) 2G9. 

t Noticia histcirico natural, translated by Blair and Robertson, op. cit. 
48 (1907) 120. 

I Nova Acta Acad. Leop.-Carol (1835) 2.53, pi. 25, fig 2. 

llPhys. Serp. 2 (1837). 



20 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

head (1885 and 1890-1896) ; Von Moellendorf and Otto Koch 
(1886-1905) ; A. Schadenberg (1892?). 

Since American occupation several important collections have 
been made. Those of Maj. Edgar A. Mearns, Maj. T. M. J. 
Partello, Dr. J. B. Steere, and Dr. J. C. Thompson have found 
their way into American museums. Those made by C. M. Weber, 
Willie Schultze, Richard C. McGregor, and Lawrence E. Griffin 
ai*e contained in the Bureau of Science collections. 

My own collection on which the bulk of this work is founded 
was made during 1912 to 1916. Specimens taken in 1917 to 
1919 are in the Bureau of Science collections. 

The collections in the University of Santo Tomas Museum and 
in El Ateneo de Manila date back for many years and were 
probably made by the numerous students in those institutions. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PHILIPPINE SNAKES 

Only such titles as have a direct value in the systematic 
study of the Philippine forms have been included. A number 
of other works contain references to Philippine snakes, but most 
of these omitted works have no original systematic data. 

Barbour, Thomas. A contribution to the zoogeography of the East Indian 
Islands. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College 44 (1912) 1-203, 
8 pis. 

A splendid piece of work on faunal relationships of the Malay 
Archipelago and the East Indian islands, with an annotated list of 
herpetological specimens collected or studied. There is appended a 
long series of tables of distribution which include species known to 
this territory. From the Philippines are listed 21 frogs, 18 lizards, 
26 snakes, 1 turtle, and 1 crocodile. 

Of the snakes, Bungarus fasciatus Schneider and Trimeresurus 
S2imatranus Raffles are given in the tables as occurring in the Phil- 
ippine Islands. The inclusion of the former species is probably an 
error; the latter is probably synonymous with T. schultzei Griffin. 
BOETTGER, OsKAR. Aufztihlung der von den Philippinen bekannten Rep- 
tilien und Batrachier. Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 91-134. 

This paper, which as its title states is a check list of the turtles, 
crocodiles, lizards, snakes, and frogs, lists the following: Turtles, 
5 species belonging to 5 genera and 3 families: Crocodiles, 2 species 
belonging to 1 genus and 1 family; Lizards, 48 species (including 
2 subspecies) belonging to IS genera and 4 families; Snakes, 85 
species belonging to 40 genera and 18 families. Many of the species 
of snakes are incorrectly included in the list, and "many are rep- 
resented under more than one name. The work is merely a com- 
pilation from the works of other authors. 
BOETTGER, OsKAR. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der 
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am 
Main; I. Theil. (Rhynchocephalen, Schildkroten, Krokodile, Eidechsen, 
Chamieleons) Frankfurt am Main (1893). 

A few Philippine specimens are listed. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 21 

BoEttger, Oskar. Ueber aussere Geschlechtscharactere bei den See- 
schlangen. Zool. Anz. 11 (1888) 395-398. 

Variations in three species of Philippine sea snakes are discussed. 
Eight species are listed from the Philippines. 
BOETTGER, Oskar. Neue Reptilian und Batrachier von den Philippinen. 
Zool. Anz. 20 (1897) 161-166. 

Lerpidodactylus hrevipes from Samar, and Lygosoma (Homolepida,) 
moellendorffi (— Sphenomorphus vioellendorffi Boettger) from Tablas 
are the new lizards described. Two new snakes, Typhlops ruber and 
Ablabes philippinus (= Liopeltis philippinus) , and a frog, Calo- 
phrynus acutirostris (= Kalophrynus acutirostris) , are also described. 
BdETTGEE, Oskar. Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1889) 26, lists a collection of 
reptiles from the Philippines collected by Moellendorff. Fordonia 
unicolor Gray is reported for the first time from the Philippines. 

Idem, ibid. (1890) Ixiii, lists a collection of reptiles and batrachians 
from Leyte, Philippine Islands. 

Idem, ibid. (1892) xlix, lists Philippine snakes, with one record 
for Catanduanes of Dipsas angulata Peters. ( = Boiga angulata 
Peters) . 

Idem, ibid. (1893) xxix, lists a collection of reptiles from Manila. 

Idem, ibid. (1897) Iv, lists a collection from Manila, Cebu, Samar, 
and Culion. Lycodon aulints capuciiui Boie is listed from Cebu. 

Idem, ibid. (1898) xxxviii, lists 5 specimens of Disteira cyanocincta 
from Lake Taal, Luzon. 

Idem, ibid. (1905) 170, lists a collection from the Philippines, in- 
cluding 14 specimens of Disteira cyanocincta from Lake Taal. 

Idem, ibid. (1906) 115, lists a few Philippine snakes. 
Boie. Isis (1827) 535, describes Tropidonotvs spilogaster (= Natrix 

spilogaster.) 
Boulenger, George Albert. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British 
Museum of Natural History. London 1 (1893) i-xiii + 1-448, 
pis. 1-28; 2 (1894) i-xi + 1-382, pis. 1-20; 3 (1896) i-xiv + 
1-727, pis. 1-25. 

In vol. 1 Stcgonotiis dumerilii is renamed and drawings are given 
of the following: Typhlops cumingii Gray; Tropidonottis auricidatua 
(— Natrix auriculata Gunther) ; Oxyrhabdium leporinum Gtinther; 
Zaocys luzonensis Giinther. In vol. 2 drawings are given of OUgodon 
modestus Gunther, Calamaria everetti, and Typhlogeophis brevis 
Gunther. In vol. 3 Hurria microlepis and Dryophiops philippina 
are described. Drawings are given of these two species and of 
Lachesis flavoniacidatus Gray. Many Philippine species are listed 
and described throughout the work. 
Boulenger, George Albert. On the herpetological fauna of Palawan and 
Balabac. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 14 (1894) 81-90. 

There are listed 1 turtle, 7 lizards, 16 snakes, and 13 frogs. 
Polyodontophis hivittatus is described as new. Trimeresurus for- 
mosns Schlegel and Trimesurus siibanmdatus Gray are listed. Rana 
palavanensis, Rana varians, Rhacophoms everetti, and Ixalus longi- 
crus are described as new. Of the 37 species named, 14 are listed 
from Balabac. The following snakes are also listed: 

Tropidonotiis spilogaster Boie (= Natrix spilogaster Boie). 

Tropidonotns chrysargns Schlegel (= Natrix chrysargus Schlegel). 



22 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Coluber erythnirus (= Elaphe philippina Griffin). 

Coluber oxycephalus Boie (= Gonyosoma oxijcepliala Boie) . 

Deiidrophis pictv£ Gmelin. 

Dipsas dendropMla Schlegel (= Boiga dendrophila multicincta 
Boulenger). 

P satnviodynastes pulverulentus Boie. 

Cerberus rhynchops Schneider (= Hurria rhynckops Schneider). 

Naia tripudians Merrem (= Naja naja miolepis Boulenger). 

Adeniophis bilineattis Peters (= Doliophis bilineatus Peters). 

Amblycephahts boa Boie ( = Haplopeltura boa Boie) . 

Triineresurus formosus Schlegel (= Triineresurus schultzei Griffin). 

Trimesurus siibannulatus Gray (= ? Trimeresurus wagleri ivagleri 

Boie). 

Boulenger, George Albert. A catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians 

of Celebes with special reference to the collections made by Drs. 

P. & F. Sarasin in 1893-1896. Proc. Zool. See. London (1897) 193- 

237, pis. 7-11. 

A list is given of species occurring in the Philippines that are 
also common to Celebes. A discussion of the faunal relations is 
added. 
Boulenger, George Albert. Description of two new snakes of the genus 
Calamaria. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 16 (1895) 481. 

Calamaria mindorensis from the Everett collection is described 
from Mindoro. 
Casto de Elera. Catalogo sistemtitico de toda la fauna de Filipinas cono- 
cida hasta el presente, y a la vez el de la coleccion zoologica del Museo 
de PP. Dominicos del Colegio-Universidad de Sto. Tomas de Manila, 
escrito con motive de la exposicion regional Filipina. Manila, Im- 
prenta del Colegio de Santo Tomas (1895-1896) 3 vols. 

Volume 1 (1895), Vertebrados, devotes pages 399 to 454 to a list 
of the crocodilians, batrachians, turtles, lizards, and snakes. Among 
the species of snakes listed a great many records have not been 
authenticated. It is not improbable that Casto de Elera had before 
him a collection of snakes from southern Asia, or other extra-Phil- 
ippine localities, which purported to come from the Philippine Islands. 
At the present time, however, there are no foreign snakes in the col- 
lections of the University of Santo Tomas. 
Catanjal, Andres. Report on the poisonous snakes in the Philippines, 
pp. 1-46. [Manuscript.] An interesting work prepared for the 
Philippine Bureau of Health. Contains pertinent data on deaths 
caused from the bites of poisonous snakes. It gives a list of native 
names of snakes supposedly poisonous, and records various real or 
superstitious medicines and cures. 
Cope, Edward Drinker. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 244, 
245. 

Simotes phxnochalinus (= Holarchus ancorus Girard> and Simotes 
aphanospilus (= Holarchus ancorus Girard) are described as new. 
A few other Philippine snakes are listed. 
Dumeril, A. M. C, and Bibron, G. Erpetologie general on histoire nat- 
urelle complete des reptiles (1834-1854) 9 vols. 

Volume 7 contains the following original descriptions: Calamaria 
gervaisii. p. 76; Lycodov nudleri (— Stegonotus muelleri Dumeril 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 23 

and Bibron) p. 382; Stenognathus modestus (= Oxyrhabdhmi mo- 
destum Dumeril and Bibron) p. 503; Leptophis vertebralis ( = ?) p. 
543. Leptophis vertebralis, if from the Philippines is probably a 
species of Matrix. Their specimen of Cavipylodon prevostianum, p. 
904, probably originated in southern India and not in Manila.* 
Fischer, J. G. A list of reptiles and batrachians of Mindanao. Jahrb. 
wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 80 pis. 

Geophis schadenbergi (= Oxyrhahdium modestmn Dumeril and 
Bibron) and Trimeresiirus schadenbergi ( = Trimeresurus flavoma- 
culatus Gray) are described as new. Twenty-one other species are 
listed from southern Mindanao. Geophis schadenbergi is figured, 
pi. 3, fig. 4. 
Gabman, Samuel. New and little-known reptiles and fishes in the museum 
collections. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 8 (1881) 85-93. 

Hydrojjhis semperi is described as a new species from "Lake Taal, 
Luzon Island, Philippines" from a specimen collected by Dr. Carl 
Semper. Boulenger recognizes this as a distinct species. 
GiRARD, Charles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1857) 196. 

Describes the lizard Leiolopisma vulcania under the name Lipinia 
vnlcania, and Holarchus ancorus vmder the name Xcnodou cuicoriis. 
GiRAED, Charles. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 
1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, 
U. S. N., Vol. XX., Herpetology. With folio Atlas. Philadelphia, 
J. B. Lippincott and Co. (1858) i-xvii and 1-496. 

Lists 2 frogs, 1 snake, and 5 lizards from the Philippines. The 

snake is Xenodon ancorus Girard (= Holarchus aucorits Girard), 

GoGoRZA Y Gonzales, Jose D. Datos para la fauna Pilipina; Vertebrados; 

Madrid, Imprenta de Fortaner (1888) 57 pages. Extract from Anal. 

de la Soc. Esp. de Hist. Nat. 17 (1888). 

This paper lists 87 reptiles and 10 amphibians. Pages 30 to 34 
give a list of 51 Philippine snakes in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales 
de Madrid. Fourteen of these are referred only to the genera. A 
species is referred to the genus Aspidura from Angat, Bulacan. This 
is an error, as the genus is confined to Ceylon. Another species is 
referred to Oxybelis, a genus confined to South America. The fol- 
lowing species if correctly identified probably did not originate in 
the Philippines: Calamaria vermiformis Dumeril and Bibron; Cory- 
phodon korros Reinwardt; Tragops nasutus Wagler; Dipsas drapiezii 
Dumeril and Bibron; and Hydrophis schistosus Daudin. The list is 
obviously rather untrustworthy. 
Gray, .John Edward. Zool. Miscellany (1842) 48 to 50. 

Describes Megasi-a flavomacnlatus, Megxra ornata, Megiera varie- 
gata, Trimesurus subannulatus, and Trimestirus phiUppensis. 

The first three species are referred to T rimer esv.nis flavomaculatns 
Gray; Trimesurus subannidatus, to Trimeresurus wagleri. The speci- 
mens are from the Cuming Philippine collection; the exact localities 
are not given. 
Gray, John Edward. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 11 (1843) 46. 
Describes Lapemis loreata (= Lapemis hardwickii Gray). 



See Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 380. 



24 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Gray, John Edwahd. Catalogue of Lizards in the Britisii Museum. Lon- 
don (1854). 

The following- species of snakes are described as new from the Phil- 
ippines: Argyrophis truncatus Gray (= Typhlops braminus Daudin) ; 
Anilios ruficauda Gray (= Typhlops ruficauda Gray); Onychophis 
olivaceus Gray ( = Typhlops olivaceus Gray) ; Onychophis cumingii 
Gray (= Typhlops atmingii Gray). These species are founded on 
specimens in the Cuming collection from the Philippines. 
Gray, .John Edward. Catalogue of Viperine Snakes in the British Museum 
(1849). 

Records Parins flavomaculatus Gray, Farias oriiata Gray, Farias 
rariegata Gray, and Trimesurus philippe-iisis Gray, on pages 9 and 10. 
Griffin, La^vrence E. Two new species of snakes found in the Philippine 
Islands. Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 65, 56. 

Dendrelaphis cxruleatus and D. fuliginosus are described as new. 
These forms are probably synonymous with D. terrifictis and D. mo- 
destiis, respectively. 
Griffin, Lawrence E. A list of snakes found in Palawan. Philip. Journ. 
Sci. § A 4 (1909) 595-601. 

Dryocalamus philippinus, Elaplie pliilippvna, OUgodon iivaliigensis, 
and Trimeresurvs schultzei are described as new. The first records 
for the Philippines for Liopeltis tricolor Schlegel and Trimeresiinis 
graminevs are included. I question the correctness of the latter rec- 
ord. Thirty-two species and 2 subspecies are listed, based on the 
collection of Everett (studied by Boulenger), and those of H. M. 
Weber and W. Schultze which are now in the Bureau of Science col- 
lection. 
Griffin, Lawrence E. A list of snakes from the Island of Polillo, P. I., 
with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Philip. Journ. 
Sci. § D 5 (1910) 211-218, pL 1, 1 text fig. 

Haplonodon is the new genus, with H. philippinensis as its type. 
Trimeresvrus halieus is also described as new. Fourteen other species 
are listed. 
Griffin, Lawrence E. A check-list and key of Philippine snakes. Philip. 
Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 253-268. 

Lists 94 species and subspecies of snakes, based largely o\y the 
Philippine Bureau of Science collection. Xenopeltis unicolor Rein- 
wardt and Zaocys carinatus Giinther are reported for the first time 
from the Philippines. The following species are eliminated from 
Griffin's checklist or their nomenclature changed by the present work: 

Holarchus ocfolincatns (Schneider). Philippine snakes referred to 
this species should probably be Holarclins nteyerliukii. 

Holarchus phienochalinng (Cope) (= H. ancorus Girard). 

Dcndrophis pimcUtlata (Gray), included apparently only on the 
record of Parenti and Picaglia, which appears to be incorrect. 

Elaphc oxycephala (Boie) (= Gonyosoma oxycephala Boie). 

Ablabes tricolor (Schlegel) (= Liopeltis tricolor), 

Ahlabes philipjiiua (= Liopeltis pliilippinn) . 

Dendrelaphis arrulcatug Griffin (= ? £). terrificus Peters). 

Veiidrelaphis fvligivosus Griffin (= ? I), modestus Boulenger) 

Gerardia prevostiavo (Eydoux et Gervaise), included by Griffin on 
Dumeril and Bibion's record which appears incorrect). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 25 

Naja naja cxca (Gmelin) (= N. n. philippmensis) . 

Trimereswriis sumatramis (Raffles) (= T. schultzei Griffin). 
GuiCHENOT, A. In Dumont d' Urville Voyage Pole Sud et Oceanie, Zool., 
Kept. (1853). 

Describes Tropidolamius hombroni ( = Trimeresuriis philippensis 
Gray) p. 23, pi. 2, fig. 2, from Zamboanga. 
GuNTHER, Albert. Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the Collection of the 
British Museum, London (1858) i-xvi + 1-281. 

A new genus, Hologerrhmn, with the type Hologerrhiim philip- 
pinum, is described. The following species are described as new from 
the Philippines: Calainaria giayi; Rhuhdosonut leporinum (= Oxy- 
rhabdium leporinufii) ; Rhabdosoma oxycephaliim (= Pseudorhabdium 
oxycephalum. The following species are listed from the Philippines: 

Calainaria gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron. 

Calamaria lutnhricoidea part ( = Calamiarta grayi Gunther) . 

Simotes purpurascens Schlegel var. C. ( = Holurchus ancorus Gi- 
rard). 

Tropidonotus spilogastcr Boie (= Matrix spilogaster Boie). 

Troj/idonotiis chrysargus (= Matrix chrysargus Boie). 

Elapliis subradiatus Schlegel ( = Elaphe erythrurus Dumeril and 
Bibron). 

Spilotcs mclauurus Schlegel ( = Elaplie philippina and erythrurus) . 

Gonyosoma oxycephaluvi Reinwardt. 

Psamnwdynastes pulvertdentus Boie. 

Crysopelea ornata Shaw. 

Dendrophis pictus Gmelin. 

Crysopelea rubescens Gray ( = Dryophiops philipphia Boulenger) . 

Dendrophis punctulata (= Dendrelapjliis terrificus Peters). 

Dryoph is prasina Reinwardt. 

Eudipsas cynodon Cuvier (= Boiga cynodon Cuvier). 

Dipsas dendrophila (= Boiga, dendropliita) . 

Amblycephalus boa Kuhl (= Haplopeltura boa Kuhl). 

Lycodon aulictts Linnasus ( — - Ophites aulicus Linnasus). 

L/ycodon viulleri Dumeril and Bibron ( = Stegonottis dumerilii Bou- 
lenger) . 

Cycloconis lineatus Reinhardt. 

Hamadryas elaps Schlegel (= Maja hannah Cantor). 

Naja tripudians var. F. Merrem (= Naja naja samarensis Peters). 

Elaps calligaster Wiegmann (= Hemibungams calligaster Wieg- 
mann). 

Elaps intcstinalis var. (= DoUophis philippinus Gunther). 

Platurus laticaudatvs ( = Laticaiula colubrina Schneider) . 

These identifications refer only to Philippine records. 
Gunther, Albert. On the genus Elaps Wagler. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
(1859) 79-89. 

Callophis iutestinalis Laurenti var. A. (= DoUophis philippinus 
Giinther) is figured and described. 
GiJNTHER Albert. The reptiles of British India. London (1864) i-xxvii 
+ 1-452, pis. 1-26. 

An extensive treatise on the reptiles of India and southern Asia. 
Oligodon modestiis is described as new from the Philippines. The 



26 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

following are attributed to the Philippines, and a few other forms are 
mentioned as occurring in the Philippines: 

Ophiophagus elaps (= Naja hannah Cantor). 

Chersydrus granulatus. 

Dipsas cynodon {~ Boiga cynodon Cuvier). 

Hydrophis loreata Gray ( = Lapemis hardwickii Gray) . 

Caliophis intestinalis pliilippina Giinther (= DoUophia philippinus 
Giinther) . 
GtJNTHER, Albert. Notes on some reptiles and batrachians obtained by 
Dr. Adolph Bernhard Meyer in Celebes and the Philippine Islands. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1873) 165-172, pis. 17, 18. 

Ten Philippine lizards are listed, with copious notes. A drawing 
of the head of Sphevoinorphus jagori Peters is given under the name 
Hivulia variegata. The snakes Oligodoii notospilus from Mindanao 
and Zaocys luzonensis from Luzon are described as new. Hologerr- 
hum philippimim Giinther and OUgodon notospilus are figured by 
complete drawings, and Pseudorhabdiuin oxycephalum Giinther by 
three text figures under the name Oxy calamus oxycephaliis. Six 
snakes are listed. 
GtJNTHEK, Albert. List of the mammals, reptiles, and batrachians sent 
by Mr. Everett from the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
(1879) 74-79, pi. 4. 

Lists 1 tortoise, 1 crocodile, 20 lizards, 17 snakes, and 7 frogs. 
A new genus of snakes, Typldogeopliis, is described, with T. brevis 
as the type. Dendrophis philipphiensis is described as new; this is 
Devdrelaphis terrificus Peters. A good drawing is given of this 
species. The type locality of both these species is northern Minda- 
nao (possibly Dinagat in the case of the former species). The other 
species reported are: 

Calarnaria gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron, 

Rhabdosoma modestum Dumeril and Bibron (= Oxyrhabdiiim ino- 
destum Dumeril and Bibron) . 

Oligodon modestus Giinther. 

Odontonma muelleri Dumeril and Bibron (= Stegonotus muelleri 
Dumeril and Bibron). 

Spilotes mel^nllrus Schlegel (— Elaphe erytlintrus Dumeril and 
Bibron). 

Tragops prasinvs Reinwardt (= Dryoplds sp.). 

Dipsas dendrophila Reinwardt (= Boiga dendropJiUa hitifasciata 
Boulenger). 

Dipsas cynodon Cuvier (= Boiga cynodon Cuvier). 

HoJogcrrhum philippiiui m Giinther. 

Psammodynastes pidvcridentus Boie. 

Lycodon aidicus Linnaeus (= Ophites anlicus LinniEus). 

Cerberus rhynchops Schneider (= Hurria rynchops Schneider). 

Naja tripndiavs (= ? Naja naja philippincnsig subsp. nov.). 

Trime7-esures waglcri Schlegel. 

Trimeresuriis flavomaculatus Gray. 

Most of these species are- from northeastern Mindanao, and from 
Dinagat; a few are from Negros and Leyte. 
GtJNTHER, Albert. Descriptions of two snakes from the "Challenger" 
collections. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. V 11 (1883) 136, fig. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 

Tropidonotus detidrophiops ( = Natrix dendrophiops Glinther) is 
described from Zamboanga, Mindanao. 
Jan, G. Elenco sistematico, degli Ofidi. Milan (1863). 

The following species are described or listed from the Philippines: 

Lycodon tessellatus (=; Ophites tessellatus Jan). 

Hydrophis abbreviatiis and Hydrophis brevis (= Lapemis hard- 

wickii Gray) . 
Hydrophis ivestervtanni (= Disteira cyanocincta Daudin). 
Tropidonotus spilogaster Boie (= Natrix spilogaster Boie). 
Composoma ■mekinuruiii (= Ehiplic erythrurax Dumeril and Bibron). 
Jan, G. Iconographie general des ofidiens. Milan (1860-1881). 
Livr. 10 (1865), pi. 2, fig. 1, Calamaria gervaisii. 
Livr. 21 (1867), pi. 4, fig. 2, Composoma inelarvurutn manillensis 

(= Elaphe erythrunis Dumeril and Bibron). 
Livr. 27 (1868), pi. 2, fig. 1, Natrix spilogaster Boie. 
Livr. 30 (1868), pi. 6, fig. 3, Cainpylodon prevostianum Dumeril 

and Bibron (= Gerardia prevostiamim Dumeril and Bibron). 
Livr. 36 (1870), Lycodon tessellatus (= Ophites tessellatus Jan). 
Livr. 39 (1872), pi. .5, fig. 1, Hydrophis westermanni (= Disteira 

cyanocincta Daudin) . 
Livr. 41 (1872), Hydrophis nigi-ocinctus (= Disteira spiralis Shaw). 
Meyer, A. B. Mon. Berl. Ak. (1869). 

Heniibungarus calligaster is listed from the Philippines. 
Meyer, A. B. Sitzb. Akad. Berl. (1886). 

Adeniophis philippinus is described on page 614. 
MtJLLER, F. Katalog der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Mu- 
seums (1878). I. Nachtrag Catalog der Herpetologischen Sammlung 
des Basler Museums (1880). II. Nachtrag Cat. Herp. Samml. Basler 
Mus. (1882). III. -Nachtrag Cat. Herp. Samml. Basler Mus. 1883. 
IV. Nachtrag Cat. Herp. Samml. Basler Mus. (188.5). 

In the catalogue and the various supplements a few species of 
Philippine reptiles are given. Most of the Philippine specimens are 
listed in the third supplement. 
MtJLLER, F. Verb. Nat. Ges. Basel. 17 (1883). 

Callophis gemianulis (= Hetnibungarus calligaster Wiegmann) 
is described on page 289. 
Parenti, p., and Picaglia, L. Rettili ed anfibi racolti da P. Parenti nel 
viaggio di circumnavigazions della r. corruetta "Vettor Pisani" negli 
anni 1882-85, e da V. Ragazzi sulle coste del mar rosso e dell' America 
meridionale negli anni 1879-84. Atti. See. Nat. Modena, Mem. 
Orig. Ill 5 (1886) 1-96. 

This paper lists a number of I'eptiles from Tieao Island. Many of 
the identifications are very untrustworthy. The following species 
are listed: 

Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron. 

Spathoscalabotes mutilatus Giinther (= ? Hemiphyllodactylus insu- 

laris Taylor). 
Lophura ainboinensis Schlosser. 
Gecko japonicus (= ?). 
Monitor chloristigtna ( r= ?). 
Dendrophis punctvlata Gray (= ?). 
Dendrophis terrifictis Peters. 



28 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Dendrophis octolineata (= Dendrelaphis terrificus Peters). 
Rhacophoriis maculatus Gray (= Polypedates leucomystax Graven- 

horst) . 
Peters, W. Report on collections of F. Jagor in Malacca, Java, Borneo, 
and the Philippines, second report. Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 68.3-691. 
The following Philippine species are reported, mostly from south- 
ern Luzon and from Samar and Leyte: 
Typldops braminiis Daudin. 
Typhlops (Anilios) ruficauda Gray. 
Typhlops jagorii, described as new from Isarog Volcano, southern 

Luzon. 
Onychocephalvs (Onychophis) olivaceus Gray (= Typhlops oliva^ 

ecus Gray I . 
Python reticulatus Schneider. 
Chersydrus granulatus Schneider. 
Calamaria Gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron. 
Stenognathus modesttis Dumeril and Bibron (= Oxyrhahdmm mo- 

destum Dumeril and Bibron). 
Plagiodon erythrurus Dumeril and Bibron (= Elaphe erythrura 

Dumeril and Bibron). 
ComiMjtiOiiia inclcuiiirHtn Schlegel {^ Elaphe erijthruras Dumeril 

and Bibron). 
Spilotes Somarensis is described as new (= Stenogitathus inuellet'i 

Dumeril and Bibron). 
Tropidonotiis stolatus Linnaeus (= ? Nati-ix stolata Linnaeus). 
Tropidonotus lineatus (= Natrix lineata Peters) is described as 

new from Loquilocun, Samar. 
Tripodonotus spilogaster Boie (= Matrix spilogaster Bole). 
Tropidonotiis auriculatus Giinther (= Natrix auriciilatus Giinther). 
Cerberus boaeformis Schneider ( = Hnrria rhynchops Schneider) . 
Psa-rninodynastes piilverulentns Boie. 
Clirysopelea ornata Boie. 
Dendrophis pictus Reinwardt. 

Dciuli ophis caudoliiieatns Gray ( = Dcndrclapliis tei'ritictis) Peters. 
Dryophis prasinus Reinwardt (= Dry ophis sp. Cope ?). 
Govyosoma oxycephalum Reinwardt. 

Lycodon aulicus Linnasus (= Ophites auliciis Linnseus). 
Lycodon MUlleri Dumeril and Bibron (= Stenoguath-its dumerilii 

Boulenger) . 
Cyclocorus lineatus Reinwardt. 

Dipsns (Dipsddo-iiKrrphiis) <niguhita (= Boigo anoiilata) is de- 
scribed as new from Leyte. 
Elaps calligastcr Wiegmann (= Honihiuiganis ralligaster Wieg- 

mann) . 
Naja (Ha:nadruas?)fasciaia is described as new from Samar. This 

is probably the young of Naja hannah. 
Naja tripttdians sainarensis is described as a new variety from 

Samar (= Naja naja samarensis Peters). 
Platimis fiisciatus Daudin (= ? Laticauda laticaitdatiis Linnsus). 
Bothrops viridis {= Trimeresurtts sp.). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 29 

Tropidolaemus subanmilatus Gray and var. maculatus Gray (=: 
Trimeresurus luagleri Boie). 

Tropidolaemus Philippinensis Gray (= Trimeresurus philippensis 
Gray) . 
Peters, W. Herpetological notes, Mon. Berl. Ak, (1867) 13-37. 

The following snakes are listed from the Philippines : Tragops pra- 
sinus Boie (= Dryophis sp.) ; Dipsas Philippina (= Boiga philippina) 
(described as new from Ylaces, northwest of Luzon) ; Tropidolaemus 
Hombroni Guichenot ( = ? Trimesunis philippensis Gray) . These 
specimens were taken by Semper. A few new lizards and frogs are 
described as new. 
Peters, W. Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 585-587. 

Reports upon 3 new species of snakes, Calamaria bitorques, Stenog- 
nathus brevirostris, and Hemibungarus gemianulus from the Philip- 
pines. Stenognathus brevirostris Peters (~ Oxyrhabdiuvt leporinum 
Giinther) ; Hemibungarus gemianulus Peters (= Hemibungarus calli- 
' gastpr Wiegmann). These specimens were collected by Wallis in the 

Philippines; the exact localities are not recorded. 
Petees, W. Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin (1881) 109. 

Callophis bilineatus (= Doliophis bilineattis Peters), from Palawan, 
is described. 
Reinhardt, J. T. Kgh Dansk. Vid. Afhand. (1843). 

Describe Lycodon lineatus ( = Cyclocorus lineatus Reinhardt) . 
ROSAEIO Y Salas, Anacleto del. Los ofideos venenosos mas comunes en 
el pais. [Prom a typed copy of original manuscript.] 

This paper was published by La Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos 
del Pais in Manila. It contains a juvenile attempt at a classifica- 
tion of Philippine snakes, and gives certain supposed cures for snake 
bites. 

He gives the name Furina philippinensis to a snake known in the 
native dialect as taling-bilauo which, from the description, probably 
applies to Hemibungarus calligaster Wiegmann. The description 
is as follows: "Escamas iguales y pequerias, gastrotegas sencillas y 
ui'ostegas dobles; vientre bianco amarillento; cuerpo con fondo del 
mismo color y unas noventa y seis fajas negras trasversales, mati- 
zadas en su centro y por los lados por escamas amarillentas; partes 
laterales del cuerpo constituidas por escamitas amarillentas orilladas 
de negro y con rayitas longitudinales tambien negras y que unen el 
angulo anterior con el posterior; cola delgada, laiga y conica; cabeza 
casi tan grande como el cuerpo con nueve placas ciue afectan igual 
disposicion que las del Dahunpalay (Tragops Xanthozonius) ; ojos 
grandes y horizontales; hocico romo; ambos maxilares armados de 
numerosos dientes; los supra-maxilares anteriores surcados pero no 
perforados, delgados y mas largos que los posteriores que son en 
numero de seis a ocho por lado."* 
SCHLEGEL, H. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. The Hague (1837) 
2 vols. 

Elaps collaris ( = Hemibungarus collaris is described from the Phil- 
ippines. The species is figured in Schlegel, Abbild. (1844) 137, 
pi. 46, figs. 10 and 11. 



* From the original manuscript. 



30 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Seoane, Victor Lopez. Neue Boidengattung und Art von den Philippinen. 
Abh. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1881) 12. [Author's separate, pp. 1-7, pL 1.] 
Describes a new genus Piesigaster with the species Piesigaster boett- 
gcri from "der Provinz Iloilo und Pollock auf der Insel B'lindanao," 
supposedly captured there by a brother of the author, a ship's captain 
of the Royal Spanish Marine. The specimen is Epicrate^ iriornatus 
Reinhardt from the West Indies. 

Steindachner, p. Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die 
Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen des Commo- 
dore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Reptilien, Wien 
(1867) 98 pp. 3 pis.; Amphibien, Wien (1867) 70 pp. 5 pis. 

One new species Gyinnodactylus philippinictis is described, and a few 
others are listed from the Philippines. The foUowang Philippine 
snakes are described as new: Dipsas gim-aonis ( ::= Boiga angidatiis 
Peters); Lycodon bairdi (= Psammodyiiastes pidveTiiIentus Boie). 
Five other Philippine snakes are recorded. 

Steindachner, F. Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien (1867). 

Describes Cahimaria philippinica, p. 514, pi. 13, figs. 4—6, and Ty- 
phlops petersi, p. 515, pi. 13,- figs. 7-9. The first is a synonjin of 
Calamaria. grayi Giinther; the second is probably Typhlops rnricaiida 
Gray. 

STEiNDACt-iNEE, F. Sitzb, Akad. Wien, c. (1891). 

Describes Simotes meyerlinkii (= Holarchns meyerinlcn) , page 294. 

Stejneger, Leonhard. a new calamarine snake from the Philippine Is- 
lands. Smithson. Misc. Coll. (1908) 50. 

Describes Calamaria mearnsi from Mindanao. 

Taylor, Edward H. Snakes and lizards known from Negros, with descrip- 
tions of new species and new subspecies. Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 
12 (1917) 353-382, 2 pis., 2 text figs. 

Tv/enty-four snakes and 24 lizards are listed. Two new species 
and 3 new subspecies of snakes, and 4 new lizards are described. 

The snakes are Typhlops canlaoncnsis, Natrix deiidrophioi^s ncgro- 
sensis, Pseudorhabdmm mcnamarse, Calamaria gervaitrii iridescens, 
and Trimerestt.rus wagleri alboviridis. All are from Mount Canlaon, 
in central northern Negros. 

Taylor, Edwakd H. Reptiles of the Sulu Archipelago. Philip. Journ. 
Sci. § D 13 (1918) 233-267, 3 pis., 11 text figs. 

Six new lizards and 1 new snake are described in this paper. The 
snake is Typhlops suluevsis from Bubuan Island, Sulu. Fifteen snakes 
are listed. The following changes are necessary: Ablabes tricolor ( = 
Liopcltis tricolor Schlegel) ; Elaphc crythriira Dumeril and Bibron 
(= Elaphe philippina Griffin); Calamaria gcrvaisii Dumeril and Bi- 
bron (= Calamaria snliicnsis sp. nov.) ; Laticauda colubrina, part., 
Schneider (= Laticauda laticaitdata Linnteus). 

Taylor, Edward H. Two new snakes of the genus Holarchus with descrip- 
tions of other Philippine species. Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 
359-369, 2 pis. 

Two new snakes, Holardtvs hitrk^i and HolarchiLs viaciilatii.''. are 
described as new. 

Taylor, Edward H. New or rare Philippine reptiles. Philip Jor.rn Sci 
14 (1919) 10.5-125, 2 pis., 2 text figs. 



ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION 31 

The following species of snakes are described as new frona the Phil- 
ippines : Typhlops luzonensis, Typhlops manilie, TypJilopa nigosa, Typh- 
lops longicauda, and Triniercsarits mcgregori. Four new lizards are 
also described. 
Van DENBURfiH, John, and Thompson, J. C. A new sea snake. Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci. IV 3 (1908), 41-47,. 1 pi. 

Disteira cincinnatii is described from Manila Bay. 
WiEGMANN, Aeend Friedp.ich AUGUST. Lists and descriptions of Am- 
phibia collected during the voyage. Nova Acta Acad. Leop.-Carol. 
17' (1835) 253, pi. 25, fig. 2. Reprinted in Meyen, F. J. F., Reise um 
die Erde 3 (1834-43). 

Describes Elaps calligaster (= Hemibungarus calligaster Wieg- 
mann) and Matrix crehripaiictata. From specimens collected by 
F. J. F. Meyen. 
El Archipielago Filipino. Coleccion de datos geograficos, estadisticos, cro- 
nologicos y cientifieos, relativos al mismo entresacados de anteriores 
obras u obtenidos con la propia observacion y estudio, por algunos 
Padres (Jesuitos). Washington, Imprenta del Gobierno 1 (1900). 
Tratado IX, Capitulo III. Reptiles y Batracios. 

This chapter treats of the reptiles and batrachians of the Islands. 
Several interesting notes are given on snakes. Python molurus Gray, 
Typhlops diordii, Typhlops ater Schlegel, and Uropeltis philippimis 
Cuvier are wrongly attributed to the Philippines. A few lizards are 
mentioned. On the whole the account is rather untrustworthy. 

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF SNAKES 

Many of the Philippine snakes are poisonous, and many deaths 
result each year from snake bite. Unfortunately no accurate 
records have been kept in the Philippines of the actual number. 
In 1912 Andres Catanjal, a health officer of Tarlac Province, 
P. I., prepared a work which he designated a report on the 
poisonous snakes in the Philippines. This work, which is still 
in manuscript form, gives statistics of deaths caused from 
poisonous snakes during 1909. As these figures appear to be 
accurate I shall utilize his work.* 

Table 1. — Distribution by provinces of deaths from poisonous snakes dur- 
ing 190!) in the Philippines. 

Cagayan 3 Tarlac 6 

Isabela 1 Laguna 3 

Ilocos Norte 18 Batangas 13 

Ilocos Sur 5 Ambos Camarines 1 

La Union 2 Albay 9 

Pangasinan 16 Bohol 2 

Nueva Ecija 6 B'lisamis 1 

It will be seen that 86 deaths were reported in 1909 from 
the fourteen provinces listed above. It is impossible to believe 



* For the most part it is impossible to make direct quotations from this 
work, but the statistical facts here set down are extracted therefrom. 



32 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



that these reports cover all of the deaths that actually occurred 
during 1909 in the provinces listed. Undoubtedly many occur 
among the hill peoples of northern and central Luzon that are 
never brought to the attention of the municipal authorities. 

Table 2. — Showing relation of deaths to density of population.' 









Popula- 


Deaths 

per 
100. 000 
inhab- 
itants. 


Square 




Province. 


Deaths 
in 1909. 


Square 
miles. 


tion, 

March, 

1903. 


miles for 
each 
death. 


Ilocos Norte 


18 


1,330 


178, 995 


10. 05 


74.88 




13 
9 


1, 193 
1,201 
1.783 


397, 302 
257,715 
240,326 


4.02 
5.04 
3.79 


74.60 
92.38 
198. 11 




Albay 




6 
6 


2,169 
1,205 


134, 147 
135, 107 


4.47 
4.44 


361.60 
200. 83 


Tarlac 


Ilocos Sur 


5 


471 


187, 411 


2.66 


94.20 


Laguna 


3 


629 


14S, 606 


2.01 


209. 66 


Cagay an 


3 


5, 052 


156, 239 


1. 92 


1, 684. 00 


La Union 


2 


634 


137, 839 


1.45 


317. 00 


Bohol 


2 


1,611 


269, 223 


0.74 


756. 50 


Isabeia 


1 


.5, 018 


76. 431 


1.30 


6. 018, 00 


Mieamis 


1 
1 


3,777 
3, 279 


175,683 
239. 405 


0.56 
0.41 


3,777.00 
3.279.00 


Ambo3 Camarines . 

TotaL.. 


86 


29, 262 


2, 735, 029 
















3.14 


340. 00 











" This is a combination of Tables A and B of Catanjal's work. 

From this table it appears that the largest number of deaths 
occurs in the more thickly populated districts, especially in the 
provinces v^here rice is raised to a large extent. 

Thus we find an average of 3.14 deaths for each 100,000 in- 
habitants, and an average of 1 death for each 340 square miles. 
By applying these percentages to the entire population and to 
the entire territory of the Islands, we arrive at an approximate 
number of deaths for the Islands. 

Taking the population in 1909 as 8,000,000 and the average 
deaths per 100,000 at 3.14, the estimate for the Islands is 251 
deaths annually. Based on the total area of the Islands, ap- 
proximately 144,000 square miles, with one death for each 340 
square miles, the larger estimate of 335 deaths is reached. Since 
we observe from the table that the number of deaths appears 
to be directly increased by density of population, an estimate 
based on population is probably better than one based on ter- 
ritory. 

Table 3 is a copy of Catanjal's Table E. and shows the 
distribution of the snakes that caused the 86 deaths reported. 
I quote the table in full. 



ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION 33 

Table 3. — Deaths by poisonous snakes locally named. 



Province. 


Alum- 
ag-in. 


Alu- 
pung. 


Cama- 

malu. 


Cara- 'jag-ua-'Romu- 
saen. son. ranon. 


Zadio- 

00. 


Ulu- 
pung. 


Un- 
known 


Total. 




1 
















2 

1 
10 
5 


3 

1 
18 
5 


Isabela 
























8 






























1 


2 
6 












2 














4 


6 


7 

1 
3 
13 


16 
6 
6 
3 

13 
1 
9 
2 
1 














Tarlac - 




1 


2 


2 

















































1 
9 






Albay 


















Bohol 
















2 










1 




















1 


1 1 2 1 17 J 1 


10 


4 


6 44 


86 

















It has been impossible to determine exactly from the native 
names the species of snakes in question here. 

Carasaen is the name usually applied by the Ilocanos to species 
of the cobra, Naja hannah and Naja naja. 

Alwpung and ulupung are Tagalog names applied to the same 
species, while jagiiason is the Mindanao-Visayan name applied 
to Naja naja samarensis and possibly to other cobras. Cama- 
malu * is applied to cobras in the Pa'mpanga dialect, while tacUoco 
(according to Catanjal) is used in Pangasinan to designate the 
same species. In the Bicol provinces the name is applied to 
species of Trimeresuriis. 

Romuranon, according to Peters,t is applied to the species 
of Trimeresurus, while Catanjal believes it designates Hemi- 
hungartis, and de Elera believes it applies to Dendroiphis pictus. 
I suspect that it should apply to the species of Trimeresurus. 

It will thus be seen that certainly a very large portion of the 
deaths in the Islands from snake bites is caused by the cobra, 
particularly Naja naja philippinensis, which appears to be rather 
widespread in the Philippines. 

Catanjal in his work adds a long annotated list of native 
names, and in some cases an attempt to identify them has been 
made. The following is a list of native names taken largely 
from his work. The identifications appended are my own unless 
otherwise stated. 



* Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 440, gives this name 
for Hemibungarus oalligaster Wiegmann. 
t Peters, Mon. Berl. Al^. (1861) G91. 

161466 3 



34 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

LOCAL NAMES FOR PHILIPPINE SNAKES 

1. Agnasan (Bicol, Ambos Camarines). 

2. Aguason (Bicol, Visayan). 

3. Aguasun (Bicol, Visayan). 

In the Bicol provinces and in certain Visayan provinces these 
three names are synonymous and are applied to Boiga dendrophila, 
which is only a slightly poisonous snake. In Samar, Leyte, and 
northern Mindanao a variation of this name, jaguason, is sometimes 
applied to the cobra A'aja naja samarensis, and possibly to other 
cobras. 

4. Alias, a general or class name for snake. 

5. Ahas-na-hitin (Nueva Ecija), probably Python reticulatiis. 

6. Ahas-na-cuyog (Nueva Ecija), probably Calamaria gervaisii; used to 

be found living in groups. 
1 Ahas-na-tulog (Nueva Ecija), sleeping snake; culehra casera 
(Spanish) ; names frequently applied to Ophites aulicus. 

8. Alibot (Ilocano). 

9. Aliinhusogan (Bicol). 

10. Alimpayawan (Batangas). 

11. Alimuranin, probably a viper, Trhneresurus. 

12. Alindayag (Ilocos Sur). 

13. Almoranin (Marinduque) . 

14. Almnag-in (Cagayan and Isabela). 

15. Amhiihusog (Bicol), a name applied to Dryophis prasimis or other 

species of Dryophis. 

16. Amorong (Ilocano). 

17. Ananion (Albay) ; said to be a species of Trimeresiirus which is yel- 

lowish white, probably T. mcgregori. 

18. Anga (Pangasinan) . 

19. Anipa. 

20. Anipatideng (Ilocano), a synonjon of anipa: said to be a black snake. 

21. Annagabang (Cagayan). 

22. Arayat (synonym of ahas-na-cuyog) , Calamaria gervaisii. 

23. Ataybia (Laguna). 

24. Bactan (Surigao). 

25. Bagbag (Palawan). 

26. Bahayon (Surigao). 

27. Bahon (Bohol) ; said to be striped yellow, red, and white. 

28. Balahilo (Batangas) ; said to be yellow with yellow and black spots 

on the abdomen. 

29. Bala-imquen (Palawan). 

30. Balibat (Luzon) ; said to be black above and yellow on the abdomen, 

and to have two heads. 

31. Balidbidan (Palawan). 

32. Balilok (Bicol and Visayan). 

33. Balitucan (Ilocos Sur); said to have vellow spots on the bodv 

34. Banacon (Bicol and Visayan). 

35. Ba-iwlianon (Bicol). 

36. Bannagao (Ilocano). 

37. Banugbuyan (Ambos Camarines). 

38. Baraisan (Pangasinan). 



• LOCAL NAMES 35 

39. Bartin. 

40. Basibas, a synonym of palapal. 

41. Bayuyok (Bohol). 

42. Beclat (Ilocano). 

43. Bibiyain (Laguna) ; said to be red above and white below. It is so 

named from a fresh-water eel. 

44. Biclat, Python retimilatus. 

45. Bigabiga (Pampanga). 

46. Bigsihan (Bohol). 

47. Bilibidbilaw. 

48. Bintwian (Palawan). 

49. Birtin, Python reticidatus. 

50. Bitin (Pampanga, Marinduque, Panay, Negros), a name for Python 

reticulatus. 

51. Boa, a name given by Spanish-speaking people to Python reticulatus. 

52. Borayoan (Union). 

53. Boro-bimog ( Albay) . 

54. Bugang-pikapik (Batangas). 

55. Biigang-saldang (Ambos Camarines). 

56. Bidacan (Occidental Negros), Dendrophis pictiis. 

57. Buoy on (Surigao). 

58. Burayoan. 

59. Busasawa (Bohol). 

60. Cabangabauan (Bohol). 

61. Cagang (Cagayan and Isabela) ; probably a deadly poisonous snake. 

62. Calabucab, a name applied in various localities to Chersydrus granu- 

latus, found in both fresh and sea water. It is harmless. The name 
is sometimes applied to the poisonous species of Disteira or Lapemis, 
particularly Disteira ornatus. 

63. Calapain (Bohol) ; said to be yellow. 

64. Calapihon (Bicol provinces). 

65. Camamahi (Pampango) ; synonymous with tadioco and carasaen; a 

name applied to Naja naja and Naja hannah ; deadly ; Casto de 
Elera says that it is Hemibungarus calligaster. 

66. Canlalamat, synonym of camaniahi. 

67. Carasaen (Ilocano), a name applied to the cobras. 

68. Carase7i-apimorong (Pampango), Naja hannah. 

69. Cawaho. 

70. Caypihin (Marinduque) ; said to be blue. 

71. Cecilia (Pangasinan). 

72. Cuyog (see ahas-na-cuyog) . 

73. Dadayaoen (Ilocos Sur). 

74. Dahilog; said to be a synonym of balitoc. 

75. Dahon-palay, a name usually applied to Dryophis prasimis or to 

species of Dendrophis or Dendrclapliis. 

76. Dapug (Misamis). 

77. Digmirogman (Bohol). 

78. Dopong or dupong (Bicol and Visayan) ; probably Trimeresurus 

wnglfri or other species of Trimeresurus. 

79. Drira (Ilocos Sur). 

80. Duangsungay (Ambos Camarines). 



36 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

81. Dugjo (Misamis) ; said to be a black burrowing snal^e, about 20 centi- 

meters long (Typlilops braminus). 

82. Duhol (Batangas); probably Chersydrus gramdatus ; harmless. 

83. Garatosan, synonym of ahas-na-ciiyog. 

84. Giijui (Ilocos Sur). 

85. Hagom (Surigao). 

86. Haguason or jagiiason (Misamis and Butuan) ; applied to Naja naja; 

deadly poisonous. 

87. Hanhan, Dryophis sp. 

88. Hanlucayon; said to be a synonym of dahon-palay . 

89. IbiiTgan (Bohol) ; said to be black above, lighter on the sides, and 

yellow on the abdomen. 

90. Iliu (Bohol) ; said to be very large, attaining a length of 6 meters. 

91. Inviadduquing (Ilocos Sur). 

92. Jaguason, see Jiaguason. 

93. Kabike (Laguna). 

94. Laob (Bohol). 

95. Lepueng (Pangasinan) . 

96. Lilusan (Misamis), Boiga dendropMla. 

97. Locaylocay (Albay). 

98. Locoylocoy (Bicol), 

99. Lopot (Pangasinan). 

100. Lubag (Bohol). 

101. Lucayon (Visayan). 

102. Lumalabao, a synonym of stimasapao. 

103. Lnyen (Ilocos Sur). 

104. Macaoalo, a synonym of macauahi. 

105. Magambanay (Surigao). 

106. Magcal (Negros), Python retictdatus. 

107. Magcopo (Bohol). 

108. Magtitina (Misamis). 

109. Alalabasayi (Tagalog) ; applied indiscriminately to various poisonous 

water snakes of the genera Disteira and LapcDus. 

110. Malabiga (Cagayan and Isabela). 

111. Mcdatumbagu; sometimes applied to the small harmless snake Natrix 

spilogaster. 

112. Malaugto (Misamis). 

113. Mamalalaca (Laguna). 

114. i\Iamayang (Pangasinan). 

115. Mamuga (Palawan). 

116. l\Ianapao, a synonym of dcdion-palay. 

117. Mandadalag (Bohol, Polillo, and Manila) ; applied to Natrix spUo- 

gastcr about Manila and, according to Griffin, to Ti-imcresurus 
hulieus in Polillo. 

118. Ulandapitg (Misamis). 

119. Mangabang (Pangasinan). 

120. Manghihiop (Misamis); a name applied to the cobra, iVa /,r naja and 

Naja hannali. 

121. Mangisit, a black variety of manapao. 

122. Mangongugto, a synonym of malaugto. 

123. Maninini (Negros), a water snake. 

124. Manlaso (Palawan). 

125. Mannocac or manucac; said to feed on frogs. 



LOCAL NAMES 37 

126. Manoc, a synonym of banacon. 

127. Manoca, Matrix spilogaster. 

128. Manojohoc (Bohol). 

129. Manunugac; applied to species of Dryopkis. 

130. Maranhdt or niaraub-but, said to be a synonym of sumasapao. 

131. Odto-odto or oro-odto; names applied to various small snakes; in 

Negros to Typhlops bratninus ; in Palawan to Doliopltis bilineatus. 
The first is harmless; the second is poisonous. 

132. Ongor (Bohol). 

IZZ. Palacang -alias (Tagalog), Matrix spilogaster. 

134. Palapal; another two-headed snake. 

135. Palaspas, a synonym of dahon-palny. 

136. Pamadduquingen (Ilocos Sur) ; said to be red and black. 

137. Panas (Ilocos Sur) ; said to be red and white. 

138. Pandanalion (Surigao). 

139. Paningsingan (Negros), Chersydrus granulatus. 

140. Papala (Misamis), Trimeresurus wagleri. 

141. Pim-maltat ; said to be synonymous with dahon-palay. 

142. Pulaan (Ilocos Sur). 

143. Quinongsing (Pangasinan) . 

144. Romurayion (Ambos Camarines and Albay) , a poisonous snake; ap- 

plied to various species of Trimeresurus. 

145. Rnpong (Albay), probably a synonym of dupong ; Trimeresurus sp. 

146. Salabay (Bohol). 

147. Sapao. 

148. Saua (Visayas), applied to Python retindatus. 

149. Seckaran (Union). 

150. Sibaga (Bohol). 

151. Silungbilao (Pampango) ; this may be Hemibungarus sp. 

152. Sordodoritullon (Ilocos Norte) ; probably Ophites aidicus. 

153. Sua, (Surigao). 

154. Sultip (Ilocos Norte). 

155. Sumasapao (Ilocano), a tree snake. 

156. Tabading (IWanobo), Matrix aurictdata. 

157. Tadioco (Pangasinan, Pampanga) ; applied to the hooded cobras. 

158. Taguhilog (Surigao). 

159. Taguig (Palawan). 

160. Taguiualo (Bohol). 

161. Talamugu%nga7i (Ilocos Norte). 

162. Talasayin (Batangas). 

163. Talbustubu (Marinduque) , a synonym of dahon-palay. 

164. Talenbilao; applied to poisonous sea serpents. 

165. Tamangulan (Palawan). 

166. Tamguibolason (Bohol). 

167. Tangkaybiga, a synonym of tdupong. 

168. Tanquig or tanquipj (Surigao). 

169. Tinta, a synonym of tuleng or dueng. 

170. Toghod (Bohol). 

171. Tolog (JMarinduque), Ophites avlicus. 

172. Tuleng (Ilocano). 



38 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

173. Tidog (see ahas-na-tulog) . 

174. Uao-uao (Misamis), Latwauda coluhrina. 

175. Ugalupong (Bohol). 

176. Ugu (Cagayan and Isabela). 

177. TJringan (Cagayan and Isabela) . 

178. Viracac (Ilooos Sur). 

179. Walo-iualo (Negros), Lapemis hardwickii. 

FAUNAL RELATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PHILIPPINE SNAKES 

The herpetological faunas of the Philippines, particularly the 
ophidian fauna, are derived from a variety of sources, but un- 
doubtedly their greatest affinity is with Borneo. A casual 
glance at a map shows the Philippines joined to surrounding 
land bodies by a series of island chains, five or six in number. 

To the north there is but a single chain comprised of the 
Babuyan and Batan Islands. This chain reaches nearly to For- 
mosa, which in turn is joined with Japan through the Riu Kiu 
Island group. To the south and southwest there are no less 
than three island chains that connect with Borneo. The most 
important of these three is the Palawan Island group, including 
the Calamianes, the Cuyo Islands, Palawan, and Balabac. The 
second chain, not so clearly defined as the former, comprises the 
Cagayan Islands, and Cagayan Sulu. The third chain which 
approaches more nearly to the mainland is the Sulu Archipelago, 
which includes a number of island groups, and the larger islands 
Basilan, Jolo, and Tawitawi, with numerous small islands. As 
might be suspected the Philippines have far more genera and 
species in common with Borneo than mth any other land body. 
To the south there is a second chain which divides, one branch 
connecting with Celebes through the Sanghir Islands, and the 
other with Gilolo, and the Moluccas, through Talaur, and Morotei. 

There are thirty-three recognized genera of land snakes known 
to occur in the Philippines, and five of these are endemic. They 
are Oxyrhahdiiim, Cjidocorus, Haplonodon, Tiiphlogcophis, and 
Hologerrlmm. The first genus has two known species; each of 
the other four is represented by a single species. 

Two other genera found in the Philippines have not been 
found in Borneo. These are Hemibitngai-iis and Stcgo)wtus. 
The first of these, of which there are three kno^ra Philippine 
species, may have entered from the north, as the genus is repre- 
sented on the mainland of Asia in India and two other species 
are found in the Riu Kiu Islands. Stejneger states that no 
species of the genus has been found in Formosa as yet, but 
suggests the possibility of a discovery, mentioning that little 



FAUNAL RELATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 



39 



is known of the faunas of that island. Since the very closely 
related genus Callophis is also a mainland form, the possibility 
is strengthened that this genus has been derived through the 
northern chain of islands. 

The second genus, Stegonotus, with two species, appears to 
have arrived from the south by way of the southern chain of 
islands connecting with the Moluccas. This is certainly not an 
unreasonable conclusion since we find that the genus is as yet 
undiscovered in both Celebes and Borneo, while the Moluccas 
have two species. New Guinea and surrounding islands two, and 
the Australian mainland two. 

Of the eleven families recognized in this work representatives 
of seven occur in the Philippines. Borneo has representatives 
of another family, the Anillidfe. It appears rather widespread 
in the Malay Archipelago, and may eventually be discovered in 
the Philippines. Of the subfa:milies of the Natricidte the Phil- 
ippines have a representative of the Langahinse which apparently 
has not been discovered in the other islands of the Malay Ar- 
chipelago. Table 4 shows the general distribution of families. 





Table 4. — Distribution of families 


and 


su 


b families of 


snak 


''S. 








Family and subfamily. 


1 
< 


G 
O 


d 
1 c 

1 (in 
I >■ 


o 

ty 
c 

o 
CO 


6 


o 


o 

n: 

c 

03 
"O 

c 

s 

d 


m 

> 
c 

O 

a 




1 . 

1 ^ 
■ rt 

1 "7 

cd 
o 

■ a 


6 

< 

p 
o 
en 

X 

V 


ru 

& 
o 

w 

X 


d 

<i 

X 

X 
X 


ca 

to 

CB 

t: 

s 

X 


6 

o 

e 

X 

X 
X 


E 

<; 

c 
O 

X 
X 

X 
X 


03 

'm 

s 

o 

X 
X 

X 


C 
o 

S 

'a 
X 

X 






X 


\' 


1^ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




V 










Boidas: 

Pythoninae 

Boince .. . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X ... 


X 
X 


X 




AnillidiG 






'/- 


>' 


X X 










' 










































X 

X 
X 
X 
X 


X 

X 
X 
X 
X 




X 


X 

X 

X 


X 

X 
X 
X 

X 


X 

X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 


X 


'"]'" 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 




Natricid^: 




X 
X 
X 
X 


V 

X 
X 
X 






X 
X 
X 


X X 


X 


X 


V 














X 


X 


X 


X 
X 




X 




X 


— 








Eoigrinse 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








Elachistodontinai . _ 


















X 

X 
X 


X 
X 








X 

X 

X 


>; 












Elapida:: 

Hydrinas 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 


X 


X 

X 
X 


X 

X 


— 


















X 


X 








Crotalidte 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


























1 



40 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



■»|SV I X X X X X X 



•EJlBoins I X X X X X X 



X X X X X X 



■oaujog I 



X X X X X 



•B3q9[33 I X X X X 



■sBOonioj^ I 
•Eau[nr) Aia^ 1 



■DBqBlsa 



X X 
X X 
X 



■UBMB|Bj ] X 



■89U13flU8[B3 

epuBiej 0AD3 I 



X X 



X X 
X X 



X X X i X X X X_ 



XXXXXXXX XX 



XXXXXXXX 



X > 



XXXXXXXX 



X X 



XXX 



X X 



XXX 



s 



•oSB[9diqDJv ning 



I X X 



X X X X 



'OEuepuji^ ujaq^nog i 



•OBUBpuip^ ujaqijo^q 1 



XXX 
X X i 



■jbSbuiq j 



•JBUIBg I 



•9:jAaT 



■loqog I 



'UB-SB:^uBg 



■eojSafsi 



■Xbucj 



■ojopu[j\[ 1 X X 



■3uBqnq I 

■uoznq uaaqinog | 

■uoznq [BJ1U3Q I 



X X X X X 



X X 



■uoznq ujaqijo^ 



< 



'uinStui-BQ 1 



•QedBp puB B6om.io j; , 



t-C^!^OcoSoC 



-H 2 5 £ = 
£■ ? a c 



I.I II 



CO Q M a; o ;; i: 



FAUNAL RELATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 



41 



X 


xxxxxxxxxxx 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


xxxxxxxxxxx 


— 


X X X I 

X ; X X 


X 


XX jxxxxxxxx 


X 


xxxxxxxxxxx 


X X X X 


X 


X X 


>:xxxxxxx 


X 


X X 




X ; 


X 




















y 




























X 




1 


: X 
















XXX 


- 


X 


X X 


X X 1 X X 




X 


XXX 




X ' 


: X ] 












X 




































X 




























X 


X X 


X X ; X 


















- 


X 


X X 


X X i X 


X 




X X 


X 


X 


X X 


X X i 








X X X X X 




; X X X 


X X ; 








X 


XXX 






! X 
























X X 


XX j X 






X 














>- X 












X X 










X 














i 














































X 




1 




















X 




i 










- 


X 


X X 


XX i X 


X 








X 


1 


] 1 


i X i 








: X 








X 


1 1 


X 










1 ] 








- 


1 














1 [ 








X 


X X 


i X 1 


X 




X X 




X 




X 


X jxxx^-xxxx 


XXX 


X X 


1 X ; j X ; X ; 








X ; 






-- 


X X X X 


X X ; 










X 




X 






: X ; 










































X 


- 


X 


X x 




1 X X 


XXX 








■S 1 

1 ^ 


\ '£ 

i-t g 

1 i 1 

o S " 

cq a, Q 


ll 




1 

5 


5 


3 


1 




a 
1 


1 
-2 

"a 




6 





42 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



For the most part the genei-a that do occur are widely dis- 
tributed in the Philippines. Thus of the thirty-three terrestrial 
and arboreal forms, seven have not been taken in Luzon nor, with 
two exceptions, in the Visayan Islands. These are Xenopeltis, 
Dnjocalamus, Sibijnoi^his, Oligodon-, Liopeltis, Typhlogeophis, 
and Hajylopeltura. 

Oligodon has been taken in Negros, and Liopeltis in Samar 
and in l^eyie. These two also occur in the Palawan group 

Table 6. — Genera of suakes approaching, but jwohably not entering, the 

PliiUppines. 



Genus. 


Cm « 


u 
a 

B 

D 




o 

3 

a 


Philippines. 
Celebes. 


'•J 


a 
> o 
-^ c 

z 


c 

a 
a 

"-5 


a 

<n 

o 
£ 






1 




! 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 

X 
X 
X 














X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 


X 


X 








Acrochordus 


X 


X 






__._.. 














1 






\,'^ 






Xenochrophis 






i j 1 ■ <-- 












X 






>< 


X 


X 
X 


X 


--! X 






















X 
X 


i -"'\ 


Ophisthotrophis 

Brachyorrhu-s _ . . 




V 




• 1 






X 










X 


-^ 




1 








X 
X 


...... --| 


I'iyas 

Dinodon . 




X 


X 




X 


X 














X 1 

i 


Xenelaphis . 




X 




X 











Gonyophis 

AreocalaTnu3 _. 




1 






X 
X 






Idropholif: .. . , 






._ 






Calamothabdinni 












X 








Aorophis ^ 








X , 








Rhabdophidium 
















Callophis ., 














\^ 




Iguanagnatlii.'! . 














Bungaris 






' 






X 
X 




Enhydrus . 




X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 






N*; 


Homalopsis 


X 






CaritoHa 












EmydocepJialiis.. 








X 


X 


Enhydriud » 










X 


Acalyptus'o 


1 











Thalassophi^ . 






X 
X 
X 




X 














Amblycephalufi 

Agkistrodon. 


X 


\^ 






















•- - - — — .^ 




i 











•^ Malay Archipelago. 



' "V^estern tropical Pacific and China Sea. 



ERRONEOUS RECORDS 43 

and the Mindanao-Sulu group. Of the other genera, Drijocal- 
amus and Sibynoj^his are known only in the Palawan group ; 
Xenopeltis, in the Palawan group and the southei^n Sulu island, 
Bongao ; Ti/phlogeophis appears to be confined to Mindanao and 
nearby islands; Haplopeltwa occurs both in Mindanao and in 
Palawan. 

No table of the distribution of species is attached but the 
known distribution is discussed under individual species treated 
in this work. 

A table is attached showing the distribution of extra-Philip- 
pine genera, some of which may be eventually taken in the 
Philippines. 

SPECIES OF SNAKES ERROJ^EOUSLY ATTRIBUTED TO THE PHILIPPINE 

ISLANDS 

Typhlops philippinus Cuvier, Reg. Anim. 2d ed. 2 (1829) 74; Miiller, Trev. 
Zeits. Phys. 4: 349; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 1: 423. 
This is Bhinophis planiceps. It does not occur in the Philippines. 
Typhlops diardii Schlegel. 

EI Archipel. Filipino 1 (1900) 675. 
Does not occur in the Philippines. 
Typhlops ater Schlegel. 

El Archipel. Filipino 1 (1900) 675. 
Does not occur in the Philippines. 
Python moluriis Gray. 

El Archipel. Filipino 1 (1900) 673. 
Erroneously recorded. 
Uropeltis philippinus Cuviei-, Reg. Anim. 2d ed. 2 (1829) 76; Dumeril and 
Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 161; Marshall, Atlas.' der Thier. (1887) 
pi. 5; Casto de Elera, 'Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 424. 
Rhinophis philippinus Miiller. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 424. 
This is RJiinophis planiceps Peters, found only in Ceylon. 
Calamaria lumbricoidea Boie. 

Giinther, part. Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 6; Boettger, Mon. 
Berl. Ak. (1886); Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 
425. 
An erroneous record. 
Calamaria vermiformis Dumeril and Bibron. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 
Very probably an erroneous record. 
Calamaria temminekii Dumeril and Bibron. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 
Very probably an erroneous record. 
Aspidura brachyorrhos Boie. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 426. 
This species is confined to Ceylon. 



44 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Oligodon sublineatus Dumeril and Bibron. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 426. 
This species is confined to Ceylon and the Nicobars. 

Ablabes collaris Gray. 

It is probable that this should be Polyodonfopliis bivittatus Boulenger, 
as there are specimens of this species in the Santo Tomas Museum. 
Simotes riisselli Jan (— Holai'cliiis arnetrsis Shaw). 

This species is confined to India. 
Coryphodon korros Schlegel. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 428. 

This is Ptyas koD-os Schlegel. It probably does not occur in the Phil- 
ippines. 
Coryphodon mucosus Linnseus. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 428. 

This is Ptyas viiicosus and probably is confined to southeastern Asia. 
Coryphodon fuscus Gunther. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 428. • 

This species is Zaocys fuscus Gunther and appears to be confined to 
Borneo. 

Coryphodon hexanotus Cantor. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 428. 
This is Xenelaphis liexagonotus Cantor and probably does not occur in 
the Philippines. 
Tropidonotus aff. dorsalis Gunther. 

Miiller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 15. 
Tropidonotns aff. hypomelas Gunther. 

Miiller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1S83) 15. 
Tropidonotus schistosus Daudin. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 432. 
This is a synonym of Helicops schistosus Daudin and is confined to India 
and Ceylon. 

Campylodon prevostianum Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 964. 

This is Gerardia prevostianum Dumeril and Bibron, and is probably 
confined to the Indian Ocean. 
Gouyosoma frenatum Gray. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 432. 

This is Elaphe frenatum Gray, and is confined to India. 
Dendrophis punctulata Gray. 

This species has been included in several lists on the strength of a 
record by Parent! and Picaglia, Atti. Soc. Nat. Modena Mem. Orig. 5 
(1886) 50. Very probably this specimen should have been recorded as 
Dendrelaphis terrificus Peters, and the record for D. punctulata is un- 
doubtedly incorrect. 

leptopMs vertebralis Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 543. ^ 

I am unable to determine the identity of this species. 
Passerita mycterizans Linnreus. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 435. 

This does not occur in the Philippines. 



CLASSIFICATION 45 

Bipsas drapiezi Boie. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 436. 
This is Boiga drapiezii Boie, and probably does not occui- in the Phil- 
ippines. 
Dipsas fusca Gray. 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 436. 
This is Boiga fusca Gray, and is confined to Australia. 
Lycodon bairdi Steindachner (= Psammodynastes 2}iih-ertilentits) . 
Lycodon culcullatum Dumeril and Bibron, Nomencl. Rept. Amph, Mus. Zool. 
Berolin, Berlin (1856) 27. 
This is a synonym of Stegonotus culcullatus, apparently confined to 
New Guinea and Australia. 

Lycodon modestus part., Schlegel (= part. Stegonotus modestus Schlegel ; 
part. = Stegonotus culcullatus Dumeril and Bibron). 
Neither of the two species occurs in the Philippines. 
Piesigaster boettgeri Seaone (— Epicrates inornatus Reinhardt) . 

This species was originally described from Panay through a wrongly 
labeled specimen. It is confined to the West Indies. 
Elaps intestinalis Laurenti (= Doliophis intestinalis) . 

Reported by De Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 441. 
This species probably does not enter the Philippines. 
Elaps gracilis Gray (= Callophis gracilis Gray). 

This species reported by De Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 441, 
appears to be confined to Malay Peninsula and near-by islands. 
Hydrophis nigrocinctus Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1351. 

This is Disteira nigrocincta and probably does not occur in the Phil- 
ippines. 

Trimeresurus hypnale Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1498. 
This is Agkistrodon hypnale Merrem, confined to Ceylon and India. 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE SNAKES 

The scheme of classification followed in this work is prac- 
tically identical with that used by Stejneger.* 

Suborder Serpentes. 

Family Typhlopidse. 

Leptotyphlopidae. 
BoidK. 
Subfamily Pythoninse. 
Boinse. 
Family Anillida. 

Uropeltidse. 

Xenopeltidse. 

Natricidse. 



*Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907). 



46 SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Family Anillidse — Continued. 
Subfamily Acrochordins. 
Natricinse. 
Homalopsinse. 
Coronellina. 
Rachiodontinse. 
Boiginas. 

Elachistodontinse. 
Langahinas. 
Family Elapidse. 

Subfamily Hydrinae. 
Elapinse. 
Family Amblycephalida. 
Cobi'idfe. 
Crotalidse. 

In the nomenclature of the genera and species the oldest valid 
name is used in each case, and the variations from the nomen- 
clature of former works must be construed as due to no other 
reason than necessity. 



Suborder SERPENTES Linnseus 
Serpentes Linn^US, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1 (1758) 214. 

This name appears to be the oldest for this group of animals 
and is equivalent to the suborder Ophidia of other author's. 

Key to the Philippine families of the Serpentes. 

«.\ No ectopterygoid bone; teeth in upper jaw only.... Typhlopida; (p. 47). 
a'. Ectopterygoid present; teeth in both jaws. 

V. Coronoid present; supratemporal large, suspending quadrate; ves- 
tiges of hind limbs Boidse (p. 67). 

v. Coronoid absent; no vestige of hind limb. 
&. A mental groove; maxillary horizontal. 

d}. Prefrontal bone touching nasal Xenopeltidae (p. 72). 

d". Prefrontal bone not touching nasal. 

e\ None of the anterior maxillary teeth grooved or per- 
forated -- Natricidae (p. 76). 

e^ Anterior maxillary teeth grooved or perforated. 

Elapidae (p. 224). 
(f. No mental groove; maxillary horizontal.... Amtlycephalids (p. 280). 
c". A mental groove; maxillary vertically erectile.... Crotalidae (p. 283). 

NONPOISONOrS SNAKES 

TYPHLOPID^ 

Typhlopidx, part., Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 9; Gunther, Rept. 
Brit. India (1864) 170; Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 23 (1886) 
481; BOULENGEE, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 3. 

"Cranial bones solidly united ; no ectopterygoid ; pterygoid not 
extending to quadrate or mandible; no supratemporal; pre- 
frontal forming a suture with nasal ; maxillary loosely attached, 
with a few teeth disposed transversely to the axis of the skull ; 
no teeth on palate. Mandible edentulous ; coronoid bone present. 
Vestiges of pelvis, reduced to a single bone on each side. Body 
covered with uniform cycloid scales; eyes under the shields." 
{Boule7iger.) 

The family has three genera : Helminthophis with five species, 
confined to South and Central America; TypMoTihis with one 
species, confined to South America; and the very large cosmo- 
politan genus Typhlops. 

The Typhlopidffi are remnants of a large cosmopolitan group 
of snakes, and represent probably the oldest living types. They 

47 



48 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



are for the most part diminutive in size, some species of the 
genus Typhlops never attaining a length of more than 200 miUi- 
meters. They are burrowing reptiles and are to be found about 
rotting logs and stumps, and burrowing in the earth or in the 
root masses of aerial plants. 

They feed on small insects, the larvte and eggs of insects, 
earthworms, scorpions, and centipedes. The eye is covered by 
a scale and is frequently dim or invisible in certain species ; while 
in others the eye covering is transparent, and a distinct pupil 
is visible. 

Genus TYPHLOPS Oppel 

Ttjphlops Oppel, Ord. Rept. (1811) 54; Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. 
(1845) 132; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1864) 7; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India 
(1864) 172; Peters, Sitz. Ges. Nat. Freunde (1881) 70; Boulenger, 
Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 235; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1, 
(1893) 7; Cope, Ann. Rept. Nat. Mus. (1898) 715; Stejnbgee, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 260. 

Typhlops, part., Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 339. 

Anilios Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 135. 

Onychophis GRAY, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 32. 

Onychocephalus DuMERn. and Bibron, Erp. Gen. (1844) 272; Boett- 
GER, Ber. Sen*. Nat. Ges. (1886) 104. 

Head with enlarged regular plates ; nasal shield single, double, 
or partially divided ; prefrontal single ; prefrontal, supraoculars, 
frontal, and parietals rather small, sometimes scarcely larger 
than body scales; upper labials differentiated, lower labials not 
or scarcely differentiated from chin scales ; mouth narrow, eye 
usually dim; tail very short. Small burrowing snakes, non- 
poisonous. 



\}A/ 




Fig. 1. Head shields ot typical Typhlopidffi, Tiii'hlops siduensis T.iylor : f, eye,; /, frontal; 
ip, interparietal; ins, internaaal suture; lab, labials; »!, nasal; tios, nostril; o, ocular; par, 
parietal ; pf, prefrontal ; po, postocular ; pvco. preocular ; r, rostral. 



TYPHLOPS 49 

This genus has more than one hundred fifty linown species. 
Representatives are found in Asia, Africa, Madagascar, Europe, 
AustraUa, East Indies, Central and South America, and the West 
Indies. They appear to be absent from North America and 
New Zealand. The East Indies have twenty known species, two 
of which, Tij-phloj)s hraminus Daudin and Typhlo'ps olivaceus 
Gray, are reported as occurring in the Philippines. The Philip- 
pines have fourteen well-defined species. They belong to two 
groups of the genus : one group has the snout rounded in lateral 
profile, the tail not longer than broad; and the other has the 
snout with a sharp, cutting edge, slightly hooked, and the tail at 
least two and one-half times as long as broad. 

Key to the Philippine species of Typhlops Oppel. 

(i\ Snout rounded; nostrils lateral; tail about as long as broad; no 
subocular. 
6'. Preocular in contact with 'econd and third labials. 

c\ Nasal cleft arising from preocular; nasal completely divided; 

scales in 20 rows - __ T. braminus (Daudin) (p. 50). 

c^ Nasal cleft arising from second labial; nasal completely divided; 

scales in 26 rows T. luzonensis Taylor (p. 52). 

l)-. Preocular in contact with third labial only; nasal not completely 
divided. 
c\ Scales in 28 rows; nasals in contact behind rostral; deep black 

above, yellowish below,-- -- T. jagorii Peters (p. 53). 

C-. Scales in 30 rows; nasals not in contact behind rostral; reddish 

brown above, yellowish below T. ruflcauda (Gray) (p. 54). 

c\ Scales in 26 rows; nasals not in contact behind rostral; reddish 

brown above, lighter below-.- T. riiber Boettger (p. 55). 

c\ Scales in 30 rows; nasals not in contact behind rostral; black 

above, yellowish below T. canlaonensis Taylor (p. 55). 

a'. Snout rounded; nostrils lateral; tail as long as broad; a subocular pres- 
ent; nasal cleft arising from second labial; nasal not com- 
pletely divided; scale rows 2.8; nasals not in contact behind 

rostral T. manilffi Taylor (p. 56). 

a'. Snout with a sharp horizontal edge; nostrils lateroinferior; tail at 
least twice as long as broad ; no subocular. 
6\ Preocular in contact with second and third labials; nasals not in 
contact behind rostral. 
c\ Nasal cleft arising from first labial. 
cr. Nasal not completely divided. 

e\ Tail two and one-half times as long as broad; scales in 20 to 

22 rows T. olivaceus (Gray) (p. 58). 

e'. Tail three and one-half times as long as broad; scales in 26 

rows T. rugosa Taylor (p. 58). 

d'. Nasal completely divided. 

e\ Tail three times as long as broad; scales in 26 to 28 

rows T. dendrophis sp. nov. (p. 60). 

161465 4 



50 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

e-. Tail two and two-fifths times as long as broad; scales in 

22 rows - -- T. suluensis Taylor (p. 61). 

C-. Nasal cleft arising from first or second labials or their interlabial 
suture; nasal completely divided; tail six to seven times as long 

as broad; scales in 26 rows - T. longicauda Taylor (p. 63). 

b". Preocular in contact with a single labial. 

c\ Nasal cleft arising from first interlabial suture; nasal not com- 
pletely divided; tail three and four-fifths times as long as broad; 

scales in 26 rows -- T. mlndanensis sp. nov. (p. 65). 

C-. Nasal cleft arising from first labial; nasal completely divided; 
tail four or five times as long as broad; scales in 24 
rows..- - .- T. cumingii (Gray) (p. 66). 

TYPHLOPS BRAMINUS (Daudin) 

Eryx hraminus Daudin, Hist. Nat. Rept. 7 (1803) 279. 

Tortrix russelii Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 84. 

Typhlops hraminiis CuviER, Regne Anim. ed. 2 (1829) 73; Bou- 
LENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 16; Fauna Brit. India, Rept. 
(1890) 236; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 104; Griffin, 
Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 2.54; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 
Filipinas 1 (1895) 423; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 
(1907) 260; Taylor, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 354- 

Argyrophis hraniicus Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 138. 

Argyrophis truncatus Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 138. 







Fig. 2. Tiiiililops braminus (Daudin) ; after Stejneger: a, head, dorsal view; 6, liead, lateral 
view ; c, head, ventral view : d, anal region and tail. 

Description of species. — (From No. 276, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at La Granja, La Caiiota, Occidental Negros, 
July, 1916, by H. C. McNamara.) Snout rounded in lateral 
profile, projecting; rostral narrow, its upper portion about one- 
third width of head, not extending quite to level of eyes; pre- 
frontal not enlarged, very much rounded behind, separating the 
nasals by a small distance, scarcely as large as frontal, but of 
similar shape; frontal a little larger than interparietal, which 
is followed by a very much larger scale; supraoculars not an- 
gular, larger than frontal, their lower edge passing near middle 
of eye; parietals slightly enlarged, larger than supraoculars, 
followed by a large postparietal ; 2 nasals, anterior (or inferior) 
much smaller than posterior ; suture dividing nasals arises from 



TYPHLOPS 51 

preocular ; latter somewhat smaller than ocular, touching second 
and third labials, and inferior nasal below; ocular large, with 
eye usually visible beneath it, with a single postocular behind; 
4 labials, the fourth largest, all abruptly increasing in size from 
the first; 5 to 7 scales on lower jaw between angles of mouth; 
scales in 20 rows around body ; body width in body length, 34 ; 
tail a little shorter than wide. 

Colo7- in life. — Pearl gray above, each scale showing an area 
of brownish gray and one of bluish gray ; below the same ; with- 
out close scrutiny it appears a uniform pearl gray. 

Measurements of Tyj)hlops hraminus (Daudin) . 



mm. 



Total length 154 

Tail 2.75 

Width of head between eyes 3.25 

Body width 4.5 

Tail width 4 

Variation. — Practically no variation in scalation is observable. 
In color the specimens vary from black-brown to gray-blue or 
pearl gray. Some seem to turn whitish before they shed their 
skin, yet certain newly shed specimens also are of a very light 
color; in the one described the eye is almost entirely concealed, 
and the scales on the head and body seem thicker than usual. 
There are certain lighter tracings which invariably appear under 
the scales of the head. The fringed markings which follow the 
rostral and nasal sutures are characteristic of this species ; these 
markings can usually be discerned even in gray specimens, if 
a small lens is used. 

One specimen in my collection (No. 277) has a very different 
appearance from the one described. The head as far as the eyes 
is a pure cream color ; the eyes are visible as minute black dots ; 
the head seems more rounding in upper profile and is thicker 
than in other specimens. The color on the neck is light brown, 
gradually merging into the slightly darker brown color of the 
body. Each scale has a brown spot and a lighter area. No 
variation from the typical scalation of Tijphlojy.s braminus can 
be discerned. This variation is unique in a lot of more than 200 
specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This is one of the commonest snal^es in the Phil- 
ippine Islands, but it is not evenly distributed. Mr. H. C. Mc- 
Namara collected more than a hundred at La Granja, La Carlota, 
Occidental Negros, in a few weeks ; at various other localities 
in Negros I have been unable to find a single specimen, even 



52 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

after considerable search. I did not find a single specimen in 
eastern Mindanao in two years' collecting. In Mindoro, near 
Calapan, I found this species in large numbers under rocks after 
heavy rains. The place failed to yield a single specimen when 
visited at a later time when the earth was dry. These snakes lay 
comparatively large, elongate eggs. They feed largely on the 
larvaB and eggs of small insects or earthworms. 

The species is known from many localities in Luzon, and from 
Negros, Samar, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, and Busuanga. 
It is probably found in all the larger islands of the Philippines. 
Outside of the Philippines it is widely distributed, from South 
Africa to southern Asia, and throughout the islands of the 
Indian Ocean and the Malay Archipelago. It is present also 
in Japan, Madagascar, and Guam. 

TYPHLOPS LUZONENSIS Taylor 

Typhlops luzonensis Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 105. 

Description of species. — (From the type. No. 109, E. H. Taylor 
collection; collected on Mount Maquiling, Laguna, Luzon, May 12, 
1915, by E. H. Taylor.) Head rather flat, broader than neck, 
lower jaw^ not or scarcely visible in lateral profile ; snout rounded, 
projecting, rather truncate, its end only slightly less deep than 
head on a level with eyes ; portion of rostral visible above much 
longer and a little wider than the part below, failing to reach 
the level of eyes by a minute distance, and minutely less than 
half the width of head ; prefrontal larger than frontal, forming 
a suture with rostral a little less than one-third its own width, 
its longest sutures formed with supraoculars ; frontal, the 
smallest head scale, forming equal sutures with interparietal 
and prefrontal ; supraocular about same size as parietal, its 
lower point barely reaching eye; parietals somewhat narrowed 
on their lower end ; nasal completely divided ; nasal suture arises 
from second labial and after passing nostril reaches rostral in a 
line horizontal to upper edge of nostril; nasals not in contact 
behind rostral; preocular reaching above level of eyes, about 
as broad as ocular, in contact with 2 labials below; its edge 
crosses over middle of eye; 2 postoculars only slightly differen- 
tiated from body scales ; first labial very small, in contact with 
anterior nasal only; second labial nearly three times as large as 
first, touching both nasals and preocular ; third labial more than 
twice as large as second, and a little larger than fourth; lower 
jaw narrow, about 5 scales on lower jaw between fourth upper 
labials; eye a visible black spot, very small, with no pupil 
evident ; about 338 scales from head to vent ; 10 subcaudal scales ; 



TYPHLOPS 53 

tail ending in a small spine ; width of body in total length, 58 ; 
tail as wide as long; scales in 20 rows. 

Color in life. — Above, a reddish olive brown ; below, yellowish 
brown, each scale with a darker yellowish bro\^Ti area, giving a 
checked appearance on close examination ; rostral, nasal, and 
labials on underside of snout yellowish white. 

Measurements of Typldops luzonensis Taylor. 



mm. 



Total length 260 
Tail 4 

Width of body 4.5 

Width of head 4..5 

Width of tail "" 4 

Remarks. — Only the type specimen is known. The species is 
obviously related to the group of the genus represented by 
Typhlops ruficauda, T. ruber, and T. kraalU, the first two of 
which are represented in the Philippine fauna. From T. rufi- 
cauda it differs in having 4 less rows of scales about the body 
and the nasal completely, instead of partially, divided. From 
T. rather it differs in having the preocular in contact with 2 
labials instead of 1, the nasal completely divided, and the length 
greater in proportion to the width of the body. (Here the width 
of the body is contained in the total length 58 times, while 
in T. ruber it is only 36.) From T. kraalii it differs in having 
the rostral much more than one-third the width of the head, 
and the preocular in contact with 2 labials instead of 1 ; in color 
it is also somewhat different from T. kraalii, and the latter is very 
probably a larger species. 

The type was collected low on the side of Mount Maquiling, 
Laguna, Luzon. It was discovered under a rotting log. Noth- 
ing further is known of its habits. 

TYPHLOPS JAGORII Peters 
Typhlops jagorii Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684; Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 104; Boulengee,, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 
1 (1893) 18; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 423; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 254. 

Description of species. — (After the type description.) Snout 
depressed, rounded; nostrils lateral; upper portion of rostral 
elliptic, about half as broad as head; nasals in contact behind 
rostral; preocular present, in contact -with third labial only; 
prefrontal larger than frontal; supraoculars smaller than pa- 
rietal; 4 upper labials, second twice as large as first; 28 rows 
of scales around the body. 

Color. — Above dark black, the underside, lips, and end of tail 
yellow. 



54 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Measurements of Typhlops jagori't Peters. 

mm. 

Total length 220 

Head length ° 

Tail 5 

Remarks. — The tj^pe was collected by F. Jagor on Mount 
Isarog, Camarines, Luzon. It is well differentiated from the 
other Philippine species by the junction of the nasal shields 
behind the rostral. It is known only from the type. 

TYPHLOPS RUFICAUDA (Gray) 

Anilios riifieauda Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (184.5) 136. 
TypJilops {Anilios) riifieauda Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684. 
Typhlops ruficauda Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 104; Bou- 

LENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. BIus. 1 (1893) 29; Casto de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 423; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 

6 (1911) 255. 
Typhlops dichromatus .Jan, Icon. Gen. (1864) 21, 1. 3, pis. 4, 5, fig. 1. 
fTyphlops petersii Steindachnee, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien (1867) 

515, pi. 13, figs. 7-9. 

Desciiption of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Snout rounded, 
moderately projecting; nostrils lateral. Rostral about one third 
the width of the head, extending to the level of the eyes ; nasal 
semidivided, the cleft proceeding from the second labial ; prse- 
ocular present, as broad as the ocular, in contact with the third 
labial only; eyes distinct; prsef rental, supraocular, and parietal 
considerably larger than the scales on the body; four upper 
labials. Diameter of body 31 to 55 times in the total length; 
tail as long as broad, ending in a spine. 30 scales round the 
body." 

Color. — ''Reddish brown above; snout, tail, and lower sur- 
faces yellowish. 

"Total length 250 millim." 

Remarks. — The types (one adult, one half-grown, and one 
young) are in the British Museum. The exact locality from 
which the types were obtained is no longer known. Peters * 
reports specimens from Daraga and Paracale, in southern Luzon. 
Boulenger f has referred Typhlops petersii Steindachner to this 
species, with a question mark. At the present time I am unable 
to offer an opinion and propose leading it a synonym of T. 
ruficauda. 1 have not seen Steindachner's description or figures. 
Known only from the Philippines. The types were probably col- 
lected by H. Cuming. 



* Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684. 

t Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 29. 



TYPHLOPS 55 

TYPHLOPS RUBER Boettger 

Typhlops ruber Boettger, Zool. Anz. 20 (1897) 164; Griffin, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 255. 

Description of species. — (After the type description.) Head 
depressed, snout rounded and strongly projecting; nostrils 
lateral; rostral moderately broad, upper part somewhat more 
than one-third the width of head, its posterior part not reaching 
level of eyes, its underside clearly longer than broad ; nasal 
almost entirely divided, the suture arising from second labial; 
preoeular as broad as ocular, in contact below with only the 
very large third labial ; eye small, very distinct ; upper head 
shields, with the exception of the middle longitudinal row, con- 
siderably larger than body scales; 4 upper labials, of which the 
last 2 are especially well developed and of nearly the same size : 
diameter of body in total length, 36 to 37 ; tail somewhat broader 
than long, ending in a sharp spine ; 26 scale rows about body. 

Color. — ^Uniform, bright red-brown above; below scarcely as 
bright as above. 

Total length, 225 millimeters. 
. Remarks. — I have been unable to find specimens of this species. 
Obviously it is very rare and, I believe, still known only from 
the type, which came from Samar. This species is said to be 
closely related to Ty-phlops kraalii from the Kei Islands near 
New Guinea, but differs in being less slender, and in having 
the tail shorter, the scales on the head larger, and the color 
different. 

TYPHLOPS CANLAONENSIS Taylor 

Typhlops canlaonensis Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 11 (1917) 354. 

Description of species. — (From No. 241, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at an elevation of about 750 meters on Canlaon 
Volcano, Negros, December 25, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) 
Head depressed, a little wider than body; snout projecting mod- 
erately; rostral elliptic, distinctly wider behind than at tip of 
snout and failing to reach level of eyes by half the width 
of prefrontal, more than one-third the width of head; nostrils 
lateral, not visible from above; nasals large, not in contact be- 
hind rostral, not completely divided by nasal cleft, which arises 
from second labial and passes through nostril to a point about 
halfway from nostril to rostral; nasal in contact with first 3 
labials ; preoeular present, narrowed to a point at its upper end, 
its greatest width, equal to that of ocular, occurs below level of 
eye; preoeular narrowly in contact with supraocular above and 



56 SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

with only the third labial below practically the same length as 
ocular; ocular somewhat rectangular in outline, rapidly nar- 
rowed to a point above and below, in contact with third and 
fourth labials, bordered posteriorly by 2 somewhat enlarged 
body scales (3 on left side) ; prefrontal wider than deep, dis- 
tinctly larger than frontal, which is somewhat wider than long, 
and narrowly in contact with prefrontal; supraoculars larger 
than either of these scales and about equal in size to parietals, 
which are a little more elongate and more than half lying behind 
oculars; interparietal scale not as large as frontal; eye visible 
near anterior border of ocular, much below the point of contact 
with supraocular; eye rather large, pupil distinct and whitish; 
30 scale rows about body ; tail ending in a sharp spine. 

Color in life. — Above shiny greenish black (appearing dark 
green in certain lights) ; snout dark broAvn; underside of snout, 
belly, and entire tail pinkish yellow. The dark and the yellow 
areas are well defined, the black covering 15 scale rows. Head 
with narrow lighter lines, more or less outlining the head scales. 

Measurements of the type of Typlilops canlaonensis Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length 122 

• Tail 2.5 

Width 'of head 4.2 

Width of body 3.5 

Width of tail 3 

Remarks. — This species is related to Typhlops ruficaiida Gray. 
It differs much in color, the rostral is wider and does not reach 
the level of the eye, and the tail is wider than long. In coloring 
it resembles T. jagorii Peters, from Luzon, but the nasals are 
not completely divided and do not touch behind the rostral ; the 
second labial is far from twice as large as the first. It is im- 
possible to tell whether the specimen at hand is adult or not. 
However, it is probable that it is a smaller form than the other 
two species mentioned above. Only one specimen was found, 
although the locality was very thoroughly searched. It was 
found burrowing under a decayed log. 

TYPHLOPS MANIL/E Taylor 

Typhlops mcuiilx Taylor, Philip. Joiirn. Sci. 14 (1919) 106. 
Description of specie.?.— (From the type, an unnumbered spec- 
imen in Santo Tomas Museum, labeled "Filipinas;" locality and 
collector unknown; probably from Luzon.) Snout rounded in 
front, projecting about 2 millimeters ; a distinct depression across 
head in region of eyes; rostral narrowed at a point on snout 



I TYPHLOPS 57 

between nostrils, distinctly longer than wide below ; rostral little 
more than one-third the width of head; nasals not in contact 
behind rostral ; rostral reaching level of eyes ; prefrontal rather 
large, narrowly in contact with frontal; supraoculars large, 
their lower end not reaching eye; frontal slightly smaller than 
prefrontal, about the same shape; parietals rounding, a little 
broader than deep, smaller than supraocular; interparietal en- 
larged; nasal not completely divided; suture issues from second 
labial, then makes a backward deflection which widens the an- 
terior part of nasal ; preocular narrowed at upper end, reaching 
above level of eye but scarcely reaching below level of nostril, 
abruptly widened below eye, its posterior suture with ocular not 
crossing eye; nasal much wider than either preocular or ocular; 
a small subocular scale below ocular in contact with second and 
third labials; preocular touches second labial behind this inter- 
calated scale ; ocular widens abruptly on a level with eye, and 
extends higher than preocular; first labial elongate, second 
higher and shorter, of nearly the same area, third very large, 
three or four times as large as second, reaching to near the top 
level of nostril, larger and higher than fourth labial (third la- 
bial on one side is fused with subocular) ; 3 scales border ocular 
behind; eyes very small but distinct; nostril comparatively large; 
lower jaw very narrow, in its middle scarcely two-fifths the 
width of head. Tail ends in a blunt spine ; 12 scales under tail 
in a longitudinal line ; scales in 28 rows about body. 

Color in life. — Reddish brown above, the anterior part rather 
more grayish brown ; the posterior two-thirds of body darker 
brown; head distinctly marked with darker and lighter (usually) 
curved areas; snout yellowish; below light yellowish, each scale 
with a slightly darker area. 

Measurements of Typhlops nianilx Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length 280 

Tail ' , 5 

Width of tail 5.2 

Width of body 5 

Width of head 5.5 

Remarks. — This unique specimen was found in the collection 
of the Santo Tomas University, Manila. The container was 
labeled "Filipinas" with no indication as to the locality from 
which it came. This species as characterized by the presence of 
a subocular has no close affinity among other species of the genus 
in the Philippines. It belongs to the division of the genus of 
which Typhlops ater and T. inornatus are members, but difi'ers 



58 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

from them in the very much larger number of scale rows, as 
well as in other characters. 

TYPHLOBS OLIVACEUS (Gray) 

Ovychophis oUvaceus Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 13.3. 
Onychocephalus oUvaceus Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (Ibbl) ba4 
BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 10.5; Casto de Elera, Cat. 
Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 424. 
Typhlops oUvaceus Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (189-.) 50; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 255. 
DescrirMon of .spec/e.s.— (From Boulenger.) "Snout very 
prominent, with a narrow, sharp, subcrescentic transverse edge 
and inferior nostrils. Rostral large, its upper part longer than 
broad and about three-fifths the width of the head, not extending 
to the level of the eyes, its lower part as broad as long; nasal 
nearly completely divided, the cleft proceeding from the first 
labial; prseocular present, nearly as broad as the nasal or the 
ocular, in contact with the second and third labials ; eyes distinct ; 
prefrontal considerably enlarged ; four upper labials. Diameter 
of body 50 to 68 times in the total length ; tail twice and a half 
as long as broad, ending in a spine; 20 or 22 scales round the 
body. Pale brown, lighter interiorly. ■ 
"Total length 410 millim. 

"Philippines, Moluccas, North-west Australia." 
Remarks. — Boulenger * records four specimens. One speci- 
men, the type, is from the Philippines. Peters t gives two local- 
ities on Samar, Loquilocun and Borongan. Here, he states, it is 
called tuna. The types were collected by H. Cuming. I have 
been unable to find this species, and there is no specimen in the 
Bureau of Science collection. Boulenger gives Typhlops (Onij- 
chocephalus) angusticeps Peters as a synonym, of this species. 
An examination of Peters's figures J leads me to regard this as 
an error. The presence of a subocular, as well as of other char- 
acters, would seem to prohibit this association. 

r 
TYPHLOPS RUGOSA Taylor 

Typhlops rur/os(t Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 109. 

Desc)-iption of species. — (From the type. No. 97, E. H. Taylor 
collection ; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, July 14, 
1913, by E. H. Taylor.) Head rough, the anterior outline 



* Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 51. 

t Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684. 

:1; Mon. Berl. Ak. (1877) 417, pi. figs. S, 3«, 3b, 3c. 



TYPHLOPS 59 

broken by depressions between scales along sutures, with trans- 
verse cutting edge, somewhat hooked in lateral profile; rostral 
a little longer than wide above, not reaching level of eyes, more 
than one-third the width of head ; part of rostral below as deep 
as wide, dimly granular ; prefrontal a little wider and somewhat 
smaller than frontal, its posterior point reaching a little beyond 
level of eyes ; frontal as broad as long, larger than interparietal ; 
supraocular larger than frontal, wider than deep ; parietals much 
larger than frontal, separated by an interparietal, which is 
smaller than frontal ; parietals not twice as wide as long ; nasal 
with a swollen prominence about and above nostril, which gives 
the anterior head outline an irregular appearance ; nostrils latero- 
inferior, not visible from above; nasal cleft issues from first 
labial and barely passes beyond nostril, not wholly dividing the 
scale ; preocular not as wide as and much shorter than nasal, in 
contact with 2 labials ; eyes dim, barely outlined ; 2 postoculars, 
inferior largest, in contact with fourth labial; 4 upper labials, 
fourth largest, first and second smallest, subequal in size ; scales 
in 26 rows; tail ending in a sharp spine; 479 scales in a longi- 
tudinal row from head to tail; body width in total length, 50; 
tail width in tail length, 3.5 ; tail length in body length, about 17. 
Color in life. — Above brownish to golden yellow, slightly 
hghter beneath. There is very little distinction between the two 
colors, as they merge gradually on the sides. Each scale with 
a somewhat darker area. 

Measurements of Typhlops nigosa Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length , 395 

Tail 23 

Width of head 7.5 

Width of body 8 

Width of tail 6.5 

Remarks. — Two other specimens besides the type were taken, 
one adult, and one young. These two were forwarded to Dr. 
Lawrence E. Griffin, at the University of Pittsburg. They have 
not been at hand for comparison. All were taken in masses 
of fern roots growing in high forest trees. Tijphlops rugosa has 
no close affinity among the Philippine species, unless it be with 
T. mindanensis Taylor. From the latter it diflfers in the size 
of the frontal, which is larger than the prefrontal in T. min- 
danensis. The former has 2, the latter 3, labials touching the 
nasal ; in the former the head is very rough, in the latter, com- 
paratively smooth. Many other differences are obvious on a 



60 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

comparison of the two descriptions. The roughness of the head 
in T. ruyosa is not unhke that in T. crossii and T. regifix but here 
tlie resemblance between them ceases. 

TYPHLOPS DENDROPHIS sp. nov. 

Type.— No. 93, E. H. Taylor collection ; collected at Bunawan, 
Agusan, Mindanao, August 15, 1913, by E. H. Taylor. 

Description of type. — Head flattened above, elliptic in out- 
line, broader than neck; snout in lateral profile rather wedge- 
shaped, with a narrow, sharp, subcrescentic, transverse edge, 
with nostrils inferior; rostral about as broad below as above, a 
little more than one-third width of head, reaching level of eyes ; 
prefrontal angular, forming a suture with rostral about one-third 
its width, a little larger than frontal but of the same shape, much 
Avider than deep ; frontal wider than deep, forming equal sutures 
Avith prefrontal and interparietal; latter a little wider than 
frontal and folloAved bj^ 2 or 3 enlarged scales (the latter char- 
acter is not constant) ; supraocular wider than deep, its lower 
point failing to reach eye ; parietals much elongate, twice as long 
as wide, reaching to near level of eye ; nostril betAveen 2 nasals, 
anterior very small and narrow, the suture diA'iding them arising 
from first labial ; edge of rostral approaches close to nostril ; 
preocular present, not as Avide or as deep as ocular, not touching 
eye, in contact with 2 labials beloAA' ; 3 scales behind ocular ; latter 
large, with a slight rounded prominence above eye ;■ first labial 
as large as or larger than second, fourth larger than third; 
tail ending in a sharp spine; 26 roAvs of scales about body, 497 
in a longitudinal roAv from back of head to end of tail, 29 scales 
under tail from anus to tip. Body width in body length, 49.7; 
tail AAddth in tail length, 3.1. 

Color in life. — Above olive to broAvnish yelloAv. grading in- 
sensibly into the lighter color on belly. Each scale with a lighter 
and darker part; snout somewhat lighter. 

Measurements of Typhlops dcndrophis sp. nov. 

^ mm. 

Total length 398 

Tail 21 

Width of body § 

Width of tail 75 

Variation. — There are three specimens of this species in my 
collection, and one mutilated specimen in the Bureau of Science 
collection, all collected at BunaAA'an, Agusan. Mindanao. They 
agree fairly Avell in measurements and proportions. The body 



TYPHLOPS 



61 



width in the body length varies from 46 to 49; tail width in 
tail length, 3.1. All the specimens save the type have 28 scale 
rows around the body. The relation of the nasal cleft and the 
preocular to the labials is identical in all the specimens ; they 
are also identical in color. 



TABLE 7.— 


Measurements 


and 


scale 


counts 


of Tijphlops dendrophis sp. nov. 










tH 


















































"^ 03 -; 








No. 


rC 




o 




x^- 




■■^-% 


rt 








c 


_• 




^^ 




>. . c 


^^^. 


M-S 








o 

J 


& 




& 


'i 


CQ 


.— 


CO 








mm. 


mm. 




ram. 


mm. 












93 


398 


21 


26 


8 


6.76 


49.7 


3.11 


29 


E. H. Taylor. 




94 


334 


17 


28 


7.25 


6. .50 


46.0 


3.09 


28 


Do. 




95 


392 


20 


28 


8 


6.60 


49 


,3.07 


28 


Do. 




1745 






28 


6 


4.75 






29 


Bureau of Science. 













Remarks. — This species is related to Typhlaps olivaceus 
(Gray), but differs in having the rostral reach the level of the 
eye, and the nasal completely divided. The diameter of the 
body is forty-six to forty-nine times in its total length. The 
tail is more than three times as long as wide, with 4 to 6 more 
rows of scales around the body than in T. olivaceiis. From 
T. cumingii it differs in having the preocular in contact with 
2 labials instead of 1, the tail much shorter, the rostral reach- 
ing the level of the eyes, and in having more rows of scales about 
the body. It is a larger, less-slender species than T. cumingii. 
All four specimens were taken from the root masses of the 
aerial fern Asplenium nidus, obtained when the high forest 
trees were felled. The snakes burrow in the tough root masses 
and feed on the larvse of ants and centipedes which are abun- 
dant in the fern roots. 

TYPHLOPS SULUENSIS Taylor 
TypMops suhiensis Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 257. 
Description of species. — (From the type. No. 2001, Bureau of 
Science collection; collected on Bubuan Island, Tapian group, 
Sulu Archipelago, October 2, 1917, by E. H. Taylor.) Snout 
rather pointed, with a moderately sharp edge ; rostral nearly 
half the width of head, rather truncate behind, forming a broad, 
straight suture with prefrontal ; latter very large, broadly trian- 
gular in shape, its longest sutures with preoculars ; frontal very 
small, bordered by 6 scales, about one-fifth the size of prefrontal ; 
interparietal as wide as prefrontal, but somewhat smaller ; supra- 



62 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



oculars slender, about two and a half times as long as broad; 
parietals much larger than supraoculars, little more than twice 
as long as wide; nasals separated, their upper ends barely ex- 
tending beyond the posterior level of rostral, which reaches 
almost to the anterior level of eyes ; nasal completely divided by 
nasal cleft, which arises from first labial; preocular in contact 
with 2 labials, not as wide as ocular, its upper end scarcely 
reaching higher than the upper level of eye; eye distinct, with 
a minute pupil visible, not crossed by suture of ocular with pre- 
ocular ; 2 body scales border ocular behind ; 4 lower labials, 
second scarcely larger than first ; scales in 22 rows around middle 
of body, 20 on neck, 22 in front of anus, tail ending in a sharp 



0^ 




mM\ 


f 




c^- 



Fic. 
\■ie^^' ; t- 



Tijiihloi'S stducnsis Taylor; IVom the type; a. head, lateral view; 6. head, dorsal 
in ; X 3. 



spine; body width in body length, 46; tail width in tail length. 
2.5; tail length in body length, 26. 

Color in life. — Above dark drab-gray, covering nine whole and 
two half rows of scales, each scale with a slightly curved lighter 
area, which fomis a fine-meshed network over body ; balance of 
body very light gray, the ventral median row of scales dift'eren- 
tiated by being much, lighter in color, with the outer edges and 
the edges of adjacent scale rows slightly darker; occasionally an 
entire scale is white in the median ventral row ; tip of tail and 
anal region whitish; underside of head rather light dirty white; 
head with lighter curved lines, arranged regularly but not follow- 
ing the outlines of the head scales. 



TYPHLOPS 63 

Measurements of Typhlops siduensis Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length 340 

Tail 13 

Width of tail 5.5 

Width of body 7.4 

Width of head 5.5 

Remarks. — The type was found in a rotten log only about 4 
meters from high-tide mark on the beach. Mucli effort was 
made to obtain other specimens on Bubuan Island, but none 
was found. This species seems to be most closely related to 
Typhlops multilineatus and T. olivaceus. From T. multilineatiis 
it differs in having the rostral shorter, the nasal completely di- 
vided, the diameter of the body contained in the total length forty 
times (in T. multilineatus fifty to sixty times), and 22 instead of 
20 scale rows around the middle of the body. The prefrontal 
is larger, the frontal smaller, and the markings are not arranged 
in longitudinal lines. From T. olivcweus it differs in having a 
complete division of the nasal, the preocular much narrower 
than the ocular, and the rostral barely half the width of the 
head. The color is also different from T. olivaceus. 

TYPHLOPS LONGICAUDA Taylor 

Plate 1 

Typhlops longicauda Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 108. 

Description of species. — (P'rom the type. No. R 99, E. H. Tajdor 
collection; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, July 15, 
1913, by E.. H. Taylor.) Head rather broader than neck, rather 
rounding in outline; snout with a sharp horizontal cutting edge, 
moderately projecting, not or but scarcely hooked in profile ; 
rostral not as wide below as above, somewhat narrowed between 
nostrils, failing to reach level of eye by more than half the 
depth of prefrontal ; latter wider than deep, larger than frontal, 
the suture formed with it larger than that with rostral which 
is only about one-fifth its width ; frontal about as wide as deep, 
equal to parietals ; parietals each divided into 2 scales, which are 
about the size of the body scales and scarcely differentiated from 
them, the second one, lying somewhat behind ocular, largest; 
interparietal somewhat larger than frontal ; supraocular diag- 
onal, the lower point reaching anterior level of eye but failing 
to reach horizontal level by its distance from nasal; 2 nasals, 
the anterior very small; the suture dividing them arises from 



64 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

first iiiterlabial suture; preocular narrower and much shorter 
than ocular, in contact with 2 labials below ; ocular large, with 
a slight, rounded prominence over eye ; eye and pupil distinct ; 
4 postoculars between parietal and fourth labial ; 4 labials, first 
and second smallest, subequal in size, third more than twice as 
large as second and about half the size of fourth; scales in 
26 rows; about 430 scales in a longitudinal line to above vent; 
40 scales in a row on underside of tail; body width in body 
length, 56.6; tail width in tail length, 7.2. 

Color in life.— Above light yellowish brown, gradually becom- 
ing lighter below; head lighter with curving lighter marks; 
laterally there is a distinct, more or less rectangular, lighter 
spot, including eye and reaching mouth. Each ventral scale 
has a regular darker brown area. 

Measurements of Typhlops longicauda Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length 340 

Tail 34.5 

Width of head 5.5 

Width of body 6 

Width of tail 4.75 

Variation. — Ten other specimens of this species are in my 
collection; all differ from the type in having a single parietal. 
This character in the type may be anomalous. The origin of 
the nasal suture is not fixed, usually arising near the first inter- 
labial suture, sometimes from first labial, sometimes from sec- 
ond. The body width in the body length varies from 45 to 68, 
the average being about 52 ; the tail is from six to seven times 
longer than broad, the average being about 6.2. They vary in 
shade from yellowish to golden brown above, somewhat lighter 
below. 

Remarks. — This species has a very marked, apparently normal 
enlargement of the pelvic bones, and the tail is comparatively 
longer than in any other of the extremely numerous species of 
this genus. The specimens were obtained for the most part 
from root masses of the large aerial fern Asplenimn nidus. 
They were common at Bunawan, Agusan. Two were taken from 
the trunks of small trees which were tunneled by large black 
ants. The species feeds on the larva? of ants and centipedes. 
It is known only from the type locality. It appears to be related 
to Typhlops cumingii Gray but differs from it in having a longer 
tail, in the larger number of scale rows, and in having the pre- 
ocular in contact with 2 labials instead of 1. 



TYPHLOPS 65 

Table 8. — Measurements and scale counts of Typhlops longicauda Taylor. 



No. 



100 
101 
108 
102 
103 
104. 
105 
106 
107 



Length. 



Tail. 



Body 
width. 



(») 



180 
314 1 



(4 



286 
210 
235 
285 
316 
340 



31 

26 

16 

27.5 

31 

23 

18 

22 

26 

?M. 6 

34.6 



6 

6.5 
4 
6 



Tail 
width. 



4.9 
4.25 
2.7 
4.5 



Body 
width in 
length. 



Tail 
width 
in tail 
length. 



45 

62 





5 


5 


3.7 


4 


8.2 


6 


3.6 


6 


4.2 


6 


5 


6 


4.75 



67 
52 
47 
48 
63 
66.1 



6.1 

6.1 

6 

6.1 

6.2 

6.2 

6.7 

6.1 

6.2 

6.1 

7.2 



100. 
101. 
108. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
106. 
106. 
107- 
98.. 
99". 



Nasal di- Nasal suture 
vided. arises. 



Yes .- 


--! 2d labial 


Yes .. 


... do 


Yes .. 


do 


Yes -- 


_-' 1st labial 


Yes .. 


..; Ist labial 


Yes .. 


..' do 


Yes .. 


..' do 


Yes .. 


..■ do 


Yes .. 


..! do 


Yes .. 


..1 do 



Scale 
rows. 


Preocu- 
lar touch- 
es second 
labial. 


25 


Yes .___ 


26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes .... 


26 




26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes 


26 


Yes .... 


26 


Yes .... 



Collection. 



E. H. Taylor. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 



« Mutilated. 



i> Tail only. 



"= Type. 



TYPHLOPS MINDANENSIS sp. nov. 

Type. — No. 96, E. H. Taylor collection; collected at Bunawan, 
Agusan, Mindanao, August 12, 1913, by E. H. Taylor. 

Descriptiofi of type. — Head somewhat wedge-shaped, slightly 
rounding to the rather sharp horizontal edge; below sloping 
abruptly to mouth. The anterior edge of snout rounding and 
not broken in outline; rostral above moderate, about as wide 
as long, about one-third the width of head between eyes, not 
reaching to level of eyes ; below, the enlarged part of rostral 
wider than deep ; prefrontal much enlarged, much wider than 
deep, separating nasals by a distance equal to more than a fourth 
of its width, deeper and more than one and a half times as 
large as frontal, larger than interparietal or supraocular, and 
separated from preocular by a distance less than that between 



gg SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

nasals; the frontal, the smallest head scale, about as wide as 
deep or a little wider, separated from ocular by a distance less 
than that between prefrontal and preocular ; supraocular forms 
its shortest suture with parietal, its longest with ocular, and 
is narrowly distant from edge of eye; parietals enlarged, their 
anterior part widest, about two and a half to three times as 
long as wide ; interparietal larger than frontal, much wider than 
deep, followed by a scale twice as wide as deep ; 2 scales border 
parietals behind, slightly larger than the following body scales; 
nasal not completely divided by nasal cleft, which issues from a 
point above first interlabial suture ; a small pitlike depression 
below each nostril; 3 labials in contact with nasal below; nasal 
narrows above, the end curving to a point; preocular present, 
very much narrower and much shorter than either nasal or 
ocular, its edge reaching edge of eye, in contact with a single 
labial below, narrowing to a point above ; ocular large, touching 
2 labials below; eye distinct, with pupil showing; 3 slightly 
enlarged postoculars ; 4 upper labials ; chin covered with slightly 
enlarged scales, about 8 or 9 between angles of mouth ; 27 scale 
rows about neck, 26 about anterior part of body, 24 in front 
of anus ; anterior part of median ventral scale row has more 
or less enlarged scales ; 35 scales in a longitudinal row from anus 
to tip of tail ; body width in total length, 53 ; tail width in tail 
length, 3.8 ; tail length in body length, 17. 

Color in life. — Above grayish to brownish yellow, this color 
covering upper 13 scale rows, each scale with a large, dimly 
defined, lighter area on its tip ; below lighter brownish yellow ; 
to the eye the color appears nearly uniform ; the area about and 
below the nostril and upper labials lighter than rest of head. 

Measurements of Typhlops mindancnsis sp. nov. 



mm. 



Total length, body severed gig 

Tail jg 

Width of body g 

Width of tail ^ gg 

/2-eTOa77f,s.— Only the type was taken. Apparently it has no 
close affinity among the other Philippine species. (See remarks 
under T. ragosa.) 

TYPHLOPS CUMINGII (Gray) 

Onychophis cmningu Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845) 133 
Onychocephalus cumingn Boettgur, Ber. Senck. Nat Ges. (1SS6) 104 
Typhlops cumingii Boulenger, Vai. Snakes Brit. Mu^ 1 (1893) 51 
pl. 3, fig. 4; Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 255 



TYPHLOPS 



67 



^ ^> 





Fig. 4. Typhlops cumingii (Gray) ; after 
Boulenger : a. head, dorsal view ; b, head 
lateral view ; c, head, ventral view. 



Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Snout very 
prominent, with a narrow, subcrescentic sharp transverse edge 
and inferior nostrils. Rostral large, its upper part longer than 
broad and about half the width 
of the head, not extending to 
the level of the eyes, its lower 
part as broad as long; nasal 
completely divided, the cleft 
proceeding from the second la- 
bial ; prgeocular present, narrow- 
er than the nasal or the ocular, 
in contact with the third labial 
only; prjefrontal not enlarged, 
parietals broad; eyes distinct; 
four upper labials. Diameter of 
body 48 to 52 times in the total 
length ; tail four or five times as 
long as broad, ending in a spine. Twenty-four scales round 
the body. Olive-brown above, yellowish interiorly. 

"Total length 365 millim." 

Remarks. — I have been unable to find this species. The newly 
described Typhlops longicauda is related to but apparently dis- 
tinct from it. 

BOID^ 

Boidx, part, Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 41; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 82. 
Boidx Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 71. 

"Maxillary, palatine, and pterygoid movable ; transpalatine 
present ; pterygoid extending to quadrate or mandible ; supratem- 
poral present, attached scale-like to cranium, suspending quad- 
rate ; prsefrontal in contact with nasal. Mandible with coronoid 
bone. Teeth in both jaws. Vestiges of pelvis and hind limbs, 
usually terminating in a claw-like spur visible on each side of 
the vent." {Boulenger.) 

This family is divided into two subfamilies, the Pythoninse 
and Boinse ; the snakes of the former are characterized by the pres- 
ence of a supraorbital bone, those of the latter by the absence 
of a supraorbital bone and of premaxillary teeth. The Pytho- 
ninfe are confined largely to the Old World. A single genus 
is found in Mexico. The Boinae, on the other hand, are dis- 
tributed over both hemispheres, the larger number of genera 
occurring in the Western Hemisphere. The genera Corallus 
and Boa are found in both America and Madagascar; Casarea 



68 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

and Bolieria are known only from a small island in the Indian 
Ocean. Enygrus, which is distributed over Polynesia and Papu- 
asia, approaches our territory in Celebes and the Moluccas. 

PYTHONIN.^ 

Supraorbital bone present. 

Nardoa, Liasis, Chondropython, and Python occur in the East 
Indian and Australian regions, but only the last is known to enter 
the Philippines. 

Genus PYTHON Daudin 
Python Daudin, Hist. Kept. 5 (1803) 226; Waglee, Syst. Amph. 
(1830) 168; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 402; Dumeril and 
BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 6 (1844) 392; Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 
87; GUNTHER, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 329; Jan, Icon. Gen. Ophid. 
(1864) 95; Boettger, Her. Senck. Nat. Gas. (1886) 115; Boulenger, 
Fauna Brit. India, Eept. (1890) 245; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 
(1893) 81; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 439; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 255. 
Constrictor Waglee, Syst. Amph. (1830) 168. 
Morelia Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 43; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. 

Gen. 6 (1844) 383. 
Aspidoboa Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philom. VII 8 (1884) 143. 
Hypaspistes Ogilby, Rec. Aust. Mus. 1 (1891) 193. 

"Prsemaxillary bone toothed. Anterior maxillary and man- 
dibular teeth very long, gradually decreasing in size. Head 
distinct from neck; end of snout covered with shields, upper 
surface of head with symmetrical shields or small scales ; nostril 
directed upwards or supero-lateral, in a large semidivided nasal, 
which is separated from its fellow by a pair of internasals; 
rostral and anterior upper labials with deep pits; some of the 
lower labials also pitted. Eye moderate, with vertical pupil. 
Body more or less compressed ; scales small, smooth. Tail mod- 
erate or short, prehensile; subcaudals all or greater part in 
two rows." (Boulenger.) 

The genus is widely distributed over Africa, southeastern Asia, 
Papuasia, and Australia. Only the widely distributed Python 
reticulatus (Schneider) is known to occur in the Philippines. 

PYTHON RETICULATUS (Schneider) 
Boa reticulatus Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 264; Denkschr. Ak. 

Munch. 7 (1821) 118; Daudin, Hist. Rept. 5 (1803) 116. 
Boa rli.ombcata Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 266. 
Boa, pJirygia Shaw, Zool. 3 (1802) 348, pi. 97. 
Coluber javaniciis Shaw, Zool. 3 (1802) 441. 
Python schneideri Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) S9 ; BoiE, Isis 

(1827) 515; GUERIN, Icon. Reg. Anim., Rept., PI. 21, fig. 1; 

Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 415, pi. 15, fic,s. 5-7. 



PYTHON 69 

Python reticulahis Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 44; Dumeril and Bibron, 
Erp. Gen. 6 (1844) 426; Cantor, Cat. Mai. Kept. (1847) 55; Gray, 
Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849). 87; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 689; 
GiJNTHER, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 330; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1864) 
97, pi. 6; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 3 9 (1870) 205; Mae- 
tens, Preus. Exped. O. Asien Zool. 1 (1876) 197; Theobald, Cat. 
Kept. Brit. India (1876) 205; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 
(1886) 115; BouLENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 246; Cat. 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 85; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Tauna 
Filipinas 1 (1895) 439; Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 
255; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 355. 

Descrijotion of species. — (From No. 426, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected on Polillo Island, October, 1909, by C. Cano- 
nizado). Rostral higher than wide, visible from above, with 2 
deep, curved, elongate pits; 2 regular intemasals, longer than 
wide, their mutual suture distinctly shorter than those formed 
with nasals, their suture with rostral about equal to suture 
between nasal and rostral; nasals roughly triangular, nostril 
pierced posteriorly; a deep suture enters nostril from above, 
which nearly divides the scale into two parts; 2 large regular 
prefrontals, widest along their mutual suture, very much larger 
than internasals, in contact with posterior part of nasal and 
with a scale which is intercalated between preocular and pre- 
frontal ; the latter scale lies diagonally, is rather rectangular in 
shape, and is in contact with frontal, supraocular (on one side) , 
preocular and 2 loreals (broken into two parts on right side) ; 
frontal divided, smaller than prefrontals, lying between and 
somewhat anterior to eyes ; supraocular large, about as wide as 
long; 3 loreal scales, the anterior lying between nasal and third 
labial, touching second and third labials; second loreal largest, 
touching 3 labials ; third smallest, touching only fifth labial ; 2 
preoculars, upper very' large, three or four times the size of lower, 
and in contact with fifth and sixth labials ; lower touching sixth 
and seventh labials; 13 upper labials, the seventh, largest, en- 
tering eye ; first 4 with deep pits diagonally elongate ; 2 postocular 
scales in parietal region, small, very irregular, larger than body 
scales ; temporals slightly smaller ; mental small, triangular ; 23 
lower labials, first 11 much elongated, second, third, and fourth 
with small round pits; thirteenth to nineteenth inclusive pitted 
with rounded pits; chin shields small, indistinguishable, mental 
groove not especially distinct; scales on body small, the median 
dorsal rows smallest, in 77 rows around widest part of body ; the 
scales in the row bordering ventrals several times larger than 
those on middle of back; ventrals 324, rather narrow; subcaudals 
91, in 2 rows; anal single; on either side of anus a small ex- 



rjQ SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

truding claw on tip of leg bone (more prominent in males) ; 
eyes small, pupil vertical. 

Color in ?i/e.— Yellowish gray to yellowish brown above, highly 
iridescent, with a continuous, chainlike, zigzag marking of blue- 
black inclosing irregular, rhomboidal, grayish yellow spots ; the 
black color surrounding these spots is rarely more than three 
scales wide; on each side a second series of small white spots 
inclosed by the dark color at the point where the rhombs are 
widest; these in turn are connected by narrow marks to a dim 
series of markings running along the outer edge of the ventrals 
and the scales bordering the ventrals; ventrals dimly blotched 
with grayish black ; a narrow, black, median line from upper tip 
of rostral to the dorsal markings on neck; a temporal streak 
from eye to lateral neck marking; a small isolated dot of black 
on each side in the parietal region; chin and throat whitish; 
ventrals for the most part yellowish white to cream. 

Measurements of Python reticidatus (Schneider) (young). 

mm. 
Total length 2,075 

Snout to anus 1,797 

Tail 278 

Width of head 45 

Length of head "0 

Variation.-. — The number of scale rows around the body varies 
greatly at the various parts of the body ; in Philippine specimens 
the variation of the number of rows in the widest part is from 
74 to 78; of the ventrals, 317 to 335; and of the subcaudals, 80 
to 93.* 

The number of upper labials varies from 10 to 13, of lower 
labials from 20 to 23. In all specimens examined the first 4 
upper labials were pitted ; the second, third, and sometimes the 
fourth lower labials were pitted with small rounded pits; the 
thirteenth to eighteenth lower labials were usually pitted. The 
number of postoculars is variable ; as few as 2 scales, and as 
many as 5 occur. The seventh labial almost invariably enters 
the eye. 

The scales on the head are variable, particularly the element 
lying between the prefrontals and the preocular, which is fre- 
quently broken ; the frontal is usually divided in Philippine speci- 
mens, and frequently the anterior part is broken. 



* According to Boulenger's Catalogue the range of ventrals is as fol- 
lows: Scale rows, 69 to 79; ventrals, 297 to 330; subcaudals, 78 to 102. 



PYTHON 71 

The color of the young is similar to that of the adult. The 
belly frequently assumes a bright orange color. In very young 
specimens there are often black dots on either side of the median 
black line on the head. 

Remarks. — This snake attains a length of at least 9 meters. 
It is not at all improbable that specimens of larger size are oc- 
casionally found. All records of specimens longer than 8 or 
9 meters should be verified beyond a doubt, for it must be re- 
membered that the skin is elastic and can be stretched consider- 
ably when freshly removed from the snake. Measurements of 
skins therefore are not necessarily authentic for those of the 
living snake. 

Superstitious beliefs are probably more common regarding this 
snake than any other in the Philippines. Fabulous stories are 
told of its size ; of snakes 20 to 30 meters in length having been 
killed or seen, vs^ith body height that of a man ; or of grown 
carabaos having been eaten whole by a single reptile. 

That these large constrictors of 8 or 9 meters can easily kill 
a man or smaller animals is evident from their strength and size. 
There are on record a few cases of such occurrences, but they 
are rare. It is possible that they could kill a carabao if coiled 
about the neck; but that a snake could eat one is absurd. 

Many regard this snake as poisonous which, needless to say, 
it is not. The flesh is white and is relished by many Filipinos. 
Many of the rural people have young specimens in their houses 
for protection from rats. 

They feed on a great variety of animals, preferring smaller 
mammals and the young of certain of the larger ones, such as 
monkeys, deer, pigs, dogs, goats, as well as birds and fowls. In 
captivity they do very well and are probably kept as menagerie 
specimens more commonly than is any other snake, Boa con- 
stnctor of South America not excepted. Specimens kept in the 
Bureau of Science Aquarium are fed a small goat once each 
month. 

Specimens are most frequentlj^ taken along rivers and they 
appear to be somewhat aquatic in their habits. They usually 
live in hollow trees, in hollow trunks of fallen trees, in holes in 
the banks of streams, or in caves. They lay their eggs usually 
in the hollow trunks of fallen trees and incubate them by encir- 
cling them with the coils of the body. 

The species is found on all the larger Philippine islands and 
probably most of the smaller ones. It is known from Luzon, 



72 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Mindoro, Polillo, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, 
Palawan, Mindanao, and Basilan. It was reported as occurring 
in Jolo and Tawitawi, but I was unable to verify these last two 
localities. Outside of the Philippines it is known in Burma, 
Cochin China, Siam, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, 
Celebes, Timor, and the Moluccas. 



Table 9.- 



-Measurements and scale counts of Python reticulatus 
(Schneider) . 




65 
64 
330 
425 
426 
427 
429 
432 
826 
B113 



Mindanao | E. H. Taylor 1 ye 

do ; do I yjr 

do j do 1 yg 

Polillo C. Canonizado ■ 



Tnni. 

689 
915 
870 







j= 






T3 




aj 




& 


O 


K 














rt 




^. 






V 


a 


ffl 


> 


jriTn. 


mm. 


Tnm. 




96 


21 


33 


826 


120 


23 


39 


335 


126 


24 


38 


325 



do 

Manila 

do 

Mindanao . 

Polillo 

Mindanao _ 



do 

do 

do 

E. H. Taylor 

C. Canonizado 

E. H. Taylor 



ye 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 



2.237 


260 


48 


76 


2.176 


278 


46 


70 


2.462 


285 


50 


79 


1,660 


185 


32 


64 


1.572 


190 


33 


65 


865 


120 


22 


38 


1,044 


150 


27 


44 



317 

324 

323 

322 

328 j 

323 

317 



65 
64 
330 
426 
426 
427 
429 
482 
826 
5113 



a 
P 



10-11 
13-13 
13-13 
13-13 
13-13 
12-13 
13-13 
13-13 
12-12 
14-14 



1-4 
1-4 
1-4 
1-4 
1-4 



1-4 


(•) 


1-4 


1-4 


1-4 



a 


i-ri 














u m 


ll -*^ 




rt 


fV'eo 


0) C 






S.S 


^^ 


i< 


o 


o 


^■^ 


Cm 


o 


21-23 


13-17 


2 


4-5 


23-23 


13-18 


2 


3-4 


23-23 


13-18 


2 


3-4 


21-21 


13-18 


2 


3-3 


21-22 


13-18 


2 


2-2 


23-23 


13-18 


2 


3-3 






2 


3-3 
3-3 


22-23 


13-18 


21-20 


11-15 


2 


3-3 


22-23 


13-18 


2 


2-2 



76 
74 
77 
SO 
77 
80 
78 
76 
81 
71 



81 
92 
88 
91 
82 
79 
89 
91 
93 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
E. H. Taylor. 



^ Head mutilated. 

XENOPELTID^ 

Imbricata;, part., Boie, Isis (1827) 510. 

Tortricida;, part., Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 18. 

Xenopeltidx CoPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1864) 230; 
GiiNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 180; Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soe. 23 
(1886) 482; Boulengek, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 275; Cat 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 167. 



XENOPELTIS 73 

Cranial bones more or less solidly united; transpalatine pres- 
ent ; pterygoid extending to quadrate ; prefrontal in contact with 
nasal. Mandible without coronoid bone. Teeth in jaws, palate, 
and premaxillary. 

This family contains one genus and one species. 

Genus XENOPELTIS Reinwardt 

Xenopeltis Reinwart, in Boie, Tsis (1827) 564; Dumeril and Bibron, 
Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 28; GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 180; 
Jan, Icon. Gen. (1865) 57; Boulengee, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. 
(1890) 276; Cat. Rept. Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 167, fig. 10. 

Tortrix, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 1. 

"Teeth small, equal, closely set, and very numerous (4 on each 
side of the prsemaxillary, 33-38 in each maxillary, 35 or 36 in 
each ramus of the mandible) . Dentary bone attached loosely 
to the apex of the articular and movable on it. Head not distinct 
from neck; eye small, with vertically elliptic pupil. Nostril be- 
tween two small nasals; frontal in contact with a large ag[z]y- 
gous interparietal shield, which is in the middle between four 
parietals. A mental groove. Body cylindrical; scales smooth, 
in 15 rows; ventrals large; tail short, subcaudals in two rows." 
(Boulenger.) 

This genus has a single known species, Xenopeltis unicolor. 
It attains a length of at least 1 meter. It is rare in the 
Philippines and is probably confined to Palawan and the Sulu 
Archipelago. Known also in southern Asia and the Malay 
Archipelago. 

XENOPELTIS UNICOLOR Reinwardt 
Plate 2 

Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt, Boie, Isis (1827) 564; Cantor, Cat. 
Mai. Rept. (1847) 54; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 28; 
GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 180; Jan, Icon. Gen. 57 (1865) 
' 1, 9, pi. 5; Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 140; Boulen- 
ger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 276, fig-. 85; Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 168, fig. 10; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 106; Grifpin, Philip, Journ. Sci. § D 
13 (1918) 259. 

Xenopeltis concolor Reinwardt, in Boie, Isis (1827) 564. 

Xenopeltis leucocephala Reinwardt, in Boie, Isis (1827) 564. 

Tortrix xenopeltis Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 20, pi. 1, figs. 
8-10; "Abbild. (1844) pi. 35. 

Description of species. — (From No. 738, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, Januarj'- 8, 1909, by 
C. M. Weber.) Head much flattened, somewhat wedge-shaped, 
not distinct from neck ; snout rounded ; scales on head imbricate ; 



74 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



rostral wider than high, visible from above, pointed behind; 
internasals small, wider than deep, narrowed medially, the suture 
between them about one-third that between prefrontals; pre- 
frontals longer than wide, rounding behind, their mutual suture 

longest, their shortest suture with 
posterior nasal; frontal as wide as 
long, equal in length to its distance 
from end of snout; parietals broken 
into 5 scales, none as large as frontal, 
but the 3 bordering frontal largest; 
interparietal a little larger than 
anterior or posterior parietals; a 
sixth scale borders interparietal be- 
hind and is smallest, a little larger 
than body scales; nasal divided, nos- 
tril nearly surrounded by anterior 
part, posterior part largest; loreal 
(or preocular) very large, broadly 
entering eye and forming a broad 
suture with frontal, bordered by 2 
labials below; supraocular present, 
very small, less than one-eighth the 
size of frontal, less than either of the 
2 postoculars ; 2 anterior temporals, 
the lower in contact with both postoculars, the upper with one; 
3 posterior temporals ; 8 upper labials, fourth and fifth entering 
eye (only the fourth on the left side) ; first labial in contact with 
internasal; 8 lower labials, 3 in contact with the single pair of 
chin shields; scales in 15 rows, smooth, without apical pits, the 
median dorsals smallest, the outer scale row largest and ventral ; 
ventrals, 178, comparatively narrow ; anal divided ; subcaudals, 
29; the scale immediately in front of anal scale much enlarged, 
and the subcaudal scale behind anus single. 

Color m alcohol. — Above purplish brown, each scale lighter on 
the edges, the light color becoming more pronounced laterally 
and appearing as longitudinal dotted lines ; the second outer row 
of scales has only a dim brownish spot on each scale; the first 
row has no dark color, but is yellowish ; lower labials with 
brownish purple spots on each scale ; dark spots on chin shields ; 
belly immaculate; underside of tail with large purplish spots 
for more than half its length ; a broad, dim, lighter nuchal collar. 




Fig. 5. Xctiopeltis unicolor Rein- 
wardt ; after Boulenger ; a, head, 
dorsal view ; h, head, lateral view. 



XENOPELTIS 



75 



Measurements of Xenopeltis unicolor Reimoardt. 



mm. 

730 
84 
15 
25 



Total length 

Tail 

Width of head 

Length of head 

Variation. — Practically no variation is evident in color or 
marking save that in the young the purple is more pronounced 
and the collar is almost pure yellowish white. The specimen here 
described is abnormal in having only the fourth labial entering 
the eye on one side, and only minutely on the other side. The 
fourth and fifth labials enter the eye in all specimens examined 
except one (No. 736, Bureau of Science collection) in which 
the fourth labial alone enters the eye on one side. Boulenger * 
gives the range of ventrals as 166 to 193 ; of subcaudals, 26 to 
31. It is significant that in the six specimens listed in the 
attached table the subcaudal count is identical. 

Table 10. — Measurements and scale counts of Xenopeltis unicolor 

Reinwardt. 



No. Sex. 



734 
736 
736 
737 
738 
739 



No. 



Locality. 


Collector. 
C. M. Weber 


i Leng-th. 

Trirti. 

._.! 416 

1 


Tail. 

mm. 
48 


Palawan 



do. 

do. 

do. 

; do- 

do. 



.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do. 



36.5 
672 
666 
736 
610 



Ven. 
trals. 



S"b- Upper Lower Scale ';^';f'^ 

■jj?; labials. I labials, rows. , *"„„ 
Qais. I I eye. 



Collection. 




Remarks. — The species was discovered in the Philippines by 
Mr. C. M. Weber in Palawan, and was first recorded by GrifRn.f 

* Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1898) 168. 
t Loc. cit. 



Yg SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

I obtained a specimen on Bongao Island, Sulu Archipelago. This 
specimen is of a dark slate or bluish slate color ; otherwise it 
agrees fairly well with the Palawan specimens. It is known in 
the Philippines from these two localities only. Outside of the 
Philippines it is known from India, Burma, Siam, Malay Pe- 
ninsula, Nias, Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra, and Java. In the Phil- 
ippines it is rare, as it is said to be in Java also."' 

NATRICID^ 

"Facial bones movable; prasfrontal not in contact with nasal; 
transpalatine present ; pterygoid extending to mandible or quad- 
rate; supratemporal present, attached scale-like to the skull and 
suspending quadrate; maxillary horizontal, not movable per- 
pendicularly to the transpalatine. Mandible without coronoid 
bone. Both jaws toothed." iBoulenger.)j 

The family is divided into the following subfamilies: Acro- 
chordinse, Natricinas, Rachiodontinffi, Homalopsinse, Coronellina;, 
Boiginte, Elachistodontinte, and Langahinje. Representatives of 
six of these subfamilies are to be found in the Philippines, and 
they may be distinguished as follows : 

Key to the Philippine subfamilies of the Matricide. 

a\ Hypapophyses present throughout the vertebral column, 
ft'. All maxillary teeth solid. 

c\ Postf rental bone produced over the supraorbital region; scales not 

or but .slightly imbricate Acrochordins (p. 76). 

C-. Postf rontal bone not produced over the supraorbital region; scales 

imbricate - - - - Natricins (p. 78). 

b-. Posterior maxillary teeth grooved. 

c\ Nostrils valvular, on upper side of snout Homalopsinse (p. 110). 

c"-. Nostrils not valved, lateral Langahinas (p. 116). 

o.^ Hypapophyses absent in posterior dorsal vertebra. 

6\ All maxillary teeth solid --.- Coronellin^ (p. 117). 

b'. Posterior maxillary teeth grooved .. Boiginas (p. 195). 

The Natricinse and the Coronellinae constitute the bulk of the 
harmless Philippine snakes. The two subfamilies together are 
equivalent to Boulenger's family Colubridse. 

/VCROCHORDIN.-E 

Acrochordiiue Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 354; Cat. 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 172. 

"Postfrontal bone produced over the supraorbital region. 
Maxillary and dentary bones armed with solid teeth along their 



* Barbour, loc. cit.; Schlegel, loc. cit. 

t Boulenger's definition of the Colubrid», from Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 
1 (1893) 169. 



CHERSYDRUS 77 

whole length; palatines and pterygoids toothed. Hypapophyses 
developed throughout the vertebral column. Scales not or but 
slightly imbricate." (Boulenger.) 

This subfamily, consisting of several genera, is distributed 
over southeastern Asia, the East Indies, and Central America. 
Only Chersydrv^ is known in the Philippines. Xenodermus, 
Acrochordus, Stoliczkaia, and Anoplohydrus enter the East 
Indies, the first with a single species extending from Siam and 
the Malay Peninsula to New Guinea ; the second extending from 
the Malay Peninsula to Java and Sumatra ; the third has been 
found in Borneo, but is apparently absent from the other East 
Indian islands; and the fourth is from Sumatra. It is signif- 
icant that most of these genera are monotypic. 

Genus CHERSYDRUS Cuvier 

Hydrus, part., Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 243. 

Chersydi~ws CuviER, Reg. Anim. 2 (1817) 75; Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes 

(1849) 60; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 40; Gunther, 

Rept. Brit. India (1864) 336; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

(1886) 115; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 355; 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 173. 
Aerocyiordus, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 424. 
Potamophiis, part., Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. 2 (1852) 75. 

"Teeth subequal, 12 to 15 in each maxillary. Head not distinct 
from neck, small, covered with granular, juxtaposed scales; 
nostrils close together on the top of the snout ; eye very small, with 
vertically subelliptic pupil. Body stout, compressed ; scales very 
small, juxtaposed, rhomboidal, with a short tubercle-like keel, 
spinose on the belly; no ventral shields; a fold of the skin 
running along the median line of the abdomen. Tail short, 
compressed, prehensile, scaled like the body." (Boulenger.) 

For the distribution of the family see that of the single species. 

CHERSYDRUS GRANULATUS (Schneider) 

Plate 3, fig. 1 

Hydrus granulatus Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 243. 

Acrochordus fasciatus Shaw, Zool. 3 (1802) 576, pi. 130; Schlegel, 
Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 429, pi. 14, figs. 14-16. 

Pelamis granulatus Daudin, Rept. 7 (1803) 370. 

Acrochordus granulatus Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 59. 

Chersydrus granulatus Gray, Cat, Vip. Snakes (1849) 61; Gunther, 
Rept. Brit. India (1864) 336; Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India 
(1876) 186; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 355, 
fig.; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 174; Griffin, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. § D 6 (1911) 255. 

Chersydrus annulatus Gray, Cat. Snakes (1849) 61. 

Potamophis fasciata Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. 2 (1852) 75. 

Chersydrus fasciatus Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 41. 



78 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Descri-ption of species. — (From No. 773, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected in Manila Bay.) Head narrow, not distinct 
from neck; ej'es small; body compressed; rostral wanting or 
reduced greatly ; no regular head scales ; nostrils nearly as large 
as eyes, valvular, separated from each other by a single narrow 
scale; the row of scales above the row bordering mouth largest; 
anterior row of scales on lower jaw broken into two deep 
grooves, scales adjoining the scale row bordering mouth much 
enlarged; no distinct chin shields; eye surrounded by about 11 
small scales, about 11 scales in a row between eyes ; scales small, 
juxtaposed, tubercled, about 100 rows around widest part of 
body, those on back two or three times as large as lateral scales ; 
no ventral shields ; scales along ventral surface form a small, 
finely serrated fold ; tail short, rather compressed ; no subcaudals ; 
neck and head less than half as deep as greatest depth of body. 

Color in life. — Above lead color with lateral indistinct mark- 
ings of yellowish white, very slightly evident dorsally ; the slight 
ventral fold whitish, terminating in a larger white spot under 
chin ; dim light markings in occipital region ; anal region white ; 
no line under tail. 

Measurements of Chersydtiis granidatus (Schneider) . 



mm. 



Total length 785 

Snout to vent 703 

Tail 82 

Width of head 14 

Length of head 20 

Depth of neck 15 

Greatest body depth _ 35 

Variation. — The young are blackish brown, very distinctly 
marked on the sides with white transverse bars, which usually 
fail to join dorsally; the white bars are widest laterally; the 
head has two small white dots between and anterior to the eyes ; 
a row of larger white dots across the occipital region. 

Remark),. —The species attains a length of 1 meter or more. 
It is extremely common along the shores and fresh-water streams 
near the seacoast. Females give birth to as many as ten young 
at one time. The species is entirely harmless. 

NATRICIN.-E 

Hypapophyses present throughout the vertebral column. All 
maxillary teeth solid; the postf rental bone not produced over 
the supraorbital region. Scales imbricate. Teeth on the entire 
length of the maxillary and dentarv bones. 



SIBYNOPHIS 



79 



Key to the Philippine genera of the Natricinse.* 

a\ Subeaudals double; maxillary teeth equal, or last two or three enlarged. 
6\ Eye small, pupil round; scales smooth, without apical pits; snout 

obtuse --. Sibynophis Fitzinger (p. 79). 

b'. Eye large, pupil round; scales nearly all keeled, usuallj' with apical 

pits; snout obtuse Natrix Laurenti (p. 82). 

b'. Eye moderate, pupil vertically elongate; snout pointed; scales smooth, 

no apical pits Oxyrhabdium Boulenger (p. 99). 

a'\ Subeaudals single; anterior maxillary teeth enlarged and separated 
from those following by a short interspace; eye moderate, pupil 
round; snout obtuse;' scales smooth, without apical pits. 

Cyclocorus Dumeril and Bibron (p. 105). 






Fig. 6. Typical Natricinas head; after Griffin; Dendrelaphis terrificus (Peters), from Griffin's 
fi^re of D. cxruleatus ; ch, chin shield; /, frontal: d. inferior labial; in, internasal ; lb, 
superior labial; lo, loreal ; m, mental, or symphysial ; n, nasal; par, parietal; pf, prefrontal; 
po, preocular ; pto, postocular; r, roatra) ; :jo, supraofular ; ta, anterior temporal; tp, 
posterior temporal ; v, ventral. 



Genus SIBYNOPHIS Fitzinger 

Sibynophis Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 26; Ste.jn'Eger, Proc. U. 

S. Nat. Mus. 38 (1910) 102. 
Berpetodryas, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (18.37) 173. 
Enicognathus Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) .328. 
Ablabes, part., GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 27; 

Rept. Brit. India (1864) 223. 
Enicognathus, part., .Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1863) 266. 
Henicognathus CoPE, -Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8 (1876) 

1.38; part., Bocourt, Miss. Sc. Mex., Rept. (1886) 625. 
Polyodontophi.'; Eoulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 301; 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 181; Griffin, Philip, Journ. Sci. 

§ D 6 (1911) 256. 

*The characters given here may not apply to extra-Philippine species 
of the genera. 



gQ SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

"Teeth very numerous and closely set, 30 to 50 in each max- 
illary, equal in size. Dentary bone completely detached from 
the articular posteriorly. Head short, not or but slightly dis- 
tinct from neck; eye moderate or rather small, with round pu- 
pil. Body cylindrical, elongate; scales smooth, without apical 
pits, in 17 or 19 rows. Tail moderate or long; subcaudals in 
two rows. Hypapophyses developed throughout the vertebral 
column." {Boulenger.) 

The occurrence in the Philippines of a species of this genus is 
somewhat unusual, as no other member of the genus appears 
to have been discovered in any of the East Indian islands. 
Species occur in Madagascar, Comoro Islands, southeastern Asia, 
and Central America ; it offers a good example of discontinuous 
distribution. 

The Philippine species, Sibynophis bivittattis, is small and 
harmless ; it is not recognized by people in Busuanga as being a 
different snake from the poisonous DoUopMs bilineatus, which 
occurs on the same island, the name odto-odto * being applied 
to both species. They regard both as deadly poisonous. 

SIBYNOPHIS BIVITTATUS (Boulenger) 

Plate 10, fig. 1 
Polyodontox)his hivittatus Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 14 
(1894) 82; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 597; Griffin, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 256. 

Description of species. — (From an unnumbered specimen in 
Santo Tomas Museum ; collected in Palawan, collector and date 
unknoA^m.) Rostral twice as broad as high, only a very small 
part visible from above, forming its largest suture with inter- 
nasals and its smallest with first labial; internasal large, ap- 
parently bordering nostril, about as broad as long, their mutual 
suture diagonal; prefrontals wider than long, also forming a 
diagonal mutual suture (left prefrontal broadly in contact with 
right internasal), in contact with and forming coequal sutures 
with posterior nasal, loreal, preocular, and supraoculars ; frontal 
elongate, shield-shaped, not quite twice as long as broad, much 
longer than its distance to end of snout, as long as parietals or 
minutely shorter, wider and slightly longer than supraoculars; 
parietals longer than wide, in contact with both postoculars and 
2 temporals; nasal divided, internasal bordering nostril; pos- 



* This name is usually applied to spedes of Typhlops, chieliy Tijphlops 
braminiis, in Negros and other Visayan islands. It is regarded by the 
A^isayans as deadly poisonous. 



SIBYNOPHIS 81 

terior nasal highest and largest; loreal as long as deep, smaller 
than preocular ; latter much higher than wide, much wider at 
top than bottom ; supraoculars twice as long as wide ; 2 small 

postoculars, lower touching 2 labials; temporals, 2-:-^, lower 

anterior largest, wedged between sixth and seventh labials ; 8 
upper labials, last much the largest ; third, fourth, and fifth en- 
tering eye, progressing in size from first ; 8 lower labials, 4 touch- 
ing first chin shields, which are longer and wider than second ; 
eye rather large; ventrals, 145; anal divided; subcaudals, 93 in 2 
rows ; scales in 17 rows, smooth, without apical pits. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dark reddish brown, which reaches 
laterally to outer row of scales but does not include them ; two 
white stripes begin behind parietals and continue to extreme 
tip of tail, each stripe covering one scale row and parts of the 
two adjoining rows; ventrally immaculate yellowish white; a 
broad yellow area between eyes involving larger part of frontals 
and supraoculars ; two small yellow spots on prefrontals, and 
one on each upper labial ; some small yellow spots on parietals ; 
chin dirty whitish. 

Measurements of Sibynophis bivittatus (Boulenger) , 

mm. 

Total length 460 

Body to vent 299 

Tail 161 

Width of head 8 

Variation. — There are three specimens in the Santo Tomas 
Museum, all from Palawan. Like the types in the British Mu- 
seum, all save the described specimen have mutilated tails, 
which fact seems significant. The specimens agree with the 
type description save in the following characters : The ground 
color is dark reddish brown instead of black, and the color bare- 
ly extends on the outer scale rows, and there are no spots on the 
ventrals. In two of the specimens the white lines continue to 
the eyes. In Busuanga, on the seashore, near the small settle- 
ment of Minuit, I recently captured a specimen having the follow- 
ing scale counts : Ventrals, 152 ; anal, divided ; subcaudals, 106 ; 
upper labials, 8 ; lower labials, 9 ; scale rows, 17 ; fourth and 
fifth labials entering eye. The diagonal direction of the suture 
between the prefrontals is evident and leaves the left prefrontal 
in contact with the right internasal. This strange anomaly is 
present in all four specimens examined. I suspect that this is 
the normal condition, although it was not mentioned as occurring 
in the type. . 

161466 6 



82 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Color in life.— Above black with two cream-white stripes be- 
ginning behind parietal and continuing to tip of tail ; outer scale 
row slightly greenish gray instead of black ; head reddish brown 
with a light interorbital stripe or blotch washed with salmon 
red ; a few creamy white dots on parietals and prefrontals ; each 
labial with a large paper-white spot ; above labial spots darker ; 
chin muddy white ; below uniform greenish yellow. 

Obviously this is a rare species. It closely resembles * Do- 
liophis bilineatiis Boulenger and Dryocalamtis philippiims 
Grifiin, both of which are known to inhabit the Palawan group 
of islands. 

Table 11. — Measurements and scale counts of Sihynophis bivittatus 

(Boulenger) . 









o 


m 








c 




No. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


5fe 

be > 

c 


c 

> 


0) rt 
P.'" 
P. 
D 


a 

s 

CM 


o 
o 

Cm 




Collection. 






mm. 
















Palawan 


Unknown 


370 


155 


8 


1 


2 


3. 4, 5 


Santo Tom^e. 




do 


.„.do 


260 
280 


146 
152 


8 
8 
8 


1 

1 
1 


2 
2 
2 


3. 4, 5 

3. 4, 5 

4, 5 


Do. 
Do. 
Bureau of Science. 




do 


do 


659 


Busuanga 


E. H. Tayloi-__ 



Genus NATRIX Laurenti 

Natrix, part., Laurenti, Syn. Kept. (1768) 73. 

Tropinotus KuHL, Isis (1822) 473. 

Tropidonotus KuHL, Ferussac, BulL Sci. Nat. 2 (1824) 81; BoiE, 

Isis (1826) 205; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1S93) 192. 
Tropidonotus, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 297; Dumeril 

and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 549; Gunther, Cat. CoL Snakes 

(1858) 59; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 258; .Jan, Arcli. Zool. Anat. 

Phys. 3 (1865) 203; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 

341. 
Natrix Bonaparte, Mem. Ace. Torin. II 2 (1839) 436; Cope, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 11 (1888) 392; 14 (1892) 667; Stejneger, Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 263, 264. 
Rhabdophis Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 
Eutainia, Baird and GlR.\Ri), Serp. N. Am. (1853) 24; CoPE. Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 14 (1892) 645. 
Steiropliis Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 

Leptophis, part., Dumeril and Bjbron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 52S. 
Hydrophilophis Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg- II 2 (1852). 
Nerodia Baird and Girard, Serp. N. Am. (1853) 38. 
Regina Baird and Girakd, Serp. N. Am. (1853) 45. 



Bouleng-er, loc. cit. 



NATRIX 83 

Amphiesma Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 724. 
Thaninophis Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 369. 
Bothrodytes Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 23 (1886) 495. 
Ceratovhalhis COPE, Am. Nat. 27 (1893) 483. 
Diplophallua COFE, Am. Nat. 27 (1893) 483. 

"Maxillary teeth 18 to 40, posterior longest; mandibular teeth 
subequal. Head usually distinct from neck ; eye rather small, 
moderate, or large, with round pupil. Body more or less elon- 
gate, cylindrical; scales mostly keeled, in some species smooth, 
usually with apical pits, in 15 to 33 rows; ventrals rounded. 
Tail moderate or long ; subcaudals in two rows. Hypapophyses 
developed throughout the vertebral column." (Boulenger.) 

This large genus is distributed over Central and North Amer- 
ica, Europe, Asia, Africa, North Australia, the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and Japan. 

In the Philippines seven species are known; one of these, 
Natrix stolata (Linnai^us), reported by Peters from Calumpit, 
Bulacan Province, Luzon, I regard as doubtful. 

Key to the Philippine species of Natrix Lazirenti. 

tt\ Maxillary teeth not more than 30, last 2 or 3 abruptly enlarged. 
6\ Head moderately elongate; scales in 19 rows. 

c\ Single anterior temporal; third, fourth, and fifth upper labials enter- 
ing eye; outer scale rows smooth.-.. N. stolata (Linnaeus) (p. 84). 
c". Two anterior temporals; fourth, fifth, and sixth upper labials enter- 
ing eye ; outer scale row feebly keeled. 

N. spilogaster (Boie) (p. 86). 
c'. Two anterior temporals; 3 temporals entering eye; internasals as 
long as prefrontals; outer row of scales strongly keeled. 

N. chrysarg-a (Schlegel) (p. 87). 
b'-. Head short, very distinct from neck. 

c'. Scales in 17 rows, third, fourth, and fifth labials entering eye. 

N. auriculata (Gtinther) (p. 89). 
c". Scales in 19 rows. 

(V. Two anterior temporals; subcaudals, 96 to 101. 

N. crebripunetata (Wiegmann) (p. 91). 
dr. One anterior temporal; subcaudals, 64 to 71. 

N. lineata (Peters) (p. 92). 

a\ Maxillary teeth, 35 to 40; posterior but slightly enlarged; scales in 17 

or 19 rows -- .- ; N. dendropliiops Giinther (p. 95). 

The snakes of this genus, as the name suggests, are somewhat 
aquatic ; they are usually found about moist or damp situations 
where there are frogs, since frogs form the largest part of their 
food. They are wholly harmless to man. Natrix spilogaster 
is frequently captured in Manila. It is probably the best known 
species owing to its presence about rice paddies. 



84 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

MATRIX STOLATA (Linnasus) 

Coluber stolatus Linn^us, Syst. Nat. 1 (176G) 379; Daudin, Kept. 

7 (1803) 161. 
ElajJs bilineatus Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 299. 
Coluber bilineattt.'^ Daudin, Kept. 7 (1803) 165. 
Natri.v stolatus Mereem,' Syst. Amph. (1820) 123; Stejneger, Journ. 

Sci. Coll. Tokyo ^2' (1898) 221; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 

280 (in syn.). 
Tropidonotus stolatus BoiE, Isis (1827) 535; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 

2 (1837) 317; Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 90; Petees, Mon. 

Berl. Ak. 2 (1861) 686; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 226; 

Swinhoe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ill 12 (1863) 225; Theobald, 

Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 177; Anderson, An. Zool. Res. 

Yunnan (1879) 816; Murray, Zool. Sind. (1884) 379; Boettger, 

Ber. OfTenb. Ver. Nat. (1888) 79; BouLENGER, Fauna Brit. India, 

Rept. (1890) 348, fig.; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 253; 

Wall, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1903) 86. 
Amphiesma stolatiim Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 727. 

Descrivtion of species. — (From Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.) "Rostral much broader than high, well visible from above; 
internasals slightly shorter than the prefrontals, very narrow in 
front, their suture with rostral considerably shorter than suture 
between rostral and first labial; prefrontals in contact with su- 
praoculars; frontal longer than its distance from tip of snout 
and interparietal suture ; parietals equaling the distance of eye 
from tip of snout; nostril large, between two subequal nasals; 
loreal somewhat longer than high, upper edge shorter than and 
parallel with lower; one preocular, not in contact with frontal; 
3 postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; supralabials 8, third, fourth, and 
fifth entering eye, sixth and seventh largest ; 5 lower labials in 
contact with anterior chin-shields which are shorter than the 
posterior ; 19 rows of scales, strongly keeled except outer row, 
and without apical pores ; 149 ventrals ; anal divided ; 81 pairs 
of subcaudals. 

"Color (ht alcohol). — Above brownish gray with numerous 
narrow black crossbars alternating on each side of the median 
line anteriorly but continuous farther back ; across this pattern 
two longitudinal, dorso-lateral pale bands occupying the whole 
of sixth scale row and the ad.iacent halves of fifth and seventh 
rows; posteriorly these bands are nearly uniformly pale, but 
anteriorly they exhibit a kind of chain pattern, inasmuch as 
the outer edges of the middle scale row are black except where 
the band intersects as black crossbar; below the lateral band 
many small irregularly alternating black spots : top of head with 
obscure dusky edges to the shields: no nuchal collar; supra- 



NATEIX ■ 85 

labials whitish, the light color extending upward on the pre- 
ocular and the lower postoculars, the vertical edges of the labials 
heavily margined with black as are also the preocular in front 
and the postoculars behind, the vertical, black edged, white bar 
in front of the eye being very characteristic ; underside uniform 
whitish, each ventral with a black mark near the outer edge." 

Measurements of Natrix stolata (Linnxu^) . 

mnL 

Total length 522 

Snout to vent 382 

Vent to tip of tail • 140 

Variation. — Boulenger gives the ranges of ventrals and sub- 
caudals as 120 to 161 and 50 to 89, respectively. Those recorded 
by Stejneger ''" from Formosa are ventrals, 142 to 150 ; subcau- 
dals, 65 to 81. 

Remarks. — I have at hand a snake (No. 169, Bureau of Science 
collection) from Batan Island, just south of Formosa, which I 
have hesitated to refer to this species. It differs somewhat from 
the typical form. There are two preoculars, a single anterior 
temporal, and on one side the upper part of the seventh labial 
is broken, forming an anomalous scale. There is a light area 
in front of the eye, and the belly is spotted with small dark dots. 

Unfortunately there is but a single specimen from this locality, 
and this a very young one. It would appear to be the "missing 
link" between Natrix stolata and A^. spilogaster. In the colora- 
tion of the belly it agrees with the latter ; in the presence of a 
single anterior temporal, with the former. I am unable to de- 
termine with certainty the presence or absence of apical pits. 

A specimen of Natri.v spilogaster which I collected at Baguio 
has a single anterior temporal, but there are two very small 
scales inserted between this and the sixth labial. Only the 
fourth and fifth labials enter the eye. The spotting on the belly 
is not so distinct as in the Batan specimen, and the outer row 
of scales is quite smooth ; there are 159 ventrals ; the tip of the 
tail is missing; there are two preoculars, and apical pits are 
present. . 

In two specimens of Natrix s-pilogaster in the Bureau of 
Science collection (Nos. 182 and 204) there is but a single an- 
terior temporal present, but it is noticeably widened, suggesting 
a fusion of two scales. A third specimen (No. 192) has one 
anterior temporal on the right side and two on the left. 

* Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 



86 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The only record of the occurrence of Matrix stolata in the Phil- 
ippine Islands is that of Peters.* If Peters's specimen is extant 
it would be well to have it examined to determine the species 
as well as the presence or absence of apical pits. I strongly 
suspect that Peters's specimen was either Natri.v spilogaster or 
N. stolata from an extra-Philippine locality. 

MATRIX SPILOGASTER (Boie) 
Plate 4, fig. 1 

Tropido7wtus spilogaster BoiE, Isis (1827) 535; (1828) 559; Du- 

MERiL and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 598; Gunther, Cat. Col. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 66; Peters, Mon. BerL Ak. (1861) 687; 

Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. Milan (1863) 72; Arch. ZooL Anat. Phys. 

3 (1865) 225; Icon. Gen. (1868) 27, pi. 2, fig. 1; Fischer, Arch. 

f. Nat. 48 (1882) 282; Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg (1885) 80; 

MtJLLER, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 15; 

BoETTGER, Ber. Senck; Nat. Ges. (1886) 109; Boulenger, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 257. 
Tropiddnotus quincunciatus var. Schlegel, Phys. Serp. (1837) 309; 

Eydoux and Gervais, Voy. Favorite, Zool. (1839) 69, pi. 28. 
Natrix spilogaster Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 596; 

§ D 5 (1910) 211; § D 6 (1911) 257; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 

§ D 12 (1917) 356. 

Description of species. — (P^rom No. 407, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Manila, May 29, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) 
(Adult female.) Rostral nearly twice as wide as high, narrow- 
ly visible f rom> above ; internasals as long as broad, broadly 
truncate anteriorly, as long as prefrontals ; latter much broader 
than long, forming their longest suture with frontal; frontal 
a little longer than its distance from end of snout, four-fifths as 
wide as long; parietals longer than frontal, their greatest width 
nearly equaling length of frontal ; 2 nasals, second highest ; loreal 
moderately large, as high as deep, in contact with 2 preoculars, 
of which the superior is largest ; supraocular a little longer than 
frontal and at least half as wide; 3 postoculars, subequal in 
size ; temporals 2 + 2 + 3 ; 9 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
entering eye ; labials have the following order of size ; seventh, 
eighth, sixth, ninth, fifth, fourth, third, second, first ; 10 lower 
labials, 5 in contact with anterior chin shields; mental broadly 
triangular ; 2 pairs of chin shields subequal in size ; head rather 
thick; diameter of eye equal to its distance from nostril; scales 
in 19 rows, all strongly keeled except outer row, which is faintly 
or not at all keeled; ventrals, 150; anal double; subcaudals. 88. 

* Loc. cit. 



NATRIX 87 

Color in life. — Above olive gray, with three dark stripes run- 
ning the length of body, separated by two lighter lines ; light 
stripes are barred with lighter transverse spots at regular in- 
tervals. Each light stripe covers the equivalent of three scale 
rows; the dark stripes are much wider and are spotted with 
dark black spots, those on median stripe being largest and most 
conspicuous. Outer row of scales has an indistinct row of 
lighter spots ; two nuchal light spots, quite large, of a creamy 
yellow ; upper lip cream, with dark spots on sutures of three 
anterior labials ; lower rim of orbit dark ; chin and lower labials 
light, with a spot on ninth lower labial ; outer edge of ventrals 
grayish ; ventrally flesh colored, with numerous dark spots, five 
or six on each ventral scale. 

Measurements of Natrix spilogaster (Boie) . 

mm. 

Total length 735 

Snqut to vent , .535 

Tail 200 

Width of head 14 

Length of head 23 

Variation. — In the numerous specimens examined the follow- 
ing variations are evident : The frontal varies from one and a 
half to one and two-thirds times as long as broad ; there are 1 or 
2 preoculars ; postoculars, 2, 3 or 4 ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3, 
very rarely 1 -j- 2 or 1 -f 3. There are 5 or 6 lower labials in con- 
tact with the anterior chin shields ; the ventrals vary between 147 
and 155; the subcaudals vary between 80 and 91. The distinct- 
ness of the dorsal stripes varies considerably. 

Re-marks. — The species is common in Luzon. It has been re- 
ported from Negros and Palawan by Boulenger and from Min- 
danao by J. G. Fischer. Specimens in the collections examined 
are from Polillo, Luzon, and Camiguin (Babuyan Islands). 
The species feeds almost wholly on frogs. It is frequently en- 
countered in the city of Manila. 

MATRIX CHRYSARGA (Schlegel) 

Plate 4, fig. 5 
Tropidonotus chrysargus Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 312; GtJN- 

THER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 70; Fischer, Arch. Nat. (1885) 

57, pi. 4, fig. 2; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 345; 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 258. 
Tropidonotus jimceus Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 93; Blyth, 

Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 24 (1855) 716; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India 

(1864) 268, pi. 22, fig. F. 
Natrix chryaarga Stejnegee, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 265-, 

Griefin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 2.57. 



g§ SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Descri'ption of species. — (From No. 163, Bureau of Science col- 
lection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, by C. M. Weber.) Head 
rather elongate, distinct from neck; rostral much broader than 
high, visible from above; internasals longer than wide, about 
as long as prefrontals, the suture between them nearly equal to 
that between prefrontals ; frontal about one and two-third times 
as long as broad, shorter than supraoculars, as long as its dis- 
tance to end of snout, much shorter than parietals ; latter much 
longer than broad, in contact with 1 postocular and 2 (3 on left 
side) temporals; nasal large, divided or nearly so; loreal about 
as deep as long ; 1 preocular, higher than wide ; eye large ; 3 
postoculars ; 9 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering eye, 
seventh and eighth largest; mental much broader than deep; 
11 lower labials (the first anterior on left side broken) ; fii'st 
pair of chin shields shorter and broader than second pair, touch- 
ing first 6 labials; second pair of chin shields touching labials 
entire length ; scales strongly keeled, in 19 rows, outer row 
largest; ventrals, 152; anal divided; subcaudals, 69. 

Color. — Above grayish brown, the skin between the scales 
rather reddish brown ; a lateral row of small brownish yellow 
spots from head to tail ; labials with yellowish spots ; chin and 
belly immaculate, outer edges of ventrals grayish. 

Measurem-ents of Natrix chrysarga (Sclilegcl) . 

Total length 825 

Snout to vent 625 

Tail 200 

Width of head 18 

Length of head 30 

Variation. — Not a great deal of variation obtains in the speci- 
mens examined. The counts of ventral scales vary within the 
limits of 150 and 160; of subcaudals, between 80 and 90. Bou- 
lenger gives 143 to 175 for the ventral range ; 60 to 93 for the 
subcaudal range. 

The young are very distinctly marked. The head is dark gray- 
ish brown, with two black-edged, white, parietal spots ; there is a 
yellow bar on the side of the head in front of the eye, edged 
anteriorly with black; the labials entering the eye are yellow, 
edged with black; a vertical bar is present immediately behind 
the eye ; the neck is blackish with a broad V-shaped, yellow mark 
crossing it from the angles of the mouth. The body is gray- 
bro\vn ; the five median scale rows are slightly darker than the 
adjoining rows, and are traversed by numerous, regular black 



NATPvIX 89 

bars. Opposite these black bars, on the three adjoining scale 
rows, are small, yellowish white spots, below which on the outer 
scale rows is another series of black bars or spots ; the ventrals 
have an indistinct row of dots on the outer sides, distinctly 
marked on the tail. 

Remarks. — This species is as common in the Calamianes and 
Palawan as Nati-ix spilogaster is in Luzon. It is found in low 
moist situations and along- small streams. It feeds on frogs 
and fishes. It is not regarded as poisonous by the people of 
Busuanga. It occurs from the eastern Himalayas through As- 
sam, Burma, southern China and the Malay Peninsula, to Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Palawan. 

NATRIX AURICULATA (GLinther) 
Plate 4, figs. 2 to 4 

Tropidonotus auriculatus Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 80; 
Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 687; Boulenger, Cat Snakes Brit. 
Mus. 1 (1893) 261, pi. 17, Hg. 1; F. Muller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. 
Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 15; Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Ham- 
burg 2 (1885) 80; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 108. 

Natrix auriculata Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 257. 

Description of species. — (From No. 50, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, September 
23, 1913, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult female.) Head very short 
and blunt, very distinct from neck ; rostral broader than deep, 
visible only as a narrow line from above; internasals longer 
than broad, narrowed anteriorly ; prefrontals much broader than 
long, shorter than internasals ; frontal about one and a half 
times as long as broad, longer than its distance from end of 
snout; parietals longer than frontal, in contact with 1 superior 
postocular; 2 nasals, the poste- 
rior highest; loreal higher than 
wide, in contact with second and 
third labials; preocular single, 
very high, not in contact with 
frontal ; supraocular twice as 
long as wide ; 3 postoculars ; tem- 
porals ..-1-3; 8 upper labials, 

third, fourth, and fifth enter- fig. ?. Matrix aurlculata IGUnther) ; after 
11 • 11 .. •....1..4-U Boulenger; a, head, dorsal view; h. head. 

mg eye; seventh, sixth, eighth, ,^terai view. 
fifth, fourth, third, second, 

first is the order of size of labials; 9 lower labials, 5 touching 
anterior chin shields, which are shorter and broader than poste- 
rior; scales in 17 rows, strongly keeled, except outer row, which 





90 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

is only faintly keeled; ventrals, 157; anal double; subcaudals, 
72 ; eye large ; body very slender. 

Color in life. — Above a dark olivaceous gray, with a lighter, 
median, ashy gray stripe, terminating in a spot of the same color 
immediately behind the parietal shields; on each side of this 
line is a series of dim, elongate, dark spots, immediately below 
which is a series of light, ashy gray spots, followed by another 
dim series of dark spots below. The markings are not especially 
distinct; on the outer edge of the ventrals and extending on the 
first row of scales is a milky white line which widens behind the 
angle of the jaw; head dark in the parietal region, and somewhat 
lighter on the snout; throat, lips, and temporal region dull 
whitish, with small dark spots on the labial sutures and a distinct 
black spot on the sixth labial ; three dark stripes on the belly, 
the two outer joining the dark parietal area, crossing the angle 
of the jaw; the median ventral black stripe begins on the twen- 
tieth ventral, and continues to the tail ; these three lines of black 
are separated by two white lines formed by continuous series of 
triangular white spots ; only two black stripes under the tail, 
separated by a single light stripe. 

Measurements of Matrix auriculata (Gunther) . 



mm. 



Total length 524 

Tail 145 

Width of head 10 

Length of head 14 

Variation. — The known range of ventrals and subcaudals is 
150 to 158 and 75 to 91, respectively. There is some variation in 
the arrangement of the temporals. They usually assume the re- 

2 
lation of "H-3; the females have a larger average of ventrals 

and a smaller average of subcaudals than the males. The type 
is a female having 2 preoculars, 2 postoculars, 152 ventrals, and 
76 subcaudals. 

Remarks. — This species is evidently restricted to the southern 
Philippines. It is known from Samar, and from eastern and 
southern Mindanao. All the specimens here recorded are from 
Agusan River A'alley, where it seems to be quite common. It 
is the smallest species of Natiix inhabiting our territory. 

The specimens in my collection were all taken in the im- 
mediate vicinity of water, usually under leaves or logs at the edge 
of a small swamp. The species is very well dilferentiated from 
all the other Philippine species of Nnffi.v by its small size, it:? 
large, blunt head, and the markings on the bellv. 



NATRIX 



91 



Table 12. — Measurements and scale counts of Natrix auriculata (Gunther) . 



46 

48 
49 
»50 
61 
52 
1726 
956 
956 



Bunawan, Agusan. 
do 

....do 

do 

do 

do 

do.... 

do.. 



E.H.Taylor yg 



..do- 
..do . 
..do- 
..do. 
do. 
..do- 
..do . 



Agusan River. Mindanao ' J. Merrill... 

do do 

Philippines H. Cuming . 



yg 

2 
yg 

9 
yg 

d" 
.if 
yg 
yg 
¥ 



216 
201 
455 
267 
624 
188 
344 

i ^'> 
140 

180 



I 



No. 
46 


s 

O 
M 


c 
< 


88 


2 


47 


84 


2 


48 


(») 


2 


49 


82 


2 


"60 


75 


2 


51 


88 


2 


52 


87 


2 


1726 




2 


955 ; 


82 


2 


956 


84 


2 


<;a 


76 


2 




E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

D6. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 
British Museum. 



87 
100 

70 
146 

65 
100 
(b) 

39 

50 



152 
150 
157 
161 
167 
168 
164 



152 
160 
162 



' Descriljed. 



" Mutilated. 



: Type. 



NATRIX CREBRIPUNCTATA (Wiegmann) 

Tropidonotiis crebripunctatus Wiegmann, Nova Acta Ac. Leop. -Carol. 

« 17' (1835) 250; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 262. 

Natrix crebripunctata Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 257. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Head short, 
very distinct from neck. Eye very large. Rostral broader than 
deep, just visible from above; internasals as long as broad, as 
long as the pr^ef rontals ; frontal once and three fifths as long 
as broad, longer than its distance from the end of the snout, 
as long as the parietals; loreal as long as deep; two prEe- and 
three postoculars ; temporals 2 + 3 ; eight to ten upper labials ; 
(the specimen in the collection has eight on one side, ten on the 
other), fourth and fifth, fifth or sixth, or sixth and seventh 
entering the eye ; four lower labials in contact with the anterior 



92 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 
rows, all strongly keeled. Ventrals 148-166; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 96-101. 

Color. — "Olive above, vertebral line lighter and crossed by 
narrow black bars ; upper lip yellowish, the shields black-edged 
above ; belly whitish, with a black dot at the outer end of each 
shield; posterior ventrals brown on the sides; subcaudals en- 
tirely brown." 

Measurements of Matrix crehripunctata (Wiegmann) . 

mm. 

Total length 680 

Tail 230 

Remarks. — I have been unable to find this species, and there 
are no specimens in the collections which I have studied. There 
is a single specimen in the British Museum collection from the 
Philippines collected by Cuming. Boettger has placed this spe- 
cies as a synonj'm of Natrix spilogastev (Boie)." 

NATRIX LINEATA (Peters) / 

Plate 4, figs. 6 and 7; Plate 5 

TropidonotiLs lineatns Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 686: Boulenger, 
Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 262; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. 
Ges. (1886) 109. 

Natrix lineata Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 257. 

Description of species. — (From No. R 34, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection ; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, March 15, 
1913, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Rostral much wider 
than high, not visible from above ; internasals a little longer 
than wide, bent downward in front to meet rostral, their sutures 
with surrounding scales subequal ; prefrontal a little broader 
than long, nearly three times the size of internasals, forming 
its shortest suture with supraocular, its longest suture with 
it's fellow; frontal one-fifth longer than Avide, longer than its 
distance from end of snout, nearly equal in length to width 
of parietal; parietals large, in contact with 2 postoculars, 
longer than frontal, but shorter than their distance from end 
of snout; nasal divided, posterior portion highest; loreal 
squarish, little more than half as high as posterior nasal ; 2 pre- 



* I strong-ly suspect that N. crchripa)>ctata Wiegmann is indeed N. 
spilogaster. I believe further that Boulenger's species of this name is a 
distinct species. 



NATRIX 93 

oculars (1 on left side), both in contact with loreal; supra- 
ocular as long as frontal, about half as wide; 3 postoculars; 
temporals 1+2; upper labials 8 (9 on right side), third, fourth, 
and fifth (fourth, fifth, and sixth on left side) entering eye; 
seventh, sixth, and fifth largest in the order named ; 9 lower 
labials, 4 in contact with first pair of chin shields (5 in all the 
other specimens) ; 2 pairs of chin shields, second longest and 
narrowest ; scales in 19 rows, keeled strongly, except outer row, 
which is less strongly keeled than the others ; ventrals, rounded, 
138; anal double; subcaudals, 71; eye moderate, its diameter 
not equal to its distance from nostril ; head narrowed in front, 
and noticeably broadened in temporal region. 

Color in life. — Above bluish black, head dark brown with 
a milk-white stripe from rostral across upper part of labials, 
continuing backward and downward to where it reaches eighth 
ventral scale ; lower part of upper labials dark ; lower labials 
spotted with dark ; chin shields immaculate creamy yellow ; belly 
same color, with a zigzag subcaudal line to end of tail. 

Measurements of Natrir lineata (Peters). 

mm. 
Total length 625 

Tail 159 

Variation. — Table 13 shows the scale counts on a series of spec- 
imens collected in the same locality as the type. The variation 
in the ventral count is from 132 to 142 ; in the subcaudal count, 
64 to 71. The most variable elements are the upper labials and 
the preoculars ; there is a tendency for the third labial to split 
and in consequence the number of labials entering the orbit 
varies; 8 is the predominant number of upper labials; 2 is the 
predominant number of the preoculars. 

Markings on the back are evident in the younger specimens. 
In No. 32 (E. H. Taylor collection) the head is a distinct brown 
with a broad semicircular dark area on the occipital region 
followed by a milk-white collar which joins the two labial lines; 
behind this is a transverse dark olive band, then another lighter 
olive band, broader than the former, and still another narrow 
black band, and a second light olive band, after which the dark 
color breaks up into a network, the limits of the meshes being 
marked with a larger dark spot. The ground color is light 
olive brown ; this specimen shows a powdering of brown on 
each ventral, with the subcaudal region very dark. 



94 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Table 13. — Measurements and scale counts of Matrix lineata (Peters). 



31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

1714 

1716 

1716 

1717 

1743 

(4 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Buna wan, Ag-usan_, __ ' E. H. Taylor. 

do I do 

do - ._L I do 

do -I do 

do .,| do 

do. do 

do do 

do ' do 

do do 

do I do 

do_ - I do . 

do do 

j do I do 

Samar , F. Jagror 



34 

35 
36 

1714 I 

1715 I 
1716 
1717 
1743 



•r ^ 



2-1 
2 : 






2 
1-2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



8 
8-9 



9 

9 
8-9 
8 
9 
9 



3, 4, 6 
I 4, 6 



'3, i. 
3, 4. 
3, 4, 

'\4, 6, 






J 3, 4, I 

i U. 6, I 



10 

10 

10 

9-10 

10 

9 

9 



6 
6 
6 

4. 6. 6 

4. 6, 6 

4. 6 

3. 4, 6 

4. 5. 6 
4. 6. 6 
3. 4. 6 

4. 5_ 
. 6 



ii3: 



1+2 
1 + 2 



(1+2, 

1+2 
1 + 2 
1+2 
1+2 
1+2 
1 + 2 
1 + 2 

!l+2 



d 
9 
cT 
yg 
yg 
d 
9 
d 
9 
9 
d 



g 


'5 


?nm. 


mm. 


496 


134 


574 


(«) 


525 


135 


325 


68 


391 


96 


624 


159 


450 


(») 


592 


140 



132 
137 
136 
138 
138 
138 
138 



Collection. 



19 
19 

19 
19 



19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 



E. H. Taylor. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



19 Be 



I Mus 



■ Type. 



(») 
68 
65 
64 
71 
(•) 
66 



690 I 160 I 142 66 



Rcmafk.'^. — This species, according to Boulenger,* is closely 
allied to Natrix crebripiDictata (Wiegmann) . There is however, 
but a single anterior temporal in N. lineata. which character is 
constant in the series of thirteen specimens. There is a very 
much lower average of ventrals and subcaudals. The markings, 
too, would seem to distinguish it. There are no vertebral lines 



* Cat. Snakes Bvit. Mus. 1 (1893) 262. 



NATRIX 95 

apparent on the body, even in the young. The widening of the 
head in the temporal region is very characteristic, especially in 
older specimens. A female contained five undeveloped eggs. 
All the specimens 'were found in damp situations, usually under 
leaves and trash along the edge of a small swamp. It is com- 
mon at Bunawan. 

NATRIX DENDROPHIOPS Gunther 

This species appears to have two distinct forms in the Phil- 
ippines, the typical form from Mindanao, and the second, from 
Negros. They are distinguished as follows: 

Key to the subspecies of Matrix dendrophiops Giinther. 

a\ Scales in 17 rows.- _ N. d. dendrophiops (Gunther) (p. 9.5). 

a-. Scales in 19 rows _.._ N. d. negrosensis Taylor (p. 97). 

NATRIX DENDROPHIOPS DENDROPHIOPS (Gunther) 

Tropidonotus dendrophiops Gunthee, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. V 
11 (188.3) 136, fig.; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 
264; BoETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 109. 

?Tropidonotiis hypomelas Mullee, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel. 1883) 
286; III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 15. 

Natrix dendrophiops Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 257. 

Description of species. — (From No. 60, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection ; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, September 
15, 1913, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Rostral large, 
twice as wide as high, forming its longest suture with nasal, 
only slightly visible from above; internasals longer than broad, 
the suture between them equal to prefrontal suture; prefrontals 
very wide, bending down on sides at a rather sharp angle ; 
frontal longer than its distance from end of snout, not as long 
as parietals or supraoculars, and not twice as wide as supra- 
oculars, the anterior edge forming nearly a straight line ; parie- 
tals moderate, longer than broad, in contact with upper post- 
ocular and 1 or 2 temporals ; scales bordering parietals behind 
numerous, small ; nostrils pierced between 2 nasals, the posterior 
larger and higher ; prefrontals appear to enter nostrils above ; 
loreal not as high as nasals, in contact with both preoculars, its 
upper edge curving ; 2 preoculars, lower in contact with 2 labials, 
upper separated from frontal; 3 postoculars, upper largest; 

temporals 2 + 3 ; 9 upper labials, 8 on left side where seventh 

and eighth are fused into a single scale ; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
enter eye ; labials arranged in the following order of size : sev- 
enth, ninth, eighth, sixth, fourth, fifth, third, second, first; 10 
lower labials, 5 touching chin shields; mental broadly triangular; 



95 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

second pair of chin shields longer and narrower than first pair, 
separated throughout their length; scales in 17 rows, all strongly 
keeled, median rows very small, outer large; ventrals, 154, 
rounded; anal double; subcaudals divided, 9g; eye very large, 
its diameter nearly equal to its distance from end of snout; 
body rather slender ; tail very slender. 

Color in life.— Oliv&ceous above, tinged more or less with 
pinkish, with three rows of blackish irregular spots, one me- 
dian dorsal, the other two lateral; these are separated by two 
rows of pinkish yellow, black-edged spots, continuing full length 
of body ; the black and yellow spots form an irregular transverse 
row; neck is banded with dark blackish and lighter olivaceous 
bands; head above brownish gray, lighter on snout, sides of 
snout brownish yellow ; upper labials yellowish with a few spots 
anteriorly; lower rim of orbit dark; a short black line behind 
eye; lower labials cream yellow, with spots on edge of sixth; 
the lateral dark spots extend to ventrals ; there are one or two 
rows of black, elongate spots on ventrals, but these do not form 
continuous lines ; the anterior part of each ventral with numerous 
small flecks of black ; under the last half of belly there is a more 
or less continuous median dark line to anus ; subcaudally almost 
black ; scales narrowly edged with lighter. 

Measurements of Matrix dendrophiops dendrophiops {Giinther) . 

mm. 

Total length 796 

Tail 240 

Width of head 18 

Length of head 24 

Variation. — The ventrals and subcaudals vary between 154 
and 157 and 94 and 100, respectively ; the postoculars, between 
2 and 3, thg larger percentage having 3. No. 58 (E. H. Taylor 
collection) has a single prefrontal on one side only. In the 
young specimens the markings are more clearly defined. There 
are a broad blackish bar on the neck and one or two other broad 
bands behind this. The markings resolve themselves into a 
large series of narrow, transverse, blackish bands, interrupted 
laterally by white dots. The type measures 900 millimeters in 
length and is much larger than any specimen that I have 
examined. 

Remarks. — This snake feeds on frogs and is usually found 
not far from water. Five of the six specimens I collected were 
taken under logs. Known only from Zamboanga, southwestern 
Mindanao, and Bunawan in the upper Agusan Valley. 



NATRIX 



97 



TABLE 14. — Measurements and scale counts of Matrix deiidrophiops 
dendrophiops (Gunther) . 



No. 



66 
67 
68 
59 
b60 
1713 



Collector. 



1 „• 








he 
























1 '^ 


bo 




k. 




1 c . 




cs 


01 


a» 


m 




w 


J 


^ 


> 1 



B ana wan, Agusan.._ E. H. Taylor . d 

do do yj 

1 do _do yj 

do - ' do 

do do Q 

... do 1 do 9 

Zamboanga i H. M. S. Challenger. ^ 9 



661 


(•••) 


319 


90 


360 


(") 


628 : 


160 


796 


240 


(•) 


(■) 


900 j 


270 



165 
154 
156 
165 
154 



Collection. 



66 


(») 


2 


67 


94 


2 


68 


(•) 


2 


69 


(•) 


2 


60 
13 


98 


2 
2 


•^ a 


100 


2 



2 : 

2 
1-2 j 

2 I 
2 
2 
1-2 



10-8 

9 '■ 
9-8 
9 



4,6,6 

4.6,6 

4,5,6 

4.6,6 

4,5,6 

4,5,6 [ 

4,6,6 



E. H. Taylor 

Do. 

Do. ^ 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 
British Museum. 



Mutilated. 



■ Type. 



NATRIX DENDROPHIOPS NEGROSENSIS Taylor 

Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 1 2 
(1917) 356. 

Description of species. — (From the type, No. 128, E. H. Taylor 
collection; collected on Canlaon Volcano, Occidental Negros, by E, 
H. Taylor.) Rostral fairly large, nearly twice as wide as high, 
upper edge curved and distinctly visible from above, its sutures 
with nasals little longer than those with internasals ; the latter 
longer than broad, the suture between them equal to their su- 
tures with prefrontals, which are less than the suture with na- 
sals; prefrontals much broader than long, narrowed on sides, 
forming coequal sutures with internasal and frontal, their short- 
est suture with supraocular ; frontal longer than broad, wider, but 
not as long as supraoculars, somewhat shield-shaped, longer than 
its distance from end of snout, shorter than parietals ; the latter 
longer than broad, bordered laterally by 2 elongate temporals, 
in contact with only 1 postocular ; nostril between 2 nasals, which 

161466— — 7 



98 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



differ greatly in shape but are of nearly equal size ; loreal nearly 
square, touching second and third labials ; 1 elongate preocular, 
twice as high as wide, and wider at top than at bottom, semi- 
divided; 3 small postoculars (4 on right side) ; temporals 2 + 3; 
fourth, fifth, and sixth labials entering eye; mental broadly 
triangular ; 10 lower labials, sixth and seventh largest ; first 5 
in contact with first chin shield, which is noticeably shorter than 
second; 19 rows of scales, the outer largest, faintly keeled, all 
the others strongly keeled; scales with 2 apical pits easily dis- 
cernible; anal divided; ventrals, 164; subcaudals, 97; eye very 
large. 






Fig. 8. Natrix dendrophiops vegroscnsis Taylor: a, head, dorsal view: h. bead, lateral view; 

c, head, ventral \'iew. 



Color' in life. — Reddish brown to olive, with a median series 
of dark, more or less distinct spots or bars at intervals of 0.5 
centimeter ; on sides and forming continuations of the dark dor- 
sal bars is a series of dark spots. Below pinkish white with 
a series of small, more or less regular black spots on each ven- 
tral and subcaudal; bars on neck very much wider than else- 
where; top of head browmish olive; labials brownish white with 
dark areas between first three ; a distinct black line runs from 
behind eye to posterior part of eighth supralabial, where it turns 
and continues downward to first ventrals; scales on head mi- 
nutely edged with black. 



OXYRHABDIUM 99 

Measurem.enfs of the type of Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis Taylor. 

mm. 

Length 730 

Snout to vent 526 

Vent to tip of tail 204 

Width of head 11 

Length of head 20 

Diameter of eye 5 

Variation. — The postoculars show a tendency to increase to 
four; one specimen has the third, fourth, and fifth labials en- 
tering the eye, and a second specimen shows four labials en- 
tering on the right side. 

Remarks. — The following characteristics seem to warrant the 
separation of this subspecies from typical Natrix dendrophiops. 
There is a tendency to an increase in the number of postoculars 
from 3 to 4; there is only a single preocular (specimens of N. 
dendrophiops from northern Mindanao have 2 distinct preocu- 
lars) ; there is an average of 10 more ventrals; there are con- 
stantly 19 instead of 17 rows of scales; the eye is somewhat 
smaller; and the loreal is lower. 

Genus OXYRHABDIUM Boulenger 

Stenognathus (non Chaud.) Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 
503; Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 28. 

Rhabdosoma, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 10. 

Geophis, part., Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106; Casto 
DE Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 

Oxijrhabdium Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 302; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 258. 

"Maxillary teeth 30 to 35, small, equal ; mandibular teeth 
equal. Head not distinct from neck; eye small, with vertically 
subelliptic pupil ; nostril pierced between two small nasals ; a 
pair of small internasals ; no prseocular ; loreal and prsef rental 
entering the eye. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 15 rows, 
without apical pits ; ventrals rounded. Tail moderate, subcau- 
dals in two rows. Hypapophyses developed throughout the ver- 
tebral column." (Boulenger.) 

Key to the species of Oxyrhabdium Boulenger. 

a\ Eight upper labials, fifth and sixth entering eye; reddish brown above, 
yellowish belov/. Young with yellow collar. 

0. modestnm (Dumeril and Bibron) (p. 100). 
o'. Seven upper labials, fourth and fifth entering eye; olive green to darker. 

Y'oung black with dim yellowish rings on body -- - 

0. leporinum (Giinther) (p. 103). 



100 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



The genus is confined to the Philippines. The record of Dume- 
ril and Bibron for Java is doubtless an error.* Tlie first species 
appears to be confined to the southern part of Luzon, Samar, 
and Mindanao ; the second, to northern and central Luzon. 

OXYRHABDIUM MODESTUM (Dumeril and Bibron) 

Stenognath-as modestus Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (18.54) 

504; Petees, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684; Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. 

Phys. 2 (1862) 28; Icon. Gen. (1865) 13, pi. 1, fig. 3. 
Rhabdosoma leporinum, part., Guntheb, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

(1858) 12; F. Muller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. 

(1883) 12. 
Stenognathus modestus, part., GUNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1873) 169. 
Rhabdosoma modestum, part., GtJNTHEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1879) 77. 
Geophis schadenhergi Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 

93, pi. 3, fig. 4; BoETTGEK, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106. 
Geophis modestus, part., BoETTGEE, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106. 
Oxyrhabdmm modestum Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1898) 

302; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 258. 

Description^ of species. — (From No. 3, E. H. Taylor collection; 
collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, August 12, 1913, 
by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult female.) Rostral small, higher than 





Fig. 9. Oxijrl<-abdiuiii. modestum (Dumcjril and Bibron) ; drawing of a Mindanao specimen: 
a, head, dorsal ^'iew-: h. head, lateral \-iew : c. head, ventral view; X 2. 

wide, scarcely visible from above; internasals small, the suture 
between them less than one-third of that between prefrontals; 
latter very large, equaling or nearly equaling frontal, four or 
five times the size of internasals, broadly entering eye ; frontal 
nearly twice as long as wide, not twice the width of supra- 



Giinther, Pre 



Zool. Soc. London (1873) 169. 



OXYRHABDIUM 101 

oculars; parietals longer than frontal, and twice as long as 
wide ; nostril large, pierced between 2 nasals ; loreal three times 
as long as wide, narrowly entering eye, in contact with 3 labials ; 
no preocular, 2 postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 + 3 ; 8 upper 
labials, fifth and sixth entering eye; labials in the following 
order of 'size : eighth, sixth, seventh, fifth, fourth, third, second, 
first ; mental narrow, subcrescentic ; 6 lower labials, fourth 
largest, the first 4 in contact with anterior chin shields, which 
are very broad and closely juxtaposed and followed by 2 small 
pairs of imbricate scales ; mental groove very indistinct ; eye 
small, the diameter less than half the distance from nostril, 
the pupil appearing nearly round; head somewhat flattened, 
more or less distinct from neck ; snout acuminate ; ventrals, 177 ; 
anal single; subcaudals, 56; scales in 15 smooth rows, outer 
largest, all without apical pits; tail cylindrical. 

Color ill life. — Above dark iridescent lavender-brown, be- 
coming lighter on sides ; belly immaculate creamy yellow ; top 
of head darker, bluish brown to lavender ; labials cream color to 
yellow; under part of tail a muddy cream, with an indistinct 
zigzag line between subcaudals ; edges of body scales darker, 
giving the appearance of an indistinct network over body. 

Measiireinents of Oxyrhabdiuin tnodestum (Dumeril and Bibron) . 

mm. 

Total length 579 

Snout to vent 480 

Tail 99 

Variation. — It will be seen from Table 15 that males have 
a smaller number of ventrals and a larger number of subcaudals 
than females; No. 1 of those listed, although having the average 
number of ventrals and subcaudals, has only 7 upper labials, 
with the fourth and fifth entering the eye ; in this it agrees 
with Oxyrhabdium leporinum. It has a single postocular, but 
in all other respects agrees with the other specimens, and in no 
way resembles O. leporinum in color or markings. There is a 
tendency toward the fusion of the postoculars, and in five spec- 
imens they are fused on one or both sides. The young have a 
yellow collar but no other distinctive markings. I have exam- 
ined one specimen (No. R 575) from Camp Gandara, Samar, 
which has the following scale formula: Scale rows, 15; ventrals, 
164; anal single; subcaudals, 49; length, 410 millimeters. No. 
915 has the anal divided, but otherwise agrees with normal 
specimens. A single unnumbered specimen in the Santo Tomas 
Museum, an adult female containing eggs, is the largest one 



102 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



that was examined, and shows certain variation. Its measure- 
ments are : Total length, 602 millimeters ; tail, 102. The ventrals 
number 170, the subcaudals, 54. The loreal fails slightly to 
enter the eye and is in contact with 4 labials ; the internasals are 
greatly reduced. No locality is given. 



Table 1.5. — Measurements and scale counts of Oxyrhabdiuni modestum 
(Dumeril and Bibron) . 



I 
















~l 


No. 


Locality. 






Collector. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 














rmn. 


mm. 




1 


Bunawan. Aguaan ... 




F, 


H.Taylor 


9 


496 


83 


3 


dc 

dc 








do 


9 


466 

579 


83 
99 






Ho 


4 


; do 






..do 


473 


5 


do _. 






..do 


9 


347 


60 


6 


do 






..do 


9 


472 


70 


7 


do 






..do 


w 


430 


88 


8 


do 






do 


0- 
9 
9 
d 
9 


638 
477 
445 
185 
479 


113 

84 
81 
40 
84 


9 


do- _ 


do 


10 


do 


do 


11 


do 


do 


12 


do 






.do. 


13 


do 






.do 


cC 


320 


60 


14 


do 






.do 


d" 


360 


71 


16 


do 




-do 


9 


484 


86 


16 


do.. 




.do 


9 


445 


84 


17 


do 






.do 




383 


83 






R67.5 


Camp Gandara. Samai 


Cant rnrroll 




410 
480 


67 


R916 
No. 


Agusan, Mindanao... 
V™- !a,^ Lab- 


j E. 

Post- Scale 


H. Taylor 


* 1 


Labials 






1 


oculars. 


row 


s. 
16 


enter Collection, 
eye. 






1 


176 57 


7 


2 




4. 5 E. H. Taylor. 










2 


172 ! 55 


8 


2-1 


IB 


5.6 Do. 










' 


177 ^ 66 


8 


2 15 


6,6 Do. 










4 


166 66 


8 


1-2 ■ 16 


5. 6 Do 






1 


5 


176 68 


8 


2 I 15 


5. 6 Do 








6 


179 53 


7-8 


2-1 ! 16 


4, 5; 6, 6 ! Do 








7 


169 i 60 


8 


2 15 


5.6 Do 








8 


171 ] 66 


8 


2 ■ 15 


5. 6 Do. 






1 


9 


173 66 


8 


1 j 16 


5.6 . Do. 








10 


175 67 


8 


2 1 16 


5.6 ' Do 










11 


177 i 63 


8 


2 ! 16 


5.6 Do. 










12 


176 1 67 


8 


2 " 16 


6. 6 Do 










13 


162 1 60 


8 


2 1 16 


6.6 Do 










14 


168 


63 


8 


2 1 16 


6.6 1 Do. 










ir> 


174 


63 


8 


2 1 IBl 


6,6 Do. 










16 


176 60 


8 


2j 16 


5.6 • Do. 










17 


168 62 


8 


2 j IB 


5. 6 ' Do 










R576 


164 ; 49 


8 


2 15 


5.6 Bureau of Science. 








Rs-a; 


173 1 62 


8 


2 


6 


6, 6 Do. 

























. 





r 



OXYRHABDIUM 



103 



Remarks. — This species has been found only in the Philippine 
Islands ; the known localities * are Samar, Mindanao, and Di- 
nagat. It was especially common at Bunawan; more than fifty 
specimens were captured during my collecting there. A few 
were found burrowed in the roots of large tree ferns {Asplenium 
7iidus) but only those in fallen trees. Usually specimens were 
found in the forest, under grass and leaves on the ground. These 
snakes are very gentle; although I have handled many living 
specimens, none has ever attempted to bite. They readily take 
food in captivity. The Manobos who are familiar with this 
snake appear to have no specific name for it. They do not re- 
gard it as poisonous. 

OXYRHABDIUM LEPORINUM (GUnther) 

Rhabdosoma leporinum, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

(1858) 12. 
?Stenognathu^ hrevirostris Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 586. 
Stenognathus modestus, part., Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1873) 169. 
Rhabdosoma viodestum, part., Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 

77. 
?Geophis brevirostris Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106, 

Casto de EuEatA, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 
Oxyrhabdium leporinum Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 

303; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 258. 

Description of species. — (From No. Ill, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection; collected at Baguio, Benguet, Luzon, June 1, 1915, on 
the slopes of Mount Santo Tomas at an elevation of about 2,000 



meters, by E. H. Taylor.) 




(Adult female.) Head obtusely 
pointed, with a very small ros- 
tral, little higher than wide, 
barely visible from above ; inter- 
nasals small, the suture between 
them one-third to one-fourth that 
of prefrontals; latter large, 
rather narrow, five to six times 
the size of internasals, and near- 
ly equal to frontal, broadly enter- 
ing eye and forming its longest 
suture with loreal, which is a 
little longer than that formed 
between the 2 prefrontals; frontal but little longer than wide, 

* Giinther lists Luzon as a known locality, but since he confused the two 
species it is not improbable that he referred to O. leporinum. 




a 

Fin. 10. Oxyrhabdium leporinuvi (Giin- 
ther) : after Boulenger ; a, head, dorsal 
view : b, head, lateral view. 



104 SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

nearly three times as wide as supraoculars ; parietals large, not 
twice as long as frontal ; nostril between 2 nasals, the posterior 
largest; loreal about five times as long as wide, narrowly en- 
tering eye; supraocular narrow, elongate; 2 small postoculars, 
upper largest ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 7 labials, fourth and fifth 
entering eye; seventh, fourth, fifth, sixth, third, second, first, 
is the order of size of the labials; mental very small, subcres- 
centic; chin shields very large, closely juxtaposed with a very 
indistinct mental groove; chin shields followed by 3 pairs of 
imbricate scales ; eye dark blue, with a yellow vertical pupil ; 
head distinct from neck; ventrals, 165; anal undivided; sub- 
caudals, 41 ; scale rows, 15, all smooth. 

Color in life. — A bright uniform yellow-olive, iridescent 
above; head same color but a little darker; labials yellowish, 
spotted with brown; below yellow-cream, edges of ventrals 
tinged with grayish; dark subcaudally. In alcohol the color 
changes to a dull browmish black. 

Measurements of Oxyrhabdium leporinurn (Giinther). 



mm. 



Total len^h 685 

Snout to vent 592 

Tail 93 

Head width 12 

Head length ' 25 

Variation. — There are one adult and three young specimens 
in my collection from Benguet. There is one adult specimen 
in the Bureau of Science collection. There is but little variation 
evident in the species, save in the ventral and subcaudal counts, 
the limits in the former being 164 and 180, and in the latter, 41 
and 51. The young are a slaty blue-black, with a whitish nuchal 
collar and a series of indistinct bands of white 1 or 2 scales 
wide crossing the body in a zigzag manner. 

Remarks. — This species seems to be confined to the highlands 
of Luzon ; it is a rare snake. Two specimens were dug up along 
an irrigation ditch, and a third had burrowed under a rock at 
an elevation of 2,000 meters on Mount Santo Tomas. The speci- 
men here described was found crawling in an open forest path. 
This species is of a very gentle disposition. The type was 
collected by H. Cuming; the exact type locality is no longer 
known. A second specimen in the British Museum is from 
Luzon, collected by A. B. Meyer. The types of Stenognathm 



CYCLOCORUS 



105 



hrevirostris Peters, a young and an old specimen, are from 
"Philippines," collected by Wallis.* 

Table 16. — -Measurements and scale counts of Oxyrhahdmm leporinmn 

(Giintlie-}-) . 



No. 






Locality. 








Collector. 


o . 

01 


c 
on 






















mm. 


Ill 


Mount Santo Tomas, Beng-uet. 
.--- do 








E. H. Taylor 




685 
272 


112 


do 




113 




do 




{") 


114 


do • 


do 




282 


R1710 


do ____ 














do 


V 


657 


(.) 


Philippines 
Luzon 














H. Cuming 




820 


(l>) 








M 


Wallis 




.,r, 


No. 


1 Tail. 

Ventrals. 


3 
TO 


« 
►J 


O ^ ' 

^S '■ 
o 

CU ! 

1 

i 


o 
o 

CO 






Collection. 


















Ill 


93 1 16.5 


41 


7 


2 i 


15 


4,5 


E. 


H. Taylor. 






112 


46 


164 


44 


7 


2 ' 


15 


4,6 




Do. 






113 


(■>) 






7 


2 


15 


4,5 




Do. 






114 


44 


174 


46 


7 


2 


15 


4.6 




Do. 






R1710 


94 


174 


38 


7 


2 


15 


4.5 


Bureau of Science. 






(») 


106 


169 


43 


7 




15 


4.6 


Bri 


tish Museum. 






(") 


~ 180 


46 


7 




15 


4,6 




Do. 






('■J 


108 , 176 


61 


■ 7 




35 


4,6 


Berlin. 







" Badly mutilated. 

'' Type ; counts from Boulenger, loc. cit, 

'■ Type of Stenognathtcs' hrevirostris Peters ; from Peters. 

Genus CYCLOCORUS Dumeril and Bibron 

Lycodon, part., Reinhardt, Kongl. Danske Vid. Selsk. Af handl. 1 
(1843) 241. 

Cyelocorus Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 460; Erp. 
Gen. 7 (1854) 385; GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 
208; Jan, Elenco Sist. CM. (1863) 95; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 326; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 
114. 

"Maxillary and dentary bones angularly bent inwards an- 
teriorly; three or four anterior teeth, in both .jaws, increasing 
in size, the last large and fang-like, followed after an interspace 
by 12 or 13 small maxillary teeth. Head slightly distinct from 



* May represent a distinct species. 



106 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

neck; eye rather small, with round pupil. Body moderately 
elongate, cylindrical ; scales smooth, with apical pits, in 17 rows ; 
ventrals rounded. Tail moderate; subcaudals single. Hypapo- 
physes developed throughout the vertebral column." (Boti- 
lenger.) 

This is a Philippine genus having only a single known species, 
Cyclocorus lineatus (Reinhardt). This species is rather incon- 
spicuous; it attains a length of about half a meter. 

CYCLOCORUS LINEATUS (Reinhardt) 

Lycodon lineatus Reinhardt, Kongl. Danske Vid. Selsk. Afhandl. 10 

(1843) 241, pL 1, figs. 7-9. 
Cyclocorus lineatus Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 386; 

GtJNTHER, Gat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 208; Peters, Mon. 

BerL Ak. (1861) 688; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1870) part 36, pi. 6, fig. 2; 

MULLER, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 17; 

BoETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 114; Boulengee, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 327; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 

Filipinas 1 (1895) 438; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 

211; § D 6 (1911) 258; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 

359; § D 13 (1918) 260. 

Description of species. — (From No. 144, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection ; collected on Canlaon Volcano, Occidental Negros, De- 
cember 27, 1914, elevation about 900 meters, by E. H. Taylor.) 
(Adult male.) Rostral twice as wide as high, slightly visible 
from above; internasals small, less than half as large as pre- 
frontals, more or less rectangular in shape ; prefrontal forming 
its largest sutures with frontal; supraocular and loreal sutures 
smallest; frontal chevron-shaped, more than twice as long as 
wide, longer than its distance from end of snout ; parietals large, 
not as long as frontal and prefrontals together, but longer than 
the former ; supraocular not twice as long as wide ; nostril be- 
tween 2 nasals, anterior largest and nearly surrounding nostril ; 
posterior nasal moderate, with a depression on its surface ; loreal 
small, pentagonal, forming its longest suture with second labial ; 
2 preoculars, superior more than twice as large as inferior; 2 
subequal postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 + 2, third superior being 
much the largest; 8 upper labials, third to fifth entering eye, 
seventh, eighth, fifth, and sixth largest, in the order named; 
8 lower labials, fourth largest, last 2 small; mental an equilat- 
eral triangle; 4 labials in contact with anterior chin shields, 
which are nearly equal in length to posterior pair; latter pair 
separated from ventrals by 2 rows of small scales; ventrals, 146; 
anal single; subcaudals, 52; scales in 17 rows, all smooth with 
apical pits. 



CYCLOCORUS 



107 



Coloi- in life. — Bluish brown above with three darker lines 
beginning near the head and continuing to end of tail ; these are 
scarcely visible anteriorly ; each line incloses a series of small, 
dim, whitish yellow dots; ventrals with a heavy brownish line, 
extending the length of body ; a small whitish dot on end of each 
ventral, but not continuing on subcaudals; scattered triangular 
black spots on ventrals ; head markings more or less indistinct, 
regular; labials lighter with a dull stripe below eye, the lighter 
part edged with darker ; chin and throat dark with cream yellow 
spots ; lower labials with distinct yellow spots. 

Measurements of Cyclocorits lineatus (Reinhardt) . 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Width of head 

Length of head 



440 

341 

99 

13 

21 



Variation. — There is much variation in certain scale elements 
in this species and it appears to be associated with geographical 
distribution. The Mindanao forms vary uniformly in scale 
count from Negros or Luzon specimens, and might be regarded 
as worthy of subspecific rank. Specimens from Samar and 
Leyte or southern Luzon would probably connect the various 
forms. Table 17 shows the differences that exist between the 
southern and the northern groups. There is a marked differ- 
ence between the tail length of the Mindanao and the tail length 
of the northern specimens, especially in the males, the average 
being about 16 millimeters. The Mindanao specimens average 

Table 17. — Average rueasurevients and scale counts of Cyclocoms lineatus 

(Reinhardt) . 



Locality. 



Average. 



Number and sex. 



Mindanao | 12 malee of nearly equal size. 

Various northern localities., 14 males of nearly equal size, 

Mindanao ...I 8 femalesof nearly equal size . 

Various northern IocaIitieB__| 6 females of nearly equal size . 
Mindanao -- I 18 males 

Do _ I 13 females -__ -- 

Various northern localities. .| 16 males 

Do-.- _. j IS females 



mm. 

440 
4.38 
460 
480 



mm. 

121 
105 ! 
91 
93 



130 64 

142 I 47 

145 I 62 

160 44 



108 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



15 ventrals less for the males, and 8 ventrals less for the females, 
while the number of subcaudals in the Mindanao foi'ms is higher 
in both cases. The range of ventrals for the species is 128 to 
157 ; of subcaudals, 37 to 59. The temporal scales in the Min- 
danao specimens are normally 1 + 2. Of thirty-one specimens 
examined twenty-four had the normal arrangement ; five had the 
number on one side only, and two had 2 + 2, which is the normal 
formula in the northern specimens. The loreal in northern 
forms is constantly larger, as is the superior preocular which ex- 
tends well above the loreal ; the number of lower labials touching 
the anterior chin shields averages one less in Mindanao speci- 
mens. The same variations of color are found in both groups. 
The color in young specimens varies considerably from that 
in the adult. The median dark stripe is distinct, going forward 
to between the eyes where the interorbital bar intersects it; 
another bar of dark brown crosses it in the occipital region ; on 



Table 18. — Measurements and scale counts of Cyclocorus Hneattis 

(Reinhardt) ■ 



V 



Locality. 



70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
143 
144 
145 
147 
149 
161 
163 
156 
158 
169 
810 
809 
1483 
323 
324 
326 



Collector. 



Bunawan. Agrusan E. H. Taylor 

do -I do 

do I do 

do do --. 

do I do -- 

do do 

do I do -- 

do do 

Canlaon Volcano. Nepros do 

. . . .do do 

do - do 

do do 

do - do 

do --- do... 

do --- .do 

do .-- do 

do - do 

do do ._ 

Folillo C. Canonizado 

do --- . -- -_ do ___ 

Puerto Galera. Mindoro . . ! Marine BioloKical Expedition . 

SumaKui. Mindoro Clark Burks 

do do 

do do 





% 


g 




mv\. 


mm. 


-f 


376 


105 




418 


123 




423 


102 


V 


277 


68 


? 


384 


79 




427 


117 




368 


(■) 


V 


865 


88 




433 


101 




440 


99 


V 


368 


82 


'? 


363 


60 


9 


425 


70 




396 


90 




427 


96 


■» 


338 


74 


9 


385 


79 


V 


372 


79 


g 


625 


101 


9 


440 


85 


% 


471 


92 




360 


(•) 




420 


114 




465 


112 



Mutiliited. 



CYCLOCORUS 



109 



Table 18. — Measurements and scale coutds of Cyclocorus lin6atus 
(Reinhardt) — Continued. 



70 


132 


68 , 


71 


128 


67 ' 


72 


131 


46 


73 


139 


47 


74 


139 


46 


75 


129 


66 


76 


130 


(») 


77 


147 


48 \ 


143 


146 


61 


144 


146 


62 


145 


143 


43 


147 


157 


39 


149 


161 


40 


161 


145 


49 


163 


146 


51 


155 


149 


62 


158 


154 


37 


159 


146 


49 


810 


153 


47 


809 


151 


44 


1483 


149 


43 


323 


143 


(«) 


324 


146 


59 


826 


146 


63 



2 ; 

2 I 



8 . 3, 



3,4,5 
3,4,5 
3,4,5 
3,4,6 
3,4,6 
3,4,6 
3,4,5 
4,5 
3, 4, 5 
3,4,6 
3,4.6 
3,4,5 
3,4.5 
3.4.6 
3.4.5 
3,4,6 
3,4,5 



4 
3 

4 : 

3 
3 
3 
3 

4 
4 

4 
4 

6-5 
4-5 

4 

4 

4 



3.4.5 . 4-6 



3.4.6 

3,4.6 

3,4,6 

3,4 il 

3,4,6 || 

3.4,6 

3.4,6 



4-6 : 

4 

4 

4 

6 

6 ' 



17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 



2 + 2 
H-2 
1+2 
1 + 2 
1+2 

1 + 2 
1+2 
2+2 
2J-2 

2 + 2 
2+2 
2+2 
2 + 2 
2 + 2 
2 + 2 
2- 2 
2 + 2 

I 1+2 

I 2+2 

2 + 2 

2+2 

2+2 



Collection. 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 



17 : 2 + 2 E. H.Taylor. 



17 

17 



2+2 
2+2 



Do. 
Do. 



' Mutilated. 



either side of this are broad light lines, bordered below by a 
row of minute white spots edged with black ; below this the color 
is darker brown ; on either side of the ventrals is a row of small 
whitish dots as well as the large triangular black spots. 

Remai'ks.— The species is not rare and is probably found in 
all the larger islands of the Philippines, with the exception of the 
Palawan group, where I suspect it is wanting. On Mount Can- 
laon, Occidental Negros, and in Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, 
it appeared to be very common. Specimens are known from 
several localities in Mindanao, Negros, and Mindoro and from 
Luzon, Masbate, and Lubang Islands. The most northern record 
is Ifugao, Mountain Province, Luzon ; the most southern, Zam- 
boanga. The species is confined to the Philippines. 

On Canlaon Volcano several of the specimens taken contained 
remains of small PseudorhabdiM7n mmamarx or Calamaria ger- 



110 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

vaisii iridescens, which they would disgorge when captured. 
The female lays five or six eggs which are about 2 centimeters 
long when newly laid. These are placed usually under a log. 
On one occasion a set of eggs was obtained from the interior of 
a small ant hill at the base of a tree ; when opened the eggs were 
found to contain embryos almost completely developed. 

The snake is small and inconspicuous and in consequence is 
not readily recognized as distinct by the Filipinos who class it 
with certain other snakes to which is applied the name ahas na 
tulog (sleeping snake) ; this is scarcely appropriate, as the snake 
is very active and quick to take offense. The Manobos of Min- 
danao regard it as the young of the black and yellow cobra, 
Naja samarensis, which they call haguason;' the Ifugaos of 
northern Luzon regard it as a deadly snake, and manifest great 
fear of it. The wound made by the bite is rather painful due to 
the enlarged front teeth. Needless to say, it has no poison. 

The species can be readily recognized by the single row of 
subcaudals, and the triangular black spots on the belly. 

HOMALOPSIN./E 

Nostrils valvular, on upper surface of snout; dentition well 
developed ; hypapophyses developed throughout vertebral col- 
umn; grooved fangs in posterior part of mouth. Aquatic 
snakes, giving birth to their young. More or less poisonous, but 
not dangerous. 

This subfamily is confined to eastern Asia, Malaysia, and the 
Papua-Australian region. It contains about ten genera, most 
of which contain only single species. Only Hitrria and Fordonia 
are positively kno'wn to occur in the Philippines. Gerard ia has 
been frequently included in Philippine faunal lists on the author- 
ity of Dumeril and Bibron, who report Gerardia prevostiana 
Eydoux and Gervais from Manila. The specimen so reported 
very probably originated in Ceylon, or on the Indian coast. 

Key to the PhiUpjnne genera of the Homalopsin.T. 

a'. Nasals in contact; scales keeled _ _ Hurria Daudin (p. 110). 

ft". Nasals separated by an internasal; scales smooth. 

Fordonia Gray (p. 115). 

Genus HUREIA Daudin 

Hydrus, part., Schneider, Syst. Amph. 1 (17!)9) 23a. 
Hnrria Daudin, Bull. Soc. Pliilom. Paris 3 (1S03) 187; Stb.tneger, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) .304. 



HURRIA 111 

Hurria FISCHER, Zoognosia ed. 3, 1 (1813) 65. 

Hurrianus Rafinesque, Anal. Nat. (1815) 77. 

Strephon Goldfusz, Handb. Zool. 2 (1820) 151. 

Cerbei-us Cuvier, Reg. Anim. 2d ed. 2 (1829) 81; Gray, Zool. Misc. 
(1842) 64; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 63; Dumeril and Bibron, 
Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 977; GuNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 278;- 
Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 374; Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 15; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 
110; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 431. 

"Maxillary teeth 12 to 17, followed, after a very short inter- 
space, by two slightly enlarged, grooved teeth; anterior mandib- 
ular teeth longest. Head small, not very distinct from neck; 
eye small, with vertically elliptic pupil; snout covered with 
shields ; parietal shields more or less broken up into scales ; 
nasals in contact behind the rostral, semidivided, the cleft ex- 
tending from the nostril to the first or second labial; two inter- 
nasals (rarely united) ; loreal present. Body cylindrical^ scales 
striated and keeled, without pits, in 23 to 29 rows ; ventrals 
rounded. Tail moderate, slightly compressed; subcaudals in 
two rows." (Boulenger.) 

Two species are found in the Philippines, the widely distri- 
buted Hurria rynchops (Schneider) and the rare Hurria mi- 
crole'pis (Boulenger) ; the latter appears to be confined to the 
Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine species of Hurria Daudin. 

a'. Four lower labials touching first chin shields; scales in 23 to 

27 rows; strongly keeled; ventrals, 132 to 160. 

H. rynchops (Schneider) (p. 111)- 
f^^ Three lower labials touching first chin shields; scales in 29 rows, 

feebly keeled; ventrals, 163 to 165-- H. microlepis (Boulenger) (p. 114) 

These snakes are more aquatic than terrestrial in habits. 
They are somewhat poisonous, but certainly not deadly poi- 
sonous to man. 

HURRIA RYNCHOPS (Schneider) 

Hydriis rynchops Schneider, Hist, Amph. 1 (1799) 246. 

EJaps boxformis Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 301. 

Hydrus cincreus Shaw, Gen. Zool. 3 (1802) 567. 

Hurria schneideriana Daudin, Nat. Hist. Rept. 5 (1803) 281. 

Hurria bilineata Daudin, Nat, Hist. Rept! 5 (1803) 284. 

Cohiber cerebus Daudin, Nat. Hist. Rept. 7 (1803) 167. 

Homalopsis cerberus Fitzinger, Neue Class. Rept. (1826) 55, 

Python elapiformis Meerem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 89. 

Python rhynchops Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 90. 

Cerberus rhynchops Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 279; Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London (1879) 78; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. 

(1890) 374; Cat. Snakes Brit, Mus. 3 (1896) 16; Boettger, Ber, 

Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 110. 



112 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Cerberus cinereus Cantor, Pioc. Zool. Soc. London (1839) 54; 

Geay, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 64. 
Cerberus acutus Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 65. 
Cerberus unicolor Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 65. 
. Cerberus boseformis Peters, Men. Berl. Ak. (1861) 687. 
Homalopsis bomformis jAN, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 77. 
Hurria rynchops Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 304. 
Hurria rynchops Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 599; 

§ D 5 (1910) 213; § D 6 (1911) 263; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 

§ D 12 (1917) 364. 

Description of species. — (From No. 663, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection ; collected at Hinigaran, Occidental Negros, February- 
ID, 1914, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult female.) Rostral pentago- 
nal, wider than high ; a pair of large, irregular nasals im- 
mediately behind rostral and separating it from internasals; 
nostrils half-moon-shaped provided with valves, situated near 
back p,art of nasal scales, with a small suture running down to 
edge of each scale and partly dividing it; 2 small triangular 
internasals, somewhat unequal, followed by prefrontals, latter 
twice the size of internasals ; frontal hro\<i<^.n into 2 large and 
several small scales ; parietals broken into nu. erous small scales; 
preocular elongate and fused below eye with second postocular, 
separating labials from eye; loreal lozenge-Sviaped, touching in- 
ternasal; temporals not distinguishable from parietals or body 
scales; 11 supralabials, vertically elongate, seventh, eighth, and 
sixth largest in the order named, first very much elongate, sep- 
arating second labial from nasal ; on the right side first labial 
is broken into two parts ; above last 3 labials is a much enlarged 
scale ; mental narrow, triangular ; 12 lower labials, seventh, sixth, 
and fifth largest in the order named ; last lower labials are very 
small and scarcely differentiated ; 4 labials touching first pair 
of chin shields ; second pair of chin shields almost entirely be- 
tween first pair and labials ; 25 scale rows, all strongly keeled 
except the 3 outer ; ventrals, 156 ; anal divided ; subcaudals, 66 
pairs ; head slender, with neck slightly constricted ; body short 
and thick, more than twice as wide as head in its widest part; 
all the scales show very fine but distinct striations ; scales on 
head imbricate. 

C'o/or ill life. — Above drab to ashy gray, with about fifty nar- 
row, irregular, broken bars across body, not reaching ventrals 
laterally; an indistinct light stripe running from snout across 
upper labials, following the three outer scale rows, and not 
crossed by dark bars ; lower and upper labials with dusky spots ; 
dark stripe begins behind eye and continues to some distance 



HUERIA 



113 



on neck; a narrow three-armed spot on occipital region; throat 
dirty whitish; anterior part of ventral surface mottled with 
large, irregular mottlings, which grow more numerous through 
middle and back part of body ; ventral surface of caudal region 
almost black; head dark, similar to body. 



Measurements of Hurria rynchops (Schneider) . 



Total length 
Snout to vent 
Tail 



670 
525 
145 



Variation. — Stejneger gives the following limits of variation 
in scale counts: Scale rows, 23 to 27; ventrals, 132 to 160; 
subcaudals, 49 to 72. In thirty-three specimens I examined the 
ventrals range from 140 to 165, the average being 157. In four 
specimens there are more than 160, in two, less than 150. Sub- 
caudals range from 51 to 68, the average being 58. Scale rows 
around body vary between 23 and 27; only one specimen, the 
largest examined, has 27 rows. The posterior labial in all the 
specimens is small and scarcely distinguishable ; frequently the 
anterior upper 1 oials are broken across the top, while the 
posterior upper labials are broken across the bottom. 

The specimens \ ary considerably in markings, some being dull 
lead color with dim darker marblings, while others are light 
brown with distinct spots or bars. The markings in the young 
are distinct. 

Table 19. — Measurements and scale counts of Hurria rynchops {Schneider.) 



No. 



602 
606 
507 
509 
610 
612 
615 
518 
520 
621 
522 
523 
529 
630 



Locality. 



Bantayan . 

do .... 

...do .... 

do .... 

....do .... 
....do .... 
...do .... 
....do .... 
...do .... 
....do .... 
....do ---. 
...do .... 
....do ---- 
....do .... 



L. E. Griffin . 
do 

....dj 

do 

do 

do 

do 

...do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Sex. 



Manila I M. Ligaya . 



9 
cT 

d 

? 
cC 

cT 

9 



Length. 


Tail. 


m-m. 


mm. 


855 


135 


735 


138 


730 


146 


770 


136 


786 


157 


815 


162 


782 


168 


670 


130 


750 


165 


630 


120 


790 


130 


696 


138 


715 


120 


746 


152 


960 


170 



Ven- 
trals. 



156 
162 
160 
161 
160 
166 
169 
168 
166 
159 
169 
163 
154 
168 
150 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



60 
60 
68 
64 



60 
59 
68 
69 
61 
60 
»61 
61 
66 



• Mutilated. 



114 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Table 19.—Measure7nents and scale counts of Hnrria rynchops 
{Schneider) — Continued. 




Touch 
first 
chin 

shields, 



Loreal touches 
internasal. 



Collection. 



4 


Yes 


4 


do 


4 


.. ,.do 


4 


do 


4-5 


do 


4 


do 


4 


Barely 


4 


Yes 


4 


do - 


4 


do 


4 


Barely 


4 


Yes 


4 


On oneside 


4 


Yes 


b4-2 


Barely 



Bureau of Science. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



^ Injured. 

Remarks. — This widely distributed snake is found from India 
to the Pelew Islands, occurring in Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, the 
East Indies, and the Moluccas. In the Philippines it has been 
reported from Luzon, Mindanao, Palawan, Negros, Bantayan, 
Cuyo, and Polillo. 

HURRIA MICROLEPIS (Boulenger) 

Plate 6, figs. 1 to 3 

Cerberus cinereus, part., Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 64. 
Cerberus microlepis Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (lS9(i) 18, 
pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Description of species.^ (From Boulenger.) "Closely allied 
to [Ce^'berus] rhyncliops. but only three (exceptionally four) 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; loreal 
not touching the internasal; scales much smaller, in 29 rows, 
rather feebly keeled; and ventrals more numerous, 163-165. 
Dark olive above, with darker spots ; a dark streak on each side 
of the head, passing through the eye; yellowish beneath, much 
spotted or marbled with blackish. 

"Total length 660 millim. ; tail 120." 

Rcmnrks.—The types were collected by H. Cuming; the exact 
localities are no longer known. Griffin reports a specimen of 
this species from Camiguin, Babuyan Islands. As the specimen 



FORDONIA 115 

consists of only a head I am uncertain whether the identification 
is correct. Only three lower labials touch the first chin shields. 

Genus FORDONIA Gray 

Homalopsis, part., ScHLEGEL, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 332. 

Fordonia Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 67; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 76; 

GUNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 277; Boulengee, Fauna Brit. 

India, Rept. (1890) 378; Cat. Snalces Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 21. 
Hemiodontus Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 494; 

Erp. Gen. 7 (18-54) 882. 
Hemiodontus, part, jAN, Arcli. Zool. Anat. Phys. 3 (1865) 263. 

Maxillary teeth small, 7 or 8, followed by 2 enlarged grooved 
teeth. Mandibular teeth subequal. Head depressed, short, 
broad, scarcely distinct from neck ; body stout, cylindrical ; tail 
short. Eye very small, pupil vertical; upper surface of head 
with large shields ; nostril pointing up in a single nasal ; an 
internasal separating nasals, no loreal ; 5 upper labials ; body 
cylindrical, scales smooth without apical pits ; ventrals rounded ; 
tail short; subcaudals all or part in 2 rows. 

FORDONIA LEUCOBALIA (Schlegel) 

Homalopsis leucobalia Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 345, pi. 13, 

figs. 8 and 9; Schlegel and Muller, Verh. Nat. Nederl. Overz. 

Bezitt., Rept. (1844) 61, pi. 8; Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 

102, pi. 40, fig. 5 var, 
Fordonia leucobalia Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 67; Cat. Vip. Snakes 

(1849) 77; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 378; 

Sclater, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 60 (1891) 245; Boulenger, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 21. 
Fordonia unicolor Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 77; Gunther, Rept. 

Brit. India (1864) 277; Zool. Rec. (1865) 154; Theobald, Cat. 

Rept. Brit. India (1876) 182; Peters and Doria, Ann. Mus. Oenova 

13 (1878) 389; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1892) 26 (Philip- 
pines). 
Hemiodontus leucobalia Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

884; JAN, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 3 (1865) 264; Icon. Gen. (1868) 

28, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Hemiodontus chalt/bc'eus Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 79. 
Fordonia bicolor Theobald, Journ. Linn. Soc. 10 (1868) 56; Cat. 

Rept. Brit. India (1876) 181. 
Fordonia variabilis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 2 (1878) 

219. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Rostral nearly 
as deep as broad ; frontal a little longer than broad, longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the 
parietals ; one prse- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 3 or 
2 -f 3 ; five upper labials, third entering the eye ; three lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are small 



116 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

and a little larger than the posterior. Scales in 25 to 29 rows. 
Ventrals 130-156, last frequently divided; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 26-43. Coloration of upper parts very variable; lower 
parts uniform yellowish white." 

Measurements of Fordonia leucobalia (Sohlegel) . 

mm. 

Total length 930 

Snout to vent 820 

Tail 110 

Remarks. — This species is included on the strength of Boett- 
ger's record of a specimen from Manila, collected by Moellendorff. 

LANGAHIN.^ 

Hypapophyses developed throughout the vertebral column; 
nostrils not valvular, lateral; terrestrial snakes. Not poisonous. 

The bulk of this subfamily appears to be confined to Madagas- 
car. It is surprising to find this single isolated genus Hologer- 
rhum in the Philippines. This has been placed in the Langahinae 
on the basis of the diagnostic characters given by Boulenger. 
Save for this fact it might easily be regarded as a species of 
Cyclocorus, which it resembles in a superficial manner. 
Genus HOLOGERRHUM Giinther 

Hologerrhmn GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 186; Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 115; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 
3 (1896) 33; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 438. 

"Maxillary teeth 20, equal, followed, after a short interspaqe, 
by a pair of enlarged, grooved fangs ; anterior mandibular teeth 
strongly enlarged. Head slightly distinct from neck; eye mod- 
erate, with round pupil. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, with- 
out pits, in 17 rows ; ventrals rounded. Tail moderate ; subcau- 
dals single. Hypapophyses developed throughout the vertebral 
column '■'■ '■'■ '\" (Boule)iger.) 

This genus, comprising a single species, is confined to the 
Philippine Islands. 

HOLOGERRHUM PHILIPPINUM Gunther 

Plate 7, fig. 1 
Hologerrlium philippinum GtiNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 186; 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1873) 171, pi. 18, fig. B; Boettger, Ber. 

Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 115; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

3 (1896) 33; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 438; 

Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 263 (Hologerriim err. 

typ.). 
Cyclochorus macidatus jAN, Icon. Gen. (1870) 36, pi. 6, fig. 3. 
Cyclochorus Uneatiis maculata Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 

2 (1885) 81. 



HOLOGERRHUM 117 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Rostral broader 
than deep, scarcely visible from above; internasals as long as 
broad, a little shorter than the praef rentals ; frontal twice as long 
as broad, longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a 
little shorter than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep ; two 
prse- and two postoculars ; temporals, 1 + 1 ; eight upper labials, 
third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye; four lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than 
the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 144; anal entire; 
subcaudals 40. Brown above, with a few alternating black spots 
on the anterior part of the back, and one or two black cross-bars 
behind the head ; a black streak on each side of the head ; passing 
through the eye ; upper lip yellowish ; a black line on each side of 
the posterior part of the body and of the tail; lower parts 
yellowish, with a black dot at the outer end of each ventral 
shield ; on the tail these dots are confluent into a line." 

Measurements of Holofjerrhwm philippinum Gilnther. 

mm. 

Total length 280 

Snout to vent 228 

Tail 52 

Remarks. — The exact type locality of this species is no longer 
known, and only a few specimens have been collected. Fischer 
reports it from southern Mindanao, and a specimen was recently 
taken in northern Kalinga, Luzon. f 

CORONELLIN^E 

Hypapophyses absent on the posterior dorsal vertebrce, the 
lower surfaces of which are smooth. All maxillary teeth solid, 
none grooved. Scales imbricating, ventrals enlarged trans- 
versely. Nonpoisonous. 

A large number of genera belong to this family. They occur 
in all temperate and tropical parts of the world. Fifteen genera 
are recognized in the Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine genera of the CoronelUnje. 

a\ Anterior temporals present; parietals separated from labials. 
6'. Pupil vertically elliptical. 

c\ Scales without apical pits, smooth. 

d\ Posterior maxillary teeth increasing in size; anterior maxillary 
and mandibular teeth strongly enlarged; anterior maxillary 
teeth separated from the rest by an inter.space; scales in 17 
to 19 rows -._- -.- Ophites Wagler (p. 118). 



t Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 33, in a footnote states: 
"The specimen from Placer, Mindanao, referred to this species by Gilnther 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1879, p. 78), belongs to Cycloeorus lineatus." 



118 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

d\ Anterior maxillary teeth, increasing in size to eighth which is 
much enlarged, followed by an interspace, followed by 3 
small and 3 large teeth; scales in 17 rows. 

Haplonodon Griifin (p. 126). 

d '. Anterior maxillary teeth, 15 to 20, increasing in size toward the 

middle of the series, then decreasing to the last 2 or 3 which 

are large; anterior mandibular teeth large; scales in 17 rows. 

Stegoiiotus Dumeril and Bibron (p. 129). 

c\ Scales with or without apical pits (absent in Philippine species) ; 

scales smooth; maxillary teeth, 8 to 10, rather short but stout, 

increasing in size posteriorly; anterior mandibular teeth slightly 

larger than posterior; scales in 13 or 15 rows. 

Dryocalamus Gunther (p. 131). 
b''. Pupil round. 

c\ Longitudinal scale rows in even numbers; maxillary teeth, 20 to 23, 
increasing in size' posteriorly; scales in 14 to 18 rows, with apical 

pits. Large snakes Zaocys Cope (p. 134). 

c'. Longitudinal scale rows in odd numbers. 

d \ Ventrals and subcaudals not or but feebly keeled. 

e\ Maxillary teeth, 8 to 12, posteriorly compressed; scales in 13 
to 21 rows, smooth or feebly keeled, with or without apical 

pits Holarchus Cope (p. 138). 

e". Similar to Holarclius; maxillary teeth, 6 to 8, posteriorly com- 
pressed; pterygoid teeth absent, palate without teeth, or with 
2 or 3 on each palatine; scales in 15 to 17 rows. 

Oligodon Boie (p. 146). 
e^ Maxillary teeth equal or nearly so, or posterior ones slightly 
decreasing in size. 
/ '. Scales with apical pits. Large snakes. 

g^. Scales in 23 to 27 rows Gonyosoma Wagler (p. 152). 

, g'. Scales in 21 rows -- Elaphe Fitzinger (p. 155). 

/-. Scales without apical pits -. liopeltis Fitzinger (p. 161). 

d '. Ventral and subcaudal scales strongly keeled and notched. 

e'. Maxillary teeth, 20 to 33, slightly enlarged posteriorly; median 
scale row distinctly enlarged; scales in 13 to 15 rows, with 

apical pits.- - -- Dendrophis Boie (p. 165). 

c". Maxillary teeth, 18 to 23. anterior longest; median scale row 
not or but slightly enlarged; scales in 13 to 15 rows, with 

apical pits.- Dendrelaphis Boulenger (p. 169). 

0.'. No anterior temporals; parietals in contact with labials. 
6'. Internasals present. 

c-'. Eye distinct Pseudorhabdium Boulenger (p. 177). 

c'. Eye hidden Typhlogeophis Giinther (p. 182). 

Ir. Internasals absent; eye distinct - Calaniaria Boie (p. 183). 

Genus OPHITES Wagler 

Lycodon, part., BoiE, Isis (1827) 521; Wagler, Syst. Aniph. (1830) 
186; SCHLEGEL, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 104; Dumeril and Bibron, 
Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 367; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (18B8) 201; 
Kept. Brit. India (1864) 315; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 95. 



OPHITES 119 

Ophites Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 186; Dumeril and Bibeon, Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 397; Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 206; Rept. Brit. 

India (1864) 322; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1868) 95; Stejneger, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 356; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. 

§ D 6 (1911) 258.* 
Cercaspis Waglee, Syst. Amph. (1830) 191; Dumeril and Bibron, 

Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 389; Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 207; 

Rept. Brit. India (1864) 323; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 94. 
Leptorhytaon Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 205; Rept. Brit. 

India (1864) 323. 
Tetragonosoma Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 253; Rept. Brit. 

India (1864) 320. 
Tytleria Theobald, Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. (1868) 66. 
Lycodon Boulengee, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 291; Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 348; Boettgee, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

(1886) 114; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 437. 

"Maxillary bent inwards anteriorly in the adult, the three to 
six anterior teeth increasing in size, fang-like, and separated by 
a toothless interspace from the rest, seven to fifteen in number, 
which increase in size posteriorly; anterior mandibular teeth 
longest, fang-like. Head not or but slightly distinct from neck, 
more or less depressed ; eye small or moderate, with vertically 
elliptic pupil; nostril large or rather large. Body more or less 
elongate, cylindrical or slightly compressed; scales smooth or 
keeled, in 17 or 19 rows, with apical pits; ventrals with or 
without a lateral keel. Tail moderate ; subcaudals single or 
double." (Boulenger.) 

The genus is a comparatively large one with about eighteen 
known species. It is distributed over southern Asia, and the 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Three species enter the 
Philippines, but only the rare Ophites tessellatus (Jan) appears 
to be confined to the Islands. The species best known in the 
Philippines is Ophites aulicus (Linnteus), which is commonly 
found about houses and stone walls. This species is known as 
culebra casera and ahas-na-ttdog (sleeping snake) . The latter 
name is indeed a good one, as it describes its characteristic habit 
of remaining motionless when first disturbed. The species of this 
genus appear to feed almost wholly on small lizards of the Gecko- 
nidse and Scincid£e. They are absolutely harmless and rarely 
attempt to bite. They thrive well in captivity and readily take 
food. 

* Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 356 b, has shown that the 
long-accepted name Lycodon is fixed for a South American genus of 
snakes, usually known as Lycognathus. The next name chronologically is 
Ophites Wagler. 



120 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Key to the Philippine species of Ophites Wagler.^ 

a\ A preocular, separating eye from prefrontal. 

b\ Nasal single; ventrals not angulate 0. tessellatus (Jan) (p. 124), 

¥. Two nasals; ventrals laterally angulate- 0. aulicus (Linnaeus) (p. 120). 

a'. No preocular; prefrontal entering eye...... 0. subcinctus (Boie) (P- 124). 

OPHITES AULICUS (Linnaeus) 

Coluber aulicus Linn^us, Mus. Ad. Frid. 1 (1754) 29, pi. 12, fig. 
2; Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1 (1758) 220. 

Lycodon aulicus BoiE, Isis (1827) 551; CoPE, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila- 
delphia (1860) 262 (var.) ; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 688; 
GiJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 316; Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
(1879) 18; Zool. Rec. (1870) 75; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1870) 36, pi. 
4, fig. 1; Theobald, Gat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 199; Murray, 
Zool. Sind. (1884) 383; Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 
(1885) 81; BouLENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 294; Cat, 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 352 (and varieties) ; Barbour, Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 114. 

Lycodon capucinus BoiE, Isis (1827) 551. 

Lycodon unicolor Boie, Isis (1827) 551. 

Lycodon hebe Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 106, pi. 4, figs. 1-6. 

Lycodon aulicus, part., Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 68; Dumeril 
and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 369; GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes 
(1858) 201. 

Tytleria hypsirhinoides Theobald, Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. (1868) 
66. 

Ophites aulicus GRIFFIN, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 596; § 
D 6 (1911) 258; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 359. 

Description of species. — (From No. 161, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection; collected in Manila, -June 1, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) 
Snout and head rather flattened, lips extended ; rostral much 
broader than deep, scarcely visible from above, bent at a strong 
angle ; internasals moderate, not quite as long as prefrontals ; 
latter form their longest suture with each other, their sutures 
with other scales being subequal in length ; frontal not twice 
as long as wide, forming its longest suture with supraocular, 
the suture with preocular being very small ; length of frontal 
nearly equal to its distance from end of snout ; parietals longer 
than but not as wide as frontal, bounded behind by 3 enlarged 
scales, 1 medially and 2 laterally ; nostril pierced between 2 

* Casto de Elera lists Lycodon modestum Schlegel (= Stec/onotns mo- 
destiim) ; Lycodon baiidi Steindachner (= Psammodi,nwstcs pulverulentns) ; 
Lycodon culcullatmn {:^ Steijovotus culcullatiis) , which probably does not 
occur in the Philippines; and Lycodon capKchnis, which is a variety of 
Ophites aulicus. 



OPHITES 



121 



small nasals, the anterior somewhat the larger ; loreal large, sub- 
rectangular, forming its longest suture with prefrontal, not 
twice as long as wide ; a large preocular 
extending from frontal to third labial ; 
supraocular smaller than preocular but 
a little longer; 2 small postoculars sub- 
equal in size. Temporals , +4; 9 



1 r2 




Fig. 11 Ophites aulicus (Lin- 
n^us) ; after Boulenger ; a. 
head, dorsal view ; b, head. 
lateral view. 



upper labials, fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
eighth largest; third, fourth, and fifth 
labials entering eye; 10 lower labials, 
sixth and fifth largest; mental small; 5 
labials touch first chin shields (4 on 
right side) ; mental small, triangular; 2 
pairs of chin shields, first pair longest, 
nearly equal in length to first labials; 
scales in 17 rows, smooth, outer row 
somewhat enlarged ; eye small, pupil 
vertical ; head distinct from body, very 
much flattened, with lips and temporal 
regions swollen ; ventrals, 197 ; anal dou- 
ble; subcaudals, 74, double; tail slender, terminating in a long, 
sharp point. 

Colo7- in life. — Grayish slate to purplish brown above with an 
irregular network formed by darker scales bordered with white ; 
on neck a dim lighter band forming a broad collar; fore part 
of head darker slate; lips and neck whitish, each scale with a 
darker area; lower surfaces immaculate cream white. 

Variation. — But little variation occurs in this species among 
specimens found in the various Philippine islands. The follow- 
ing diff'erences, however, are in evidence. Specimens from the 
Visayan islands of Masbate, Bantayan, and Negros have the tem- 
porals 1 + 2 for the most part instead of 2 + 3, which is the 
usual formula elsewhere. It will be noted from the table that 
there is a tendency to a reduction in the number of labials 
touching the anterior chin shields in Luzon specimens. The 
range of ventrals is 194 to 210; of subcaudals, 62 to 78. These 
counts are well within the limits set by Boulenger.''' 

One specimen in the collection from Almo/a, India, difl'ers 
considerably. The head is rather narrow and pointed ; the pre- 
oculars are not in contact with the frontal, which is true of 
Phihppine specimens; the frontal is proportionally shorter, and 



* Loc. cit. 



122 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



the subcaudal count is 89, much higher than the range limit 
noted by Boulenger.* The whitish networli on the body forms 
rather definite white bars on the anterior part of the body. 

i?.emar/i:s.— Boulenger * has referred all his Philippine spec- 
imens under his "variety D" (Lycodon aulicus capucinus Boie). 

In the more than thirty Philippine specimens examined, I find 
no variations which warrant subspecific treatment, i find that 
variations in markings are due chiefly to age; variations in 
scalation for the most part do not appear constant. This species 
is known to occur in most of the larger Philippine islands, with 
the possible exception of Palawan, and in some of the smaller 
ones. Griffin states that a specimen was taken in Palawan 
by C. M. Weber and that this is in the Bureau of Science col- 
lection. The only one of this species collected by Weber in the 
collection is from Cuyo, and I believe this is the specimen re- 
ferred to by Griffin. Certainly if it is found in Palawan it is 

Table 20. — Measurements and scale counts of Ophites aulicus {Linnmtia). 



Locality. 



16B 

■ 166 

167 

168 

170 

171 

174 

286 

287 

663 

837 

664 

1484 

84 

641 

U26 

1329 

1620 

1624 

1629 

1B52 

161 

R 1314 



Occidental Negroe. 

do 

do 

___.do 

do 

do ____ 

do - 



H. McNamara _ 

do 

E. H. Taylor--- 
H. McNamara - 

do 

do 

do ------ 



Masbate V. Lednicky.- , ':f 

--..do ' do ' 'i 

Bantayan ' L. E. Griffin -. ^ 

do -- do --- ^ 

Cuyo CM. Weber-- i" 

Mindoro -' Marine Biofo.Grical Exjiedition d" 

Manila l L. E. Griffin--- ' o" 



.do . 
.do - 
.do - 
.do - 
-do - 
-do - 



W. Schultze V^ 

^ L. E. Griffin ' { 

-.: do . ? 

-.- S.F. Light..: CJ- 

do ^ 

-do ■ d' 

, L. E. Griffin--. I o" 

. ^ E.H.Taylor : V 

India ' cf 



mfn. 

678 
486 
460 
325 
470 
310 
4S0 
360 
385 
BOO 
360 
610 
540 
B25 
; 580 
j 780 
781 
678 
5B5 
637 
445 



mm. 

74 
86 
92 
53 
85 
65 
91 
63 
65 
30 
60 



110 
96 
103 
132 
103 



92 
105 



199 «37 

200 65 
189 70 
199 63 



202 
200 



198 66 

198 66 

199 ' 62 
198 



196 

190 70 

191 ' 66 
194 76 
198 , 66 
206 "43 
202 69 
206 78 
210 67 
204 «56 
194 ' 71 

197 ; 74 
206 i 89 



' Mutilated. 



* Catalogue, loc. cit. 



OPHITES 



123 



Table 20. — Measurements and scale counts of Ophites aulicus 
(Limiasus) — ^Continued. 







Lab 


ale. 










• 














t- 


1 


oi 


















"rt 






No. 


a 
a 


u 

3 


Si" 


■g.= 2 


3 
o 
O 

o 




Tempor: 


Collection. 




165 


9 


10. 


3, 4, .5 


6 


1 


17 


2+3 


E. H. Taylor. 




166 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


5 


2 


17 


( 1+2+31 
I 2 + 3/ 


Do. 




167 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


5 


2 


17 


[ 2- 


Do. 




168 


9 


10 


3.4.5 


5 


2 


17 


1+2H 3 


Do. 




170 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


6 


2 


17 


1 + 2 + 3 


Do. 




171 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


5 


2 


17 


H2 + 3 


Do. 




174 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


6 


2 


17 


( 1 +31 
1 2 / 


Do. 




286 


9 


10 


3. 4, 6 


6 


2 


17 


1 J_+4l 
1 1 + 2 J 


Do. 




287 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


6 


2 


17 


1+2+3 


Do. 




663 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


4-3 


2 


17 


1 + 2 + 3 


Bureau of Science. 




837 


9 


10 


3.4,5 


5 


2 


n 


1^2+3 


Do. 




654 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


6 


2 


17 


2-h3 


Do. 




1484 


9 


10-9 


3,4,6 


6-4 


2 


17 


2 + 3 


Do. 




84 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


6 


2 


17 


2+3 


Do. 




641 


9 


10-9 


3,4,5 


4-5 


2 


17 


2+3 


Do. 




1320 


9 


10 


3, 4, 5 


4 


2 


17 


2 + 3 


Do. 




1329 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


4-6 


2 


17 


2+3 


Do. 




1.520 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


6 


2 


17 


/ 2+31 
I 2+41 


Do. 




1524 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


4-6 


2 


17 


( 2 + 31 
I 2 + 4/ 


Do. 




1629 


9 


10 


3,4,6 


4-5 


2-1 


17 


2+3 


Do. 




1552 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


4-5 




17 


2+3 


Do. 




161 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


6-4 


2 


17 


{ 1^2- 


E. H. Taylor. 




R1314 


9 


10 


3,4,5 


6 


2 


17 


2+4 


Bureau of Science. 





rare, since several other collections made there contain no 
specimen of this common snake. 

In Manila it is especially common in houses, where it feeds 
on the small geckos, Peropus mutilatus, Cosymbotus platyurus, 
and Hemidactylus frenatus. One gentleman assured me that 
he had killed fourteen in his house during a single rainy season. 
It is absolutely harmless, usually very gentle, and may be handled 
with impunity. 

Known from Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Ban- 
tayan, Masbate. It is uncommon in eastern Mindanao, as not a 
specimen was found in my two years' collecting there. Fischer * 
reports Lycodon aulicus var. from southern Mindanao. 



* Loc. cit. 



124 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

OPHITES TESSELLATUS (Jan) 

Lycodon tessellatus Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 96; Icon. Gen. 

(1870) 36, pi. 4, fig. 2; Mullee, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. 

Basel Mus. (1883) 17; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 

114; BOULENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 351; Casto de 

Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 437. 
Ophites tesselatiis Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 258 

(typ. err.) 

Description of species. — "Snout moderately depressed; eye 
rather small. Rostral broader than deep, just visible from above ; 
internasals much shorter than the prasf rontals ; frontal nearly 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout, slightly shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal elongate, not entering the eye, forming 
a suture with the internasal; one prse- and two postoculars; 
temporals small, scale-like, 2 -|- 3 ; nine upper labials, third, 
fourth, and fifth entering the eye; four lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the poste- 
rior. Scales smooth, in 17 rows. Anal divided. Subcaudals 
in two rows. Above with three series of alternating black 
spots; ventrals and subcaudals brown, edged with whitish." 
(Boulenger.) 

Remarks. — The type locality is "Manila auf Luzon." This 
is the only exact locality known. Miiller's specimen is labeled 
"Philippinen." Evidently this species is very rare. 

OPHITES SUBCINCTUS (Boie) 
Plate 8 

Lycodon subcinctus BoiB, Isis (1827) 551; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 

2 (1837) 117, pi. 4, figs. 14, 15; Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London (1890) 34. 
Lycodon platurinus Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1S47) 69. 
Ophites subcinctus Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 398; 

GiJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 206; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 

322; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1870) 36, pi. 5, fig. 4; Blanford, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London (1881) 222, pi. 21, fig. 2; Griffin, Philip. Journ. 

Sci. § A 4 (1909) 596; § D 6 (1911) 258. 
Elapoides annulatus Sauvacb, Bull. Soc. Philom. VII 8 (1884) 144. 

Description, of species.— (From No. 659, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, August 26, 190S, 
by C. M. Weber.) (Adult male.) Head and snout much de- 
pressed, almost spatulate; rostral scarcely visible above, much 
broader than high, the sutures with internasals and nasals sub- 
equal; internasal?. small, about one-third the size of prefrontals, 
narrowed medially, about as wide as long; prefrontals large! 
about as wide as long, longest on sides, forming mutual suture, 
entering eye ; frontal longer than wide, longer than and more 
than twice as wide as supraoculars, much shorter than its dis- 



OPHITES 



125 



tance from end of snout, and much shorter than parietals ; latter 
moderate, about one and a half times as long as broad, bordered 
by 3 temporals and a postocular; nasal apparently entire, nar- 
rowed in the middle, the posterior portion higher and rather 
pointed behind; no preocular; loreal elongate, twice as long as 
high, widely separated from internasal, entering eye, in contact 
with 2 labials below ; supraocular about twice as long as wide ; 2 





Fig. 12. Ophites subcinctus (Boie) ; drawing of a Palawan specimen; a, head, dorsal view; 
&, head, lateral view ; X 2. 

small postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 -|- 2 on left side, and 1 + 2 
+ 2 on right, third upper largest; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, 
and fifth entering eye, seventh largest ; mental very small, wider 
than deep ; 9 lower labials, 4 touching anterior chin shields, which 
are wider and somewhat enlarged; scales in 17 rows, the 11 
median rows slightly but distinctly keeled ; ventrals, 208, angulate 
laterally ; anal divided ; subcaudals, 64 pairs ; eye small, less than 
its distance from nostril. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dull purplish, banded with 10 light 
lavender bands, each about 6 scales wide, darker medially; the 
first band crosses occipital region; labials light colored; throat 
and belly yellowish without markings ; tail dimly banded with 6 
bands almost same shade as ground color ; below yellowish white. 

Measurements of Ophites subcinctus (Boie). 

mm. 
Total length 505 

Snout to vent ' 416 

Tail 89 

Width of head 11 

Variation. — A second specimen in the collection agrees with 
the described specimen, save that the head is less flattened, due 



126 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



probably to the fact that it is younger. The rostral is a little 
more exposed above, and the postoculars are fused into one 
scale. The temporal formula is 1 + 2 + 2. The color above is 
a dark brown with 16 white bands from head to tail; a brown 
streak, partially following the parietal suture, divides the occip- 
ital band. 

Table 21. — Measu?-ements and scale counts of Ophites subcinctiis (Boie). 



Locality. 



659 I Iwahig. Palawan . 
761 ; do 



Collector, 

C. M. Weber... 
._.. do .„- 



Se.x or 



ye 



Length. Tall. 



7nm. mm. 

605 89 

264 44 



No. 



659 
751 



Ven- 
trals. 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



208 
, 199 



Scale 
rows. 



Labials 
enter 
eye. 



3.4,5 
3.4.5 



Post- 
oculars 



Width I 
of head. 



11 Bureau of Science. 
7 I Do. 



The Palawan form agrees quite well with the specimens from 
Asia and Java. Boulenger gives the variation in ventrals as 
198 to 227; in subcaudals, 61 to 89. He also mentions the fol- 
lowing variations : Sometimes the sixth labial enters the eye, 
making 4 in all ; sometimes the loreal does not enter the eye ; the 
anal is rarely entire. The two specimens above recorded are 
the first and, I believe, the only records for the Philippines. 

Genus HAPLONODON Griffin 

Haplonodon Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 211; § D 6 
(1911) 258. 

"Maxillary teeth in two series, separated by a short inter- 
space; the posterior teeth of each series largest, 14 or 15 in 
all. Anterior end of maxilla bent slightly inward. 

"Anterior mandibular teeth enlarging to the fourth, followed 
by smaller teeth of equal size. Head distinct from neck. Eye 
moderate, pupil vertically elliptic. Body slender, slightly com- 
pressed; tail long. Scales smooth, in 17 longitudinal rows, 
without apical pits; subcaudals in two rows." (Griffi)).) 

Only a single species known. Exclusively a Philippine form. 

HAPLONODON PH I LI PPI N E NSI S Griffin 

PL.4TE 9 

Haplonodmi phiUpjiineuKis Griffin, Pliilip. .louni, Sci. § D 5 (1910) 
212, text fig-. 1, pi. 1; § D 6 (1911) 258. 



HAPLONODON 127 

Description of species. — (From the type, No. 883, Bureau of 
Science collection ; collected in Polillo, October 1909, by C. Cano- 
nizado.) (Adult male.) Anterior end of maxillaiy curved in- 
ward but slightly; teeth on maxilla increase in size from 
first to eighth, the last 3 or 4 strong and fanglike ; after a 
short interspace 3 small teeth follow, which in turn are followed 
by 3 large teeth, fanglike and laterally compressed ; the 4 ante- 
rior mandibular teeth increase in size to fourth, and are consid- 
erably larger than the remaining ones which are of nearly 
equal size ; head somewhat triangular, rather flat, distinct from 
neck; rostral broader than deep, folded about snout, its posterior 
part pointed and entering between internasals, the portion visible 
above being equal to one-third its distance from rostral ; inter- 
nasals small, narrowed medially, the suture between them one- 
third to one-fourth that between prefrontals ; latter large, more 
than four times the size of internasals, more than two-thirds the 
length of frontal ; latter almost straight on its anterior margin, 
about as broad as long, twice the width of supraoculars and a 
little longer; parietals elongate, bordered by 3 (4 on right side) 
temporals, nearly twice as long 
as frontal ; nasal single, of very 
irregular shape, elongate, ante- 
rior part much lower than poste- 
rior; nostril pierced obliquely; a 
loreal present, more than twice 
as long as wide, entering eye; 
a single preocular narrowly sepa- 
rated from frontal; 2 small 

^ Fig. 13. Haplonndnn philippincnsis Grtf- 

SUbeqUal pOStOCUlarS; temporals fin ; n, head, dorsal view :&, head, ventral 

2 + 2 ; 9 upper labials, fourth '"<=^^-- 

and fifth entering eye, seventh and eighth largest and nearly 
equal, 9 lower labials, 5 in contact with anterior chin shields 
which are larger than posterior ; mental much wider than deep ; 
scales smooth, in 17 rows, without apical pits; body slender, 
distinctly compressed ; lateral keels on ventrals, but scales not 
noticeably notched; ventrals, 203; anal entire; subcaudals, 95 
(tip of tail missing) . 

Color. — Dorsal surface of body and tail crossed by seventy- 
nine dark brown bands, separated by narrow bands of white, 
finely dotted with brown; the edges of latter bands pure white, 
outlining the darker and broader bands prettily ; in the dorsal 
portions of the lighter bands the brown dots are often con- 
fluent, producing a grayish brown color ; dots finer and more 





128 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



separated toward ventral surface; ventral portions of most of 
the browii bands narrowly separated from dorsal parts by fine 
white lines; a large brown spot on end of most of ventral 
scales; ventral surface of head and body white; brown dots 
become increasingly numerous on lower surface as anus is ap- 
proached; lower surface of tail closely covered with brown dots; 
upper surface of head very dark brown, almost black, adorned 
by a reticulate pattern of fine white lines; centers and lower 
edges of upper labial scales white, their adjoining edges brown; 
all scales extremely smooth and glossy. 

Measurements of Haplonodon philipphiensis Griffin. 



len^h 



mm. 

800 

196 

23 

13 



Total 
Tail 

Head length 
Head width 

Variation. — A second specimen taken near Los Baiios, Luzon, 
is smaller and immature. The head is triangular, very distinct 
from body, and noticeably flattened. There are eighty-five brown 
bars across the body, thirty-one of which belong to the tail. The 
tail is extremely slender. The color of the specimen is darker 
brown than that of the adult described. 

Table 22. — Measure^nents and scale counts of Haplonodon philippinensis 

Griffin. 



No. 



Locality. 



»S83 : Polillo--. ..^ C. Canonizado 

211 ! Los Banos, Luzon E. H. Taylor ._ 



Length. 

mm. 

800 
S05 



■ 883 
211 



Ven- 
trale. 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



Upper i Scale 
labials, rows. 



vim. 
1% 
81 



203 

206 



96 
127 



17 
17 



4,5 

4. S \ 



Bureau of Science. 
E. H. Taylor. 



" Type. 

Remarks. — These two specimens are the only ones known, 
which is rather remarkable in view of the fact that the localities 
known are on separate islands. Evidently it is extremely rare. 

It is unknown to the inhabitants of Polillo, according to 
Griffin. * The people in the locality where it was taken by 
myself said they had never seen a similar specimen. 



Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 213. 



STEGONOTUS 129 

Genus STEGONOTUS Dumeril and Bibron 

Lycodon, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 104; Dumeril and 

Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 367; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofld. (1863) 97. 
Stegonotiis Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (18-53) 477; Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 680; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 

364. 
Herpetodryas, part., Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 80. 
Lielaphis Gunthee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1863) 59; (1877) 129. 
Zamenophis Gunther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. IV 9 (1872) 21. 
Pseudolycodon Peters, Men. Berl. Ak. (1876) 534. 
Spilotes Peters, Men. Berl. Ak. (1861) 685; Boettgee, Ber. Senck. 

Nat. Ges. (1886) 108; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 

(1895) 92. 
Odontomus Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 114; Casto de 

Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 437. 

"Maxillary teeth 15 to 20, increasing in size towards the 
middle of the series, then decreasing in size to the two or three 
last, which are again large ; anterior mandibular teeth enlarged. 
Head more or less distinct from neck ; eye moderate or rather 
small, with vertically elliptic pupil. Body elongate, cylindrical 
or feebly compressed ; scales smooth, with apical pits, in 17 
rows; ventrals obtusely angulate laterally. Tail modei'ate or 
long; subcaudals in double or single row." {Boulenger.) 

There are two species known from the Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine species of Stegonotiis Dumeril and Bibron. 

a'. Ventrals, 220 to 232; subcaudals, 100 pairs; over 2 meters in length 

S. muelleri Dumeril and Bibron (p. 129). 
a\ Ventrals, 195 to 214; subcaudals, 112 to 123; about 1 meter in length 

S. dumerilii Boulenger (p. 130). 

The genus Stegonotus is distributed over the eastern Philip- 
pines, the Moluccas, Papuasia, and northern Australia. No 
species has yet been discovered in Celebes or Borneo. The two 
species found in the Philippines are endemic. Both are rare. 
They are nonpoisonous. 

STEGONOTUS MUELLERI Dumeril and Bibron 

Stegonotus muelleri Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 682; 
Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 367; Griffin, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 259. 

Spilotes samarensis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 685; Boettgeb, 
Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 108; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Fili- 
pinas 1 (1895) 429. 

Herpetodryas muelleri Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 81. 

Descri'ption of species. — (After the type description of 
Spilotes samarensis Peters.) Frontal not quite as long as 



130 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

broad, almost triangular, the anterior edge a straight line, 
rounded behind; an elongate loreal, longer than deep; 2 pre- 
oculars and 2 postoculars ; 9 upper labials, fourth and fifth en- 
tering eye; 2 long anterior temporals followed by 3 others, the 
anterior in contact with postoculars, scales in 17 smooth rows ; 
ventrals, 232; anal entire; subcaudals, 81 pairs. 

Color.— V-p-per side of head dark olive, lips and underside 
dirty yellow-white ; upper part of body darker with large, broad, 
dark flecks; below uniform dirty yellow. 

Measurements of Stegonotiis wwlleri Dvmeril and Bihron. 

mm. 

Total length 2,070 

Snout to vent 1.680 

Tail 390 

Length of head 50 

Variation. — Boulenger gives the known ventral range for the 
species 220 to 232; that of the subcaudals, 81 to 100. As to the 
color of the type (?) he states: "Uniform brown above; Ups and 
lower parts dirty yellowish white." 

Remarks. — Only three or four specimens of this rare snake 
have been found, all apparently from Samar Island. It attains 
a length of more than 2 meters. It is harmless to man. 

STEGONOTUS DUMERILIl Boulenger 

Lycodon miilleri Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 82; 

GUNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 203. 
Odontomus muelleri Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (.1879) 78; 

BoETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 114; Casto de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 437. 
Stegonotus diimcriUi Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 

368; Griffin, Philip. .lourn. Sci. § n 6 (1911) 259. 

Description of species. — (From an unnumbered specimen, 
Santo Tomas Museum, labeled "Filipinas," collector unknown; 
local name, taling hilao.) Head distinct from neck, rather 
spatulate; rostral broader than deep, narrowly but distinctly 
visible from above, pointed behind, nearly as deep as broad, its 
smallest suture formed with first labial, its largest with inter- 
nasal ; latter about as wide as deep, narrowed medially, the 
suture between them being about half of that between pre- 
frontals; latter much broader than deep, in contact with both 
preoculars and forming their smallest suture with inferior pre- 
ocular; frontal longer than bvoad, its sides nearly parallel, its 
anterior edge a straight line, as long as its distance from end 
of snout, shorter than parietals, scarcely twice as broad as 



DRYOCALAMUS 131 

supraocular; parietals very much elongate, almost twice as 
broad as long, touching only 1 postocular; nasal elements mu- 
tilated but nasal apparently a single scale, elongate, the nostril 
near the middle ; 1 loreal a little longer than high ; 2 preoculars 
coequal in size, nearly as large as loreal and larger than post- 
oculars ; supraoculars nearly twice as long as wide ; 3 post- 
oculars , upper largest ; temporals 2 + 3 ; 8 temporals border- 
ing parietals ; 9 upper labials, fourth and fifth entering eye, 
sixth and seventh largest ; 9 lower labials, 5 touching anterior 
chin shields, which are very much larger than second pair and 
widely separated from each other at their upper ends ; eye 
quite large, with pupil distinctly vertical, oval; 17 scale rows, 
smooth, outer row not enlarged ; ventrals, 198 ; anal single ; 
subcaudals, 122. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dark purplish brown with eighteen 
white bands on body and fourteen on tail, each band three 
scales wide on back and widening to four or five on side; small 
whitish spots in temporal region and on lower edges of upper la- 
bials ; yellowish below, of a muddy color under tail. 

Measui-ements of Stegonotxis dumeriln Boulenger. 

mm. 

Total' length 335 

Snout to vent ' 240 

Tail 95 

Remarks. — I have been able to examine only this single, very 
young specimen of Stegonotus dumerilii. It differs from Bou- 
lenger's description in having 3 instead of 2 postoculars, 
and in the color and markings. However, these differences in 
color and markings may be due to the age of the specimen. 

Boulenger lists four specimens. The ventrals and subcaudals 
vary between 195 and 214, and 112 and 123, respectively. The 
counts for the specimen described lie within these limits. 

Known from Samar (Boettger), Surigao (Giinther), and Da- 
raga and the Iriga Volcano, Luzon (Peters). It is not known 
outside the Philippines. 

Genus DRYOCALAMUS Giinther 

Nympha (non Martini) Fitzinger, Neue Class. Rept. (1826) 29. 

Lycodon, part., Schegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 104. 

Odontomiis (non Kirby) Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 

(1853) 463; Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 450; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes 

(1858) 206; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 95; Gunther, Rept. 

Brit. Ind. (3864) 233. 
Dryocalamits Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 121; Boulenger, 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 369. 



X.32 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Hydrophobus Gunther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ill 9 (1862) 127; 

BOULENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 297. 
Nymplwphidhun GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 23-5. 
Ulupe Blanfoed, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 47 (1878) 129. 

"Maxillary teeth 8 to 10, rather short but stout, increasing 
in size posteriorly; anterior mandibular teeth a little longer 
than the posterior; one or two more or less distinct tooth-like 
knobs on the basisphenoid. Head distinct from neck, much 
depressed; eye moderate or rather large, with vertically elliptic 
pupil. Body slender, slightly compressed; scales smooth, in 
13 or 15 rows, with apical pits;* ventrals strongly keeled on 
each side. Tail moderate; subcaudals in two rows." (Boii- 
lenger.) 

The genus is small, only six or seven species being known. 
Three are found in the East Indies. Dryocalainus suhanulatus 
is confined to the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra; D. tristrigatiis 
is found in Borneo and the Natuna Islands; and D. philippinus 
is found in Palawan. The last species resembles D. tristrigatus 
in markings, and is otherwise similar save for the absence of 
apical pits on scales. Snakes of this genus are harmless. 

DRYOCALAMUS PHILIPPINUS Griffin 

Plate 10, fig. 2; Plate 11, figs. 1 and 2 

DryocalamHs pliilippinus Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 
596; § D 6 (1911) 259. 

Description of species. — (From No. 240, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection; collected at Balabac, 1915, by C. M. Weber.) Head 
distinct from neck, rather flattened ; rostral more than one and 
a half times as broad as high ; part visible above less than one- 
third its distance from frontal; internasals about as wide as 
long, the suture between them equaling the suture between 
prefrontals ; latter larger than internasals, bending down on 
sides, wider than deep; frontal broadly angled anteriorly, less 
than one and one-third times as long as broad, longer than its 
distance from end of snout, as long as or minutely shorter than 
parietals; latter longer than wide, touching superior postocular; 
nasal large, with nostril very small, pierced near its center; 
loreal very large, nearly twice as long as wide, entering eye; 
no preocular (or, if present, fused with supraocular) ; 3 post- 
oculars, subequal in size; 2 anterior temporals with the formula 

1_L2 '^'^' "^ upper labials, third and fourth entering eye; labials 
♦There ai-e no apical pits in Dnjucala mux pliilippiiins Griffiin. E. H. T, 



DRYOCALAMUS 133 

in the following order of size : sixth, fifth, fourth, third, seventh, 
second, first; 7 lower labials, 4 touching anterior chin shields, 
which are more than twice as large as second pair; scales in 
15 smooth rows, without apical pits; ventrals, 216; subcaudals, 
87; both ventrals and subcaudals strongly keeled and turned up 
on side; anal single. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dark black-brown with a median 
cream-colored stripe covering median scale rows and the edges 
of the two adjoining rows; a second stripe on fourth row of 
scales; below this a black-brown stripe covering third and part 
of second scale rows ; outer scale row cream ; below immaculate, 
the lateral edges of ventrals with brown dots except on anterior 
part of body; head dark with lighter markings of cream on 
posterior part of head ; upper labials yellowish. 

Measurements of Dryricalamiis philippinus Griffin. 

mm. 

Total \ength 375 

Snout to vent 287 
Tail 88 

Len^h of head 15 

Width of head 6.8 

Variation. — The type is a small immature specimen in the 
Bureau of Science collection and was collected by W. Schultze 
in Iwahig, Palawan. A second specimen in the Bureau of 
Science collection is also from Palawan. This specimen has 
largely lost its color in alcohol; the head has much more light 
marking than the described specimen, and agrees with that of 
the type. 

Table 23. — Measuretnents avd scale counts of Dryocalanvas philippinus 

Griffin. 



No. 



419 

420 
240 



Sex or 
age. 



Locality. 



Lenpfth. 



Iwahig. Palawan 

do 

Balabac .. 



Tail. 



L. E. Griffin. 
W. Schultze - 
C. M. Weber- 



m. mm. 

486 I 116 



241 
375 



67 
88 



Ven- 
trals, 



216 
216 



419 

420 
240 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


Labials. 




. 


1 
Uriper. Lower. 


Enter 
eye. 


Touch 

chin 

shields. 


Preocu- 
lars. 


Post- 
oculars. 


96 


7 7-8 


3.4 


4 


1 


3 


a9 


7 ' 7 


3.4 


4 


1 


9-^ 


87 


7 7 


3,4 


4 





■'\ 



Bureau of Science. 

Do. 
E, H. Taylor. 



134 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The known range of the ventrals is 216 to 225; of the sub- 
eaudals, 87 to 99. The specimen from Balabac has no preocular 
(being fused with the supraocular) , but a preocular is present in 
both the type and the second Palavv'an specimen. The type has 
only 2 postoculars on the left side and 3 on the right. Three is 
the normal number of postoculars. 

Remarks. — This species, as has been remarked by Griffin, 
is related to Dryocalatnus tristrigatus Giinther, and strongly 
resembles it in color and markings. The apical pits in the 
scales are absent in this species ; the postoculars are three instead 
of two; and a preocular is normally present. Griffin remarks 
as follows on the dentition in the type : 

Maxillary teeth 8; the last two considerably larger than the others, 
compressed toward their points, and separated from the first six by a 
short space. The anterior mandibular teeth are slightly longer than the 
posterior. There is one distinct tooth-like knob on the basisphenoid. 

The species is known only from Palawan and Balabac. It 
is not poisonous. 

Genus ZAOCYS Cope 

Coryphodon, part., Gunther Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 107; 

.Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 63. 
Zaocys Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1S60) 563; GtJN- 

THEE, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 255; Boettgee, Ber. Senck. Nat. 

Ges. (1886) 108; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 

329; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 374; Casto de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 428. 
Herpetodriias, part., Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 80. 
Zapyrus Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 256. 

"Maxillary teeth 20 to 33, increasing in size posteriorly; 
mandibular teeth subequal. Head elongate, distinct from neck; 
eye large, with round pupil ; a subocular beneath the prteocular. 
Body elongate, a little compressed ; scales smooth or keeled, 
with apical pits, in 14, 16, or 18 rows; ventrals rounded. Tail 
long; subcaudals in two rows." (Boideiigcr.) 

Two species occur in the Philippines. 

Keij to the Philippine ttpeciea of Zaocys Cope. 

a\ Scales smooth, in 14 rows.. Z. luzonensis Gunther (p. 135K 

(I-. Scales keeled on 2 or 4 middle rows ; scales in 16 to 18 rows. 

Z. carinatus Giinther (p. 130). 

Zaocys luzonensi.'i Giinther is known only from the type and 
two other specimens; Z. carhtatiis is found in the Philippines 
only in Palawan and appears to be confined to that island, 
where it is not rare. 



ZAOCYS 135 

Casto de Elera includes Conjphodon fuscus? {= Zaocys fus- 
cus) from Borongan, Samar; also under the same genus, Conj- 
phodon, he lists C. mucosus {=Ptyas mucosas) Linnaeus from 
Bataan, Luzon, C. Korros (= Ptyas korras) Reinwardt from 
Manila, and C. hexanotus {= Xenelaphis hexagonotus) Cantor 
from the Calamianes. It is highly probable that these records 
are erroneous. 

ZAOCYS LUZONENSIS GUnther 

Plate 12, figs. 1 and 3; Plate 13, figs. 1 and 2 

Zaocys hizonensis GtJNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1873) 169; 
BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 108; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 377, pi. 26, fig. 2; Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. 
§ D 6 (1911) 259. 

Description of species. — "Rostral as deep as broad, visible 
from above ; internasals shorter than the prtef rentals ; frontal 
once and one third as long as broad, as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal 
at least twice as long as deep ; one prssocular, with a subocular 
below it ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 ; eight upper labials, 
fourth and fifth entering the eye ; five lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are much shorter than the 
posterior. Scales smooth, in 14 rows. Ventrals 205 ; anal di- 
vided; subcaudals 119. Pale olive-brown above, the scales edged 
with black; lower parts yellow, turning to dark olive poste- 
riorly." (Boulenger.) 

Measurements of Zaocys hizonensis Giinther. 

mm. 

Total length 2,500 

Snout to vent 1,850 

Tail 650 

Remarks. — The type in the British Museum is a male from 
Luzon, collected by A. B. Meyer ; the exact locality is no longer 
known. A specimen from Leyte is reported by Boettger.* 

The species is represented in the Bureau of Science collection 
by the head of a specimen (Plate 13, figs. 1, 2) captured at 
Sarai, Paete, Laguna Province, Luzon, by R. C. McGregor. 
According to field notes the specimen measured 2.24 meters. 
The following are the characters of the head scales : Rostral 
narrowly visible above, one-fifth wider than high ; internasals 
broader than long ; prefrontals very much broader than deep ; 
frontal little longer than its distance from rostral, one-fourth 
longer than wide, a little shorter than parietal, as long as but 



Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1890) Ixlii. 



136 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

much wider than supraocular; parietals longer than wide, the 
part bending down behind eye ending in a sharp point, touching 
only anterior postocular; posterior nasal higher than interior 
but less broad ; loreal rectangular, twice as long as high ; 2 pre- 
oculars, superior widely separated from frontal, scarcely visible 
above, five or six times as large as the inferior; 2 postoculars, su- 
perior largest; 2 elongate anterior temporals placed diagonally, 
both touching inferior postocular ; 2 posterior temporals ; 8 upper 
labials, fourth and fifth entering orbit (the 2 scales partially 
fused on the left side) ; 10 lower labials, 5 touching anterior pair 
of chin shields, which are less than two-thirds as long as poste- 
rior ; posterior chin shields in contact for half their length, 
touching 3 lower labials; scales with apical pits, in 16 rows 
around neck (at a point 2 centimeters behind parietals) ; eye 
large, its diameter equal to its distance from nostril ; a distinct 
depression across the head in the anterior parietal region. 

Measuremeuts of Zaocys luzonensis Giintlier. 



mm. 



Total length ' 2,240 

Length of head 47 

Width of head 28 

Depth of head at eye 16 

Length of snout from eye 13 

Diameter of eye 9 

■' From field notes of Mr. McGresor. 

ZAOCYS CARINATUS Gunther 

Plate 12, figs. 2 and 4 

Coryphodon carinatiis, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

(1858) 112. 
Zaocys carinatus GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 256; BoulengeR, 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1 (1893) 377, pi. 27, fig. 1; Griffin. Philip. 

Journ. Sei. § D 6 (1911) 259; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 115. 
Ptyas korros, part., Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. London ( 18S1 i 221. 

Description of species.— (From No. 1342, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, March, 1911, by C. H. 
Lamb.) Head elongate, distinct from neck; rostral about one 
and one-fifth as wide as deep, narrowly visible from abo\-e, its 
suture with nasals longer than sutures with internasals ; latter 
wider than long, a little more than one-third the size of pre- 
frontals and widely separated from loreal ; prefrontals about as 
long as wide, in contact laterally with both loreals ; frontal a 
little longer than wide, wider than supraoculars but shorter, 
its length equal to its distance fvon) rostral; parietals longer than 
wide, only a little longer than frontal; nostril between 2 nasals; 



f 



ZAOCYS 137 



2 loreals, the anterior largest and in contact with upper pre- 
ocular ; 2 preoculars, the upper very large, the lower very small ; 
2 postoculars ; 2 anterior temporals (the posterior temporals are 
fused with the lower anterior ; normally 2 + 2) ; 9 upper labials, 
fifth and sixth entering eye ; 9 lower labials, 5 touching anterior 
chin shields ; anterior chin shields shorter and narrower than 
posterior; scales with apical pits (those on body with 2, those 
on neck with 3 or more pits) ; scales in 16 rows on body, 20 
rows about neck, the 2 median dorsal rows strongly keeled, com- 
mencing back some distance on neck and continuing a short 
distance on tail ; on latter half of body the scale rows bordering 
the median rows are also keeled, and immediately above anus 
all the scale rows are strongly keeled ; ventrals, 207 ; anal di- 
vided; subcaudals, 108 (extreme tip of tail missing) ; eye large, 
equal to its distance from anterior part of nostril. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dark olive gray anteriorly, netted 
over with whitish yellow, the network formed by the yellow 
edges of the two vertical scale rows, and the yellowish skin 
between them (the yellow color scarcely observable, unless the 
skin is distended) forming alternating scale rows with black 
edges and black skin between them ; posteriorly the ground 
color becomes a lighter olive brown, and the yellowish network 
more pronounced and denser ; the black color on latter part of 
body forms irregularly edged longitudinal lines, three on each 
side ; that on the outer row of scales is most pronounced, its 
zigzag edges extending to ventrals ; ventral scales on anterior 
part of body yellowish ; posteriorly also yellowish, with dark 
spots or dim lines, a pronounced median zigzag line on ventral 
surface of tail ; tail, above with each scale heavily edged with 
black, and with a circular, light yellow, central area. 

MeasurementH of Zaocys carutatus Giinther. 



mm- 



Total length 2,340 

Snout to vent 1,782 

Tail 558 

Head length 51 

Head width 28 

Variation. — A second specimen in the Bureau of Science col- 
lection, also from Palawan, has only the 2 median scale rows 
keeled ; there are 3 loreals instead of 2, the 2 posterior being 
superimposed ; the temporals are normal. The recorded range 
of ventrals for extra-Philippine specimens* is 208 to 215 ; of 



Boulenger, loc. cit. 



138 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



subcaudals, 110 to 118; the range of ventrals is extended some- 
what by the scale count of the described specimen. The scale 
rows, 16 or 18 on middle of body. 

Remarks. — This species has only recently been found in Pa- 
lawan and was first reported by Griffin. This is the only Phil- 
ippine island where it has been found and there it is said to be 
common. It grows to a length of more than 3 meters. Superfi- 
cially it resembles Naja hannah Cantor in both size and mark- 
ings. It is harmless. It is also known from Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula. 

Table 24. — Measurements and scale counts of Zaocys carinatus Gmither. 



No. Sex. 



Leng-th.' Tail. 



1342 
1340 ! 



IwahiK, Palawan : C. H. Lamb . 

do .-- I do 



mm. 
2340 



mm. 

658 



No. 


Ven- 
trals. 

207 
204 


Sub- 


Labials. 


Scale rows. 


Collection. 


dais. 


Upper. 


Lower. 


Neck. 


Body. 


1342 
1340 


108 
114 


9 
9 


9 
9 


20 
20 


16 
16 


Bureau of Science. 
Do. 



Genus HOLARCHUS - Cope 

Coronella, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 50. 

Xenodon, part., SCHLEGB2., Serp. 2 (1837) 80. 

Simotcs, part., Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 472; 

Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 624; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 23. 
Simotcs Jan, Arch. Zoo!. Anat. Phys. 2 (18H3) 232; Gunther, Kept. 

Brit. India (1864) 212; Boettger, Her. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 

107; BOULENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 309; Cat. Snakes 

Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 214; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 

1 (1895) 427. 
HoUtrchKs Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 23 (1886) 488; Stejneger, 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 353; Griffin, Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 5 D 6 (1911) 259; Taylor, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 

359. 
Dicraula.v Cope, Am. Nat. (1893) 480. 



* Stejneger says: "The generic name Simotes, by which the snakes of 
this genus have long been designated is preoccupied by Simotes of Fischer 
for a group of mammals as early as 1817. It has consequently to be re- 
placed. Cope proposed Hohircliiis, in 1887, as a term for those species of 
the genus which have an undivided anal. It is not believed that this char- 
acter alone, which moi-eover is not always constant, is sufficient ground for 
a division of the g-enus, and as Hohur-lnis is the name next in date after 
Simotcs it must stand for the combined genus." 



w 



HOLAECHUS 139 

"Maxillary teeth 8 to 12, posterior very strongly enlarged and 
compressed ; mandibular teeth subequal. Head short, not dis- 
tinct from neck; eye rather small, with round pupil; rostral 
large. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth or feebly keeled, in 13 
to 21 rows, with or without apical pits ; ventrals rounded or 
obtusely keeled laterally. Tail short or moderate ; subcaudals in 
two rows." (Boulenger.) 

The species of this genus are distributed through southern 
Asia, China, .Japan, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, .Java, Borneo, 
and the Philippines. Four species enter our territory. 

Much confusion has resulted from a study of Philippine speci- 
mens, particularly Holarchus ancorus, which appears to have 
been described from an anomalous specimen. 

Key to the Philippine species of Holarchus Cope. 

a\ Anal entire. 

b\ Third and fourth labials entering eye. 

c'. Loreal as long as deep; brown with a pink medial longitudinal 
line, and an indistinct lateral line; a row of dim black spots 
on second scale row; below bright rose. 

H. meyerinkii (Steindachner) (p. 1-39). 
c". Loreal longer than deep; pale brownish to lavender with 19 trans- 
verse dark spots; below yellow to bright pink. 

H. ancorus (Girard) (p. 140). 

h'-. Fourth labial entering eye; loreal absent; pale lavender with 22 or 

2.3 dark blackish brown dorsal blotches; yellowish below with black 

spots on ventrals -- H. macnlatus Taylor (p. 143). 

a'. Anal divided; fourth labial entering eye; loreal present, little longer 
than wide; dark purplish brown with a dull salmon streak dorsally; 
22 narrow transverse dark blotches- H. burksi Taylor (p. 14.5). 

HOLARCHUS MEYERINKII (Steindachner) 
Plate 14; Plate 17, figs. 6 and 7 
Simotes meyerinkii Steindachner, Sitzb. Ak. Wien (1891) 294. 
HolarchMs meyerlinkii, Taylor, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 360. 
Siw.otes octolineat'iis Boulenger var. c, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 
(1894) 224. 
Description of species. — (From No. 188, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Papahag, Sulu Archipelago, October 14, 
1917, by E. H. Taylor.) Rostral broader than deep, the portion 
seen from above a little more than half its distance from frontal ; 
internasals much smaller than prefrontals, the suture between 
them little less than that between prefrontals; latter broader 
than long, touching only posterior part of nasal; frontal much 
longer than wide, longer than its distance from end of snout, 
longer and wider than supraocular and longer than parietals; 
latter longer than broad, bordered by 2 temporals, and touching 



140 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

1 postocular; nasal partially divided, longer than deep; a small 
square loreal; preocular twice as long as wide; 2 postoculars, 
upper nearly twice as large as lower ; temporals 2 + 2, only 
first upper touching postoculars; 6 upper labials, third and 
fourth entering eye, fifth and sixth rather narrowly in contact ; 
mental small; 7 lower labials (6 on right side), first 4 border- 
ing first pair of chin shields (3 on right side) ; second pair of 
chin shields about half as large as first pair ; scales in 17 rows ; 
162 ventrals, rather angulate; subcaudals, 43; eye moderate, 
its diameter equal to its distance from anterior part of nostril. 
Color in life. — Above reddish brown, with a median, salmon- 
pink, longitudinal stripe covering one whole scale row, and two 
half scale rows ; each scale of median row with a darker center ; 
laterally a dim, grayish, longitudinal stripe ; on second outer 
row of scales a series of dark dots ; a series of dim dark spots 
on outer edge of ventrals ; head darker brown, with elongate 
black spots on frontal and on inner part of parietals ; a black 
stripe runs diagonally from neck to parietal ; a dark spot below 
eye; belly bright, immaculate, rosy pink. 

Measttrements of HolnrchuH meyerinkii (Steiiidachner) . 

mm. 

Total length 305 

Snout to vent 257 

Tail 48 

Length of head 13 

Width of head 9 

Remarks. — This species appears to be confined to the Sulu 
Archipelago ; the only definite records are Tawitawi and Bongao 
Islands. These two records seem to be the only ones other than 
the types which are labeled Sulu Islands with no definite local- 
ities named. This species is separated from Holarchus octn- 
lineatus * on the basis of its distinctive coloration and the 
much smaller number of ventral and subcaudal scales. 

HOLARCHUS ANCORUS (Girard) 
Plate 17, figs. 1 anh 2; Plate is, fig. 3 

Xcnodoii ancorus Girard, Proc. .\cad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (IS.iT) 

182; U. S. Expl. Exped., Herp. (1S,^8) K!?. 
Simoten purpiirascetis GUNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858^ 25; Peters, 

Mon. Berl. .Ak. (1861) ()84. 



* Barbour, Mem. Mus. ('i>mp. Znol. Ilarv. 44 (1912) lis, states: ■'//. Mciur- 
liiikii (Steind.) was doubtless evolved by isolation fiH.m specimens of this 
species [H. (irtnliiicn I ii<:] pi'obaldy derived from Borneo. 



HOLARCHUS 141 

Simotes phxvochalinus CoPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 

(1860) 244; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 225; 

BoETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 107; Fischer, -Jahrb. 

wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (188.5) 80; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 

Filipinas 1 (189.5) 427. 
Simotes ajjhanospilus CoPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 

245; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 107. 
Simotes ancoralis Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1863) 2.3.3; Icon. 

Gen. 11 (1865) pi. 4, fig. 2; Steindachnee, Novara, Rept. (1867) 

61; MtJLLER, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 14. 
Holarcltus phienochaUtms Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 

259. 
Holarckus avcorufi Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 361. 

Description of species. — (From No. R 429, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection; collected in Manila, June 15, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) 
(Adult male.) Rostral large, much higher than wide; portion 
of rostral seen above nearly equal to its distance from frontal, 
sharply pointed behind ; internasals , small, wider than deep, 
their mutual suture shortest ; their longest suture with pre- 
frontal ; latter nearly twice as wide as deep, the suture between 
them somewhat longer than that between internasals; frontal 
much wider in front than behind, longer than its distance from 
end of snout, little longer than wide, twice the width of supra- 
ocular; parietals scarcely longer than wide, equal to or a little 
longer than frontal ; nasal partially divided, the anterior part 
largest ; loreal longer than wide ; 1 preocular ; 2 postoculars ; 
supraocular twice as long as wide ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 7 upper 
labials, third and fourth entering eye ; 7 or 8 lower labials, first 
4 in contact with first pair of chin shields; mental small, wider 
than deep, not in contact with anterior chin shields, which are 
one and a half times the length of posterior; scales in 17 smooth 
rows with no apical pits; eye large, equal to its distance from 
nostril; ventrals, 163; anal single; subcaudals, 42; eye less than 
its distance from nostril. 

Color in life. — Brownish lavender above with a series of 
eighteen large, dark, purplish spots edged with black, each 
extending across back to first or second row of scales ; below 
immaculate cream yellow; subcaudals with dull browm spots; 
a large anchor-shaped, black-edged spot on nape of neck and 
another on head, the front of which forms a band that crosses 
head and eyes diagonally and includes fifth and sixth labials; 
the main branch of anchor, which runs back medially, increases 
in width toward neck where it bifurcates, sending a branch to 
each side of neck ; a diagonal temporal streak present ; traces of 
a yellowish vertebral streak visible. 



▼ 



142 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Measurements of Holurchus aiicorus (Gimrd) . 

mm. 

651 

Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tan II 

Width of head tZ 

Length of head 

Farmtton.— There seems to be much variation in this species, 
as the attached table shows. The only definite localities given 
are on Luzon, and it is highly probable that specimens without 
locality marks are also from that island. The ventrals vary 
between 149 and 165, the subcaudals, between 34 and 43. The 
temporals vary equally between 1 + 2 and 2 + 2. One speci- 
men (No. 1554, Bureau of Science collection) has only a single 
labial (the third) entering the eye; however, there is an obvious 
fusion of the third and fourth labials. In No. 700, Bureau of 
Science collection, the anchor-shaped marking is disconnected 
on the frontal, thus following the marking in H. bitrksi. In 
all the specimens save the one described there are indications of 
narrow bands between the larger dark bands ; they are usually 
represented by a few irregular dots across the body or merely 
by lateral dots. No variations are noted in the number of pre- 
oculars, postoculars, anals, or loreals. 

Table 25. — Measurements and scale counts of HolarcJiu^ ancorus (Girard) . 





Sex or 




ag:e. 


613 


ye 


700 


ys 


762 


cf 


820 


? 


910 


fS 


429 


. 



Locality. 



Leng-th. Tail 



Manila 

Benguet..-. 
Unknown . 
Zambales .. 

Bataan 

Unknown . 
Manila 



mm. 


mm. 


220 1 


26 


280 


45 


545 


86 


475 . 


65 


515 


85 


49S 


87 


551 


92 



Ven- 
trals. 



160 

164 

165 

163 

163 ! 

149 

163 



Sub- 
eau- 
dalB. 



43 
40 
37 
42 
43 
42 



613 
700 
762 
820 



1664 
429 



Upper 
labials. 


Lower ] 
labials.] 


7 


8 ' 


7 


8 ' 


7 


' 


7-8 


1 


i ' 


^1 


6 


7 i 


7 


si 

1 



Labials entering: eye. 



Scale 
rows. 



3.4 


17 


3.4 


1 17 


3.4 


' 17 


3.4 -- . 


1 17 


4,5 ! 


R 4 


17 


3 


17 


3.4 


17 



Tem- i 
porals. 



n 2 

2 + 2 
2+2 
2 + 2 
1+2 
2 + 2 
IJ 2 
1 1 2 



Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
v.. H. Taylor. 



f 



HOLARCHUS ]43 

i^emar/cs.— Boulenger * has placed Xenodon ancorus Girard as 
a questioned synonym of this species. The differences are ob- 
vious. In X. ancorus there are two preoculars (the Ipwer one 
very small) and there are eight upper labials, the fourth and 
fifth entering the eye. It is highly probable that this is merely 
a variation from the normal, as it otherwise agrees with the 
normal form. In one of the specimens (No. 910, Bureau of 
Science collection) we have the increased number of labials on 
one side, and the fourth and fifth labials entering the eye. 

It is probably confined to the Philippines. The reference of 
specimens to Java is probably erroneous. The species is small, 
and absolutely harmless. It appears very gentle when handled. 
This species is not rare in Luzon. 

HOLARCHUS MACULATUS Taylor 

Plate 15 

Holarchus macidaUts Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 364, 
pi. 1. 

Description of species. — (From the type, No. 40, E. H. Taylor 
collection; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, August, 1912, by E. H. 
Taylor.) Rostral moderate, higher than wide; portion visible 
above less than half its distance from rostral ; suture between 
internasals as large as or larger than prefrontal suture; pre- 
frontals much larger than internasals, in contact laterally with 
2 labials ; frontal hexagonal in shape, its length equal to parietals, 
a little longer than its distance from end of snout ; parietals small, 
as wide as long ; nasal not or at least only partially divided ; 
nostril pierced near posterior margin; no loreal present; 2 small 
preoculars, upper twice as large as lower ; supraocular not twice 
as long as wide ; 2 postoculars ; temporals 1 -f 2 (on left side 
1 + 1) ; 7 upper labials, only fourth entering eye; labials in the 
following order of size : sixth, fourth, fifth, seventh, third, second, 
first ; mental small, twice as wide as deep ; 7 lower labials, 3 
touching first pair of chin shields, which are larger than second 
pair; eye equal to its distance from nostril or minutely less; 
scale's smooth, in 17 rows; ventrals, 164; anal single; subcaudals 
double, .54 in number. 

Color 171 life. — Above pale lavender, with a series of twenty- 
three broad blackish brown dorsal spots extending laterally to 
ventrals ; dorsally the spots are seven or eight scales wide, but 
narrowed laterally to a width of one or two scales ; the spots are 
edged with narrow whitish lines ; the nuchal band runs forward 



Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 226. 



144 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



and stops with a blunt point on fi'ontal scale; a narrow band 
crosses head anteriorly and includes eyes; a dark blotch on 
temporals, which is connected with this band; small spots on 
nasals ; chin yellow ; on edges of half of the ventrals are small 
spots, which involve one or two of the body scales ; on each alter- 
nate ventral are two larger rectangular spots ; throat variously 
spotted with dark; ventral surface yellow; below tail yellowish 
with very few spots or none. 

Measurements of Holarchus maculatus Taylor. 



Total len^h 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 



mm. 
299 
240 

59 

14 

10.5 



Variation. — A second specimen taken at the same locality (No. 
41, E. H. Taylor collection) is very different in the scalation of 
the head, but it seems to be an abnormal specimen. A small 
loreal is present on the right side of the head, and the two pre- 
oculars are fused into one, on the left side. The first lower 
labial on both sides is broken in two, making it appear that there 
is a pair of minute chin shields behind the mental. The tem- 
poral elements on the right side are not normal, the parietal is 
broken, and there are two anterior temporals. In coloration and 
marking it is practically identical with the type. Both this and 
the type specimen are from Bunawan, Agusan. I collected them 
from under piles of sod and trash. 

This form is obviously different from other Philippine species. 
The markings are distinctive. The loreal is absent, and only a 
single labial enters the eye; two preoculars are present. These 
characters, together with many minor differences, separate it 
from H. meyerinkii and H. aiicoriis. From H. biirlc.^i it is separ- 
ated by markings and coloration and the above-mentioned char- 
acters, save that of the single labial entering the eye, on which 
the two forms agree. 

Table 26. — i^lcasiiremciils and scale counts of Holardnis ntacalatus Taytor. 



No. 



Locality. 



41) Bunawan, Apusan. 
■11 I do 









ce- 




« 














1 m 


rt 


« rt 


CO 






6 


f£ 




j:: 








p 








o 










rt 
P 














c 


*5 


c 
> 


a:5, o^ 




B^ 
S^ 
iu 


o 




01 

03 
o 


li 

S 

V 


/// iti 


mm 


















29i) 


59 


Hi4 


54 


7 7 


- 


2 


1 

1 


17 


12-1 31 
lH-31 


258 


50 


162 


54 


7 7 


2-1 


o 


1-0 


1 


17 


12-3\ 
lH-31 



Collection. 



E. H. Taylor. 
Do. 



HOLARCHUS 145 

HOLARCHUS BURKSI Taylor 
Plate 16 - 
Holarchus bnrksi Tayloe, Philip. Jouni. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 365, pi. 2. 

Description of type. — (No. 200, E. H. Taylor collection; col- 
lected at Sumagui, Mindoro, December, 1916, by Clark Burks.) 
Head rather distinct from neck ; rostral high, bending back over 
snout, pointed behind ; internasals narrowed on inner side, much 
wider than long, the suture between them much less than pre- 
frontal suture ; prefrontals somewhat rectangular, almost twice 
as wide as long; frontal shield-shaped, much longer than its 
distance from end of snout, equal to parietal in length, not twice 
as broad as supraocular but of nearly equal length ; parietals as 
broad as long, bordered by 2 temporals; nasal undivided, the 
anterior portion much the higher ; loreal large, longer than wide ; 
a single elongate preocular, widely separated from frontal; 2 
subequal postoculars ; temporals 1 -|- 2 ; 7 upper labials, fourth 
alone entering eye ; upper margin of labial series very much 
broken ; 7 lower labials, 4 touching the large chin shields ; second 
pair of chin shields about half the size of first pair; scales in 17 
rows, smooth ; the smallest scales are the dorsal, of angular 
shape; laterally, the scales are larger and rounding; ventrals, 
154; anal divided; subcaudals, 32. 

Color in life. — Above grayish brown, becoming more gray later- 
ally, with a median, dorsal salmon-pink streak going the length 
of body; body traversed by twenty saddlelike blotches which 
widen medially to the width of three scales and narrow greatly 
laterally, usually to the width of one scale ; the blotches are black, 
inclosing a gray spot dorsally, the entire blotch edged with a 
narrow grayish white line, less apparent medially; between each 
two blotches laterally there is a series of two or three small, elon- 
gate, white-edged, dark spots, each smaller than a scale; neck 
with a forked blotch, each leg of which begins laterally at the 
seventh ventral and extends upward and forward where the two 
meet medially, some distance behind parietals, and run forward 
much narrowed to the middle of frontal ; a dark broad line below 
eye, which is more or less continuous with a band crossing snout 
on or about the anterior level of eyes ; a diagonal line beginning 
on second ventral runs up to parietals ; a spot below nostril and 
another on sixth labial ; two or three spots on lower labials ; four 
ventrals on neck with spots; ventrally, an immaculate, brilliant, 
rosy pink, almost red toward end of body. 

16146.5 10 



146 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Meastirements of Holarchus burksi Taylor. 

mm. 

Total length 381 

Snout to vent 334 

Tail ■ 47 

Width of head 11 ' 

Length of head 13 

Remarks. — In markings this species much resembles the Phil- 
ippine Holarchus ancorus, but is well differentiated by having the 
single labial entering the eye, the undivided nasal, and the divided 
anal. Tt agrees with H. ivoodmasont and H. viaculatus in having 
a single labial entering the eye ; the differences from the latter 
are pointed out under the discussion of that species ; from the 
former it differs by a very much reduced number of subcaudals 
and ventrals and the undivided anal ; the coloration also is totally 
different. Its clo'sest affinity seems to be with H. beddomii, which 
also has an undivided nasal and a divided anal. This species 
differs in having the fourth and fifth labials entering the eye. 
The markings and coloration are also quite different. The 
species is named for Mr. Clark Burks, who collected the unique 
specimen and presented it to me. 

Genus OLIGODON Boie 

Oligodon BoiE, Isis (1827) 519; Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 191; 
DUMERIL and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 54; Gunthee, Cat. Col. 
Snakes (1858) 20; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 205; Jan, Arch. Zool. 
Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 36; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 
106; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 317; Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 233; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filip:. a^ 1 
(1895) 426. 

Calaynaria, part., ScHLEGel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 25. 

Homalosoma, part., Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 33. 

Rhynchocalavius Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1864) 401. 

Tripeltis CoPE, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 23 (1886) 487. 

Maxillary teeth, 6 to 8 ; the posterior somewhat enlarged and 
compressed; no pterygoid teeth, the palate being without teeth 
or with 2 or 3 on each palatine ; head short and not or but slightly 
distinct from neck; eye small, pupil round;, body cylindrical; 
scales in 15 or 17 rows; anal single or double; nasal single or 
double. 

This genus is closely related to Holarchus. there being no sharp 
dividing line between them. 

Oligodon is a genus with a large number of species distributed 
from northeastern Africa, through southern Asia, and the Malay 
Archipelago. Four species have been described from the Phil- 
ippines. 



OLIGODON ]^47 

A'ej/ to the Philipinne species of Oligodon Bote* 

a'. Scales in 15 rows; anal entire. 
6\ One postocular. 

c\ No loreal; dark brown with a yellowish vertebral streak; below 
yellowish with large, rectangular, black spots; chevron-shaped 
bands on head. Southern Negros.... 0, modestus Gunther (p. 147). 
c'. A small loreal; dark purplish brown above with yellow dots and 
a series of 18 large, rhomboidal, brownish yellow, black-edged 
spots; yellowish below. Mindanao and Balabac. 

0. notospilus Gunther (p. 148). 

6'. Two postoculars; loreal present; dark purplish brown above with 11 

small, dark red, dark-edged rhomboidal spots along back; ventral 

surface rose red. Palawan- 0. iwahigensis Griffin (p. 149). 

0.'. Scales in 15 rows; anal divided; dark gray above, with a series of 
small white spots with black edges on back; orange beneath. 
Busuanga _ 0. schadenbergi Boettger (p. 151). 

All of these species are small and appear to be very rare, as 
only one or two specimens of each have been collected. 

OLIGODON MODESTUS Gunther 
Plate 1.3, figs. 3 to 5 

OUgodon modestus Gunthee, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 210; Proc, 
Zool. Soc. London (1879) 77; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges 
(1886) 106; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 2y8, pi 
10, fig. 3; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 426 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 260; Taylor, Philip 
Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 359. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Nasal divided; 
portion of rostral seen from above as long- as its distance from 
the frontal; suture between the internasals a little shorter than 
that between the prfef rentals ; frontal longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals; no loreal; 
one prse- and one postocular ; temporals 1 + 2 or 1 + 3 ; six upper 
labials, third largest and entering the eye; three or four lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer 
than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 158-170; anal 
entire; subcaudals 41. Dark brown above, with a yellowish 
vertebral streak; a yellowish chevron-shaped band on the occi- 
put; lower parts yellowish, with quadrangular black spots." 



Measurements of OUgodon modestus Gunther. 



mm. 



Total length 350 

Snout to vent 295 

Tail 55 



* Casto de Elera lists O. suhlineatus Gunther as occurring in Samar. 
This is probably erroneous. 



148 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Remarks. — The type, collected by H. Cuming, is reported from 
"Philippine Islands;" the exact locality is no longer known. A 
specimen is recorded from southern Negros, taken by 'A. Everett. 
Both these specimens are males. I failed to find this species in 
my collecting in central and northern Negros ; if it occurs there, 
it is probably very rare. 

OLIGODON NOTOSPILUS Gunther 

Plate 7, fig. 2; Plate 17, figs. 3 to 5; Plate 18, fig. 1 

OUgodon notospihis Gunther, Proc. ZooL Soc. London (1873) 169, 
pL 18, fig. A; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106; Boulen- 
GER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus^ 2 (1894) 239;, Casto DE Elera, Cat. 
Fauna Filipinas 1 (189.5) 426; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 
6 (1911) 260. 

Description of species. — (From No. 242, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Balabac, 1916, by C. M. Weber.) (Adult 
female.) Head not or but slightly distinct from neck, with 
snout moderately blunt; rostral high, bent over snout, portion 
visible above shorter than its distance from frontal; inter- 
nasals four-sided, narrowed medially, the sutures with pre- 
frontals and nasals largest, the suture with the latter slightly 
smaller than that with the former but much larger than the 
sutures with rostral ; prefrontals about twice as large as inter- 
nasals, extending laterallj^ to below level of middle of eye ; suture 
between prefrontals little larger than that between internasals; 
sutures formed with frontal and internasals largest, subequal; 
frontal distinctly longer than its distance from end of snout, 
a little longer than wide, two to two and a half times as wide as 
supraocular, but little .shorter than parietals ; latter about as 
broad as long, narrowly separated from fifth labial, bordered 
by 2 temporals and a postparietal scale larger than body scales; 
nasal apparently divided; loreal small, distinctly longer than 
wide ; a single preocular larger than loreal ; supraocular elongate, 
about twice as long as wide, more than half the length of 
frontal ; rather large postocular ; temporals 1 + 2, set diagon- 
ally; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering eye; 8 lower 
labials, 4 touching first pair of chin shields, which are larger 
than second pair; scales in 15 rows; ventrals, 139; anal single; 
subcaudals, 35. 

Color in alcohol.—BaYk purplish brown above with numerous 
yellow spots, suggesting a reticulated pattern, and a series of 
eighteen median, rhomboidal, yellowish brown spots with 
blackish edges; head yellowish brown with two chevron-shaped 
dark bands, the anterior including the eyes; the second band 



OLIGODON 149 

rises from fourth ventral, passes across angle of jaw, and ends 
in a point on frontal; behind this is a similar chevron-shaped 
band of yellowish brown reaching frontal; a few irregular 
blotches on labials and throat ; belly yellowish. 

Measurements of Oligodon notospihis Gunther. 

mm. 

Total length 34,5 

Snout to vent 292 

Tail ■ 5.3 

Width of head 10 

Length of head 13 

Remarks. — This species has been known only from the type 
since its discovery about 1870 in Mindanao. The specimen here 
described agrees remarkably well with the type description. 
In coloration and markings it is identical with the description 
and the plate. The variation in the ventral count is only four; 
the subcaudal count is identical. In the specimen at hand the 
subcaudals are all divided, and there are four instead of three 
lower labials touching the first pair of chin shields. 

OLIGODON IWAHIGENSIS Griffin 

Plate 18, fig. 2 

Oligodon iwahigensis Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 598; 
§ D 6 (1911) 260. 

Description of species. — (From the type specimen, No. R 1(5, 
Bureau of Science collection ; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, by 
W. Schultze.) Maxillary teeth 6, 2 teeth on each palatine; 
head not or scarcely distinct from neck, much narrowed on 
snout ; rostral about as high a's wide, well visible from above,, 
pointed behind ; sutures with anterior nasal largest, the portion 
of rostral seen from above shorter than its distance from 
snout; internasals about half as large as prefrontals, their 
shortest sides joining, the suture between them equal or nearly 
equal to that between prefrontals; latter wider than deep, the 
suture with frontal largest, that with loreal smallest; frontal 
but little longer than wide, almost a regular hexagon, more 
than twice as wide as supraoculars and longer, its length 
greater than its distance from end of snout; parietals longer 
than frontal, in contact with 1 postocular, much narrowed 
behind; nostril between 2 nasals, the anterior largest, both 
touching first labial ; loreal small, little more than half the size 
of preocular; 1 preocular, higher than wide; 2 postoculars, the 

upper largest; temporals 1 -h > the anterior in contact with 

Li 

the 2 postoculars ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering 



150 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

eye, sixth largest, first smallest; 7 lower labials, first 4 in 
contact with anterior chin shields, which are much larger than 
second pair; mental wider than deep, separated from first pair 
of chin shields; scales smooth, rounded, in 15 rows; no apical 
pits evident; 139 ventrals; subcaudals, 36; anal entire; tail 
ending in a sharp point, slender. 

Color. — Dark puiplish brown above with eleven small, light 
brown, rhomboidal spots along back; lateral scales finely 
flecked with white dots; occasional, larger white spots present; 
upper surface of head gray-brown, with a chevron-shaped, brown 
band passing through eyes, rather dim between eyes ; a second 
chevron-shaped, dark-brown band on neck, its point nearly con- 
fluent with middle of first band ; behind this a similar stripe of 
lighter brov«i, wider on side than medially; a dark spot on 
sixth upper labial and another on fourth and fifth lower labials ; 
two distinct spots on anterior chin shields ; chin with various 
small spots; throat with a large blotch confluent with the 
chevron-shaped neck band ; remainder of ventral surface uniform 
coral red (cream color in alcohol). The body coloration extends 
slightly on the ventral scales. 



Measzirements of Oligodon huahigensh G^'iffin. 



mm. 



Total length 324 

Snout to vent 267 

Tail ,57 

Width of head 8.5 

Length of head 12.5 

Variation. — No variation in scalation is observable save that 
in No. R 923 the anal is divided. Both specimens have a small 
scale inserted between the last ventral and the anal. The 
coloration and marking are the same. 

Remarks. — I am not yet fully convinced as to the distinctness 
of this species from 0. schadcnhergi. The latter species is de- 
scribed as follows : "Anal divided — dark gray above with white 
black-edged spots, — orange below," whereas the present species 
has the anal entire and is purplish brown above with small, 
red, black-edged spots, and rose below. However the color of 
the type of 0. iivahigensis easily fits the color scheme of 0. 
schadenbergi since it has been preserved in alcohol. The anal 
character would separate them, were it constant; but the fact 
that, of the two specimens of 0. iwahigcnsis examined, one has 
the anal single and the other double, leads me to suspect that 
the two forms may be the same, and that one or the other 



OLIGODON 



151 



of the types is anomalous with respect to that character. This 
question will not be satisfactorily settled until the types, or a 
series of specimens from both type localities, can be compared. 
From 0. notospilus it differs in coloration and markings, the 
former having eighteen instead of eleven spots. 

Table 27. — Measurements and scale counts of Oligodon iwahigensis 

Griffin. 




Locality. 



Iwahitj, Palawan^ 
do 



Collector. 



W. Schultze - 
C. H. Lamb .- 



Length. Tail, 



324 
330 



mm. 

57 
60 



R 16, type 
R 923. type 



Ven- 
trals. 


Subcau- 
dals. 


AnalB. 

1 
2 


Scale 
rows, 

15 
15 


Poatoc- 
ulars. 

2 


139 
142 


36 

30 



Bureau of Science. 
Do, 



OLIGODON SCHADENBERGI Boettger 

Oligodon schadenbergi Boettger, Abh. Mus, Dresden 7 (1894-95) 4; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 260. 

Description of .species. — (After the type description.) From 
Oligodon vertebralis Giinther, of South Borneo, it is distin- 
guished by a shorter, blunter head ; by a frontal two and a half 
to three times as wide as the supraocular ; by a smaller loreal ; 
and by the internasal suture which is distinctly shorter than the 
prefrontal suture; the ventral counts are smaller (145-147 
as against 154) and the subcaudals are fewer (39 as against 
54). Head short, snout blunt; nasal large, divided; part of 
rostral visible above about as long as prefrontal suture; in- 
ternasal suture considerably shorter than prefrontal suture ; 
frontal somewhat longer than its distance from end of snout, 
somewhat shorter than parietals, broadly hexangular, at least 
two and a half times wider than supraocular ; a small trape- 
zoidal loreal; 1 preocular, and 2 postoculai^s ; 7 upper labials, 
third and fourth entering eye; 4 lower labials touching first 
chin shields, which are almost twice the length of second; 
scales in 15 rows; ventrals, 145 to 147; anal divided; subcau- 
dals, 38 or 39. 

Color. — Above dark gray strongly contrasted with the orange- 
colored underside; marked as Oligodon bitorquatus Boie, with 
very small, black-edged spots in a netlike pattern ; head yellowish 
brown with two broad crossbands (as in 0. vertebralis Giinther) ; 



152 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

a spot under nostril; edges of lower jaw and throat with larger 
blotches of darker; under tail brick red ; sonaetimes with a 
median series of larger, white, black-edged dots. 

Remm-ks.^The types consist of two adults and a half -gi own 
specimen from Busuanga. I failed to obtain specimens of this 
rare snake during my recent visit to Busuanga. Only the types 

are known. 

Genus GONYOSOMA Wagler 

Gonyoso'nm Waglek, Icon. Amph. (1S2S) Nat. Syst. Amph.(1830) 
184- DUMERIL and BiBEON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 213; Gunther, 
Cat. Col. Snakes (18.58) 122; Kept. Brit. India (1864) 293; Boett- 
GER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 110; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 
Filipinas 1 (1895) 432. -d -^ t r 

CMer, part., BoiE, Isis (1827) 537; Boulenger, Fauna Brit India, 
Kept. (1890) 330; Sclater, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 60 (isyi) --■«, 
Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 24. 

Herpetodryns, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 189; Caxtor, 

Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 80. 
Tt/ria FITZINGER, Neue Class. Rept. (1843) 60. 

Body compressed; ventrals more than 200, slightly keeled, 
turning up on sides; snout subacuminate ; teeth smooth, equal 
in length ; 1 preocular, 2 postoculars ; eye small, pupil round ; head 
shields regular ; head slender, distinct from neck ; scales smooth 
or feebly keeled ; scales in 23 to 27 rows ; tail long ; subcaudals 

double. 

The genus is not a large one and has frequently been regarded 
as belonging to the genus Elaphe. This association however is 
not warranted. One species,* Goviiosoma o.rncepliahnu (Boie), 
enters the Philippines. The snakes of this species are arboreal 
in habit and feed largely on small mammals and birds. Giin- 
ther t states that they are of fierce disposition, and that in order 
to strike, they raise the anterior third of the body from the 
ground. They are harmless to man. 

GONYOSOMA OXYCEPH ALU M (Boie) 

Coluber oxyccpliahts Boie, Isis (1S27) ; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. 

India, Rept. (1890) 335; Sclater, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 60 (1891) 

239; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 56. 
Gonyosoma viridc Wagler, Icon. Amph. (1828) pi. 9. 
Herpetodryas osiicejiluiliis Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 189, pi- 

7, figs. 8 and 9; .Abbild. (1844) pi. 44, figs. 1-9; Cantor, Cat. IMal. 

Rept. (1847) 80. 

* Casto de Elera's record of Gonyosoma frcnatiim Gray is very probably 
erroneous, as that species is confined to India, 
t Rept. Brit. India (1864) 294. 



GONYOSOMA 153 

Alopccophis chalybeus Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist. II 4 (1849) 

247. 
Gonyosoma oxycephabvm Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

213; GtJNTHEE, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 122; Rept. Bi-it. India 

(1864) 294; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 688; Jan, Icon. Gen. 

(1869) 31, pi. 1; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 3 9 (1870), 

193; 42 (1873) 123; Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 189; 

BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 110; Casto de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 432; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 116; Taylor, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 

12 (1917) 359. 
Elaphe oxycephalu Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 597; 

§ D 6 (1911) 260. 

Description of species. — ^(From No. 231, Bureau of Science 
collection ; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, October, 1910, by C. H. 
Lamb.) Body slender, elongate, compressed; tail elongate, slen- 
der; head narrow, subacuminate, slightly distinct from neck; ros- 
tral about one-third broader than high, visible above, its suture 
with nasal nearly double that with internasals or first labials; 
internasals as wide as deep, their mutual suture equal to that 
with prefrontals, a little longer than wide, five-sided, bending 
low on side of head, broadly in contact with loreal and pre- 
ocular; frontal large, equal to its distance from rostral, about 
one-eighth longer than wide, in contact with preocular, much 
longer and wider than supraoculars ; parietals longer than wide, 
larger than frontal, bending down on sides of head, touching 
only upper postoculars ; nasal divided, the anterior part largest ; 
loreal nearly three times as long as wide, touching 3 labials ; pre- 
ocular three times the size of loreal, touching 3 labials and 
frontal ; 2 postoculars, the superior more than twice as large 
as the inferior ; 2 anterior temporals, the lower barely in con- 
tact with lower preocular, the upper touching both ; temporal 
formula, 2 -|- 3 4 3 ; 9 upper labials, anterior ones higher than 
wide, sixth and seventh entering orbit, ninth and eighth 
largest; 13 lower labials, 5 pairs in contact with anterior chin 
shields, which are about three times as large as posterior; eye 
small, its diameter contained in length of snout about three 
times; 30 scale rows on neck, 25 rows around body, smooth 
anteriorly but more or less distinctly keeled on latter half of 
body; scales sharp-pointed posteriorly, the median row not en- 
larged, the outer slightly so ; ventrals, 246 ; anal divided ; sub- 
caudals, 133, in double rows; ventrals and subcaudals slightly 
keeled, the edges bending up on sides, slightly notched at 
bend. 



154 SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Color in life.— Above bright yellowish to whitish green, 
growing more yellowish green on sides; anterior part of scales, 
and skin between scales, tinged with bluish slate or cream 
yellow; skin, when distended, shows dim diagonal bars of 
darker and lighter color; head olive, labials greenish, tail 
yellowish drab to flesh color, anterior part of scales with dim 
dark edge; below more yellowish than on sides, inner sutures 
of subcaudals edged with darker; chin, throat, and belly cream 
yellow; outer edges of ventrals greenish. 

Measurements of Gonyosoiiia oxycepluduin (Boie). 



mm. 



Total length 1,965 

Snout to vent 1,480 

Tail -185 

Length of head 52 

Width of head 27 

Variation. — Philippine specimens examined have the follow- 
ing variations in scale counts : Ventrals, 240 to 253 ; subcau- 
dals, 122 to 135; upper labials, 8 to 11; and lower labials, 12 
to 15. One specimen (No. 415, Bureau of Science collection) 
has the right intei nasal and the two right nasals fused into a 
single scale. No. 327 (E. H. Taylor collection) has the head 
blackish with a longitudinal dai'k line on side of head, and with 
much dark color on body scales. 

Boulenger * gives the variation in scale counts as follows : 
Ventrals, 233 to 263; subcaudals, 122 to 149; 9 to 11 upper 
labials, 2, rarely 3, entering eye ; scales in 23 to 27 rows around 
body. His specimen "g" from the Philippines (exact locality 
unknown) has 27 scale rows. The largest specimen he lists 
measures 2,300 millimeters in length ; the tail, 480. 

Remarks. — This large arboreal snake probably attains a 
length of 2.5 meters. It is not rare in the Philippines, but is 
confined largely to forested or mountainous districts. Speci- 
mens I have observed in a wild state were usually coiled about 
branches of trees. One young specimen captured was coiled 
under a small fallen log. In the Philippines it has been taken 
in Luzon (several localities), Palawan, Balabac, and Negros. 
It probably occurs in all of the larger islands. It is also 
known from Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, and 
the Natuna Islands. The snake is not poisonous. 



Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 



ELAPHE 



155 



Table 28. — Measurements and scale counts of Gonyosoma oxyceplialum 

(Boie). 



Locality. 

















mm. 1 -nun. 






229 1 Iwahig. Palawan .. 


CM. Weber 


^ 


1436 326 


253 


127 j 


230 ' do 


C.H.Lamb 


9 


111 5 460 


246 


133 


2S1 do 


do 


V 


1966 485 


246 


133 


416 1 do 


C.M.Weber 


o' 


1630 I 376 


240 


136 1 


327 ' Balabac 


: do 


d 


1155 260 


247 


122 


1100 ' Los Bancs, Laguna 


B. H. Taylor 


ye 


460 1 80 


246 


(■) 


No. 


Anals. 


1 
Labials. Scale 


rows. 


Collection. 




Upper. 


Lower. 


Enter 
eye. 


Touch 
chin 1 Neck, 
shields. 


Body. 


229 


2 


9 


14 


6,7 


6 ' 31 


26 


Bureau of Science. 




■ 


230 


2 


10-11 


14 


6,7 


6 31 


25 


Do. 






231 


2 


9 


13 


6,7 


6 1 30 


26 


Do. 






416 i 2 1 9 


16 


6,7 


6 ! 29 


25 


Do. 






327 i 2 9 


14 


6.7 


6 ' 29 


25 


E. H. Taylor. 






1100 


2 


8-9 


12 


5,6 


6 29 


25 


Do. 







Mutilated. 

Genus ELAPHE Fitzinger 

Coluber BoiE, Isis (1826) 209; Gunther, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 

237; BOULENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 24. 
Elaphe Fitzinger, in Wagler's Descr. et Icon. Amphib. 3 (1833) pi. 

27; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 307. 
Plagiodon Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 447; Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 170. 
Elaphis Bonaparte, Mem. Acad. Sci. Torino II 2 (1840) 402. 
Composoma (non Serv.) Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 

(1853) 453; Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 291; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India 

(1864) 243. 

The name Elaphe must stand for this genus as is shown by 

Stejneger; and Coluber/" the usually accepted name, must be 

used for the genus of poisonous vipers, usually known as Vipera. 

Two fairly well-defined species of this genus are found in the 

Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine species of Elaphe Fitzinger. 
o'. Ventrals, 216 to 233; subcaudals, 87 to 100; markings on head and neck 
wanting or indistinct; young, with narrow dim whitish transverse 

white bars - E. erythrura (Dumeril and Bibron) (p. 156). 

tt". Ventrals, 223 to 238; subcaudals, 103 to 110; markings on head and neck 
distinct; young, brown with black transverse bars inclosing light spots 

E. philippina Griffin (p. 159). 



* Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 443. 



156 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPBINE ISLANDS 

ELAPHE ERYTHRURA (Dumeril and Bibron) 

Phiijiodon crythrurits Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 175; 

Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. Milan 

(1863) 61; Icon. Gen. (1867) 21, pi. 4, fig-. 2; STEINDACH^fER, Sitzb. 

Ak. Wien. c. 1 (1891) 141. 
Composoma melanm-um var. Dumeril and Bibrun, Erp. Gen. 7 (1S54) 

301; GUNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1873) 169; MuLLER, III. 

Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 14 (var.); Fischer, 

Jahrb. \\'iss, Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) SO and 101 var. 
Eluphis siibradiatiis, part., Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 95. 
Spilotes melanurus, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 97. 
Elajihis melanunis var. vianiUensis Jan, Icon. Gen. 21 (1867) pi. 4, 

fig. 2. 
Elaphe meknncrum var. cclebensis Jan, Icon. Gen. 21 (1867) pi. 5, 

fig. 2. 
Composoma melavuriim var. cri/thricntm Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. 

Hamburg 2 (1885) 101; Boettger. Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (18861 

108 (var. erythrura) . 
Eluphe ci-ytlinira Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 213; § D 6 

(1911) 260; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 359. 

Description of species. — (From No. 69, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, July 15, 1913, 
by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Rostral higher than wide, 
visible above, forming its longest suture with anterior nasal ; 
its sutures with prefrontals and labials subequal ; suture between 
internasals short, less than length of internasal scale, and con- 
tained in prefrontal suture two and a half times ; internasal 
broader than long, bordering edge of nostril ; prefrontals more 
than twice as long as internasals, the suture formed with the 
latter and that with frontal subequal, its shortest suture with 
posterior nasal ; frontal longer than broad, its leng-fh equal to 
its distance from end of snout, much wider than supraoculars ; 
parietals narrow, longer than frontal ; 2 nasals, posterior 
highest ; loreal diagonal, longer than high ; prefrontal very 
large, visible from above, separated from frontal, in contact 
with third and fourth labials ; 2 postoculars, upper largest ; 
temporals 2 + 2; 9 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth en- 
tering eye; 11 lower labials, 5 touching anterior chin shields, 
which are shorter and broader than posterior ; scales in 23 rows 
about neck, 21 rows about body, all except outer row keeled; ven- 
trals, 221 ; anal single ; subcaudals, 100. 

Color iv ?,i7r.— Anterior half of body drab to brownish olive 
above, lighter on sides, two indistinct yellowish bands on neck 
and a series of small indistinct spots along edge of ventrals 
of neck ; top of head dark olive ; latter part of body dark with 
an irregular mixture of reddish scales; tail reddish salmon. 



f 



ELAPHE 157 

The transitions in color are gradual. Anterior half of belly 
immaculate brown-yellow, edges of ventrals having the lateral 
body color; ventrals on latter part of belly spotted irregularly 
with dark gray to black; tail immaculate below. 

Measurements of Elaphe erythrura (Dameril and Bibron) . 



mm. 



Total length 1,080 

Snout to vent 815 

Tail 26.5 

Length of head 30 

Width of head 17.5 

Variation. — Three other specimens from the same immediate 
locality as the one described agree very well in scalation; the 
ventrals range between 217 and 225; the subcaudals, from 96 
to 100; there are 6 lower labials touching the anterior chin 
shields. There is some inconsequent variation of the dorsal 
coloration. 

Negros specimens are very different from the described speci- 
men in coloration ; the entire posterior part of the body is dark 
bluish black, and the ventrals of the posterior part of the body 
and the subcaudals are grayish black. The scale formulae are 
practically identical with those of the Luzon and Mindanao 
forms; otherwise they would merit subspecific distinction. The 
young of Negros specimens are dark browm anteriorly with nar- 
row, transverse, lighter areas on the skin between the scales; 
along the middle part of the body the light color forms a network ; 
the tail is black, and the outer side of the posterior part of the 
body is drab. 

Specimens from Luzon are uniform brown to reddish olive, 
the edges of the scales usually slightly darker, and the tail 
usually a lighter reddish brown ; below the belly is immaculate 
yellowish; young Luzon specimens are a uniform brown, or are 
traversed by numerous very narrow, dim, whitish bars, the 
white being chiefly confined to the skin between the scales. 
Sometimes a dim dark spot is visible below, and another behind 
tlie eye; the inside of the throat is black. 

One Polillo specimen resembles the specimens from Negros 
in having the posterior part of the body dark. 

Remarks. — This common species is abundant wherever found. 
It is known from Mindanao, Luzon, Negros, Polillo, and Mindoro. 
Boulenger " and Griflfin report the species from Palawan, but 
I regard this as doubtful. The species is also known from 



* Boulenger's record, Ann. & Maff. Nat. Hist. VI 14 (1894) 82, very 
probably refers to E. philippina Griffin, 



158 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Celebes. The species feeds on mammals and birds and is harm- 
less to man. 

Table 29. — Measurements and scale counts of Elaphe erythrura (Dumeril 

and Bibron) . 



No. 


Locality, 




Collector. 


Se.x. 
Length. 


s 


C3 
1- 
+J 
C 


1 

s 

SI 










! mm. 


mm. 




276 


Dumaguete. Occidenta 


Negros ■ Eskridge 


9 i 1,550 


333 


226 


97 


277 


Cadiz. Occidental Negr 


OS- --.' A. Celestino 


o" 1.295 


298 


222 


97 


278 


Victoriap, Occidental Negros. .. H. M. Curran 


9 1,490 


820 


226 


96 


279 


Polillo- 


' C. Canonizado 


9 1, 410 


290 


231 


"86 


175 


Occidenta! Negros 


1 E. H. Taylor 


? : 1,330 


282 


224 


•98 


178 


do 


' do .... 


S 1,410 


290 


21S 


(") 


179. 


-. ..do 


do 


o" 1, 340 


SIS 


216 


99 


282 


Manila 


L. E. Griffin 


cT 1. 400 


(b) 


210 


■92 


284 


do 


1 do 


1, 150 


25.B 


222 


92 


285 


do 


l......do 


1.470 


305 


215 


•88 j 


286 


do 


.-' E. H. Taylor 


? 1,285 


260 


225 


90 ' 


287 


do 


do 


:^' 1, 310 


(»1 


218 


«83 


288 


do 


do 


ci" 1.560 


340 


224 


94 


289 


Ifugao. Luzon 


H. O. Beyer 


-■ 1, 480 


300 


218 


89 


66 


Bunawan. Ag-usan 


E. H. Taylor 


1, 222 


270 


225 


97 


67 


....do 


do 


1. 340 


lb) 


222 


(k) 


68 


do 




do .... 










69 


do 


do 


1. ISO 


265 


221 


100 





— -— - 




.— ^7^^- 












Scale 


rows. 




Labials. ! 

1 


















G ■ m 


No. 




-a 
o 

m 


Enter ey 


p. 
a 

D 


Lower. 

Touch ch 
shields 

Tempora 


Collection 






276 


23 


21 


4. 5. 6 


9 


10 


5 : 2 12 


Bureau of Sc 


ience. 






277 


23 : 21 


4, 5, 6 


9 


11 


6 ' 2,2 


Do. 








278 


23 1 21 


4. 6. 6 


9 


11 


6' 2i2 


Do. 






1 


279 


23 1 21 


4. 5, 6 


9 


11-12 


6-5 2+2 


Do. 








175 


23 } 21 


4, 6. 6 


9 


11-10 5 2 ! 2 


E. H. Taylor. 








178 


23 ' 21 


4. 5, 6 


9 11 6 2! 2 


Do. 






' 


179 


23 21 4, 5. 6 


9 1 111 6 ' 2 12 


Do. 








282 


23 ' 21 ' 4, B. 6 


9 ! 10 6 2J-2 


Bureau of Si. 


ience. 






284 


23 21 4, 5. 6 


9 


11 i 5 2 + 2 


Do, 








286 


23 21 ; 4. 6, 6 


9 


11 6 2 12 


Do. 








286 


23 21 


4, 5. 6 


9 


11 ! B 1 2 1-2 


Do. 








2S7 


23 ' 21 


4. 5, 6 


9 


11 5 ; 2 1 2 


Do, 








288 


23 21 


4, 6. 6 


9 


11 6 2 + 2 


Do. 








289 


23 21 


4. 5. 6 


9-8 


11 ■ 5 2^2 


Do. 








66 


23 21 


4, B. 6 


9 


11 1 6 2 ^ 2 


E. H. T.aylor. 








67 


23 21 


J. 5, 6 


9 


11 ' 6 2^-2 


Do, 








68 


23 21 


4. 5. 6 


9 i 111-11 


6 2+2 


Do, 








69 


23 21 


4. 5, 6 


9 


11 


6 2-12 


Do. 
Mutilated. 












"T 


p of ta 


il missi 


ng. 




„ 







ELAPHE 159 

ELAPHE PHILIPPINA Griffin 

Elaphe philippina Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 597; § 

D 6 (1911) 260. 
Elaphe erythrura TAYLOR, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 260. 

Description of species.''" — (From No. 291, Bureau of Science 
collection ; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, February, 1909, by C. M. 
Weber.) Head elongate, rather slender; rostral strongly visible 
above; internasals a little broader than deep, bordering noslril 
above, forming a longer suture with anterior nasal than with 
posterior; prefrontals nearly three times the size of internasals, 
in contact with supraoculars; frontal longer than wide, scarcely 
as long as its distance from end of snout, as long as supraoculars, 
distinctly shorter than parietals; parietals much longer than 
broad, in contact with 2 temporals and both postoculars ; 2 nasals ; 
loreal as long as high ; a single large preocular ; 2 postoculars ; 
temporals 2 + 2, the 2 anterior in contact with sixth labial, nei- 
ther touching superior postocular, and only upper anterior tem- 
poral touching inferior postocular ; 9 upper labials, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth entering orbit, seventh, eighth, and ninth largest ; 1 1 
lower labials, 5 touching anterior chin shields, which are broader 
but shorter than posterior pair ; latter pair barely in contact ante- 
riorly, bordering labials their entire length; scales forming 
straight longitudinal rows, the 8 median rows keeled on anterior 
part of body, about 12 keeled rows on posterior part of body; 
scales with apical pits in 23 rows around neck, and 21 on body; 
scales on body rounded anteriorly and pointed behind; ventrals 
obtusely keeled laterally, not notched, 236; anal undivided; sub- 
caudals divided, 104. f 

Color in alcohol. — Above brown with the larger part of the 
scales dimly dark edged, and light areas on skin between scales ; 
anterior part of body and neck with black crossbars, inclosing 
yellowish spots laterally ; these become dimmer posteriorly ; about 
twelve can be distinguished. Head brown above ; upper labials 
yellowish; a black spot below eye; a distinct diagonal black line 
from eye to mouth, reaching ninth labial ; a distinct diagonal 
stripe from posterior temporals across angle of jaws to ventrals, 
reaching tenth ventral ; belly and underside of tail yellowish, the 
vertical part of ventrals gray. 



was 



* Griffin had five specimens before him, no particular one of which 
designated as the type. The specimen here described is No. 17 of the 
type series. 

t Griffin gives 94, which is incorrect. 



160 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
Measurements of Elaphe philippina Griffin. 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 



mm. 

1,420 

1,113 

307 

32 

16 



Variation.— The young differ from the adults in the distinct- 
ness of the markings ; more than 20 transverse bands are evident, 
but they do not extend as far back as the tail ; posterior fourth 
of body and the tail uniform brown. The ventrals range betvi^een 
223 and 242; subcaudals, between 103 and 110. 

Table 30. — Measuremeyits and scale counts of Elaphe philippirui Griffin. 



Locality. 



5114 
6115 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
297 
298 



Balabac C. M. Weber _ 

do do 

Iwahig-, Palawan do 

do - do -- 

do do 

do do 

Taytay, Palawan L. E. Griffin . 

Iwahig. Palawan C. H. Lamb - 

do do 

do __do 

Bongao E. H. Taylor 

do do _ 





mm. 


mm. 






'i 


1,385 


300 


236 


103 


9 


1,465 


315 


238 


108 


9 


1,410 


320 


232 


107 


V 


1.420 


307 


236 


104 


9 


1,360 


310 


234 


110 


'i 


1,290 


295 


236 


105 


c 


1,380 


(«) 


230 


(■) 





1,495 


(a) 


233 


(») 


9 


1,225 


276 


242 


106 




1, 160 


265 


238 


107 


s 


1, 360 


340 


223 


107 




720 


l») 


236 


(■) 



Scale rowB. 



No. 



5114 


2,3 


5115 


23 


290 


23 


291 


23 


292 


23 


293 


23 


294 


23 


295 


23 


297 


23 


298 


23 




28 




23 



21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 I 

21 

21 

21 



C <" 



4,5,6 
4,6,6 
4,6,6 
4,5,6 
4,6,6 
4,5,6 
4,6.6 
4,6,6 
4,6,6 
4.5,6 



Collection. 



" Mutilaled. 



2 , 2 

2 1-2 



2^ 2 
2-*- 2 
21-2 
24 2 
2-1-2 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 
Bureau of Sc^ 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



LIOPELTIS 161 

Remarks. — The species differs from Elaphe erythrura Dumeril 
and Bibron in a higher average of ventrals and subcaudals ; the 
average for E. philippina is about 235 for ventrals, and 106 for 
subcaudals ; while in E. erythrura ventrals average 221 and sub- 
cuadals 93. The markings are distinctive, as shown by Griffin ; 
the head is slenderer in E. pJiilippina. The types are from Pa- 
lawan. Specimens have since been taken in Busuanga, Balabac, 
and Bongao. The species feeds largely on birds and small mam- 
mals. It probably never eats reptiles or amphibians. It is 
absolutely harmless to man. 

Genus LIOPELTIS Fitzinger 

Coronella, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 50. 

Herpetodryas, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 173. 

Liopeltis Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 26; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 337. 
Ablabes, part., Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (18.54) 304; 

Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 27; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 

223. 
Cyclophis, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 119; Rept. Brit. 

India (1864) 229. 
Eurypholis Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 

493 and 559; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 81. 
Phragmitophis GtJNTHER, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ill 9 (1862) 126. 
Homalosoma, part., Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 33. 
Liopeltis, part.. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 559; 

Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 81. 
Diadophis, part., Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 261. 
Ablabes Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 304; Cat. Snakes 

Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 277. 
Entacanthus Cope, Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1898) 780. 

"Maxillary teeth small, equal, 15 to 30 ; mandibular teeth sub- 
equal. Head not or scarcely distinct from neck ; eye rather small 
or moderate, with round pupil; loreal present or absent; nasal 
entire or divided. Body cylindrical, usually slender; scales 
smooth or feebly keeled, without apical pits, in 13 to 17 rows; 
ventrals not angulate * laterally. Tail moderate or long ; sub- 
caudals in two rows." (From Boulenger's description of 
Ablabes.) 

The snakes belonging to this genus are distributed over south- 
ern and eastern Asia, Japan, Malay Peninsula, and the East 
Indies. Two species enter the Philippines. One is the widely 
distributed Liopeltis tricolor (Schlegel) ; the other, Liopeltis 
philippiniin (Boettger), is probably endemic. 



* Slightly angulate in certain species. — E. H. T. 

161465 11 



162 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The snakes are small, probably neither species attaining a 
length of more than two-thirds of a meter. They are probably 
arboreal in habit. Both species appear to be rare in the Philip- 
pines: They are absolutely harmless and are very gentle when 
handled. 

Key to the Philippine species of Liopeltis Fitzinger. 

a\ Nostril between nasal and internasal, which are completely fused in 
front of nostril; light brownabove with four dark brown, longitudinal 
lines; yellowish below L. plillippinus (Boettger) (p. 164). 

a\ Nostril in single nasal, completely separated from internasal; olive 
to light brown above; a black streak behind eye, and a light stripe 
on outer row of scales ■ L- tricolor (Schlegel) (p. 162). 

LIOPELTIS TRICOLOR (Schlegel) 
Plate 11, figs. 3 to 5; Plate 19 

Herpetodryas tricolor Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 187, pi. 6, figs. 

16-18. 
Cyclophis tricolor Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 121; Proc. Zool. 

Soc. London (1872) 59C-; Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 42 

(1873) 122. 
Liopeltis tricolor CoPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 

559; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1869) 31, pi. 6, fig. 2. 
Ablabes tricolor Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 281; 

Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 599; § D 6 (1911) 261; 

Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 260. 

Description of species. — (From No. 709, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, March, 1909, by W. 
Schultze.) (Adult male.) Head elongate, depressed, its height 
less than three times diameter of eye ; rostral broader than deep, 
small, well visible above, the suture with nasal largest, sutures 
with internasals and with first labials coequal ; internasals rather 
triangular, pointed anteriorly, longest along their mutual suture, 
which is about equal to that between prefrontals, not as long as 
that with nasals ; prefrontals rather large, broader than deep, in 
contact with 1 or 2 labials, nasal, and preocular, their median 
suture rather diagonal, leaving left prefrontal, forming a 
considerable suture with right internasal; frontal elongate, 
scarcely, if any broader than supraocular, twice as long as wide, 
slightly longer than its distance to end of snout ; parietals elon- 
gate, not twice as long as wide, in contact with 2 postoculars ; na- 
sal elongate, single, separating internasals from labials ; nostril 
pierced in posterior part; no loreal; a single small preocular; 
supraoculars twice as long as wide; 2 postoculars, coequal, and 
nearly equal in size to preocular; temporals 1 + 2, large, elongate, 
both upper temporals bordering parietals their entire length ; 8 



LIOPELTIS 



163 



upper labials, seventh largest, fourth and fifth entering eye; 8 
lower labials, 4 touching anterior chin shields which are slightly 
longer than, but almost equal in size to, posterior; scales in 15 
rows, smooth, without apical pits ; ventrals, 149, slightly angulate 
laterally; subcaudals, 116; anal divided. 

Color in life. — Grayish to olive brown above, anterior third of 
body and head rather more olive ; a black streak begins on rostral, 
passes through eye and continues along neck and sides some dis- 
tance, growing gradually indistinct ; tail above a light reddish to 
pinkish brown ; a pale yellowish to lavender olive streak along 
outer row of scales and edges of ventral; chin and belly im- 
maculate creamy white. 



Measurements of Liopeltis tricolor (Schlegel) . 



Total len^h 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Width of head 

Length of head 



mm. 

502 

324 

178 

9 

18 



Table 31. — Measurements and scale counts of Liopeltis tricolor {Schlegel) . 



No. 




Locality. 


- - - 




Collector. 


Sex. 


Leng-th. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals. 












mm. 


inm. 1 


j 


709 


Iwahig, Palawan 






W. Schultze 


d 


602 


178 


14» 


723 
1171 


do 

Taytay 








C. M. Weber 

L. E. Griffin 


? 


436 166 
467 181 


148 1 
145 


, Palawan 







666 


Bubua 








E. H. Tay 


or. 






137 














No. 


1 
Sub- 1 p 
cau- |Anals. „^„i,„ 

1 


Post- 
oculars. 


Temp- 
orals. 


Labials 
enter 
eye. 


Scale 
rows. 




Collection. 




709 


116 2 


1 


2 


1+2 


4,6 


15 


Bureau 


of Science. 




723 


124 j 2 


1 


2 


1-12 


4,5 


15 


Do 






1171 


124 


2 


1 


2 


1+2 


4,6 


15 


Do 






666 


«103 


2 


1 


2 


1+2 


4,5 


15 


Do 







« Mutilated. 

Va/riation. — Practically no variation of moment is evident 
in the Philippine specimens; the ventrals vary from 1.37 to 149; 
the subcaudals, from 116 to 124. A fourth, badly mutilated 
specimen in my collection was taken from the stomach of a 
Boiga dendrophila from Palawan. I obtained a specimen of 
this species on the very small island of Bubuan, Tapian 
group, Sulu Archipelago, in October, 1917. It was taken in 
a low tree about 3 meters from the earth; the tip of the tail 



164 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

is slightly mutilated, only 103 subcaudals showing. The ven- 
trals are 137, a lower number than in the Palawan specimens. 
Boulenger * gives the ventral range as 140 to 187 ; the subcau- 
dal, 103 to 130. 

LIOPELTIS PHILIPPINUS (Boettger) 
Plate 20 
Ablabes philipphms Boettger, Zool. Aiiz. 20 (1897) 164; Griffin, 
Philip. Journ. Sei. § D 6 (1911) 261, 

DescriTption of species. — (From No. 940, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, 1908, by C. M. Weber.) 
(Adult male.) Head distinctly triangular, rather flattened, 
quite distinct from neck; rostral almost one and a half times 
as wide as high, but slightly pointed behind; the suture with 
nasal is twice that with first labial ; internasal fused with nasal 
to form a single scale ; nostril pierced near posterior part ; a su- 
ture issues from nostril and continues back to suture between 
nasal and prefrontal, partially dividing scale ; the combined scale 
somewhat smaller than prefrontal ; latter much broader than 
deep, in contact with 2 labials laterally and a small preocular 
posteriorly. (In the specimen here described the prefrontals are 
fused, with a slight linear depression between them, doubtless 
an abnormal condition.) The posterior sides are rounding; 
frontal elongate, twice as long as wide, pointed behind, not 
twice as wide as supraoculars, but longer ; parietals elongate, 
very much longer than wide, much longer than frontal; loreal 
wanting; preocular small, square, widely separated from frontal; 
2 postoculars, upper a little the larger, both in contact with 
parietal ; temporals 1 + 2, very well defined ; 8 upper labials, 
fourth and fifth entering eye, fifth and sixth touching lower post- 
ocular; 8 lower labials, 4 in contact with anterior pair of chin 
shields, which are little more than half the size of posterior 
pair; mental as wide as deep, triangular; scales in 15 rows, 
dorsals smallest, laterals largest, rather rounding behind; 140 
ventrals; anal divided; subcaudals, 119. Eye less than its dis- 
tance from nostril; tail extremely slender near end, terminating 
in a sharp point; apical pits wanting. 

Color in alcohol. — Above grayish yellow to light brown ; four 
longitudinal brown stripes begin on neck and continue along 
body; two median stripes, one and a half scale rows in width, 
separated by one whole and two half rows of scales; these 
stripes continue to end of tail; lateral stripes are separated 
from dorsal by two whole rows of scales and are only the width 



Catalogue, loe. cit. 



DENDROPHIS 165 

of a half scale row ; these continue only to near anus ; the light 
areas between the brown lines laterally are punctate with many 
small brownish dots; head olive, with an indistinct dark line 
behind eye, this being the origin of the lateral brown line ; 
labials, chin, and throat immaculate ; ventrals with small dots 
on their outer edges and a few scattered larger dots in a median 
row along middle part of belly; the lateral punctations on sub- 
caudals form an indistinct line. 

Measurements of Liopeltls pJiilippinus (Boettger) . 

mm. 

Total length 640 

Snout to vent 390 

Tail 250 
Length of head 20 

Width of head 10.5 

Variation. — Boettger gives the ventral count as 144 to 146 ; 
the subcaudal, as 118. 

Remarks. — No other specimen of this rare snake is at hand 
for comparison. This one agrees well with the type descrip- 
tion. Boettger's two types are from Samar and Culion, col- 
lected by Moellendorff and Koch. With so wide a distribution 
it is striking that so few specimens have reached collections and 
that it has remained undiscovered until so late a date. 

Genus DENDEOPHIS Bole 

Ahxtulla, part., Gray, Ann. Phil. 10 (1825) 208. 

Leptophis, part.. Bell, Zool. Journ. 2 (1825) 328; Jan, Elenco Sist. 

Ofld. (18e3) 84. 
Dendroplois BoiB, Isis (1827) 520; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

(1886) 111; BouLENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 337; 

Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 77; Casto de Eler.-v, Cat. Fauna 

Filipinas 1 (1895) 433. 
Dendrophis, part., Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 182; Schlegel, 

Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 220; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 

(1854) 193; Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 148; Kept. Brit. 

India (1864) 296; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 85. 

"Maxillary teeth 20 to 33, the posterior more or less enlarged, 
stouter if not longer than the rest; anterior mandibular teeth 
longest. Head distinct from neck, more or less elongate; eye 
large, with round pupil. Body elongate, more or less com- 
pressed; scales smooth, in 13 or 15 rows, narrow, disposed 
obliquely, with apical pits, those of the vertebral row more or 
less enlarged; ventrals with a suture-like lateral keel and a 
notch on each side, corresponding to the keel. Tail long; sub- 
caudals in two rows, keeled and notched like the ventrals." 
(Boulenger.) 



166 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Snakes of this genus are distributed over southeastern Asia, 
Malay Archipelago, to Australia. They are largely arboreal, 
and are harmless. 

Only one species, Dendrophis picttis (Gmelin), is known in 
the Philippines. Dendrophis ptmctulata, an Australian species, 
has been reported from the Philippines by Gunther * and by 
Parenti and Picaglia t and is included in Boettger's, % Casto de 
Elera's, § and Griffin's !| lists. Boulenger has referred Giinther's 
specimen to Dendrelaphis terrificii-s (Peters), and I think with- 
out doubt that the specimen reported by Parenti and Picaglia 
belongs to this species also ; or, if correctly identified, that it did 
not originate in Ticao, Philippines, as stated by Parenti and 
Picaglia. 

DENDROPHIS PICTUS (Gmelin) 

Colaber pictiis Gmelin, Syst, Natura 1 (1788) 1116. 

Coluber deconia Shaw, Zool. 3 (1802) 538. 

Dipsas schokari, part., Kuhl, Beitr. ZooL Verg-. Anat, (1820) 80. 

Ahxtulla decorus Gray, Ann. Phil. 10 (1825) 208. 

Leptophis ahxtiiUa, part., Bell, ZooL Journ. 2 (1825) .328. 

Dendrophis picta Boie, Isis (1827) 530; Stoliczka, .Journ. As. Soc. 
Bengal 39 (1870) 193. 

Ahietulla belli Gray, III Ind. ZooL 2 (1834) pL SO. 

Dendrophis pictus, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 228, pL 
9, figs. 5-7; DuMERiL and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 197; Girard, 
U. S. ExpL Exp. (1858) 129; Gunther, Cat. CoL Snakes (1858) 
148; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 297; Jan, Icon. Gen. 32 (1869) pi. 
1, fig. 3; Theobald, Cat Rept. Brit. India (1876) 190; Boettger, 
Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 111; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. 
Mus. 2 (1894) 78; Casto m Elera, Cat. Faima Filipinas 1 (1895) 
433; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZooL Harv. Coll. 44 (1912) 117. 

Leptophis pictus Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 82. 

Ahxtulla picta Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 556. 

Leptophis formosus .Jan, Icon. Gen. (1879) 49, pi. 6, fig. 2. 

Description of species. — (From No. 219, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected in Occidental Negros, August 10, 1915, by E. H. 
Taylor.) Body slender; tail long and slender, somewhat com- 
pressed ; head elongate, distinct from neck ; rostral broader than 
high, well visible above ; internasals longer than wide, their mu- 
tual suture about equal to their suture with prefrontal; pre- 
frontals larger than internasals, Avider than deep, bending down 
over sides of head, forming a long suture with loreal, narrowly in 



* Cat. Col. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1858) 150. 

t Atti. Soc. Nat. Modena, Mem. Orig. Ill 5 (1886) 50. 

JBer. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 111. 

§ Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 433. 

II Philip. Jonrn. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 259. 



DENDROPHIS 167 

contact with supraocular (on one side only) ; frontal nearly 
triangular, rather narrowly pointed behind, longer and wider 
than supraocular, equal to its distance to end of snout; parietals 
rather short, in contact with superior postocular ; nasal divided, 
posterior part largest; an elongate loreal, more than twice as 
long as high; a large preocular, widest at top, in contact with 
frontal (on one side) ; 2 postoculars, lower very small. Tem- 
porals 1 + 2; 11 upper labials, fourth (very narrowly), fifth, 
and sixth entering eye, sixth, seventh, and eighth largest; 9 
lower labials, 5 in contact with first pair of chin shields, which 
are broader but very much shorter than second pair; second 
pair of chin shields separated posteriorly by 2 scales ; a single 
large scale borders last 5 labials ; scales in 15 rows, entirely 
smooth, with apical pits, median row largest, hexagonal ; laterals 
narrow, elongate, broadly imbricate, outer row large, triangular ; 
ventrals, 180, strongly keeled and notched laterally ; subcaudals, 
148, keeled and notched ; anal divided. 

Color in life. — Above yellow-green ; a broad dark stripe be- 
gins behind eye, dimly indicated on loreal region, and continues 
some distance on neck, where it is broken in dark bars separated 
by bluish diagonal bands; the blue color on scales is usually 
covered by the overlapping scale, and is not much in evidence 
until the skin is distended; the markings are not or scarcely 
evident past the middle of body; outer scale row yellowish; 
ventrals greenish yellow ventrally, greenish laterally; top of 
head olive ; upper labials, chin, and throat yellow. 

Measurements of Dendrophis pictus {Gmelin) . 



mm. 



Total length 1,14.5 

Snout to vent 748 

Tail 397 

Leng-th of head 26 

Width of head 14 

Variation. — In Philippine specimens examined the ventrals 
vary between 163 and 180; the subcaudals, between 139 and 
166; the supralabials, between 8 and 11, and the temporals are 
1 + 2 or 2 + 2. The fifth and sixth labials usually enter the eye. 
Boulenger * gives the range as ventrals, 165 to 190 ; subcaudals, 
122 to 164. 

Re?narJcs. — This is a common species, widely distributed in 
the Philippines. I have examined specimens from Luzon, Ne- 

* Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 79. 



168 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



gros, Panay, Mindoro, Polillo, Palawan, Busuanga, Mindanao, 
Lapac, and Cagayan Sulu. It is also reported from Samar. 

Outside of the Philippines it occurs over southern Asia, Ma- 
lay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago to the Moluccas, and New 
Guinea. 

These snakes are usually taken in small bushes or trees. 
They are arboreal in habit, and feed on lizards and frogs. The 
species is absolutely harmless. It is confused by many Filipinos 
with Dryophis prasinus, the so-called dahon palay, which is re- 
garded by them as deadly poisonous. In Negros I have seen 
this species handled by schoolboys who do not fear it. It is 
there called maninini. 

Table 32. — Measurevients and scale counts of Dendrophis pictus (Chnelin) . 



Locality. 



6 
109 
404 
481 
435 
444 
476 
483 
633 
651 
1463 
219 



Mindanao . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Collector. 



Age or 
sex. 



E. H. Taylor. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Negros do - 

do I do. 

do do . 

do I do. 

do ! do. 



ye 
9 

cT 

d" 
V 

re 
9 
cT 
d" 
cT 

0" 



Length. ! Tail. 



Vent- 
rals. 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



vun. 
375 
886 
920 
740 
648 
294 
910 
760 
840 
795 
760 
1,145 



7)1 m. 

136 

302 
<i315 
a 263 

230 
98 

326 

264 
-264 

285 
»240 

397 



171 
171 
169 
169 
176 
176 
172 
181 
170 
171 
163 
180 



166 
136 
(») 
(•) 
163 
139 
147 
146 
(») 
161 
(') 
148 



No. 


Preocu- 


Post. 




lars. 


oculars. 


6 


1 


1 


109 


1 


3-2 


404 


1 


1 


431 


1 


3-2 



Labials. 



Upper. 



436 




2 


144 




2 


476 




2 


483 




2 


633 




2 


G61 




2 


1463 




2 


219 


1 


2 



7-9 
9 



10-9 
10 
10 

10 

9 
10 

10 
10 
10 



Tempo- 
Enter i ™'''- 



6,6 
5.6 
4.6 
4,5,6 
5.6 



2-1-2 
24-2 
2-1-2 

2 1-2 



Scale- 
rows, 





5,6 


H-2 




5,6 


24-2 


1 
I 


4 
6,6 


) l-,-2 




5.6 


l-]-2 




5,6 


2+2 




6,6 


1-12 




5,6 


2-1-2 


{ 


4, 5, 6 
5,6 


) 1>2 



E.H.Taylor. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



» Mutilated. 



DENDRELAPHIS 169 

Genus DENDRELAPHIS Boulenger 

Leptophis, part., Bell, Zool. Journ. 2 (1825) 328. 

Dendrophis, part., Waglee, Syst. Arnph. (1830) 182; Schlegel, Phys. 
Serp. 2 (1837) 220; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 
193; GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 148; Rept. Brit. India 
(1864) 296; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 85; Boettgee, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 111. 

Dendrelaphis Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 339; 
Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 87; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
§ D 6 (1911) 260. 

"Maxillary teeth 18 to 23 ; anterior maxillary and mandibular 
teeth longest. Head elongate, distinct from neck; eye large, 
with round pupil. Body much elongate, feebly compressed; 
scales smooth, in 13 or 15 rows, narrow, disposed obliquely, with 
apical pits, those of the vertebral row not or but very slightly 
enlarged; ventrals with a suture-like lateral keel and a notch 
on each side, corresponding to the keel. Tail long; subcaudals 
in two rows, keeled and notched like the ventrals." {Bou- 
lenger. ) 

The genus is distributed over southern Asia and the East 
Indies. There are three Philippine species. 

Key to the Philippine species of Dendrelaphis Boulenger. 

a\ Ventrals,* 176 to 186; subcaudals, 105 to 113; body with numerous black 
stripes along entire length. Palawan and Balabac. 

D. caudolineatus (Gray) (p. 169). 
a~. Ventrals, 169 to 179; subcaudals, 103 to 112; no stripes of any kind on 
body. Luzon, Mindoro, Negros, and Sulu. 

D. modestus Boulenger (p. 172). 

ar. Ventrals, 162 to 186; subcaudals, 94 to 112; a black stripe behind eye; 

stripes wanting on anterior third of body, usually present on posterior 

part. Luzon, Negros, and Mindanao,... D. terrificus (Peters) (p. 174). 

DENDRELAPHIS CAUDOLINEATUS (Gray) 

Plate 21 

Ahxtulla caudolineata Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 2 (1834) pi. 81. 
Leptophis caudalineatus Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 85. 
Dendrophis octolineata Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

201; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1869) 32, pi. 2, fig. 1. 
Dendrophis cmidolineata Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 150; Rept. 

Brit. India (1864) 297; Gunther, Zool. Rec. (1870) 75; Stoliczka, 

.Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 39 (1870) 194; 42 (1873) 123. 
Dendrelaphis caudolineatus Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. 

(1890) 339; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 89; Griffin, Philip. 

Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 598; § D 6 (1911) 261. 

Descriptio7i of species. — (From No. 414, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected in Palawan.) Head moderately slender; 



' Counts of ventrals and subcaudals are for Philippine specimens 



170 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

eye large, its diameter less than length of snout ; rostral broader 
than deep, the sutures formed with nasal and internasal sub- 
equal; internasals a little wider than long, distinctly shorter 
than prefrontals, and less than half as large ; prefrontals some- 
what broader than long, broadly in contact with loreal ; frontal 
about one and two-thirds times as long as broad, shorter than 
parietals ; latter one and a half times as long as broad, touching 
superior postocular and 3 temporals; supraoculars large, about 
as broad as frontal, in contact with prefrontals; nasal divided, 
internasal also bordering nostril ; loreal two to two and a half 
times as long as high ; preocular large, visible above ; 2 post- 
oculars, superior more than twice as large as inferior; 2 small 
anterior temporals, both in contact wdth lower postocular; tem- 
poral formula, 2 + 2 -|- 2 ; 9 upper labials, fifth and sixth (on 
right side fourth, fifth, and sixth) entering eye; 10 lower labials, 
5 touching anterior chin shields, which are broader and shorter 
than second pair; latter in contact almost two-thirds of their 
length; scales in 13 rows, with apical pits, median row scarcely 
larger than adjoining rows ; ventrals, 183, strongly keeled and 
notched; anal divided;' subcaudals, 110, keeled and notched. 

Color in alcohol. — Black above, each scale marked with a 
longitudinal bluish green mark which leaves the ground color 
in longitudinal lines ; a black line from eye continues back along 
body on second and third outer scale rows, but not covering 
entire scales ; below this stripe is a straight-edged yellow stripe, 
covering lower part of second and upper part of first scale 
rows ; below this yellow stripe, covering lower part of first scale 
rows, is a black stripe beginning on side of neck and continuing 
to tip of tail; this stripe is broader than the others on body; 
four dorsal black stripes, the two median narrowest; these 
four stripes continue to tail and merge into one; tail has five 
stripes to near tip, and only three at tip; below^ on belly im- 
maculate greenish blue ; a black median stripe on under 'side of 
tail. 

Measurements of Dendrclaphis caudolineatus (Gray). 



mm. 



Total length X 115 

Snout to vent 805 

Tail 310 

Length of head 30 

Width of head 14 

Diamete)- of eye g 

Length of snout 75 

Variatio)/. — Color markings are fairly stable in the speci- 
mens of this species taken in the Philippines. The ventrals 



DENDRELAPHIS 



171 



vary between 176 and 186 ; the subcaudals, between 105 and 
113; sometimes 3 labials enter the orbit, sometimes 2, both 
conditions being frequently found in the same specimen. The 
temporal formula is normally 2 + 2 + 2, but many specimens 
have the 2 anterior supei'ior temporals coalesced, leaving the 
1 



formula 



1+1 



-2. 



Table 33. — Measurements and scale counts of Dendrelaphis caiidoUneatus 

(Gray). 



Locality. 



Collector. 



216 
218 
219 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
414 



Palawan. 

do ... 

do ... 

do ... 

do ... 

do --- 

do ... 

do ... 

do ... 

do ... 



C. M. Weber. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
tral B. 




mm. 


mm. 




d' 


930 


266 


176 ' 


9 


940 


265 


184 


cT 


346 


94 


184 1 


? 


486 


125 


183 


cf 


716 


181 


183 ' 


d 


831 


225 


186 


? 


844 


221 


186 


d- 


610 


132 


180 


d" 


750 


204 


182 


9 


1,115 


310 


1S3 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



106 
111 



111 

■>108 
108 
113 
110 



Labials. 



Upper. 



215 
218 
219 
222 
223 
224 



226 
227 I 



Lower. 

I 



_1_ 



10 I 5.6 
10 ' 4,6,6 
6.6 



Touch 

first 

chin 

shields. 



Pre- 
oculars 



4,6,6 
f 6.6 
1 4,6; 6 

6,6 

5.6 

5,6 

5,6 

( 5,6_ 

I 4^5,6 



Post- 
oculars. 


Tempo- 
rals. 


2 


2+2 


2 


ll + l^"" 


2 


2+2+2 


2 


/-^ + 2 


2 


2+2+2 


2 


(rii- 


2 


l.ifi- 


2 


2 + 2+2 


2 


2 + 2+2 


2 


2+2 + 2 



Scale 



Collection. 



Bureau of Science. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



' E-'vtreme tip of tail missing. 



Boulenger * gives the range of ventrals as 171 to 188; of 
subcaudals, 100 to 112. Boulenger's largest specimen meas- 
ures 1,520 millimeters in length. 



Catalogue, loc. cit. 



172 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Remarks.— This species appears to be confined to Palawan 
and Balabac, and possibly also enters the Calamianes, north 
of Palawan. Outside Philippine territory it is known in south- 
ern India, Malay Peninsula, and East Indies. The species is 
arboreal. It is harmless. 

DENDRELAPHIS MODESTUS Boulenger 

Plate 13, figs. 6 and 7 

Dendrelaphis modestus Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 

91, pi. 4, fig. 4; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 261; 

Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 359. 
? Dendrelaphis fulifjinosus Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 

55; § D 6 (1911) 261; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 

359. 

Description of species.— {Yxom No. 184, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Isabela, Occidental Negros, at about 300 
meters elevation, October 8, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult 
male.) Head rather slenderer than in Dendrelaphis terrificus, 
distinct from body ; rostral three-fourths as deep as wide, form- 
ing subequal sutures with internasals and nasals, rather pointed 
behind, broadly visible from above; internasals about as broad 
as long, sutures with nasal curved ; prefrontals large, extending 
down on side to level of middle of eye, much wider than deep, 
longer than internasals; frontal one and two-fifths times as 
long as broad, equal to or a little less than its distance from 
end of snout, longer and wider than supraocular; parietals 
longer than frontal, longer than wide, with a row of 8 rather 
enlarged occipital scales bordering temporals and parietals 
posteriorly; nasal divided in subequal parts, both the same 
height; loreal elongate, two and a half times as long as high; 
preocular visible from above as a point, widely separated from 
frontal, widened above, coming to a point below ; supraocular 
slightly projecting; 2 postoculars, the suj)erior, largest, touching 
parietal, the inferior in contact with both anterior temporals; 
temporals 2 + 2 -|- 2, increasing greatly in size posteriorly; 9 
upper labials, fifth and sixth entering eye; 10 lower labials, 
5 touching anterior chin shields, which are wider and but little 
shorter than posterior pair; scales in 13 rows, the median row 
slightly enlarged and slightly .differentiated from the lateral 
rows, but without pits ; scales of other rows with pits ; scales 
somewhat rectangular, overlapping on sides ; ventrals and sub- 
caudals with lateral keels and notches ; ventrals 169 ; anal double ; 
subcaudals 107; length of eye equal to or minutely less than 



DENDRELAPHIS 173 

its distance from nostril; vertical diameter of eye less than the 
horizontal. 

Color in life.— Rich olive brown above ; head reddish to copper 
brown, which color continues some distance on neck; outer 
row of scales and half of second a slightly lighter shade of olive 
brown; below light bluish green with the edges of ventrals 
tinged with the olive brown of the outer row of scales; each 
scale has a bright bluish spot which is usually hidden until the 
skin is distended; skin between scales a purplish black; a few 
small, scattered, dark spots on head; the apical pits appear as 
minute dark spots; there is a trace of a dark line above last 
upper labials; the lower part of upper labials rather creamy 
yellow tinged with greenish ; lower labials yellowish. 

I\Ieasnrements of Dendrelaphis modestus Boulenger. 

mm. 

Total length 914 

Snout to vent 660 

Tail 254 

Length of head 24 

Width of head 10 

Variation. — The species here described differs from Boulen- 
ger's Dendrelaphis modestus of Ternate in having a lower aver- 
age of ventrals. I do not doubt that I have correctly referred 
the specimens to this species. 

Griffin's D. fuliginosus * is undoubtedly a young discolored 
specimen of this species. I have three specimens, a young and 
two adults, from Negros. 

The greatest variation found in the Philippine specimens of 
this species occurs in one from Bubuan Island, Sulu Archipelago. 
An orange stripe is present in life behind the eye, continuing 
some distance on the neck. This stripe is formed by a wash 
color over the greenish ground color and disappears largely 
in alcohol. The eye is larger, its diameter greater than dis- 
tance from eye to nostril. The labials on one side are broken, 
leaving two loreals, two preoculars, and two suboculars, the 
labials not entering the orbit. 

Remarks. — This species in the Philippines is known to oc- 
cur in Palawan, Mindoro, Negros, and Sulu The tvne is from 
Ternate. 



* See Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 359; in the state- 
ment "The type has a few more ventrals and subcaudals than the type 
of D. viodestus" for a few more read a few less. 



174 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Table 34. — Measurements and scale counts of Dendrelaphis modestus 

Boulenger. 























No. 


Locality 




Collector. 




o 


to 




u 




CD 












y. 


c 


— 1 


a 


£i 
















d 


a> 












" 


J 


H 


> 


m 














mm. 


mm. 








Isabela, Negroe 


E. H. Taylor 




^ 


914 


264 


169 


107 


210 


do - 


ver 


325 


86 


176 


lOg 


826 


do 




do 


' 9 


1,056 


299 


173 


110 


409 


Mindoro 




Marine Biological Expedition __ o 


710 


«26 


178 


(») 


410 


do 




W. Schultze 


1 yg 


325 ' 85 


179 


112 


411 

412 


Palawan 




C. M. Weber 


cT 

._ ■ cT 


(») 






103 
106 


860 


236 


176 


413 


Mindoro 




Marine Biological Ex 


oedition _. -.li" 


1.051 


296 


179 


112 


1833 


Bubuan Island 




E.H.Taylor 


j o 


875 


i>190 


176 


'69 




No. 


Labials. 


i-l 

3 


u 

3 


u 


% 
o 


Collection. 






0) 


Touch 

first 




4) 


S 


^ chin 




o 


a. 


01 








a 


fc 


C shields. 




o 


c 


n 








D 


a 


H 




tu 


Ph 


H 


w 




r. 


184 


9 


10 


5.6 


5 




2 


2+2+2 i 13 


E. H. Taylo 


210 


9-10 


10 


5.6 


5 




2 


2+2+2 


13 


Do. 




326 


9 


10 


6,6 j 5 




2 


2+2 + 2 


13 


Do. 




409 


9 


10 


5,6 B 




2 


2+2+2 


13 


Bureau of S 


cience. 


410 


9 ■ 10 


5,6 6 


1 


2 


2+2+2 13 


Do. 




411 


9 10 


6.6 1 6 




2 


2+2+2 ; 13 


Do. 




412 


9 10 


5,6 5 


1 2 


2+2+2 


13 


Do. 




418 


9 i 10 


6,6 6 


l| 2 


2+2 + 2 


13 


Do. 




1833 


9-8 10 


5,6 6 


1-2 j 2 


2+2 + 2 


13 


Do. 







' Tip of tail mutilated. 



' Body mutilated. 



DENDRELAPHIS TERRIFICUS (Peters) 

Plates 22 and 23 

Dendrophis picta, var. B, GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 149. 
Dendrophis pimctulata (spec, o.) Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 

150. 
Dendrophis terrificus Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 583; Boettgek, 

Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 111; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 

Filipinas 1 (1895) 433. 
Dendrophis philippinensis GtJNTHEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 

78, pi. 4. 
Dendrelaphis terrificus Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 

339; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 90; Griffin, Philip Journ. 

Sci. § D 6 (1911) 261. 
fDendrelaphis caeruleatus Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 

55; § D 6 (1911) 261. 

Description of svecies.— {From No. 83, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion, collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, July 10, 1913, 



DENDRELAPHIS 175 

by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Head very distinct from 
body; rostral at least one and one-third times as broad as deep, 
broadly visible from above, its longest suture with anterior 
nasal; internasals rather large, little longer than wide, the 
suture formed with nasals a curved line, which is longer than 
the suture formed with prefrontals ; suture between prefrontals 
equal to or slightly longer than that between internasals; pre- 
frontal as long as or a little longer than internasal, very much 
wider than long, extending down to near the level of middle 
of eye ; frontal about one and a half times as long as broad, 
as long as but wider than supraoculars, not as long as its dis- 
tance from end of snout ; parietals but little longer than frontal, 
longer than wide ; nasal divided ; anterior part largest and high- 
est; loreal narrow, long, two and a half to three times as long 
as wide ; 1 preocular, visible from above, not touching frontal, 
in contact with 3 labials below; 2 postoculars, upper largest, in 
contact with parietal ; temporals, 2 + 2 + 2 ; 9 upper labials, 
fifth and sixth entering eye (on the left side the 2 scales are 
nearly fused) ; 10 lower labials (9 on one side) , .5 in contact with 
anterior chin shields, which are much shorter and wider than 
posterior; mental wider than deep; scales in 13 smooth roAvs, 
overlapping, disposed obliquely, more or less rectangular (with 
single apical pits) , arranged in oblique, vertical rows ; outer 
row of scales very much larger than median, which is scarcely 
larger than adjoining rows ; ventrals keeled and notched on 
ends; ventrals 164; anal divided; subcaudals 96, in double 
rows ; length of eye equal to its distance from nostril ; eye 
longer than deep. 

Measurevtents of Dendrelaphis terrificus (Peters). 

mm. 

Total length 1,045 

Snout to vent 770 

Tail . 27.5 

Length of head 30 

Width of head 17 

Eye to tip of snout 10 

Length of eye 6 

Color in life. — Bright greenish bronze (when scales are shed 
in alcohol, bluish green to blue), each scale with a concealed 
lower portion bright blue, only noticeable when the skin is dis- 
tended; scales edged for the most part with black, the skin 
between them also black ; head somewhat darker brown above ; a 
broad black stripe begins behind eye and continues some distance 
on side of neck, growing narrower; a zigzag black line borders 



176 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



ventrals ; above this is a yellowish brown stripe, lighter than the 
body color, growing more indistinct as it continues along body; 
a zigzag line between subcaudals; a blackish area in loreal 
region ; the black edges of the scales are more prominent on ante- 
rior part of body; lips and chin a greenish yellow; belly im- 
maculate yellow. 

Table 35. — Measurements and scale counts of Dendrelaphis terrificiis 

(Peters). 



No. 



Locality. 



82 
83 
81 
406 
407 
404 
406 
408 
213 
214 



Mindanao .. 

do 

do 

Camiguin '^- 

do 

Polillo 

do 

Manila 

Siquijor 

Bantayan .. 



E.H.Taylor 

do 

do 

R. C. McGregor- 

do 

C. Canonizado 

do 

M. Ligaya 

A. Celestino 

do 



9 
d 

9 
? 
? 



Length. 



vim. 
1.060 
1,045 

765 
1,040 

830 
1.050 
1,085 
1,255 

840 
1,055 



Tail. 



mm. 

285 
276 
200 
286 
200 
301 
304 
330 
225 
287 



Ven- Sub- 
trale. IcaudaU 



163 
164 
162 
184 
181 
171 
169 
177 
173 
186 



96 
96 
94 
112 
103 
109 
106 
97 
104 
106 







Labials. 




No. 


Upper. 


Lower. 


Enter 
eye. 


Touch 

first 

chin 

shields. 

6 i 


82 


9 


10-11 


6,6 


83 


9 


10-9 


6,6 


5 


81 


9 


10 


5,6 


5 


405 


9 


10 


6,6 


5 


407 


9 


10 


5,6 


5 


404 


9 


11 


5,6 


6 


406 


9 


10 


5,6 


6 


408 


9 


10 


5.6 


6 


213 


9 


10 


6,6 


6 


214 


9 


10 


6,6 


5 



ocu- 
lars. 



Post- 
ocu- 
lars. 



Tempo- 
rals. 



Scale 

rows. 



2+2-F2 

2+2H-2 
24-2+2 
2^-2-^2 

2-H2 + 2 



Collection. 



2+2+2 


13 j 




^^ 


2 + 2+2 


13 


2H-2+2 


13 


2+2+2 


13 I 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



•^ Island north of Luzon. 



Variation. — There are two fairly well-defined color varia- 
tions evident in this species; one group represented in the 
Visayan Islands, Mindanao, and Polillo {Deudrophis philippin- 
ensis of Giinther and Dendrclaphis caendeatus of Griflin), and 
the second group in Luzon and islands to the north (Deudwphis 
caudolineatii.^ of Peters '■'■' non Gray and Deudrophis octo- 
lineatvs f of Parent! and Picaglia) . 



* Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 688. 

fAtti. Soc. Nat. Modena, Mem. Grig. 5 (1886) 50. 



PSEUDORHABDIUM 177 

The former group has a broad black band behind the eye 
which continues some distance on the neck and then disappears ; 
the outer row of scales and the outer edges of the ventrals are 
black, thus forming a ragged-edged stripe; above this is a 
yellowish green stripe lighter than the lateral body color. The 
skin between scaL-s is largely black, and many of the scales 
are edged with black. 

The latter group has the black stripe behind the eye which 
continues to some distance on the neck where it disappears, 
usually to reappear as a narrow black line above the lateral 
yellow-green line on the posterior two-thirds of the body; the 
dark edges of the scales form 8 longitudinal lines, most of which 
are very distinct, and some of them continue on tail. 

Due to the fact that the scale formulse are practically the 
same in the two groups I do not believe they should be re- 
garded worthy of subspecific distinction. 

Remarks. — The species is known in the Philippines from 
Mindanao, Samar, Polillo, Negros, Bantayan, Banton, Siquijor, 
Ticao, Luzon, and Camiguin. It is an arboreal species. Out- 
side the Philippines it is known in Celebes. 

Genus PSEUDORHABDIUM Boulenger 

Rabdion, part., Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 441, 
and Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 115; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Fili- 
pinas 1 (1895) 426. 
Pseudorahdion jAN, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 10. 
Oxijcalamus Gunther, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 199; Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 105; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Fili- 
pinas 1 (1895) 425. 
Rhahdion Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106. 
Pseudorhahdium Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 328; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 261; Taylor, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 362. 
Maxillary teeth, 10 to 12, subequal; anterior mandibulary 
teeth slightly longer than posterior; head not distinct from 
neck; eye small, with round pupil; nosti'il pierced in a minute 
nasal; internasals small; loreal present or absent; preocular 
small or absent ; no anterior temporals, parietals in contact with 
labials; body cylindrical; scales smooth, without apical pits, 
in 15 rows; ventrals rounded; tail short; subcaudals in 2 rows. 

Key to the species of Pseudorhahdium Boulenger. 

a'. No loreal present. 

b\ Frontal longer than broad; preocular usually present; supraocular 
small P. longiceps (Cantor) (p. 178). 

161466—12 



178 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

b'. Frontal little broader than long; supraoculars smaller still; preocular 

usually wanting P. oxycephalum (Gunther) (p. 179). 

a-. Loreal present; no preocular; postocular distinct or fused with supra- 
ocular P. mcnamarae Taylor (p. 180). 

The three known species of the genus are found in the Phil- 
ippines. All are small, burrowing snakes, seldom attaining a 
length of more than 280 millimeters. Pseudorhabdium oxyce- 
plialum and P. mcnamarw appear to be confined to the Philip- 
pines. The third species is widely distributed, being found in 
Malay Peninsula and other large East Indian islands. 

PSEUDORHABDIUM LONGICEPS (Cantor) 

Calamaria longiceps Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 63, pi., fig. 1. 

Rabdion torquatum Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen, 7 (1854) 119; 
Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 
Filipinas 1 (1895) 426. 

Pseudoralidion torquatum Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 
10, and Icon. Gen. (1865) 10, pi. 3, fig. 3. 

Oxycalamiis longiceps Gunther, Rept. Brit. Ind. (1864) 199; Sto- 
LICZKA, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 42 (1873) 120. 

Pseudorhabdion longiceps Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. V 
16 (1885) 389. 

Rhabdion torquatum Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106. 

Pseudorliabdiiun longiceps Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 
(1894) 329; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 261; Bar- 
bour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Coll. 44 (1912) 119. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger, Catalogue.) 
"Snout rather pointed. Rostral small, as deep as broad, well 
visible from above ; suture between the internasals one third or 
one fourth the length of that between the prefrontals ; frontal 
a little longer than broad, as long as or a little shorter than 
its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals, 
more than twice as broad as the supraocular; pra?ocular small 
(rarely absent) ; one postocular; five upper labials, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; symphysial in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields; three low^er labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are about twice as large as the posterior. 
Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 129-146; anal entire; subcaudals 
10-28. Tail pointed. Iridescent brown or black, with or with- 
out a yellowish collar; usually a yellowish vertical spot above 
the angle of the mouth." 

Measurcmcnis of PscudorltahdiiDn longiceps (Cantor). 



mm. 



Total length 230 

Snout to vent I95 

Tail 35 



r 



PSEUDOHHABDIUM 



179 



Remarks. — The only record for this snake in the Philippines 
is that of Peters, at Daraga, Luzon. Evidently it is very rare. 
The species is known from Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Nias, Su- 
matra, and Celebes. 

PSEUDORHABDIUM OXYCEPHALUM (Gunther) 

Rhahdosoma oxycephalum Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 242. 
Oxycalamus oxycepliahis Gunthee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1873) 

168 (fig.); BOETTGEE, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 105; Casto db 

Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 
Pseiidorhahdium oxycephalum Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 

(1894) 329; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 262; Taylor, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 364. 

Description of species. — Closely allied to Pseudorhabdium 
longiceps. Frontal a little broader than long, about half as long 






Fig. 14. I'seudorhahdium oxycephalum (Gunther) ; after Boulenger 
h, head, lateral view ; c, head) ventral view. 



head, dorsal view ; 



as parietal; supraoculars narrow, smaller still, and confluent 
with postocular; no separate postocular; rostral barely visible 
above; internasals small, about one-sixth of prefrontals; latter 
longer than wide, in contact with 2 labials, entering eye ; inter- 
nasal in contact with second labial; no loreal or preocular; a 
large posterior temporal bordering parietals; frontal broader 
than long, about four or five times as wide as supraocular; 5 
upper labials, third and fourth entering eye, fifth largest; 3 
lower labials touching first chin shields, which are as long as 
but nari'ower than second pair; scales in 15 smooth rows, with 
no apical pits; anal entire; male, ventrals, 136; subcaudals, 23; 
female, ventrals, 152; subcaudals, 16. 

Color. — Uniform iridescent blackish brown. 

Measurements of Pseiidorhahdium oxycephalu'm (Gunther). 



Total length 
Snout to vent 
Tail 



280 

260 

20 



180 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Remarks.— This species is known from Negros, where it was 
collected by A. B. Meyer. The type, collected by Cuming, ig 
labeled "Philippines;" the exact locality is no longer known. 
Only a few specimens appear to be known. 

PSEUDORHABDIUM MCNAMAR/E Taylor 
Pseudorhabdimn nwnamara; Taylor, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 
263. 
Description of species.— (From the type, No. 196, E. H. Tay- 
lor collection ; collected on Canlaon Volcano, Occidental Negros, 
December 24, 1915, at an elevation of about 900 meters, by 
E. H. Taylor.) Rostral small, about as wide as high, a large 
part visible from above; internasals moderate, five-sided, their 






a c 

Fig. 15. Pgriidmbalidiuiii monamarir Taylor; a, head, dorsal view: 6. head, lateral view; c, 

head, ventral view. 

sutures with nasal and prefrontal equal, forming their shortest 
suture with loreal; prefrontals nearly three times as large as 
internasals, entering eye. touching frontal, loreal, internasal, 
and supraocular, the longest suture with loreal, the shortest 
with supraocular; frontal hexagonal, a little wider than long, 
the sides touching supraoculars shortest, the parietal sides 
longest ; parietals at least twice as long as wide, six-sided, in 
contact with fifth labial ; nasal rectangular, much elongate, with 
nostril pierced near anterior edge close by rostral ; behind this 
a very much enlarged, elongate loreal, in contact with second 
and third labials, entering eye ; supraocular extending over 
only posterior part of eye and somewhat behind ; postocular 
fused with supraocular ; no anterior temporals ; a single large 
posterior temporal behind fifth labial, bordering on parietal; 
5 upper labials, fifth largest, in the following order of size : fifth, 
third, fourth, second, first; third and fourth enter eye; 5 lower 



PSEUDORHABDIUM 181 

labials; mental small, in contact with anterior chin shields, 
and separating first labials ; 3 labials touch anterior chin 
shields; second pair of chin shields slightly smaller than first; 
eye very small; anal undivided; ventrals, 140; subcaudals, 22; 
scales smooth, in 15 rows. 

Color in life. — Above very shiny, more or less iridescent, dark 
blackish brown to bluish brown ; about neck is a more or less 
distinct yellow collar (dim or almost wanting in adults), formed 
above by three or four small yellow spots ; a cream-colored 
spot on fifth upper labial ; below canary to yellowish cream with 
a dark area on outer edge of each ventral; posterior ventrals 
mottled, and subcaudals almost uniformly dark; occasional dark 
areas on middle part of ventrals. 

Measuremmits of the type of Pseudorhabdium mcnamarx Taylor. 

mm. 
Total length 242 

Snout to anus 220 

Tail 22 

Width of head 5.5 

Width of body 5 

Variation. — Males and females differ in the number of ven- 
trals and subcaudals, the averages being for males : ventrals, 
131; subcaudals, 28; for females, ventrals, 142; subcaudals, 22. 
Four specimens show the postocular fused with the supraocular, 
and in No. 197 a preocular is present. There is some variation 
in the relative length and width of the frontal. In some speci- 
mens these are equal and in one or two the length slightly 
exceeds the width. The females have the underside of the tail 
uniformly dark, while the males have it mottled and lighter. 
Nos. 192, 193, 194, and 195 have the second and third lower 
labials fused, thus leaving only two labials touching the first 
chin shields. 

Remarks. — The species is rather common at altitudes of 800 
to 900 meters on Canlaon Volcano. No specimens were taken 
at a higher or lower altitude. They were found under logs and 
rotting trash. They feed on earthworms and are in turn 
preyed upon by Cyclocorus lineatus, which is plentiful in the 
same locality. Specimens were usually found in pairs, a male 
and a female, in the same place. The females taken in Decem- 
ber contained three undeveloped eggs. The species is named 
for Mr. Homer McNamara, superintendent of the La Carlota 
Agricultural Station, who rendered able assistance in making 
collections on the volcano. 



182 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



This species represents a distinct section of the genus in 
having a loreal present. 

Table 36. — Measurements and scale counts of Psendorhahdium vicnamarx 

Taylor. 



187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 



Locality. 



Collector. 



186 I Mount Canlaon. Negros E. H.Taylor. 



_do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 



.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
-do . 
.do . 
.do . 
do , 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 
.do . 



Sex or 



Length. 



9 
9 
9 
9 

ye 

9 
9 



mm. 
193 
130 
163 
237 
229 
20S 
212 
163 
178 
8« 
242 
209 



o. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
tral s. 


Sub- 
cau- 
dala. 




mm. 






186 


17 


143 


23 


187 


16 


134 


27 


188 


18 


136 


28 


189 


18 


145 


22 


190 


20 


142 


21 


191 


19 


141 


22 


192 


18 


145 


20 


193 


20 


129 


27 


194 


20 


130 


28 


195 


11 


130 


29 


196 


22 


140 


22 


197 


20 


140 


28 



Character of 

poetocular. 



Collection. 



Distinct. 

do ... 

do ... 

do ... 

Fused ... 
Distinct. 

do .. 

do ... 

Fused -. 
Distinct. 
Fused -. 
do .. 



. H. Taylor. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Genus TYPHLOGEOPHIS Giinther 

Typhlogeophis Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 77; Boettgeb, 
Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 106; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. 
Mus. 2 (1894) 351. 

Typhlogeophus Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 425. 

"Maxillary teeth 8, subequal; mandibular teeth subequal. 
Head not distinct from neck; eye concealed under the ocular 
shield ; no supraocular ; nostril pierced in a minute nasal ; inter- 
nasals small ; no loreal or pra?ocular ; no temporals, the parietals 
in contact with the labials. Body cylindrical; scales smooth, 
without apical pits, in 15 rows. Tail short; subcaudals in two 
rows." (Bonlenger.) 



CALAMARIA 183 

This genus is known only from the' PhiHppines. It consists 
of a single known species, Typhlogeophis brevis, which is known 
only from the type. Judging by the absence of external eyes, 
the species is subterrestrial in habit. 

TYPHLOGEOPHIS BREVIS Gunther 

Plate 24, figs. 1 to 4 

Typhlogeophis brevis Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 77; 

BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) lC-6; Boulenger, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) .3.51; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § 

D 6 (1911) 262. 
Typhlogeophus brevis, Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 

(1895) 425. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Snout rather 
pointed ; rostral very small, nearly as deep as broad, just visible 
from above; suture between the internasals about 
half the length of that between the prsefrontals ; 
fi'ontal small, as long as broad, shorter than its 
distance from the end of the snout, half as long as 
the parietals ; five upper labials, fourth in contact 
with the ocular, fifth very large; two pairs of 
chin-shields, anterior largest. Scales in 1.5 rows. 

' " Fig. 16. Typh- 

Ventrals 153; anal entire; subcaudals about 15. io,,eophis 

Uniform blackish, scales and shields with whitish '"""s Gun- 
ther; alter 

edge. Bouleng-er, 

"Total length, 330 millim." '^"="^- '^°'"'"^' 

Remarks. — Only the type specimen appears to 
have been collected, and the exact locality is now unknown. It 
was taken by A. Everett, either on Mindanao or on Dinagat. 

Genus CALAMARIA Boie 

Ccdavmria BoiE, Ferussac, Bull. Sc. Nat. 9 (1826) 2.36; Isis (1827) 

519; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 60; Gunther, Cat. 

Col. Snakes (1858) 3; Kept. Brit. India (.1864) 105; Jan, Arch. 

Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (1862) 4; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

(1886) 105; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 281; Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 330; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 

Filipinas 1 (1895) 424. 
Calamaria, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 25; Wagler, Syst. 

Amph. (1830) 191. 
Typhlocalamus Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1872) 595. 

"Maxillary teeth 8 to 11, subequal; anterior mandibular teeth 
a little longer than the posterior. Head not distinct from neck; 
eye small, with round pupil; nostril pierced in a minute nasal; 




view. 



X84 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

no loreal;* no internasals; pr^ocular present or absent; no tem- 
porals, the parietals in contact with the labials. Body cylin- 
drical; scales smooth, without apical pits, m 13 rows; yentials 
roiuukd Tail short; subcaudals in two rows." {Boulengev.) 
This genus is widely distributed and consists of numerous 
species, most of which are local and variable. The snakes are 
small, never or very rarely attaining half a meter m ength, 
most of the species being less than a third of a meter m length. 
The species are without grooved fangs, and are harmless. 

Key to the Philippine species of Calamaria Boie.-f 
a' Mental in contact with anterior chin shields; no loreal. 
'W Frontal less than twice as broad as supraocular; young, reddish 
white with black rings; adults, black above, barred with alternate 

bands of black and white below C. grayi Gunther (p. 184K 

6= Frontal almost twice as broad as supraocular; rostral as deep aa 
broad- frontal nearly as long as parietals; young, light brown 
above, barred with darker brown; only a few anterior bars m 

adults; uniform yellowish below C. bitorques Peters (p- 185). 

b' Rostral as deep as broad; frontal shorter than parietals. 
c\ Tail length in total length fourteen to twenty times, brown above, 
with several fine light streaks on each side; yellow or barred 
black and yellow below. 

C. gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron (p. 186). 
c^ Tail length in total length nine and one-half times; brown with a 
row of white dots on sides, on outer scale row. 

C. snhiensis sp. nov (p. 189). 

b\ Rostral broader than deep; frontal shorter than parietals; brown 

above with longitudinal series of black dots; a yellow spot on each 

side of neck C. mindorensls Boulenger (p. 190). 

a-. Mental not in contact with anterior chin shields; no loreal. 

b\ Diameter of eye much more than its distance from mouth; brown 
above, with 2 longitudinal rows of dark spots on each side of a line 

of white dots- - C. everetti Boulenger (p. 191). 

b-. Diameter of eye less than half its distance from mouth; 2.50 ventrals; 
dark brown above, with the 2 outer scale rows tipped with yel- 
lowish; a yellow collar on neck; a pair of large pale lateral spots 

at base of tail.. - C. mearnsi Stejneger (p. 193). 

a\ Mental in contact with first chin shields; a loreal present; above, brown 
with darker dots; a dark brown nuchal collar, edged with yellow 
anteriorly and posteriorly; immaculate below. 

C. tropica sp. nov. (p. 194). 

CALAMARIA GRAYI Gunther 

Calavmria tjraui GiJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 6; BoETTGER, 
Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 105; BOULENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. 

* Calamaria tropica has a loreal. — E. H. T. 

t Casto de Elera lists C. vermiformis and C. tcmmiiickii. These records 
are probably erroneous. 



CALAMARIA lg5 

Mus. 2 (1894) 338; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 
(1895) 424; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 262. 

Calamaria lumbricoidea, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 5. 

Calamaria philippinica Steindachneb, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 
17 (1867) 514, pi. 13, figs. 4-6. 

Desc7'ipti07i of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Snout very 
short and broadly rounded. Rostral nearly as deep as broad, well 
visible from above; frontal a little longer than broad, sTiorter 
than the parietals, not t'wice as broad as the supraocular ; one 
prse- and one postocular ; diameter of the eye less than its distance 
from the mouth ; five upper labials, the four anterior subequal in 
size, third and fourth entering the eye; symphysial in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields; two pairs of chin-shields, in con- 
tact with each other. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 175-195; 
anal entire; subcaudals 14—24. Tail ending in a rather obtuse 
point. Young reddish white, with black rings ; adult uniform 
blackish above, alternately barred black and white below. 
Measurements of Calamaria grayi Gunther. 



mm. 



Total length 365 

Snout to vent 330 

Tail 35 

Remarks. — The types were collected in the Philippines by H. 
Cuming, 1832^1834 ; the exact locality is not knoAvn, and the 
species has not been rediscovered. 

CALAMARIA BITORQUES Peters 

Calamaria gervaisii, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. ,Snakes (1858) 4. 

Calamaria bitorques Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 585; Boettger, 
Bar. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 105; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. 
Mus. 2 (1894) 338; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 
424; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 262. 

Description of species. — (From No. 606, Bureau of Science 
collection ; locality and collector unknown, probably from Lu- 
zon.) (Adult female.) Head not distinct from body; rostral 
as wide as deep, broadly visible above; internasals and loreal 
wanting; prefrontals very large, in contact with 2 labials 
and rostral, not entering eye; frontal distinctly longer than 
broad, little less than twice as broad as supraoculars, longer 
than its distance to end of snout, little shorter than parietals ; 
latter large, as broad as long ; nostril in a minute nasal ; 1 small 
preocular ; 1 small postocular touching 2 labials and parietal ; no 
anterior temporals; a large posterior temporal bordering pa- 
rietal; 5 upper labials, last very large, first 4 subequal, third 
and fourth entering eye; mental rather large, in contact with 



186 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

large anterior pair of chin shields; second pair about half as 
large, not separated ; 5 lower labials, 3 touching first pair of chin 
shields; scales in 13 rows, smooth; ventrals 186; anal entire; 
subcaudals 18 ; diameter of eye equal to or slightly less than its 
distance from mouth; tail ending in a blunt point. 

Color in alcohol.''' — Dull yellowish brown above with brownish 
bands, separated by lighter interspaces on anterior fourth of 
body; these bands are narrow, scarcely more than the width of 
one scale ; the yellowish interspaces are only two or three scales 
wide ; head with a brown spot on each parietal ; below, uniform 
yellowish. 

Measurements of Calamaria hitorques Peters. 

mm. 

Total length 365 

Snout to vent 343 
Tail 22 

Width of head 7.5 

Length of head 9.8 

Variation. — The females have a much larger number of ven- 
trals and a smaller number of subcaudals than the males. The 
range known is : For females, ventrals, 183 to 199 ; subcaudals, 
13 to 18; for males, ventrals, 151 to 158; subcaudals, 18 to 21. 

Remarks. — This rare species is known only from Luzon. 
There is a single specimen in the collection of the Bureau of 
Science, without locality attached. Boulenger f lists five speci- 
mens from Luzon. 

CALAMARIA GERVAISIl Dumeril and Bibron 

Calamaria virguhda (non Boie) Eydoux and Gervais, in Guer. Mag. 
Zool. CI. 3 (1837) pi. 16, figs. 7-10; Voy. Favorite, Zool 5= (1S39) 
pi. 30, figs. 7-10. 

Calamaria fiervuisii Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 76; 
Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. 2 (18G2) 8; Icon. Gen. (1865) 10, 
pi. 2, fig. 1; GOnther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 77; Peters, 
Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 684; IMuller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. 
Basel Mus. (1883) 12; Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 
(1885) 80; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 105; Boulenger, 
Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2 (1894) 338; Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. 
§ D 6 (1911) 262. 

Culamaria r/crvaisii, part., GUNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 4. 

* The specimen is in an indifferent state of preservation and most of 
the original color and markings have disappeared, 
t Catalogue, loc. cit. 



CALAMARIA 187 

There are two known subspecies of Calamaria gervaisii in 
the Philippines.* These are Calamaria gervaisii gervaisii and 
Calamaria gervaisii iridescens. They may be distinguished as 
follows : 

Key to the subspecies of CcUamaria gervaisii Dumeril and Bib)on. 

a\ Ventrals, males, 148 to 158; females, 162 to 167; subcaudals, males, 
15 to 18; females, 12 or 13; brown with 3 lateral rows of white dots, 
and usually 4 dorsal rows of black dots. 

C. g. gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron (p. 187). 
a\ Ventrals, males, 158 to 165; females, 178 to 180; subcaudals, males, 
18 or 19; females, 14; dark iridescent brown above; only a single 
row of white dots along side of body. 

C. g. iridescens Taylor (p. 188). 

The former subspecies is especially common in Luzon, even in 
the city of Manila. f It is a gregarious, burrowing species. 

CALAMARIA GERVAISII GERVAISII Dumeril and Bibron J 

Description of subspecies. — (From No. 941, E. H. Taylor col- 
lection, collected in Manila by W. Schultze.) (Adult female.) 
Head not distinct from body ; rostral broadly visible above ; pre- 
frontals large ; no internasals ; frontal longer than broad, about 
twice the width of supraocular, much shorter than parietals; 
latter in contact for more than half their length; nasal very 
small, a mere rim around nostril, surrounded by rostral, first 
labial, and prefrontal; 1 small preocular; 1 small postocular; 6 
upper labials, fifth largest, third and fourth entering eye ; no 
anterior temporals ; one posterior temporal ; 6 lower labials, the 
3 anterior touching first chin shields which are in contact with 
mental; second pair of chin shields about half as large as first 
pair, barely in contact anteriorly. Scales in 1.3 smooth rows; 
ventrals, 162; anal single; subcaudals, 12. Tail length is con- 
tained in total length twenty times. 

Color in life. — Above, light brown with four rows of small, 
longitudinal, dark dots dorsally. The three outer scale rows 
with white dots, those on first and third rows largest and 
most distinct ; upper and lower edges of scales of outer row very 
dark brown, as are also edges of ventral scales; belly yellow- 
orange; ventrals with numerous small dots of dark color, with 
posterior edges of many scales dimly edged with darker; lower 



* Boulenger's variety C. may represent a distinct subspecies. 

t Kenneth, Carl, and Bettie Knust, three ardent young herpetologists, 
collected more than 300 specimens of C. gervaisii gervaisii about the yard 
of their home in Malate, Manila. 

J For synonymy see ispecies. 



188 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

part of upper labials yellow; chin and lower labials yellow, 
latter with dark dots; a dark line on underside of tail. 

Measurements of Calamaria ^ervaisii gervaisii Dumeril and Bibron. 

zum. 
Total length 260 

Snout to vent 247 

Tail 13 

Length of head 7.5 

Width of head 5.5 

Variation. — The chief differences in specimens are sexual. 
The females have longer bodies and shorter tails than the males, 
and a correspondingly larger number of ventrals and smaller 
number of subcaudals. The length of the tail in the females 
is contained in the total body length twenty times ; in the males, 
fourteen times. 

itemai'ks. — The females lay from three to six eggs, which are 
usually three times as long as wide. The young agree very 
well with the adults in coloration. A very common species. Due 
to its gregarious habits it is known to many Filipino peoples as 
ahas-na-cuyog. The subspecies is restricted to the Philippines; 
known to occur in Luzon. 

CALAMARIA GERVAISII IRIDESCENS Taylor 

Calamaria gei-vaisii iridescens Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 
(1917) 360. 

Description of subspecies. — (No. 201, E. H. Tayor collec- 
tion ; collected on Canlaon Volcano, Occidental Negros, De- 
cember 23, 1915, at an elevation of about 900 meters, by E. H. 
Taylor.) (Adult female.) Rostral a little deeper than broad, 
the part visible above equal to the suture between prefrontals; 
internasals absent; prefrontal very large, about as broad as 
long, touching 2 labials laterally; loreal absent; frontal much 
longer than its distance from end of snout, twice as wide as 
supraoculars, shorter than and not as wide as parietals ; nostril 
pierced in a minute nasal, latter fan-shaped ; 1 preocular, very 
small; supraocular scarcely twice as long as wide; 1 small 
postocular; 5 upper labials, last largest, third and fourth en- 
tering eye; an elongate posterior temporal behind fifth labial, 
bordering parietal; mental as deep as wide, touching chin 
shields ; 3 labials touch first pair of chin shields, which are much 
larger and slightly wider than second pair; scales in 15 rows; 
ventrals 178, subcaudals 14; anal single; tail length 21.8 in total 
length. 



m 



CALAMARIA X89 

Color in life. — Dark, iridescent brown above, with a very 
indistinct series of four darker lines, each minutely powdered 
with a lighter color. Series of white dots begin on outer row of 
scales and continue regularly to base of tail. A second row of 
dots begins on second row of scales, but continues only a short 
distance. Top of head mottled with dark brown, labials almost 
covered with yellowish white. Lower labials and scales on neck 
and chin yellow, with brown maculations. Ventrals barred 
across belly with blackish brown and canary-yellow bars; less 
heavy coloration in front of anus; underside of tail with a 
median dark line. 

Measurements of Calamaria gervaisii iridescens Taylor. 



mm. 



Total length 306 

Snout to vent 292 

Tail 14 

Variation. — Five specimens taken agree very well, save that 
the barring on the belly is much less distinct in very young 
ones. The females have more ventrals and less subcaudals than 
the males. 

Remarks. — This subspecies is common on Canlaon Volcano. 
Specimens were obtained from under logs. One specimen was 
disgorged by a captured specimen of Cyclocorus lineatus. 

CALAMARIA SULUENSIS sp. nov. 

Calamaria gervaisii Taylor, Philip. .Joui-n. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 260. 

Type. — No. 1837, Bureau of Science collection ; collected on 
Cagayan Sulu, November, 1917, by E. H. Taylor. 

Description of type. — Rostral about as broad as deep, visible 
above ; no internasal ; prefrontals large, in contact with 2 
labials laterally; frontal about one-third longer than wide, tAvo 
and a half times as wide as supraocular, shorter than parietals; 
latter in contact for a little more than half their length, in con- 
tact with fifth labial ; nasal a mere rim about nostril ; no loreal 
present ; 1 preocular, higher than wide ; 1 postocular ; no an- 
terior temporals; 1 posterior temporal; 6 upper labials in fol- 
lowing order of size : fifth, second, third, first, fourth, sixth, the 
third and fourth entering eye ; 6 lower labials, 3 touching anterior 
chin shields, first pair of labials not in contact; posterior chin 
shields nearly three-fourths as long as anterior. Scales in 13 
smooth rows; ventrals 154; anal single; subcaudals 25; tail much 
narrowed behind anus, its length contained in total body length 
nine and a half times. 



190 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Color in life.— Above iridescent brown; many scales on an- 
terior part of body with darker spots ; a row of white spots on 
outer row of scales ; lower edge of outer scale row brown, and 
the same color on extreme outer edge of ventrals ; a second 
row of white dots begins on second row of scales, but only con- 
tinues a very short distance; head brown with very dim dark 
spots ; upper labials yellowish on their lower parts ; lower labials 
with brown spots ; mental and anterior parts of first chin shields 
dark; belly immaculate canary; underside of tail yellow with a 
median dark brov^i line. 

Measurements of Calamaria suhiensis sp. nov. 

mm. 

Total length 266 

Snout to vent 239 

Tail . 27 

Length of head 8 

Width of head 5 

Remarks. — This species is related to Calamaria gervaisii Du- 
meril and Bibron, but differs from it in coloration and marking, 
and in having a longer tail with a higher number of subcaudals. 
The average number of subcaudals for C. gervaisii is about 17 
for males and 13 for females. In the type of C. siduensis. an 
adult female, there are 25 subcaudals, nearly double the number 
for females of C. gervaisii. The length of the tail of the females 
of C. gervaisii is contained in the total length twenty times; 
of the males, fourteen times. In C. siduensis the length of the 
tail is contained in the total length nine and a half times; also, 
the head is slightly longer, and the second pair of chin shields 
is longer than in C. gervaisii. 

The type was collected under a log near one of the lakes on 
the small isolated island Cagayan Sulu, in the southern part 
of Sulu Sea. 

CALAMARIA M I N DORENSI S Boulenger 

Calamaria mindorewtis Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 16 
(1895) 481; Cat. Snakes Bvit. Mus. 3 (1896) 64(i (addenda) ; Grif- 
fin, Philip. .Joui'n. Sei. § D 6 (1911) 262. 

Description, of species. — (From Boulenger, Catalogue.) "Ros- 
tral a little broader than deep, visible from above ; frontal longer 
than broad, twice as broad as the supraocular, shorter than the 
parietals; a prne- and a postocular; diameter of the eye equal 
to its distance from the mouth; five upper labials, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; symphysial in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields; two pairs of chin-shields in contact with each 



CALAMARIA 191 

other. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 193 ; anal entire ; sub- 
caudals 15. Brown above, with longitudinal series of black 
dots ; a yellow spot on each side of the neck ; a white spot on 
each scale of the outer row ; upper lip and lower parts yellowish ; 
a black spot at the outer end of each ventral ; a black line along 
the middle of the tail." 

Measurements of Calamaria mindorensis Boidenger. 

mm. 

Total length 240 

Snout to vent 227 

Tail 13 

Remarka. — The type of this species, an adult female, was 
collected in Mindoro by A. Everett. Only the type appears 
to have been discovered. 

The new species of Calamafia herein described, Calamaria tro- 
pica, is from Mindoro but differs from C. mindorensis in the 
presence of a loreal, and a dark brown neck band followed by a 
yellow band; a difference of 45 ventrals is also evident. 

CALAMARIA EVERETTI Boulenger 

Plate 24, figs. .5 to 9 

Calamaria everetfi Boulenger, Pioc. Zool. Soc. London (1893) 525; 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 14 (1894) 84; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 
2 (1894) 340, pi. 18, figs. 1, 2; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 
(1909) 599; § D 6 (1911) 26'2. 

Description of species. — (From No. 565, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, March, 1909, by C. 
M.Weber.) (Adult male.) Rostral distinctly broader than high, 
rather narrowly visible from above; internasals wanting; pre- 
frontals large, bordering labials laterally; fron- 
tal one and a half times as long as broad, slightly 
shorter than parietals, less than twice as broad 
as supraocular ; latter much shorter than frontal ; 
parietals elongate, broader than long; nostril ^'','!„^,.^.',(,; BoXngeV' 
pierced in nasal, small; no loreal present; an after Boulenger; 

1 , 11 ..(..,., n head, lateral view. 

elongate preocular, broader mieriorly; 1 small, 
distinct preocular; no anterior temporals; a large posterior 
temporal bordering parietal; 5 upper labials, third and fourth 
entering eye, fifth very large; 5 lower labials, first pair meeting 
behind mental, 3 touching anterior chin shields ; latter followed 
by a second, smaller, pair of chin shields, in contact with each 
other; scales in 13 rows, smooth; ventrals, 177; anal single; 




192 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



subcaudals, 24 pairs; head rather elongate; eye rather large, 
its diameter much more than its distance from mouth. 

Color in alcohol— AhoYe blackish brown with irregular 
rows of black dots; a continuous line of white dots covering 
outer row of scales; edges of ventral scales black, forming a 
zigzag black line below the white dotted line; another black 
line immediately above the lateral white line on second scale 
row ; a white line from snout along upper labials, covering them 
save for their upper parts ; top of head lighter brown with some 
darker mottling, particularly on outer edge of parietals; two 
whitish collars, one immediately behind parietals, and the other 
five scales back, neither crossing entirely the dorsal surface 
of neck ; a distinct dark spot on fifth labial and a posterior tem- 
poral spot; below, chin, neck, belly, and underside of tail im- 
maculate yellwish. 



Measurements of Calamaria everetti Boulenger. 



Total length 
Snout to vent 
Length of head 
Width of head 



315 

289 



5.5 



Variation. — A second specimen from the same locality agrees 
well in scalation. The lateral white line is very irregular, as 
many scales in the second row are white. Boulenger * lists 
three varieties of this species (only two of which are Philip- 
pine), as follows: 

A. Nape dark brown, with a yellow collar; belly unspotted. 

B. No collar; belly unspotted. 

C. No collar ; a series of black dots along the middle of belly. 

Table 37. — Measure7nents and scale counts of Calamaria everetti 

Boulenger. 















oi 






No. 

] 


Locality. 


Collector. 


m 


c 
mm. 


g i 


C 
CD 
> 


U2 


Collection. 










mm. 1 








665 


Iwahij^, Palawan 


C. M. Weber 


J 


SV, 


26 


177 


24 


Bureau of Science. 


95Z 


____do 


C.H.Lamb 


° 


295 


24 


181 


23 


Do. 



The first variety (A), a young specimen from Sarawak, Bor- 
neo, is the type. The second and third varieties (B and C) 
are from Palawan. The known ventral range is 144 to 184; 



* Loc. cit. 



CALAMARIA 193 

the subcaudal, 16 to 23 ; the low ventral count, 144, is from 
the Sarawak specimen. In the Palawan specimens the average 
count is 179 for ventrals. The variations in color may be due 
to the age of the specimens. 

Remarks. — Griffin ''■' has called attention to the fact that the 
Bureau of Science specimens differ in color and markings from 
those listed by Boulenger. Larger series of specimens may 
show constant variations which merit specific designation for 
these varieties. 

CALAMARIA MEARNSI Stejneger 

Calamaria mearnsi Stejneger, Smith. Misc. Coll. 50 (1908) 30; 
Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 262. 

Description of si^ecies. — (After the type description.) Ros- 
tral well visible from above ; frontal slightly longer than broad, 
more than twice as broad as supraoculars, shorter than parie- 
tals ; 1 preocular ; 1 postocular ; diameter of eye less than half 
its distance from edge of mouth ; 5 supralabials, third and fourth 
entering eye ; 2 pairs of chin shields, in contact with each other ; 
mental separated from chin shields by first pair of lower labials ; 
scales in 13 rows; ventrals 251; anal entire; subcaudals 12 
pairs; tip of tail rounded. 

Colo-}' m alcohol. — Dark brown above, each of the two outer 
scale rows broadly tipped with pale yellowish ; parietals and pre- 
frontals with pale yellowish markings; a pale yellowish collar, 
about two scales wide; seven scale rows behind head; a pair of 
large pale spots on sides at base of tail ; tip of tail pale, except 
extreme point which is dark; underside uniform pale with ends 
of ventrals like back; a dark brown line along middle of under- 
side of tail. 

Measuyetnenis of Calamaria mearnsi Stejneger. 

mm. 
Total length 270 

Snout to vent 262 

Tail 8 

Remarks. — This species is known only from the type. It was 
collected in Tangob, northern Mindanao, June 10, 1906, by Maj. 
E. A. Mearns. 

Stejneger remarks: "This species is apparently most closely 
allied to Calamaria everetti and the C. pavimenta group ; but 
differs from the latter in the number of supralabials, and from 
both in the much smaller eye ; the large number of ventrals dis- 

* Loc. cit. 

161465 18 



194 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

tinguishes it at once not only from these Calamarians but from 
all other species known from the Philippines and in fact from 
most of the species of the genus. C. gracillina from Borneo, 
exceeds it in having 300 and more ventrals, but it lacks pre- 
ocular and has no distinct postocular. C. collaris, from Cele- 
bes, has from 232 to 265 ventrals but has a much larger eye, 
and a very different style of coloration." 

CALAMARIA TROPICA sp. nov. 

Type. — No. 887, E. H. Taylor collection; collected on the low 
coastal mountains near Naujan, Mindoro, May 2, 1916, by E. H. 
Taylor. 

Description of itjpe. — (Juv.) Rostral about as high as broad, 
vv'ell visible above ; prefrontals large, not entering eye, later- 
ally in contact with first and second labials, their mutual suture 
scarcely longer than suture with frontal ; latter one and a half 
times as long as broad, longer than its distance from end of 
snout, slightly shorter than parietals, more than twice as long 
and twice as wide as supraoculars ; parietals much longer than 
wide, in contact with postocular and fifth labial ; nostril pierced 
in a minute nasal ; a small triangular loreal present, touching 
second and third labials ; a single narrow preocular ; postocular 
a little higher than wide ; no anterior temporals ; 6 labials, third 
and fourth entering orbit, fifth largest; mental moderate, not 
as wide as rostral, in contact with 2 large anterior chin shields, 
which are nearly twice the length of second pair, second pair 
of chin shields forming a mutual suture nearly half their length ; 
.5 lower labials, the 3 anterior touching first chin shields ; scales 
in 13 smooth rows; anal single; ventrals 150; subcaudals 19; 
body cyhndrical; tail ending in a blunt point; eye wider than 
its distance to mouth. 

Color in life. — Iridescent brown with numerous irregular dark 
dots; a more or less regular series of yellowish cream dots on 
outer row of scales, and another, less distinct, on third row; 
neck with a dark brown bar five scales wide, with a yellow-cream 
bar one or two scales wide behind it which unites with the yellow- 
cream ventral color ; top of head same as ground color of back 
with numerous dots and flecks of darker ; a yellow-cream irreg- 
ular line on prefrontal; dark color on upper head, on rostral 
and upper parts of labials; a very small dark area on upper 
anterior part of fifth labial ; the yellow-cream color on sides fails 
to meet medially to form a collar in front of dark nuchal bar; 
chin and belly immaculate; a dark line crosses outer edges of 
ventrals ; a median subcaudal dark line. 



BOIGA 195 

Measurements of Calamaria tropica sp. nov. 

mm. 

Total length 101 

Snout to vent 93 

Tail 8 

Remarks. — The species is based on a single specimen, the 
type. The presence of the loreal clearly differentiates it from 
all other species of Calamaria. The unique specimen was col- 
lected from under leaves along a forest path on the eastern 
Mindoro coast. 

SLIGHTLY POISOXOrS SNAKES 

BOIGIN^^ 

Hypapophyses absent in posterior part of vetebral column ; 
nostrils lateral, not valvular ; posterior maxillary teeth grooved : 
somewhat poisonous, but not dangerous to man. 

Five genera of the Boigina^ are known in the Philippines and 
are distinguished as follows : 

Key to the Philippine genera of the Boiginx. 

a'. Ventral scales rounded, not keeled or notched; pupil vertically elliptic. 
b\ Scales with apical pits; head very distinct from neck. 

Boiga Fitzinger (p. 19.5). 
b'. Scales with apical pits; head not strong-ly distinct from neck. 

Psammodynastes Giinther (p. 209). 
a\ Ventral scales strongly keeled and notched; scales with apical pits. 

b\ Pupil horizontal - DryoiJhiops Boulenger (p. 21.3). 

b-. Pupil round Chrysopelea Boie (p. 215). 

//'. Pupil vertically elliptic _ -. Dryophis Dalman (p. 218). 

Genus BOIGA Fitzinger 

Hurriii, part., Daudin, Kept. 5 (1803) 27.5, 

Boigu. part., Fitzinger, Neue Class. Rept. (1826) 29-31. 

Dipsas, part., BoiE, Isis (1827) 548; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 

257; GuNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 169; Jan, Elenco Sist. 

Ofid. (1863) 103; Gunther. Rept. Brit. India (1864) 307. 
Dipsadomorphu.'i Fitzinger, in Tschudi, Faun. Per., Herp. (1845) 55;: 

Syst. Rept. (1843) 27; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. j\Ius. 3 (1896) 

59. 
Macrocephahia Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 
Gonyodipsas Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 
Eiidipsas Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 
CephalopJm Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 27. 
Opetiodon Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sci. 23 (1853) 494; Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 905; Dumeril, Prodr. Class. Ophid. (1853) 98. 
Triglypliodon Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sei. 23 (1853) 507; 

Dumeril, Prodr. Class. Ophid. (1853) 111. 
Toxicodryas Hallowell, Proc. Ac. Philadelphia (ISoTi 60. 



196 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Boiga Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 264; Stejne- 
GEE, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 15 (1902) 16; BARBOUR, Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Coll. 44 (1912) 126. 

Pappophis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 2 (1877) 39. 

Dipsas Boulengee, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 357. 

Liophalhts Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1894) 427. 

"Maxillary teeth 10 to 14, subequal in size, followed by two 
or three enlarged, grooved fangs; anterior mandibular teeth 
longest. Head very distinct from neck; eye moderate or large, 
with vertically elliptic pupil ; posterior nasal more or less deeply 
concave. ' Body more or less compressed ; scales smooth, more 
or less oblique, with apical pits, in 17 to 31 rows, the vertebral 
row more or less enlarged; ventrals obtusely angulate laterally. 
Tail moderate or long; subcaudals in two rows." {Boulenger.) 

The genus is distributed through tropical Africa, southern 
China, Malay Archipelago, Papuasia, Australia, and Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine species of Boiga Fit:ingcr.* 

o'. Anterior palatine teeth but slightly enlarged. 

6\ Snout longer than diameter of eye; scales in 21 rows; body with 

numerous black and yellow bars B. dendrophila (Boie) (p. 197). 

b'. Snout as long as eye; scales in 19 rows; grayish or yellowish brown, 
with brown spots and crossbars, the latter extending across belly. 

B. angulata (Peters) (p. 204). 
a-. Anterior palatine teeth strongly enlarged. 

6\ Scales in 19 rows; brownish yellow above with black crossbar.s. 

B. philippina (Peters) (p. 206). 
b". Scales in 23 to 25 rows; head large; body brownish, barred with 
black, or uniform fawn color without trace of markings. 

B. cynodou (Boie) (p. 206). 

These snakes are arboreal in habit and, with the exception of 
the first, rare. The large size of the eyes suggests their noc- 
turnal habits. They prey largely on warm-blooded animals, such 
as birds and small mammals. The body is elongate, compressed, 
and the neck is usually slender. Boiga angulata and B. philip- 
pina are restricted to the Philippines; B. doidropliila and B. 
cynodon. are widely distributed. 

These snakes have two or three grooved fangs in the posterior 
part of the maxillae. This indicates that they are equipped with 
poison which probably would prove deadly only to birds and 
small mammals. There is no record to show that they are 
deadly to man, and it is almost certain that they are not. 



* Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 446, lists B. drapeezii 
Boie and B. fusca Gray from the Philippines, and two unidentified species. 
The records of the first two are erroneous. 



BOIGA 197 

The names Aguason and Agnaswn are applied to Boiga den- 
drophila in the Bicol provinces. In Dapitan it is called Lilusan. 
Boiga cynodon is frequently confused with the young pythons by 
various Mindanao peoples. 

BOIGA DENDROPHILA (Boie) 

Dipsas dendrophila BoiE, Isis (1827) 549; Wagler, Icon. Amph. 

(1828) pi. 8; Syst. Amph. (1830) 181; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 

(1837), 263; pi. 11, figs. 1-3; Abbild. (1844) 133, pi. 45, figs. 1-9; 

Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 76; Motley and Dillwyn, Contr. 

Nat. Hist. Lab. (1855) 47; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858), 

169; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 310; Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 

78; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1871) 38, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
Dipsas (Dipsas) dendrophila Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 

2 (1885) 81; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 113. 
Ti-iglyphodon dendrophilum Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

1086. 
Triglyphodon gemmicinctum Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

1091. 
Boiga dendrophila CoPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1860) 

264; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 214; § D 6 (1911) 

263; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Coll. 44 (1912) 125 
Dipsas (Triglyphodon) gemmicincta Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861), 

688. 
Dipsadomorphus dendrophihis (and varieties) Boulenger, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 70 and 71. 

This widely distributed species, which occurs from the Malay 
Peninsula throughout the East Indian Archipelago, goes through 
a large number of variations, several of which merit subspecific 
designation. Boulenger lists seven varieties in his Catalogue; 
namely, dendrophila Boie, melanotus Bleeker, annectens Bou- 
lenger, regidaris Boulenger, multicinctus Boulenger, gemmicinc- 
tus Dumeril and Bibron, and latifasciatus Boulenger. 

Of these varieties only dendrophila multicincta Boulenger and 
dendrophila latifasciata Boulenger occur in the Philippines; the 
former appear to be confined to Palawan, the latter to Mindanao 
and Samar. A third form, occurring in Luzon and Samar(?), 
differs very markedly from B. detuUrjjyhila latifasciata and prob- 
ably a little less so from the Palawan form. I propose to give 
this the subspecific designation B. dendropliila dicergens subsp. 
nov. 

Key to the Philippine subspecies of Boiga dendropliila (Boie). 

a'. 50 to 58 broad, greenish yellow bands about body and tail; ground 
color dark black, each scale in the yellow bands edged with black; 
ventrals, 207 to 222; subcaudals, 93 to 101. Mindanao and Samar. 

B. d. latifasciata (Boulenger) (p. 198). 



198 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

a-. 90 to 110 narrow, yellow bars on body and tail; ground color dark 
black; ventrals, 220 to 240; subcaudals, 105 to 115. 

B. d. mi'lticincta (Boulenger) (p. 200). 

(('. 81 to 97 narrow, grayish white bars; ground color dull black washed 
with gray; young, brownish with a yellow line defining the temporal 
region. Ventrals, 219 to 228; subcaudals, 80 to 87. Luzon, Samar, 
Polillo - B. d. divergens subsp. nov. (p. 201). 

BOIGA DENDROPHILA LATIFASCIATA (Boulenger) 

Dipsadomorphus dendrophilu^ var. latifasciatiis Boulenger, Cat. 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 71. 

Description of subspecies. — (From No. 18, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, October 10, 1912, 
by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Head short and blimt, much 
widened in parietal region, very distinct from neck; rostral 
somewhat wider than deep, barely visible from above, its sutures 
with internasals and nasals subequal ; internasals broader than 
long, not touching loreal, little shorter than prefrontals; latter 
broader than long, in contact with loreal and nasal, forming their 
smallest sutures with the former ; frontal seven-eighths as wide 
as long, broader than supraoculars but of equal length, as long 
as or a little longer than its distance from end of snout, 
its anterior suture a continuous straight line ; parietals large, 
much longer than wide, their width equaling length of frontal; 
a slightly enlarged transverse row of scales bordering labials, 
temporals, and parietals posteriorly ; nostril large, between 2 
nasals; loreal small, triangular, longer than wide, not entering 
eye; preocular large, widely separated fl'om frontal, visible 
from above; supraocular little longer than wide; 2 postoculars, 
inferior largest; temporals 2 -|- 3 (on the right side the lower 
is crowded back somewhat, and only 1 temporal touches post- 
oculars) ; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering eye; 
seventh largest ; sixth on right side is broken horizontally ; men- 
tal twice as wide as deep; 10 lower labials, 4 in contact with 
anterior chin shields which are much longer and broader than 
second pair; a small, third pair of chin shields; eye large, its 
diameter equal to its distance from anterior border of nostril; 
ventrals, 210; anal single; subcaudals, 98 pairs; body much com- 
pressed. 

Color in life. — Coal black above with (H) greenish yellow bands 
around body, each yellow scale bordered with black; the bands 
crossing belly usually the width of threa ventrals; about 16 of 
these bands belong to tail and do not extend entirely across 
ventral surface; on posterior part of body they do not cross 
entirely; first 24 ventrals on neck yellow, narrowly edged with 



BOIGA 



199 



black; upper and lower labials and scales under head yellow 
edged with black. Top of head black; 1 or 2 yellow spots on 
parietals, and posterior to and in front of eye are other spots 
of yellow. 

Measurementf; of Boiga dendrophila latifasciata (Boulenger) . 

mm. 

Total length 1,215 

Snout to vent 962 

Tail 253 

Width of head 23 

Length of head 31 

Variation. — The known range of ventrals in this subspecies 
is 207 to 222 ; of subcaudals, 93 to 101. In three specimens the 
loreal is absent; in no case is the loreal found entering eye. 
This subspecies usually has 3 pairs of chin shields. Only one 

Table 38. — Measurements and scale counts of Boiga dendrophila- lati- 
fasciata (Boulenger) . 



1727 



Bunawan, Agusan . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Mindanao 

Bunawan, Agusan _ 



, H.Taylor., 

-.do . 

-.do 

..do 

..do 



E. H.Taylor. 



Hi 








m 


bo 








a 










T) 












o 








a 


y. 


c 






JH 




<D 








"' 


J 


Eh 


> 


m 




mm. 


Vim. 








1.21B 


253 


210 


98 


9 


708 


137 


207 


93 


c 


1,020 


217 


211 


97 


9 


960 


206 


218 


101 


yg 


6B0 


12B 


213 


101 


? 






210 


94 


yg 



















No. 



m 




, 


T) 


r. 


S 




a 




•g 




°j 








u 


o 


o 


CL, 


fc 


Pairs. 






3 




2 


2 




2 


3 




2 


3 




2 


2 




2 


3 




2 


3 




2 









S3 
o 

►J 



3.4,6 
3,4,5 ' 
3,4,5 
3,4,5 1 
3,4,5 i 
3,4,5 
3.4.5 



10 
10 
10-11 
10 
10 
10 
11 







■i 








o 


'■ 




« m 






t 


S41 


e 




o 


O +J 


aj 




J 


J 


H 


CQ 


1 





2+3 


21 


1 





2+3 


21 


1 





2+3 


21 








2+3 


21 


1 





2 + 3 


21 








2 + 3 


21 








2+3 


21 



Collection. 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Santo Tomas. 
Bureau of Science. 



specimen, the one described, shows the tendency of the sixth 
and seventh upper labials to break ; in the other subspecies this 
tendency is very pronounced. 

Remarks. — This subspecies is common at Bunawan, Agusan, 
Mindanao. A number of specimens taken were lost, and many 



200 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

seen were not taken. The snake was always found in low brush 
and trees, invariably away from the ground. It makes no or 
very little effort to fight. One specimen taken had just eaten 
a bat. This subspecies is probably confined to Mindanao and 
the near-by islands. Samar apparently has two forms of the 
species. Boettger reports a specimen of Boiga dendrophila 
latifasciata from there, and there is a specimen of B. denrlro- 
phila divergens in the Santo Tomas Museum presumably from 
Samar. 

BOIGA DENDROPHILA MULTICINCTA (Boulenger) 
Plate 25; Plate 26, figs. 4 to 6 
Dipsadomorphus dendrophilus var. multicinctus BouLENGER, Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 71. 
Boiga dendrophila midticincta Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoo!. 
Harvard ColL 44 (1912) 125. 

Descri-ption of subspecies. — Similar to Boiga dendrophila lati- 
fasciata, but with a higher number of ventrals and subcaudals; 
ventrals vary between 220 and 240, the average being 231 ; sub- 
caudals vary between 10,5 and 115, the average being 111 ; there 
are 11 instead of 10 lower labials; there is a decided tendency 
for the seventh labial to break horizontally, thus in eight of the 
thirteen specimens examined this division has occurred ; there 
are only 2 pairs of chin shields present, and the number of 
labials touching the first pair is 4 or 5. One specimen has 
the loreal entering the eye below the preocular.* The temporal 
elements frequently assume the position represented by the for- 
mula .. +3. 

Color. — Body above black with a large series of narrow yel- 
lowish to yellowish white bars on body and tail ; the number of 
bars varies from 93 to 111, the average being 106; these light 
bars are seldom more than 1 scale wide. 

Measurements of Boiga dendrophila nmltichteta {Boulenger) , No. 906, 
Bureau of Seieiiee eoUeetiou. 



mm. 



Total length 1,100 

Snout to vent 900 

Tail OiiO 

Remarks. — This subspecies is common in Palawan and in Ba- 
labac; I obtained the specimens in my own collection from the 
latter locality. These do not differ from those found on the 
Palawan mainland. 



* Boulenger records this same anomaly on a specimen in the British 
Museum, op. cit. 70. 



BOIGA 



201 



Table 39. — Measurements and scale counts of Boiga dendrophila niulti- 

cincta (Boulenger) . 



No. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


'A 

M 


bi 

c 
J 


'3 


1 

> 


i 


C 


2 








mm. 


mm. 








prs. 


7 


Iwahig, Palawan 


W. Schultze 


9 


1,360 


290 


228 


105 




2 


668 


do 


C.M.Weber 


9 


1,410 


325 


231 


113 




2 


666 


do 


do 


rf 


1,350 


280 


220 


113 




2 


676 


do 


_,-..do 


? 


1.120 


?50 


?37 


113 




2 


701 


do 


do 


9 


1,040 


^15 


237 


113 




2 


906 


do 


C. H. Lamb 


9 


L160 


260 


229 


113 




2 


917 


do 


do 


rf 


1,102 


nf\ 


?2<1 


113 




•^ 


918 


do 


do 


? 


1,400 


285 


240 


106 




2 


919 


do 


do 


9 


1,400 


?90 


?31 


111 




9 1 


1367 


do 


P. Gilman 


ri- 


680 


146 


233 


115 




2 


1338 


do 


C. Canonizado 


cT 


1,270 


300 


221 


111 




2 1 





No. 



7 
668 
656 



701 


2 


906 


2! 


917 


'\ 


918 


2! 


919 


2 


1367 


2 


1338 


2 



0) 


_« 


iJ 


Lower 
bials. 


3,4,5 




3,4,6 




3,4,6 


10-11 


3,4,5 




3.4,5 




3.4,5 


10-11 


3,4,5 




f 3,4,5 


1 


I 4,6,6 


(11-11 


3. 4, 6 


11-11 


3.4,5 




3,4,6 





S c 

h-i U 

5 
6 
4 





m 1 
















C . 1 














<u 


CD i 








' 


a 


J 


1 


] 

No ; 


1 


No! 


1 


No 



.1- 

24-3 
( 2-3 
I 24-2 

f2 

IT 



--1-2 



No 
No 



24-3 
24-3 



No I 34-3 
Noi[|43 



Yes 
No 



24-3 
2+3 





» 








£1 


s 


_o 






m 


>^ 


J21 


104 


21 


103 


]21 


104 


}21 


111 


|21 


100 


21 


111 


21 


110 


21 


111 


}21 


109 


21 


110 j 


21 


93 ' 



Bureau of Science. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



BOIGA DENDROPHILA DIVERGENS subsp. nov. 

Type.— No. 186, E. H. Taylor collection; collected on Mount 
Maciuiling, Laguna, Luzon, November 12, 1913, by E. H. Taylor. 

Description of type.— Head large, blunt, double the width of 
neck; rostral a little wider than high, forming its smallest 
sutures with first labials; internasals rather small, about half 
as large as prefrontals ; latter forming their smallest suture with 
loreal, their longest with frontal, their mutual suture deep; 
frontal with anterior suture forming a straight line, sides round- 



202 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

ing instead of angular; wider than supraocular and about the 
same length ; parietals large, longer than wide, very much larger 
than frontal, in contact laterally with one temporal and upper 
postocular; supraoculars much wider behind than anteriorly, 
broadly in contact with prefrontals ; nasal divided, the anterior 
part quadrangular, lower than posterior; nostril large; loreal 
small, narrowly entering eye below preocular, touching 2 labials ; 
preocular higher than wide ; eye large, equal to its distance from 
middle of nostril; 2 postoculars, upper slightly the larger; tem- 
porals, 2 + 2 ; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth broadly 
entering orbit; labials in the following order of size; seventh, 
sixth, eighth, fifth, third, fourth, second, first; mental small, as 
wide as rostral ; 10 lower labials, 5 touching anterior chin shields, ■ 
which are double the size of second pair; third pair of chin 
shields small; mental groove very deep; scales in 21 rows around 
body; ventrals, 228; anal single; subcaudals, 80 pairs. 

C(Aor 'in life. — Above bluish, the larger part of the scales 
with a wash of light gray-ultramarine, more pronounced on pos- 
terior part of body; back with 63 narrow, bluish white, trans- 
verse bands extending to edge of ventrals where they widen 
slightly and are more yellowish in color on belly; tail with 
16 bands; yellowish dots on supraoculars and prefrontals; a row 
of bluish white dots outlines the posterior temporal region; 
upper and lower labials each with a large yellowish white area 
enclosed with black, except on border of mouth ; lateral head 
scales with light spots ; anterior ventrals and chin scales yellow- 
ish edged with black. 

Measurements of Boiga doidrophila divcrgcyxs subsp. nor. 

mm. 

Total length 1,370 

Snout to vent 1,114 

Tail 256 

Width of head 27 

Length of head 35 

Variation. — Two specimens in the Bureau of Science collection 

from Polillo '■' show the following variations from the type: 

The loreal in both specimens is smaller and does not enter eye; 

2 
the temporal formula of one is 2 + 3 and -h 3 and of the 

other, 2 + 3 ; in one specimen there are four labials touching 
the first chin shields, in the other (a young one) five; the ground 
color is brown, darker on anterior part of body; the transverse 



Griffin. Philip. .Tourn. Sci. S D 5 (1910) 214. 



BOIGA 



203 



bars are yellowish white and encircle body on anterior part; 
belly grayish brown ; there are yellow spots on all the head scales . 
except frontal, those in front of eye prominent; a line begins 
on eye and runs along edge of parietal and around temporal 
region to labials; two small posterior branches run a short dis- 
tance on neck. There is a specimen in the Santo Tomas Mu- 
seum, presumably from Samar. 

Rernarks. — This subspecies is probably more closely related 
to the Palawan Boiga dendrophila miilticincta than to the Min- 
danao B. dendrophila latifasciata. The number of ventrals 
varies between 219 and 228 ; of subcaudals, between 80 and 87 ; 
the ventrals average 223, 8 less than in B. dendrophila multi- 
cincta, and the subcaudals average 83, which is 28 less than in B. 
dendrophila vmlticincia; 10 is the usual number of lower labials. 
None of the specimens examined shows the seventh labial broken. 
The difference in color, the markings in the temporal region, and 
the smaller number of subcaudals suffice to distinguish this 
form from the other two Philippine subspecies. 

Table 40. — Measurements and scale counts of Boiga dendrophila divergens 

subsv. nov. 



186 
805 
806 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Laguna. 
Polillo „ 

do ... 

Samar ... 
Manila.. 



E. H. Taylor.. 
C. Canonizado. 
do 



C 

1-1 



■niTn. 

1.370 

1,128 

375 



Tiint. 

256 

-140 

74 



228 
223 
223 
222 
219 



(") 



Yes. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 
No. 





Labials. 


Temporals. 


Scale rows. 


White bars. 




No. 


g 
P 


Lower. 


Enter eye. 


Touch chin 
Bhields. 


Collection. 


186 


8 


10 


3.4,5 


5 


2+2 


21 


79 


E. H. Taylor. 


805 


8 


10 


3,4,5 


4 


f- 


1 =■! 


'83 


Bureau of Science. 


806 


8 


10 


3,4,5 


5 


J 2+3 
1 2 + 3 


! "■'. 


98 


Do. 




8 


1 11 

1 To 


1 3, 4, 5 


4 


2+3 


21 


93 


Santo Tom^is. 




8 


10 


3,4,5 


6 


2+3 


21 


86 


Do. 



'^ Tail mutilated. 



204 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

BOIGA ANGULATA (Peters) 
Plate 26, figs. 1 to 3; Plate 27 

Dipsas {Dipsadumorphus) angvlata PETERS, Mon, Berl. Ak. (1861) 

688; BOETTGER, Her. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 113; (1892) XLIX. 
Dipsas (Eudipsas) gwiraonis * Steindachner, Novara, Rept. (1867) 

75, pi. 3, figs. 9, 10; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 113; 

F. MiJLLER, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 18; 

Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 81. 
Dipsadomorphus angulatus Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 

(1896) 75. 
Boiga ayigidata Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 213; § D 6 

(1911) 263; Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 366. 

Descrvption of species. — (From No. 271, Bureau of Science 
collection ; collected on iVTount Marapara, Occidental Negros, 
September, 1909, elevation, 715 meters, by F. W. Foxworthy.) 
(Adult male.) Head short, rather thick, but little longer than 
wide; supraocular region prominent; diameter of eye minutely 
shorter than its distance from end of snout ; rostral distinctly 
broader than high, scarcely visible from above, forming its 
longest suture with nasal ; internasals small, their surface round- 
ing, truncate anteriorly, broader than long; prefrontals broader 
than long, with a distinct depression at posterior end of their 
common suture; frontal as long as wide, slightly shorter than 
its distance from end of snout, a little wider than supraoculars, 
not in contact with preocular, its anterior suture forming a 
straight line ; parietals slightly longer than broad, a little longer 
than frontal, in contact with 1 postocular, their edges irregular ; 
nasal large, followed by a very small loreal, higher than wide; 
1 preocular, elongate, wider at top than bottom; 2 postoculars, 
upper largest ; temporals 2 -f 2, the upper anterior touching both 
postoculars; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering 
eye; mental as wide as rostral, very short; 10 lower labials, 
5 touching first chin shields, which are much longer and wider 
than posterior pair; scales in 19 rows, smooth, distinctly an- 
gular on body, with the median row enlarged; median laterals 
very small ; scales on neck much elongate, narrow, and pointed ; 
ventrals, 267; anal single; subcaudals. 152; body very slender, 
compressed; neck very long, extremely narrow, less than one- 
third the width of head. 

Color in alcohol— Above a light yellow brown, with a Inrge 
series of dim, darker brown, transverse bands or blotches which 
widen laterally and are discernible on belly; a series of large 
lighter spots along edges of ventrals ; belly strongly marked with 



^*I follow Boulenger in regarding this a synonym of Boiga angidata. 



BOIGA 



205 



darker, elongate, brown spots, arranged in two broken lines 
on ventrals ; head brownish flecked with darker ; upper labials 
light, throat and chin muddy white. 



Measurements of Boiga o.ngidata (Peters). 



Length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 



mm. 

1,477 

1,107 

370 

18 

15 



Variation. — A second specimen from Polillo "' is at hand. It 
agrees very well in scalation with the one described. The bars 
on body and the ground color above are darker ; below there are 
fewer dark spots, and no traces of the dark line noted in the 
described specimen. The frontal in the second specimen is as 
long as or a little longer than its distance from end of snout. The 
known ventral range of the species is from 254 to 267 ; subcaudal 



Table 41. — Measurements and scale counts of Boiga angulata (Peters). 



271 
•789 



(t) 



Locality. 



Negros 

Polillo ._.- 
Los Ean03 
Leyte 



F. W. Foxworthy . 

C. Canonizado 

Unknown 

F. Jagor 









m 








c^ 
















3 














4J 




c 




c 












►J 


B . 


> 


m 


mm. 


mm. 






1,477 


370 


267 


152 


1,105 


260 t 


260 


O120 


1,005 


276 


263 


147 


1,015 


240 


264 


126 



No. 



271 
■789 



(») 



3,4,5 
3,4,6 
3,4,5 
3,4,5 



10 

10-11 

10 



■J5 



Ea 



2+2 I 
2+2 ; 
2 + 1 + 3 



19 ! Bureau of Science. 
19 ! Do. 

19 College of Af^riculture. 
19 Berlin ? 



^ Tail slightly mutilated and part missing. 

'■ Type, data from Peters. Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 688. 

range, from 126 to 152. The type is said to have a divided 
nasal. In the specimen I have described the nasal has a slight 
depression or suture partly dividing it; the second specimen 
shows no suture or depression. 



* Griffin, Philip. JoUrn. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 214, makes note of the variation 
of this specimen, and records the fact that the stomach contained a large 
Calotes. 



206 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The type is from Leyte, collected by F. Jagor. Specimens have 
been taken also in Polillo, Negros, and Catanduanes. 

BOIGA PHILIPPINA (Peters) 

Dipsas ■philippina Peters, Mon. Beri. Ak. (1867) 27; Boettger, Ber. 

Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 113. 
Dipsadomorphus philippinus BoULENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

3 (1896) 77. 
Boiga philippina Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 263. 

Description of species. — (After the type description.) An- 
terior palatine and mandibular teeth strongly enlarged; head 
very broad; neck narrow; rostral broader than deep, just visible 
from above; internasals broader than long, much shoi-ter than 
prefrontals; frontal as long as broad, or a little longer, as long 
as its distance from rostral ; loreal about as long as deep ; 2 
preoculars, upper in contact or nearly in contact with frontal; 
2 postoculars ; temporals variable ; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, 
and fifth entering eye; 12 lower labials; scales in 19 rows, ver- 
tebral row hexagonal and stronglj'^ enlarged ; ventrals, 240 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals, 133. 

Color. — Brownish yellow above, with black crosslines ; head 
spotted with black, but no temporal streak present. 

Measiu-emcnts of Boiga philippina {Peto's}. 

mm. 
Total len^h • 690 

Snout to vent 535 

Tail 155 

Head length 20 

Remarks. — I have been unable to obtain a specimen of this rare 
reptile. The type locality is "Ylaces,* Northwest Luzon," col- 
lected by Semper. It is known only from the tjiJe. 

BOIGA CYNODON (Boie) 

Dipnas cynodoh BoiE, Isis (1827) 559; Guerin, Icon. Reg. Anim. 

Rept. (1829) pi. 21, fig. 2; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 268, 

pi. 11, figs. 10 and 11; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 308; 

•JAN, Icon. Gen. (1871) 38, pi. 6, fig. 1; Sclater, Journ. As. 

Soc. Bengal 60 (1891) 244; Boettger, Abh. Mus. Dresden No. 7 

(1894-95) 4. 
Dipsas cynodov, part.. Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 77. 
Opetiodon cynodon Dumeril and BlBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 907. 
Eudipsas cynodon Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1S,5S) 168. 
Pareas waandersii Bleeker, Nat. Tijds. Nederl. Ind. 21 (1860) 471. 
Dipsas (Eudipsas) cynodon Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 

113; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 435. 



* Probably a misspelling of Ilocos (or Ylocos as the name was formerly 
spelled), a province in Luzon. 



BOIGA 207 

Dipsadomorphuti cynodon Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 

(1896) 78. 
Boiga cynodon GRIFFIN, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 599; § D 5 

(1910) 213; § D 6 (1911) 264. 

Description of species. — (From No. 88, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, March, 1909, by W. 
Schultze.) (Adult male.) Anterior palatine and mandibular 
teeth very strongly enlarged; head large, distinct from neck; 
rostral scarcely visible above, broader than deep, forming its 
longest suture with nasal, its shortest with first labial ; inter- 
nasals broader than long, curving downward on sides, rather 
narrowed in front, their mutual suture little more than half 
that between prefrontals ; latter very much larger than inter- 
nasals, forming their shortest sutures with nasals and supra- 
oculars, broader than long, a little shorter than frontal; latter 
about five-sixths as wide as long, shorter than its distance from 
rostral, little wider than supraoculars ; parietals very little longer 
than wide, in contact with upper postocular, nasal divided, nos- 
tril large ; loreal present, longer than high ; preocular single, 
very high, visible above, touching only fourth labial below ; 2 
postoculars, subequal in size; temporals 3 + 2; 9 upper labials, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth entering eye, eighth largest; mental 
much broader than deep ; 13 and 14 lower labials, 5 touching 
anterior chin shields which are much smaller than second pair; 
5 labials touching second pair of chin shields; scales with apical 
pits, in 23 rows around body, the outer ventral row strongly 
enlarged ; ventrals 268 ; anal single ; subcaudals 149 ; eye very 
large, its diameter about equal to its distance from nostril ; 
body very strongly compressed ; neck long and slender. 

Color in alcohol. — Above yellowish to dark brown with about 
44 more or less distinct transverse bands on body, and about 
35 on tail where they are wider and are separated by only a 
very narrow interspace ; bars distinct on neck ; head dark brown 
without spots; a distinct black line from eye to angle of jaw; 
below, immaculate on chin, throat, and belly; muddy under tail. 

Measuremoits of Boiga cynodon (Boie). 

Total length 1,915 
Snout to vent . 1,450 

Tail 465 

Width of head 22 

Length of head 36 

Width of neck 10 

Width of body 15 

Variation. — A second specimen (No. 89) in the collection of 
the Bureau of Science agrees with the described form in scala- 



208 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



tion, and is almost identical in color and markings. A third 
specimen, in my own collection, differs from the described form 
as follows: In my specimen the black blotches are very much 
wider inclosing elongate grayish spots ventrally, about 28 on 
body and about an equal number on tail. Head has 2 small 
spots on frontal and another spot on each parietal ; the black line 
behind eye is present. Below, body is muddy yellow with a 
series of irregular black blotches along both sides of ventrals; 
below, tail is dark, variegated with lighter spots. Width of 
head is 32 millimeters ; length of head, 45. There are 14 and 
15 lower labials; the loreal is nearly twice as long as wide; 
the diameter of eye is less than its distance to nostril. 

Table 42. — Measiirements and scale counts of Boiga cynodon (Boie) . 



90 

263 

89 



Locality. 



Palawan- 

PoliUo 

Bunawan, Agusan _ 

Philippines 

Lo3 Baiios, Luzon _. 



Collector. 



W. Schultze-.- 
C. Canonizado _ 
E. H. Taylor--- 
C. H. Lamb---- 
do 







^ 


x: 


















c 






01 






J 


B 


> 


ynni. 


inin. 




1.915 


466 


268 


1,590 


398 


269 


2,020 


465 


263 


1.725 


425 


279 


1,065 


240 


271 



149 
143 
141 
153 
135 



88 

90 

253 

89 



a. 


v.* 

g 3 


II 

D-2 


— u 
2 I' 0) 

rt <!; ^ 


SI 


\ 


2 
2 

I 
2 


9 
9 
9 
9 
8-9 


4.6.6 
4.6.6 
4,5,6 
4,5,6 
3, 4. 6; 4, 6, 6 


13-14 
14-15 
14 
14-16 
15-13 



1 en 
2 g2 « 



4-5 
4-5 
6-5 
6-6 ' 
4-6 : 



Collection. 



23 Bureau of Science. 

23 i Do. 

23 ! E. H. Taylor. 

23 ' Bureau of Science. 

23 ! Collegre of Agriculture. 



There is a single fawn-colored form in the Bureau of Science 
collection (No. 90). It has no markings of any kind. In the 
size of the head, in body proportions, and in scalation it agrees 
with the two specimens recorded above. 

The knoATO variation of ventrals in Philippine specimens is 
261 to 279 ; of subcaudals, 129 to 153. The range for the species 
given in Boulenger's Catalogue '■' is 248 to 290 and 114 to 156 
for the ventrals and subcaudals, respectively. The temporals 
range from 2 -f 2 and 2 -f 3 to 3 + 3 and 3 + 4. The upper 
labials vary from 8 to 10, and there is consequent variation in the 
number of labials entering the eye. The species attains a length 
of more than 2 meters. 



* Loc. cit. 



PSAMMODYNASTES 209 

Remarks. — This snake is rare in the Philippines. Boulenger 
lists a single specimen from the Philippines, in the Cuming col- 
lection. A specimen is in the collection of the College of Agricul- 
ture at Los Baiios, Luzon; the stomach of this one contained 
a bird. In the Philippines it is known from Polillo, Luzon, 
Cuhon, Mindanao, Leyte, and Palawan. Outside of the Phil- 
ippines it is known from Burma, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Su- 
matra, and Nias. 

Genus PSAMMODYNASTES Giintlier 

Psammophis, part., BoiE, Isis (1827) 521; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 
(1837) 201; Dumeril and Bibeon, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 887; Peters, 
Mon. Berl. Ak. (1868) 452. 

Psammodynastes Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 140; Jan, Elenco 
Sist. Ofid. (1863) 90; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 292; 
MocQUARD, Bull. Soc. Philom. VII 11 (1887) 172; Boulenger, 
Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 363; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 
(1896) 172; Boettgee, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 110; Casto 
de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 432. 

Thamnodynastes Werner, Abh. Bayer Akad. Wiss. II. Klasse 22 
(1904) 372. 

Anisodon Rosen, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VII 15 (1905) 176. 

Anwodontes Rosen, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VII 16 (1905) 128. 

"Maxillary teeth 9 to 11, third or third and fourth much 
enlarged, fang-like, followed by a short interspace, last enlarged 
and grooved; anterior mandibular teeth strongly enlarged. 
Head distinct from neck, with angular canthus rostralis; eye 
rather large, with vertically elliptic or subelliptic pupil; nostril 
in a single nasal ; frontal very narrow. Body cylindrical ; scales 
smooth, without pits, in 17 or 19 rows; ventrals rounded. Tail 
moderate or rather short; subcaudals in two rows." {Bou- 
lenger.) 

The genus has two species, Psammodynastes pulvertdentiis 
(Boie) and P. pictus Peters. Only the former has been found 
in the Philippines. 

Snakes of this genus are probably slightly poisonous, but 
certainly not deadly to man. They rarely exceed half a meter 
in length. 

PSAMMODYNASTES PULVER U LENTUS (Boie) 

Psammophis pulverulenta BoiE, Isis (1827) 547; Schlegel, Phys. 

Serp. 2 (1837) 211, pi. 8, figs. 10 and 11; Abbild. (1844) pi. 43, 

figs. 1-4; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 895. 
Dipsas feii'ugmea Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1839) 53; Blyth, 

.Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 23 (1854) 293; 24 (1855) 715. 
Psammodynastes pulverulentzis, part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes 

(1858) 140. 

161466 14 



210 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Psammodywistes pulverulenUis GiJNTHER, Cat. CoL Snakes (1858) 
251; Eept. Brit. India (1864) 292; Zool. Rec. (1867) 188; Peters, 
Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 687; Theobald, Cat. Kept. Brit. India (1876) 
188; Fischer, Arch. Nat. (1885) 62; Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 
2 (1885) 81; MocQUARD, Bull. Soc. Philom VII 11 (1887) 172, pi. 
3; 12 (1888) 104; F. Muller, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel 
Mus. (1883) 17; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 110; Bou- 
LENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 363; Cat. Snakes Brit. 
Mus. 3 (1896) 172; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 
388, figs. 317-319; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600; 
§ D 5 (1910) 214; § D 6 (1911) 264. 

Psalmodynastes pidverulentus Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 
(1917) 366; § D 13 (1918) 260 (typ. err.). 

Lycodon bairdi SteindAchner, Novara Exped. Zool. I. Rept. (1867) 
90 (type locality, Philippines). 

Anisodon lilljeborgi Rosen, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VII 15 (1905) 
176, pi. 11, fig. 3. 

Description of species. — (From No. 79, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, October 1, 1912, 
by E. H. Taylor.) Rostral wider than high, visible from above 
as a narrow line, the suture with internasals shortest, that with 






Fig. 18. Paaiiiiiiodiinastcs pulverulentun (Boie): al'lor Stejneger; 
6, head, lateral view : c. head, ventral view. 



head, dorsal view ; 



nasal longest; internasals small, triangular, less than half the 
size of prefrontals ; latter large, in contact with loreal, preocular, 
and nasal; frontal elongate, much longer than wide, longer 
than its distance from end of snout, shorter than parietals, a 
little wider than supraoculars, its sides concave, pointed behind ; 
parietals large, longer than wide; nasal longer than deep, nos- 
tril pierced near middle; loreal small, irregular, touching 2 
labials ; 2 preoculars, the upper five times as large as the lower, 
visible from above only as a point ; supraocular large, broadly in 
contact with prefrontal and preocular, much larger than fron- 
tal, projecting out over eye, its edge continuous with the rather 



PSAMMODYNASTES 211 

sharp canthus rostralis; 2 postoculars, the inferior largest; 
temporals irregular, only a single temporal in contact with 

2 
postoculars; the formulfe are: right side, , -i- 2; left side, 2 + 2; 

8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering eye, seventh 
and eighth largest; 7 lower labials, three in contact with first 
pair of chin shields ; 3 pairs of chin shields ; lips slightly puff'ed 
out ; preocular region concave ; scale rows, 17, all smooth ; 
ventrals, 170 ; anal single ; subcaudals, 53. 

Color in life. — Dark ash color above with a series of irregular 
blotches extending to end of body. The blotches are somewhat 
lighter than the surrounding ground color, and usually involve 
two or three very dark scales ; tail a much lighter ash color, 
showing the blotches indistinctly; below grayish, with a heavy 
powdering of minute brownish spots; neck with various light 
dots which continue at irregular intervals along body; head 
markings very indistinct; a brilliant orange spot on each of 
the six chin shields, and a similar spot on sixth labial. 

Measurements of Psammodynastes pulverulevius (Boie) 

mm. 

Total length 575 

Snout to vent 472 

Tail 103 

Variation.- — The scale variations in this species are numerous ; 
this is especially true of the lateral head scales. The loreals 
vary between 1 and 2 ; preoculars, 1 and 2 ; postoculars, between 
1 and 8. For the most part there are 3 pairs of chin shields, 
yet in the large series examined many specimens were found 
with only 2. No considerable series from any particular island 
or locality has been obtainable. Six specimens recently exam- 
ined from Balabac Island, just north of Borneo, show the fol- 
lowing characteristics : Five have 3 postoculars, one has 2 ; 
four have 1 loreal, two have 2; four have 3 pairs of chin 
shields, two have 2. These variations are apparently normal. 
All six specimens vary widely in color and markings. I do 
not believe it will be possible to separate any subspecific forms 
on the basis of color or scale variation. 

The ventrals in the Philippine specimens examined range 
from 151 to 173; the subcaudals, from 53 to 69. Stejneger * 
gives 146 to 175, and 44 to 66 as the known range of the ven- 
trals and subcaudals, respectively. 

The coloration, especially the ground color, varies greatly. 
Certain specimens are grayish brown with large, transverse, 

* Loc. cit. 



212 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



angular ashy spots of lighter color. Others are yellowish 
brown, the edges of the scales edged with brick red, and with 
blackish reticulations. Still others are dark with the underpart 
of the head dark black with brilliant orange spots, and so on. 
There seems to be no limit to the variations possible. 

Table 43. — Measurements and scale eourits of Psammodynastes pulver- 

identiiH (Boie). 



Collector. 



6ns 

609 
913 
914 
1563 
1624 



Bunawan, Agusan : E. H. Taylor. 

do , do 

Philippines Unknown 

do do 

do ' do 

do do 

do do 



in^n.l mm. 



.do . 



do 

Port Banera, Zamboanjra 

do 

Busuank^a W. Schu-ltze 

— .do do 

Bunawan, Agusan ' E. H. Taylor 

Polillo C. Canonizad 



W.J.Hutchinson | 9 

-...do '■' ,: 



675 
368 
460 
355 
432 
362 
340 
422 
560 
385 
365 
590 
342 
390 



103 
73 



72 
80 



362 


81 


159 


61 


340 


63 


151 


55 


422 


77 


158 


67 


560 


100 


165 


53 


385 


88 


158 


69 


365 


86 


156 


66 


590 


123 


173 


69 



62 
81 



53 j 
■57 I 
62 I 
61 ! 

60 I 

61 ] 

6? 
53 
69 
66 
69 
56 
61 I 



79 
80 



608 I 

609 I 
913 
914 

1563 
1624 





























3 




























u 


O 


o 


0, 


&< 


J 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3-2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2-1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3-2 


1-2 


2 


2 


2 



u 






Oj 


oi 











Collectio 



3,4,5 
3,4,6 
3, 4. 5 
3,4.5 
3,4,5 
3.4,5 
3.4.6 
3.4,6 
3. 4, 6 
3,4,6 
3,4,6 
3, 4. 5 
3, 4. 5 
3,4.5 



6 




2 + 2 


17 , 


2 + 2 


17 



2+2 
2+2 

2+2 



7 


3 


3 


2 + 3 


S 


3 


3 


2 + 3 


7 


3 


2 


2t3| 




3 


2 


2 + 2: 


7 


3 


2 


2-i-2 


' 


3 


3 


2 1-2 


7 


3 


3 


2+3 




3 


2 


2 + 2 


7 


3 


■' 


2 1-2 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 
Santo Tomas. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Mulihitcd. 



/?c«;acA-,s'.— This snake probably occurs on all the Philippine 
islands; it is known from Luzon, Polillo, Palawan, Balabac, 
Mindanao, Bongao, Busuanga, Negros, and Dinagat. It is also 



DRYOPHIOPS 213 

widely distributed over southeastern Asia, Malay Archipelago, 
and Formosa. The specimens are usually taken in forests, fre- 
quently under logs and trash, and quite as often while crawl- 
ing about in the open, or on small bushes. 

Genus DRYOPHIOPS Boulenger 

Chrysopelea, part., GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 88; Kept. Brit. 
India (1864) 298; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 112'; 
Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 434. 

Dryophis, part., jAN, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 88. 

Dryopkiops Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 193; Grif- 
fin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 264. 

"Maxillary teeth 20, subequal, the last two or three a little 
enlarged and grooved ; anterior mandibular teeth enlarged. Head 
elongate, distinct from neck, with distinct canthus rostralis; 
eye rather large, with horizontal pupil; nasal entire; frontal 
narrow, bell-shaped. Body slender, compressed; scales smooth, 
oblique, with apical pits, in 1.5 rows ; ventrals with suture-like 
lateral keel and a notch on each side corresponding to the keel. 
Tail long; .subcaudals in two rows, keeled and notched like the 
ventrals." (Boulenger.) 

Two species are known, D)-yophiops rubescens Gray, and D. 
philippina Boulenger, only the latter occurring in the Philip- 
pines. This species is presumably confined to the northern 
part of the Philippines. It difi'ers from the former species in 
the absence of a loreal scale. 

DRYOPHIOPS PHILIPPINA Boulenger 

Plate 6, figs. 4 to 6 

Chrysopelea rubescens Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 145; Rept. 

Brit. India (1864) 299; Steindachner, Reise d. Novara, Rept. 

Wien (1869) 71; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1SS6) 112; 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 434. 
Dryopkiops philippiyia Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

193, pi. 9, fig. 2; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 264. 

Description of species. — (From No. 132, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion ; collected at Lamao Experiment Station, Bataan, Luzon, 
June 20, 1915, by Homer C. McNamara.) Rostral low, at least 
twice as wide as high, visible from above only as a line, largest 
suture with internasal, smallest with first labial; internasals 
narrowed in front, shorter than nasals ; prefrontals wide, deep, 
large, in contact with second and third labials, about twice as 
large as internasals; frontal as long as its distance from end of 
snout, slightly wider than supraoculars, laterally concave, some- 
what bell-shaped, narrowly separated from preocular; parietals 



" 



214 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

large, three-fourths as wide as long, bordered laterally by 4 tem- 
porals, in contact with superior postocular ; nasal single, wedge- 
shaped, nostril pierced near central upper part; loreal wanting; 
preocular rather large, touching 2 labials; supraocular as long 
as and but slightly narrower than frontal, in contact with 
prefrontal at a single point; 2 postoculars, superior largest; 
temporals 2 + 2 + 2 + 2, gradually increasing in size ; first scale 
row behind temporals and parietals somewhat enlarged ; 9 upper 
labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering eye; 9 lower labials, 4 
in contact with anterior pair of chin shields ; these are not 
more than half the length of second pair ; ventrals 186 ; anal 
divided; subcaudals 135; scales in 15 smooth rows, somewhat 
rectangular in shape, apical pits wanting; ventrals and sub- 
caudals with keel and notch, the ends rather angular; diameter 
of eye much less than distance from nostril, pupil horizontal. 
Color in life. — Above dull brownish gray, with many of the 
scales on first fourth of body edged or spotted irregularly with 
black, the rest of body with scattered dorsal spots, the scales 
minutely powdered with small various-sized dots ; below creamy 
white, with a powdering of small and minute dots; throat and 
chin immaculate; hea'd thickly spotted with rather large brown- 
ish spots; prefrontals each with a short line; internasals with 
diagonal lines ; an irregularly edged line of lavender edged with 
dark brown goes from point of snout through eye to neck, and 
widens a little at angle of jaw ; a dull stripe from occipital region 
to neck. 

Measurements of Dryopliiops philippina Boidertgar. 



mm. 



Total length 558 

Snout to vent 373 

Tail 185 

Length of head 18 

Width of head 10 

Va)iatioii. — The three specimens listed from the Bureau of 
Science collection are grayish lavender in color. No. 1486 shows 
much less spotting on the dorsal and the ventral surfaces than 
does the specimen described. The knowTi ventral range is from 
177 to 186; the subcaudal, from 111 to 135. Boulenger lists a 
specimen 750 millimeters long. 

Remarks.— This species is known from Luzon, Mindoro, and 
Sibuyan. I failed to find it in Mindanao. A single specimen 
was observed in Bataan near the foot of Mount Mariveles, but 



CHRYSOPELEA 



215 



it escaped without being captured. Three specimens are listed 
in Boulenger's Catalogue; one is from northern Luzon, and the 
other two are specimens collected by H. Cuming, labeled "Philip- 
pines." 

The species is arboreal and feeds on small lizards for the 
most part. The grooved fangs suggest the presence of poison 
glands. The poison is incapable of serious Injury to larger 
animals or man. 

Table 44. — Measurements and scale counts of Dryophiops philippina 

Boulenger. 



132 

207 
I486 
1487 

695 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Lamao, Bataan . 

Manila 

Mindoro 

do 

Sibuyan 



H. C. McNamara 

Mrs. Graham 

Marine Biological Expedition . 

do 

H. M. Weber 



Se.x. 


Length. 


Tail. 




7mn. 


mm. 


c" 


558 


185 


? 


710 


230 


^ 


537 


180 




627 


"160 


? 


590 


180 



Ven 
trals 



186 
181 



179 
186 



■io. 


Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


Anals. 


Preocu- 
lars. 


Post 
oculars. 


Upper 
labials. 


Labials 
enter 
eye. 


Tempo- 
rals. 


Scale 
rows. 


132 


135 


2 




2 


9 


4.5,6 


2 + 2+2 


15 


207 


123 


2 




2 


9 


4,6,6 


2+2+2 


15 


1486 


134 


2 




2 


9 


4,5,6 


2+2+2 


15 


1487 


(») 


2 




2 


9 


4,5,6 


2+2+2 


15 


696 


111 


2 




2 


9 


4,6,6 


2+2+2 


15 



E. H. Taylor. 
Bureau of Science 

Do. 

Do. 
E. H. Taylor. 



■> Mutilated, 



Genus CHRYSOPELEA Bole 

Chrysopelea BoiE, Isis (1827) 520; Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 
188; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 195. 

"Maxillary teeth 20 to 22, subequal, the last three a little 
longer and grooved; anterior mandibular teeth longest. Head 
distinct from neck; eye rather large, with round pupil. Body 
elongate, compressed; scales smooth or feebly keeled, oblique, 
with apical pits, in 17 rows; ventrals with suture-like lateral 
keel and a notch on each side corresponding to the keel. Tail 
long; subcaudals in two rows, keeled and notched like the ven- 
trals." (Boulenger.) 

Only a single species, Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw), enters the 
Philippines. It is a widely distributed form and varies much 
in coloration. The loreal is a variable element. 



216 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

CHRYSOPELEA ORNATA (Shaw) 

Plate 11, figs. 6 to 8 

Coluber ornatus Shaw, Zool. 3 (1S02) 477. 

Tyria ornata Fitzingee, Neue Class. Rept. (1837) 60. 

Chrysopclea ornata BoiE, Isis (1827) 546; Dumeeil and BiBRON, Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 1042; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1869) 33, pi. 1, fig. 1; Boett- 

GEK, Ber. Offenb. Ver. Nat. (1888) 84; Boulenger, Faunri Brit. 

India, Rept. (1890) 371; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 196. 
Crysopelca ornata TAYLOR, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 366; § D 

13 (1918) 261, typ. err. 

Description of species. — (From No. 428, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion ; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, 1912, by E. H. 
Taylor.) Snout distinctly flattened; rostral but little broader 
than deep, broadly visible from above, its broadest suture formed 
vpith nasals ; internasals more than half as large as prefrontals 
and nearly as long; prefrontals forming subequal sutures with 
frontal, preocular, and internasal ; frontal broadest at its ex- 
treme anterior portion, longer than wide, but little wider than 
supraocular and about as long, equal to its distance from end of 
snout; parietals very broad, nearly as broad as long, longer 
than frontal, touching only superior postocular ; 2 nasals, sub- 
equal in size; nostril rather large; loreal about twice as long 
as high; preocular large, visible from above, touching frontal; 
supraoculars very broad; 2 postoculars, superior largest; tem- 
porals 2 + 2 + 2 ; 9 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth enter- 
ing eye; 11 lower labials, first 5 touching first chin shields 
which are shorter and broader than posterior; mental trian- 
gular; scales smooth, with apical pits, in 17 rows, no evidence 
of keels present; ventrals 214, each with a strong keel and 
notch, the outer parts rounding and turned up on side, the 'last 
ventral divided; subcaudals 119, keeled and notched (extreme 
tip of tail injured). Head distinct from neck; eye large, pupil 
round. 

Measureraents of Chiysopelea oynutn (Shaic) . 

mm. 

Total length cjy.i 

Snout to vent YQr, 

T^>1 255 

Length of head .,- 

Width of head ^o 

Coloi- in life. — Black above with a large yellowish green spot 
on each scale; spots larger on sides; red spots on middle line 
of back arranged like a four-petaled flower ; a yellow band crosses 
behind parietals, and another in front of parietals; a third line 
crosses head in front of frontal; various black and yellow 



CHRYSOPELEA 



217 



irregular lines crossing head; temporals each with a greenish 
yellow spot; upper labials yellow, their upper edges black; chin 
and throat immaculate greenish yellow. 

Variation. — The specimens studied have a ventral range of 
from 208 to 218, and a subcaudal range from 128 to 142. The 
preocular frequently fails to touch the frontal. There are seven 
specimens in my collection from central eastern Mindoro, five 
of which have the loreal scale wanting, and the head abnormally 
flat. The specimen's examined from northern Mindoro do not 
exhibit these characters. Two specimens from Balabac also 
have the loreal wanting, but they differ greatly in color and 
markings from Mindoro specimens. Boulenger mentions that 
the loreal is sometimes fused with the prefrontal. 

Table 45. — Measureinents and scale counts of Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw). 



402 
234 



Sex. 



241 
247 


* 1 

9 1 


249 


9 


368 


9 


428 


9 


595 


9 


832 


9 



Locality. 



Camiguin 

Polillo 

do 

do 

do 

Bunawan. Agusan _ 

do 

do 

Bubuan Island 



Collector. 



R. C. McGregor _. 

C. Canonizado 

do . 

do 

do 

E. H. Taylor 

do 

do 

do 



Total 
length. 


Tail 
length. 


Ven- 
trals. 


mm. 


ni^n. 




975 


284 


209 


760 


242 


208 


1055 


315 


217 


806 


237 


214 


910 


280 


208 


765 


230 


213 


962 


256 


214 


900 


248 


218 


970 


= 140 


208 



No. 



402 
234 
241 
247 
249 
368 
428 
695 
1832 



Sub- 


Upper 


Lower 


Pre- 
ocular 


dais. 


labials. 


labials. 


touches 






frontal. 


134 


9 


10 


Yes 


138 


9 


9 


Yes 


142 


9 


10 


No 


134 


9 


10 


No 


130 


9 


10 


Yes 


138 


10 


11 


Yes 


(=>) 


9 


11 


Yes 


128 


9 


11 


Yes 


(■>) 


9 


8 


No 



Post- 
oculars 



Present- 
....do -- 
.---do -- 
---.do - 
...do -- 
.--.do.. 
....do .. 
....do.- 
....do-. 



Tem- 
porals 



2-1-2-1-2 
2I-2+2 
2-|-2-t-2 
2+2+2 
2 + 2 + 2 
2+2+2 
2+242 
2+2+2 
1+2 + 2 



Collection. 



Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 



" Tail mutilated. 



The specimens vary considerably in color, but this is largely 
due to age. The young are dark brown to blackish traversed 
by very numerous greenish or reddish yellow bars ; specimens 
somewhat older have greenish spots on the black scales between 
the light bars ; medium-sized specimens usually exhibit the series 
of red spots on the black line as in the described specimen. 



218 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Some older specimens become almost a uniform brown, with a 
few black marks dorsally. Specimens preserved in formalin 
become a deep blue-black in color. I believe that large series 
from various islands will probably show constant variations 
of sorts. 

Remarks. — This species is- widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines. It is known from Luzon (several localities) , Polillo, Ca- 
miguin, Mindoro, Banton, Bantayan, Mindanao, Samar, Pala- 
wan, and Bubuan. 

It is widely distributed throughout the Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. The species is probably slightly poisonous, but is 
not dangerous to man. 

Genus DRYOPHIS Dalman 

Dryimis, part., Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 136; Dumeril and 

BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 808. 
Dryophis Dalman, Oefvers. of Zool. Arb., Stockholm (1822); Fit- 

ZINGER, Neue Class. Rept. (1826) 29; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. 

India, Rept. (1890) 367; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 177. 
Tragops Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 305. 
Passerita Gray, Ann. Phil. 10 (1825) 208; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes 

(1858) 160. 
Psammophis, part., Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 887. 
Tropidococcyx GiJNTHEK, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Ill 6 (1860) 428. 

"Maxillary teeth 12 to 15, one or two in the middle much 
enlarged, fang-like, and followed by an interspace, after which 
the teeth are very small; one or two posterior grooved fangs, 
situated below the posterior border of the eye ; mandibular teeth 
increasing in length to the third or fourth, which is very large, 
fang-like; the posterior small. Head elongate, distinct from 
neck, with strong canthus rostralis and concave lores ; eye rather 
large, with horizontal pupil; nostril in the posterior part of a 
single nasal; frontal narrow, more or less bell-shaped. Body 
much elongate and compressed; scales smooth, without apical 
pits, in 15 rows, disposed obliquely, vertebral row slightly en- 
larged; ventrals rounded. Tail long; subcaudals in two rows." 
{Boulenger.) 

Key to the Philippine speeiet; of Dryophif: Dalman.. 

o". Anal divided; 1 preocular; 3 labials entering eye; 3 small lorcals; 

internasal in contact with labial D. prasinus Boie (p. 219). 

a-. Anal single; 2 preoculars; internasals not in contact with labial; 2 

labials enter eye. 

6'. Loreals small; color green, blue-green, or reddish. 

D. preocularis sp. nov. (p. 222). 
b\ A large loreal below 2 small ones; color gray. 

D. ^riseus sp. nov. (p. 221). 



DRYOPHIS 219 

DRYOPHIS PRASINUS Boie 

Dryinus nasutus Bell, ZooL Journ. 2 (1825) 327. 

Dryophis prasinus BoiE, Isis (1827) 545; Schlegel, Abbild. (1837) 

pi. 8, figs. 1-6; GuNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 159; Jan, Icon. 

Gen. (1869) 33, pi. 5, fig. 1; Boulengbr, P'auna Brit. India, Rept. 

(1890) 369; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 181; Peters, Mon. 

Berl. Ak. (1861) 688; Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg (1885) 

80. 
Dryinus prasinus, part., Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 81. 
Oxyhelis fidgidus, part., Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

817. 
Tragops prasinus Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 824; 

GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 303; Casto de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 434 (and var.). 
Tragops xanthozonius DuMERiL and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 824; 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 435. 

Description of species. — (From No. 257, Bureau of Science 
collection ; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, December 22, 1907, by 
C. M. Weber.) Head narrow, elongate; snout projecting; ros- 
tral small, barely visible above; anterior edge of nasals also 
visible above; internasals much longer than wide, in contact 
(on one side only) with second labial; prefrontal about twice 
as long as wide, posterior edges rounding, overlapping frontal; 
frontal elongate, much narrowed posteriorly, shorter than its 
distance to end of nose; supraoculars very large, nearly as wide 
as long, wider than frontal; parietals long, somewhat longer 
than frontal ; nasal three times as long as wide ; 3 and 4 very 
small loreals ; 1 large, irregular preocular ; 2 postoculars, upper 
larger ; temporals 2 + 3 -}- 3, third upper largest ; 9 upper labials, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth entering eye, seventh largest, ninth much 
elongate ; mental small, as wide as rostral ; 8 and 9 lower labials, 
first 4 in contact with first pair of chin shields which are very 
much shorter than second pair; latter bordered by 2 labials; 
eye large, pupil horizontal; a deep elongate depression from 
eye to nostril ; scales in 15 rows, the median somewhat enlarged 
toward posterior part of body; scales on back above anal region 
keeled; ventrals, 211, each with indistinct keels laterally; sub- 
caudals, 177; anal divided. 

Measurements of Dryophis prasinus Boie. 

mm. 

Total length 1,400 

Snout to vent 888 

Tail 512 

Length of head 37 

Width of head 14 



220 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Color in alcohol.— Above greenish lavender, more greenish 
anteriorly; skin between scales lavender with the skin whitish 
between alternating transverse rows ; belly grayish or greenish, 
with two distinct cream stripes running entire length of body 
on outer side of ventrals. 

Reviarks.— This is the typical Dryophis prasiims and agrees 
well with Eoulenger's description of the species in having 1 
preocular, 3 labials entering eye, and the divided anal ; the varia- 
tion in ventral counts as shown in the table is 209 to 222; of 
subcaudals 174 to 202, all of which counts fall well within Eou- 
lenger's limits. 

Table 46. — Measurements and scale eotatts of Dryuphis prasinus Bote. 



253 
256 
266 
257 
258 
263 
267 
268 
272 
273 
276 
346 1 



Locality. 





jn 








rt 








Td 






d 


3 














a 


8 


H 


u 










; > 


W 


< 


a 



Palawan _ 

do ._. 

do .._ 

do ... 

do ... 

do --. 

do ... 

do ... 

do .. . 

do ... 

do ._. 

do ... 



M. Weber 1,160 

..do ' 1,340 



450 



.do . 
.do 



1,440 
1,400 



.do I 1,370 



do 

do 

do 

C. H. Lamb . 

W. Schultze. 

C. M. Weber. 
do 



1,410 
970 
953 



.510 
512 



500 
340 



211 
218 
219 
211 
221 
222 
219 
209 



300 

! 4S5 



215 
213 



192 

202 

189 

177 

198 i 

177 

191 

192 



263 
255 



267 
258 
263 
267 
268 
272 
273 
275 
345 



2 


9 ■ 


2 


9 1 


2 


9 1 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 




8 



9 
9 

8-9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 



tJ 




0) 








c 




0) . 














o 


c3 




J2 


£ 


CB 


OJ 


J 


H 


4.5,6 


2 + 3+3 


4. 5. 6 


2 + 3 + 3 


f 4,5.6 


U_i.9-i-:? 



14,5,6,7 r^ " 
4,6,6 ' 2-1-2 
4. 5. 6 
4, 5, 6 
4,5.6 
4,5,6 
4, 5, 6 
4.6.6 
4., 5. 6 
4,6,6 



3 I 
2+3-i 3 
2+2 1 3 I 
2 1-3+3 
2 + 3-1 4 
2 1 3-13 
2 1-3-13 
2-i 3-1 3 
2 I 2 I 4 i 



2 a 



- 
Yes 
Yes 1 

Yes I 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes i 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



Collection. 



Bureau of Science. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



DRYOPHIS 221 

This species in the Philippines is probably confined to Pala- 
wan and the near-by islands ; outside the Philippines it is known 
in southern Asia and the Malay Archipelago. 

DRYOPHIS GRISEUS sp. nov. 

Type. — No. 271, Bureau of Science collection; collected on 
Camiguin Island, Cagayan Islands, in 1907, by R. C. McGregor. 

Description of type. — (Adult male.) Head long, slender, 
snout projecting; rostral visible above, the projecting part some- 
what striate ; internasals long, narrow, not touching labials ; 
prefrontals nearly twice as long as wide; frontal elongate, 
shorter than its distance to end of snout ; parietals a little longer 
than broad; nasal elongate, four times as long as wide; 2 mod- 
erate-sized loreals above a very large loreal; 2 large preoculars, 
upper touching frontal; 2 postoculars; an anterior and a poste- 
rior subocular ; temporals 2 -[- 3 + 3, third upper largest ; 8 and 
9 upper labials, third and fourth upper labials broken, normally, 
leaving the lower postocular and a large square loreal scale 
below the 2 upper loreals; fifth labial enters eye; 9 and 8 lower 
labials, fourth and fifth touching anterior pair of chin shields, 
which are smaller than second pair ; ventrals, 208 ; subcaudals, 
160 (tip of tail missing; estimated 15 subcaudals also missing) ; 
anal single, body compressed with only very indistinct lateral 
keels on ventrals. 

Color in alcohol. — Above uniform gray, growing lighter gray 
on sides ; skin on neck and body between scales black and white, 
the black extending on scales on anterior part of body ; tail above 
gray, at base mottled with darker, growing brownish toward 
end ; belly gray-white with a cream-white stripe along sides 
of belly ; tail dark mottled below. 

Measurements of Dryopkis griseus sp. nov. 

mm. 

Total length 1,498 

Snout to vent 951 

Tail 547 

Length of head 36 

Width of head 16 

Variation. — Two other specimens are in my collection ; one 
from Limay, Bataan, the other from Montalban, near Manila. 
The Limay specimen agrees with the type in practically all de- 
tails save that the fourth labial enters the eye, and the tail is 
not so dark as in the type. 



222 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Remarks. — This species may be identical with Cope's variety 
laeta. Unfortunately his description is not at hand. If the 
species are identical, then Cope's name will be used as a specific, 
and not as a varietal name. 

Known from Luzon and Camiguin Island. There is a speci- 
men of this species in the collection of the Ateneo de Manila. 
This species differs from Dryophis prasirms in having an un- 
divided anal, and in having 2 preoculars instead of 1. 

From Dryophis preocvlaris it differs in the presence of a large 
loreal in front of the lower preocular. From both it differs in 
the distinctive coloration. It is probably most closely related to 
D. fasciolatus but differs in the number of loreals and pre- 
oculars. 

Table 47. — Measurements and scale coiints of Dryophis griscus sp. nor. 



No. 


Sex. 




Locality. 






Collector. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ven- 

trals. 
















tnvi. 


myn. 




264 
271 


a" 


Limay. Bataan. 







H. M. Curr 
R C McGr 


an 




9?5 


351 

547 


219 


egror _ 
e 




1 4:^3 


208 


RC63 
No. 


o 
m 


Montalban 


1 
1 

o 




W. Schultz 




Collection 


545 


(*) 




1 


o 


Lab 

u 

Ph 
Q 


alf 


> 


Temporals, 


o 


( 




254 


180 


1 


1 2 
l l" 




2 


8 


9 


2-|-3-r3 


15 


Bureau of Science. 




271 


a 160 


1 


if 


1 ^ 


2 


8-9 9-8 


2-1-3-1-3 


15 


Dm. 






E663 

1 


176 


1 


( 2 
I 1 


} ^ 


2 


9 


10 


-9 


2-f3 + 3 


15 


E. H. Ta> lor. 










"Ml 


tilated. 








DRY 


OPH 


S PREOCULARIS s 


D. nov. 


















P 


LA 


TE 


28 













Type— No. 408, E. H. Taylor collection; collected at Buna- 
wan, Agusan, Mindanao, March 12, 1913, by E. H. Taylor. 

Description of species.— (Adult female.) Rostral "broader 
than high, the portion seen above a mere line; internasals 
elongate, nearly twice as long as wide, their outer edge bent 
sharply down at canthus rostralis ; prefrontals somewhat wider 
than internasals, twice as long as wide, overlapping frontal; 



DRYOPHIS 



223 




Kin. 19. Drijophis prcnculoris sp. nov. ; 
drawing: of a Polillo specimen; a, head. 
dorsal \ie\v ; h, bead, lateral view- 



frontal at least one and a half times as long as wide; very 
narrow behind; in its widest part it does not equal width of 
supraoculars ; parietals large, elongate ; supraoculars large and 
projecting, so that eye is hardly visible from above; canthus 
rostralis very sharp ; 2 large 
preoculars, the upper separating 
supraoculars from prefrontals ; 2 
loreals, the posterior largest; 
nostril in a very elongate, very 
narrow nasal; 2 small post- 
oculars ; temporals 2 -|~ 3 ; parie- 
tals bordered by 3 temporals ; 
9 upper labials in the following 
order of size : sixth, fifth, eighth, 
second, first, third, seventh, 
fourth, ninth; fourth, fifth, and 
sixth enter eye; mental very 
small, triangular ; 7 lower labials 
in the following order of size : fifth, fourth, sixth, seventh, first, 
third, second; 4 labials touch first pair of chin shields; scales 
smooth, in 15 rows; ventrals, 227, keeled laterally; subcaudals, 
110; anal undivided; eye large, equal to half its distance from 
snout; latter acuminate, projecting. 

Color in life. — Bluish green tending toward yellowish green on 
sides, with no markings of any sort ; head greenish ; belly green- 
ish with a narrow cream line running full length of body and 
tail on outer part of ventrals and anals. 

Remai'ks. — This species is widely distributed, from Mindanao 
to Luzon. In the character of the anal shield and in the arrange- 
ment of the preoculars it is constant. In Negros and Panay 
there occurs what appears to be a variety of the species. It 
is red and doubtless represents what has been regarded by other 
authors as Dryophis prasinus xanthozonus. However, Druophis 
xanthozona is a distinct species and is probably confined to 
southeastern Asia and Java. I regard the red foi'm here as 
merely a color variety of Dryophis preocidaris. A red form also 
occurs in Dryophis prasinus. 

The species here described is known from Mindanao (green 
form) ; Negros (green and red forms), Panay (red form), Po- 
lillo (green form), and Luzon (green form). Additional ma- 
terial from Negros and Panay may warrant the separation of 
the red form as a subspecies. 



224 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Table 48. — Measurements and scale counts of Dryophis preocularis sp. nov. 



No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 




Collector. 




Length. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals. 


Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


Anals 












mm. 


mm. 








269 


d 


PoHHl 


1 C 


. Canonizado 




1,020 


382 


221 


199 




274 


? 


do 




...do 




1, 650 


532 


213 


177 




342 


? 


do 




...do 




1,145 


460 


216 


192 




.343 


9 


do 




-.do 




1,170 


460 


216 


199 




344 


d 


do 




.-do 




460 


(») 


215 


(») 




346 


? 


do 


1-- 


..do 




950 


345 


212 


175 




347 


cf 


...._do 




-do 




S40 


(») 


221 (») 




349 
3.50 


9 


do 

do 




..do ... 






985 


370 
500 


118 1 201 
219 i »169 








.-do ... 


1.460 


351 


cf" 


do 






-.do 




1,080 


400 


214 [ 183 




352 


d" 


do 






..do ---- 


"' 






216 181 




No. 


Lo- 
reals. 


Preocu- 
lars. 


Post- 
oculars. 


Upper 
labials. 


Lower 
labials. 


Labials 

enter 
eye. 

5-6 


Tempo- 
rals. 


Scale 
rows. 

15 




Collection. 


269 


2 


2 


2 


8-10 


9 


2+3-1-3 


B 


ureau of Science. 


274 


2 


2 


2 


7 


9 


6 


2+3-h3 




16 




Do. 


342 


2-3 


2 


2 


8 




4-6 


2+3-1-3 




15 




Do. 


343 


3 


2 


2 


8 


9 


4-5 


2+2 + 3 




16 




Do. 


344 


2 


2 


2 


8 


9 


4-5 


2+3 + 3 




16 




Do. 


346 


3 


2 


2 


8 


9 


4-6 


2 + 3+3 




15 




Do. 


347 


2 


2 


2 


8- 9 


9 


4-5 


2 + 3 + 3 




15 




Do. 


349 


3 


2 


2 


8 


9 


4-5 


2+3 + 3 




15 




Do. 


3.50 


2 


1 


2 


8- 9 


9 


4-6-6 


2 + 3+3 




16 




Do. 


351 


2 


2 


2 


8- 9 


8 


4-6 


2+3+3 




15 




Do. 


362 


3 


2 


2 


8 


9 


4-6 


2-1-3 + 3 




15 




Do. 



" Tip of t;=(il missing. 



BEADLY POLSONOrS SXAKES 



ELAPID^ 

An erect, grooved or perforated fang on the anterior portion 
of the anterior maxillary bone, or several anterior maxillary 
teeth grooved or perforated; in either case connecting with a 
poison gland; othervi^ise, as the Natricida^. Deadly poisonous. 

The family corresponds to Boulenger's group C, of the family 
Colubridse, which he calls Proteroglypha. The family Elapid^ 
is composed of two subfamilies ; the first group consists of aqua- 
tic or semiaquatic snakes; the second, of land snakes. 

Key to the subfamilies of the Elapidx. 

a'. Tail compressed into a vertical fin _ Hydriiiie (p 225) 

a". Tail cylindrical; poison fangs strongly developed... Elapins (p' 254)! 



AIPYSURUS 225 

HYDRIN.^ 

Hydrophiinai Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 264; Wall, 
Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 169. 

Nostrils dorsal or lateral, usually valvular; tail strongly com- 
pressed, oarlike; hypapophyses not developed throughout the 
vertebral column. Body compressed, the ventrals very small in 
marine types, or large in semiaquatic forms. Rostral shield 
with two notches in oral border; only the cleft part of tongue 
capable of being protruded. Anterior maxillary teeth folded into 
a tube or grooved ; frequently posterior teeth also grooved. 
Deadly poisonous. 

Eleven genera of this subfamily are recognized; with the ex- 
ception of Laticauda, Aipysurus, and Emydocephaliis, all are 
entirely aquatic. The three mentioned are found frequently at 
some distance from the water, and these genera are equipped 
with wide ventral scales, which enable them to perform land loco- 
motion. 

Key to the Philippine genera of the Hydrinx. 

a\ Ventral scales large, transversely widened. 

6\ Nostrils on upper surface of snout; nasals in contact. 

Aipysurus Lacepede (p. 225). 
Ir. Nostrils lateral; nasals separated by internasals. 

Laticauda Laurenti (p. 227). 
or. Ventral scales small or indistinguishable from body scales; nostrils 
superior. 
h'. All maxillary teeth grooved (sometimes faintly) ; 4 to 10 small teeth 

follow fangs..-' - Disteira Lacepede (p. 236). 

b'. Only 2 to .5 faintly grooved teeth follow the large fangs. 

Lapemis Gray (p. 249). 

h'. Poison fangs short, followed after an interspace by 7 or 8 solid 

teeth ..- --- -.. Pelamydrus Stejneger (p. 252). 

It is highly probable that species of other genera occur in the 
Islands, and that specimens will be taken along the coasts. 

Genus AIPYSURUS Lacepede 

Aipysu7-us Lacepede, Ann. Mus. 4 (1804) 197; Dumeril and Bibron 
Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1323; Fischer, Abh. Natur. Hamburg 3 (1856) 
31; .Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 108; Gunther, Kept. Brit. India 
(1864) 357; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 303; 
Wall, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 189. 

StephoMophydra Tschudi, Arch. Nat. (1837) 331; Gray, Cat. Snakes 
(1849) 59. 

Hydrophis, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 488. 

Hypotropis Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 18 (1846) 284. 

Tomogaster, part., Schmidt, Abh. Natur. Hamburg 2 (1852) 75. 

Emydocephalus Krefft, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1869) 321. 

Pelagophis Peters and DORIA, Ann. Mus. Geneva 13 (1878) 413. 

161466 IB 



226 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



"Maxillary a little longer than the ectopterygoid, extending 
forwards beyond the palatine ; poison-fangs moderate, followed, 
after a short interspace, by 8 to 10 grooved teeth; anterior 
mandibular teeth feebly grooved. Snout short; nostrils su- 
perior ; head-shields large or broken up into scales ; nasals in con- 
tact with each other. Body moderate; scales imbricate; ven- 
trals large, keeled in the middle." (Boulenger.) 

The genus is distributed in the Tropics, throughout the Malay 
Archipelago and the western Pacific Ocean. Boulenger recog- 
nizes four species, one of .which, Aipysurus annulatus Krefft, 
Wall has placed in the genus Efnydocephahis. Only one species 
has been recorded from the Philippines. 

AIPYSURUS EYDOUXII (Gray) 

Tomogaster eydonxii Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) .59. 
Thalassophis anguillxformis Schmidt, Abh. Natur. Hamburg 2 (1852) 

76, pi. 1. 
Thalassophis mui-aenaefonnis Schmidt, Abh. Natur. Hamburg- 2 (1852) 

77. 
Aipysurus Ixvis (non Lacepede) Guichenot, Voy. Pole Sud. Zool. 

3, Kept. (1853) 21, pi. 6; Dumefjl and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

1326, pi. 776, fig. 4; FiscHER, Abh. Natur. Hamburg. 3 (1856) 

32; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1872) 40, pi. 2, fig. 1. 
Aipysurus viargaritophorus Bleeker. Nat. Tijds. Nederl. Ind. 1 6 

(1858) 49. 
Aipysurus anguillxformis GiJnther, Rept. J3rit. India (1864) 357; 

Boettger, Zool. Anz. (1892) 420. 
Aipysurus eydouxii Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 304; 

Wall, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 189, figs. 5, A, B, C 

(after Jan). 

Descrijjtion of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Eye a httle 
longer than its distance from the mouth. Rostral a little broader 
than deep; upper head-shields regular; frontal large, once and 

two thirds to twice as long as 
broad, longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, as 
long as or a little longer than 
the parietals; nasal in contact 
with or narrowly separated 
from the prseocular; one pr?e- 
and two postoculars ; temporals 




a c 

Fig. 20. Aipysurus eydouxii (Gray) ; after 
Jan, copied from Wall ; a, head, dorsal 
view : ft, liead. lateral view : c. head 
\'eiilral view. 



1 + 



or 2^-2; six upper la- 



bials, fourth entering the eye; 

anterior chin-shields shorter 
than the posterior, which are separated by an azygous shield. 
Scales smooth, in 17 rows. Ventrals, 140-142. 



LATICAUDA 227 

Color. — "Dark brown above, with cross-bands of yellow, 
black-edged scales, often broken up on the vertebral line; these 
bands widening towards the belly, which is yellow, with or 
without dark brown spots." 

Measurements of Aipysurus eydouxii (Gray). 

mm. 
Total lengrth 490 

Snout to vent 420 

Tail 70 

Variation. — Wall adds the following characters : Rostral 
touches 4 shields, the portion visible above about half the inter- 
nasal suture. Prefrontals not in contact with supralabials, 
usually undivided, but sometimes divided longitudinally on one 
or both sides into two parts; the sutures of frontal subequal, 
one-third or one-fourth longer than supraoculars, longer than 
parietals ; parietals undivided or divided ; nasals touch 2 supra- 
labials; fourth lower labial largest; 2 pairs of chin shields, the 
second pair separated by a single scale; ventrals from 138 to 
142, three or more times the width of outer scale row. 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Philippines. I have 
seen no specimen. Both Boulenger and Wall give the Philip- 
pines as part of its range, and the species is included in the 
present work on their authority. 

Genus LATICAUDA laurenti 

Laticauda Laurenti, Syn. Rept. (1768) 109; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. 
Nat, Mus. 58 (1907) 402. 

Hydnis, part., Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 233. 

Platurus Lateeille, Hist. Nat. Rept. 4 (1802) 183; Daudin, Rept, 
7 (1803) 223; Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 166; Dumeril and 
BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1318; Fischer, Abh. Natur. Hamburg 
3 (1856) 27; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 108; Gunther, Rept. 
Brit. India (1864) 855; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 
118; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 394; Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 306; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 
(1S95) 442. 

Hydrophis, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 488. 

"Maxillary much shorter than the ectopterygoid, extending 
forwards beyond the palatine, with two large poison-fangs; 
one or two small solid teeth near the posterior extremity of the 
maxillary. Head-shields large; nostrils lateral, the nasals 
separated by internasals ; prseocular present ; no loreal. Body 
much elongate ; scales smooth and imbricate ; ventrals and sub- 
caudals large." {Boulenger.) 



228 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Stejueger '■'■' recognizes provisionally five species of the genus, 
while Wall f recognizes but three. Three species are found in 
the Philippines. 

Key to the PhiliiJpine species of Laticauda Laurenti. 

a\ Rostral not divided horizontally; belly without median keel. 

b\ Two prefrontals; scales in 19 rows.. L. laticaudata (Linnjeus) (p. 228). 
b\ Three prefrontals; scales in 21 to 25 rows. 

L. colubrina (Schneider) (p. 231). 
a\ Rostral divided horizontally; belly with median keel on posterior half. 

L. seniifasciata (Reinwardt) (p. 234). 

I disagree with Barbour's t opinion that the first two should 
be regarded as subspecies of a single species. Besides the al- 
most constant variation of certain scale elements, the fact should 
not be overlooked that L. colubrina apparently grows to nearly 
double the size of L. laticaudata. 

LATICAUDA LATICAUDATA (Linnaeus) 

Coluber loMcaudaius Linnaeus, Mus. Ad. Frid. (1754) 31, pi. 16, 
fig. 1; Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1 (1758) 222; ed. 12 1 (1766) 383; An- 
derson, Bihang Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. IV 24 (189rf, IS. 

Laticauda scutata Laueenti, Syn. Rept. (1768) lOi). 

Platurus fasclatus Latreille, Hist. Nat. Rept. 4 ^1802) 185; Fischer, 
Abh. Natur. Ver. Hamburg 3 (1856) 28; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. 
(1861) 691; (1872) 860; Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia (1860) 493; Boulengee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1887) 
149. 

Hydrophis colubrinus, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 514. 

Platurus laticaudatus Girard, Herp. U. S. Expl. Exp. (1858) ISO; 
Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1877) 417; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. 
Ges. (1886) 118; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 
395, text fig; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 307; Casto de Elera, 
Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 442; Wall, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 
(1903) 96 and 101; Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 185. 

Platurus laurenti Rafinesque, Am. Month. Mag. 1 (1817) 432. 

Coluber platicoMdatus Oken, AUgem. Naturg. 8 (1836) 566. 

Platurus laticauAatus var. A., Gunthee, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 
272. 

Platurus fischeri jAN, Rev. Mag. Zool. (1S59) 149; Icon. Ophid. 40 
(1872) pi. 1, fig. 2; GiJNTHER, RepL Brit. India (1864) 356, 
pi. 25, fig. A; Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1871) 189; 
Fayeer, fhanatoph. Ind. (1874) pi. 19. 

Platm~us affinis Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1871) 190. 



* Loc. cit 

fWall, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 107, states that the sup- 
posedly solid teeth really have very small grooves. 

J Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 131. 



LATICAUDA 



229 



Luticauda laticaudata Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 
402; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 265. 

Laticauda laticaudata laticaudata BARBOUR, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Harvard Coll. 44 (1912) 131. 

Description of species. — (P'rom No. 1834, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion, collected on Mindanao coast, October, 1913, by E. H. Tay- 
lor.) Head moderate, not or scarcely distinct from neck; ros- 
tral much higher than wide, scarcely visible above, forming its 
broadest suture with first labial ; internasals triangular, narrowly 
in contact with rostral, forming their longest suture with nasal ; 






Fig. 21. Laticauda laticaudata (LiniiseusJ ; after Wall; a, head, dorsal view 

view : c. chin. 



b, head. lateral 



prefrontals broader than deep, narrowly in contact laterally 
with third labial, separating nasal and prefrontal, the suture 
between prefrontals shorter than that between internasals ; fron- 
tal longer than wide, four-sided, much longer than its distance 
from end of snout, as long as parietals ; nasal narrow, elongate, 
nostril pierced nearer its posterior end, in contact with 3 la- 
bials; 1 preocular, higher than wide; 2 postoculars, the lower 
lying somewhat under posterior part of eye; 1 anterior tem- 
poral; temporal formula, 1 + 2 + 3; mental very small, not or 
very narrowly separated from second pair of labials, not touching 
chin shields ; lower labials nearly hidden, for the most part lying 
horizontal on .laws, the 2 anterior touching first chin shields, 
which are a little smaller than posterior ; tail strongly com- 
pressed, widened at tip. 

Color in life. — Above blue with 66 black bars about body, of 
which 7 are confined to tail; bands are 3 scales wide on back, 
separated by interspaces of equal width but narrow on belly, 
a broad band on head, widest medially, not reaching anterior 
part of frontal ; head band and 2 nuchal bands interrupted 
ventrally, but connected by a broad ventrolateral band on side 
fif head and neck ; no light labial band ; top of snout yellow with 



230 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



superciliary yellow line; a yellow band on chin and throat me- 
dially; belly yellow, the color reaching up halfway on sides; 
eye blue, small; pupil round. 



Measurements of Laticauda laticaudata (Linnxus) . 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 

Depth of tail, gi-eatest 



581 

515 

66 

15 
8.5 
11 



Variation.— In the three specimens examined the ventral 
range is 228 to 242; the subcaudal, 42 to 45; the number of 
bands varies between 53 and 66. The variation of scale counts 
in twelve specimens from various localities listed by Boulenger 
is as follows: Ventrals, 210 to 240 (average, 227) ; subcaudals, 
25 to 45 ; bands, 29 to 48. 

In this species, as in Laticauda colubrina, the subcaudals 
average about 10 more in males than in females. Philippine 
specimens have a higher average of ventrals, and a much higher 
average number of bands. 

Remarks. — This species apparently does not attain as large 
a size as Laticauda coluhrina. Specimens are usually found 
about rocky seacoasts. They feed largely on small eels. 

Table 49. — Measurements and scale counts of Laticauda laticaudata 

(Linnxus) . 



1 














o 1 


h 1 «£ 

t \ S" 






No. , 




Locality. 


Collector. 






0) 

x5f 


"5 


















a; 


> m 


<! 




















Pairs., 


1834 


M 


ndanao .- .. - . - 


E.H.Taylor.... 








yp: 


234 43 


2 i 






do 


do 








' 


228 42 


2 1 


1286 


M 


ndor 




Marine Biological Expediti 


on ... 




yg 


242 45 


2 '' 












T K- , 1 i '• 1 

Labials. \ . . m 














No. 


i Touch 
Enter first 
UPP"-: eye. chin 

'shields. 


Preoculars 

Postocular 


Temporals 


o 

-O 1 !U 


c 


'5 




Collection. 




j 
















mm. 


mm 










If34 




7 


3.4 2 


1 1 2 


lf2+3 


66 ! 19 


581 


66 


E. H 


Taylor. 


1 


1419 




7 


3.4 ' 2 1 1 I 2 


l-h2+3 


56 1 19 


460 


57 


D 


"I. 




1286 




7 


3.4^ 2 




1 1 2 


1+2 hS 


53 ' 19 


593 


72 


Bureau of Scien 


e. 





In the Philippines specimens are known from Mindanao, Sulu, 
Samar, and northern Mindoro. The species is widely distributed 



LATICAUDA 231 

outside the Philippines, being Icnown from the Indian Ocean, the 
coasts of the islands of the East Indian Archipelago, and western 
and southern Pacific Ocean. 

LATICAUDA COLUBRINA (Schneider) 
Plate 29 

Colubey latioaudatus, part., LiNN^us, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1 (1776) 222; 

ed. 12 1 (1776) 383. 
Hydrus colubrinus Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 238. 
Platunus fasciatus, part, Daudin, Hist. Nat. Rept. 7 (1803) 226, 

pi. 85, fig. 1; DUMERIL and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1321. 
Hydrophis cohibrmus Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 514, pi. 18, 

figs. 21 and 22; CuviER, Reg. Anim., Rept. Atlas, pi. 36. 
Laticaitda seutata (Laurenti) Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 125. 
Platurus colubrinus Gieard, U. S. Expl. Exp. Herp. (1858) 178; 

Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1877) 418; Fischer, .Jahrb. wiss. Anst. 

Hamburg (1888) 18; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 

395; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 308; Wall., Mem. As. Soc. 

Bengal 2 (1907-10) 186. 
Platurus scutatiis Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 356. 
Platurus laticaudatus, var. B., Guntheb Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 

272. 
Platurus fasciatus var. coliibrhui Fischer, Abh. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 

3 (1856) 30. 
Platurus laticaudatus var. colubrina Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

(1886) 118; Offenb. Ver. Naturk. 25 (1885) 155. 
Laticauda colubrina Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 406. 

Description of species. — (From No. 908, Bureau of Science 
collection ; collected on Dipolod Island, Sulu Archipelago, Sep- 
tember, 1917, by E. H. Taylor.) Head large, somewhat distinct 
from neck, rather flattened above; rostral higher than wide, 
forming its broadest sutures with labials, its shortest with inter- 
nasals, latter longer than wide, lying diagonally, in contact for 
about half their length, pointed anteriorly; prefrontals some- 
what larger than internasals, separated from each other, touch- 
ing nasal and preocular laterally; an azygous shield, lying 
between prefrontals and partially between internasals, forms a 
suture with frontal ; latter almost twice as long as wide, produced 
to a long point behind; supraoculars about as wide as long; 
parietals wider than long, disposed diagonally, touching supe- 
rior preocular ; nasal single, elongate, nostril triangular, pierced 
in posterior part ; 1 preocular touching second labial, widely sep- 
arated from frontal; 2 postoculars, lower largest; 1 anterior 
temporal ; temporal formula 1 -)- 2 -|- 3 ; 7 upper labials, third 
and fourth entering orbit ; mental very small, first pair of lower 
labials barely in contact behind it, and followed by an azygous 



232 SNAKES OP THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

postmental; lower labials small, usually not visible externally, 
only first 2 touching anterior pair of chin shields, which are 
smaller than second pair ; 10 rows of scales between chin shields 
and first widened ventral; eye small, much less than its distance 
from nostril ; scales in 23 to 25 rows around body, smooth, with- 
out apical pits ; ventrals, 234 ; subcaudals, 35 ; anal divided, pre- 
ceded by a second divided scale; tail strongly compressed, end- 
ing in a large scute. 

Color in life. — Above, blue traversed by 42 black bands, 
about 4 scales wide, on back, and covering only 1 or 2 ventrals 
below, separated from each other by interspaces, 5 or 6 scales 
wide; tail with 4 bands, the last much widened. Head with a 
broad black spot ; a broad black stripe on side ; anterior part 
yellowish, with a yellow streak above eye to some distance on 
temporal region ; a yellow stripe on lower part of upper labials 
and at angle of mouth ; a broad black stripe from end of chin 
along each side of neck to third ventral, separated from its 
fellow by a broad median yellow stripe. 

Measurements of Laticauda cohibrina (Schneider.) 

mm. 

Total length 1,390 

Snout to vent 1,275 

Tail 115 

Width of head 29 

Length of head 32 

Depth of tail, greatest 31 

Variation. — Males differ from females in having longer and 
thicker tails, not so strongly compressed at base, rather more 
triangular in cross section, and with an average of 9 more sub- 
caudals; in medium-sized specimens, the ventrals have a double 
row of keels, nearly the same ventral average, with notches 
on anterior part of each scute. The range of ventral counts in 
the Philippine specimens examined is from 229 to 248; of the 
subcaudal from 34 to 47; the scale rows vary between 23 and 
25, most of the specimens having 23 rows on anterior part of 
body and 25 beyond the middle of the widest part ; in all speci- 
mens the ventral preceding anal is divided. The lower labials 
are bent over edge of mouth and lie for the most part hori- 
zontally; the mental is extremely small, the first pair of labials 
not or but barely touching a small azygous postmental. This 
scale is distinct in all save two specimens, in which it is fused 
with first labial. The number of black bands around body and 
tail varies between 43 and 59, the average being 49. In color 
most of the specimens are dark to grayish blue above barred 



LATICAUDA 



233 



with black or brown, the width of the black bars half to three- 
fourths the width of the interspaces. Two Sulu specimens dif- 
fer from the others examined in being greenish yellow with 
brown bands. It is significant that these two specimens have 
59 bars across body. Boulenger gives the limit of scale varia- 
tion as follows : Ventrals, 195 to 240, average, 217 ; subcaudals, 
30 to 45; scale rows, 21 to 25; black bands, 28 to 54. 



Table .50. — Measurements and scale counts of Laticauda cohibrina 

(Schneider.) 



No. 


Locality. 


C 


^Hector. 






a) 
m 


Length. 


Tail, 
Ventrals, 


Si 

3 

m 


c 

< 
















Tnm. 


mm. 


Pairs. 


473 
474 
476 
476 
477 
478 
479 
480 
908 


Banta 
do 


^an 






L. E. Griffin. _ 
do - 




, 2 


1. 470 
1.490 
940 
775 
390 
760 
455 
916 
1,390 


120 236 
140 ' 237 
130 237 
97 i 242 
54 229 
1 96 : 238 
57 1 236 
135 240 
115 2.34 


34 ! 

37 1 

45 

46 j 

46 

46 

44 

47 

35 1 


2 










9 

d 
5" 

cf 
cT 
<J 

9 


2 




n 




C. M. Weber - 
L, E. GriflSn.. 
C, Canonizado 
L, E. Griffin 






2 


Banta 
Palaw 
Banta 








2 


in 










2 


/an _ 










2 


do 


do 








2 


Palaw 
Dipolo' 


m 


1 


C M. 


Wphpr 






2 


d 






E, H, Taylor . 


2 


1231 


Negros - -- 


do 


9 


99.5 


100 246 


36 


., 


1331 
1353 
1307 


do 

do 








do 








9 


963 

720 
875 


110 239 

90 235 

■ 105 236 


36 
44 

44 


9 








do 


2 


do 






do 






2 


1642 


do 








do 






n 


1.430 


1 140 238 


36, 


3 














Labials. 












! 








No. 






o a; 


■ 1 





ft- 

2 






Collect 


on. 






Touch 
first 
chin 

shields, 

2 


p 

2 


JS 




z \ 
1 i 


1 




s 

H 




473 


7 ' 3. 4 




3 


t-2 + 3 


i 54 


Bureau of S 


cience. 




474 


7-8 3, 4 


2 




3 ! 1 


2 


l-i-2-i-3 


49 


Do. 






475 


7 1 3. 4 


2 




3! 1 


2 


1 H2 + 3 


50 


Do, 






476 


7-8 


3,4 


2 




3 ' 1 ! 


2 


11-2 + 3 


47 


Do. 






477 


7 


3, 4 


2 




3 


1 


2 


1 Ti+i 


■ 43 


Do, 






478 


7 


3. 4 


2 




3 


1 


2 


1 i-2 + 3 


49 


Do. 






479 


7 


3. 4 


2 




3 


1 


2 


l + 2-i-3 


48 


Do, 






480 


7 


3, 4 


2 


(») 


3 


1 


2 


11-2-1-3 


49 


Do, 






908 


7 


.3.4 


2 


1 i 3 , 1 


2 


i:-2 + 3 


46 


Do. 






1231 


7 


3. 4 


2 


1 3| 1 


2 


(24-2n-3 
H + 2 + 3 


1" 


E, H, TayU 


r. 




1331 


7 


3. 4 


2 




3 1 1 


2 


l-f2-|~3 


69 


Do, 






1363 


7 


3. 4 


2 


l' 3 1 1 


2 


H-2-1-3 


,50 


Do. 






l.i!07 


7 


3, 4 


2 


13 1 


2 


1+2-1-3 


46 


Do. 






1642 


7 ' 3. 4 


2 


(») i 3 1 


^ 


1 + 2 + 3 


47 


Do. 







« Fused. 



234 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

It will be seen, therefore, that Philippine specimens have an 
average of twenty ventrals more than the average of spec- 
imens listed by Boulenger. They differ also from other snakes 
of this species in the presence of the small azygous postmental 
and (in the males) of a double row of keels along the ventral 
scales with the scutes notched. I am convinced that Philippine 
forms represent a subspecies of Laticauda colubrina; whether 
it belongs with the typical form I am uncertain. The figure 
given in Cuvier '^ is very probably of this group, since it agrees 
in the number of stripes and in the presence of a postmental. 

Remarks. — This species is abundant along the rocky coasts 
of the Philippines. In the Sulu Archipelago I found the snake 
in large numbers on small rocky islands, usually in cracks in 
cliffs and under rocks. A number of specimens taken rotted 
from lack of proper preservatives. The snakes of this species 
are more terrestrial than are the other poisonous water snakes. 
They feed wholly on fish, usually eels. When on land they are 
rather helpless, and may be picked up by the tail with impunity. 
The species is poisonous, probably deadly to man. 

In the Philippines specimens are known from Samar, southern 
Luzon, Bantayan, Palawan, Negros, and also from the small 
islands of Dipolod, Tulian, and Bubuan, in the Sulu Archipelago. 

LATICAUDA SEM I FASCI ATA (Reinwardt) 

Plate 3, fig. 2; Plate .30 

Platunts semifasciatus Reinwardt, in Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 

516. 
Hydrophis colubrina Schlegel, Phys. Serp., Atlas, pi. IS, figs. 18-20; 

Fauna Jap., Kept. (1837) 92, pi. 10. 
Platurus fasciatus var. seinifasciata Fischer, Abh. Natur. Ver. 

Hamburg- 3 (1856) 30. 
Platurus schistorhynchus Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1874) 

297, pi. 45, fig. B; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 

395; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 309; Wall, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London (1903) 101; Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1907-10) 184, fig. 1. 
Laticauda scmifasciata Stejneger, Bull, U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 

409, pi. 22. 

Description of species. — (From Stejneger.) "Rostral broader 
than high, upper edge broad and truncate, scarcely visible from 
a):)ove; three internasals, one unpaired anterior adjoining the 
rostral, of which it is in reality only a detached portion, and 
two posterior normal ones broadly in contact ; three prefrontals, 
a median pentagonal one, posteriorly broadly in contact with 
frontal, and two lateral ones, broadly in contact with frontal 



Reg. Anim. Atlas (by Duvernoy) pi. 36. 



LATICAUDA 



235 



and with supraocular; frontal large, much longer than its dis- 
tance from tip of snout and than the parietals, supraoculars 
as broad as frontal at the middle ; parietals very short, not 
longer than broad, much shorter than frontal; nostril large, 
semilunar, near the middle of the long and narrow undivided 
nasal; no loreal; one preocular, broadly in contact with nasal; 
eye rather small, its vertical diameter less than its distance 
from edge of lip ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 3, only slightly 
differentiated from the adjacent scales; seven supralabials, third 






<:mijasciata (Reinwardt) ; 
lateral view ; 



after Wall ; a, head, dorsal view ; &, head, 
c, chin. 



and fourth largest and entering eye, first as wide above as 
below; seven lower labials, of which the first pair behind the 
small mental does not reach the edge of the lip, the labials from 
the third backward very low, only the first three in contact with 
chin-shields, of which only the anterior pair is clearly differen- 
tiated, the posterior being represented by two scales separated 
by one of nearly the same size ; 23 rows of smooth scales without 
apical pits ; 205 ventrals, on the posterior half of the body by 
a median blunt keel and a corresponding notch in the posterior 
edge of each scute ; anal divided ; 40 pairs of subcaudals. 

Color {in alcohol) . — "Bluish gray, darker above, paler under- 
neath, with 43 dark brown rings around the body and seven on 
the tail, the bands being widest on the median line of the back, 
viz, about 3^r scales wide, and there separated by a pale interval 
only two scales wide; the rings are about 2-^ ventrals wide on 
the underside and the light intervals about the same width; 
head uniform dark brown, with a yellowish horseshoe-shaped 
mark, the convexity of which rests on the prefrontals extending 
backward on the outer edge of supraoculars, upper postocular 
and upper temporals to and joining the first pale cross line on 
occiput a scale row behind the parietals ; snout and labials dark 
brown like the rest of the head." 



236 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Measuremeids of Laticauda semifasoiata (Reinvyardt) . 

mm. 

Total length 582 

Snout to vent 50''' 

Vent to tip of tail '^5 

"The young (in alcohol) are of a light bluish gray with 
blackish brown rings and markniys. The latter as the snake 
grows larger become lighter and the former darker and browner, 
while the demarcation between them becomes more obscure until 
in very large specimens the markings become almost obliterated. 
In the larger specimens therefore the dark gray cross markings 
correspond to the whitish cross markings in the young. 

"This species grows to a considerable size. The largest spec- 
imen in our collection (No. 5546) measures 1,097 mm. in total 
length, with a tail 136 mm. long, wTiile the type measures, re- 
spectively, 1,118 mm. and 140 mm. 

"Variation. — There is very little variation in the scale for- 
mula proper, for only in one specimen (No. 5546) have I seen 
4 temporals on one side, the normal numiber of 3 occurring on the 
other. In eastern specimens the number of ventrals is rarely 
as low as 188, but ranges usually between 197 and 212, while 
the subcaudals vary between 32 and 43 pairs. Sometimes anom- 
alies are found in the internasals ; thus in No. 106 of the Im- 
perial Museum, Tokyo, there is a small unpaired shield behind 
the detached part of the rostral, broadly in contact with it and 
with the unpaired median prefrontal, and in our No. 7515 there 
are two unsymmetrical shields detached from the left inter- 
nasal, as shown in fig. 331." 

Remarks. — This species is included in the Philippine fauna 
on the strength of a specimen in Silliman Institute, Dumaguete, 
Oriental Negros, at which town it was captured. The specimen 
was examined by me in 1917, but I was unable to make an ex- 
haustive study of it. It is very large and must measure nearly 
2 meters in length. 

Genus DISTEIRA Lacepede 

Hydrus, part., ScHNEinER, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 233; Wagler, Syst. 

Amph. (1830) 165. 
Hydrophis Daudin, Hist. Nat. Kept. 7 (1803) 372; Gray, Cat. Vip. 

Snal<es (1849) 49; Dumeril and Bibkon, Evp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1341; 

GiJNTHER, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 360. 
Disteira Lacepede, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 210; 

Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 41S. 
Leioselasma LACEPf^DE. Ann. Mus. Hist, Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 210. 
Enhydris Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amph. (1830) 166. 
Microcephalophis Lesson, in Belanger's Voy. Indes Orient., Rept. 

(1834) 320; Atlas, Rept. pi. 3. 



¥ 



DISTEIRA 237 

Liupatu- Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 60. 
Aturia Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 61. 
Noterophis Gistel, Naturg. Thierr. (1884) ix. 
Clutulia Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 56. 
Kerilia Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 57. 

Thalassophis Schmidt, Abh. Natur. Ver. Hambiug 2 (1852) 75. 
Distira Cope, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 32 (1887) 61; Boulenger, Cat. 
Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 285. 

Maxillary longer than ectopterygoid, not extending forward 
as far as palatine; poison fangs large, followed by several 
grooved teeth ; anterior mandibular teeth sometimes grooved ; 
head usually smaller than body ; nostrils superior, valved, pierced 
in a single nasal, which is in contact with its fellow; head shields 
large; preoeular present; loreal usually absent; body long, 
slender anteriorly, frequently compressed; ventrals more or less 
distinct; always small. 

There are few if any greater problems in herpetology than 
the proper classification of sea snakes, particularly those belong- 
ing to the genus Distelra. Boulenger * divided the group into 
two genera, Hydrophis and Distira, recognizing in all forty 
species out of a total of nearly ninety described forms. Wall,t 
whose monograph on sea snakes appeared in 1911, fifteen years 
after Boulenger's work, relegates tiiirty-nine of the species, rec- 
ognized by Boulenger, under a series of seventeen species of the 
genus Distira and one to a different genus, and adds to his list 
two other species, one of whicli (Distira neglccta) he himself 
described, and the other (Distira ocellata) is from a synonym 
of Boulenger's Distira ornata. Other species have since been 
described. It is obvious that the status of species of this genus 
is rather unstable. 

Just how many species should be included in the Philippine 
fauna is a matter of considerable doubt. Hydropliis abbrevia- 
tus Jan, H. brevis Jan, and H. loreata are all referable to Lapemis 
hardwickii Gray. Hydrophis semperi Garman and Hydrophis 
westermanni Jan are very probably referable to Disteira cyano- 
cincta; and Disteira loiigiceps, recorded by Griffin from Manila 
Bay, is probably Disteira ornata. Thus we are left with six 
species reported as occurring in the Philippines. These are 
Disteira fasciata, D. eiiicinnatii, D. ornata, D. cyanociueta, D. 
spiralis, and D. cyanosonm. 

I strongly suspect that Peters's record of Hydrophis fasciatus 
will have to be referred to Disteira cincinnatii, as has been done 



* Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 271-299. 
tMem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1911) 169-251. 



238 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 







































ay 








"S 








m 


^ 














Ti -t-* 































as* 






^% 








CJ -* CT. 




ba 






a 












V 






► 






< 














CO iTJ CD 




CO -* •O 




fc- 






6 


lO 




g 


CO CO t- 

T* CO ^ 








> 






< 










1) m 


'J- y CO CO 


1 




-o 










«8 

"1=1 OJ-^ 

g m cJ 




o 








V 
















^F 




2 






O 


yj 


o-J 


ffi 


rn 






<U 




>-' 


?H 


>< 


JH 




M 


^ 


M 






>t 
















































Cl^ 










E 


^ 


w 


fH 


^ 


<4 








































O 










0) 




















Cm 











oo 


.-H CO 


^ CO 








c3 




>i CNl 














E 


ei 




.''^ 
















nj2 







!C 








. 


' TT 


^ 


-3^ 




















o 




E 




















fe 








c 










a 


















i" 




lO 


CD 


^ 


ft 












■1) 




















s 


^ 







Q Q Q Q 



DISTEIRA 



239 



with Boettger's record for the same species. There appears to 
be but a single record for D. spiralis from Manila, that of Jan. 
I strongly suspect that that specimen is an abnormal D. cyano- 
cincta with a single anterior temporal. As a result of this elim- 
ination, four species remain whose status is stable, and which 
undoubtedly occur in the Philippines. These are D. cyanocincta, 
D. cincinnatii. D. cyanosoma, and D. ornatus. The last-named 
species belongs to the variety J), inornata of Gray. Table 51 
will serve as a key for species found in the Philippines. 

DISTEIRA CINCINNATII Van Denburgh and Thompson 

Disteira cincinnatii Van Denburgh and Thompson, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. IV 3 (1908) 41, pi. 7; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 
264. 

Description of species. — (From No. 1327, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected in Manila Bay, October, 1914, by E. H. Taylor.)' 
(Male.) Body compressed, tail flattened; head small, not dis- 









FlG. 23. Disteira cincinnatii Van Denburgh and Thompson : after Van Denburgh and Thomp- 
son ; a, head, dorsal view; b, head, lateral view: c, chin; d, anterior ventrals : e, anal 
region ; /, ventrals. 

,tinct from neck; depth of neck contained in greatest body depth 
nearly three times; head tapering, rather convex above; eyes 
large; rostral about as deep as broad, distinctly visible from 
above; internasal absent; nasals large, nearly quadrangular, 
longer than wide, nostril pierced near its outer posterior edge 



240 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

and connected with outer and posterior sutures by shallow 
grooves; prefrontals broader than deep, touching second labials 
laterally, their mutual suture little less than one-third that 
between nasals; frontal small, longer than broad, as wide as 
supraoculars and scarcely longer; parietals elongate, in contact 
for three-fourths of their length; upper labials 6 (5 on right 
side) , first small, second largest, fifth triangular, third and fourth 
broadly entering eye; preocular small; 1 postocular; temporals 
l + l; 8 lower labials (9 on left side), fourth a very small scale 
widely separated from chin shields; mental very small; first 
pair of labials of same size as second chin shields; 3 labials in 
contact with anterior chin shields, which are shorter and wider 
than second pair; latter in contact, bordered by 2 labials; 28 
scale rows around neck, 40 around widest part of body, 32 around 
widest part of tail; scales subimbricate anteriorly but juxtaposed 
posteriorly, each with a small indistinct tubercle; ventrals, 367, 
about twice as wide as adjoining scale rows, the last 5 divided; 

4 anals, a small inner pair and a large outer pair; 64 sub- 
caudals. 

Color. — Head entirely black, neck black with narrow bars 
not meeting below; body brownish black, the bars of yellowish 
white growing wider on sides, meeting or barely failing to 
meet below, very much obscured dorsally ; tail black with 5 bars 
of light color; last 2 scarcely formed; 47 light bands on body, 

5 on tail. 

Measurements of Disteira cincinnatii Van Devbiirgh and Tliompson. 

mm. 

Total length • 645 

Snout to vent 575 

Tail 70 

Length of head 10.5 

Width of head 6 

Width of neclv • 6 

Depth "of body I9 

Depth of tail 11 

Variation. — Van Denburgh and Thompson give measure- 
ments and scale counts for twenty specimens of this species. 
The scale counts average as follows: Neck rows, 27; body, 42; 
ventrals, 361. The average number of bands on body is 45, on 
tail, 4. These authors report the following differences between 
this species and Disteira fasciata Schneider and D. hrookii Bou- 
lenger : 



DISTEIRA 241 

This species is closely related to D. fasciata Schneider and D. brookii 
Boulenger. From D. fasciata it differs in being- much stouter; in the 
narrow portion of the neck being shorter; in the lower average * number 
of gastrosteges; in the arching of the maxilla between the fang and the first 
tooth and the absence of an acute apex in front of the fangs; and in the 
less acute posterior angle of the frontal plate. From D. brookii it differs 
in the lower average number of gastrosteges; in the character of the 
scales on the sides of the body, which are mostly regular hexagons or are 
a trifle broader than long, where in D. brookii the upper and lower angles 
of the scales are very acute and the laterals are t^vice the size of the scales 
on the back. In D. brookii the snout is much broader. 

Remarks. — The type is from Manila Bay, collected in 1906 
by Thompson. The species is not rare apparently, but is not 
frequently taken in fishing nets, clue to its small size. It is 
poisonous, but due to the extremely small size of the head prob- 
ably could not be considered deadly to man. It is said to 
feed on small eels. Known only from Manila Bay. 

DISTEIRA ORNATA (Gray) 

Aturia ornata GRAY, Zool. Misc. (1842) 61. 

Clutulia inomata Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 56. 

Disteira ornata, part., BouLBNGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

290, sp. b and d. 
Hydrophis ornatus, part., Gunthee, Kept. Brit. India (1864) 376, pi. 

25, fig. V. 
Disteira ornata inomata Wall, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal 2 (1911) 

169-251. 
Disteira ornata Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 265. 

Description of spades. — (From No. 784, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected in Manila Bay, 1911, by T. Bangis.) Body 
strongly compressed; head elongate, about one-fifth wider than 
neck ; rostral wider than high, doubly arched below, with a slight 
suture (anomalous) entering from above; suture with inter- 
nasals wider than that with labials ; no internasals ; nasals 
elongate, the nostril pierced in outer posterior part, a suture 
issuing from lower side and continuing to second labial ; a dim 
groove from posterior part of nostril to prefrontal; prefrontals 
wider than deep, the suture between them one-third that between 
nasals, in contact laterally with second labial; frontal longer 
than its distance from rostral, more than one and a half times 
as long as wide, much shorter than parietals, one and a hall 
times as wide as supraoculars; parietals elongate, twice as long 

* Average in twenty specimens of D. cincimiatii is 361, while in twenty- 
six of D. fasciata it is 417. 

161465 16 



242 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



as wide; 1 preocular in contact with 2 labials; 2 postoculars; 
2 anterior temporals ; 8 upper labials, second largest, third and 
fourth entering eye, sixth, seventh, and eighth very small ; mental 
small, triangular, wedge-shaped; 9 lower labials, last 2 very 
small (on right side fourth is broken and two small parts 
border mouth) ; first pair of labials broadly in contact, partially 
inserted between anterior chin shields; latter in contact poste- 
riorly; second pair distinct, separated from each other by 2 
scales; 3 labials border first pair, and 2 or 3 the second pair; 
scales juxtaposed, usually six-sided, each with a small tubercle; 




Fig. 24. Dlsteira oi'natu (Gray) : drawint,^ of a specimen from Manila Bay; 
view; b, head, lateral view; c, head, venli-al view. ;•, 2. 



head, dorsal 



34 scale rows on neck; 41 on widest part of body; 25 on widest 
part of tail; ventrals, 243, somewhat enlarged but frequently 
divided on posterior part of body ; anus bordered by 3 pairs of 
scales, the outer pair largest; ventrals grooved, usually with a 
tubercle on each side ; 44 subcaudals, not differentiated : tail 
strongly compressed, Avidened at base behind anus. 

Color in life. — Above grayish blue, neck traversed by a few, 
very narrow, lighter lines ■ the blue extends down about halfway 
on side, below which the color is uniform yellowish white; tail 
grayish with eight dim, narrow, yellowish white bars ; the divi- 
sion between dorsal and ventral color usually a straight line, 
but in the posterior part the demarcation line is zigzag; head 
slate blue; rather lavender on chin. 



DISTEIRA 



Measureinents of Disteira ornata (Gray). 



243 



Total length 
Snout to vent 
Tail 

Length of head 
Width of head 
Depth of neck 
Depth of body 
Depth of tail 



mm. 

763 
676 

87 
30 

12 
10 

20 
15.5 



Variation.- — The chief variation is sexual, as the table shows. 
Males are slenderer, with tails less compressed at base and some- 
what longer; they are much more strongly tuberculate than 
females. The males average 231 ventrals; 33 scale rows on 
neck; 39 scale rows on widest part of body; and 24 around 
tail. Females average 262.5 ventrals; 34.6 scale rows on neck; 
44 on body; and 25 on tail. The females have only 2 pairs 
of anals, instead of 3 pairs as in the males, and the nasal scale 
is, usually, entirely broken in two. Several adult females show 
no evidence of tuberculation on scales. The specimen figured 
by Giinther * (the type of Gray's Clutidia inornata) is typically 
identical with Philippine specimens, as characterized by the 

Table 52.' — Measurements and scale counts of Disteira ornata {Gray). 



Collector. 







1 

mm. , 


cf 


720 


9 


695 


? 


795 


5 


720 


e 


510 ' 



740 
763 
656 
510 
802 
365 
420 
350 
320 
396 
390 



72 

77 

82 : 

67 

73 j 

87 

70 

56 

94 

46 

48 \ 

46 

(•) : 



. mm. 

j 28 
27 
27 
27 
20 
27 
30 
24 
20 
28 
15 
20 
16 
18 
18 
18 



mm. 

13 

12 

13 

13 

10 

12 

12 

14 

10 

12.5 
8 

10 
7 

8.5 
8.5 
7.5 



vim. 

11.5 

10 

11 

10 

8 
10.6 
10 
11 

9 
11.6 

6 

9 

6.6 

6 

7 

7 



O 


'« 


D. 

Q 




mm. 


m.m. 


24.5 


14.6 


28 


14 


31 


16 


82 


14 


16 


10 


35 


14 


20 


16.6 


22 


14 


19 


12 


24 


15 


14 


9 


17 


11 


11 


9 


17 




16 


12 


15 


9 



Rept. Brit. India (1864) pi. 25, fig. v. 



244 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Table 52. — Measurements and scale counts of Disteira orvata 
(Gray) — Continued. 









S 


cale rows. 










Lai 


jials. 




No. 


Ven- 
trals. 


cau- 
dals. 


Neck. 


Body. 


Tail. 


Anals. 


Upper. Lower. 


Enter 

eye. 


Touch 

chin 

shields. 


778 


227 


43 


33 


38 


24 


6 


i 
7 9 3,4 


3 


779 


259 


39 


3.5 


44 


26 


4 


7 9 3,4 


3 


780 


260 


38 


35 


45 


27 


4 


8 9-10 3.4 


S 


781 


242 


42 


34 


42 


22 


4 


7-8 9 1 3.4 


3 


782. ___ __ 


229 


411 


34 


40 


23 


6 


7 8 ; 3.4 


3 


788 


273 


39 


34 


45 


24 


4 


7 1 9 3,4 


3 


784 


243 


44 


34 


41 


25 6 8 ' 9 3,4 


3 


785 


278 


38 


36 


46 


26 4 1 8 1 9 3.4 


8 


786. _. 


228 


42 


35 


38 


25 6 7 9-8 3.4 


8 


787 


234 


43 


31 


37 


23 6 1 8 ^ 9 1 3.4 


3 


819 


224 


42 


30 


34 


6 7 8 3,4 


3 


820 ,. 


262 


44 




43 


4 8 1 9 1 3,4 


3 


821 


242 


42 


32 


38 


' 6 7-8 


8 1 3.4 


3 


822 


239 


<") 


38 


44 


6 8 


10 


3,4 


3 


826 


231 


41 


34 


38 


6 ! 8 


9 


3,4.5 


3 


130 


264 


40 


34 


45 


26 4 1 8 


9 


3.4 


4 


No. 


An- 

terior 
tempo- 
rals. 


Nasa 


divided 


Prefrontals 

touch second 

labial. 


Second pair of 

chin shields ■ Collection, 
separated. 


778 


3 


Partial 


y 


--_' On one side.-- Y^es Bureau of Science. 


779 


2-3 


Yes — 




--- Ononeside.-- do Do. 




780 


3 


do 




__. No } do 1 Do. 




781. 


9 


do 

Partial 






Jo 

Jo -- 


Do. 
Do. 




782 


.V 


-.-' do .- 




783 


2 


Yes... 




do 1 do ■ Do. 




784 


2 


Partial 


.V 


--. do 1 do ' Do. 




78.5-. 


2 

3-2 


Yes . - . 
Partial 


y 


do 

---' do ' 


io 


Do. 
Do. 




786 


3o 




787 


2 


do 




-- do do Do. 




819 


3 


I'artial 


V 


do E. H. Taylor. 

--. Yes do Do. 




S2n 


2 


Yes-.- 






821 


2 




y--. . 


-- -do do Do. 

.- do Do. 




822 




do 






82,5 


2-3 


do 




--. Yes do Do. 

do .-_ do Do. 




130 


2 


Yes.-- 














'' Mut 


lated. 

















upper labials, the separation of the second pair of chin shields, 
the temporals, and the narrow lower labials. No other variety 
of Disteira ornata appears to have been discovered in the Phil- 
ippines. I strongly suspect that this Philippine form merits 
specific designation. In young males the narrow whitish bands 
on the neck are evident, and they sometimes persist in adult 
specimens. Young females are colored like the adults. 



DISTEIEA 245 

Remarks. — -This species is common in Manila Bay, where it 
is known as tnalahasahan and calahucab. It feeds for the most 
part on eels. Specimens kept in the Bureau of Science aquarium 
when very hungry will eat small dead fish. They rarely live 
more than three months in captivity. 

The species is poisonous, probably deadly to man. Kno\vn 
from Manila Bay and Palawan. Widely distTibuted from south- 
eastern Asia throughout the Malay Archipelago. 

DISTEIRA CYANOCINCTA (Daudin) 

Hydrophis cyanocinctiis Daudin, Hist. Nat. Rept. 7 (180.3) 383; 

Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 852, pi. 1, fig. 2; Fayrer, Thanatoph. 

Ind. (1874) pi. 23; Murr.ay, Zool. Sind. (1884) 391; Boettger, 

Oflfenb. Ver. Nat. (1888) 89. 
Leioselasma striata Lacepede, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4 (1804) 198, 

210, pi. 57, fig. 1. 
Enhydris cyanocinctvs Mereem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 141. 
Enhydris striatus Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 141. 
Hydrits cyanocinctiis BoiE, Isis (1827) 354. 
Hydrophis striata Schlegel, Fauna .Japon., Rept. (1837) 89, pi. 7; 

Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 502, pi. 18, figs. 4 and 5; Fischer, Abh. Na- 

turw. Hamburg 3 (1856) 41; Okada, Cat. Vert. Japan (1891) 69. 
Hydriis striatus, part., Cantor. Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 126. 
Hydrophis subanmdata Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 54. 
Hydrophis chittal RafinesQue, Am. Month. Mag. (1817) 432. 
Hydrophis aspera Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 55; Gunthee, Rept. 

Brit. India (1864) 365. 
Hydrophis cyanocincta, part., Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 367. 
Hydrophis tracliyceps, Theobald, Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. (1868) 70, 
Hydrophis crassicoUis ANDERSON, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 40 (1871) 

19. 
Hydrophis westermanni Jan, Rev. Mag. Zool. (1859) ; Icon. Gen. 

(1872) livr. 39, pi. 5, fig. 1; Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 111. 
Hydrophis phipsoni MURRAY, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 2 (1887) 

32, pi. 
Hydrophis (Hydrophis) cyanocinctiis Boettger, Zool. Anz. 11 (1888) 

396 (Philippines). 
Hydrophis taproha aica Haly, Taprobanian 2 (1887) 107. 
Distira cyanocincta Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 410; 

Sclater, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 60 (1891) 247; Boettger, Ber. 

Offenb. Ver. Nat. (1892) 90; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes, Brit. Mus. 

3 (1896) 294; West, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1895) 823, pi. 66, 

figs. 1, 8, 17; Wall, Proc. Zool, Soc, London (1903) 96, 101; Boett- 
ger, Ber. Senck. Nat, Ges, (1898) xxxviii (1905) 170 (Philippines). 
Disteira ryanocincta Ste.ikeger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 428; 

Proc, U", S. Nat, Mus, 38 (1911) 111, 

Descrirjfion of fipccies. — (Adult male.) Head not distinct 
from r.eck ; rostral broad, pentagonal, well visible above, form- 
ing nearly equal sutures with nasals and labials ; nostril pierced 



246 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

in the outer posterior part of nasal with a suture reaching from 
it to second labial ; nasals large, in contact the greater part of 
their length ; prefrontals broader than long, touching second la- 
bials; frontal longer than wide, not as long as its distance 
from rostral, 'Wider than supraoculars; parietals longer than 
frontals, touching superior postocular and bordered by 3 tempo- 
rals, first largest; 1 small preocular; 2 postoculars; 8 upper 
labials, second very large, touching nasal, prefrontal, and pre- 






b 

a ' c 

Fig. 26. Disteira cyanocmcta (Daudin) ; after Wall; a, head, dorsal view; 6, head, lateral 

view : c, head, ventral view. 

ocular, third, fourth, and fifth entering orbit, seventh smallest; 
2 anterior temporals, the lower followed by the eighth upper la- 
bial ; 9 lower labials, the 2 anterior largest, touching first pair of 
chin shields which are smaller than second pair ; latter in contact 
half their length ; lower labials from third to ninth small, sepa- 
rated from chin shields by 3 large scales, the third of which is 
slightly separated from the second pair of chin shields ; scales 
imbricating, pointed more or less posteriorly on anterior part of 
body, truncate on posterior part of body, each scale with a dis- 
tinct keel or tubercle ; scales largest lateroventrally ; ventrals 
small, usually a half wider than adjoining scale rows, equipped 
with 2 or more tubercles; ventrals, 237; anals, 2 pairs, outer 
largest, not in contact; subcaudals, 49; 31 scale rows on neck, 
39 on body, 26 on tail ; scute on tip of tail large. 

Measurements of Disteira eymioeineta (Daudin). 

mm. 

Total length 1,080 

Snout to vent 992 

Tail 88 

Length of head 25 

Width of head 13 

Depth of neck 13 

Depth of body 28 

Depth of tail 2" 

Color in life. — Above dull blue, the body traversed by 52 
yellow-white bars, very dim dorsalh', distinct ventrally ; tail with 



DISTEIRA 



247 



5 bars, only the first 2 extending to underpart of tail. Head 
greenish black, throat and neck black, the black interrupting 
the light bars from above. 

Variation. — Variations in scale counts evident in Philippine 
specimens are : Ventrals, 320 to 398 ; scale rows on neck, 29 to 33 ; 
scale rows on body, 36 to 40. For extra-Philippine specimens, 
Boulenger gives the following limits: Ventrals, 281 to 385; 
scale rows on neck, 27 to 33; scale rows around body, 39 to 45. 

Specimen No. 798, Bureau of Science collection, has only 
2 labials entering eye, but there is a fusion of the fourth and 
fifth labials ; No. 800, Bureau of Science collection, has the sixth 
labial broken, making 3 anterior temporals ; a specimen consist- 
ing merely of the head of a very large snake has the same 
arrangement of temporals as the preceding, only 2 labials enter 
the eye, and there are only 7 upper labials. This head measures 
43 millimeters in length, and 29 in width. No. 797, Bureau of 
Science collection, has 3 anterior temporals ; the fifth labial of 
this specimen is broken transversely, the upper part entering 
eye. 

Table 53. — MeasureDients and scale counts of Disteira cyanocincta 

{Daudin) . 



No. 


Sex. 


797 


? 


798 


5 


800 


9 


1102 


9 


1103 


d 


1104 


d 


1105 









Manila__ 
.-__do _- 

..._do -- 
..__do-- 
do __ 



Length. Tail. 



T. Bangis .._ 

do 

do 

E. H. Taylor. 

do 

do 



nnn. 


mm. 


1.255 


91 


945 


(■) 


670 


66 


1,140 


84 


1.073 


98 


476 


43 







Ven- 
trals. 



368 
366 
3.50 
362 
366 
356 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



Scale r 



Body. Neck 



31 
29 
30 
28 
29 
28 
81 



^j I Upper 
'^°- labials. 



797 

798 

800 
111)2 
1103 
1104 
I, 1106 



Lower 
labials. 



Labials 
enter 
eye. 



Pre- j Post- 
oculars, oculars. 



8-7 
7 
7 



9-8 
8-9 
8-9 
9-9 
9-10 



3,4,5 

3,4 'l 

3,4 ll 
3,4,5 
3,4,6 
3.4.6 
3,4 
3,4 

» Mutilated. 



Tem- 
porals. 



Anals. Bands. 



2+2 

2-12 

3—3 
242 

2+2 
2 + 2 
3+3 



2 I 63 Bureau of Science. 

2 1 58 , Do. 

4 I 64 ! Do. 

4 : 67 I E. H. Taylor. 

4 I 68 j Do. 

6 ' 68 I Do. 

...: i Do. 



^ Head only. 



Remarks. — This species is fairly common about Manila Bay. 
Dead snakes are frequently found along the beach where they 



248 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



have been killed by fishermen. A few specimens have been kept 
alive at various times in the Bureau of Science aquarium. 

It is significant that this species enters 
Lake Taal, a fresh-water lake connected with 
the sea by a river only a few kilometers long. 
From this locality Semper obtained speci- 
mens, one of which became the type of 
Carman's Hydrophis semperi. A careful 
reading of Carman's description "seventh 
[labial] smallest, and separated from the 
temporal by a large pentagonal plate" shows 
the presence of 2 temporals, the "plate" ap- 
parently being the second temporal. 





Fig. '2i^. Disteira cijano- 
cincta (Daudin) ; after 
Jan's D. wesiermanni : 

a. head, lateral view : 

b, head, lateral view 
(variation) . 



DISTEIRA CYANOSOMA Wall 

Disteira cyanosoma Wall, Journ. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 22 (1913) .516, 



Description of .specie.?.— (After the type description.) Ros- 
tral broader than high, in contact with 4 shields ; nasals in con- 
tact vni\\ each other: suture from nostril passing to second 
supralabial; 2 prefrontals in contact mth second supralabial; 
frontal touches 6 shields, frontalparietal sutures rather the 
longest; parietals entire; 1 preocular; 2 postoculars; 2 tempo- 
rals on right side, 3 on left side, all longer than high ; 8 supra- 
labials, third and fourth touching the eye, sixth and seventh 
small, eighth elongate; 2 pairs of chin shields, subequal, the 
posterior pair quite separated by small scales; 4 lower labials, 
fourth largest, a cuneate scale wedged between third and fourth; 
3.3 scale rows on neck, 37 in middle of body, 35 a short distance 
in front of anus ; scales subimbricate, faintly tuberculate ; ven- 
trals, 213 ( ?) * enlarged, entire, not quite twice the width of the 
last row of scales. 

Color. — Uniformly bluish, deeper dorsally, paler on sides and 
on belly. 

Remarlcs. — No measurements of this species are given ; since 
the number of scale rows on the neck is only four less than in 
midbody it is safe to suppose that the species does not belong to 
the small-headed, narrow-necked group of this genus. 

The species was sent from the Philippines, but the exact local- 
ity 's not recorded. Wall states that it bears a pronounced 



* Wall's query. 



LAPEMIS 249 

superficial resemblance to Enhydrma valakadyn (Boie). I have 
found no specimens that are referable to this species. 

Genus LAPEMIS Gray 

Enhydris, part., Meerem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 140 (not of La- 

treille 1802). 
Hydro-phis, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 512; Dumeril and 

BlERON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1341; jAN, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 

109; GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 360. 
Lapemis Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 2 (1834) pi. 87, fig. 2; Zool. Misc. (1842) 

60; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 43; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

58 (1907) 435. 
Pelamis, part., Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamburg 3 (1856) 61. 
Enhydris Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 393; Cat. Snakes 

Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 300; Wall, Mem. As. Soc, Bengal 2 (1907-10) 

246. 

"Maxillary as long- as the ectopterygoid, extending forwards 
as far as the palatine, with two large poison-fangs and 2 to 4 
small feebly-grooved teeth. Nostrils superior ; head-shields 
large; nasals in contact with each other; a praeocular; loreal 
present or absent. Body short and stout; scales hexagonal or 
squarish, juxtaposed; ventrals very feebly developed, if at all 
distinct." (Boidenger.) 

Two species of this genus are known, Lapemis curtus Shaw, 
confined to the coasts of India and Ceylon, and Lapemis hard- 
wickii Gray, which is found in the Bay of Bengal and the waters 
bounding the Malay Peninsula and Malay Archipelago. The 
latter species is the commonest water snake in Manila Bay, as 
many as a hundred being brought in with a single haul of a net 
in the shallow water along the coast. The snakes may be seen 
swimming in the water or coming to the surface to breathe about 
the swimming rafts on Pasay Beach. 

LAPEMIS HARDWICKII Gray 

Lapemis hardwickii Geay, 111. Ind. Zool. 2 (1834) pi. 87, fig. 2; Cat. 
Vip. Snakes (1849) 44; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 
435. 

Hydrophis pelamidoides ScHLEGEL, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 512, Atlas, 
pi. 18, figs. 16, 17; Fauna Jap., Rept. (1838) pi. 9; Dumeril and 
BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1845;, Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamburg 
(1856) 64, pi. 3; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1872) livr. 41, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

Lapemis loreatus GRAY, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 11 (1843) 46. 

Hydrophis hardwickii Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 380, pi. 25, 
fig. W.; Anderson, Journ. Linn. Soc. 21 (1889) 348. 

Hydrophis loreata Gunther. Rept. Brit. India (1864) 380; Boettger, 
Zool. Anz. (1888) 396. 

Hydrophis fayreriana, Anuerson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 40 (1871) 19. 

Hydrophis problcinaticus jAN, Rev. & Mag. Zool. (1859) 150 (Ma- 
nila?). 



250 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Hydrophis brevis Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 109 (Manila). 
Hydrophis oMreviatus Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 109 (Manila); 

Icon. Ophid. (1872) livr. 40, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
Enhydris hardwickii BouLENfiER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

301; Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 397; Wall, Mem. As. Soc. 

Bengal 2 (1907-10) 247. 
Hydrophis (Thalassophis) loreatus Boettger, Zool. Anz. 11 (1888) 

396 (Mindanao and Luzon). 

Description of species. — (From No. 636, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected in Manila Bay, by T. Bangis.) (Adult fe- 
male.) Head moderate; nostrils superior; rostral not visible 
from above, slightly higher than broad, with a short suture enter- 
ing from above; nasals large, longer than v^ade, forming a long 
mutual suture; a suture runs from nostril to anterior part of 
second labial, and a second from nostril to prefrontal, com- 
pletely dividing the scale; prefrontals much wider than long, 
touching second labial, their mutual suture as long as their 
sutures with frontal ; frontal longer than wide, pointed sharply 






Fig. -7. Lajieiiiis hardivickii Gray 



aftei- Giinther : c, head, dorsal vi 
view ; c. chin. 



head. latei*al 



behind, distinctly shorter than its distance from end of snout; 
supraoculars longer than broad; parietals elongate, very much 
longer than broad, touching postocular on one side only; 7 upper 
labials, the second largest and highest, touching anterior part 
of nasal; third and fourth labials enter eye, sixth and seventh 
small, wider than high; 2 large anterior temporals followed by 
3 smaller ones ; 3 pairs of small chin shields, only the first pair 
in contact; second and third pairs separated by 3 rows of small 
scales ; mental small, triangular ; third labial separated from edge 
of mouth by 2 small scales ; fourth lower labial largest ; posterior 
lower labials bent over edge of mouth ; scales on body six-sided, 
with a distinct keel on anterior part of each; scales in 34 rows 
around neck; 41 rows around deepest part of body, 26 rows 
around deepest part of tail; ventrals about 186, small, keeled, 
scarcely discernible from body scales, usually with 2 tubercular 
keels; subcaudals, 33; 4 anal scales, 2 outer largest; anals pre- 
ceded by several small differentiated scales. 



LAPEMIS 251 

Color in alcohol. — Above, banded with bluish black and light 
bands, about 39 of each, from head to tail; on back the black 
bands are 5 scales wide, the light bands about 2 scales wide ; the 
black bands narrow rapidly, and midway on sides they are only 
2 or 3 scales wide ; the white bands widen on sides proportionally 
as the black bands decrease in width; the black bands widen 
again on belly ; tail largely black, the white bands not extending 
more than halfway down on sides of tail. 

Measurements of Lapetnis hardwickii Gray. 

mm. 

Total length 762 

Snout to vent 689 

Tail 73 

Depth of neck 23 

Greatest depth of body 43 

Depth of tail 24 

Length of head 34 

Width of head 25 

Variation. — A remarkable amount of variation is evident in 
this species, and the sexes differ markedly. Boettger gives the 
following variation in scale counts. Males : Ventrals, 135 to 
168, average, 153 ; scale rows, 25 to 31, average, 28. Females : 
Ventrals, -186 to 237, average, 202 ; scale rows, 29 to 36, aver- 
age, 31. In specimens that I examined the ventrals varied 
between 130 and 230 ; and the scale rows, between 24 and 41. 

Of about one hundred fifty specimens examined about sixty 
had one or more loreals present on one or both sides (Hydrophis 
loreata) . The loreal is usually formed from the anterior part 
of second labial; sometimes it is fused with preocular, in which 
case the latter touches nasal; sometimes the loreal fuses with 
the lower part of nasal, sometimes with a second loreal formed 
from the upper part of first labial. Not infrequently specimens 
are found with one or two loreals on one side and none on the 
other. The frontal varie's greatly in length; sometimes it is 
as long as its distance from snout, at other times it is scarcely 
half as long. One or two preoculars are present. The suture 
from nostril goes with about equal frequency to first and second 
labials ; there are usually two anterior temporals but not in- 
frequently the temporals are fused into one scale. 

The markings are variable also. The number of dark bands 
varies between 28 and 41 ; they may encircle body or may be 
joined on back not extending the full length of side; sometimes 
the bands are joined by a black line following the ventrals ; 
the bands may be wide or narrow. 



252 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Remarks. — The species is incredibly numerous in Manila Bay. 
I have kept as many as fifty living specimens in the aquarium 
at one time. They do not do vv^ell in captivity and seldom live 
for more than a few months. To obtain the proper sort of food 
for them is a problem. 

Most of the Philippine records for this species are for Manila. 
I have taken specimens at Hinigaran, on Negros. It probably 
occurs with greater or less frequency on the coasts of all of 
the islands. Outside of the Philippines it occurs from the Bay 
of Bengal to New Guinea. 

Genus PELAMYDRTJS Stejneger 

Hydrus, part., Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 233. 

Pelamis, part., Daudin, Hist. Rept. 7 (1803) 357; Fischer, Abh. 

Naturw. Hamburg 3 (1856) 61. 
Pelamis Fitzinger, Neue Class. Rept. (1826) 29; Wagler, Syst. Amph. 

(1830) 165; Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 41; Dumeril and Bi- 

BRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1333; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 

382; BOETTGER, Ber. Senclv. Nat. Ges. (1886) 119; Casto de Elera, 

Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 443. 
Hydrophis, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 488; Jan, Elenco 

Sist. Ofid. (1863) 109. 
Thalassophis, part., Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Hamburg 2 (1852) 75. 
Hydrus Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 397; Cat. Snakes 

Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 266. 
Pelamydms Stejnegek, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 38 (1911) 111. 

"Maxillary longer than the ectopterygoid, not e.xtending for- 
wards as far as the palatine ; poison-fangs rather short, fol- 
lowed, after a short interspace, by 7 or 8 solid teeth. Nostrils 
superior; snout long; head-shields large, nasals in contact with 
each other; a preeocular; no loreal. Body rather short; scales 
hexagonal or squarish, juxtaposed; no distinct ventrals." {Bou- 
lenger.) 

Widely distributed throughout the Indian Ocean, Malay Archi- 
pelago, and the Pacific Ocean. Only one species is recognized. 

PELAMYDRUS PLATURUS (Linnaeus) 

Plate 31, fig. 1 

Anguis platura Linn^us, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 1 (1766) 391. 

Hydrvs bicolor Schneider, Hist. Amph. 1 (1799) 242; Cantor, Cat. 
Mai. Rept. (1847) 135; CuviER, Reg. Anim. Rept. Atlas 6, pi. 36. 

Hydrophis pkitura L.\treille, Hist. Nat. Rept. 4 (1802) 197. 

Pelamis bicolor Daudin, Hist. Nat. Rept. 7 (1803) 366; Gray, Cat. 
Vip. Snakes (1849) 41; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 
1335; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 382; Krefft, Snakes 
Austral. (1869) 98, pi. 12, fig. 19; Strauch, Schl. Russ. Rept. 
(1873) 199; Fayree. Thanatoph. Ind. (1874) pi. 17; Peters, Preuss. 
Exped. 0. A.^ien 1 (1876) 382; Peters and Doria, Ann. Mus. 



FELAMYDRUS 



253 



Genova 12 (1878) 416; Murray, Zool. Sind. (1883) 307; FisK, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1885) 482; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. 

Ges. (1886) 119; Zool. Anz. 11 (1888) 898 (Philippines); Casto 

DE Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 443. 
Hrjdrophis pelamis Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 508, Atlas, pi. 18, 

figs. 13-15; Fauna Jap., Kept. (1838) 90, pi. 8. 
Pelamis ornata Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 60; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 

43. 
Hydrophis bicolor Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamburg 3 (1856) 51; 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. (1872) livr. 40, pis. 2 and 3. 
Pelamis platurus Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal (1872) 92; Gar- 
man, Bull. Essex Inst. 24 (1892) 88. 
Hydrus platums Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 397; Cat. 

Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 267; Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

58 (1907) 439; Boettgek, Ber. Offenb. Ver. Nat. (1892) 88. 
Pelamydrus plahtrus Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 38 (1911) 111. 

Description of species. — (From an unnumbered specimen in 
the Santo Tomas Museum, Manila; Manila Baj^) Head elon- 
gate, slender ; rostral as high as wide, visible above ; nostril 
superior, pierced in nasal in lower posterior corner ; nasals 
longer than prefrontals, their mutual suture longer than that 
between prefrontals; no internasals; frontal about as long as 
distance to end of snout, narrow and pointed posteriorly, little 






Fig. 28. I'elannjdrus ijlaiuiva (Linnsus) : after Stejneger: a, head, dorsal view; 6. heal, 
lateral view; c, head, ventral view. 



wider than supraoculars ; parietals but little longer than frontal, 
with 2 small equal scales inserted between them and entirely 
surrounded by them ; 8 upper labials, first square, second high, 
in contact with prefrontal and upper preocular, fourth entering 
eye ; 2 preoculars ; 2 large postoculars ; temporals 3 + 3 ; mental 
very small; 11 and 12 lower labials, first large, broadly in con- 
tact; first pair of chin shields small, broken, touching 3 labials; 



254 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

53 scale rows around body; scales hexagonal or quadragonal, 
juxtaposed; ventrals scarcely differentiated; 4 preanals; tail 

greatly flattened. 

Color in alcohol— The 23 dorsal scale rows on body and head 
are dark brown, the 30 lateral and ventral rows, yellowish; tail 
barred above with 6 bands of brown, which reach down about 
halfway on side of tail; below with 7 similar bands alternating; 
rest of tail yellowish. 

Measurements of Pelamydrus platiiriis (Linva^as) . 

mm. 

Total length ^f^ 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Greatest width of tail 

Variation. — This species is extremely variable in color. 

Boulenger * recognizes seven color varieties ; this specimen 
belongs to his variety E {Hydrus bicolor Schneider) . The scales 
vary from 45 to 53 around the body; they are smooth in the 
young and in the females ; in the males the laterals and ventrals 
are rough, with 1, 2, or 3 tubercles. 

Reviarks. —Thi& species is rare in the Philippines ; the spec- 
imen described is one of the first records for Luzon. 

ELAPIN.^ 

Tail cylindrical ; hypapophyses more or less developed through- 
out the vertebral column. Poison fangs well developed, stand- 
ing erect and stationary. Deadly poisonous. 

This group contains the most dangerous snakes, notably the 
genus Naja the species of which are generally known as cobra 
or cobra cli cajyello. There are more than thirty genera of the 
Elapinfe. Most of the genera are confined to Australia and New 
Guinea, with their near-by islands. They constitute the greater 
part of the Australian snakes. One genus is confined to North, 
Central, and South America, and is the only genus of the family 
in that territory. 

Three genera are known in the Philippines. 

Key to tlie PJiiUppinc gcmn-n of the Elapinir. 

ct\ Vertebiee of neck with long ribs which enable the distension of neck; 
poison gland confined to head; scales in 1.5 to 25 rows around body; 

internasal borders nostril __ Naja Laurenti (p. 255). 

a'. No elongate ribs on cervical vertebrae; internasals not bordering nostril. 
b\ Scales in 15 rows; poison gland confined to head. 

Hemibungarus Peters (p. 268). 



Catalogue, loc. cit. 



NAJA 255 

6'. Scales in 13 rows; poison gland very elongate, entering far into 
body cavity _ _.. Doliophls Girard (p. 273). 

Genus NAJA Laurenti 

Naja Laurenti, Syn. Rept. (1768) 90; Merrem, Tent. Syst. Ampli. 
(1820) 147; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (18.54) 1275; GuN- 
THER, Cat. Col. Snakes (18.58) 220; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 338; 
Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 119; Boettger, Ber. Senck Nat. Ges. 
(1886) 116; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 439; 
Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 394. 
Naja, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 461; BoiE, Isis (1827) 

537. 
Dendraspis Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (1843) 28. 
Urmus Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 173. 
Aspis Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 173 (non Laurenti). 
Tomyris EiCHVifALD, Zool. Spec. 3 (1831) 171. 
Hamadryas (non Hubner) Cantor, Asiat. Res. 19 (1836) 87; GtiN- 

thbr, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 218. 
Trivieresnriis, part., DuMERiL and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1244. 
Pseiidohaje GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 222. 
0-phiophagns GtJNTHER, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 340; Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 116; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Fili- 
pinas 1 (1895) 439. 
Naia Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 390; Cat. Snakes 
Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 372. 
"Maxillary extending beyond the palatine, with a pair of large 
grooved poison-fangs, and one to three small, faintly grooved 
teeth near its posterior extremity ; mandibular teeth, anterior 
longest. Head not or but slightly distinct from neck ; eye moder- 
ate or rather large, with round pupil ; nostril between two nasals 
and the internasal; no loreal. Body cylindrical; scales smooth, 
without pits, disposed obliquely, in 15-25 rows (or more on the 
neck) ; ventrals rounded. Tail moderate ; subcaudals all or great- 
er part in two rows." {Boulenger.) 

The genus Naja is distributed from Africa, over southern Asia 
and the Malay Archipelago. One species extends into Celebes. 
The larger part of the species is African. Two well-known and 
widely distributed species enter the Philippines. 

Key to the Philippine species of Naja Laurenti. 
a'. Scales in 19 to 21 rows on neck, 15 rows on body; 4 meters in length 

N. hannah (Cantor) (p. 256). 

a'. Scales in 21 to 35 rows on neck, 17 to 25 rows on body; 2 meters in 

length or less N. naja Linnseus (p. 259). 

The second species is represented in the Philippines by three 
well-defined subspecies which, as Boulenger * states, "might be 
regarded as distinct species but for the absence of any sharp 
demarcation-lines between them." 



* Catalogue, 381. 



256 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The cobra, or cobra di capello (Portuguese), which is the com- 
mon name for this group of snakes associated under the species 
Naja naja, is readily recognized by its habit of raising the ante- 
rior part of the body from the ground, and spreading the skin 
of the neck, when disturbed. The vertebrse of the neck are 
equipped with elongate ribs. Usually, too, the snake emits a loud 
hissing noise when it strikes, and not infrequently squirts small 
jets of venom from its hollow fangs. This poison can be thrown 
at least 2 meters, but cannot do harm unless thrown into a fresh 
wound or into the eye. The eye thus poisoned becomes inflamed 
and a conjunctivitis results, sometimes causing blindness and 
even death. In Naja hannali the ability to spread the neck is 
probably much less developed than in N. naja. The food of the 
two species consists of snakes, lizards, and frogs. N. hannah 
appears to prey wholly on snakes of other species. Snakes of 
this genus are deadly poisonous to man, death usually ensuing a 
few hours after the individual is bitten. 

NAJA HANNAH (Cantor) 

Plate .31, figs, 2 and 3 

Hamadryas hannah Cantor, As. Res. 19 (1836) 87. pis. 10-12. 
Naja bungarus Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 476, pi. 17, figs. 8, 9; 

SCHLEGEL and MtiLLER, in Temminck Verh. Overz, Bez. Nederl. Ind. 

Rept. (1844) 71, pi. 10; Petees, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 690; Bou- 

LENGER, Fauna Brit; India, Rept. (1890) 392. tig. 114; Griffin, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 266. 
Hamadryas ophiophagus Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1839) 32; Cat. 

Mai. Rept. (1847) 116. 
Trimeresurus ophiophagus, part., Dumeril and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 

7 (1854) 1245. 
Hamadryas elaps Gunthek, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 219. 
Trimeresurus bungarus Jan, Rev. and Mag. Zool. (1859) 129; Icon. 

Gen. (1873) 44, pi. 4. 
Naja (Hamadryas ?) fasciafa Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak, (1S61) 689. 
Ophiophagus elaps Gunther, Rept. Brit, India (1864) 341; StO- 

liczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 39 (1870) 210, pi. 11, fig. 7; An- 
derson, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1871) 188; Fayrer, Thanatoph.' Ind. 

(1874) pis. 7, 8; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 116; Ber. 

Offenb. Ver. Nat. (1888) 86; Casto de Elera, Cat, Fauna Filipinas 

1 (1895) 440, 
Naja claps Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 209, 
. Naja iiigens Van Hasselt, Vorsl. Ak. Amsterd. 17 (1882) 140. 
Ophiophagus fasciatus Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 117; 

Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 439. 
Hamadryas elaps Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 81. 
Naja tripudians var. sumatraiia MiJLLER, Verh Nat Ges Basel 8 

(1887) 277. 
Naia bungarus Bohlenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 386. 



NAJA 



257 



Description of species. — (From No. 13, Bureau of Science col- 
lection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, 1917, by C. M. Weber.) 
(Adult male.) Rostral barely visible from above, one and one- 
fifth times as v^'ide as high ; suture 
between internasals about half 
the length of scales ; prefrontals 
larger than internasals, wider 
than long, drawn to a point 
laterally which nearly separates 
preocular from nasal; frontal 
about one-fifth longer than wide, 
as wide as but slightly narrower 
than supraoculars, equal to its 
distance from rostral; parietals 
very long, equal to their dis- 
tance from rostral, bordered by 
2 large temporals and 2 large 
postparietals ; nostril between 2 
nasals and internasal; a small 
square preocular; 3 postoculars; 
temporals 2 + 3 ; 7 upper labials, 
fifth nearly as high as fourth; 
8 lower labials; anterior chin 
shields wider but shorter than 
posterior, which are not separat- 
ed from each other ; scales in 15 smooth rows about body, 21 rows 
about neck; ventrals 267; subcaudals 104 (8 undivided); anal 
single; length of eye contained in distance from eye to snout 
one and seven-tenths times. 

Color in alcohol. — Yellowish to olive brown above, the scales 
of posterior part of body edged with brown, growing darker and 
more pronounced on tail. Body traversed by a number of dim 
lighter bars, at least seventy, scarcely apparent on anterior part 
of body or tail; this coloration is due chiefiy to the coloring of 
the skin between scales. 




Fig. 29. Naja 
Buuienger ; a, 
lateral vie^^ 



liannah (Cantor) ; after 
head, dorsal view ; b, head. 



Measurements of Naja. hannah (Cantor). 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 



2,315 

1,853 

462 

45 

22 



258 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



248.5, 108; Luzon (Baguio). 



15 ' 
250.5; 92.5. 



Variation.— Three islands are represented in the collection, 

and the following differences in scale formula? are noted. These 

formulsB are compiled as averages from the table: Palawan, 

iqoi . 17-19 

four specimens. ^'^^ : 262; 103; Mindoro, two specmiens. 

19 
two specmiens, - ; 
15 

The Palawan forms have a larger number of ventral scales than 
do those from the other two islands. I doubt whether these aver- 
ages would be maintained with large series. The total averages 
of ventrals and of subcaudals of the eight specimens are 256 and 
101, respectively. Of the specimens listed by Boulenger the 
averages are : Ventrals, 249 ; subcaudals, 101. Thus it appears 
that the Philippine specimens have a slightly higher average of 
scales. Boulenger lists four color varieties, but these may be 
largely due to the various ages of the specimens. The young 
are always more vividly marked than the adults. Peter's 
Ophiophagus fasciatus is probably founded on a young specimen. 
The number of undivided subcaudals varies ; the specimens have 
a range of from 7 to 41, the one with the highest count being a 

Table 54. — Measurements and scale counts of Naja hannah (Cantor). 



No. 



727 
12 
13 
14 
IB 
16 
17 
18 



Locality. 



Collector. 



I Mindoro -J C. Burks j d" 

Palawan j M. Ramos 1 ? 

do j C. M. Weber o' 

Baguio — , ] ^ 

Palawan ' C. H. Lamb 

do ' do 

Mindoro | Marine Biolof?ical Expedition_ 

Baguio L. E. Griffin cf 



Leng-th. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals. 


mm. 


Tjzn;. 


1,610 


345 


251 


2.378 


475 


266 


2,315 


462 


267 


2.270 


475 


249 


1,955 


465 


251 


2,726 


530 


264 


2,442 


630 


246 


2.620 


640 


252 





Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


Labials. 


Scale 


rows. 


Undi- 
vided 
sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


Postoc- 
ulars. 


No, 


Upper. 


Lower. 


Neclt. 


Body. 


727 


112 


7 


8 


19 


15 


41 


3-4 1 


12 


104 


7 


8 


19 


IB 




3 


13 


104 


7 


8 


21 


IB 


8 


3 


14 


90 


»7-5 


8 


19 


15 


10 


3 


IB 


102 


7 


8 


19 


IB 


11 


3 


16 


101 


7 


8 


19 


15 


8 


3 


17 


104 


7 


8 


17 


15 


11 


3 


18 


95 


7 


8 


19 


IB 


33 


3 



Collection. 



E. H. Taylor. 
Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



' Abnormal. 



NAJA 259 

medium-sized specimen from Mindoro ; this same specimen has 
4 postoculars on the right side. 

The variation in color and marlvings is small, save that the 
narrow transverse bars are very dim or wanting in older speci- 
mens, and the color edging the scales on the tail is ciuite black. 

Remarks. — This snake grows to a large size in the Islands. A 
specimen collected in Balabac by Mr. C. M. Weber measured 4.25 
meters, which I believe is the largest recorded specimen. Unfor- 
tunately its large bulk caused it to rot in the preserving fluid. It 
is reported as being very common on Lubang Island, north of 
Mindoro. I have not been able to verify this report. It prob- 
ably occurs on all the larger islands. It is striking, however, 
that I find no specimens recorded from the western Visayan 
islands (Bohol, Cebu, Negros, and Panay). In fact, no cobras 
of any sort have yet been recorded from those islands. 

NAJA NAJA Linnaeus 

The assemblage of subspecies now associated under this specific 
name is so large that I have not attempted to give a synonymic 
list of them. Synonymies for Philippine forms are given in the 
treatment of the individual subspecies. 

Key to the Pliilij)pme subspecies of Najo-. naja Linnseus. 

a'. Scale rows on neck, 19 to 21; on body, 17 to 19; ventrals, 165 to 178; 
subcaudals, 42 to 46. Black above with yellow reticulations or yellow 
dots; a few yellow anterior ventrals, behind which ventrals are dense 
black - N. n. samarensis Peters (p. 259). 

a\ Scale rows on neck, 21 to 23; on body, 19; ventrals, 178 to 186; sub- 
caudals, 46 to 51. Black above and below with a yellowish V-shaped 
mark; young dense black with few whitish bars. 

N. n. mlolepis (Boulenger) (p. 262). 

a'. Scale rows on neck, 25; on body, 21 to 23; ventrals, 187 to 196; sub- 
caudals, 39 to 47 ; uniform olive or olive brown ; young, yellowish olive 
with darker reticulations N. ii. philippinensis subsp. nov. (p. 2C5). 

NAJA NAJA SAMARENSIS Peters 

Naja tripudiaris var. F., part., Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 

225. 
Naja tripudians var. samarensis PETERS, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 690; 

BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 116. 
Naja tripudians Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879) 78; 

Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 81. 
Naia samarensis Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 385. 
Naja samarensis Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 266. 

Descriptio7i of species. — (From No. 427, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, June 25, 191.3, 
by E. H. Taylor.) Rostral one and two-fifths to one and three- 



260 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

fifths times as wide as high, the portion visible from above about 
one-fourth distance from frontal, sharply pointed behind, the 
sutures with nasals and labials subequal ; the suture between in- 
ternasals much shorter than the length of the scales ; prefrontals 
a little broader than long, as long as or a little longer than inter- 
nasals, the suture between them equal to the length of the scales; 
frontal one-sixth longer than wide, wider than supraocular but 
not quite so long, its length equal to its distance from rostral; 
parietals large, longer than wide, followed by a series of some- 
what enlarged occipital shields bordering parietals and tem- 
porals ; 2 nasals, posterior highest, appearing very narrow in a 
lateral view; from an anterior view it appears larger than an- 
terior ; 1 preocular reaching down to near middle of eye ; 3 post- 
oculars, third well below eye; temporals 2 + 2; 7 upper labials, 
third highest, reaching height of middle of eye, third and fourth 
entering orbit, first 2 smallest; 8 lower labials, fourth and fifth 
largest, 4 touching first pair of chin shields ; anterior chin shields 
much larger than posterior, which are separated from each other ; 
ventrals, 165; anal single; subcaudals, 46; scales smooth in 19 
rows around neck, 17 rows around body; eye moderately large, 
about half as long as snout. 

Color in life. — Above a dark, slightly iridescent, brownish 
black, with an indistinct yellowish netting, more prominent on 
posterior part of body ; only a part of skin between scales yellow- 
ish ; top of head olive-brown, sides of head and neck lighter, with 
a dim lighter line extending some distance along sides; lower 
part of upper labials, lower labials, chin, and first ten ventrals 
yellowish; eleventh to sixty-sixth ventrals black at first, but 
growing lighter toward end ; ventrals behind these are yellowish, 
mottled with darker blotches ; a median darker line below tail. 

Measurements of Naja naja samarcnsis Peters. 

mm. 
Total length grjQ 

Snout to vent t^25 

Tail 145 

Length of head gg 

Width of head 21 

Variation.— The six specimens in my collection from Mindanao, 
do not vary greatly among themselves in scalation. The amount 
and intensity of the dark coloring on the belly varies somewhat. 
All the specimens have the first few ventrals (usually nine) yel- 
lowish, although the color may cover only the first seven; after 
these the ventrals are an intense black, which color may continue 
back a third or more the length of body, growing gradually less 



NAJA 



261 



intense and lighter. In the young the black may cover as few 
as fifteen ventrals ; also in the young the lighter line beginning 
on the hood appears more prominent. In all the specimens there 
is a small, lower labial inserted betvreen the upper part of third 
and fourth lower labials bordering mouth; in the specimen de- 
scribed it is absent on one side. One specimen in the Bureau 
of Science, collected in Samar, has much more yellow on body; 
it is distributed in roundish spots on all the scales, the color rarely 
covering the entire scale, but frequently spots on two or three 
scales are confluent ; the lateral light line is distinct in this adult 
specimen, and it has nineteen rows of scales around the body. 
The variation * in counts of scale rows on neck and body, and of 
ventrals and subcaudals, may be represented by the following 

19 - 2-3 
formula: ifzicy, 16.5 to 178: 42 to -50. Two specimens have two 

undivided subcaudals ; there is some variation in the relative 
width and height of the rostral. 



Table 55. — Measi.trements and scale counts of Ncija naja samarensis Peters. 



No. 



Collector. 



Sex oi 
ag-e. 



23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
R20 



Bunawan. Agusan E. H. Tayloi- _ 

do do 

do do 

do I do 

do do 

do do 

Catbalog-an. Samar G. I. Cullen.. 



9 
? 

9 



No. 



Ven- 
trals. 



Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 



Scale 



Upper Lower 
labials, labials. 



Body. : Neck. 









1 


, 








mm. 




! 








23 


4.5 


172 


44 




8 


17 


24 


13.5 


172 


46 


7 ' 


8 


17 



25 ; 

26 ! 



121 
145 



27 


145 


28 


55 


R20 ' 


156 ; 



178 
165 
172 
173 
175 



42; 
46 
45 
44 
43 i 



17 I 

17 

17 

17 

19 



E. H. Taylor. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bureau of Science. 



' Mutilated. 



Length. 



mm. I 

278 

(a) 

810 
870 
900 
339 
1009 



I do not believe that the differences here recorded warrant 
giving this form specific designation while the other two forms, 



* Combining' the data recorded in the table with those in Boulenger's Cat- 
alogTie, op. cit. :385. 



^n 



262 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Naja naja miolepis and Naja naja philippinensis. are regarded 
only as varieties, as Boulenger has treated them. It is certain 
that all three should be regarded as distinct species if only Phil- 
ippine material were to be considered, as two of the forms, miole- 
pis and savicu'ensis, appear to be isolated here, geographically, 
while the third invades the restricted territories of the other two. 
There appears to be no intergrading of any sort. 

Remarks. — This cobra is probably confined to the eastern Vi- 
sayan islands (Samar and Leyte) and Mindanao. It is common 
in the Agusan Valley. The specimens in my collections were 
found crawling in daytime in the forest or on the lawn about my 
house. When discovered they made no effort to escape, but us- 
ually stopped quiet; if disturbed they immediately raised their 
heads and spread their hoods. I did not observe them, eject 
poison from their fangs, as is true of A^aja naja pJulippi]ie)isis. 

A specimen from Zamboanga kept alive in the Bureau of Sci- 
ence has a very intrepid disposition and is disposed to put itself 
on the defensive at the approach of anything. It readily takes 
living frogs and snakes (Calamaria gei'vaisii) for food. Snakes, 
lizards, and frogs probably form its food under natural condi- 
tions. The snake is deadly poisonous. Two large Berkshire 
pigs kept on an agricultural farm at Bunawan succumbed to bites 
of these snakes within a period of a few hours after being bitten. 
Among the Manobos the snake is called aguasoii and is greatly 
feared. Several harmless snakes are also classed as aguason 
because of similarity in color. 

NAJA NAJA MIOLEPIS (Boulenger) 

Plate 3 '2 

Naiii- friimdianfs BouLENCEli, Ann. & Mag-. Nat. Hist, VI 14 (1894) 84. 
Naia tripudians vav. miolepis Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 

3 (1896) 384. 
Naja naja miolepis Grifein. Pliilip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) (500; 

§ D 6 (1911) 266; Barbour, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 

44 (1912) 136. 

Description of species. — (From No. 3, Bureau of Science col- 
lection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, 1908, by C. M. Weber.) 
Rostral one and one-fifth times as wide as high, visible above, 
the part visible triangular; internasals about as large as pre- 
frontals, their greatest length along prefrontal suture, their 
mutual suture less than half their length, narrowly in contact 
with preocular; prefrontals wider than long, shorter than inter- 
nasals ; frontal one and one-fifth times as long as broad, and one 
and a half times as wide as supraoculars, but equal in length, 



NAJA 



268 



slightly shorter than its distance to end of snout ; parietals much 
longer than wide ; nostril vertical, between 2 nasals ; a single small 
preocLilar; 3 postoculars (2 on left side) ; 2 anterior' temporals, 
the lower nearly as large as parietals, narrowly separated from 
mouth ; 3 posterior temporals ; the scales bordering parietals and 
temporals slightly enlarged; 7 upper labials, third and fourth 
entering eye, third not reaching the height of middle of eye; 




Naja naja iniolepis (Boulenper) ; a, head, dorsal view; h, head, lateral view; c, chin; 

X 1. 



labials in the following order of size : seventh, fifth, third, fourth, 
sixth, first, and second ; 8 lower labials, with a small scale inserted 
between fourth and fifth bordering mouth (always present) ; 
anterior chin shields longer and wider than posterior, which are 
not separated ; 4 labials touching first pair of chin shields ; scales 
smooth in 23 rows on neck, 19 around body ; ventrals, 182 ; sub- 
caudals, 46; anal single. 

Color in alcohol. — Bluish to brownish black on body dorsally, 
and laterally slightly lighter below; the skin between the scales 
lighter; on latter half of body several dim, V-shaped, lighter 
bands cross body at distant intervals; head olive-brown, side of 
head and chin yellowish. A yellowish brown band on side of 
neck crossing anterior part. 



Measurements of Naja naja miolepis (Boulenger) . 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Width of head 

Variation. — The young are deep black with a series of about 
12 yellowish bands about body continuing to tip of tail; these 



mm. 

1,227 

1,050 

177 

36 

23 



264 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



are darker on belly, but are usually distinct ; the anterior ones are 
V-shaped on back; first 12 ventrals yellow; head yellow-brown, 
with a dark area on frontal and parietals. Four of the six speci- 
mens studied have only 2 preoculars on the left side and 3 on the 
right; one specimen has this reversed, and the other has the same 
number on each side. The average counts of scale rows on neck 
and body, of ventral and subcaudal scales, may be expressed in 

the following formula : 



19 



178 to 186; 46 to 51. This, com- 

21-23 



bined with the recorded counts of Boulenger,* gives 



178 



17 19 

to 199 ; 45 to 51. The Borneo specimens have 17 scale rows on 
body, while the Palawan forms have 19. There is a slightly 
higher average of ventrals in the Borneo forms. 



Table 56. — Measurements and scale counts of Naja naja miolepis 

(Boulenger) . 



No. 




Locality. 






Collector. 




Sex 

or 

age. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals. 








- - 




















?nm. 


mm. 




1 


Palawan 






C. M. Weber 


^ 


1.180 


181 


180 


2 


do. 








do 


cf 


1,075 


160 


184 


3 


do- 








do 


0- 


1.227 


177 


182 


4 


do. 








do 1 yg 


750 


116 


186 


6 


do. 








do 


yg 




60 


178 


6 


do. 








_____do 


yg 


345 


55 


186 






Labials. 




Seal 


i rows. 










No. 


Sub- 
caudals. 








Poflt- 




Collectit 


>n. 




Upper. 
7 


Lower. 


Neck. 


oculars. 
Body. 


1 


51 




9 


23 


19 2-3 


Bureau of 


Science. 








48 


7-8 




9 


21 


1 19 ! 2-3 


Do. 










46 


7 




9 


23 


19 1 2-3 


Do. 










47 


7-8 




8-9 


23 


19 2-3 


Do. 










50 


7 




9 


23 


19 ! 3 


Do. 








6 


49 


7 




9 


28 


j 19 1 2-3 


Do. 









Remarks. — This subspecies appears to be confined to Boi-neo 
and Palawan, and probably the other islands of the Palawan 
group. It is easily distinguishable from the other Philippine 
forms by the white markings on the young, and the dark uniform 
color of the adults. Griflin f states that the species is common 
in Palawan. 



Op. cit. 384-385. 



t Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600. 



NAJA 265 

NAJA NAJA PHILIPPINENSIS subsp. nov. 

Naia tripudians cxca, part., Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 

(1896) 383 (spec, o, highlands of Lepanto, N. Luzon). 
Naja naja cxca Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600; § D 
6 (1911) 266. 

Description of species. — (From No. 7, Bureau of Science col- 
lection; collected in Manila, by C. Canonizado.) (Adult fe- 
male.) Rostral one and three-fifths times as long as broad, the 
portion visible above less than one-fourth its distance from fron- 
tal; internasals about same size as prefrontals, in contact with 
preocular, the suture between them about half the length of the 
scales ; prefrontals as wide as long, their shortest sides bordering 
frontal ; latter one and one-fifth times as long as wide, its length 
equal to its distance from rostral, a little wider, but shorter, than 
supraocular ; parietals longer than Avide ; nostril between 2 nasals 
and internasal ; a preocular present ; 3 postoculars ; temporals 
2 + 2 ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering eye, third 
highest, not reaching level of middle of eye; 8 lower labials 
(counting a small scale inserted between fourth and fifth labials) ; 
anterior chin shields largest, touching 4 lower labials ; posterior 
chin shields separated from each other ; ventrals, 190 ; subcaudals, 
43; anal single; scales smooth, in 21 rows about body; 25 rows 
around neck ; eye more than half the length of snout. 

Color in life. — Above yellowish to olive-brown, becoming slight- 
ly lighter on outer scale rows ; below immaculate yellowish white 
to cream; no markings of any sort evident. 

Measurements of Naja naja philippinensis subsp. nov. 

mm. 

Total length , 1,000 

Snout to vent 860 

Tail 140 

Variation. — The young of this subspecies are dark brown to 
black, reticulated with a heavy network of light olive-yellow in 
distinct contrast ; the head has a suggestion of darker markings ; 
the neck is lighter, with irregular series of small round or longi- 
tudinal spots on each side ; below, the belly is of a dirty light olive. 
The scales behind parietals are usually more or less enlarged. 

The variation of the scale counts is expressed in the following 

23-25 
formula: neck and body rows, ' ' ; ventrals, 177 to 191; sub- 

Zl^Zo 

25 
cauclals, 39 to 49. The average count is as follows : „, , 176, 44. 

Specimens Nos. 463 to 470 recorded in the table were hatched 
from eggs laid in the laboratory by specimen No. 481. The varia- 



2QQ SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

tions which obtain in this brood are striking ; they are expressed 
by the following formula : ^'"k~f^^. 1^7 to 191, 41 to 48 ; or an aver- 
age ventral and subcaudal count of 184 and 44, respectively. The 
scale formula of the mother is [.:^, 191, 39. Three of the young 

have the posterior chin shields in contact. 

Remarks-. — The common Luzon cobra cannot be classed with 
either Naja naja aica, as Griffin and Boulenger have done, or 
N. naja sput.atrix, on the basis of either color or scale formula. 

The average scale counts given by Boulenger for A^. naja cseca 
(exclusive of the two Javanese specimens and a specimen from 

Luzon) are: i;^, 193, 66; N. naja spittatrix ^, 176, 47. Naja 

naja philippinensis approaches A*", naja ceeca in color, but varies 
markedly in the scale formula; it approaches A'', naja sputatrix 
in the scale formula, but varies markedly in color and markings. 
Several of these snakes are kept at the Bureau of Science for the 
purpose of extracting the venom from them for use in the man- 
ufacture of antivenom serums. 

In captivity some specimens take frogs and small snakes readily 
for food ; others refuse all food, starving themselves to death. 
One female laid twelve eggs in the vivarium. These were re- 
moved and buried in moist earth. After a period of incubation 
of seven weeks the young emerged. The young snake on break- 
ing the egg, stuck out its head and by various movements made 
a burrow to the surface without emerging wholly from the egg. 
Thus with the body still in the egg and the head at the surface 
of the ground, it would remain for hours at a time unless dis- 
turbed, at which times it would withdraw wholly within the egg 
which still contained much liquor. On removing an egg and its 
living contents from under the ground and placing it on the sur- 
face, the young cobra would partially emerge and. with body 
erect for a length of several centimeters and hood distended, 
would hiss and strike at any object held near it. The young 
snakes did not leave the <i<£s^ voluntarily until after three or four 
daj's. When this was done they immediately took refuge in a 
small jar of water placed in the cage, their bodies wrapped to- 
gether in the water in a mass and their snouts above the surface. 
Here they were to be found for a period of from eight to ten days, 
when they left the water and took refuge under small objects 
where they began the process of shedding. They touched no food 
during these early days of their life but did so as soon as the 
shedding was completed. 



NAJA 



267 



Table 57. — ■Measurements and scale counts of Naja naja pliUippmensis 

subs p. noi'. 



No. 



Locality. 



481 
463 
464 
465 
466 
467 
468 
469 
470 
482 
483 
484 



Collector. 



I Age j 

I or 1 Length. Tail. 

I sex. I 



<? 
ye 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 
yg 



Pampanga, Luzon Guerrero 

Hatched in laboratory ; . 

-.--do I 

do -- 

--.-do j 

--- do ---- I 

..do 

....do I 

....do 

Pampanga, Luzon i Guerrero 

do , do 

....do ■ do 

--_' do ' do I d" 

---■ do I do j c^ 

7 I Manila C. Canonizado _.. I 9 

I 

8 Pampanga, Luzon... __J L. I. Williams ' yg 

9 Palawan ; C.M.Weber i J 

10 : Manila W. Schultze I $ 



I 



mm. 

1,116 

346 

345 

364 

325 

351 

311 

320 

340 

1,120 

860 

1,145 

1,290 

1,466 

1,000 

346 

840 

990 

1,200 



WW . 
132 

47 

60 

66 

42 

48 

40 

41 

46 
143 
110 
160 
170 
195 
140 

50 
118 
125 
160 



Los Bafios, Laguna ' College of Agriculture. 

do 1 do 



„ , I Labials. 
Ven- Sub- ! 
No. , trals. , cau- 
' dais. 



481 

463 

464 

465 ■ 

466 

467 

468 ; 

469 

470 
482 
483 
484 



9 
10 



191 

180 
177 
183 
190 
190 
ISl 
191 
183 
183 
188 
189 
183 
191 
190 
190 
190 
188 
188 
184 
187 
186 



39 

43 

48 

44 

43 

45 I 

45 

41 

44 

40 

41 

41 

43 

46 

43 

47 

47 

39 

47 

49 

40 

40 





2d chin 
shields 
sepa- 
rated. 


Scale 


rows. 


er. 


Neck. 


Body. 


9 


Yes 


23 


21 


8 


No 


23 


21 


9 


No 


25 


21 


9 


No 


23 


21 


8 


Yes 


23 


21 


9 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


26 


21 


9 


Yes 


23 


21 


9 


No 


23 


21 


9 


Yes 


26 


21 


9 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


23 


21 


9 


Yes 


26 


21 


9 


Yes 


26 


21 


8 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


25 


23 


9 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yea 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


25 


21 


9 


Yee 


25 


21 


9 


Yes 


26 


21 



Collection. 



Bureau of Science. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
College of Agriculture. 

Do. 



268 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

They were fed tadpoles or young frogs, which they would seize 
and hold some time, and then begin the process of swallowing. 
They frequently bit each other, and on two ocasions one was 
found engaged in swallowing one of its brothers ; one was with- 
drawn that had been half swallowed, and it recovered. The 
young lived for about two months when an epidemic appeared 
among them and all died. 

A young specimen, five days old, bit a guinea pig, which suc- 
cumbed in twenty-two minutes. These snakes are poisonous, 
and probably cause more deaths than any other snake in the 
Philippines. 

The subspecies is found very commonly in Luzon, and it occurs 
in Palawan and probably in other large islands. 

Genus HEMIBUNGARUS Peters 

Elaps, part., DuMERiL and BiBEON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1191; GUN- 
THER, Cat. Col. Snakes (185S) 229; Jan, Rev. and Mag. Zool. 
(1858) 516. 

Brachyrhynchus Fitzinger, Syst. Rept. (lS4o) 28. 

Callophis, part., GiJNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1859) 81. 

Hem.ibungarus Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1862) 637; Boettgee, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 117; Boulenger, Cat, Snakes Bvit. Mus. 
3 (1896) 392; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 
440;, .Stejneger,, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 58 (1907) 387. 

"Maxillary bone extending forwards beyond the palatine, with 
a pair of large grooved poison-fangs and one to three small solid 
teeth ; mandibular teeth subequal. Prefrontal bones in contact 
with each other on the median line. Head small, not distinct 
from neck; eye small, with round pupil; nostril between two 
nasals; no loreal. Body cylindrical, much elongate; scales 
smooth, without pits, in 13 or 15 rows; ventrals rounded. Tail 
short; subcaudals in two rows." (Boulenger.) 

Key to the Philippine specief; of Hemibiingariis Peters. 

a'. Temporals 2 -f 3 ; 6 upper labials. 
')'. Second labial not touching preocular. 

H. caUigaster (Wiegmann) (p. 269). 

h\ Second labial touching preocular H. mcclungi sp. nov. (p. 272). 

a-. No temporals; 7 upper labials, sixth forming a suture with parietal. 

H. coUaris (Schlegel) (p. 269). 

The genus Hemibnuganis is a small, compact one, with few 
species. The three species given in the key are confined to the 
Philippines. Another species, H. iiiyreHcciis, is found in India, 
and two others, H. japoiilcii^ and H. hocttgeii. are found on near- 
by archipelagoes to the north. The snakes are poisonous. They 



HEMIBUNGARUS 269 

appear to be rather rare in the PhiHppines. The name oro-odto 
(Bohol-Visayan) is applied to this snake. It is probable that 
the names camamalo and palapcd are also referable to this species. 

HEMIBUNGARUS COLLARIS (Schlegel) 

Flaps collaris Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 448; Abbild. (1844) 
137, pi. 46, figs. 10-11; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 114; Icon. 
Gen. (1873) 43, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Elaps gastrodclus DuMERiL and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 2 (1854) 1212. 

Hemibungarios collaris Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Gas. (1886) 117; 
BouLENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 393; Casto de Elera, 
Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 440; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
§ D 6 (1911) 266. 

Description of species. — (From Boulenger.) "Rostral broader 
than deep, just visible from above; internasals shorter than the 
prsefrontals ; frontal once and a half as long as broad, as long 
as its distance from the rostral, as long as the parietals ; one 
prss- and two postoculars; seven upper labials, third and fourth 
entering the eye, sixth largest and forming a suture with the 
parietal; anterior chin-shields in contact with the symphysial 
and with four lower labials ; posterior chin-shields as long as the 
anterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 228-230; anal divided; 
subcaudals 12-22. Blackish above, barred black and red below ; 
a yellowish occipital collar." 

Measurements of Hemihungarus collaris {Schlegel) . 



mm. 



Total length 430 

Snout to vent 415 

Tail 15 

Remarks. — I have seen no specimen of this snake. Obviously 
it is very rare, and none appears to have been taken in recent 
years. The only definite locality known is Manila, recorded by 
Jan. Only a few specim.ens are known. The species is deadly 
poisonous. 

HEMIBUNGARUS CALLIGASTER (Wiegmann) 
Plate 33, figs. 1 and 2; Plate 34, figs. 1 and 2 

Elaps calligaster Wiegmann, Nova Acta Acad. Leop.-Carol. I 17 (1835. 

253, pi. 20, fig. 2; Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1226; 

Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 231; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1873) 43, 

pi. 2, fig. 2; Rev. & Mag. Zool. (1859) 510; Peters, Mon. Berl. 

Ak. (1861) 689. 
Callophis calligaster Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1859) 83. 
Hemihungarus calligaster Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1869) 213; MtJL- 

LER, III. Nacht. Cat. Herp. Samml. Basel Mus. (1883) 18; Fischer, 



270 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 81; Boettger, Ber. Senck. 

Nat. Ges. (1886) 117; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

.393; Casto de Eleea, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (189.5) 440; Griffin, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 2(;6. 
Hemibungarus gemiaiiulis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) .587. 
Callophis gemianuliis IMtJLLER, Verli. Nat. Ges. Basel 7 (1883) 289. 
Hemibungarus geinmiammlis Boettgek, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 

117; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 441. 

Description of species. — (From No. 231, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected at Iloilo, Panay, 1914, by Archie L. Howard.) 
Head not distinct from neck; rostral a little broader than deep, 
narrowly visible above, forming its broadest suture with nasal; 
internasals broader than deep, the suture between them about 
half their width, bordering upper edge of nostril ; prefrontals 
broader than deep, the left forming a short suture with right 
internasal, forming equal sutures with posterior nasal and upper 
preocular ; frontal nearly twice as long as wide, wider and longer 
than supraoculars, longer than its distance from end of snout; 
parietals much longer than frontal, nearly twice as long as wide, 
touching upper postocular and 3 temporals ; 2 nasals, anterior 
twice as large as posterior, almost surrounding nostril ; no lo- 
real * ; 2 preoculars, upper much the larger ; eye small, not wider 
than its distance from mouth; 2 postoculars, lower largest, tem- 
porals 2 + 2 + 2, upper anterior touching both postoculars; 6 
upper labials in the following order of size: fifth, sixth, third, 
fourth, second, first; third and fourth entei-ing eye; 7 lower la- 
bials, first 4 in contact with anterior chin shields which are twice 
as large as posterior pair; body scales in 1-5 longitudinal rows, 
smooth, without apical pits, outer rows largest; ventrals, 197; 
anal very wide, single; subcaudals, 20 pairs; body cylindrical, 
tail short and thick, ending in a rather sharp-pointed scute. 

Measurements of Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegm-ann). 



mm. 



Total length 4g2 

Snout to vent 497 

Tail 35 

Length of head j^2 

Width of head g 5 

Color in alcohol.—Ahove black-blue, traversed by 68 narrow, 
dotted rows of yellowish white (red in life?) ; head blue-black, 
the color extending down on side of head involving eye, the entire 
fourth and fifth labials, and the edges of their adjoining scales; 
snmit yellowish ; chin cream, the color extending to superior tem- 

* It IS probable that the second nasal is really a loreal element. 



HEMIBUNGARUS 



271 



porals, a black spot on fourth lower labial ; tail flesh pink with 2 
broad bluish bands, each divided by a very narrow light line, and 
separated from each other by 7 transverse scale rows ; belly 
barred bluish black and cream (red in life). 

Variation. — The Bureau of Science collection contains seven 
specimens ; among these very marked variation in color obtains in 
specimens of different ages. The scale formulae are rather uni- 
form, with the exception of the wide range in ventral counts. 
The ventrals vary between 197 and 257 ; the subcaudals, between 
19 and 23. 

Table 58. — Measurements and scale counts of Hemibuvgarits coUir/aster 

( Wiegmann) . 



No. 



Locality, 



231 



Calauan, Laguna 

Mount Banahao, Laguna. 

Samal, Bataan 

Montalban, Rizal 



Collector. 



R. C. McGregor . 

M. L. Merritt 

A. Celestino 

W. Schultze 



Montalban, Rizal i W. Schultze 

Los BafioB, Lag-una F. W. Foxworthy . 

do ' 

Iloilo I A, L. Howard 



rji 


0/ 


& 




mm. 


mm. 


cf 


625 


30 


9 


322 


22.5 


rf 


340 


21 ! 


rf 


20.5 


13 


2 


210 


13,5 


9 


493 


30 


o" 


415 


23 


9 


455 


27 


d- 


462 


35 



228 
236 
233 
250 
216 
251 
267 
222 
197 





•a 




LabialB. 




i 

2-1 
2 


m 

t- 

OJ 

3 

s 

i 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2-1 
2 
2 
2 


No. 


u 

a 

P 


> 
o 




Touch 

chin 

shields. 


21 
22 
28 
25 
26 
27 
23 

231 


21 
23 
19 
23 
20 
20 
19 
19 
20 


6 
6 
6 
6 
fi 
6 
6 
6 
6 


7 
6 

6-7 


3.4 
3.4 
3,4 
3,4 
3,4 
3,4 
3.4 
3,4 
3,4 





Bureau of Science, 

Do, 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
College of Agriculture, 
E, H, Taylor. 



The specimen here described is the only one that has 2 pre- 
oculars, save one specimen that has 2 preoculars on one side. 

In coloration the young are very different. No. 25, Bureau 
of Science collection, is cream, with 29 dark brown bands on body 
and 2 on tail, slightly narrower on the belly where they cover 2 
or 3 ventrals, while on the back they cover 5 transverse scale rows ; 
the head is yellow with a narrow band involving eyes, to mouth. 



272 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

No. 22, Bureau of Science collection, is similar to No. 25 but has 
23 black-brown bars on body, and 2 on tail ; the dorsal part of 
the light interspaces has a brownish wash and the brown bars 
are darker on the edges which are bordered with lighter color; 
ventrally the bars inclose an irregular lighter area. Nos. 23 and 
28, Bureau of Science collection, have 24 and 27 dark bars, respec- 
tively, but the light interspaces, except on tail, are a shade lighter 
brown, bordered by narrow zigzag lighter lines ; the lighter area 
on the ventral bars is wanting in these two specimens. No. 26 
is a very young specimen, which has its 24 black bars entirely 
divided transversely by a narrow light line. 

Remarks. — This species is found in all the eastern Philippines. 
Specimens are known from Luzon (many localities) and southern 
Mindanao. The type locality is probably Manila. 

HEMIBUNGARUS MCCLUNGI sp. nov. 
Plate 33, fig. 3; Plate 34, figs. 3 and 4 
Hemibungarua sp. Griffin, Philip. Jouin. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 214. 

Type. — No. 24, Bureau of Science collection ; collected on Po- 
lillo Island, October, 1909, by C. Canonizado. 

Description of type. — This species is allied to Hemihungarus 
calligaster, but differs from it in having a shorter, stouter body, 
a larger, more elongate head, the second labial in contact with 
preocular, the black stripe across head absent, and a lower aver- 
age of ventrals. Head distinct from neck; rostral narrowly visi- 
ble from above, about as broad as deep ; internasals broader than 
deep, their mutual suture slightly more than half that between 
prefrontals ; latter broader than long, their suture with frontal 
forming a straight transverse line ; frontal five-sided, very much 
wider and longer than supraoculars, the longest sides parallel; 
parietals narrow, elongate; nostrils pierced in posterior part of 
anterior nasal, which almost surrounds nostril; this followed by 
a second nasal (or loreal) element; a single preocular; 2 postocu- 
lars ; 2 large anterior temporals ; 6 upper labials, second in con- 
tact with preocular, third and fourth entering eye; 6 lower labials, 
3 touching first chin shields, which are only slightly larger than 
second pair; ventrals, 206; anal single; subcaudals, 21. 

Color in alcohol. — Above cream white traversed by 22 purplish 
bands about 6 scales wide ; some of these bands are partially di- 
vided transversely by a light streak, visible ventrally and some- 
what evident on sides; the first band on neck is broadest and 
reaches forward to parietals ; the band is broadly interrupted on 
underside of neck, and is transversely divided dorsally; 2 bands 



DOLIOPHIS 



273 



belong to tail ; below, markings similar to dorsal markings except 
that the bands are more brown than pui-ple ; a black spot is 
present about eye. 

Measure-merits of Hemibungartis mcclungi sp. nov. 



mm. 

190 

175 
15 
5.25 
9.25 



Total length 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Width of head 

Length of head 

Remarks. — This species is closely allied to Hemibicngarus calli- 
gaster (Wiegmann) . Table 59 shows the chief variations in 
size and proportions. 

Table 59. — Illeasiirements and scale counts of Hemihunganis calligaster 
( Wiegmann) and H. mcclungi sp. nov. 



No. 


Species. 


Length. 
mm. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals- 




Head. 




Fron- 
tals. 


Parie- 
tal 
length. 


Be- 


Leng-th. 


Width 


Depth 


tween 

eyes. 




mm. 




mvi. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


1 
mm. ' 


25 


H. calligaster^.. 


205 


13 


260 


8 


4.5 


3 


1.9 


2.8 


2.8 


23 


do 


.346 


20 


233 


9.5 


6.25 


3.75 


2.5 


3.2 


3 1 


24 


1 H. mcclungi 


190 


15 


206 


9.25 


5.26 


4 


2.6 


3.4 


3.5 j 



Griffin failed to classify the specimen, but remarks "said to be 
the young of H. calligaste)- (Wiegmann)." The type is a young 
specimen, but the description will enable anyone to recognize the 
adult. This is another species for the more or less distinctive 
fauna of Polillo. 

Genus DOLIOPHIS Girard 

Elaps, part., Schneider, Hist. Amph. 2 (1801) 289, Wagler, Syst. 
Amph. (1830) 19.3; Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 435; Dumeril 
and BiBRON, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1191; Gunther, Cat. Col. Snakes 
(18.58) 229; .Jan, Rev. & Mag. Zool. (1858) 516. 

Maticora Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. (1834) 2. 

Doliophis Gieard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (1S57) 182; 
U. S. Expl. Exp., Herp. (1858) 175; Boulenger, Cat. Rept. Brit. 
Mus. 3 (1896) 399. 

Helminthoelaps, part., Jan, Rev. & Mag. Zool. (1858) 518. 

Callophis, part., Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1859) 81; Pe- 
ters, Men. Berl. Ak. (1862) 636; Gunther, Rept. Brit. India 
(1864) 346; Meyer, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1869) 211; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don (1870) 368; Reinhardt, Vid. Meddel. (1869) 117; Boettger, 
Her. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 117; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna 
Filipinas 1 (1895) 441. 

Adeniophis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1871) 578; Meyer, Sitzb. Ak. 
Berl. (1886) 614; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges, (1886) 117; 

161465-^18 



274 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

BOULENGER, Fauna Brit. India, Kept. (1890) 38fi ; Casto m Eleka, 
Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 1895) 441. 
Maxillary extending forward beyond palatine, with a pair of 
large grooved poison fangs but no other teeth ; mandibular teetli 
subequal ; prefrontal bones in contact with each other on median 
line; head small, not distinct from neck; eye small with round 
pupil; nostril between 2 nasals; no loreal; body subcylindrical, 
elongate; scales smooth, without pits, in 13 rows; ventrals 
rounded ; tail short ; subcaudals in 2 rows ; poison glands elongate, 
extending far into body cavity, gradually thickening, and ter- 
minating in a club-shaped end. 

Key to the Philippine species of Doliophis Girard.* 
a\ Eye about half as long as its distance from mouth; frontal as long 
as, or a little shorter than, its distance from end of snout. 

D. philippinus (Gtinther) (p. 277). 

a\ Eye much more than half as long- as its distance from mouth; frontal 

as long as its distance from rostral..-. D. bilineatus (Peters) (p. 274). 

The genus is a comparatively small one, comprising only four 
species. It is distributed from Burma and Cochin China through 
the Malay Peninsula into the East Indian Archipelago, as far 
as Celebes. Two species are found in the Philippines which 
appear to be confined to the Archipelago. Doliophis bilineatus 
appears to be confined to Palawan, the Calamian Islands, Balabac, 
and Mindanao. The other, D. philippinus, occurs over the east- 
ern part of the Islands, specimens being recorded from Luzon 
and Mindanao. 

These species are both small, and are usually brightly colored 
on the belly with black and .vellow or red bars. The tail has broad 
black and red rings. The snakes are poisonous, but the extent 
of the deadliness of the poison is not known. It is probable that 
it is ciuite as deadly as that of the other Elapine snakes, but the 
smaller size, with the consequent reduced size of the fangs, prob- 
ably makes these snakes harmless to man under ordinary circum- 
stances. Doliophis biliiteatiis is a common snake in Palawan, 
but D. pliilippiviis appears to be extremely rare everywhere. 

DOLIOPHIS BILINEATUS (Peters) 

Plate :'>4, figs. .") and 6; Plate 35, fig. :3 
Callopliis biliiieutiis Peters, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin (1881) 
109; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 117. 



'■' Boulenger, Catalog-ue, states that the two genera Doliopliis and Callo 
pJiis are the same, save that in the former the poison glands extend alone 
the sides of the body foi- one-third of the length, terminating in club 
shaped ends in front of the heart. Heart shifted very far back. 



DOLIOPHIS 275 

Adeniophis bilineatus Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. VI 14, 
(1894) 84; Boettger, Abh. Mus. Dresden 7 (1894-95) 5. 

Doliophis bilineatus BouLENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 404; 
Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600; § D 6 (1911) 266. 

Description of species. — (From No. 135, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion; collected on Palawan, 1913, by C. M. Weber.) (Adult 
male.) Head not distinct from neck or body, somewhat liat- 
tened; rostral small, barely visible from above, about as high as 
wide ; suture with first labial very short, that with nasal about 
twice as long as that with internasal ; latter small, bordering 
nostril above, very much wider than deep, pointed laterally above 
nostril ; prefrontals large, two and a half times as long as inter- 
nasals, about as wide as deep, not touching labials; frontal a 
little longer than broad, narrowed rapidly behind to a point, much 
shorter than its distance from end of snout, about equal to its 
distance from rostral ; parietals longer than wide, longer than 
frontal but of nearly equal width, in contact with only the upper 
postocular; nostril large, pierced between 2 nasals, with inter- 
nasal forming part of upper rim; anterior nasal largest, widest 
where it borders rostral, tapering tovv'ard nostril ; posterior very 
much smaller, separating prefrontal from labial; lory?.] abseiit; 1 
preocular ; supraocular longer than wide, its length less than that 
of frontal but extending farther forward ; 2 postoculars, subequal 
in size; temporals 1 + 2, both very large, anterior touching both 
postoculars ; 6 upper labials, third and fourth entering eye, sixth 
and third largest ; 5 lower labials, fifth narrowed to a point ; 2 
subequal pairs of chin shields, first bordered by 4 labials ; mental 
small, half as wide as rostral; scales in 13 rows, smooth, without 
apical pits ; ventrals, 249 ; anal entire ; subcaudals, 30 ; eye small, 
about twice the diameter of nostril, its vertical diameter equal 
to, or a little less than, its distance from mouth. 

Color in alcohol. — A large, median, black stripe from frontal 
to tail, covering three whole rows and two half rows of scales ; 
behind supraocular begins a white line, covering two half rows 
of scales, extending to tail ; behind eye a second black stripe 
begins and continues to tail, one whole and two half scales wide ; 
below this, a white line one and a half scales wide ; toward latter 
part of body there is a dotted line along the middle of the outer 
scale row; anteriorly the two black stripes merge in a band of 
black crossing head, involving the eyes but not reaching the 
mouth; a whitish band (red in life) in front of" this ; rostral dark; 
a white area (reddish in life) on each upper labial; ventrals with 
alternate bars of yellowish white and black, each bar two or three 
scales wide ; the black encircles body at anus ; chin with a dark 



276 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



area in mental groove, and a spot on foui'th lower labial; three 
broad pinkish bands, separated by narrow black bands, encircle 
tail; scute on extreme tip, pink. 

' MeasJirements of Doliophis bilineatus (Peters). 



mm. 

335 

305 

30 

10 



Total len^h 

Snout to vent 

Tail 

Length of head 

Variation. — Not a great deal of variation is evident in this 
species save in the ventral and the subcaudal counts; the table 
shows this variation in the specimens examined. 

Table 60. — Measurements and scale counts of Doliophis bilineatus (Peters). 



No. 


Locality. 




Collector. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ven- 
trals. 












mm. 


mm. 




631 


Iwahig-. Palawan 




... C. M. Weber 


._: o' 


475 


40 


247 


660 


do 




do 


c^ 


460 31 


252 


662 


do 




_.' do 


..' cT 


460 I 38 


254 


663 


do 




do 


-1 c" 


450 ; 35 


261 


664 


do 




do.. 


? ! 425 1 29 


273 


665 


do 




do.... 


: 9 ' 475 28 


275 


681 


do 




..1 do 


.! 9 j 440 ' «25 


278 


901 


do 




.. C. H. Lamb 


? 1 490 30 


283 


920 


do 




.. ...do 


.! o" 


445 : 35 


260 


949 


do 




--do 


- cT 


385 32 


254 


135 


Palawan 




-- C. M. Weber 


o" 


336 i 30 


249 




Mindanao 




_- Unl 
1 


nown 


. 9 

1 


478 30 


283 1 






No. 
631 


Sub- 
cau- 
dals. 


i 


Post- 
oculars. 


Tern- Upper Labials 
porals. labials. ™*^«'' 


r'ows! ' Collection. 

\ 




29 




2 


l-:-2 6 ; 3,4 


i 
13 j Bureau of Scienc 




660 


27 


1 t 1 


2 


1+2 1 6 1 3,4 


13 i Do. 




662 


30 


1 1 


9 


1-2 6 ' 3,4 


13 


Do. 




663 


30 


1 j 1 


2 


1-1-6 6 ' 3,4 


13 


Do. 




664 


23 


1 1 1 


r, 


1-2 6 3,4 


13 


Do. 




66S 


23 


1 1 


2 


112, 6 3, 4 t 


13 


Do. 




681 


("1 


1 , 1 


2 


12 6 3.4 


13 


Do. 




901 


26 


1 1 


2 


1-1-2 6 ' 3.4 


1.3 


Do. 




920 


2S 




2 


1 '-2 : 6 ; 3.4 


13 


Do. 




949 


28 


1 1 


2 


H-2 


el 3,4 1 


13 


Do. 




135 


30 




1 


2 


i-;-2 


6 3,4 


13 


E. H. Ta.vlor. 






24 




1 


9 


1 12 


B?| 3.4 . 


13 


S 


antoTomas. 





" Mutilated. 



The ventral average for males (seven specimens) 252 ; the sub- 
caudal, 29.4; for females 'Jive specimens) ventrals, 276; sub- 
caudals, 24, making an average of 24 more ventrals and 5.4 less 



DOLIOPHIS 277 

subcaudals in females ; the body measurements also vary, the tail 
in the females being shorter, and the body longer, than those in 
equal-sized males. 

The color varies from black to reddish brown above ; below, 
from yellow orange to red. The spot on the head is reddish. 
The dotted line on the outer row of scales may be present or 
absent. 

Two other species, nonpoisonous, occurring in Palawan have 
practically the same general coloration as the species above. 
These are Polyodoritophis bivittatus and Dryocalamus philippinus. 
These two species may be readily recognized by the long slender 
tail and the absence of markings on belly. In Busuanga Dolio- 
phis hilmeatus is called odto-odto or oro-odto and is regarded as 
being deadly poisonous. These names are also applied to the 
two harmless snakes mentioned above. 

When disturbed or injured the snake turns up the end of its 
tail showing the brilliant red markings on the underside of the 
tail, and then writhes about, sometimes jumping, throwing the 
body from the ground, sometimes turning over on its back and 
continuing its aimless gyrations. 

The species is known from Busuanga, Palawan, and Balabac in 
the Palawan Group, where it appears common. 

Boulenger reports a specimen from Mindanao. Certainly it 
is rare in the last-mentioned place. It is coniined to the Philip- 
pines. 

DOLIOPHIS PHILIPPINUS (Giinther) 

Plate 35, figs. 1 and 2 

Elaps intestinalis var. GtJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 2.30. 
Callophis intestinalis Gunthek, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1859) 82, pi. 16 fig. A. 
Callophis intestinalis var. pliilippinn Gunther, Rept. Brit. India 

(1864) 349. 
Adeniophis philippinus Meyer, Sitzb. Ber. Ak. Wiss. Berlin 36 (1886) 

614; BOETTGER, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 117; Casto de Elera, 

Cat. Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 441. 
Doliophis phili'ppinus BoEXENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

404; Griffin, Philip. .Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 266; Taylor, Philip. 

Journ. Sci. § D 13 (1918) 261. 

Description of s-pecies. — (From No. -54, E. H. Taylor collection; 
collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, November 12, 1912, by 
E. H. Taylor.) (Adult male.) Head small, not distinct from 
neck; rostral wider than deep, the portion visible from above a 
mere line, forming its narrowest suture with labial; internasals 
less than one-third the size of prefrontals, their mutual suture 
shortest; prefrontals in contact with posterior nasal and the 



278 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

elongate preociilar; frontal small, not twice as wide as supra- 
ocular, three-fourths as wide as long, nearly triangular, not as 
long as its distance from eiid of snout ; parietals longer than fron- 
tal, slightly narrower; 2 nasals, the anterior largest; no loreal; 
preocular large, much longer than wide; supraoculars about as 
wide as long ; 2 small postoculars, the superior largest ; temporals 

1 + 2, anterior large, followed by one of equal size, and a smaller 
one below; 6 upper labials, third and fourth entering eye; labials 
in the following order of size : sixth, third, fifth, fourth, second, 
first; 6 lower labials, 4 touching anterior chin shields; eye 
small, about half as long as its distance from mouth; 2 pairs of 
chin shields, subequal in length ; scales in 13 smooth rows, without 
apical pits ; ventrals, 245 ; anal single ; subcaudals, 25 ; tail short. 

Color in life. — Above a dark yellowish brown, each scale edged 
with darker ; a median darker line, beginning on neck, continuing 
the length of body, broken occasionally by a yellowish spot; on 
either side of this darker median line are 2 lighter stripes, below 
which the ground color breaks into bands which encircle belly; 
these narrow ventrally and number 43 on body, with 2 on tail; 
below, they are dark brown to black, covering 4 or 5 ventral 
scales, and are separated by orange-colored bands, which cover 

2 or 3 ventral scales but narrow on sides ; they extend usually to 
fourth row of scales ; the irregular series of dim light spots on 
the median dorsal dark line are between the ends of the light 
abdominal bands; head brown, with indistinct darker shading; 
darker between eyes and on tip of snout ; a black spot in the mid- 
dle of sixth labial; chin variously mottled with brown and hght; 
first labials with light spots; a white line crosses sixth labial; 
chin spotted with dark ; bands under tail a brilliant scarlet, much 
wider than those on belly, almost surrounding tail. 

Measurements of Doliophis philippiniis {GUnthcr}. 

mm. 
Total length g.^c 

Snout to vent r^c 

Tail ^q 

Width of head g g 

Length of head -|^g g 

Variation.— A^ compared with the type, the described specimen 
differs in having the frontal somewhat shorter than its distance 
from end of snout : the ventrals are very much more numerous 
than m the type, the latter haying only 218, while our specimen 
has 245 ; the number of subcaudals is nearly equal. The known 
range of ventrals is 218 to 255; of subcaudals, 25 to 27 



DOLIOPHIS 



279 



The second Bunawan specimen, No. 53, E. H. Taylor collection, 
is much darker brown, and the bands on the belly, 38 in number, 
are black. In the Manila specimen the median dark line is broken 
regularly by the yellowish longitudinal spots, which are about one- 
third as long as the intervening dark areas. There are 41 bands 
on the belly. 

A young specimen captured near Zamboanga, Mindanao, has 
only three labials touching the anterior chin shields, and varies 
markedly from the usual markings. The head is yellow, a black 
spot involving the eye, and there is a spot on the sixth labial. 
Instead of the median dark line, broken by a light spot, there is 
a light line broken by short, black, rectangular spots, less than 
half the length of the intervening light areas ; on either side of 
the median line is a dark brown, darker-edged stripe beginning 
at the eye and continuing regularly and unbroken to the tail ; 
the belly is barred with bands of black and yellow, the color reach- 
ing laterally up to the fourth scale row ; the black bars are wider 
laterally, covering two or three ventral scales; there are a few 
spots on the chin ; the tail is reddish below, with two narrow 
black bars. 



Table 61. — Measurements and scale counts of Doliophis philippinujs 

(Giinther) . 



No. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


Sex 

or 

age. 


1 

Length. 


63 

54 

711 

R422 


Bunawan, Agusan 

do 


E. 1 

Mrs 
E.I 


i. Taylor 

do 


9 

9 
yg 


1 
7iim. ' 

646 

626 

440 

180 


. Graham 

i. Taylor . . 


Zamboan 
















No. 


Tail. 


Ventrals. 

256 
245 
261 
244 


Subcau- 
dals. 


Upper 
labials. 


Labials 
enter 
eye. 


r^owl' Collection. 


63 

64 

711 

R422 


mm, 
40 
49 
30 
14 


27 
25 
26 
27 


6 
6 
6 
6 


3.4 
3.4 
3,4 
3,4 


13 1 E. H. Taylor. 
13 1 Do. 
13 Bureau of Science. 
13 Do. 



Remarks. — The type, a male specimen, was collected in the 
Philippines by H. Cuming, the exact locality being no longer 
known. In habits the species is very similar to its congener, 
Doliophis bilineatus, and the curious habits recorded under that 
species have also been observed in this species. It is a much 



280 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

rarer form. The specimens I collected in Mindanao were found 
under rotting logs; when exposed to the light they lay quiet, 
making no endeavor to escape ; when disturbed they began their 
aimless writhing and jumping. Known from Bunawan, Zam- 
boanga, Mindanao, and Luzon. The species appears to be con- 
fined to the Philippines. 

AMBLYCEPHALID^ 

Amblyeephalidie Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 324; Boulenger, 
Fauna Brit. India, Rept. (1890) 414; Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 
(1896) 438. 

"Facial bones slightly movable ; prefrontal not in contact with 
nasal; ectopterygoid (transpalatine) present; pterygoid short, 
not extending to quadrate or mandible ; supratemporal rudimen- 
tary ; maxillary horizontal, parallel with or converging posteriorly 
towards the palatine. Mandible without coronoid bone. Sohd 
teeth in both jaws. 

"The hypapophyses disappear in the anterior third of the dorsal 
vertebral column." (Boidenge?:) 

The family contains five genera, two of which are confined to 
southeastern Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and three are con- 
fined to Central and South America. Not poisonous. Haplo- 
peltura is the only Philippine genus. 

Genus HAPLOPELTURA Boulenger 

Dipsas, part., Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 257. 

Aplopeltura Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Ac. Sei. 23 (1853) 463; Erp. 

Gen. 7 (1854) 444. 
Aviblycephalus GfJNTHER, Cat. Col. Snakes (1858) 1S4; Jax, Elenco 

Sist. Ofid. flSeS) 100; Gijnther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 325; 

Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 115; C.IlSTO de Elera, Cat. 

Fauna Filipinas 1 (1895) 438. 
Hnplopeltnra Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (lS9(i) 439. 

"Maxillary bone very short, deep, with five subequal teeth; 
maxillary and mandibular teeth decreasing in size posteriorly. 
Head distinct from neck; eye large, with vertical pupil; nasal 
entire. Body strongly compressed; scales smooth, without pits, 
oblique, in 13 rows, vertebral row strongly enlarged; ventrals 
rounded. Tail moderate; subcaudals single." {Boulenger.) 

The genus contains a single species, which has a wide distribu- 
tion from the Malay Peninsula throughout the Malay Archipelago. 

HAPLOPELTURA BOA (Boie) 
Plate 34, figs. 7 to 9 
Amblycephalus boa Boie, Isis (1828) 1034; Gt'NTHER, Cat. CoL Snakes 
(18.58) 184; Rept. Brit. India (1864) 325; Jan, Icon. Gen. (1870) 



HAPLOPELTURA 281 

37, pi. 3, fig. 2; MoDiGLiANi, Ann. Mus. Geneva, II 7 (1889) 120; 

Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 2 (188.5) 81; Boettger, Ber. 

Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 11.5; Casto de Elera, Cat. Fauna Fili- 

pinas 1 (1895) 438. 
Dipsas boa Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 284, pi. 11, figs. 29, 30; 

Cantor, Cat. Mai. Kept. (1847) 78, pi. 40, fig. 3. 
Aplopeltura boa Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (18.54) 444. 
Haplopeltura boa Boettger, Ber. Offenb. Ver. Nat. (1892) 134; Bou- 

LENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 439; Griffin, Philip. 

Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 267. 

Desmption of species. — (From No. 165, E. H. Taylor collec- 
tion ; collected at Bunawan, Agusan, Mindanao, September 29, 
1912, by E. H. Taylor.) (Adult female.) Head short and deep ; 
rostral very narrow, nearly twice as high as wide, forming its 
longest suture with nasal, just visible from above ; sutures v/ith 
internasals smallest ; internasals twice as broad as long, in contact 
with highest loreal, forming its shortest suture with it ; sutures 
with prefrontals and nasals subequal ; prefrontals not as wide as 
internasals, but longer and larger ; prefrontal suture shorter than 
that between internasals ; frontal very large, one and two-thirds 
times to twice as long as broad, narrowed in the middle, longer 
than parietals, and much longer than its distance from end of 
snout, not twice as wide as supraoculars, in contact with upper 
preocular ; parietals but little longer than wide, somewhat broken 
up behind, followed by several, somewhat enlarged, occipital 
shields ; nasal single, in contact with 2 labials and 3 loreals ; latter 
superimposed, upper nearly square, largest, lower longest, not 
entering eye, in contact with 2 labials ; 2 preoculars, upper 
largest; 4 suboculars (3 on left side) in a row, continuous with 
preoculars ; no postoculars ; supraoculars elongate, extending 
above and behind eye, nearly half surrounding it ; temporals 
3 -f 8 ; 9 upper labials, none entering eye ; 12 lower labials ; men- 
tal small with first 2 pairs of labials in contact behind it; the 
usual chin shields are replaced by 3 unequal pairs of broad 
plates, filling all the space between labials and first ventrals ; the 
usual groove is missing on chin ; eye very large, equal or very 
nearly equal to its distance from end of snout, greater than its 
distance from mouth ; head short, narrow, and very thick, distinct 
from neck, with 2 rather prominent occipital knobs ; scales in 13 
rows, the median row enlarged, and an enlarged outer row; tail 
prehensile, sharply pointed ; body much compressed ; ventrals, 
156; anal single; subcaudals, 104; tail narrows very greatly 
immediately behind anus. 

Col07- in life. — Above yellowish brown of varying shades, with 
large, irregular, darker and lighter blotches; small black dots 



282 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



scattered over body ; a darker area from occipital region to fron- 
tal; remaining- part of head a dim reddish yellow color, darkly 
powdered with brown ; a broad dark line from eye to mouth, with 
a creamy yellow spot before and behind it, covered with dark 
minute spots of brown ; a light area on temporal region ; rostral 
dark; mental brovniish; chin and throat light cream, powdered 
sparsely with brown. 

i\Ieasurements of Haplopeltura boa (Bote). 

mm. 
Total length ' 617 

Tail 200 

Head width 11 

Head length 17 

Variation. — There is marked variation in the number of 
ventrals and subcaudals. Boulenger * records the following 
range: ventrals, 148 to 170; subcaudals, 88 to 120. This range 
does not seem to be due to sex variation, as is the case in many 
species. 

Table 62. — Measurements and scale counts of Haplopeltura boa (Boie). 



















i- 




d 


3 


1 
1 


No. 




Locality. 




Collector. 






>< 


C 


I 


C 

> 


-Qd 
D-D 

m 


"3 
















mm. 


m iil . 1 






163 


Banawan. Ae'usan 




E. H. Taylor. 




-. (f 


698 


240 156 


106 


1 \ 


164 


do 






do 




.-! cf 


637 


225 ; 156 


108 


1 


166 


do 






do 




- ? 


617 


200 156 


104 


1 


1741 


do 






do 




¥ 


(«) 


1 




1 









No. 


O ffl 


3 
P-, 


6 

a . 

n 


V CD 


Lower 
labials. 

Subocu- 
lare. 


0) 
O 
►J 




Collection 






163 


3 ' 





3 + 3 


8 


10 4 


3 


13 E 


-. H. Taylor. 






164 


3 , 


, 4H 4 


9 


9j 4 


3 


13 


Do. 






165 


2 


443 


9 


12 3-4 


3 


IS 


Do. 






1741 


3 : 


' 4 + 4 


9 


10 4 


3 1 


13 I 


iureau of Science. 










« Badly mutilated. 

















Remarks. — This snake has remarkable protective coloration 
and lives for the most part about dead trees. All specimens I 
have taken were found in such localities. On being disturbed 
they would fall to the ground where they would stiffen so as to 
appear like sticks, and could be picked up, still somewhat rigid. 
Their imitation of a stick is especially good, since the coloration 
has the appearance of lichens on dead wood. 



Loc. cit. 



TRIMERESURUS 283 

Known from eastern Mindanao, Palawan, and Balabac, in the 
Philippines. Also known from Malay Peninsula, Java, and 
Borneo. It appears to have been collected in the Islands for the 
rirst time by Cuming, 1834-40. 

CROTALID^ 

Maxillary vertically erectile, perpendicular to the ectoptery- 
goid : pterygoid reaching quadi'ate or mandible ; equipped with 
large, curved, hollow fangs ; a deep pit in maxillary, rep- 
resented externally by a blind sac. Poison gland confined to 
head. Deadly poisonous. 

A single genus of this family is represented in the Philippines. 

Genus TRIMERESURUS Lacepede * 

Lachesis Daudin, Hist. Kept. (1803) 349; Wagler, Syst. Amph. 

(1830) 175; Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 50; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 

13; DuMERiL and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1483; Peters, Mon. 

Berl. Ak. (1862) 673; Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofid. (1863) 124; Bou- 

LENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 529. 
Trimeresunis, part., Lacepede, Ann. Mus. 4 (1804) 209 
Tropidolxmus Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 175; Dumeril and Bibron, 

Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1523. 
Trigonocephalus Oppel, Ordn. Rept. (1811) 50; PETERS, Mon. Berl. 

Ak. (1862) 672. 
Trimeresurus Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 50; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 

13; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1862) 672. 
Megixra Wagler, Syst. Amph. (1830) 174; Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 

49; Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 11; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1862) 

671. 
Pm-ias Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 11. 
Bothrops Wagler, in Spix, Serp. Bras. (1824) 50. 

"Upper surface of head covered with scales or small shields. 
Body cylindrical or compressed; scales smooth or keeled, with 
or without apical pits. Tail moderate or short ; subcaudals single 
or in two rows." (Boulenger.) 

Southeastern Asia, Malaysia, Central America, and South 
America. Snakes of this genus are commonly known as pit 
vipers. They are deadly poisonous. 

Key to the Philippine species of Trimeresurus Lacepede. 

«■'. Head scales smooth, 
h'. Supraocular narrow. 
c\ Uniform yellow, with dark yellow lateral streak. 

T. mcgregori Taylor (p. 284). 
C-. Tail purplish brown, with or without small yellowish dorsal spots; 
no lateral yellow or white stripe; tail dark, like body. 

T. halieus Griffin (p. 286). 



' The synonymy refers chiefly to designation of Philippine forms. 



284 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



c\ Green or bluish above with or without a series of brown spots; 
a lateral whitish yellow line; ventrals, 170 to 187; tail light 

colored T. flavomaculatus (Gray) (p. 288). 

c\ Above green, a yellow line below eye; a lateral yellow stripe; 
tail colored like rest of body; ventrals, 145 to 170. 

T. gramineus (Shaw) (p. 290). 
b". Supraocular large. Ventrals, 187 to 203; subcaudals, 66 to 82; tail 

light color .-- T. schultzei Griffin (p. 292). 

a'. Upper head scales keeled; gular scales keeled; body scales keeled. 
6'. Scale rows, 21 to 2.5; 10 to 15 scale rows between supraoculars. 

T. wagleri (Boie) (p. 296). 
b-. Scale rows, 19 ; 7 scales between supraoculars. 

T, pliilippensis Gray (p. 295). 

TRIMERESURUS MCGREGORI Taylor 

Trhneresurus vicgrego)i Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 110. 

Description of species. — (From the type. No. 748, Bureau of 
Science collection ; collected on Batan Island, Batanes, lying 
between Luzon and Formosa, June 12, 1907, by Richard C. 

McGregor.) Rostral a little 
wider than high, slightly nar- 
rower at top, visible above as a 
narrow line, bordered behind by 
a rectangular scale, distinctly 
enlarged, which separates the 2 
much-enlarged supranasals ; lat- 
ter not or barely in contact with 
rostral, separated from anterior 
supraocular by 3 (4 on right 
side) scales: 2 enlarged supra- 
oculars, followed by 1 or 2 small 
scales above eye ; nasal single, 
large, triangular, visible above 
as a narrow line, the nostril, 
which is vertically oval, pierced 
near lower border; canthus ros- 
tralis sharp, formed by edge of 
nasal, the narrow elongate loreal 
following nasal and superior pre- 
ocular; facial pit surrounded by 
second labial, which forms an- 
terior border of pit, and by 
, . , middle and lower preoculars, 

which are much elongated; 3 preoculars; a narrow elongate 
subocular, as long as orbit; 2 or 3 postoculars; 10 supralabials, 





Fig. 31, Tr/mcrcsvrvs ivciivoor: Taylor; 
i'l-om the type ; a. heail. laternl view : 
/). head, dorsal view ; c. head, ventral 
view : ■-■; l. 



TRIMERESURUS 285 

first small, triangular, narrowly in contact with rostral; second 
high, reaching almost to canthus rostralis ; third much the largest, 
broadly in contact with subocular; fourth and fifth scales each 
separated from subocular by a single scale; temporal scales dis- 
tinctly enlarged, larger than or as large as posterior labials ; 
mental broadly triangular, wider than rostral; 11 lower labials, 
first, seventh, and eighth largest; a pair of large chin shields, 
much longer than wide, broadly in contact, bordered by 3 labials ; 
•5 pairs of scales between chin shields and first ventral ; 28 scales 
from angles of mouth across occiput; 13 scales between supra- 
oculars; 29 scale rows on neck (at seventh ventral) ; 21 rows 
on body; ventrals, 175; subcaudals, 56; anal single; temporal 
scales . perfectly smooth ; body scales slightly keeled on the 8 or 
10 median rows ; head rather angular, flattened above, and de- 
pressed in supraocular region ; tail prehensile. 

Colo7' in life. — Above, bright yellow with a darker yellow 
lateral streak (in alcohol entire snake almost paper white with 
practically no trace of marking) ; tail with a few small, reddish 
bro'wni spots near tip. 

Measurements of type and ootype of Trhneresurus mcgregori Taylor. 



Total length 

Tail . ' 

Head width 

Head length 

Eye to end of snout 

Eye to mouth 

Supraocular width 

hength of eye 

Width of eye 

Variation. — A second specimen from the same locality shows 
the following variations. The scale counts are as follows : 
ventrals, 179; subcaudals, 59; scale rows on neck (at seventh 
ventral), 29; body, 21; scales between eyes, 13; upper labials, 
11-10; lower labials, 12; 3 scales behind supranasals bordering 
rostral. On the right side, the third labial does not touch sub- 
oculars ; the lateral stripe covers one whole and a half scale rows. 

Remarks. — This species belongs to the Trimeresurus gram- 
ineus (Shaw) group, which includes T. flavomaculatus and T. ha- 
lieus of the Philippines. It is differentiated from the other spe- 
cies, however, by the striking color with no dark markings, the 
larger number of scales on snout and supraocular region, and the 
larger unkeeled temporals; the supranasals are larger and more 
clearly differentiated. Mr. McGregor, its discoverer, and for 



Type. 


Cotype. 


mm. 


mm. 


865 


702 


120 


100 


25 


25 


36 


33 


12 


9.2 


6 


5 


16 


14 


4.5 


4 


3.2 


2.8 



286 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

whom it has been named, states that it is not rare on Batan 
Island. In a memorandum dated June 12, 1907, he states the 
following : 

Our party went to the summit of the mountain. On the return a 
large yellow snake was found resting at about 2 meters from the ground 
coiled on some leaves that had lodged among the thick stems of a kind of 
large grass. 

The snake was struck with an alpen-stock and fell to the gTound. In 
attempting to put a string on its neck I was scratched by the fangs, 
between the last two joints of my thumb. Mr. H. G. Ferguson immediately 
made several cuts across the wound with a pocket knife and tied a string 
around the thumb. My hand and forearm were swollen by evening. The 
swelling subsided within a couple of days. There was very little pain, 
and no further trouble was experienced. 

TRIMERESURUS HALIEUS Griffin* 

Ti-imeyisiii-ns haliens Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 214 
(T)-imerisurus err. typ.) § D 6 (1911) 267. 

Description of species. — (From No. 772, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected on Polillo, October 1, 1909, by C. Canoni- 
zado) . Head broadly triangular ; canthus rostralis rather 
rounding; rostral broader than high, bordered behind by 2 inter- 
nasal scales ; supranasals somewhat enlarged ; nasal irregular, 
undivided, a small scale between nasal and first 2 labials ; first 
labial small, triangular; second high, entering pit and forming 
its anterior border, in contact with the elongate canthal scale 
which lies between the 2 superior preoculars and with the nasal ; 
pit surrounded by 2 preoculars and first labial; supraocular en- 
larged, irregular in shape ; a narrow elongate subocular, touch- 
ing inferior preocular and third and fourth labials (third only on 
left side) ; separated from other labials by a single row of scales; 
3 preoculars, 3 postoculars; 10 upper labials, 12 lower labials; 
3 labials border the single pair of chin shields ; mental triangular, 
pointed behind; 12 scales between supraoculars; 28 scales across 
head between angle of jaws; temporal scales rather enlarged, 
not keeled; scales on head irregular in size and shape, rather 
rounding, and not or but slightly imbricate, not keeled; scales 
on posterior part of head imbricate and pointed ; scale rows on 
neck (counting from tenth ventral), 25; on body 21; median 10 
rows of scales distinctly keeled, more prominently on posterior 
part; ventrals, 178; subcaudals, 56; tail distinctly prehensile; 
anal single. 



* In establishing this species Griffin had before him ten specimens from 
Pohllo, the only locality where it has been found. No particular specimen 
was designated as the type. 



TRIMERESURUS 287 

Color in alcohol. — Purplish brown with a few, very small, 
yellowish brown spots on posterior part of body ; below dull pur- 
plish, the ventrals with light edges ; tail uniform color like body ; 
no trace of a lateral light line. 

Measurement^! of Trimeresvrus halieus Griffin. 



mm. 



Total length 912 

Snout to vent 782 

Tail 130 

Head length 41 

Head width 27 

Variation. — The ventrals range between 170 and 182; the 
'subcaudals between 52 and 59. There are 10 to 13 scales be- 
between the supraoculars ; certain of the specimens are a uniform 
color, others have large, distinct, irregular, brown bands, in some 
specimens continuing even on the tail ; this is not due to age, 
as some of the smallest and some of the largest specimens are 
so marked. In life the specimens are often green. 

Rema:>'ks.— This species is very closely related to Trimere- 
S'wrus flavomaculafus, and T. gramineus is separated from both 
chiefly by color. The scale differences are rather negligible. 
The average of ventrals in the Polillo form is 178 ; of subcaudals, 
55, which is 7 or 8 lower than the average for T. flavomaadatus. 
The very characteristic white line along the outer scale rows 
is usually wanting. 

Griffin * remarks on its habits : 

The specimens were all collected along the banks of streams or in 
damp localities. 

This snake seems to leave the ground very rarely. When the natives 
of the islands go at night along the streams to catch mudfish by torcliliglit 
the snakes are commonly seen near the edge of the water, and the fisher- 
men say that they are there for the same purpose as themselves, and for 
this reason call the snake i\Idnda-daliig, which, literally translated, means 
"the fisher of the daldg (or mud-fish)." Sr. Cesario Canonizado captured 
one specimen which had buried most of its body in the sand close to the 
water's edge. The place where the snake was lying was pai'tly covered 
with water, while a few inches away was deeper water in which numerous 
small fish were swimming about for which the snake appeared to be lying 
in wait. '* * * 

The stomach of No. 764 contained an entire frog. In the 
intestine of No. 76.3 were found a few scales, probably of a 
fish. The intestine of No. 765 contained a large ball of hair 
of a rat. 

* Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 5 (1910) 214. 



288 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

I have examined recently a single freshly preserved specimen 
from the Patnanongan Island, east of Polillo. The color above is 
green, lighter on the sides; the belly is yellowish green; medially 
there is a series of irregular, reddish brown blotches from the 
head to the end of the body; there is a broken series of bright 
yellow spots along the sides of the body, more prominent toward 
the tail; sometimes the yellow color extends slightly on the ven- 
tral. The skin between the scales is black and flesh color, al- 
ternating dorsally, the black area widening on the sides; the 
edges of the scales over the black area are somewhat bluish. 
The tail is dark lavender traversed by 16 black bars which do 
not meet below ; below, behind anus, the tail is blue and yellow, 
spotted black; on the latter half the color is grayish white. 
There are 181 ventrals and 59 subcaudals. It, is highly prob- 
able that this species will later be regarded as a subspecies of 
Trimeresurus fiavomaculatus. It will be remembered that Gray 
designated three forms under the names flavovmculata, ornata, 
and variegata. 

TRIMERESURUS FLAVOM ACULATUS (Gray) 

Meg^era flavotnaculata Gray, ZooL Misc. (1842) 49. 

Megaira ornata Gray, ZooL Misc. (1842) 49. 

Megaara variegata Gray, ZooL Misc. (1842) .50. 

Parias flavomaculata Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 11. 

Farias ornata GRAY, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 11. 

Parias variegata Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 11. 

Trimeresu)-i(s flavomacidatns Gunther, Proc. ZooL See. (1879) 79; 

Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) 267. 
Trimeresurus sehadcvbergi Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. Anst. Hamburg 

2 (1885) 116. 
Lachesis fiavomaculatus Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 

556. 
Trimeresurus gramhicus Mi'LLER, IIL Nacht. Cat. Herp. Saraml. 

Basel Mus. (1883) 19. 

Descriptiov. of spcxies.— (¥vom No. 64, Bureau of Science col- 
lection.) Snout rather short; head not especially flattened; ros- 
tral broader than high, narrowed at top to less than half its 
width, bordered behind by 2 internasal scales, visible from above; 
supranasals enlarged, separated from each other by 2 scales, and 
from loreal by a single scale ; loreal folded across canthus, which 
is not sharp but rather rounded ; supraoculars longer than diam- 
eter of eye, extending some distance in front of their anterior 
vertical level; 10 scales in a line between supraoculars; scales 
on the head imbricate, smaller on back part of head ; nasal large, 
nostril pierced in its middle lower part; 9 upper labials, first 
small, second large, forming anterior border of pit, third largest, 



TRIMERESURUS 



289 



last 5 subequal in size; a lai'ge, narrow, semicircular subocular 
touching third labial, separated from others by a single row of 
enlarged scales; 3 preoculars, the 
middle and lower forming the 
upper and lower borders of pit, 
upper largest, all entering eye; 3 
postoculars, lower temporal scales 
larger than upper, no trace of 
keels present; 11 to 12 lower 
labials ; mental triangular, pointed 
behind chin shields, in contact 
with 3 labials; body scales nar- 
row, pointed sharply behind, 
faintly keeled on the 8 median 
rows, in 21 rows around body ; 25 
about neck; ventrals, 180; sub- 
caudals, 69; anal single. 

Color in alcohol. — Above ultra- 
marine blue with a series of about 
54 irregular brown spots on back ; 
head reticulated with brown; 
laterally with a series of yel- 
lowish, small spots, usually con- 
nected, intermixed with brownish, 
involving edges of some ventrals 
and some scales of the second 
below greenish blue, the 




row; 



Fig. 32. Triniere&uru^ flavoiaacidatus 

(Gray) ; after Boulenger's Lachesis fill' 
voinactdatus; a, head, doraal view; b» 
head, lateral view. 



ventrals edged with whitish; 

chin with numerous white or 

bluish white scales, forming a light spot at angle of jaws; tail 

variegated with bluish and lavender-brown, lighter toward tip; 

lateral spots of yellow and brown on ventral part of tail; skin 

between scales brownish; eye moderate, the length equal to its 

distance from mouth. 



MeasureTnents of Trimeresurus flavoinaculaivs {Gray}. 

Total length 
Snout to vent 
Tail 



mm. 

855 
712 
143 



Variation. — Specimens I have examined in the Bureau of 
Science collection, and those of Santo Tomas University, have the 
following variation in scalation : Ventrals, 171 to 182, average, 
178; subcaudals, 56 to 69, average, 63. Boulenger records the 

161466 19 



290 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

following scale variations: Ventrals, 170 to 187, average, 179; 
subcaudals, 55 to 73, average, 62. The larger proportion of spec- 
imens I have examined (five out of nine) have 2 labials touching 
subocular; upper labials vary between 9 and 11, 10 being the 
usual number; lower labials, 10 to 13, 11 being the usual num- 
ber; 9 or 10 rows of scales between supraoculars, 10 predominat- 
ing.' The scale rows are invariably 21 (neck 25.) The color 
and markings vary considerably ; usually a bright or ohve green 
in life (bluish in alcohol), either uniform or with numerous 
brown spots or blotches; the skin between the scales bro-woiish 
or blackish; the broken line of yellow dots on the outer scale 
rows is very characteristic of this species, and is present in all 
specimens examined. 

Reviarks. — This species is found only in the Philippines, ap- 
parently. Specimens have been reported from Luzon, Mindanao, 
and Batan Island,* north of Luzon. Two specimens in the Santo 
Tomas Museum are labeled Bohol and Jolo, respectively. 

TRIMERESURUS GRAMINEUS (Shaw) 

Coluber gramineus Shaw, Gen. Zool. 3' (1802) 420. 

Coluber mridis Bechstein, Lacepede's Naturg. Amph. 4 (1802) 252, 

pi. 39, fig. 1. 
Vipera viridis Daudin, Rept. 6 (1803) 112. 

Trimeresurus viridis Lacepede, Ann. Mus. Paris 4 (1804) 209; Gray, 
Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 7; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 12 (1853) 
391. 
Cophias viridis Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. (1820) 155. 
Trigonocephahus viridis Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 344, pi. 19, 

figs. 12 and 13. 
Trigonocephalus erythrnrus CANTOR, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (18.S9) 

31. 
Trimesurus albolabris Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48. 
Trigonocephalus gramineus part., CANTOR, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 

119. 
Trimesurus elegans Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 12 (1853) 391. 
Bothrops viridis Dumeril and Bibeon, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1512. 

Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 691. 
Trimeresurus gramineus Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 385; 
Stoliczka, .Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 39 (1870) 216; Anderson, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London (1871) 194; An. Zool. Res. Yunnan (1879) 828; 
Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 219; Fischer, Jahrb. wiss. 
Anst. Hamburg 2 (1885) 81; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1887) 
50; (1888) 188; (1894) 135; Boulenger, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. 
(1890) 429; Sclater, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 60 (1891) 248; Ste,T- 
NEGER, Journ. Sci. Coll. Tokyo 12 » (1898) 225; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
58 (1907) 480; Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600. 



* These two specimens, recorded hy Griffin (loc. eit.), are referi-<>d to 
a distinct species. 



TRIMERESURUS 291 

Trimeresunis erythrunis Gunther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 386; 
Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 39 (1870) 217; Fayrer, Than- 
atoph. Ind. (1874) pi. 14; Theobald, Cat. Rept. Brit. India (1876) 
220; MtJLLER, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 8 (1887) 280; Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 119. 

Lachesis gramineus BouLENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 
554; Boettger, Kat. Schl. Mus. Senck. (1898) 139. 

Descrij)tion of species. — (From Stejneger, Bull. U. S. Nat, 
Mus.) "Adult male; U. S. N. M. No. 36516; Taihoku (Taipa), 
Formosa; * * * Rostral as high as broad, very narrow 
above, nearly triangular bordered behind by a single scale be- 
tween the upturned anterior corners of the nasal, just visible 
from above ; canthus rostralis sharp, f onned anteriorly by the up- 
turned edge of the nasal, the upturned edge of an elongated shield 
corresponding to the loreal * * * and the upturned portion 
of the upper preocular; head shields small, smooth anteriorly, 
keeled on parietal and occipital regions ; supraoculars very nar- 
row, occupying only the outer edge of the supraocular region, 
their width being scarcely more than one-fifth the distance be- 
tween them ; about 12 scales on a line between the supraoculars ; 
nasal large, smooth, undivided, with a round nostril pierced near 
the lower edge ; behind it above, on the canthal ridge an elongated 
shield, being the loreal of the other species ; below it, separating 
it from the first supralabial, and between nasal and the upper 
portion of second supralabial which enters the pit, two small 
scales, one above the other, two elongate anterior preoculars, 
the upper, which is somewhat wider anteriorly turned up over 
the canthal ridge, the lower forming the upper border of the 
large pit; the subfoveal as large as the lower preocular, pos- 
teriorly entering eye between the latter and the subocular; a 
long, narrow, crescentic subocular anteriorly in contact with 
subfoveal, separated from fourth and subsequent supralabials 
by one and posteriorly two rows of scales; three small post- 
oculars on left side, two on right; temporals numerous, lower 
ones largest, upper ones smaller, keeled ; 10 supralabials, first 
small, triangular, second very high, forming anterior border 
of pit, third largest, fourth slightly larger than fifth to tenth, 
which are subequal; 3 lower labials in contact with anterior 
chin-shields, posterior chin-shields scarcely differentiated; 21 
rows of narrow, pointed, keeled scales without apical pits; 161 
ventrals ; anal entire ; 69 pairs of subcaudals ; tip of tail rather 
blunt. Color (in alcohol) above saturated uniform 'parrot- 
green,' from the subocular, under the center of the eye, a narrow, 
strongly defined, pale-yellowish line, the lower row of temporals 



m 



292 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

and across the last supralabial to the side of neck and from there 
to near the tip of the tail on the middle line of the outer scale 
row, the lower edge of which is somewhat darker than the rest 
of the body; underside paler green, washed with blue so as to 
be almost 'beryl-green' toward the sides ; tips of tail colored 
like the rest of the body. 

Measurements of Trimeresunis gramineus (Shaw). 

mm. 
Total length 618 

Snout to vent 488 

Vent to tip of tail 130 

"The female appears to have a relatively much shorter tail." 
Variation. — This widely distributed species is quite variable 
in scalation and color. According to Boulenger,* the ventral 
range is 145 to 175, average, 162.5 ; subcaudal, 53 to 75, average, 
60. Rarely there are 19 or 23 rows. The scales between oculars 
vary between 8 and 13; the nasal is sometimes divided; the tem- 
poral scales are smooth. Bright green, rarely olive or yellowish, 
with or without crossbands ; the yellow streak is usually present. 
Remarks. — Known from India to Formosa, Siam, Sumatra, 
Java, Timor, and Borneo. In the Philippines it has been re- 
ported from Paracale, Luzon, by Peters, as Bothrops viridis; 
from southern Mindanao by Fischer; and from Palawan by 
Griffin. t I regard it of rather doubtful occurrence in the Phil- 
ippines. 

TRIMERESURUS SCHULTZEI Griffin 

Plate 36 

Trimeresuriis schnitzel Griffin, Philip, Journ Sci § \ 4 (1909) 

601; § D 6 (1911) 267. 
Trimeresiinis gramineus Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci S A 4 (1909) 

600. 
Trimeresunits formosanus Boulenger, Ann, & Mag Nat Hist VI 

14 (1894) 85. 

Description of species.— (From No. 614, Bureau of Science 
collection; collected at Iwahig, Palawan, May 27, 1908, by C, 
M. Weber.) (Adult female.) Head broadly triangular, rather 
roundmg on canthus rostralis and about angles of jaws; snout 
rather blunt, short, the line of upper jaw very stronglv curving 
upward from a point below eye ; rostral perpendicular, distinctly 
broader t hanhighjjordered behind by 3 scales, the 2 immediately 

* Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 555 and 556 

t The specimen which Griffin has referred to this species belontrs, I 
beJieve, to Tnmeresurus schultzei. 



c-^^^JJ^ 



TRIMERESURUS 293 

above nasals largest; nasal longer than high, nostril pierced near 
center, and a small fold or semisuture to edge of scale above 
nostril ; pit surrounded by second labial and 2 of the 3 preoculars ; 
the 3 preoculars longer than high, the upper largest, all 
entering eye; supraoculars elongate, irregular on their inner 
side; 2 small postoculars and a long narrow subocular touching 
lowest preocular; scales in temporal region much larger than 
those on top of head; 10 upper labials (11 on right side), third 
in contact with subocular; a scale inserted between subocular 
and fourth labial; 2 scales between subocular and fifth labial; 
13 lower labials, 3 touching chin shields which are elongate ; 
these chin shields are followed by 4 paired scales; scales in 21 
rows about body; median scales strongly keeled, outer slightly; 
anterior head scales smooth, enlarged ; ventrals, 198, subcaudals, 
66; tail prehensile; scales on head small, rounding, irregular, 
subimbricate, not keeled. 

Color in alcohol. — Above, dark purplish brown with about 62 
black, irregular, dim bars crossing back; top of head strongly 
reticulated with black lines; outer row of scales bright yellow; 
underpart of head muddy yellow with a darker spot under each 
jaw and darker areas on labials ; a j'ellow line from eye to angle 
of mouth. Below, brownish to bluish lavender, the ventrals 
edged with black ; tail dull flesh color with dim purplish mottlings 
laterally, and with no traces of bars. 

Measurevients of Tri-meresurus schuUzei Griffin. 

mm. 

Total length 1,220 

Snout to vent 1,022 

Tail 198 

Variation. — The young are bright yellowish to bluish geen, 
also barred with black ; belly scales indistinctly edged with black ; 
reticulations on head very distinct, sometimes forming a flower- 
shaped marking on occiput. In a specimen,* 576 millimeters 
long, the color is brown. The outer row of scales is here spotted 
with a light purplish color. 

Remarks. — I have taken an adult specimen for the description 
rather than the type which is at hand, since the latter is a very 
small, immature specimen. 

* This specimen is recorded in the catalogue of the Bureau of Science 
collection as T. gramineus. Doctor Griffin reports it as the first occurrence 
of this species in the Philippines. I believe that it should be regarded 
as T. schultzei, as the two species differ in no essential particular. See 
Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 600. 



294 



SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Griffin in his description has pointed out the differences be- 
tween T. gramineus and the present species, but makes no men- 
tion of its relation with T. suynatramis Raffles, with which it 
has its closest affinity. Unfortunately no specimens of that 
species are at hand; but, judging from descriptions and also 
from the figure given by Lidth de Jeude, the following diff'er- 
ences obtain : 

In Trimeres'urus schtdtzei the young are green with black bars 
laterally connected with a zigzag black line ; the top of the head 
is very strongly reticulated with black ; the head is short, the 
snout blunt; the scales of the outer row are entirely yellow, 
which color does not extend over either the second scale row or 
the ventrals ; there are no lateral spots. In the adult the color 
becomes darker, the green apparently disappearing; the dark 
markings do not change. 

Table 63. — ■I\Ieasi(i-ements and scale counts of Trimeresurus schnitzel Griffin. 

















! 






ai 


1 














^ 




m 


rt 


No. 1 


Locality. 




Col 


ector 






j: 


n 


3 






























1 








be i 




















C ! ~ 






















OJ 1 rt 












1 








ai 


J H ] 


> 


m 








1 








mm. 1 nun. 






»31B 


Iwahig. Pal 


awan 


W. Schultze 






-.1 yff 


330 ! 46 


203 


70 1 


614 


do 




' C. M. Weber 




-.1 ? 


1.220 198 


19R 


66 


897 


do 




C. H. Lamb 






--- yg 


386 65 


193 


75 


898 


do 




1 do 






- - - yg 


425 76 


193 


75 


. 1666 


Palawan .-. 




Unknown. 






... ? 


576 


82 ' 


196 


68 


5106 


Balabac ... 




i C. M.Weber 




-- ys 


265 


42 


198 


68 


5107 


do 




do 






---' yg 


360 ' 66 


193 


78 


6109 


do 




do 

1 






— -1 yg- 


385 65 


194 


71 




m 


.= 1 » 





















2 


ouc 
lar. 

bial 


ouc 

elds 

liar 
re. 






e 




























No. 




s.^ 7. 




§ ■ ^ 
















Anal 
Uppe 


Labia 
sub 

Lowe 


3.S 

►J " 


a ; 8 

CO ! CL. 


o 
o 


0) M 
cfl P. 


Scale 








•315 




10 


1 


11-12 


3-4 


, 


3 


2 


9 


23 Bureau of Science. 




614 


1 10-11 


1 i 13 


3 




3 


2 


11 


21 


Do. 






897 


1 10 


1 


11-12 


3 


ll 3 


2 


10 


21 


Do. 






89S 


1 10 


2 


12-13 


4 


1 3 


2 


9 


23 


Do. 






1666 




10 


1 


13 


3 


1 3 


2 


9 


21 E 


H. Taylor. 






5106 




10-11 


1 ! 13 


3 


1 3 


2 


9 


21 


Do. 






6107 




8 


1 , 10 


3 


1 ; 3 


2 


9 


21 


Do. 






6109 


[_ 


10- U 


1 13-14 


3 


1 3 


2 


10 


21 ; 


Do. 







' Type. 



In T. suviat)ximi.s the white lateral line covers 2 half rows 
of scales, and the dorsal scales are only slightly keeled. In 



TRIMERESURUS 295 

T. schultzei, the ventrals range from 187 to 203 and average 196 ; 
the subcaudals range from 66 to 82 and average 71. The scales 
are in 21 to 23 rov\^s, and those on the top of the head are flat 
and smaller than in T. sumatraims. There are 10 scales between 
supraoculars. In T. sumatranus the ventrals range from 180 to 
191 and average 187 ; and the subcaudals range from 58 to 77 
and average 68. 

The species is found only in Palav^^an. If the specimen of Tri- 
meresvrus formosanus found in Palawan by Mr. Everett is re- 
ferable to this form, as I strongly suspect, Trimeresurus suma- 
tranus must of necessity be excluded from the Philippine fauna. 

TRIMERESURUS PHILIPPENSIS Gray 

Plate 37, fig. 1 

Trimeresurus philippens-is Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48; Cat. Vip. 

Snakes (1849) 10. 
Tropidolaemus Jtomhroni Guichenot, in Dumont d'Urville, Voy. Pole 

Sud; Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1867) 29. 
Trimeresurus wagleri philippensis Gray, Zool., Kept. (1853) 2.3, 

pi. 2, fig. 2; DUMERIL and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 1527. 

Description of species. — (From an unnumbered specimen in 
the Santo Tonias Museum, Manila; locality and collector 
unknown.) Rostral higher than wide, visible above as a point; 
nasal rather large, longer than high, nostril pierced near center, 
appearing above as a mere line ; 2 rather enlarged prefrontals 
forming a median suture; 3 scales bordering canthus rostralis 
in front of eye ; supraocular enlarged, as long as, or longer than, 
diameter of eye ; 7 scales between supraoculars ; head scales very 
strongly keeled, erect, very rough in profile; pit surrounded by 
1 large preocular which enters eye, a large loreal which is broken 
up below into one or two small divisions, and another small scale 
below preocular which does not enter eye ; upper preocular enters 
eye; 8 upper labials, none entering pit or reaching suboculars, 
second and third largest, separated from subocular by a row of 
scales; temporals not enlarged; 8 lower labials, first pair mi- 
nutely in contact behind mental ; first pair of chin shields largest, 
longer than wide, followed by 3 pairs of smaller scales ; scales in 
19 rows on neck and on middle of body; ventrals, 132; anal 
single ; subcaudals, 49 ; tail prehensile. 

Color. — Above, greenish with 56 darker transverse bars 
composed of dark black background, each scale with a green 
center ; these bars are two or three scales wide dorsally and ex- 
tend about halfway down on side where they continue as a very 
thin zigzag line crossing ventral surface, but rarely meeting ; bars 



296 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

almost join each other on neck dorsally ; they are more distinct 
on latter third of body, and merge into each other again on tail ; 
darker scales on head edged with black; no streak behind eye, 
a suggestion of black around labials. 

Measurements of Trimeresurus philippensis Gray. 



mm. 



Total length 450 

Length of head 22 

Diameter of eye ■ 4 

Eye to end of snout 8 

Head between eyes 14 

Remarks. — Only this single specimen has been seen and, 
unfortunately, the locality is not known. The specimen is in 
the Santo Tomas Museum, Manila. This species is very prob- 
ably identical with Tropidolaemus hombroni Guichenot from 
western Mindanao. 

TRIMERESURUS WAGLERI (Boie) 

Cophias wagleri BoiE, Isis (1827) .561. 

Trigonocepkalus wagleri Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 2 (1837) 542, pi. 

19, figs. 16-18. 
Trimeresurus inacidatus Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48; Cat. Vip. 

Snakes (1849) 8; Motley and Dillwyn, Nat. Hist. Labuan (1855) 

43. 
Trimesurus supannulattis Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48; Cat. Vip. 

Snakes (1849) 9; Motley and Dillwyn, Nat. Hist. Labuan (1855) 

44. 
Trimesurus swmatrayius (non Raffles) Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48; 

Cat. Vip. Snakes (1849) 10. 
Trigonocephalus sumatraniis Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. (1847) 121, 

pi. 40, fig. 9. 
Trimesurus formosus (non Schlegel) Gray, Cat. Vip. Snakes (1842) 

10. 
Tropidolxmus wagleri Dumeril and Bibron, Erp. Gen. 7 (1854) 

1524; F. MtJLLER, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 7 (1883) 290. 
Trigonoeephalus hombroni Jan, Rev. & Mag. Zool. (1859) 155. 
Tropidoliemus subannidahis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1861) 691. 
Tropidolsemus philippinensis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1S61) 691. 
Trim-eresurus wagleri Giinther, Rept. Brit. India (1864) 388; 

Stoliczka, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 42 (1873) 126; Blanforr, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London (1881) 224. 
Trimercsums subannulatus immacnlatus Peters, Ann. Mus. Genova 

3 (1872) 42. 
Tropidoliemus svbawiinlafus celcbcvsis Peters, Mon. Berl. Ak. (1872) 

584. 
Bofhrops wagleri F. Muller, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 7 (1882) 155; 
De .Jeude, Notes Leyden Mus. 8 (1886) 44. 



TRIMERESURUS 297 

Tropidolxmus (sp.) F. Muller, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 8 (1887) 281. 
Lachesis wagleri Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 562. 
Trimeresunis tvagleri Griffin, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 601; 
§ D 6 (1911) 267. 

Whether the Philippine specimens of Trimeresurus tvagleri 
Boie (as understood in Boulenger's Catalogue) should be divided 
into further subspecies is a debatable question. Gray described 
two species, TriTnesurus subamiulatus and Trimesttrus philip- 
pensis, from his Philippine material. Other writers have recog- 
nized certain of the forms as distinct species, others as sub- 
species; as a consequence we find subannulatus, Tropiclolaemus 
subanmdatus var. macidatus, and T. philippinensis, recorded by- 
Peters * from the Philippines, the first and last regarded as spe- 
cies, the other merely a variety of suhannulatus. Boettger f 
in his list includes hombroni, Tri-yneresurus philippinensis, and 
Trimeresurus ivagleri, placing the Tropidolaemiis subannulatus 
and Tropidolaimus maculatus of Peters as synonyms of Tri- 
meresurus ivagleri. Boulenger t has divided the species La- 
chesis wagleri into a series of varieties without naming them. 
The types of Trimesurus subannulatus Gray, are relegated to 
the Cophias ivagleri group ; the specimens were from the Philip- 
pines, the exact locality unknown. In this same group are placed 
three specimens from Palawan, two from Mindanao, and three 
from Luzon. 

The types of Trimesurus philippensis Gray are placed in the 
group of Tropiclolaemus hombroni Guichenot. 

For an understanding of the Philippine fauna I regard it as 
essential that the varieties of Trimeresurus ivagleri Boie which 
exist in the Philippines be recognized as subspecies. I have had 
at hand for study more than forty specimens ; fifteen from Min- 
danao, sixteen from Palawan and Balabac, one from Negros, 
and eleven with localities uncertain. In this lot I am able to 
recognize three distinct variations, in at least two of which 
the differentiating characters hold throughout fairly large series 
of specimens. Trimesurus philippensis of Gray is a distinct spe- 
cies. 

Key to the subspecies of Trimeresurus tvagleri (Boie). 

a\ Ventrals, 139; subcaudals, 51; 12 scales between supi-aoculars; bars 
across body, 45 (average counts of 15 specimens) ; scales in 21 to 
25 rows, keeled. Bluish green barred above with narrow stripes of 
white and dark blue, 2 scales wide; ventrals edged with black and 

* Mon. Berl Ak. (1861) 69,1. 

tBer. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1886) 120. 

+ Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 3 (1896) 562. 



298 SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

with rather large spots of bluish or black; a white and blue bar 
behind eye; tail brownish red. Young green, or green with very 
small spots of white and blue, or with bars of white and brownish. 
Palawan and Balabac T. w. wagleri (Boie) (p. 298). 

(i\ Ventrals, 163; subcaudals, 50; 15 scales between supraoculars; scales, 
2.3 rows, keeled, and slightly notched laterally. Bluish-green, with 
23 very narrow white stripes, 1 scale wide, the color extending on' 
the ventrals; light bluish green below; a white line from point of 
snout to angle of jaw; tail whitish on tip. 

T. w. alboviridis Taylor (p. 299). 

a'. Ventrals, 133; subcaudals, 45; 9 scales betw^een eyes; head not nar- 
rowed in front as rapidly as in wagleri; labials usually in contact 
with subocular. Above bluish to yellowish green with a series of 
34 bands of greenish white and grayish black, 2 or 3 scales wide; 
a few narrow black lines across ventrals; a line behind eye. Young, 
white; brownish stripes with brown spots usually present on head. 
Mindanao T. w. subannulatus (Gray) (p. 300). 

TRIMERESURUS WAGLERI WAGLERI (Boie) 

Plate 37, fig. 4 
Copiiias ivagleri Boie, Isis (1827) 561. 

It is highly probable that all references to Trimeresurus ivag- 
leri (Boie) as occurring in Palawan should be referred to this 
subspecies. 

There is no necessity of a complete description of this sub- 
species; the following characteristics will enable one to dis- 
tinguish the form. 

Ventrals, 139 ; subcaudals, 51 ; scales between the supraoculars, 
12 ; bars across body, 45 (these counts are the averages of fifteen 
specimens from Palawan and Balabac.) The scale rows vary 
between 21 and 25. 

The coloration is usually bluish green barred above with 
narrow stripes of white and dark blue, 2 scales wide. Ventrals 
edged with black and with rather large spots of bluish or black; 
a white and blue bar behind eye. Tail brownish red. 

In young specimens the entire color above is green, or green 
with a very few white and blue spots. Occasional spechnens 
show bars of white and brownish. 

The species agrees in size and general color with the sub- 
species T. wagleri subauuulatns Gray. It is not a rare snake 
m either Palawan or Balabac. It probablv does not occur 
anywhere ni the Philippines save in the Palawan group and the 
Calamianes. 



TRIMERESURUS 299 

TRIMERESURUS WAGLERI ALBOVIRIDIS Taylor 

Plate 37, fig. 2 

Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis Taylor, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 
12 (1917) 366. 

Description of subspecies. — ^(From the type, No. 432, E. H. 
Taylor collection; collected in Isabela, Occidental Negros, Sep- 
tember 12, 1915, by E. H. Taylor.) (Young female.) Head 
triangular, very distinct from neck, nearly one and a half times 
as long as wide ; rostral about as wide as high, not visible from 
above, bordered behind by 2 enlarged internasals ; latter narrowly 
in contact, being nearly separated by 3 small scales; nasal bor- 
dered above by internasal, 2 supranasals, and a postnasal folded 
over canthus ro'stralis, the dorsal part much larger than the 
lateral; nasal large, longer than wide, nostril pierced near ante- 
rior margin, bordered behind by postnasal and a number of 
small intercalated scales, 7 or 8 in number, completely separating 
nasal from loreal, and loreal from first labials ; pit surrounded 
by median preocular and 2 loreals ; anterior loreal much larger 
than posterior, in contact with second labial and 1 supralabial; 
3 preoculars, the middle largest, the lower very small; 2 small 
subequal postoculars; a narrow, crescentic, elongate subocular, 
separated from labials by a series of supralabials ; supraocular 
region covered by 4 enlarged scales, the supraocular somewhat 
longer than wide ; this is bordered by another scale along its 
inner side, nearly as large ; a third somewhat smaller scale 
joins these behind, and a fourth borders them in front; supra- 
ocular and the scale in front in contact with superior preocular; 
temporals subequal, about 4 lateral rows; upper labials 11 (10 
on right side), third and fourth largest, first and second sub- 
equal in size ; 12 lower labials, only 1 in contact with anterior 
pair of chin shields ; latter large, followed by 3 smaller pairs ; 
head scales above strongly keeled, 14 to 15 rows between supra- 
ocular scales ; scales in 23 rows, faintly keeled, with a slight 
notch indicated on each side of scales ; ventrals, 163 ; subcau- 
dals, 50; anal entire. 

Color in life. — Above bluish green, growing yellowish green 
laterally and greenish white below; body crossed with 26 very 
narrow white lines, not continuing ventrally; tail barred later- 
ally with narrow white and blackish lines ; point of tail whitish ; 
a slight line behind eye to angle of jaw, top of head more blue 
than green, side of head lighter green with no markings. 



gQQ SNAKES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Measurements of Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis Taylor. 

mm. 
Total length 370 

Snout to vent 308 

Tail 62 

Remarks.— This form differs from all other subspecies of Tn- 
meresurus wagleri in the very much higher average number of 
ventrals (29 more than the average, 24 more than any recorded 
Philippine form, and 10 more than any specimen reported in 
Boulenger's catalogue). The upper head scales are smaller, 
there being 5 or 6 more between the supraoculars than in other 
subspecies. The small lateral notches in the scales are distinc- 
tive. I captured the type in the low mountains of Negros, in 
small bushes. This is the only specimen known. 

TRIMERESURUS WAGLERI SUBANNULATUS (Gray) 

Plate 37, fig. 3 

Trimestvrus subannulatus Gray, Zool. Misc. (1842) 48; Cat. Vip. 
Snakes (1849) 9. 

Description of sitbspecies. — Head very distinct from body, very 
broad, nearly as broad as long; snout short, rather broadened, 
with a prominent canthus rostralis; eye small; rostral a little 
higher than wide, visible from above as a mere line; bordered 
above by 2 rounding scales, forming a suture medially; nasal 
large, the nostril pierced near the middle of the scale which is 
bounded above by 3 small, rounding scales, subequal in size; 
these scales are without keels, including the 2 touching rostral; 
a large postnasal folded over canthus rostralis, its superior part 
longest; behind nasal, the loreal and a minute intercalated scale 
below touch the first labial ; anterior loreal large, narrowly in 
contact with nasal, forming the anterior border of facial pit, in 
contact with first 2 labials; posterior border of pit bounded by 
second preocular and second small loreal; 3 preoculars, the me- 
dian largest, the inferior very small ; supraocular longer than 
diameter of eye, its inner margin irregular, in contact v^dth su- 
perior pre- and postoculars ; 2 small postoculars ; a narrow, 
curved, elongate subocular borders eye behind and below, sep- 
arated from labials by a series of small supralabials of unequal 
size; 2 small scales between third labial and loreals; 9 upper 
labials, third, fourth, and first largest in the order named ; edges 
of labials bordering mouth form a wavy line ; 10 lower labials ; 
mental wider than rostral, about as deep; 1 large pair of chin 
shields followed by 3 smaller paired scales; 2 labials in contact 
with first pair of chin shields ; temporals numerous, 4 or 5 lateral 



i'^^mm' 



TRIMERESURUS 301 

rows, those bordering labials largest ; head scales on snout larger 
than those between eyes, all strongly keeled save those that 
border canthus rostralis ; scales between supraoculars 9 or 10 ; 
from last lower labials to first ventral, 9 rows of scales; scales 
on chin and throat large, wider than deep; scales on body in 
23 rows, all keeled ; outer row largest ; pupil vertical ; ventrals, 
131 ; anal entire ; subcaudals, 43. 

Color in life. — Dorsally a bright bluish green, with yellowish 
green to yellow laterally and ventrally ; a series of bands on body, 
(21 on body, 13 on tail) ; these bands are composed of a greenish 
yellow stripe bordered by a black line of varying width; some 
of the bands are broken in the middle ; below they connect with 
a narrow black line crossing ventrals ; usually 1 or 2 black lines 
between ends of bars ventrally; ventrals are of varying shades 
of yellow to cream, all with a tinge of green; ventral lines are 
black ; tail pinkish, the black bands not connected above or below ; 
top of head variously spotted with black; a yellowish line runs 
from nasal through eye, and around angle of jaw ; behind eye 
this is bordered below by a black band which continues the 
same distance ; upper and lower labials yellow-green, some edged 
with black. Length, 655 millimeters ; tail, 102. 

Variation. — In this form the chief variation is between the 
young and the adult. The black color is usually wanting and is 
usually replaced by brown or brown and lavender; the head is 
sometimes spotted, sometimes not. The number of upper labials 
is almost constantly 9, with usually 10 lower labials; ventrals 
average 134; subcaudals, 45. 

Remarks. — Common in Mindanao. These snakes were usually 
found in small trees in the forest. Their coloration makes them 
very difficult to discern. They are deadly poisonous. 



INDEX 



abbi-eviatus, Hydrophis, 250. 
Ablabes, 79, 161. 

philippinus. 164. 
tricolor, 162. 
AcrochordiriEe, 76. 
Acrochordus, 77. 
fasciatus, 77." 
granulatus, 77. 
acutus, Cerberus. 112. ■ 
Adeniophis, 273. 
bilineatus, 275. 
philippinus, 277. 
affinis, Platurus, 228. 
Ah£etul]a,165. 
belli, 166. 
caudolineata, 169. 
decorus, 166. 
picta, 166. 
ahsetulla, Leptophis, 166. 
Aipysurus, 225, 

anguiliaelormis, 226. 
eydouxii, 226. 
Isevis, 226. 

marKaritophorus, 226. 
alljolabris. Trimesurus. 290. 
alboviridis, Trimeresurus wagieri, 299. 
Alopecophis chalybeus, 153. 
Amblycephalid*, 280. 
Amblycephalus, 280. 

boa, 280. 
Amphiesma, 83. 

stolatum, 84. 
ancoralis, Simotes, 141. 
ancorus, Holarchus. 140. 141. 

Xenodon. 140. 
anguillieformis. Aipysurus, 226. 

ThaJassophis, 226. 
Anguis platura, 252. 
anpulata, Boiga. 204. 

Dipsas (Dipsadomorphus) , 204. 
nnjiulatus. Dipsadomorphus, 204. 
Anilios, 48. 

ruficauda, 54. 
ruficauda, Typhlops, 54. 
Anisodon, 209. 

lilljeborgi, 210. 
Anisodontes, 209. 
annulatus, Chersydrus, 77. 

Elapoides, 124. 
aphanospilus, Simotes. 141. 
Aplopeltura, 280. 

boa, 281. 
ArKyrophis bramicus. 50. 
truncatus, 50. 



aspera, Hydrophis, 245. 
Aspidoboa, 68. 
Aspis, 255. 
Aturia. 237. 

ornata. 241. 
aulicus, Coluber, 120. 

Lycodon, 120. 

Ophites. 120. 
auriculata, Natrix, 89. 
auriculatus, Tropidonotus, 89. 



bairdi, Lycodon. 210. 
belli. Ahsetulla, 166. 
Bibliography, 20. 
bicolor, Fordonia, 115. 

Hydrophis, 253. 

Hydrus, 252. 

Pelamis, 252. 
bilineata. Hurria. 111. 
bilineatus, Adeniophis, 275. 

Callophis, 274. 

Coluber, 84. 

Doliophis, 274. 275. 

Elaps, 84. 
bitorques, Calamaria. 185. 
bivittatus, Polyodontophis, 80. 

Sibynophis, 80. 
Boa phrygia, 68. 

reticulatus, 68. 

rhombeata, 68. 
boa, Amblycephalus, 280. 

Aplopeltura, 281. 

Dipsas, 281. 

Haplopeltura. 280, 281. 
boaeformis, Cerberus, 11. 

Elaps, 111. 

Homalopsis. 112. 
Eo:da2, 67. 
Boigina,'. 195. 
Boiga, 195, 196. 

angrulata, 204. 

cynodon, 206, 207. 

dendrophila, 197. 

dendrophila divergens, 201. 

dendrophila latifasciata. 198. 

dendrophila multicincta, 200. 

philippina, 206. 
Bothrodytes, 83. 
Eothrops, 283. 

viridis, 290. 

wagieri, 296. 
Brachyrhynchus, 268. 
bramicus, Argyrophis, 50. 



303 



304 



INDEX 



braminus, Eryx, 50, 

Typhlops, 50. 
brevirostris, Geophis, 103. 

Stenognathus, 103. 
brevis, Hydrophis, 249. 

Typhiogeophis, 183. 

Typhlogeophus, 183. 
bungarus, Naia, 256. 

Naja, 256. 

Trimeresurus, 256. 
burksi, Holarchus, 145. 

o 

caeruieatus, Dendi-elaphis, 174. 
Calamaria, 146. 183. 

bitorqaes, 185. 

everetti, 191. 

gervaisii, 185, 186, 189. 

gervaisii gervaisii, 187. 

gervaisii iridescens, 188. 

grayi, 184. 

longiceps, 178. 

lunibricoidea, 185. 

mearnsi, 193. 

mindorensis, 190. 

philippjnica, 185. 

suluensis, 189. 

tropica, 194. 

virgulata, 186. 
calligaster, Callophis, 269. 

Elaps, 269. 

Hemibungarus, 269. 
Callophis, 268, 273. 

bilineatus, 274. 

calligaster, 269. 

gemianulus, 270. 

intestinalis, 277. 

intestinalis var. philippina, 277. 
canlaonensis, Typhlops, 55. 
capucinus, Lycodon, 120. 
carinatus, Coryphodon, 136. 

Zaocys. 136. 
caudalineatus. Leptophis, 169. 
caudolineata, Ahfetulla, 169. 

Dendrophis. 169. 
caudolineatus. Dendrelaphis, 169. 
Cephalophis, 195. 
CeratophalluB, 83. 
Cerberus. 111. 

acutus, 112. 

boieformis. 112. 

cinereus. 112, 114. 

rhynchops, 111. 

unieolor, 112. 
Cerberus, Homalopsis, 111. 
Cercaspis, 119. 
cerebus. Coluber, 111. 
chalybasus, Hemiodontus, 115. 
chalybeus. AJopecophis, 153. 
Ohersydrus, 77. 

annulatus, 77. 

fasciatus, 77. 

granulatus, 77. 



chittal, Hydrophis, 245. 
chrysarga, Natrix, 87. 
chrysargus, Tropidonotus, 87. 
Chrysopelea, 213, 215. 

ornata, 216. 

rubescens, 213. 
cincinnatii, Disteira, 239. 
cinereus. Cerbenis. 112, 114. 

Hydrus, 111. 
Classification of the snakes. 45. 
Clutulia, 237. 

inornata, 241. 
collaris, Elaps, 269. 

Hemibungarus, 269. 
Coluber. 152. 155. 

aulicus, 120. 

bilineatus. 84. 

cerebus. 111. 

decorus. 166. 

gramineus, 290. 

iavanicus, 68. 

laticaudatus, 228, 231. 

ornatus, 216. 

oxycephalus, 152. 

pictus, 166. 

platicaudatus, 228. 

stolatus, 84. 

viridis. 290. 
colubrina, Hydrophis, 234. 

Laticauda, 231. 
colubrinus. Hydrophis, 228. 231. 

Hydrus. 231. ' 

Platurus, 231. 
Composoma, 155. 

melanurum, 156, 

melanurum var. erythrurum. 156. 
concx^lor, Xenopeltis, 73. 
Constrictor, 6S. 
Contents, 5. 
Cophias viridis, 290. 

wagieri, 296. 298. 
Coronellinae, 117. 
Coronella, 138. 161. 
Coryphodon, 134. 

carinatus, 136. 
crassicollis, Hydrophis, 245. 
crebripunetata, Natrix, 91. 
crebripunctatus, Tropidonotus, 91. 
Crotalidie. 283. 
Crysopelse ornata, 216. 
cumingii, Onychocephalus, 66. 

Onychophis. 66. 

Typhlops, 66. 
cyanocincta. Disteira, 245. 

Distira, 245. 

Hydrophis. 245. 
cyanocinctus. Enhydris. 245. 

Hydrophis, 245. 

Hydrus. 245. 
cyanosoma, Disteira, 248. 
Cyclochorus lineatus maculata, 116. 

maculatus. 116. 
Cyclocorus, 105. 

lineatus. 106. 



INDEX 



305 



Cyclophis. 161. 

tricolor, 162. 
cynodon, Boiga, 206. 207. 

Dipsadomorphus. 207. 

Dipsas. 206. 

Dipsas (Eudipsas). 206. 

Eudipsas, 206. 

Opetiodon, 206. 

D 

Deadly poisonous snakes, 224. 
decorus, Ahastulla, 166. 

Coluber, 166. 
Dendrasriis. 255. 
Dendrelaphis, 169. 

caeruleatus, 174. 

caudolineatus, 169. 

fuliginosus, 172. 
, modestus, 172. 

terrificus, 174. 
dendrophiJa, Boiga. 197. 

t)ipsa3, 197. 

Dipsas (Dipsas), 197. 

divergens, Boiga, 201. 

latifasciata. Boiga, 198. 

multicincta, Boiga, 200. 
dendrophilum, Triglyphodon, 197. 
dendrgphilus, Dipsadomorphus, 197. 

var. latifasciatus, Dipsadomorphus, 198. 

var. multicinctus. Dipsadomorphus, 200. 
dendrophiops, Natrix, 95. 

dendrophiops, Natrix, 95. 

negrosensis, Natrix, 97. 

Tropidonotus, 95. 
Dendrophis, 165, 169. 

caudolineata, 169. 

octolineata, 169. 

philippinensis, 174. 

picta, 166, 174. 

pictus, 166. 

punctulata, 174. 

terrificus, 174. 
dendrophis. Typhlops, 60. 
Diadophis, 161. 
dichromatus, Typhlops, 54. 
Dicraulax, 138. 
Diplophallus, 83. 
Dipsadomorphus, 195. 

angulata. Dipsas, 204. 

anguJatus, 204. 

cynodon, 207. 

dendrophilus, 197. 

dendrophiius var. latifasciatus, 198. 

dendrophilus var. multicinctus. 200. 

philiripinus, 206. 
Dipsas. 195, 196, 280. 

boa, 281. 

cynodon, 206. 

dendrophila, 197. 

ferruginea. 209. 

philippina, 206. 
schokari, 166. 

(Dipsadomorphus) angulata, 204. 

(Dipsas) dendrophila. 197. 



Dipsas— Continued. 

(Eudipsas) cynodon. 206. 
(Eudipsas) guiraonis, 204. 
(Triglyphodon) gemmicincta, 197. 
Disteira, 236. 

cincinnatii, 239. 

cyanocincta, 245. 

cyanosoma, 248. 

ornata, 241. 

ornata inornata, 241. 
Distira, 237. 

cyanocincta, 245. 
Doliophis, 273. 

biiineatus, 274, 275. 

philippinus. 277. 
Dryinus, 218. 

nasutus. 219. 

prasinus, 219. 
Dryocalamus, 131. 

philippinus. 132. 
Dryophiops, 213. 

philippina, 213. 
DryopMs, 213,. 218. 

griseus, 221. 

prasinus, 219. 

preocularis, 222. 
dumerilii, Stegonotus. 130. 

E 

Economic consideration of snakes, 31. 
Elaphe, 155. 

erythrura, 156, 159. 

melanurum var. celebensis, 156. 

oxycephala. 153. 

philippina, 159. 
Elaphis. 155. 

melanurus var. manillensis, 156. 

subradiatus, 156. 
elapiformis. Python, 111. 
Elapoides annulatus, 124. 
Elapidte, 224. 
Elapinie, 254. 
Elaps. 268. 273. 

biiineatus, 84. 

bOBeformis. 111. 

calligaster, 269. 

collaris. 269. 

gastrodelus, 269. 

intestinalis, 277. 
elaps, Hamadryas, 256. 

Naja. 256. 

Ophiophagus. 256. 
elegans, Trimesurus, 290. 
Eniydocephalus, 225. 
Enhydris. 236, 249. 

cyanocinctus. 245. 

hardwickii. 250. 

striatus. 245. 
Enicognathus, 79. 
Entacanthus, 161. 
erythrura, Elaphe, 156, 159. 
erythrurus, Plagiodon. 156. 

Trigonocephalus. 290. 

Trimeresurus, 291. 



161465- 



-20 



306 



INDEX 



Eryx braminus, 50. 
Eudipsas. 195. 

cynodon. 206. 

cynodon, Dipsas. 206. 

guiraonis, Dipsas. 204. 
Eurypholis, 161. 
Eutainia, 82. 
everetti, Calamaria, 191. 
eydouxii, Aipysurus. 226. 

Tomogaster, 226. 

F 

fasciata, Naja (Hamadryas ?) , 256. 

Potamophis, 77. 
fasciatus, Acrochordus, 77. 

Chersydrus, 77. 

Ophiophagus, 256. 

Platunis, 22S, 231. 

var. colubrina, Platurus, 231. 

var. semifasciata, Platurus, 234. 
Faunal relations and distribution of Philip- 
pine snakes, 38. 
fayreriana. Hydrophis, 249. 
ferruginea, Dipsas, 209. 
fischeri, Platurus, 228. 
flavomaculata, Mega^ra, 288. 

Parias, 288. 
fiavomaculatus, Lachesis, 288. 

Trimeresurus. 288. 
Fordonla, 116. 

bicolor, 115. 

leucobalia, 115. 

unicolor, 115. 

variabilis, 115. 
formosanus, Trimeresurus, 292. 
formosus, Leptophis, 166. 

Trimesurus, 296. 
fulgidus, Oxybelis, 219. 
fuliginosus, Dendrelaphis, 172. 



G 



gastrodelus, Elaps, 269. 
gemianulis, Hemibungarus, 270. 
^emianulus, Callophis, 270. 
gemmiannulis, Hemibungarus. 270. 
gemmicincta, Dipsas (Triglyphodon) . 197. 
gemmicinctum, Triglyphodon, 197. 
Geophis, 99. 

brevirostris, 103. 

modestus, 100. 

schadenbergi, 100, 
gervaisii, Calamaria, 185. 186, 180. 

gervaisii, Calamaria, 187. 

iridescens, Calamaria. 188. 
Gonyodipsas, 195. 
Gonyosoma, 152. 

oxycephalum, 152, 153. 

viride, 152. 
gramineus, Colubei-, 290. 

Lachesis, 291. 

Trigonocephalus. 290. 

Trimeresurus, 288, 290. 292. 
granulatus, Acrochordus. 77. 

Chersydrus, 77. 



granulatus — Continued. 

Hydrus. 77. 

Pelamis, 77, 
grayi, Calamaria, 184. 
griseus, Dryophis, 221. 
guiraonis. Dipsas (Eudipsas), 204. 

H 

halieus, Trimeresurus, 286. 

Trimerisurus, 286. 
Hamadryas, 255. 

elaps, 256. 

fasciata, Naja, 256. 

hannah, 256. 

ophiophagus, 256. 
hannah, Hamadryas, 256. 

Naja, 256. 
Haplonodon. 126. 

philippinensis, 126. 
Haplopeltura, 280. 

boa, 280, 281. 
hardwickii, Enhydris, 250. 

Hydrophis, 249. 

Lapemis, 249. 
helje, Lycodon, 120. 
Helminthoelaps, 273. 
Hemibun g'arus, 268 . 

calligaster, 269. 

collaris, 269. 

gemianulis, 270. 

gemmiannulis, 270. 

mcclungi, 272. 

sp., 272. 
Hemiodontus, 115. 

chalybaeus, 115. 

leucobalia, 115. 
Henicognathus, 79. 
Herpetodryas, 79, 129. 134. 152, 161. 

muelleri. 129. 

oxycephalus, 152. 

tricolor, 162. 
Historical, 16. 
Holarchus, 138. 

ancorus, 140. 141. 

burksi, 145. 

maculatus. 1-13. 

meyerinkii, 139. 

meyerlinkii, 139. 

ph^enochalinus, 141. 
Holog-errhum, 116. 

philippinum, 116. 
Homalopsince, 110. 
Honialopsis. 115. 

bo^formis, 112. 

Cerberus, 111. 

leucobalia. llo. 
Homalosoma. 146. 161. 
hombroni. Trigonocephalus, 296. 

Tropidolaemus, 295. 
Hurria, 110, ill, i95. 

bilineata. 111. 

microlepis. 114. 

rynchops, 111. 112. 

schneideriana, 111, 



INDEX 



307 



Hurrianus, 111. 

Hydrophiin^, 225. 

Hydrophilophis, 82. 

Hydrophis, 225, 227, 236. 249, 252. 

abbreviatus, 250. 

aspera, 245. 

bicolor, 253. 

brevis. 249. 

chittal, 245. 

colubri'na, 234. 

colubrinus, 228, 231. 

crassicollis, 245. 

cyanocincta, 245. 

cyanocinctus, 245. 

fayreriana, 249. 

hardwickii, 249. 

loreata, 249. 

ornatus, 241. 

pelamidoides, 249. 

pelamis, 253. 

phipsoni, 245. 

platura, 252. 

problematicus, 249. 

striata, 245. 

subannulata, 245. 

taprobanica, 245. 

(Thalassophis) loreatus, 250. 

trachyceps, 245. 

westermanni, 245. 
Hydrophobus, 132. 
Hydrin«, 225. 
Hydrus. 77, 110. 227, 236, 252. 

bicolor. 252. 

cinereus. 111. 

colubrinus, 231. 

cyanocinctus, 245. 

granulatus, 77. 

platurus, 253. 

rynchops. 111. 

striatus, 245. 
Hypaspistes, 68. 
hypomeias, Tropidonotus, 95. 
Hypotropis, 225. 
hypsirhinoides, Tytleria, 120. 

I 

Illustrations. 9. 
Imbricatffl, 72. 
inpens, Naja, 256. 
inornata, Clutulia, 241. 
intestinalis, Callophis, 277. 

var, philippina, Callophis, 277. 

Elaps, 277. 
Introduction, 15. 
iwahigensis. Oligodon, 149. 



jagorii, Typhlops. 53. 
javanicus. Coluber, 68. 
junceus, Tropidonotus, 87. 



IC 



Kerilia, 237. 
korros. Ptyas. 136. 



Lachesis, 283, 

flavomaculatus, 288. 

gramineus, 291. 

wag-leri, 297. 
Isevis, Aipysurus, 226. 
Langahinae. 116. 
Lapemis, 249. 

hardwickii, 249. 

loreatus, 249. 
Laticauda, 227. 

colubrina, 231. 

laticaudata, 228, 229. 

laticaudata laticaudata. 229. 

scutata, 228, 231. 

senaifasciata, 234. 
laticaudata, Laticauda, 228, 229. 
laticaudatus. Coluber, 228, 231. 

Platurus, 228, 231. 

var. colubrina, Platurus, 231. 
laurenti, Platurus, 228. 
Leioselasnia, 236. 

striata, 245. 
leporinum, Oxyrhabdium, 103. 

Rhabdosoma. 100, 103. 
Leptophis, 82, 165, 169. 

ahsetulla, 166. 

caudalineatus, 169. 

formosus, 166. 

pictus, 166. 
Leptorhytaon, 119. 
leucobalia, Fordonia, 115. 

Hemiodontus, 115. 

Honialopsis, 115. 
leucocephala, Xenopeltis, 73. 
Lielaphis, 129. 
lilljeborgi, Anisodon. 210. 
lineata, Natrix, 92. 
lineatus, Cyclocorus, 106. 

maculata, Cyclochorus, 116. 

Lycodon, 106. 

Tropidonotus, 92. 
Liopata. 237. 
Liopeltis, 161. 

phiiippinus, 164. 

tricolor, 162. 
Liophallus, 196. 

Local names for Philippine snakes, 34, 
longicauda, Typhlops, 63. 
longiceps, Calamaria, 178. 

Oxycalamus. 178. 

Pseudorhabdion, 178. 
loreata, Hydrophis. 249. 
loreatus, Hydrophis (Thalassophis), 250. 

Lapemis, 249. 
lumbricoidea, Calamaria, 185. 
luzonensis, Typhlops, 52. 

Zaocys, 135. 
Lycodon, 105, 118. 119, 129. 131. 

aulicus, 120. 

bairdi, 210. 

capucinus, 120. 

hebe. 120. 



308 



INDEX 



Lycodon— Continued. 

Hneatus, 106. 
muUeri, 130. 
platurinus, 124. 
subcinctus, 124. 
tessellatus, 124. 
unicolor, 120. 

M 

Macrocephalus, 195. 
maculatus. Cyclochorus, 116. 

Holarchus, 143. 

Trimeresurus, 296. 
manilas, Typhlops, 56. 
margaritophorus, Aipysurus, 226. 
Maticora, 273. 

mcclungi, Hemibungarua. 272. 
mcgregori, Trimeresurus, 284. 
mcnamarse, Pseudorhabdium, 180. 
mearnsi, Calamaria, 193. 
MegEsra, 283. 

flavomaculata, 288. 

ornata. 288. 

variegata, 288. 
melanurum, Composoma, 156. 

var. erythrurum, Composoma. 156. 

var, celebensis, Elaphe. 156. 
melanurus var. manillensis, Elaphis, 156. 

Spilotes. 156. 
meyerinkii, Holarchus, 139. 

Simotes, 139. 
meyerlinkii, Holarchus, 139. 
Microcephalophis, 236. 
microlepis, Hurria, 114. 
mindanensis, Typhlops, 65. 
mindorensis, Calamaria, 190. 
miolepis. Naia tripudians, 262. 

Naja naja, 262. 
modestum, Oxyrhabdium, 100. 

Rhabdosoma. 100, 103. 
modestu3, Dendrelaphis, 172. 

Geophis. 100. 

Oligodon, 147. 

Stenognathus. 100, 103. 
Morelia, 68. 
muelleri. Herpetodryas, 129. 

Odontomus, 130. 

Stegonotus, 129. 
mijlleri, Lycodon. 130. 
muraenaeformis, Thalassophis, 226. 

N 
Naia. 255. 

bungarus, 256. 

samarensis, 259. 

tripudians, 262. 

tripudians CEeca, 265. 

tripudians var. miolepis. 262 
Naja, 255. 

bungarus. 256. 

elaps, 256. 

ingens. 256. 

Hannah, 256. 

naja, 259. 



Naja — Continued. 

naja caeca. 265. 

naja miolepis, 262. 

naja philippinensis, 265. 

naja samarensis, 259. 

samarensis, 259. 

tripudians, 259. 

tripudians, var. f., 259. 

tripudians var. samarensis, 259. 

tripudians var. sumati"ana, 256. 
(Hamadryas?) fasciata, 256. 
naja, Naja. 259. 
nasutus, Dryinus, 219. 
Natricidee, 76. 
Natricinas, 78. 
Natrix, 82. 

auriculata, 89. 

chrysarga, 87. 

crebripunctata, 91. 

dendrophiops, 95. 

dendrophiops dendrophiops, 95. 

dendrophiops negrosensis, 97. 

lineata, 92. 

spilogaster, 86. 

stolata, 84. 

stolatus, 84. 
Nerodia, 82. 

Nonpoisonous snakes. 47. 
Noterophis, 237. 
notospilus, Oligodon, 148. 
Nympha, 131. 
Nymphophidium. 132. 

O 

octolineata, Dendrophis. 169. 
octolineatus, Simotes, 139. 
Odontomus, 129. 131. 

muelleri, 130. 
Oligodon, 146. 

i\vahigensis. 149, 

modestus. 147. 

notospilus, 14S. 

schadenbergi, 151. 
olivaceus, Onychocephalus, 58. 

Onychophis. 58. 

Typhlops. 58. 
Onychocephalus. 48. 

cumingii, 66. 

olivaceus, 58. 
Onychophis, 48. 

cuminpii, BG. 

olivaceus. 58. 
Opetiodon. 195. 

cynodon. 206. 
Ophiophagus. 255. 

elaps. 256. 

fasciatus. 256. 
ophiophagus. Hamadryas, 256. 

Trimeresurus. 256. 
Ophites, 118, 119. 

aulicus, 120. 

subcinctus, 124. 

tesselatus, 124. 

tessellatus, 124. 



INDEX 



309 



ornata, Aturia, 241. 
Chrysopelea. 216. 
Crysopelea, 216. 
Disteira, 241. 

inornata, Disteira. 241. 
Megiera, 288. 

Farias, 288. 

Pelamis. 253. 

Tyria, 216. 
ornatus, Coluber, 216. 

Hydrophis. 241. 
Oxybelis fulgidus. 219. 
Oxycalamus, 177. 

lonpiceps, 178. 

oxycephalus. 179. 
oxycephala, Elaphe, 153. 
oxycephalum, Gonyosoma, 152. 163. 

Pseudorhabdium, 179. 

Rhabdosoma. 179. 
oxycephaIu3. Coluber, 152. 

Herpetodryas, 152, 

Oxycalamus. 179. 
Oxyrhabdium, 99, 

leporinum, 103. 

modestum, 100. 

P 
Pappophis, 196. 
Pareas waandersii, 206. 
Parias, 283. 

flavomaculata. 288. 

ornata, 288, 

variegata, 288. 
Passerita, 218. 
Pelagophis. 225. 
pelamidoides, Hydrophis, 249. 
Pelamis. 249. 252. 

bicolor, 252. 

granulatus, 77. 

ornata, 253. 

platurus, 253. 
pelamis, Hydrophis, 253. 
Pelamydrus, 252, 

platurus. 252. 253. 
petersii, Typhlops, 54. 
phsenochahnus, Holarchus, 141. 

Simotes, 141. 
philippenais, Trimeresurus, 295. 
philippina, Boiga, 206. 

Dipsas, 206. 

Dryophiops. 213. 

Elaphe, 159. 
philippinensis, Dendrophis, 174. 

Haplonodon, 126. 

Tropidolsemus. 296. 
philippinica, Calamaria, 185. 
philippinum, Hologerrhum. 116, 
philippinus, Ablabes, 164. 

Adeniophis, 277. 

Dipsadomorphus, 206. 

Doliophis. 277. 

Dryocalamus, 132. 

Liopeltis. 162. 
phipsoni, Hydrophis, 245. 
Phragraitophis, 161. 



phrygia. Boa. 68. 
picta, AhiEtulla, 166. 

Dendrophis, 166. 174. 
pictus, Coluber, 166. 

Dendrophis. 166. 

Leptophis. 166. 
Plagiodon, 155. 

erythrurus, 156. 
platicaudatus. Coluber, 228. 
platura, Anguis, 252. 

Hydrophis. 252. 
platurinus, Lycodon. 124. 
Platurus, 227. 

affinis. 228. 

colubrinus, 231. 

fasciatus. 228, 231. 

fasciatus var. colubrina, 231. 

fasciatus. var. semifasciata, 234. 

fischeri, 228. 

laticaudatus, 228, 231. 

laticaudatus var. colubrina, 231. 

laurenti, 228. 

schistorhynchus, 234. 

scutatus, 231. 

semifasciatus, 234. 
platurus, Hydrus, 253. 

Pelamis, 253. 

Pelamydrus, 252, 253. 
Polyodontophis, 79. 

bivittatus, 80. 
Potamophis. 77. 

fasciata, 77. 
prasinus, Dryinus, 219. 

Dryophis, 219. 

Tragops, 219. 
Preface, 3. 

preocularis, Dryophis, 222. 
problematicus, Hydrophis, 249. 
Psalmody nastes pulverulentus, 210. 
Psammodynastes, 209. 

pulverulentus. 209. 210. 
Psammophis, 209. 218. 

pulverulenta. 209. 
Pseudohaje, 255. 
Pseudolycodon, 129. 
Pseudorabdion, 177. 

torquatum, 178. 
Pseudorhabdion longiceps. 178. 
Pseudorhabdium, 177, 

longiceps, 178. 

mcnamaras. 180. 

oxycephalum, 179. 
Ptyas korros, 136. 
pulverulenta, Psammophis, 209. 
pulverulentus. Psalmodynastes, 210. 

Psammodynastes, 209. 210. 
punctulata. Dendrophis, 174. 
purpurascens. Simotes, 140. 
Pythoninae, 68. 
Python, 68. 

elapiformis. 111. 

reticulatus, 68, 69. 

rhynchops. 111. 

schneideri, 68. 



310 



INDEX 



Q 

quincunciatus. Tropidonotus, 86, 

R 

Rabdion, 177. 

torquatum. 178. 
Regina, 82. 
reticulatus. Boa, 68. 

Python. 68, 69. 
Rhabdion, 177. 

torquatum. 178. 
Rhabdophis, 82. 
Rhabdosoma, 99. 

leporinum, 100, 103. 

modestum, 100, 103. 

oxycephalum, 179. 
rhombeata. Boa, 68. 
Rhynchocalamus, 146. 
rhynchops, Cerberus, 111. 

Hurria, 112. 

Python, 111. 
ruber, Typhlops. 55. 
rubescens, Chrysopelea, 213. 
ruficauda, Aniiios. 54. 

Typhlops. 54. 

Typhlops (Aniiios), 54. 
rugosa, Typhlops, 58. 
russelii. Tortrix, 50. 
ryTichops, Hurria, 111. 

Hydrus. HI. 

S 



samarensis, Naia, 259. 

Naja. 259. 

Spilotes, 129. 
schadenbergi, Geophis. 100. 

Oligodon, 151. 

Trimeresurus, 288. 
schistorhynchus, Platurus. 234. 
schneideri. Python, 68. 
schneideriana, Hurria, 111. 
schokari, Dipsas, 166. 
schultzei, Trimeresurus. 292. 
scutata, Laticauda, 228, 231. 
scutatus, Platuinjs, 231. 
Bemifasciata. Laticauda, 234. 
semifasciatus, Platurus, 234. 
Serpentes, 47. 
Sibynophis, 79. 

bivittatus, 80. 
Slmotes. 138. 

ancoralis, 141. 

aphanospilus. 141. 

meyerinkii, 139. 

octolineatus. 139. 

pha?noohalinus, 141, 

purpurascens. 140. 
Slightly poisonous snakes, 195. 
Species of snakes erroneously attributed to the 

Philippine Islands. 43. 
spilogaster. Natrix. 86. 

Tropidonotus. 86. 



Spilotes, 129. 

melanurus, 156. 

samarensis. 129. 
Stegonotus, 129. 

duraerilii. 130. 

muelleri, 129. 
Steirophis. 82. 
Stenognathus, 99. 

brevirostris. 103. 

modestus, 100. 103. 
Stephanophydra, 225. 
stolata, Natrix, 84. 
stolatum. Amphiesma, 84. 
stolatus. Coluber, 84. 

Natrix, 84. 

Tropidonotus, 84. 
Strephon. 111. 
striata, Hydrophis, 245. 

Leioselasma, 245. 
striatus, Enhydris, 245. 

Hydrus, 245. 
subannulata, Hj'drophis, 245. 
subannulatus, Trimesurus, 296. 300. 

immaculatus, Trimeresurus, 296. 

TropidolEemus, 296. 

celebensis. Tropidolasmus. 296. 
subcinctus, Lycodon, 124. 

Ophites, 124. 
subradiatus, Elaphis, 156. 
suluensis, Calamaria. 189. 

Typhlops, 61. 
sumatrana, Naja tripudians, 256. ' 
suniatranus, Trigonoeephalus, 296. 

Trimesurus. 296. 



taprobanica. Hydro]ihis. 245. 
terrificus. Dendrelaphis. 174. 

Dendrophis. 171. 
tesselatus, Ophites, 124. 
tessellatus, Lycodon. 124. 

Ophites, 124. 
Tetragonosoma. 119. 
Thalassophis, 237. 252. 

angnillffiformis, 226. 

loreatus, Hydrophis, 250. 

niuraenaeformis, 226. 
Thamnodynastcs, 209. 
Thamnophis. S3. 
Tomogaster. 225. 

eydouxii, 226. 
Tomyris. 255. 
torquatum. Pseudoral:*dion. 178. 

Rabdion. 178. 

Rhabdion. 178. 
Tortricidie, 72. 
Tortrix. 73. 

russelii, 50. 

xenopeltis, 73. 
Toxicodryas, 195. 
trachyceps, Hydrophis, 245. 
Tragops, 218. 

prasinus. 219. 

xanthozonius. 219. 



INDEX 



311 



tricolor, Ablabes, 162. 
Cyclophis, 162. 
Herpetodryas, 162. 
Liopeltis, 162. 
Triplyphodon, 195. 

dendrophilum, 197. 
gemmicincta, Dipsas, 197. 
gemmicinctum. 197. 
Trigonocephalus, 283, 
ei-ythrurus, 290. 
gramineus, 290. 
hombroni, 296. 
sumatranus, 296. 
viridis, 290. 
wagleri, 296. 
Trimeresurus, 255, 283. 
bungarus, 256. 
erythnirus, 291. 
flavomaculatus, 288. 
formosanus, 292. 
gramineus. 288, 290, 292. 
halieus, 286. 
maculatus, 296. 
mcgregori. 284. 
ophiophagus, 256. 
philippensis. 295. 
schadenbergi, 288. 
schultzei, 292. 

subannulatus immaculatus, 296. 
viridis, 290. 
wagleri, 296, 297. 
wagleri alboviridis, 299. 
wagleri philippensis, 295. 
wagleri subannulatus. 300. 
wagleri wagleri, 298. 
Trimerisurus halieus. 286. 
Trimesurus albolabris, 290, 
elegans, 290, 
formosus. 296. 
subannulatus, 296. 300. 
sumatranus, 296. 
Tripeltis, 146. 
tripudians, Naia, 262. 
cffica, Naia, 265. 
var. miolepis, Naia, 262. 
Naja. 259. 
var. f., Naja, 259. 
var. samarensis, Naja, 259. 
var. sumatrana, Naja, 256. 
tropica, Calamaria, 194. 
Tropidococcyx, 218. 
Tropidolsemus, 283. 
hombroni, 295. 
philippinensis, 296. 
subannulatus, 296. 
subannulatus celebensis, 296. 
wagleri. 296. 
sp., 297. 
Tropidonotus, 82. 
auriculatus, 89. 
chrysargus, 87. 
crebripunctatus, 91. 
dendrophiops. 95. 
hypomelas. 95. 



Tropidonotus — Continued. 

junceus, 87. 

lineatus, 92. 

Quincunciatus, 86. 

spilogaster, 86. 

stolatus, 84. 
Tropinotus, 82. 
truncatus, Argyrophis, 50. 
Typhlocalamus, 183. 
Typhlogeophis, 182. 

brevis, 183. 
Typhlogeophus, 182. 

brevis, 183. 
Typhlopidffi, 47. 
Typhlops, 48, 

braminus. 50. 

canlaonensis, 55. 

ciimingii, dG. 

dendrophis, 60. 

dichromatus, 54. 

jagorii. 53. 

longicauda, 63. 

luzonensis, 52. 

manilffi, 56. 

mindanensis. 65. 

olivaceus, 58. 

petersii, .54. 

ruber, 55. 

ruficauda, 54. 

rugosa, 58. 

suluensis, 61. 

(Anilios) ruficauda, 54. 
Tyria, 152. 

ornata, 216. 
Tytleria, 119. 

bypsirhinoides, 120. 

U 
Ulupe, 132. 
unicolor, Cerberus, 112. 

Fordonia, 115. 

Lycodon, 120. 

Xenopeltis, 73. 
Urasus, 255. 



variabilis, fordonia. 115. 
variegata, Megsera, 288. 

Farias, 288. 
Vipera viridis, 290. 
virgulata, Calamaria, 186. 
viride, Gonyosoma, 152. 
viridis, Bothrops, 290. 

Coluber, 290. 

Cophias, .290. 

Trigonocephalus, 290. 

Trimeresurus, 290. 

Vipera, 290. 

W 

waandersii, Pai'eas, 206. 
\vagleri. Bothrops, 296. 

Cophias, 296. 298. 

Lachesis. 297. 

Trigonocephalus, 296. 



312 



INDEX 



wagleri — Continued. 

Trimeresurus, 296, 297. 

alboviridis, Trimeresurus, 299. 

philippensis, Trimeresurus, 295. 

subannulatus, Trimeresurus, 300. 

wag-leri, Trimeresurus, 298. 

Tropidolaemus, 296. 
westermanni, Hydrophis, 245. 



xanthozonius, Tragops. 219. 
Xenodon. 138. 

ancorus, 140. 



Xenopeltidas, 72. 
Xenopeltis, 73. 

concolor, 73. 

leucocephala, 73. 

unicoJor, 73. 
xenopeltis. Tortrix, 73. 



Z 



Zamenophis, 129. 
Zaocys, 134. 

carinatus, 136. 

luzonensis. 135. 
Zapyrus, 134. 



O 



Bureau of Science Publication No. 16.1 




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n'f??; 







Mm^, 



PLATE 6. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



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PLATE 7. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



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PLATE 9. HAPLONODON PHILIPPINENSIS GRIFFIN 



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!&>'•' 




PLATE 13. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



BVBEAU OF Science Publication No. 16.] 




PLATE 14. HOLARCHUS MEYERINKII (STEIN DACHN ER) . 




a 
o 
_i 
>- 
< 

1- 
< 



< 
s 



o 

I 



< 

0- 





Bureau of Science Pubucation No. 16.] 




PLATE 17. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



Bureau of Science Publication No. 16.] 




PLATE 18. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



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' -»Uj^ lJI.Ul.(Li.ipiii,ii.Uiiluji.w 



PLATE 24. PHILIPPINE SNAKES. 



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