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Full text of "Report"

THE LIBRARY 

OF THE 

NEW YORK STATE SCHOOL 

OF 

INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR 

RELATIONS 




AT 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924002402539 




Fifth 



5EVEMTH 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

V. J. Harris, Kevil, Firsl District; R, J. Bassett, Leitchfifrld, Second District; T. L. HofiNSBV, Eminence, 
Third District; J. L. Letterle, Harrods Creek, Fourth District; H. M. Fr-iMAN, Ghent, Fifth District; 
E. K. Renaker, Berry, Sixth District; Fred R. Blai.kburn, Stanton, Seventh District; J. W. Newman, Com- 
migaioner of Agriculture, Frankfort, Ex-Officio Chairman; Jos. H. Kastle, Director Ky. Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Lexington, Ex-Officio Vice-Chairman. 



Twenty-First Biennial Report 



OF THE 



Bureau of Agriculture, 
Labor and Statistics 



Of Kentucky 



FOR 



1914-1915 



J. W. NEWMAN, Commissioner 




THE STATE JOURNAL COMPANY 
Printers to the Commonvrealtli 
Frankfort - . . Kentucky 



OFFICE OF COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 



J. W. NEWIMAN, Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics. 

Q. T. GATEWOOD, Clerk of Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics. 

HARRY McCARTT, Director of Farmers' Institutes. 

MRS. CHRISTY PARK, Clerk State Board of Agriculture. 

FONT KREMBR, Immigration Clerk. 

HARRY M. LESLIE, State Labor Inspector. 

M. B. MALONEY, Assistant State Labor Inspector. 

MISS MADGE E. NAVE, Woman State Labor Inspector. 

MISS MARGARET HALLNAN, Stenographer. 

STATE BOABD OP AaBICUI^TUBE 

J. W. NEWMAN, Ex-O£Cici0 Cliairman, Frankfort, Ky. 

JOSEPH H. KASTLE, Ex-Officio Vice Chairman, Lexington, Ky. 

V. J. HARRIS, First District, Kevil, Ky. 

R. J. BASSETT, Second District, Leitchfleld, Ky. 

T. L. HORNSBY, Third District, Eminence, Ky. 

J. L. LBTTERLE, Fourth District, Harrods Creek, Ky. 

H. M. FROMAN," Fifth District, Ghent, Ky. 

E. K. RENAKER, Sixth District, Berry, Ky. 

FRED R. BLACKBURN, Seventh District, Stanton, Ky. 

1.IVI1 STOCK SANITABY BOABD 

J. W. Newman, Ex-OfEicio Chairman. 

Prof. E. S. Good, Ex-0£Eicio Member. 

H. M. Froman. 

R. J. Bassett. 

J. L. Letterle. 

Fred R. Blackburn. 

Dr. S. F. Musselman, State Veterinarian, Frankfort, Ky. 

Dr. B. S. Garr, Assistant State Veterinarian, Lagrange, Ky. 

KEITTTJCXT STATE FAIB 

J. L. Dent, Secretary _ Louisville, Ky. 

L. B. Shropshire, Assistant Secretary _ Louisville, Ky. 

E. F. Durbeck, Superintendent of Grounds Louisville, Ky. 

Miss Daisy Morrlssey, Stenographer. 



PART ONE. 



RESOURCES. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GENERAL 
ASSEMBLY. 



Frankfort, Ky., January 1, 1916. 

To the General Assembly of Kentucky: 

We have the honor of submitting herewith the 
Twenty-first Biennial Eeport of the Department of Agri- 
culture, Labor & Statistics, in compliance with the law 
creating this Department of the State Government. 

It is impossible to give a detailed account of the vari- 
ous activities of this Department, and this report shows 
only a portion of the work really accomplished. The num- 
ber of silos erected throughout the State; the increased 
number of fields of alfalfa and crimson clover; the 
numerous mills grinding agricultural limestone; the 
greater number of live stock; the great improvement in 
the fertility of the fields ; larger crops ; the activities in 
the Boys' _Com Club and Girls' Canning Club work; 
the continued growth of the Kentucky State Fair; the 
extended interest manifested in Farmers' Institutes; the 
improvement in methods of farming; the better live 
stock; better plowing and seeding; the increased number 
of agricultural organizations ; the improvement in sani- 
tary conditions on the farm; the better and larger com- 
munity life of the people, bear testimony that this De- 
partment has not been idle. 

The State Department of Agriculture does not 
claim credit for all the development iu the State along 
the line's indicated above, but it has contributed its full 
share, and co-operated with all the many agencies work- 
ing to develop the resources and citizenship of the Com- 
monwealth. 

More scientific and intelligent farming means more 
profitable farming; more profitable farming means more 



8 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOBT 

money available for better roads, better scbools, better 
dmrches and better homes. These are the things that 
make country life worth the living, and the more rural 
conditions are improved throughout the State, the fewer 
will be the people who leave the country for the city. 

It must be remembered that the efforts of this De- 
partment are directed not only toward benefiting directly 
the seventy-five per cent, of Kentucky's population that 
is classed as rural, but also directly toward aiding an 
additional fifteen per cent, that toil in the factories, mines 
and workshops; and indirectly those whose livelihoods 
are obtained in a business or professional way from 
these creators of wealth. 

It is our purpose to direct your attention to the fact 
that nothing like all of the people of the State are 
blessed with a common school education, and as the De- 
partment of Education can only directly assist the child, 
the children who are not in school, and those persons 
who are beyond the school age naturally look to the De- 
partment of Agriculture and Labor for assistance in 
learning how best to do things to increase their income, 
and to better their way of living in general. The Federal 
Congress has recognized the fact that the education of 
the schools, colleges and universities is insufficient in 
that so few have the means or opportunity to take ad- 
vantage of the free instruction that is so liberally pro- 
vided by the State and Federal authorities. It has, there- 
fore, made enormous appropriations to carry informa- 
tion into the homes, where the father and mother are 
given the opportunity to increase their earning capacity, 
and to obtain more of the comforts of life through their 
own efforts. 

Kentucky has never appreciated the fact that a great 
portion of her wealth is created upon the farm, and un- 
less the State's per capita wealth increases in proportion 
to the State's financial necessities, an increased tax rate 
upon all is inevitable and unavoidable. This Depart- 
ment, with the small amount of funds at its command, 
has demonstrated beyond a doubt that thousands of dol- 
lars of additional wealth can be created upon the farms 
by the expenditure on the part of the State of a few 



Bureau op Ageiculturb. 9 

dollars in showing the farmers how to become more 
efficient. 

Your attention is called to' the fact that the head of 
this Department does not even have an assistant, when, 
in fact, no one man can properly look after any one of 
the three-fold interests with which this Department is 
charged. It is my desire to make plain to you that it 
is absolutely necessary for the State of Kentucky to 
make provision in keeping with that made by other 
States, for the development of its agricultural resources. 
It is equally as important that a Labor Bureau be 
created, capable of really handling and guarding. the 
labor interests of the Commonwealth. About five thou- 
sand dollars of the money appropriated to this Depart- 
ment is expended in maintaining a Labor Bureau, and 
the remarkable results obtained through the expenditure 
of so little money are set forth in the Labor Eeport. Suf- 
fice it to say here that the state of New York expends 
approximately three-quarters of a million dollars for its 
Labor Bureau ; Pennsylvania nearly one-half million dol- 
lars, while Kentucky expends little more than five thou- 
sand dollars. The wage earners of this State are en- 
titled to more attention, and to better laws for their pro- 
tection. 

A considerable portion of this report is taken up 
with an account of the recent outbreak of foot-and- 
mouth disease in the State. Herein you will find the 
appraised value of all the live stock slaughtered in order 
to eradicate this fearful plague. Many of the states had 
emergency funds to meet such conditions, and the won- 
der is Kentucky, with practically no emergency funds, 
and no trained organization, succeeded in stamping out 
this enemy of animal life, and wrecker of private for- 
tunes, so quickly, successfully and economically. Twenty- 
one states and one territory were similarly affected. My 
information is that all of them have made appropria- 
tions to cover one-half of the value of the animals de- 
stroyed, while the Federal Government has paid the 
other half. I feel sure that the General Assembly of 
Kentuck}" will see the wisdom of appropriating money to 
pay the claims in this State. I beg you to believe me 
when I say that not to pay them will leave my successor 



10 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Eepoet 

in office absolutely unable to protect the live stock in- 
dustry of Kentucky from this awful pestilence, which, is 
likely to appear again at any time. Some provision 
should unquestionably be made for handling future out- 
breaks of this and other diseases of live stock. Had the 
various states been prepared financially, as well as or- 
ganized professionally to combat this plague, millions of 
dollars would have been saved to the live stock owners 
within the last year when foot-and-mouth disease ap- 
peared for the sixth time in the United States. It is 
not an exaggeration ^o say that hund'i'eds of millions 
worth of property were lost as a result of this unpre-' 
paredness on the part of the various states throughout 
the Union. 

It is nothing short of folly to leave the State of 
Kentucky with its present lack of funds, lack of laws 
and lack of organization, the prey of a disease that would 
wipe out a substantial portion of the taxable wealth of 
the State within a few months, should it once obtain a 
widespread foot-hold in our borders. The live stock 
owniers suffered great losses in portions of the State 
where the disease did not exist, due to the necessary 
quarantine orders on the part of the Federal and State 
authorities, and as a result of the panic conditions 
throughout the country, resulting from a knowledge that 
this disease was on American shores. 

The live stock industry of this State has assumed 
great proportions and the larger it becomes the better 
for the State. Methods for transportation have been 
made easier, the live stock markets have been brought 
nearer, and the various live stock diseases are, therefore, 
more likely to enter the State. We have no adequate 
veterinary force, not more than one-half of the coun- 
ties of the State having graduated veterinarians living 
within, their borders. There is no law regulating the 
practice of veterinary surgery, and Kentucky has be- 
come a promising field for quack veterinarians from 
other states. The competent, capable veterinarians of 
the State deserve from the General Assembly considera- 
tion that will give them a law for protection in their 
practice. 



BUBEAU 0¥ AgEICULTUEB. 11 

The law presumes that the Assessor will aid this 
Department in collecting statistics. The method of gath- 
ering these statistics, as now practiced, is harmful, in- 
stead of helpful to the State's interest. False statistics 
are worse than no statistics at all, and some action 
should be taken that will either provide for the collec- 
tion of reliable statistics on the part of the Assessor, or 
the questions should be left off the Assessor's blanks. 
We deem it unwise to publish as a part of the Biennial 
Eeport of this Department, the statistical report of the 
Board of Equalization, or its data on farm statistics. Its 
report is necessarily incomplete, due to the methods of 
collection, and to scatter it broadcast would do the State 
an injustice. The act providing for a Commissioner of 
Agriculture, Labor & Statistics, specifies the statistical 
information that shall be collected, and yet the funds 
are not sufficient to gather these statistics in one Con- 
gressional District. 

The thinking farmers of Kentucky are rapidly 
reaching the conclusion that the increased production of 
farm crops is not the only thing the State G-ovemment 
should foster along agricultural lines, but the market- 
ing of farm products is equally as important, and hence 
feel that the General Assembly should make some 
provision for a "marketing bureau" in this Department. 

An expert accountant has examined our books each 
year, and copies of his statement showing where and for 
what the State's money appropriated for this Depart- 
ment has been expended, is on file in this office. 

A study of the work of this Department should con- 
vince anyone that there should be laws enacted reorgan- 
izing the work so that the Commissioner and the State 
Board of Agriculture can render to the taxpayers of the 
State more efficient services along the lines indicated 
above, Avithout any additional appropriation. With the 
authority given by the Legislature to do so, a part of the 
Department's funds can be used to meet the require- 
ments of the Smith-Lever law, namely, that the State put 
up a given amount, and the Federal Government wiU 
duplicate it. By combining and co-operating with the 
Extension Department of the State University, the 
necessary additional funds may thus be secured for hold- 



12 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

ing Farmers ' Institutes, and part of the money now ap- 
propriated to the Department could be used for much 
needed work along other lines in this Department. 

It is gratifying to realize that Kentucky is coming 
forward along agricultural lines, and I urge that the 
future Commissioner be given the opportunity to help 
the farming and laboring interests of the State in ways, 
that I could not, owing to lack of the proper legislation. 

J. 'Wi. Newman. 



RESOURCES BY COUNTIES. 



FiGUEEs Compiled From Boaed of Equalization Eepoet 

OP 1915 Population Feom United States 

Census 1910. 

ADAIR COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,888; 1910, 16,503; per cent, in- 
crease 10.8. Assessed acreage of land 226,283 (United 
States census 256,000). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,694,985. Assessed value of land with 
improvements, $1,670,158. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.38 (United States census $10.31). No 
railroads in the county; located in the south central por- 
tion of the State; formed in 1801; named for General 
John Adair; land rolling, and well timbered; county 
seat, Columbia, population 1,022. 

ALLEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,657; 1910, 14,882; per cent in- 
crease 1.5. Assessed acreage of land 200,840 (United 
States census 252,160). Total assessed valua^on tax- 
able property $2,887,530. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,825,648. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.09 (United States census $12.13). 
Eailroads in county, L. & N., mileage 9.83; located in 
south central portion of the State; formed in 1815; 
named for Col. John Allen; land rolling; timber mostly 
cut; is in the oil section; good grazing and fruit land; 
county seat, Scottsville, population 1,327. 

ANDERSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,051; 1910, 10,146; per cent, in- 
crease .9. Assessed acreage of land 129,184 (United 
States census 128,640). Total assessed valuation tax- 



14 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL RbPOBT 

able property $3,413,397. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,973,922. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $15.27 (United States census $22.07). 
Railroad in county. Southern Ry. in Kentucky, mileage 
20.902; located in the central portion of the State; 
formed in 1827, and named for Richard Clugh Ander- 
son, Jr.; land underlaid with limestone; considerable 
rolling land; splendid grazing and tobacco land; county 
seat, Lawrenceburg, population 1,723. 

BALLARD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,761; 1910, 12,690; per cent, in- 
crease 17.9. Assessed acreage of land 155,162 (United 
States census 161,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,651,832. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,949,096. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $12.56 (United States census $31.40). 
Railroads in county, I. C. 27.4, M. & " ' '" . total mile- 
age 31.47; located in extreme western part of State; 
formed in 1842, and named for Captain Bland Ballard; 
land mostly level; black loamy soil; timber mostly cut; 
splendid garden section; county seat, Wickliffe, popu- 
lation 989. 

BARREN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 23,197; 1910, 25,293; per cent, in- 
crease 9. Assessed acreage of land 284,543 (United 
States census 310,400). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,804,306. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,152,355. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.07 (United States census $22.05). 
Railroads in county, L. & N. 8.42, Glasgow Railway Co. 
10.50, Mammoth Cave R. R. 2.01, total mileage 20.93; 
located in south-central portion of State; formed in 
1798, and named for a section of the State originally 
referred to as "The Barrens or Prairies," timber had 
mostly disappeared as a result of the Indians burning 
off the land in the area in order that the buffalo and 
deer might have good grazing land ; rather level section ; 
splendid limestone quarries ; land adapted to stock rais- 
ing and growing of tobacco, both Burley and Dark; 
county seat, Glasgow, population 2,316. 



BUBEATJ OF AgEIOULTURE. 15 

BATH COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,734; 1910, 13,988; per cent, de- 
crease 5.1. Assessed acreage of land 171,448 (United 
States census l'72,800). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,099,113. Value of land with improve- 
ments $3,012,222. Average assessed value of land per 
acre $17.55 (United States census $38.98). Eailroads 
in county, C. & 0., mileage 15.86; located in the middle- 
eastern portion of the State; formed in 1811, and de- 
rives its name from the great number of medicinal 
springs within its borders; is on the dividing line be- 
tween the Blue Grass and the Knobs; western portion 
of the county is a part of the Blue Grass section, and 
the eastern portion a part of the Knob section; splen- 
did grazing land; this county adapted to tobacco and 
fruit growing; county seat, Owingsville, population 
942. 

BELL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,701; 1910, 28,447; per cent, in- 
crease 81.12. Assessed acreage of land 122,615 (United 
States census 245,760). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,771,042. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,173,516. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $25.88 (United States census $14.67). 
Eailroads in county, L. & N. mileage 77.69, Cumberland 
R. R. 2.09, total mileage 79.78 ; located in extreme south- 
eastern portion of the State ; formed in 1867, and nained 
for Joshua F. Bell; mountainous land; well timbered, 
and rich in minerals; farming area limited; fruit and 
poultry are the principal farming industries in this 
county; county seat, Pineville, population 2,161; larg- 
est city, Middlesboro, population 7,305- 

BOONE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,170; 1910, 9,420; per cent, de- 
crease 15.7. Assessed acreage of land 153,370 (United 
States census 160,640). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,165,285. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,657,950. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $30.37 (United States census $36.91). 



16 Twbnty-Febst Biennial Eepoet 

Railroads in county, C, N. 0. & T. P. 9.13, L. & N. 9.46, 
total mileage 18.59; located in the north-central section 
of the State; formed in 1798, and named for Daniel 
Boone; land rolling; splendid grazing l^d; this county 
suited to fruit and tobacco growing; county seat, Bur- 
lington, population 172. 

BOURBON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,069; 1910, 17,462; per cent, de- 
crease 3.4. Assessed acreage of land 183,832 (United 
States census 194,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $16,739,035. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $11,085,090. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $60.30 (United States census $88.94). 
Railroads in county, F. & C. 9.20, Kentucky Traction & 
Terminal Co. 8.44, L. & N. 36.63, total mileage 54.27; lo- 
cated in the central section of the State ; formed in 1785, 
and named for the Bourbons of Fr ands gently 

rolling ; practically no timber ; some of the best blue grass 
lands in the State are found in this county ; noted for its 
fine stock and Burley tobacco ; county seat, Paris, popu- 
lation 5,859. 

BOYD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,834; 1910, 23,444; per cent, in- 
crease 24.5. Assessed acreage of land 88,934 (United 
States census 101,760). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $10,166,766. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,720,028. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $19.34 (United States census $17.80). 
Railroads, Ashland Coal and Iron Ry. 13.69, C. & 0. R. 
R. 27.03, Ohio Valley Electric Ry, 2.73, total mileage 
■ 43.45 ; located in tlie extreme northeastern portion of the 
State; formed in 1860, and named for Honorable Lynn 
Boyd; the Big Sandy flows into the Ohio at Cat- 
lettsburg in this county; considerable bottom lands; hills 
low and rolling; splendid stock and fruit county; some 
timber left; county seat, Catlettsburg, population 3,550; 
largest city, Ashland, population 8,688; the latter one 
of the best manufacturing cities in the State. 



\ Bureau op Agbioultueb. 17 

\ BOYLfe COUNTY, 

Population iboO, 13,817; 1910, 14,668; per cent, in- 
crease 6.2. Assessed acreage of land 109,065 (United 
States census 119,040). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $9,687,236. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,320,611. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $39.61 (United States census $55.83). 
Railroads in county, C, N. 0. & T. P. 10.42, L. & N. R. 
R. 15.36, Southern Ry. in Kentucky 2.00, total mileage 
27.78 ; located in central portion of the State, south of the 
Kentucky River; formed in 1842, and named for ex-Chief 
Justice John B|Oyle ; one of the best Blue Grass counties ; 
small in area; practically no timber; great live stock and 
tobacco county; county seat, Danville, population 5,420; 
famous Central University located at Danville. 

BRACKEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,137; 1910, 10,308; per cent, de- 
crease 15.1. Assessed acreage of land 123,855 (United 
States census 130,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,825,227. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,278,339. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $18.39 (United States census $32.25). 
Railroads in county, C. & 0. 19.29, Brooksville R. R. 10.00, 
total mileage 29.29; located in the northeastern section 
of the State; formed in 1796, and named for William 
Bracken; land rolling, timber mostly cut; stock raising 
and Burley tobacco growing principal industries ; splen- 
did fruit county; county seat, Brooksville, population 
492 ; largest city, Augusta, population 1,787. 

BREATHITT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,322; 1910, 17,540; per cent, in- 
crease 22.5. Assessed acreage of land 346,908 (United 
States census 309,120). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,041,057. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,952,619. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $5.62 (United States census $7.93). 
Railroads, L. & N. 36.77, Ohio & Kentucky R. R. 13.82, 
total mileage 50.59 ; located in the eastern section of the 
State; formed in 1839, and named for Governor John 



18 TwBNTY-FntsT Biennial Eepobe 

Breathitt; lands mountainous, and well timbered; farm- 
ing area limited; this county is adapted to fruit and live 
stock growing; rich in coal and ore deposits ; county seat, 
Jackson, population 1,346. 

BRECKINRIDGE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,534; 1910, 21,034; per cent, in- 
crease 2.4. Assessed acreage of land 327,681 (United 
States census 363,520). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,854,702. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,688,877. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.20 (United States census $8.29). 
Railroads, L. H. & St. L., mileage 67.30; located in the 
west-central portion of the State; formed in 1799, and 
named for John Breckinridge; this is in the "Penny- 
royal" section; land rolling; timber mostly cut; splen- 
did stock, fruit and tobacco county ; county seat Ilardins- 
burg, population 737. 

BULLITT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,602; 1910, 9,487; per cent, de- 
crease 1.2. Assessed acreage of land 169,177 (United 
States census 197,120). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,209,634. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,967,601. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.63 (United States census $1.3.66). 
Railroads, L. H. & St. L. 4.50, L. & N. 29.69, total mile- 
age 34.19 ; located in the west central portion "of the 
State; formed in 1796, and named for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Alexander Scott Bullitt; lands level to hilly; tim- 
ber mostly cut ; adapted to live stock, fruit and vegetable 
growing; close to the Louisville market; splendid dairy- 
ing opportunities; county seat ShepherdsviUe, popula- 
tion 318. 

BUTLER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,896; 1910, 15,805; per cent, de- 
crease .6. Assessed acreage of land 226,828 (United- 
States census 266,880). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,878,094. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,704,896. Average assessed value of 



BuEEAXj OF Aqbicxjltubb, 19 

land per acre $7.51 (United States census $7.26). 
No railroads in county; located in the western south- 
central portion of the State; formed in 1810, and named 
for General Butler, of Eevolutionary fame; lands hilly; 
timber mostly cut; some splendid bottom lands. along 
Barren Eiver; county seat, Morgantown, population 569. 

CALDWELL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,510; 1910, 14,063; per cent, de- 
crease 3.1. Assessed acreage of land 210,917 (United 
States census 206,080). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,517,924. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,830,706. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.68 (United States census $11.39). 
Railroads, I. C. 46.31 ; located in the western portion of 
the State ; formed in 1809, and named for General John 
Caldwell; lands uneven; much limestone found in the 
county; timber mostly cut; land adapted to live stock 
raising, fruit and vegetable growing, and the growing of 
dark tobacco; county seat, Princeton, population 3,015; 

CALLOWAY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,633; 1910, 19,867; per cent, in- 
crease 12.7. Assessed acreage of land 344,414 (United 
States census 263,680). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,323,333. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,303,949. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.59 (United States census $14.64). 
Eailroads, N. C. & St. L. 17.97 ; located in the southwest 
portion of the State; formed in 1822, and named for 
Colonel Eichard Calloway; land rather level; adapted to 
live stock, fruit and vegetable growing; large amount of 
dark tobacco produced; timber mostly cut; county seat, 
Murray, population 2,089. 

CAMPBELL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 54,223; 1910, 59,369; per cent, in- 
crease 9.5. Assessed acreage of land 89,742 (United 
States census 92,800). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $25,630,654. Assessed value of land -with 



20 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Repobt 

improvements $3,710,970. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $41.35 (United States census $38.56). 
EaUroads, C. & 0. 26.05, L. & N. 3.87, total mileage 29.92; 
located in the north-central portion of the State ; formed 
in 1794, and named for Colonel John Campbell; lands 
hilly; practically no timber; some rich, fertile bottom 
lands; splendid dairy products; land adapted to fruit, 
vegetables and live stock; county seat, Alexandria, pop- 
ulation 353 ; largest city, Newport, population 30,309. 

CAELISLE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,195; 1910, 9,048; per cent, de- 
crease 11.3. Assessed acreage of land 106,597 (United 
States census 126,720). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,898,992. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,607,000. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $15.07 (United States census $30.18). 
Railroads, I. C. 12.27, Mobile & Ohio 10.576, total mileage 
22.846; located in the extreme western portion of the 
State ; formed in 1886, and named for Hon. John G-. Car- 
lisle; land mostly level, and well cut over; adapted to 
live stock, fruit and vegetable production; market op- 
portimities for vegetables splendid; county seat, Bard- 
well, population 587. 

CAEEOLL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,825; 1910, 8,110; per cent, de- 
crease 17.5. Assessed acreage of land 80,826 (United 
States census 84,480). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,312,149. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,609,687. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $19.91 (United States census $30.99). 
Railroads, CarroUton & Worthville 9.98, L. & N. 17.09, 
total mUeage 27.07; located on the Ohio Eiver in the cen- 
tral section of the northern part of the State ; formed in 
1838, and named for Charless Carroll, of CarroUton; 
many rich first and second bottom lands in this county; 
other portions hilly; but little timber; splendid live stock 
and tobacco county; county seat, CarroUton, populatioQ 
1,906; the Kentucky Eiver flows into the Ohio at Car- 
roUton. 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 21 

CARTER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,228; 1910, 21,966; per cent, in- 
crease 8.6. Assessed acreage of land 236,334 (United 
States census 264,320). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,825,627. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,508,321. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.38 (United States census $8.35). 
Railroads, Ashland Coal & Iron Ry. 8.37, C. & 0. 32.84, 
Eastern Kentucky Ry. 17.59, total mileage 58.80; lo- 
cated in the eastern portion of the State ; formed in 1838, 
and named for Colonel William Gr. Carter; land hilly to 
mountainous ; some timber and minerals found ; fire clay 
is produced in great quantities; county seat, Grrayson, 
population 735 ; largest city, Olive Hill, population 1,132. 

CASEY COUNTY, 

Population 1900, 15,144; 1910, 15,479; per cent, in- 
crease 2.2. Assessed acreage of land 245,774 (United 
States census 242,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,513,142. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,796,224. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.30 (United States census $9.34). 
No railroads in county; located in the south-central por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1806, and named for Colonel 
William Casey; lands rather hilly, and well cut over; 
splendid grazing lands; well adapted to fruits; county 
seat, Liberty, population 330. 

CHRISTIAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 37,982; 1910, 38,845; per cent, in- 
crease 2.3. Assessed acreage of land 434,426 (United 
States census 464,000). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $12,774,665. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,512,435. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $10.38 (United States census $20.65). 
Railroads, Cadiz R. R. .33, 1. C. 10.44, L. & N. 32.31, Ten- 
nessee Central R. R. 16.10, total mileage 82.35; located 
in the southwestern portion of the State ; formed in 1796, 
and named for Colonel William Christian; southern por- 



22 Twenty-First Biennial Repobt 

tion of the county level and very fertile, northern portion 
hilly and poor land; live stock, grain and tobacco pro- 
duced in large quantities; splendid farming county; 
county seat, HopMnsville, population 9,419. 

CLAEK COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 16,694; 1910, 17,987; per cent, in- 
crease 7.7. Assessed acreage of land 156,921 (United 
States census 169,600). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $12,966,257. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,739,900. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $42.95 (United States census $69.40). 
Eailroads, C. & 0. 18.58, Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company 1.14, L. & N. R. R. 38.02, total mileage 57.74; 
located in the central portion of the State; formed in 
1792, and named for General George Rogers Clark; one 
of the best Blue Grass counties ; land rolling ; practically 
no timber; stock, grain and tobacco production large; 
county seat, Winchester, population 7,156. 

CLAY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,364; 1910, 17,789; per cent, in- 
crease 15.8. Assessed acreage of land 276,158 (United 
States census 305,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,666,943. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,788,319. Average assessed value of 
land- per acre $6.47 (United States census $7.53). 
No railroads in county; located in the eastern portion 
of the State; formed in 1806, and named for General 
Green Clay; land classed as mountainous; well timbered; 
rich in minerals; farming area limited; fruit and live 
stock growing can be carried on here ; county seat, Man- 
chester, population 626. 

CLINTON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 7,871; 1910, 8,153; per cent, in- 
crease 3.6. Assessed acreage of land 118,098 (United 
States census 149,120). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,501,312. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $902,974. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.64 (United States census $9.39). 



BuEEAu OF Agbicultueb. 23 

No railroads in county; located along the Tennessee line 
in the south-central portion of the State ; formed in 1835, 
and named for General DeWitt Clinton, of New York; 
land hilly ; a live stock and fruit county ; some timber left ; 
coal is known to exist ; county seat, Albany, population 
579. 

CRITTENDEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,191; 1910, 13,296; per cent de- 
crease 12.5. Assessed acreage of land 219,459 (United 
States census 250,240). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,570,988. Assessed value of laud with 
improvements $1,897,950. Average assessed .value of 
land per acre $8.64 (United States census $9.76). 
Railroads, I. C, mileage 22.50; located in the western 
portion of the State ; formed in 1842, and named for John 
J. Crittenden; land hilly; but little timber left; noted for 
its production of fluorspar; other minerals exist; land 
adapted to stock raising; tobacco and grain crops do 
well ; county seat, Marion, population 1,627. 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 8,962; 1910, 9,846; per cent, in- 
crease 9.9. Assessed acreage of land 158,247 (United 
States census 247,680). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,943,796. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,384,811. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.75 (United States census $9.95). 
No railroads in county ; located in the extreme southern 
portion of the State ; formed in 1798, and named for Cum- 
berland River; lands generally hilly; rich fertile bot- 
toms; the lands are adapted to the production of live 
stock, com, wheat and tobacco ; some timber left ; county 
seat, Burkesville, population 817. 

DAVIESS COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 38,667; 1910, 41,020; per cent, in- 
crease 6.1. Assessed acreage of land 273,006 (United 
States census 305,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $17,020,405. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,701,403. Average assessed value of 



24 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

land per acre $24.54 (TjEited States census $41.44). 
Eailroads, I. C. 18.99, L. & N. E. E. 14.45, L. H. & St. L. 
Ey. 26.30, total mileage 59.74; located on the Ohio Eiver, 
in the western portion of the State ; formed in 1815, and 
named for Joseph Hamilton Daviess; land is generally 
level, but has some hilly portions; but little timber left; 
com is grown in first bottom lands ; wheat and grain in 
second bottom lands, while the hilly lands produce live 
stock, tobacco, wheat, etc. ; county seat, Owensboro, pop- 
ulation 16,011. 

EDMONSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,080; 1910, 10,469; per cent, in- 
crease 3.9, Assessed acreage of land 173,975 (United 
States census 197,120). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,263,473. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,585,323. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.11 (United States census $7.35). 
EaUroads, L. & N. 4.39, Mammoth Cave E. E. 6.74, total 
mileage 11.13. Located in the south-central portion of 
State ; formed in 1825, and named for Captain John Ed- 
monson; lands hilly; some timber left; adapted to live 
stock and fruit production ; in this county is the famous 
Mammoth Cave ; county seat, Brownsville, population 
313. 

ELLIOTT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,387; 1910, 9,814; per cent, de- 
crease 5.5. Assessed acreage of land 131,930 (United 
States census 168,320). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,086,880. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $701,187. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $5.31 (United States census $5.66). 
No railroads ia county; located in the eastern portion 
of State ; formed in 1869, and named for Judge John M. 
Elliott; a mountainous county; well timbered; mineral 
wealth of the county considerable ; large deposits of coal 
are found ; county seat, Sandy Hook, population 300. 



BuBEAu OF Agbicultubb. 25 

ESTILL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,669 ; 1910, 12,273 ; per cent._ in- 
crease 5.2. Assessed acreage of land 142,428 (United 
States census 162,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,777,109. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $956,708. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $6.72 (United States cengus $10.81). Eailroads, 
L. & N., 18.99. Located in eastern portion of State; 
formed in 1808, and named for Captain James Estill; 
lands hilly ; some timber left ; lands well adapted to fruit 
and live stock production; county seat, Irvine, popula- 
tion 282. 

FAYETTE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 42,071; 1910, 47,715; per cent, in- 
crease 13.4. Assessed acreage of land 174,482 (United 
States census 172,160). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $41,002,316. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $15,393,680. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $88.23 (United States census $106.98). 
Railroads, C. & 0. 14.26, C, N. 0. & T. P. Ey. 13.88, Ken- 
tucky Traction & Terminal Company 43.97, L. & N. 30.49, 
Southern Ey. in Kentucky 8.206, total mileage 110.806; 
located in the central portion of the State; formed in 
1780, and named for Marquis LaFayette ; is in the center 
of the Blue Grass region; land level to rolling; practi- 
cally no timber; one of the best agricultural counties in 
the State ; noted for its fine live stock production ; for its 
grain and Burley tobacco yields ; the whole county under- 
laid with limestone formation; some of the finest live 
stock farms in the world are in this county ; county seat, 
Lexington, population 35,099. At Lexington are located 
the Kentucky State University, the Kentucky Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Transylvania IJniversity, 
Hamilton College, Sayre Institute, and St. Catherine's 
Academy. Lexington is the largest loose-leaf tobacco 
warfehouse market in the world, and prides itself on be- 
ing the "Hub" of the Blue Grass region. 



26 TwENTT-FlEST BlENNIAL RbPOBT 

FLEMING COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,074; 1910, 16,066; per cent, de- 
crease 5.9. Assessed acreage of land 212,676 (United 
States census 208,000). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,307,793. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,123,024. Average assessed value of 
land, per acre $19.38 (United States census $32.75). 
Railroads, L. & N. 8.92, Cincinnati, Flemingsburg & 
Southeastern 5.60, total mileage 14.52; located at the 
edge of the Blue Grrass region, in the northwestern por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1798, and named for Colonel 
John Fleming; the western portion of the county is fine 
blue grass land, while the other portions are more or less 
hilly; little timber left; is a splendid stock and tobacco 
county; county seat, Flemingsburg, population 1,219. 

FLOYD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,552; 1910, 18,623; per cent, in- 
crease 19.7. Assessed acreage of land 404,371 (United 
States census 255,360). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,740,048. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,501,992. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.18 (United States census $11.01). 
Railroads, C. & 0. 49.39; located m the extreme easterji 
portion of the State; formed in 1799, and named for 
Colonel John Floyd; a mountain county; well supplied 
with timber and minerals; farming area limited; splen- 
did near-by market at the coal mines for all poultry pro- 
ducts, fruits and vegetables grown; county seat, Pres- 
tonsburg, population 1,120. 

FRANEIIN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,852; 1910, 21,135; per cent, in- 
crease 1.4. Assessed acreage of land 127,441 (United 
States census 127,360). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $9,081,057. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,276,561. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $25.71 (United States census $33.10). 
Railroads, F. & C. 10.02, Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Co. 12.73, Kentucky Highland Ry. 4.21, L. & N. 15.57, 
total mileage 42.53 ; located in the central portion of the 



BuBEAu OP Agbictjlttjee. 27 

state; formed in 1794, and named for Benjamin Frank- 
lin; a portion of the Blue Grass region; a part of the 
county very level and productive, while other parts are 
more or less hilly.; a good farming county; little timber 
left; no minerals found; county seat and State Capital, 
Frankfort, population 10,465. Frankfort is a beautiful 
and prosperous little city, nestled between the hills along 
the Kentucky Eiver, and is particularly proud of the new 
State Capitol building and the Grovemor's Mansion re- 
cently completed; on the hill overlooking the city and 
the Kentucky Eiver is the beautifully-kept cemetery, in 
which are buried more of Kentucky's illustrious dead 
than any other cemetery in the State. 

FULTON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,546; 1910, 14,114; per cent, in- 
crease 22.2. Assessed acreage of land 115,086 (United 
States census 123,520). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,389,748. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,466,765. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $21.43 (United States ^ensus $43.66). 
Railroads, I. C. 19.71, Mobile & Ohio 6.635, N. C. & St. 
L. 10.52, total mileage 36.865 ; located in the extreme west- 
em part of the State on the Mississippi River; formed 
in 1845, and named for Robert Fulton; lands rolling, 
with little timber left; a level area with a. rich loamy 
soil; particularly adapted to gardening and raising to- 
bacco; county seat, Hickman, population 2,736. 

GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 5,163; 1910, 4,697; per cent, de- 
crease 9. Assessed acreage of land 59,823 (United 
States census 69,760). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,421,289. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $890,031. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $14.87 (United States census $26.50). 
Railroads, L. & N. 11.51 ; located on the Ohio River and 
a part of the north-central section of the State ; formed 
in 1798, and named for Albert Gallatin; the land area 



28 TwBNTT-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOET 

is rather rough., but fertile; good dairy opportunities, 
with possibilities for market gardening good, as this 
county lies about midway between Louisville and Cincin- 
nati; county seat, Warsaw, population 900. 

GARRARD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,042; 1910, 11,894; per cent, de- 
crease 1.2. Assessed acreage of land 140,845 (United 
States census 151,680). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,895,320. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,613,070. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $32.75 (United States census $50.84). 
Railroads, L. & N. 14.20; located in the central portion 
of the State, and in the Blue Grass region, being one of 
the last counties south in this famous section ; formed in 
1796, and named for Governor James Garrard; land 
rolling; little timber left; live stock and tobacco predom- 
inate; splendid grazing land; county seat, Lancaster, 
population 1,507. 

GRANT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 13,239; 1910, 10,581; per cent, de- 
crease 20.1. Assessed acreage of land 158,295 (United 
States census 168,960). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,885,876. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,405,045. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $15.19 (United States census $25.71). 
Railroads, C, N. 0. & T. P. 22.45, L. & N. 7.32, total 
mileage 29.77; located in the north-central portion of 
State ; formed in 1820 ; supposed to be named for Colonel 
John Grant, but possilsly for his brother, Samuel Grant, 
who was an influential citizen of the county at the time 
of its formation; land hilly; underlying is a formation 
of limestone; the fine blue grass with which these hills 
aire covered make it a great grazing county; it is also 
a good Burley tobacco county; county seat, Williams- 
town, population 800. 

GRAVES COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 33,204; 1910, 33,539; per cent, in- 
crease 1. Assessed acreage of land 341,704 (United 
States census 352,640). Total assessed valuation tax- 



Bureau of Ageioultueb. 29 

able property $11,677,530. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,220,700. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $18.20 (United States census $20.73). 
Railroads, I. C. 30.67, N. 0. & St. L. .49, total mileage 
31.16; located in the extreme western portion of the 
State ; formed in 1824, and named for Major Benjamin 
Graves; mostly level land; a good dark tobacco county; 
no great amount of timber left; land adapted to the pro- 
duction of vegetables; markets convenient; county seat, 
Mayfield, population 5,916. . 

GRAYSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 19,878 ; 1910, 19,958 ; per cent, in- 
crease .4. Assessed acreage of land 294,490 (United 
States census 318,080). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,814,818. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,570,029. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $5.34 (United States census $8.49). 
Railroads, I. C. 33.80 ; located west of the central portion 
of the State; formed in 1810, and named for Colonel 
William Grayson, of Virginia; land uneven to hilly; not 
much timber left; a great deal of attention paid to live 
stock and poultry; county seat, Leitchfield, population 
1,053. 

GREEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,255 ; 1910, 11,871 ; per cent, de- 
crease 3.1. Assessed acreage of land 154,266 (United 
States census 178,560). Total assesed Valuation tax- 
able property $1,499,454. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $958,723. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.21 (United States census $13.70). 
Railroads, L. & N. 6:14; located in the south-central 
portion of the State; formed in 1792, and named for 
General Nathaniel Green ; land rolling ; timber well cut ; 
some rich river and creek bottom lands ; uplands rather 
thin; county seat, Greensburg, population 450. 

GREENUP COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 15,432 ; 1910, 18,475 ; per cent, in- 
crease 19.7. Assessed acreage of land 798,048 (United 
States census 221,440). Total assessed valuation tax- 



30 TwENTY-FiBST BrENNiAii Rbpobt 

able property $3,203,298. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,539,175. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.77 (United States census $10.82). 
Railroads, C. & 0. 31.19, Eastern Ky. Ry. 17.08, total 
mileage 48.27 ; located in the northeastern portion of the 
State; formed in 1803, and named for Governor Christo- 
pher Greenup ; some timber left ; river and creek bottoms 
fertile; hill lands are adapted to fruits, vegetables and 
live stock ; county seat, Greenup, population 680. 

HANCOCK COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 8,914; 1910, 8,512; per cent, de- 
crease 4.5. Assessed acreage of land 121,630 (United 
States census 123,520). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,197,703. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,396,557. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.48 (United States census $14.16). 
Railroads, L. H. & St. L. 24.10; located in the north- 
western portion of the State; formed in 1829, and named 
for John Hancock, president of the Continental Con- 
gress ; this county is on the Ohio River, and has some rich 
bottom land as well as creek bottoms; the other lands 
are more or less hilly; timber well cut; county seat, 
Hawesville, population 1,002. 

HARDIN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 22,937; 1910, 22,696; per cent de- 
crease 1.1. Assessed acreage of land 366,093 (United 
States census 387,840). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,157,749. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,269,521. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.11 (United States census $14.92). 
Railroads, I. C. 48.51, L. H. & St. L. 2.70, L. & N. 28.50, 
total mileage 79.71; located in the west-central portion 
of the State, in the heart of the "Pennyroyal"; formed 
in J792, and named for Colonel John Hardin; fine river 
and creek bottoms; uplands level to rolling; dairying in- 
terests of this county are large; grains of all kinds 
grown; splendid fruit county; a demonstration orchard 
of 1,500 acres was planted here in 1913 by the State De- 



BXJEEAU OF AgBICUIiTURB. 31 

partment of Agriculture to emphasize the splendid fruit 
lands of this county; live stock raised in large numbers; 
timber mostly cut; county seat, Elizabethtown, popula- 
tion 1,970. 

HAELAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,836; 1910, 10,566; per cent, in- 
crease 7.4. Assessed, acreage of land 161,308 (United 
States census 305,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,456,264. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,943,232. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $18.25 (United States census $18.41). 
Railroads, L. & N. 48.27; located in the extreme south- 
eastern portion of the State ; formed in 1819, and named 
for Major Silas Harlan; mountainous land, much valu- 
able timber left standing; coal and ore deposits in large 
quantities ; county seat, Harlan, population 2,500. 

HAEEISON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,570; 1910, 16,873; per cent, de- 
crease 9.1. Assessed acreage of land 188,656 (United 
States census 199,040). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $8,575,255. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $5,538,472. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $29.36 (United States census $44.60). 
Eailroads, C, N. 0. & T. P. 2.43, L. & N. E. E. 21.32, 
total mileage 23.75 ; located in the central portion of the 
State; formed in 1793, and named for Colonel Benjamin 
Harrison; a blue grass county; timber mostly cut; pro- 
duces large quantities of Burley tobacco, and a great 
deal of live stock; grains of all kinds do well in this 
county; county seat, Cynthiana, population 3,603. 

HAET COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,390; 19l0, 18,173; per cent, de- 
crease 1.2. Assessed acreage of land 245,965 (United 
States census 275,200). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,735,869. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,131,520. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.67 (United States census $18.99). 



32 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EbPOET 

Eailroads, L. & N. 22.27 ; located in tlie west-central por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1819, and named for Captain 
Nathaniel Hart; land mostly MUy; some splendid river 
and creek bottoms; second bottom lands produce large 
quantities of grain and tobacco; but little timber left; 
county seat, Munf ordville, population 475 ; largest town, 
Horse Cave, population 881. 

HENDERSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 32,907; 1910, 29,352; per cent, de- 
crease 10.8. Assessed acreage of land 270,053 (United 
States census 278,400). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $13,632,144. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,016,490. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $22.28 (United States census $38.08). 
Eailroads, I. C. 14, h. H. & St. L. 17, L. & N. 14.92, total 
mileage 45.92; located in the northern section of the 
western part of the State on the Ohio Biver; formed in 
1798, and named for Colonel Eichard Henderson; the 
Green Eiver empties into the Ohio Eiver on the border 
of the county ; large area first and second bottom lands ; 
not much timber left; large quantities of grain and dark 
tobacco produced; soil yery fertile; is said to have the 
largest fruit interests of any county in the State ; county 
seat, Henderson, population 11,452. 

HENRY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,620; 1910, 13,716; per cent, de- 
crease 6.2. Assessed acreage of land 178,638 (United 
States census 193,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,768,307. Assessed value of lands with 
improvements $3,713,417. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $20.79 (United States census $37.09). 
Eailroads, L & N. 29.67 ; located in the northern section 
of the middle division of the State ; formed in 1798, and 
named for Patrick Henry; a blue grass county; not much 
timber; grain and Burley tobacco principal crops; a 
good live stock county; county seat. New Castle, popula- 
tion 468; largest city. Eminence, population 1,274. 



BuEBAu OF Agkictjltueb. 33 

HICKMAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,745; 1910, 11,750; per cent, in- 
crease less than 1/10 ot Ifo. Assessed acreage of land 
137,059 (United States census 144,000). Total assessed 
valuation taxable property $4,451,060. Assessed value 
of land with improvements $2,666,502. Average assessed 
value of land per acre $19.43 (United States census 
$31.04). Eailroads, I. C. 17.16, Mobile & Ohio 17.052, St. 
Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 1.18, total mileage 
35.392; located in the extreme western portion of the 
State; formed in 1821, and named for Captain Paschal 
Hickman; land mostly level; little timber left; much 
overflow land in this county ; soil fertile, and adapted to 
gardening ; the principal cotton county in the State ; the 
yield is said to be the highest per acre of any county in 
the United States, and of great value in the production 
of cotton seed; county seat, Hickman, population 1,497. 

HOPKINS COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 30,995; 1910, 34,291; per cent, in- 
crease 10.6. Assessed acreage of. land 363,945 (United 
States census 349,440). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,080,550. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,145,951. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.64 (United States census $20.28). 
Eailroads, I. C. 22.26, L. & N. 77.20, total mileage 99.46 ; 
located west of the central portion of the State ; formed 
in 1806, and named for General Samuel Hopkins ; lands 
vary in texture ; surface level to hilly; timber mostly cut; 
coal interests large; grain and dark tobacco produced; 
cou*ity seat, Madisonville, population 4,966. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,561; 1910, 10,743; per cent, in- 
crease 1.6. Assessed acreage of land 196,906 (United 
States census 213,120). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,827,230. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,357,209. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.89 (United States census $5.08). 
Railroads (none in county) ; located east of the central 
section of the State ; formed in 1858, and named for Gen- 

agr. — 2 



34 TwEiriY-FiBST BiswiriAL Bbpobt 

eral Andrew Jackson, afterwards President of the 
United States; lands hilly to mountainous; and vary- 
in texture; some timber left; coal deposits numerous; 
land adapted to live stock and fruit; county seat, McKee, 
population 146. 

JEFFEBSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 232,549; 1910, 262,920; per cent, in- 
crease 13.1. Assessed acreage of land 185,127 (United 
States census 247,680). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $209,852,360. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $17,165,040. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $92.72 (United States census $90.40). 
Eailroads, B. & O.-S. W. .92, C. I. & L. 1.12, I. C. 20.55, 
L. H. & St. L. 11.50, L. & N. 43.834, L. & I. 69.497, L. & 
S. Indiana Traction Co. .134, Penn. Terminal By. 9.72, 
Sou. By. in Kentucky 21.387, total mileage 182.212; lo- 
cated in the north middle section of thei State, and on the 
Ohio Biver ; formed in 1780, and named for Thomas Jef- 
ferson, afterwards President of the United States, and 
with Fayette and Lincoln counties originally comprised 
the whole of Kentucky, then a county of Virginia; lands 
mostly level; practically no timber; soil mostly adapted 
to gardening; large quantities of onion sets and potatoes 
produced in this county; county seat, Louisville, popula- 
tion 223,928. Louisville is by far the largest city in Ken- 
tucky; has a great many manufacturing establishments 
and business interests; is known as the "Gateway of the 
South"; the Kentucky State Fair is located here. 

JESSAMINE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,925; 1910, 12,613; per cent, in- 
crease 5.8. Assessed acreage of land 104,513 (United 
States census 110,080). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,750,740. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $5,340,290. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $51.10 (United States census $68.03). 
Bailroads, C, N. 0. & T. P. 15.94, Kentucky Traction & 
Terminal Co. 5.93, L. & N. 17.33, total mileage 39.20; lo- 
cated in the central portion of the State ; formed in 1798, 



BUBEAU OP AgKICUIiTUBE. 35 

and named for Jessamine Creek, wMoh was named for 
Jessamine Douglas, a young lady murdered by the In- 
dians on the banks of this stream; a blue grass county; 
not much timber; soil fertile; grain crops and Burley 
tobacco produced in large quantities ; splendid live stock 
county; county seat, Nicholasville, population 2,935. 

JOHNSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 13,730; 1910, 17,482; per cent, in- 
crease 27.3. Assessed acreage of land 184,503 (United 
States census 171,520). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,308,031. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,872,798. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $10.15 (United States census $11.55). 
Eailroads, C. & O. 17.54, Miller's Creek 4.33, total mile- 
age 21.87 ; located in the extreme eastern portion of the 
State; formed in 1843, and named for Colonel Richard 
Mentor Johnson; a mountainous county; considerable 
timber left; coal and ore deposits large; farming area 
limited; the various coal mines furnish a splendid mar- 
ket for county produce ; county seat, Paintsville, popula- 
tion 942. 



KENTON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 63,591; 1910, 70,355; per cent, in- 
crease 10.6. Assessed acreage of land 96,484 (United 
States census 104,320). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $32,979,460. Assessed value of lands with 
improvements $4,297,920. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $44.55 (United States census $38.10). 
EaUroads, C. & 0. 1.913, C, N. 0. & T. P. 14.37, L. & N. 
38.37, total mileage 54.653 ; located in the extreme north- 
em middle section of the State; formed in 1840, and 
named for Simon Kenton; land mostly hilly; splendid 
dairy opportunities; garden truck produced in large 
quantities for Cincinnati, Covington and Newport mar- 
kets ; county seat, Independence, population 153 ; largest 
city, Covington, population 53,270. 



36 TwENTX-FiKST Biennial Eepokt 

KNOTT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 8,704; 1910, 10,791; per cent, in- 
crease 24. Assessed acreage of land 203,238 (United 
States census 222,270). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,354,906. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,312,630. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.46 (United States census $6.98). 
No railroads in county; located in the eastern portion 
of the State; formed in 1884, and named for Governor 
J. Proctor Knott ; land mountainous ; much valuable tim- 
ber left; coal and ore deposits large; farming area lim- 
ited ; the coal mines furnish a splendid market for coun- 
try produce ; county seat, Hindman, population 370. 

KNOX COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,372; 1910, 22,116; per cent, in- 
crease 27.3. Assessed acreage of land 197,710 (United 
States census 227,840). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able -property $4,170,009. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,284,121. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.55 (United States census $9.93). 
Eailroads, L. & N. 27.89, Cumberland Ey. 12.90, total 
mileage 40.79 ; located in the southeastern portion of the 
State ; formed in 1799, and named for General Henry 
Knox; lands mostly mountainous; some rich river and 
creek bottom land ; some timber left ; splendid vegetable 
county; live stock and fruit adapted to this county; 
county seat Barbourville, population 1,623. 

LAEUE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,764; 1910, 10,701; per cent, de- 
crease .6. Assessed acreage of land 158,034 (United 
States census 184,320). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,388,597. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,146,307. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $13.58 (United States census $19.31). 
Eailroads, I. C. 4.75, L. & N. 4.45, total mileage 9.20; 
located in the west-central portion of the State ; formed 
in 1843, and named for John LaEue; lands rolling to 
hilly, but fertile; little timber left; county seat, Hodgen- 
ville, population 744. 



BxJKEAu OF Agkicultitee. 37 

LAUREL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,592 ; 1910, 19,872 ; per cent, in- 
crease 13. Assessed acreage of land 239,117 (United 
States census 286,820). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,902,820. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,583,144. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.62 (United States census $8.26). 
Eailroads, L. & N. 30.36 ; located east of the central por- 
tion of the State; formed in 1825, and named from Lau- 
rel River, which was named for the plant called laurel, 
or rhododendron, that grows in great profusion along 
its banks ; some bottom lands ; some hilly, and some por- 
tions mountainous; some timber left; coal is mined in 
great quantities; fruit, live stock and poultry do well 
in this county ; county seat, London, population 1,638. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 19,612; 1910, 20,067; per -cent, in- 
crease 2.3. Assessed acreage of land 232,381 (United 
States census 270,492). Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,657,461. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.13 (United States census $7.77). 
Eailroads, C. & 0. 38.76, Eastern Ky. Ry. 1.33, total mile- 
age 40.09 ; located in the extreme eastern portion of the 
State; formed in 1821, and named for Captain James 
Lawrence, of the United States Navy ; land hilly to moun- 
tainous; some rich river and creek bottoms; the hills 
are of limestone foundation, and make splendid grazing 
lands; considerable timber left; coal and ore deposits; 
county seat, Louisa, population 1,356. 

LEE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 7,988; 1910, 9,531; per cent, in- 
crease 19.3. Assessed acreage of land 128,245 (United 
States census 127,360). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,407,199. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $676,548. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.27 (United States census $6.67). 
Railroads, L. & N. 49.44; a small county; located east 
of the central portion of the State ; formed in 1869, and 



38 Twenty-First Biennial Ebpobt 

named for General Bobert E. Lee ; coal and ore depos- 
its; land Mlly to monntainons ; some valuable timber left; 
farming area limited; county seat, Beattyville, popula- 
tion 1,360. 

LESLIE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 6,753; 1910, 8,976; per cent, in- 
crease 32.9. Assessed acreage of land 287,250 (United 
States census 238,720). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,359,219. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,822,553. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.34 (United States census $6.90). 
No railroads in county ; located in the southeastern por- 
tion of the State; formed in 1878, and named for Gov.- 
Preston H. Leslie; generally hilly to mountainous; val- 
uable timber; coal and ore deposits large; rich river and 
creek bottoms ; live stock, fruit and vegetables chief pro- 
ducts; county seat, Hyden, population 316. 

LETCHER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,172; 1910, 10,623; per cent, in- 
crease 15.8. Assessed acreage of land 262,697 (United 
States census 227,220). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,303,789. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,150,027. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.99 (United States census $6.43). 
Eailroads, L. & N. 38.61, Sandy Valley & Elkhom 6.70, 
total mileage 45.29; located in the southeastern portion 
of the State; formed in 1842, and named for Governor 
Robert P. Letcher; lands mountainous; valuable timber; 
large mineral deposits ; both bituminous and cannel coal; 
live stock, fruits and vegetables adapted to this county; 
county seat, Whitesburg, population 321. 

LEWIS COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,868; 1910, 16,887; per cent, de- 
crease 5.5. Assessed acreage of land 301,989 (United 
States census 314,240). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,018,732. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,834,938. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.07 (United States census $9.71). 



BuEBATj OF Agbioultube. 39 

Eailroads, C. & 0. 56.38 ; located in the northeastern sec- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1806, and named for Captain 
Meriwether Lewis; land level to hiUy; some timber left; 
rich river and creek bottoms ; the hilly land well adapted 
to fruit; a demonstration orchard of 1,350 acres was 
planted here in 1914 by the State Department of Agri- 
culture to emphasize the splendid fruit lands of this 
coimty; second bottom lands produce large quantities of 
vegetables ; county seat, Vanceburg, population 1,145, 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,059; 1910, 17,897; per cent, in- 
crease 4.9. Assessed acreage of land 196,331 (United 
States census 216,320). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,257,337. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,587,446. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $22.36 (United States census $32.00). 
Railroads, C, N. 0. & T. P. 13.83, L. & N. 26.90, total 
mileage 40.73 ; located in the south-central portion of the 
State; formed in 1780, and named for General Benjamin 
Lincoln; this county is one of the three original coun- 
ties of the State ; a blue grass county, with the land roU- 
.ing; but little timber; splendid grazing land; grains and 
Burley tobacco produced in large quantities ; county seat, 
Stanford, population 1,532. 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,354; 1910, 10,627; per cent, de- 
crease 6.4. Assessed acreage of land 180,658 (United 
States census 250,880). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,054,380. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,931,370. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $10.69 (United States census $11.75). 
Railroads, I. C. 3.97; located in the western portion of 
the State ; formed in 1798, and named for Robert R. Liv- 
ingston; lands hilly to level; but little timber left; rich 
river and creek bottoms; grain crops and dark tobacco 
produced; much attention is paid to live stock and poul- 
try; county seat, Smithland, population 557; the Cumber- 
land River flows into the Ohio in this county. 



40 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

LOGAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 25,994; 1910, 24,977; per cent._ de- 
crease 3.9. Assessed acreage of land 328,976 (United 
States census 411,520). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,208,175. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,670,165. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.16 (United States census $19.68). 
Railroads, L. & N. 58.94 ; located in the southern part of 
the State ; formed in 1792, and named for General Ben- 
jamin Logan; practically all the timber cut; land usu- 
ally level ; rich loam, with I'ed clay sub-soil ; splendid all 
around agricultural county; county seat, Russellville, 
population 3,111. 

LYON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,319; 1910, 9,423; per cent, in- 
crease 1.1. Assessed acreage of land 145,884 (United 
States census 177,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,834,387. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,066,749. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.31 (United States census $10.79). 
Railroads, I. C. 14.57 ; located in the western part of the 
State ; formed in 1854, and named for Crittenden Lyon ; 
land more or less rolling; county touched by both the 
Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers; some rich bottom 
lands ; not a great deal of timber left ; grain crops and 
dark tobacco produced; considerahle attention paid to 
live stock and poultry; county seat, Eddyville, popula- 
tion 1,442 ; at Eddyville is located the State Penitentiary. 

MADISON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 25,607 ;. 1910, 26,951 ; per cent, in- 
crease 5.2. Assessed acreage of land 260,193 (United 
States census 285,440). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $13,768,600. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,678,950. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $33.35 (United States census $41.62). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 66.95; located in the central portion of 
State; formed in 1786, and named for James Madison, 
later President of the United States; a blue grass 
county; land rolling; not much timber; a splendid all- 



BuEBAu OF Ageicxjltuee. 41 

around farming county; particular attention given to cat- 
tle raising and feeding; county seat Richmond; popula- 
ation 5,340; at Richmond is located the Eastern State 
Normal School, and at Berea, in this county, is located 
Berea College. 

MAGOFFIN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,006; 1910, 13,654; per cent in- 
crease 13.7. Assessed acreage of land 225,683 (United 
States census 193,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,489,578. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $955,771. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $4.23 (United States census $8.03). Rail- 
roads, (none in county) ; located in the eastern part of 
the State; formed in 1860, and named for Grovernor 
Beriah Magoffin; land hilly; considerable timber left; 
large deposits of coal and ore ; good fruit section ; county 
seat Salyersville ; population 310. 

MARION COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 16,290; 1910, 16,330; per cent, in- 
crease .2. Assessed acreage of land 198,955 (United 
States census 220,800). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,266,539. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,647,905. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $13.30 (United States census $23.29). Rail- 
roads,, L. & N., 40.86; located in the central portion of 
State; formed in 1834, and named for General Francis 
Marion; a blue grass county; not much timber; land 
rolling; some "knob" land; splendid live stock county; 
county seat, Lebanon, population 3,077. 

MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 13,692; 1910, 15,771; per cent, in- 
crease 15.2. Assessed acreage of land 206,573 (United 
States census 209,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,379,361. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,040,465. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.87 (IJnited States census $15.15). Rail- 
roads, L C, 12.20; N. C. & St. L., 17.99; total mileage 
30.19 ; located in the western portion of the State ; formed 



42 TwBNTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET 

in 1842, and named for Chief Justice John Marshall; 
land mostly level ; not much timber ; some rich river and 
creek bottom lands; live stock interest is large; coimty 
seat, Benton, population 824. 

MAETIN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 5,780; 1910, 7,291; per cent, in- 
crease 26.1. Assessed acreage of land 231,147 (United 
States census 145,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,690,758. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $931,222. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $4.29 (United States census $7.15). Eailroads, 
(none in county) ; located in extreme eastern portion of 
State; formed in 1870, and named for Colonel John P. 
Martin; land mostly mountainous; well timbered; rich 
coal and ore deposits; lands considerably worn; county 
seat, Inez, population 381. 

MASON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,446 ; 1910, 18,611 ; per cent, de- 
crease 9. Assessed acreage of land 149,272 (United 
States census 145,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $10,908,705. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,043,300. Average assessed value -of 
land per acre $40.49 (United States census $62.30). Eail- 
roads, C. & 0., 19.58; L. & N., 14.85; total mileage 34.43; 
located in the extreme northeastern section of the State ; 
formed in 1788, and named for George Mason; practi- 
cally no timber left; a blue grass county; land rolling 
and very fertile ; the annual grain, live stock and Burley 
tobacco crops large; county seat, Maysville, population 
6,141. 

McCEACKEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 28,733; 1910, 35,064; per cent, in- 
crease 22. Assessed acreage of land 152,728 (United 
States census 152,960). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $14,014,395. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,050,205. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $19.98 (United States census $29.86). 
EaUroads, I. 0., 33.97; N. C. & St. L., 12.78; total mileage 



BuEEAXT OP Agbictjliube. 43 

46.75; located in the extreme western portion of tlie 
State ; formed in 1824, and named for Captain Virgil Mc- 
Cracken; not mnch timber left; land level to rolling; well 
adapted to vegetable production, and to fruits; large 
crops of com grown on the river bottoms; county seat, 
Paducah, population 22,760; Paducah is the largest city 
in the western portion of the State, and has some splendid 
manufacturing establishments. 

McCREARY COUNTY. 

This county formed in 1912, and named for Governor 
James B. McCreary; assessed acreage of land 273,017. 
Total assessed valuation taxable property $1,917,048. 
Assessed value of land with improvements $1,415,100. 
Average assessed value of land per acre $5.18. Located 
in the southeastern portion of the State; lands rough 
and weU timbered; railroads, 0. N. 0. & T. P., 23.71; 
Kentucky & Tennessee R. R., 16.27 ; total mileage, 39.98 ; 
county seat, Whitley City, population 300. The county 
seat was selected after a long drawn-out fight between 
Pine Knot and the present location. This county has 
been formed since the 1910 census. 

McLEAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,448; 1910, 13,341; per cent._ in- 
crease 6.4. Assessed acreage of land 140,614 (United 
States census 161,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,875,883. Assessed value of land with 
improvement $1,719,180. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $12.27 (United States census $22.24). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 11.36 ; located in the middle-west section 
of the State; formed in 1854, and named for Judge AI- 
vey McLean; land generally level; but little timber left; 
some coal; soil adapted to grain and fruit; county seat, 
Calhoun, population 742. 

MEADE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 10,533; 1910, 9,783; per cent, de- 
crease 7.1. Assessed acreage of land 192,906 (United 
States census 192,640). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,107,761. Assessed value of land with 



44 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 

improvements $1,774,629. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.28 (United States census $11.67). Eail- 
roads, I. C, 2.69; L. H. & St. L., 22.70; total mileage 
25.39; located in the northwestern portion of the State; 
formed in 1823, and named for Captain James Meade; 
land rolling to hilly ; not much timber ; a good fruit sec- 
tion; county seat, Brandenburg, population 482. 

MENIFEE COUNTY. 

Population 6,818; 1910, 6,153; per cent, decrease 
9.8. Assessed acreage of land 107,065 (United States 
census 129,920). Total assessed valuation taxable prop- 
erty $978,601. Assessed value of land with improve- 
ments $492,208. Average assessed value of land per 
acre $4.59 (United States census $5.74). Railroads C. 
& 0. 6.31; located in the middle-eastern section of State; 
formed in 1869, and named for Richard H. Menifee; 
some timber left; lands level to mountainous; good live 
stock section; county seat, Frenchburg, population 173. 

MERCER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,426; 1910, 14,063; per cent, de- 
crease 2.5. Assessed acreage of land 165,359 (United 
States census 169,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $8,344,760. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $5,384,612. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $32.90 (United States census $41.94). Rail- 
roads, C. N. 0. & T. P., 8.14; Sou. Ry. in Ky., 22.049; 
total mileage 30.18 ; located in the central portion of the 
State; formed in 1785, and named for General Hugh 
Mercer; practically no timber left; a blue grass county; 
land rolling ; fertile and well watered ; the annual grain, 
live stock and Burley tobacco crops large; county seat, 
Harrodsburg, population 3,147. 

METCALFE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,988; 1910, 10,453; per cent in- 
crease 4.7. Assessed acreage of land 145,850 (United 
States census 193,920). Totgd assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,676,630. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,132,859. Average assessed value of 



Bureau of Ageicultueb. 45 

land per acre $7.76 (United States census $12.20). No 
railroads in county; located in the southern portion of 
the State; formed in 1860, and named for Grovemor 
Thomas Metcalfe ; some timber left ; land rolling to hilly ; 
splendid live stock county; county seat, Edmonton; 
population 300. 

MONROE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 13,053 ; 1910, 13,663 ; per cent, in- 
crease 4.7. Assessed acreage of land 160, 747 (United 
States census 282,240). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,424,715. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,512,480. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $9.40 (United States census $8.26). No 
railroads in county; located in the southern portion of 
the State; formed in 1820, and named for James Mon- 
roe, President of the United States; some timber left; 
lands hilly; rich river and creek bottoms; splendid live 
stock county; county seat, Tompkinsville, population 
639. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,834; 1910, 12,868; per cent, in- 
crease .3. Assessed acreage of land 120,822 (United 
States census 126,720). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,146,623. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,106,546. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $33.98 (United States census $56.77). Rail- 
roads, C. & 0., 26.22; located in the middle-eastern sec- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1796, and named for General 
Richard Montgomery; a blue grass county; not much 
timber left; land rolling; lands mostly devoted to the 
production of live stock and the grain crops ; county seat, 
Mt. Sterling, population 3,932. 

MORGAN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,792; 1910, 16,259; per cent, in- 
crease 27.1. Assessed acreage of land 226,935 (United 
States census 233,600). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,749,590. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,871,707. Average assessed value of 



46 Twenty-First Biennial Rbpobt 

land per acre $8.20 (United States census $8.60). Eail- 
roads, Caney Valley, 12.80 ; Morehead & North Fork E. 
E., 9.50; Ohio & Kentucky Eailroad 4.94; total mileage 
27.24; located in the eastern portion of the State; formed 
in 1822, and named for General Daniel Morgan; some 
timber; lands hilly; devoted to the production of grain 
crops and live stock; county seat. West Liberty, popula- 
tion 442. 

MUHLENBEEG COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,741; 1910, 28,598; per cent, in- 
crease 37.9. Assessed acreage of land 334,856 (United 
States census 302,080). Total assessed valuation taxable 
property $4,277,999. Assessed value of land with im- 
provements $2,140,044. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $6.38 (United States census $11.72). Eailroads, 
i. C, 26.05; Kentucky Midland E. E., 9.11; L. & N., 40.08; 
total mileage 75.24; located in the south-central portion 
of the State; formed in 1798, and named for Peter 
Muhlenberg; but little timber left; lands hilly; is in the 
western coal field; land devoted to the production of 
grain and live stock; county seat, Greenville, population 
1,604. 

NELSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 16,587; 1910, 16,830; per cent, in- 
crease 1.5. Assessed acreage of land 246,756 (United 
States census 263,040). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,814,640. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,275,753. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $17.73 (United States census $20.76). Eail- 
roads, L. & N., 54.62 ; located in the central portion of the 
State; formed in 1784, and named for Thomas Nelson, 
ex-Governor of Virginia; land rolling to hilly; practi- 
cally no timber; part of the county in the blue grass re- 
gion, and part in the pennyroyal region; live stock in- 
dustry is large ; a good dairy section ; grain and tobacco 
crops raised in large quantities ; county seat, Bardstown, 
population 2,126. 



BuEBATj OF Ageiculttjee. 47 

NICHOLAS COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,952; 1910, 10,601; per cent, de- 
crease 11.3. Assessed acreage of land 122,169 (United 
States census 133,120). Total assessed valuatioB tax- 
able property $4,722,427. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,159,732. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $25.86 (United States census $50.89). Eail- 
roads, L. & N., 15.75; located in the north-central por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1799, and named for Colonel 
George Nicholas ; land rolling to hilly ; practically no tim- 
ber; live stock interests large; grain and Burley tobacco 
produced in large quantities ; county seat, Carlisle, popu- 
lation 1,293. 

OHIO COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 27,287; 1910, 27,642; per cent, in- 
crease 1.3. Assessed acreage of land 354,622 (United 
States census 373,760). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $5,491,839. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,133,810. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.84 (United States census $9.97). Eail- 
roads, I. C, 47.64; L. H. & St. L., 5.70; L. & N., 30.65; 
total mUeage 83.99; located in the western-central por- 
tion of the State; formed in 1798, and named for the 
Ohio river; some timber left; this county is in the west- 
em coal area; lands devoted to the production of live 
stock, grain and Burley tobacco; county seat, Hartford, 
population 976. 

OLDHAM COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 7,078; 1910, 7,248; per cent, in- 
crease 2.4. Assessed acreage of land 115,771 (United 
States census 115,200). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able; property $4,514,243. Assessed value of land with im- 
provements $2,610,395. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $22.55 (United States census $30.12). Railroads, 
L. & N., 16.44; Louisville & Interurban By., 10.932; total 
mileage 27.372; located in the north-central portion of 
the State; formed in 1823, and named for Colonel "Wil- 
liam Oldham; practically no timber left; land rolling to 
hilly; especially adapted to fruit and vegetable produc- 



48 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET 

tion; splendid dairy opportunities; land adapted to the 
production of grain and tobacco, but owing to the 
proximity to Louisville, more attention is paid to the 
production of vegetables and to dairying; county seat, 
LaGrange, population 1,152. 

OWEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,553; 1910, 14,248; per cent, de- 
crease 18.8. Assessed acreage of land 219,816 (United 
States census 234,880). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,366,294. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,342,035. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $10.65 (United States census $21.98). Eail- 
roads (none in county) ; located in the central portion of 
the State ; formed in 1819, and named for Colonel Abra- 
ham Owen ; not much timber left ; land hilly ; in the blue 
grass section; produces a fine quality of Burley to- 
bacco ; a great deal of attention paid to live stock ; county 
seat, Owenton, population 1,024. 

OWSLEY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 6,874; 1910, 7,979; per cent, in- 
crease 16.1. Assessed acreage of land 111,613 (United 
States census 138,240). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,089,939. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $713,392. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $6,39 (United States census $6.65). No rail- 
roads in county; located in the middle-eastern portion 
of the State ; formed in 1843, and named for Judge Wil- 
liam Owsley, afterwards Grovernor; lands hilly to moun- 
tainous; considerable timber left; rich coal deposits; 
great deal of attention paid to live stock ; splendid fruit 
section ; county seat, Booneville, population 236. 

PENDLETON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,947; 1910, 11,985; per cent, de- 
crease 19.8. Assessed acreage of land 175,548 (United 
States census 178,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,295,893. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,499,775. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $14.24 (United States census $19.92). Eail- 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 49 

roads, C. & 0., 3.08; L. & N., 25.31; total mileage 28.39; 
located in the nortk-central portion of the State ; formed 
in 1798, and named for Edmond Pendleton, of Virginia; 
lands level to hilly; not much timber left; alfalfa and 
seed clover do well on the hills of this county; a great 
deal of attention paid to the production of live stock and 
tobacco; county seat, Falmouth, population 1,180. 

PEBEY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 8,276; 1910, 11,255; per cent, in- 
crease 36. Assessed acreage of land 477,700 (United 
States census 214,400). Total assessed valuation taxable 
property $3,378,841. Assessed value of land with im- 
provements $2,351,976. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $4.97 (United States census $7.13). Railroads, 
L. & N., 40.39 ; located in the southeastern portion of the 
State ; formed in 1820, and named for Commodore Oliver 
Hazard Perry, of the United States navy; lands moun- 
tainous and well timbered ; coal deposits very large ; not 
much attention paid to farming; splendid fruit section; 
county seat. Hazard, population 537. 

PIKE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 22,686; 1910, 31,679; per cent, in- 
crease 39.6. Assessed acreage of land 763,761 (United 
States census 498,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $7,348,440. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $4,804,113. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.29 (United States census $8.82). Eail- 
roads. Big Sandy & Cumberland Eiver, 8 ; C. & 0., 42.19 ; 
Norfolk and Western Ey., 3.75 ; Sandy Valley & Elkhom, 
23.78; Williamson & Pond Creek E. E., 11.93; total mile- 
age 89.65 ; located in the extreme eastern portion of the 
State; formed in 1821, and named for General Zebulon 
M. Pike; a mountainous county with a large area; large 
amount of timber left; coal deposits very extensive; no 
great amount of attention paid to farming; lands well 
adapted to the production of fruit and grazing of live 
stock; county seat^ Pikeville, population, 1,280. 



50 Twenty-First Biennial Repobt 

POWELL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 6,443; 1910, 6,268; per cent, de- 
crease 2.7. Assessed acreage of land 83,591 (United 
States census 115,840). Total assessed valuation taxable 
property $926,016. Assessed value of land with improve- 
ments $488,309. Average assessed value of land per 
acre $5.84 (United States census $15.89). Railroads, L. 
& N., 23.88; Mountain Central E. R., 3; total' mileage 
26.88; located in the middle eastern portion of the State; 
formed in 1852, and named for Governor Lazarus W. 
Powell; some timber left; lands level to hilly; the river 
and creek bottom lands fertile; land on top of hills not 
very fertile; splendid fruit county; county seat, Stanton, 
population 278. 

PULASKI COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 31,293; 1910, 35,986; per cent, in- 
crease 15. Assessed acreage of land 317,641 (United 
States census 498,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $6,300,508. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,744,693. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $8.64 (United States census $7.86). Rail- 
roads, C. N. 0. & T. P., 30.99; Cincinnati, Bumside & 
Cumberland River 1.35; total mileage 32.34; located in 
the southern portion of the State; formed in 1798, and 
named for Count Pulaski; lands hilly; some timber left; 
splendid live stock county; good fruit lands; county seat, 
Somerset, population 4,491. 

ROBERTSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 4,900; 1910, 4,121; per cent, de- 
crease 15.9. Assessed acreage of land 61,928 (United 
States census 69,760). Total assessed valuation taxable 
property $1,106,222. Assessed value of land with im- 
provements $809,097. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $13.06 (United States census $13.82). No rail- 
roads in the county; located in the northeastern section 
of the State; formed in 1867, and named for ex-Chief 
Justice George Robertson; lands hilly; not much timber; 
alfalfa and seed clover do well on the hills on account of 
the underlying limestone; splendid live stock and fruit 
county; county ,S€!£yt,; jl^Eli. pi^\f^t,yP|0pul9,tj.pfl<$21. 



BuEEAu OF Ageioultueb, 51 

ROCKCASTLE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 12,416; 1910, 14,473; per cent, in- 
crease 16.6. Assessed acreage of land 168,725 (United 
States census 198,400). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,764,768. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,029,443. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.10 (tjnited States census $7.45). Eail- 
roads, L. & N. R. R., 39.61; located in the southern por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1810, and named for Rock- 
castle river; lands hilly, with some timber; one of the 
best fruit counties in the State ; the land is thin, as a rule ; 
county seat, Mt. Vernon, population 930. Brodhead is a 
prosperous little town in a good farmng section of the 
county. 

ROWAN COUNTY. 
Population 1900, 8,277; 1910, 9,438; per cent, in- 
crease 14.10. Assessed acreage oi land 163,937 (United 
States census 174,080). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,380,779. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $638,426. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $3.89 (United States census $4.39). Railroads, 
0. & 0., 16.73 ; Morehead & North Fork R. R., 14.50 ; total 
mileage 31.23 ; located in the eastern section'of the State ; 
formed in 1856, and named for Judge John Rowan; 
lands rolling to hUly; not much timber left; is a great 
fruit county; in the spring of 1913, 1,650 acres of apple 
trees were planted in this county by the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture ; land well adapted to grazing pur- 
poses; county seat, Morehead, population 1,105. 

RUSSELL COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 9,695; 1910, 10,861; per cent, in- 
crease 12. Assessed acreage of land 155,197 (United 
States census 210,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,972, 845. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,231,194. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.93 (United States census $8.40). No 
railroads in the county; located in the southern portion 
of the State ; formed in 1825, and named for Colonel Wil- 
liam Russell; lands rolling to hilly ; some timber; land 
adapted to grazing; some rich bottom lands; a good, 
fruit county; county seat, Jamestown, population 177. 



52 TwEKTY-FmsT Biennial Rbpobt 

SCOTT COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,076; 1910, 16,956; per cent, de- 
crease 6.2. Assessed acreage of land 178,409 (United 
States census 184,960). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $10,022,922. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,290,617. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $35.25 (United States census $56.28). Eail- 
roads, C. N. 0. & T. P., 22.21; F. & C. R. R., 20.78; Ken- 
tucky Traction & Terminal Co., 5.64; Sou. Ry. in Ky., 
7.60; L. & N., 1.95; total mileage 58.18; located in the 
central portion of the State ; formed in 1792, and named 
for General Charles Scott, later Governor; a blue grass 
county; land rolling; limestone formation; not much 
timber; splendid livestock county; a great deal of Burley 
tobacco produced; grain crops do well; county iseat, 
Georgetown, population 4,533. 

SHELBY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 18,340; 1910, 18,041; per cent, de- 
crease 1.6. Assessed acreage of land 240,289 (United 
States census 273,280). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $13,883,040. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $9,049,525. Average assessed value of 
laud per acre $37.70 (United States census $50.65). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 40.03; L. & I. E. R., 11.361; Sou. Ry. in 
Ky., 24.299; total mileage 77.69; located in the central 
portion of the State ; formed in 1792, and named for Isaac 
Shelby, first Governor of Kentucky; a blue grass county; 
land rolling, and mostly devoted to the growing of grains 
and Burley tobacco ; a great live stock county ; practically 
no timber; dairy interest large; this county known as 
the "Jersey Isle of America;" more registered cattle 
said to be contained in this county than any other county 
in America; county seat, Shelbyville, population 3,412. 

SIMPSON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,624; 1910, 11,460; per cent, de- 
crease 1.4. Assessed acreage of land 144,340 (United 
States census 138,240). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,460,734. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,754,992. Average assessed value of 



BuEEAu OP Ageiculture. 53 

land per acre $12.45 (United States census $27,83). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 14.21; L. & I., .26; total mileage 14.47; 
located in the southern portion of the State; formed in 
1819, and named for Captain John Simpson ; land mostly 
level ; not much timber ; soil fertile ; grain crops and dark 
tobacco grown in abundance; county seat, Franklin, 
population 3,063. 

SPENCER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 7,406; 1910, 7,567; per cent, in- 
crease 2.2. Assessed acreage of land 116,642 (United 
States census 119,400). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,005,889. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,867,795. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $16.20 (United States census $29.25). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 13.52; located in the central portion of 
State; formed in 1824, and named for Captain Speer 
Spencer; lands rolling to hilly; not much timber; grain 
crops and Burley tobacco produced in abundance ; dairy 
interest large; county seat, Taylorsville, population 622. 

TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 11,075; 1910, 11,961; per cent, in- 
crease 8. Assessed acreage of land 165,172 (United 
States census 178,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $2,017,400. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,113,092. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.95 (United States census $14.26). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 12.59 ; located in the south-central portion 
of the State; formed in 1848, and named for General 
Zachary Taylor, afterwards President of the United 
States; land rolling to hilly; not much timber; splendid 
live stock county ; grain crops and Burley tobacco grown ; 
county seat, Campbellsville, population 1,206. 

TODD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 17,371; 1910, 16,488; per cent, de- 
crease 5.1. Assessed acreage of land 224,189 (United 
States census 234,880). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,963,545. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,381,735. Average assessed value of 



54 TwENTX-FiBST Biennial Ebpobt 

land per acre $10.62 (United States census $18.38). Bail- 
roads, L. & N., 20.30; Elkton & Guthrie E. E., 10.92; total 
mileage 31.22; located in the southern portion of State; 
formed in 1819, and named for Colonel John Todd; land 
mostly level; practically no timber; fertile soil; grain 
crops and dark tobacco grown; splendid live stock 
county; county seat, Elkton, population 1,228. 

TEIGG COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,073; 1910, 14,539; per cent, in- 
crease 3.3. Assessed acreage of land 281,076 (United 
States census 273,920). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,149,941. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,058,339. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.32 (United States census $8.60). EaU- 
roads, I. C, 8.67; Cadiz E. E., 10.00; total mileage 18.67; 
located in tib.e southern portion of State ; formed in 1820, 
and named for Colonel Stephen Trigg; land mostly level; 
some hilly lands; but little timber; grain crops and dark 
tobacco produced; good live stock county; county seat, 
Cadiz, population 1,005. 

TEIMBLE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 7,272; 1910, 6,512; per cent, de- 
crease 10.5. Assessed acreage of land 90,073 (United 
States census 98,560). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,852,043. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,413,799. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $15.69 (United States census $19.87). No 
railroads in county ; located in the extreme north-central 
portion of the State; formed in 1836, and named for 
Judge Eobert Trimble; land rolling to hilly; not much 
timber; some rich bottom lands; a good fruit county; 
grain crops and live stock principal interests; county 
seat, Bedford, population 269. 

UNION COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 21,326; 1910, 19,886; per cent, de- 
crease 6.8. Assessed acreage of land 211,228 (United 
States census 208,000). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $9,681,080. Assessed value of land with 



BtrSBAU OF AGBIOmiTTJBE. 55 

improvements $5,913,930. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $20.79 (United States census $43.53). Eail- 
roads, I. C, 42.66; L. & N., 13.21; total mileage 55.87; 
located in the western portion of the State; formed in 
1811, and called "Union," because of the hearty unani- 
mity with which the people consented to the division of 
the old county ; it was formed entirely out of the western 
part of Henderson county; land mostly level; not much 
timber; rich coal deposits; com and other grain crops 
produced in abundance; some attention paid to fruit; 
soil very fertile; county seat, Morganfield, population 
2,725. 

WAEEEN COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 29,970; 1910, 30,579; per cent, in- 
crease 2.2. Assessed acreage of land 334,098 (United 
States census 339,200). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $13,121,624. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,053,176. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $18.11 (United States census $25.97). Rail- 
roads, L. & N., 38.82 ; located in the southern portion of 
State; formed in 1796, and named for General Joseph 
Warren; land roUing to hilly; not much timber; fertile 
soil; one of the best all-around farming counties m the 
State; the strawberry production of this county is the 
greatest of any county in Kentucky, more than one hun- 
dred car loads shipped each year; Bowling Green lime- 
stone is noted the world over as a building stone; the 
Governor's new Mansion at Frankfort, Kentucky, erected 
at a cost of $100,000, is built of this stone; county seat. 
Bowling Green, population 9,173. At Bowling Green 
is located the Western State Normal School. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,182; 1910, 13,940; per cent, de- 
crease 1.7. Assessed acreage of land 173,032 (United 
States census 191,360). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,980,125. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $3,232,495. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $13.42 (United States census $30.90). Eail- 
roacis, L. & N., 11.37 ; located in the south-central pdrtiOn 



56 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

of the State; formed in 1792, and named for George 
Washington, first President of the United States; land 
rolling to hilly; not much timber; a bine grass county; 
limestone formation ; soil fertile ; grain crops and Burley 
tobacco produced in abundance; splendid live stock 
county; county seat, Springfield, population 1,329. 

WAYNE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 14,892; 1910, 17,518; per cent, in- 
crease 17.6. Assessed acreage of land 283,743 (United 
States census 377,600). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $3,806,313. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $1,905,165. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $6.71 (United States census $8.96). Rail- 
roads (none in county) ; located in the southern portion 
of the State ; formed in 1800, and named for General 
Anthony Wayne ; land rolling to hilly ; some timber left ; 
it is in the oil belt, and said to be the largest oil-produc- 
ing county in the State; a great live stock county; all 
the grain crops and dark tobacco produced ; county seat, 
Monticello, population 1,338. 

WEBSTER COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 20,097; 1910, 20,974; per cent in- 
crease 4.4. Assessed acreage of land 207,852 (United 
States census 220,160). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $4,671,705. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,374,005. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $11.42 (United States census $24.28). Rail- 
roads, I. C, 20.50; L. & N., 25.80; Ky. Valley R. R., 9.38; 
total mileage 55.68 ; located in the western portion of the 
State; formed in 1860, and named for Daniel Webster; 
land level to hilly; some timber; located in the western 
coal field; lands mostly devoted to growing grain crops 
and dark tobacco; live stock interests important; county 
seat, Dixon, population 741. 

WHITLEY COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 25,015; 1910, 31,892; per cent, in- 
crease 27.9. Assessed acreage of land 273,720 (United 
States census 374,400). Total assessed valuation tax- 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 57 

able property |5,396,721. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $2,150,504. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $7.89 (XJnited States census $8.68). Eail- 
roads, L. & N., 65.40; located in the southeastern por- 
tion of the State ; formed in 1818, and named for Colonel 
William Whitley; considerable timber; large coal de- 
posits ; land hilly to mountainous ; bottom lands fertile ; 
splendid fruit county; county seat, Williamsburg, popu- 
lation 2,004. 

WOLFE COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 8,764; 1910, 9,864; per cent, in- 
crease 12.6. Assessed acreage of land 129,154 (United 
States census 147,200). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $1,457,556. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $797,163. Average assessed value of land 
per acre $6.17 (United States census $7.65). Railroads, 
L. & N., 5.79 ; Mountain Central R. R., 9.00 ; Ohio & Ky. 
Ry., 6.87 ; total mileage 21.66 ; located in the eastern por- 
tion of the State; formed in 1860, and named foi 
Nathaniel Wolfe ; lands hilly ; some timber ; coal and ore 
deposits; river and creek bottoms fertile; other lands 
thin ; a live stock and fruit area ; county seat, Campton, 
population 326. 

WOODFORD COUNTY. 

Population 1900, 13,134; 1910, 12,571; per cent, de- 
crease 4.3. Assessed acreage of land 117,212 (United 
States census 224,800). Total assessed valuation tax- 
able property $11,381,040. Assessed value of land with 
improvements $6,977,329. Average assessed value of 
land per acre $59.52 (United States census $75.25). Rail- 
roads, Ky. Traction & Terminal Co., 13.88; Ky. High- 
lands Ry., 11.67; L. & N. R. R., 17.10; Sou. Ry. in Ky., 
21.185 ; total mileage 63.83 ; located in the central portion 
of the State ; formed in 1788, and name for General Wil- 
liam Woodford; lands rolling; practically no timber; 
lands fertile, it being a blue grass county; limestone for- 
mation; known as the "Asparagus Bed of the World;" 
live stock interests large ; grain and Burley tobacco pro- 
duced in large quantities ; county seat, Versailles, popu- 
lation 2,268. 



PART TWO 



DEPARTMENTAL WORK 



DEPARTMENTAL WORK. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 



The State Board of Agrieulture has continued its 
policy of holding under the General Statutes of Kentucky 
a State Farmers' Institute annually. It has caused to 
be held county institutes in a majority of the counties of 
the State each year, but has only held these institutes 
where there was a demand for same and where co-opera- 
tion was furnished by the local authorities. The great 
good done by these institutes is beyond question. They 
vary in their usefulness in the different counties, but 
where a county has once held a good institute as a rule 
it will continue to do so. The entire removal of politics 
from these meetings has given great confidence in their 
usefulness to the people and more loyal support has been 
given by the local authorities. It has been the policy of 
the State Board of Agriculture to have a lady lecturer 
at each of these Farmers' Institutes,. and this has added 
materially in interesting both the men and women in 
better home life in the rural districts. Where there have 
been chautauquas held it has been the purpose of this 
department to co-operate with such authorities as had 
these meetings in charge. The State Farmers' Institute 
held at Henderson, Kentucky, in 1915 was one of the 
greatest agricultural meetings ever held in Kentucky. 
The records of this office show that the County Farmers' 
Institute held in one county in this State in the opinion 
of the farmers of that community has revolutionized the 
agricultural affairs in that section. With approximately 
five hundred names from this locality asking that an in- 
stitute be held there again shows the interest taken in 
the work at this place. On the other hand, there are coun- 
ties where it is difficult for the lecturers to get an audi- 
ence. The good seed sown, however, if only in a few 
spots, continues to bring forth splendid results. 



62 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Ebpobt 



INSTITUTES. 



OFFICERS STATE FARMERS' INSTITUTE— 1914. 



Hugli Dawson, Olmstead, Ky President 

Chas. E. Marvin, Paynes Depot, Ky 1st Vice-Pres'. 

Joe C. Van Meter, Lexington, Ky 2nd Vice-Pres. 

L. Y. Woodruff, Murray, Ky 3rd Vice-Pres. 

Christy Park, Frankfort, Ky Secretary 



OOUNTY INSTITUTES 1913-1914. 



The following is a list of the counties where insti- 
tutes have been held during the latter half of 1913, and 
the first half of 1914, and the officers elected, where same 
was reported to this department: 

Adair County — James English, Columbia, President; Ores Borger, 

Columbia, Secretary. 
Allen County — Joe Meredith, Holland, President; W. L. Motley, ScottS' 

ville. Secretary. 
Ballard County — ^Hardy Nance, Wickliffe, President; W. S. Roach, 

Barlow, Secretary. 
Bath County — W. S. Gudgel, Owingsville, President; C. W. Tipton, 

Owingsville, Secretary. 
Barren County — ^Dolph Depp, Glasgow, President; H. P. Chamberlin 

Glasgow, R. No. 7, Secretary. 
Bell County — B. A. Fuson, Pineville, President; H. B. Jones, Pineville 

Secretary. 
Boone County — John C. Bedinger, "Walton, President; R. O.' Hughes, 

Richwood, Secretary. 
Boyd County — Jesse Cyrus, Durbin, President; John Haney, Catletts- 

burg. Secretary. 
Breathitt County — W. H. Blanton, Jackson, President; Sanford Brown 

Noctor, Secretary. 
Bullitt County — J. T. Lee, Shepherdsville, President; Mrs. R. L. Trout- 
man, Shepherdsville, Secretary. 



BUBBATJ OF Agbioxtlture. 63 

Caldwell County— L. Wyatt, Fredonla, President; L. B. Sims, Prince- 
ton, Secretary. 
Calloway County — L. Y. Woodruff, Murray, President; Wallace Futrell, 

Almo, Secretary. 
Carlisle County — ^Institute held at Bard well, Kentucky; W. J. S. 

Denton, Bardwell, Secretary. Institute held at Mllburn, Ken- 
tucky: Jewell Edrington, Arlington, President; W. J. S. Denton, 

Bardwell, Secretary. 
Carroll County— C. C. Collins, Worthville, Delegate; Geo. Wood, 

Worthville, Delegate. 
Christian County— E. A. Hail, Pembroke, President; Geo. P. Rivers, 

Pembroke, Secretary. 
Clark County — ^A. T. Tucker, Winchester, President; James Mundy, 

Winchester, Secretary. 
Crittenden County — J. P. Price, Marion, President; W. L. Terry, 

Marion, Secretary. 
Daviess County — John L. Johnson, Hawesville, President; Louis B. 

Carrico, Knottsville, Secretary. 
Elliott County — J. W. Sparks, Sandy Hook, President; Mrs. MoUie 

Green, Sandy Hook, Secretary. 
Estill County — Dr. C. Marcum, Irvine, President; J. R. White, Irvine, 

Secretary. 
Fulton County — John L. Smith, Fulton, P*resident; M. J. Browder, 

Fulton, Secretary. 
Garrard County — L. G. Davidson, Lancaster, Secretary. 
Graves County — C. C. Richmond, Water Valley, President; H. C 

Holmes, Mayfield, Secretary. 
Grayson County — R. G. McGrew, Leitchfield, President; O. F. Hughes, 

Leitchfield, Secretary. 
Green County — S. T. Gorin, Greensburg, President; W. H. Graham, 

Greensburg, Secretary. 
Greenup County — E. E. Fullerton, Greenup, President; L. R. McCarty, 

Greenup, Secretary. 
Hardin County — Samuel Fischer, Tunnel Hill, President; H. B. Stew- 
art, Elizabethtown, Secretary. 
Harlan County — A. E. Boggs, Harlan, President; Horace E. McSwain, 

Harlan, Secretary. 
Hart County — C. T. Bungardner, Munfordville, President; W. H. 

Strange, Munfordville, Secretary. 
Hickman County — K. M. Leath, Wingo, Member; W. M. Ward, Clinton, 

Member. 
Jefferson County — E. M. Coleman, Anchorage, R. No. 16, President; 

J. C. Coleman, O'Bannon, Secretary. 
Johnson County — Milton McDowell, Manila, President; N. W. Williams, 

Paintsville, Secretary. 
Larue County — Jas. G. Terhune, Buffalo, President; Guy M. Hudgins, 

Buffalo, Secretary. 
Lee County — ^William Robinson, Beattyville, President; I. McGuire, 

Beattyville, Secretary. 
Letcher County — S. J. Hale, Whitesburg, Secretary. (Election of 

President not reported.) 
Lincoln County — J. M. Pettus, Stanford, President; C. E. Tate, Stan- 
ford, Secretary. 
Livingston County — W. E. Chipp, Bayou, President; W. E. Abell, Birds- 

ville. Secretary. 
Logan County — L. H. Dawson, Olmstead, President; J. N. Flowers, 

Oakville, Secretary. 
Lyon County — ^A. C. Raney, EddyviUe, President; H. Glenn, Kuttawa, 

Secretary. » 



64 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

Madison County — J. W. Herndon, Berea, President; Jesse Bough, 
Berea, Secretary. 

Marshall County — W. M. Faust, Benton, President; J. M. Bean, Ben- 
ton, Secretary. 

Marion Coun;^ — ^W. C. Rogers, Lebanon, Member; Professor J. W, 
■Clarkson, Lebanon, Member. 

McCracken County — M. B. Tapp, Heath, President; Jesse Lawrence. 
Kevil, Secretary. 

Meade County — A. J. Thompson, Guston, President; I. M. Wilson 
Guston, Secretary. 

Menifee County — J. H. Williams, Frenchburg, President; S. M. Wil- 
liams, Frenchburg, Secretary. 

Montgomery County — Clayton Howell, Mt. Sterling, Member; H. R 
Prewitt, Mt. Sterling, Member. 

Morgan County — J. C. Ferguson, West Liberty, President; ,J. H. Se- 
bastian, West Liberty, Secretary. 

Muhlenberg County — G. H. Holeman, Weatherford, Member; P. J 
Ford, Weatherford, Member. 

Ohio County — Henry Leach, Hartford, President; J. L. Brown, Rock- 
port, Secretary. 

Oldham County — S. E. DeHaven, LaGrange, President. (Election of 
Secretary not reported.) 

Owen County — ^Wm. Crheightley, Owenton, President; L. B. Kinney, 
Owenton, Secretary. 

Perry County — J. A. Conyers, Hazard, President; Clyda Baker, Hazard 
Secretary. 

Pike County — ^J. R. Sword, Pikeville, President; Jerome Danron, Yea- 
ger. Secretary. 

Rockcastle County — George D. Moore, Brodhead, President; G. S 
Griffin, Mt. Vernon, Secretary. 

Rowan County — M. T. Dillon, Rodbourn, President; B. P. Ham, Crans- 
ton, Secretary. 

.Simpson County — Dr. J. R. Claypool, Franklin, President; Volney 
Jameson, Franklin, Secretary. 

Taylor County — J. H. Wade, Campbellsville, President; Henry R. Tur- 
ner, Campbellsville, Secretary. 

Todd County — Will Hollins, Elkton, President; Porter C. Wood, Elk 
ton. Secretary. 

Trigg County — Jas. D. Griner, Cadiz, President; A. L. Hall, Cadiz, 
Secretary. 

Trimble County — A. E. King, Milton, President; B. F. Snyder, Milton, 
R. F. D. No. 2, Secretary. 

Union County — W. A. French, Morganfleld, President; Sam Clements, 
Fniontown, Secretary. 

Webster County— 'Henry Powell, Sebree, President; R. B. McGregor, 
Sebree, Secretary. 




Silo erected for J. W. Shockley. Kwin;^, Keiitiick,\-, sliowiny 
method of scfiffolding. 




Johnnie Clinton Woodward, AVilmore, Ky., P. R. No. 2, and his seven- 
months-old Hampsliire. weighing 330 lbs. This hog: won 
a trip to the Kenliiokv State Fair for Jolinnie. 
(See Page 1S2.) 



BuEEATJ OF Ageicultube. 65 

OFFICERS STATE FARMERS' INSTITUTE— 1915. 



Starling L. Marshall, Henderson, Ky President 

G-. N. McGrrew, Bayou, Ky. 1st Vice-Pres. 

H. C. Rice, Fredonia, Ky 2nd Vice-Pres. 

H. Gr. Asbury, Augusta, Ky .-. 3rd Vice-Pres. 

Mrs. Christy Park, Frankfort, Ky Secretary 

COUNTY INSTITUTES 1914-1915. 

Adair County — J. A. English, Columbia, President; Mrs. Robert Price, 
Columbia, Secretary. 

Allen County — S. J. Read, Scottsvllle, President; D. W. Cliburn, Scotts- 
ville, Secretary. 

Anderson County — J. R. York, Lawrenceburg, R. F. D. No. 1, Presi- 
dent; J. B. Morris, R. F. D. No. 1, Lawrenceburg, Secretary. 

Ballard County — H. L. Nance, LaCenter, President; J. B. Lawrence, 
Barlow, Secretary. 

Barren County — E. P. Chamberlin, Glasgow, R. No. 7, President; M. 
Y. Chamberlin, Glasgow, R. No. 7, Secretary. 

Boyd County — Alex. Johnson, Cannonsburg, President; J. M. York, 
Catlettsburg, Secretary. 

Caldwell County — Arthur HoUingsworth, Princeton, President; L. B. 
Sims, Princeton, Secretary. 

Calloway County — R. E. Clayton, Murray, President; N. G. Wall, 
Murray, Secretary. 

Carlisle County — Claude Klapp, Arlington, R. R. No. 1, President; H. 
W. Clayton, Bardwell, R. No. 3, Secretary. 

Carter County — Mrs. William Lewis, Grayson, President; Miss Lula 
Anna Hale, Grayson, Secretary. 

Christian County — ^F. H. Harned, Hopkinsville, President; G. I. Crab- 
tree, Hopkinsville, Secretary. 

Clay County — A. J. Holman, Manchester, President; T. J. Rawlings, 
Manchester, Secretary. 

Crittenden County — J. N. Boston, Marion, President; W. L. Terry, 
Marion, Secretary. 

Cumberland County — C. E. Edens, BurkesvUle, President; E. M. Fergu- 
son, Burkesville, Secretary. 

Daviess County — John L. Johnson, Knottsville, President; Louis E. 
Carrico, Philpot, R. F. D. No. 2, Secretary. 

Fleming County — J. W. Shockley, Ewing, President; Wm. H. Shock- 
ley, Ewing, Secretary. 

Floyd County — A. L. Martin, Prestonsburg, President; Edward L. 
Allen, Prestonsburg, Secretary. 

Fulton County — J. A. Finch, Fulton, President; M. J. Browder, Fulton, 
Secretary. 

Garrard County — Joe B. Robinson, Lancaster, President; Walton 
Moss, Lancaster, Secretary. 

Graves County — H. C. Holmes, Mayfield, R. -No. 7, President; J. L. 
Blalock^Jr., Mayfield, Secretary. 

agr. — 3 



66 TwENTY-FlKST BlENNIAL EePOET 

Green County — S. T. Gorin, Greensburg, President; W. H. Graham, 
Greenshurg, Secretary. 

Greenup County — Elwood Kinner, 'Greenup, President; Annie M. 
Davidson, Greenup, Secretary. 

Hancock County — Jno. Minnet, Hawesville, President;' J. D. Kelly, 
Hawesville, Secretary. 

Hardin County — S. M. Willis, Vine Grove, President; David Ditto, 
Vine Grove, Secretary. 

Hart County — R. C. Richardson, Munfordsville, President; J. D. Crad- 
dock, Munfordsville, Secretary. 

Hickman County — W. B. Finch, Fulton, R. No. 4, President; O. Piper, 
Clinton, Secretary. 

Hopkins County — John G. B^ Hall, Madisonville, R. No. 3, President; 
G. W. Whitsell, Madisonville, R. No. 3, Secretary. 

Johnson County — Milton McDowell, Manila, President; W. B. Ward, 
Paintsville, Secretary. 

Knox County — Wm. Tye, Barhourville, President; S. B. Ries, Bar- 
bourville. Secretary. 

Larue County — John Duncan, Buffalo, President; A. J. Wheeler, Hod- 
genville, Secretary. 

Larue County — J. M. Feltner, London, President; C. W. Carnn, Lon- 
don, Secretary. 

Lawrence County — John Vaughn, Louisa, President; John G. Bums, 
Louisa, Secretary. 

Lewis County — S. M. Mustard, Clarksburg, President; Jesse T. Hen- 
derson, Clarksburg, Secretary. 

Lincoln County — J. M. Pettus, Stanford, President; W. P. Grimes, 
Stanford, Secretary. 

Livingston County — W. B. Chipp, Bayou, President; W. E. Abell, Smith- 
land, Secretary. 

Logan County — Hugh Dawson, Olmstead, President; W. G. Snider, 
Lewisburg, Secretary. 

Lyon County — W. M. Wadlington, Kuttawa, President; H. P. Glenn, 
Kuttawa, Secretary. 

McCracken County — G. W. Potts, Paducah, R. No. 6, President; E. 
Futrell, Jr., Paducah, R. No. 1, Secretary. 

McCreary County — Nora E. Alcorn, Whitley City, President; G. W. 
Stephens, Whitley City, Secretary. 

McLean County — G. S. Ford, Calhoun, President; Ashton Whayne, 
Rumsey, Secretary. 

Madison County — Robert Spence, Berea, President; Meredith Gab- 
bard, Berea, Secretary. 

Marion County — J. W. Clarkson, Lebanon, President; A. S. O'Daniel, 
Lebanon, Secretary. 

Marshall County — W. M. Foust, Benton, President; J. M. Bean, Ben- 
ton, Secretary. 

Mason County — W. Huffman, Germantown, President; Margaret 
Coughlin (Miss), Germantown, Secretary. 

Mercer County — Samuel Bailey, Burgln, President; J. C. Gentry, Har- 
rodsburg. Secretary. 

Metcalfe County — A. J. Thompson, Edmonton, President; Jno. Ray, 
Edmonton, Secretary. 

Monroe County — J. E. Bryant, Fountain Run, President; V. C. Lan- 
drum. Fountain Run, Secretary. 



BuKBAi: OF Ageicultueb. 67 

Tompkinsville Institute. 

F. M. White, Tompkinsville, President; E. T. Stephens, Vernon 

Secretary. 
Morgan County — Amos Davis, West Uberty, President; T. H. John 

ston. West Literty, Secretary. 
Muhlenberg County — A. Y. Finley, Greenville, President; James W 

Gates, Greenville, Secretary. 
Nelson County — G. M. D. Stoner, Bardstown, President; J. B. Smith: 

Bardstown, Secretary. 
Ohio County — Henry Purtle, Beaver Dam, President; Wm. E. Travis 

Beaver Dam, Secretary. 
Pulaski County — W. H. Lyons, Science Hill, President; Mrs. W. H 

Lyons, Science .Hill, Secretary. 
Rockcastle County — J. G. Frith, Brodhead, President; W. H. Ander 

son, Brodhead, Secretary. 

Mt. Ve?^non Institute. 

W. U. Fish, Mt. Vernon, President; Mrs. G. M. Ballard, Mt. Ver 
non. Secretary. 

Rowan County — H. Van Antwerp, Farmers, President; Mrs. C. N, 
Waltz, Farmers, Secretary. 

Taylor County — J. H. Wade, Campbellsville, President; Scott Buch- 
anan, Campbellsville, Secretary. 

Todd County — Norton Garth, Trenton, President; C. P. Ward, Tren. 
ton, . Secretary. 

Trigg County — James D. Guier, Cadiz, President; G. A. Bridges, Cadiz, 
Secretary. 

Union County — John Sugg, Jr., Morganfleld, President; R. H. JoneS; 
Morganfleld, Secretary. 

Washington County — W. A. Watees, Springfield, R. F. D. No. 2, Presl 
dent; R. C. Brown, Springfield, Secretary. 

Wayne County — M. D. Shearer, Monticello, President; Miss Ella Mae 
Bartleson, Monticello, Secretary. 

Webster County — Dr. C. Edwards, Sebree, President; T. Meinschein, 
Sebree, Secretary. 

Whitley County — E. F. Davis, Williamsburg, President; Miss Rhoda 
Siler, Williamsburg, Secretary. 

Wolfe County — A. J. Russell, Campton, President; I. M. Combs, Camp- 
ton, Secretary. 



68 Twenty-First Biennial Eepokt 

CONCRETE SILO CONSTRUCTION. 



The Department of Agriculture has continued its 
policy inaugurated in 1912 of encouraging the construc- 
tion of concrete silos throughout the State. The small 
amount of annual appropriation for demonstration 
work, namely, five thousand dollars, has been divided 
among the various lines indicated in this volume, and 
it has been impossible for the department to purchase 
anything like the number of forms for the construction 
of cement silos that could have been used; nor could the 
force of men be added to, and two men have continued 
to do the work the department has undertaken. How- 
ever, we have found by furnishing the forms to the 
County Demonstration Agents in some of the counties, 
practically the same results have been obtained as if 
they had been handled by the State. They have super- 
vised the work in many instances, after having been in- 
structed by one of the men employed by the department. 
In this way fifty or sixty concrete sUos have been erected 
each year through assistance from this small appropria- 
tion. 

There has never been reported to this department 
a single failure of the concrete silo to keep ensilage 
when our instructions of painting the interior with coal 
tar paint, and washing the exterior with cement, have 
been followed. Storms have blown down the buildings 
adjacent to concrete silos, fires have burned them down, 
yet each silo constructed under the supervision of the 
department still stands. In one instance, lightning 
struck a silo, and tore a hole through a six-inch waJl 
near the bottom of the structure, and a little cement to 
fill the aperture was all that was necessary to repair 
the damage. 

The experimental stage of the Monolithic Silo is 
passed. It has not been and is not the policy of the de- 
partment to condemn any material for the erection of 
silos. Wooden silos, when properly constructed and 
kept tight, will keep ensilage for twelve or fifteen years 
equally as well as a concrete one. The cement block, the 
cement stave, the tile and the metal silo, each is better 



BuEEATj or Ageiculttjke. 69 

than no silo at all. The question with the fanner is not 
so mnch what kind of a silo he will have, but whether he 
can erect one. The work of this department has in no 
sense decreased the number of wooden silos purchased 
annually in the State, but its educational campaign has, 
on the other hand, very materially aided in increasing 
the number of silos of each character erected. A reg- 
ular contractor can usually keep busy an entire season 
erecting cement silos in any community. The farmer 
himself, with a little assistance, can erect his own cement 
structure. For permanency, economy and satisfaction 
we do not hesitate to recommend the Monolithic Silo to 
the farmers of this State. The wooden silo may be 
cheaper for the time being, it can be erected more hur- 
riedly, and where durability is not a factor to be con- 
sidered, may do just as well. But one out of every three 
wooden silos blows down, and it is necessary from time 
to time to tighten them, and they frequently become 
twisted, and very often they are not air-tight. The tile 
and metal silo are usually more expensive, and when all 
things are considered, a farmer who builds a concrete 
silo has a receptacle for green feed so long as he lives, 
or so long as he may own the farm upon which the silo 
is erected. 

The fact that the number of silos being erected in 
Kentucky annually amount to about two thousand, 
should be sufficient proof of their value. The use of 
ensilage has a tendency to increase the number of live 
stock kept throughout the winter, because of the fact 
that the entire com crop when put in the silo is saved ; 
because ensilage is fed without any great amount of 
loss, even in the worst weather, and it makes the feed- 
ing of live stock less difficult. It also encourages the 
saving of manure, and this annual dressing of a few 
acres on the average farm soon convinces the farmer 
that it pays to feed the land. 

As stated in the Twentieth Biennial Eeport, "The 
com crop of Kentucky, that is the grain from the com 
crop for 1912, is given by the Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington as being worth in round numbers 
sixty millions of dollars. The chemists tell us that the 
feeding value of the stalks, blades, shucks, silks, tassels 



70 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

and cobs of the com plant when in the silo stage is 
practically the same in quality and quantity as that of 
the grain on the plant. Stated in a different way, the 
grain grown on the plant in Kentucky is sixty millions 
of dollars per annum, and the feeding value of the plant 
other than the grain is approximately sixty millions of 
dollars. Anyone familiar with the methods of handling 
the com stalk by the farmers of this State would not 
undertake to say that more than fifty per cent, of the 
feeding value of the com stalks in Kentucky is actually 
saved by the farmers. There is an annual loss, there- 
fore, of approximately thirty millions of dollars in Ken- 
tucky through our wasteful methods of handling the 
com plant after the ear is taken therefrom. Were all 
of these plants put into silos at the right time, practically- 
all of this waste would be prevented, since, in filling the 
silo, the entire com plant is used. Stock, especially 
cattle and sheep, will eat practically the entire plant in 
the form of good ensilage. From a saving standpoint 
alone, therefore, the immense value of the silo to the 
corn-growing fanner is self-evident, but the value of 
the silo does not stop here." 

The fact that live stock will go through an entire 
winter in better shape feeding off of ensilage, encour- 
ages the live stock owner, and a greater effort is made 
to produce the' most possible out of the animals kept. 
The manure is used to build up the land. Clovers do better 
on lands full of humus, and soon the farmer has learned 
a great lesson in soil-building. The silo has done much 
toward turning farmers to constructive farming. Ken- 
tucky has made great strides along the" lines of pro- 
gressive agriculture in the last few years, and nothing 
the department has done has paid better than its work 
in silo construction. It now owns about fifteen forms, 
varying from twelve to eighteen feet in diameter. These 
forms cost from seventy-five to ninety dollars each, with 
the exception of one fourteen-foot steel form, which cost 
about $650. Two men have been kept in the field dur- 
ing the summer months for the last four seasons. The 
salary of the representative of the department, his trans- 
portation and incidental expenses are paid by the State. 



Bureau of Agkioultuee. 71 

From one to three silos are built in each community 
that it was possible to reach. Many requests have been 
received that it was impossible to fill. These forms have 
been used for demonstration purposes; that is, it has 
not been the policy of the department to build the silos 
for the farmer, but to show each community how readily 
a concrete silo could be constructed, and to let him see 
its value upon the farm. As a result the increased num- 
ber of these structures throughout the State means a 
paying investment of several hundred thousand dollars. 

The cost has varied very materially. Freight rates, 
the convenience of sand and gravel, the ability of the 
farmer to get the most out of his labor, the weather and 
so on have resulted in quite a difference of cost, even 
in the same size structure. In order that the farmer 
may have an idea what a silo would cost him, we are 
attaching hereto the actual cost of several silos con- 
structed under the supervision of this department: 



72 



Twenty-First Bienniai, Report 



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74 



Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 



CAPACITY OF SILOS IN TONS. 







Inside Diameter of Silo 




Inside Height 








of Silo 






1 








10 ft. 


12 ft. 


14 ft. 


16 ft. 


18 ft. 


20 ft. 


20 ft. 


26 


38 


51 


67 






21 ft. 


28 


41 


55 


72 






22 ft. 


30 


43 


59 


77 






23 ft. 


32 


46 


63 


81 


103 




24 ft. 


34 


49 


67 


86 


110 




25 ft. 


3G 


52 


71 


91 


11« 


143 


26 ft. 


38 


55 


75 


97 


123 


152 


27 ft. 


40 


5i8 


79 


li02 


130 


160 


28 ft. 


42 


61 


83 


109 


137 


169 


29 ft. 


44 


64 


87 


114 


144 


178 


30 ft. 


47 


67 


91 


119 


151 


187 


31 ft. 


49 


70 


96 


125 


158 


196 


32 ft. 


51 


74 


■ 100 


131 


166 


205 


33 ft. 


53 


77 


105 


137 


174 


215 


34 ft. 


56 


80 


109 


143 


181 


224 


35 ft. 


58 


84 


114 


149 


189 


234 


36 ft. 


61 


87 


118 


155 


196 


243 


37 ft. 


■63 


90 


123 


161 


204 


252 


38 ft. 


66 


94 


128 


167 


212 


262 


39 ft. 


68 


97 


133 


173 


220 


272 


40 ft. 


70 


101 


138 


180 


228 


282 


41 ft. 


72 


105 


143 


187 


236 


291 


42 ft. 


74 


109 


148 


193 


244 


3O0 


43 ft. 




113 


154 


201 


252 


310 


44 ft. 




117 


159 


207 


261 


320 


45 ft. 






165 


215 


269 


330 


46 ft. 






170 


222 


277 


340 


47 ft. 








229 


285 


350 


48 ft. 








236 


293 


361 


49 ft. 










301 


371 


50 ft. 











310 


382- 



BuEEAu OF Ageicxjltueb. 75 

GEOUND LIMESTONE DEMONSTEATIONS. 



Out of the funds for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1914, the Department of Agriculture saved sufficient to 
purchase two lime pulvers. By the time they were secured 
and started, the season was late and only a limited num- 
ber of demonstrations were given. These were started 
again in May, 1915, and ran until November. The bad 
weather and short working days made it impracticable 
to run this machine during the winter months. Each 
machine has been able to make about fifty farmers dur-. 
ing the season, and it has been the policy of this Depart- 
ment to grind not exceeding fifty tons of limestone for 
one farmer. The farmer furnishes the engine, the ma- 
terial and the labor and- boards the man in charge of the 
machine, while the Department has furnished the ma- 
chine and the per diem of the man in charge. As a re- 
sult of this work, the value of ground limestone in sweet- 
ening the sour soils of the State is gradually being im- 
pressed upon the land owners. Farmers adjoining rail- 
roads can secure as a usual thing limestone at a reason- 
able price from rock crushers operated by private 
parties. It is the farmer, who lives several miles from 
any station, who finds it impractical to buy ground lime- 
stone and haul it to his farm. Experience shows that it 
costs about 25c per ton per mile to move this material. 
If the farmer has to haul this exceeding six miles it runs 
the total cost in the neighborhood of $3.00 per ton. The 
machines owned by this Department have demonstrated 
to the farmers and to various communities through the 
co-operative ownership of ouq of these machines' that 
ground limestone can be had at a cost of from 50e to 
$1.00 per ton on the farm. The value of this material 
as a soil corrective has been demonstrated beyond the 
shadow of a doubt. Leguminous crops, such as alfalfa, 
clover, cowpeas and soy beans, that have been failures 
heretofore, flourish on soil covered with four or five tons 
per acre of this ground limestone. Some idea of the 
popularity and value of this work may be gathered from 
the fact that four years ago there were about seven 
places in Kentucky where ground limestone could be se- 



76 TWENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

cured. Today there are in the neighborhood of 75 large 
mills producing ground limestone and some 50 small ma- 
chines are owned either individually or co-operatively 
within the State. Convicts in some of the states are be- 
ing used in operating quarries and machines to turn out 
ground limestone for the farmers. Under the amend- 
ment recently passed providing convicts may work out- 
side the penetentiary walls makes it possible for Ken- 
tucky to use some of her convicts for a similar pur- 
pose. A sufficient demand from the farmers for this 
material may possibly lead to some legislation along this 
line in Kentucky. It has been utterly impossible for this 
Department with two machines to reach more than one- 
tenth of the farmers asking for their use. It is a well- 
known fact that Kentucky has an unlimited supply of 
carbonate of lime. It needs only to be pulve"rized to 
sweeten the land, that now will not produce leguminous 
crops as a result of acidity. Here is the basis of soil 
improvement, and the sooner the farmers learn this 
fundamental truth, the quicker will be our beginning of 
real agricultural growth. 



CO-OPEEATIVE ORCHARDS. 



During the past two years, a Co-operative Orchard 
Association has been organized in Lewis county, with a 
membership of approximately four hundred and thirty, 
owning one thousand four hundred and seventy-six acres. 
To plant these orchards it required seventy-three thou- 
sand eight hundred trees. These trees were of the fol- 
lowing varieties : 

Stayman Winesap, 15,000; York Imperial, 15,000; 
Rome Beauty, 15,000; Jonathan, 15,000; Grimes Golden, 
7,500, and Yellow Transparent, 7,500. 

These trees were bought as whole root grafts and 
planted in the spring of 1915. The illustrations accom- 
panying this article show the growth, of these trees in 
one season, which in some instances has exceeded six 
feet. 



BuEEATj OF Ageicultube. 77 

other orchards would have been established, but the 
fight against foot-and-mouth disease necessitated the 
use of the funds the Department had intended to devote 
to the development of additional work along these lines. 

The orchards planted in 1913 in the counties of 
Rowan and Hardin, are making a splendid growth. 
These three Co-operative Orchard Associations are or- 
ganized in counties where the lands are adapted to fruit 
growing. As stated in the Twentieth Biennial Eeport, 
the Department has only furnished trees where a suffi- 
cient number of farmers were organized to plant at least 
one thousand acres. Every indication is that what is 
most needed in Kentucky along horticultural lines is a 
system of co-operative marketing. Kentucky ranks sev- 
enth as an apple-producing State among the states of 
the nation; yet the fact remains that the apple growers 
do not obtain anything like the prices they should get 
for their product. This is the result of so many varie- 
ties, and a lack of co-operation. Not more than six varie- 
ties of winter apples have been furnished to any one of 
the demonstration orchards as organized by this Depart- 
ment, and the only requirement the Department has 
made is that the members form an Association with the 
proper officers, and all surplus fruit be sold through the 
General Manager. 

Mr. R. E. Settle, Manager of the Hardin County 
Fruit Growers' Association, writes as follows: 

"Our young orchards, planted here as a result of 
the co-operation of the Agricultural Department of the 
State, have made splendid growth this season, and are 
going into the winter in good shape. From what infor- 
mation I can gather, about seventy-five per cent, of the 
members of the Fruit Growers' Association who put out 
the apple "trees furnished by the State, have taken fairly 
good care of their orchards. I have tried to give mine 
first-class attention, and they have responded well to the 
attention given them, as shown in the picture sent you. 
They were trimmed closely last spring, yetj you will 
notice, they are higher than a man's head. I have some 
of the Stayman Winesaps in another part of the orchard 
that have mad© phenominal growth. We are planning 



78 TwENTY-FlKST BlENNIAL RePOBT 

now to scatter next spring a few forks of manure around 
each, tree after they have been mulched with the hoe. 
What we want nest year, the .year after they should be- 
gin to bear some fruit, is wood growth so as to get the 
proper bearing capacity, and we are .going to force them 
next year. 

' ' We have a cold storage plant here that is buying up 
all the apples in the immediate vicinity, and this should 
be quite an encouragement to the apple growers, as tjiese 
people will buy the apples right in the orchard, either 
on the trees or picked and put to the table. This makes 
it possible for a larger orchard to be handled with less 
farm labor. They do the barrelling themselves, and haul 
the apples in on large motor trucks 40 barrels at a load." 

Mr. H. Van Antwerp, of the Eowan County Associa- 
tion, writes as follows: 

"We had no peach crop this year, and the apples 
are a little too young to bear yet, but the Experiment 
Station people say we have the fiiiest little orchard in 
the business. 

"We now have forty acres, sixteen of which were set 
last spri»g. One of the pictures shows a portion of the 
more recent setting. The left hand portion of this pic- 
ture includes some of the apple trees furnished by the 
State through your courtesy. 

"We do not know that anything much is being done 
out in the county, but articles in the county papers, and 
the demonstration we are making here will accomplish 
a little towards keeping up the interest, and, in time, 
something will be gained. Nothing is so good as demon- 
stration, and it takes time for these new things to 
'percolate.' " 



COMMUNITY POULTRY BEEEDINa 



Out of the demonstration fund provided for this De- 
partment, it was deemed wise to show the advantages to 
a community by the proper organization of that conunun- 
ity into a Poultry Association, with all members of the 
Association breeding the same varieties of poultry, 



BuBEAu OF Agkicultube. 79 

The fanners of Science Hill, Pulaski county, have 
shown a great interest in undertaking this experiment. 
Twenty-five farmers joined the organization, and the 
Department furnished them a trio each of Plymouth Bock 
chickens, and from this foundation stock they will un- 
dertake to build up a community interest in poultry 
breeding. They adopt-ed rules and regulations, and will 
produce a uniform product, and standardize the egg and 
poultry shipments from that community. The result of 
this undertaking will demonstrate the advisability of fu- 
ture work along this line. 



INSPECTION OF IMPOETED NURSEEY STOCK. 



The following report of Professor H. Garman, State 
Entomologist, shows the necessity of someone in this 
State inspecting the packages of nursery stock imported 
from the various foreign countries into Kentucky, be- 
fore they are sent out with the possibility of spreading 
plant disease. 

Under the general provisions of the act creating the 
Department of Agriculture, Labor & Statistics, we have 
taken from the funds of this Department and paid the 
expenses of the State Entomologist for the years 1914 
and 1915, which have amounted to four hundred and 
seventeen dollars and eleven cents. The act providing 
for a State Entomologist, does not contemplate that he 
should do this work, but requires the inspection of local 
nurseries. Professor Garman has rendered his services 
free of charge, while this Department has paid his ac- 
tual traveling expenses. It was only by this co-operative 
arrangement that foreign nursery stock was permitted to 
come to Kentucky at all, the Federal Department of Agri- 
culture, under national law, having the power to prevent 
the importation of such packages unless properly in- 
spected at destination. A quarantine order was ready to 
be promulgated against Kentucky because of a lack of 
provision for such inspection. Th*' General Assembly of 
Kentucky should make proper provision for this work, 
and after a study of this report the public no doubt will 
see the necessity for legislative action in this connection. 



80 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

NuBSEEY Stock Inspection. 

In compliance ynth your request, I have to report 
as follows on inspections of imported nursery and flor- 
ists' stock, made in co-operation with the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and with the Federal Horticultural 
Board, by this Department of the Kentucky Experi- 
ment Station, during the past two years, beginning July 
7, 1914. The inspections were undertaken at the re- 
quest of the Federal Board, which is acting under a Fed- 
eral law requiring State inspections, but leaving the 
work to State Inspectors whenever the states provide for 
them. In our own case, there was no special law provid- 
ing for such inspections, though they are very important 
as a means of preventing the shipment to Kentucky of 
diseased and insect-infested stock; and it was only pos- 
sible to carry out the provisions of the Federal law by 
making an arrangement with your Department whereby 
the actual expenses of inspection were furnished by the 
Department of Agriculture, the inspections being made 
by assistants employed in this Department of the Sta- 
tion. During the year 1914, beginning July 7, as stated, 
we inspected 107 shipments of imported stock, in 380 
cases containing 179,925 plants, at an expense of $191.04. 
Most of these shipments came from Germany, Holland, 
Belgium and France, and were, in many cases, in bad 
condition, owing to careless packing, and also to careless- 
ness on the part of foreign inspectors. The law had but 
recently been enacted, and foreign shippers who had 
not yet learned of its enactment, did not feel the need of 
special care in excluding diseased plants. Some of the 
eastern inspectors found a number of shipments infested 
with such pests as brown-tail moth and gypsy moth, al- 
ready established in some of the Atlantic States. We 
have not found any Kentucky consignments infested with 
pests as objectionable as these, but in a number of cases 
plants have been found to bear scale insects and other 
pests which might, if overlooked, have spread, to the in- 
jury of people buying the plants. Tlie inspections have 
had a decided effect iiymproving the quality of stock re- 
ceived from abroad, and our inspections this year show 
that we are now getting better florists' and nursery stock 
from such foreign countries as still ship to us, these being 



BuEEAu OF Agbicultube. 81 

Holland, France, and occasionally Belgium, than we have 
ever received before. I think the inspections should be 
continued, and some permanent provision made for pay- 
ing the expenses. The probability is that the work of 
inspection will continue to grow, and that the assistance 
now available will not be sufficient to do the work as 
promptly and carefully as is desirable. During the past 
two months we have had frequent calls from florists for 
inspection, sometimes several requesting an inspection 
at the same time. With only one man available for this 
work, it is sometimes difficult to accommodate everyone 
as promptly as we could wish. On this account it seems 
to me desirable that some amendment be made to our 
present nursery inspection law, enacted in 1897, whereby 
we can do this work under a single appropriation made 
by the State. As you know, the present arrangement can 
hardly be considered as more than temporary, and I wish 
here to call attention to the importance of amending the 
State law in the hope that something can be done at the 
coming session of the Legislature to provide for these 
and other inspections of nursery stock, needed in the 
State. In brief, we should have both the inspections of 
nurseries and orchards, and those of imported stock un- 
der one law, fixing the responsibility for the work and 
making a sufficient appropriation in funds to carry it 
out properly. In other states this provision is already 
made, with the entomologists of Experiment Stations 
generally in charge, and sometimes, where the number of 
nurseries is large, a staff of special assistants is pro- 
vided. 

From time to time during 1914-1915, 1 have reported 
to you on the examinations thus far made, but I have 
thought it worth while to bring together below in one re- 
port, the data secured from examinations of imported 
stock in 1915, since it will furnish a basis for an estimate 
as to the amount of work required in the future, and the 
probable expense of doing it. I think these inspections 
should remain at the Station, with other inspections, such 
as those of fertilizers, feeds, foods and the like. The 
total number of inspections made in 1915 to date was 87 ; 
in January, 4 ; February, 4 ; March, 8 ; April, 5 ; May, 3 ; 
October, 18; November, 44, and December, 1, with sev- 



82 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

eral others reported but not yet examined. The number 
of plants in these lots is approximately 208,560, of which 
30,027 are florists' and 178,533 nursery stock. With the 
plants examined in 1914 we have examined a total of 
388,485. The total expenses of inspections made during 
1914 and 1915 to date are $417.11. Details of the 1915 
inspections follow: 

K. D. Alexander, Spring Station, Ky. 

2 cases. March 26/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1605 Rose plants. 
No Infestation. 

Beutel & Frederick, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. October 22/15. Meirelbeke, Belgium. 

72 Azalea Indica. 
1 case. October 21/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 

25 Araucarias and 60 palms. 

No infestation except a few scattered soft scale on palms. 

1 case. November 27/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

200 Roses, 52 Shrubs, 50 Dicentra and 100 Spirea. 
Not yet inspected. 

W. H. Carp, Ashland, Ky. 

2 cases. October 21/15. St. Amand, Belgium. 

113 Azaleas and 36 Araucarias. 
No infestation. 

The Donaldson Co., Sparta, Ky. 

14 cases. January 9/15. Angers, France. 
9500 Fruit tree stocks. 
50975 Ornamental deciduous shrubs. 
6000 Rose stocks. 

5500 Forest and ornamental seedlings. 
2000 Finns and mughus. 
4500 Conifers. 
63O0 Evergreen shrubs. 

Sour cherry lightly infested with wooly species of aphids. 
Helleborus nigra badly infested with aphids. 
6 cases. February 16/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
600 Juniperus. 

No infestation. 
41 cases. February /15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1576 Conifers. 

606 Pinus mughus. 
1141 Buxus. 
250 Andromeda. 
446 Azaleas. 
200 Rhododendrons. 
800 H. P. Roses. 
650 Climbing Plants. 
210 Evergreen shrubs. 
150 Malus. 
15 Trained fruit trees. 
50 Magnolias. 
70 Acer. 



Bureau of Agbicultueb. 83 

Buxus — Large number of plants lightly infested with 

oyster-shell scale. 
Juniperus communis — Light infestation of aphidae. 
English holly — Light infestation of leaf miner and leaf 

spot. 
Malus and train fruit trees — Crown gall. 
3 cases. March 26/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
175 Conifers. 
500 Hydrangeas. 
25 Azaleas. 
12 Rhododendrons. 
No infestation. 
3 cases. March 27/15. Angers, France. 
1350O Fruit tree stocks. 
11325 Ornamental deciduous shruhs. 
2500 Conifers. 
675 Ornamental evergreen shrubs. 
No infestation. 
Unreported shipment. March /15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1000 Boxwood. 
500 Roses. 
400 Juniperus. 
100 Rhododendrons. 
No infestation. 
3 cases. November 3/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1350 Peonies. 
516 Dicentra. 

No infestation. 
7 cases. November 4/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1000 Hydrangea. 
100 Dutchman's Pipe. 
150 Azaleas. 
50 Aesculus. 
2000 Viburnum. 
1000 Weigelia. 

No infestation. 

C. P. Dietrich & Bro., Maysville, Ky. 

1 case. November 4/15. Ghent, Belgium, 
50 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

H. Fuchs, Louisville, Ky. 

5 cases. January /15. Boskoop, Holland. 
1510 Roses. 
36 Azaleas. 
12 Magnolias. 
12 Malus. 
12 Rhododendrons. 
75 Clematis. 

No infestation. 

3 cases. November 4/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 

224 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

4 cases. November 27/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

25 Abies. 
60 Lilacs. 
12 Maples. 
400 Rosea, 



84 TwENTY-FlKST BlENNIAX, EePOKT 

50 Evergreens. 
50 Rhododendrons. 
50 Hydrangeas. 

Not yet inspected. 

Edward H. Fries, Fort Thomas, Ky. 

4 cases. May 21/15. Melle, Belgium. 
200 Araucarias. 
100 Aspididtras. 
No infestation. 
2 cases. October 21/15. Melle, Belgium. 
200 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

Henry Goekel, Fort Thomas, Ky. 

2 cases. November 4/15. Melle, Belgium. 

124 Azaleas. 

Lightly infested with "white fly sp." 
1 case. November 7/15. Melle, Belgium. 
100 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

S. M. Harbison, Danville, Ky. 

1 " case. November 5/15. Melle, Belgium. 
57 Azaleas. 
25 Araucarias. 
No infestation. 

H. F. Hillenmeyer & Sons, Lexington, Ky- 

6 cases. February 16/15. Angers, France. 
5175 Ornamental deciduous shrubs. 
3500 Ornamental seedlings. 
!)450 Conifers. 
200 Ornamental evergreen shrubs. 
1600 Austrian pines. 
No infestation. 
4 cases. January 12/15. Angers, France. 
15500 Fruit tree stocks. 
14200 Ornamental deciduous shrubs. 
1200 Ornamental evergreen shrubs. 
775 Forest and ornamental seedlings. 
No infestation. 
1 case. February 24/15. Angers, France. 
Ornamental shrubs. 
Evergreen seedlings. 
Mahonia. 
Abies. 

Cotoneaster. 
Honeysuckle. 
No infestation. 

Honaker Bros., Lexington, Ky. 

3 cases. October 20/15. Loochrlsty, Belgium. 

175 Azaleas. 
76 Azaleas. 

No Infestation. 



Bureau of Ageicultukb. 85 

John A. Keller Co., Lexington, Ky. 

2 cases. October 20/15. Lioochristy, Belgium. 
125 Azaleas. 

No intestation. 

1 case. November 7/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

170 Deciduous shrubs. 
No infestation. 

2 cases. November 5/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

75 Evergreen shrubs. 
No infestation. 

1 case. November 3/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

100 Azalea Indica. • 
No infestation. 

H. Kleinstarink, Louisville, Ky. 

2 cases. November 8/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

209 Hydrangeas.' 

50 Weigelias. 
100 Hotteia Jap. 
100 Buxus Semp. 
No infestation. 

3 cases. November 20/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

25 Coniferous Trees. 
50 Roses. 

60 Evergreen shrubs. 

75 Deciduous shrubs. 

No infestation. 

C. H. Kunzman, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. November 5/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

86 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

2 cases. November 20/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
100 Roses. 

85 Deciduous shrubs. 

37 Evergreen shrubs. 

No infestation except on Buxus, very light infestation of 
oyster shell scale. 

J. F. Link, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. November 5/15. Melle, Belgium. 
25 Araucaruas. 
25 Azaleas. 
20 Palms. 

No infestation. 

Michler Bros. Co., Lexington, Ky. 

9 cases. February 18/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
17 Juniperus. 

38 Cupressus. 

5 Thuya. 

6 Abies. 
98 Reh. 

5 Blue spruces. 
15 Plcea. 

2 Buxus. 

6 FlnuB mughUB. 
20 Taxus. 

BuxuB Rllghtly Infested with oyster tbell aoale. 



86 TWENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL, RePOET 

2 cases. March 10/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
297 Buxus. 

No infestation. 

1 case. November 3/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

85 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

2 cases. November 5/15. 

155 Vines. 

5 Magnolias. 

50 Dicentla. 

20 Azaleas. 

'55 Hydrangeas. 

20 Lilacs. 

5 Mahonia. 

No infestation. 
1 case. November 8/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
325 Roses. 

30 Evergreen shrubs. 

4 Evergreen trees. 
No infestation. 

1 case. November 17/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

474 Roses. 

Not yet inspected. 

Joseph E. Merritt, Louisville, Ky. 

3 cases. November 4/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

100 Evergreens, assorted. 
40 Roses, in var. 

6 Azaleas. 

12 Lilacs, in var. 
12 Rhodes, in var. 

5 Japan maples, red. 
50 Box bushes. 

7 Japan maples. 

12 Pyramid boxwood. 
No infestation. 

W. H. Leeming, Shively, Ky. 

3 cases. April 12/15. Boskoop, Holland. — 
150 Evergreens. 
No infestation. 
5 cases. April 17/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
102 Boxwood. 

31 Picea. 

10 Evonymus. 
20 Juniperus. 
5 Laurus. 
10 Acer. 

Several plants of boxwood badly infested with oyster 
shell scale. 

G. R. Noble, Florist Paducah, Ky. 

2 cases. October 21/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

100 Azaleas. 

No infestation. , : 



Btjbeau of Ageicultxjre. 



87 



New Nanz & Neuner, Louisville, Ky. 

2 cases. October 21/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 
150 Azaleas. 
50 Araucarias. 
No infestation. 
4 cases. November 4/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
232 Buxus. 

No infestation. 
2 cases. November 4/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
6 Hollies, berried. 
12 Rhodes, pink pearl. 
4 Rhodos. assorted. 
8 Rhodos. assorted. 
25 Abies nord. 
12 Aucuba. 

Chas. Pfeiffer's Sons, Fort Thomas, Ky. 

1 case. May 17/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
30 Kentia. 
37 Araucaria. 

Kentia lightly infested with "aspidiotus hederae.' 
Araucaria free from infestation. 
1 case. October 25/15. Meirelbeke, Belgium. 
100 Azalea indica. 
No infestation. 

L. Pfeiffer & Sons, Newport, Ky. 

4 cases. October 25/15. Meirelbeke, Belgium. 
300 Azalea indica. 
No infestation. 



Popp Bros., Covington, Ky. 

1 case. October 20/15. Meirelbeke, Belgium. 

100 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

2 cases. November 3/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

200 Azalea indica. 

No infestation. 
1 case. November 7/15. Mt. St. Amand, Belgium. 
105 Azalea indica. 

No infestation. 

S. Pontrich, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. November 11/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
75 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

Mrs. Edmund Power, Frankfort, Ky. 

1 case. November 10/15. Destelbergen, Belgium. 
24 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

E. G. Reimers & Son Co., Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. October 21/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
105 Azaleas. 

Found to be slightly infested with fungus Exobasidium, sp. 



88 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET 

Geo. Schultz, Louisville, Ky. 

2 cases. March 11/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
56 Evergreen shrubs. 
100 Field grown florist stock. 
95 Deciduous shrubs. 
25 Coniferous trees. 

Box bushes with -light infestation of oyster shell scale. 
Stock unpacked and part of it sent away before being 
inspected. 
2 cases. January 22/15. Lubeck, Germany. 
100 Dormant lilac plants. 
No infestation. 

2 cases. April 12/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

220 Evergreens. 

Importer's notice received, but Mr. Schultz failed to 
notify this Department of arrival of stock, which was 
unpacked and sold without being inspected. 
5 cases. November 4/15. Mt. St. Amand, Belgium. 
318 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 
1 case. November 10/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

145 Azaleas. 
1 case. November 8/15. Aalsmer, Holland. 

60 Lilac plants. 
1 case. November 29/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
41 Rhododendrons. 
12 Kalmias. 
12 Azaleas. 

Not yet inspected. 
1 case. November 30/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
6 Azaleas. 
24 Rhododendrons. 
75 Roses. 
50 Hydrangeas. 

Not yet inspected. 

Schmaus Bros., Paducah, Ky. 

3 cases. October 22/15. Melle, Belgium. 

125 Azalea indica. 
50 Coniferous trees. 
100 Aspidistra. 

No infestation. 
1 case. October 21/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
100 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 
3 cases. November 7/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
150 Roses. 

200 'Deciduous shrubs. 
50 Field grown florist stock. , 

No infestation. 
1 case. November 5/15. Evergem, Belgium. 
125 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 
1 case. December 1/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
100 Azaleas. 



BuEEAu OF Ageicxtlttjee. 89 

Schumann & Wahlers, Newport, Ky. 

3 cases. October 20/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 

280 Azaleas. 

No Infestation. 

Will Schumann, Newport, Ky. 

5 cases. November 10/15. Ghent, Belgium. 
215 Azaleas. 
155 Evergreen shrubs. 
, No Infestation. 

John Van Aart, Paducah, Ky. 

1 case. October 21/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

100 Azaleas. " ' 

No infestation. 

2 cases. 

137 Deciduous shrubs. 
162 Roses. 

No infestation. 

F. Walker Co., Louisville, Ky. 

4 cases. April 5/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

104 Vines. 
90 Evergreens. 
12 Magnolias. 
100 Hydrangeas. 
50 Roses. 

No infestation. 
2 cases. April 12/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
500 Maples. 
100 Magnolias. 
10 Polygonum. 
100 Lilacs. 
100 Viburnums. 

Norway maples badly infested with aphids. Inspection 
certificate absent from case containing Infested plants. 
2 cases. October 11/15. Melle, Belgium. 
116 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

1 case. November 4/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 

100 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

2 cases. November 9/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

2 Wisteria. 
52 Rhododendrons, 
t 12 Magnolias. 

6 Buxus pyramids. 
10 Aucubas. 
25 Lilacs. 
25 Clematis. 
25 Deutzias. 
45 Roses. 

No infestation. 
2 cases. November /15. Boskoop, Holland. 
50 Azaleas. 
100 Deciduous shrubs. 
10 Evergreen shrubs. 
12 Retinospora. 

Importer's notice not received. Azaleas badly damaged 
in transit. No infestation. 



90 



TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOKT 



Miss Fannie White, Lexington, Ky. 

1 case. May 21/15. Melle, Belgium. 
12 Areca. 
6 Palms. 

1 case. November 5/15. Ghent, Belgium. 

60 Azaleas. 

No infestation. 

Wm. Walker, Louisville, Ky. 

275 Azaleas. 
3 cases. October 20/15. Loochristy, Belgium. 

2 cases. November 4/15. Boskoop, Holland. 

2 Hollies, berried in tub. 
48 Rhododendrons, assorted. 
4 Abies nord. 
100 Spirea. 
12 Aucuba. 
21 Abies Nord. 
No infestation. 



Wood, 

2 



Morgan 

1 



Stubbs & Co., Louisville, Ky. 

cases. March 10/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
50 Magnolias. 
100 Frankia. 
50 Tacoma. 

Stock unpacked and part sent away before being in- 
spected. No infestation, 
cases. May 17/15. Angers, France. 
5950 Ornamental evergreen shrubs. 
5300 Ornamental deciduous shrubs. 

Stock unpacked and part of it sent away before beinn 
inspected. No infestation, 
cases. December /15. Boskoop, Holland. 
Shrubs and hardy perennials. 
Not yet inspected. Importer's notice not received. 

Floral Co., Henderson, Ky. 
case. November 20/15. Boskoop, Holland. 
2 Forest and deciduous trees. 
10 Evergreen shrubs. 
119 Deciduous shrubs. 
Not yet inspected. 



The Walther Co., Louisville, Ky. 

2 cases. November 5/15. 
50 Azaleas. 
100 Deciduous shrubs. 
10 Evergreen shrubs. 
12 Retinospora. 

Not yet inspected. 

F. L. Metcalfe, Hopklnsville, Ky. 

2 cases. November 18/15. 
172 Azaelas. 

Not yet inspected. 



Boskoop, Holland. 



Evergem, Belgium. 



BuKEAu OF Ageicultube. 91 

Morgan Floral Co., Henderson, Ky. 

1 case. FJG 306. December 8/15. 

Forest and deciduous trees. 
Evergreen shrubs. 
'Deciduous shrubs. 

Importer's notice received. Inspection made by H. R. 
Niswonger, and found free from infestation. 

F. L. Metcalfe, Hopkinsvllle, Ky. 

2 cases. G. S. 130/131. December 9/15. 

Azalea indica. 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by H. R. Nis- 
wonger, and found free from infestation. 

Jacob Schultz, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. O. H. 253. December 10/15. 

Rhododendrons. 

Kalmias. 

Azaleas. 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by H. R. Nis- 
wonger and found free from infestation. 
1 case. O. H. 254. 

Azaleas. 

Rhododendrons. 

Roses. 

Hydrangeas. 

Importer's notice received. No infestation. 

Beutel & Frederick, Louisville, Ky. 

1 case. H. K. 241. December 10/15. 
Roses. 

Shrubs dicentia and spirea. 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by H. R. Nis- 
wonger and found free from infestation. 

Michler Bros., Lexington, Ky. 

1 case. Hortus 285. December 11/15. 

Roses. 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by Erie C. 
Vaughn, and found free from infestation. 

Henry Fuchs, Louisville, Ky. 

4 cases. H. K. 224/227. December 7/1915. 

.Abies. 

Lilacs. 

Maples. 

Roses. 

Evergreens. 

Rhododendrons. 

Hydrangeas. 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by H. R. Nis- 
wonger, and rhododendrons found to be lightly in- 
fested with leaf spot fungus. 

F. Walker Co., Louisville, Ky. 

2 cases. G. P. 227/8. November 10/15. 

Azaleas. 

Deciduous shrubs. 
Evergreen shrubs. 
Retonospora. 



92 TwENTY-FiEST BiEiq-NiAL Eepoet 

Importer's notice received. Inspected by H. H. Jewett, 
and found free from infestation. Azaleas badly dam- 
aged in transit.v 

Wood, Stubbs & Co., Louisville, Ky. 

8 cases. P. J. G. 392/6, 524, 624 and 624a. December 6-10/15. 
Deciduous shrubs. 
Roses. 

Root stocks of perennials. 

Importer's notice not received. Inspected by H. R. Nis- 
wonger, and Pyrus sp. found to be lightly infested 
with Aphis sp., egg stage. Inspection certificate 
torn from case. 

H. GARMAN, 

State Entomologist. 



INSPECTION OF NURSEEY STOCK 



Lexington, Ky., Deo. 27, 1915. 
Dear Sir: 

I am giving below the names of the nurseries in- 
spected under the State law during the past year, and 
have marked with a single star those infected with San 
Jose Scale, where all the requirements of the inspector 
have been complied with, infested stock being destroyed 
and the rest fumigated before being put on the market. 
I believe these nurseries have done all that can reason- 
ably be required of them, and I have issued certificates 
accordingly. 

Those nurseries marked with two stars were in- 
fested with San Jose scale, but have not yet received cer- 
tificates. 

The total amount of stock inspected this year was : 
Tree.s, 2,083,135 ; other stock, 8,054,550. 

Those nurseries marked with three stars did not 
have San Jose scale, but failed to receive certificates on 
account of other infested stock. 

Yours very truly, 

H. Gaeman, 
State Entomologist. 



BuBEAu OF Agriculture. 93 

KENTUCKY NURSERIES AND ORCHARDS INSPECTED IN 1915. 

Adams, J. B Waco 

*Aebersold, Chris Rock Haven 

*Ashby, W. S. & Sons Cloverport 

Barton, J. E., State 'Forester _ Frankfort 

Beall, Alvln Mt. Sterling, R. R. No. 3 

*Beyer, H. E Paducah 

Blankenbeker, L. H Jeffersontown 

Bridges Bros Cadiz 

Burnett, F. M Oakland 

Clark, Joe Paynesville 

*Clark, W. W. & Co SharpsBurg 

Childres, Jas Auburn 

*Donaldson, J. F Sparta 

Downer, F. N Bowling Green 

Everett, J. F Cave City 

Fox, Shirley Winchester, R. R. No. 6 

♦Galloway, D. B Corydon 

Gardiner, Boone (Ky. Nurseries) Louisville, R. R. No. 10 

*Hall, L. E Oakville 

*Harris, Chas. C Butler 

Hillenmeyer, H. F. & Sons Lexington 

Hornbeak, J. F Sawyer 

*Keeling, J. W Elkton 

Kleiderer, W. S Henderson 

Leeming, W. H Shively 

*Ligon, Dr. P Henderson 

*MoGinnis, A. A Bowling Green 

***Moreman, C G Brandenburg 

New Nanz & Neuner Co Louisville 

***Payne, J. J Warsaw 

*Piper, O Clinton 

**Richards, E. L Franklin 

*Samuels, W. B Clinton 

*Sandefur, W. A Robards 

**Schmaus, Geo Paducah 

♦Smith, Prof. G. D Richmond 

**Smith Orchard and Nursery Co Dixon 

Stamper, O. W Corbin 

Symmes, W. W Augusta, R. R. No. 1 

*Walker, F. & Co Louisville 

Wells, Henderson Louisa, R. R. No. 2 

Witty, G. G Bardwell 

*Wood, J. C Benton 

Wood, Stubbs & Co Louisville 

*Young, Shepherd Central City 



SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO IN KENTUCKY. 



The General Assembly of 1914 passed an act requir- 
ing each tobacco warehouse to make a monthly report of 
its sales to the Commissioner of Agriculture. The De- 
partment has deemed it wise to close the year's business 



94 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 

as of August 31st, as none of the new crop appears be- 
fore September 1st. After consultation with, the to- 
bacco dealers and warehouse men, the tobacco grown in 
the State was divided into Burley, One-sucker, Unfired 
Dark, Fired Dark and Green Eiver tobacco. The four 
last named are usually classed as ' ' Dark tobacco, ' ' but in 
this report they are kept separate, and the number of 
pounds and the average price for each class is given 
separately, and then totaled and averaged. 

It is impossible to ascertain definitely just how much 
money the 1914 crop of tobacco brought, as all of the 
crop has not yet been sold, and it is possible that part of 
that sold for dealers was grown by them, and a part of it 
bought by them and shipped, appearing for the first time 
on the market in dealers ' hands. The value of each class 
as sold for growers is as follows : 

Burley tobacco $21,825,496.51 

One-sucker tobacco 631,163.28 

Unfired dark tobacco 359,544.92 

Fired dark tobacco 438,031.57 

Green River tobacco 1,120,404.87 

Total $24,374,641.15 

Again, some of the crop was shipped out of the State 
or sold directly to the manufacturers. Of the 1913 crop 
sold for growers there is a value of : 

Burley tobacco $158,354.46 

One-sucker tobacco 2,532.24 

Unfired dark tobacco 4,230.35 

Fired dark tobacco 57,462.07 

Green River tobacco 3,147.60 

Total $225,726.72 

Should there be as much of the 1914 crop in the hands 
of the growers at the present time as was held of the 1913 
crop, we would have a total value for the 1914 crop of 
$24,600,367.87, to which must be added the value of the 
tobacco iLeXd by dealers, and tliat which was sold without 
passing through the tobacco warehouses. A much larger 
portion of the Burley tobacco passes through the ware- 
houses than of the dark tobacco. It is safe to estimate 
the value of the entire 1914 crop of tobacco at from 
$30,000,000 to $35,000,000. 



BuKBAu OF Ageicultube. 95 

REPORT OF ACTUAL SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO, AS REQUIRED 

UNDER THE ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE APPROVED 

MARCH 20, 1914. 

Report Beginning August 1, 1914, and Ending August 31, 1915. 

1913 CROP 1914 CROP 

Ave. Ave. 

„ , Price „ , Price 

Pounds p-,. Pounds p„ 

100 lbs. 100 lbs. 

Burley tobacco sold for growers.... 1,991,880 $7.95 299,389,527 $7.29 
Burley tobacco sold for dealers.... 8,363,655 9.42 26,612,054 8.40 

Burley tobacco resale 4,530,990 8.45 20,660,231 7.88 

Total burley and average 14,883,520 8.92 346,761,803 7,54 

One-Sucker tobacco sold for grow- 
ers 48,885 5.18 11,311,170 5.58 

One-Sucker tobacco sold for deal- 
ers 783,935 5.83 1,688,465 5.41 

One-Sucker tobacco resale 140,895 5.68 472,796 6.01 

Total one-sucker and average 973,715 5.60 13,472,431 5.32 
Unfired dark tobacco sold for 

growers 81,825 5.17 6,374,910 5.64 

Unfired dark tobacco sold for 

dealers 701,695 6.43 4,547,500 4.47 

Unfired dark tobacco resale 76,905 5.43 990,560 4.93 

Total unfired dark & average 860,425 6.22 11,912,970 5.24 

Fired dark tobacco sold for grow- 
ers 1,302,995 4.41 6,898,135 6.35 

Pil-ed dark tobacco sold for deal- 
ers 1,727,180 7.20 1,740,250 6.75 

Fired dark tobacco resale 27,960 6.68 1,122,270 6.32 

Total fired dark and average.. 2,991,800 5.91 9,760,655 6.58 
Green River tobacco sold for 

growers 63,205 4.98 18,580,512 6.03 

Green River tobacco sold for 

dealers ; 558,565 4.90 1,513,450 3.90 

Green River tobacco resale 66,025 6.61 83,785 5.92 

Total Green River & average 687,795 5.01 20,177,747 5.98 

Grand total and average 20,466,595 8.06 401,244,681 7.39 

SPRAYINa AND PRUNING DEMONSTRATIONS. 

The Department of Agriculture has deemed it ad- 
visable to keep one or two men in the field during the 
months of January, February and March to give prun- 
ing and spraying demonstrations in different parts of 
the State. Kentucky has a great many valuable fruit 
trees that are not yet beyond redemption. The San Jose 
scale and the pear blight have discouraged a great many 
farmers and they have woefully neglected their orchards. 



96 Twenty-First Biennial Eepokt 

A representative of the Department of Agriculture, with 
a spraying pump and a few pruning instruments, has 
been abl'e to secure a crowd to watch his operations 
wherever he has gone. Much good has been done by this 
work. As many as two hundred farmers have gathered 
together in one orchard to learn how to take care of their 
own. Probably five hundred dollars could cover all the 
cost of this work so far done, but it has been demon- 
strated that much good would follow a thorough canvass 
of the State in an effort to instruct the farmers when 
and how to spray and prune these trees, that arc now 
capable of yielding great quantities of fruit, but when 
neglected produce a very inferior quality of but little 
value. 



EEPORT OF THE STATE FREE EMPLOYMENT 

BUREAU. 

Fount Kjremee, Immigeation Cleek. 



The work of the Free Employment Bureau under the 
management of the State Immigration Clerk continues 
to demonstrate the advisability of the State to maintain 
this work. The limited amount of $2,000.00 annually is 
all that is provided by the General Assembly for con- 
ducting this office. This is not sufficient to bring about 
the best results. In my previous report, I called the at- 
tention of the Greneral Assembly to the fact that the 
State of Illinois maintains six free employment bureaus 
in different cities throughout that State and has an an- 
nual appropriation of $42,500.00. Missouri has three 
such offices with an annual appropriation of $18,000.00. 
This work in Kentucky is beyond the experimental stage, 
and the tabulation as presented below will show the great 
number of applicants seeking an opportunity to earn 
their wages. It will be seen that during the year 1915, 
746 positions have been secured at a cost of less than 
$2,000.00. In other words, through the State's expendi- 
ture of less than $3.00 some one has been able to secure 
a position wherein he became a wealth creator. With a 
properly organized force, it is believed that the average 
cost of each position secured can be reduced materially. 



BXJBEAXJ OF AgEICTJLTTJRE. 



97 



TABULATION OF STATISTICS OF STATE FREE 
EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 

From May 1st to December 31st, 1914. 



MONTH 



MALES 



C3 0) 






.2S 



M- 



FEMALBS 



m 

a 

Pi 
<! 



May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

.October 

November . 
December .. 



172 
238 
214 
242 
191 
125 
147 
191 



50 
119 
59 
20 
22 
12 
31 
36 



Totals 1,520 



349 



27 
40 
55 
58 
50 
54 
48 
48 



380 



19 
21 
29 
21 
22 
19 
14 
12 



157 



Total number of positions secured 506 



From January 1st to December 31st, 1915. 



MONTH 



MALES 



_o 

Pi 



.s s; 



.2 = 



FEMALES 



ci3 O 
p 






January , 

February ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November . 
December . 



Totals 2,348 



256 
222 
213 
192 
195 
123 
189 
172 
261 
167 
188 
170 



21 
16 
45 
39 
28 
25 
37 
27 
93 
24 
48 
36 



439 



87 
94 
60 
68 
67 
71 
68 
70 
63 
60 
70 
40 



29 
25 
27 
25 
25 
23 
20 
29 
20 
18 
22 
14 



818 



277 



Total number of positions secured 716 



agri — 4 



98 



TwENTY-FlBST BiBNNIAL RbPOBT 



CLASSIFICATION OF POSITIONS SECURED 

During the Year 1914. 

FOR MALES. 



OCCUPATION 


1 


1 


>. 

S 




m 





i 




Q 


Bakers 




1 

2 

4 
3 

1 

1 

8' 

15 














"Riaf^-lrpTnit^R 




1 


1 


1 








Boys 


1 
1 

1 

3 






1 


Carpenters .... 


10 

4 
3 

1 
9 








1 

2 
1 


1 


Cooks 


1 


2 

1 


2 
1 


« 


Dairymen 


?. 


Engineers and Firemen 




Farm help 


■ 8 
2 
3 


7 


9 


6 


5 

2 

11 


fi 


Factory help 




















5 
12 


1 
1 






1 




Hotel and restaurant help 


6 
1 
1 

7 




5 


1 




Housework 




Janitors, porters and watchmen 
Laborers — Inside and ordinary 


3 
51 

1 
2 


"23" 

1 


3 
4 




2 




2 
19 


Machinists 


....._... 










Mechanics 






Nurses 


4 

1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
4 








1 
1 






1 

4 












Painters and nanerhansers 


3 










Printinc trades 












Plumbers 


1 


2 












Planing and saw mills 




1 
2 












1 




6 
1 


?, 


Stenographers ... 








Teamsters 




4 




3 






1 















FOR FEMALES. 



OCCUPATION 




1 


)-3 


t>ii 

3 


& 

CO 





15 


n 


Cooks 


3 

4 
1 
8 
2 


7 
6 
3 
5 


8 
2 
7 
6 
4 


15 

1 

5 


5 

5 
4 
5 
2 

1 


10 


8 


11 


Farm help 




Hotel and restaurant help 


"4" 

2 


1 
4 




Housework 


1 


Nurses 




Office helD 






Sales neonle and solicitors 


1 








2 


1 






1 

1 










Washerwomen 











1 








BuBBAu OP Ageicultubb. 



99 



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i i i i 


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t- i 






Bakers 

Barbers 

Blacksmiths 

Boys 

Carpenters 

Chauffeurs 


Collectors 

Cooks 

Dairymen 

Engineer and firemen 

Factory help 

Farm help 

Gardeners 

Hotel and restaurant help 


Housework 

Janitors .porters and watchmen 

Laborers — Inside and ordinary 


i 

Oi 

1 


i 
i 
1 

d 

a 
o 

O 


o 
M 

1 
1 
Pi 

CQ 

Ph 


m 
1 
1 

CQ 

i 



'3 


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in 

3 

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m 

1 

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0) 

m 


Eh 



100 



TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOET 



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Ul 
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111 

X 

h 

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a: 
a 

Q 
UJ 

DC 

u 
III 

CO 
CO 

z 
o 



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a, 

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o 



CO 
CO 

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; 




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BUEEAU OF AgEICULTXJEE, 101 

THE KENTUCKY STATE FAIR 



The Kentucky State Fair has continued to grow and 
has become a part of the work of the Department of Agri- 
culture that requires more and more attention of the 
Commissioner, as ex-officio Chairman of the State Board 
of Agriculture and President of the Fair. The fact that 
it is located at Louisville and its business affairs trans- 
acted as separate from the financial affairs of the Depart- 
ment proper makes it necessary for the Commissioner to 
spend much of his time at Louisville to properly super- 
vise the operation of the fair. When the fair was lo- 
cated in Louisville in 1908, the writer, then Secretary, 
planned not only for a show one week during the year, 
but to make the State Fair a great educational institu- 
tion with permanent features connected therewith. To 
this end with the limited funds at the command of the 
State Board of Agriculture, 150 acres of ground were 
purchased, and an option secured on an additional tract 
of 45 acres. The appropriation of $16,000.00 by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1912 enabled the State Board of Agri- 
culture to exercise its option on a tract of 45 acres. 
During my term of office as Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, this has been divided into two tracts; one of 20 
acres has been deeded to the Federal Government for 
the purpose of establishing and maintaining a Fish 
Hatchery, and will revert to the State Board of Agricul- 
ture in case the Fish Hatchery is removed therefrom;. 
The other tract of 25 acres is now under agreement with 
the State Forestry Commission, of which the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture is an ex-officio member, to be 
operated by the Forestry Commission as a forestry 
nursery, and on which is to be placed an urboretum that 
will ultimately be of great value to the State. Fifteen 
acres of the original tract has been set aside for a game 
preserve, and, in co-operation with the Fish & Game 
Commission of Kentucky, a most interesting permanent 
exhibit of animals and birds is gradually being collected. 
Properly supervised for a few years the Fish Hatchery, 
the State Arboretum, and the game exhibit will be at- 



102 TwENTY-FlEST BrBNNIAL RbPOBT 

tractive and valuable features not only of tlie State Fair 
but will become a show place tbe year round of which. 
Kentuckians will be proud. There is ample room on 
the State Fair grounds for a forestry and mineral build- 
ing, in which should be collected a permanent exhibit of 
the State's natural resources. A manufacturers' build- 
ing to exhibit permanently "Made in Kentucky" goods is 
-the fifth project of the Chairman originally contem- 
plated as a part of this State institution. "This dream 
is ultimately bound to come true." Thr6e of the pro- 
jects are already under headway, and the owners of min- 
eral and forestry properties in Kentucky are seriously 
contemplating an effort to erect a permanent exhibit on 
the fair grounds. The manufacturers of the State will 
finally see the great value the fifth undertaking will be 
io them. It is our purpose in publishing the following 
papers bearing upon the different departments of the 
Kentucky State Fair, together with the financial state- 
ment thereof, to show the magnitude of the work that is 
already being handled at Louisville, and with the hope 
that the people of Kentucky will come to realize more 
and more the benefits of this work to the great 
mass of the people. Good seeds have been planted and 
it only requires careful nursing and guidance for the 
State Fair of Kentucky to become a factor in the State's 
development of importance second to no other State in- 
stitution. The writer has spent three years as Secretary 
of the fair and the last four years as its President. He 
has fostered this institution from its infancy and re- 
linquishes his connection therewith with regret, at the 
same time commending it to his successor and the mem- 
bers of the board as an institution fraught with great 
possibilities, and trusting that they will take the same 
deep interest in its welfare as he and his associates have 
done in the past. 

(Signed) J. W. NEWMAN. 



Bureau of Agricultubb. 103 

FINANCIAL EEPORT. 



To the Members of the Kentucky State Board of Agricul- 
ture: 

Herewith, is submitted the financial report of the 
Kentucky State Fair of 1915. This report shows total 
receipts from all sources, for the fair of 1915, are 
$80,151.43, and that the total disbursements up to 
October 15th, including all the outstanding bills that 
were obtainable at that time, amount to $72,771.33, leav- 
ing a net profit of $7,380.10 for this year's fair. This, 
of course, does not include the running expenses of the 
fair from now until January 1, 1916, and some bills that 
were not in on October 15th. This report, also, does not 
include some miscellaneous receipts, which will come in 
from time to time, between now and the close of the 
year. These will be included in the final report, which 
will be made at the end of the year, after the books are 
examined and closed. 

In comparison with previous years, and more espe- 
cially 1914, which was the banner year, both in point of 
attendance and receipts, the showing made at this year's 
fair should be most gratifying. While the total receipts 
for last year's fair were $3,378.67 in excess of this year, 
the difference is traceable to three sources, to-wit : cata- 
logue advertising, special premiums and entry fees for 
saddle stakes, and old claims. Since the cost of printing 
the catalogue was materially reduced and the premiums 
for the saddle horse stake also reduced, there was but 
little, if any, difference in the actual results obtained 
from these sources or from the fair as a whole. Looking 
at the other side of the ledger, we find that the total 
disbursements for last year were $79,933.09, which is 
$7,258.57 in excess of this year's expenses; in other 
words, it cost about $7,000.00 less to put on the 1915 
fair. The following accounts show an increase in ex- 
jpenditures : 

Exhibits $ 300.00' 

Lighting 300.00 

Attorneys' Fees 250.00^ 

Building and Ground Expenses 300.00 

Total $1,150.00 



104 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 

The following accounts show a decrease in expendi- 
tures : 

■Catalogues f TOO.Oa 

Shows and Hippodrome 500.00 

Traveling Expenses 300.00 

Police and Labor 500.00 

Discount and Interest 700.00 

Premiums 4,000.00 

In submitting last year's report, it was suggested 
that the amount of money offered for premiums could 
be materially reduced, without seriously affecting either 
the quality or character of exhibits. In apportioning 
the money for this year's exhibit, the Board of Agricul- 
ture ordered a reduction of ten per cent, from the total 
amount of premium money offered for each department. 
This order was carried out as far as possible, and ex- 
tended to nearly every department. It resulted in a 
saving of $4,000.00 to the fair, and in the opinion of those 
best informed, did not materially hurt the exhibit in any 
department. On the contrary, the exhibit as a whole by 
far surpassed anything that was ever before assembled 
on the State fair grounds. Only in the Beef and Dairy 
Cattle Departments was there an appreciable falling off 
of exhibits, and that, as everyone knows, was due to the 
foot-and-mouth disease situation. In every other depart- 
ment the entries were larger and the exhibits were super- 
ior to any that had ever been shown at this fair before, 
with the possible exception of the Educational Depart- 
ment. For some reason, the secondary schools have not 
been sufficiently interested in making the exhibits in this 
department as creditable and as numerous as they should 
be ; in fact, instead of the exhibits increasing from year 
to year, they seem to have fallen off. In all the other 
departments along special educational lines, such as the 
Stock- Judging Contest, Boys' Corn Club, Boys' Pig 
Club, Farm Boys ' Encampment and Girls ' Canning Club, 
etc., there was a noticeable increase in interest, in the 
number of entries received and in the benefits apparently 
derived from them. 

The race meeting was by far the best in the history 
of the institution, and its value as a free attraction can 
best be attested by the throngs of people which filled 



BuEBAu OF Ageicultxjbe. 105 

the grand stand and adjacent grounds every afternoon. 
The popularity of the night horse show in the hippodrome 
can, also, be attested by the increased attendance and 
receipts. 

Every year emphasizes more strongly than the pre- 
ceding one the absolute need of additional buildings and 
equipment. The fair has been maintained now for eight 
years, since it has been located in its permanent home, 
with only two substantial and permanent buildings. How 
long it will continue to give exhibitions with the present 
inadequate equipment, in the way of frame bams, tem- 
porary exhibition sheds and the like, is a problem that 
will have to be met sooner or later by^the fair manage- 
ment. At the next meeting of the State Board, I expect 
to be able to submit a plan for the erection of a suitable 
Exposition Building, which, I believe, would prove a 
great acquisition to the fair and a valuable addition to 
the fair plant. There is another matter upon which I 
feel that every member of this Board is fully advised, 
and that is, if this fair is to continue to grow and prosper 
and to keep pace with the other great institutions in the 
north and west, it must necessarily be planned on a 
larger scale from year to year, and this will mean a cor-, 
responding increase in expenditure. Such an increase 
of expenditure can only be met by an increase in attend- 
ance, which is the main source of receipts. To attain this 
end, a stronger appeal must be made to the people of the 
State to patronize their State institution, and an especial 
effort should be made to enlist the interests of those more 
directly concerned in agriculture, which is the basis of 
the State Fair exhibit, and the promoting and foster- 
ing of which is the sole purpose of the institution itself. 
A like effort should be made to awaken an interest in the 
city people. This interest can only be aroused by stag- 
ing popular attractions. Great crowds from the city can- 
not be assembled on the fair grounds without the aid of 
some spectacular amusement or attraction. While such 
features are necessarily costly, they almost invariably 
pay in the end. In other words, they are a necessity to 
a growing, expanding fair, in that they both draw 
erowds and help pay the expenses. 



106 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Repobt 

You will recall, at this time last year, there was an 
indebtedness of approximately $15,000, incurred in mak- 
ing permanent improvements on the grounds in recent 
years. 

With our profit this year applied to this indebted- 
ness, it leaves it necessary to take care of only approxi- 
mately $7,000.00 or $8,000.00. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my great apprecia- 
tion of the assistance rendered by the daily press of 
Louisville, the daily and weekly papers of the State, and 
commercial organizations of the city of Louisville and 
State of Kentucky. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) J. L. Dent, 
Secretary. 



STATEMENT OF CONDITION OP KENTUCKY STATE FAIR, 
0CT0BER"~15, 1915. 

ASSETS. 

Real estate ? 75,069.10 

Improvements 42,317.54 

— ?117,386.64 

Live stock pavilion — $103,447.01 

Race track and grand stand 44,769.93 

Temporary building 27,285.85 

lylodel cow and dairy barn 1,601.95 

Model school „ 2,061.19 

Judging pavilion 2,181.38 

Ground equipment 3,232.05 

Dining room equipment 104.82 

' fl'S4,684.18 

Implements and tools 189.78 

Fumitm-e and fixtures 508.25 

Live stock 567.50 

$303,336.35 

Accounts receivable $ 2,<>98.59 

Suspense (Accts. Reo.) 216.75 

Petty cash 65.62 

State of Kentucky 6,414.54 

8,795.41 

$312,131.76 



BUEEATJ OF AgEICULTUEE. 107 

LIABILITIES. 

Accounts payable "operating fund" $11,030.45 
Accounts payable Main, and- Lab. 

fund 3,411.79 

$ 14,442.24 

Futurity stake 180.74 

Cash overdraft 536.32 

Main and Lab. fund. Bal. Cr 2,085.09 

Permanent fund |287,065.50 

Net income year 1915 to Oct. 15, 
1915 (books not closed until 

Dec. 31, 1915) 7,380.10 

Crops & For. do 72.80 

Main & Lab. improvements, etc., 
(to be closed end of year into 
permanent fund) 368.97 



$294,887.37 
$312,131.76 



MAINTENANCE AND LABOR FUND TO OCTOBER 15, 1915. 

Monthly pay rolls ground | 4,484.39 

Feed 547.06 

Blacksmithing 98.50 

Fuel and lights 14.27 

Repairs 1,559.40 

Insurance 1,770.95 

Veterinary service 12.00 

team hire 60.00 

Miscellaneous expense 3.05 

Harness 8.80 

Crops and forage 144.71 

Removal of bams 700.00 

Rent— 1914 $400.00 

1915 800.00 

1,200.00 

Buildings and grounds expense 99.00 

$ 10,702.13 

Improvements ? 275.10 

Ground equipment 50.37 

Implements and tools 43.50 

368.97 

Total $ 11,071.10 

Above items consist of following: 
Received acct. State appropriation $ 6,741.65 

Paid by checks on operating fund 

for which no warrants from State 

have been received $ 327.78 

Checks issued for monthly pay 

rolls — ^warrant not received at 

time of this statement 727.88 

Same — veterinary service 12.00 



Included in warrant for insurance 
— ^but amount deposited in bank 



$ 1,067.66 



108 TwBNTY-FiBST Biennial Ebpoet 

and -check for $45.00 Robinson, 
Wilson Co. issued instead (policy 
cancelled) 150.00 

$ 917.66 

f 7,659.31 
Accounts not yet paid (unpaid 
Ibills) 3,411.79 

Total, as aboTe — f 11,071.10 

Appropriation year 1914 .$ 10,000.00 

Amt. received 1914 to Dec. 31, 1914 6,843.81 

Balance appropriation Jan. 1, 1915 f 3,156.19 

Appropriation year 1915 10,000.00 

$ 13,156.13 

Amt. received 1915 to Oct. 15, 1915 6,741.65 

Balance appropriation Oct. 15, 1915 $ 6,414.54 

Unpaid bills, as above 3,411.79 

Leaves Bal. appropriation Oct. 15, 
1915 $ 3,002.75 

Checks as above for which no war- 
rant yet received—- $ 1,067.66 

Deposit as above Insurance warrant 160.00 

Amt. to be deposited to operating 
fund when warrants are received $ 917.66 

Would leave Bal. appropriation 

available for maintenance and 

labor fund, Oct. 15, 1915 $ 2,085.66 

OPERATING FUND YEAR 1915 TO OCTOBER 15, 1915. 
INCOME. 

Admissions $ 34,376.38 

Concessions 8,052.24 

Catalogues 1,297.10 

Races 5,050.00 

Stall rent 1,860.00 

Exhibitors' tickets 346.00 

Shows 7,527.80 

Poultry fees 451.75 

Dog show „ 424.75 

Miscellaneous _ 204.92 

$ 59,590.94 

State appropriation ? 15,000.00 

Other premiums and entry fees: 

Special premiums $1,701.00 

Saddle horse stake 1,555.00 

Special saddle horse 

stake 362.50 

Roadster stake ©80.00 

Harness stake 890.00 

Futurity stake, 60% 271.10 

$ 5,459.60 

$ 20,459.60 

$ 80,050.64 

Old claims 100.89 

■ $ 80,151.43 



[feuKEAU OF AgEICTJLTTJEE. 



109 



EXPENDITURES. 

Admissions $ 1,117.75 

Concessions 227.00 

Catalogues 1,537.96 

Exploitations 6,784.66 

Exhibits 4,895.31 

Shows 4,260.00 

Attractions 4,047.00 

Badges and ribbons 633.06 

Traveling expenses $ 157.60 

State Board expense 87.86 

Police and labor 

Lighting 

Office expense 244.21 

Stationery and printing 1,205.35 

Postage 94®.66 

Clerk hire 1,713.30 

Telephone 213.57 

Telegrams 48.57 

Express 101.82 

Drayage 89.29 

Attorneys' fees 750.00 

Auditing and accounting 325.00 

Bonding fees 175.00 

Official dining room 682.00 

Farm hoys' encampment I 611.03 

Hospital service ...., 113.20 

Building and grounds expense 

Damages and accidents 

Discounts 177.32 

Interest 281.75 

Administration 

Auto hire $ 365.55 

Com. Agriculture office expense.... 95.93 

Miscellaneous expense 173.73 

Profit and loss (miscellaneous) 7.41 

Premiums 

Old liability 

Total expenditures 

Net Income (gain) 

Ilunning expenses and bills not yet 
in between Oct. 15, 1915, and 
Jan. 1, 1916 (estimated)) 

Would leave net Income (gain) 



$ 23,502.74 



245.46 
1,706.30 
1,041.23 



$ 6,496.77 



724.23 

1,441.60 

22.20 



459.07 
3,583.35 



642.62 

$ 39,919.57 
32,293.25 

I 72,212.82 
558.51 



-$ 72,771.33 
? 7,380.10 



2,000.00 
? 5,380.10 



110 TwBNTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RbPOET 

HOESE DEPARTMENT. 



The entries in the Horse Department of the fair of 
1915 exceeded in many ways those of all previous years. 
There were more horses on hand, the quality ran more 
even, and the entries were better distributed in the vari- 
ous classes. 

In past years the Horse Show has always been a 
source of gratification to the management. To it thff 
greater part of the fair-going public look for entertain- 
ment; and the general public judges the success of our 
fairs almost entirely by the merits of its Horse Shows. 
This is an attribute one would hesitate to defend. It- is 
to be deplored, from an agricultural and educational 
viewpoint, that it exists to the extent that it does ; but 
in Kentucky it is, nevertheless, a fact. 

We have always had a very satisfactory Horse Show, 
each succeeding year surpassing in souie way aU those 
preceding it; but it remains for 1915 to show a decided 
step forward. This improvement has not been so much 
in numbers, as in quality, and while the best of the 
1915 show is no better than the best of other fairs, the 
evenness of the entries argues that the horses are being 
culled previous to this show, and hence it has come to 
the point where there was an almost complete absence of 
animals that would not be a credit to the exhibitor, in 
victory or defeat. 

In another way there was evidence of a forward 
step — In previous years, there have been a number of ex- 
ceedingly "top-heavy" classes shown, and a correspond- 
ing number of lightly filled ones. This year, however., 
such has not been the case, the entries running with sur- 
prising evenness in all the classes. 

The show given in the Horse Department this year 
was close to its capacity. The stalls were filled ; the show 
on some days lasted f roni 10 a. m. to 11 :20 p. m., with 
intermission for the vaudeville performance. It seems 
as if the number of classes was approachiag the maxi- 
mum, unless the Department is sub-divided into several 
divisions, with separate organization. 



"^ 



tJEEAU OF AGBICtTLTXJEE. Ill 



From the lnsi,de, it appeared that the spectators 
were more interested iOian in any former year. When 
shows of real interest were being given, ^here was al- 
ways an audience, and an appreciative one. 
GuTHKiE Wilson-, 

Superintendent of Department. 



\'rr. 



';ti 



MULE AND JACK DEPARTMENTS. 



In both the Mule and Jack Departments, the numeri- 
cal high mark of 1914 was not maintained, but the ex- 
hibit was, nevertheless, exceedingly good. The competi- 
tion was strong, the qualij;y good, and the judging seemed 
to give satisfaction to the exhibitors. 

The depression in the mule market accounts for the 
numerical falling off in both these Departments. The 
fair is making actual progress in these lines; and not. 
only is there no cause for discouragement, but under 
normal conditions, it will only be a question of a few 
years until the Kentucky State Fair will have the pre- 
mier show in mules and jacks, as it already has among 
the light horses. 

GuTHiiiE Wilson, 

Superintendent of Department. 



DAIRY CATTLE. 



The exhibits of dairy cattle were curtailed this year 
because of the recent epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease. 
There were 67 Jerseys, 16 Guernseys, 1^ Ayrshires, and 
6 Holsteins on exhibit at Louisville. At the Indiana 
State Fair there were but 62 Jerseys, which indicates 
that we kad a good exhibit of this breed at the Kentucky 
State Fair. Despite the rather small entries of the other 
breeds, there was no lack of interest in the Dairy Cattle 
Deparlanent. Fortunately, we had secured the services 
of atery competent jtidge aiid lecturer in the person of 



112 TwBNTY-FlEST BiBNNIAL RbPOET 

Mr. Hugh G. VanPelt, of Waterloo, Iowa. Because of 
the rather meager entries in some of the classes there 
was an abundance of time in which to judge the dairy 
stock, and for that reason the visitors and exhibitors 
were encouraged to ask Mr. VanPelt any questions that 
arose in their minds. As a result there was always a 
group of interested spectators about him as he judged 
the cattle, and they stateithatjthey learned a very great 
deal about dairy cattle from him. Some of the oldest 
breeders stated they had gained much information about 
dairy stock while at the State Fair. 

On Friday morning at 11 o'clock, Mr. VanPelt made 
an address in the small judging pavilion to an audience 
of two hundred people in regard to the points of the 
dairy cow. We secured two excellent cows from each 
dairy breed, and in concluding his address Mr. VanPelt 
told the people in the audience why he preferred one of 
the cows above the other. The audience who heard Pro- 
fessor VanPelt was composed of over one hundred boys 
from the Farm Boys ' Encampment, prominent breeders 
of dairy cattle, and visitors. 

In the past few months there has been som,e dis- 
cussion about reviving the large Jersey cattle show that 
used to be held in Shelby county, but I believe that the 
breeders now see the wisdom of combining all of their 
energies with the State Fair, in order that a show of 
Jersey cattle may be made at Louisville next September 
that will rival the exhibit held at the National Dairy 
Show in Chicago. A movement was started by the breed- 
ers of Jersey cattle to duplicate the premiums offered by 
the State Fair. In past years the State Fair has ap- 
propriated $898 for premiums for Jersey cattle. I be- 
lieve it is going to be possible before next September for 
the breeders of Jersey cattle in Kentucky, through pri- 
vate subscriptions, and through financial assistance from 
the American Jersey Cattle Club, to duplicate these 
premiums so that the total premiums for Jersey cattle 
next September will amount to $1,796. Mr. VanPelt 
stated that with such liberal premiums we might expect 
an entry of some four hundred Jerseys at the next fair. 

PbOP. J. J. HOOPEB, 

Superintiendeiit of pe,partmenifc., 



Bureau of Agkicultuee. 113 

STO^E DEPABTMENT. 



An honorable feature of the swine exhibit at the 
Kentucky State Fair was the exhibit of eighteen pigs 
by members of the Boys' Pig Club of Kentucky, in 
charge of Otis Kercher, Kentucky Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 

These pigs were representatives of only four coun- 
ties, although pig clubs have been organized in fifteen 
counties of the State. The counties represented at the 
fair were Jefferson, Christian, Crittenden and Wood- 
ford. Although small in numbers, the quality of these 
pigs and the interest shown by their little owners com- 
pelled the attention of the visitors to the swine barns 
to a larger degree than any other one swine exhibit. 

One of the most forcible examples of the difference 
that comes from using the balanced ration in opposition 
to the "old man's method," as Mr. Kercher styles it, is 
shown by the entry of Moser Brothers, two young Jeffer- 
son county boys. The boys took two pigs from a litter, 
and the father a third one. The three are in the same 
pen. The one raised on com by the father, weighs a lit- 
tle more than fifty pounds, while th6 two raised by the 
boys tip the scales at more than 220 pounds ea;ch. The 
sons know that it cost them four and one-half cents to 
produce their pigs, while the father does not know what 
his runt cost. 

Ernest Minner, of Marion, Crittenden county, has 
a pig on display which shows he knows his business, and 
that he can make money on porkers. The pig is now a 
little more than six months old, and weighs 255 pounds, 
and is valued at $40.00. He bought it from his father 
for five cents a pound when it was two months old.' 

■ He has not only this book profit, but the pig won 
first prize in its class at the Crittenden county fair; and 
also secured for its owner a free trip to the State Fair. 
Ernest was one of the proudest boys on the grounds. 

John "Woodward, of "Wilmore, was easily the most 
disheartened boy who had a pig entry. He had a pig 
which weighed 330 pounds when it was shipped from 
bdmie. It ZieU in the wla'gbn. betwfeen the station and the 



114 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

fair grounds. John was on hand early in the morning, 
but could not find his pig. "When Mr. Kereher appeared, 
he asked about his entry, and was informed that it had 
died. The boy was heartbroken, because he had hoped to 
win the prize. 

"Lady Wonderprice," a Big Bone Poland China pig, 
weighing 252 pounds, won a niche in the State Fair's 
gallery of famous exhibitors for Gordon Nelson, Jr., of 
Hopkinsville. After capturing first prize for the best 
registered hog of any breed or sex, over six months «ldj 
and less than one year. Lady "Wonderprice was pitted 
against twenty-four choice pigs raised in several states, 
most of them by old farmers, and again it was victorious. 
The boy's pig won the prize money for showing the great- 
est gain in weight at the lowest cost, increasing from 
sixty to 252 pounds by September first. 

Hogs raised by the Boys' Pig Club, that were on 
exhibition at the fair, were sold (September 15, 1915), 
through the Bourbon Stock Yards by Mr. 0. Kereher, 
State Agent of the Boys' Pig Club, at a premium price 
of $8.15 a hundred, which was 25c a hundred above the 
top market price on this class of hogs. 

Nearly everybody that saw these pigs on exhibition 
considered them one of the finest lots of hogs that were 
seen in this locality for a long time. 

PRIZE WINNERS. 

1561. Best registered hog, any breed, male or female, over six months 
and under one year: 

1st, $15.00 — Gordon Nelson, Hopkinsville. 
2nd, 10.00 — Ernest Minner, Marion. 
3rd, 5.00 — Wilson Ogden, Marion. 

1562. Best grade hog, male or female, over six months and under 
one year: 

1st, 115.00 — ^Regis Alexander, R. R. No. 1, Midway. 

2nd, 10.00 — Scroggan Jones, Buechel. 

3rd, 5.00 — John Moser, R. R. No. 18, Anchorage. 

1564. Pig showing largest gain per day at least cost: 

?5.00 — Gordon Nelson, Hopkinsville. 
Extra Sweepstakes hog — one hog Joy Oiler: 
Regis Alexander, Midway. 

1565. Best Duroc Jersey, eligible to record (male) : 

$15.00 — Newton B. Slmcoe, St. Ma,thews. 
1565. Best buroc Je.rsey, eligible to record (female): 
f 15.00 — Wilson Ogden, Anchorage. 



BxjBEAu OF Agbicultube. 115 

1567. Best Duroo Jersey, not eligible to record (either sex): 

1st, $10.00 — iRegis Alexander, Midway. 
2n'd, 6.00 — Scroggan Jones, Buechel. 
3rd, 4.00 — ^John Moser, R. R. No. 18, Anchorage. 

1568. To the member of the Kentucky Pig Club beiss the best judge 
of a ring of swine: 

1st, Silver Cup — Bay Jones, Williamsburg. 
2nd, $10.00— Edward J. Hartman, Buechel. 
3rd, 5.00 — ^John Moser, R, R. No. 18, Anchorage. 
1669. Best Hampshire Hog: 

Silver Cup ($10.00)— John Woodward, R. R. No. 1, Wilmore. 

C. C. Wheeleb, Supt. 



SHEEP AND GOATS DEPARTMENT. 



Complying with your request for a brief account of 
the interesting features of the Sheep and Goats Depart- 
ment and summary of the show at the Kentucky State 
Pair this year, I am pleased to state that in spite of re- 
ported fresh outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Il- 
linois, and the unsettled conditions resulting therefrom, 
the show in this Department may be considered a dis- 
tinct success. 

Possibly a larger number may have been on exhibi- 
tion in former years, but I doubt if at any time since this 
fair was inaugurated, has there been an exhibit of higher 
quality. Many of the flocks were being fitted for the 
Panama Exposition, and if no accident befall them, will 
be heard from at that great show. 

One of the most pleasing features of the exhibi- 
tion was the strong showing made by Kentucky exhibi- 
tors, Mr. Turney 0. Collins, of Leesburg, Kentucky, 
showing a flock of cheyiots good enough to divide honors 
with so good a flock as that shown by Mr. E. D. Grieve, 
of Xenia, Ohio (a flock that looked invincible to many of 
the spectators) ; Mr. E. M. Shrout, of Georgetown, Ken- 
tucky, a flock of Southdowns of correct type and superb 
quality, that held its own with the well-fitted flock of 
Axe & Millett, of Indiana; and the Walnut Hall Hamp- 
shires were well represented in numbers, the quality 
fully up to, or possibly surpassing, that of former years, 
winning in every class. 



116 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOBT 

Mr. Thomas, of Oakland, Kentucky, was on hand 
with his beautiful Angoras, but Mr. Malone, also a Ken- 
tucky exhibitor, furnished strong competition, and won 
a goodly portion of the prize money. 

Very notable exhibits w^ere the fine wool flock of K. 
D. Williamson & Sons, of Ohio, the Oxfords of Mr. M. R. 
Purviance, of Indiana, and the Dorsets of Mr. H. H. 
Cherry, of Ohio. Probably nowhere in America could 
better flocks of these breeds be seen. They would be a 
credit to any State Fair, Live Stock Show or Exposition 
in the world. All three of these flocks will be shown at 
San Francisco in November. 

In the Shropshire classes Axe & Millett won most of 
the money on their well-fitted entries, though the strong, 
rugged sheep of Frank Henn, of Illinois, who furnished 
the competition, looked so good to the Kentucky farm- 
ers that Mr. Henn sold his entire show flock, comprising 
sixteen head, to farmers and breeders out in the State 
before the show closed. Numerous sales were made by 
other exhibitors, indicating a keen demand for good 
sheep. This demand has existed for some time, and 
many exhibitors have been heard to remark that they had 
more inquiries for sheep at Kentucky State Fair than 
any other on the circuit. 

Cotswolds were well represented in the flocks of 
Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Daniel Bryan, of Indiana. Both 
flocks brought some grand individuals, nicely fitted, and 
furnished many interesting contests. 

A fact worthy of comment was the interest shown by 
spectators in the juding of the classes. That master 
shepherd. Professor Frank Kleinheinz, of the University 
of Wisconsin, who awarded the prizes, always does his 
work in such a manner as to interest and instruct those 
present; and it was gratifying to note the eagerness of 
so many Kentucky folk to take advantage of the op- 
portunity to learn the good and bad points of the indi- 
viduals showing and hear the judge patiently and clearly 
give his reasons for placing one animal at the head of 
its class, another second, and so on down the line. The 
constant stream of visitors passing back and forth 
through the alleys of the sheep bams asking a thousand 
and one questions concerning the various breeds on ex- 



Bureau of Ageicultubb. 117 

hibition, was a • strong and convincing answer to the 
charge so often made that the horse show at the fair is 
the only feature that interests the Kentuckian. 

There were so many interesting features of the 
show in the Sheepi and Goat Department, that to mention 
them all my report would not be brief. 
EespectfuUy submitted, 
P. B. Gaines, 

Superintendent of Department. 



POULTEY DEPARTMENT. 



The Department of Poultry and Pigeons staged dur- 
ing the 1915 exhibition far outnumbered any of the pre- 
vious efforts and reached the grand total of 1,780 birds. 
For the first time in the history of the Fair, and to further 
attest the popularity and growth of the poultry depart- 
ment as an advertising medium, we were this year re- 
warded with entries of some of the most widely known 
fanciers of the more popular strains of poultry and 
pigeons, and quite a few applications have already been 
received asking that the classification for another year 
be enlarged to accept every known variety, and we are 
sure of the co-operation of the fair board to enable the 
fulfilling of these requests. 

Not only in point of number was the exhibition a 
success, but also in ahnost every breed, and many com- 
ments were made on the quality exhibited, and several 
who have made the show in former years and thinking 
that the competition would not necessitate such extreme 
care and conditioning necessary to carry off the honors 
in s. National Winter Exhibition, were sadly disappointed 
when they arrived and the birds were placed in their 
coops ready for judging. 

One well known artist from Chicago was very much 
surprised to find Kentucky could give just as good an 
account in a poultry way as along other lines of live 
stock, and made the comment that competition was as 
strong in some classes as he had noticed anywhere, and 
when artists from Buffalo, Chicago and Cleveland came 



118 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAIi KePOBT 

to olir fair for no other purpose than to photograph win- 
ning poultry on exhibition at the Kentucky State Fair, 
"why should we not be proud of the department? One well 
known Kentucky fancier made a collection of White Ply- 
mouth Rocks, the strongest class shown, from New Jer- 
sey, Mississippi, Missouri and Indiana, and had ^^ entry 
of half a hundred fine birds to win for him the ribbons 
he carried home. Another class deserving mention was 
the White Wyandotte, only a trifle fewer in number than 
the Eocks, and just as good in quality, and to enumerate 
them all would be a task and require too much space. 
Yet all in all, if proper encouragement is given we are 
assured of the greatest and finest show for 1916 ever on 
the Kentucky State Fair Grounds. 

John T. Adaie, 

Superintendent of Department. 



DOG SHOW. 



The Dog Show at the 1915 Kentucky State Fair was 
the best in the history of this Department, both in quan- 
tity and quality. We had benched something over two 
hundred dogs, and very few inferior ones, many great 
dogs coming from Chicago, Minneapolis, Cincinnati, Co- 
lumbus, Lexington, etc., in addition to a splendid show 
of local dogs. The star feature of our show was the police 
and Dalmatian dogs shown by Mrs. Yates, of Virginia. 
The entries are heavily increasing each year, and more 
roomy accommodations will soon become imperative. 

H. M. Wood, 

Superintendent of Department. 



VEGETABLE AND MELON DEPARTMENT. 



Complying with your request for an account of the 
important features of the Vegetable and Melon Exhibit 
at the recent Kentucky State Fair, I feel that we had 
about as interesting an exhibit as could be expected con- 



BuEEAu OF Agbicultuee. 119 

sidering the season. This was particularly the case 
with such vegetables as are grown in large quantities 
in this county, such as sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes. 
The melon exhibit was almost a failure, as their was no 
home crop to speak of. 

There seems to be more interest manifested in the 
exhibits of this Department, and with a favorable sea- 
son I feel this interest will grow and the exhibits con- 
tinue to increase. 

Chas. Scholtz, Jr., 

Superintendent of Department. 



FIELD, SEED AND GRAIN DEPARTMENT. 



The Field, Seed and Grain Department of the 1915 
Kentucky State Fair was one of the most attractive and 
interesting shows we have ever had. While there were 
only three county exhibits, they were very fine, and well 
arranged, and excited favorable comment from the in- 
terested crowds that view them. These exhibits were 
from Jefferson, Hardin and Oldham counties. 

In Lot 293, Farm Products, the exhibit was very at- 
tractive and extensive, and it was often taken for a 
county display. 

The corn exhibit was greater than ever, and the in- 
terest manifested was greater than I have ever noticed 
before. The ten-ear and single-ear displays were most 
attractive, judging from the remarks passed by the 
spectators who remained about the tables all day. 

The small grain, such as wheat, oats, barley, rye, etc., 
were not overlooked. Many were the questions that men 
in charge were called upon to answer. There were 
other products of the farm in this Department that were 
more or less interesting and attractive, for instance, sor- 
ghum, hemp, kaffir com, grasses, clovers, etc. 
G. N. McGeew, 

Superintendent of Department. 



120 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOET 

TOBACCO DEPAETMENT. 



The Tobacco Exhibit at the State Fair is becoming 
more of an attraction each year, and the 1915 exhibit so 
far as quality is concerned, was the very best we have 
ever had, both in Dark and Burley. The entry list on 
old Dark tobacco was the largest we have had, and rep- 
resented a larger scope of territory. The exhibit of new 
-Dark tobacco was not so good, owing, no doubt, to the 
lateness of the crop. The samples sent did not represent 
the various types as closely as heretofore. 

The Burley entries were splendid in quality, but 
short in quantity; however, the entries came from sec- 
tions that had not exhibited before, which would indicate 
that more of our tobacco growers are appreciating the 
splendid opportunity to advertise their product, as well 
as their county. 

"We hope that before the time of the 1916 fair, 
we will be able to so thoroughly advertise the Tobacco 
Show and its possibilities, that each tobacco-growing 
county will be represented. 

Thanking you for your splendid co-operation in all 
the efforts I have made to extend this Department, I am, 
Most respectfully yours, 
Evan S. Rees, 

Superintendent of Department. 



THE APPLE SHOW AT KENTUCKY STATE FAIR, 



Few people fully appreciate the important position 
fruit growing occupies in the agriculture of Kentucky. 
Ordinarily when one thinks of fruit production his 
thoughts are sure to carry him to the widely advertised 
States of Oregon, "Washington, New York, Michigan, 
Ohio or Indiana. According to the census of 1910, of the 
fifteen leading States, Kentucky stands ninth in the point 
of number of apple trees of bearing age ; but in produc- 
tion she stands fifth, exceeding her sister States, Illinois, 
Ohio, Indiana and Tennessee. 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 121 

The horticultural exhibit of the Kentucky State Fair 
is undoubtedly one of the greatest factors in educating 
the people of Kentucky, and other States as -well, to the 
importance of orcharding as an industry. It emphasizes 
the fact that this year Kentucky grew over twelve mil- 
lion bushels of apples, an amount greater than the com- 
bined production of the widely heralded States of Wash- 
ington and Oregon. 

The purpose of the fruit exhibit at the State Fair is 
two-fold. The first aim is to aid the fruit growers of the 
State to produce better apples and to market them in a 
way that will do credit to the State. Here the growers 
see and learn what good fruits really are. Fruit from 
every part of Kentucky was on exhibition and a great 
deal of valuable information was picked up by the va- 
rious exhibitors in discussing their methods of produc- 
tion. Fruit from Eastern Kentucky competed with fruit 
from Henderson and Paducah, and it is Mghly gratifying 
to the officials in charge to know that the premiums for 
the most part were well distributed. For a number of 
years exhibitors from Henderson and Louisville captured 
the lion's share of the premiums. Lately a change has 
been noticed and every year the premiums are becoming 
more widely distributed. This is due in a large measure 
to the vigorous educational campaign conducted by the 
institute forces of the State Department of Agriculture 
and the Extension Division of the Kentucky State Uni- 
versity. 

The second purpose of the horticultural exhibit is to 
impress the public with the idea that Kentucky can pro- 
duce as good apples as grow in any other section, and 
for the most part better apples so far as flavor and keep- 
ing quality are concerned. The fruit exhibit does much to 
impress the general public that Kentucky can produce 
choice fruit at five or ten cents less than the northwest, 
and can market these at a saving of 30c to 35c per bushel. 

Apples by no means constitute the whole exhibit. 
Splendid displays of peaches, especially from Jefferson 
and Bullitt counties, always attract a great deal of atten- 
tion. Although the grape display was small, the quality 
was imusually good. The department owes a great deal 



122 TwENTY-FrEST BiBNNiAXi Eepokt 

to Col. Young, of SMvely, for the interest taken in the 
production of this valuable fruit. 

This is an age of co-operation. Heretofore fruit 
growers represented so many units interested solely in 
their own affairs. At the present time they are beginning 
to work harmoniously together on a number of projects 
for the betterment of horticultural conditions. The an- 
nual gathing of fruit growers at the State Fair is weld- 
ing together a number of men who will work co-opera- 
tively for the mutual benefit of all. Each year sees more 
force added and it will only be a short time until Ken- 
tucky will cut down the heavy tax paid annually for im- 
ported fruit that could be grown at home. 

Pkof. J. H. Cabmody, 

Superintendent of Department. 



PLANTS AND FLOWERS DEPARTMENT. 



As Superintendent of the Plants and Flowers De- 
partment at the Kentucky State Fair, would say that 
from an artistic standpoint it was a very great success. 

All classes in plants, cut flowers and artistic floral 
work were entered into with much enthusiasm, compe- 
tition was very keen, and the result was a most excellent 
show. 

I have worked earnestly for the past two years to 
secure more space for this Department, so that it could 
be improved and extended, and hope the Board of Agri- 
culture will see the wisdom of doing so in the near 
future. 

William Mann, 
Superintendent of Department. 



WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT KENTUCKY STATE 

FAIR. 



One of the most attractive features at the Kentucky 
State Fair is the Woman's Department, which is not 
only a credit to the State, but should be the pride of 
the State. The department has three divisions, Art, 



BxjBEAu OF Ageictjlttjeb. 123 

Culinary, and Textile. The culinary division presented 
this year a beautiful display in canned, preserved and 
pickled fruits and vegetables, and jellies, also bread, pas- 
try and fancy candies. The textile division had a large 
and attractive exhibit of embroideries and lace work, 
and each class was well filled, so much so, that in some 
classes the entries would number from seventy to eighty. 
The art division has never been very full from the fact 
that all art work is expensive and the premiums have 
never been sufficient to encourage exhibitions, although 
this- year's display was much larger than it has been in 
previous years. This display includes craft work, china 
painting, water color, oil, crayon and photography and 
showed a marked improvement in each class. 

Each division has contributed its share in the edu- 
cation of the women of our State and reached a standard 
of excellence far beyond the expectation of the Fair 
management. This department is managed by a super- 
intendent, assisted by four assistant superintendents, 
whose duties are to receive the entries, check them and 
distribute in classes ready to be judged. After each 
class is judged the articles are then placed on exhibition. 
At the close of the Fair these articles, which numbered 
about 4,000 this year, are checked again according to the 
entry blank of the exhibitor and carefully and securely 
wrapped to be returned to the owner. The department 
has grown so large that the quarters it now occupies are 
not adequate for its purpose, and a woman's building is 
almost imperative. Each year new glass cases have been 
added in which to house the articles, and the increase 
in articles exhibited this year crowded the displays and 
many beautiful things that should have been shown to 
the public were covered up through this cramped condi- 
tion. 

There is more in the "Woman's Department for the 
women of Kentucky than the competitive exhibits, for 
it has proven a great educational medium and a higher 
standard in woman's work has been realized through 
their persistent efforts to receive the first or second pre- 
miums on articles entered, until this year when practi- 
cally all entries in each class were of such a high merit 
that every entry was worthy of consideration for awards. 



124 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

The interest and enthusiasm is steadily growing and 
through the mailing list, which includes every county in 
the State, the department succeeded in securing exhibits 
from nearly every section of the State, thus making it 
truly a "State Fair." 

This work that is broadening and educating our 
women of Kentucky and giving them Sn inspiration to 
produce the best in home-making and home industries 
should not only interest the Fair Association manage- 
ment, but should be a State pride which our State 
officials and members of the General Assembly should 
protect and encourage by their hearty support. 

(Signed) Mks. Harey McCabty, 

Superintendent of Department. 



FORESTRY EXHIBIT. 



The Forestry and Mineral Exhibit at the Kentucky 
State Fair in the fall of 1915 was somewhat larger than 
any exhibit of this character heretofore made. The 
forestry end of the exhibit consisted largely of material 
furnished by the Forest Service of the TJ. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and was more extensive than the 
material heretofore displayed. Views of various for- 
est and lumbering operations in Kentucky were shown 
by means of bromides, charts, transparencies and maps. 
Various phases of forest activities were emphasized, 
particularly those which showed waste which could be 
avoided in connection with the lumbering operations. 
The willow industry was illustrated not only with views 
of the various phases of the industry, but also with actual 
material showing the manufacture of willow into bask- 
ets. Charts were displayed showing the consumption of 
hardwoods in connection with the various forest indus- 
tries, and the proportion of hardwoods used in each in- 
dustry. An interesting feature of the display were show 
cases illustrating the use of various woods and especially 
showing how various by-products are utilized in the 
character of small articles. 

The mineral exhibit was confined largely to the coal 
products of the State, and was more extensive than pre- 



BuBEAu OF Agbicultueb. 125 

vious years, although, not oommensTirate with the min- 
eral resources of the State. Coal from both the Eastern 
and Western fields was displayed and the coke manufac- 
tured from the coal for various purposes was also illus- 
trated by samples. Limestone of various character was 
shown, and also building rock as exemplified by the Bow- 
ling Green sandstone. The new bituminous asphalt field 
in Western Kentucky was represented by samples of 
rock and the manufactured product. 

As a decorative feature of the entire exhibit, speci- 
mens of various trees native to the State were used as 
far as they could be obtained. 

J. E. Baeton, 
State Forester. 



STOCK JUDaiNG CONTEST. 



You have generously endowed the stock judging 
contest among the students and farm boys to the extent 
of $250. This year there were twenty advanced students, 
ten freshmen, and five farm boys entered in the contest. 
Twenty, students competed for the handsome cup valued 
at $50, which is offered by the American Saddle Horse 
Breeders' Association for the best judging of saddle 
horses. The contestants judged at least four rings of 
each type of stock, which included horses, cattle, sheep 
and hogs. They worked earnestly for three days in an 
effort to win some of the premiums that were offered. 
The exhibitors of stock have always been exceedingly 
kind in bringing out any class of stock that we want to 
judge, and the superintendents of the various depart- 
ments have rendered valuable assistance in getting to- 
gether groups of animals to judge. 

J. J. HOOPEE, 

Superintendent of Department. 



EDUCATION DEPAETMENT. 



I have the honor of reporting to you that the Edu- 
cation Department at the State Fair had a creditable 
and instructive exhibit. 



126 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

First, and best, there was the building itself, with 
its out-bnildings, showing plan of school architecture. 
This is a most valuable feature which is being copied in 
many counties in the State. 

Second, the exhibit of work done by school children 
along the lines of manual training and domestic science 
was a fairly good one, though not an extensive one. This 
exhibit remained in the building all week, and excited 
much favorable comment. It showed the lines of im.- 
provement in the country schools. 

Third, the School Garden Exhibit of the Brandeis 
School ia Louisville was excellent. It was surrounded 
by admirers all day long. The promoters of this worthy 
experiment kept someone with the exhibit all the time 
to explain it. The exhibit consisted of the products of 
the flower and vegetable garden, both green and canned. 
It showed what a "School Garden" could be and do, and 
what it ought to be and do. 

Fourth, the exhibit of manual training and of sewing 
of the School of Eeform at Greendale, Fayette county, 
was large and interesting. It showed what the best 
schools are doing along these important lines. This ex- 
hibit was under the direct control of Mrs. Martin of that 
institution. It was viewed and admired by thousands of 
visitors. 

Fifth, the exhibit of the State Department of Edu- 
cation, showing how the department is aiding the schools 
of the State, excited a great deal of comment. There was 
shown such bulletins as the "State Course of Study," the 
"History of Education," the "Arbor Day Book," and 
many others as valuable. Altogether about 4,000 bulle- 
tins were distributed. Hundreds of people came and 
asked for them after the supply was exhausted. 

T. J. COATBS, 

Superintendent of Department. 



DAIEY PRODUCTS. 



The exhibits of farm butter and cottage cheese have 
become more extensive with each succeeding fair. It 
was only three years ago that premiums were established 
for the dairy products, and yet this has become a very 



BuEBAXJ OF Agbicultube. 127 

interesting department of the State Fair. This year 
there were twenty-five entries of farm butter, and fifteen 
entries of cottage cheese, two exhibits of creamery but- 
ter, and these products were sent from widely separated 
places in our State. Paducah and Bowling Green were 
represented in the list. Mr. 0. 0. Ewing, of Louisville, 
an extensive dealer in milk and manufacturer of butter, 
judged the dairy products. 

Model Daiey. 

The Model Dairy on the State Fair grounds has 
been operated for several years. It has become one of 
the leading attractions of the fair. Four Holstein cows 
were stabled in the up-to-date stalls and were taken care 
of and fed in such a way as to instruct the visitors. In 
the Model Dairy Room, which adjoins the Model Dairy 
Barn, such operations as cooling and bottling milk, sep- 
arating cream, churning butter, and sterilizing dairy 
utensils were carried on. A student operated the Bab- 
coicfc. butter fat tester throughout each day, and hun- 
dreds of visitors learned how to operate this useful test. 
Many dairjrmen brought samples of milk which were 
tested for richness. Through the kindness of the man- 
agement of the State Fair the cattle barn that adjoins 
the Model Dairy was changed into a Convention Hall. 
The rear part of the hall was provided with a speakers ' 
stand and about two hundred chairs. Moving pictures 
were displayed ia this hall during the daytime, and they 
served to teach useful lessons in regard to the care of 
live stock, and the construction of concrete buildings on 
farms. The extensive exhibits from the Experiment Sta- 
tion were displayed in the front part of the Convention 
Hall. It attracted considerable attention, and the attend- 
ants from the Experiment Station were constantly sur- 
rounded by interested groups of spectators as they ex- 
plained the various charts and exhibits. This hall is a 
delightful place for people to stop for a few minutes to 
rest, and to hear lectures or to see the moving pictures. 
It is a most useful addition to the Experiment Station 
equipment at the fair. 

J. J. HOOPBE, 

Head of Department. 



128 TwENTY-FlEST BiBWNIAL RePOKT 

FAEMER BOYS' ENCAMPMENT. 



As Superintendent of the Farmer Boy Encampment, 
I have the honer to render you the following report : 

There were present at the Parmer Boy Encampment 
100 boys. These boys were met at the trains and es- 
corted to camp. Monday the following routine was es- 
tablished : 

Reveille— 6:00 A. M. 

Roll Call. 

Physical Exercises— 20 minutes. 

Police Duty. 

Breakfast— 7:00 A. M. 

Lantern Slides and Lectures — Forenoon. 

Dinner— 12:00 A. M. 

Visiting Exhibits — ^Afternoon. 

Horse Show — Evenings. 

Check Roll Call and to bed immediately after show. 

The membership consisted of members of the Com 
and Pig Clubs and boys appointed by members of the 
Board of Agriculture from counties having no such or- 
ganizations. 

.No accidents, no sickness. Kenzie Crutcher, of Nioh- 
olasville, Ky., was sent home upon advice of Dr. McCor- 
mack because of a bladder trouble evident before he left 
home. 

Quarters were comfortable and convenient, canvas 
ample. 

No disobedience or infractions of rules. Had a few 
sure enough boys, that were disposed on the first night 
to become a little rough and have some horse play, but 
this was soon ended. 

The boys were the recipients of many courtesies, 
visiting Louisville one day in a body. They were given 
souvenirs and soda waters; went in and through Levy 
Bros. ' store ; through the First National Bank at 5th and 
Jefferson, and looked on the city from its top; were 
taken all through a big steam boat and many other places 
of interest. 

Their caps admitted them gratis to Conn T., Kenne- 
dy's Shows and to the Pavillion. 

They were addressed by several notables, having 
among others a dairy cattle lecture by Hugh Van Pelt. 



BuBEAu OF Agkicultube. 129 

I desire here to express the appreciation of the en- 
tire demonstration force for the impetus given their work 
by this new method of selecting the personnel of the 
farmer boy encampment. 

Respectfully submitted, 

B. G. Nelson, 
Agent in Charge Boys' Club Work. 



BABY HEALTH CONTEST. 



A Baby Health Contest is not an advertisement or 
a fad, but a serious effort on the part of its directors to 
help mothers find out the standing of the baby, as com- 
pared to that of other children of his age. For a long 
time baby shows have been features of fairs where good 
looks and good clothes took the prize. 

The score card used is that prepared by the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, and it is endorsed by physi- 
cians generally. It covers points of physical and men- 
tal development ; the standard marks are made from sta- 
tistics covering children. :in all States of the Union, to 
the number of several thousand, forty, I think. Each 
baby is examined by several doctors for teeth and throat, 
for weight, height, and other measurements; for walk- 
ing, running, and other muscular movements; for con- 
dition of skin, hair, etc., and for mental advancement. 

The third contest held by the Kentucky State Fair 
was an entire success. The entries the first year were 
136, but not all of these were examined; the next year 
there were 180 ; and this year 221. All but twenty of this 
last number were examined, failure to reach the city 
or some sudden illness being iiie chief causes of failure 
to come at time appointed. 

When the baby's name is received, the parents are 
sent a card telling them when to bring the child for ex- 
amination. This year the examiners were : For mental 
test, Dr. Sam P. Myer; for dental work. Dr. E. C. Hume; 
for nose and throat. Dr. George Robertson ; for general 
physical development. Dr. John Bedinger and Dr. J. H, 
Pritchett, Dr. Irvin Lindenberger being in general 

agr. — E 



130 TwENTT-FrRST BlBNKIAL EbPORT 

charge. When the baby appears for examination, the 
mother sits by enrolling clerk, and some little family his- 
tory is noted on the card — such as age, nationality of par- 
ents, system of feeding employed, and general care. The 
next step in the examination is the mental room. This 
is most interesting, bnt quite simple, and suited to ba- 
bies, as the age limits are from twelve to twenty-four 
months, and twenty-four to thirty-six months. Imita- 
tions of sounds and movements, pointing out objects in 
pictures, naming and showing features, as mother's 
eyes, mouth, etc., are among the methods used in test- 
ing alertness and mental development. 

Next is the physical room, where the baby (un- 
dressed-) is weighed and measured by a specially pre- 
pared measuring board, and where the throat, etc., are 
examined. Children who live in Louisville are examined 
the week before the fair, at the offices in the Paul Jones 
Building, while those living outside of Louisville are ex- 
amined on the fair grounds during the week of the fair. 

The house was built especially for this work, and 
has screen wire around all sides, so that those interested 
may watch the work from the outside, and not disturb 
either children or examiners. In order to make the work 
continuous, a special prize has been offered to the child 
who makes the greatest gain over his own previous score, 
whether he was a prize winner or not, though the entries 
are still in the age limit of thirty-six months. 

There has been a confusion in the minds of some 
as to just who is a city baby. City in the fair catalogue 
includes all the classified towns in the State, but a baby 
must live in a community of less than one thousand pop- 
ulation if he is to be classed as a rural baby; and, of 
course, those living on farms and very small places are 
in this class. 

As the work goes on, we are able to trace several 
good effects. Parents have come to know that prizes 
are awarded for health standards, not favoritism or 
beauty ; consequently, they value highly the examination 
which points out the defects. While these defects are 
pointed out, the way to remedy them is made plain, and 
many children have been returned from one year to the 
next with improvement that even a layman can see. 



BuEEAu OF Ageicultuee. 131 

The welfare of tlie child is a common meeting 
ground, and the friendly interest which prevails among 
parents from all walks of life is very gratifying. 

Mes. John L. Woodbuey, 
Superintendent of Department. 



GIELS' AND BOYS' CLUB DEPARTMENT. 



This is the first year that any attempt has been made 
to properly exhibit the work of the girls and boys of the 
State of Kentucky at the State Fair. The department 
was suggested by the Commissioner of Agriculture, and 
was carried out by him in co-operation with the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, and the Ken- 
tucky Agricultural Experiment Station at Lexington. 
There were four distinct departments : The Girls ' Can- 
ning Clubs, the Boys' Com Clubs, the Boys' Pig Clubs, 
and the Girls and Boys Poultry Clubs. Each department 
was superintended by a specialist from the Extension 
Department of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Lack of space prevented this exhibit from be- 
ing grouped into one building, and each department had 
to be shown in different buildings. This prevented vis- 
itors to the State Fair from grasping the importance and 
wide scope of the work that is being done by the girls 
and boys of the State. 

Canning Club Depaetment. 

This department was made up from entries from 
twenty counties, and was one of the most creditable ex- 
hibits on the ground. It was uniform in every way and 
the standard was excellent. It was impossible to tell the 
difference between the entries from the mountain coun- 
ties and those from the blue grass counties. The su- 
perintendent in charge of the Woman's Department 
stated that the exhibits in her department had improved 
50% this year, due to the fact that the girls in the can- 
ning clubs were teaching their mothers better methods. 



132 TwBNTY-FrBST Biennial Eepobt 

Boys' Pig Clubs. 

A new and attractive feature at the Kentucky State 
Fair was the exhibit of pigs by the members of the first 
pig clubs of Kentucky. 

An interesting feature was the exhibit of Moser 
brothers, two pig club boys of Jefferson county, who 
forcefully demonstrated the difference in feeding a 
balanced ration from that of the common practice of 
feeding "com alone." 

The boys took two pigs from a litter, and the father 
a third one. The three pigs were in the same pen. The 
father 's pig weighed 95, the boys ' pigs 220 and 215 
pounds, respectively. The sons know it cost them 4%c 
a pound to produce their pigs; the father has no idea 
of the cost of the runt. 

Gordon Nelson, Jr., another pig club boy, from 
Christian county, added to the honors of the club by 
taking the blue ribbon in the junior yearling sow class 
from the Poland China breeders with his club pig, after 
winning his class among the boys. Pig club boys had 
their separate classes, but were also allowed to enter 
against the farmer. 

After several hundred dollars in cash prizes and 
cups were hotly contested for, all these hogs were sold 
at a premium to Louisville packers, with a few excep- 
tions. 

Not only were the pigs present, but a considerable 
number of the boys also. This year the State Fair 
Board sent the winner of the contest in each county to 
the Farmer Boys' Encampment. These boys, in addi- 
tion to their instruction in this camp, competed for a 
handsome trophy and $15 in cash given to the best judge 
of a ring of swine. 

The Boys' Pig Club in Kentucky is organized by 
the Bureau of Animal Industry, in co-operation with the 
Bureau of Plant Industry and the Kentucky College of 
Agriculture, as a unit of the Farmers' Co-operative 
Demonstration Work. It is, therefore, part of the reg- 
ular duties of the county agent, and is organized in coun- 
ties having these county agents only. 



BuBEAtr OF Ageictjltueb. 133 

Boys' Coen Club Dbpaetmbnt. 

There were over 100 entries in this department, from 
boys in 23 counties in the State. The com was most ex- 
cellent, and compared very favorably with the entries in 
the Men's Department. Every boy who entered an ex- 
hibit was required to have an expense account of his 
crop, showing what it had cost him per bushel to produce 
his com. A prize was given to the best judge of com, 
and 48 boys handed in essays stating the order in which 
they placed the exhibits they were given to judge, and 
their reasons for so placing them. 

Department W, "The Girls' and Boys' Clubs De- 
partment, ' ' should be made one of the largest at the State 
Fair, and an entire building should be devoted to it. The 
girls and boys should be encouraged in every way pos- 
sible to enter exhibits and take an interest in their de- 
partment. Work of this nature will do much to build up 
the State Fair in the future. 

Geoffrey Mobgan, 
State Agent, Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration 

Work, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



THE WOMAN'S SHOP AT THE 1915 KENTUCKY 
STATE FAIR. 



The Woman's Shop was a new department of the 
Kentucky State Fair this year, 1915. The object of the 
shop was to create a market for the work of Kentucky 
women. Mr. J. W. Newman, Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, Labor and Statistics, had seen the Porto Rican 
women at work on their beautiful drawn work, and he 
knew that it had a large sale throughout the States. He 
believed that the efforts of Kentucky women would be 
widely recognized and paid for, if their work could only 
be brought before the public in the proper way. The 
most natural way and the best way seemed to be the 
medium of the State Fair, where all home talent is dis- 
played. 

Commissioner Newman invited the following women 
to meet with him in Louis^'ille: Mrs. Helm Bruce, Mrs. 



134 TwBNTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

Alfred Brandeis, Mrs. Morris Belknap, Mrs. Harry 
Bishop, Mrs. R. P. Halleck, and Mrs. S. Thruston Bal- 
lard. He laid his plans before these women, and asked 
their co-operation in forming a committee of women who 
would help advertise the Shop, explain its purpose to' 
contributors and purchasers, and be present at the State 
Pair to assist in making sales. The idea of such a shop 
met with the enthusiastic approval of these women. They 
promised their assistance, and went to work at once, be- 
cause they had only two days in which to secure mem- 
bers for the Women's Shop Committee, and get their 
names in the State Fair catalogue. I was made chairman 
of this committee, with the following members consent- 
ing to serve : 

Mrs. J. A. Mitchell, Bowling Green. 

Mrs. Starling L. Marshall, Henderson. 

Miss Edna Dolfinger, Louisville. 

Mrs. Barbour Minnegerode, Louisville. 

Mrs. Avery Robinson, Louisville. 

Mrs. Leonard A. Hewett, Louisville. 

Mrs. Peter Lee Atherton, Louisville. 

Mrs. Richard Knott, Louisville. 

Mrs. Richard Ernst, Covington. 

Mrs. R. P. Halleck, Louisville. 

Mrs. W. L. Mills, Owensboro. 

Mrs. Anna Ernberg, Berea. 

Mrs. Helm Bruce, Louisville. 

Miss Amanda Rodes, Danville. 

Mrs. Harry Bishop, Louisville. 

Mrs. Alfred Brandeis, Louisville. 

Miss Mary F. Hutchcraft, Paris. 

Mrs. R. C. Ford, Middlesboro. 

Mrs. Sam Boyle, Louisville. 

Mrs. Paul Creel, Louisville. 

Mrs. T. J. Smith, Frankfort. 

Mrs. George A. Armstrong, Shelbyville. 

A number of other women throughout the State 
helped the official Woman's Shop Committee in ascer- 
taining the names of women in Kentucky who made beau- 
tiful things. A letter of explanation was drawn up by 
the Woman's Shop Committee, and mailed by the State 
Fair office to all these women, and to the women who had 
in former years sent articles to compete for prizes. All 
articles at the Woman's Shop were for sale, and not for 
competition for prizes. No commission or charge of any 
kind was made. The entire proceeds of the sales went 
to the makers of the articles. 



BuBBAu OF Ageicultueb. 135 

Duplicate cards containing the name of the maker, 
and the price and description of the article were pre- 
pared to go on each thing in the shop. One of these cards 
was left on the article after it was sold, so that the pur- 
chaser could see who had done the work which she liked 
well enough to buy. In this way the women workers 
were advertised, and future purchasers knew where to go 
for various classes of goods. 

All of the business of the Woman's Shop was at- 
tended to by the State Fair office. Efficient clerks, book- 
keepers and cashiers received the articles, entered and 
marked them, returned them to their owners when they 
did not sell, handled all the money taken in, and sent the 
checks to the consignors for the full amount of their 
goods sold. 

The Woman's Shop Committee arranged the space 
for the exhibit, displayed the articles, decided what pro- 
portion of each contributor's material could be placed 
in the cases each day, met the public to explain the worth 
of the shop, and assisted from early morning until late 
at night to make sales of everything sent in. The com- 
mittees was divided into sub-committees. Each sub- 
chairman was given one day and one night for which she 
with her six workers was responsible. A considerable 
amount of friendly rivalry was thus aroused, because 
each chairman desired good business for her day and 
night. 

On the thirteenth of September, when the doors of 
the fair opened, everything in the Woman's Shop was 
in perfect readiness. Shelves and cases were full. The 
wires above were hung with a wealth of quilts and coun- 
terpanes, appliqued and crocheted. Thousands of dol- 
lars were represented in these bedspreads alone, which 
ranged in prices from $15 to $250. The highest priced ar- 
ticle in the shop was a lace dress valued at $600. The 
sales, however, were not made from high-priced things. 
It was the articles costing from $1 to $25 that sold in 
greatest numbers. 

Most of the articles were practical, and beautifully 
made, while many of them were rarely artistic. Certain 
things could have been disposed of again and again. The 



136 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Eepoet 

public was surprised to find so many attractive things 
made in Kentucky. 

In addition to the sales made during Fair week, 
there were orders taken for duplicates of things shown, 
and further orders have been received by the consignors 
since the Fair closed. The advertising feature, there- 
fore, is at once proving to be of value. In the future 
consignors will know better what to send, because they 
will learn what is demanded by the buying public. An- 
other benefit derived from the shop is the introduction 
to the Woman's Exchange belonging to the Business 
Women's Club of Louisville, where things are sold on 
commission. Several smaller towns also have exchanges, 
and still more were urged to start them. 

There were 2,236 articles sent to the Woman's Shop 
this year. Of this number 363 were sold. The number 
of women who sent consignments is 414. They repre- 
sented 100 cities in the State. The total sales amounted 
to $583. 

The large number of women who entered articles, 
and the size of the sales are most gratifying results for 
a first year. At the outset the Fair management figured 
upon receipts of $400 as a possible maximum, whereas 
the final figures are nearly one-third more. The sales 
will increase greatly another year, because the public will 
understand that the Woman's Shop is a sales depart- 
ment, and will come prepared to buy. 

Mes. S. Theuston Ballaed, 

Chairman Woman's Shop. 



GOOD EOADS EXHIBIT. 



The Department of Public Eoads and the Kentucky 
State Fair, in co-operation with the office of Public Roads 
of the National Government, placed on exhibit at the 
fair grounds during the fair week from September 13th 
to 18th, an extensive exhibit of road models and minia- 
ture machinery, which enlisted a great deal of interest 
from those who attended the fair for its educational ad- 
vantages. 



BuBEATj OF Ageicultuee. 137 

These models show in detail the proper methods of 
constructing all types of roads from the plain, common- 
place, ever day earth road, np through gravel construc- 
tion, water-bound macadam construction, bituminous 
construction, and the construction of the highest and lat- 
est types of asphalt, brick and concrete surfaces. These 
models in themselves if carefully studied will furnish a 
foundation for some excellent road building idea.s. In 
addition to this a number of bromide enlargements of 
pictures of good and bad roads were exhibited, and these 
pictures illustrated the improved conditions of commu- 
nities along social, educational and commercial lines, 
through the improved conditions of their highways. 

The people of Kentucky are to be congratulated on 
the fact that the co-operation between these departments 
rendered it possible for them to have the opportunity for 
studying this modem array of road building methods. 

R. C. Teeeell, 
Commissioner of Public Roads. 



GIRLS' CANNING CLUB EXHIBIT. 



The opportunities offered to members of the Girls' 
Canning Clubs by the State Fair of 1915, were large, and 
not possible from any other source. The exhibit of can- 
ned vegetables, fruit preserves and jellies, pickle and 
ketchup was a source of wonder and admiration to the 
thousands who passed through the Women's Building. 
This afforded the advertisement which we have so much 
needed, as a market for the girls' canning club product 
is the ultimate end of the waste product of garden and 
orchard. Some goods were sold from the exhibit, and. 
many orders taken for next year's delivery. About one 
thousand cans of blackberries and huckleberries sent in 
by the girls of the mountain counties were sold from the 
booth. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture offered a purse of 
$30 to be competed for by the twenty -five organized coun- 
ties. Mercer County secured first prize of $15.00, Mc- 
Cracken County second prize of $10.00, and Hardin 
Ootinty third prize of $5.00. Competition in this class 



138 TwENTY-FrKST Biennial Eepoet 

produced tlie beautiful exhibit amounting to 1,263 jars. 
All jars and glasses were of uniform design, which added 
to the beauty of the exhibit. 

The State Board of Agriculture not only was gener- 
ous in awarding liberal premiums, but paid the express 
charges on the goods sent to this exhibit. This amounted 
to more than $100. This assistance enabled us to send a 
large number of jars from each county, which together 
made one uniform exhibit. 

In a small building on the fair grounds, a demon- 
stration was made of some household conveniences, for 
the making of which the Home Demonstration Work pro- 
vides bulletins or instructions. We hope to make this a 
large feature of our exhibit next 'year. 

Helen B. Wolcott, 
State Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



BuBEAu OP Ageicultuee. 139 

INOCULATION OF LEGUMES 



It is a well established fact that many of the 
leguminous plants that can be grown successfully in 
Kentucky when inoculated with their individual bacteria, 
will not grow and gather nitrogen when not given an 
artificial inoculation. More failures in growing alfalfa 
are due to a lack of inoculation probably than from any 
other cause, unless it be from a failure to properly lime 
the soil. The necessary bacteria for the inoculation of red 
clover, white clover, alsike clover and soy beans seem to 
be generally spread over the lands in this State. Some ex- 
periments have shown that soy beans and cow peas will 
grow and make a fair yield of forage while they gather 
but little nitrogen to leave in the soil when inoculation 
is not practiced. 

Realizing the virtue of inoculation, the State De- 
partment of Agrici*ltural furnished inoculating material 
for experimental purposes, in order to get a few well 
inoculated fields in each community. The inoculation 
purchased by this Department and distributed free was 
for alfalfa and crimson clover, and the reports received 
at this office indicate the success of the undertaking. In 
fact, the results obtained have been so satisfactory, that 
it seems probable it would pay the Commonwealth 
to properly provide for the manufacture or growth of 
these cultures for free distribution. When it is realized 
a well inoculated acre of any one of several of these 
leguminous plants will produce from $15 to $25 worth of 
nitrogen in one season, while an acre without inocula- 
tion may make practically the same forage, but will leave 
but a few dollars worth of nitrogen in the soil, it is likely 
that some steps will be taken to provide the cultures so 
essential for nitrogen-gathering from the air. 

The work of the experiment stations of the country 
has demonstrated the great value of bacteria of the 
leguminous plants in this work. It is simply a question 
for the Department of Agriculture to determine whether 
it is a judicious investment for the State to furnish suf- 
ficient cultures to give every farmer a start that will en- 
able him to inoculate other fields with the soil of what 



140 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

might be termed "the parent acre." The Department 
has this year sent out sixfficient cultures for two hundred 
acres of alfalfa, and two hundred acres of crimson 
clover. 



GAEDEN CLUB WORK. 



During the year 1914 the Garden Club work was 
continued in the city of Louisville, and the report pub- 
lished below of Mr. C. L. Clayton, Superintendent, in- 
dicates the scope of the work undertaken. 

For the year 1915, it was deemed advisable, on ac- 
count of many of the coal mines being closed down in 
eastern Kentucky, to devote the funds heretofore ex- 
pended by the State in Garden Club work, in an effort 
to assist the miners out of employment. 

The owners of the coal properties in most instances 
donated the land, and something over one thousand gar- 
dens were planted in Bell county at the different coal 
mines. These gardens, supervised by Mr. C. L. Clayton, 
who had been in charge of the work for the Depart- 
ment in Louisville for three years, were a revelation to 
the people in that section. The amount of vegetables 
produced was nothing short of phenomenal. The miners 
practically lived from their gardens during the sum- 
mer months, and yet the surplus of vegetables was so 
great that a lady was sent with a canner to teach the 
Garden Club members how to can and preserve the vege- 
tables for winter. 

The results obtained by this work in the one county 
of Bell, indicates a great field for vegetable growing in 
the settlements around the various coal mines in Ken- 
tucky. Much of the work in the production of vegetables 
among the miners is done by the women and children, 
and simply adds the value of these vegetables to the in- 
come of the miner. No demonstration work the Depart- 
ment has undertaken has returned quicker or larger 
profit for the amount of money expended. 



Btjeeau op Ageicultube. 141 

Louisville, Ky., April 15, 1915. 

MP. J. W. Newman, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Frankfort, (Ky. 

My Dear Sir: 

Enclosed find financial report of the Louisville Garden Club, also 
bills amounting to $100.00, whicli are paid, and report of Mr. C. L. 
Clayton, Superintendent, for the year 1914. 

We regret exceedingly not being able to get this report to you 
sooner, but on account of business have not been able to do so. It is 
needless to state that the Louisville Garden Club has done a great 
deal of good in Louisville, and the results are being shown this year 
in the great number of gardens started in the city, and the interest 
tafeen by the schools and school children; and will state that this 
year, on account of not having the necessary funds to engage a super- 
intendent, prizes will only te given to the children; and we feel that 
the rough work of the club has been done during the last three years 
while Mr. Clayton was superintendent. 

We certainly appreciate your kindness and the help given us, and 
also say the same for a great many others who have gardens, and 
are interested in the work, who never would have thought of this 
work except for your efforts in helping us. If there is any other 
information or explanation in regard to anything that you would like 
to have, we will be very glad to inform you. 

We are also enclosifig clippings of the last notice we had in the 
paper, and will state that during the year we had a great many of these 
clippings, and we are also giving stereopticon lectures, which work 
was carried on all last year in different parts of the city, and through- 
out the county. We do not expect to have the financial backing we 
had last year, on account of change of times, but we expect to raise 
enough to give the children substantial prizes. 

Thanking you for your kindness, we remain. 
Yours truly, 

LOtJlSVILLE GARDEN CLUB, 
(Signed) G. C. Blackman, 

Treasurer. 

P. S. — Blue ribbon prizes were also given. 



EEPOBT OF C. L. CLAYTON, SUPERINTENDENT 
OF LOUISVILLE GARDEN CLUBS. 

Foe the Summee of 1914. 



The Louisville Garden Club was organized to create 
an interest in gardening among the children and adults 
of the city of Louisville, with the idea of making use of 
some of the vast amount' of waste space which is scat- 
tered throughout the city. Many people in the city are 
paying out a large share of their earnings for food, 
when by the use of some of their spare time spent in 
raising a small garden, they could grow a very consider- 



142 TwENTY-FlEST BiBNNIAL EePQET 

able amount of their own food, at least through the sum- 
mer months. It was to bring this fact before the people 
that this club was organized. We have tried to show the 
people of -Louisville how, by the use of a certain amount^ 
of industry and thrift, they could save a considerable 
amount of the money now paid out. 

Many of the members of the club sold the vegetables 
which they raised, but this was not required of members, 
and in fact, most of the members used most of the 
produce they raised, selling only the surplus. We did 
not encourage children to plant vegetables foi: the money 
return they would get from them, except in special cases. 
In fact, I feel that the greatest benefits they received 
were in the way of added knowledge and self-reliance. 
"We tried to see that the children did the work in such 
a way that they got pleasure as well as benefit from it. 
Thus the children measured their gardens for the plant- 
ing, etc., and kept account of the yields. We also con- 
ducted two classes in the summer schools of the Second 
Presbyterian Church and the Cathedral House, each in 
connection with a garden. 

I found that parents were glad to have their chil- 
dren belong to the club, because: (1) It kept the chil- 
dren off the streets; (2) kept them outdoors and also 
gave them some spending money. 

Total number of gardens at end of season, 1914 984 

Number of gardens having groups of children working (mostly 

on vacant lots) 12 

Number of children -working in above 12 gardens 164 

Total number of children and adults having gardens 1,148 

Total number of instruction gardens used as central meeting 

places and being visited on an average of every twelve days 17 
Some of the above gardens were visited weekly and some less 
often. 

Of the above gardens about 90% were vegetable or 
vegetable and flower gardens, about 10% being flower 
gardens only. The flower gardens were mostly located 
in the densely settled portions where space was limited. 

Average- size of garden was (over entire city) 550 sq. ft. 

Average size of garden in suburbs.. 1,400 sq. ft. 

Average size of garden in city 200 sq. ft. 

Average production of vegetables sold (estimate) $ 3.00 

Average production of vegetables, total value 10.50 

Total value of vegetables raised by members 10,000.00 

?10,313.50 



, Bureau of Ageicxtltuee. 143 

This estimate we believe to be conservative. This 
is, we think, only a small part of what the club has 
done for the city, as large numbers of people have been 
persuaded to plant gardens who do not belong to the 
clnb. ' EespectfuUy submitted, 

C. L. Clayton, Supt. 



EEPORT OF GARDEN CLUB WOEK FOE 1915 IN 
BELL COUNTY. 



The Garden Club Work was first begun in 1913i by 
J. W. Newman, Commissioner of Agriculture, in Louis- 
ville. At that time the Louisville Garden Club was or- 
ganized to promote the planting of back yards and vacant 
lots in the city of Louisville. This work was continued 
under the direction of the department in 1914 with in- 
creasing success. In 1915 such impetus had been gained 
that without any State aid there were so many gardens 
planted throughout the city that they were a noticeable 
factor in lowering the price of garden products in the 
district. 

In 1915 an offer was received from Dr. J. G. Foley, 
of Bell County, for a continuation of the work in the min- 
ing camps of that county. At this time the coal business 
was slack, mines were running only aboiit one-half time, 
and the prospects were dark. Many of the miners were 
not working enough to enable the miners to earn living 
expenses, and unless they could get part of their living 
outside, they would have to be carried by the company. 
In view of these conditions it was decided to start the 
garden club work in Bell County. 

In the spring, meetings were held in each of the 
thirty-two mining camps of the county under the direc- 
tion of C. L. Clayton, the Supervisor sent by the State 
Department of Agriculture, who was greatly assisted by 
the hearty co-operation of Dr. Foley, the superintendents 
of the various mines and the camp doctors. At these 
meetings, conditions and prospects were explained and 
the miners were all urged to co-operate in planting and 
caring for a garden with the idea of having a "garden for 
every family." The movement was taken up with en- 



144 TwBNTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET ^ 

thusiasm. The companies donated the use of land and 
the mules to prepare it for planting. Everywhere could 
be seen men, women and children, fencing plats around 
houses, preparing the ground, picking up stones, and in 
many cases where ground was scarce, clearing up a field 
of new ground on the mountain side near the camp. In 
some places the ground was so rocky it could not be 
plowed, but had to be dug up with a pick, and the rocks 
thrown out in large piles or used to fence in the garden. 
In spite of all difficulties, the work progressed rapidily, so 
that in one month after work was started, practically all 
" the ground in and near the camps, which before had been 
waste land, unfenced and covered with empty cans and 
weeds, was now fenced, cleaned up and planted in vege- 
tables. In some places this was extended even to the top 
of the mountain, and instead of one garden to a family, 
in many cases there were two, one at the house for small 
products and another on th^ mountain for large products. 
The latter was in many instances of eight or ten acres 
in extent. In the camps alone there were planted a total 
of 2,600 gardens. For the first time in the history of the 
mining camps, they were growing their own vegetables 
and instead of buying all their produce, had a surplus of 
some things. 

The question of using this surplus was discussed at 
meetings and it was decided to can it in glass and tin 
cans for winter use. Several of the gardeners bought 
home canning outfits, others used lard cans and kettles. 
Circulars were distributed over the county and canning 
demonstrations were held at various points where the 
best methods were shown. Mr. Graloway, of Pineville, 
canned over 1,100 cans of string beans, tomatoes and cab- 
bage and others canned corresponding amounts. 

At the close of the season it was estimated that there 
were in the camps about 2,400 gardens, the decrease be- 
ing due to various causes, prominent among which were 
washouts due to the low situation of many of the gardens. 
Local people claimed that there was four times the 
amount of gardening in the county than ever before and 
as this increase was largely in the mining camps, it was 
very noticeable. 




A city g-arden in Garden Club work. 




Mountain ,e:arden, in Ojii'tlpn (^'Inli wori<. 




A ni (HI 11 tain i^artlen I. e fere plain i ir.; . 



?E-*r*''.;J^|gjS|kj^.. -^^W 








«*,„ 




I^^^IBHRMMiHniiaBF-' ^!^'fl't'i! 






^^^|^BHh^^^^RMe^^m^|^|^^^^» 


^i^^^ 

g^S 


*«t'-*«ij^'.i r^- 


^^^^^BHHB^^^^^^M^j^ < 




^■.vi--: 


^^^^g^g 




Kii 




IKiffll(U4liffiM 




_ .w*r j^ •>■- 






I J^ ^■- -.A 3^ 


-dflUiHW 



A nii'iintain L;ar<len aflcr pla 




A miiiintain garden before planting 




^ *■ kS^ r 



A mountain garden after planting 




In^i ii liii - nn.i.T i) i nini] tie.s 




AlnnnlRin ('rchard. 



fe^ 











I 'iiini im (l<-innnsi ral \nu. 




Koiir-year pears— Rowan County. 




AppJes— Ro\\ ;in <_'mini y. 




Three-year Early Kll.prta T'each— Rowan County. 



BuEEAu OF Agbicultubb. 145 

The camps at StraigM Oreek and Fonde took espec- 
ial interest in the movement and were well rewarded by 
the crops they raised. However, the other camps were 
not far behind. It was evident to all who saw the re- 
sults, that the effort had been very much worth while. 



. DEPARTMENT OF AaRICULTURE 

Eecapitulation All Funds Six Months EwDiira 
Decembeb 31, 1915. 



APPROPRIATIONS. 

Bureau fund $ 13,000.00 

State Board fund 20,000.00 

Educational fund 5,000.00 

Demonstration fund 5,000.00 

Total appropriations | 43,000.00 

Live Stock Sanitary Board (gen- 
eral fund) 522.12 

Total to be accounted for $ 43,5J,J.12 



EXPENDITURES. 

Bureau fund $ 6,164.67 

State Board fund 10,428.62 

Educational fund 1,414.98 

Demonstration fund 3,086.53 

$21,094.80 
Live Stock Sanitary Board (gen- 
eral fund) 522.12 

Total Expenditures $ 21,618.98 



Balance DeeemlDer 31st, 1915 $ 21,605.20 

As follows: 

Bureau fund | 6,S35.33 

Educational fund 3,585.02 

Demonstration fund 1,913.47 

State Bbiacrd fund 9,571.38 

— . L .. ,., w ^.» I 21,905.20 

B. PERHY WBA^gBR, 

Public AefcWBtant. 



146 Twenty-First BrENNiAij Eepobt 

STATEMENT BUREAU FUND. 
July 1, 1915 — December 31, 1915. . 
Bureau fund appropriation $13,000.00 



EXPENDITURES. 

Labor Department expense $2,145.42 

Stationery and printing 191.42 

Office supplies and expenses 119.41 

Office equipment 136.59 

Postage 300.00 

Telephone and telegraph 40.95 

Express, freight, hauling 16.95 

Salaries 2,589.98 

Special premiums 400.00 

Traveling expense 76.21 

Miscellaneous 29.40 

Community poultry breeding 118.34 

Total Expenditures 6,164.67 

Balance December 31, 1915 $6,835.33 



STATEMENT STATE BOARD FUND. 

July 1, 1915— December 31, 1915. 

State Board fund appropriation $20,000.00 



EXPENDITURES. 

Expense State Board meetings $1,396.90 

Farmers' Institutes 4,190.95 

Immigration 1,044.20 

Office supplies 2.45 

Postage 50.00 

Telephone and telegraph 169.41 

Express, freight, hauling 51.01 

Salaries 1,950.00 

Traveling expense 21.35 

State veterinarian and assistants & L. S. S. 

B. Exp 1,395.10 

Hog cholera eradication 90.00 

Miscellaneous 67.25 

Total Expenditures 10,428.62 

Balance December 31, 1915 $9,671,38 



BtJEEATJ of AaKIOXJLTUEB. 147 

STATEMENT EDUCATIONAL FUND. 

July 1, 1915— December 31, 1915. 

Educational fund appropriation $5,000.00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Corn clubs f 35.00 

Canning clubs 681.34 

Garden club 352.72 

Express, freight, hauling. 50.92 

Postage 100.00 

Miscellaneous 195.00 

Total Expenditures 1,414.98 

Balance December 31, 1915 $3,585.02 

STATEMENT -DEMONSTRATION FUND. 

July 1, 1915— December 31, 1915. 

Demonstration fund appropriation $5,000.00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Silo construction $ 814.04 

Telephone and telegraph 9.95 

Miscellaneous 200.00 

Orchards 633.38 

Nursery stock inspection 182.49 

Rock crusher 1,189.22 

Quarantine expense 57.45 

Total expenditures 3,086.53 

Balance December 31, 1915 .^.... $1,913.47 

STATEMENT LIVE STOCK SANITARY BOARD. 

July 1, 1915— December 31, 1915. 

Expenditures charged to general fund. No 
appropriation. 

EXPENDITURES. 

State Board meeting $505.48 

Stationery and printing _ 5.25 

Miscellaneous 9.76 

Telephone and telegraph 1.63 

Total Expenditures $522.12 



PART THREE 



PAPERS, BULLETINS, ADDRESSES 



PAPERS, BULLETINS, ADDRESSES 



SOIL FERTILITY. 



The subject of soil fertility touches the fundamental 
basis of agriculture. The system of farming that 
does not take into consideration the increase and main- 
tenance of soil fertility is failing to a greater or less ex- 
tent. The State Department of Agriculture, in its in- 
stitute work and in every way, has endeavored to em- 
phasize the necessity of a rational system of farming, 
that would preserve the fertility of the soil so far as is 
possible. The work of the Kentucky Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station along soil fertility lines has been 
thorough and has attracted attention throughout the 
country. In fact, the teachings of the station have 
brought forth some unjust criticisms from certain par- 
ties interested in the sale of commercial fertilizers. In 
the last bulletin of this department we did not hesitate 
to condemn the miscellaneous use of complete fertil- 
izers. We again want to emphasize that much of the 
money spent in this way by the farmers is wholly or 
partially lost. 

The following am.ounts of fertilizers, as reported by 
the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, have 
been sold in Kentucky within the last few years : 

1908 35,000 tons 

1909 43,000 tons 

19jl0 57,000 tons 

1911 63,000 tons 

1912 65,000 tons 

1913 75,000 tons 

19H - 80,000 tons 

The cash value of these fertilizers figured at $20.00 
per ton has reached the total of at least one million and 
a half dollars expended by the farmers of Kentucky 
for commercial fertilizers. 



152 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

The teachings of this bulletin No. 191 show that a 
great amount of this million and a half dollars annually 
could be saved by the farmers by the use of acid phos- 
phate, raw rock phosphate, or basic slag and limestone 
followed by leguminous crops. Of such importance, in 
our opinion, is this bulletin to a thorough knowledge of 
the basis of soil building that we have asked the privi- 
lege from the Experiment Station to here reproduce it, 
and we hereby give credit to Dr. Joseph H. Kastle, Di- 
rector of the Station, and to Prof. George J. Roberts, 
to whom all credit is due for this publication. 



BULLETIN No. 191. 



The Teachings of the Kentucky Ageictiltxjeaij Exper- 
iment Station Relative to Soil Fertility. 

Introduction by Joseph H. Kastle, Director. 



There was a time in the earlier years of the work of 
the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station when 
considerable attention was paid to the study of the effect 
of commercial fertilizers on the growth of certain crops, 
such as hemp, potatoes, corn and tobacco, the results of 
which seemed to indicate that considerable financial re- 
turns followed the application of such materials to the 
soil ; and upon a piece of poorly drained, wet, crawfishy 
soil on the Experiment Station farm, the studies of Drs. 
Scovell and Peter indicated considerably increased yields 
of com, hemp and potatoes following the application of 
potash salts. In the year 1909, however, in a bulletin 
entitled "Fertilizers," by Professor Roberts, it was 
pointed out first, that the farmer was paying for phos- 
phoric acid, nitrogen and potash in mixed fertilizers a 
great deal more than these materials were worth and a 
great deal more for each of these as constitunts of com- 
plete fertilizers than the prices at which they could be 
bought separately, and that the lower the grade of com- 
mercial fertilizers, the higher the price charged per 
pound for these several elements of plant food. This 
bulletin alst) contained a section on the general subject 



BxJBEAu OP Agbiotjltubb. 158 

of soil fertility and pointed out how, in many instanoes, 
through improper systems of cropping, failure to use 
legumes and cover crops, and how by failure to return 
to the soil the manurial equivalent of the crops removed, 
and how through leaching and the burning out of humus, 
the soils of the State were becoming unproductive. It 
was further pointed out in this bulletin that while com- 
mercial fertilizers have their place in agriculture, we 
cannot make them our sole or chief dependence in main- 
taining soil fertility. If a soil is deficient in phosphoric 
acid or potash, or both, then phosphates or potash, or 
both, should be bought as needed. As a rule, nitrogen 
should not be bought, but should be returned to the soil 
in farm manure and produced by the growing of legum- 
inous crops. The practice of buying complete fertilizers, 
without any consideration of the deficiencies of the soil, 
is very wasteful. 

"Small applications of commercial fertilizers may, 
and do sometimes, prove profitable, but it is because 
they supply a small amount of readily available plant 
food at the beginning of the growing period, thus stim- 
ulating the plant and making it more vigorous, and, 
therefore, more able to draw upon the soil for its food. 
But the farmer should not deceive himself in believing 
that the fertilizer used has fed his crop. It has caused 
the plant to draw more heavily upon the soil and exhaust 
it more rapidly. This is the real reason for the belief 
that commercial fertilizers injure the soil. The small 
applications of fertilizers commonly used will, as a rule, 
give more profitable results on good soils than on poor 
ones. Although commercial fertilizers may be used, the 
farmer should not for an instant neglect the care of farm 
manure, the growing of leguminous crops, and the prac- 
tice of adequate crop rotation. ' ' 

"Then the functions of commercial fertilizers are, 
first, to supply a deficiency or deficiencies, and, second, 
to strengthen the plant at the beginning of the growing 
period. It is, therefore, important for the farmer to de- 
termine by field tests just what the fertilizer require- 
ments of his soil are. ' ' 

This bulletin also outlined a plan for determining the 
fertilizer requirements of a given soil by a system of ex- 



154 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Eepobt 

perimental plots, and on the basis of such tests it was 
recommended that "If the results of the tests show, for 
example, that only phosphoric acid is needed, then only- 
phosphates should be bought. If only potash salts show 
a material increase in production, then buy only potash 
salts. In other words, supply only what the tests show 
is needed. However, if it is found that nitrogen is 
needed, then the profitable thing to do is to supply it in 
manure and legumes. Soils cannot be kept profitably 
productive by depending alone upon the ready-mixed, 
complete fertilizer." 

And in this same connection it was pointed out that 
"there can be no doubt that large sums of money are 
annually wasted in this State by buying fertilizers con- 
taining low percentages of nitrogen and potash. These 
small percentages add a great deal to the cost of the fer- 
tilizers and do not give returns at all commensurate with 
their cost. * * * Ten times our annual expenditure 
could profitably be made for fertilizers, but it should be 
made in general for phosphate and potash salts to sup- 
ply deficiencies and to use in the growing of leguminous 
crops to furnish humus and nitrogen. Our fertilizer 
manufacturers need to recognize the truth of this state- 
ment and begin at once to supply these materials in un- 
mixed condition to farmers at the lowest prices possi- 
ble." 

The practice of selling low grade fertilizers under a 
great variety of brands was condemned as misleading to 
the farmer, and the suggestion was made that it would 
be eminently fairer to the purchasers of commercial fer- 
tilizers for the manufacturer and dealer to quote pound 
prices on each of the several sorts of plant food contained 
therein. 

This bulletin also contained a section on the value 
and care of farm manure and called atteneion to the enor- 
mous waste of this valuable material in our agriculture. 
Lastly, it contained a section on green manure crops, in 
which there was pointed out the value of cover crops and 
leguminous crops, the latter as sources of humus and 
nitrogen, and methods of handling the same. 

This bulletin, published in 1909, forms the basis of 
the later and more recent teachings of the Kentucky 



1 BuBEAu OP Ageioxtltxjbe. 155 

Agricultural Experiment Station regarding the proper 
maintenance of soil fertility and the more rational and 
sensible use of fertilizers and the principal sources of 
plant food. I cannot find in our more recent bulletins 
and circulars anything that in essence, at least, was not 
set forth in this Bulletin No. 140. Dr. Hopkins' epoch- 
making book entitled "Soil Fertility and Permanent Ag- 
riculture," which appeared in 1910, presents at greater 
length and in a more detailed way essentially the same 
ideas that are contained in our Bulletin 140, and, in my 
opinion, all of our later day teachings in this State re- 
specting soil fertility, and the general subject of soil 
amendments are traceable to these two publications and 
to the work of the Ohio Experiment Station. Since that 
time, Professor Eoberts, as agronomist of the Experi- 
ment Station, has enlarged somewhat on- these ideas in 
his publications and lectures. The essential facts, how- 
ever, are the same. These ideas have been confirmed by 
his recent work on a number of experimental fields in 
various localities throughout the State. As far as I am 
able to gather from his writings and utterances, his be- 
lief is : 

First. That no system of cropping should be fol- 
lowed that wUl continually remove from the soil the ele- 
ments of plant food without the return to the soil of crop 
residues and manure made by feeding the crops removed 
or without a systematic rotation containing leguminous 
crops and cover crops. 

Second. That practically all of the soils of the State 
contain inexhaustible quantities of potash, which through 
the maintenance of the humus content of the soil can be 
brought into available form sufficiently rapidly to meet 
the potash requirements of farm crops. 

Third. That with the exception of the soils of the 
Blue Grass region, the soils of the State are deficient 
in phosphorus and that, therefore, this element should 
be supplied in most instances most advantageously in the 
form of acid phosphate until organic matter is restored 
to the soil, after which rock phosphate may be used. 

Fourth. That the farmers of the State cannot af- 
ford, in most instances, to buy nitrogen, but must obtain 
this important element along with humus, by returning 



156 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAX, EePOET 

to the land the farm manure equivalent of the crops re- 
moved and by the cultivation of leguminous crops, and 
the use of catch crops, cover crops, and crop residues. 

Fifth. That the use of complete fertilizers is neither 
economical nor is it conducive to a condition of perma^ 
nent soil fertility for the reason that the apparent good 
results obtained following the use of such soil amend- 
ments are frequently due to stimulation of plant growth 
which results in the removal from the soil of an excess 
of plant food, thereby leaving the soil in a more de- 
pleted condition than it was previous to the application 
of the fertilizer. 

Sixth. If the plot tests, or the results obtained on 
an experimental field or the chemical analysis of the soil 
indicate a deficiency of potash or phosphoric acid in any 
soil, then these "elements, one or both, must be supplied 
in the cheapest available from and in quantities sufficient 
to meet the food requirements of a number of crops/ The 
soils of Kentucky outside of the Blue Grass region are 
deficient in phosphorus as shown by chemical analysis, 
plot tests and experijtnents on our experimental fields, a 
fact that explains the use of increasing amounts of acid 
phosphate in various counties of the State. In order 
to obtain any one of these plant foods, the farmer should 
not be compelled nor encouraged to buy other plant foods 
that he does not require. 

Lastly, I may say that these have been the teachings 
regarding soil requirements and the use of soil amend- 
ments endorsed by the Kentucky Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station and by other experiment stations and by 
prominent agronomists generally for the last five or six 
years. As director of the Kentucky Agricultural Exper- 
iment Station, I am glad, therefore, to lend my endorse- 
ment to the teachings set forth by Professor Roberts in 
this bulletin. In fact, I can heartily commend this bul- 
letin to the farmers of the State and to those who may 
be interested in our agricultural prosperity as being de- 
cidedly the most scientific and helpful publication ever 
issued by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion on the general subject of soil fertility and the ra- 
tional use of soil amendments. 



BUEBAU OF AoBICtJLTUEB. 157 

The Teachings of the Kenttjoky AGBicuLTtTEAL Expebi- 
MENT Station Relative to Soil Febtilitt, 

By Geoege Eobebts, Ageonomist. 

The requirements for a productive soil are : 

1. Good drainage. 

2. Good texture. 

3. Sufficient supply of plant food. 

4. Sufficient organic matter (humus). 

5. For its highest productiveness, carbonate of 

lime. 

From the foregoing statement it will be seen that 
not all the emphasis is by any means laid upon plant 
food. However, if all the conditions for a highly pro- 
ductive soil exist save a sufficient supply of plant food, 
the soil will not produce maximum crops. 

With all other conditions favorable for maximum 
production, a soil will be limited in production by the 
available supply of the most deficient element of plant 
food. For example, if all the elements were present in 
available quantities sufficient to produce 100 bushels of 
com per acre, save one element, say nitrogen, and the 
available supply of this element were sufficient for only 
25 bushels, then the yield could not be raised beyond 25 
bushels without the addition of more nitrogen. In other 
words, a soil is no more productive than its most defi- 
cient element permits it to be. The deficiencies of a soil, 
and not the crop growing on it, become the chief factors 
in determining the fertilization that shall be employed. 
In a word, the basis of increasing and maintaining the 
fertility of a soil consists in supplying in the most profit- 
able form and amount, those elements the total amounts 
of which are shown to be too small for the most profitable 
production, and in adopting means for making available 
those other elements that are shown to be already pres- 
ent in large amounts. 

Most of the soils of the State possess all the require- 
ments for producing fair to large yields except phos- 
phorus, lime, and organic matter (humus), which sup- 
plies nitrogen. That is to say, most of the soils are nor- 
mal. By a normal soil is meant one containing the plant 



158 TwENTT-FlEST BlBNNIAL EePOBX 

food elements in somewhat the same relative proportions 
as found in the general composition of the earth's rock 
crust. This embraces about all soils except sandy, muck, 
and peat soils, which are found in this State in compara- 
tively limited areas. 

Crops are composed chiefly of ten elements of plant 
food, all of which are absolutely essential to plant 
growth. Some other elements occur incidentally in 
plants, but are not believed to be essential to growth, 
and in any case the soil contains sufficient quantities of 
them, so they may be left out of this discussion. 

The ten essential elements are carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, iron, sulphur, 
phosphorus and potassium. Carbon, hydrogen and oxy- 
gen constitute about 95 per cent, of the dry weight of 
crops. The supply of carbon and oxygen is obtained 
from the carbon dioxide of the air and is not under 
human control. Hydrogen is obtained from water. 

Nitrogen is obtained entirely from the soil by all 
non-leguminous crops (com, wheat, oats, grasses^ to- 
bacco, etc.). Inoculated legume crops (clovers, peas, 
beans, vetches, alfalfa, etc.) obtain their nitrogen from 
the air whenever the soil supply is insufficient. 

All the other elements are obtained from the soil 
by all plants. Of these, calcium, magnesium, iron and 
sulphur are generally considered to be present in the soil 
in sufficient quantities for maximum production. At 
least, they may be assumed to be for the purpose of this 
discussion, for the fertilizer trade is concerned only with 
supplying phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen in fertil- 
izers and prices are made on the basis of the content of 
these elements. 

Manufacturers of complete fertilizers commonly as- 
sume a deficiency in the soil of an available supply of 
all three of these elements. As to the deficiency of phos- 
phorus and nitrogen in most soils, we can readily agree, 
for both chemical analyses of soUs and field tests support 
this conclusion. As to the deficiency of potassium in 
most soils, we cannot agree. Both chemical analyses 
and field tests show normal soils to contain suffident 
potassium for very large or maximum yields, provided 
the content of organic matter is kept up to the necessary 



Bureau of Agbioulture. 



159 



standard for a productive soil. Unless organic matter 
is maintained, soils cannot be kept productive, even with 
a liberal use of all the ingredients of the so-called com- 
plete fertilizers, for organic matter has many other im- 
portant functions necessary to a productive soil besides 
supplying and liberating plant food. 

The following table shows the average content of 
potassium and phosphorus in the main soil areas of the 
State. The figures represent pounds of the elements, in 
2,000,000 pounds of soil, or an acre to the depth of about 
seven inches : 



Number of Pounds of Potassium and Phosphorus in 2,000,000 Pounds 
of Surface Soil (0-7 Inches) in the Main. Soil Areas of Kentucl<y. 



AREA 



Total 
Potassium 



Easily 
soluble 
Potas.» 



Total 
Phos. 



Easily 
soluble 
Phos.* 



Trenton 

Cincinnatian 

Silurian and Devonian 

Waverly 

St. Louis 

Chester 

Western Coal Field 

Eastern Coal Field {Western 

part) 

Eastern Coal Field (Central 

and Eastern part) _ 

Quaternary 

River Alluvium 



26278 
31960 
23940 
19600 
28220 
26560 
29290 

18180 

34213 
30926 
34430 



329 
366 
224 
338 
320 
218 
276 

272 

360 
300 
390 



9416 
1924 
1100 
650 
890 
70:S 
766 

630 

1260 

980 

1910 



3582 
69 
20 
14 
18 
6 
19 

13 

46 
26 
98 



*Soluble in fifth normal nitric acid. (A very weak solution.) 

For the location and extent of the above areas see 
bulletin entitled "The Soils of Kentucky," by S. D. 
Averitt. (In press.) 

It wiU be seen that all the soils of the State contain 
large amounts of potassium, the lowest amounts being 
found in the Waverly and the western part of the East- 
em Coal Field. It will also be noted that the amounts 
of easily soluble potassium contained in the soils of the 
various areas do not differ greatly. WhUe it is not con- 
tended that the amount of easily soluble potassium repre- 
sents the amount available to the crop, yet there is a re- 



160 



Twenty-First BrENKiAi, Bepobt 



lation between availability and solubility. (Se« biill«tin 
above mentioned.) 

Hopkins, in his " Soil Fertility and Permanent Agri- 
culture," makes the statement that, under good farm 
practice, roughly an amount of potassium equal to one- 
fourth of one per cent of the amount contained in the 
surface seven inches becomes available in a growing sea- 
son. On this basis nearly all Kentucky soils contain 
enough potassium for very large or maximum yields of 
crops. For example, one hundred bushels of com, in- 
cluding the stover, require 70 to 75 pounds of potassium. 

On the average, three-fourths of the potassium re- 
quired to produce the grain crops is in the straw and 
stalks. Nearly all the potassium in the feed given ani- 
mals is returned in the manure. Hence with either live 
stock or grain farming, if the supply of organic matter 
is kept up by the return of the crop residues and ma- 
nures, most of the potassium used by crops finds its way 
back to the soU, and is readily available itself, while the 
decay of the organic matter returned liberates more from 
the minerals of the soil. 

Let us see if field tests show what the potassium 
content of the soil would lead us to expect. On a lime- 
stone clay soil at Bumside, Pulaski county, Kentucky, 
where we have been conducting experiments for six 
years, the following results have been obtained : 

Yields Per Acre — Bumside Experiment Field. 



Treatment. 



O 3 



a 3 
Opq 



Oft 



oM 



m J?. 






<D U 

S-l M CJ 

°'B< 

■M-M 

03 (4 Fh 
O (1) <U 
OfaP4 



d o 
!> ^ 



^ c8 



Rock Phosphate and Potash. 

Nothing 

Acid Phosphate and Potash- 
Acid Phosphate _ 

Nothlng^ (See explanation) ... 
Potash - - - 



3.8 
9.0 
14;3 
17.7 
20.4 
11.9 



9.3 
9.0 
11.9 
13.6 
14.0 
10.5 



2436 



2168 



32.9 

9.5 

45.7 

43.5 

1292 30.3 

764,17.6 

I 



1688 
628 
2272 
2112 
1176 
560 



11.9 
2.5 
19.2 
18.1 
5.1 
1.7 



?26.10 
0.00 

25. W 
0.60 
0.00 

16.50 



(61.20 
24.73 
S4.»!!> 
S5.09 
65.42 
31.37 



$10.37 
0.00 
33. £G 
50.76 
0.00 
—9.86 



This soU contains 12500 lbs. of potassium per acre 
7 inches, which is about half the average for the State. 




Pearl Millet. 




Hairy Vetch. 




En,i;lish Bliie-grafis. 




Pearl Millet. 





♦ 




%. 








4j 


„N - ^^x 




.1 >' 


r 


'^ ■ 'V j 


■* 










X' % 1 ■ ^ '■■*"' ^ 


•~i 






~-\ NvlX In ^^■ 




A, -^vl/N.J/' I ' "IBfci 






; ■ ' . \ 






^^ ^<»...,B '• I^^Hii^^^^^^^^^^B 




a^S ,>W 1 ^H^^^^^^^Hft 








MmMBiIS^m ^■jHr II i m^^^^^^f 




^^^^^H^^K^ ^^EHnf" ' ^^^^^^^^HI^^^bB 




^^H^^^^^^B ' ' ' ^^^^^^K' .'^^ "^ ''.jj^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^H 








^^^HH^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K^;^.^ fl^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^^^H 




^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^fe^ -'^^^B^^^bB^^H^^^^BBBI 



Tliree->'eaf-ol'l Sta>'man A\'inf Sap, T 'Ian ted NovemI>er, 11112 



BUBEAU OF AoEIOULTtTfiE. , 161 

Let, it be understood also that this soil was extremely de- 
ficient in organic matter in the beginning of the experi- 
ment. The ground was badly worn and had not for many 
years produced a crop that paid for the labor put upon 
it. In 1908 it made less than 3% bushels of wheat per 
acre with the use of 200 lbs. per acre of a 2-8-2 fertilizer, 
the year being favorable for wheat. 

Plot No. 5 is not to be considered a check plot. It 
is a low piece of ground that has for many years been 
receiving washings from the ground around it, and is 
naturally more productive than the other plots. It is in- 
cluded to show that the poorer ground by proper treat- 
ment can be made to surpass it in fertility. There was 
a slight increase in natural fertility from plots 1 to 4, 
inclusive, the greatest variation being in plot 1. There 
was not a great deal of difference in plots 2, 3, 4 and 6. 

In calculating values corn is rated at 60 cents per 
bushel, wheat at 90 cenis, oats at 40 cents, and all hay 
at $12 per ton. Stover and straw are not included in the 
valuations. Stable manure was returned to the soil 
in the equivalent of the crops each treatment produced. 
In all other particulars the plots were handled in a uni- 
form manner, including cultivation, catch crops and 
cover crops. 

While there is seemingly a slight increase in yields 
in some cases where potash* was used, yet it is not suffi- 
cient to justify the use of it. 

The argument is sometimes advanced that acid phos- 
phate sets free potassium in the soil, thus showing the 
need of adding potash. If acid phosphate does this, as 
it very likely does, it certainly is an argument against 
the investment of money in potash fertilizers when acid 
phosphate is used. 



•The seemingly interchangeable use of the terms "potassium" and 
"potash" may appear awkward, and may confuse persons without chemical 
training-. The soils laboratory of the Experiment Station uses "potassium" 
in reporting soil analysis, while the fertilizer laboratory uses the term 
"potash." In this bulletin we have used "potassium" in discussing It as 
an element of plant food in the soil and crop, while "potash" is used in 
referring to fertilizers and materials furnishing the element "pottassium." 
In like manner "phosphates ' is used on the one hand and "phosphoric acid" 
and "phosphates" on the other. 

agr. — 6 



162 



TwEWTY-FntST BlEWWIAL. EePOET 



Q,n an experiment field at London, Laurel oounty, 
Ky., the following results have been obtained: 



Yields Per Acre- 


-ond 


on Experiment Fi 


eld. 








Treatment 


Corn— Busheis 


Wheat— Bushels 


19U| 19121 19131 1914|Ave. 


19121 1913| 1914|Ave. 


Nothing- 


13.7 

25.1 
38.9 
12.3 
31.7 
29.9 


20.7 
22.3 
51.5 
23.6 
37.0 
42.3 


13.3 
14.6 
24.1 
14.6 
22.1 
18.7 
■ 


- 
20.6 
47.7 
48.0 
21.3 
54.6 
53.1 


17.1 
27.4 
40.7 
18.0 
36.4 
36.0 


6.7 
11.2 
13.1 

5.7 
13.3 
13.5 


2.2 
5.2 
10.3 
-1.5 
11.7 
7.7 


0.8 
4.0 
7.0 
0.7 
3.3 
10.8 


3.2 


Acid Phosphate 

Acid Phosphate and Limestone.. 
Potash 


6.8 
10.1 
2.6 




9.4 


Acid Phos., Pot. and Limestone.... 


10.7 



Yields Per Acre — London Experiment Field — Continued. 



Treatment 



Pounds Soy Bean 
and Oowpta Hay 



1912 |1913 I 1914 |Ave. 






1914 



of 
Crops 



m u 
o o 






Nothing 

Acid Phosphate 

Acid Phosphate and Limestone- 
Potash 



Acid Phosphate and Potash 
Acid Pijps;, Pot. and Limestone 



950 


1100 


1540 


1970 


1340 


1640 


4100 


3030 


2510 


1R(H) 


2(KX) 


1540 


4630 


2140 


1810 


440O 


1880 


1990 



1197 
1650 
3213 
1613 
2860 
2757 



290 
860 

3300 
170 

1740 



$72.99 
119:04 
202.74 
80.25 
174.63 
178.56 



$17.60 
35.20 
30. 
47.85 
65.45 



(28.45 
94.55 
22.99 
53.79 
40.12 



♦Loss. 



This field is located at the base of the coal measures 
in the western part of the Eastern Coal Field, and rep- 
resents a limited area of agricultural lands. This soil 
contains 17,600 lbs. of potassium in the first. 7 inches 
of an acre. 

It wiir be observed that potash alone gave practi- 
cally no increase in most cases, that acid phosphate and 
potash gave a more profitable increase than acid phos- 
phate alone, but that by far the most profitable increase 
was by the use of limestone and acid phosphate. Unfor- 
tunately, the acid phosphate-lime-potash plots are on 
thinner ground than the others, and it remains yet to be 
seen whether potash will put them ahead of acid phos- 
phate and limestone. 

These results lead one to suspect that the effect of 
potash on the acid phosphate-potash pTots may be due 
to the potash rendering the phosphate more available. 



BuBEAXT OF Agkiotjlttjbb. 163 

No one can doubt that phosplioms is the first limiting 
element in this soil. Limestone has rendered the phos- 
phate more effective on the com crops which were grown 
before legumes in the rotation. On a soil like the one 
at London I would unhesitatingly recommend the use of 
phosphate and limestone for the permanent improvement 
of the soil. It may prove to be desirable to use potash 
along with the phosphate when limestone cannot be used, 
as these results seem to indicate, although it must be 
stated that the acid phosphate-potash plots are on the 
naturally best soil of the field. However, I do not hesi- 
tate to say, as I have frequently said, that carefully con- 
ducted experiments may show the need of the regular 
use of potash on this soU, although I am yet in doubt 
in the matter. These experiments have not yet gone far 
enough to restore organic matter to the soil, as practi- 
cally no manure has yet been returned. If potash is 
shown to be necessary on these soils, then I shall rec- 
ommend its use as strongly as at present I recommend 
phosphates and limestone, but only in connection with 
a liberal use of phosphates. 

On the Lexington soil experiment field which has 
been in operation four years and from which we have 
obtained 4 com crops, 3 soy bean crops and 2 wheat 
crops, the average total production per acre of these 9 
crops for all plots where potash has been used either 
alone or in combination with limestone and acid phos- 
phate, is 281 bushels, and for similarly treated plots ex- 
cept for potash, the yield is 283 bushels. These aver- 
ages are made up from 72 yields extending over a period 
of four years. One clover crop from this field shows an 
average yield of clover hay of 3,845 pounds per acre 
on all plots receiving potash either alone or in combina- 
tion with limestone and acid phosphate, while plots sim- 
ilarly treated except for potash show an average yield 
of 3,817 pounds. No commercial nitrogen was used in 
these tests, but that nitrogen was not a limiting element 
before potassium is shown by the fact that potash gave 
no increase in clover and soy beans, which are not lim- 
ited in their growth by the lack of nitrogen in the soil. 

In passing, we may say that phosphorus and lime- 
stone were also without results on these crops on this 
soil. 



164 TwBNTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 

In 1912-13 we conducted an extensive series of fer- 
tilizer experiments on wheat sown on corn ground on 
the Experiment Station farm. We used a complete fer- 
tilizer made as follows : 

72 lbs. acid phosphate, furnishing 10 per cent, phos; 

phoric acid. 
8 lbs. sulphate of potash, furnishing 4 per cent, potash. 

10 lbs. dried blood 1 » . , . r, a -i 

10 lbs. nitrate of soda Ki^rnishing 3 per cent, nitrogen. 



100 lbs. 



This fertilizer was used at the rate of 100, 200, 300 
and 400 pounds per acre, each rate of application being 
repeated on three different plots. Another fertilizer was 
made containing the above amounts of nitrate of soda 
and dried blood, but dry soil was used to replace the 
acid phosphate and potash. This was applied a;t the 
same rates, and repeated as above, all applications be- 
ing made when the wheat was sown. This gave 24 fer- 
tilized plots. The average yield of all these plots was 
21.4 bushels per acre. Six plots were left untreated, the 
average yield of which was 21.4 bushels per acre. Three 
plots were treated with only nitrate of soda as a top 
dressing in the spring at the rate of 100 lbs. per acre. 
This gave an average yield of 31.9 bus. per acre, an in- 
crease of 10.5 bus. per acre. Phosphorus and potassium 
gave no increase and the fall application of nitrogen 
gave no increase. This is a fair basis for not recom- 
mending the use of fertilizer containing nitrogen on fall 
sown grain. This and other data presented are a safe 
basis for the conclusion that on the highly phosphatic, 
well-drained soils of Central Kentucky the application 
of phosphates and potash is not profitable. 

The loss of nitrogen applied to fall sown grain is 
confirmed by an experiment on the Eussellville experi- 
ment field. In 1914 tobacco experiments were laid out 
in which the effects of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, dried 
blood and sulphate of ammonia were to be studied. Ni- 
trate of soda was used at the rate of 100 lbs. per acre, 
while dried blood and sulphate of ammonia were used in 



BuEEAu OP Agbioultxtbe. 165 

quantities furnishing the same amount of nitrogen as 
in 100 lbs. of nitrate of soda. The experiments were run 
in duplicate. On account of the excessive drouth the 
tobacco was almost a complete failure, the crop from two 
acres being sold for fifteen dollars. The tobacco did 
not use the nitrogen. The ground was seeded to rye on 
one of the series of plots and to wheat on the duplicate 
series. There- was no sign of any effect of the nitrogen 
on the wheat or the rye either in the fall or spring. This 
soil is decidedly deficient in nitrogen. 

However, we frequently recommend the use of ni- 
trate of soda or sulphate of ammonia as a spring top- 
dressing for wheat on soils deficient in nitrogen provided 
there is a sufficient supply of phosphorus in the soil 
either naturally or by application. On the average Ken- 
tucky soils outside the highly phosphatic Blue Grass belt 
we would not recommend the use of nitrate of soda or 
sulphate of ammonia on wheat land that had not been 
treated with phosphate, because nitrogen cannot increase 
the yield when phosphorus is a limiting element. The 
use of nitrogen in this way contributes nothing to the im- 
provement of the soil. 

Dr. A. M. Peter has been running an experiment on 
tobacco on the Experiment Station farm at Lexington 
in which one plot is fertilized with a complete fertilizer 
and the other with nitrogen and phosphorus. It is con- 
tinuous culture of tobacco with no return of manure. 
The average yield of tobacco for complete fertilizer for 
five years is 1,497 lbs., while for nitrogen and phospho- 
rus it is 1,431 lbs., a gain of 66 lbs. per acre for the use 
of potash. There is not enough known about the effects 
of the various fertilizer elements on hurley tobacco to 
say whether they affect the quality sufficiently to justify 
their use on the highly phosphatic Central Kentucky 
soils. Certainly the yield can be made without commer- 
cial fertilizers. Such fertilizer experiments as have been 
recently conducted on the Experiment Station farm with 
tobacco do not show any material increases. Of course, 
this statement implies the maintenance of nitrogen with 
organic matter. 

These results seem to be contradictory to the results 
obtained in the fertilizer experiments conducted on the 



166 TwENTY-FlEST BiBNNIAL, EePOET 

Experiment Station farm about 1888 to 1894, in wHcli 
the use of potash salts gave suoh striking increases, es- 
pecially on comi The recent experiments on the Exper- 
iment Station farm at Lexington to which we have re- 
ferred, were conducted on the north side of the present 
Experiment Station farm, which is well drained, while 
the old experiments were conducted on the south side of 
the present farm. Originally the Experiment Station 
owned only the south side of the present farm. 

In my judgment the explanation of the results ob- 
tained in the old experiments is not far to seek. They 
were conducted on soil that was very wet and known as 
' ' cold ' ' and ' ' crawfishy. ' ' In fact, Dr. Peter, who helped 
to conduct the experiments, says the ground was so wet 
that it could not be plowed until late in the spring. The 
land was partially tiled later in these experiments. Last 
year when it was decided to resume these experiments 
on the old plots, and it became necessary to fence them 
off, we had opportunity to make some important obser- 
vations. In digging holes for gate posts, solid rock was 
struck at a depth of 3% feet. The sub-soil is yellow and 
of a putty-like consistency and comes near to the sur- 
face, although the land had been is grass for the last 
twenty years. This shows poor aeration, a condition 
which prevents the accumulation of organic matter to 
any great depth. It is a well known fact that poor drain- 
age tends to make potassium as well as other elements 
unavailable. 

In addition to the foregoing adverse conditions, all 
of these crops in the old experiments were grown in con- 
tinuous culture with no provision for the return of or- 
ganic matter either in stable manure or green manure 
crops. In short, the experiments were conducted on a 
soU that is not typical of any considerable area in the 
Blue Grass region, and according to a system of farm- 
ing that we today never recommend as building' up and 
maintaining soil fertility. 

This is no criticism of these experiihentg. They 
were conducted on the only land owned by the Experi- 
ment Station at that time. They were patterned after 
some of the Eothamsted experiments. Yet we are bound 
to admit today that many of the Eothamsted experi- 



BuBEAXJ OF Ageioultube. 167 

ments are not of practical application ia farming, al- 
thougli they furnish valuable scientific data. 

The results of these older experiments are valuable 
in showing that on poorly drained "crawfishy" soUs 
potash is profitable. However, such soils form a, re- 
stricted area. On soils of this nature tile drainage 
would no doubt render the use of potash unnecessary, 
besides greatly improving them in other ways. 

At the time the above mentioned results were ob- 
tained the Experiment Station conducted ten co-opera- 
tive experiments on com with farmers living chiefly in 
the western part of the State. An average of all these 
experiments shows the following yields : 

Nitrogen and potash 40.1 bus. per acre 

Nitrogen and acid phosphate 44.7 bus. per acre 

Nitrogen, acid phosphate and potash 43.6 bus. per acre 
(See annual report for 1890.) -^ 

The results on the new experiment fields in the 
western part of the State tend in-the same direction. The 
fields have been in operation only two years, both of 
which have been unusually dry. The soils of all these 
fields are badly worn and quite deficient in organic mat- 
ter. While it would not be safe to base final conclusions 
upon them, the results from such crops as have not been 
severely affected by the dry weather show decided re- 
sults from acid phosphate and rock phosphate, while pot- 
ash has shown little or no results. 

At Greenville* on rather poorly drained soil on one 
wheat crop (1914) potash treatment, as compared with 
plots similarly treated except for potash, gave an aver- 
age increase of 1 bu. per acre, while acid phosphate gave 
an increase of 3.7 bus. per acre. 

Limestone, acid phosphate and potash gave 2,955 
lbs. of clover hay per acre (1914) while limestone and 
acid phosphate gave 2,800 lbs. Yet this soU is quite de- 
ficient in organic matter. Clover absolutely faUed where 
limestone and potash were used without phosphate. 



*These experiments and all others cited will be given In detail In a 
bulletin to be issued later. They are used here as a basis for a state- 
ment of the principles of soil fertility which the Experiment Station Is 
teaching in the State. 



168 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

The following results on tobacco in 1914 on the sam^ 
soil speak for themselves : 



Plot 



TREATMENT 



Founds 
Per Acr» 



214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 



Limestone and acid phosphate ^ 

Limestone and potash 

Limestone, acid phosphate and nitrate of soda 

Nothing 

Limestone, potash and nitrate of soda 

Limestone, acid phosphate, potash and nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate, potash and nitrate of soda — - 

Limestone, acid phosphate, potash and double ap 
plication of nitrate of soda.... 



1235 
7,60 

1595 
575 
580 

1410 

1625 

1600 



The clover and tobacco were on better drained soil 
than the wheat. There is a possibility that potash may 
have affected the quality of tobacco on plot 220, which 
graded a little higher than the other plots. 

The significant thing in these results is that no ma- 
terial increase could be made in the absence of phosphate. 
Potash seems to have given little or no increase (com- 
pare plot 216 with plots 219, 220 and 221), but nitrate of 
soda gave a profitable increase after phosphate had been 
added. The tobacco was the first crop in the rotation 
of tobacco, potatoes and clover, so there had been no 
chance to restore organic matter and nitrogen to the soil 
by the use of clover. As stated, there is some evidence 
that potash improved the quality of the tobacco, although 
it is not altogether conclusive. More work will be re- 
quired to determine this point. On a crop like tobacco, 
worth $8 to $10 per 100 pounds, one can a:6Ford to use 
expensive treatments that will increase the yield as much 
as 100 to 200 pounds per acre. The same ratio of in- 
creases on the ordinary farm crops must be produced 
very cheaply to be profitable. 

At Eussellville on the 1914 wheat crop potash gave 
no increase, while acid phosphate gave an average in- 
crease of 8.3 bushels per acre. 

At Lone Oak, McCracken County, the soil was so 
badly worn and the season so dry that there was no ap- 
preciable effect of either acid phosphate or potash on 
the wheat. 



BuEEAu OF Ageioxtltuee. 169 

At Mayfield the average gain for wheat was 6.6 
bushels per acre for acid phosphate, while for potash 
alone and in combination with limestone and acid phos- 
phate, it was ^.8 bushels. But comparing the plot treated 
with acid phosphate, limestone and potash with plots 
treated with acid phosphate and limestone, there is no 
gain for potash, the yield being 27.3 bushels per acre in 
each case. 

On the Berea (Madison county) experiment field last 
year acid phosphate and limestone gave 45.7 bushels of 
com per acre, while limestone, acid phosphate and potash 
gave 46.4 bushels. The yields of soy bean hay on cor- 
responding treatments were 3,650 pounds and 3,770 
pounds per acre. The yield of com on untreated ground 
was 27.8 bushels per acre, and of soy bean hay 2,845 
pounds. 

On page 79 of Circular No. 144, of the Ohio Experi- 
ment Station, Dr. Thome shows that as the average re- 
sult of twenty years' experiments on the Wooster ex- 
periment farm, $6.50 invested in potash returned $1.44 
above its cost, while $2.60 invested in acid phosphate 
paid its cost and a net profit of $13.92. On page 97 of 
the same Circular he further shows that as the average 
results of nineteen years' experiments on the Strongs- 
ville experiment farm, $2.60 iuvested in acid phosphate 
paid its cost and gave a net profit of $14.88, while $6.50 
invested in potash returned $4.27 less than its cost. In 
the above cases the gain is for phosphate used alone in 
the rotation, while potash is used in addition to phos- 
phate and nitrogen, giving the potash full opportunity 
to show its effects. 

Dr. Hopkins, in the National Stockman and Farmer 
of April 3, 1915, shows that in the Pennsylvania experi- 
ments from 1885 to 1908, one dollar invested in potash 
paid back 9 cents, while phosphate paid $3.44 per $1.00. 
In this case also potash was applied in addition to phos- 
phate and nitrogen. 

In commenting on the soil requirements for com. 
Prof. "Williams, of the Ohio Experiment Station, says on 
page 76, Bui. 282 : 

"Proper soil conditions for the corn crop will then include thor- 
ough under-drainage, either natural or artificial; a crop rotation which 
will adequately maintain the organic matter of the soil through the 



170 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Report 

use of good sods of clover and grasses, and such, catch-crops as may- 
be adapted to the varying conditions, in addition to all the manure 
available, liberal applications of phosphorus to supplement the manure 
and natural deficiencies of the soil, as well as to restore the phos- 
phorus sold from the farm in cereals and livestock; and lime as may 
be needed to correct soil acidity and furnish a satisfactory environ- 
ment for bacterial life. In the absence of manure some soils will 
need applications of nitrogen and potassium before good crop yields 
can be secured." 

On page 73 he further says : 

"Manifestly something is needed on the land besides phosphorus. 
With the addition of either nitrogen or potassium to the above amount 
of phosphorus the yield of corn is increased to a little over 43 bushels 
per acre, and by the addition of both, to 47 bushels, though the profit 
over cost of fertilizer is but a little greater than from phosphorus, 
alone, owing to the high coat of commercial nitrogen and potassium. 
Cheaper sources of these elements are found in the stable manure. 
Larger yields of corn have been secured with the use of manure, 
and substantially as good returns from phosphorus, when used in 
addition to manure." 

In the report on the Piedmont soils of North Caro- 
lina, Professor Williams of the North Carolina Experi- 
ment Station, says on page 99, after summing up results 
of experiments : 

"Of all the types of soils of the Piedmont Plateau Region of the 
State thus far studied, the content of potash present in the surface 
soil is generally sufficient for growing maximum crops for a hundred 
years or more. It is generally more a problem of making this supply 
available than of increasing it. Not only do the chemical analyses 
show that there is a fairly liberal supply of potash in these soils, but 
in no case do we find any marked increases in yield due to its use, 
and frequently the yield is actually reduced. Generally it certainly 
would give better immediate returns and would be far more bene- 
ficial to eliminate potash altogether for general farm crops, and put 
the money into an additional supply of phosphoric acid. Potash, 
however, can be applied with profit to tabacco and very proibably 
to Irish potatoes on most of the Piedmont soils." 

Bulletin 108 of the Mississippi Experiment Station' 
reports experiments on worn hill land and makes the 
following comments concerning cotton: 

"Phosphates hastened the maturity of cotton. On land with some 
decaying organic matter in it, phosphate alone gave good results, 
good enough to make it profitable. Potash alone, or in combination 
with nitrogen and phosphates, gave no apparent results. Nitrogen 
(cotton-seed meal) alone gave good results. Cotton-seed meal and 
phosphates mixed gave good results," 



BuBEATJ OP Ageicultubb. 171 

Concerning com and cowpeas on the same soil, tli« 
report further says: 

"The land was thin upland. A drought of seven weeks obtained 
when the corn was young. Where the soil contained organic matter, 
phosphates alone gave good results. Potash alone, or in combination, 
failed to show any appreciable benefit. Nitrogen (cotton-seed meal) 
alone gave good results. A mixture of cotton-seed meal and phos- 
phates gave good results. 

"The fertilizer test with peas was interfered with somewhat by 
the October storm, but it was apparent that both acid phosphate and 
crude, finely ground rock Increased the growth of peas in a marked 
manner — apparently doubling the crop." 

The Experiment Station has never taught and never 
can teach that the mere use of phosphates is sufficient. 
It does teach their use as a basis for soil building on 
soils deficient in phosphorus. Through their use in- 
creased growth of legumes may be obtained through the 
proper use of which nitrogen and organic matter 
(humus) may be restored to the soil. This of course 
means either the turning under of some of the nitrogen- 
gathering crops or the feeding of them with a careful 
saving and return of the manure made from them, both 
solid and liquid (absorbed in the bedding). In addition, 
the non-leguminous crops in the rotation must be made 
to contribute to the organic matter of the soil by return- 
ing all the residues (stalks, straw, etc.) or the manure 
made from feeding the crops. Furthermore, cover crops 
and catch crops are recommended wherever practicable, 
these to be legumes where possible, and to be turned un- 
, der as a rule. With this procedure the purchase of pot- 
ash will not be necessary on most Kentucky soils and 
phosphorus does become the only element of plant food 
necessary to purchase for general farm crops. This is 
certainly teaching that cannot be criticized. Teachings 
that omit any of the above essentials cannot be laid at the 
door of the Experiment Station. 

Yet there are soils that need potash. They are ab- 
normal. Muck and peat soils, some poorly drained soUs, 
and some sandy soils need potash. If I should find such 
soUs to need potash I should as freely recommend its use 
on them as I do phosphates for soils deficient in phos- 
phorus. If I should find the use of potash to be profit- 
able on a high potassium soil until organic matter could 
be restored, I should unhesitatingly recommend its use 



172 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL RePOM 

until such time as the natural supply could be made avail- 
able. In none of our experimental work have we found 
potassium to be the first limiting element. 

Granting, for the sake of argument, the need of 
potash on all soils, the ordinary application of fertilizers 
used in this State will not meet the demands of crops for 
potash. The 2-8-2 formula is a standard mixed fertilizer 
in the State, although many are sold containing even 
smaller amounts of nitrogen and potash. Two hundred 
pounds per acre is above the average application. A 
fifty-bushel com crop requires about forty-three pounds 
of potash. The four pounds of potash contained in a 
200-pound application of this fertilizer would be suffi- 
cient for an increase of less than five bushels of com 
if the crop could get it all. But no one would contend 
that a crop could get all of the four pounds applied. 

The amount of nitrogen in such an application is 3.3 
pounds and is sufficient for an increase of only two 
bushels of com if all of it could be used. Nitrogen is cer- 
tainly a limiting element before potassium on most if 
not all of our soUs. Yet it is generally present in fertiliz- 
ers in less quantities than potash. I have yet to be con- 
vinced that any increased yield produced is not due 
chiefly to the sixteen pounds of phosphoric acid con- 
tained in the above application, which is a fair proportion 
of the twenty-six pounds required for a fifty-bushel com 
crop. If this be the case, why pay $2.50 to $3.00 for 200 
pounds of this mixture containing sixteen pounds of 
phosphoric acid when $3.00 wUl buy 400 pounds or more « 
of sixteen per cent acid phosphate, containing sixty-four 
pounds of phosphoric acid? 

If a farmer is convinced from experience that it 
pays to use a small amount of complete fertilizer to 
give the crop a start, and such may be the case, he should 
at the same time understand that it neither supplies any 
considerable part of the nitrogen and potassium used by 
the crop, nor does it contribute to the permanent fer- 
tility of the soU. 

Surely no one wUl contend at this late day that a 
farmer should buy nitrogen for ordinary farm crops. For 
example, a fifty-bushel corn crop requires seventy-five 
pounds of nitrogen. Four thousand five hundred pounds 



BuEEAu OF Ageioultube. 173 

per acre of 2-8-2 fertilizer would have to be used to sup- 
ply this amount, granting that the com could get hold of 
all of it, which it cannot do. The seventy-five pounds of 
nitrogen (required for fifty bushels of com) would cost 
at least $15, and generaly more, at the usual prices of 
mixed fertilizers. One hundred to one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds of nitrogen would have to be applied 
in order that the crop could obtain seventy-five pounds 
from this source. 

There are some special crops of high value per acre, 
such as tobacco, potatoes, cotton, vegetables, etc., on 
which the use of the three elements, nitrogen, phosphorus 
and potassium on some soils gives profitable results. In 
such cases, I would unhesitatingly recommend their use, 
at least until the soil could be built up to a point 
where some or all of the elements could be left off by 
rendering the supply in the soil available. 

We recommend the use of acid phosphate more fre- 
quently than rock phosphate. We do so because we have 
found that acid phosphate is more effective, per dollar 
invested, than rock phosphate on soils deficient in or- 
ganic matter, as most Kentucky soils are. We are ex- 
perimenting with both forms. However, our experi- 
ments are on soils quite deficient in organic matter. If 
we find that when organic matter is restored to the soil 
the rock phosphate is permanently more profitable, then 
we shall as surely recommend the use of rock phosphate. 
Besults in other States lead us to believe that such may 
prove to be the case. There are numerous cases in this 
State where rock phosphate is being used with great suc- 
cess by farmers who have manure or green manure crops 
to use with it. Bone meal is an effective form of phos- 
phate, but the supply is exceedingly limited compared 
with the amount of phosphates that should be used. 

It should now be evident why we lay such stress on 
the use of phosphates. It is for the reason that nearly 
all Kentucky soils outside the Blue Grass Region are 
very deficient in phosphorus and some within the outer 
circle of the Blue Grass Region. Phosphorus in these 
soils is the first limiting element. Under this condition, 
without the liberal use of phosphates, it is impossible to 
produce large growths of leguminous and other crops 



174 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Bbpoet 

to restore nitrogen and organic matter to th.e soil. Tlie 
use of pkospliates, therefore, is the very foundation of 
permanent soil improvement on such soils. In view of 
the fact that the returns from the use of phosphates are 
so much greater than from potash, granting that the 
latter does give returns in some cases, we cannot recom- 
mend the buying of potash until the farmer has first 
bought sufficient phosphorus to use on all of his soU. A 
fact worthy of notice in passing is that three-fourths of 
the phosphorus required for grain crops is in the grain 
itself. Hence if grain is sold there is a large loss from 
the soil. Animals retain on the average one-fourth of 
the phosphorus of the feed given them, so that both in 
grain farming and live-stock farming there is an un- 
avoidable loss of an element already deficient in nearly 
all soils. 

Our teachings always emphasize permanent fertil- 
ity, and the absolute necessity of providing nitrogen 
and organic matter. 

We recommend the use of limestone on acid soils as 
a means of increasing the growth of nitrogen-gathering 
crops and through them all other crops. ' However, all 
the evidence we have at hand indicates that on soils de- 
ficient in phosphorus, limestone does not prove profit- 
able without the use of phosphates, but when used in 
connection with phosphates it is highly profitable. We 
can unhesitatingly recommend the use of limestone and 
phosphates on most Kentucky soils before potash, even 
if potash is to be used at all. 

Let us see what the commercial aspects of the fore- 
going teachings are so far as the farmer is concerned. It 
means that if he wishes to use acid phosphate he will 
buy it wherever he can get it in good mechanical condi- 
tion at the lowest price per pound for the phosphorus 
contained. If he wants to use potash he will buy it 
wherever he can get it at the lowest price. Likewise for 
materials carrying nitrogen. Formulas should not worry 
him. If he wants to use more than one element and 
wants to mix the materials for convenience in applica- 
tion (this is the only advantage in mixing) then he should 
determine how much of each element of plant food he 
wants to use per acre, and use the necessary amount of 



BuEEAu OF Ageictjltuee. 175 

materials to provide the desired plant food, regardless 
of what percentages the mixture might contain. Ob- 
jection may be made that the farmer cannot get unmixed 
materials in good mechanical condition. He does get 
acid phosphate and bone meal in good mechanical con- 
dition. He can get dried blood and tankage in good con- 
dition. The only materials apt to be Inmpy are potash 
salts and nitrate of soda. It is possible, however, to buy 
these reground in good mechanical condition. Of course, 
on standing they may become lumpy again. 

Grrinders and mixers may now be bought which can 
be run by hand or with a small engine. 

A study of the mixed fertilizers sold in this State in 
1909 showed that they sold for $6 to $10 per ton more 
than the retail prices of the materials of which they were 
made. (See Bui. 140, page 61). The cost of mixing 
fertilizers is not very great. The remainder of the dif- 
ference between the cost of the unmixed materials and 
the mixed goods goes to cover cost of advertising, 
agents' commissions, local dealers' profits, extending 
credit, with some extra share of profits for the manufact- 
urers. We are not recommending home-mixing except 
when fertilizers of the desired composition cannot be had 
at a fair price. 

In contrast with the foregoing teachings, let us see 
what the Kentucky fertilizer market offers the farmer. 
It is no uncommon thing for a fertilizer manufacturing 
concern to operate under several different names, 
branches or subsidiary companies. 

One such company operating in this State used in 
1913 (Bui. 177) seven different series of brand names 
and offered for sale 44 different brands of complete fer- 
tilizers, although they had only 19 different formulas. 
Leaving off one subsidiary company which has very 
slightly, but not materially modified its formulas, this 
company offered 37 different brands representing only 
12 formulas. 

In one case one formula was offered under six differ- 
ent names by this general company. They were desig- 
nated "tobacco grower," '^special tobacco grower," 
"crop grower," "wheat and com special," and two 
"corn and wheat growers." Frequently the same 



176 TwEKTY-FlEST Bl^NNIAL BePOET 

formula is offered under two names by one brancli of a 
company. 

There are several manufacturing concerns operating- 
on the above plan in this State. In one case one com- 
pany operating in this way offered seventy-nine differ- 
ent brands of complete fertilizers in 1913. 

During the year 1913 there were 434 different 
brands of complete fertilizers registered in the State. 
(See Bulletin 177). Of these 204 carried less than 1.65 
lbs. of nitrogen in 100 lbs. of fertilizer (equivalent to 2 
lbs. of "ammonia"). Most of the 204 brands were guar- 
anteed to carry 0.82 lbs., or 0.41 lbs. of nitrogen per 100 
lbs. of fertUezer, while the guaranty on some brands was 
as low as 0.21 lbs. per 100 lbs. of fertilizer. One hundred 
and twenty-nine brands were guaranteed to carry 2 per 
cent, potash, and fifty-nine less than 2 per cent. 

Many farmers use only 100 lbs. of such fertilizer per 
acre. Imagine, if possible, less than one pound of nitro- 
gen applied to an acre of com, when 50 bushels of com 
require 75 lbs. of nitrogen. 

These fertilizers containing such small percentages 
of nitrogen and potash are essentially low grade acid 
phosphates selling under brand names as mixed fertiliz- 
ers. Acid phosphate is the basis of them. They usually 
contain 8 to 10 per cent, phosphoric add and sell for 
considerably more per ton, sometimes nearly twice as 
much, as 16 per cent acid phosphate which contains twice 
as much phosphoric acid. Sixteen per cent, acid phos- 
phate should not be considered a low grade fertilizer 
simply for the reason that it sells for a lower price per 
ton than certain mixed fertilizers, such as those discussed 
in the foregoing paragraphs. 

What the farmer is actually concerned with is the 
cost per pound of plant food contained in fertilizers. The 
manufacture of such low grade mixed fertilizers is vir- 
tually an admission of the importance attaching to the 
use of phosphates. If mixed fertilizers are to be used 
only high grade mixtures should be employed; that is, 
such as contain high percentages especially of phosphoric 
acid and nitrogen, for the reason that the plant food 
contained in them is cheaper than in low gradfe mixturtes. 



BuBEAu OF Ageicultuee. 177 

Smaller amounts may be used, thus saving drayage, 
freight and bagging charges. 

The sale of low grade fertilizers will probably cease 
when farmers quit buying fertilizers by brand names 
and at the lowest price per ton regardless of composition. 
It is hardly to be expected that such fertilizers will not 
be offered for sale so long as farmers are willing to buy 
them. 

Out of such a maze of fertilizers offered, how is the 
farmer to choose for his needs, unless he understands the 
fundamental principles of soil fertility and the nature 
of commercial fertilizers and fertilizing materials? It 
is clearly the duty of the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion and all other agencies for agricultural instruction 
to give him in as clear and simple manner as possible 
this information. 



THE EELATION OF FORESTRY TO 
AGRICULTURE 

BY 

J. E. Baeton, state Forester. 



That there should be any relation between the pro- 
duction of agricultural crops and the production of forest 
crops in an agricultural State, such as Kentucky, does 
not occur to the average individual, and that there 
should be any interchange in benfits because of a knowl- 
edge of such relation between these two crops is a mat- 
ter which is altogether too lightly touched upon in any 
discussion either of agriculture or forestry, solely as re- 
gards their individual merits. It, nevertheless, is a fact 
that the production of a forest crop on a farm ma,y bear 
a very intimate relation to the production of the agri- 
cultural crop thereon, and have distinct bearing on the 
amount of profit derived from the purely agricultural 
end of the game. Indeed, it is possible to imagine a sit- 
uation in which the net gain in any one year would be 
represented by the value of the products of thfe^ wtfodlot 



178 Twenty-First Biii^niai. Eepobt 

In consideriiig tlie fgfins in Kentucky at the pres- 
ent time, it is evident that there is a large amount of 
them which are not producing the amount of produce 
which is possible for them to supply under the best con- 
ditions; and the fact that this is so, results from several 
features, among which may be mentioned the worn out 
condition of the soil, due to the lack of a proper amount 
of limestone, and imperviousness of the soil to surface 
moisture, due to shallow plowing, and a packed condition 
of the soil itself. Further, in a great many cases it is 
impossible to use land which has heretofore been used 
year, in and year out, on account of the "washing" of 
the land — as this condition is generally termed. There 
are acres of land in Kentucky that are useless at the 
present time, due to the fact that the surface run-off 
has been so rapid that gullying and the washing away 
of the most valuable top soil portion of the soil has re- 
sulted. This last feature is particularly true on lands 
with a perceptible slope, and is especially noticeable in 
the extremely hilly sections, and in the mountains of the 
State. It may be proper here to set forth in brief just 
what functions the forests serve with regard to conser- 
vation of the soil, especially on hilly lands, and the eco- 
nomic part which the forests play in building up the soil 
itself. In the first place — and this is especially true in 
hilly and mountainous regions — the forests act as a soil 
fixative ; that is, the mass of roots of the trees which ex- 
tend in every direction through the soil, serve to hold it 
in place, and prevent it from washing down into the 
stream beds and gullies. It has been said, with a large de- 
gree of truth, that the best farms of Kentucky are at the 
present time in the Gulf of Mexico, due to the washing 
away of the rich top soil into the streams, and eventually 
down the Ohio and Mississippi. In the second place, the 
forests break the fall of rain upon the surface; in the 
third place, as nearly as it is possible to state, the mass 
of roots and the decaying vegetable matter in a forest 
act as a reservoir so that the rain which falls is soaked 
up as by a sponge, and is discharged in small quantities 
over .. long periods, and is not precipitated into the 
streams within a very short time as a surface run-off so 
that gullies and washes are formed. Again, the roots 



BuBEAu OF Agbicultube. 179 

of a tree in a forest or woodland penetrate the soil in 
every direction and consequently the soil is more readily 
penetrated by raia or other moisture which falls on the 
surface, and the moisture becomes available at a greater 
depth than would otherwise be possible. These are purely 
mechanical benefits which the presence of the forest -or 
woodland has to offer. Further, there is each year- de- 
posited on the ground from the trees, a large amount of 
vegetable matter in the shape of leaves. This decays 
and eventually forms the top layer of the soil called the 
humus which is altogether the most valuable portion of 
any soil' for agricultural purposes. Some trees are 
especially good from an agricultural poiut of view, in 
that they are legumes (the same as cowpeas, soybeans 
and alfalfa), and develop nitrifying nodules on their 
roots supplying to the soil nitrogenous elements, which 
are usually only obtainable by the use of expensive fer- 
tilizers. Such trees are the Kentucky coffee tree, black 
locust, honey locust and the yellow wood. 

There is one peculiarity with regard to ownership of 
lands in Kentucky. Practically all of it is owned by 
individuals or corporations. A very small per cent is 
' owned by the State, and none is owned by the Federal 
Government. Further, it has been my general observa- 
tion, that on practically every farm in the State there is 
a; certain per cent, of land, sometimes very small, it is 
true, which is not cultivated on account of the rooky 
character of the soil, or the precipitous nature of the 
slope. This may be along the bank of a stream, or it 
may be on the top of a small hUlside, or it may be other- 
wise situated on the farm. Such land as this can be most 
economically devoted to raising a forest crop, and cer- 
tainly worn out lands which are badly washed or gullied 
can in no other manner be v.o quickly regenerated and re- 
stored to a state of fertility as by planting a forest crop 
thereon. Outside of the mere fact that a forest crop is 
the surest means of restoring worn out land to its former 
fertility, the forest crop itself is of great value in con- 
nection with the farm. Probably the use of the wood pro- 
duced in the forest or woodland, which would most read- 
ily suggest itself, is for fence posts. Good trees for this 
may be black locust, black walnut, or several other 



180 Twenty-First Biennial Eeport 

species, or it migM be soft woods, as willow, ash, or 
soft maple which are common to all Kentucky. Eecent 
information in regard to fence posts made from such soft 
woods as have here been enumerated, shows that the 
treatment of such woods with a preservative, as creo- 
sote, can be made for approximately three cents per post,- 
and that the life of the post so treated is from twenty to 
twenty-five years. Other uses to which timber raised 
in the woodlot can be devoted are ties, mining timber, 
hoops, poles, etc. There is one use to which trees on 
the farm may be put, which, up to the present time-, has 
been little appreciated in Kentucky, and that is in the 
establishment of windbreaks. In the Western United 
States, especially in the treeless region, where the wind 
has full sweep for miles, one of the earliest uses to which 
trees were put was in the planting of windbreaks for the 
protection of the house and bam lots. This use is 
rapidly extending. The planting of a windbreak in Ken- 
tucky can, with very material benefit, be carried on in 
much greater degree than has heretofore been attempted. 
The value of the windbreak in connection with the or- 
chards, truck gardens, fields, etc., is very direct and defi- 
nite. There is the additional fact that the windbreak 
may be made to supply material for use on the farm, 
such as posts, in addition to performing their mechanical 
function as breaks. A large variety of trees may be 
used for this purpose, but, undoubtedly, a large per- 
centage of evergreens in the windbreak will increase its 
value, especially during the winter season when high 
winds, as a usual thing, prevail. Windbreaks may also 
be made to serve in a large measure to beautify the farm, 
and in this modem age, the actual beauty of the farm it- 
self is no small asset. The use of trees around the farm 
home and outbuildings, both for the shade they afford 
and for the screen which they effect to undesirable views, 
is a use which should be emphasized in connection with 
farm life. In considering the raising of a forest crop on 
the farm, the work involved may be accomplished almost 
entirely in the winter when ordiaarily the stock and the 
labor available is not otherwise employed, so that the 
other farm activities are not interfered with; and the 



BUEEATJ OF AgBICTJLTUEB. 181 

"hands" and teams pay for themselves, and are not 
idle. 

In estimating the value of a forest crop on a farm, 
no consideration has been given in this article to the ac- 
tual mechanical details of establishing the forest or 
"woodlot. The main purpose has been to call atten- 
tion to the manner in which the production of a forest 
crop and agricultural crop may be made to go hand in 
hand, and each made to benefit from the other. The es- 
tablishment of a woodlot or tree growth is not a diffi- 
cult matter with the exercise of a reasonable amount 
of care in the planting. To make it an economical pro- 
position, trees of small size, either seedlings or once 
transplanted material, should be used. If possible, the' 
ground should be plowed before the tree growth is es- 
tablished, and the subsequent care and cultivation will 
amount to very little. To obtain the best results, thin- 
nings should be made from time to time of the backward 
individuals, and all the ground within the area devoted 
to the woodlot should be utilized for the production of 
trees. The selection of the species will depend a great 
deal on the individual, and on the section of the State in 
which he is situated, and can best be taken up for the in- 
dividual problem. 

There are some certain phases of the forest indus- 
try which lend themselves very readily to the farm, such 
as the cultivation of willow for use in connection with the 
baskets and wUlow ware industry. This is a very profit- 
able business at the present time in the United States, be- 
cause of the fact that a large amount of the supply here- 
tofore obtained for the manufacture of baskets and 
furniture has come from Europe, and that supply has 
been in a large measure cut off. The popularity of wil- 
low'for making furniture, especially porch furniture, has 
increased enormously in recent years on account of the 
lightness and durability of the product. The devotion 
of a few acres to willow culture will, undoubtedly, pay 
any farmer who is sufficiently interested to undertake the 
work, and as is the case with the production of forest 
crops on the farm as a whole, the time and labor de- 
votedto the raising of willow can be arranged for at a 



182 TwENiY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

season of the year wMch is usually known as the slack 
season. 

The growing of hickory for various purposes, such 
as hoops, poles and material for wagons and vehicle 
manufacture, also offers itself as a suggestion of the 
manner in which a woodlot on a farm may be utilized for 
the actual value of the product, at the same time that 
it is improving the soil condition or regenerating abso- 
lutely worthless land. Hickory of decided commercial 
value may be raised in from five to ten years, and, man- 
aged as a sprout forest, will produce a valuable produc- 
tion indefinitely. The raising of forest trees for produc- 
ing nuts is another phase of the matter which should be 
carefully considered. At the present time nuts are an 
increasingly valuable product on the market, and there 
are a number of forest species which produce these, such 
as walnut, hickory, pecan and chestnut. 

From this brief summing up of the matter, it is clear 
that not only may the forests be the means of adding 
distinctly to the value of the farm from an agricultural 
standpoint, but it may be also made to pay for itself dur- 
ing the regenerative period. 



OPPOETUNITIES FOR BEEF PEODTJCTION IN 
KENTUCKY. 

By Edwin S. Good, Head Department of Animal 
Husbandry (Beef cattle, sheep and swine), Ken- 
tucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, 
Kentucky. 



In many respects Kentucky is a State happily situ- 
ated on the map for the production of beef cattle and its 
marketing under favorable conditions. The climate is 
medium between the long cold winters of the North and 
the long hot summers of the South, and such as to give 
the farmer a long growing season between frosts. Her 
different regions, though opposite in physical features, 
give her the opportunities for varied agriculture. Her 
location near the southern states gives her farmers the 
benefit of purchasing their cottonseed meal, one of the 



''" BuBEAU OP Agbicultuee. 183 

cheapest feeds in the market if properly balanced with 
other feeds, at the same cost as her northern neighbors 
minns their extra cost of freight. As for her markets, 
with Louisville or Cincinnati within comparatively short 
reach of any section of the State, and the largest cattle 
markets of the world such as Chicago, not so far distant, 
the matter of marketing the finished animals is solved 
most satisfactorily for the feeder. With practical eradi- 
cation of the cattle tick (the indirect cause of Texas 
fever) throughout large sections of the southern states, 
has come the impetus for the breeders to introduce pure 
bred bulls with which to grade up their cattle, a measure 
which means that eventually well bred steers in the 
South will find their way to the Louisville and other 
nearby markets to be purchased and finished by the Ken- 
tucky farmer, thus, ia a measure, enabling him to raise 
the matter of beef production to as high a level as that 
enjoyed by other branches of the live stock industry. 
Then, too, on account of the high price of feeders, the 
time has come when it is profitable for the Kentucky 
farmer, even on high-priced lands, to raise some of his 
own steers. This is particularly true of the mountain 
and hill regions of the State. Much of this land should 
never be plowed on account of the washing of the soil, 
but be devoted to the production of live stock. 

For some time past, the markets have not been look- 
ing for large beeves. This is due to the fact that smaller 
cuts of beef are more sought after by the housewife noAV 
than formerly. The writer saw 750-pound baby beeves 
top the Cincinnati market last May. These steers were 
well bred, had plenty of quality and were fat. Steers 
that have the quality to grade as baby beeves are the 
only kind the Kentucky farmer should raise. I do not 
mean by this statement that it is the only kind he should 
buy and feed, for the profit in finishing cattle depends 
largely on how cheaply certain, grades can be purchased, 
and how well they can be sold. However, no one can af- 
ford to breed inferior steers, and that means the elimina- 
tion of the scrub sire. Professor Mumford, of the Il- 
linois Experiment Station, has determined that the use 
of a pure bred sire will raise the quality of a steer two 
grades. There being a usual difference of 35 eeiits per 



184 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Ebpoet 

hundredweigM for each, grade, would mean that the dif- 
ference in the value of a thousand-pound feeder sired by 
a pure bred bull and one sired by a scrub would be $7.00. 
On this basis, a pure bred bull siring fifty cows in a sea- 
son would pay for his original cost in one year. If the 
cows of the mountain districts could be mated to pure 
bred bulls and the offspring grown until feeders and then 
driven to the districts of Kentucky having plenty of com 
with which to finish them, this process of breeding in one 
district and finishing in another would mean a material 
increase in prosperity to all parties concerned. There 
are already signs, as one can see by visiting the county 
fairs in some of the mountain sections, that this very 
thing has been begun. 

By paying careful attention to the pastures of the 
State, the amount of beef which they now produce could 
easily be doubled. This could be accomplished by the 
frequent cutting of weeds, for the reason that blue grass 
and other good pasture plants thrive if somewhat closely 
grazed, while weeds die if their tops are kept cut off. The 
best pastures of the blue grass region are those in which 
the weeds are kept down by frequent mowing. On such 
pasture the writer has seen thrifty two-year-old steers 
made fat during the summer months with no allowance 
of grain. If, in addition to the weeds being frequently 
cut, there could be an occasional application of manure 
to the pasture, the increase in the production of grass 
would be surprising. 

During the past few years, many silos have been 
built in this State. Much credit for the erection of these 
silos is due to the Commissioner of Agriculture. On 
land that is not too rolling to grow com and sorghum 
without soil washing, ensiling is the most economical 
way to handle the com and sorghum crops. Some people 
think, however, that com is too expensiveto use for en- 
silage so are growing sorghum for that purpose. Both 
are excellent crops for the sUo and yield a large ton- 
nage per acre on fertile land. Land at this Station which 
had received two heavy applications of manure from the 
cattle sheds, yielded sixteen tons of com and twenty- 
seven tons of sorghum per acre during the growing sea- 
son of 1915, which was a very favorable on©. The ad- 



BxjREAu OF Ageicultuee. 185 

vent of tlie silo has already resulted in an increased num- 
ber of beef cattle being fed in this State each year. In 
a test made at this Station in fattening steers with and 
without the addition of silage to the ration, the cost of 
gains was lessened $1.68 per hundredweight when com 
silage was used. The feeding of two-year-old steers dur- 
ing the winter months on rations with and without corn 
silage, with a view to finishing on pasture without grain, 
Tesulted ia $3.59 less cost per hundredweight of gain the 
first trial, and $4.43 less cost per hundredweight of gain 
the second trial, where rations containing com silage 
were used. In the first test the steers receiving silage 
in their ration during the winter months did not gain 
within twenty pounds per head as much on pasture as 
steers making the same gains during the winter months 
with a ration containing no silage. In the second test 
of this kind the following year, the steers which received 
silage during the winter months made 48 pounds more 
gain on pasture the following spring and summer than 
those which did not receive silage during the previous 
winter. These tests were conducted to throw some light on 
the prevalent opinion that steers do not gain well on 
pasture after having had silage the previous winter. 
The average of these tests would indicate that this sur- 
mise is not founded on sufficient evidence, and that cat- 
tle can be wintered much cheaper where silage is used 
than where it is omitted. 

The richest agricultural country in the United 
States, namely, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, feeds 
annually some seventy thousand steers mainly for ma- 
nure. These cattle are fed in bams kept heavily bedded 
so that all the solid and liquid manure is conserved. 
The Kentucky farmer needs to learn the lesson of con- 
serving the manure produced in his beef cattle feeding 
operations conducted during the winter months. This 
is accomplished at the Experiment Station by adopting 
the covered barnyard at one of the bams and by con- 
crete lots at another bam. Eecords of manure made 
per steer during the winter feeding period have been 
kept, and as much as 5.32 tons of manure per steer have 
been produced in a 160 day feeding period. According 
to experiments at the Ohio Experiment Station, a single 



186 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

application of manure applied at the rate of eight tons 
per acre would be worth $3.67 per ton, from an increase 
in crops secured in a three-year rotation of com, wheat 
and clover over similar land unmanured. , 

All conditions indicate a new era in live stock pro- 
duction in this State, not only as a profitable business ia 
itself, but as a means of conserving and improving the 
fertility of the soU. In the furthering of this interest, 
the beef animal will always have a prominent place, for 
no other animal can convert the roughage of the farm 
into meat as economically as the steer. 



KENTUCKY'S OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROFIT- 
ABLE DAIRYING. 

By "W. D. Nichou:.s, Associate Peoeessok op Dairying, 

In Ohabge Dairy Extension Kentucky College 

of Agbicultuee. 



In contemplating the opportunities for dairying in 
Kentucky, the writer has the advantage of years of work 
among dairy farmers in every section of the State, dur- 
ing which time we have visited hundreds of dairymen 
on their own farms, in this and most of the other im- 
portant dairy States, carefully studying both the pro- 
duction and market ends of the business, always looking 
at the question from the farm management point of view, 
with the object of learning those principles on which 
farming may be pursued to furnish the largest con- 
tinuous profits from the farm as a whole. Furthermore, 
our experience in the management of our own dairy 
farm over a long series of years of profitable operation, 
has given us both a practical and conservative point of 
view. We should, therefore, be in a position to make 
a conservative estimate of Kentucky's dairy opportuni- 
ties. We are convinced that these opportunities are 
large and varied. First, might be mentioned our climate, 
which is free from the extreme cold temperatures of 
northern dairy districts. For this reason a smaller in- 
vestment in baxns and other buildings is required. An- 



Bureau op Ageicultueb. 187 

other advantage is the longer grazing season in Ken- 
tucky. Our soil as -well as our climate is such that we 
are able to produce splendid crops of com, clover, cow 
peas and alfalfa hay. A good dairy farmer in Kentucky 
will need to buy very little .feed for his stock. This is 
extremely important, because the success of the dairy 
farm is almost in direct proportion to its ability to pro- 
duce com, hay, grasses and other forage for cattle feed- 
ing. A successful dairyman must first be a successful 
crop producer. Cheap raw materials must be available 
if profits are expected, and these raw materials consist 
for the most part of home-grown roughage. The dairy 
farmer whose capacious hay loft is filled with hay, whose 
silos are overflowing with rich com ensilage, and com 
fields smile with a bountiful harvest, is the man who 
will make money in dairying. Incidentally, the man who 
is engaged in dairy farming has the best opportunity to 
keep up the fertility of his soil so that bountiful harvest 
may be secured. Abundant proof of the importance of 
growing large quantities of roughage may be found any- 
where in Kentucky where milk cows are kept. This is 
equally true in all of the great dairy districts of Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, New York, and Michigan. In all of these 
districts great crops of hay and forage are grown. Com, 
hay and the dairy cow go hand in hand. The combina- 
tion means splendid fertile farms, with well-built barns 
and silos, commodious homes and the highest type of 
rural- citizenship. 

Kentucky dairy farms have access to good markets. 
The cities of Louisville and Cincinnati furnish excellent 
markets for a large number of milk shippers. The 
smaller cities such as Lexington, Bowling Green, Hop- 
kinsville, and Paducah, furnish local markets for dairy 
products. Evansville, Nashville and St. Louis are also 
within shipping distance to a large number of Kentucky 
farmers. Markets for cream and butter available for a 
much wider territory are furnished by a number of large 
creameries situated in the cities mentioned. Besides 
our local market for butter, we are at the gateway to 
the great butter market of the south, and also within 
convenient shipping distance of the centers of popula- 
tion of the east. 



188 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL, EePOET 

As a class tlie farms in Kentucky on wMcli dairy 
products are produced as an important source of the 
farm income, are the most prosperous farms in the 
State. This is due to the fact that a herd of dairy cat- 
tle brings in a dependable 'income, which comes in at 
frequent and regular intervals. 

As an example of the profits to be secured from 
good dairy farming in Kentucky, we might mention the 
experience of R. R. Dougherty, of Spencer county, who 
lives on a farm of 223 acres, which has been brought up 
to a high state of fertility. Mr. Dougherty purchased 
this farm 20 years ago, going into debt for almost the 
entire purchase price. He immediately established a 
dairy, and began shipping milk to the city of Louisville, 
fifty miles away. Within a few years the farm debt 
was paid off in full, and the farm today is one of the 
best in the State, producing an average of 60 bushels 
of com, 20 bushels of wheat, and two to three tons of 
hay to the acre. Besides paying for and improving his 
farm, Mr. Dougherty has provided a good living for his 
family, given his children the advantage of a college ed- 
ucation, built a splendid country home, which is 
equipped with all modem conveniences, enjoys the pleas- 
ures of an automobile, and has established himself as 
one of the wealthy and influential farmers of the coun- 
ty. This splendid success has come as the result of di- 
versified dairy farming, and we wish to emphasize, very 
emphatically that diversified dairy farming is the only 
profitable system of dairy farming. With the dairy Mr 
Dougherty combines a large amount of horse sense, aa 
well as cow sense, and a goodly amount of hard work. 
One of the secrets of his success is that he has learned 
not to carry all of his eggs in one basket. He keeps a 
moderate sized herd of cows— only 24 in number — ^but 
these are good ones, and bring in an average of over 
$200 per month. The other important yearly sales of 
his farm are 40 or 50 head of fat hogs, a small flock of 
spring lambs, two or three young horses or mules, five 
or six hundred bushels of wheat, and some fruit and 
poultry products. The yearly acreage of com has never 
exceeded 30 to 35 acres. In discussing the growing of 
com on his farm, which is of rather rolling nature, Mr. 



BuEBAxj OF Ageicultuee. 189 

Dougherty says that he regards corn as a splendid crop, 
but prefers to raise it on his neighbor's land, leaving 
his own land in grass. It will be seen from his acreage 
that he is careful not to overdo the com crop. This sys- 
tem of hay and grass farming has resulted in the pro- 
tection of his slopes from washing, and has greatly in- 
creased the humus supply and crop producing power of 
the land. 

Mr. Dougherty has reduced his farm management 
to a system which brings results. From his dairy he 
secures an income of more than $2,400 a year, yet the 
dairy does not seriously interfere with his crop pro- 
duction. His crops are as good as those of the best 
farmers in his section, and much better than the average. 
The cows are cared for in the morning and evening, be- 
fore and after the field work, and the time is hardly 
missed. This farm is a model of good crop rotation, and 
the rational use of stable manure. The dairy herd is 
fed liberally on home-grown feeds, consisting largely of 
corn stover, corn silage, hay and crushed corn, the 
ration being supplemented and balanced by the use of 
a small amount of cotton seed meal and wheat bran. 
Less than $300 a year is expended for purchased feeds. 

Many other examples of success in dairying might 
be mentioned, as for instance that of Dudley Garth, 
of Todd county, in the southwestern part of Kentucky, 
who has developed a very profitable line of farming, in 
which the production of high-class butter and registered 
dairy cattle have occupied an important place. 

Another line of profitable dairying is that of the 
making of ice cream on the farm for the local trade, as 
a side line to the farm dairy. The ice cream business in 
Kentucky is yet in its infancy, and offers a splendid field 
for profitable development. 

An increasing number of Kentucky farmers are in- 
stalling hand cream separators, and putting in herds 
of four to ten cows, separating the cream, taking this in 
a few cases to local creameries. In a majority of cases, 
however, local creameries are not available as markets, 
and shipment is made to large central creameries for 
butter-making. This line of dairying offers a nice 
weekly addition to the farm income. The receipts- per 



190 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Eepoet 

cow are not as great as those from sweet milk and sweet 
cream, but less time is required to take the product to 
the market or shipping station. Butter dairying' is open 
to a large class of farmers who are too far from the 
market or shipping point to make it practical to ship 
sweet milk or sweet cream. The central creameries per- 
mit the. cream to be delivered twice or three times a week, 
thus giving an average in saving time in delivery. 
The cream shipper has an added advantage in being 
able to keep the skimmed milk on his farm, thus utilizing 
one of the best of all feeds for calves, pigs and poultry. 
The- production of milk from a few cows thus carried on 
in connection with the growing of crops and other live 
stock, is sure to increase in importance and profitable- 
ness on very many Kentucky farms. 

-No state in the Union offers a more promising field 
for the profitable production and sale of dairy stock for 
breeding purposes. We have already obtained a world- 
wide reputation for Jerseys of the highest quality. One 
county (Shelby) leads all other counties in America in 
the number and excellence of her Jerseys. Buyers from 
nearly every state in the Union come here to place 
carload orders. As a result of this community breed- 
ing interest, there is always a market at good prices for 
all surplus stock. This adds many thousands of dollars 
to the income of the farmers of this and other counties, 
which have obtained a reputation for Jerseys. 

In the breeding of Holsteins, a good beginning has- 
been made in several sections of Kentucky, principal 
among which are communities in Nelson and Spencer 
counties,, and several counties in northern Kentucky. 
For both Holsteins and Jerseys there is a rapidly in- 
creasing demand from southern farmers who have here- 
tofore been compelled to go to the northern States to 
supply their needs. These buyers would gladly stop in 
Kentucky to make their purchases, thereby saving 
greatly in traveling expenses, and avoiding the long 
haul from the northern States. Kentucky Holstein 
breeders have developed some of the best Holstein 
strains to be found anywhere, and all stock which they 
offer' for sale find ready buyers. The community breed- 
ing ' of Holsteins is probably even more promising in 



Btjbeau of Aqeioultube. 191 

profits than that of the breeding of Jerseys, because of 
this large and almost untouched southern market. 
Breeders have it in their power to make Kentucky one 
of the great breeding and market places for the Hol- 
stein breed. 

Kentucky furnishes hundreds of examples of run- 
down farms which have been restored to fertility by 
dairy farming. A conspicuous example is the county 
of Pendleton. Fifteen years ago this hill county was 
washed and gullied, and the, farm land was practically 
worthless. Today these same hillsides are growing 
splendid crops of sweet clover, blue grass and alfalfa, 
bank deposits have more than quadrupled, gullies have 
been stopped, commodious bams have been built, and 
good herds of dairy cows are bringing in a comfortable 
monthly income to a large number of farmers. The 
counties of Campbell, Kenton, Shelby, Spencer and Har- 
din may also be cited as examples of the effectiveness of 
dairy farming in increasing soil fertility. Kentucky 
farmers are beginning to realize that when well cared 
for, £Lnd properly applied, the manure from a dairy cow 
is worth $25 or more per year, and that a herd of cows 
enables the farmer to feed the grass, hay and forage 
produced on his farm, thereby keeping a large part of 
the farm in grass, preventing' erosion, and retaining 
plant food on the farm. Dairy farming means a profit- 
able system of ■ agriculture and increased crop produc- 
tion, and a larger income each year. Moreover, a good 
herd of dairy cows will bring in a much greater money 
return and utilize a ^given amount of feed to much 
greater advantage than an equal number of steers. For 
this reason the production of dairy products replaces 
beef production whenever population becomes dense, 
and land becomes high priced. This is shown by the 
experience of farmers in the dairy districts of Ken- 
tucky, and of other States, and by the practice of farm- 
ers in Denmark, Holland, Germany and other European 
nations. 

The Kentucky College of Agriculture and Experi- 
ment Station is actively engaged in the encouragement 
of all phases of dairying in Kentucky, including the 
care, breeding and management of dairy cattle, and' the 



192 Twenty-First BienniaXi Ebpo^t 

working out of profitable systems of farm management 
on farms where milk stock are kept. A special service 
is maintained for co-operation and aid in bam and silo 
building. Farmers engaged in dairying and those con- 
templating going into the business may secure valuable 
and practical assistance by communicating with the De- 
partment in charge of this work. 



THE HOG INDUSTEY OF KENTUCKY. 

By E. S. Good, Kentucky Ageictjltueal Experiment 
Station, Lexington, Ky. 



There is much being done by various agencies in 
the State of Kentucky to make the raising of hogs both 
a safe and a profitable venture. The enormous losses 
formerly sustained from hog cholera are now practi- 
cally insured against by the use of anti-hog cholera 
serum, which can be obtained at cost from the Experi- 
ment Station, and used as a preventive if secured and 
administered in time. Bulletins and pamphlets stating 
the best methods of controlling hog cholera and other 
diseases affecting hogs can be obtained by an interested 
breeder. The hog cholera clubs established in this State 
are a further measure for the purpose of an organized 
effort toward eradicating this disease. 

The Kentucky Live Stock Sanitary Board, in its 
strenuous and effective work in eradicating the foot- 
and-mouth disease in this State, as well as in other help- 
ful measures, has made the industry of hog raising a 
safer one. 

The influence of the Kentucky Swine Breeders' As- 
sociation has been most helpful to the hog raisers of 
this State. At least once a year this organization holds 
a meeting for the purpose of discussing problems con- 
nected with the swine industry, and it can always be 
counted on for recommending and working for legisla- 
tive measures favorable to this industry. 

The Extension Department of the Experiment Sta- 
tion is making a fine effort to interest the boys of the 




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of manure a year, all of whicli, Ixitli lifutid 

a lai^i In liie i;inil, Tlir cru]! yielrls li;i\-c |ir 

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■oiluci n- nearly ?A\() loads 
nd solid, is saved and 

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Glazed Tile IMilk House located on an eighty-acre dairy farm 
Tlie material for tliis liouwe cost $150, with labor of construction additional. 







Old Hen House. 
(See i.aL;e l:i7. I 




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Bureau of Ageioultube. 193 

State in the raising of hogs. When a boy can be given 
an opportunity to be a partner of some one in such an 
enterprise he acquires interest in feeding and caring for 
animals which tends to develop the embryo stock breed- 
er, and it may, perhaps, be one influence which in later 
years will keep him on the farm. The results of some 
of this club work directed by Professor Otis Kercher 
show that the hogs fed and cared for by the boys are 
usually larger, and, m many cases, the gains produced 
more economically than those produced by his elders. 

Much is being done by the Experiment Station in 
the frequent publishing of bulletins noting the results 
of experiments in hog feeding, which are constantly 
being carried on. Some of the experiments show that 
by a proper rotation of forage crops the cost of growing 
and fatteniug hogs in this State can be greatly re- 
duced. The farmer must realize, however, that it is 
necessary to feed some grain in addition to the forage 
crop to make the grazing profitable. A good rule to 
follow is to give a pig some grain from the time he is 
old enough to eat graiu untU he goes to the market, 
even though he has access to excellent forage crops. 
Good forage crops just about maintain a young hog, 
that is, they provide the sufficient nutrients for the pro- 
duction of blood, digestive juices, heat and energy; thus 
the additional food in the form of a grain ration is used 
for the production of bone, muscle and fat. The hog 
likes grain better than forage crops; therefore, it is 
best to give him a small amount of grain so that he 
will remain hungry to do considerable grazing. If the 
forage crop on which he is running is good, feed him 
from two to two and one-half per cent, of his weight 
daily in grain; as the forage crop becomes depleted, feed 
him three per cent, of his weight in grain daily. Grain 
thus fed to hogs on forage crops will net from $1.00 to 
$1.50 per bushel for the amount fed, and most of the 
fertilizing constituents of the same left on the land. How 
can grain be disposed of at greater profit? 

To make the industry of raising hogs in Kentucky 
the most profitable, proper housing and sanitary meas- 
ures must be adhered to. It must be remembered that 
the hog is sensitive to both heat and cold, and for that 

agr. — 7 



194 TwENTY-FrBST Biennial Bepobt 

reason should be provided with, shade during the sum- 
mer months, and dry, sheltered quarters in which to 
sleep during the winter months. 

In Cincinnati and Louisville, Kentucky has splen- 
did hog markets, in which respect she is much more for- 
tunate than the Southern States, where the extra freight 
rates required of the shipper of the finished porker to 
more distant markets eat into the profits made from the 
sale of the same animals. 

The wanner climate of the States farther south 
makes it difficult to properly chill and cure pork, even 
during the winter months, and that is one of the chief 
reasons why farmers in those States look to the packer 
to supply their immediate needs, which should be sup- 
plied from pork produced and cured at home. Ken- 
tucky, with her temperate climate, is particularly for- 
tunate in this respect, as the winters are cold enough 
to enable the farmer to chill and cure his pork with 
safety, and thus provide meat for his own family and 
farm laborers at a small cost. 

The raising of hogs is perhaps the cheapest and 
easiest breeding business in which to become estab- 
lished, because of the limited capital needed with which 
to begin, and because of the prolificacy of this particular 
animal. It is earnestly hoped that the efforts of the va- 
rious agencies interested in the future of the Kentucky 
hog, together with the natural resources which Ken- 
tucky offers for the breeding, feeding and marketing of 
this animal, will result in a more intelligent and enthu- 
siastic development of the highly profitable industry 
of hog raising. 



THE SHEEP INDUSTRY IN KENTUCKY. 

By Mark J. Smith, Department of Animal Husbandry 
(Beef Cattle, Sheep and Swine), Kentucky Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Lexington, Kentucky. 



Kentucky is essentially a sheep State, possessing 
numerous marked advantages for this particular indus- 
try, and throughout the State the sheep industry is 



, Btjbbau of Agkicultubb. 195 

fundamentally a spring Iamb proposition with wool as 
an important by-product. Tlie State lias a pasturing 
season of long duration, the summers are not extremely 
hot and the winters are not exceedingly cold, hence it is 
necessary to shelter sheep only for a short time, if at 
all, during the year. There is an abundance of well- 
watered sheep grazing land, the transportation facilities 
are of the very best, and markets for spring lambs exist 
at the farmer's door. Kentucky, as is the case with all 
other states, has its drawbacks with respect to the profit- 
able exploitation of the sheep industry. The stomach 
worm and the sheep-killing dog are generally considered 
the two worst enemies of the sheep. The increase in 
popularity throughout the State of winter forage crops 
is tending to reduce the dangers from the stomach worm, 
inasmuch as it makes possible a frequent change of pas- 
ture. Dogs do the most damage near the small towns, 
but the annoyance by dogs can be largely eliminated by 
a little care and watchfulness on the part of the owner. 
In some parts of Kentucky there are practically no draw- 
backs to the sheep industry, as the lambs are marketed 
so early in life that the stomach worm does not have an 
opportunity to get in its work. 

Kentucky is especially fortunate in possessing a very 
valuable type of native ewe from a utility standpoint. 
These native sheep are the heritage of early colonial 
days, when sheep from southern England were brought 
to this country by the early colonists. The typical native 
mountain sheep of this region is an up-standing white or 
mottled-faced sheep, possessing a rather long neck, legs 
bare of wool and having a light, open fleece. The ewes 
have retained many of the desirable features of the south 
England breeds, and as a result of their environment 
during a long period of time in this country, have be- 
come very active and hardy. The better grade of these 
ewes is an excellent milker, is prolific and makes an al- 
most ideal mother. 

Since the spring lamb is the chief consideration of 
the sheep industry in Kentucky, the method most com- 
monly practiced by the farmers of the State is to cross 
the mountain ewe with a ram of one of the leading mut- 
ton breeds. The Southdown has been the leading mut- 



196 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOST 

ton breed used during the past few years, but tbe Hamp- 
shire is now claiming considerable popularity. In this 
way a very good market lamb, having a dark face, is 
produced and at the same time the flock is being gradually 
graded up, in cases where the ewe lambs are retained to 
replace the old, worn-out ewes of the flock. 

The care generally given to the flock varies a great 
deal throughout the Stat<*. Oftentimes, the ewes run 
out on pasture the entire year. Pastures in winter and 
in early spring are commonly supplemented with rye, 
corn fodder, sheaf oats or a little grain. In general, the 
practice is to give the flock shelter for a period of four 
or five weeks at lambing time, when some sort of grain is 
commonly fed. 

The best results are obtained when the lambs are 
sold milk fat from their mother's side, at from four to 
four and one-half months of age. A portion of the lambs 
are marketed in May, perhaps fifty per cent, of them in 
June, thirty per cent, in July, and the remainder in 
August. At the time when the run of western fed sheep 
on the market is closing, the lamb crop from Kentucky 
and other mid-south states begins to arrive. Last sea- 
son, the Louisville market began the season on a twelve- 
dollar basis, for spring lamb. For some time, Kentucky 
has been a supply factor of considerable importance in 
the spring lamb trade, and the statement was made to 
the writer by a leading commission man in Jersey City, 
this summer, that the best spring lambs they received 
came from Kentucky. 

Within the past three years there has been a small 
decline in the number of sheep kept in Kentucky. The 
present contraction of the industry in the State can only 
be of temporary nature. With a great decrease of sheep 
in the Rocky Mountain district, and with the increasing 
consumption of lamb by the American people, Kentucky 
is destined to play a much larger part in this important 
branch of animal husbandry, spring lamb production. 
Great economic changes are occurring in the country, a 
movement which is forcing the center of meat production 
eastward to the farms of the East and South, and it seems 
that in the future a large supply of the lamb and mutton 
must come from the small farm flocks, and there is no 



BuEEATJ OP Ageioulttieb. 197 

state in the Union in whicli the small-farm flock proposi- 
tion fits in the system of agriculture more profitably and 
naturally than Kentucky. 

The receipts from wool and spring lambs in Ken- 
tucky would be greatly increased if the farmers would 
devote a little attention to the subject of docking, castrat- 
ing and selection of rams. All lambs intended for market 
purposes should be docked and castrated, with perhaps 
the exception of hot-house lambs. No producer of spring 
lambs can afford to use a scrub ram. It is not difficult for 
a breeder who has been using a scrub ram to add at least 
one dollar per head to the value of lambs by using a pure 
bred ram of the proper type. The sheep is an especially 
profitable animal in Kentucky, inasmuch as it yields a 
double income — ^both wool and mutton. The wool under 
ordinary Kentucky conditions will pay the expense of 
upkeep throughout the year. The annual income per head 
in flocks throughout the State varies from five to fif- 
teen dollars. The ewe kept under average conditions 
should bring in an income of at least seven dollars per 
head. The money income is not the only consideration. 
The "activity, of the sheep in killing obnoxious weeds, 
keeping the fence comers clean, and converting other 
waste material of the farm into cash, is not to be over- 
looked. 

An investigation into the sheep industry of the State 
offers great opportunities for optimistic statements with 
regard to its future. The conditions all point to a period 
of prosperity for the sheep husbandman, and Kentucky, 
with all her natural advantages for sheep husbandry, 
should develop within the next few years a much greater 
sheep breeding industry. 



POULTRY EAISING IN KENTUCKY 

Br J. J. HooPEE, Ejenttjcky Agbiculttjeal Experiment 
Station, Lexington, Ky. 



The hens in Kentucky produced seven million dol- 
lars worth of eggs in 1910, and the farmers raised seven 
million dollars worth of poultry during that year. After 
consuming a considerable quantity of the eggs and chick- 



198 Twenty-First Biennial Rbpoet 

ens on the farm, the farmers sold four million dollars 
worth, of eggs and two million dollars worth of chick- 
ens. Adding the last two sets of figures, we find that 
the poultry on the farms of Kentucky earn annually for 
the farmers six million dollars. These figures serve to 
show the magnitude of the industry in this Common- 
wealth, but upon comparing these statistics with those 
gathered in Missouri, we find that there is great room 
for growth and expansion. During the year 1910 the 
Missouri farmers sold eighteen million dollars worth of 
eggs and chickens. That State is no better adapted to 
poultry keeping than our own. 

Upon comparing the figures presented in the Tenth 
Census Reports, we find interesting material regarding 
the magnitude of the poultry industry in Missouri ten 
years ago and today. In 1899 the census figures show 
that the chickens in Missouri produced seventeen mil- 
lion dollars worth of eggs and fowls, and in 1910 thirty- 
four million dollars worth. "Why did the figures double 
during that decade? Because the Experiment Station 
and the State Department of Agriculture began an ag- 
gressive campaign in favor of the hen. They convinced 
the farmer that there was money in poultry raising, 
they taught them how to combat diseases, how to feed 
the young chicks and prevent gapes, diarrhea, and other 
disorders. Under the guidance of these influences the 
farmers gave up old methods and adopted newer and 
better ones. 

A similar campaign has been begun in Kentucky, 
and the same beneficent results will accrue. But we will 
have to give up many old-fashioned ideas that have held 
sway during the past years. For instance, our old-styled 
chicken house will have to go. It will have to give place to 
the modern curtain front house, that furnishes room for 
exercise in winter, and protection from bad weather, and 
plenty of shade in summer. 

No one seems to know where the plan for the top- 
heavy, slatted-sided chicken house originated. Now that 
the searchlight of science has been thrown upon it, and 
its faults clearly elucidated, no one will stand sponsor 
for it. This type of house offers almost no exercising 
room, and the roosts are placed directly over the 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 199 

slatted sides. The cold air of a brisk January night has 
free access to the hens, and they cannot produce eggs 
when subjected to such temperatures and exposure. As 
there is no room in the bottom of the house, the birds 
are compelled to leave the house during the day, and 
they become chilled to the marrow. The same amount 
of money that is required in erecting such an unfortu- 
nate type of house will, when judiciously expended, 
erect a first-class home for the faithful hens. 

The curtain front house embodies the following 
principles: The curtain permits the cold air to filter 
through slowly, but the birds inside are not subjected 
to cold drafts at any time. When hoisted, the curtain 
front permits the sunshine to enter, which destroys bac- 
teria and drys the house. In summer the curtain can 
be arranged to act as a shade and prevent the hot 
sunshine from entering. The curtain front house should 
have a sloping, or shed, roof, which drains all the rain- 
water to the rear, where it is out of the way. The house 
should be about eight feet high in front and six feet in 
rear. The space around the roosts, which are usually 
placed in the back part of the house, should be double 
walled or boxed in, to keep the birds warm in the win- 
ter time. The proportions of the house should be two- 
thirds as wide as deep. A house ten feet wide should 
approximate fifteen feet deep. This prevents cold air 
from blowing on the birds. The curtain should be at 
least three feet from the floor, as the wooden wall be- 
low the curtain will prevent cold air from striking the 
hens when they are in the front of the house. Feed 
hoppers, water fountains, and nests are arranged around 
the walls. At the Experiment Station straw litter is 
placed on the floor six inches deep, and this is changed 
once every month. Some poultrymen advocate utilizing 
shavings for half the litter, as the shavings absorb 
a great quantity of moisture. At the Station the houses 
that have wooden floors are built on posts fourteen 
inches from the ground. This offers a cool open space 
for the hens to rest during the warm summer months, 
and prevents harboring nests of rats. A wooden plat- 
form, or droppings board, is placed underneath the 
nests, and the manure is raked from this board twice a 



200 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EbPOBT ' 

week. The roosts are twelve inclies above this platform, 
and the roosts, which are made . of two-by-fours, are 
placed on a level, as the birds will crowd to the highest 
roosts if there are such. A poultryman in this State has 
driven large wire nails in the roosts every ten inches. 
His idea is that it provides an individual space for each 
bird, and prevents crowding. In a properly constructed 
house the hens may be confined during bad weather. The 
grain is fed m the deep litter, and the hens have to 
scratch and exercise in finding the wheat and creicked 
com that is fed. During the morning hours they have 
free access to a finely pulverized mixture containing a.1- 
falfa meal, com meal, shorts, salt and beef scrap. Water 
is supplied in clean crocks and fountains. It is a beau- 
tiful sight to open the door and look in on a house full 
of hens that are at work scratching for their feed on a 
cold day in the winter, cackling and cawing as they 
work, and shelling out eggs at the rate of almost one a 
day, whUe your neighbors ' hens are standing idly around 
in the snow, or trying to find something to eat in the 
manure piles around the bam. The accompanying pho- 
tographs speak for themselves. 



COTTON PLANTING IN KENTUCKY. 
S. L. DoDDS, Hickman, Kt. 



Statistics show that Kentucky raises more cotton 
to the acre than any State in the Union, but unfortu- 
nately there is but one county withia the boundaries of 
our broad Commonwealth in which this valuable staple 
can be produced, viz., Fulton county. This county, in 
1915, sold between $900,000 and $1,000,00Q worth of 
cotton and cotton seed, not taking into account the cot- 
ton seed by-products. 

Prior to twenty-five years ago, cotton could not 
be successfully grown in Kentucky, notwithstanding cer- 
tain lands in the lower end of Fulton county appeared 
particularly adapted to this crop. It remained for four 
brothers, the Dodds Brothers, of Hickman, Kentucky, 



BuBEAu OF Agbiculttjee. 201 

to discover tlie cause and to apply the remedy; and to- 
day Syd L. Dodds is the biggest grower and shipper of 
cotton in the State of Kentucky. The story of his suc- 
cess in growing cotton is interesting, and proves that 
his wonderful crops are the result of careful' study and 
thorough investigation, rather than the discovery that 
certain, lands in his county would grow cotton. 

Something over twenty years ago Mr. Dodds wetit 
from his home in Hickman to the Delta of Mississippi, 
where he engaged in the lumber and live stock busi- 
ness, and later the cotton business. He and his brother, 
K. E. Dodds, compared the low lands of Fulton county, 
Kentucky, with the lands surrounding the little town in 
Mississippi, which was name "Doddsville" after Syd 
L. Dodds went there to live, and found a marked simi- 
larity. They then decided to give cotton a try-out in 
Kentucky, and at once procured the best seed to be 
had in Mississippi, and planted it in the lowlands be- 
tween Hickman and Eeelfoot Lake. The new crop 
started in a way that was very gratifying to its spon- 
sors. The growth was strong and healthy, and exceed- 
ingly well-fruited, but it developed that it would not 
"open" early enough in the northern climate to escape 
the frost, and the result was disastrous. It then oc- 
curred to Syd L. Dodds that if he could acclimate the 
southern crop to new conditions, he could make it a suc- 
cess. He accordingly planted again the next season, 
and had seed carefully selected from the earliest ma- 
turing cotton, which was not damaged by the frost, for 
the next season's planting; and while the yield from his 
cotton was small, he had now a supply of seed which he 
beileved would grow quicker maturing cotton than 
those secured from southern cotton, and his surmise was 
correct. The next year, long before frost came, snowy 
fields of long-staple cotton w^s a reality in Kentucky, 
and later Syd L. Dodds sold to one planter in Missis- 
sippi, at one time, $10,000 worth of cotton seed, because 
Kentucky cotton matured earlier than Mississippi 
cotton. 

As soon as it was found that they could successfully 
grow cotton at hoiae, the Dodds brothers built a small 



202 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

gin to take care of tlieir own cotton, and for several 
years only ginned two or three hundred bales a year. 
Abont this time the Mississippi river levee below Hick- 
man was extended down the river, reclaiming more of 
this fertile land, and as rapidly as it was reclaimed, it 
was pnt into cultivation. Cotton planting was taken up 
by everybody who had or could get any of this bottom 
land, and thousands of acres which had been considered 
worthless, and could be purchased at one dollar the 
acre, advanced in value to as high as $125 per acre. 

The accompanying photographs show the Dodds* 
gia at Hickman receiving cotton from the wagons and 
loading it baled onto steam boats. During the ginning 
season this gin alone ships approximately 1,200 bales 
of cotton per week, and pays to the cotton growers daily 
between $7,500 and $8,000. Cotton has made Hickman 
one of the best towns in Kentucky, and the land sur- 
rounding Hickman cannot be bought now except in 
small tracts. King Cotton reigns supreme in the bot- 
tom lands of Western Kentucky, and is a most popular 
monarch. 



EEPORT OF UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 

AaRICULTURE WEATHER BUREAU, 

KENTUCKY. 



Louisville, Ky., October 15, 1915. 
Weathee Conditions Dtjeing 1915, by Peop. F. J. Walz. 

The growing season of 1915 was noteworthy in that 
it was one of the coolest and wettest seasons on record, 
and in direct contrast with the seasons of 1913 and 1914. 
The first four months, except January, were remarkably 
dry, and especially April, which was one of the driest 
Aprils on record. 

The rains began in May, and continued in more or 
less regular intervals through the summer and fall. Dur- 
ing the month of February and much of April there was 
ponsideraWe unseasonably warm weather, but otherwise 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 203 

temperatures were generally below normal, and not so 
much on account of unusually low temperatures, but due 
rather to the fact that the maximum temperatures kept 
so universally low. From May 4th to October 12th there 
were but five weeks when the temperature did not aver- 
age below normal. The warmest week for the entire 
season from the normal point of view, was the week 
ending April 27th, while the coldest week with reference 
to normal conditions was the week ending August 31st. 
The conditions obtaining are given in detail in the 
following summaries and the accompanying table: 

Januaey. 

Moderate temperature, generally above normal, pre- 
vailed during the first 17 days. A change to colder oc- 
curred on the 18th, and, except for the 31st, imseason- 
ably cold weather was the rule during the rest of the 
month. While the temperature averaged considerably 
below normal, largely on account of 'the low m.axima, 
there were only a few days when severe temperature 
conditions obtained. 

Precipitation averaged somewhat above normal, 
and was heaviest over the southern border counties, and 
lightest over the northeastern counties. Snowfall was 
unusually heavy. In nearly all parts of the State the 
ground was covered with snow from the 18th to 30th, in- 
clusive. There was very little snow during the first half 
of the month, but in the period 18th-25th snow occurred 
nearly every day; also there was considerable sleet on 
the 22d, 23d, and 24th. The snow and ice covering prac- 
tically disappeared with the warm rains and high tem- 
perature of the 31st. 

Febeuaey. 

The general weather conditions prevailing during 
February, 1915, in this section were remarkably favor- 
able for a winter month. There was a notable absence 
of winter storms and of any severe winter weather. Only 
five times during the past 27 years has the temperature 
in Kentucky for February averaged higher than, or as 
high as, that of this year. Of these Februarys, three 



204 TwEKTY-FlBST BlENNlAl. EePOBT 

were those of 1890, 1891 and 1892, and the other two 
those of 1909 and 1911. The highest temi)erature 
reached in the State during the month, 75°, has been ex- 
ceeded many times during that same period; but 13°, the 
lowest temperature reported this month in the State, 
is the highest State minimum in the Kentucky section 
records for February except in one year, namely, 1890, 
when the lowest recorded was 16°. 

Precipitation for the month averaged less than one- 
half of the February normal over the State as a whole, 
and was considerably below normal at every station. 
There was very little snow. 

Spring plowing was begun in various localities be- 
fore the close of the month; and, at the end, trees and 
shrubbery were showing budsi and crocuses had ap- 
peared. 

Maech. 

The month was the coldest March since State rec- 
ords were established, and also with two exceptions, 
March, 1889, and 1910, the driest. There were no se- 
vere temperature extremes, but daily minimum temper- 
atures were seldom above freezing, while maximum tem- 
peratures were unusually low, the maximum for the 
State being the lowest on record for March. There were 
no warm periods. Heavy frosts and hard freezes oc- 
curred almost every night, and vegetation made no ap- 
preciable growth, the appearance of the fields and woods 
at the end of the month being as bleak as in midwinter. 
The blustery weather characteristic of March was no- 
tably absent. 

The precipitation for the month averaged less than 
half the normal amount for March, and was much below 
normal in all sections. Small grain and pastures began 
to show the effect of drought, especially in the western 
part of the State. The dry weather, however, was re- 
markably favorable for outdoor work. Spring plowing 
advanced rapidly, many farmers being practically a 
month ahead with the preparation of their land at the 
end of March. 



Bureau of Ageiculture. 205 

Apbil. 

The unseasonably cold "weather that characterized 
March, continued during the first four days of April, 
when unusually low temperatures were registered in all 
parts of the State, minimum temperatures ranging be- 
tween 17° and 30°. During this period killing frosts oc- 
curred generally, the last for the season being reported 
from most stations in the eastern and northern counties 
during the period 13-15th. On account of the dormant 
condition of vegetation, due to the persistent cold wea- 
ther, practically no damage resulted from these low tem- 
peratures. 

The latter half of the month was unusually warm, 
and temperatures in the 90 's occurred at many stations 
on several days, while the month averaged the warmest 
on record for the State, except April, 1896. 

The month's precipitation averaged less than one 
inch, the least for April since the beginning of State 
averages, and the ground became too dry to plow before 
the end of the month. Spring plowing had been gener- 
ally completed, however, before this condition was 
reached, but planting and germination of seeds were 
delayed. Wheat, rye, oats, pastures and tobacco beds 
suffered severely from drought, and there was some 
complaint of shortage of stock water. 

May. 

The month opened cool. In fact, the nights were 
unseasonably cool during most of the month, and while 
there was a number of warm days with maximum tem- 
peratures of 90° and over at some stations, and the tem- 
perature averaged near normal, the month as a whole 
can be classed as a cool May, due in considerable meas- 
ure to cloudiaess and wetness. Eemarkably cool weath- 
er, with temperatures ranging between 38° and 48°, pre- 
vailed from the 5th to the 11th, inclusive, and again in 
the period 17-19th. The pronounced warm periods were 
the 2-3d and 13-16th. 

Drougthy conditions which had prevailed over the 
State practically since February were greatly relieved 
by showers early in May. Beneficial showers contuiued 



206 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

intermittently during the first two decades, while during 
the last decade rains occurred daily and were frequently 
heavy, causing damage in some localities. Also, there 
were several destructive thunder-storms, the most se- 
vere occurring on the 25th, when a wind velocity of 74 
miles per hour was registered at Louisville, the highest 
wind velocity on record for that station. 

Rainfall over the State for the month averaged 6.62 
inches, or the largest for May since State records be- 
gan in 1889. At the beginning of May the average total 
rainfall over the State since the first of the year showed 
a deficiency of 7.08 inches. The surplus in May of 2.70 
inches reduced this deficiency to 4.38 inches, the summer 
being ushered in with soil, stream and water sources 
generally well supplied with sufficient moisture. 

Abundant rains during the month furnished much 
needed moisture, and crops generally made splendid 
progress. By the middle of the month com planting 
was practically completed, but cultivation was hindered 
the latter part by continuous rains. Tobacco planting, 
delayed on account of the scarcity of plants, was pro- 
gressing rapidly at the end of the month, also wheat was 
heading out, but short. Oats, meadows, pastures and 
grasses of all kinds, garden truck and fruit were in fine 
condition, and strawberries were yielding an excellent 
crop. 

June. 

Cloudy, rainy and unseasonably cool weather, which 
prevailed so largely during May, continued during the 
greater portion of June. While minimum temperatures 
did not register as low as they have in a number of past 
Junes of record, maximum temperatures kept remark- 
ably low, and the highest reached, only 95°, equals the 
record in the State for June in this respect. Eains were 
numerous, and heavy on several days, and in some por- 
tions of the State, but at a number of stations the total 
amount for the month was below normal, and the aver- 
age for the State as a whole was only 0.57 inch above the 
normal for June. The month was remarkably favorable 
for transplanting tobacco plants, and for all growing 



Bureau op Ageicultuee. 207 

crops, especially gardens, pastures, grasses, com and 
oats. But the large number of rainy days greatly inter- 
fered witli harvesting wheat and hay, the cultivation of 
corn and tobacco and all farm work. Much com was 
planted late, besides, as there had been considerable 
overflowing of lowlands, much replanting was neces- 
sary. Also, owing to contiaued rains, lands became 
packed and grass and weeds were exuberant. A period 
of fair weather from the 22d to the 27th gave an excel- 
lent opportunity for harvesting wheat, and by the end 
of the month this work was practically completed and 
some threshing done. Considerable damage was done 
in various localities by rain, wind and hailstorms, and 
there was a number of fatalities and some destruction 
of property from lightning. 

July. 

The weather during the first two weeks of July was 
remarkably rainy and cool, rains occurring more or less 
generally nearly every day, with many heavy damaging 
showers in various localities, but particularly in the 
central and northern portions of the State. During 
these two weeks excessive rains and wet weather caused 
serious damage to crops by the flooding of low lands, 
the washing of the soil, and hindering of cultivation. 
Wheat was badly damaged over large areas immediately 
before and during harvest; also continued wet weather 
at threshing time caused much loss. Com and tobacco 
became weedy, cultivation being practically impossible 
in many localities. Day temperatures rarely reached 
95° in any part of the State previous to the 13th. At 
Louisville a temperature as high as 90° was reached 
for the first time this year on the 14th, which is ten days 
later than the record for any previous year since the 
records were begun in 1871. 

During the last two weeks, however, the weather 
conditions were highly favorable, being much warmer 
and dry with only occasional showers, and one or two 
rainy days. But it was again quite cool in the period 
21st-24th. 



208 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL BePOBT 

August. 

Except for a few warm days at the beginning of 
the month., and during the second decade, the month was 
unseasonably cool throughout, with temperatures al- 
most continuously below normal. Minimum tempera- 
tures during the last decade registered in the 50 's on 
most days, while on the 31st they ranged between 42° 
and 50° at most stations in the central and western part 
of the State, and only slightly higher in the eastern 
counties. August records for low temperature were 
broken at many stations in the northern counties. It 
is noteworthy that the mean temperature of each month 
from May to August, 1915, inclusive, has been below 
normal, the average daily deficiency being 2°. The av- 
erange rainfall for the State for the same period was 
7.16 inches in excess of the normal amount. This 
month's average rainfall was the greatest on record in 
Kentucky for August since State records were estab- 
lished in 1889. Eain was very frequent, there being 
only a few days without fairly general showers. At two 
stations rain fell on 13 consecutive days. 

The wet and unseasonably cold weather combined to 
greatly retard the development of com and tobacco, and 
also interfered with harvesting the latter crop. Com 
and tobacco were considerably damaged by wind in sev- 
eral counties during the passage of the storm of 20th- 
21st. Farm work was generally delayed except fall plow- 
ing, which, on account of favorable soil conditions, was 
unusually well advanced at the end of the month. 

Septbmbeb. 

As a whole the month was favorable for the ma- 
turing and harvesting of the staple crops, and for the 
preparation of the soil for seeding, except that the last 
decade was too cool to properly develop late com. Dur- 
ing the first week temperatures were generally below 
normal, but warmer weather set in on the 7th, and con- 
tinued to the 20th, maximum temperatures during this 
period registering generally above 85° at all stations. 
Temperatures in the 90 's prevailed generally during the 
week beginning with the 11th. A decided change to 



BUEEAU 01" AgBICULTXJBE. 



209 



colder occurred on the 21st, and, except the period 
24-26th, temperatures were considerably below normal 
during the rest of the month. Light frost was reported 
from a few stations on the 22d, biit there was no damage. 
Precipitation averaged somewhat above normal, and 
was fairly well distributed over the State. There was 
much bright, clear weather, and only a few local storms 
during the month, and farm work was well advanced at 
the close. 



1915 



Temperatures 



01 
CO 



Pi 
Q 



•a 

•iH 

X 



Precipitation 



Pi 

a 
Q 



Average Number 
Days 



c3 



o 






•a 
o 
o 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May- 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec. 



33.0 
41.9 
37.8 
60.1 
65.2 
71.7 
75.7 
71.3 
70.7 
60.6 
49.8 
36.9 



—2.4 
+6.5 
—8.5 
+4.2 
—0.5 
^2.2 
—1.1 
—4.4 
+0.1 
+2.9 
+3.8 
—0.6 



65 
75 
65 
96 
95 
95 
102 
100 
99 
90 
85 
64 



5.03 
1.74 
2.11 
0.96 
6.62 
4.79 
5.30 
6.29 
3.32 
3.40 
4.80 
7.56 



+0.81 
—2.00 
—2.78 
—3.11 
+2.70 
+0.57 
+0.95 
+2.94 
+0.62 
+1.12 
+1.21 
+3.77 



13 

8 

8 

5 

15 

12 

11 

14 

7 

6 

9 

12 



8 

9 
12 
17 

9 
12 
14 

9 
17 
18 
15 
10 



7 

6 

5 

8 

8 

10 

11 

10 

8 

7 

7 

6 



16 

13 

14 

5 

14 

8 

6 

12 

5 

6 

8 

15 



•Compared with 25 years' normal. 



GAME AND FISH COMMISSION'S EXHIBIT. 

Oo-oPEEATiosr OF This Dbpabtmbnt with State Fair 
boaed of muttjal advantage. 

Peemanent Exhibit Established. 



Co-operating with the Commissioner of Agriculture 
and the State Fair Board, the Game and Fish Commis- 
sion is rapidly developing a permanent exhibit of game 
birds and animals that must prove interesting and in- 
structive to thfe thousands of visitors t<3 the Stete.Fair. 



210 TwENTT-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

In the eleven-acre enclosure set aside by the State 
Fair Board for this permanent exhibit, fifteen deer are 
now held. (The herd will be kept at about this number 
and the increase sent to the game preserves throughout 
the State.) 

There were twelve varieties of imported pheasants 
in the exhibit during fair week. Besides pens contain- 
ing wild turkey and eleven varieties of wild duck and 
geese, there were four varieties of squirrel shown, and 
the first car, in full operation, was open to inspection. 

The State Fair Commission has fallen heir to six 
alligators that are now being cared for and to be added 
to the exhibit. By the addition of pens of rabbits, coons, 
foxes, possum, and various other native animals, with 
a covey of Bob White quail and a few other birds, all of 
which is contemplated, this exhibit develops into the pro- 
portions of a real zoo. 

The Q-ame and Fish Commission is in no way a bur- 
den upon the taxpayer of the State, but draws its rev- 
enue from the sale of hunters' license, and a small per 
cent, of the fines imposed against violators. In the two 
years since the last biennial report, from October, 1913, 
to October, 1915, there have been 551 convictions for 
violations of the game and fish laws, and hundreds of 
fish nets and traps have been destroyed. There are 
12,365 miles of running streams in Kentucky, which, 
under present conditions, produce considerably over one 
million dollars woi^li of food fish each year. This could 
be easily doubled if the laws of the State were strictly 
observed. The game wardens captured and destroyed 
1,088 hoop and wing nets in one season; these nets were 
taken from less than 500 miles of stream, and each net 
of this type is estimated to take over 1,000 lbs. of fish 
a year, which means that these nets illegally took over 
one million and eighty-eight thousand pounds of fish 
annually. 

DiSTBrBUTION OF FiSH. 

The United States Government, through its Fish- 
eries Department, has facilities for distributing fish to 
the various States, but they have refused to plant fish 
in territory that is not protected, saying it was useless 



BuEEAtJ OF Ageicxjltube. 211 

to liberate fish in waters not protected, so those States 
which had warden service and protected their streams 
got the bulk of the public distribution. But Kentucky 
is coming into her own, as the Government reports show 
23,744,253 live fish liberated in Kentucky waters during 
the four years ending June 30, 1915, while the Kentucky 
Conunission liberated 8,473 in the fall of 1914, and dur- 
ing the past year, since the purchase of the fish car, 
which was put in operation May 12th, the Kentucky 
Commission had, on October 1st, distributed 8,029,083 
live fish, making a grand total of 31,781,809 fish placed 
in Kentucky waters in four years. 

Game Birds Libebated. 

An experimental planting of 300 Hungarian part- 
ridges were liberated in fifteen counties of the State 
the fall of 1914, and in March of 1915, two thousand 
five hundred English ringneck pheasants were liberated, 
at least fifteen birds going to each county. Eeports from 
seventy-three counties show an increase of 2,656 birds, 
which indicates a gratifying condition and places the 
number of these splendid game birds at liberty in Ken- 
tucky at something above six thousand. 

The Game and Fish Conunission has contracted for 
10,000 Bob White quail, to be captured in Mexico and 
shipped under Government supervision into this coun- 
try. These birds will be liberated in Kentucky during 
1916 ; also 2,500 English ringneck and Beeves pheasants,^ 
to be imported from England in March, 1916. 

The Federal Government has established a $75,000 
fish hatchery on property adjoining the State Fair 
grounds, which, with the permanent exhibit of the Game 
and Fish Commission and the State Forestry Commis- 
sion's nursery of trees, adds much to the educational 
value and general interest of Kentucky's State Pair. 

Communications intended for this department, in- 
quiries, and applications for birds or fish, should be 
addressed to J. Quincy Ward, Executive Agent, Game 
& Fish Commission, Frankfort, Ky. 



212 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL RbPOBT 

THE BANKER'S RELATION TO AGRICULTURE. 

Address of Mr. W. F. Bradshaw, Jr., of Paducah, Mem- 
ber Executive Conmiittee Kentucky Bankers' As- 
sociation, Before Meeting of Groups 1 and 2 of 
the Association, at Dawson Springs, Ky. 



Published through, the courtesy of Mr. Arch B. Davis, 
Secretary, Kentucky Bankers ' Association. 



Mr. President and Fellow Members of the Association: 

A discussion of agriculture and farming in pubHo 
gatherings has given rise to a custom sanctioned by long 
usage, of approaching the question from either one of 
two asi)ects. The more ancient and respectable method 
of handling the question is for the speaker to draw an 
attractive picture of the beauties of the pastoral life; 
of the farmer as the man of all others whose life is 
marked by an independence, simplicity and beauty that 
no other enjoys; far removed from the turmoil and noisy 
strife of city life ; free to live and do with his time as he 
pleases, the lord of his broad acres, and master of all 
he surveys, and whose cattle graze upon his thousand 
hills. One of the well beloved governors of Tennessee 
used to draw such a picture of the farmer's life, and 
for the moment made us all wish that we were back on 
the farm. 

The other method of approaching the subject, a more 
modem and less respectable, but more popular one, is 
to draw first the picture of the golden age now past as 
the natural, inherited right of the farmer, and then con- 
trast with it the picture of the farmer as despoiled of all 
his natural rights by the rapacious hand of organized 
and grasping wealth, and piratical industry, and urge 
upon the farmer that.the only recourse left him from 
the degradation and despair in which he now finds him- 
self, is to arise as a unit, destroy the whole existing order 
of things, reconstruct society anew, and the penetrating 
inference is left that when the era of reconstruction fol- 
lowing that of destruction arrives, the speaker is the one 



BuEEAU OF Ageictjltuee. 213 

to whom the farmer should look as the divinely chosen 
agent for that work. 

I do not intend to approach this question from 
either of the two aspects mentioned. In the first place I 
am not seeking the farmer 's vote ; I am not a candidate 
for any office, and if I were I would have too much politi- 
cal sense to be caught in a convention of bankers. Bank- 
ers are a hard-headed, unimaginative lot, who are little 
influenced by perfervid oratory or rhetorical pictures of 
things as they ought to be. Their minds are essentially 
trained to deal with facts, with things as they are, how- 
ever unpleasant and unattractive they may be. In fact, 
the better trained a, banker is, the more quickly he wants 
to know the worst and to prepare himself to cope with 
the greatest difficulty which the facts may present. 

When our forefathers settled this country they 
found it a vast uninhabited wilderness of apparently in- 
exhaustible resources, and, acting on the appearance of 
these resources as inexhaustible, they began a settled 
policy of exploitation calculated in the least possible time 
to exhaust its resources. The whole nation seems from 
the beginning to have been seized with a monomania of 
trying to convert the material resources in the shortest 
space of time possible into the largest fortunes regardless 
of the amount of wasteful extravagance and destruction 
which such a policy entailed upon the sum total of our 
country's resources. Far-seeing economists and think- 
ers twenty-five years and more ago, began to point out to 
the nation in public addresses and written articles the 
rapidity with which we were approaching the goal of 
desolation by such a process. But only in the last few 
years, largely through the instrumentality of one of the 
imost conspicuous and able Presidents of the United 
States, was this idea brought prominently to the fore- 
front and took an abiding place in the thought of the 
people, and was crystalized in the phrase, ' ' Conservation 
of our Natural Resources." The readiness with which 
the public seized upon this idea is significant of a peculiar 
characteristic of our Anglo-Saxon people. The conserva- 
tion of natural resources means a preservation of the 
property values of the people. It was some years later 
before the attention of the people was directed towards 



214 Twenty-Fesst Biennial Repobt 

tlie necessity of a conservation of tlie people themselves 
in relation to thW natural resources. In a word our gov- 
ernment first undertook to protect our property values 
by witlidrawing a large part of the public domain from 
exploitation, and several years after this step had been 
taken to protect the property values, the government 
directed its attention towards the protection of the peo- 
ple themselves against their growing poverty as the re- 
sult of wastefulness by a nation-wide educational cam- 
paign in scientifio and more efficient agricultural 
methods. 

The older members of the Association who were 
present doubtless can remember the time when the aver- 
age yield of wheat and com f roni the lands of western 
Kentucky was from 50 to 100 per cent, greater than it 
is today; when the machinery and implements now in 
use in agriculture were unheard of. And yet as inven- 
tive skill has lessened the difficulty of agricultural pro- 
duction, the annual yield has lessened almost in propor- 
tion. This fact is true of almost the entire country. The 
once wonderfully productive prairie land of middle Il- 
linois has been so impoverished by unintelligent culti- 
vation during the last sixty years, that the annual yield 
is little over half what it was when the country was 
first thrown open to settlement. The working out of 
the problems of efficiency has always fallen upon the 
shoulders of the enlightened few. The solution of this 
problem has been undertaken by the various states, and 
by the United States, and the solution has been found, 
but the people have been slow to grasp the work that 
has been done for them. As the natural fertility of our 
soil has been exploited and wasted, the people them- 
selves have fallen into careless and wasteful methods, 
and the economic position of the farmer has been rapidly 
lowered by reason of his lessening efficiency, until today 
one of the most tragic pictures in our whole economic 
system is the steady, inevitable lowering of the position 
of the agricultural classes. 

It is this problem that to my mind makes the sub- 
ject of this discussion, "The Relation of the Banker to 
Agriculture," a very live and very vital one. I am 
speaking particularly of western Kentucky. Agricul- 



[ BuEEAu OF Agkicultuee. 215 

ture is by far the greatest of all the industries in west- 
em Kentucky; in fact, it is the greatest of the nation. 
The annual production of new wealth from agriculture 
is far greater than the new wealth produced each year 
from all the other sources combined. It is greater than 
the annual yield from mining, manufacturing, and even 
from transportation add6d to mining and manufactur- 
ing. Western Kentucky is essentially an agricultural 
community. Probably not less than four-fifths of all the 
new wealth created each year in western Kentucky comes 
directly from agriculture. In comparison the manufact- 
uring and mining industries in western Kentucky are in- 
considerable. And yet who ever heard of an organiza- 
tion of business men or bankers in any community in 
western Kentucky for the purpose of promoting, en- 
couraging and fostering more efficient and more intelli- 
gent agriculture? In every one of our larger towns we 
have commercial clubs or boards of trade spending 
thousands of dollars to induce the location of factories 
or to support already established factories that are un- 
able to survive. In other words we are spending our 
money to nurture the growth of an unacclimated indus- 
try, and neglecting the opportunity at hand to foster the 
growth of our greatest industry, for whose success we 
have within reach every element except the encourage- 
ment and teaching necessary for it to attain the maxi- 
mum. And yet the remedy for the economic disease is 
prepared and ready to be administered. The solution 
of the problem has been worked out, and all that is neces- 
sary is for enterprise and intelligence to apply it to the 
affected part of our community. 

There never has been a time, and I suppose there 
never will be a time when the banker will not be one 
of the conspicuously prominent members of his com- 
munity. This is said not to flatter a meeting of bank- 
ers, because it is my purpose not to flatter you, but to 
point out to you wherein you have failed to meet the 
responsibilities of your position. You are conspicuous 
because you have been chosen by your fellow-citizens to 
be the custodian and the keeper of that which represents 
the successful issue of all their commercial struggles and 
hard-won battles, "With you is deposited for safe keep- 



216 Tweniy-Fdrst Biennial Ebpobt 

ing their surplus wealth, the bread hill of tomorrow, as 
well as their wealth used eaoh day in the channels of 
commerce, the fuel that keeps the commercial machine in 
motion. By a process of commercial selection and com- 
petition you have been selected as their trusted custodian 
because they have confidence in your integrity, and your 
willingness to serve them as the guardian of their 
wealth. Responsibility always carries with it a high de- 
gree of obligation, and you cannot evade the obligation 
or the duty by a refusal to recognize it, nor by indiffer- 
ently ignoring it. Responsibilities are like poor kin; 
you can destroy the relationship by refusing to recog- 
nize them, not by ignoring them — they are there just the 
same, and if you try it your shabby conduct does not re- 
move the sense of obligation from your conscience, nor 
avoid your being lowered in the estimation of your neigh- 
bors. I do not believe that there is a man before me, 
nor a banker in western Kentucky who would not gladly 
and cheerfully assume his part of the responsibility of 
his position, and give his time, his thought and his money 
to the meeting of this obligation and the performing 
of this great social service — a service that has a two- 
fold reward, first the consciousness of having frankly 
met a responsibility that attaches to your position, and 
having performed a service to your community, and sec- 
ondly, the material reward that will come from making 
your community a more prosperous one, and of elevating 
your fellow-citizens economically and financially. 

Without pursuing generalities or abstractions any 
further, I am going to tell you what an organization of 
business men in Paducah, prominent among whom are 
the bankers of Paducah, has done in meeting this re- 
sponsibility in some measure of applying the solution 
of the question. Paducah has had for many years an 
open market maintained by the city for the purpose of 
offering a means to the farmers and particularly to the 
truck and provision growers of disposing of their wares 
to the citizens of Paduoak Truck gardening around 
Paducah had reach the point of an over-production for 
the local market, with the accompanjdng lessening of 
prices, and yet there was not a sufficient amount of the 
various products faised nor a co-operative organization 



Bureau of Ageicultube. 217 

in existence for the handling of the surplus stock to ship 
to the city markets. In order to meet the situation, and 
to help our friends in the country, some of the members 
of the board of trade invited a dozen or more representa- 
tive gardeners and farmers to a meeting in the board 
of trade rooms for the purpose of discussing an or- 
ganization for the handling of garden products for the 
joint account of the growers and shipping them to the 
city markets. Three or four of the persons invited re- 
sponded, and the unanimous opinion among them was 
that such an organization was impracticable, that the 
growers could not be interested, and that it was not 
worth while trying. While the matter was still fresh 
in the minds of the Paducah citizens, it was learned 
that the Southern Illinois Growers' Association was to 
have a meeting at Anna, Illinois. This association is 
about forty years old, and is one of the most successful 
of all such associations in the country. The board of 
trade then invited about a half dozen growers from the 
country as the guests of the board of trade to go to 
Anna, together with some of the Paducah business men 
and bankers, for the purpose of seeing the actual work 
of such an organization. Of course, this invitation was 
unanimously responded to. When the Board of Trade 
had something to give away without obligation on the 
part of its guests, eittier to spend any money or to do 
anything except travel and enjoy themselves, it was not 
difficult to get a meeting. The party went to Anna and 
there found assembled representatives from all through 
middle and southern Illinois. They heard addresses 
from some of the most distinguished agricultural ex- 
perts in the United States. They saw the farmers who 
had in cultivation two hundred acres of rhubarb, over 
one hundred acres of asparagus in single tracts, farmers 
whose annual income in garden products and berries 
ran from $10,000.00 per year upward ; they saw owners 
of orchards whose annual income from their apples 
amounted to $50,000.00 per year. They heard farm- 
ers in the convention discussing scientific and efficient 
means of preparation of the soil, of planting, of culti- 
vating, of combating various plant diseases, and using 
the technical and scientific language of their business 



218 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL RePOET 

with, the ease and understanding with which the banker 
uses the terms of bookkeeping and accounting. They 
saw a chart on the wall of the convention room showing 
that over one million, sixty-six thousand dollars 
(1,066,000) had been deposited in the banks of Anna 
alone hj members of the Association in the neighborhood 
of that little town from garden products marketed dur- 
ing the months of June, July, August and September, 
1913 — one million, sixty-six thousand dollars of new, 
fresh money, which had never been spent by anybody in 
Anna before, and had never been in that country be- 
fore, all drawn directly away from St. Louis, Chicago, 
Indianapolis, Detroit and other market centers to which 
that Association shipped the goods of its members. 
They found that organization equipped with a receiving 
depot for its members at every shipping point. That 
the members had learned how to sort and pack their 
products for the city markets, that the handling, ship- 
ping and accounting all done through the Association 
was at such a small cost that the percentage is negli- 
gible; that there were no middlemen, and that the pro- 
ducer got practically the maximum city prices for his 
goods. They learned that the farmers and truck grow- 
ers were the most prosperous men in the community, 
that the banks were loaded with their deposits, and that 
the farmers themselves had loaned oiit thousands of 
dollars at 4 and 5 per cent, interest. The guests of the 
board of trade instead of staying one day, stayed until 
the meeting was over, and when they came back they 
began to spread the news. You all know how news 
spreads in the country. In four or five days it was all 
over the country. As soon as it had soaked in, another 
meeting was called by the Board of Trade for the pur- 
pose of taking up the question again. At this meeting 
the assembly room at the board of trade was crowded. 
Talks were made by several persons present, and an- 
other meeting was arranged for. Then followed a series 
of meetings before which appeared representatives of 
the agricultural department of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, and various other public-spirited and enlightened 
speakers upon the question of a growers' organization. 



BuEEATJ OF Ageictjlttjbe. 219 

It was tlie good fortune of the Board of Trade at this 
juncture to have Dr. Fred Mutchler, a representative of 
the Federal Department of Agriculture, as well as of 
the State Department, in charge of the work of both in 
Kentucky, to be present and address one of the meetings. 
This was an overflow meeting at the court house 'at 
which several hundred were present. At the conclusion 
of this meeting a list of names was taken of those who 
were willing to express themselves as sufficiently inter- 
ested in the movement to be identified with it in the event 
of an organization, but still without obligation on their 
part to pay anything or do anything. In the meantime, 
those who were instrumental in starting the movement 
had made their plans to raise a fund by voluntary sub- 
scriptions from the banks and citizens of Paducah, and 
those of the country who were willing to contribute of 
from $4,000.00 to $5,000.00 per year to be subscribed for 
not less than three years. Dr. Mutchler asked for a con- 
ference of those in charge of the organization, and stated 
that he was much impressed with the fact that this mat- 
ter had been taken up by the business men and bankers 
of the city; that he liked the spirit shown by them of de- 
siring to lend their assistance and experience in or- 
ganization to agricultural interests of the country; that 
he believed that if the organization were willing to place 
its work under the direction of the State and Federal 
government, that he could get an appropriation from 
the Federal Department of Agriculture to be applied on 
the salary of the County Agent, who should have charge 
of the instruction and general work of the organization. 
Of course, the organization committee was delighted to 
have the benefit of the intelligence and experience of Dr. 
Mutchler, and he was authorized to select any agent 
that he was willing to recommend for the work, and that 
such arrangements as he desired would be made for the 
work to be done under his direction. An appropriation 
of $1,200.00 was then obtained from the fiscal court of 
the county to be applied on the salary of the county 
agent. This with the $600.00 paid from the government 
for the same purpose was more than sufficient to pay the 
salary of the County Agent. The McCracken County 
Growers' Association was then organized as a corpora- 



220 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOBT 

lion without capital stock. Any person in tlie county or 
city is eligible to membership. Subscriptions are volun- 
tary, and any person subscribing $1.00 or more is en- 
titled to vote as a member in the selection of the seven 
directors of the association. The directory for the pres- 
ent is composed of four members elected from the city 
of Paducah, and three growers from the county. The 
association was fortunate in being able to select as its 
President a man who for twenty years was engaged in 
the wholesale grocery business, and is familiar with the 
selling and marketing end of the business, and who for 
th6 last few years has, after having retired from the 
grocery business, himself become a grower, and is one 
of the most successful producers in the country. The 
association was well under way in the early spring. 
Its work for the first year will necessarily be prelimi- 
nary, and fruitful of comparatively small results in a 
material way, but it has accomplished this much, it has 
a membership of over 150 growers and producers. It 
has pledged about 500 acres of garden truck for the 
present year from its members, and up to the first of 
May over 50,000 apple trees had been delivered to its 
members and planted in the county through the asso- 
ciation, and which were bought by the association for 
the members at about one-fourth what its members had 
heretofore paid to fruit-tree peddlers for the same trees. 
But more than this, the movement not only has the 
sympathy and the well wishes of everybody in the city 
and the county, it has the enthusiasm and determined 
support of its members, and in a few weeks has broken 
down the old spirit of distrust, petty jealousy and de- 
spair over the hopelessness of the cultivator of the soil 
really being able to better his condition and to share 
materially in the welfare of his community. 

As I stated to you, I was going to confine myself 
to the facts, and, therefore, what I am going to say now 
I am sayinig not as a prophecy, but I am stating it to 
you as a fact ; that this association during the first year 
of its existence and by the time the fall market season is 
over, will have brought into the pockets of its members 
over $50,000.00 of new money coming into this com- 
munity from cities and markets at a distance, and which 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 221 • 

■would not by any possibility have gotten here except 
through the association. And inasmuch as I am con- 
fident of the contiriued existence of this association, I 
believe it no prophecy to measure its success by that of 
other similar associations, because our people are just 
as intelligent and just as industrious as those in South- 
ern Illinois, and when shown the way can accomplish 
just as substantial results, and I believe that I can say 
not as a prediction, but as a fact, that this association 
will increase its income each year after the other for the 
next five or six years, by not less than from seventy-five 
to one hundred thousand dollars. 

We do not claim in McCracken county to have solved 
anything. What I have told you is a detailed statement 
of what may be considered one small step in the right 
direction. The ultimate solution of the question depends 
upon the continued support and interest of the mem- 
bers of the organization and of the citizens of the city 
and county. Of this interest I feel little doubt, and it 
is my firm belief that a few years of progress in the di- 
rection in which this movement is started, will have 
contributed largely to the solution of the agricultural 
problem in our community. 

What has been done in McCracken county can be 
done in every county in the State. McCracken county 
is no favorite county. Although the State government 
has a well equipped agricultural Department and makes 
a large appropriation for its maintenance, and although 
the Federal Government has the best equipped agricul- 
tural Department in the world, with the largest agricul- 
tural appropriation, and the best talent obtainable, and 
has at hand a solution for nearly every serious agricul- 
tural problem, neither the Federal Government nor the 
State Government are automatic institutions that can 
be set in motion by inactivity and inert complaining. 
The benefits right at hand to be used can be had only 
by seeking those benefits and by displaying a sufficient 
amount of sustained interest, intelligence, and determi- 
nation to bring into play the agencies of the State and 
Nation. When this is done in any community you may 
be assured that that community will receive its fair con- 
sideration. But there are too many communities eager- 



222 TwENTY-FntsT Biennial Report 

ly, anxious and aggressively seeking tHs assistance 
for the backward or inert comnmnity to expect consid- 
eration. TMs is not a matter that can be handled by 
the Bankers' Association as a State-wide organization. 
It is a problem for the individual bankers in each com- 
munity to interest themselves in. As one of those citi- 
zens ^hose position of responsibility attaches to itself 
an obligation of social service, I believe the bankers of 
Kentucky will not be backward in meeting and assum- 
ing this responsibility, and rendering what service they 
can to the material and educational spirit of their com- 
munities and their fellow-citizens. 

It is to be earnestly hoped that the future history 
of the uplift and rehabilitation of agriculture in Ken- 
tucky will record the fact that the movement was initiated 
and led by the bankers of Kentucky. 



HISTORY OF THE PIG CLUB WORK IN 
KENTUCKY. 



Pig Club work was introduced into Kentucky Sep- 
tember, 1914, with the Bureau of Animal Industry co- 
operating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the 
Kentucky College of Agriculture, as a unit of Farmers' 
Demonstration "Work. In 1915 the following thirteen 
counties were organized with their county agents co- 
operating : 

S. B. Puckett Christian County 

J. Robert Bird Crittenden County 

Jas. R. McDanell Gallatin County 

P. D. Brown Henderson County 

Chas. L. Taylor Hopkins County 

F. B. Merriman Jefferson County 

Horace B. McSwaln Knott County 

Robert P. Spence Madison County 

P. D. Busbong Metcalfe County 

E. H. Faulkner Whitley County 

G. A. Smith Pendleton County 

O. F. Floyd Woodford County 

W. W. Johnson (School Board).. Boyle County 



BuBEAXT OF Ageictjltuke. 223 

Six hundred and fifty eager boys and girls became 
members and agreed to carry out the rules. Some of 
the members this year could not get a pig ; some dropped 
out; others raised their pig, but turned in no report, 
but most of them stuck to it with excellent results. 

A boys' pig show and contest was held in each 
county, and ribbons, special and cash prizes were given 
to the winners by business men and bankers, the initial 
prize for each county being a free trip to the Farmer 
Boys' Encampment at the Kentucky State Fair, all ex- 
penses paid. This was given by the State Fair to the 
boy in each county making the highest total score as 
follows : 

(a) Best hog with respect to purpose it was to serve 40% 

(h) Greatest daily gain on hog 15% 

(c) Cheapest cost of production 25% 

(d) Best kept records on feeding and care of the hog 20%. 

Total 100% 

Sixteen boys from different counties won this trip 
at the expense of the State Fair : 

Noel Lea Bracken County Brooksville.Ky. 

Forrest Minor Boyle County Perryville, Ky. 

Wm. Henry Sutton Woodford County Versailles, Ky. 

John Clinton Woodward Jessamine County Wilmore, Ky. 

Tom Jones Knott County Mallie, Ky. 

Ernest Minner Crittenden County.... Marion, Ky. 

Presley W. Ray .Metcalfe County Edmonton, Ky. 

Homer Martin Daviess County Owenshoro, Ky. 

Wm. Owen Stinnett Hopkins County Madisonville, Ky. 

Gordon Nelson, Jr Christian County Hopkinsville, Ky. 

Robert Landrum Gallatin County Warsaw, Ky. 

Lona Fish Madison County Berea, Ky. 

Ray Jones Whitley County Williamsburg, Ky. 

Halbert Smith Whitley County Williamsburg, Ky. 

Roscoe Swing Pendleton County Morgan, Ky. 

Wallace Courtney Scott County Versailles, Ky. 

These boys were given a short course in agriculture, 
consisting of lectures, judging contests, etc. Not only 
were the boys present, but eighteen of their pigs were 
there. Although small in number, the quality of these 
pigs and the interest of their owners compelled the at- 
tention of the visitors to the swine bam to a very large 
degree. Several hundred dollars in cash and special 
prizes were offered by the Commissioner of Agriculture 



224 TWENTY-t'lBST BiBNNIAL HbPOBT 

and Swine Record Associations. These were hotly con- 
tested for and afterwards most of the hogs were sold 
to the packers for a premium of 25c per cwt. above the 
top market. 

Gordon Nelson, Jr., a Christian county pig club 
boy, not only won high honors among the boys, but took 
the blue ribbon in the junior yearling sow class from the 
Poland China breeders of several States with his club 
pig, "Lady Wonderprice. " Through the courtesy of 
the State Fair, boys had their separate classes and were 
also allowed to enter the farmers' classes. 

An illustration of the forcible demonstrations in 
feeding made by these boys was brought out in the ex- 
hibit of Moser Brothers, two pig club boys of Jefferson 
county. These boys took two pigs from a litter, and 
the father a third one. The three were in the same pen, 
the father's pig weighed 95 lbs., and the boys' pigs 215 
and 220, respectively. The sons ' only cost them 4% cts. 
per lb. to make their hogs on a balanced ration, while 
the father has no idea of the cost of his runt, the product 
of "com alone" feeding. 

This small demonstration was but a minor part of 
the valuable work accomplished through the pig club by 
County Agent Merriman, of Jefferson county. His re- 
port shows 15 boys having fed 15 pigs for an average 
of 88 days, the total initial weight being 1,042 lbs. ; final 
weight 3,058 lbs.; total gain 2,016 lbs., or 1.53 lbs. per 
pig per day. These hogs were fed balanced rations that 
cost $114.90 for the total feeding period, or 5.7c per 
lb. gain. The initial cost of these hogs at the June 
market price was $70.00, making $184.90 total expenses. 
Three-fourths of these hogs were sold at $8.15 per cwt. 
September 15, 1915. Had the boys all sold their pigs, 
the total selling price would have been $249.23, or a 
total profit of $64.33 for 15 hogs fed 88 days, which is 
slightly over $4.00 per hog. No value here has been put 
on the manure or the higher prices procured for the 
feed stuff. 

The value of such home demonstration work is made 
clear in the following letter to Mr. Merriman from the 
father of one of the boys (the original copy of which can 
be found in the office of the Louisville Commercial Club) : 



BxjKBAiT OF Ageiciiltueb. 225 

St. Matthews, Ky., October 1, 1915. 

Mr. F. E. Merriman, 

Louisville, Kentucky. 

Dear Sir: — 

I am -writing you to let you know about the big lesson my son 
Henry and I have learned about hog raising since you started the 
Boys' Pig Club. Of course, you know I live In the potato section 
of Jefferson County, and the largest part of my farming consists of 
raising potatoes. 

We were glad to have the boy join the pig club, and purchased 
a pig at your suggestion on June 26th, which weighed 43 pounds. 
When you said that we could feed this pig in such a way that it 
would weigh 170 pounds by the State Pair time — which was some 70 
days' time — I did not say anything, but could hardly believe that it 
was possible, and my wife and I thought that you were talking 
through your hat. 

I have learned a whole lot about feeding a pig, for instead of 
making 170 pounds, it made ISO pounds; doing more than what you 
said it would. Although we did not get any silver cups or cash 
prizes at the State Fair, we feel that we got the largest prize of 
them all — ^that of learning how to feed a pig profitably,' and we are 
well satisfied. 

I raise a few hogs every year for my own meat, and sometimes 
have a few to sell the last of November. About this time I get 
some more pigs around three months old, keeping them until the 
next year, making one year's time for the pigs to be fed. I have 
tried all kinds of ways to feed these hogs in order to get them to 
weigh 250 pounds, and still make a profit. Each year they have always 
cost me more than I could get for them. 

From now on — I am glad to say — I shall have some hogs to sell 
every six months, and I will feed them the same as we fed the pig 
in the Boys' Pig Club. From now on I am not going to throw all 
my corn away, getting little or no profit from it, but shall feed a 
balanced ration. I feel that this method will make us some money. 

Little Henry has not given up hecause he did not win prizes this 
year, but Is determined to use the experience which he gained this 
year to win some of the silver cups with next year. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) HENRY RBULING. 

Almost every county could show tlie above demon- 
stration. 

Next year pig club work is to be taken up with. 26 
agents, each agent to supervise but 15 or 20 boys. We 
have already inaugurated a campaign in Knox county 
for pure-bred hogs and community breeding. The 
Farmers' State Bank, of Barbourville, has purchased 
$200.00 worth of pure-bred hogs, and given them oul 
to pig club boys under contract that they shall remain 
members of the pig club for two years, feed and care for 
these hogs under the direction of the county agent, and 
register all the progeny from their original gilt, unless 

agr. — 8 



226 Twenty-First Biennial Bbpoet 

sold for immediate slaughter. The boys agreed to give 
back two choice gilts from the first litter to the bank, 
who will in turn put these gilts out to two other boys 
under the same contract, thus not only giving us a chain 
system of promoting the pure-bred industry, but at the 
same time distributing but one breed in the county, 
which we hope will ultimately result in community 
breeding. 

The objects of the club are to stimulate an interest 
in swine production, and to demonstrate how to raise 
more, better and cheaper swine by the use of pure-bred 
stock, balanced rations, and forage crops; and to in- 
struct these boys in a practical way in the management, 
feeding, sanitation, and prevention of diseases in swine; 
to instill in them while you,ng the love of animals, which 
will result in more and better hogs, becoming interested 
in country life, and to learn the business side of farm- 
ing. 

Small prizes are offered, and may be well given, but 
every boy is urged to learn and to do all within his power 
for the betterment of wrong conditions. The winning 
of prizes is secondary, for that in itself is not of great 
value, but the energy, learning and faithfulness neces- 
sary to win the prize, is of immeasurable importance. 

The pig club work as it is being carried on in Ken- 
tucky is but an example of what the Government and 
State colleges are doing in thirteen other states. It is 
a wonderful work, both for the making of future farm- 
ers and the development of the swine indtistry. The 
boys entering these contests are required to weigh the 
pigs at the start of the work, keep careful records of 
the w.eights of feed fed, monthly, gains the pigs make, 
cost of gains and net profits. The educational value of 
such work cannot be overestimated. It should have the 
support of everyone, and it is to be hoped that some day 
credit for suth work may be given in our rural schools. 

Otis Kibchek, 
Agent in Animal Husbandry, TJ. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. In charge of Kentucky Pig Clubs. 



BxJEEAu OP Agkiculttjbe. 227 

THE GROWING OF SUNFLOWER SEED. 



This Department has had several letters making ex- 
tensive claims for the possibilities for growing sunflower 
seed in this State. Knowing that the Pulton County 
farmers had experimented with this crop to a consider- 
able extent, we wrote to Mr. C. T. Beale, of Hickman, 
Kentucky, for information as to the -success of this un- 
dertaking. He writes that in this part of the State, and 
particularly in Fulton county, the growing of sunflower 
seed has been given more or less attention during the 
last two years, with vaiying degrees of success. While 
the lands in Kentucky seem well adapted to the growing 
of this crop, the crop itself has not, as yet, proven very 
successful or remunerative, and the production of seed 
thus far amounts to but little in this State. It is claimed 
for the crop, however, that it can be grown on ordinary 
corn land, and that while the yield per acre is not ma- 
terially more than that of com, when figured on a cash 
basis, the cost of planting and harvesting is much less 
and that the crop under favorable conditions will be a 
good one to adopt in a diversified system of farming. 
One trouble which has been experienced in Fulton county 
during the past season, was the effect of the wind. The 
sunflower, unlike corn, will not rise after being blown 
down. The seed will remain on the ground, and soon be- 
come unfit for the market, and from this cause a great 
deal of the crop was lost last season. 

To grow sunflowers, the soil should be fertile, and 
of the same nature as the soils usually devoted to com. 
The seed should be drilled with a corn-planter in rows 
four feet apart, and the plants thinned to two feet in the 
row. The planting may be made from April to July, 
and the cultivation is practically the same as that of com. 
Occasionally the rivers overflow some of the best 
bottom lands in western Kentucky at a season too late 
for the replanting of com, and then the sunflower plant 
can be profitably substituted. It does not take quite so 
long to mature as the com crop. Where only a limited 
amount of this crop is raised, it is gathered by simply 
cutting the heads from the stalks, and beating the seeds 



228 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

out in wagon bottoms. Where raised on an extensive 
scale, machines are used for the threshing of these 
seeds. 

Care should be taken in the selection of seed for this 
crop, as there are varieties of sunfowers which have 
several heads to the stalk, and others which have only 
one head. The latter variety is preferable, on account 
of its lighter weight. The stalks with four or five heads 
are more easily blown down. It is claimed by some 
growers of sunflowers that the seed is not damaged by 
reason of being on the ground for many days, but it has 
been found in Fulton county that seeds which remain on 
the ground for several days are .unfit for the market. 

As an emergency crop, the sunflower will, no doubt, 
be found of good value, and under the right weather 
conditions will prove profitable. While it does not rank 
as on"e of the staple and dependable crops of western 
Kentucky, the increased use of sunflower seeds for 
chicken feed, and as a source of obtaining oil for the 
manufacture of certain soaps, indicates the possibility 
of an ultimate demand sufficient to justify more attention 
to its growth. 



PRODUCTION OF HONEY IN KENTUCKY. 
By E. E. Barton, Falmouth. 



The honey crop is produced by professional bee 
men, farmers and suburban and village residents 
throughout the State, and also by gathering the honey of 
wild bees domiciled in trees and other recesses, where 
the "robbing" is usually accompanied by destruction 
of the swarm. No estimate can be made of the amount 
of wild honey gathered, but a considerable quantity is 
obtained in this way. 

The largest part of the honey crop is produced by 
keepers of only a few colonies of bees, and much of this 
is consumed in the immediate locality. However, on ac- 
count of the great number of small bee keepers, a con- 
siderable amount of honey is produced by them in the 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 229 

aggregate for the outside market. By far the largest 
yields of honey per colony of bees is obtained by the pro- 
fessional bee man. With modern equipment and proper 
management of the apiary, a yield of 100 to 200 pounds 
of surplus honey per colony of bees is obtained during a 
favorable season, while 25 pounds per colony is about 
the average for the State. Something like one-half of 
the commercial crop of honey is from the apiaries of the 
professional bee men. 

According to the census of 1910 one in seven Ken- 
tucky farms reported having honey Lees, and the aver- 
age was about five colonies per farm. The State then 
ranked twelfth in the amount and value of honey pro- 
duced. Since that date great advancement has been 
made in the number of colonies, the total honey crop and 
amount produced per colony, as well as a large increase 
in value of the investments in bees and equipment. In 
1915 the honey crop is estimated at 5,000,000 pounds, 
with the State ranking third or fourth in amount and 
value of honey produced. 

The largest honey producing section is the hill coun- 
ties of Northern Kentucky bordering on or near the Ohio 
Eiver from about Maysville to CarroUton. Seventy-five 
per cent, of the crop in this section is obtained from 
sweet clover, about 15 per cent, from fall aster, and the 
remainder from white clover, alsike, the blossoms of 
fruits, wild herbs and some forest trees. This section 
produces about one-half of the State's commercial crop. 
In 1915 Pendleton county with 5,000 colonies produced 
500,000 pounds of honey above what was consumed lo- 
cally. One-half of this amount was produced in about 
thirty large apiaries — one apiary alone producing 40,000 
pounds during the season, with an average of nearly 
200 pounds per colony. The honey crop is marketed in 
three forms, namely: extracted honey 50%; section 
honey, 35%; and "Chunk" honey, 15%. 

Beeswax is an important commercial product of 
honey bees. The amount produced varies considerably 
with the form of honey marketed, as little wax is saved 
where it is sold as section or "chunk" honey. Some 
seasons the amount of wax produced is over 50,000 
pounds. The rearing of queen bees for breeding pur- 



230 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Ebpoet 

poses is made a specialty in numerous apiaries of the 
State, and the strains produced here are very highly 
esteemed by bee-keepers everywhere. The queens are 
sent through the maUs in tiny cages to all parts of the 
world. 

It would be difficult to estimate the investment in 
honey bees and equipment within the State, as some 
bees are housed in crudely formed hives or in plain 
boxes, while most professional bee men have invested in 
modem patent hives, honey houses, labor-saving ma- 
chinery and other equipment. These men have an in- 
vestment of about ten dollars per colony, while with 
others it varies from two to ten dollars per colony. It 
would be safe to place the value of honey bees and equip- 
ment within the State at several million dollars. TMs 
investment and the industry itself has been seriously 
menaced by the presence of a contagious germ disease of 
the young bees in the larval stage called "foul brood." 
It does not affect the quality or usefulness of the honey, 
but soon depletes the swarm by killing the young brood 
being reared to take the place of the worker bees as 
they die. In some localities this disease has effectively 
been checked, and in some places almost eradicated by 
the work of the county bee inspectors. Suitable precau- 
tions upon the part of bee keepers, and proper inspec- 
tion and treatment will effectively put an end to this 
trouble. The value of the industry, and the delicious 
and wholesome qualities of honey as a food product, 
would justify every reasonable effort to provide suit- 
able protection in the way of inspection and treatment 
of bee diseases. 



THE DAIRY COW. 

By J. J. Hooper, Head Department of Animal Hus- 
bandry (Horses, Dairy Cattle, Poultry), Kentucky 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Ken- 
tucky. 



Everyone should accord the dairy cow premier place 
among farm animals, as she is the most efficient and 
profitable animal that a farmer can select. When fed a 



Bureau of Agkicultuee. 231 

hundred pounds of digestible matter, she prodn(fes eigh- 
teen pounds of human food, while the pig produces fif- 
teen; the hen five, and the sheep and steer only three 
pounds. 

In the round of a year a first-class cow will produce 
material in her milk sufficient to build up the bodies of 
three steers, each weighing, twelve hundred pounds. The 
product from the cow is for sale every day, while the 
carcass of the steer is marketed but once. This serves 
to make money come to a dairy farm regularly each week 
or month. The dairy cow is economical in human food 
production, because her purpose is to produce milk to be 
fed her young offspring, and she gives of her substance 
and resources with the same unselfishness and self-ab- 
negation that we find evidenced in the case of the human 
mother. The steer selfishly places his gain under his 
hide for future use, when the blasts of winter call for 
their extra toll of warmth. 

Twenty-five years ago the beef, cow held full and 
undisputed domain in our blue grass pastures. Then 
the little mild-eyed Jersey cow made her debut in Shelby 
county. Many wise heads were shaken in denoting that 
this kind of cattle would not do, and it was said that they 
would surely contaminate the good blood of the fine 
Shorthorn herds. But wonderful changes were to take 
place before the very eyes of the breeders of Central 
Kentucky. The dairy cow by her efficiency and profit 
has all but supplanted the beef cows that had to be kept 
a year for a calf, and that calf was the only salable prod- 
uct from the cow. As feed increased in price, it cost 
more to keep a cow, and as a result the cost of keeping 
beef cows to produce steers became unprofitable. A few 
farmers thought they could offset the disadvantage suf- 
fered by the beef cow by milking her for all she was 
worth, and occasionally we find a dual purpose herd 
where calves and milk are both produced for sale. But 
the dairy cow is so much more economical in milk pro- 
duction, and produces so much more per week and year 
and year after year, that she is continuing to supplant 
the cow that carries beef breeding. 

Creameries and buttei factories are being estab- 
lished in or near every community in the State, and a 



232 TwENTT-FiEST Biennial Repobt 

gallon of milk or cream is as marketable now as a bushel 
of grain. Cows are being imported by the hundreds and 
thousands every year, and silos are being erected on all 
sides. Ultimately Kentucky is destined to rival Wiscon- 
sin and Illinois as a dairy section. 

For the most part our breeders favor Jerseys, but 
occasionally a herd of Holsteins and Gruemseys is to be 
seen. A good dairy cow will produce a profit of $30 or 
more per year, while a feeder is highly gratified if he can 
net $10 per head from steers. Years ago the farmers 
and the hired help balked at milking, and the general 
hard work incident to dairying, but the profit and the 
thrifty atmosphere around the dairy farms soon con- 
verted the most obstinate to the fact that the dairy cow 
is the most efficient animal that can come to a farm. It 
is to be noted that the dairy farm contains the best farm 
buildings in the neighborhood, and the fields are most 
productive. 

Some farmers can not use the dairy cow because she 
does not fit in with the operation of their farms, and in 
other instances farm labor is not fitted to handle a dairy. 
But many who formerly offered these objections are now 
adopting the dairy cow. 

We have known of many farms that have served as 
illustrations of thrift and profit, but none illustrate these 
points better than an eighty-acre farm that we recently 
visited in Central Kentucky. This farm serves to show 
how profitable and dependable the dairy cow is, when 
properly and intelligently handled. It is needless to say 
only good cows have found a home on this farm of eighty 
acres. This farm was purchased by the present owner 
seventeen years ago. The land was very much depleted 
owing to continued grain cropping. It could not produce 
a first-class crop of com, and the neighbors told the pur- 
chaser that he could not make a living for his family 
of two sons and a daughter from it. He has not only 
made a living but has laid up considerable money in the 
bank and has lived well. At present he has an automo- 
bile for delivering milk to city patrons five miles distant, 
and another automobile for his family. This indicates 
that he has used u.p-to-date machinery, and progressive 
methods, and has lived better than most people. 



Bureau of Agkicultube. 233 

The eighty acres are well tilled, and are given heavy 
applications of manure produced by the thirty-six head 
of dairy stock and four work animals kept on the place. 
The other stock consists of three hundred hens which 
yield a net income of one dollar per hen in the form of 
fresh eggs which are retailed to regular patrons, and de- 
livered by the driver of the milk wagon. The eggs are 
sold at current prices quoted by local grocerymen. Three 
brood sows are kept, and they furnish considerable pork 
for family use. Six thousand dollars' worth of milk, but- 
ter, eggs and pork were sold last year, but this year the 
sales are to be increased to seven thousand dollars. The 
cost of operating the farm is deducted from this amount. 

At the time of our visit last summer, the farm was 
devoted to the following crops : one f ourteen-acre field of 
com and sorghum used for family silage ; another field of 
silage com and sorghum; forty acres of pasture, and 
three acres of well-kept orchard which contains beauti- 
ful trees that are full of apples of the Stark, York Im- 
perial and Ben Davis varieties. The lawn about the 
house and bam lots contains three acres. 

On June 1st this progressive farmer cut fourteen 
acres of barley and put it in the silo. The silage from 
this crop was fed from July 5th to September 1st, and 
because of the rather small acreage devoted to pasture, 
the barley silage was useful. The dairyman stated that 
it raised the milk yield of his cows one gallon to the cow 
each day, and the chickens were fed some too, and they 
increased the egg yield. The barley silage was sweet, 
palatable and relished by the cows as we can personally 
testify, as we examined it. The grain was in dough stage 
and the barley contained considerable grain. Corn was 
planted on the field from which the barley was removed 
as it is customary on this productive farm to make the 
land yield a maximum of feed, and the com made a heavy 
crop of silage. The fourteen acres furnished sufficient 
green barley to fill a hundred and twenty-ton silo. The 
barley, when cut for silage, which was as high as a man 's 
hip, was estimated to contain forty bushels of grain per 
acre. 

This dairyman took a preference to the glazed. tile 
silo, and purchased the blocks for a sixteen by thirty-foot 



234 Twenty-First Bibnniax, Eepobt 

silo from a local sales company. It was ordered by an- 
other farmer, but was not taken by him upon the ar- 
rival of the blocks. The blocks cost only $285, but upon 
purchasing a second silo, the blocks cost $332 delivered 
at the railway station. In erecting the first silo local 
bricklayers were employed, but they did not prove en- 
tirely satisfactory, as in one round they failed to break 
the joints of the blocks, and in the second they failed to 
make the blocks complete the round, and filled in with a 
brick in two places. The blocks were not laid as smoothly 
and fiush as they should have been. In erecting the sec- 
ond silo, the dairyman's son did the work without diffi- 
culty, and it was entirely satisfactory. He did a fine 
job, fitting the tiles iu place perfectly, and not bulging 
the walls at any point. Both of these glazed top silos 
will be used in the future. The second silo is sixteen 
by thirty-three feet in size, and the blocks for it cost 
$332, while the first silo which is sixteen by thirty feet 
cost, complete with roof, shute and walls, $427. The son, 
who is twenty-five years old, has also built a concrete 
wall in the cellar of the farm house, and he laid the blocks 
in the new milk room, which is illustrated in the half-tone 
printed in connection with this article. It was first plan- 
ned to build a nailk room of twelve by eighteen feet after 
the blocks had arrived. To make up for the deficiency in 
blocks, the foundation wall, which was constructed of 
concrete, was built two feet above ground, and the blocks 
laid on top of it. The blocks for this glazed tile milk 
house cost $37.50 delivered at the railway station. The 
farmer told us that the shingle roof, the doors and win- 
dows, ran the cost up to $150 for material for the house. 
Labor of building was additional to this cost. 

This dairyman likes the glazed tile construction so 
well that he has begun the erection of an ice house, which 
is to be built nine feet above ground, and about five feet 
into the ground. It will resemble a low silo. 

Eecently we were asked to present a set of figures 
relative to the profit that might be expected from a hun- 
dred-acre dairy farm. We figured that a progressive 
man might maJie fourteen hundred dollars profit from 
such an acreage in the course of a year. We wondered 
if we had figured it correctly, taking for granted that the 



Bureau of Agbioultueb. 235 

land was fertile, and the milk was to be sold at sixteen 
cents a gallon. In our visit to this interesting small 
farm, we found a farmer doing as well on eighty acres, 
but getting a higher price for milk. ^Tien we visit such 
farms we are almost convinced that this honest, able, 
energetic and thrifty farmer was right when he said 
"Most farmers have too much land and farm it badly." 



FORAaE PLANTS. 

BY 

H. Gabman, Entomologist and Botanist, 

Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, 

Kentucky. 



The word forage may have a somewhat bookish and 
scientific sound, but it is a good English word, which the 
farmer can use to advantage at times in discussing prob- 
lems with which he deals every day. We understand by 
it simply feed for stock — com, oats, hay, silage, pastur- 
age. Any food is forage, either for man or for beast. 
But we are accustomed to style what we eat ourselves, 
foods, and what our animals eat, feeds, though in many 
cases foods are also feeds, and in some it would be dif- 
ficult to say whether we received most benefit from the 
food provided us by a forage plant, or from the feed 
it furnishes our animals. Com is an example. It is a 
splendid feed, and an excellent food. Oats is another. 
Even wheat which we are accustpmed to regard as our 
own special food plant, often provides grazing for stock, 
and in the form of bran a nourishing feed. So it is im- 
possible to draw a line between forage for man and 
forage for beast. 

Yet we are accustomed to speak of forage as feed 
for stock, and I shall endeavor in what follows to re- 
strict myself very largely to those plants having value as 
feed for the animals kept on the farm. 

While many plants of widely different plant fam- 
ilies fumish some feed, two very distinct families pro- 



236 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Eepoet 

vide most of the forage used throughout the world. It 
is questionable, indeed, if we could continue long on this 
earth if both families were suddenly removed and ren- 
dered forever extinct. These families, as you already 
know, are, first, the great grass family, and second, the 
equally great clover family. 

To bring clearly before you the immense value of 
the grass family to us, I want to remind you of a few 
important grasses. Com, wheat and oats have already 
been mentioned; they are true grasses. Eice is a typi- 
cal grass. E-ye, barley, all the miUets, kafifir corn, sorg- 
hum, (the cane from which sugar is made farther south), 
timothy, blue grass, red-top, Bermuda grass, are all 
famUiar examples of the same family. The bamboo of 
India and other eastern countries is a most valuable 
building material, and many of the dwellings, all of them 
in some sections, are constructed of the stems of these 
giant grasses. They make beautiful and very durable 
furniture; also, are employed in making ladders, rafts, 
arrows, fishing rods, etc., and besides on rare occasions, 
when they produce seed, furnish man a wholesome food. 
Bamboo in large sections of the east is the most valuable 
plant known, and is a true grass. 

A more familiar standard of measuring values may 
help a little further in grasping the importance of 
grasses to us. 

We do not grow much rice compared with eastern 
countries, the $16,624,000, at which the 1910 rice crop of 
the United States was valued, being a relatively insigni- 
ficant matter when all our crops are considered. Yet 
rice feeds about one-third of mankind, and the yearly 
product of Japan, China and India amounts to about 
100,000,000 tons. 

Let us consider some familiar grass crops of real 
value in the United States. Our com crop furnished 
more food and forage in 1910 than any other crop we 
grew. It is by far the most important crop grown in this 
State. The value of the crop on the farm ifor the 
whole country was estimated by experts connected with 
the United States Department of Agriculture at the 
enormous sum of $1,523,968,000. Our wheat crop for 
1910 was estimated as worth on the farm $621,443,000. 



BuEEAu OF Agbiotjltuee. 237 

Our oats reached the value of $384,716,000. Our rye was 
valued at $23,840,000. Our barley was estimated at 
$93,785,000. Our hay crop was worth to the fanners 
of this country $747,769,000. 

Taking all these grasses together, but omitting our 
sorghum, cane, kaffir com, and miscellaneous grass crops 
of which I have seen no estimate, we produced grass for- 
age for man and beast in 1910 to the value of 
$3,412,145,000. 

In Kentucky alone our com crop meant to the farm- 
ers of the State a value of $55,793,000. Our hay crop 
meant $8,450,000 more, and, including all of which we 
have estimates and estimating our pasturage as worth 
as much as our hay, Kentucky produced grass crops 
in 1910 having a total value to the farmer of $83,693,000. 

We hear a great deal nowadays about our tobacco, 
but Kentucky's tobacco crop for 1910 did not equal her 
com crop alone by $22,643,910. 

TABLE SHOWING VALUE OF GRASS CROPS IN THE UNITED 

STATES FOR 1910— FROM UNITED STATES 

CROP REPORTER. 

Corn $1,523,968,000 

Wheat 621,443,000 

Oats 384,716,000 

Barley 93,785,000 

Rye 23,840,000 

Rice 16,624,000 

(tfay 747,769,000 

Total $3,412,145,000 

TABLE SHOWING VALUE OF KENTUCKY FORAGE IN 1910. 

Corn $55,793,000 

Wheat 8,928,000 

Oats 1,912,000 

Barley 16,000 

Rye 144,000 

Hay 8,450,000 

Pasturage 8,450,000 

Total $83,693,000 

If our grasses are the equivalents of these tremen- 
dous sums of money, if they mean the bulk of the profit 
each year from crops harvested in all countries, if they 
mean by far the most important part of food supplied 



238 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Repobt 

by plants to man and beast, is it not a little surprising 
that we; should know so little about them, that so few of 
our people should have definite ideas as to what the grass 
family means to mankind? 

Suppose we take a familiar grass and examine it 
carefully to see how it differs from other plants. 

The common oats will serve as well as anything. 
One of the first features to attract attention when we 
compare this plant with a sunflower or petunia is that 
its stem is jointed, and that it is, as in many species of 
grasses, hollow. Here is a character by which the grasses 
may be separated from the clovers, and most other 
plants. The leaves of a grass, again,, are ribbon-like or 
threadlike, and the veins are parallel, never netted, as 
are those of a maple or clover leaf; and here we have 
another character by which a grass may be recognized 
and distinguished from most other flowering plants. The 
flowers of grasses, to take another feature, are small and 
not brightly colored. You have but to recall the timothy 
tops and blue grass tops to get the idea. The flowers 
have the necessary parts found in the rose and tulip, 
but they are small, and are ordinarily concealed by the 
small greenish chaff. Each timothy top and blue grass 
top when examined with a magnifier is found to bear 
large numbers of these small flowers hidden among the 
chaffy protective envelopes, much as the com ear is 
hidden by the husks. 

Now, the! showy flowers like those of clover are more 
or less dependent on the insects for pollen, and if it is 
not brought from other plants of the same sort, many of 
them produce few or no seeds. In the case of the 
grasses, we say they are wind poUenized, because the 
pollen grains are carried by the wind and insects- have 
little to do with it. This is why it is so difficult to keep 
corn and other grasses pure. Pollen from different 
varieties is widely scattered in the air, and hence we 
often find red or yellow grains mixed with the white 
grains of a white variety. So, again, in the case of blue 
grass it is almost impossible to find fixed varieties be- 
cause of the wide sowing of the pollen of these plants by 
the wind. 



Bureau of Agbioultuee. 239 

Bringing all our characters together, we may say 
that a grass is a plant with a jointed, and generally, hol- 
low stem, narrow parellel veined leaves, known as 
blades, and small flowers assembled in spike-like heads 
or loose, widely branched clusters known as panicles. 
Grasses may mature and die in one season, in which case 
they are known as annuals, of which corn and Hungarian 
millet are examples, or they may last from year to year, 
as in the case of blue grass, when they are known as 
perennials. They are wind pollenized. 

Grasses occur everjrnrhere on the globe where man 
can live in anything like comfort. They are to be found 
well up toward the north pole, barley and oats growing 
as far north as 70° north latitude. The best of grasses 
for grazing, you will remember, are of rather northemly 
distribution, or, in other words, cool weather plants, 
making their best growth during early spring, like our 
blue grass, and again in fall after the heat of summer is 
past. As we go southward from Kentucky, the turf- 
forming grasses become less common, and their place is 
taken by the tall, rank-growing sorghum, canes, etc., 
which make their growth during the heated periods of 
the year. 

Kentucky's reputation as an agricultural State is 
due to her pastures, and to the horses and cattle which 
her pastures produce. And because of the excellence of 
the pasturage in some parts of the State, her reputa- 
tion extends even outside the limits of the IJnited States. 
Foreign countries not infrequently send men to Blue- 
grass Kentucky to buy horses and to study our methods 
of raising such stock. 

Yet if Blue-grass Kentucky were omitted as a part 
of our territory, there would be fully four-fifths of the 
State left which could scarcely be called a grazing coun- 
try at all. The making of Blue-grass Kentucky and the 
reputation of the whole State thus depended very largely 
on one little grass plant, the Poa pratensis of botanies, 
the Kentucky blue grass of the whole world. 

I do not wish to be understood as implying by this 
that Kentucky blue grass is a native product. This 
seems to me doubtful. It occurs throughout much of the 
world, and is plaimed to be native to European countries. 



240 TwEKTY-FlEST BiBNNIAI, EePOET 

But it attains a very great excellence of growth here, and 
was introduced so early that we have been led to regard 
it as our own. 

To express the value of the forage grown in Ken- 
• tucky, it may be said that putting all our other crops to- 
gether and omitting our stock, which is absolutely de- 
pendent on forage, yet they will not equal the value of 
our com and forage. I am not forgetting that the to- 
bacco crop of Kentucky for 1910 was valued at 
$33,149,088. 

Clovers and Theib Allies. 

I have been dealing thus far with the true grasses, 
with jointed stems. But any treatment of this subject, 
however slight, would be very imperfect if the second 
group of forage plants were omitted. Every farmer 
worthy of the name, recognizes the value of clover. It 
has been the dependence of many of them for years. 

Clover is no grass. We sometimes call plants of 
its family legumes, because of the peculiar pods in which 
many of them produce their seeds. The family, includ- 
ing clovers of various sorts, is a large one; with many 
other plants, it is made up of red clover, alsike clover, 
white clover, crimson clover, Japan clover, the sweet 
clovers, alfalfa, the soy bean, garden bean, cow pea, 
garden pea, vetches, the peanut, and even some trees 
well known to you, such as the red bud, black and honey 
locust, the yellow-wood, and the Kentucky coffee tree. 

The stems of these plants are not jointed; the 
flowers are often brightly colored and large; the leaves 
are divided into smaller divisions known as leaflets, 
three in the case of clovers and beans, many in the black 
locust. They are all but dependent on insects for carry- 
ing their pollen, and to encourage these creatures, nature 
has supplied many of the flowers with a honey-like se- 
cretion, the nectar, and apparently to make doubly sure 
that insects did not overlook this bait, has supplied most 
of them with a very pleasant fragrance. You will 'un- 
derstand better what I mean when you recall the activity 
of the honey bee about the blossoms of black-locust, of 
white clover, alfalfa, and sweet clover. Even the soy 



BuEEAu OF Agkicultuee. 241 

bean and cpw pea fumisla andustrious insects mueili 
forage at times. 

For hay and for grazing, the clovers have a value 
everywhere. As feed they rank higher than the grasses, 
though too concentrated for steady feeding alone. Mixed 
with grasses they furnish as good a ration as can be 
provided. 

The seeds of many members of the group, such as 
the peas and beans, furnish a very nutritious food for 
man, the soy bean, for example, providing to the 
Japanese a variety of dishes, and furnishing beside much 
of the fodder used for stock in Japan. 

But while we should find it difficult to do without 
this source of food and feed, we could let it go rather 
than lose the grasses, were it not for a very remark- 
able peculiarity of the clovers and beans. 

Most of them, and probably all, can get nitrogen 
from the air, and as the true grasses cannot, the latter 
are dependent on plants of the clover family and on man 
for this absolutely necessary plant food. The story of 
how clovers get nitrogen and leave it in the soil for other 
plants is one of the most curious known to science and 
to agriculture. 

If one of these plants is taken up carefully, so as 
not to lose many of the fibrous roots, little round, or oval, 
knots, commonly styled nodules, will be found attached 
to the roots, and sometimes to the bases of the plants 
themselves. Under the microscope these knots are found 
to contain numerous minute germs or bacteria, and these 
are known to be the cause of the knots, and also the 
means by which the nitrogen is picked up from air 
in the soil. 

Now nitrogen is a very costly fertilizing material, 
and yet the farmer has it in his power to get it simply by 
growing a clover or bean crop. The value of these 
plants in enriching soil was long known before the ex- 
planation of it was furnished. Since the secret was 
learned it has been found possible to inoculate soUs in 
which the nodules do not occur and thus enable plants of 
the clover family to do their office there as nitrogen 
gatherers. Unless the bacteria are present, clovers ex- 



242 TwENTY-FlEST BiBNNIAL RePOET 

haust the nitrogen already in soils exactly as do th.e 
grasses and other plants. 

In this brief explanation yon have the important 
part taken by the clovers in the rotation of crops. By 
systematic rotation, including some clover crop, prac- 
ticed steadily all the time, land can be kept from wear- 
ing out, and good crops be harvested every year. In 
some European countries where farms have been tilled 
for centuries, better average yields of wheat and oats 
are now harvested than we get. "When we obtain an 
average of 16 bushels or less, they get an average of 
25 to 30. But it would be difficult to plan a rotation 
worth adopting that did not include both a grass and a 
clover, the grass to supply vegetable matter, and put the 
soil in a good physical condition, the clover to supply 
the most costly, the most quickly removed, the most 
fugitive, of the necessary fertilizing materials. 

We have not yet learned everywhere in Kentucky the 
supreme importance of forage plants in rotation. Even 
if we wish to grow tobacco all the time, we cannot 
afford to do it because of its destructive effect on our 
land. We cannot grow tobacco without vegetable mat- 
ter tri the soil. In the Burley growing section of the 
State, we grow the crop now by plowing up pasture, 
and following it with two tobacco crops. But by a prop- 
erly managed rotation, a farmer may, if he likes, grow 
a crop of tobacco on his place every year without pas- 
ture of any sort. We have now on the Experiment 
Farm a series of plots on which we are, in co-operation 
with the United States Department of Agriculture, prac- 
ticing different systems of rotation. On one we grow 
com every year, adding nothing to the soil. On another 
we grow com every year, but fertilize with manure. On 
others we grow grass and clover, wheat, tobacco; in 
others, oats, soy beans and tobacco, in many of them 
depending entirely on the rotations to keep the soil in 
good condition. These plots have been kept in these 
different rotations for a good many years, and if there 
was a decline in fertility it would now be apparent. As 
a matter of fact, the soil is in good condition, and ex- 
ceUent crops of all sorts are obtained from the land, 



BuBEAu OP Agkicultuee. 243 

But one of the most interesting features of the work 
thus far is the result with tobacco. For several years 
past the Burley tobacco from these plots has averaged 
better than that grown on the Experiment Farm in the 
usual way, i. e., after pasture, and what is more to the 
point, the tobacco when placed side by side with the 
other in the market, sells for a better average price to 
people who are good judges of tobacco, but know nothing 
of the history of the crops. The whole secret of this 
success with tobacco is systematic rotation, alternating 
it with grass and clover, or with some other member of 
the clover family. Forage is thus not only valuable. in 
itself, but is essential to the economical and profitable 
growing of other crops. 

Again, when a farmer finds he cannot get help to 
work all his land, a pasture or meadow is a very con- 
venient way to dispose of part of his holdings. By keep- 
ing it in pasture, he can get something from it every 
year, and yet save himself the necessity of plowing and 
cultivating frequently. Grazing such land keeps it in 
excellent condition, -too, so that when times change, and 
a crop is to be grown, he has lost nothing, and finds 
his land ready to yield better crops than it did when 
put down in grass. This has been the resource of farm- 
ers in countries where help is scarce. It is also an ex- 
cellent way to save the land and keep winter rains from 
leaching and washing away the fertilizing materials land 
contains. 

We are thus dependent on the forage plants in 
more ways than one. They provide the best part of our 
crops; they feed both man and the domestic animals; 
they are the chief source of our wealth. They maintain 
the fertility of our soils. 

Having reminded you of their importance and re- 
ferred very briefly to the reasons why they are im- 
portant, I may be allowed to go a little farther into the 
subject and bring it more closely home to you. 

Permanent Pasttjk.es. 

In the best stock raising regions of the world the 
forage employed is of two general sorts — permanent 
pasturage and annual forage crops. The permanent 



244 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Report 

pastures are made up chiefly of grasses and clovers; 
the annual forage comes from a great variety of plants 
of many families, but still chiefly from members of the 
grass family, such as com and sorghum, with some root 
crops, pumpkius, rape, etc., some of these sources fur- 
nishing variety rather than the essentials. In Kentucky 
we have one grass that has, perhaps, been depended 
upon too much for pasturage. Blue grass is an excel- 
lent plant for the purpose on good lands, not too wet 
and not too dry, but on gravelly, clayey and rather poor 
soils, it does not furnish the grazing needed. It should 
not be supposed that where blue grass fails us, we are 
entirely deprived of grazing. Perhaps the soil lacks 
something blue grass needs, and we can, it may be, pro- 
vide it. If it is nitrogen, or vegetable matter to render 
the soil less hard and compact, we have the clovers to 
help us. 

You have probably observed that when the surface 
of a soil is removed, and the .clayey sub-soil is exposed, 
many plants, among them blue grass,- wUl not grow on it 
at all. In some regions very few plants of any sort 
appear on such exposed areas the first year, and these 
are of slight growth. The second year a fair growth 
may appear of a miscellaneous assortment of plants, 
among them some white clover, and iu a few years the 
whole surface may be pretty thickly occupied with 
clover. What is the explanation of this? Why do the 
clovers precede the grasses on such soils? 

It results from the fact that the deeper layers of 
soil even when containing most of the necessary plant 
food, do not contain nitrogen in sufficient quantity, and 
are too solid to be easUy penetrated by the roots of 
plants. When exposed to the air and frosts their plant 
food is dissolved, and plants like clover which provide 
their own nitrogen are soon able to take possession. 
After them come the grasses and other plants. 

This natural process illustrates and points out the 
procedure necessary for the farmer who wishes to get 
a permanent meadow or pasture on rather unpromising 
soils. If he can once get a good growth of some of -the 
clovers — white clover, red clover, cowpeas, soy beans, 



BuBEA.u OF Ageicxjltube. 245 

Japan clover, or even sweet clover — he has laid the 
foundation upon which a pasture can be built. 

In aU our blue grass pastures white clover is to be 
found. It is the natural associate of blue grass, and 
sometimes is the more abundant, while, again, during 
unfavorable weather, it may almost disappear. No 
doubt, its presence besides fumiahing some variety of 
fare to stock has a more important role in providing 
nitrogen and thus contributing to the permanence of 
blue grass. And because of this capacity of the clovers, 
it is always well to have some of them growing on land 
occupied by pastures. 

The question is sometimes asked: Have ^v^e any 
other grasses besides blue grass suitable for permanent 
pasture? Yes, we have. On some soils, timothy will do 
for a time, though not permanent in many soils. Eed- 
top does very well on damp land, and this grass mixed 
with alsike clover makes a combination for low ground 
somewhat like that of blue grass and white clover in 
drier situations. Still another mixture, timothy and al- 
sike clover, will often furnish good grazing on damp 
land. 

One of our very best grasses for permanent pasture 
is orchard grass. It is one of the most persistent and 
productive grasses grown in the State. It is true that 
stock brought up on blue grass does not like it very well, 
and fine tufts will be left untouched in blue grass pas- 
tures. This is a matter of education, however, since it 
is ia some sections of Kentucky depended on for beef 
cattle. Analysis shows it to compare very favorably 
as feed with timothy. One planting of orchard grass 
outlasts a half dozen plantings of timothy, and herein 
lies the value of orchard grass in comparison. - It is a 
perennial grass. It occupies ground closely. It is pro- 
ductive and hardy, and provides either hay or grazing. 
In our rotations already referred to, we have in some 
cases used orchard grass in preference to timothy, my 
reason for adopting it being the greater certainty of 
getting a stand quickly. Though this" grass requires a 
good soil, and will not endure soils constantly saturated 
with water, it is, nevertheeless, adapted to a variety of 
situations and conditions. Our most severe winters dp 



246 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

not hurt it. Drought does not injure it as badly as it 
does blue grass. It has a peculiar value for growing in 
shade, where it thrives better, perhaps, than any grass 
we have. In England it is very commonly sown in or- 
chards because of this peculiarity, and the fact has given 
it its name, orchard grass. 

In the absence of blue grass in some sections of 
eastern and western Kentucky, farmers there must for 
the present be content with orchard grass, and other 
species. Red-top is frequently grown in the west with 
success. It seems to do better there than at Lexington, 
because of the fact that the sub-soil is of such character 
that it holds water better than ours, and red-top thrives 
with its roots pretty well soaked with water. We have 
grown the grass in the plots with only moderate success. 
With a wet season it does very well; at other times, 
it is not very productive, and runs out in the course of 
three or four years, like timothy. The hay is good, be- 
ing moderately fine, and nutritious. In wet places along 
ditches the grass is often seen growing spontaneously. 
Its position as a permanent part of our agricultural 
assets seems to me somewhat uncertain unless it can 
be greatly improved. It persists chiefly because of lack 
of something better. One serious objection to it, con- 
stantly brought to our attention in the examination pf 
seeds, is the general presence of ergot among the seeds. 
Certain diseases of stock are attributed to this fungus 
in hay, and it would not be surprising if we should 
learn some time that red-top is responsible for some of 
the little-understood troubles to which stock is subject. 

Timothy is a valuable grass for Kentucky, but has 
always seemed to me not well adpted to our soil, and at 
any rate much of our hay comes from outside of the 
State. With a good season, fine growths may be seen 
in Blue Grass Kentucky, and as good ones in the west- 
ern part of the State, where, in fact, the soil seems bet- 
ter adapted to the plant. Timothy wants a good deal 
of water, and a good soil that holds water tenaciously 
is likely to show a better growth than one from which 
the water is likely at times to be exhausted. The plant 
is not sufficiently long-lived here. 



BuEEAu OF Ageicitltuee. 247 

Once established, it should last three full years, 
giving one crop of hay each year, and ought some time 
to be made to do so by selection. 

Much has been said of Canada blue grass, and be- 
cause of the use of its seeds for adulterating the seeds 
of Kentucky blue grass, it has a bad reputation in Ken- 
tucky. Yet it has its good qualities, one of which is a 
capacity to take possession of rather poor soils, and 
hold its own there. It is not very productive, and, when 
old, is rather wiry, but I think in parts of the State not 
adapted to ordinary blue grass, it might sometimes be 
grown with profit. 

It is a good binder, because of its manner of spread- 
ing by underground shoots, and on embankments and 
hillsides liable to wash will be found helpful. It grows 
spontaneously everywhere in Kentucky. 

We have a number of other members of the genus 
Poa in Kentucky, but not one of them presents char- 
acters that render it a promising subject for improve- 
ment with a view to cultivation. Several introduced 
Poas have been tested in our plots, but thus far we have 
not found one that holds its own, when left to itself, 
against blue grass and weeds. 

We have tested English blue grass, smooth brome- 
grass, English fortail, perennial and Italian rye, and 
the rest, but none of them, excepting the English Blue 
Grass, known in the books as Festuca elatior, seems 
very promising for our soils. 

The rye-grasses are highly valued in England, as 
is also meadow iox-tailf Alopecurus pratensis). They 
have proved to be neither very productive nor very 
persistent on the Experiment Farm, and soon give way 
before blue grass and weeds. They have been tried 
several times, with the same result, and I think they 
want a moister atmosphere, and more equable climate 
than ours. 

The tall fescue, English blue grass, already men- 
tioned, covers the ground like orchard grass, and yields 
about as well, the forage being better liked by stock. 
I consider this grass, though somewhat coarse, one of 
the promising ones for the State. The ordinary Eng- 
Jj?^ blue grass, l^np-jyu in botanies as Festuca pratensis, 



248 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Eepoet 

is a slighter plant of similar appearance, but soon runs 
out. At the end of three years it has generally been 
largely gone from the plots. It is, in the books, re- 
garded .^as a variety of the coarser and more persistent 
grass, but if the seed we have sown is true to name, and 
it has been obtained from one of the foremost dealers 
and importers in the country, the two grasses should 
certainly rank as distinct species. 

Smooth brome grass is very persistent on the Farm, 
but is uneven in growth and not very productive. It 
does better in the northwest. 

There are two perennial grasses besides those men- 
tioned that ought to be considered for Kentucky. One 
is a slight fine-bladed, very early grass, known as 
sheep's fescue. It is one of the most persistent of the 
grasses I have tested, and this, notwithstanding the fact 
that its dropped seeds appear never to germinate, and 
it does not spread by underground shoots. It is a true 
perennial, and I think may have a value for hilly land 
of Kentucky for sheep. It is grown for this purpose in 
Europe. It is a palatable grass. The yield is slight, 
and it would not do at all for hay. 

The second species is tall oats grass, also a true 
perennial, having persisted in the plots with no appar- 
ent dimunition in vigor and productiveness for eight 
years. It is not as coarse if cut at the right time as 
either timothy or orchard grass. But I am compelled 
to add that it is not relished by stock — is, in fact, an- 
other example of the special vigor with lack of palata- 
bility. So it is not, perhaps, to be considered for blue- 
grass Kentucky. I have kept my eye on it for a good 
many years in the plots as a possibility for some sec- 
tions which cannot grow other forage. In appearance, 
productiveness, and hardiness, it is an almost ideal 
meadow and pasture plant. Now, why cannot that com- 
bination of characters go with palatability? 

A number of southern grasses have been tried from 
time to time by us in the hope that among them was 
something that would take the place of blue grass in 
western Kentucky. Bermuda grass was established, 
after repeated attempts with seed, by using cuttings, 
and we now have a couple of small plots that were 



Bureau of Agkicultuee. 249 

started several years ago. The grass makes a dense 
fine growth for lawn, of velvety softness, but becomes 
brown with the first frosts and remains so until rather 
late spring. This defect will lead to its rejection 
wherever blue grass can be grown, but in southwestern 
Kentucky it is more at home, and some fairly satisfac- 
tory growths of it are to be seen in the yards about the 
Illinois Central Eailroad buildings at Fulton, Kentucky. 
The grass is not productive enough in Kentucky to sat- 
isfy our farmers. In the plots and elsewhere in the 
State, the growth is only from about eleven to fourteen 
inches high when the plants are in bloom. It is a valua- 
ble grass farther south, but will probably never be gen- 
erally grown in this State. Johnson grass is another 
southern species grown by me. It is a coarse, tall plant, 
furnishing fodder relished by stock, but because of its 
disposition to persist in soils when once established, our 
farmers are afraid of it. It does not in our soils make 
the close growth necessary to productiveness. In Ken- 
tucky it is regarded as a weed. Farmers sometimes 
write us asking how it may be got rid of. The best way 
known to me is close cultivation and winter plowing to 
throw up the root-stocks by which it spreads so as to 
expose them to frost, or else, close grazing. 

We have been accustomed to place the common red 
clover at the head of its group, and it has been entitled 
to that distinction. But at times it has not done well in 
some parts of Kentucky, and farmers in these sections 
despair of ever again raising this clover as successfully 
as it was raised years ago. There is some ground for 
this discouragement, but I think the difficulty will, like 
others that have appeared from time to time, be even- 
tually overcome, or run its course, when clover will 
again thrive on land now clover sick. Undoubtedly some 
of the difficulty is due to the small beetle described in 
one of our bulletins. Some of it is the work of bacteria 
or fungi. Some failures are due to poor seeds. It is 
certainly not due to lack of nodule bacteria in the soil. 
There is no difficulty in getting an abundance of nodules 
on the roots, in fact in some of our experimental work 
we have found it difficult to keep the nodule bacteria away 
from them. They are so numerous and so generally 



250 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

present tliat it is actually a matter of annoying difficulty 
to keep soil or other media on wMcli experimental clover 
is grown, free from the organisms. 

Alsike clover has been advocated lately for planting 
■in place of red clover; it grows very well in Kentucky, 
especially in wet places, but is not as productive as red 
clover. It lasts only two or three years. 

Crimson clover I consider a valuable plant for fall 
sowing; It matures early in the spring, is as produc- 
tive as red clover, and has the same effect on the soU. 
It seems to languish during hot summer weather when 
sown in the spring, and I would not advise sowing it 
then. A^ plot grown on the farm several years ago 
yielded, June 7, hay at the rate of 2.8 tons per acre. 

We have grown most of the other clovers that have 
been brought to this country — Hungarian, Egyptian, 
sweet, trefoil and the rest. They have generally failed 
in one quality or another. One is too coarse ; another is 
not sufficiently productive; stock does not like a third. 
Trefoil for sheep may prove of value in our mountains. 
It is a slight plant with a yellow blossom, growing about 
as high as white clover. The seeds are sometimes im- 
ported to be used as an adulterant in red clover seeds. 
In this way, and by their accidental presence with other 
seeds, the plant has become widely scattered in the State, 
and is to be encountered in small quantity almost any- 
where in pastures and along roads. 

White sweet clover, or Bokhara clover, is the tall 
plant with white blossoms to be seem growing on neg- 
, lected land at the edges of cities. It is a good bee plant, 
and produces a forage resembling alfalfa closely, in gen- 
eral appearance, when young. It is sometimes mistaken 
for alfalfa, but may be quickly recognized at any stage 
of growth, by crushing the leaves, when the sweetish 
odor from which it takes its name is given off. Our 
animals do not like it. Farther south it is said it is 
eaten by cattle readily enough. 

It is chiefly interesting because of its close resem- 
blance to alfalfa, and the fact that the nodule bacteria 
on its roots seem to be identical with those causing 
nodules on alfalfa. 



Btjreatj of Ageiculttteb. 251 

If any one wants to grow this plant he will have no 
dilBoTilty in doing it. It thrives in very unpromising 
soils, sometimes on clays that will produce little else. 
It grows to a height of five or six feet, and produces a 
good quantity of forage. If one wishes to bring up a 
clayey soil, and cannot get a more palatable species, he 
may under some circumstances find it profitable to sow 
this plant for the humus and nitrogen it will produce. 

Sweet clover naturally suggests alfalfa, one of the 
most valuable of all forage plants, both for the hay it 
produces, and for its good effect on the soil. If we could 
grow it everywhere in Kentucky, we could afford to let 
red clover go. Once established, it is as nearly perennial 
as any of the clovers. The yield is sometimes far in 
excess of anything ever secured from red clover, and the 
quality of the hay is as good, some think even better. 
I have kept small plots of this plant on the farm for six 
years, and at times secured hay from them at the rate 
of from six to ten tons per acre. Three cuttings, and 
sometimes four, may be taken from the plant when in 
good condition. But after several years of extraordinary 
success with it in 1907, it all but failed in the plots, and 
proved very unsatisfactory in the hands of other people. 
A farmer from Nelson county who has for years de- 
pended on the plant for fattening beef cattle told me in 
the fall of the year that he had never before had such 
unsatisfactory experience with it. It appeared to be a 
result of the wet season partly, and was partly due to 
attacks of a small leaf hopper (Empoasca mail). 

But if we can grow alfalfa for periods of six or 
seven years at a time, this is an improvement on red 
clover, and we can afford to plow it up and start again, 
and I sincerely hope Kentucky farmers will not give up 
trying alfalfa because of its failure during very wet 
springs. It is well worth struggling for. 

There are a few annual leguminous plants that must 
be considered in any account, however imperfect, of Ken- 
tucky forage. 

The Eussian or sand vetch (Vicia villosa) is a trail- 
ing plant that does well in Kentucky, often persisting on 
land spontaneously, from dropped seeds. It is, from its 



252 TwBNTY-FiKST Biennial Report 

manner of growth., rather unmanageable for forage, but 
can be handled by growing j.t with some grass or grain. 
It is to be looked upon as a soil improver chiefly, and as 
a cover crop for orchards and hillsides. 

Japan clover (Lespedesa striata) is a rather small 
plant with very fine leafage, which has for a number of 
years past gradually extended its range in Kentucky, 
taking care of itself on the most inhospitable of soils 
along roadsides and in abandoned fields, where it fur- 
nishes such abundant and nutritious grazing as to bave 
worked a genuine transformation in the appearance of 
roaming stock in some sections of the State. The plant 
is an annual nitrogen gatherer, so that while it is helping 
the stock of the poor it is also improving some of our 
poor clayey soils. It is a little tender, and on this ac- 
count may always be more or less completely restricted 
to the southern three-fourths of the State. The seeds 
are hard to collect because of the fact that they are rather 
few in number, and are scattered along the stems. 
Bought seeds have not always germinated with me. One 
can well afford to make an effort to get Japan clover 
started in his neighborhood. Like white clover and sweet 
clover, it is adapted to soils that other forage plants 
do not thrive in, and will in time put them in a condi- 
tion to grow other things. 

The Establishment of Permanent Pastures. 

In making .a choice of these different plants for 
pasture much must be left to the judgment of the farmer. 
If his land is inclined to be wet he will use one of sev- 
eral plants adapted to wet lands. If it is high and dry 
certain others must be employed. The old saying, 
' ' The higher the hill the lower the grass, ' ' is true largely 
because the hilltops have had the good soil washed down 
into the valleys. If hills can be kept clothed, especially 
in winter, with a cover crop such as rye, vetch, or some 
grass, they will produce as good grass as grows any- 
where. But certain species such as sheep's fescue and 
trefoil thrive on hills better than red top and blue grass, 
and should be employed for these situations. Low 
ground, again, must have the species adapted to a damp 



BuEBAu OF Ageicultuee. 253 

situation, as already noted. Yet it must be found that 
most low ground produces a better pasture or meadow 
if it is properly drained. Cattle mil not fatten well 
when kept on a cold wet soil in fall and spring. Too 
much of their food is expended in keeping their bodies 
warm. They show the bad effect of a cold wet pasture 
also in the smaller quantity of milk produced. 

This whole subject of caring for pasture land is 
greatly neglected in this country. Our practice implies 
that we believe grass will start and do well in any soil 
without the preparation of any sort of seed bed. It is 
a mistake. Even when we get a stand the product is 
not what it should be if the land has been impoverished 
by other crops and otherwise misused. 

The land cannot be prepared too well previous to the 
sowing of either grass or clover seed. This preparation 
may be brought about in the course of cultivating some 
other crop, but it is not best in many cases to trust to this 
alone. Alfalfa especially requires a good deeply plowed, 
well pulverized soil. And after it has been so prepared 
it must be "firmed" by the use of a heavy roller. You 
have, perhaps, observed such plants taking hold and mak- 
ing a fine growth on old road beds, while in the middle of 
the field, where the soil has been best prepared, the 
growth is scant. The young plants suffer from being 
started in soil that is not continuous with the sub-soil 
beneath. They may be lifted free by frost if planted in 
fall, or dried out if planted in spring. The seed bed must 
be made compact in order to get best results with sowings 
made for pasture and meadow. 

With reference to spring as against fall sowing of 
grass and clover seeds, I have to say that while in my 
own experience with experimental plantings of many 
different forage plants, my best results have come from 
spring planting, yet fall planting will give good results. 
In the case of alfalfa, it has been supposed that the 
young plants escape crowding with annual weeds when 
it is sown in the fall, the frost soon destroying the weeds. 
It is desirable to get the young plants well started before 
the weeds get ahead of them, but this can be done by sow- 
ing very early in spring. Some of the best growths of 
alfalfa we have had on the Experiment Farm were sown 



254 Twenty-First Biennial Ebpobt 

about tlie 28th of Marcli. Some plantings made at the 
same season in the fall have never done so well. Still 
it may be a matter of experience with us. We have done 
most of our planting of grasses and clovers in spring, 
and perhaps know better how to start them at that time. 

Annual Forage. 

While permanent meadows and pastures are of very- 
great importance, they must be supplemented in most 
countries by forage of other sorts. A very large amount 
of this additional forage comes, as has already been 
stated, from the grains, while annual grasses, clovers, 
and many other plants help out when pastures and mead- 
ows for any reason faU us. In the southwest an indiffer- 
ent feed is obtained, as you know, from various species 
of cactus, some spiny, others not. In Kentucky we have 
some supplementary forage plants of far greater value. 

You doubtless know the old story of the Englishman 
talking with a Scotchman and remarking, "In England 
we feed oats to horses, but in Scotland you eat oats 
yourselves," and to which the Scot replied, "That's why 
we have such fine men in Scotland and you have such 
fine horses in England. ' ' In America we feed both our- 
selves and our horses on oats, which, I suppose, ex- 
plains why we have both fine men and fine horses. 

Oats is a valuable food, and one of the best of feeds 
also for stock. The plant does not show the vigor here 
that it does in some other States, and unless we can, by 
selection, find varieties better adapted to our conditions, 
we shall never be able to compete with the oats-growing 
States of the Northwest. This is a problem to be worked 
out by some one. The crop is of the very highest value 
for horses, and the person w^ho will discover, or produce, 
a variety that will here average large yields of seed of 
good nutritive value, will greatly benefit the stock rais- 
ing interests of Kentucky. I am referring to spring 
oats, because it is my belief that the chances are better 
to improve and completely adapt a spring variety to our 
conditions than it would be to produce a winter oats that 
will invariably withstand our low winter temperatures. 
Even as far south as Alabama winter oats is sometimes 
killed by severe cold. The crop is more likely to suffer 



, Bureau of Ageicultuke. 255 

from this cause in Kentucky, though some varieties have 
done well during favorable winters on our Experiment 
FaiTu. 

Some as valuable work can be done for us by careful 
screening of home-grown oats seed so as to discard the 
imperfect and save only the heavy, as is being done with 
tobacco. The process is one of selection, and if it were 
everjTvhere practiced, coupled with intelligent selection 
by other procedures, would undoubtedly soon show an 
increased average yield for the State. Oats is one of 
the forage plants that should be greatly improved for 
Kentucky, and be more generally grown in the State. 

Rye is another of the cereal group of small grains 
that has value both as food and as feed. It is very well 
understood in Kentucky, and is quite generally employed 
both for stock and as a green manure. It has an estab- 
lished place, I believe, in any system of scientific farm- 
ing that may finally be adopted for the State. 

Barley does well in Kentucky, and was years ago 
grown quite extensively for malt. I know of no reason 
why it should not be grown now, if there was a demand 
for it. It has value for stock, but seems not to have 
found a place with us not already occupied by as good 
or better forage. 

Corn is the king of forage plants in Kentucky. There 
is no doubt about this. It is grown in every county in 
the State. Every part of the plant from the ground 
up can be utilized for one or another purpose. It is 
the one really great addition made by America to the 
cereal group of plants. Both stalk and grain considered, 
Kentucky is within the region in which the plant attains 
its best development as a crop. Somewhat farther north 
the growth is dwarfed by low average temperature and 
short season. In some of the Gulf States the growth of 
stalk is excessive, and the grain not of as good quality 
as it is here and farther north. Kentucky farmers have 
always recognized the value of this crop and need no 
coaching in this direction. But there is room for great 
improvement in strains, by selection based upon a study 
of the characters that go to make a good yield of High 
grade grain. An inspection of the com exhibited at our 
county and State fairs has shown that the corn consid- 



256 TwEKTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOBT 

ered best by many exbibitors produced a very long ear 
with large cob and sbort, wide seed. The first State 
Fair at Louisville was notable for the numbers of these 
long ears shown, some of them measuring fully 17 
inches. The length has diminished gradually with each 
succeeding fair, while the cob has grown smaller and 
the grain deeper. Much of this change for the better 
is due to the good work done in farmers ' institutes. The 
reading of Station bulletins has also doubtless helped, 
and the opportunity to observe and compare really good 
corn with their own product at the fairs has contributed 
its share in spreading among our growers right ideas 
on the subject, and with them unproved varieties of com. 
Some of the com shown at our recent fairs would have 
compared favorably with that shown iu the States where 
this matter of selection has been most carefully and sys- 
tematically followed. This year we stood third on wMte 
dent corn in the National Com Show at Columbus, Ohio, 
beating such States as Ohio and Illinois. 

There is yet much to do in Kentucky on our corns. 
Some of the very best varieties m the State are not com- 
pletely suited to our conditions. Some young fellow 
with a good farm at his command can make himself a 
name and help forward the agriculture of his State by 
devoting his life to this one object of producing a com 
for Kentucky of decidedly better quality than any we 
now have. The enterprise is well worthy of any farmer, 
and is, I believe, sure to be profitable to the one who 
undertakes it. 

In looking to the improvement of com it will be nec- 
essary not only to select the best ears, as is now the 
fashion, but also good, well-proportioned, vigorous, pro- 
ductive plants, that will hold their own against unfavor- 
able weather and produce no sterile stalks and no nub- 
bins. 

Sorghum is another valuable forage plant, furnish- 
ing both food for man and feed for stock. I think its 
value, for cattle especially, is not as fully appreciated in 
Kentucky as it ought to be. It has a special value for 
silage, and yields more such fodder than com. It should 
have a place on every dairy farm, at any rate. 



BuBBAu OF Agbioultuee, 257 

I have been very favorably impressed with some of 
the so-called non-saccharine sorghums, such as yellow 
millo maize and white millo maize. They produce a 
greater growth of blade than sorghum, resembling com 
in this respect, and possess some of the productiveness 
of common sorghum. They seem to me, from their habit, 
well suited to produce large quantities of green fodder 
and of silage. They have yielded in small plots from 
25 to 28 tons of green fodder per acre, making about 14 
tons of dry forage. All these sorghums seem to have the 
advantage of corn in standing drought better, but the 
fodder is a little harsher. 

The sorghums should be recognized as an estab- 
lished feature of our agriculture. We have occasional 
dry seasons that cut down the corn crop so as to leave 
the farmer, with stock on his hands, in a precarious con- 
dition. He can generally count on the sorghums to come 
through such dry weather in pretty good condition, and 
it is always wise on stock farms to have a reserve of 
sorghum kept as a precaution against failure of the com 
crop. The variety in diet it will affoi'd is of itself a 
desideratum even when the com crop is abundant. 

In non-saccharine sorghums we have giant grasses 
that furnish no food to man, and since I have opened up 
this branch of my subject, I may as well consider briefly 
a few others of importance, pausing now only to call 
attention to root crops which furnish us food, and are 
calculated to provide palatable fare for domestic ani- 
mals. Beets, mangels, turnips, carrots, are a very con- 
venient form in which to preserve fresh vegetable food 
for stock in the winter. They keep well in either cellar, 
or buried out of doors, and for the best health of dairy 
cattle ought to be provided. 

Of the millets, we have tested nothing more promis- 
ing than German millet, which I think has come to stay, 
though not as much grown now as it will be later. In 
America it is used only for stock, but it has been grown 
for food for centuries — seems even to have been one of 
the grasses gathered by pre-historic man, and is still 
used for food in eastern countries. 

Japan millet shows no qualities to commend it es- 
pecially. It is closely related to our common barn-yard 
grass, and has been considered only a variety. 

agr. — 9 



258 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Eepoet 

Pearl millet, sometimes called Maud's Wonder For- 
age Plant, and Pencilaria (Penmsetum typhoideum) 
would seem a very wonderful plant indeed if we did not 
have com and sorghum. It is not as coarse as com, and 
has a head somewhat like that of timothy, but reaching 
a length of twelve inches. It is an annual, but when cut 
in our plots made a good second growth. 

A small plot from which two cuttings were secured 
in 1901 yielded dry fodder at the rate of 16.4 tons per 
acre. The first cutting was made June 17, and the sec- 
ond, September 26. The plant comes from the East, 
where it is grown extensively for its seeds. 

We have had but one other plant in the plots that 
produced such large quantities of fodder. This is the 
Mexican forage plant, Teosinte (EucMaena luxurioms). 
It is the nearest relative of com occurring in America, 
and is much like it in the character of forage produced. 
In 1901 we took, in a single cutting at the rate of 15.5 
tons of dry fodder per acre. The plant produces no seeds 
here, which puts it at a disadvantage in competing for 
favor. It is certainly a wonderful plant for green for- 
age, and is easily grown here. 

The Canada field pea is much like trailing varieties 
of the garden pea, and is, I thiok, no better for forage. 
It, also, requires some support, and should be grown with 
oats, or a grass, if it is desired to cut it. It mildews in 
Kentucky ; I think we are too far south for it. 

The velvet bean from the far south makes a very sur- 
prising growth of vine, but requires a longer season than 
ours. I have secured well developed pods from it during 
a long mild fall, but ordinarily it is cut down by frosts 
before it has bloomed. From what I have seen of it here, 
I judge it to be a very valuable plant for the Gulf States. 

The cowpeas have proved the most easily managed 
of the trailing beans, and the iron, new era, and gray 
goose have done best in the plots, producing from 2.5 
to 5.4 tons of hay per acre and from 20 to 40 bushels of 
seed. 

After growing these plants for a good many years 
side by side with soy beans, my preference is for the 
latter as a forage plant and soil improver. It has a 
more erect growth and is thus more easily cultivated and 



' , BuEEATJ OF Ageicultuee. 259 

cut, yields more forage and as many seeds. We have at 
times cut hay from plots at the rate of five or six tons 
per acre, and the seeds range from about 20 to 40 bushels 
per acre. When we have learned to handle the seed crop 
properly, I have no doubt soy beans will grow in favor. 

One other forage of this group I consider of much 
greater importance for Kentucky than is now recognized 
by farmers, judging by the slight extent to which it is 
grown. Everywhere north, after corn is cut, one sees 
scattered over the fields, numbers of yellow pumpkins, 
which make excellent food for milk cows. I have often 
wondered why we did not more generally grow such 
things for the same purpose here. Like the root crops, 
they are easily kept during the winter, and I believe 
both should have a place at least on our dairy farms. 

When Kentucky has developed the dairy interests 
of which she is capable, and I think she is moving in this 
direction now, these crops will probably be recognized 
here at their real value. 

Eoot crops, such as beets, mangels, carrots and the 
like have a value as winter feed that should not be over- 
looked by our people who are interested in dairying and 
hogs. Europeans have long recognized their value and 
make much use of them and of such crops as rape. The 
latter under the name of Dwarf Essex Rape has been 
grown successfully in this country. It is cabbage so far 
as its feeding value is concerned, having about the same 
composition, and thriving in the same sort of soils. 

GrEASS MiXTTJEES. 

It has always been a favorite idea with writers on 
agricultural topics to establish on land permanent pas- 
tures or permanent meadows, consisting of forage plants 
that supplement each other in one way and another, and 
thus keep stock in better condition than will a single 
plant species. The idea probably originated in England 
and Ireland, where, from the moisture in the air and 
soil, and a rather even climate, it seems possible to real- 
ize something of the results which we would naturally 
expect to get from well chosen mixtures. In Kentucky, 
at any rate, and I think it is true also of others of the 
States, though perhaps not of all, mixtures recom- 
mended by seedmen do not always prove superior to 



260 TwENTY-FlEST BiBNNIAL RePOBT 

single grasses or legumes, and considering the high 
prices charged for special mixtures, it is questionable 
if our farmers gain anything by sowing most of them. 
Certainly they are m a position to make cheaper and 
as good mixtures, just as they can make a fertilizer mix- 
ture better adapted to land, once they know what the 
soil already contains. 

Theoretically, mixtures should be much superior to 
single species. A variety of herbage no doubt helps the 
digestion of stock. Monotony of fare sometimes prevents 
the best possible results in feeding, even when the fare 
consists of the best single ingredient it is possible to pro- 
vide. At least two plants, a grass and a legume, are 
very desirable; but from our own experience, it seems 
unlikely that we shall soon secure an elaborate mixture 
adapted to our conditions. 

The chief difficulty in growing and maintaining mix- 
tures in Kentucky comes from the aggressive disposition 
of certain grasses when groAvn in our soil, and their 
tendency to overshadow and finally suppress those of less 
persistent and vigorous habit. From experience with 
plots, I should expect any mixture containing a large per 
cent, of orchard grass seeds to result finally in a con- 
tinuous, unmixed growth of orchard grass. Sown with it, 
perennial rye grass, meadow foxtail (Alopecurus praten- 
sis), English blue grass, smooth brome grass, timothy, 
and the clovers have little chance of continuing long, 
and I have seen seed mixtures produce in a few years as 
fine a growth of orchard grass as we could hope to get 
by sowing the pure orchard grass seeds. We have found 
only a few grasses that hold their own with orchard 
grass for any length of time. Tall oats grass lasts as long 
as any of them. Blue grass itself is disposed to give 
way before it, if the orchard grass is sown with it in 
any quantity and gets a fair start. 

But blue grass will crowd out and displace many of 
the introduced grasses, just as orchard grass does. 
Meadow foxtail, perennial lye grass, timothy, Canada 
blue grass, red-top, all give ground as it advances, and 
mixtures containing blue grass, but not orchard grass, 
and tall oats grass, are very likely in time to result in a 
continuous growth of Kentucky blue grass. 



Btjeeau op Ageioultuee, 261 

Because of this disposition of some valuable forage 
plants to give way and of others to overshadow, it is 
practically very difficult, if not impossible, to maintain 
here permanent growths consisting of a great variety of 
species ; and in view of this diflSoulty it seems at present 
better practice to grow singly some one of the grasses, 
or clovers, of proved value for the soil and climate, 
rather than attempt any very elaborate mixture. 

Sbedmest's Mixtuees. 

Some seedmen's mixtures may be regarded with sus- 
picion because of the well-known temptation to mix left- 
over stock and sell it for what it will bring. If a part of 
the seeds fail to germinate because of old age, some of 
the rest will germinate, and the buyer never knows the 
difference. Others are no doubt offered in good faith, 
though probably not in all cases after making practical 
tests. It is possible that some of the earlier American 
writers, such as Flint, accepted mixtures that are prac- 
ticable in England, without testing them here. Flint's 
mixture recommended for permanent pastures is as fol- 
lows: 

Meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis) 2 lbs. 

Orchard grass 6 lbs. 

Sweet-scented Vernal grass 1 lb. 

Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis?) 2 lbs. 

Red-top 2 lbs. 

Kentucky blue-grass .". 4 lbs. 

Italian rye grass 4 lbs. 

Perennial rye grass 6 lbs. 

Timothy S lbs. 

Rough-stalked meadow grass 2 lbs. 

Perennial clover (Red) 3 lbs. 

White clover 5 lbs. 

Total 40 lbs. 

The mixture looks very much as if it had originated 
in England, and I believe, would, if sown in blue grass 
soil, using our experience as a basis for judgment, re- 
sult, at the end of three years, in an almost unmixed 
growth of orchard grass. 

His second mixture for permanent pasture contains 
forty-five pounds of seeds, with the two rye grasses, 
Italian, and Perennial, holding chief place. This mixture 
is, he says, recommended by a seed firm of Edinburg, as 
might have been guessed from the important place given 



262 TwENTY-FntsT Bienniali Rbpobt 

the rye grasses. It seems likely that Flint's first mixture 
was not a little influenced by this one, since it contains 
no single species not included by the Scotch seedsmen. 

If we are ever to have mixtures adapted to our con- 
ditions, it will be necessary to go back to first principles, 
learning among other things just what species, adapted 
to our soil and climate, will live in harmony together. 
Conditions in England, Scotland and Ireland are, it 
seems, no safe guide for us in this matter. 

In 1905, the writer secured from J. M. Thorbum and 
Company, of New York City, several mixtures advertised 
in the firm's catalogue, and had them sown in plots on 
the Experiment Farm for observation. Among the mix- 
tures secured were the following : 

"Meadow Mixture" No. 1. "On good land, neither 
too dry nor too wet. Sow 2 bushels (20 lbs.) to the acre." 
This mixture was given in the catalogue as follows: 
Red-top, 5 lbs.; meadow foxtail, 1 lb.; perennial sweet 
vernal, % Vo.; tall meadow oat grass, 2 lbs.; orchard 
grass, 3 lbs. ; hard fescue, 2 lbs. ; sheep 's fescue, 2 lbs. ; 
perennial rye grass, 5 lbs. ; timothy, 17 lbs. ; red clover, 2 
lbs. ; alsike clover, % lb. — 40 lbs. 

Price $2.00 per bushel. 

On April 17, 1905, two plots were sown with this 
mixture. The stand was good, and in midsummer, clover 
constituted about one-fourth; timothy, one-fourth, alsike 
clover, one-eighth; tall oats grass, one-sixteenth, and or- 
chard grass and a few others, not recognizable at the 
time, the remaining five-sixteenths. The red clover and 
timothy appeared again in 1906, but the clover showed 
signs of failing toward the end of the summer, while 
orchard grass became conspicuous. 

In 1907 the whole plot consisted of orchard grass, 
except a few scattered tufts of tall oats grass. It will 
be noticed that 17 pounds of this mixture consisted of 
timothy, and we should have expected this grass to domi- 
nate the growth for a time at least. It did not do so. 
The orchard grass seed, of which there were only three 
pounds, finally suppressed everything else except tall 
oats grass. It would be unsafe to say that this was due 
entirely to the aggressive character of the orchard grass. 
The timothy seed may not have been of first-rate quality. 



BuERATj OB' Ageictjlttjeb. 263 

"Thorbum's Grass Mixture for Railroad Banks, 
etc.," was described as "A mixture of grasses with long, 
interlacing, matting roots, that will bind steep embank- 
ments, gravelly, or sandy slopes, etc., preventing wash- 
outs by rainstorms and covering with permanently green 
turf. Price per bushel of 22 pounds, $4.00. 

A grass that will take firm hold of loose soils and 
cover them completely, so as to prevent washing, is 
greatly needed by railroad companies and by farmers in 
some localities. Some of the best grasses have a very 
limited usefulness in this direction, while others of less 
value for forage, bind and protect enbankments very 
effectively. What is wanted is a hardy grass of rapid 
growth and vigorous habit. It should spread by under- 
ground shoots, since such grasses are the ones which 
most completely cover the surface and, favored by mois- 
ture in the soil, spread at times when grasses dependent 
on their seeds for dissemination remain at a standstill. 
Kentucky blue grass is one of the best known species 
presenting this manner of spreading. Canada blue grass 
is another species, scarcely less well, though not so 
favorably known. 

For binding poor gravelly soils, it sometimes proves 
the better of the two. Tall meadow fescue pushes out in 
all directions in the same way. The western wheat grass, 
(Agrolyron spicatum), is very persistent in pushing out 
under the ground and constantly makes work in our plots 
by invading the paths. For the south, Bermuda grass 
has a value of this sort. Ordinary crab grass (Synther- 
isms sanguinalis ) , though an annual, is an excellent 
binder, and becomes a great pest in cultivated ground as 
a consequence, for it grows in both good and poor soils. 
Johnson grass (sorghum halapense), is persistent and 
troublesome because of its underground shoots. 

If I were making up a mixture for binding embank- 
ments, I should certainly employ some, or all, of these 
grasses, and if I wanted leguminous plants to go with 
them, sweet clover, Japan clover, and white clover would 
be my choice. 

Thorbum's mixture sown in April, 1905, gave a 
good stand, consisting of red-top largely and crab-grass, 
the latter probably volunteer, as it is a common weed in 



264 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

the soil, and its seeds can not be found in a reserved sam- 
ple of the mixture sown. In 1907 the growth in both plots 
consisted of red-top largely — about four-fifths — I esti- 
mate. With this were a few tufts and plants of velvet 
grass (Holcus lanatus), alsike clover, white clover, or- 
chard grass, timothy and smooth brome grass. 

From experience such as this, and from observations 
made for a good many years on the operations of farm- 
ers, I have been driven to the conclusion that we can 
make better mixtures than we can buy, and that the ones 
calculated to give us most in value for our money and 
time are very simple mixtures of a few species known to 
thrive under our conditions. 

Timothy, tall oats grass, English blue grass, Ken- 
tucky blue grass, red-top, red clover, trefoil, alsike clover 
and white clover, are the species from which a choice must 
be made in selecting a mixture for most situations in 
Kentucky. Two or three of the grasses with one or two 
of the clovers may be expected to give better results than 
a large variety. Such grasses as perennial rye grass, 
meadow foxtail, velvet grass and some others recom- 
mended for European meadow, appear to suffer from 
our rather uneven winter weather. 

No doubt as time moves along, we shall learn to 
make use of some grasses and clovers with which we are 
unfamiliar, and doubtless also we shall get strains of 
some of those we do know that will give us better re- 
sults than we are now getting. When we have reached 
our best development as an agricultural State we shall 
doubtless also regularly employ many of the supple- 
mentary feeds instead of depending entirely on our 
grasses and grains. But in the immediate future, I be- 
lieve we shall make greatest progress by giving careful 
attention to the improvement of our com, oats, timothy, 
orchard grass and clovers, the plants we now have and 
understand best. 

I wish to insist that these are the crops of most im- 
portance to Kentucky farmers and to the State. They 
are the crops which will respond soonest to efforts made 
for their improvement. Their improvement means more 
money to Kentucky as a whole than improvement in any- 
thing else we grow. 



Bureau op Agbictjltukb. 265 

ADDRESS OF HONOEABLE A. 0. STANLEY ON 
SUBJECT OF aOOD ROADS. 

Delivered at the Meeting of the Kentucky Good Roads 

Association 

Held at the 1915 Kentucky State Fair. 



Ladies and Grentlemen: 

I am deeply grateful to my good friend, Bob Mc- 
Bryde, for his very kind reference to me. We should all 
be deeply grateful to him for his years of tireless, patient 
and unrequited toil in behalf of this great movement, 
without expecting, without receiving any other recom- 
pense than the gratitude of his countrymen and the wel- 
fare of his country. With tongue and pen he has pre- 
sented with marked abUity every reason which can be 
assigned for this great work, and he has answered every 
objection which the ignorant or penurious might ad- 
vance. The people of Kentucky have yet to learn the 
debt they owe this great journalist for a great work nobly 
done. 

I am not here today to attempt to entertain you with 
anything that approaches a formal address. I am not 
here to make a speech ; if I am elected Q-overnor of Ken- 
tucky, my time will not be given to saying things, but to 
doing them. This is in its essence a matter of business 
as well as sentiment, and to the fiscal side of this prob- 
lem I shall, in the main, address my few remarks. 

You cannot build roads, however advisable it may 
be, without money. To say that you are in favor of good 
roads is like saying you are in favor of good health, or 
good morals, good atmosphere or good looks or good 
anything else. Anybody not a driveling fool favors good 
roads just as he favors good health or good weather. We 
all favor good roads, who have sense enough to travel 
over them. The question is not whether it is desirable 
to have better highways in Kentucky, but how we shall 
obtain them. We all want them if we can afford them, 
because we must buy and pay for these roads ourselves. 



266 Twenty-First Biennial Repoet 

We will receive some aid from the Federal Grovernment, 
but the Federal Grovemment and the State Government 
alike tax the people for the money, so at last every dollar 
that is put in good roads must come directly or indirectly 
out of the pockets of the people who enjoy them. Then 
the question to which an intelligent citizenship should 
first address itself is not shall we donate, but should 
we invest the money toward this good work? If you 
go out to get money to build good roads on the same 
principle that you go to get money to educate the Chinese 
^r save the heathen you will not build many miles of road. 
To get this money, you must, in a way, take it from the 
people, with their consent, by taxation. But the people 
are not going to tax themselves to build the roads unless 
they are convinced that it is a good investment. And 
whenever the people find that they are making money 
by expending money upon the roads, you will get the 
money just as quickly as you would secure it from a 
farmer you have convinced that he would make money by 
buying an addition of 1,000 acres to his farm that is for 
sale nearby. There is no trouble to induce men to spend 
money when they are certain or reasonably certain of a 
safe return. N6w, is the expenditure of many thousands 
of dollars for good roads a safe investment? 

Monet and Results. 

I am separating it from its moral and aesthetic, its 
sentimental side. I am talking to you about the propriety 
of expending money for roads as I would talk to a farmer 
about the spending of money for land, as I would talk to 
the manufacturer of the propriety of spending money 
for machinery, as I would talk to the mine owner of 
spending money for a tipple, or an option upon so many 
acres of coal land. 

A great mistake that farmers have made is in not 
making a businesslike calculation as to the cost of pro- 
duction, which bears a direct relation to the advisability 
of constructing good roads. A short time ago, Charles 
L. Schwab, former president of the United States Steel 
Corporation, and now president of the Bethelehem Steel 
Company, the most gifted of all the great industrial mas- 
ters of finance, made this startling statement: "One-third 



BxjREATT OF Ageicxtltueb. 267 

of the cost of the production of all steel products is the 
cost of transportation." And one of the secrets of 
Schwab's phenomenal success was that he never calcu- 
lated the cost of anything made of steel from a needle to 
a, thousand tons of armor plate, that he did not calculate 
the cost of laying it down F. 0. B., to the consignee. The 
farmer does not calculate. He calculates the cost of pro- 
duction in a rough way by taking cost of land, taxes, 
labor and tools ; when he has calculated what it cost biTn 
to get in fifty bushels of wheat on his wagon, or a thou- 
sand bushels of com in his bin, completes his calcula- 
tion. But he has not estimated the cost of that article in 
its entirety, for no man comes to the bin for his com, 
or to the thresher for his grain. Until he has calculated 
the cost of transportation he has not made an accurate 
estimate of the real cost of production. What is the ac- 
tual value of the free public highway? Let us see — four 
good horses and a wagon, for example — the four horses 
at $150 apiece, $600, and the cost of shoeing, harness, is 
to be considered, the whole will cost not less than $1,000; 
adding in the cost of maintaining these four horses, say 
at $8 a month, is $500 a year, and you have that to add to 
the original cost. In six years your $1,000 in horses 
and wagon is gone, as they will be worn out. The main- 
tenance will cost you not less than $600 a year — $2 per 
day. We may say that the same teams will do double 
the work over a macadam road than they will do over a 
dirt road. So that the farmer in the item of four-horse 
team, wagon and driver has saved at least $1 per day by 
the use of macadam roads. When the farmers have cal- 
culated the saving in the one item of transportation, the 
taking of their products to market, leaving out the pleas- 
ure of traveling over macadam roads to himself and his 
family, leaving out the advantages to the children in at- 
tending school and his family in attending church, leav- 
ing out the features of being closer to market or to mill, 
on the plain basis of dollars and cents, there is no better 
investment to the producer than in the making of a cheap 
and convenient means of bringing the farmers' com- 
modities to the market. 

But let us take a broader and a higher view. Every 
man who cast his ballot in the hope of receiving some 



268 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

pecuniary or personal benefit either in emoluments of of- 
fice or some pecuniary advantage is a menace. By that 
I mean that the man who votes simply to keep up some 
political organization, the man who votes at the call of a 
boss, the man who votes for money in hand, is a menace 
to the liberties of a free people. This Government rests 
upon the disinterested devotion to high ideals of its citi- 
zenship; it is the foundation upon which the republic 
rests because a majority absolutely rules in this country. 
And whenever that majority ceases to be honest, this 
Government will topple like a house of cards. 

What has preserved this Government for 150 years 
or morel I will tell you — The plain citizen seated in a 
cane-bottom chair on a rag carpet, before an open fire- 
place, with a Bible on his knees, and his family grouped 
about him, his head bowed, and simply and reverently 
asking God to guide him through the night, and arising 
in the fear of that same God at dawn to take up the 
simple tasks of the day. He votes with no thought of 
profit to himself, but for the good of his family and 
the honor of his country, and the glory of his God. This 
is the power upon which this republic rests and must 
forever rest. Now we talk about this simple life, its 
high ideals, and its noble purpose, and yet there is, in 
Kentucky, a continual exodus from the country to the 
town. I make no warfare upon the city. I have lived in 
towns the most of my life, but what I mean to say is that 
what we need is more good people on the farms in the 
country. It will cheapen the cost of living in town. It 
will bring more customers, and new life and new capital 
to our great cities. It is an invincible instinct for men 
to seek the society of their fellows, to gather as we have 
gathered here today in great multitudes. It is as natural 
as for partridges to gather in covies in the field, or birds 
in flocks in the sky. It is essential to the happiness, the 
mental and moral welfare of mankind, just so much as 
food or clothing. The thing that has destroyed rural 
life, the thing that has depopulated fertile lands is the 
loneliness and isolation of life in the country. Our girls 
and boys who live in rural districts are literally marooned 
in the winter, without access to the post-office, the church 
or the school; to the doctor in time of sickness, or the 



BuEEAu OF Ageiotjltueb. 269 

store for the bare necessities of life in any other way than 
on a mule, belly deep in the mire. Our boys and girls 
simply will not be kept in the rural districts ten miles 
from any town under such conditions, however much you 
may talk about the noble life of the country. It is too 
often the most lonesome existence on earth. If you wish 
to live in the country and bring up your family around 
you, if you wish them blessed by the things, which are 
good and sweet in the rural life, then you must give 
them the pleasant things of life in the city. Build good 
roads to the city, you will lose none of the seclusion and 
sweetness of the country. The sunshine and dew and the 
landscape are still there, the fertile fields and the low- 
ing herds, and the scent of new mown hay, and the silent 
benediction of the evening still are yours. With good 
roads and an automobile — if you cannot get an automo- 
bile borrow a Ford — the wife and her boys and girls can 
go to church, they can go to the fair, they can go to 
places of amusement, they have the advantages of the 
pleasures of the city, and you have not been deprived of 
your country home or anything that makes it desirable 
or lovely. You will never solve the question of "back 
to the country" until you have made the country more 
attractive. You cannot keep your family in the country 
with ten or twenty miles of impassable dirt roads between 
them and the things they want for nine months in the 
year. 

Increase in Peospbeity. 

The country will be happier, more thickl;f inhabited, 
if the roads are improved, and the city will find an in- 
crease in prosperity whenever you unite the two by 
macadam roads. 

Both political parties have condemned the contract 
labor system. Both parties favor employing convicts 
upon the roads. Now the counties have the right to em- 
ploy whom they please with the money they raise them- 
selves, and it is a vexed question to what extent the 
State can force convict labor upon the counties, coming 
as it must, more or less, in competition with free labor. 
In Edmonson county, especially, we have an unlimited 
deposit of rock asphalt, the finest road-making material 



270 TwENTY-FmsT BrENNiAi> Rbpokt 

known, a material that will cover your macadam roads 
witli waterproofing a thousand times more indestructible 
than oil; a substance hard, yet elastic, that is as endur- 
ing as marble. And yet this vast and priceless deposit 
today is reached only by dirt roads that are almost im- 
passable. This is a disgrace to Kentucky, I would see, 
and I hope to see, the labor of convicts, as well as others, 
employed in the development of these great quarries, and 
I hope to see this, the greatest road-making material 
ever known, spread over 5,000 miles of boulevard all over 
Kentucky from-mountains to Mills Point. 

I could talk to you for a week upon this subject. 
Oh, it means so much to Kentucky as a State, and there 
is much to expect from the development of good roads. 
No other State in this Union has such a variety and 
wealth of undeveloped resources ; more coal than Penn- 
sylvania; more hardwood than any other Commonwealth 
between the Mississippi and the Pacific, and more acres 
of fertile soil than any other state of like area between the 
two oceans. Our soil produces a greater variety of prod- 
ucts than any other on this earth. Why is it that the 
wealth of the mountains and the wealth of the plains are 
not developed? It is because the people of the mountains 
cannot reach the wealth of the plains, and the people of 
the plains cannot avail themselves of the wealth of the 
mountains, because of the cost of getting froin one to 
the other. This is eliminated by connecting them by 
great highways. It will increase the fertility of the soil 
and the richness of the mines and the vast wealth of the 
forest. 

Upon this movement rests the happiness and the 
prosperity of the greatest people on earth, the people who 
live and who expect to die in old Kentucky. God bless 
her. 

For many years there has been a growth of senti- 
ment against the prison contractor reaping large profits 
from the convict whose liberty has been forfeited to the 
State for his crime, and there has likewise grown up 
the sentiment that the profit that may come from the 
labor of the criminal should inure to the benefit of the 
whole people rather than to the benefit of a few favored 
contractors, and for that reason the General Assembly 



BuBEAu OF Agseicultube. 271 

of Kentucky has submitted to the voters of the State a 
Constitutional amendment, providing that convicts may 
be employed in the construction of the highways of the 
State, so that these highways may be constructed for 
the benefit of the State, at the lowest possible cost, and 
that whatever profit is to be derived from the labor of 
convicts may inure to the benefit of the whole people. 



PART FOUR 



STATISTICAL INFORMATION 



LIST OF STATE BANKS. 



Adair County — 

Farmers Bant Casey Creek 

Bank of Columbia Columbia 

State Bank Gradyvllle 

Anderson County — 

Farmers' Bank .Glensboro 

Citizens' Bank & Trust Co Lawrenceburg 

State Bank Van Buren 

Ballard County — 

Bank of Barlow Barlow 

Kevil Bank , Kevil 

Bank of LaCenter " LaCenter 

Bank of Lovelaceville LovelacevIUe 

Barren County — 

People's Bank Cave City 

Bank of Glasgow Junction Glasgow Junction 

Deposit Bank of Hiseville Hiseville 

Bath County — 

Bank of Bethel Bethel 

Farmers' Bank Owingsville 

Farmers' Trust Co Owingsville 

Owingsville Banking Co Owingsville 

Salt Lick Deposit Bank Salt Lick 

Citizens' Bank Sharpsburg 

Exchange Bank Sharpsburg 

Bell County- 
Citizens' Bank & Trust Co. Middlesboro 

First State Bank Pinevllle 

Boone County — 

Boone County Deposit Bank Burlington 

People's Bank Burlington 

Deposit Bank Florence 

Citizens Deposit Bank Grant 

Farmers' Bank ,. Petersburg 

Deposit Bank .;. Union 

Equitable Bank & Trust Co Walton 

Walton Bank & Trust Co Walton 

State Bank Verona 

Bourbon County — 

Farmers' Bank Clintonville 

Exchange Bank Millersburg 

Farmers' Bank Millersburg 

Deposit Bank North Middletown 

Bourbon Agricultural Bank & Trust Co Paris 

Deposit & People's Bank Paris 

Citizens' Home Bank Little Rock 



276 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

Boyd County — 

Merchants' Bank & Trust Co Ashland 

Boyle County — 

Boyle Bank & Trust Co .Danville 

First State Bank Junction City 

Bank of Perryville Perryville 

People's Bank Perryville 

Breathitt County — 

Hargis Commercial Bank & Trust Co Jackson 

Bracken County — 

Augusta German Bank .7. Augusta 

Farmers' Equity Bank Brooksville 

Foster Banking Company ._.Foster 

Bank of Germantown Germantown 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Germantown 

Milford Bank Milford 

Breckinridge County — 

Breckinridge Bank Cloverport 

Bank of Cloverport Cloverport 

Bank of Hardinsburg & Trust Co Hardinshurg 

Farmers' Bank Hardinsburg 

First State Ba,nk Irvington 

B. H. Shellman & Co Irvington 

Bullitt County- 
Lebanon Junction Bank Lebanon Junction 

People's Bank Mt. Washington 

Bullitt County Bank Shepherdsville 

People's Bank Shepherdsville 

Butler County — 

J. M. Carson Banking Co Morgantown 

Deposit Bank .......Morgantown 

Green River Deposit Bank Rochester 

Woodbury Deposit Bank Woodbury 

Caldwell County — 

Fredonia Valley Bank Fredonia 

Calloway County — 

Bank of Kirksey Kirksey 

Lynn Grove Bank -^ynn Grove 

Bank of Murray '. Murray 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Murray 

Carlisle County — 

Bank of Arlington Arlington 

Deposit Bank Bardwell 

Bank of Milburn Milburn 

Carroll County — 

Deposit Bank Ghent 

Deposit Bank Sanders 

Deposit Bank Worthville 

Campbell County — 

Bank of Alexandria Alexandria 

Campbell County Bank Bellevue 

Bank of Dayton Dayton 

Central Savings Bank & Trust Co Newport 

Citizens' Commercial & Savings Bank Newport 

Citizens' Bank Cold Springs 



Bureau op Ageicultube. 277 

Carter County — 

Citizens' Bank Grayson 

Commercial Bank Grayson 

Carter County Commercial Bank Olive Hill 

People's Bank Olive Hill 

Casey County — 

People's Bank Dunnville 

Commercial Bank Liberty 

Farmers' Bank Middleburg 

Christian County — 

Bank of Crofton Crofton 

Bank of Hopkinsvllle Hopkinsville 

City Bank & Trust Co Hopkinsville 

Planters' Bank & Trust Co. Hopkinsville 

Bank of Lafayette .Lafayette 

Bank of Pembroke Pembroke 

Clark County — 

People's State Bank & Trust Co Winchester 

Winchester Bank Winchester 

Clinton County — 

Bank of Albany Albany 

Citizens' Bank Albany 

Crittenden County — 

Farmers' Bank Marion 

Marion Bank Marion 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Tolu 

Cumberland County — 

Bank of Cumberland Burksville 

Bank of Marrowbone Marrowbone 

Daviess County — 

Central Trust Co Owensboro 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Owensboro 

Fourth Street Bank Owensboro 

Owensboro Banking Co Owensboro 

Bank of Equity Pleasant Ridge 

Utica Deposit Bank TJtica 

Farmers' Bank West Louisville 

Bank of WhitesvIUe WhltesvIUe 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank WhitesvIUe 

liidmonson County — 

Deposit Bank Brownsville 

Bank of Rocky Hill .Rocky Hill 

Elliott County- 
Sandy Hook Bank Sandy Hook 

Estill County — 

Farmers' Bank of Estill County Irvine 

W. T. B. Williams & Son Irvine 

Fayette County — 

Bank of Commerce Lexington 

Security Trust Company Lexington 

Union Bank & Trust Company Lexington 

Title Guarantee & Trust Company Lexington 

Phoenix and Third Trust Company Lexington 



278 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Eepoet 

Fleming County — 

Deposit Bank Bwing 

Deposit Bank of Pearce, Fant & Co Flemlngsburg 

Fleming County Farmers' Bank Flemingsburg 

People's Bank _ Flemingsburg 

Farmers' Trust Company Flemingsburg 

Deposit Bank „ Hillsboro 

Floyd County — 

Bank of Josephine Prestonburg 

Bank of Wayland Wayland 

Franklin County — 

Capital Trust Company Frankfort 

Farmers' Deposit Bank Frankfort 

People's State Bank Frankfort 

Fulton County — 

Farmers' Bank Fulton 

Hickman Bank & Trust Co Hickman 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Hickman 

People's Bank Hickman 

Gallatin County — 

Union Bank ..^ Glencoe 

Deposit Bank* Sparta 

Deposit Bank .Warsaw 

Garrard County — 

Bank of Bryantsville .Bryantsville 

Garrard Bank & Trust Co Lancaster 

People's Bank Paint Lick 

Grant County — 

Corinth Deposit Bank Corinth 

Farmers' Bank Corinth 

Tobacco Growers' Deposit Bank Crittenden 

Farmers' Bank of Equity ; Dry Bidge 

Deposit Bank Mt. Zion 

Bank of Williamstown Williamstown 

Grant County Deposit Bank Williamstown 

Deposit Bank Jonesville 

Graves County — 

Bank of Fancy Farm Fancy Farm 

Bank of Farmington Farmington 

Bank of Lowes Lowes 

Exchange Bank Mayfield 

Graves County Bank & Trust Co Mayfield 

Citizens' Bank Water Valley 

Bank of Wingo Wingo 

Grayson County — 

Big Clifty Banking Co -Big Cllfty 

Bank of Caneyville Caneyville 

Bank of Clarkson Clarkson 

Deposit Bank Leitchfleld 

Grayson County State Bank Leitchfleld 

Green County — 

Deposit Bank Greensburg 

People's Bank Greensburg 

Greenup County — 

Citizens State Bank Greenup 



Bureau of Agbicultuke. 279 

Hancock County — 

Hancock Deposit Bank Hawesville 

HawesTille Deposit Bank Hawesville 

Bank of liewisport Lewisport 

Hardin County — 

Bank of Cecilian Cecllian 

Citizens' Trust Company Eaizabethtown 

Union Bank & Trust Co Elizabethtown 

Glendale Banking Co Glendale 

Bank of Sonora ;. Sonora 

People's Bank Stithton 

Stithton Bank Stithton 

Davis Banking Co Upton 

Farmers' Bank Vine G-rove 

Vine Grove State Bank .Vine Grove 

West Point Bank West Point 

Harlan County — 

People's Bank Harlan 

Harrison County — 

Berry Deposit Bank Berry 

Farmers' Deposit Bank .Berry 

Harrison County Deposit Bank Cynthiana 

Sunrise Deposit Bank Sunrise 

Hart County — 

Canmer Deposit Bank Canmer 

Deposit Bank Hardyville 

Farmers' Deposit Bank Horse Cave 

Hart County Deposit Bank Munfordville 

Henderson County — 

Corydon Deposit Bank Corydon 

Farmers' Bank & Trust Co Henderson 

Henderson County Savings Bank Henderson 

Ohio Valley Bank & Trust Co Henderson 

People's Savings Bank Henderson 

Union Bank & "Trust Co Henderson 

Deposit Bank Smith's Mills 

Henry County — 

United Loan & Deposit Bank Campbellsburg 

Deposit Bank _ _ Eminence 

Farmers' & Drovers' Bank Eminence 

People's Bank Franklinton 

Bank of Lockport Lookport 

Bank of New Castle , New Castle 

Deposit Bank of Pleasureville Pleasureville 

Citizens' Bank Port Royal 

Smithfield Bank _ Smithfleld 

Deposit Bank Sulphur 

Farmers' Bank Turner's Station 

Hickman County — 

Bank of Clinton „ Clinton 

Bank of Columbus Columbus 

Moscow Bank Moscow 

Hopkins County — 

Bank of Dawson Dawson Springs 

Commercial Bank Dawson Springs 

Bank of Earlington Earlington 

people's Bank ..«,.„, „,,,..Earlin|;tpn 



280 TwENTY-FlEST BlBNNIAL KePOET 

Hopkins County Bank Madlsonville 

Kentucky Bank & Trust Co Madisonville 

Planters' Bank Morton's Gap 

Citizens Bank Nebo 

Farmers' Bank White Plains 

Hansom Banking Company Hansom 

Jefferson County — 

Bank of Buecliel Buechel 

Jeffersoir County Bank Jeffersontown 

Bank of Middletown Middletown 

Bank of Prospect Prospect 

Bank of St. Matthews St. Matthews 

Bank of St. Helens Shively 

Fidelity and Columbia Trust Co 'Louisville 

German Bank Louisville 

German Insurance Bank -; Louisville 

German Security Bank ".. Louisville 

Kentucky Title Savings Bank & Trust Co Louisville 

Lincoln Savings Bank Louisville 

South Louisville Savings & Deposit Bank Louisville 

Stock Yards Bank Louisville 

Louisville Trust Co Louisville 

United States Trust Co Louisville 

Jessamine County — 

Citizens' Bank of Jessamine Nicholasville 

Farmers' Exchange Bank Nicholasville 

Wilmore Deposit Bank Wllmore 

Johnson County — 

Paintsville Bank & Trust Co Paintsville 

Jackson County — 

Jackson County Bank McKee 

Kenton County — 

Central Savings Bank & Trust Co Covington 

Covington Savings Bank & Trust Co Covington 

Latonia Deposit Bank Covington 

People's Savings Bank & Trust Co Covington 

Western German Savings Bank Covington 

Citizens' Bank Brlanger 

Erlanger Deposit Bank Erlanger 

Bank of Independence Independence 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Ludlow 

Ludlow Savings Bank Ludlow 

Knott County — ■ 

Bank of Hindman Hindman 

Larue County — 

Savings Bank of Buffalo Buffalo 

Laurel County — 

Farmers' State Bank London 

Lawrence County — 

Bank of Blaine Blaine 

Lee County — 

Lee County Deposit Bank Beattyville 

People's Exchange Bank .Beattyville 

Leslie County — 

Hyden Citizens' Bank Hyden 



BuEEAU OF Ageicultueb. 281 

Letcher County — 

■Union Bank Whitesburg 

Bank of McRoberts Fleming 

Lewis County — - 

Bank of Tolesboro Tolesboro 

Citizens' Bank Vanceburg 

Deposit Bank Vanceburg 

Lincoln County — 

Crab Orchard Banking Co Crab Orchard 

People's Bank Hustonville 

Deposit Bank McKinney 

Bank of Moreland Moreland 

Waynesburg Deposit Bank Waynesburg 

Livingston County — 

Farmers' Bank Birdsville 

Citizens' Bank Carrsville 

Salem Bank Salem 

Smithland Bank Smithlaad 

Bank of Tiline Tiline 

Logan County- 
People's Bank Adairville 

Bank of Auburn Auburn 

G. W. Davidson & Co Auburn 

Lewisburg Banking Co Lewisburg 

Bank of Russellville Russellville 

Lyon County- 
Citizens' Bank Kuttawa 

Madiron County — 

Berea Bank & Trust Co Berea 

Farmers' Bank Kirksville 

State Bank & Trust Co Richmond 

Waco Deposit Bank Waco 

Marion County — 

Rolling Fork Bank Bradfordsville 

People's Bank Gravel Switch 

Bank of Raywick Raywick 

Marshall County- 
Bank of Benton Benton 

Bank of Marshall County Benton 

Bank of Birmingham Birmingham 

Calvert Bank Calvert City 

Bank of Gilbertsville Gilbertsville 

Hardin Bank Hardin 

Martin County — 

Inez Bank Inez 

Mason County — • 

Citizens' Bank Dover 

Equitable Trust Co Dover 

Bank of Mayslick Mayslick 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Maysville 

Standard Bank Maysville 

State Trust Co Maysville 

Union Bank & Trust Co Maysville 

Farmers' Bank Sardis 



282 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Report 

McCracten County — 

Citizens' Savings Bank Paducah 

Merchants' Trust & Savings Bank Paducah. 

Paducah Banking Co Paducah 

McCreary County — 

Pine Knot Banking Co Pine Knot 

McLean County — 

McLean County Bank Beech Grove 

Bank of Calhoun Calhoun 

Citizens' Deposit Ban^ Calhoun 

Island Deposit Bank Island 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Livermore 

Sacramento Deposit Bank Sacramento 

Meade County — 

Farmers' Deposit Bank Brandenburg 

Mercer County — 

Citizens' Bank Burgin 

Union Bank Cornishville 

State Bank & Trust Co Harrodsburg 

Farmers' Bank Salvisa 

Farmers' Trust Co Harrodsburg 

Metcalfe County — 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank , Edmonton 

People's Bank of Metcalfe County Edmonton 

Bank of Summershade '. Summershade 

Monroe County — 

Bank of Fountain Run Fountain Run 

Gamaliel Bank Gamaliel 

People's Bank Tompkinsville 

Deposit Bank of Monroe County Tompkinsville 

Montgomery County — 

Exchange Bank of Kentucky Mt. Sterling 

Morgan County — 

Commercial Bank West Liberty 

Muhlenberg County — 

Deposit Bank Bremen 

Gish Banking Co Central City 

Farmers' State Bank Greenville 

Citizens' Bank Drakesboro 

Citizens' Banking Co South CarroUton 

Nelson County — 

Farmers' Bank & Trust Co. Bardstown 

People's Bank .Bardstown 

Wilson & Muir ...„ Bardstown 

Citizens' Bank Bloomfield 

Muir & Wilson ^ Bloomfield 

Boston Banking Co '. Boston 

Bank of Fairfield Fairfield 

Farmers' Bank _ Chaplin 

Bank of New Haven New Haven 

People's Bank New Hope 

Nicholas County — 

Deposit Bank Carlisle 

Farmers' Bank Carlisle 

Moorefield Deposit Bank Moorefield 



BuEEAu OF Agbiculttjeb. " 283 

Ohio County — 

Deposit Bank Beaver Dam 

Farmers' Bank Centertown 

_ Deposit Bank - Dundee 

Bank of Fordsville Fordsville 

Bank of Hartford Hartford 

Citizen's Bank ~ - ~ Hartford 

Deposit Bank McHenry 

Deposit Bank Rockport 

Oldham County — 

State Bank Crestwood 

Oldham Bank & Trust Co Lagrange 

People's Bank Lagrange 

State Bank Pewee Valley 

Owen County — 

Deposit Bank Gratz 

First State Bank Monterey 

Citizens' Bank New Liberty 

People's Bank Owenton 

Farmers' Bank Wheatley 

Owsley County — 

Owsley County Deposit Bank .Booneville 

Pendleton County — 

Deposit Bank Butler 

Citizens' Bank Falmouth 

Pendleton Bank Falmouth 

Farmers' Bank Morgan 

Perry County — 

Perry County State Bank Hazard 

Pike County — 

First State Bank of Elkhorn City Praise 

Powell County — 

Powell County Deposit Bank Stanton 

Pulaski County — 

First State Bank Eubanks 

People's Bank Science Hill 

Citizens' Bank Somerset 

Rockcastle County — 

Citizens' Bank Brodhead 

Bank of Mt. Vernon Mt. Vernon 

People's Bank Mt. Vernon 

Rowan County — 

State Bank Morehead 

People's Bank Morehead 

Russell County — 

Bank of Jamestown Jamestown 

Bank of Russell Springs Russell Springs 

Robertson County — 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Mt. Olivet 

Robertson State Bank Mt. Olivet 

Scott County — 

Farmers' Bank & Trust Co Georgetown 

Deposit Bank Sadieville 

Farmers' Bank Sadieville 

Citizens' Bank Stamping Ground 



284 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepokt 

Shelby County — 

People's Bank Bagdad 

Deposit Bank Cropper 

Bank of Fincliville Plnchville 

Bank of Mt. Eden Mt. Eden 

Bank of Shelbyville Shelbyvllle 

Citizens' Bank Shelbyville 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Shelbyville 

People's Bank & Trust Co -..Shelbyville 

Shelby County Trust & Banking Co Shelbyville 

Bank of Simpsonville SimpsonviUe 

Citizens' Bank Waddy 

Simpson County — 

MoBlwain-Meguiar Bank & Trust Co Franklin 

Simpson County Bank Franklin 

Spencer County — 

Bank of Taylorsville Taylorsville 

People's Bank Taylorsville 

Taylor County — 

Bank of Campbellsville Campbellsville 

Farmers' Deposit Bank Campbellsville 

Trigg County — 

Cadiz Bank Cadiz 

Trigg County F'armers' Bank Cadiz 

Bank of Cerulean Cerulean 

Bank of Golden Pond Golden Pond 

Trimble County — 

Bedford Loan & Deposit Bank Bedford 

Farmers' Bank Milton 

Todd County — 

Bank of AUensvIlle AUensville 

Bank of Elkton Elkton 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank .Elkton 

Bank of Guthrie Guthrie 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Guthrie 

Bank of Kirkmansville Kirkmansville 

Bank of Trenton Trenton 

Planters' Bank Trenton 

Planters' Trust Company Trenton 

Union County — 

Bank of Union County Morganfleld 

People's Bank & Trust Co Morganfleld 

Bank of Stiirgis Sturgis 

Farmers' Bank Uniontown 

Bank of Waverly .Waverly 

Warren County — 

Bowling Green Trust Co Bowling Green 

Potter-Matlock Trust Co Bowling Green 

Warren State Bank Bowling Green 

Oakland Bank Oakland 

Deposit Bank Smith's Grove 

Farmers' Bank Smith's Grove 

Bank of Woodburn Woodburn 



BuEEAu OF Agbicultube. 285 

Washington County — 

Farmers' Bank Mackville 

People's Deposit Bank Springfield 

State Bank Springfield 

Central Bank Willisburg 

Wayne County — 

Montlcello Banking Company Montlcello 

Webster County — • 

Blackford Bank Blackford 

Webster County Bank Clay 

Bank of Dixon Dixon 

Deposit Bank Poole 

Citizens' Bank Providence 

Providence Banking Co Providence 

Deposit Bank Sebree 

Farmers' & Merchants' Bank Slaughterville 

Whitley County- 
Bank of Williamsburg Williamsburg 

Farmers' Bank & Trust Co Williamsburg 

Wolfe County — 

Farmers' & Traders' Bank Campton 

Hazel Green Bank Hazel Green 

Woodford County — 

Citizens' Bank Midvray 

Cornmercial Bank Midway 

Farmers' Bank Mortonsville 

J. Amsden & Co Versailles 

Harris-Seller Banking Co Versailles 

Woodford Bank & Trust Co Versailles 



NATIONAL BANKS. 

FUENISHED BY THE COMPTEOLLER OF THE CuEEENCY. 



Adairville— First National Bank of Adairville. 
Ashland — Second National Bank of Ashland. 
Ashland— Ashland National Bank of Ashland. 
Augusta — Farmers' National Bank of Augusta. 
Barbourville— First National Bank of Barbourvllle. 
Barbourville— iBank of John A. Black of Barbourville. 
Bardwell — First National Bank of Bardwell. 
Berea — Berea National Bank. 

Bowling Green — American National Bank of Bowling Green 
Brooksville— First National Bank of Brooksville. 
Burnside — First National Bank of Burnside. 
Campbellsville— Taylor National Bank of Campbellsville 
Cannel City — Morgan County National Bank of Cannel City 
Carlisle — First National Bank of Carlisle. 
Carrollton — First National Bank of CarroUton. 
CarroUton — CarroUton National Bank. 
Catlettsburg — Catlettsburg National Bank. 
Catlettsburg— Kentucky National Bank of Catlettsburg. 
Cave City— H. Y. Davis National Bank of Cave City. 
Central City— First National Bank of Central City. 
Clay — Farmers' National Bank of Clay. 



286 TwENTY-FmsT BiBNNiAii Repobt 

Clay City — Clay City National Bank. 

Clinton — First National Bank of Clinton. 

Columbia — First National Bank of Columbia. 

Corbin — First National Bank of Corbin. 

Corbin — Whitley National Bank of Corbin. 

Covington — First National Bank of Covington. 

Covington — Citizens' National Bank of Covington. 

Covington — German National Bank of Covington. 

Cynthiana — Farmers' National Bank of Cynthiana. 

Cyntbiana — National Bank of Cynthiana. 

Danville — Citizens' National Bank of Danville. 

Danville — Farmers' National Bank of Danville. 

Dry Ridge — First National Bank of Dry (Ridge. 

Eddyville — ^First National Bank of Eddyville. 

Elizabethtown — The First National Bank of Blizabethtown. 

East Bernstadt — ^First National Bank of East Bemstadt. 

Frankfort — National Branch Bank of Kentucky. 

Frankfort — State National Bank of Kentucky of Frankfort. 

Pulton — First National Bank of Fulton. 

Fulton — City National Bank of Fulton. 

Georgetown — First National Bank of Georgetown. 

Georgetown — Georgetown National Bank. 

Glasgow — First National Bank of Glasgow. 

Glasgow — Citizens' National Bank of Glasgow. 

Glasgow — ^Farmers' National Bank of Glasgow. 

Glasgow — Trigg National Bank of Glasgow. 

Greenup — First National Bank of Greenup. 

Greenville — First National Bank of Greenville. 

Harlan — First National Bank of Harlan. 

Harrodsburg — First National Bank of Harrodsburg. 

Harrodsburg — Mercer National Bank of Harrodsburg. 

Hazard — First National Bank of Hazard. 

Henderson — Henderson National Bank. 

Hodgenville — ^Farmers' National Bank of Hodgenville. 

Hodgenville— LaRue National Bank of Hodgenville. 

Hopkinsville — First National Bank of Hopkinsville. 

Horse Cave — First National Bank of Horse Cave. 

Hustonville — National Bank of Hustonvllle. 

Jackson — First National Bank of Jackson. 

Jenkins — First National Bank of Jenkins. 

Lancaster — Citizens' National Bank of Lancaster. 

Lancaster — National Bank of Lancaster. 

Latonia — First National Bank of Latonia. 

Lawrenceburg — Anderson National Bank of Lawrenceburg. 

Lawrenceburg — Lawrenceburg National Bank. 

Lebanon — Citizens' National Bank of Lebanon. 

Lebanon — Farmers' National Bank of Lebanon. 

Lebanon — Marion National Bank of Lebanon. 

Lexington — Second National Bank of Lexington. 

Lexington — Fayette National Bank of Lexington. 

Lexington — First and City National Bank of Lexington. 

Lioxlngton — Phoenix and Third National Bank of Lexington. 

London — National Bank of London. 

Louisa — ii'irst National Bank of Louisa. 

Louisa — Louisa National Bank. 

Louisville— First National Bank of Louisville. 

Louisville — American Southern National Bank of Louisville. 

Louisville— Citizens' National Bank of Louisville. 

Louisville — Louisville National Banking Company. 



BuREAtr OF Ageictjlttjee. 287 

Louisville — National Bank of Commerce of LoulBVllle. 

Louisville — National Bank of Kentucky. 

Louisville — Union National Bank of Louisville. 

Ludlow — First National Bank of Ludlow. 

Madisonville — Farmers' National Bank of Madisonville. 

Manchester — First National Bank of Manchester. 

Mayfield — First National Bank of Mayfield. 

Mayfield — Farmers' National Bank of Mayfield. 

Mayfield— City National Bank of Mayfield. 

Maysville — First National Bank of Maysville. 

Maysville — ^Bank of Maysville National Banking Association. 

Maysville — State National Bank of Maysville. 

Middleshoro — National Bank of Middleshoro. 

Monticello — Citizens' National Bank of Monticello. 

Morganfield — Morganfield National Bank. 

Mount Sterling — Montgomery National Bank of Mount Sterling. 

Mount Sterling — ^Mount Sterling National Bank. 

Mount Sterling — Traders' National Bank of Mount Sterling. 

Newport — German National Bank of Newport. 

Newport — ^Newport National Bank. 

Nicholasville — First National Bank of Nicholasville. 

Owensboro — First National Bank of Owensboro. 

Owensboro — National Depository Bank of Owensboro. 

Owensboro — United States National Bank of Owensboro. 

Owenton — First National Bank of Owenton. 

Owenton — Farmers' National Bank of Owenton. 

Paducah — First National Bank of Paducah. 

Paducah — City National Bank of Paducah. 

Paintsville — Paintsville National Bank. 

Paris — First National Bank of Paris. 

Pikeville — First National Bank of Pikeville. 

Plkeville — Pikeville National Bank. 

Pineville — Bell National Bank of Pineville. 

Prestonsburg — First National Bank of Prestonsburg. 

Princeton — First National Bank of Princeton. 

Princeton — Farmers' National Bank of Princeton. 

Providence — Union National Bank of Providence. 

Richmond — Citizens' National Bank of Richmond. 

Richmond — Madison National Bank of Richmond. 

Richmond — Southern National Bank of Richmond. 

Russell — First National Bank of Russell. 

Russellville — Citizens' National Bank of Russellville. 

Russellville — National Depository Bank of Russellville. 

Salyersville — Salyersville National Bank. 

Scottsville — First National Bank of Scottsville. 

Scottsville — Allen County National Bank of Scottsville. 

Sebree — First National Bank of Sebree. 

Somerset — First National Bank of Somerset. 

Somerset — Farmers' National Bank of Somerset. 

Springfield — First National Bank of Springfield. 

Stanford — First National Bank of Stanford. 

Stanford — Lincoln County National Bank of Stanford. 

Sturgis — First National Bank of Sturgis. 

Whitesburg — First National Bank of Whitesburg. 

Wickliffe — First National Bank of Wickliffe. 

Williamsburg — First National Bank of Williamsburg. 

Wilmore — First National Bank of Wilmore. 

Winchester — ^Citizens' National Bank of Winchester. 

Winchester — Clark County National Bank of Winchester. 



288 TwENTT-FiEST Biennial Report 

POPULATION OF KENTUCKY CITIES 

As Shown by United States Census 1910. 



Ashland 8,688 10,350 

FIRST-CLASS. 

1915 
1910 Estimation 

U. S. Census by Mayor 

Louisville 223,928 276,500 

SECOND-CLASS. 

Lexington 35,099 *41,166 

Covington 53,270 60,000 

Newport 30,309 32,000 

Paducah 22,760 30,000 

THIRD-CLASS. 

Owensboro 16,011 18,000 

Henderson 11,452 15,000 

Frankfort 10,465 11,500 

Bowling Green „ 9,173 12,500 

Middlesboro 7,305 9,000 

Hopklnsville 9,419 10,320 

FOURTH-CLASS. 

Shelbyville 3,412 4,750 

Maysville - 6,141 7,500 

Richmond 5,340 6,500 

Winchester 7,156 10,000 

Dayton 6,979 10,595 

Paris 5,859 8,000 

Catlettsburg 3,520 5,000 

Danville 5,420 7,000 

Mt. Sterling 3,932 4,500 

Georgetown 4,533 4,500 

Versailles 2,268 2,700 

Harrodsburg 3,147 3,800 

Bellevue 6,683 6,950 

Cynthiana 3,603 4,000 

Mayfield 5,916 7,250 

Lebanon 3,077 3,575 

Ludlow 4,163 4,456 

NicholasvlUe 2,935 3,000 

Pineville 2,161 4,100 

Madisonville 4,966 6,000 

Princeton 3,015 3,500 

Pulton 2,575 4,000 

Lawrenceburg 1,723 3,000 



♦Conservative. 



BuEEAU OF Ageicultuee. 289 

Russellville 3,111 3,350 

Carrollton 1,906 3,300 

Central City 2,545 6,000 

Corbin 2,589 4,750 

Whitley City 157 700 

Franklin 3,063 3,500 

Barbourville 1,633 2,000 

London 1,638 2,000 

Providence 2,084 3,250 

Morganfleld 2,725 3,200 

Pikeville 1,280 2,500 

Somerset 4,491 5,000 

Murray 2,089 3,100 

FIFTH-CLASS. 

Lancaster 1,507 1,800 

Cadiz 1,005 1,250 

Jackson 1,346 2,500 

Hazard 537 3,800 

Grand Rivers (Not given) 460 

Greenville 1,604 2,000 

Louisa 1,356 1,625 

Columbus 970 • 950 

Glasgow 2,316 2,500 

West Covington 1,751 1,707 

Earlington 3,931 3,950 

Hickman .^ 2,736 4,000 

Cloverport 1,403 1,850 to 2,000 

Bardstown 2,126 2,200 

Augusta 1,787 2,000 

Stanford 1,532 1,850 

Williamsburg 2,004 2,050 

Clinton 1,497 1,650 

Midway 937 1,200 

Flemingsburg 1,219 1,600 

Elkton 1,228 1,800 

Falmoutb 1,180 1,600 

Vanceburg 1,145 1,240 

Carlisle 1,293 2,500 

Uniontown 1,356 1,500 

Campbellsville 269 1,500 

Hawesville 1,002 1,100 

Eminence 1,274 1,540 

Eddyville 1,442 1,442 

Leitcbfield 1,053 1,500 

Owingsville 942 1,000 

Marion 1,627 2,500 

Sebree 1,500 2,000 

Clay 1,098 2,400 

Wickliffe 989 1,200 

Morehead 1,105 1,500 

Bardwell ^ 1,087 1,600 

Sturgis 1,467 2,100 

Dawson Springs 1,350 1,600 

Millersburg 799 1,100 

Calhoun 742 750 

Springfield 1,329 2,000 

Corydon 942 1,450 

agr. — 10 



290 TwENTY-FlEST Bl^NNIAL RePOET 

Hartford 976 1,050 

Morton's Gap 1,266 1,425 

Livermore 1,220 1,400 

Beattyville 1,360 1,400 

Owenton 1,024 1,250 

Scottsvllle 1,327 1,800 

Olive Hill 1,132 2,768 

Burnside 1,117 1,200 

Prestonsburg 1,120 2,500 

Warsaw 900 90O 

Monticello 1,338 1,475 

Berea 1,510 1,700 

Lagrange 1,152 1,512 

Guthrie : 1,096 1,500 

Russell 1,038 1,500 

Hustonville 384 500 

Elizabethtown 1,970 2,668 

Drakesboro 1,126 1,200 

Tompkinsville 639 950 

Irvine 272 2,100 



LEGAL WEIGHT PEE BUSHEL IN KENTUCKY ON 
VARIOUS ARTICLES. 



Section 4821 of tlie Kentucky Statutes provides that 
tlie following shall be the legal weights in Kentucky and 
said weights shall constitute a bushel of each article 
named : 

Wheat, 60 pounds. 

Shelled corn, 56 pounds. 

Corn in the ear, 70 pounds, November 1st to May 1st. 

Corn, 68 pounds. May Ist to November 1st following. 

Rye, 56, pounds. 

Oats, shelled, 32 pounds. 

Barley, 47 pounds. 

Irish potatoes, 60 pounds. 

Sweet potatoes, 55 pounds. 

White beans, 60 pounds. 

Castor beans, 45 pounds. 

Clover seed, 60 pounds. 

Timothy seed, 45 pounds. 

Flax seed, 56 pounds. 

Millet seed, 50 pounds. 

Peas, 60 pounds. 

Bluegrass seed, 14 pounds. 

Buckwheat, 56 pounds. 

Dried apples, 24 pounds. 

Dried peaches, 39 pounds. 

Onions, 57 pounds. 

Bottom onion sets, 36 pounds. 

Salt, 50 pounds. 

Stone coal, 76 pounds. 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 



291 



The term coal includes anthracite, cannel, bituminous and other 

mined coal. 
Bran, 20 pounds. 
Plastering hair, 8 pounds. 
Turnips, 60 pounds. 
Unslaked lime, i5 pounds. 
Corn meal, 50 pounds. 
Fine salt, 55 pounds. 
Hungarian grass seed, 50 pounds. 
Ground peas, 24 pounds. 
Orchard grass seed, 14 pounds. 
English bluegrass seed, 14 pounds. 
Hemp seed, 44 pounds. 



SILOS IN KENTUCY BY COUNTIES. 



The number of silos in this State has increased very 
rapidly in the last two years. An effort has been made 
to ascertain as nearly as possible the number and clas- 
sification of silos in each county, and while it is not 
claimed that this table is absolutely correct, the esti- 
mates have been made by one or more persons living in 
the county in each instance* There are approximately 
four thousand silos in Kentucky at the present time, 
where there were a little over two thousand two years 
ago. This increase at the rate of one thousand per year 
is very gratifying to those interested in the agricultural 
development of the State : 



COUNTY 


o 
o 








E^ 




§ 



01 

■i-H 


'(3 


Adair 


15 
4 

""'"9 
100 
16 
4 
67 
12 
14 
15 
27 


"2 
"5 

"i 
""2 

18 
1 

50 
7 


i 

6 
2 


'20 

""i 



15 


Allen 


6 


Anderson 


20 


Ballard 


14 


Barren 


100 


Bath 


17 


Bell 


4 


Boone 


70 


Bourbon 


36 


Boyd 


18 


Boyle 


65 


Bracken 


34 







292 



TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET 



COUNTY 



Breathitt 

Breckinridge 

Bullitt 

Butler 

Caldwell 

Calloway 

Campbell 

Carlisle 

Carroll 

Carter 

Casey 

Christian 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Crittenden ... 
Cumberland . 

Daviess 

Edmonson 

Elliott 

Estill 

Fayette 

Fleming 

Floyd 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Gallatin 

Uarrard 

Grant 

Graves 

Grayson 

Green 

Greenup 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Harlan 

Harrison 

Hart 

Henderson ... 

Henry 

Hickman 

Hopkins 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Jessamine 

Johnson 

Kenton 

Knott 



13 
O 
O 



15 

100 

2 

15 

8 

75 

2 

10 

2 

6 

175 

12 

....„ 

25 

8 

105 



1 
180 

77 

49 



31 

10 
70 

16 
10 
30 

"so 

10 

14 

48 

6 

5 

450 
40 

1 
40 

2 



a 
o 
o 



2 
2 
1 

"25 



105 
3 

31 



20 

16 

"30 
2 



15 
3 



11 
15 



15 
"3 

5 



10 



o 

El 



15 
105 

5 
15 

8 
75 

4 
12 

3 

6 

201 

20 

3 

33 

8 

115 



1 

300 

85 

"so 

11 
15 

31 
12 
70 
1 
16 
10 
75 

"73 

10 
49 
50 

6 
10 

1 

456 

50 

1 
47 

2 



Bureau of Ageicultueb. 



293 



COUNTY 



o 
o 



Knox 

Larue 

Laurel 

Lawrence 

Lee 

Leslie 

Letcfier 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Livingston ... 

Logan 

Lyon 

Madison 

Magoffin 

Marion 

Marshall 

Martin 

Mason 

McCracken ... 

McCreary 

McLean 

Meade 

Menifee 

Mercer 

Metcalfe 

Monroe. 

Montgoinery . 

Morgan 

Muhlenberg , 

Nelson 

Nicholas 

Ohio 

Oldham , 

Owen 

Owsley 

Pendleton ..... 

Perry 

Pike , 

Powell 

Pulaski 

Robertson .... 
Rockcastle .. 

Rowan 

Russell 

Scott 

Shelby 

Simpson 

Spencer 



25 
200 

5 
21 

2 
20 

10 



75 
14 

15 
30 

"38 
5 
1 

50 

"'5 

45 

30 

4 

120 

12 

166 

3 
2 
3 
3 
2 



100 
2 
5 
3 
5 

'iii 



5 
17 



20 


25 


200 


10 


12 


5 


45 





11 
1 



25 
300 

7 
27 

5 
26 

"20 



81 
83 

20 
35 

""39 

9 

1 

53 

'"9 
55 
32 
6 
129 
12 

105 

""'"3 

2 

10 

7 

2 



45 

212 

19 

45 



294 



TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOBT 



COUNTY 




1 





1 

8 
.2 


3 


H 


Taylor 


3 

15 
7 
8 

70 
100 

17 
2 

21 
1 
1 

50 


6 

2 

5 

1 

35 

60 

10 

13 

"20 


....„ 
....„ 

1 

1 

1 


1 
2 
1 

■ 5 


10 


Todd 


21 


Trigg - 


13 


Trimble 


10 


Union , 


106 


Warren , 


156 


Washington 


27 


Wayne 


15 


Webster 


21 


Whitley 


1 


Wolfe 


1 


Woodford 


71 







Total 4,332 

. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC EOADS. 

OFFICE FORCE. 
R. C. Terrell, Commissioner of Public Roads. 



BRIDGE DEPARTMENT. 

R. Wiley, Bridge Engineer. 

Prof. W. J. Carroll, Assistant Bridge Engineer. 

E. Ge. Collins, Draftsman. 

Howard Williams, Draftsman. 

C. P. Schneider, Draftsman. 

Samuel D. Lykens, Stenographer. 

ROADS DEPARTMENT. 

R. H. Reese, First Assistant Highway Engineer. 

R. Y. Hollingsworth, Draftsman. 

L. O. Taylor, Accountant. 

J. M. Kendall, Chief Clerk. 

Carroll Speer, Blue Print Assistant. 

Miss Marguerite Noonan, Stenographer. 

Mrs. Frank W. Freeman, Stenographer. 



BUBEAU OF AgBICULTUKE. 



295 



DIVISION ENGINEERS. 

District No. 1 Walter P. Brooks 

District No. 2 .J. A. Wiitaker 

District No. 3 J. F. Grimes 

District No. 4 Walter E. Rowe 

District No. 5 Lewis T. Haney 

District No. 6 (Head Office) 

District No. 7 M. D. Ross 

District No. 8 .R. E. Toms 

District No. 9 W. L. McDyer 

District No. 10 T. B. Webber 



STATE ROAD INSPECTORS ON DUTY SEPTEMBER 7, 1915. 



W. A. Brownfield 
J. A. Higgins 
W. R. Tipton 
H. N. Claggett 
R. Li. Ehrtich 
J. E. Robertson 
G. R. Allison 
F. H. Yancey 
Samuel Bailey 
John S. Thornton 
J. G. Estes 
P. A. McGovern 
J. B. Burton 
M. P. Welch 
A. J. Bright 
Arthur S. Patrick 
Wm. Addams 
A. 'L. Chambers 
K. C. Lee 
Clarence Gough 
Beecher Combs 

E. J. Henry 

F. M. Talliaferro 
L. W. Hardin 
Lee Taliaferro 



G. B. Jeffries 
W. F. Downing 
C. 0. Crabbe 
C. H. Schwartz 
Wm. A. Obenchain 
Roy J. Sousley 

A. W. Davies 
W. C. Stone 
T. Freeman 
Louis P. Kennedy 
Chas. W. Lovell 
T. M. Foster 

H. L. Prather 

B. T. Moynahan 
R. L. Curtis 

H. C. Alexander 
Hugh Crozar 
Geo. O. Harding 
Townsel Combs 
Sherry B. Smith 
R. L. Wiley 
Vernon P. Ligon 
O. H. Taylor 
E. M. Arnold 
S. H. McChord 



COUNTY ROAD ENGINEERS— 1915'. 

Adair J. N. Coffey 

Allen .J. W. Crowe 

Anderson M. C. Champion 

Ballard R. I. Birney 

Barren J. C. Greer 

Bath W. H. Rogers 

Bell J. H. Bailey 

Boone C. W. Goodridge 

Bourbon B. P. Befford 

Boyd ., W. E. VanHorn 

Boyle Will P. Caldwell 

Bracken Omer Myers 

Breathitt J. O. Crawford 

Breckinridge ; R. M. Basham 

Bullitt W. C. Herps 

Butler A. J. Bradley 



296 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial. Eepoet 

Caldwell J. E. Pliant 

Calloway J. D. Houston 

Campbell J. E. RatclifE 

Carlisle „ Hays Moore 

Carroll Jas. L. Booth 

Carter Jno. E. Thornberry (Judge) 

Casey Li. J. Cochran 

Christian J. H. Dillman 

Clark G. J. Hunt 

Clay.... D. Y. Lyttle (Judge) 

Clinton J. P. Garrett (Judge) 

Crittenden M. A. Wilson 

Cumberland R. D. Bass 

Daviess J. W. Spurrier 

Edmonson Jno. A. Logan (Judge) 

Elliott S. L. Green (Judge) 

Estill James Winn 

Fayette R. W. Davis 

Fleming A. P. Darnall 

Floyd T. B. Akers 

Franklin A. D. Calvert 

Fulton Paif Hawkins 

Gallatin W. P. Crouch 

Garrard J. O. Bogie 

Grant W. H. Beverly 

Graves '. Hollie Ford 

Grayson Ed. Butler 

Green P. F. Marshall 

Greenup R. M. Scott 

Hancock F. W. Friel 

Hardin R. P. Franks 

Harlan W. F. Howard 

Harrison J. R. Poindexter 

Hart B. F. Bacon 

Henderson S. H. Kimel 

Henry E. K. Watkins 

Hickman H. C. Brummel 

Hopkins I. B. Earle 

Jackson J. D. Spurlock (Judge) 

Jefferson , J. Russell Giaines 

Jessamine C. S. Woodward 

Johnson j. A. E. Auxier 

Kenton E. C. Mills 

Knox C. B. Parrott 

Knott E. W. Richie 

Larue .Jacob Strous 

Laurel W. L. Brown (Judge) 

Lawrence B. J. Calloway 

Lee Green Kllburn (Judge) 

Leslie R. L. Hixon 

Letcher X. N. Lewis 

Lincoln J. L. McKee 

Lewis I. W. Sanders 

Livingston R. S. Paris 

Logan B. L. Traughber 

Lyon T. J. Rogers 

Madison J. G. Baxter 

Magoffin W. J. Patrick 

Marion J. A. Burton 



Bureau op Agkioultuee. 297 

Marshall W. A. Fields 

Martin L. P. Kirk 

Mason C. T. Moore 

McCracken J. R. Thompson 

McLean W. H. Ballentine 

McCreary J. E. Williams 

Meade S. L. Morgan 

Menifee - C. L. Whitt 

Mercer A. T. McGlone 

Metcalfe R. B. DeMumbrum 

Monroe W. S. Harlan 

Montgomery W. F. CrooKs 

Morgan W. B. Allen 

Muhlenberg S. O. Sears 

Nelson T. P. Stoner 

Nicholas .J. W. "Williams 

Ohio T. H. Benton 

Oldham S. B. DeHaven 

Owen .W: C. Jacobs 

Owsley A. B. Seale 

Pendleton H. H. Shoemaker 

Perry S. M. Boggs 

Pike H. H. Stallard 

Powell _ J. B. Burgher 

Pulaski W. C. GundifE 

Robertson N. B. -Massey 

Rockcastle J. W. Marler 

Russell _ A. M. F. Hall 

Rowan J. W. Riley 

Scott - J. B. Prather 

Shelby G. M. Middleton 

Simpson Otho Haydon, Jr. 

Spencer I. F. Jewell 

Todd A. B. Wilkins (Judge) 

Taylor Fred Faulkner 

Trigg G. S. Dunning 

Trimble W. L. Harmon 

Union Lee Thomas 

Warren M. H. Crump 

Washington G. C. Donahue 

Wayne A. J. Cress 

Webster J. O. Tolbert 

Whitley H. F. Davis 

Wolfe E. J. Creech 

Woodford W. H. Edwards, Jr. 



LIST OF FIRMS FROM WHOM ACID PHOSPHATE 
MAY BE OBTAINED IN CARLOAD LOTS. 



The American Agricultural Chemical Company Cincinnati, O. 

The Armour Fertilizer Works Nashville, Tenn. 

The Cincinnati Phosphate Company Cincinnati, O. 

Continental Fertilizer Company Louisville, Ky. 

Duncan & Bro Lagrange, Ky. 



298 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet :-. ^, 

The Empire Guano Company Nashville, Tenn. 

The Evansville Packing Company Evansville, Ind. 

Federal Chemical Company Louisville, Ky. 

The Groves Company Cincinnati, 0. 

W. A. Guenther & Sons Owenshoro, Ky. 

Hopkins Fertilizer Company New Albany, Ind. 

International Agricultural Corporation Nashville, Tenn. 

The Jareoki Chemical Company Cincinnati, O. 

Jones Fertilizer Company _ Louisville, Ky. 

The Kaufman Fertilizer Company Cincinnati, O. 

Louisville Fertilizer Company.- Louisville, Ky. 

Mt. Pleasant Fertilizer Company Mt. Pleasant, Tenn. 

Read Phosphate Company Nashville, Tenn. 

Southern Fertilizer Company .-. Louisville, Ky. 

Swift & Co National Stock Yards, Chicago, 111. 

Tennessee Chemical Company Louisville, Ky. 

Tuscarora Fertilizer Company Nashville, Tenn. 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company Cincinnati, O. 

The Wing Seed Company Mechanicshurg, O. 

Robins Jones Company Nashville, Tenn. 



KENTUCKY SCHOOLS HAVING AGRICULTURAL 

COURSES. 



County. Name of School. Principal. 

Adair Columbia Graded & High School W. M. Wilson 

Anderson Anderson County High School Mrs. C. W. Kavanaugh 

Ballard .Wickliffe Graded School H. E Karr 

Ballard Ballard County High School W. H Sagg 

Ballard Barlow Graded School „ j' b. Ward 

Ballard Bandana High School H. P. Roberts 

Ball4ird Lovelaceville High School Edgar Stephens 

Ballard Blandville High School S. D. Gunn 

Boone Burlington High School j. "h. Caywood 

Boyle Bate School (Danville) j. \y_ Bate 

Breckinridge..- Hardinsburg High School. 

Breckinridge Cloverport Graded School. 

Breckinridge— Irvington Graded School. 

Bullitt Shepherdsville School j. h. Sanders 

Bullitt Lebanon Junction School W. A.' Whitlow 

Campbell ,County High School (Alexandria) Cynthia E. Reiley 

Carroll Carroll ton High School j. w. Way 

Clinton Albany High School C. E. ' Smith 

Daviess (All schools in this county have course 

in agriculture) 

Franklin Bridgeport High School M. C. Redwine 

Franklin Forks of Elkhorn High School Mrs. C. W. Bell 

Franklin Peaks Mill High School B. W. Quails 

Franklin Bald Knob High School A. T. Morgan 

Fulton Fulton High School j. c. Cheek 

Fulton Jordan. Consolidated School F. Irvine 

Gallatin Warsaw High School A. L. Ashcraft 

Gallatin Glencoe High School. Robert Sheriff 

Graves Sedalia High School—. J. s. Brown 



BxjEBAu OF Ageioulture. 299 

County. Name of School. Principal. 

Graves Water Valley High School L. E. Hurt 

Greenup Greenup High School Annie M. Davidson 

Greenup South Portsmouth High School T. C. Lantz 

Greenup Siloam High School IVlrs. Lucy Fitch 

Greenup Oldtown High School Agnes Baker 

Greenup Letitia High School Maggie Alley 

Hancock Beechmont High School (Hawesville) Ira L. Arnold 

Hancock Lewisport County High School....Mrs. Cora Whittinghill 

Harrison Berry Graded School L. B. Sharon 

Harrison Oddville County High School W. B. Elder 

Harrison Cynthiana Graded School R. I. Cord 

Harrison Roseview High School .John P. Garrard 

Hart Horse Cave High School D. D. Donahue 

Hart Munfordville High School Edgar Saunders 

Henderson Barrett Manual Training High School 

(Henderson) .'. Arkley Wright 

Henry Eminence Graded High School J. B. Sibley 

Henry New Castle Graded High School L. S. Rhoades 

Hickman Clinton County High School H. W. Puckett 

Hickman Fulghum High School A. M. Wilson 

Hickman Beelerton High School Leslie Brown 

Hickman Oakton Graded School Add Tartar 

Hickman Spring Hill Graded School Velma Samuel 

Hickman Clinton Colored High School TJ. S. Poston 

Hickman Columbus Graded School Irvie Brown 

Jackson Blanton Flat School Logan Miller 

Jackson Lincoln Hall Academy. Isaac Messier 

Jackson McKee Academy Rev. Worthington 

Lawrence Kentucky Normal College (Louisa) W. M. Byington 

Logan Olmstead High School W. M. Caudill 

Logan Auburn High School J. D. Spears 

Logan Lewisburg High School G. P. Smith 

Logan Adairville High School E. H. Ellis 

Madison Union High School B. M. Williams 

Madison ,Waco High School J. R. Robinson 

Madison Kirksville High School Harris B. Akin 

Marion Lebanon Graded School J. (R. Sterett 

Mason Mayslick School E. L. Dix 

Mason Minerva School J. A. Caldwell 

Mason Dover School C. K. Dameron 

Mason Lewisburg School Laura Crosby 

Mason Sardis School Howard Orme 

Mason Rectorville School Bayard McCann 

Mason -Urangeburg School C. E. Turnipseed 

McCreary Whitley City Graded & High School Homer Kress 

McCreary Pine Knot School R. W. Jethra 

Mercer Harrodsburg School J. G. Prather 

Muhlenberg Greenville Graded School C. C. Hayden 

Muhlenberg Central City School J. R. Kirk 

Oldham Lagrange Graded School W. L. Dawson 

Owen Owenton Graded School B. L. Vallandingham 

Owen Gratz School J. D. Hearn 

Owen New Liberty School J. N. Witt 

Owen Sparta School L. B. Wadsworth 

Owen Wheatley School Sue Arnold 

Owsley Booneville School G. E. Hancock 

Pendleton Falmouth School G. H. Wells 

Pendleton Butler School E. B. Bratcher 



300 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOBT 

County. Name of School. Principal. 

Powell Stanton College J. C. Hanley 

Robertson Mt. Olivet High School A. P. Prather 

Rockcastle Mt. Vernon Graded School J. S. Irvine 

Rockcastle Livingston Graded School -G. J. Wilson 

Rockcastle Brodhead School J. L. Pilkenton 

Rockcastle ,Brown Memorial (Mt. Vernon) Mrs. A. B. Stewart 

Scott Yates School Nell Lucas 

Scott Great Crossing School A. M. Shelton 

Scott Newtown School E. W. Williams 

Shelhy Shelbyville School Prof. Hesson 

Shelby Simpsonville School H. D. Copeland 

Shelby Finchville School I. C. Reubelt 

Shelhy Waddy School E. J. Paxton 

Shelby Bagdad School M. McGowan 

Spencer Taylorsville Graded School D. J. Wright 

Todd Sharon Grove School MoUie Lindsay 

Todd Keelings School .Lucy Fairly 

Todd Pea Ridge School Pearl Miller 

Todd Adams School Kathleen Thompson 

Todd Kirkmansville School H. G. Watson 

Trimble Bedford High School J. H. Payne 

Warren Smith's Grove W. P. White 



AGEICULTURAL AND LIVE STOCK ASSOCIA- 
TIONS OF KENTUCKY. 



For the convenience of those interested, we publish 
below a list of the officers of such of the Agricultural and 
Live Stock Associations as have been reported to this 
Department : 

KENTUCKY STATE UNION. 

(A. S. of E.) 

President, R. E. I. Ray Stithton 

Vice President, M. W. Carver. Greenville 

Secretary-Treasurer, S. B. Robertson .Calhoun 

State Organizer, Robert Garrison Bowling Green 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

H. M. PirUe Hartford 

W. D. Osborn Meadow 

Louis Webb Russellville 

W. E. Bibb Sacramento 

M. W. Carver Greenville 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 301 

kentucky state grange. 

Master, D. N. Laff erty Cynthiana 

Lecturer, Mrs. Estella VanDeren Cynthiana 

Treasurer, J. W. Conner Union 

Secretary, Mrs. Mabel G. Sayre Hebron 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Ben J. Padack : Hebron 

G. O. Hater [ Burlington 

J. W. Snodgrass Cynthiana 

L. H. Voshell Union 

D. B. Dobbins Richwood 

BURLEY TOBACCO COMPANY. 

President, Clarence LeBus Lexington 

Vice President, A. L. Ferguson Lexington 

Secretary, John W. Hall — Lexington 

Assistant Secretary, Bessie Osborne Lexington 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEEMEN. 

Fred Stucy Ghent 

U. G. Saunders Lexington 

A. L. Ferguson Georgetown 

C. H. Berryman Lexington 

C. C. Patrick Lexington 

S. A. Shanklin Helena Station 

Lister Witherspoon Versailles 

KENTUCKY CORN GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

i^resident, R. M. Squires Lexington 

Vice President, Chas. Caldwell Danville 

Treasurer, A. H. Gilbert Lexington 

Secretary, T. R. Bryant Lexington 

DISTRICT VICE PRESIDENTS. 

First District, S. M. Bradley Morehead 

Second District, J. W. Duncan Nicholasville 

Third District, W. B. Threlkeld Uniontown 

WARREN COUNTY STRAWBERRY GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

President, A. C. Meador Bowling Green, R. No. 1 

Vice President, M. D. Alexander Bowling Green, R. No. 1 

Secretary-Treasurer, James M. Elkin Bristow, R. No. 1 

Manager, H. D. Graham Bowling Green 

DIRECTORS. 

R. M. Covington Bowling Green 

J. B. Scumpter Bowling Green 

Geo. A. Collet Bowling Green 

J. B. Graham Bowling Green, R. No. 1 



302 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePORT 

BEEKEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

'President, H. C. demons Boyd 

Vice President, J. P. Martine Louisville, 206 B. JeffersoB 

Secretary, H. Garman (Prof.) .■. Lexington 



KENTUCKY POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

President, Harris Lehman Midway 

Secretary, J. Gaylord Blair Louisville 

Treasurer, C. C. Loomis St. Matthews 



VICE PRESIDENTS. 

First Vice President, Geo. E. Schulz Louisville 

Second Vice President, J. G. Neff Richmond 

Third Vice President, J. T. Milligan Stithton 

Fourth Vice President, W. B. Jenkins Glendale 

Fifth Vice President, B. D. Hill Hopkinsville 

J. W. Newman, Commissioner of Agriculture Frankfort 

Dr. Jos. H. Kastle, Director of Experiment Station Lexington 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

First District, W. E. Cochran Paducah 

Second District, C. E. Carpenter Owensboro 

Third District, R. L. Willmoth Rineyville 

Fourth District, Eugene J. Straus Louisville 

Fifth District, Mrs. Walter Kenney Paris 

Sixth District, W. W. White... Newport 

Seventh District, R. A. Chiles.! Mt. Sterling 



KENTUCKY BRANCH AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

President, C. C. Loomis St. Matthews 

First Vice President, W. B. Buford Nicholasville 

Second Vice President, J. J. Hooper Lexington 

Secretary, J. Gaylord Blair. Louisville 

Treasurer, Mrs. Walter Kenny Paris 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

W. E. Johnson Lexington 

Mrs. J. R. Gibson Richmond 

L. L. Haggin Lexington 

John Steers Dry Ridge 

Harris Lehman Midway 



Btjeeau of Agbicxjltube. 303 

LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATIONS. 



KENTUCKY TROTTING HORSE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION. 

President, Ed. A. Tipton Lexington 

Vice President, R. C. Estill Lexington 

Vice President, John R. Hagyard ^. Lexington 

Treasurer, First and City National Bank Lexington 

Secretary, J. W. Williams Lexington 

DIRECTORS. 

J. D. Grover, R. C. Stoll, 

A. B. Coxe, John R. Allen, 

'David M. Look. 

KENTUCKY DAIRY CATTLE CLUB. 

President, C. M. Phillips Shelbyviile 

Vice President, R. D. Collins Lexington 

Secretary-Treasurer, J. J. (Hooper Lexington 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

J. A. Stanley , Shelbyviile 

Oscar Ewing Louisville 

W. D. Nichols Lexington 

Z. W. Lee Cynthiana 

W. R. Spann Shelbyviile 

KENTUCKY DUROC JERSEY ASSOCIATION. 

President, Alfred Hite Lyndon 

Vice President,- B. S. Mayes, Jr Springfield 

Secretary-Treasurer, James McKee Versailles 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

William Harris Morganfield 

Charles Wheeler Buechel 

Alfred Hlte Lyndon 

KENTUCKY STATE BERKSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 

President, J. Lewis Letterle Harrods Creek 

Vice President, O. P. Troutman Nicholasville 

Secretary-Treasurer, <J- G. Johnson Georgetown 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

S. S. Ormsby Anchorage 

J. W. Case .Hutchison 

A. P. Shropshire Muir 

T, Wilmott Hutchison 



304 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Eepoet 

KENTUCKY BEEF CATTLE ASSOCIATION. 

President, Chas. H. Berryman Lexington 

Vice President, Jonas Weil Lexington 

Secretary-Treasurer, E. S. Good Lexington 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

J. W. Newman Frankfort 

J. W. Bales Richmond 

Samuel Clayl •.._ _..JParis 

F. iQ. Glltner Eminence 

Chas. Caldwell _ Danville 

Henry Moxley Shelbyville 

Thos. Keith Maysville 

John E. Brown _ Shelbyville 

Dwight Pendleton Winchester 

KENTUCKY SHEEP BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION. 

President, Robert S. Blastock Donerail 

Vice President, B. E. Wood Georgetown 

Secretary-Treasurer, E. S. Good Lexington 

Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Lillian iHeadley Lexington 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

James A. McKee Versailles 

T. J. Bigstaff., _ Mt. Sterling 

R. H. Stevenson Lexington 

J. B. Coleman Visalia 

B. Macklin Forks of Elkhorn 



MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIZATIONS. 



THE KENTUCKY GOOD ROADS ASSOCIATION. 

(Kentucky Division of the National iHlghway Association.) 

President, Col. Robert J. McBryde, Jr Louisville 

First Vice President, Harry A. Sommers Elizabethtown 

Second Vice .President, Clayton S. Hitchins. Hitchins 

Secretary, Robert C. Terrell Frankfort 

Treasurer, Frank M. Gettys.— ; Louisville 

State Director, Robert B. Woods Louisville 

TRLSTBES. 

Col. Robert J. McBryde, Jr Louisville 

Robert C. Terrell ~ Frankfort 

Frank M. Gettys Louisville 

John J. Saunders Louisville 

Guthrie Wilson Bardstown 

Harry A. Sommers Elizabethtown 

Joseph F. Bosworth Middlesboro 

Edward McAfee Vanarsdell 

Robert B. McGregory Sebree 

James N. Farmer Somerset 

Claxon S. Hitchins Hitchins 

Tevis Carpenter Scottsvllle 

Will Ward Duffleld .., ......Harlan 



Bureau op Agbicultueb. 305 

COUNSEL. 

Pendleton Beckley Louisville 

DEPOSITORY. 
Union National Bank Louisville 

STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

President, Fred Mutchler Lexington 

Secretary-Treasurer, C. W. Mathews Lexington 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Boone County — W. H. Clayton Hebron 

Fayette County — L. E. Hillenmeyer Lexington 

Hardin County — Jno. T. Milligan Stithton 

Henderson County — C. E. Sugg jHenderson 

Jefferson County — P. E. Merriman Louisville 

Lawrence County — Jay H. Northup Louisa 

Powell County— Fred R. Blackburn Stanton 

Rockcastle County — ^C. D. Smith Conway 

Rowan County- — H. Van Antwerp Farmers 

Trimble County— Jno. H. Richardson Bedford 

Warren County — Morgan Hughes Bowling Green 

Woodford County — Mrs. J. M. Garrett Port Garrett 



CREAMEEIES IN KENTUCKY. 



County Name of Creamery Town 

Bell Asher Creamery PinevIUe 

Boone Clover Leaf Creamery Burlington 

Boone Union Creamery Union 

Caldwell J. E. Crider Predonia 

Campbell George B. Moock Creamery Newport 

Christian Peter Fox's Sons Hopkinsville 

Fayette Centralia Creamery Co Lexington 

Ileming Sugar Loaf Creamery Blemingsburg 

Henderson Henderson Pure Milk Company Henderson 

Jefferson National Ice Cream Co Louisville 

Jefferson D. H. Ewing & Son Louisville 

Jefferson American Butter & Cheese Co Louisville 

Jefferson ^E. K. Mack Creamery Louisville 

Jefferson Carrither's Creamery Louisville 

Jefferson Dixie Butter Co Louisville 

Laurel The London Creamery Co London 

Lincoln .Stanford Creamery Co Stanford 

Mason Crescent Creamery Association Rectorville 

Mason Dover Creamery Association Dover 

Mason Model Creamery Co Maysville 

MoCracken Crystal Creamery Co Paducah 

Oldham M. A. Stoess Creamery Crestwood 

Pendleton Butler Creamery Co Butler 

Pendleton H. M. Owen Creamery Co Falmouth 

Pendleton ^Merchants' Ice Cream Co Butler 

Taylor Campbellsville Creamery Co Campbellsville 

Union Peerless Cream Co Morganfield 



306 Twenty-First Biennial Ebpokt 

BULLETINS ISSUED BY THE DEPAETMENT OF 
AGRICULTURE, FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY. 



1. Rules for Corn, Potato and Tomato Clubs, 1912. 

2. Home Economics Club. 

3. Industrial Kentucky. 

4. Labor Laws, 1912. 

5. Rules for Corn, Potato, Tomato and Poultry Clubs 1913. 

6. Use of Ground Limestone. 

7. Poultry Raising in Kentucky. 

8. Hog Cbolera and Its Control. 

9. Boys' Corn Clubs in Kentucky, 1912. 

10. Catarrhal Fever in Horses. 

11. Feeding and Care of Babies. 

12. Labor Laws, 1914. 

> 13. Directory of Breeders of Pure Bred Livestock. 

14. Laws Governing State Live Stock Sanitary Board of Kentucky. 

15. Workmen's Compensation Law. 

16. Suggested Outlines for Study of Home Economics. 

Rules and Regulations State Live Stock Sanitary Board of 

Kentucky. 
Horticultural Society Reports. 
State farmers' Institute Reports. 



LIST OF LOOSE LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES 

IN KENTUCKY, REPORTING MONTHLY TO 

THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY. 



Burley Tobacco Co Augusta 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Augusta 

Planters Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Augusta 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Bloomfield 

Farmers Tobacco Warehouse Co Bowling Green 

Independent Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Bowling Green 

Warren Co. Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Bowling Green 

Burley Tobacco Co .Brooksville 

Burley Tobacco Co Carlisle 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Carlisle 

Peoples Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co .Carlisle 

Burley Tobacco Co CarroUton 

Carrollton Tobacco Warehouse Co CarroUton 

The Wood Tobacco Warehouse Co Carrollton 

Burley Tobacco Warehouse Co Cynthiana 

Gynthiana Tobacco Warehouse Co Cynthiana 

Farmers Tobacco Warehouse Co Cynthiana 

Peoples Tobacco Warehouse Co Danville 

Burley Tobacco Warehouse Co ^ Dry Ridge 

Burley Tobacco Co Eminence 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Eminence 



Btjeeau of Ageicultueb. 307 

Growers Tobacco Co Eminence 

Burley Tobacco Co Falmouth 

Falmouth Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Falmouth 

Burley Tobacco Co Flemingsburg 

Growers Tobacco Warehouse Co Flemingsburg 

Fordsville Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Fordsville 

Burley Tobacco Co Frankfort 

Franklin Tobacco Co .".Frankfort 

Growers Tobacco Warehouse Co .-. Frankfort 

Simpson County Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Franklin 

Farmers Tobacco Warehouse Co Glasgow 

Planters Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Glasgow 

Glencoe Tobacco Warehouse Co Glencoe 

Glen Dean Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Glen Dean 

Greensburg Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Greensburg 

Breckinridge Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Hardinsburg 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Harrodsburg 

Mercer Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Harrodsburg 

Butler & Jackson Hopkinsville 

R. E. Cooper & Co Hopkinsville 

R. E. & W. D. Cooper. Hopkinsville 

Hancock Warehouse Co Hopkinsville 

Peoples House Hopkinsville 

M. H. Tandy & Co .Hopkinsville 

Thompson Loose Leaf Floor Hopkinsville 

J. P. Thompson & Co Hopkinsville 

Burley Tobacco Co JHorse Cave 

Peoples Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Horse Cave 

Marlon County Tobacco Warehouse Co Lebanon 

Burley Tobacco Co. (812 S. Broadway) Lexington 

Fayette Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Farmers Home Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Growers Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Independent Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Headley Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Lexington Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

Peoples Tobacco Warehouse Co Lexington 

The New Silas Shelburne Warehouse Co Lexington 

Jefferson Tobacco Warehouse Co Louisville 

Louisville Tobacco Warehouse Co Louisville 

Main Street Tobacco Warehouse Co Louisville 

Pickett Warehouse (Bridges & Co.) Louisville 

Tenth Street Tobacco Warehouse Co Louisville 

Turner Tobacco Warehouse Co Louisville 

T. M. Ballard & Co Mayfield 

Lewis Tobacco Warehouse Co Mayfield 

Ligon Brps Mayfield 

Amazon Warehouse Co Maysville 

Central Warehouse Co Maysville 

Farmers & Planters Warehouse Co Maysville 

Farmers Tobacco Warehouse Co Maysville 

Growers Warehouse Co Maysville 

Home Warehouse Co Maysville 

Independent Loose Leaf Tobacco Co Maysville 

Maysville Tobacco Society Maysville 

Burley Tobacco Co Mt. Sterling 

Farmers Tobacco Warehouse Co Mt. Sterling 

A. R. Robertson Mt. Sterling 

Whitehall Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Mt. Sterling 



308 TwENTY-FlKST BiBNNIAX. EePORT 

Equity Home Warehouse Co ....Owensboro 

Green River Tobacco Growers Assn Owensboro 

Lancaster Loose Leaf Tobacco Co Owensboro 

Owensboro Tobacco Warehouse Co Owensboro 

Burley Tobacco Co Owenton 

Bourbon ' Tobacco Warehouse Co Paris 

Paris Tobacco Warehouse Co Paris 

Burley Trfiacco Co Pleasureville 

Home Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Richmond 

Madison Tobacco Warehouse Co Riclimond 

Farmers Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Shelbyville 

Globe Tobacco Warehouse Co Shelbyville 

Shelby Loose Leaf Warehouse Co Shelbyville 

Farmers Warehouse Co Springfield 

Springfield Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Springfield 

Washington County Warehouse Springfield 

Vanceburg Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Vanceburg 

Citizens Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Vine Grove 

Burley Tobacco Co.. Williamstown 

Planters Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Winchester 

R. A. Scobee Loose Leaf Tobacco Warehouse Co Winchester 

Winchester Tobacco Warehouse Co Winchester 



COMMISSIONEES OF AGRICULTURE 
1876—1916. 



1876 — 1880 Winston J. Davis .Christian County 

1880 — 1884 C. F. Bowman Boyle County 

1884 — 1888 Jno. F. Davis Shelby County 

1888—1892 C. Y. Wilson Barren County 

1892—1896 Nicholas McDowell ' Boyle County 

189'6 — 1900 Lucas Moore Washington County 

1900 — 2 months J. W. Throckmorton Fayette County 

1900 — 1904 I. B. Nail Jefferson County 

1904 — 1908 Hubert Vreeland Jefferson County 

1908—1912 M. C. Rankin , Henry County 

1912 — 1916 J. W. Newman Woodford County 

1916—1920 Mat S. Cohen Fayette County 



BUEEATJ OF AgEICULTUEE. 



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BUBEAU OF AgBICULTUEE. 

GOVERNMENT CROP REPORT. 



317 



Washington, D. C., December 16. — A summary of estimates of 
crop production and pricesl for the State of Kentucky and for the 
United States, compiled by the Bureau of Crop Estimates (and trans- 
mitted through the Weather Bureau), U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
is as follows: 

Crop production in the State this year aggregates in quantity 
about 19 per cent, more than last year. Prices on December 1 average 
12 per cent, lower than a year ago, making total value of crop produc- 
tion, on this basis, about 5 per cent, more than last year. The estimates 
are based upon those crops whose values in the last complete crop 
census represented 82 per cent, of the value of all crops. 

For the United States production this year aggregates in quantity 
about 9 per cent, more than last year. Prices December 1 average 1 
per cent, lower than a year ago, making total value of crop produc- 
tion on this basis about 8 per cent, more than last year; these estimates 
are based upon crops whose value in the last complete crop census 
represented 82 per cent, of the value of all crops grown, and may be 
regarded as representative of all crops. 

Estimates for important crops are given below: 



CROPS 



KENTUCKY 



Acreage Production ^l^\ 



Corn, bu 



"Wheat, bu. 



...1915 
...1914 
...1915 



Oats, bu 



Barley, bu. 



Rye, bu. 



...1914 
..J.915 
...1914 
...1915 



...1914 
...1916 



Buckwheat, bu. 



Flaxseed, bu. 



...1914 
...1915 
...1914 



Rice, bu. 



Potatoes, bu. 



...1915 
...1914 
...1915 
...1914 
...1915 
...1914 



Sweet Potatoes, bu 1915 

.1914 

Hay, tons -1915 



Tobacco, lbs. 



Cotton, bales 



...1914 
...1915 
...1914 



...1915 

r..l914 



Sugar Beets, tons 1915 

1914 



3, 800, 000 

3,650,000 

900,000 

760,000 

210,000 

175,000 

6,000 

5,000 

24,000 

22,000 



61,000 
50,000 
10,000 
10,000 
875,000 
750,000 
440,000 
400,000 



U4, 000, 000 

91,250,000 

9,900,000 

12, 540, OOO 

5,460,000 

3,675,000] 

180,000 

142,000 

288,000 

301,000 



6,426,000 

2,250,000 

1,050,000 

1,050,000 

1,225,000 

712, 000 

366,400,000 

364,000,000 



Cents 

56 

64 
105 
103 

48 

53 

77 

77 

94 

95 



55 
84 
70 
77 
$12.50 
$16.00 
7.8 
8.4 



UNITED STATES 



Production 



Price 
Dec. 1 



I 

3,054,535,000 

2,672,804,000 

1,011,505,000 

891,017,000 

1,540,362,000 

1,141,060,000 

237,009,000 

194,953,000 

49,190,000 

42,779,000 

15,769,000 

16,881,000 

13,845,000 

13,749,000 

28,947,000 

23,649,000 

359,103,000 

409,921,000 

74,295,000 

56,574,000 

85,225,000 

70,071,000 

1,060,587,000 

1,034,679,000 

11,161,0001 

16,135,0001 

6,462,0001 

6,585,000 



Cents 
67.5 
64.4 
92.0 
98.6 
36.1 
43.8 
51.7 
54.3 
83,9 
86.6 
78.7 
76.4 
J1.74 
$1.26 
90.6 
92.4 
61.6 
48.7 
62.0 
73.0 
$10.70 
$11.12 
9.1 
9.8 
11.2* 
6.8* 
5.54 
5.45 



•Per pound. 



318 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

GOVERNMENT LIVE STOCK REPORT FOR 
KENTUCKY. 



Washington, D. C, January 18, 1916. — A summary of 
estimates of nmnbers and values of live stock on farms 
and ranges on January 1 for Kentucky and for the 
United States, compiled by the Bureau of Crop Esti- 
mates, and transmitted through the Weather Bureau, U. 
S. Department of Agriculture, is as follows : 

HOBSES. 

State— Number, 434,000, compared with 443,000 a 
year ago and 447,000 five years ago. Value per head, 
$90, compared with $95 a year ago and $108 five years 
ago. 

United States — Nimiber, 21,200,000, compared with 
21,195,000 a year ago and 20,277,000 five years ago. 
Value per head, $101.60, compared with $103.33 a year 
ago and $111.46 five years ago. 

Mules. 

State— Number 229,000, compared with 231,000 a 
year ago and 236,000 five years ago. Value per head 
$102, compared with $106 a year ago and $122 five years 
ago. 

United States — Number 4,560,000, compared with 
4,479,000 a year ago and 4,323,000 five years ago. Value 
per head, $113.87, compared with $112.36 a year ago and 
$125.92 five years ago. 

Milch Cows. 

State— Number, 406,000, compared with 390,000 a 
year ago and 406,000 five years ago. Value per head, 
$44.80, compared with $45.50 a year ago and $36.50 five 
years ago. 

United States — Number, 22,000,000, compared with 
21,262,000 a year ago and 20,823,000 five years ago. 
Value per head, $53.90, compared with $55.33 a year ago 
and $39.97 five years ago. 



Bureau of Ageicultueb. 319 

Othbe Cattle. 

' State— Number, 570,000, compared with 543,000 a 
year ago and 591,000 five years ago. Value per head 
$30.80 compared with $30.40 a year ago and $20.90 five 
years ago. 

United States — Number, 39,500,000, compared with 
37,067,000 a year ago and 39,679,000 five years ago. Value 
per head, $33.49 compared with $33.38 a year ago and 
$20.54 five years ago. 

Sheep. 

State— Number, 1,160,000, compared with 1,229,000 a 
year ago and 1,404,000, five years ago. Value per head, 
$4.90, compared with $4.20 a year ago, and $4.11 five 
years ago. 

United States — Number, 49,200,000, compared with 
$49,956,000 a year ago and 53,633,000 five years ago. 
Value per head, $5.17, compared with $4.50 a year ago 
and $3.91 five years ago. 

Swine. 

State— Number, 1,710,000, compared with 1,582,000 
a year ago and 1,626,000 five years ago. Value per head, 
$6.50, compared with $7.20 a year ago and $7.20 five 
years ago. 

United States — Number, 68,000,000, compared with 
64,618,000 a year ago and 65,620,000 five years ago. Value 
per head, $8.40, compared with $9.87 a year ago and 
$9.37 five years ago. 



PART FIVE. 



WORK OF THE STATE LIVE STOCK SANITARY 
BOARD OF KENTUCKY. 



REPORT OF DR. S. F. MUSSELMAN, 
STATE VETERINARIAN. 



Pursuant to an Act of the General Assembly of the 
Commonwealth of Kentucky creating the State Live 
Stock Sanitary Board and defining its duties, which be- 
came effective June 16, 1914, I was elected the State 
Veterinarian, and am the first State Veterinarian whose 
entire time has been devoted to the control and eradica- 
tion of contagious and infectious diseases among our 
live stock. It is also my object to improve the quality 
and increase the quantity of the live stock of this State. 
I must say that this has been up-hill work, as I have not 
had at all times the entire co-operation of the live stock 
owners, because of the fact that my intentions were mis- 
understood. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is to 
the live stock industry what the State Board of Health 
is to the people. No records are available, which will 
show results of contagious diseases in the past, and I 
can not, therefore, say whether or not the past year has 
been unusual in this respect. Eliminating our losses 
caused by foot and mouth disease, I am impressed with 
what in my opinion is a heavy but preventable loss from 
outbreaks of other contagious and infectious diseases 
among our live stock. It is my intention to make known to 
the public how a great many of these diseases can be 
prevented, and I am not inclined to believe that there 
are many live stock owners, who will not take advantage 
of an opportunity to protect their live stock from attacks 
of disease, when it is shown how these attacks may be 
prevented. The rules and regulations adopted by the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board of Kentucky will, if 
complied with, likely prevent the entrance into the State 
of animals affected with contagious or infectious disease. 
The railroads have been a very great assistance in this 
particular work. 



324 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial, Eepoet 

INTER-STATE SHIPMENTS OF LIVE STOCK. 



As accurate records have only been kept during tlie 
last eighteen months, a comparative statement cannot 
be made, which would show the increase or decrease in 
the shipments of live stock into and from Kentucky. Ken- 
tucky is by nature as well adapted to the raising of live 
stock as any other State, and we should lead rather than 
fall to the ninth position. It is a pleasing fact to know 
that within the last few years quite a number of farmers 
in Kentucky have made considerable progress in breed- 
ing pure-bred live stock. It has been demonstrated con- 
clusively by these gentlemen that this pays better than 
the grade stock, even if the offspring is fed for market- 
ing purposes. Fortunes have been spent in improving 
this industry, and quite a few of our breeders have gone 
to foreign countries for the purpose of securing animals 
to strengthen blood lines and to increase the value of ani- 
mals. OfiScial health certificates are required for the ship- 
ment of pure-bred live stock into this State from all other 
States. These certificates are not required when animals 
are brought into the State for immediate slaughter, or 
are consigned to the Bourbon Stock Yards at Louisville, 
where Federal inspection is maintained, because such 
animals are inspected and certified by Federal officials 
before leaving the yards. "Within the last year shipments 
of live stock have been made from Kentucky into almost 
every State in the Union, notwithstanding the fact that 
a great many States were under Federal quarantine 
during the epizootic of foot-and-mouth disease. Records 
of animals moving inter-state for immediate slaughter 
were kept only during our quarantine, when we were re- 
quired to issue health certificates on all live stock moving 
inter-state for any purpose. A great many shippers ob- 
ject to having their animals inspected when shipments 
are attempted, but each State has its own regulations and 
the shippers by this time should be acquainted with these 
regulations, and should for their own safety be glad to 
have their animals inspected so that they might know 
the shipment contains only healthy animals. It is to be 
hoped that in the near future shippers and breeders of 
live stock will look upon this matter from the viewpoint 



BUEEATJ OF AgRIOULTUBE. 



325 



of ofHcials in control of live stock sanitation. It is also 
necessary to have the complete co-operation of the rail- 
roads, as infected railway cars frequently transmit con- 
tagious and infectious diseases. 

A tabulated report of the shipments of live stock 
into and out of Kentucky, for which we have received 
health certificates, follows : 

ANIMALS SHIPPED INTO KENTUCKY. 



CATTLE 



Dairy 

and 

Breeding 



2,047 



Stockers 

and 
Feeders 



16,333 



Slaugh- 
ter 



9,332 



Horses 



Mules 



Jacks 



SHEEP 



Regis- 
tered 



Stock 



15,334 



HOGS 



Regis- 
tered 



Slaugli- 
ter 



ATJIMALS SHIPPED FROM KENTUCKY. 



CATTLE 


Horses 


Mules 


Jacks 


SHEEP 


HOGS 


Dairy 

and 

Breeding 


Stockers 

and 
Feeders 


Slaugh- 
ter 


Regis- 
tered 


Stock 


Regis- 
tered 


Slaugh- 
ter 


1,684 


3,972 


9,244 


2,813 


5,750 


131 


197 


2,281 


430 


21,258 



It is a deplorable fact that the Kentucky dairies havi! 
to go out of the State to buy their cows, as the above 
table shows that 363 more cattle for dairy and brjotling 
purposes were shipped into Kentucky than were shipped 
out, and I am exceedingly sorry to note that we cannot 
supply our own feeders, as 16,333 animals were shipped 
into the State for that purpose, and only 3,972 were ship- 
ped from the State. Our records of cattle for slaughter 
are not complete because of the fact that great numbers 
of animals were taken from the Bourbon Stock Yards, 
the only yards in Kentucky having Federal inspection, 
direct to the packing and slaughtering houses in Jeffer- 
son County, Kentucky, for which we have no certificates. 
Nine thousand three hundred and thirty-two (9,332) 
cattle were brought into Kentucky for slaughter from 
other States, while during our quarantine 9,244 were 
taken from the State. Most of this number were fat cat- 
tle, that were shipped out during the winter of 1914-15, 
when certificates were required for all cattle for any pur- 
pose. A great many horses shipped into the State were 



326 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Report 

for the purpose of reshipping to the European countries 
engaged in war. Reports show that the mule business in 
Kentucky is still quite good, and that quite a number of 
mules are raised in this State. To prove this, only 19 jacks 
and jennets were shipped into Kentucky against 131 that 
were shipped out. We have no record of the number of 
lambs shipped from Kentucky during the past season, 
but on account of the high prices obtained at that time, 
and as Louisville is known to be the largest lamb market 
in. this country, I feel safe in saying that a greater num- 
ber of lambs was shipped than ever before. Quite a num- 
ber of young fat ewes were also included in this market, 
and to replenish their herds 15,334 stock sheep were 
shipped into this State and only 2,281 were shipped out. 
Only 113 pure-bred sheep were shipped into .Kentucky, 
and 197 were shipped out, proving that our sheep breed- 
ers have not been inactive. One thousand seven hundred 
and ninety (1,790) hogs were shipped into Kentucky for 
slaughter, while twenty-one thousand two hundred and 
fifty-eight (21,258) were shipped from the State. This 
of course does not cover all the shipments either into or 
out of the State, but whatever-the entire number amounts 
to, the hog industry is at least fair. The pure-bred breed- 
ers have shipped 430 hogs into other States, while only 
243 have been brought into Kentucky. Nearly all of the 
latter were shipments of one or two Ijoars or gilts for the 
purpose of starting a pure-bred herd. Considerable 
progress has been made along this line, as the feeding 
of pure bred hogs has been much more profitable than 
the feeding of the cross breeds. I believe that within the 
next two years the breeding of pure-bred hogs will in- 
crease at least one hundred per cent, provided we are 
not visited with another epizootic as dangerous as foot- 
and-mouth disease has been. I might make this same pre- 
diction in regard to the cattle industry. A great amount 
of educational work has been done and our farmers are 
taking advantage of the instructions given them, and I 
see no reason why Kentucky should not surpass every 
other State in the breeding of thoroughbred cattle and 
hogs. We have the cheapest and best food for about 
seven or eight months of the year, viz., blue grass, and 
our climate is not too severe for live stock. 



BuBEAu OF Agbioulttjee. 327 

Contagious and Infectious Diseases. 

I tliink it wise that this report should contain a de- 
scription of the contagious and infectious diseases most 
commonly found among our live stock, and of the 
methods employed in their prevention and control. The 
most important of these and the one which has caused 
heavier losses in Kentucky's live stock than all others 
combined, is foot-and-mouth disease. 

FoOT-AND-MoUTH DiSEASB. 

For information concerning the 1914-1915 outbreak 
of foot-and-mouth disease, you are referred to Bulletin 
No. 17 issued by the Department of Agriculture of Ken- 
tucky, which we believe covers the subject thoroughly. 
This bulletin was issued for general distribution, so that 
those who will read it will become thoroughly acquainted 
with some facts that are not generally known. 

We are in possession of authentic statistical data 
concerning this disease in a number of foreign countries, 
which prove conclusively that there is only one effective 
method of dealing with it, viz. : Eradication at any cost. 
This method has been faithfully followed and the results 
obtained are little short of miraculous when due con- 
sideration is given to our unpreparedness for combating 
such a crisis. Very few veterinarians in the United 
States were familiar with the disease, which fact cer- 
tainly caused delay in the early diagnosis, thereby allow- 
ing the disease to spread to at least twenty States other 
than the one in which the initial outbreak occurred. An- 
other serious hindrance to the work of eradication was 
the fact that very few States were financially prepared 
to pay their half of the losses ; even the Federal Depart- 
ment of Agriculture was short of funds and it was neces- 
sary that the unfortunate losers await an act of Con- 
gress. 

It is estimated by scientists that the value of ani- 
mals recovering from foot-and-mouth disease is depre- 
ciated to the amount of from seven to twenty dollars per 
head. This estimate was made without taking into con- 
sideration the value of the animals that died from the 



328 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

disease. Taking the lowest estimate, $7.00, Germany 
alone is said to lose $20,000,000.00 annually. The United 
States has about seven times as many cloven hoofed ani- 
mals as Germany, which shows that our losses would 
reach $140,000,000.00 annually, if we should allow foot- 
and-mouth disease to become widespread over our ranges. 
Our losses were light, very light, when due con- 
sideration is given to the fact that many of our live stock 
owners and dealers did not believe that foot-and-mouth 
disease was serious and would not give us the hearty co- 
operation in the beginning that they did after they had 
learned something of the nature of the disease and the 
great economical losses caused by its presence in our 
midst. 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 



329 



Following is a tabulated report of the losses in Ken- 
tucky: 

REPORT OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE ERADICATION IN 
KENTUCKY. 





NUMBER OP ANIMALS DESTROYED. 


County 


1 


o 






3 


73 

■11 
U Id 


Value 
property 
destroyed 




Bullitt 


8 

22 

1 

30' 

2 

2 

1 

2 

2 

1 

14 

815 


81 

318 

10 

1,965 

60 

32 

5 

104 

39 

35 

302 


86 
182 

3'83 
46 

145 

14 

'66 

858 


116 

100 
...... 

216 


i 

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1 


$4,255.50 

14,734.25 
450.00 

83,792.55 
2,328.00 
1,761.00 
150,00 
6,472.10 
4,663.00 
1,404.75 

13,553.40 


$121.50 
515.44 


$193.16 


Hardin 


645.00 


Henry 


18.00 




337.61 


616.10 


Jessamine 


64.00 


Larue 


100.00 


53.00 




17.00 


Oldham 


82.00 


97.26 


Scott 


120.00 


Shelby 




122.24 


Woodford 


35.00 


269.40 






Totals 


2,951 


$133,564.55 


$1,191.55 


$2,233.16 







Total number counties 11 

Total number animals destroyed 4,026 

Total appraised value $133,564.55 

Total value property destroyed $1,191.55 

Total burial expense $2,233.16 

In view of the above facts alone, we know that our 
efforts have been justified, and our success has been our 
reward. 

This disease is known to be the most highly con- 
tagious of all diseases of live stock and may be trans- 
mitted in more ways than any other. The tabulation fol- 
lowing, which was prepared July 29, 1915, will show how 
this disease was spread according to information secured 
direct from the owners of diseased herds by the veter- 
inary inspectors engaged in the work of eradication. 



330 



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BxjEEAu OF Ageicultuee. 331 

Item 4 should doubtless contain a number of cases 
under Item 1, 

Item 7 presents one of the most interesting features 
of the entire outbreak. Out of 3,021 infected herds, 509 
were infected through virus carried on the bodies, shoes, 
and clothing of persons. 

Under Item 13, it will be noticed that 6 herds in Ken- 
tucky were infected through unknown sources, but at 
least half of this number could certainly be credited to 
Item No. 4. 

The following quotations clipped from various 
sources might be of interest to our readers : 

"Nothing short of complete subordination of every stock owner'a 
individual interests to the good of the State will eradicate the scourge 
of the foot-and-mouth disease which again is devastating Illinois 
farms. The State Board of Live Stock Commissioners has ample 
precedent, American and foreign, for its declaration, that, aside from 
the killing of infected herds, no effective means of stamping out the 
disease is known. Consideration of sentiment or individual's finan- 
cial concern should not stand in the way of absolute obedience to the 
seemingly harsh rule that infected herds must be exterminated, and 
that quickly. Of course, those who suffer losses should be com- 
pensated." — (Hoard's Dairyman, Oct. 15, 1915.) 

"The paralyzing effect upon the traffic in live stock which results 
from the outbreak and necessary quarantine, which must be estab- 
lished to control the disease, and which must extend over a long 
period, must also be considerable from an economical standpoint 
during the prevalence of the contagion. 

"In the previous outbreaks of 1902 and 1908, which occurred in 
the United States, the expenditure of the U. S. 'Government in the 
eradication of the disease amounted to about $300,000 in each instance. 
Between the three outbreaks, including the present one, there were 
six year intervals, and by distributing this expenditure over the inter- 
vening period, the total amount per year would he only ?50,000, which 
is very small when compared with the losses which would result if 
the disease had been allowed to spread over a considerable area 
of the country." — (Foot and Mouth (Disease and Its Eradication, by 
Dr. J. R. Mohler.) 

"Investigation to fix responsibility for the handling of diseased 
animals is all very well, but there is plenty of time for that. Our job 
now is to stop the disease from spreading further. And it is a 
man's job. 

"The Legislature should immediately appropriate ample funds, 
give the veterinarians full authority, and set them at work." — (Wal- 
lace's Farmer, Des Moines, Iowa.) 

"In many places animals affected by it are killed, because it costs 
more to cure and then fatten the animal than it is worth. In this 
country it always has been the policy to kill the affected animals as 
soon as the diagnosis was made. Following this policy, we have suc- 
ceeded so far in preventing the disease from securing a permanent 
foot hold." — (Foot-and-Mouth Disease, by Dr. W. A. Evans.) 

"Whatever may be said of the original blunders leading to the 
spread of the disease, whatever bungling has attended the handling 



332 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Repokt 

of the case to date, however sound may he the arguments against 
purely veterinary domination for the future, there is liut one thing 
to do now, and that is to finish this Joh of house-cleaning, and do it 
quickly and so thoroughly that confidence can he absolutely restored. 
So long as birds and insects have wings, a so-called quarantine foot 
and mouth farm is going to serve as a justification for maintaining 
trade restrictions that are deadly in their strangling of live stock 
commerce." — (Breeders' Gazette, October 7, 1915.) 

"The United States has had six epidemics of the disease prior to 
the present one, in 1870, 1880', 1884, 1902, 1908 and 1914, all of which 
were quickly stamped out by the method of immediate slaughter and 
burial of all infected and exposed animals and cleaning and disinfect- 
ing the premises. THE UNITED STATES IS THE ONLY NATION 
THAT HAS ADOPTED THE SLAUOHTER METHOD FROM THE 
START, AND THE ONLY ONE THAT HAS EVER SUCCEEDED IN 
COMPLETELY STAMPING OUT THE DISEASE. 

Not only is it an expensive and useless undertaking to attempt 
an efficient farm quarantine and cure, but in addition to that expense, 
even when attempted under the best of such conditions, the cost of 
the disease, on account of loss in the condition of the surviving ani- 
mals after apparent recovery, is far greater than the loss from death 
outright, and there is no recovery of expenses and damages from 
either State or nation. 

"On the other hand if the infected and exposed animals are ap- 
praised and killed by the authorities, the owner recovers their value 
as sound animals together with all expenses of their burial and dis- 
infection of his premises and for all loss because of sheds, hay or 
other property destroyed on account of the disease." — (Facts Con- 
cerning Foot and Mouth Disease, by The Live Stock Exchange Na- 
tional Bank of Chicago, Illinois. 

"The ignorant man can learn only from his own experience; the 
intelligent man wOl profit from the experience of others. The ex- 
perience of Great Britain and the European countries shows in the 
clearest possible way that there is but one satisfactory way to handle 
foot-and-mouth disease, and that is to stamp it out by the immediate 
destruction of infected animals and the thorough disinfection of in- 
fected premises. Quarantine under farm conditions is impossible. 

"Our practice should be to kill, bury, disinfect." — (Wallace's 
Farmer, Oct. 22, 1915.) 

"It would not seem possible that any reader of The Gazette could 
be imposed upon by 'sure cure' foot and mouth fakirs, but it may be 
just as well to warn against the seductions of those who — for a price 
of course — are willing to sell valuable recipes or nostrums claimed 
to be infallible in the 'cure' of this infectious disease. We don't know 
how many of these are being offered. Probably none of the venders 
has the nerve to ask any reputable agricultural newspaper to carry an 
advertisement of his wares, but the United States mails are being 
used to exploit the farming community through the medium of circu- 
lars. We have brought the attention of the authorities to one particu- 
larly likely candidate for stripes in this business." — (Breeders' Gazette, 
April 1st, 1915.) 

"Right here public opinion in the United States has a chance to 
stand behind drastic but effectual official measures and take a les- 
son from Germany's sorrow. At some time in her history Germany 
hesitated in dealing with the foot-and-mouth disease and today she 
loses $20,000,000 worth of cattle annually. Denmark's loss is also tre- 
mendous. Even scientific and government ruled Germany can't find 
a way to choke out this plague, now that it has its grip set. The 
United States is even a greater stock raising country and stands to 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 333 

lose much more, unless the government is given a free hand to stamp 
out the isolated sores as they have come to the surface." — (The Chicago 
■Daily Tribune, Sept. 24, 1915.) 

"Loef tier's conclusions relative to virus carriers are as follows: 

"Regular supervision of such farms is indispensably required. 

"One of the most important results of the researches concerning 
foot-and-mouth disease, is, that the fact has been doubtlessly ascer- 
tained that, just as in numerous human infectious diseases, some of 
the recovered animals will remain carriers and continue the spreading 
of the virus. 

"It seems that the number of such animals is limited. 

"iHow long such animals can spread the virus has not yet been 
ascertained. According to present experiences, even seven months 
after the end of the epizootic, new infections have been caused by 
them. 

"As yet no method is known to distinguish the virus spreaders. 

"Infected animals are to be placed under observation for at least 
seven months. They must not be offered for sale and should be kept 
separated from healthy animals." — (Address of Veranus A. Moore, N. 
Y. State Veterinary College, Ithica, N. Y., at the Foot and Mouth 
Disease Conference, Chicago.) 

When foot-and-mouth disease is prevalent it might 
be well to comply with the folowing suggestions, which 
are made by the Bureau of Animal Industry, together 
with the State Board, Live Stock Commissioners of Illi- 
nois, and supplied to Illinois farmers: 

"Kill all flies possible. Flies follow horses from infected premises 
to town, and from there are carried away on other horses to other 
farms. When an infected herd is slaughtered the flies that have 
followed them goto other animals in nearby pastures. Make flytraps 
out of sugar barrels or kegs and set them about the barn and feed- 
lots. Bait the traps with a mixture of cider, vinegar and sugar. 

"Locate your pasture as far away as possible from your neighbor's 
pasture and away from railroads and public highways. 

"Keep your cattle away from your neighbor's fences. 

"Keep your line fences in good repair. 

"Do not feed skimmed milk procured from public creameries. 

"Don't buy feed in second hand bags. 

"Don't graze your live stock on public highways. 

"If you hear of any disease on farms upstream, move your animals 
back immediately from the stream. 

"Keep your dogs tied. 

"Don't allow your cats to leave the premises. 

"Confine your pigeons instead of attempting to shoot them. At 
this time of the year pigeons fly far when scared from shooting. If 
scared away they may carry the infection to some herd or bring it 
back home when they return several days later. 

"Bury or burn immediately all animals that die on the farm, and 
thus avoid attracting crows and buzzards. 

"Stay away from public gatherings; don't mingle with the crowd 
that usually collects In town on Saturday afternoons. 

"Postpone Sunday visiting until there is no mores foot-and-month 
disease In the neighborhood. 



334 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

"Post notices at your gates requesting visitors to stay out; don't 
allow live stock buyers, junk peddlers, gypsies, or tramps to enter 
your premises. Don't allow fishing, hunting, or nut gathering on your 
premises. Don't allow anybody to enter your premises except for good 
and sufficient reasons." 

The following is a tabulated report of the work of 
eradication in the 1914-1915 outbreak of foot-and-mouth 
disease in every State to July 15, 1915, which is self-ex- 
planatory. Following the report is an additional tabula- 
tion of an outbreak in Illinois due to the use of anti-hog 
cholera serum contaminated with foot-and-mouth virus. 
This outbreak was discovered on August 8, 1915, and con- 
tinued almost constantly until November 26th, at whioli 
time this additional report was made. Several herds, 
however, have been slaughtered since November 26th, 
which will increase the total slightly. This report is 
supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture 
from records received from their inspectors in charge 
in the different states. 



BUBBAU OF AgBICULTTJBB. 



335 



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336 Twbnty-Fiest Biennial Eepobx 

tubebctjlosis. 

With, the exception of foot-and-mouth disease, tu- 
berculosis has been the subject of more widespread dis- 
cussion than any other disease affecting live stock. It 
is more universally distributed than any other disease, 
and comparatively few localities are free from it. Com- 
plaints are made by farmers and live stock raisers of 
the losses sustained by its prevalence in their herds re- 
sulting frequently in the death of animals and materially 
decreasing the price for which the affected animal may 
be sold, and the impossibility of determining whether 
or not the animal is affected. Butchers, particularly the 
packers, are at times forced to complain against the pub- 
lic for having bought animals apparently in good health 
when upon post mortem examination by trained in- 
spectors portions of the carcass and sometimes the en- 
tire carcass is condemned as unfit for food because of 
generalized tuberculosis. I might call attention here to 
some statistics furnished by the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry gathered from reports of different packing houses 
scattered all over the country in which Federal meat in- 
spection is maintained. During the fiscal year of 1914, 
reports of inspections show that 8,539,021 cattle were 
inspected at the time of slaughter, and, that 30,145, or 
about 3.5%, were condemned on account of generalized 
tuberculosis, and that portions of the carcasses of 45,283, 
or a little more than 5%, were condemned for local tu- 
bercular lesions. Tuberculosis of hogs is very closely 
connected with bovine tuberculosis, as fattening swine are 
so often permitted to feed with cattle, and it is most 
probable that the disease is contracted in this manner. 
During the same fiscal year there were 33,289,705 hogs 
inspected at the time of slaughter and 48,252 carcasses 
condemned for generalized tuberculosis, and portions of 
the carcasses of 407,151 condemned for local tubercular 
lesions. These statistics of course include animals 
shipped into the packing houses from every part of the 
United States, showing conclusively that few communi- 
ties are free from this disease. Tuberculosis is caused 
by the bacillus tuberculosis, and the bacillus causing the 
disease in the human is practically identical with the one 
causing bovine tuberculosis. The relationship of bovine 



Bureau of Ageicultuke. 337 

and human tuberculosis is so close that the control of the 
disease in either the human or the bovine materially 
decreases the prevalence in the other. It has been con- 
clusively proven that the disease m,ay be transmitted 
from the animal to man and from man to animal. 
It has been shown that where an attendant of a dairy 
was suffering from tuberculosis the disease spread to the 
cows themselves. It has also been shown that attend- 
ants free from tuberculosis have contracted the disease 
from their constant association with tubercular cows. 
Tuberculosis seldom ever assumes an acute form, ex- 
cept in the very advanced stages of the disease after the 
animal has been suffering for a considerable length of 
time. Records of the prevalence of tuberculosis in herds 
in a great many states prove that the disease is increas- 
ing, due principally to the fact that the public will not 
co-operate with the sanitary authorities in its control. 
One or two states in the Union have made considerable 
progress in the eradication of this disease. The live 
stock sanitary officials co-operating with the city, county 
and state boards of health have educated the public in 
the necessity of eradicating tuberculosis, not only for 
the benefit of the live stock industry, but for the safety 
of the human family, particularly children whose prin- 
cipal diet is cows' milk. Tuberculosis in the milk cow 
is very much more dangerous than in the purely beef 
animal, as the tubercular bacillus seldom lodges in the 
muscle, but is very frequently found in the milk. The 
diet of children, particularly those under four years of 
age, is composed chiefly of cows' milk, and this milk is 
■''ed to them raw, while what meat is eaten has been sub- 
jected to high temperatures while cooking. The natural 
resistance of the child is greatly less than that of the 
adult, which accounts for the increased mortality in chil- 
dren over that of the adult. It is safe to look upon the 
dairies, that contain pure bred cattle that have not been 
tuberculin tested, with suspicion, as cattle of this class 
have been great scatterers of tuberculosis, caused no 
doubt by the methods employed in their care and atten- 
tion, while the scrub or grade is allowed more freedom 
and spends more time in the open. 



338 Twenty-First Biennial Eeport 

At breeding centers where pure bred cattle are kept 
tuberculous animals are frequently found unless the 
herd is kept free by tuberculin testing at regular inter- 
vals, and these animals are sometimes shipped to other 
points and carry infection into healthy herds. It is es- 
timated that the number of tuberculous milking cows is 
very much greater than that shown by figures from the 
packing houses. In the District of Columbia a few years 
ago the tuberculin test was administered to 4,200 cows; 
of this number 503 were found to be tubercular, and 139 
were considered suspicious. During recent investiga- 
tions carried on in the hospitals of New York City in- 
vestigators determined that 5% of the human tubercu- 
losis was caused by the tubercular bacillus of the bovine 
type. Practically all of these were in children under 
twelve years of age, and it is a reasonable conclusion that 
their infection came from drinking milk from tubercular 
cows. Nine and three-tenths per cent. (9.3%) of all 
fatal cases of tuberculosis in the children's hospitals 
proved to be of bovine origin. As Kentucky occupies an 
unenviable position on the tuberculosis map of the United 
States, it is most reasonable to believ^e that conditions 
quite similar to those existing in New York are present 
here. It seems to me that the- time is ripe when some 
effort should be made to control tuberculosis in animals 
at the same time that the medical profession is attempt- 
ing to prevent and control the ravages of this disease 
among our human inhabitants. Cattle breeders and own- 
ers of cows supplying milk to our towns and- cities have 
reason to object to the slaughter of their herds when re- 
acting to the tuberculin test or found to be tuberculous 
in other ways when no compensation is allowed for their 
slaughter. Foot-and-mouth disease does not kill people, 
but tuberculosis does, and it seems that it would be just 
as necessary to slaughter tuberculous animals as those 
affected with foot and mouth disease. If while the next 
General Assembly is in session laws should be enacted 
by which progress could be made in the prevention of 
the spread of this disease to the human family, Ken- 
tucky would be placed among the first states in the Union 
to properly provide for the health of its inhabitants, and 
the legislators would receive the praise not only of the 



Bureau of Ageicultubb. 339 

people of Kentucky, but of those of the entire world. If 
a law should be enacted by which owners could receive 
even 50% of the appraised value of tuberculous cattle, 
great strides could be made in the control of this dis- 
ease. No owner wants tubercular cattle, and I feel sure 
that all owners would gladly permit the slaughter of 
their tubercular cattle were they to receive compensation 
therefor. 

In writing this article it has been my intention to 
show as clearly as I am able to do the danger in permit- 
ting tubercular animals to remain among healthy ani- 
mals, and the danger of permitting the sale of milk from 
tuberculous cows for use by the human family. The en- 
trance into the state of tuberculous animals is prevented 
by the rules and regulations of the State Live Stock San- 
itary Board of Kentucky, but neither the law under which 
this board operates, nor its rules and regulations control 
that which is already present in the state, and it is for 
the purpose of controlling this disease within the state 
that I suggest the above mentioned legislation. As it 
is impossible to accurately diagnose tuberculosis by clin- 
ical symptoms, it is necessary to resort to the tuberculin 
test to determine whether or not a suspected animal is 
affected with the disease. While neither of the popular 
methods of testing is infallible, both are considered re- 
liable, as comparatively few cases re-acting to a properly 
conducted test fail to show that tuberculosis is present. 

Hog Cholera. 

It is estimated that Kentucky's annual loss from hog 
cholera is very close to two million dollars. In view of 
the fact that it has been definitely proven that hog chol- 
era is a preventable disease, such heavy losses are ap- 
palling. Almost every state in the Union has hog chol- 
era constantly present within its boundaries. The more 
extensive the hog industry becomes the more frequent- 
ly are we visited with outbreaks of hog cholera. Nu- 
merous bulletins have been issued by the Kentucky Ag- 
ricultural Experiment Station, in which hog cholera has 
been described in all its phases and recommendations for 
its control and eradication have been made. We have 
now begun a systematic fight against this plague and at 



340 Tw^NTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

this time I am glad to say results so far obtained are 
flattering. Hog cholera clubs have been organized in a 
great many counties and in different communities in these 
counties. At regular intervals these clubs are instructed 
by experts in the methods which have proved most effec- 
tive in controlling this disease. There is quite a differ- 
ence of opinion among authorities on this subject in re- 
gard to the two popular methods of immunization. Some 
of our best authorities advocate the simultaneous treat- 
ment, others again advocate the serum alone treatment. 
The consensus of opinion, however, favors the serum 
alone method followed by proper sanitary measures. 
More or less danger follows the use of the simultaneous 
treatment, but we know that when serum alone is prop- 
erly administered no bad results follow, and it is not a 
hard matter to control outbreaks of hog cholera when 
proper sanitary measures are followed after the use of 
the serum alone in infected herds. It is a well known 
fact that potent anti-hog cholera serum will protect the 
hog against cholera infection ; duration of the immunity 
thus conferred varies. A great many herds have been 
kept free from disease after the use of the serum alone 
when directly exposed to cholera. The injection of the 
serum confers an immunity for a sufficient le:ngth of time 
to thoroughly clean and disinfect the premises, after 
which there is little or no danger of an outbreak 
in this herd if communication between these healthy ani- 
mals and diseased ones in the neighborhood is prevented. 
Anti-hog cholera serum is manufactured in a great many 
states in plants controlled by the state. There are also 
about 125 commercial serum plants in the United States. 
The serum manufactured at the Kentucky Agricultural 
Experiment Station at Lexington has been of untold 
benefit to the hog raisers of this state. This plant was 
established in 1911 and has been remodeled and enlarged 
as the occasion has demanded until now we are proud to 
state that our serum plant compares favorably with any 
other. From the time of its completion until September 
1, 1915, 3,790 herds, composed of 156,083 hogs, were 
treated with serum alone, and serum and virus. In a 
large number of these herds the disease was so far ad- 
vanced that only a few were treated, and frequently these 



Bureau op Agkicultueb. 341 

few recovered, wMle the rest of the herd died. Serum 
is used and recommended as a preventative only, while 
if used in the early stages of the disease recovery fre- 
quently results. Of the 156,083 hogs vaccinated, 121,463 
lived, and 12,090 died. That only 9.12% died,most of which 
were found in diseased herds, is sufficient proof that 
the serum will protect. Little progress can be made in 
the control of any contagious or infectious disease with- 
out the co-operation of the owners of live stock along 
sanitary lines. Hog pens and hog houses should be kept 
clean and should be frequently disinfected; clean beds, 
clean troughs, and clean water should be provided. In 
1914, the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United 
States Department of Agriculture selected one county 
in twelve states for the purpose of proving whether or 
not hog cholera could be eradicated from a given area. 
Henderson county was selected in Kentucky, and con- 
siderable progress has been made in this work, and the 
following figures will show that good results may be ob- 
tained : 

Number of hogs raised in Henderson County in 1912 35,814 

Number of hogs died in Henderson Coainty in 1912 8,743 

Number of hogs raised in Henderson County in 1913 30,866 

Number of hogs died in Henderson County in 1913 3,934 

Number of hogs raised in Henderson County in 1914 20,000 

Number of hogs died in Henderson Coim.ty in 1914 3,902 

Number of hogs raised in Henderson County in 1915 20,000 

Number of hogs died in Henderson County in 1915 1,974 

The use of serum alone has undoubtedly saved the 
lives of at least 1,118 hogs in one year, and in view of the 
fact that serum was used in infected herds only and large 
numbers of already sick animals were treated, the re- 
sults obtained are very satisfactory. Equally as good 
results can be obtained on any farm if the proper meas- 
ures are adopted. 

Glanders, 

This is one of the most dangerous, as well as the 
most loathsome, disease with which we have to contend. 
It is particularly dangerous because it is transmissible 
to man and is just as fatal in man as in the animal. 



342 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Rbpoet 

Horses, mules and asses are most commonly at- 
tacked by glanders. Arranged according to their sus- 
ceptibility to glanders, the ass comes first. This animal 
is easily infected and rarely develops the disease other 
than in the acute form. The mule is slightly less suscept- 
ible and will occasionally develop the chronic form. The 
horse is least susceptible and often shows the disease in 
the chronic form and will sometimes re-act to the mallein 
test without ever having shown any clinical symptom. 

Glanders is caused by the introduction into the sys- 
tem of the bacillus malleus. After infection the disease 
may become manifest in two weeks, but sometimes months 
may elapse before any external symptoms are shown. 
Usually the first indication of glanders is a discharge 
from one or both nostrils, or the appearance on the body 
or legs of small nodes which break open and become 
angry looking ulcers, which show little or no tendency to 
heal even with treatment. This latter condition is known 
as "farcy," and true farcy is cutaneous glanders and 
should be very carefully treated, as there is so much 
danger of its transmission to the man attending. When 
a discharge from the nostril is noticed, an examination 
of the nasal mucus membranes should be made and 
characteristic ulcers may be found on the septum nasi, 
or the membrane which divides one nostril from the other. 
And always the submaxillary glands will be enlarged; the 
size of the enlargement and its condition are governed 
by the intensity of the ulceration of the nasal mucus 
membranes. 

The treatment of glanders is similar to the treatment 
of leprosy in man; it seldom, if ever, is successful. It is 
not advisable to attempt the treatment of an animal suf- 
fering with glanders, but, on the contrary, it should be 
destroyed and the carcass burned to ashes and all wood- 
work, water troughs, feed boxes, harness, etc., should be 
burned or thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. All ex- 
posed, susceptible animals should be subjected to the 
mallein test, and re-actors to the test should be dealt 
with the same as in acute cases. The mallein test may 
be made in either of the two reliable methods. The sub- 
cutaneous test is made by recording the body tempera- 
ture every two hours for six or eight hours, and then 



' BuBBATJ OF Ageicultueb. 343 

the mallein injected subcutaneously. Beginning eight or 
nine hours after the injection, the temperature should be 
recorded every two hours for eight or ten hours. The 
difference in the temperature before and after the in- 
jection determines whether or not the animal is infected. 
Two degrees Fahr. is considered suspicious and two and 
a half or three degrees is considered a re-action. The 
other and by far the most satisfactory method, because 
less time is required and just as reliable, is called the 
opthalmic test. This test is made by the instilling into 
the conjunctival sac of the healthy eye one or two drops 
of crude mallein. If the animal is infected, the eyelids 
will swell and in eight or ten hours afterwards pus will 
be discharging from the eye, which indicates infection. 

There are other tests, which are slightly more ac- 
curate and reliable than either of the above, but a labora- 
tory and special preparations are necessary. The ag- 
glutination test, the complement fixation test, and the 
precipitin re-action are gaining more favor because there 
are more laboratories available now than ever before. 
However, the subcutaneous or the opthalmic tests are sat- 
isfactory. 

"We have been very fortunate during the past year, 
as only one known outbreak of glanders has occurred in 
this state, and that was on a farm in Jessamine county, 
where one mare, a standard bred trotting mare, was 
showing clinical symptoms of nasal glanders, but as no 
diagnostic symptoms were manifested, the opthalmic test 
was, made with a typical re-action. The complement fixa- 
tion test was also made to conform the diagnosis. The re- 
sult of this test was just as was expected and confirmed 
the diagnosis made by the opthalmic test. The animal was 
destroyed. All exposed animals were tested, but only 
one re-actor was found, and this one was immediately 
destroyed. The stalls where these animals had been kept 
were thoroughly cleaned by burning all loose lumber and 
washing that remaining with a 5% solution of Cresol 
Compound. All harness was soaked in a strong disin- 
fectant solution before it was used by other animals. 
Stable manure, etc., containing the secretions from these 
animals was burned. No other suspected cases have been 
reppFliecl frpm that community. 



344 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

Black Leg. 

This is an acute, infectious disease affecting cattle, 
and very often other ruminants and swine. It is caused 
by an anerobe known as the Bacillus Emphysematosa, 
which may reproduce itself in the soil or pastures. This 
germ when entering the system produces the disease, 
which is characterized by local, crepitant swellings at al- 
most any point on the body or limbs above the knees and 
hocks. It is most commonly found affecting animals 
between the ages of four months and two years, and is 
occasionally found in suckling calves , and in animals 
three or four years of age, when such animals are placed 
on infected pastures. All breeds of cattle are equally 
susceptible, but pure bred cattle are less frequently at- 
tacked because of the better attention which they re- 
ceive. The excretions from diseased animals may re- 
main virulent for an indefinite period after coming in 
contact with the earth and may transmit to a healthy 
animal the disease through a skin abrasion while the ani- 
mal is lying on the ground contaminated with the virulent 
excretions of a diseased animal or the carcass of one 
dying from the disease. Black leg is a disease that is 
connected with infected soil, and the bacUli seem to 
be capable of reproducing the disease and preserving its 
virulency even under unfavorable conditions. The bac- 
teria from diseased animals also remain virulent in the 
soil. There is no doubt but that these facts wiU account 
foy the disease re-appearing in the same locality or in 
the same pastures when susceptible animals are placed 
thereon year after year. Animals may also become in- 
fected by eating infected feed or drinking water from 
streams into which bacteria have been washed from in- 
fected grounds. This is a disease that is not difficult to 
diagnose, as the symptoms manifested are characteris- 
tic. Among the first conditions noticed is lameness. In 
a very short while it will probably be noticed that the 
animal is down and unable to rise. Upon examination a 
distinctly circumscribed swelling will be found usually 
in the region of the shoulder or the hip, occasionally 
below the hip or the stifle. This condition is often mis- 
taken for a bruise, leading the owner to believe that the 



Bureau of Agricultuee. _ 345 

animal has been kicked or has fallen, but when the swell- 
ing is closely examined by passing the hand over it, a 
sound peculiar to the disease is heard, as if the skin had 
been blown up with air. The black leg bacillus is an air 
producing germ, and when the swelling is excised, the 
exudate is a foamy, black fluid with an odor very similar 
to rancid butter; the muscular tissue underneath this 
swelling is of a very dark color; hence the name Black 
Leg. The swelling at first is hot and painful, later be- 
coming cold and stiff with the skin assuming a parch- 
ment-like condition, so that the animal finally does not 
evince pain upon pressure. The rapid course and the de- 
velopment of the characteristic crepitant swelling makes 
the diagnosis fairly easy. The disease very seldom, if 
ever, is found to exist among animals that are continu- 
ously stabled. Treatment of animals affected with black 
leg is seldom ever attempted, because it has been shown 
that the percentage of recoveries does not in any way 
justify it. The safest method of procedure in herds, in 
which the disease exists, is to slaughter diseased animals 
and to vaccinate all susceptible exposed animals. Vac- 
cination consists of injecting subcutaneously attenuated 
virus, which will confer an immunity lasting as a rule 
long enough to protect the animal until it is old enough 
to acquire a natural immunity. To successfully control 
outbreaks of this disease I wish to call particular atten- 
tion to the disposition of the carcasses. Animals dying 
from black leg should not be removed from the point 
where they are found. If it actually becomes necessary 
that such carcass be removed, do not drag it over the 
ground, as the fluids discharged will infect the soil, 
and the danger of future outbreaks increased. All car- 
casses should be completely burned, and not buried in a 
shallow grave, as is customary. No carcass should be 
left lying on the ground where dogs, cats, birds or ver- 
min might visit, as any of the above might carry the in- 
fection to clean pastures or herds. The removal of the 
hides of these carcasses should not be permitted under 
any circumstances. The disinfection of the ground by 
the free use of lime and a strong disinfectant solution is 
necessary. Comparatively few counties in the state have 
escaped outbreaks of black leg in the last year, but the 



346 TwBNTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

losses by deatk wlien compared to the number of animals 
exposed has been small. This can be accounted for by 
the early diagnosis and the effective vaccination of ex- 
posed animals. 

Rabies (Hydrophobia). 

Rabies is an acute, contagious disease most com- 
monly found to exist in dogs, cats and other carniverous 
animals. It may be transmitted to man and to other ani- 
mals by the bite of an affected animal. It is always fatal 
except where treatment is begun before clinical symp- 
toms of the disease are manifested. The danger of the 
bite of a rabid animal depends entirely upon the viru- 
lence of the saliva and the number of nerves and lym- 
phatic vessels in the wounded part of the body. After 
the bite of a rabid animal the disease does not always 
follow, barely in 60% of the cases. The disease, no mat- 
ter how virulent, cannot penetrate through the uninfected 
skin. All animals are susceptible, and the breed or sex 
has absolutely no influence on susceptibility. It is be- 
lieved that young animals manifest the disease after a 
shorter period of incubation than older animals. The 
disease is usually manifested in from two to eight weeks 
after the bite, but the period of incubation has been 
known to extend to several months. The disease is char- 
acterized by extreme nervousness and excitability in the 
early stages, followed by periods of depression and pa- 
ralysis invariably ending in death in from two to four 
days. Violent rabies attacks most commonly dogs living 
in the open and of a biting nature, while dumb rabies is 
that most commonly found in house dogs and pets. The 
same symptoms are presented in almost all other ani- 
mals, except that herbivora have not the intense desire 
to wound by biting. There is a theory of long standing 
that the rabid animal was afraid of water and would die 
at sight of it. This is a mistake, as it has been proven 
that the rabid animal has an abnormal thirst and will 
drink whenever the opportunity presents itsel¥ until in 
the later stages of the disease the muscles of the throat 
become paralyzed and frequently a general collapse fol- 
lows the excitement and the frequent attempts to swallow. 



BuBEAu OF Ageicultueb. 347 

No treatment is satisfactory in an animal after the dis- 
ease is manifested, but during the period of incubation, 
as soon as possible after inoculation, a prophylactic 
treatment is very satisfactory. Frequently immediately 
after being bitten powerful caustics will kill the virus be- 
fore it is taken up by the blood circulation. But as one 
can never be certain of this result, it is advisable to take 
the serum treatment, which has been frequently admin- 
istered by the State Board of Health authorities at Bow- 
ling Green, Kentucky. Losses from rabies in Kentucky 
have been comparatively small in the last year. Only 
three infections have been reported, all of which were in 
cattle following the bite of a rabid dog. In each instance 
the dog was killed before it had done very great damage. 

Foot Rot ob Neceobacillosis. 

Foot rot in sheep has been more or less prevalent 
for the past several years. The losses sustained, when 
compared to the number of animals affected and those 
exposed, are small. This disease is amendable to treat- 
ment and should not be allowed to affect any great num- 
ber of animals in a flock. It is spread from the diseased 
to the healthy animal through the media of pus contain- 
ing the infection, which may be distributed in pastures, 
chutes, pens, or on the public highway. When the dis- 
ease is found in a flock, the healthy animals should be 
removed from the pastures on which the diseased ani- 
mals are left, and all diseased animals should be sub- 
jected to a treatment which is principally cleanliness. 
After the diseased parts are thoroughly cleansed with 
antiseptics, a mild astringent dressing is very beneficial. 
In advanced cases, it is wise to occasionally use caustics, 
and if treatment is persisted in, a cure will result in a 
comparatively short time. Sheep should not be placed 
on infected pastures for at least sixty days. 

Sheep Scabies. 

During the year 1910, Kentucky was placed under 
Federal quarantine on account of the prevalence of 
scabies among the sheep in this state, and all shipments 
of sheep interstate were prohibited except for immediate 



348 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial, Rbpobt 

slaughter. But, through the excellent results accom- 
plished by Dr. A. J. Payne, of the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
and his force of trained men, the state was released from 
quarantine on May 1, 1913. Since that time very few 
infested flocks have been located. This trouble is usually 
controlled by the frequent dipping of infested flocks in 
either of the coal tar dips or preferably the lime and 
sulphur dip recognize'd by the Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try as being the most effective in the eradication of sheep 
scabies. The result of the infestation of a flock is a gen- 
eral unthriftiness of infested animals and a considerable 
loss of wool. 



PART SIX 



THE WORK OF THE COUNTY AGENTS AND 

CANNING CLUB AGENTS IN KENTUCKY 

UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE 

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE IN CO-OPER- 

ATION WITH THE STATE 

UNIVERSITY 



INTRODUCTION 



FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 



It is not claimed by the State Department of Agri- 
culture that the farm demonstration work is a part of 
the work of the department. Originally this department 
contributed out of its finances to the founding of the dem- 
onstration work in the State, working co-operatively with 
the Federal Department of Agriculture. After Congress 
had passed the Smith-Lever bill and had assumed the ap- 
propriations formerly made by the Rockefellow Founda- 
tion Fund, the co-operative arrangement was made with 
the State University at Lexington. 

It will always be a source of pride to the present 
Conamissioner that it was upon his initiative that the 
annual appropriation of $45,000 from the Federal Bu- 
reau was apportioned to Kentucky for the farm demon- 
stration work. These funds are used for the extension 
work in this State, and the department . gladly prints 
herewith reports from several of the county demonstra- 
tion agents in Kentucky, whose salaries are now main- 
tained upon a basis of the county paying one-half of their 
salary, and the Federal Government the other half. There 
are some forty counties in Kentucky who have regularly 
employed county agents. The variety of assistance ren- 
dered by these agents to the farmers can be gathered 
from their papers as published herewith. 

A list complete to date of all county agents in Ken- 
tucky, with their addresses, is appended that those inter- 
ested may write them direct. Demonstration work in 
Kentucky has only begun, uid. no field of endeavor offers 
greater possibilities than this one. 

J. W. Newman, Commissioner of Agriculture. 



352 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepokt 



LIST OF COUNTY AG-ENTS 



County Name Address 

Ballard Hall, Dudley J Barlow 

Boone Brockway, Robert D Burlington 

Boyd Richardson, G. C Catlettsburg 

Christian Puckett, S. E Hopkinsville 

Crittenden Bird, J. R .Marlon 

Fleming Clayton, W. H Flemingsburg 

Franklin Felts, R. H Frankfort 

Gallatin McDanell, J. R Warsaw 

Grant Fullerton, D. H Wllliamstown 

Hardin Pittman, B. E , .Elizabethtown 

Henderson Brown, P. D Henderson 

Hopkins Taylor, Chas. L Madisonville 

Jackson Reynolds, W. R Tyner 

Jefferson Merriman, F. E Louisville 

Kenton Rhoades, Wayland Independence 

Knott McSwain, Horace E Hindman 

Knox Tye, William Barbourville 

Laurel Morgan, Sam London 

Lawrence Kegley, E. S Louisa 

Logan Rogers, W. H Russellville 

Madison Collins, T. H Richmond 

Madison Spense, Robert F. .^....Berea 

Mason Casey, A. M Maysville 

Mercer Gentry, J. C. - JHarrodsburg 

Metcalfe Bushong, P. W Edmonton 

Monroe Palmore, E. C Tompkinsvllle 

Muhlenberg Finley, A. Y .Greenville 

McCracken Kilpatrick, E. J Paducah 

Ohio Browder, W. W Hartford 

Oldham ..Taylor, John T Lagrange 

Pendleton Smith, Graham A Falmouth 

Pulaski Wilson, W. C Somerset 

Simpson Gayle, H. K Franklin 

Trigg .Varney, K. L Cadiz 

Todd Wyatt, George T Elkton 

Whitley Faulkner, E. H Williamsburg 

Woodford Floyd, C. F Versailles 



REPORTS OF AGENTS. 



BALLARD COUNTY. 



VISITS. 



I have made 190 visits to demonstrators, and 137 
visits to co-operators. Total number of visits, 348. 

I have been interviewed on the road 68 times, and 
in the office I have had 30 interviews. Total number of 
interviews on subjects of importance, 98. 

I have met and talked with 1,109 men engaged in 
farming business in my territory; about seven of this 
number are owners of land, the remainder are renters. 

There are about 325 live names on my mailing list. 
Traveled 1,595 miles by team, and 180 by railroad. 

Have written 287 letters. Distributed 100 letters 
on Alfalfa in Western Kentucky, 100 on Crimson Clover 
and 100 on Fall-sown Red Clover, and have posted 107 
farmers' notices. 

Have administered serum to 214 hogs. 

Have been called 78 times over the telephone, and 
have sent 17 telegrams. 

Have distributed approximately 600 farmers, and 
experiment bulletins. This is not in detail. 

MEETINGS. 

Feb. 7 — Organized Corn Club at Barlow, 60 present. 

Feb. 14— Organized Corn Club at Bandana, 38 present. 

Feb. 15— Organized Corn Club at LaCenter, 49 present. 

Mar. 15— (Bandana Corn Club.) Talked on preparation of seed bed. 

Mar. 19— (Farmers' Club, Kevil.) With E. J. Kilpatrick. Talked on 

Live Stock Raising, 40 present. 
Sept. 4 — WicklifEe (Teachers' Institute). Talked on Co-operation of 

Teachers in Club Work, 200 present. 
Sept. 24 — LaCenter (Country Improvement Club). Talked on Clover 

Crops and their Uses, 215 present. 

Total meetings, 7; total attendance, 482. 



Agr.- 12 



354 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

FIELD MEETINGS. 

Mar. 22— C. H. Berbllng, tree pruning (fruit), 8 present. 

Mar. 24 — L. W. Miller, tree pruning (fruit), 6 present. 

Mar. 26 — S. D. Lovelace, tree pruning (fruit), 9 present. 

Mar. 30 — B. F. Cotner, tree pruning (fruit), 12 present. 

Apr. 6 — J. L. Watson, tree pruning (fruit), 4 present. 

May 15 — R. H. Tanner, straw spreader, 22 present. 

Sept. 9 — Andrew Miller, selecting seed corn, 4 present. 

Sept. 15 — B. F. Cotner, field selecting seed corn, 3 present. 

Sept. 18 — C. B. Mattingly & Son, field selecting sunflower seed (ob- 
ject), to select heads born singly on the stalk; well filled, 
short stalk, and not near stalk that has more than one 
head to the stalk. 

Sept. 23 — Oscar Winn, field selection of seed corn, 5 present. 

Sept. 28 — Prank Holland, field selection of seed corn, 5 present. 
Total field meetings, 11; total attendance, 80. 

LIVE STOCK PURCHASES. 

J. P. Page, registered Holstein bull, two registered cows. 

C. J. Barlow, 1 registered Hampshire boar, two registered sows. 

R. H. Tanner, 1 registered Hereford bull, two registered cows 

(and eight high grades.) 
T. R. Johnson, 1 registered Hereford bull, two registered cows 

(and six high bred grades.) 
T. H. Strickland, 1 registered Duroc Jersey boar. 
Total spent for pure bred live stock, $1,745.00. 

Three cars of feeders purchased to be finished on ensilage, 130 head 
in the three cars, average cost per cwt., $7.65. 

OTHER PURCHASES BY DEMONSTRATORS. 

One manure spreader. One straw spreader. 

One lime spreader. Nine spraying outfits. 

Six tandem attachments for disc harrows. 

LIME AND FERTILIZERS PURCHASED. 

One car acid phosphate, 45,000 lbs.. Barlow, Ky. 
One car acid phosphate, 36,000 lbs., LaCenter, Ky. 

This is the first chemical plant food used in this county, and 
cost $14.40 per ton f. o." b. Barlow and LaCenter. 
One car ground lime stone, 43 tons, to be used on alfalfa. 
One car ground lime stone, 32 tons, to be used on alfalfa. 

SILOS. 

There lias been erected six concrete silos and three 
wooden ones due to demonstration work. These con- 
crete silos are the first in the county, and have an av- 
erage capacity of one hundred and ten tons, and an 
average cost of $321.00. 

The three wooden silos are 10'x28', 50 tons capac- 
ity; 12'x28', 75 tons capacity; 14'x30', 120 tons capac- 



Bureau of Agkicultubb. 355 

ity. These silos were filled under my supervision, and 
all the corn was put in when as near the right stage as 
circumstances would permit. 

All the concrete silos -have continuous doors, are 
coated inside with tar and have shingle roofs. There 
are seven other silos in the county, and four of them 
were filled under my supervision. 

HORTICULTURE. 

I have direct charge of selection of varieties, set- 
ting, and culture of the following orchards : 

J. R. Gholson, 27 acres Barlow 

Mrs. Jno. Cocke, 12 acres Wickliffe 

C. H. Berbling, 8 acres Barlow 

C. P. Howel, 24 acres Barlow 

C. R. Rowland, 9 acres Barlow 

The following old orchards have been eared for 
ander my direction : 

W. H. Megary, 4 acres Barlow 

Oscar Winn, 4 acres Barlow 

R. H. Tanner, 6 acres Barlow 

L. W. Miller, 10 acres Kevil 

H. L. Nance, 24 acres Kevil 

S. X>. Lovelace, 5 acres Kevil 

B. F. Cotner, 11 acres LaCenter 

Pruned 263 fruit trees as samples of correct pruning. 
Held 6 demonstrations in spraying. 

FIELD CROPS. 

12 Dem. in corn other than club acres. 

8 Dem. in tobacco (dark). 

4 Dem. in tobacco (hurley). 
Have 37 acres sown in crimson clover in 7 different places. 
Have 31 acres sown in red clover in 9 different places. 
Have 18 acres sown in alfalfa in hills, and 64 acres In river bottom. 
There are about 250 acres in the county. 
Have 4 demonstrations in soy beans. 
Have 1 demonstration in white clover. 
Have 1 demonstration in potatoes (Irish). 
Have 10 demonstrations in tomatoes. 

Have 237 acres sown in orchard grass in 12 different places. 
Have 11 pastures and one for seed. 

Have 137 acres in barley (winter) in 5 demonstrations. 
Have 400 acres in sunflowers in 1 demonstration. 
Total demonstrations, 80. 

D. J. Hall, 
— . County Agent. 



356 TwBNTT-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

BOYD COUNTY. 

In my eight months' work in Boyd county I have 
been conservative as to the demonstration work under- 
taken. I have taken up only those things I know to be 
thoroughly practical and feasible in every detail. The 
demonstration work as a whole has been a success. 
There have been failures, but they have been such that 
the farmers can see the cause, and consequently have 
never condemned the work in one single case. 

There has been opposition, of course, as there is 
when any new proposition comes up, but I believe most 
of it is fast fading away. 

Data, I suppose, is mostly what is wanted in this 
report, and that will probably reveal more to one not 
upon the ground than anything else, but it is difficult to 
give a report of the actual work done. I will give the 
data wanted in the nature of a summary, and will com- 
ment later. 

The demonstration crops used and the acreage are 
as follows : 

Name of Crop No. of Demonstrations Acres 

Corn .....25 73 

Oats 2 2 

Cowpeas 5 28 

Alfalfa 1 6 

Crimson Clover 6 53 

Rye and Crimson Clover 3 12 

Rye 5 16 

Barley 2 2 

Winter Oats 3 4 

Potatoes 5 3 

Wheat 1 6 

Pasture 1 2 

Totals 59 207 

The above does not include the seven lawns under 
demonstration. 

This has been an exceptional season for crops, and 
especially for com, except in the wettest bottom lands. 

The com crop of Boyd county is far better thaji 
the average, the yield averaging about 30 bushels per 
pcre this season. The demonstration corn will average 
45 bushels per acre. Some which was upon fairly good 
soil to start with will go as high as 90 bushels per acre, 



BxTKBAXJ OF Ageiculturb. 357 

while some that was i-uined by water will not jdeld more 
than 25 bushels per acre. 

The oats demonstration showed up fine. In each 
case the demonstration plat was in a field of from three 
to five acres, and the results could be seen at a distance 
of half a mile. Those under demonstration were all dur- 
ing the growing season from three to six inches taller 
than those growing beside them untreated. The yield 
in one was about forty bushels per acre, while the un- 
treated was about twenty-five. 

The cow peas have been a success in every case, and 
they certainly responded to the treatment of acid 
phosphate. 

The alfalfa demonstration was a complete failure. 
One cause was that Mr. Calvin wanted to sow it in the 
spring, and as a result it was smothered by weeds. 

The crimson clover demonstrations have been a 
success in nearly every case. In one or two instances 
the demonstrator failed to get a good stand due to a 
Khort drought striking it just at the wrong time. 

Crimson clover has taken with the people like John- 
eon grass takes to the soil. There has been as much as 
one hundred and fifty acres sown in the county as a 
result of the demonstration work, when ten acres is 
more than was ever sown before in the county. 

The potato demonstrations have shown results of 
treatment, but they have nothing marvelous, since the 
potato this season has been an unusual crop. 

Silos are growing in favor very rapidly in Boyd 
county. There have been seven erected this season. The 
total number now in the county is twenty-one. 

A summary of the work done is as follows : 

Total number of demonstrators 41 

Total number of demonstrations 65 

Total number of visits made 426 

Total number of interviews 152 

Total number of letters written 383 

Total number of miles traveled 2,936 

Supervised the vaccination of 1,531 head of cattle 
against black-leg. More than one dozen syringes have 
been purchased as a result of the work. More than 
400 head of cattle have been vaccinated by the owners. 



358 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

I have never vaccinated the second time for any man, 
and only in a few instances have I made the second 
visit to instruct them in the work. 

The introduction of the Government method of vac- 
cination has saved the farmers of Boyd county $250 in 
vaccine alone, not counting anything for the cattle 
saved. 

I have inoculated 36 head of hogs against cholera. 
This is only a few hogs, but when you consider that the 
inoculation saved one man $250 in hogs, it means some- 
thing. 

The one big thing that I have been working on is 
to secure a creamery for Boyd county, and when this 
is accomplished, I will feel that my services have 
smounted to something — ^we will have it before I let up. 

I have organized three farmers' clubs. Have at- 
tended five or six meetings of various kinds, mostly 
teachers' meetings, and given talks in the interest of 
the Boys' Club work. We have a lime spreader in the 
county as a result of the work. Have used 35 tons of 
acid phosphate, when there had been only a few hun- 
dred pounds used prior to my coming into the county. 

In conclusion, I want to say that the people of 
Boyd county have shown hearty co-operation both from 
the farmers and the people of the towns; without this, 
of course, the work would have amounted to nothing. 

Gr. C. ElCHAEDSON, 

County Agent. 

CHEISTIAN COUNTY. 

In compliance with your request for a report of 
my work in Christian county, I have the honor to present 
the following account: 

Upon arrival at Hopkinsville, Tuesday, September 
7th, after a four days' trip by automobile from Mays- 
ville, my former headquarters, having encountered rain 
tor two days of trip, and some other difficulties, I im- 
mediately got in touch with Judge Wm. T. Fowler, Pres- 
ident of the Crop Improvement Committee, and other 
members of the committee, and Mr. B. G-. Nelson, State 
Com Club Agent, talking over the situation with them, 
and getting all the information I could obtain. 



Bureau of Agkicultube. 359 

The day following I had the opportunity of meet- 
ing a great many of the farmers, business and profes- 
sional men at work on the roads, this being ' ' Good Roads 
Day." I am greatly indebted to Mr. B. Gr. Nelson for 
bis assistance in accompanying me up and down the 
different roads, and presenting me to the workers. 

The policy of meeting the citizens of the county was 
continued, and with that end in view the business men, 
county officials, and others were visited with the idea 
that it was advisable to establish my identity, and to 
sferve notice on the people in a personal way that I was 
on the job, and ready to serve them in any way that 
I could. 

As superintendent of "Agricultural Exhibits" at 
the Pennyroyal Fair, I scoured the country for exhib- 
its of com, tobacco, fruit, vegetables and live stock, with 
the result that we had the best agricultural exhibit ever 
put on at this fair, as evidenced by enclosed clippings. 
Again I was indebted to Mr. B. G. Nelson for accompa- 
nying me on these excursions, and profiting by his sug- 
gestions, succeeded in locating many good exhibits. 

A special effort was made to get the Com Club 
Boys interested in the fair, and to select com for ex- 
hibit at the State Fair and at our county fair. As a 
result of this activity, one of these boys won first pre- 
mium at the State Fair for Western Kentucky, and $20 
in money, and on showing this same com at the local 
fair won $25 in money, and first on single ear and on 
ten ears. Encouraged by his son's success, Mr. W. T. 
Keatts made some selections for exhibit, and won first 
premium in the adult class. 

Fair week was a busy time for me, as the arrange- 
ment of exhibits, interviews with farmers, advising with 
exhibitors about their show stuff, and meeting the peo- 
ple generally, consumed the entire week. 

I visited the State Fair in the interest of Christian 
county, securing a registered pig as a premium for the 
Christian County Pig Club boys, from a breeder in the 
northern part of the State, Mr. Thos. Powers, of Crit- 
tenden, Kentucky. 

Through my efforts one of the large breeders of 
Durocshas agreed to give every Pig Club boy entitled 
to consideration a registered sow pig. 



360 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EbPORT 

Work witli hogs lias been given some attention, hav- 
ing vaccinated two herds with splendid results from 
the first herd treated, and the second herd ,to hear from. 

The special work that I have been doing has inter- 
fered with starting the regular routine of a county 
agent's duties. I have made long trips to individual 
farms, at the special request of the owners, and it 
is my intention to stay several days in the neighbor- 
hoods, visiting the surrounding farms while there, as 
opposed to jumping from one neighborhood to another. 
A meeting of the Crop Improvement Committee will be 
called, when a plan of procedure will be presented to 
them for discussion. 

Some time has been given to the collection of data, 
notifying farmers, business men and others, of the in- 
tention of the Secretary of the Department of Agricul- 
ture to feature Christian county in the year book of the 
department, as an example of the co-operative spirit. 

The farmers being very busy with their tobacco 
crop and other farm business, the fair, and other press- 
ing matters, I have not pressed the club work, but have 
had one meeting talking live stock, less plowed ground, 
more grass and more manure as a necessity for the 
economical maintenaxice of humus and soil fertility. 

The people of Christia,n county are very cordial and 
helpful. I have made it a point to study conditions, 
the people, their character, point of view and other 
matters bearing on the demonstration work, and to 
work in harmony with the conditions as I found them. 

A. M. Casey, 

County Agent. 

CLAY, JACKSON AND OWSLEY ■ COUNTIES. 

I commenced work as county agent in parts of the 
counties of Clay, Jackson and Owsley, on September 
1, 1914. There being no semblance of interest in scien- 
tific farm work ; no co-operation, no f aimers ' clubs ; but 
little pure-bred live stock; no county fairs; no corn 
&hows, school fairs, etc., I at once proceeded to endeavor 
to arouse interest by making a series of rounds of speak- 
ings at public schools, arranging the dates ahead, and 
with the school superintendent of each county visiting 



Bureau op Ageicultuee. 361 

with me, we succeeded, through the help of the teachers, 
in getting out several farmers at each point.- 1 furnished 
all present with G-overnment bulletins, dealing with 
crops and things that most were interested in, and on 
the third trip we proceeded to organize farmers' clubs, 
with the teacher usually as chairman. I supplied these 
clubs mth books and bulletins, and the teacher would 
have a short program at each meeting, in which boys 
and girls took a part. I attended as many of these club 
meetings as possible, and soon had an interest, and by 
attending all cou.nty court days and public gatherings, 
I found myself swamped with inquiries along agricul- 
tural lines. I had most of my demonstrators elected by 
the club membership to carry out a certain kind of dem- 
onstration, and most all have been true to their elec- 
tive duties. I have been successful in most all of my 
demonstrations. I have thirteen sweet clover demon- 
strators, and most plats are showing up well, with the 
soil well limed, and the indications are that many of 
ihem will grow sweet clover. My eighteen red clover 
demonstrators are well pleased with the results of my 
instructions. The two alfalfa lots look good now, but 
time is required to prove its worth here. I have dem- 
onstrators on practically all the crops grown in this 
community, and expect more next year, with better re- 
sults. 

I succeeded in getting three "barrel sprayers" and 
three barrels lime sulphur-solution and Bordeaux mix- 
ture donated to my territory for demonstrating the care 
of trees and fruit, for which these three counties are 
noted, and outside the fire-blight, I'esults are good, and 
many more orchards will be sprayed next season in or- 
der to stamp out the San Jose Scale, and other fruit 
troubles, which are prevalent in most all orchards. I 
have had five hundred and forty tons (6 cars) crushed 
limestone distributed and applied to the sour soils, with 
an echo coming back from all who used it ' ' Grive us more 
lime." Mr. Grant Blair's field of corn, where one-half 
was fertilized with 1-8-1 goods, ^and the other half with 
three tons of lime, the limed half stands a witness for 
the results of the lime, and lime has taken its place here. 



362 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eeport 

The six clubs tliat used the lime have also purchased 
co-operatively their fertilizers, pure-bred stock and field 
seeds, and all are pleased with the results, and co-opera- 
tion will be practiced more in the future. The Tyner 
Club has purchased pure-bred hogs, bulls, and poultry, 
and out of a membership of forty-eight, only five have 
refused to discuss publicly any subject assigned to them. 

Through the school campaign and farmers' clubs 
I succeeded in. organizing a com club in each of the 
three counties, with a total membership of 386, and a 
large per cent, of said membership has grown its acres 
of com, and all the talk now is about the boys' com 
plats, and the success they have made. I attended the 
teachers' institute in each of the three counties, and 
succeeded in getting committees appointed to draft pro- 
grams for school fairs and com clubs, which I am now 
about ready to carry out, beginning at Booneville, Octo- 
ber 8th and 9th, McKee October 15th and 16th, Man- 
chester October 22d and 23d, with a program for the 
school children as well as com club boys. With the co- 
operation of the teachers, we are expecting success with 
our first attempt, with good prizes offered for all farm 
products, making a specialty of the crops grown by my 
demonstrators. We are to have a parade by com club 
boys and tomato club girls. 

I have traveled two thousand seven hundred and 
forty-six nules horseback since January 9, 1915, and one 
thousand two hundred and eighty miles by rail (three 
hundred and eighty-seven miles were traveled on Sun- 
day, in order to be present on court days). I have at- 
tended forty-two farmers ' club meetings and special 
farmers' meetings, and have addressed three thousand 
and ninety-eight farmers ell told. Have addressed on 
my own appointments forty-nine meetings of boys and 
girls, with a total attendance of two thousand and nine- 
ty-eight. Have made personally one hundred and sixty- 
four visits to demonstration classes, and have visited 
and talked personally with seven hundred and fifty-six 
farmers on farm work. Harv^e had conferences or pub- 
lic discussions with three hundred and eighteen educa- 
tors in some way or other, and have talked with one 
hundred and seventy-two business men relative to agri- 



Bureau of Ageicultueb. 363 

culture. Have spent twenty-eigM dollars of my own 
money for printing speaking dates, circular letters and 
otherwise. 

The above figures run from January 9, 1915, when 
I commenced to keep an accurate record of my work. I 
have also written five hundred and eighty-eight letters 
in connection with my work. Have had eighty-seven 
visits to my office by farmers, and two hundred and 
ninety-five phone conferences with several other impor- 
tant activities connected with my work left untold. Of 
all that I have endeavored to do, I think most of the fact 
that I caused to be erected a twelve by thirty-six foot 
concrete silo for W. A. Worthington, of Annville, Ken- 
tucky, the first of any kind of silo in this part of the 
mountains, and a curiosity to lots of the people here. 
When I told Uncle Jim Robinson I was erecting a silo 
at Annville, he seemed so pleased, and said: "I am proud 
of it; we will have a closer place to send our people 
when they go crazy." When we began filling the silo 
last week, then good expressions came from the farm- 
ers — this is only the beginning, they say. The greatest 
good I have accomplished in my work is the complete 
demonstrations I am carrying out on my farm, which 
has been in progress for eight years, and which is a 
valuable asset to me in my present work as county 
agent. I have hot attempted to give a full account of 
my work in this short report, but only attempted to give 
you an idea of the method which I employ in carrying 
on my work. 

W. R. Reynolds, 
' County Agent. 

CRITTENDEN COUNTY. 

I began work in Crittenden county December 11, 
1914. I found here no organizations to direct the Work. 
As the money for my salary was made up here in Ma- 
rion, the country people knew nothing about it, nor the 
character of the work. With the aid of the county 
school superintendent I selected places to organize 
farmers' clubs. Taking each quarter of the county 
weekly I organized sixteen such clubs. Through these 
club meetings which are held at night I have created 



364 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Repoet 

interest in the work throughout the whole county, and 
have secured my demonstrators and co-operators, and 
organized com and pig clubs. 

We have demonstrations on com, tobacco, orchards, 
rape, cow peas, soy beans, alfalfa, rye, wheat, crimson 
clover, winter oats, barley, strawberries, hog feeding, 
and cattle feeding. 

Cotton seed meal had never been introduced here 
as feed. Last winter we bought one carload on the co- 
operative plan, with excellent results. Very little acid 
phosphate had been used; 14% sold for twenty-one dol- 
lars; 16% at twenty-five dollars, on time. Through the 
Marion Milling Company and farmers' clubs, the farm- 
ers have bought ten carloads of 16% acid phosphate at 
fourteen dollars and sixty cents; and four carloads of 
ground limestone. 

We have undertaken to standardize the cattle in 
the county, and now have forty Hereford bulls in ser- 
vice. 

Have gotten ten men started shipping cream. Have 
helped in the construction of twelve wood stave silos, 
vwo concrete and three home-made ones. Have planned 
several dairy and cattle bams, some new structures and 
eome remodeled. Have saved several cows that had 
milk fever, and vaccinated hogs, the first work of the 
kind ever done in the county, saving '95%. 

Have created a good deal of interest in the pig and 
corn club work, and made a good showing at the pig 
show held here in Marion August 28th; sent from this 
show the pig that won second prize at the State Fair in 
Louisville. I am making the rounds of the county schools 
and organizing pig and corn clubs for the coming year. 
Expect to introduce pure-bred hogs in the county 
through the pig clubs. 

I had under my charge one piece of Timothy hay, 
treated with acid phosphate and harrowed, which cut 
8,220 pounds to the acre, cured hay. Also had one piece 
of alfalfa, seeded in September, 1914, treated with acid 
phosphate in the spring and harrowed after each- cut- 
ting, which yielded five tons of cured hay to the acre. 
Have some good demonstrations on corn, one field 
planted in five different ways. Would like to give exact 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 365 

results, but tlie corn is not gathered. The same quan- 
tity of each division will be weighed to determine the 
results. The treated sections appear to be easily twice 
as good as the untreated. Am also doing some soil build- 
ing by using soy beans and cow peas, hogging off and 
turning under the vines. On a forty-acre field, seeded 
to peas, we received fifty dollars clear of expenses and 
turned under heavy coat of Arines, this to be followed 
with wheat, using two hundred pounds of acid phos- 
phate and seeded to grass. Acid phosphate was used 
en nearly all of the grass and wheat sown this fall. Have 
succeeded in getting a number of farmers interested in 
cutting bushes, stopping gullies and cleaning up fence 
rows. Introduced the Hartig Attachment (for sub- 
soiling), which will be used on large acreage of corn 
land this fall and winter. In .all cases where we used 
this method last winter we received good results. This 
land had been plowed shallow for so long that it had 
become thin and had poor under drainage, hard-pan hav- 
ing formed from three to five inches under the surface. 

We bought large quantities of spraying materials, 
co-operatively, and succeeded in getting the fruit trees 
sprayed from three to five times, and have a ten thou- 
sand bushel apple crop being harvested as a result, said 
to be the best the county has ever produced. 

The business men of the county say the crop this 
year had better preparation and received better culti- 
vation than in the past. I have been giving my time 
to the preparation and working up of a county fair and 
stock show, to be held in Marion October 29th, to en- 
courage better live stock, and have had to do this with 
very little help, as it is a new thing here. 

Weekly average : Travel horseback 100 miles, visited 
40 farmers, distributed 70 bulletins, wrote 8 letters, held 
5 meetings, had 12 telephone calls, and talked to 3 
schools. 

J. Egbert Bird^ 

County Agent. 



366 TwENTY-FlKST BlENWIAIi RePOET 

FLEMING' COUNTY. 

/ 

SUMMAEY OF WOKK FEOM^ JANUARY TO AuGUST, INCLUSIVE. 

Number of miles traveled, exclusive of trips to Lex- 
ington in January, and western trip in June, 1,716 ; num- 
ber of addresses made, 67; number of people present, 
2,948; number of farmers interviewed, 1,792; number 
of pbone calls, 1,184; number of letters written, 329; 
number of visits made to demonstrators, 137; number 
of visits made to co-operators, 46; attended farmers' 
cbautauquas three days; had booth at Ewing Fair in 
which to meet and confer with farmers for two days. 
J have organized ten farmers' clubs, but at the present 
time am unable to give the number of farmers enrolled. 
We also organized the "Fleming County Horse, Jack 
and Mule Breeders' Association," making the total of 
clubs organized eleven. In co-operation, we purchased 
1,000 bushels of coal at a saving of two hundred dollars; 
one hundred bushels of sweet clover seed at a saving 
of twenty dollars; seventy-five bushels of soy beans at 
a saving of seventy-five dollars; forty-three bushels of 
cow peas at a saving of twelve dollars; and other field 
seeds at a saving of thirty dollars. We also bought co- 
operatively ten spray pumps at a saving of sixty-five 
dollars and eighty cents; and spray material at a sav- 
ing of sixty-five dollars. By combining our orders on 
fertilizer we forced the dealers down on prices, and so 
saved to the farmers of the county approximately four 
thousand dollars. 

A certain chemical company sent its state agent to 
see me. He stated in the presence of others that his 
company had "broken" every county agent in the State, 
and wanted to know what I was going to do in the mat- 
ter. This state agent also told Mr. Fay, who was hand- 
ling fertilizer for another company, that his company 
had broken every man who cut prices to the farmers, 
and that they would get him also. Our demonstrations 
in most instances have proven quite satisfactory. We 
have convinced quite a number of our good farmers that 
as a rule in this (Fleming) county it does not pay to 
purchase so-called complete fertilizer; that most of our 
soils need lime and phosphorus. 



Btjkeau 03? Ageicultuee. 367 

In an effort to bring about a better understanding 
and spirit of co-operation among tbe farmers and the 
citizens of our county seat, we will hold an agricultural 
fair in Flemingsburg on Friday and Saturday, Octo- 
ber 15th and 16th. We have one Boys' Corn Club with 
a membership of fifteen, and in order to arouse a deeper 
interest in agriculture among the boys and girls we have 
designated Saturday as "Children's Day." Many of 
the premiums wUl go to boys and girls between the ages 
of ten and eighteen years. A chapel organ will be given 
to the country school district having the largest per 
cent, of its census enrollment in attendance at the fair 
on the sixteenth. 

I am fully persuaded that if we are to permanently 
improve the agricultural conditions, it must be through 
the young people on the farms. 

W. H. Clayton, 

County Agent. 

FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

I submit below a brief statement of the work done in 
Franklin county, Kentucky: 

I was ordered to report for work on April 15, 1915, 
and upon arriving in Frankfort I was met and introduced 
to the farmers who were in town that day and to a num- 
ber of the merchants and other business men. Desiring 
to get in touch with the farmers as soon as possible, the 
next morning I went with Mr. E. M. Armstrong out 
through the northern part of the county, and found the 
men whom I met very hospitable and ready to fall in line 
with the work. 

Realizing that it was too late for my work to have 
any material effect on the majority of the crops then 
growing, I determined to try to gain the confidence of the 
people first of all, and thus be in position to work to the 
best possible advantage with them on the crops for the 
fall and winter. This I attempted to do by going to the 
various farms, becoming acquainted with the men and 
offering timely suggestions concerning the various prob- 
lepas that confronted them ; by meetings held at different 



368 TwENTY-FiEST BiBimiAL Rbpobt 

places over the county for the discussion of farm prob- 
lems, and by visits to tbe iscbools where talks were made 
to the children to inte;:^t them in com club work and 
farm life in general. /^ 

Since assuming the duties of county agent I have 
made 321 visits to farms, held 12 farmers' meetings, 
mailed and distributed 112 bulletins, written 110 letters 
of a business nature, and liave been called to see a num- 
ber of sick animals. At the first call of this kind re- 
ceived, a horse was reported sick, and with Mr. Geoffrey 
Morgan, who was with me that day, I went to see the ani- 
mal. We found a bad case of tetanus, and suggested that 
a veterinarian be called and antitoxin administered. This 
was done and the horse recovered, and the owner is one 
of the most staunch friends I have. 

About June first many of the merchants of Frank- 
fort received letters written from Louisville, signed by 
L. E. Stockard, in which an attempt was made to belittle 
the work of the county agent, and a number of false state- 
ments were made, among them the statement that the 
agent was attempting to make worse the relations be- 
tween merchant and farmer, that he was advising the 
farmer not to trade with the local merchant, and that he 
advocated buying from mail-order houses. Immediately 
upon my return from the trip to Bowling Green and Hop- 
kinsville, I went to see the mechants who had received 
these letters, and explained the situation to them, and 
assured them of my intention to do all possible to im- 
prove the condition of the existing relationship between 
merchant and farmer. Just at that time a movement was 
on foot to organize a Business Men's Club, and after re- 
ceiving permission from the district and state agents, I 
helped to perfect the organization, became better ac- 
quainted with the business men, and was elected one of 
the eight directors of the Frankfort Chamber of Com- 
merce. Since that time I have attempted to draw the 
country and city nearer together, and to make the coun- 
try people see that the town people are their friends, 
and need them, and to make the city people realize that 
they must have the co-operation of the country people in 



BuKEATj OF Ageicultuee. 369 

order to make Frankfort tlie city it should be. In tMs 
way I have been to a great degree successful. 

During the summer I devoted my time and attention 
to impressing upon the farmers the necessity of return- 
ing plant food to the soil in the various ways, and of 
sowing winter cover crops, instead of allowing the land 
to lay bare in the winter, as many have previously done. 
I found that many were attempting to grow alfalfa, and 
that some were successfully growing it. In the majority 
of cases either absolute failure or a poor crop had re- 
sulted from seeding land not in the proper condition, 
where lime was needed, and from not inoculating the soil ; 
but in some cases the farmers had been successful be- 
cause care had been taken in preparing for the crop, and 
because lime was present in the soil, mainly where hill- 
sides were seeded after great quantities of rock had been 
removed. At the present time more alfalfa is growing 
in the county than ever before, and more men have cover 
crops, crimson clover, rye or some other crop growing 
on their fields than at any previous time. 

In June an outbreak of hog cholera was reported 
on one farm, but not until nearly a week after the hogs 
were noticed to be off feed, and about four days after 
the first animal died. When the herd was seen it was 
evident that most of the hogs were affected, but all were 
given the serum alone treatment, and about one-third 
of them were saved. I immediately notified the men on 
the surrounding farms of the outbreak and advised that 
their hogs be given the treatment. This was immediately 
done by the county agent, and not an animal on any ex- 
cept the farm where the outbreak occurred ever showed 
the least signs of the disease. Prompt measures and the 
co-operation of the farmers prevented its spread, and 
saved the people of the county thousands of dollars. 

At the present time attention is being devoted to 
urging upon the farmer the necessity of careful selection 
of seed from the field for next year's corn crop, and to 
the organization of Boys' Com and Pig Clubs for 1916. 

It is planned to have a meeting of the retail men 
of the city about the 18th or 20th of this month, at which 
State Agent Geoffrey Morgan will be present, and out- 



370 TwENTY-FlEST BlBNlSIAIi EePOET 

line to them an effective plan for a systematic method of 
co-operation between them pnd the farmers, and it is my 
sincere desire to see the plan put into operation, which 
no doubt will be done yithin a short time. 
Respectfully submitted, 

ExjFUS H. Felts, 

County Agent. 

GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Beginning the work of county agent in Gallatin 
county, Kentucky, on January first, 1915, my first two 
days were spent in studying the instructions governing 
the work of county agents, studying bulletins and writ- 
ing two newspaper articles on the work of the county 
agent, and another on "The Com Crop in Kentucky," 
and in arranging mailing lists of farmers suitable for 
demonstrators and co-operators. 

From January fourth to ninth, inclusive, I attended 
the conference of county agents held at the College of 
Agriculture, at Lexington, Kentucky, receiving infor- 
mation for my work from State and districts agents. 

My next work was that of securing demonstrators 
and co-operators for the different crops, and arranging 
for the organization of boys' com clubs and pig clubs. 

I have induced twenty-five farmers in the county to 
spray their fruit trees for eradicating the' San Jose 
Scale, and I find that in every case the trees were greatly 
benefited, and in most cases the scale is entirely eradi- 
cated. We used the commercial lime-sulphur solution, 
and found it to be thoroughly satisfactory. Li the work 
of spraying I had the assistance of Dr. J. H. Carmody, 
of the Experiment Station, who was with me two days, 
and held two field meetings, and gave an evening lecture 
besides visiting several individual farmers who were 
interested. Quite a number of the farmers of the county 
have decided to pay more attention to fruit growing, 
and will follow the full season spray next year. I have 
two demonstrators who have used the full season spray 
on apples, and the result is an abundant crop of fruit 
of excellent quality. I find that the fire-blight has af- 
fected all of the pear orchards, and the greater part of 
the apple orchards of the county, and have had iu' 



'BuBEAu OF Ageicultuee. 371 

quiries from farmers as to the treatment. I explained 
the cause as per the directions of the State Experiment 
Station, and recommended the pruning and the destruc- 
tion of the affected branches. 

We have had some valuable demonstrations in the 
growing of crimson clover, as to its different uses. One 
plat of four acres was used as pasture for hogs and cat- 
tle, and afforded the best early pasture to be seen in 
the county. This plat was afterwards turned under, 
and planted to rape for hog pasture. Another plat of 
crimson clover was cut for hay, and made a yield of two 
tons per acre, the hay being cut just as the clover began 
to bloom. This plat was turned under May 15th, and 
planted to com which will yield seventy bushels to the 
acre. 

There has been sown fifty acres of crimson clover 
in the county for cover crops and soil-bidlding, as the 
result of two demonstrations. I have urged the use of 
legumiuous crops for the restoration of soil fertility, 
and have had quite a number of successful demonstra- 
tions in sweet clover, red clover and soy beans. Our 
demonstrators have been only partially successful with 
alfalfa, owing to the extremely wet season, which made 
it practically impossible to keep the spring-sown alfalfa 
cleaned from weeds and crab-grass. 

Those demonstrators who have been able to keep 
their alfalfa plats clean have grown splendid crops; 
some of them cutting as many as three crops from April 
sowing. All alfalfa demonstrators used the inoculating 
culture prepared by the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, D. C. The fall sowing of alfalfa has done 
exceedingly well in the county this year, and quite a 
number of those who failed on the spring sowing, have 
splendid crops of alfalfa now growing on the same plat. 
I have paid special attention to induoiug farmers to sow 
cover crops this fall. Crimson clover and rye seem to 
be the best for us here. 

Very little commercial fertilizer is used by the 
farmers of the county, and I have recommended the use 
of home mixed fertilizer in preference to the ready- 
mixed. One of my demonstrators in tobacco used a fer- 
tilizer of four hundred pounds of acid phosphate, 16%, 
and one hundred pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre, 



ri 



72 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 



with splendid results. This demonstration showed an 
increase in the crop, and a saving on the cost of fer- 
tilizer as compared with the use of a ready-mixed to- 
bacco fertilizer used Jast year on the same type of soil. 
Six new silos have been constructed in the county, two 
at least through the influence of demonstration work. 
I have two good demonstrations in dairying. Both dem- 
onstrators have filled their silos for winter, and are 
feeding alfalfa and soy bean hay for roughage, and 
use balanced rations for grain feeding. 

In the work of my demonstrators in com I have 
urged the deep breaking of the land, good .preparation 
of seed 'beds, and frequent shallow cultivation, which 
instructions have been followed as nearly as possible, 
with good results. On account of an extremely wet sea- 
son there has been some difficulty in keeping the com 
crop cleaned from weeds and grass, and the number of 
times of cultivating the crops has been lessened, but the 
season has been such that we have the greatest com 
crop in the county that we have seen for several years. 

I have three demonstrations in hog feeding, one 
of which is the diy lot plan, and two the forage plan. 
These demonstrations are doing fine. In the dry lot 
demonstration a balanced ration of grain is used with 
soiling from green alfalfa and clover. In the forage 
demonstration we are using rape, oats and cow peas, 
and feeding do^vn corn in the field. I have made one 
demonstration in Sudan grass, which has shown that it 
can be grown here with very little expense, and will make 
a good hay crop. Our demonstration plat consisted of 
three-fourths of an acre, planted May 11th ; two crops of 
two tons each were harvested and found to make excel- 
lent hay, especially for horses. 

One demonstration in millet shows a yield of three 
tons of hay per acre at a cost of about three dollars per 
ton for production. A demonstration in sorghum, for 
feeding dairy cows shows excellent results. 

A brief summary of the work done in the county up 
to October is about as follows : I have twenty-six dem- 
onstrators, some making demonstrations in two or more 
crops, and twenty-six co-operators. Have organized a 
Com Club of' one hundred members, and a Pig Club of 
thirty-one members. Of the Com Club members about 



BUEEATJ OF AgKICULTXJEB. 373 

eixty will be able to make good reports, and I hope to 
get at least twenty-five good reports from the Pig Club 
boys. I have distributed several hundred bulletins 
among the farmers, bearing on most every subject and 
phase of the work that would be of interest to them; 
have devoted one hundred and sixty-five days to the 
work, and am at present securing demonstrators for next 
year, securing data for crop reports, and organizing 
club work among the boys of the county. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. R. McDanell, 

County Agent. 

GRANT COUNT y. 

From November 11, 1914, to October 2, 1915, or 45 
weeks. 

The agent has traveled a total of 2,860 miles on the 
road by buggy or motorcycle and 1,160 miles by rail. 
He has made 305- visits to demonstrators and 366 visits 
to co-operators; 128 telephone calls; 545 interviews and 
consultations; written 426 letters; 409 packets of bulle- 
tins, circulars, etc., mailed; 13 articles for newspapers; 
taken part in 24 meetings with a total attendance of 1,508. 
He has vaccinated 80 calves for black-leg. 

The agent is conducting 68 demonstrations with 40 
demonstrators, of which 6 are with com, 11 with acid 
phosphate, 11 with alfalfa, 3 with crimson clover, 6 with 
sweet clover, 2 with vetch, 4 with cow peas, 5 with soy 
beans, several with pulverized lime; 1 with cottonseed 
meal as fertilizer; 9 in the spraying and care of or- 
chards ; 3 in dairying, and 5 in miscellaneous. 

Before the coming of the agent no acid phosphate 
had been used in the county — this year over 20 tons were 
used at the suggestion of the agent, and it is safe to fore- 
tell the buying of several carloads next year because it 
is more effective on G-rant county soil than complete fer- 
tilizers costing ten dollars a ton more. 

Under the encouragement of the agent an increased 
interest in pure-bred dairy cattle has developed, par- 
ticularly in the whole southern part of the county. Along 
with 28 dairymen the agent visited some dairies of Pen- 
dleton county and the result has been the purchase of 



374 TwENTY-FlBST BlE|i^IAL EePOET 

/ 

registered stock by several, particularly registered 'Hol- 
stein bulls. 

Under co-operation of tbe agent, alfalfa ground has 
been more carefully prepared, sweet clover more widely 
sown ; orchards sprayed and apples of a fine quality have 
been produced from a half dozen of these sprayed or- 
chards. The county farm orchard was sprayed under 
close direction of the agent and gave better fruit than 
had ever been produced there. 

Interest in better seed com and wheat and alfalfa 
is evidently following propaganda of the agent, and the 
Com Show last fall. New varieties of alfalfa, the Grimm 
and Orenberg, are under test in the county. 

Six com club boys turned in record books. The 
com boys' ten ear sample exhibits at the State Fair won 
two prizes, a first and a third. 

The county agent has visited many schools of the 
county and has gained the co-operation of a number of 
the teachers in teaching the children many things about 
the farm. 

D. H. FULLEETOlSr, 

County Agent. 

HENDERSON COUNTY. 

In January, 1914, I became County Agent in Hen- 
derson county, Kentucky. My first work, after I had 
surveyed the field here, was with orchards, spraying and 
pruning. During the first few months of my work I 
pruned trees in forty orchards and sprayed in fifty, and 
then in the spring at planting time I succeeded in plant- 
ing four new orchards. In the fall of 1914 I assisted 
the fruit growers with their exhibits at the State Fair, 
where fifteen first and six second ribbons were won. In 
November of 1914 all the prizes secured and all the work 
pertaining to the fruit and com show was done by the 
county agent, and the fruit show was pronounced by the 
judge to be the best ever held in Kentucky. In the Wine- 
sap class there were twenty entries. 

In 1914 two hundred and thirteen acres of alfalfa, 
fifteen acres of crimson clover, twenty acres of alsike, 
seventy-five acres of winter oats, eighty acres of red 
clover, ten acres of vetch and rye, fifty acres of crimson 



BxTEBATj OB" Ageicultuee. 375 

clover and rye, one hundred and twenty acres of cow 
peas, and one hundred and ten acres of soy beans were 
planted nnder the direction of the county agent. There 
were only two failures out of twenty-eight with alfalfa, 
and both of those were spring-sown plots. 

In 1914 six silos were built through the influence of 
demonstration work. All of these were concrete. 

In July, 1914, the farmers and business men here 
were requested to write to the proper authorities and 
ask that an experiment to control and eradicate hog 
cholera be carried on in Henderson county. The appeal 
was granted and about six thousand hogs have been 
treated up to the present time with only a small loss. 
Serum and veterinarian services are free to the farmers 
who have infected herds. In 1914 the county agent sold 
to the farmers of this and adjoining counties ninety thou- 
sand cubic centimeters of hog cholera serum made by 
the State, the serum depot being under the county 
agent's charge. 

In 1914 eighty-two farmers' meetings were held, 
with a total attendance of about 3,086 persons. Twenty- 
one schools were visited. In all, four hundred and nine- 
ty-six Iniles were traveled by rail, and three thousand 
two hundred and eighteen by team. Minor demonstra- 
tions were also conducted in stump blowing, drainage, 
com cultivation, apple packing, seed selection, tobacco 
cultivation, liming, lawns, truck gardening, strawberry 
raising, home gardening, milk testing, hog feeding, poul- 
try raising, concrete work, and Boys' and Girls' Club 
work. Thirty-one improved implements were bought in 
1914. 

In 1915 one hundred and fifty-six acres of alfalfa, 
forty-eight acres of crimson clover, eighty acres of peas, 
one hundred and four acres of soy beans, seventy-five 
acres of red clover, twenty acres of winter oats, sixty 
acres of barley, twenty acres of rape, and twenty-five 
acres of sweet clover were planted in demonstration plats. 
Active assistance was given in organizing a new agri- 
cultural fair, which was a decided success. The State 
Farmers' Institute was held here, the total attendance 
for the three days being about 3,000 people, and the in- 
stitute was pronoujxced by the Commissioner of Agricul- 



376 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

ture and the members of the State Board of Agriculture 
to be the best in point of attendance and interest ever 
held. 

During Farmers' Week at the Experiment Station 
the fruit exhibit collected by the agent won bronze medal, 
and two blue and two red ribbons were won in corn. 

At 1915 State Fair eighteen first and thirteen sec- 
ond ribbons were won in exhibits collected by and in 
charge of county agent. 

Six new silos were built due to demonstration work. 
Three carloads of acid phosphate and about thirty car- 
loads of limestone were bought. Boys' and girls' club 
work was carried on, and fifteen pieces of improved ma- 
chinery were bought. 

P. D. Beown^ 

County Agent. 

HOPKINS COUNTY. 

It seems when I first went to Hopkins county to take 
up the work of county agent that the time for this work 
was premature, for the business men and not the farmers 
were the ones interested. I realized that if I made the 
work a success, as I was determined to do, I must inter- 
est the farmers as well as the commercial interests. 

Taking up the work in the autumn, when the schools 
were in session, I very often visited them and left dates 
to meet the farmers there some evening, and discuss farm 
topics with them. Some of these meetings were well at- 
tended, and some were otherwise.. Advice had come to 
me that each county agent was expected to have about 
thirty demonstrators in growing corn. Being enthusi- 
astic, this seemed too few men, so I enrolled one hundred 
demonstrators, and here I made a mistake, for it was im- 
possible for me to visit them as often as I should. 

The first spring we bought one car of fertilizer, co- 
operatively. This' was a small amount, but it served the 
purpose, showing the farmers they were paying extrav- 
agant prices for fertilizers. The following fall we bought 
two hundred and fifty tons, co-operatively, of 16% acid 
phosphate, thus saving the farmers not less than $2,500. 
Prices ranged in the county from $22.50 per ton for 16% 
acid phosphate to $27.50 per ton for 14% acid phosphate. 



BxjEEAu OP Agkicxjltubb. 377 

I was instrumental in helping save the farmers about 
$7,000 in fertilizer the two years I was there. This, how- 
ever, was not the most important fact. They are now 
buying the plant food which is most needed, and leaving 
off the more expensive and less necessary ones. 

We had a live poultry club, a good coru club, and 
a, splendid pig club. All three of these were of inestima- 
ble value, as they gave the boys and girls the work they 
were interested in, and proved to their parents that they 
were not getting the best returns for their efforts. This 
phase of my work was very enjoyable, as it brought me 
in close contact with the boys and girls. Who can say 
that it is not more helpful to start a youth out with the 
right idea of doing things, as he has not yet reached the 
valley of fruitful life, than to change the man who has 
but little to look forward to, and a wide expanse of the 
past to reflect on. 

To help those who need helping gives one a joy that 
cannot be had from any other source. Last spring I 
learned that a number of men had canvassed the county 
selling fruit trees, with very unreasonable claims for 
them, and when a number of farmers came to me to see 
if I could not help them out of this swindle, it was my 
pleasure to scheme with them and find a way out. We 
went to a reliable law firm, and they advised us that 
there was no way out as the contract bound them to pay 
50% of the sum specified, in the event the contract was 
broken. We sent a man up to the place where the sup- 
posed marvelous nursery was located, and found they 
had no nursery at all. Their Winesap and Jonathan ap- 
ple trees were being grown without budding or graft- 
ing. To make a long and very interesting story short, 
we cancelled about $1,300 worth of orders. 

We held two farmers' chautauquas, which were a 
complete success in every way. Many people comment- 
ing upon the live stock exhibit, said it beat anything they 
had ever had at the county fair. The special feature of 
the live stock exhibit was that of Hereford cattle. 'The 
big white-faced cattle attracted the attention of all. In 
this special locality we have aroused so much interest 
that in the past two years more than forty head of Here- 
fords have been purchased. The interest in breeding 



378 TwENTY-FntST Biennial Eepoet 

pure-bred hogs has been stimulated to such an extent 
that it was impossible to keep an account of the number 
brought in. • The demonstration work has created a won- 
derful lot of interest in improving the breeds of all kinds 
of better live stock. Such a thing as vaccinating hogs 
was practically unknown in Hopkins county when I went 
there, but after a few demonstrations in infected herds, 
it was not hard to convince the farmers that it was an 
economical and sure preventative against hog cholera. 
This work became so popular that it was necessary to es- 
tablish a sub-serum station in the county. 

It is said that more fruit trees were pruned in Hop- 
kins county the past spring than in the ten preceding 
years. Mr. Carmody, with his enthusiasm and knowl- 
edge, deserves praise for his splendid assistance in this 
work. I was occupied for six weeks spending from one 
hour to a half day with farmers showing them how to 
prune trees. Many spray pumps were bought, and farm- 
ers began to fight their old foes. The splendid fruit tells 
a story which many will profit by. 

Some twenty cars of crushed limestone were bought 
co-operatively, and a few acres on many farms were 
sprinkled over. In several instances this showed no re- 
sults, but it was on account of too low a humus content. 
Sweet clover, however, on very poor soils showed a lux- 
urious growth where the lime was spread, and where no 
lime was spread only a few scattering stalks were to be 
found. 

Soy beans, crimson clover, sweet clover, and alfalfa 
were four legumes practically unknown in this county, 
but in two years' work we had many farmers growing 
them. It was a pleasant sight in May to drive along and 
see fields of crimson clover in bloom. A little later in 
the season a fresh mown plat of alfalfa could be found at 
considerable intervals. It was a common sight to see al- 
ternating rows of com and soy beans which would soon 
be ready for hogging down. In the fall the hum of the 
bees could be heard in the sweet clover fields, which two 
years previous were wasted hillsides, void of vegetation. 

With these crops I am sure I did more good than 
with all my other work combined. Hopkins county is not 
naturally a fertile county. The problem of building 



BUEEAU OF AGEICtTLTTJEB. 379 

these soils is a great one, but I feel that with the use of 
these legumes I have pointed out to the farmers a means 
by which it can be accomplished. The appreciation of 
the farmers after they have once made a success with 
these crops, and their expression of gratitude makes you 
glad you are a county agent, and can be instrumental in 
helping some one to see a gleam of better things ahead. 
When I took up my work in Hopkins county the 
Fiscal Court would give us no financial aid. The second 
year they voted $300 to my work, and the third year they 
gave all they were asked to. This shows the attitude 
the county now has toward the work. To say that I am 
proud to have once been a county agent does not express 
my feelings. Sometimes the tasks were hard and the 
work discouraging, but the co-operation I received from 
the farmers, and the courtesy with which I was treated 
both by them and the business men, far overbalanced all 
these hardships, and I would rather have been county 
agent in HopMns county for two years than to have done 
any other work. There is real wholesome joy in helping 
those who need and appreciate your services. 

Chas. L. Tatloe, 

County Agent. 



JACKSON, ROCKCASTLE, GARRARD, ESTILL, 
AND MADISON COUNTIES. 

Upon entering my work on August 20, 1914, 1 found 
a great field spread out before me, consisting of parts 
of Jackson, Rockcastle, Garrard, Estill and Madison 
counties. I realized there was much to be done ; and the 
responsibility rested upon me, and I did not know who 
would co-operate or how I would be received by the far- 
mers. 

Being personally acquainted with Mr. Montgomery, 
my predecessor, and of all the work he had done in this 
territory, I felt my inability to continue his work and 
to introduce new things. 

After traveling over my territory one time, which 
took about three months, getting acquainted with the 
list of demonstrators and co-operators handed to me 
by Mr. Montgomery, my courage was strengthened and 
my faith increased. 



380 TwEN'TY-FiEST Biennial, Eepoet 

During my first year, ending Aug. 20, 1915, I had 
56 demonstrators. I have today, Oct. 9, 75 demonstra- 
tors of crops. I have recorded on my mailing and in- 
struction list over 500 co-operators and demonstrators 
combined. 

In all my work I have never met any opposition. 
The people I have dealt with — farmers, business men, 
lawyers, doctors, ministers, teachers and professors — • 
have all received me with courtesy and welcomed me 
into their homes. I feel I have their hearty co-opera- 
tion and influence in my work, to the extent of better 
farming and more scientific agriculture. Of course, 
there are many people in my territory who do not carry 
out the instructions given them, and the reason is, as 
I see it, they have not demonstrated the truths, which 
they have learned through scientific farming. 

I have at present 6 good strong Farmers ' Improve- 
ment Clubs. Every one of these has been the result of 
a demonstration or a good rousing farmers' meeting in 
every community. I have introduced through these 
clubs pure-bred stock, such as bulls, boars, bucks and 
poultry. Through these clubs I have also secured in 
some sections crop rotation, farm book-keeping and 
quite a lot of drainage and more and better farm ma- 
chinery. 

I have not been able to meet all the demands or to 
answer all the calls in my territory. I realize that 
through these clubs already organized and those which 
I intend to organize Avithin the next month, that a great 
deal of the farming spirit and enthusiasm will come. 

I find that where a demonstrator has actually dem- 
onstrated and proved to the people what could be done 
through scientific farming that there is no trouble to 
get others to do the same, either directly or indirectly. 

During my work as county agent I have distinbuted 
thousands of bulletins and have written thousands of 
letters and postal cards. And I find that in most of the 
homes where this literature goes they are anxious to get 
and read it. 

I have done quite a bit of work through the public 
schools in my territory, along the line of school fairs. 
These I have found to be very valuable in influencing 
the farming and educational spirit in the community. 



BuEBAU OF Ageicultuee. 381 

My 75 corn club boys from different sections of my ter- 
ritory of this year and last, have been boys from the 
mral schools. It is through these boys that better com 
growing has been brought before the older farmers. 
For instance, in one case six com club boys produced 
their corn at a cost of 27o per bu., while their fathers' 
cost them 37c per bu. This is only one case out of many. 
Out of the com club I had one boy to win free admission 
to the State Fair this year, 1915. This same boy won 
$5 in the com judging contest. 

In the spring of 1915 I organized a Pig Club con- 
sisting of 25 members. At our Berea Fair — which is 
the Madison County Fair — 13 pigs were exhibited, con- 
testing for $25 prize money put up by the fair board. 
One boy of this club had so cared for his pigs that he 
won $10.50 cash out of the $25 offered. He also won 
free admission to the State Fair. It is through this 
Pig Club that I have been able to show to the farmers 
the value of raising pure-bred hogs, at a smaller cost 
than it requires to grow an inferior grade. 

The many farmers' meetings, school fairs, farmers' 
institutes, chautauquas and field meetings have been of 
inestimable value, recognized by the farmers themselves. 

Last year I was able to have an ■ agricultural fair 
at Berea — my headquarters — which was attended by 
more than one thousand people. The home, garden and 
farm products were exhibited in abundance. This meet- 
ing seemed to have aroused such an interest that the 
farmers have demanded and called for another to be 
held this year, in 1915, October 30th. We have all rea- 
sons to believe that this one will be better than that of 
last year. 

I called Mr. Rickey, our State Poultry Agent, to my 
territory, and we organized a Poultry Club, co'hsisting 
of over seventy members. This club exhibited at the 
county fair this year and won many prizes. They also 
exhibited at our agricultural fair. 

Then, through my influence, more than one thou- 
sand stumps have been removed from cultivatable fields 
and more than one hundred orchards pruned, and more 
than thirty sprayed ; old fields have been cleaned up and 
put to serving their owners; more grass has been started 
to growing, and I have introduced cow peas, soy beans, 



382 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

rye and Sudan grass in the mountain part of my terri- 
tory. I started this year a number of plots of alfalfa, 
which are doing well at the present time. I have also 
been influential in building a number of bams, cow 
sheds, cribs, poultry and hog houses. 

With what has been done it only has seemed to open 
up the field to greater responsibilities and greater im- 
provements. I am working now to the end where I can 
see my territory all organized into farmers' clubs, each 
club having representatives, which will come to Berea, 
the center of my territory, and there organize a central 
organization — each one of these rural clubs having a 
phone so as to be in connection with the central organi- 
zation. 

I am convinced that such an organized territory and 
such telephone system will bring about better rural 
conditions and better citizens of our Commonwealth. 

E. F. Spence, 

County Agent. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 
February 1st, 1914, to December 12th, 1914. 

DlSTKIBUTION OP WOEK. 

Demonstrators — 

Work was carried on with 68 demonstrators, with 
237 demonstrations of all kinds having a total acreage 
of 4,259 acres. 

Co-operators — 

Work was conducted with 127 co-operators having 
an estimated acreage of 3,126 acres. 

Summary of Work — 

(1) 193 farmers were visited in the interest of the 
demonstration work from February 1st to December 
12th. 

(2) 220 interviews and consultations were held at 
the office. - — 

(3) 463 visits were made to demonstrators. 



Bureau of Aqeioultube. 383 

(4) 12 meetings of the Crop Improvement Club 
were held at the Commercial Club rooms with an at- 
tendance of 560 persons. 

(5) 47 night meetings were held at school houses at 
various points in the county with an attendance of 2,368 
persons. 

(6) 3 night schools were conducted with a total 
of 15 sessions with an attendance of 218 persons. 

(7) 5 field meetings were held with an attendance 
of 245 persons. 

(8) 8 out-of -county meetings with an attendance of 
580 persons. 

(9) 23 schools were visited during the year, but no 
record of attendance was kept. 

(10) 908 letters were written in the interest of the 
demonstration work. 

(11) 2,552 circular letters were sent out pertaining 
to demonstration work. 

(12) 4,370 post card notices were sent to Crop Im- 
provement Committees. 

(13) 1,402 telephone consultation calls were re- 
ceived, which were in many instances as long as a per- 
sonal interview. 

(14) Assisted at one Farmers' Institute, two ses- 
sions, with an attendance of 155 persons. 

(15) Assisted at two Farmers' Chautauquas, six 
sessions, with an attendance of 3,000 persons. 

(16) Making a grand total of visits, consultations, 
institutes and chautauquas of all kinds, 994. 

(17) Making a grand total of 7,239 persons reached 
through the above meetings. 

(18) 20 articles for the county paper were written 
during the year. 

(19) Judged farm products at county fair. 

Summary of Demonstrations. 

(1) Com — 7 demonstrators with a total of 190 
acres. 

(2) Alfalfa — 52 demonstrators with a total of 263 
acres. 

(3) Crimson Clover — 9 demonstrators with a to- 
tal of 54 acres. 



384 Twenty-First Bienniax, Eepobt 

(4) Red Clover — 5 demonstrators with a total of 
167 acres. 

(5) Sweet Clover — 16 demonstrators with a total 
of 540 acres. 

(6) Rye — 29 demonstrators with a total of 643 
acres. 

(7) Wheat — 11 demonstrators with a total of 221 
acres. 

(8) Soy Beans — 10 demonstrators with a total of 
189 acres. 

(9) Potatoes — 3 demonstrators with a total of 72 
acres. 

(10) Rotations — 5 demonstrators with a total of 
1,200 acres. 

(11) Orchards — 6 demonstrators with a total of 
232 acres. 

(12) Lime — 65 demonstrators, a total of l,922i/2 
tons, a total acreage of 470 acres. Grround lime rock was 
used. 

(13) Dairying — 2 demonstrators with a total num- 
ber of 60 cows. 

(14) Beef Cattle (feeders) — 3 demonstrators with 
a total of 350 head. 

(15) Hogs — 12 demonstrators with balanced ra- 
tions with 1,200 head. 

(16) Woodruff's Soil Fertility Experiment with a 
total of 18 acres. 

(17) State Fair Association Experiment Work, 
(a) Com Fertilizer Experiment Work; (b) Soy Bean 
Variety Test; (c) Cow Peas, Lime and Fertilizer Exper- 
iment Work; (d) Hog Feeding Demonstration. 

(18) Boys' Corn Club with an enrollment of 16 
members. Edward Gallrein won the State prize, grow- 
ing 144 bu. on his acre. 

(19) Boys' Second Crop Potato Club with an en- 
rollment of 22 members. 

Other Clubs. 

One Farmers* Agricultural and Improvement Club, 
namely, the Aubumdale Improvement Club, was organ- 
ized during the year and at the present time has a mem- 
mership of 150 members. A recent outgrowth of the 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 385 

above club was tlie forming of a Woman's Auxiliary 
Clu'b, the members being wives of the men of the above 
mentioned club. These clubs conducted a Farmers' 
Chautauqua Oct. 25, 26, 27, and on November 5th organ- 
ized a Farmers ' Night School, which meets Monday and 
Friday night of each week. 

In addition to the above the county agent has co- 
operated with the St. Matthews Produce Exchange, which 
is the strongest local organization of potato growers; 
the Buechel Exchange, which contains many very suc- 
cessful second crop potato and onion set growers ; the 
Middletown Produce Exchange composed of potato, 
strawberry and tomato growers ; and the Orchard Grass 
Seed Association, which is practically the center of the 
orchard grass seed industry of the United States. 

Teavel. 

(1) 1,145 miles were traveled by rail. 

(2) 7,494 miles were traveled by machine. 

(3) 8,639 miles were traveled by both rail and ma- 
chine. 

January 1st, 1915, to October 9th, 1915. 

DiSTEIBUTION OF WOEK. 

Demonstrators — 

Work was carried on with 88 demonstrators, with 
239 demonstrations of all kinds having a total acreage of 
4,224 acres. 

Co-operators — 

Work was conducted with 121 co-operators having 
an estimated acreage of 2,876 acres. 

Summary of Work — 

(1) 171 farmers were visited in the interest of the 
demonstration work from January 1st to October 9th, 
1915. 

(2) 358 interviews and consultations were held at 
the office up to October 9, 1915. 

Agr— 13 



386 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

(3) 477 visits were made to demonstrators up to 
Oct. 9th. 

(4) 5 meetings of the Crop Improvement Club were 
held at the Conmiercial Club rooms with an attendance 
of 292 persons. 

(5) 55 day and night meetings were held at school 
houses at various points of the county, with an attend- 
ance of 1,824 persons. 

(6) 1 night school was conducted with a total of 11 
sessions with an attendance of 380 persons. 

(7) 4 field meetings were held with an attendance 
of 77 persons. 

(8) 1 out-of -county meeting with an attendance of 
125 persons. 

(9) 28 Schools were visited up to October 9th. 

(10) 1,036 letters were written to demonstrators 
and co-operators. 

(11) 4,694 circular letters were sent out pertaining 
to demonstration work. 

(12) 2,857 post card notices were sent out pertain- 
ing to meetings. 

(13) 2,175 telephone consultation calls were re- 
ceived. 

(14) 1,687 bulletins and circulars were mailed. 

(15) 468 hogs were inoculated with the serum alone 
method. 

(16) Assisted at one Farmers' Chautauqua, three 
sessions, with an attendance of 1,050 persons. 

(17) Making a grand total of visits, consultations 
and chautauquas of all kinds, 1,175. 

(18) Making a grand total of 3,838 persons reached 
through the above meetings. 

(19) 6 articles for the county paper were written 
during this time. 

(20) Judged faiTQ products at county fair and K. 
E. A. meeting. 

SUMMAEY OF DEMONSTRATIONS. 

(1) Com — 26 demonstrators with a total of 325% 

(2) Alfalfa— 30 demonstrators with a total of 175 
acres. 



BuEEATj OF Agkicultuke. 387 

(3) Wheat — 24 demonstrators with a total of 396% 
acres. 

(4) Potatoes — 9 demonstrators with a total of 
1441/^ acres. 

(5) Soy Beans — 6 demonstrators with a total of 92 
acres. 

(6) Cow Peas — 8 demonstrators with a total of 51 
acres. 

(7) Crimson Clover — 5 demonstrators with a total 
of 29 acres. 

(8) Rye — 21 demonstrators with a total of 312 
acres. 

(9) Red Clover — 15 demonstrators with a total of 
266 acres. 

(10) Orchards — 3 demonstrators, total of 155 
acres. 

(11) Lime — 52 demonstrators, total of 1,4341/2 tons, 
total acreage of 336 acres. 

(12) Rotations — 6 demonstrators with a total of 
1,368 acres. 

(13) Dairying — 7 demonstrators with a total num- 
ber of 201 cows. 

(14) Be^f Cattle — 5 demonstrators with a total of 
260 head. 

(15) Hogs — 6 demonstrators. 

(16) State Fair Association Experiment Work: 
Alfalfa. 

(17) Boys' Corn Clnb with an enrollment of 26 
members. The boys of this club won $75 in prizes at the 
State Fair. 

(18) Boys' Pig Club with an enrollment of 15 mem- 
bers. Thirteen of these boys exhibited their pigs at the 
State Fair and won $70 worth of prizes. 

(19) Made 62 visits to the boys of the several clubs. 

(20) Soil Fertility Experiments— W. F. Woodruff, 
18 acres ; Greorge Long, 36 acres. 

Travel. 

(1) 1,129 miles were traveled by rail. 

(2) 5,982 miles were traveled by auto. 

F. E. Meeeiman, 

County Agent. 



388 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

KENTON COUNTY. 

When I undertook the work of County Agent for 
Kenton county the first step taken along demonstration 
lines was the formation of a Kenton County Farmers' 
Improvement Association, or Crop Improvement Asso- 
ication, in the organization of which I had the assistance 
of Mr. Geoffrey Morgan. 

I then began working with the farmers in every way 
I could. At that time it was mostly pruning and spray- 
ing fruit trees, and testing out soil for acidity, also hav- 
ing some analyzed by the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion. 

Besides the central organization, I have formed four 
other clubs which meet once a month. These clubs were 
organized on a business, educational and social basis. I 
have been having the farmers and local men take part 
on the program as much as possible, yet I have always 
made a talk at each meeting. One object is to try to make 
the farmer have a good time and saving a dollar while 
he is doing it, yet always dealing with the local mer- 
chants, if possible. A few of the purchases made by these 
clubs are as follows : 

One carload of acid phosphate. 

One carload of ground limestone. 

Two carloads of coal. 

On all things bought there was a saving to the farm- 
ers; on the acid phosphate there was a saving of $120 on 
the one car. Another car of coal is now ordered, and or- 
ders are being secured for two cars of rock phosphate 
and two cars of Portland cement. 

I have made talks on: Pruning and spraying of 
fruit trees ; the value of co-operation and club work ; test- 
ing of seed com; management of fields to prevent ero- 
sion, selection of seed com ; treatment of seed wheat for 
smut ; soil fertility and other similar topics. 

I have helped to trim and spray four orchards, and 
consulted with perhaps one dozen more on the same sub- 
ject. 

I have selected a number of fields for alfalfa. It is 
not such an old crop here, and certain fields are much 
better adapted to it than others. 



BuEEAXT OP Ageictjltueb. 389 

I have tested perhaps one hundred samples of soil" 
for acidity or the need of lime. 

I planned one dairy bam, helped to plan one stable, 
two combination horse and dairy bams, and the remod- 
eling of one tobacco barn into a dairy bam. Consulted 
and planned with farmers on the location of soils, build- 
ing of milk houses, and laying of concrete floors and drain 
ways in old dairy bams. 

In soil fertility work, have been running tests and 
demonstrations with sweet clover, cow peas, soy beans, 
crimson clover, rock phosphate., acid phosphate and ni- 
trate of soda. 

Helped to work on plans for beautifying county in- 
firmary grounds, Ryland Country Club and a few lawns. 

Organized a Boys' Corn Club of 24 members, but all 
of them will not finish with the year, for the fields of 
some were drowned out, and some could not get the land. 
However, some members have worked faithfully. 

Have made talks at church convention on the coun- 
try church, addressed County Teachers' Institutes on 
agriculture in country schools, and on the organization 
of com and pig clubs. 

I got the farmers and business men to back a prop- 
osition of a sub-experiment farm in the county, and the 
Fiscal Court agreed to donate two thousand dollars for 
the purchase of the land for the use of the Agronomy De- 
partment. Have interviewed farmers on practically 
every subject imaginable along agricultural lines. 

Wayland Ehoadbs, 
County Agent. 

KNOTT COUNTY. 

Since I have been agent in Knott county I have car- 
ried on demonstrations with forty-nine men and have 
one hundred and six co-operators. It is very difficult 
to get complete records, owing to the high percentage of 
illiteracy among the farmers. 

The mountaineer is very conservative, and I have 
not succeeded in organizing any farmers' clubs among 
them. 

Owing to the bad condition of roads, it is impossi- 
ble to get people out at night, except in one or two com- 
munities. I have held twenty-nine meetings, including 



390 TwElSTTY-FlEST BlENNIAL, RbPOET 

some field demonstrations, with, an average of about 
forty present, or a total attendance of thirteen hundred 
and seventy-seven. 

I have made one hundred and ninety-two visits to 
co-operators, three hundred and thirteen visits to dem- 
onstrators, and seventy-four visits to other farmers. 
Two hundred and ninety-three persons, including mem- 
bers of the Boys' Com and Pig Clubs, have visited me 
in my office. I have been present at twelve conferences 
of local co-workers. I have answered eighteen telephone 
calls. 

I have spent considerable time in trying to control 
hog cholera, which is alarmingly prevalent. I have 
found it difficult to persuade the farmers to vaccinate 
their hogs, mainly because of lack of funds; however, 
I have vaccinated sixty-four hogs, and instead of let- 
ting carcasses lie in the creeks, or wherever they happen 
to die, as they did when I came, the owners now bum 
them. 

I have written six hundred letters, seventy-eight 
cards, and sent out thirteen hundred ' ' Special A Bulle- 
tins" and circulars, besides distributing more than 
seven hundred on my rounds through the county. 

Not more than one out of fifteen farmers takes a 
paper of any kiud. 

I have conducted five spraying demonstrations, and 
we now have ten spray pumps in my territory, where 
there were but two. Niae hundred and seventy fruit 
trees, most of which were young, and sixty-seven grape 
vines were pruned in demonstrations. ' 

Com growing has been practiced in this section to 
the exclusion of all other crops. A few scrubby cattle 
grow on a com and fodder ration, berug the only live 
stock product sent out of this section. I have made 
every effort to improve the live stock and to encourage 
the growing of forage and grain crops, and have met 
with partial success. Twelve Duroc Jersey hogs, one 
0. I. C. and two Tamworths have been brought in. We 
have two Shorthorn bulls old enough for service, and 
four under consideration for purchase this fall. . None 
of these are registered, but are of good blood. These 
are practically all the pure-bred animals in the county. 
y^e have more than doubled last year's acreage of clover 



BuEBAu OF Agkictjlttjke. 391 

and grasses; more than fifty bushels of cow peas were 
sown this year, not more than twenty last year; the 
acreage of oats was increased about one-fourth, and 
about twice as much rye was sown as a cover crop as 
was sown last year. 

I had thirty-two boys enrolled in the Corn Club, 
but only seven are finishing the work. Considering their 
handicaps and opportunities, they are doing well. Have 
five Pig Club boys, and one boy from each club won a 
trip to the State Fair. 

The County Superintendent of Schools has given 
me permission to do what I want to, and can, in the 
schools, but he does not agitate club work nor any other 
line of work. 

In performing my work I have ridden horseback 
and walked fourteen hundred and thirty-three miles, 
traveled one thousand and eighty-five by rail, and one 
hundred and sixty-five by auto. This last and most of 
the railroad travel was done on our trip to Western 
Kentucky. Hoeace E. McSwain, 

County Agent. 



KNOX COUNTY. 

On Feb. 1, 1915, I was appointed County Agent of 
Knox county, Kentucky. Since that time I have devoted 
my entire time to the work. When I became agent there 
were only four cultivators in the county, now we have 
one hundred and twenty-eight. At that time there were 
only three or four herds of pure-bred hogs in the county, 
and now we have increased this number to about fifteen. 
I have vaccinated something like two hundred hogs, and 
have not lost one that I have treated. I have had the 
people to clean up their premises, use plenty of lime, 
bum all hog beds and dead carcasses, and at this writ- 
ing there is no cholera in the county, the first time in 
several years we have been free from the disease. I 
met with the officers of the First National Bank Tues- 
day, October 12th, and asked them to buy, as an adver- 
tising matter for them, ten Duroc-bred gilts for the 
county, in the place of buying calendars and other stuff 
as advertisements- — the bank to give these gilts out to 
ten farmer boys, then to have these boys give the bank 



392 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

two pigs out of the litter of eacli gilt, whicli would give 
tlie bank twenty pigs instead of ten gilts ; then give these 
pigs to twenty more farmer boys, requiring the boys 
to give two pigs out of each gilt to the bank. On and 
on the bank in turn to give them to the farmer boys, 
which wiU be the greatest advertising scheme the bank 
ever put on. 

I also showed the bank how these pigs could" be 
shown at the county fair, and that it would be a great 
advertisement for them. I told them I would organize 
the boys' Pig Club through the county, and make the 
boys care for the pigs the bank gave to them, and in 
four or five years this would be something the bank 
would be proud of, and also have the country stocked 
with pure-bred hogs. 

I had the farmers to order three good Hereford 
bulls and two Jersey bulls into the county. I met with 
the National Bank of John A. Black Wednesday, in re- 
gard to buying four good Hereford bulls for the county. 
The bank appointed a committee to confer with the other 
directors and stockholders in regard to making the pur- 
chase. I showed this bank where they could buy these 
bulls as an advertisement, and be out no more than they 
are for calendars and the like, and in buying these bulls i 
would put more money in the bank by putting a better 
grade of cattle in the county. Number the bulls from 
one to four, and change them every year, and in four 
years we could almost have pure-bred Herefords in the 
county instead of scrubs. I also showed the banks where 
they could in four years call those bulls in, and sell 
them for as much money as they gave for them, and 
place four other bulls in their place, and in eight years 
we could have pure-bred Herefords all over the county. 
I also showed where the farmers could get $25 for a 
Hereford calf, when they can only get $10 for a scrub. 
So it would double the farmer's deposit in the bank. 

I was chosen by a co m mittee of citizens of the coun- 
ty to go to Mt. Vernon to confer with other delegates 
from adjoining counties, Whitley, Laurel, Bell, Clay 
and Pulaski, in regard to what steps to take to secure 
good roads in the county. I was their chosen delegate 
of three to get up plans and speaking dates for same. 



Bureau of Ageioultuee. 393 

Avhicli I followed up until we took a vote on tke bond 
issue of $200,000, whicli carried 7 to 1 in the county. 

We have had our road surveyed four different ways 
to adjoining counties, Whitley, Clay, Bell and Laurel, 
and we believe we have enough money to build a good 
pike to each county line. I was asked by the County 
Judge, as County Agent, to go to Frankfort and repre- 
sent the taxpayers of the county in trying to get a 
raised assessment of $16,000 off the county, which the 
State raised the county. I was successful in getting a 
little over $8,000 off the taxpayers of the county. 

Peas. — There have been more peas growing in the 
county this year than ever before. This was the first 
time farmers ever used inoculation for peas. They knew 
nothing about it until I became agent for the county, 
and they are well pleased with the success of the un- 
dertaking. They can tell to a row where the inoculation 
went. Twenty-five farmers in the county used it this year. 

Sweet Clover. — ^We never had sweet clover sown in 
this county until I became agent. There have been fifteen 
different crops sown this year. All of it was inoculated 
and is looking well. There has also been sown about 
twenty crops of crimson clover. All is inoculated and 
looking good at this time. There has been more rye 
and oats sown in this county this fall than has been sown 
in any one year for the past ten years. 

Soudan Grass. — We have a plat of Soudan grass 
in this county that has been cut three different times 
this year, and it makes more hay to the acre than any 
other grass we grow. I believe it to be a good grass for 
this section. We have a few crops of alfalfa, but not 
looking well. 

Irish Potatoes. — There have been more Irish pota- 
toes grown in this county than any one year for several 
years, also more sweet potatoes. There has been an 
enormous crop of vegetables grown in this county this 
year, such as beans, cabbage, tomatoes and other small 
stuff. 

Fruit. — We have sprayed this year some five or six 
thousand fruit trees, and find it to be a great thing, as 
this has been the first year there has been any spraying 
done to amount to anything. This is a great strawberry 
section. Doctor Bumsides is a demonstrator on straw- 



394 TwENTY-PlEST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

berries and tomatoes. He has five different plantings of 
strawberries, the plants on one plat I ordered for him 
this spring. The name of the strawberry is "Progres- 
sive." I visited his place on the tenth of October, and 
we picked a quart of ripe berries and saw lots of green 
berries on the vine. I believe they will bear until freez- 
ing weather kills them. He is also the tomato king of 
the county. 

Corn. — John A. Black, president of the National 
Bank of John A. Black, one of my county demonstra- 
tors, sowed soy beans on a plot of 25 acres in 1914, and 
turned it under about twelve inches deep in September. 
He then sowed a plot in rye, and on May 15, 1915, about 
the time the rye started to head, he rolled it down with 
a roller, and cut it up with a cutaway harrow, and 
turned it under about ten inches deep, and then sowed 
broadcast about two hundred pounds to the acre of acid 
phosphate 16% ; then cut, harrowed and rolled the land 
until he got a good seed bed, and then planted the land 
with a com drill about the 25th of May, and gave the 
corn three shallow cultivations. I believe we can gather 
seventy-five bushels to the acre. The adjoining land to 
this plot, under the old way of cultivating, will not av- 
erage over twenty-five bushels to the acre. Zeek Wy- 
rick, another com demonstrator, on a plot of twenty- 
five acres wet-natured land, which had never raised over 
ten bushels of corn to the acre, in 1914, turned it about 
ten inches deep, and opened up some ditches and sowed 
it in peas, and turned the peas under in the fall twelve 
inches deep. In the spring of 1915 he out, harrowed and 
rolled until he had a good seed bed. Then about the 
first of May he planted his com with the drill, and using 
as a fertilizer one hundred and fifty pounds of 16% 
phosphate acid, and fifty pounds 41% cotton seed meal 
mixed, making two hundred pounds per acre. I believe 
he will raise sixty-five bushels of com on this land. The 
land adjoining this plot will not average over ten or 
fifteen bushels of com per acre. 

I have sixteen Com Club boys in the county, who 
are cultivating one acre each. Their yields will average 
from 65 to 100 bushels of com per acre. The banks put 
up $75 for the com show at the Knox County Fair, and 
my Com Club boys won $65 of the money, Shively 



BuBEAU OF AgeIcultuke. 395 

Shelton, one of my Com Club boys, was the fourth best 
boy com judge at the State Fair. There have been or- 
dered in this county since I became agent fifteen hun- 
dred eggs of pure-bred poultry of different breeds ; con- 
sequently we are getting several nice flocks of poultry 
started in this county. We have had two good stallions 
brought into the county, one German coach stallion, and 
one standard-bred saddle horse. 

W. M. Tye, 

County Agent. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

I began work as County Agent in Lawrence county 
on March 9, 1914. Only a few people in the county knew 
that demonstration work was being provided, and there 
was not another county agent within one hundred miles. 
We have a poor sandy soil, badly worn, the farms are not 
well fenced, the live stock is not well bred, and my first 
effort, therefore, was to create confidence in farming of 
any kind, and then in improved farming. 

During April and May I arranged for several dem- 
onstrations with corn, and a few with cow peas. I found 
it necessary to deal with the individual, for there was no 
organization of any character among the farmers, and 
roads were very bad, and people not acquainted far away 
from home. 

During the summer I made a survey of the live 
stock in the county. There were just a few pure-bred 
cattle, but their performance was good, and was closely 
watched by the general public. I answered many ques- 
tions relative to the different beef breeds, and finally 
made it so clear to a few men that registered shorthorns 
were well enough suited to our conditions that men asked 
me at once where such cattle could be purchased, and at 
what price. I went to Mount Sterling and selected a 
small herd. The individuals proved good, and other 
farmers have since purchased bulls and cows from Blue 
Grass breeders. Several Lawrence county farmers have 
purchased bulls from their neighbors who started in the 
pure-bred business a year ago. Two of the purchases 
were the results of farmers ' meetings held in log school 
houses. In one community there had never been any 



396 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet 

pure-bred live stock, and there was no one able to invest 
one hundred dollars for a bull. A company of eight men 
was formed, and a calf purchased from one of our county 
breeders is proving to be a splendid investment. The 
owners are changing from the all-corn system to some 
cow peas, clover and winter oats. I am assisting them 
in selecting the best seed possible for these new crops. 
There was one silo when I arrived, and we now have 
six. Each silo owner is an enthusiast on the subject. 
These men will use cotton seed meal this year for the 
first time. One dairyman near Louisa used cotton seed 
meal with such success that his neighbors all know about 
it. I am now helping this man purchase his first pure- 
bred sire. 

I found that we have more dogs than sheep and hogs 
together. I have three demonstrators with green crops 
for hogs. These men have shown conclusively that hogs 
can be produced at a profit in Ijawrence county. The 
contention is that "hogs cost more than they come to." 
They are usually kept in a pen or bare lot and fed com. 
I used dwarf Essex rape and cow peas for pasture. There 
are no scales to determine just what the gain was, but 
the people are pleased with what they see. I have helped 
to establish two breeding herds of swine. 

Much attention has been given to the care of these 
better bred animals, and I have treated a large number 
of diseased farm animals. Until I arrived cattle died on 
nearly every farm from black-leg and diarrhea, and cows 
from milk fever. Sheep died from stomach worms, and 
hogs from cholera. I have treated every case promptly, 
and with painstaking care. So far I have not lost a pa- 
tient I attempted to treat. 

I introduced crimson clover into each section of the 
county, and this fall fifty acres of com ground was seeded 
to this cover crop. Three small plats of sweet clover, 
and two of tall oat grass, and four of winter oats, suc- 
ceeded so well that we now have these crops on a dozen 
different farms. 

We used our first lime and phosphate last year. I 
explained the use of these elements more than one hun- 
dred times before it was possible to take any orders. We 
have been greatly benefited by these object lessons, for 



BuEEAu OF Ageicultuee. 397 

every crop that received an application of limestone or 
phosphate showed an increased yield. I am often asked : 
"Can you grow alfalfa here I" The crop has been at- 
tempted in every community, but never with any success. 
I helped a lady farmer seed four acres as it should be. 
The effort was a great success. This year this woman's 
husband seeded ten acres just as he had learned from 
last year's work. 

I found a decided prejudice against the Boys' Com 
Club — two men in two years' time had spent energy in 
agitating the work, but had failed to develop the boys 
into profitable corn growers. The organizations de- 
veloped into political machines, and there was a bad 
after effect. I have made it a point to do individual work 
with a dozen boys. They are increasing the yield in 
their respective communities, and they will be the source 
of building up an effective organization some day. 

I have caused pure-bred seed com to be used in every 
section of the county, but I am most pleased with my 
work in changing the farmers from growing corn to 
growing coAvpeas. A large number of farmers have 
learned from me that the best way to "bring land to" is 
to sow cowpeas in summer and rye in winter, turning 
under the rye for a summer crop. 

Last February I made it clear to the citizens of 
Louisa that we would have a much better county if the 
good housewife was provided with scientific instruction 
relative to gardening and home-making. I have empha- 
sized the work of our Home Demonstration agents when- 
ever possible, and as a result we have a good interest in 
vegetable and fruit gardening. We have shown con- 
clusively that marketable fruit can be produced when 
the spray pump is correctly used. 

Within the last few months I have effected an or- 
ganization of business men that we think will be perma- 
nent, and accomplish much Heeded work. 

Just now we are working on a permanent location 
for our county fair. Other things to promote the county 
in an agricultural way will be taken up in season. For 
years past the men who have shown the most interest in 
the county improvement work, are the men who are re- 



398 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial Report 

garded by our substantial citizenship as men "broken 
down" in their particular lines. We are trying to grow 
into an organization, instead of going into one. 

E. S. Kegley, 
County Agent. 

LAUEEL COUNTY. 

On the morning of March 24, 1915, I began the work 
as official County Agent of Laurel county, Kentucky. 
The county was fortunate in getting an agent who had 
never been spoiled in the work, and the agent was for- 
tunate in getting a county who knew nothing of the rubs 
of the county agent's harness. Here a stranger, among 
strangers, a man in a new work, beginning a new work 
to the county, I took up my duties as county agent. To 
begin with, I was kept rather busy answering all kinds 
of questions, some, I think, for the sake of curiosity, 
and a little test of my farm knowledge ; others I noticed 
were actually followed up, proving that they were asked 
for the information. The Superintendent of Public 
Schools, Mr. J. M. Peltner, had advised the farmers to 
use clover and acid phosphate, which, in answer to in- 
quiries, was heartily endorsed by me, and as a result 
within a few weeks' time four carloads of acid phos- 
phate, and three of ground limestone (as a starter of 
clover) were distributed among the fanners. The cost 
of acid phosphate was reduced from $21 to $15 per ton, 
the limestone cost us $1.60 delivered. 

I found that fruit tree pruning was not a common 
practice, and that spraying was a lesson yet to be learned ; 
so I started over the county giving pruning demonstra- 
tions, telling of the value of spraying, and the possi- 
bilities of fruit grown under such conditions as nature 
had blessed us with. As a result of my talks six men 
were persuaded to spray their trees. At the county fair 
I overheard the remark by .different people concerning 
a certain display of apples : ' ' Those apples never grew 
in Laurel county." I went to the clerk and asked who, 
the apples belonged to, and I found that they were 
grown by Chas, Pierce, one of the men who had sprayed 
his trees in the spring. A few weeks ago I visited an- 
other one of the men, and he said to me : "Morgan, the 



Bureau of Agricultuke. 399 

apples in the orcliard that I didn't spray are all falling 
off, and I am feeding them to the hogs," while the 
other orchard was loaded with perfect red apples, and 
I believe that I put half of the apples that I found on 
the ground in this orchard in my coat pocket to eat as 
I went on my way. All the demonstrators, as well as 
the neighbors, say that such nice apples never grew in 
the orchards before, and as a result the demand for 
spray pumps is so great this fall that we thought it wise 
to start a young man out with the agency for a well se- 
lected pump, in order that the people may have the best. 
To carry out our soil feeding idea, I selected a ie^v 
men to demonstrate the growing of legumes, and the 
results that could be obtained by the use of acid phos- 
phate. I had six men using acid phosphate on different 
crops, and comparing them with crops grown without 
fertilizer, and also with those grown with the complete 
fertilizer; and seventeen men growing some one of the 
different legumes, such as crimson clover, sweet clover, 
cow peas, soy beans, alfalfa and peanuts. Alfalfa 
treated with rock phosphate and ground limestone, 
sown October second, is now, October 26th, ten inches 
high, and the stand is perfect. Soy beans yielded as 
much as 6,020 pounds per acre, as compared with 2,460 
pounds cow peas. Cow peas have been grown success- 
fully in this county before, but to our surprise in all 
the demonstrations the beans gave more than twice the 
yield of that of peas under similar conditions. The 
yield of oats grown with acid phosphate was fifty per 
cent, more than that grown with the complete fertilizer 
in the same field. Com yields have been increased from 
twenty-five to one hundred per cent, by the use of acid 
phosphate and sub-soiling. As the result of these dem- 
onstrations eight carloads of this fertilizer were used on 
the fall sown crops. 

As the season for the different kinds of farm Avork 
came on, I visited all the points where people manifested 
most interest, and discussed the problems with which 
they were wrestling at that time. The interest was so 
great in some places that we were prompted to organize 
local farmers' clubs, for the purpose of meeting at reg- 
ular intervals and discussing farm problems. During 
the year sixty-three of these meetings have been held. 



400 Twenty-First Biennial Eepoet ^' 

with an average attendance of forty-five people. About 
April the 15th hog cholera began its devastating work, 
and some of these meetings were called for the purpose 
of devising some plan whereby we could eradicate this 
dreaded disease. At ten such meetings we had a veteri- 
narian from the State Experiment Station to give us in- 
formation on the subject. On April 19th I began my 
work of vaccinating in infected and suspicious herds. 
To date I have vaccinated 66 herds, with a total number 
of 400 hogs, and up until last week I had not lost a hog 
from cholera that was well at the time of vaccination. 
Last week three died that were vaccinated more than 
four months ago, June 15th, the immunization having 
expired. 

At a local club meeting a few nights ago the farmers 
decided to ship a co-operative carload of potatoes. I 
will leave today for the mining camps at Pineville to 
sell the potatoes. 

About midsummer we decided that strawberries 
would be a profitable crop for us, as the rate of $800 
per acre had been realized in the county; but after a 
few weeks' work, we found that the people were not 
ready for the kind of co-operation that would be nec- 
essary to successfully grow and market strawberries. 
Now we have a movement on foot to bring into the 
county a carload of pure-bred Shorthorn cattle, to be 
used for breeding purposes, and thereby stock up the 
county with a better grade of cattle. 

The county had its first Chautauqua and also its 
first school fair this year. The Chautauqua was a fair 
success, even though not attended by more than one 
hundred and fifty people daily. The school fair was a 
great success. The entries numbered 65, being com- 
posed of all the common farm and garden products, dis- 
plays of cooking and sewing, canned goods, fancy work, 
carpenter work, maps and written work. About $100 
was given in prizes partly by the Board of Education 
and partly by the business people of the town. The 
worth of a dollar or more was given to each pupil win- 
ning a prize, and twenty-five dollars was offered for the 
school winning the greatest number of individual prizes. 
It was said by business men and traveling men that the 
exhibits excelled any that they had ever seen at any 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 401 

county fair in tlie State. We are planning to have an 
exhibit at the State Fair next year. 

Laurel county up to the present time has not been 
a farming county, but the timber and coal supply is now 
exhausted, and the people are beginning to really 
awaken to the scientific principles of farming. The 
county is in no sense the richest county in the State, but 
after seeing and testing its products, we are forced to 
believe that it has the best foundation soil for fruit and 
vegetable production of any county in the State. She 
has a great future in supplying the mining camps of 
our neighboring counties with their daily food, and all 
that is needed to make her one of the richest and most 
desirable counties of the State is to have, along with 
the completion of her pikes, a few more wide-awake peo- 
ple to fall into the ranks of fruit and vegetable grow- 
ers, with those Avho are already interested in making 
the county the garden spot of Kentucky. 

Samuel Morgan, 

County Agent. 



MERCER COUNTY. 

The task you have given me of outlining the work 
done in Mercer county since being County Agent is a 
hard one. However, I will do my best. I have tried to 
do such work as would save the farmers most money 
and convert the greatest number of them to demonstra- 
tion work. I have made a fight on hog cholera that has 
made us many friends and saved the county thousands 
of dollars. One old negro whose hogs I vaccinated said 
to me (months after) : "Boss, if it hadn't been for you 
I would have lost every hog I had." I have vaccinated 
five thousand two hundred and twenty-seven hogs 
(5,227) ; I have vaccinated three hundred and fifty-nine 
cattle for black leg; I have treated 151 other animals. I 
have inspected all stock shipped from or into Mercer 
county since Sept. 12, 1914. 

Next in importance has been my work in soil build- 
ing. We have built 23 silos, four cattle bams, and six 
combination barns. We have built three concrete silos, 
two of them sixty-five feet high. We are saving hun- 
dreds of tons of manure annually which is showing al- 



402 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL RbPOBT 

ready in increased crops. We have two hundred acres of 
soy beans, (our farmers are well pleased with soy beans) ; 
we have at least two hundred acres of alfalfa and most 
of it is a success; we have one hundred acres of sweet 
clover, which is giving satisfaction ; we have a good many 
cowpeas; we have sixty acres of crimson clover; all of 
which will add many dollars' worth of nitrogen and 
humus to our soil and help solve our fertility problem. 

Next in importance has been my work in horti- 
culture. I have ten orchards under demonstration, 
which are giving great satisfaction. Nothing that I have 
done has made us more friends according to the num- 
ber of people interested than my work in the orchards of 
Mercer county. We have a com demonstration that has 
attracted a great amount of attention. We used 150 lbs. 
of nitrate of soda per acre on this corn and more than 
doubled the yield. The corn was put in silos. We had a 
soy bean demonstration which the farmers went for miles 
to see; it was on tired land. There was 40 acres in soy 
beans ; we inoculated two bushels of seed with liquid cul- 
ture from Washington, and sowed a strip through center 
of field; this strip will make twice as much hay as the 
beans on either side. It was full of nodules while the rest 
of the field had none ; until recently it has begun to inocu- 
late itself. We have soy beans in com following soy 
beans that are eight feet tall (Ito San). We have ten 
acres of soy beans following hairy vetch and rye that is 
as pretty as any crop could be ; we have ten acres of soy 
beans in same field following crimson clover and rye that 
is not near so good. Last year we plowed a 40-acre clover 
field 8 inches deep and run subsoiler 5 inches deep, 
planted it to com, plowed it six times shallow with Planet 
Junior cultivators, raised about seventy bushels of corn, 
followed it with wheat and raised 35 bushels and 43 
pounds per acre. We increased the yield of tobacco at 
least 300 pounds per acre with 150 pounds of nitrate of 
soda on one demonstration. We have one demonstration 
of cow peas following hairy vetch and rye that is fine. 
Cowpeas to be turned under and ground to be planted to 
tobacco next year. 

We have organized seven beef cattle clubs; two or 
more farmers go in together and buy a registered bull; 



BuEBAu OF Ageicultuee. 403 

they all get the use of him and usually get most of their 
money back and sometimes all of it when through with 
him. We are filling our county with a better grade of 
cattle. We have imported a number of registered hogs 
and a few registered sheep. All of our beef cattle club 
bulls were shown at our county fair, and most of our 
registered hogs, sheep and horses. We are importing 
some registered dairy cattle. We are going to have 
more stock, better stock and richer land. 

I had only four boys who actually raised their acre 
of corn. I have twenty-three ready for next year, how- 
ever, and I think I will have a nice Corn Club. I have as- 
sisted the county agent in every way that I could with 
the_ Canning Club work. 

We have laid between four and five thousand feet of 
drain tile, and have ditching machine at work now. We 
have about 1,000 acres of swamp land that we are re- 
claiming. We have six stump pullers in the county, 
and have pulled the stumps and grubs of many acres and 
are making those acres produce good crops. 

While I haven't done as good work as I might have 
done had I been better prepared, it was my best, and I 
believe the work successful. 

J. C. Gentry, 
County Agent. 

METCALFE COUNTY. 

In obedience to your request, this office submits the 
following brief outline of work: 

First, dealing with the soils; deep tillage; subsoil- 
ing; better seed beds; use of cover crops; legume cul- 
ture ; crop rotation ; , a system of diversified farming ; 
prevention of erosion; drainage; reclamation; intensive 
rather than extensive farming; high-grade fertilizers; 
use of barnyard manures and crushed limestone. 

Second, better bred live stock, including poultry; 
better draft horses, mules, beef and dairy cattle, sheep 
and swine; if possible on every farm, eliminate scrubs 
and mongrels. 

Third, home vegetable garden, including fruits; 
home canning; home industries; provide for the home 
the home requirements, thus eliminating much of the 
expense in high cost of living. 



404 TwENTY-FlKST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

Fourth, provide forage crop and permanent pas- 
tures in a system of diversified farming, including stock 
breeding, feeding and economic management. 

Fifth, better roads (not very much done yet). 

Sixth, conserving the forests; forest planting. 

Seventh, removing stumps and boulders. 

Eighth, better home conveniences; water systems; 
farm equipment. 

Ninth, club work; Boys' Corn and Pig Clubs; Poul- 
try and Canning Clubs. 

Tenth, building silos; demonstrations in feeding 
roughage and concentrated feed stuffs. 

Eleventh, better selection of seed for farm use. 

Twelfth, planting, cultivating, pruning and spray- 
ing fruit trees. 

Thirteenth, developed spirit of co-operation, unity, 
harmony, pleasant rural conditions, emphasizing schools, 
clubs, telephones and churches. 

Fourteenth, a system of records or farm bookkeep- 
ing (not much accomplished in this yet, but slowly being 
adopted). 

Fifteenth, good literature— bulletins of both the 
State and United States Departments of Agriculture. 
Good agricultural papers, journals, magazines, etc. 

Sixteenth, home improvements — paints, white- 
washes, ornamental trees, shrubs, grass, flowers, lawn 
making, etc. 

Seventeenth, home, school, semi-public and public 
sanitation, importance of conservation of the health and 
life of the human subject and live stock as well. 

Demonstration work in this county consists of land 
(soil) improvements, deep plowing, use of clover crops, 
legume culture, red clover, sweet clover, crimson clover, 
cowpeas, soy beans, alfalfa, spraying and pruning fruit 
trees, introduction of better bred live stock, use of silos, 
use of crashed limestone, better seed selection (import- 
ing seed in many instances), high-grade fertilizers, 
drainage, removal of stumps and boulders, much better 
farm equipment, com, pig and poultry club work. Can- 
ning work is also good. 

The work has been much retarded, because of 
drought causing heavy loss to seed, clover and grasses 



Bureau of Ageioultube. 405 

in a system of rotation in both 1913 and 1914, and mucli 
seed perished (or young plants) in 1915, in early part of 
season. This fall has been better in this respect. 

Com, wheat and tobacco demonstrations this year as 
a rnle are poor, because of excessive rains, beginning 
the latter part of May. 

P. W. BUSHONG, 

County Agent. 



MONEOE COUNTY. 

The farmers co-operative demonstration in Monroe 
county, Kentucky, is making toward a better system of 
agriculture. This action is slow, but it is none the less 
sure. No furore is being created nor wild promises be- 
ing made, for the fertility of the soil must be raised be- 
fore farming can be profitable. 

In the beginning of the work it was not deemed ad- 
visable to organize any co-operative society independ- 
ent of, an order then at work in the county, and it was 
through this order that most of the co-operative exten- 
sion work has been done, all hough some of my most pro- 
gressive people are not in its ranks. We have been suc- 
cessful in all of our deals in fertilizers, kerosene, salt 
and field seeds. Membership grows continually, and 
with new co-operative bodies being formed, the county 
will soon be in shape to do a great work next year. 

In the summer when my work began, stress was 
placed upon the proper cultivation of com, but with the 
unusually wet season, intensive methods could not be 
carried out to the letter. Good results, however, are ap- 
parent on the uplands where it was possible to carry 
these methods out. 

The late summer was given over to forage and hay 
crops. As the result of the extension work, more red 
clover has been sown than has been for years. Enough 
nitrifying bacteria has been furnished by the Govern- 
ment to inoculate about twenty bushels of seed. The 
February seeding will be a record breaker, too. 

The ground seeded to alfalfa will perhaps total ten 
acres. Where instructions were observed closely, all ob- 
tained fine stands, and at present ground is practically 
covered. Others intended sowing, but ooxild not get the 



406 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAl, RePOET 

soil in the proper tilth in time to comply with require- 
ments in regard to seeding dates recommended. - 

Crimson clover is also being tried out. Where the 
culture was .used, good stands have been obtained. The 
culture's benefit appears to be in or to have resulted in 
a higher germination, and although I have never seen 
any statement to bear this out, I am nearly convinced 
that such is the case. 

Only one plat of vetch has been sown to my knowl- 
edge, and its appearance is favorable. 

Sweet clover will come in very strong in spring 
planting. It Avill be sown in most cases with orchard 
grass, and used for pasturage. It reaches the height of 
from six to twelve feet here, and its future is assurred. 

The widest attention is being given to winter oats, 
and I think it is well, for the yield is good, and it pre- 
vents a large area from becoming a thicket of sasafras. 
They also supplement the com crop at a strategic 
moment. Com is depended upon too largely. This is 
caused as a result of the upland farmers trying to pat- 
tern after the people who live in the creek bottoms, 
whose lands lie on a Cincinnati or Trenton formation, 
and yield very high. Barley will get a hearing next 
year. 

Unusual care has been given to the preparation of 
seed beds this fall, and as it is so general, the extension 
work can not claim all the credit. 

My work in spraying has shown beyond question 
that the use of Bordeaux for "black rot" is the only way 
to successful fruit raising. Cedar rust causes a lot of 
damage, and as a result cedars within two or three hun- 
dred yards of orchards are being sacrificed. Will put 
out some fruit trees in November, in dynamited holes, a 
powder company having offered to donate the explosives. 

Two pure-blooded hogs (Durocs, Defender's strain) 
are known to have been brought into the county as the 
result of extension work. 

"High prices for sheep" have been working with 
me, and everybody is a buyer of stock ewes. With some 
good blooded sires, southern Kentucky is an almost ideal 
place for stock farming. 



BuKEAu OF Ageicultuee. 407 

Ground limestone is being given a thorough trial. 
Some near agriculturists have left the wrong impression 
as to its value and I have to right the error they have 
made, for it cannot' be a permanent cure-all. Crushed 
limestone prices were reduced to people sowing alfalfa 
through the efforts of the County Agent. 

The use of a phosphorous fertilizer is being recom- 
mended, as it is our second limiting factor (nitrogen be- 
ing the first). The eastern half of the county is using 
it entirely. The "Coals" are to be carried to the west- 
ern part this winter. Excellent results are being ob- 
tained from the use of a 16% acid phosphate. Potash 
and nitrogen cannot be missed when not used. The fer- 
tilizer item above will save the county hundreds of dol- 
lars yearly. 

At the invitation of the Superintendent of Schools, 
I made a short talk to the Institute ; also I am allowed all 
the time I need at the Teachers' Association meetings 
that are held in the county. Teachers are interested, and 
helped when asked to do so, some keeping a pig near the 
school grounds that is fed from the lunches, etc., and 
the proceeds of its sale is to be the foundation of a school 
library. 

One difficulty I encounter is to get as many promises 
to keep records as I should like to have. Advice is taken 
readily when it does not incur any great expense. Prac- 
ticable has been a word that could be associated with 
every proposition that I have tried to demonstrate or 
hold forth. 

The sign and moon farmer is still with me, so is 
the ultra smart man who is out ' ' to stall ' ' the teacher in 
getting him to account for some queer isolated freak of 
nature which was probably an illusion after all. But 
his day has nearly passed, and we are going to succeed 
him with a farmer who does not only co-operate brains 
and labor, but who is a social unit, citizen and a brother 
to his farmer brethren. 

E. C. Palmoee, 

County Agent. 



408 Twenty-First Biennial, Eepoet 

MUHLENBEEa COUNTY. 

Possibly the first thing that I did after my appoiat- 
ment as County Agent, was to get the farmers in a cer- 
tain community together, where there was no postoffice 
within 8 miles, and ask through petition the Post Office 
Department at Washington to establish a rural delivery, 
or start a route through this section (some of the men 
at this meeting said that they had to go ten miles to 
get their mail). Within a very short time, possibly four 
months, these same men had their mail delivered at 
their door daily, where before they got mail twice a 
month, and occasionally once a week. 

At this time there was only one mail route out of 
Greenville, today there are five. I have assisted the 
farmers in securing all of them, and one hundred and 
twenty to one hundred and fifty-three farmers are served 
with mail daily on each of these routes. 

I had last year five farmers who grew, under my 
direction, more than one hundred bushels of com per 
acre. 

We established three fields of sweet clover, the first 
ever sewn in this county. There has been purchased 
through my influence twenty-three registered cattle, six- 
teen bulls and seven heifers ; twelve registered hogs have 
been bought at the same time, through my influence. 

I have organized or assisted in organizing two farm- 
ers' telephone companies, and one hundred and sixty-one 
farmers are now getting telephone seiTdce because of 
these organizations. 

There have been many fields cleared of stumps by 
use of dynamite, through my influence (136 big stumps 
in one field). Built 9 silos, four in 1914 and five in 1915. 
Dug one public ditch, three and one-sixth miles long; 
drew plans for and helped locate five stock bams for 
farmers. I have organized six Farmers' Clubs in vari- 
ous parts of the county, the members of which now buy 
their fertilizers in car lots (co-operatively) ; one club 
bought one car of field fence at something like 75% of 
retail price. 

I helped three farmers this year repair their old 
grain binders (which had been set aside as no good) ; 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 409 

these men harvested their crops with these machines and 
say that they can cut another crop or two with them. 

Helped to organize a Good Eoads Association that 
has built and repaired 29 miles of dirt road through some 
of the roughest parts of this county ; it is now considered 
one of the best dirt roads in this section. 

I have helped to organize a farmers ' union, known as 
"The American Society of Equity," that now handles 
practically all of the tobacco, sheep wool and lambs pro- 
duced in this county (at satisfactory prices to the 
farmer). This organization has today 85% of the tobacco 
of this county in the pool. 

I have started several crop rotations for the coal 
companies of this county. One of these, the Duncan Coal 
Co., partially through my influence has built and fur- 
nished a two-room house, one to be used for the 
purpose of holding night school which is now being held 
two nights of each week with an attendance of from 12 
to 37 men and women from 22 to 51 years of age; the 
other room is furnished with library tables and chairs, 
where men and women can go and read at will in the 
evening. This is free to everyone. 

I have sprayed tobacco for horn worms, potatoes for 
blight, watermelons for bugs, orchards for scale, and 
cows for flies. Treated wheat and oats for smutt and 
potatoes for scab ; wheat for wevil. Vaccinated hogs for 
cholera, cattle for black leg and treated sheep for stom- 
ach worms. 

I have sown alfalfa, crimson clover and red clover; 
inoculated seed for all legumes (obtained better re- 
sults with it);, six fields of red clover sown in August 
this year all stand fine. I have arranged for continuous 
hog pasture (winter oats and rape, spring oats, cowpeas 
and soy beans, also clover). 

I visited public schools in all parts of the county, ad- 
dressed the pupils, attended teachers ' meetings and insti- 
tutes of all kinds, have been in conference with business 
men for the betterment of the rural communities. I have 
organized boys' com clubs, community com clubs and 
boys' pig clubs. 

We are now at work trying to organize a live stock 
growers ' association. I have assisted several men in se- 



410 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

curing live stock to grow on shares, these men had pas- 
tures and feed, but not enough money with which to buy. 

I have talked to farmers more trying to get them to 
build up their land (make it rich), than any other one 
thing. They are beginning to take better care of their 
manure and sow more cover crops. 

I have gotten several men to feed cattle for market, 
thus feeding the grain and hay on the farm. 

A. Y. FiNLEY, 

County Agent. 

OLDHAM COUNTY. 

As County Agent of Oldham county, I beg to sub- 
mit the following report as to the work done since No- 
vember 15, 1914, to date : 

The first step taken was the organization of Farm- 
ers' Clubs, said organizations having for their purposes 
better farm production, better means of securing farm 
supplies, better marketing facilities and the study of 
farm problems. 

A central organization was formed at LaGrange, 
which consisted of County Judge, County Attorney, each 
magistrate from their respective districts and two repre- 
sentatives from each district. 

Lack of interest by the members of this organiza- 
tion necessitated its discontinuance. However, local 
clubs were formed throughout the county, numbering 
five in all, with a total membership of perhaps some hun- 
dred and fifty farmers. 

Forty-three meetings have been held by these or- 
ganizations at which time I was present taking active 
part. The following meetings were held with lectures 
by experts: Five (5) on hog cholera control; two (2) on 
horticulture; two (2) on soil building; four (4) on how 
to grow 100 bushels of corn per acre ; two (2) on alfalfa; 
one (1) on dairy improvement, and one (1) on canning 
clubs. 

Two (2) Farmers' Club picnics were given. One by 
"East End Farmers' Club," which had as their guests 
of honor the business men and merchants of LaG-range. 
Some two hundred and fifty people were present, and 
talks on co-operation were made by the club President, 
Judge S. E. DeHaven, and State Agent Morgan. 



BUEEAU OF AGEICtTLTURE. 411 

Buckner Farmers ' Club held a picnic in conjunction 
with the Sunday school of that place, with some one hun- 
dred and fifty people in attendance. 

Organization of "Boys' Corn Club," consisting of 
seventeen members, all of which have kept an accurate 
record to date with the exception of two. The boys 
held club meetings for the purpose of studying methods 
of com culture activities. The officers of this association 
consisted of a President, Vice President and Secretary. 
Two meetings of the club have been held to date, and 
were conducted with the same dignity required by any 
organized body. After the organization of the Farmers ' 
Clubs, one of the first steps taken, and a very important 
one for this county, was the discussion of "soil fertility" 
and "fertilizers." 

After a study of the soil conditions in different sec- 
tions of the county, I found a greater part of the soils 
were deficient in humus, signifying a shortage of nitro- 
gen, also a great deficiency in phosphorus, but all soils, 
practically, contained an inexhaustible supply of potash. 
Also the soils of the greater part of the county were 
very strongly acid, showing a, deficiency of calcium car- 
bonate, and the need of ground limestone rock to restore 
their normality. 

"CoEN Demonsteations. " 

Knowing soil conditions by study and observations, 
it was evident the best of results were not being obtained 
on general field crops from the use of complete fertiliz- 
ers. Therefore, I secured some thirty men to demon- 
strate the use of 16% acid phosphate on corn, with a 
total of about two hundred and ninety acres, and results 
from these demonstrations show that complete fertilizers 
are neither so economical nor conducive to permanent 
fertility as acid phosphate. 

"COWPEA AND SOY BeaN DemONSTEATIONS. " 

While these two legumes have not been extensively 
grown in this county, many farmers are growing them, 
but have not appreciated the value of inoculation where 
first time grown. 



412 Twenty-First Biennial Eepobt 

Fourteen demonstrated the use of inoculation on 
cowpeas with a total of forty acres, and seven demon- 
strated inoculation of soy beans, with a total of approxi- 
mately eighty acres. Not all of the material was se- 
cured from the government, but some was bought from 
commercial houses at a reduction to demonstrate its 
value. 

These demonstrations speak for themselves. In one 
case the yield in growth was more than doubled. 

"Red Clovee Demonsteations. " 

It has been very difficult to secure a stand of red 
clover, where sown with a nurse crop in the spring, al- 
though this year has been an exception. Nevertheless, 
eleven have sown about ninety acres this fall without 
nurse crop, and while the soil is already inoculated for 
red clover, we inoculated with artificial cultures just the 
same, to find a difference, if any, by introducing a new 
supply of bacteria on the supposition that it will increase 
nodule formation. 

"Ceimson Clovee Demonsteations. " 

Very little crimson clover has been grown in this 
county, and its value as a winter cover crop is known 
to only a few. Seven men have sown some fifty or sixty 
acres in corn, and specially prepared ground, all seed 
inoculated. 

Com blown down by high winds kept a larger acre- 
age from being sown. 

' ' Ax/FALEA Demonsteations. ' ' 

Very little alfalfa has been grown successfully in 
the past because of lack of proper preparation and treat- 
ment. Twenty-one men have sown a total of seventy- 
three acres, according to government methods. 

' ' Wheat Demonsteations. ' ' 

Believing nitrogen where useB in the fall on small 
grain crops, such as wheat, is of little or no value to- 
ward increasing grain yield, eighteen men are taking 
from one to two acres of wheat sown this fall as a dem- 



BuKBAu OP Agbicultuee. 413 

onstration,' using four hundred; *pounds of 16% acid 
phosphate per acre at seeding time, and a top dressing of 
nitrate of soda in the spring. 

' ' Oeghaed Demonstrations. ' ' 

Five orchards were pruned and sprayed under my 
supervision, and one of these under the joint supervision 
of State Horticulturist J. H. Carinody and myself. 

"SXJMMAEY OF OFFICE AND FlELD ACTIVITIES TO DaTE. " 

Made talk on * ' County Agent Work ' ' at annual pic- 
nic of ' ' Smithfield Farmers ' Club, ' ' Henry county, and a 
talk before the Sunday school convention at Brownsboro, 
Oldham county. 

Total number of miles traveled by rail 1,224 

Total number of miles traveled by team 2,370.5 

Number of visits to demonstrators 277 

Number of visits to co-operators 120 

Number of personal interviews 235 

Number of 'phone interviews 178 

Number of letters written 320 

Number of post cards written 47 

Number of circular letters written 149 

Number of newspaper articles written 6 

Number of farmers and Club meetings 43 

Total attendance at these meetings 934 

Bulletins and circulars mailed to farmers 442 

Bulletins given at visits, perhaps 200 

Complete analysis of soils at Experiment Station 6 

Analysis of limestone rock at Experiment Station 51 

Number of acid soils tested by Truog System ; 23 

Trusting this partial report is sufficient, and that it 
will meet with your approval, I beg to remain, 

J. T. Tayloe, 
County Agent. 

OHIO COUNTY. 

Arriving in the county on Monday, May 3, 1915, too 
late to get acquainted with the people and their condi- 
tions, and then get in any spring and summer demonstra- 
tions, I proceeded at once to get acquainted and find out 
the conditions of the country, and get the county mapped 
out, which was a big undertaking, as this is the third 
largest county in the State. I went to the principal 
places in the county that were calling for me first, in 



414 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

order to learn the people and their condition, so I could 
act intelligently with them, and lay plans for fall demon- 
strations in wheat, crimson clover, red clover and alfalfa 
and oats. At this time I arranged for some demonstra- 
tions in~ Sondan grass, for which it was not too late, and 
had splendid success with it. In my rounds over the 
county I found that they were needing much more stock 
than they had to consume the large surplus of com and 
hay on hand, and also to make more manure than they 
were making to build up some of these impoverished hills 
over the county. So I began to urge them to increase 
their stock, and to buUd silos and utilize more of what 
they had, and save their manures and enrich their farms, 
and more cover crops for pasture for their stock ; and at 
the same time to add to their soil what they had been 
taking off so long. So I began to talk silos to them, and 
in order to get them more interested, I decided to try 
to get them to make a trip over in Warren county, espe- 
cially to see some silos over there, and I succeeded in 
getting about thirty-five farmers to go on this trip of 
about sixty miles, through a rough country to see what 
our neighbors were doing, and to investigate these silos. 
All came home delighted with what they had seen, and 
went to work to build silos. 

We have four new silos built this fall, and will get 
25 or 30 more next year, as a result of my work with 
them. I am getting them to take hold of cattle and 
hogs anew now, and they are getting in new stock and 
better stock. I found them using a complete fertilizer 
mostly 2-8-2, 2-6-2, and 1-10-2 goods, for which they were 
paying from $25.00 to $28.00 per ton, and I have suc- 
ceeded in getting nearly the whole county to use a 16% 
acid phosphate that has cost them from $13.00 to $16.00 
a ton, which has resulted in a great saving for the county, 
as well as giving them a much higher grade goods, and 
doing them more good. We are getting them to use more 
of it than they had been using. 

We have had some hog cholera in a portion of the 
county, and I have vaccinated for nine different men and 
saved their well hogs. We have our people largely in- 
terested also in fall cover crops, and have quite a number 
over the county who have sown crimson and red clover, 



BuEEATj OP Agbicultxjre. 415 

and alfalfa on demonstration this fall, and most of it is 
up and looking nice. We have them very much interested 
in building up their lands, which I am urging as much as 
anything else. I have spoken at a number of places, and 
we have three clubs in the county besides a few A. S. of 
E. societies that we meet with; and we are urging edu- 
cation first for our farmers, and co-operation and road 
improvement, which they are taking hold of well. 

I have visited an average of three or four farms a 
day while out, and traveled an average of about 80 miles 
a week; have telephone calls nearly every day, and am 
stopped on the road all the time by them to consult with 
them in regard to their work. They seem to be as much 
interested as any people I ever saw, and express them- 
selves freely as being well satisfied with my work. 

We have had Dr. Wright with us for four lectures 
on hog cholera in different parts of the county, and while 
the crowds were not as large as we would have liked, 
owing to the trials of the "Possum Hunters" going on 
here at the same time, and all were interested in it. We 
have also had Prof; Slade with us in poultry work for a 
short while, and hope to have him again, as I am trying 
to work up some interest in poultry and think I can. I 
am arranging for a Boys' Com and Pig Club next year, 
and hope to have a very large corn club especially, as 
1 think they are more interested in that than they are in 
the pig clubs. Wo had an exceedingly wet season, and 
they did not get to cultivate their corn as well as they 
would have had it been dryer, but they are much inter- 
ested in cultivation, and I have interested them in select- 
ing their seed com in the field. 

We have been called on to do pruning for the fire- 
blight in the apples, and nre arranging for a good deal 
more of ihis work next winter, as well as spraying. I 
am kept out in the county so much that I don't have time 
for much office work, and reading and improving myself 
as I should like to do. I have to work late at night to 
keep reasonably up with it. I think my work is in good 
shape at present. 

W. W. Beowdee, 

County Agent. 



416 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOKT 

PENDLETON" COUNTY. 

In answer to yonr request for a summary of my 
work to date, beg to advise that I liave travelled a total 
of 2,705 miles, visited 92 demonstrators and 324 co- 
operators, paid 11 visits to schools, held 12 meetings, 
with a total attendance of 1,119; held conferences with 
21 Agricultural Agents, 130 business men and 273 farm- 
ers; mailed 872 letters, 354 bulletins, and have written 
26 newspaper articles; have treated 27 animals, and 
judged 31 head of live stock. 

I was sent here April 14th, with no organization 
whatever behind me, the money for the work being put 
up by the schools. I organized a successful Pig Club of 
35 members and a Com Club of 20 members. Conducted 
a successful trip with fifty farmers to the Experiment 
Station, E. H. Taylor's farm, McKee Brothers' place, 
and the Elmendorf farm. W.ith County Agent Fuller- 
ton, conducted an automobile party of 25 farmers from 
Grant county on a trip through Pendleton county. I 
have about forty school demonstration plats illustrating 
the value of limestone and acid phosphate on alfalfa; 
was instrumental in inducing the teachers at the last 
Teachers' Institute to vote to teach agriculture in all 
the schools of the county this year; was instrumental in 
bringing five tons of acid phosphate in the county, the 
first that had ever been here ; induced the fair manage- 
ment this year to offer premiums to com and pig club 
members, and had a fine display of both at the recent 
county fair; helped in making the agricultural exhibits 
the largest ever seen at this county fair, and we are at 
work now trying to make this an agricultural fair next 
year. 

I have twelve one-half acre demonstration plats of 
winter oats, and four of barley ; also, five of crimson 
clover. Have compiled a list of all registered stock in 
the county, and have aided in encouraging a much 
greater interest in it. Have recently organized a Pendle- 
ton County Crop Improvement Association, with E. E. 
Barton, President, and a membership of influential 
farmers. We elected a Vice President from each Magis- 
terial District, who will be President of a sub-organiza- 
tion in his district, which will make the organization 



BuEEAu OF Ageioultube. 417 

very strong. We have organized one of the sub- 
organizations, and will organize the rest in the next two 
weeks. On November 4, 5 and 6 we are to have a Fann- 
ers' Chautauqua, and all the schools of the county will 
turn out to it, and I am spending a large portion of my 
time now visiting the schools to work up interest in the 
Chautauqua, and to give talks on agricultural subjects. 
The schools are co-operating with me to the fullest ex- 
tent of their ability, and would easily occupy all my 
time if I could devote it to them; and whenever possible, 
I take the students to a corn field, and give practical les- 
sons on selection and care of seed com. 

I have recently gotten a Babcock tester, and have 
tested a number of herds. Have tested sn number of 
samples of soil for acidity; have been instrumental in 
getting a "Jeffrey Lime Pulverizer" in the county, and 
prospects for securing one or two more; have compiled 
a list of all samples of soil from the county that have 
been analyzed, and have had two samples of Ca C03 
tested. Will get some concrete silos erected in the 
spring and summer. 

I believe this covers my work in a general way, and 
I shall be glad to hear any criticisms you have to offer, 
especially recommendations for improvement. 

GrEAHAM A. Smith, 

County Agent. 

PULASKI COUNTY. 

Following is a brief report of the work done in Pu- 
laski county since January 1, 1915 : 

Last year conducted work with 64 demonstrators and 
co-operators. 

This year I am conducting work with 93 demonstra- 
tors and co-operators. 

The yield per acre from com demonstrations was 
53 bushels. 

Sowed 53 acres of alfalfa on 22 farms. 

Sowed 8 acres of crimson clover on 4 farms. 

Sowed 9 acres of hairy vetch on 3 farms. 

Pruned 2,688 fruit trees. 

Sprayed 4,392 fruit trees. 

Vaccinated 130 cattle for black leg. 

Agr — 14 



418 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL RePOET 

Vaccinated 125 hogs for cholera. 

Built 9 concrete silos. 

Organized 16 farmers' clubs, 13 of wMch. bought 
317.95 tons of fertilizer, effecting a saving of $1,144.62. 

Saved farmers buying spray pumps co-operatively, 
$30.38. 

Saved farmers by co-operatively buying spray ma- 
terial, $126.53. 

Organized one Boys' Com Club with 6 active mem- 
bers. 

Organized, with State leader, 14 boys' and girls' 
poultry clubs. 

Have held 24 boys ' and girls ' club meetings. 

Have held 166 farmers' meetings. 

Have made 986 visits. 

Traveled 8,208 miles. 

The most striking and successful results accom- 
plished in the demonstration work were results obtained 
by pruning and spraying. There was not a spray pump 
in use on a farm in the county when the demonstration 
work started. First year I secured a pump and used it on 
5 orchards ; the results were so apparent that eight new 
pumps were bought this year ; as many as four farmers 
bought a pump in partnership. 

Before the demonstration work began only two farm- 
ers were growing alfalfa successfully. Now twenty-two 
farmers are growing it with success. 

Pure-bred poultry is not raised extensively in this 
county. We are helping 118 boys and girls to grow 
pure-bred poultry. 

We were told by public-spirited men, and by many 
influential farmers, that it was impossible to try to or- 
ganize the farmers' clubs for co-operative selling and 
buying. In two years we have been able to organize 
sixteen farmers ' clubs, thirteen of which pooled their fer- 
tilizer ordered this fall, and saved $1,144.62. In addi- 
tion to this saving from co-operative buying, the farmers 
derive much benefit from the regular club meetings, 
where they discuss their difficult farm problems. It. is 
just a matter of a few more months ' work with the clubs 
until we can have them marketing their crops co-oper- 
atively. 



BuEEAu OF Agkictjlttjrb. 419 

From the State Board of Agriculture I secured two 
sets of silo forms for tlie farmers, free of charge. From 
the Experiment Station I secured one set of forms for 
$10 rent. My personal attention was given to the con- 
struction of the silos ; this saved the farmers the expense 
of hiring an expert, and also saved them money by the 
proper proportioning of materials. 

Before the demonstration work began there were 
only 5 silos in the county ; last year I helped build three, 
and this. year I helped build six. Next year we will build 
twenty-five concrete silos. 

In connection with the boys' and girls' club work 
we have organized three com and poultry shows. In- 
stead of soliciting prizes from town people, as Ave did 
last year, this year we are working up prizes in the com- 
munity where the club is. The farmers' clubs in some 
instances have taken this matter of prizes in charge, and 
gotten good results. 

W. C. Wilson, 

County Agent. 



TEIGG COUNTY. 

In response to your request for a brief statement 
of my work since I have been County Agent here, I'take 
pleasure in presenting you with the same. However, 
it is a big subject and I can only outline it in so few 
words. 

Corn. 

We have over 400 acres of demonstrations in com 
growing, besides an unlimited number of co-operators. 
The fact is, so far as I could find out, nearly every field 
in the county reflected to some extent the result of our 
work along this line. We fought turning plow cultiva- 
tion with all our might and with splendid results. The 
yield at this time looks very promising. 

Crimson Clover. 

Eealizing that the one supreme need of Trigg county 
soils is humus and that of a nitrogenous nature, at the 
close of the cultivation of the com crop, I started on a 
campaign to get as many acres of crimson clover seeded 



420 Twenty-First Biennial Eeport 

as possible. We had over a thousand acres listed, but a 
very bad storm reduced the acreage some. However, it 
is an easy matter to find fields of crimson clover in fine 
shape in all representative sections of the county. We 
refused to enroll any farmer who entertained any idea 
of cutting off for hay, as what we sought was soil im- 
provement. Most of what was seeded is going to be in 
good shape for the winter. 

Eed Clovee. 

No red clover was ever seeded other than on wheat 
in the late winter or early spring, but we succeeded in 
getting a good lot of this crop sown in August and early 
September. The Cadiz Hardware Company is respon- 
sible for the statement that they sold more red clover 
seed at the season mentioned than they had at any other 
time. I have some specific data -for this crop in my an- 
nual report, which is not arranged for a report like this. 

Alfalfa. 

We seeded about 85 acres of alfalfa among the 
people who had no idea that they could grow it, and at 
this time it looks good for a perfect stand. On our al- 
falfa we used abot 350 tons of ground limestone rock 
and about 4,300 pounds of acid phosphate, sowing about 
1,500 pounds of seed. 

Eape and Soy Beans. 

These two crops were unknown when I took up the 
work, but we have a splendid acreage of each one ; some- 
thing like fifty acres of soy beans and about twenty- 
five of rape. The results along this line were highly 
gratifying and the acreage will be increased heavily in 
another year. 

Tobacco. 

I have not sought to emphasize tobacco growing, as 
the bane of agriculture in the black patch is this very 
plant. What work along that line I have done has been 
in harmony with the experiments carried on at Green- 
ville, by Prof. Eoberts and the results show an increase 



BUBEAU OF Ageictjlttjke. 421 

of from 2 to 6 hundred pounds per acre. My work with 
tobacco necessarily brought about such a wide discussion 
of the fertilizer business that it resulted in a large cur- 
tailment of the use of complete commercial goods. Any- 
thing branded tobacco grower sold for all it would bear 
and the farmers completed the robbery against them- 
selves by using so little of this that no results could 
accrue. It was war to the knife and the knife to the 
hilt, and we won. A number of men used acid phosphate 
to start the tobacco off with the most remarkable re- 
sults. 

SotTDAN Gkass. 

Our acreage of this plant is about five. It is be^ng 
complimented by the farmers as a feed. We in.troduced 
this as a means of diversification. 

Corn Clubs. 

We have some very good clubs. About 34 members 
and some very fine promises for results. In this con- 
nection I got the cashier of Trigg County Farmers Bank 
to agree to raise one hundred and twenty-five dollars for 
next year and to become my assistant in the work. We 
are going to to emphasize this more another year."^everal 
of the teachers are organizing classes in com' growing 
at my suggestion and the boys are to become members 
of clubs in another year. The instruction will cover all 
phases of club work. 

Faemees' Cltjbs. 

We have a Crop Improvement Association that 
meets every second Monday and we always have big 
crowds. We have seven local farmers' clubs all in good 
shape with regular meetings in most cases. I am try- 
ing a new plan on my clubs which is working fine. Have 
them to operate in connection with the school and having 
a series of "Farm Days" all over the county. Several 
of these have already been held, but the most noticeable 
one was held in the southern part of the county, where 
two districts combined, took all the seats out of the build- 
ing, one school taking one side of the house for their 



422 TwBNTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

farm and school exhibits and the other taking the re- 
maining half. Seats were arranged under some magni- 
ficent shade trees. Dinner was served on the ground and 
enjoyed by at least five hundred people. Games and 
recitations, etc., took up the forenoon, while the after- 
noon was given over to speaking and judging. We have 
done much along this line — all that has ever been done, 
and the school authorities like it so well that the County 
Superintendent states in his annual report for this year 
that my work was remaking the schools. Other meetings 
of this sort are scheduled for the fall and winter. Here 
is my idea: Since the business of the people where 
the rural school is located is farming, the business of 
the school should not be shipbuilding. I have done more 
work along that line than I could crowd into a week, so I 
have lectured all over the county in the rural churches 
on rural education. What I have sought was an agri- 
culture that educates, an agricultural education, instead 
of education in agriculture. 

Feetilizees. 

I have already mentioned this subject in connection 
with tobacco, but I want to say further that I never 
found but one man in the county who had any concep- 
tion as to fertilizer facts. Very little high-priced goods 
were sold in the county in the spring and at this time 
only one ton of complete goods has been ordered for 
fall use that I can locate. It is acid phosphate all the 
way through now, because this soil responds in a re- 
markable way to phosphorous. , 

Silos. 

Three concrete silos and two wooden ones are the 
net results in that line, and with this has come in each 
instance a better grade of live stock. 

Recapitulation. 

This is a mere sketch. We have had a year of good 
things, with, of course, its heartaches. I have endeavored 
to make myself a part of the life of the people. How 
well I have succeeded is attested by the fact that I was 



BuEEAu OF Ageicultubb. 423 

unanimously re-elected. I have sought to make the farm 
no longer a little place, where a little farmer, for a lit- 
tle space of time, in a little way, makes a little money, 
for a little home with little ideals; but a larger place, 
where a larger man, does larger things, with a larger 
vision, in a larger way, for a larger purpose, for a larger 
community in a larger State. 

K. L. Vaeney, 
County Agent. 

WHITLEY COUNTY. 

In answer to your letter of October 1st, asking for 
a statement of my work as county agent since my ap- 
pointment, let me give the following brief summary of 
such activities as can be classified, after which I wjll 
give a few brief items about other things of importance : 

1914 1915 

Miles traveled — 

Rail 474 1,311 

Team (or horse) 1,539 1,558 

Writings and bulletins mailed — 

Letters 453 343 

Form letters 919 1,781 

News articles 11 14 

Literature mailed 3,730 1,336 

Meetings held — 

Number 22 46 

Attendance 422 1,321 

Hogs vaccinated 7 30 

The character and scope of the work may be well 
illustrated in the following brief summaries of various 
lines of work : 

Two cars each of acid phosphate and ground rock 
phosphate have been shipped into the county on co-oper- 
ative order by farmers. The saving on these (counting 
acid phosphate at $20.00 a ton and raw rock at $9.00, both 
delivered) has been $305.40 and $71.90, respectively. 
One car each of burned lime and ground limestone have 
been ordered co-operatively, but I do not have the figures 
at hand as to the saving on these orders. Other acid 
phosphate and perhaps other limestone orders in car lots 
have been made, but not at my direct instance. 

Whitley County Better Seed Association has been 
organized in an effort to secure better seeds for the farm- 



424 TWENTY-FlEST BiBNNIAl, RePOET 

ers of the county. Little lias been accomplislied so far, 
more than negotiations with seedsmen. Arrangements 
have been made finally whereby much can be accomp- 
lished if the farmers will work together. 

Two drainage plots have been mapped out and 
specifications submitted by the government engineer. 
Work has not yet been finished. 

Nine farmers' clubs have been organized and four- 
teen others are in prospect. I expect to have at least 
16. May have more ; interest in these has far surpassed 
expectations. 

One Unit Tuber potato improvement plot has been 
conducted this season using potatoes grown from fall 
planted Irish cobblers by a farmer in the county. Re- 
sults varied between 1%# to 8%# from single tubers. 
Potatoes saved from hills produced over 5#. A few 
low-producing seed saved for comparative test next year. 

A dozen or more orchards have had more or less 
pruning and spraying done in them. Results good, but 
blight has partly spoiled the effect of this work. Several 
spraying outfits will be bought this fall and winter. I 
grafted some trees myself this spring for the experience. 
Will hold a grafting school of one or two days this win- 
ter so that farmers may learn to graft their own stock. 

There have been 15 demonstrations of the use of 
ground rock phosphate on com (used with manure). Re- 
sults have been uniformly the best. One man says his 
com is improved 400% by its use. Wants two tons this 
fall to use again. In some cases the com fired, due to 
being planted too thickly on land short in humus, but 
even in those cases the owners say that their com is 
improving every day. 

The canning club agent has not been able to reach 
all parts of the county, and in response to requests for 
bulletins on canning, I have sent out 125 bulletins on 
canning vegetables. Good results have been accomp- 
lished in many cases by these bulletins. The canning 
club agent has held two school fairs in connection with 
her club shows. The attendance has been 1,000 or more 
at these fairs. Four thousand cans were put up last 
year; 13,000 this year. The interest in this work is 
growing remarkably. 



BuEEAu OF Ageicultubb. 425 

A rest room has been establislied by the civic league 
for farm women. This is expected some time to grow 
into the establishment of a farmers' club house. 

The membership in the Boys' Com Club and the 
Boys' Pig Club has been about 50 each this year. 
At the State Fair one of the Pig Club members won 
first prize for judging pigs. Two members fed pigs so 
as to gain over a pound a day. About 75 members are 
enrolled for the 1916 Com Clubs. They are going in for 
soil improvement as well as for yield. 

About a half dozen men selected seed com in the 
field last year. Eesults are reported better in all cases. 
One ear to row test plot was planted this year. This 
season dozens of men are selecting their seed in the field. 
The results of the ear to row test plot planted this sea- 
son cannot be determined yet, but indications are so 
strong for widely different results that I am planning to 
have several others started in other parts of the county 
next year. 

A plot of Kentucky blue grass has been seeded suc- 
cessfully on the campus of Cumberland College; with 
acid phosphate and ground limestone the grass seems 
to be as much naturalized as in the blue grass region. 

Appropriation of $250,000 has been voted for good 
roads. I am trying to introduce the split log drag as a 
means of improving the roads which cannot be piked. 
Little progress has been made so far. 

I am finding every day plots of crimson clover do- 
ing well where I did not know of any demonstration 
work. The acreage of crimson clover for 1915, will be 
ten times that of 1914, I think. 

I am introducing vetch this season. Have about a 
dozen plots started. More wheat and rye are being 
sown in spite of the. high prices of seed. 

Sweet clover and alfalfa are being tried out at my 
suggestion. No uniformity seems to hold in the re- 
sults. In some sections of the county both are doing 
well, in others only medium to poor. One plot of alfalfa 
is said by visitors from Kansas and Oklahoma to be 
equal to the best in those states. One plot of sweet 
clover, likewise, is most excellent. Other plots of alfalfa 
are merely existing, while most of the sweet clover is 



426 TwENTY-FiEST BrENNiAL Rbpoet 

making poor growth. I am expecting better results from 
the sweet clover the second year, since it is a biennial. 

Some plots of red clover have been inoculated this 
season. Many more fields of cowpeas have been seeded 
this season than ever before. Other summer legumes, 
soy beans, peanuts, etc., have been planted only spar- 
ingly, but have been successfully grown. 

A few good poultry houses have been built. 

One pure bred Hereford bull has been brought into 
the county. Several pure bred boars have been intro- 
duced. One activity of the farmers' clubs which I am 
encouraging is the co-operative ownership of pure bred 
sires. 

E. H. Fatjlkneb, 

County Agent. 

WOODFORD COUNTY. 

Since coming to the county, I have treated 4,500 
hogs with anti-hog cholera serum, and turned half that 
many more to the veterinarians of the county. Fifteen 
men have been taught how to use the serum themselves. 
Sixteen meetings have been held to educate farmers in 
the use of sanitation and serum to control this disease. 

Eighteen demonstrations have been made with 
growing alfalfa; twelve with crimson clover; thirty- 
eight with other crops. Forty orchards have been in- 
spected, and demonstrations have been made in fifteen 
of them. Five men were induced to show apples at the 
State Fair, and each of them took premiums, while apples 
from the county won first premium in the county display. 

Seventy boys were enrolled in the Boys' Com Club, 
and forty-eight of the number finished. Eighty boys and 
girls were enrolled in the Boys' Pig Club, with twenty- 
three finishing. Both of these clubs were well repre- 
sented, and won a large share of the premiums offered 
at the State Fair. 

Twelve boys worked in live stock judging, and ten 
of them went to the State Fair and won prizes. 

Thirty-three schools were visited in the interest of 
club work. 

One hundred and fifteen public meetings were hield 
with a total attendance of 3 2,000 people. 



Bureau of Ageicultuee. 427 

A Boys' Com Show was held last year, and this 
developed into a Woodford County Corn, Tobacco and 
Live Stock Show. This show had five hundred and eight 
entries in competition, and a number of exhibits not in 
competition. There were over 2,500 people visiting this 
show, which was held in and around the court house. 

Some work has been done with diseases of clover 
and alfalfa ia the county. 

Assistance was rendered in organization of farm- 
ers to eradicate foot-and-mouth disease. A Commercial 
Club was organized at Midway, and we are now working 
on an organization to promote the welfare of the county 
at large. This is practically complete. 

We succeeded in getting two County Agents in the 
Home Demonstration work in the county; however, this 
has, in a measure, failed, and the last agent was trans- 
ferred to another county. Yet, out of this work has 
grown the Woman's Home Welfare Association, which 
provides for a local teacher in each of seventeen dis- 
tricts, and these have two hundred and more girls en- 
rolled who are being taught cooking and sewing. 

Work has been done to organize farmers and hold 
them together in co-operation with the Farmers' Educa- 
tional and Co-operative Union in the county, while no 
soliciting has been done for that organization. 

This county sent seven delegates on the trip to west- 
em Kentucky to visit the farms and study the conditions 
in that part of the State. 

Work has been begun in a small way to standardize 
our live stock breeding and now several farmers are 
breeding the same breeds of live stock with the idea of 
selling together in a community sale. We hope to en- 
large on this very materially. 

Several farms where so many hogs had been lost 
through hog cholera that the owners had given up hopes 
of ever succeeding with them again, have been taken as 
hog cholera demonstrations, where, by the use of sani- 
tation, good feed, careful watching, and the use of serum 
when necessary, raising hogs has proven to be practical 
as well as profitable for the past year. 

0. F. Floyd, 
County Agent. 



428 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOBT 



HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AND GIRLS' 
CANNING CLUBS. 

Intboduction. 



Like the Farm: Demonstration Work the Home Dem- 
onstration Work and Girls' Canning Club Work is not 
directly under this Department, but is maintained by the 
Federal Department of Agriculture and the State Uni- 
versity of Kentucky. The work was begun by this De- 
partment, but when Federal funds were provided, and 
the Smith-Lever act passed, the State Department of 
Agriculture reduced the amount of money expended 
along these lines. During the past year, this Depart- 
ment has only helped the work over the rough places, 
and has expended less than one thousand dollars in the 
work. 

However, we have asked the State Agent for reports 
of the work being done throughout the State, in order to 
advertise what Kentucky is doing in the way of develop- 
ing the Girls' Club Work, and better home conditions. 
This work is beyond the experimental stage, and has 
reached the point where it needs the hearty support of 
State and county officials, as well as the active co-opera- 
tion of all citizens interested in the material development 
of the Commonwealth. 

The reports submitted herewith show for them- 
selves the splendid results obtained in twenty-five coun- 
ties in Kentucky now maintaining agents in Home Dem- 
onstration and Girls' Canning Club work. 

J. W. Newman, Commissionee or Agbicultuee. 



BUKEAU OF AGEICULTtiaE. 429 

COUNTY A&ENTS HOME DEMONSTRATION 
WOEK. 



STATE AGENT, Mrs. Helen B. Wolcott, Shelbyville, Ky. 
DISTRICT AGENT, Mrs. Margaret D. Jonas, Louisville, Ky. 

County Name Post Office 

Bell Purnell, Linda (Miss) Middlesboro 

Bourbon Mitchell, Nannie R. (Mrs.) Paris 

Christian Graves, Eloise N. (Mrs.) Hopbinsville 

Clay & Owsley.Scoville, Elizabeth (Miss) ^..-Manchester 

Daviess Worthington, Minnie (Miss) Owensboro 

Fayette Ginn, Mary P. (Mrs.) Lexington 

Hardin Claggett, Ida (Miss) Blizabethtown 

Harlan Skidmore, Rella (Mrs.) Harlan 

Henderson Weaver, Susan G. (Mrs.) Henderson 

Jackson Spence, Laura (Miss) lona 

JeSerson Cramer, Vie T. (Miss) Louisville 

Knott ..South worth, Annie M. (Miss) Hindman 

Laurel Black, Sallie B. (Miss) London 

Lawrence Collins, Emma R. (Miss) Louisa 

Logan Shaw, Bettie W. (Mrs.) Russellville 

McGoffin Blakemore, Mary (Miss) Salyersville 

McCracken Cope, AUie S. (Mrs.) Paducah 

McCreary..........Wright, Flora (Miss) Whitley City 

Madison Oglesby, Ann Rebecca (Miss) Richmond 

Mercer Goddard, Anna B. (Mrs.) Harrodsburg 

Monroe White, Julia (Mrs.) Tompkinsville 

Muhlenberg Boggess, Iris (Miss) Greenville 

Owsley ;(Se6 Clay & Owsley) 

Rockcastle Carson, Eila (Miss) Mt. Vernon 

Whitley Siler, Rhoda (Miss) Williamsburg 



STATE AGENT'S REPORT. 



Tlie Girls' Canning Clubs of Kentucky have just 
completed their second year's work, and I have the 
honor of submitting the following general report, to- 
gether with the report from each of the County Agents, 
given in the form of a short story. 

During the season of March 1 to October 30, 1915, 
the organization of girls ' canning club and home demon- 
stration work in Kentucky embraced twenty-five coun- 
ties under the supervision of twenty-four Agents, with 
an enrollment of nine hundred and twenty-two girls and 
six hundred women. 

Two of these County Agents, were appointed for 
twelve months ' service, two for eight months, two for six 
months and nineteen for four months. In ten of the 



430 Twenty-First Biennial Report 



counties having four noontlis ' work, the additional montli 
of June was given, for the purpose of devoting that 
month's time to home visiting, and initiation of the 
Home Demonstration Work. Five young women stu- 
dents of the Home Economics Department of the State 
University were also sent for the month of June as as- 
sistants, to teach sewing and cooking. This intensive 
campaign in Home Demonstration Work established a 
confidence between Agent and housewife that has since 
invited demonstrations throughout the season. Demon- 
strations in sewing proved to be the line of least resist- 
ance in efforts of the Agent to enter the home and 
established a permanent welcome. The organization this 
year was about double that of last year, both in number 
of counties and enrollment. This is not altogether a na- 
tural growth or expansion of the old work, but almost 
a new organization. Agents were removed from six of 
the thirteen counties, some being placed in larger and 
more difficult fields. We find results have justified this 
action, and that an advantage was gained from both 
changes. 

Not only were changes made in supervision of the 
work, but this year's enrollment showed few members 
of last year's clubs. The first year's enrollment was one 
largely attracted by commercial possibilities of the work, 
and more confidence was placed in the magical results of 
canner and capping-steel than in the instruction of 
Agents ; of course, results were disappointing. 

Our twenty-five counties are distributed throughout 
the State. Each section is represented, and shows a 
different kind of interest, according to the section of the 
State and the occupation of the people. We have thir- 
teen mountain counties, seven of which have railroad 
connection, and six are without. Seven counties are in 
Western Kentucky, and five are located in the central 
or blue grass section. 

We have the coal miner, with the unbalanced pos- 
sessions of a large family and a small garden patch, 
and the commissary conveniences for getting canned 
goods easily. The soil is poor, the land steep and rough 
without fences, and it is impossible to get as much as 
one-tenth acre of land for any club girl. 



BuKEAtr OF Agkicultuke. 431 

The mountaineer is interested in extending the 
abundance of summer food into winter rations by an 
easier and larger method than that of evaporation. 
Wagon freight of sixty cents per hundredweight for ten 
miles, on sugar and glass jars, as well as on canned goods 
from Indiana, makes the women of the mountain counties 
welcome instructions that enable them to can beans and 
corn with the same success as they have had with to- 
matoes and berries. 

The farmer of central and western Kentucky knows 
the advantages in conserving the waste of garden and 
orchard, of time and labor, and of having more and bet- 
ter food for the family use, plus some to sell. While we 
have sectional differences of appreciation of the work, 
and different problems to meet, we find the same general 
need everywhere, and one remedy is indicated in all 
counties, the application of both ideals and science to 
conditions of home making. 

The Home Demonstration Work was undertaken in 
Kentucky in an experimental way, leaving each agent to 
initiate plans and methods best suited to the particular 
home interests of her county. Incidental to supervision 
of Canning Club Work, a great deal of help was afforded 
the mothers and girls in the home. The "drop in visit" 
has proved to be the best means of giving demonstra- 
tions. Many of the agents have helped to cook dinner, 
wash dishes, dress poultry, churn and work butter. The 
services have been so varied and so helpful, that the 
greatest pleasure in the lives of many country women is 
the visit of the County Agent. Our short term Agents 
have been most successful in establishing Home Demon- 
stration Work, and have done it in a spirit of true 
service. 

As an indication of this service, I note the mileage 
report of our Agents. Thiity-four traveled 33,352 miles, 
an average of over 980 miles. Seventeen Agents aver- 
aged 100 miles each in walking. The Agent of McCreary 
county walked 450 miles, and traveled double that dis- 
tance by train. The Agents of Logan, Bourbon, Madi- 
son, Fayette, Daviess, Henderson and Mercer counties 
averaged 1,690 miles by horse, 



432 TwENTY-FlKST BjBflNNIAL EePORT 

We find two special advantages from our experi- 
mental Home Demomstration Work, one is that we can 
hold the interest of the girls in the miners' homes, since 
we cannot get vegetables enough to do much canning. 
The girls became first interested in sewing, then in cook- 
ing and bread-making. They also learned to do better 
gardening, some of them selling a few vegetables at a 
high price. Another special advantage in Home Demon- 
stration Work is that it gives the necessary home sani- 
tation preparation for making preserves and jellies. 

So far as the tomato crop is concerned, we have a 
very poor report to make. The crop was a failure 
throughout the State, owing to continued rains, especially 
during the polinization season. The plats in bottom land 
were lost entirely, a few surviving plants had little fruit, 
and that of an inferior quality. The crop was less than 
twenty-five per cent, of an average crop. 

This small crop of tomatoes was large enough to 
serve the purpose of organization, instruction and in- 
spiration, and the girls put their energy and enthusiasm 
into canning other vegetables and fruits. The summary 
shows an enrollment of nine hundred and twenty-two 
girls, number reporting four hundred and twenty-six, 
and the number of caps and aprons made four hundred 
and fifty-two. This indicated that more girls wanted to 
sew than wanted to can. The number of No. 3 cans of 
toamtoes is twenty-eight thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-eight, and the number of vegetables and fruits in 
quart jars is thirty-six thousand five hundred and fifty- 
eight. The number of other products, preserves, jellies, 
pickles and ketchup, is twenty-two thousand three hun- 
dred and sixty-seven, a total of one hundred and seven 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-three containers. 
An estimated value of this product makes a total of 
eighteen thousand five hundred and two ($18,502) dol- 
lars. The estimated expense of cans, jars (more than 
half the jars were already owned), sugar, spices, etc., is 
three thousand and ninety-three ($3,093) dollars, making 
a net value of fifteen thousand four hundred and nine 
($15,409) dollars, or a net average profit per girl of 
thirty-six dollars and seventeen ($36.17) cents. 

(Mes.) Helen B. Wolcott, 
State Agent Home Demonstration Work, 



BuBBAU OF Ageictjltube. 433 

REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT. 



The District Work was begun by organizing Mc- 
Creary county early in April, when visits were made to 
Whitley City, Pine Blnott and Steams. Besides meet- 
ings and talks in churches and schools, many home visits 
were made, in order to meet girls and women on a more 
intimate footing, and to get a better idea of conditions 
and needs. In all three places, the meetings were well 
attended, a sufficient enrollment obtained, and a very 
cordial reception accorded Miss Wright, County Agent, 
and me, both in the homes we visited and at the public 
meetings held. We were fortunate, too, in securing valu- 
able co-operation from Miss Alcorn, County Superin- 
tendent of Schools, and from Mr. Butler, of the Steams 
Company. The time between this visit and our meeting 
at Lexington was spent in the State Agent's office, re- 
ceiving instruction and help necessary to a better grasp 
and understanding of the work, and in trying to keep the 
Jefferson county clubs together until an Agent could be 
chosen and- appointed. The Lexington meeting which 
began April 26, and continued through the entire week, 
was a source of much profit and pleasure. Many things 
were made clear, the agents were brought in closer and 
more personal touch with Washington through the repre- 
sentatives sent for our instruction and became better ac- 
quainted one with the other. 

State University, the Division of Extension and the 
College of Agriculture gave valuable contributions to 
our meeting, as well as a very cordial welcome to us all. 
The reception given us by Judge and Mrs. Barker was 
most enjoyable, and we all appreciated the opportunity 
that this kind and thoughtful hospitality afforded us for 
closer acquaintance and social chat. 

The first week in May was spent in helping Miss 
Cramer to get started with the work in Jefferson county. 
Visits were made to each club, and appointments ar- 
ranged for home visits, and other club meetings. Some 
specimens of our Canning Club work were exhibited at 
the headquarters of the Consumers' League May 10 to 



434 Twenty-First ^PiEnnial Eepokt 

12. Many visitors cain^to admire as well as to inquire ; 
the men outnumbeping the women. This brought our 
work conspicuously before a large number of people, and 
the co-operation of the Consumers' League added to 
its already excellent reputation. An invitation to talk to 
the cabbage patch women from Mrs. Alice Hegan Eice 
was accepted, and a short talk on "Gardens" and "What 
Can be Done in Back- Yard Gardens ' ' was given May 10. 
After the talk many women came to ask questions, and 
several garden plats were visited. The interest aroused 
has borne some fruit, and had further encouragement 
and help from us through visits and demonstrations in 
canning by our Jefferson County Agents. A visit was 
made to Bourbon county later in the month, to help with 
organization. Several club meetings were held, and 
visits made, as well as some special instructions given 
Mrs. Mitchell, our Agent. 

Consultations, office work and the selection of suit- 
able containers for our club products completed the 
month, and ran into the early part of June. Then came 
visits to Rockcastle, Laurel, Harlan and Bell, instruct- 
ing and helping agents and visiting their clubs, and in 
the homes of their girls as well, to learn more of environ- 
ment and local difficulties. During July visits were 
made to Henderson, Whitley, McCracken, Muhlenberg, 
Hardin, Lyon and Logan. At Williamsburg a talk and 
a demonstration in canning were given at a farmers' 
meeting. The men not only listened attentively to what 
was said, but many attended the canning demonstra- 
tions, examined the canner and besieged us with ques- 
tions. The visit to Eddyville to give demonstrations 
and instructions in tomato canning to the warden and 
to some of the convicts in the State Prison was exceed- 
ingly interesting. The men had put in several acres of 
fine plants, a cannery had been installed, sheds built for 
protection from sun and rain, tables and all necessary 
equipment provided. One division gathered and brought 
in the tomatoes, another selected and washed them; the 
scalding was in charge of yet another, while peeling, 
coring and packing were in charge of men more carefully 
selected, as were also the men who did the capping, etc. 
Two things impressed me forcibly during this visit, viz. ; 



Bureau of Ageicultueb. 435 

tile perfect cleanliness of every part of the prison, and 
the happy, cheerful spirit cf the prisoners. After work 
was finished, and we were returning to the prison, I over- 
heard one convict say to another as he looked admiringly 
at the prison building, "Bob, we've got the prettiest 
house in Eddyville." 

The trips to Henderson, McCracken, etc., were for 
instruction to agents, and a better acquaintance with lo- 
cal difficulties. In early August a trip was made to Es- 
till county to participate in one of a series of meetings 
to stimulate interest in better farming, the meetings be- 
ing arranged by Berea College. A talk on Home Science 
and a demonstration in tomato canning were given. 
Visits were also made to Madison, Magoffin, Lawrence, 
Owsley, Jackson and Laurel counties. Demonstrations 
in canning and packing were given, many local visits 
made, and general instructions given. With the excep- 
tion of Madison, the roads in these counties are, at best, 
far from good, but after the fearful rains of July, which 
continued into August, travel was very difficult, if not 
positively dangerous. Many miles were done on foot, 
rather than risk the fearful hills and gullies filled with 
mud. I found some of our agents caiTying canners, cans, 
jars, and other necessary supplies on horses or mules, 
holding these in front of their saddles for miles over 
steep and slippery mountain paths, that the girls might 
be helped to do better and more efficient work. It was 
gratifying to note the interest of many of these mount- 
ain girls, who despite the loss of part, or sometimes the 
whole of their crops from excessive rain, seemed in no 
wise discouraged, but were always hoping and planning 
for better things next year. A visit to the Carter Coun- 
ty Fair, September 2d, was made and demonstrations in 
canning beans given, but I had no message as interesting 
as were the side shows and races, and very fe^v attended 
the demonstration. Preparations for our State Fair 
exhibit were begun September 7th, and continued during 
the rest of the week, as decorating, unpacking and ar- 
ranging the different county exhibits consumed a great 
deal of time, as did the fitting up of the Home Demon- 
stration feature of the exhibit. The week of the fair was 
spent in charge of our exhibit, which, by its excellence, 



436 TwENTY-FlEST i^rENNIAl, EePOKT 

beauty and variety, the uniformity and appropriateness 
of container and pa^, told, in part at least, the story of 
our season's work. Owing to the generosity of Mr. New- 
man, our Commissioner of Agriculture, who donated the 
lacquered cans, some of our girls, especially^ in the moun- 
tain counties, were enabled to put up huckleberries and 
blackberries for sale. The cans formed quite an at- 
tractive feature of our exhibit, and quite a number were 
sold. A trip to Fayette for consultation and visits to 
plats, and a demonstration in canning at Aubumdale, 
in which Miss Cramer assisted me, finished the Septem- 
ber work. A three days' stay in Mason county helping 
Miss Tuggle organize Home Demonstration Clubs, con- 
sultations with Mrs. Wolcott, and some institute work, 
which included Prestonsburg, Leitchfield, Hodgenville, 
and Elizabethtown, completes my work to date. Schools 
were also visited and talks made. Some interest was 
aroused, and a very cordial reception was ours. 

In looking back over the year that is closing, and 
in trying to vision the future, the immense future of this, 
our work, one thing stands out forcibly and clearly, that 
whatever of hardship, of disappointment and discour- 
agement may fall to our lot as agents, the privilege and 
opportunity for real service, whole-hearted and un- 
selfish, are ours, and overtop and outweigh all else. 

Mas. Maegabet D. Jonas, 
District Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



BELL COUNTY. 

Having been sent to Bell county, as county agent, 
rather hurriedly, and with but ten days in which to or- 
ganize the Girls' Canning Club, I directed my efforts, 
with the help of Dr. Foley, of Pineville, Secretary of. 
County Board of Health, and Mr. Clayton, a supervisor 
sent out by the State to communities that could be 
reached easiest, and in which we were sure of finding 
plenty of girls. Dr. Foley and Mr. Clayton were going 
over the county holding night meetings and giving illus- 
trated lectures, trying to encourage the making of gar- 
dens, and they very kindly told of my work in connec- 
tion with theirs. 



BuBEAu OF Ageicultxikb. . 437 

As there were no schools in session, I thought the 
best way in which to reach the greatest number of peo- 
ple would be to visit the homes, getting one girl to tell 
me of another eligible girl, etc. I visited seven places, 
sixty-eight homes, organized five clubs, enrolling fifty- 
four girls. I was very fortunate in finding the girls' 
fathers and mothers at home, as they would have to be 
consulted, of course. They seemed more anxious than 
the girls in several cases. In one of the places I visited, 
miracles just couldn't arouse any interest; another, 
Edgewood, a mining camp, the people had such small 
gardens that all the space was devoted to beans. As 
BeU county is very mountainous, and contains so many 
mining camps in which gardens are very small, only 
twenty-eight of the girls could have one-tenth acre plats, 
but Mrs. Wolcott told me to enroll them with whatever 
amount of land they could get. 

The first club that I organized was at Gravity, three 
miles from Middlesboro. Here I enrolled fourteen girls 
— ten of them having one-tenth acre plats. When I re- 
turned to them in June, I found one girl had married 
and moved away, three had dropped out as they coidd 
not get the land, leaving ten club members, who were all 
faithful, and worked hard on their plats. Two of the 
girls made the best work in the county : Cashie Minton^ 
499 No. 3 cans of tomatoes; and Addie Soard, 137 No. 
3 cans of tomatoes and 122 No. 2 cans. 

Four other girls made fairly good records, but the 
crops of the other four were complete failures. I had 
an average attendance of eight at my sewing classes, 
which -lasted through June and nearly all of July. I 
gave two demonstrations in light bread ; one in the home 
of one of my girls, and the other in the home of a young 
married woman, who asked me if I would show her how 
to make bread, even if she was married. I also showed 
her how to make muffins. Mrs. Jonas was visiting me 
then, so I took her with me this day. In another home 
I got the dinner one day; made a chicken pie, fixed 
stuffed peppers and biscuits. My club members and 
their mothers were always asking me for patterns and 
recipes. I also did a great deal of shopping for them in 
Middlesboro. 



438 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

1 

At Shamrock, four miles from Middlesboro, in an- 
other direction, I enrolled nine girls. On returning in 
June, one had moved away, one couldn't get any land, 
and four dropped out. Two of the remaining girls were 
fine workers, and their mothers were doubly interested. 
The other girl was rather a shiftless sort; she would 
never come to the sewing classes, and ran every time 
she saw me coming. Her crop failed, as it was in such 
a low place, but I went to her home every time I could, 
as her father and mother were so interested, and I gave 
them the literature, and one or two bulletins. I enrolled 
one little girl in June who had heard about the work, 
and wanted to join. She only had about seventy plants, 
but she made a great deal off of them. I gave a light- 
bread demonstration and cooked dinner another day, in- 
cluding potatoes with milk dressing, plain omelet and 
biscuit. In another home I showed the mother how to 
make a plain white cake with icing, and was also able to 
help her with her sewing a great deal. The girl in whose 
home I made the light bread couldn't afford to buy tin 
cans, and as she could get twenty cents per dozen for her 
tomatoes, all during the season, I advised her to sell 
them, and she made $20 on her plat, besides canning one 
hundred quarts in glass for home use. 

In the eastern part of Middlesboro, called the East 
End, about one and one-half miles from the center of 
town, I organized a club, enrolling ten members, four of 
them having one-tenth acre plats, but on my return three 
of the girls having one-tenth acre plats had moved away;- 
another girl married in two weeks; one could not get 
any land, and one hired out about July first. The re- 
maining five were very much interested in sewing, but 
I was never able to get into their homes. Their crops 
failed, too ; the largest number canned for home use was 
sixteen quarts. 

Dr. Foley suggested that I visit Straight Creek, a 
mining camp two miles from Pineville, as the coal op- 
erators there were so anxious to have the home life of 
the miners more pleasant. This is a large camp, and 
some of the girls had good sized plats, although not near 
the one-tenth acre. I enrolled fourteen here, but I was 
never able to get more than five to the sewing classes. 



Bureau op Ageicultube. 439 

The majority of them did all of the house work, and they 
didn't have many things to can, either. The financial 
conditions here were also very strained this summer, 
owing to a strike and decrease in wages. Two of the 
girls asked me to teach them bread-making, and when the 
time came they couldn't get materials. I gave one dem- 
onstration, however, in bread-making and the canning of 
beans. The five girls interested in the sewing made their 
aprons and caps, corset covers with crocheted and tatted 
trimming, and one girl made a dress. This girl also 
made cookies once under my instruction. ,The girls 
raised enough tomatoes to eat all summer, and some had 
several cans for home use. 

My other club was at Hulen, twenty-nine miles from 
Middlesboro. This was the only agricultural section in 
the county, but all of the crops except one were burned 
up completely. Much interest was displayed here by 
the mothers. They were delighted with my method of 
canning, especially with blackberries and beans. I was 
permitted to go into any of their kitchens and cook any- 
thing with what they had. I gave demonstrations in 
light bread, corn bread, and cookies; also rice, how to 
serve beats as a vegetable with salt, pepper and butter, 
stewed onions with cream sauce, as they all had plenty 
of milk and butter. I helped one woman to screen her 
house, made fly swatters from scraps of screening; was 
called upon to help with the sewing, showed them how 
to cut economically, and made them patterns for under- 
clothing and their plain dresses. I enjoyed being in this 
community very much, for the people were so hospitable 
and eager to learn new methods. If the tomato crop had 
been successful, these girls would have made a big show- 
ing, as none of them were afraid to work. At this place 
one hundred and eighty-nine No. 3 cans of blackberries 
were canned for the market. 

I gave demonstrations, with Mr. Clayton's assist- 
ance, in canning tomatoes, beans, corn and apples in 
three places where I had no clubs organized, viz: Fork 
Eidge, Gary and Finley; also at Excelsior. At Finley 
and Excelsior the mothers asked for the organization 
of ar'club next year, if there happens to be an agent in 
the county. 



440 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOET 

In closing, I will say I enjoyed tlie work very much, 
both with the girls and their mothers. I had no trouble 
in getting their co-operation, also that of their fathers. 
In homes where we did canning in tin the fathers and 
brothers did all of the heavy work, which was a wonder- 
ful help. When I was making my last visit to their 
homes they told me of their plans for next year, if the 
work is in the county.- With the experience they have 
gained this year, even though under very discouraging 
conditions, next year, if the season is good. Bell county 
will be one of the first counties in canning club work, 
I am sure. As I had so few cans for the market, and 
they were all canned near Middlesboro, I found market 
for them there, selling at $1.20 per dozen. I haVe heard 
from several sources that the people were well pleased 
with the tomatoes, and thought I sold them too cheap; 
but would rather have them say that than that I over- 
charged. 

Miss Linda Puenbll, 
County Agent Farm Demonstration Work 



BOURBON COUNTY. 

On April 20th, I was notified that I had been selected 
as county agent for the "Girls' Canning Club," and 
after making application for the office, w^as expected to 
attend the County Agents' Demonstration Week at the 
State University. 

Not having had any previous knowledge of the far- 
reaching effects of the Home Demonstration Work, I 
was profoundly impressed with the immensity of the un- 
dertaking, and more than proud to belong to such a body 
of workers, under such a grand government. 

Filled with ambition to do for my county what other 
agents were doing for theirs, I set to work at once to 
reach the girls who might be able, at that late date, to 
secure ground, and make a start this year. 

I found only two schools in session, Millersburg and 
Clintonville. At Millersburg I distributed about ten 
packages of seed supplied by the Govenmient. Only two 
girls, Jennie Hubbard, aged eleven years, a cripple, and 
Lydia Thompson, aged eleven years, could have plats. 



BuBEAu OF Ageicultuee. 441 

and these were given them by the landlord upon whose 
farms the fathers raised tobacco. Both these men pre- 
pared the ground, set out the plants, worked them, and 
gathered the tomatoes, taking great pride in the fact 
that the girls were "Canning Club Girls." Lydia 
Thompson will have more than one hundred and fifty 
(150) "4 H" cans from her plat, and Jennie Hubbard 
about fifty (50). 

At Clintonville I found a lady who wanted her niece 
to belong to the Canning Club, and "learn to do things." 
As an inducement to other girls, she gave apron goods, 
one-tenth acre plats, and invited the club to meet at her 
home every Wednesday. Dinner was provided, a con- 
veyance sent for the girls and their tomatoes, and every- 
thing done to make the club a success. 

This club was the only one that met regularly, and 
they canned peas and beans for several housekeepers, 
before the tomato season; also made preserves and jel- 
lies for the State Fair. 

The school at Clay's Cross Roads had closed, but 
the teacher called the girls together and a club was 
formed. I distributed tomato seed, and after a few meet- 
ings I found I could do better work by visiting them in 
their homes. In this way I became acquainted with the 
mothers, and found that while they were deeply inter- 
ested in the success of the girls' plats, in most every 
case they were already overworked. The "stone" to- 
mato plants were late, and the girls who depended on 
them have only a few cans. 

I have responded to every call, and helped can the 
tomatoes, not allowing any to go to waste. 

One girl was taken sick after her plat was set out; 
her mother and father could not find time to help, so 
the crop was lost. 

Another girl tried in every way to keep the chickens 
out of her plat, but was unsuccessful. Both these girls 
made the aprons, and were very much interested. 

On every side I have met hearty co-operation, a kind 
welcome in every home, from the woman of wealth to 
the mother who "takes in washing," that her girls may 
have the proper clothing to attend school. I am treated 
with consideration, and pressed to stay for meals, when 



442 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Bepobt 

I am always given tlie best, whicli is sometimes dread- 
fully poor. 

I have made sixty (60) home visits. In some I have 
helped can beans and peas, telling of the fireless cooker, 
and promising to help make several. 

I have been able to make several suggestions which 
I hope were helpful, while discussing various household 
duties, as bread-making, butter-making, ventilation, san- 
itation, pure water supply, poultry raising, and sewing. 

The work is only started, but I realize that a county 
agent has a wonderful work before her. It is a great 
privilege to be able to go into the home of a tired, over- 
worked woman, carrying a little of the outside world in, 
and making her forget for a little while, as the girls are 
shown how they may become self-supporting, and, at 
the same time more helpful in the home. 

The members of the clubs canned seventy-five (75) 
No. 2 cans of peas, one hundred and twenty-five (125) of 
beans for home use, and made preserves and jellies, a 
part of which was sent to the State Fair. 

We have canned nearly eight hundred (800) No. 3 
cans of tomatoes, most of which will be labeled "4H." 

Some of the girls and their mothers are planning 
for next year's crop, believing that with an early start 
the plats will pay them well. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Mes. Nannie R. Mitchell, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 

CHRISTIAN COUNTY. 

To set the people canning in Christian county was 
not a difficult matter, because we are a very progressive 
and receptive community. Our county was the first in 
the State to employ a farm demonstrator (this being 
done before State aid was available), and the canning 
olub movement, therefore, was the next step in our dem- 
onstration work. 

The appropriation for this was readily secured, and 
on March first, 1913, the first club was organized; and 
the statistics concerning the growth and the popularity 
of this club speak for themselves. The membership of 
the 1915 club nearly doubled that of 1913, the number 



BuEEAu OP Agbictjltxteb. 443 

of cans of tomatoes more than doubled that of the 1913 
club, while the number of pounds of tomatoes trebled 
that raised by the club of 1913. The first year we had 
three portable canning outfits, while this year we had 
twenty. 

Otir display at the county fair created more favor- 
able comment than did any department, and in the words 
of the president of the fair association, "The Canning 
Club exhibit has attracted more genuine interest and ap- 
plause than any feature on the grounds." One partic- 
ularly noticeable display was that of Beatrice King 
(aged thirteen years), who had seventy fruits and vege- 
tables prepared in various ways; all of these products 
grown on her father's farm. Beatrice expresses her 
appreciation in the following original lines : 

"When winter snows about us drift 

And winter winds are cold, 
Small hands the Queen jar will lift 

Prom fruits we have not sold; 
'And when the wide old kitchen hearth 

Sends up its smoky curls,' 
Who will not thank the Canning Club 

For Helping Farmer Girls?" 

The prizes donated to the club girls amounted to 
eighty dollars; the contribution agencies being the Pen- 
nyroyal Fair Association and the County Board of Ed- 
ucation. The canned tomatoes were readily disposed of 
to a local grocer, Mr. Claud Clark, and other inquiries 
came from merchants desiring to handle our output. 

The field work has been productive of much good, 
and besides forty-seven club meetings, I have made one 
hundred and fifteen personal visits to the members en- 
rolled. I have been able to assist in matters of sanita- 
tion, household management and arrangement while on 
these visits, and to give suggestions regarding labor- 
saving devices, personal hygene, home care of the sick, 
and many other basic principles of high thinking and 
better living. 

The scope of the work has been much enlarged this 
year, and jelly and preserve making, pickling and 
ketchup making have sustained the girls' interest, and 
attracted the mothers as v/ell. Lucky indeed are those 
families who will partake of the Canning Club girls ' win- 
ter provender. 



444 TwENTY-FmsT Biennial Report 

In making an apron and embroidering the club em- 
blem upon it, many of the girls have made their initial 
effort in machine as well as hand work ; and in one club 
the members ventured further, and made canning club 
dresses. 

The mothers of the past generation learned to cook 
and to sew in the school of experience, but our girls are 
not experimenting, they are in training to make effici- 
ent, competent home-makers. Sixty future home-mak- 
ers in Christian county, all laboring along scientific and 
practical lines to live up to the reputation Kentucky has 
so long sustained, "the best place outside of Heaven!" 

Eloise Nelson Geaves, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 

The Fiscal Court of Christian County recently ap- 
propriated $500 for the Canning Club work, to which 
the Extension Department has added $500, and Mrs. 
Graves will be employed for the full year beginning Jan- 
uary 1, 1916. 

CLAY AND OWSLEY COUNTIES. 

On the 10th of March, 1915, I began my work as 
county agent for Clay and Owsley counties. 

The first day's journey was a tiresome one, over a 
rough and muddy road for about thirty miles. I vis- 
ited three homes on the road, and reached Buck Creek, 
Owsley county, the 12th of March, and spoke to a large 
crowd in the interest of the Girls' Canning Club. Very 
few people had ever heard of the work, but everyone be- 
came interested in it. I organized a club of twelve girls, 
and visited several homes in the community, and gave 
demonstrations in bread-making. I then went to Vin- 
cent and organized a club of five girls and a mothers' 
club of ten members. As I started on my way through 
the county, I was compelled to stop for a few -days on 
account of a deep snow. While waiting for the snow tide 
to run down, I visited about twelve homes, doing some 
work in sewing and cooking; also repaired a sewing ma- 
chine for a lady who appreciated it very much. I trav- 
eled over a part of the county, but was unable to keep 
some of my appointments on account of high water. I 



BuEBAu OF Ageicultuee. 445 

organized four clubs in Owsley county, with twenty-four 
members, and visited about twenty homes. Here I met 
with much encouragement, and most of the people 
seemed to appreciate the work done for them. Then I 
took up my work in Clay county, but was again delayed 
by deep snow. I organized six clubs in Clay county, 
with fifty-nine girls, and I never saw people more in- 
terested in any work than the mothers in Clay county 
were when I told them of the Girls ' Canning Club work. 

In June I started out again to do more demonstra- 
tion work. I visited each of the girls, and helped most 
of them make their caps and aprons. The girls were 
very proud of them, but many were too poor to buy the 
material, so I advanced them the money. I visited about 
eighty homes in all, and besides making the aprons, I 
demonstrated making four fireless cookers, and some 
breakmaking; also helped to can two hundred quarts of 
berries in tin. I was out about six weeks, and traveled 
over two hundred miles. 

In August I started out again to give demonstra- 
tions in canning in tin for the tomatoes. I found the 
tomato crop very poor on account of the unfavorable 
weather conditions, and only a few girls had enough to- 
matoes to can in tin, but I taught them how to-can, and 
they all seemed anxious to try again next year. One 
girl raised one hundred bushels, but only a few were fit 
to can, and they were black in the middle. I cannot give 
the exact number canned, but the number in tin will not 
exceed one thousand for home use. 

However, the work has not been a failure, even 
though the tomato crops in most places were failures. 
The girls are all anxious to try again, and the interest 
manifested by both old and young proves there is much 
to be done in the years to come. 

Besides the berries and tomatoes, we canned several 
lots peaches, apples and beans. 

(Miss) Elizabeth Scoville, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



446 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Repoet 

J 

DAVIESS COUNTY. 

The Home Demonstration Work in Daviess county 
for this year was supervised by means of home visita- 
tion, rather than through club meetings, as was last 
year's plan. 

The enrollment was 18 girls in the Canning Club, 
and 44 women in the Home Demonstration Club. Bul- 
letins and circular letters were mailed regularly to all 
of these. 279 visits were made to club members, 86 to 
co-operators, and 4 to local gardeners. The year's wofk 
began with an effort to dispose of last season 's products, 
26 local grocers being called upon for that purpose. 

On account of the drought in the early spring, it was 
necessary to sprinkle the tomato plants. Later, during 
the blooming period, all of the plants were damaged and 
several of them entirely destroyed by the heavy rains. 
On the whole, the season was very unfavorable to the 
tomato crop. 

Previous to the canning season the work consisted 
mainly of pattern drafting and fitting, 14 of the girls 
making dresses, and 12 club uniforms. Most of the lat- 
ter were handmade and embroidered. Several of the 
girls became interested in hand embroidery and crochet- 
ing. Eleven girls practiced breadmaking and nine did 
creditable work in baking cakes. Occasionally attention 
would be given to quilting, making button-holes or home 
millinery. Seven fireless cookers were made, most of 
these as demonstrations to groups of women. 

The girls put up 1,050 cans of tomatoes and 441 
cans of beans. Twenty other varieties of fruits and veg- 
etables were canned besides quantities of preserves, 
pickle and other products, aggregating 4,556 jars or 
cans. This includes 742 cans of tomatoes and 81 of 
beans put up by the 13 members of the Home Demonstra- 
tion Club who submitted reports. Most of all this is in- 
tended for home use. 

The members of the clubs live in various parts of 
the county, and to accomplish the work it was necessary 
to travel 2,136 miles. -In addition to this about 700 miles 
were traveled by rail in attending the county agents ' 
meeting in Lexington, the State Fair at Louisville, and 
the Farmers' Chautauqua at Greenville. Exhibits were 



Bureau op Ageicultuke. 447 

made at the State and county fairs with demonstrations 
of canning by club members at the latter. Twelve prizes 
were awarded the girls by public-spirited citizens as pre- 
miums for good work done. Seven girls prepared illus- 
trated booklets giving a history of the year's work. 
Most respectfully submitted, 

Minnie E. Woethington, 
County Asrent Home Demonstration Work. 



FAYETTE COUNTY. 

Canning club work was begun in Fayette county on 
March 10th, 1915. 

During the month five canning and four poultry 
clubs were organized, with a membership of thirty-seven 
and forty, respectively. 

Seed was distributed, instructions for making seed 
boxes were given, and the first lesson on poultry given 
out. 

A demonstration of making a fireless cooker was 
given at the Athens school house to nine women, the 
county superintendent and the teachers. 

In April our garden clubs were formed with a mem- 
bership of twenty-eight. G-arden plats were put in con- 
dition for planting, and the gardens planned. Several 
landlords were visited in the effort to get some ground 
for girls who had none, except their house-yards. So 
many tenants have large yards that are absolutely use- 
less, but which the landlords will not allow to be used for 
gardens. 

Some of our caps were cut out and made. The State 
meeting of county agents occupied the last week in 
April. 

In May much of our garden was put in. The gar- 
den plan was drawn to scale, and put on the board by the 
boys of the club. Lessons on the tomato and transplant- 
ing our plants went on during the month. I distributed 
bulletins from the department and some pamphlets sent 
me by the Burpee Seed Company. 

I obtained ground at Athens from a neighboring 
farmer for several of my girls, but their seed did not 
germinate, and they gradually dropped out. Out of 
thirty-seven boxes planted, only thirteen germinated 



448 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Ebpobt 

more than from one hundred and fifty to three plants. 
Those thirteen were not all of the best, six only being 
good. Prof. Matthews, of the Agricultural College, very 
kindly consented to grow enough to supply the lack, 
which he did. 

Several conferences v'ith business men were had, 
some business with the Fiscal Court attended to, some 
lessons on bacteria given, and many small details at- 
tended to. 

June was spent in cultivating our gardens and in 
getting our tomato plants into the plats. 

The gardens were situated so far from the homes 
of the children that I wonder any of them continued 
until they were finished. Next year they are to have 
them in their own back yards. 

I have found such an astonishing lack of good gar- 
dens in the country, few have anything but the common- 
est vegetables, and do not put up much for winter — there 
is lack of variety. I even found some who bought their 
tomatoes from the grocery store in summer. 

Instead of better equipment, the greater number of 
kitchens I have been in need cleanliness (although they 
need equipment, too) and management more than all 
else. 

We did some work in preserving strawberries, also. 
July was spent in canning, preserving and pickling our 
garden stuff. A canner was ordered by the Pythian 
Home, and several trips made out there to instruct them 
in canning tomatoes. They attempted to can com in 
gallon cans, and lost thirty-five gallons. We will have 
a tomato club from the Home next year. 

August was a busy time during the first few days, 
while we were getting our garden display ready for the 
Blue Grass Fair. The children met me at the garden 
at five a. m., and worked liked ' Trojans until the dis- 
play was ready. We did not get a prize, because we were 
up against too great odds. The city children had 1,063 
plats in their own back yards, water at all times, a su- 
perviser who did nothing else, and teachers and parents 
urging and encouraging them all the time. Continued 
rain, poor seed, sickness of a serious nature among our 
girls, the development of rot and wilt in several plats, 



BuEEAU OF Ageicultueb. 449 

cattle getting in during a storm and trampling two plats 
into the ground, two plots developing with yellow pear 
tomatoes, and a few minor things, are the obstacles we 
have had to combat in this season's work. 

The first of September was devoted to getting ready 
for the State Fair, visiting club members, helping with 
reports, and visiting schools. We are at present using 
up our green tomatoes in pickles. There are some sweet 
potatoes yet to be canned. 

The girls sold a great part of their tomatoes in the 
market, tor they brought so good a price that it was 
more profitable than canning. 

Cans cost this year $3.00 per hundred. I have 
traveled about 1,560 miles, held eighty-five meetings, 
with an estimated attendance of 1,579, and visited eighty- 
four women and girls. The mothers into whose homes 
I have gone have been profuse in their thanks to me for 
the improvement in the girls in the club, and say they 
want to have some women's clubs as soon as the fall 
work is over. 

Visits of the county agents have inspired a pride in 
the appearance of the home; we have noted porches 
mended, houses papered, and kitchens cleaned in ex- 
pectancy of their visits. 

Mes. Maey F. Gtinn, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



HAEDIN COUNTY. 

The girls' canning clubs were organized in this 
county during the month of May, and as it was too late 
to make a hotbed the girls got their plots of one-tenth 
of an acre each in order, and used the plants they could 
obtain from the homes. Forty girls put out their plots, 
twenty plots were lost, mostly by high water gr the 
rains, while the other twenty girls, most of whom lived 
in the country, tilled their plots, sprayed their plants, 
and worked on through the discouraging weather until 
the tomatoes began to ripen. By that time the girls had 
successfully canned in gl^^s every fruit and vegetable 
that had come in season; had made theirs caps and 
aprons, and did the embroidery work at a cost of 35c 
per cap and apron. They drafted and cut patterns for 

Agr— 15 



450 TwENTY-FmsT Bienn^ial Eepoei 

themselves and their smaller sisters, and some learned 
to crochet and make tatting, while others learned to do 
the simplest sewing. 

After the tomato season came on, the girls were very 
busy with their canning work. When it was necessary 
for them to do their canning work, the superintendent 
of schools gave the time to the girls who were in the 
club. 

At this time the girls have canned seven hundred 
cans of blackberries for commercial use and over four 
thousand cans of tomatoes, and are still canning. The 
prospects for sales are good. One girls sold to one mer- 
chant twenty-four dozen at $1.00 per dozen. 

I have visited over one hundred and fifty homes (ex- 
cepting club members' homes) and in most cases I have 
found a welcome. In these homes I have given demon- 
strations in canning, and they have learned that sani- 
tation is a much better preservative than the ordinary 
acids they have used heretofore. 

A number of asparagus beds were started in May 
and early June. We have made a few fireless cookers, 
a number of fly traps of barrels, banana crates or nail 
kegs, covered with screening. Many fences, and even 
some houses, have been whitewashed this summer that 
were not last year. This being my home county, and 
knowing so many people, has helped me to get into the 
homes, but I am sure I have made many friends that I 
would not have had, because I have helped them to make 
or learn something useful. 

The people as a whole are much interested in the 
work, and were much surprised at the beautiful exhibit 
at our county fair. 

A good foundation has been laid for the work next 
year, and the county can be organized with very little 
troul3le, as the housewives are anxious to be organized 
into clubs, that they may derive greater and more direct 
benefit than learning from the girls. 

Miss Ida Claggett, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



BxiEEAiT o'E Ageicultxjke. 451 

HARLAN COUNTY. 

After receiving my commission as County Agent for 
Home Demonstration Work for Harlan county I started 
work on Marcli 16th, 1915. 

Accompanied by Miss Barr, I visited the County 
Judge and members of the Fiscal Court in the interest 
of the work. We found some objection to the work by 
some members of the Fiscal Court due to so much loss 
in spoiled cans last year. We succeeded in explaining 
away this objection. We then went to Benham, where 
we had a most delightful time, visiting a few homes 
and the public school, which was in session. Nine mem- 
bers were secured at this mining town. From this place 
we went to Wallens Creek, where we visited five homes 
and secured two members. 

After Miss Barr had gone away, I made a trip to 
Evarts, Kentucky, where Professor Dizney and Eever- 
end Trosper rendered me splendid service in arousing a 
great interest among the people of that community. I 
spent several days visiting the girls in their homes, and 
secured a large membership for the club. While at 
Evarts made a trip to Dizney, which is four miles from 
Evarts, and secured four members there. 

After returning to Harlan I made a few trips to 
points near this city, and secured four members, which 
finished my list of thirty-two girls. 

On April 26th I went to Lexington, where I at- 
tended the county agents' meeting, and received much 
valuable aid in my work. Beginning in June, I began 
my visits to the girls in their homes, where I helped 
them in laying off plats, and giving instructions as to 
plants. I also stayed in many homes where I assisted 
the girls in performing their home duties, teaching them 
by example, cleanliness and neatness. I always made 
it a point to assist mother or daughter in whatever task 
they had to perform. In this way I came in much closer 
contact with them. 

This work I continued for a few weeks. The girls 
had the thriftiest tomato plants I have ever seen. Just 
about the time the tomatoes were beginning to set the 
rainy season set in and continued so long that most of 
the tomatoes rotted before they ripened. Many of the 



452 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Rbpoet 

girls had. barely enough for home consumption, with 
none at all to can. In July I made preparation for can- 
ning blackberries. I secured from my grocer a number 
of small baskets and wrapping paper to line same, so 
the berries would not spill out of the cracks. I made 
several trips with canner, cans and baskets to the homes 
of different club members, endeavoring to fill cans with 
first-class berries, but it was impossible to get them be- 
cause of so much rain, which made the berries mushy, 
and we only filled twenty cans. I thought it was better 
to have no berries than to have them of an inferior 
quality. 

After our loss in tomatoes and blackberries, we 
turned our attention to beans, peaches and other fruits 
and vegetables from the home garden and orchard, and 
considerable interest was aroused in this way. 

On Saturday, August 28th, we had a demonstration 
and exhibit at Harlan, and the girls had a splendid ex- 
hibit, receiving several nice prizes offered by local citi- 
zens. We sent a portion of the exhibit to the State Fair 
at Louisville. 

The girls manifested a great interest in the work, 
and, in view of the hard weather conditions, we have had 
a fairly successful year. 

(Mes.) Bella Skidmoke, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



HENDERSON COUNTY. 

My appointment dated from March 16th, and came 
suddenly and without warning. It found me unac- 
quainted with the work, and not knowing just how to 
start about it. Therefore, each step I have taken has 
been like a blind man groping his way. 

In addition to this, the condition in Henderson 
county are not propitious to the rapid advancement of 
the work. In the first place, she proudly boasts of her 
conservatism, and in the next place people are not yet 
educated up to it. 

Last year the agent struggled hard to arouse inter- 
est in the work, but only about four or five girls actually 
kept up with it. Eighteen were enrolled at the begin- 
ning. The eleven faithful ones still evince a keen inter- 



BuBEATj OF Ageictjlttjbe. 453 

est, altliougli some did tlie work inferiorly. Some who 
started out poorly suddenly aroused to action, and really 
did most creditable work. 

Bad weather conditions have been mostly to blame 
for poor results. Some girls were forced to drop out 
because the plants were entirely destroyed by the heavy 
rains. They had planted in low ground as the instruc- 
tions said. The rains also damaged the quality. 

Few have confines for their chickens, nor can you in- 
duce them to pen them up. Many bushels of tomatoes 
have been lost by the chickens eating them. 

But, with all of our difficulties, our season's work 
has not been lost. Our county fair exhibit aroused such 
enthusiasm that I am looking to the agent in charge hav- 
ing a large enrollment next year. Many girls have vol- 
untarily given me their names for next year. Mothers 
have given me their daughters' names, fathers have 
come promising me unasked what they will do next 
year. It does make me feel that after all the lethargy 
that ha^ bound these people hand and foot for many gen- 
erations is loosening, and that a glorious dawn is about 
to break. I hope to be the first one up to see the first 
gleam above the horizon. 

Upon one occasion two of the girls and myself gave 
a public demonstration of canning tomatoes and beans. 
About a thousand people had assembled to have a pic- 
nic on one of the large farms. People were there from 
miles around. Much interest was evinced, questions 
asked, notes taken of my talk, and discussions aroused. 

The interest and co-operation of several prominent 
club women has been given. Donations of money, visits 
made, vehicles loaned, orders given, etc., have each 
helped the cause. 

My one idea in the beginning was to make myself 
acquainted with these people with whom I was to work. 
With this in view, I started out visiting them, and care- 
fully studying the way to their hearts. I found them 
sensitive to a degree to any comparison to their way 
of doing things and mine. They would not hear to my 
helping with the cooking. I had to content myself with 
giving recipes. 



454 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Ebport 

But I found many an occasion to speak of th.e dan- 
ger of flies. Where there are no screens they are try- 
ing to save to have them, and broken screens are mended. 

If some law could be passed for the country as in the 
city, forcing better sanitation, it would mean much to 
country life. 

Few of the girls I had enrolled knew anything about 
sewing, so I thought it wise to have them make their 
caps and aprons. We had meetings at different houses, 
and under my supervision they did excellent work. I 
also took advantage of this opportunity in trying to im- 
prove their English. 

The crops were all late, owing to incessant rains. 
This was only the beginning of their difficulties. It 
seemed to me fresh ones beset us on every side. It ex- 
hausted my store of ingenuity to help them meet their 
obstacles and not let them give up. This lesson I tried 
to instill into them, to do the best with what they had. 
This is the besetting sin of too many persons — to let go 
all hold as soon as difficulties arise. It was their am- 
bition, only half alive, I constantly played upon. I feel 
that I accomplished some good result^. I noticed a 
marked improvement in cleanliness as the season ad- 
vanced, a desire to do things as I wished it. 

Money is scarce with these people. The improve- 
ments in their homes must come gradually. I feel that 
if I can teach them order, frugality and thrift, the de- 
sire for better equipment will follow. 

Summing up my season's work, it stands thus: 

Visits made, 153. 

Miles traveled (by team) 1,2691/2; (by rail) 342. 

Letters written, 396. 

The exact number of cans of tomatoes has not yet 
been obtained, but it nearly reaches the 2,000 mark. In 
addition to tliis, we have put up for home use beans, 
com, beets, pie-plant, and a variety of preserves, jel- 
lies and pickles. 

Mes. Sxjsan Gr. Weaver, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



Bureau q-e Ageicultuee. 455 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Owing to tlie fact that the agent first appointed was 
made assistant State agent, I did not receive my ap- 
pointment from the Agricultural Department at Wash- 
ington until May 15th. 

Before this time, however, I had rendered eleven 
days of service in the field, planting tomatoes, visiting 
homes and canning by demonstration. 

The enrollment of pupils was made from the county 
schools by my predecessor, but on visiting the homes, I 
found the causes of this small enrollment. Some of the 
girls could not obtain the 1/10 acre for planting, others 
could not obtain plants, three had removed from the 
neighborhood, some were away visiting, and three had 
surgical operations. I began work with twenty girls, 
out of which one stopped from lack of interest, three 
removed from Jefferson county, and seven had no to- 
matoes from the 1/10 acre plats, this being due to the 
cool rainy season, and the lateness of their plants being 
put into the ground. 

Notwithstanding the failure of the tomato crops, the 
girls were faithful in their attendance at club meetings, 
and canned for home use ssparagus, peas, beans, beets, 
com, cherries, strawberries and plums, and blackberries 
for commercial use. 

At the first meeting of each of the five clubs the girls 
made the standard cap and apron; at each succeeding 
weekly meeting they reported the work done in their 
tomato gardens, and the number of jars they had filled 
at home according to the instructions given at the dem- 
onstration lesson. 

One of the interesting features of these club meet- 
ings was the large attendance of visiting girls, who, be- 
cause of lack of tomato gardens, were not registered club 
members, but who took the instructions and practiced 
canning and preserving at home. 

By special permission of the State Agent, a class 
of fourteen women was formed at the Cabbage Patch 
Settlement. This class met every alternate week, while 
the settlement was open for demonstration work in can- 
ning and the proper methods of cleaning and cooking 
vegetables for table use. 



456 TwBNTY-FiEST Biennial Eepokt 

There was the greatest interest in this class and I 
was glad to find at the end of the season that in most 
of the homes the methods demonstrated in club meet- 
ings had been followed. 

I was asked by another settlement house to show 
them how to can beans, and so with the help of some 
neighborhood girls canned fifty-three quarts in one 
day. 

I was able to do a great deal of home visiting dur- 
ing the season, on account of the small enrollment, mak- 
ing a total of two hundred and seven girls visited. In 
most of the homes the girls were fairly well to do, but 
in the home of one girl the conditions were very bad. 
This girl, who is but thirteen, borrowed a horse and plow 
from a neighbor, and plowed the ground herself for her 
tomatoes, as her father would do nothing to help her. 
She had raised her tomatoes from seed, and had just 
gotten them into the ground, and in good growing con- 
dition, when a series of heavy rains started. Her plants 
were on a steep hillside, and were washed entirely away. 
As she had some extra plants left after filling her 1/10 
acre plat, she replanted them, and a few out of the en- 
tire lot produced some inferior tomatoes, but most of 
them became scalded and dried up. 

This little girl, who was next oldest of the family, 
would go into the hills behind her home, chop wood and 
carry or drag it back to the house. She also did most 
of the washing and ironing, besides attending to the 
smaller children, one of whom was a cripple. 

They had but few vegetables on their place this 
year. There were some pear and plum trees, and Jose- 
phine canned these for home use, besides gathering 
blackberries from the hills near their home,, and ped- 
dling them in the city of Louisville. By doing this, with 
her mother's help, she was able to pay the rent on their 
little farm. 

Beatrice Agee, another club member, in the begin- 
ning of the season had prospects for a very fine crop of 
tomatoes, besides selling several hundred plants to less 
fortunate girls. Her plants were the finest in the coun- 
try at the beginning of July, but within three weeks most 
of them had dried up. Notwithstanding the loss of the 



BxjKBATJ OP Ageiculture. 457 

tomatoes, she worked very hard canning for home use, 
and at the Kentucky State Fair she won three first 
prizes for canned vegetables and fancy product for com- 
mercial use. With this money she was able to enter the 
Girls' High School in Louisville. 

Whenever I needed help from the community peo- 
ple, they responded readily. At the Jeffersontown Clul? 
a complete kitchen was furnished at the school for the 
girls to work in, and at the Orell Club many articles 
needed were given by Louisville people. 

At the last, of the season the Commercial Club of- 
fered twenty dollars to be given to the four girls doing 
the best all-round work. These girls are Patricia Bunell, 
Maud Mourer, Beatrice Agee and Josephine Johnson. 

Throughout the season I worked one hundred and 
thirteen days, held sixty-eight meetings, visited two 
hundred and seven club girls, traveled by rail two thou- 
sand six hundred and eighty-seven miles, and by walk- 
ing and conveyance four hundred and nineteen miles, 
with a total attendance of two hundred and thirty-six 
club members, and eighty-five visitors. 
EespectfuUy submitted. 

Vie T. Cbamek, 
County Agent Farm Demonstration Work. 



KNOTT COUNTY. 

This is the first year that canning club work has 
been carried on in Knott county, and when the work was 
started last March it was necessary to make house to 
house visits in canvassing the county, first because 
schools were not in session, and it was hard to call the 
girls together, and second, the work was so new that it 
needed to be explained carefully to parents, as well as 
girls. After canvassing the county, thirty-two girls 
were enrolled, and much interest was manifested. 

The work began so late that most of the land had 
already been planned for, and the girls had difficulty in 
securing their one-tenth acre, and several girls had to 
give up the work for this reason. Others had difficulty 
with the Grovernment seeds, and thought it too late in the 
season to try again. By July the club girls were reduced 
to seventeen. 



458 TwBNTY-FiKST Biennial Rbpoet 

These seventeen had their courage and patience 
sorely tested. After the plants had been transplanted 
and were doing well, heavy rains began, the creeks rose, 
and some of the club gardens were entirely under water. 
They might have survived this, but the rains continued, 
the plants scalded, the fruit began to rot, and some mem- 
bers lost practically the entire crop, and all gardens 
suffered severely from rot. 

When the canning season opened, the difficulty of 
travel, because of the condition of our mountain roads, 
made the work difficult. I did not urge the girls to buy 
canners this year, but I had two outfits, and the girls 
had the use of these. I purchased one thousand cans, 
and furnished them to the girls as they needed them. 
Miss VanMeter assisted with the work through July and 
August. All our traveling had to be done on horseback. 
One carried the cans packed in bags and tied to the back 
of the saddle, while the saddle pockets on the other horse 
were packed with capping steel, tipping irons, bottles 
of flux, hand towels, tea towels, and all things neces- 
sary for the work. Sometimes we would can one-half 
day with one club girl, then pack our things, mount our 
horses, carrying the irons, too hot to be packed, in our 
hands to the next place to begin over again. It was 
easier for us to do this than for the girls to transport 
their tomatoes in sleds over the rough roads, or carry 
them by basketfuls on their arms. 

One club was particularly difficult to reach, as we 
could not communicate by letter, the office being remote, 
and seldom visited, and it was ten miles from our head- 
quarters by a difficult bridle path across the hills, and 
seventeen miles by road. This way led up a creek bed 
some distance across a mountain to Ball Creek, which 
we had to ford eight times in going to our destination. 
We were warned to be watchful in doing this, as the 
heavy rains shifted the sand, and there was danger 
from quicksand. 

There is always likely to be more or less of adven- 
ture in mountain travel. Miss VanMeter went out a few 
miles one afternoon, and was caught in a terrific storm. 
The creek were roaring torrents. She was warned not 
to attempt one ford, or she and her horse would both be 



BuEEAtr OF Agkioultube. 459 

drowned. She left her horse and forded the creek by 
walking some distance, weaving in and ont by a rail 
fence, where a misstep would have sent her into the rush- 
ing water. The nest ford was not so bad, and she waited 
until a man came up on horseback and "set her across." 
By going some distance out of her way, around the hills, 
she reached home in safety, but thoroughly drenched 
and exhausted. 

In attempting to pass a wagon on a stretch of nar- 
row, muddy road, my horse made a misstep, and we both 
plunged down a steep bank. When rescued from under 
my horse, I was unhurt except for bruises, and a broken 
rib, and was able to ride on the eleven miles to my 
headquarters, and go on with my work the next day. 

The work in Knott county has not been club work, 
but individual work. I have not visited clubs, but homes. 
In these visits there has been but little in the way of 
demonstration, except the importance of proper and 
cleanly methods of canning tomatoes and beans, of mak- 
ing catsup and pickles, and clear and pretty jelly. In 
one instance the jelly the little club girl made was the 
first ever made in the home, and this was also true in 
some instances of the catsup and canning. 

Miss VanMeter had charge of the work on aprons 
and caps. Some girls had difficulty in using the thimble 
and holding the needle. The sewing lessons were much 
needed, and an important part of the club work. Once 
or twice we were able to demonstrate simple, sanitary 
treatment for ugly sores and cuts. Some girls when we 
spent the night were glad to try government rules for 
blackberry jellies and jams "just to see if they were 
good," and gave us the delicious results to test on our 
return. 

Outside of the club work there has been an interest 
to try government methods of canning, and several 
homes have experimented with tin cans with a view to 
purchasing canners next year. In the way of home con- 
venience little has been done. Kitchen arrangements 
and conveniences have been suggested and planned, but 
have not yet been worked out. A little pen was con- 
structed in one home that could be used on porch or yard 



460 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAIi EePOE± 

as a convenient and safe place to leave the baby when the 
mother and little club girl had to be busy. 

The work this year has been hardly more than an 
introduction. Only about three hundred cans of toma- 
toes have been put up for market. Some of the girls 
have put up a number of bottles of catsup, canned in 
glass for home use, and supplied the home table from 
their gardens ; and as some say they have just begun this 
year to learn how, and another year they will be ready 
to make a success. One encouraging feature has been 
the ready market we have found in this and adjoining 
counties for all our club products. Although so little 
has really been accomplished, yet I cannot feel that the 
work has been a failure. The people in the county are 
beginning to realize the possibilities of the work. The 
ice has been broken, and if the work is carried an an- 
other year, I am confident that results will be more evi- 
dent. 

Miss Anna M. Southwoeth, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



LAUREL COUNTY. 

The second year's club work in Laurel county was 
organized Marcl^ 10, 1915, with an enrollment of 18 
members. 

I was unable to organize clubs as my members were 
very much scattered, so I did quite a lot of home visit- 
ing, making one hundred and ninety-six visits in all. I 
have traveled seven hundred and seventeen miles by 
team, and two hundred and fifteen by rail, making a to- 
tal of nine hundred and thirty-two miles. 

I only have eight members who grew tomatoes for 
real canning. Many others did not have them for table 
use from their one-tenth acre plots and home gardens. 

One girl filled seven hundred No. 3 cans, another two 
hundred, which were the highest filled by any members. 
We only have a total of eleven hundred and thirty-four 
No. 3 cans, and twelve hundred and twenty-one jars of 
beans, tomatoes, apples, grapes, plums and berries. 

In each home visited I assisted in some way, gave 
recipes, demonstrated with bean, com, tomato and apple 



BuEEAU OB Ageiculttjbe. 461 

canning in glass. Grave six demonstrations of canning in 
tin, and two wi^li El Flo Canners. 

Grave four demonstrations with fireless cookers, one 
of which was at a Teachers ' Institute, before an audience 
of one hundred and sixty-four persons. I helped with 
making clothing for a family of poor children. One 
mother told me while her husband was unable to work, 
the money received from fresh tomatoes from the girls' 
tomato garden, was their only means of support. Each 
mother seemed very appreciative of any help I gave 
them, and they were much pleased with the handwork I 
taught the girls. 

I had no clubs for the women, but did much visiting 
when I had no club work, and my suggestions were al- 
ways kindly taken, and I feel that I did more real good 
than I could have done at club meetings, ^yhere such in- 
dividual work would have been impossible. 

I had the co-operation of our business men, who 
were very generous last year with prizes; and I also 
had> the co-operation of our Farm Demonstrator and 
County Superintendent. I visited a number of schools, 
assisting with handwork and exhibit jars for our school 
fair. 

I consider the work a very pleasant and profitable 
one, though we have our troubles and discouragements, 
such as a breakdown on the rough roads, and a three or 
four mile walk in, which, after all, is not so bad. 

Miss Sallie B. Black, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

The Canning Club and Home Demonstration Work 
was begun in Lawrence county in March, 1915, with the 
organization of Girls' Canning Clubs. The clubs were 
organized in fourteen neighborhoods, and later grouped. 
There was an enrollment of ninety-nine members. A 
large proportion of these girls withdrew, because of the 
newness of the work, and because seeds were sent out 
late to some neighborhoods, and there was no land. 

After setting out the plants the girls had very little 
trouble with them, except hoeing, as there was plenty 
of rainfall, and they did not need to water them often. 



462 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

On June first, an assistant was sent to take charge of 
part of the large enrollment. Quite a number of girls 
had trouble with insects before and after setting out 
plants, and were very slow about spraying.- 

At the beginning of the season the prospects were 
good for a large yield of tomatoes, but the heavy and ex- 
cessive rains damaged both vines and fruits, and caused 
an almost absolute loss for some members. 

The Superintendent of Schools is in hearty co-oper- 
ation with the work, having had the work in canning 
done in his home last year, and seeing the benefits that 
could be derived from the work in this county. The 
school children were allowed to come to canning demon- 
strations and each teacher helped in every way possible 
to interest th^ girls and help the work. 

One-half of the' salary of the agent was paid by the 
citizens of the county seat, Louisa, and they also appro- 
priated money for the prizes for the clubs, and helped 
in every way to make the work a success. The county 
people showed much kindness in helping the agents from 
place to place, and when there was a demonstration be- 
ing made, everyone present helped and watched with in- 
terest. Sometimes there were as many as thirty at a 
demonstration, and the men took as much interest in 
it as the girls and women. 

Some girls were slow about working, and others 
were careless about their record books, but they seem to 
realize the benefit of the work now, and the necessity for 
keeping their record books from day to day. Other girls 
showed remarkable interest in canning, and seemed to 
be spotlights in the neighborhoods in which they live. 
It is plainly to be seen that the success of the work in 
this county depends upon the interest and help of the 
fathers and mothers. In every case where the girls made 
a success there is a thrifty and interested mother and 
father in the background. 

Because of the bad roads in Lawrence county it has 
been difficult for the girls to secure cans, and in some 
places there is no one who comes to town oftener than 
once a month. Some of the girls have never been to 
town. 



'" Bureau oo? Ageicultube. 463 

The misfortune of having the county seat in the cen- 
ter of one borderline, and it being the only town of any 
size for the girls to secure cans, and also the misfortune 
of having bad roads, and the railroads on one side of the 
county, has kept the work here from progressing as rap- 
idly as it otherwise would have done. 

Two of the clubs were eighteen and twenty miles 
from the nearest point of getting cans. About five thou- 
sand five hundred cans were used in this county. Quite 
a number of outsiders became interested after seeing a 
demonstration. 

The wholesale house in the county seat ordered and 
kept the tomato cans and sold them to individuals cheap- 
er than they could have offered them from the factory, 
and this company made very little profit. This firm also 
kept the Queen glass jars for the people, and helped in 
every way possible to get the cans delivered, which was 
a difficult matter, as there is not much hauling done to 
some points in the county. 

There are some club girls whose tomatoes failed 
absolutely because of the rain, and the agent helped the 
girls and mothers save the other fruit on the farm. Some 
neighborhoods had only one member who had a good 
crop, and this member literally divided with her less 
fortunate club members and neighbors. 

There were thirty girls who made aprons and caps 
under the agent's supervision, and in two instances it 
influenced girls who had never sewed before to begin 
sewing successfully. 

There were approximately thirty canners sold in 
the county this year, and everyone was pleased. A 
good deal of originality was shown in the making of 
home-made canners. One member took a reservoir from 
an old stove, and made a furnace of bricks, and did very 
successful work. Her brother made a tray of re-in- 
forced chicken wire, and then made some tray lifters. 
This same girl's father bought wire fencing and fenced 
in her plat. Another member had her brother secure 
her some rocks, as there were no bricks, and she dic- 
tated the placing of these and formed a furnace, and put 
a reservoir on top. Her brothers made a tray of an old 
screen, and then made a small furnace of rocks to heat 



464 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepobt 

the corn cobs for tlie capping steel and tipping copper. 
This girl v/as delayed in her work because of sickness 
in the family, but she allowed her neighbors to use her 
tomatoes. 

The people showed a great deal of pride and interest 
in getting up the exhibit for the State Fair. They gave 
their best for it, and regretted that there was a failure 
in some crops so they oOuld not show the best fruits 
from the county. 

The exhibit that was sent to the State Fair was 
exhibited in the county fair, and the people manifested 
much interest and enthusiasm in the work. 

Labor-saving devices, such as screens, mops, mop 
buckets, tables on wheels, tireless cookers, built in 
shelves, fruit closets, sewing machines, cooking uten-^ 
sils and washing machines, have been installed in many 
homes through the influence of the agents. 

Lessons in breadmaking were given in almost every 
home visited. Better methods of dishwashing, such as 
rinsing dishes and getting them out of dust and dirt, 
and a method of cooling milk by setting it in pans of 
cold water, were given in many homes. Many women 
were persuaded to buy patent chums. 

There are twelve girls doing canning work for com- 
mercial use. Owing to the large families and small crop 
of tomatoes, a number of girls did work for home use 
only. 

Before the agent's work was begun in the county 
people failed in canning vegetables, and most people 
pickled beans and corn, and these vegetables were al- 
lowed to ferment in brine. This method was very labo- 
rious, and an undesirable product was the result. There 
were about seventy homes visited by the agents, and 
the people were very hospitable and looked upon the 
agent as a helper, and were willing to learn new 
methods. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture's kindness in giv- 
ing the girls cans for blackberries was an incentive to 
the girls for the work which was to be carried on later, 
and showed them the profit of home canning. 



BuKBAu OF Agkicultuke. 465 

Most of the girls are selling their tomatoes to coun- 
try stores and neighbors, and are getting ten cents a 
can for them. 

The agents have asked one person in each neighbor- 
hood to look after the interest of the club, and thereby 
keep up the interest for the girls' work next year, and 
aid in the organization next year. This year has been 
the introduction of much good work that can be accom- 
plished in this county. 

Miss Emma L. Collins, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



LOGAN COUNTY. 

My appointment was received, to become effective 
February first, and to terminate October thirty-first. 
When beginning the work I found fifteen hundred cans 
of last year's tomatoes unsold. I at once began as- 
sisting members in disposing of the cans on hand. 
Sales were made for them, from one can to a dozen, and 
in six weeks every can had been disposed of at an aver- 
age of ten cents a can. While selling tomatoes I began 
organizing clubs. 

At first, as a result of the dissatisfaction of the pre- 
vious year, I met with little success. I visited the dif- 
ferent sections of the county, and in some localities I 
was met with an indifferent reception, in others with a 
rebuff. Where this attitude existed I withdrew and di- 
rected my energies to those sections where possibilities 
for co-operation were more probable. 

After driving many miles, writing many letters, and 
telephoning no little, the organization was completed. 
Five clubs were formed with a membership of thirty-two. 
As rapidly as -members were secured and clubs formed 
they were furnished lesson sheets. Members were also 
personally visited and instructed in work. In April, 
when plants were ready for setting, I again visited the 
girls. Found many members had failed on plants; to 
these I furnished plants, enabling them to get out plats. 

As soon as crops were out I began demonstrations 
in sewing, beginning first with caps and aprons. Not 
a few girls knew nothing of sewing, and others were 
not able to secure material to use; to these I furnished 



466 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial Bbpobt 

material. In all, seventeen girls made caps and aprons. 
Members were also given demonstrations in drafting 
patterns and making garments, such as gowns, under- 
skirts, bungalow aprons, etc. 

Possibly the greatest chance to get in homes was 
secured while giving demonstrations in sewing. All 
resentment to entering the home was soon dissipated, 
and an opening made for general work to follow. 

Only twenty-five members put out plats. Of these, 
four plats were drowned out, and two others were ruined 
by insects. Efforts to have girls use spray were futile, 
and not only were plajits damaged, but the fruit also, 
and very seriously. Not only were l^he tomatoes pro- 
duced of a very poor quality, limiting the amount of 
standard quality, but the yield was not up to the aver- 
age. In addition to these discouraging features, there 
were members unable to buy equipment and cans, and 
in this way much fruit was lost. 

At this point I will relate a few cases of human in- 
terest, which bring out not only possibilities of work, 
but actual results. One member, living too far from any 
point to market fresh fruit, was also unable to purchase 
cans. The previous winter she had to wear her broth- 
er's coat to school. She was very anxious to make 
enough from the tomatoes to buy a cloak. Her motli-^r 
was a widow with a large family, and the profits from 
the tomatoes were the only chance to enable the girl to 
secure necessary clothing to attend school. She got the 
cans. This same member had saved gallon molasses 
buckets used by the family. In this way she saved one 
hundred and forty quarts of tomatoes for home use by 
sealing wax. 

Another case is a mother with five daughters. Tlie 
mother is very anxious to' keep girls at home, and find 
remunerative empl^jyment for them and herself, rather 
than have her girls go out from home to work. Only 
three of these girls were eligible to the club. They put 
out their one-tenth acre and secured a canner large 
enough to can several hundred cans per day, and so took 
care of the entire crop raised. 

I have this year given forty-six demonstrations, and 
made one hundred and nine home visits. Girls have 



BuBEAtr OP Agbicultuee. 467 

canned for sale approximately five thousand cans, and 
have canned many for home use — do not yet know just 
how many. The girls were given demonstrations in mak- 
ing jellies, cakes and preserves. There are unlimited 
possibilities in this work. It is and will prove of vast 
educational possibility as well as of material benefit. 

Mrs. Bettie W. Shaw, 
County Agent Farm Demonstration Work. 



McCRACKEN COUNTY. 

The appointment for this work was not received 
until April 15th, when the organization of the clubs 
was taken up at once, and meetings of the country peo- 
ple called, and visits made, and the work has been fol- 
lowed up constantly to date. 

This work was new to myself, and its purpose not 
well understood by the people. However, a club of fif- 
teen girls was organized, twelve being from the Heath 
neighborhood, twelve miles from Paducah, and all liv- 
ing from five to six — and some fifteen miles — apart, 
showing that the memberships of the clubs organized 
covered nearly the entire county. While there were only 
fifteen members to start with, the season ended with 
nineteen. 

Owing to the membership of the clubs being so 
widely scattered, it was difficult to hold club meetings. 
However, meetings were held usually once a week, and 
at other times personal visits at the homes were made ; 
in fact, this form of work constituted the greater part 
of my activity among the club girls. 

At the beginning this work was not so cordially re- 
ceived. The agent was regarded somewhat in the light 
of an intruder, or as company, but after the first visit, 
this feeling entirely disappeared, and the most cordial 
co-operation has followed the work of the entire season, 
this co-operation extending to the entire family, the 
farmers themselves even stopping their work to help 
in every way possible. Most of the girls have purchased 
canners and the families have made quite considerable 
sacrifices so that they might get the necessary cans, 
jars, etc., for the work. 



468 TwENTY-FlBST BlENNIAL EePOET 

Breadmaking has been taught in the homes, and 
different ways of preparing vegetables, importance of 
browning their biscuits, muffins, ©to. Installment of 
household conveniences has been urged, such as running 
water in the kitchen, which has in some cases been se- 
cured. In other homes, where they have been unable to 
can fruit successfully heretofore, as a result of this sea- 
son's work, their pantries are full to overflowing, and 
everything has kept. 

The co-operation of the Superintendent of County 
Schools has been secured, and the girls have been al- 
lowed time off from school in which to can and put up 
fruit. He considers it more important than any study 
they have. The co-operation of the press, the mer- 
chants, and the Board of Trade of Paducah has been 
very much appreciated. The McC'raoken Fair Asso- 
ciation has given us a large tent at the fair for our ex- 
hibit, and we expect to demonstrate canning in its va- 
rious features for three days. Demonstrations have 
been made to the Lone Oak Home Economic Club, at 
which fifty or sixty ladies have been present. 

Eighty home visits have been made. It is believed 
that the best results of the season's work have been ac- 
complished by the home visits. In almost every home 
visited neighbors and friends have been invited to see 
the demonstrations. 

Three hundred cans of blackberries, besides black- 
berry jams and jellies, have been put up ; three thousand 
and twenty cans of tomatoes, besides catsups, chili 
sauce, pickles, thirty dozen glasses of jellies, and about 
one thousand jars of various kinds of fruits and vege- 
tables are ready for winter use. 

Mes. Allie S. Cope, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



M'CEEARY COUNTY. 

On the 11th of April, 1915, the Canning Club work 
was begun in McCreary county. A Club of sixteen mem- 
bers was formed at Whitley City, one of twelve mem- 
bers at Pine Knot, and one of ten members at Steams. 
Later a few more members were added to these clubs, 
and other clubs were organized at Kingsville, Green- 



BuEEAu OP Ageiculttjee. 469 

wood and Indian Head, while two girls enrolled at 
Strunk, and one at Wiborg. Thus the County Club had 
at the beginning seventy-one members, two of whom 
were subsequently found to be under the age limit, thus 
leaving sixty-nine. 

Seeds distributed among the club members about 
April 21 were planted and cared for by the girls under 
the instructions of the County Agent. At the proper 
time the plants were set in plats, were cultivated, fer- 
tilized and sprayed according to scientific methods in 
most cases, and yet, because of the extremely wet season, 
a great part of the large crops of tomatoes rotted. The 
diseased plants were pulled up, and rotten tomatoes 
kept aWay from the sound ones, until at last those who 
had had enough perseverance found themselves with 
about two-fifths of a crop of tomatoes, fairly good ones, 
to sell or can. 

During the season, the members kept dropping out 
of the Club for various reasons ; some got married, some 
insisted they could get no ground, some decided there 
was too much work to be done, and, of course, that sort 
of person is not desirable ; others tried and tried to stop 
the rotting of the tomatoes, but stopped trying a little 
too soon. 

During the season the girls were given sewing and 
cooking lessons at every opportunity. Not only this, but 
suggestions were offered to the mothers, in 'the most 
unobtrusive way possible, concerning things in the 
home. For instance, it was found that the screening of 
houses, the airing of beds more than anything else, the 
changing of furniture into more convenient positions, 
the removal of ' ' dumps ' ' and even the scalding of dishes 
needed attention. Sometimes before the tomatoes were 
ready to can the Agent gave demonstration lessons in 
canning to the mothers and girls. 

Blackberries were the first things canned under in- 
structions. These were mostly canned in glass. Some 
cans were received from the Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, and the girls began to use them in canning the ber- 
ries, but the blackberry season was over suddenly, and 
so just a few berries were canned in tin. Peaches, pears, 



470 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAX, EePOBT 

apples and other fruits were canned, preserved and 
jellied. 

Then came the time for canning the products of the 
tenth-acre plat. Those girls who had the character to 
stay with the Club through all the disappointing sea- 
son, entered with their mothers into the canning with 
zest, and some of them were well rewarded for their 
perseverance. The tomatoes were canned in tin and in 
glass, preserved, pickled, and even jellied. This jelly, by 
the way, being delicious. 

Besides tomatoes there were canned beans and com. 
A splendid product made of sweet peppers, and called 
"pepper hash" was put up. 

Six business men of the county gave a prize to the 
girl making the best record. 

Miss Edna Wilson, of Strunk, won this prize, mak- 
ing a profit of over thirty dollars. Miss Christiae Lar- 
mee, of Stearns, was second. She made a profit of eigh- 
teen dollars. During the season more and more people 
were becoming interested in the work, and lending their 
assistance almost whenever asked. When the fiscal court 
met, and was asked by the Agent to appropriate enough 
money so that the girls of the county might again have a 
chance to join the Canning Club and work under the in- 
struction of the Department, it did so. 

Miss Floea Weight, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work 



MADISON COUNTY. 

"The Tomato Club" (as most people call our Girls' 
Clubs), of Madison county, can be called a complete fail- 
ure, but we do not feel when we call our Club by its 
original name, "the Girls' Canning Club," that anyone 
could say that it has been a failure. 

During March and April, with the assistance of the 
Farm Demonstrator, I succeeded in getting an enroll- 
ment of about fifty members. Not having enrolled any 
girls for clubs, and then worked with them before, I 
thought that was all that was necessary, until I went to 
our April meeting and heard the other Agents telling of 
their experiences of the year before, and worked my- 
self with the girls this year. In other words, I thought 



Bureau of Agbicultuee. 471 

that if a girl wanted to be a club member, and she said 
that she could have one-tenth acre of land, and mamma 
did not care, all I had to do was to get her name and 
address, and send it to our headquarters, Washington, 
D. C. I also felt that she was fully qualified for the 
work. In this way I lost some fifteen or twenty girls 
who need never have been enrolled. Some girls had not 
one-half of the one-tenth acre when the time came to 
measure the plat. Others had joined because they en- 
joyed attending the first few little meetings, and did 
not realize that there was any work connected with it. 

Early in"-the spring, just after most of the girls had 
set out their plants, we had a, hail storm which destroyed 
five or six entire plats. This left the girls with fewer 
and smaller plants. Later we had two floods, said to be 
the worst in twenty years. Many crops were beaten to 
the ground, and partly covered with soil, sand or clay. 
By this time our prospects looked very small, and so 
many of the plats too wet to replant with other vege- 
tables. 

Only four club members have canned any tomatoes 
for sale. One of these girls has canned only fifteen cans. 
Two girls have canned about two hundred and twenty- 
five each, and the fourth girl has canned about five hun- 
dred and fifty quarts in gallon cans. Lona Templeton, 
the girl who canned the gallon cans, is a very deserving 
girl. She kept house for her father, and was a mother 
to her younger sisters and brothers from the time she 
was thirteen years old until last year. She is now eigh- 
teen. Her graded school educaton she has gotten the 
best way that she could. Having a desire to teach, and 
finding her father not willing to help her get an educa- 
tion, and having a sister now old enough to take charge 
of the home, she went to keep house for an old lady. 
Every penny she could save she saved. In the spring 
she joined the Girls' Canning Club, and has made enough 
money on her club work to carry her through the Ken- 
tucky Normal School for one term. She is now at the 
Normal School, and waits upon the table for her board 
and room. She will be able to stay there through the 
entire year, otherwise she could have stayed only 
through the fall and winter terms. I am only sorry that 



472 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

slie could not be a member next year, for sbe is now 
eighteen. 

If there is no district nurse in our county, we 
County Agents find many, many things in their line of 
work that we can do. I have succeeded in persuading 
one mother to stop feeding her eighteen-month-old 
baby, weighing eighteen pounds, beans, new potatoes 
and green fruits. There are many other mothers in my 
territory who are doing the same thing. But it takes a 
long while to change the people 's ideas about how to care 
for and feed their baby when they have raised maybe 
six or eight, and they feel that you have had no experi- 
ence at all. If we County Agents were given twelve 
months in the year to work with the people, and could 
organize mothers' clubs or clubs of women and study 
those questions together, it would be much quicker and 
easier work to get the people to realize a few of these 
facts. In one home where there are eight children, we 
have had the water analyzed, and found it unfit for 
drinking purposes. Before you can do many of these 
things, you have to get well acquainted with the people. 
That is one reason why each month or year that we 
spend in the same county we can accomplish more than 
we did the month or year before. We can easily realize 
that from each visit we m^e to the same home. 

After our tomatoes were such a failure, so far as 
quantity and quality are concerned, we turned our atten- 
tion to the canning of fruits and vegetables, as well as to 
other household tasks. Many of the girls have been 
taught how to dress and cook a chicken, and every girl 
has been taught how to make jelly. We have canned hun- 
dreds of cans of fruit and many cans of vegetables, and 
glasses of jellies. Our canning is almost finished for 
this year, yet we feel that our work is just beginning, 
for each day we see more things that we could accomp- 
lish, that would be profitable both to the people 
individually, and to our people as a whole. 

We are now looking forward to a more profitable 
year, which will be made easier by our many hard ex- 
periences of the past year. 

Miss Rebecca Oglesby, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



BuKEAu OP Agbicultuke. 473 

MAGOFFIN COUNTY. 

There were thirty-five girls enrolled in the Girls' 
Canning Club at the beginning of the season of 1915. 
Seventeen of these, after sowing seeds and oaring ~f or 
plants, got them transplanted into tenth-acre plats. The 
other eighteen failed to go even this far, the reason with 
most all of them being an inability to get the ground in 
which to set the plants. Of the seventeen who planted 
their one-tenth acre plats, seven remained in the work to 
the close ; the .others lost their plants during the -heavy 
rains before they bore tomatoes. The seven who re- 
mained hoping to have some tomatoes, late green ones, if 
nothing more, and who were glad to learn the canning 
of other vegetables and fruits, were: Mary and Iva 
Hammond, Bonnie Blankenship, Lucy B. Gardner, Het- 
tie and Elsie Prater, and Eugene Thompson. Of these 
only Bonnie Blankenship and the Prater girls got any 
ripe tomatoes from their plats. They canned these for 
home use, as did all the others who canned their prod- 
ucts in this county. 

Outside of these club members, other housekeepers 
of the community were anxious to learn our method of 
canning vegetables and fruits; this I was glad to show 
them. We canned and preserved beans, beets, okra, 
rhubarb, gooseberries, soup mixture, strawberries (their 
.syrup), dewberries, huckleberries, a few blackberries, 
plums, apples, and made apple butter, cucumber pickles, 
chili sauce and chow-chow; and made into jelly, apples, 
crab apples, plums, wild plums, grapes, wild grapes, dew- 
berries, blackberries, rhubarb and apples. 

Of course, each girl or housekeeper did not get all 
of these things put up ; only those of the list which were 
produced on her place, or which she could get from 
others. But all these things were put up for winter use, 
some in only small quantities, but enough each time to 
learn the method, which was generally admitted ' ' good. ' ' 

One of the most valuable things to be taught along 
with this work was, I thought, sterilization and thorough 
cleanliness. Also methods of disinfection and sanitation 
generally around the home. I had occasion to call at- 
tention to the care of the waste matter, and its preven- 
tion from reaching the water supply, particularly where 



474 TwENTT-FiEST Biennial Eepokt 

there was contagious sickness ; the drainage of the place ; 
the danger of flies and their prevention. I tried to show 
the value of clean bam yards, hen houses, pig enclosures, 
and, indeed, preached everywhere cleanliness, pure water 
and fresh air, for the health of both man and beast. I 
distributed literature for the prevention and cure of hog 
cholera; sent twigs affected with blight to the Experi- 
ment Station, and secured and distributed such informa- 
tion as could be obtained on the subject. 

On going into homes and finding sickness, there was 
opportunity on several occasions to show the value of 
simple remedies, such as hot water, salt water, olive oil, 
peroxide, etc. Advice was given as to care of baby, ill- 
from lack of proper nourishment, and showed breathing 
exercises for the stooped and low-chested children. 

The lessons in sewing consisted chiofly in cutting 
out such simple garments as aprons, shirt waists and 
plain skirts, as a knowledge of plain sewing seemed more 
important throughout the community than embroidery 
or other fancy work, although I did succeed in teaching 
in some cases, the making of better buttonholes. This 
art seems unknown in some families here. 

These in the main are the things we have striven to 
accomplish in this county this year, and though they be 
small, even mere suggestions toward better homes and 
better ways of doing things, yet it is my earnest hope 
that the few who have been benefited by this worir may, 
in the future, help others and thus cause it at last to be 
the blessing that it should be to the entire community in 
the years to come. 

(Miss) Maey Blakemoeb, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



MASON COUNTY. 

Mason county has only had Home Demonstration 
Work during the month of October. In that period of 
time, I have organized three Girls' Canning Clubs and 
two Home Clubs among the mothers, and have at the 
present time three prospective organizations. 

Under my direction, an orchard of thirty-one fruit 
trees and a small raspberry garden have been planted; 



Bureau op Agbicultube., 475 

also, a school orchard is being prepared and will be 
planted this month. 

The egg and its food value, including marketing, 
etc., is being studied and demonstrated. When plans 
have materialized, one of the Home Clubs will supply 
our local hospital with eggs at a profit above the local 
market price. The Egg Circle Bulletin is being used as 
a basis for this plan. This plan, of course, is in its in- 
fancy, and can scarcely be termed a co-operative market, 
but by the time the spring season opens and produce is 
more plentiful, I hope to have so proven to the members 
the material gain by co-operation, that the parcel post 
system of marketing may be successfully used. 

Test questions that have a tendency to keep alive 
the interest, and at the same time have their instructive 
value to the Canning Club girls, about the growth of 
tomatoes, are being submitted from time to time for writ- 
ten answers. 

Recipes are also given and demonstrated to them 
from Household Science and Arts. Each girl has a 
blank recipe book, and when a recipe has been success- 
fully tried, it is copied in the book for home use. 

Some special visits have been made, and meetings 
among the mothers have been arranged, at which meet- 
ings household devices were discussed. The fireless 
cooker and its value as a labor-saving device was advo- 
cated. These women had read of the cooker, but none 
had seen it in operation. A demonstration is needed be- 
fore its value can be made convincing. 

(Miss) Frances Tuggle, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



MEECER COUNTY. 

The work of the Girls' Canning Clubs in Mercer 
county began under the present Agent in April, 1914, 
with a four-months ' term of employment. The co-operat- 
ing agents were the U. S. Government, the State of Ken- 
tucky, and the Mercer County School Board. After 
being in the work for the four months, I found that it 
was impossible to drop it. The canned goods were not 



476 T-^ENTY-FlEST BlENNIAXi RePOET 

yet sold, the girls and tlieir mothers were wanting in- 
formation on various subjects — hence while not working 
every day, 8, hours a day, never a day passed that I did 
not, in the interest of the work, answer telephone calls, 
write letters, make visits or stay in the room where we 
had our canned tomatoes stored, sending out orders. 

So, without a break, the work of 1914 ran into that 
of 1915. Ifi March the fiscal court, seeing the good ac- 
complished, voted a salary of $250.00, and the school 
board pledged $50.00, thus making the term of employ- 
ment 8 months. 

Today, November 15, the work of the County Agent 
is not over, nor can it ever be, unless the work is taken 
completely out of the county; and not then would the 
work of the County Agent cease unless she died or the 
people could forget the office she had held. Otherwise, 
I think she would still be consulted about canning and 
the preparation for table use of the canned goods, the 
making of labor-saving devices, etc., etc. 

This year, 1915, has been a very busy one. We be- 
gan with a club enrollment of 62, but of that number only 
52 remained in the Club. The ten that failed did so for 
various reasons. Three were married, two had typhoid 
fever and five became indifferent. The fifty-two remain- 
ing attained different degrees of success. Some have no 
goods for sale, but all have enough to supply the family 
with wholesome food, giving them at all times a well- 
balanced ration. 

The girls are much more anxious to standardize 
than they were last year, and the quality of their work 
is evidenced by the number of premiums they have won. 
At the State Fair Mercer won the county exhibit prize, 
also five individual prizes. At the school fair. Jewel 
Matherly, a member of the Canning Club, won, the prize 
for the best can of tomatoes over all other contestants. 

A member of the Mercer County Canning Club, 
Emma Bruce Gabhart, won an $8.00 canner for having 
the greatest variety of products for home use. She had 
52 products. 

Our State Agent, Mrs. Wolcott, early in January, 
1915, sent out a young woman to demonstrate in cooking, 
so as to interest the women in our work. The result 



Bureau of Agriculture. 477 

was the organization of eight Home Demonstration 
Clubs, with an enrollment of 109. Since then, I have 
visited them when I could, and during my busy season 
with the girls, they have attended our canning parties, 
and gained information by 'phone, letters and bulletins, 
which I mailed to them. 

I have also visited a number of farmers' wives, not 
enrolled, to gain their interest in the work. 

To get the best results, the girls' work and women's 
work must go hand in hand, and is going hand in hand 
in this county. The daughter is glad to help her mother, 
and the mother no longer feels that she would rather 
do the work herself, than to take the trouble to teach an 
unwilling daughter; In many homes there is develop- 
ing a spirit of co-operation between parent and child, be- 
fore unknown and how beautiful to see ! 

Together they are learning to make labor-saving 
devices, together learning better and easier methods of 
canning and preserving and better ways of cooking. 
They are also learning to balance rations, and, as a re- 
sult, how to keep the family in better health and spirits. 
Father and brother find things moving on more syste- 
matically. In short, in many instances, what was form- 
erly a hoiose is now becoming a home in the true sense 
of the word. 

Kentucky is justly proud of her Commissioner of 
Agriculture, Honorable John W. Newman, for bringing 
this great work into the State. The good he has done will 
live long after this brainy, big-hearted man has passed 
away. 

Mrs. Annie B. Goddard, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



MONROE COUNTY. 

I began work on March 15, 1915, without any knowl- 
edge of what I had to do, except a short talk with the 
agent who recommended me for appointment ; however, I 
began at once, and succeeded in organizing five clubs 
with forty members, but as a matter of fact, not all of 
these remained in the work. Twenty-one of these girls 



478 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Repoet 

planted a tomato crop, but this was a very bad season for 
tomatoes, on account of so much rain, and quite a number 
of those who tried to raise a crop had to abandon it, and 
I had only twelve members who made a crop of to- 
matoes. These twelve, or most of them, did good work 
for the season, and raised a fine crop, though they only 
put up for market about one thousand cans. Most of 
their goods was for home use. I had some honorary 
members who put up for market seven or eight hundred 
cans, besides a very fine quantity for home use. We are 
twenty-five miles from railroad transportation, but we 
have a home market for all our goods. 

This is the first attempt at anything of this kind in 
Monroe county, and, of course, I had a lot of ups and 
downs, and more downs thans ups. Our people need 
training, and I think that some of them are waking up 
and want to do something. 

I did not get my commission in time to attempt much 
in the poultry line, however, our people are interested 
in this line and only need to be instructed. I demon- 
strated in needle work, and in domestic science in the 
homes I visited, but did not keep a record of this work. 

JtTLiA "White, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



MUHLENBEEa COUNTY. 

Words are weak messengers to carry to Uncle Sam 
the appreciation we feel for the Home Demonstration 
Work in Muhlenberg county. Mothers are beginning to 
realize that the training of the girls heretofore fit them 
for everything except for that which is to be their real 
business in life, namely, the making of homes. 

Home making as a profession is a thing of so great 
importance that it calls for years of careful preparation 
and earnest study. So the little time spent in Muhlen- 
berg county in this work tells its own story. 

Out of an enrollment of seventy-five girls, fifty-three 
canned over five hundred cans for exhibit work, in addi- 
tion to their home canning, making about two hundred 
and fifty glasses of jelly. 



BuBBAu OP Agriculture. 479 

Quite a number failed to get out plats on account of 
seed not coming up. Some after setting out plats lost 
them on account of wet weather. There were twenty 
very successful plats. Not being able to purchase cans, 
there only were about three thousand cans of tomatoes 
put up by the girls for sale. Beans, com and other vege- 
tables and fruits were canned up in the thousands with 
a good pack. 

I have traveled 1,263 miles, -met with the six clubs 
twenty-four times, and made one hundred and five visits 
into the homes. I find the best way to reach a girl's 
heart and life is in the home. Here we discussed not 
only canning, but the profession of home making. 

The sulky plow has taken the place of the man with 
the hoe, and getting the best results with the smallest 
amount of labor on his part. The problem is what is go- 
ing to take the place of the woman with the broom. 
Change such as this can come about only through educa- 
tion. 

In quite a number of the homes where I visited, the 
girls prepared the lunch and dinner and served it with- 
out help of mother. 

More light, fresh air and pure water have been ad- 
vocated in club meetings, and at home. We have three 
fireless cookers completed, and a number ready to be 
put together. 

There has been a great deal of fancy work done by 
the girls, which added greatly to the attraction of the 
homes. 

.In one of the club meetings in discussing homes, I 
ask why was the song written "Where is My Wandering 
Boy Tonight!" One of the girls answered the poet was 
inspired to write so because of simplicity and happiness 
going out of the home. I have also been made happy in 
receiving many letters of gratitude from the girls, and 
from school teachers. 

The girls have asked me to extend their thanks and 
appreciation to Mr. Newman for the cans for blackberries 
We are also grateful to Mrs. Wolcott and Mrs. Jonas for 
their helpful visits to our county. 

Miss Bartlett, who was sent us as assistant for a 
month, left her influence in every home and club she 



480 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EePOKT 

visited. We only liope slie may be sent back to us 
again. 

We also extend our appreciation to tbe fiscal court 
for their co-operation and generous support in helping 
the home-makers as they have home-builders. So true : 

"A house is built of briclJs and stones, 

Of sills and posts and piers, 
But a home is built of loving deeds, 

That stands a thousand years. 
A home, though but an humble cot, 

Within its walls may hold 
A poem of priceless beauty, 

Rich in love's eternal gold. 
The men of earth build houses, halls. 

And chambers, roofs and domes ; 
But the vyomen of earth, God knows, 

The women build the homes." 

Miss Iris Boggess, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



ROCKCASTLE COUNTY. 

In the beginning of this year, I took an enrollment 
of only twenty-one members, hoping to accomplish more 
with the small enrollment than I had with the large one. 
I tried to get girls who were in earnest, and eager to do 
good work, but owing to weather conditions and some 
home difficulties, only a few of these have remained as 
club members. These girls have made their caps ""and 
aprons, canned beans, tomatoes, apples, blackberries and 
beets for home use, besides making jelly, pickles and pre- 
serves. 

I have visited the homes on an average of once a 
week, endeavoring to teach cleanliness and neatness 
about their work, as well as economy, and a different way 
of sterilizing from their old method. The girls have 
learned to make ketchup out of parts of the tomatoes 
that will not do to can. 

The home-made fireless cooker has interested the 
people as much as anything, and even the men like the 
idea of the fireless cooker, when you tell them that 
means less cutting of wood. 



BuEEAU OF Ageicultuee. 481 

During the month of June, Miss Burrier, a graduate 
of State University, was sent to Rockcastle county to 
demonstrate Home Economics throughout this section. 
While she was here we visited ten ditt'eront schools in 
Rockcastle county, visiting the ones where we had club 
members once a ^\eek. She demonstrated cooking while I 
demonstrated canning. 

This year I have found the women in the rural com- 
munities such a help and inspiration. They have been so 
interested in canning different fruits and vegetables, 
and in the differfut ways of cooking fresh vegetables. 
I have received calls from different parts of the county 
to come and show the people our new way of canning, 
and they are easily convinced that it is easier and better 
than the old way which required the use of salicylic acid. 
One woman said to me: "I am tired of canning just one 
thing; I want a variety." She was always bringing 
different things, too, to learn to can them. Another 
woman said: "People ought never to can any other way 
when things look that pretty." 

At one place where I had a club organized, we had 
forty persons present at one meeting. Then just last 
week the teacher in that district gave me sixteen names 
of girls who want to become club members for next year. 

This is the fiist year we have had a sale for canned 
blackberiies in Rockcastle county. Mr. Newman, Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, gave one hundred lacquered 
lining tin cans to the county. In spite of the scarcity of 
berries in many sections, these cans Avere filled and read- 
ily disposed of. One little club girl with her mother 
picked and sold one hundred and twenty gallons of fresh 
berries, shipping some out of the county in crates, be- 
sides picking and canning two hundred quarts. 

Although things look pretty discouraging for the 
girls ' work this year, so far as results to be found in tin 
cans are concerned, there is a greater enthusiasm 
for Home Demonstration Work in the rural communities 
of Rockcastle county than ever existed before. 

Miss ElLA Caeson, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



agr. — 1 



482 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Eepoet 

WHITLEY COUNTY. 

In March I began the organization of the Girls ' Can- 
ning Club in my county for this year. This is our sec- 
ond year. I enrolled 69 members, and of this number but 
three were members of last year's club. One of the three 
took up teaching in July, and left me but two experi- 
enced members. For one reason and another, the girls 
dropped out, mainly because of much rain and no sun- 
shine, until 1 have but thirty-two members now. 

Last year the tomatoes canned in tin amounted to 
about 4,0(j0 cans, and this year we have nearly 13,000 
cans. AV"e have canned in glass a great many more hun- 
dred than last year for home consumption. Canning in 
this county, to my belief, has been a great blessing, in 
the poor homes especially, because a variety of eatables 
will be served that have never been there before. 

When we failed on tomatoes, we put up beans, and 
we have canned in about this proportion: Tomatoes, 
8,000 in tin; corn, 1,100; beans, 3,500; peaches, 600 in 
tin; blackberries in tin, 100. I think a fair estimate 
would be that we have saved the county $2,000 on our 
tomato plats, and on what would have gone to waste. 

I have been able to do most of my traveling by rail- 
road, since most of my girls live near the stations, al- 
though I have some that live five miles from a station, 
and the entire membership of one club lives ten miles 
from the railroad, and that of another fourteen miles. 
I have used in this work a one-thousand-mile ticket book, 
in addition to other railroad fare. I have walked 174 
miles, excepting the visits to local girls. I have traveled 
by team and horseback seventy miles. 

I have demonstrated in the individual homes prin- 
cipally. I could not work in clubs. I have demonstrated 
how to make bread; how to wash and scald dishes; how 
to wash the udders before milking the cow ; how to make 
biscuits and pies; how to fry meat and cook eggs with- 
out cooking too long, and how to cook oatmeal and to 
make butter. I have visited in every home an average 
of five times. I have talked on sanitary wells, and beg- 
ged, in as tactful a way as I could, for screens and some 
kind of toilet or closet house. I have gotten homes to 



BuEBAiT OP Ageicultitke. 483 

put out lime, and it lias given me joy to see my advice 
taken at times. 

I believe the hardest task has been to get the girls 
to be at all businesslike, and answer my letters and keep 
records. I have succeeded in getting the mothers and 
fathers at last say to the girls: "You must keep ac- 
counts. ' ' 

I have distributecf bulletins of every kind and de- 
scription, and carried on, as I did last year, a system of 
sending to girls every available literary material found 
in magazines that would help them in their homes, and 
in their work, or that would inspire them to look for more 
knowledge of any good kind. My special object in this 
has been home sanitation, ridding of flies, and girls' 
canning work in other states. 

Some folks already say: "This Canning Club work 
is the grandest work on earth." Some, of course, are 
not open-minded, and are stumbling blocks. I think my- 
self that it has been very helpful to those who would 
receive help in a moral and material way. 

I have the output of canned goods practically sold 
and anticipate no trouble in disposing of them, and think 
I can depend on all that is put up as being put up hon- 
estly, and up to the. standard. 

I know I have worked very hard, and believe the 
breaking of the soil already accomplished, promises a 
big harvest. I think the next year will bring more co- 
operation, and more interest, as well as more skill in the 
work. In fact, the outlook is very encouraging. I think 
this year there has been a real material increase of 
nearly four times that of last year. 

Rhoda SdjEE, 
County Agent Home Demonstration Work. 



PART SEVEN 



REPORT STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1915 



KENTUCKY STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS ELECTED FOR THE YEAR 1915. 

President, 

FRED MUTCHLER, Lexington. 



DISTRICT VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Boone County 
W. H. Clayton Hebron 

Fayette County 
L. E. Hillenmeyer Lexington 

Hardin County 
John T. Milligan Stithton 

_ Henderson County 
C. E. Sugg Henderson 

Jefferson County 
F. B. Merriman Louisville 

Lawrence County 
Jay H. Northup Louisa 

Powell County 
Fred R. Blackburn Stanton 

Rockcastle County 
C. D. Smith Conway 

Rowan County 
H. Van Antwerp Farmers 

Trimble County 
John H. Richardson Bedford 

Warren County 
Morgan Hughes Bowling Green 

Woodford County 
Mrs. J. M. Garrett Fort Garrett 

Secretary-Treasurer 
C. 'VV, Matbew? „-, , , -State University, Lexington 



PROCEEDINGS 



KENTUCKY STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Kentucky State Horticultural Society assembled in the 
lecture room of the Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky., at 9:30 
a. m., January 7, 1915, -with an excellent attendance, which was 
continued throughout both the morning and afternoon sessions. The 
morning session opened with an address by the President, Dr. Fred 
Mutehler, as follows: 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

Dr. Fred Mutehler, Lexington, Ky. 

There is an increasing interest in horticultural work in Ken- 
tucky that is encouraging. There is an interest which is shown in 
the exhibit that we have in our cramped quarters here that is cer- 
tainly encouraging to people interested in horticulture. The secre- 
tary tells me that if any sort of effort could have been made, we 
should have had a fairly large exhibit this year. It was not indis- 
position on the part of the people that this effort was not made, but 
simply the fact that our facilities for storing and putting up an 
exhibit of this sort are so limited and cramped that we could not 
handle a more extensive exhibit. 

A few weeks ago I visited the Horticultural Society of the state 
of Illinois. We hear a great deal of that organization. There were 
present during the two or three days of that meeting about 100 
people as an average attendance. The exhibit that they had there 
was about five times as large as this one is, and with sufficient room, 
I think we would have no difficulty in making a presentation of the 
work of the state of Kentucky in horticulture that would compare 
very favorably with that of the state of Illinois. It is encouraging 
to the farmer to see the interest that scientific people are taking in 
horticultural problems for the purpose of helping him. It is en- 
couraging to the scientist who is interested in the development of 
this problem in the state of Kentucky to see the interest that is man- 
ifested on the part of the general farmer in this work. 

Being in close connection with extension work in the state, it 
will be of interest to you to know that there are probably as many 
inquiries concerning the treatment and handling of a home orchard 



488 TwENTY-FiBST Biennial Bepoet 

or of small fruits as in almost any other line of endeavor that we 
are following. It is the most common thing for us now to receive 
an inquiry concerning the methods of making an old orchard pro- 
ductive. It is a very common thing to receive inquiries concerning 
methods for starting new orchards. Almost with the day comes 
an inquiry concerning some phase of horticultural work from some 
farmer. It seems to me we are simply at the dawn of the develop- 
ment of horticultural work from the standpoint of the farm, and 
the farm home in the state of Kentucky. There is hardly a time 
when an individual from the college or experiment station gets away 
from here that he is not deluged with questions relative to the com- 
mercial capacity of orcharding in the state of Kentucky. Outside 
of the state of Kentucky nurserymen are looking towards this as a 
veritable field for furnishing plants and small fruits and fruit trees 
and are making a great effort to "get in on the ground floor." I 
am constantly thinking of what the future will mean to the people 
who are following that line of horticultural work in the state' of 
Kentucky, and largely the success of the work in this state will 
depend upon the kind of material that these people can supply. 

In certain sections of the country there is much discussion 
concerning the best methods of handling orchards, and our ex- 
tension horticulturist has almost been worn out in answering the 
calls for such work in the various districts of the state, and we have 
had two or three men out at one time working with the farmers, 
trying to handle their small fruit crops. In some sections of the 
state there is beginning to be an interest in the matter of grading 
and packing fruit, and I refer in that respect not only to com- 
mercial centers that are pretty well known where they have large 
co-operative societies, but in the districts where fruit has always 
been poor heretofore. 

In Pulaski County this year, where large quantities have been 
grown, the people began to think about putting up that fruit in such 
a way that it would attract the attention of the folks in other 
markets, and that phase of our work in the state is beginning to de- 
velop in a way that is really encouraging. 

I want to say that from a number of sections in the state — at 
least three I have in mind — there are being put on foot organizations 
of the farmers for co-operatively marketing the small fruits, all of 
which means a very great deal to the state, and especially to those 
sections where these are being encouraged and developed, because 
of the fact that in the mountainous regions of Kentucky, where fruit 
grows so well and where the people do not have the income that 
comes from the more common general crops that are grown in the 
state, such organizations are needed. The eyes of that section of 
the country are turned toward us for production of some of the 



BuEEAu OF Ageiculttjrb 489 

early fruits — early apples like Yellow Transparent — that get upon 
some of the northern markets a little earlier than others. , . :.■ 

I rather think that this year has been a little discouraging so 
far as the development of commercial apple growing in ;the state 
is concerned, on account of very untoward conditions arising from a 
number of causes, almost all of which are blanketed under the name 
of the European war. A man told, me that 50,000 bushels of good 
apples have frozen in West Virginia recently, but they were inferior 
fruit. 

It ought to be the object of the Horticultural Society of this 
state to disseminate general knowledge and practice relative to the 
care of fruit and fruit trees. We ought to have our people com- 
monly to understand these things and how to make their orchards 
of the most value to them. I Avant to call your attention to the fact 
that this is the problem that the College of Agriculture has set, and 
I hope we shall be able to do a more extensive work along that 
line. I wanted to make this preliminary statement relative to the 
Ijroblem in order to start us on our way in the work this spring. 
Down in western Kentucky is one of the greatest fruit growing 
sections of Kentucky. In certain sections of the highlands down 
there and in certain sections of the lowlands there are great fruit 
growing areas. It is not limited to any special section of the 
country so far as the state of Kentucky is concerned. 

We have had some representative every year from Warren 
County to speak about the strawberry growing interests there. 
Next year there will be 225 carloads shipped out. Eight years ago 
there were only fifteen carloads shipped. The Warren County As- 
sociation has the reputation of being the greatest co-operative society 
in the United States. I take pleasure in introducing to you Mr. 
Morgan Hughes, who is connected with the extension work of the 
college here, and is stationed at Bowling Green, in co-operation with 
the Western State Normal School. He will speak on "The Growing 
and Marketing of Strawberries." 

THE GROWING AND MARKETING OF STRAWBERRIES. 

Morgan Hughes, Bowling Green, Ky. 

I do not profess to be an expert in anything. I am just a farmer 
who has been trying to learn how to grow strawberries. In this 
little discussion, I hope you will ask me any questions you like. I 
will' try to tell you what we have done in Warren County in grow- 
ing strawberries, and probably a little history, of this Strawberry 
Association might be interesting to show you how very small things 
gradually grow into importance. 

Warren County, like most of Kentucky, has always been recog- 
nized as a place where you can grow strawberries. We started in 



490 TwENTY-FlKST BlENNIAL EfEPOKT 

a small way with this association. Living near me was a young 
man who had been gi'owing several acres of strawberries every 
j^ear, but they had never been able to ship any of the berries out. 
They arrived in such poor condition it was not profitable. One 
man said to me: "If we could ship the berries in carload lots it 
would pay." I was not especially interested as I had a farm of 
about forty acres and did not grow strawberries. About that time 
we had a railroad agent that Avas an enterprising fellow, and he 
wanted to help the L. & N. Railroad all he could. He sent for me 
one day and said, "I want you to help me get up an association 
here for growing strawberries. ' ' I said T didn 't want to grow straw- 
berries. "I've got more now than I can do, though I will help you get 
it up." We got seven or eight growers together, and to make a long 
story short we got together and planted fifty-five acres of straw- 
berries. In deciding the varieties we needed, every fellow planted 
the variety he liked best. That was one mistake we made. The 
first year we began to market we found we had lots of strawberries 
we could not ship. We then decided there were about three varieties 
that were profitable — an early, an intermediate, and a late. It 
looked pretty serious when we began to market them. Towards the 
latter part of the season, hov/ever, we got in with a better straw- 
berry and got $1.25 a crate. The next year we had a shorter crop 
and we had learned a great deal. We profited a good deal on our 
returns, but we got a better price and netted $2.00 a crate for them. 
So the next season we began to plant more. They have to be planted 
a year before you get anything out of them. The next year we did 
pretty well, and then we began to plant some more, selecting those 
varieties that were better suited to our climate and soil and that 
the market demanded. In our case these were the Klondyke, Aroma 
and Gandy, and we have been growing these three varieties for 
several years. Recently, however, we have discarded everything 
but one variety which suits us better than any other, and that is 
the Aroma. A few growers still grow other varieties, but practically 
99% of the growers use Aroma. 

The year following we had a good crop and we got $2.10 on an 
average. This price means f. o. b. cars. This is the price not count- 
ing the picking, packing or freight. The following year it kept 
getting better. We averaged $2.15. Everybody was getting rich. 
The next year we struck a snag. Our strawberries got in about the 
time everybody's did. So we only got $1.75. I will say this, though. 
Anything over $2.00 a crate is "velvet," as they say. But after 
getting $2.15, $1.75 did not sound so good. The next year we struck 
it very bad. We had 1,200 cars, and for various reasons we had a 
bad season and bad market and we only netted $1.35 for these straw- 
berries. Well, the following year we had a very fair crop and 
netted $2.10 for them, and the year following $2.25, and last year 



BuEBAu OF Agbicultuee 491 

$2.55. Now, in the eight years in which we have been growing we 
have had six good years and two bad years, which is a very good 
record indeed, and it looks like we have made a reputation which 
we feel justly proud of. 

Now, as to the growing of strawberries. In the first place, 
any land that will make 40 bushels of corn will make Aroma straw- 
berries, 60-bushel land will grow ideal berries. There is such a 
thing as having the land too rich to grow the best of Aroma berries. 
We have to have plenty of nitrogen in the soil. We put 200 to 1,000 
lbs. of fertili7er to the acre, and get the best results from the acid 
phosphates. We do not need any potash. We are trying not to put 
on too much nitrogen, so we are using mostly phosphate. If the land 
if- not good, we put on some barnyard manure. We plant these 
berries in the spring of the year. We try to get them in by the 
middle of March, but usually by the first of April. We make a good 
seed bed. We lay it off three feet .each way, which takes about 
5,000 plants to the acre. We buy the plants co-operatively and 
have been getting very good prices — $2.00 a thousand, delivered at 
Bowling Green. We bought 4,000,000 plants from one firm in 
Chattanooga at $2.00 a thousand. Many growers have grown their 
own plants. 

(Question: Is there any difference between the southern and 
northern grown plants? Ans. No.) 

Later on, we cultivate (using the Planet Jr. or small harrows), 
and take a row at a time. We cultivate the berries both ways, 
until the middle of July, when we discontinue cultivating both ways 
and cultivate only one way, allowing the strawberries to make a 
matted row. We first made wide matted rows, but we decided we 
got most of the berries off the edges and we found also the wide 
matted rows were difficult for the pickers to pick in. So we allowed 
the matted rows to be eight or ten inches wide. In the fall of the 
year we leave them about ten inches wide, but in the spring they 
spread out to 12 or 14 inches. We have to cultivate them through 
the season, and we must keep them clean. Sometimes it takes con- 
siderable work. It takes anywhere from two to five hoeings during 
the summer to keep the plants clean, and it is considerable labor. 
Some men who have kept a record, have decided that it takes about 
25 days' labor to make an acre of strawberries. Sometimes, during 
the winter, we mulch these plants, preferably with wheat straw. 
Once when wheat straw got scarce, some of the men mulched with 
broom sedge. It is not very desirable, but it has some qualifica- 
tions that are very good indeed. We were bothered with cheat and 
wheat in the straw. The first year there was no trouble with the 
broom sedge, but we had trouble later with it coming up in the 
strawberries. But with the many cultivations, we got it out readily. 
We mulch to keep the berries clean, as there is no danger of the 



492 TwENTY-FiEST Biennial Repoet 

plants freezing out. It takes about two tons of straw to the acre 
to mulcli the strawberries, and a man who has to buy his bale of 
straw at the market price objects to mulching with it, but most of 
them grow wheat. It has made a demand for straw and raised the 
value of it. It has gotten to be as high as $2.00 a load. It is quite 
a saving if, you can raise the wheat on the farm and in that way we 
have made the wheat crop more profitable in our country. If the 
plants are clean, they require no further attention until picking 
time. 

We have about two thousand growers in our association, and a 
thousand acres in strawberries. Every man who grows berries be- 
longs to this association. The dues are 50c a year. We incorporated 
as a stock company, and while our stock has been subscribed, it has 
never been taken up and paid for. It is not a concern to make 
money. We have a board of seven directors who are elected once a 
year. These directors elect the president, vice-president and secre- 
tary and treasurer, and the manager is the "whole show." I am 
more impressed, everywhere that I study these questions, with the 
advantage of having a competent man as manager. We were able 
to get such a manager and he did not happen to be a farmer'. There 
is no reason why a farmer should not manage it as well as anybody 
else, but we found this man who had been a fruit broker and he had 
had a good deal of experience in dealing with men, which is very 
important. We selected a gentleman in Bowling Green, and he has 
been our manager for five years. This man is paid for the services 
rendered. While he is only employed actually about six weeks, buy- 
ing the crates, etc., some time is taken up during other parts of the 
year. We pay him 3%c per crate. If the crop is large, he makes as 
much as $2,000 a year some years. He gives us value received. We 
are well paid for what we pay him. 

We buy x»ur baskets co-operatively. In January we get the 
growers together, get the number of boxes we want, and call upon 
the different firms in our territory and get bids, and the best bidder 
gets the . order. We thought we could get these crates made in 
Bowling Green, but we could not. For the last three years we have 
been buying at Paducah; also at New Albany and in western 
Tennessee. The same way with the plants. We begin in the fall of 
the year and make contracts for the plants. We get the very lowest 
wholesale prices. We also buy fertilizers co-operatively, and save 
from $2.00 to $15.00 a ton. We have a little pamphlet which is 
circulated among the growers, laying down the rules and by-laws. 
Every man has to deliver all his strawberries to the manager, who 
has entire charge of them. When these berries are ripe, which is 
usually about the middle of May — ^the season lasting about four 
weeks — we have rules about the picking. Every man should grade 
his berries alike. We have three grades; what we call X, XX aod 



Bureau of Ageicultuee 493 

XXX. The last is the best or fancy grade, that commands the 
biggest price. The next grade is not so perfect, and we sell this at 
a different price, of course. The poorest grade does not go into the 
car at all. We have been fortunate in getting our growers to make 
very good packs indeed. We have a grader in each car, and only 
ship from one point. These berries are received on the car and 
are opened. If they have 100 crates, the grader opens one or two 
or three crates. If he finds them running up to standard, he grades 
them accordingly. We have two ways of selling the berries. That 
is, at home, on the track, or on consignment. Strawberries have to be 
handled very quickly. Our idea is not merely to try to sell the straw- 
berries only, but we are trying to make the product so good that 
the buyers will wan1^ ours in preference to the other fellow's. Now, 
we have the buyers on the ground. We have sometimes 12 to 15 
of them on the ground at once. We get $2.25 a crate on track, and 
do not cut the price until the season is more than half over. We 
have been fortunate in selling these berries on track. 

We have laid down some rules in regard to the picking. We 
all pay the same price for the pickers. We pay a fair price. There 
is no class of labor in our county that is better paid than the straw- 
berry pickers. We give 7c a gallon, that is, we pay them 6c a gallon 
weekly, and if they stay till the end of the season, we pay a bonus 
of Ic a gallon. Some of the pickers pick a few weeks and drop out. 
If 25 of the pickers drop out, it is a very serious loss; so we use 
this plan to keep them, and it works very well indeed. Any boy or 
girl can make from $1.00 to $1.50 a day picking berries. Grown men 
and women sometimes make an average of $2.00 a day. We had 
one man in our fields who picked 90 gallons of strawberries in a day, 
and- made $7.80, the rate then being higher than now. They earn 
from 25c to $5.00 a day for picking berries. They have to pick 
them well. We have a man who stays in the field who is constantly 
going from one picker to another and watches the picking. The 
berries on the top layer are perhaps a little better than underneath, 
but the average box is about the same all the way through. We 
try to give the buyers a square deal, and if for some reason some 
grower gets past with some berries that are not quite up to standard, 
so that the buyer complains, we satisfy him and repay him. Some- 
times we pay back several hundred dollars at the end of the sea- 
son. 

A year ago we sent our manager to the cities in which we sell — 
fourteen of the big cities in the east — to get acquainted with the 
trade. He spent several weeks in the east visiting these cities and 
came back with a very encouraging report. The wholesalers said 
to him: "Your berries are the most satisfactory we have ever 
gotten," This is because they are standardized. 

Alt)out the profits. Like everything else, they vary a good deal. 



494 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial Bepoet 

About the best yield we have ever made is 200 crates per acre, but 
we have had growers grow 250, crates. I believe we could grow 250 
with better fertilizers, etc. The average grower plants from 5 to 
10 acres, making about 150 crates to the acre in a normal season. 

Now about the time we let them stand, and how we work out 
ihe old beds. We thought at first that three years would be the 
jimit, and of course we get the best grades the tirst and second years. 
Recently several of the best growers have been leaving their beds 
four years very profitably. We have come to the conclusion that if 
the beds are kept clean, we can run the strawberries four years. I 
find that the best growers are netting, outside of the picking and 
crating, about $150 to $175 an acre. That does not include the straw 
and cultivation or the fertilizers, nor the rent of team, making the 
cost about $10 an acre for the plants. 

Q. How much phosphate did you use? 

A. About 500 lbs. to the acre. 

Q. Did they grade the strawberries as they gathered them? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Do you use fertilizer after the first year? 

A. Tes, the second and third years. 

Q. What do you use, and how much, after the second year? 

A. Phosphates, about the same amount. 

Q. Is your soil sandy? 

A. No, red clay soil. 

Q. Do you plow out the rows the second year? 

A. Yes, just as the first year. The new plants come out on 
the sides and take root while the old plants are still there. 

Q. Do you cut the runners off any? 

A. After they grow out about 8 or 10 inches, we keep them 
that way. 

Q. Do you use a runner cutter? 

A. Yes, we have. 

Q. Have you used any pedigreed plants? 

A. Yes, but there has not proved to be anything in it. 

Q. How deep do you mulch them? 

A. Just according to how much straw we have. 

Q. Do you use fresh horse manure in the fall? 

A. It would not be desirable. 

Q. Do you use a manure spreader? i 

A. Can't say that it's any better. 

Q. Do you try faU planting? 

A. Not much. 

Q. When do you put on phosphate? 

A. Before planting, if the land needs it. After the first year 
we apply it in July or August, in time to produce a good growth of 
plants. 



Bureau of Ageicultuke 495 

Remarks by Prof. J. H. Carmody. 

We find that there is a great deal of money being spent on 
commercial fertilizers. I am interested in certain parts of Missouri 
where they are experimenting and have figured out that about the 
only commercial fertilizer is phosphate in one form or another. 
We believe that the same conditions apply to Bowling Green, and 
this spring we are going to outline a series of tests with the Bowling 
Ureen growers, using a number of different fertilizers in order to 
determine just what fertilizer is needed, and we hope that in an- 
other year or two we will have some splendid results to show. 

LESSONS FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST FOR KENTUCKY 
APPLE GROWERS. 

W. B. Lanham, Horticulturist, Columbia, Mo. 

I believe that I am safe in saying that no other section of the 
country produces such a high class apple, nor receives such a high 
price for it, as do the growers of the northwestern states, especially 
the group composed of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana, 
known as the Pacific Northwest. 

Are these states peculiarly adapted to culture of the apple, 
to the extent that other sections of the country cannot compete with 
them? Do they have such a dlstij/ctive soil that produces the marvel- 
ous color and size of the Oregon Spitzenburg, or is it the cool nights 
and bright sunshiny days of Montana that brings out the color and 
Havor of the Mackintosh until it is known as the Montana Mackintosh 
lied? Is it these gifts of nature alone that we have to thank, or do 
the methods of culture and care and the systems of grading and 
marketing have something to do with it? 

When I first Avent west — about 7 years ago — I found growers 
v/ho actually believed that their own little particular valley pro- 
duced the best fruit of any place in the world. I say some of 
them really believed it. Most of them, though, when they thought 
they had you convinced that theirs Avas the only favored spot on 
God's, green footstool to grow apples, were ready to show you the 
particular tract they had for sale. 

There are sections that seem to be peculiarly adapted to grow- 
ing certain varieties. Hood River is known for its Newtowns, 
Spitzenburgs, and Ortleys; but especially for its Spitzenburgs and 
Ortloys; and more especially for its Ortleys. The Rogue River 
Valley has gained fame from the excellence of its pears and New- 
town apples. The Yakima Valley claims it produces the best 
Spitzenburgs, Rome Beauties, and Winesaps. Wenatchee claims 
supremacy for the superior quality of its Winesaps, Jonathans, 
and Delicious, while Montana pins its faith to the Mackintosh Red. 
So we see the rival claims overlapping. Sections with entirely differ- 



496 TwENTY-FiKST Biennial EfEPOKT 

ent soil and climate frequently claim to produce the same variety- 
par excellence. This leads one to wonder if perhaps there might 
not be some other factor besides the natural — I started to say advan- 
tages, but will qualify that to resources — of the northwest. If the 
methods of operation are a contributing factor, then cannot they 
be adapted to the needs of Kentucky growers? I believe they can. 
There is no denying the fact that parts of the northwest have soil 
and climate that are especially adapted to apple culture. More 
than that, the people are hustlers. They make the raising of fruit a 
business, not a side issue. It is what many of them pin their entire 
faith to and put all their energies and resources into. They simply 
have to succeed. 

Most of the sections are settled with people from the middle 
and eastern states. It is not the natives that are the hustlers and 
boosters. Many of the most successful fruit growers of the Pacific 
Northwest knew nothing whatever of the business when they entered 
it. Some of them were professional and business men from the cities, 
but they realized they did not know it all and were willing to take 
the advice of growers who had already made a success of the busi- 
ness, and follow their methods. And all were willing to get down 
and hustle. 

Outside of the natural advantages that the northwest may en- 
joy, it seems to me there are four or five factors that contribute 
largely to the almost phenomenal success of this section. These are : 

Personality of the groAver ; 

Varieties grown; 

Care given in producing the fruit; 

Harvesting and marketing; 

Advertising. 

Personality of the Grower. 

I have put personality of the grower first of these factors, for 
I am not sure but what it is the most important, for after all, the 
other factors hinge on this. The northwestern fruit grower first, 
last, and always, is an optimist, a booster, an egotist. He be- 
lieves, and has no hesitancy in saying, that his particular section is 
the only- place to grow fruit. He meets the newcomer with a glad 
liaud and is always willing to show him around, pointing out the 
superior advantages of his locality and particularly of his own 
orchard. 

Business methods are applied from the start. Co-operation is 
practiced from the buying of supplies to the marketing of the 
finished product. Horticultural societies are organized in every 
little hamlet, and they do not simply meet once every year, but hold 
meetings every month or oftener. Their membership is not limited 



BuEBAU OF Ageicultuke 497 

to the growers alone. The business men take an interest. They 
realize that the sucess of the fruit grower means their success. 
They are just as ready as the producer to boost the products of that 
section. You will find the windows of the banks, real estate offices, 
and even the dry goods and jewelry stores decorated with apples. 
They talk apples, think apples, and dream apples. 

The very successful ranches, as they term them there, are 
mostly small. It seems rather odd to a tenderfoot, at least it did to 
me, to hear a five or ten acre orchard spoken of as a ranch. But 
that is the term they generally employ. From five to forty acres 
is the usual unit, and it is more likely to be the former than the 
latter. With these small tracts the owner can give his personal 
attention to each individual tree. Little is left to the hired man. 
Some of the most successful and wealthy growers employ practically 
no help in their orchard except at pruning, spraying, and harvest- 
ing time. 

Varieties. 

When fruit growing was first started in the northwest, most of 
the varieties commonly grown in the east were tried out. It was 
noticed that in some sections certain varieties reached a degree of 
perfection not found in other places. The growers' were quick to 
take advantage of this fact and limited their future planting to 
the varieties that obtained this high degree of excellence. Most of 
the prominent fruit sections are limited to not more than four and 
some of them to even one or two varieties that they make their 
leaders. Many places can grow a number of varieties successfully, 
but they can grow one or two varieties T)etter, perhaps, than any 
other place and they stick to these and advertise the fact. 

The selling organizations take advantage of this specialization 
and advertise certain varieties as having been produced in the sec- 
tion known to grow them to the highest degree of perfection. Form- 
erly, before there was a central selling organization, each local 
union bid against the others in the market and probably two or 
three different sections would be claiming to raise the best apple of 
a certain variety. But since the organization of the Northwest Fruit 
Distributors, there is an understanding whereby certain sections are 
given advantage on the market for certain varieties. For instance, 
the Ortleys raised in Hood River are offered to the trade at a higher 
price than Ortleys produced in any other section. The Mackin- 
tosh Red raised in the Bitter Root Valley in Montana brings a 
liigher price than that variety grown in any other section. The 
Rogue River Valley Newtowns bring more on the market than any 
other Newtown pippins. 



498 TwBNTY-FiEST Biennial, BiEPOET 

Care. 

In the best orchards of the Pacific Northwest no detail of care is 
neglected from the time the tree is first purchased from the nursery 
until the fruit from the mature orchard is packed and delivered at 
the association warehouse. Few orchardists now buy their nursery 
stock from the itinerant tree peddler. If it is purchased from a 
traveling agent at all, the buyer is very careful to ascertain the 
reputation of the nursery represented. Where the planting is large 
enough to justify it, the nursery is usually visited and the stock in- 
spected while growing. 

A certain block or row can then be selected and all the trees 
of the desired grade reserved and shipped from that particular 
section of the nursery. This is much the better plan. The pur- 
chaser can then see exactly what he is getting, and if he is there, 
as he should be, at the time the order is filled and the stock packed, 
he is sure there will be no substitution. 

When I had charge of large plantings in the northwest, I made 
it a rule to visit the principal nurseries in the late summer or early 
fall and inspect the stock while still standing in the nursery row. 
r.Iost of the leading nurseries of the northwest were inspected before 
ihe order was placed. Often we would buy as many as 80,000 trees 
during one season. 

At digging time I would again visit the nursery and inspect the 
stock as it was packed. We have a very rigid law in the western 
states for nursery inspection, so far as insects and diseases are con- 
cerned. However, the inspector has nothing whatever to say about 
the grading as to size or any possible substitution of varieties. He 
doesn't have authority to reject a broken tree or even one with no 
roots. His duty is simply to look out for the spread of any injurious 
pests or disease, and it is up to the purchaser to see that he gets what 
he orders. No doubt nurserymen are as reliable as any other busi- 
ness men. Yet in purchasing any goods, I find I get better service 
where I look out for my own interests personally. 

Many growers now do not depend on the nursery for their 
stock but propagate it themselves. There is also a lot of interest 
being taken in pedigreed trees. One development company that is 
selling land in small tracts and developing the orchard to the bear- 
ing age, has its own nursery and plants only pedigreed trees. This 
is stock propagated from trees that are known to have produced 
large crops of superior fruit over a long term of years. 

You, perhaps, have often noticed that in an orchard there will 
be a few trees very much superior to the rest. While all the orchard 
may receive the same care, there will be trees that will bear regu- 
larly and heavily for no apparent reason. There is just as much 
difference between these and the rest of the orchard as there is be- 
tween a pure bred and a scrub animal. Does it not stand to reason 



BuEEAXJ OF Agbicultuee 499 

that buds or scions taken from these trees stand a better chance of 
producing others that ■(vill bear regular crops of fruit above the 
average than if the stock was propagated from scions taken from 
the ordinary orchard pruning ? 

This development company had one of its horticulturists visit all 
of the principal orchard districts of the Pacific Northwest, and when 
he heard of an orchard or tree producing large crops regularly, of 
especially good fruit, he investigated the reports. Where these 
claims were substantiated, he secured the exclusive rights to propa- 
gate from that tree and marked it with a numbered metal tag. Scions 
were only taken from trees where the owners would make affidavit 
to the crop produced for at least three years back. 

Every precaution was taken to prevent the scions getting mixed. 
The number of the tree, with its history, and the name and address 
of the owner, was registered. Bach package of scions was care- 
fully tied up separately and sealed with wax and numbered to cor- 
respond with the register number. The seals were broken only by 
the foreman in charge of the grafting room, and scions from two 
trees were not allowed on the table at the same time. Like precau- 
tion was extended to the nursery rov/ and then to the trees when 
planted in the orchard. Each orchard tract was carefully platted and 
the plat registered, the same registry number being used throughout. 
When these trees come into bearing, it will be very easy to trace 
back and see if there is anything to heredity in fruit. 

Some nurseries now are advertising pedigreed trees. If we are 
willing to pay the price for the extra care, in time we should have 
orchards in which every tree should produce equal to the best we are 
now growing. The price of nursery stock is such a, small proportion 
of the cost of growing an orchard that many growers feel that it is 
money well spent, even if the cost is ten times that of ordinary 
stock. Perhaps all of us cannot yet demand pedigreed trees, but we 
can insist that they be propagated from bearing trees that are true 
to type. 

When I bought a quantity of trees, I had the nurseryman sign 
a contract agreeing to top work, at his own expense, any of the trees 
that were not true to name when they came into bearing. Under 
such a contract the seller will be very careful about any substitution. 
I believe some of the western states now have this in their horticul- 
tural laws. 

It may strike some of you as inconsistent for me to state that 
most of the Pacific Northwest orchards are small in size and then 
speak of buying 80,000 trees for planting in one season. The land 
on which this stock was planted was owned by a development com- 
pany and sold in tracts of from five to twenty acres. Many of the 
purchasers were professional or business men of the middle west 



500 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EfepOET 

and some even the extreme eastern states. They did not feel inclined 
to give up an established business to develop a small orchard, so 
tJiey entered into a con-fe-act with the selling company to plant and 
care for their holdings for a period of years, usually from four to 
five, at which age they were supposed to begin bearing. 

Until a few years ago it was the practice to give clean cultiva- 
tion at least until the orchard reached the bearing age. The land 
was usually broken in the spring, deep, and surface cultivation was 
given throughout the growing season. In the well cultivated 
orchards not a weed could be seen at the end of the cultivating sea- 
son. This practice produced an enormous wood growth and made a 
fine appearing orchard. It was practiced especially by develop- 
ment companies who were selling orchard land, and the orchards 
given this care certainly presented an appearance that would tend 
to separate the uninitiated from his money. 

Many of the growers, at the present time, are not giving clean 
cultivation exclusively. If they cultivate at all it is only during the 
growing season, and at the last cultivation a cover crop is sown to 
protect the soil during the winter and provide humus to be turned 
under in the spring. From the orchards I have seen in the middle 
M^est I hardly think it necessary to say anything against clean cul- 
tivation as it does not seem to be practiced at all. 

There are two or three methods of cultivation in vogue now, 
some of them modifications of the clean culture method. If the 
orchard at the time it is planted is especially rich in humus it may 
be given clean cultivation during the growing season, for a year or 
two, without serious injury even if no cover crop is sown. Cover 
crops are then sown and. turned under and a little later nurse crops 
are planted. These are mowed and left to rot and mulch the ground 
and the orchard receives no cultivation at all. Where there is 
plenty of water available for irrigation this practice is very success- 
ful. Where there is not an abimdant supply, in order to have enough 
laoisture to mature the fruit, it seems to be necessary to cultivate 
during at least a portion of the growing season. 

Much more attention is given to pruning in the northwest than 
is the custom in any other orchard section. Most of the trees are 
pruned to what is known as the vase or inverted cone shape and 
practically all are headed low — from twelve to twenty inches above 
the ground. Even in the bearing orchard, much more severe prun- 
ing is practiced than is the^^j'ase in this section. Trees are never 
allowed to form such dense heads that the sunshine cannot get ia 
and color up the fruit. I am convinced that one reason fruit is 
not more highly colored here is because of the dense heads. To secure 
red apples it is absolutely necessary that they be exposed to the 
bright sunliglit. 



BuEEAXJ OF Ageioultuke 501 

Thinning is very extensively practiced, and though it is some- 
what of an expensive operation it is found cheaper to harvest the 
fruit in June than in September. 

Just after v^hat is knovFn as the June drop, the trees are gone 
over and only one apple is left on a fruit spur, and these rarely 
closer than six iuehes. Compared with the amount of fruit left on 
the ground, it looks as if there were few left on the tree. Before 
picking time, however, the branches are so laden that they. have to 
be supported by props. A tree can only matiire a certain number of 
bushels of fruit, and there is more profit in having apples that will 
pack 96 to the box than where it takes 200 or more to make the same 
quantity. This thinning partially accounts for the enormous size of 
the northwestern fruit. I am not sure that thinning, to the extent 
practiced in the northwest, would be profitable here, but I do believe 
the trees that seem to have more fruit than they can properly ma- 
ture, could be pruned after the June drop and a portion of the fruit 
removed in this manner, at a very low cost. Or some of it could even 
be shaken off. There is certainly no profit in a tree that can produce 
only, say, ten bushels having these ten bushels of fruit the size of 
marbles, when three-fourths of it could have been removed and the 
same quantity harvested of large first class apples. 

When the trees are thianed and only a portion of the fruit spiirs 
allowed to set fruit each year, there is not so much talk of "off 
years " as we hear in some other parts of the coiintry. In fact, there 
is practically never a complete failure in the northwest. 

One thing that struck me as rather peculiar, not particularly 
here but in other places that I have visited in the middle west, was 
that some people thought they were being especially up-to-date by 
spraying. No grower would attempt to produce fruit in the north- 
west without spraying. It is as much an orchard practice as pruning 
or harvesting the fruit. While we may not have as many diseases 
and insects to combat as in the older orchard regions, yet the ones 
we have, if not kept under control, are very destructive. In many 
sections the San Jose scale, and in some places the Oyster Shell are 
very bad. Also both the Green and Wooly Aphis and, with the ex- 
ception of one region, the Codlin Moth, I think, is as bad as it could 
possibly be here. Probably our worst fungus disease is the apple 
and pear scab. 

Power sprays are used almost exclusively and a pressure from 
two hundred to two hundred and fifty pounds maintained. 
Thoroughness is the watchword. The growers know what they are 
spraying for and what sprays to use. They do not simply spray 
because they are told to, but they know the composition of the spray 
and the results to be expected. They do not get a little hand pump 
and stand off and squirt some juice at the tree, but the work is done 
intelligently and thorougUy, 



502 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EIePOET 

In a commercial orchard district even the family orchards have 
to be sprayed to a certain extent, no matter v^hat the owner thinks 
of it. The laws in most of the northwestern states provide that 
where an orchard is infected with certain insects or d.iseases and 
the owner refuses to spray and clean up his premises, the inspectors 
have the power to do the work and it is charged up against the 
owner and collected with his taxes. Even in the towns the trees 
are sometimes so badly infested with scale that it is necessary for 
the inspection service to provide power sprayers and spray the few 
trees in the back yards. A man either has to take care of his fruit 
trees or cut them down. If he refuses to remove them, the inspector 
will, and that is also charged and collected the same as taxes. 

By far the most destructive disease the grower on the Pacific 
Coast has to contend with is the Fire Blight of the apple and pear. 
This is caused by a minute organism that lives in the inner bark 
where no spray can reach it. The disease is confined almost ex- 
clusively to pome fruit. The pear is supposed to be the most 
susceptible, but in the Pacific Northwest, it is almost as destructive 
in some varieties of apples as in the pear. 

The appearance is first noticed as blossom blight. The blossoms 
wither away and the twigs and young leaves blacken and die as if 
the orchard had been struck by fire, hence the name Fire Blight. In 
many cases the disease goes no further than the blossom or fruit spur. 
In others, and especially in some varieties, it goes on dovra. the limb 
and may either kill the branch entirely or kill only a portion and 
form what is known as canker. These cankers carry the disease 
over winter. As soon as the sap starts to fiow in the spring a 
sweetish liquid, containing myriads of the bacteria, is exuded from 
these cankers. Bees Avill suck this juice and then fly to flower 
clusters and inoculate them. Other insects also carry the disease, 
but most of the blight is supposed to be transmitted by bees. How- 
ever, aphis are fond of this juice and when they suck the sap from 
the rapidly growing twigs or branches, may inoculate them with 
the blight. 

One fertile source of inoculation is careless cultivators. The top 
of the hame may strike a canker and later break the bark of a 
healthy tree and allow the germs to enter. The bacteria cannot get 
through the old bark except through a wound, but must be carried 
into a blossom or through the soft, sappy, rapidly growing water 
sprout. 

Blight spreads much worse in a rapidly growing orchard than 
in one that is making little growth. Perhaps this is one of the 
reasons it is so much more destructive in the orchards of the coast 
where they have good cultivation than in ones that have not such 
good care. Careless pruning has spread this- disease as much as 
any one thing. The pruning tools may cut through a canker and 
then inoculate healthy wood. If there is blight in an orchard, the 



BuEEAu OP Ageicultuee 503 

tools should be disinfected after making each cut. Corrosive sub- 
limate dissolved in water, one to 1,000, makes a good and cheap dis- 
infectant. It is a deadly poison, however, and must be kept out of 
ihe way of children. 

•The only successful method of controlling this disease is to cut 
out and burn the infected parts. Sprays have no effect other than 
they maj' kill the insects that carry it. Blight cures are worse than 
useless. I say worse, for they leave the disease to go on unchecked 
and may even spread it by means of the tools used to administer the 
medicine. 

The canker should be cut out in the fall or early spring. The fall 
is the best time as all infected branches can be detected by the un- 
healthy foliage. Bees and insects may carry the bacteria long 
distances, so when blight appears in an orchard all growers in that 
district should co-operate in trying to stamp it out. 

Harvesting and Packing. 

There is probably no one thing that makes the northwestern 
fruit more distinctive than its grade and packing. All the apples 
are shipped in boxes. There are two sized boxes used — the Standard 
and the Special. The inside measurements of the standard is lOi^x 
ll'/^xl8 inches, with a cubical content, without distention, of 2173 
cubic inches. The inside dimensions of the special are 10x11x20 
with a cubical content .of 2200 cubic inches. The standard Win- 
(^hester bushel contains 2150.4 cubic inches, so the western apple 
box is just a trifle larger than the standard bushel. Also, they are 
packed with a half to three-fourths inch bulge of top and bottom, 
that adds about 150 cubic inches more to the contents. 

From the low headed tree a large portion of the fruit can be 
]iicked from the ground. Y\^hen I say picked, I mean hand picked. 
There is no shaking of apples and then picking them up from the 
ground, in western orchards. If an apple is accidentally dropped, 
it is a cull. The fruit is carefully picked off by hand, placed in the 
picking basket and laid, and not poured, in the orchard boxes. These 
boxes are about one-third larger than the shipping box and have 
cleats on top of the ends so they can be stacked on a wagon or in 
the packing house without bruising the fruit. A few growers use 
Iheir shipping boxes to pick fruit in, but this is not recommended, 
as the boxes are almost sure to be soiled, and to present the best 
nppearance a box must be bright and clean. 

After being picked, the apples are sorted and if they were 
sprayed late, they are wiped. This is usually done Avith a pair of soft 
canton flannel gloves, and it is not nearly so laborious and ex- 
pensive an operation as one might think. By wiping I do not mean 
polishing, but simply removing any spray or dirt. 



504 Twenty-First Biennial Report 

Most of the packing is done at the grower's own packing house, 
although in a few sections there is a central packing house and all 
of the fruit is hauled, to this in orchard boxes. Very rarely are 
growers allowed to pack their own fruit. If a fruit grower is also a 
packer he is usually sent to some other place to pack, for it is pretty 
hard for a man to see the defects in his own fruit. 

The packers are employed by the association through which 
the fruit is shipped. They are sent in crews of from four to six, 
under a foreman, to the orchardist, where they are boarded and do 
the packing. The owner is expected to furnish boxes, paper, packing 
tables, etc., and to keep the tables supplied with fruit, and nail up 
the boxes. The packers are held strictly responsible for the pack, 
but the grower is responsible for the grading. The packer is 
responsible to the association and not to the grower. The usual 
compensation for this work is 5c a box and board, or an average of 
from $2 to $3 a day and board. It is difScult to obtain enough 
skilled packers to handle a normal crop. Most fruit sections now 
annually hold packing schools just at the beginning of the harvesting 
season. 

The boxes are lined with paper and have a cardboard on the 
bottom and top and in the fancy and extra grades each apple is 
wrapped separately. These wrappers often are printed with the 
grower's name or the name of his ranch. The ends of the box bear 
a lithograph giving the variety, name of the shipping association, and 
name and address of the grower. There is also marked on the end 
of the box the grade, the number of apples in the box, and the 
riumber of the packer who did the packirg. Before being allov/ed 
to pack for an association, each packer must register, and is given 
a numbered rubber stamp with which he has to stamp each box 
packed by him. Any defective package that may escape the inspector 
at the shipping end, in this way may be traced directly back and the 
responsibility fixed. 

Marketing. 

The production and marketing of fruit should be considered 
from the same angle as any other business enterprise. No manu- 
facturer of any size would expect the same person to take care of 
both the production and selling end. Is not the growing of fruit a 
manufacturing business? We have the raw material in the shape of 
soil, fertilizers, water, etc. ; the tree is our manufacturing plant, 
and the fruit is the finished product. Why should not this be handled 
as any other business ? If we are to grow the finest quality of fruit, 
and in this age of competition it is necessary that this be the grade 
produced if we are to make any money from it, it is about all the 
average man can do to attend to the growing, without also having 
to be a salesman. Most fruit growers have not a sufficiently large 



Bureau op Agkiculturb 505 

plant to employ a sales force individually, so the only solution is to 
co-operate with other growers. 

In the height of the marketing season it is very desirable, and 
almost necessary, that the shipper be informed every day by wire of 
the condition of the markets; which markets desire fruit and what 
kinds and the ones that are over supplied. When the northwestern 
fruit was first shipped to New York and Chicago, it was so much 
superior to what was on the market, that it brought almost fabulous 
prices. The next year, on the strength of these prices, everyone 
who had good fruit to ship sent it to these same, markets, with the 
result that they were glutted and the spaaller markets neglected. A 
grower acting individually has no waj' of knowing these conditions. 
With a strong marketing organization, reports can be received every 
day from the principal markets throughout the country, showing just 
what they demand and what prices can be obtained. They are also 
in a position to look up the standing of the purchaser, his financial 
rating, etc. 

Not only is it necessary to know what the markets demand, 
but it is desirable to know what the other fruit districts are doing ; 
what fruits they have for market, and where they are shipping it. 
If an individual in North Yakima and one in Hood River and one in 
Wenatehee, for instance, all have a ear of the same variety to ship 
on the same day, unless they have some knowledge of what the other 
one is doing they may all ship to the same point at the same time 
and it might be that they would ship to a market that could only 
consume one car. This practice results in the demoralization of that 
market, whereas, if the three cars could have been properly dis- 
tributed, cities that would otherwise have been neglected, are sup- 
plied and a good price realized on all the fruit. 

There are several kinds of marketing organizations, but the most 
successful is the co-operative form. Members are usually limited 
to one share of stock and only the stockholders' fruit is marketed. 
The idea is to do the marketing for the members at cost and pay 
no dividends. There is usually charged a stated amount per box for 
operating expense. At the end of the season, if there is a surplus 
after taking care of a sinking fund, the remainder is pro-rated to 
the growers according to the amount of fruit shipped by each. This 
has been found very much more successful than a stock company 
where the largest portion of the stock might be owned by one or two 
persons, and they perhaps not growers. 

The co-operative plan is often spoken of as the Hood River plan. 
Hood River, Oregon, established the first really successful apple 
shippers' association, known as the Apple Growers' Union. For 
several years Hood River had been growing a good quality of fruit 
but the individuals had different ideas of grading and packing, and 
many of them had comparatively small acreage in bearing. Only 
a few could afford to ship in ear lots, and the markets consequently 



506 TwENTY-FlEST BlENNIAL EtEPORT 

were limited to the immediate locality. As more orchards came 
into bearing, the prices had been steadily dropping and the busi- 
ness was in a precarious condition. In 1902 they realized on an 
average of 80c a box for their fruit. The following year the Hood 
River Apple Growers' Union was organized and a majority of the 
J'ruit mai'keted through it. The returns were $2.00 a box f. o. b. 
shipping point. In 1904 it brought $2.10 a box and in 1905 $2.60, on 
the average. So successful was this organization that many other 
districts organized on the same plan. 

"Whenever an organization such as this establishes a price for the 
product of that locality, the growers who are not in the association 
benefit also, and for this reason it has been very hard to get a num- 
ber of persons to join. The general farmer is the most individualistic 
of men and is generally the hardest to get to act co-operatively. He 
IS used to doing practically everything for himself and seems to 
• lis I ike to have anyone else take charge of any phase of his business. 
In a measure, this has been overcome in the western fruit growing 
sections and the strongest marketing organizations in existence are 
to be found there. 

These associations were at first very bitterly opposed by certain 
commission men and they used all sorts of means to defeat them. One 
of their ways was to offer some weak-kneed grower a little better 
price than the union was selling for and have him break loose and 
ship individually. It ^as then pointed out that the individual was 
getting a better price than could be secured through the association. 
Sometimes this was systematically followed up for a number of years 
and added to the difficulty of holding these associations intact. In 
organizing such a selling association it is necessary that a very 
stringent contract be drawn up between the organization and the 
grower. He is usually bound to ship his fruit through the associa- 
tion for a number of years, with the privilege of withdrawing at the 
beginning of any year. It is necessary that the management know 
before the season begins what tonnage he can expect and what pro- 
portion of the crop will be shipped through the association, before 
he is in a position to do any business at all. 

This opposition to the unions on the part of the buyer has in a 
measure disappeared. They find that it is often better to buy 
through an association as they can then secure any quantity of fruit 
of any variety that they desire, of any particular grade. For 
instance, if a man wants a car load of extra fancy Spitzenburgs that 
will pack from 80 to 96 to the box, he can secure this through an 
association, but it probably would be impossible for any one grower 
to furnish him exactly what he wants. Also he knows that he will 
be protected in the matter of price when he deals with an organiza- 
tion. If he is asked $2.00 a bos for a certain grade he knows that 
the next buyer will have to pay that same price, and if there is any 



Bureau op Agricultuee 507 

change in price made they will all be notified. In dealing with in- 
dividuals this is not very often the ease. It was formerly a practice 
of the buyer to go into a certain locality and find some man who 
was not very well informed as to price, or not a very good trader, 
and beat him down and secure his crop' at a very low figure, and then 
use this as a basis to attempt to buy the rest of the crop. Nine cases 
out of ten it was successful. 

For an association to succeed it is necessary that a good manager 
be employed. It is too often the case at first that some member of 
the association is employed as manager, many times because of his 
failure in every other business. With such a start it is almost fore- 
ordained that he will also fail in this. 

When apples are graded according to association rules it is 
possible to have a uniform grade throughout the district. This 
would not be the ease if individuals were left to establish their own 
grades. Every grower, of course, thinks he has the best fruit in 
the section and what to him might be Extra Fancy might be Fancy 
or "C" grade to some other grower. A grade can also be established 
that will not vary from year to year. One of the things that has 
made the Hood River Association so successful is the fact that from 
the first their grade was standardized. If a person buys a box of 
Hood River Fancy Apples this year and wants a box just like it 
next year, he can be sure he will get absolutely the same quality of 
fruit, or if there is any difference, he will get a better quality, for 
the grade and pack has been gradually improved from year to year. 

There are successful growers' associations in all fruit districts 
now, but until recently they were acting individually and competing 
against each other in the markets. Two years ago there was formed 
a Central Selling Association known as the North Pacific Fruit Dis- 
tributors, embracing most of the fruit districts of Oregon, Washing- 
ton, Idaho and Montana. This main office has nothing to do with 
the grading, picking, packing, etc., but attends entirely to the selling 
of fruit and buying supplies. The Central Association formulated 
rules by which the grading and packing are to be done, but the en- 
forcement of these are left to the district and local associations. 
This organization now controls about 60% of the output of these 
four states and they are able to have a say as to the price the fruit 
shall be sold for. 

Advertising. 

Within the last iew years there has been a very large increase 
in the area of apples planted in the northwest and as this comes 
into bearing it will be necessary that a wider market be found for the 
product. This must either be done by exploiting new markets or by 
increasing consumption in the old ones. 

The citrus growers' took care of their largely increased output 



508 TwENTY-PlKST BlENNIAL EtEPOET 

by increasing the consumption in the U. S. and Canada. They did 
this by systematic advertising. You cannot find a village or hamlet 
in the country but what is well supplied with citrus fruit and at a 
reasonable price. The retailers are not making the money per box 
that they once did off of oranges, but where a few years ago they 
sold one box they are now selling ten. The principal reasons for this 
is the advertising done by the growers and by their strong organiza- 
tions, compelling the retailer to handle the fruit on a reasonable 
margin of profit. 

The fruit growers, especially in the northwest, are now beginning 
a systematic advertising campaign in the newspapers and magazines. 
This year all apples sold through the North Pacific Fruit Dis- 
tributors were taxed one cent per box for advertising. 

A year or so ago, the head of the Domestic Science Department 
of the Washington State College published a pamphlet giving 209 
ways for serving apples. This is distributed free of charge by some 
fruit growers' associations. 

While something has been done in the way of advertising, yet 
the campaign has only begun. You can hardly pick up a paper or 
magazine without reading an advertisement of the Sun Kist Orange 
of California. It is up to the apple growers to bring the apple just 
as prominently before the people. The great mass of the consuming 
public hardly know one variety from another. They only know 
that one apple is red and another is yellow. They know IJtLle about 
what season a certain variety is at its prime or what apples are best 
suited for cooking or for eating. 

Many apples shipped from the northwest this year have a notice 
in the box stating when the fruit is at its best and whether it is 
better as a dessert or cooking apple. We must continue the publicity 
and educational campaign and this is one thing, at any rate, that the 
northwest fruit grower is not alone concerned in. It is of interest 
to fruit growers throughout the entire country. It is something 
that dealers and growers over the United States and Canada can 
co-operate in. Another thing that we hope to accomplish by this ad- 
vertising campaign, and through better market facilities, is to so 
control the output as to in some way induce the retail merchants to 
push apples and be willing to accept a fair margin of profit. 

You will find the grocery store windows full of oranges that you 
can buy almost, if not quite, as cheaply as apples, and yet fruit 
growers all over the country complain this season that there was no 
money in raising apples. The retailer does not push the sale of 
apples and when he does sell them he wants to make from 100 to 
200% profit. A few days ago I went into a store in Columbia to buy 
some apples and saw some Washington Ben Davis packed in boxes. 
They were not a very good grade but thiiy were wrapped and well 
packed. I asked the price of them. "Two for a nickel." These 



Bureau of Ageicultuee 509 

apples were about 128 to the box, which would make them retail at 
something like $3.00 a box. In order to find out what profit the 
dealer was making, I posed as a northwestern grower and tried to 
sell him a ear of apples. He admitted these cost him 80e a box, mak- 
ing over 200% profit he was asking. 

We hear so much about the middleman, and while there are no 
doubt plenty of crooked commission merchants, yet on the whole, 
I am convinced it is not the commission merchant who is making the 
great difference in price between the grower and consumer, but it 
is our own retail merchant. And just as long as he can buy from the 
individual grower and there is no strong association to say he shall 
not charge exorbitant prices, he is going to make as large a profit as 
he can. This means he will sell very few apples but will push the 
sale of oranges that he has to sell in large quantities to make any 
profit. 

Judging by the publicity the northwestern states receive, one 
would judge their output to be much more than your own state. 
Kentucky is not usually spoken of as a leading apple producing 
state and the foUowiag figures taken from the lasit census may be 
a surprise tq you. They were to me. This census says there was 
produced that year in round numbers in 

Idaho 659,000 bushels of apples 

Montana - 567,000 bushels of apples 

Oregon 1,930,000 bushels of apples 

"Washington 4,225,000 bushels of apples 

Or a total of 7,381,000 bushels. In the same year Kentucky alone 
produced 7,268,000 bushels of apples, practically as much as the 
four great northwestern apple states combined. But no one heard of 
Kentucky's output, and why? She did not advertise and the north- 
western states did. 

I know you can raise good apples here for I have seen and 
tasted them. Perhaps they may not have the superlative finish that 
we get in the northwest but they make a good appearance and cer- 
tainly have the flavor. 

Good as your fruit is, you can make it better, especially in 
looks. Thin out the dense heads of j'^our trees and let the sunlight 
in. It won't hurt them. You will be surprised at the color the fruit 
will take on and how much less you will be bothered with fungus 
diseases. 

When you plant a new orchard, find out what varieties do best 
in your particular section and confine you'rself to only a few of the 
best. Do not attempt to grow all in the nurseryman's catalogue. 
After they are planted, give them good care. Remember you must 
take care of them now if you expect them to take care of you later. 



510 Twenty-First Biennial Bepokt 

In the northwest we do not ask if spraying pa