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Full text of "Colour schemes for the flower garden"

ALBtKi &. MANN 

LIBRARY 

At 

CORNELL UjmnERSITY 



Cornell University Library 
SB 454.J47 1919 

colour schemesfor the fl2ej,ga^S 




3 1924 002 831 117 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tlie Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924002831117 



COLOUR SCHEMES FOR 
THE FLOWER GARDEN 



COtTNTRV 




un 



COLOUR SCHEMES FOR 
THE FLOWER GARDEN 



P,Y 

GERTRUDE JEKYLL 



FOURTH EDITION 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICES OF " COUNTRY LIFE," Ltd. 
20, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVEN r GARDEN, W.C, AND BY 
GEORGE NEWNES, Lti>., 8-1 i, SOUTHAMPTON STREET 
STRAND, W.C. NEW YORK : CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

1919 



PREFACE 

The continued demand for this book lias necessitated 
the preparation of a fourth edition. The author has 
been much gratified by the many letters that liave 
been received from unknown correspondents express- 
ing grateful acknowledgment of its helpfulness, and 
for the encouragement and inspiration they have 
derived from its pages. 

G.J. 



INTRODUCTION 

To plant and maintain a flower border, with a good 
scheme for colour, is by no means the easy thing that is 
commonly supposed. 

I believe that the only way in which it can be made 
successful is to devote certai n border s to certain times^ 
of jrear ; each border or garden region to be bright 
for from one to three inqnths. 

Nothing seems to me more imsatisfactory than the 
border that in spring shows a few patches of flowering 
bulbs in ground otherwise looking empty, or with tufts 
of herbaceous plants just coming through. Then the 
bulbs die down, and their place is wanted for something 
that comes later. Either the ground will then show 
bare patches, or the place of the bulbs will be forgotten 
and they will be cruelly stabbed by fork or trowel 
when it is wished to put something in the apparently 
empty space. 

For many years I have been working at these 
problems ip my own garden, and, having come to 
certain conclusions, can venture to put them forth 
with some confidence. I may mention that from the 
nature of the ground, in its original state partly wooded 
and partly bare field, and from its having been brought 
into ciiltivation and some sort of shape before it was 



viii INTRODUCTION 

known where the house now upon it would exactly 
stand, the garden has less general unity of design 
than I should have wished. The. position and general 
form of its various portions were accepted mainly 
according to their natural conditions, so that the garden 
ground, though but of small extent, falls into different 
regions, with a general, but not altogether definite, 
cohesion. 

I am strongly of opinion that the possession of _a 
quant ity of plant s, however good the plants may be 
themselves and however ample their number, does 
not make a garden ; i-ton]j^akes^a^o//e£^o«. Having 
goTthe piajitsTthe great thing is to use fhem with 
careful selection and definite intention. Merely having 
them, or having them planted unassorted in garden 
spaces, is only like having a box of paints from the 
best colourman, or, to go one step further, it is Uke 
having portions of these paints set out upon a palette. 
This does not constitute a picture ; and it seems to 
me that the duty we owe to our, gardens and to our 
own bettering in our gardens is so to use the plants 
that they shall form beautiful pi cture s ; and that, 
while delighting our eyes, they should be always 
training those eyes to a more exalted criticism ; to a 
state of mind and artistic conscience that will not 
' tolerate bad or careless combination or any sort of 
misuse of plants, but in which it becomes a point of 
honour to be always striving for the best. 

It is just in the way it is done that lies the whole 
difference between commonplace gardening and gar- 
dening that may rightly claim to rank as a fine art. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

Given the same space of ground and the same material, 
they may either be fashioned into a dream of beauty, 
a place of perfect rest and refreshment of mind and 
body — a series of soul-satisfying pictures — a treasure 
of well-set jewels ; or they may be so misused that 
evers^thing is jarring and displeasing. To learn how 
to perceive the difference and how to do right is to 
apprehend gardening as a fine art. In practice it is 
to place every plant or group of plants with such 
thoughtful care and definite intention that they shall 
form a part of a harmonious whole, and that successive 
portions, or in some cases even single details, shall 
show a series of pictures. It is so to regulate the trees 
and undergrowth of the wood that their lines and 
masses come into beautiful form and harmonious 
proportion; it is to be always watching, noting and 
doing, and putting oneself meanwhile into closest 
acquaintance and sympathy with the growing things. 

In this spirit, the garden and woodland, such as 
they are, have been formed. There have been many 
failures, but, every now and then, I am encouraged 
and rewarded by a certain measure of success. Yet, 
as the critical faculty becomes keener, so does the 
standard of aim rise higher ; and, year by year, the 
desired point seems always to elude attainment.; 

But, as I may perhaps have taken more trouble in 
working out certain problems, and given more thought 
to methods of arranging growing flowers, especially 
in ways of colour-combination, than amateurs in 
general, I have thought that it may be helpful to some 
of them to describe as well as I can by word, and to 



X INTRODUCTION 

show by plan £ind picture, what I have tried to do, 
and to point out where I have succeeded and where 
I have failed. 

I must ask my kind readers not to take it amiss if 
I mention here that I cannot undertake to show it 
them on the spot. I am a sohtary worker ; I am 
growing old and tired, and suffer from very bad and 
painful sight. My garden is my workshop, my private 
study and place of rest. For the sake of health and 
reeisonable enjoyment of life it is necessary to keep it 
quite private, and to refuse the many appUcations of 
those who offer it visits. My oldest friends can now 
only be admitted. So I ask my readers to spare me 
the painful task of writing long letters of excuse and 
explanation ; a task that has come upon me almost 
daily of late years in the summer months, that has 
sorely tried my weak and painful eyes, and has added 
much to the difficulty of getting through an already 
over-large correspondence. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION vii 

OHAFTEH I 

A MARCH STUDY AND THE BORDER OF EARLY BULBS I 

CHAPTER II 

THE WOOD , , . , . . , , g 

CHAPTER III 

THE SPRING GARDEN ...... 23 

CHAPTER IV 

BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER .... 34 

CHAPTER V 

THE JUNE GARDEN ....... 42 

CHAPTER VI 

THE MAIN HARDY FLOWER BORDER .... 52 

CHAPTER VII 

THE FLOWER BORDER IN JULY . . . . 61 

xi 



xii CONTENTS 

PAGB 

CHAPTER VIII 

THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST .... 68 

CHAPTER IX 

BEDDING PLANTS . . . . . . 8 1 

CHAPTER X 

THE FLOWER BORDERS IN SEPTEMBER ... 87 

CHAPTER XI 

WOOD AND SHRUBBERY EDGES .... 92 

CHAPTER XII 

GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING .... 98 

CHAPTER XIII 

CLIMBING PLANTS . . . . . . ,115 

CHAPTER XIV 

GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS . , . .121 

CHAPTER XV 

SOME GARDEN PICTURES ...... 130 

CHAPTER XVI 

A BEAUTIFUL FRUIT GARDEN ..... 136 

CHAPTER XVII 

PLANTING FOR WINTER COLOUR .... I42 

CHAPTER XVIII 

FORM IN PLANTING . . . . . . I47 



INDEX . . , . . . , _ .IC» 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



White Rose and Lavender 

White Lilies . 

Iris Stylosa . 

Magnolia Conspicua 

Magnolia Stellata 

Ferns in the Bulb Border 

Plan — The Bank of Early Bulbs . 

Plan — From Lawn to Copse . 

Daffodils by a Woodland Path 

Wild Primroses in thin Woodland 

The Wide Wood Path . 

CiSTUs Laurifolius 

A Wood-Path among Chestnuts 

A Wood-Path among Birches 

CiSTus Cyprius 

CiSTUS BY THE WoOD-PaTH 

Gaultheria Shallon in Flower 

Gaultheria Shallon in Fruit 

White Irish Heath 

The Spring Garden from D on Plan 

Plan of the Spring Garden . 

The Fern-likb Sweet Cicely 

The Spring Garden from E on Plan 

" Further Rock " from G on Plan 

" Further Rock " from H on Plan 

'• Near Rock " from F on Plan 

The Primrose Garden . 

zlii 



Frontispiece 
To face page x 

4 
S 
6 

7 
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H 
15 
i6 

17 
i8 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 
24 
26 
27 

30 
31 
32 

33 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Steps to the Hidden Garden . . , To fee 

Phlox Divaricata and Aeenaria Montana 
Male Fern in the Hidden Garden 

EXOCHORDA GrANDIFLORA 

Plan of the Hidden Garden 
Euphorbia Wulfenii .... 

Irises and Lupines in the June Garden 
Cerastium as an Informal Edging . 
Part of the Garland Rose at the Angle 
Rose Blush Gallica on Dry-Walling . 
Spanish Iris ...... 

Plan of the June Garden 

Plan of Iris and Lupine Borders 

White Tree Lupine .... 

Catmint in June 

Scotch Briars ..... 

Geranium Ibericum Platyphyllum 

The Flower Border in Late Summer . 

The Cross Walk 

The East End of the Flower Border . 

Japanese Anemones in a Half-shady Border 

Plan of the Main Flower-Border 

Good Staking — Campanula Persicifolia 

Careful Staking of Michaelmas Daisies 

White Rose La Guirlande ; Grey Borders Beyond 

Clematis Recta .... 

Delphinium Belladonna 

Canterbury Bells .... 

Rose The Garland in a Silver Holly 

Eryngium Oliverianum . 

Lyme-grass and Santolina 

Tall Campanulas in a Grey Border 

Yucca Filamentosa 

The Grey Borders : Stachys, &c. 

A Lavender Hedge 



puff 34 
35 
36 
37 
37 

38 
39 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 
4& 
48- 

49- 
SO' 

51 
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56- 
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64 

65 
66- 
67 
88 
69- 
70 
7r 
74 

75 
^6" 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



XV 



^SCULUS AND OlEARIA . 

Plan of Garden of China Asters 

Plan of Garden of Summer Flowers 

Some of the Early Asters 

The September Garden . 

The September Garden : Lower End . 

The September Garden : Upper End 

Begonias with Megasea Foliage . 

Early Asters and Pyrethrum Uliginosum 

Plan of September Borders . 

Garland Rose, Where Garden joins Wood 

Polygonum and Megasea at a Wood Edge 

Lilies and Funkias at a Shrubbery Edge 

Olearia Gunni, Fern and Funkia 

Ferns and Lilies at a Shrubbery Edge 

Gypsophila and Megasea 

Lilies and Ferns at the Wood Edge . 

Aster Corymbosus ; Second Year 

Aster Corymbosus ; Third Year . 

Stob«a Purpurea ..... 

The Grey Borders : Gypsophila, Echinops, iSc 

October Borders of Michaelmas Daisies 

A September Grey Garden . 

The Grey Border : Pink Hollyhock, &c. 

Plans of Special Colour Gardens 

A Detail of the Grey September Garden 

Eryngium and LiLiuM Candidum 

Yuccas and Grey Foliage 

A Front Edge of Grey Foliage . 

Hardy Grape Vine on South Side of House 

Hardy Grape Vine on House Wall 

Vine and Fig at Door of Mushroom House 

Clematis Montana at Angle of Court . 

Clematis Montana over Workshop Window 

Clematis Montana trained as Garlands 



To- face page nn- 

„ 78. 

„ 85 

„ 86 

,. „ 87 

„ 88 

,. ,. 89 

„ 90 

„ 91 

„ 91, 

„ 92 

.. 93 

., 94 

M 9S 

96 

., „ 96 

.. ,. 9& 

96 

96 

.. 97 

9* 

,, 99' 

„ ,, 100 

.. ,F 101 

102-107 

To face page loS 

.. ■■ 109 

,. ,. 112 

,. 113 

., 11 + 

., 115 

„ 116 

„ 116 

„ 116 

„ 117 



xvl 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Abutilon Vitifolium .... 
Clematis Flammula and Spir^a Lindleyana 
Ipom;ea " Heavenly Blue " . 

SOLANUM JaSMINOIDES .... 

Clematis Flammula on Angle of Cottage 

Clematis Flammula on Cottage 

Clematis Flammula on a Wooden Fence 

Sweet Verbena ..... 

Pot Plants just placed 

Plants in Pots in the Shaded Court . 

Maiden's Wreath (Francoa Ramosa) . 

Maiden's Wreath by Tank 

Geraniums, &c., in a Stone-edged Bed 

Maiden's Wreath in Pots above Tank . 

Funkia, Hydrangea and Lily in Shaded Court 

FUNKIA AND LlIjIUM SPECIOSUM 
LiLIUM AURATUM 

A Tub Hydrangea 
Steps and Hydrangeas . 
The Narrow South Lawn 
Hydrangea Tubs and Birch-tree Seat 
Hydrangea Tubs and Nut-Walk 
White Lilies 

The Steps and their Incidents 
Plan — ^The Beautiful Fruit Garden 
Plan — A Wild Heath Garden 



To face page i 
1 
I 
I 
I 

r 
I 

I 



122 
122 
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123 
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133 

135 
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149 









\. ■ i«'.'J,f.ki. ' - 1 


1 






st-^js-e 





WHiTi: Lii.ii:s. 



COLOUR SCHEMES FOR THE 
FLOWER GARDEN 

CHAPTER I 

A MARCH STUDY AND THE BORDER OF EARLY 
BULBS 

There comes a day towards the end of March when 
there is but little wind, and that is from the west or 
even south-west. The sun has gained much power, 
so that it is pleasant to sit out in the garden, or, better 
still, in some sunny nook of sheltered woodland. There 
is such a place among silver-trunked Birches, with 
here and there the splendid richness of masses of dark 
Holly. The rest of the background above eye-level 
is of the warm bud-colour of the summer-leafing trees, 
and, below, the fading rust of the now nearly flattened 
fronds of last year's Bracken, and the still paler drifts 
of leaves from neighbouring Oaks and Chestnuts. The 
sunlight strikes brightly on the silver stems of the 
Birches, and casts their shadows clear-cut across the 
grassy woodland ride. The grass is barely green as 
yet, but has the faint winter green of herbage not yet 
grown and still powdered with the short remnants 
of the fine-leaved, last-year-mown heath grasses. 

I A 



2 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Brown leaves still hang on young Beech and Oak. 
The trunks of the Spanish Chestnuts are elephant- 
grey, a notable contrast to the sudden, vivid shafts 
of the Birches. Some groups of the pale early Pyrenean 
Daffodil gleam level on the ground a little way forward. 
It is the year's first complete picture of flower-effect 
in the woodland landscape. The place is not very far 
from the house, within the nearest hundred yards 
of the copse, where flowers seem to be more in place 
than further away. Looking to the left, the long ridge 
and south slope of the house-roof is seen through the 
leafless trees, though the main wall-block is hidden by 
the sheltering HoUies and Junipers. 

Coming down towards the garden by another broad 
grassy way, that goes westward through the Chestnuts 
and then turns towards the down-hill north, there 
comes yet another deviation through Rhododendrons 
and Birches to the main lawn. But before the last 
turn there is a pleasant mass of colour showing in the 
wood-edge on the dead-leaf carpet. It is a straggling 
group of Daphne Mezereum, with some clumps of red 
Lent Hellebores, and, to the front, some half-connected 
patches of the common Dog-tooth Violet. The nearly 
related combination of colour is a delight to the trained 
colour-eye. There is nothing brilliant ; it is all 
restrained — refined ; in harmony with the veiled light 
that reaches the flowers through the great clumps of 
HolUes and tall half-overhead Chestnuts and neigh- 
bouring Beech. The colours are all a little " sad," 
■ as the old writers so aptly say of the flower-tints of 
secondary strength, But it is a perfect picture. One 



A MARCH STUDY 3 

comes to it again and again as one does to any picture 
that is good to live with. 

To devise these living pictures from_siniple well- 
known flow ers s eems to me the best thing t o do in 
garde ning. Whether it is the putting together of two 
or three kinds of plants, or even of one kind only in 
some happy setting, or whether it is the ordering of a 
much larger number of plants, as in a flower-border of 
middle and late summer, the intention is always the 
same. Whether the arrangement is simple and modest, 
whether it is bold and gorgeous, whether it is obvious 
or whether it is subtle, the aim is always to use the 
plants to the best of one's means and intelligence so 
as to form pictures of living beauty. 

It is a thing that I see so rarely attempted, and that 
seems to me so important, that the wish to suggest it 
to others, and to give an idea of examples that I have 
worked out, in however modest a way, is the purpose 
of this book. 

These early examples within the days of March are 
of special interest because as yet flowers are but few ; 
the mind is less distracted by much variety than later 
in the year, and is more readily concentrated on the 
few things that may be done and observed ; so that 
the necessary restriction is a good preparation, by 
easy steps, for the wider field of observation that is 
presented later. 

Now we pass on through the dark masses of Rhodo- 
dendron and the Birches that shoot up among them. 
How the silver stems, blotched and banded with varied 
browns and greys so deep in tone that they show Uke a 



4 COLOUR SCHEMES 

luminous black, tell among the glossy Rhododendron 
green ; and how strangely , different is the way of 
growth of the two kinds of tree ; the tall white trunks 
spearing up through the dense, dark, leathery leaf- 
masses of soUd, roundish outline, with their delicate 
network of reddish branch and spray gently swaying far 
overhead ! 

Now we come to the lawn, which slopes a little 
downward to the north. On the right it has a low 
retaining-wall, whose top line is level ; it bears up a 
border and pathway next the house's western face. 
The border and wall are all of a piece, for it is a dry 
wall partly planted with the same shrubby and half- 
shrubby things that are in the earth above. They 
have been comforting to look at all the winter ; a 
pleasant grey coating of Phlomis, Lavender, Rosemary,' 
Cistus, and Santolina ; and at the end and angle where 
the wall is highest, a mass of Pyrus japonica, planted 
both above and below, already showing its rose-redi 
bloom. At one point at the foot of the wall is a, 
strong tuft of Iris stylosa whose first blooms appeared 
in November. This capital plant flowers bravely all 
through the winter in any intervals of open weather. 
It likes a sunny place against a wall in poor soil. If 
it is planted in better ground the leaves grow very tall 
and it gives but little bloom. 

Now we pass among some shrub-clumps, and at the 
end come upon a cheering sight ; a tree of Magnolid 
conspicua bearing hundreds of its great white cups of 
fragrant bloom. Just before reaching it, and taking 
part with it in the garden picture, are some tall bushes 



A MARCH STUDY ^ 

of Forsythia suspensa, tossing out many-feet-long 
branches loaded with their burden of clear yellow 
flowers. They are ten to twelve feet high, and one 
looks up at much of the bloom clear-cut against the 
pure blue of the sky ; the upper part of the Magnolia 
also shows against the sky. Here there is a third 
flower-picture ; this time of warm white and finest 
yellow on brilliant blue, and out in open sunhght. 
Among the Forsythias is also a large bush of Magnolia 
stellata, whose milk-white flowers may be counted by 
the thousand. As the earlier M. conspicua goes out of 
bloom it comes into full bearing, keeping pace with 
the Forsythia, whose season runs on well into April. 

It is always a little difficult to find suitable places 
for the early bulbs. Many of them can be enjoyed in 
rough and grassy places, but we also want to combine 
them into pretty living pictures in the garden proper. 

Nothing seems to me more unsatisfactory than the 
usual way of having them scattered about in small 
patches in the edges of flower-borders, where they 
only show as little disconnected dabs of colour, and 
where they are necessarily in danger of disturbance 
and probable injury when their foliage has died down 
and their places are wanted for summer flowers. 

It was a puzzle for many years to know how to 
treat these early bulbs, but at last a plan was devised 
that. seems so satisfactory that I have no hesitation 
in advising it for general adoption. 

On the further side of a path that bounds my June 
garden is a border about seventy feet long and ten 
feet wide. At every ten feet along the back is a 



5 COLOUR SCHEMES 

larch post planted with a free-growing Rose. These 

are not only to clothe their posts, but to grow into 

garlands swinging on slack chains from post to post. 

Beyond are Bamboos, and then an old hedge-bank 

with Scotch Firs, Oaks, Thorns, &c. . „The border 

, toward f West; CSC* P""-- 
slopes upwards from the path, formmg a toank of 

gentle ascent. It was first planted with hardy Ferns 
in bold drifts ; Male Fern for the most part, because 
it is not only handsome but extremely persistent 
the fronds remaining green into the winter. The Fern- 
spaces are shown in the plan by diagonal hatching ; 
between them come the bulbs, with a general edging 
to the front of mossy Saxifrage. 

The colour scheme begins with the pink of Megasea 
ligulata, and with the lower-toned pinks of Fumaria 
bullosa and the Dog-tooth Violets {Erythroniuni). At 
the back of these are Lent Hellebores of dull red colour- 
ing, agreeing charmingly with the colour of the bulbs. 
A few white Lent Hellebores are at the end ; they 
have turned to greenish white by the time the rather; 
late Scilla amana is in bloom. Then comes a brilliant 
patch of pure blue with white — SciUa sibirica and 
white Hyacinths, followed by the also pure blues of 
SciUa bifolia and Chionodoxa and the later, more purple 
blue of Grape Hyacinth. A long drift of white Crocus, 
comes next, in beauty in the border's earliest days,^ 
and later, the blue-white of Puschkinia ; then again 
pure blue and white of Chionodoxa and white Hyacinth. 

Now the colours change to "white and yellow and 
golden foliage, with the pretty little pale trumpet 
Daffodil Consul Crawford, and beyond it the stronger 




MJ(;X()L/--I STi:iJ.A TA. 




Q 

ft; 
o 

b 



10 

ft; 
If. 



70 3W. 



THE BANK OF EARLY BULBS. 
Groups of Ferns shown by diagonal hatching. 



i '•■> 




J/' 'A'^/W^ 



FROM LAWN TO COPSE. 



A March studv ^ 

yellow of two other small early kinds — N. nanus and 
the charming little N. minor, quite distinct though so 
often confounded with nanus in gardens. With these, 
and in other strips and patches towards the end of the 
border, are plantings of the Golden Valerian, so useful 
for its bright yellow foliage quite early in the year- 
The leaves of the Orange Day-hly are also of a pale 
yellowish-green colour when they first come up, and 
are used at the end of the border. These plants of 
golden and pale foliage are also placed in a further 
region beyond the plan, and show to great advantage 
as the eye enfilades the border and reaches the more 
distant places. Before the end of the bulb-border is 
reached there is once more a drift of harmonised faint 
pink colouring of Megasea and the little Fumaria, 
(also known as Corydalis bulbosa) with the pale early 
Pyrenean Daffodil, N. pallidus prcecox. W.-triaK<itus ^ 

The bulb-flowers are not all in bloom exactly at the 
same time, but there is enough of the colour intended 
to give the right effect in each grouping. Standing 
at the end, just beyond the Dog-tooth Violets, the 
arrangement and progression of colour is pleasant 
and interesting, and in some portions vivid ; the pure 
blues in the middle spaces being much enhanced by 
the yellow flowers and golden foliage that follow. 

A nearly similar arrangement of flowers for earliest 
spring has been made at a place where a path from 
the lawn branches into three grassy ways up into the 
copse. The planted promontory is a bank rising 
from the grass paths and is set with a few large stones. 
As it is backed by Hollies and Junipers, and then by 



g COLOUR SCHEMES 

the Birches of the wood, it has a back planting of such 
shrubs as both accord in colour with the flowering 
plants and lead suitably to the further woodland. 
These are Rhododendron frcBCOx and Andromeda 
[Pieris) florihunda — a wide-spreading Savin is already 
behind them — ^while the front planting is stiffened 
by some of the early blooming Heaths, Erica carnea 
in one or two colourings and E. hybrida. There is 
also, though the bloom will not be till later, a kind 
of backbone of Alpenrose {Rhododendron ferruginium), 
which gives a certain aspect of strength and sohdity. 

Through April and May the leaves of the bulbs are 
growing tall, and their seed-pods are carefully removed 
to prevent exhaustion. By the end of May the Ferns 
are throwing up their leafy crooks ; by June the 
feathery fronds are displayed in all their tender fresh- 
ness ; they spread over the whole bank, and we forget 
that there are any bulbs between. By the time the 
June garden, whose western boundary it forms, has 
come into fullest bloom it has become a completely 
furnished bank of Fern-beauty. 



CHAPTER II 

THE WOOD 

Ten acres is but a small area for a bit of woodland, 
yet it can be made apparently much larger by well- 
considered treatment. As the years pass and the 
different portions answer to careful guidance, I am 
myself surprised to see the number and wonderful 
variety of the pictures of sylvan beauty that it dis- 
plays throughout the year. I did not specially aim at 
variety, but, guided by the natural conditions of each 
region, tried to think out how best they might be 
fostered and perhaps a little bettered. 

The only way in which variety of aspect was de- 
liberately chosen was in the way of thinning out the 
natural growths. It was a wood of seedling trees that 
had come up naturally after an old wood of Scotch 
Fir had been cut down, and it seemed well to clear 
away all but one, or in some cases two kinds of trees in 
the several regions. Even in this the intention was to 
secure simphcity rather than variety, so that in moving 
about the ground there should be one thing at a time 
to see and enjoy. It is just this quality of singleness 
or simplicity of aim that I find wanting in gardens in 
general, where one may see quantities _gl_the_best 
plants grandly grown and yet no garden pictures. 



t6 c0l6ur schemes 

Of course one has to remember that there are many 
minds to which this need of an artist's treatment of 
garden and woodland does not appeal, just as there 
are some who do not care for music or for poetry, or 
who see no difference between the sculpture of the 
old Greeks and that of any modem artist who is not 
of the first rank, or to whom architectural refinement 
is as an unknown language. And in the case of the 
more superficial enjoyment of flowers one has sympathy 
too. For a love of flowers, of any kind, however 
shallow, is a sentiment that makes for human S5mipathy, 
and kindness, .and is in itself uplifting, as everything 
must be that is a source of reverence and admiration^ 
Still, the object of this book is to draw attentio n, 
however slightly and imperfectly, to the bett er ways of 
gardening, and to bring to bear upon the subject 
some consideration of that combination of common; 
sense with sincerity of p urpose, sense of beauty , and 
artistic loiowledge that can make plain groimd and 
growing things into a year-long succession of livin|| 
pictures. Common sense I put first, because it 
restrains from any sort of folly or sham or affectation;! 
Sense of beauty is the gift of God, for which those who 
have received it in good measure can never be thankful; 
enough. The nurturing of this gift through long years 
of study, observation, and close application in any one 
of the ways in which fine art finds expression, is the 
training of the artist's brain and heart and hand. The 
better a human mind is trained to the perception of 
beauty the more opportunities will it find of exercismg 
this precious gift, and the more directly will it be 




]i'IIA> /'/i/J/A'ri.sES I\ Tl-IfX U()')DI.A.\n. 
[Fioiii u I'liliiif by Hcniv M.'on.) 



The wood n 

brought to bear upon even the very simplest matters 
of everyday life, and always to their bettering. 

So it was in the wood of young seedling trees, where 
Oak and Holly, Birch, Beech and Mountain Ash, 
came up together in a close thicket of young saplings. 
It seemed well to consider, in the first place, how to 
bring something like order into the mixed jimible, 
and, the better to do this, to appeal to the little trees 
themselves and see what they had to say about it. 

The ground runs on a natural slope downward to the 
north, or, to be more exact, as the highest pbint is at 
one comer, its surface is tilted diagonally all over. 
So, beginning at the lower end of the woody growth, 
near the place where the house some day might stand, 
the first thing that appeared was a well-grown Holly, 
and rather near it, another ; both older trees than the 
nlore recent seedling growth. Close to the second 
Holly was a young Birch, the trunk about four inches 
thick and already in the early pride of its silvering 
bark. That was enough to prompt the decision that 
this part of the wood should be of silver Birch and 
Holly, so nearly all other growths were cut down or 
pulled up. A hundred yards higher up there were 
some strong young Oaks, then some Beeches, and 
all over the top of the ground a thick growth of young 
Scotch Fir, while' the western region had a good 
sprinkling of promising Spanish Chestnut. 

All these natural groupings were accepted, and a 
first thinning was made of the smallest stuff of other 
kinds . But it was done with the most careful watching, 
for there were to be no harsh frontiers. One kind of 



n COLOUR SCHEMES 

tree was to join hands with the next, though often a 
distinct deviation was made to the general rule. For the 
beautiful growth of the future wood was the thing that 
mattered, rather than obedience to any inflexible law. 

Now, after twenty years, the saplings have become 
trees, and the preponderance of one kind of tree at a 
time has given a feeling of repose and dignity. Here 
and there something exceptional occurs, but it causes 
interest, not confusion. Five woodland walks pass 
upward through the trees ; every one has its own 
character, while the details change during its progress 
— never abruptly, but in leisurely sequence ; as if in- 
viting the quiet stroller to stop a moment to enjoy 
some little woodland suavity, and then gently enticing 
him to go further, with agreeable anticipation of what 
might come next. And if I may judge by the pleasure 
that these woodland ways give to some of my friends 
who I know are in sympathy with what I am trying 
to do, and by my own thankful delight in them, 1 may 
take it that my little sylvan pictures have come fairly 
right, so that I may ask my reader to go with me in 
spirit through some of them. 

My house, a big cottage, stands facing a little to 
the east of south, just below the wood. The windows 
of the sitting-room, and its outer door, which stands 
open in all fine summer weather, look up a straight 
wide grassy way, the vista being ended by a fine old 
Scotch Fir with a background of dark wood. This 
old Fir and one other, and a number in and near the 
southern hedge, are all that remain of the older wood 
which was all of Scotch Fir. 







a: 



THE WOOD 13 

This green wood walk, being the widest and most 
important, is treated more boldly than the others — 
with groups of Rhododendrons in the region rather 
near the house, and for the rest only a biggish patch 
of the two North American Brambles, the white- 
flowered Rubus nutUanus, and the rosy R. odoraius. 
In spring the western region of tall Spanish Chestnuts, 
which begins just beyond the Rhododendrons, is 
carpeted with Poets' Narcissus ; the note of tender 
white blossom being taken up and repeated by the 
bloom-clouds of Amelanchier, that charming little 
woodland flowering tree whose use in such ways is 
so much neglected. Close to the ground in the distance 
the light comes with brilliant effect through the young 
leaves of a widespread carpet of Lily of the Valley, 
whose clusters of sweet little white bells will be a 
delight to see a month hence. 

The Rhododendrons are carefully grouped for 
colour — pink, white, rose and red of the best qualities 
are in the sunniest part, while, kept well apart from 
them, near the tall Chestnuts and rejoicing in their 
partial shade, are the purple colourings, of as pure 
and cool a purple as may be found among carefully 
selected ponticum seedlings and the few named kinds 
that associate well with them. Some details of this 
planting were given at length in my former book 
" Wood and Garden." 

Among the Rhododendrons, at points carefully 
devised to be of good effect, either from the house or 
from various points of the lawn and grass paths, are 
strong groups of Lilium awatum ; they give a new 



14 COLOUR SCHEMES 

picture of flower-beauty in the late summer and 
autumn and till near the end of October. The dark, 
strong foliage makes the best possible setting for the 
Lilies, and gives each group of them its fullest value. 
Another, narrower path, more to the east, is called the 
Fern walk, because, besides the general growth of 
Bracken that clothes the whole of the wood, there are 
groups of common hardy Ferns in easy patches, 
planted in such a way as to suggest that they grew 
there naturally. The Male Fern, the beautiful Dilated 
Shield Fern, and Polypody are native to the ground, 
and it was easy to place these, in some cases merely 
adding to a naturally grown tuft, so that they look 
quite at home. Lady Fern, Blechnum and Osmunda, 
and Oak and Beech Ferns have been added, the 
Osmunda in a depression that collects the water from 
any storms of rain. Later it was found that these 
wood-path edges offered suitable places for groups 
of the Willow Gentian (G. asclepiadea), and it was 
rather largely planted. It delights in a cool place 
in shade or half-shade, and when in September so 
many flowers are over and garden plants in general are 
showing evidence of fatigue and exhaustion, it is a 
pleasant thing to come upon a group of the arching 
sprays of this graceful and quite distinctive plant 
with its bright blue flowers an inch and a half long 
set in pairs in the axils of the willow-like leaves. 

At the beginning of all these paths I took some pains 
to make the garden melt imperceptibly into the wood, 
and in each case to do it a different way. Where this 
path begins the lawn ends at a group of Oak, Holly, 



THE WOOD 15 

and Cistus, with an undergrowth of Gaultheria and 
Andromeda. The larger trees are to the left, and the 
small evergreen shrubs on a rocky mound to the right. 
Within a few yards the turf path becomes a true 
wood path. Just as wild gardening should never 
look like garden gardening, or, as it so sadly often does, 
like garden plants gone astray and quite out of place, 
50 wood patlis should never look like garden paths. 
There must be no hard edges, no obvious boundaries. 
The wood path is merely an easy way that the eye 
just perceives and the foot follows. It dies away 
imperceptibly on either side into the floor of the wood 
and is of exactly the same nature, only that it is 
smooth and easy and is not encumbered by projecting 
tree-roots. Bracken or Bramble, these being all removed 
when the path is made. 

If it is open enough to allow of the growth of grass, 
and the grass has to be cut, and is cut with a machine, 
then a man with a faghook must follow to cut away 
slantingly the hard edge of standing grass that is left 
on each side. For the track of the machine not only 
leaves the hard, unlovely edges, but also brings into 
the wood the incongruous sentiment of that discipHne 
of trimness which belongs to the garden, and that, 
even there in its own place, is often overdon e. 

Now we are in the true wood path among Oaks and 
Birches. Looking round, the view is here and there 
stopped by prosperous-looking Hollies, but for the 
most part one can see a fair way into the wood. In 
April the wood floor is plentifully furnished with 
Daffodils. Here, in the region furthest removed from 



1 6 COLOUR SCHEMES 

the white Poets' Daffodil of the upper ground, they 
are all of trumpet kinds, and the greater number of 
strong yellow colour. For the Daffodils range through 
the wood in a regular sequence of kinds that is not 
only the prettiest way to have them, but that I have 
often found, in the case of people who did not know 
their Daffodils well, served to make the whole story 
of their general kinds and relationships clear and 
plain ; the hybrids of each group standing between 
the parent kinds ; these again leading through other 
hybrids to further clearly defined species, ending with 
the pure trumpets. As the sorts are intergrouped at 
their edges, so that at least two removes are in view 
at one time, the lesson in the general relationship of 
kinds is easily learnt. 

They a.re planted not in patches, bu t in long drifts.. 
a way that not only shows the plant in good number 
to better advantage, but that is singularly happy in 
its effect in the woodland landscape. This is specially 
noticeable towards the close of the day, when the 
sunlight, yellowing as it nears the horizon, lights up 
the long stretches of yellow bloom with an increase of 
colour strength, while the wide-stretching shadow- 
lengths throw the woodland shades into large phrased; 
of broadened mass, all subdued and harmonised by 
the same yellow light that illuminates the long level 
ranks of golden bloom. 

From this same walk in June, looking westward 
through the Birch stems, the value of the careful 
colour scheme of the Rhododendrons is fully felt. 
They are about a hundred yards away, and their mass 




A WOOD-PATH A-^fOXC C HliSTX f- rS. 




A WOOn-l'ATH AMO\<, I;II^CHI:S. 



THE WOOD 17 

is broken by the groups of intervening tree-trunks; 
but their brightness is all the more apparent seen from 
under the nearer roofing mass of tree-top, and the 
yellowing light makes the intended colour-effect still 
more successful by throwing its warm tone over the 
whole. 

But nearer at hand the Fern walk has its own 
little pictures. In early summer there are patches of 
Trillium, the white Wood Lily, in cool hollows among 
the ferns, and, some twenty paces further up, another 
wider group of the same. Between the two, spreading 
through a mossy bank, in and out among the ferns 
and right down to the path, next to a coming patch of 
Oak Fern, is a charming little white flower. Its 
rambhng roots thread their way under the mossy 
carpet, and every few inches throw up a neat little 
stem and leaves crowned with a starry flower of 
tenderest white. It is Trientalis, a native of our most 
northern hill-woods, the daintiest of all woodland 
flowers. 

To right and left white Foxgloves spire up among 
the Bracken. When the Foxglove seed is ripe, we 
remember places in the wood where tree-stumps were 
grubbed last winter. A little of the seed is scattered 
in these places and raked in. Meanwhile one forgets 
all about it, till two years afterwards there are the 
stately Foxgloves. It is good to see their strong spikes 
of soUd bloom standing six to seven feet high, and then 
to look down again at the lowly Trientalis and to note 
how the tender little blossom, poised on its thread- 
like stem, holds its own in interest and importance. 



1 8 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Further up the Fern walk, near the upper group of 
Trillium, are some patches, of a plant with roundish, 
glittering leaves. It is a North American Asarum 
{A. virginicum) ; the curious wax-like brown and 
greenish flower, after the usual manner of its kind, 
is short-stalked and hidden at the base of the leaf -stems. 
Near it, and growing close to the ground in a tuft of 
dark-green moss, is an interesting plant — Goodyera 
tepens, a terrestrial Orchid. One might easily pass 
it by, for its curiously white-veined leaves are half 
hidden in the moss, and its spike of pale greenish- 
white flower is not conspicuous ; but, knowing it 
is there, I never pass without kneeling down, both 
to admire its beauty and also to ensure its well-being 
by a careful removal of a little of the deep moss 
here and there where it threatens too close an 
invasion. 

Now there comes a break in the Fern walk, or rather 
it takes another character. The end of one of the 
wide green ways that we call the Lily path comes into 
it on the right, and immediately beyond this, stands 
the second of the great Scotch Firs of the older wood. 
The trunk, at five feet from the groimd, has a girth 
of nine and a half feet. The colour of the rugged bark is 
a wonder of lovely tones of cool greys and greens, and 
of a luminous deep brown in the fissures and cavities. 
Where the outer layers have flaked off it is a warm 
reddish grey, of a quality that is almost peculiar to 
itself. This great tree's storm-rent head towers up 
some seventy feet, far above the surrounding fohage 
of Oak and Birch, Close to its foot, and showing 





*S;'' '■-''■ ■'■■V'"- .»'>'-"4NV.r'^ -. ' 






■% ■ 1 


t-;l 



THE WOOD 19 

behind it as one comes up the Fern walk, are a Holly 
and a Mountain Ash. 

This spot is a meeting-place of several ways. On 
the right the wide green of the Lily path ; then, still 
bearing diagonally to the right, one of the paths into 
the region of Azalea and Cistus ; then, straight past 
the big tree, a wood walk carpeted with Whortleberry 
that passes through a whole Whortleberry region 
under Oaks, Hollies and Beeches ; and, lastly, the path 
which is the continuation of the Fern walk. Looking 
along it one sees, a little way ahead, a closer shade of 
tr^ps, for the most part Oak, but before entering this, 
on the right-hand gently rising bank, is a sheet of 
bright green leaves, closely set in May with neat spikes 
of white bloom. It is Smilacina hifolia, otherwise 
known as Maianthemum bi/olium. The pretty little 
plant has taken to the place in a way that rejoices the 
heart of the wild gardener, joining in perfect accord 
with the natural growth of short Whortleberry and a 
background of the graceful fronds of Dilated Shield 
Fern, and looking as if it was of spontaneous growth. 

Now the path passes a large Holly, laced through 
and through with wild Honeysuckle. The Honey- 
suckle stems that run up into the tree look like great 
ropes, and a quantity of the small ends come showering 
out of the tree-top and over the path, like a tangled 
veil of small cordage. 

The path has been steadily rising, and now the 
ascent is a little steeper. The character of the trees 
is changing ; Oaks are giving way to Scotch Firs. 
Just where this change begins the bank to right and 



20 COLOUR SCHEMES 

left is covered with the fresh, strong greenery of 
GauUheria Shallon. About twenty years ago a few 
small pieces were planted. Now it is a mass of close 
green growth two to three feet high and thirty paces 
long, and extending for several yards into the wood 
to right and left. In a light, peaty soil such as this, 
it is the best of undershrubs. It is in full leaf-beauty 
in the dead of winter, while in early summer it bears 
clusters of good flowers of the Arbutus type. These 
are followed by handsome dark berries nearly as 
large as black currants, covered with a blue-grey 
bloom. 

Now the path crosses another of the broad turfy 
ways, but here the turf is all of Heath ; a fourteen-foot- 
wide road of grey-rosy bloom in August ; and now 
we are in the topmost region of Scotch Fir, with 
undergrowth of Whortleberry. 

The wood path next to this goes nearly straight up 
through the middle of the ground. It begins at another 
point of the small lawn next the house, and passes 
first by a turf walk through a mounded region of 
small shrubs and carefully placed pieces of the local 
' sandstone. Andromeda, Skimmia and Alpenrose have 
grown into solid masses, so that the rocky ridges peer 
out only here and there. And when my friends say, 
" But then, what a chance you had with that shelf 
of rock coming naturally out of the ground," I 
feel the glowing warmth of an inward smile and 
think that perhaps the stones have not been so badly 
placed. 

Near the middle of the woody ground a space was 




^-4 



-~1 



3: 



THE WOOD 21 

cleared that would be large enough to be sunny through- 
out the greater part of the day. This was for Cistuses. 
It is one of the compensations for gardening on the 
poorest of soils that these delightful shrubs do well 
with only the preparation of digging up and loosening 
the sand, for my soil is nothing better. The kinds 
that are best in the woody landscape are C. laurifoUus 
and C. cyprius ; laurifoUus is the hardiest, cyfrius 
rather the more beautiful, with its three-and-a-half - 
inch wide flowers of tenderest white with a red-purple 
blotch at the base of each petal. Its growth, also, is 
rather more free and graceful. It is the kind usually 
sold as ladaniferus, and flowers in July. C. laurifoUus 
is a bush of a denser habit ; it bears an abundance 
of bloom rather smaller than that of C. cyprius, and 
without the coloured blotch. But when it grows old 
and some of its stems are borne down and lie along 
the ground, the habit changes and it acquires a free 
pictorial character. These two large-growing Cistuses 
are admirable for wild planting in sunny wood edges. 
The illustrations (pp. i8 and 19) show their use, not only 
in their own ground, but by the sides of the grassy 
ways and the regions where the wood paths leave the 
lawn. 

The sheltered, sunny Cistus clearing has an under- 
growth of wild heaths that are native to the ground, 
but a very few other Heaths' are added, namely, Enca 
ciliata and the Cornish Heath ; and there is a fine 
patch at the joining of two of the little grassy paths 
of the white form of the Irish Heath {Menziesia, or 
Daboecia polijolia). 



22 COLOUR SCHEMES 

A project is in contemplation for a further extension 
of tile clearing for the making of a heath garden, that 
promises to provide many happy hours of v\ ork in the 
coming winter. 




WHITE IRISH HEATH ^ 



CHAPTER III 

THE SPRING GARDEN 

As my garden falls naturally into various portions, 
distinct enough from each other to allow of separate 
treatment, I have found it well to devote one space at 
a time, sometimes mainly, sometimes entirely, to the 
flowers of one season of the year; 

There is therefore one portion that is a complete 
little garden of spring flowers. It begins to show some 
bloom by the end of March, but its proper season is 
the month of April and three weeks of May. 

In many places the spring garden has to give way 
to the summer garden, a plan that greatly restricts 
the choice of plants, and necessarily excludes some of 
the finest flowers of the early year. 

My spring garden hes at the end and back of a high 
wall that shelters the big summer flower border from 
the north and north-west winds. The line of the wall 
is continued as a Yew hedge that in time will rise to 
nearly the same height, about eleven feet. At the far 
end the Yew hedge returns to the left so as to fence 
in the spring flowers from the east and to hide some 
sheds. The space also encloses some beds of Tree 
Peonies and a plot of grass, roughly circular in shape, 
about eight yards across, which is nearly surrounded 

23 



24 COLOUR SCHEMES 

by Oaks, Hollies and Cob-nuts. The plan shows its 
disposition. It is of no design ; the space was accepted 
with its own conditions, arranged in the simplest way 
as to paths, and treated very carefully for colour. It 
really makes as pretty a picture of spring flowers as 
one could wish to see. 

The chief mass of colour is in the main border. The 
circles marked V and M are strong plants of Veratrum 
and Mjnrrhis. Gardens of spring flowers generally have 
a thin, poor effect for want of plants of important 
foliage. The greater number of them look what they 
are — temporary makeshifts. It seemed important 
that in this little space, which is given almost entirely 
to spring flowers, this weakness should not be allowed. 
But herbaceous plants of rather large growth with fine 
foliage in April and May are not many. The best I 
could think of are Veratrum nigrum, Myrrhis odorata 
and the newer Euphorbia Wulfenii. The Myrrhis is 
the Sweet Cicely of old EngUsh gardens. It is an um- 
belliferous plant with large fern-like foliage, that makes 
early growth and flowers in the beginning of May. At 
three years old a well-grown plant is a yard high and 
across. After that, if the plants are not replaced by 
young ones, they grow too large, though they can be 
kept in check by a careful removal of the outer leaves 
and by cutting out some whole crowns when the plant 
is making its first growth. The Veratrum, with its 
large, deeply plaited, undivided leaves, is in striking 
contrast, but the two kinds of plants, in groups as the 
plan shows, with running patches of the large form of 
Megasea cordifolia, the great Euphorbia Wulfenii and 







1 



# • 
« * 



TREE PEONIES 









TREE PEONIES 






RED PRIMROSES 



■pi 



'C-. 



mfik^/fi!m^!<^im 



X« 30 4<f ^et 

PLAN OF THE SPRING GARDEN 



26 COLOUR SCHEMES 

some groups of Black Hellebore, just give that com- 
fortable impression of permanence and distinct inten- 
tion that are usually so lamentably absent from gardens 
of spring flowers. 

Many years ago I came to the conclusion that in all 
flower borders it is better to plant in long rather than 
block-shaped patches. It not only has a more pictorial 
effect, but a thin long planting does not leave an 
unsightly empty space when the flowers are done and 
the leaves have perhaps died down. The word " drift " 
conveniently describes the shape I have in mind, and 
I commonly use it in speaking of these' long-shaped 
plantings. 

Such drifts are shown faintly in the plan, reduced in 
nxmiber and simphfied in form, but serving to show 
the general manner of planting. There are of course 
many plants that look best in a distinct clvimp or even 
as single examples, such as Dictamnus (the Burning 
Bush), and the beautiful pale yellow Pceonia witt- 
manniana, a single plant of which is marked W near 
the beginning of the main border. 

For the first seven or eight yards, in the front and 
middle spaces, there are plants of tender colouring — 
pale Primroses, Tiarella, pale yellow Daffodils, pale 
yellow early Iris, pale lemon Wallflower, double Arabis, 
white Anemones and the palest of the hlac Aubrietias ; 
also a beautiful pale lilac Iris, one of the Capame 
hybrids ; with long drifts of white and pale yellow 
Tulips — ^nothing deeper in colour than the graceful 
Tulipa reiroflexa. At the back of the border the colours 
are darker ; purple Wallflower and the great dull red- 










vma^ 






THE SPRING GARDEN 27 

purple double Tulip so absurdly called Bleu Celeste. 
These run through and among and behind the first 
clump of Veratrums. 

In the middle of the length of the border there is 
still a good proportion of tender and light colouring in 
front : white Primroses and Daffodils ; the pale yellow 
Uvularia and Adonis vernalis ; but with these there are 
stronger colours: Tulip Chrysolora of fuller yellow, 
yellow Wallflowers, the tall Doronicum, and, towards 
the* back, several patches of yellow Crown Imperial. 

Then again in front, with more double Arabis, is the 
lovely pale blue of Myosotis dissitiflora and Mertensia 
virginica, and, with sheets of the foam-like Tiarella, 
the tender pink of Dicentra eximia and pink and rose- 
red Tulips. At the back of this come scarlet Tulips, 
the stately cream-white form of Camassia Leichtlini 
and a bold tuft of Solomon's Seal ; then Orange Tulips, 
brown Wallflowers, Orange Crown Imperial, and taller 
scarlet Tulips of the gesneriana class. The strong 
colouring is repeated beyond the cross-path where the 
patches of Acanthus are shown, with more orange 
Tulips, brown Wallflowers, orange Crown Imperial and 
great flaming scarlet gesneriana Tulips. All this shows 
up finely against the background of dark yew. At 
the extreme end, where the yew hedge returns forward 
at a right angle, this point is accentuated by a raised 
mound of triangular shape, dry-walled and slightly 
curved forward on the side facing the border and the 
spectator. On this at the back is a young plant of 
Yucca gloriosa for display in future years and a front 
planting of the large growing Euphorbia Wulfenii, one 



28 COLOUR SCHEMES 

of the grandest and most pictorial of plants of recent 
acquirement for garden use. 

The Acanthus and Yucca are of course plants of 
middle and late summer ; between them are some 
Tritomas. These plants are here because one of the 
most often used of the garden thoroughfares passes 
the point C, which is a thick-roofed arch of Rose and 
Clematis, and, seen from this point and framed by the 
near greenery, they form a striking picture of middle- 
distant form and colour in the later summer. 

The space marked Further Rock is an upward- 
sloping bank, the Hollies standing on rather higher 
ground. Here the plants are between, and tumbling 
over, rocky ridges. Next the large Holly, and ex- 
tending to the middle of the rocky promontory, are 
again the strong reds and browns, with accompanying 
bronze-red foliage of Heuchera Richardsoni. This gives 
place to dark green carpeting masses of Iberis with 
cold-white bloom, and, nearer the path, Lithospermum 
prostratum ; the flower-colour here changing, through 
white, to blue and bluish ; Myosotis in front telling 
charmingly against the dark-leaved Lithospermum. 
At the highest points, next to a great crowning bowlder, 
is the Common Blue Iris and a paler one of the beautiful 
Caparne series. Then down to the path where it begins 
to turn is a drift of the bluish-lilac Phlox divaricata, 
and, opposite the cross-path, some jewels of the newer 
pale yellow Alyssum sulphureum. This rocky shoulder 
is also enlivened by a natural-looking but very carefully 
considered planting of white Tulips that run through 
both the blue and the red regions. 



THE SPRING GARDEN 29 

The corner marked Near Rock is also a slightly 
raised bank. The dark dots are cob-nuts ; the dotted 
line between is where there are garlands of Clematis 
montana that swing on ropes between the nuts. The 
garlands dip down and nearly meet the flowers of some 
pale pink Tree Peonies. Open spaces above the gar- 
lands and under the meeting branches of the nuts give 
glimpses of distant points where some little scheme 
has been devised to please the eye, such as the bit of 
bank to the left of Seat A, where there are two little 
fish-hke drifts of palest Aubrietia in a dense grey 
setting of Cerastium. 

The point of the Near Rock next the path agrees 
with the colouring opposite, but also has features of 
its own ; a groundwork of grey Antennaria, the soft 
lUac-pink of the good Aubrietia Moorheimi changing 
to the left to the fuller pink of Phlox amcena, and above 
to the type colour of Aubrietia and some of the strong 
purples such as the variety Dr. Mules. To the left, 
towards the oaks, the colouring is mostly purple, with 
stout tufts of the Spring Bitter Vetch {Orobus vernus), 
purple Wallflowers, and, under and behind the nuts, 
purple Honesty. Thin streains of white Tulips inter- 
mingle with other streams of pink Tulips that crown 
the angle and flow down again to the main path between 
ridges of double Arabis, white Iberis, and cloudy masses 
of the pretty pale yellow Corydalis ochroleuca, which 
spreads into a wide carpet under the Tree Peonies and 
Clematis garlands. 

Further along, just clear of the nuts, are some patches 
of Dielytra spectabilis, its graceful growth arching out 



30 COLOUR SCHEMES 

over the lower stature of pink Tulips and harmonising 
charmingly with the pinkish-green foliage of the Tree 
Peonies just behind. The pink Tulips are here in some 
quantity ; they run boldly into pools of pale blue 
Myosotis, with more Iberis where the picture demands 
the strongest, deepest green, and more Corydalis where 
the softer, greyer tones will make it better. 

The space marked Shade, always in shade from 
the nuts and oaks, is planted with rather large patches 
of the handsome white-flowered Dentaria, the graceful 
North American Uvularia grandiflora, in habit like a 
small Solomon's Seal, but with yellow flowers much 
larger in proportion ; with Myrrhis and purple Honesty 
at the back and sheets of Sweet Woodruff to the front. 

There are Tree Peonies in the long border and the 
two others. It is difficult to grow them in my hot, 
dry, sandy soil, even though I make them a liberal 
provision of just such a compost as I think they will 
like. I have noticed that they do best when closely 
overshadowed by some other growing thing. In the 
two near beds there are some Mme. Alfred Carriere Roses 
that are trained to arch over to the angles, so as to com- 
fort and encourage the Peonies. These beds have an 
informal edging of Stachys lanata, one of the most useful 
of plants for grey effects. Through it come white 
Tulips in irregular patches. 

The long border has also Tree Peonies planted about 
two and a half feet from the edge. Partly to give the 
bed a sort of backbone, and partly to shelter the Tree 
Peonies, it has some bushes of Veronica Traversi and 
one or two Leycesteria formosa. In the middle of the 










o 









THE SPRING GARDEN 31 

length is a clump of Lilium giganteum and a biggish 
grouping of Dielytra spectahilis. All along the outer 
border there are patches and long straggling groups of 
the -pretty dwarf Irises of the pumila, olbiensis and 
chamcB-iris sections, with others of the same class of 
stature and habit. Any bare spaces are filled with 
Wallflowers and Honesty" in colours that accord with 
the general arrangement. The narrow border has 
mostly small shrubs, Berberis and so on, forming one 
mass with the hedge to the left, which consists of a 
double dry wall about four feet high, with earth between 
and a thick growth on the top of Berberis, Rosa lucida 
and Scotch Briers. Except the Berberis these make no 
show of flower within the blooming time of the spring 
garden, but the whole is excellent as a background. 

Red primroses are in the narrow border next to the 
cross-wall ; the wall here is much lower than the longer 
one on the right. The Primroses are grouped with 
the reddish-leaved Heuchera Richardsoni, the two 
together making a rich colour-harmony. Beyond them 
are scarlet Tulips. The small shaded rounds in this 
border and its continuation across the path into the 
near end of the main border are stout larch posts 
supporting a strong growth of Rose Mme. Alfred 
Carriere and Clematis montana. These have grown 
together into a solid continuously intermingling mass, 
the path at C passing under a low arch of their united 
branches. The high wall on the right is also covered 
with flowering things of the early year, Morella Cherries, 
Rubus deliciosus and Clematis montana, some of this 
foaming over from the other side of the wall. 



32 COLOUR SCHEMES 

The wall is a part, about a third of the length, of the 
high wall that protects the large border of summer and 
autumn flowers from the north, and that forms the 
dividing-line between the pleasure garden proper and 
the working garden beyond. 

On the plan are letters with arrows referring to the 
illustrations. The letter is at the spot where the 
camera stood ; the arrow points to the middle of the 
picture. Thus the one taken from D shows two- 
thirds of the longest path with the end of the big wall 
and the Yew hedge that prolongs its line on the right 
and the Nut-trees on the left. The colouring on the 
right is of pale purple Aubrietia and double white 
Arabis, with pale Daffodils, and, at the back, groups 
of siolphur Crown Imperial. 

The more distant colouring is of brown Wallflower 
and red Tulip and the bright mahogany-coloured Crown 
Imperial. The picture from E is done from among 
the reds and strong yellows and looks to point C, and 
further, through the arch of Rose and Clematis, to the 
summer garden beyond. The other illustrations show 
groups of colouring more in detail. The one from 
F looks at Near Rock from one side. Over the 
grey Stachys and its milk-white Tulips is seen the 
flowery mass of pale and deep lilac, and pinkish lilac 
with grey foliage, crowned with pink and white Tulips 
near the foot of the Nuts. The picture from G 
looks at the bit of bank called Further Rock with 
its big piece of sandstone that looks as if it came 
naturally out of the ground. Here is a mass of dead- 
white Iberis with Tulips of a softer white, then the 




THE PRIMROSE CAKDl^X. 



THE SPRING GARDEN 33 

lilac-white of Phlox stellaria and the bluish lilac of 
Phlox divaricata. The picture from H was done a 
few days later. It shows the further mass of Phlox 
divaricata more fully in bloom, and among the white 
Tulips above, a pretty pale lilac-blue hybrid Iris and 
some taller stems of the common Blue Flag Iris just 
coming into blossom. This picture shows the value 
of the dark Yew hedge as a backgroimd to the flowers. 
Just at the back of the flowery bank are Hollies, and 
then the hedge. This has not yet come to its full 
height and the top still shows a ragged outline, but in 
two years' time it will have grown into shape. 

The Primrose garden is in a separate place among 
Oaks and Hazels. It is for my special strain of large 
yellow and white bunch Primroses, now arrived at a 
state of fine quality and development by a system of 
careful seed-selection that has been carried on for more 
than thirty years. 



CHAPTER IV 

BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER 

When the Spring flowers are done, and before the full 

June days come with the great Flag Irises and the 

perennial Lupines, there is a kind of mid-season. If 

it can be given a space of ground it will be well bestowed. 

I have a place that I call the Hidden Garden, because 

it is in a corner that might so easily be overlooked if 

one did not know where to find it. No. important 

path leads into it, though two pass within ten yards 

of it on either side. It is in a sort of clearing among 

Ilex and Holly, and the three small ways into it are 

devious and scarcely noticeable from the outside. 

The most important of these, marked i on the plan, 

passes between some climips of over-arching Bamboo 

and through a short curved tunnel of Yew and Ilex. 

Another, marked 2, is only just traceable among 

Berberis under a large Birch, and comes sharply 

round a tall Monterey Cypress. The third turns out 

of one of the shady woodland glades and comes into 

the little garden by some rough stone steps. 

The plan shows the simple arrangement, the paths 
following the most natural lines that the place suggests. 
The main path goes down some shallow, rough stone 
steps with a sunny bank to the left and a rocky mound 

34 




STEl'S TO THE HI DDES G JUDEX AT 3 OX ELAX. 




PHLOX DII'ARICATA AND ARENARIA MONTANA. 



BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER 35 

to the right. The mound is crowned with small 
shrubs, Alpine Rhododendrons and Andromeda. Both 
this and the left-hand bank have a few courses of 
rough dry-walling next the path on its lowest level. 
A Uttle cross-path curves into the main one from the 
right. 

The path leaves the garden again by a repetition of 
the rough stone steps. The mossy growth of Arenaria 
halearica clings closely to the stones on their cooler 
faces, and the frond-Uke growths of Solomon's Seal 
hang out on either side as a fitting prelude to the dim 
mysteries of the wide green wood path beyond. 

It is a garden for the last days of May and the 
first fortnight of June. 

Passing through the Yew tunnel, the little place 
bursts on the sight with good effect. What is most 
striking is the beauty of the blue-lilac Phlox divaricata 
and that of two clumps of Tree Peony — the rosy 
Baronne d'Al^ and the pale salmon-pink Comtesse 
de Tuder. The little garden, with its quiet environ- 
ment of dark foliage, forbids the use of strong colouring, 
or perhaps one should say that it suggested a restriction 
of the scheme of colouring to the tenderer tones. 
There seemed to be no place here for the gorgeous 
Oriental Poppies, although they too are finest in partial 
shade, or for any strong yellows, their character 
needing wider spaces and clearer sunhght. 

The Tree Peonies are in two groups of the two 
kinds only ; it seemed enough for the limited space. 
In front of Comtesse de Tuder is a group of Funkia 
Sieboldi, its bluish leaves harmonising delightfully 



36 COLOUR SCHEMES 

with the leaf-colour of the Peonies ; next to them is 
a comer of glistening deep green Asarum. No other 
flowers of any size are near, but there are sheets of 
the tender yellow bloom and pale foliage of Corydalis 
ochroleuca, of the white-bloomed Woodruff, and the 
pale green leafage of Epimedium ; and among them 
tufts of Lent Hellebores, also in fresh young leaf, and 
a backing of the feathery fronds of Lady Fern and of 
the large Solomon's Seal ; with drooping garlands of 
Clematis montana hanging informally from some rough 
branching posts. Yew-trees are at the back, and 
then Beeches in tender young leaf. 

The foot of the near mound is a pink cloud of London 
Pride. Shooting up among it and just beyond is 
the white St. Bruno's Lily. * More of this lovely httle 
Uly-like Anthericum is again a few feet further along, 
grouped with 7m Cengialti, one of the bluest of the 
Irises. The back of the mound has some of the 
tenderly tinted Caparne hybrid Irises two feet high, 
of pale lilac colouring, rising from among dark-leaved, 
white-bloomed Iberis, and next the path a pretty, large- 
flowered Tufted Pansy that nearly matches the Iris. 

But the glory of the mound is the long stretch of 
blue-lilac Phlox divaricata, whose colour is again 
repeated by a little of the same on the simny bank 
to the left. Here it is grouped with pale pink Scotch 
Brier, more pale yellow Corydalis and Arenaria montana 
smothered in its masses of white bloom. At the end of 
the bank the colour of the Phlox divaricata is deepened 
by sheaves of Camassia esculenta that spear up through 
it. The whole back of this bank has a free planting 



Fold out 



-^J"- 



.\''-' 




^ 



■^ 



fe; 
ft; 

•a :? 

w 

1-1 

in 

O 

Si 



BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER 37 

of graceful pale-coloured Columbines with long spurs, 
garden kinds that come easily from seed and that were 
originally derived from some North American species. 
They are pale yellow and warm white ; some have the 
outer portion of the flower of a faint purple, much like 
that of some of the patches in an old, much-washed, 
cotton patchwork quilt. 

The dark trees on the right have rambling Roses 
growing into them — Paul's Carmine Pillar and the 
Himalayan R. Brunonis. The red Rose does not 
flower so freely here as on a pillar in sunlight, but its 
fewer stems clamber high into the Holly, and the bloom 
shows in thin natural wreaths that are even more 
pleasing to an artist's eye than the more ordered 
abundance of the flowery post. At the foot of the 
Hollies hardy Ferns grow luxuriantly in the constant 
shade. A little later a few clumps of Lilies will spring 
up from among them ; the lovely pink rubellum, the 
fine yellow szovitzianum, and the buff testaceum. 

On the left-hand side, behind the sunny bank, a 
Garland Rose comes through and tumbles out of a Yew, 
and some sprays of an old bush of the single R. poly- 
antha, that has spread to a circumference of one hundred 
and fifty feet, have pushed their way through the Ilex. 

The Hollies and Ilexes all round are growing fast, 
and before many years are over the httle garden will 
become too shady for the well-being of the flowers tnat 
now occupy it. It will then change its character 
and become a Fern garden. 

All gardening involves constant change. It is even 
more so in woodland. A young bit of wood such as 



38 COLOUR SCHEMES 

mine is for ever changing. Happily, each new de- 
velopment reveals new beauty of aspect or new 
possibility of good treatment, such as, rightly appre- 
hended and then guided, tends to a better state than ' 
before. 

Meanwhile the httle tree-embowered garden has a 
quiet charm of its own. It seems to delight in its 
character of a Hidden Garden, and in the pleasant 
surprise that its sudden discovery provokes. For 
between it and its owner there is always a pretty little 
play of pretending that there is no garden there, 
and of being much surprised and delighted at finding, 
not only that there is one, but quite a pretty one. 

The Hidden Garden is so small in extent, and its 
boundaries are already so well grown, that there is no 
room for many of the beautiful things of the time of 
year. For May is the time for the blooming of the 
most important of our well-known flowering shrubs — 
Lilac, Guelder Rose, White Broom, Laburniun, and 
Pyrus Malus flonbunda. But one shrub, as beautiful 
as any of these and as easily grown, seems to be for- 
gotten. This is Exochorda grandiflora — related to the 
Spiraeas. Its pearl-Uke buds have earned it the name 
of Pearl Bush, but its whole lovely bloom should before 
now have secured it a place in every good garden. 

Every one knows the Guelder Rose, with its round 
white flower-balls, but the wild shrub of which this 
is a garden variety is also a valuable ornamental bush 
and should not be neglected. It is a native plant, 
growing in damp places, such as the hedges of water- 
meadows and the sides of streams. The English name 




IRISES AXD Lri'IXi:s l.\ THE Jl'XE CARDEX. 



BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER 39 

is Water Elder. Its merit as a garden shrub does not 
lie, as in the Guelder Rose, in its bloom, but in its 
singularly beautiful fruit. This, in autumn, lights 
up the whole shrub with a ruddy radiance. Grown 
on drier ground than that of its natural habitat, it 
takes a closer, more compact form. 

White Broom is in flower from the middle of May 
to the second week of June. There is a fine Flag Iris 
of a rich purple colour called " Purple King." It is 
well to grow it just in front of some yoimg bushes of 
White Broom. Then, if one of the hybrid Irises of 
pale lilac colour is there as well, and a bush of Rosa 
altaica, the colour-effect will be surprisingly beautiful. 
This Rose is the bolder-growing, Asiatic equivalent 
of our Burnet Rose [R. sfinosissima) , with the same 
lemon-white flowers. When any such group contain- 
ing White Broom is planted, it should be remembered 
that the tendency of the Broom is to grow tall and 
leggy. It bears pruning, but it is a good plan to 
plant some extra ones behind the others. After a 
couple of years, if the front plants have grown out of 
bounds, the back ones can be bent down and fastened 
to sticks, so that their heads come in the required 
places. It is one of the many ways in which a pretty 
garden picture may be maintained from year to year 
by the exercise of a little thought and ingenuity. The 
undergrowth of such a group may be of Solomon's 
Seal at the back, and, if the bank or border is in sun, 
of a lower groundwork of Iberis and Corydalis ochro- 
leuca, or, if it is shaded, of Tiarella, Woodruff or 
Anemone sylvestris. With these, for the sake of their 



46 COLOUR SCHEMES 

tender green foliage, there may well be Uvularia 
grandiflora and Epimediimt pinnafum. There is now 
a dwarf form of the White Broom, a plant not only 
less in height but of a more close and compact shape, 
that is useful for grouping in front of the older, 
taller one as well as for use in places where the original 
plant is too large. 

A wonderful plant of May is the great Euphorbia 
Widfenii. It adapts itself to many ways of use, for, 
though the inmiense yellow-green heads of bloom are 
at their best in May, they are stiU of pictorial value in 
June and July, while the deep-toned, grey-blue foUage 
is in full beauty throughout the greater part of the 
year. It is valuable in boldly arranged flower borders, 
and holds its own among shrubs of moderate size, but 
I always think its best use would be in the boldest 
kind of rock-work. 

One of my desires that can never be fulfilled is to 
have a rocky hill-side in fuU sun, so steep as to be 
almost precipitous, with walls of bare rock only broken 
by ledges that can be planted. I would have great 
groups of Yucca standing up against the sky and 
others in the rock-face, and some bushes of this great 
Euphorbia and only a few other plants, all of rather 
large grey effect ; Phlomis, Lavender, Rosemary and 
Cistus, with Oihonna hanging down in long sheets 
over the bare face of the warm rock. It would be a 
rock-garden on an immense scale, planted as Nature 
plants, with not many different things at a time. 
The restriction to a few kinds of plants would give 
the impression of spontaneous growth ; of that large, 



BETWEEN SPRING AND SUMMER 41 

free, natural effect that is so rarely achieved in arti- 
ficial planting. Besides natural hill-sides, there must 
be old quarries within or near the pleasure-grounds 
of many places in our islands where such a scheme of 
planting could worthily be carried out. 



CHAPTER V 

THE JUNE GARDEN 

Beyond the lawn and a belt of Spanish Chestnut I 
have a little cottage that is known as the Hut. I 
lived in it for two years while my house was building, 
and may possibly live in. it again for the sake of re- 
plenishing an over-drained exchequer, if the ideal 
well-to-do invalid flower-lover or some such very quiet 
summer tenant, to whom alone I could consent to 
surrender my dear home for a few weeks, should be 
presented by a kind Providence: Meanwhile it -is 
always in good use for various purposes, such as seed- 
drjdng, pot-pourri preparing, and the like. 

The garden in front and at the back is mainly a 
June garden. It has Peonies, Irises, Lupines, and 
others of the best flowers of the season, and a few for 
later blooming. The entrance to the Hut is through 
Yews that arch overhead. Close to the right is a taU 
Holly with a Clematis montana growing into it and 
tumbling out at the top. The space of garden to the 
left, being of too deep a shape to be easily got at from 
the path on the one side and the stone paving on the 
other, has a kind of dividing backbone made of a 
double row of Rose hoops or low arches, rising from 
good greenery of Male Fern and the fem-hke Sweet 

42 




PART 01- THE GARLAXD ROSli AT THE 
HUT GARDEX. 



AXGLE lH- the 



Th£ JtJNfi GARDEN 4^ 

Cicely. This handsome plant [Myrrhis odorata) is of 
great use in many ways. It will grow anywhere, 
and has the unusual merit of making a good show of 
foliage quite early in the year. It takes two years 
to get to a good size, sending its large, fleshy, aromatic 
roots deep down into the soil. By the end of May, 
when the bloom is over and the leaves are full grown, 
they can be cut right down, when the plant will at 
once form a new set of leaves that remain fresh for the 
rest of the siunmer. Its chief use is as a good fohage 
accompaniment or background to flowers, and no plant 
is better for filHng up at the bases of shrubs that look 
a little leggy near the ground, or for any furnishing 
of waste or empty spaces, especially in shade. From 
among the Ferns and Myrrhis at the back of this bit 
of eastern border rise white Foxgloves, the great white 
Columbine, and the tall st ems of white Peach-leaved 
Campanula. Nearer to the front are clumps of 
Peonies. But, as one of the most frequented paths 
passes along this eastern border, it was thought best 
not to confine it to June flowers only, but to have 
something also for the later months. All vacant 
places are therefore filled with Pentstemons and Snap- 
dragons, which make a show throughout the summer ; 
while for the early days of July there are clmnps of the 
old garden Roses — Damask and Provence. The whole 
south-western angle is occupied by a well-grown 
Garland Rose that every summer is loaded with its 
graceful wreaths of bloom. It has never been trained 
or staked, but grows as a natural fountain ; the 
branches are neither pruned nor' shortened. The only 



44 COLOUR SCHEMES 

attention it receives is that every three or four years 
the internal mass of old dead wood is cut right out, 
when the bush seems to spring into new Ufe. 

Passing this angle and going along the path leading 
to the studio door in the little stone-paved court, 
there is a seat under an arbour formed by the Yews ; 
the front of it has a Dundee Rambler Rose supported 
by a rough wooden framework. On the right, next 
the paving, are two large standard Roses with heads 
three and four feet through. They are old garden 
Roses, worked in cottage fashion on a common Dog- 
rose stock. One is Celeste, of loveliest tender rose 
colour, its broad bluish leaves showing its near relation- 
ship to Rosa alba ; the other the white Mme. Plantier. 
This old Rose, with its abundant bimches of pure 
white flowers, always seems to me to be one of the 
most charming of the older garden kinds. It will 
grow in almost any way, and is delightful in all ; as a 
pillar, as a hedge, as a bush, as a big cottage standard, 
or in the border tumbling about among early summer 
flowers. Like the Blush GalUca, which just precedes 
it in time of blooming, it is one of the old picture Roses. 
Both should be in quantity in every garden, and yet 
they are but rarely to be seen. 

The border next the paving has climips of the old 
garden Peonies (P. officinalis). By the time these 
are over, towards the end of June, groups of the 
earlier orange Herring Lilies are in bloom. A thick and 
rather high Box edging neatly trims these borders, 
and favours tlie cottage-garden sentiment that is 
fostered in this region. At the back of the Yews that 



%•«. /*»> 




ROSr. IlirSH GALLICA PLAXTEU ox the THI' (IF 
DRY U'ALLISG. 



THE JUNE GARDEN 45 

form the arbour is one end of the Hidden Garden. 
Going along the path, past the projection on the block- 
plan of the Hut, which represents the large ingle of the 
studio, we come to the other bit of June garden behind 
the little cottage. Here again, the space being over- 
wide, it is divided in the middle by a double border of 
Rosemary that is kept clipped and is not allowed to 
rise high enough to prevent • access to the border on 
each side. 

On the side next the Hut the flowers are mostly of 
lilac and purple colouring with white. Pale lilac Irises, 
including the fine I. Pallida dalmatica and the rosy- 
lilac Vciriety, Queen of the May; perennial Lupines,, 
white, bluish hlac and purple — one of a conspicuous 
and rare deep red-purple of extreme richness without 
the slightest taint of a rank quality— a colour I can 
only call a strong wine-purple ; then a clump of the 
feathery, ivory-white Spircea Aruncus, the large 
Meadowsweet that is so fine by the side of alpine 
torrents. There are also some flesh-pink Albiflora 
Peonies and lower growths of Catmint, and of the 
grand blue-purple Cranesbill, Geranium ibericum platy- 
phyllum, with white and pale yellow Spanish Irises 
in generous tufts springing up between. At the blunt 
angle nearly opposite the dovecote is a pink cloud of 
London Pride ; beyond it pale yellow Violas with more 
white Spanish Iris, leading to a happy combination of 
the blue Iris Cengialti and the bushy Aster Olearia 
Gunni, smothered in its white starry bloom. An early 
flowering Flag Iris, named Chamaeleon, nearly matches 
the colour of /. Cengialti ; it is the bluest that I know 



46 COLOUR SCHEMES 

of the Flag Irises, and is planted between and around 
the Olearias to form part of the colour-picture. 

Beyond this group, and only separated from it by 
some pale yellow Irises, are two plants of the Dropmore 
Anchusa Opal, marked A on the plan, of pure pale 
blue, and another clump of Spircea Aruncus, marked 
S, and one of a good pure white Lupine, with some 
tall clear yellow Irises and white Foxgloves. Now 
the colouring changes, passing through a group or 
two of the rich half-tones of Irises of the squalens 
section to the perennial Poppies ; P. rupifragum 
nearest the path and, next to it, P. pilosum : both of 
a rich apricot colour. Backing these is a group of 
the larger hybrid that nearly always occurs in gardens 
where there are both P. rUpi/ragum and P. orientale. 
In appearance it is a small orientale with a strong look 
of rupifragum about the foliage. As a garden plant 
it has the advantages of being of £in intermediate size 
and of having a long season of bloom, a quality no 
doubt inherited from rupifragum, which will flower 
more or less throughout the summer if the seed-pods 
are removed. A plant of Oriental Poppy of the tone 
of orange-scarlet that I know as red-lead colour, 
and some deep orange Lilies complete this strongly 
coloured group. 

In the north-western clump, where there are some 
Thorn-trees and two Thuyas, the dominant feature 
is the great bush of an old garden rambling Rose that 
looks as if its parentage was somewhere between 
sempervirens and arvensis. 1 can neither remember 
how I came by it nor match it with any nursery kind, 



aOcrtitn. of £a/>iu %ulSs ; '^tlio Sciits 



tv 



Oak 



I 













•;:;^« 






h$^ 






■iv^.^-K^cf^'*"^^ 


















i-ctr -m.u~ rf: 






&ife^^ 






1 

I 



V 



'M^ (^f^^-- 



BACK 




BACK 




— T-~ 
SO 



—r~ 

30 



40 



T— I — r— 1 — r 



« I a 

o 



10 



so 7eet 



IRIS AND LUPINE BORDERS. 



THE JUNE GARDEN 47 

It stands nearly opposite the Hut kitchen window, 
and when in full bloom actually sheds Ught into the 
room. I know it as the Kitchen Rose. The diameter 
of the bush is even greater than the plan shows, for 
it overwhelms the nearest Thuya and rushes through 
the Thorn, and many of its shoots are within hand- 
reach of the back path. The rest of this clump is 
occupied by plants of tall habit — the great Mullein 
{Verbascum orientale), the Giant Cow-Parsnip (Hera- 
cleum Mantegazzianum), and white Foxgloves. 

The plan shows how the border of early bulbs, 
described in a former chapter (now a mass of hardy 
Ferns, as shown at p. 7), lies in relation to this part 
of the garden. There is also a grand mass of Oriental 
Poppy and Orange Lilies in half-shade on the other 
side of the path, where it turns and is bordered with 
Berberis. This makes a fine distant effect of strong 
colour looking north-west from the southern end of 
the bulb-border. 

I greatly wish I could have some other June borders 
for the still better use of the Flag Irises, but not only 
have I quite as much dressed ground as I can afford 
to keep up, but the only space where such borders 
could be made has to be nursery-ground of plants for 
sale. But though I am denied this pleasure myself, 
I should hke to suggest it to others, and therefore give 
plans of two borders of different colourings. There 
would be no great harm if they came opposite each 
other, though perhaps, as colour schemes, they would 
be rather better seen singly and quite detached from 
each other. 



48 COLOUR SCHEMES 

It must be remembered, as in all cases of planting 
flower borders, that they cannot be expected to show 
their full beauty the year after planting. Irises will 
give a few blooms the first season, but are not in 
strength till their second and third years. China 
Roses must have time to grow. Tree Lupines must be 
planted young, and though they make rapid growth, 
they also do not fill their spaces till the third year. 
Lupine Somerset is a desirable hybrid, not quite 
a true Tree Lupine, though it has a half -woody growth. 
Its best colour is a clear, Uvely light yellow, but it 
readily varies from seed to whitish or washy purplish 
tints. As the seedlings often show bloom the first 
season in the seed-bed, the colours "should be noted 
and marked, for some of the light purples are pretty 
things, with more refinement of character than the 
same colourings in. the old Tree Lupines. Both the 
tree and hybrid kinds may have their Uves much 
prolonged — for if they are not specially treated they 
are short-lived things — by judicious priming. After 
flowering, each branch should be cut well back. It 
is not enough to cut away the flowers, but every branch 
should be shortened about two-thirds as soon as the 
bloom is over and the seed-pods begin to form. 

The plans show the two schemes of colouring. The 
upper is of white, hlac, purple and pink, with grey 
fohage ; the lower of white, yellow, bronze-yellow 
and, for the most part, rich green fohage. They 
will show mainly as Iris and Lupine borders, and 
are intended to display the beauty of these two 
grand plants of early summer. The kinds of Iris are 




WHITE TRUE Ldl'INE. 



THE JUNE GARDEN 49 

carefully considered for their height, time of blooming 
and colour value. In the yellow border is one patch 
of clear, pale pure blue, the Dropmore Anchusa Opal, 
grouped with pale yellows and white. 

In the purple border are some important front-edge 
patches of the beautiful Catmint {Nepeia Mussini), a 
plant that can hardly be over- pr aised . The illustra- 
tion shows it in a part of a border-front that is to be 
for August. For a good three weeks in June it makes 
this border a pretty place, although the Catmint is 
its only flower. But with the white-grey woolly 
patches of Stachys and the half-grown bushes of 
Gypsophila, and the Lavender and other plants of 
greyish foliage, the picture is by no means incomplete. 
Its flowery masses, seen against the warm yellow of 
the sandy path, give the impression of remarkably 
strong and yet delightfully soft colouring. The colour 
itself is a midway purple, between light and dark, of 
just the most pleasing quality. As soon as the best 
of the bloom is done it is carefully cut over ; then the 
lateral shoots just below the main flower-spike that 
h£LS been taken out will gain strength and bloom again 
at the border's best show-time in August. In another 
double flower border that is mostly for the September- 
blooming Michaelmas Daisies the Catmint is cut back 
a little later. 

One of the joys of June is the beauty of the Scotch 
Briars. On the south side of the house there are Figs 
and Vines, Rosemary and China Roses, and then a 
path, from which easy stone steps lead up to the strip of 



50 COLOUR SCHEMES 

lawn some fifty feet wide that skirts the wood. To 
right and left of the steps, for a length equal to that 
of the house-front, is a hedge of these charming little 
Roses. They are mostly double white, but some are 
rosy and some yellow. When it is not in flower the 
mass of small foliage is pleasant to see, and even in 
'winter leaflessness the tangle of close-locked branches 
has an appearance of warm brown comfort that makes 
it good to have near a house. 

Jime is also the time of some of the best of the 
climbing plants and slightly tender shrubs that we 
have against walls and treat as climbers, such as 
Solanum crispum and Abutilon vitifolivm and the 
hardy Clematis montana ; but some notes on these 
will be offered in a further chapter. 

One is always watching and trying for good com- 
binations of colour that occur or that may be composed. 
Besides such as are shown in the plans, the following 
have been noted for June : 

In rock-work the tiny China Rose Pompon de Paris, 
also the tender pink Fairy Rose, with pale lilac Tufted 
Pansy and Achillea umhellata. 

The pretty pale pink dwarf Rose Mignonette, with 
the lilac of Catmint {Nepeta Mussini) and the grey- 
white foliage of Stachys and Cineraria mariiima. 

In a cool, retired place in a shrubbery margin, 
away from other flowers, the misty red-grey-purple 
of Thalictrum aquilegifolium purpureum with the warm 
white foam-colour of Spircea Aruncus. 

On bold rock-work, a mass of a fine-coloured strain 
of Valerian {Centranthus) with a deep scarlet-(?rimsoa 




'-/J 



o 



THE JUNE GARDEN 51 

Snapdragon. This is a success of reciprocally enhancing 
texture as well as colour ; the texture having that 
satisfying quality that one recognises in the relation 
of the cut and uncut portions of the fine old Italian 
cut-velvets. 

In April Campernelle Jonquil with Myosotis dis- 
siii flora. 

In May the true Pulmonaria azurea with the white 
form of Scilla italica. 

In a shrubbery edge, or some cool, half shady place, 
the purple form of Thalictrum aquilegifolium with 
white Foxgloves, and in the same kind of place Cam- 
panula macrantha alba and the fine purple Cam- 
panula macrocarpa with Male Fern or Lady Fern. 

In an open, sunny place Eryngium giganteum with 
Sea-kale. 

In a section of flower border given to purple flowers 
Salvia Sclarea with S. virgata, and purple-leaved Sage 
at the foot. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE MAIN HARDY FLOWER BORDER 

The big flower border is about two hundred feet long 
and fourteen feet wide. It is sheltered from the north 
by a solid sandstone wall about eleven feet high clothed 
for the most part with evergreen shrubs — Bay and 
Laurustinus, Choisya, Cistus and Loquat. These show 
as a handsome background to the flowering plants. 
They are in a three-foot-wide border at the foot of the 
wall ; theii there is a narrow alley, not seen from the 
front, but convenient for access to the 'ftrall shrubs and 
for working the back of the border. 

As it is impossible to^k eep any one flower border 
fully dressed for the whole summer, and as it suits me 
that it should be at its best in the late summer, there 
is no attempt to have it full of flowers as early as June. 
Another region belongs to June ; so that at that time 
the big border has only some inci dents of good bloom, 
though the ground is rapidly covering with the strong 
patches, most of them from three to five years old, of 
the later-blooming perennials. But early in the month 
there are some clumps of the beautiful Iris Pallida 
dalmatica in the regions of grey foliage, and of the 
splendid blue-purple bloom of Geranium ibericum 
platyphyllum, the best of the large Cranesbills, and the 

52 




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THE HARDY FLOWER BORDER 53 

'|low-growing Dictamnus Fraxinella (the white variety), 
and Meadowsweet s white and pink, Foxgloves and 
Canterbury Bells, and to the front some long-established 
sheets of Iberis sempervirens that have grown right 
on to the path. The large Yuccas, Y, glonosa and 
Y. recurva, are throwing up their massive spikes, though 
it will be July before they actually flower, and the 
blooms on some bushes of the great Euphorbia Wulfenii, 
although they were flowers of May and their almost 
yellow colour is turning greener, are still conspicuous 
and ornamental. Then the plants in the middle of 
the wall, Choisya ternata and Clematis montana are still 
full of white bloom, and theGuelder Rose is hanging 
out its great white balls. I like to plant the Guelder 
Rose and Clematis montana together. Nothing does 
better on north or east walls, and it is pleasant to see 
the way the Clematis flings its graceful garlands over 
and through the stiff branches of the Viburnum. 

The more brilliant patches of colour in the big border 
in June are of Oriental Poppies intergrouped with 
Gypsophila, which will cover their space when they 
have died down, and the earlier forms of Lilium croceum 
of that dark orange colour that almost approaches 
scarlet. 

During the first week of June any bare spaces of the 
border are filled up with half-hardy annuals, and some 
of what we are accustomed to call bedding-plants — such 
as Geranium, Salvia, Calceolaria, Begonia, Gazania and 
Verbena. The half-hardy annuals are African Mari- 
gold, deep orange and pale sulphur, pure white single 
Petunia, tall Ageratvmi, tall striped Maize, white 



54 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Cosmos, sulphur Sunflower, Phlox Drummondi, Nas- 
turtiums, and Trachelium cceruleum. Dahlias were 
planted out in May, and earlier still the Hollyhocks, 
quite young plants that are to bloom in August and 
September ; the autumn-planted ones flowering earlier. 
The ground was well cleared of weeds before these were 
planted, and, soon after, the whole border had a good 
mulch of a mixture of half-rotted leaves and old hot- 
bed stuff. This serves the double purpose of keeping 
the soil cool and of affording gradual nutriment when 
water is given. 

The planting of the border is designed to show a 
distinct scheme of colour arrangement. At the two 
ends there is a groundwork of grey and glaucous foliage 
— Stachys, SantoKna, Cineraria maritima. Sea-kale 
and Lyme -grass, with darker foliage, also of grey 
quality, of Yucca, Clematis recta and Rue. With this, 
at the near or western end, there are flowers of pure 
blue, grfey-blue, white, palest yellow and palest pink ; 
each colour partly in distinct masses and partly inter- 
grouped. The colouring then passes through stronger 
yellows to orange and red. By the time the middle 
space of the border is reached the colour is strong and 
gorgeous, but, as it is in good harmonies, it is never 
garish. Then the colour strength recedes in an inverse 
sequence through orange and deep yellow to pale yellow, 
white and palest pink; again with blue-grey foliage. 
But at this, tbe eastern end, instead of the pure blues 
we have purples and hlacs. 

Looked at from a little way forward, for a wdde space 



THE HARDY FLOWER BORDER 55 

of grass allows this point of view, the whole border 
can be seen as one picture, the cool colouring at the 
ends enhancing the briUiant warmth of the middle. 
Then, passing along the wide path next the border, the 
value of the colour arrangement is still more strongly 
felt. Each portion now becomes a picture in itself, 
and every one is of such a colouring that it best prepares 
the eye, in accordance with natural law, for what is to 
foUow. Standing tor a few moments before the end- 
most region of grey and blue, and saturating the eye 
to its utmost capacity with these colours, it passes 
with extraordinary avidity to the succeeding yellows. 
These intermingle in a pleasant harmony with the reds 
and scarlets, blood-reds and clarets, and then lead 
again to yellows. Now the eye has again become satu- 
rated, this time with the rich colouring, and has there- 
fore, by the law of complementary colour, acquired 
a strong appetite for the greys and purples. These 
therefore assume an appearance of brilliancy that they 
would not have had without the preparation provided 
by their recently received complementary colour. 

There are well-known scientific toys illustrating this 
law. A short word, printed in large red letters, is 
looked at for half a minute. The eyes are shut and 
an image of the same word appears, but the letter^g 
is green. Many such experiments may be made in 
the open garden. The brilliant orange African Mari- 
gold has leaves of a rather dull green colour. But look 
steadily at the flowers for thirty seconds in sunshine 
and then look at the leaves. The leaves appear to be 
bright blue ! 



$6 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Even when a flower border is devoted to a special 
season, as mine is given to the time from mid- July to 
October, it cannot be kept fully furnished without 
resorting to various contrivances. One of these is the 
planting of certain things that will follow in, season of 
bloom and that can be trained to t£ike each other's 
places. Thus, each plant of Gypsophila paniculata 
when full grown covers a space a good four feet wide. 
On each side of it, within reasonable distance of the 
root, I plant Oriental Poppies. These make their leaf 
and flower growth in early summer when the G5rpso- 
phila is still in a young state. The Poppies will have 
died down by the time the Gypsophila is full grown 
and has covered them. After this has bloomed the 
seed-pods turn brown, and though a little • of this 
colouring is not harmful in the autumn border, yet it 
is not wanted in such large patches. We therefore 
grow at its foot, or within easy reach, some of the 
trailing Nasturtiums, and lead them up so that they 
cover the greater part of the brown seed-spray. 

Delphiniums, which are indispensable for July, leave 
bare stems with quickly yellowing leafage when the 
flowers are over. We plant behind them the white 
Everlasting Pea, and again behind that. Clematis 
Jackmanii. When the Delphiniums are over, the 
rapidly forming seed-pods are removed, the stems are 
cut down to just the right height, and the white Peas 
are trained over them. When the Peas go out of bloom 
in the middle of August, the Clematis is brought over. 
It takes some years for these two plants to become 
established ; in the case of those I am describing the 



















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THE HARDY FLOWER BORDER 57 

Pea has been four or five years planted and the Clematis 
seven. They cannot be hurried ; indeed, in my garden 
it is difficult to get the Clematis to grow at all. But 
good gard ening means patience and dogged deter- 
mination. There must be many failures and losses, 
but by always pushing on there will also be the reward 
of success. Those who do not know are apt to think 
that hardy flower gardening of the best kind is easy. 
It is not easy at all. It has taken me half a hfetime 
merely to find out what is best worth doing, and a 
good slice out of another half to puzzle out the ways 
of doing it. 

In addition to these three plants that I grow over 
one another I am now adding a fourth — the September- 
blooming Clematis Flammula. It must not be supposed 
that they are just lumped one over another so that the 
under ones have their leafy growths smothered. They 
are always being watched, and, bit by bit, the earlier 
growths are removed as soon as their respective plants 
are better without them. 

Then there is the way of pulling down tall plants 
whose natural growth is upright. At the back of the 
yellow part of the border are some plants of a form of 
Helianthus orgyalis, trained down, as described later 
at p. 72. But other plants can be treated in the same 
way ; the tall Rudbeckia Golden Glow, and Dahlias 
and Michaelmas Daisies. The tall Snapdragons can 
also be pulled down and made to cover a surprising 
space of bare ground with flowering side-shoots. 

•As it is still impossible to prevent the occurrence of 
a blank here and there, or as the scene, viewed as a 



58 COLOUR SCHEMES 

picture, may want some special accentuation or 
colouring, there is the way of keeping a reserve of 
plants in pots and dropping them in where they may 
be wanted. The thing that matters is that, in its 
season, the border shall be kept full and beautiful; 
by what means does not matter in the least. For this 
sort of work some of the most useful plants are Hy- 
drangeas, Lilium longiflorum, candidum and auratum, 
and Campanula ■pyramidalis, both white and blue, and, 
for foliage, Funkia grandiflora, F. Sieboldi and hardy 
Ferns. 

An important matter is that of staking and support- 
ing. The rule, as I venture to lay it down, is that 
sticks and stakes must never show. They must be so 
arranged that they give the needful support, while 
allowing the plant its natural freedom ; but they must 
remain invisible. The only time when they are tolerated 
is for the week or two when they have been put in for 
Dahlias, when the plants have not yet grown up to 
cover them. 

Michaelmas Daisies we stake with great care in June, 
putting in some stiff branching spray of oak or chest- 
nut among the growths and under their fronts. At the 
end of June we also nip the tops of some of the forward 
growths of the plants so as to vary the outline. 

There are two borders of Michaelmas Daisies, one 
for the earlier sorts that flower in September and the 
other for the October kinds. They are in places that 
need not often be visited except in the blooming season, 
therefore we allow the supporting spray to be seen 
while the plants are growing. But early in August 




GOOD STAKIXa- -C.IMI'JXri.J ri-:RSlCI l-'OLIA. 



THE HARDY FLOWER BORDER 59 

in the case of the September border, and early in 
September in the case of the one for October, we go 
round and regulate the plants, settling them among 
the sticks in their definite positions. When this is 
done every atom of projecting spray is cut away with 
the sScateur. 

I hold that nothing u nsightly sho uld be seen in the 
garden . The shed for sticks and stakes is a lean-to at 
one end of the bam, showing to the garden. The roof 
had to be made at a very low pitch, and there was no 
roofing material suitable but galvanised iron. But a 
depth of four inches of peaty earth was put over the 
iron, and now it is a garden of Stonecrops and other 
plants that flourish in shallow soil in a hot exposure. 

To prevent undue disappointment, those who wish 
for beautifiol flower borders and whose enthusiasm is 
greater than their knowledge, should be reminded that 
if a border is to be planted for pictorial effect, it is ' 
impossible to maintain that effect and to have the 
space well filled for any period longer than three 
months, and that even for such a time there will h a.ve 
to b e contrivances s uch as have been described. 

It should also be borne in mind that a good hardy 
flo wer border cannot be made all at once. M any of 
the most indispensable perenniEds take two, three or 
even more years to come to their strength and beauty. 
The best way is to plant the border by a definite plan, 
allowing due space for the development of each plant. 
Then, for the first year or two, a greater number of 
half-hardy annuals and biennials than will eventually 
be needed should be used to fill the spaces that have 



6o COLOUR SCHEMES 

not yet been taken up by the permanent plants. 
The best of these are Pentstemons and Snapdragons, 
the Snapdragons grown both as annuals and biennials, 
for so_ an extended season of bloom is secured. Then 
there should be African and French Marigolds, the 
smaller annual Sunflowers, Zinnias, Plume Celosias, 
China Asters, Stocks, Foxgloves, Mulleins, Ageratum, 
Phlox Drummondi and Indian Pinks ; also hardy 
annuals — Lupines of several kinds. Chrysanthemum 
coronarium, the fine pink Mallows, Love-in-a-Mist, 
Nasturtiums or any others that are liked. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE FLOWER BORDER IN JULY 

Towards the end of July the large flower border begins 
to show its scheme. Until then, although it has been 
well filled with growing plants, there has been no 
attempt to show its whole intention. But now this 
is becoming apparent. The two ends, as already 
described, are of grey foliage, with, at the near end, 
flowers of pale blue, white and lightest yellow. The 
tall spikes of pale blue Delphinium are over, and now 
there are the graceful grey-blue flowers of Campanula 
lacti flora that stand just in front of the great Larkspurs. 
At the back is a white Everlasting Pea, four years 
planted and now growing tall and strong. The over- 
blown flowers of the Delphinium have been removed, 
but their stems have been left just the right height for 
supporting the growth of the white Pea, which is now 
trained over them and comes forward to meet the 
pale blue-white Campanula. In front of this there is 
a drift of Rue, giving a beautiful effect of dim grey 
colour and softened shadow ; it is crowned by its 
spreading corymbs of pale yellow bloom that all rise 
nearly to a level. Again in front is the grand glaucous 
fohage of Sea-kale. A little further along, and towards 
the back, is a bush of Golden Privet, taking up and 

61 



6z COLOUR SCHEMES 

continuing the pale yellow of the Rue blossom, and 
forming a kind of groundwork to a group of the fine 
Mullein Verbascum phlomoides now fully out. Just 
below this is a clump of the Double Meadowsweet, 
a mass of warm white flower-foam. Intergrouped are 
tall Snapdragons, white and palest yellow. Then 
forward are the pale blue-green sword-blades of Iris 
Pallida dalmatica that flowered in June. This is one 
of the few Irises admitted to the border, but it is here 
because it has the quality, rare among its kind, of 
maintaining its great leaves in beauty to near the 
end of the year. Quite to the front are lower-growing 
plants of purest blue — ^the Cape Daisy (Agaihea 
ccelestis) and blue Lobelia. 

Now we pass to a rather large group of Eryngium 
oliverianum, the fine kind that is commonly but 
wrongly called E. amethystinum. It is a deep-rooting 
perennial that takes three to four years to become 
strongly established. In front of this are some pale 
and darker blue Spiderworts {Tradescantia virginica), 
showing best in cloudy weather. At the back is 
Thalictrum flavum, whose bloom is a little overpast, 
though it still shows some of its foamy-feathery pale 
yellow. Next we come to stronger yellows, with a 
middle mass of a good home-grown form of Coreopsis 
lanceolata. This is fronted by a stretch of Helenium 
pumilum. Behind the Coreopsis are Achillea Eupa- 
torium and yellow Cannas. 

Now the colour strengthens with the Scarlet Balm 
or Bergamot, intergrouped with Senecio artemisia- 
folius, a plant little known but excellent in the flower 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN JULY 63 

border. A few belated Orange Lilies have their colour 
nearly repeated by the Gazanias next to the path. 
The strong colour is now carried on by Lychnis chalce- 
donica, scarlet Salvia, Lychnis haageana (a fine plant 
that is much neglected), and some of the dwarf Tropae- 
olums of brightest scarlet. After this we gradually 
return to the grey-blues, whites and pale yellows, 
with another large patch of Eryngium oliverianum, 
white Everlasting Pea, Calceolaria, and the splendid 
leaf-mass of a wide and high plant of Euphorbia 
Wul/enii, which, with the accompanjdng Yuccas, rises 
to a height far above my head. Passing between a 
clump of Yuccas on either side is the cross-walk 
leading by an arched gateway through the wall. The 
border beyond this is a shorter length, and has a whole 
ground of grey foliage — Stachys, Santolina, Elymus, 
Cineraria maritima, and Sea-kale. Then another 
group of Rue, with grey-blue fohage and pale yellow 
bloom, shows near the extreme end against the full 
green of the young summer foliage of the Yew arbour 
that comes at the end of the border. Again at this 
end is the tall Campanula lactiflora. In the nearer 
middle a large mass of purple Clematis is trained 
over stiff, branching spray, and is beginning to show 
its splendid colour, while behind, and looking their 
best in the subdued light of the cloudy morning on 
which these notes are written, are some plants of 
Verbascum phlomoides, ten feet high, showing a great 
cloud of pure pale yellow. They owe their vigour 
to being self-sown seedlings, never transplanted. 
Instead of having merely .a blooming spike, as is the 



64 COLOUR SCHEMES 

usual way of those that are planted, these have abun- 
dant side branches. They dislike bright sunshine, 
only expanding fully in shade or when the day is 
cloudy and inclined to be rainy. Close to them, rising 
to the wall's whole eleven feet of height, is a Cistus 
cyprius, bearing a quantity of large white bloom with 
a deep red sp0t at the base of each petal. 

Though there is as yet but little bloom in this end 
of the border, the picture is complete and satisfying. 
Each one of the few flower-groups tells to the utmost, 
while the intervening masses of leafage are in them- 
selves beautiful and have the effect of being relatively 
well disposed. There is also such rich promise of 
flower beauty to come that the mind is filled with glad 
anticipation, besides feeling content for the time being 
with what it has before it. There is one item of 
colouring that strikes the trained eye as specially 
delightful. It is a bushy mass of Clematis recta, now 
out of bloom. It occurs between the overhanging 
purple Clematis and the nearer groups of Cineraria 
maritima and Santolina. The leaves are much deeper 
in tone than these and have a leaden sort of blueness, 
but the colouring, both of the parts in light and even 
more of the mysterious shadows, is in the highest 
degree satisfactory and makes me long for the appre- 
ciative presence of those few friends who are artists 
both on canvas and in their gardens, and most of all 
for that of one who is now dead* but to whom I 
owe, with deepest thankfulness, a precious memory of 
forty years of helpful and sjmipathetic guidance and 
* The late H. B. Brabazon. 







0^ 



o 



b4 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN JULY 65 

encouragement in the observation and study of colour 
beauty. 

One cannot write of the garden in July without a 
word on the Roses. Besides the bushy garden Roses, 
and the kinds of special charm, such as Damask, 
Provence, Moss and China, those that most nearly 
concern the garden for beauty and pictorial effect 
are the rambling and chmbing Roses that flower in 
clusters. 

In " Roses for English Gardens " I dealt at some 
length with the many ways of using them ; here I 
must only touch upon one or two of these ways. But 
I wish to remind my readers of the great value of 
these free Roses for running up through such trees as 
Yews or Hollies in regions where garden joins hands 
with woodland, and also of their great usefulness for 
forming lines of arch and garland as an enclosure to 
some definite space. I have them like this forming 
the boundary on two sides of a garden of long beds, 
whose other two sides are a seven-foot wall and the 
back of a stable and loft. Just beyond the arch in 
the picture (p. 64), and dividing the little garden in 
two, is the short piece of double border that is devoted 
to August. 

The other long beds in this region are for special 
combinations, some of them of July flowers ; e.g., 
Orange Lilies with the beautiful Clematis recta, a plant 
but little known, though it is easy to grow and is one 
of the best of summer flowers. One bed is for blue 
colouring with grey foliage. Here is the lovely 



66 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Delphinium Belladonna, with flowers of a blue purer 
than that of any other of its beautiful kind. It never 
grows tall, nor has it the strong, robust aspect of 
the larger ones, but what it lacks in vigour is more 
than made up for by the charming refinement of the 
whole plant. In the same bed are the other pure blues 
of the rare double Siberian Larkspur, and the single 
allied kind Delphinium grandiflorum, of Salvia patens 
and of the Cape Daisy (Agathea coslestis). Between the 
clumps of Belladonna are bushes of white Lavender, 
and the whole is carpeted and edged with the white 
foliage of Artemisia stelleriana, the quite hardy plant 
that is such a good substitute for the tenderer 
Cineraria maritima. 

Among the best flowers of July that have a place 
in this garden are the Pentsteraons planted last year. 
We grow them afresh from cuttings every autumn, 
planting them out in April. They are not quite hardy, 
and a bad winter may destroy all the last year's plants. 
But if these can be saved they bloom in July, whereas 
those planted in the spring of the year do not flower 
till later. So we protect the older plants with fir- 
boughs and generally succeed in saving them. Old 
plants of Snapdragon are also now in flower. They 
too are a little tender -in the open, although they 
are safe in dry-walling with the roots out of the way 
of frost and the crowns kept dry among the stones. 

Much use is made of a dwarf kind of Lavender that 
is also among the best of the July flowers The whole 
size of the plant is about cne-third that of the ordinary 
kind ; the flowers are darker in colour and the time 




CAXTERBCRY BELLS. 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN JULY 61 

of blooming a good month earlier. It has a different 
use in gardening, as the flowers, being more crowded 
and of a deeper tint, make a distinct colour effect. 
Besides its border use, it is a plant for dry banks, tops 
of rock-work and dry-waUing. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 

By the second week of August the large flower border 
is coming to its best. The western grey end, with its 
main planting of hoary and glaucous foliage — Yucca, 
Sea-kale, Cineraria maritima, Rue, El57mus, Santohna, 
Stachys, &c. — now has Yucca flaccida in flower. 
This neat, small Yucca, one of the varieties or near 
relatives of filamentosa, is a grand plant for late summer. 
A well-established clump throws up a quantity of 
flower-spikes of that highly ornamental character 
that makes the best of these fine plants so valuable. 
White Everlasting Pea, planted about three feet 
from the back, is trained on stout pea-sticks over the 
space occupied earlier by the Delphiniums and the 
Spiraeas. A little of it runs into a bush of Golden 
Privet. This Golden Privet is one of the few shrubs 
that have a place in the flower border. Its clean, 
cheerful, bright yellow gives a note of just the right 
colour all through the summer. It has also a solidity, 
of aspect that enhances by contrast the graceful lines 
of the foliage of a clump of the great Japanese striped 
grass Eulalia, which stands within a few feet of it, 
seven feet high, shooting upright, but with the ends 
of the leaves recurved. 

68 




ROSE THi: CARLAXD IX A SIL^'ER HOLEY 



I-^ J«31I **" ^ 




i:R\'XGirM OLn'i;KiAxrM. 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 69 

Snapdragons, tall white and tall yellow, spire up 
five feet high, following the earlier Foxgloves. At 
the back is the pretty pink Dahlia Asia with sulphur 
and pale pink Hollyhocks. A little further along, 
and staked out so as to take the place of the clumps 
of Verbascum Chaixii that were so fine at the end of 
June, is Dahlia Mrs. Hawkins — palest yellow with a 
slight pink flush. Forward is a group of a Pentstemon 
of palest pink colouring named Spitzberg, that 1 had 
from Messrs. Barr's nursery, then a patch or two 
of palest blue Spiderwort, and, quite to the front; 
in any spaces there may be among the grey foliage, 
Lobelia " Cobalt Blue," the taller Lobelia tenuior, and 
the pretty Uttle blue-flowered Cape Daisy, Agathea 
ccelestis. 

The whole border is backed by a stone wall eleven 
feet high, now fully clothed with shrubs and plants 
that take their place in the colour scheme, either for 
tint of bloom or mass of foliage. Thus the red-leaved 
Claret Vine shows as background to the rich red region, 
and Robinia hispida stands where its pink clusters 
will tell rightly ; Choisya and Cistus cyprius where 
their dark foliage and white bloom will be of 'value ; 
the greyish foliage and abundant pale lilac blossom 
of Abutilon vitifolium in the grey and purple region, 
and the pale green foliage of the deciduous Magnolia 
conspicua showing as a backgroimd to the tender blue 
of a charming pale Delphiniiun. 

The shrubs and plants on the wall are not all there 
because they are things rare and precious or absolutely 
needing the shelter of the wall, though some of them 



70 COLOUR SCHEMES 

axe glad of it ; but because they give a background 
that ei ther harmonises in detail with what is in front 
or will help to enrich or give general c ohesion to thp. 
picture. The front of the border has some important 
foliage giving" a distinctly blue effect ; prominent 
among it Sea-kale. The flower-stems are cut hard 
back in the earlier summer, and it is now in hand- 
some fresh leaf. Further back is the fine blue foliage 
of Lyme-grass {Elymus arenarius), a plant of our 
sea-shores, but of much value for blue effects in the 
garden. 

Now is the time to begin to use our reserve of plants 
in pots. Of these the most useful are the Hydrangeas. 
They are dropped into any vacant spaces ore or 
less in groups, in the two ends of the border where 
there is grey foliage, their pale pink colouring agreeing 
with these places. Their own leafage is a rather bright 
green, but we get them so well bloomed that but few 
leaves are seen, and we arrange as cleverly as we can 
that the rest shall be more or less hidden by the sur- 
rounding bluish foliage. I stand a few paces off, 
directing the formation of the gfoups ; considering 
their shape in relation to the border as a whole. I say 
to the gardener that I want a Hydrangea in such a 
place, and tell him to find the nearest place where 
it can be dropped in. Sometimes this dropping in, 
for the pots have to be partly sunk, comes in the way 
of some established plant. If it is a deep-rooted 
perennial that takes three or four years to come to 
its strength, like an Eryngium or a Dictamnus, of 
course I avoid encroaching on its root-room. But if 







LYME-ORASS AXD i^AXTOLIXA. 




TALL CAMPANULAS I'YRAMIVALJS AXD LACTIfLORA 
IX A GREY BORDER. 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 71 

it is a thing that blooms the season after it is planted, 
and of which I have plenty in reserve, such as an 
Anthemis, a Tradescantia, or a Helenium, I sacrifice 
a portion of the plant-group, knowing that it can 
easily be replaced. But then by August many of the 
plants have spread widely above and there is space 
below. Liliwm longiflorum in pots is used in the 
same way, and for the most part in this blue end of 
the border, though there are also some at the further, 
purple end, and just a flash of their white beauty in 
the middle region of strong reds. 

In order to use both blue and purple in the flower 
border, this cool, western, grey-fohaged end has the 
blues, and the further, eastern end the purples. For 
although I like to use colour as a general rule in har- 
monies rather than contrasts, I prefer to avoid, except in 
occasional details, a mixture of blue and purple. At 
this end, therefore, there are flowers of pure blue 
— Delphinium, Anchusa, Salvia, Blue Cape Daisy and 
Lobelia, and it is only when the main mass of blue, of 
Delphiniums and Anchusas, is over that even the 
presence of the pale grey-blue of Campanula lactiflora 
is made welcome. Near the front is another pale 
grey-blue, that of Clematis davidiana, just showing a 
few blooms, but not yet fully out. 

Now, giving a pleasant rest and refreshment to the 
eye after the blues and greys, is a well-shaped drift 
of the pale sulphur African Marigold. It was meant 
to be the dwarf variety, but, as it grows two and a half 
feet high, it has been pulled down as it grew. Some 
of it has been brought down some way over the edge 



72 COLOUR SCHEMES 

of the path, where it breaks the general front line 
pleasantly and shows off its good soft colouring. We 
grow only this pale colour and a good form of the 
splendid orange. The intermediate one, the full 
yellow African Marigold, has, to my eye, a raw quaUty 
that I am glad to avoid, and I have other plants that 
give the strong yellow colour better. Now at the 
back are some plants of the single Hollyhock, Hibiscus 
fici/olius, white and pale yellow, recalling, as we merge 
into the stronger yellows, the colouring of the region 
just left. They are partly intergrouped with that 
excellent plant Rudbeckia Golden Glow, brilliant, 
long-lasting, and capable of varied kinds of useful 
treatment. 

Now we come to a group of the perennial Sunflowers ; 
a good form of the double Helianthus multiflorus in 
front, and behind it the large single kind of the same 
plant. By the side of these is a rather large group of 
a garden form of H. orgyalis. This is one of the 
perennial Simflowers that are usually considered not 
good enough for careful gardening. It grows very 
tall, and bears a smallish bimch of yellow flowers at 
the top. If this were all it could do, it would not be 
in my flower border. But in front of it grows a patch 
of the fine Tansy-like Achillea Eupatorium, and in 
front of this again a wide-spreading group of Eryngium 
oliverianum — beautiful all through July. When the 
bloom of these is done the tall Smiflower is trained 
down over them — this pulling down, as in the case of 
so many plants, causing it to throw up flower-stalks 
from the axils of every pair of leaves ; so that in 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 73 

September the whole thing is a sheet of bloom. Thus 
the plant that was hardly worth a place in the border 
becomes, at its flowering time, one of the brightest 
ornaments of the garden. Other plants that are in front 
of the Sunflower, that have also passed out of bloom, 
are the Scarlet Bee-balm (Monarda) and the very 
useful alpine Groundsel (Senecio artemisicBfolius). 

Next we have an important group of a large-leaved 
Canna, the handsomest foliage in the border ; good 
to see when the sun is behind and the light comes 
through the leaves. Here also, at the back, is a patch 
of Hollyhocks — one very dark, almost a claret-red, 
and a fine, full red inclining to blood-colour. They 
tower up together, and close to them are Dahlias, the 
rich red Lady Ardilaun, deep scarlet Cochineal, bright 
scarlet Fire King, and its variety Orange Fire King, 
now the most brilliant piece of colouring in the garden. 
These lead on to a gorgeous company — Phlox Coque- 
hcot, scarlet Pentstemon, orange African Marigold, 
scarlet Gladiolus, and, to the front, a brilliant dwarf 
scarlet Salvia ; Helenium pumilum and scarlet and 
orange dwarf Nasturtium. Here and there within 
this mass of bright colouring there is a patch of the 
fine deep yellow Coreopsis lanceolata, a plant of long- 
enduring bloom, or rather of long succession, for, if 
the dead flowers are removed, it will look bright for 
a good three months. 

As this gorgeous mass occupies a large space in 
the flower border, I have thought well to subdue it 
here and there with the cloudy masses of Gypsophila 
paniculata Five-year-old plants of this form masses 



74 COLOUR SCHEMES 

of the pretty mist-like blooxn four feet across and as 
much high. This bold introduction of grey among 
the colour masses has considerable pictorial value. 
As the grey changes, towards the end of the 
month, to a brownish tone, some of the tall Nas- 
turtiums are allowed to grow over the bushes of 
Gypsophila. 

Now we have got beyond the middle of the length 
of the border, and the colour changes again to the 
clear and pale yellows, and then again to the grey 
foliage as at the beginning. Where this occurs, at a 
little more than two-thirds of the way along the border, 
it is crossed by the path, leading, through an archway 
in the wall closed by a door, to the garden beyond. 
This cross-path is flanked by groups of Yuccas, slightly 
raised, as will be seen in some of the illustrations. {See 
pp. 53, 112.) Yuccas all like a raised mound and some 
good loam to grow in. I have them here as well as 
at the two extreme ends of the border. No plants 
make a handsomer full-stop to any definite garden 
scheme. The grey treatment comprises the two 
Yucca mounds to right and left of the cross-path « 
the other grey plants are as before — Cineraria mari- 
tima, Santolina, Stachys, Elymus and Rue — but at 
this end, besides some plants with white, pink and 
palest yellow colouring, the other flowers are not blues, 
but purples, light and dark. Among these a very 
useful thing is Ageratum ; not the dwarf Ageratum, 
though this is good too in its place, but the ordinary 
Ageratum mexicanum, a _plant that grows about two 
feet high. This is also the place for some of the earliest 




Q 



kt 




/"■ < 



c; - 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 75 

Michaelmas Daisies that will bloom in September, 
such as Aster acris and A. Shortii. At the back there 
are Dahlias, white and pale yellow, with white and 
sulphur Hollyhocks, and, in the middle spaces, pale 
pink Gladiolus, double Saponaria officinalis, and pale 
pink Pentstemon. At the back, also, there is a clump 
of Globe Thistle {Echinops) and a grand growth of 
Clematis Jackmanii, following in season of bloom, 
and partly led over, a white Everlasting Pea, that 
in the earlier summer was trained to conceal the 
dying stems of the red-orange Lilies that bloomed in 
June. 

There is also a short length of double border specially 
devoted to August, of the same character, though not 
so fully developed, as what will be described in a 
further chapter as the Grey Garden. Here, the space 
being small, it heis'been given specially to the more 
restricted season. The scheme of colouring has a 
ground of grey foUage, with flowers of pink, white, 
and hght and dark purple. 

Next the path is the silvery white of Stachys, 
Cineraria maritima and Artemisia stelleriana, with 
the grey foliage and faint purple of the second bloom 
of Catmint. Then bushy masses of Lavender and 
Gypsophila, and between them Liliwm longiflorum, 
Godetia Double Rose and white Snapdragons. Behind 
and among these are groups of the clear white Achillea 
The Pearl, and the round purple heads of Globe-thistle. 
Here and there, pushing to the front, is a Silver Thistle 
{Eryngium giganteum). At the back shoot up Pink 



^G COLOUR SCHEMES 

Hollyhocks, the kind being one of home growth known 
as Pink Beauty. The deep green of a Fig-tree that 
covers the upper part of the landing and outside stone 
steps to a loft, is an excellent background to the tender 
greys of these August borders. Unfortunately, the 
main group of pink Hollyhock, that should have 
stood up straight and tall and shown well against the 
window and silvery-grey weather-boarding of the loft, 
failed altogether last season ; in fact, all the Holly- 
hocks were poor and stunted, so that an important 
part of the intended effect was lost. 

Of Lavender hedges there are several, of varying 
ages, in different parts of the garden. Lavender 
for cutting should be from plants not more than four 
to five years old, but for pictorial effect the bushes 
may be much older. When they are growing old it 
is a good plan to plant white and purple Clematises 
so that they can be trained freely through and over 
them. 

There are comparatively few shrubs that flower in 
autumn, so that it is quite a pleasant surprise to come 
upon a group of them all in bloom together. The 
picture shows the satisfactory effect of a group of 
Msculus pafviflora and Olearia Haastii. It would 
have been all the better for some plants of the beau- 
tiful blue-flowered Perowskya atriplicifolia and for 
Caryopteris mastacanthus in front, but at the time of 
planting I did not think of the Caryopteris and did not 
know the Perowskya. {See p. 77.) 

August is the month of China Asters. I find many 




'3 

a:; 







;2 
-J 



THE FLOWER BORDER IN AUGUST 77 

people are shy of these capital plants, perhaps because 
the mixtures, such as are commonly grown, contain 
rather harsh and discordant colours ; also perhaps 
because a good many of the kinds, having been pur- 
posely dwarfed in order to fit them for pot-culture 
and bedding, are too stiff to look pretty in general 
gardening. Such kinds will always have their uses, 
but what is wanted now in the best gardening is 
more freedom of habit. I have a little space that 
I give entirely to China Asters. I have often had 
the pleasure of showing it to some person who pro- 
fessed a dislike to them, and with great satisfaction 
have heard them say, with true admiration : " Oh ! 
but I had no idea that China Asters could be so 
beautiful." 

It is only a question of selection, for the kinds are 
now so many and the colourings so various that there 
are China Asters to suit all tastes and uses. My own 
liking is for those of the pure violet-purple and lavender 
colours, with whites ; and to plants with these clear, 
clfean tints my Aster garden is restricted. In other 
places I grow some of the tenderer pinks, a good blood- 
red and a clear pale yellow ; but these are kept quite 
away from the purples. The kinds chosen are within 
the Giant Comet, Ostrich Pltraie and "Victoria classes — 
all plants with long-stalked bloom and a rather free 
habit of growth. For some years I was much hindered 
from getting the colours I wanted from the inaccurate 
way in which they are described in seed-lists. Finally 
I paid a visit to the trial-grounds of one of our premier 
seed-houses, and saw all the kinds and the colourings 



78 COLOUR SCHEMES 

and made my own notes. I cannot but think that a 
correct description of the colours, instead of a fanciful 
one, would help both customer and seed-merchant. 
As it is, the customer, in order to get the desired flowers, 
has to learn a code. I have often observed, in com- 
paring French and English seed-lists, that the French 
do their best to describe colours accurately, but that 
the English use some wording which does not describe 
the colour, but appears to be intended as a compU* 
mentary euphemism. Thus, if I want a Giant Comet 
of that beautiful pale silvery lavender, perhaps the 
loveliest colour of which a China Aster is capable, I 
have to ask for " azure blue." If I want a full hlac, 
I must order " blue " ; if a full purple, it is " dark 
blue." If I want a strong, rich violet-purple, I must 
beware of asking for purple, for I shall get a terrible 
magenta such as one year spoilt the whole colour 
scheme of my Aster garden. It is not as if the right 
colour-words were wanting, for the language is rich 
in them — violet, lavender, lilac, mauve, purple : 
these, with slight additions, will serve to describe 
the whole of the colourings falsely called blue. 
The word blue should not be used at all in con- 
nection with these flowers. There are no blue China 
Asters. 

The diagram shows a simple arrangement for a 
little garden of China Asters of the purple and white 
colourings. The seed-Ust names are used in order 
to identify the sorts recommended. A Lavender 
hedge surrounds the whole ; the paths are edged with 
Stachys lanata. Taking Messrs, Sutton's list and 









vs: 









Mi 










»,;:rm^<^^.^l 



/"Z-^iV Of ^ SMALL GARDEN OF CHINA ASTERS 



8o COLOUR SCHEMES 

translating into colour-words as usually understood, 
the tints are : 

Seed list name Actual colour 

Azure-blue Tender pale lavender-lilac. 

Blue Light purple. 

Dark blue Bicli dark purple. 

I had hoped that Messrs. Sutton had in contempla- 
tion a revision of some of these puzzling colour-names, 
but have not, as yet, seen any such desirable alteration. 



CHAPTER IX 

BEDDING PLANTS 

This is a conveniently comprehensive term for the 
tender plants that are put out for th e summer. To 
these plants a small portion of my garden, well sheltered 
within enclosing walls and yet open to full sunshine, 
is devoted, so that the little place is in some kind of 
beauty from the end of July to the last days of Sep- 
tember. There has been so strong a revulsion in 
garden practice since the days when the bedding out 
of tender plants in stiff and not very intelligent ways 
absorbed the entire horticultural energy of owners of 
gardens that many people have conceived a dislike to 
the plants themselves. It is a common thing for friends 
to express surprise at seeing scarlet Geraniums, yellow 
Calceolaria and blue Lobelia in my garden, forgetting 
that it was not the fault of the plants that they were 
misused or employed in dull or even stupid ways. 
There are no better summer flowers than the single, 
and double zonal Pelargoniums that we commonly call 
Geraniums, and none so good for such uses as the filling 
of tubs and vases ; for not only do they enjoy full 
sunlight, but they benefit by the extra warmth at the 
root that they obtain by being raised in the warm air 
above the ground level. There certainly are among 

8l F 



82 COLOUR SCHEMES 

these good summer flowers, a few kinds of harsh, 
unpleasant reds and pinks, but these are easily avoided, 
and the range of good colouring, from purest scarlet, 
through softer tones, to tints of salmon and tender 
warm pink, is now so great that there is no difficulty 
in obtaining any combination or sequence that may be 
desired, such as the very simple one that is shown in 
the plan and will presently be described. 

The little garden is an odd-shaped piece of ground, 
roughly triangular. The main clump is more than 
thirty feet wide at one end, a width too great to treat 
conveniently. It has therefore been arranged with a 
kind of elevated backbone, a few feet wide, raised less 
than two feet above the level, with dry walling on each 
side to retain the earth. As it approaches the narrow 
end of the triangle it swings round symmetrically on 
each side forward to the path. All this raised part is 
treated quite differently to the rest of the garden. 
There is no attempt at brilliant colouring, but rather 
to have important masses of fine form in a quiet range 
of greyish tinting that shall serve as a suitable back- 
ground to the brighter effects. The planting is mainly 
of Yuccas of both large and small kinds and of two 
kinds of Euphorbia ; the bold and striking E. Wulfenii 
with its handsome form of leaf-mass and immense 
bloom, and the smaller E. Characias. Where the 
walls come near the path there are hanging sheets of 
the bluish grey foliage of Othonnopsis cheirifolia. As 
will be seen by the plan, the raised mass is fairly wide 
at the south-western end. Spaces next the path 
are filled with flowers of pink and purple colouring 



BEDDING PLANTS 83 

such as Heliotrope, Ivy Geranium Mme. Crousse and 
Verbena Miss Willmott, The star-shaped figures on 
the plan show the Yuccas ; the larger ones are Y. 
gloriosa and Y. recurva, and the smaller, garden 
varieties of Y. filamentosa. There is always a good 
proportion of these Yuccas in bloom during the late 
summer, so that, standing at the north-west comer, 
the stately flower spikes have a fine effect rising above 
the colour masses of the borders on the lower level. 

These are in two main connected colour schemes — 
in gradations of reds, and of whites and yellows re- 
spectively. In the red portions the front is chiefly of 
Geraniums ; Paul Crampel for the strongest red ; it is 
a little softer and more pleasing to me than Raspail, 
which we formerly used. My eye has had too much 
tender tutoring to endure the popular Henry Jacoby — 
a colour that, for all its violence, has a harsh dullness 
that I find displeasing. Next to Paul Crampel we put 
one of the softer reds such as Mrs. Bartleman, and this 
leads to the fine salmon-coloured King of Denmark, 
and then to the paler salmon pink of Mme. Lemoine, a 
plant that has the additional advantage of a beautifully 
zoned leaf. Some such arrangement is followed 
throughout those portions of the garden where red 
colouring prevails ; the plants for the back being three 
varieties of red-bloomed Cannas, one of them with well- 
coloured red foliage, and a larger growing kind with 
great leaves so much like those of a Banana that, 
having lost its original name, we know it as Canna Musa. 
This has the leaves slightly red-tinted. With these 
Cannas, arranged as shown in the plan, are thin drifts 




THE GARDEN OF SUMMER FLOWERS 



BEDDING PLANTS 85 

of Gladiolus Brenchleyensis and others of near colouring, 
among them the very fine and free Gladiolus Childsii 
William Faulkner ; also the best of the scarlet and 
orange-scarlet Dahlias, both of the larger-flowered and 
pompon kinds, scarlet Pentstemon, Alonsoa, Lobelia 
cardinalis, and, behind the Geraniums, Salvia Pride of 
Zurich. In several places among the reds comes a 
drift of a fine garden form of the native Sedum Tele- 
phium. The quiet grey-green of the plant turns to a 
subdued chocolate-red, as the large, flat flower-head is 
developed. The introduction of this undergrowth of 
quieter related colouring greatly enhances the quality 
of the livelier reds and helps to put the whole thing 
together. One break of a white Lily (L. longiflorum) 
comes with fine effect among the reds. 

The yellow and white portions pass from the palest 
of the Geraniums with a front planting of the useful, 
but in the past much misused, Golden Feather Fever- 
few, and a rather large quantity of a capital old garden 
plant, that has of late been much neglected, the 
variegated form of a native plant Mentha rotundifolia. 
The Feverfew is allowed to flower, but the variegated 
Mint has the flowering branches cut back so as to 
keep it to a more convenient height. It is one of the 
prettiest things as an underplanting to anything of 
white or yellow colour, and specially charming among 
the white Lilies {L. longiflorum) ; here and there it is 
brightened with thin drifts of the pale canary-yellow 
Calceolaria amplexicaulis. The plan shows the general 
arrangement of the other white and yellow flowers ; 
yellow-bloomed Cannas both tall and short. Snap- 



8^ COLOUR Schemes 

dragons white, lemon-white and yellow, and Primrose 
African Marigold. It needs some care to obtain the 
right colour of this Marigold. There are three distinct 
colourings of this fine half-hardy annual — the well- 
known deep orange, a middle yellow and the primrose. 
Unless the primrose or sulphur colour is insisted on 
seedsmen are apt to send the middle colour. I have 
it alwa}^ from Messrs. Barr and Sons, who send the 
right colour without fail. 

The little garden has a rather high wall to the south, 
covered with climbing plants and shrubs treated as 
wall plants. On the northern side an earth bank four 
and a half feet high, dry-walled on both sides, has the 
top planted with bushy things. At the western end a 
fruiting Barberry is thickly overgrown with the large- 
Eowered white Jasmine ; then come other shrubby 
plants, with bush and- Rambling Roses and Scotch 
Briars; the whole forming a flowery fence nearly as 
high as the opposite wall and affording comforting 
shelter. It is thickened by having a number of bushes 
of Choisya in a narrow border on the south side that 
have grown up to the height of the shrubs in the wall 
top. 




SOME 01- TUi: liARLY ASTERS. 




THI- SlWTllMBER CARDI'.S. 



CHAPTER X 

THE FLOWER BORDERS IN SEPTEMBER 

The main flower border shows in September much the 
same aspect as in August. But early in the monlh the 
middle mass of strong colouring, enhanced by Trit^nias 
and the fuller bloom of Dahlias, is at jts brightest. 
The bold masses of Canna foliage have also grown up 
and show their intended effect. They form one of 
the highest points in the border. No attempt is made 
to keep all the back-row plants standing high ; on the 
contrary, many that would be the tallest are pulled 
down to do colour work of medium height. The 
effect is much more pictorial when the plants at the 
back rise only here and there to a height of nine or ten 
feet ; moimting gradually and by no means at equal 
distances, but somewhat as the forms of greater altitude 
rise in the ridge of a moimtain range. The diagram 
shows how it comes in the case of my own border in 
September. {See p. 57.) 

Rather near the front, the bushy masses of Gypso- 
phila, which a month ago were silvery grey, have now 
turned to a brownish colour. They are partly covered 
with trailing Nasturtiums, but the portions of brown 
cloud that remain tone well v ith the rich reds that are 
near them. In the back of this region dark claret and 

87 



88 COLOUR SCHEMES 

blood-red Hollyhocks still show colour, and scarlet 
Dahlias are a mass of gorgeous bloom. Their nearest 
neighbours are tall flaming Tritomas, with, in front of 
them, one of the dwarfer Tritomas that is crowded with 
its orange-scarlet flowers of a rather softer tone. Then 
come scarlet Gladiolus, a wide group of a splendid red 
Pentstemon, and, to the front, an edging and partly 
carpeting mass of the good, short-growing form of Salvia 
splendens called Pride of Zurich. 

After these strong reds comes a drift of the briUiant 
orange African Marigold, one of the most telling 
plants of the time of year. Coming to the yeUows of 
middle strength, there are some of the perennial Sun- 
flowers, among them the one that seems to be a form of 
Helianthus orgyalis, described in the last chapter. This 
and some others are trained down to cover plants 
now out of bloom. The fine double Rudbeckia called 
Golden Glow is treated in the same way. Intergrouped 
with it is a useful pale, form of Helianthus leetiflorus 
that takes up the colour when the Rudbeckia is failing. 
In the near end region of blue-grey foliage the bloom 
of Clematis davidiana, also of a greyish blue, but of a 
colour quality that is almost exclusively its own, tones 
delightfully with its nearest neighbours of leaf and 
bloom. About here some pots of Plumbago capensis 
are dropped in ; their wide-ranging branches, instead 
of being stiffly tied, are trained over some bushy plants 
toi leaden-blue-foliaged Rue. Near this, and partly 
shooting up through some of the same setting, are the 
spikes of a beautiful Gladiolus of pale, cool pink colour, 
the much-prized gift of an American garden-loving 







ft; 



'j-i 




^ 

^ 

K 



FLOWER BORDERS IN SEPTEMBER 89 

friend. Tall white Snapdragons, five feet high, show 
finely among the gracefully recurved leaves of the blue 
Lyme-grass. Beyond is a group of Lilium auratum, 
and in the more distant front, pale sulphur African 
Marigold, just now at its best. 

The further end of the border also has grey fohage 
associated with pink Hydrangeas, white and pink 
Snapdragons, white Dahlias, purple Clematis, Lilium 
auratum and Aster acris. Yucca fiaccida is still in 
beauty. 

There is another range of double border for the 
month of September alone. It passes down through 
the middle of the kitchen garden and is approached by 
an arch of Laburnum. It is backed on each side by a 
Hornbeam hedge some five and a half feet high. This 
border is mainly for the earlier Michaelmas Daisies ; 
those that bloom in the first three weeks of the month. 
Grey foliage in plenty is to the front Running in 
between the groups is Artemisia stelleriana, the quite 
hardy plant that so well imitates Cineraria maritima ; 
there are also Stachys and White Pink. Further back 
among the flowers are drifts of the grey-blue Lyme- 
grass, some grey bushes of Phlomis and a silvery-leaved 
Willow, kept to a suitable size by careful pruning. 

The scheme of colouring consists of this groundwork 
of grey foliage, with white, lilac, purple and pale pink 
flowers ; and, breaking into this colouring in two or 
three distinct places, flowers of pale yellow and yellowish 
white with suitable accompanying leafage. There is 
also, in quite another part of the garden, a later border 



^ COLOUR SCHEMES 

of other Michaelmas Daisies that will follow this in 
time of blooming. But the September borders have a 
very different appearance because of their flowers of 
pink and yellow, colours which are absent in those of 
the later season. 

The yellow flowers are the pale sulphur African Mari- 
gold and pale yellow and whitish-yellow tall Snap- 
dragons, with bordering masses of variegated Coltsfoot, 
and the Golden Feather Feverfew allowed to bloom. 
The pink colourings are the wide-headed Sedum spec- 
tabile, pink Japan Anemone and a few pale pink Gladioli. 
The whites are Dahlias Constance and Henry Patrick, 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, the charming perenniEd Aster 
Colerette Blanche and a taller white or yellowish-white 
Aster with rough stems and harsh-feeling foliage that 
I know as A. umbellatus. Here also are white Japan 
Anemones, white Snapdragons and white China Asters 
of the large, long-stemmed, late-blooming kind that 
were formerly known as Vick's, but are now called 
Mammoth. Among the grey bordering plants are 
groups of dwarf Ageratui^, one of the best of the tender 
plants of September and quite excellent with the 
accompanying grey foliage. The grey bordering is not 
merely an edging but a general front groundwork, 
running here and there a yard deep into the border. 

Begonias a re at their best throughout the month of 
September. Beds of Begonias alone never seem to me 
quite satisfactory. Here there is no opportunity for 
growing them in beds, but I have them in a bit of narrow 
border that is backed by shrubs that is kept constantly 



rEEX(_ 



— I— 

10 



1 1 — — — -t— 

30 XlO - So 

THE SEPTEMBER BORDER OF EARLY MICHAELMAS DAISIES. 



11 



SLOWER BORDERS IN SEPTEMBER gi 

enriched. A groundwork of the large-leaved form of 
Megasea cordifolia is planted so as to surround variously 
sized groups of Begonias — groups of from five to nine 
plants. The setting of the more solid leaves gives the 
Begonias a better appearance and makes their bright 
bloom tell more vividly. They follow in this sequence 
of colouring : yellow, white, palest pink, full pink, rose, 
deep red, deep rose, salmon-rose, red-lead colour or 
orange-scarlet, scarlet, red-lead and orange. 

It is a matter of great regret that the best kind of 
Dahlias for garden effect have lost favour with nursery- 
men, so that it is now difficult, if not impossible, to 
obtain from them the most desirable kinds. These are 
a selection of those that were first called Cactus Dahlias, 
much more free in form than the old show Dahlias; 
but with the petals not attenuated and pointed as they 
are in the modern Cactus kinds . The greater ntunber of 
these, pretty though their individual blooms are on the 
show-table, are but of little use in the garden, whereas 
the old sorts, King of the Cactus, Cochineal, Lady 
Ardilaun, Fire King and Orange Fire King, are among 
the most gorgeous of our September flowers. In the 
same class are : Mrs. Hawkins, palest lemon flushed 
with pink ; William Pearse, bright yellow ; Lady M. 
Marsham, bright copper ; J. W. Standling, orange 
(the two last about four feet high) ; and the two good 
whites, Constance and Henry Patrick. Of these, all 
in my opinion indispensable kinds, only Fire King, 
as far as I am aware, survives in contemporary trade 
hsts. 



CHAPTER XI 

WOOD AND SHRUBBERY EDGES 

Opportunities for good gardening are so often over- 
looked that it may be well to draw attention to some 
of those that are most commonly neglected. 

When woodland joins garden ground there is too 
often a sudden jolt ; the wood ends with a hard line, 
sometimes with a path along it, accentuating the defect. 
When the wood is of Scotch Fir of some age there is a 
monotonous emptiness of naked trunk and bare groimd. 
In wild moorland this is characteristic and has its own 
beauty ; it may even pleasantly accompany the garden 
when there is only a view into it here and there ; but 
when the path passes along, furlong after furlong, with 
no attempt to bring the wood into harmony with the 
garden, then the monotony becomes oppressive and 
the sudden jolt is unpleasantly perceived. There is 
the well-stocked garden and there is the hollow wood 
with no cohesion between the two — no sort of effort to 
make them join hands. 

It would have been better if from the first the garden 
had not been brought quite so close to the wood, then 
the space between, anything from twenty-five to forty 
feet, might have been planted so as to bring them into 
unison. In such a case the path would go, not next 

92 




GARLAND ROSE, WHERE GARDEN J(>E\S WOOD. 



WOOD AND SHRUBBERY EDGES 93 

the trees, but along the middle of the neutral ground, 
and would be so planted as to belong equally to garden 
and wood. The trees would then take their place as 
the bounding and sheltering feature. It is better to 
plan it like this at first than to gain the space by felling 
the outer trees, because the trees at the natural wood 
edge are better furnished with side branches. Such 
ground on the shady side of the Scotch Firs would be 
•the best possible site for a Rhododendron walk, and 
for Azaleas and Kalmias, kept distinct from the Rhodo- 
dendrons. Then the Scotch Fir indicates the presence 
of a light peaty soil ; the very thing for that excellent 
but much-neglected undershrub GauUheria Shallon . 
This is one of the few things that will grow actually 
under the Firs, not perhaps in the densest part of an 
old wood, but an5rwhere about its edges, or where any 
light comes in at a clearing or along a cart- way. When 
once established it spreads with a steady abundance 
of increase, creeping underground and gradually 
clothing more and more of the floor of the wood. The 
flower and fruit have already been shown at pp. 20, 21. 

The Great Wood-rush {Luzula sylvatica) is also a 
capital plant for filling bare spaces in wood edges. It 
does not look like a Rush, but like a broad-leaved 
Grass. The flowers come in May ; loose, spreading 
clusters of brownish bloom that rise a good two feet 
above the tufts of handsome foUage. 

Rhododendrons are usually planted much too close 
together. This is a great mistake ; they should not be 
nearer than eight to ten feet, or even further, apart, 
especially in the case of ponticum and some of the 



94 COLOUR SCHEMES 

larger-growing kinds. It is a common practice to fill 
up the edges of their prepared places with a collection 
of Heaths. The soil will no doubt smt Heaths, but I 
never do it or recommend it because I feel that the 
right place for Heaths is quite open ground, and there 
are other plants that I think look better with the young 
Rhododendrons. For my own liking the best of these 
are hardy Ferns — Male Fern, Lady Fern and Dilated 
Shield Fern, with groups of Lilies : L. longiflorum and 
the lovely rosy L. rubellum towards the front, and 
L. auratum further back. Some of the Andromeda^,- 
especially Catesbcei and axillaris of the LeucothoS 
section, are capital plants for this use. Besides Lilies, 
a few other flowering plants suitable for the Rhodo- 
dendron walk are : white Foxgloves, white Columbine; 
white Epilohium angustifolium, Trillium, Epimedium 
pinnatum, Uvularia grandiflora, Dentaria diphylla and 
Gentiana asdepiadea. In the same region, and also partly 
as edgings to the Rhododendron clumps, suitable small 
bushes are Rhododendron myrtifolium, the Alpenrose 
(JR. ferruginium) and the sweet-leaved Ledum palustre. 
Later it was found that these wood-path edges 
offered such suitable places for the late-blooming Willow 
Gentian (G. asdepiadea), that it was still more largely 
planted. It delights in a cool place in shade or half- 
shade, and when in mid-September so many flowers 
are over and garden plants in general are showing 
fatigue and exhaustion, it is a pleasure to come upon 
the graceful arching sprays, their upper portions set 
with pairs of long blue flowers, looking fresh and 
bright and full of vigour. 







> 



WOOD AND SHRUBBERY EDGES 95 

When the garden comes on the sunny side of the 
wood the planting would be quite different. Here is 
the place for Cistuses ; for the bolder groups the best 
are C. laurifolius and C. cyprius, backed by plantings 
of Tamarisk, Arbutus and White Broom, with here and 
there a free-growing Rose of the wilder sort, such as 
the type folyantha and Brunonis. If the fir-boughs 
come down within reach, the wUd Clematis (C. Vitalba) 
can be led into them ; it will soon ramble up the tree, 
filUng it with its pretty foliage and abundance of August 
bloom. 

The Cistuses delight in a groundwork of Heath ; the 
wild Calluna looks as well as any, but if cultivated 
kinds are used they should be in good quantities of one 
sort at a time, and never as hard edgings, but as free 
carpeting masses. 

For the edges of other kinds of woodland the free 
Roses are always beautiful ; where a Holly comes to 
the front, a Rose such as Dundee Rambler or the Gar- 
land wiU grow up it, supported by its outer branches 
in the most delightful way. The wild Clematis is in 
place here too, also the shade-loving plants already 
named. In deciduous woodland there is probably 
some undergrowth of Hazel, or of Bramble and wild 
Honeysuckle. White Foxgloves should be planted 
at the edge and a little way back. Daffodils for the 
time when the leaves are not yet there, and Lily of the 
Valley, whose charming bloom and brilliant foliage 
come Avith the young leaves of May. 

Where the wood comes nearest the house with only 
lawn between, it is well to have a grouping of hardy 



96 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Ferns and Lilies ; where it is giving place to garden 
ground and there is a shrubby background, the smaller 
Polygonums, such as P. compactum, are in place. 

The spaces more or less wide between large shrubs 
and turf are full of opportunities for ingenious treat- 
ment ; they are just the places most often neglected, 
or at any rate not well enough considered. I have 
always taken delight in working out satisfactory vfays 
of treating them. It seems desirable to have, next the 
grass, some_fdiage^^fjraJther^dfet^^ 
size or f orm. For this use the Megaseas are invaluable, 
the one most generally useful being the large variety 
ot M. cordifolia. Funkias are also beautiful, but as 
their leaves come late and go with the first frosts or 
even earlier, whereas the Megaseas persist the whole 
year round, the latter are the most generally desir- 
able. These shrub-edge spaces occur for the most 
part in bays, giving an inducement to invent a separate 
treatment for each bay. 

The two illustrations with the front planting of 
Funkia Sieboldi are two adjoining bays ; one showing 
the charming shrubby Aster Olearia Gunni in the 
middle of June, the other some groups of Lilium longi- 
florum, planted in November of the year before, and 
in bloom in early August. 

Sometimes a single plant of Gypsophila paniculata 
will fill the whole of one of the recesses or bays between 
the larger shrubs ; Hydrangea paniculata is another 
good filling plant, and the hardy Fuchsias ; both of 
these, though really woody shrubs, being cut down 
every winter and treated as herbaceous plants, 







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WOOD AND SHRUBBERY EDGES 97 

There is a small-growing perennial Aster, A. corym- 
bosus, from a foot to eighteen inches high, that seems 
to enjoy close association with other plants and is easy 
to grow anywhere. I find it, in conjunction with 
Megasea, one of the most useful of these filling plants 
for edge spaces that just want some pretty trimming 
but are not wide enough for anything larger. The 
same group was photographed two years running. 
The first year the bloom was a little thicker below, but 
the second I thought it still better when it had partly 
rambled up into the lower branches of the Weigela 
that stood behind it. The little thin starry flower is 
white and is borne in branching heads ; the leaves are 
lance-shaped and sharply pointed ; but when the plant 
is examined in the hand its most distinct character is 
the small fine wire-like stem, smooth and nearly black, 
that branches about in an angular way of its own. 

These are only a very few examples of what may 
also be done in a number of other ways, but if they 
serve to draw attention to those generally neglected 
shrub edges, it may be to the benefit of many gardens. 
Where there is room for a good group of plants they 
should be of bold and solid habit, such as Tree Lupine, 
Peony, Acanthus, Spireea Ar uncus, the larger hardy 
Ferns, Rubus nutkanus, or plants of some such size and 
character. The low-growing Bambusa tessellata is a 
capital shrub-edge plant. 



CHAPTER XII 

GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING 

It is extremely interesting to work out gardens in 
which some special colouring predominates, and to 
those who, by natural endowment or careful eye- 
cultivation, possess or have acquired what artists 
understand by an ey6 for colour, it opens out a whole 
new range of garden delights. 

Arrangements of this kind are sometimes attempted, 
for occasionally I hear of a garden for blue plants, or 
a white garden, but I think such ideas are but rarely 
worked out with the best aims. I have in mind a 
whole series of gardens of restricted colouring, though 
I have not, alas, either room or means enough to 
work them out for myself, and have to be satisfied 
with an all-too-short length of double border for a 
grey scheme. But besides my small grey garden I 
badly want others, and especially a gold garden, a 
blue garden and a green garden ; though the number 
of these desires might easily be multiplied. 

It is a curious thing that people will sometimes 
spoil some garden project for the sake of a word. For 
instance, a blue garden, for beauty's sake, may be 
hungering for a group of white Lilies, or for something 
of palest lemon-yellow, but it is not allowed to have it 

98 




THE GREY BORDERS: GYPSOPHILA. ];CH1N0PS. PINK 
HOLLYHOCK, HELIOTROPE AND SILVER THISTLE. 



GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING 99 

because it is called the blue garden, and there must 
be no flowers in it but blue flowers. I can see no sense 
in this ; it seems to me like fetters foolishly self- 
imposed. Surely the business of the blue garden is to 
be beautiful as well as to be blue. My own idea is 
that it should be beautiful first , and then ju st as blue 
a£jnay_Jbe_ciMiastent^_with_ks_b^ beauty. 

Moreover, any experienced colourist knows that the 
blues will be more telling — more purely blue — by the 
juxt aposition of rig htly pl aced com plementary colour. 
How it may be done is shown in the plan, for, as I 
cannot have these gardens myself, it will be some 
consolation to suggest to those who may be in sympathy 
with my views, how they may be made. 

The Grey g_arden is so called because most of its 
plants have grey foliage, and all the carpeting and 
bordering plants are grey or whitish. The flowers 
are white, lilac, purple and pink. It is a garden 
mostly for August, because August is the time when 
the greater number of suitable plants are in bloom ; 
but a Grey garden could also be made for September, 
or even October, because of the number of Michaelmas 
Daisies that can be brought into use. 

A plan is given of a connected series of gardens of 
special colouring. For the sake of clearness they are 
shown in as simple a form as possible, but the same 
colour scheme could be adapted to others of more 
important design and larger extent. 

The Gold garden is chosen for the middle, partly 
because it contains the greater number of permanent 



loo COLOUR SCHEMES 

shrubs and is bright and cheerful all the year round, 
and partly because it is the best preparation, according 
to natural colour law, for the enjoyment of the com- 
partments on either side. It is supposed that the 
house is a little way away to the north, with such 
a garden scheme close to it as may best suit its style 
and calibre. Then I would have a plantation of 
shrubs and trees. The shade and solidity of this 
would rest and refresh the eye and mind, making 
them the more ready to enjoy the colour garden. 
Suddenly entering the Gold garden, even on the dullest 
day, will be like coming into sunshine. Through the 
shrub-wood there is also a path to right and left 
parallel to the long axis of the colour garden, with paths 
turning south at its two ends, joining the ends of the 
colour-garden paths. This has been taken into account 
in arranging the sequence of the compartments. 

The hedges that back the borders and form the 
partitions are for the most part of Yew, grown and 
clipped to a height of seven feet. But in the case of 
the Gold garden, where the form is larger and more 
free than in the others, there is no definite hedge, but 
a planting of undipped larger gold Hollies, and the 
beautiful golden Plane, so cut back and regulated 
as to keep within the desired bounds. This absence 
of a stiff hedge gives more freedom of aspect and a 
better cohesion with the shrub-wood. 

In the case of the Grey garden the hedge is of Tama- 
risk {Tamarix gallica), "whose feathery grey-green is 
in delightful harmony with the other foliage greys. 
It will be seen on the plan that where this joins the 




« 
t: 







THIi ORIIY BORDER: PIXK HOLE)' HOC K . l^CHIXOPS. 
ACHILLEA I'EARL, GYPSOI'HILA, STACHYS, etc. 



GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING loi 

Gold garden the hedge is double, for it must be of 
gold Holly on one side and of Tamarisk on the other. 
At the entrances and partition where the path passes, 
the hedge shrubs are allowed to grow higher, and are 
eventually trained to form arches over the path. ■ 

In the Gold and Green gardens the shrubs, which 
form the chief part of the planting, are shown as they 
will be after some years' growth. It is best to have 
them so from the first. If, in order to fill the space* 
at once, several are planted where one only should 
eventually stand, the extra ones being removed later, 
the one left probably does not stand quite right. I 
strongly counsel the placing of them singly at first, 
and that until they have grown, the space should be 
filled with temporary plants. Of these, in the Gold 
gardeii, the most useful will be (Enothera lamarckiana, 
Verbascum olympicum and V. phlomoides, with more 
Spanish Broom than the plan shows till the gold 
HoUies are grown ; and yellow-flowered annuals, such 
as the several kinds of Chrysanthemum coronarium, 
both single and double, and Coreopsis Drummondi; 
also a lEirger quantity of African Marigolds, .the pale 
primrose and the lemon-coloured. The fine tall yellow 
Snapdragons will also be invaluable. Flowers of a 
deep orange colour, such as the orange African Marigold, 
so excellent for their cfwn use, are here out of place, 
only those of pale and middle yellow being suitable. 

In such a garden it will be best to have, next the 
path, either a whole edging of dwarf, gold-variegated 
Box-bushes about eighteen inches to two feet high, 
or a mixed planting of these and small bushes of 



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io8 COLOUR SCHEMES 

gold-variegated Euonjmius clipped down to not much 
over two feet. The edge next the path would be 
kept trimmed to a line. 

The strength of colour and degree of variation are 
so great that it is well worth going to a nursery to 
pick out all these gold-variegated plants. It is not 
enough to tell the gardener to get them. There 
should be fervour on the pa rt of the garden's owner 
such as will take him on a gold-plant pilgrimage to all 
good nurseries within reach, or even to some rather 
out of reach. No gQod _ gardening c o mes of not 
ta king pain s. All good gardening is the reward of 
w ell-directed and st rongly" sustamed effort. 

Where, in the Gold garden, the paths meet and 
swing round in a circle, there may be some accentua- 
ting ornament — a sundial, a stone vase for flowers, 
or a tank for a yellow Water-lily. If a sundial, and 
there should be some incised lettering, do not have 
the letters gilt because it is the Gold garden ; the 
colour and texture of gilding are quite out of place. 
If there is a tank, do not have goldfish ; their colour 
is quite wrong. Never hurt the garden for the sake 
of the tempting word. 

The word " gold " in itself is, of course, an absurdity ; 
no growing leaf or flower has the least resemblance 
to the colour of gold. But the word may be used 
because it has passed into the language with a com- 
monly accepted meaning. 

I have always felt a certain hesitation in using the 
free-growing perennial Sunflowers. For one thing, the 
kinds with the running roots are difficult to keep in 




A DETAIL OF THi: GREY SEI'TI-MBER i,ARD];.\'. 

PERENNIAE ASTERS AXD WHITE CHJXA ASTER 

MAMMOTH JN FRONT. 




I;RYNGIU^[ AXD LILICM CAXDIDCM WITH VrCCAS. 



GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING 109 

check, and their yearly transplantation among other 
established perennials is likely to cause disturbance 
and injury to their neighbours. Then, in so many 
neglected gardens they have been let run wild, sur- 
viving when other plants have been choked, that, 
half unconsciously, one has come to hold them cheap 
and unworthy of the best use. I take it that my 
own impression is not mine alone, for often when I 
have been desired to do planting-plans for flower 
borders, I have been asked not to put in any of these 
Sunflowers, because " they are so common." 

But nothing is " common " in the sense of b ase or 
un worthy if it is ,rightbL-as£d. and it seems to me 
that this Gold garden is just the place where these 
bright autumn flowers may be employed to great 
advantage. I have therefore shown Helianthus rigidus 
and its tall-growing variety Miss Mellish, although 
the colour of both is quite the deepest I should care to 
advise ; the pder yellow of H. IcBtiflorus being better, 
especially the capital pale form of this Sunflower, and 
of one that I know as a variety of H. orgyalis, described 
at p. 72. 

The golden Planes, where the path comes in from 
the north, are of course deciduous, and it might be 
well to have gold Hollies again at the back of these, 
or gold Yews, to help the winter effect. 

In some places in the plan the word " gold " has 
been omitted, but the yellow-leaved or yellow-varie- 
gated form of the shrub is always intended. There is 
a graceful cut-leaved Golden Elder that is desirable, 
as well as the common one. 



no COLOUR SCHEMES 

Perhaps the Grey garden is seen at its best by 
reaching it through the orange borders. Here the 
eye becomes filled and saturated with the strong red 
and yellow colouring. D on the plan stands for 
Dahlia ; the other plant names are written in full. 
This filling with the strong, rich colouring has the 
natural effect of making the eye eagerly desirous 
for the complementary colour, so that, standing by 
the inner Yew arch and suddenly turning to look into 
the Grey garden, the effect is surprisingly — quite 
astonishingly — luminous and refeshing. One never 
knew before how vividly bright Ageratum could be, 
or Lavender or Nepeta ; even the grey-purple of 
Echinops appears to have more positive colour than 
one's expectation would assign to it. The purple 
of the Clematises of the Jackmanii class becomes 
piercingly brilliant, while the grey and glaucous 
foliage looks strangely cool and clear. 

The plan shows the disposition of the plants, with 
grey-white edging of Cineraria maritima, Stachys 
and Santolina. There are groups of Lavender with 
large-fiowered Clematises (C in the plan) placed so 
that they may be trained close to them and partly 
over them. There are the monumental forms of the 
taller Yuccas, Y. gloriosa and its variety recurva 
towards the far angles, and, nearer the front (marked 
Yucca in plan), the free-blooming Yi*cca filamen- 
tosa of smaller size. The flower-colouring is of purple, 
pink and white. Besides the Yuccas, the other white 
flowers are Lilium longiflorum and Liliutn candidum 
(L C on plan), the clear white Achillea The Pearl 



GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING in 

and the grey-white clouds of Gypsophila paniculata. 
The pink flowers are SutTon's Godetia Double Rose, 
sown in place early in May, the beautiful clear pink 
Hollyhock Pink Beauty and the pale pink Double 
Soapwort. Clematis and white Everlasting Pea are 
planted so that they can be trained to cover the 
Gypsophila when its bloom is done and the seed-pods 
are turning brown. As soon as it loses its grey colour- 
ing the flowering tops are cut off, and the Pea and 
Clematis, already brought near, are trained over. 
When the Gypsophila is making its strong growth in 
May, the shoots are regulated and supported by some 
stiff branching spray that is stuck among it. A little 
later this is quite hidden, but it remains as a firm 
substructure when the top of the Gypsophila is cut 
back and the other plants are brought over. 

Eljrmus is the blue-green Lyme-grass, a garden form 
of the handsome blue-^ved grass that grows on the 
seaward edges of many of our sea-shore sandhills. The 
Soapwort next to it is the double form of Saponaria 
officinalis, found wild in many places. 

Of Ageratum two kinds are used — a brightly 
coloured one of the dwarf kinds for places near the 
front, where it tells as a close mass of colour, and the 
tall A. mexicanum for filling up further back in the 
border, where it shows as a diffuse purple cloud. 
The Nepeta is the good garden Catmint {N. Mussini). 
Its normal flowering-time is June, but it is cut half 
back, removing the first bloom, by the middle of the 
month, when it at once makes new flowering shoots. 

Now, after the grey plants, the Gold garden looks 



112 COLOUR SCHEMES 

extremely bright and sunny. A few minutes suffice 
to fill the eye with the yellow influence, and then we 
pass to the Blue garden, where there is another delight- 
ful shock of eye-pleasure. The brilliancy and purity 
of colour are almost incredible. Surely no blue 
flowers were ever so blue before ! That is the impres- 
sion received. For one thing, all the blue flowers 
used, with the exception of Eryngium and Clematis 
davidiana, are quite pure blues ; these two are grey- 
blues. There are no purple-blues, such as the bluest 
of the Campanulas and the perennial Lupines ; they 
would not be admissible. With the blues are a few 
white and . palest yellow flowers ; the foam-white 
Clematis recta, a delightful foil to Delphinium Bella- 
donna ; white perennial Lupine with an almond-hke 
softness of white ; Spircea Aruncus, another foam- 
coloured flower. Then milk-white Tree Lupine, in 
its carefully decreed place near the bluish foliage of 
Rue and Yucca. Then there is the tender citron of 
Lupine Somerset and the full canary of the tall yellow 
Snapdragon, the diffused pale yellow of the soft plumy 
Thalictrum and the strong canary of Lilium szovitzi- 
anum, with white Everlasting Pea and white Hollyhock 
at the back. White-striped Maize grows up to cover 
the space left empty by the Delphiniums when their 
bloom is over, and pots of Plumbago capense are 
dropped in to fill empty spaces. One group of this 
is trained over the bluish-leaved Clematis recta, which 
goes out of flower with the third week of July. 

Yuccas, both of the large and small kinds, are also 
used in the Blue garden, and white Lilies, candidum 



GARDENS OF SPECIAL COLOURING 113 

and longiflorum. There is foliage both of glaucous 
and of bright green colour, besides an occasional patch 
of the silvery Eryngium giganteum. At the front edge 
are the two best Funkias, F. grandiflora, with leaves 
of bright yellow-green, and F. Sieholdi, whose leaves 
are glaucous. The variegated Coltsfoot is a valuable 
edge-plant where the yellowish white of its bold 
parti-colouring is in place, and I find good use for the 
variegated form of the handsome Grass Glyceria or 
Poa aquatica. Though this is a plant whose proper 
place is in wet ground, it will accommodate itself 
to the flower border, but it is well to keep it on the 
side away from the sun. It harmonises well in colour 
with the Coltsfoot ; as a garden plant it is of the 
same class as the old Ribbon Grass, but is very much 
better. It is a good plan to replant it late in spring 
in order to give it a check ; • if this is not done it has 
a rather worn-out appearance before the end of the 
summer ; but if it is replanted or divided late in April 
it stands well throughout the season. The great 
white-striped Japanese grass, Eulalia japonica striata 
(E U on the plan), is planted behind the Delphiniums at 
the angles, and groups well with the Maize just in front. 
From the Blue garden, passing eastward, we come 
to the Green garden. Shrubs of bright and deep 
green colouring and polished leaf-surface predominate. 
Here are green Aucubas and Skimmias, with Ruscus 
racemosus, the beautiful Alexandrian or Victory Laurel, 
and more polished fohage oi Acanthus, Funkia, Asarum. 
Lilium candidum and longiflorum, and Iris fcetidissima. 
Then feathery masses of paler green, Male Fern and 



114 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Lady Fern and Myrrhis odorata, the handsome fern- 
like Sweet Cicely of old English gardens. In the 
angles are again Eulalias, but these are the variety 
zebrina with the leaves barred across with yellow. 

In the Green garden the flowers are fewer and nearly 
all white — Campanulas macrantha alba and persici- 
folia. Lilies, Tulips, Foxgloves, Snapdragons, Peonies, 
Hellebores— giving just a little bloom for each season 
to accompany the general scheme of polished and 
fern-like foliage. A little bloom of palest yellow 
shows in the front in May and June, with the flowers 
of Uvularia and Epimedium. But the Green garden, 
for proper development, should be on a much larger 
scale. 




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CHAPTER ,XIII 

CLIMBING PLANTS 

When one sees climbing plants or any of the shrubs 
that are so often used as climbers, planted in the usual 
way on a'house or wall, about four feet apart and with 
no attempt at arrangement, it gives one that feeling 
of regret for opportunities lost or misused which is the 
sentiment most often aroused in the mind of the 
garden critic in the great number of pleasure-grpunds 
that are planted without thought or discernment. 
Not infrequently in passing along a country road, with 
eye alert to note the beauties that are so often presented 
by little wayside cottage gardens, something is seen 
that may well serve as a lesson in better planting., 
The lesson is generally one that teaches greater sim - 
plicity — the doing of one thing at a time ; the avoidance 
of overmuch deta il. One such cottage has under the 
parlour window an old bush of Pyrus jafonica. It had 
been kept well spurred back and must have been a 
mass of gorgeous bloom in early spring. The rest gf 
the cottage was embowered in an old Grape Vine, 
perhaps of all wall plants the most beautiful, and, I 
always think, the most harmonious with cottages or 
small houses of the cottage class. It would seem to 
be least in place on the walls of houses of classical type ; 

"5 



ii6 COLOUR SCHEMES 

indeed, such houses are often better without any wall- 
plants. Still, there are occasions where the noble 
polished foliage of Magnolia comes admirably on their 
larger spaces, , and the clear-cut refinement of Myrtle 
on their lesser areas of wall-surface. 

It is, like all other matters of garden planning, a 
question of knowledge and good taste. The kind of 
wall or house and its neighbouring forms are taken 
into account and a careful choice is made of the most 
suitable plants. For my own part I like to give a house, 
whatever its size or style, some dominant note in wall- 
planting. In my own home, which is a house of the 
large cottage class, the prevailing wall-growths are 
Vines and Figs in the south and west, and in a shady 
northward facing court between two projecting wings, 
Clematis montana on the two cooler sides, and again 
a Vine upon the other. At one angle on the warmer 
side of the house, where the height to the eaves is not 
great, China Roses have been trained up, and Rose- 
mary, which clothes the whole foot of the wall, is here 
encouraged to rise with them. The colour of the China 
Rose bloom and the dusky green of the Rosemary are 
always to me one of the most charming combinations. 
In remembrance of the cottage example lately quoted 
there is Pyrus japonica under the long sitting-room 
window. I remember another cottage that had a porch 
covered with the golden balls of Kerria japonica, and 
China Roses reaching up the greater part of the low 
walls of half timber and plastering ; the pink Roses 
seeming to ask one which of them were the loveliest 
in colour ; whether it was those that came against the 




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CLJSMATJS .VOXTAXA AT AXCLi; ()/■' CtHAiT. 




lLi:matis moxtaxa i)]'er ]\'orksh()I' ir/.vnoir 



CLIMBING PLANTS 117 

silver-grey of the old oak or those that rested on the 
warm-white plaster. It should be remembered that 
of all Roses the pink China is the one that is more 
constantly in bloom than any other, for its first flowers 
are perfected before the end of May, and in sheltered 
places the later ones last till Christmas. 

The Clematis montana in the court riots over the 
wall facing east and up over the edge of the roof. At 
least it appears to riot, but is really trained and regu- 
lated ; the training favouring its natural way of throw- 
ing down streamers and garlands of its long bloom- 
laden cordage. At one point it runs through and over 
a Guelder Rose that is its only wall companion. Then 
it turns to the left and is trained in garlands along a 
moulded oak beam that forms the base of a timbered 
wall with plastered panels. 

But this is only one way of using this lovely climbing 
plant. Placed at the foot of any ragged tree — old 
worn-out Apple or branching Thorn — or a rough brake 
of Bramble and other wild bushes, it will soon fill or 
cover it with its graceful growth and bounteous bloom. 
It will rush up a tall Holly or clothe an old hedgerow 
where thorns have run up and become thin and gappy, 
or cover any unsightly sheds or any kind of outbuilding. 
All Clematises prefer a chalky soil, but montana does 
not insist on this, and in my pictures they are growing 
in sandy ground. In the end of May it comes into 
bloom, and is at its best in the early days of June. 
When the flowers are going over and the white petals 
show that slightly shrivelled surface that comes before 
they fall, they give off a sweet scent Uke vanilla. This 



ii8 COLOUR SCHEMES 

cannot always be smelt from the actual flowers, but is 
carried by the air blowing over the flowering mass ; it 
is a thing that is often a puzzle to owners of gardens 
some time in the second week of June. 

Another of these Clematises, which, like the montana 
of gardens, is very near the wild species and is good for 
all the same purposes, is C. Flammula, blooming in 
September. Very slightly trained it takes the form of 
flowery clouds. The illustrations show it used in 
various ways, on a cottage, on an oak-paled fence and 
on a wall combined with the feathery foliage of Spircea 
Lindleyana. I do not think there is any incident in 
my garden that has been more favourably noticed than 
the happy growth of these two plants together. The 
wall faces north a little west, and every year it is a 
delight to see not only the beauty of associated form, 
but the loveliness of the colouring; for the Clematis 
bloom has the warm white of foam and the Spiraea has 
leaves of the rather pale green of Lady Fern, besides 
a graceful fern-like form and a sUght twist or turn 
also of a fem-Uke character. But this Clematis has 
many other uses, for bowers, arches and pergolas, as 
well as for many varied aspects of wild gardening. 

A shrub for wall use that is much neglected, though 
of the highest beauty, is Ahutilon vitifolium. In our 
northern and midland counties it may not be hardy, 
but it does well an5^where south of London. The 
flowers, each two and a half inches across, are borne in 
large, loose clusters, their tender lavender colour 
harmonising perfectly with the greyish, downy foliage. 

There is no loveUer or purer blue than that of the 




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CLIMBING PLANTS itg 

newly opened Ipomea rubro-ccerulea, popularly known 
as Heavenly Blue and well deserving the name. It 
must be raised in heat early in the year and be put 
out in June against a warm wall. Here it is in a narrow 
border at the foot of a wall facing south-west, where, 
by the aid of a few short pea-sticks, it climbs into the 
lower branches of a Vine. The Vine is one of the 
Chasselas kind, with leaves of a rather pale green, 
almost yellowish-green colouring that makes the best 
possible foil to the pure blue of the Ipomea. To 
my eye it is the most enjoyable colour-feast of the 
year. Solatium crispum, with purple flowers in goodly 
bunches, is one of the best of wall shrubs. 

Another of the tender plants that is beautiful for 
walls and for free rambling over other wall-growths 
is Solanum jasminoides. Its white clusters come into 
bloom in middle summer and persist till latest autumn. 
In two gardens near me it is of singular beauty ; in the 
one case on the sunny wall of a sheltered court where 
it covers a considerable space, in the other against a 
high south retaining-wall where, from the terrace above, 
the flowers are seen against the misty woodland of 
the middle distance and the pure grey-blue af the far- 
away hills. Turning roimd on the very same spot, 
there is the remarkable growth of the Sweet Verbena, 
that owes its luxuriance to its roots and main shoots 
being under shelter. There must be unending oppor- 
tunities, where there are verandahs, of having just 
such bowers of sweetness to brush against in passing 
and to waft scented air to the windows of the roo ns 
above. 



120 COLOUR SCHEMES 

These notes can only touch upon the more careful 
use of a few of the many climbing plants and trailing 
shrubs. One of the many garden possessions that I 
ardently desire and can never have is a bit of rocky 
hill-side; a place partly of sheer scarp and partly of 
tumbled and outcropping rock-mass, for the best use 
of these plants. There would be the place for the 
yellow winter Jasmine, for the Honeysuckles both 
bushy and rambling, for the trailing Clematises lately 
described and for the native C. Vitalba, beautiful both 
in flower and fruit ; for shrubs like Forsythia suspensa 
and Desmodium penduliflorum, that hke to root high 
and then throw down cascades of bloom, and for the 
wichuraiana Roses, also for Gourds and wild Vines. 
There should be a good quarter of a mile of it so that 
one might plant at perfect ease, one thing at a time 
or one or two in combination, in just such sized and 
shaped groups as would make the most delightful 
pictures, and in just the association that would show 
the best assortment. 

I have seen long stretches of bare chalky banks for 
year after year with nothing done to dispel their bald 
monotony, feeling inward regret at the wasted oppor- 
tunity ; thinking how beautiful they might be made 
with a planting of two common things. Clematis Vitalba 
and Red Spur Valerian. But such examples are with- 
out end. 



CHAPTER XIV 

GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS 

It is a common thing in Italian gardens to see a quantity 
of plants in pots standing in various parts of the 
garden, generally in connection with paved terraces 
and steps. This is in addition to the larger pot plants 
— Oranges, Lemons, Oleanders, &c. — ^that, in their 
immense and often richly decorated earthenware 
receptacles, form an important part of the garden 
design. In our climate we cannot have these unless 
there is an Orangery or some such spacious place free 
from frost for housing them in winter. But good 
groupings of smaller plants in pots is a form of ornament 
that might be made more use of in our own gardens, 
especially where there are paved spaces near a house 
or in connection with a tank or fountain, so that there 
is convenient access to means of daily watering. I 
have such a space in a cool court nearly square in shape. 
A middle circle is paved, and all next the house is paved, 
on a level of one shallow step higher. It is on the sides 
of this raised step that the pot plants are grouped, 
leaving free access to a wooden seat in the middle, 
and a clear way to a door on the left. 

The first thing is to secure good greenery. On each 
side three oblong Itahan terra-cotta pots full of Funkia 



122 COLOUR SCHEMES 

grandiflora stand on the lower level. They serve to 
hide the common flower-pots that are ranged behind. 
The picture shows how it looks a day or two after it 
is first arranged, early in June when the Clematis 
montana is still in bloom. Next above the ornamental 
pots are common ones, also with Funkia grandiflora. 
On the inner side of the groups, next the house, are pots 
of Aspidistra, and, against the wall, of Male Fern, and 
there are more Ferns and Funkias for filling spaces 
between the flowering plants. Of these the most 
important are Lilies — -longiflorum, candidum and 
speciosum — and Hydrangeas, but we also have pots of 
Spanish Irises, of Gladiolus Colvillei The Bride, Cam- 
panula persici/olia and C. pyramidalis, of white and 
pink Phloxes and of white and pink Cup-and-saucer 
Canterbury Bells. The last are taken up from the 
ground and potted only just before they come into bloom. 

There are seldom more than two kinds of flowering 
plants placed here at a time ; the two or three sorts of 
beautiful -foUage are in themselves delightful to the eye ; 
often there is nothing with them but Lilies, and one 
hardly desires to have more. There is an ample filling 
of the green plants, so that no pots are seen. 

If the place were in the sun the plants chosen would 
be largely Geranitmis ; two-year-old plants in good- 
sized pots ; and, in place of the Ferns that enjoy shade 
and the Funkias whose leaves often bum in the sun, 
there would be the large-leaved Megasea cordifolia. 
Here also would be Lihes, Hydrangeas and Cannas, 
and good store of the graceful Maiden's Wreath 
(Francoa ratnosa). 




POT PLANTS JUST PLACED. 




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GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS 123 

The Geraniums would be very carefully assorted for 
colour ; in one part of the scheme white and soft pink, 
in another the rosy scarlets, and elsewhere the salmon- 
reds, now so numerous and good. The last two groups 
might by degrees tone into the pure scarlets, of which 
the best I know and the most delightful in colour is 
Paul Crampel. The colour is pure and brilUant but 
not crud. I can think of no other word that so well 
describes some scarlets of a harsh quality that gives 
discomfort rather than satisfaction to a sensitive 
colour-eye. Henry Jacoby is to me one of the cruel reds 
and has no place among my flowers. I have no desire 
to disparage a plant which is so general a favourite, 
but feel sure that its popularity is a good deal owing 
to the fact that the main gardening public is inclined 
rather to accept what is put before it than to take the 
trouble to search for something better. Although the 
colour of this Geranium is extremely vivid, a whole bed 
of it has a heavy appearance and is wanting in pictorial 
effect. 

I have great pleasure in putting together Omphale, 
palest salmon-pink ; Mrs. Laurence, a shade deeper ; 
Mrs. Cannell, a salmon-scarlet approaching the quality 
of colour of Phlox Coquelicot, and leading these by 
degrees to the pure, good scarlet of Paul Crampel. A 
bed or cltimp or border planted with these, or varieties 
equivalent in colour, would be seen to have, in com- 
parison with a bed of Henry Jacoby, a quite remarkable 
degree of life, brilliancy, beauty and interest. The 
colouring would be actually brighter and yet more kind 
and acceptable to the eye. 



124 COLOUR SCHEMES 

Had I more strength I should visit the nurseries in 
order to see all the excellent Geraniums that are now 
grown, and to group them into colour-combinations 
such as could be confidently recommended. As it is, 
I have to depend upon the courtesy of my friends in 
the horticultural trade, when I have occasion to make 
such combinations, for sending me blooms that I can 
choose from. 

For detached vases that stand on pedestals, so that 
the whole of the vase and contents becomes warmed by 
exposure to sunlight, a condition specially grateful to 
Geraniums, I know no variety more useful than King 
of Denmark. The flowers are in large trusses, half- 
double, of an excellent soft salmon-pink colour ; the 
foliage is bold and well marked ; the whole plant 
massive and handsome. For this and any other out- 
door pot-culture it is best if strong two-year-old plants 
can be kept. 

There are among Geraniums some of a raw magenta- 
pink that I regret to see in many gardens and that will 
certainly never be admitted into mine. 

In designing gardens where there are flagged spaces 
it is well to remember the good effect of summer flowers 
in slightly raised beds with stone edges. Such beds 
often come happily in conjunction with steps and 
paved landings and designs in which fountains occur. 
Summer flowers, such as Geraniums, Lilies and Cannas, 
seem to revel in such beds and are never seen to better 
advantage. Owing to the cottage character of my 
house I have little scope for such beds — ^none at all 
for the best kind with dwarf walls and curbs of moulded 



GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS 125 

freestone, but I have one edged with a low wall of 
local sandstone where there is a square landing paved 
with the same stone and short flights of steps in con- 
nection with a tank and a lower garden level. Here 
Geraniums and Cannas luxuriate in shelter and full 
sunshine. 

Maiden's Wreath {Francoa ramosa) is a plant for 
many uses. The foliage, though sparing in quantity, 
is distinct and handsome. The long flower-stems are 
flung out with a kind of determination of character 
that would seem to imply that the plant knows what 
is expected of it and intends to fulfil its settled duty 
and purpose, namely, that of being a graceful and 
beautiful ornament. Towards the later summer these 
flower-stems become so heavy that there is danger of 
their weight, swayed by a little wind, wrenching out 
whole portions of the plant. Support should be given 
with short pieces of hazel stick tied half way up the 
stem. In nurseries it is general, and even in private 
gardens not unusual, to see the flowers tied straight 
upright. This should never be, for it not only forces 
the plant into a form that is entirely at variance with 
its nature, but robs it of its natural grace and valuable 
individuality. 

There is no end to the uses of Hydrangeas in pots ; 
a weU-bloomed plant will give life and interest to many 
an uninteresting corner ; the bloom is long-enduring 
and stands equally well in sun and shade. If the blue 
colour, which comes naturally in some soils, is desired, 
it can be had by mixing pounded slate and iron filings 
with the compost — alum is another well-known agent 



126 COLOUR SCHEMES 

for inducing the blue colour. But I have much faith 
in slate, for the bluest I have ever seen came from a 
garden on a slaty soil. 

A few only of the many plants that can with ad- 
vantage be used in pots have been named, but in any 
case it would be well to bear in mind that it is best to 
restrict the number of kinds shown at once and to make 
sure of the good groundwork of foliage. I have there- 
fore only dwelt upon the few that came to mind as the 
best and easiest to use. But the pretty red and white 
single Fuchsias of the Mme. Comellisson type should 
not be forgotten ; and the fine Comet aiid Ostrich 
Plume Asters are capital pot-plants, for, Uke Canter- 
bury Bells, they bear lifting from the open ground just 
before they flower and eveirin full bloom. 

Plants grown in pots lead naturally to the considera- 
tion of those most suitable for tubs. Of these the most 
important are permanent things of shrubby nature — 
several of the Orange and Lemon family. Oleander, 
Pomegranate, Bay, Myrtle, Datura, Sweet Verbena 
and dwarf Palm, also Hydrangea, Tree Heliotrope and 
Agapanthus. The last is of course a bulbous plant, 
but from its large, solid foliage and quantity of long- 
enduring bloom it is one of the best of plants for tubs. 
The greater number of these need housing in winter 
in an Orangery or other frost-proof building. Other 
bushy plants for tub use that are hardier are some of 
the Veronicas, such as Traversi, speciosa and hulkeana, 
Olearia Haastii and 0. Gunni. Tree Peonies, though 
rarely so used, are capital tub plants, and, though they 




FVNKIA JXD LITJl'M SPECIOSVM. 



GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS 127 

are not very long in flower, their supreme beauty makes 
them desirable. They should certainly be grown in 
places where labour is not restricted and where there 
are suitable places for standing such plants away and 
caring for them in the off season. 

For the same kind of use the Tree Lupines, both 
white and yellow, would be excellent. Funkia Sieboldi 
also makes a handsome tub, while for summer filling 
Cannas are admirable and old Geraniums in bush form 
always acceptable. I have never seen Acanthus used 
in this way, but can see no reason against it. The 
smaller Bamboos, such as the handsome broad-leaved 
B. tessellata, are very good in tubs. In speaking of 
plants suitable for tubs, I take the word to include the 
larger sizes of terra-cotta pots ; but Agapanthus should 
never be planted in earthenware, as the roots, which 
remain for many years undisturbed, have so strong a 
irending power that they will biirst anything less 
resisting than iron-hooped wood. 

It is rare to see, anywhere in England, plant-tubs 
painted a pleasant colour. In nearly every garden they 
are painted a strong raw green with the hoops black, 
whereas any green that is not bright and raw would 
be much better. This matter of the colouring of all 
such garden accessories as have to be painted deserves 
more attention than it commonly receives. Doors in 
garden walls, trellises, wooden raihngs and hand-gates 
and seats — ^all these and any other items of woodwork 
that stand out in the garden and are seen among its 
flowers and foliage should, if painted green, be of such 
?i green as does not for brightness come ipto competition 



128 COLOUR SCHEMES 

with the green of leaves. In the case of tubs especially, 
it is the plant that is to be considered first — not the 
tub. The bright, harsh green on the woodwork makes 
the colour of the foliage look dull and ineffective. It 
would be desirable, in the case of soUtary tub plants, 
to study the exact colour that would be most becoming 
to the flower and foliage ; but as it is needful, to avoid 
a patchy appearance, to paint the whole of the tubs in 
any one garden scheme the same colour, a tint should 
be chosen that is quiet in itself and that is lower in tone 
than the dullest of the fohage in any of the examples- 
Moreover, there is no reason for painting the hoops 
black ; it is much better to paint the whole out of 
one pot. 

A good quiet green can be made with black, chrome 
No. I and white lead, enough white being mixed to 
give the depth or lightness desired. A pretty colour of 
paint is much used in France that approximates to the 
colourman's malachite green. This is not the bright 
colour of malachite as we know the polished stone, 
but a pale, opaque bluish green approaching the tur- 
quoise tints. In the bright, clear climate of France, 
and in connection with the higher type of French 
architecture, also in more southern countries, the 
colour looks very well, though it is not becoming to 
some fohage ; but something quieter and more sober 
is better suited for England. 

Elsewhere I have written of the deplorable effect in 
the garden landscape of the glaring white paint^till 
worse when tinted blue — that emphasises the ugliness 
of the usual greenhouse or conservatory. This may 




LI LI I'M AURATfiL 




A TCB HYDRAXGI^A. 




STEPS AND HYDRANGEAS. 



GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN POTS 129 

be mitigated, if the unsightly structure cannot be 
concealed, by adding to the white a good deal of black 
and raw umber, till the paint is of the quiet warm grey 
that for some strange reason is known to house-painters 
as Portland-stone colour. 



CHAPTER XV 

SOME GARDEN PICTURES 

When the eye is -trained to perceive pictorial effect, it 
is frequently struck by something — some combination 
of grouping, lighting and colour — that is seen to have 
that complete aspect of unity and beauty that to the 
artist's eye forms a picture. Such are the impressions 
that the artist-gardener endeavours to produce in 
every portion of the garden. Many of these good 
intentions fail, some come fairly well; a few reward 
him by a success that was beyond anticipation. When 
this is the case it is probably due to some cause that 
had been overlooked but that had chanced to com- 
plete his. intention, such as the position of the sun in 
relation to some wished-f or colour-picture. Then there 
are some days during the summer when the quality 
of light seems to tend to an extraordinary beauty of 
effect. I have never been able to find out how the 
light on these occasions differs from that of ordinary 
fine summer days, but, when these days come, I know 
them and am filled with gladness. 

In the case of my own garden, so far as deliberate 
intention goes, what is aimed at is something quite 
simple and devoid of complication ; generally one 
thing or a very limited number of flowering things at 

130 



SOME GARDEN PICTURES 131 

a time, but that one, or those few things, carefully 
placed so as to avoid fuss, and give pleasure to the eye 
and ease to the mind. In many cases the aim has 
been to show some delightful colour combination with- 
out regard to the other considerations that go to the 
making of a more ambitious picture. It may be a 
group in a shrub border, or a combination of border 
and climbing plants, or some carefully designed 
company of plants in the rock garden. I have a little 
rose that I call the Fairy Rose. It came to me from a 
cottage garden, and I have never seen it elsewhere. It 
grows about a foot high and has blush-pink flowers with 
the colour deepening to the centre. In character the 
flower is somewhere between the lovely Blush Boursault 
at its best and the little De Meaux. It is an inch and 
a half across and of beautiful form, especially in the 
half-opened bud. Wishing to enjoy its beauty to the 
utmost, and to bring it comfortably within sight, I 
gave it a shelf in raised rock-work and brought near 
and under it a clear pale lilac Viola and a good drift 
of Achillea umbellata. It was worth doing. Another 
combination that gives me much pleasure is that of 
the pink Pompon Rose Mignonette with Catmint 
and whitish foliage, such as Stachys or Artemisia 
stelleriana. I may have mentioned this before, but 
it is so pretty that it deserves repetition. 

In a shrubbery border the fine Spircaa Ar uncus is 
beautiful with an interplanting of Thalictrum fur- 
■pureum. At the end of a long flower-clump there is 
a yew hedge coming forward at right angles to the 
length of the border. Behind the hedge is a stone wall 



132 COLOUR SCHEMES 

with an arch, through which the path in front of the 
border passes. Over the stone arch, and rambling 
partly over the yews, are the vigorous mariy-fiowered 
growths of Clematis Flammula. At the end of the 
border are pale sulphur-coloured Hollyhocks. Both in 
form and colour this was a delightful picture ; the 
foam-like masses of the Clematis resting on the dusky 
richness of the yew ; the straight shafts of the Holly- 
hock giving clear colour and agreeing with the upright 
lines of the sides of the archway, which showed dimly 
in the shade. These. are only a few incidents out of 
numbers that occur or are intentionally arranged. 

There is a place near my house where a path leads 
down through a nut-walk to the further garden. It is 
crossed by a shorter path that ends at a Birch-tree 
with a tall silvered trunk. It seemed desirable to 
accentuate the point where the paths cross ; I therefore 
put down four square platforms of stone " pitching " 
as a place for the standing of four Hydrangeas in tubs. 
Just before the tree is a solid wooden seat and a shallow 
wide step done with the same stone pitching. Tree 
and seat are surrounded on three sides by a rectangular 
planting of yews. The tender greys of the rugged 
lower bark of the Birch and the silvering of its upper 
stem teU finely against the dark velvet-like richness 
of the Yew and the leaf-mass of other trees beyond ; 
the pink flowers and fresh green f oUage of the Hydran- 
geas are also brilliant against the dusky green. It is 
just one simple picture that makes one glad for three 
months of the later summer and early autumn. The 
longer cross-path, which on the right leads in a few 




H\'1>RAXGI:A Tl'HS AXD I : I RCH^TKHr: Sl^AT. 



SOME GARDEN PICTURES 133 

yards to steps up to the paved court on the north side 
of the house, on the left passes down the nut-walk, as 
the second illustration shows. The Birch-tree and 
seat are immediately to the right, just out of the 
picture. Standing a little way down the shaded nut- 
walk and looking back, the Hydrangeas are seen in 
another aspect, with the steps and house behind them 
in shade, and the sun shining through their pale green 
leaves. Sitting on the seat, the eye, passing between 
the pink Hydrangea flowers, sees a short straight 
path bounded by a waU of Tree Box to right and left, 
and at the far end one tub of pale blue Hydrangea in 
shade, backed by a repetition of the screen of Yews 
such as enclose the Birch-tree. 

On the south side of the house there is a narrow 
border full of Rosemary, with China Roses and a 
Vine, as shown in the illustration opposite p. 114. 
Here the narrow lawn, backed by woodland, is higher 
than the house-level. Shallow steps lead up to it in 
the middle, and to right and left is low dry-walling. 
On the upper edge of this is a hedge of Scotch Briars, 
shown in full bloom at p. 50, and in the narrow 
border below, a planting of the low-growing Andromeda 
(Leucothoe) axillaris, a little shrub that is neat through- 
out the year and in winter prettily red-tinted. 

The beautiful White Lily cannot be grown in the 
hot sandy soil of my garden. Even if its place be 
ever so well prepared with the loam and lime that it 
loves, the surrounding soil-influences seem to rob it 
of its needful nourishment ; it makes a miserable 
show for one year and never appears again. The only 



1^4 COLOUR SCHEMES 

way to grow it is in pots or tubs sunk in the soil. For 
some years I had wished to have an orderly planting 
of this lovely LUy in the lower border at the back of 
the Andromeda just in front of the Briars. I had no 
fiower-pots deep enough, or wide enough at the bottom, 
but was able to make a contrivance with some short, 
broad, unglazed drain-pipes, measuring a foot long and 
of about the same diameter, by cementing in an arti- 
ficial bottom made of pieces of roofing-tile and broken 
flower-pot, leaving spaces for drainage. Then three 
bulbs were put in each pot in a compost that I knew 
they would enjoy. When they were half grown the 
pots were sunk in holes at nearly even distances 
among the Andromedas, and in a few weeks my row 
of Lilies gave me my reward. Other Lilies {L. longi- 
florum) follow them a month later, just beyond in the 
wood edge among tufts of Male Fern, and a pot of 
Francoa is to right and left of the shallow steps. 

During the last year or two some pretty incidents 
have occurred about these same steps ; not important 
enough to call garden pictures, but charming and inter- 
esting and easily enjoyable because they are close to 
the open garden door of the sitting-room and because 
they teach me to look out for the desirable things that 
come of themselves. A seedling of the wild Clematis 
(C. Vitalba) appeared among the Briars to the left. 
As it was too strong a plant to let grow over them 
unchecked, I puUed it forward towards the steps, 
training one or two shoots to run along the hollow of 
the step and laying on them pieces of stone, invisible 
among the foliage, to keep them from being dislodged 




WHITE LILIES. 




THIi STEPS AXD THJilR IXCIDRXTS. 



SOME Garden l>icfURE§ 135 

by the skirts of visitors or the gambols of my cats 
At the same time, in a crack of the stone just below 
the upper step there came a seedhng of the tall Chimney 
Campanula (C. pyramidalis). The second year this 
threw up its tall flower-stem and was well in bloom 
when it was wrecked by an early autumn gale, the 
wind wrenching out the crown and upper root-stock. 
But a little shred of rooted life remained, and now there 
is again the sturdy tuft promising more flower-stems 
for the coming season. 

Close behind the Bell-flower a spreading sheet of 
Wild Thyme has crept out of the turf and flowed rather 
widely over the stone. Luckily I just saved it from 
the tid3dng process that threatened it, and as it is now 
well established over the stone I still have the pleasure 
of its bright rosy bloom when the duties of the mowing- 
machine rob me of the other tiny flowers — Hawkweed, 
Milkwort and Bedstraw — that bloom so bravely in 
the intervals between its ruthless but indispensable 
ministrations. 



CHAPTER XVI 

A BEAUTIFUL FRUIT GARDEN 

There is a whole range of possible beautiful treatment 
in fruit-growing that is rarely carried out or even 
attempted. Hitherto but little has been done to 
make the fruit garden a place of beauty ; we find it 
almost flaunting its unloveliness, its white painted 
orchard-houses and vineries, its \yires and wire-nettings. 
It is not to be denied that all these are necessary, and 
that the usual and most obvious way of working them 
does not make for beauty. But in designing new 
gardens or remodelling old, on a rather large scale, 
there need be no difficulty in so arranging that all 
that is necessarily unbeautiful should be kept in one 
department, so hedged or walled around as to be out 
of sight. 

In addition to such a fruit garden for strict utility 
I have in mind a walled enclosure of about an acre 
and a half, longer than wide, laid out as shown in the 
plan. I have seen in large places just such spaces, 
actually walled but put to no use. 

The wall has trained fruit-trees — Peaches spreading 
their goodly fans. Pears showing long, level lines, and, 
including hardy Grape Vines, giving all the best 
exposition of the hardy fruit-grower's art. Next to 

136 



A BEAUTIFUL FRUlT GARDEN 137 

the wall is a space six feet wide for ample access 
to the fruit-trees, their pruning, training and root- 
management ; then a fourteen-foot plant border, wholly 
for beauty, and a path eight feet wide. At a middle 
point on all four sides the high wall has an arched 
doorway corresponding to the grassy way between the 
fruit-trees in the middle space. If the wall has some 
S5nnmetrical building on the outside of each angle, 
so much the better ; the garden can make use of all. 
One may be a bothy, with lower extension out of sight ; 
one a half-underground fruit-store, with bulb-store 
above ; a third a paint-shop, and a fourth a tea-house. 

The middle space is all turf ; in the centre a Mul- 
berry, and, both ways across, double lines of fruit-trees, 
ending with Bays ; the Bays are at the ends on 
the plan. In almost any part of the sea-warmed 
south of England, below the fifty-first parallel of 
latitude, which passes through the upper part of Sussex, 
the rows of fruit-trees on the green might be standard 
Figs ; elsewhere they would be bush Pears and Apples. 
If the soil is calcareous, so much the better for the 
Figs and Mulberry, the Vines and indeed nearly all 
the fruits. The angle-clumps in the grass are planted 
with Magnolias, Yuccas and Hydrangeas. 

The border all round is for small shrubs and plants 
of some solidity or importance ; the spaces are too 
long for an ordinary flower border. It would have a 
good bush of Magnolia stellata at each angle. Yuccas, 
Tritomas, hardy Fuchsias, Peonies, Euphorbia Wul- 
fenii, Hollyhocks, Dahlias, Hydrangeas, Michaelmas 
Daisies, Flag Iris, the beautiful Olearia Gunni and 



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THE BEAUTIFUL FRUIT GARDEN 



A BEAUTIFUL FRUIT GAkDEN 139 

0. Haastii, Tree Lupines, Forsythia, Weigela, the 
smaller Bush 'Spiraeas, Veronicas, Tamarisk, the large- 
bloomed Clematises, bush kinds of garden Roses, 
Funkias, and so on. 

Surely my fruit garden would be not only a place 
of beauty, of pleasant sight and pleasant thought, 
but of leisurely repose, a repose broken only faintly 
and in welcome fashion by its own interests — in July, 
August and September a goodly place in which to 
wander and find luscious fruits in quantity that can 
be gathered and eaten straight from the tree. There 
is a pleasure in searching for and eating fruit in this 
way that is far better than having it picked by the 
gardener and brought in and set before one on a dish 
in a tame room. Is this feeling an echo of far-away 
days of savagery when men hunted for their food and 
rejoiced to find it, or is it rather the poet's delight 
of having direct intercourse with the good gift of the 
growing thing and seeing and feeling through all the 
senses how good and gracious the thing is ? To pass 
the hand among the leaves of the Fig-tree, noting that 
they are a little harsh upon the upper surface and yet 
soft beneath ; to be aware of their faint, dusky scent ; 
to see the cracking of the coat of the fruit and the 
yellowing of the neck where it joins the branch — the 
two indications of ripeness — sometimes made clearer 
by the drop of honeyed moisture at the eye ; then the 
handling of the fruit itself, which must needs be gentle 
because the tender coat is so readily bruised and torn ; 
at the same time observing the slight gre5dsh bloom 
and the colouring — low-toned transitions of purple 



t46 COLOUR SCHEMES 

and green ; and finally to have the enjoyment of the 
luscious pulp, with the knowledge that it is one of the 
most wholesome and sustaining of fruit foods — surely 
all this is worthy garden service ! Then how delicious 
are the sun-warmed Apricots and Peaches, and, later 
in the year, the Jargonelle Pears, always best eaten 
straight from the tree ; and the ripe Mulberries of 
September. And how pleasant to stroll about the 
wide grassy ways, turning from the fruits to the 
flowers in the clumps and borders ; to the splendid 
Yuccas and the masses of Hydrangea bloom, and then 
to the gorgeous Tritomas and other dehghts ; and 
to see the dignity of the stately Bay-trees and the 
incomparable beauty of their every twig and leaf. 

The beautiful fruit garden would naturally lead to 
the orchard, a place that is not so often included in 
the pleasure-ground as it deserves. For what is more 
lovely than the bloom of orchard trees in April and 
May, with the grass below in its strong, young growth ; 
in itself a garden of Cowslips and Daffodils. In an 
old orchard how pictorial are the lines of the low- 
leaning old Apple-trunks and the swing and poise of 
their upper branches, best seen in winter when their 
gracefiol movement of line and wonderful sense of 
balance can be fully appreciated. But the younger 
orchard has its beauty too, of fresh, yoimg life and 
wealth of bloom and bounteous bearing. 

Then if the place of the orchard suggests a return 
to nearer pleasure-ground with yet some space between, 
how good to make this into a free garden orchard 
for the fruits of wilder character ; for wide-spreading 



A BEAUTIFUL FRUIT GARDEN 141 

Medlars, for Quinces, again some of the most graceful 
of small British trees ; for Service, Damson, Bullace, 
Crabs and their many allies, not fruit-bearing trees 
except from the birds' and botanists' points of view, 
but beautiful both in bloom and berry, such as the 
Mountain Ash, Wild Cherry, Blackthorn, and the 
large-berried White-thorns, Bird-Cherry, White Beam, 
Holly and Amelanchier. Then all these might be inter- 
grouped with great brakes of the free-growing Roses 
and the wilder kinds of Clematis and Honeysuckle. 
And right through it should be a shady path of Filberts 
or Cobnuts arching overhead and yielding a grateful 
summer shade and a bountiful autumn harvest. 



CHAPTER XVII 

PLANTING FOR WINTER COLOUR 

Much cheerful positive colour, other than that given 
by flowers or leaves, may be obtained in winter by 
using a good selection of small trees with coloured 
bark. Of these the most useful are the Red Dogwood 
and some of the Willows. This planting for colour of 
bright-barked trees is no new thing, for a good half 
century ago the late Lord Somers, at Eastnor Castle 
near Malvern, used to " paint his woods," as he 
described it, in this way. 

The Cardinal Willow has bright red bark, Salix 
britzensis orange, and the Golden Osier bright yellow. 
The yearly growth has the best-coloured bark, so that 
when they are employed for giving colour it is usual 
to cut them every winter ; moreover, the large quan- 
tity of young shoots that the cutting induces naturally 
increases the density of the colour effect. But if they 
are planted in a rather large way it is better that the 
regular winter cutting should be restricted to those 
near the outer edge, and to let a good proportion of 
those within stand for two or more years, and to 
have some in the background that are never cut at 
all, but that are allowed to grow to their fuH size and 
to show their natural habit. 

14a 



PLANTING FOR WINTER COLOUR 143 

It will also be well, instead of planting them exclu- 
sively sort by sort, to group and intergroup care- 
fully assorted colours, such as the scarlet Willow with 
the purple-barked kind, and to let this pass into the 
American Willow with the black stem. Such a group 
should not be too large, and it should be near the 
pathway, for it will show best near at hand. For the 
sake of the bark-colouring, it would be best to cut it 
all every year, although in the larger plantings it is 
desirable to have the trees of different ages, or the 
effect may be too much that of a mere crop instead 
of a well-arranged garden grouping. 

Some of the garden Roses, both of the free-growing 
and bush kinds, have finely coloured bark that can 
be used in much the same way. They are specially 
good in broken ground, such as the banks of an old 
hollow cart-way converted to garden use, or the sloping 
debris of a quarry. Of the free kinds, the best coloured 
are Rosa ferruginea, whose leaves are red as well as the 
stem — it is the Rosa rubrifolia of nurseries — and the 
varieties of Boursault RoSes, derived from Rosa alpina. 
As bushes for giving reddish colouring, Rosa lucida 
would be among the best. 

By waterside the Great Reedmace — commonly but 
wrongly called Bulrush — holds its handsome seed- 
heads nearly through the winter, and beds of the 
Common Reed [Arundo Phragmites) stand up the winter 
through in masses of light, warm colouring that are 
grateful to the eye and suggest comfortable harbourage 
for wildfowl. 

Some shrubs have conspicuously green bark, such 



144 COLOUR SCHEMES 

as the Spindle-tree ; but the habit of growth is rather 
too diffuse to let it make a distinct show of colour. 
Leycesteria formosa is being tried in mass for winter 
colour in some gardens, but I ventiure to feel a little 
doubtful of its success ; for though the skin of the half- 
woody stem is bright green, the plant has the habit 
of retaining some of its leaves and the remains of its 
flowering tips till January, or even later. After frost 
these have the appearance of untidy grey rags, and 
are distinctly unsightty. The brightest' effect of all 
green-barked plants is that given by Whortleberry, 
a plant that on peaty or sandy soils is one of the most 
enjoyable of winter undershrubs. 

It would add greatly to the enjoyment of many 
country places if some portions were planted with 
evergreens expressly for winter effect. Some region 
on the outskirts of the garden, and between it and 
woodland, would be the most desirable. If well done 
the sense of wintry discomfort would disappear, for 
nearly all the growing things would be at their best, 
and even in summer, shrubs and plants can do no 
more than this. In summer, too, it would be good 
to see, for the green things would have such an inter- 
planting of free Roses, Jasmines, Clematis, Honey- 
suckles, Forsythia, and so on, as would make charming 
incidents of flower-beauty. 

The place for this winter walk should be sheltered 
from the north and east. I have such a place in my 
mind's eye, where, beyond the home garden and partly 
wooded old shrubbery, there is a valley running up 
into a fir-wooded hill. The patb goes up the bill-side 



PLANTING FOR WINTER COLOUR 145 

diagonally, with a very gentle gradient. In the cooler, 
lower portion there would be Rhododendrons and 
Kalmias, with lesser growths of Skimmia and Gaul- 
theria. Close to the path, on the less sunny side, 
would be Lent Hellebores and the delightful winter 
greenery of Epimedium. Then in full sun Andromeda 
japonica, and on the shadier side Andromeda floribunda. 
Both of these hard and rather brittle-wooded shrubs 
belong to the group properly named Pieris, and form 
dense bushes four or more feet high. At their foot 
would be the lower-growing Andromedas of the Leu- 
cothoe section, with lissome branches of a more willow- 
like character. These make a handsome ground- 
carpeting from one to three feet high, beautiful at all 
seasons — the leaves in winter tinted or marbled with 
red. Portions of the cooler side would also have 
fringes of Hartstongue and Polypody, both winter 
ferns. Then, as the path rose into more direct sun- 
light, there would be Cistuses — in all mild winter 
days giving off their strong, cordial scent — and the 
dwarf Rhododendrons. Behind the Cistuses would 
be White Broom, finely green-stemmed in winter. 
There would even be shrubs in flower ; the thick-set 
yellowish bloom of Witch Hazel {Hamamelis) and the 
bright yellow of Jasminum nudiflorum. Then groups 
of Junipers, and all the ground carpeted with Heath, 
and so to the upper Fir-wood. Then, after the com- 
forting greenery of the lower region, the lovely colour 
of distant winter landscape would be intensely enjoy- 
able ; for the greys and purples of the leafless wood- 
land of middle distance have a beauty that no summer 



146 COLOUR SCHEMES 

landscape can show. In clear weather the further 
distances have tints of an extraordinary purity, while 
the more frequent days of slightly distant haze have 
another kind -of beautiful mystery. 

The common Laurel is generally seen as a long- 
suffering garden hack, put to all sorts of rather ignoble 
uses. It is so cheap to buy, so quick of growth and 
so useful as an easily made screen that its better use 
is, except in rare instances, lost sight of. Planted in 
thin woodland and never pruned, it grows into a small 
iree that takes curious ways and shapes of trunk and 
branch of a character that is remarkably pictorial. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

FORM IN PLANTING 

If in the foregoing chapters I have dwelt rather in- 
sistently on matters of colour, it is not that I under- 
rate the equal importance of form and proportion, but 
that I think that the question of colour, as regards its 
more careful use, is either more commonly neglected 
or has had fewer exponents. As in all matters relating 
to design in gardening, the good placing of plants in 
detail is a matter of knowledge of an artistic character. 
The shaping of every group of plants, to have the b^st 
effect, should not only be definitely intended, but 
should be done with an absolute conviction by the 
hand that feels the drawing that the group must have 
in relation to what is near, or to the whole form of 
the clump or border or whatever the nature of the 
place may be. I am only too well aware that to many 
this statement may convey no idea whatever ; never- 
theless I venture to insist upon its truth. Moreover, 
I am addressing this book to the consideration of 
those who are in sympathy with my views of gardening, 
among whom I know there are many who, even if they 
have not made themselves able, by study and long 
practice, to show in groundwork and garden design 
the quality known to artists as drawing — by which is 

147 




iCnJ- ^Wc40 1 t/z^wS \ 3c^*^* 



^rVru/iS 








^ P^/LD HEATH GARDEN 
Upper Figure: As First Planted. 
Lower Figure: After Alteratioti. 



FORM IN PLANTING 149 

meant a right movement of line and form and group — 
can at least recognise its value — indeed, its supreme 
importance — when it is present, and do not, in its 
absence, faU to feel that the thing shown is without 
life, spirit, or reasonable justification. 

Even a proficiency in some branch of fine art does 
not necessarily imply ability to lay out ground. I have 
known, in the intimate association of half a lifetime, 
a landscape painter whose interpretation of natural 
beauty was of the most refined and poetical quality, 
and who truly loved flowers and beautiful vegetation, 
but who was quite incapable of personally arranging 
a garden ; although it is more usual that an artist 
should almost unconsciously place plants well. 

It is therefore not to-be expected that it is enough 
to buy good plants and merely to tell the gardener 
of average ability to plant them in groups, as is now 
often done with the very best intention. It is impos- 
sible for the gardener to know what is meant. In all 
the cases that have come under my notice, where 
such indefinite instruction has been given, the things 
have been planted in stiff blocks. Quite lately I came 
upon such an example in the garden of a friend who 
is by no means without a sense of beauty. There was 
a bank-like space on the outskirts of the pleasure- 
ground where it was wished to have a wild Heath 
garden. A better place could hardly be, for the soil 
is light and sandy and the space lies out in full sunlight. 
The ground had been thrown about into ridges and 
valleys, but without any reference to its natural form, 
whereas with half the labour it might have been guided 
into slight hollows, ridges and promontories of good 



i^o COLOUR SCHEMES 

line and proportion. I found it planted as in the 
upper plan ; the path stiffly edged with one kind of 
Heath on one side and another kind on the other ; 
the back planting in rectangular blocks ; near the 
front, bushes of Veronica at exactly even distances, 
and between each bush the same number of Heaths in 
every interval quite stiffly planted. Some of the blocks 
at the back were of Violets — plants quite unsuited 
to the place. Yet, only leaving out the Violets, all 
the same plants might have been disposed so as to 
come quite easily and naturally as shown on the 
lower plan. Then a thin sowing of the finer Heath 
grasses, to include the pathway, where alone they 
would be mown, and a clever interplanting of wild 
Thyme and the native Wood Sage {Teucrium Scoro- 
donia), common on the neighbouring heaths, would 
have put the whole thing together and would have 
given the impression, so desirable in wild planting, 
of the thing having so happened, rather than of its 
having been artificially made. 

In planting or thinning trees also, the whole ultimate 
good of the effect will depend on this sense of form 
and good grouping. If these qualities are secured, 
the result in after years will be a poem ; if they are 
neglected, it will be nothing but a crop. 

I can imagine nothing more interesting than the 
guiding and part-planting of large stretches of natural 
young woodland,' with some hilly ground above and 
water at the foot. As it is, I have to be content with 
my little wood of ten acres ; yet I am truly glad to 
have even that small space to treat with reverent 
thankfulness and watchful care. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abutilon vitifolium, 50; 69, 

118 
Acanthus, 27, 28, 97, 113 ; as 

tub plant, 127 
Achillea umbellata, 50, 131 ; 

A. Eupatorium, 62, 72 ; 

The Pearl, 75, no 
Adonis, 27 
JEsculus, 76 
Agapanthus, 127 
Agathea ccelestis, 62, 66, 69 
Ageratum, 53, 60, 74, 90, no, 

III 
Alexandrian Laurel, 113 
Alpenrose, 8, 20, 94 
Alyssum, 28 
Amelanchier, 13 
Anchusa, 46, 49 
Andromeda, 8, 15, 20, 35, 94, 

133. 145 
Anemone sylvestris, 39 ; japo- 

nica, 90 
Annuals, half hardy, 53, 60 ; 

hardy, 60 
Antennaria, 29 
Apples, 137 
Arabia, double, 26, 27, 29, 

32 
Arbutus, 95 
Arenaria balearica, 35; mon- 

tana, 36 



Artemisia stelleriana, 66, 75, 

89, 131 
Arundo Phragmites, 143 
Asarum, 18, 36, 113 
Aspidistra, 122 
Asters, China, 60, 76, 89, 126; 

perennial, 75, 90, 97 
Aubrietia, 26, 29, 32 
Aucuba, 113 
August, Flower-border in, 

68 
Azalea, 19, 93 



Bambusa tessellata, 97; as 

tub plant, 127 
Bay, 53, 137 
Bedding plants, 53, 80 
Begonias, 90; with Megasea, 

91 
Berberis, 31 
Bergamot, 62 
Blue flowers, 66, 70 
Blue garden, 98, in 
Bracken, 14, 15 
Briars, Scotch, 49, 133 
Broom, white, 38, 39, 40, 95, 

145 
Bulb-border, 5 



153 



1^4 



INDEX 



Calceolaria amplexicaulis, 

85 
Camassia, 27, 36 
Campanula pyramidalis, 58 ; 

in steps, 135 ; persicifolia, 

43, 114 ; lactiflora, 61, 63, 

71 ; macrantha alba, 114 
Campanulas in pots, 122, 135 
Canna, 62,' 73, 83, 85, 87; in 

pots, 122, 127 
Canterbury Bells, 53 ; in pots 

122 
Garyopteris, 76 
Catmint, 45, 49, 75, ill 
Centranthus, 50 
Cerastium, 29 
Chalky banks, plants for, 

120 
China Rose, 116 
Chionodoxa, 6 
Choisya ternata, 53 
Chrysanthemum coronarium, 

60, lOI 
Cineraria maritima, 50, 54, 

63, 64, 66, 68, 74, 75, 89, 

no 
Cistus, 15, 19, 21, 40, 64, 69, 

95. 145 
Clematis montana, 28, 29, 31, 

36, 42, 53, 116, 117, 122; 

C. davidiana, 71, 88, 112; 

C. Flammula, 57, 118, 132; 

C, Jackmannij 56, 75; C. 

recta, 54, 64, 65, 112; C. 

Vitalba, 95, 120, 134 
Climbing plants, 115 
Colour, in woodland, i; scheme 

of Rhododendrons, 16; of 

X)ld Scotch Fir, 18; tender 

in spring garden, 24; strong 

in spring garden, 26 



Colour, optical efiect of, 54; 
gardens of special, 98; of 
paint for garden acces- 
sories, 127 

Colour-combinations, 49, 53, 

62, 75. 77. 131 
Colour-planting for winter, 142 
Coltsfoot, variegated, 90, 113 
Columbines, 37, 43, 94 
Coreopsis, 62, 73, loi 
Corydalis bulbosa, 7; ochro- 

leuca, 29, 36, 39 
Cosmos 54, 
Cottage gardens, 115 
Cow- Parsnip, Giant, 47 
Cranesbill, 45, 52 
Crown Imperial, 27 

D 

Daffodils, 7, 15, 16, 26, 32 
Dahlias, 54, 57, 69, 73, 87, 89, 

90, 137; best kinds for 

border use, 91 
Daphne Mezereum, 2 
Delphinium Belladonna, 66; 

112; grandiflorum, 56 
Dentaria, 30, 94 
Desmodium penduhflorum. 

120 
Dicentra eximia 27 
Dictamnus, 26, 53 
Dielytra spectabilis, 29 
Dog-tooth Violet, 2, 6 
Doronicum, 27 
Drifts in planting, 16, 26 
Dropmore Anchusa Opal, 46, 

49 

E 

Early bulb-border, i 
Echinops 75 



INDEX 

Elymus, 54, 70, 74, in; in 
the grey garden, in 

Empty spaces in borders, fill- 
ing up, 57, 69 

Epilobium, 94 

Epimedium, 36, 40, 94, 114, 

Erica carnea, 8; hybrida, 8; 

ciliata, 21 
Eryngium, 62, 63, 72, 75, 113 
Erythronium, 6 
Eulalia, 68, 113 
Euphorbia Wulfenii, 24, 27, 

40, 53. 63, 82, 137; E. 

characias, 82 
Evergreens for winter effect, 

144 
Everlasting Pea, 56, 61, 68, 

75. "I 
Cxochorda, 38 



Fern, Lady, 14, 36, 114; 

Osmunda, 14; Fern, Male, 

6, 14, 42, 113, 122, 134; 

dilated shield, 14, 19 ; 

Polypody, 14, 145; hardy 

Ferns, 58, 94, 96, 97, 145; 

Ferns in pots, 122 
Fern walk, 14, 17 
Feverfew, Golden Feather, 

85, 90 

Fig, 49. "6, 137 
Flower-border, 52 
Form in planting, 147 
Forsythia suspensa, 5, 120, 

139 
Foxgloves, 17, 43, 46, 53, 60, 

69. 94. 95 
Francoa, 122, 125 
French Marigold, 60 



iS§ 



Fruit garden, beautiful, 136 
Fuchsia, 126, 137 
Fumaria bulbosa, 6 
Funkia, 35, 58, 96, 113, 121; 
F. Sieboldi as tub plant, 127 



Galvanised iron roof, treat- 
ment of, 59 

Gaultheria, 15, 20, 93, 145 

Gazanias, 63 

Gentiana asclepiadea, 14, 94 

Geranium ibericum, 45, 52 

Geraniums (Pelargonium), 83, 
122 

Gladiolus, 73, 85, 88, 90; in 
pots, 122 



Glyceria, 113 

Godetia, 75 

Gold garden 98 ; plants for 99 

Golden Elder, 109 

Golden Plane, 100 

Goodyera, 18 

Gourds, 120 

Green-barked shrubs, 144 

Green garden, 98, 113 

Grey garden, 98, 99, no; 

plants for, no 
Grey plants, 4, 54, 63, 68, 74, 

89, no 
Grouping of plants, 121 
Guelder Rose, 38, 53, 117 
Gypsophila, 49, 56, 73, 75, 

96, in 

H 

Hamamelis, 145 , 
Hardy flower-border, main, 52 
Heath, 8, 21, 94, 145 ; path, 19 
Helenium pumilum, 62, 73 



15^ 



INDEX 



Helianthus, 57, 72, 88; in the 

Gold garden, 109 
Hellebores, Lent, 2, 6, 36 
Heracleum, 47 

Heuchera Richardsoni, 28, 31 
Hidden Garden, 34, 38 
Hill-side for planting, 40 
Hollyhock, 54, 69, 72, 76, iii, 

137 
Honesty, 29 

Honeysuckle, 19, 95, 120 
Hydrangea, 58, 70, 89, 122, 

125, 137; £18 tub plants, 132; 

H. paniculata, 96 



Iberis, see Spring-garden 
chapter, 53 

Indian Pinks, 60 

Ipomsea Heavenly Blue, 119 

Iris, stylosa, 4; dwarf, 31; Cen- 
gialti, 36, 45; flag-leaved, 
39. 45; pallida dalmatica, 
45, 52, 62; Spanish, 45, 122; 
foetidissima, 113 ; special 
borders of, 45 

Italian gardens, 121 



Jasminum nudiflorum, 119, 

145 
July flower-border, 61 
June garden, 42; climbers in 

June, 50 
Juniper, 145 

K 

Kalmia, 93, 145 
Kerria, 116 



Laburnum, arch of, 89 
Larkspur, Siberian, 66 
Laurel, 146 
Laurustinus, 52 
Lavender, 40, 49, 75, 76; 

dwarf, 66 
Ledum palustre, 94 
Lent Hellebores, 2, 6, 36, 

145 

Leycesteria formosa, 30, 144 

Lilac, 38 

Lilies, 37, 89, no; in the grey 
garden, no; in pots, 122 

LiUum auratum, 13, 58; cro- 
ceum, 53; longiflorum, 58, 
71. 75. 85. 89, 94, 96, no, 
113, 122, 134; giganteum, 
31; candidum, no, 112, 
113,122; szovitzianum, 112 

Lily of the Valley, 13, 95 

Lithospermum, 28 

Lobelias, 62, 69 

London Pride, 36, 45 

Loquat, 52 

Love-in-a-Mist, 60 

Lupines, 42, 45, 60, 112; tree 
lupines, 48, 97, 112, 139; 
as tub plants, 127 

Luzula sylvatica, 93 

Lychnis chalcedonica, 63; L. 
Haageana, 63 

Lyme Grass, 54, 70, 89 

M 

Magnolia, 116; conspicua, 4, 

69; stellata, 5, 137 
Maianthemum bifolium, 19 
Maiden's Wreath, 122, 125 
Maize, 53, 112 
Mallows, 60 



INDEX 



157 



Marigold, African, 53, 55, 60. 

71, 85, 88, 89, loi 
May-blooming shrubs, 38 
Meadowsweet, 45, 53, 62 
Megasea, 96; in bulb-border, 

6, 7; in spring garden, 24; 

in pots, 122 
Mentha rotundifolia, 85 
Menziesia polifolia, 21 
Michaelmas Daisies, 49, 57, 

75. 89. 99. 137 
Mertensia, 27 
Monarda, 73 
Mowing - machine, track of, 

15 

Mulberry, 137 

Mulching the flower-border, 

54 
Mullein, 47, 60, 62 
Myosotis, 27, 28, 30 
M3rrrhis, 24, 43, 114 
Myrtle, 116 



N 

Narcissus, in bulb-border, 7 
Nasturtiums, 54, 56, 60 
Nepeta Mussini, with grey 

plants, 49, III 
Nut-walk, 141 



CEnothera lamarckiana, loi 
Olearia Haastii, 76, 126, 139; 

O. Gunni, 45, 96, 126, 137 
Orchard, 140; wild orchard, 

141 
Orobus vernus, 29 
Othonna, 40, 82 



Paint for tubs, &c., 127 
Pansy, Tufted, 36, 50 
Papaver rupifragum, 46; P. 

pilosum, 46; P. orientale, 

46, 56 
Paths, wood, 14 
Pea, White Everlasting, 56, 

61, 68, 75, III 
Peaches, 136 
Pears, 136 

Pentstemons, 43, 60, 66, 69, 88 
Peonies, 43, 44, 97, 137 
Peony albiflora, 45 
Peony, tree, 23, 29, 35 ; as tub 

plants, 126 
Perowskya, 76 
Petunia, 53 
Phlomis, 40, 89 
Phlox divaricata, 28, 33, 35, 

36; amcena, 29; stellaria, 

33; Drummondi, 54, 60 
Pictures, living, 5, 10; some 

garden, 130 
Planting in drifts, 16, 26 
Plumbago capensis, 88, 112 
Plume Celosias, 60 
Poa aquatica, 113 
Polygonum, 96 
Pots, plants in, 121 
Primrose Garden, 31 
Privet, golden, 61, 68 
Puschkinia, 6 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, 90 
Pyrus japonica, 4, 115, 116 
Pyrus malus floribunda, 38 



Q 

Quarries, desirable for plant- 
ing, 120 



158 



INDEX 



R 



Red Dogwood, 142 
Reed, 143 
Reedmace, 143 
Rhododendron, 3, 8, 13, 16; 

93. 94. 145 
Ribbon Grass, 113 
Robinia, 69 
Rocky hillside, planting for, 

120 
Rosa lucida, 31 ; altaica, 39 ; 

Burnet Rose, 39; Fairy 

Rose, 131 
Rosemary, 40, 45, 49, 116 
Roses, garden, 43, 44, 139; 

with coloured bark, 141 
" Roses for EngUsh Gardens " 

quoted, 63 
Roses, rambling, 37, 44, 63, 

86, 93, 120, 141 
Rubus nutkanus, 13, 97 ; odor- 

atus, 13; deUciosus, 31 
Rudbeckia Golden Glow, 57, 

72,88 
Rue, 54, 61, 62, 68, 74, 88, 

112 
Ruscus, 113 



St. Bruno's Lily, 36 

Salvia patens, 66; splendens, 

88 
Santolina, 54, 64, 74, no 
Saponaria officinalis, 75, in 
Scillas, 6 

Sea Kale, 54, 61, 68, 70 
Sedum specta.bile, 90 ; S. Tele- 

phium, 83 
Senecio artemisiaefolius 62, 

73 



September, Flower-border in, 

87 
Shrubbery edges, 92 
Simplicity of aim, 9 
Skimmia, 20, 113, 145 
Smilacina, 19 
Snapdragons 43, 51, 57, 60, 

62, 66, 69, 75. 85. 89, 112 
Solanum crispum, 50, 119; 

jasminoides, 119 
Solomon's Seal, 27, 36, 39 
Special colouring, gardens of, 

98 
Spiderworts, 62, 69 
Spiraea Aruncus, 45, 46, 50, 97, 

112, 131; Lindleyana, 118 
"Spring Bitter Vetch, 29 
Spring garden, 23 
Stachys, 34, 74, 73, 89, no; 

lanata, 30, 78 
Staking and supporting, 58 
Stocks, 60 

Stonecrops on iron roof, 59 
Sunflower, sulphur, 34 , 

annual, 60 
Sweet Cicely, 24, 43 
Sweet Verbena, 119 



Tamarisk, 95, 100, 139 
Teucrium Scorodonia, 150 
Thalictrum, 50, 62, 131 
Thistle, Globe, 73 
Thyme, wild, 135, 130 
Tiarella, 26, 27, 39 
Trachelium cceruleum, 34 
Tradescantia virginica, 62 
Training down tall plants, 37, 

72, 87 
Training plants one over 

another, 56, 75, in 



INDEX 



159 



Trientalis, 17 
Trillium, 17, 94 
Tritoma, 28, 87, 137 
Tropaeolums, 63 
Tubs, plants for, 126 
Tulips, 26, 27, 28, 29 



U 



UVULARIA, 2;, 30, 40, 94, 114 



Valerian, 50, 120 

Veratrum, 24, 27 

Verbascum, 47, 62, 6g, 101 

Veronica Traversi, 30; Vero- 
nicas as tub plants, 126 

Vine, 49, 115, 116, 120, 136, 
Claret, 69 

Violas, 45 



W 

Wallflower, 26, 27, 29 
Wall shrubs, 69 
Water Elder, 39 



Weigela, 139 

White Broom, 38, 39, 40, 95, 

145 
Whortleberry, 19, 20, 144 
Wild gardening, 15 
Willow Gentian, 14 
Willows, 142 
Winter colour, 142 
Winter walk, 144 
Witch Hazel, 145 
" Wood and Garden " quoted, 

13 
Woodland, 9 
Wood paths, 14; wood and 

shrubbery edges, 92 
Woodruff, 30, 36, 39 
Wood-rush, Great, 93 



Yew hedges, 23, 100 
Yucca, 27, 28, 40, 53. 54. 63. 

68, 83, 89, no, 112, 137; 

raised borders for, 74 



Zinnias, 60 



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to a great body of men, this book offers essential guidance. 

Morning Post. — "This beautifully printed and well-illustrated volume 
is at once a history and a plea — a history of memorials and monuments 
drawn from seven centuries, and a plea for better workmanship and finer 
taste than are generally shown in the stone and brasses set up in our 
churches and other public places. Its arrival is opportune. It will not 
be the author's fault if the lapidary sequel of the great War is not better 
than that of the South African Campaign. If architects and sculptors 
will work together there is hope of better things, and here to hand in this 
volume is description and illustration of 200 subjects, chosen from ex- 
amples of the last 700 years, which they may study to the end of learning 
the rules in proportion, in the use of materials, the spacing of lettering, 
and the hke. . . We agree with Mr. Weaver that our English ideas of 
what is correct in memorials should be revised." 

The Times. — "To guide and help those who need guidance m these 
matters." . , ^ 

The Athenceum.—" Many will be grateful for these tunely and suggestive 
pages . . thoroughly well informed on the historical side of the ques- 
tion . . . most cathoUc and soundly artistic in appreciation of certain 
exceptionally good work of the twentieth century." 

9 



The " Country Life " Library 
OUR COMMON SEA-BIRDS 

CORMORANTS, TERNS, GULLS, SKUAS, PETRELS, AND AUKS 

By PERCY R. LOWE, B.A., M.B., B.C. 

With Chapters by Bentley Beetham, Francis Heatherley, W. R. 
Ogilvie-Grant, Oliver G. Pike, W. P. Pycraft, A. J. Roberts, etc. 

Large quarto, cloth, gilt, with over 300 pages and nearly 
250 illustrations. 185. gd. net. Post free {inland), jgs, 6d. 

Unlike the majority of books dealing with birds, this volume 
is of interest to the general reader and to the student of 
ornithology alike. 

It is a book that enables the reader to identify our Sea- 
birds by name, to understand their movements, their habits, 
their nests and their eggs. 

The Observer says: — "We marvel at the snapshots that have been 
taken of birds. Every movement of their flight is now recorded ; the 
taking off, the ahghting, the swooping, the settling, the ' planing,' the 
struggling against the wind. And they are just the birds which the 
ordinary man wants to know about, because he has such opportunities of 
seeing them for himself on any walk along the cliff." 

THE PEREGRINE FALCON 
AT THE EYRIE 

By FRANCIS HEATHERLEY, F.R.C.S. 

Illustrated with wonderful photographs by the Author and C. J. King. 
Demy quarto, cloth, gilt, 6s. 3d. net ; by inland post, 6s. gd. 

This fascinating book on the Peregrine Falcon — the grandest 
bird of prey left in England — combines the salient facts of 
almost innumerable field notes written at the eyrie itself. It 
is a book that should appeal with irresistible force to all true 
nature lovers. Many striking and unexpected facts were 
revealed to the author as a result of unwearying patience 
in a diminutive hut slung from the precipice of a lonely islet. 
These records are now set forth in a wonderful narrative which 
discloses the life history of the Peregrine Falcon from the 
moment of its hatching to the day it finally leaves the eyrie. 

The Times says : — ■" We commend this faithful and truly scientific 
inquiry to all lovers of animals and to those who are in quest of a real 
ioiowledge of nature." 

10 



The " Country Life " Library 
Pastime with Good Company 

Pictured by G. D. ARMOUR 
With an Introduction by Horace G. Hutchinson 

Royal quarto, tastefully bound gilt, i8s. gd. net ; by inland post, igs. 6d. 
CONTAINING OVER FIFTY CHOICE PLATES, 
THOROUGHLY TYPICAL OF MR. ARMOUR'S ART 

This volume is sure of a warm welcome from every Sports- 
man and Sportswoman of to-day. In the beautiful picture 
gallery disclosed through its pages, Mr. Armour presents a 
wonderfully representative collection of his art. Whether 
it is the field in " full cry," the grouse coming over the heather, 
the polo player dashing towards the goal, or the otter hound 
surging through the rapids, all are portrayed with individu- 
ality and fidelity, by means which have the appealing merit 
of simplicity and directness. The plates are perfect speci- 
mens of pictorial art. Each one deserves, and, indeed, de- 
mands, a frame. 

" A book for evc?ry sportsman's library." — Liverpool Courier. 



Fishing 



Edited by HORACE G. HUTCHINSON 
' In 2 volumes, each 15s. 8d. net; by post, i6s. 6d. 

The Fishing Gazette says : — " I know pretty well every book in our 
language, and in French and German, on the subject of fishing, but I 
know no work which is so good, comprehensive and cheap as this. Would 
be worth buying if it were merely for the illustrations." 

Animal Life by the Sea-Shore 

By G. A. BOULENGER, LL.D., D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., and 
C. L. BOULENGER, M.A., D.Sc. 

An indispensable handbook to all who wish to increase their 
knowledge of the habits and life-histories of the wonderful 
creatures which are to be found on our sea-shores. Nearly 
100 illustrations. Large 8vo. 6s. 3d. net ; by post, 6s. yd. 

The Yorkshire Observer says : — " Such a book was sorely needed, for 
almost all the works of a popular character dealing with shore life are 
sadly out of date." 

The Horse and the War 

By Captain SIDNEY GALTREY 
Beautifully illustrated by Captain LIONEL EDWARDS, with 
a note specially contributed by Field-Marshal Sir DOUGLAS 

HAIG, K.T., G.CB.. etc. 
Crown quarto, 6s. net ; by post, 6s. 6d. In special binding, 
T.OS. 6d. net ; by post, 11s. 
" Few of us realize the debt we owe to the horse and the mule and to 
the men who fitted them for their task. In any survey of the thousand 
wonders of the last four years this book must take a place." — Glasgow 
Herald. 

11 



The " Country Life " Library 
The Increased Productivity Series 

PAYNTER'S SYSTEM OF POULTRY REARING ; or 
£500 a Year from Hens 

By F. G. Paynter. An invaluable hook for all poultry keepers. 
Crown &v'i. Illustrated. 5s. net. By post, 5s. &d. 

THE FLEMISH SYSTEM OF POULTRY REARING 

By Madame Jasper. Illustrated, ^s. ^d. net. By post,. 
4s. gd. 
" A book wliich all who keep poultry ought to read." — Liverpool Post. 

OUR FOOD SUPPLY ; Perils and Remedies 

By Christopher Turnor. 3s. 2d. net. By post, 3s. f>d, 
" We can heartily commend this practical book to landholders and farmers." — 
Spectator. 

THE MANUAL OF MANURES 

By Henry Vendelmans. Crown 8vo. 4s. gd.' net. By post, 

4£. gd. 

"We heartily command the book." — Scottish Farmer. 

RECLAIMING THE WASTE ; Britain's Most Urgent 
Problem 

By P. Anderson Graham. 4s. grf. net. By post, 4s. gd. 
'* The book deserves to be widely read." — Glasgow Herald. 

PROFITABLE HERB GROWING AND COLLECTING 

By Ada B. Teetgen. Illustrated. gs. net. By post, 
Ss. 6d. 

"A practical handbook, well suited to assist a profitable industry, which has 
largely lapsed to Germany." — Times. 

FIRST ADVICE TO WOULD-BE FARMERS. 

The book for the Allotment Holders and Small Holders. By 

F. E. Green, gs. net. By post, ss. 6d. 

FARM RECORDS AND THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN 
MILK AT MOUNDSMERE 

By Wilfred Buckley, Director of Milk Supplies, Ministry of 
Food. With an Introduction by the Hon. Waldorf Astor, 
M.P. Medium quarto with eighteen full-page Illustrations and 
many invaluable Charts and Records, hound in buckram, gilt 
top. igs. net. By post, 6d. extra. 



ECONOMIES IN DAIRY FARMING 

An important Work on Dairying, by Ernest Mathews (the well- 
known Judge and Expert), gs. c,d- ^^t. By post, gs. jid. 

MY WOOD FIRES AND THEIR STORY 

By W. Robinson, Author of " The English Flower Garden." 
Showing the beauty and use of the wood fire. The way to secure 
good draught and combustion. The native woods best for fuel. 
"Aie abolition cf the fender, and the economy and value of wood as 
fuel. With 16 full-page Illustrations and Index. Large quarto. 
6s. 3<i. net By post, 6s. gd. 
12 



The " Country Life " Library 



RABBITS FOR FUR AND FLESH 

By C. J. Davies. Illustrated. 6s. net; by post, 6s. 6d. A 
practical and up-to-date treatise on the Hutch Rabbit- Breeding 
Industry. 

In this important volume the Author convincingly proves that if rabbits 
are correctly fed, they can be reared to a larger size and at a much lower 
■cost than by the old-fashioned methods ; that it is easily possible to 
<;ombine the breeding of exhibition and utiUty specimens ; that there are 
other varieties and more usefiil breeds than those with which most English 
breeders are acquainted, and many matters of which numerous faaciers 
appear to be totally ignorant. 

KUNNER DUCKS 

By E. A. Taylor. Illustrated. 3s. 6d. net: by post, 3s. iid. A 
practical and highly-instructive book on the new type of Duck 
for Egg Production. Novel and revolutionary ideas for the 
production of Land-Duck Eggs in large quantities. 250 eggs 
per duck annually. 



The " Country Life " Library of Verse 

THE " COUNTRY LIFE " ANTHOLOGY OF VERSE 

Edited by P. Anderson Graham. Over 200 pages. Cloth, 
6s. 3(i. net ; sheepskin, 8s. 6d. net ; by post, sd. extra. 

'• There is something very fresh and fragrant about this Anthology." — Western Daily 
Mercury. 

" A book which every lover of poetry should buy." — The Teachers' World. 

" All the pieces are of a high standard of excellence, and many of them are poetic 
gems of the first v/itei ."^-Glasgow Herald. 

POEMS 

By Dorothy Frances Gurney. Daintily bound, 6s. 3d. 
net; by post, 6s. 8d. 
" Mrs. Gurney has the gift of song." — The Times. 

THE LITTLE BOOK OF QUIET 

By Dorothy Frances Gurney. 3s. id. net; by post, 3s. 6rt. 

■" Many of the verses are worthy of Christma Rossetti."— Wes<»-» Morning News. 

SONGS OF A DAY. 

By Isabel Butchart. 3s. 2d. net; by post, 3s. 6d. 
" Polished little cameos of verse." — The Times. 

MORE SONGS OF ANGUS 

By Violet Jacob. 3s. 6d. net; by post, 3s. lod. * 

"To give excerpts from these poems ... is like pulling roses to pieces to find the 
choicest petal."— Morning Post. 

13 



The " Country Life " Library 
"Country Life" Library of Garden Books 

. GARDENING FOR BEGINNERS 

(A Handbook to the Garden.) By E. T. Cook. Coloured plates 
and over 200 illustrations, plans and diagrams from photographs 
of selected specimens of Plants, Flowers, Trees, Shrubs, Fruits, 
etc. Sixth Edition. i$s. Jid. net. By post, 16s. 6d. 

" One cannot speak in too high praise of the idea that led Mr. E. T. Coolt to 
compile this Gardening for Beginners, and of the completeness and succinct- 
ness with which the idea has been carried out. Nothing is omitted. ... It 
is a book that will be welcomed with enthusiasm in the world of gardeners." — 
Moyning Post. 

WALL AND WATER GARDENS 

With Chapters on the Rock Garden, the Heath Garden and the 
Paved Water Garden. 5th Edition. Revised and Enlarged. By 
Gertrude Jekyll. Containing instructions and hints on the 
cultivation of suitable plants on-dry walls, rock walls, in streams, 
marsh pools, lakes, ponds, tanks and water margins. With 200 
illustrations. Large 8vo, 220 pages. 15s. 8d. net. By post, 
16s. ^d. 

" He who will consent to follow Miss Jekyll aright will iind that under her guid- 
ance the old walls, the stone steps, the rockeries, the ponds, or streamlets of his 
garden will presently blossom with all kinds of flowers undreamed of, and become 
marvels of varied foliage." — Times. 

CHILDREN AND GARDENS 

By Gertrude Jekyll. A garden book for children, treating not 
only of their own little gardens and other outdoor occupations, but 
also of the many amusing and interesting things that occur in and 
about the larger home garden and near grounds. Thoroughly 
practical and full of pictures. 75. 6d. net. By post, 8s. 

" Little bits of botany, quaint drawings of all kinds of things, pretty pictures, 
reminiscences and amusements — ^why, it is a veritable ' Swiss Family Robinson ' 
for the bairns, and we shall be surprised and disappointed if it is not introduced 
into many hundreds of homes." — Liverpool Post. 

TREES AND SHRUBS FOR ENGLISH GARDENS 

By E. T. Cook. 15s. 8a!. net. By post, i6s. gd. 

" It contains a mass of instruction and illustration not always to be fotmd alto- 
gether when required, and as such it will be very useful as a {mpular hand-book 
for amateurs and others anxious to grow trees and shrubs."— FwW. 

MY GARDEN 

By Eden Phillpotts. 207 pages. 60 full-page illustrations. 
ys. 6d. net. By post, 8s. 

" It is a thoroughly practical book, addressed especially to those who, like bim~ 
self, have about an acre of flower garden, and are willing and competent to help a 
gardener to malce it as rich, as harmonious, and as enduring as possible. His chap- 
ters on irises are particularly good." — World. 

ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS 

The best Annual and Biennial Plants and their uses in the Garden. 
By Gertrude Jekyll. With cultural notes by E. H. Jenkins. 
Illustrated throughout, gs. ^d. net. By post, gs. iid. 
' A noteworthy addition to the special literature of the garden." — The Scotsman. 

14 



The " Country Life " Library 



" Country Life " Library of Garden Books [cont). 

THE DISEASES OF TREES 

By Professor R. Hartig. Royal 8wo. 13s. 2d. net. By- 
post, 13s. 6d. 

SEASIDE PLANTING OF TREES AND SHRUBS 

By Alfred Gaut, F.R.H.S. An interesting and instructive book 
dealing with a phase of arboriculture hitherto not touched upon. 
It is profusely illustrated, and diagrams are given explaining- 
certain details. 6s. ^d. net. By post, 6s. qd. 

" Mr. Gaut has accomplished a piece of very solid and extremely useful work,, 
and one that may not be without considerable influence upon the future develop- 
ment of coast-side garden work and agriculture." — Liverpool Courier. 

THE BOOK OF BRITISH FERNS 

By Chas. T. Druery, F.L.S., V.M.H., President of the British 
Pteridological Society. 45. ^d. net. By post, 45. ^d. 

" The book is well and lucidly written and arranged ; it is altogether beautifully- 
got up. Mr. Druery has long been recognized as an authority on the subject." — 
Si. Jameses Gazette. 

THE HARDY FLOWER BOOK 

By E. H. Jenkins. A complete and trustworthy guide to all who 
are desirous of adding to their knowledge of the best means of 
planting and cultivating hardy flowers. Large Crown 8vo, 50 
illustrations and cbloured frontispiece. 2nd Edition. 3s. 2d. net^ 
By post, 3 s. 6d. 

" The amateur gardener who covets success should read ' The Hardy Flower 
Book.' " — Daily Mail. 

GARDENING MADE EASY 

By E. T. Cook. An instructive and practical gardening book of 
200 pages and 23 illustrations, is. iid. net. Cloth, 2S. 6d.. 
net. Postage, $d. extra. 
" The A.B.C. of Gardening." — Scotsman. 

ROSE GROWING MADE EASY 

By E. T. Cook. A simple Rose Guide for amateurs, freely illus- 
trated with diagrams showing ways of increasing, pruning and. 
protecting roses, is. 3d. net. Cloth, 2s. net. Postage, ^d. extra. 
"... Ought to be in the hands of every rose grower." — Aberdeen Free Press. 

FRUIT GROWING FOR BEGINNERS 

A simple and concise handbook on the cultivation of Fruit. By 
F. W. Harvey, is. 3d. net. Cloth, 2s. net. Postage, sd. 
extra. 
" An amazing amount of information is packed' into this book." — Evening News.. 

CAUSERIES ON ENGLISH PEWTER 

By Antonio de Navarro. Treats of Old Pewter, Pewter Church 
Plate, Evolution of the Tankard, The Trencher and its Uses^ 
Church Flagons, Chalices, Patens, Forks, Salts, Spoons and the 
Custody of Pewter. Quarto. Price 13s. 2d. net. By inland 
post, 13s. gd. 
THE FIRST AND CHIEF GROUNDES OF ARCHITECTURE 
By John Shute, 1563, with an historical and critical introduction 
by Lawrence Weaver. Facsimile edition, limited to 100 a 
numbered copies of this rare and important work, the ftrst book 
on architecture published in England. Folio, half-bound in 
sheepskin. 185. gd. net. By post, 19s. 4^. 
15 



The " Country Life " Library 



PHOTOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS 

An instructive and practical booh, worded clearly but non-scientific- 
ally for the tyro camera user. IS. ^d. net. Cloth, zs.net. Postage, 
^d. extra. 

FRENCH HOUSEHOLD COOKING 

By Mrs. Frances Keyzer. Shows how simple and inexpensive 
is the art of cooking as the French understand it. 2s. net. Cloth, 
2s. 6d. net. Postage, ^d. extra. 

" Mrs. Keyzer's manual has become one that no housekeeper's library ought 
I to be without." — Daily Mail. . 



VEGETABLE GROWING 

By HerberTj,Cowley {Editor of " The Garden "). 2nd Impres- 
sion, gd. net. By post, iid. 

RABBIT KEEPING 

By C. J. Davies. 6th Impression, gd. net. By post, iid. 

GOAT-KEEPING 

By C. J. Davies. gd. net. By post, iid. 

PIG-KEEPING 

By C. J. Davies. gd. net. By post, iid. 

BEE-KEEPING 

By W. Herrod Hempsall, F.E.S. [Editor of " The British Bee 
Journal"), gd.net. By post, iid. 

POULTRY-KEEPING 

Cheap Daily Menus for Fowls. By Will Hooley, F.Z.S. 
gd. net. By post, iid. 

STORING VEGETABLES AND FRUITS 

With Chapters on Prying in the Oven and by the' Kitchen Fire. 
By Herbert Cowley, gd.net. By post, i id. 

HOME-MADE PICKLES AND PRESERVES 

Gamishings, Flavourings, Home Brewed Wines, etc. Recipes 
New and Old. Collected by Anne Amateur, gd. net. By 
post, lid. 

FRUIT BOTTLING AND PRESERVING 

Practical and Homely Recipes. By Mrs. Edwin Beckett. 
gd. net. By post, iid. 

PRACTICAL CAVY KEEPING 

With a Chapter on the Profitable Breeding of Fancy Mice. By 
J. T. Bird. gd. net. By post, iid. 

LAWN TENNIS HINTS 

By F. R. Burrow, gd.net. By post, iid. 

16