Contributions to the herpetology of New
3 1924 002 883 050
THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS
SCIENTIFIC BULLETIN No. 1.
Contributions to the Herpetology
of New Granada and Argentina
With Descriptions of New Forms
By EDWARD a GOPE
PHILADELPHIA, MAY 26, W9
The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.
THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS
SCIENTIFIC BULLETIN No. J
Contributions to the Herpetology
of New Granada and Argentina
With Descriptions of New Forms
By EDWARD D. COPE
A Posthumous Paper Edited by J. Percy Moore
PHILADELPHIA, MAY 26, 1899
On a Collection of Batrachia and Reptilia
from New Granada.
By E. D. COPE.
The collection which furnishes the basis of the investigation
presented in the following pages was made in Colombia, near
Bogota, fpr the World's Exposition of Chicago, where it was ex-
hibited in the department of New Granada. The number of
species is fifty-four, of which nine are new to science. I have
not been, able to ascertain the exact localities at which the speci-
mens were obtained, but most of them, it is believed, were found
in the neighborhood of Bogota. Some of them, as, for instance,
the Crpcodilus americanus, were- not fpund in that neighbor-
The collection embraces a number of species which are very
rare in collections.
(Edjpus adspbesus Peters. - One specimen, No. 79.
Bufo granulosus Spix. One specimen, No. 74.
Hyla vilsoniana sp. nov. Plate I, Figure 1.
Web of anterior foot insignificant ; that of posterior foot ex-
cluding last two phalanges of fourth toe, and only reaching
distal half of antepenultimate, thus about two-thirds complete.
Vomerine teeth in two transverse series between the choanas,
which are equal in size to the ostia pharyngea. Tongue round,
feebly emarginate, and considerably free posteriorly and
laterally. Heel of extended hind limb reaching middle of eye.
Tympanic disc generally obscure, but where visible, exhibiting
a diameter of half of the eye fissure. Head short, muzzle not
prominent, a little longer than eye. Canthus rostralis obtuse,
slightly concave; nostrils subterminal. Discs of manus one-half
the diameter of the tympanic disc; those of the posterior foot
smaller. Skin of upper surfaces smooth; a fold from orbit over
tympanum to humerus.
Length of head and body 40
Length to posterior border of membranum
tympani (axial) 10
Length of fore leg 20
" " foot 11.5
" hind leg 60
" " " foot 27
Color in spirits dull light purple to lead-color; probably
green in life. Inferior surfaces pale, gular region dusky. In
some specimens a dusky line extends from the nostril to the
middle of the side, and a few dusky spots are below it, posterior
to the axilla. In one individual the stripe extends nearly to the
groin and is separated from the darker shade of the back by a
pale band. Posterior face of femur either unicolor, or marked
by a few dusky reticulations.
This species belongs to the same group as the H. labialis
Pet. and H. depressiceps Blgr. of the same region. From the
former it differs, among other points, in the shorter web of the
posterior digits and the shorter hind legs. The characters are
uniform in these respects in eight specimens of the H. vilsoniana.
H. depressiceps differs from the latter in the "very distinct tym-
panum," the "toes three-fourths webbed," and very much in the
coloration, according to Boulenger.
I have dedicated this plant-loving species to my friend,
Professor William P. Wilson, Professor of Vegetable Physiology
in the University of Pennsylvania, and Director of the Philadel-
phia Commercial Museum.
Eight specimens, Nos. 75, 76 and 78.
Hylodes bogotbnsis Peters. Three specimens, No. 80.
The form of the tongue varies in these specimens from
nearly discoid to an elongate oval. In the specimen with the
narrowest tongue the sides are paler than the median dorsal
region, which is divided by a light vertebral line. The top of the
muzzle is pale anterior to the orbits. The other two specimens
are dark brown above, but in one of them the dorsal region is
darker than the sides and is divided by a darker vertebral line.
Prostherapsis subpunctatus sp. nov. Plate I, Figure 2.
Muzzle rounded, not projecting, loral region vertical, can-
thus rostralis distinct. Muzzle 1.5 to 1.2 as long as diameter
of eye ; nostril nearer to the extremity than to the eye. Eyelid
wider than interorbital space. Tympanic disc distinct, two-
thirds diameter of eye. Hind leg extended reaches the posterior
border of the orbit with the heel. Digital dilations small; two
small metatarsal tubercles ; first finger equal to second. Tongue
oval. Skin everywhere smooth.
^ Measurements. Mm.
Length of head and body 43
" " " to posterior edge tympanum 7
" fore leg 13
" " foot 6
" hind leg 31
" " " foot 16
Color above brownish gray to dark brown, separated by a
pale border from a deep brown lateral band which extends
from the end of the muzzle to the groin, and which widens on the
side. Inferior aspect of thighs, and sides, and sometimes also
middle of abdomen, spotted with brown. Posterior face of
thighs obscurely marbled. Upper lip white, generally brown
spotted and bordered. In the paler specimens the back and top
of head are brown spotted, and there is sometimes a pale ver-
tebral stripe. Legs and feet light below, darker spotted brown
Eight specimens, No. 77.
Cecilia gracilis Shaw. One specimen, No. 71.
Length 1,300 mm. ; a well-developed intromittent organ.
Polyciiuus mahmoeatus Linn. One specimen, jSTo. 11.
Noeops aueattjs Daud. One specimen, No. — .
Anolis sulcifeoxs sp. nov. Plate II, Figure 1.
This species agrees in most respects with the A. pentaprion
Cope. That is in the carination and crest of the tail, in the
proportions and surfaces of the scales of the head and body,
in the rather short limbs, in the large fan and in the coloration.
It differs in the following features : The supraorbital ridges are
elevated, so that the frontal region is grooved, and not flat;
their posterior extremities are connected by a transverse 'ridge,
so that the parietal plane makes an angle with the frontal. The
occipital (properly parietal) plate is transversely divided; and
there are six or seven rows of loral scales instead of three. The
head is conspicuously smaller, and especially narrower, its width
being three-quarters of the length of the tibia, while the two
measurements are equal in the A. pentaprion.
Length of head and body 64
" " " to auricular meatus 16
" fore leg 26
" " " foot 9
" " hind leg 38
" " foot 18
Width of head at auricular meatus 9.5
One specimen, Xo. 6.
Anolis feexatus sp. nov. Plate II, Figure 2.
Tail cylindric, scales equal, keeled, a little larger than dor-
sals. Dorsal scales small, thick, keeled ; laterals a little smaller ;
ventrals thickened, smooth, equal to dorsals. Head elongate,
1.5 as wide as long to occiput; the length of the tibia reaching
from end of muzzle to half way between orbit and auricular
meatus. Latter rather small, subhorizontal. Front without
ridges, slightly concave; supraorbital borders elevated, occipital
region a triangular depression. Scales of head rather small,
thickened or weakly keeled. Supraorbital scales enlarged,
especially anteriorly, separated by three rows of scales. Supra-
oculars mostly small, but five or six larger are keeled and are
separated by a row of scales from supraorbitals. Twelve rows of
scales at widest part of front; three canthal scales, and six rows
of loral scales. Occipital not larger than surrounding scales,
smaller than auricular meatus. The extended hind leg reaches
to the middle of the orbit. Fan large, extending on thorax to
between shoulders. Digital expansions well developed, twenty-
five lamellae on penultimate joint of fourth posterior toe.
Postanal plates present in male.
Length of head and body (tail injured) 135
" " " to occiput 32
« « « angle of mandible 36
Width of head at angle of mandible 22
Length of fore limb 54
" * " " foot 23.5
" " hind limb 98
" " " foot 47
The color is brown, changeable into bright green when the
skin is stretched. A wide blackish band extends from one orbit
to the other, passing over the nape posterior to the line of the
auricular meatus. A large triangular blackish spot above each
humerus meets its mate of the opposite side on the middle line,
and joins the postorbital band by its inferior anterior angle.
Upper lip pale, which color continues as a stripe to above ear.
Belly uniform green; tail below brown.
This, the largest continental South American species, be-
longs to the group of A. squamulaius Pet., A. latifrons Berth.,
and a new species which I now describe as A. purpurescens*
•ANOLIS PURPURESCENS Sp. BOV.
Tail eylindric, covered with rather small flat equal keeled scales.
Dorsal and lateral scales sub-equal, small, convex, two medium rows at
one point a little larger and keeled obtusely. Ventral scales twice
as large as dorsals, smooth. Head 1.5 as long (to occiput) as wide,
without frontal ridges, and concave medially anterior to the orbits;
Frontal bone concave; parietal ridges converging posteriorly: Tibia
equaling length from end of muzzle to auricular meatus; the latter
In its keeled and non-imbricate dorsal scales it approaches the
A. squamulatuSj but it differs in many details of squamation.
Thus the latter has sixteen rows of scales on the front, nine
rows of loreal scales, six rows between supraorbitals, which latter
are not enlarged; lateral scales minutely granular, and ventrals
about equal to occipital scale. Canthus rostralis well-defined, with seven
scales larger than those adjacent. Fourteen rows of scales on widest
part of muzzle at base; supraorbitals enlarged, transverse, not continu-
ing on muzzle, separated from each other by two rows of flat scales, and
from the occipital by four (or three) rows. Seven or eight rows of
loral scales, the superior row the largest. Enlarged supraoculars in
about three longitudinal rows, diminishing in size externally; the inner
row of four scales all weakly keeled.
Fourteen scales in a presubocular series; superior labials twelve;
eleven inferior labials. The infralabial scales are all small and are
keeled. Fan large, extending much posterior to line of axillae. Ex-
tended hind leg reaches to front of orbit. Twenty-one lamellae under
penultimate phalanx of fourth posterior digit. Postanal scuta present.
Length of head and body L 78
" " " to occiput 21
Width of head at occiput 13
Length of fore leg 36
" " foot 12
" hind leg 64
" " fooL ." 26
Color above purple or violet, below white ( in spirits ) . Numerous
small oval darker spots are arranged in longitudinal lines on the back
and sides, becoming rounder on the latter, and grouped into transverse
agglomerations, producing the effect of bands, which are directed a
little backwards as well as downwards. Limbs and tail light purple,
with wide dark purple cross bands. Head lighter, spotted with purple
above and on the sides. Except some faint traces, the inferior surfaces
This handsome species resembles those above mentioned, which form
the A. laticeps group, which are from the Colombian district of South
America, and are the largest species of the continent. In the A. lati-
ceps Berth, the scales are all equal. In A. squamulatus. Pet. there are
five or six rows between the supraorbitals, which are not enlarged,
and the lateral scales are minutely granular, the occipital scale is
minute, and the supraocular scales are scarcely enlarged ( Peters ) .
The A. frenatus, above described, has much smaller supraorbitals, less
numerous frontals, smaller ventrals and a shorter tibia, besides very
The only specimen of the A. purpuresoens which I have seen is
No. 4321 of the collection of the United States National Museum, and
was collected by Arthur Schott, of the Miehler surveying expedition
on the Truando River, New Granada. It is enumerated as Anolis 1 ?
reticulatus Gray, in my Report on the Reptilia collected by that expedi-
tion in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy, 1862, p. 356.
much larger than dorsals. The coloration is also quite different.
The difference from A. purpurescens will be pointed out under
I took a single specimen from the oesophagus of a Her-
petodryas carinatus (No. 61). It is in perfect condition, except
that more than half of the tail is broken off.
Xiphocercus heterodermus Dum., three specimens, Nos.
6, 7 and 61.
Thecodaciylus rapicaudus Hout., four specimens, No. 2.
Ameiva surinamejjsis Laur., No. 12.
Cnemidophortjs minimus Laur., two specimens, Nos. 4 and 50.
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus Daud., four specimens, No. 4a.
Oreosaurus striatus Peters.
Anadia bogotensis Peters, nine specimens.
Heterodonium bicolor gen. et sp. nov., Plate III.
Char. gen. — Frontonasal plate separating nasals; pre-
frontal and frontoparietal plates absent; nostril in suture be-
tween nasal and first lateral plates; no interparietal plate.
Limbs rudimental, two pairs; digits 4-1, the anterior clawed.
No femoral pores.
This genus differs from Sesquipes, since the latter has
digits 4-2; in the allied genus Microdactylies they are 3-3.
I have pointed out the penial characters of this genus in the
"Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences,"
1896, p. 466. A welt bounds the sukms spermatieus on each side.
The space between these is marked by a few feeble cross folds,
and the borders support a single series of closely placed recurved
Char, specif. Scales in annuli of twenty-eight scales,
which are angular at the extremities and alternate with those
of the adjacent annuli. Labials 5-6; temporals 2-2-2. Three
large preanal plates longer than wide. Tail long, obtuse; hind
legs minute. Anterior digits short, subequal. Brown above,
separated abruptly on each side from the darker brown of the
sides and lower surfaces. Chin and throat yellowish. Scales of
upper surface each with a bluish spot.
Total length 130
Length of head and body 78
" fore limb 3
" hind limb 1.3
Width of head posteriorly 5
This is one of those interesting forms allied to Gophias,
which exhibit degeneracy of feet and limbs in varying de-
grees. This genus is interesting as displaying greater per-
sistence of the fore limbs as compared with the posterior, which
are reduced to mere buds. In Ophiognomon Cope, the hind
limbs are similarly reduced, while in Propus Cope they have
disappeared ; but in both genera the fore limbs are more reduced
and there is no frontonasal plate.
Two specimens, No. 10.
Teetioscincus bifasciatus Dum., two specimens, No. — .
Mabuia agilis Eaddi, three specimens, No. — .
Amphisbjsna fuliginosa Linn., two specimens, No. 13.
Helminthophis anops sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 1.
Rostral wide, not half «s wide as head, broadly in contact
with the rather narrow transverse frontal. Three superior
labials, the first largest, the second and third higher than long.
Eye invisible. Five scales border the prefrontal and first labial
between the frontal and second labial, and seven scales separate
the first median scale from the third labial. Twenty-six rows
of scales. Tail as long as, or a little longer than, wide.
Color dark brown, the scales of the dorsal half of the body
with a darker centre. Head yellow; tail and anal region uni-
form with the body.
Total length, 372 mm. ; tail, 6 mm.
This species has a tendency to subdivision of scales. In one
of the two specimens the frontal is divided into two regular
scales, and in another the lower extremity of the first labial is.
cut off on One side.
Two specimens, No. 14.
Glaucoxia mackolepis Peters. One specimen, No. 15.
Glaucoxia albifhoxs Wagl. One specimen, 15a.
Epiceates cexcheis Linn. One. specimen, No. 57.
Liophis bimaculatus sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 2.
Tail entering total length 4.5 times. Head distinct;
diameter of eye half or a little more than half the length of the
muzzle. Eostral plate not prominent, twice as wide as high,
visible from above. Internasals as long as broad, and nearly as
long as prefrontals. Frontal nearly as wide as long, equal to
length in front of it, and equal to length of parietals. Loral
higher than long; oculars 2-2; temporals 1-2 or 1-1-2. Superior
labials eight, fourth and fifth entering orbit. Four inferior
labials in contact with pregenials, which are equal in length to
the postgenials. Scales in seventeen rows. Gastrosteges 173-4;
anal 1-1 ; urosteges 65-70. Total length 660 mm. ; tail 142 mm.
General color above olivaceous, basal sutures of scales black.
On the third row on each side the black gradually covers the
entire scale, forming a black stripe on the posterior two-thirds
of the length, which extends to the end of the tail. A similar
extension of the basal black occurs on the sixth row on each side,
but does not form a completed stripe anterior to the tail, where
they soon fuse into a single median stripe. A large black spot
on each side of the nape extending to the angle of the mouth,
and a number of more obscure spots succeeding it for a short
distance on each side, which gradually disappear. An indistinct
dark line through eye ; no spots on parietal plates. Belly white
tessellated with black, the black often covering entire gastro-
steges. Throat, lips and inferior side of tail unspotted.
Five specimens, Nos. 29 and 42.
This species is evidently near to the L. fraseri, which in-
habits Ecuador. The differences may be seen in the following
characters, which I derive from Boulenger : The oculars are 1-2 ;
five labials are in contact with the anterior genial, which is
shorter than the postgenial. Frontal nearly twice as long as
broad. No nuchal or lateral spots. "Lower parts white with
scattered small black spots." There is some variation in some
<of the specimens. In the smallest two there is but one preocular
•on each side, and on one side of each there are five labials in
■contact with the pregenials. As compared with L. tceniurus,
which belongs to the same group, the oculars are 1-2; there are
<only 53-7 urosteges; there is a black nuchal collar, and the tail
Is black below.
LlOPHIS ALBIVBNTEIS Jan.
Tail five and a half times in total length. Head distinct.
Muzzle not projecting; the rostral plate twice as wide as high
and visible from above. Internasal plates wider than long, a
little shorter than prefrontals. Frontal nearly as wide as long,
a little exceeding muzzle' and a little shorter than parietals.
Loral deeper than long. Oculars 1-2, temporals 1-2. Superior
labials eight, fourth and fifth entering orbit. Five inferior
labials in contact with pregenials, which equal the postgenials.
Scales in seventeen rows. Gastrosteges 133; anal 1-1; urosteges
56. Total length 184 mm.; tail 34 mm.
Head olivaceous above, followed by a wide black half collar
which extends for four scales posterior to the occipital, and to
below the line of the canthus oris on each side. Ground color
above anteriorly, light brown, which is crossed by two or three
transverse black bars. These break up into spots which form
six rows, of which the four median are brown and more or less
connected, enclosing lighter brown interspaces. The external
lateral spots are more distinct, are black and are continued to
the base of the tail at intervals of three and four scales. On the
tail they fuse into a lateral stripe. No dorsal stripes. Lips and
inferior surfaces unspotted.
Three specimens, No. 47, These are young, and I describe
them to indicate their color difference from the typical L. albi-
ventriSj with which they agree in scutal characters. The L. alti-
colis Cope (Ophromorphus) is regarded by Boulenger as
identical with the L. albiventris. Of the propriety of this I have
some doubt, as the muzzle is more elongate in the former, the
internasal plates being very nearly as long as broad. The gas-
trosteges are more numerous than the highest given by Bou-
lenger. They are 161; urosteges, 64; the number in the L. al-
biventris ranges, according to Boulenger, from 138 to 158. The
small specimens here described might elongate the muzzle and
internasal plates at maturity, so as to be similar to those of
the L. albiventris, but such a change as is necessary to become
identical with the L. alticolis is not probable.
Atractus badius Boie. Ten specimens.
Nine of these (Nos. 20 and 58) agree in coloration. They
are blackish brown, with light transverse bars, which do not
cross the median dorsal region. A pale band posterior to orbit.
One of these has tha inferior postocular aborted, and in another
there are only two superior labials posterior to the orbit on both
sides, making but six labials in all. In one specimen (No. 20a)
the color is light brown, with several rows of ill-defined rounded
darker brown spots. A blackish line follows the extremities of
the gastrosteges on each side. Belly black spotted. Size larger
than that of the other specimens.
Acanthophallus colubrinus Gthr. One specimen, No. 57.
Leptognathus triseriatas sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 3.
Scales in fifteen rows, those of the dorsal series nearly twice
as wide as long; those of the row adjacent to it on each side
smaller, but larger than the other scales. Bostral plate higher
than wide; internasal suture about one-third the prefrontal.
Frontal plate as wide as long ; its anterior suture transverse, and
longer than the supraocular. Parietals longer than frontal.
Nasal large; loral deeper than long, bounding the orbit below
and separated from the supraocular by a preocular which
does riot reach the frontal. Postoeulars two; temporals 2-3.
Superior labials nine, fifth and sixth bounding orbit; all higher
than long, except the eighth and ninth; the ninth the longest.
Inferior labials twelve, first two pairs mutually in contact be-
hind the symphyseal. Genials three pairs, the anterior a little
longer than wide.
Gastrosteges 176; anal entire; urosteges 82.
Ground color very light ( ? yellowish) brown, or white
( ? yellow in life), crossed by black yellow-edged annuli, which
are interrupted on the bell}', and sometimes broken and alter-
nating on the median dorsal line. The annuli extend over six
rows of scales, and are about as wide as their interspaces.
Their white ( ? yellow) borders are one scale wide. No alter-
nating spots. Belly with a few longitudinal spots on or near
the middle line. Head uniformly black, with a transverse half
collar of small yellow spots extending over the nape from the
angle of the mouth of one side to the other.
Total length (No. 1), 307 mm.; of tail, 72 mm.; (No. 2),
315 mm.; 77 mm.
This handsome species is in its compressed body and very
distinct head typical of the genus. Technically it approaches
the L. brevifasies Cope, but it is probably more nearly allied to
the L. variegata D. & B. In the latter there is no preocular
plate ; the rostral plate is much broader ; the third superior labial
enters the eye, showing that disposition of those plates is differ-
ent throughout, and there are only two pairs of genials, both
broader than long. The coloration is quite different. I have
not this species before me, and derive the above characters from
Two specimens, No. 46.
Leptognathus catesbyi Sentz. One specimen, No. 43.
Petalognathus nebulata Linn. Five specimens, Nos. 28, 50
Deymobius bivittatus D. & B. Three specimens, Nos. 17, 45
Drymobius boddaertii Sentz, subsp. rappii Gthr.
One specimen with three rows of black alternating quadrate
spots on a yellowish ground; No. 69.
Drymobius boddaertii Sentz, subsp. boddaertii. Five speci-
mens, Nos. 26, 27, 60, 23 and 42.
Spilotes pullatus Linn.
One specimen with eighteen rows of scales on the body for
a short distance.
Herpetgdtas carinatus Linn. One specimen, No. 16.
This snake had partially swallowed an adult Anolis (A.
frenatus Cope supra).
Leptophis occidentalis Gthr. Pour specimens, No. 42.
Ninia atrata atrata Hallow. One specimen, No. 19.
Erythrolamprds ^esculapii Linn. Thirteen specimens, Nos.
3, 33, 37, 38, 67 and 99.
No. 3 has the rings on the posterior part of the body ar-
ranged in threes, which is very unusual in this species.
Oxyrhoptjs clcelia Daud. Six specimens, No. 32.
Oxybhopus petolarius Linn. Four specimens. Nos. 39, 40 and
Scytale neuvidii D. & B. Two specimens, Nos. 32 and 51.
Ehinostoma gttianense Trosch. One specimen, No. 16. .
Tantilla longifrontale Boul. (Homalocranium.)' Two
specimens, Nos. 18 and 21.
Stenorhina degenhardtii Berth. Six specimens, Nos. 24,
25 and 70.
Sibon albofuscum Lacep. Fourteen specimens, Nos. 44, 48
Himantodes platycephaltjs sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 4.
I have given a synopsis of the species of this genus Himan-
todes in "The American Naturalist" for 1894, p. C14. Addi-
tional material enables me to extend this as follows :
I. Scales in Fifteen Rows.
Frontal twice as long as wide; temporals 1-2-3; labials eight;
vertebrate enlarged, truncate ; genials equal ; spotted
above, below speckled B. lentiferus Cope.
II. Scales in Seventeen Eows.
a Frontal plate twice as long as wide; eight upper labials; genials
subequal; spots above indistinct; below speckled, with
medium stripe H. inornatus Blgr.
aa Frontal plate not twice as long as wide ; lateral bor-
der exceeding anterior.
/3 Vertebrals enlarged and truncate.
Pregenials twice as long as postgenials, joining only four labials;
seventh superior labial longer than high; temporals 2-3;
scales of eighth row equal to those of first; belly speckled.
H. hemigenius* Cope.
Pregenials equal postgenials, joining five labials; eighth and first
row of scales equal; seventh superior labial higher than long;
dorsal spots approximate; temporals 2-3; belly with three
series of spots H. stratissimus Cope.
Pregenials equal postgenials, joining usually five labials; eighth
row smaller than first, seventh superior labial higher than
long; temporals 1 or 2-2; below speckled H. cenchoa Linn.
Pregenials equal or shorter than postgenials, as in JET. cenchoa,
but temporals 2-3 ; ground color very pale ; spots black, reach-
ing belly ; yellow bordered ; belly speckled . . . . S. leucomelas Cope.
. /3/3 Vertebral scales not enlarged, or if a little enlarged,
*HlMANTODES HEMIGENIUS Cope.
Scales in seventeen rows, those of the vertebral row wider than long,
truncate; those of the eighth row equal those of the first. Head oval,
muzzle short, equal diameter of eye. Frontal plate two-thirds as wide
as long, anterior suture shorter than supraocular. Common suture
of parietals a little shorter than frontal plate. Superior labials eight,
fourth and fifth bounding orbit, seventh like eighth, longer than high.
Loral higher than long; oculars 1-2 (upper end of preocular on one side
cut off); temporals 2-3. Postgenials half as long as pregenials; the
latter in contact with only four inferior labials. Gastrosteges, 246;
Eight upper labials, seventh higher than long; fourth and fifth
entering orbit; temporals 1-2; genials subequal ; brown with
darker brown spots; below speckled S. gemmistratus Cope.
As the last; third, fourth and fifth labials in orbit; very pale,
with large black, yellow edged dorsal spots extending to
belly ; belly white H. tenuissimus Cope.
aa Anterior border of frontal plate longer than lateral
Seven superior labials, sixth longer than high; temporals 3-3;
genials subequal ; muzzle very short; spots larger; belly with
a medium stripe of speckles H. platycephalus Cope.
The detailed characters of the H. platycephalus are as fol-
lows : Scales in seventeen rows, those of the vertebral row much
enlarged, truncate; the eighth row smaller than the first. Head
very wide; muzzle short, not longer than the diameter of the
eye measured along the median scutal suture. Frontal plate
one-fourth longer than wide, anterior suture one-third longer
than supraocular suture. Superior labials seven; third and
fourth bounding orbit, sixth and seventh longer than high.
Loral higher than long; oculars 1-2. Temporals 3-3-4. Oc-
cipitals a little longer than frontal on median suture, the ex-
ternal borders regularly convex. Postgenials equal or exceed-
ing pregenials. Body compressed. Gastrosteges 228; urosteges
124. Total length, 360 mm. ; tail, 92 mm.
The ground color is a very pale brown. This is crossed by
numerous transverse dark brown, light-edged spots, which are
approximated on the median line, and diverge as they narrow
downwards. These extend to the gastrosteges except on the pos-
terior third of the body, where the separated apices form a series
of small lateral spots. Here and there is a small alternating
Color above light brown, below straw-color. Closely placed brown
spots extend to the gastrosteges in front, and have their lateral angles
cut off as lateral spots posterior to the middle. The centres of the
dorsal spots are paler than their borders. Centres of cephalic plates
brown. Inferior surfaces irregularly speckled with brown; no stripes;
throat and lips unspotted.
The very short postgenial plates with the low seventh superior
labial, and only four inferior labials joining the pregenials distinguish
this species from the H. cenchoa; although the last character is some-
times found in that species. Santa Clara, Costa Rica. Sen. Alfaro.
Mus. nac. de Costa Rica, No. 92.
spot near the gastrosteges. Belly speckled with dark brown; a
median stripe of speckles. Labials unspotted. Top of head
brown, with a pale Y on parietals, a cross on frontal, and trans-
verse pale borders to the frontal, prefrontal and internasals.
One specimen, No. 44a.
Himantodes cenchoa Linn. Six specimens, of which all
but one have a single preoeular plate. In the other the superior
part of this plate is separated from the remainder by a suture. In
all there are two temporals of the first row. In both these char-
acters these specimens differ from my specimens from Ecuador
and Peru east of the Andes, and agree with the II. sernifasciatus
of Central America. They have the broad vertebral scuta of the
true II. cenchoa. I incline to leave the Columbian specimens
with the H. cenchoa, and to regard their characters as requiring
that the II. semifasciatus be regarded as a subspecies of the
Oxybelis argenteus Daud. One specimen, No. 31.
Oxybelis acuminatus Wied. One specimen, No. 30.
Elaps mipartitus D. & B. Fifteen specimens, Nos. 36, 51,
52, 53 and 55. The anterior temporal is not especially narrow in
any of the specimens, and the gastrosteges reach as high a num-
ber as 305; urosteges 25. The light annuli vary from 51 to 71.
Elaps fulvius Linn. Five specimens, Nos. 11, 24, 33, 35
and 37. A variety in which the black of the head extends to the
extremity of the parietal plates, and there are from sixteen to
twenty-five black annuli on the body. These are not yellow-
edged, and are separated by red interspaces much wider than
themselves, in which all the scales are black-tipped. This group
includes the var. H. of Boulenger, whose only specimen is stated
to come from Yucatan, and to have nineteen black rings.
Lachesis lanceolatus Lacep. Eighteen specimens. Nos. 32,
42, 61, 63, 64, 65 and 66.
Total Species. New.
Salientia 5 3
Sauria 15 3
Serpentes 32 4
CATALOGUE OF A COLLECTION OF REPTILIA FROM
By E. D. Cope.
OPHIDIA. 25 species.
Eunectes notsens Cope, Anaconda ; 3 skins.
Rhadinxa occipitalis Jan.
" obtusa Cope,
Aporophis dilepis Cope.
" flawfrenatus Cope.
" anomalus Gthr.
Xenodon almadensis Wagl.
" poecilogyrus doliatus Wied.
" " cubella Linn.
" rhaMocephalm Wied.
Lyslrophis dorbignyi D. & B.
" pulcher Jan.
Helicops lepeieurii D. & B.
Dymobius bifossatus Eaddi.
Leptophis ahxtulla Linn, marginata, Cope.
Leptognathus mikanii Sctaleg.
Philodryas olfersii Licht.
" schottii Schl.
Thamnodynastes nattereri Mikam.
Oxyrhopus petolarius Linn.
" rhombifer D. & B.
" immaculatus D & B.
Elaps surinamerms Cuv.
Botlirops alternatus D. & B.
Crotalu8 terrificus Lau
Polyehrus angustirostris Wagl.
Opheodes striates Spix.
Tupinnmbis teguex n Linn.
Tents fe»/0M Daud.
Mabuia dorsivittata Cope.
Jacare latirostris Wagl.
■" sclerops Wagl.
Eunectes not^ius Cope. Proceeds, Academy .Nat. Sci., Phila., 1862.
p. 69. Plate I, Figure 3.
Since my description of the Southern anaconda, thirty-three years
ago, it has remained unnoticed' by authors, until in the addenda of the
last volume of the catalogue of the species of snakes in the British
Museum it is mentioned. Previously but one species of Eunectes, the-
common anaconda, E. murinus L., had been admitted. The localities
from which the specimens of this species in the British Museum were
obtained, are all, according to the catalogue, from the Guianas, Brazil
and northeastern Peru. The four specimens of the E. notceus which
have thus far come under my observation are from the drainage region
of the Paraguay River, as is also the single one referred to in the ad-
denda of the British Museum Catalogue.
The characters which I pointed out as distinguishing the Paraguayan
from the Northern anaconda I find to hold good. The circle of plates
surrounding the eye rest immediately on the labial plates, there being-
no intervening row as in E. murinus, except that on one side of one
specimen two narrow scales intervene, but do not continue so as to
complete the separation. The anterior labial plates are not so elevated
as in the E. murinus, the head, in fact, being more depressed. The
scales are not so numerous. Boulenger gives (1. c.) fifty-seven to sixty-
three rows in the E. murinus. The type specimen of the E. notwus has
forty-five rows; one of the Argentine skins has forty-five rows and two
others have forty-eight.
The coloration is distinct. Thus there is a black band from the
eye to the angle of the mouth, and the top of the head is lead-color,
with a dark border in the E. murinus, In E. notaeus, besides the black
band from the eye, there are three similar ones on the top of the
head; two superciliary, which meet on the muzzle, and one median.
The dorsal spots are more numerous and are closer together in the
E. notaeus. In two of the skins I count fifty-three and sixty spots, re-
spectively, of which the anterior are confluent into a median stripe.
In an E. murinus, which I owe to the Zoological Society of Philadel-
phia, there are only forty-seven spots, and these are well separated,
especially anteriorly. There are two rows of eye-like spots on each side
in E. notaeus for most of the* length, or until their superior borders
become confluent into two longitudinal stripes on each side, which ex-
tend to the head. In the E. murinus there are two rows of such spots
on the posterior part of the body only, and the single row does not
become confluent into a stripe anteriorly. There are two rows of
small broken black spots below these in both species. In a word, the
color difference between the two species consists in the fact that the
spots are more numerous in the Southern species and become confluent
into stripes anteriorly, which they do not in the Northern species, where
they become smaller and tend to disappear. The ground color in the
Paraguayan species is brown, in the E. murinus it is lead-color.
The largest skin of the E. notwus measures 2,519 mm., of which
the tail is 324 mm.
EXPLANATION OF PLATES.
Figure 1. Hyla vilsoniana sp. nov., la, dorsal view; lb, ventral
view showing also tongue and palatal characters; lc, side view of head.
All natural size.
Figure 2. Frostherapsis subpunotatus sp. nov., 2a, dorsal view;
2b, ventral view showing also tongue and palatal characters ; 2c, side
view of head. All natural size.
Figure 3. Jilunectes notwus Uope. 3a, b and e, respectively, lateral,
dorsal and ventral views of head. From a, dried skin; the chin shields
shrivelled and difficult to observe. One-half natural size.
Figure 1. Anolis sulcifrons sp. nov., la, side view of head and
gular fan; lb, dorsal, and lc, ventral views of head; Id, ventral view
of hind leg and region of vent; le, section of tail showing scales from
dorsal to ventral surface. All X 1%-
Figure 2. Anolis frenatus sp. nov., 2a to 2c, respectively, are views
corresponding to those shown in Figure 1. All natural size.
All figures. Heterodonium bicoior gen. et. sp. nov., 1, entire animal
from above X 1% ; 2, 3 and 4, respectively dorsal, ventral and lateral
views of head X 3%; 5, ventral view of fore leg X 7; 6 and 7, ventral
views of thoracic and anal regions X 3%; 8, section of side of body
Figure 1. Eelminthophis anops sp. nov., la>Jb, c and d, respectively,
dorsal, lateral, ventral and front views of head; le, ventral region; If,
lateral scales. All X 4.
Figure 2. Liophis bimaculatus sp. nov., 2a, b and c, respectively,
dorsal, ventral and lateral views of head; 2d, anal region; 2e, lateral
view of section of body. All X 1%-
Figure 3. heptognathus triseriatus sp. nov., 3a, b, c and d, re-
spectively, dorsal, ventral, lateral and front views of head; 3e, anal
region; 3f, section of side of body. All X 2.
Figure 4. Eimantodes platycephalus sp. nov., 4a, dorsal, and 4b,
lateral views of head; 4c, anal region; 4d, section showing squamation
of side of body. All X 2%.
Philadelphia Commercial Museum.
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope.
subpunctatus. Eunectea notaeus.
Philadelphia Commercial M. sum.
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope.
Anolis sulcifrons. Anolis frenatus.
Philadelphia Commercial Museum.
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope.
Philadelphia Commercial Museum.
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope.
Leptognathus triseriatus. Himantodes platyceplialus.
Helminthophie anops. Liophis bimaculatus.
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