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Contributions to the herpetology of New 

3 1924 002 883 050 



Contributions to the Herpetology 
of New Granada and Argentina 

With Descriptions of New Forms 




Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



Contributions to the Herpetology 
of New Granada and Argentina 

With Descriptions of New Forms 

. a 


A Posthumous Paper Edited by J. Percy Moore 


On a Collection of Batrachia and Reptilia 
from New Granada. 

By E. D. COPE. 

The collection which furnishes the basis of the investigation 
presented in the following pages was made in Colombia, near 
Bogota, fpr the World's Exposition of Chicago, where it was ex- 
hibited in the department of New Granada. The number of 
species is fifty-four, of which nine are new to science. I have 
not been, able to ascertain the exact localities at which the speci- 
mens were obtained, but most of them, it is believed, were found 
in the neighborhood of Bogota. Some of them, as, for instance, 
the Crpcodilus americanus, were- not fpund in that neighbor- 

The collection embraces a number of species which are very 
rare in collections. 



(Edjpus adspbesus Peters. - One specimen, No. 79. 


Bufo granulosus Spix. One specimen, No. 74. 
Hyla vilsoniana sp. nov. Plate I, Figure 1. 

Web of anterior foot insignificant ; that of posterior foot ex- 
cluding last two phalanges of fourth toe, and only reaching 
distal half of antepenultimate, thus about two-thirds complete. 
Vomerine teeth in two transverse series between the choanas, 
which are equal in size to the ostia pharyngea. Tongue round, 
feebly emarginate, and considerably free posteriorly and 
laterally. Heel of extended hind limb reaching middle of eye. 
Tympanic disc generally obscure, but where visible, exhibiting 
a diameter of half of the eye fissure. Head short, muzzle not 



prominent, a little longer than eye. Canthus rostralis obtuse, 
slightly concave; nostrils subterminal. Discs of manus one-half 
the diameter of the tympanic disc; those of the posterior foot 
smaller. Skin of upper surfaces smooth; a fold from orbit over 
tympanum to humerus. 

Measurements. Mm. 

Length of head and body 40 

Length to posterior border of membranum 

tympani (axial) 10 

Length of fore leg 20 

" " foot 11.5 

" hind leg 60 

" " " foot 27 

Color in spirits dull light purple to lead-color; probably 
green in life. Inferior surfaces pale, gular region dusky. In 
some specimens a dusky line extends from the nostril to the 
middle of the side, and a few dusky spots are below it, posterior 
to the axilla. In one individual the stripe extends nearly to the 
groin and is separated from the darker shade of the back by a 
pale band. Posterior face of femur either unicolor, or marked 
by a few dusky reticulations. 

This species belongs to the same group as the H. labialis 
Pet. and H. depressiceps Blgr. of the same region. From the 
former it differs, among other points, in the shorter web of the 
posterior digits and the shorter hind legs. The characters are 
uniform in these respects in eight specimens of the H. vilsoniana. 
H. depressiceps differs from the latter in the "very distinct tym- 
panum," the "toes three-fourths webbed," and very much in the 
coloration, according to Boulenger. 

I have dedicated this plant-loving species to my friend, 
Professor William P. Wilson, Professor of Vegetable Physiology 
in the University of Pennsylvania, and Director of the Philadel- 
phia Commercial Museum. 

Eight specimens, Nos. 75, 76 and 78. 

Hylodes bogotbnsis Peters. Three specimens, No. 80. 

The form of the tongue varies in these specimens from 
nearly discoid to an elongate oval. In the specimen with the 

narrowest tongue the sides are paler than the median dorsal 
region, which is divided by a light vertebral line. The top of the 
muzzle is pale anterior to the orbits. The other two specimens 
are dark brown above, but in one of them the dorsal region is 
darker than the sides and is divided by a darker vertebral line. 

Prostherapsis subpunctatus sp. nov. Plate I, Figure 2. 

Muzzle rounded, not projecting, loral region vertical, can- 
thus rostralis distinct. Muzzle 1.5 to 1.2 as long as diameter 
of eye ; nostril nearer to the extremity than to the eye. Eyelid 
wider than interorbital space. Tympanic disc distinct, two- 
thirds diameter of eye. Hind leg extended reaches the posterior 
border of the orbit with the heel. Digital dilations small; two 
small metatarsal tubercles ; first finger equal to second. Tongue 
oval. Skin everywhere smooth. 

^ Measurements. Mm. 

Length of head and body 43 

" " " to posterior edge tympanum 7 

" fore leg 13 

" " foot 6 

" hind leg 31 

" " " foot 16 

Color above brownish gray to dark brown, separated by a 
pale border from a deep brown lateral band which extends 
from the end of the muzzle to the groin, and which widens on the 
side. Inferior aspect of thighs, and sides, and sometimes also 
middle of abdomen, spotted with brown. Posterior face of 
thighs obscurely marbled. Upper lip white, generally brown 
spotted and bordered. In the paler specimens the back and top 
of head are brown spotted, and there is sometimes a pale ver- 
tebral stripe. Legs and feet light below, darker spotted brown 

Eight specimens, No. 77. 

Cecilia gracilis Shaw. One specimen, No. 71. 

Length 1,300 mm. ; a well-developed intromittent organ. 

Polyciiuus mahmoeatus Linn. One specimen, jSTo. 11. 
Noeops aueattjs Daud. One specimen, No. — . 
Anolis sulcifeoxs sp. nov. Plate II, Figure 1. 

This species agrees in most respects with the A. pentaprion 
Cope. That is in the carination and crest of the tail, in the 
proportions and surfaces of the scales of the head and body, 
in the rather short limbs, in the large fan and in the coloration. 
It differs in the following features : The supraorbital ridges are 
elevated, so that the frontal region is grooved, and not flat; 
their posterior extremities are connected by a transverse 'ridge, 
so that the parietal plane makes an angle with the frontal. The 
occipital (properly parietal) plate is transversely divided; and 
there are six or seven rows of loral scales instead of three. The 
head is conspicuously smaller, and especially narrower, its width 
being three-quarters of the length of the tibia, while the two 
measurements are equal in the A. pentaprion. 

Measurements. Mm. 

Length of head and body 64 

" " " to auricular meatus 16 

" fore leg 26 

" " " foot 9 

" " hind leg 38 

" " foot 18 

Width of head at auricular meatus 9.5 

One specimen, Xo. 6. 

Anolis feexatus sp. nov. Plate II, Figure 2. 

Tail cylindric, scales equal, keeled, a little larger than dor- 
sals. Dorsal scales small, thick, keeled ; laterals a little smaller ; 
ventrals thickened, smooth, equal to dorsals. Head elongate, 
1.5 as wide as long to occiput; the length of the tibia reaching 
from end of muzzle to half way between orbit and auricular 
meatus. Latter rather small, subhorizontal. Front without 
ridges, slightly concave; supraorbital borders elevated, occipital 
region a triangular depression. Scales of head rather small, 
thickened or weakly keeled. Supraorbital scales enlarged, 


especially anteriorly, separated by three rows of scales. Supra- 
oculars mostly small, but five or six larger are keeled and are 
separated by a row of scales from supraorbitals. Twelve rows of 
scales at widest part of front; three canthal scales, and six rows 
of loral scales. Occipital not larger than surrounding scales, 
smaller than auricular meatus. The extended hind leg reaches 
to the middle of the orbit. Fan large, extending on thorax to 
between shoulders. Digital expansions well developed, twenty- 
five lamellae on penultimate joint of fourth posterior toe. 
Postanal plates present in male. 

Measurements. Mm. 

Length of head and body (tail injured) 135 

" " " to occiput 32 

« « « angle of mandible 36 

Width of head at angle of mandible 22 

Length of fore limb 54 

" * " " foot 23.5 

" " hind limb 98 

" " " foot 47 

The color is brown, changeable into bright green when the 
skin is stretched. A wide blackish band extends from one orbit 
to the other, passing over the nape posterior to the line of the 
auricular meatus. A large triangular blackish spot above each 
humerus meets its mate of the opposite side on the middle line, 
and joins the postorbital band by its inferior anterior angle. 
Upper lip pale, which color continues as a stripe to above ear. 
Belly uniform green; tail below brown. 

This, the largest continental South American species, be- 
longs to the group of A. squamulaius Pet., A. latifrons Berth., 
and a new species which I now describe as A. purpurescens* 


Tail eylindric, covered with rather small flat equal keeled scales. 
Dorsal and lateral scales sub-equal, small, convex, two medium rows at 
one point a little larger and keeled obtusely. Ventral scales twice 
as large as dorsals, smooth. Head 1.5 as long (to occiput) as wide, 
without frontal ridges, and concave medially anterior to the orbits; 
Frontal bone concave; parietal ridges converging posteriorly: Tibia 
equaling length from end of muzzle to auricular meatus; the latter 


In its keeled and non-imbricate dorsal scales it approaches the 
A. squamulatuSj but it differs in many details of squamation. 
Thus the latter has sixteen rows of scales on the front, nine 
rows of loreal scales, six rows between supraorbitals, which latter 
are not enlarged; lateral scales minutely granular, and ventrals 

about equal to occipital scale. Canthus rostralis well-defined, with seven 
scales larger than those adjacent. Fourteen rows of scales on widest 
part of muzzle at base; supraorbitals enlarged, transverse, not continu- 
ing on muzzle, separated from each other by two rows of flat scales, and 
from the occipital by four (or three) rows. Seven or eight rows of 
loral scales, the superior row the largest. Enlarged supraoculars in 
about three longitudinal rows, diminishing in size externally; the inner 
row of four scales all weakly keeled. 

Fourteen scales in a presubocular series; superior labials twelve; 
eleven inferior labials. The infralabial scales are all small and are 
keeled. Fan large, extending much posterior to line of axillae. Ex- 
tended hind leg reaches to front of orbit. Twenty-one lamellae under 
penultimate phalanx of fourth posterior digit. Postanal scuta present. 

Measurements. Mm. 

Length of head and body L 78 

" " " to occiput 21 

Width of head at occiput 13 

Length of fore leg 36 

" " foot 12 

" hind leg 64 

" " fooL ." 26 

Color above purple or violet, below white ( in spirits ) . Numerous 
small oval darker spots are arranged in longitudinal lines on the back 
and sides, becoming rounder on the latter, and grouped into transverse 
agglomerations, producing the effect of bands, which are directed a 
little backwards as well as downwards. Limbs and tail light purple, 
with wide dark purple cross bands. Head lighter, spotted with purple 
above and on the sides. Except some faint traces, the inferior surfaces 
are unspotted. 

This handsome species resembles those above mentioned, which form 
the A. laticeps group, which are from the Colombian district of South 
America, and are the largest species of the continent. In the A. lati- 
ceps Berth, the scales are all equal. In A. squamulatus. Pet. there are 
five or six rows between the supraorbitals, which are not enlarged, 
and the lateral scales are minutely granular, the occipital scale is 
minute, and the supraocular scales are scarcely enlarged ( Peters ) . 
The A. frenatus, above described, has much smaller supraorbitals, less 
numerous frontals, smaller ventrals and a shorter tibia, besides very 
different coloration. 

The only specimen of the A. purpuresoens which I have seen is 
No. 4321 of the collection of the United States National Museum, and 
was collected by Arthur Schott, of the Miehler surveying expedition 
on the Truando River, New Granada. It is enumerated as Anolis 1 ? 
reticulatus Gray, in my Report on the Reptilia collected by that expedi- 
tion in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy, 1862, p. 356. 

much larger than dorsals. The coloration is also quite different. 
The difference from A. purpurescens will be pointed out under 
that species. 

I took a single specimen from the oesophagus of a Her- 
petodryas carinatus (No. 61). It is in perfect condition, except 
that more than half of the tail is broken off. 

Xiphocercus heterodermus Dum., three specimens, Nos. 
6, 7 and 61. 

Thecodaciylus rapicaudus Hout., four specimens, No. 2. 

Ameiva surinamejjsis Laur., No. 12. 

Cnemidophortjs minimus Laur., two specimens, Nos. 4 and 50. 

Cnemidophorus lemniscatus Daud., four specimens, No. 4a. 

Oreosaurus striatus Peters. 

Anadia bogotensis Peters, nine specimens. 

Heterodonium bicolor gen. et sp. nov., Plate III. 

Char. gen. — Frontonasal plate separating nasals; pre- 
frontal and frontoparietal plates absent; nostril in suture be- 
tween nasal and first lateral plates; no interparietal plate. 
Limbs rudimental, two pairs; digits 4-1, the anterior clawed. 
No femoral pores. 

This genus differs from Sesquipes, since the latter has 
digits 4-2; in the allied genus Microdactylies they are 3-3. 

I have pointed out the penial characters of this genus in the 
"Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences," 
1896, p. 466. A welt bounds the sukms spermatieus on each side. 
The space between these is marked by a few feeble cross folds, 
and the borders support a single series of closely placed recurved 

Char, specif. Scales in annuli of twenty-eight scales, 
which are angular at the extremities and alternate with those 
of the adjacent annuli. Labials 5-6; temporals 2-2-2. Three 
large preanal plates longer than wide. Tail long, obtuse; hind 
legs minute. Anterior digits short, subequal. Brown above, 
separated abruptly on each side from the darker brown of the 
sides and lower surfaces. Chin and throat yellowish. Scales of 
upper surface each with a bluish spot. 


Measurements. Mm. 

Total length 130 

Length of head and body 78 

" fore limb 3 

" hind limb 1.3 

Width of head posteriorly 5 

This is one of those interesting forms allied to Gophias, 
which exhibit degeneracy of feet and limbs in varying de- 
grees. This genus is interesting as displaying greater per- 
sistence of the fore limbs as compared with the posterior, which 
are reduced to mere buds. In Ophiognomon Cope, the hind 
limbs are similarly reduced, while in Propus Cope they have 
disappeared ; but in both genera the fore limbs are more reduced 
and there is no frontonasal plate. 

Two specimens, No. 10. 

Teetioscincus bifasciatus Dum., two specimens, No. — . 
Mabuia agilis Eaddi, three specimens, No. — . 
Amphisbjsna fuliginosa Linn., two specimens, No. 13. 



Helminthophis anops sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 1. 

Rostral wide, not half «s wide as head, broadly in contact 
with the rather narrow transverse frontal. Three superior 
labials, the first largest, the second and third higher than long. 
Eye invisible. Five scales border the prefrontal and first labial 
between the frontal and second labial, and seven scales separate 
the first median scale from the third labial. Twenty-six rows 
of scales. Tail as long as, or a little longer than, wide. 

Color dark brown, the scales of the dorsal half of the body 
with a darker centre. Head yellow; tail and anal region uni- 
form with the body. 

Total length, 372 mm. ; tail, 6 mm. 

This species has a tendency to subdivision of scales. In one 


of the two specimens the frontal is divided into two regular 
scales, and in another the lower extremity of the first labial is. 
cut off on One side. 

Two specimens, No. 14. 


Glaucoxia mackolepis Peters. One specimen, No. 15. 
Glaucoxia albifhoxs Wagl. One specimen, 15a. 



Epiceates cexcheis Linn. One. specimen, No. 57. 


Liophis bimaculatus sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 2. 

Tail entering total length 4.5 times. Head distinct; 
diameter of eye half or a little more than half the length of the 
muzzle. Eostral plate not prominent, twice as wide as high, 
visible from above. Internasals as long as broad, and nearly as 
long as prefrontals. Frontal nearly as wide as long, equal to 
length in front of it, and equal to length of parietals. Loral 
higher than long; oculars 2-2; temporals 1-2 or 1-1-2. Superior 
labials eight, fourth and fifth entering orbit. Four inferior 
labials in contact with pregenials, which are equal in length to 
the postgenials. Scales in seventeen rows. Gastrosteges 173-4; 
anal 1-1 ; urosteges 65-70. Total length 660 mm. ; tail 142 mm. 

General color above olivaceous, basal sutures of scales black. 
On the third row on each side the black gradually covers the 
entire scale, forming a black stripe on the posterior two-thirds 
of the length, which extends to the end of the tail. A similar 
extension of the basal black occurs on the sixth row on each side, 
but does not form a completed stripe anterior to the tail, where 
they soon fuse into a single median stripe. A large black spot 
on each side of the nape extending to the angle of the mouth, 
and a number of more obscure spots succeeding it for a short 
distance on each side, which gradually disappear. An indistinct 


dark line through eye ; no spots on parietal plates. Belly white 
tessellated with black, the black often covering entire gastro- 
steges. Throat, lips and inferior side of tail unspotted. 

Five specimens, Nos. 29 and 42. 

This species is evidently near to the L. fraseri, which in- 
habits Ecuador. The differences may be seen in the following 
characters, which I derive from Boulenger : The oculars are 1-2 ; 
five labials are in contact with the anterior genial, which is 
shorter than the postgenial. Frontal nearly twice as long as 
broad. No nuchal or lateral spots. "Lower parts white with 
scattered small black spots." There is some variation in some 
<of the specimens. In the smallest two there is but one preocular 
•on each side, and on one side of each there are five labials in 
■contact with the pregenials. As compared with L. tceniurus, 
which belongs to the same group, the oculars are 1-2; there are 
<only 53-7 urosteges; there is a black nuchal collar, and the tail 
Is black below. 


Tail five and a half times in total length. Head distinct. 
Muzzle not projecting; the rostral plate twice as wide as high 
and visible from above. Internasal plates wider than long, a 
little shorter than prefrontals. Frontal nearly as wide as long, 
a little exceeding muzzle' and a little shorter than parietals. 
Loral deeper than long. Oculars 1-2, temporals 1-2. Superior 
labials eight, fourth and fifth entering orbit. Five inferior 
labials in contact with pregenials, which equal the postgenials. 
Scales in seventeen rows. Gastrosteges 133; anal 1-1; urosteges 
56. Total length 184 mm.; tail 34 mm. 

Head olivaceous above, followed by a wide black half collar 
which extends for four scales posterior to the occipital, and to 
below the line of the canthus oris on each side. Ground color 
above anteriorly, light brown, which is crossed by two or three 
transverse black bars. These break up into spots which form 
six rows, of which the four median are brown and more or less 
connected, enclosing lighter brown interspaces. The external 
lateral spots are more distinct, are black and are continued to 
the base of the tail at intervals of three and four scales. On the 


tail they fuse into a lateral stripe. No dorsal stripes. Lips and 
inferior surfaces unspotted. 

Three specimens, No. 47, These are young, and I describe 
them to indicate their color difference from the typical L. albi- 
ventriSj with which they agree in scutal characters. The L. alti- 
colis Cope (Ophromorphus) is regarded by Boulenger as 
identical with the L. albiventris. Of the propriety of this I have 
some doubt, as the muzzle is more elongate in the former, the 
internasal plates being very nearly as long as broad. The gas- 
trosteges are more numerous than the highest given by Bou- 
lenger. They are 161; urosteges, 64; the number in the L. al- 
biventris ranges, according to Boulenger, from 138 to 158. The 
small specimens here described might elongate the muzzle and 
internasal plates at maturity, so as to be similar to those of 
the L. albiventris, but such a change as is necessary to become 
identical with the L. alticolis is not probable. 

Atractus badius Boie. Ten specimens. 

Nine of these (Nos. 20 and 58) agree in coloration. They 
are blackish brown, with light transverse bars, which do not 
cross the median dorsal region. A pale band posterior to orbit. 
One of these has tha inferior postocular aborted, and in another 
there are only two superior labials posterior to the orbit on both 
sides, making but six labials in all. In one specimen (No. 20a) 
the color is light brown, with several rows of ill-defined rounded 
darker brown spots. A blackish line follows the extremities of 
the gastrosteges on each side. Belly black spotted. Size larger 
than that of the other specimens. 

Acanthophallus colubrinus Gthr. One specimen, No. 57. 
Leptognathus triseriatas sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 3. 

Scales in fifteen rows, those of the dorsal series nearly twice 
as wide as long; those of the row adjacent to it on each side 
smaller, but larger than the other scales. Bostral plate higher 
than wide; internasal suture about one-third the prefrontal. 
Frontal plate as wide as long ; its anterior suture transverse, and 
longer than the supraocular. Parietals longer than frontal. 
Nasal large; loral deeper than long, bounding the orbit below 


and separated from the supraocular by a preocular which 
does riot reach the frontal. Postoeulars two; temporals 2-3. 
Superior labials nine, fifth and sixth bounding orbit; all higher 
than long, except the eighth and ninth; the ninth the longest. 
Inferior labials twelve, first two pairs mutually in contact be- 
hind the symphyseal. Genials three pairs, the anterior a little 
longer than wide. 

Gastrosteges 176; anal entire; urosteges 82. 

Ground color very light ( ? yellowish) brown, or white 
( ? yellow in life), crossed by black yellow-edged annuli, which 
are interrupted on the bell}', and sometimes broken and alter- 
nating on the median dorsal line. The annuli extend over six 
rows of scales, and are about as wide as their interspaces. 
Their white ( ? yellow) borders are one scale wide. No alter- 
nating spots. Belly with a few longitudinal spots on or near 
the middle line. Head uniformly black, with a transverse half 
collar of small yellow spots extending over the nape from the 
angle of the mouth of one side to the other. 

Total length (No. 1), 307 mm.; of tail, 72 mm.; (No. 2), 
315 mm.; 77 mm. 

This handsome species is in its compressed body and very 
distinct head typical of the genus. Technically it approaches 
the L. brevifasies Cope, but it is probably more nearly allied to 
the L. variegata D. & B. In the latter there is no preocular 
plate ; the rostral plate is much broader ; the third superior labial 
enters the eye, showing that disposition of those plates is differ- 
ent throughout, and there are only two pairs of genials, both 
broader than long. The coloration is quite different. I have 
not this species before me, and derive the above characters from 

Two specimens, No. 46. 

Leptognathus catesbyi Sentz. One specimen, No. 43. 
Petalognathus nebulata Linn. Five specimens, Nos. 28, 50 

and 60. 
Deymobius bivittatus D. & B. Three specimens, Nos. 17, 45 

and 49. 
Drymobius boddaertii Sentz, subsp. rappii Gthr. 


One specimen with three rows of black alternating quadrate 
spots on a yellowish ground; No. 69. 

Drymobius boddaertii Sentz, subsp. boddaertii. Five speci- 
mens, Nos. 26, 27, 60, 23 and 42. 
Spilotes pullatus Linn. 

One specimen with eighteen rows of scales on the body for 
a short distance. 
Herpetgdtas carinatus Linn. One specimen, No. 16. 

This snake had partially swallowed an adult Anolis (A. 
frenatus Cope supra). 

Leptophis occidentalis Gthr. Pour specimens, No. 42. 
Ninia atrata atrata Hallow. One specimen, No. 19. 


Erythrolamprds ^esculapii Linn. Thirteen specimens, Nos. 
3, 33, 37, 38, 67 and 99. 

No. 3 has the rings on the posterior part of the body ar- 
ranged in threes, which is very unusual in this species. 

Oxyrhoptjs clcelia Daud. Six specimens, No. 32. 

Oxybhopus petolarius Linn. Four specimens. Nos. 39, 40 and 

Scytale neuvidii D. & B. Two specimens, Nos. 32 and 51. 
Ehinostoma gttianense Trosch. One specimen, No. 16. . 
Tantilla longifrontale Boul. (Homalocranium.)' Two 

specimens, Nos. 18 and 21. 
Stenorhina degenhardtii Berth. Six specimens, Nos. 24, 

25 and 70. 
Sibon albofuscum Lacep. Fourteen specimens, Nos. 44, 48 

and 50. 
Himantodes platycephaltjs sp. nov. Plate IV, Figure 4. 

I have given a synopsis of the species of this genus Himan- 


todes in "The American Naturalist" for 1894, p. C14. Addi- 
tional material enables me to extend this as follows : 

I. Scales in Fifteen Rows. 

Frontal twice as long as wide; temporals 1-2-3; labials eight; 
vertebrate enlarged, truncate ; genials equal ; spotted 
above, below speckled B. lentiferus Cope. 

II. Scales in Seventeen Eows. 

a Frontal plate twice as long as wide; eight upper labials; genials 
subequal; spots above indistinct; below speckled, with 
medium stripe H. inornatus Blgr. 

aa Frontal plate not twice as long as wide ; lateral bor- 
der exceeding anterior. 
/3 Vertebrals enlarged and truncate. 

Pregenials twice as long as postgenials, joining only four labials; 
seventh superior labial longer than high; temporals 2-3; 
scales of eighth row equal to those of first; belly speckled. 

H. hemigenius* Cope. 

Pregenials equal postgenials, joining five labials; eighth and first 
row of scales equal; seventh superior labial higher than long; 
dorsal spots approximate; temporals 2-3; belly with three 
series of spots H. stratissimus Cope. 

Pregenials equal postgenials, joining usually five labials; eighth 
row smaller than first, seventh superior labial higher than 
long; temporals 1 or 2-2; below speckled H. cenchoa Linn. 

Pregenials equal or shorter than postgenials, as in JET. cenchoa, 
but temporals 2-3 ; ground color very pale ; spots black, reach- 
ing belly ; yellow bordered ; belly speckled . . . . S. leucomelas Cope. 

. /3/3 Vertebral scales not enlarged, or if a little enlarged, 
not truncate. 


Scales in seventeen rows, those of the vertebral row wider than long, 
truncate; those of the eighth row equal those of the first. Head oval, 
muzzle short, equal diameter of eye. Frontal plate two-thirds as wide 
as long, anterior suture shorter than supraocular. Common suture 
of parietals a little shorter than frontal plate. Superior labials eight, 
fourth and fifth bounding orbit, seventh like eighth, longer than high. 
Loral higher than long; oculars 1-2 (upper end of preocular on one side 
cut off); temporals 2-3. Postgenials half as long as pregenials; the 
latter in contact with only four inferior labials. Gastrosteges, 246; 
urosteges, 146. 


Eight upper labials, seventh higher than long; fourth and fifth 
entering orbit; temporals 1-2; genials subequal ; brown with 
darker brown spots; below speckled S. gemmistratus Cope. 

As the last; third, fourth and fifth labials in orbit; very pale, 
with large black, yellow edged dorsal spots extending to 
belly ; belly white H. tenuissimus Cope. 

aa Anterior border of frontal plate longer than lateral 

Seven superior labials, sixth longer than high; temporals 3-3; 
genials subequal ; muzzle very short; spots larger; belly with 
a medium stripe of speckles H. platycephalus Cope. 

The detailed characters of the H. platycephalus are as fol- 
lows : Scales in seventeen rows, those of the vertebral row much 
enlarged, truncate; the eighth row smaller than the first. Head 
very wide; muzzle short, not longer than the diameter of the 
eye measured along the median scutal suture. Frontal plate 
one-fourth longer than wide, anterior suture one-third longer 
than supraocular suture. Superior labials seven; third and 
fourth bounding orbit, sixth and seventh longer than high. 
Loral higher than long; oculars 1-2. Temporals 3-3-4. Oc- 
cipitals a little longer than frontal on median suture, the ex- 
ternal borders regularly convex. Postgenials equal or exceed- 
ing pregenials. Body compressed. Gastrosteges 228; urosteges 
124. Total length, 360 mm. ; tail, 92 mm. 

The ground color is a very pale brown. This is crossed by 
numerous transverse dark brown, light-edged spots, which are 
approximated on the median line, and diverge as they narrow 
downwards. These extend to the gastrosteges except on the pos- 
terior third of the body, where the separated apices form a series 
of small lateral spots. Here and there is a small alternating 

Color above light brown, below straw-color. Closely placed brown 
spots extend to the gastrosteges in front, and have their lateral angles 
cut off as lateral spots posterior to the middle. The centres of the 
dorsal spots are paler than their borders. Centres of cephalic plates 
brown. Inferior surfaces irregularly speckled with brown; no stripes; 
throat and lips unspotted. 

The very short postgenial plates with the low seventh superior 
labial, and only four inferior labials joining the pregenials distinguish 
this species from the H. cenchoa; although the last character is some- 
times found in that species. Santa Clara, Costa Rica. Sen. Alfaro. 
Mus. nac. de Costa Rica, No. 92. 


spot near the gastrosteges. Belly speckled with dark brown; a 
median stripe of speckles. Labials unspotted. Top of head 
brown, with a pale Y on parietals, a cross on frontal, and trans- 
verse pale borders to the frontal, prefrontal and internasals. 
One specimen, No. 44a. 

Himantodes cenchoa Linn. Six specimens, of which all 
but one have a single preoeular plate. In the other the superior 
part of this plate is separated from the remainder by a suture. In 
all there are two temporals of the first row. In both these char- 
acters these specimens differ from my specimens from Ecuador 
and Peru east of the Andes, and agree with the II. sernifasciatus 
of Central America. They have the broad vertebral scuta of the 
true II. cenchoa. I incline to leave the Columbian specimens 
with the H. cenchoa, and to regard their characters as requiring 
that the II. semifasciatus be regarded as a subspecies of the 

Oxybelis argenteus Daud. One specimen, No. 31. 
Oxybelis acuminatus Wied. One specimen, No. 30. 


Elaps mipartitus D. & B. Fifteen specimens, Nos. 36, 51, 
52, 53 and 55. The anterior temporal is not especially narrow in 
any of the specimens, and the gastrosteges reach as high a num- 
ber as 305; urosteges 25. The light annuli vary from 51 to 71. 

Elaps fulvius Linn. Five specimens, Nos. 11, 24, 33, 35 
and 37. A variety in which the black of the head extends to the 
extremity of the parietal plates, and there are from sixteen to 
twenty-five black annuli on the body. These are not yellow- 
edged, and are separated by red interspaces much wider than 
themselves, in which all the scales are black-tipped. This group 
includes the var. H. of Boulenger, whose only specimen is stated 
to come from Yucatan, and to have nineteen black rings. 


Lachesis lanceolatus Lacep. Eighteen specimens. Nos. 32, 
42, 61, 63, 64, 65 and 66. 



Total Species. New. 

Batrachia : 

Urodela 1 

Salientia 5 3 

Reptilia : 

Loricata 1 

Sauria 15 3 

Serpentes 32 4 

54 9 


By E. D. Cope. 

OPHIDIA. 25 species. 


Eunectes notsens Cope, Anaconda ; 3 skins. 


Rhadinxa occipitalis Jan. 

" obtusa Cope, 
Aporophis dilepis Cope. 

" flawfrenatus Cope. 

" anomalus Gthr. 
Xenodon almadensis Wagl. 

" poecilogyrus doliatus Wied. 

" " cubella Linn. 

" rhaMocephalm Wied. 
Lyslrophis dorbignyi D. & B. 

" pulcher Jan. 
Helicops lepeieurii D. & B. 
Dymobius bifossatus Eaddi. 
Leptophis ahxtulla Linn, marginata, Cope. 
Leptognathus mikanii Sctaleg. 


Philodryas olfersii Licht. 

" schottii Schl. 
Thamnodynastes nattereri Mikam. 
Oxyrhopus petolarius Linn. 

" rhombifer D. & B. 

" immaculatus D & B. 



Elaps surinamerms Cuv. 


Botlirops alternatus D. & B. 
Crotalu8 terrificus Lau 



Polyehrus angustirostris Wagl. 


Opheodes striates Spix. 


Tupinnmbis teguex n Linn. 
Tents fe»/0M Daud. 

Mabuia dorsivittata Cope. 



Jacare latirostris Wagl. 
■" sclerops Wagl. 

o species. 


2 species. 

32 species. 


Eunectes not^ius Cope. Proceeds, Academy .Nat. Sci., Phila., 1862. 
p. 69. Plate I, Figure 3. 

Since my description of the Southern anaconda, thirty-three years 
ago, it has remained unnoticed' by authors, until in the addenda of the 
last volume of the catalogue of the species of snakes in the British 
Museum it is mentioned. Previously but one species of Eunectes, the- 
common anaconda, E. murinus L., had been admitted. The localities 
from which the specimens of this species in the British Museum were 
obtained, are all, according to the catalogue, from the Guianas, Brazil 
and northeastern Peru. The four specimens of the E. notceus which 
have thus far come under my observation are from the drainage region 
of the Paraguay River, as is also the single one referred to in the ad- 
denda of the British Museum Catalogue. 

The characters which I pointed out as distinguishing the Paraguayan 
from the Northern anaconda I find to hold good. The circle of plates 
surrounding the eye rest immediately on the labial plates, there being- 
no intervening row as in E. murinus, except that on one side of one 
specimen two narrow scales intervene, but do not continue so as to 
complete the separation. The anterior labial plates are not so elevated 


as in the E. murinus, the head, in fact, being more depressed. The 
scales are not so numerous. Boulenger gives (1. c.) fifty-seven to sixty- 
three rows in the E. murinus. The type specimen of the E. notwus has 
forty-five rows; one of the Argentine skins has forty-five rows and two 
others have forty-eight. 

The coloration is distinct. Thus there is a black band from the 
eye to the angle of the mouth, and the top of the head is lead-color, 
with a dark border in the E. murinus, In E. notaeus, besides the black 
band from the eye, there are three similar ones on the top of the 
head; two superciliary, which meet on the muzzle, and one median. 
The dorsal spots are more numerous and are closer together in the 
E. notaeus. In two of the skins I count fifty-three and sixty spots, re- 
spectively, of which the anterior are confluent into a median stripe. 
In an E. murinus, which I owe to the Zoological Society of Philadel- 
phia, there are only forty-seven spots, and these are well separated, 
especially anteriorly. There are two rows of eye-like spots on each side 
in E. notaeus for most of the* length, or until their superior borders 
become confluent into two longitudinal stripes on each side, which ex- 
tend to the head. In the E. murinus there are two rows of such spots 
on the posterior part of the body only, and the single row does not 
become confluent into a stripe anteriorly. There are two rows of 
small broken black spots below these in both species. In a word, the 
color difference between the two species consists in the fact that the 
spots are more numerous in the Southern species and become confluent 
into stripes anteriorly, which they do not in the Northern species, where 
they become smaller and tend to disappear. The ground color in the 
Paraguayan species is brown, in the E. murinus it is lead-color. 

The largest skin of the E. notwus measures 2,519 mm., of which 
the tail is 324 mm. 



Figure 1. Hyla vilsoniana sp. nov., la, dorsal view; lb, ventral 
view showing also tongue and palatal characters; lc, side view of head. 
All natural size. 

Figure 2. Frostherapsis subpunotatus sp. nov., 2a, dorsal view; 
2b, ventral view showing also tongue and palatal characters ; 2c, side 
view of head. All natural size. 

Figure 3. Jilunectes notwus Uope. 3a, b and e, respectively, lateral, 
dorsal and ventral views of head. From a, dried skin; the chin shields 
shrivelled and difficult to observe. One-half natural size. 


Figure 1. Anolis sulcifrons sp. nov., la, side view of head and 
gular fan; lb, dorsal, and lc, ventral views of head; Id, ventral view 
of hind leg and region of vent; le, section of tail showing scales from 
dorsal to ventral surface. All X 1%- 

Figure 2. Anolis frenatus sp. nov., 2a to 2c, respectively, are views 
corresponding to those shown in Figure 1. All natural size. 


All figures. Heterodonium bicoior gen. et. sp. nov., 1, entire animal 
from above X 1% ; 2, 3 and 4, respectively dorsal, ventral and lateral 
views of head X 3%; 5, ventral view of fore leg X 7; 6 and 7, ventral 
views of thoracic and anal regions X 3%; 8, section of side of body 
showing squamation. 


Figure 1. Eelminthophis anops sp. nov., la>Jb, c and d, respectively, 
dorsal, lateral, ventral and front views of head; le, ventral region; If, 
lateral scales. All X 4. 

Figure 2. Liophis bimaculatus sp. nov., 2a, b and c, respectively, 
dorsal, ventral and lateral views of head; 2d, anal region; 2e, lateral 
view of section of body. All X 1%- 

Figure 3. heptognathus triseriatus sp. nov., 3a, b, c and d, re- 
spectively, dorsal, ventral, lateral and front views of head; 3e, anal 
region; 3f, section of side of body. All X 2. 

Figure 4. Eimantodes platycephalus sp. nov., 4a, dorsal, and 4b, 
lateral views of head; 4c, anal region; 4d, section showing squamation 
of side of body. All X 2%. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope. 




subpunctatus. Eunectea notaeus. 

Philadelphia Commercial M. sum. 
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope. 



Anolis sulcifrons. Anolis frenatus. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope. 



Heterodonium tricolor. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 
Scientific Bulletin No. 1. Cope. 






Leptognathus triseriatus. Himantodes platyceplialus. 
Helminthophie anops. Liophis bimaculatus. 

The Philadelphia Commercial Miiseiini 

PHILADELPHIA, Pfl., 0. S. fl. 


i. In order tp make the results of its. efforts available, Me Philadelphia Commercial 
Museum conducts its work uudertbese^ Departments: -; ) r - . 

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MANUFACTURED ARTICLES made in the great manufacturing countries of 
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The collections of raw products are made-practically useful by scientific and technical 
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The Philadelphia . Comrnercial Museum is officially connected with every prominent 
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