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ACOLLECTIONOF 
PROVERBS-SAYINGS 
SRULES- CONCERN 
•1NG THE WEATHER 

., * •: • • 

"COM P! LED f* ARRANGED BV 

RICHARD INWARDS 

FRAS 






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HnU College af Agriculture 

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Cornell University Library 
QC 998.164 
Weather lore; a collection of ProvertwB. s 




3 1924 002 969 099 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924002969099 



WEATHER LC^E 



WEATHER LORE 



A COLLECTION OF 



proverbs, Savings, ano IRules 



CONCERNING THE WEATHER 



COMPILED AND ARRANGED BY 

RICHARD INWARDS, F.R.A.S. 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY; AUTHOR OF "THE TEMPLE OF 
THE ANDES " 



LONDON 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW 



INTRODUCTION 



The state of the weather is almost the first subject about which 
people talk when they meet, and it is not surprising that a matter 
of such importance to comfort, health, prosperity, and even life 
itself, should form the usual text and starting-point for the con- 
versation of daily life. 

From the earliest times, hunters, shepherds, sailors, and tillers 
of the earth have from sheer necessity been led to study the 
teachings of the winds, the waves, the clouds, and a hundred other 
objects from which the signs of coming changes in the state of the 
air might be foretold. The weather-wise amongst these primitive 
people would be naturally the most prosperous, and others would 
soon acquire the coveted foresight by a closer observance of the 
same objects from which their successful rivals guessed the proper 
time to provide against a storm, or reckoned on the prospects of 
the coming crops. The result has been the framing of a rough 
set of rules, and the laying down of many " wise saws," about the 
weather, and the freaks to which it is liable. Some of these 
observations have settled down into the form of proverbs ; others 
have taken the shape of rhymes; while many are yet floating 
about, unclaimed and unregistered, but passed from mouth to 
mouth, as mere records of facts, varying in verbal form according 
to local idioms, but owning a common origin and purport. 

Many weather proverbs contain evidence of keen observation 
and just reasoning, but a great number are the offspring of the 
common tendency to form conclusions from a too limited observation 
of facts. Even those which have not been confirmed by later 
experience will be interesting, if only to show the errors into which 
men may be led by seeing nature with eyes half closed by prejudice 
or superstition. It has seemed to me desirable that all this " fossil 
wisdom " should be collected, and I have endeavoured in this book 

b 



vi Introduction. 



to present in a systematic form all the current weather lore 
applicable to the climate of the British Isles. 

This work is not intended to touch the philosophical aspect of 
the subject, but it is hoped that its perusal may lead some people 
to study the weather, not by mere "rule of thumb," as their 
fathers did, but by intelligent observation, aided by all the niceties 
of the scientific means now fortunately at the command of every one. 

This collection comprises only those proverbs, sayings, or rules 
in some way descriptive or prophetic of the weather and its 
changes, and does not include those in which the winds, sun, and 
clouds are only brought in for purposes of comparison and illus- 
tration — such, for instance, as "Always provide against a rainy day,'' 
" Every cloud has a silver lining," and others in which the weather 
is only incidentally or poetically mentioned. Some rhymes have 
been rejected on account of their being manifestly absurd or 
superstitious, but the reader will see that much latitude has been 
allowed in this respect, and, as a rule, all those which may possibly 
be true will be found in these pages. Predictions as to the peace 
of the realm, the life and death of kings, etc., founded on the state 
of the weather for particular days, have of course been left out, as 
unworthy of remembrance. 

A few of the rules here presented will very possibly be found 
to contradict each other, but the reader will judge between them, 
and assign each its proper value. With regard to those from 
foreign sources, I have only been able to give a few which seem 
in some measure applicable to our climate, and it will be seen 
that even these have lost a great deal of their point in the process 
of translation. A great many proverbs about the weather come 
from Scotland, very few from Ireland. 

I have registered the various extracts in the order which 
seemed most convenient for reference, generally giving pre- 
cedence to the subjects on which they were the most numerous. 
Respecting the sources from which they have been derived, I have, 
of course, availed myself of the collections of general proverbs by 
Kelly, Howell, Henderson, and Ray. The collection by the latter 
author, which is usually considered the most complete, only 
contains, however, eighty-seven adages, which have been tran- 
scribed into this volume as weather proverbs proper. A much 
greater number have appeared in the estimable Notes and 
Queries, under the head of " Folk Lore,'' and a few have been 
gleaned from Hone's Every-Day Book and other volumes of a 



Introduction. vii 



similar class. The rest have, for tee most part, come under my 
personal notice, or have been communicated by esteemed corre- 
spondents, who are now heartily thanked. A full list of the various 
authors to whom I am indebted will be found in the appendix. 

The Bible has handed down to us many proofs of the repute 
in which weather wisdom was held by the ancients, and it is 
clear that some of the sacred writers were keen observers of the 
signs of the sky. The writings of Job are rich in this respect, 
and contain many allusions to the winds, clouds, and tempests. 
The New Testament also records some sound weather law, and 
in one instance Christ Himself has not thought it unworthy of 
Him to confirm a popular adage about a cloud rising in the west 
and foreshowing rain ; for after mentioning the saying, He has 
added, "And so it is." The texts referring to the weather have 
therefore been inserted where appropriate. In their proper places, 
too, will be found quotations from learned authors, amongst 
whom Shakespeare holds a prominent place. The admirers of 
that poet " for all time " will not be surprised to find that he has 
said, in his own way, nearly all that was known on the subject 
of the " skyey influences '' in the age in which he lived. Virgil, 
Bacon, Thompson, and other less famous men will be shown to 
have contributed something to the common stock of information 
on this subject. Some sound Saxon weather lore comes also from 
the mouth of the Shepherd of Banbury, who, in the last century, 
wrote a short list of outdoor signs of coming changes in the state 
of the air. 

The collection of Scottish weather proverbs by Sir A. Mitchell 
has furnished me with a few of the shrewdest adages from that 
country, and the list published by Mr. M. A. Denham for the Percy 
Society has yielded some not met with in any other place. 

In this Second Edition I have been able, by courteous permission of 
Brigadier-General Greely, of the Washington Signal Office, to incor- 
porate a great number of American and other proverbs, which have 
been collected for the United States Signal Service by Major Dunwoody. 

Mr. P. Dudgeon, of Cargen, has been kind enough to make 
many important corrections to the Scottish sayings which appear 
in this work. 

I desire also to acknowledge my great obligation to the Rev. 
C. W. Empson for many kind hints and corrections, and to thank 
Mr. G. J. Symons for having kindly allowed me the use of his 
priceless meteorological library. 



viii Introduction. 



As it has been impossible to collect all the local weather pro- 
verbs current in different parts of the country, I shall feel obliged 
to any courteous reader who will communicate such as have been 
omitted, so that a future edition of this work may be rendered more 
complete in this respect. It would be strange if all the observations 
here brought for the first time to a common focus did not cast a 
new ray or two of light on the point to which they have all been 
directed. Out of so many shots some must hit the mark, though 
the reader must be warned that even in this " multitude of counsel " 
there is not absolute safety. These predictions are after all but 
gropings in the dark ; and although skilled observers, armed with 
the delicate instruments contrived by modern science, may be able 
to forecast with some success the weather for a few hours, yet with 
respect to the coming months and seasons, or the future harvests 
and vintages, the learned meteorologist is only on a level with the 
peasant who watches from the hilltop the " spreadings and driftings 
of the clouds," or hazards his rude weather guesses from the 
behaviour of his cattle or the blossoming of the hedge flowers 
which he daily sees. 

It is, perhaps, worth mentioning, with respect to those proverbs 
concerning the weather of particular days, that, on account of the 
re-formation of the calendar, a great many of these sayings must be 
held to refer to times a little later than the dates now affixed. Not- 
withstanding this, I. have retained the dates which I find by custom 
attached to the adages, as it is now impossible to say how long 
before the alteration of the calendar they took their rise. Of course 
the real discrepancy will depend on the date of origin, as, in the case 
of any proverb having been current in the time of Julius Csesar, its 
date would refer to the same part of the earth's orbit as at present, 
while the " Saints' Day " proverbs which have been concocted in 
the Middle Ages would require a correction depending upon the 
error of the calendar which had accumulated at their date of origin. 
This alone would account for the uncertain value of all this class of 
predictions. The list of times for the flowering of plants must 
also be taken with many allowances, on account of the varying soil 
and climate of the different parts of the kingdom from which the 
information was collected. 

Should the reader ask, as he naturally may, to what practical 
result does all this tend, and how from it he may venture to predict 
the coming weather, I can only recommend him to try and imbibe 
the general spirit of the rules and adages, to watch the clouds from 



Introduction. ix 



a high place, to examine the published weather diagrams, and by 
collating them try to find where similar results have followed 
similar indications, and by all the instrumental means he can, go 
on measuring and gauging heat, pressure, rain, wind, and moisture, 
in the hope that he may some day arrive at the semblance of a 
definite law, and the certainty that he is pursuing an interesting 
and ever-improving study. 

As for this book, it aims at no more than being a manual of 
outdoor weather wisdom seen from its traditional and popular 
side, without pretending to any scientific accuracy. Meteorology 
itself, especially as regards English weather, is very far from having 
reached the phase of an exact science. 

RICHARD INWARDS. 

Bartholomew Villas, 
London, N.W. 



CONTENTS. 

[For fall Index, see page 1 74] 

PAGE 

WEATHER IN GENERAL . . z 

TIMES AND SEASONS . 3 

PROVERBS RELATING TO VARIOUS MOVABLE FEASTS, ETC. 40 

PROVERBS RELATING TO THE MONTHS GENERALLY . 42 

DAYS OF THE WEEK . . . . .42 

LIST OF COMMON PLANTS, AND THE DATES AT WHICH 

THEY OUGHT TO BE IN FULL FLOWER .... 44 

FLOWERS WHICH SHOULD OPEN ON CERTAIN SAINTS' 

DAYS . .... ... 46 

LIST OF COMMON FLOWERS, AND THE TIMES AT WHICH 

THEY OPEN AND CLOSE THEIR PETALS . . . 46 
BIRDS, AND THE TIMES AT WHICH THEY USUALLY APPEAR 

IN THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND 46 

WINTER BIRDS: TIMES OF THEIR ARRIVAL . 47 

SUN, MOON, AND STARS . 47 

WIND ... . . 68 

CLOUDS . . 84 

MISTS . . . . IOI 

DEW . 102 

FOG . . 103 

SKY 104 

AIR . IOS 



xii Contents. 



SOUND 
TIDE, ETC. 
RAIN 
RAINBOW 
FROST . 



PAGE 
105 
107 
108 
III 
II 4 



HAIL . 115 

SNOW IIS 

ICE . Il6 

THUNDER AND LIGHTNING 117 

BAROMETER . 120 

THERMOMETER 1 25 

HYGROMETER . 125 

TELESCOPE . . .125 

ANIMALS . I25 

BIRDS . . -132 

FISH, MOLLUSCS, ETC. . 141 

REPTILES, ETC. . . • r 44 

INSECTS 146 

PLANTS, ETC. 150 

VARIOUS I57 

APPENDIX: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WEATHER LORE 169 



INDEX . 



174 



Meatber in General. 



The weather rules the field. — Spanish. 



Weather. 



Tis not the husbandman, but the good weather, that makes Good 
the corn grow. — T. Fuller. weather. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. a proclamation was made 
against the almanacks which transmitted the belief in saints 
ruling the weather. 



Proclama- 
tion 

against 
weather 
saints. 

Sunshine. 



English 
climate. 



Better it is to rise betimes 
And make hay while the sun shines, 
Than to believe in tales and lies 
Which idle people do devise. 

Of Albion's glorious He, the wonders whilst I write, 
The sundry varying soyles, the pleasures infinite ; 
Where heat kills not the cold, nor cold expells the heat, 
Ne calmes too mildly small, nor winds too roughly great ; 
Nor night doth hinder day, nor day the night doth wrong, 
The summer not too short, the winter not too long. 

Drayton. 

Husbandry depended on the periodical rains ; and forecasts Weather 
of the weather, with a view to make adequate provision (j j- "^ 
against a coming deficiency, formed a special duty of the 
Brahmans. The philosopher who erred in his predictions 
observed silence for the rest of his life. 

W. W. Hunter. 

There are many weathers in five days, and more in a month. Weathers. 

Norway. 



Those that are weather wise 

Are rarely otherwise. — Cornwall. 

Whether the weather be fine or wet, 
Always water when you set. 

Weather, wind, women, and fortune cliange like the moon. 

French. 



Weather 
prophets. 

Sowing 
weather. 

Weather 
changes. 



Weather Lore. 



Weather 
changes. 



Weather 
fine. 

Weather 
signs. 



Weather 
rhyme. 



Weather 
bad. 



Weather 

and 

health. 



When an opinion once obtains that a change of the weather 
happens at certain times, the change is expected, and as often 
as it takes place the remembrance of it remains ; but we soon 
forget the number of times it fails. — John Mills, F.R.S. 
(Essay on the Weather). 

If the weather is fine, put on your cloak. 
If it is wet, do as you please. — French. 

Aratus says : " Do not neglect any of these [weather] signs, 
for it is good to compare a sign with another sign : if two 
agree, have hope, but be assured still more by a third." 

Prince. 

" Well, Duncombe, how will be the weather ? " 

" Sir, it looks cloudy altogether ; 

And coming across our Houghton Green, 

I stopped and talked with old Frank Beane 

While we stood there, sir, old Jan Swain 

Went by, and said he knowed 'twould rain ; 

The next that came was Master Hunt, 

And he declared he knew it wouldn't ; 

And then I met with Farmer Blow — 

He plainly said he didn't know. 

So, sir, when doctors disagree, 

Who's to decide it — you or me ? " 

[This is a village rhyme written in the last century, and 
well known in Bedfordshire, where all the names are 
still found.] 

Shepherd. — " Weel, do ye ken, sir, that I never saw in a' 
my born days what I could wi' a safe conscience hae ca'd 
bad weather ? The warst has aye some redeemin' quality 
about it that enabled me to thole it without yaumerin [mur- 
muring]. Though we may na be able to see, we can aye think 
of the clear blue lift. Weather, sir, aiblins no to speak very 
scientially in the way o' meteorological observation — but 
rather in a poetical, that is, a religious spirit — may be defined, 
I jalouse [suspect], 'the expression o' the fluctuations and 
modifications of feeling in the heart o' the heevens made 
audible and visible and tangible on their face and bosom.' 
That's weather." — Professor Wilson. 

The common feelings of every man will convince him, if 
he will attend to them, of the superior advantages health 
derives from a pure and temperate atmosphere; for while 
troubled, tempestuous, foul, rough, and impetuous weather 
prevails, while the days are cloudy and the nights damp, 
the mind becomes tetrick [perverse], sad, peevish, angry, dull, 



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Times and Seasons. 



and melancholy ; but while the western gales blow calmly Weather 
over our heads, and the sun shines mildly from the skies, all and 
nature looks alert and cheerful. health. 

Thus when the changeful temper of the skies 

The rare condenses, the dense rarefies, 

New motions on the altered air impress't, 

New images and passions fill the breast ; 

Then the glad birds in tender concert join, 

Then croaks the exulting rook, and sport the lusty kine. 

Virgil's " Georgics," Book /., Line 490. 

Weather works on all in different degrees, but most on those 
who are disposed to melancholy. The devil himself seems 
to take the opportunity of foul and tempestuous weather to 
agitate our spirits and vex our souls ; for as the sea waves, 
so are the spirits and humours in our bodies tossed with 
tempestuous winds and storms. — Burton's " Anatomy of 
Melancholy," Chap. III. 

In one of Lucian's Dialogues there is an account of a couple Weather 
of countrymen, — one pouring into the right ear of the god prayers. 
a petition that not a drop of rain may fall before he has 
completed his harvest ; while another peasant, equally impor- 
tunate, whispers into the left ear a prayer for immediate rain, 
in order to bring on a backward crop of cabbages. 

The astronomer, in Dr. Johnson's Rasselas, goes mad on Weather 
the subject of the weather, which he fully believes he can madness. 
control ; and there have not been wanting in modern times 
sages who believed themselves equally potent, and some of 
them have gone the length of offering to predict the weather 
for any future time on payment of a fee, whilst the moderate 
price of sixpence was indicated as necessary for a single day's 
prophecy. 



limes ano Seasons. 

Amongst the first attempts at weather guesses, those concerning the 
seasons and their probable fitness for agriculture, the breeding of animals, 
or the navigation of the seas would take a prominent place. The weather 
during the winter and spring seems to have been narrowly watched, and 
the chances of a good harvest, a fat pasture, or a loaded orchard inferred 
from the experience of previous years, combined with a fair reliance upon 
fortune. Some of these predictions, though not strengthened by modern 
observation, are not to be altogether despised or thrown aside. They at 
least show us what kind of weather our forefathers wished to take place 
and thought most useful at the times to which they refer. The sayings of 
French, Scotch, and English agree in many particulars— such, for instance, 
as those referring to Candlemas Day and the early part of February 



Weather Lore. 



generally. It seems that, according to the notions of our ancestors, t/iis 
part of the year could not be too cold, and no statistical evidence will ever 
■make our farmers believe that a warm Christmas bodes well for an English 
harvest, or that a dry year ever did harm to the country. Some of these 
old sayings are also interesting as perhaps indicating the slowly changing 
climate of this country, and it is not unlikely that at some distant date 
most of the predictions will be found inapplicable . Particular saints' 
days have also been selected as exerting special influence over the 
weather, and here we are constantly treading on the fringes of the veil 
of superstition, spread by ignorance over all matters about which but 
little certain knowledge existed. There are, however, still believers in 
St. Swithin and St. Valentine as weather prophets ; and if their favourites 
do sometimes fail to bring the expected changes, they have at least no 
worse guides than those furnished by the Old Moore's and Zadkiel's of 
modern times. 

It has bee?i thought advisable to admit the proverbs concerning the 
proper seasons for sowing, etc. ; and a table of the times of the flowering 
of certain well-known plants has been added, so that the progress of the 
seasons may be watched by observing the punctuality of the vegetable 
world ill heralding their approach. 

Note on New Style. — In considering the weather proverbs regarding 
certain days, it must be remembered that the New Style was first adopted 
September 2nd, 1752, eleven days being retrenched from the calendar : 
i.e., August 22nd, 2yd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 2jth, 28th, 2gth, 30th, 31st, and 
September 1st, 1752, had no existence in England. 

Year. 



Good. A good year is always welcome. — Iceland. 

Year. Do not abuse the year till it has passed. — Spain. 

Old year. If the old year goes out like a lion, the new year will come 

in like a lamb. 
Harvest. The harvest depends more on the year than on the field. 

Denmark. 
D >y- A dry year never beggars the master. — French. 

A dry year never starves itself. 
Whoso hath but a mouth 
Will ne'er in England suffer drought. 

If there be neither snow nor rain, 
Then will be dear all kinds of grain. 
Wtt. A bad year comes in swimming. — French. 

After a wet year a cold one. 
Rainy year, 
Fruit dear. — Haute Loire. 

Wet and Wet and dry years come in triads. 

dry. 



Times and Seasons. 



Misty year, year of cornstalks. — Spanish. 

Year of frosts, year of cornstacks. — Spanish. 

Frost year, 

Fruit year. — Eure et Loire. 

Frost year, wheat year. — France. 

Year of snow, 

Fruit will grow. — Milan. 

A snow year, a rich year. 

Snow year, good year. 

A year of snow, a year of plenty. — Spanish and French. 

A year of wind is good for fruit. — Calvados. 

Acorn year, purse year. 

Fig year, worse year. — Spanish. 

A good nut year, a good corn year. 

Year of nuts, 

Year of famine. — France (Haute Marne). 

A good hay year, a bad fog year. 

A year of grass good for nothing else. — Switzerland. 

A pear year, 
A dear year. 

A cherry year, 

A merry year. 

A plum year, 

A dumb year. — Kent. 

In the year when plums flourish all else fails. — Devonshire. 

Year of gooseberries, year of bottles [good vintage]. — France. 

A haw year, 

A brawyear. — Ireland and Scotland. 

A haw year, 

A snaw year. — Scotland. 

Year of mushrooms, 

Year of poverty.— France (Hautes Pyrenees). 

Year of radishes, 

Year of health. — Ardeche. 

Year of cockchafers, year of apples.— France. 

A cow year, a sad year ; 

A bull year, a glad year. — Dutch. 

Corn and horn go together. 

Leap year was ne'er a good sheep year. — Scotland. 



[Year.] 

Misty. 

Frosty. 



Snowy. 



Windy. 

Acorns and 
figs- 
Nuts. 



Hay. 

Qrass. 

Pears. 

Cherries 
and plums. 



Plums. 

Goosebcrrie 

Haws. 



Mushrooms. 

Radishes. 

Cockchafers. 
Cows. 

Corn and 

cattle. 

Leap. 



Weather Lore. 



Satire on 


Spring. 


seasons. 


Summer. 




Autumn. 




Winter. 



[Spring.] 
Late. 



Seasons. A serene autumn denotes a windy winter ; a windy winter, 
a rainy spring; a rainy spring, a serene summer; a serene 
summer, a windy autumn, so that the air on a balance is 
seldom debtor to itself. — Lord Bacon. 

Slippy, drippy, nippy. 
Showery, flowery, bowery. 
Hoppy, croppy, poppy. 
Wheezy, sneezy, breezy. 

Attributed to Sydney Smith. 

[Composed as a satirical mistranslation of the names given 
to the months at the time of the French Revolution. — 
G. F. Chambers.] 

Extreme. Extreme seasons are said to occur from the sixth to the tenth 
year of each decade, especially in alternate decades. 
The first three days of any season rule the weather of that 
season. 

The general character of the weather during the last twenty 
days of March, June, September, or December will rule the 
following season. 

Spring is both father and mother to us. — Galicia. 

A late spring 
Is a great bless-ing. 
A late spring never deceives. 
Better late spring and bear, than early blossom and blast. 

When the cuckoo comes to the bare thorn, 
Sell your cow and buy your corn ; 
But when she comes to the full bit, 
Sell your corn and buy your sheep. 
i.e., A late spring is bad for cattle, and 
An early spring is bad for corn. 

II the spring is cold and wet, then the autumn will be hot 
and dry. 

A dry spring, rainy summer. — France. 

A wet spring, a dry harvest. 
Spring rain damps, autumn rain soaks. — Russia. 

In spring a tub of rain makes a spoonful of mud. 
In autumn a spoonful of rain makes a tub of mud. 

The spring is not always green. 

Bay. An unseasonably fine day in spring or winter is called a 

pet day, in Scotland. The fate of pets, they say, awaits it, 
and they look for spoilt weather on the morrow. 

Seas. The spring openeth the seas for the sailors. — Pliny. 



Cold. 

Dry. 
Damp. 



Times and Seasons. 



Thunder in spring 
Cold will bring. 

First thunder in spring, — if in the south, it indicates a wet First 
season ; if in the north, a dry season. 

Early thunder, early spring. 

Lightning in spring indicates a good fruit year. 

As the days grow longer, 
The storms grow stronger. 

If there's spring in winter, and winter in spring, 
The year won't be good for anything. 



[Spring.'] 
Thunder. 



thunder. 

Early 

thunder. 

Lightning. 

Storms. 



Spring in 
winter. 



There are a hundred days of easterly wind in the first half Spring and 
of the year. — West of England. summer. 

[Summer.] 
Moist. 



Stormy. 
Dry. 



Dry and 

wet. 



Generally a moist and cool summer portends a hard winter. 

Bacon. 
An English summer, two hot days and a thunderstorm. 

A dry summer never made a dear peck. 

A dry summer never begs its bread. — Somerset. 

Whoso hath but a mouth 

Will ne'er in England suffer drought. 

Drought never bred dearth in England. 

When the sand doth feed the clay," 
England woe and well a day ; 
But when the clay doth feed the sand.t 
Then 'tis well for Angle-land. 

After a famine in the stall, [Bad hay crop.] 
Comes a famine in the hall. [Bad corn crop.] 

A famine in England begins in the horse manger. 

A hot and dry summer and autumn, especially if the heat Hoianddry, 

and drought extend far into September, portend an open extending 

beginning of winter, and cold to succeed towards the latter '" f 

, , . .... r . autumn. 

part of the winter and beginning of spring. — Bacon. 

One swallow does not make a summer. Swallows. 

Midsummer rain Rain. 

Spoils hay and grain. 

Midsummer rain 

Spoils wine stock and grain. — Portuguese. 



As in a wet summer. 



t As in a dry summer. 



Weather Lore. 



[Summer.] 
Rainy 



Fog. 

Cool. 
Indian. 

Summer 
and winter. 

Days in 
summer. 
[Autumn.] 
Dry. 



Autumn 
and winter. 



Wet. 
Moist. 



Fog. 

Thunder 

Harvest 

short. 

hong. 

Fruits. 



Night. 

[Winter.] 

Dry. 



Mild. 



There can never be too much rain before midsummer. 

Sweden. 
Happy are the fields that receive summer rain. 
If the summer be rainy, the following winter will be severe. 
In summer a fog from the south, warm weather; from the north, 
rain. 

A summer fog is for fair weather. 

A cool summer and a light weight in the bushel. 
If we do not get our Indian summer in October or November, 
we shall get it in the winter. — United States. 

Summer comes with a bound ; winter comes yawning. 

Finland. 
As the days begin to shorten, 
The heat begins to scorch them. 

A fair and dry autumn brings in always a windy winter. 

Pliny. 
Dry vintage, good wine. — Spain. 

Clear autumn, windy winter ; 
Warm autumn, long winter. 
A wet fall indicates a cold and early winter. 
A moist autumn with a mild winter is followed by a cold 
and dry spring, retarding vegetation. 

Much fog in autumn, much snow in winter. 
Thunder in the fall indicates a mild, open winter. 
Short harvests make short addlings [earnings]. — Yorkshire. 
A long harvest, a little corn. 
If you would fruit have, 
You must bring the leaf to the grave. 
[i.e., transplant in autumn.] 
The autumn night is changeable. — Norway. 

Winter never rots in the sky. — Italian. 
Winter never died in a ditch. 
Winter finds out what summer lays up. 
A green winter makes a fat churchyard. 

When there is a spring in the winter, or a winter in the 
spring, the year is never good. 

Summer in winter, and summer's flood, 
Never boded an Englishman good. 

An abundant wheat crop does not follow a mild winter. 

Farmer, quoted in "Notes and Queries," 
February 27TH, 1869. 
A warm and open winter portends a hot and dry summer. 

Bacon. 



Times and Seasons. 



A warm winter and cool summer never brought a good [Winter^ 
harvest. — French. Mild. 

Whae doffs his coat on winter's day- 
Will gladly put it on in May. — Scotch. 

When winter begins early, it ends early. Early. 

An early winter, 

A surly winter. 
An early winter is surely winter. 

An air' winter, 

A sair winter. — Scotland. 
If the ice will bear a goose before Christmas, it will not 
bear a duck after. 
Neither give credit to a clear winter nor a cloudy spring. Clear. 

Long winter and late spring are both good for hay and Long. 
gTain, but bad for corn and garden. 

After a rainy winter follows a fruitful spring. Rainy. 

Winter will not come till the swamps are full. Floods. 

Southern United States. 
An unusually fine day in winter is known locally as a Fine day in. 
" Borrowed Day," to be repaid with interest later in the 
season, known also as a " Weather Breeder," and by sailors 
as a " Fox." — Roper. 

Winter thunder, Thunder. 

A summer's wonder. 

Winter thunder 

Bodes summer's hunger. 

Winter thunder and summer flood 

Never boded an Englishman good. 

Winter thunder, 

Poor man's death, rich man's hunger. 

Winter thunder, 

Rich man's good and poor man's hunger. 

[i.e., it is good for fruit and bad for corn.J 

A winter fog Fog. 

Will freeze a dog. 

Mony a frost and mony a thowe [thaw] Frost. 

Soon maks mony a rotten yowe [ewe]. 

Under water, dearth ; Show. 

Under snow, bread. 
Dearth under water ; 
Bread under snow. — Italian. 
A seven-night before midwinter day and as much after, the Midwinter. 
sea is allayed and calm. — Pliny. 



IO 



Weather Lore. 



January. Froze Janiveer, 

Leader of the year ; 
Minced pies in van, 
Calf s head in rear. — Churchill. 

The blackest month in all the year 
Is the month of Janiveer. 

A favourable January brings us a good year. 

The month of January is like a gentleman (as he begins, so 
he goes on). — Spanish. 

In January if the sun appear, 
March and April pay full dear. 
January warm, the Lord have mercy ! 
A summerish January, a winterish spring. 
If grain grows in January, there will be a year of great need. 

If you see grass in January, 
Lock your grain in your granary. 

If the grass grow in Janiveer, 

It grows the worse for it all the year. 

January flowers do not swell the granary. — Spanish. 

January blossoms fill no man's cellar. — Portuguese. 

If birds begin to whistle in January, frosts to come. — Rutland. 

When gnats swarm in January, the peasant becomes a beggar. 

Dutch. 
If January calends be summerly gay, 
It will be winterly weather till the calends of May. 

A January spring is worth naething. — Scotch. 

Dry January, plenty of wine. 

A wet January, a wet spring. 

Is January wet ? — the barrel remains empty. 

A wet January is not so good for corn, but not so bad for 
cattle. — Spanish and Portuguese. 

January wet, no wine you get. 
Have rivers much water in January ?— then the autumn will 
forsake them. But are they small in January ? — then brings 
the autumn surely much wine. — South Europe. 

In January much rain and little snow is bad for mountains, 
valleys, and trees. 

Much rain in January, no blessing to the fruit. 
Thaw. Always expect a thaw in January. 

Fog. Fog in January brings a wet spring. 



Bright. 
Warm. 

Mild. 
Grass. 



Flowers. 
Blossoms. 
Birds. 
Gnats. 

Mild. 

Spring. 

Dry. 

Wet. 



Times and Seasons. 1 1 

If there is no snow before January, there will be the more [January.] 
in March and April. Snow - 

Janiveer freeze the pot by the fier. Cold. 

As the day lengthens, 

So the cold strengthens. 

A kindly, good Janiveer 

Freezeth the pot by the fire. — Tusser. 

Jack Frost in Janiveer 

Nips the nose of the nascent year. 

Hoar-frost and no snow is hurtful to fields, trees, and grain. Frost. 
When oak trees bend with snow in January, good crops Oaks. 
may be expected. 

If January could, he would be a summer month. January. 

Greek Proverb, " The Cyclades," 
J. T. Bent, 1885, p. 86. 

In January wane fell your timber. — Spanish. Timber. 

A January chicken is sold dearly or dies. — Spanish. Chickens. 

Thunder in January signifieth the same year great winds, Thunder. 
plentiful of corn and cattle, peradventure. — Book of Know- 
ledge. 

January and February eat more than Madrid and Toledo. January and 

SPANISH. February. 

Generals January and February will fight for us. 

Czar Nicholas I. 

January or February 

Do fill or empty the granary.— French. 

A cold January, a feverish February, a dusty March, a weeping Januay 
April, and a windy May presage a good year and gay. a " J°J™ S ~ 

French. 
In January should sun appear, January, 

March and April pay full dear. March, and 

March in Janiveer, January and 

Janiveer in March I fear. March. 

Who in January sows oats January and 

Gets gold and groats ; May 

Who sows in May sowing. 
Gets little that way. 

January commits the fault and May bears the blame. January and 

[Applied in metaphor to human affairs also.J ay - 

A warm January, a cold May. 
Morning red, foul weather and great need. Jan. 1st. 

The first three days of January rule the coming three months. 1st, 2nd,yd 



12 Weather Lore. 



Jan. 2nd. As the weather is this day, so will it be in September. 
yd. It will be the same weather for nine weeks as it is on the 

ninth day after Christmas. — Sweden. 

6th. At twelfth day, the days are lengthened a cock's stride. 

Italian. 
\2th. If on January 1 2th the sun shine, it foreshows much wind. 

Shepherd's Almanack, 1676. 
14^. January 14th, St. Hilary, 

The coldest day of the year. — Yorkshire. 

22nd (St. If the sun shine brightly on Vincent's Day, we shall have more 

Vincents w ; ne t j ian wa ter. — French. 

Day). 

Remember on St. Vincent's Day, 
If that the sun his beams display, 
Be sure to mark his transient beam, 
Which through the casement sheds a gleam ; 
For 'tis a token bright and clear 
Of prosperous weather all the year. 
St. Vincent opens the seed. — Spanish. 
At St. Vincent all water is good as seed. — Spanish. 

If the sun shine on January 22nd, there shall be much wind. 

Husbandman's Practice. 
On St. Vincent's Day the vine sap rises to the branch, but 
retires frightened if it find frost. — French. 

22nd and If St. Vincent's has sunshine, 

2 5 1 "- One hopes much rye and wine ; 

If St. Paul's is bright and clear, 

One does hope a good year. 
25th (St. St. Paul fair with sunshine 

Paul's Day). Brings fertility to rye and wine. 

Fair on St. Paul's conversion day is favourable to all fruits. 
If St. Paul's Day be faire and cleare, 
It doth betide a happy yeare ; 
But if by chance it then should rain, 
It will make deare all kinds of graine ; 
And if y c clouds make dark y° skie, 
Then neate and fowles this yeare shall die ; 
If blustering winds do blow aloft, 
Then wars shall trouble y° realm full oft. 
If St. Paul's Day be fine, the year will be the same. — French. 
This festival was called an Egyptian day; because (says 
Ducange) the Egyptians discovered that there were two un- 
lucky days in every month, and prognostications of the good 
or bad course of the year were formed from the state of the 
weather on these days. 



Times and Seasons. 13 



If St. Paul's Day be fair and clear, it indicates plenty ; if Jan. z^th. 

cloudy or misty, much cattle will die ; if rain and snow fall 

that day, it presages a dearth ; if windy, it forebodes wars, as 

old wives do dream. — Nature's Secrets (Willsford). 

If the sun shine on St. Paul's Day, it betokens a good year ; if 

rain or snow, indifferent; if misty, it predicts great dearth; 

if thunder, great winds and death of people that year. 

Shepherd's Almanack, 1676. 

The last twelve days of January rule the weather for the 19th to 31st, 

whole year. 

Hazel in first flower, January 31st; earliest in twenty years, 31st. 

January 15th.— Mr. Edward Mawley. February. 

Februeer '"73 

t, , , , Cola. 

Both cut and shear. 

Double-faced February. Two-faced. 

Mad February takes his father into the sunshine and beats Mad. 

him. — Spanish. 

There is always one fine week in February. p ltle 

All the months in the year Fair. 

Curse a fair Februeer. 

The 'Welshman had rather see his dam on the bier, 

Than to see a fair Februeer. 

When gnats dance in February, the husbandman becomes a 

beggar. 

February, an ye be fair, 

The hoggs '11 mend, and naething pair [lessen]. 
February, an ye be foul, 
The hoggs '11 die in ilka pool. — Tweedside. 
[Hoggs are sheep which have not been shorn.] 
Isolated fine days in February are known in Surrey as 
" weather-breeders," and are considered as certain to be 
followed by a storm. 

February singing, 
Never stints stinging. 
If bees get out in February, the next day will be windy and 
rainy. — Surrey. 

A February spring is not worth a pin. — Cornwall. 

If in February there be no rain, Ram. 

'Tis neither good for hay nor grain. 

Spanish and Portuguese. 
February rain is only good to fill ditches.— French. 
February fill the dyke, 
Weather either black or white. 
February fill dyke 
With what thou dost like.— Tusser. 



M 



Weather Lore. 



[February.] 
Wet. 



Snow. 
Fogs. 

Thunder. 



February, 
March, 
April, 
and May. 
February 
and March. 



February 
winds. 
Feb. 2nd. 



February fill dyke, be it black or be it white ; 
But if it be white, it's better to like. 

February fill ditch, 

Black or white [i.e., rain or snow], don't care which ; 

If it be white, 

It's the better to like. 

February fill dyke ; 
March lick it out. 

When it rains in February, it will be temperate all the year. 

Spanish. 

When it rains in February, all the year suffers. 

If February give much snow, 

A fine summer it doth foreshow. — French. 

Fogs in February mean frosts in May. 

There will be as many frosts in June as there are fogs in 
February. 

For every thunder with rain in February there will be a cold 
spell in May. 

In February if thou hearest thunder, 
Thou wilt see a summer's wonder. 

Thunder in February or March, poor sugar [maple] year. 

A dusty March, a snowy February, a moist April, and a dry 
May presage a good year. — French. 

When the cat in February lies in the sun, she will creep 
behind the stove in March. When the north wind does not 
blow in February, it will surely come in March. 
February makes a bridge, and March breaks it. — T. Fuller. 
Violent north winds in February herald a fertile year. 

Foul weather is no news ; 

Hail, rain, and snow 
Are now expected, and 

Esteemed no woe ; 
Nay, 'tis an omen bad, 

The yeomen say. 
If Phoebus shows his face 
The second day. 

Country Almanack for 1676. 
On the eve of Candlemas Day 
Winter gets stronger or passes away. — French. 
Snow at Candlemas 
Stops to handle us. — Rutland. 



Times and Seasons. 15 



At Candlemas Feb. 2nd. 

Cold comes to us. 

Candlemas Day ! Candlemas Day ! 
Half our fire and half our hay ! 
[That is, we are midway through winter, and ought to have 
half our fuel and hay in stock.] 

On Candlemas Day 

You must have half your straw and half your hay. 

Candlemas brings great pains. — French. 

At Candlemas Day 

Another winter is on his way. — French. 

If Candlemas Day be fine and clear, 
Corn and fruits will then be dear. 

If Marie's purifying daie, 
Be cleare and bright with sunnie raie, 
Then frost and cold shall be much more 
After the feast than was before. — A. Fleming. 

If Candlemas Day be fair and clear, 

There'll be twa winters in the year. — Scotch. 

You should on Candlemas Day 
Throw candle and candlestick away. 

As far as the sun shines in on Candlemas Day, 
So far will the snow blow in afore old May. 

The hind had as lief see his wife on the bier, 

As that Candlemas Day should be pleasant and clear. 

The shepherd would rather see the wolf enter his fold r>- 
Candlemas Day than the sun. 

Should the sun shine out at the Purification (or churching of 
the Virgin Mary), there will be more ice after the festival than 
there was before it. — From the Latin Proverb (Sir T. 
Browne's " Vulgar Errors "). 

When on the Purification the sun hath shined, 
The greater part of winter comes behind. 

As far as the sun shines in at the window on Candlemas Day, 
so deep will the snow be ere winter is gone. 

On Candlemas Day, just so far as the sun shines in, just so far 
will the snow blow in. 

If Candlemas Day be fair and bright, 
Winter will have another flight. 
But if Candlemas Day bring clouds and rain, 
Winter is gone and won't come again. 



1 6 Weather Lore. 



Feb. 2nd. February 2nd, bright and clear, 

Gives a good flax year. 
If Candlemas Day be dry and fair, 
The half of the winter's to come and main 
If Candlemas Day be wet and foul, 

The half of the winter is gone at Yule [Christmas]. — Scotch. 
After Candlemas Day the frost will be more keen, 
If the sun then shines bright, than before it has been. 
On Candlemas Day the bear, badger, or woodchuck comes out 
to see his shadow at noon : if he does not see it, he remains 
out ; but if he does see it, he goes back to his hole for six 
weeks, and cold weather continues for six weeks longer. 

United States. 
If the ground-hog is sunning himselt on the 2nd, he will 
return for four weeks to his winter quarters again. 
The badger peeps out of his hole on Candlemas Day, and 
when he finds snow walks abroad, but if he sees the sun 
shining he draws back into his hole. — German. 

At the day of Candlemas, 

Cold in air and snow on grass ; 

If the sun then entice the bear from his den, 

He turns round thrice and gets back again. — French. 

As long before Candlemas as the lark is heard to sing, so 

long will he be silent afterwards on account of the cold. 

German. 
Gif the lavrock sings afore Candelmas, 
She'll mourn as lang after it. — Scotch. 

As lang as the bird sings before Candlemas, it will greet after 

it. —Scotch. 

On Candlemas Day, if the thorns hang a drop, 
Then you are sure of a good pea crop.— Sussex. 
[There is a similar proverb with respect to beans.] 

If a storm on February 2nd, spring is near ; but if that day 

be bright and clear, the spring will be late. 

If it snows on February 2nd, only so much as may be seen on 

a black ox, then summer will come soon. 

If on February 2nd the goose find it wet, then the sheep will 

have grass on March 25th. 

When drops hang on the fence on February 2nd, icicles will 

hang there on March 25th. 

When the wind's in the east on Candlemas Day, 
There it will stick till the 2nd of May. 

When it rains at Candlemas, the cold is over. — Spanish. 
When Candlemas Day is come and gone, 
The snow lies on a hot stone. 



Times and Seasons. 1 7 

Candlemas Day : Purification of the Virgin Mary. — -The snow- Feb. 2nd. 
drop, which was appropriately called " The fair maid of 
February," ought to blossom about thisitime. 

Sow or set beans in Candlemas waddle." 

St. Dorothea gives the most snow. 6th. 

If the eighteen last days of February be 10th to 2%th. 

Wet, and the first ten of March, you'll see 
That the spring quarter, and the summer too 
Will prove too wet, and danger to ensue. 

These three days, according to a Highland superstition, were izth to \\th. 
said to be borrowed from January, and it is accounted a 
good omen if these days should be as stormy as possible. 

If the sun smile on St. Eulalle's Day, \zth (St. 

It is good for apples and cider, they say. Eulahe's 

French. D <*y)- 

To St. Valentine the spring is a neighbour. — French. \\th (St. 

Valentine's 
The crocus was dedicated to St. Valentine, and ought to Day). 
blossom about this time. — Circle of the Seasons. 

St. Valentine, 

Set thy hopper t by mine. 

Winter's back breaks about the middle of February. 

The nights of this part of February are called in Sweden 20th to 28th. 

" steel nights,'' on account of their cutting severity. 

If cold at St. Peter's Day, it will last longer. 22nd (St. 

The night of St. Peter shows what weather we shall have for Pe'^sDay). 

the next forty days. 

St. Matthias, 24th (St. 

Sow both leaf and grass. Matthias' 

Day). 
If it freezes on St. Matthias' Day, it will freeze for a month 

together. 

St. Matthias breaks the ice ; if he finds none, he will make it. 

St. Matthy 

All the year goes by. 

At St. Mattho 

Take thy hopper f and sow. 

St. Matthie 

Sends sap into the tree. 
The fair of Auld Deer [third Thursday in February] 
Is the warst day in a' the year.— Aberdeen. 



Wane of the moon. t Seed basket. 



1 8 



Weather Lore. 



Feb. 28th. 



March. 



Dry. 



Mild. 
Flies. 

Gnats. 
Sun. 



Romanus bright and clear 
Indicates a goodly year. 

March, many weathers. 

March many weathers rained and blovved, 
But March grass never did good. — T. Fuller. 

March yeans the lammie 

And buds the thorn, 
And blows through the flint 

Of an ox's horn. — Northumberland. 

In beginning or in end 
March its gifts will send. 

March was so angry with an old woman (according to a saying 
in the island of Kythnos) for thinking he was a summer month, 
that he borrowed a day from his brother February, and froze 
her and her flocks to death. — T. Bent (Greece). 

Dust in March brings grass and foliage.! 

A dry and cold March never begs its bread. 

A peck of March dust and a shower in May 
Make the corn green and the fields gay. 

March dust and March win' 

Bleach as well as simmer's sin. — Scotland. 



A peck of March dust is worth a king's ransom. 

A bushel of March dust on the leaves is worth a 
ransom. — T. Fuller. 



king's 



A load of March dust is worth a ducat. — German. 

A bushel of March dust is a thing 
Worth the ransom of a king. 

A March without water 

Dowers the hind's daughter. — French. 

March flowers 

Make no summer bowers. 

When flies swarm in March, sheep come to their death. 

Dutch. 

When gnats dance in March, it brings death to sheep. — Dutch. 

The March sun raises, but dissolves not. — G. Herbert. 

March sun 

Lets snow stand on a stone. 

The March sun wounds. — Spanish. 

March sun strikes like a hammer. — Spanish. 



Times and Seasons. 



19 



Worse than the sun in March, 
This praise doth nourish agues. 

Shakespeare's " Henry IV." 
A March sun sticks like a lock of wool. 
A wet March makes a sad harvest. 
March rain spoils more than clothes. 
March wet and windy 
Makes the barn full and finnie.— Scotch. 
[" Finnie " is used obliquely. The word means, in Scotland, 
the "feel" of the grain as indicating quality. This 
proverb is more generally applied to May : see p. 26. — 
P. Dudgeon.] 

March damp and warm 
Will do farmer much harm. 
March water is worse than a stain in cloth. 
A March wisher [or vvhisher] 
Is never a good fisher. 
March wind 
Wakes the ether [adder] and blooms the whin. — Scotland. 

March mist, 

Water in fist. — Spanish. 

So many mists in March you see, 
So many frosts in May will be. 

As many mistises in March, 

So many frostises in May. — Wiltshire. 

So many frosts in March, so many in May. 
A damp, rotten March gives pain to farmers. 
As much dew in March, so much fog rises in August. 
Snow in March is bad for fruit and grape vine. 

In March much snow, 

To plants and trees much woe.— Germany. 

Fog in March, thunder in July. 

As much fog in March, so much rain in summer. 
Thunder in March betokens a fruitful year. — German. 
When it thunders in March, it brings sorrow. 
When March thunders, tools and arms get rusty. 

Portuguese. 
When it thunders in March, we may cry " Alas ! " — French. 

March, black ram,* 

Comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb. 



[March.] 
Sun. 



Rain 



Wet and 
warm. 



Fishing. 

Wind. 

Mist. 



Frosts. 
Damp. 
Dew. 
Snow. 

Fog. 
Thunder. 



Stormy. 



* An obscure expression [Aries?], sometimes "balkham," "back ham, "or "hack ham.' 



20 



Weather Lore. 



[March.] 
Stormy. 



Cuckoo. 



Pruning. 



Humours. 

March and 
April. 



March, April 
and May. 
March and 
May. 



March, April 
and June. 

March, April 
and May. 



March and 
June. 

March and 

other 

months. 



March 1st 
(St. David's 
Day). 

1st and 2nd. 



March comes in like a lamb and goes out like a lion. 
[Reverse of the usual proverb.] 

March comes in with adders' heads and goes out with 
peacocks' tails. — Scotch. 

The cuckoo comes in mid March, and cucks in mid April ; 
And goes away at Lammas-tide, when the corn begins to fill. 

He who freely lops in March will get his lap full of fruit. 

Portuguese. 

As Mars hasteneth all the humours feel it. 

When March has April weather, April will have March 
weather. — French. 

March flings [kicks], April fleyes [warms]. — Scotch. 

A windy March and a rainy April make a beautiful May. 

March wind and May sun 

Make clothes white and maids dun. 

Mists in March bring rain, 
Or in May frosts again. 

March rainy, April windy, and then June will come beautiful 
with flowers. — Spanish. 

March search, April try ; 

May will prove if you live or die. 

March winds and April showers 
Bring forth May flowers. 

A dusty March, a snowy February, a moist April, and a dry 
May presage a good year. — French. 

A dry March, wet April, and cool May 
Fill barn, cellar, and bring much hay. 

As it rains in March, so it rains in June. 

A frosty winter and a dusty March, and a rain about Averil, 
Another about the Lammas time, when the corn begins to fill, 
Is weel worth a pleuch [plough] o' gowd, and a' her pins 
theretill. G. Buchanan. 

Upon St. David's Day 

Put oats and barley in the clay. 

St. David and Chad, 
Sow pease good or bad. 



Times and Seasons. 21 

First comes David, then comes Chad, March 1st, 

And then comes Winneral as though he was mad. 2nd,andyd. 

White or black, 

Or old house thack. 
[Xole. — Meaning snow, rain, or wind — the latter endangering 
the thack or thatch. J 

If it does not freeze on the loth, a fertile year may be loth. 
expected. 

Mists or hoar frosts on this day betoken a plentiful year, 
but not without some diseases. 

On March 15th come sun and swallow. — Spanish. 1 5 t/l - 

St. Patrick's Day, the warm side of a stone turns up, and the Patrick's 
broad-back goose begins to lay. Day). 

Is't on St. Joseph's Day clear, x ? th (f ■ 

o c it r ,.-i Joseph's 

SO follows a fertile year. Day). 

St. Benedict, 21s/ (St. 

Sow thy pease or keep them in thy rick. Benedict's 

When there has been no particular storm about the time of 
the spring equinox, if a storm arise from the east on or before 
that day, or if a storm from any point of the compass arise 
near a week after the equinox, then, in either of these cases, 
the succeeding summer is generally dry, four times in five ; 
but if a storm arise from the S. W. or W.S.W. on or just before 
the spring equinox, then the summer following is generally 
■wet, five times in six. — Dr. Kirwan. 

Is't on St. Mary's bright and clear, ^/h (Lady 

Fertile is said to be the year. W - 

The flower cardamine, or lady's-smock, with its milk-white 
flowers, is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and appears about 
Lady Day. 

The three last days of March (old style) are called the Borrowed 
borrowing days ; for as they are remarked to be unusually " a y s - 
stormy, it is feigned that March had borrowed them from 
April to extend the sphere of his rougher sway. — Sir W. Scott. 

March borrowit from April 

Three days, and they were ill : 

The first was frost, the second was snaw, 

The third was cauld as ever't could blaw. 

Scotch. 
March borrows of April 
Three days, and they are ill ; 
April borrows of March again 
Three days of wind and rain. 

The warst blast comes in the borrowing days. 



22 



Weather Lore. 



[March.] 

Borrowed 

days. 



Blackthorn 
winter. 



April. 



Rai, 



Flood. 



The Spanish story about the borrowing days is that a shepherd 
promised March a lamb if he would temper the winds to suit 
his flocks ; but after gaining his point, the shepherd refused to 
pay over the lamb. In revenge March borrowed three days 
from April, in which fiercer winds than ever blew and punished 
the deceiver. 

March borrowed of April, April borrowed of May, 

Three days, they say : 

One rained, and one snew, 

And the other was the worst day that ever blew. 

Staffordshire. 

The oldest North-Country version of the proverb about the 
borrowing days is the following : — 

March said to Averil, 

I see three hoggs [year-old sheep] on yonder hill ; 

An' if ye'll lend me dayis three, 

I'll find a way to gar them dee. 

The first o' them was wind an' weet ; 

The second o' them was snaw an' sleet ; 

The third o' them was sic' a freeze, 

It froze the birds' nebs to the trees. 

When the three days were past and gane, 

The silly hoggs cam' hirplin hame. 

Scotland and North England. 

March borrowed from April 

Three days, and they were ill : 

The first of them is wan and weet, 

The second it is snaw and sleet, 

The third of them is a peel-a-bane, 

And freezes the wee bird's neb to the stane. 

There are generally some warm days at the end of March or 
beginning of April, which bring the blackthorn into bloom, and 
which are followed by a cold period called the " Blackthorn 
Winter." 

A dry April 

Not the farmer's will. 

April wet 

Is what he would get. 

In April each drop counts for a thousand. — Spanish. 
April rain is worth David's chariot. — French. 
April showers bring summer flowers. 
An April flood carries away the frog and his brood. 
In April Dove's * flood is worth a king's good. 



The river Dove in Derbyshire. 



Times and Seasons. 23 



A cold April [April.] 

The bam will fill. Cold. 

Cold April gives bread and wine. — French. 

A cold April, much bread and little wine. — Spanish. 

April cold and wet fills barn and barrel. Cold and 

wet. 
A cold and moist April fills the cellar and fattens the cow. 

Portuguese. 

A sharp April kills the pig. 

April snow breeds grass. 

Till April's dead 
Change not a thread. 

It is not April without a frosty crown. — French, Frosty. 

April wears a white hat. * 

Changeable as an April day. Change. 

April weather 

Rain and sunshine, both together. 

Vine that buds in April Buds. 

Will not the barrel fill. — French. 

Fogs in April foretell a failure of the wheat crop next year. Fog. 

Alabama. 

You must look for grass in April on the top of an oak. Be- Oak. 
cause the grass seldom springs well before the oak begins to 
put forth. — Ray. 

Plant your taturs when you will, Potatoes. 

They won't come up before April. — Wiltshire. 

Whatever March does not want April brings along. m^" V""* 

Snow in April is manure ; snow in March devours. d M h 

snouts. 
A swarm of bees in April for me, and one in May for my April and 
brother. — Spain. May. 

In April much rain ; in May a flood or two, and these not great. 

Spain. 

Betwixt April and May if there be rain, 
'Tis worth more than oxen and wain. 

Who ploughs in April ought not to have been born ; who 
ploughs in May ought neither to have been born nor nursed. 

Spanish. 

April and May are the keys of the year. 
Milk of April and May.— Spanish. 

* Frost. 



2 4 



Weather Lore. 



April and 
May. * 



Cloudy. 
Rani. 



April and 
June. 

April and 

autumn. 



Thunder. 



Early part 
of. 



First three 
days. 

April yd. 

6th (Latter 
Lady Day). 

Hth. 
Cuckoo. 



April and May between them make bread for all the year. 

Spain. 
April for me. May for my master. 
Cloudy April, dewy May. — French. 

April rains for men, May for beasts. 
[i.e., a rainy April is good for corn, and a wet May for grass 
crops.] 

Let it rain in April and May for me, 

And all the rest of the year for thee. — Spain. 

April showers bring forth May flowers. 

After a wet April a dry June. 

Moist April, clear June. 

The dews of April and May 

Make August and September gay. — French. 

After warm April and October, a warm year. 
Thunderstorm in April is the end of hoar-frost. 
When April blows his horn, 
It's good for hay and corn. 

If it thunders on All Fools' Day 

It brings good crops of corn and hay. 

The early part of April is called the blackthorn winter, because 
the thorn is then white with blossom and the weather generally 
cold. 

If the first three days of April be foggy, there will be a flood 

in June. — Huntingdon. 

The 3rd of April comes with the cuckoo and the nightingale. 

On Lady Day the latter 

The cold comes on the water. — T. Fuller. 

This day is called cuckoo day, and the cuckoo's song is 

generally first heard about this time. 

In Aprill, the koocoo can sing her song by rote ; 

In June, of tune she cannot sing a note : 

At first, koo-coo, koo-coo, sing still can she do ; 

At last, kooke, kooke, kooke ; six kookes to one koo. 

Haywood, 1587. 

In April, come he will ; 
In May, he sings all day ; 
In June, he alters his tune ; 
In July, he prepares to fly ; 
In August, go he must. 
If he stay till September, 
'Tis as much as the oldest man can ever remember. 



Times and Seasons. 25 



The cuckoo in April, [April.] 

He opens his bill; Cuckoo. 

The cuckoo in May, 

He sings the whole day ; 

The cuckoo in June, 

He changeth his tune ; 

The cuckoo in July, 

Away he must fly. — North Yorkshire. 

In April, cuckoo sings her lay ; 

In May, she sings both night and day ; 

In June, she loses her sweet strain ; 

In July, she flies off again.— North Yorkshire. 

This day is called Swallow Day, because swallows ought to 15M. 
appear at this date. 

If on St. George's Day the birch leaf is the size of a farthing, 23™? (St. 
on the feast of our Lady of Kazan you will have corn in the gorges 

n Da y)- 

barn. — Russia. 

When on St. George rye will hide a crow, a good harvest 

may be expected. 

At St. George the meadow turns to hay. 

St. George cries " Goe ! " zyd (St. 

St. Mark cries " Hoe ! " George) ; 

25th (St. 
As long before St. Mark's Day as the frogs are heard croaking, Mark). 
so long will they keep quiet afterwards. 

The merry month of May. May - 

Trust not a day ' ° ' 

Ere birth of May.— Luther. 

A hot May makes a fat churchyard. Hot. 

For a warm May 

The parsons pray. 
[Meaning more burial fees — a libellous proverb.] 

Blossoms in May Flowers. 

Are not good, some say. 
If May will be a gardener, he will not fill the granaries 

Dry May brings nothing gay. z> iy 

May damp and cool fills the barns and wine vats. Damp 

A May wet Wet. 

Was never kind yet. 

The haddocks are good 
When dipped in May flood. 

Rainy May marries peasants. — French. 

Water in May is bread all the year. — Spain and Italy. 



26 Weather Lore. 



[May.] A May flood 

Wct - Never did good. 

To be hoped for, like rain in May. — Spain. 

Rain in the beginning of May is said to injure the wine. 

A cold May is kindly, 
And fills the barn finely. 

A wet May 

Makes a big load of hay. — West Shropshire. 

A wet May 

Will fill a byre full of hay. 

May showers bring milk and meal. — Scotch. 

A wet May and a winnie 
Makes a fou stackyard and a finnie. — Scotch. 
["Finnie" — the good quality, as judged by the feel of the 
corn. — P. Dudgeon.] 

Cool and A cool May and a windy 

™>"dy- Barn filleth up finely.— T. Fuller. 

A cold May and a windy 
Makes a barn full and a findy. 

A cold May and a windy, a full barn will find ye. 

[The three last are corrupt English versions of the Scotch 
proverb.] 

A windy May makes a fair year. — Portuguese. 

A cold May is good for corn and hay. 

Till May be out 
Leave not off a clout. 

Or— 
Change not a clout 
Till May be out. 

May, come she early or come she late, 
She'll make the cow to quake. — 'French. 

Come it early or come it late, 

In May comes the cow-quake [i.e., tremulous grass]. 

Cold. Cold May brings many things. 

In the middle of May comes the tail of the winter. — French. 

Cold May enriches no one. 

Shear your sheep in May, 
And shear them all away. 

Dew. Cool and evening dew in May, brings wine and much hay. 

Dry. For an east wind in May 'tis your duty to pray. 



Times and Seasons. 27 



A snowstorm in May [May.] 

Is worth a waggon-load of hay. Snowy. 

Many thunderstorms in May, Thunder. 

And the farmer sings " Hey ! hey ! " 

The more thunder in May, the less in August and September. 

Be sure of hay till the end of May. — T. Fuller. Hay. 

In May much straw and little grain. — Spanish. 

To wed in May is to wed poverty. 

Maids are May when they are maids ; but the sky changes 
when they are wives. — Shakespeare's " As You Like It." 

He who mows in May Mowing. 

Will have neither fruit nor hay. — Portuguese. 

He who sows oats in May Sowing. 

Gets little that way. 

In May an east-lying field is worth wain and oxen ; in June, 
the oxen and the yoke. 

Be it weal or be it woe, Beans. 

Beans blow before May doth go. 

Look at your corn in May, May and 

And you will come weeping away ; June. 

Look at the same in June, 
And you'll come home in another tune. 
[A proverb alluding to the magical way in which unpromis- 
ing crops sometimes recover.] 

The farmer went to his wheat in May, 

And came sorrowing away ; 

The farmer went to his wheat in June, 

And came away whistling a merry tune. — French. 

A dry May is followed by a wet June 

A dry May and a leaking June 

Make the farmer whistle a merry tune. 

They who bathe in May 
Will soon be laid in clay ; 
They who bathe in June 
Will sing a merry tune ; 
They who bathe in July 
Will dance like a fly. 

Mist in May, heat in June, 

Make the harvest come right soon. 



28 



Weather Lore. 



May and A swarm of bees in May 

l" ne - Is worth a load of hay ; 

A swarm of bees in June 

Is worth a silver spoon ; 

But a swarm in July 

Is not worth a fly. 

A misty May and a hot June 
Bring cheap meal and harvest soon. 

A leaking May and a warm June 

Bring on the harvest very soon. — Scotch. 

A leaky May and a dry June 

Keep the poor man's head abune [above]. 

Greenock. 

A dry May and a dripping June 

Bring all things into tune. — Bedfordshire. 

Wet May, dry July. — German. 

Mud in May, grain in August. — Spanish. 

A red gay May, best in any year ; 
February full of snow is to the ground most dear ; 
A whistling March, that makes the ploughman blithe ; 
And moisty April, that fits him for the scythe. 

WadroiPHE, 1623. 

May 1st. Hoar-frost on May 1st indicates a good harvest. 

The later the blackthorn in bloom after May 1st, the better 
the rye and harvest. 

If it rains on Philip's and Jacob's Day, a fertile year may be 
expected. 



May and 
July- 
May and 
August. 

May and 

other 

months. 



8th. 

11th, 12th, 
and 13th. 

I7,tk. 

2$th. 

June. 

Calm. 

Fair. 



If on the 8th of May it rain, 

It foretells a wet harvest, men sain. — T. Fuller. 

St. Mamertius, St. Pancras, and St. Gervais do not pass 
without a frost. — France. 

Who shears his sheep before St. Gervatius' day loves more 
his wool than his sheep. 

At St. Urban gather your walnuts. — Spanish. 

Calm weather in June 
Sets corn in tune. 

It never clouds up in a June night for a rain. — United States. 



Times and Seasons. 29 

In the hay season, when there is no dew, it indicates rain. [June] 

Hay season. 
A cold and wet June spoils the rest of the year. Wet. 

June damp and warm 
Does the farmer no harm. 

A good leak in June 
Sets all in tune. 

A dripping June 

Brings all things in tune. 

If north wind blows in June, good rye harvest. North wind. 

In Scotland an early harvest is expected when the bramble Harvest. 
blossoms early in June. 

When it is hottest in June, it will be coldest in the corre- June and 
sponding days of the next February. February. 

A wet June makes a dry September. — Cornwall, J" ne an f 

September. 

If on the 8th of June it rain, June &th. 

It foretells a wet harvest, men sain. 

If it rain on June 8th (St. Medard), it will rain forty days 8//i and '19th. 
later ; but if it rain on June 19th (St. Protais), it rains for 
forty days after. — French. 

On St. Barnabas nth. 

Put a scythe to the grass. 

Rain on St. Barnabas' Day good for grapes. 

Barnaby bright, 

The longest day and shortest night. 

On St. Barnabas' Day 

The sun is come to stay. — Spanish. 

If St. Vitus's Day be rainy weather, I5"'- 

It will rain for thirty days together. 

Oh ! St. Vitus, do not rain, so that we may not want barley. 

If it rains on midsummer eve, the filberts will be spoiled. 2 4 lh OS'- 

John s Day). 

Before St. John's Day no early crops are worth praising. 

German. 

Before St. John's Day we pray for rain after that we get it 

anyhow. 

Rain on St. John's Day, and we may expect a wet harvest. 

Previous to St. John's Day we dare not praise barley. 

If midsummer day be never so little rainy, the hazel and 

walnut will be scarce ; corn smitten in many places ; but 

apples, pears, and plums will not be hurt. — Shepherd's 

Kalendar. 



3° 



Weather Lore. 



June 2\th 
(St. John's 
Day). 



2Jth. 
29th. 



July. 



Calm. 



Oysters. 

Sun in Leo. 

Sky. 
Rye. 

Rain. 

Thunder. 

July and 
January. 

July and 



July, August 
and Septem- 
ber. 

July 1st. 
2nd. 



Rain on St. John's Day, damage to nuts. 

Cut your thistles before St. John, 
You will have two instead of one. 

Never rued the man 

That laid in his fuel before St. John. — T. Fuller. 

If it rains on June 27th, it will rain seven weeks. 

If it rains on St. Peter's Day, the bakers will have to carry 
double flour and single water ; if dry, they will carry single 
flour and double water. 

Peter and Paul will rot the roots of the rye. 

July, God send thee calm and fayre, 

That happy harvest we may see, 
With quyet tyme and healthsome ayre, 

And man to God may thankful bee. 

No tempest, good July, 

Lest corn come off blue by [mildew]. 

No tempest, good July, 
Lest the corn look ruely. 

July, to whom, the dog-star in her train, 

St. James gives oysters and St. Swithin rain. — Churchill. 

When the sun enters Leo, the greatest heat will then arise. 

Ne'er trust a July sky. — Shetland. 

In July 

Shear your rye. 

A shower of rain in July, when the corn begins to fill, 
Is worth a plough of oxen, and all belongs theretill. 

Much thunder in July injures wheat and barley. 

As July, so the next January. 

In July 

Some reap rye ; 

In August, 

If one will not, the other must. 

Whatever July and August do not boil, September cannot fry. 

When the months of July, August, and September are unusually 
hot, January will be the coldest month. 

If the 1st of July it be rainy weather, 

It will rain more or less for four weeks together. 

If it rains on St. Mary's Day, it will rain for four weeks. 



Times and Seasons. 31 



a lL j j 1 Jiilv yd to 

As the dog days commence, so they end. Aup-.i uh 

(Dog days). 

If it rains on first dog day, it will rain for forty days after. yd. 

Dog days bright and clear 
Indicate a happy year ; 
But when accompanied by rain, 
For better times our hopes are vain. 

If Bullion's Day be dry, there will be a good harvest. — Scotch. a,th. 
[St. Martin Bullion, to distinguish it from St. Martin's 
Day. — P. Dudgeon.] 

Bullion's Day, gif ye be fair, 

For forty days 'twill rain nae mair. — Scotch. 

If the deer rise dry and lie down dry on Bullion's Day, there 
will be a good gose harvest. — Scotch. 

[" Gose," latter end of summer.] 

If it rains on July loth, it will rain for seven weeks. lotlt - 

To the 12th of July from the 12th of May 12lh - 

All is day. 

If it rain on the feast of St. Processus and St. Martin, it '4'* (O-S-. 
suffocates the corn. — Latin Proverb, " Norwich Doomsday ■'"^ 2n >' 
Book." 

Let not such vulgar tales debase thy mind, J 5^ (${■ 

Nor Paul nor Swithin rule the clouds and wind.— Gay. JZ'')"" S 

If about St. Swithin's Day a change of weather takes place, 
we are likely to have a spell of fine or wet weather. 

C. W. Empson. 

If St. Swithin weep, that year, the proverb says, 
The weather will be foul for forty days. — T. Fuller. 

If St. Swithin greets, the proverb says, 

The weather will be foul for forty days. — Scotch. 

In this month is St. Swithin's Day, 
On which if.that it rain they say, 
Full forty days after it will 
Or more or less some rain distil. 

Poor Robin's Almanack, 1697. 

St. Swithin is christening the apples. 
[This saying is applied to rain on St. Swithin's Day.] 

St. Swithin's Day, if ye do rain, 

For forty days it will remain ; 

St. Swithin's Day, an' ye be fair, 

For forty days 'twill rain nae mair. — Scotch. 



32 



Weather Lore. 



July 15M. 



July I$th 
and August 
24th. 
\<)th. 

20th. 



It is said in Tuscany that the weather on St. Gallo's Day 
(July 15th) will prevail for forty days ; and at Rome the period 
is extended to any day within the octave of St. Bartholomew. 

All the tears that St. Swithin can cry 
St. Bartlemy's dusty mantle wipes dry. 

At St. Vincent the rain ceases and the wind comes. — French. 

Clear on St. Jacob's Day, plenty of fruit. 

So much rain often falls about this day that people often 
speak of " Margaret's flood." 

Rain on St. Margaret's Day will destroy all kinds of nuts. 

German. 

The roses are said to begin to fade on this day. 

Alluding to the wet usually prevalent about the middle of July, 
the saying is : " St. Mary Magdalene is washing her hand- 
kerchief to go to her cousin St. James's fair. 

Folk-Lore Journal. 

Till St. James's Day be come and gone, 
You may have hops and you may have none. 

Dry August and warm 
Doth harvest no harm. 

August sunshine and bright nights ripen the grapes. 

August rain gives honey, wine, and saffron. — Portuguese. 

When it rains in August, it rains honey and wine. 

French and Spanish. 

A wet August never brings dearth. — Italian. 

So many August fogs, so many winter mists. 

Observe on what day in August the first heavy fog occurs, and 
expect a hard frost on the same day in October. 

United States. 

A fog in August indicates a severe winter and plenty of snow. 

When the dew is heavy in August, the weather generally 
remains fair. Thunderstorms in the beginning of August will 
generally be followed by others all the month. 

As August, so the next February. 

August ripens, September gathers in ; 
August bears the burden, September the fruit. 

Portuguese. 

August and None in August should over the land, 

December. In December none over the sea. 



22nd Mary 

Magdalene's 

Day. 



25th. 

August. 
Dry. 

Sunshine. 
Wet. 



Fops. 



Dew. 



August and 
February. 
August and 
September. 



Times and Seasons. 33 



After Lammas corn ripens as much by night as by day. [August. ] 

[Note.— Alluding to the heavy night dews.l Lammas 

Day. 
If the first week in August is unusually warm, the winter First week. 
will be white and long. 

_ „ , „ , . Old Style, 

bt. Margarets flood is proverbial, and is considered to be well August ist ; 

for the harvest in England. New Style, 

August 1 ph. 

If on St. Lawrence's Day the weather be fine, fair autumn lot/i. 
and good wine may be hoped for. — German. 

On St. Mary's Day sunshine 15^. 

Brings much and good wine. 

If this day be misty, the morning beginning with a hoar-frost, 24th (St. 

the cold weather will soon come, and a hard winter. Bartholo- 

Shepherd's Kalendar. mcw ' s D "y ) - 
If it rains this day, it will rain the forty days after. — Roman. 

At St. Bartholomew ' 

There comes cold dew. 

St. Bartlemy's mantle wipes dry 

All the tears that St. Swithin can cry. 

If the 24th of August be fair and clear, 

Then hope for a prosperous autumn that year. 

As Bartholomew's Day, so the whole autumn. 
Thunderstorms after Bartholomew's Day are generally violent. 

September 
September dries up wells or breaks down bridges. Dry or wet. 

Portuguese. 

'Tis September's sun which causes the black list upon the Sun. 
antelope's back. — Bombay. 

As September, so the coming March. September 

and March. 
A wet September, drought for next summer, famine, and no Wet. 
crops. — California. 

Heavy September rains bring drought. — United States. Rain. 

Rain in September is good for the farmer, but poison to the 
vine-growers. — German. 

September rain is much liked by the farmer. 

September rain good for crops and vines. 

If the storms in September clear off warm, all the storms Storms. 
of the following winter will be warm. 

3 



Weather Lore. 



[September.] 
Cold. 

Thunder. 



Fodder. 



September 
and 

November. 
Sept. 1st. 



Sth. 

14th 
(Holyrood). 



Three windy 
days. 



15/A. 

igth. 



7.0th, 21st, 
and 22nd. 

21st (St. 

Matthew's 

Day). 



When a cold spell occurs in September and passes without a 
frost, a frost will not occur until the same time in October. 

Thunder in September indicates a good crop of grain and fruit 
for next year. 

Preserve your fodder in September and your cow will fatten. 

Portuguese. 

September blow soft till the fruit's in the loft. 
November take flail, let ships no more sail. 

Fair on September 1st, fair for the month. 

St. Giles finishes the walnuts. — Spanish. 

As on the Sth, so for the next four weeks. 

The passion flower blossomed about this time. The flower 
is said to present a resemblance to the cross or rood, the 
nails, and the crown of thorns, used at the Crucifixion. 

Circle of the Seasons. 

If dry be the buck's horn 
On Holyrood morn, 

'Tis worth a kist of gold ; 
But if wet it be seen 
Ere Holyrood e'en, 

Bad harvest is foretold. — Yorkshire. 

If the hart and the hind meet dry and part dry on Rood Day 

fair, 
For sax weeks, of rain there'll be nae mair. — Scotch. 

On Holy-Cross Day 
Vineyards are gay. — Spanish. 

There are generally three consecutive windy days about the 
middle of September, which have been called by the Midland 
millers the windy days of barley harvest. 

This day is said to be fine in six years out of seven. 

T. Forster's " Perennial Calendar." 

If on September 19th there is a storm from the south, a mild 
winter may be expected. — Derby. 

These three days of September rule the weather for 
October, November, and December. 

St. Matthee, 
Shut up the bee. 

St. Matthew's rain fattens pigs and goats. — Spain. 

St. Matthew 

Brings on the cold dew. 



Times and Seasons. 35 



St. Matthew makes the days and nights equal. — Spanish. Sept. 21st 

Matthew's Day, bright and clear, tkL%£toy). 

Brings good wine in next year. 

South wind on September 21st indicates that the rest of the 

autumn will be warm. 

St. Matthew, St. Matthew 

Get candlesticks new ; a J'A>r ,., ■ 

_ „„ , . St. Matthias. 

St. Matin, 

Lay candlesticks by. 

So many days old the moon is on Michaelmas Day, so many 29/A 
floods after.— Howell. (Michaelmas 

Day). 
On Michaelmas Day the devil puts his foot on the blackberries. 

North of Ireland. 

If St. Michael brings many acorns, Christmas will cover the 
fields with snow. 

Michaelmas rot 

Comes ne'er in the pot. 

St. Michael's rain does not stay long in the sky. — French. 

, September 

If it does not rain on St. Michael's and Gallus, a dry spring 2 gth and 

is indicated for the next year. October 16th. 

Dry your barley in October, October. 

Or you'll always be sober. 
[Because if this is not done there will be no malt. — Swainson.] 

A good October and a good blast, Wind. 

To blow the hog acorn and mast. 

There are always nineteen fine days in October. — Kent. Fine 

Much rain in October, much wind in December. Rain. 

When it freezes and snows in October, January will bring mild Cold. 
weather ; but if it is thundering and heat-lightning, the weather 
will resemble April in temper. 

If October bring heavy frosts and winds, then will January Frosts etc. 
and February be mild. 

If the first snow falls on moist, soft earth, it indicates a small Show. 
harvest ; but if upon hard, frozen soil, a good harvest. 

For every fog in October a snow in the winter, heavy or light Fogs. 
according as the fog is heavy or light. 

If in the fall of the leaves in October many of them wither Leaves. 

on the boughs and hang there, it betokens a frosty winter and 

much snow. 0ctober and 

Warm October, cold February. February. 

October 
If October bring much frost and wind, then are January and January and 

February mild. Fein nary. 



36 



Weather Lore. 



October and 
March. 

October and 
winter. 

Moon. 



October and 
November. 



Manure. 
October l8th. 



2&th. 

(J5S. Simon 

and Jnde). 

November. 



Windy. 



Cheerless. 



Flowers. 
Water. 

Cold. 



Thunder. 



November 
and March. 

Nov. 1st 
(All Saints' 
Day). 



As the weather in October, so will it be in the next March. 

When birds and badgers are fat in October, expect a cold winter. 

United States. 

Full moon in October without frost, no frost till full moon in 
November. 

Plenty of rain in October and November on the North Pacific 
coast indicates a mild winter ; little rain in these months will 
be followed by a severe winter. 

In October dung your field, 

And your land its wealth shall yield. 

St. Luke's little summer. 

There is often about this time a spell of fine, dry weather, 
and this has received the name of St. Luke's little summer. 
This day was anciently accounted as certain to be rainy. 

On St. Jude's Day 
The oxen may play. 

November take flail, 

Let ships no more sail. — Tusser. 

No warmth, no cheerfulness, no healthful ease, 
No comfortable feel in any member, 
No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees, 
No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds — 
No-vember. — T. Hood. 

Flowers in bloom late in autumn indicate a bad winter. 

When in November the water rises, it will show itself the 
whole winter. 

If there's ice in November that will bear a duck, 
There'll be nothing after but sludge and muck. 

A heavy November snow will last till April. — New England. 

Thunder in November, a fertile year to come. 
Thunder in November on the Northern lakes is taken as an 
indication that the lakes will remain open till at least the 
middle of December. — United States. 

As November, so the following March. 

On the 1st of November, if the weather hold clear, 
An end of wheat sowing do make for the year. 

In Sweden there is often about this time some warm weather, 
called " The All Saints' rest." 

In Shakespeare's Henry IV., Act I., Scene 2, mention is also 
made of the All Hallow'n summer. — Swainson. 



Times and Seasons. 2>7 



If All Saints' Day will bring out the winter, St. Martin's Day Nov. \st 

will bring out Indian summer. — United States. (All Saints 

Day). 

If on All Saints' Day the beech nut is dry, we shall have a hard 

winter ; but if the nut be wet and not light, we may expect a 

wet winter. 

If ducks do slide at Hollantide, lUh OS'- 

At Christmas they will swim ; n"V" S 

If ducks do swim at Hollantide, 
At Christmas they will slide. 

If it is at Martinmas fair, dry, and cold, the cold in winter will 
not last long. 

If the geese at Martin's Day stand on ice, they will walk in 
mud at Christmas. 

If the leaves of the trees and grape vines do not fall before 
Martin's Day, a cold winter may be expected. 

When the wind is in this quarter (S.S.W.) at Martinmas, it 
keeps mainly to the same point right on to Old Candlemas Day 
(February 14th), and we shall have a mild winter up to then and 
no snow to speak of. — Verified in 1869 (see "Notes and 
Queries," May 8th, 1869). 

Wind north-west at Martinmas, severe winter to come. 

Huntingdonshire. 

If the wind is in the south-west at Martinmas, it keeps there 
till after Candlemas, with a mild winter up to then and no 
snow to speak of. — Midland Counties. 

At St. Martin's Day 

Winter is on his way. — French. 

Expect St. Martin's summer, halcyon days [i.e., fine weather at 
Martinmas]. — Shakespeare's "Henry VI.," Part I., Act. I., 
Scene 2. 

It is an old saying with the people round here (Atherstone), Weather 
" Where the wind is on Martinmas Eve, there it will be the folk-lore. 
rest of the winter." The following, from Brand's Popular- 
Antiquities, has reference to the first part of the foregoing : 
" The weather on Martinmas Eve is anxiously watched by the 
farmers in the Midland Counties, as it is supposed to be an 
index to the barometer for some two or three months forward.'' 

November 
'Tvveen Martinmas and Yule nth and 

Water's wine in every pool. — Scotland. December 

25/h. 

As November 21st, so is the winter. Nov. 21st. 

As at Catherine foul or fair, so will be the next February. 25th. 



38 



IVeather Lore. 



December. 

Cold. 

Thunder. 

December 
andjanuary. 

1st Sunday. 

Dec. nth, 

Halcyon 

days. 



21st (St. 

Thomas's 

Day). 

2$th. 



Christmas 
sunshine. 



Windy. 

Christmas 
and Easter. 



Wet. 

Ice and 
snow. 



December cold with snow, good for rye. 

Thunder in December presages fine weather. 

December's frost and January's flood 
Never boded the husbandman's good. 

If it rains on this Sunday before Mass, it will rain for a week. 

The fourteen halcyon days then began — days in which in the 
Mediterranean a calm weather was expected, so that the 
halcyon or hawk could (it was supposed) make its nest on 
the surface of the sea. — See Virgil's " Georgics," Book I., 
Line 393. 

Look at the weathercock on St. Thomas's Day at twelve 
o'clock, and see which way the wind is, for there it will stick 
for the next (lunar) quarter. 

A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard. 

A green Christmas brings a heavy harvest, — Rutland. 

At Christmas meadows green, at Easter covered with frost. 

A clear and bright sun on Christmas Day fortelleth a peaceable 
year and plenty ; but if the wind grow stormy before sunset, 
it betokeneth sickness in the spring and autumn quarters. 

The shepherd would rather see his wife enter the stable on 
Christmas Day than the sun. — German. 

If the sun shine through the apple tree on Christmas Day, 
there will be an abundant crop in the following year. 

Light Christmas,* light wheatsheaf ; 
Dark Christmas, heavy wheatsheaf. 

If windy on Christmas Day, trees will bring much fruit. 

A warm Christmas, a cold Easter ; 

A green Christmas, a white Easter. — German. 

Easter in snow, Christmas in mud ; 
Christmas in snow, Easter in mud. 

Christmas wet, empty granary and barrel. 

If Christmas finds a bridge, he'll break it ; if he finds none 
he'll make one. 

If it snows during Christmas night, the crops will do well. 
So far as the sun shines on Christmas Day, 
So far will the snow blow in May. — Germany. 

Snow on Christmas night, good hop crop next year. 



* If full moon about Christmas Day. 



Times and Seasons. 39 



If at Christmas ice hangs on the willow, clover may be cut at Dec. 2$th. 
Easter. Ice - 

If ice will bear a man before Christmas, it will not bear a 
mouse afterwards. [Also said of a goose and duck.] 

When the blackbird sings before Christmas, she will cry Blackbird. 
before Candlemas. — Meath. 

If Christmas Day on Thursday be, Supersti- 

A windy winter ye shall see ; tious **»»" ' 

Windy weather in each week, 
And hard tempest strong and thick, 
The summer shall be good and dry, 
Corn and beasts shall multiply ; 
The year is good for lands to till, 
Kings and princes shall die by skill, etc., etc. 
[There are eight more lines of the same superstitious 

character, but not relating to the weather.] 

Christmas 
A windy Christmas and a calm Candlemas are signs of a good and 
year. 

If on Christmas night the wine ferments heavily in the barrels, Wine. 
a good wine year is to follow. 

Thunder during Christmas week indicates that there will be Thunder. 
much snow during the winter. 



Candlemas. 



These twelve days are said to be the keys of the weather for Dec. 25/A to 
the whole year. ■'""' -> ' 

There was a superstitious practice in France on Christmas Chris/mas to 
Day of placing twelve onions, representing the twelve months. Epiphany. 
Each onion had a pinch of salt on the top ; and if the salt 
had melted by Epiphany, the month corresponding was put 
down as sure to be wet ; while it tne salt remained, the 
month was to be dry. 

If it rain much during the twelve days after Christmas, it will 
be a wet year. 

St. Stephen's Day windy, bad for next year's grapes. Dec. 26th. 

The Shepherd's Kalendar mentions that if it be lowering zSth (Inno- 
and wet on Childermas Day, there will be scarcity ; while if cents' Day). 
the day be fair, it promises plenty. \ 

If New Year's Eve night wind blow south, 31s/. 

It betokeneth warmth and growth ; 

If west, much milk and fish in the sea ; 

If north, much cold and storms there will be ; 

If east, the trees will bear much fruit ; 

If north-east, flee it man and brute. 



40 



Weather Lore. 



Equinox. As the wind and weather at the equinoxes, so will they be 
for the next three months. 

As the equinoctial storms clear, so will all storms clear for 
the six months. 



Vernal 
equinox, 
wind N.E. 
and S. W. 



Wind north-east or north at noon of the vernal equinox, no 
fine weather before midsummer. If westerly or south-westerly, 
fine weather till midsummer. 

If the wind is north-east at vernal equinox, it will be a good 
season for wheat and a poor one for other kinds of corn ; 
but if south or south-west, it will be good for other corn, but 
bad for wheat. 

Equinoctial The vernal equinoctial gales are stronger than the autumnal. 

gales. 

If near the time of the equinox it blows in the day, it generally 

hushes towards evening. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO VARIOUS MOVABLE 
FEASTS, ETC. 



Shrove 
Tuesday. 



So much as the sun shineth on Pancake Tuesday, the like 
will shine every day in Lent. 

Thunder on Shrove Tuesday foretelleth wind, store of fruit, 
and plenty. 

When the sun is shining on Shrovetide Day, it is meant well 
for rye and peas. 

Wherever the wind lies on Ash Wednesday, it continues 
Wednesday, during all Lent. 

As Ash Wednesday, so the fasting time. 

Lent. Dry Lent, fertile year. 

Palm If the weather is not clear on Palm Sunday, it means a bad 

Sunday. year. 



Ash 



GoodFriday. 

Good Friday 
and Easter 
Day. 

Easter. 



Rain on Good Friday foreshows a fruitful year. 

A wet Good Friday and a wet Easter Day 
Make plenty of grass, but very little hay. 

Late Easter, long, cold spring. — Sussex. 

Rain at Easter gives slim fodder. — United States. 

A rainy Easter betokens a good harvest. — French. 



Times and Seasons. 41 



If the sun shines on Easter Day, it shines on Whitsunday [Easter.] 
likewise. 

Past Easter frost, Frost. 

Fruit not lost. 

A good deal of rain upon Easter Day Rain. 
Gives a good crop of grass, but little good hay. 

Hertfordshire. 

Such weather as there is on Easter Day there will be at harvest. Weather. 
[As a correspondent in Notes and Queries (July 10th, 
1875) points out, this superstition may have arisen 
from the pagan sacrifice to the goddess Eostre (from 
which name the Venerable Bede says " Easter " is 
derived), a sacrifice made about the vernal equinox, 
with a view to a good harvest.] 

The first Sunday after Easter settles the weather for the First Sun- 

whole summer. — Sweden. day after. 

If it rains on Pastor Sunday, it will rain every Sunday until Pastor Sun- 

Pentecost (Whitsunday). da / (second 

aftcrEaster). 

Fine on Holy Thursday, wet on Whit-Monday ; fine on Whit- Holy 

Monday, wet on Holy Thursday.— Huntingdonshire. Thursday. 

As the weather on Ascension Day, so may be the entire Ascension 

autumn. Da y- 

If fair weather from Easter to Whitsuntide, the butter will be Easter to 

cheap. Whitsuntide. 

Corpus Christi Day clear clTisti 

Gives a good year. (Thursday 

after Trinity 

If it rain on Corpus Christi Day, the rye granary will be light. Sunday). 

Whitsuntide rain, blessing for wine. Whitsuntide. 

Rain at Whitsuntide is said to make the wheat mildewed. 

Strawberries at Whitsuntide indicate good wine. 

Whitsunday bright and clear Whitsunday 

Will bring a fertile year. ^ ll ' d al f° 

J Pentecost — 

If Whitsunday bring rain, we expect many a plague. the fiftieth 

day after 

Rain at Pentecost forebodes evil. Easter). 

Whitsunday 

Whitsunday wet, Christmas fat. and Christ- 
mas. 



4 2 Weather Lore. 



PROVERBS RELATING TO THE MONTHS 
GENERALLY. 
Month. The month that comes in good will go out bad. 

Satire. Dirty days hath September, 

April, June, and November ; 
From January up to May, 
The rain it raineth every day. 
All the rest have thirty-one, 
Without a blessed gleam of sun ; 
And if any of them had tvvo-and-thirty, 
They'd be just as wet and twice as dirty. — Maine, U.S. 
Character of . January fierce, cold, and frosty, 

February moist and aguish, 
March dusty, 
April rainy, 

May pretty, gay, and windy, 
Bring an abundant harvest. — French. 
A frosty winter and a dusty March, 

And a rain about Aperill, 
And another about the Lammas * time, 

When the corn begins to fill, 
Is worth a plough of gold 
And all her pins theretill. 
[A Scotch version of this, attributed to G. Buchanan, will be found among 
the March proverbs, p. 20.] 

DAYS OF THE WEEK. 

1'luse sayings, though, for the most part, purely superstitious, I have 
inserted in order to complete the collection. 

Wednesday When the sun sets clear 011 Wednesday, expect clear weather 
c ' m '- the rest of the week. 

Wednesday clearing, clear till Sunday. 
Thursday. On Thursday at three 

Look out, and you'll see 
What Friday will be. — South Devon. 
Friday. Friday's a day as'll have his trick, 

The fairest or foulest day o' the wik [week]. 

Shropshire. 
Friday and Fine on Friday, 

Sunday. Fine on Sunday ; 

Wet on Friday, 
Wet on Sunday. — France. 

As the Friday, so the Sunday. 
* August 1st. 



Times and Seasons. 



If on Friday it rain, Friday and 

'Twill on Sunday again ; Sunday, 

If Friday be clear, 
Have for Sunday no fear. 

If the sun sets clear on Friday, it will blow before Sunday 
night. 

Right as the Friday sothly for to tell Friday's 

Now shineth it and now it raineth fast ; weather. 

Right so can gery Venus overcast 

The hertes of hire folk, right as her day 

Is gerfull, right so changeth she aray ; 

Selde is the Friday all the weke ylike. 

Chaucer's "Knight's Tale." 

Friday is the best or worst day of the week. 

If the sun sets clear on Friday, generally expect rain before 
Monday. 

There is never a Saturday without some sunshine. Saturday. 

If it rains on Sunday before Mass, it will rain all the week. Sunday. 

Sunday clearing, clear till Wednesday. Clearing. 

If sunset on Sunday is cloudy, it will rain before Wednesday. Sunset. 

When it storms on the first Sunday in the month, it will storm First in 
every Sunday. month. 

The last Sunday in the month indicates the weather of the Last in 
next month. month - 

A misty morning may have a fine day. — T. Fuller. Day 

misty. 
Too bright a morning breeds a lowering day. 

Play of " Edward III." 

When there are three days cold, expect three days colder. Cold. 

A warm and serene day, which we say is too fine for the Fine. 
season, betokens a speedy reverse. — " Whitby Glossary," 
F. K. Robinson. 

Frosty nights and hot sunny days Days and 

Set the corn fields all in a blaze. nights. 

A bad day has a good night. ^ « nd 

A day should be praised at night. — Norway. 

If a change of weather occur when the sun or moon is Noon 

crossing the meridian, it is for twelve hours at least. change. 

Nautical. 

Twilight looming indicates rain. Twilight. 

In the evening one may praise the day. — German. Evening. 

If the weather change at night, it will not last when the day Night. 
breaks. — France. 



44 



Weather Lore. 



Hours. 
10 and 2. 



12 and 2. 



7 and : 



Cyc& o/ 
change. 



Between the hours of ten and two 
Will show you what the day will do. 

Between twelve and two 

You'll see what the day will do. — Cornwall. 

Rain at seven, fine at eleven ; 
Rain at eight, not fine till eight. 

Lord Bacon states that it is an old opinion that the weather 
changes after forty years repeat themselves. 

[Note. — The closest observation in modern times has failed 
to fix any period after which the weather may be 
said to repeat its changes.] 



LIST OF COMMON PLANTS, 

And the dates at which they ought to be in full flower. The forwardness 
of the seasons may be judged by the ptmcluality of the appearance of 
the blossoms. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



2 


Groundsel 


March 1 


Leek 


4 


Hazel 


M 


4 


Chickweed 


5 


Bearsfoot 


II 


5 


Hellebore 


6 


Common Dead Nettle 


II 


6 


Lent Lily 


9 


Laurel 


IT 


7 


Early Daffodil 


10 


Gorse 


l> 


S 


Great Jonquil 


ii 


Early Moss 


„ 


13 


Heartsease 


14 


Barren Strawberry 


II 


i5 


Coltsfoot 


i5 


Ivy 


II 


17 


Shamrock 


i7 


Anemone (Garden) 


II 


17 


Violet 


■9 


White Dead Nettle 


„ 


24 


Saxifrage 


27 


Earth Moss 


II 


25 


Marigold 


28 


Double Daisy 


H 


29 


Oxlip 


30 


Maidenhair 


„ 


3° 


Cardamine 






II 


3° 


Lesser Daffodil 


1 


Bay 








■? 


Snowdrop 


April 


2 


White Violet 


5 


Primrose 


t> 


4 


Crown Imperial 


6 


Blue Hyacinth 


n 


7 


Anemone (Wood) 


9 


Narcissus (Roman) 


11 


8 


Ground Ivy 


l 3 


Potyanthus 


M 


9 


Polyanthus (Red) 


14 


Yellow Crocus 


" 


11 


Dandelion 


17 


Scotch Crocus 


„ 


12 


Saxifrage (Great) 


19 


Speedwell 


1 

11 


13 


Narcissus (Green) 


21 


White Crocus 


|» 


16 


Yellow Tulip 


22 


Common Daisy 


11 


19 


Garlic 


23 


Apricot 


if 


23 


Harebell 


25 


Peach 


11 


24 


Blackthorn 


26 


Periwinkle (Lesser) 


11 


27 


Great Daffodil 


2S 


Purple Crocus 


„ 


30 


Cowslip 



Times and Seasons. 



45 



May 2 


Charlock 


July 


17 


Sweet Pea 


11 2 


Rhododendron 


IT 


23 


Musk Flower 


>i 3 


Narcissus (Poetic) 


If 


25 


Herb Christopher 


>. s 


Apple Tree 


ft 


26 


Camomile (Field) 


„ 8 


Lily of the Valley 








.. 9 


Solomon's Seal 








ii ll 


Asphodel (Yellow) 


Aug 


2 


Tiger Lily 


„ 14 


Common Peony 




1 


3 


Hollyhock 


„ 16 


Star of Bethlehem 




t 


4 


Bluebell 


„ 17 


Poppy (Early Red) 




t 


6 


Meadow Saffron 


„ 18 


Mouse Ear 




1 


7 


Amaranth (Common) 


ii ! 9 


Monkshood 




t 


8 


Love lies Bleeding 


ii 20 


Horse Chestnut 




t 


10 


Balsam (Common) 


ii 23 


Lilac 




. 


11 


China Aster 


„ 26 


Azalea (Yellow) 




. 


12 


Sow Thistle (Great) 


„ 27 


Buttercup 




t 


iS 
21 
28 


African Marigold 
Sunflower 
Golden Rod 


June 1 


Yellow Rose 




, 


29 


Yellow Hollyhock 


11 2 


Pimpernel 




1 


31 


Pheasant's Eye 


,. 4 


Pink (Indian) 








„ 6 


Pink (Common) 


Sept 


. 5 


Mushroom 


„ 8 


Moneywort 
Barberry 


y) 


10 


Autumnal Crocus 


9 




J 4 


Passion Flower 


■1 10 


Fleur de Lis (Yellow) 








1 12 


White Dog Rose 








.. 13 


Ranunculus (Garden) 


Oct. 


2 


Common Soapwort 


1. is 


Sensitive Plant 


M 


4 


Southernwood 


„ 16 


Moss Rose 


!» 


5 


Camomile (Starlike) 


„ 18 


Poppy (Horned) 


It 


6 


Fever Few (Late Flowering) 


11 22 


Canterbury Bell 


ft 


7 


Crysanthemum (Indian) 


.. 23 


Lady's Slipper 


f> 


11 


Holly 


„ 24 


St. John's Wort 


ft 


16 


Yarrow 


„ 25 


Sweet William 


M 


17 


Sunflower (Ten Leaved) 


„ 26 


Sow Thistle (Blue) 








„ 28 


Cornflower 












Nov 


1 


Laurestine 






M 


6 


Yew 


July 1 


Agrimony 


tt 


25 


Butterbur (Sweet) 


„ 2 


White Lily 








.. 7 


Nasturtium 








H 11 


Yellow Lupin 


Dec 


4 


Gooseberry (Barbadoes) 


„ 12 


Snap Dragon 


P> 


7 


Achania (Hairy) 


i> 13 


Blue Lupin 


IJ 


8 


Arbor Vita? 


.. 14 


Red Lupin 


tt 


23 


Cedar of Lebanon 


„ 16 


Convolvolus Major 




II 


26 


Purple Heath 



4 6 



Weather Lore. 



FLOWERS 
Which should open on ce7-tain saints' days. 



Feb. 2 Candlemas, Snowdrop 
,, 14 St. Valentine, Crocus 
March 25 Lady Day, Daffodil 
April 23 St. George, Harebell 
May 3 Holy Cross, Crowfoot 
June 1 1 St. Barnabas, Ragged Robin 
„ 24 St. John the Baptist, Scarlet 
Lychnis 
July 15 St. S within, Lily 
,, 20 St. Margaret, Poppy 



July 22 St. Magdalene, Rose 
Aug. 1 Lammas, Camomile 
,, 15 Assumption, Virgin's Bower 
1, 24 St. Bartholomew, Sun 
flower 
Sept. 14 Holyrood, Passion Flower 
,, 29 Michaelmas, Michaelmas 

Daisy 
Nov. 25 St. Catherine, Laurel 
Dec. 25 Christmas, Ivy and Holly 



LIST OF COMMON FLOWERS, 

And the times at which, in ordinary fine weather, they open and close their 
petals. Their opening later or closing earlier than the usual time is a 
sign of rain, and vice versa. 



Goatsbeard 

Succory . 

Ox Tongue 

Naked Poppy 

Day Lily . 

Sow Thistle 

Blue Thistle . 

Dandelion 

Convolvulus 

Spotted Hawkweed 

Lettuce 

"White Water Lily 

African Marigold 

Pimpernel 

Proliferous Pink 

Mouse Ear 

Field Marigold 

Chickweed 

Caroline Mallow 



OPENS. 


CLOSES. 


a.iv 


. 


P.M 




. 3 to 


S • 


9 to 


10 


• 4 „ 


5 


• 8„ 


9 


■ 4 » 


5 • 


12 




S 




7 




• s 




7 „ 


8 


• 5 




■ 11 „ 


12 


5 




12 




• 5 „ 


6 


• 8 „ 


9 


■ 5 ,, 


6 


4 „ 


5 


6„ 


7 


4 ,, 


5 


• 7 




10 




• 7 




5 




7 




3 ., 


4 


7 „ 


8 


2 „ 


3 


. 8 




6 




8 




2 




9 




3 




• 9 „ 


10 


9 ,. 


10 


9 ,1 


10 


12 „ 


1 



BIRDS, 

And the times at which they usually appear in the South of England. 

Wryneck . . Middle of March. 

Smallest Willow Wren ... . Latter end of March. 

House Swallow . Middle of April. 

Martin . . . „ 

Sand Martin ... . ,, 

Blackcap . „ 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



47 



Nightingale 

Cuckoo ... 

Middle Willow Wren 

Whitethroat . 

Redstart . 

Great Plover or Stone Curlew 

Grasshopper Lark 

Swift 

Largest Willow Wren 
Fern Owl . 
Flycatcher 



T. Forster's 



Beginning of April. 
Middle of April. 



End of March. 
. Middle of April. 
Latter end of April. 
End of April. 
Latter end of May. 
Middle of May. 

' Perennial Calendar. 



Ring Ouzel 
Redwing . 
Fieldfare . 
Royston Crow 
Woodcock 



WINTER BIRDS. 
Times of their arrival. 



Snipe .... 

Jack Snipe 

Pigeon or Stock Dove 

Wood Pigeon or Ring Dove 



Soon after Michaelmas. 

Middle of October. 

October and November. 

October. 

Keeps arriving all October and 

November. 
The same (some of them breed here). 

M )J ,1 

End of November (some abide here 

all the year). 
Some abide all the year; some arrive 

in spring; others perform partial 

migrations. 

Forster's " Perennial Calendar. " 



Sun, /Ifeoon, an& Stars. 

The indications of coming weather presented by the sun, moon, etc., 
come next in order, and they refer for the most part to the weather of the 
day, or very soon after. The sun has ever been the first authority, and 
has his various aspects, colours, and moods, each fitted with a real or 
imaginary sequence of weather. His redness on rising or setting has 
furnished the material for a dozen proverbs of various times and nations. 
The moon, too, has always had her votaries as a weather witch, and even 
now is not without a numerous staff of prophets ready to assert her 
influence over the rain and clouds. One freqiccntly hears of the weather 
altering at the " change of the moon!' but careful observers have been 
unable to detect any real differences in the state of the air at such times. 
A more extended observation, however, will do the subject no harm, and 
may lead to the discovery of a law or the establishment of some rule on 



4 8 



Weather Lore. 



which reliance can be placed. The appearance of a halo round the moon 
is regarded as an indication of wet weather, and from its relative position 
gives some warning as to the time when the coming change may be expected. 



Sun. 
Red. 

Beams. 



Rays. 



Clouds. 

Heat. 

[Sunrise.] 

Morning. 
Halo. 

Concave. 

Grey. 
Clouds. 



A red sun has water in his eye. 

When solar rays are visible in the air, they indicate vapour 
and rain to follow, and the sun is said to be " drawing water.'' 

The pillars of light which are seen upright, and do commonly 
shoot and vary, are signs of cold ; but both these are signs of 
drought. — Bacon. 

When the sun's rays are visible, the seamen say, '' The sun is 
getting up his back stays, and it is time to look out for bad 
weather." 

The sun breaking out suddenly into bright sunshine through 
an otherwise stormy sky is said to be making holes for the 
wind to blow through. — Roper's " Weather Sayings.' - 

The sun is noted to be hotter when it shineth forth between 
clouds, than when the sky is open and serene. — Bacon. 

The heat or beams of the sun doth take away the smell of 
flowers, specially such as are of milder odour. — Bacon. 

If rays precede the sunrise, it is a sign both of wind and rain. 

Bacon. 

The morning sun never lasts the day. 

If the rising sun be encompassed with an iris or circle of white 
clouds, and they equally fly away, this is a sign of fair weather. 

Pliny. 

If the sun appear concave at its rising, the day will be 
windy or showery,' — windy if the sun be only slightly concave, 
and showery if the concavity is deep. — Bacon. 

A grey sky in the morning presages fine weather. — Fitzroy. 

If at sunrising the clouds are driven away, and retire, as it were, 
to the west, this denotes fair weather. — Pliny. 

If at sunrise small reddish-looking clouds are seen low on the 
horizon, it must not always be considered to indicate rain. 
The probability of rain under these circumstances will depend 
on the character of the clouds and their height above the 
horizon. I have frequently observed that if they extend io°, 
rain will follow before sunset ; if 20° or 30°, rain will follow 
before 2 or 3 p.m. ; but if still higher and near the zenith, 
rain will fall within three hours. — C. L. Prince. 

Clouds like globes at sunrise announce clear, sharp weather. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



49 



Above the rest, the sun who never lies, [Sunrise.] 

Foretells the change of weather in the skies ; 

For if he rise unwilling to his race, 

Clouds on his brow and spots upon his face, Clouds. 

Or if through mists he shoot his sullen beams, 

Frugal of light in loose and straggling streams, 

Suspect a drizzling day and southern rain, 

Fatal to fruits, and flocks, and promised grain. 

Virgil's " Georgics," Book I., Line 438. 

A high dawn indicates wind. A low dawn indicates fair Clear, etc. 

weather. 
[/Vote. — A high dawn is when the first indications of daylight 
are seen over a bank of clouds ; a low dawn is when 
the day breaks on or near the horizon, the first streaks 

of light being very low down. — Fitzroy.] 

« 

Clouds collected near the sun at sunrise forebode a rough Cloudy. 
storm that same day ; but if they are driven from the east and 
pass away to the west, it will be fine. — Bacon. 

If at sunrise the clouds about the sun disperse, some to the 
north and some to the south, though the sky round the sun 
itself is clear, it portends wind. — Bacon. 

If the sky at sunrise is cloudy and the clouds soon disperse, 
certain fine weather will follow. — Shepherd of Banbury. 

If Aurora, with half-open eyes, Gloomy. 

And a pale, sickly cheek, salutes the skies 
How shall the vine with tender leaves defend 
Her teeming clusters when the storms descend ? 

Virgil. 

Storms are said to decrease at the rising or setting of the Stormy. 
sun or moon. 

A general mist before the sun rises near the full moon Misty. 
presages fair weather. — Shepherd of Banbury. 

The sun pale and (as we call it) watery at its rising denotes Pale. 
rain ; if it set pale, wind. — Bacon. 

If at sunrise the sun emits rays from the clouds, the middle Rays. 
of his disc being concealed therein, it indicates rain, especially 
if these rays break out downwards, so as to make the sun 
appear bearded. But if rays strike from the centre, or from 
different parts of the sun, whilst the outer circle of his disc 
is covered with clouds, there will be great storms both of 
wind and rain. — Bacon. 



A morning sun, a wine-bred child, 
seldom end well. — G. Herbert. 



and a Latin-bred woman Proverb. 



5o 



Weathei' Lore. 



[Sunrise,] 

Sunny. 

Cloudy. 



Gaudy. 

Red morn- 
ing. 



Dark clouds. 



Red. 



Ruddy. 
[Sunset.] 



A glaring, sunny morning never comes to a good end. 

French. 
If at sunrise the clouds do not appear to surround the sun, 
but to press upon him from above, as if they were going to 
eclipse him, a wind will arise from the quarter on which 
the clouds incline. If this take place at noon, the wind will 
be accompanied by rain. — Bacon. 

A gaudy morning bodes a wet afternoon. 

Or if Aurora tinge with glowing red 

The clouds that float round Phcebus' rising head. 

Farmer, rejoice ! for soon refreshing rains 

Will fill the pools and quench the thirsty plains. 

If ere his limbs he rear from ocean's bed 

His foremost rays obscure and dark are spread 

On th' horizon's edge, forewarned, take heed ; 

These signs the rain or blustering wind precede. 

J. Lamb's ''Aratus." 

If the clouds at sunrise be red, there will be rain the following 

day. 

In the winter season, a red sky at sunrise foreshows steady 

rain on the same day. The same sign in summer betokens 

occasional violent showers, wind in both cases generally 

accompanying. 

A red morn, that ever yet betokened 
Wreck to the seaman, tempest to the field, 
Sorrow to shepherds, woe unto the birds, 
Gust and foul flaws to herdmen and to herds. 

Shakespeare. 
If red the sun begin his race, 
Be sure the rain will fall apace. 

If the rays of the sun on rising are not yellow, but ruddy, it 
denotes rain rather than wind. The same likewise holds 
good of the setting. — Bacon. 

But more than all the setting sun survey, 

When down the steep of heaven he drives the day ; 

For oft we find him finishing his race, 

With various colours erring on his face. 

If fiery red his glowing globe descends, 

High winds and furious tempests he portends ; 

But if his cheeks are swoln with livid blue, 

He bodes wet weather by his watery hue ; 

If dusky spots are varied on his brow, 

And streaked with red a troubled colour show, 

That sullen mixture shall at once declare 

Winds, rain, and storms, and elemental war. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



5T 



[Sunset.] 



But if with purple rays he brings the light, 

And a pure heaven resigns to quiet night. 

No rising winds or falling storms are nigh. — Virgil. 

A breeze usually springs up before sunset ; or if a gale is Breeze. 
blowing, it generally subsides about that time. 

Sun set in a clear, Clear. 

Easterly wind's near; 
Sun set in a bank, 
Westerly will not lack. 

St. Andrews, Scotland. 

When the sun sets bright and clear, Bright. 

An easterly wind you need not fear. 

If the sun set with a very red eastern sky, expect wind ; if red Red 
to the south-east, expect rain. 

When Tottenham Wood is all on fire, 
Then Tottenham Street is nought but mire. 

Middlesex. 

If the body of the sun appear blood red at setting, it forebodes 
high winds for many days. — Bacon. 

Red west at sunset, not extending far up the sky, and having 
no thick bank of black clouds, will be followed by a fine day. 

When after sunset the western sky is of a whitish yellow, Colours of. 
and this tint extends a great height, it is probable that it will 
rain during the night or the next day. Gaudy or unusual 
hues, with hard, definitely outlined clouds, foretell rain, and 
probably wind. If the sun before setting appears diffuse and 
of a brilliant white, it foretells storm. If it sets in a sky 
slightly purple, the atmosphere near the zenith being of a 
bright blue, we may rely on fine weather. 

If the sun in red should set, Rhyme. 

The next day surely will be wet ; 
If the sun should set in g'"ey, 
The next will be a rainy day. 

The weary sun hath made a golden set, Golden. 

And by the bright track of his fiery car 
Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow. 

Shakespeare's " Richard III." 

When the sun sets of a golden yellow colour, with disc ill 
defined, and rays extending 4° or 6°, a strong wind and 
much vapour exist at a considerable elevation, and rain 
usually occurs within twenty-four hours. — C. L. Prince. 

A bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind ; a pale yellow, Yellow. 
wet. — Fitzroy. 



5 = 



Weather Lore. 



[Sunset.] 
Has v. 



Pale. 

Sad. 
Cloudy. 



Wet. 

[Sunrise 
and 

Sunset.] 
Red. 



Sunrise full. 



Sunset pale. 
Cloudy. 



When the air is hazy, so that the solar light fades gradually, 
and looks white, rain will most certainly follow. 

In summer time, when the sun at rising is obscured by a 
mist which disperses about three hours afterwards, expect hot 
and calm weather for two or three days. — C. L. Prince. 
If the sun goes pale to bed, 
'Twill rain to-morrow, it is said. 
When the sun appears of a light pale colour, or goes down 
into a bank of clouds, it indicates the approach or continuance 
of bad weather. 
When the sun sets sadly, the morning will be angry. 

Zuni Indians. 
Black or dark clouds arising at sunset prognosticate rain, — on 
the same night, if they rise in the east opposite the sun ; if 
close to the sun in the west, the next day, accompanied with 
wind. — Bacon. 

The sun setting behind a cloud forebodes rain the next day ; 
but actual rain at sunset is rather a sign of wind. If the 
clouds appear as if they were drawn towards the sun, it 
denotes both wind and rain. — Bacon. 

When the sun sets in a bank, 
A westerly wind we shall not lack. 
The sun setting after a fine day behind a heavy bank of 
clouds, with a falling barometer, is generally indicative of rain 
or snow, according to the season, either in the night or next 
morning. In winter, if there has been frost, it is often followed 
by thaw. Sometimes there will be a rise of temperature 
only, no rain falling to any amount. — Jenyns. 
The sun sets weeping in the lowly west, 
Witnessing storms to come, woe and unrest. 

Shakespeare's "Richard II." 

The skie being red at evening, 

Foreshewes a faire and cleare morning ; 

But if the morning riseth red, 

Of wind and raine we shall be sped. — A. Fleming. 

Rose tints at sunset and grey dawn, a fine day to follow. 

If Phcebus rising wide and broad appear, 
And as he mounts contracts his ample sphere, 
Propitious sign, no rain or tempest near. 
Propitious, too, if after days of rain 
With a pale face he seek the western main. 
When through the day the angry welkin lowers, 
Hid is the sun, and drenched the earth with showers. 
Catch if thou canst his last departing ray, 
And gain prognostics of the following day. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



53 



If by black cloud eclipsed his orb is found 
Shooting his scattered rays at random round, 
Send not the traveller from thy roof away — 
To-morrow shines no brighter than to-day. 
If with clear face into his watery bed, 
Curtained with crimson clouds around his head, 
He sink, that night no rain or tempest fear ; 
And morrow's sun will shine serene and clear. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather : for the sky 
is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to-day : 
for the sky is red and lowring. — Matthew xvi. 2, 3. 

If when the sun begin his daily race, 
Or ere he sink in ocean's cool embrace, 
The rays that crown his head together bend, 
And to one central point converging tend ; 
Or if by circling clouds he is opprest, 
Hanging about him as a vapoury vest ; 
Or if before him mount a little cloud, 
Veiling his rising beams in murky shroud, — ■ 
By these forewarned within the house remain ; 
Charged is the air with stores of pelting rain. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 



[Sunrise and 
Sunset.] 

Sunset with 
black cloud. 

Sunset clear. 
Crimson . 



Sunrise or 
Sunset. 

Rays. 
Clouds. 
Little cloud. 



An evening grey and a morning red 
Will send the shepherd wet to bed. 

Evening grey and morning red 
Make the shepherd hang his head. 

Evening red and morning grey, 
Two sure signs of one fine day. 

If the evening is red and the morning grey, 

It is the sign of a bonnie day ; 

If the evening's grey and the morning red, 

The lamb and the ewe will go wet to bed. — Yarrow. 

Sky red in the morning 
Is a sailor's sure warning ; 
Sky red at night 
Is the sailor's delight. 

A red evening and a grey morning set the pilgrim a-vvalking. 

Italy. 



Grey and 
Red. 



An evening red and morning grey make the pilgrim sing. 

France. 



5 A 



Weather Lore. 



[Sunrise 
and Sunset"] 
Grey and 
Red. 



Evening red and morning grey 
Help the traveller on his way ; 
Evening grey and morning red 
Bring down rain upon his head. 

The evening red and the morning grey 
Is the sign of a bright arid cheery day ; 
The evening grey and the morning red, 
Put on your hat, or you : Jl wet your head. — Scotland. 

If either on rising or setting the sun's rays appear shortened 
or contracted, and do not shine out bright, though there are no 
clouds, it denotes rain rather than wind. — Bacon. 

If the sun on rising or setting cast a lurid red light on the sky 
as far as the zenith, it is a sure sign of storms and gales of 
wind. 

When clouds are tinged on their upper edge of a pink or 
copper colour, and situated to the eastward at sunset, or to 
the westward at sunrise, expec wind and rain in about forty- 
eight hours — seldom much carh'er. — C. L. Pkince. 

Next mark the features of the God of Day ; 
Most certain signs to mortals they convey, 
When fresh he breaks the portals of the east, 
And when his wearied coursers sink to rest. 
If bright he rise, from speck and tarnish clear, 
Throughout the day no rain or tempest fear. 
If cloudless his full orb descend at night, 
To-morrow's sun will rise and shine as bright. 
But if returning to the eastern sky, 
A hollow blackness on his centre lie ; 
Or north and south his lengthened beams extend, — 
These signs a stormy wind or rain portend. 
Observe if shorn of circling rays his head, 
And o'er his face a veil of redness spread ; 
For * o'er the plains the God of Winds will sweep, 
Lashing the troubled bosom of the deep. 
If in a shroud of blackness he appear, 
Forewarned, take heed — a drenching rain is near. 
If black and red their tints together blend, 
And to his face a murky purple lend, 
Soon will the wolfish wind tempestuous howl, 
And the big cloud along the welkin roll. 
And weather foul expect, when thou canst trace 
Halo solar. A baleful halo circling Phoebus' face 

Of murky darkness, and approaching near : 
Double halo. If of two circles, fouler weather fear. 



Dull. 



Lurid. 



Cloudy. 



Sun. 



Sunrise 
bright. 

Sunset 
cloudless. 

Sunrise, 
dark cloud. 
Sunbeams 
north and 
south. 
Without 
rays visible. 
Red. 



Dark. 

Black and 
red {purple). 



* Qy. Far? 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 55 



Mark when from eastern wave his rays emerge, {Sunrise 

And ere he quench them in the western surge, andSunsel.] 

If near th' horizon ruddy clouds arise, Red clouds 

Mocking the solar orb in form and size : round. 

If two such satellites the sun attend, Double 

Soon will impetuous rain from heaven descend : round red 
If one, and north, the northern wind prevails ; 
If one, and south, expect the southern gales. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

Mock suns predict a more or less certain change of weather. Mock suns. 

Scotland. 

When the sun is in his house [halo], it will rain soon. Solar halo. 

Zuni Indians. 

If there be a ring or halo around the sun in bad weather, 
expect fine weather soon. 

A bright circle round the sun denotes a storm and cooler 
weather. 

A white ring round the sun towards sunset portends a slight 
gale that same night ; but if the ring be dark or tawny, there 
will be a high wind the next day. — Bacon. 

If there be a circle round the sun at rising, expect wind from 
the quarter where the circle first begins to break ; but if the 
whole circle disperses evenly, there will be fine weather. 

Bacon. 

If the sun or moon outshines the "brugh" (or halo), bad 
weather will not come. 

The circle of the moon never filled a pond ; the circle of the 
sun wets a shepherd. 

The bigger the ring, the nearer the wet. 

Dog * before, 
You'll have no more ; 
Dog behind, 
Soon you'll find. 

Eclipse weather is a popular term in the south of England Eclipse. 
for the weather following an eclipse of the sun or moon, 
and it is vulgarly esteemed tempestuous and not to be 
depended on by the Irasbandman. 

The hurricane eclipse of the sun. — Campbell. 

Eclipses of the moon are generally attended by winds, eclipses 
of the sun by fair weather, but neither of them are often 
accompanied by rain. — Bacon. 

* Sun dog or halo.— Shetland nnd Scotland generally. 



56 



Weather Lore. 



Moon. Each sign observe — more sure when two agree ; 

Signs. Nor doubt th' event foretold by omens three. 

Note well the events of the preceding year, 

And with the rising and the setting stars compare. 

But chiefly look to Cynthia's varying face ; 

There surest signs of coming weather trace. 
Obscured. Observe when twice four days she veils her light, 

Nor cheers with silvery ray the dreary night. 

Mark these prognostics through the circling year, 

And wisely for the rain, the wind, the storm, prepare. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

Halo. A halo oft fair Cynthia's face surrounds, 

With single, double, or with triple bounds : 

Single. If with one ring, and broken it appear, 

Sailors, beware ! the driving gale is near. 

Unbroken. Unbroken if it vanisheth away — 

Serene the air, and smooth the tranquil sea. 

Double. The double halo boisterous weather brings, 

Triple. And furious tempests follow triple rings. 

These signs from Cynthia's varying orb arise — 
Forewarn the prudent, and direct the wise. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

Halo. Far burr, near rain. — Nautical. 

[Note. — The farther the "burr" or halo appears from the 
moon, the nearer at hand is the coming rain.] 

Circle* near, water far ; 
Circle far, water near. — Italy. 

A far brugh, a near storm. — Scotch. 
[Meaning, a distant halo round the moon, a storm near at 
hand.] 

When round the moon there is a brugh [halo], 
The weather will be cold and rough. — Scotland. 

When the wheel is far, the storm is n'ar ; 
When the wheel is near, the storm is far. 

The moon with a circle brings water in her beak. 

The moon, if in house be, cloud it will, rain soon will come. 

ZuSi Indians. 

Haloes round the moon, a blood-red sunset, a red moon on 
her fourth rising, . . prognostics of winds. — Bacon. 
The open side of the halo tells the quarter from which the 
wind or rain may be expected. 



Halo round moon. 



Sitn, Jlfoon, and Stars. 



57 



Circles round the moon always foretell wind from the side 
where they break, and a remarkable brilliancy in any part 
of the circle denotes wind from that quarter. — Bacon. 
Double or treble circles round the moon foreshadow rough 
and severe storms, and much more so if these circles are not 
pure and entire, but spotted and broken. — Bacon. 
A circle or halo round the moon signifies rain rather than 
wind, unless the moon stand erect within the ring, when both 
are portended. — Bacon. 

For I fear a hurricane ; 

Last night the moon had a golden ring, 

And to-night no moon we see. 

Longfellow's "Wreck of the Hesperus." 
Haloes predict a storm (rain and wind, or snow and wind) at 
no great distance, and the open side of the halo tells the 
quarter from which it may be expected. — Scotland. 

If three days old her face be bright and clear, 

No rain or stormy gale the sailors fear ; 

But if she rise with bright and blushing cheek, 

The blustering winds the bending mast will shake. 

If dull her face and blunt her horns appear 

On the fourth day, a breeze or rain is near. 

If on the third she move with horns direct, 

Not pointing downward or to heaven erect, 

The western wind expect ; and drenching rain, 

If on the fourth her horns direct remain. 

If to the earth her upper horn she bend, 

Cold Boreas from the north his blast will send ; 

If upward she extend it to the sky, 

Loud Notus with his blustering gale is nigh. 

When the fourth day around her orb is spread 

A circling ring of deep and murky red, 

Soon from his cave the God of Storms will rise, 

Dashing with foamy waves the lowering skies. 

And when fair Cynthia her full orb displays, 

Or when unveiled to sight are half her rays, 

Then mark the various hues that paint her face, 

And thus the fickle weather's changes trace. 

If smile her pearly face benign and fair, 

Calm and serene will breathe the balmy air ; 

If with deep blush her maiden cheek be red, 

Then boisterous wind the cautious sailors dread ; 

If sullen blackness hang upon her brow, 

From clouds as black will rainy torrents flow. 

Not through the month their power these signs extend, 

But all their influence with the quarter end. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 



[Moon.] 
Haloes, 



Moon three 
days old. 

Bright. 



Dull. 

Fourth day. 
Third day. 
Moon ' on 
her back." 

Horns 
inclined. 



Halo. 

Moon. 

Half-moon. 

Colours. 

Bright. 

Rosy. 

Black. 



Weather Lore. 



[Moon.~\ 

Moonlight. 

Clear. 

Large. 

Red, dim. 
or pale. 
Dim. 

Ruddy. 
Red. 

Pale or red. 



Watery. 

InJlueMe. 
Rhyme. 



Great or 
small. 



Fog. 



Way to 
■wane. 

Changes. 



Moonlight nights have the hardest frosts. 

Clear moon, 

Frost soon. — Scotland. 
The moon appearing larger at sunset, and not dim, but 
luminous, portends fair weather for several days. — Bacon. 

A dim or pale moon indicates rain ; a red moon indicates wind. 

When the moon has a white look, or when her outline is 
not very clear, rain or snow is looked for. — Scotland. 

If on her cheeks you see the maiden's blush, 

The ruddy moon foreshows that winds will rush. — Virgil. 

The moon, her face if red be, 

Of water speaks she. — Zuni Indians. 

Pale moon doth rain, 

Red moon doth blow, 

White moon doth neither rain nor snow. 

From the Latin Proverb (Clarke, 1639). 
When the moon is darkest near the horizon, expect rain. 
The moon, methinks, looks with a watery eye. 

Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream." 

The labourer who believes in the influence of the moon will 
not fill his granary. — Haute Loire. 

The moon and the weather 

May change together ; 
But change of the moon 

Does not change the weather. 
If we'd no moon at all, 

And that may seem strange, 
We still should have weather 

That's subject to change. 
" Notes and Queries," September 23RD, 1882. 

Moon changed, keeps closet three days as a queen 

Ere she in her prime will of any be seen : 

If great she appeareth, it showereth out ; 

If small she appeareth, it signifies drought. — Tusser. 

A fog and a small moon 

Bring an easterly wind soon. — Cornwall. 

The three days of the change of the moon from the way to 
the wane we get no rain. — United States. 

If the moon changes with the wind in the east, the weather 
during that moon will be foul. 

Five changes of the moon in one calendar month indicate 
cooler weather. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 59 



When changes of the moon occur in the morning, expect rain. [Moon.] 

Changes. 
Moon changing in morning indicates warm weather ; in the 
evening, cold weather. 

If the moon is rainy throughout, it will be clear at the 
change, and perhaps the rain will return a few days after. 

If the moon change on a Sunday, there will be a flood before 
the montn is out. — Worcestershire. 

A Saturday moon, 

If it comes once in seven years, comes once too soon. 

Saturday's moon and Sunday's prime 

Ance is aneugh in seven years' lime. — Scotland. 

Saturday's change and Sunday's full 

Never brought good and i-ever wul!. — Norfolk. 

A Saturday's change and a Sunday s full moon 
Orre in seven years is once too soon. 

A Saturday's change and a Sundays foil 
Comes too boon whene'er it wull. — Dorset. 

A few days ax'ler full or new moon, changes of weather are 
thought more propable than at any other time. — Scotland. 

In the decay of the moon Waning. 

A cloudy morning bodeT a fair afternoon. 

Sowe peason and beans in the wane of the moone ; 
Who soweih them sooner, he soweth too coone. 

Tusser. 

Mr. E. J. Lowe found that a red moonrise was fo'iowed seven Moonrise 
times out of eight by rain. There were, only eight observations. red - 

When the moon r.ses red and appears large, with clouds, 
expect rain in twelve hours. 

If she rises red, it portends wind ; it reddish or dark- 
coloured, rain ; but neither of these portend anything beyond 
the full. — Bacon. 

If the full moon rise pale, expect rain. Pale rise. 

When the moon runs low, expect warm weather. Low. 

When the moon runs high, expect cool or cold weather. High. 

If the moon be fair tbiou^hout and rain at the close, the fair Fair. 
weather will probably return on the fourih or fifth day. 

If the moon is seen between the scud and broken clouds Gale moon. 
during a gale, it is expected to cuff away the bad weather. 

A dry moon is far north and soon seen. Dry. 



6o 



Weather Lore. 



[Moon.] 
Dry. 



Pale. 

Seen in day. 
Frost. 
Rain moon. 



Moon new. 



Stormy wet 
weather. 



The farther the moon is to the south, the greater the drought ; 
the farther west, the greater the flood, and the farther north- 
west, the greater the cold. 

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods, 
Pale in her anger, washes all the air, 
That rheumatic diseases do abound. 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream." 

When the moon is visible in the daytime, the days are 
relatively cool. 

Frost occurring in the dark of the moon kills fruit buds and 
blossoms, but frost in the light of the moon will not. 

Confucius, the Chinese philosopher, in one of his walks 
advised his disciples to provide themselves with umbrellas, 
since, though the sky was perfectly fair, it would soon rain. 
This happened, and the sage said it was because he had read 
a verse of the She King to the effect that, when the moon 
rises in the constellation^, great rain may be expected. 

Chambers' Miscellany. 

If at her birth, or within the first few days, the lower horn of 
the moon appear obscure, dark, or any way discoloured, there 
will be foul and stormy weather before the full. If she be 
discoloured in the middle, it will be stormy about the full ; 
but if the upper horn is thus affected, about the wane. 

Bacon. 

If the new moon appear with the points of the crescent turned 
up, the month will be dry. If the points are turned down, it 
will be wet. 

[Note. — About one-third of the sailors believe in the direct 
opposite of the above. The belief is explained as 
follows: — Firstly, if the crescent will hold water, the 
month will be dry ; if not, it will be wet. Secondly, 
if the Indian hunter could hang his powder-horn on 
the crescent, he did so, and stayed at home, because 
he knew that the woods would be too dry to still hunt. 
If he could not hang his powder-horn upon the crescent, 
he put it on his shoulder and went hunting, because he 
knew that the woods would be wet, and that he could 
stalk game noiselessly. — Major Dunwoody, U.S.] 

If there be a change from continued stormy or wet to clear 
and dry weather at the time of a new or full moon, it will 
probably remain fine till the following quarter ; and if it changes 
not then, or only for a short time, it usually lasts until the 
following new or full moon ; and if it does not change then, 
or only for a very short time, it will probably remain fine and 
dry for four or five weeks. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



61 



If the new moon, first quarter, full moon, or last quarter, occur [Moon.] 
between the following hours, the weather here stated is said Phases. 
to follow : — 



In summer between — 

12 and 2 a.m. Fair. 

2 and 4 a.m. Cold and showers. 

4 and 6 a.m. Rain. 

Wind and rain. 
. Changeable, 
a.m. Frequent 



6 and 8 a.m. 
8 and 10 a.m 
io and 12 

showers. 
12 and 2 p.m. 



Very rainy. 



In winter between — 

12 and 2 a.m. Frost, unless 

wind S.W. 
2 and 4 a.m. Snow and stormy. 
4 and 6 a.m. Rain. 
6 and 8 a.m. Stormy. 
8 and 10 a.m. Cold rain, if 

wind W. 
io and 12 a.m. Cold and high 

wind. 



2 and 4 p.m. 
4 and 6 p.m. 



Changeable. 
Fair. 



6 and 8 p.m. 

N.W. 
8 and 10 p.m. 

S. or S.W. 
io and 12 p.m. 



Fair, if wind 



Rainy, if wind 



Fair. 



12 and 2 p.m. Snow and rain. 
2 and 4 p.m. Fair and mild. 
4 and 6 p.m. Fair. 
6 and 8 p.m. Fair and frosty, 

if wind N.E or N. 
8 and IO p.m. Rain or snow, 

if wind S. or S.W. 
10 and 12 p.m. Fair and frosty. 

United States. 



Horns sharp 
or dull. 



As many days from the first new moon, so many times will Thaws. 
it thaw during winter. 

If the new moon is far north, it will be cold for two weeks ; North and 
but if far south, it will be warm. south. 

New moon far in north, in summer, cool weather, in winter, New. 
cold. 

New moon far in the south indicates dry weather for a month. 

A new moon with sharp horns threatens windy weather. 

When Luna first her scattered fear recalls, 
If with blunt horns she holds the dusky air, 
Seamen and swains predict abundant showers. 

Virgil. 

If one horn of the moon is sharp and pointed, the other being 
more blunt, it rather indicates wind ; but if both are so, it 
denotes rain. — Bacon. 

Sharp horns do threaten windy weather. 

Old Play quoted by Swainson. 

In winter, when the moon's horns are sharp and well defined, 
frost is expected. — Scotland. 



62 



Weather Lore. 



[Moon. 
New. 



back. 



If the points of a new moon are up, then, as a rule, no rain 
will fall that quarter of the moon ; a dull, pale moon, dry, 
with halo, indicates poor crops. In the planting season no 
grain must be planted when halo is around the moon. 

Apache Indians. 
Bright. a uniform brightness in the sky at the new moon, or the 

fourth rising, presages fair weather for many days. If the 
sky is uniformly overcast, it denotes rain. If irregularly over- 
cast, wind from the quarter where it is overcast. But if it 
suddenly becomes overcast without cloud or fog, so as to dull 
the brightness of the stars, rough and serious storms are 
imminent. — Bacon. 

Erect. An erect moon is almost always threatening and unfavourable, 

but principally denotes wind. If, however, she appear with 
blunt or shortened horns, it is rather a sign of rain. — Bacon. 

Moon on her People speak of the new moon lying on her back or being ill- 
made as a prognostic of wet weather. 

New moon on its back indicates wind ; standing on its point 
indicates rain in summer and snow in winter. 

Dr. John Menual. 

The bonnie moon is on her back ; 

Mend your shoes and sort your thack [thatch]. 

If the moon is on its back in the third quarter, it is a sign of 
rain. 

When the moon lies on her back, 
Then the sou'-west wind will crack ; 
When she rises up and nods, 
Then north-easters diy the sods. 

Reviewer in " Symons' Meteorological 
Magazine," September 1867. 

When the new moon lies on her back, 

She sucks the wet into her lap. — Ellesmere. 

It is sure to be a dry moon if it lies on its back, so that you 
can hang your hat on its horns. — Welsh Border. 

When first the moon appears, if then she shrouds 

Her silver crescent tipped with sable clouds, 

Conclude she bodes a tempest on the main, 

And brews for fields impetuous floods of rain ; 

Or if her face with fiery flushings glow, 

Expect the rattling winds aloft to blow ; 

But four nights old (for that's the surest sign) 

With sharpened horns, if glorious then she shine, 

Next day, nor only that, but all the moon, 

Till her revolving race be wholly run, 

Are void of temptests both by land and sea. — Virgil. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 



63 



If a snowstorm begins when the moon is young, it will [Moon.] 
cease at moonrise. Snowstorm. 



If mists in the new moon, rain in the old ; 
If mists in the old moon, rain in the new. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 



Misty. 



From the first, second, and third days of the new moon nothing Change of. 
is to be predicted ; on the fourth there is some indication ; but 
from the character of the fifth and sixth days the weather of 
the whole month may be predicted. 

Marshal Bdrgand's Motto. 

If the new moon is not visible before the fourth day, the air Fourth day. 
will be unsettled for the whole month. — Bacon. 

If on her fourth day the moon is clear, with her horns sharp, 
not lying entirely flat, nor standing quite upright, but some- 
thing between the two, there is a promise mostly of fair 
weather till the next new moon. — Bacon. 

The prime or fourth day after the change of the moon doth 
most commonly determine the force and direction of the wind. 

Pliny. 

The dispositions of the air are shown by the new moon, 
though still more on the fourth rising, as if her newness were 
then confirmed. But the full moon itself is a better prognostic 
than any of the days which succeed it. — Bacon. 

As is the fourth and fifth day's weather, 

So's that lunation altogether. — From the Latin. 

From long observation, sailors suspect storms on the fifth Fifth day. 
day of the moon. — Bacon. 

The weather remains the same during the whole moon : — 

I. [Eleven times out of twelve] as it is on the fifth day, if 
it continues unchanged over the sixth day. 

II. [Nine times out of twelve] as it is on the fourth day, 
if the sixth day resembles the fourth. 

French — "Guardian," September 2nd, 1868. 

If the weather on the sixth day is the same as that of the Sixth day. 
fourth day of the moon, the same weather will continue during 
the whole moon. — Spanish. 

[Said to be correct nine times out of twelve.] 



Late, late yestreen I saw the new moon 
With the old moon in her arms ; 
And I fear, I fear, my master dear, 
We shall have a deadly storm. 

Ballad of Sir Patrick Spens. 



Dark part 
visibte. 



64 Weather Lore. 



[Moon,] To see the old moon in the arms of the new one is reckoned 

'-^ a sign of fine weather, and so is the turning up of the horns 

of the new moon. — Suffolk. 
[In this position it is supposed to retain the water which is 
imagined to be in it. — Note by Swainson.] 

To see the old moon in the arms of the new one is a sign of 
bad weather to come. 

Full. Two full moons in a calendar month bring on a flood. 

Bedfordshire. 

The full moon eats clouds. — Nautical. 

The moon grows fat on clouds. 
[Note. — The two last proverbs have arisen from a supposed 
clearance of clouds which is said to take place when 
the full moon rises. Close observation has, however, 
proved this to be an illusion.] 

The weather is generally clearer at the full than at the other 
ages of the moon ; but in winter the frost then is sometimes 
more intense. — Bacon. 

Full moons, with regard to colours and haloes, have, perhaps, 
the same prognostics as the fourth risings ; but the fulfilment 
is more immediate, and not so long deferred. — Bacon. 

Acosta observes that in Peru, which is a bery windy country, 
there is most wind at the full moon. — Bacon. 

[Note. — There is no special prevalence of wind in Peru 
that I ever experienced. — R. I.] 

In Western Kansas it is said that when the moon is near full 

it never storms. 

When there are two full moons in one month, there are sure 

to be large floods. 

Near full moon, a misty sunrise 
Bodes fair weather and cloudless skies. 

If the full moon rise red, expect wind. 
The full moon brings fine weather. 
April moon. If from April 25th to 28th the full moon come with serene 
nights and no wind (at which times the dew commonly falls 
in great plenty), the ancients, from long experience, held it 
certain that the crops of grain would suffer. 

Plautus' " Ephemerides," etc., Edition of 1556. 

Clear. If the moon show a silver shield, 

Be not afraid to reap your field ; 
But if she rises haloed round, 
Soon we'll tread on deluged ground. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 65 



If there be a general mist before sunrise near the full of the [Moon.] 
moon, the weather will be fine for some days. < ~ >lc *- 



Threatening clouds, without rain, in old moon, indicate drought. c / ouc / s 

Auld moon mist Mist. 

Ne'er died of thirst. 

An old moon in a mist 
Is worth gold in a kist [chest] ; 
, But a new moon's mist 

Will ne'er lack thirst. 

The obscuring of the smaller stars in a clear night is a sign of Stars. 
rain. — Wing's " Ephemeris," 1649. 

When the stars begin to huddle, Huddling or 

The earth will soon become a puddle. mistiness. 

Before the rising of a wind the lesser stars are not visible Wind. 
even on a clear night. — From Pliny, xviii. 80. 

The stars twinkle; we cry " Wind." — Malta. 

Excessive twinkling of stars indicates heavy dews, rain, and Twinkling. 
snow, or stormy weather in the near future. 

When stars flicker in a dark background, rain or snow follows 
soon. 

When the sky seems very full of stars, expect rain, or, in Sky full of 
winter, frost. stars. 

The prudent mariner oft marks afar Arcinrus. 

The coming tempest by Bootes' star. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus.'' 

A star dogging the moon (which is a rustic expression for a Superstitions 

planet being for many nights persistently near the moon) respecting 

foretells bad weather. the sta >' s 

near the 

If a big star is dogging the moon, wild weather may be expected. " ,oon - 

One star ahead of the moon, towing her, and another astern, 
chasing her, is a sure sign of a storm. — Lancashire. 

Moon in a circle indicates storm, and number of stars in circle Stars in 
the number of days before storm. moon's halo. 

An entire circle round any planet or larger star forebodes Halo. 
rain ; if the circle be broken, there will be wind from the 
quarter where it breaks. — Bacon. 

If the Pleiades rise fine they set rainy, and if they rise wet Pleiades. 
they set fine. — Swahili Proverb. 

Rains and showers follow upon the rising of the Pleiades and Pleiades and 
Hyades, but without wind ; storms upon the rising of Orion Hyades. 
and Arcturus. — Bacon. 

5 



66 



Weather Lore. 



[Stars.] And when with deep-charged clouds the air's opprest, 

Nebula. Phatne, the spot that shines on Cancer's breast, 

Phatne. Attentive mark : if bright the spot appear, 

Soon Phoebus smiles with face serene and clear, 
Nor the returning rain and tempest fear. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 



If the cloud (nebula) called Prcesepe, or the manger, standing 
betwixt the Aselli,* do not appear when the air ^s serene 
and clear, it foreshows foul, cold, and winterly weather. If 
the northermost of these stars be hid, great winds from the 
south ; but the other being hid, north-east winds. 

Wing's " Ephemeris," 1649. 



Stars dim. When small stars, like those called Aselli, are not visible in 
any part of the sky, there will be great storms and rains within 
a few days ; but if these stars are only obscured in places, 
and are bright elsewhere, they denote winds only, but sooner. 

Bacon. 



Cancer. 



Nebula. 



Onoi 
or Aselli. 



Now mark where high upon the zodiac line 

The stars of lustre-lacking Cancer shine. 

Near to the constellation's southern bound 

Phatne, a nebulous bright spot, is found. 

On either side this cloud, nor distant far, 

Glitters to north and south a little star. 

Though not conspicuous, yet these two are famed — 

The Onoi by ancient sages named. 

If when the sky around be bright and clear, 

Sudden from sight the Phatne disappear, 

And the two Onoi north and south are seen 

Ready to meet — no obstacle between — 

The welkin soon will blacken with the rain, 

And torrents rush along the thirsty plain. 

If black the Phatne, and the Onoi clear, 

Sure sign again that drenching showers are near. 

And if the northern star be lost to sight, 

While still the southern glitters fair and bright, 

Notus will blow. But if the southern fail, 

And clear the northern, Boreas will prevail. 

And as the skies above, the waves below 

Signs of the rising wind and tempest show. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 



; Two stars in Cancer. 



Sun, Moon, and Stars. 67 



When the bright gems that night's black vault adorn [Stars.] 
But faintly shine — of half their radiance shorn — Fading. 

And not by cloud obscured or dimmed to sight 
By the fine silvery veil of Cynthia's light, 
But of themselves appear to faint away, 
They warning give of a tempestuous day. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

The edge of the Milky Way which is brightest indicates the Milky Way. 
direction from which an approaching storm will come. 

United States. 

Wind must be expected both before and after the conjunctions Planets' con- 
of all the other planets with one another, except the sun ; but junctions. 
fair weather from their conjunctions with the sun. — Bacon. 

Comets are said to bring cold weather. Comets. 

Comets are said to improve the grape crop ; and wine pro- Wine. 
duced in years when comets appear is called " comet wine.'' 

French. 

All comets evidence the approach of some calamity, such as Omens. 
drought, famine, war, floods, etc. — Apache Indians. 

No grateful sight to husbandmen appear 
One or more comets, with their blazing hair — 
Forerunners of a parched and barren year. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

If many meteors in summer, expect thunder. Meteors. 

Many meteors presage much snow next winter. 

If meteors shoot toward the north, expect a north wind next Numerous. 
day. Many shooting stars on summer nights indicate hot 
weather ; in winter, a thaw. 

After an unusual fall of meteors, dry weather is expected. 

Mark when athwart the ebon vault of night 
The meteors shoot their flash of vivid light — 
From that same quarter will the wind arise, 
And in like manner rush along the skies. 
If numerous and from various points they blaze, 
Darting across each other's paths their rays, 
From various points conflicting winds will sweep 
In whirlwind fury o'er the troubled deep. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

Numerous falling stars presage wind next day.— Scotland. 

Professor Erman, of Berlin, ascribes the spell of cold usually Streams. 
felt about May ioth, and also about August loth, November 
13th, and between February 5th and nth, to the meteor 
streams which the earth's orbit crosses at these times. 



68 



Weather Lore. 



[Meteors.] 



Aurora. 

Bright. 
Storm. 



Change. 

St. Elmo's 
fire. 



Shooting stars, as they are termed, foretell immediate winds 
from the quarter whence they shoot. But if they shoot from 
different or contrary quarters, there will be great storms both 
of wind and rain. — Bacon. 

If an aurora appear during warm weather, cold and cloudy 
weather is to follow. — Scotland. 

The aurora, when very bright, indicates approaching storm. 

The first great aurora, after a long tract of fine weather in 
September or beginning of October, is followed on the 
second day, and not till the second day about one o'clock, 
on the east coast, and about eleven o'clock in Nithsdale, by 
a great storm ; the next day after the aurora is fine weather. 
Professor Christison (Scotland). 

The aurora borealis indicates approaching change. 

The ball of fire, called Castor by the ancients, that appears 
at sea, if it be single, prognosticates a severe storm, which 
will be much more severe if the ball does not adhere to the 
mast, but rolls or dances about. But if there are two of 
them, and that, too, when the storm has increased, it is 
reckoned a good sign. But if there are three of them, the 
storm will become more fearful. — Bacon, from Pliny, ii. 37. 

Last night I saw St. Elmo's stars, 

With their glimmering lanterns all at play, 

On the tops of the masts and the tips of the spars, 
And I knew we should have foul weather that day. 
[Also called Cuerpo Santo, Corposant, and Pey's Aunt by 
the fishermen.] 



Wind. 



Mfn&. 

A mass of weather wisdom has accumulated respecting the wind. It is 
generally more of a descriptive than of a prophetic character, but will se? ve 
to indicate to the acute observer of nature the kind of weather to expect 
when ever so small a change takes place tn the direction or force of the 
wind. 

There is more sea to the south and more land to the north, 
which likewise has no slight influence upon the winds. 

Bacon. 
Every wind has its weather. — Bacon. 

Lord Rutherford and Lord Cockburn were once rambling 
on the Pentland Hills, and they complained to an old 
shepherd whom they met of the keenness of the wind. He 
could find no fault with it ; and on their asking him why he 
approved of it, he replied, " Weel, it dries the yird [soil], 
it slockens [refreshes"! the ewes, and it's God's wull." 



Governing 
weather. 



Uses. 



Wind. 



69 



[IVind.] 
Quiet. 

Bringing 
weather. 

Swift. 



No weather is ill, 
If the wind be still. 

Look not, like the Dutchman, to leeward for fine weather. 

Blow the wind never so fast, 
It will fall at last.— T. Fuller. 

Sudden gusts never come in a clear sky, but only when it Sudden 
is cloudy and with rain. — Bacon. gusts. 

Strong winds are more uniform and regular than light breezes. Strong. 

Fitzroy. 



When a steady breeze of wind has continued to blow for 
any length of time, with a clear sky, or small clouds high in 
the atmosphere, the waves are generally regular and smooth, 
gliding in the direction of the wind, particularly when there 
is no current. At such times, if a dense cloud is generated, 
and is low in the atmosphere when passing over the 
observer, the strength of the regular breeze is decreased, 
and the waves appear to be agitated by the cloud whilst it 
passes over them, their summits being more elevated and 
turbulent. But no sooner has the dense cloud passed the 
zenith of the observer, than the breeze resumes its former 
strength, and the waves glide along as smooth as before. 

Nicholson's Journal. 



Wind, 
clouds, and 
waves. 



fair weather may be Increasing. 



If the wind increases during a rain, 
expected soon. 

The smaller and lighter winds generally rise in the morning Rise and 
and fall at sunset. — Bacon. f al1 - 



The winds of the daytime wrestle and fight 
Longer and stronger than those of the night. 

In Sir Walter Scott's novel of The Pirate there is a note 
about King Eric (also called Windy Cap), who could change 
the direction of the wind by merely turning his cap round 
upon his head. Old Scotch women are also mentioned who, 
for a consideration, would promise to bring the wind from any 
desired quarter ; and in the same novel Noma of the Fitful 
Head professed to control the wind by merely waving her 
wand in the air. 

As soon as Hodnet sends the wind, 

A rainy day will Drayton find. — Shropshire. 

When the cock has his neb in Hodnet Hole, look out for 
rain. [This refers to the weathercock on Drayton Church, 
whence Hodnet lies south-west.] 

Georgina Jackson's " Shropshire Folk-Lore." 



Day and 
night. 

A capful of 
wind. 



Hodnet. 



7o 



Weather Lore. 



{Wind] 
Habberlcv. 



Night. 



Storms. 

Brisk. 
Rain. 

Ripple of. 



Wind and 

rain. 



A storm will go three miles out of its way to come by 
Habberley to Churton [Church Pulverbatch]. 

Georgina Jackson's " Shropshire Folk-Lore." 

Winds at night are always bright ; 

But winds in the morning, sailors take warning. 

A wind generally sets from the sea to the land during the 
day, and from the land to the sea at the night, especially in 
hot climates. — J. F. Daniels. 

Wind storms usually subside about sunset ; but if they do 
not, they will go on for another day. 

A brisk wind generally precedes rain. 

For raging winds blow up incessant showers ; 
And when the rage allays, the rain begins. 

Shakespeare's "Henry VI." 

There is a peculiar rippling of the wind, or broken way of 
blowing, which is said always to prognosticate heavy rain 
within a few hours. — Scotland. 

When rain comes before wind, 
Halyards, sheets, and braces mind ; 

But— 
When wind comes before rain, 
Soon you may make sail again. — Fitzroy. 

When the rain comes before the winds, 
You may reef when it begins ; 
But when the wind comes before the rain, 
You may hoist your topsails up again. 

If the rain comes before the wind, 
Lower your topsails and take them in ; 
If the wind comes before the rain, 
Lower your topsails and hoist them again. 

When the rain's before the wind, 
Your topsail halyards you must mind ; 
But when the wind's before the rain, 
You may hoist your topsails up again. 

Captain Nares. 

Showers generally allay the winds, especially if they be 
stormy ; as, on the other hand, winds often keep off rain. 

Bacon. 
Oft is there use of winds that loud 
Are whistling o'er the plains ; 
And oft of heaven-descending rains, 
Daughters of the stormy cloud. 

Cary's " Pindar." 



Wind. 7 1 

If rain falls before the wind commences, the wind will last [Wind.] 
longer than the rain. But if the wind blows first, and is Rain - 
afterwards laid by rain, it does not often rise again ; and if it 
does, it is followed by fresh rain. — Bacon. 

Much wind brings rain. — French. 

Therefore the winds have sucked up from the sea 

Contagious fogs, which, falling in the land, 

Have every pelting river made so proud, 

That they have overborne their continents. 

Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream." 

If the wind shifts about for a few hours, as if it was trying Changing. 
the different points, and then commences to blow constantly 
from one quarter, that wind will last many days. — Bacon. 

When the wind backs and the weather glass falls, Backing. 

Then be on your guard against gales and squalls. 

Winds that change against the sun 

Are always sure to backward run. 

When the wind veers against the sun, Veering 

Trust it not, for back 'twill run. NJV.S.E. 

The veering of the wind with the sun, or, as sailors say, 
right handed, prognosticates drier or better weather ; the 
backing of the wind against the sun, or left handed shifting, 
indicates rain, or more wind, or both together. — Fitzroy. 

A veering wind, fair weather. 
A backing wind, foul weather. 

It is a sign of continued fine weather when the wind changes N.E.S.W. 
during the day so as to follow the sun. 

If wind follows sun's course, expect fair weather. 
Permanent winds turn the vane only in a direct sense or with Dove's law. 
the sun. — Dove. 

In northern hemisphere the wind changes from east to west 
by way of south, and the reverse (from east to west by way of 
north) in the southern hemisphere. — Dov£ 

In a note by Mr. E. Poste, author of The Skies and Weather 
Forecasts of Aratus, a passage is quoted as showing an 
anticipation of Dove's law. Aratus writes of — 

1 ' Veering winds, 
Unstable, baffling the predictor's skill." 

Theophrastus had before penned the following sentence on 
the subject (I quote Mr. Poste's translation): "When winds 
are not arrested by other winds (this is a confession of some 
undefined perturbations), but cease of themselves, they are 
transformed into the adjacent winds, rotating from left to 
right, like the sun in his (diurnal) course." 



7 2 



Weather Lore. 



[Wind.'] 
Dove's law. 



With sun. 



A t sunset. 



North to 
north-east. 



Theophrastus has taken this from his master Aristotle, who 
says : " The cycle of the winds, when they cease of them- 
selves {i.e., without being disturbed by opposite winds), is a 
continuous transformation of wind from one quarter into 
a wind from the adjacent quarter, following the direction 
of the (diurnal) movement of the sun." So that we are 
indebted to Mr. Poste for pointing out that these philosophers 
knew of the law by which permanent winds in the northern 
hemisphere turn, as the sailors say, "with the sun." That 
this law should have been rediscovered by Dov6 so many 
centuries after is a tribute to the accuracy and intelligence of 
the ancient observers. 

If the wind follow the motion of the sun — that is, if it move 
from east to south, from south to west, from west to north, from 
north to east — it does not generally go back ; or if it does, it 
is only for a short time. But if it move contrary to the sun — 
that is, if it changes from east to north, from north to west, 
from west to south, from south to east — it generally returns to 
the former quarter, at least before it has completed the entire 
circle. — Bacon. 

If in unsettled weather the wind veers from south-west to 
west or north-west at sunset, expect finer weather for a day 
or two. — Fitzroy. 

If the wind veers from north to north-east in winter, intense 
cold follows. — Dove. 



Cyclones Cyclones in northern hemisphere veer generally from east to 

west by way of north, or against the sun's course. In the 

Ballot's law. southern hemisphere the reverse. — Buys Ballot. 

[To remember this, think of the words Not and Same, 
meaning that winds change not in the N. hemisphere 
and same in S. hemisphere as the sun ; or if preferred, 
one may consider a watch dial as laid horizontally, and 
the cyclonic wind will change not in northern and same 
in southern hemisphere as the movement of the hands. 
The N. and S. call to mind the rule as applying to the 
N. or S. hemisphere. — R. I.] 

A cyclone in the torrid zone is always preceded by a fall in 
the barometer, and generally also by a greasy halo round the 
sun or moon, by rolled and tufted clouds with lurid streaks 
of light and unusual colours, and by a heavy bank of cloud 
clinging to the horizon, and often darting out threads of pale 
lightning. 

Vortex. ■ To find out where the centre or vortex of a cyclone is situated 
look to the wind's eye ; set its bearing by the compass, and the 



Wind. 



73 



eighth point (at 90°) to the right thereof will in the northern [Wind.] 
hemisphere be the bearing of the storm centre. The eighth Cyclones. 
point (or go") to the left will be the same in the southern 
hemisphere. 

This wind is said to go " withershins,'' or contrary to the Withershins. 
course of the sun.— Swainson. 

I have several times, in calm weather, seen a cloud generate 
and diffuse a breeze on the surface of the sea, which spread 
in different directions from the place of descent. A remark- 
able instance of this occurred in Malacca Strait during a calm 
day, when a fleet was in company. A breeze commenced 
suddenly from a dense cloud ; its centre of action seemed Cloud. 
to be in the middle of the fleet, which was much scattered. 
This breeze spread in every direction from a centre, and 
produced a singular appearance in the fleet ; for every ship 
hauled close to the wind as the breeze reached her, and when 
it became general exhibited to view the different ships sailing 
completely round a circle, although all hauled close to the 
wind. — Nicholson's Journal. 



Cruel storms do not blow in a right course. — Strabo. 



Storms 
cyclonic. 



Cyclones generally move as a whole to the westward, curving Movement. 
to the northward, in northern latitudes ; and to the westward, 
curving to the south, in southern latitudes. 

Cyclones are most violent near their centres. 

The forceful whirlwind veers around. 

Potter's "Euripides." 

June — too soon ; 

July — stand by ; 

August — look out you must ; 

September — remember ; 

October — all over.— Captain Nares. 

Squalls are considered as a favourable sign in tempests and Squalls. 
hurricanes, as shortly preceding their discontinuance. They 
are accessions of new air to the prevailing wind or storm, 
and partly from a new direction, and are generally accom- 
panied by arched clouds, or thunderstorms, and by rain. 

Fitzroy. 



Hurricanes 
in West 
Indies. 



A storm moderates, to storm again. 

Untimely storms make men expect a dearth. 

Shakespeare's " Richard III.' 

As humorous as winter, and as sudden 
As flaws congealed in the spring of day. 

Shakespeare's " Henry IV.' 



Storm. 

Storms 
unseason- 
able. 

lit morning. 



74 



Weather Lore. 



[IVuid.] 
Sudden. 



North to 
south, and 
vice versa. 



North-east 
to east. 



South to 
north. 



The sudden storm lasts not three hours. 

The sharper the blast 

The sooner 'tis past. — Charles Wesley. 

The wind usually turns from north to south with a quiet 
wind without rain, but returns to the north with a strong wind 
and rain. The strongest winds are when it turns from south 
to north by west. — Fitzroy. 

When the wind turns from north-east to east, and continues 
two days without rain, and does not turn south the third day, 
nor rain the third day, it is likely to continue north-east for 
eight or nine days, all fair, and then to come to the south 
again. — Fitzroy. 

If the wind shifts from south to north through west, there will 
be, in winter, snow ; in spring, sleet ; in summer, thunder- 
storms, after which the air becomes colder. — Dove. 



Changing. 



Shifting 

during 

drought. 

Unsteadi- 
ness. 



The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the 
north ; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth 
again according to his circuits. — Ecclesiastes i. 6. 

In Texas and the south-west, when the wind shifts during a 
drought, expect rain. 

Unsteadiness of wind shows changing weather. 

A frequent change of wind, with agitation in the clouds, 
denotes a storm. 

The often changing of the wind doth many times show 
stormy weather. — Wing, 1649. 

And more inconstant than the wind, who woos 
Even now the frozen bosom of the north ; 
And being angered, puffs away from thence, 
Turning his face to the dew-dropping south. 

Shakespeare's " Romeo and Juliet." 

Winds changing from foul to fair during the night are not 
permanent. 

The wind having held long and extremely sharp in one point, 
and at last suddenly shifting, brings a relaxation, if not a 
thorough thaw. — Pointer. 

Air currents. Currents of air frequently change their course, first in the 
higher regions, and are afterwards continued in other 
directions on the earth's surface, whence we can often fore- 
see a change of wind by observing the clouds. Both the 



Sudden 
changes. 



Night 
changes. 

Sudden 
shift. 



Wind. 75 

strength of a coming gale, and the point from which it will \}Viml.\ 
blow, may usually be determined by noticing the velocity and 
direction of the clouds floating along in the upper currents. 

Always a calm before a storm. Calm. 

After a storm comes a calm. 

Lang foul, Changes. 

Lang fair. 
Buchanan's Almanack (Scotland). 

In noticing the wind, regard must be had to whether there Various 
are one or more currents in the atmosphere : in the former currents. 
case, the barometer is generally steady and the weather fair ; 
in the latter, the mercury fluctuates and the weather is un- 
settled. — Jenyns. 

To discover the rolling cylinders of air, the vane of a weather- Rolling. 
cock might be so suspended as to dip or rise vertically, as 
well as to have its horizontal rotation. — E. Darwin. 
Between the tropics winds and currents tend westward. Tendency. 

In middle latitudes winds and currents tend eastward. 

In high latitudes winds and currents tend from the poles 

towards the equator. 

It is certain that there are some blasts which leave behind Blight. 

them on plants manifest traces of burning and scorching. 

But the sirocco, which is an invisible lightning and a burning 

air without flame, is referred to the inquiry on lightning. 

Bacon. 

A furious, scorching African wind, which is attended with a Harmattan 
dense fog or haze. — E. Darwin. J° s ' 

Wherever there are high mountains covered with snow, Mountains. 
periodical winds blow from that quarter at the time of the 
melting of the snows. — Bacon. 

It has been remarked that periodical winds do not blow at Periodical. 
night, but get up the third hour after sunrise. — Bacon. 

Light winds point to pressure low, Light and 

But gales around the same do blow. heavy. 

Alexander Ringwood. 
Greater winds are observed to blow about the time of the Planets. 
conjunction of planets. — Bacon. 

If the wind be hushed with sudden heat, expect heavy rain. Heat. 
The heat of the sun on its increase is more disposed to 
generate winds ; on its decrease, to generate rain. — Bacon. 

The whispering grove tells of a storm to come. Whispering. 

A high wind prevents frost. High. 



7 6 



Weather Lore. 



[Wind.'] 

Barley 

harvest. 

Storm. 



It is always windy in barley harvest ; 
for the poor. 



it blows off the heads 



Various. 



If the wind is from the north-west or south-west, the storm 
will be short ; if from the north-east, it will be a hard one ; 
if from the north-west, a cold one ; and if from the south- 
west, a warm one. After it has been raining some time, a 
blue sky in the south-east indicates that there will be fair 
weather soon. 

North winds send hail, south winds bring rain, 
East winds we bewail, west winds blow amain ; 
North-east is too cold, south-east not too warm, 
North-west is too bold, south-west doth no harm. 
The north is a noyer to grass of all suites, 
The east a destroyer to herb and all fruits ; 
The south, with his showers, refresheth the corn ; 
The west to all flowers may not be forborne. 
The west, as a father, all goodness doth bring ; 
The east, a forbearer, no manner of thing ; 
The south, as unkind, draweth sickness too near ; 
The north, as a friend, maketh all again clear. 

Tusser. 

North. Wind from the north, cold and snow. 

North-west. Wind from the western river of the north land, snow. 

West. Wind from the world of waters, clouds. 

South-west. Wind from the southern river of the world of waters, rain. 

South. Wind from the land of the beautiful red, lovely odours and 

rain. 

South-east. Wind from the wooded canons, rain and moist clouds. 

South. Wind from the land of day, it is the breath of health, and 

brings the days of long life. 

North-east. Wind from the lands of cold bring the rain before which 
flees the harvest. 

[The last eight are Indian proverbs, U.S.] 

Direction of. When the wind is in the north, 

Hail comes forth. 
When the wind is in the wast, 
Look for a weet blast. 
When the wind is in the soud, 
The weather will be gude. 
When the wind is in the east, 
Cold and snaw come neist. — Scotch. 



Wind. 



77 



Wind east or west [IVimt.] 

Is a sign of a blast ; Direction of. 

Wind north or south 

Is a sign of a drought. 

North wind cold, 

East wind dry, 

South wind warm and often wet, 

West wind generally rainy. — Bacon. 

The south wind always brings wet weather, Satire. 

The north wind wet and cold together ; 

The west wind always brings us rain, 

The east wind blows it back again ; 

If the sun in red should set, 

The next day surely will be wet ; 

If the sun should set in grey, 

The next will be a rainy day. 

Satire on the Humid Climate of 
the British Isles. 

North and south, the sign o' drouth ; 
East and west, the sign of blast. 

When the wind is in the north, 
The skilful fisher goes not forth. 

Fishermen in anger froth 
When the wind is in the north ; 
For fish bite the best 
When the wind is in the west. 

When the wind's in the north, North. 

You mustn't go fo-th. — Denham. 

A northern air Fair. 

Brings weather fair. 

Fair weather cometh out of the north. — Job xxxvii. 22. 

The gold [of the sky] cometh out of the north. 

The same, Sharpe's Translation. 
And cold out of the north. — Job xxxvii. 9. Cold. 

To run upon the sharp wind of the north, 
To do me business in the veins o' the earth 
When it is backed with frost. 

Shakespeare's " Tempest." 
The north wind bringeth forth rain. Rainy. 

Proverbs xxv. 23, Sharpe's Translation. 

A whirlwind came out of the north. — Ezekiel i. 4. Whirlwind. 
The north wind, if it should rise by night (which is unusual) Night. 
hardly ever lasts beyond three days. — Bacon. 



Drought and 
blast. 

North, bad 
for fishers. 

West, good 
for fishers. 



7§ 



Weather Lore. 



[Wind.] 
North. 



Grafting. 



Evils from 
north. 



Channel. 
First. 

Snow. 

Sterile. 
Thunder. 
Cream. 
New Moon. 
Changing. 



North-east. 



North-west. 



N. W. and 
S.W. 



In large pastures shepherds should take care to drive their 
flocks to the north side, so that they may feed opposite to the 
south. — Pliny. 

Take care not to sow in a north 'wind, or to graft and inocu- 
late when the wind is in the south. — Pliny. 

All bad things come out of the north. A bleak, bad wind, 
and a biting frost, and a scolding wife come out of the 
north. 

A north wind is a broom for the Channel. — Cornwall. 

Whenever the wind first blows from the north, after having 
been for some days in another direction, a fine day or two is 
almost sure to follow. 

The north wind doth blow, 

And we shall have snow. — Denham. 

A north wind has no corn. — Spanish. 

With a north wind it seldom thunders. 

Cream makes most freely with a north wind. 

A new moon with north wind will hold until the full. 

If there be within four, five, or six days two or three changes 
of wind from the north, through east without much rain and 
wind, and thence again through the west to the north with 
rain or wind, expect continued showery weather. 

The north winds cease commonly after blowing an odd 
number of days — three, five, seven, or nine. — Pliny. 

That the wind Csecias [north-east] attracts clouds passed into 
a proverb among the Greeks. 

Aristotle's " Problems," § De Ventis, 55. 

If the wind is north-east three days without rain, 
Eight days will pass before south wind again. 

Fitzroy. 

Winds from the lands of cold bring fruit of ice. Wind from 
the right hand of the west is the breath of the god of sand 
clouds. — Indian Proverbs, U.S. 

Do business with men when the wind is in the north-west. 

Yorkshire. 
[Note. — This, bringing the finest weather, is said to improve 
men's tempers.] 

Frost will probably occur when the temperature is 40° and the 
wind north-west. — United States. 

A nor'-wester is not long in debt to a sou'-wester. 



Wind. 



79 



If there be a change of wind from the north-west or west to 
the south-west or south, or else from the north-east or east to 
the south-east or south, expect fair weather. 

United States. 



[Wind.] 
N. W. or W., 
changing to 
S.IV. or S., 
N.E.orE.,to 
S.E. or S. 



North-west 
and north- 
east. 



When the wind is in the north-west. 
The weather is at its best ; 
But if the rain comes out of the east, 
'Twill rain twenty-four hours at least. 

North-west wind brings a short storm ; a north-east wind 
brings a long storm. 

If the north-west or north winds blow with rain or snow North-west, 
during three or four days in the winter, and then the wind changing to 
passes to the south through the west, expect continued rain. 

If a north-west wind shifts to north-east, remaining there two N.W.toN.E. 
or three days without rain, and then shifts to the south, and a " c L^' a 
then back to the north-east, with very little rain, fair weather 
may be expected during the following month. 

Observer at Cape Mendocino. 

In summer, if the wind changes to the north-west, expect North-west. 
cooler weather. 

North-west wind brings only rain showers. — United States. 

An honest man and a north-west wind generally go to sleep 
together. 

[Note. — The north-west wind is said to abate at sunset.] 

If two currents of wind, as shown by the motions of the Nort/i-west 
clouds, blow north-west and south-east respectively, and the and south- 
south-east current be highest, foul weather will follow ; but eas ' 
if the north-west current be uppermost, then fair, clear 
weather may be expected. 

When the wind is in the east, East. 

It is neither good for man nor beast. 

The east wind dried up her fruit. — Ezekiel xix. 12. Dry. 

Their faces shall sup up as the east wind. — Habakkuk i. 9. 

An east wind shall come, the wind of the Lord shall come 
up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, 
and his fountain shall be dried up.— Hosea xiii. 15. 

When the east wind toucheth it, it shall wither. 

Ezekiel xvii. 10. 

And, behold, seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind, 
came up.— Genesis xli. 6. 

The east wind brought the locusts. — Exodus x. 13. Locusts. 



8o 



Weather Lore. 



[Wind.] 

East. 

Dry. 

Clear. 



Cold. 
With rain. 



Stormy. 



Thunder. 



East-north- 
east. 



East and 
north. 



East and 

west. 



A dry east wind raises the spring. — Cornwall. 

Easterly gales without rain during the spring equinox foretell 

a dry summer. — Scotland. 

Everything looks large in the east wind. — Scotland. 

[Note. — There are many local sayings in Scotland referring 
to the unusually clear appearance of certain mountains 
during an east wind. It is said to indicate approaching 
rain.] 
When the hoar-frost is first accompanied by east wind, it 
indicates that the cold will continue a long time. 
When the rain is from the east, 
It is for four-and-twenty hours at least. 
An easterly wind's rain 
Makes fools fain. 
The heaviest rains begin with an easterly wind, which 
gradually veers round to south and west, or a little north- 
west, when the rain usually ceases. 
God prepared a vehement east wind. — Jonah iv. 8. 
The east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the seas. 

Ezekiel xxvii. 26. 
Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind. 

Psalm xlviii. 7. 
If an east wind blows against a dark, heavy sky from the 
north-west, the wind decreasing in force as the clouds 
approach, expect thunder and lightning. 
There arose against it a tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon. 

Acts xxvii. 14. 
A tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon (or east-north-east). 
The same, Sharpe's Translation. 
The east and north winds, when they have once begun, are 
more continuous ; the south and west winds are more 
variable. — Bacon. 

Wet weather with an east wind continues longer than with a 
west, and generally lasts a whole day. — Bacon. 
In an east wind all visible things appear larger ; in a west 
wind all sounds are more audible and travel farther. 

Aristotle's " Problems," § De Ventis, 55. 
When the wind is in the east, 
The fisher likes it least ; 
When the wind is in the west, 
The fisher likes it best. 
When the smoke goes west, 
Gude weather is past ; 
When the smoke goes east, 
Gude weather comes neist. — Scotch. 



Wind. 8 1 

How thy garments are warm, when He quieteth the earth by [lVimt.~] 
the south wind. — Job xxxvii. 17. South 

(warm). 
As whirlwinds in the south. — Isaiah xxi. 1. Tempes- 

tuous. 
And shall go with whirlwinds of the south. 

Zachariah ix. 14. 

Out of the south cometh the whirlwind. — Job xxxvii. 9. 

When ye see the south wind blow, ye say, There will be heat ; Hot. 
and it cometh to pass. — Luke xii. 55. 

Like foggy south, puffing with wind and rain. Foggy. 

Shakespeare's " As You Like It," Act IV. 

The weather usually clears at noon when a southerly wind is Noon. 
blowing. — Nautical. 

When tempests of commotion like the south, Wet. 

Born with black vapour, doth begin to melt, 
And drop upon our bare, unarmed heads. 

Shakespeare's " Henry IV." 

If the wind continue any considerable time in the south, it is Continued. 
an infallible sign of rain. — Wing, 1649. 

If there be dry weather with a light south wind for five or six Light. 
days, it having previously blown strongly from the same 
direction, expect fine weather. — Texas. 

Brisk winds from the south for several days in Texas are Brisk. 
generally followed by a "norther.'' 

A southerly wind with a fog Foggy. 

Brings an easterly wind in snog [with certainty]. 

Cornwall. 

An out [southerly] wind and a fog 

Bring an east wind home snug. — Cornwall. 

A southerly wind and a cloudy sky Misty. 

Proclaim it a hunting morning. 

As when the south wind o'er the mountain tops 
Spreads a thick veil of mist, the shepherd's bane, 
But friendlier to the thief than shades of night. 

Homer's " Iliad." 

In a south wind the sea appears more blue and clear, in a Clear. 
north wind blacker and darker. — Aristotle. 

After frosts and long snows the south is almost the only wind In winter. 
that blows. — Bacon, from Aristotle's " Problems," § De 
Ventis, 3. 

6 



82 



Weather Lore. 



[Wind.] 
South. 
Rising and 
falling. 

Gentle. 



Night. 
Soothing. 



Damp. 



Rainy. 



Good for 
fishers. 

Fair, 



Whistling in 



North and 
south. 



When the south wind either rises or falls, there is generally a 
change of weather, from fair to cloudy, or from hot to cold, 
or vice versa. But the north wind often both rises and falls 
without any change in the weather. — Bacon. 

The south wind, when gentle, is not a great collector of clouds ; 
but it is often clear, especially if it be of short continuance. 
But if it lasts or becomes violent, it makes the sky become 
cloudy and brings on rain, which comes on rather when the 
wind ceases or begins to die away, than when it commences 
or is at its height. — Bacon. 

The south wind rises oftener and blows stronger by night 
than by day, especially in winter. — Bacon, from Aristotle. 

The south wind warms the aged. 

The south wind is the father of the poor. — Ragusa. 

When the wind's in the soud, 
The weather will be fresh and gude ; 
When the wind's in the east, 
Cauld and snaw come neist. 

And with the southern clouds contend in tears. 

Shakespeare's " Henry VI.'' 

When the wind's in the south, 
The rain's in its mouth. 

The rain comes scouth [plentifully] 
When the rain is in the south. — Scotch. 

A southerly wind with showers of rain 
Will bring the wind from west again. 

When the wind is in the south, 

It blows the bait in the fishes' mouth. 

Fair weather for a week with a southern wind is likely to 
produce a great drought, if there has been much rain out of 
the south before. — Fitzroy. 

The southern wind 

Doth play the trumpet to his purposes, 
And by his hollow whistling in the leaves 
Foretells a tempest and a blustering day. 

Shakespeare's " Henry IV." 

If a south wind begin to blow for two or three days, a north 
wind will sometimes rise directly afterwards. But if there 
has been a north wind for as many days, the wind will blow 
for a short time from the east before it comes from the south. 

Bacon, from Pliny, ii. 48. 



Wind. 



83 



[Wind.] 
North and 
south. 



Towards the end of the year and the commencement of 
winter, if the south wind blow first and be succeeded by the 
north, it will be a severe winter (Arist., Prod., xxvi. 49). 
But if the north wind blow at the commencement of winter, 
and be succeeded by the south, the winter will be mild and 
warm. — Bacon. 

Rain with a south-east wind is expected to last for some time. South-east. 

Scotland. 



A south-west blow on ye, 
And blister ye all over. 

Shakespeare's 



Tempest.' 



South-west 
(unwhole- 
some). 

Rainy. 



Three south-westers, then one heavy rain. 

In Southern Indiana a south-west wind is said to bring rain 
in thirty-six hours. 

In fall and winter, if the wind holds a day or more in the Stormy 
south-west, a severe storm is coming ; in summer the same 
may be said of a north-east wind. 

The third day of south-west wind will be a gale, and wind Third day. 
will veer to north-west between I and 2 a.m. (in winter) with 
increasing force. — Fishermen of North Carolina. 



the wind shifts around to the south and south-west, expect 
warm weather. 

If the wind is south-west at Martinmas, 
It keeps there till after Christmas. 

after a stiff breeze there ensue a dead calm and drizzling 
rain, with a fall in the barometer, expect a gale from south- 
west. 

When the wind is in the west, 
The weather is always best. 

The west wind is a gentleman, and goes to bed [i.e., drops in 
the evening]. 

Wind west, 

Rain's nest. — Devonshire. 

A western wind carrieth water in his hand. 

A west wind, north about, 

Never hangs lang out. — Scotland. 

When the wind is on the west side of the compass, changes 
of barometer accompany changes of weather ; but with the 
wind on the east side, the indications of the barometer precede 
the change.— G. F. Chambers. 



Warm. 



Autumn. 



Gale. 



West. 



Wet. 



Not 
permanent. 

Ride. 



84 Weather Lore. 



[IVind.] The west wind is the attendant of the afternoon, for it blows 

West and more frequently than the east wind when the sun is declining. 
mst Bacon. 

Calm. A dead calm often precedes a violent gale, and sometimes 

the calmest and clearest mornings in certain seasons are 
followed by a blowing, showery day. Calms are forerunners 
of the hurricanes of the West Indies and other tropical 
climes. 



Clou&s. 

Clouds next come under notice, and it will be seen that much is to be 
gleaned by observing their forms and appearances. By Fitzroy, Howard, 
and others these masses of vapour have been marshalled in the order of 
their formation, so that the most casual obseiver may soon judge of the age 
of a cloud, whether seen in its early stage of light, misty stratus, or in 
the form of a dark, threatening nimbus, ripe for rain, and spreading like a 
vampire's wing over the landscape. 

Although the names given by Howard to the different clouds have been 
here adopted, and the same general arratigement maintained, yet the 
familiar names given to these masses of vapour by sailors and others, such 
as Mackerel Sky, Mares' Tails, Wool Bags, Packet Boys, etc., have not 
been omitted. Clouds should of course be observed with a proper allowance 
for the force and direction of the wind at the time. With a swift upper 
current of air a clear sky sometimes becomes obscured in a few minutes, 
whilst in calmer weather changes in the appearance of the sky are slow to 
occur, and can be reckoned on with more safety. 

In the frontispiece I have depicted such forms of clouds as arc mentioned 
i7i this book, as well as some intermediate fonns with the names of which 
I will not here trouble the reader. The clouds are arranged m the 
order of their height, so that the rough rule of " The higher the cloud, 
the finer the weather '' may be more readily tmderstood . The heights are 
those mentioned by Dr. Carl Lang and Dr. Fritz Erk in their recent 
report of 1891.* 

Clouds . And now the mists from earth are clouds in heaven, 

Clouds slowly castellating in a calm 
Sublimer than a storm, while brighter breathes 
O'er the whole firmament the breadth of blue, 
Because of that excessive purity 
Of all those hanging snow-white palaces : 
A gentle contrast, but with power divine. — Wilson. 

Form. While any of the clouds, except the nimbus, retain their 

primitive forms, no rain can take place ; and it is by observing 

* Deutsche Mcteorigisches Jahrbuch (Munich : 1891). 



Clouds. 



85 



the changes and transitions of cloud form that weather may [Clouds.'] 
be predicted. — Howard. 

The higher the clouds, the finer the weather. High, 

When on clear days isolated clouds drive over the zenith Isolated. 
from the rain-wind side, storm and rain follow within twenty- 
four hours. — United States. 



After clouds calm weather. — T. Fuller. 



Calm. 



Clouds that the sun builds up darken him. Dark. 

It it will not rain much so long as the sky is clear before the With wind. 
wind ; but when clouds fall in against the wind, rain will soon 
follow. 

When clouds break before the wind, leaving a clear sky, fine 
weather will follow. 

After fine, clear weather the first signs in the sky of a coming Indications 
change are usually light streaks, curls, wisps, or mottled °f- 
patches of white distant clouds, which increase and are 
followed by an overcasting of murky vapour that grows into 
cloudiness. The appearance more or less oily or watery as 
wind or rain may prevail is an infallible sign. Usually the 
higher and more distant such clouds seem to be, the more 
gradual but general the coming change of weather will prove. 

Fitzroy. 

Now clouds combine, and spread o'er all the sky, Growth of. 

When little rugged parts ascend on high, 

Which may be twined, though by a feeble tie ; 

These make small clouds, which, driven on by wind, 

To other like and little clouds are joined, 

And these increase by more : at last they form 

Thick, heavy clouds ; and thence proceeds a storm. 
Creech's " Lucretius." 

When clouds, after rain, disperse during the night, the weather Dispersing. 
will not remain clear. 



Can any understand the spreadings of the clouds ? 

Job xxxvi. 29. 

Dost thou know the balancing of the clouds ? — Job xxxvii. 16. 

Bleak is the morn when blows the north from high ; 
Oft when the dawnlight paints the starry sky 
A misty cloud suspended hovers o'er 
Heaven's blessed earth with fertilising store, 
Drained from the living streams : aloft in air 
The whirling winds the buoyant vapour bear, 
Resolved at eve in rain or gusty cold, 
As by the north the troubled rack is rolled. 

Elton's Translation of Hesiod's Works. 



Spreading. 

Balancing. 
Dawn. 



86 



Weather Lore. 



[Clouds."\ 
Morning. 



Evening. 



Cloudy mornings turn to clear evenings. 

When the clouds of the morn to the west fly away, 
You may conclude on a settled, fair day. 

At sunset with a cloud so black, 
A westerly wind you shall not lack. 

Many small clouds at north-west in the evening show that 
rain is gathering, and will suddenly fall. — Pointer. 

Storm cloud. When a heavy cloud comes up in the south-west, and seems 
to settle back again, look out for a storm. 

If the sky, from being clear, becomes fretted or spotted all over 
with bunches of clouds, rain will soon fall. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 



Accumu- 
lating. 



Low. 



Increasing 



Collecting 
and driving 



Driving 



From west. 



Clearing. 



With mock 

sans. 



If on the ocean's bosom clouds appear, 
While the blue vault above is bright and clear, 
These signs by shepherds and by sailors seen, 
Give pleasing hope of days and nights serene. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

If clouds increase visibly, and the clear sky become less, it 
is a sign of rain. 

If the clouds appear to drive fast when there is no wind, 
expect wind from that quarter from which i they are driven. 
But if they gather and collect together, on the sun's approach 
to that part, they will begin to disperse ; and then if they 
disperse towards the north, it prognosticates wind ; if towards 
the south, rain. — Bacon. 

When the carry [current of clouds] gaes west, 
Gude weather is past ; 
When the carry gaes east, 
Gude weather comes neist. 

Clouds that are carried with a tempest, to whom the mist of 
darkness is reserved for ever. — 2 Peter ii. 17. 

When ye see a cloud rise out of the west, straightway ye say, 
There cometh a shower ; and so it is. — Luke xii. 54. 

If the sky clears, and the clouds commence to break in the 
quarter opposite the wind, it will be fine ; but if it clear up 
to windward, it indicates nothing, and leaves the weather 
uncertain. — Bacon. 

If clouds shall have shut in the sun, the less light there is 
left, and the smaller the sun's orb appears, the more severe 
will the storm prove. But if the disc of the sun appear 
double or treble, as if there were two or three suns, the 
storm will be much more violent, and will last many days. 

Bacon. 



Clouds. 



87 



If the upper current of clouds comes from the north-west in [Clouds.] 
the morning, a fine day will ensue. North-west. 

If in the north-west before daylight end there appear a 
company of small black clouds like flocks of sheep, it is a 
sure and certain sign of rain. — Wing, 1649. 

If a layer of thin clouds drive up from the north-west, and 
under other clouds moving more to the south, expect fine 
weather. — United States. 

Clouds in the east, obscuring the sun, indicate fair weather. East. 

If clouds drive up high from the south, expect a thaw. South. 

Small scattering clouds flying high in the south-west fore- South-west. 
show whirlwinds. — Howard. 

A sky covered with clouds need not cause apprehension, if High. 
the latter are high, and of no great density, and the air is still, 
the barometer at the same time being high. Rain falling 
under such circumstances is generally light, or of not long 
continuance. — Jenyns. 

If high, dark clouds are seen in spring, winter, or fall, expect 
cold weather. 

Dark, heavy clouds, carried rapidly along near the earth, are a Dark. 
sign of great disturbance in the atmosphere from conflicting 
currents. At such times the weather is never settled, and 
rain extremely probable. — Jenyns. 

If the clouds, as they come forward, seem to diverge from Diverging. 
a point in the horizon, a wind may be expected from that 
quarter, or the opposite. — Thomas Best. 

The apparent permanency and stationary aspect of a cloud is Apparently 
often an optical deception, arising from the solution of vapour stationary. 
on one side of a given point, while it is precipitated on the 
other. — J. F. Daniels. 

Against heavy rain every cloud rises bigger than the preceding, Rising. 
and all are in a growing state. — G. Adams. 

Clouds floating low, and casting shadows on the ground, are Low. 
usually followed by rain. — United States. 

High upper clouds, crossing the sun, moon, or stars in a Motions of. 
direction different from that of the lower clouds, or the wind 
then felt below, foretell a change of wind toward their direction. 

Fitzroy. 

When the generality of the clouds rack or drive with the In layers. 
wind (though there are many in little fleeces, or long strakes 
lying higher, and appearing not to move), the wind is flagging, 
and will quickly change and shift its point. — Pointer. 



S8 



Weather Lore. 



[Clouds.^ 
In layers. 



Cross wind. 

Gusts. 
Red. 



Black. 

Dull. 
Golden. 

Colouring. 



Brassy. 
Dusky. 

Scud. 



Bright and 
dark. 



If two strata of clouds appear in hot weather to move in 
different directions, they indicate thunder. 

If, during dry weather, two layers of clouds appear moving in 
opposite directions, rain will follow. 

Clouds floating at different heights show different currents of 
air, and the upper one generally prevails. If this is north- 
east, fine weather may be expected ; if south-west, rain. 

C. L. Prince. 

If you see clouds going across the wind, there is a storm in 
the air. 

If clouds float at different heights and rates, but generally in 
opposite directions, expect heavy rains. 

If there be a cloudy sky, with dark clouds driving fast under 
higher clouds, expect violent gusts of wind. 

Red clouds at sunrise foretell wind ; at sunset, a fine day for 
the morrow. — Bacon. 

Narrow, horizontal, red clouds after sunset in the west 
indicate rain before thirty-six hours. 

Red clouds in the east, rain the next day. 

After black clouds clear weather. 

Dark clouds in the west at sunrise indicate rain on that day. 

Clay-coloured and muddy clouds portend rain and wind. 

Bacon. 

Clouds before sunset of an amber or a gold colour, and with 
gilt fringes, after the sun has sunk lower, foretell fine weather. 

Bacon. 

The wind-gale or prismatic colouring of the clouds is con- 
sidered by sailors a sign of rain. 

Light, delicate, quiet tints or colours, with soft, undefined 
forms of clouds, indicate and accompany fine weather ; but 
unusual or gaudy hues, with hard, definitely outlined clouds, 
foretell rain, and probably strong wind. — Fitzroy. 

Brassy-coloured clouds in the west at sunset indicate wind. 

Dusky or tarnish silver-coloured clouds indicate hail. 

Howard. 

Small inky-looking clouds foretell rain; light scud clouds 
driving across heavy masses show wind and rain ; but if 
alone, may indicate wind only. — Fitzroy. 

If clouds be bright, 
'Twill clear to-night ; 
If clouds be dark, 
'Twill rain, — do you hark ? 



Clouds. 



89 



Storm. 



Against 
wind. 



He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth ; [Clouds.] 
He maketh lightnings for the rain ; He bringeth the wind out R atn - 
of His treasuries. — Psalm cxxxv. 7. 

Clouds above — water below. 

Generally squalls are preceded, or accompanied, or followed 
by clouds ; but the dangerous white squall of the West Indies 
is indicated only by a rushing sound and by white wave crests 
to windward. — Fitzroy. 

A squall cloud that one can see through or under is not likely 
to bring or be accompanied by so much wind as a dark, con- 
tinued cloud extending beyond the horizon. — Fitzroy. 

If you see a cloud rise against the wind or side wind, when 
that cloud comes up to you, the wind will blow the same way 
that the cloud came ; and the same rule holds good of a clear 
place when all the sky is equally thick, except one clear edge. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

A small increasing white cloud about the size of a hand to Increasing. 
windward is a sure precursor of a storm. 

Behold, there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a man's 
hand. . . Prepare thy chariot, and get thee down, that the 
rain stop thee not. And it came to pass that the heaven 
was black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain. 

1 Kings xviii. 44, 45. 

A small, fast-growing black cloud in violent motion, seen in 
the tropics, is called the "bull's eye," and precedes the most 
terrible hurricanes. 



Description 
of. 



Sometimes we see a cloud that's dragonish, 

A vapour sometimes like a bear or lion, 

A towered citadel, a pendent rock, 

A forked mountain, a blue promontory 

With trees upon't that nod unto the world 

And mock our eyes with air. 

That which is now a horse, even with a thought, 

The rack dislimns and makes it indistinct 

As water is in water. 

Shakespeare, "Antony and Cleopatra." 

A bench (or bank) of clouds in the west means rain. — Surrey. Bank. 
When small dark clouds (broken nimbi) appear against a Broken. 
patch of blue sky, there will be rain before sunset. 

C. L. Prince. 

When you observe greenish-tinted masses of composite cloud Massive. 
collect in the south-east, and remain there for several hours, 
expect a succession of heavy rains and gales. 

C. L. Prince. 



9° 



Weather Lore. 



[Cirrus.] 
Definition. 



Indicating 
change. 



Showery. 

Indicating 
wind. 

Fine weather. 
Rain. 
Sheet cirrus. 

Rain. 

Murky. 



Tufted 
cirrus. 



Feathery. 



Curdled 
cirrus. 
Bar or 
ribbedcirrus. 



Parallel, flexuous, or diverging fibres, extensible in any or all 
directions.— Howard. 

Common names : Curl Cloud, Mares' Tails, Goat's Hair, etc. 

T. Forster. 

After a long run of clear weather the appearance of light 
streaks of cirrus cloud at a great elevation is often the first 
sign of change. — Jenyns. 

Feathery clouds, like palm branches or thejlctir de lis, denote 
immediate or coming showers. — Bacon. 

Long parallel bands of clouds in the direction of the wind 
indicate steady high winds to come. 

If cirrus clouds dissolve and appear to vanish, it is an indica- 
tion of fine weather. 

If the cirrus clouds appear to windward, and change to cirro- 
stratus, it is a sign of rain. 

Sheet cirrus occurs with southerly and westerly, but rarely 
with steady northerly or north-easterly, winds, unless a 
change to a westerly or southerly quarter is approaching. 

Hon. F. A. R. Russel. 

In unsettled weather sheet cirrus precedes more wind or 
rain. 

The longer the dry weather has lasted, the less is rain likely 
to follow the cloudiness of cirrus. 

A large formation of murky white cirrus may merely indicate 
a backing of wind to an easterly quarter. 

This variety is a constant accompaniment of showers in 
broken weather, and borders the lower clouds with a crown 
of feathery tufts. 

If a shower be approaching from the west, it may be seen 
shooting forth white feathery rays from its upper edge, often 
very irregular and crooked. 

Cirrus of a long, straight, feathery kind, with soft edges and 
outlines, or with soft, delicate colours at sunrise and sunset, 
is a sign of fine weather. 

This cloud often indicates the approach of bad weather. 

The rapid movement of a cloud, something between cirrus 
and cirro-cumulus, in distinct dense bars, in a direction at 
right angles to the length of the bars, is, by itself, a certain 
sign of a gale of wind. If the bars are sharply defined and 
close together, the severer will be the storm. Sometimes 
these bars remind one of the form of a gridiron. The bands 
move transversely, and generally precede the storm by from 
twelve to forty-eight hours. — Hon. F. A. R. Russel. 



Clotids. 



9i 



Curly wisps and blown-back pieces are not a bad sign. 



[Cirrus. 
Curly, 



When the tails are turned downwards, fair weather or slight Tails 



downwards. 
Definite. 



showers often follow. 

The harder and more distinct the outline, and the more fre- 
quently particular forms are repeated, the worse the result. 

Long, hard, greasy-looking streaks, with rounded edges or Fibrous. 
knobs, whether crossed by fibres at right angles or not, are a 
sign of storms ; but the storms may be at a distance. 

Cottony shreds, rounded and clear in outline, indicate dan- 
gerous disturbances. 

Regular, wavy tufts, with or without cross lines, are bad, Tufty. 

especially if the tufts end, not in fibres, but in rounded 

knobs. 

Feathery cirrus in thick patches at equal distances apart is Regular. 

a sign of storm ; so is any appearance of definite waves of 

alternate sky and cloud ; so is any regular repetition of the 

same form. 

Slightly undulating lines of cirrus occur in fine weather ; but Undulating. 

anything like a deeply indented outline precedes heavy rain 

or wind. 



Cirrus simply twisted or in zigzag lines of a fibrous character 
often appears in fine weather ; and if not hard, or knotted, or 
clearly marked off from a serene sky, does not often precede 
any important change. 

Detached patches of cirrus, like little masses of wool or knotted 
feathers, in a clear sky, and of unusual figure, moving at 
more than the average rate, precede disturbances of great 
magnitude. The rays in straight lines are a good sign. 

[The last ten rules are by the Hon. F. A. R. Russel.] 
Continued wet weather is attended by horizontal sheets of 
cirrus clouds, which subside quickly, passing into the cirro- 
stratus. 

When cirri merge into cirri-strati, and when cumuli increase 
towards evening and become lower, expect wet weather. 
Streaky clouds across the wind foreshow rain. — Scotland. 
If cirrus clouds form in fine weather with a falling barometer, 
it is almost sure to rain. — Howard. 

These clouds announce the east wind. If their under surface 
is level, and their streaks pointing upwards, they indicate rain ; 
if downwards, wind and dry weather. — Howard. 

If the cirrus clouds get lower and denser to leeward, it pre- 
sages bad weather from the opposite quarter. 



Twisted. 



Detached. 



Indicating 
wet. 



Rain and 

wind. 



Bail leather. 



9 2 



Weather Lore. 



[Cirrus. 
Storms. 



Pointing 
upwards. 



Streaky. 



Barred. 



When the cirrus clouds appear at lower elevations than usual, 
and with a denser character, expect a storm from the opposite 
quarter to the clouds. 

When streamers point upward, the clouds are falling, and 
rain is at hand ; when streamers point downwards, the clouds 
are ascending, and drought is at hand. 

When after a clear frost long streaks of cirrus are seen with 
their ends bending towards each other as they recede from 
the zenith, and when they point to the north-east, a thaw and 
a south-west wind may be expected. 

The bar or ribbed cirrus is considered by the Hon. F. A. R. 
Russel as good a danger signal as that given by a falling 
barometer. 



Weather- 
head eirrus. 



[Cirro- 
stratus.] 
Definition. 



Wind. 



Hairy. 



Ark- like. 



In Shetland the name of " weather-head" is given to a band 
of cirrus passing through the zenith ; and they say if it lies 
north-east to south-west, good weather comes ; but if south- 
east to north-west, a gale is looked for. 

Horizontal or slightly inclined masses, attenuated towards a 
part or the whole of their circumference, bent downwards, 
or undulated, separate, or in groups, or consisting of small 
clouds having these characters. — Howard. 

If clouds look as if scratched by a hen, 

Get ready to reef your topsails then. — Nautical. 

Hen's scarts [scratchings] and filly tails 
Make lofty ships carry low sails. 

Comoid cirri, or cirri in detached tufts, called "mares' tails," 
may be regarded as a sign of wind, which follows, often 
blowing from the quarter to which the fibrous tails have 
previously pointed. — T. Forster. 

Trace in the sky the painter's brush, 
Then winds around you soon will rush. 



The cloud called " goat's hair ' 
forebodes wind. 



or the " grey mare's tail : 



The form of cloud popularly called " Noah's ark " is also 
called the "magnetic cirrus,'' and is said to consist of fine ice 
crystals, and to be accompanied by magnetic disturbances. 

A long stripe of cloud, sometimes called a salmon, sometimes 
a Noah's ark, when it stretches east and west, is a sign of a 
storm ; but when north and south, of fine weather. 



Clouds. 



93 



In the Eifel district of the Lower Rhine, on the contrary, they [Cirro- 
say, when the "cloud ship " turns its head to the south, rain stmtus.] 
will soon follow. 



Cloud ship. 



When a plain sheet of the wane cloud is spread over a large Wane cloud. 
surface at eventide, or when the sky gradually thickens with 
this cloud, a fall of steady rain is usually the consequence. 

T. Forster. 

In low pressure areas the stripes lie parallel to the isobars Direction. 
(lines of equal barometric pressure), while in high pressure 
areas the stripes cross the isobars at right angles. 

HlLDEBRANDSSON. 

Continuous cirro-strati gathering into unbroken gloom, and Gloomy. 
also the cloud called " goat's hair,' - or the " grey mare's tail," 
presage wind. — Scotland. 

When after a shower the cirro-strati open up at the zenith, Indicating 
leaving broken or ragged edges pointing upwards, and settle wind. 
down gloomily and compactly on the horizon, wind will follow, 
and will last for some time. — Scotland. 

The cirro-stratus precedes winds and rains, and the approach Wind and 
of foul weather may sometimes be inferred from its greater or ram. 
less abundance, and the permanent character it puts on. 

If clouds appear high in air in their white trains, wind and 
probably rain will follow. 

When ash-coloured masses of cumulo-stratus and cirro- 
stratus cloud collect over the sea, extending in a line from 
south-east to south-west, expect rain and probably wind on 
the second day. — C. L. Prince. 

Long lines of cirro-strati, extending along the horizon, and Rain, 
slightly contracted in their centre, expect heavy rain the 
following day. — C. L. Prince. 

The cirro-stratus is doubtless the one alluded to by Polonius, Fish-shaped. 
in Hamlet, as "very like a whale." 

The fish (hake) shaped cloud, if pointing east and west, 
indicates rain ; if north and south, more fine weather. 

Bedfordshire. 

North and south, the sign of drought ; 
East and west, the sign of blast. 

Light, fleecy clouds in rapid motion, below compact, dark With cirrus. 
cirro-strati, foretell rain near at hand. — Scotland. 



94 



Weather Lore. 



{Cirro- 
stratus. 
Opening 



Indicating 
thunder. 

[Cirro- 
cumulus.] 

Definition. 

Indicating 
wind. 

Rain. 



Change 



Small. 



Indicating 

thunder. 

Curdled. 



Direction. 

Packet boys. 

Small. 
Wandering. 



Scattered. 



When after a shower the cirro-strati open up at the zenith, 
leaving broken or ragged edges pointing upwards, and settle 
down gloomily and compactly on the horizon, wind will 
follow, and will last for some time; 

The waved cirro-stratus indicates heat and thunder. 

Small, well-defined, roundish masses increasing from below. 

Howard. 
Commonly called " mackerel sky.'' 

Mackerel sky and mares' tails 
Make lofty ships carry low sails. 

A mackerel sky denotes fair weather for that day, but rain a 
day or two after. 

Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, 
Never long wet and never long dry. 

Mackerel clouds in sky, 
Expect more wet than dry. 

Mackerel scales, 
Furl your sails. 

A mackerel sky, 

Not twenty-four hours dr}'. 

If small white clouds are seen to collect together, their edges 
appearing rough, expect wind. 

Before thunder, cirro-cumulus clouds often appear in very 
dense and compact masses, in close contact. 

A curdly sky 

Will not leave the earth long dry. 

A curdly sky 

Will not be twenty-four hours dry. 

When cirro-cumuli appear in winter, expect warm and wet 
weather. When cirri threads are brushed back from a 
southerly direction, expect rain and wind. 

These clouds are called in Buckinghamshire " packet boys,' - 
and are said to be packets of rain soon to be opened. 

Small floating clouds over a bank of clouds, sign of rain. 

In summer we apprehend a future storm when we see little, 
black, loose clouds lower than the rest, wandering to and fro ; 
when at sunrise we see several clouds gather in the west ; 
and, on the other hand, if these clouds disperse, it speaks fair 
weather. — Ozanam. 

Fleecy clouds scattered over the sky denote storms ; but 
clouds which rest upon one another like scales or tiles 
portend dry and fine weather. — Bacon. 



Clouds. 95 

A sky dappled with light clouds of the cirro-cumulus form in [Cirro- 

the early morning generally leads to a fine and warm day. cumulus. \ 

, Dappled. 

Jenyns. r 

Dappled sky is not for long. — France. 

If woolly fleeces spread the heavenly way, 

Be sure no rain disturbs the summer day. 
Small white clouds, like a flock of sheep, driving north-west, Crowded. 
indicate continued fine weather. 

The cirro-cumulus, when accompanied by the cumulo-stratus, Storm. 
is a sure indication of a coming storm. 

If soft and delicate in outline, it may be followed by a Outlines. 
continuance of fine weather ; but if dense, abundant, and 
associated with cirrus, it signifies electrical disturbance and 
change of wind, often resulting in thunderstorms in summer 
or gales in winter. 

High cirro-cumulus commonly appears a few hours or days High. 
before thunderstorms. It generally moves with the prevailing 
surface wind. The harder and more definite the outline, 
the more unsettled the coming weather. In winter clearly 
marked, high cirro-cumulus is a sign of bad weather. If the 
cloud be continuous in long streaks, dense, and with rounded, 
knobby outlines, stormy weather follows generally within two 
or three days. 

When cirro-cumulus is seen overhead, if the fleeces gently Soft. 

merge into each other, and the edges are soft and transparent, 

-settled weather prevails ; and if the middle part of the fleeces 

look shadowy, so much the better. 

Cirro-cumulus at a great height and in large masses, moving Slow. 

slowly from north-east, is a sign of the continuance of the 

wind in that quarter. — Hon. F. A. R. Russel. 

Convex or conical heaps increasing upwards from a horizontal [Cumulus.] 

base-wool-bag clouds. Definition. 

In India, if a cumulus cloud have a stratum of flat cloud above Stormy. 
it, a coming storm is indicated. 

Sometimes the clouds appear to be piled in several tiers or Piled up. 
stories, one above the other (Gilbert, Phys., iv. i, declares 
that he has sometimes seen and observed five together), 
whereof the lowest are always the blackest, though it some- 
times appears otherwise, as the whiter most attract the sight. 
Two stories, if thick, portend instant rain (especially if the 
lower one appear overcharged) ; many tiers denote a three 
days' rain. — Bacon. 

Refreshing showers or heavier rains are near Fleecy. 

When piled in fleecy heaps the clouds appear. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 



9 6 



Weather Lore. 



\Cumidus.] 
Dark, 



Opening and 

closing. 

Round 



White. 



Wind. 



Tower-like, 
indicating 
rain. 



If a black cloud eclipse the solar ray, 
And sudden night usurp the place of day, 
As when th' obtrusive moon's dark orb is seen 
Forcing her way the sun and earth between. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

If clouds open and close, rain will continue. 

A round-topped cloud, with flattened base, 
Carries rainfall in its face. 

A white loaded cloud, called by the ancients a white tempest, 
is followed in summer by showers of very small hail, in winter 
by snow. — Bacon. 

Cumulus clouds high up are said to show that south and 
south-west winds are near at hand ; and stratified clouds low 
down, that east or north winds will prevail. — Scotland. 

Large irregular masses of cloud, " like rocks and towers," are 
indicative of showery weather. If the barometer be low, rain 
is all the more probable. — Jenyns. 

When clouds appear like rocks and towers, 
The earth's refreshed by frequent showers. 

When mountains and cliffs in the clouds appear, 
Some sudden and violent showers are near. 

When the clouds rise in terraces of white, soon will the 
country of the corn priests be pierced with the arrows of rain. 

Zuni Indians. 

Before rain these clouds augment in volume with great 
rapidity, sink to a lower elevation, and become fleecy and 
irregular in appearance, with their surfaces full of protuber- 
ances. They usually also remain stationary, or else sail 
against the surface wind previous to wet weather. 

Banking up. When the clouds bank up the contrary way to the wind, there 
will be rain. 

If on a fair day in winter a white bank of clouds arise in the 
south, expect snow. 

The rounded clouds called " water waggons " which fly alone 
in the lower currents of wind forebode rain. — T. Forster. 



Water 
waggons. 

Diminish- 
ing. 

Wet calm. 



Fair 
weather. 



When the cumulus clouds are smaller at sunset than they 
were at noon, expect fair weather. 

The formation of cumulus clouds to leeward during a strong 
wind indicates the approach of a calm with rain. 

When the cumulus clouds are smaller at sunset than they 
were at noon, expect fair weather. 



Clouds. 



97 



If clouds are formed like fleeces, deep and dense, or thick and [Cumulus.] 

close towards the middle, the edges being very white, while I"d'eating 
the surrounding sky is bright and blue, they are of a frosty ' ■ ' 
coldness, and will speedily fall in hail, snow, or rain. 

And another storm brewing ; I hear it sing i' the wind. Yond' Storm. 
same black cloud, yond' huge one, looks like a foul bumbard 
that would shed his liquor. . . . Yond' same cloud cannot 
chuse but fall by pailfuls. — Shakespeare's "Tempest." 

The pocky * cloud or heavy cumulus, looking like festoons of 
drapery, forebodes a storm. — Scotland. 

In summer or harvest, when the wind has been south for two Thunder. 
or three days, and it grows very hot, and you see clouds rise 
with great white tops like towers, as if one were upon the 
top of another, and joined together with black on the nether 
side, there will be thunder and rain suddenly. If two such 
clouds arise, one on either hand, it is time to make haste to 
shelter. — Shepherd of Banbury. 

When cumulus clouds become heaped up to leeward during 
a strong wind at sunset, thunder may be expected during the 
night. 

Well-defined cumuli, forming a* few hours after sunrise, in- Changing. 
creasing towards the middle of the day, and decreasing 
towards evening, are indicative of settled weather : if instead 
of subsiding in the evening and leaving the sky clear they 
keep increasing, they are indicative of wet. — Jenyns. 

The cirro-stratus blended with the cumulus, and either 
appearing intermixed with the heaps of the latter, or super- 
adding a widespread structure to its base. — Howard. 



[Cumulo- 

STRATUS.] 

Definition. 



When large masses of cumulo-strati cloud collect simul- Collecting. 
taneously in the north-east and south-west, with the wind 
east, expect cold rain or snow in the course of a few hours. 
The wind will ultimately back to north. — C. L. Prince. 

When at sea, if the cumulo-stratus clouds appear on the 
horizon, it is a sign that the weather is going to break up. 

If there be long points, tails, or feathers hanging from the 
thunder or rain clouds, five or six or more degrees above the 
horizon, with little wind in summer, thunder may be expected, 
but the storm will be of short duration. 

A horizontal streak or band of clouds immediately in front Streak. 
of the mountains on the east side of Salt Lake Valley is an 



On horizon. 



Tails or 
feathers. 



* Pod;, a bag. 



9 s 



Weather Lore. 



\Cumulo- 
stratus.] 



Striped. 



[Nimbus.] 
Definition. 



Rain. 

Prophet 
clouds. 



Storm. 



[Stratus. 
Definition. 

Fine. 



Night. 



On 

mountains. 



Fair 
weather. 



Oh hills. 



indication of rain within one or two days. When black clouds 
cover the western horizon, rain will follow soon, and extend 
to the eastward over the valley. — United States. 

If long strips of clouds drive at a slow rate high in air, and 
gradually become larger, the sky having been previously clear, 
expect rain. 

A rain cloud — a cloud or system of clouds from which rain is 
falling. It is a horizontal sheet over which the cirrus spreads, 
while the cumulus enters it laterally and from beneath. 

By watering He wearieth the thick cloud. — Job xxxvii. II. 

When scattered patches or streaks of nimbus come driving 
up from the south-west, they are called by the sailors 
" prophet clouds," and indicate wind. 

If a little cloud suddenly appear in a clear sky, especially if it 
come from the west, or somewhere in the south, there is a 
storm brewing. — Bacon. 

A widely extended, continuous, horizontal sheet, increasing 
from below. — Howard. 

These clouds have always been regarded as the harbingers of 
fine weather, and there are few finer days in the] year than 
when the morning breaks out through a disappearing stratus 
cloud. 

A stratus at night, with a generally diffused fog the next 
morning, is usually followed by a fine day, if the barometer 
be high and steady. If the barometer keep rising, the fog 
may last all day ; if the barometer be low, the fog will 
probably turn to rain. — Jenyns. 

When mountains extend north and south, if fog or mist comes 
from the west, expect fair weather. If mist comes from the 
top of mountains, expect rain in summer, snow in winter. 

Apache Indians. 

Thin, white, fleecy, broken mist, slowly ascending the sides of 
a mountain whose top is uncovered, predicts a fair day. 

Scotland. 

If towers to sight, uncapt, the mountain's head, 
While on its base a vapoury veil is spread, 
[Fair weather follows]. — J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

■ to the hilltops and there stay, expect rain 



If mist 
shortly. 



When the mist comes from the hill, 
Then good weather it doth spill ; 
When the mist comes from the sea, 
Then good weather it will be. 



Clouds. 99 

When the mist creeps up the hill, [Stratus.] 

Fisher, out and try your skill ; On hills. 

When the mist begins to nod, 
Fisher, then put past your rod. — Kirkcudbright. 

Misty clouds, forming or hanging on heights, show wind and Rising and 
rain coming, if they remain, increase, or descend. If they facing- 
rise or disperse, the weather will improve. — Fitzroy. 

Clouds upon hills, if rising, do not bring rain ; if falling, rain 
follows. 

When the clouds on the hilltops are thick and in motion, Thick. 
rain to the south-west is regarded as certain to follow. 

Scotland. 

When it gangs up i' fops,* Small. 

It'll fa' down i' drops. — North Country. 

When mountains and hills appear capped by clouds that hang Hanging. 
about and embrace them, storms are imminent. — Bacon. 

When the clouds go up the hill, Ascending. 

They'll send down water to turn a mill. 

Hampshire. 

When the clouds are upon the hills, 
They'll come down by the mills. 

When the Pendle's Head is free from clouds, the people there- Pendle's 
about expect a halcyon day, and those on the banks of the ""*". 
Can (or Kent) in Westmoreland can tell what weather to 
look for from the voice of its falls. 

For when they to the north the noise do easliest hear, 

They constantly aver the weather will be clear. 

And when they to the south, again they boldly say 

It will be clouds or rain the next approaching day. 

Drayton's " Polyolbion." 

When Wolsonbury has a cap, Wolsonbury. 

Hurstpierpoint will have a drap. — Sussex. 

Clouds on Ross-shire Hills mean rain at Ardersier on the Ross. 
south-east of the Moray Frith. 

Clouds on Bell Rock Light mean rain at Arbroath. Bell Rock. 

Clouds on Orkney Isles mean rain at Cape Wrath. Orkney. 

Clouds on Kilpatrick Hills mean rain at Eaglesham, in Kilpatrick 
Renfrewshire. Hills. 

Clouds on Ailsa Craig mean rain at Cumbrae. Ailsa Craig. 

* Small clouds on hills. 



IOO 



Weather Lore. 



[Stratus.] 
Cape Town. 
Bever. 



Skiddaw. 



Moncayo. 
Traprain. 

Ruberslaw, 



Falkland 
Hill, 
Lomond 
Range. 

Cheviot. 
Largo Law. 



Cairnsmore. 



Corsancone. 



Sailors say it is a sign of bad weather when the " tablecloth " 
(a cloud so called) is spread on Table Mountain. 

If Bever hath a cap, 

You churls of the vale look to that. 

Leicestershire. 

If Skiddaw hath a hat, 

Scruffel wots full well of that. — Cumberland. 

When Skiddaw hath a cap, 

Criffel wots fu' well of that. 

Heavy clouds on Skiddaw, especially with a south wind, the 
farmer of Kirkpatrick Fleming looks on as an indication of 
coming rain. 
[Note. — Skiddaw lies to the south of the place.] 

When Moncayo and Guara have their white caps on, 
It is good for Castile and better for Aragon. — Spanish. 
When Traprain puts on his hat, 
The Lothian lads may look to that. 

Haddingtonshire. 
When Ruberslaw puts on his cowl, 

The Dunion on his hood, 
Then a' the wives of Teviotside 

Ken there will be a flood. — Roxburghshire. 
[Also said of Craigowl and Collie Law in Forfarshire, 
substituting " Lundy lads " for "the wives of Teviot- 
side." — Robert Chambers.] 

When Falkland Hill puts on his cap, 
The Howe o' Fife will get a drap ; 
And when the Bishop draws his cowl, 
Look out for wind and weather foul. 
When Cheviot ye see put on his cap, 
Of rain ye'll have a wee bit drap. — Scotland. 
When Largo Law puts on his hat, 
Let Kellie Law beware of that ; 
When Kellie Law gets on his cap, 
Largo Law may laugh at that. — Scotland. 
[Note. — Largo Law is to the south-west of Kellie Law.] 
When Cairnsmore wears a hat. 
The Macher's Rills may laugh at that. 
[Note. — Cairnsmore is north-north-east of Macher's Rills, 
Wigtownshire, Scotland.] 

If Corsancone put on his cap, and the Knipe be clear, it will 

rain within twenty-four hours. 

[Note. — This is a sign which it is said never fails. Cor- 
sancone Hill is to the east and the Knipe to the 
south-west of the New Cumnock districts, where the 
proverb is current.] 



Mists. 



101 



A cloud on Sidlavv Hills foretells rain to Carmylie. 
„ Bin Hill ,, ,, „ Cullen. 

„ Paps of Jura ,, „ ,, \ Gigha and 

„ Mull of Kintyre „ ,, „ * Cara. 

The rolling of clouds landward and their gathering about the 
summit of Criffel is regarded as a sign of foul weather in 
Dumfries and Kirkpatrick Fleming, and intervening parishes. 
[Note. — Criffel is to the south-west of the place.] 

There is a high wooded hill above Lochnaw Castle ; 
Take care when Lady Craighill puts on her mantle. 
The Lady looks high and knows what is coming ; 
Delay not one moment to get under covering. 
[Note. — The hill lies to the north-west of the district where 
this doggerel is quoted.] 



[Stratus.] 

Scotch 

Hills. 



Criffel 



Craighill. 



If Riving Pike do wear a hood, 
Be sure the day will ne'er be good. 



Hiving Pike. 



Lancashire. 



A cloud, called the "helm cloud," or "helm bar," hovering Helm cloud. 
about the hilltops for a day or two, is said to presage wind 
and rain. — Yorkshire. 



If Roseberry Topping wears a cap, 
Let Cleveland then beware of a rap. 

When Bredon Hill puts on his hat, 
Ye men of the vale, beware of that. 

Worcestershire . 

When Hall Down has a hat, 

Let Kenton beware of a skat [shower]. 



Roseberry 
Topping. 

Bredon 
Hill. 



Hall Down. 



When Lookout Mountain has its cap on, it will rain in six Lookout. 
hours. — United States. 



/llMsts. 



If mists and fogs ascend and return upwards, they denote Mists. 

rain ; and if this take place suddenly, so that they appear to Disappear- 

be sucked up, they foretell winds ; but if they fall and rest ing. 
in the valleys, it will be fine weather. — Bacon. 

Wherever there is a plentiful generation of vapours, and that Vapours and 
at certain times, you may be sure 
periodical winds will arise. — Bacon. 



that at those times 



winds. 



White mist in winter indicates frost. — Scotland. 



White. 



102 



Weather Lore. 



[Mist] 
Black. 

Mist and 
rain. 

In low 



River. 



Rising. 



Spreading 



Misty 
morning. 

Haze. 



Clearing. 



Black mist indicates coming rain. 
Mists above, water below. — Spanish. 

If mists rise in low ground and soon vanish, expect fair 
weather. — Shepherd of Banbury. 

A white mist in the evening, over a meadow with a river, will 
be drawn up by the sun next morning, and the day will be 
bright. Five or six fogs successively drawn up portend rain. 

Where there are high hills, and the mist which hangs over 
the lower lands draws towards the hills in the morning, and 
rolls up to the top, it will be fair ; but if the mist hangs 
upon the hills, and drags along the woods, there will be 
rain.— Rev. W. Jones. 

In the evenings of autumn and spring, vapour arising from a 
river is regarded as a sure indication of coming frost. 

Scotland. 

Mists dispersing on the plain, 
Scatter away the clouds and rain ; 
But when they rise to the mountain tops, 
They'll soon descend in copious drops. 

Three foggy or misty mornings indicate rain. — Oregon. 

Haze and western sky purple indicate fair weather. 

Hazy weather is thought to prognosticate frost in winter, 
snow in spring, fair weather in summer, and rain in autumn. 

Scotland. 

A sudden haze coming over the atmosphere is due to the 
mixing of two currents of unequal temperatures : it may end 
in rain, or in an increase of temperature ; or it may be the 
precursor of a change, though not immediate. — Jenyns. 

When the landscape looks clear, having your back towards the 
sun, expect fine weather ; but when it looks clear with your 
face towards the sun, expect showery, unsettled weather. 

C. L. Prince. 



Dew. 



Dew. The dews of the evening industriously shun ; 

Evening. They're the tears of the sky for the loss of the sun. 

If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, it is a 
sign of another. If not, and there is no wind, rain must 
follow. — Rev. W. Jones. 



Fog. 103 



When in the morning the dew is heavy and remains long on Dew and 
the grass, when the fog in the valleys is slowly dispersed and fog- 
lingers on the hillsides, when the clouds seem to be taking a 
higher place, and when a few loose cirro-strati float gently 
along, serene weather may be expected for the greater part of 
that day. — Scotland. 

If in clear summer nights there is no dew, expect rain next Night. 

day. — C. L. Prince. 

Fine 
Dew is an indication of fine weather ; so is fog. — Fitzroy. weather. 

Dew is produced in serene weather and in calm places. Calm. 

Aristotle. 

If the dew is evaporated immediately upon the sun rising, Dispersing. 
rain and storm follow in the afternoon ; but if it stays and 
glitters for a long time after sunrise, the day continues fair. 
De Quincey's " Note to Analects from Richter." 

If there is a profuse dew in summer, it is about seven to one Profuse. 
that the weather will be fine. — E. J. Lowe. 

With dew before midnight, Evening. 

The next day will sure be bright. 

During summer a heavy dew is sometimes followed by a South wind. 
southerly wind in the afternoon. 

If there is a heavy dew, it indicates fair weather; no dew, it Heavy. 
indicates rain. 

If nights three dewless there be, Rain. 

'Twill rain you're sure to see. 

When the dew is seen shining on the leaves, the mist rolled Mountain. 
down from the mountain last night. — Zuni Indians. 

When there is no dew at such times as usually there is, it No dew. 
foreshoweth rain. — Wing, 1649. 



JfOfl. 

When the fog falls, fair weather follows ; when it rises, rain Fog . 

ensues. Falling. 

In the Mississippi valley, when fogs occur in August, expect August. 

fever and ague in the following fall. 

If there be a damp fog or mist, accompanied by wind, expect Damp. 

rain. 

Light fog passing under sun from south to north in the Light. 

morning indicates rain in twenty-four or forty-eight hours. 

If there be continued fog, expect frost.— United States. With frost. 



io4 



Weather Lore. 



[Fog.] 
Hunting 



When the fog goes up the mountain, you may go hunting ; 
when it comes down the mountain, you may go fishing. In 
the former case it will be fair, in the latter it will rain. 

Fogs are signs of a change. 

Heavy fog in winter, when it hangs below trees, is followed 
by rain. 

Fog from seaward, fair weather; fog from landward, rain. 

New England. 
A fog from the sea 
Brings honey to the bee ; 
A fog from the hills 
Brings corn to the mills. 

Pembrokeshire. 

Hanging. When with hanging fog smoke rises vertically, rain follows. 



Change. 
Winter. 

Sea, 



Sea and 
hills. 



Sky. 
Clear. 
Foul. 

Hazy. 



Greenish. 



Blue space. 



A very clear sky without clouds is not to be trusted, unless 
the barometer be high. — Jenyns. 

So foul a sky clears not without a storm. 

Shakespeare's "King John." 

One of the surest signs of rain with which I am acquainted is 
that of the sky assuming an almost colourless appearance in 
the direction of the wind, especially if lines of dark or muddy 
cirro-strati lie above and about the horizon and the milkiness 
gradually becomes muddy. — E. J. Lowe. 

If the sky is of a deep, clear blue or a sea-green colour near 
the horizon, rain will follow in showers. 

In winter, when the sky at midday has a greenish appearance 
to the east or north-east, snow and frost are expected. 

Scotland. 

When the sky in rainy weather is tinged with sea-green, the 
rain will increase ; if with deep blue, it will be showery. 

Rev. W. Jones. 

A small cloudless place in the north-east horizon is regarded 
both by seamen and landsmen as a certain precursor of fine 
weather or a clearing up. — Scotland. 

Enough blue sky in the north-west to make a Scotchman a 
jacket is a sign of approaching clear weather ; and the same 
is said satirically of a Highlandman's " breeks." 

When as much blue is seen in the sky as will make a Dutch- 
man's jacket (or a sailor's breeches), the weather will clear. 



Air — Sozmd. 



105 



Clear in the south beguiled the cadger. — Scotland. 

If there be a dark grey sky with a south wind, expect frost. 

If the sky become darker, without much rain, and divides 

into two layers of clouds, expect sudden gusts of wind. 

A dark, gloomy blue sky is windy ; but a light, bright blue 

sky indicates fine weather. When the sky is of a sickly 

looking, greenish hue, wind or rain may be expected. 

Fitzroy. 
From Dumfries to Gretna a lurid, yellowish sky in the east or 
south-east is called a Carlisle or Carle sky, and is regarded as 
a sure sign of rain. — Scotland. 

The Carle sky 
Keeps not the head dry. 
In Kincardine of Monteith, and in all that district, the reflection 
from the clouds, of the furnaces of the Devon and Carron 
works (to the east) foretells rain next day. — Scotland. 
The glare of the distant Ayrshire ironworks being seen at 
night from Cumbrae on Rothesay, rain is expected next day. 

Scotland. 

Htr. 

Much undulation in the air on a hot day in May or June 
foretells cold. — Scotland. 

The farther the sight the nearer the rain. 
When the distant hills are more than usually distinct, rain 
approaches. 

The cliffs and promontories of the shore appear higher and 
the dimensions of all objects seem larger when the south-east 
wind is blowing. — Aristotle. 

When the Lizard is clear, 

Rain is near. — Cornwall 
The unusual elevation of distant coasts, masts of ships, etc., 
particularly when the refracted images are inverted, are 
known to be frequent foreboders of stormy weather. 
When the Isle of Wight is seen from Brighton or Worthing, 
expect rain soon. 
A mirage is followed by a rain. — New England. 

Sounfc. 

A good hearing day is a sign of wet. 

There is a sound of abundance of rain. — Elijah. 
The ringing of bells is heard at a greater distance before rain ; 
but before wind it is heard more unequally, the sound coming 
and going, as we hear it when the wind is blowing per- 
ceptibly. — Bacon. 



[Sky.] 
Clear. 
Grey. 

Dark. 



Colours. 



Carlisle. 



Reflecting. 



Air. 

Undulation. 

Clearness. 



Lizard 
Point. 

Shipping. 



Isle of 
Wight. 



Sound. 



Bells. 



io6 



Weather Lore. 



[Sound.'] 
In air. 



Air. 



On shore. 



The calling 
of the sea. 



Pons-an- 
dane. 



Rosehearty. 



Fortingal. 



Travelling. 



Monzie. 



Dysart. 



A sound from the mountains, an increasing murmur in the 
woods, and likewise a kind of crashing noise in the plains, 
portend winds. An extraordinary noise in the sky when 
there is no thunder is principally due to winds. — Bacon. 

A sound in air presaged approaching rain, 
And beast to covert scud across the plain. 

Thomas Parnell. 

The shores sounding in a calm, and the sea beating with a 
murmur or an echo louder and clearer than usual, are signs 
of wind. — Bacon. 

A murmuring or roaring noise, sometimes heard several miles 
inland during a calm, in the direction from which the wind is 
about to spring up. 

When Pons-an-dane calls to Larrigan river. 

There will be fine weather ; 

But when Larrigan calls to Pons-an-dane, 

There will be rain. — Cornwall. 
[Note. — Streams entering the sea north-east and south-west 
of Penzance, about one mile and a half apart, Pons- 
an-dane being north-east. — Richard Edmonds.] 

If the " sang " of the sea is heard coming from the west by the 
fishermen of Rosehearty in the morning, when they get out of 
bed to examine the state of the weather, whether favourable 
or unfavourable to fishing, it is regarded as an indication of 
fine weather for the day, and accordingly they sometimes go 
farther to sea. — Walter Gregor in " Folk-Lore Journal." 

In Fortingal (Perthshire), if in calm weather the sound of 
the rapids on the Lyon is distinctly heard, and if the sound 
descends with the stream, rainy weather is at hand ; but if 
the sound goes up the stream, and dies away in the distance, 
it is a sign of continued dry weather, or a clearing up, if 
previously thick. 

Sound travelling far and wide, 
A stormy day will betide. 

When the people of Monzie (Perthshire) hear the sound of 
the waterfalls of Shaggie or the roar of the distant Turret 
clearly and loudly, a storm is expected; but if the sound 
seems to recede from the ear till it is lost in the distance, 
and if the weather is thick, a change to fair may be looked 
for speedily. 

In the collieries about Dysart, and in some others, it is thought 
by the miners that before a storm of wind a sound not 



Tide, etc. 10J 

unlike that of a bagpipe or the buzz of the bee comes from [Soum/.] 
the mineral, and that previous to a fall of rain the sound is 
more subdued. — Sir A. Mitchell. 

Sounds are heard with unusual clearness before a storm. Whistle. 
The railway whistle, for instance, seems remarkably shrill. 

TCi&e, etc. 

Showers occur more frequently at the turn of the tide. Tide. 

Storms burst as the tide turns. — South Atlantic Coast. Storms. 

If, after the first ebb of the tide, it flows again for a little 
while, a storm approaches. — Scotch Coast. 

The sea swelling silently and rising higher than usual in the Wind. 
harbour, or the tide coming in quicker than ordinary, prog- 
nosticates wind. — Bacon. 

If it raineth at tide's flow, Ebb and 

You may safely go and mow ; flow. 

But if it raineth at the ebb, 
Then, if you like, go off to bed. 

Rain is likely to commence on the turn of the tide. Turn. 

In threatening weather it is more apt to rain at the turn of Rain, 
the tide, especially at high water. 

If, during the absence of wind, the surface of the sea becomes Swell. 

agitated by a long rolling swell, a gale may be expected. 

This is well known to seamen. 

On the west coast a heavy surf is considered the sure fore- Surf. 

runner of a storm ; while on the east a peculiar ripple, called 

a "twine," along the surface is known to precede a gale 

from the south-east. 

Just before a storm the sea heaves and sighs. — Fitzroy. Sigh of sea. 

A river flood, Flood - 

Fishers' good.— Spanish. 

If the river Tweed rise without rain, it foretells the same Twecn. 

within twelve hours. 

When the surface of the sea in harbour appears calm, and Sea appears 

yet there is a murmuring noise within it, although there is no ca m ' 

swell, a wind is coming. — Bacon. 

When the foam of the sea retreats or goes out (" works oot "), Sea foam. 

it is said to be " leukin for mair " ; and more stormy weather 

is looked upon as at hand at Rosehearty. 

Walter Gregor in " Folk-Lore Journal." 



io8 



Weather Lore. 



Sea foam. Glittering foam (called " sea lungs ") in a heavy sea foretells 
that the storm will last many days. — Bacon. 

Bubbles. If foam, white circles of froth, or bubbles of water, appear 

here and there on a calm and smooth sea, they prognosticate 
■wind. If these signs be more striking, they denote severe 
storms. — Bacon. 



River foam. 



Much foam in a river foretells a storm. — Scotland. 



Phosphor- 
escence of 
waves. 



Sudden 
changes of 
temperature. 



When the phosphorescence of the sea is seen during a dark 
night on the breast of the roll, or on the water as it breaks 
on the rocks, it is looked upon as an indication of coming 
foul weather. — " Folk-Lore Journal." 
Waterspouts. Waterspouts are not produced in cold weather. — Aristotle. 

A sudden increase in the temperature of the air sometimes 
denotes rain ; and again a sudden change to cold sometimes 
forebodes the same thing. — Bacon. 

A sudden and extreme change of temperature of the atmo- 
sphere, either from heat to cold, or cold to heat, is generally 
followed by rain within twenty-four hours. — Dalton. 

Temperature. A high temperature, with a high dew-point, and the wind 
south or south-west, is likely to produce a thunderstorm. 
If the mercury falls much previous to the storm, the latter 
is likely to be succeeded by a change oi weather. Some- 
times heavy thunderstorms take place overhead without any 
fall of the mercury : in this case a reduction of temperature 
does not usually follow. — Belville. 



"Weather 
breeders." 

Damp heat. 



Fine warm days are called " weather breeders." 

What is called "foul air," accompanied by the cheeping of 
small birds, foreshows a gale from the south or south-east. 

Kintyre. 



Rain. 



1Ratn. 

Rain comes from a mass of vapour which is cooled. 

Aristotle. 

Mountains. Mountains cool the uplifted vapour, converting it again into 
water. — Aristotle. 

Wind. When God wills, it rains with any wind. — Spanish. 

Calm. More rain, more rest ; 

Fine weather not the best. — Nautical. 

Some rain, some rest ; 

Fine weather isn't always best. 
Changes. No one so surely pays his debt 

As wet to dry and dry to wet. — Wiltshire. 



Rain. 109 

With the rain of the north-east comes the ice fruit [hail]. [Rain.] 

Zuni Indians. North-east. 

Rain from the north-east in Germany continues three days. 

Rain from the east, East. 

Two days at least. 
Rain from the south prevents the drought ; South. 

But rain from the west is always best. 

Rain which sets in with a south wind on the North Pacific 
coast will probably last. 

If it begin to rain from the south, with a high wind, for two 
or three hours, and the wind falls, but the rain continues, it 
is likely to rain twelve hours or more, and does usually rain 
till a north wind clears the air. These long rains seldom 
hold above twelve hours, or happen above once a year. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

Rain with south or south-west thunder brings squalls on 
successive days. 

When rain comes from the west, it will not last long. West. 

United States. 

When rain squalls break to the westward, it is a sign of foul Squalls. 
weather. When they break to the leeward, it is a sign of fair 
weather. — North-East Coast, United States. 

The faster the rain, the quicker the hold up. — Norfolk. Short. 

Rain long foretold, long last ; Long 

Short notice, soon past. foretold. 

Small showers last long, but sudden storms are short. Small 
Shakespeare's " Richard II." showers. 

Rain before seven, Morning. 

Lift before eleven. 

If rain begins at early morning light, 

'Twill end ere day at noon is bright. 

Morning rains are soon past. — France. 

The following rules are believed in by some with respect to Rules. 
the times of rain : — 

If rain commences before daylight, it will hold up before 8 a.m. ; 
if it begins about noon, it will continue through the afternoon ; 
if it commences after 9 p.m., it will rain the next day; if it 
clears off in the night, it will rain the next day; if the wind 
is from the north-west or south-west, the storm will be short ; 
if from the north-east, it will be a hard one ; if from the north- 
west a cold one, and from the south-west a warm one. If it 
ceases after 12 a.m., it will rain next day ; if it ceases before 
12 a.m., it will be clear next day. If it begins about 5 p.m., 
it will rain through the night. 



no 



Weather Lore. 



[Rain.] 
Custom. 



tiejore 
sunrise. 



Dew. 

Drizzle. 

Midnight. 



Rain and 
wind. 



Three days' 
rain. 



Small. 
Sudden. 



From 

mountains. 

Uncertain. 



Sunshine 



In Burmah the inhabitants have a custom of pulling a rope to 
produce rain. A rain party and a drought party tug against 
each other, the rain party being allowed the victory, which in 
the popular notion is generally followed by rain. 

" Folk- Lore Journal," Vol. I., p. 214. 

If it begin to rain an hour or two before sunrising, it is likely 
to be fair before noon, and so continue that day ; but if the 
rain begin an hour after sunrising, it is likely to rain all that 
day, except the rainbow be seen before it rains. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

Rain a short time before sunrise will be followed at least by 
a fine afternoon ; but rain soon after sunrise, generally by a 
wet day. 
If the rain falls on the dew, it will fall all day. — Bergamo. 

A fall of small drizzling rain, especially in the morning, is a 
sure sign of wind to follow. — Newhaven. 

If it rain at midnight with a south wind, it will generally last 
above twelve hours. 

After rains, the wind most often blows in the places where the 
rain falls, and winds often cease when rain begins to fall. 

Aristotle. 

A hasty shower of rain falling when the wind has raged some 
hours, soon allays it. — Pointer. 

Small rain abates high wind. — France. 

Marry the rain to the wind, and you have a calm. 

The wise have in mind the three days' wind, 

That foretells the stormy rain ; ■ 
And to them the care how they then shall fare 

Is about the thought of gain. — Cary's " Pindar." 

A small rain may allay a great storm. — T. Fuller. 

Sudden rains never last long ; but when the air grows thick 
by degrees, and the sun, moon, and stars shine dimmer and 
dimmer, then it is likely to rain six hours usually. 

Shepherd of Banbury. 

They are wet with the showers of the mountains. — Job xxiv. 8. 

It rains by planets. 

To talk of the weather, it's nothing but folly ; 

For when it's rain on the hill, it may be sun in the valley. 

If it rains when the sun shines, it will rain the next day. 

If it rains while the sun is shining, the devil is beating his 
grandmother. He is laughing, and she is crying. 



Rainbow. 



1 1 1 



After rain comes sunshine. 
Sunshine and shower, rain again to-morrow. 
If it rain when the the sun shines, it will surely rain the next 
day about the same hour. — Suffolk. 

A sunshiny shower 

Never lasts half an hour. — Bedfordshire. 

Sunshiny rain 

Will soon go again. — Devonshire. 

\\\i&a fine, take your unbrella. 

When raining, please yourself. — Dr. Johnson. 

If short showers come during dry weather, they are said to 
" harden the drought" and indicate no change. — Scotland. 

There is usually fair weather before a settled course of rain. 

Fitzroy. 

A foot deep of rain 

Will kill hay and grain ; 

But three feet of snow 

Will make them come mo [more]. — Devonshire. 

If hail appear after a long course of rain, it is a sign of 

clearing up. — Scotland. 

"Agree between yourselves," quoth Arlotto, "and I will make 

it rain." — Italian. 

Who soweth in rain, he shall reap it with tears. — Tusser. 

When it rains, they say in Amorgos, " God is emptying His 

bowl," the prevalent idea being that God, like Zeus of 

antiquity, has a bowl or receptacle full of water, which He 

shakes, and then clouds come out ; these fall on the earth as 

rain or snow. — T. Bent (Greece). 

Though it rains, do not neglect to water. — Spanish. 

After great droughts come great rains. — Dutch. 

Wet continues, if the ground dries up too soon. 



[Rain.] 
Sunshine. 



Umbrella. 

Showers 
short. 

Preceded 
by fair 
weather. 
Rain and 
snow. 



Followed by 
hail. 

Desired. 



Sowing. 

Bowl of 
Zeus. 



Watering. 
Drought. . 
Continued. 



tRafnbow. 

The old Norsemen called the rainbow " The bridge of the Rainbow. 

gods." — C. Swainson. 

A rainbow can only occur when the clouds containing or East and 

depositing the rain are opposite to the sun; and in the west 

evening the rainbow is in the east, and in the morning in the 

west ; and as our heavy rains in this climate are usually 

brought by the westerly wind, a rainbow in the west indicates 

that the bad weather is on the road, whereas the rainbow in 

the east proves that the rain in these clouds is passing from 

us . — Sir Humphry Davy in " Salmonia." 



112 



Weather Lore. 



[Rainbow.'] 
In cloud. 



In spring. 

In wind's 
eye. 

Windward. 



Fair and 
foul. 

Morning 
and evening. 



When a rainbow is formed in an approaching cloud, expect a 
shower ; but when in a receding cloud, fine weather. 

C. L. Prince. 

A rainbow in spring indicates fair weather for twenty-four 
hours. 

When a rainbow appears in wind's eye, rain is sure to follow. 

Rainbow to windward, foul fall the day ; 
Rainbow to leeward, damp runs away. — Nautical. 

If a rainbow appear in fair weather, foul will follow ; but if a 
rainbow appear in foul weather, fair will follow. 

Rainbow in morning shows that shower is west of us, and that 
we shall probably get it. Rainbow in the evening shows that 
shower is east of us, and is passing off. — United States. 

The weather's taking up now, 

For yonder's the weather gaw ; * 
How bonny is the east now ! 

Now the colours fade awa ! . — Galloway. 

A dog in the morning, 
Sailor, take warning ; 
A dog in the night 
Is the sailor's delight. 

[A sun dog, in nautical language, is a small rainbow near the 
horizon. — Roper.] 

A rainbow in the morn, put your hook in the corn ; 
A rainbow in the eve, put your hook in the sheave. 

Cornwall. 

If there be a rainbow in the eve. 

It will rain and leave ; 

But if there be a rainbow in the morrow, 

It will neither lend nor borrow. 

A rainbow in the morning 
Is the shepherd's warning ; 
A rainbow at night 
Is the shepherd's delight. 

The rainbow in the marnin' 
Gives the shepherd warnin' 

To car' his gurt cwoat on his back ; 
The rainbow at night is the shepherd's delight, 

For then no gurt cwoat will he lack. 

Wiltshire. 



* Fragmentary rainbow. 



Rainbow. 



"3 



Low. 
Colours. 

Blue. 
Various. 



Indications. 



A rainbow in the west brings dew and light showers ; a [Rainbow.' 
rainbow in the east promises fair weather. — Seneca. Direction. 

[The same author mentions a rainbow in the south, though 
he does not say how this can be.] 

When the rainbow does not reach down to the water, clear High. 
weather will follow. 

A bow low down on the mountains is a bad sign for the crops. 
If seen at a great distance, it indicates fair weather. 

When a perfect rainbow shows only two principal colours, 
which are generally red and yellow, expect fair weather for 
several days. — C. L. Prince. 

If a blue colour should predominate, the air is clearing. 

These colours [of the rainbow] are almost the only ones 
which the painters cannot reproduce. They try to obtain 
some by various mixtures ; but the red, the green, and the violet 
cannot be the result of a mixture. And it is these colours 
which we see in a rainbow. — Aristotle. 

[Red, green, and violet are now again considered as the true 
primary colours. — R. I.] 

If the green be large and bright in the rainbow, it is a sign of 
continued rain. If red be the strongest colour, there will be 
rain and wind together. After much wet weather the rainbow 
indicates a clearing up. If the bow disappears all at once, 
there will follow serene and settled weather. The bow in the 
morning, rain will follow ; if at noon, heavy rain ; if at night, 
fair weather. The appearance of double or triple bows 
indicates fair weather for the present, but heavy rains soon. 
Aristotle knew of the two rainbows having the colours in the 
reverse order, as he speaks of the red being outside the inner 
bow and inside the outer one. He also says there are never 
more than two bows. 

When the rainbow is broad, with the prismatic colours very 
distinct, and green or blue predominating, expect much rain 
the succeeding night. If the red colour is conspicuous and the 
last to disappear, expect both rain and wind. — C. L. Prince. 
The peasants of Anaphi are said to know how to foretell the 
crops by the colours of the rainbows. If red prevails, the crop 
of grapes will be abundant ; if green, that of olives ; if yellow, 
that of corn. A rainbow in the morning denotes luck ; in the 
evening, woe. It is called the "nun's girdle." 

T. Bent (Greece). 

The rainbow, after a long drought, is the precursor of a 
decided change to wet weather ; and it happens also that a 
perfect bow, after an unsettled time, is a precursor of fair 
weather. — C. L. Prince. 



Double. 



Broad. 



Prevailing 
colours. 



After 
drought. 



ii4 



Weather Lore. 



[Rainbow.] If the rainbow forms and disappears suddenly, the prismatic 
Suddenly colours being but slightly discernible, expect fair weather 
appearing. next day ,_ C L . p RINCE . 



Frost. 



Not per- 
manent. 



Vines. 

Bearded 
frost. 
Formation. 

Rain. 



dfrost. 

If hoar-frost come on mornings twain, 
The third day surely will have rain. 

Hoar-frost and gipsies never stay nine days in a place. 

A white frost never lasts more than three days. 

Hoar-frost is good for vines, but bad for corn. — France. 

Bearded frost, forerunner of snow. 

When it is a cloud which is frozen, snow results ; when it is a 
vapour only, then it produces hoar-frost only. — Aristotle. 

Rain is sure to follow after frost that melts before the sun 



Frost and A very heavy white frost in winter is followed by a thaw. 
ihaw - United States. 

Rain. Hoar-frost indicates rain. 

When the frost gets into the air, it will rain. 

Three frosts in succession are a sign of rain. 

Light. Light or white frosts are always followed by wet weather, 

either the same day or three days after. 

Late. If the first frost occurs late, the following winter will be mild, 

but weather variable. If the first frost occurs early, it indicates 
a severe winter. 

Early. Early frosts are generally followed by a long and hard winter. 

Storm. Three white frosts and then a storm. 

Duration. Six months from last frost to next frost. — Southern States. 

Black. Black frost indicates dry, cold weather. 

A black frost is a long frost. 

Foul. Frosts end in foul weather. 

Heavy. Heavy frosts are generally followed by fine, clear weather. 

United States. 

Heavy frosts bring heavy rains ; no frost, no rain. 

California. 

Frost and He that would have a bad day maun gang out in a fog after a 
f°S- frost. — Scotch. 

Frost and In the change from frost to open weather, or from open 
mists. weather to frost, commonly great mists. — Bacon. 



Hail — Snow. 115 



During frosty weather, the dissolution of mist, and the [Frost.] 
appearance of small detached cirro-cumulus clouds in the Mist. 
upper air, indicate a thaw. 

Signs of frost breaking up : — Breaking. 

The sun looking vvaterish at rising. 

The sun setting in bluish clouds, and casting reflected rays 

into them. 

The stars looking dull, and the moon's horns blunted, aid the 

frost to depart. 

Quick thaw, long frost. — Old Anglo-Saxon. Long. 

A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the ground. Beneficial. 

Bacon. 

In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and most spark- Stars. 
ling. — Bacon. 

1bail. 

Hail brings frost in the tail. Hail . 

Hail is rare in winter. — Aristotle. Winter. 

Hail is formed in the clouds, and never in the lower mists. Formation. 

Aristotle. 

A hailstorm by day denotes a frost at night. Hailstorm. 

Snow. 

Snow cherisheth the ground and anything sowed in it. Snow. 

Bacon. Beneficial. 

Corn is as comfortable under the snow as an old man is under 
his fur cloak. — Russia. 

Much snow, much hay. — Sweden. Hay. 

The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea coasts, yet the winds Dissolving. 
are counted the bitterest from the sea, and such as trees will 
bend from. — Bacon. 

In winter, during a frost, if it begin to snow, the temperature Tcmpera- 
of the air generally rises to 32 (or near it), and continues '' 
there whilst the snow falls ; after which, if the weather clear 
up, expect severe cold. — Dalton. 

Nae hurry wi' your corns, Harrowing. 

Nae hurry wi' your harrows ; 
Snaw lies ahint the dyke ; 

Mair may come and fill the furrows.— Scotland. 



Ii6 



Weather Lore. 



[Snow.] It takes three cloudy days to bring a heavy snow. 

Cloudy. New England. 

Healthy. The more snow, the more healthy the season. 

John Ayers (Santa Fe). 

Snow is generally preceded by a general animation of man 
and beast, which continues until after the snowfall ends. 

United States. 

If the snowflakes increase in size, a thaw will follow. 

If the first snow sticks to the trees, it foretells a bountiful 
harvest. 

If the snow remains on the trees in November, they will 
bring out but few buds in the spring. — German. 

A heavy fall of snow indicates a good year for crops, and a 
light fall the reverse.— Dr. John Menual. 

Snow coming two or three days after new moon will remain 
on the ground some time, but that falling just after new moon 
will soon go off. 

As many days old as the moon is at the first snow, there will 
be as many snows before crop-planting time. 

When snow falls in the mud, it remains all winter. 

The number of days the last snow remains on the ground 
indicates the number of snowstorms which will occur during 
the following winter. 

If the snow that falls during the winter is dry, and is blown 
about by the wind, a dry summer will follow. Very damp 
snow indicates rain in the spring. 

Lying. When the snow falls dry, it means to lie ; 

But flakes light and soft bring rain oft. 

When now in the ditch the snow doth lie, 
'Tis waiting for more by-and-bye. 



Flakes. 
Wet. 

November. 

Crops. 

New moon. 

Moon. 

Mud 
Last snow. 

Dry. 



Ice. 



See. 

If the ice crack much, expect frost to continue. 



Thunder and Lightning. 



117 



XTbun&er anb Xigbtning. 

The thunderstorms of the season will come from the same Thunder 
quarter as the first one. and 

First thunder in winter or spring indicates rain and very cold — : - 

vveather. — Dr. John Menual. f} rst j 

J thunder. 

After the first thunder comes the rain. — Zufii Indians. 

According to the direction from which comes the first 
thunder in spring, the Zufii Indians reckon the coming season. 
If the thunder be in the north, they say that the bear in his 
cave has stretched out his left leg ; if in the east, that he has 
stretched out his right arm, and that the winter is over ; if in 
the south, that he has merely stretched out his right leg ; or if 
in the west, his left arm. — Major Dunwoody. 

The first thunder of the year awakes 
All the frogs and all the snakes. 

If there be showery weather, with sunshine and increase of 
heat, in the spring, a thunderstorm may be expected every 
day, or at least every other day. 

Thunder and lightning in the summer show 
The point from which the freshening breeze will blow. 

J. Lamb's •■ Aratus." 

Great heats after the summer solstice generally end in 
thunderstorms ; but if these do not come, in wind and rain, 
which last for many days. — Bacon. 



Spring 
thunder. 



Summer 
thunder. 



Heat and 

lit under. 



Thunder and lightning early in winter or late in fall indicate 
warm weather. 

Lightning brings heat. 

Winter thunder, 

To old folks death, to young folks plunder. 

Winter's thunder, 
Summer's wonder. 

A thunderstorm comes up against the wind. 

Thunderstorms almost always occur when the weather is hot for 
the season. They are generally caused by a cold wind coming 
over a place where the air is much heated. They do not 
cool the air : it is the wind that brings them which makes the 
weather cooler. If a thunderstorm comes up from the east, the 
weather will not be cooler after it. This will not happen till 
another storm comes up from the west. Thunderstorms are 
the more violent the greater the difference of temperature 
between the two currents of wind which produce them. 



Early and 
late. 

Heat. 

Winter 
thunder. 



Thunder- 
storms. 



n8 



Weather Lore. 



[Thunder 

and 

lightning.} 

Silence 
before a 
thunder- 
storm. 



Morning 
thunder. 



Times. 



Evening 
thunder. 

Lightning 
south-east. 



Sheet. 



Forked. 



Summer. 

Night and 
morning. 



Distant. 



Disappear* 

mg- 



The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders. — Bacon. 

We often see, against some storm, 
A silence in the heavens, the rack stand still, 
The bold wind speechless, and the orb below 
As hush as death : anon the dreadful thunder 
Doth rend the region. — Shakespeare's " Hamlet." 

When it thunders in the morning, it will rain before night. 



Thunder in the morning denotes winds ; 



at noon, showers. 
Bacon. 



Thunder in y° morning signifies wynde, about noone rayne, in 
y e evening great tempest. — Digges. 

If there be thunder in the evening, there will be much rain 
and showery weather. 

If in a clear and starry night it lighten in the south-east, it 
foretelleth great store of wind and rain to come from those 
parts. — Husbandman's Practice. 

If there be sheet lightning with a clear sky on spring, summer, 
and autumn evenings, expect heavy rains. 

Forked lightning at night, 
The next day clear and bright. 

Lightning in summer indicates good, healthy weather. 

Sheet lightning, without thunder, during the night, having a 
whitish colour, announces unsettled weather. In the west of 
Scotland morning lightning is regarded as an omen of bad 
weather. — Scotland. 

Lightning without thunder after a clear day, there will be a 
continuance of fair weather. 

Lightning in a clear sky signifies the approach of wind and 
rain from the quarter where it lightens ; but if it lightens in 
different parts of the sky, there will be severe and dreadful 
storms. — Bacon. 

The distant thunder speaks of coming rain. 

If it sinks from the north, 

It will double its wrath. 

If it sinks from the south, 

It will open its mouth. 

If it sinks from the west, 

It is never at rest. 

If it sinks from the east, 

It will leave us in peace. — Kent. 



Thunder and Lightning. 119 



If the lightning is in the colder quarters of the heaven, as the [Thunder 

north and north-east, hailstorms will follow ; but if in the a . 

warmer, as the south and west, there will be showers with a * . *'■' 
, _ Direction. 

sultry temperature. — Bacon. 

Lightning under north star will bring rain in three days. North. 

Lightning in the north will be followed by rain in twenty-four 
hours. 

Lightning in the north in summer is a sign of heat. 

When it lightens only from the north-west, look for rain the North-west. 
next day. — Willsford. 

Thunderstorm from north-west is followed by fine, bracing 
weather ; but thunder and lightning from north-east indicates 
sultry, unsettled weather. — Observer at Santa Fe. 

If the first thunder is from the east, the winter is over. East. 

Zuni Indians. 

Lightning in the south, low on the horizon, indicates dry South. 
weather. — Kansas. 

Thunder from the south or south-east indicates foul weather ; South and 
from the north or north-west, fair weather. north. 

A thunderstorm from the south is said to be followed by 
warmth, and from the north by cold. When the storm 
disappears in the east, it is a sign of fine weather. 

Scotland. 

If from the south or the west it lightens, expect both wind South or 
and rain from these parts. — Willsford. west 

After the clap there follows a heavy and abundant shower of Rain. 
rain. — Lucretius, C. W. Empson's Translation. 

After much thunder, much rain. — France. 

Rain and wind increase after a thunderclap. 

Virgil's " Georgics," Book I. 

Abundance depends on sour milk. Souring 

[The meaning of this is that thunderstorms aid crops.] milk. 

Increasing atmospheric electricity oxidises ammonia in the air, 
and forms nitric acid, which affects milk, thus accounting for 
the souring of milk by thunder. — Major Dunwoody. 

When it thunders, they say the prophet (Elias) is driving in Superstition. 
his chariot in pursuit of demons. — T. Bent (Greece). 

When the flashes of lightning appear very pale, it argues the Lightning 
air to be full of waterish meteors ; and if red and fiery, colours. 
inclining to winds and tempests. 



120 



Weather Lore. 



[Thunder 

and 

lightning.] 

Description. 



As when two black clouds, 
With heaven's artillery fraught, come rattling on 
Over the Caspian ; then stand, front to front 
Hovering a while, till winds the signal blow 
To join their dark encounter in mid air. — Milton. 

The sound of bells is supposed to dissipate thunder and 
1 ightning. — Bacon. 

[Church bells are still rung in the Austrian Tyrol with this 
object.] 

Rolling thunder which seems to be passing on foretells wind ; 
but sharp and interrupted cracks denote storms both of wind 
and rain. — Bacon. 

Continuous. When the thunder is more continuous than the lightning, 
there will be great winds ; but if it lightens frequently 
between the thunderclaps, there will be heavy showers with 
large drops. — Bacon. 



Bells. 



Rolling. 



Barometer. 
Variations. 



Falling with 
east wind. 



Falling with 
north or west 
wind. 

Falling with 

westerly 

wind. 



Falling with 
south wind. 

Rise and 
fall- 



Falling 



^Barometer. 

The variations of the barometer depend on the variations of 
the wind. It is highest during frost, with a north-east wind ; 
and lowest during a thaw, with a south or south-west wind. 

Jenyns. 

A steady and considerable fall in the mercury during an east 
wind denotes that the wind will soon go round to the south, 
unless a heavy fall of snow or rain immediately follow : in 
this case, the upper clouds usually come up from the south. 

Belville 

If the mercury fall with the wind at the west, north-west, or 
north, a great reduction of temperature will follow : in the 
winter severe frosts ; in the summer cold rains. — Belville. 

If the mercury fall during a high wind from the south-west, 
south-south-west, or west-south-west, an increasing storm 
is probable ; if the fall be rapid, the wind will be violent, 
but of short duration ; if the fall be slow, the wind will be 
less violent, but of longer continuance. — Belville. 

A fall of the mercury with a south wind is invariably followed 
by rain in greater or less quantities. — Belville. 

Neither a sudden rise nor a sudden fall of the barometer is 
followed by any lasting change of weather. If the mercury 
rise and fall by turns, it is indicative of unsettled weather. 

Jenyns. 

The barometer falls for southerly and westerly winds, and 
for damper, stormier, and warmer weather. 



Barometer. 



121 



A sudden rise in the barometer is very nearly as dangerous as 
a sudden fall, because it shows that the level is unsteady. In 
an ordinary gale the wind often blows hardest when the baro- 
meter is just beginning to rise, directly after having been very 
low. 

The barometer rises for northerly or easterly winds, and for 
dryer, calmer, and colder weather. 

In wet weather, when the barometer rises much and high, and 
so continues for two or three days before wet weather is quite 
over, you may expect a continuance of fair weather for several 
days. — C. L. Prince. 

In fair weather, when the barometer falls much and low, and 
thus continues for two or three days before the rain comes, 
you may expect much rain, and probably high winds. 

C. L. Prince. 

A sudden and considerable rise of the barometer after several 

hours of heavy rain, accompanied by a drying westerly wind, 

indicates more rain within thirty hours, and a considerable 

fall of the barometer. — C. L. Prince. 

Should the barometer continue low when the sky becomes 

low after heavy rain, expect more rain within twenty-four 

hours. — C. L. Prince. 

When, after a succession of gales and great fluctuations of the 

barometer, a gale comes on from south-west, which does not 

cause much, if any, depression of the instrument, you may 

consider that more settled weather is near at hand. 

C. L. Prince. 

If the barometer fall gradually for several days during the 
continuance of fine weather, much wet will probably ensue in 
the end. In like manner, if it keep rising while the wet con- 
tinues, the weather, after a day or two, is likely to set in fair 
for some time. — Jenyns. 

If after a storm of wind and rain the mercury remain steady 
at the point to which it had fallen, serene weather may follow 
without a change of wind ; but on the rising of the mercury 
rain and a change of wind may be expected. — Belville. 
The height of the barometer must be above the mean corre- 
sponding to the particular wind blowing at the time to allow of 
weather in which any confidence can be placed. — Jenyns. 
A very low barometer is usually attendant upon stormy 
weather, with wind and rain at intervals, but the latter not 
necessarily in any great quantity. If the weather, notwith- 
standing a very low barometer, is fine and calm, it is not to 
be depended upon : a change may come on very suddenly. 

Jenyns. 



[Barometer.] 
Rising. 



Wind. 



Rising in 
wet weather. 



Falling in 
fair weather. 



Rise after 
rain. 



Low. 



Wind. 



Fall in fine 

weather. 



Steady after 
storm. 



Indication. 



Low in fine 
weather. 



122 



Weather Lore. 



[Barometer.'] 
Frost. 

High with 

warmer 

weather. 



Wet after a 
fall. 



Rising with 
warmth. 



Rising after 
heavy rains. 



Falling 
quickly. 

Oscillating. 



Snow. 

Summer. 



Local. 



Rising with 
dry weather. 



Falling with- 
out change. 



If it freezes, and the barometer falls two or three-tenths of an 
inch, expect a thaw. 

If the weather gets warmer while the barometer is high and 
the wind north-easterly, we may look for a sudden shift of 
wind to the south. On the other hand, if the weather 
becomes colder while the wind is south-westerly and the 
barometer low, we may look for a sudden squall or a severe 
storm from the north-west, with a fall of snow if it be winter- 
time. 

When wet weather happens soon after the falling of the 
barometer, expect but little of it ; and, on the contrary, 
expect but little fair weather when it proves fine shortly after 
the barometer has risen. — C. L. Prince. 

During summer, if pressure and temperature increase together, 
expect several fine days ; and if small patches of cirro-cumulus 
cloud should appear at a great elevation, the rise of tempera- 
ture will be considerable. — C. L. Prince. 

If barometer and thermometer both rise together, 
It is a very sure sign of coming fine weather. 

After heavy rains from south-west, if the barometer rises upon 
the wind shifting to the north-west, expect three or four fine 
days. — C. L. Prince. 

If the barometer falls two or three-tenths of an inch in four 
hours, expect a gale of wind. — C. L. Prince. 

If you observe that the surface of the mercury in the cistern 
of the barometer vibrates upon the approach of a storm, you 
may expect the gale to be severe. — C. L. Prince. 

The barometer seldom falls for snow. — C. L. Prince. 

In summer, when the barometer falls suddenly, expect a 
thunderstorm ; and if it does not rise again when the storm 
ceases, there will be several days' unsettled weather. 

C. L. Prince. 

A summer thunderstorm, which does not much depress the 
barometer, will be very local and of slight consequence. 

C. L. Prince. 

When the barometer rises considerably, and the ground 
becomes dry, although the sky remains overcast, expect fair 
weather for a few days. The reverse may be expected if 
water is observed to stand in shallow places, notwithstanding 
the barometer may read upwards of thirty inches. 

C. L. Prince. 

When the barometer falls considerably without any particular 
change of weather, you may be certain that a violent storm is 
raging at a distance. — C. L. Prince. 



Barometer. 



12" 



During winter, heavy rain is indicated by a decrease of pressure [Barometer. ] 
and an increase of temperature. — C. L. Prince. IVinlcr. 

In winter the rising barometer indicates frost when the wind Indicating 
is east-north-east ; and should the frost and increase of pres- f rost 
sure continue, expect snow. — C. L. Prince. 

The barometer falls lower for high winds than for heavy Rapid fall. 
rains. If the fall amount to one inch in twenty-four hours, 
expect a very severe gale. — C. L. Prince. 

A high and steady barometer is indicative of settled weather. High and 

Jenyns. stmd y- 
In general the barometer falls before rain ; and all appear- Change. 
ances being the same, the higher the barometer, the greater 
the probability of fair weather. — Dalton. 

An excellent summary of the barometer rules, which are too Summary. 
numerous to quote here, was given by G. F. Chambers, 
F.R.A.S., in The Churchman newspaper, February 1868. 

When the barometer is higher at Brest than at Nairn, while it High m 
is of about the same value at Valentia and Yarmouth, being north. 
gradually less from south to north, then the winds over 
Britain are westerly. — R. Strachan. 

When the barometer at Nairn is higher than at Brest, while Equal east 
its readings at Valentia and Yarmouth are about equal, the ancl west - 
winds over Britain are easterly. — R. Strachan. 

When the barometer at Valentia is higher than at Yarmouth, High in west. 
while its readings at Brest and Nairn are about equal, the 
winds over Britain are northerly. — R. Strachan. 

When the barometer at Yarmouth is higher than at Valentia, High in cast. 
while there is equality of pressure at Nairn and Brest, the 
winds over Britain are southerly. — R. Strachan. 

When the barometer readings at Brest, Valentia, Nairn, and Equal 
Yarmouth are nearly equal, then the winds over the British readings. 
Isles are variable in direction and light in force. 

Mr. R. Strachan's Rules. 

When the glass falls low, Wind. 

Prepare for a blow ; 

When it rises high, 

Let all your kites fly. — Nautical. 

First rise after low First rise. 

Foretells stronger blow. 

Long foretold,* long last ; Long notice. 

Short notice, soon past. — Fitzroy. 



By the falling of the mercury. 



124 



Weather Lore. 




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Animals. 



Very high and rising fast, 

Steady rain and sure to last. 

Steady high after low, 

Floods of rain, or hail, or snow. 

Falling fast, 

Fine at last. 

Rapid fall after high, 

Sun at last, and very dry. 
[Satirical rhyme suggested by six weeks of rain, with 

generally high and steady barometer.] 
" Symoxs' Meteorological Magazine," October 1892. 



125 



Barometer 
in Ireland. 

Satirical. 



Ubevinometer. 

If the temperature increases between 9 p.m. and midnight, Thermo- 

when the sky is cloudless, expect rain ; and if during a long m eter. 

and severe frost the temperature increases between midnight Temperature 

and sunrise, expect a thaw. — C. L. Prince. increasing. 

The greater the difference between the lowest temperature of Different 
the air at four feet from the ground, and that of terrestrial levels - 
radiation under a cloudless sky, the less will be the proba- 
bility of the existing state of weather continuing, and vice 
versa. — C. L. Prince. 

"IfoEgrometer. 

The greater the difference between the readings of the wet Hygro- 
and dry-bulb thermometers, the greater will be the probability meter. 
of fine weather, and vice versa. — C. L. Prince. Indications. 



TTelescope. 

If the images of stars or the moon appear ill defined and Telescope. 
surrounded by much atmospheric tremor, expect both wind 
and rain. The greater the tremor, the sooner the change, A "' tremor. 
except when the wind is easterly. — C. L. Prince. 



Hnimals. 

The observations of naturalists, shepherds, herdsmen, and others who 
have been brought much into contact with animals, have proved most 
clearly that these creatures are cognisant of approaching changes in the 
state of the air long before wc know of their coming by other signs. To 
many hinds of animals, birds, and insects, the weather is of so much more 
importance than to us, that it would be wonderful if nature had not 
provided them with a more keenly prophetic instinct in this respect. The 
occurrence of a storm would, doubtless, be the means of depriving so?ne of 



126 



Weather Lore. 



the Carnivora of a meal, and it is known that utter destruction would occur 
to the nests of some birds if the tenants were absent during a gale of wind 
or a felting shower ; while to vast 7iumbers of insects the stale of the 
weather for the fraction of a week may determine the whole time during 
which they can enjoy their little lives. To enable all these creatures to 
prepare for coming trouble, they seem to have been fitted with what is to us 
an unknown sense informing them of minute changes in the atmosphere 
and it has long been observed that they eat with more avidity, return to 
their homes, or become unusually restless before the coming of the danger of 
which they are forewarned. 

This is a subject on which there is still a great deal to be learnt, and [ 
hope naturalists will continue to collect ?iotes on so important a matter. 

When animals seek sheltered places instead of spreading 
over their usual range, an unfavourable change is probable. 



Seeking 

covey. 

Crowding. 

[Dogs.] 

Uneasy. 

Eating 
grass. 

Rolling. 

Sleeping. 

Stretched 
out. 



[Cats,] 
Sneezing. 

Movements. 



Licking. 



Imprisoned. 



Enraged. 



Washing. 



If animals crowd together, rain will follow. 

The unusual howling of dogs portends a storm. 

Dogs making holes in the ground, howling when any one goes 
out, eating grass in the morning, or refusing meat, are said to 
indicate coming rain. — Major Dunwoody. 

When dogs eat grass, it will be rain}'. 

If dogs roll on the ground and scratch, or become drowsy and 
stupid, it is a sign of rain. 

If spaniels sleep more than usual, it foretells wst weather. 

Sign, too, of rain : his outstretched feet the hound 
Extends, and curves his belly to the ground. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

When a cat sneezes, it is a sign of rain. 

Cats are observed to scratch the wall or a post before wind, 
and to wash their faces before a thaw ; they sit with their 
backs to the fire before snow. — Scotland. 

They say here that if a cat licks herself with her face turned 
towards the north, the wind will soon blow from that 
dangerous quarter. — T. Bent (Greece). 

It is an Irish saying that putting the cat under the pot will 
bring bad weather, and this is sometimes done in jest to 
prevent a guest from departing. — Folk-Lore Journal. 

Cats with their tails up and hair apparently electrified 
indicate approaching wind, — or a dog. 

The cardinal point to which a cat turns and washes her 
face after a rain shows the direction from which the wind 
will blow. 



Animals. 12 7 



The old woman promised him a fine day to-morrow because [Animals.] 
the cat's skin looked bright. Cats skin. 

Sailors dislike to see the cat on board ship unusually playful Playful. 
or quarrelsome, and they say the cat has a gale of wind in 
her tail. — Brand. 

When the cat scratches the table legs, a change is coming. Scratching. 

While rain depends, the pensive cat gives o'er Pensive. 

Her frolics, and pursues her tail no more. — Broome. 

When cats wipe their jaws with their feet, it is a sign of rain, Wiping 
and especially when they put their paws over their ears in jaws. 
wiping. 

If horses stretch out their necks and sniff the air, rain will [Horses.] 
ensue. Sniffing. 

Horses sweating in the stable is a sign of rain. Sweating. 

If they start more than ordinary and are restless and uneasy, Restless. 
or if they assemble in the corner of a field with heads to 
leeward, expect rain. 

If young horses do rub their backs against the ground, it is a Rolling. 
sign of great drops of rain to follow. 

Husbandman's Practice. 

Horses and mules, if very lively without apparent cause, Lively. 
indicate cold. 

In the notes to Quentin Dtirward, by Sir Walter Scott, [Asses.] 
there is an anecdote of Louis XL, who, refusing to believe Restless - 
the weather prophecy of a charcoal burner, got soaked with 
rain. When the man was asked how he was able so well to 
predict the weather, he replied that his own donkey was his 
prophet, and on the approach of rain pricked his ears 
forward, walked slowly, and tried to rub himself against 
walls. 

If asses hang their ears downward and forward, and rub Rubbing. 
against walls, rain is approaching. 

If asses bray more frequently than usual, it foreshows rain. Braying. 

Hark ! I hear the asses bray ; 

We shall have some rain to day. — Rutland. 

It is time to stack your hay and corn 
When the old donkey blows his horn. 

When cattle lie down during light rain, it will soon pass. [Cattle.] 

Wiltshire. Lying down. 



128 



Weather Lore. 



[Animals. 
Cattle on 
hills. 
[Cows.] 

Various 
signs. 



In autumn. 



hying down. 
Cow. 



[Bulls.' 
Leading, 



[Oxen.] 
Licking. 
Sniffing. 



Turning 
tail to wind. 



When cattle remain on hilltops, fine weather to come. 

Derbyshire. 
When cows fail their milk, expect stormy and cold weather. 
When cows bellow in the evening, expect snow that night. 
There are other sayings about cows — such as, if they stop 
and shake their feet, or refuse to go to pasture in the morning, 
or when they low and gaze at the sky, or lick their forefeet, 
or lie on the right side, or rub themselves against posts, or lie 
down early in the day, it indicates rain to come. 

Major Dunwoody. 
The cattle also concerning the vapour. — Job xxxvi. 33. 

When autumn's days are nearly passed away, 
And winter hastens to assume his sway, 
Mark if the kine and sheep at eventide 
Toss up their horned heads, with nostril wide 
Imbibe the northern breeze, and furious beat 
The echoing meadows with their cloven feet ; 
For tyrant winter comes with icy hand, 
Heaping his snowy ridges on the land, 
Blasting Pomona's hopes with shrivelling frost, 
While Ceres mourns her golden treasure lost. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

When kine and horses lie with their heads upon the ground, it 
is a sign of rain. 

When a cow tries to scratch its ear, 

It means a shower is very near ; 

When it thumps its ribs with its tail, 

Look out for thunder, lightning, hail. 

New Jersey, U.S. 
If bulls lick their hoofs or kick about, expect much rain. 

If the bull lead the van in going to pasture, rain must be 
expected ; but if he is careless, and allow the cows to precede 
him, the weather will be uncertain. 

If oxen be seen to lie along upon the left side, it is a token of 
fair weather. — Husbandman's Practice. 

When oxen do lick themselves against the hair, it betokeneth 

rain to follow shortly after. — Husbandman's Practice. 

If oxen turn up their nostrils and sniff the air, or if they lick 

their forefeet, or lie on their right side, it will rain. 

" When that white stirk o' ours turns her tail to the wind, 

you're sure to ha'e rain in half an hour." 

Cowboy to " Old Moore," the Almanack Maker. 

He taught us erst the heifer's tail to view ; 

When stuck aloft, that showers would straight ensue. 

Gay. 



Animals. 129 



The herdsmen too, while yet the skies are fair, [Animals.} 

Warned by their bullocks, for the storm prepare — Bullocks. 

When with rough tongue they lick their polished hoof, 
When bellowing loud they seek the sheltering roof, 
When from the yoke at close of day released, 
On his right side recumbs the wearied beast : 
When keenly pluck the goats the oaken bough ; 
And deeply wallows in the mire the sow. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

The goat will utter her peculiar cry before rain. Goats. 

Goats leave the high grounds and seek shelter before a storm. 

Scotland. 

If goats and sheep quit their pastures with reluctance, it will Goats and 
rain the next day. sheep. 

If old sheep turn their backs towards the wind, and remain so [Sheep.] 
for some time, wet and windy weather is coming. 

All shepherds agree in saying that before a storm comes Frisky. 
sheep become frisky, leap, and butt or "box " each other. 

Folk-Lore Journal. 

If sheep gambol and fight, or retire to shelter, it presages a 
change in the weather. 

The shepherd, as afield his charge he drives, 

From his own flock prognostics oft derives. 

When they impetuous seek the grassy plain, 

He marks the advent of some storm or rain ; 

And when grave rams and lambkins full of play 

Butt at each other's heads in mimic fray ; 

When the horned leaders stamp the dusty ground 

With their forefeet — all fours the young ones bound ; 

When homeward, as the shades of night descend, 

Reluctantly and slow their way they wend, Returning 

Stray from the flock, and linger one by one, slowly. 

Heedless of shepherd's voice and missive stone. 

J. Lamb's '• Aratus." 

Old sheep are said to eat greedily before a storm, and Feeding. 
sparingly before a thaw. When they leave the high grounds, 
and bleat much in the evening and during the night, severe 
weather is expected. In winter, when they feed down the 
hill, a snowstorm is looked for ; when they feed up the burn, 
wet weather is near. 



130 



Weather Lore. 



[Animals."] 
Sheep. 



[Pigs.] 
Restless. 



Carrying 
straw. 



Wallowing 

Seeing 
wind. 

Rubbing. 
Wolf. 



Beaver. 

Rats. 
Mice. 



If sheep feed up-hill in the morning, sign of fine weather. 

Derbyshire. 
When sheep turn their backs to the wind, it is a sign of rain. 

Swine are so terrified and disturbed and discomposed when 
the wind is getting up, that countrymen say that this animal 
alone sees the wind, and that it must be frightful to look at. 

Bacon. 

Hogs crying and running unquietly up and down with hay 
or litter in their mouths foreshadows a storm to be near at 
hand. — Thomas Willsford. 

When pigs carry straw to their sties, bad weather may be 
expected. 

Grumphie smells the weather, 

An' grumphie sees the wun' ; 

He kens when clouds will gather, 

An' smoor the blinkin' sun ; 

Wi' his mou' fu' o' strae 

He to his den will gae ; 

Grumphie is a prophet, — 

Wat weather we will hae. — Galloway. 

When pigs carry sticks, 
The clouds will play tricks ; 
When they lie in the mud, 
No fears of a flood. 

Pigs can see the wind. 

Hogs rubbing themselves in winter indicates an approaching 
thaw. — Major Dunwoody. 

When through the dismal night the lone wolf howls, 

Or when at eve around the house he prowls, 

And, grown familiar, seeks to make his bed, 

Careless of man, in some outlying shed, — 

Then mark : ere thrice Aurora shall arise, 

A horrid storm will sweep the blackened skies. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

In early and long winters the beaver cuts his winter supply of 
wood, and prepares his house one month earlier than in mild, 
late winters. — Major Dunwoody. 

If rats are more restless than usual, rain is at hand. 

E'en mice ofttimes prophetic are of rain, 
Nor did our sires their auguries disdain, 
When loudly piping with their voices shrill, 
They frolicked, dancing on the downy hill. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 



Animals. 



131 



If mice run about more than usual, wet weather may be [Animals?^ 
expected. Mice. 

Moles plying their works, in undermining the earth, foreshows [Moles.] 
rain ; but if they do forsake their trenches and creep above Busy. 
ground in summer-time, it is a sign of hot weather ; but when 
on a sudden they do forsake the valleys and low grounds, 
it foreshows a flood near at hand ; but their coming into 
meadows presages fair weather, and for certain no floods. 

Thomas Willsford. 
Previous to the setting in of winter the mole prepares a sort Storing 
of basin, forming it in a bed of clay, which will hold about a f ood - 
quart. In this basin a great quantity of worms is deposited ; 
and, in order to prevent their escape, they are partly mutilated, 
but not so much as to kill them. On these worms the moles 
feed in the winter months. When these basins are few in 
number, the following winter will be mild. 

Gardener's Chronicle. 
[I have asked several mole-catchers in Hampshire (near 
Southampton, where moles are very numerous) whether 
the above was true, and they all answered in the 
affirmative. — C. W. Empson.] 

When the mole throws up fresh earth during a frost, it will Digging. 
thaw in less than forty-eight hours. 

If moles throw up more earth than usual, rain is indicated. 

Hares take to the open country before a snowstorm. Hares. 

Scotland. 

When squirrels lay in a large supply of nuts, expect a cold Squirrels. 
winter; but — 

When he eats them on the tree, 

Weather as warm as warm can be. 

If weasels and stoats are seen running about much in the fore- Weasels, 
noon, it foretells rain in the after-part of the day. — Scotland, stoats, etc. 

[Bats.] 

Numerous. 



It will rain if bats cry much or fly into the house. 

If bats abound and are vivacious, fine weather may be 
expected. 

Observe which way the hedgehog builds her nest, 
To front the north or south, or east or west ; 
For if 'tis true that common people say, 
The wind will blow the quite contrary way. 
If by some secret art the hedgehog knows, 
So long before, which way the winds will blow, 
She has an art which many a person lacks 
That thinks himself fit to make our almanacks. 

Poor Robin's Almanack, 1733. 



[Hedge- 
hogs.] 



132 



Weather Lore. 



[Animals.] 
Hedgehogs. 
Hiding. 



Burrows. 



Hedgehogs conceal themselves in their holes before a change 
of wind from north-east to south. — Pliny. 



As hedgehogs doe foresee ensuing stormes. 

Bodenham's " Belvedere,' 



1600. 



The hedgehog commonly hath two holes or vents in his den 
or cave, the one towards the south and the other towards the 
north ; and look which of them he stops — thence will great 
storms and winds follow. — Husbandman's Practice. 



Birds. 
Departing 



Silent. 
Returning 



Flight. 

Restless. 

[Small 
birds.] 
Washing. 

Summer. 
Arriving. 

[Fowls.] 



Bir&s. 

When numerous birds their island home forsake, 
And to firm land their airy voyage make, 
The ploughman, watching their ill-omened flight, 
Fears for his golden fields a withering blight. 
Not so the goatherd — he their advent hails, 
As certain promise of o'erflowing pails. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

If the birds be silent, expect thunder. 

If birds that dwell in trees return eagerly to their nests, and 
leave their feeding-ground early, it is a sign of storms ; but 
when a heron stands melancholy on the sand, or a raven 
stalks about, it only denotes rain. — Bacon. 

If birds return slowly to their nests, rain will follow. 

Migratory birds fly south from cold, and north from warm 
weather. When a severe cyclone is near, they become 
puzzled and fly in circles, dart in the air, and can be easily 
decoyed. — North Carolina. 

When birds of long flight — rooks, swallows, or others— hang 
about home, and fly up and down or low, rain or wind may 
be expected. 

If small birds seem to duck and wash in the sand, it is held 
to be a sign of coming rain. 

When summer birds take their flight, summer goes with 
them. 

When the fieldfare, redwing, starling, swan, snowfleck, and 
other birds of passage arrive soon from the north, it indicates 
the probability of an early and severe winter. — Scotland. 

If the fowls huddle together outside the henhouse instead of 
going to roost, there will be wet weather. 

Folk-Lore Journal. 



Birds. 



133 



If fowls grub in the dust and clap their wings, or if their [Birds.] 
wings droop, or if they crowd into a house, it indicates rain. Fowls. 

If fowls roll in the sand. Rolling. 

Rain is at hand. 

When they look towards the sky, or roost in the daytime, Restless. 
expect rain ; but if they dress their feathers during a storm, 
it is about to cease ; while their standing on one leg is 
considered a sign of cold weather. When fowls collect 
together, and pick or straighten their feathers, expect a 
change. 

Fowls will run to shelter and stay there if they think the 
weather will clear ; but if they see it is to be wet all day, they 
come out and face it. — United States. 



If the cock moult before the hen, 
We shall have weather thick and thin ; 
But if the hen moult before the cock, 
We shall have weather hard as a block. 

If the cock drink in summer, it will rain a little after. — Italy. 

If cocks crow late and early, clapping their wings unusually, 
rain is expected. 

If the cock goes crowing to bed, 

He'll certainly rise with a watery head. 

If ducks or drakes do shake and flutter their wings when 
they rise, it is a sign of ensuing water. 

Husbandman's Practice. 

When ducks are driving through the burn, 
That night the weather takes a turn. 

Divers and ducks prune their feathers before a wind ; but 
geese seem to call down the rain with their importunate 
cackling. — Bacox. 

If ducks and geese fly backwards and forwards, and con- 
tinually plunge in water and wash themselves incessantly, 
wet weather will ensue. 

If the wild geese gang out to sea, 
Good weather there will surely be. 

Wild geese, wild geese, ganging to the sea, 
Good weather it will be ; 
Wild geese, wild geese, ganging to the hill, 
The weather it will spill.— Morayshire. 

Wild geese moving south indicates approaching cold weather ; 
moving north indicates that most of the winter is over. 

United States. 



Moulting. 



Drinking. 
Crowing. 



[Ducks.] 
Restless. 



Driving. 



[Ducks and 
geese.] 



Uneasy. 



[Geese.] 



Flying sea- 
wards. 

Flying 
inland. 

Flyingsouth. 



1.34 



Weather Lore. 



[Birds.' 
Geese. 



Flying 



When wild geese fly to the south-east in the fall, in Kansas, 
expect a blizzard. — United States. 

Flying directly south and very high indicates a cold winter. 

■ low. When flying low and remaining along the river, they indicate 
a warm winter in Idaho. For spring, just the reverse when 
flying north. — " Old Settler," United States. 



Passing 
lakes. 



Wild geese flying past large bodies of water indicate change 
of weather ; going south, cold ; going north, warm. 

United States. 

Flight. It is said that the flight of wild geese is always either in the 

form of letters or of figures, and that the figures denote the 
number of weeks of frost that would follow their appearance. 

Breast-bone. When the goose-bone, exposed to air, turns blue, it indicates 
rain ; when it retains its colour, expect clear weather. 

The whiteness of a goose's breast-bone is superstitiously 
thought to indicate or foreshow the amount of snow during 
winter. 

If the November goose-bone be thick, 

So will the winter weather be ; 

If the November goose-bone be thin, 

So will the winter weather be. 

[Torkeys.] Turkeys perched on trees and refusing to descend indicates 
snow. 

Flight. Water turkeys flying against the wind indicates falling weather. 

United States. 

[Guinea- This bird, called the " come-back " in Norfolk, is regarded as 
fowl.] an invoker of rain. It often continues clamorous throughout 

the whole of rainy days. — C. Swainson. 

Rain. Guinea-fowls squall more than usual before rain. 

[Swans.] When swans fly, it is a sign of rough weather. 

J. W. G. Gutch. 

Flight. If the swan flies against the wind, it is a certain indication of 

a hurricane within twenty-four hours, generally within twelve. 
Correspondent in the " Athenaeum," Vol. III., p. 229. 

Nest. The swan is said to build its nest high before floods, but low 

when there will not be unusual rains. 

Orkneys. When the white swan visits the Orkneys, expect a continued 

severe winter. — Scotland. 
[Parrots.] Clamorous as a parrot against rain. — Shakespeare. 

Ram - Parrots whistling indicate rain. 



Birds. 135 

It is said that parrots and canaries dress their feathers and □ ', j 
c * , Parrots and 

are vvakeiul the evening before a storm. canaries. 

The feathers of the blue macaw turn a greenish hue before Macaws. 
rain. — Dr. Thornton. 

When the peacock loudly bawls, [Peacocks.] 

Soon we'll have both rain and squalls. 

If peacocks cry in the night, there is rain to fall. dying. 

The strutting peacock yawling 'gainst the rain. — Drayton. Rain. 

When the peacock's distant voice you hear, 

Are you in want of rain ? Rejoice, 'tis almost here. 

Pea-fowl utter loud cries before a storm, and select a low Pea-fowl. 
perch. 

Pigeons wash before rain. — J. W. G. Gutch. [Pigeons.] 

Doves or pigeons coming later home to the dove-house in the Returning. 
evening than ordinary, it is a token of rain. 

Husbandman's Practice. 

If pigeons return home slowly, the weather will be wet. 

If the partridge sings when the rainbow spans the sky, Partridge. 
There is no better sign of wet than when it isn't dry. 

Spanish Rhyme. 

The frequently repeated cry of the ptarmigan low down on Ptarmigans. 
the mountains during frost and snow indicates more snow 
and continued cold. — Scotland. 

An early appearance of the woodcock indicates the approach Woodcocks. 
of a severe winter.— United States. 

The gathering of grouse into large flocks indicates snow. Grouse. 
Their approach to the farmyard is a sign of severe weather — 
frost and snow. When they sit on dykes on the moor, rain 
only is expected. — Scotland. 

When quails are heard in the evening, expect fair weather Quails. 
next day. 

Quails are more abundant during an easterly wind. 

United States. 
The drumming of the snipe in the air, and the call of the Snipe. 
partridge, indicate dry weather and frost at night to the 
shepherds of Garrow. — Scotland. 

Prairie chickens coming into the creeks and timber indicates [Prairie 
cold weather. chickens.] 

When the prairie chicken sits on the ground with all its Cold. 
feathers ruffled, expect cold weather.— United States. 
When rooks seem to drop in their flight, as if pierced by a Rooks. 
shot, it is considered to foretell rain. 



136 



Weather Lore. 



[Birds.] This " tumbling " of rooks is amongst the best-known signs 

Rooks. of rain in places where those birds are found. 

The low flight of rooks indicates rain. If they feed busily, 
and hurry over the ground in one direction, and in a compact 
body, a storm will soon follow. When they sit in rows on 
dykes and palings, wind is looked for. When going home to 
roost, if they fly high, the next day will be fair, and vice versa. 
If when flying high they dart down and wheel about in circles, 
wind is foreshown. In autumn and winter, if after feeding in 
the morning they return to the rookery and hang about it, rain 
is to be expected. — Scotland. 

When rooks fly sporting high in air, 
It shows that windy storms are near. 

If rooks stay at home, or return in the middle of the day, it 
will rain ; if they go far abroad, it will be fine. 

Devonshire. 
Crows. When crows go to the water, if they beat it with their wings, 

throw it over them, and scream, it foreshows storms. — Bacon. 

Thrush. The missel-thrush (in Hampshire called the "storm-cock") 

sings particularly loud and long before rain. 
When the thrush sings at sunset, a fair day will follow. 

Blackbirds. When the voices of blackbirds are unusually shrill, or when 
blackbirds sing much in the morning, rain will follow. 

[Cuckoo.] Bad for the barley, and good for the corn, 

Early. When the cuckoo comes to an empty thorn. 

If the cuckoo sings when the hedge is brown, 
Sell thy horse and buy thy corn. — Welsh. 
[You will not be able to afford horse corn.] 

Late. If the cuckoo sings when the hedge is green, 

Keep thy horse and sell thy corn. 
[It will be so plentiful that you will have enough and to 
spare.] 

Miss Jackson's " Shropshire Folk-Lore." 

Midsummer. If the cuckoo does not cease singing at midsummer, corn will 
be dear. 

Rain. Hesiod mentions the singing of a bird which he calls " kokkux" 

as foreboding three days' rain. — C. Swainson. 

Cuckoos In ancient Greece the young figs and the cuckoos came tc- 

and/igs. gether ; so the same word, "kokkux," served for both. 

Gowk Spring gales about the equinox have been called "gowk 

storms. storms," because they follow the cuckoo. 

Low lands. When the cuckoo is heard in low lands, it indicates rain ; on 
high lands, fair weather. 



Birds. 



137 



In Asia the rose and nightingale were similarly allied. 

When woodpeckers are much heard, rain will follow. 

The call of the ?ieigh-ho (woodpecker) forebodes rain. 

Shropshire. 



[Birds.] 
Nightingale 
and rose. 

[Wood- 
peckers.! 



When the woodpecker leaves, expect a hard winter. When Leaving. 
woodpeckers peck low on the trees, expect warm weather. 

The ivory-billed woodpecker, commencing at the bottom end Pecking 
of a tree, and going to the top, removing all the outer bark, tyees - 
indicates a hard winter, with deep snow. — United States. 

The yaffel, or green woodpecker (called also the "rain-bird "), Crying. 
cries at the approach of rain, and is described as " laughing in 
the sun, because the rain is coming." 

For anglers in spring it is always unlucky to see single Magpies. 
magpies ; but two may always be regarded as a favourable 
omen. And the reason is, that in cold and stormy weather one 
magpie alone leaves the nest in search of food, the other 
remaining sitting with the eggs or the young ones ; but when 
two go out together, it is only when the weather is mild and 
warm, and favourable for fishing. 

Magpies flying three or four together and uttering harsh cries 
predict windy weather. 

When three daws are seen on St. Peter's vane together, Jackdaws. 
Then we're sure to have bad weather. — Norwich. 

Shower-bringing daws 

Shall caw their last. — Tooke's " Lucian." 

The titmouse foretells cold, if crying, " Pincher." Titmouse. 

The saw-like note of the great titmouse foretells rain. 

C. Swainson. 

Ravens, when they croak continuously, denote wind ; but if Ravens. 
the croaking is interrupted or stifled, or at longer intervals, 
they show rain. — Bacon. 

If ravens croak three or four times and flap their wings, fine 
weather is expected. 



The corbie said unto the craw, 
"Johnnie, fling your plaid awa'"; 
The craw says unto the corbie, 
" Johnnie, fling your plaid about ye." 
[In Scotland it is believed that if the raven cries first in 

the morning, it will be a good day ; if the rook, the 

reverse. — C. Swainson.] 



Raven and 
rook. 



138 



Weather Lore. 



\ Birds.] , . , . ,. 

Screech-owl. A screeching owl indicates cold or storm. 

[Owls.] If owls hoot at night, expect fair weather. 

Change. The whooping of an owl was thought by the ancients to 

betoken a change of weather, from fair to wet, or from wet to 
fair. But with us an owl, when it whoops clearly and freely, 
generally shows fair weather, especially in winter. — Bacon. 

Screaming. If owls scream during bad weather, there will be a change. 

Dirt-owl. The dirt-bird (or dirt-owl) sings, and we shall have rain. 

[Robins.] If robins are seen near houses, it is a sign of rain. 

Singing. On a summer evening, though the weather may be in an 

unsettled and rainy state, he (the robin) sometimes takes his 
stand on the topmost twig, or on the housetop, singing cheer- 
fully and sweetly. When this is observed, it is an unerring 
promise of succeeding fine days. Sometimes, though the 
atmosphere is dry and warm, he may be seen melancholy, 
chirping and brooding in a bush, or low in a hedge : this 
promises the reverse of his merry lay and exalted station. 
Anecdotes of the Animal Kingdom, " Saturday 
Magazine," February iith, 1837. 

In morning. Robins indicate the approach of spring. Long and loud sing- 
ing of robins in the morning denotes rain. Robins will perch 
on the topmost branches of trees and whistle when a storm 
is approaching. 



In bushes. 
On bams. 

On ground. 



Starlings, 

etc. 

[Swallows.] 
High flight. 

Low flight. 

Swallows 
and swifts. 

[Martins.] 

Frost. 

Rain. 



If the robin sings in the bush, 

Then the weather will be coarse ; 

If the robin sings on the barn, 

Then the weather will be warm. — East Anglia. 

If a robin sings on a high branch of a tree, it is a sign of fine 
weather ; but if one sings near the ground, the weather will 
be wet. — Oswestry. 

If starlings and crows congregate together in large numbers, 
expect rain. 

When swallows fleet, soar high, and sport in air, 
He told us that the welkin would be clear. — Gay. 

If swallows touch the water as they fly, rain approaches. 

When there are many more swifts than swallows in the spring, 
expect a hot and dry summer. — C. L. Prince. 

When martins appear, winter has broken. 

No killing frost after martins. 

Martins fly low before and during rainy weather. 

Major Dunwoody. 



Birds. 



139 



The plaintive note of the " shilfa " or "sheely " (chaffinch) is [Birds.] 
interpreted as a sign of rain. When, therefore, the boys hear Finches. 
it, they first imitate it, and then rhymingly refer to the expected 
consequences : — 



Weet-weet ! 
Dreep-dreep ! 



Scotland. 



When the finch chirps, rain follows. 
If sparrows chirp a great deal, wet weather will ensue. 

If the hedge-sparrow is heard before the grape-vine is putting 
forth its buds, it is said that a good crop is in store. 

If larks fly high and sing long, expect fine weather. 

Field-larks congregating in flocks indicate severe cold. 

When wrens are seen in winter, expect snow. 

United States. 

A heron, when it soars high, so as sometimes to fly above 

a low cloud, shows wind ; but kites flying high show fair 

weather.— Bacon. 

When the heron or bittern flies low, the air is gross and 

thickening into showers. 

Herons in the evening flying up and down, as if doubtful 

where to rest, presages some evil-approaching weather. 

Thomas Willsford. 

Mark yearly when, among the clouds on high, 
Thou hear'st the shrill crane's migratory cry, 
Of ploughing-time the sign and wintry rains. 

Hesiod's Works, Elton's Translation. 

Their high, aerial flight the cranes suspend, 
And to the earth in broken ranks descend. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus.'' 
[A sign of bad weather.] 
And when the cranes their course unbroken steer, 
Beating with clanging wings the echoing air, 
These hail, prognostics sure of weather fair. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

The prudent husbandman, while autumn lasts, 
His precious seed on the broad furrow casts, 
And fearless marks the marshalled cranes on high, 
Seeking in southern climes a milder sky. 
Not so the idle fanner, who delays, 
And trusts to treacherous winter's shortened days. 
He hears their screams and clanging wings with fear, 
Prognostics sure of frost-bound winter near. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 



Sparrows. 

Hedge- 
sparrow. 

[Larks.] 

Flocks. 

Wrens. 



[Herons.] 
Flight. 



Restless. 



[Cranes.] 
Crying. 



Alighting. 



Flight. 



Autumn. 



Winter. 



140 



Weather Lore. 



Cranes soaring aloft and quietly in the air foreshows fair 
weather ; but if they make much noise, as consulting which 
way to go, it foreshows a storm that's near at hand. 

Thomas Willsford. 

If cranes appear in autumn early, a. severe winter is expected. 

It is said in Wiltshire that the marsh harriers, or dunpickles 
{Circus rufus), alight in great numbers on the downs before 
rain. — C. Swainson. 

When men-of-war hawks fly high, it is a sign of a clear sky ; 
When they fly low, prepare for a blow. 

The peaceful kingfishers are met together 

About the decks, and prophesy calm weather. — Wild. 

When dotterel do fast appear, 

It shows that frost is very near ; 

But when the dotterel do go, 

Then you may look for heavy snow. — Scotland. 

If the fulmar seek land, it is a sign to the inhabitants of 
St. Kilda that the west wind is far off. 

Water-fowl meeting and flocking together, but especially sea. 
gulls and coots flying rapidly to shore from the sea or lakes, 
particularly if they scream, and playing on the dry land, 
foreshow wind ; and this is more certain if they do it in the 
morning. — Bacon. 

[Sea-birds.] If sea-fowl retire to the shore or marshes, a storm approaches. 



[Birds.] 
Cranes. 
Noisy. 



Early. 

Marsh 
harriers. 



Hawks. 



Kingfishers. 



Dottert 



Fnhnar. 



Water-fowl. 



When sea-birds fly out early and far to seaward, moderate 
winds and fair weather may be expected. When they hang 
about the land or over it, sometimes flying inland, expect a 
strong wind with stormy weather. 

Sea-gull, sea-gull, sit on the sand ; 

It's never good weather while you're on the land. 

Scotland. 

Sea-gulls in the field indicate a storm from south-east. 

The arrival of sea-gulls from the Solway Frith to Holywood, 
Dumfriesshire, is generally followed by a high wind and heavy 
rain from the south-west. 

Sea-mews early in the morning making a gaggling more than 
ordinary foretoken stormy and blustering weather. 

Numerous. When sea-mews appear in unwonted numbers, expect rain 
and high south-west winds. 



Flight. 



[Gulls.] 
Sitting on 
land. 



Arrival. 



Noisy. 



Fish, Molluscs, etc. 141 



Petrels gathering under the stern of a ship indicate bad [Birds.] 

weather. Petrels. 

The stormy petrel is found to be a sure token of stormy Stormy 

weather. When these birds gather in numbers in the wake petrel. 
of a ship, the sailors feel sure of an impending tempest. 

In the English Channel the curlew flying on dark nights is Curlew. 
considered as a sure precursor of an east wind. 



jftsb, /l&olluscs, etc. 

Fish. 
Fishes rise more than usual at the approach of a storm. In Rising 
some parts of England they are said not to bite so well before 
rain. 

When fish bite readily and swim near the surface, rain may be Feeding. 
expected : they become inactive just before thunder-showers. 

Fish bite the least 
With wind in the east. 

When porpoises and whales spout about ships at sea, storms Whales. 
may be expected. 

[Note. — The whales are for the purposes of this work 
considered as among the fishes.— R. I.] 

Porpoises are said to swim in the direction from which the [Porpoises.] 
wind is coming : they run into bays and round islands before 
a storm. 

Porpoises in harbour indicate coming storm. In harbour. 

When porpoises swim to windward, foul weather will ensue •^ Wlmmtn g 

. . . . . to zuind- 

within twelve hours. ward. 

Dolphins pursuing one another in calm weather foreshow [Dolphins.] 
wind, and from that part whence they fetch their frisks ; but Playing. 
if they play in rough weather, it is a sign of a coming calm. 

Thomas Willsford. 

Dolphins, as well as porpoises, when they come about a ship 
and sport and gambol on the surface of the water, betoken 
a storm ; hence they are regarded as unlucky omens by 
sailors. 

As dolphins heave their backs above the wave, 
Prognosticating angry tempests black. 

Dante's " Inferno," Canto XXII., Line 19. 

Dolphins sporting in a calm sea are thought to prognosticate 
wind from that quarter whence they come ; but if they play 
in a rough sea, and throw the water about, it will be fine. 
Most other kinds of fish, when they swim at the top of the 
water, or sometimes leap out of it, foretell rain — Bacon. 



142 



Weather Lore. 



[Fish.] If dolphins are seen to leap and toss, fine weather may be 

Dolphins. expected, and the wind will blow from the quarter in which 
they are seen. 

Sharks. Sharks go out to sea at the approach of a cold wave. 

[Cat-fish.] Fish swim up stream and cat-fish jump out of the water 
before rain. 



Skin. 



[Cod-fish.] 
Ballast. 



If the skin on the belly of the cat-fish is unusually thick, it 
indicates a cold winter ; if not, a mild winter will follow. 

Negro. 

The cod is said to take in ballast before a storm. It is said 
by Sergeant McGillivray, Signal Corps, U.S.A., that there is 
one well-authenticated instance of this saying. A number of 
cod were taken twelve hours before a severe gale, and it was 
found that each had swallowed a number of small stones, 
some of the stones weighing three or four ounces. 

[Salmon When salmon and trout are plentiful in the river (Columbia), 

and trout.] it i s a sign that there has been abundance of rain in the 
Plentiful. surrounding country. 

Not biting. When trout refuse bait or fly, 

There ever is a storm a-nigh. 

Bass. On Lake Ontario black bass leave shoal water before a 

thunderstorm. This has been observed twenty-four hours 
before the storm. 

Eels. If eels are very lively, it is a sign of rain. 

Mullet. Mullet run south on the approach of cold northerly wind and 



Pike. 

Black-fish. 
Loach. 



Cockles. 
Cuttle-fish. 

Clam. 

Sea- 
anemone. 



When pike lie on the bed of a stream quietly, expect rain or 
wind. 

Black-fish in schools indicate an approaching gale. 

The loach is said to be restless before stormy weather. The 
lake loach of the Continent (Colitis fossilis) remains at rest 
in the mud in calm weather ; but when a storm approaches, 
it rises to the surface and moves about uneasily. 

J. W. G. Gutch. 

Cockles, it is said, have more gravel sticking to their shells 
before a tempest. — Thomas Willsford. 

Cuttle-fish swimming on the surface portend a storm. 

Thomas Willsford. 

Air bubbles over the clam-beds indicate rain. 

The sea-anemone closes before rain, and opens for fine, clear 
weather.— J. W. G. Gutch. 



THE LEECH BAROMETER 



> 




I 





FROM AN OLD SPANISH DRAWING. 



RkhoRdUvVARDS 



See page 143. 



Fish, Molluscs, etc. 143 



Sea-urchins striving to thrust themselves into the mud, or to [Sea- 
cover their bodies with sand, foreshow a storm. urchin or 

Thomas Willsford. echinus.j 

The echinus is said to sink to the bottom of the sea and fasten Sinking. 
itself firmly to sea-weeds, etc., before a storm. — E. Darwin. 

The ordinary medicinal leech has been long regarded as a [Leeches.] 
weather prophet, and I met with an old Spanish drawing 
[see Plate 2] in Seville, giving nine positions of the leech, Plate 2. 
with nine verses describing his behaviour under various 
weather conditions. On the top of the drawing was the in- 
scription, Dios sobre todo (God above all). The verses were 
to the following effect (the numbers refer to those on the 
drawing) : — 

1. If the leech take up a position in the bottle's neck, rain Stationary. 
is at hand. 

2. If he form a half-moon, when he is out of the water and Curled up. 
sticking to the glass, sure sign of a tempest. 

3. If he is in continual movement, thunder and lightning Restless. 
soon. 

4. If he seem as if trying to raise himself from the surface 
of the water, a change in the weather. 

5. If he move slowly close to one spot, cold weather. Sluggish. 

6. If he move rapidly about, expect strong wind when he Agitated. 
stops. 

7. If he lie coiled up on the bottom, fine, clear weather. Coiled. 

8. If forming a hook, clear and cold weather. 

9. If in a fixed position, very cold weather is certain to Fixed. 
follow. 

Dr. Merry weather, of Whitby, has gone the length of contriving Tempest 

an apparatus by which one at least of twelve leeches confined prognostica- 

in bottles of water rang a little bell when a tempest was 

expected. He showed this at the Great Exhibition of 1851, 

and advised the Government to establish leech-warning 

stations along the coast. Nothing came of it, except his 

book, An Essay Explanatory of the Tempest Prognosticator 

(London: 185 1). 

The leeches remain at the bottom during absolutely fine and Leeches in a 

calm wet weather. When a change in the former is approach- b boUle J 

ing, they move steadily upwards many hours, even twenty-four, 

or rather more, in advance. If a storm is rapidly approaching, 

the leeches become very restless, rising quickly ; while previous 

to a thunderstorm they are invariably much disturbed, and 

remain out of the water. When the change occurs and is 

passing over, they are quiet, and descend again. If under 

these circumstances they rise and continue above water, 

length or violence of storm is indicated. If they rise during 



144 



Weather Lore. 



Leeches in a 
glass jar or 
bottle. 



[Snails." 
Rain. 



Earth- 
worms. 

[Glow- 
worms.] 
Damp. 
Rain. 



Dry. 



a continuance of east wind, strong winds rather than rain are 
to be looked for. When a storm comes direct from a distance, 
observe the rapid rising alluded to above, but much less 
notice is given, four to six hours. When heavy rains or 
strong winds are approaching, the leeches are restless, but 
their movements are less rapid, and they often remain half 
out of the water and quiet. — Elizabeth Woollams. 

A leech confined in a bottle of water is always agitated when 
a change of weather is about to take place. Before high 
winds it moves about with much celerity. Previous to slight 
rain or snow it creeps to the top of the bottle, but soon sinks ; 
but if the rain or wind is likely to be of long duration, the 
leech remains a longer time at the surface. If thunder 
approaches, the leech starts about in an agitated and con- 
vulsive manner. 

When black snails cross your path, 
Black cloud much moisture hath. 

Snailie, snailie, shoot out your horn, 

And tell us if it will be a bonnie day the morn. 

If snails and slugs come out abundantly, it is a sign of rain. 

When black snails on the road you see, 
Then on the morrow rain will be. 

If many earth-worms appear, it presages rain. 

When the glow-worm lights her lamp, 
The air is always damp. 

Before rain 
Glow-worms numerous, clear, and bright 
Illume the dewy hills at night. — United States. 

If glow-worms shine much, it will rain. 

When the glow-worm glows, dry, hot weather follows. 

United States. 



Serpent 
worship 
and 
rain. 



Snakes. 



"IRepttles, etc. 

Mr. Fergusson, in his Tree and Serpent Worship, states that 
" the chief characteristic of the serpents throughout the East 
in all ages seems to have been their power over the wind and 
rain, which they gave or withheld, according to their good or 
ill will towards man.'' 

Hanging a dead snake on a tree will produce rain in a few 
hours. — Negro. 

[Note. — Snakes are out before rain, and are therefore more 
easily killed. — Major Dunwoody.] 



Reptiles, etc. 145 



In Oregon the approach of snakes indicates that a spell of [Snakes.] 
fine weather will follow. 

When snakes are hunting food, rain may be expected ; after Hunting 
a rain they cannot be found. food. 

Snake-trails may be seen near houses before rain. Trails. 

Rain is foretold by the appearance and activity of snakes. Rain. 

When small water-snakes leave the sand in low, damp lands, Water- 
hosts may be expected in three days. — Apache Indians. snakes. 

Croaking frogs in spring will be three times frozen in. [Frogs.] 

C YO CI k I M f 

When frogs warble, they herald rain. — ZuSi Indians. 
The louder the frog, the more the rain. 
When frogs croak much, it is a sign of rain. 

Yellow frogs are accounted a good sign in a hay-field, pro- Yellow. 
bably as indicating fine weather. 

If frogs make a noise in the time of cold rain, warm, dry Noisy. 
weather will follow. 

If frogs, instead of yellow, appear russet green, it will pre- Colour. 

sently rain. 

Mr. Stroh informs me it was common to see in Germany and Green frog. 

Switzerland a small green frog kept in a glass vessel half 

full of water, with a set of wooden steps leading down into 

the water; and the weather was supposed to be indicated by 

the position of the frog. If he remained in the water, fine 

weather was expected ; if he emerged and sa upon the steps, 

rain and cold were indicated. 

When frogs spawn in the middle of the water, it is a sign of Spawning. 
drought ; and when at the side, it foretells a wet summer. 

Scotland. 
Tree-frogs piping during rain indicate a continuance. Tree-frogs. 

Tree-frogs crawl up to the branches of trees before a change Change. 
of weather. 

The green tree-frog becomes very unquiet before rain. Rain. 

Tortoises creep deep into the ground, so as to completely Tortoises. 

conceal themselves from view, when a severe winter is to 

follow. 

A salamander, kept in a bottle in the south of Spain, changed Salamander 

his position every day, and took up the most uncouth and 

extraordinary attitudes before a storm 

Almost any of the reptiles which pass the winter in a semi- Reptiles. 

dormant condition show signs by their attitude when any 

marked weather change ensues. 

If toads come out of their holes in great numbers, rain will Toads. 

fall soon. 



146 



Weather Lore. 



Insects. 

[Bees.] 
Returning. 

Early. 
Swarm. 

Flight. 



Rain. 
Fine. 
At home. 



Jnsects. 

The early appearance of insects indicates an early spring and 
good crops. — Apache Indians. 

When many bees enter the hive and none leave it, rain is 
near. — Scotland. 

Bees early at work will not go on all day. 
Bees will not swarm 
Before a near storm. 
When bees to distance wing their flight, 
Days are warm and skies are bright ; 
But when their flight ends near their home, 
Stormy weather is sure to come. 
If bees stay at home, 
Rain will soon come ; 
If they fly away, 
Fine will be the day. 
When charged with stormy matter lower the skies, 
The busy bee at home her labour plies ; 
Nor seeks the distant field and honeyed flower, 
Returning laden'd with her golden store. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 
A bee was never caught in a shower. 

Ants withdraw into their nests and busy themselves with their 
eggs before a storm. — Thomas Willsford. 

Ants sometimes get down fifteen inches from the surface before 
very hot weather. — Communicated by G. W. D. Hannay. 
If ants their walls do frequent build, 
Rain will from the clouds be spilled. 
When ants are situated in low ground, their migration may 
be taken as an indication of approaching heavy rains. 

Expect stormy weather when ants travel in lines, and fair 
weather when they scatter. 

If in the beginning of July the ants are enlarging and building 
up their piles, an early and cold winter will follow. 

An open ant-hole indicates clear weather; a closed one, an 
approaching storm. 

If ants are more than ordinarily active, or if they remove their 
eggs from small hills, it will surely rain. 

Wasps building nests in exposed places indicate a dry 

season. 

Wasps in great numbers and busy indicate warm weather. 

Hornets build nests high before warm summers, and low 
before cold and early winters. 



[Ants.] 
Retiring. 



Building. 
Migration. 

Travelling. 

Fiily. 

Ant-kills 
open and 
closed. 

Active. 
XVasps. 



Hornets. 



Insects. 147 

When bounteous autumn crowns the circling year, Hornets. 

And fields and groves his russet livery wear, 

If from the earth the numerous hornets rise, 

Sweeping a living whirlwind through the skies, 

Then close on autumn's steps will winter stern 

With blustering winds and chilling rains return. 

Pity the wretch who shelterless remains, 

And the keen blast, half fed, half clad, sustains. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

Spiders work hard and spin their webs a little before wind, as [Spiders.] 
if desiring to anticipate it, for they cannot spin when the wind Busy. 
begins to blow. — Bacon. 

Before rain or wind spiders fix their frame-lines unusually Rain. 
short. If they make them very long, the weather will usually 
be fine for fourteen days. 

If the spiders are totally indolent, rain generally soon follows. Indolent. 
Their activity during rain is a certain proof of its short dura- 
tion. If they mend their webs between 6 and 7 p.m., it is a 
sign of a serene night. — J. W. G. Gutch. 

Spiders generally change their webs once in every twenty-four Changing 
hours. If they make the change between 6 and 7 p.m., expect webs - 
a fair night. If they change their web in the morning, a fine 
day may be expected. 

Spiders, when they are seen crawling on the walls more than On walls. 
usually, indicate that rain will probably ensue. This prognostic 
seldom fails, particularly in winter. 

If spiders break off and remove their webs, the weather will Removing. 
be wet. 

If spiders make new webs, and ants build new hills, the Renewing 
weather will be clear. webs. 

If the spider works during rain, it is an indication that the Working. 
weather will soon be clear. 

When the spider cleans its web, fair weather is indicated. Cleaning. 

Spiders creep out of their holes against wind and rain, Creeping out 
Minerva having made them sensible of an approaching storm. 

Thomas Willsford. 

If spiders in spinning their webs make the terminating fila- Mode of 

ments long, we may, in proportion to their lengths, expect working. 
rain. 

When spiders' webs in air do fly, Spiders' 

The spell will soon be very dry. webs - 



148 



Weather Lore. 



Spiders' 

webs. 

Dewy. 

Long. 



Garden 
spiders. 



Gossamer. 

Scorpions. 
Tarantulas. 

Woodlice. 

Harvest 

flies. 

[House 
flies.] 



Spiders' webs scattered thickly over a field covered with dew 
glistening in the morning sun indicate rain. 

Long, single, separate spiders' webs on grass indicate frost 

next night. — Ireland. 

Spiders' webs floating at autumn sunset 
Bring a night frost — this you may bet. 

United States. 

If garden spiders forsake their cobwebs, rain is at hand. 

If the garden spiders break and destroy their webs and creep 
away, expect continued rain. 

Spiders in motion indicate rain. 

When you see gossamer flying, 

Be sure the air is drying. 
When scorpions crawl, expect dry weather. 

When tarantulas crawl by day, rain will surely come. 

California. 
If woodlice run about in great numbers, expect rain. 

When harvest flies hum, 

Warm weather to come. 



house. 
Rhyme. 

Clinging. 
Seasons. 



Stinging. 
Fall bugs. 
Fleas. 

Butterflies 



House flies coming into the house in great numbers indicate 
rain. 

A fly on your nose, you slap, and it goes ; 

If it comes back again, it will bring a good rain. 
If flies cling much to the ceilings, or disappear, rain may be 
expected. 

If flies in the spring or summer grow busier or blinder than at 
other times, or are seen to shroud themselves in warm places, 
expect either hail, cold storms of rain, or much wet weather. 

If in autumn the flies repair unto their winter quarters, it 
presages frosty mornings, cold storms, and the approach of 
winter. Atoms or small flies swarming together and sporting 
in the sunbeams give omen of fair weather. 

Thomas Willsford. 
If flies sting and are more troublesome than usual, a change 
approaches. 

Fall bugs begin to chirp six weeks before a frost in the fall. 

United States. 

When fleas do very many grow 

Then 'twill surely rain or snow. 

When eager bites the thirsty flea, 

Clouds and rain you sure shall see. 
The early appearance of butterflies is said to indicate fine 
weather. 



Insects. 149 

When the white butterfly flies from the south-west, expect Butterflies. 

rain. 

When the butterfly comes, comes also the summer. 

Zuni Indians. 

When the chrysalides are found suspended from the under Chrysalides. 
side of rails, branches, etc., as if to protect them from rain, 
expect much rain. If they are found on slender branches, 
fair weather will last some time. — Western Pennsylvania. 
Fireflies in great numbers indicate fair weather. Fireflies. 

If little flies or gnats be seen to hover together about the [Gnats,] 
beams of the sun before it set, and fly together, making, as it I" evening. 
were, the form of a pillar, it is a sure token of fair weather. 

Husbandman's Practice. 

If gnats play up and down, it is a sign of heat ; but if in Sporting. 

the shade, it presages mild showers. If they collect in the 

evening before sunset, and form a vortex or column, fine 

weather will follow ; while if they sting much, it is held to 

be an unfailing indication of rain. 

Gnats in October are a sign of long fair weather. I" October. 

Many gnats in spring indicate that the autumn will be warm. Numerous. 

If gnats fly in large numbers, the weather will be fine. 

If gnats bite sharper than usual, expect rain. Biting. 

If gnats fly in compact bodies in the beams of the setting sun, Swarming. 

expect fine weather. 

When locusts are heard, dry weather will follow, and frost Locusts. 

will occur in six weeks. — United States. 

When crickets chirp unusually, wet is expected. Crickets. 

It is easy to foretell what sort of summer it will be by the Larva of 

position in which the larva of Cicada (Aphrophora spumarid) Ucada - 

is found to lie in the froth (cuckoo spit) in which it is 

enveloped. If the insect lie with its head upwards, it 

infallibly denotes a dry summer ; if downwards, a wet one. 

Before rain beetles and crickets are more troublesome than Beetles and 

, crickets. 

usual. 

The clock beetle, which flies about in the summer evenings Clock beetle. 

in a circular direction, with a loud, buzzing noise, is said to 

foretell a fine day. It was consecrated by the Egyptians to 

the sun.— C. Swainson. 

If the clock beetle flies circularly and buzzes, it is a sign of 

fine weather. 

A certain long-bodied beetle is called in Bedfordshire the R a h, beetle. 

" rain beetle," on account of its always appearing before rain. 

When little black insects appear on the snow, expect a thaw. Black insects 



150 



Weather Lore. 



UMants, etc. 

The vegetable world has not escaped the notice of the weather prophets, 
and many plants have been observed to give indications of stormy weather 
long before it actually takes place. The closing, for instance, of the pink- 
eyed pimpernel, or ploughman's weather glass, is better understood among 
the Bedfordshire labourers than the indications of any instrument, and has 
to them the great advantage of being in the fields where they work, of being 
easily understood, and of costing nothing. From the blossoming and 
fruition of certain plants a rough code of rules has also been laid down as 
to the coming harvest, the time for sowing, and the severity or mildness 
of the seasons. These will be found mentioned in their proper places. 



Trees. 

[Leaves.] 

Rattling. 

Turning. 

Curling. 
Falling. 



Remaining. 



Flying. 



[Flowers.] 



Early. 

Date of 

plants 

flowering 



Dead 
branches. 



[Oak and 

ASH.] 



Trees snapping and cracking in the autumn indicate dry 
weather. 

When dry leaves rattle on the trees, expect snow. 

When the leaves show their under sides, 
Be very sure that rain betides. 

When the leaves of trees curl with the wind from the south, 
it indicates rain. 

The leaves of trees fall sooner on the south side ; but vine 
shoots burst out on that side, and have scarce any other 
aspect. — Pliny. 

If on the trees the leaves still hold, 
The coming winter will be cold. 

Leaves and straws playing in the air when no breeze is felt, 
the down of plants flying about, and feathers floating and 
playing on the water, show that winds are at hand. — Bacon. 

The odour of flowers is more apparent just before a shower 
(when the air is moist) than at any other time. 

Early blossoms indicate a bad fruit year. 

Miss Ormerod, F.R.Met.Soc, has noticed that bulbous and 
surface-rooted plants have wider differences as to the date 
of first flowering than the deeper-rooted plants. This is on 
account of the deep-rooted plants being slower to acquire the 
temperature of the air. 

Dead branches falling in calm weather indicate rain. 

Plenty of berries indicates a severe winter. 

When the oak comes out before the ash, there will be fine 
weather in harvest ; but when the ash comes out before the 
oak, the harvest will be wet. — Midland Counties. 



Plants, etc. 151 



When the ash is out before the oak, [Oak and 

Then we may expect a choke [drought] ; ash.\ 

When the oak is out before the ash, Budding. 

Then we may expect a splash [rain]. 

Shropshire. 
If the oak's before the ash, 
Then you'll only get a splash ; 
But if the ash precedes the oak, 
Then you may expect a soak. 

When buds the oak before the ash, 
You'll only have a summer splash. 

The ash before the oak, 
Choke, choke, choke ; 
The oak before the ash, 
Splash, splash, splash. 

[Contradicting the former.] 

If buds the ash before the oak, 
You'll surely have a summer soak ; 
But if behind the oak the ash is, 
You'll only have a few light splashes. 

Mr. Douglas, of Babworth, says that the oak is always in leaf 
before the ash, if the subsoil is in a moist state. 

[A correspondent to Notes and Queries, June 2ist, 1873, 

says he never knew the ash to come into leaf before 

the oak.] 

If the ash is out before the oak, 
You may expect a thorough soak ; 
If the oak is out before the ash, 
You'll hardly get a single splash. 

Oak, smoke [summer hot]. 
Ash, squash [summer wet]. 

If the oak is out before the ash, 
Twill be a summer of wet and splash ; 
But if the ash is before the oak, 
'Twill be a summer of fire and smoke. 

Hampshire. 

The oak gall is examined by the Spanish peasants when the [Oak. 
wheat is in ear. If they find a maggot, they say the harvest Gall. 
will be good ; if an insect already hatched, the contrary. 
You must look for grass on the top of an oak tree. Budding. 

[i.e., the grass seldom springs well till the oak comes out. 
If the oak bear much mast [acorns], it foreshows a long and Fruitful. 
hard winter. — Worledge. 



152 



Weather Lore. 



[Oak.J 
Oak apples. 

Ash. 

Beech and 
oak. 

Beech nuts. 

Elm leaves 
and barley 
sowing. 



Elm leaves 
and kidney 
beans. 



Silver maple. 



Sugar 
maple. 

Pine. 



Mulberry. 



Almondtrce. 



Sloe tree. 

Cottonwood 
and quaking 
asp. 



When the oak puts on his gosling grey, 
'Tis time to sow barley, night or day. 

There is a superstition about examining the oak apples on 
September 29th, and auguries are inferred from their condition. 
See Husbandman's Practice ; or, Prognostication For Ever. 
Quoted by C. Swainson in "Weather Folk-Lore." 

Black as ash buds in the front of March. — Tennyson. 

When beech mast thrives well, and oak trees hang full, a hard 
winter will follow, with much snow. 

When beech nuts are plentiful, expect a mild winter. 

When the elmen leaf is as big as a mouse's ear, 
Then to sow barley never fear. 
When the elmen leaf is as big as an ox's eye, 
Then says I, " Hie, boys ! hie ! " 

"Field," April 28th, 1866. 

When elm leaves are as big as a shilling, 
Plant kidney beans, if to plant 'em you're willing ; 
When elm leaves are as big as a penny, 
You must plant kidney beans, if you mean to have any. 

Worcestershire. 

The silver maple shows the lining of its leaf before a storm. 

United States. 

When the leaves of the sugar maple tree are turned upside- 
down, expect rain. — United States. 

Pine cones hung up in the house will close themselves against 
wet and cold weather, and open against hot and dry times. 

Thomas Willsford. 

When the mulberry has shown green leaf, there will be no 
more frost. — Gloucestershire. 

When the mulberry buds and puts forth its leaves, fear no 
frosts or bad weather. — Pliny. 

Mark well the flowering almonds in the wood : 
If odorous blooms the bearing branches load, 
The glebe will answer to the sylvan reign, 
Great heats will follow, and large crops of grain ; 
But if a wood of leaves o'ershades the tree, 
Such and so barren will the harvest be. 

Virgil's " Georgics." 

When the sloe tree is white as a sheet, 
Sow your barley, whether it be dry or wet. 

Cottonwood and quaking asp trees turn up their leaves before 
rain. — United States. 



Plants, etc. 153 



Trembling of aspen leaves in calm weather indicates an Aspen 
approaching storm. — United States. leaves. 

Before rain the leaves of the lime, sycamore, plane, and poplar Leaves. 
trees show a great deal more of their under surfaces when 
trembling in the wind. 
[A'ofe — This is because the damp air softens the leat stalks.] 

When the blooms of the dogwood tree are full, expect a cold Dogwood 
winter ; when the blooms of the same are light, expect a warm blossoms. 
winter. 

Frost will not occur after the dogwood blossoms. 

United States. 

You may shear your sheep Elder 

When the elder blossoms peep. blossom. 

Witches were thought to produce bad weather by stirring Elder bush. 
water with branches of elder. 

When cockle burs mature brown, it indicates frost. Cockle burs. 

United States. 

Its always cold when the hawthorn blossoms. Hawthorn. 

Harvest follows in thirteen weeks after the milk-white thorn Thorn. 
scents the air. — Scotch. 

If many whitethorn blossoms or dog-roses are seen, expect a Whitethorns 

severe winter. roses. 

When the bramble blossoms early in June, an early harvest is Bramble. 
expected. — Scotland. 

Dead nettles in abundance late in the year are a sign of a mild Dead nettle. 
winter. — United States. 

Just before rain or heavy dew the wild indigo closes or folds Wild indigo. 

its leaves. — United States. 

Corn (Indian) fodder dry and crisp indicates fair weather; Corn fodder 

but damp and limp, rain. It is very sensitive to hygrometric 

changes. 

Ears of corn (Indian) are said to be covered with thicker and Com husks. 

stronger husks before hard winters. 

If corn (maize) is hard to husk, expect a hard winter. 

Apache Indians. 

Make hay while the sun shines. Hay. 

A double husk on corn (maize) indicates a severe winter. 

Corn in good years is hay ; in ill years straw is corn. Com and 

T. Fuller. ha J- 



Sow wheat in dirt, and rye in dust. 



Wheat and 
rye. 



154 



Weather Lore. 



Wildcat. 



Hay and 
buckwheat. 

[Beans.] 
Sowing. 



Whitlow 
grass. 

Sensitive 
plants. 

Abrus pre- 
catorius. 



Daffodns. 

[Dande- 
lions.] 

Down. 
Closing. 

Blooming. 
Wood sorrel. 
Trefoil. 



Wood 
anemone 
and 
swallows. 



A beard of wild oat, with its adhering capsule, fixed on a 
stand, serves the purpose of a hygrometer, twisting itself more 
or less, according to the moisture of the air. — E. Darwin. 

If the hay is black (with wet), the buckwheat will be white 
(with blossom). — Russia. 

Plant garden beans when the sign is in the scales ; they will 
hang full. 

Sow beans in the mud, 

And they'll grow like a wood. 

Plant the bean when the moon is light ; 
Plant potatoes when the moon is dark. 

We may look for wet weather if the leaves of the whitlow 
grass (Draba verna) droop, and if lady's bedstraw {Galium 
vertim) becomes inflated and gives out a strong odour. 

Sensitive plants contract their leaves at the approach of rain. 

The so-called " weather plant" is said by some to foretell the 
weather for an enormous area by the behaviour of its leaves, 
which when horizontal indicate change : if they slope up- 
wards, fine weather ; but if they droop, bad weather is to be 
expected. 

Daffodils 
That come before the swallow dares, and take 
The winds of March with beauty. — Shakespeare. 

When the down of the dandelion contracts, it is a sign of 
rain. 

If the down flyeth off colt's-foot, dandelyon, and thistles, 
when there is no winde, it is a signe of rain. — Coles. 

The dandelions close their blossoms before a storm ; the 
sensitive plant its leaves. The leaves of the may tree bear 
up, so that the under side may be seen before a storm. 

When the dandelions bloom early in spring, there will be a 
short season. When they bloom late, expect a dry summer. 

A species of wood sorrel contracts its leaves at the approach 
of rain. 

The stalk of trefoil swells before rain. — Bacon. 

Pliny mentions it as a fact that trefoil bristles and erects its 
leaves against a storm. — Bacon. 

In Sweden the wood anemone begins to blow on the arrival 
of the swallow. — Linnjeus. 

The yellow wood anemone and the wind flower (Anemone 
nemorosd) close their petals and droop before rain. 



Plants, etc. 155 



The wood anemone never opens its petals but when the wind Wood 
blows, whence its name. anemone. 

Clover contracts its leaves at the approach of a storm. [Clover.] 

When clover grass looks rough, and its leaves stand staring Rough. 
up, it is a sign of a tempest. — Pliny. 

Clover grass is rough to the touch when stormy weather is at 
hand. 

When the onion's skin is thin and delicate, expect a mild [Onions.] 
winter ; but when the bulb is covered by a thick coat, it is Skin. 
held to foreshow a severe season. 

Onion's skin very thin, 
Mild winter coming in ; 
Onion's skin thick and tough, 
Coming winter cold and rough. 

Gardener's Rhyme. 

Mony haws, Hedge fruit. 

Mony snaws ; 

Mony slaes, 

Mony cold taes. — Scotland. 

Mony hips and haws, 

Mony frosts and snaws. — Scotland. 

The broom having plenty of blossoms is a sign of a fruitful Broom. 
year of com. — Thomas Willsford. 

It was anciently supposed that the burning of fern drew down Fern. 

the rain. 

Mony rains, mony rowans ; * Mountain 

Mony rowans, mony yawns.f — Scotland. ash. 

Chickweed expands it leaves boldly and fully when fine [Chick- 
weather is to follow ; but if it should shut up, then the weed.] 
traveller is to put on his great coat. Expanding. 

The half opening of the flowers of the chickweed is a sign Halfopeu- 
that the wet will not last long. '"£■ 

If the flowers keep open all night, the weather will be wet Night. 
next day. 

The non-closing of the flower-heads of the sow-thistle warns Siberian 
us that it will rain next day, whilst the closing of them sow-thistle. 
denotes fine weather. 

The convolvulus folds up its petals at the approach of rain. Convolvulus. 



* Rowans are the fruit of the mountain ash. 

f Yawns are light grains of wheat, oats, or barley. 



156 



Weather Lore. 



African 
marigold. 



Cape 
marigold. 



Marsh 

mari± 

and 

cuckoo. 

Marigold. 



Seaweed. 

Pink-eyea 

pimpernel. 



Teasel. 
Flowers. 

Cowslip. 

Gentian. 
Burnet. 
Toadstools. 
Thistles. 



If this plant do not open its petals by seven in the morning, 
it will rain or thunder that day. It also closes before a 
storm. 

If the small Cape marigold (Calendula pluvialis) should open 
at six or seven in the morning, and not close till four in the 
afternoon, we may reckon on settled weather. 

The marsh marigold blows when the cuckoo sings. 

Stillingfleet in England; Linnaeus in Sweden. 

The marigold that goes to bed with the sun, 
And with him rises, weeping. — Shakespeare. 

A piece of kelp or seaweed hung up will become damp 
previous to rain. 

When this flower closes in the daytime, it is a sign of rain.* 

Pimpernel, pimpernel, tell me true 
Whether the weather be fine or no ; 
No heart can think, no tongue can tell 
The virtues of the pimpernel. 

"Folk-Lore Journal," 1889. 

Now, look ! Our weather glass is spread — 

The pimpernel, whose flower 
Closes its leaves of spotted red 

Against a rainy hour. — Professor Wilson. 

Teasel or Fuller's thistle hung up will open for fine weather, 
and close for wet. — Thomas Willsford. 

The bladder-ketmir, the stemless ground thistle, the marsh 
marigold, the creeping crowfoot, the wood sorrel, foreshow 
the weather in various ways — viz., when the flowers of the 
first do not open, when the second closes its calyx, and when 
the rest fold their leaves. — Mr. Hanneman, of Proskau. 

The cowslip stalks being short are said to foreshow a dry 
summer. 

The gentian (Gentiana fineumonanthe) closes up both flowers 
and leaves before rain. 

The burnet saxifrage (Pimfinella saxifragd) indicates by 
half opening its flowers that the rain is soon to cease. 

If toadstools spring up in the night in dry weather, they 
indicate rain. 

Cut 'em in June, they'll come again soon ; 

Cut 'em in July, they may die ; 

Cut 'em in August, die they must. — Shropshire. 



This flower is known as the ploughman's weather glass. 



Various. 157 



Not signless by the husbandmen are seen Ilex and 

The Ilex and Lentiscus darkly green. Lentiscus. 

If an abundant crop the Ilex bear, 
With blighting matter teems the vapoury air ; 
If with unusual weight its branches groan, 
Then their light sheaves the hapless farmers moan. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

Thrice in the course of each revolving year 

On the Lentiscus flowers and fruit appear ; Lentiscus. 

And three convenient times to farmers show 

To break the fertile clod with crooked plough. 

If at each time this tree with fruit abound, 

Each time with stores will teem the fruitful ground. 

And like prognostic yields the humble squill, Squill. 

Thrice flowering yearly by the purple rill. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

The indications of plants as to the times for sheep shearing, Various 
harvest, etc., will be found under the head of "Times and pl<* nts - 
Seasons." 

Datfous. 

Bacon tried an experiment, and found that four ounces of [Wool.] 
wool let down a well, yet not so as to touch the water, Damp ex- 
increased to five ounces and one dram in weight during one permtent. 
night (by the moisture). 
[Note. — Vitruvius, the architect, mentions a similar experi- 
ment made in a small pit, in order to see whether it 
was a good place to sink further for water.] 

A fleece of wool by lying long on the ground gains weight, Collecting 

which could not be unless something pneumatic were con- f resh water 

densed into something ponderable. In ancient times sailors 

used to cover the sides of ships at night with fleeces of wool 

like coverlets or curtains, but not so as to touch the water ; 

and in the morning they would squeeze out of them fresh 

water for use on the voyage. — Bacon. 

When rheumatic people complain of more than ordinary pains Rkcumatisn 
in the joints, it will rain. 

As old sinners have all points 

O' th' compass in their bones and joints — 

Can by their pangs and aches find 

All turns and changes of the wind, 

And better than by Napier's bones * 

Feel in their own the age of moons. — Butler. 



Certain engraved slips invented by Napier to facilitate calculations. 



158 



Weather Lore. 



Muscce 
volitantes. 

Stomach. 



Scalp locks. 



Dreams. 



Corns, 

wounds, and 
sores. 
Corns. 



Ears. 



Appetite. 

Cream and 
milk. 

Supersti- 
tions. 

Chairs and 
tables. 
Doors, etc. 

Floors. 

Wooden 
hygroscope. 



The deceptive appearance of motes or small flies moving 
before the eyes is said to presage rain and storms. 

In persons of weak and irritable constitution the digestive 
powers are much influenced by the weather. Before storms 
such persons are uneasy. 

When the locks of the Navajoes turn damp in the scalp-house, 
surely it will rain. 

Dreams of a hurrying and frightful nature, and imperfect 
sleep, are frequent indications that the weather has changed, 
or is about to change. Many persons experience these 
nocturnal symptoms on a change of wind, particularly when 
it becomes easterly. 

If corns, wounds, and sores itch or ache more than usual, 
rain is to fall shortly. 

A coming storm your shooting corns presage, 
And aches will throb, your hollow tooth will rage. 

Broome. 
Ringing in the ear at night indicates a change of wind. 

A singing in the ears sometimes indicates a change of 

weather, generally an increase of pressure or rise in the 

barometer. 

When everything at the table is eaten, it indicates continued 

clear weather. 

Cream and milk, when they turn sour in the night, often 

indicate thereby that thunderstorms are about. 

The presence of a dead body on ship or boat is supposed 
to cause contrary winds. Eggs are credited with the same 
power. So is whistling. — Folk-Lore Journal. 

When chairs and tables creak and crack, it will rain. 

Doors and windows are hard to shut in damp weather. 

Oiled floors become very damp before rain. 

Mr. Edgworth is mentioned as having made a wooden 
automaton, consisting of a long slip of wood cut crosswise to 
the grain, and furnished with two points at each end pointing 
backwards, thus — 



:i 



The effect of this was that when the wooden figure expanded 
with the dampness of the air, it pushed forward its head; 
and when it shrank in drying, it dragged its tail ; so that it 
continually went forward according to the dampness of the 
season, and the distance passed gave a rough indication of 
the comparative moisture of the air. — E. Darwin. 



Various. 159 

Camphor gum dissolved in alcohol is said to throw out Camphor 
feathery crystals and to rise before rain. gum. 

If the matting on the floor is shrinking, dry weather may be Matting on 
expected. When the matting expands, expect wet weather, floor. 

The sailor notes the tightening of the cordage of his ship as Cordage. 
a sign of coming rain. 

Stringed instruments giving forth clear, ringing sounds indicate Stringed 
fair weather. instruments. 

Strings ot catgut 'or whipcord untwist and become longer Strings, etc. 
during a dry state of the air, and vice versd. 

On this principle is constructed the weather-house — a toy Weather 
usually found in country houses, and from which the figure house-toy. 
of a woman emerges in fine weather, while a man wrapped 
in a great coat comes out before rain. 

A lump of hemp acts as a good hygrometer. Hemp. 

Ropes being difficult to untwist indicate bad weather. Ropes. 

Before wind and rain, it is said that the black damp extin- Mines 
guishing the lights is observed at the bottom of ironstone pits damp. 
and through the " waste." — Sir A. Mitchell. 

In Midlothian the miners think that approaching changes of Flow of 

the weather are preceded by an increased flow of water and water '" 

ftztttss 
the issue of gases and foul air from the crevices ; and when 

very bad weather is at hand, these last escape with a charac- 
teristic sound like the buzz of insects. — Sir A. Mitchell. 

Quarries of stone and slate indicate rain by a moist exudation Quarries, 
from the stones. 

A stone in Finland, called the " weather stone " (doubtless Damp 
saturated with salt water), breaks out into dark spots at the si °nes. 
approach of rain. Mr. A. Whittaker says the stone is a fossil 
containing clay, rock-salt, and nitre. — English Mechanic. 

When walls built of stones which have been quarried below Stones. 
high-water mark become damp, wet weather is at hand. 

If any one sits on a stone (one of the Stiper Stones) called the 
Devil's Chair, a thunderstorm immediately arises. 

Shropshire Superstition. 

When walls are more than usually damp, rain is expected. Walls. 

If stoves or iron rust during the night, it is a sign of rain. Iron. 

Salt increases in weight before a shower. Salt. 

A farmer's wife says, when her cheese salt is soft, it will rain ; 
when getting dry, fair weather may be expected. 



i6o 



Weather Lore. 



Salt. 



Earth- 
quakes. 



Soap. 
Dust. 

Eddies. 
Dust at sea. 



Kites. 
Smoke. 



Tobacco 
smoke. 

Tobacco 
pipes. 



Spectroscope 

Bladder. 
Pavements. 



There is a pillar of salt in the mines of Cracow which is 
called " Lot's Wife," and which becomes damp at the approach 
of rain. 

Previous to earthquakes, the orb of the sun is of an unusua 
colour — remarkably red, or tending to black. Bodies are seen 
running in the heavens, accompanied with abundance of 
flame, and the stars appear of a shape different from that 
which they possessed before. 

" Pausanias," Taylor's Translation, 1794. 

Soap covered with moisture indicates bad weather. 

Dust rising in dry weather is a sign of approaching change. 

Scotland. 

If dust whirls round in eddies when being blown about by the 
wind, it is a sign of rain. 

A curious pheromenon has frequently been observed to 
accompany northerly winds, which is : that in March or 
April ships that are bound to Bombay or Surat frequsntly 
have their rigging covered with white dust, although several 
degrees distant from Canara or Concan. The northerly and 
north-north-west winds, blowing from the coast of Persia, 
over an extensive surface of sea (at least ten or twelve 
degrees), it is difficult to judge what can occasion the dust, if 
it is not generated in the atmosphere, which is in these 
months sometimes impregnated with a dry haze. 

J. HORSBURGH IN "NICHOLSON'S JOURNAL." 

If kites fly high, fine weather is at hand. 

Smoke falling to the ground indicates rain. 

When the smoke of the Tharsis mine (Spain) blows north- 
ward, it is a sign of rain. 

If, during calm, smoke does not ascend readily, expect rain. 

If the smoke of a morning pipe hangs a long while in the air 
a good hunting day always follows. 

When the odour of pipes is longer retained than usual, and 
seems denser and more powerful, it often forebodes rain and 
wind. 

Moisture in the air is shown by a dark line in the spectrum 
near the D lines, which latter are almost fused together when 
the " rain-band " is very marked. 

Pig's bladder, when stretched, fine ; when flaccid, wet. 

If pavements appear rusty, rain will follow. 



Various. 161 



Pliny asserts that vessels containing eatables sometimes leave Earthen 
a sweat behind them in the storerooms, and that this is a sign ve ssels. 
of fearful storms. — Bacon. 

If metal plates and dishes sweat, it is a sign of bad weather. Plates. 

Pliny. 

When the sparks stick to the poker, it is a sign of rain. Sparks. 

Spanish. 

When the flames of candles flare and snap or burn with an Candles. 
unsteady or dim light, rain and frequently wind also are found 
to follow. 

Excrescences forming about wicks of lamps and candles, which Lamp wicks. 
consume their fuel slowly, indicate rain. 

Coals, when they burn very bright, foretell wind, and likewise [Coals.] 
when they quickly cast off and deposit their ashes. — Bacon. Bright. 

If the burning coals stick to the bottom of the pot, it is a sign Adhering. 

of a tempest.— Pliny. 

Coals covered with thick white ashes indicate snow in winter, Ashy. 

and rain in summer. 

Coals becoming alternately bright and dim indicate approach- Flaming. 

ing storms. i 

Burning wood in winter pops more before snow. [Fires.] 

Fires burning paler than usual and murmuring within are Flames. 
significant of storms. If the flame shoot in a twisting and 
curling form, it principally denotes wind ; but fungous growths 
or excrescences on the wicks of lamps rather foreshadow rain. 

Bacon. 

Fire is said to burn brighter and throw out more heat just Bright. 

before a storm. 

If the fire burns unusually fiercely and brightly in winter, Fierce. 

there will be frost and clear weather ; if the fire burns dull, 

expect damp and rain. 

Blacksmiths select a stormy day in which to perform work In storm. 

requiring extra heat. 

Difficult 
A fire hard to kindle indicates bad weather. to i^t. 

When the fire crackles lightly, it is said to be treading snow. Crackling. 

Old Woman. 

An empty Florence oil flask inverted, with the open neck Bottle. 
placed in a glass of water, is sometimes used as a barometer, 
the level of the water in the neck being high for good weather, 
and vice versd. 



l62 



Weather Lore. 



Ashes. 



Torches, etc. 



[Soot.] 
Burning. 



Stagnant 
water. 



Springs. 



But why abroad to seek prognostics go, 
When ashes vile foretell the falling snow, 
When half consumed the coals to cinders turn, 
And with a sputtering flame the torches burn ? 
And hail expect when the burnt cinders white 
With glowing heat send round a glaring light. 

J. Lamb's "Aratus." 

When the dull fire emits no cheerful rays, 
With lustre dimmed the languid torches blaze, 
And the light cobwebs float along the air — 
No symptoms these of weather calm and fair. 

J. Lamb's " Aratus." 

If soot falls down the chimney, rain will ensue. 

Soot burning on the back of the chimney indicates storms. 
When the soot sparkles on pots over the fire, rain follows. 

If standing water be at any time warmer than it was com- 
monly wont to be, and no sunshine help, it foretelleth rain. 

Husbandman's Practice. 

Springs running flusher (commonly called "earth sweat ") is 
an indication of rain. 



Creeks and In dry weather, when creeks and springs that have gone dry 



springs. 



Springs 
rising. 

Ditches, 
drains, etc. 

Coffee 
bubbles. 



Various 
signs of bad 
weather. 



become moist, or, as we may say, begin to sweat, it indicates 
approaching rain. Many springs that have gone dry will 
give a good flow of water just before rain. 

J. E. Walter (Kansas). 

Springs rise against rain. 

Drains, ditches, and dunghills are more offensive before 
rain. 

When the bubbles of coffee collect in the centre of the cup, 
expect fair weather. When they adhere to the cup, forming 
a ring, expect rain. If they separate without assuming any 
fixed position, expect changeable weather. 

The changing weather certain signs reveal ; 
Ere winter sheds her snow or frosts congeal, 
You'll see the coals in brighter flame aspire, 
And sulphur tinge with blue the rising fire. 
You'll hear the sounds 

Of whistling winds ere kennels break their bounds ; 
Ungrateful odours common shores diffuse, 
And dropping vaults distil unwholesome dews, 
Ere the tiles rattle with the smoking shower. 



Various. 



163 



Let credulous boys and prattling nurses tell 
How, if the festival of Paul be clear, 
Plenty with liberal horn shall strew the year ; 
When the dark skies dissolve in snow or rain, 
The labouring hind shall yoke the steer in vain ; 
But if the threatening winds in tempests roar, 
The war shall bathe her wasteful sword in gore. 

Gay. 

No weather fair expect, when Iris throws 
Around the azure vault two painted bows ; 
When a bright star in night's blue vault is found 
Like a small sun by circling halo bound ; 
When dip the swallows as the pool they skim, 
And waterfowls their ruffled plumage trim ; 
When loudly croak the tenants of the lake, 
Unhappy victims of the hydra snake ; 
When at the early dawn from murmuring throat 
Lone Ololygo pours her dismal note ; 
When the hoarse raven seeks the shallow waves — 
Dips her black head — -her wings and body laves. 
The ox looks up and snuffs the coming showers 
Ere yet with pregnant clouds the welkin lowers ; 
Dragging from vaulted cave their eggs to view, 
Th' industrious ants their ceaseless toil pursue ; 
While numerous insects creep along the wall, 
And through the grass the slimy earth-worms crawl— 
The black earth's entrails men these reptiles call. 
Cackles the hen as sounds the dripping rill, 
Combing her plumage with her crooked bill. 



Various 
signs of bad 
weather. 



Double 
rainbow. 



Halo. 

Swallows. 

Waterfowls. 

Frogs. 



Owl? 
Raven. 

Ox. 



Ants. 

Insects. 

Worms. 

Hen. 



When flocks of rooks or daws in clouds arise, 
Deafening the welkin with discordant cries ; 
When from their throats a gurgling note they strain, 
And imitate big drops of falling rain ; 
When the tame duck her outstretched pinion shakes ; 
When the shrill, screaming hern the ocean seeks, — 
All these prognostics to the wise declare 
Pregnant with rain, though now serene, the air. 



Rooks, daws 



Duck. 
Hern. 



No weather calm expect, when, floating high, 

Cloud rides o'er cloud ; when clamorous cry Clouds. 

The geese ; when through the night the raven caws, Gecsc, raven. 

And chatter loud at eventide the daws ; Daws. 

When sparrows ceaseless chirp at dawn of day, Sparrows. 

And in their holes the wren and robin stay. Wren, robin. 



164 



Weather Lore. 



Wild ducks. 

Clouds on 

mountains. 

Thistle- 
down, or 
foam of that 
appearance. 



When from their briny couch the wild ducks soar, 
And beat with clanging wings the echoing shore ; 
When gathering clouds are rolled as drifting snow 
In giant length along the mountain's brow ; 
When the light down that crowns the thistle's head 
On ocean's calm and glassy face is spread, 
Extending far and wide, — the sailors hail 
These signs prophetic of the rising gale. 



Waves. 

Sound of 

waves. 

Hern. 

Sea-mews. 

Cormorants. 



When the long, hollow, rolling billows roar, 
Breaking in froth upon the echoing shore ; 
And through the rugged rock and craggy steep 
Whispers a murmuring sound, not loud, but deep ; 
When screaming to the land the lone hern flies, 
And from the crag reiterates her cries ; 
Breasting the wind in flocks the sea-mews sail, 
And smooth their plumes against th' opposing gale ; 
And diving cormorants their wings expand. 
And tread — strange visitors — the solid land. 
[Signs of bad weather.] 



Crab. Before the storm the crab his briny home 

Sidelong forsakes, and strives on land to roam ; 

Mice. The busy household mice shake up with care 

Their strawy beds, and for long sleep prepare. 

Flies. When keen the flies, a plague to man and beast, 

Seek with proboscis sharp their bloody feast ; 
When in the wearisome, dark, wintry night 

Torches. The flickering torches burn with sputtering light, 

Now flaring far and wide, now sinking low, 
While round their wicks the fungous tumours grow ; 

Embers. When on the hearth the burning ember glows, 

And numerous sparks around the charcoal throws, — 
Mark well these signs, though trifling, not in vain, 
Prognostics sure of the impending rain. 



Lamps. 

Owl. 

Raven. 



Rooks. 



When burn the lamps with soft and steady light, 
And the owl softly murmurs through the night ; 
And e'en the raven from her varying throat 
Utters at eve a soft and joyous note ; 
When from all quarters in the twilight shade 
The rooks, returning to th' accustomed glade, 
Their lofty rocking dormitories crowd, 
Clapping their gladsome wings and cawing loud. 
[Fine weather signs ] 

J. Lamb's "Aratus.' 



Various. 165 



When the small birds prune the wing, Animal 

Ducking in the limpid spring, prognostics 

Languid 'neath the sheltering trees "' ?, 

Oxen snuff the southern breeze, 

Cackling geese with outstretched throat 

Join the crow's discordant note, 

Busy moles throw up the earth, 

Crickets chirrup on the hearth, 

Loudly caws the harsh-toned rook, 

Spotted frogs respondent croak, 

Gnats wheel round in airy ring, 

Angry wasps and hornets sting, 

Cautious bees forbear to roam, 

Honey seeking near their home, 

Spiders from their cobwebs fall, 

Forth the shiny earth-worms crawl, 

Loud, sonorous asses bray, 

Frequent crows the bird of day, 

Hens and chicks run helter-skelter — 

These, though cloudless be the sky, 

Tokens are that rain is nigh. 

To him the wary Pilot thus replies : Various 

A thousand omens threaten from the skies ; signs of bad 

A thousand boding signs my soul affright, weather. 

And warn me not to tempt the seas this night. 
In clouds the setting sun obscured his head, 
Nor painted o'er the ruddy west with red : 
Now north, now south, he shot his parted beams, 
And tipped the sullen black with golden gleams. 
Pale shone his middle orb with faintish rays, 
And suffered mortal eyes at ease to gaze. 
Nor rose the silver queen of night serene ; 
Supine and dull her blunted horns were seen, 
With foggy stains and cloudy blots between. 
Dreadful awhile she shone all fiery red, 
Then sickened into pale, and hung her drooping head. 
Nor less I fear from that hoarse, hollow roar 
In leafy groves and on the sounding shore. 
In various turns the doubtful dolphins play, 
And thwart, and run across, and mix their way. 
The cormorants the watery deeps forsake, 
And soaring herns avoid the plashy lake ; 
While waddling on the margin of the main, 
The crow bewets her, and prevents * the rain. 
[The Pilot is addressing Caesar, who wants to cross the 
Adriatic Gulf to Brundusium.J 
Lucan's " Pharsalia," V., Rowe's Translation. 



* = Goes before (old English). 



i66 



Weather Lore. 



Winds. 

Clouds, 

barometer. 

Soot. 

Spiders. 

Sunset. 

Moon. 

Rainbow. 
Walls, 
ditches. 
Pimpernel, 
Chairs. 
Joints. 

Ducks, pea- 
cocks, hills. 

Swine. 

Flies. 

Swallow. 

Cricket. 

Cat 

Fishes. 

Glow- 
worms. 

Toad. 
Dust. 
Frog. 

Air. 

Blackbird. 

Dog. 

Rooks. 



The hollow winds begin to blow, 

The clouds look black, the glass is low, 

The soot falls down, the spaniels sleep, 
And spiders from their cobwebs creep. 
Last night the sun went pale to bed, 
The moon in haloes hid her head, 
The boding shepherd heaves a sigh, 
For, see ! a rainbow spans the sky ; 

The walls are damp, the ditches smell, 

Closed is the pink-eyed pimpernel ; 
Hark how the chairs and tables crack ! 
Old Betty's joints are on the rack ; 
Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry, 
The distant hills are looking nigh ; 
How restless are the snorting swine ! 
The busy flies disturb the kine ; 
Low o'er the grass the swallow wings ; 
The cricket, too, how sharp he sings ! 
Puss on the hearth, with velvet paws, 
Sits wipinglo'er her whiskered jaws ; 
Through the clear stream the fishes rise, 
And nimbly catch the incautious flies ; 
The glow-worms, numerous and bright, 
Illumed the dewy dell last night ; 
At dusk the squalid toad was seen 
Hopping and crawling o'er the green ; 
The whirling dust the wind obeys, 
And in the rapid eddy plays ; 
The frog has changed his yellow vest, 
And in a russet coat is dressed; 
Though June, the air is cold and still, 
The merry blackbird's voice is shrill ; 
My dog, so altered in his taste, 
Quits mutton bones on grass to feast ; 
And see yon rooks, how odd their flight ! 
They imitate the gliding kite, 
And seem precipitate to fall, 
As if they felt the piercing ball. 
'Twill surely rain, — I see with sorrow 
Our jaunt must be put off to-morrow. 

Dr. E. Darwin ; also attributed to Dr. Jenner. 



[Wind.] 

Sea. 

Leaves. 



For ere the rising winds begin to roar, 

The working seas advance to wash the shore, 

Soft whispers run along the leafy woods, 



Various. 



167 



And mountains whistle to the murmuring floods. Mountains. 

Even then the doubtful billows scarce abstain Waves. 

From the tossed vessel on the troubled main ; 

When crying cormorants forsake the sea. Cormorants. 

And, stretching to the covert, wing their way ; 

When sportful coots run skimming o'er the strand ; Coots. 

When watchful herons leave their watery stand, Herons. 

And, mounting upward with erected flight, 

Gain on the skies, and soar above the sight : 

And oft, before tempestuous winds arise, 

The seeming stars fall headlong from the skies, Meteors. 

And, shooting through the darkness, gild the night 

With sweeping glories and long trails of light ; 

And chaff with eddy winds is whirled around, Chaff. 

And dancing leaves are lifted from the ground ; Leaves. 

And floating feathers on the waters play : Feathers. 

But when the winged thunder takes his way Thunder. 

From the cold north, and east and west engage, Winds. 

And at their frontiers meet with equal rage, 

The clouds are crushed ; a glut of gathered rain Clouds. 

The hollow ditches fills, and floats the plain ; 

And sailors furl their dropping sheets amain. 

Wet weather seldom hurts the most unwise ; [Rain.] 

So plain the signs, such prophets are the skies. 

The wary crane foresees it first, and sails Crane. 

Above the storm, and leaves the lowly vales ; 

The cow looks up, and from afar can find Cow. 

The change of heaven, and snuffs it in the wind ; 

The swallow skims the river's watery face ; Swallow. 

The frogs renew the croaks of their loquacious race ; Frogs. 

The careful ant her secret cell forsakes, Ants. 

And drags her eggs along the narrow tracks ; 

At either bourn the rainbow drinks the flood ; Rainbow. 

Huge flocks of rising rooks forsake their food, Rooks. 

And, crying, seek the shelter of the wood. 

Besides the several sorts of watery fowls Waterfowl. 

That swim the seas or haunt the standing pools, 

The swans that sail along the silvery flood, Swans. 

And dive with stretching necks to search their food, 

Then lave their backs with sprinkling dews in vain, 

And stem the stream to meet the promised rain, 

The crow with clam'rous cries the shower demands, Crow. 

And single stalks along the desert sands. 

The nightly virgin, while her wheel she plies, 

Foresees the storm impending in the skies, 

When sparkling lamps their splutt'ring light advance, Lamps. 

And in the sockets oily bubbles dance. 



1 68 



Weather Lore. 



[Fine 
Weather.] 

Stars. 
Moon. 
Gossamer. 
Kingfishers. 

Swine. 

Mist. 

Owls. 

Hawk and 
lark. 



Ravens. 



Birds, cows, 
and lambs. 



Then after showers 'tis easy to descry 

Returning suns and a serener sky. 

The stars shine smarter ; and the moon adorns, 

As with unborrowed beams, her sharpened horns ; 

The filmy gossamer now flits no more, 

Nor halcyons bask on the short sunny shore ; 

Their litter is not tossed by sows unclean ; 

But a blue droughty mist descends upon the plain ; 

And owls that mark the setting sun declare 

A starlight evening and a morning fair. 

Tow'ring aloft, avenging Nisus flies, 

While dared below the guilty Scylla lies. 

Wherever frighted Scylla flies away, 

Swift Nisus follows and pursues his prey ; 

Where injured Nisus takes his airy course, 

Thence trembling Scylla flies and shuns his force. 

This punishment pursues the unhappy maid, 

And thus the purple hair is dearly paid. 

Then thrice the ravens rend the liquid air, 

And croaking notes proclaim the settled fair. 

Then round their airy palaces they fly 

To greet the sun ; and seized with secret joy, 

When storms are overblown, with food repair 

To their forsaken nests and callow care. 

Not that I think their breasts with heavenly souls 

Inspired, as man who destiny controls ; 

But with the changeful temper of the skies, 

As rains condense and sunshine rarefies, 

So turn the species in their altered minds : 

Composed by calms and discomposed by winds. 

From hence proceeds the birds' harmonious voice ; 

From hence the cows exult, and frisking lambs rejoice. 

Virgil's " Georgics," Dryden's Translation. 



Various A boding silence reigns 

signs of rain. Dread through the dim expanse; save the dull sound 

That from the mountain, previous to the storm, 
Rolls o'er the muttering earth, disturbs the flood, 
And shakes the forest leaf without a breath. 
Prone to the lowest vale aerial tribes 
Descend ; the tempest-loving raven scarce 
Dares wing the dubious dusk ; in rueful gaze 
The cattle stand, and on the scowling heavens 
Cast a deploring eye ; by man forsook, 
Who to the crowded cottage hies him fast, 
Or seeks the shelter of the downward cave. 

Thomson. 



APPENDIX 



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Bacon, Francis Lord. Works collected and edited by J. Spedding and 
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7 2 Appendix. 



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€ 



INDEX. 



ABERDEEN, 17 
Abrus precatorius, 

154 
\corns, year of, 5 
\dams, G., 87 
\frican marigold, 156 
\ilsa Craig, 99 
Mr, 105, 166 

clear, 105 

currents, 74 

mirage, 105 

sound, 106 

tremor, 125 

undulating, 105 

Mabama, 23 

Ml Hallow'n summer, 36 

Ml Saints', 36 

rest, 36 

\lmond tree, 152 
\nimal prognostics, 165 
Animals, 125-132 

crowding, 126 

seeking cover, 126 

^nt hills, 146 
\nts, 146, 163, 167 

active, 146 

building, 146 

in July, 146 

migration, 146 

returning, 146 

travelling, 146 

\pache Indians, 62, 67, 

98, 145, 146, 153 
Appetite, 158 
\pples, oak, 152 
\pril, 22-25 

3rd, 6th, 14th, 24 

15th, 23rd, 25 

and autumn, 24 

and March, 23 

and May, 23, 24 

and June, 24 

buds, 23 

change, 23 

cloudy, 24 



April, cold, 23 
cuckoo, 24, 25 

early part of, 24 

first three days of, 

24 
flood, 22 

■ f°g, 23 

frosty, 23 

moon, 64 

rain, 22, 24 

snow, 23 

thunder, 24 

wet, 23 

Aragon, 100 

Aratus, 2, 50, 52, 53, 54, 
55- 5°, 57, 6S, 66, 67, 
86, 95, 96, 98, 117, 126, 
128, 129, 130, 132, 139, 
146, H7, 157, 162, 163, 
164 

Arbroath, 99 

Arcturus, 65 

Ardeche, 5 

Ardersier, 99 

Aristotle, 71, 72, 78, 80, 
81, 82, 103, 105, 108, 
110, 113, 114, 115 

Arrival of birds, 46, 47 

Ascension Day, 41 

Aselli, 66 

Ash, 151, 152 

and oak, 151 

mountain, 155 

Ashes, 162 

Aspen leaves, 153 

Asses braying, 127 

restless, 127 

August, 32, 33 

1st, 10th, 15th, 24th, 

33 

and December, 32 

and February, 32 

and September, 32 

dew, 32 

dry, 32 

.174 



August fog, 32, 103 

sunshine, 32 

• wet, 32 

Aurora, 68 

bright, 68 

change, 68 

storm, 68 

Authors, 169-173 
Autumn, 8 

and winter, 8 

cows in, 128 

cranes, 139 

fog, 8 

fruits, S 

moist, 8 

night, 8 

thunder, 8 

■ wet, 8 

Ayers, J., 116 

BACK, moon on her, 62 
Backing wind, 71, 
72 
Bacon, Lord, 7, 8, 48, 

49, 5°, 52, 54, 55, 56, 
58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 
75, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84, 
86, 88, 90, 94, 95, 96, 
98, 99, 101, 105, 106, 
107, ioS, 114, 115, 117, 
118, 119, 130, 132,136, 

137, 138, 141,147, 154, 

157, 161 
Bacon's experiment, 157 
Bad weather signs, 2, 

162, 163, 164 
Badger, Candlemas, 16 
Badgers in October, 36 
Balancing of clouds, 85 
Ballad, 63 
Ballast, cod, 142 
Ballot, B., 72 
Bank of clouds, 52, 89 
■ sunset in a, 52 



Index. 



175 



Bar cirrus, 90 


Beans, 154 


Blackthorn winter, 22 


Barley harvest, 76 


May, 27 


Bladder, 160 


October, 35 


planting, 1 54 


Bladder-ketmir, 156 


sowing, 152 


Bear, Candlemas, 16 


Blight, 75 


Barometer, 120-125, J 66 


Bearded frost, 114 


Blossom, dogwood, 153 


after gales, 121 


Beaver, 130 


elder, 153 


and wind, 123 


Bedfordshire, 2, 28, 64, 


Blossoms, January, 10 


change, 123 


93. 1 10 


Bodenham, 132 


equal east and west, 


Beech, 37 


Borrowed days, 9, 21, 22 


123 


and oak, 152 


Bottle used as barome- 


— — - readings, 123 


• nuts, 152 


ter, 161 


fall in fine weather, 


Bees, 146 


Bramble, 153 


121 


at home, 146 


Branches, dead, 150 


falling before wet, 


early, 146 


Brand, 127 


122 


February, 13 


Breast-bone of goose, 134 


in fair wea- 


fine weather, 146 


Bredon Hill, 101 


ther, 121 


flight, 146 


Breeze, sunset, 51 


quickly, 122 


rain, 146 


Bridge of the gods, III 


without 


returning, 146 


Brighton, 105 


change of weather, 122 


swarm, 146 


Broken clouds, 89 


first rise, 123 


Beetle, clock, 149 


Broom, 155 


frost, 122, 123 


rain, 149 


Broome, 127, 158 


high and steady, 1 23 


Beetles and crickets, 149 


Browne, Sir T., 15 


in east, 123 


Bell Rock, 99 


Brugh, 56 


in north, 123 


Bells, 105 


Bubbles, 108 


■ in west, 123 


and thunder, 120 


coffee, 162 


with warmer 


Belville, 108, 1 20, 121 


Buchanan, G., 20 


weather, 122 


Beneficial frost, 115 


Buchanan's Almanack, 


in Ireland, 125 


Bergamo, no 


75 


indications, 121 


Berries, 1 50 


Buckwheat, 154 


local storm, 122 


Best, T., 87 


Budding, oak and ash 


long notice, T23 


Bever, 100 


151 


low after rain, 121 


Bible, 53, 74, 77, 79, 80, 


Bugs, fall, 148 


in fine wea- 


81, 85, 86, 89, 98, 105, 


Bullion's Day, 31 


ther, 121 


no 


Bullocks, 129 


oscillating, 122 


Bibliography, 169-173 


Bulls, leading, 128 


■ rapid fall, 123 


Bin Hill, 101 


licking, 128 


rise after rain, 121 


Birds, 132, 141, 168 


Burgand, Marshal, 63 


rising, 121 


arriving, 1 32 


Burmese custom, no 


after heavy 


Candlemas, 16 


Burnet, 156 


rains, 122 


dates of arrival, 46, 


Burning soot, 162 


in wet wea- 


47 


Burton, 3 


ther, 121 


■ departing, 132 


Butler, 157 


with dry wea- 


flight, 132 


Butter, cheap, 41 


ther, 122 


January, 10 


Butterflies, 148, 149 


with warmth, 


October, 36 




122, 123 


restless, 132 


pAIRNSMORE, 100 
V^ Calendar, reforma- 


rough weather, 161 


returning, 132 


snow, 122 


silent, 132 


tion of, vi, 4 


steady after storm, 


small, 132 


Calendula pluvialis, 156 


121 


summer, 132 


California, 114, 148 


summary, 123 


washing, 132 


Calling of the sea, 106 


summer, 122 


Bishop, 100 


Calm, 75, 107 


table of indications, 


Black cloud at sunset, 


after cloudy wea- 


124 


53 


ther, 85 


west wind, 83 


fish, 142 


before gale, 84 


wind, 121 


frost, 1 14 


dew, 103 


winter, 122 


insects, 149 


■ July, 30 


Bass, 142 


Blackberries, 35 


June, 28 


Bats, 131 


Blackbird, 136, 166 


Campbell, 55 


numerous, 131 


Christmas, 39 


Camphor gum, 159 



176 



Index. 



~ancer, 66 

Dandlemas Day, 14-17 
Handles, 161 
Hape marigold, 156 

Town, IOO 

Wrath, 99 

Capful of wind, 69 
Dara, 101 
Harle sky, 105 
Carlisle sky, 105 
Harmylie, IOT 
Carolina, 83 
Harry of clouds, 86 
Hary's Pindar, 70 
Hastellating clouds, 84 
Hastile, IOO 
Hat-fish, 142 

■ skin, 142 

Hatgut, 159 
Hat's skin, 127 
Hats, 166 

enraged, 126 

February, 14 

imprisoned, 126 

movements, 126 

pensive, 127 

playful, 127 

scratching, 127 

sneezing, 126 

washing, 126 

wiping jaws, 127 

battle lying down, 127 

on hills, 128 

Centre of cyclones, 73 
:haff, 167 

Hhairs, 158, 166 
Chambers, G. F., 83, 123 

R., 60, 100 

Hhange, fog, 104 
noon, 43 

of moon, 63 

Changes of temperature, 

108 
'hanging wind, 71, 7 2 
Channel wind, 78 
Chaucer, 43 
Cherries, year of, 5 
'heviot, 100 
thickens, January, II 
;hickweed, 155 

expanding, 155 

half opening, 155 

night, 155 

)hildermas, 39 
-hristison, 68 
Christmas, 38 

and Candlemas, 39 

and Easter, 38 

bright, 38 

dark, 38 

fat, 41 



Christmas ice, 38, 39 

light, 38 

. moon, 3S 

mud, 38 

night, 38 

rain, 39 

snow, 38 

sunshine, 38 

thunder, 39 

wet, 38 

windy, 38 

wine, 39 

Chrysalides, 149 
Churchill, 10, 30 
Cicada, 149 
Cirro-cumulus, 94, 95 
Cirro-stratus, 92-94 

with cirrus, 93 

Cirrus clouds, 90-92 
Clam, 142 

Clarke, 58 

Clerk himself, the, 124 
Cleveland, 101 
Cloud bank, 52 

black at sunset, 53 

rainbow, 112 

ship, 92 

Clouds, 84-101, 163, 166, 

167 
accumulating, 86 

and sunshine, 48 

against wind, 89 

apparently station- 
ary, 87 

at full moon, 64 

at old moon, 65 

at sunrise, 48, 49, 

53 

balancing, 85 

bank of, 89 

banking up, 96 

black, 88 

brassy, 88 

bright and dark, S8 

broken, 89 

castellating, 84 

cirro-cumulus, 94, 

95 

crowded, 95 

curdled, 94 

dappled, 95 

definition, 94 

direction, 94 

high, 95 

outlines, 95 

rain, 94 

scattered, 94 

slow, 95 

small, 94 

soft, 95 

thunder, 94 



Clouds, cirro-cumulus, 
wandering, 94 

■ wind, 94 

cirro-stratus, 92-94 

definition, 92 

direction, 93 

gloomy, 93 

hairy, 92 

Noah's ark, 92 

■ opening, 94 

■ rain, 93 

wane cloud, 93 

waved, 94 

wind, 92, 93 

with cirrus, 93 

cirrus, bad weather, 

9 1 

bar, 90 

barred, 92 

curdled, 90 

curly, 91 

definite, 91 

definition, 90 

detached, 91 

feathery, 90 

fibrous, 91 

fine, 90 

indicating 

change, 90 

indicating 

wet, 91 

murky, 90 

pointing up- 
ward, 92 

rain, 90 

rain and wind, 

91 

regular, 91 

• ribbed, 90 

sheet, rain, 90 

showery, 90 

storms, 92 

streaky, 92 

tails down- 
ward, 91 

tufty, 90, 91 

twisted, 91 

undulating, 91 

weather-head, 

92 

wind, 90 

• collecting and 

driving, 86 

colours of, 88 

■ cross wind, 88 

■ cumulo-stratus, 97, 

98 

■ collecting, 97 

on horizon, 97 

streak, 97 

striped, 98 



Index. 



177 



Clouds, cumulo-stratus, 


Clouds, scud, 88 


Comets, 67 


tails, etc., 67 


snow, 116 


Confucius, 60 


cumulus, 95-97 


spreading and drift- 


Conjunctions of planets, 


augmenting, 96 


ing, 85 


67 


changing, 97 


storm, 86, 89 


Continued south wind, 


dark, 96 


stratus, 98-101 


81 


definition, 95 


ascending, 99 


Convolvulus, 155 


d i m i n ishing, 


definition, 98 


Coots, 167 


96 


fair, 98 


Cordage, 159 


■ fair, 96 


fine, 98 


Cormorants, 164, 167 


— — ■ ■ fleecy, 95 


hanging, 99 


Corn and cattle, year of, 


hail, snow, etc. , 


mountains, 98- 


5 


67 


101 


• and hay, 153 


opening and 


night, 98 


fodder, 153 


closing, 96 


rising and fall- 


husk, 153 


piled, 95 


ing, 99 


Corns, 158 


round topped, 


small, 99 


Cornwall, I, 13, 29, 43, 


96 


thick, 99 


58, 78, 80, 81, 105, 


storm, 97 


tempest, 86 


I06, 112 


stormy, 95 


wind, 73 


Corposant, St. Elmo's 


thunder, 97 


■ winds and waves. 


fire, 68 


tower-like, 96 


69 


Corpse, 158 


wet, calm, 96 


with and against 


Corpus Christi, 41 


white, 96 


the wind, 85 


Corsancone, IOO 


■ wind, 96 


with mock suns, 86 


Cottonwood, 152 


dark, 85, 87 


Cloudy April, 24 


Cows, 128, 167, 168 


■ ■ dawn, 85 


weather, 85 


in autumn, 128 


■ description, 89 


Clover, 155 


■ . lying down, 128 


dispersing, 85 


■ rough, 155 


• • various signs from, 


diverging, 87 


Coals, 161 


128 


dragonish, 89 


adhering, 161 


year of, 5 


dull, 88 


ashes, 161 


Cowslip, 156 


evening, 86 


• bright, 161 


Crab, 164 


fishers, 99 


flaming, 161 


Craighill, 101 


— — ■ form, 84 


Cock crowing, 133 


Craigowl, 100 


■ from east, 87 


drinking, 133 


Cranes, 139, 1 40, 167 


from north-west, 87 


moulting, 133 


alighting, 139 


from south, 87 


Cockchafers, year of, 5 


■ autumn, 139 


from south-west, 87 


Cockle burs, 153 


• crying, 139 


■ from west, 86 


Cockles, 142 


■ ■ flight, 139 


globe-like, 48 


Cod, 142 


noisy, 140 


growth of, 85 


Coffee bubbles, 162 


winter, 139 


gusts, 88 


Cold April, 23 


Cream, 158 


high, 85, 87 


December, 38 


north wind, 78 


in layers, 87, 88 


May, 26 


Creeks, 162 


increasing, 86, 89 


November, 36 


Crickets, 149, 166 


isolated, 85 


— September, 34 


Criffel, 100, 101 


low, 86, 87 


spring, 6 


Cross winds, 88 


mackerel sky, 94 


three days, 43 


Crowfoot, 156 


mares' tails, 94 


Coles, 154 


Crows, 136, 167 


massive, 98 


Collecting and driving 


Cuckoo, 6, 20, 136 


morning, 86 


clouds, 86 


and figs, 136 


motions of, 87 


Collie Law, 100 


and marigold, 156 


mountains, 164 


Colour, frogs', 145 


April, 24, 25 


nimbus, definition, 


Colours, lightning, 119 


early, 136 


s 8 

rain, 98 


of clouds, 48, 88 


late, 136 


of rainbow, 113 


midsummer, 136 


rain, 89 


of sky, 105 


rain, 136 


red, 55, 58 


of sunset, 50, 54 


Cullcn, IOI 


rising, 87 


primary, 113 


Cumberland, IOO 


round-topped, 96 


Come-back, 134 


Cumbrae, 99 



[ 7 8 



Index. 



Cumulo-stratus, 97, gS 
Cumulus, 95-97 
Curdled cirrus, 90 
Curlew, 141 
Curly cirrus, 91 
Currents of air, 74. 7& 

of wind, 79 

various, 75 

Custom, Burmese, no 
Cuttle-fish, 142 
Cycle of change, 44 
Cyclones, 72 

movement of, 73 

Cyclonic storms, 73 

DAFFODILS, 154 
Dalton, 108, 115, 

123 
Damp, fog, 103 

heat, 108 

in mines, 159 

stones, 159 

wool, 157 

Dandelion, 134 

blooming, 154 

closing, 154 

down, 154 

Daniels, J. F., 70, 87 
Dante, 141 
Dappled sky, 95 
Darwin, E., 75, 143, 154, 

158, 166 
Dates of birds' arrival, 

46, 47 

of plants flower- 
ing, 44, 45, '5° 

Davy, Sir H., ill 
Dawn clouds, 85 

high and low, 49 

Daws, 163 
Day, 43 

and night winds, 69 

fine, 43 

misty, 43 

moon seen in, 60 

Days and nights, 43 
De Quincey, 103 
Dead branches, 150 
December, 38, 39 
nth, 21st, 25th, 3S 

25th, 26th, 28th, 

3'st, 39 

and January, 38 

cold, 38 

first Sunday in, 38 

thunder, 38 

Denham, 77, 78 
Denmark, 4 

Derbyshire, 34, 128, 130 
Devil's Chair, 159 
Devon, 42, 83, no, 136 



Dew, 102, 103 

abundant, 102, 103 

and fog, 103 

and rain, 103, 110 

August, 32 

calm, 103 

dispersing, 103 

evening, 102, 103 

fine weather, 103 

heavy, 103 

March, 19 

■ ■ May, 26 

■ mountain, 103 

night, 103 

none, 103 

profuse, 1-03 

south, 103 

Digges, 118 

Direction of cyclone 

centre, 73 
Dirt-owl, 138 
Dispersing clouds, 85 
Distant lightning, 118 

thunder, 1 18 

Ditches, 162, 166 
Dog days, 31 

roses, 153 

Dogs, 166 

■ eating grass, 126 

howling, 126 

■ • rolling, 126 

sleeping, 126 

stretched out, 126 

uneasy, 126 

Dogwood blossom, 153 
Dolphins, 141, 142 
Doomsday Book, 31 
Doors, etc., 158 
Dorset, 59 
Dotterel, 140 
Double rainbow, 113 
Dove, 71, 72, 74 
Drains, 162 

Drawing water, sun, 48 
Drayton, I, 69, 99, 135 
Dreams, 158 
Driving clouds, S6 
Drizzle, no 
Drought and rain, III 

Texas, 74 

Dry August, 32 

May, 26 

September, 33 

winter, 8 

Duck, 163 

Ducks, 133, 166 

and geese uneasy, 

133 

driving, 1 33 

wild, 164 

Dunion, 100 



Dunwoody, Major, 60, 
117, 119, 126, 128, 130, 
138, 144 

Dust, 160, 166 

at sea, 160 

March, iS 

Dutch, 5, 10, 18, ill 

Dutchman, 104 

Dysart, 106 

EAGLESHAM, 99 
Early and late 
thunder, 117 

frosts, 114 

winter, 9 

Ears, 158 

Earthen vessels, 161 
Earthquakes, 160 
Earth-worms, 144 
East Anglia, 138 

rain, 109 

wind, 79, 80 

Easter, 38 

and Christmas, 38 

and Whitsunday, 

41 

snow, 38 

to Whitsuntide, 41 

Echinus, 143 

Eclipse, 55 

Eddies, 160 

Edgworth, hygroscope, 

158 
Edmonds, R., 106 
Eels, 142 
Eggs, 158 
Egyptian day, 12 
Elder blossom, 153 

bush, 153 

Ellesmere, 62 
Elm leaves, 152 
and kidney 

beans, 152 
Elmo, St., fires, 68 
Embers, 164 
Empson, C. W., 31, 

131 

English climate, I 
Eostre, 41 
Epiphany, 39 
Equinoctial storms, 40 
Equinox, vernal, 40 
Equinoxes, 40 
Eure et Loire, 5 
Euripides, 73 
Euroclydon, 80 
Evening, 43 
and morning sky, 

S3 

clouds, 86 

dew, 103 



Index. 



179 



Evening rainbow, 112 

thunder, 118 

Experiment, Bacon's, 157 

FAIR June, 28 
ofAuldDeer,I7 

Falkland Hill, 100 

Fall-bugs, 148 

Falling stars, 67 

Feathers, 167 

Feathery cirrus, 90 

February, 13-18 

2nd, 15, 16, 17, 

2nd, 6th, loth to 

2Sth, I2th to 14th, 
12th, 14th, 20th to 
2Sth, 22nd, 24th, 17 

28th, 18 

and March, 14 

cold, 13 

fair, 13 

fine, 13 

fogs, 14 

mad, 13 

March, April, and 

May, 14 

■ rain, 13 

snow, 14 

spring, 13 

thunder, 14 

two-faced, 13 

■ wet, 14 

■ winds, 14 

Fern, 155 

Figs and cuckoo, 136 

year of, 5 

Finches, 139 

Fine weather signs, 168 

Finland, 8 

Fireflies, 149 

Fires, 161 

bright, 161 

crackling, 161 

■ • fierce, 161 

hard to kindle, 161 

smith's, 161 

First north wind, 78 

thunder, 117 

Fish feeding, 141 

molluscs, etc., 141- 

144 

rising, 141 

shaped cloud, 93 

Fishers, clouds, 99 

south wind, 82 

wind, 80 

Fishes, 166 

Fitzroy, 48, 49, 5r, 68, 
70, 7i, 72, 73, 74, 78, 
82, 85, 87, 88, 89, 99, 
103, 105, 107, in, 123 



Flakes, snow, 116 
Flames, 16 1 
Fleas, 148 
Fleming, A., 15, 52 
Flies, 164, 1 66 

clinging, 148 

harvest, 148 

house, 148 

March, 18 

seasons, 148 

stinging, 148 

Flight, bees, 146 
cranes, 139 

ducks and geese, 

133, 134 

herons, 139 

• of larks, 139 

sea-birds, 140 

swallows, 138 

turkeys, 134 

Flood, April, 22 
■ river, 107 

St. Margaret's, 33 

Floods, winter, 9 

Floors, 158 

Flowering, dates of, 150 

of plants, 44, 45 

Flowers, 150 

early, 1 50 

in January, 10 

May, 25 

November, ^6 

opening, 156 

time of opening, 

46 
Fly on nose, 148 
Foam, 107, 108. 164 

river, 108 

Fodder, September, 34 
Fog, 103, 104 

and dew, 103 

and frost, 103, 114 

April, 23 

August, 32, 103 

autumn, 8 

change, 104 

damp, 103 

falling, 103 

■ hanging, 104 

Harmattan, 75 

hunting, 104 

January, 10 

light, 103 

March, 19 

October, 35 

sea, 104 

sea and hills, 104 

summer, 8 

winter, 9, 104 

Foggy south wind, 81 
Fogs, February, 14 



Folk-Lore Journal, 32, 
108, no, 126, 129, 132, 
156, 158 
Fops, 99 

Forked lightning, 118 
Formation of frost, 114 
Forms of clouds, 84 
Forster, T., 34, 47, 89, 92, 

93, 96. 
Fortingal, 106 
Foul air, 108 
Fowls, 132, 133 

restless, 133 

rolling, 133 

shelter, 133 

French, I, 2, 4, 5, II, 12, 

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 

19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 32, 35, 37, 

4°, 42, 50, 53, 58, 63, 

67, 71, 95, !°9, 1 10, 

114 
names for months, 

satire on, 6 
Friday, 42 

and Sunday, 42, 43 

weather, 43 

Frogs, 145, 163, 166, 167 

colour, 145 

croaking, 145 

green, 145 

noisy, 145 

spawning, 145 

tree, 145 

• yellow, 145 

Frost, 58, 81, 114, 115 

and fog, 114 

and hailstorm, 115 

and mists, 101, 1 14, 

"5 

and rain, 114 

and thaw, 114 

April, 23 

at new moon, 60 

barometer, 123 

■ bearded, 114 

beneficial, 1 15 

black, 114 

■ breaking, 115 

duration, 114 

early, 114 

formation of, 1 14 

foul, 1 14 

heavy, 114 

late, 114 

light, 114 

■ long, 115 

March, 19 

■ martins, 138 

January, 1 1 

October, 35 



[8o 



Index. 



r rost, stars, 1 1 5 


Greenock, 28 


Hay and snow, 115 


storm, 114 


Gregor, W., 106, 107 


June, 29 


white, 114 


Grey and red sunrise, 54 


May, 27 


winter, 9 


sunrise, 48 


year of, 5 


Miller, T., I, 14, 18, 24, 


Ground-hog, Candlemas, 


Haywood, 24 


26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 43, 


16 


Haze clearing, 102 


68, 85, no, 153 


Grouse, 135 


fair, 102 


fuller's thistle, 156 


Growth of clouds, 85 


sudden, 102 


fulmar, 140 


Grumphie, 130 


Hazel, 13 


Tull moon, colours and 


Guara, 100 


Health and snowy 


haloes, 64 


Guinea-fowl, 134 


weather, 1 16 




rain, 134 


and weather, 2, 3 


O ALE from south-west, 

Lr 83 


Gulls, 140 


Heat and thunder, 117 


arrival, 140 


wind, 75 


moon, 59 


noisy, 140 


Hedge fruit, 155 


jail, oak, 151 


numerous, 140 


Hedgehogs, 131, 132 


jalloway, 112, 130 


on land, 140 


burrows, 132 


garden spiders, 148 


sitting, 140 


hiding, 132 


jay, 128, 138, 163 


Gusts, 69 


Hedge-sparrows, 139 


Seese, 133, 163 


Gutch, J. W. G., 134, 


Heifer's tail, 1 28 


flying inland, 133 


135, H2, 147 


Helm cloud, IOI 


seaward, 133 




Hemp, 159 


south, 133, 


TJABBERLEY wind, 

n 70 


Hen, 163 


134 


Herbert, G., 18, 49 


passing lakes, 134 


Haddingtonshire, 100 


Hern, 163, 164 


generals January and 


Hail, 97, 115 


Herons, 139, 163, 164, 


February, II 


and rain, 109, III 


167 


gentian, 156 


formation, 115 


restless, 139 


German, 16, 18, 19, 28, 


winter, 115 


Hertfordshire, 41 


29, 32, 33. 38, 43, 92, 


Hailstorm and frost, 115 


Hesiod, 85, 139 


109, 176 


Halcyon days, 37 


High dawn, 49 


jigha, IOI 


Half-moon, 57 


Highlandman, 104 


jlobe-like clouds, 48 


Hall Down, IOI 


Hildebrandsson, 93 


jloucester, 152 


Halo, 163 


Hills, 166 


jlow-worms, 144, 166 


double, 56 


stratus, 98-101 


damp, 144 


lunar, 56, 57, 64 


Hoar-frost, 114 


rain and dry, 144 


near and far, 56 


not lasting, 1 14 


Snats, 149 


single lunar, 56 


vines, 114 


biting, 149 


open side of, 57 


Hodnet Hole, 69 


evening, 149 


solar, 55 


Hoggs in February, 13 


March, 18 


triple, 56 


Hollantide, 37 


January, 10 


unbroken, 56 


Holy Cross Day, 34 


numerous, 149 


Hampshire, 99, 151 


Holy Thursday, 41 


October, 149 


Hannay, G. W. D., 146 


Holyrood, 34 


sporting, 149 


Hanneman, 156 


Homer, 81 


swarming, 149 


Hares, 131 


Hone, 45 


boat's hair cloud, 92 


Harmattan fog, 75 


Hood, T., 36 


joats, 129 


Harrowing, snow, 115 


Hops, 38 


and sheep, 129 


Harvest, 4, 38 


Hornets, 146, 147 


joose breast-bone, 1 34 


flies, 148 


Horns of moon, 57i 61 


gooseberries, year of, 5 


June, 29 


Horsburgh, J., 160 


5ose harvest, 31 


light, 41 


Horses, lively, 127 


jossamer, 148, 168 


long and short, 8 


restless, 127 


drafting, wind south, J$ 


sacrifice for, 41 


rolling, 127 


jrassin January, 10 


Haute Loire, 4, 58 


■ sniffing, 127 


year of, 5 


Hawk and lark, 168 


sweating, 127 


Greece, II, 18, III, 1 13, 


Hawks, 140 


Hours, 7 and n, 44 


119, 126, 136 


Haws, year of, 5 


10 and 2, 44 


3reen Christmas, 38 


Hawthorn, 153 


12 and 2, 44 


frog, 145 


Hay, I, 153 


House flies numerous, 


winter, 8 


and buckwheat, 154 


148 



Index. 



181 



Howard, 85, 86, 88, go, 

91, 92, 94, 97, 98 
Howell, 35 
Huddling, stars, 65 
Hunter, W. W., I 
Hunting fog, 104 
Huntingdon, 37, 41 
Hurricane, 57 
Hurricanes in West 

Indies, 73 
Hurstpierpoint, 99 
HusbandmaWs Practice, 

IlS, 127, 128, 132, 133, 

135, 149, 162 
Hyades, 65 
Hygrometer indications, 

125 

ICE, Christmas, 30, 39 
cracking, 116 

Iceland, 4 

Ilex, 157 

Increasing, clouds, 86 

Indian weather pro- 
phesy, I 

summer, 8 

Indications of barometer, 
124 

of clouds, 85 

Indigo, wild, 153 

Innocents' Day, 39 

Insects, 146-149, 163 

black, 149 

early, 146 

Ireland, 5, 35, 39, 148 

Iron rust, 159 

Isle of Wight, 105 

Italian, 8, 9, 12, 25, 32, 
53. 56, "1,133 

JACKDAWS, 137 
Jackson, Georgina, 
69, 70, 136 
January, 10-13 

1st, 11 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, II 

2nd, 12 

3rd, 12 

6th, 12 

I2th, 12 

14th, 12 

19th to 31st, 13 

22nd, 12 

22nd and 25th, 12 

25th, 12 

3ist, 13 

and February, 1 1 

and following 

months, II 

and March, 1 1 

and May, 1 1 



January, birds, 10 

blossoms, 10 

bright, 10 

chickens, 1 1 

■ cold, II 

dry, 10 

flowers, 10 

fog, 10 

frost, 1 1 

gnats, 10 

grass, 10 

Greek proverb, 1 1 

March and April, 

11 

mild, 10 

snow, II, 

sowing, 1 1 

spring, 10 

thaw, 10 

thunder, 1 1 

timber, II 

warm, 10, II 

wet, 10 

Jenner, Dr., 166 
Jenyns, 52, 75, 86, 90, 95, 

96, 97, 98, I02, IO4, 120, 
121, 123 

Johnson, Dr. S., 3, no 
Joints, 166 

Jones, Rev. W., 102, 104 
July, 30-32 

1st, 2nd, 30 

3rd, 4th, IOth, I2th, 

14th, 15th, 31 

3rd to August nth 

(dog days), 31 

15th, 19th, 20th, 

25th, 32 

and August, 30 

and January, 30 

August, and Sep- 
tember, 30 

calm, 30 

oysters, 30 

rain, 30 

rye, 30 

sky, 30 

thunder, 30 

June, 28-30 

8th, nth, 15th, 

24th, 29 

27th, 29th, 30 

and February, 29 

and harvest, 29 

and September, 29 

calm, 28 

fair, 28 

hay, 29 • 

north wind, 29 

wet, 29 

Jura, 101 



KELLIE Law, 100 
Kent, 5, 35, 118 
Kenton, 101 
Keys of year, 39 
Kidney beans, sowing, 

152 
Kilpatrick Hills, 99 
Kingfishers, 140, 168 
Kintyre, 108 
Kirkcudbright, 99 
Kirkpatrick Fleming, 100 
Kirwan, Dr., 21, 
Kites, 160 
Knipe, 100 

LADY Day, 21 
Latter, 24 

Lambs, 168 
Lammas, 33 
Lamp wicks, 161 
Lamps, 164, 167 
Lancashire, 65, 101 
Largo Law, 100 
Lark, 139 

and hawk, 168 

Candlemas, 16 

Larrigan river, 106 
Larva of Cicada, 149 
Last snow, 1 16 
Late frosts, 114 

spring, 6 

Latter Lady Day, 24 
Lavrock, Candlemas, 16 
Layers of clouds, 87, 88 
Leap year, 5 
Leaves, 37, 150, 153, 166, 
167 

aspen, 153 

curling, 150 

fall of, in October, 

35 

falling, 150 

flying, 150 

rattling, 1 50 

— - remaining, 150 

turning up, 150 

Leeches, 143 

agitated, 143 

coiled, 143 

■ curled up, 143 

in bottle, 143, 144 

fixed, 143 

restless, 143 

stationary, 143 

tempest prognos- 

ticator, 143 

Leicestershire, 100 
Lcntiscus, 157 
Leo, sun in, 30 
Levels, temperature at 
different, 125 



I»2 



Index. 



Lightning colours, 119 

direction, 119 

'disappearing, 118 

distant, 1 18 

forked, 118 

in spring, 7 

night and morning, 

118 

north, 119 

north-west, 119 

sheet, 118 

south, 1 19 

south-east, 1 18 

summer, ilS 

^innseus, 1 54, 1 56 
Lizard Point, 105 
Loach, 142 
.ochnaw, IOI 
Locusts, 79» *49 
.omond range, 100 
-ong frost, 115 

harvest, 8 

^ongfellow, 57 
.ookout, 101 
^othian, IOO 

.owe, E. J., 103, 104, 

132 
.ucan, 165 
-ucian, 137 
-ucretius, 85, 119 
-unar halo, 56 
-uther, 25 

MACAWS, 135 
Macher's Rills, IOO 
Mackerel sky, 94 
badness, "weather, 3 
Magpies, 137 
ilaine, U.S., 42 
tlalta, 65 

danure, October, 36 
daple, silver, 152 
ilarch, 1 8-22 
1st, 2nd, 20 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 10th, 

15th, 17th, 19th, 21st, 
25th, 21 

and April, 20 

and May, 20 

and June, 20 

and other months, 

20 

April, and May, 20 

■ and June, 20 

damp, 19 

dew, 19 

dry, 18 

dust, 18 

fishing, 19 

flies, 18 

fog, 19 



March, frost, 19 

gnats, 18 

Greek legend, 18 

humours, 20 

mild, 18 

mist, 19 

pruning, 20 

rain, 19 

snow, 19 

stormy, 19, 20 

sun, IS, 19 

thunder, 19 

wet and warm, 19 

wind, 19 

Mare's tail, 94 
Marigold, African, 156 

Cape, 156 

marsh, 156 

Marsh harriers, 140 

marigold and cuc- 
koo, 156 

Martinmas, 37 

eve, 37 

wind, 37, 83 

Martins, 138 

frost, 138 

rain, 138 

Matting, 159 

Mawley, E., 13 

May, 25-28 

■ 1st, 8th, nth, 12th, 

13th, 25th, 28 

and August, 28 

and Juty, 28 

and June, 27, 28 

and other months, 

28 

■ beans, 27 

cold, 26 

> cool and windy, 26 

damp, 25 

dew, 26 

dry, 25, 26 

flowers, 25 

hay, 27 

■ tot, 25 

merry, 25 

mowing, 27 

rainy, 25 

snow, 27, 3S 

sowing, 27 

thunder, 27 

wet, 25, 26 

Meath, 39 

Menual, Dr. J., 62, 116 
Meteor streams, 67, 68 
Meteors, 167 

numerous, 67 

Mice, 130, 131, 164 
Michaelmas Day, 35 
Middlesex, 51 



Midlands, 150 
Midnight rain, 1 10 
Midsummer rain, 7 
Midwinter, 9 
Milan, 5 
Mild winter, 8 
Milk, 158 

sour, 119 

Milky Way, 67 

Mills, J., 2 

Milton, description, 

thunder, 120 
Mines, 159 
flow of water in, 

159 
Mirage, 105 
Mississippi, 103 
Mists, 101, 102, 168 

and frost, 114, 115 

and rain, 102 

and winds, IOI 

black, 102 

disappearing, IOI 

in low ground, 102 

• in old moon, 65 

March, 19 

rising, 102 

river, 102 

spreading, 102 

vanishing, 102 

white, IOI 

Misty day, 43 

morning, 102 

■ — ■ — - south wind, 81 

sunrise, 49 

Mitchell, Sir A., 107, 

159 
Mock suns, 55 
with clouds, 

86 
Moles, 131 

busy, 131 

digging, 131 

■ storing food, 131 

Mollusca, 142-144 
Moncayo, 100 
Months, 42 

character of, 42 

Monzie, 106 

Moon, 56-65, 166, 168 

and stormy weather, 

60 

April, 64 

■ bright, 57 

changes, 58, 59, 63 

changing, 3rd day, 

57 

4th day, 57, 63 

5th day, 63 

6th day, 63 

in evening, 59 



Indt 



ex. 



Moon changing in morn- 
ing, 59 

Christmas, 38 

clear, 58, 64 

clouds at full, 64 

colours, 57 

dark, 57 

part visible, 63 

dim, 58 

dry, 59, 60 

dull, 57 

full in October, 36 

gale, 59 

great or small, 58 

high, 59 

hours of change, 61 

influence of, 58 

large, 58 

low, 59 

new, 60 

■ and north 

wind, 78 

bright, 62 

horns of, 61 

misty, 63 

north and 

south, 61 

■ points of, 60 

snow, 116 

snowstorm, 63 

obscured, 56 

old, 64, 65 

clouds in, 65 

in arms of new, 

64 

• mist in, 65 

on her back, 57, 62 

pale, 60 

phases of, 61 

red, dim, 1 or pale, 

58 

rhyme, 58 

rosy, 57 

ruddy, 58 

Saturday, 59 

seen in day, 60 

signs, 56 

stars near, 65 

Sunday, 59 

waning, 59 

— — watery, 58 

way to wane, 58 

Moonlight, 58 
Moonrise pale, 59 

red, 59 

Moons, full, two in month, 

64 
Moore, Old, 128 
Morayshire, 133 
Morning clouds, 86 
mist, 102 



Morning rain, 109 

rainbow, 112 

sun, 48 

thunder, 118 

wind, 73 

Motes, 158 

Motions of clouds, 87 
Moulting cock, 133 
Mountain ash, 155 

dew, 103 

rain, 1 10 

Mountains, 167 

stratus, 98-101 

Movable feasts, 40, 41 
Mowing May, 27 
Mud, snow, 116 
Mulberry, 152 
Mull of Kintyre, IOI 
Mullet, 142 
Muscse volitantes, 158 
Mushrooms, year of, 5 

NARES, Captain, 70, 
73 
Nautical, 43, 56, 64, 81, 

92, 108, 112, 123 
Nebula, 66 

Prcesepe, 66 

Negro, 142, 144 
Nettles, dead, 153 
New Cumnock, IOO 

England, 36 

moon, frost at, 60 

snow, 63, 116 

thaws, 61 

style, 4 

Year's Eve, 39 

Newhaven, no 
Nicholson, 68, 73 
Night, 43 

dew, 103 

Nightingale, 137 
Nimbus, definition, 98 

rain, 98 

Noah's ark cloud, 92 

Noon change, 43 

south wind clearing 

at, 81 
Norfolk, 59, 109 
North Pacific, 109 
North wind, 76 

evils of, 7S 

June, 29 

North-east wind, 78 
Northumberland, 18 
North-west wind, 78 
Norway, I, 8, 43 
Norwich, 137 
Notes and Queries, 58 
November, 36, 37 
1st, 36 



November 1st, nth, 21st, 

25th, 37 
■ ■ and March, 36 

cold, 36 

flowers, 36 

satirical rhyme, 36 

snow, 116 

thunder, 36 

water, 36 

windy, 36 

Nuts, year of, 5 

OAK, 151, 152 
and ash bud- 
ding, 151 

apples, 152 

■ April, 23 

budding, 15 1 

fruitful, 151 

gall, 151 

grey, 152 

Oaks, January, II 
Oat hygroscope, 154 
October, 35, 36 

18th and 28th, 36 

and February, 35 

and March, 36 

and November, 36 

■ and winter, 36 

• • barley, 35 

birds and badgers, 

36 

cold, 35 

■ fall of leaves, 35 

fine days in, 35 

f°& 35 

full moon, 36 

gnats, 149 

January and Feb- 
ruary, 35 

manure, 36 

rain, 35 

snow, 35 

wind, 35 

Onions, 155 

Christmas, 39 

skin, 155 

Onoi, 66 

Opening of flowers, 46 

Orion, 65 

Orkneys, 99, 134 

Ormerod, Miss, 150 

Owls, 138, 163, 164, 

168 

change, 13S 

screaming, 138 

Oxen, 36, 163 

licking, 12S 

lying on left side, 

128 
■ > sniffing, 128 



184 



Index. 



3xenturningtailto wind, 


Porpoises in harbour, 141 


Rain and snow, in 




128 


swimming to wind- 


and wind, 70, 7 1, 


108 


Dysters, July, 30 


ward, 141 


April, 22, 24 




Dzanam, 94 


Portuguese, 7, 10, 13, 19, 


before sunrise, 


no 




20, 23, 26, 27, 32, 33, 34 


calm, 108 




DACKET boys, 94 
y Paps of Jura, IOI 


Poste, E., 71, 72 


Candlemas, 16 




Potatoes, April, 23 


changes, 108 




Parnell, T., 106 


Prairie chicken, 135 


Christmas, 39 




Parrots, 134, 135 


Prayers, weather, 3 


cloud, 98 




and macaws, 135 


Primary colours, 1 13 


continued, III 




rain, 134, 135 


Prince, C. L., 2, 48, 51, 


custom, 116 




Partridge, 135 


52, 54, 88, 89, 93, 97, 


desired, 1 1 1 




Pastor Sunday, 41 


102, 103, 112, 113, 116, 


drizzle, 1 10 




Pausanias, 160 


121, 122, 123, 125, 138 


February, 13 




Pavements, 1 60 


Proclamation, I 


Friday, 43 




Peacocks, 135, 166 


Prcesepe, 66 


from east, 109 




crying, 135 


Prophets, weather, I 


July, 30 




rain, 135 


Pruning, March, 20 


long foretold, 109 


pea-fowls, 135 


Ptarmigans, 135 


March, 19 




Pears, year of, 5 


Purification Day, 14-17 


midnight, 1 10 




Pembrokeshire, 104 




moon, 60 




fendle's Head, 99 


QUAILS, 135 

\j Quaking asp, 152 


morning, 109 




Pentecost, 41 


mountain, 108, 


no 


Periodical winds, 75 


Quarries, 159 


October, 35 




Petrels, 141 




planets, 1 10 




Pey's Aunt (St. Elmo's 


PACK, 89 

i\ Radishes, year of, 5 


rules, 109 




fire), 68 


St. Michael's, 3 


5 


^liases of moon, 61 


Ragusa, 82 


September, 33 




'hatne, 66 


Rainband, 160 


short, 109 




Phosphorescence of sea, 


Rainbow, 111-114, 166, 


showers, III 


108 


167 


signs of, 162, 


163, 


D igeons, 135 


after drought, 113 


164, 165, 166, 167, 


168 


returning, 135 


blue colour pre- 


small, no 




D igs, 130 


dominating, 113 


showers, 1 


09 


carrying straws, 


broad, 113 


sound, 105 




130 


cloud, 1 12 


south, 109 




rubbingthemselves, 


colours, 113 


sowing, in 




130 


direction, 113 


squalls, 109 




seeing wind, 130 


double, 113, 163 


sudden, no 




■ wallowing, 130 


east and west, ill 


Sunday, 43 




Pike, 142 


evening, 112 


three days, no 




^impernel, 156, 166 


fair and foul 


uncertain, 1 10 




3 indar, 70, 1 10 


weather, 112 


west, 109 




Pine, 152 


high, 113 


with east wind 


So 


D ipes, 160 


■ in wind's eye, 112 


Rainy May, 25 




D lanets, no 


indications, 113 


Rats, 130 




conjunctions of, 67 


leeward, 112 


Raven and rook, 137 




Wanting beans, 154 


low, 113 


Ravens, 137, 163, 


164, 


3 lants, 150-157 


morning, 112 


168 




dates of flowering, 


spring, 112 


Ray, 23 




44, 45 


suddenly appear- 


Rays at sunrise, 49 




D lates, 161 


ing, 114 


sun, 48 




'lautus, 64 


windward, 112 


Red clouds, 55, 88 




-"leiades, 65 


Rain, 108, 1 1 1 


sky, 52 




D liny, 6, 8, 9, 48, 63, 65, 


and dew, 103, no 


sun, 48 




68, 77, 78, 132, 150, 


and drought, III 


sunset, 5 1 




152, 155, 161 


and fair weather, 


Reflecting sky, 105 




^lums, year of, 5 


in 


Reptiles, 144, 145 




Winter, 74, 86, 87, 1 10 


and frost, 1 14 


dormant, 145 




-'ons-an-dane, 106 


and hail, 109, III 


Rheumatism, 157 




'orpoises, 141 


and hoar-frost, 114 


Ribbed cirrus, 90 





Index. 



i85 



Ringwood, A., 75 
River foam, 108 

flood, 107 

Riving Pike, IOI 
Robin's Almanack, 31, 

131 

Robins, 138, 163 

in bush, 138 

on barns, 138 

singing, 13S 

Robinson, F. K., 43 
Rolling wind, 75 
Roman proverb, 33 
Rooks, 135, 136, 163, 

164, 166, 167 
Roper, 9, 48 
Ropes tightening, 159 
Rose tints at sunset, 52 
Roseberry Topping, 101 
Rosehearty, 106 
Ross, 99 

Roxburghshire, IOO 
Ruberslaw, 100 
Rules, rain, 109 
Russel, Hon. F. A. R., 90, 

91, 95 
Russia, 6, 154 
Rust, 159 

Rutland, 10, 14, 38, 127 
Rye, July, 30 

SAILORS' supersti- 
tions, 158 
St. Barnabas, 29 
St. Bartholomew, 32, 33 

thunderstorms, 33 

St. Benedict, 21 

St. Catherine, 37 

St. David, 20 

St. Elmo, 68 

St. Eulalie, 17 

St. Gallo, 32 

St. Gallus, 35 

St. George, 25 

St. Giles, 34 

St. Jacob, 32 

St. John, 29, 30 

St. Joseph, 21 

St. Jude, 36 

St. Lawrence, ^ 

St. Luke, 36 

St. Luke's little summer, 

36 
St. Margaret, 32, 33 
St. Mark, 25 
St. Martin, 37 

Bullion, 31 

St. Martin's summer, 37 
St. Mary, 30, 33 

Magdalene, 32 

St. Matthew, 34 



St. Matthew and St. Mat- 
thias, 35 

St. Matthias, 17 

St. Medard, 29 

St. Michael, 35 

St. Patrick, 21 

St. Paul, 12, 13 

St. Peter, 17, 30 

St. Processus, 31 

St. Simon and St. Jude, 
36 

St. Stephen, 39 

St. S within, 31, 32 

St. Thomas, 38 

St. Valentine, 17 

St. Vincent, 12, 32 

St. Vitus, 29 

Saints' days, flowers, 46 

weather, procla- 
mation, I 

Salamander, 145 
Salmon, 142 
Salt, 159, 160 
"Sang" of sea, 106 
Satire, November, 36 
Satirical rhyme, 77 
on barometer, 

125 

on moon, 58 

partridge, 135 

rhymes, 6, 36, 42, 

51 

Saturday moon, 59 

sunshine, 43 

Saxifrage, 156 

Scalp locks, 158 

Scorpions, 148 

Scotch hills, 100, 101 

Scotland, 2, 5, 9, 10, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 26, 28, 30, 31, 34, 

37. 5i, 54, 55, 56, 57, 
58, 59, 61, 67, 68, 70, 
75, 76, 80, 82, 83, 91, 

93, 9 6 , 97, 9 8 , 99, I0 °, 
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, in, 112, 
115, 118, 119, 126, 129, 
130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 
135, ] 3 6 , '39, HO, 145, 
146, 153, '55, 160 

Scott, Sir W., 21, 127 

Screech-owl, 138 

Scruffel, 100 

Scud clouds, 88 

Sea, 166 

anemone, 142 

birds, 140, 141 

flight, 140 

calling, 106 

foam, 107, 108 



Sea mews, 140, 164 

phosphorescence, 

108 

sigh of, 107 

urchin, 143 

waterspouts, 108 

~ weed, 156 

Seas in spring, 6 
Seasons, 6-9 
extreme, 6 

indicated, 6 

Seneca, 113 
Sensitive plants, 154 
September, 33-35 

1st, 8th, 14th, 15th, 

19th, 20th, 2 1 st, 22nd, 

34 

21st, 29th, 35 

and March, 33 

and November, 34 

cold, 34 

dry, 33 

rain, 33 

storms, 33 

thunder, 34 

wet, 33 

wind, 34 

Serpent worship, 144 
Shaggie, 106 
Shakespeare, 19, 37, 5°, 

51, 52, 58, 60, 70, 71, 
73, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 
89, 97, 104, 109, 118, 

134, 154 
Sharks, 142 
Shearing, 153 
Sheep, 129 

feeding, 129, 130 

frisky, 129 

returning slowly, 

129 

wind, 130 

Sheet cirrus, 90 

lightning, 118 

Shepherd of Banbury, 

49, 63, 86, 89, 97, 102, 

109, no 
Shepherd's Kalendar, 29, 

33, 39 
Shepherds, 78 
Shetland, 30 
Shilfa, 139 
Shipping visible, 105 
Short harvest, 8 
Showers, short, 1 1 1 
Shropshire, 26, 42, 69, 

7°, I3 6 , 137, '51, ^ 

159 
Siberian sow thistle, 

155 
Sidlaw Hills, 101 



1 86 



Index. 



Sigh of sea, 107 
Signs of bad weather, 
162, 163, 164 

of fine "weather, 168 

of frost breaking, 

"5 
Silence before thunder, 

118 
Silver maple, 152 
Skiddaw, 100 
Sky, 104, 105 

at evening and 

morning, 53 

blue space in, 104 

bright at new moon, 

62 

CarleorCarlisle, 105 

clear, 104, 105 

colours, 105 

dark, 105 

foul, 104 

full of stars, 65 

greenish, 104 

grey, 105 

hazy, 104 

July, 3° 

reflecting, 105 

Sloe tree, 152 
Smoke falling, 160 

tobacco, 160 

Snails, rain, 144 
Snake trails, 145 
Snakes, 144, 145 

and thunder, 117 

hunting food, 145 

rain, 145 

water, 145 

Snipe, 135 
Snow, 9, 97 

and hay, 115 

and rain, III 

April, 23 

barometer, 122 

beneficial, 115 

Candlemas, 16 

Christmas, 38 

clouds, 116 

crops, 116 

dissolving, 115 

dry, 116 

February, 14 

flakes, 116 

harrowing, 115 

healthy, 116 

January, ri 

last, 116 

lying, 116 

March, 19 

May, 27, 38 

mud, 116 

new moon, 116 



Snow, November, 116 

October, 35 

temperature, 115 

wet, 116 

Snowstorm at newmoon, 

63 
Soap, 160 
Solar halo, 55 
Soot, 162, 166 
Sores, 158 
Sound, 105-107 

in air, 106 

of waves, 164 

■ on shore, 106 

rain, 105 

travelling, 106 

whistle, 107 

South rain, 109 

whirlwind, 81 

wind, 81 

dew, 103 

South-east wind, 83 
South-west wind, 83 
Sow thistle, 155 
Sowing barley, 152 

beans, 152, 154 

January, II 

May, 27 

north wind, 78 

rain, in 

weather, 1 

Spain, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 

12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 
26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 
35. 6 3> 78, 100, 102, 
107, 108, in, 135, 161 

Sparks, 161 

Sparrows, 139, 163 

Spectroscope, 160 

Spiders, 147, 166 

busy, 147 

changing webs, 147 

cleaning, 147 

creeping out, 147 

garden, 148 

indolent, 147 

mode of working, 

H7 

on walls, 147 

rain, 147 

removing, 147 

renewing webs, 147 

Spiders' webs, 147, 148 

dewy, 148 

■ long, 148 

Spreading and drifting, 

clouds, 85 
Spring, 6, 7 

and summer, 7 

cold, 6 



Spring, cuckoo, 6 

damp, 6 

dry, 6 

fine day in, 6 

in January, 10 

in winter, 7 

rainbow, 112 

storms, 7 

thunder, 7, 117 

Springs, 162 

■ rising, 162 

Squalls, 73 

rain, 109 

Squill, 157 
Squirrels, 131 
Staffordshire, 22 
Stagnant water, 162 
Starlings, 138 
Stars, 65-67, 168 

Aselli, 66 

fading, 67 

frost, 115 

Hyades, 65 

in Cancer, 66 

in halo, 65 

misty, 65 

near moon, 65 

nebulae, 66 

Orion, 65 

Phatne, 66 

Pleiades, 65 

showing wind, 65 

sky full of, 65 

twinkling, 65 

Steel nights, 17 
Stillingfleet, 156 
Stomach, 158 
Stones, damp, 159 
Storm, 97, 107 

and frost, 1 14 

cloud, S6, 89 

duration of, 

unseasonable, 73 

Storms, cyclonic, 73 

in spring, 7 

September, 33 

Sunday, 43 

wind, 70 

Stormy petrel, 141 

sunrise, 49 

■ weather, moon, 60 

Strabo, 73 

Strachan, R., 123 

Stratus, 99 

Stringed instruments, 

■59 
Strings, etc., 159 
Sudden changes, 108 
Suffolk, 64, 1 10 
Summer, 7, 8 
All Hallow'n, 36 



Index. 



187 



Summer and autumn, 7 

and winter, S 

barometer, 122 

birds, 46 

cool, 8 

days, 8 

dry, 7 

and wet, 7 

■ ■ fog, 8 

hot and dry, 7 

Indian, 8 

lightning, IlS 

moist, 7 

St. Luke's, 36 

St. Martin's, 37 

rainy, S 

stormy, 7 

thunder, 1 17 

Sun, 48-55 

between clouds, 48 

concave, 48 

■ dog, 112 

dull at rising or 

setting, 54 

heat, 48 

in Leo, 30 

lurid, 54 

moon and stars, 47, 

68 

morning, 48 

rays, 48 

red, 48 

signs, 54 

Sunbeams, 48 

north and south, 

54 
Sunday, clear, 43 

■ last in month, 43 

■ ■ moon, 59 

rain, 43 

storms, 43 

Sunrise, 48-50 

and sunset, 48, 52- 

55 

bright, 54 

clear, 49 

cloudy, 49, 53 

colours, 54 

dark clouds at, 50, 

54 

full, 52 

gaudy, 50 

glaring, 50 

gloomy, 49 

grey, 48 

halo, 48 

misty, 49 

pale, 49 

proverb, 49 

rays, 53 

red, 50, 54 



Sunrise ruddy, 50 

stormy, 49 

Suns, mock, 55, 86 
Sunset, 50, 52, 166 

breeze, 51 

bright, 51 

clear, 51 

cloudless, 54 

cloudy, 52 

colours, 50, 51 

golden, 51 

hazy, 52 

pale, 52 

red, 51 

sad, 52 

Sunday, 43 

• wet, 52 

wind, 72 

yellow, 51 

Sunshine, 1 

and rain, 1 10, III 

August, 32 

Candlemas, 14-17 

■ Christmas, 38 

St. Mary's, 33 

Saturday, 43 

Superstition, dead body, 

158 

thunder, 119 

Superstitions respecting 

stars, 65 
Superstitious rhyme, 

Christmas, 39 
Surf, 107 
Surrey, 89 
Sussex, 16, 40, 99 
Swahili proverb, 65 
Swainson, C, 35, 61, 73, 

III, 134, 136, 137, HO, 

149, 152 
Swallows, 163, 166, 167 

and swifts, 138 

and wood anemone, 

154 

flight, 138 

summer, 7 

Swan's nest, 134 
Swans, 134, 167 
Swarm of bees, 146 
Sweden, 8, 12, 41, 115 
Swifts, 138 
Swine, 166, 168 
Switzerland, 5 
Symons, v, 62, 125 

TABLE Mountain, 100 
Tables, 158 
Tarantulas, 148 
Teasel, 156 
Telescope, 125 
Temperature, 108 



Temperature at different 

levels, 125 

changes, 108 

increasing, 125 

Tempest clouds, 86 
Tennyson, 152 
Teviotside, 100 
Texas, 81 
Thaw, 114 

Thaws at new ittoon, 61 
Theophrastus, Jl, 72 
Thermometer, 125 
Thistledown, 164 

stemless, 156 

Thistles, 156 
Thompson, 168 
Thorn, 153 
Thornton, Dr., 135 
Three days' cold, 43 
Thrush, 136 
Thunder, 94, 167 

and heat, 117 

and lightning, 117- 

120 

■ and rain, 117 

and snakes, 117 

April, 24 

Autumn, S 

bells, 120 

Christmas, 39 

continuous, 120 

December, 38 

distant, 118 

early, 7 

and late, 117 

east, 119 

wind, So 

evening, 1 18 

February, 14 

first, 7, 117 

January, 1 1 

July, 30 

March, 19 

May, 27 

morning, 118 

north-west, 119 

wind, 78 

November, 36 

rain, 119 

rolling, 120 

September, 34 

silence before, 118 

souring milk. 119 

south and north, 119 

or west, 119 

spring, 7, 117 

summer, 117 

times of, 118 

winter, 9, 117 

Thunderstorms, 117 
St. Bartholomew, 33 



Index. 



Thunderstorms, wind, 117 
Thursday, 42 
Tide, 107, 108 

ebb and flow, 107 

flood, 107 

■ rain, 107 

surf, 107 

■ swell, 107 

turn of, 107 

wind, 107 

Timber, January, 1 1 
Times and seasons, 3-47 

of thunder, 118 

Titmouse, 137 
Toads, 145, 166 
Toadstools, 156 
Tobacco smoke, 160 
Torches, etc., 162, 164 
Tortoises, 145 
Tottenham Wood, 51 
Transplanting in autumn, 

8 
Traprain, 100 
Tree frogs, 145 
Trefoil, 154 
Trout, 142 

not biting, 142 

Tufted cirrus, go 
Tumbling of rooks, 136 
Turkeys, 134 

water, 134 

Turret, 106 

Tusser, 11, 13, 36, 58, 59, 

76, in 
Tweed, 107 
Tweedside, 13 
Twilight, 43 

UMBRELLA, in 
Undulating cirrus, 

United States, 8, 9, 16, 
28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 40, 
42, 52, 55. 58, 61, 62, 
67, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 
85, 87, 97, 98, 102, 103, 
104, 105, 107, 109, 112, 
114, 116, 117, 119, 126, 
128, 129, 130, 132,133, 
134, 135. 137, 139, H2, 
144, '45. '48, 149.152, 
153, 162 
Unseasonable storms, 73 
Unwholesome wind, 83 

VARIOUS signs, 157- 
168 
Veering wind, 71 
Vernal equinox, 40 
Vines and hoar-frost, 1 14 



Virgil, 3, 38, 49, 51, 58, 
61, 62, 119, 152, 166, 
167, 168 

Vortex, 72 

WADRCEPHE, 28 
Wales, 136 
Walls, 159, 166 
Walter, J. E., 162 
Wane cloud, 93 
Waning moon, 59 
Wasps, 146 
Water, fresh, from salt, 

157 

November, 30 

stagnant, 162 

waggons, 96 

Waterfowl. 140, 163, 167 
Watering, ill 
Water-snakes, 1 45 
Waterspouts, 108 
Waves, 164, 167 
clouds, and winds, 

69 
phosphorescence, 

108 
Way to wane, 58 
Weasels, stoats, etc., 131 
Weather breeders, 9, 13, 

108 

changes, I, 2 

fine, 2 

gaw, 112 

good, I 

house, toy, 159 

in general, 1-3 

rhyme, 2 

signs, 2 

toys, 145, 159 

Weather-head cirrus, 92 
Weathers in five days, I 
Webs, spiders', 147, 148 
Wednesday, 42 
Week, days of, 42 
Welsh Border, 62 
Wesley, C, 74 
West Indies, hurricanes, 

rain, 109 

wind, 83 

Wet August, 32 

Christmas, 38 

May, 25, 26 

September, 33 

snow, 116 

Whitsunday, 41 

Whale cloud, 93 
Whales, 141 
Wheat and rye, 153 
Whirlwind from north, 
77 



10S, 



Whispering wind, 75 

Whistle, 107 

Whistling, 158 

of wind, 82 

Whitby, 43 

White frost, 114 

Whitethorn, 153 

Whitlow grass, 154 

Whitsunday, 41 

and Christmas, 41 

wet, 41 

Whitsuntide, 41 

rain, 41 

Wild, 140 

indigo, 153 

■ oat, 154 

Willsford, T, 119, 130, 
131, 139, HO, Hi, H2, 
143, 146, H7, 148, 152, 
156. 

Wilson, 84 

Prof., 2, 156 

Wiltshire, 19, 23, 
112, 127 

Wind, 68, 84, 166 

and barometer, 123 

and clouds, 85 

and planets, 75 

and rain, 70, 71, 108 

and weather, 68, 69 

backing, 71, 72 

Ballot's law, 72 

barley harvest, 76 

blight, 75 

brisk, 70 

Candlemas, 16 

changing, 71, 74, 75 

from north, 78 

north to north- 
east, 72 
north to south, 

74 
north-east or 

east to south-east or 

south, 79 
— north-west or 

west to south-west or 

south, 79 
■ north-west to 

north-east, and south 

and north-east, 79 
■ north-west to 

south, 79 
• south to north, 

74 
to north-west, 

channel, 78 

cloud, 73 

cold, 88 

currents of, 79 



Ivdc. 



189 



Wind, cyclones, 27 

day and night, 69 

direction, 76, 77 

of centre of 

cyclone, 73 

Dove's law, 71 

drought, 77 

east, 79 

and north, 80 

and west, 80 

clear, So 

• cold, So 

■ dry, 79, 80 

fishers, 80 

north-east, 80 

■ stormy, 80 

thunder, 80 

• — ■ with rain, 80 

first north, 78 

— — fishers, 77 

following sun, 7 1 

gale, 88 

south-west, S3 

gusts, 69 

Habberley, 70 

heat, 75 

high, 75 

increasing, 69 

June, 29 

March, 19 

Martinmas, 37, S3 

morning, 73 

night, 70 

changes, 74 

north, 76-78 

and south, 82, 

83 

cold, 77 

cream, 78 

evils of, 78 

fair, 77 

■ new moon, 78 

night, 77 

rainy, 77 

shepherds, 78 

snow, 78 

sterile, 78 

thunder, 78 

north-east, 76, 78 

at vernal 

equinox, 40 

to east, 74 

north-west, 76, 78, 

79 

and north- 
east, 79 

and south- 
east, 79 

and south- 
west, 78 

October, 35 



at 



for 



Wind, pigs seeing, 130 

rise and fall of, 69 

south rising and 

falling, 82 

rolling, 75 

satire on, 77 

September, 34 

shifting during 

drought, 74 

to south and 

south-west, S3 

south, 76 

brisk, 81 

clear, 81 

■ clearing 

noon, 81 

continued, 81 

damp, 82 

■ foggy, 81 

gentle, 82 

• good 

fishers, 82 

hot, 81 

in winter, 81, 

light, 81 

misty, 81 

night, 82 

rainy, 82 

soothing, 82 

tempestuous, 

81 

to north, 74 

warm, 81 

wet, 81 

whistling in 

leaves, 82 

south-east, 76, 83 

south-west, 76, 83 

■ rainy, 83 

stormy, 83 

third day, 83 

warm, 83 

sowing and graft- 
ing, 78 

squalls, 73 

storms, 70 

sudden, 73 

changes, 74 

sunset, 7 2 

tendency, 75 

thunderstorms, 117 

tide, 107 

unsteady, 74 

uses of, 68 

vane, E. Darwin's, 

75 

veering, 71 

vortex, 72 

west, 76, 77, 84 

and east, 84 

fishers, 80 



Wind west good, 83 
not for long, 

83 

wet, 83 

westerly rule, 83 

whirlwind, 77 

whispering, 75 

Winds, 166, 167 
and mists, 101 

clouds and waves, 

69 

cross, 88 

eye, rainbow, 112 

February, 14 

light and heavy, 75 

periodical, 75 

strong, 69 

various, 76 

Windy Cap, 69 
Christmas, 38 

days, three, Sep- 
tember, 34 

May, 26 

November, 36 

Wine, Christmas, 39 

comet years, 67 

Wing, 65, 66, 74, 81, 86, 

103 
Winter, 8, 9 

barometer, 122 

birds, 47 

blackthorn, 22 

clear, 9 

■ cranes, 139 

dry, 8 

early, 9 

fine day in, 9 

floods, 9 

fog, 9, 104 

frost, 9 

green, 8 

hail, 115 

long, 9 

mild, 8 

— — onion's skin, 155 

rainy, 9 

thunder, 9, 117 

Withershins, 73 
Wolf, 130 
Wolsonbury, 99 
Wood anemone, 155 
and swallows, 

154 

damp, 157 

sorrel, 154, 1 56 

Woodchuck, Candlemas, 

16 
Woodcocks, 135 
Wooden hygroscope, 158 
Wood lice, 148 
Woodpecker, 137 



igo 



Index. 



Woodpeckerscrying, 137 

leaving, 137 

trees, 137 

Woollams, E., 144 
Worcestershire, 59, 101, 

152 
Worledge, 151 
Worms, 144, 163 
Worthing, 105 
Wounds, 15S 
Wrens, 163 



yARROW, 53 
1 Year, dry, 4 

figs, acorns, nuts, 

hay, grass, pears, 
cherries, plums, etc., 5 

frosty, 5 

good, 4 

misty, 5 

old, 4 

snowy, 5 

wet, 4 



Year, wet and dry, 4 

windy, 5 

Yorkshire, S, 12, 25, 34 

Yule, 37 



z 



EUS, bowl of, in 
Xufii Indians, 52, 

55, 56, 76, 96, 103, 
108, 117, 119, 145, 
149 




Elliot Stock, Paternoster Row, London. 



Morfc bs tbe same Hutbor. 



THE 

TEMPLE OF THE ANDES. 



Demy tfo, with 19 Lithographic Plates from 
Drawings by the Author. 



'T'O give an account of the ruins of an interesting ancient Temple in 

*- Bolivia, and to show their connection with the History and Traditions 

of the Peruvian people, are the objects of this book. Most South American 




travellers are agreed that these ruins are the oldest in the New World, and 
that they show evidences of greater advances in the arts than are seen in 
any other relics in the Western Hemisphere. They are intimately connected 
with the early religion of Peru under the Incas. The accounts of the 
old Spanish writers are drawn upon to throw light on the probable signi- 
fication of the sculptures, and some attempt is made to revive an interest 
in the aboriginal inhabitants of this magnificent country so long racked by 
wars and revolutions. 

The Temple of Tiahuanaco was dedicated to the Creator of the 

Universe. 

London : Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row. 



Price 5/- nett. 




.